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Full text of "Greek Grammar"

GREEK 
GRAMMAR 

William W. Goodwin 



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GEEEK GEAMMAE 



BY 



WILLIAM W, GOODWIN, Hon. LL.D. and D.CL. 

ELIOT I'llOKKSSOU OK CIIKKK l.lTtKATURE IN 
HAltVARD UNIVliHSlXr 



REVISED AND ENLARGED 



BOSTON 

PUBLISHED BY GINN & COMPANY 

1900 



CorTRlQHT, 1892, 

By WILLIAM W. GOODWnJ. 



JLLL RieUTfl RXSKUVUD. 



TyPOGRiPHT BT J. B. C08UIK0 & Co., BOSTOK. 



Pkesbwobtc "ny Ginn & Co., Bobtoh. 



PREFACE. 



The present work is a revi?icd and enlarged cditiou of 
the Greek Gi-ammar publislied in 3870, which was itself 
a revised and enlarged edition of the Elejnentary Greek 
Grammar of only 235 i)ages published in 1870. I trust 
that no one will infer from tliis repeated increase in the 
size of the book that I attribute ever increasing importance 
to the study of formal grammar in school. On tlie con- 
trary, the growth of the book has come from a more de(nded 
opinion that the amount of grammar which should be learned 
by rote is exceed higly small compared with that which 
every real student of the Classics must learn in a very dif- 
ferent way. When it was thought that a pupil must first 
learn his Latin and Greek Grammars and then learn to 
i-ead l^'itin and Greek, it was es.sential to reduce a seliool 
grammar to its least possible dimensions. Now when a 
more sensible system leaves most of the details of grammar 
to be learned by the study of special points whi<;]i arise in 
reading or writing, the case is entirely different; and few 
good teachers or good students are any longtn* grateful for 
a small grammar, wliicli jnust soon be discarded as the 
horizon widens and new questions press for an answer. 
The forms of a language and the essential princi))le3 of 
its construction must be learned in the old-fashioned way, 
wlien the memory is vigorous and retentive; but, these 
once mastered, the true time to teach each principle of 
grammar is the moment when the puj)il meets with it in 
his studies, and no grammar which is not thus practically 
illustrated ever becomes a living reality to the student. 
But it is not enough for a learner merely to meet each con- 
struetiou or form iu iscdated instances; for he may do this 
repeatedly, and yet know little of the general principle 
which the single example partially illuslrates. Men saw 
apples fall and the moon and ])]auets roll ages before the 
principle of gravitation was thought of. It is necessary, 

iii 



ir PREFACE. 

therefore, not merely to bring the pupil face to face with 
the facts of a language by means of examples carefully 
selected to exhibit them, but also to refer him to a state- 
ment of the general principles which show the full mean- 
ing of the facts and their relation to other principles.^ In 
other wordS; systematic practice in reading and writing 
must be supplemented from the beginuing by e(jually sys- 
tematic reference to the grammar. Mechanics are not 
learned by merely observing the working of levers and pul- 
leys, nor is chemistry by watching experiments on gases; 
although no one would undertake to teach either without 
such practical illustrations. It must always be remem- 
bered that grammatical study of this kind is an essential 
part of classical study ; and no one must be deluded by 
the idea that if grammar is not learned by rote it is not 
to be learned at all. It cannot be too strongly emphasized, 
that there has been no change of opinion among classical 
scholars about the importance of grammar as a basis of all 
sound classical scliolarship; the only change concerns the 
time and manner of studying grammar and the importance 
to be given to different ))arts of the subject. 

What has been said about teaching by reference and by 
example applies especially to syntax, the chief principles 
of whi(;h have always seemed to me more profitable for 
a pupil in the earlier years of his classical studies than the 
details of vowel-changes and exceptional forms which are 
often thonglit more seasonable. TJie study of Greek syn- 
tax, properly pursued, gives the pupil an insight iuto the 
processes of thought and the manner of expression of a 
highly cultivated people ; and while it stimulates his own 
powers of thought, it teaches him habits of more careful 
expression by making him familiar with many forms of 
statement more precise than those to which he is accus- 
tomed in his own language. The Greek syntax, as it was 
developed and refined by the Athenians, is a most impor- 
tant chapter in the history of thought, and even those 
whose classical studies are limited to the rudiments cannot 
afford to neglect it entirely. For these reasons the chief 
increase in the present work has been made in the depart- 
ment of Syntax. 

* These objects seem to me to he admirably attained in the Pirst 
Lessona in Greek, prepared by my colleague, Professor John W. 
Wbile, to be used in connection with this Grammar. A new edition 
of this work is now in press. 



PREFACE. T 

The additions made in Part I. are designed chiefly to 
mate the principles of inflection and formation in Parts 
II. and III. intelligible. Beyond this it seems inexpedient 
for a general grammar to go. In Part II. the chief changes 
are in the sections on the Verb, a great part of which have 
been remodelled and rewritten. The paradigms and syn- 
opses of the verb are given in a new form. The nine tense 
systems are clearly distinguished in each synopsis, and also 
in the paradigms so far as is consistent with a proper dis- 
tinction of the three voices. The verbs in fit are now 
inflected in close connection with those in w, and both con- 
jugations are included in the subsequent treatment. The 
now established Attic forms of the pluperfect active are 
given in the paradigms. The old malceshift known as the 
"connecting-vowel " has been discarded, and with no mis- 
givings. Thirteen years ago I wrote that I did not venture 
*'to make the first attempt at a popular statement of the 
tense stems with the variable vowel attachment"; and I 
was confirmed in this opinion by the appearance of the 
Schulgrammatik of G. Curtius the year previous with the 
''Bindevocal" in its old position. Professor F. D. Allen 
has since shown us that the forms of the verb can be 
made perfectly intelligible without this time-honored fic- 
tion. I have now adopted the familiar term "thematic 
vowel," in place of "variable vowel " which I used in 1879, 
to designate the o or « added to the verb stem to form the 
present stem of verbs in <o. I have att<;mpted to make the 
whole subject of tense stems and their inflection more clear 
to beginners, and at the same time to lay tlie venerable 
shade of the connecting-vowel, by the distinction of "sim- 
ple and complex tense stems," which correspond generally 
to the two forms of inflection, the "simple" form (the in- 
form) and the *' common " form (that of verbs in <o). See 
557-565. I use the term " verb stem " for the stem from 
which the chief tenses are formed, i.e. the single stem in 
the first class, the "stroug" stt^m in the second class, and 
the simple stem in the other classes* (except the anomalous 
eighth). Part III. is little changed, except by additions. 
In the Syntax I have attempted to introduce greater sim- 
plicity with greater detail into the treatment of the Article, 
the Adjectives, the Cases, and the Prepositions. In the 
Syntax of the Verb, the changes made in my new edition 
of the Greek Moods and Tenses have been adopted, so far 
as is possible in a school-book. The independent uses of 



vi PREFACE. 

the moods are given before tlie dependent constructions, 
except in the case of wishes, where the independent opta^ 
tive can hardly be treated apart from the other construc- 
tions. The Potential Optative and Indicative are made 
more prominent as original constructions, instead of being 
treated merely as elliptical apodoses. The independent use 
of /xi; in Homer to express fear with a desire to avert the 
object feared is recognized, and also the independent use 
of firj and fx.y] ov in cautious assertions and negations with 
both subjunctive and indicative, which is common in Plato. 
The treatment of oxrrc is entirely new ; and the distinction 
between the infinitive with wcrrt fi'^ and the indicative with 
(MTTf OV is explained. The use of -rrpCv with the infinitive 
and the finite moods is more accurately stated. The 
distinction between the Infinitive with the Article and its 
simple constructions without the Article is more clearly 
drawn, and the whole treatment of the Infinitive is im- 
proved. In the chapter on the Participle, the three classes 
are carefully marked, and the two uses of the Supplemen- 
tary Participle in and out of oratio obligua are distinguished. 
In Part V. the principal additions are the sections on dac- 
tylo-epitritic rhythms, with greater detail about other lyric 
verses, and the use of two complete strophes of Pindar 
to illustrate that poet's two most common metres. The 
Catalogue of Verbs has been carefully revised, and some- 
what enlarged, especially in the Homeric forms. 

The quantity of long «, t, and v is marked in Parts I., 
II. , and 111., and wherever it is important in Part V., but 
not in the Syntax. The examples in the Syntax and in 
Part V. have been referred to their sources. One of the 
most radical changes is the use of 1691 new sections in 
place of the former 302. References can now be made to 
most paragraphs by a single number; and although special 
divisions are sometimes introduc-.ed to make the connection 
of paragraphs clearer, these will not interfere with refer- 
ences to the simple sections. The evjl of a want of dis- 
tinction between the main paragraphs and notes has been 
obviated by prefixing ]s'. to sections which would ordinarily 
be marked as notes. 1 feel that a most humble apology is 
due to all teachers and students who have submitted to the 
unpardonable confusion of paragraphs, with tjjeir divisions, 
subdivisions, notes, and remarks, often with (a), (6), etc., 
in the old edition. This arrangement was thoughtlessly 
adopted to preserve the numbering of sections in the Syntax 



PREFACE. vii 

of the previous edition, to which many references had already 
been made; but this object was gained at far too great a 
cost. I regret that I can make no better amends than this 
to those who have suffered such an infliction. A complete 
table of Parallel References is given in pp. xxvi.-xxxv., 
to make references to the former edition available for the 
new sections. 

I have introduced into the text a section (28) on the 
probable ancient pronnnciation of Greek. While the sounds 
of most of the letters are well established, on many impor- 
tant points our knowledge is still very unsatisfactory. With 
our doubts about the sounds of B, </>, ;i^, and ^, of the double 
ti and ou, not to speak of i and i//, and with our helplessness 
in expressing anything like the ancient force of the three 
accents or the full distinction of quantity, it is safe to say 
that no one could now pronounce a sentence of Greek so 
that it would have been intelligible to Demosthenes or 
Plato. I therefore look upon the question of Greek Pro- 
nunciation chietly as it concerns the means of communication 
between modern scholars and between teachers and pupils, 
I see no prospect of uniformity here, unless at some future 
time scholars agree to \uiite on the modern Greek pronun- 
ciation, with all its objectionable features. As Athens be- 
comes more and more a centre of civilization and art, her 
claim to decide the question of the pronunciation of her 
ancient language may sometime be too strong to resist. In 
the meantime, I see no reason for changing the system of 
pronunciation^ which J have followed and advocated more 
than thirty years, which adopts what is tolerably certain 
and practicable in the ancient i)ronunciation and leaves the 
rest to modern usage or to individual judgment. This has 
brought scholars in the United States nearer to uniformity 
than any other system without external authority is likely 
to bring them. In England the retention of the English 

^ By this thr. consonants are sounded as in 28,3, except tliat f has the 
sound of 2 ; $ ami i/' liavc the sounds of x (As) and ps ; 0, <p, and x those 
of th in thin, ph in Philips and liard German ch in machen. The vowels 
are sounded as iji 28, 1, v being pronounced like French u or German 
ii. Tlie diplitliongs follow 28,2 ; but ov always iias the sound of ou in 
youth, and u that of ei in height. I hold to this sound of « to avoid 
another ciian^e from English, German, and American usage. If any 
change is desired, I should much prefer to adopt the sound of t (our i 
in machine), which ft has ht^Id move than 1900 years, rather than to 
attempt to catch any one of the sounds through which cither gcuuine 
or spurious ei must have passed on its way to this (sec 28, 2), 



riii PREFACE. 

pronunciation of Greek with Latin accents has at least the 
advantage of local uniformity. 

Since the last edition was published, Allen's new edition 
of Hadley's Grammar has appeared and put all scholars 
under new obligations to both author and editor. The new 
edition of Monro's Homeric Grammar is of the greatest 
value to all students of Homer, Blass's new edition of the 
first quarter of Kiihner is really a new work, abounding in 
valuable suggestions. From the German grammars of Koch 
and Kaegi I have gained many practical hints. I am also 
greatly indebted to many letters from teachers containing 
criticisms of the last edition and suggestions for making it 
more useful in schools, too many indeed to be acknowledged 
singly by name. Among them is one from which I have de- 
rived special help in the revision, a careful criticism of many 
parts of the book by Professor G. F. Nicolassen of Clarks- 
ville, Tennessee. Another of great value came to me with- 
out signature or address, so that I have been unable even to 
acknowledge it by letter. I must ask all who have thus 
favored me to accept this general expression of my thanks. 
Professor Herbert Weir Smyth of Bryn Mawr has done me 
the great service of reading the proofs of Parts L and II. 
and aiding me by his valuable suggestions. His special 
knowledge of Greek morphology has been of the greatest 
use to me in a department in which without his aid 1 should 
often have been sorely perplexed amid conflicting views. 
AH scholars are looking for the appearance of Professor 
Smyth's elaborate work on the Greek Dialects, now print- 
ing at the Clarendon Press, with great interest and hope. 

WILLIAM W. GOODWIN. 

Hakvard UNITERSrrT, 
CiJiBRiDGE, Mask., June 30, 1892. 



CONTENTS. 



TNTRODUCTTON. — The Guekk Language and Dialects, 



PAQB8 

3-6 



PART I. 



LETTEKS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. 

aBCTIONS 

1-4. The Alphabet 7, 8 

5-10. Vowels and Diphthongs 8, 9 

11-15. Breathings 9 

16-24. Consonants and their Divisions . 0, 10 

25, 26. Consonants ending Greek Words 10 

27. Ionic and Athenian Alphabets 10, 11 

28. Ancient Pronunciation 11 

29-33. Changes of Vowels 12, 13 

34. Colhsion of Vowels. — Hiatus 13 

35-41. Contraction of Vowels 13-15 

42-40. Crasis 15, 16 

47. Synizesis 16 

48-54. Elision 16, 17 

55. Aphaeresis 17 

66-63, Movable Consonants 17, 18 

64-67. Metathesis and Syncope 18, 19 

68, 69. Doubling of Consonants . 19 

70-95. Euphonic Changes of Consonants 19-24 

96, 97. Syllables and their Division 24 

98-105. Quantity of Syllables 24, 25 

106-1 15. General Principles of Accent 25-27 

1 10, Anastrophe 27 

117-120. Accent of Contracted Syllables and Elided Words. . 27, 28 

121-129. Accent of Nouns and Adjectives 28, 29 

130-135. Accent of Verbs 29, 30 

136-139. Proclitics 31 

140-146. Enclitics 31-33 

147-149. Dialectic Changes in Letters 33 

150. Punctuation-Marks 33 

ix 



COJNTKNTS. 



PART II 



INFLECTION. 

0BCTIONS Packs 

151-154. Definitions.— Inrtection, Root, Stem, etc 34 

155-163. Numbers, Genders, Cases 34-3G 

NOUNS. 

164-106. Three Declensions of Nouns 30 

167. Case-endings of Nouns 30 

FIRST DECLENSION. 

168-170. Stems and Terminations of First Declension 37 

171-182. Paradigms of First Declension 37-40 

183-187. Contract Nouns of First Declension 40 

188. Dialects of First Declension 40, 41 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

189-191. Stems and Terminations of Second Declension 41, 42 

192-195. Faradigms of Second Declension 42 

190-200. Attic Second Declension 42, 43 

201-203. Cojitract Nouns of Secojid Declension 43, 44 

204. Dialects of Second Declension •. 44 

THIRD DECLENSION. 

205-208. Stems and Case-endings of 'J'Jjird Declension 44 

rouMATioN or casl:s. 

209-213. Nominative Singular of Third Declension 45, 40 

214-218. Accusative Singular of Third Declension 46 

219-223. Vocative Singular of Third Dcck-Jision 47 

224. Dative Flural of TJiird Declension 47 

PARADIGMS OK THIKD DKCLKNSIOX. 

225. Nouns with Mute or Liquid Stems 47-50 

226-240. Nouns with Stems in 2 (chiefly contract) 50-52 

241-248. Stems in ft or 52,53 

249-262. Stems in Fort 53-65 

263-272. Stems ending in a Diphthong 55, 50 

273-279. Syncopated Nouns of 'J'hird Declension 67, 58 

280-285. Gender of Third Declension 68, 59 

286. Dialects of Third Declension 69 

287-291. Irregular Nouns 59-62 

292-297. Endings -^t, -^^ v, -Sf, -«, -<^(, -4>iv, etc 62 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



ADJECTIVES. 

BXCnOVS PAOEB 

298-309. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions 63, 64 

310, 31 1. Contract Adjectives in -eo5 and -ooi 65, 66 

312-317. Adjectives of the Third Declension 66, 67 

318-333. First and Third Declensions combined 67-69 

334-339. Participles in -wv, -ou?, -at, -cis, -C?, -ws 70-72 

340-342. Contract Participles in -awK, -ewe, -ouv, -awr 72, 73 

343-345: Adjectives with One Ending 73 

34G-349, Irregular Adjectives : A*^a?, iroXvs, ^p^os, etc 73, 74 

COMPARISON* OP ADJECTIVES. 

350-35rt. Comparison by -rcpos, -Tarot 74, 75 

357-300. Comparison by -<<<;;', -i<rros 75, 70 

361-364. IiTCguIar Comparison 76, 77 

ADVERBS AND THErR COMPARISON. 

3Cr)-3C8. Adverbs formed from Adjectives, etc 77, 78 

369-371. Comparison of Adverbs 78 

NUMERALS. 

372-374. Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, and Numeral 

Adverbs 78-80 

376-385. Declension of Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, etc.. . 80, 81 

THE ARTICLE. 

386^88. Declension of 6, Tj, t6 81,82 

PRONOUNS. 

389-400. Personal and Intensive Pronouns 8*2, 83 

401-403. Reflexive Pronouns 84 

404,405. Reciprocal Pronoun 84,85 

406-40S. Possessive Pronouns 85 

409-414. Demonstrative Pronouns 85,80 

415-420. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 80, 87 

421-428. Relative Pronouns 87, 88 

429-440. Pronominal Adjectives and Adverbs 88-90 

VERBS. 

441-454. Voices, Moods, TeJises, Numbers, and Persons 00-92 

455-401. Tense Systems and Tense Stems 92, 93 

462, 463. Principal Pans of a Greek Verb 93, 94 

464-468. Conjugation,— Two Forms: Verbs m w and Verbs 

\n tu 94 



xn 



CONTENTS. 



BKCTioNfl COITJITGATION OF VERBS IN H- ^^o.b 

469-473. Description of following Synopses 94,95 

474, 475. Synopsis otUu 96, 97 

^76,477. Synopsis of Xc/tto) 98 

478, 479. Synopsis "of <paiyu} 99 

480. Inflection of Xi5w 100-104 

481. Inflection of 2 Aor., Terf., and Tlupcrf. of Xffru, . 105 

482. Inflection of tpahw (Liquid Forms) 106, 107 

483-485. Remarks on Verbs in « 108 

480-491. Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive of ^ 

Verbs witli Consonant Stems 108-1 1 1 

492, 493. Contract Verbs in aw, f w, and ow 1 12-1 14 

4!)4. Synopsis of T(Auiu, ^iX^o), 5:^X60), $»7pdc<) 115 

495--109. Uemarks on Contract Verbs 115, 116 

CONJUOATION OF VERBS IN" fii. 

500-503. General Character of Verbs in M'. — Two Classes, 116 

604,505. Synopsis of i'crTTj^ii, Tf^Tj^ti, 5(5wMt, and SeUyvfjn in 

Present and Second Aorist Systems 116, 117 

500. Inflection of peculiar 'J'ensee of these Verbs 117-122 

607, 508, Second Perfect and I'iuperfect of the ^u-form 123 

509. Full Synopsis of these Verbs in Indicative 123, 124 

ATTQMENT ANTD REDUPLICATION. 

610-512, Syllabic and 'JVinporal Augment defined 124, 125 

613-519. Augment of Imperfect and Aorist Indicative 126 

520-528. Reduplication of Perf., Pluperf., and Fut. Perf. . . 120, 127 

629-533. Attic Reduplication . . 127, 128 

634-530. Reduphcatefl Aorists and J'rcsents 128 

537-530. S'ylhibic Augment prefixed to a Vowel 128, 129 

540-540. Augment and Reduplication of Compouud Verbs, 129, 130 

647-550. Omission of Augment and Reduplication 130, 131 

ENDrNQB. 

551. Personal Endings 131 

652. Personal Kndings of Indic, Subj., and Opt 131 

563. Personal Endings of Imperative 131 

554, 055. Endings of lulinliive, eic 132 

550. Remarks on the Endings 132, 133 

TENSE STEMS AND FORMS OF INF2LECTION. 

557-560. Simple and Complex Tense Stems 133, 134 

501. Tense Suffixes 134 

662. Optative Suffix 134 

603. Two Forms of Inflection of Verbs 134 

664. The Simple Form 136 

665. The Common Form 135, 136 



CONTENTS. 



xm 



FORMATION* AKD INTLBCTION OF TENSE SYSTEMS. 

BBCTJ0N8 PA018 

566, Ge;ieral Statement 136 

667. Formation of the Present Stem from the Verb 

Stem 136 

668-^22. Eight Classes of Verbs 13G-143 

623-633. Inflection of Present and Iniperfect Indicative ... 143, 144 

634-051^ Modificatitm of the Ste^n iu certain Tense Systonis, 145-149 
600-717. Formation of Tense Sterns, and Inflection of Tense 

Systems in Indicative ]49-158 

FORMATION OF DEPENDENT MOODS AND PARTICIPLE. 

718-720. Snbjunctive 159,160 

730-746. Optative 160-103 

746-758. Imperative 163-165 

769-709. Infinitive 165, 106 

770-776. Participles 166, 167 

776. Verbals in -Tos and -Tfos 167 

DIALECTS. 

777-783. Dialectic and Poetic Forms of Verbs in w 107-170 

784-786. Special Dialectic Koniis of Contract Verbs 170-172 

787-792. Dialectic and Poetic Forms of Verbs in ^t 172, 173 

KNUMERATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MI-FOltMS. 

793-797. Ennmeration of Presents in ^t* 173, 174 

798-803. Second Aorists of tlie ^(-fonii 175, 1 70 

804. Second l^erfccts and Pluperfects of llu".M<-fonn. . 170, 177 

805. Irregular Verbs of the /Ai-forni 1 77 

800-821, Inflection of fi/j-l, tl^i, t*?M*, 0'?^'* v^o-h ^'Ci/iai, and 

oUa 177-183 



PART III. 

FORMATION OF WORDS. 

822. Simple and Compound Words 184 

SIMPLE WORDS. 

823-825. Primitives and Denominatives 184,185 

826-831. Suffixes 186 

FORMATION OF NO0NS. 

832-840. Primitives 186,187 

841-848. Denominatives 187,188 



XIV 



CONTENTS, 



BlOnOMg TAQtS 

849-858. Formation of Adjectives 18fl, 190 

860,800. Formation of Adverbs 190 

861-868. Denominative Verbs 190,191 

COMPOUND WORDS. 

809,870. Division of the Subject 191 

871-877. First Part of Compound Word 192, 193 

878-882. Last Part of Compound Word 193,194 

888-889. Meaning of Compounds 194,195 



PART IV. 

SYNTAX. 



890-893. Subject, Predicate, Object 196 

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 

894. Subject Nominative of Finite Verb 197 

895. 1. Subject Accusative of Infinitive 197 

2, 3. Subject of Intiuitive omitted 197 

896-898, Subject Norn, omitted, Impersonal Verbs, etc. , . . 197, 198 

899-900. Subject Nominative and Verb 198, 199 

907-910. Predicate in same Case as Subject 199 

APPOSITION. 

911-917. ,V{irious Forms of Apposition 200,201 

ADJECTIVES. 

91?!-92(). Adjectives a^-eeing witli Nouns 201, 202 

927-931. Adjectives belongingto omitted Subject of Infinitive, 202-204 

932-934. Adjectives used as Nouns 204 

THE ARTICLE. 

935-940. Homeric Use of the Article (as Pronoun) 204-206 

941-958. Attic Use of the Article (as Definite Article) .... 206-208 

950-980. Position of the Article 208-212 

981-984. Pronominal Article in Attic (6 M^*- ...i 5^. etc.).. 212 

PRONOUNS. 

985-992. Personal and Intensive Pronouns 213,214 

993-097. Reflexive i'ronouns 214, 215 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



tioTioNB rAeiB 

99g_l003. Possessive Pronouns 216,216 

1004-1010. Demonstrative Pronouns 216,217 

1011-1014. Interrogative Pronoun 217 

1015-1018. Indefinite Pronoun 217,218 

1019-1025. Relative Pronoun as related to its Antecedent. . 218, 219 

1026-1030. Relative with omitted Antecedent 219, 220 

1031-1038. Assimilation and Attraction of Relatives 220-222 

1030. Relative in Exclamations 222 

1040-1041. Relative lYonoun not repeated in a new Case, . 222 



THE CASES. 
NOMTNATIVE AND VOCATIVE. 

1042. General Remark on the Cases 222 

1043. Nominative, as Subject or Predicate 222 

1044. Vocative used in addressing 222 

1045. Nominative used for Vocative 223 

ACCUSATIVE. 

104C. Various Functions of the Accusative 223 

1047-1050. Accusative of Direct (External) Object 223 

1051-1057. Cognate Accusative (of Internal Object) 223-225 

10G8, 1059, Accusative of Specification or Limitation 225 

1060,1001. Adverbial Accusative 226 

1062-1004. Accusative of Extent of Tijne or Space 220 

1065. Tenninal Accusative (Poetic) 220,227 

lOOC-1008. Accusative after Ni7 and Ma 227 

Two Accusatives with Verbs signifying 
1009-1072. To ask, teach, remind, clothe, conceal, deprive, 

divide, etc 227 

1073-3075. To do anything to or nay anything o/ a person 

or thing 228 

1076. Cognate and Object Accusative together 228 

1077-1082. ]*redicate and Object Accusative together , . , . . 228, 229 

GENITIVE. 

1083. Various Functions of the Genitive 229 

1084. Genitive after Nouns (Attributive) 229, 230 

1086-1087. Seven Classes of Attributive Genitive 230 

1088-1092, Partitive Genitive (specially) 231, 232 

Genitive after Verbs: — 

1098-1096. Predicate Genitive 232, 233 

1097, 1098. Genitive expressing Part 233 



XVI 



CONTEKTS. 



01CT1ON8 PlOSt 

With verbs signifying 
1099-1101. To take hold of^ touch, aim at, claim, hit, miss, 

begin, etc 233, 234 

1102-1108. To taste, smell, hear, perceive, remember^ for- 
get, desire, spare, neglect^ admire, despise. . 234,236 

1109-1111. To rule, lead, <ir direct 236 

1112-1110. Fulness or Want 236 

1117-1120. Genitive of iSeparatiou and Comparison 237, 238 

1121-1126. Genitive with Verbs of Accusing, Convicting, 

Acquitting, and Condemning (with Accus.) ., 238,239 

1120-1128. Genitive of Cause 239 

1 129. Causal Genitive in Exclamations 239 

1130. Genitive of Source 239 

1131. Genitive of Agent or Instrument (Poetic) 240 

1132. Genitive after Compound Verbs 240 

1133-1135. Genitive of Price or Value 240,241 

113(3, Genitive of Time within wliicli 241 

1137-1138. Genitive of Place within which (chiftHy Poetic) 241 

1139-1142. Objective Genitive with Verbal Adjectives 242, 243 

1143-1145. Possessive Genitive with Adjectives denoting 

Possession, etc 243 

1140. Genitive with certain Adject, of Place 243 

1147-1161. Genitive with Adverbs 243,244 

1152, Genitive Absolute (see also 1568) 244 

1153-1156, Genitive with Comparatives 244, 246 

DATIVE. 

1157. Various Functions of the Dative 246 

Dative expressing to or for : — 

1158. Dative of Indirect Object 246 

1159-1103. Dative after certain Intransitive Verbs 245, 246 

1 164. Dative with Verbs of Ruling, etc 247 

1165-1170. Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage 247,248 

1171. Ethical Dative 248 

1172. Dative of Relation 248 

1173. Dative of Possession (with <*V^ etc.) 248 

1174. Dative after Adjectives kindred to preceding 

Verbs 249 

1175-1178. Dative of Resemblance, Union, and Approach 249,250 

1179,1180, Dative after Conipound Verbs 250,261 

1181,1182. Dative of Cause, Manner, Means, and Instru- 
ment 261 

1183, Dative after xp'^^^*'0-h ^se 261 

1184, 1186. Dative of Degree of Difierence (with Compaxa- 

Uves) 261,352 



CONTENTS. 



xvii 



SX0TI0N8 

1180,1187, 

1188. 
1189-1191. 

119^1196. 
1190. 
1197. 



1190. 
liiOO. 

1201. 

1202-1219. 

1220. 
1221-1220. 

1227. 



1228, 1229. 



1230-1232, 
1233. 

1234-1237, 
123B. 
1239. 

1240. 

1241, 

1242-1248. 



1249. 



1250-1266. 

12«7-1270. 



PA0E8 

Dative of Agent (with Perfect and Pluperfect 

Passive) 252 

Dative of Agent (with Verbal in -t«os or -rtof) 262 
Dative of Accompaniment (sometimes with 

av76s) 252, 253 

Dative of Time 253 

Dative of Place (Poetic) 263 

'* "- "' Occasional Use in Prose (Names 

of Attic Demes) 254 

Local Datives as Adverbs 254 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Prepositions originally Adverbs 254 

Improper Prepositions . . . , 254 

Prepositions with Genitive, Dative, and Accusa- 
tive 254 

Uses of the Prepositions 254-202 

Uses of tlie Improper Prepositions 202 

Remark on the Pre))Ositions . . . 202, 203 

Prepositions in Cojnposiijtui taking their own 

Cases - 264 

ADVERBS. 

Adverbs qualifying Verbs, Adjectives, and Ad- 
verbs 264 

SYNTAX OF THE VERB. 

VOICES. 

Active Voice 264, 205 

Passive Voice 205 

Agent after Passive Verbs (iv6 and Genitive) 205 

Dative of Agent (see also 1180-1188) 205 

Pa-ssive Construction when Active has Cioo 

Cases 205, 206 

Cognate Accusative made Subject of Passive. . 206 

Intransitivt; Active forms used as Passives .... 206 

Middle Voice (three uses) . . 207,268 

TEN8BS. 

Two relations denoted by the Tenses 268 

I. TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE. 

Teases of the Indicative (Time of each) 268-271 

Primary and Secondary Tenses 271, 272 



xviii CONTENTS. 

II. TENSES OV THK DEPENDENT MOODS. 

8KCTION8 A. NOT IN JNUIRECT DISCOUKSK. PAQKB 

1271. Present and Aorist chiefly used 272 

127*2. Distineiioii between Present and Aoribt here.. . 272 
1273-1275. Perfect not in Indirect Discourse (seldom used) 272,273 
1270-1278. Future Infinitive not in Indirect Discourse (ex- 
ceptional) 273 

li. IN INDIKECT DISCOURSE. 

1279. Definition of Indirect Dii^coiirsie 273 

1280-1284. Optative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse, . . 274 

1285. Present Infin. and Optative include Imperfect. . 274 

1280. Infinitive after Verbs of Hoping, Promising, etc. 

(two Constructions allowed) 276 

1287. Future Optative used only in Indirect Discourse 275 

JII. TENSES OF THE PARTI CI PLE. 

1288. Expressing time relatively to leading Verb 276 

1289. Present Participle a-s Imperfect 275,276 

1290. Aorist sometimes denoting same time as leading 

Verb 276 

IV. GNOMIC AND ITEllATJVE TENSES, 

1291. Gnomic Present, expressing Habit or General Truth 276 
1292-1294. Gnomic Aorist '' '' " '* 276 

1295. Gnomic Perfect " '' *' " 276 

1290-1298. Iterative Imperfect and Aorist with &v 276, 277 

THE PABTICLE "Av. 

1299-1301. Two Uses of d;' 277 

"Av with the Lidicativc: — 

1302. Xevcr with Present or Perfect 277 

1303. With Future (chiefly Homeric) 277,278 

1304. With Secondary Tenses 278 

1305. 'Av M?ith the Snbjunctive 278 

1306, 1307. 'Ay witli the Optative (always Potential) 278 

1308, 130i». 'Av with tlie Infinitive and Participle (Potential) 278, 279 

1310, 131 1. Position of ftv 279, 280 

1312. "Av repeated in long ApoUosis 280 

1313-1316. Special Uses of 4v 280 

THE MOODS. 
GENERAL STATEMENT AND CLASSIFICATION. 

1317-1319. Various Uses of Indicative 280,281 

1320, 1321. Various Uaes of Subjunctive 281 



CONTENTS. xix 

•icrroNfl PAOKfl 

1322,1323. Various Uses of Optative 281,282 

1324. The Imperative 282 

1325, The Infinitive, Particiijle, etc 283 

132G. Classification of Coustructioiis of the Mood.s. . . 283 

I. POTENTIAT. OPTATIVE AND INDICATIVE. 

1327-1334. Potential Optative with 6.v 283-285 

133r)-l341. Potential Indicative witli dc 285, 280 

II. IMI»ERAT1VE AND SURJUNCTIVE IN INDEPKNDKNT HE'S- 
TENCKS. — IXDEPENDKNT SENTENCES WITH fj,TJ OH OTTW?. 

1342, 1343. Imperative in Commands, Exhortations, etc. . . 287 
1344, 1345. First ]*erson of Suhjuiictive in Exhortations ... 287 
1346, 1347. Present Xmpev. or Aorist Subj. in Prohibitions 287 
1348, 1349. Independent Subjnnctive in Homer witli /x^, ex- 
pressing fear or anxiety 287, 288 

1360, lli5\. Subjunctive or Indicative with firj or mt ou in 

cautious assertions or negations 288 

1352-1354. Future Indicative wif.li AVwi and 53ra>i ^jj in 

Commands and Prohibitions 288 

III. HOMERIC St'BJUKCTIVE DIKE FUTUTtK INDICATIVE. 

INTEUROGATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

1355-1357. Homeric Use of tl)o Subjunctive as simple Future 288, 280 

1358, 1350. Interrogative Sulijimctive ((Questions of Doiibt) 280 

IV. SUBJUNCTIVE AND FUTUHE INDICATIVE WITH OV /jltJ. 

1360, 1301. As Kmphatic Future and in Probibitious 289 

V. FINAL A-VD OBJECT CLAUSE.S AFTER 7va, tis, OTToj?, 0</)pa, 

AND /it). 

1362,1303. Three Classes of tlicse Clauses 290 

1364. Negative Particle in these Clauses 290 

I. PURR FIN-AL CLAUSES (aFTEU ALI- THE FISaT, I'ARTICLKS) ; — 

1366-13^8. With Subjunctive and Optrttivc 200, 291 

1360, 1370. With Subjunctive after S'^condary Teu.ses 291 

1371. With the Past Tenses of tlie Indicative 292 

II. OBJKCT (-LAUSKa WITH SiTW? AFTKU VEUUS OF Striving ETC. : 

1372. With Future Indicative or Optative 202 

1373. Same coustructjon with Verbs of exhorting etc. 202 
1374-1370. Present or Aorist Subjnnctive or Optative here 292,293 

1377. Homeric Subj. and Opt. with AVw? or Ji 293 



XX CONTENTS. 

a«CTIONB FA0B8 

III. CLAUSES WITH MiJ AFTER VERBS OF Fearing: — 

1378. With Subjuuctivc and Optative 293 

1379. With Future I udicative (rare) 293 

1380. With Present or Tast Tenses of Indicative 294 

Vr. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

1381. Definition of Protasis and Apodosis 294 

1382. Use of iy (Horn, k^) in Protasis and Apodosis. . 294 

1383. Negative Particles in Protasis and Apodosis .... 294 

1384. Distinction of Particular and General Sui> 

positions 294, 295 

1385-1389, Classification of Conditional Sentences 295, 296 

I. PRKSLNT OK PAST CONDITIONS WITH NOTHING IMPLIED. 

1390, Simple Supposition (chiefly Particular) with 

Indicative 206.297 

1391. Future Indicative denoting I'rescnt Intention . . 297 
1393-1396. Present and Past General Suppositions 297, 298 

II. I'KESKNT AND J'AST CONDITIONS WITH SL'Pl'OSJTlONS 
CONTRARY TO FACT. 

1397. Past Tenses of Indicative (dy in Apodosis) .... 298, 299 

1398. Present Optative used here in Homer in Present 

Conditions 299 

1399. Optative witli x^ in Homer rarely Past in Apodosis 299 
1400-1402. "Efiet, xPV^'i tit-c. with Infinitive in Apodosis 

without dv 299, 300 

III. rUTDRK CONDITIONS, MORE VIVID FORM. 

1403, 1404. Subjunctive witli idy in Protasis 300 

14U5. Future Indicative with ft in Protasis 300 

1406, 1407. Subjunctive with simple el (in Homer) 301 

IV. FUTURE CONDITIONS, IJCSS VlVIl) KOKM. 

1408-1412, Optative in both Protasis and Apodosis 301 

I'tCCLIAR FORMS OF CONDITIONAL SENTliNCK.<^. 

1413. Protasis contained in l^articiple or other Word . , 301, 302 
1414-1417. Ellipsis of Protasis or Apodosis 302 

1418. Infinitivo or Participle in Indiro.ct DL«;f nurse 

forming Apodosis 303 

1419. Infinitive (not in Indirect Discourse) forming 

Apodosis 303 

1420. Apodosis implied in Context 303 

1421. Protasis and Apodosis of different Classes 303, 304 

1422. A^ introducing an Apodosis 304 

1423, 1424. El after Verbs of Wondering (^au^uifaj) etc 304 



CONTENTS. XXI 

8I0T10N8 PAGEB 

VII. RELATIVE AND TEMPOKAL SENTENCES. 

1426. Relative including Temporal Clauses 306 

142(5. Definite aud indefinite Antecedent explained . . 306 

1427. Relative with Definite Antecedent 306 

1428. Relative with Indefinite Antecedent. — Condi- 

tional Relative 305, 306 

1429. Tour Forms of Conditional Relative Sentence 

corresponding to those of ordinary Protasis 

(1385-1389) 306 

1430. 1. (a) Simple Present or Past Conditions 306 

1431, 1432. (b) Present and )'ast General Conditions 300, 307 

1433. n. Present and Past Unfulfilled Conditions ... 307 

1434, 1435. ill. Future Conditions (more Vivid Form) .... 307 

1430. IV. Future Conditions (less Vivid Form) 307 

1437, 1438. Peculiar Forms in Coudiiional Relative Sentences 307, 308 

1439-1441. Assimilation in Conditional Relative Sentences 308,309 

1442-1444. Relative Clauses expressing Purpose 309 

1446-1448, Relative Clauses expressing Re.sult 309, 310 

1449-1450. Consecutive Clauses with wVre or w'y, with 

Infinitive and Finite Moods 310, 311 

1460. 'E0' v or ^(^' <;STe with Infin. or Fut. lud 311 

1461, 1462. Causal Relative Sentences 312 

TEMI'ORAL I'AHTICLES SIGNIFYING Until AND Before. 

1463-1468. Consti-uctions after ?wi, t<rr(^ 4xp'> M^XP'i <5<^pa, 

until 312, 313 

1469-1473. Uplv with tlie Infinitive and the Finite Moods. . 313, 314 

1474. Uplv ^, TTpbripov ^, irpbcS^v fl, etc. used like irpiv 314 

VIII. INDIRECT DISCOURSK. 

1476. Direct and Indirect Quotations aud Questions 314, 316 
1476-1479. Indirect Quotations and Questions, how introduced 316 

1480. Meaning of Expression Indirect Diacoxtrse 316 

1481-1480. General Principles of Indirect Discourse. — Use 

of Av. — Negative Particles 315, 316 

SIMPLE SENTENCES IN INDIRECT DISCOUIISE. 

1487. Indicative and Optative after 6r^ or dui, and iu 

Indirect Questions 316,317 

1488. Pres. Opt. occasioually represents Imperfect . , . 317 

1489. Pres. and Perf. changed to Imped, and Pluperf. 317 
1490-1492. Subjunctive or Optative in Indirect Questions, 

representing Interrogative Subjunctive ..... 317, 318 

1493. Indicative or Optative with Hf ^unchanged) 318 

1494. Infinitive and Participle In Indirect Quotations 818, 319 



XXll 



CONTENTS. 



6ECTI0NB PAQlft 

1495. Wlien Infin. 13 said to be in Indirect Discourse 319 

1496. Negative of Infin. and Part, (sometimes m'}) • • • 319 

INimiECT QUOTATION OF COMPLEX SENTENCES. 

1497. Rule for Z>^7)e«ien( Clauses in Indirect Quotation 319,320 

1498. One Verb changed to Optative, another un- 

changp.d 320 

1490. Dependent Aorist Indie, notclianged to Optative 320 

1500,1501. Special Cases 320 

1002, 1503. Single Dependent Clauses in Indirect Discourse, 
independently of the rest of the Sentence. — 

Four Cla.sses 321, 322 

1504. Ovx AVi, oox iVoTf, /x^ 5Tt, fxT] Sjrufs 322 

IX. CAUSAL SENTENCES. 

1005. Causal Sentences with Indicative 322, 323 

1500. Optative sometimes used after Past Tenses 323 

X. EXPllKSSION OF A WISH. 

1507-1510, Optative in Wishes (with or without fWe etc.) . . 323, 324 

1511, Indicative in Wishes (with cr^c etc.) 324 

1512-1515. "iVfXo;' with Infinitive in Wijbhes 324,325 

THE INFINITIVE. 

1510. Infinitive as Verbal Noun (with and without 

Article) 326 

INFINITIVK TVITIIOUT THE ARTICLE. 

1517. Infinitive as Subject, Predicate, or Appositive. . 325 

1518. Infinitive as Object of a Verb: — 
1510-1521. Not in Lidirect Discourse Cchiefly I'resent and 

Aurist) S26 

1522-1525. In Indirect Discourse t^with Time of Teuses 

preserved) 320,327 

1520-1531. Infinitive witli Adjectives, Adverbs, and Nouns 028 

1532, 1533. Infinitive of I'urpose (or Result, Horn,) 329 

1634,1535. Absolute Infinitive. — 'KfccJv fUai etc 820 

1630-1540. Infinitive in Commands, Wishes, Laws, etc. . . 320, 330 

INKIXITIVE WITH TIIR ARTICLE. 

1541. Character of A nienhir Infinitive 830 

1642-1544. Infinitive with t6 as Subject or Object 830, 331 

1645. Infinitive with rft with Adjectives and Nouns. . . 331 

1646. lufiuitive with toO, t^, or tA after Prepoaitiona 331 



CONTEJ?TS. 



XilJl 



BXCnOFS 

1647, 1548. 
1549-1563. 

1654. 
1655. 



Infin. with rot? or r^ in Various Constructions 
Infinitive witli or without tou or toO ^ij, r6 or ri> 
^ij (or fi^ oiJ), after Verbs of Hindraace etc. 
Infinitive (generally with tA) in Exclamations 
Infinitive with Adjuncts and tA, as Noun 



PAQE8 

331, 332 

332, 333 
333 
33;i 



THE PARTICIPLE. 

1657, 1658, Participle as Verbal Adjective. — Three Uses , . 334 

ATTUIBUTIVK PARTICIPLE, 

1559. Participle qualifying a Noun (as Adjective) 334 

1660, 16C1. Participle with Article as Substantive 334, 335 

1502, Neuter Participle with Article as Abstract Noun 335 

CIRCUMSTANTIAL PARTICIPLE, 

1663, 1-8. Various Uses of this Participle 33^, 336 

1564-1507, Peculiar Idioms 330,337 

1508. Genitive Absolute 337 

1660,1570. Accusative Absolute 337 

1571. "ft./ omitted (rarely) 337,338 

1672-1577. Various Adverbs with Circumstantial Participle 338,339 

SUPPLEMENTAKY PARTICIPLE. 

1578, 1579. Showing to what the action of the Verb relates 339 

WOT JN INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 

1680, 1581. With Verbs signifying to begin, continve, cease, 

repent, etc 339, 340 

1582, 1583. With Verbs signifying to perceive, Jind, or i-c/jre- 

sent 340 

1584. Boi/XA^ei'o?, ijUfuvo^^ etc, agreeing with Dative 340 

1585. With 7r«piopdw and ^(popdta^ overlook, see, alloio 340 

1580. With Xa;'^dKa), Ti/7xa''w, and 0^dw 340,341 

1687. With 5tar€X<?w, olxofiai, etc 341 

IN INDIUKCT JDiaCOtllteE. 

1588. Participle (like Infin.) with verbs signifying to 

see, hear, learn, perceive, know, etc 341, 342 

1589. A^Xdf or <pavfp6i d^u with Participle 342 

1590. 2uvot5a and wyyi.'yvtJxTKta with a Participle in 

Nominative or Dative 342 

1691, 1592. Verbs of 1588 with other Constniotions 342 

1693. 'Oi with Participle of Indirect Discourfte 342 



344 



xxiv CONTENTS. 



—^ ^„ VERBAL ADJECTIVES IN -Wos AND -riov. 

1594. Two Constructions 343 

1595, 1596. PerRona! Construction of Verbal in -r^t 343 

1597-1609. Imi^ersonal Verbal in -rioy (or -ria) 343 

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. 

1600. Direct and Indirect Interrogativee 344 

1001. Two or more Interrogatives with one Verb 344 

1602. Interrogative as I'redicate 344 

1603. Direct Jjiterrogatives, — dpa, ^, oi/, fi-f}^ jxQy^ oO- 

KoOy 

1604. "AWo Ti f}; or iWoTi; 345 

1005. Indirect Questions witli e/ (Homeric f| or tl) . . . 345 

1606. Alternative Questious, — USrepov . . , fj, etc. . . . 345 

NEGATIVES. 

1607. Two negatives, ov and M^i '^45 

1608. Oif with independent Indicative and Optative . . 345 

1609. E^ oiJ or </ M^S ill IJidirect Questions 345 

1610. MtJ with Subjunctive and Imperative 346 

1611. Negative with Infinitive 346 

1612-1614. Negative with Participles and Adjectives 346 

1615. MtJ with Infill, after Verb.'; with Negative Idea 346 
1616, 1617. Mr] ov witli Infinitive (aft-er Negative Leading 

Verb) 347 

1618, 1619. Two or more Negatives in one Clause 347 



PART V. 

VERSIFICATION. 

1620,1621. Foot. — Ictus. — Arsis and Thesis * 348 

1622-1624. Rhythm and Metre 350 

1626. Ictus and Wyrd-accent 860 

1620. Long and Short SyUables.— Times 350 

1627» 1628. Enumeration of Feet 350, 361 

1629, 1630. Place of the Ictus in a Foot 351 

1631 . llesolution and Contraction 351, 352 

1632. Syncope 352 

1633. Irrational Time 352 

1634. Cyclic Dactyl and Anapaest 362 



CONTENTS^. 



XXV 



81CTI0M8 PAGES 

J635. Anacrusis :i52 

1630. Syllaba Anceps .'J62 

1037. Rhythmical Series and Verse S6S 

1038. Close of Verse 303 

1639. Caulexis 353 

1640. Pauses 353 

1041. Brachycatalectic and Ilypercatalectic Verses. . . 353 

1042-1(144. Caesura and Diaeresis 363, 354 

1045. Names of Verses 354 

}Q46. Monometers, Dimeters, etc 354 

1047. Tripodies, Tetrapodies, etc 365 

1648. Rising and Falling Rhythms 355 

1040. Distichs, Systems, Strophes, eto 355 

1650-1656. Trochaic Khythras 355-357 

1657-1667, lanibic Rhythms 357-360 

1668-1074. Dactylic Rhythms 300-362 

1675-1678. Anapaestic Rhythms 362-364 

1679-16B3. Ixigaoedic Rhythms 364-366 

1684, 1085. Dactylo-Epitritic Rhythms 300, 367 

1680. Rhythms with Feet of Five or Six Times 367 

1687, Choriambic Rhythms 367 

1088. Ionic Rhythms 367 

1080. Cretic and Paeonic Rhythms 308 

1690. Bacchic Rhythms 308 

1691. Dochmiacs 368 



APPENDIX. 
1692. Catalogue op Verus 



369-406 



PARALLEL REFERENCES 

From tue Edition ok 1879 to the Pbebent Edition. 



OLD 


NHW 


OLD 


NEW 


OLD 


NEW 


1 


1 


11 


2, N.4 


M 


17, 1, Note 


94 


Notel 


2 




N.5 


42 


2 


95, 1 


N.2 


3 


12 


1 


48 


Note 


95, 3 &6 


2 


B 




2 


54 


3 


95,2 


Note 


(> 




N. 1 


51 


18, 1, 2 


96 


3 


7 




N.2 


50 


2, Note 


97 


Note 


30 




N. 3 


53 


19,1 


98 


4,1 


11 




N.4 


62 


2 


99 


N. 1 


12 


13 


1 


m 


3 


100 


N.2 


13 




N.l 


67; 59 


N.l 


101 


2 


15 




N.2 


60 


N.2 


102 


M 


Ifi 




2 


62; rvi 


20 


103 


2 


18 




3 


63 


1,2,3 


104 


6 


10 


14 


3 


G4 


21.1 


106 


1 


20 




2 


66 


Rem. 


107,2 


2 ' 


21; 22 




N.l 


66 


N. 1 


108 


Note 


23; 24 




N.2 


67 


N.2 


109 


7 


25 


15 


1 


68, 1 


2 


110, 1-3 


Note 


26 




2 


09 


3 


110,4 


8 


34 


16 




70 


22,1 


ni 


9 


36; 36 




1 


71 


2 


112 


1 


37 




N. 1 


72 


N.l 


113 


2 


38,2 




N.2 


73 


N.2 


114 


Note 


39,1 




2 


74 


23,1 


115,1 


3 


38,1 




3 


75 


Note 


115,2 


Note 


39, 1 & 2 




Note 


76; 77 


2 


116 


4 


38,4 




4, Note 


SS 


24,1 


117 


N. 1 


39.3 




6 


78, 1 


Note 


118 


N.2 


39, 4 & 5 




6 


78, 2 & 3 


2 


119 


5 


40.1 




N.l 


79 


3 


120 


Remark 


40, 2 




N.2 


80 


25. 1 


121 


10 


47 




N. 3 


- 81 


Note 


122 


11,1 


42 




N.4 


83 


2 


123; 124 


(a) 


43,1 




7 


84 


Note 


126 


(&) 


43,2 




(a) 


84,1 


3 


127 


2 


44 




ib) 


84,3 


N.l 


128 


N.l 


45 




(0 


84,4 


N, 2 


129 


N.2 


46 




(d) 


84,6 & 6 


26 


130 


N. 3 


47,2 


17, 


1 


92; 93 


N.l 


132; 133, 1 



xivi 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



xxvii 



OLD 


NEW 


OLD 


VEW 


OIJ> 


KKW 


26 N.2 


134 


40 




189 


53. 2. N. 2 


319 


N.3C1) 


131,4; 


41 




190 


3 


263 




ia3,2 




Note 


191 


N.l 


2G5 


(2) 


131,5; 


42 


1 


193; 193 


N.2 


266 




131.2 




Note 


195 


N.3 


267 


(3) 


131,1; 




2 


19G; 197 


N.4 


264 




133,3 




N.l 


199 


54 


268 


N.4 


135 




N.2 


200 


Note 


269; 270 


27 


140 


43 




201 


55 


242; 245 


1 


141,1 




Note 


203 


N.l 238-241; 243; 244 


2 


141,2 


44 




204 


N.2 


248 


3 


141,3 


45, 


1 


205 


N.3 


245; 247 


4 


141,4 




Note 


20G 


50, 1 


228 


28.1-3 


142; 143 




2 


207 


2 & Note 


2117.1 


N. 1 


144 




Note 


167; 208 


67 


273 


N.2 


145 


46 




209 


1 


274, 1 


N. 3 


14« 




1 


20<t, 4 


N. 1 


274 ; 275 


29 


136; 137 




2 


209, 1 


N.2 


27G; 279 


N. 1 


138 




3 


209,2 


2 


277, 1 ; 278 


N.2 


139 




4 


209.3 


3 


277, 2 ; 278 


30.1 


147 




N.l 212,1;210,1&3 


58 


280 


2 


148 




N.2 


212.2 


1-3 


281-285 


3 


149 




N,3 


213 


59 


28C 


SI 


100 


47. 


1 


214, 1 ; 


60,1 


287 


32,1 


151 




214, 2 & 3; 216 


2 


288 


2 


152 




N.l 


217 


3 


289 


Note 


153; 154 




N.2 


218 


4 


290 


33,1 


155 


48, 


1 


219 


5 


291 


2 


156 




2 


220-222 


61 


292-294 


N.l 


157 




3 


223 


N.l 


295 


N.2 


158 


49 




224 


N.2 


296 


N.3 


159 


50 




225 


N.3 


297 


3 


160; ICl 


61, 


1 


226 


62,1,2 


298 


N.l 


102 




2 


208,3 


3 


299-301 


N.2 


163 




Note 


88, 1 ; 90, 3 


Note 


302 


34 


164; 165 


52, 


1 


227 


63 


304; 306 


Note 


36C 




Note 


S5;ii8,l 


Note 


307 


36 


1G8 




2 


228; 234 


64 


305; 306 


30 


169 




N.l 


228j230;235 


66 


310 


Note 


170 




N.2 


39,2 


66 


312; 313 


37.1 


171; 179 




N.3 


231 


N.l 


333 


2 


173^175 




N.4 


232 


N.2 


344 


N.l 


182 


53 




249; 256 


N.3 


310 


N.2 


177 




1 


&19; 250 


N.4 


343; 345 


N.3, 4 


178 




N.l 


254 


07.1,2 318-320; 324; 


S8 


183; 384 




N.2 


251 


325; 328: 329 


N.l 


186 




N.3 


255 


. N.l 


322; 74 


N.2 


187 




2 


257 


N.2 


332 


39 


188 




N.l 


261 


N.3 


325-327 



xxvni 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



OLD HEW 

68 334; 335; 338 
Note 336; 337 

69 340; 341 
Note 342 

70 MCy 
N. 1 347 
N,2 348 

71 350 
N. 1 351 
N.2 352 
N. 3 353 
N.4 354 
N.5 355 

72, 1 :j57 
2 358 

N. 1 351t 

N.2 360 

73, 1 361 

Note 362 

2 363 

3 364 

74, 1 365 

Note 366 

2 367 

Note 368 

75 369 
N. 1 370 
N.2 371 

76 372; 373 
Note 374 

77, 1 375 

N. 1 376 ; 377 

N. 2 378 

N. 3 379 

2 380 
N. 1 381 ; 382, 2 

N. 2 (u) 382, 1 

(6) 382, 3 

N. 3 383 

N.4 384 

N.5 385 

78 386 

N. 3 387 

N.2 388 

79, 3 389 

N. 1 391 ; 392 

N. 2 393 

N.3 3iM 

N.4 396 



OLD 




NEW 


OLD 


NEW 


79, 1, N. 5 




390 


93, 1 


464 


N. 6 




397 


2 (a)-(c) 


465; 406 


N. 7 




398 


3 


4^)7 


2 


399; 989,2 


Note 


4ii8 


Note 




400 


04 450 


; 458; »jl 


80 




401 


95, 1 


469; 470 


Note 


403 


;403 


I 


474 


81 




404 


II 


476 


82 




406 


III 


478 


N. 1 




407 


Note 


472 


N.2 




408 


2, I 


474; 475 


83 




409 


II 


477 


N. 1 




411 


III 


479 


N.2 




412 


Note 


473 


N.3 




413 


96, 1 


480 


84,1 




415 


11 


481 


2 




410 


III 


482 


N. 1 




417 


N. 1 


483 


N.2 




418 


N.2 


484 


3 




419 


N. 3 


485 


85 




420 


97, 1 &2 


486, 1&2 


86 


421 


; 425 


3 


487, 1 


N. 1 




436 


4 


487,2 


N.2 


424 


428 


N.l 


488 


87, 1 


429 


430 


N.2 


489 


Note 




434 


N.3 


490 


2 




430 


98 


492 


Noto 




43« 


Rem. 


493 


88, 1 




441 


N.l 


495 


Note 




442 


N.2 


496 


2 




443 


N.3 


497 


Note 




444 


N.4 


498 


89 




445 


N.5 


499 


Note 




446 


N.6 


737 


90, 1 




447 


99, 1 


010; 620 


2 




448 


2(a) 


511, 1 


N. 1 




449 


(6) 


611,2 


N.2 




450 


(c) 


621 


N.3 




451 


Rem. 


512; 520 


91 


452 


453 


100, 1 


513 


Not* 




454 


2 


516 


92, 1, 2 & Note 


458; 


N. 1 


616 




459 


567 


N.2 


517 


3 




460 


N.3 


534 


Note 




461 


N.4 


536 


4 




459 


N.5 


614 


I-VII 


455-157 


101, 1 


621 


5 




462 


Note 


522 


6 




463 


2 


623 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



XXIX 



ou> 



NEW 



101, 


2,N.l 


524 




U. 2 


525 




3 


526 




4 


527 


102 




529-631 




N. 1 


532 




N. 2 


533 


103 




518 




Note 


510 


104 




537 




N. 1 


538 




N.3 


53i) 


305. 


1 


540 




N.l 


541 




N. 2 


543 




N.3 


544 




2 


545, 1 




Note 


545,2 




3 


54G 


10<), 


1 


547; 548 




Note 


550 




2 


549 


107 




567 


108 




568 




1 


5CA) 




Note 


571 




11, 1 


572 




2 


574 




Note 


575; M2 




III 


576-578 




IV 


579 




1 fa) 


580 




Note 


582; 583 




(b) 


585; 588 




N. 1 


590 




N, 2 


591 




2 


502 




(c) 


593 




(d) 


5iH; 5% 




N. 1 


508 




N.2 


599 




N.3 


rtOO 




3(e) 


001 




Note 


no2 




v,i 


603 




2 


COS 




3 


607 




4 


608 




N.l 


(a) 610 



OLD 



NEW OLD 



NEW 



108, V, N. 1 (6) 611 

N.2 612 

VI 613 
N. 1 615 
N. 2 616 
N. 3 617 
N. 4 618 

VII 653; (k>4 
Note 056 

VIII 621 
Noto 022 
Rem. G34 

i0i>, 1 (kJ5 ; cm 

N. 1 471; (i3H 

N. 2 639 

2 640; 641 

3 643; 044 
N. I 693; G8J) 
N. 2 See 692 

4 045 
N. 1 046 
N.2 711 

5 672 

6 047 
Note 648 

7 (a) 049 
(6) 650 i 
(c) 651 ; 652 j 

8 053;6r.7: 
(a) 658, 1 ■ 
(6) 658, 2 
Note OSU 
Rem. 661 

no, I (nio 

II, 1 662 
2 6*)3 

N. 1 (a) ftVJ, ] 
(6) 665,2 

(c) 665, 3 

(d) 605. 4 
N.2 6fi6 
N. 3 6fJ7 
N. 4 6(J8 

III, 1 669 

N. 1 C70 

N. 2 671 

2 072 

N. 1 673 

N. 2 674 



110, IV, (a) 698 

(1)^(5) 699- 

702 

(b) 682; 683 
(l)-(5) 084 

Note r^; 694 

(c) 703 
N. 1 704 
N. 2 705 

(d) 687; 602 
N. 1 690 
N. 2 See 693 
N. 3 6'.t] ; 773 
N. 4 774 

V 675 

N. 1 676 

N. 2 677 

N. 3 678 

VI 707 ; 710 

N. 1 708 

N.2. 3 709 

VII 732; 715 

N. 1 716 

N.2 713 

N.3 714 

111 717 

112, 1 551 
2 552 

Note 556 

3, 4 557-501 

113, J See 561, 1; 623 
2, N. 1 5f;5, 6; 624 

N.2 625 

N. 3 556, 2 

N- 5 55(i, 3 

114 718 
(end) 721 

N. 1 723; 725 

N. 2 724 ; 727 

115 730 

1 731 

2 V40 

3 739 

4 737 
N. 1 735 
N. 2 732 

116, 1 553 

2 746; 747 

3 757 



XXX 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



OLD 


HKW 


OLD 


MBW 


117, 1 554 


; 7fi9; 765 


122, 2, N. 4 


724 


1 (end) 


766-7G9 


N.5 


728; 631 


2 770 


; 772; 776 


N. 6 


W3.1 


Note 


337 


123, 1 


604; 505 


3 


776, 1 


2 


500 


N. 1 


77G,2 


3 


509 


N.2 


776,3 


124, 1 


507; 508 


U8,l 


721 ; 733 


2 


804 


Note 


734 


125, 1. 2 


794, 1, 2 


2 


720; 733 


N. 1 


795 


Note 


751 ; 748 


N.2 


796 


8 


706 


3 


798; 799 


B 486^2; 701 


N. 1 


801 


Not« 


701 


N.2 


802; 803, 2 


6 


1254 


4 


804 


119, 1-9 


777, 1-9 


5 


797 


10 


778 


136,1^ 


787, 1-5 


11 


779 


6 


800,2 


12(a) 


780, 1 


7(a) 


788,1 


ib) 


7tiO, 2 


(b) 


788,2 


(c) 


780,3 


(e) 


788,3 


id) 


780,4 


8 


789 


13 


781 


9 


791 


14 


782 


10 


792 


15 


783 


127 


805 


laO, 1 (a) 


784,1 


1 


806, 1 


(&) 


784,2 


N.1,2 806,2,3; 807 1 


ic) 


784.3 


11 


808,1 


id) 


784,4 


N.1-3 


808,2; 809 


(c) 


784,5 


in 


810,1 


2(a) 


785, 1 


N.1,2 


810,2; 811 


<b) 


785,2 


IV 


812 


i<^) 


785,3 


N. 1, 2 


813 


id) 


785,4 


V 


814-816 


3(a) 


780, 1 


Note 


817 


ib) 


786,2 


VI 


818 


Reru. before 121 i 


Note 


819 


4<)8; 


500; 501 


vii 


820 


121,1 557; 


558; 627 


Note 


821 


N. 1 801 ; 802, 1 , 


128,1 


822 


N.2 


629 


2 fa) 


823 


2lah(f) 


564, 1-6 


(h) 


824 


3 


794,2 


Note 


825 


122 


502; 793 


3 


826 


1 


794 


N.l 


827 


2 


797 


N.2 


828 


N. 1 


630; 741 


N. 3 


829 


N.2 


729; 742 


N.4 


830 


N,3 


632 


N.5 


831 



OLD KBW 

129,1 832 

2(a) • 833, 1; 841 

Note 841 
(b) 833, l,2;ft41 

Note 833, 3 

3 834 
N. 1 835 
N.2 836 

4 837 
Note 837 (end) 

5 838 
Note 839 

6 843 

7 842 (837) 
Note 842 

8 844 
Note 845 

9 846 
(a)-(c) 846, 1-3 
Note 847 

10 848, 1 
Note 84H, 2 

11 849, 1 

12 850 

13 851 

14 852 
Note 853 

15 854 

16 849, 4 

17 8r>5 

18 859; HfiO 
130, 1-8 861, 1-8 

N. 1 8C8 

N, 2 866 

N. 3 867 

131 809 

Reza. 870 

1 871 
Note 872 

2 873 

(a) 873. 1 

(b) 873, 2 

3 874 

4 (a)-(d) 875, 1-4 
N. 1 876 
N. 2 877 

5 878 

6 879; 881 
Note 880 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



XXSJ 



132 

1 



Note 



Note 



882 
883 

m 

885 
886 

887 



133,1 



OLD 

138, 
139,1 



N.7 

N. 8 

Note 
Note 



140 



NBW 

926 

927; 928 

932,1 

932.2 

933 

934 

935 



Eem, 889 

890 

N. 1 891 

2 892 
Note 893 

.OA 1 894 

^^'2 895.1 

3 895, 2 & 3 
N, 1 896 
N. 1 (a)-(e) 

897, 1-6 

N. 2 898 

135. 1 899, 1 

2 899,2 

3 900 
N.l 901 
N.2 902 
N. 3 903 
N.4 904 
K. 5 905 

136 907 
Rem. 908 
N.l 909 
N. 2 910 
N.3(a) 927; 928 

(6) 931 

N.4 930 

137 911 
N. 1 913 
N. 2 914 
N. 3 915 
N. 4 916 

138 918 
Rem. 919 
N. 1 (a) 923 
N. 2 (a) 924, a 

ib) 9^, b 

{€) 925 

N. 3 920 

N.4 921 

N. 5 388; 410 

N.6 822 



N.l 936 
N. 2 (a)-(d) 

937. 1^ 
N.3 938 

N. 4 939 

N. 5 



141 



N,l 



(a) 
(6) 



940 
941 
942 
943 
944 



N.2 
N.3 
N.4 
N.5 
N.6 
N.7 
N.8 



142,1 



Note 



Rem. 
N.l 

N.2 
N. 3 (a) 
(&) 
N.4 
N.5 
N-0 



(c) 945; 946 

(d) 947 
949 
952 
953 
954 

955,1 
955.2 

956 
959, 1 ; 902 

960 
959,2 

963 



(XLD 

143,2 
144,1 

Note 

2(a) 
(6) - 
145.1 

Note 
2 
Note 
146 

N.l 
N.2 
N.3 

147 

N.l 
N.2 
N.3 
N.4 

148 

N.l 
N.2 
N.3 
N.4 

149,1 
2 



964 
965 
966 
967 
968 
969 
970 



984 
985 



987 
988 

089,1 
990 

989,3 
992 
993 
(rH 
995 
996 
998 
999 
1000 
1002 
1003 
1004 
1005 
1006 
1007 
1010 
1011 
1012 



971; 972; 973 
974 



143»1 



N.l 

N.2 
N. 3 (a) 

N.4 
N.5 
N.6 

N.l 
N.2 



976 

976 
977, 1 
977,2 
978 
979 
980 
981 
982 



(last part) 1013 

Note 1014 

150 1015 

Note 1017 

161 1019 

N. 1 1020 

N. 2(a) 1021, a, b 

(6) 1021, c 

N.3 1023 

N.4 1024 

152 1020; 1027 
N.l 1028 
N. 2 10?9 
N. 3 1030 

153 1031 
N. 1 1032 
N. 2 1033 
N. 3 1034 
N. 4 1035 
N,5 1036 

154 1037 
Note 1038 

155 10-'*9 
166 1040 



XXXll 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



OLD 



NEW OLD 



156, Note 1041 
RftTD. before 157 1042 

157, 1 1043 
2 1044 

Note - 1045 
Rem. be/ore 158 1046 

158 1047 
N. 1 1048 
N. 2 1049 

V N, 3 1050 

159 1051 
Rem. 1052 
N. 1 1053 
N. 2 1054 
N. 3 3055 
N. 4 1070 
N. 5 1057 

100, 1 1058 

Note 1059 

2 1000 

Note 1001 

101 1002 
Note 1003; 1004 

102 3005 

103 1006; 1007 
N. 1 1007 
N. 2 1068 

104 1069 
N. 1 3070 
N. 2 1071 
N. 3 1072 

165 1073 
N. 1 1074 
N. 1 (lastpt.) 1241 

N. 2 Krrs 

166 1077 
N. 1 1078 
N. 2 1080 
N. 3 10«l 
N. 4 1078 

Rem. before 107 1083 

167 1084 
1-5 1085, 1-5 
6 1085. 7 

Not« 1080 

168 1088 
N, 1 1090 
N, 2 1091 
N. 8 1092 



NEW OLD 



169,1 

2 

3 

170, 1 
2 

171, 1 



Note 



Not« 

Note 

N. 1 
N.2 
N. 3 
licni. 

Note 



1094, 1 & 7 

1095 

1090 

1094 

1097, I 

mn,2 

1098 
1099 
1100 
1102 
1103 
1105 
1106 
1107; 1108 
1109: 1110 



172, 1 
2 



173. 1 



3 
174 
175. 1 



N. 1 
N.2 



N. 1 

N.2 



KEW 



N. 1 
N.2 



2 
176, 1 

2 
177 
178 

179.1 
2 
180 

1 



181 



182, 1 



1104 
1112 
1113 
1114 
1115 
1110 
1120 
1127 
1128 
1121 
Note 1123; 1124 
1129 
1117 
1153 
1154 
1150 
1120 
1130 
1131 
11.S2 
1133 
1135 

nm 

1137 , 
1139 
1140 j 
1140' 
1141 
1142 
1143 
1140 
1147 
1148-1150 
1161 



Note 



N. 1 

N.2 



Note 



Not« 



183 1152 

Rem. before 184 1167 

184,1 1158 

2 1159; 1100 
N. 1 (a) 1101 

ib) 1162 

N. 2 1103 

3 1105 
N. 1 1106 
N.2 1167 
N.3 1168; 1169 
N. 4 1170 
N.6 1584 
N. 6 1171 

4 1173 

5 1172 
185 1174 
180 1175 

N. 1 1177 

N.2 1178 

187 1179; 1180 

188, 1 1181 

N. 1 1182 

N.2 1183 

2 1184; 1185 

3 1186; 1187 

4 1188 

6 1189; 1190 
Noto 1191 

189 1192 
N. 1 1193 
N. 2 1194 

190 1190 
N. 1 1197 
N. t> 1198 

191 ll9i»; 1200; 

1220 

1-VI 1201-1219 

(w. prepositions 

alphabetically) 

N. 1 1221 

N. 2 1222, 1 

N. 3 1222, 2 

N.4 1223 

N. 5 1224 

N.C 1225 

193 1227 

194 1228 

195 1230 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



XXXUl 



OLD 






NEW 


OLD 




NEW 


OLD 


NEW 


195, 


N. 1 




1231 


205,2 




1292 


218 


N.l 


1379 




N.2 




1232 


N.l 




1293 




N.2 


1350 


196 






1233 


N.2 




1294 




N.3 


1380 


197, 


1 


1234 


; 1230 


3 




1205 


219 


1 


1381 




N.l 




1237 


206 




1296 




2 


1382 




N.2 




1239 


Rem. 




1297 




3 


1383,1 




2 




1238 


Note 




1298 




Note 


1.383, 2 


198 






1240 


207 




1299 


220 


1384; I38r/-1387 


199, 


1-3 


1242, 1-3 


1 


1299, 1 




Rem, 


1 1388 




Rem. 




1243 


2 1299, 2 


; 1300 




Rem. 


2 1389 




N.l 




1244 


Rem. 




1301 


221 




1390 




N.2 




1245 


208,1 




1302 




Nota 


1391 




N. 3 


1246 


; 1247 


2 




1303 


222 




1397 




N.4 




1248 


3 




1304 




N.l 


1402 


200 




1250 


; 1251 


209,1 


1305,1 




N.2 


1400 




N.l 




1252 


2 


1305,2 




N.3 


1398; 1399 




N.2 




1255 


210 




I30(i 


223 




1403 




N.3(a^ 


125C 


Note 




1307 




Rem. 


1404 






(6) 


1257 


211 




1308 




N.l 


1405 




N. 4 




1258 


Note 




1309 




N.2 


1406; 1305,2 




N. 5 


(a) 1259, 1 


212, 1 




1310 


224 




1408 






ib) 


1260 


2 




1312 




N.l 


1332; 1333 






(c) 1259, 2 


3 




1313 




N.2 


1412 




N. 6 




1203 


4 




1314 


225 




1393, 1, 2 




N. 7 




12G4 


Notit 




1316 




Ron. 


131U 




N.8 




1205 


213, ] 


1317 


; 1318 




N.l 


13«J5 




N. 9 




VJJijii 


lie 111. 




1319 




N.2 


1396 


201 






i2/;7 


2 




1320 


226. 


1 


1413 




Rom. 




I2(i8 


lU^in. 




1321 




2(^0 


1329; 1340 




N.l 




12G9 


3 




1322 




(b) 


1327; 1328; 




N.2 




1270 


Rom. 




1323 






1335; 1330 


202 






1271 


4 




1324 




N.l 


1330; 1328 


1 






1272 


5 




1325 




N.2 


1337 


2 






1273 


214 




1326 




3 


1418 




N.l 




1274 


215 




1362 




4 


1419 




N.2 




1275 


Rem. 




1363 




N.l 


1420 


3(a) 




1276 


N.l 




13(}4 




N,2 


1416 




ib) 




1277 


N.2 


1362 


1368 


227, 


1 


1421,1 




Not« 




1278 


216,1 




13(« 




Note 


1421,2 


4 






1287 


N.l 




1366 




2 


1422 


Rem. before 203 


1279 


N.2 




1367 


228 




142:^ 


203 




1280; 


1281 


2 


1369 


1370 




Note 


1424 




N.l 




1285 


3 




1371 


Rem. before 220 1425 




N.2 




1286 


217 




1372 


229 




1420 




N.3 




1287 


N.l 


1374 


1375 


230 




1427 


204 






1288 


N.2 




1373 


231 




1428.1 




N.l 




1289 


N. 3 




1377 




Note 


1428,2 




N.2 




1290 


N.4 


1362-1354 1 


232 




1429 


206,1 






1291 


218 




13781 


1 


1430 



xxxiv 



VAKAIJIEL REFERENCES. 



OLD 


HKW 


OLD 


KKW 


OLD 




NEW 


232,2 


1433 


247, N. 3 


1500 


205 




1532 


3 


1434 


N.4 


1501 




Note 


1533 


Note 


1435 


24S, 1-t 


1502,1-4 


266, 


1 


1449 


4 


1436 


Note 


1503 




2 


1453 


233 


1431 


249, 1 


1478, 1 




N.l 


1456 


N. 1 


1432 


2 


1478, 2 




N.2 


1449 


N. 2 


1438 


250 


1505 




N.3 


1455 


234 


1437 


Note 


1506 




N. 4 (a) 


1458 


i35, 1 


1439 


251, 1 


1507 




ib) 


1531 


2 


1440 


N.l 


1508 




N.5 


1457 


"wote 


1441 


N.2 


1509 


267 




1400 


23() 


1442 


N.3 


1510 


208 




1534 


N. 1 


1443 


2 


1511 


209 




1536 


, N. 2 


14(iO 


N.l 


1512 




Note 1530; 1537 


N.3 


1444 


N.2 


].'>13 


270 




1537 


237 


144i) 


252 


1342 




Note 


1538 


Kern. 


1450 


Note 


i;^3 


271 




1540 


Note 


1445 


253 


1344 


272 




1554 


238 


1401 


Note 


1345 


273 




1525 


239, 1 


14(4 


254 


i;.^ 


274 


1470 


1471, 1 


2 


1405 


Note 


J347 




Note 


1474 


N. 1 


1406; 1473 


255 


1355 


275 




1557 


N.2 


1407 


• Note 


1.350 


270. 


1 


1.559 


240, 1 14G9; 1471,2 


250 


J 358; 1359 




2 


1500 


2 


1470 


257 


1300 


277 




1503 


Note 


1474 


Note 


» 1301 




1 


1503, 1 


241,1 


1475 


25S 


1510 




2 1563, 2 & 3 


2 


1470 


259 


1517 




3 


1503,4 


Note 


1477 


Note 


1542 




4 


15(>3, 5 


3 


I47i> 


260 


1518 




5 


1503, 6 


Note 


1480 


1 


1519 




6 


1503, 7 


242,1 • 


1481 


N.l 


1520 




N. 1 (a) 


1572 


Note 


1482 


N.2 


1543; 1544 




ib) 


1573 


2 


1483 


2 


1522 




N.2 (a) 


1574 


3 


1484 


N.l 


1523 




W 


1575 


Note 


1485 


" N.2 


1324 




N. 3 15 


76; 1577 


4 


1480; 1490 


201,1 


1520 


278, 


1 


1508 


243 


1487 


N.l 


1520; 1521 




Note 


1508 


N. 1 


148H 


N.2 


1545 




2 


1509 


N.2 


1489 


2 


1528 




Note 


1570 


244 


1400 


Rttiii. 


1529 


279 




157S 


N. 1 


1492 


Note 


15.30 




1 


1580 


N.2 


1491 


202, 1 


1540 




N.l 


1581 


245 


1493 


2 


ir>47 




N.2 


1202 


246 


149J 


203, 1 


1549 




2 


1582 


Note 


1495 


Note 


1550 




Note 


1583 


247 


1497 


2 


1551 




3 


1585 


N.l 


1498 


Note 


1552 




4 


1580 


N.2 


1499 


264 


1555 




Note 


1667 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



XXXV 



OLP 



281 



282, 



283 



284. 





NEW 


OLD 






NEW 


OLD 


MEW 




i5t;8 


284,3, 


Note 


1623-1G25 


293, 1 


16G5, 1 


N. 1 


1580 


285,1 






i(;2(i 


2 


]6(>5, 3 


N.2 


irm 


2 






ii;27 


3 


1004 


N.3 


1591; 1592 




Nole 




l(i28 


4 


1058-1662 


K.4 


1593 


3 






1G2<) 


204 


1668 




1594 




N. 1 




1030 


295,1 


1G74, 1 


1 


151)5; 159<i 


4 






1<>35 


2 


1G74, 2 


2 


159T-15tft> 


28G, 1 






1031 


3 


1074, 3 


1 


if;oo 


2 


162G, 2 


; 1032 


4 


1G09 


2 


IGOii 


3 






1033 


5 


1670; 1671 


3 


KiW 


4 






Km 


Note 


1072; 1073 


4 


l(i05 


5 






K>:'i) 


20G 


1075 


5 


KUKi 


287,1 






lo:;? 


Note 


1075 




1007 


<} 






1038 


297, 1 


1070, 1 


1 


1G08 


3 






1039 


2 


1676, 2 


Note 


l(iOi> 


4 






H^iO 


3 


1676, 3 


2 


1()10 


288, 1 






1W2 


4 


1076, 4 


3 


IfiJl 


2 






KA3 


298 


1077 


4 


ir.i'j 




Note 




li-M 


Note 


1654; 1606 


5 


1013 


280, 1 






mr> 


2<K>, 1 


1670 


C . 


1()15 


2 




1(J4G 


; 1047 


2 


1680; 1081 


7 


KilG. 


3 






1048 


m, 1-7 


1082. 1-7 


Note 


1G17 


4 






Ui40 


Note 


1687, 2 


8 


1G18 


290 






i(ir>o 


301, 1 


1687 


9 


1G19 


201, 1 




1653, 


3&4 


2 


1G88 


1 


1G20 


2 






1G51 


3 


1089 


2 


1G21 


3 




1653, 1 


4 


1090 


3 


1022 


292 






1657 


302 


1691 














Catalogue of Verbfl 1692 



CITATIONS OF GREEK AUTHORS 

In Parts IV. and V. 



AeBchines Aesch. 

Aeschylus A. 

Agamemnon Ao, 

Chot^phorl Ck, 

Euraeoidee Eu, 

I'ci-Biatie Pe, 

PromotbeuB Pr, 

Bepwra St, 

Supplicce Sp, 

Alcaeus Alcae. 

Antlocides And. 

Antiphon Ant. 

Aristophanes Ar. 

AcliaroenbL-B Ark. 

AVCB ^1). 

Eccleeiazusae KccL. 

Equite* Eq. 

I ,y 8i«i rata /,;/. 

Nubee N. 

I'ax /'«. 

PlutUR I'L 

llauae H. 

ThcBinopborlazusae 'J'li. 

Veapac V. 

])emostheues ]). 

Kuripides K. 

AlcCBliB /(/. 

Andioraaclie And. 

baccliae lia, 

CyclopR OfC. 

Ktecti.1 'kL 

Hccu ba Ue.c. 

Helena Hcl. 

Heiaclldae Jlcr. 

Horciilnfl Furene //. F. 

HipiKtlyins Hip. 

Medcfi Mc. 

OreeicB Or. 

FhoenisBae /Vi. 

UIh-sub Hh. 

'rroadeu Tro. 

Hesiod Hes. 

Theogonia Th. 

Herodotus Hd. 

IJeroiidas Herond. 

Hipponax Hipp, 

Homer ; — 

Iliad li. 

Odyssey Od. 

Isaeus Isae. 

Isocratcs I. 

Lysias L. 

Min.nermus Minm. I 



Menander Men, 

Monofltjchi Mon. 

Pindar Piiid. 

Olympian OdeB 01. 

Pytblan Odea Py, 

Plato P. 

Alcibladefl i Ale. i. 

Apology Ap, 

CharraideB Ck. 

Crlio Cr. 

CralyluB Crat. 

Critiaa CHliae, 

EuthydemuB Ku. 

Euthypbro Euihypk. 

ftorgia^ G, 

U ipnias Major H. AT. 

1 jicuea Lack. 

J^egt'b Lg. 

Lysi* Lyi. 

Muno Men. 

Menexcnufl Mtnex. 

I'haedo Ph. 

I'liacdruB PJidr. 

rbilebufl PiiiL 

rotiUcua Pol, 

Protagoraa Pr. 

Republic Hp. 

Sophist So. 

Byiupoalura Sy. 

TbeacletUB Th. 

Timaeus Ti. 

Sappho Sapph. 

Sopiiocles S. 

AJax Aj. 

Antigone An. 

Elcctra El. 

Oedipus nt CnlonuB O. C. 

Otdipus Tyraiiuua O.T. 

Pbilocietca Ph. 

TrHcliiniae lY. 

Stobaeus Stob. 

Theocritus Tlieoc. 

Theognis Theog. 

Thucydides T. 

Xenophon X. 

Age«ilau8 Ag. 

AnobaeiB A. 

Cyropaedia C 

De re EqutBtrl Kq. 

Helleuica H. 

Hipparchicus Uips 

Memorabilia ^f. 

OecoDoniicuH Ot. 

De Kepublica Athenieusi.iip. A. 

Symposium Sy* 



The dramatists are cited by Dindorfs lines, except the tragic 
fragments (frag.), which follow Nauck's numbers. The orators are 
cited by the aumbci-s of the orations and the German sections, 
xocvi 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



INTRODUCTION, 



THE GREEK LANGUAGE AND DIALECTS. 

The Greek language is the language spoken by the 
Greek race. In the historic period, the people of this 
race called themselves by the name Hellenes, and their 
language Hellenic. We call them Greeks^ from the Roman 
name Graeci. They were divided into Aeolians, Dorians, 
and lonians. The Aeolians inhabited Aeolis (in Asia), 
Lesbos, Boeotia, and Thessaly ; the Dorians inhabited 
Peloponnesus, Doris, Crete, some cities of Caria (in Asia), 
with the neighboring islands, many settlements in Southern 
Italy, which was known as Magna Graecia, and a large 
part of the coast of Sicily ; the louians inhabited Ionia 
(in Asia), Attica, many islands in the Aegean Sea, a few 
towns in Sicily, and some other places. 

In the early times of which the Homeric poems are a 
record (before 850 r.c), there was no such division of the 
whole Greek race into Aeolians, Dorians, and lonians as 
that which was recognized in historic times ; nor was there 
any common name of the whole race, like tlie later name 
of Hellenes. The Homeric Hellenes were a small tribe in 
South-eastern Thessaly, of which Achilles was king; and 
the Greeks in general were called by Homer Achaeans, 
Argives, or Danaans, 

3 



4 INTRODUCTION, 

The dialects of the Aeolians aud the Dorians are known 
as the Aeolic and Boric dialects. These two dialects are 
much more closely allied to each other than either is to 
the Ionic. In the language of the lonians we must dis- 
tinguish the Old lonicy the New lonicy and the Attic dialects. 
The Old Ionic or Epic is the language of the Homeric 
poems, the oldest Greek literature. The New Ionic was 
the language of Ionia in the fifth century b.c, as it appears 
in Herodotus and Hippocrates, The Attic was the lan- 
guage of Athens during her period of literary eminence 
(from about 500 to 300 b.c.).^ In it were written the trag- 
edies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, the comedies 
of Aristophanes, the histories of Thucydides and Xenophon, 
the orations of Demosthenes and the other orators of Athens, 
and the philosophical works of Plato. 

The Attic dialect is the most cultivated and refined form 
of the Greek language. It is therefore made the basis of 
Greek Grammar, and the other dialects are usually treated, 
for convenience, as if their forms were merely variations of 
the Attic. This is a position, however, to which the Attic 
has no claim on the ground of age or primitive forms, in 
respect to which it holds a rank below the other dialects. 

The literary and political importance of Athens caused 
her dialect gradually to supplant the others wherever 
Greek was spoken ; but, in this very extension to regions 
widely separated, the Attic dialect itself was not a little 
modified by various local influences, and lost some of its 

^ The name Tonic includes both the Old and the New Ionic, but not 
the Attic. When the Old and the New Ionic are to be distinguished 
in the present work, Ep. (for Epic) or Horn, (for Homeric) is used 
for the former, and Hdt. or Hd. (Herodotus) for the latter. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

early purity. The universal Greek language which thus 
arose is called tlie CommotL Dialect. Tliis begins with the 
Alexandrian period, the time of the literary eminence of 
Alexandria in Kgypt, which dates from the accession of 
Ftolemy II. in 285 b.c. The Greek of the philosopher 
Aristotle lies on the border line between tliis and the 
purer Attic. Tlie name HellenUtk. is given to that form 
of the Common Dialect wiiich was used by the Jews of 
Alexandria wlio made the Septuagint versioji of the Old 
Testament (283-135 b.c.) and by the writers of tlie New 
Testament, all of whom were Hellenifils (i.e. foreigners wlio 
spoke Greek). Towards the end of the twelfth century 
A.D., the poijular Greek then spoken in the Byzantine 
Roman Empire began to appear in literature by the side 
of the scljolastic ancient Greek^ which had ceased to be 
intelligible to the common people. This popular language, 
the earliest for]n of Modern Greeks was called Jiomaic ('P(i>- 
^'lKrj)y as the people called themselves 'Pw/mtoi. The name 
Romaic is now little used; and the present language of 
the Greeks is called simply 'EWrjviKij, while the kingdom 
of Greece is 'EXXa? and the people are "EWrjvt';. The lit- 
erary Greek has been greatly purified during the last half- 
century by the exjjulsion of foreign words and the restora- 
tion of classic forms ; and the same process has affected 
the spoken language, especially that of cultivated society 
in Athens, but to a far less extent. It is not too much to 
say, that the Greek of most of the books and newspapers 
now published in Athens could have been understood with- 
out difficulty by Demosthenes or Plato. Tlie Greek lan- 
guage has thus an unbroken literary history, from Homer 
to t]ie present day, of at least twenty-seven centuries. 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

The Greek is descended from the same original language 
with the Indian (i.e, Sanskrit), rersian^ German, Slavonic, 
Celtic, and Italian languages, which together form the 
Indo-European (sometimes called the Aryan) family of 
languages. Gi-eek is most closely connected with the 
Italian languages (including Latin), to which it bears a 
relation similar to the still closer relation between French 
and Spanish or Italian. This relation accounts for the 
striking analogies between Greek and Latin, which appear 
in both roots and terminations; and also for the less ob- 
vious analogies between Greek and the German element 
in English, which arc seen in a few words like me, is, 
know, etc. 



PART I. 



LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. 

THE ALPHABET. 

1. Tlie Greek alphabet has twenty-four letters : — 



Form. 


Equivalent. 




Name 


' 


A 


a 


a 




oX<i>a 


A Ipha 


B 


y9 


b 




^r}7a 


Beta 


T 


7 


g 




ydfM/xa 


Gamma 


^ 


8 


d 




^eXra 


Ddta 


E 


e 


e (j&lwrt) 


el 


€ yp-iXov 


jEpSil07l 


Z 


? 


z 




&Ta 


Zcta 


H 


V 


e (long} 




rjTa 


Fta 


e 


e ^ 


th 




Orjra 


Theta 


1 


I 


i 




iwra 


Iota 


K 


K 


k or hard 


c 


KUTTTra 


Kappa 


A 


\ 


1 




\d(ji)^Ba 


Lambda 


M 


h 


m 




flV 


Mu 


N 


V 


n 




vv 


Nu 




f 


X 


^"' 


f 


Xi 








(short) 


ov, 


6 fJUKpOV 


Omicron 


n 


TT 


P 


Tret, 


TTt 


Fi 


p 


P 


r 




p(b 


mo 


2 


O- <5 


6 




(jiyfMa 


Sigma 


T 


T 


t 




rav 


Tau 


T 


V 


(u) y 


I, 


V -^IXov 


Upnlon 


<I> 


i> 


ph 


<p€C, 


<t>2 


Phi 


X 


X 


kh 


x^i 


x- 


Chi 


"l^ 


f 


ps 


"^d^ 


f . 


Pd 


n 


Q) 


(long) 


•t 


0) /M€ya 


Omega 



2. N. At the end of a word the form ? is used, elsewhere the 
form cr; thus, crv(Tracn%. 

7 



8 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [3 

3. N, Three letters belonging to the primitive Greek alphabet, 
Van or Digamma (f ), equivalent to V or W, Koppa{9)^ equivalent to 
Q, and :Sampi (T?)), a form of Siyma, are not in the ordinary written 
alpliabet. 'i'hey were used as numerals (384), Vau here having the 
form C, wliich is used also as an abbreviation of o-t. Vau liad not 
entirely disappeared in pronunciation when the iiomcric poems were 
composed, and the metre of many verses in these is explained ojily 
by admitting its presence. Many forms also which seem irregular are 
explained only on the supposition that f has been omitted (see 2(^9). 

4. N. The Athenians of the best period used the names t'l for 
epidlon^ ov ioT omicron, v for upsilon, and t5 iw omega; the present 
names for these letters being late. Some Greek L;raminarians used 
f \^l\6v {plain t) and r^'Mv (plain v) to distinguish f and u from at 
and oi, which in their time had similar sounds, 

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 

5. The vowels are a, ^, rj^ i^ o, <u» and v. Of these, 
€ aud are always short; rj and (o are always long ; a, i, 
and V are long in some syllables and short in othei-s, 
whence the}' are called doubtful vowels. 

6. N, A, <, r), o, and oj from tiieir pronu\^ciation are called open 
vowels (a being tlie most open) ; t aud v are called close vowels. 

7 The diphthongs {Bl-4>6oyyoi,^ double-sounding) are 
at, av^ ei, eu, oi, ov, 7?y, vi^ a, ?;, (p. These (except i/i) 
are formed by the union of an open vowel with a close 
one. The long vowels (a, t?, w) with i form th.e (so 
called) improper diphthongs a, 77, w. The Jonic dialect 
has also wv. 

8. N. Besides the genuine ft (= f -f 1) and ov (= o-\- v) there are the 
so-ciilled aptniouH diphthongs ft and ov^, which arise from contraction 
(ti from «, and ov innn eo, o<, or 00) or from compensative lengtliening 
(30) ; as in ^noUi (for iroict)^ k^yay (for Keyecv^ ^Cf), 4), xP^<^o^^ (^OT 
X^OcTfoO, Oil^ (for tff^Tj, 79), ToC and rot/s (190). In the fourth century 
B.C. these came to be written like genuine et and ov ; but in earlier 
times they wore writT.eji R and 0, even in inscriptions which used II 
and il for c and 0. (See '27.) 

9. N. The mark of diacvf.sis (5tafp<air, separation), a double dot, 
written over a vowel, shows that this does not form a diphtiiong with 
the preceding vowel ; as in wpoUvai ('npo-Umi)^ to go forward, 'ATpeUT]^, 
son of Atrcus (in Homer). 

10. N. In 9, Tj, (^, the i is now written and printed below the first 
vowel, aud is called iota .subscript. But with capitals it is written in 
the line; as in THI KfiMriTAIAI, t^ A-wM'fJ'^f^, and in '^txtro, oixfTO' 
This t was written as an ordinary letter as long as it was pronounced, 



17] BREATHINGS. —CONSONANTS. 9 

that is, until the first century B.C., after wliich it -was sometimes 
written (always in the line) and .sometiracs omitted. Our iota sub- 
script is not older than the iwelftli century A.D. 



BREATHINGS. 

11. Every vowel or diphthong at the beginning of 
a word has either the rou(/h breatlnug (') or the amooth 
breatliing ('). Tlie rough breathing sliows that the 
vowel is ai^piratedy i.e. that it is preceded by tlie sound 
h; the smooth bi'eathing shows that the vowel is not 
aspii*ated. Tiius 6pa>f, seeinij, is pronounced hbron; 
but opwv^ of mountains^ is pronounced oron. 

12. N. A di])hthong takes tlie breatliing, like the accent (109), 
upon its second vowel. Hnt (I, r), and w (10) have botii breatliing 
and accent oii ti)e first vowei, evou when th<: t is written in the 
line. Thus aL\irai, <.v<l>pai'i'tjj, At/^un'; hut wx^-to ov 'Cl(.)^<rOy a So; or 
'At8w, ijSttv or'tltSctv. On tlio otlier liiiiul, the writing of dtSto? 
('At'Sios) sliowH that a and t do not form a diplitljong. 

13. N. The rough breathing: was ojice denoted by 11. Wlicn this 
wa.s taken to dejiote c (which once was not distingnished from «), 
half of jl } was used for the rough breathing ; and afterwards the 
otlier half I was used for the smooth breathing. From those fragments 
came the later signs ' and *. 

14. N. In Attic words, initial v is always aspirated. 

15. At the beginning of a word p is written p; aa in 
pr/Tuip (Latin rhetor), orator. In the middle of a word 
pp is sometimes written pp\ as dpprjTo^^ unspeakable; 
Tivppo^^ Pyrrhu^ (pp = rrh). 

CONSONANTS. 

16. The simple ooiLsonants are divided into 

labialSf TT, /?, <^, JUL, 
palataJa, k, y, X' 
Unguals, t, S, B, a, X, v, p. 

17. Before k, y, x^ f^'' ^> gamma (y) had a nas^al sound, like that 
of n in anger or ink, and was represented by n in Latin \ as ayy<Xo9, 
(Latin angflua), 7}i€S{;enger ; ay/cOpa, (ancora), anchor; tr^i'yl, 
sphinx. 



10 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AJ^D ACCENTS. [18 

18. The double consonants are $, \f/, C H is composed of 
K and 0-; ip, oi tt and a. Z arises from a combinatiou of 8 
with a soft s sound; lience it has tlie effect of two con- 
sonants in leiigtliening a preceding vowel (09). 

19. By another classification, tlie consonants are divided 
into semivowels and juutes. 

20. The semivowels are A, fi, v, p, and o-, with nasal y (17). 

Of these ^ , 7- • ; 

A, ^, Vj and p are uquids; 

fi, V, and nasal y (IT) are Jiasals; 

0- is a spirant (or sibilant) ; 

f of the older alphabet (3) is also a spirant. 

21. The mutes are of three orders: — 

smooth mutes tt k t 
middle mutes /3 y S 
rough mutes 4* X ^ 

22. These mutes again correspond in the following 

labial inutes (7r-mutes) it P <j> 
palat(d mutes (K-nmtes) « y x 
lingual mutes (r-mntes) r 8 

23. N. Mutes of thn same (>?-<:/^r are called co-ordinate; those of 
tlu; same class arc called cognate. 

24. N. The smooth and rough mutes, with o", f, and i/^, are 
called surd (/tu.s/ir// sounds); the other consonauts aud the vowels 
are called sonant {sounding). 

25. The only consonants which can end a Greek word are 
^'J p, and s. If others are left at the end in formijig words, 
they are dropped. 

26. N. Tluj only exceptions are Ik and ovk (or ov^), which 
have other forms, t^ and ov. Final i and <// (ko" and tto") are no 
exceptions. 

27. The Orepk a]])habet above described is tlie Ionic, nsed by the 
Asiatic lonians from a very early period, but first introduced officially 
at Athens in 40:i B.C. The Athenians had previously used an alphabet 
which iiad no separate sif:;ns for e, o, ks, or pi>. In this K vas used 
for e and c and also for the spurious n (8); O for b and 6 and for spu- 
rious ot;(8); }I was still an aspirate (/i); X2 stood for a, and <}^2 for ^P. 
Thus the Athenians of the time of I'ericles wrote EA0X2EN TEI 
BO^KT KAI TOI AEMOI for tbo^y tv fiovXv Kal tw 5^mv, — TO 
*SE'H2MA TO ARMO for rb y,hi}(pi<j^a toO StJ/z^i/, — HRS for ^r, — 



283 PKONUNCIATION. H 

HEI for ^, — lIEMnEN for ir^nirui^, — XPT202 for xpv<rovs, — TOTTO 
lor both toGto and roirrou, — T02; TIPTTaNES for tous irpuTdvcis, — 
^PXOSI for dpxoucri, — ziEOXON for dtova-Qi^, — HOnOS for Sjtwi, — 
flOIEN for TTOtfif-, — TPES for Tpc?!, — AllO TO «}>0P0 for dird loO 
^i/xjf, — XSENOi; for ^/cos or ^^vous. 

Ancient PnoNUNciATioN.^ 

28- 1. (Foiofi^^.) The Iting vowels a, 17, J, and w were pronounced 
at tlie hest periud mucli like a in father, e in /fife (FrL-noli or c), 
2 in raachint, and in io;!**. Orii^inally y liad the soinid of Latin u 
(our u in prujic), but before tho iuurili century U.C. it had come to 
that of Frencli u or German u. The sliort vowels had the same sounds 
as the long vowels, but, shortened or less proioiigcd ; tlii.s !f> hard to 
express in Enp^lisli, as ourslioit a, e, i, and o, in pun, pcuy pit, ww^ pot, 
have sounds of a different nature from those of «, e, l, and (">, ^iven 
above. We have an approacii to d, e, 1, and b in tiie second a in 
grand'faihtr, French c in r'eaU i in verity, and in monastic, renovate. 

2. CDiphtkoJigs.) We may assume that tiic diphthongs originally 
bad the sounds of their two vowels, ijronounccd as one syllable. <.>ur 
ai iu ainla, cu h) fevd, oi in oil, ni in qnit, wii! ^ivi' sumc idea of at, 
(u, o(, and ut ; and ow in house oi av. Likewise the genuine u must 
have been pronounced originally as ( + (, fsoniewiiat like e.i in rein (ef. 
Honi. 'Arp«t(5rj5, Attic 'Arpildrjs); and ou was a conijiound "f anii u. 
But in the majority of eases « and ou are written for simple sounds, 
represented by the Athenians of tln^ best ])eriod by E and (see ti and 
27). We, do not know how these souncife were related to ortiiJinry 
€ and on one side and to n a)id ou on the other ; but after tiie begin- 
ning of the fourth century B.C. they appear to Jiave agreed substantially 
witli a and ov, since EI and OT are written for Ih^Ii alike. In <t the 
sound of t appears to have prevailed more and more, so tliat by the 
first century 13. C. it liad tlie souml of h On the oiiier liand, ou became 
(an<t still remains) a sinipio sound, iii<<' on \n i/ouUi. 

Thediphtlionf^s^, 7j, and (^ were probably always pronounced with the 
chief force on the first vowel, so that the- 1 ^n-adually disappeared (see 
10). The rare tjm and uu probably had the sournls of v and a> with an 
additional sound of v. 

3. (Consonanta.) Probably /3, 5, k, \, m, »-, «-, and p were sounded 
as b, d, k, U m, n, p, and r in English. Ortiinary 7 was always hard, 
like g in go; fov nasal 7, sec 17. T was always like t in tin or to; 
<T was generally (perhaps always) like s in ?o. Z is called a c-mipound 
of 6 and <t ; but opinions differ whcthec it was b<r or cr5, but the ancient 
t<>stimony Sicems to point to cr5. In late Greek, f came to the sound of 
Knp;Iish «, wliich it still keeps. ^ rcproBtint.9 xa, and 4^ re])resents Trc, 
although the older Atheinans felt an asjiirate in both, as (hoy wrote 
xc- for ^ and 0(r for \p. Tlie rough co)iwonants 6, x» ^^'^^^ <^ in the best 
period were r, ic, and ir followed by h, f^o that (vfla. was fv-rd, dipijjfu 
was d-iriTjfii, Hx^ was /-kcj, etc. We cannot represent these rough 
mutes u\ Kngiisli ; our ne.-jre.st approacl) is in words liVe ho/Tiouse, 
blocA'^iead, and uphWl, but liore the h is not in the same syllable with 
the mute. In later Greek and <p came to the modern pronunciation 
of th (in thin) and/, and x ^-o that resembling German ck m machen. 

^ For practical remarks on pronunciation, see the Preface. 



12 LETl^EHS, SYLLABJ.es, AND ACCENTS. [29 

CHANGES OF VOWELS, 

29. (Lengthening.) Short vowels are often lengthened in 
the formation and the inflection of words. Here the follow- 
ing changes generally take place : — 

a becomes rj (a after f, i, or p) 

c " ,;, t becomes I, 

o " o), V " 0. 

Thus tI fido) (stem rlfjui'), fut. T^^ij-crto; id-o>, fut. ca-crtu; tl-Btj-^i 

(stem ^€-) ; 8:-8a>-/Ltt (stem So-); Ikctcuoj, aor. iK*T«vcra; Trt'-^v-xa, 
perf. of <^6<o, from root <^i!- (see 4>ikjl<;). 

30. {Compensative Lengthening.) 1. When one or more 
consonants are dropped for euphony (especially before a), 
a preceding short vowel is very often lengthened to make 
up for the omission. Here 

a becomes a, t becomes t, 



Thus /w'Aa? for /xtAav? (78), torrf? for Icrraw? (79), ^et? for 
B(.vT<: (79), Sov« for 8ovr?, Xvovcri for Avoircrt, tKplva iov cVptvaa. 
SetKKv? for SttKiTjiT? (79). Here a and ou are the spurious dipli- 
thotigs (8). 

2. In the first aorLst of liquid verbs (672), a is lengthened to rj 
(or a) when cr is drO]>peH ; ;is It^rjva. for i<^av-<Ta, from (fxuvw {<^av-), 
cf. ccTTcA-ao, €crr€iAa, from otcAAu) (ortA-). 

,31. (Strong and Weak Forms.) In some formations and 
inflections there is an interchange in the root of <t, ot, and T, 
— of €u, (sometimes ov,) and v, — and of tj, (rarely w,) and a. 
The long vowels and diphthongs in such cases are called 
strong forms, and the short vowels weak forms. 

Thus ActV-o), \€-Xonr-a, (-XnT-oy; Kfavyii), 7rt-</>cvy-a, t-fjivy-ov] 

ti;k-<i), Tt-TfjK-a, c-raK-^v ; p-^yvvfU, tp-pwy-a, ip-pdy-rjv; iXtv-o-ofxat 

(74), cA-i;Aou^ a, ^A\j^-oi' (see tpxOfMO ; so o-ttcvS-w, Hasten, and 

' (nrovS->7, haste; dprjyoy, helpy and apwyo?, helping. Compare English 

smiley smote, smi: (smitten). (See 572.) 

32. An interchange of the short vowels 5, c, and o takes 
place in certain forms j as in the tenses of Tptn-oj, TtTpo<f>-a, 
c-rpaTT-ijv, and in the noun Tporr-os, from stem rptTr-. (See 
643, 645, and 831.) 



38] EUPHONV OF VOWELS, — CONTRACTION. 13 

33. (Exchange of Quantify.) An exchange of quantity some- 
times takes place between a long vowel and a succeeding short 
one ; as in epic vdo's, temple^ and Attic vtw^ ; epic /iaaiXTJof;, fiaaiXTJa^ 
king, Attic ^qctAcw?, (iaaiXed ; epic /xtri^opo';, in the air^ Attic 
/i£Tcti)/)os ; Mcve'A.ao?, Attic Mcvc'Acw? (200). 



EUPHONY OF VOWELS. 

Collision of Vowels. — Hiatus. 

34. A succession of two vowel sounds, not forming a 
diphthong, was generally displeasing to the Athenians. In 
the middle of a word this could be avoided by contraction 
(35-41). Between two words, wliere it is called hiatus^ it 
could be avoided by crasis (42-46), by elisi07t (48-54) or 
aphaeresia (55), or by adding a movable consonant (5G-C3) 
to the former word. 

Contraction op Vowels. 

35. Two successive vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, 
may be united by contraction in a single long vowel or a 
diphthong; (^iXc'to, (^tAw; <^tAc€, <^tAcc; n/xac, rtfxa. it seldom 
takes place unless the former vowel is open (6). 

36. Tlie regular use of contraction is one of the charac- 
teristics of the Attic dialect. It follows these general prin- 
ciples : — 

37. I. Two vowels which can form a diphthong (7) 
simply unite in one syllable ; as rctxct, rctx" > y^P°^h y^P^*- J 
paicTTOs, paorro?. 

38. II. When the two vowels cannot form a diph- 
thong, — 

1. Two like vowels (i.e. two o-sounds, two e-sounds, or 
two o-sounds, without regard to quantity) unite to form 
the common long (a, ij, or a>). But u gives « (8), and oo 
gives ov (8). E.g. 

Mvaa, fxva (184); ^iXct/tc, ^iXijTt; S*;\o<t), SiyAw; — hvit i(f>ikftt 
c^i A€( ; ttAoos, -jtAoCj. 



14 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [39 

2. When an o-sound precedes or follows an a- ov an 6- 
sound, the two become <d. But oc and eo give ov (8). E.g. 

^TjkoTjTt, BrjkwTt; 4>iXiu}(7iy (fakwai) Tifjuxo/xcvy Tlfiwfjiiv] Tlfxa<i)ixf.v 
Tlfxttifitv ; — buL voc, vov'y ytVcos, -ytVouj. 

3. When an a-sound precedes or follows an e-sound, the 
first (in order) prevails, and we have a ov -q. E.g. 

4. A vowel disappears by absorption before a diphthong 
beginning with the same vowel, and £ is always absorbed 
before ot. In otlier cases, a simple vowel followed by a 
di])hthong is contracted with tlie first vowel of the diph- 
thong; and a following t remains as iota subscript, but a 
following V disappears. E.g. 

MmaL, fxval; fxvaa, fxva\ (ptXiCi, (piXel; <f>i.X(rj, </)tA>7; ByjXool, 
orjXoi; j/ow, vco] hrjXoov, hrjXov; <f>LX€OL, <^iAot; )(pvcrtoL, ^pvaot - 
Ttf^ifi, TlfXii\ rlfjuirj, TLfn); rlfjuxoi, rlfxtv', ri/xaov, * Tt/xa> ; </>tA<ou, 
ipiXov; Xvcai, Xvrj (3i), 3); Xvrjai, Xvrj; fXi^yyoLo, fitfivt^o. 

39. Except ions. 1. In contracts of the first and second de- 
clensions, every short vowel before a, or before a long vowel or 
a di]>lithong, is absorbed. But in the s^inyular of tlie first 
declension to. is contracted regularly to -q (after a vowel or p, to a). 
(See 184.) 

2. In the third declension ea becomes a after «, and a or t; after 
torv. (See 22lj, i^67, and 315.) 

3. In the second ptirson singular of the passive and middle, tai 
(for to-at) gives tiie common Attic form in « as well as tlie regular 
coji tract form in r;; as Aijcat, Aiij; or Aijct. (See 50.0, 0.) 

4. In verbs in ow, oct gives oi, as hqX6€L<:, SjyAot?; oi is found 
also in the subjiinctive for or), as 5r/Ao'j/, ^jyAoc. 

5. The spurious diphthong u is contracted like simple c; as 
TrAaKo'cts, TrAaKoG?, cuke, Tluis infinitives in ativ and ouv Jose l in 
the contracted fonns ; as rifjuiavy Tifxav\ hriXotiv, hqXovv- (See 
7fll.) 

40. J. The close vowel i is contracted witli a following i in the 
Tonic dative singular of nouns in ts (see 255); and v is contracted 
with t or < in a few forms of nouns in v<i (see 257 and 258). 

2. In some classes of nouns and adjectives of the tliird declension, 
contraction is confined to certain cases ; see 220-203. For exceptions 
in the contraction of verbs, see 406 and 407. See dialectic fonns of 
verbs In aw, to), and ow, in 784-780. 



42] 



CONTU ACTION.— CHASIS. 



16 



41. Table of Contractions. 



o 4- at = at 
a -f- ? = '/ 

a~\-(L = a 

OV a 

a-^Tj ~ u 

a + t = « 
a + o = o> 
a + ot = (j> 
a -f oy = w 
a + w = (u 
c +a = 7 
or d 

€ + at = r; 



17 + 'It = 17 XiirjuLy \vrj 

y) + f. — y) Tt/XTJ£VTl, Tl/A^JTl 

7; + ci = ); rt/xT7<iy, Ti/A^? (;iO, 5) 
KAyJ-t^poi', KXrjOpQV 
fUfxyrjOi/x-qr, fjn/xyw- 
fxrju 

i 4- 1 = t Xao?, Xi<;« 

4- a = cj ui86ft, alSCj ; aTrAo'u, 

or a aVAa (Cf>, 1) 

o + <u = at a7rA(Jui, UTrAat 

f> + €t = ot 8);Aoti, ^T^Aot (;iy, 4); 
01" on Si^Ao'ctj', 5I/Aoi/^' (.3(^ 

("39^ ] ") i + y = oj StSo?;?, 8t8uj9 ; aTrAdry, 

Avcat, Aut;; xpu'trcatj 01* 7; aTrArJ (;19, 1) 



yt/jaa, y€pa 

/xycLut, /xfat 

€Tt/jta«j €Tf/jta 

TifuUt, Tt/XU ; TlfxdiLVf ! 17 + 1 =17 

Ti/;tai' ('iO, 5) 17 + ui = <j> 

TlfxdiqTi, T~tfXaTf. 

Tl/xdi], Tifxa 
yi^u'i, ytpat 
ypa-LOLOVy y/MlBiOv 

TL/xdo/X(}', TlfxCifJLil' 
TifxdOifUj T(/X(ji/Xt 

Ti/xdm;, Tt/xw 
Tt/xaoj, Tl/XtL 
ytvca, yti'-q] ']^pfji€a<: 



or tii xp^tra7 (oO, 1 ajid 3) o + t =01 Trct^dt, Trct^ot 



C + < = €t f (/jl'Acf, €<^t'A<t 

t -f €i L- ci <fn\ai, (plXil 

£ + i = ct 7-€i';)(tt, Ttt;)(et 

€ + o = ou ycVco?, ycVou? 

£ -|- ot = ot ^tAc'ot, <^tAor 

f +oi;= on <pi\iov, <f>LXov 

C -\~V =r £v €U, CU 

€ -f cu =: a> <^iAc'(x>, <^iAa> 



I -f- = ou j'OO?, yovf; 

I + ot = ot ST^Adot, 8?^Aot 

I o -f- ou = ou SrjkaoVy Srjkoij 

O -{- <" = <» 8t^Ao<jJ, ^T^AuJ 

o + u> =: (i> aTrAooj, arr Ao> 
Rarely the following : — 

1 a> -f- a = u> rjp(i)aj T}poi 

I CO + t = OJ 



«; + o 



r)pu}€<;, rjpws 
rjpwt, Y}pij} 
cru)0?, cruj« 



CrtAsis. 

42, A vowel or d iphtli onjr at tlie end of a word may be 
contracted with one at the befj^inning of the following word. 
This occurs esiJO<',ially in jjoetry, and is oaDed crasis (Kpa<n<; , 
raixiure). The corbnis (*) is placed over the contracted 
syllable. The tirst of the two words is generally an article^, 
a relative (o or a), kcu, irpu, or w. 



16 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [43 

43. Crasis generally follows the laws of contraction, with 
these modifications : — 

1. A di|)hthoug at the end of the first word drops its last 
vowel before crasis takes place. 

2. The article loses its final vowel or diphthong in crasis 
before a; the particle to{ drops ol before aj and xut drops 
at before all vowels and diphthongs excej)t c and a. But we 
have Ktl and kcis for kol tl and koI cts. 

44. The following are examples of crasis : — 

To ovo/Att, Tovvofjux; TO. aynOd, TayaOd; to fvavrtov, TOVvavTiov \ 
6 (K, OVK ', 6 «Vt', ovttl; to t/xartoi/, Bolp.dTi.ov (i'-i) \ a o.v^ av\ /cat av, 
kS.v\ KiiX ctTU, kijTtu ; — 6 dvYjp, ivrjp; ot d8(A^oi, uScA^oi'; raJ dvopt, 
Tav8/)t'; TO aijTo, to.vt6\ tov avrov, ruvroij; — rot ilv, T<iu (fAcyroc dvy 
fieyrdv) ; rot tlpu, Tupu; — /cat auro'?, Kauro's ; kul axjTt], ;(ai?T>^ (03) ; 
Kol ifTTL, Kd(TTL ; Kut €t, KCt ; Kai oir Kov ; Kat ot, xo^ ; Kol (it, x^At. So 
€yu) olBay f yoiSa ; oi ayOpojTTCy oivf)piOTre.\ rrj tiraprj^ TtfTrapyj' Ijikewise 
we liave Trpoupyou, helpful, for irpo €pyov, a/ieaJ »i wor/j; cf. <^po{i8os 
for Trpo oSoC (1)3). 

45. N. If the f\r<ii wavd is an article or relative with the rough 
breathing, this bre.itlii ig is retained on tiie contract*;d syllable, 
taking the place of llm covonia; as in di/, av>jp. 

46. y. In crasis, €T€po<:, other, tuiios Uie form arepos, — whence 
arcpo? (for 6 fTcpos), B^Tipov (foi* roO hipov), ^dTcpa>,etc. (13,'2 ; 93). 

47. 1. In poetry, two snccessive vowelsj not forming a 
diplithong, are sometimes united in pronunciation for the 
sake of the metre, althongh no contraction appears in writ- 
ing. This is called synizUds ((rW^i^ftts, settling together). 
Thus, BeoL may make one syllable in poetry ; (TT-q9ta or 
Xpuo-€(i> may make two. 

2. Sy nizesis may also take tlie place of crasis (42), 'w-hen the 
first word ends \i\ a lone; vowol or a dinlit.Iiong, especially with 
iTTtLy since, pit], not^ rj, or, rj ( interrog.), and <yoi, /. Thus, eVct ov 
may make two syllables, p.rj £t8(Vut may make three ; /at? ov always 
makes one syllable in poetry. 

Elision. 

48. A short final vowel may be dropped when the next 
word begins with a vowel. This is called elision. An apos- 
trophe (*) marks the ouiission. E.g. 



56] ELISION AND APHAERESIS. 17 

At* tfjuQv for Sta ifwv ; avr tKtivrji for dvrt €KUvr}<; ; Xcyoi/i* ai/ for 
\iyotfU a^'*, oAA' cu^J? for oAAa tu^u? ; eV avOpioirw for €7rt dvOpwTrw. 
go «'</»' ^T^/J^i*! J'u;^^' oXt;*' for j/JicTa okrjv (1^2). 

49. Elision is especially frequetil in ordinary prepositions, con- 
junctions, and adverbs ; but it may also be used with short vowels 
at the end of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs, 

60. Klision never occurs in 

(a) tiie prepositions irtpi and npo, except Trtpt'iu Aeolic (rarely 
before i in Attic), 

(b) tlie conjunction on, 

(c) nKinosylJables, except those ending in f, 

(d) the dative singular in i of tlte third declension and the 
dative plural in o-t, except in epic poetry, 

(e) words ending in v. 

51. N. 'J'he epic and comic poets sometimes elide at in the verbal 
endings /xat, aui, rai, ando-^ai (^ai)- So ol iti oifioi, and rarely in /lot. 

52. N. Klision is often neglected in prose, esjiecially by certain 
writers (as 'J'iiucydides). Others (as Jsocrates) are more strict iu its use. 

53. (Apocope.) The fjoef-s sometimes cut off a sliort voweJ before 
a consonant. Thus in Homer wc find 4^, xdr, and Trap, for dvd, xard, 
and irapd. Both ni composition and alojie, kolt assimilates its r to a 
following consonaut ami drops it before two consonants, and y in dy 
is subject to the clianges of 78 ; as xdjSiSaXf and xd^Tave, for ^ar^^aXe 
and Kar^xTuvf, — but Kardavuv for KaTadav(7y ((58, 1), kolk Kopy^ijc, ^07 
ybvvy KCLTT TTfSLov] d/i-jSdXXw, dX-X^^at, Am ireSlov^ d-fi <p6vov. So v^-^dWeiv 
(ouce) for viro-ftdWfiy. 

54. A sliort final \owe] is genei'al]y elided also when it 
comes before a vowel in foriTiiiig a compound word. Here 
no apo.stroph<^ is nsed. HJj/. 

" PiTT-aiTiis} (ttTTo and airtuj), hiifiaXov (hui and IfioXov)- So d<^ 
axpiiii (uTTo and alpeuj, i)'J) ; ^(.)(r}f^^P^^ (Sc'ku aiul r}fjiipa). 

AlMlAKnllSlS. 

55. In poetry, a .short vowel at t!ie beginning of a word is 
sometimes dropped after a long vowel or a dii)hthon'^-, especially 
aff,er p.^, nnf, and ^. or. This is called aphofire.'^i.'f {a^^atptcnf;, faking 
off)- Thus, p.Y} \(o for pi] cyoV, ttou Vn»/ for ttou i<jTi.v\ cyw <i>dvr}v 
for €y(o €4>dv7}v ; y *p.ov for iy €p.ov. 

MovARLi: Consonants. 

56. Most words endinp; in -crt (including -^t and -ipi), and 
all verbs of the third person ending in c, generally add v 



18 LETTKRS, SYLLAnLES, AND ACCICKTS. [r>7 

when the next word begins with a vowel. This is called 

V movable. E.g. 

XTao't 5t5o>crt TavTtt ; but irauiv IhioKt-v CKUva. So BlSuxtl fxoL; but 
8i'Sa>crtK ifXOi. 

57. N. 'EcTTi takes v movable, like tliird persons in ai. 

58. N. The third person singular of the pluperfect active in -<i has 

V inoval>le; as y'Bti(v), he l-vevt. But. contracted imperfects in -«t 
(for -<t), as i<fiLKa, never take v in Attic. 

59. N". The epic k€ (for av) is geiicraliy xeV Iiefore a vowel, and 
the poetic vvv (enclitic) has an epic form vv. Many adverbs in -6cv 
(as TTpoaOiv) have poetic forms in -$€. 

60. N. N movable may be added at llie end of a sentence or of 
a line of poetry. It may be added even before a consonant in 
poetry, to make position (99). 

61. N. Words wliicli may l)avev movable are not elided in prose, 
Cicei>t iaxL. 

62. Ou, 7)o(, becomes ovk before a smooth vow(d, and ovx 
before a rough vowel ; as ov BcXw, ovk ai'ro?, oi;^ ox)to<;. Mrj 
inserts k in fi-qK-tTi, no longer, by the analogy of ox)K-tTi. 

63. OiJtw?, thus, <i {€Ki)yfromy and some other words may 
drop s before a consonant; as ovtws ^x^^* ^^"''*^ ^oku, iiaarnos, 

METATHESIS AND SYNCOPE. 

64. 1. MUathei>is is the transposition of a short vowel 
and a liquid iu a wortl ; as in Kpdro^ and »capT09, ^trangth; 
Odp(To<i and Opdvo^, cam-age, 

2. Tlie vowel is often lengthened; as in /?£'-/^X?7-Ka (from stem 
fSdk-), T€-Tfjirj-Ka (from sLeni TtfJi-), Bpili-<TKui (from stem Bop-). (See 
640.) 

. 65. Syncope is the dropping of a short vowel between 

two eojisonants ; as in irarcprvz, Trarpo? (274); 7rTT?crojuat for 
-TTCT-qaopxii (G50). 

66. N. (a) AVhen /x is brought before p or k by syncope or 
metathesis, it is strengthened by inserting^; as /it o-^/x/Hpid, mi Jtia?/, 
for pLC(Tr}fjL(€)ptJai {piloo^ and yjp-ipo.) \ /xf/xjSXwKa, epic perfect of 
pXwdKoi, go, from stem /aoA-, fxko-. /iW (f>'^0), /x«-/i.Xaj-K-a, p.<-p.pku}Ka. 
Thus the vulgar chimlef/ (for chimiipj/) generally becomes chimhley. 
(6) At the beginning of a word such a /a is droj>ped befoie /^i 



72J 



CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. 19 



as in ppvroiy mortal^ from stem fiop-, fipo- (d. Lat. morior^ die), 
uBpty^oi^ f^poT6<: (liut the /x ai)pears in composition, as in a-pipporo^j 
immortal)' So PXltto), take honey, from stem /xtAtr- of /jtf'Xt, Aoney 
(cf. I^atin met), by syncope /xAtr-, pLfSXtr-, y^Atr-, jiXiTT(ji (582). 

67. N. So 8 is inserted after v in the oblique cases of Arrjp, 
jTMin (277), when the v is biouj^^ht by syncope before p; as avipo^ 

CHANGES OP CONSONANTS. 

Doubling of Consonants. 

68. 1. A rough mute (21) is never doubled; but 7r<^, k^, 
and tB are always written lor </><^, XK^ '^'^^^ ^^- '^''^^^ 2a7r(^ai, 

BttKXO?) AfoT^arfri/, not 2a<^<^w, Ba'xx^^) Ka&Oavtlv («>uJ). So in 

Latin, Sappho^ Bacchus. 

2. A iTii(l<lle mute is never doubled in Attic Greek. In yy tlie 
first y is always nasal (17). 

3. The later Attic has tt fur the earlier (jo- in certain 
forms; as TrpaTTHi fov TTpdcrcro}, iXarToJv fov cAaorcrctJt' ; OdXarra 
for OdXacraa. Also tt (not for (ro-) and even r^ occur ina few 
other words; as 'Attikos, 'At^i's, Attic. See also 72. 

69. Jjijtial p is doubled when a vowel precedes it in form- 
ing a compound word ; as in dvappUTu) {avd and /jitttw). So 
after the syllabic augment; as in eppt7rToi'( imperfect of piTTTio). 
But after a diphthong it remains single; as in tvpoo?, tvpov^. 

Eui'HoNic Chanols of Cossonants. 

70. The following rules (71-9r))apply chiefly to changes 
made in the hnal consonant of a stem in adding the endings, 
especially in forming and inflecting the tenses of verbs and 
cases of nouns, and to those inade in forming compounds : — 

71. {Mutes before other Mutes.) Before a r-ujute (22), a 
w-mute or a K-niute is made coordinate (23), and another 
T-niute becomes o-. E.g. 

TtTpLTTTai (for T€T/:>i/?-Tat), StSe/CTQi (for 5«8fx-Tat), irk^x^^^'- 
(for Tr\€K~Oy}vaL). ik€{<j>Or]v (for t\n7r-07]y), ypd/SBrjv (for ypa<l>-8r]y) . 
UiTTCifTTat (7r€Tr€iO-Tai)t t7rcL<T$rjv {(.TTtlB'BTjv), rjcTai (rj8-rai), i(TTt 
0^'T€.)y xapuGTtpo^ {x^p^<-f-rtpo<i), 

72. N. *Ek, frnm, in composition retains k unchanged ; as in 
^K-Kptvoi^ tK-SpofXYJ^ iK-Oeaii. Vor tt and t$, see 68, 8* 



20 LETl'ERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [73 

73. N. No combinations of different niutes, except those in- 
cluded ill 68 and in 71 (Uiose in which the second is t, S, or ^), 
are allowed in Greek. When any such arise, tlie first nnite is 
dropped ; as in TrtVtua (for TrfrruO-Ka) . When y stands bofore k, 
y, or ;^, as in irvy-^^^in) (cruV and x^'oj), it is not a mute but a nasal (20). 

74. {Mutes before 2.) No mute can stand before cr except 
IT and K. A 7r-mute witli o- forms iff, a ^c-niute forms ^, aud a 
T-mute is dropped. E.g. 

Tpi'i/'w (for Tpi^-aoj), ypdipCD (for ypac^-froj), Ac'^w (for Xty-<T(o), 
TTCicrw (for TTtt^-aoj), aaa> (for a§-a<u), (roifxacrt (for <T<iifW.T-<ii) ., iXwiui 
(for *X7rt8-o-t). So </>A<«/f (for <^X<j3-s), tXTrt? (for €A7riS-s), fy'^ 
(for yvA-r-ff). So ;^apuai (for ;^aptcT-o-t, 331), See examples under 
20[), 1. 

75. (Mutes before M.) Before /x, a 7r-raute becomes /x, and 
a K-mute becomes y. E.g. 

At'Act/x/Aat (for X€A€t7r-/xat), TtTplfifjuxi (for rcTpl^-pja.i)^ y^'ypa/A/iat 
(for y€ypa<f>-fjuii), TrtirXiyfjuxL (for TrefrXcK-fxat), reVtuy/xat (for rt- 
T<v;(-/Liai). 

76. N. But, k;a can stand when they come Logcthcr by nietathesis 
(64) ; as in Ki-K^y^-na (<dM-va)), Both k and x may stand before m in 
the formation of nouns ; as in i-xfi-n, edge, dj^/^wv, anvU, aixfJ^ij, spear- 
pointy ipaxtiv, drachma. 

'Ek here also remains unchanged, as in ix-uav9dvu) (cf. 72). 

77. N. When 77^ or fxufx would thus arise, they are shortened to 
yfi or fifx; as A^^'*') i^^v^fy-ficn (for AT7\«7;^-^tai, AijXf77-/xai); «d/;t7rTtj, 
K^Kafj^fxai (for <«aM:r./iai, KiKafx^x- nai) ; Tr//xjraj, iriire fxtxo.i (for 7^e7^«/A7^-^lal, 
TreirepLpL-fjiai. (See 480, 3.) 

78. (N ^e/ore of/icr Co7iso7iar}is.) 1. Before a 7r-mute v 
beeomes /z; before a x-mute it becomes nasal y (17) ; before 
a T-mute it is unchanged. E.g. 

E/zTrtTrTO) (for tV-7ri7rra)), a-v^fiaivui (for o-vv-^atvw), ifx4iia\n^^ (for 
iv'<l>avrfs) ; <Tvy>^i<s> (for (ruv-;^^^), o-vyy(.vy)% (for crvv-ytvT?^) ; iv-Tpiirui. 

2. Before another liquid »/ is changed to that liquid. E.g. 

EXXciTTU} ( fov cv-AciTToi), ifLfj.fv<Ai ( foj" fV'fjifpuj), avppl(i> (for o'Vy-pfuty, 
<7vAAoyos (for crui/Aoyos). 

3. N before o- is generally dropped and the preceding 
vowel is lengthenetH(30), a to a, < to «, o to ov. E.g. 

Mc'Aa? (for ptcAav-?), tU (for €v-9l, Xi^nvaL (for Aijo-vcri): see 
210,2; 556,5. So Auouaa (for Auoi'T-ia, AGov-cra), XvSucra (for 
Au^cvT-wi, Av^£»^-aa), Tran-a (for 7ravT-t<i, iraV-aa) : see 84, 2. 

79. The combinations vr, vS, v^, when they occur before 



84] EUPHONIC CHAl^GES OF CONSONANTS. 21 

ff in inflectioiis, are always dropped, and the preceding vowel 
is lengthened, as above (78, 3). E.g. 

Ilacrt (for TravT-crt), -yt'yds (for ytyaj'T?), huKvv^ (for SctKi/ui/Ts), 
Xiov(n (for Atoi/r-trt)) Tt^ttat (for rt^d/T-crt), rt^tt's (for rt^ti/r-?), 
Sov's (foi' 8orT-s), <jTTf.i(Tfii (for an-ti/S-crw), Tniaopjii (foi" TrivO-aofJuuL). 

For nominatives hi wr (fur orr-), see 2U!), 3 (cf. 2]'J, 1). 

80. N. N standing alone before cri of the djitive plural is dropped 
without lengtlieiiing the vowel; a*s Sui'fjioai (for Saifjiov-ai). 

81. N. The preposition iv is not ciiaiigucJ befoie p or cr ; as 

€VpOLTrTU}t tl/CTTTOt'SoS, iv(TTpt<f)(jJ. 

2w becomes crvcr- before ct and a vowel, but tju- before a and a 
ConSf>nan( or before ^; as crt;o--atTO«, <Tv-arr]iJuiy (riJ-^uyos. 

82. N. nuv and ttoXlv may retain v in composition before <t or 
change it to a ; as Trav-rro^os oi Traano^os, TroAiV-crKtus, 7raAio-(rt)T09. 

83. Most verbs in vuy have cr fur i/ before /lat in the perfect 
middle (G4S); as <^atVw, ■ni^HLO-fjjo.i (for 7rc<^ui>-/x(a) ; and the j/ re- 
appears before r and 6, as in 7rc<^ai/-rai, ■ni<j>a.V'6t. (See 489, 2 ; 700.) 

84. {Changes before t.) The ftdlowing changes occur when 
1 (represejiting an original j) follows the final consonant of 
a stem, 

1. Palatals (k, y, x) and sometimes t and with such an t be- 
come o-Q- (later Attic tt); as <^t;Aao-o--w(steni <jS>t;AaK-) fur <^t;AaK-t-w ; 
:7aaoj»', toovae^ for i^K-t-w»/ (-JOl, 2); Tatnj-ui (ray-), for ray-t-w (58(1); 
Tapdacr-w {rapa)^-), for rapa^-t-uj ; KOpva^r-tji {KopvO-)y for KOpv^-t-w; 
Kp^crcra, for Kprjr-La. 

Thus is formed the feminine hi eaaa of adjectives in ct«», from a 
stem in ct-, <T-ta becoming co-era (3ol, 2). 

2. Nr with this i becomes vcr in tlie feminine of participles and 
adjectives {'^-W, 2; .337, 1), in whicli v is regularly dropped with 
lengthening of the preceding vov^'el (78, 3) ; as iravr-, -navT-La, Trdvaa 
(Thessalian and Ci'ctan), naaa; Xvovt-, Xvovt-ui, kvov-aa, Xvovaa. 

3. A (sometimes y or yy) v\ ith t forms ^; as <j>pdt^-<M (<^p(t8-), for 
<f>pab-t-u> (5B5) ; KOfxt^-u) (xo/ii6-), for KOyutS-i-oj ; Kpa^-w (xpay-j, for 
Kpuy-i-uj (580) ; pLt^iov (Ion,) or yw.ct^ojk' (comp. of yL^cya?, grent^, 
for p.€y-t-aji/ (3G1, 4). 

4. A with i fonns AA ; as orcAA-w (ortfA-), for crcA-i-w ; 
oAAo-yitat (aA-), leap, for aA-t-o^t (cf. l.at. sutio); aAAo9, othar, for 
oA-t-o? (cf. Lat. alius). (See 503.) 

5. After ar or ap the t is transposed, and is tljen contracted 
^ith a to at; as <i>Q.Lvm {4>av-)y for 4>Q.v-L-<ji\ ;)(at/^w ix^P')^ ^^^' 
'XaprL-i3i\ piiXaLva (fitXav-), fein. of p-cAas (326), lot p.<Xay(.-a. 



22 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [86 

0. After tv, cp, ty, ip, vv^ or tjp, tlie t disappears, and the preced- 
ing c, I, or V is lengthened (i to tt) ; a^i rctV-w (rti'-), for tcv-i-<d\ 
X^i-p^v (stem x^P')* ^^^^^e, for ;^tp-tMov ; xttp-a> (xcp), for Kcp-i-w; 
Kf}ivu} (KpLv), tor Kptiz-i-oj; OLKTipd) (olKTip), iov oixTip-t-oj } a/xiJ^U) 
(d;xvK-), for d/xvi'-t-(u ; oljpw, ft)r crup i-oj. So (TuWicpa (fein. of o-iorijp, 
savcm/y saviour^ steni awrep-), for awrcp-i-u. (See r>J)4 and 596.) 

85. (Ojnission of 2 (2«</ /".) Many forms ai'e explained by tlie, 
omission of an original spirant (s or f), wliicfi is seen sometimes 
in earlier forms in Greek and sometimes in kindred languaj^es. 

86. (2.) At tlie beginning of a word, an original s sometimes 
appears as tlie rough breathing. E.g. 

"iCTTi^p-t, place, for (ncrrr)fXi, Lat. sisfo ; ^fxifrv;, f/alf, cf. Lat. 
semi- ; c^o/aui, sil (from root «S- acS-)y Lat. sed-co ; i-nrd, stDen, Lat. 
septevi. 

87. N. In some words botli <t and f li.ive disappeared ; as 09, /^/.s, 
for CTfos, suu.-?; iJSiJS, 5W€ef (from root aS- foi' (T/rtiS-), Lat. siiavi^. 

88. In some inflections, a is dropixjd Ix'tween two vowels. 

1. Thus, in stems of nouns, ta- and aa- diop <t before a vowel 
of tlie ending; as ycVo?, i'Qce (stem yevia-)^ geu. ytvc-oi for Y€i'e<r-os. 
(See 226.) 

2. The middle ending.s crai and o-o often droj) cr (505, 6); a.s 
Xbc-frai, Aijc-at, Aut; or Auct ('JO, 3 ) ; c-Au€-cro, (Xvto, iXvov; but a is 
retained in such ;ai- forms as rora-crat and Zaracro. (See also 004.) 

89. Ill the ftrst aorist active and middle of licpiid verbs, cr \^ 
generally di'oppe*] before a or vLp.-qv; as </>aiVa; (<^a^'"), aor. l<^i)v a 
for t<^av(T-a^ i<^riv-6.}x.i]v fov i<^av(r-a.fJLr^v. So oxf'AAw (oKtA-), aui". 
a!>cctX-a for wKtAtr-a ; but poetic KtAAw lias tVcAc-a. (See 072.) 

90. [f.) Some of the ca-ses in which the omission of vau (or 
digamvia) appears in inflections are tliese: — 

L In the augment of certain verbs; a.s 2 aor. tl^ov, saw, from 
root piZ- (Lat. vid-eo), for l-piSov, i-iSovy uSov: see also the exam- 
ples in 539. 

2. hi verbs in cw of the Second Claes (574), where iv became 
€f and finally c; as pt-u), /lotv (f^tam ptv-, pcf~)i fut. ptv-<jo-/JuiL. 
See also 60 L 

3. In certain nonns of the third declension, where final v of the 
stem becomes /:, wliich is dropj^ed ; as mus (vav-), gen. vd-6<i for 
vdv-os, i/ci/r-o? (200) ; see pacnXixk (205). See also 250. 

81. The Aeoiic and Doric retained p long after it disappeared 
in Ionic and Attic. The following are a few of the many words 
in which its former presence is known : — 



95] KUPHONIC CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. 23 

yffoOf, ox (Lat. bov-i$), tap, spring ( Lat. ver)^ ^o«, divine (divus)^ 
Ipyov^ work (Genu, werk), i<rOr}<i, garment (Lat. ves(is), e<T7r«pos, 
evening (vesper), i?, strength (vis), kXtjU (Dor. ^Aais), /(r^r^ (davis), 
oTs, 5Aee;j (oyii), oTkos house (oicus), olvos, wine (vinum), <TKai6s, left 
(scaevus). 

92. (Ckanges in Asjnrates.) When a smooth inute (tt, k, t) 
is brought before a voui,'h vowel (either by elision or in 
forming a eom pound), it is itself made rough. E.g. 

'A4>Lr}fJiL (for a.7r-t,rjfxL), Ka^atpto) (for Kar-aipco)), d<f) fLv (for diro 
Zy)j vv)(0' oXrfv (for vvKra oXrjp, 4S; 71). 

93. X. So ill crasis (see examples in 44). Here the rough 
breathing may affect even a consonant not iininodiately preced- 
ing it; as in ^poOSos, gone, irom npo ohov; (f>povp6's, watchman 
(npo-bpoi). 

94. K. 'J'lie Tonic generally does not obser\*e tliis principle in 
writing, hut Iias (^oi example) (xk ov, ojrCrfpj. (from airo and 1r}px). 

95. TJic Greeks generally avoided two rough consonants 
in suceessive syllables. Thus 

1. In reduplications (521) an initial rough mute is always 
made smooth. E.g, 

Mi<^VKa (for (^((^Oku), porfect of (^ua>; Kcxrjva (for x^)(rjva), perf. 
of x^fTKoi; reOrjXn. (for OeOrjXa), perf. of ^oAAo). So in TL-6r}ixi (for 
Oi'OrjfiL), 7J)4, 2, 

2. The ending Ol of the first aorist imperative passive 
becomes rt [ifter Oyj- of the tense stem (757, 1). E.g. 

AvOtjtl (for XvOrf-Oi), (fxxvOr^TL (for 4>av0r^-6L) ; hut 2 aor. (jxivrj-Oi 
(757,2). 

3. In the aorist passive iTiOr}v from riOrj/xi (0€-\ and in irvOrjv 
from ^y<j (^i^-) ^ff and ^v become rf and rv before ^171'. 

4. A similar change occurs in a/iTr-c^oj (for a/A<^-«x<^) f^-i'd a^TT- 
ib-X"J (for afL<f>-L<7)(t,i)y clothe, and in cVt-^fetpt'd («x*^ *''*^ X*^p)' ^^w*^*^- 
So an initial as))irate is lost in tx^ (;>tem t^- for (rex; 539), but 
reappears in fur. t^w. 

/). There is a transfer of the aspirate in a few verb.s which are 
supposed to have had originally two rougli consonants in the stenn ; 
as Tpe'(^oj (stf^m Tp(<^- for Op€<f>), nourish, fnt. Optipu) (Q62); rp€x<^ 
(rpiX' for Op(.x-), run, fut. dpi^ofjuon ; irat^rfv, from OdirTu) (Ta<^ for 
Ba<f)-), bury; see also ^puVro), Ti5<^o}, and stem ^aTr-, in the Catalogue 
of Verbs. So in ^pt'^('2-?n). //^/r, rr'^n. rptX"'? (stem rptx- for ^pi^-)? 
and in raxi'?, s^f'/^ comparative ^daorwi' for ^a^-KOv (84, 1). Here 



24 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [96 

the first aspirate reappears whenever the second is lost by any 
euphonic change. 

Ill some forms of these verbs both rough consonants appear; as 
i'0pi<li-6riv, Op(.<fi-^vaL, T€-6pd<p-6a^ T£-^a<^-^at, i'&pv<^'0-qv~ (See 709.) 

SYLIiABLES. 

96. A Greek woid lias as many syllables as it has 
separate vowels or diphthongs. The syllable next to 
the last is called the penult (paen-altlma, ahnost last); 
the one before the j^eJ^iultis called the antepenult. 

97. The following rules, based on ancient tradition, are now 
gencr;tlly observed in dividing syllables at the end of a line: — 

]• Sijigle consonants, combinations of consonants which can begin 
a woid (which may be seen from the Lexicon), and unites followed 
by /A or V, are placed at tlie beginning of a syllable. (Hher combina- 
tions of consonants are divided. Tlins, €-X"*» ^-y*^' t<nri-pa, vc'-Kxap, 
a-K/jLij^ Sc-o-ftd?, fiL-KpoVy npa-ypa-TOS, npao'-crii), cA.-7rts, tv-hov, apfm-ra. 

2. Compound words are divided into their original [jarts; bnt 
when the final vowel of a preposition has been elided in composi- 
tion, tlie compound is sometimes divided like a simple word : thus 
TTpocr-d-ydi (from Trpo? and dyo)); but wa-pd-yu) or 7rap-ayo> (from 
Ttapd find dy<i>). 

QrANTirr or Svr.LA»M;s. 

98. A syllable is long by 7iature ((pvo-ei) when it has 
a Umg vowel or a dijdithong; as in rt/ATJ, KreLuuy* 

99. 1. A syllable is long by position {Oeaet) when its 
vowel is followed by two consonants or a double con- 
sonant ; as in to-rai/re?, rpaTre^a, oprv^. 

2. 'J'he length of the vowel itself is not affected by position. 
Thus a was sounded as long in Trpao-croo, Trpdypui, and 7rpd6s, but 
as short in r<xcr<j(jy, rdypja^ and ro^tt- 

JJ. One or both of the consonants wl)u;li make posit.ion tnay be 
in the next word; thus the second syllable in ovt6<; cfiyaiy and m 
Kara aro/na is long by position. 

100. When a vowel short hy nature is followed by a 
mute and a liquid, tlie syllable is common (i.e. it may be 
either long or short) ; as in t€.kvou, v-ttvo^, v^pi^. But 
in Attic poetry such a syllable is generally short; in 
other poetry it is generally long. 



,06] QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES. -ACCENT. 25 

101. N. A middie mute (/?, y, S) before ^ or v, and genei-ally 
before X, lengtliens a prccudinj;- vowel ; a*; in dykw?, ^ifikiov, Soy/Au. 

102. N. 'i allow a preceding vowel to be sliort, the niutL; and 
the liquid must be in tlie same word, or in the same part of a 
compound. Thus c in Ik is long wlieu a litjuid follows, either in 
coinpositiou Of in the next vvoj-d ; as fVAf'yw, Ik ycCoi^ (botli \^ ). 

103. The quantity of most syllables can be seeu at once. 
Thus 7/ and to and all diplithongs are lojjg by nature ; e and o 
are short by nature. (See 5.) 

104. When a, i, and v are not Iouj; by position, their rpian- 
tity must generally be learned by observing the usage of 
poets or from the Lexicon. But it is to ])C remembered tliat 

1. Eveiy vowel arising from contraction or crasis is long; 

as a in y<pd {iov yepaux), dKiDv (for aiKiov)^ a)ld KOLV (for Kat ar). 

2. The endings a? and us are long when v or vr has been 
dropped before a- (7i)). 

3. The accent often sliows the quantity of its own vowel, 
or of vowels in following syllables. 

Thus the cii'eiuuflex on kvlo-o^ savor^ sIjows that i i.s long and a 
i.s short; the acute on Xwpd, Ifimf^ shows that a is long; on nVts ; 
who? that t is short; the acute on jSaaiAct'u, l-iiuidom, shows that 
the final a i.s long, on (iaalkua^ queen, Uiat iinal a is short. (See 
100,8; HI; 112.) 

105. 'I'he qnantity of the tenninaiions of nouns and verbs will 
be stated below in the proper places. 

ACCENT. 

GliNKHAL PkINCII'LKo 

106. 1. There are tlircc accents, 

the acute ('), as \0709, avro^, 

the grave ('), as avro<; €(f)i] (11 T), 1), 

the circiinitiex (" or ~), as rovro, rlfxthv. 

2. The acute can stand only on one of tlie la.st three 
syllables of a woi'd, the circumflex only on one of the 
last two, and the grave only on the last. 

3. The cireumflex can stand only on a syllable long 
by nature. 



26 LETTERS, SYJ.LABhES, AND ACCENTS. [107 

107. 1. The Greek accent was not simijly a atreas accent (liku ouris), 
but it raised the musical pitch or lone (tovos) of the syllablf. on wliich 
it fell. Tliis appuars in the tt-rnia t6^o% and Trpoaifdla, which designated 
llie accent, and also in 6^6^^ akarp, and fjapy^ grave,, ff-at, wliich dcso-ibcd 
it. (See 110, 1 and 3.) As the language declined, the musical aciuMit 
gradually changed to a stress aceejit, whicii is now its only lepresen- 
tative ill (Jrt^ek as in other hiiiguaj;rs. 

2. Tile marks of accent were in vented by Aristojilianes of Jiyzaii- 
tium, an Alexandrian schular, about 200 B.C., in order to teach for- 
eigners the correct accent in pronnunchit; (j'reek. By the anciont tiioory 
every syllable not having either thy acute or tiie circumflex was said to 
have the grave accent; and tlio circimillex, originally frn-jut'd thus " ", 
was said to rcsnlt from the union of an acute and a following grave. 

108. N. The grave accent is ^vritten only in place of tije acute 
in tJie case mentioned in 115, 1, and occasionally on the indefinite 
pronoun rt?, tl (418). 

109. N. The accent (like tlie breathing) stands on tJie second 
vowel of a diplithong (\'2) •, as in acpuj, fxovcra^ row avroik- But in 
the improper diphthongs (a, ij, w) it stands on the first vom'cI even 
when the t is written in the line; as in rtfLr/, uttAw, ^'Oi (ui)/i2c^a 
(cjla). 

110. 1. A word is en I led oxytone {6$v-rovo<iy sharp-tojied) 
when it lias the acute on the last syllable, as /^aatAtik; 
paroxytonBy wheu it has the acute on tlie penult, as /^ao-tAtw?; 
py-oparoicyfone, when it ]ias the acute on the antepenult, as 

PaariXivovTOf;, 

2. A word is diiWed perispomenon (7npia7ru}f/.ivov) when it 
has tlie circunifiex on the last syllable, as cA^ar; properis- 
pomenon, when it lias the circumflex on the penult, as ^ovaa. 

3. A word is called barytone (/Japv-rofo?, grave or Jlat- 
toned) when its last syllable has no accent (1()7, 2). Of 
convso, all paroxytoues, proparoxytones, and propevispo- 
mena are at the same time barytones. 

4. When a word throws its accent as far back aij i)0ssible 
(111), it is said to have renessfvo, accent. This is especially 
t^ie case with verbs (J 30). (Sec 122.). 

111. The antepenult, if accented, takes the acute. 
Uut it can have Jio accent if the l;tst syllable is long by 
jiatui-e or ends in f or -v^ ; as -rreXefcu^, av6p<i)7ro^, wpocpuXa^. 

112. An accented penult is circumflexed when it is 
long by nature wliile the last syllable is shoi-t by nat:iire; 



117J PIIINCJJ'LES OF ACCENT. 27 

as firjXovy vTjco^, ^Xtf. Otherwise it takes the acute; 
as X0709, rovTOiv* 

113. N. Kiiial at and otare counted as short in determining the 
acceiiL; as avOpiDiroL, vrjcroc: except in the o))t.ative, and in olkoc, at 
koine; as TLfi-jaat, Trotijtrot (not Tiy^rjcrai or TroCrjcroL). 

114. N. GcJiitives in tws and a^v from nouns in is and vs of the 
third diH;lL*nfsion ('251), all cases of nonns and adjectives in wj and «v 
of the Attic second declejision (108), and the Ionic genitive in tw of tlie 
first (188,3), allow the acute on the antepenult; as c^7fWI, TriXew^, 
T^pfio (T^pTjs). So some compound adjectives in w?; as Infl-Kcpi^s^ 
hifjh-horntd. For the acntft of wairfp, oi'Sf, etc., see 146. 

115. 1. An oxytonc changes its acute to the grave 
before othci' words in the same sentence; as rov^; irout)- 
pQV<; avOpdiTOV^ (for tou? irovripov^ av6p<i3iTOV^^, 

2. This change is not made before enditica (143) nor before an 
elided s^^'llablo (IS), nor in tlie interrogative rts, rC (418). It is not 
made before a colon : before a comma modern usage differs, and 
the tradition is uncertain. 

116. {Anasf.rophe.) Dissyllabic prepositions (regularly 
oxyt'ono.) tlirow the accent back ou the penult in two cases. 
This is called anastrophe (dvacrTpo<^T], turning back). It occurs 

1. When such a preposition follows its case; as in Tovrmv tript. 
(for wcpl TovTwv)^ about the^^e, 

'I'his occurs in prose only witli 7r«pi', but in the poets with alJ the 
dissyllabic prepositions except avd, Sia, d^<^/, and dm- In Homer 
it occurs also when a ]n-eposition follows a verb from which it is 
(separated l*y itfu^scs; ns oAtW? airo, having destroyed. 

2. Wjien a ju-eposition stands for itself compounded with €o-TiV; 
as irapa for TrdpcGTLv, tvi for iv(.(TrLv {ivi being poetic for <V). Here 
the poets iiave dva (for ayd-aTYjdL), up ! 

AcCliNT or CoNTKACTIiD SvlLaBLES ASD EiJDED WojtDS. 

117. A contracted syllable is accented if either of the 
original syllables had an accent. A contracte.d penult or 
antcpennlt is accented repjularly (111; 112). A contracted 
final syllable is circumflexed; but if the original word was 
oxytone, the acute is retained. E.g. 

Tt/jLoj/ieros from ri.oao/xei'o?, ^iXtlrt from ^tX«T€, </>iXoc/ACv from 
<^iXi.oipj(.v^ <^iXovvTU)v from ^tAtoVrujv, Tt/xui from tc/ww); but (it^tli^ 
from fSefiad)^. 



28 LErrEllS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [118 

'J'his proceeds from tlie ancient principltj that the circumflex 
comes from ' + ' (107, 2), never from ' + ^; so that n/wicu gives Tt/Aw, 
but /:ic/Jaws gives ^c/^oi?. 

118. N. If neither of the original syllables had an accent, the 
contracted form is accented without regard to the contraction; as 
TLfia for rifjuoit, tvvoi for ewoot. 

Some exceptions to the rule of 117 will be noticed under the 
declensions. (See 203; 311.) 

119. In crasis, the accent of the first word is lost and that 
of the second remains; as rayaOd for to, ayaOd, cywSa for cyw 
o?8a, Kara for kol etraj rakXa for tgi oAAa; rapa for rot apa, 

120. In elision, oxytone prepositions and conjunctions 
lose their accent with the elided vowel; other oxytones 
throw tli(^ accent back to the penult, but without changing 
the acute to the grave (115, 1). E,g^ 

Ett auTo> for <7rt avrw, oAA* ttTr^v foi' oAAa €c'n-€v, <pT]p- ^yw for 
<j>r}iJ.L tyuiy KOK iTTTj for KaKa tinj. 

ACCENT OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 

121. 1. The place of the accent in the nominative singu- 
lar of a noun (and the nominative singular masculine of 
an adjective) must generally be learned by observation. 
The other forms accent the same syllable as this nominative, 
if the last syllable permits (111); otherwise the following 
syllable. E.g. 

©oAacrcra, ^oAaacny?, Odkaacrav, ^aAaao-at, ^oAdcrcraw ; Kopa^, 
KopttKO?, KopaK«9, KopaKOiv; TTpayfJUL, 7rpay/xaT<K, -rrpayfidTiov', oSoik, 
oSdi'TOs, 65oi;crtv. So ;^apat?, )^apL€o-<TCL, ^apuv^ g^n. ;)(a/)t€VT09, etc.; 
d^tos, A^t'd, a^tov, a^iot, a^uu, a|ta. 

2. The kind of accent is determined as usual (111; 112); as 
v^cros, vrj(Tov, vrjuov, i^crot, ktJo-ok. (See also 123; 124.) 

122. N. The following nouns and adjectives have recessive accent 
(U0,4):- 

(a) Contracted compound adjectives in co7 (203, 2): 

(b) The neuter singular and vocative singular of adjectives In wk, 
ov (except those in <pfn>fy, compounds of (ppTfiv)', and the neuter of com- 
paratives in u>y; as (oSaifJuavy tvSaifWv (313) ; ^eXriuVf ^cXrZcv (358); 
but 5at0/>wi', 5at <ppov : 

(c) Many barytone compounds in rjs m all forms ; as aiJrttpjcijj, 
air,-a/)«s, gen.pl. avT&pKuv; (piXaX-fjOij^, (pLXiXrjdci (but dXrjd^t^ AXtjWs); 
this includes vocatives like XibKparei^ Aij^o-^t^j (228) ; so some other 
adjectives of the third declension (see 314): 



131] ACCENT OK NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, A^'D VERBS. 29 

(d) The vocative of syncopated nouns in rjp (273), of compound 
proper names in w*', as * Aydfjjepivov^ AindpuSov (except AaKtSaltMv}, and 
of *Air<i\Xw>', lloaaSOi' (Horn. Uocdidiau)^ o-wtyJ/), saviour^ and (Horn.) 
Si^pi brother-in-law y — voc. ' KiroWovy l{b<Tubov (Houi. lio<x<iZaov)^ 
ff(tfTf/>, 5dfp (see 221, 2). 

123. The last syllable of the genitive and dative of oxy- 
toues of the first and second decJensious is eircumflexed. E.g. 

Tl^ri^i """^M^j rt/>caci', tZ/awk, rc^t?; Bco\,\ Oew, Oiwvy dioi^. 

124. In t\iQ first declension, wrof the genitive plural (for 
iuiv) is circumflexed (170). But the feminine of adjectives 
and participles in os is spelt and accented like the masculine 
and neuter. E.g. 

AiKCJK, Soi'wK (from SiVt;, 5o'^a), TroXlxf^v (from iroMr-q^); but 
a^l'w^', Xiyo^ivtMv (feni. gen. plur. of d^ios, Xcyo/;tdi'05, 302). For 
the geniuvii plural of other adjectives and participles, see 318, 

125. N. The genitive and dative of the Attic second declension 
(198) are exceptions; as i/duis, gen. vcfli^ dat. k^oJ. 

126. N. Three nouns of the first declension are paroxytone in 
the genitive plural: d<^ui;, anchovy, a<f>vu}v\ XP^^^^?' usurer^ XPV" 
(TToiv] CTT/CTtat, Etesian winds, tTTjcTLtJiv. 

127. Most monosyllables of the third declension accent 
the last syllable in the genitive and dative of all numbers; 
here <ov and oiw are circunjflexed. E.g, 

©);?, servant, 6qr6<iy B-qrl, OrjTOiVy OyjtCjv, Orjai 

128. N, Aa?, torch, S^ici*;, slave, ou?, ear, irali, child, Tptuy, Tr^^'an^ 
^ws, light, and a few others, violate the last rule in the genitive 
dual and plural; so ttq?, all, in both genitive and dative plural: as 
fl-ais, iracSo?, TTaiSt', irato-c, but Tralhuyv] irS?, Travro?, wawt', TrdvTiov, 
TTcio't. 

129. N. The interrogative ti?, tiVos, rm, etc., always accents the 
first syllable. So do all monosyllabic participles; as w, 5vro^, ovrt, 
OVTUiV, QV(TL ; ^dj, /3dvT0S. 

ACCENT OF VERBS. 

130. Verbs generally have recessive accent (110, 4); 

^TToSon; fiovKtvovrai, (BovXcucraL (aor. Opt. act.), but jSouXeucrat 
(aor. imper, mid,). See 113. 

131. The chief exceptions to this principle are these : — 



30 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [132 

1. The second aorist active infinitive in clv ami the second 
aorist middle imperative in ov are perlsponiena: a.s Xa^uv, iXOclvy 
A-iTTciv, XiTTov, Aa^oi). For compounds iikt* KaTct-^ou, sne 133, 3. 

2. These second aorist imperatives active are oxytone : elirl, 
iXOcy ivpiy XaLJiL So IBi in the sense htholdl But their compounds 
are regular; as djr-ciTrt. 

3. Many contracted optatives of the /^i-i ii flection Yegn\B.Y\y cir- 
cumflex the penult; as wrrairo, SiSoia^c (740). 

4. The following fornix accent the pennlt ; the first aorist active 
infinitive, the second aorist middle infinitive (except TrpuxcrOai 
and ovacrOaif 798), the perfect middle and passive infinitive and 
participle, and all infinitives in vol or fxtv (except those in fi^i/ai). 
Thus, PovkcvcraLf ytviaOai^ AcXw^at, \(.\vixlvos<, toraVai, SiSoVai, 
XtAvKcVat, 5o;ji€v and So/x<i'at (botli epic for SoCfat), 

5. The following participles are oxytone : tlie second aorist 
active; and all of the third declension in -?, except the first aorist 
active. Thus, Xnrcji', Xu^ct?, 8i8oi;9, huKvv%, XcAukojs, [cttu? (pres.) ; 
but XiScrd? and orriJcra<; (iior.). 

So itjv, present participle of tT/>u, go, 

132. Compound verbs have recessive accent like simple verbs; 
as cruVti/xt (from (jw and €t/Ai), crwoiSa {crvv and otSa), titLym {l^ 
and cT/ii), Trap-tcrrc. 

133. But there are these exceptions to 132; — 

1. The accent cannot go further back than the augment or 
reduplication; as -nap-uxov (not 7rapct;(o»'), / provided^ irap-rjv (not 
7rdprjv)y he teas present, d^-tKrai (not a^^tKrui), ^le has arrived. 

So >vheu the augment falls on a long vowel or a diphthong 
which is not changed by it; as v7r-a.K<. (imperfect), he was yielding ; 
but VTT-ftKi (imperative), yield / 

2. Compounds of 5J«, «, ^tV, and o-;^/? arc paroxytone; as 
{iTToSo?, Trapao^cs (not aTroSo?, etc.). 

3. Monosyllabic second aorist middle imperatives in -ov have 
recessive accent when compounded with a dissyilahic preposition ; 
as KararOov-, put down, aTo-^oi;, sell: otherwise they circumilex the 
ov (131, 1) ; as cV-^oi), put in. 

134. N. Participles in their infection are accented as adjectives 
(121), not as verbs, 'i'lms, fiovXcvuiv has in the neuter f:iov\cvov 
(not pov\(.vov)\ ^fXcW, <^iXC}v, has <^i\€ov (not (^iXcov), (^iXovy. 
(See 335.) 

135. For the accent of optatives in at and ot, see 113. Some 
other exceptions to 130 occur, especially \n poetic forms. 



j41] PROCLITICS AND ENCLITICS. 31 

PROCLITICS. 

136. Some monosyllables have no accent and are closely 
attached to the following word. These are called proclitics 
(froru TrpofcXiVw, h^an forward) . 

137. Tho proclitics are tlie articles 6, 7,01, at; the prepo- 
sitions ci9 (f?), £| (e/c), €v\ the conjunctions a and ws (so aW 
used as a prcjiosition); and the negative ou (ojk, o^x). 

138. Excepiiom. 1. Ou takes the acute at tiie end of a sen- 
tence; as TTui? yap ov; fur why not? So when it stands alone as 
Ou, No. 

2. 'O? and Roniotiines ii and «i\ take the acut<? wheji (in poetry) 
they follow their noun ; as xa«u>»/ t^.from evils; $t6<i oJ?, as a God, 

;i 'Q; is accented aUo wijen it means thus; as w? ^rTrtK, ihus 
he spo^'t'. Tlii.s u.se of cj? is oliiefly poetic; but koI ws, eoca f/iu.'?, 
anil ouS' ws or /xtjo' ws, no( ewen ///U-'?, sonietinies occur in Attic prose. 

For a piocIiLic before an enclitic, see 14-3, 4. 

139. N. When 6 is used for the relative 09, it is accented (as 
in Od. 'i, 'iG*2) ; and many editors accent all articles when they are 
demonstrative, as //. 1, 9, o yap /Saa-cXrft ;(oAw^£i'?, and write o /acv 
... 8<, and dl /j.iy . . . dl S<, even in Attic Greek. 

ENCLITICS. 

140. Au enclitic (iyh-kiyw^ lean upon) is a word which 
loses its own accent, and is pronounced as if it were part of 
the preceding word ; as at'^pajW re (like h6min6squ€ in Latin). 

141. The enclitics are : — 

1. 'I'he personal pronouns ^ov, ^oi', /^f ; a-ov, froi, o-e; ov, oT, 
£, and (in poetry) <T4>{<n. 

To tliese are added the dialectic and poetic fo' ^ns, /icO, ato, acv, 
tol' TiJ (accus. for at), co, cu, f^cv, /uV, vtV, cj^t, j-(^tV, crt^f, C7<^W, 
o-c^oiti/, (T<{i'i<jjv, <7'<^«a9, o-^a?, (T<^ia. 

2. The indefinite pronoun ris, ri, in all its forms (except 
arra) ; also the indefinite adverbs ttou, -ro^t' Tnf, ttoi' tto^o', 
TTort, -jrw, TToi^:. These must be distingn'.shed from the inter- 

TOgatlVeS Tt'?, TTOD, TToOi, TTtJ, TTOLf TToOci'y TT'JTC, TTW, TTWS. 

3. The present indicative of tlfxl, be^ and of ^itrffity say, 
except tlie forms il and <;^>Js. But epic cVo-i and Ionic tU 
are enclitic. 



32 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENXa IU2 

4. The particles y€, t«, rot', Trep : the inseparable -8e in oSt, 
TouVSc, etc. (not htj but); and -de and -;(t iu a^c and vaixt 
(146). So also the poetic vw (not i/t}*/), and the epic Kt 
(iccV), Oijyy and pa. 

142. The enclitic always loses its accent, except a dis- 
syllabic enclitic after a paroxytone (143, 2). See examples 
in 143. 

143. The word before the enclitic always retains its own 
accent, and it never changes a final acute to the grave (llo, 2). 

1. If this "word is pvopavoxytone or properispomenon, it 
receives from the enclitic an acute on the last syllable as a 
second accent. Thus QvOpui-not n?, avOpittTroi rti^c?, ScZ^oV /xot, 

TTtttSc? rwt'Sy 0UT09 iCTTLV. 

2. If it is paroxytone, it receives no additional accent 
(to avoid two acutes on successive syllables). Here a dis- 
syllabic enclitic keeps its accent (to avoid three successive 
unaccented syllables). Thus, Xoyo? rw (not Xo'yo? rt?), Xoyot 
Tt»'<9 (not Xoyot Tti'cs), Xoyoji' nvijjv, outoj <^r)(TLV (but outos (jirjaiv 

byl). 

3. If its last syllable is accented, it remains unchanged; 
as Tt/juxt T€ (115, 2), rlp.u}V 7«, (T0<l>6i ns, oro</>ot rti'f?, cro(fiiov 

4. A proclitic before an enclitic receives an acute; as «? 
Ti?, €1 4>r)<nv 0UT09. 

144. Enclitics retain their accent whenever special emphasis 
falls upon tliem : this occurs 

1. When they begin a Rcntence or clause; or when pronouns 
express antithesis, as ov rapa Tpojortv oAAa orot fxa^ovp-iOay we shall 

Jighi then not wiit Trojans but with you, S. Ph. 1253. 

2. When tht preceding syllable is elided ; as iu ttoXA* ecrrlv 
(120) for TToXXa t -Ttv. 

3. The persona* pronouns generally retain their accent after an 
accented preposition : here c/xoO, c'/Aot', aud €/xt are used (except in 

TTpO? /At). 

4. The personal pronouns of the third person are not enclitic 
when they are direct reflexives (988) ; a<f>LaL never in Attic prose. 

5. 'EoTt' at the beginning of a sentejice, and when it signifies 
existence or possibility, becomes tdrt ; so after ovk, /at/, ct, the adverb 
<i)S, xcu, dAA. or dXXa, and tovt or tovto. 



150] DIALECTIC CHANGES. — PUNCTUATION 33 

145. When several enclitics occur in succession, each takes an 
acute from tiie following, the last remaining without accent; as 
a rts Tt (TOL <f>rj(nvj if any one i'? saying anything to you. 

146. When an enclitic forms the last part of a compound word, 
the compound is accented as if the enclitic were a separate word. 

Thus, OVTtVO?, <OTtVt, iliVTLViDV, WCTTTtp^ 1ji(TTi, OtS«, TOVcSCy €lTl, OVT€, 

a^Tit are only apparent exceptions to 106; 111 ; 112. 

DIALECTIC CHANGES. 

147. The Ionic dialect is marked by the use of rj where 
the Attic has a ; and the Doric and Aeolic by the use of a 
Tvhere the Attic has rj. 

Thus, Ionic ytytTJ for yiyeaiy [^(TOfiai for idaofjua (from uxofmi, 
635) ; Doric Ti/idcai for rt/jL7Jaw (from Tifxaoi) ; Aeolic and Doric 
Xd$d for k)j$i}. But an Attic a caused by contraction (as in rt/jLa 
fi'om TLfJuxi), or an Attic r) lengthened from e (as in <^iX?jo-a> from 
(^iXccj, Q'So), is never thus changed. 

148. The Ionic often has n, ov, for Attic i, o; and rfi for 
Attic et in nouns and adjectives in tio?, «iovj as favos for 
$evo<!y ftoCvo? for /aovo? ; ^ao-tA>}to9 for ^act Xetos. 

149. The Ionic does not avoid successive vowels to the 
same extent as the Attic; and it therefore very often omits 
contraction (36), It contracts to and tov into cv (especially 
in Herodotus) ; as noievjxcvf TroKi^o't (from iroUofxtv, Troiiova-Cjy 
for Attic 7rotoij/x€v, TTotouo-t. Herodotus does not use v mov- 
able (5(5). See also 94 and 785, 1. 

PtTNCTUATION MARKS. 

150. 1. The Greek uses the comma ( , ) and the period (.) 
like the English. Tt ha.s also a colouy a point above the 
line (•), which is equivalent to the English colon and semi- 
COlun ; as ovk ea-O' 6 y tinov • ov yap <u8' a<l>p(jiiv i<f}\iv, it IS not 
what I said; for I am not so foolish. 

2. The mark of interrogation (;) is the same as the 
English semicolon; as Trorc ^XOcv; when did he come? 



PART IL 



INFLECTION. 

151. Inflection is a change in the form of a word, 
made to express its relation to other words. Jt iiidudes 
the declension of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, and 
the conjugation of verbs. 

152. Every inflected word has a fundainentai part, 
which is called the ^tem. To tl)is are appended various 
letters or syllables, to form cases, tenses, persons, num- 
bers, etc. 

163. Most words contain a still more pi'iinit.ive eJeineJit than 
the stem, which is called the root. Tiniij, the stem of tho verb 
TX[juau>j honor, is rljua-, and tliat of the noun rlfx-j, is Tt/itl-, that of 
Turtt, payment^ is Ttai-, that of rlfjuos, held in honor, is rljxio-, tiiat 
of Tt}XY]fjuoL (Ttfiij/xaTos), valuation, is riixY)fMir'\ but all these stertr.s 
are developed f]0)n one root, n-, which is seen pure in the verb 
ti-(jd, honor. In rto), therefore, tlie verb stem and the I'oot are the 
same. 

164, The stem itself may be modified and assnnie various 
forms in different partii of a noun or verb, TJuis the same verb 
stem may hi different tense stems appear as Xiir-, Xcltts and Xoltt- 
(see 459). So the same noun stem may appear as rlfxa-, rlfxa-, and 
rl^r^ (108). 

155. There are three numbers; the singular, the dual,- 
and the plui-al. The singular denotes one object, the 
plural more than one. The dual is sometimes used to 
denote two objects, but even heje the plural is more 
common. 

34 



jfl2] GENDERS, NUMBERS, AND CASES. 36 

156. There are three genders; the masculine, the 
feminine, and tlie neuter. 

157. K. The gra}nmaiical gender in Greek is very often differ- 
ent fiotn the nalural gender. KspecialJy many names of tilings 
are masculine or feminine. A Greek noun is called masculine, 
femiiiiue, or neuter, when it requires an adjective or article to take 
tbe form adai)ted to either of these genders, and the adjective or 
article in tlien iiaid to liave the gender oi the corresponding noun; 
thns 6 ivpv<; iroTu/Aos, the broad river (masc), ^ koAi^ otKiu, the beavr 
iiful house (fern.), tovto to npayfMi, this thing (neut.). 

The gender of a noun is olten indicated by prefixing tiie article 
(380); as (6) avijpy man; {yj) yvirj, woman; (to) -npay^Mx, thing, 

158. Noini.s which may be either masculine or feminine are 
said to he of the Cfjmmon gender: as (6, 17) ^€0?, God or Goddess, 
Names of animals whicli include both sexes, but have only one 
graMmKitic^l gender, are called epicene {(7riKOLyo<;) ; as 6 atr6<;, the 
eagle; rj aXiliirrj^, the fox; both including males ami females. 

159. The gender must often be learned by observation. But 

(1) Names of males are generally masculine, and names of 
females feminine. 

(2) Most names of rivers, windft, and montha are inascuVme; and 
most names of counlriesy towns, trees, and islands are feminine. 

(;^) Must nouns denoting qualities or conditions are fen^inine; 
35 apir-q, inrtue, ^XttU^ hope. 

(4) Diminutive nouns are neuter; ai> TraiSiW, child; ywatov, old 
woman (lit-erally, little woman). 

Other rules are given under the declensions (see 168; 189; 
281-284). 

160. There are five cases; the nominative, genitive, 
dative, accusative, and vocative. 

161. 1. The nominative and vocative plural are always 
alike. 

2. In nenters, the nominative, accusative, and vocative 
are alike in all nunibei's; in the plui'al these end in a. 

3. The nominative, accu.sative, and vocative dual are 
always alike ; and the genitive and dative dual are always 
alike. 

162. The cases of nouns have in general the same meaning as 
the corresponding cases in f-atin ; as Noni. a jnan (as subject), 



36 



INFLECTION. 



[163 



G«n. of a man^ Dat. to or for a man, A ecus, a man (as object), 
Voc. man. The chief functions of the Latin ablative are 
divided between the Greek genitive and dative. (See 1042.) 

163. All the cases except the nominative* and vocative are 
called oblique cases. 

NOUNS. 

164. There are three declensions of nouns, in which 
also all adjectives and participles are included. 

165. These correspond in general to tlie first tliree declensions 
in Latin. The first is sometimes called the A declension (with 
stems in d), and the second the declension (wit)i stems in o). 
These two together are sometimes called tlift Vowel declenyion, as 
opposed to the third or Co^iaoiiatit declension (206). 

The principles which are cominou to adjectives, participles, and 
substantives are given under the tliree declensions of nouns. 

166. N. The name noun (6vop^a), according to ancient usage, in- 
cludes both substantives and adjectives. But by modern custom noun 
is generally used in grammatical language as synonymous with sub- 
stantive^ and it is so used in the present woi:k. 



167. 



CASE-ENDINGS OF NOUNS. 



61 KG. 

Norn. 

Gen.' 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Voc. 

DUAL. 

N.A.V. 
G.D. 

PLUR. 

N,V. 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



VOWKI- Dl'XI.LNSION. 

Masc. and Fevi. Neuter. 

5 or none v 

s or 10 

t 

V 

none v 

none 



vs (cis) 



wv 



Consonant Deci.knsion. 



Mai^c. and Fein. 




Neuter. 


s or none 




none 


OS 






I 






vord 




none 


none or like Nom. 




none 


< 






OIV 






cs 




d 


WW 






(Ti, (r<ri. 


t<rtri, 




vs, ds 




d 



The relations of some of these endings to the terminations actually 
in use will be explained under the different declensions. The agree- 
ment of the two classes in many points is striking. 



171] 



FIRST DECLENSION. 



37 



FIRST DBCIiENSION. 

168. Stems of the fii-st declension end originally in a. 
This is often modified into rj in the singular, and it 
becomes a in the plural. The nominative singular of 
feminines ends in a or rj\ that of masculines ends in 
a<for.7;?. There are no neuters. 

169. The following table shows how the final a or t; of the 
stem unites with the case endings (1C7), when any are added, to 
form the actual ternunations: — 





81NGULAR. 


PLDUAL. 




Feinininc. 


Masculine- 


Masc. and Fern 


Nom. 


aOYoL r\ 


d-s 1J-S 


a-t 


Gen. 


d-s or T]-s T]-s 


a-io(Hom.d-o) 


«v (for i-iav) 


Dat. 


dt orT|-t i]-i. 


d-i ij-t 


a-t(rt or a-tj 


Ace. 


d-v or d-v r\-v 


d-v 1J-V 


ds (for a-vs) 


Voc. 


dor^ 1^ 


d ^ ortj 


a-i 




Dual. 


i 




Masc. and Fe 


A 




^./ 


L.V. I d 


1 



G. D. I aiv 

170, N. In tlie genitive singular of masculines Homeric ao comes 
from a-io (1(^9); but Attic ov probably follows the analogy of ov for oo 
in the second declension (191). Circumticxed Cjv in the genitive plural 
is contracted from Ionic itj^v (188, 5). J'he stem in d (or a) may 
thus be seen in all cases of oUlS. and x^/Ja, and (with the change of d 
to f} in the singular) also in the other paradigms (except in ov of the 
genitive). The forms ending in a and ij have no case-endings. 



FEMININES. 

171. The nouns (??) x^P^' land^ (rj) Tl/urf, honor, 
(J]) OLKLd, house^ (rj) Movcray Muse, arc thus declined : — 



Stem, (xwpo-) 



(rl^d-) (oktd-) 



(mov^o-) 









eiNci'LAn. 






Nom. 


X*ipd 


a land 


t;»it 


olKCd 


Movo-a 


Gen. 


X<^pas 


of a land 


TIJITIS 


otKlds 


Mov{rt)s 


Dat. 


X"P<? 


to a land 


TIJITI 


oUIf, 


Movo^i 


Ace. 


X«pdv 


a land 


TiK-nv 


otKtdv 


MoOc-ov 


Voc. 


X*ipd 


land 


TipVi 


olK^d 


Movtra 



38 






INFLECTION. 




[175 








DUAL. 






N.A.V. 


X«pa 


two lands 


Tijld 


olKfd 


Mou<rd 


G.D. 


X«paiv 


of or to two lands ri\ialv 


olKtaiv 


Mou<raiv 








I'LMtAL. 






Norn, 


X«pai 


lands 


Tifiai 


otKCai 


Mov<rai 


Gen. 


Xwp<iv 


of lands 


ripKAV 


oIkiwv 


Movo-wv 


Dat. 


X"lpais 


to lands 


Tifiaus 


otKiais 


Movtrais 


A en. 


X«pis 


lands 


Tlflds 


Ik ids 


Moi<rds 


Voc. 


X«pai 


lands 


Tifiai 


oUfai 


MoO<rai 



172. The following sliow vai-icties of quiiiitlry and accent: — 
OdXjiKTaa, fiea, daXdacnj^, OaXdaixr], $d\a<T<jav ] 1"*!. ^ciAao-o-ui, 

OaXaaaCiVy ^oAdo-trat?, ^aAatrads. 

y(<f>vpa^ bridge^ yet^iJpa?, yc<f>upa, y€<f>vpav', I'l. yt<^upai, etc. 
aKid, slindoWy cxids, (tklil, iTKLav, PI. (jkkxl^ dKiOiv, ckiui?, etc. 
yV(j}fJi7), 0}n7iion, ypu)fXY}^^ yvtofxr]^ yvia^x-qv ; PI. yfuj/xai, yrw/jtwi/, et.C. 
TTCipa, iiltempt^ -ntLpa^^ TTCLpa, TTtipav'y I'l. Trtlpai, -rrtipCii', etc. 

173. The stem geiierally retains a throui^^li the singular 
aft(^r €, t, or p, but ciiaiiges a to ?; after otlier letters. See 

174. But nonns having a, \\, or a double consonant (18) 
before final a of the stem, and some others, have a in the 
nominative, accusative, and vocative singular, and y} in the 
genitive and dative, ]ik(* Moi7n-a. 

T{\n?, afjua$a, wagon; Sii/^a, thirst; pitp., r6ot ; ap-tWa, contest; 
6d\a<j(ja (with later Attic $d\a7ra),sm. So fxtpipLva, care ; Seanoiva, 
viistres-"^ ; XiaLva, lionesf; ; TpiaLva, trldeyit; also ToX/xa, t/a raj <y; StutTo, 
living ; duavBa, thorn; ivOvvOy scrutiny. 

176. 'J'he following liave a in the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative, and d in the genitive and dative, singular (after e, i, 
or p) : - 

(a) Most ending in pa preceded by a (li]>lithong or by 0; as 
fxOLpa^ yc^tvpa, 

(h) ^Tost al>sti'act nouns formed from adjectives in 7;s or oo? ; 
as dX-qOeui, truth (oAt/^tJ?, true), tvvoui, kindness; (tvyoc;, kind). (But 
the Attic poets sometimes have dX-qOcidy iwotd, etc.) 

(c) Nouns in eta and rpui designating femnles; as PaalXtUL^ 
queen, xpdXrpia, female harper (but /Juo-iXet'd, kingdom). So /xutd, 
Aj/y g'f^'i- p-ynd'i. 

For feminine adjectives in a, see 318. 



18 J] 



FJRST DKCLENSION. 



39 



176. (Exceptions.) Ac'pi^, rieck^ and KOfji], girl (originally Bipfrj, 
KOpff})} liiive rj after p (17;"J). "Epirj^, tirw, and Kopar) (new Attic 
Kopprj), temjAe, have i; after <j (I "4). Some propei- iiaiues have d 
irregularly ; as AvjSu, /.(?/-/(7, gen. ArJ^i?. Botli od and oj/ are 
allowed ; as fio-j, rri/, (ttou, porch. 

177. N. It will be. Jieen tliat a of tiie nominative sin.ivular is 
always sliort when tlie genitive lias rjsy and i;enera])y )o]ig wlien 
the genitive has ds. 

178. N. Av of the accusative singular and a of tlio vocative 
singular agi>(ni in (jniintity with a of tl)L' nuniinaiivc. 'Die quan- 
tity of all oilier v:uvt.'!s of the terniinations may be seen from the 
table in iO:*. 

iMost nouns in a liave receasioe accent (lit), 4). 



jMASCL'LIXKS. 



179. The nouns (6) rafxid^, Htaward^ (o) 7roX(r}]<f, citi- 
zen^ and (6) Kpntj^,jud;jc, '.uc llms <.l<iclined : — 



Scejn, 



(raM<a-) 



(TToXrrd-) 



(xpiri-) 







SI KG L* I- A K. 




Nom. 


Tttfiids 




iroXiTi^s 


KplTfis 


Gcu. 


Tap.(ou 




fl-oXlTOU 


KpiTOV 


Dat. 


Ta(i.i9 




iroXiTj) 


KpiTT) 


Aec. 


Tap.idw 




TToXtTTjV 


KpiTr|V 


Voc. 


Ta}ji£u 


UVA L. 


fl-oXiTa 


Kpird 


N.A.V. 


rapiia 




IToXiTd 


Kpird 


G.D. 


Tajtiaiv 


\ha:\{k\ 


iToXtTaiv 


KpiTOXv 


Nmn. 


Tajitai 




iroXiTai 


Kpirat 


Gej). 


Tafiiwv 




TTOXlTUV 


KplTWV 


Dat. 


Tajiiais 




TToXtTais 


Kpirat? 


Ace. 


Ttt|Jiids 




TroXiras 


Kpiras 


Voc. 


rajiCai 




iToXiTai 


KpiTal 



180. Thus may he declined vto.viu<i, youih, ctt/jutioitt;?. snldier, 
voiyp-ij^, poet. 

181. The. d of the fitem is- here n^tained in the. singular 
after t, i, orp; otherwise it is cliang-ed to rj: see tlie ])ara- 
digms. For irregular ou in tlio genitive filiigulav, see 170. 



iO INFLECTION. [182 

182. The following nouns in 7^? have a in the vocative singular 
(like TroXlrTj<:) : those in tt;?; national names, like ITcpo-T;?, Persian, 
voc. Ilfpcra ; and compounds in 77?, like y«co-/AcV/3?;?, geometer, voc. 
ytdifiirpa. Ato-TrorT;?, moiV^r, has voc, StWora. Other nouns in 
t;? of this declension have the vocative in 7;; as KponSjys, son 0/ 
CroHos, Y^povilrj. 

CONTRACTS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. 

183. Most nouns in aa, «a, and cd? are contracted (35) in 
all their cases. 

184. Mvad, fjLvaj miua, avKid, arvKTJy Jig-tree^ and 'Ep/xcd?, 
'Ep/x^s, Hermes, are thus declined; — 

jSfCTn. (Mi-a- for Mi-aa-) (cvKoi- for (ry*fta-) ('Ep/xa- for 'EpM^ct-) 









SIN(iULAU. 






Nom. 


(fiyda) 


y^va 


(avK^a) (TVKii 


('EpM^^aO 


•Epjiijs 


Gen. 


(txyda^) 


p. Fas 


(ffVK^a's) ff-VKT^S 


('EpM^ou) 


'Epjiov 


Dat. 


(fivdt^) 


flV^ 


(ffD/f^p) O-VtCQ 


(•Ep/^P) 


'Epi^l] 


Ace. 


(fivddv) 


(ivdv 


(cruAf^a*-) o-tJKi^v 


(•EpM^a.) 


'Eptifjv 


Voc. 


{fi.vda) 


)xvd 


DUAL. 


('EpM<?a) 


'Epjii^ 


N.A.V, 


(fivdi) 


jivd 


(avK^d) trvKO. 


(•EpM^a) 


'Epjid 


G.D. 


(^vdaiv) 


(ivalv 


(ffVK^aiv) oriicaiv 
PLUnAL. 


('Ep;x^aiv) 


'Epjiaiv 


N.V. . 


(^fxvdai) 


p.vai 


(avK^ai) crvKal 


(•EpM^a.) 


'Epfiai 


Gen. 


(fiuaioy) 


(iVWV 


{avKcCiv) <rvKiSv 


('Ep^^i') 


'Epfiwv 


Dai. 


(nvdai^) 


jivats 


(ffiiK^ait) ff-iKats 


('EpM^ais) 


•EpnaW 


Ace. 


(fxvdai) 


(ivds 


{cwid'i) CVKClS 


('EpM^5f) 


'Epjtds 



185. So y^, ear/A (from an uncontracted form yt-d or ya-d), in 
the singular: y^, y^?, yij", y^v, y^ (Doric ya, ya?, etc.). 

186. N. Bopt'd?, A^orfA fcmrf, which appears uncontracted in 
AtLic, has also a contracLed form Boppa? (with irregular pp), gen. 
Boppd (of Doric form), dat. Boppu, ace. BoppSv, voc. Boppd. 

187. N. For ta contracted to d in the dual and the accusative 
plural, .'^GG 8P, L For contract adjectives (fern i nines) of this class, 
see 310, 

DIALECTS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. 

188. 1. The Ionic has t; for d throughout the singular, even 
after t, i, or p ; as y€V'c?;, x^P^^ Ta/ju?;?. But Homer has ^ta, God- 



191] 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



41 



^ess. The Doric and Aeolic have d unchanged in the singular. 
The Ionic generally uses uncontracted iovnis of contract nouns 
and adjectives. 

2. Nom. Sing, Honi. sonnetinnes a for 7}*; ; ai 'i-mr&Ta for ittttot^s, 
Aor5«man, sometimes witii recessive accent, as ^T^rttra, counsellor. 
(Compare Latin poeta — troirp'T^';.) 

S. Gen. Sing. For ov Homer has tlie original form do, as 
*ATp«iSdo; sometimes w (for co) after vowels, as Bopt'w (from 
Bop^'tt?). HoiD. and Ildt. have Ionic «x> (always one syllable in 
Horn.), as'ATp€tS<a> (114), TrjpCKt) (gen. of Typr}*:) ; and cw occurs in 
proper names in older Attic. Tlie Doric has d I'or do, a.s *Arp<tSd. 

4. Ace. SiJtg. Hdt. sometimes formri an ace. in ca (for rjv) from 
nouns in -•»;?, as in the third declension, as ScaTrorea (for StaTrorrjv) 
from StCTTTOTiy?, master (179) : so '3,ip$rj<;, ace. Htp^w or "B.ipirjv. 

5. 6'€«. y-*/. Horn. a(/)v, the original forin, as KXicridwy, of tciUs; 
sometimes aiv (170). Horn, and Hdt. have Jonic €(uv (one AjJable 
in Horn.), as jtuXcW, of ga(e?i. Doric av for awv, also in dr£^fc|^ic 
chorus. 

0. Dat. PL Poetic ato-t (also Aeolic and old Attic form) ; Ionic 
r}(n (Horn., Ddt, even oldest Attic), Horn, altio t;s (rarely ats). 
7. Ace. PL Lesbian Aeolic cus for d?. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 

189. Stems of the second declension end in o, which 
is sometimes modified to w. Tlie nominative singular 
regularly ends in o<f or oi; (gen, oi/). Nouns in o? are 
masculine, rarely feminine ; those in oi/ are neuter. 

190. The following table shows how the terminations of novnis 
in 0? and ov are formed by the final o of the stem (with its modifi- 
cations) and the case-endings : — 



SlNGULATt. 


DUAL. 


PLL'RAL. 


Masc.& Fern. Neuter. 


Masc., Fern., f£ Nevter. 


Masc & Fein. Neuter 


N. OS o-v 




N. o V a 


G. ov (foro-o) 


N. A.V. io(foro) 


G. 


D. 4.(foro-0 


G. D. o-iv 


D. o-«rioro-is 


A. o-v 




A. ox)s (foro-vs) d 


V. « o-v 




V. o-i d 



191. N. In the genitive singular the Homeric o-io becomes o-o and 
then Of. In the dative singular and the nominative etc. dual, o becomes 
w. E takes the place of o in the voc/itive sinf^ilar of nouns in os, and 
Stakes the place of o in the nominative etc. of neuters. There being 



42 INFLECTION. [192 

no genitive plural in owp, wc is not accented as a contracted syllable 
(X67wf, jiot Xo7wt'). 

192. Tlie nouns (6) \0709, w;^r(f, (rf) pijco^, island, 

(6, ^) avdpcoiro^, man oy human being, (7;) 6h6<;, road^ 

(to) Sc^pov, gift, are tlius declined: — 



Stem. 


(X070-) 




SJNGULAK. 


(dfOpWTTO-) 


(65o-) 


(Stajpo-) 


Nom. 


X670S 


a word 


vT\<ros 


avBpwiros 


6865 


8«pov 


Gen. 


Xo-yov 


of a word 


vr\<rov 


avGpwiTov 


080V 


8wpov 


riat. 


X67u> 


to a word 


VT]0-« 


dvOpWTTW 


680) 


Swpu. 


Ace. 


Xd'yov 


a ward 


VT)(rov 


avGpwirov 


686v 


8wpov 


Voc. 


Xo^f 


word 


DUAL. 


avOpwire 


68^ 


8upov 


N.A.V 


Xd"y« 


two words 


vVjcw 


dw^puJirw 


d8w 


htapoi 


G.D. 


X(i"yoiv 


of or to two words vrja-oii' 


dvfipwirocv 


6801V 


8«poiv 








pi.i:ral. 








Nom. 


X6701 


words 


v^o-oi 


av6p«iroi 


6801 


8wpa 


Gen. 


X6"y«v 


of words 


VTICWV 


dv9puSirwv 


68wv 


8wpuiv 


Dat. 


X6701S 


to words 


VTJO-OIS 


dvOpoiiroiS 


68ois 


8wpois 


Ace. 


Xo^ovs 


wordn 


vT|<rovs 


dvQpwirovs 


680VS 


8wpa 


Voc. 


X6701 


xoords 


vijcoi 


avOpwiroi 


6&oi 


&wpa 



193. Thus may be deeiiiioJ i^ojao?, law, K-tV^Dt'O?, danr^ey, ttotu- 
fx6<iy river, I3lO<;, li/'% SdvaTo^, dealh, raDpos, hully uvkov^ Jig, Ifjuxnoy, 
outer (jarmeiiC. 

194. 'I'iie chief feniiniiio nouns of the second declension are 
the following : — 

1. (iddavo'iy iouch-ii(oup, /3t'/3Ao^, booi\ yc'pai'O?, crane, yvdOo<;, jaw^ 
^oKo^y Ocaniy SpoVos, ^/av, Ka'/xli/o?, oceuy KapSoTTO?, k'nemUnfj-ironffh, 
-Kt/ifajTo'?, c■//'^^v, i/OfTO?, (liseasey ttAiV^o?, hr{rk\ pdjSho^iy rod^ <T0p6<;, cojjin., 
aTToSo^, «N/i(^s, Ta<^po<;, (/eVcV/, ypdi^-ixo^iy scmd, (/^</io9, pebble; witlj oSof 
and Kt'Atu^o?, wiv, a/xa^iro^;, carriage-roady drpaTro?, /?«///. 

2. Names of caujuries, (uwn.'^y IrecSy and isla/uls, which are rogn- 
larly feniiwine (159, *^) : so TjTrapo?, mainland , and »/i5^<>?> i^^ci^^d- 

195. 'i'lie nominative in 0? is sonietinies used for the vocative 
in € ; as (jj (/n'Ao?. ©co?, 6or/, has alway.s ^^o? as vocative. 

ATTIC SECOND DECLENSION. 

196. A f->.w masculine and feminine nouns of this declen- 
sion have stems in oj, whicli appears in all the cases. Tliis 



201] 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



43 



SINGULA H. 

vtws 

VCW 

Vttiv 
V(WS 



v<w 

VfUfV 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dai. 

Ace. 

Voc. 



V(b) 
V<WV 

v<ws 



is called the Attic declension^ though it is not confined to 
Attic Greek. The noun (6) kuj?, temple^ is thus declined: — 

ULTAL. PJ-UKAL. 

Nom. 

Gen. vcw N.A.V. 

Dat. v«w' G. D. 

Ace. 

Voc. 

197. N. Tiicre ai-c no neuter nouns of tl^c Attic declension in 
goufl use. But tlie corresponding adjecfives, a^s iKcwi, propidouny 
iipyt(os,/?rfi7t% have neuters in u)^, as JfAcwi', c^ycwi'. (See 'SO'b.) 

198. N. Tlie accent of these nouns is irregular, and that of the 
genitive and dative is doubtful. (See 114; 12o-) 

199. N. Some nouns of this class may have oj in the accusative 
singular; as Aayw?, accus. \ayi^v or Aaytj. So^A^to?, rov''AOo)v or 
'A^o); Koj?, n)i' Kuji/ or Kw; and Kt'cj?, T(<u?, iMiVax;. "Eo)?, dawn, 
has regularly t:^w "Eu). 

200. N. jMost nonns of the Attic declension have older forms 
in ao? or r]o<i, fi-oni wliich they are probably deiived bv exchange 
of quantity (33); as Hon^ \d6<i, people, Att. Atoi?; Dor. vad?, 
Ion. inrj6<;, Att, i/cai?; Honi. MtviKao^, Att. Mcwt'Acto?. But some 
come by contraction; as Aayuls, hare^ from Aaywd?. In words like 
Mck'A^ojs, the original accent is retained (114). 



CONTRACT NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION, 

201. 1. Frojn stems in oo- and co- are formed contract 
nouns in 009 and-cot'. 

For contract adjectives in co?, ca, cof, and 009, oa, oov, sec 310. 

2. Ndo?, i/ovs, miTid, and oo-rcoi/, oo-tovi', ^oue, are thus de- 
clined : — 





SINGLJ.AR. 




DUAL. 




PLL'RAL. 




Nom. 


(v6o%) vovs 






Nom. 


(1-600 


vol 


Geu. 


{p^ov) vov 


N 


A.V.(^iu.) v« 


(ten. 


(I'du)!') 


vJiv 


Dat. 


(i'6(fi) vw 


G 


D. (i-ioi^) voiv 


Dat. 


(ydoti) 


vols 


Ace 


(I'dov) voiv 






Ace. 


(p6ov^) 


vovs 


Voc. 


(v6{) voii 






Voc. 


{p6oO 


VOL 


N.A.V 


.(iffT^ov') oo-ToCv 


^^• 


ky.i6<rHui) ba-ri 


N.A.V 


, (6.7r/a) 


OO-TO. 


Gen. 


(6ot(qv) OO-TOli 


G. 


T). (6<TT/oit>)bo-roiv 


Gen. 


(6<TT^i,jy) 


oa-riav 


Dat. 


(dcT^y) OCTTW 






Dat, 


((SffT^ot;) oo-Tots 



44 INFLECTION. [202 

202. So may be declined (irXoos) irXov?, voyage, (poo?) pou?, 
stream, (Kaycov) Kavovy, basket (accented like adjectives in «o?, 311). 

203. The accent of some of these forms is irregular: — 

1. The dual contracts cw and oto into ui (not ai). 

2. Compounds in oo? accent all forms like the contracted nomi- 
native singular; as irtpiVAoo?, TrtpiVAou?, sailing rounds gen, 7r«pi- 
ttAoou, TrtptVXou, etc* 

3. For ea contracted to a in tlie plural, see 39, 1. 

DIALECTS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. 

204. 1. Gen, Sing. Horn, oto and ov, Aeolic and Doric w (for 
oo) ; as ^€010, fxiyaku), 

2. Geyi. and Dat. Dual. Horn, ouv for oiv\ as XTnTot.iv. 

3. Dal. Plur. Ionic and poetic oiort; as rTrTroio-t; also Aeolic and 
old Attic, found occasional!}' even in prose. 

4. Ace. Plur. Doric ou? or os for ou?; as ko/xw?, tw? Xukos; Les- 
bian Aeolic 015. 

5. The Ionic generally omits contraction. 



THIRD DECLENSION, 

205. This declension includes all nouns not belonging 
to either the first or the second. Its genitive singular 
ends in 09 (sometimes C09). 

206. N. This is of leu called ihe Consonant Declension (166), be- 
cause ilie siem here generally ends in a consonant. Some siems, 
however, end in a close vowel (< or i;), some in a diphthong, and a few 
in or w. 

207. The stem of a noun of the third declension cannot 
always be determined by the nominative singular; but it is 
generally found by dropping o? of the genitive. The cases 
are formed by adding tlie ease-endings (167) to the stem. 

208. 1. Fur final w? in ihe geniiive singular of nouns in *s, vs, v, 
fvi, and of yavt, ship, see 240 ; 265 ; 269. 

2. For a and ac in the accusative singular and plural of nouns in 
€Vi, see 266. 

3. The contracted accusative plural generally has «s for etfs Irregu- 
larly, to conform to tlie contracted nominative in tis for ««?. (See 313.) 
So ovi in the accusative plural of comparatives in iuf (358). 

4. The original vy of the accusative plural is seen in Ix&Ot (for 
/x^u-m) from tvBtf^ (259), and the Ionic iro\ls (for rroXi-vi) from irAXii 
(266). 



210] THIHD DECLKNSION. 45 

FORMATION OF CASES, 
NoMiNATjvE Singular. 

209. The numerous forms of the roiniuative singular of 
this declension juust be learned partly by practice. The 
followiiijT; are the general principles on which the nominative 
is forjned from the stem. 

1. Masculine and feminine stems, except those in v, p, a-, 
and ovT (2 and 3), add $, and make the needful euphonic 
changes. E.g. 

^vka^y guard, <f>vKaK-o<i ; yvip, viihurey yvtr-6': ; <i>keijr^ veirty <f}\e/i-6'! 
(74) ; cAtti? (for <A.7rtSs), hope, tATn'^-o?; x^P'-^'> 9''^^^* X'^P^''"^ ? opvls, 
hirdy Qpvl&~o<; \ vl^, nighty vvKT-'>i\ fxacTTt^, scouvf/e, fJuaLaTly-o<i; croA- 
TTxyf, irum/^et, o-oAirxyy-o?. So A'a?, AjaXy Atavr-os (7!^) ; AuVd?, 
AixravT-o?; Tra?, Trairr-o? ; ti^«i9, Ti^«>r-ot; x<ipt*fi?> X^P**^^'^ ' ^'^^^'i^'fr 
BiiKvvvT~o<;. ('J'lic n<?u/t?rj of the last five words, Xvaavy Tray, riO^Vy 
Xa/jicy, and 8ciKvuy, are given under 4, below.) 

2. Masculine and feminine stems in v, p, and o- merely 
lengthen the last vowel, if it is short. Eg. 

AluiVy af;ey aiaiy-o?; BaifXioVy divinity , ^aifjiOy~o<! ; AifiT/f, harhor, 
Ai/jicV-o?; 6-jpy beast y Orjp-oi ; ai^py air, a(p-o<:; Sti^xpaTjy? (^(oKparca-), 
Socrates, 

3. Masculine stems in ovt drop t, and lengthen o to w. E.g. 
Atu)y, lion, Acovr-o? ; ktyutv, speaking, At'-yovr-o? ,* cjc, heing, 

4. In neuters, the nominative singular is generally the 
same as the stem. Final r of tlie stem is dropped (2o). E.g. 

2a)yxa, body, au}pjaT-o<i ; fXiXilv (neuter of /icAd9)> blachy fXi\av-o<i\ 
Xxaav (neuter of Ailo-ds), having looaedy XiaayT-o<;] 7ra»', all, 7ravr-os; 
ri$<Vy plarinfiy XLOivT-oi ; x^P^'^^'j ^^^c<tA'^> \apUvT-oq ; SiW, gii^ififf, 
StSJyro? ; \iyovy sayingy \iyovTO<i ; Saxvw, shoiviiig, S<lkvvvt-o<:. 
(For t})e rnasculine nominatives of ttiese adjectives and participles, 
see 1, ahovc.) 

210. (I::xceptions to 209, 1-3.) I. In iroi^, /o<?/, ttoS-oc, oSc be- 
comes ot'9. Adfxapy tcife, Sa/xapr-o?, does not add 9. Change in 
quantity occurs in oAwttt;^, /or, oAwTreK-o?, xrjpvi, herald, kiJ/juk-o?, 
and 4>orc:|, <t>oiVtK-o?. 

2. Sterns in tv- add 9 and have T? (78, 3) in the nominative; as 
pU, no<!ey pLi'-o^. These also add ?: Krtt'?, comb, Krfv-o? (78, 3) ; «t9, 
one, iv-6^; and the adjectives /xcAd?, black, /xcAa»/-o?, and roAu?, 
tcrretchcd, roAav-o?. 



46 INFLECTION. [211 

3. 'OSous (Ionic 6hu)v), toothy gen. o3wr-o9, forms its nominative 
like participles in ous; for tliese see 'IVl, 1. 

211. {Exceptions to 209, 4.) Some neuter steins in ar- liave ap 
in the nominative; as riirap^ liver, gen. iJ^Trar-os (220), as if from a 
stein in apr-. For nouns in a? with double stents iu ar- (or tZr-) 
a)id acr-, as Kpeaq, 7ripa<: (225), and repas, see 237. <I>a>9 (for ^jfraos), 
light, has gen. <^a>r-09 ; but Homer has <^aos (stem ^aco*-)* For 
Tvp, 7fr(?, gen. Trup d?, see 291. 

212. (Parliciples.) 1. Masculine participles from verbs in a)p.i 
add 9 to Of T- and have nominatives in on? (70) ; as St8oiJ9, (^/du)^, 
3i8nvr-09. Neuters in ovt- are regular (209, 4). 

Other participles from stems in ovt- have nominatives in wi/, 
like nouns (209, 3), 

2. The perfect active participle, with stem in or-, forms its 
nominative in w? (niasc.) and o? (neut.); as AtXuKoi?, haciny 
loosed, neut. XfAuKo?, gen. XcXukoV-o?. (See 335.) 

213. X. For nominatives in t?? and 09, gen. co?, from stems in 

tfT-, see 227. For peculiar formations from stems in o (r.om. <u), 

sec 242, 

Accusative Singular. 

214. 1. Most masculines and feniinines witli consonant 
steins add a to the stein in the accusative singular; as 
<^\)\oi^ ((^vKatc-), ^uAttKa; \iujv (Xtofr-), lioriy Xtovra. 

2. Those with vowel stems add v; as ttoXk, state^ Tro'Xtv; 

l)(Bv<i, fiah, Ix'^t'v] vau?, ship, yavv] /3ov<;, OX, /3ovv. 

3. Barytones in t? and u? with lingual (t, 8, 6^) stems 
generally drop the lingual and add v\ as tpi? (<V^S-), strife, 
tpty; x°^P'^'* (X"P^''")j yf'<^^<^j X'^P^^'i ^/^vl? (opKi^-), ^iVc/, o/oi'Iv' ; 
tucATTt? (cucAttiS-), hopeful, (.vkXttw (but the oxytone tATrt'?, 

/iO/>€, has <A7ri.'8a). 

215. N, KAet? (A:Aci8-), key, has /cA^tv (rarely fAtlSa). 

216. N. Homer, Herodotus, and the Attic poets make accusa- 
tives in a of the nouns of 214, 3; as Ipiha (Horn.) xap^^a (Hdt.), 
opvWa (Aristoph.), 

217. N. 'AttoAAwi/ and IlotritScuv {Hoa-cihanav) have accusatives 
^AttoAAoj and HocrttSw, besides the forms in wva. 

For o) in the accusative of comparatives in Iwv, see 359. 

218. N. For accusatives iu <a from nominatives in tjv, in fa from 
those in €v%, and in w (for wa or oa) from those in ws or cj, sec *228 ; 
265 ; 243. 



226] NOUNS WITH MUTE OR LIQUID STEMS. 47 

Vocative Singular. 

219. The vocative singular of masculines and ferainiues 
is sometimes the same as the norainative, and sometimes the 
same as tlie stem. 

220. It is the same as the nominative 

1. In nouns with mute steins ; as nom. and voc. <f>v\ai 
{(^vXaK-), watchman. (See the paradigms in 225.) 

2. In oxytones with liquid stenis ; as nonu and voc. voifji-qv 
(irot/AeK-)i shepherd, \ifjiijv (Xifjity-), harbor, 

I^ut barvtoues liave tlte vocative like the stem ; as Sat/jLOJi^ 
(Sox/AOv^), voc. SaifjLov- (See tlie paradigms in 2'25.) 

221. {Exception?.) 1. Those with .stetns in iS-, and barytones 
wi1.li stems in vt- (except participles), Jiave the vocative like the 
stonu as iKTrL<t (cX-mS)., hope, vof. cKtti (cArJ>i): sei.* Acoov and yiya?, 
dech'niui in 225. So Ata? (Atavr-), AJax, voc. Alav (Iloni.), but 
Aiu? in Attic. 

2. 2(jur>)p {cr<jJTY}p')y preserver, 'AtroWoiv (*A7ro,\Aa)^-), and tlocrn- 
SCiv (HocrftSajr- for UocniBnoy-) shorten tj and w in Uie vocative. 
Thus voc u-CjTip, "AnoXXoy, UocreiBov ([loni. UocrtL^dov)- For the 
recessive accent here and in similar forms, «ce 122 (d). 

222. All others liave the vocative tlie same as the stem. 
Sec the paradigms. 

223. There are a few vocatives in o? from nouns in w and w, 
gen. oi)s: see 245; 248. 

For the vocative of syncopated nouns, sec 273. 

Dative Plukal. 

224. The dative plural is formed by adding crt to the 
stem, with tlie needful eaplionie changes. E.g. 

4>uAa^ (<j>v\aK-)y (f>v\Q^L\ f>-qT<j}p (p7;rop-), p^T0p(7i\ fATris (iXirid-), 
eATriVi (74) ; ttov^ (7ro8-), noai; Acoii/ (XioyT-), Xeovci (79); Saipn:)v 
(Sat^ioi^), Sat'jixoat (BO); tiOcl<: (^tlBivt-), nBtlm; ^upiti.^ (;^aptCKr-), 
Xapi'tCTt (74 ); laTii<i (icrrat/r-), laTaaii, htiKvv%{hi\.Kv\}VT~)y ^tLKvv(n\ ^am- 
A«\Js(/3ao-tA€u-), ^acnXcvai\ (iuv% (/Sov-), /3ovat: ypavf; (ypav), ypaucrt. 

For a change i)i syncopated nouns, set; 273. 

>'OUNS WITH MUTE OK LIQUID STEMS. 

225. The following are examples of the most com- 
mon forms of nouns of the third declension with mute 
or liquid stems. 



48 



INFLECTION. 



[225 



For the formation of the cases, see 209-224. For euphonic 
changes in nearly all, see 74 and 79. For special changes in Opt^, 
see 95, 5. 

Mute Stems. 

I. Masculines and Feminines. 





(o) <i>vM 


(ti) «i'X^+ 


(d) o-oXiri'yl 


(ti) Bpii 


(d) \i»y 




watchman 


vein 


trumpet 


hair 


lion 


Stcvi. 


(<pv\aK-) 


(0X*/S-) 


(ffaXirny-) 

SlNCULAn, 


(Tp'X-) 


(XfOVT-) 


Norn. 


<i»vXa| 


4>\i^ 


o-oXitiyI 


epti 


Uu>v 


Gen. 


(f>vXaKO$ 


<i,X«pds 


o-oXiriY'yos 


xpixds 


Xc'oVTOS 


Dat. 


4>v'XaKi 


<i,x«p( 


a-dXtriyyi 


rpixf 


XlOVTl 


Ace. 


(f>uXaKa 


<t,X^Pa 


o-oXiriyya 


Tpixa 


Xe'ovTtt 


Voc. 


<(>iiXa^ 


4>x.> 


o-otXiriY^ 

DUAL. 


m 


X^ov 


N. A.V. (}>vXaK( 


4,x<p. 


o-clXiriyy* 


Tp£x« 


X*OVT* 


Ct. D. 


(f>vXaKoiv 


4)X*Poiv , 


o-aXtriyyoiv 

PLUU.^l,. 


rpixotv 


X«dvTOiv 


N. V. 


4>vXaK€s 


<i,Xip.s 


a-dXir\.yyt% 


Tp(x<s 


X<OVT«S 


Gen. 


4>uXdicwv 


<i,X.p«v 


a-aXirlyyiav 


rpixwv 


XtdvTwv 


Dat. 


4>vXa^ 


<i,X*^i 


o-ciXiri'y^i 


ept|£ 


XiovfTi 


Ace. 


if>vXaKas 

(d) yiyds 


(i)Xtpas 


o-oXiriYYas 


rptxas 
(d ii) opvis 


Xiovras 




(6) 0tis 


(ti) Xajiiros 


(TJ) cXirCs 




(jiaut 


hi7-ed man 


torch 


bird 


hope 


Ste^n, 


XyiyafT-) 


ievT') 


(\afiva6-) 

SINGULAR. 


{6ppW-) 


(eXmb') 


Nom. 


yiydi 


Otis 


Xajnrds 


opvis 


iXirii 


Gen. 


■yi-yavTOS 


6T]Tds 


Xa^iraSo$ 


opviOos 


A-n-tSos 


Dal. 


■yt^avTi 


etirt 


Xa^iirciSi 


^fpvtei 


iXirtSi 


Ace. 


yiyavra. 


Ot^ra 


Xap.-n-ciSa 


opvlv 


cXir(8a 


Voc. 


yiyav 


eri« 


Xajiirds 

DUAL. 


dpvij 


(XttC 


N.A.V.YtvavT* 


0TJT« 


XajiirdSc 


^pvi0« 


«-Xirt5« 


G. D. 


YiYciVToiv 


0T|TOlV 


Xa^iirciSoiv 

PLURAL. 


dpvtOoiv 


«Xm8oiv 


N. V. 


yiyavrti 


01JT« 


Xajj-TToiScs 


dpviets 


cXttIScs 


Gen. 


y\.ydvrutv 


OqrwV 


Xa|iird8wv 


dpvfOwv 


«Xir(8wv 


Dat. 


yiywcr\. 


erio-c 


Xaiiiroo-i 


opvuri 


iXirfo-t 


Ace. 


■yt-yavras 


OtlTttS 


Xa^-rroSaf 


opvl6a$ • 


«Xir^as 



3251 



NOUNS WITH MUTE OH LIQUID STEMS. 49 





II. 


iVcuffirs. 








(to) (Twjta 


(to) ir^pas ( 


'to) i^-trap 




body 


end 




liver 


Stem. 


(ffw/xaT-) 


(irepar 


-) 


(^Trar-) 




SINGl-LAR. 






N. A.V. 


crw^a 


Wpas (237) 


tjirap 


Gen. 


<r«(iaTOS 


TT^paros 


ffiraTos 


Dat. 


<r«fljiaTt 


ir^pari 

DUAL. 




jytrari 


N. A.V. 


<r«*(iOTi 


iripan 




fjVaTC 


G. D. 


<r«(i.aTotv 


wtpdrow 


TJiraTOLV 






PLURAL. 






N. A.V. 


o-wjiaTa 


irtpaTa 


t 


T^'irara 


Gen. 


<rW(MlT«V 


iriparwv 


ti-rraTwv 


Uat. 


o-wfioo-i 


■ir^pao-t 




■qirao-t 




LiQ 


LWD Stems. 






(<J) ffOlJlTiv 


(o) atwv 


(o) t|y«hJ»' I 


(o) 5afn«v 


(o) o-uTiip 


shepherd 


age 


/eaJer 


divinity 


preserver 


Stem. (roiMct'-) 


(tt^Wf-) 


(r^^fAWi-) 


(SaiyLu)*--) 


(crwrep-) 




SINGULAR. 






Nom. iroijiifv 


atwv 


Ti-yffjtwv 


SaCjAwv 


(r«TT|p 


Gen. TToin^vos 


atwvos 


TiY(lxovo« 


8a£(jtovos 


crwnjpos 


Dat. TTOl^l^VL 


atwvi 


TJ^ttxovt 


8a£^ofi 


(Tw-nipi 


Ace. iroin^va 


atwva 


ti'Y«p,o'va 


8aCpiova 


crwnipa 


Voc. TTOlUliv 


atwv 


li^ttxwv 

DUAL. 


Soijjiov 


(rwT4p(122) 


N.A.V.,Toin^v( 


atwv< 


TJyino'vc 


8aCpov« 


crw-nipf 


G, D. iroip,«voiv 


aCwvoiv 

i 


TJy<Hovoiv 

PLURAL. 


SaifjLo'voiv 


O-WTTJpOlV 


N, V. iroin^vfs 


atwvts 


T]y«flo'v«S 


8a£pLov(s 


O-WTllpCS 


Gen. irotji^vwv 


atwvwv 


tiY<p.dvwv 


8ai}iovwv 


(TWTtipwV 


Dat. wonxio-i 


ttCwo-i 


TlYiM-oVi 


Sotfio<ri 


(rwTTip<ri 


Ace. troitjUvas 


alwvaf 


li-ytjiova^ 


8aC^vas 


o-wrtlpas 



50 


(o) pTfrwp 


1 

(d)aXs 


N FLECTION. 
(0) eTJp 


(li) ^ts 


(22 
(ti) 4»PTiv 




orator 


salt 


beast 


nose 


i;iIJi(i 


Stem. 


(piJTOp-) 


(dx-) 


SING U LA K. 


(p.VO 


(0pf*'-) 


Norn. 


pTJTwp 


6Xs 


e^'p 


pts 


4>pTiv 


Gen. 


pil'TOpOS 


oXo's 


e^ipo's 


plvo's 


4>p*vos 


Dat. 


pTl'TOpi 


aXi 


e,ip£ 


pivt 


4»p€Vl 


Ace. 


^TJTOpa 


oXa 


Giipa 


p£va 


4tp<va 


Voc. 


pTJTOp 


aXs 


Slip 

DUAL. 


jits 


4»pn'v 


N.A.V 


RTlTOpt 


aX< 


e^ipt 


piv< 


+pfv« 


G. ]). 


P^To'poiv 


oXoiv 


0T]poiv 

I'LUKAL. 


pivoiv 


4>p<voiv 


N. V. 


p.i'TOp<S 


d'Xts 


er"p«s 


pivts 


4»p^V«S 


Gen. 


py\Ttipuiv 


oXiiv 


6t|pu)v 


plviiv 


4>p€va>v 


Dat. 


piqropo-l. 


aX<ri 


Br]p(ri 


pio-i 


4>pt<rt 


Ace. 


pilTopas 


oXas 


eijpas 


pivas 


4>p«vas 



STEMS ENDING IN 2. 

226. The final o- of the stem appears only where there 
is no case-ending, as in the \iominative singular, being else- 
where dropped. (See 8Sy 1.) Two vowels brought togetJier 
by this omission of <r are generally contracted. 

227. Tlie proper substantive stems in ca- are cliiefly 
neuters, which change to-- to os in the nominative singular. 
Some masculine i)ro)>er names change to-- regularly to ??? (209, 
2). StenLs in aa- form nominatives in a?, all neuters (228). 

228. l.a>fcpdTr}<i (^IcoKparea-)^ Socrates^ (to) y6vo<; 
(y€V€a-), race, and (to) yipa^; (yepaa-)^ prize, are 
thus declined : — 



Nom. 



^wKpariis 



SlNVil.LAK. 

IK. A.V. 



\(voi 



Cicn, (^iwKpdTfos) SwKpdTous] Gen. {'y^y(Oi) yhov^ 



Dat. CZioKpdiTti) EwKpciTU 

AeC. (SwKpdrfa) 2wKpdTq 
Voc. SwKparts 



Dat. (7^;'cV) -y^vd. 

DUAL. 

N.A.V. (7^«c)Y<vu 
G. D. (yti'^oii') ytvoiv 

PLURAL. 
N.A.V. (7^;;fa)7<VTl 

Gen. "ytvfwv 'ycvtj^v 
Dal. yivta-i 



Y^pas 
(7<?paoj) -ytpus 
(7<'paO 7^P«i^ 

(7«fpac) 7<pa 
(7f/)do£v) -ycpuv 

C7<fpaa) ffpa 

(7fpciuji') -y<p«v 

f^pcurt 



237] STEMS ENDING IN 2. 51 

229. In the genitive plural twv is sometimes uncontracted, even 
in prose; as t^x^o}^ ^'om rcixo?. For tea contracted la, Ree 30, 2. 

230. Proper namt-s in r)<:, gen. «09, besides the accusative in rj^ 
liave a form in rjv of the first declension ; as "SiOiKpaT-qv^ J^^-qfjLtxrBivTjv, 

For the recessive accent in the vocative of these nouns, see 12'J. 

231. Proper names in kAct;?, compounds of /<Xto<;, glory, are 
doubly contracted in tlie dative, sometimes in the accusative. 
n^pwXtT;?, Xif.pLK\r^%j PericleSj is thus declined : — 

Noni. (IT€pncX^7)E) HcpittXtis 

Gen. (J]epiK\hoi) Xltp\,Kk(ov% 

Dat. (rifptifX^fi) (HfpiKXiei) llipKKkil 

Ace. (UtpiKXtta) n«pi.KMd (poet. lUpiKXii) 

Voc. (TlfpUXfe^) riipiKXtis 

232. N. In proper names in f<Xtr)'i, Homer lias ^o";, ^i, ^a, 
Merodotu.s /o? (for «09), I'l, <a. In adjectives in cq'i Homer some- 
times contracts t€ to ct: as, cvkXit}^, ace. plur. trnXitat for tiKAcVo?. 

233. Adjective stems in etr- change tcr- to tj? in the ma^cniine 
and feminine of the nominative singular, but leave <? in Die 
neuter. For the declensiou of these, see 311^, 

234. TJje adjective rpiTjprjg, triply Jilted, is used as a 
femijiine iiovuij (ij) Tpujp^? (so. mv<;), triremp,, and is thus 
declined : — 



Norn. Tpii)pi)s 
Gen. (rpti^pios) TpiTjpovs 
Dat. (TpfTjpfi) rpii^pti 
Ace. (rpnjpfa) TptTjpt] 
Voc. Tplt^ptS 



IJIIAI.. I I'LtJkAT.. 

I 



N. A.V. {rptT)pu) 

TptT|p€t 

G. 0. {t p\.r)piokv) 



N.V. (Tp<Tjp«f) TptlqpdS 

Gen. (rptTip^di^) Tpn^pwv 
Dat. Tpbr|pi0-i 



rpiTjpoiv j Ace TpiT|p€is 



235. N. Tptrjpr;? lias recessive accent in the genitive dual and 
plural : for this in other aJjectivc.s in t;?, see 122, 

For the accusative plural in et^, see 208, 3. 

236. N. Some poetic nominatives in aq have t for a in the 
other causes ; as oSSa?, ground, gen. ouSco?, dat. ouSa, ovStt (Homer). 
So j3pira<;, image, gen. fiptreos, plnr. fiplrrj, Pptrioiv, in Attic 
poetry. 

237. 1. Some nouns in a<; have two stems, — one in ar- or dr- 
with gen. aro? (like -ircpa?, 225), and another in axr- with gen. 



62 INFLECTION. [238 

a(cr-)o?, aos, contracted (09 (like yepas, 228). Thus Ktpa^ (tctpar-, 
Ktpa<T-)f horn, is doubly declined. 



SINGULAR. 

N.A.V. K^pas 

Gen. K^pciTos, («paos) K^pws 

Dat. K^pdri, (<f/)a( ) K^pai 



DUAL. 

N. A.V. K^pdT<, (K(pof) Wpd 
G. D. Kipdroiv, (xepootv) icip^iv 



PLURAL. 

N.A.V. K^pdra, (*ffpaa) K^pd 
Gen. wpdrwy, (jffpaajf) K«p»v 

Dat. Kc'pdo-i 

2. So T€pas, prodigy, Tc/jar-os, wliich has also Homeric forms 
from the stem in ao--, as rcpaa, Ttpaojv, Tcpdccra-L. Iltpas, cnrf (225), 
has only Trepar-o?, etc. 

238. There is one Attic noun stem in otr-, atSoo--, with nomina- 
tive (ij) cu8^s, shame, which is thu* declined ; — 



SINGULAR. 




Kom. aIS»s 
Gen. (alSooi) alSovs 


DUAL AND PLUKAL 


Dat. (a;3oi) atSoi 


wanting. 


Ace. (at5oa) atSw 




Voc. al8(is 





239. AtSojs has the declension of nouns in to (242), but the 
accusatWe in to has the regular accent. (See also 359.) 

240. The Ionic {r}) -qm, dawn, has stem -^ocr-, and is declined 
like cu8(jus : ^gen. -^ou?, dat. rj6i, ace. i^w. The Attic ?w? is declined 
like v€ui? (196) : but see 199. 

STEMS IK ft OK 0. 

241. A few stems in (d- form masculine nouns in o?, gp.n. oj-o?, 
which are often contracted in the dative and accusative singular 
and in the nominative and accusative plural. 

242. A few in o- form femiuines in ol, gen. out (for a-o<:), 
whicli are always contracted in the genitive, dative, and accnsa^ 
tive singular. The original form of tlie stems of these nouns is 
uncertain. (See 239.) 

243. The nouns (6) •^p^j herOy and (ij) ircMy persuasioiij 
are thus declined ; — 



260] STEMS IN ft OR 0; 1 AKD T. 53 

6ING0LAR. Norn. tjpdJS tTuB^ 

Gen. "qpujos (irtt$oo\) fftiBoOs 

Dat. r\pm or ijp«}> (7r<itfot) *ir«vOoC 

Ace. Tipwa or -iipfc) (TrdSoa) ir<vew 

Voc. iipws iT<v6ot 

DDAL. N. A.V. Tlp«< 

G. D. T)PW0W 

FLDRAL. N. V. rjptJiS or TJpwS 

Geu. T|pw«v 

Dat. T^pwo-w 

Ace. iipwas or iipws 

244. Tliese nouns in ojs sometimes have fovnis of the Attic 
second declension; as gen. -ijpu) (like vioi), acciis. ^pu)v. Like yjpo}^ 
are declined T/)w?, Trojan {Vl'6)f and p.rjTpui^, mother's brother. 

245. N". l1iG fuininines in w are chiefly proper names, J. ike 
irtiOu) may be declined 2aiT<^al (Aeolic ^a7r<^w), Sappho, gen, Safl-- 
(^ou?, dat. 2a7r<^ot, aoc. 2air<^a), voc. 2a7r<^ot. 8o Atjtw, KoA.vi/'tjj, 
and T7;(a», <?c/iO. No dual or plural forms of these nouns are found 
in the tliird declension ; but a few occur of the second, as ace. plur. 
yopyov'i from yopyu>, Gordon. No uncontracted forms of nouns in 
(J occur. 

246. K. Tlie vocative in oZ seems to belong to a form of the 
stem in ot-; and there was a nominative form in w, as At/tw, 2ar<^<iJ. 

247. X. Mei'odotu-s has an accusative singular in oDv; as 'loO;' 
(for 'loi) fi0H\ "loi, /o, gen. '}ov<;. 

248. A few feminines in ujv (witii regular stems in ov-) have 
occasional forms like tliosc^ of nouns in ui; as ayjSuyVy luijhtmfjale, 
gen. aT^SoD?, voc. aijhoi; ttKwv, image, gen. tiVov?, ace. <lk(j; ;(cXt8oiv, 
swallow, voc. ;^tArSot. 

STEMS IN I AND Y. 

249. Mo«t etoms in i (witli nominatives in *?) and a few 
in V (with nominatives in vs and v) have « in place of their 
final I or v in all cases except the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative singular, and have wt for ot in the genitive 
singular. The dative singular and the nojuinative plural 
are contracted. 

250. The nouns (v) ttoX/c (TroXt-), state, (6) -rr^x^^ 
(7rT)^u-)i cuhit^ and (to) darv (ao-jv-), cki/y are thus 
declined : — 



54 


INPLECTJON. 


1 






SINGULA B, 




Nom. 


woXij 


mixwt 


WTTW 


Gen. 


iroX««5 


irTjx««f 


atrrtiat 


J)at. 


(To'Xfi) iro'Xft 


(TTT^xfi) inix«t 


(d(rT€i) ouTTii 


Ace. 


5roX.iv 


-ffijxvv 


ourru 


Voc. 


iro'Xi 


injxv 

DUAL. 


OO-TV 


N. A. V. 


(7r6Xe() tro'Xti 


(tdJx") iriiX^ 


(rfiTTff) oo-ra 


G. Tj, 


iroX^otv 


mix^otv 

PLURAL. 


dtrrrfotv 


N. V. 


(TTo'Xff?) iroXtis 


(7rjix«s) 1TT|X«^« 


(do-r^a) ourrti 


Geii. 


iroX< «v 


irrfx^wv 


CUTTIUV 


])at. 


iro'Xccrt 


inix<(ri 


ao-T«ri 


Ace. 


iro'Xcis 


inix«iS 


(d(TTfa) OWTTIl 



[251 



251. For the accent of genitives in eoj? and €U}V^ see 114. For 
accusatives lilce iroXcc^ and Triyx^iy, see 208, '6. 

252. N. The dual in « is rarely left uncontracted. 

253. N. *AoTv is the jM'incipal noun in u, gen. cw?. Its geni- 
tive plural is found only in the poetic furni ^iio-TfW, but analogy 
leads t,o Attic aartu)v. 

254. No nouns in t, gen. «a)?, were in common Attic use. See 
KOfJ-fJii and TTtTTipc in the ]>exicon. 

255. N. The original t of the stem of nouns in is (Attic gen. <ws) is 
retained in Ionic, 'i'lni.s, nlfXis, iri^Xios, (ttAXk) irdXl, TriXit- ; plur. T6Xies, 
TToXfoji' ; IJoni. TToXffaji (Hdt. iro\(<j-()i Tro'Xjat ( Hdt. al60 jro'XJs for iroXt-vs, 
sf.e 208/4). Homer has also iroXa (with TrroXei') and TroXf^ri in the 
dative. There are aluo epic forms iroXtjoi, To'X^i', Tro'Xrjtj, TroXijat. The 
Attic pof;f..s have a gpnitive in (os. 

'J'lio Ionic has a genitive in tot in nouns in ur of this class. 

256. N. Stems in v with gen. €109 have alRO forms in tv, in 
which €v becomos «;:, and drops f, leaving e: tlius tt^x^j TT/xtv-, 
^X^f" « '^7X<-- (•^^'^ 90, 3.) 

257. Most nouns in i;<? retain v; as (6) lx^C'; Clx^v-), 
Jisk^ which is thus declined: — 



SINGULAR. 


DUAL. 


PI-URAL. 


Nom. IxOvs 




Nom. 


IxBvti 


Oen. i^Bvos 


N.A.V. Ixevi 


Gen. 


IX^vwv 


Dat. 1x6111 (Horn. /x ''1^0 


G. I). Ix^ijoiv 


l)at. 


ixevo-t 


Ace. IxWv 




Ace 


IxGv, 


Voc. 1x6^ 









266J 



STEMS ENDING IN A DIPHTHONG. 



55 



258. N. The nominative plural and dual rarely have u? and 0; 
as ix^u? (like accus.) and l)(Ov (for Ix^vi) in comedy. 

259. N. Homer and Herodotus have both lxj9va': and i^^C? in 
the accusative plural. 'I^^? here is for ix6v-v<i (2u8, 4). 

260. Oxytoiies and monosvllables have v in the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative singular: see i)(Ov<i. Monosyllables are 
circuinflexed in these cases; as fj.v'j {p.v~), inouse, /xuo'?, /Ant, fxvv, 

^0; plur. /iU€9, fLvdVi fLVUL, /xua9- 

261. N. "Eyx^Xvi, eel, is declined like IxOvs in the singular, 
and lilce Trrjxvi in the plural, with gen. sing. ty;(cAu-o? and nom. 
plur. iyx^Xei^. 

262. N. For adjectives in v?, cux, v, see 319. 

STEMS ENDING IN A DIPHTHONG. 

263. 1. In nouns in ei;?, €v of the stem is retained in the 
jioininative and vocative singular and dative plural, but 
loses V before a vowel; ay (6) ^acriAeu? {fiamXiv-), king, 
which is thus declined: — 





SING U LA U, 


DUAL. 




I'LIJHAL. 


Nom. 


paortXttls 1 


N.V. 


(^atJiX^fs) paoriXfts 


Gen. 


^acriXitas 


N.A.V. pao-iX« 


Gen. 


powiX^wv 


Dat. 


ificLGiUi) paoriXtt 


G. D, PaoruX^oiv 


Dat. 


Pao-iXtOorw 


Ace. 


^aoriX^d 




Ace. 


^oo-kXc'ds 


Voc. 


PttOriXtV 









2. So -yovfiJ? (yov(v-)i parent, uptv<; (Uptv-), priest, 'Ax^^Afi;? 
('A;^tAAcu-), AchilleSy 'OBvaaiv^ {*Ohva<riv-), Ulysses. 

264. Hoiner has iv in three cases, fSa(n\€v<;, pacri\(v, and ^ucti- 
AdjCTt; but in the other causes ^acriX^o?, (SacnXrJL. paaikrja, ^aaiA^c?, 
)3atTiAijas, also dat. plur. dpto-Tij-co-n-i (from uptoTevs)', in )nopiu' 
names he has to?, «i, etc., as Tlrj\to<:, UrjXa (rarely contracted, as 
*AxtAA«t). Herodotus has gen. to?. 

265. Nouns in €v<: originally had stems in i^n, before vowels rif. 
From forms in T^fo?, rjfi, rjfa, etc., came tlie Homeric 170?, rji, -qH, 
etc. Tlie Attic to)?, td, edj came, by exchange of quantity (3;i), 
from 7^0?, T^d, T]a<i. 

266. The older Attic writers (as Tliucydides) with Plato have 
■5? (contracted from ^a) in the nominative plural; as iTTTr^?, 
ySacrtA^s, for later iTTTrers, /JacriAtis- In tlio. acensativn pbnal, tat; 
usually remains unchanged, but there is a late form in ct?. 



56 



INFLECTION. 



[267 



267, When a vowel precedes, €a>? of the genitive singular may 
be contracted into a>?, and id of the accusative singnlar into a; 
rarely ed<? of the accusative plural into a?, and itov of the genitive 
plural into Oiv. Tlius, TIcip(u<v9, Peiraeus, lias gen. Il^tpatfa)?, 
II«tpaia)9, dat. Uapauiy TliLpaul, aoc. TIttpau'd, Hetpaia ; Awpttvj, 
Dorian^ lias gen. plur. Awptcwj/, Awpiwj', ace. il^iapUa.^^ Aa>pta?. 

268. The nouns (6, ij) ^ou? (^ov-), oa; or cow, (rj) ypavq 
(ypav')y old woman f {rj) vavs (rav-), ship, and oh (ol-)^ sheep, 
are thus declined : — 

SINGULAR. 



Norn. 


Povs 


Gen. 


Poo's 


Dat. 


Pot 


Ace. 


povv 


Voc. 


pov 


N. A. V. 


Po. 


G.D. 


pOOlK 


N. V. 


po«$ 


Gen. 


pouw 


Dat. 


pouo-C 


Ace. 


poCs 



■ypavs 

ypSos 

ypoX 

Ypavv 

ypav 

DUAL. 

Ypaoiv 

PLIJKAL. 



vavs 

vaCv 
vttu 



VT1€ 

wotv 



ots 

olo's 

oU 

otv 

ol 

0t€ 

obtv 



•ypois VTJ€5 oils 

Ypawv V( i3v ol(3v 

Ypavo-t vavo-t oto-i 

•ypatjs Kavs ols 

269. N. Tiie stems of /Sous, ypaOt, and j-aCs became /3of-, ypHf-, and 
*'df- betore a vowel of the ending; (compare Latin bov-is and vdv-is). 
The stem of oh, the only stem in oc, was (S/rt- (compare Latin ovis). 
Afterwards f was dropped (WO, cl), leaving ^o-, ypd-, m-, and o/-. Attic 
wws is for vTjo's (33). 

270, In Doric and Ionic vavs is nmch more regular than in Attic:— 







SINGULAR. 






PLUKAL. 






Doric. 


Homer. 


Herod. 


Doric. 


Homer. 


Herod. 


Nom 


vavs 


Vt^VS 


VTJVS 


vdi« 


vtiis, v«*« 


V^fS 


Gen. 


vdos 


vT^os, vtcSs 


vt.6^ 


vdwv 


VT^WV, V(WV 


v«wv 


Dat. 


vdt 


VTlC 


VTlC 


vavo-C, 
vdto-o-i 


viiuo-Ci 
v^to-o-t, vi*<r<ri 


VII wrC 


Ace. 


vavv 


vTitt, vt'a 


v^a 


vdas 


vfjas, v<as 


v^as 



271. Homer has ypr^v^ (ypr)v-) and 7pTji'r (TpTjt^-) for ypavs. He has 
/3oas and /SoG? in tlic accusative plural of ^oOi. 

272, XoOs, three-quart measure, is declined like ^ov%, except in the 
accusatives xo'a and x^^as. (See xoCj in 291.) 



277] 



SYNCOPATED NOUNS. 



57 



SYNCOPATKD NOUNS. 

273. Four nouns in r}p (with stems in ip-) are synco- 
pated (65) in the genitive and dative singular by dropping 
t. The syncopated genitive and dative are oxytone; and 
the vocative singular has recessive accent (122), and ends 
in ip as a barytone (220, 2). In the other cases < is re- 
tained and is always accented. But in the dative plural «p- 
is changed to pa-. 

274. These are (o) Trari^p (Trarcp-), fat her y (i)) pi-)jTr)p 
{^ur]Tcp-), mother^ (7) OvydTtjp (^vyartp-), daughter^ and (17) 
yao-TT^p {ya(TT<p-) belly. 

1. The first three are thus declined: — 



Nom. 


iraTTip 


Gen. 


(iraT^po?) -n-aTpo's 


Dat. 


(iraripi) irarpl 


Acc. 


iraWpa 


Voc. 


iraTtp 


N.A.V. 


iraT/p< 


G. D. 


iraWpocv 


N. V. 


irar/p^s 


Gen. 


Trarip*3tv 


Dat. 


iraTpduri 


Acc, 


iraTi'pas 



{Quyaripo^) SuYarpo's 
{dyjyaripi) Ou'yarpt 

OvYaTfp 



0vyaWp< 
6u"yaT<poiv 



SINGULAR. 
)lt)TT]p 

{p.y}T^f>i) ni]Tpt 
^i^Tipa 

firJTtp 
DDAL. 

f«lTfp< 
(1117*pOtV 

PLURAL. 

fii^Wptf 

fjiTjr^puV 
jiTjTpourt, 
jiiflTtpas 

2. rao-T)}/) is declined and accented like -narrip. 

275. ^Agt-qp (6), 5/«r, has a<jTpd<ji, like a s^vncopated noun, in 
the dative plural, but is otherwise regular (without syncope). 

276. N. The uusyncopai.*=d forms of all those DOuns are often used 
by the poets, who also syncopate other cases of dvydTJjp ; as OOyarpa., 
dvyarpfs^ dvyaTpu>y. HojTlcr has dat. Jjlur. d^jyar^p^rai^ and TTOLTpCoP 
for TTar^puty. 

277. 1. ^Aytjp (6), via7i, drops c whenever a vowel fol- 
lows tp, and inserts 8 in its place (67). It has dv^poiv and 
av^pCiv. In other respects it follows the declension of TrarT/p. 

2. i^yjp.r)Tyjpy Demcter (Ceres), syncopates all the oblique 
cases, and then accents them on the Jirst syllable. 



OuYOiT^pwv 
Ou-yar^pas 



68 INFLECTION. [278 

278. *Aurjp and £^rjfiijrr)p are thus declined : — 



SINGULAR. 


Nom. 


AWjp 


Ayi^^ry\p 




Gen. 


(dv^poi) Av8p6s 


(&Vt^^r€poi) A^fiTlTpo? 




Dat. 


(av^pi) av8p£ 


(A*jMi>r<pO A^jiiirpi 




Ace. 


(Av^pa) avSpa 


(Ai;MiJr«pa) A^pHTpa 




Voc. 


avcp 


A^ilTlp 


DUAL. 


N.A.V. 


(iv^pt) av6p< 






G. D. 


(aifipoiv) dv5poiv 




PLUHAL, 


N.V. 


(df^pfj) avSpis 






Gen. 


(av^pwv) av5p«v 






Dat. 


AvSpdo-t 






Aec. 


(dt-Zpas) avSpas 





279. The poets often use the unsyncopated forms. Homer has 
avBpiaaL as well as avBpdcn in the dative plural. 

Gender of the Third De^jlenbion. 

280, The gender in this declension must often be learned 
by observation. But some genei'al rules may be given. 

281, ], Mascui.ink are stems in 
«v-; as pacn\tv<i (/^ao-tAfv-). kiyiff. 

p- (excejit those in ap-) ; as KpaTrjp (Kparrjp-), viizlng-hoxvl^ \pdp 
{\pdp'), starliuf). 

V- (except those in Tv, yov-, Bov-) ; as Kavutv (Kavov-)^ rule, 

VT-; as o8oiJ? (oSoi'T-), louih, 

Tp-- (except those in r-qr-) ; as X*'y9>;? (AcySiyr-), kettle. 

tor- ; as cpajs (<pa>r-), love, 

2. Exception!^. Feminine are yao-r^Jp, belly, Ki^p,fat€, ;j(€£p, hand, 
<f>pi^Uy inhid, dAxJoji', halcyon, tiKwv, vnaye, ijtoiiv, shore, x^^^> earth, 
;(t(ji/, snow, fxr/Kov, poppy, iG$Yj<i (icrOyjr-)^ dress. 

Keuter are irvp^Jire, t^i? (<^wr-), light. 

282. 1. Frmtnink are stem.*^ in 

i- and U-, witli iiomin. in ts and u? ; as TroXifi (ttoXi-), c(>y, l<T)(^ii 
(i(Txv-)j strength. 

av- ; as vavi (vav-). 

B-, 0-y TY}r-; as €pt« (c'ptS), strife, raxvTi^'i (TaxvTTp--), speed. 

Iv-y yot", 8of-; as aKTi'i (aKTtK-), ra^^, arayw (<rTayov-), drop, 
X^yMy iX-^^ov-), swallow'. 

2. Exccj)tums. Masculine are «x^-<;, viper, 6tf>i-<:, serpent, fioTpv-^, 
cluster of grapes^ Bprjw^, footstool, IxOv-^t fsh^ fLV-5> mouse, vtKv^t 



J80] IRREGULAR NOUNS. 59 

carpgif (rrdx^^t car of grain^ triKiKv-^y axe, w^x^'*' ^t'^i^ *ou? 
(fl-oS-),/oo/, UK(f>U (S<A<^iK-), dolphin, 

283. Nkutkk are sterna in 

I and V will] iioruin. in t and v; as Tritrtpiy pepper y aarv, ci(t/. 

a<;-; as y^pa?, jori>? (see 2:27). 

€?-, willi uouiin. in o? ; as ytVos (ycj/cCT-), race (see 227). 

a/?- ; aa ytntap, nectar, 

ar- ; as aui/xa (ato/utuT-), 6ot/y. 

284. Labial and palatal steins are always either masculine or 
fenjiijjne. (See 225. ) 

285. Variations in gender sometimes occur in poetry; see, tor 
example, aWrjp^ shi/, and Oii, heap, in tlie Lexicon. See also 288. 

DiALKCTS. 

286. ]. Gen. nnd Dat. Dual. Momoiic ottj' f'lr otj'. 

2. Dat, Plw\ Homeric eaat, rarely cat, aii(i uai (alter vowels); 
also at. 

3. Most of tiie uncontraoted forms enclo.sed in ( ) in the i>ara- 
digms, wliich are not used in Attic prose, are foimd in Homer or 
Herodotus; and some of them occur in the Attic poets. 

4. For special dialectic forms of .some nouns of the tiiird declen- 
sion, see 232, 2;3G, 2:37, 240, 247, 250, 250, 204, 270, 271, 27(j,;>79. 

IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

287. 1. Sonic nouns belong to more than one declension. 
Thus oKOTo^, darkness^ is usually declijied likr X6yo^ (1^2), 
but sometimes like ytVo? (228). So OfSiVovis, Ocdipus^ has 
genitive OiStVoSo? or OIB{ttov, dative OtStVoSi, accusative OlSi- 

TToSa. or OISlttovv, 

See also ytAws, I'/jo)?, iSpois, and other.s, in 291. 

2. For the double accusatives in rj and r)v of 2ujKpaT7^?, At^^o- 
aOtvrj'i, etc., see 230. 

288. Kouiis which arc of different genders in difi'ercnfc 
numbers are called heterogeneous ; as (b) atro?, co7*vi, plur. 
{to) aixa, (6) Bicfpo'ij chain, (ot) S40-yL;tot and (ra) Bicrpd. 

289. Defective nouns Jiave only certain cases; as ovapy 
dream, o(^«Xos, use (only noni. and accus.) ; (t-^v) n't^a, snoio 
(only accus.). Some, generally from their meaning, have 
only one number; as trtiOii}, persuasion, to. ^OAu/athu, the Olym- 
pic games. 



60 INPLECTION, [290 

290, Indeclinable nouns have one form for all cases. 
These are chiefly foreign words, as 'ASdfM, 'IcrpaTJK; and 
names of lettcrSj •AA<^a, B^ra, etc. 

291. The following are the most important irregular 
nouns : — 

1. "AiStj?, Hades, gen. ov, etc., regular. Horn. *AiSt;s, gen. ao or 
CO), dat, 7y, ace. rjv\ also "A 1609, "A t5t (from stem *At5-). 

2. ava^ (6), king^ avaKros, etc., voc dva^ (poet, a^o, in addressing 
Gods). 

3. "ApTy?, /iT-tfi-, "Apco)? (poet. 'Apco?), ("AptV) 'Apci, ("Apea) "Apjj 
or''ApT7v, 'Apej (Hoiii, aIso*Ap<9). Horn, also *Apj^09,*ApT;t, "Apiya. 

4. Stem (apt'-), gen. (rov or r^?) apvo*:, lamb, dpvC, apva ; pi. apws, 
apv<Iiv', dpvacrt, dpvas. Jn tiie iioiii. sing. dfi-voV (2d decl.) is used. 

5. ydXa (to), Tni7^', -yoAaKToq, -yoAaKTt, etc. 

0, ytAws (6), laughter^ yiXmTo^, etc., regular: in Attic poets ace. 
yt'Xwra or ■yf'Atoj'. In Honi. generally of second declension, dat. 
7€'A.aj, ace. -ytAoj. yiki^iv {yikov'i). (See 2SV, 1.) ♦ 

7. -ydnj (to), ^-fi^e, -yovaTos, -ydvaTt, etc. (from stem yovar-) ; Ion, 
and poet, yovvaro^, youVart, etc. ; Honi. also gen. youvd?, dat. youw, 
pi. -youi/a, -yovVwK, -youVto-crt. 

8. yvvrj (17) u'//>, yuvatKO?, -yuvatKi', yvvo^Ka, yvVat ; dual yvvoxKC, 
yvvaLKolv\ pi. "yvmiKCS, yu^atKtij>', yui^at^i', yumiKU?. 

9. htv^pov (to), ?)ee, St'vSpou, regular (Ion. ScvSptov); dat. sing. 
hiv^pcL'^ dat. pi. ScV8p€Grt. 

10. S<o? (to), /ear, Se'ovs, Sect, etc. Horn. gen. Sciou?- 

U, Sdpu {r6)y spear (cf. ydvu) ; (from stem SopaT-) ^oparo^, 
Soparif pi. Soparay etc. Ion. and poet. Sovparoij etc.; Kpic als(» 
gen. 8ovp6<:, dat. Soupt; dual Sovpc; pi. Soupa, Soup<o^, Soupco"o-t. 
Poetic gen. Sopo's, dat. Sopi and Sopn. 

12. epws (6), looey tpouTo?, etc. In poetry also €pos, <pa), <po»'. 

13. Zeu? (Aeol. Atus), .2't?u6-, Aids, Aa, Ata, ZeO. Ion. and poet. 
Zr)v6<;, ZrjvLy Zrjva. Pindar lias At for Au. 

14. BifiL^ (-q). Justice (also as proper name, Themis), gen. 0€)xtSo?, 
etc., rcg. like epts. Honi. Otfua-To^, etc. Pind. 6<.p.iT0<i, etc. Hdt.. 
gen. ^c'/xtos. In Attic prose, indeclinable in ^«'/xt? fcrn', /<25 est; as 

15. iSpoj? (6), .<?«;<?«;, tSpouTos, etc. Horn, lias dat. tSpw, ace. iSpw 
(243). 

16. xdpa (rd), head, poetic; in Attic only nom., accus., and voc. 
sing., with dat. xdpa (tragic). Horn. Kopy], gen. Kdprjro^, xapjjaros, 
xpduTOS, KpuTO? ; dat. Kuprfn, KapiqaTiy tcpdari, Kpdri', ace. (jov) 
icpara, (to) xopiy or xap ; p)ur. nom. Kapd, xapijara, xpaara; gen, 



291J IRREGL'LAR NOUNS. Gl 

Kpanov', dat. Kpacrt; ace. Kapd witii (tou?) Kpara?; notn. and ace. 
pi. also Kapr^vo^ gen. Kap7iv<j)v. Sopli, (ro) spara. 

17. KptVof (to), /iVy, Kpivov, etc. in jjiuvai also KptVea (I Ml.) 
and KpLv<.<SL (poetic). (See 287, ].) 

18. K^wf (o, 17), (/rt^, voc. KvQv: tlic rest from stem kw^ kvvo^. 
Kvn, KvVa ; pi. kvv<.<;^ KvyCtv, Ku<7t', Kwa?. 

19. Aa? (6), .sfoiic:, MoiiK Xaa?, pootic; gen. Aaos (or Xuou), d;ii. 
Aat, acc. Adat', Xon^\ dual Act; plui'. Aawr, Xdeam, or Au«<ti. 

20. AtVa (Hoiii. AtV, generally with cAmw, oil), fat, oil: pruba- 
bJy AfVa is neut. accus., aJid AiV is dat. for \17ri. See Lexicon. 

21. /MipTD? (6, v)» iviinef;s, gen. /ma/jrupo?, etc., dat. pi. /iaprucrf. 
Horn. noin. pAprvpo^ (2d dec!.). 

22. p.d<Tri4 {r}), whip, gen. /Aao-rlyo?, etc., Honi. dat. pAxxrly acc. 

^CTTIV. 

2ii, ot? (i5)j ^'^'ee;-*? for Attic declension see 268. Honi. of?, oio^, 
otV, ol'e?, otojt/, ducro-t (oito-t, o«<7a-i), oi"?. Aristoph. lias dat. oC. 

24. oi/(tpo? (6), oviipov (to), dream, gen. ou; also ofdp (to), gen. 
ov«tpaTosi dat. 6v<.CpoiTL\ plur. ovupaTa, ovciparuiv, ovclparn. 

25. oo-CT* (tw), dual, e^es, poetic; plur. gen. ocramvj dat. oo-o-ot? 
or ocraoLai. 

2G. opvt9 (o, r})y bird, see 2*25. Also poetic forms from stem 
opvi-, nom. and acc. sing", opi'ty, opvXv; pi. 6pva<i, opvfojt', acc. opvas 
or opm. Hdt. acc. opvlOa. Doric gen. opvr;(o?, etc. 

27. ov<; (to), tf'fit/', ort-d^, t^Tl; pi. (Ztcc, wtoji/ (128), aJat. Honi. 
gen. oiJaTO? ; ]>!. ovmra, oiuafrt., and (iat'. Doric w?. 

28. rii/i;^ (t)), P«v^, XlvKy6<:, Uvkvl, IL^Ki/a (also ITi'i;k dj, etc.). 
20. TTptafiv^i (6), oW mavy elder (propeily adj.), poetic, acc. -n-pi- 

o-jSvv (as adj.), voc. 7rp<V/?v; pi. TrplajSn'; (Kj). Trpto-ZJi^f;), c/a*e/if, 
eiders: tlie common word in tJiis sen.se i-i 7rp€cr^vrr}?y di.stinct from 
Trpto-jScuTv/?. llpi(T/3v<: = amhani^ador, w. gen. irpia/ituifi, is rare and 
poetic in sitip;. ; Imt common in pros;e in plur., npia^w;, Trpfcrptniv, 
TrpiKr/Sio-c, npiopu^ (like 77^x^9). np<o-/i«iiTT/5, ambassador^ is com- 
mon in sing., but rare in plural. 

30. vvp (to), fire (stem irvp-), irvpd?, Trvpt ; pi. (tol) ttvpol, watch- 
fires, dat. -jrvpots. 

31. (TTTfo? or CTTTtios (to), cau^, Epic; KnrtCov^, (TTnji, crr«iW, 
airi^^o-o-t or o-ttcWl. 

32. Tuai? or Tacuy, Attic TaoJ? (0), ;)tfaco^^', like vcw? (190) : also 
dat. Tau)Vi, Tttwat, chiefly poetic. 

33. ru<^w? (6), whirlwind; declined like vnk (196). Also proper 
name Tv(j>C>fi, in poetry generally Tu^uit^o?, Tu^om, TiJ<^a)Ka, (See 
287, 1.) 

84. vStxip (to), water, vBaTo<i, vSan, etc.; dat. plur. uSaai. 



62 INFLECTION. [292 

35. -utd? (6), son, vlovt etc., reg. ; also (from stern vlv-) me'o^, 
(vU'i) utci, (uu'a), vice, vUolv; (uu'c?) uici?, vUiov, vUcn, (vttas) vlu*;: 
also witli u lur vl\ as i)d?, iou, m'o?, etc. Hoiii. also (from stem vi-) 
geii. vio?, (iaL uli, aoc. via; dual m€ ; pi. ulcs, ulas, also dat. ulatri. 

30. x^^P (^)i ^ifl'"^! x^^P^^' X^^P^y ^^^-j ^'^'^ x*P*'^*' (poet, x^^poi*') 
and x^P^t' (poet, ^(tip^acfi or xilfXiji) : poet, also x^P^*^' X^P^'' ^^^* 

37, (xdo9) x^vs (6), mound, x^^'^- X^*', X"'^'' (like /JoO?, 2US). 

31^. xoi"^ (6), ihree-quari mea.sura : see 272. Ionic and late 
iioni. x^^^'^t ^'i^'' 8^"- X*'*'^"') X^^' ^^^'f I'^yularly like Ilctpatci;? 
and Awpieus (*2()7). 

30. XP^? (^)) ^^'^^h xP^''"*^^' XP'^'''^' XP*^''"'^* poet, also xpo^'?, XP*^t 
Xpda; dat. xp<^ (only in iv xp<^^ near). 

T/OCUr, I'lNDlNfJS. 

292. Th(3 (hidings -Oi and -^c(^ may be atldod to the Jitem 
of a noun or ]")ronoijii to denota phux : — 

1. -Ol, denoting y)liCTc; as aWo-Oi, cheiohere; ohpavo-Bi^ in 
heaveyt.. 

2. -Oev denoting W/.r?;iCG; as oIko-Ocv, from home; avro-O^v^ 
from the vary ^pob. 

293. 'riie eticlitic -8c (HI, 4) added to tlie accusative denotes 
whUhcr ; as M<yap(jt8c, to Mcynra^ 'EXtvo-traSc, /o Eleui<is. After 
o", -St bocointis ^c (sofi 18; 28, 3); as ^ hOiqvati (for 'A^v^ms-Sc), fo 
^//i^'fj.s', 0>j^u^€ (for 0y;/:Ja?-St), /o llwhex, Ovpd^€, out of doors, 

294. 'J'he ptiding -ac is sdmeLimes fiddcd to the stem, denotir.g 
tchitJier f as aXXoai, in an<ilhcr diy'rfiou, TrdvTorrc, in every direction. 

295. N. In Homer, tin' forms in -Bi and -Biv may ho governed 
l)y a pi'eposition as g'ftnitives; as 'WiuBl Trpd, before Ilium: i$ dkoOtv, 
from the sea. 

296. X. Sometimes a relic of an original locative case is found 
with the ending l in tlie singular and at in the plural ; as 'hrOfioi, 
at the Isthnus; oikol (oIko^l), at home; UvOol, at Pytho ; 'ABrjvtjm, 
at A Oitnts ; IlAaTuiuat, tit VltUutu ; 'OAu/jiTricitri, at Olyntjiia: Ovpuirt^ 
at the ga(e<i. These forms (and also tiiuse of 2'.r2) are often classed 
among advorl.is; but inscriptions show that forms in Ho-l and in 
T](ji. were l»oth used as datives in the eai-ly Attic. 

297. X. Tlif' Kpic ending <^i or <^lv f(n')Tis a [genitive or d.itire 
in botli singular and plural. Tt is sonietitnes locative, as KkL(jLrj<f>L, 
in the tent; and sometimes it has other meanings of the genitive or 
dative, as f^iij(f>i, mifh violence. Those fomis jnay follow pi-eposi- 
tions ; as Trapa vav(}>i, by the ships. 



301] ADJEC'ilVEtS-l'^lRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS, 63 



ADJECTIVES. 
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS (Vowf.l 

DlXLKNfjIUN). 

298. 1. Most adjectives in 09 have three endings, 09, 
7^, ov. The masculine and neater arc of the second 
declension, and the fennnine is of the first; as <70(l).'<;^ 
iTO(f>'ii cro(/)0(/, wise. 

2. If a vowel or p precedes 09, the feminine ends in 
a; as aftov, af/d, a^iou^ worthy, Bnt adjectives in oo<; 
have 07} in the feminine, except those in poo<;\ as aTrXoo^, 
aTrXoT}^ uttXoov^ simple ; aOpoo^^ aOpod^ aOpSov^ crowded. 

299. 10009, wlsi^-^ and a^i09, ivorthy^ are thus de- 
clined : — 



Noni. 


o-o4»o$ 


<ro4>Vl 


o-o^jdv 


a^os 


d^id 


d^iov 


Gen. 


<ro<|>o\) 


<ro4»Tis 


<ro(|>o\i 


a^LOXj 


d^ids 


d§LO\J 


Dat. 


(ro4>w 


<ro4>f) 


(ro(}>u) 


d^LW 


d|ia 


d^iu> 


Ace. 


(ro4)6v 


(TO^JTJV 


(ro{|)6v 


d|i.ov 


d|idv 


d|iov 


Voc. 


c-o^i 


a-o<|» TJ 


a-o<|>6v 


d^c( 


d^Cd 


dgiov 


N.A.V. 


(ro4>iu 


<ro4>a 


(TOtpu) 


d^iw 


d^id 


&££« 


G. D. 


<ro<|»oiv 


(ro4jalv 


<ro4)olv 

1*7.11 JUL. 


d|ioLV 


d|iaiv 


d^LOlV 


N.V. 


<ro<|>oC 


o'otlx^L 


<ro4>d 


d^Ol 


d|tai 


&^a 


Gen. 


<ro<J>utv 


<ro4>wv 


o-ocfjwi' 


d^i'wv 


a^ioiv 


d^i'wv 


Dat. 


<ro4>ois 


a-o<J>a;s 


<ro4)OiS 


d^tOLS 


d^Cais 


dgioLS 


Ace. 


o-o4>ovs 


o-o4>as 


cro<|>a 


d£LOus 


d^tds 


d^ia 



oOO. So /xaKp6<iy fxaKpd, /xaKfjoi^^ ^onff ; i^ftn. fxaKpov^ paKpas, 
pAKpov'y dat. ouK/jw, paKpil, paKpiZ\ ucc. ^uKpoi^, /juiK/jdr, fjuiKpov^ 
etc., likti a^to? (oxccpL in accent). 

301. Tills is by far tlie lav^^est o.hss of adjtctivos. Ati parti- 
ciples- iti o? and all .stiperJiW.iv<-'s ('J.'iOj arn dwJine/i Jil.e r7-o<;6d«;, iuid 
all coin])arHlives in rcpo^ (rSOO) arc declined like paKpos (except 
in accent). 



64 INFLECTION. [302 

302. The iioiui native and genitive plural of adjectives In oj 
accent the fetuinine Jike the masculine: Llius at'to? }ias aicai, a^i'iop 
(not a^t'ac, a^tajf, us if from a^ta; see 124). 

For teniinines in d ol (.he third and first declensions combined, 
see 318. 

303. The jua-sculine dual forms in o) and ow in all adjectives 
and piirticiples may bo used for tlie feminine forms in d and cui/. 

304. Some adjectives in os, ehiefly coiiipounds, liave only 
two endings^ os and ov, tlie feminine being the same as the 
jnasculiiio. They are declined like cro<j>6^f omitting the 
feminine. 

305. There are a few adjectives of the Attic second 
declension ending; in <os and cui^. 

306. "AXoyos, irrational (304), and tXcw?, gracious (305), 
are thus declined : — 

SLVOL'LAn. 



Noni. 


aXo-yos aXo-^ov 


tXcws ifXiwy 


C.en. 


dX6*yovi 


tXcu 


Dat. 


a.Xo'yw 


X\ii^ 


Ace. 


aXo-yov 


VXtwv 


Voc. 


aXo*^* aXo-yov 


tXcus t\i<av 


N. A.V. 


dXiS-yw 


tX«w 


G.l). 


AXo-yoiv 

PLURAL. 


1(!X<n>v 


N.V. 


aXo-yot ciXo"ya 


tX<4> tXttt 


Gen. 


i.\0ywv 


SXitav 


Dat. 


aXd-yois 


i;x««(>s 


Ace. 


dXo-yous aXo-ya 


KXtios CX«a 



307. Some adjectives in o? may be declined with cither two or 
Uu-ct* endings, cs[)ecially in poetry. 

308. Adjectivfth in w?, o)»', commonly nave a in the neuter plural. 
But «K7rX<o> from «K7rXco)9 occurs. 

309. nX<'w<i, full, lijis a fembiine in a: ttXc'ws. TrXt'd, ttXcW 
The defective o^^? (fiom o-^^o^), .*;rt/r, has nom. aws, *wv (also feni. 
o-u), ace. <TC>Vy iieut. pi. o-d, ace. p). aws- The Attic hats o-u)Oi, o-ojat, 
a*jja in nom. pi. Homer has <j6o<;- 



310] ADJECTIVE.S-FIRST AND SECOND DECLlONyiUN.-S. 05 



310. Many adjectives in to? and oo? are 
(j-cos, golddi^ dpyvpioi, of silver, and aVAoo? 
declined : — 



contracted. Xpu- 
, simple, are tlius 



Gen. (xp^^J'^oi;) \pva-ov 

D'dt. ixP^ff^^) XP^o-i 

Ace. (xpy'^fo*') Xpvcrovv 

N. A. {xp'^^^^) xp^o-^ 

G- D. (xP^<^^OLy) xpvo-oiv 



SIN<iULAK. 
(xpi'<r^a>') 



XPVO-TIS 

Xpvcrfiv 



DUAL. 
{Xpv<rfa) 



xpio-a 



(xpf^^fl'") XP^''"'*^*' 



(XP^^fOv) XP^<''°^v 

(Xpi^C^oi/) XP^O'°'^ 

(xpL-^^v) xp^'^'e 

(xpti^^o*') XP'^^"**^^ 



Nom. (xpiicfot) XP"^*^**^ (xp'^'^f'^O XP*^**^ (XP^^^") XP^*^^ 

Geu. (xpvff^uj;^) \pv<ruv (xpyo^i'w*') xp^*^**'*' (xP'^^^'j^") XP^""*^^ 

Dat, (xpi'^^'^'oir) XP^<'"'*^5 (xpyor^a(s) XP'"°"°-^S (xPW^oit) xP^°"°^5 

Ace. (xP^^'^ous) xpvo-ovs (xpi'or^at) XP^'''"'^ ixP^(^(°^) XP^°"°- 



Nom. (dp7i>pfoT) dp'yvpovs 

Gen. (dpyvfi^ov) dp-yvpoO 

Dat. (apfvp^i^) dp^vpu) 

Ace, (dp7)Jpfo>') dp-yvpovv 

N. A. (apyvp^Lj^ dp^upw 
G. 1). {ipyvp^oii/) dp-yupoiv 

Nom. (ap7ypfoi) dp-yupot 
Gen. {apyvp^iiip) dp-yupuv 
Dat. (apyvp^oi<;) dp-yupois 
ACC. (dp7up^y?) dp-yvpoOs 



SINGULAR. 
(^apyvp^a) dp^vpd 
(dpyvp^ai) dp-yvpds 
(dp7i^p^p) dp^vp^ 
(^a.pyvpiav') dp'yupdv 

DUAL. 
(apyvp^a) dp^vpd 
(dp7up^ai;') dp'yvpatv 

PLURAL. 

(dp7upfat) dp-yvpat 
{ipyvp^u}v) dp^vpwv 
(dp7yp^a(5) dp'y'upais 
(dp7up/ai) dp'yvpds 



(dp7i;pfo;') dp^vpovv 

(dpyvp^ov) &,pyvpo\i 

(^apyvp^u>) 6.pyvpw 

(apyCptov) dp-yupovv 

{dpyvp^u}) dp'yvpw 
{dpyvpioiv) dp-yupoiv 

(dp7t;pfa) dp'yupd 

{dpyvp^ojv) dp'yvpuv 

(dp7i;p^ois) dp'yvpobs 

(dp7i;pfa) dp'yvpd 









??INGIILAR. 






Nom. 


(airXoos) 


dirXoOs 


(aTrXoTj) 


ciirXii 


(mrXdov) 


d-irXoOv 


Gen. 


(dirXoov) 


dTrXoO 


(an-XoTj?) 


dirXiTS 


(dnXdov) 


dirXoO 


J)at. 


(dirXoft)) 


dirXw 


(airXo??) 


dirXfj 


(aVXouj) 


dirXw 


Ace. 


(dir\6of) 


dirXoOv 


(aTrXoTjj/) 
DUAL. 


dirXi^v 


(dirXdou) 


airXouv 


N. A. 


(aVXov) 


dirXti 


(dirXo'a) 


ciirXd 


(dirXdto) 


dirXuS 


G.D. 


(d.irXoOiv) 


dirXotv 


(dirXoaiv) 


dirXaiv 


(afl-Xdotv) 


dirXoiv 



66 



INFLECTION. 



[311 



I'MJliAL. 



Noni. (aTrXooi) airXoi 

Geji. (an-Xoajt-) d-n-Xwv 

Dat. (aVXo'ois) dirXois 

Acc. (aVXo'ous) dirXovs 



(^airXo'ai) airXai 

(aTrXooj^) dirXwv 

(aVXoai?) dirXai^ 

(airXo'as) (XTrXds 



(aVAo'a) tt'JrXd 

(a'lrXo'tti;') airXwv 

(aTrXo'oi?) dirXois 

(aVXo'a) dirXo. 



oil. All contract foiins of Ow^o. adjrntivfis are pcri$:pmnena ; 
except o) for «o) and oo) in ilio iluiil (sec 'JO:J: 1). See also 2U3, 2 
and 30, L (Compounds in 009 Ilmvc oa in \\w neuter jilural uiicon- 
tracted. No distinct vocative forms occur. 



THIRD (ok Consonant) DECLENSION. 

312. Adjectives belonging only to the third declen- 
sion have two endings, the feminine being the same as 
tiie masculine. Most of tiiese end in t;? and €<; (stems 
in 6cr-), or in (ov and ov (stems in o;^-). See 238. 

313. 'AXrj6)]<i^ true^ and €i>hai^u)v^ happy, are thus 
declined: — 



^f. F. y. 

SIN(.;U1.AH. 

Norn. dXtiO^is dXtiOt's 

Gen. (dXi7(?/c>s) dXi^$oiis 

Dat. (dXvOli) a\-r]Bti 

Acc.^ (dX^^^a) dX-iiefi dXiid^s 

Voc. dXT^Gt's 

DDAF.. 

N.A.V. (d\7)^^() dXrjeo 

(7. D. (iXrjO^OLu) dXt^eolv 

VJA.HAL. 
K. V. (Q.\-qd^(<i) dXt]0«ls (dXTj^^a) dXi]0TJ 
CtMl. {d\r)f)^u}y) dX^Owv 

Dat. dXT^e^Vt 

A(;c. dXi^Otis (aXriO^a) dXr]©!] 



^f. F. 



iV. 



fvSatjJiajV t\J8at(jL0v 

«v8a£fAOvos 
cvSai(iovi 

tv8a{p.ova »ij8ai(iov 
tvSatjJLOv 

«v8ai)iov( 
cvSavjiovotv 

ev6a£(iov«s ciiSai^ova 
ciu8ak(jL6v(i)v 
<v8ak^ocri. 

cvSaCfiOvas <vSaipiova 



314. For the roccssivc: accent of neuters liko ev^iatfj-ov and of 
many barytone compounds in yj<; (as aurapK?;?, aurapK€<;), see 122. 
*'AX7/^f9, ifideed ! is i)roparo>:ytone. 

315. Tn adjunctives in r)<;, ca is contrarfed to a niU^y «, nnd to a 
or rj aft^r t or v; as ttwA^jyt, f/hrions, ace. («vKXe<'a) cvKkca \ vyiY}<:, 



320] ADJECTIVKS-FinST AND TIJIKD DECLENSIONS. 67 

healthy, (vyua) tryca and vyirj\ iv(j>vy<i, coviely^ {tv<f>vca) iv(j)va and 
ivcfiyr^. (6ee iiU, 'J.) 

For €1? ill the acciisalive )>tui-a], .sec 'JOS, 3. 

316. N, Adjectives compDuiKlL'd of nouns and a prefix are 
generally deelinod like those nouns; as cucAttis, tucATrt, hopcfuly 
gen. tiucATTtSo?, ace. tvik-nLV ('2M, o), €uA7rt; £tix«/)ts, tlj-^api, ifrace- 
JaU gen. tv^apiTO^, af;c. tv)^apLv, iv)(api. hut. coin]>oun(ls of Trurryp 
and ^rjryjp end in o)p (k*-''*- ^poi), and those of TrdAt? in tv (gen. 
iSo?) ; a,s a7raT<tjp, QTraro^j, gen. avixTopo^^ foihcrle.^s ; aTroAis, aTroAi, 
xoidioul a coujiirtf, geit. ajroAt^o?. 

317. J^or ilie peculiar declt'n.sion of conipara Lives in u)y (stem in o;--), 
sec 358. 

FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSIONS COMBINED. 

318. Adjective^i of tlii.s clas.s luive tlie masculiiu! and 
neuter oi iJie tliii'd decJeJi.sioji and the feminine of the 
first. Tlie feminine alwavs lias a in the nominative 
and aeeusative singular (17*5) ; in the genitive and 
dative siiigidar it has a after a vowel or diphthong, 
otherwise t]. 

Qv of the fouiininc genitive plui'al is circnniflexed regularly 
(1 2-1). Compare 602. 

For lend nine dual forms, see '^Oo. 

319. (6Yn/i.s- in v.) Stems in v form adjectives in 
f9, eta, V. Tlie masculine and neuter are dt-.elined lii^r 
Trrjy^v^ and a<nv ('2o0), exeept tiiat the genitive sin- 
gular ends in ov (not a)<r) and tlie jicuter plnral in ea 
is not coiitracted. 

320. rXtyA,'!/?, su^eet, is thus declined: — 

ir]SOVLAU. 



No 01. 


■yX-unvs 


y\y}t(tl<x 


•yXvKv 


Gen. 


-^XuKCOS 


■yXuKtias 


'yXvMos 


])at. 


(yXuK^ ) -yXuKti 


y\\}KtL<x 


{jXrK^'i) •yXvKii 


Ace. 


y\\)KVV 


'^Xl;KUav 


yXvKv 


Voc. 


y\vKV 


-yXuKtia 

lu;ai.. 


yXvKv 


N.A.V. 


(y\vK^() 'yXvKct 


•yXvKtid 


{y\vK^() 'yXvK(:i; 


G.l). 


yXvKiO\,v 


yXvKiiaiv 


yXvKtoiv 



6S 



INFLECTION. 



[321 



N.V. 

(jeii. 
Dat. 

Ace. 



PLURAL. 

yXvKiuiv "yXuKiiwv 

■yXvWo-i -yXuKifais 

^XuKtis -yXvictids 



■yXvK^a 
yXvKimv 
■yXuK^o-i 
^XuKi'a 



321. Tlie feniiniiie stem in <ta- comes from the stem in tv~ (if-) 
by adding ta: tlius y\vKiv-y yXvKC- (25(i), y\vK(.-ui, yAuxtia. (See 

90, a.) 

322. N, The Ionic feminine of adjectives in vq has ea. Homer 
ha,s cvpta (for tvpvv) as accusative of ivpvi, wide, 

323. N. Adjectives in vs are oxvtoiie, excej^t $r}\v<:, fejnale, 
frci^h, an<l ^/xto-u9, half. 0^A.vs sometimes havS only two termina- 
tions in jtoetry. 

324. 1. (Stems in av and (.v.) Two adjectives have 
stems in av, iit\a<: (fitXav), fitXaiva, fJLiXaVf black, aud Td\d<i 
(raXav-), rdXaLva, TaXaVf wretched, 

2. One lias a stem in <.Vj r^p-qv (rKptv-), Tt'peim, ripiv, tender 
(Latin tener). 

325. M('\as and T€p-qv are thus declined : — 









SINGULAR. 








Norn. 


(it'Xds 


}i«Xaiva 


fi^Xav 


Tt'piiv 


Wptiva 


T^ptV 


Gen. 


fitXavos 


|jL(Xaivi]s 


^('Xavos 


T«'p€VOS 


TtptlVtlS 


Tt'ptVOS 


Dat. 


(i^Xavi 


(icXaivT;) 


fic'Xavk 


T€p(Vt 


TCptlVt) 


T^ptVl 


Ace. 


^^Xava 


(i^Xaivav 


fic'Xav 


Tt'ptva 


T^ptLvav 


Wptv 


Voc. 


^<Xav 


fiAatva 


(it'Xav 

DUAL. 


Wp«V 


Tt'ptLva 


T^ptV 


N.A.V 


. |i^avt 


jitXaCvd 


jw'Xavc 


T('p€Vt 


TtptCvd 


T^p(V< 


G. D. 


jji«Xdvotv 


fxcXatvaiv 


fitXdvoiv 

PLURAL. 


T«pt'vOtV 


T(p<LVaiV 


T«ptVOtV 


N. V. 


jiAavcf 


}it'Xaivai 


jiAava 


T^p«V«S 


T«'p*tvat 


T«p*va 


(it'll. 


^iXdvwv 


jitXatvwv 


ficXdvuv 


Ttpt'vWV 


TtpdVWV 


T<p€VWV 


D;it. 


|iAao-i 


(AtXaivais 


fi^act 


Tt'ptO-t 


Ttp<ivaLS 


T<'p«0-l 


Ace. 


(itXavas 


fxeXaCvd; 


}jL('Xava 


T^p€vas 


Ttpttvds 


Ttp<va 



326. 'J'lie feniiniiifl stonis paXaLva- and rtptiva- come from 
pLcXavta- and T€piv'ux- (84, 5). 

327. Like tlie ina.<^culine and ii outer of rlpr^v is declined apprjvy 
apptv (oldo-i dp<Tr}v, dp<Tty)y male. 



S33] ADJECTIVES- FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSlONvS. 09 



iras 


irao-a 


irdv 


trcvrds 


TrdoTTis 


TravTos 


iravrC 


irdo-Ti 


iravrt 


irdvTa 


irdo-av 


irdv 



iravT<s 


irao-ai. 


iravra 


irdvTidv 


Trd<ru>v 


vdvrtav 


irdo-t 


irdtrais 


irdo-t 


irdvTas 


ir&ords 


irdvTa 



328. (Stems in i/t.) Adjectives from stems in €vt 
end in et^, eaa-a^ ev. From a stem in avr comes Tra?, 

329. xapt€t<;^ graceful^ and 7ra? are thus declined: — 

SINGULAR. 

Geii. x*''P^*'''"*s x^P''**'"^'^* X^P^**'''"®^ 

Dat. x^^p'*^''"'' X*'^P^''°"*ni xpLfiUvT\. 

Ace. x^'P^**^*'- xo^pUu-trckv x^-P^**' 

Voc. x*P^^ X^^P^*'"*'"* X*P'<'' 

J>CAL. 
N. A. V. X ftp i< *'"'■< \ixpvicrtri yjOLfiUvrt 
G.D. x^P'^'^^''^''*' X*P''*°"°"ft'*' XftP''*'^''"**''*' 

PLUKAL. 

N. V. x^P^'v"*"** x^P'**'"*'"***' X^P^**'*'''* 

Gen. X*?''**'''"***' X'^P''**''''"*^*' X^P*-* *'''■***' 

Dat. x^P^'*'''' \tipUQ'troA% x^P^*''*- 

Ace. x'^'P^**'''"''^* X*P^''<*"*''*5 xftp"^''"^ 

330. Most adjective stems in cvr, ali in avr (ixceiJt -navr- (ffa?), 
and i\\\ in ovr except €Korr- and G.t(.ovr- (Ikwv and dKwv, tJ33), belong 
to participles. (See 3IJ4.) 

331. 1. Tlie nominatives ;!^apui? and )(^cipUv are for ^Q.puvr-<: 
and )(fxpuvr~^ and no.% and vav for iravr-f; and Travr- (7i^). The q 
in TTui/ is irregular; but Honier Inis a7rtt»' and irpotrav. ^or tlje 
accent of ttuVtcjv and Trdat, see J 28. llix(jCiv is regular (31S). 

2. For tlie femiiiine xapt'ccraa (for ■^ixpur-va. from a stem in cr-), 
see 84, 1; and for dai. plur. ^a/Jt'tcrL (for x^ptcr-cn), see 74. Ilatra 
is for TraiT-La (84, 2). 

332. Honier occasionally contracts adjectives in jjtis, as ripr}<; 
(for Ti/i7;ct?), rl/^■^^'Ta (for Tt/xT/trru), valuable. The, Attic poets 
.Sumetinies eontiact tliof>c in ons j :ih rrXaKOxxi, TrXaKOVvroq (for ttAa- 
Ko'tis, TrXaKOtiTOs), y^a/ (caXr), 7rT<poi}vra (for imqotvTa), HHuged, 
aWaXoviraa (for ai^uA.ot(rcra), fiavihirj^ 7rT<poCo-(ra (for Trrcpdto-cra), 
/AtXtTourra (for yxcAiroeo-<Ta, 68, 3), honied [cairc). So names of 
I^Uces (properly adjectives) ; a.s *EXaiot}«;, 'EXaloO^'To?, ElaeuSy 
^EXaiovcraa (an island), fron\ forms in -o<is. -otcraa. So 'Pixpvov<:, 
^Pa/jvovrro?, Rhamnus (from -oti?). (See !5U, 5.) 

333. One adjective in wv, ^Voij/, tKoOau, tVov, iriliing, gen. tKorro?, 
etc., has three endings, and is declined like participles in luv (^oO). 
So its compound, d.KOiv{oLtKwv)^ unmlling^ aKouaa, aKOk, gen. 6.kqvto%> 



70 



INFLKCTION. 



[334 



PARTICIPLES IN (oVy otr?, a<r, et?, v<;, AND C09. 

334. All participles, except those in 09, belong to the 
fii-st and third declensions combined. 

335. Avwv {X.VOVT-), loodiig^ StSov? {hihovj-)^ O^'^^'^Of TiOd^ 
(tiOcvt-), placiiKj, hiiKvt^ (hf.iKvvvr-) , showivg, Icttu? {iaravT-), 
erecting^ wr (6vt-), being, (present active i)articiples of Avw, 

St'Sw/xt, TtOrjfXL, hiiKi'Vfxij L<TTrjfjiLf and tlfxi), XtCTu? {\vaavT~) , hav- 

ivg looaed, and kikvKm (AtAvK-oT-), having loosed (first aorist 
and perfect participles of Auu)), ai'c tlius declined: — 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. Xiiwv Xvov<ra Xvov 8i8ovs 

Gen. XwovTos Xvovo-tis X^ovtos 8i86vtos 

Dilt. XvovTi Xuowa-t^ XiiovTi 8i86vti 

Ace. Xuovra Xilovcrav Xiov 8i86vTa 

Voc. Xutjv Xiovora Xiov 8l8ous 

DUAL. 

N. A.V. XvovT( XOoij<rd XiiovTC 8i86vt« 8L8ov<rd 8i86vt€ 

G. D. Xvorroiv Xvoii<raiv XvovTotv 8t86vTOiv 8i8oi<raiv 8i86vtoiv 



8i8ovcra 


8t86v 


8t8oi(nis 


8i86vTos 


8i8ow<rT] 


8l86vti 


8i.8oiP(rav 


8i86v 


8i5owra 


8i86v 



N. V. 

Dat. 

Ace. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 

Ace. 
Voc. 



PLIUAI.. 

XilovTts Xvou<rai XuovTtt 8l86vt(s 

XOovTwv Xvov<rwv Xvovtwv SiSovTwv 

Xvov<ri Xuovo-ats Xvovo-i 8iSovcri 

XvpovTtts X\iov(rds X<iovTa 8i86vTas 



SINGULAR. 



8t8o0orat StSovra 

8i8ov<rwv 8i86vTwv 

8i8ov<rakS 8i8oii<rt 

8i8ov<rds 5i86vTa 



Ti0tts Ti0«iora Ti0tV 

TlBe'vTOS Tl0*l<rY]S Tl0tVTOS 

TlOt'vTl Tl6tl<rT] TlOt'vTt 

Ti6€i<rav Ti0^v 

Ti6<i<ra Ti0«v 



Ti0<vTa 



StLKvus 8<iKvO<ra 8<ikvvv 

8(ncviPVTOs 8<iKvii<nis 8«iKvijVTOs 

8*lKV\JVTt 8<lKv6(r'D 8CIKVVVTI 

S<LKvvvTa 8<iKv\io-av 8(ikvvv 

8ciKvtis 8<iKvv(ra Sclkvuv 



1)1- AL. 

N. A.V.Ti0ivT« Ti0tt<rd TiOtvre 8(iKv\ivTt 8<iKvii<rd 8tiKvvvT€ 

G. D. TlSeVTOlV Tl0Cl<ratV Tl6<VT0lV 8<IKVIIVT01V 8«lKVlLP0raiV 8<tKV^VT0LV 



I'LUllAL. 



N.V. Tt6«VTCS Tl0tl<rat TlBivTO. 

GcM. Ti6<VTij)v Tifltwrwv riflt'VTWV 

Dat. Ti9<i<ri nOtto-ais ti0<io-i 

Aec. Ti0<VTas Ti0<(<rds TiOtvra 



8*iKvvvTts 8tiKvv<rai 8<iKvvvTa 

8«lKVVVTWV 8tKCVU<riiv 8<lKVVVT«V 

ScLKvvcri 8(LKVv<raLS SfiKvOo-i 

8«tKvwvTas 8(iKvii<rds 8*iKv<ivTa 



337] 



PARTICIPLES. 



71 



gINGL'LAK. 

Nom. lo-Tois ia-raa-a, Io-tAv Xvtras XlJoratra Xvo-av 

Gen. lo-TCivTOS lo-Tdtnis lo-TavTOs Xvo-avros Xvorounis Xvo-avros 

Pat. la-ToLvTi ttTTaoT] IcTOivTi XwcravTi Xvo-atnj XiitravTi 

Acc. icTTavTa icracrav LtrTcLv XvcravTa Xtjcrdtrav \v<rav 

Voc. to-rds LOTTdo-a itrTav X(;o-ds XiKrdxra Xvaav 

DUAL. 

N. A.V. lo-TdvT* L(rT<ttrd la-ravT* Xv<ravT( XOordo-d Xtjo-avrt 

G. D. ioravTOiv lo-rdo-aiv iff-ravToiv XvordvTOiv Xv(rd<raLv Xvo-dvToiv 

I'LVRAL. 

N. V, io-TdvT<« Lo-rdo-ai lo-Tavra Xii(ravT<s Xvcrdirai Xiio-avra 

Gen. LO-rdvTwv lo-TOxrwv Icrravruv XO(rdvTu>v Xvtrdo'wv Xv(rdvTwv 

])at. lo-Tdori icTAo-ais IcTao-i Xvcrdo-i Xvtrdurais Xv<rdiri 

Acc. lo-ravras to-rdo-ds lo-Tavra X6(ravTas XixrcUrds XuoravTtt 



Nom. 6v 

Gen. ovTos 

Dat. ovTi 

Acc. ovra 

Voc. «v 

K.A.V. 5vT< 

G. D. ovTOiv 



N. V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Acc. 



OVTtS 

ov<ri 
fivTas 



ovtra 

o{J(n)S 

ovo-T) 

ovcrav 

ov(ra 

oiJo-d 
oxitratv 

oucaL 

oOo-ais 
oiJ<rds 



SlKCL'LAlt. 

6v XtXvKti« XtXvKvua X<X\JKd9 

6'vT05 XtXuKdTos X<XvKvias X«Xuk6tos 

6vTi X<Xvk6ti X«XvKVia XtXvKori 

6'v X^XuKora X<Xuteviav XcXvkps 

6v XiXvKws XtXvKvCa X<Xvk6s 

DUAL. 

6'vT« XtXvKOTe X<XuKu£d X<Xuk6t< 

fivTOlV X«Xvk6tOIV XtXuKOLatV XtXvKOTOlV 

I'LUJJA L. 

ivra X<Xuk6t<5 XtXuKviai. XtXvKora 

A'vTWv XiXvKOToiv XtXiJKuiwv X<Xvk6t(uv 

ovo-i XtXuK6<ri XtXvKviais XtXvKoo-i 

6'vTa XtXvKoras XtXvtcuids XeXvKora 



336. All p.'irt.iciples in a>j/ are declined like Xf)cov (tJiose in wV 
being- accciit.ud iilcn o'lv) ; all in ou?, ij?, and oj? are declined like 
StSovs, SfiKv6f, and AcAvK<ij? ; all in «t? (aovist ]>aBsive as well as 
active) are declined like rcOu'; ; present and second aori^t. active 
participles in ds (from verb?; in fjx) are declined like lard*;, and 
first aorists in ds like Xvad<;. 

337. ], Kor feniinines i]i outra, ttrra, vaa, and daa (for o»/T-ta, 
cvT-ta, vfT-ta, avT-ui), formed by adding ca to t)te s(«m, see 81, 2. 

2. Per/ect.s in cu? (with stcm.'s in or-) have an irregular feini- 
niue in via. 



72 



INFLECTION. 



[338 



338, The full accent of polysyllabic barytone participles ap. 
pears in l:iovkivoiv, ISovXcvov(Ta, povkivov, and ISovktvcra<:, fiovktv- 
(xdda, fiovktvaav. (See J;i-1.) 

339, For tlie accent of tiie genitive and dative of monosyllabic 
parl,ici])les, see I'JU and tlio inflection of oiv above. Thus Otl^i has 
gen. OivTOS', OcvTiovy etc. 

340, Pjuticiples i!i aoJ^', <W, and o'wi/ avc contracted. 
Tifxdoiv, TifXiZv, honor ittg, and <f>ikt(x)Vy (pikCjVf loving, are de- 
clined as follows : — 

SI KG U LA U. 
N. (^ri fj.au} v') Ttfiwv (rlfxaovca) rl\i,u<ra 

G. (Tt/xdovTos) TijiwvTOS (ri/xaoiJ^TTjs) Ttfl«(rt]S 
D. (T?/idopTi) Tlfiwvrt (TT^aoi/ff??) rtftwa-u 
A. (ri/xdoi-Ta) TtfjiwvTa (rt^tdoyo-ac) Tijuicrav 
V. (rjjLuiuj*') Tlfiwv (Ti/idofffa) ri}iMra 

DUAL. 
N. (Ti;xdofTf) Ti[JLwvT< (Tifxaovcd) Ti(l(Mrd (TtyjldoVTf) TlflWVTt 

(r. (Ti;ia6fT0iv) TifJLtilvTOiv (rtjuaoiJffat*') Ti^jniraiv (t tjuao vrot v) TifiwvTOiv 

PLUHAL. 

N. {ri^dovTei) Ti(iwvT<s (rj/idoL'O'af) TLfitiXraL (Ti/idovra) TtfiwvTtt 

G. (Ti;ia6i'ra;i') rifiwvrwv (Tt^iaoy^uiv) rifJiwo-ciiv (rlyixaovTuj;') Tijt«vT«v 

i). (TJ/xdofCTi) Tifiwo-i (rliAaoiJa'atT) TifJLWO-aiS (T(;Adoi^(Ti) Ti^tixri 

A. (Ti/jido;'raT) Ttp.«vTas (TlpMovaa.'i') rijitiras (Tr^do^-Ta) Tt)AWVTtt 

V. (ri/idofrfs) Tijt«VT<s {rlfxaovaai) Ti(iwo-ai (ri/xdofTa) TiftwvTa 



(Tt;xdov) TipiWV 

(rt^OVTOT) TlflWVTOS 

(T(^d0*T() TCflWVTl 

(rt/xdoi') TLfiuiv 

(rt/xdof) Tificriv 



' 


SINGULAR. 






N. (<f>i\^up) 4>iXwv 


(^<piK4ov(Ta) <|>tXovi<ra 


(0tX('oO 


4>iXoCv 


G. (^iX/OfTOT) <|>lXoCvTOS 


{<pi\(o\)(Tri<i) <|>iXou(ri]S 


{<PM0VT0^) 


1 4>LXouvros 


}).(<pt\/oyTi) <|>lXovvti 


(<pi\€ovaT}) <^>iXoij(rT| 


(0lX^OVT() 


<J>LXoiivai 


A.(0tX^ovTa) <|>iXoiivaa 


{<pi\4ov<Ta.v) <J>iXov<rav 


(0(X^OV) 


<|>iXovv 


V.(0tX^wv) 4>iXwv 


(^<pi\iov<Ta) <^>iXoO(ra 


(0iX/ov) 


<f>iXovv 


N. (0(X^OVT<) <|>lXo{)VT€ 


DUAL. 

(0{XfoiJa'a) <^LXov(rd 


(0lX^OVTf) 


4>lX0UVT€ 


G. (0iX<6vTO(v) <J>iXovvTOwv (0(X<oiJ(Taiv) <j>iXou(rai% 


' (0iXf6Krotf 


) <^>tX0UVT0V» 




PLURAL. 






N. {(piXioyTfi) <^iXouvT<s 


((piXhiKjai) ^iXova-ai 


(0(X/ovTa) 


<J>lXoVVTO 


G. (0iX€6i'ra)f) <^tXouvT«v 


(<pi\(ov<TiI)v) ^iKovcrtav ((ptXeoyruv 


) 4».X0UVT«V 


D. (0(X/ou(Tf) <^>iXoOo-t 


(0iXfou(Tan) <|>iXoii<rais 


; (^(X^oi'fft) 


<^iXou(rt. 


A. (0tX/ovTa?) ^x-^o^vras (^iXfouVav) <j>iXoiJ(raS 


(0(X^O»'TO) 


<|)lX0<iVTtt 


V. (0iX^OfTCv) <^iXouvT<t 


(0iX/ot'(Tai) <|>LXoiHraL 


(0iX/o»rra) 


i^iXouvra 



346] 



IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 



73 



341. Present participles of verbs in ow (contracted d) ai-e de- 
clined like <^Lk(^v. Thus Srjkoiv, 8jyXoCaa, SrjXovv, vianlfesdiif/ ; gen. 
SnXoCtTO*, hrjkov(jrj<i\ dat.. Sv^Xourri, Sj^Xoiicr/j, etc. No uncontracted 
forms of verbs in 6ui aie used (41^3). 

342. A few second perfect participles in aws of the /«- form 
have Cxra in the feminine, and retain w in the oblitpie causes. They 
aie contracted in Attic; as Horn. ecrTaw?, ccrTawcra, ^arao?, Attic 
tarojs, eoToJaa, tcrro? or €<tt<j}<;, atandbi/^^ gen. i(Trwro<;^ <crru>c7-7y9, 
«<TT<i)TO?, etc.; pi. e(TrwTt?, torriaai, caTcura, gei). ccrroirajj', tcrTojcrtot/, 
tarajTajv, etc. (See 508.) 

ADJECTIVES WITH ONE ENDING. 

343. Soine adjectives of tlie third declension liave only oiie 
ending, whicli is both masculine and feminine; as <^uyas, <^i»-ya6o<;, 
fuyitive; aTrau, uTraiSo?, childless; dyt/w<j, ayvoijiyi, wdnowii; a(/aA*<i<», 
dk<iA^'t5o9, e6'tfrt-t. Tlie oblique cases occasionally occur as neutei-, 

344. The poetic iSpi?, knowing, has ace. iSptv, voc. tSpt, iiom. 

pi. r8pi€9. 

345. A very few adjectives of one termination are of the first 
declension, ending in av or t;? ; as yti/vdSa?, nohk, gen. ytwa^v. 



IRREatTLAR ADJECTIVES. 
346. The irregular adjectives, fie'ya? (/xtya-, /xcyaXo-), r77-(3a£, 

TToXu? (iroAu-, TToAAo-), much, and TTpaoi {rrpao-j Trpdi)-), OY 

Trpaos, mi7ci; are thus decliued : — 









SINGULAR 


Nora. 


Jii^as 


jxi^oXii 


fi^va 


Gen. 


p-cyoXov 


jit^a^is 


fitYCkXov 


Dat. 


Jil^oXw 


h«Y'^Tl 


l«YaX« 


Ace. 


^i^av 


|i€YoX»iv 


^«Ya 


Voc. 


jxi^oXt 


V-<y^n 


DUAL. 


N.A.V. p.(^aX« 


(xi-yoXd 


^cyoXw 


G. D. 


jjit^aXoiv 


|i«7aXaiv 


jjL*YaXoiv 

I'MfKAL. 


N. V. 


1x470X01 


p,«Y<i^a-i- 


jjLiyoXa 


Gen. 


ji.f'/dXwv 


{M-yaXuv 


^cyoXuv 


Dat. 


jw^oXois 


p.*7ciXots 


(XfyoXois 


Ace. 


(MYaXoi»s 


(jitYCLXds 


(i.<YaXa 



TToXv's TroXX"*! TToXv 

TToXXov iroXXris iroXXou 

iroXXw ttoXXt^ iroXXw 

iroXuv iroXXi^v iroXv 



iroXXot iroXXat iroXXd 

iroXXwv iroXXuv iroXXwV 

iroXXois voXXals ttoXXois 

woXXovs iroXXds iroXXd 



74 



INFLECTION. 



[347 



Norn, 
(icn. 
Dat. 
Ace. 

N. V, 
G. ]). 



irpaou 
•n-p9X)v 

irpqLfa) 
irpqioLV 



SINGULAR. 

irpocia 

irpcuCas 

irpdfiiji 

irpdtLav 

irpdttd 

TTpOULaLV 
PLirKAL. 



irpQiov 

TTp(f.OV 

irp<^i() 
Trpcjtov 



irp<;ioiv 



N. A. irpdoL cr ■n-pd(ts irpdctai •irp<ja or irpo^a 

Gen. irpdiuiv Trpdckujv irpd<»v 

DaL irpaois ul" irpd«cri irpcitCaLS trpqiois or trpdicri 

/kCC. TTpijious irpdtCds irp<ja or irpdt'a 

347. N. IloXXoi, ^, oV, is found in llonicr and nerodotuR, declined 
regularly Llirougliout. Homer liiis forms ttoX^s, TroX^fs, iroX^wf, ttoX^o-i, etc., 
not. to be confounded wiili epic Inrms of tto'Xiv (255) : al.so ttovXvs, ttooXO. 

348. N. np([os has Lw() stems, one Trppo-, from which the masculine 
and neuter are generally formed ; and one irpao-, from which the femi- 
nine and some other forms come. There is an epic form irpr}vi (lyric 
irpao':) coming from Mie latter stem. The forms belonging to the two 
stems dilfer in accent. 

349. N. Some compounds of nov^ (ttoS-)^ foot, have ovf in the nomi- 
native neuter and the accusative masculine; as rpfTrous, Tplirow, three- 
footed. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

I. Co:Mi*A]tisoy UY -rtpos, -raTOs. 

350. Mo,st adjectives add repo^ (stem repo-) to the 
Hern to form the comparative, and Ta70<; (stem tuto-) 
to form the superlative. Stems in o with a short penult 
lengthen o to w kiforti r^po^; and Taro^. For the declen- 
sion, see tiOl. £,[/, 

Koii4>0'i {kov4>o-), li<jh(y KOxxfiOTipOf; (-a, -ov), li(jhtei\ KQV<^6Ta.TQ% 
(-?;, -ov). Lightest. 

'2,o4>u<i {(To4>o-), wis(^, (jo<pu>Tipo<i, un>^er, aot^wraros, wisest. 
*A^io? («^io), worthy, a$Lu}Tipu^, a^iwraros;. 

HiKpo? ( TTiKpo-), billrn; TriKpoVt/jos;, TriKporaro?. 

'O^u's {6^v-)y sharp, o^i>rcpo?, o^vraro?. 

Mt'Xds (juicXav-), black, ^icAai'Ttpo?, p.f.XdvTaro'i. 

*A\r)Orf<; (akyjOia-), true., uX-qOiaTipo^, oXfjOicrTaTos (312). 



859] COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 75 

361. Stems in o do not lengther) o to w if the pftiiultitnate 
vowkI is followed by a mute and a liquid (100). See ttik^o? above. 

352- McVo?, middle, and a few others, drop o of ihti st^in and 
add aiTcpo'* and aiVaros; as /At'cros (/xtcro-), /ico-atVcpoy, /zctraiVaTos. 

353. Adjectives in oo? drop final o of the stem an<l add t<rT£po^ 
and <'crraro9, wijicli art^ contracted with o to oij'o-Tcpos and ova-raro^ -^ 
as (^iJi'OO^) <iJfOV9 (iwoo-), well-dii^posed, iwomTipoq, cwovaraTO^. 

354. Adjectives in tav add i(Tr(.po<; and ^'oraTos to the stem ; a-s 
cr<i}<i>pii}v (<Toj<^pov-), prudent^ <Tw<f>povi(mpoq^ aoxppovtararo';. 

355. Adjectives in ciy add rtpo? and raro? to the. stem in <r- 
(331, 2); as )(apUi^^ graceful, fern. ;^aprccr{Ta (x^/^'^t-)' XO-p^<(^Ttpo^, 
•)(apu<TTaTO% for -xapur-npo^, )(apur-TaT(y: (71). 

356. Adjectives may be compared by prefixing /xaXAov, mort', 
and frnXiCTa, viosi ; as /xoAAot' aoc^d?, more toific, f/AX-iOTa KaKo's, ?no.^'^ 
bad. 

11. COMl'AlllSON ItV -iojJ', -iOTTO?. 

357. L Some adjectives, cliiefiy in v^; and po?, are com- 
pared by changii:ig these endini/s to loiv and laroi;. E.g. 

'H8v?, 5we<?^ 17Siw^', rjhi<rro%. 

Ta^iJS, .^^^i/'^ raxtwi^ (rare), conmionly Ba(j<Tij3v (95, 5), Ta;(t<Tro9- 

KrSpO? (poet.), (/loHotlS, KV^10)V KvhL(TTO<;. 

2. The terminations luiv and ioro? are tlms added to the root 
of the word (lo3), not to tlie adjective stem. 

358. Comparatives in Ztoy, neuter lov., ai'e thus de- 
clined: — 

Noni. "rjBiwv \\Slov N. V. TJ&fov(S »iBioiJs T|8iova tj&iw 

Cen. TJStovos Gen. tiWvwv 

Dat. TJStovi l)at. Ti&iocri 

Ace. tjSiova rfitia t\'6iov Acc. i^Stovas T]Stovs t{&tova iiSiw 

DUAL. 

K. A. V. TJSiovf 
G. IX TJBlovoiv 

359. N. (a) The shortened forms come from a fttem in ocr- (of. 
238), oj and ou? being contracted Irom o-a and f/-€?. The accusa- 
tive phiral in ouf follows the form of the nominative (208, 3). 

(b) Homer sometimes has comparatives in Xinv. 



76 INFLECTION. [360 

(c) The vocative singular of these comparatives seems not to 
occur. 

(d) For the recessive accent in the neuter singular, see 122. 

360, Tiie irregular comparatives in oyv (301) are declined like 

III. iRjttGULAR Comparison. 

361. The following are the most important eases of 
irregular comparison : — 

1. ayaflo's, good, w^dvmVt 

(dpffo;*'), apWTTOt, 

i^arepoi), (j9Araroi), 

Kp(£(r<rwv or kpcIttwv (fp^trawv), KpaTi(rTos> 

{(pipTtpO<i), {KdpTlffTO%)y 

((p^praros^ <p4pictTo<i), 
Xwoiv (Xufoji', X(u/t<pos), X«<rros. 

2. KttKo's, had, KaKlwv (xaKu/Ttpos)^ KaKioTos, 

XlCpWV (XfpfftOI'), \ilpi<rTCSy 

{xapoTcpo^^ XepaSripos), 

T|'<r<r«v (for rjK'i-off, 84,1) or (^Jtio-ros, rare); 

VfTTCOV (^ffffW^), adv. TJKWTTa, 

least. 

3. KoXo's, leautiful, KaXXtwv, koXXiotos. 

4. jit'-yas, ^rea(, jt*f5(ov(M<^r<*'*'for^£ry-i-cji',84,3), ft^-ywrros. 

5. jiLKpos, i^riudl, fiiKpoTtpos, fiiKpOTaroSi 
(Horn. ^Xaxtia, 

fern, of iXaxv's), <Xa<ror«v ov i\arr<av (84, 1), 4Xdx '-o'tos, 

fjt<£«v (/itro-Toi, rare). 

0. dXtvos, ?l«^^i (uir-oX/i'a;!', J'ai/l^r less), oX(-yi<rTOS. 

7. irivr]s(^(^VT'),poor,'n-iv4<rr(pos, irtv^o-TaTOS. 

8. iroXvSi mxich, irXnW or irX^uv (neul. some- irXito-TOs- 

times ir\(ip), 

9. p^8vos, easy, pawv, P<^<rTOs, 

(Ion. /l»j/6ioO, ihi-repo^), (^jj/raroi, 

^TjtffTOs). 

10. 4>tXos, cZear, <|)tXT<pos (poetic), ^tXraTOs, 

4>iXa(T«pos (rare), 4>iXatTaT0$ 



(rare), 



(<pi\lu}u, twice in Horn.) 
Ionic or poetic forms are in ( ). 



367] ADVERBS AND THEIIl COMPARISON. 77 

362. Irregularities in the comparison of the following words 
will be found in the Lexicon : — 

ttitrxpos, AAyccvd?, apTra^, a<^^ovos, a^^P'^' /?a^u?, ^Xdi, ftpaBv^, 
ycpaid?, yXvKv<it i-mk-qafioiv, tVt^^api?, ^au;(OS, iSios, lao?, AaA.o?, 
fxaKap, fXQ.Kp6<:^ vt'o?, TraXaidj, 7ra;(vs, 7r<7rajj', ttlwv, irkrjaioi, irpfcrj^u?, 
7rpoiip70V, Trpwto?, CTTrouSaros, <T;)(oXaio?, i^^uSt^'?, oIkuV 

363. Some comparatives and superlatives liave no posi- 
tive, but their stem generally appears in an adverb or 
preposition. E.g. 

'Ai/uirtpo?, uppeVy di'airaTo?, uppermost, from avuiy up ; Trporcpo?, 
former^ fl-pwro? or TrpcirtcrTot, Jirst, from irpd, itf/ore ; Karwrcpoy, 
lower, KaruiTaTO':, lowest, from kcitw, downward. 

See in the Lexicon dy;(dTcpo9, a<i>apTcpo<:, xepSfwv, oTrXdrcpoy, 
trpoatsyTipo'iy ptyiov (neuter), VTripT€poi, vdTtpo*;, v\piu)v, <^adi^cpo?, 
with their regular superlatives; also to-;(aTos, vTraro?, and KipSto-ro?. 

364. Comparatives and superlatives may be formed from 
nouns, and even from pronouns. IC.g. 

Ba,<7tAcy?, ^iJi^A l3a(JL\(.vTf.po<i, a greater king, ^acrtXturaTo?, the 
greatest king; KXt7rTr)<;y iliief] KXiTrrlcrrtpoif KX«7rTt<TTaTOs ; kxjwi', dog^ 
KviTipoi, more impudeut, KvvraTOz, most ivipudent. So avrd?, self, 
avToraros, his very self, ipsissimus. 



ADVERBS AND THEIR COMPARISON. 

365. Adverbs are regularly formed from adjectives. 
Their form (including the accent) may be found by 
changing u of the genitive plural masculine to 9. £.g. 

4>t'Xuj^, dearly, from <^i'Xos ; StxaiW, Justly (SiKato*;) ; <TO<f>wi;, 
wisely {<T0<t>6i) ; liSt'ws, sweetly (ijSu?, gen. plvn-. TjSt'wi'), dArjOu}<;y 
truly (0X17^7)?, gen. plur. oXt^^cwi', oXi^^ojv) ; aa<^oi? (Ionic <7a<^€W), 
plainly (cra<^i}s, gen. plur. <ra<f>iuiVy <Ta4>C>v); Trdyroii, wholly (ira?, 
gen. phir. Trai'Ton'). 

366. Adverbs are occasionally formed in the same way from 
participles ; as Sui<^«poW(i>?, differently, from Sux<f)t.p<i>v {hia<^tp6v' 
Tiiiv) ; Ttray/AtVw?, regularly, from Tcray/xrVo? (raa-crct;, order). 

367. The neuter accusative of an adjective (either 
singular or plural) may be used as an adverb. U.g. 

HoXv and iroXXa, much (ttoXv?) ; /xc'ya or p.cyd\a, greatly (p.(.yas) ; 
also /AtyoXw? (3G5), /jLOyov, only (/jlovos, a/one). 



78 



INFLECTION. 



[388 



368. Other forms of adverbs occur witli various terminations', 
as /mAa, very^ rd^a^ quickly ^ avco, above, <yyu?, near. 

369. The neuter accusative singular of the coinparar 
tive of an adjective forms the comparative of the corre- 
spoiiding adveib, and the neuter accusative plural of the 
superlative forms the superlative of the adverb. JS.<j. 

2o<^ws (o-o<^6<;), tuiscly; ; co<f>ix>TCpov, more whchj ', cro<^<iiTUTa, most 
wisely. ^AXfjOCii (dXTjO^)^}. fruli/ ; d\r}$caTipov, dXyfOfO-raTa. HS/oj^ 
(tJSiJs), sweetly, yjSlov, rjSLfTTa. XapicVroj? ()^apiCLs), gracefully ; x^ipU- 
<TTCpoVf "xapiiaTara. Sox^povoj? (craj^pwi'), prudently; <jiD<^povi.Qrt- 
pov, <T{ii<^poi^i<jTaTa. 

370. 1. Adverbs in o) generally form a coniparativc in rlpii), 
and a superlative in raroj; as di^o), above, d^'urtpw, d^jT-drco. 

2. A few coniparativfS derived from adjecti\'es end in r<'>ti>s; 
as ^t^utoTtpo)?, viorefmnly, for fii/SaioTipov, from /ic^ai'o)?. 

371. N. MdAa, mwfA, y(?r//, has comparative //oAAoi' (for piA-i-ov, 
84, 4), 7«yre, rather ; superlative fxaXio-ja, viosi, ef^jjecially. 

NUMERALS. 



372, The cardinal and ordinal numeral adjectives, and 
the numeral adverbs whicli occur, are as follows: — 



Sigtu 


Cardi 


>ia^ 


Ordinal. 


^ffrtri. 


1 


a' 


' €ls, ftta, <'v, o?ie 


irpSrroSyJirst 


airag, OJJOc 


2 


P' 


8vo, two 




SivTipos, accond 


8is, tuJice 


3 


7' 


Tpus, Tpia 




Tptros 


TpiS 


4 


S' 


T«V(rap<s» 

(TtVTap»s, 


Wtrtrapa 
Wrrapa) 


T^VapTOs 


TITpciKIS 


5 


•' 


TT^VT* 




irifiirTos 


IT* VTOKIS 


6 


g' 


fg 




<'kto« 


<'|aKis 


7 


I' 


<irTd 




<PSo>i.OS 


^TTTClKlS 


8 


^' 


OKTW 




ov8oos 


OKTCXKIS 


9 


9' 


(Vv/a 




tVaros 


^VOKtS 


10 


l' 


&(Ka 




S^Karos 


SiKCUdS 


}1 


la' 


<'vS<Ka 




<vS(KaTos 


tvScKdKis 


12 


^P' 


ScjS<ica 




S«B<VaTos 


SwStKOKlS 


13 


^7' 


Tp<is Ka\ S 


iKa (or 


Tpfros KttV 5«tcaTOS 








Tp(t(rKa(5<Ka) 







374] 



NUMERALS. 



79 



Sign. 


Cardinal. 


Ordinal. 


Adverl}. 


14 


tS' 


ri<r<ro.^i^ koX Uko. 


WropTos Kal BtVaros 




( 


[nv Ticro-apttTKaiS^a) 






}5 


w' 


irtvTtKaiSfKa 


irt'iiirTos Kai ScKaros 


IC 


i5' 


<'KKat5tKa 


('ktoj Kal 8<KaT0S 




17 


^r 


tirTaKai6<Ka 


ePSop-os Kol StKaros 




18 


^n' 


OKTWKaiS^KO 


o-ySoos Kal S^kutos 




19 


lO' 


«vvtaKai8(Ka 


i'varos Kal S^kutos 




20 


k' 


«tKOa-i(v) 


ttKOcrro's 


flKOcraKiS 


21 


KO.' 


<ls Kai iI'koo-i(v) or 
(Vkoo-i (Kal; Us 


irpulTOS Kal ilKOCTTOS 




30 


X' 


TpidKovra 


TpiOlKOO-To's 


TpldKOVTaKlS 


40 


V-' 


Tto-crapoiKOVTa 


T<cro-apaKOo-Tos 


T<crcrapaK0VTaKt5 


50 


V 


1r(VTqK0^Ta 


•JTiVTl^KOO-To's 


irtv-n^KOVTOLKis 


00 


r 


t^rKOV'TO 


t^llKOCTTo's 


t^KOVTOKtS 


70 


o' 


t'PSojJLTiKOVTa 


tpSoixt^Koa-To's 


<P5o[lt]KOVTo'KlS 


80 


ir' 


d-ySoTiKOVTa 


6yhot\Ko<n6'i 


OYSoTIKOVTaKtS 


f)0 


9' 


tVtVTJKOVTa 


evqvr|KO<rTo's 


iVfVllKOVTaKlS 


100 


9 


(VaroV 


(Karoo-Tos 


<KaTOVT0lKlS 


200 


0-' 


SidKoViOi., Qi., a 


6ldK00-L00-T0S 


StdKOO-lClKlS 


;300 


t' 


TpidKoo-i-oi, ai, a 


TpioKOcrioo-To's 




40U 


\i' 


TiTpaKoVioi, at, a 


TiTpaKOtrioo-To's 




500 


4>' 


irtvTaKoViOM ai, a 


TTtVTaKOO-lOCrTO? 




600 


x' 


/^aKo'crioi, at, a 


('^atcocrioo-To's 




700 


^', 


t'-iTTaKoVioi, ai, a 


< TTTaKOtrjOCTTo's 




800 


«' 


OKTaKoVioi, ai, a 


OKTaKOO-lOCTTOS 




900 


®' 


ivaKo'criot, ai, a 


tvaKOcrioo-To's 




1000 


,a 


XiXioi, ai, a 


XiXioc-To's 


XlXlOKlS 


2000 


,P 


5i.a-xiXi.oi, at, a 


Sto-xiXiocTTos 




3000 


.IT 


TpKTxiXtoi, ai, a 


TpicrxiXiocTTOS 




10000 


^i 


^vpioi, ai, a 


Ji-VptOO-TOS 


}iupi.aKis 


20000 


^K 


SlCTfltpLOl 






100000 


,P 


S{Ka<i<r^ijpiOL 







373. Above 10,000, 8uo /xvpiaScq, 20,000, rpCi^ /xGpta$c?, 30,000, 
etc., may be used, 

374. Tlic dialects have the following peculiar forms: — 
l—l. See 377. 

5, A frolic TrifXTTt for trivjf^. 
ft. llerod. (XvixTO'i for lvaro% ; also ttVa^t?, etc. 
12. Doric and Ionic Suo'jSf va ; Pootic hvoKathtKo.. 
i?0. Epic hUocTL ; Doric ctKart. 



80 INTLECTION. [376 

30, 80, 90, 200, 300. Ionic rpLy^Kovra, oyScuK-owa, tyinjKoyra (Horn.), 

40. 2Ierod. rcacrcpaKOVTa. 

Homer has rptVaTO?, T<Vparo?, i^h6^ro<;^ oySoaro?, tlvaraqy 8uo>. 
StKaros, cfiKocTTO?, and also tlie Attic form of each. 

375. The cardinal numbers eh^ one^ SJo, two^ rp€L<;^ 
threey and reao-ape^; (or rerrape^)^ four^ are thus de- 
clined: — 



Nom. 


€W 


^Ca 


tv 




Gen. 


«vos 


fiLois 


€VOS 


N. A. 8vo 


Dat. 


ivL 


jii<^ 


tvi 


G. D. 8uoiv 


Ace 


€va 


^£av 


i'v 




^om. 


Tp*X% 


rpta 




T^ro-apis Wo-captt 


Gen. 




TplWV 




Tto-o-opwv 


Pat. 




TpwrC 




TtVo-apo-t 


Ace. 


TpilS 


TpCa 




Tto-o-apas T^<rcrapa 



376. N. Auo, /W(?, with a plural noun, is sometimes indeclinable, 

377. N. Homer has feni, la, 1^5, Irj^ lav, for /xia; and iw for fVi. 
Homer has Suo and 5uc«j, hoth indeclinable ; and Sotw and Soiot, 
declined regularly, Herodotus has Suwv, Suotcrt, and otlier forms: 
see the Lexicon. Homer sometimes has Triorupe? for Tt'rro-apts. 
Herodotus has Tt'cro-€p£9, and the poets have rerpadi. 

378. The compounds ovBus and /xv^Sti's, ho oiifi, none, are de- 
clined like tU. Thus, ou^fcV, ovBif/.ia, ovhty; gen. ouSei'ds, ou8c/juas ; 
dat. oi'ScVt", oi)5c/jua ; ace. ovScVa, ouSe/Atai/, ovSeV, etc. Z'lural forms 
sometimes occur; as oii5«Vc?, oiStVcov, ovS(<n, ovSfVa?, /at^ScV*?, etc. 
When ouSf or /xiySc is written separately or is separated from cU 
(as by a preposition or by ai^), the negative is more emphatic; as 
i^ oi'8<j'o?,/rom no one ; oi8* <J iyo*;, from not even one; ovBi. tU, not 
a man. 

379. Jioth is expressed by ap.<f>(t}y ambo, afx<j>olv ; and by a}x<l>6- 
rfpo?, generally pkial, ap.<j>6r€poL, ai, a. 

380. The cardinal numbers from 5 to 100 are indeclin- 
able. The higher numbers in tot and all the ordinals are 
declined regularly, like other adjectives in 0?. 

381. In Tpci? (rpta) Kal BcKa and T«Vrrap<<; (rccrcrapa) sal SiKa 
for 13 and 14, the first part is declined. In ordinals (13th to lOtli) 
the forms rpucrKaihiKa70<; etc. are Ionic, and are rarely found in 
the best Attic. 



388J NUMKHALy.-THli ARTICLE. 81 

382. 1. In compound expressions like 21, 22, etc., 31, 32, etc., 
the numbers can be connected by xat in either order; but if kqI is 
omitted, the Jai-ger precedes. Thus, tl? koX ttKoo-t, one and twenty^ 
or tiKocrt Ktti fiv, twenty and one; but (without Koi) only dKo<nv civ, 
twenty-one. 

2. In ordinals we have irpuiTOi koi ciVoaro?, tweniy-Jirsty and also 
«txoo"ro? Kol TrpiuTo?, etc. ; and for 21 tU Kai tixoo'TOs. 

3. The numbers 18 and 19, 28 and 29, 38 and 39, etc., are often 
expressed by h6<; (or ^volv) §€OVt«« ciKOcrt (TptaKOyra, TCcrcrapaKovro, 
etc.) ; as tTij hoi Se'ovra TpidsovTa, 29 yearj. 

383. 1. With collective nouns in the singular, especially i} 
rTTTTO?, cavalry^ the numerals in lol sometimes appear in the sin- 
gular; as rrjv ^LaKoa-idv iTnroVy the (troop of) 200 cavalry (200 
horse)] datrU fj-vpia Kal nrpaKoaia (X. An. i, 7'^), 10,400 nkields 
(i.e. men with s?tields). 

2. Mvpiot means ten thousand ; p-vpLoi, innumerable, Mvpio^ 
sometimes has the latter sense; as fivpio<i xpovo^^ countless time; 
fivpid TTiviay incalculable poverty. 

384. N. The Greeks often expressed numbers by letters ; the two 
obsolete letters Vau (in the form C) and Koppa, and tlie character San, 
deuoting «, 90, and 900. (See 3.) Tlie last Inter in a numerical ex- 
pression has an accent above. Thousands begin anew witli a, with a 
stroke below. Thus, aw^V, 1808; /Jx'^c', 2Q2G; ^/.V, 4026 ; i^y, 2003; 
0m', fi40; p5', 104. (See 372.) 

385. N. The letters uf the ordinary Greek alpliabet are often used 
to number tlie books of tlie Iliad and Odyssey, each poem having 
twenty-four books. A, B, P, etc. are generally used for the Iliad, and 
o, /f, 7, etc. for the Odyssey. 

THE ARTICLE. 

386. The definite article o (stem ro-y^ the^ is tlius 
declined : — 



SINGDLAH. 

Noil), 6 T| T<S 

Gen. Tov ri\i Tov 

Dat, Tiji T^ TW 

Ace. TOV Tt^V T(S 



DTJAL. 

N, A. TW Tli T« 

G.D. TOiV TOiV TOiv 



PL UH A L. 
Notn. ot ai Td 
Gen. T«v 

Divt. Tols rats toCs 
Ace, rov$ Tds rd 



387. N. The Greek has no indefinite article; but often the 
indefinite rU (415, 2) may be translated by a or an; as dvOptinro^ 
Tt?, a certain man, often simply a man. 

388. N. The regular fediinine dual forms ra and raiv (espe- 



S2 



INFJ.KCTIOK. 



[389 



cially TO.) are very rare, and toI and -'olv are generally used for all 
genders (3U?i). Thy legvilar plural noiiiinalives rot and rat' arc 
epic and Doric; and tlic article lias tlie ufiual dialectic forms of 
the first and second declensions, ns tqlo, toIiv, tuwi', roTcrt, T^^tn, 
rrj'i. Homer has rarely TOtcrSco-crt or roiaScac in tlie dative plural. 



PRONOUKS. 

PEUSONAL AND INTEKSIVK PRONOUNS. 

389. The personal pronouns are €760, /, aJ, thou, and 
ov (genitive), of Jam, of her, of it. Auto'v, himself, is 
used as a personal pi'onouu for him, her, it, etc. in tlie 
oblique eases, but never in the nominative. 

They are tiius declined : — 









SING U LA H. 








Nom. 


«Y«, / 


(TV, (7iOU 


— 


avTo's 


aiiTi] 


avro 


Geij. 


ifAOV, pOV 


o-oO 


0^ 


auTov 


avTTis 


avTou 


Dat. 


jfioi, p.o£ 


0-0 £ 


ol 


auTw 


avTvi 


axirw 


Ace. 


l^i, jit 


<rf 


i' 


avToV 


arjTtfv 


ai/ro 


N. A. 


VtO 


o-4>ti) 


t>UAL. 


a^T(w 


aurd 


aCrw 


G. D. 


VwV 


(r4)wv 


VLUKAL. 


avToiv 


avraiv 


avToiv 


Noni. 


rjKis, we 


lifxus, j/(?ii 


o-<i>t IS, i/jcy 


avToi 


avraC 


avTci 


Gen. 


ijjiwv 


OjtuK 


<r<J)u)v 


avTwv 


avTiZv 


avTwv 


Dat. 


1]}11V 


Vfiiv 


(r<(>tcri 


avTOi? 


avrai? 


avro IS 


Ace. 


^HttS 


vfi.ds 


o-4>ds 


avToiJs 


auras 


aijra 



390. N. The Kt.onis of the ]5<'VSonal pronouns in tlie fir^t ]jerson <\vo. 
^^' ^^.^- ^'^^'" "*^)< »'w- (cl. )(U6), and -npif-, <f7w ijcini; of disLincL forma- 
tion ; in the second porfi*.in, c€- (cf. Ec). <T<^>tj^ u^f-, witli c-u disLuicL; in 
the third person, f- (of. .-^c) and a<p(-. 

391. Avros in all ca^cs may be an iuten.sive adjective 
pronoun, like ipse, self (US[), I). 

392. For the uses of ov, ol, rtc, see 987; OSS. In Attic prose, 
01, a<f>u';, cr<f>iovj cr<^/'(n, (T<lja'i, are the only common forms; ov and c 
never occur in ordinary lan,£;nage. 'J'he orators Reidoni use 'this 
pronoun at all. Tiie tragedians use chiefly o-4>ii' (not a-(f>t) and 
orc^t (:J04). 

393. 1. The following is the Homeric declension of cyw, av, and 
ov. The forms not in ( ) are used al^o Ijv Herodotus. Those with 
a/i/x- and u/A/x- are Aeo He. 



400J 




PRONOUNS. 

SINGULAn. 


8; 


Nnm. 


</7u» (hup) 


(TU (t6»'Tj) 




Gfu. 


i^^Of i^€V^ ^(IJ 


(T/y, (TirD 


(^o) f J 




(e^fio, ifxiOtv) 


{auQ, (T^Oiu) 


Jo (?flfO 


DaT. 


ffMll, fiot 


col, TOf (TC(f) 


or (^oO 


Ace. 


^M^, /^/ 


c4 

dtal. 


(0 (^0 ^^y 


N. A. 


(fOK, Cw) 


(ff^on^ a<p<J)) 


((T<pu4) 


G.]). 


(fuilv) 


I'LLTiAL. 


(^ff^prnv) 


Noiu. 


rjfuh (dfxfuz) 


u/^fFs (tVM«0 


a<pih (not in Horn.) 


Gen. 


i)lJ.io)v (r^AtticJv) 


ypt^w;' (Vdwv) 


ff<f>iioy ((j'0((w>') 


Dal. 


i)fx.\v {6.fA.fA.i) 


UM'"*' ("MmO 


<T<pla-i, <r0i{i') 


Ace 


i7M^aS (4mM«) 


uy:i/as {vfxiM.) 


a<p^a^, <T<pi 



'1. Herodotus has also uf^ia in tlie iieuter jjlural of the third 
jiersoii, wliicii is not found in Homer. 

394. 'i'\)ii tragedians use <t4>^ iind cr<^iV as personal pronouns, 
l)oth masculine and feminine. 'J1iey sometimes use cr<^€ and rarely 
at^tv as singular. 

395. 1. Tiic tragedians use the Do)'ic accusative vlv as a per- 
sonal pronoun in Jtll genders, and in both singular and plural. 

2. Th(i Ionic ^Iv is used in all genders, Init only in the singular. 

396. N. Tiie penult of yifxuyv^ ^ftt"''! ^/^cis, ij^<ov, Tu/xtv, and ij/za? 
is .sontt^t-injos accented iu poetry, wlien tlioy are ]iot eijij'ihatic, and 
LV and d? are shortened. 'J'iius iJ/JtiDt', t//xii', iji/xa?, O/xwv, Vfuv, Vfxn<;. 
]f they are enijihatic, tliey are sonjetinies written rjfxiv, r}tMi.<:, Vfjuv, 
Vfxd'i. So a<f>6.'i is \vritten for cr^^u?- 

397. N. Herodotus has (xlrc<i}v in the /('JJi/jin^e for avrtoi' (188, 
T)). Tlie Ionic contracts 6 o/jtos into ojvro's or <JJ^ras, ami to aurd 
into Tmmj (7). 

398. N. The Doric has iyC>i'\ fM^os, ^moi'^ ^Mfi!^ (f*""i' (fjwoO) ; <?^i;' for 

iixoL ; WM<^s, i^i<^v, a^£^', d^^ (I'or rj^ds, i^Mt^*', h^^^^> 17MQ0j ''"'^ ^*^'' '^'^j '"''■' 
(for Tt'o), Te'or, TfoD, tcoO?, TfOs (Itjr jou); to(, -rlv (for<roi); r^, riJ (e)l- 
clitic) for ai \ ttJ.^^ and v/jl^ (for O/xerT and 6/ids) ; iV for o*i ; ^^ for <r0^, 
t'indar has only ^vw^, n', to(, t^*-. 

399. Ai^Tos^ pieceded by the article means the same 
(idem) ; as o ai^ro? ai^vV* ^^^^ 5a7??e w^n, (See 989, 2.) 

400. AtTOs is often united by crasis (44) with tlie article; as 
Tatrroi" for toD avrov; ra>jTw for roj atfToI ; Tavrrj for rij airj^" (not 
to be confounded with ravTij from ovto<^). fu the contracted form 
the neuter singular inis TaiuTO or ravrov. 



84 



INFLECTION. 



[401 



REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

401. The reflexive pronouns are Ifxavrov^ lyiavrr)^^ of 
myself ; aeavrov^ creavTfjs;^ of thyself; and kavrov^^ kavrrj^i^ 
of himself, herself, itself. They are thus declined : — 



Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



Gen. 
Bat. 
Ace. 



Masc. Fein. 
J^avToC ifiavTTJs 



61NGULAK. 

MaBC. Fern. 
<r£avTod ctavT-iis 
(Tcavrw <r*avTi7 or 
<r<avTov <r«avTi^v 

PLDItAL. 



Masc. Fem. 

<ravToC (ravn^s 

iravTw a'avT^J' 

<rauTov <ravTTJv 



Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 

Gen. 
Bat. 

Ace. 



Masc. Fem. 

ijfjictfv avT<av 

TJ}itv avTOis ijjiiv avrais 

i|^dc avrov's ^Ih^ avrds 

SINGULAR. 

Fe7n. 

«avTT)V 



Masc. Fem. 

v\iXv auTOts v\lIv avraii 



Masc. 
• avTov 
«avT« 
i'avTov 



tavTois 
i'avTovs 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



Ncut. Masc. Fern. Neut. 

«avTOv avTou avTTJs avrov 

iavTiS or avrtS civt^i avrta 

tavTo avTo'v avVifv avrd 

PLVH\L. 
«avT«v <axrrwv avTwv avTuJv avrwy 

«avTais <avTots or avrots atjrals avTots 
• avTos «avTa avrov's auTos avra 

also 
o-4>«v avToiv 
<r4>tortv avTois a-4>t<riv avrats 

(r<^ds avrov's <r<f>ds avrds 

402. TJie reflexives are compounded of the stems of the per- 
sonal pronouns (390) and avro?. But in the plural the two 
pronouns are declined separately in the first and second persons, 
and often in the third. 

403. N. In Homer the two pronouns are always separated in 
all persons and numbers; as crol avrw, ot avrw, f avnjj'. Herodotus 
has ifxcuivToVi (tcuvtov, «wutov. 

RECIPROCAL PRONOUN. 

404. The reciprocal pronoun is d\\i]X(i)v^ of one an- 
other^ used only in the oblique cases of tlie dual and 
plural. It is thus declined : — 



409] 



PRONOUNS. 



85 



DUAL. rUlRAL, 

Gen. dXXTfXoiv aXXTJXaiv oXX-nXoiv dXXifXwv dXX-rjXwv oXX-rfXwv 
Dat. oXXtJXoiv aXXi]Xaiv aXXriXoiv cxXXtJXois aXXiiXais olXXtiXois 

Ace dXXTJXw aXXi|Xd oXX-nXw oXXtJXovs dXXiiXds aXXiiXa 

405. The stem is cLAAtjAo- (for oAA-oAAo-). 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

406. The possessive pronouns t/Ao?, 7nT/^ ao^^ thy^ r]fi€- 
T€po9, oxiT^ v^€Tepo<i<, youT^ (7(j)4Tepof;y theii\ and the poetic 
09, his^ are declined like adjectives in 09 (298). 

407. Homer has dual po.ssessives vojircpo?, of us two, (r<f><iitT€po<;y 
of you two ; also t«o? (Doric and Aeolic, = tuus) for cro'9, €09 for 0?, 
(j/jLos for rjfXiTipo':, i/10? for ^/jctVcpo?, <7<^os for (T<l>iTcpo<i. The Attic 
poets sometimes have a/xo'; or afi6<i for €y^6? (often as our for my). 

408. *09 not being u.sed in Attic prose, his is there expressed 
by tlie genitive of auro?, as 6 Trai-r/p avrov, hk father. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

409. The demonstrative pronouns are ovro<: and ooe, 
this^ and iK€2i/o<;^ that They are thus declined: — 



Norn. ovTos 
Gen. TovTov 

Dat. TOUTW 
Ace. TOVTOV 



Nom. 6'6< 
Gen. Tovhi. 
Dat. T*ii8< 

Ace. T0V8< 

N. A. Tii8( 
G. D. ToivSi 

Noni. oV8( 

Gen. Tu»v8( 

Dat. Towr8< 

Ace, TovV8< 



6INGULAR. 

TOVT7)S 
TaVTQ 

TavTi^v 



TOVTO 0\lTOl 

TOVTOV TOUTWV 

TOVT<() TOVTOIS 

TOVTO TOVTOUS 

UllAl.. 

N. A. TOVTW TOv'tU TOVTO) 

G. D. TOvTOtV TOVTOIV TOVTOIV 



ri.UKAL. 

avTtti 
tovtwv 
TavTats 
Tuvrds 



T-rio-S* 
T|i6< 

TtJv84 

T»8< 
TOlvSc 

al'8< 
T*3v8« 
Taio-8< 
tActS* 



SINGULAR. 
T0'S< 
TOvSt 
TwS* 
TO'84 

DUAL. 
Tw8l 
T0iv8< 

TLIinAL. 
TOS* 

T«v8t 
TOurS* 
ToS* 



^MiVOS 
^K<(V0U 

^KtlVOV 

ixi^votv 

<K(£V01S 
^KctvOVS 



4K<ivT|V 

iK«tvOlV 
CKKVai 

^K<ivds 



ravTa 

TOVTUV 
TOVTOIS 

TavTa 



iiciivo 

^K<iV0U 
^KtiVO 

^KCCVW 
^Kf(V0lV 

{K<iva 

iKtLVWV 

^KcCva 



86 



INFLECTION. 



[m 



410. Feminine dual forms in a and aiv are very rare (303). 

411. 'EKtivot is regular except in tlio neuter €k€lvo- Kuvo<t is 
Ionic and poetic. "OBt i.s formed of tlie article 6 and -Se (HI, 4). 
For its accent, see 14lj. 

412. N. The demonstratives, inclnding some adverbs (436), 
may be emphasized by adding i', before wliich a short vowel is 
dropped. Thus ovrouty avrrjif tovtl ; 68:', -fjhi, roSt", tovtovi, ravrt, 
TOvTiovi. So rocrourocji (120), w8/, ovtu)(jl. In comedy yc (larely 
Be) may precede this t^ making yt or 8i ; as rovToyty tovtoBl. 

413. N. Herodotus lias tovtiow \n the faninine iov tovtwv (cf. 
397). Homer lias rotcrSco-at or Tolcrhicn for tol(tB<. 

414. N. Other demonstratives will be found among the pro- 
nominal adjectives (420). 



INTERUOGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

415. 1. The interrogative pronoun rtV, rt', who? ivhlch? 
what? always takes the acute ou the first syllable. 

2. The indefinite pronoun Ti9, Ti\ any one^ Home one^ 
is enclitic, and its proper accent belongs on the last 
syllable. 

416. 1. These pronouns are thus declined : — 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 

Ace. 

N. A. 
G.D. 

Horn. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



Interrogative. 



SI sou LA K. 



tCs 



tCvi, tu> 



tCvc 

TIVOIV 



TI.VWV 



Ttvas 



PLL'HaL. 

rivtx 



rCva 



/iid^jfnUii. 



tIs 






tI 




TIVOS, 


T0\) 






TIVL, T4> 




TiVOL 


TlVt 
TlVOiV 




tV 



TIV€S 



TlVWV 

TvcrC 



Tivas 



TlVtt 



2. For the indefinite plural nvd there is a form arra. (Ionic 
d<T(fa). 



424] 



PRONOUNS. 



87 



417. OuTis and /jl7;ti9, poetic for oijSct? and fLy^Sc:?, no one, are 
Jecliiied liUc Ti?. 

418, ]. 'I'lie acute acceiit of n'? is never clianged to the grave 
(115, 2). The iornis ri? and ri of the indefinite pi'onouii very 
rarelv occur with the grave accent, as they are enclitic (141, 2). 

2. The Ionic lias rto and t€v for toO, Ww for raJ, t<W for TiVojv, 
and Wotfft for Ti'trt; also these same forms as enclitics, for rou, 
ro), etc. 

419, "AXXo^; o^Aer, is declined like avT6<: (389), haviiig 
oAAo iu the neuter singular. 

420. 1. The indefinite Bclvay such a one^ is sometimes 
indeclinable, and is ^iometimes declined as follows: — 





SINGULA li. 


TLUltAL. 




{All GeJidrn-s). 


(Masculine) 


NoiTi. 


Sclva 


6<tv<s 


Gun. 


Stivos 


8<tvwv 


Dat. 


8£iVU 




Aec. 


Siiva 


5iivas 



2, .^itm in all its forms always has the article. 



lUOLATIVE PRONOUNS. 

421. The relative pronoun 6?, V), o, toho^ is thus de- 
clined : — 



siKGi-XAU. lk;al. 

Noni. 8s ii j 

Gen. ov Tjs Oil ■ N. A. w ul ui 

Dat. « I) « I G. D. olv olv olv 

Ace. ov TJV o 1 



PLUnAT. 

Noni. ot aV 4 

Gen. uiv «v «v 

Dat. ots als ol? 

Ace. oils &5 & 



422. Feminine dual forms S. and alv are very rare and doubtful 
(303). 

423. N. For o9 n.sed as a deinonstrative, especially in Homer, 
see 1023. For the article (t- fonn.s) as a relative in Homer and 
Herodotus, see U;i5 and 9;i0. 

424. N. Homer has oov (oo) and €17? for ov and i^s- 



INFLECTION. 



[425 



425, The indefinite relative ocrn?, rjn^y o Ti, whoever, 
whatever^ is thus declined : — 









SINGULAR. 




Norn. 


00-TlS 




^TIJ 


6'ti 


Geu. 


OUTIVOS, 


OTOW 


ifo-TlVOt 


OVTlVOJi OTOU 


Pat. 


tjJrivi, OTto 


IjVlVl 


WTlVt, OT«j) 


Ace. 


ovTLva 




T|VTlva 
DUAL. 


^Tl 


N. A, 


m-ivi 




WTIVC 


un-ivi 


G. D. 


olvTivotv 




olvTtVOlV 
PLURAL. 


olvTtvoiv 


Nora. 


oKtivcs 




aKriVfS 


ttTivtt, arra 


Gen. 


<SvTlV(i)V, 


OTWV 


<i^VTlVWV 


«^VTIVUV, OTUV 


Dai. 


olo-TVO-V, 


OTOIS 


ato-Tio-i 


olo-Tio-i, 6'toij 


Ace. 


ovoTTivas 




&0*TIV« 


ciTiva, ttTTa 



426. N. 'Oo-Ti? is compounded of the relative o? and tlie indefi- 
nite Ti9, each part being* declined separately. For the accent, see 
14G. The plural arra (Ionic a^cra) for u.rLva must not be con- 
founded with arra (41 C, 2). "0 ri is thus written (sometimes o, Ti) 
to distinguish it froni ort, that. 

427. N. The shorter forms orov, ona^ orwv, and orot? Aliich 
are genuine old Attic forms, are used by the tragedians to the 
exclusion of ovrtw?, etc. 

428. ' 1. The following are tlie peculiar Homeric forms of 

0(TTt9 ; — 



SINGULAR. 

Nom. 8tis ii ttw 

Gen, bT«v, Stt«o, tixTcv 

Dal. i)T€<{» 

Ace. OTlVa $ TTl 



PLURAL. 
oWotcri 



lirivas 



dtro-a 



fio-o-a 



2. Herodotus has orev, onwy oTiuiV, oTtOKTij and aacra (42tJ). 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 

429. There are many pronominal adjectives which corre- 
spond to each other in form and meaning. The following 

are the most inipovtant : — 



436J 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 



89 



INTIRROOATIVE. 

irdffot; how muchf 
how many? 
quantus ? 



ifoioi; of what 
kind? qualis? 

iTTfXfjcof,- how old? 
how large? 



Indefinite. 

TToao'i, of some 
quantity. 



Troi6t, of some, 
kind. 



rdrtpoi; which of Trirt/jot (or ttotc- 
the two? pbs), one of two 

(rare). 



Demonbtratitb. 

(jdaos)^ TOff6<r5e, 
TocovTosy so 
much, taiitus, 
so many. 

TOlOVTO^, suc/i, 

talis. 

(tj;X/vo5), rjjXi- 
K6a5i, Tr}\iKoO- 
Tof, so old or so 
large. 

^Tepoi, the one or 
the other {of 
two). 



Rklative. 

cf<yo?, 6ir6<Tot, (as 
7nucky as many) 
as, quantus. 

olot, oiroioi, of 
which kiiid., 
(iiuch) as, qualis. 

of xohich age or 
size, (as old) as, 
(as large) as. 

owdrfpoSy which- 
ever of the two. 



430. The pronouns n'?, ti?, etc. form a corresponding 
series : — 

rU;whof tU, any one. 85(, ovto^, this, 

this one. 



i'?, 6(TTii, whOi 

which. 



431. Tk may be added to oTo?, oaos, ottoVos, oTroro?, atul OTrorcpo^, 
to make them more indefinite; as oTroto^ n?, of what kind soever. 

432. 1. Ouv added to indefinite velatives gives them a purely 
indefinite foice ; as oo-TLcovy, onovv, any one^ anything, soever, with 
no relative character. So Bometinies StJ ; as otov 8>/. 

2. N. Rarely oiroTcpo^ (without ow) has the same meaning, 
either of the two. 

433. N. Homer doubles t in many of these relative words; a.s 
iiTTiroTepo^y oirTToXo^. So in 6-mrw^, briroTi, etc. (480). flerodotus has 
6j<or«pof, o/coVo^ fi*ou, OKodiv, OKore. e.c, for oworeposy etc. 

434. N. ToVo? and roioi seldoiii o '.cur in Attic prose, rrjXlKoi never. 
TojoV5e, TotoVSf, and ttjXhcoVSc ure declined liko, roao^ and toToi ; 
as roaoatif roai)te, Toa6v6t, etc., — roioVif, T0»<i5c. TO'.ov^f. Toaovro^. 
ToiouTOf, and ttjXuoDtoi arc declined like ovms (omitting the first r in 
Totirou, Toyro, etc), except that the neuter singular has o or ov ; as 

ToiovTOi, TOiavrrj, toloOto or TOtoOroi'', gen. roiourov, roiaurtjT, etc. 

435. There are also negative pronominal adjectives; as ovxt?, 
fi^TLf: (poetic for oiSti?, ixi]^u<;), ovStVepo?, ;ult;Sctc/)os, neither of two. 
(For adverbs, see 440.) 

436. Certain pronominal adverbs correspond to each other, 
like the adjectives given above. Such are the follcwlng.— 



90 



INFLECTION. 



[437 



INTBRROOATIVE. InDEFIKITE. DEMONBTRATrVE. Relatite. 

irou; where? ttov, somewhere. (fvOa), ii-ddb^, ov, owov, where, 

there. 
(ttj), r^3f, ravT-r}^ ^, 6Vt;, which way^ 

this way, thus. as. 
iKCidiy thither, ol, biroL, whither. 



rrj; which way? 

how? 
iro?; whither? 



fl-Tj, some wayy 

somehow. 
ffoi, to some 
place. 
voBif; whence? -roB^w.from 
some place. 



irws; how? 

iroTt; when? 

r-^yixa; at what 
time^ 



^yr€vd€f,^KciO€f, whence, 
thence. 
v(X)s,in some way, (ru;?), (Jj), w5e, J s, 6Va>T, in if /iic/i 

somehow. ovri^^, thvs. way, us. 

irori, at some rore, then. 6t(, oTTOTf, when, 

time. 



(jyjvlKa)^ rrjyiKd- TjuUa^ ovtjplKa, at 
5e, Trji'inavTa, v)hich tivie^ 

at that time. when' 

437, Tlic indefinite adverbs arc all enclitic (141, 2). 

438, Forms wiiich seldom or never occur in Attic prose are 
in ( ). "EuSa and ivOiv are relatives in ]M-ose, where, whence; as 
demoiistraiives they apj^ear cliiefly in a few expressions like IvBu. 
teal Ivda, here and there, ivBcv Kal hScv, on both .s-ifha. For ws, //(U^*, 
in Attic prose, see 136, o. Tw? (from ro-), like ovTu}<i (from ovTo<;)y 
thus, is poetic. 

439. 1. The 'poets have kuOl, KtiOcv, K<to-< fov intl, <kuO(.v, and 
tKilijc, lil^fe KtLvo<i for €Kclvo<i (411). 

2. Herodotus has ivOavra, ivOivrcv (ov fVraC^a, iurcvOiu. 

3. There are various poetic adverbs; as ttoOi, ttoOl, oOt (for ttoi', 
TTOv, ov)t ToOir, there, roOey, thence. 

440. There are negative (-^dv* i b-, of place, manner, ftc. ; as 
ovhafxov, ixrjha/jiov, nowhere, ovSul ,J, arjbafxrj, in no way, ovBufxoJ';, 
/x^Sa/xus, in no manner. ( See 135.) 



VERBS. 

441, The Greek verb hiis three voices^, the active, 
middle, and passive, 

442, 1. The middle voice generally signifies that tlie sul)iect 
performs an action vpou hifn^(>lf or fm- his num benefit (1242), but 
Eometimes it is not distinguislied from the active voice in meaning. 



450] VERBS. 91 

2. Tlie passive differs- frorti tlie middle in form in only two 
tonses, tlie tuiure and the aoiisf. 

443. Deponent verbs ai-e those wliicli have no active 
voice, but are used in the middle (or the middle and 
passive) forms with an active sense. 

444. N. l)e])oiients gonprally have the aorist and future of the 
jitiddlo forjii. A few, wjjich have ai) aorist (soniotiines a future) 
of the ]>assive foriii, are called passive deponents; wliile tlie others 
are called middle deponents. 

445. There are four moods (properly so called), the 
indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative. To 
these are added, in the conjugation of the vei'b, the 
infinitive, and particii)les of the chief tenses. The 
verbal adje(;tives i^ro? and t€o<; have man 3^ points of 
likeness to partici[nes (see 776). 

446. The four proper moods, a.s opposed to the ivjinilive, are 
culled Jinuc mood;^. Tlie subjuiictive, optative, inoperative, and 
infinitive, as ojijiosed to the indicadve, are called dependent moods. 

447. There are seven tenses^ the present, imperfect, 
fntn)-o, aorist, pej-t'cct, i)lupeifect, and future perfect. 
The imperfect and pluperfect are found only in the 
indicative. The future and future perfect are wanting 
in the subjunctive and imperative. The future perfect 
belongs regularly to tlic passive voice, but sometimes 
has the meaning of the active or middle. 

448. The present, perfect, future, and future perfect 
indicative are called primary (or principal) tenses ; the 
imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist indicative are called 
secondary (or historical) tenses. 

449. Many verbs liave tenses known as the second aorist (in 
all voices), the second perfect and pluperfect (active), and the 
second futnre (passive). These tenses are generally of raore 
simple formation than the frst (or ordinary) aorist, perfect^ etc. 
Few verbs have botli forms in any tense; when this occurs, the 
two forms g^cnerally differ in meaning (for example, by the first 
beinir transitive, the second inti'ansitive), but not always. 

460. The aorist corresponds generally to the indefuite or his- 



92 INFLECTION. [461 

torical perfect in Latin, and the perfect to the English perfect or 
the definite perfect in Latin. 

451. N. No Greek verb is in use in all these tenses, and the full 
paradigm of the regular verb must include parts of three different 
verbs. See 470. 

452. Tliere are three numbers^ as in nouns, the singu- 
lar, dual, and plural. 

453. In each tense of the indicative, subjunctive, and 
optative, there are three persona in each number, the 
first, second, and third; in each tense of the imperative 
there are two, the second and third. 

454. N. The first person dual i8 the same as the first person 
plural, except in a very few poetic forms (666, 2). This person is 
therefore omitted in tlie paradigms, 

TENSE SYSTEMS AND TENSE STEMS. 

455. The tenses are divided into nine classes or tense 
systeviSf each with its own tense stem, 

456. The tense systems are the following : — 

SYSTEMS. TEN8KS. 

J. Present, including present and imperfect. 

future active and middle, 
first aorist active and middle, 
second aorist active and middle, 
first perfect and pluperfect active, 
second perfect and pluperfect active, 
perfect and pluperfect middle and 

future perfect, 
first aorist and future passive, 
second aorist and future passive. 

457. 1. The last five tense stems are further modified to form 
*pecial stems for the two pluperfects, the future perfect, and the 
two passive futures. 

2. As few verbs have both the first and the second forms of any 
tense (449), most verbs have only six tense stems, and many have 
even less. 

458. The various tense stems are almost always formed 
from one fundamental stem, called the verb stem. These 
formations will be explained in 568-622. 



11. 


Future, 


n 


III. 


First-aorist, 


a 


IV. 


Second-aorist, 


a 


V. 


First-perfect, 


a 


VI. 


^Seco7id-p€7fect, 


a 


VII. 


Perfect-middle, 


a 


VIII. 


First-passive, 


a 


IX. 


Second-passive, 


a 



463] TENSE SYSTEMS AND TENSE STEMS. 93 

459. Before learning the paradigms, it is important to 
distinguish between verbs in which the verb stem appears 
without cliange in all the tense systems, and those in which 
it is modified more or less in different systems (154). 

Thus in Xtyto, speak, the verb stem Xty- is found in Acfw 
(Xcy-o-o)), tXt^a, Xi-Xty-fmt^ i-ktX'Orjv (71), and all other forms. 
But in <^atVaj, show^ the verb sleni <j>av- is seen pure in the second 
aorist €-<ftdv-r)v and kindred tenses, and in the futures <^avu) and 
<f>avovfiaL; wlule elsewhere it appears modified, as in present ^V-o), 
first aorist e^j^i'-a, second i)erfect Tr€<fiit)v-a. Jn AttV-tu the stem 
XctTT- api>ears in all forms except in the second-aorist system 
(t-AtTf-oi/, i-kLir-ofjiYjv) and the second-perfect system (Xt-Xonr^), 

460. Verb stems are dPrled vowel stems or consonant 
stems, and the latter are called mute stems (including Zabza/, 
palatal, and lingual stems) or liquid stems, according to 
their final letter. Thus we may name the stems of <^tA«aj 

(^iXt-), Xttrro) {XiLTT-f AtTT-), Tpt^iii (Tpij3')j ypd<f>(ii (ypa^)-), 
irXiKoy (rrXcK-), ^tuyw (^cvy-, <^vy-), ttuOo) (tici^-, in$-), <^aiva) 
{<f>av-), OTtAAo) ((TTtA-). 

461. A verb which has a vowel verb stem is called & pure verb; 
and one winch has a mute stem or a liquid stem is called a mule or 
a liquid verb. 

462. 1. The principal parts of a Greek verb are the first 
person singular of the present, future, iiist aorist, and (first 
or second) perfect, indicative active; the perfect middle, 
and the (first or second) aorist passive; with the second 
aorist (active or middle) when it occurs. These generally 
represent all the tense systems which the verb uses. E.g. 

Avwy Avtro), eXvaa., Ac'Auaco, AtAv/xat, ikvOrjv (471). 

AclTTQ) (AetTT-, AtTT-), \€Llf/0>, AcAotTTa, kiXilflfJUU, €\u(f>OrjV, tXlTTOV. 

^atVo) (<f)av), <^avw, i<f>7jva, iri<f>ayi(a (2 pf. Tr^'^i/m), ni^MO-fxxu, 

it^dvBrjv (and it^dyrjv). 

ITpacro-a) (Trpay-), do, Trpa^w, tirpdia, 2 perf, TrcV/oaxa and Trt-rrpdya, 
irtVpay/iat, iirpa-xOyjv. 

2r<'AAw (oTtX-), send, gtcXCj, t<TTnhx, ecrroA/fa, iaToXfiaiy cVroAt/v. 

2. If a verb has no future active, the future middle may be given 
amonc: the principal parts; as o-kcjtttu), jeer^ cKtot/ro/icu, to-KOH/fo, 

463. In deponent verbs the principal parts are the pres- 
eiit, future, perfect, and aorist (or aorists) indicative. E.g. 



94 INFLKCT10N\ [404 

( HycojLUti) Tjyovfjiai, le<vl, rjyqGOfjiai, T}y7)(TdfiT}Vy yyr]fW.L, rjyyjOijv 
(in compos.). 

BovkofUiLy unah, Povk^^aofjuxt, (SijSovkrjfiai, (fSovXyOrfv. 
Tiyvofmi (yiv-)y htcomc, y<vycrofjJiL, ycytV>;^t, <y€vo/x7;^. 
(AtS<'o/xat) cwSoC/jUii, refipecty OiScVo/iat, ifBccrfxiu, yjSifrOyjv. 
Epya^oyoui, worJ:^ ifjydao^aL^ tlpyaadfiqv, dpyaa-fxat, iipyarrBit^w 

CONJUGATION. 

464. To conjugate a verb is to give all its voices, moods, 
tenses, numbers, and persons in their proper order. 

465. These parts of the verb are formed as folio wq : — 

1. By modifying' the verb stoni itself to form iho ditl'or- 
ent tense stems. (iSoc 5(58-022 ; GOO-717.) 

2. By Hthxlug certain syllabh^s called endings to the 

tense stem ; a« in Xfyo-fi^v, A«ye-TC, Ae'yt-rat, A<yo-/x«^a, A*yo- 
vTut, X($C'Tai; Ac^e-cr^f. (See Dol-ljuA.) 

3. In the secondary tenbjos of the indicative, by also piv.- 
fixing € to the tense stem (if this begins with a consonant), 
or lengthening its initial vowel (if it betcins \vith a short 
vowel); as in ^A£yo-^', €-A«^e, €-<^yva~Toi and in rjnovo-v and 
■tjKovcra, imperfect and aoribt of aKovu), hear. This prefix or 
lengthening is confined to the indicative. 

4. A prehx, seen in Ac- of A/Aukg and XlXti^^at^ in ttc- of 
•nl<^a(T}ixxLy and « of taroA^i (4«S7, 1), for which a lengthening 
of the initial vow»?l is found in ^AAay/^ui (oAAay-) fr<.'ni 
dAAao-o-oj (487, 2), belongs to the perfect ten?ic stem, and 
remains in all the moods and in the participle. 

466. These prefixes and le.iigLhenings, called auyincnl Ql) an J 
reduplication (4), are explained in 510-550. 

467. There are two principal forms of conjngation of 
Greek verbs, that of verbs in w and that of veib^ in ^xl, 

468. Verbs in pt form a sinull class, conjpared witli those in o>, and 
are distinguished in their inflection almost exclnsively in the present 
and second-aorist systems, generally agreeing with verbs in w in the 
other systems. 

CONJUGATION OT VERBS IN a. 

469. The following synopses (474-47S) inclndo — 

I. AH the tenses of Auoj (Au-), loose^ representing tense 
systems I., IL, 111., V., VIT., VIII. 



463] TENSE SYSTEMS AND TENSE STEMS. 93 

459. Before learning the paradigms, it is important to 
distiuguish between verbs in which the verb stem appears 
without change in all the tense systems, and those in which 
it is modified more or less in different systems (154). 

Thus in A.<yw, speahy tJie verb stem X«y- is found in Xtfo) 
(Xcy-o-(o), tXt^o, A€-Xc7^/>uit, €-Xi)(-Or)v (71), and all other forms. 
But ill cpaivio, shoWy the verb stem <f>av' is seen pure in the second 
aorist i-tpdv-rju and kindred tenses, and in the futures (f>ayu) and 
<^avoC/juir, while elsewhere it appears modified, as in present <jxuv-ai, 
first aorist ^(prjv'a, second perfect 7r<<^j;»/-a. In XtiV-to the stem 
KtLTT- appears in all forms except in the second-aorist system 
(€-Ai7r-oi/, c-AtTT-o/jLT/v) Eud thc sccond- perfect system (At-Aoi7r-<x). 

460. Verb stems are dIRed vowel stems or consonant 
stems, and the latter are called mute stems (including Za6iaZ, 
palataly and Ungual stems) oi* liquid stems, according to 
their final letter. Thus we may name the. stems of (f>tXiu> 

(<^tA€-), AciVd) (ActTT-, XtTT-), rptpiii {rptff-), ypanpuj (ypa</)-), 
TrAtKti) (ttA^k-), <f>ivy(j) (^cvy-, <^vy-), wuOit} (jruO-y 7ri$')f <f>atv(a 
{<l>av')j (TTiXXu) (oTcA-). 

461. A verb which has a vowel verb stem is called a pure verb; 
and one which has a mute stem or a liquid stem is called a mute or 
a liquid verb. 

462. 1. The principal parts of a Greek verb are the first 
person singular of the present, future, first aorist, and (first 
or second) perfect, indicative active; the perfect middle, 
and the (first or second) aorist passive; with the second 
aorist (active or middle) when it occurs. These generally 
represent all the tense systems which the verb uses. E,g, 

Avoj, Av<7a}, tAiJaa, XtAvKo, XtXv/xai, iXvOr)v (471). 

AciVoj (XctTT-, XtTT-), \€txlf(j), XO.otTra, XiXcLfificu, iX€L<f>Or}V, eXtTrov. 

<I>aiVu) (<pav-), <l>av(h, €cf>yjva, 7r<'<^ayKa (2 pf. ir(*pr}va), tri<f>a(Tfmtt 
i<f>dv$rjy (and itfidvrjv). 

Upa(T(T(o (Trpdy-), dOy TTpa^w, eirpa^a, 2 perf. TrtTrpdxa and ireVpdya, 
TtTrpdypuiLy iTrpa)(6r)V, 

St/XXo) ((TT€X-)y sendy crrcXd, ^orciXa, taraX^a, toraXfuu, iordXijV* 

2. Tf a verb has no future active, the future middle may be given 
amonc: the principal parts; as o-jcwttto), Jeer^ a-K<^ilfOfjM, laKiof/Oy 
iaKwcfiSrjv. 

463. In deponent verbs the principal parts are the pres- 
ent, future, perfect, and aorist (or aorists) indicative. JS,g* 



94 INFLECnOX. [404 

( Hyio/juii) ^yovfJLCu, lead, i^yjjcro/jtat, rjyrjadfxrjUy rJyrjfJLat, rjyijOrju 
(in compos.). 

BovAo/iai, loishj /SovXiijcrofJLai, /3c/3ovkr}fJLO.iy i/SovXyOrjU. 
Tiyvofiat (y«v-), become, yivrjaofjuai, ytyivq^i, iyt.vop.-qV' 
{AlSiOfxai) alSovfUiL, 7-espfiCt, atSaro/jtat, rJSccr/xui, rj^idO-qv. 
^Epya^Ofjuu, workf ipydo-Ofxai, dpyatfdfXTjv, CLpyaafiaty upyafrOrjv. 

CONJUGATION. 

464. To conjugate a vei'b is to give all its voices, moods, 
tenses, numbers, and persons in their proper order. 

465. These pai'ts of the vei*b are formed as follows : — 

1. By modifying the verb stem itself to form tlie diifer- 
ent tense stems. (See 5G8-C22; 6G0-717.) 

2. By affixing certain syllables called endings to the 
tense stem; as in Xiyo-fi^v, Xcyt-rc, Xcyt-rui, \iy6-fjn6a, X/yo- 
VTat, Xiit-rai, ki^e-crOc. (See 5o1-5;'j4.) 

3. In the secondary tenses of the indicative, by also ].no- 
fixing < to the tense stem (if this begins with a consonant), 
or lengthening its initial vowel (if it begins with a short 
vowel); as in i-ktyo-vj i-k€$€, i-4)yva-To\ and in rJKovo-v and 
rJKova-a, imperfect and aorist of qkoJoj, hear. This i)refix or 
lengthening is confined to tlie indicative. 

4. A prefix, seen in Ac- of kikvKa and AfAct/i/zai, in ttc- of 
TTtKftaafxai, and € of finakfjuii (487, 1), for which a hMigtliening 
of the initial vowel is fonnd in ^kkayfiat (dXkay) from 
oAXao-o-oj (487, 2), belongs to the perfect tense stem, and 
remains in all the moods and in the participle. 

466. These prefixes and lengtlienings, called augment (3) and 
reduplication (4), are explained in 510-550. 

467. There are two principal forms of conjugation of 
Greek verbs, that of verbs in oj and that of verbs in ^t. 

468. Verbs in pn form a small class, compared with tlio.se in w, and 
are distinguished \n their inflection almost exchisively in the present 
and second-aoriet systems, generally agreeing ^vith verbs in tu in the 
other systems. 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN fi. 

469. The following synopses (47.1-478) include — 

I. All the tenses of kvw (Xu-), loose, representing tense 
systems I., IT., TIL, V., VII., VITI. 



473} CON-IL'GATION OF VLRBS IN a 95 

II. All the tenses of Att7r<i) (Xcw-, Aitt-), leave; the second 
perfect and pluperfect active and the second aorist active 
and middle, representing tense systems IV. and VI., being 
in lieav3'-iaced tyj.»e. 

III. All the tenses of <^aiV<i) (<^a»/-), show; tlic future and 
aorist active and middle (liquid form) and the second 
aorist and second future passive, representing tense systems 
II., III., and IX., being in heavy-faced ty]je. 

470. Tiie full sviiopsis of Aow, with Uie forms iti heavier t^-pe 
in tlu'. Rvnopr^es of AtiVoj and <^aiV<o, will tims show the full conju- 
gation of tJ)e vei'l) i)] o>, with iIk* nine tense systems; and all these 
forms are inflected in 480-482. For the peculiar inflection of the 
perfect and phiperfect middle and passive of verbs with consonant 
stems, see 480 and 487.* 

471. N. Avu) in the present and imperfect generally has v in 
Attit! poetry and v in Homer; in other tenses, it has v in the 
future and aorist active and middle and the future perfect, else- 
where V. 

472. The paradigms include the j^erfcct imperative active, although 
it is liardly possible that t.liis tense can actually have been formed in 
any of tlirse verbs. As it occurs, however, in a few verbs (748), it is 
giviMi liere to complete the illustration ot the forms. For the rare 
pcrfticl subjunctive and optative active, see 7'iO and T-'il. 

473. Each tense of \v(i) is translated in the synopsi.s of 474, 
except rare uutranslatal)le forms like the future perfect infinitive 
and jtailiciple, and the tenses of the subjunctive and optative. 
Tlie meaning of fhese last cannot be fully understood until the 
constructions are explained in tlie Synta.v. But the following 
examples will make tliem clearer tlian any possible tran.slation of 
the fornix, some of wliich {e.(/. tlie future optative) cannot be used 
in independent sentences. 

/\.v(jjfxcv (or kv(TiOfxtv) airrovy let ws loose him ; fxrj Avcn^? auroV, do 
not loo<iC him. 'Eai' Xihd (or Xvcru}) avTO\\ xaLprjatLy if I (shall) loose 
Jiimy he trill rejoice. "K/Dp^o/Atu, t^a ixvtov Auw (ov Aijrrw), / ain coming 
that I may loose him. ^Wc Xvoifjn (or Xvaatfjn) avrov, that I may 
loose him. Et AOot/xi (or Xvaaifxi) airoj/, yixCpQi Q.Vy if I should loose 
him, he ivould rejoice. ^H\Oov 2va avrov Xvol[jh (or Avaaiyai), / came 
fkni J might loose him. Eittoj' ort uiroi' Avoi/ju, / said that I was 
loosing him; (.Tttov otl avTov AtVat/ju, 1 said thai I had loosed him; 
tl-nov on avrov Avcrotptt, / sai<l that I would looi^e him. For the 
diiJerence between the jv-r't-Pi.t ai)d aorist ill these moods, see 1272, 
1 ; for the perfect, see 127^^. 



96 



INFLECTION. 



474, 



[474 

Synopsis ot 





I. PRESENT SYS7£M, 


11, FUTURE SYST£M. 


in. FtRST-AORtSr SYsnu. 


Active 


Present & Imperfect 


Future 


1 Aorist 


Voice. 


Active. 


Active. 


Active. 


Indie. 


X^ / loose Oram loosing 


Xuorw / shall loose 




iXvov I was loosing 




IXvo-a / loosed 


Subj. 


XDw 




Xta-i^ 


Opt. 


Xi6oi^i 


X^onii 


X^o-at|ii 


Imper. 


Xvc loose 




XOo-ov loose 


Infin. 


X^iv to loose 


XiSo-eiv to be about to 


Xvo-at to loose or to hav6 






loose 


loosed. 


Part, 


Xttav loosing 


Xi6or«v about to loose 


X6<rds having loosed 


Middle 


Present & Imptrfect 


Future 


1 Aorist 


Voice. 


Middle. 


Middle. 


Middle. 




X^fiai / loose (for my- 


X^o-ojiai / shall loose 




Indie. 


self) 


(for myself) 




iXv6\i,T\v J was loos- 




fXv<rd(iiiv / loosed (for 




ing (for myself) 




my.- elf). 


Subj. 


X^fiai 




XxKTw^ai 


Opt. 


XvoijiTiv 


Xti<ro£|iT]v 


Xt)<ra((iiiv 


Imper. 


X<io\i loose (for thyself) 




Xvo-ai loose (for thyself) 


Infin. 


Xt«(r0ai to loose (for 


Xt<re(r9ai to be about to 


Xikrao-Bai to loose or to 




one's self) 


loose {for one^s self) 


have loosed ( for one's 
self) 


Part. 


Xv6p4voB loosing [for 


Xv<r6|i<vos about to loose 


Xv(rdp.€vos having loosed 




one's sslf) 


(for one's self) 


(for one's self) 


Passive 
Voice, 




VIII. FIRST-P 


ASS/ve SYSTEM. 


Pres. <fc Imperf Passive. 


1 Future Passive. 


1 Aorist Passive. 


Indie. 


Xi)o(xai Tarn ( (being) 
iXv6jiT]v / was } loosed 


XvOtio-oiiai / shall be 




loosed 


IXvQtiv I was loosed 


Subj. 






Xv6» (for XvOiu}) 


Opt. 


etc. 


\v6Tiirot(iT]v 


Xv0*£iiv 


Imper. 


with same 




Xve^Tt. be loosed 


Infin. 


Xv6V|<rt<r9ai. to be about 


Xvefjvai to be loosed or 




forms as the 


to be loosed 


to have been loosed 


Part. 


Middle 


\v9j\a-6)uvQs about to be 


Xv9«(s having been 






loosed 


loosed 



VXKJJAL ADJtCTlVES: 



/ XvTos that Diay be loosed 
I Xvrio% that inust be loosed 



Xifo) {>^t■■)^ loose. 



STKOPSIS OP \U 



97 



'"^FmSl-PERFECr SYSTEM. 


VII. FERF£CT'M/DDL£ SYSTEM. 


1 Perfect & Pluperfect 
Active. 

;^vica / hate loosed 

iXtXvKTi / had loosed 
XjXvku or XtXuitws w 
X*Xvicotni or X«XuKws cfi^v 
[Xftv«] (472) 
XtXvit^vai (0 have loosed 

XfXvKws Aaf tnf7 loosed 






Perfect & Pluperfect 
Middle. 
X^Xu^iat 7 have loosed {for myself) 

lKt\v\i>T\v J had loosed (for myself) 

XcXvfi/vos w 

XcXv^cvos cCr|v 

U\v<ro (750) 

X«Xv(r9at to have loosed (for one^s self) 

X«Xu(i/vos having loosed (for one's self) 




Perf <& Pluperf Passive. 
XfXujiai I have j been 
1Xt\vy,r\v X had \ loosed 

etc. 

■ 
■with same 

forms as the 

Middle 


Future Perfect Passive, 
X(X4(ro[iai / shall have 
been loosed 

X(Xv(roC[itiv 

X«X«o-«r<ttt (1283) 

\€\v<r6iuvo9 (1284) 



475. The middle of kvo) commonly means to release for on£t 
selfy or to release some one belonging to one's self, hence to ransom 
(a captive) or to deliver (one's friends from danger). So© 1242, 3** 



98 



FN-FLECTION. 



[47(J 



476. Synopsis of Xeiiray (Xeiir-y Xltt-), leave. 



T£NS£SYSTeM: I. 


IJ. 


IV. 


VI. 


Active 


Pres. & Impf. 


Putnre 


2 Aorist 


2 Peif & Plup. 


Voice, 


Active. 


Active. 


Active. 


Active. 


Indie 


Xtlnoo 


Xc/^oj 




XA.onra 




eXeiirov 




eXtirov 


iXtkoCtn] 


Subj. 


Xciiru) 




XllTtf 


XiXotTTti) or 
XiXotirws u> 


Opt, 


\elnoifu 


\€l\pOlfU 


XtiroifLt 


XfXotfroLui or 
XiXotirws t^v 


Imper. 


Xctire 




Xtirf 


[X^oiir*] 


Infin. 


Xf/TTCtV 


\€l\p€lV 


Xtirttv 


XtXotiri'vat. 


Pan. 


\eliruv 


\(i\plj)V 


Xiirwv 


X^XotlTiis 


Mlt>DLE 


7^e,<r. i^ Impf. 
Middle. 


Fvtnre 


2 AoriH 
Middle. 


VII, 


Voice. 


Middle. 


Perf&Plvp.Mid. 


Indie 


XdiroiMn 


Xtlif/Ofiai 




X^XcifXtMl 




iXcnrdfiijv 




cXcn-ofiTjv 


4\(\€l^i}i1}V 


Subj. 


Xe/TToj^i 




Xiirwfiau 


XcXft/iju^^'O? w 


Opt. 


XdtrolfjLTjp 


\n^Qlp.T]V 


Xiiroiitnv 


XcXflMM^WS €flJU 


Imi)er. 


\elnov 




Xiirou 


XAeifAo 


Infill. 


Xeltrfffdai 


\tl\pta6ai 


Xnr^<r6ai 


XcXcr^^ai 


Part. 


XciirVfcoj 


\€0p{)fX€V0i 


Xtirop-cvos 


XcXft^^^w? 


Passive 


Pres. <& Impf. 
Passive. 


vni. 


$S Future 


Voice. 


1 Fut. Pass. 


) A'jr. Pass. 


1? Perfsct. 


Indic. 




\u<pOi}<Top.at. 


i\ii<pd-nv 




Subj. 
Opt. 


same forms 




\(i(pec> (for 




as the 


\€i<p6i](rolfJi.ijv 






Imper. 


' Middle 




Xtl<p87]Tl 


"^■^ 


Infin. 




\ei<p$r}crfa$ai 


\et<p$ijvai 


^ XfXfiiJt'oVfJ'O? 


Part. 




\€i<p6l]<76fi(VO<! 


\(i<pe([s 



Verbal Adjectives : Xfiirror, Xavrios 

477. 1. The active of ActVo) in the variou^^ tenses means I leave (or 
ant Icavingy, I left (or was Uauimj^y I shall /ttiivr, etc. 'J'hc second perfect 
means 7 have lefi, or 7 /wye failed or am wanting. Tlie first aorist cActt/'a 
is not in good use. 

2. The middle of ActVw means properly to rf.main (leave one\'i self), in 
which sense it differs little (or not at all) from the piussive. But the second 
aorist «At7ro/ut7;»' often means 7 left for vn/s€if(e.f/. a memorial or monument): 
so the present and future middle in composition. *EAt7ro//7;»' in Homer 
sometimes means I was left behind or toas inferior^ like the passive. 

9. The passive of AeiVoj is used in all tpuses, with the meanings I am 
lefty I was left, 1 have been left, 7 had hccn left, I shall have been left, 7 inas 
left, I shall be left. It also means 7 am inferior (left behind). 



479] 



SYNOPSIS OF 0aivw. 



99 





r 3 ^ c * 


c 


<> 

-I 


i 

•• 


1 5 ? i:: 

fD o ^ "> 5 


p n p p p p I? 


■&■&■©■ ■©• ■©- -e "ts 
p p p p p p 4^ 


P P P P IC 
J J- J J.V 




It t t 

III Is? 
|M 1 


p p -e. p o 

II tl ^'^-^ 

is 






irpf it 


-e-e-e- -©- -©-sj 




■^ ■©■■&■& -^ ^* ^ 

c p a, p n o' . 

■c r "? t; ^ P- ^ 

ct, a- -^ «t ^ r ^ 


> 


ft, r^ S^ ry ftt rf^ 7** 

qxrpqQ^q^ 




^ O p '^ >i e" 


< 


1 Future Passive'^ 


=< =*T ^ ^ ^ l;^ 

•Q^ ^ ^ ^ -0- H -0- ^ ^ rF 
ci J ^ -ft. -^^ -A. -=i- '*• J rf'.*^ 

HiJi|.|r|s 


< 

^ 



479. 1. The first perfect Trl<j>ayK(t means / have shown; the second 
perfect 7rl<^r]va means / have appeared. 

*J. The j^assive of <^aiW means properly to he shown or made evident; 
the middle, (o appear (shoto one's self). The second future pa-'^sive 
</>ai'rJ(TonAat, 7 i^fiafl appear or he shown^ does not differ in sense from 
<^ai/oO/Aat ; huL l<^6.v07)v is 'rienf'raily passive, / roas shown, while €<l>d\nf]v 
is 7 appeared. Tlieaorist middle ic^-qva^-qv means / showed ; the simple 
form is rare and poetic; but aTr-(.<fiY]v<xfjirjv, I declared, is common. 



100 




INFLECTION. 


[iao 


480. 




1. Active Voice of Xii«, 








Present. 


Imperfect. 


Future. 


Ikdioativb. 


rl. 


\^ 


(\vov 


Xi^«» 




SJ2. 


Xii<it 


fXv<« 


Xi)<rci$ 




U. 


Xii<i 


iXvc 


Xiio-ct 






XfilTOK 


tXli€TOV 


Xv<r<TOV 




Xv€TOV 


4XvHv 


Xvo-tTov 




f^- 


Xvo^ev 


{X-uo^v 


Xv(ro|i€V 




P. -^2. 


Xv^cre 


^ilcrc 


XiSo-iTt 




u. 


Xik)va-i 


fXvov 


XiSo-ovo^ 


Subjunctive 


"it 


Xi)» 

Xihjs 

Xfhl 

Xvl]TOV 








XiJiiTov 








f- 


Xiiwjuv 








p. 2. 
(.3. 


XtSl]T« 

XiJ«<ri 






Optative. 


f''- 


XiJotjxv 




X^otju 




S. 2. 

u. 


Xvots 
Xiiov 




XiSo-ois 
Xvo-oi 




D.|2 
1 3. 


X"tOlTOV 




X^O-OITOV 




XvotTTJV 




Xii<ro(Tt)v 




f- 


\40l\t.€V 




X-d(rotfj.cv 




^11: 


XvOtTI 

XvoiiV 




Xv(roiT< 
X^o-ouv 


Imperative. 


MI; 


XCc 








Xv^TW 








Ml 


Xij<TOV 








XWtwv 








r2- 


Xii«T* 








p.] 3. 


XvovTwv or 
XiJ^Two-av 






Ikfinitive. 




\4nv 




X^civ 


Participle. 




X^v, Xiiouera, 
Xw (336) 




Xvrrov (335) 



480] 



ACTIVE VOICE OF X^. 



101 







1 -4on8f. 


1 Perfect, 


1 Pluperfect. 


IKPICATIVE, 


fl 


rxvo-o 


X^VKa 


^Xvici] 




sJg, 


fXCo-as 


XAvKat 


IXcXu'kiic 




^3. 


fXv« 


XAvici 


IXcXvKct 




-i^. 


iXvo-arov 


XcXvKarov 


U«XvK(TOV 




^ikran^v 


XcXvKaroy 


U-cXuKin^v 




(1. 


4Xvara)uv 


XcXvKa|UV 


^cXvKC}LCV 




P. 2. 


iXv<rttT« 


XcXvKarc 


^fXvKITC 




^3. 


fXwav 


XiXvKcurt 


iXiXvKCo-av 

(See 683, 2) 


SOBJCNCTIVE 


:. (1. 


Xikrw 


X^XvVw (720) 






S. 2. 


X^$ 


XcXvK^s 






is. 


XvoTi 


XAvVt) 






HI: 


XvO^lTOV 


X«Xv»tllTOV 






XioTJTOV 


XcXvmjTOV 






ri. 


Xvo-wfuv 


XcXvKwfuy 






P.] 2. 


XtJotiti 
Xlkroxri 


XcXvK1]T< 

X(Xv'KW(ri 




Optative. 


c f^- 


k^ai\ki 


XiXvKoini (733) 






S.]2. 


\v<raiit Xllo-cias 


XcXvKois 






U. 


XiVai, Xo(r€i( 


X<XVK01 






I 3. 


Xvo-aiTOv 


XcXvKOlTOV 






Xvo-atniv 


\iXvMiry\v 






fl. 


Xiicraifiiv 


XfXvKOl}LfV 






P.- 2. 


XiScaiTc 
Xvo-aifv, XiJcriiav 


XfXvKOlTC 

' X<Xv'koicv 




Imperative. 


Mi: 


Xwo-ov 


[XAvK« (472) 






Xv<raT« 


XcXvK^TM 






-il: 


Xiio-aTOv 


X<Xw'k«tov 






Xv(rdT«v 


XcXvKirwv 






r^- 


Xiio-aT« 


XcXv'kctc 






P.J3. 


Xv(ravT«v or 
Xvordrcitcrav 


X«XvK^T«»(ravl 




IxriNlTIVB. 




Xwrat 


XcXvK^voi 




Participle. 




X^dS, X^wra, 


XiX^JKttt, XcXvKvla, 






Xdo-av (335) 


XcXvKo's (336) 





102 




INFI 

2, MlDDLK 


.ECTION. 
Voice of \t<a. 


[' 






Pres€7iL 




Imperfect. 


Future. 


Indicative. 


. f^' 


Xvofiai 




iXvont]v 


XiSo-Ofxai 




S.j2. 


Xiei, XiSti 




cXt)ov 


Xuo-<t, Xuo-ii 




^X 


Xutrai 




«Xv«TO 


Xvo-€Tai 




HI 


Xi5«(r0ov 




a^«reov 


Xuo-«r0ov 




Xvc(r0oK 




Ikvitr^v 


Xu<r«<r0ov 




f- 


Xvo'}i«0a 




iXvo'jwSa 


Xt;<ro}i.t0a 




r.-^2. 


Xli€(r0€ 




aij€(r0< 


Xv(r€(re« 




1 3, 


Xuovrai 




IXiSovTO 


Xvo-ovrai 


SUBJUNCTIVl 


HI 


XuqtrBov 










XiW]o-0ov 










('• 


XviPfjLcda 










P. 2. 


Xiii^orflf 










I 3. 


XvWVTttl 








Optative. 


('• 


Xvoifiiiv 






Xucro£ni]V 




Ml 


XiJoio 
Xvoiro 






Xvtroio 
XctroiTO 




1 3. 


XiSoicrflov 
X\Jot<r0T]v 






Xv<roio-0ov 
k\Kroi<rBr]V 




(1. 


Xvo(|X(0a 






Xvo-o(ftt0a 




P.] 2. 


XvoKr0e 






XiSo-our0€ 




3. 


XdoiVTO 






X*aoiVTO 


I-MPEltATlVE. 




Xiiou 










Xv«V9u> 










-{3; 


\^«<reov 










kvia-Qiiiv 










(2. 


Xc€crec 










P.] 3, 


XvtVOwv or 










*- 


Xv^cr9«a-av 






Infinitive. 




XiecrOat 






Xti<r€<r0at 


Participle. 




XiioV«vos, Xi 


io}i.ivri 


h 


Xv<roV«vo?, -y], 






X\i0|XtVOV 


(301) 




-ov (301) 



[480 



4«0] 



MIDDLE VOICE OF Atw. 



103 









1 Aorist. 


Perfect. 


Pluperfect 


Indicativk. 


f^- 


l\\)<r<xiLr\v 


XAujiai 


IX€Xvfi.1)V 




SJ2. 


iXtcw 


X<Xvaai 


<X^Xv<ro 




u. 


iXijc-aro 


XtXvrai 


^XeXvTO 




HI 


€Xv(ra<r0ov 


X^Xv<r0ov 


tXAv<r0ov 




^Xi;<rour9i]v 


\i\va-Bov 


4X(Xv<r0"riv 




f'- 


iXv<rc4«6a 


X(Xv'}ii0tt 


^X(Xijp.c0a 




p. 2. 


€X^{rao-0€ 


XcXvo-0€ 


UtXv(r0€ 




U. 


iXiJo-avTO 


XtXvvrai 


^X*XVVT0 


SUBJUKCTIVr 


„ n. 


X"6o-«|jitti 


X*Xun«vos tS 






S. 2. 


Xijcni 


XtXvptvos ifs 






U. 


Xi;o-T)Tat 


XtXuflt'vOS TJ 






-11: 


Xv<nicr0ov 


XtXllft^VW T^TOV 






Xv(r7]<r0ov 


XtX\lfl<VW T^TOV 






f 1. 


Xvo-gJiwOa 


XtXufl^VOL <3fl€V 






r.]2. 


XiLi<n]<r$€ 


XtXvft^VOl TfTt 






'6. 


Xvo-wvrai 


XtXvfi^VOl wo-t 




Oi^ATivi:. 


o f- 


Xvo-af^Tiv 


X«X\in€vos <1!tiv 






S. 2. 


Xvo-aio 


X^Xtifi^voj dr\s 






h. 


XiJo-aiTO 


XtXvfic'vos €^ 






f2- 


Xii<rat<r0ov 


X<Xiin<'v« ilrov 






t 
T) -! 




or tl'riTOV 






t- 


Xv<raC<r0iiv 


XcXvfit'vw €tr»iv 
or ttifr-qv 








1. 


Xvo-a£fw9a 


or ttiljjKv 






r. ^ 


2. 


Xu(rat<r$« 


XtXun^vot (It* 






^ 




or dr\ri 






Xijo-aivro 


X«Xvp.*'voi tt<v 








or tti]<ra.v 




Imi'erativk. 


MI: 


Xuo-ai 


\(Kvao (750) 






X\i(rcur0to 


XtXi;<r0a, (749) 






MI: 


XWa<r0ov 


X«Xuo-0ov 






Xuo-d(r0o»v 


X<Xvo-0a>v 






f'- 


Xij£rcur0« 


X<Xu(r06 






r.J3. 


Xv<rair0wv or 
X\ia-£icr0(oo-av 


X<Xvo-0u>v or 
XtXij<r0w(rav 




Infinitive, 




XiJo-owrOat 


X<Xijo-0ai 




Participle. 




X-uo-ajJLtvos, -T|, 


X<Xun«vos, -Ti, 










-ov (301) 


-ov (301) 





104 






INTLECTION. 


[460 






8. Passite Voice op X4«». 








Future Perfect. 


1 ilom^ 


1 i^«r«. 


brmcATivE. 


f^* 


Xt\{tQ-o\i,a^ 


lkvOr\v 


Xv6T{<ro|iai 




SJ2. 


XcXiS<r€i, XtXvoTi 


^veiis 






1 3. 


X€Xi^(r«Tai 


G^vBr\ 


Xvftijo-cToi 




dJ2- 
1 3. 


XcXvo-fo-dov 


^vGtitov 


Xv6ii<r€(r6ov 




XcX<i(rc(r6ov 


fXvdtiTiiv 


XvOtjo-ctrdov 




f^' 


X€Xv<ro(jt<6a 


^v'Oit{icv 


XvOiio-ofu6a 




P. 2. 


XiUno^i 


iXvet]Tc 


Xv0Ti<r«r6c 




u. 


XcXio-ovrai 


^v'Oi^trav 


Xv6t|o-ovtu 


Sdbjunctive 


(I. 

S. 2. 
3. 




Xve<i 

XwOi]« 

Xueu" 

Xv0niTov 








Xv6llT0V 






f^" 




Xv8iS}MV 






P. 2. 




XvGlJTI 






Is. 


, 


Xve<ii<ri 




Optative. 


fl. 


XcXvo-oI^ilv 


XvectTiv 


Xv0iia-ot|tiiv 




S. 2, 


X(Xi<roio 


Xv9<Ct]s 


Xu0Ti<roio 




3. 


XcXiio-oiTo 


xve«tT, 


Xv6ii<roiTo 






'2. 


XcX6<roio-6ov 


XvOciTOV or 


XudllVoiO^OV 




D. 






XvBiCryrov 






3. 


X€Xv<ro£<r^iv 


Xveitniv or 


Xv0n<roC<r9Tiv 






. 




XvOllTlTllV 




' 




1. 


X(X{i<ro{n«0a 


Xv0«t»Mv or 
Xv0€£iij«v 


XvOt^iroCfuda 




P. 


2, 


XcX^(roi<r0€ 


Xv0€iT€ or 

Xv6i(TlT€ 


Xv6i)(rourl« 






3. 


XcX^o-oivTO 


Xv6€i€V or 


XveijfrouvTo 






• 




Xv0€(ti<rav 




Impxrative. 


-{I 




X«'eY)Ti 








XvOtJt** 






HI: 




Xv0TlTOV 








Xv0TiT»V 






(2. 




xvenrc 






P. 3. 




Xv0<vTwv or 
XvOTiTtwav 




IKPINITIVE. 




XtXu<r€<rflaA 


XvOi^vat 


Xv6r|(rfc^a« 


Participle. 




XiXvo-opuvos, 


Xve€£s,Xv0«:<ra 


, XvOlJO-o'fJLCVOt, 








-n, -ov (301) 


XuWv (336) 


-H. -ov (301) 



481] SECOND AORIST, PERFECT, ETC. OF \diru. 



105 



481. Second Aorist (Active and Middle) and Second Perfect 
AND Pluperfect of Xt£ir». 







2 Aorist 


2 Aorist 


2 Per/ec«. 2 Pluperfect. 






Active, 


Middle. 




Indicative. 


f^' 


tA-iirov 


*Xnro'jit]V 


XAotira ^(Xofirt] 




S. 2. 


*Xiir«s 


iXiirov 


XAoiiras {X<Xoiin]s 




U. 


tXiirt 


iXiirtTO 


XcXoiirc {XtXoCiriv 




Di2- 


iXCir«Tov 


U£ir«o-eov 


X«XoCiraTov iXiXotirjTov 




\3. 


IKiiriTJiv 


^Xiir^cr&tiv 


X«Xo(TraTOv {X€Xonr«TT]v 




f^- 


lkivo\uv 


iXiiro'^6a 


XfXoCira^«v ^XtXot-irt^cv 




P. 2. 


iXtir«Ti 


iX(ir«o-e« 


XiXotiraT* tkikoLirtTi 




U. 


tXiirov 


^(irovTO 


X<Xo£irtt(ri ^tXo(irt<rav 


Subjunctive 


:. ri. 


Xitro, 


XCirw^ai 


XJ^otau (See 683, 2) 




S. 2. 


Xfiqis 


XtlTQ 


XiXotirus 




(s. 


Xtiqi 


XfTn^xai 


X«Xo(iqj 




I 3. 


XtmiTov 


\i'm](r$ov 


XtXofiniTOv 




\Lirr\Tov 


Xtm^o-eov 


XfXoiTrqTOv 




(-1. 


Xtirw/uv 


Xiirw/«6a 


X«Xo(irwfiLiv 




P. 2, 


XCirr^T* 


Xtmio-ef 


X<Xoi'iniT< 




h. 


Xtirwo-i 


Xtirtuvrai 


XfXoiiroKri 


Optative. 


f^' 


Xfwoi^k 


XiiroCftijK 


\t\oiiroi\Li 




S. 2. 


Xtirois 


Xfiroio 


XtXotirois 




I3.. 


■ Xiiroi 


XtiroiTo 


XcXoiTTOi 




HI 


XCttoitov 


XfiroKrfiov 


XAoCiroiTov 




XiitoCtt^v 


Xwroto-^iiv 


X(Xonro('n]V 




(\. 


XfiroifMV 


XiiroC^cOa 


XiXoiiroijuv 




P.] 2. 


XCiroiTC 


X£Troi(r9« 


X<Xo[TroiT« 




-3. 


XtiroKK 


XtiroiVTo 


X^Xotiroiiv 


Imperative. 


HI 


XtlTi 


Xiirou 


XtXoiiri 




XiirfTw 


Xiir^trOw 


XcXoiir^Tw 




HI: 


XtirtTOV 


Xiitta-Bov 


XtXotircTOv 




XvtiVtwv 


Xiir^cre«v 


XcXoiWtwv 




'2. 


XiirtT* 


Xfir«o-ec 


X«Xotir<Ti 




P. '■ 


Xiiro'vTwv 


Xnr^o-Owv or 


XlXoMT^TWV 




or \t,ir{- 


Xiir«Vfl«aav 






Twtrav 






Infinitive. 




Xiirtiv 


XiireVOai 


X«Xonr^vai 


Participle. 




Xiirww, 


XiirojMVOs, 


XtXoiTTWS, 






Xiirovora, -t^, -ov 


XeXotirvla, 






Xiirov (301) 


X<Xoiiros 






(335) 


(335) 



106 



rNFLECTION. 



[482 



482. FUTUKB AND FlHRT AOKIST ACTIVE AND MlDULE (LiQUID 

Forms) and Second Aorist anl> Scconu FuxirRt Passive of <^a(v«. 





Future Active.^ 


Future Middle, ^ 


1 Aorist Active. 


iNDlCATlvr;. ri. 


(|)avu) 


<j>avo0^at 


I+T^va 


S. 2. 


<t>av«is 


<|>av<t, 4"**'!} 


cifnivas 


U. 


<^av(i 


4)av«iTai 


«<i>T]v« 


HI: 


<t>aviiTOv 


<}>ttvu(r6ov 


^<^T|vaTOw 


<(>av(iTOv 


<f)avil<rflov 


^<}>t}vAtiiv 


n. 


<|>avoufJt«v 


<j>avovfi(da 


^<(>r|vafJi<v 


r. 2. 


<j>av<lTi 


<j»av<t(r6< 


44>^vaT< 


^ o. 


4>avou{ri 


4>avouvTai 


<4>Tlvav 


StnjlJNCTIVK. fl. 






<t>Tivw 


S. 2. 






4>T1V|]S 


u. 






<t)T|Vt] 


M^: 






4)iqVT)TOV 






<fn^VTlTOV 


f'- 






<j)T^VWfJKV 


p. 2. 






4>ilviiT« 


I 3. 






<j)T^v"w(ri 


OttaTivi;. rl. 


<t>avoCT^v or <f)avotjn 


4>avoC^i]v 


4>TtvaiH.i 


S. 2. 


<|>avoiT)9 or4>avoi9 


^avoko <j>i] 


vais or 4>Tl''«-cis 


is. 


4>avoiTi or 4>a.voi 


<^avotTO <|>iiivai or 4>TJvti€ 


D-i;;- 


<j)avoiTov 


<t>avoucrBbv 


<|)'qvaiTov 


4>avotTt)v 


<})avo to- 8-1] V 


<^Tjva(Tiiv 


rl. 


<(>avotji(v 


<|>avo£fJi(6a 


<j>lQVaifA«V 


r. ] 2. 


<j)avOlT€ 


<|)avot(rfl< 


<j)lQVaiT€ 


'3. 


<j)avot€v 


<|>avoivTO <f)TJ 


vai<v or <|>i^v«iav 


IM^E^ATl^^;.c. (2. 






<|>^vov 






^■(]vc ^w 


MI: 






4>i^ ^aTo\- 






4>TlvdT«V 


f^- 






<j)^vaT€ 


P.J3. 






4>T]vavTwv or 
<|>T]vdTW(rav 


Inkinitive. 


4>av«tv 


<^avci(r6ai 


<|>fivai 


pARTICirLE. 


<|>avwv, <^avovo-a, 


<j)avou(i<vos, 


4>Tivas, <}>tivdo-a, 




<t>avouv (340) 


-T,,-ov(301) 


<J>rivav (335) 



^ Tlie uncontractod fut.ures, <pay^u and tpau^ofun (478 ; 4S3), are 
inflected ]ike ^iX/w and ^tX^o/xat (492). 



4S2] 



FUTURES AND AOKISTS OF <palyu. 



107 







l^or. A/iU 


2 ^or. i^aA-5. 


2 Fur. Pass. 


Indicative. (^. 


i4>TlvafiTiv 


«4>aviiv 


4>avT{(rofiai 


s •^■ 


^4>iiv« 


c4)avTis 


«j)av^o'«i, ^avifffTj 


^'S. 


iSrvcLTo 


i4»av^ 


4)avTiV<T(u 


l3. 


^4>'nvacr6ov 


«4>aviiTov 


4>aviio-<o-0ov 


c4>Tivour6Tiv 


<<t>aviJTTiv 


4)aVT](r€<r0ov 


.. ('• 


c4)i]vdfL(6a 


44>aVT]^(v 


4>avTi(ro'(«0a 


P. 2. 


i<|>Tfvacr6€ 


^4>avi]T< 


4>avif<rto-0« 


1 3. 


l^vavTO 


^<t>av^<rav 


4>avtf(rovTat 


SflUnNCTIVK. fl. 


(fj-rJvwfjiQt 


<(,av« 




s. ... 


4.TfvT| 


<)>avi3S 




1 3. 


4»tjvTiTai 


<i>av^" 




-■{I 


4>tivTi<r0ov 


4>eivfJTov 




jn^VY\trBov 


4)avrJT0V 




r,i'- 


4>ir]VuS^(6a 


<|>avwmv 




p. 2. 


4>VjVT]<rO< 


4>aVT]Tt 




u. 


<|>'iiv«vTai 


4)avui<rL 




Optative. fl. 


^nivafp-Tiv 


4>av* Ct^v 


4>avn<roCfLT)v 


S. 2. 


4>Ti'vaio 


4>3V*£tis 


4>avTiVoio 


u. 


4>-ijvaiT0 


<|>avciri 


4>aVT|(roiTO 


2. 


<J>T{vawr0ov 


<f>avt£Tov or 


4>aVTi(roi<r0ov 




^avdr\TOV 




•'^• 


4>r\V<xia-Br\v 


<|>avc(TT|v 01 

<t>aV«lT]TT|V 


4>avq(rof<r0'qv 




1. 


4>T|va(ji( 6a 


<|)av*ip.tv or 
4>av<iTin«v 


<J>avii<roCji«6a 


V. 


2. 


<t>TJvaio-6t 


<t»avciTe or 
4>avdr]Ti 


4>avtj<rour0« 




3. 


4>TivaivT0 


4>av<wv or 
4)av«iT)<rav 


4>aKii<rovVTO 


Impekative. ^ f 2. 
^•13. 


4>iivai 


4>dvTi6i 




4>TlVQ<r6w 


^avt\T(a 




-{^: 


<f>Tfvacr6ov 


4>av^Tov 




<t>Tivao-0wv 


4>avTiT«v 




f- 


4>Tiva<r6e 


<|)aVTlT< 




p. 3. 


4>T]vouj-0cov t»r 


4)av(VT«v or 




I 


4>t)vcurfl«o-av 


4>ttVTiT«<rav 




Infinitive. 


<f)Tivao-0at 


^avr\vaK 


4>avTi<r«o-0ai 


pAnTICll'LE. 


4)Tiva^t(vos, -Ti, 


4>av»(s, 


<|)av^o-ofjitvo5, 




-ov C'30l) 


4)ttVturo, 


-11, -ov (301) 








4,av^v (335) 



108 



IM FLECTION. 



[483 



483. The nncontracted forms of the future active and middle 
of (jxuvta (478) and ut' otlier liquid futures are not Attic, but are 
found 111 Homer and Herodotus. So with some of tlie uncon- 
tracttid forij)s of the aoriyt subjunctive passive in toj (474). 

484. The teases of XctVcj and <^aiv<u which are not inflected 
above follow the corresponding tenses of Xvo); except the perfect 
and pluperfect middle, for which 6ee 486. AtX«/x-/Aai is inflected 
like riTpLfi-fmi, (487, 1), and 7r«<^ao--/Aat is inflected in 487, 2. 

485. Some of the dissyllabic forms of kiw do not show the 
accent so well as polysyllabic forms, e.g. tliese of xwAu'u), hinder: — 

Pres. Imper. Act. KwXvt, KtoXytTto, K<t)\vtrt. A or. Opt. Act, 
xojAucrat/xt, KdiXvciuii (or KojXTjcrai;), KwXvcrcit (or xcjXvctcu). Aor. 
Imper. Act, KioXvaov, KwAtJcraruj. Aor. Inf, Act, tcuiXvoraL. Aor* 
Imper, Aiid. KviXvaoj,^ tcwXvcrdorOu}, 

The three forms KwXvaai, KwAvaat, KuiXvaai (cf. Xvcrai, Xwat, 
Avtrat) ave distinguished only by accent. See 130; 113; 131, 4. 

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT MIDDLE AND PASSIVE OF 
VERBS WITH CONSONANT STEMS. 

486. 1. In the perfect, and pluperfect middle, many 
euphonic changes (489) occur v/hen a consonant of the 
tense-stem comes before fx, t, v, or of the ending. 

2. When tlie stem ends in a consonant, the third person 
plural of these tenses is formed by the perfect middle par- 
ticiple with ila-Ly are, and ^a-av, were (806). 

487. 1. These tenses of rptf^ixi, ru6, irXcKo), weave, irtc^oj 
persuade^ and areAAto (o-raX-), send, are thus inflected: — 

Perfect Indicative. 



1. T^Tpijjijiai 

r^Tpiirrai 

■p. f 2. rirpl^dov 

' I 3, WTpi<j)6ov 

1 . T«Tptjiju6a 

2. rirpl^t 

3. TtfTpifi^^VOl 

€t<rC 



rl. Wtp4 

>. j 2. T^TpU 

^3. rirpl-i 

H 



TrdrXixrai 
ir^irXcx^ov 
TritrXiX^ov 
ir^irX^-ytifQa 
ir^irXcx^* 
ir€'irX«'y|i^voi 
clcrf 



ir^iriLo-(Jicu 

ir^ircio-Ttti 

uriTTua-Qov 
w<'ir€C<r|i<6a 

cUr( 



Jo-ToXftai 
Ko-ToXorai 
Jo-ToXrai 
2<rTaX8ov 
ia-raXBov 
io-rdX {xc6a 
?<rTttX0€ 
icrTaX}i^voi 
cUrf 



Perfect Subjunctive and Optative. 
Sub J. T<Tpiji|jivO« w iriirX^-yii^vos w ircirciff-jt^vos m i<rTttXfi<vof •» 
Opt. *' tir\v •' tttjv '* ftTjv " «tiiv 



487] 



VERBS WITH CONSONANT STEMS. 



109 



Perfecl Imperative, 
ir^irXigo irrfirtKTO 2<rTaX<ro 

irtirX^X^** ircir^Co-Ow {kttAXOw 

ir^irXtx^o*' iriirtto-Oov Jo-toXOov 

TTiirX^X^***' ir<ff<Co-0«v {o-rdXOwv 

ir^irX<x^* ir<'»r«to-6c Jo-toXOc 

^(TTttXOtav or 
TtTpt^9«(rav TttTtXix^uia-OLy iriirtUrOwo-av 4o-TdX6w<rav 



c / 2. WTpi\|»o 

I 3. T€Tpt<^Ow 

,. J 2. WTpi(^0ov 

I 3. T«Tpt<^0ti>V 

p J 2. T^pi4»e< 

1 3. T«Tpi<^6wv or irtirX^x^"*' ^^ irtirtCtrtfwv or 



Ferfect Infinitive and ParticipU. 
Inf. T«Tpi4>eai. ir<irX<x^ai irciruo-eat 

Fart. TiTpipp^vos irtirXcyti^vos 'ir«'ir«i<r)t^vos 



{1. lT(Tpt|l|lT]V 
2. iT^Tpixjio 
3. iTCTpiTTTO 

J. J 2. K€Tpi<^Oov 

I 3. {T(Tpt^8T)V 

1. lT(Tptfi|x(9a 

iWTpi<^ef 

3. T<Tpin|livOt 

TJo-av 



Pluperfect Indicative. 



V3. 



iir^irXt^o 
iirfirXtKTO 
lir^irXcxOov 
lircirX^X^^v 

iirfrX^Yt^^<^ 
iir^irXfxe* 

ir<irX«-y|irfvot 
rjo-av 



iirfirtio-TO 

lirc-irflcrp.fda 
iriiriio-fi^voi 



ifrrdXOai 
l<rTaX}ji(vos 



lo-TclXflTlV 

Jo-raXo-o 
•o-raXTO 
?o-ToX9ov 
io-rdXOiiv 

iO-ToXOc 

^(rTaXp.^vok 
rJo-av 



2. The same tenses of (rtXtw) rtXw (stem tcXc-), finish, 
Kftaiyw (<f>av-), show, dXXa<Tcru} (akXay-), exchange, and ikiyx^ 
(<X<yX')j <^onviciy are thus inflected : — 









Per/sc^ /jtdicanve. 






•1. 


T€TA.«rnat 


ir^<^a(r|iai 


T]XXa-Yp.ai 


a^Xc^tiat 


s. 


2. 


T«T^<rat 


[ir^<J>av(rai,700J ^iXXo^ai 


aVjXf^^ai 




^3. 


TiT^fo-rat 


ir^<^avTat 


T^XXaKTttl 


IX^Xi-yKTat 


D. 


{^.: 


TiTcXio-eoy 


ir^4'**'*'<**' 


TJXXaxOov 


^X^XiYx^o*' 




r«r^t<rdov 


ir^avOov 


^iXXaxeov 


^XTjXfYX^ov 




(*' 


T€T<X^O-(U0a 


•»r<4»<io"(x<0a 


^XXtt'yji«6a 


AT]X^7(uOa 


P. 


r- 


T«TiXf<r6« 


iW<i>ave« 


Tixxaxe* 


iX^XiYX©* 




1 3. 


TiTtXfO-Jl^VOt 


ir«^ao'(x^voi 


T|XXaYn«voi 


^XiiXcYfi^voi 






(Ur£ 


tlo-t 


«l<rt 


(lo-C 



Perfect Subjunctive and Optative. 
Sdrj. T<T«X(o-p,{vo$ £ ir«^ao'fUvot w T|XXaY^ivos «o JXi^XcYiiivos w 
Opt. »' tt^v " tlv\v '* fttjv " «tiiv 



no 



INFLKCTION. 



[488 



Perfect Imperative. 



-{I 



"•{ 



T<T<X<(r6w 
T«T^X«y6ov 
TCT«Xi(r9«v 

T€TA<(r9€ 



[ire^avcro] 

'Tr^<J>av0ov 
ir«f>dv6wv 
iT€'<|>av9c 



3. TiT«X^<r0«v or ir«^dvdwv or 



^iXXo^o 

iqXXdxOw 

T^XXa^Oov 

TJXXdxfiwv 

T]XXax9< 

T|XXdx0«v or 



4X^X«75o 

UtiX^YX®" 
JX^X<-Yx6ov 
^XtiXc'yxSwv 

iX-qX^YX^w*' Of 



T<T<X€'(r6«crov 'Tr€(|)dv0wcrav i^XXdx^wo-av ^XT]Xt'7x0«crav 

Perfect Infinitive and Participle. 



Ikf, 




T«T€X^o-0ai 


ire<()dv6ai. 


iiXXdx9ai 


fXTiX^YX^ai 


Part. 


T€T<X((rjUvOS 


iri4>a(r|i.^vos 


TiXXa-y^Uvos 


tX-qXi-YH^vos 








P/u^iei/oci /?idicaiii>e. 






('• 


^TCTtX^O-fXTlV 


€ir«J>dcrfxiiv 


^XXd-ytiiiv 


iXt^X^YtiTiv 


S. 


V' 


irtriXto-o 


[t7r^4>ttvo-o] 


4iXXa^o 


iXT|X«Y^o 




is. 


CTCTCX€0-T0 


i'ir^4>avT0 


'ijXXaKTO 


€XtiX€7KTO 


D. 


r2. 
1 3. 


€T<T^(O-0OV 


^'n-^<f>av6ov 


TiXXaxeov 


IX'isU-iX^ov 




<t<tcX^o-9tiv 


\'Ki^6.y^y\v 


^iXXaxOriv 


iXrjX^YX^Iv 




fi. 


iT€T(Xt<r[i.€6a 


^irc<f>dcrfi(6a 


T|XXd^fM0a 


^XiiX^Yfi<6a 


P. 


- 2. 


^TiTA*O-0t 


iTri4>av0t 


^XXaxOe 


cX^Xi^x^* 




is. 


T€T€Xc(r(i<VO(. 


'TTt4>aO-(i.€VOl 


TiXXa-y^Uvoi 


«XT]Xt7JlivOl 






Tjo-av 


Tjcrav 


Tjo-av 


TJo-av 



488. M. 'J'lie regular third person plural here ( Tcrpt/?-rrcu, 
(TT^-rrXtK-vTO^ etc., formed like XAu-iTat, i\<\v-vro) could not be 
pronounced. TJie periphrastic form is necessary also wlien <t is 
added to a vowel stem (G40), as in TCTcAta--/Aat. But when final 
r of a stem is djo])ped (047), tlie regular forms in in-ou and vro are 
used ; as KXiviOj KeKKi-fjuxiy K^KkLvrai (not KiKkifiivoi dcrl). 

489. For tlie euphonic changes liere, see 71-77 and 83. 

1. 'J'htis rcrot/x-/juzi is for T<rpt/?-/Aat (75); Tirplij/cu for rtrpi/?- 
(Tut (74); TcVptTT-Tat for Tcrpt^-rut, T€Tpl(f>-Oov for TcrptP-dov (71). 
So Tr£-7r\cy- fiat is for 7rc7rA€K-/uiat (75) ; ttcVAcx-^oj/ for ttcitAck-^oi' 
(71). IlcVeto'-rtti is for 7rt?rct^-Tai, and TriTT(.L<T-dov is for TrcTrct^- 
60V (71); and -n-fTrtto-juuxt (for TTtTTuB-jjJXi) probably follows their 
analogy; TrtVct-o-ai is for TrcTrci^-crat (74). 

2, 111 TiTtXi (T-fjuu, (T is added to the stem before fi and t (040), 
the stem remaining pure before o-. T«T<A<a-/Aat and tri'mKjp.ai, 
therefore, inflect these tenses alike, though on different principles. 
Ou the other hand, the o- before p. in ir€<l>a(rfjuat (487, 2) is a sub- 



491] VERBH WJTH CONSONANT STKMS. Hi 

stitute for V of the stem (83), which v reappears before other 
letters (7u0). In the following comparison the distinction is 
shown by the liyphens: — 

TtT«X<-<r-jtat irt'irtKr-jJiat ire4>ao--^ai 

TtTtXt-o-ai ir^irtt-o-ai [irt'4>av-o-ai] 

TtTtX«-<r-TaL irtirtwr-Tai ir<<|)av-Tai 

nriXi-a-Bt ir«'ir€io--6< irt'<J>av-0( 

3. Under 7;AA«y7>cai, r/AAa^at is for ^AAay-crut, rjXXaK-Tai for 
r}XXay-Taiy rjWaX'Oov for ■q?O\.(xy-0ov (74; 71). Undci* fA>JA«y-/xat, 
yyfx (foi yxM) ^I'^^ps One y (77) ; e'AijAcy^at and tAT/AtyK-rui. are for 
cA>;A«y;(-o-(zi and iXr^key^^'rai (74 ; 71). See also 529. 

490. 1. AH perfect-middle stems ending in a labial inflect these 
tenses like rcr/Di/x-^at ; as AtiVo). A€'Aci//-/xai ; y/3a<^(i) (ypa</>-), tor»/e, 
yiypa^fixiL (75) ; ptTrro) (pi^-, fni>'), throw^ tpplfx-fxai. But when 
final /XTT of tiie stem loses tt betore /a (77), i!ie w recurs before 
other consonants; as Kafxirro) (xa/JiTr-), bend, K<'Ka/x-/xai, KiKafjupai^ 
KtKafiiT'Taiy KiKafKp-di ; wtfiwia (7r€/X7r-), Ne»r/, iri7r€fx-/j.ai, Trcircfjirpai, 
7rcVc/A7r-rat, 7r«V</jt</>-^t : compare TrtVc/x/xat from Trt'crcro) (TrtTr-), C£?(://r, 
inflected TrcVci/'ai, 7r€7r<7r-Tat, 7rcVc(/)-^c, etc. 

2. All ending in a palatal inflect these tenses like 7r«'7rAcy-/xat and 
)7AAay-/xai; a.^ Trpatro-w (n-pdy-), ^Z'?, 7r<7rpdy-/Aat ; Tapd(r(7<o (rapa)(-), 
confuse^ TtTapay-fjuai'i <f>vXduGiii (<f>v\(j.K-), Trt<f>vXay-fJuii. }iilt when 
y before /a represents yy, as in ^AiJAcy-^uii from Atyx-w (489, 8), 
the second palatal of the steuj recurs before other consonants (see 
487, 2). 

3. All ending in a lingual mute inflect these tenses like 7r<Vci<r- 
/irti, etc, ; HS (f>pn^u} (</>/)aS-), tell, 7rc</>/3acr-/jujLi, 7r«<^pa-crai, 7r£</>pao--Tai ; 
iOiXoi {(OlS-), accustom, tWicr-^i, tWi-uai, eWid-Tai, <iBiG-Bt', pluf. 
tWta-fifjv, €.iSi-(TOt €Wi(T-ro\ (TTTcVSo) (<nrf.vS-), pour^ icnreta-fiai (like 
7r<7r«ta"-/Aai, 489, 1) for iinrtvB-fiaLs ccrTrtt-aai, <cr7r€t(r-Tai, tdTTttcOi. 

4. Most ending' in v (those in av- and ui/- of verbs in aivuj or 
vvcd) ave inflected like 7ri<f}ii<T-pxiL (see 489, 2), 

0. When filial V of a Bt«*in is <h'oppHd C647), as in kXli/ko, 
bend, KtVAt'/xat, the tense is inflected like XcXv-fjuu (with a vowel 
stem). 

0. Tiiose ending in A or p are inflected like tcrTaX-pxiL', as 
dyy/AAtu (dyytA), announce, TJyytX-p/ii^ aipw (dp-)? ^'^^i^^-, Tjp-fixxt; 
iyupaj («ycp-), ryi/.<;e, iyiqytp-}xai\ Trciptu (7r«p-), pierce^ TTiTrap-pxiL 
(045). 

491 . For the full forms of these verbs, see the Catalogue. For 
<ixuv(A)f see also 478. 



112 



INFLECTION. 



[492 



CONTRACT VERBS. 

492. Verbs in aw, co), and oo> are contracted in the present 
and imperfect. These tenses of Tt/xaw {Tifjui-)^ honor, t^iXtw 
(<^tXc-), love, and St/Xo'w (Brjko-), manifest, are tlius inflected : — 



aJ2 

P.] 2 



ACTIVE. 
Present Indicative. 



S. 



"■{' 



{j 



p. I 2. 






s. 
'3. 

I 3. 



{J 



(T(>*4fl) 
{TlfidcTOv) 

(rtudtrov') 
(ri>*4o/i<v) 
(Tt^tdeTf) 
(Ti/idoi'<ri) 

(rT/idw) 

(ri/wiTjTOi') 
(rlfj.d.iJficv) 

(Tlfld7JT€) 

(rifidoi) 

{rlfidoiToy) 

(TlfiaolTTjv) 

(^TipkdOLfXfv) 

(Ti^tdotTc) 
(rlfidoify) 

or 
(Tt^taofT7v) 
(TTMao/171) 
(Tt;iao/i7) 

(Tl>iao/7JT€) 



TlJiaTOV 

TijAdrov 

Tl}Jl«ji<v 
TlJtW 

Tijiarov 
Tiftdrov 

TijtdT< 






4>kXw 
4>iX«t 

<|>lX€lTOV 

<|>iXciTOv 
4>iXov|uv 

4>iXtiT{ 

^i.Xov(ri 



Present Subjunctive. 



((piK^tJTOv) 

(0tX^T7Tf) 

(0iX^a)a-i) 



(^iXw 
4*1X135 

4»iXt] 

4>lXlJT0V 
4>lX<lT0V 
4>lXu)JL(V 

4>iX'nT< 

4>iXwa'b 



Present Optative (sec 737). 



TtflJ] 
TlJtWTOK 
TlfitOTt^V 
TlJJltOjJlCV 

Tl}Jl«fV 

or 

[Tl(t({>T)TOV 

Tifit/Ticravj 



(0iX^Oi^i) [4»iXovfj.i 

(0(X^ots) (fnXots 

((piXht) 4*^XoiJ 

(^iX^OfTOv) 4'lXotTOV 

(0iXeo(TT)i') 4>iXoCtt]V 

(0tX^lT€) 



(0iX^ot<v) 
or 

(0iXfo/rjs) 
(0(X«/t;) 



<(>tXotT< 

<(>iXot<v 

or 
4»LXoC*qv 
4»iXoCiis 



(<pi\foiTJTOv) [4>lXo£tlTOV 
(0tXfO{T^T >JJ/) 4>»-Xol^TT|v] 

(0(Xfo/TjT«f) 4>iX«£'nT( 

(<pi.\(olT]c a y) 4>iXo (T]a-ov J 



(SijXiw) 

(57,X6«0 

(^TjXAfrof) 

(Jj^Xifro*') 

( 517X60/** »') 

(5TjX6fTc) 

(5tj\6ov<ri) 

(5TjX6aj) 

(57)X6i7s) 

(67JX61,) 

(5t)>6:;tov) 

(5tjXA7;to»') 

(jTjXi'taMff) 



8i)Xw 
St]Xois 
8tiXoi 
611X0VTOV 

8»lXoUT0V 
8t]X0V}JICV 

8iiXoOti 
8T)Xov(ri 

8r|Xw 
8tiXois 
811X01 
Si^Xw ov 
8t|X^tov 

8-r]X(r)Jicv 
SljXuT* 

SiiXwori 



(5rj\doi/j.i) [8nXoijun 

(SijXo'oi) 8tiXoCj 

(jTjXo'otTOv) 6*nXoiTOV 

(bTjXoolTTjy) 8T]Xotrriv 

(STjXioiTf) 



or 

(Stj'KooItjv) 
(^tjXoo/tjs) 
(^T/Xoo/i?) 



8*qXoiTt 

Si^XoUv 

or 
SiiXoiiiv 
St^XoCi^s 
8i]XoCi] 



(5TjXooi7jTT;v)8iiXotTirr]v] 
(5rj\ooli}ncy) [hr\\olr\\UV 
(StjXooirjTf') %r\\oCr\r4 
(^TjXooirjcav) STjXottjcrav] 



492] 



CO>?TRACT VERBS. 



113 



^ I 2. {jl}xd€rov) TijiaTOv 

2. (rlpideTf) TijjittTt 

3. (rFjUO^i'TW*') TlflWVTWV 

or or 



Present Imperative. 
or or 



{ri^ia4ri,>ffav) TlfwiTwtrttv ((^iXf^Twcrac) <^iX<tT»(rttv 

Present Infinitive. 

Present Participle (see 340). 



(rt^Civ) 
(Ti'Mawv) 



Tl^tJV 



^■1 



D. 



■■{ 



1. (iTtnaov) iri\kiav 

2. (irifiaa) irt^ias 

3. (^rtpca*) irtpLd 

2. (^Tl^«ro*') irt^dTOv 

2. (^TijwifTc) fTi^xdr* 

3. (^Tijuao;') Wfitov 



Jmpcrfect. 

{i<t>i\ti%) i<i>iX(is 

(i<f>L\^erov) 4<j>iX«iT0v 

(^^iXf^TTjv") i<j>iXiirT]v 

(4<pi\io}jLevj i4>iXoO}icv 

(i<pi\^€T() i<j>LX*lTI 

(^0(Xeov) {<|>£Xoiiv 



tl. (tF^ '.optat) TLfjLwp.ai 
2,(TT;idfi,Tl/id»j) Tifiqt 
3. (T(M<ifTai) TtjidTat 
T-v f 2. (rT^uifcr^OK) Tiftdo-Bov 
t. 3. (T^^xdc<T$ov) Ti]LO,<r^ov 
1. (Ti^LaijUt^a) Ttfiw)jt<0a 
■J^dea^c) TL(id{rd( 
r^doi^ai) TLjjLWvTat 






(ri^Ldwpcat) Tt(iu^ai 

3. (Ti^TjTat) Tt^aTai 
jj f 2. (Tifidij<r$ov) Tindo-Bov 
' 3. (Tt/i<iii(T(?o>') Tijido-flov 

{1. (ri^aw/if^a) Tifi.»(i»Oa 
2. (ri/wiiio-tfe) Ti(id(r6» 
3. (rtfwfwrrat) Tifiwvrai 



PASSIVE AND MIDDLE. 
Present Indicative. 

(0(X^ti, 0tX^Tj) <|)iX(i, <|)iXt^ 

(0tX^fTai) (^iXiiTai 
((pi\^€<T6oy) 4>iXci:(r6ov 
((pi'X^faBoy) 4>iX<to-6ov 
(<^iXfd/i€6a) 4>iXov(ic0a 
(<pM«79€) <|)tX«i(r0« 
((^iX^ovrat) <{nXoiivTat 

Present ^^nhjunctive. 
(0iX^(jpca() <^iXw[Lai 

((^iX^Tjo-^oi') 4)iXr)a6ov 
(<pi\e(I}tJLeda) 4nXu(i*6a 
(0(X^tJvTai) <^iX«i>vTai 



(5i^Xoe) 8^Xov 

(StjXo^tw) 8t]XovT(a 

( 517X0 erov) 811X0 VTOV 

(StjXo^TWv) 8t]XoiiTMV 

{SrjXodyTtjv) Sr\Kovvriiv 
or or 

(3TjX6etv) 8t]Xoiiv 



((f^^XooO 
(^5^Xofs) 

{^5T}\6€roy) 
(^StJXoov) 



{&i]Xovv 

^SijXovs 

^StjXov 

iSriXovTov 

iStjXovn^v 

fSriXoCfuv 

48t]Xovt« 

iSi^Xovv 



(5TjX<S«i,5TjX65)$t]XoC 

(577X6*Tai) 8iiXoiiTai 

(SfjXd^T&op) StiXoO(r6oK 

(57}\6ia6oy) 8iiXoii(r8ov 

(STj\o6n(6a) St]Xov|jh8o 

(57]\6«Tdt) 8r)Xoiia6< 

(5yj\6cvrai) 8T|Xovvrai 



(5TjX4cjptai) 

(StjXdijcOoy) 
{d-rj\6r}<T6oy) 

(5tjX6j;(j-^c) 
(6ijXo'wrra() 



8T]Xwp.ai 

8tiXoi 

8T|XwTai 

8TiX(»a6ov 

8iiX»(r0ov 

8TiXw^c8a 

8t]Xmo-6( 

8T|X«i)VTai 



114 



USFLKCTION. 



[493 



i' 1. (Tifiaoltifjv) T\\uS\s,r]v 

- 3. (rifidoiTo) tI|1(j>to 
pv f 2. (Ti/iaoicr^ov) Ti^(p<r6ov 
I 3. (Ti^ao(cr^Tjv) Tl\t.(JcrQy\v 
' 1. (Tt/jiaolfjifOa) Tl^u)pL(9a 
2. (Tt/ido(cr0c) Ti^wo-6£ 
L 3. (rt/idoiCTo) TijiwvTO 



\3.( 
|x / 2. (Tc^ccrfJoc) TijidcrOov 



Ti^ia^cdut) Tl)ida-6w 



1\ 



Present Optative. 

(^tX^lTo) <j)lXoiTO 

(^iX^oicrfioc) <|)iXoi<r9ov 
((piXcolffdtjp') (^iXot(rOT|v 

(0iXcoVf^a) 4>*'^o'H^*^* 
(<pi\^oiff6e) <J)iXoi<r0* 

Pres(tnt hnpcr alive. 
(^iX^ov") <})iXoO 
(^tXe^cr^w) 4)iX€t<r6w 
(^<Pi\^€<t6oi^) <|>iX«i(r6ov 
(<f>i\(^<7duif) <|)iX<La-9wv 
(<piU«7d€) 4)iX«i<r0< 
{<pi\ci<j6it}y) 4)iX<t<r9wv 
or or 



(hrfKooi^iyjv) 


StiXoCjitiv 


(brjXooio) 


8tiXoio 


(SrjXdoiTo) 


StiXoito 


{dr)\6oi(rdoy) SriXoiff-eov 


{6r]\oo(ffd')}v) hr\\olcr6-^v 


(brjXoolfuda) ^^XotfiiQa 


(5ij\6oiff6e) 


SiiXoicrflc 


(5')}'K6oii'To) 


8tiXoivto 


(Sr}\6ov) 


Si^XoO 


(S^Xo^cr^w) 


8T)Xou(r0u 


(6y)\6€(r8ov) 


8T)Xo\i<r9ov 


(5r}\o^<Tdii>v) 


8T)Xoxi<r0wv 


(5r}\6€(Td() 


8iiXoOo-0« 


(6r}\o^adij}v) 


8T)Xoil(r6(dv 


or 


or 



3. {TjfjLa^c6t,}if) Tip,d(r6ii)v 

2. (Tlnd(c6() Tifia(r0t 

3. (^Ti^a^ffOotv) Tl)id(r.dwv 
or or 

(Tf^a^ad(i)<Tai')riiiQ.<T^tit<rav (^<pi\f^ffdcjaau)^LKtl(rBiii<rav Sij\o^a$ufaai')hT]\ovu^i3Krav 

Presnnt Infinitive, 
(^rlfidfffdai) TijiourBat {tpiXhcrBaL) <J)iXeicr9ai (drjXoeffdai) hr)Kovcr^ai 

Praseni Participle. 
(rt/ia^/ifcos) TipLwp.«vo5 (0{Xf6;nevo?) 4)iXou}i.<vos {brfkoo^i^voi) 8tiXou}i«vos 



I 3. (^Tw 
^3. (<Va 



(^Tifjidov) irifiw 
(^Tj/iafTo) irijiaro 
j^ f 2. {iTlfxifodov) tTLjiao-Oov 
I 3. (^T(Ma^(T5T;v)cTtfid<r0Tjv 

K \ 2. (^TlndfaOe) iTifid(r9t 

(^{do^'ro) ^TlfAWCTO 



Imperfect. 
(^0iX^<rTo) i<|)tX«iTO 



((Sy}Xodfi')jy) 

(^5ijX6(To) 

(^dr)X6(a$ov) 

(^SvXo^cOv^) 

((57]Xo6fjL€da) 

{n-nX6«T0€) 

(/drjXooi'To) 



^StjXov^i^v 
^Sif]Xov 

iStjXoVTO 

i8ifjXov<r9ov 

i8t)Xovo-0Tiv 

J8i]Xov^<Ca 

fStjXoOo-et 

(StjXoCvto 



493. N. The uncontractod forms of tliose tenses arc not Attic (but 
see 496, 1). Those of vci'bs in au Rtmnitiines occur in Ilonior; tliDse 
of verbs in tw are common in Homer and Herodotus; but- those of 
verbs in ow are nevrr used. For dialectic forms of these verbs, see 
784-780. 



498] 



CONTRACT VERBS. 



115 



494. Synopsis of rlfidu), ^tXe'o), SijXow, and O-qpun), hunt^ 

in the Indicative of all voices. 







Active, 






rros. 


TlfJlW 


4>iXj> 


8iiXw 


fltipoi 


Impf. 


irifiwi' 


i<|>iXovv 


i&TjXovv 


M^pwv 


Kut. 


Tijti^o-w 


4>iXt]o-w 


SiiXwo-M 


0T)pdcrw 


A or. 


i ri jjnio-tt 


i<|>LXT]<rtt 


J&^Xw<ra 


^6TJpd<ra 


Perf. 


TtrtfiTiKa 


Tr*4>iXTJKO 


S(8i)XwKa 


T«0'^pdKa 


Plup. 


^TtTLJlTlKTl 


^ir*4>LXi]KT^ 

MiODi,!-; 


iS^S-qX^KTi 


^T«Oi)pdKTi 


Pres. 


Ti^upiai 


<f>iXo\)^ai 


ST]Xo0^ai 


6i]pw^ai, 


Impf. 


lTiy.QHkr]V 


«4>lX0VfiTlV 


iSl)X0VfiT]V 


lBr]pii>}kj)v 


Fut. 


TljJLTJO-OjJLttl 


(|>iXi^o-o^ai 


StiXwo-ofiai 


di^pdo-op-ai 


A or. 


^Ti|n)(rdjjii]v 


^4>iXTi(rdji.riv 


i8iiX«o-d(iiiv 


J6i]pd(rd^i]v 


Ptri. 


WTlfiTlfiai 


ir(4>£Xt)jjiai 


8<8TJXw^ai 


T<0T|pdp,ai 


Plup. 


iT«T^^JL1ilJi1^v 


t7rt4>iXii^ji,Tiv 

Pa SSI VI.;, 


^S^S-qXtofil^v 


iT«6tjpdfit]v 


Trcs. J 


and Imp. : .samo ; 


:\s Middle. 






FuL 


Ti^JL'tl6T|<^0Jial 


4>i.XT]di7(ro^ai 


8iiX«0i](rop.ai 


(6TjpdOT|(ro|jLai) 


A or. 


iTl)kri9r\v 


44>tXT|eTiv 


i8TjXw6Tiv 


J6iipdOTiv 


rerf. ; 


md IMup. ; same as Middle. 






Fut.1' 


erf. T«Tiji,-^<ro(iat 


'jr«|>iXii<rojjiat 


S(Si)Xwo-Ofjiai 


(T«flt|pdo-op.ai) 



495. i. Dissyllabic verbs in <w contract only ec and tei. Thus 
TrAt'o), i-'aiY, has prcs. ttAco), 7rA«t?, ttAci, TrActrot/, irXiofiev^ vXuTe, 
TrAt'oucrt.; iniperf. tTrAeoi', tTrAet?, tTrAci, etc.; infin. TrAtri'; partic. 
TrXecjy. 

2. Atw, 6iJ!af, is the only exception, and is contracted in most 
forms ; as Souat, Sovfjuoa, Sovvrai, iSovvy partic. Soil', Bovv. Acoj, loant, 
is contracted Hl;e TrAt'w. 

496. N". A few verbs in ao havr? -q for a in the contracted forms ; 
as 8ii/fa<o, 8ti//w, (/nV.s/, 8tt/ri7?, 8ti/'>J', 8i\lnjrf ; iniperf. tSti/^wf, «5t'i/^?, 
cSii/'ij ; infin. 8n/^v. So ^doj, /lY-e, Kmoj, 5cra/»«, Trcimoj, hungei\ cr/xatu, 
smear^ Xpo.<o<, give oracles^ with ^jaofxai, ^ise, and i//aw, ru6. 

497. N. 'Piyow, shiver, has infinitive piywi/ (witii plyoui'), and 
optative plyi^rfv- 'I8poiu, aweat, has t8pa)(n, tSpwT;, tSpwvTi, etc. 

Aou'o>, t6'ft.<:/(, sonjetinies drop.s v, and Adtu is tlien inflected like 
d-ijAdoj ; as <Aou for tAouc, AoC/^at for AoiJOfwxi. 

498. N. The third person singular of the imperfect active does 



116 INFLECTION. [499 

not take v movable in the contracted form ; thus i(j>tXit or cc^iAfcv 
gives €<^i'Act (never ^'^tXttv). See 68. 

499, For (ottv) av and (ottv) ovv in the infinitive, see 39, 5. 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 

500. The peculiar inflection of verbs in fu affects onlj the 
present and second aorist systems, and in a few verbs the second 
perfect system. Most second aorists and perfects here included do 
not belong to presents in ^ but are irregular forms of verbs in w; 
as i^Tjv (second aorist of ^aiVu)), tyvwv (yiyvwcr/caj), ivTafJirjv {ttIto- 
fmt), and ridvafxcv, TtOyairjv, TcdvdvaL (second perfect of Ovrfo-Koi)* 
(See 798, 799, 804.; 

601. Tenses thus inflected are called /xi-forms. In other tenses 
verbs in /u are inflected lilie verbs in o) (see the synopses, 509). 
No single verb exhibits all the possible ;u-forni3, and tvi'o of the 
paradigms, Tti^rjptx and 5i5«/xt, are irregular and defective in the 
second aorist active (see 802). 

502. There are two classes of verbs in /xt; — 

(1) Those in rjfiL (from stems in a or t) and w/xt (from 
stems in o), as t-o-Ttj-fxi (ora-), set, Ti-Orj-fu (^c-), ijIucCj Bi-Buy-yx 
(So-), give. 

(2) Tliose in vv/xt, which liave the /xt-forra only in the 
present and imperfect; these add w (after a vowel wv) to 
the verb stem in these tenses, as ^tU-vv-fjiL (5«/c-), sJiow, 
fn^-vvv-fxL (pu>-), strengthen. For poetic verbs in vti^i (witJi va 
added to th6 stem), see 609 and 707, 2. 

503. For a full enumeration of the yni-forms, see 793-804. 



604. Synopsis of to-T-qfiL, TLOrjfJn, 8i'Sw/Lxi, and hcUvvfXL in the 
Present and Second Aorist Systems. 

Active. 
Indie. Subj. Opt. Imper. Injin. Part, 

t<rrqjit Icrrw to-rattiv Ilcttij iorctvai l<rTds 

fcTTTJV 

Irteriv 
<d 8(S(D|Li 8kSw SiSoCrfv 8C8ou 8k86vak 8i8ovs 

M 8«(kvv(JII 6(IKVV<D SciKKUOlfkl S((KVV SilKvifVaL S<LKVl^ 



506] 



CONJUGATION OF VETIBS IN Ml. 



117 



Subj, 



Indie. 

S04TOV 9« 

dual (60G) 

JfSoTov 8w 
dual (606) 
8Svv (605) 8v» 



Opt. 
orrat-qv 

0€£t}V 

So£t]V 



Imper. 
<rTtl0i 

8001 



Jnfin, 

0(ivai 

8ovvai 

8v('ai 



8k8i^^ai 



' tcTTafiai 
TC0cp.ai 

iTI.0^p.1]V 

8f8ofiat 

48i86^i)v 
ScCKWfjLai 

^8ct.KVV^T)V 

J7pidp.i]v -rrpCw^ai 
40^fif]v 0w^ai 

48<S^-qv 8w^ai 



Passive akd Middle. 



Tl0ttp.llV 

8kSo(fii]y 



Tt0«<ro rtOtcrOat 



8t&o<ro SiSocrOak 



Part. 

O-TOS 

0c£s 
hovs 
8t^ 

L<rTdjuvo$ 

TkO^fJKVOt 

8i86^vot 



8<kKvvw^ai 8ciKwo£^i]v ScCkwcto 8cCKvV0-0ak SciKvv^ckoc 



irpLa£p.T)v 

0€£fl11V 

8o£}ii]v 



irpU 
Oov 
8oO 



TrpCa<r0ai 

O(<r0ai 

S6cr0ai 



irpkdfUVO$ 
S6ficvo$ 



605. As L(jrr}fxt wants the second aorist middle, iwpidfxrjv, I 
bought (from a stem Trpta- with no present), is added here and in 
the inflection. As htUvv^ wants the second aorist (502, 2), «8ij»', 
1 entered (from 8uw, formed as if from hv-^i)y is added. No second 
aorist middle in v^y^v occurs, except in seattered poetic forms (see 
Xuo), 7rv«'<i>, o-iwo), and ;(€'a>, in the Catalogue). 



506. Inflection" of la-rtj^i, riSrjfiL, Sih(jjfii, and ^eUvvfxi in 
the Present and Second Aorist Systems ; with Ihvv and 
.V/>taM,. (505). ^^^j^P^_ 









Present Indicative. 




Bing. 


{^ 

U. 


r<mifik 


TC0l]Jit 

rtOrio-k 


8{S<DfJLl 

8(8fa>s 

8tS«o-k 


8€(kvv$ 

8«£KVvcri 


Dual 


{': 


lo-Tarov 


t£0«tov 


8£5oTov 


StUvVTOV 




laraTOV 


t10€TOV 


8t$0T0V 


8€iKVVT0V 


Plur. 


{'• 


t(rrap.iv 
IcrraTi 


tC0€JMV 
Tl0<TI 


CO CO 


Sc£kw)mv 
8c(kwti 




u. 


IflTTflMri 


Tk0id(r* 


Si8od(rL 


8(lKVvd9-h 



118 



INFLECTION. 



[600 



iing. J 2 
la 



Imperfect. 



Dual 



Plur. 



Sing. 



Dual 



riur. 



Sing, 



Dual 



UrTttTOV 

to-Tarriv 
to-TajKv 

to-rao-av 

IQ-TW 
lO-TT]TOV 

io-tV^tov 

lo-TT^TC 
lO-Tolo-l 



<t£9u 

^i9<T0V 

JtiSc'tiiv 

<Tl9lT« 



J8C&0UV 

jSiSovs 
^8£Sou 

JStSoTOV 

tSiSon^v 
J8i8op4v 
J8£8oTi 
^8C8o(rav 



Present Subjunctive. 



Tl9«> 

ti9tis 
ti9ti 

Tv9TiT0V 

ti9tJtov 
tl9w^cv 
ti9tit€ 



8i8u 

8i8a>s 

8i8a) 

8i8«Tov 

8L8urrov 

8i8b3fi(v 

8i8wrc 

8L8b>(ri 



Present Optative. 



)ual I ^' 
I 3, 

Mur. J 2. 



PJ 



ur, ^ 2. 



l(rTaiT)V Tl9€lT)V 8l8oiT)V 

lo-Tait^s Ti9ti"iis 8i8o£t)s 

CoTaft) ti9i£ti 8i8ofti 

io-TaCrjTov tl6«it|tov 8i8oit]Tov 

i<noxr\Tr\v Tt9ctilTr)V 8i8oiiir»iv 

t<rTa£T)jitv Ti6t[iifi.tv 8i8oiti(i€V 

i<rTaiT)T« Ti9([r)T« 8i8o£T]Ti 

lo-rairjo-av riStCrjo-av Si8oiT](rav 
Commonly thus contracted : — 

2. ic-Tatrov Ti9tiTOV 8i8oitov 

3. t<rTa£niv Ti9#i'rnv 8i8o£ttiv 
lo-Tatfwv Ti9cift<v 8i8oift€V 

Ic-TaiTI Tl9*tT« 8l8otT» 

lo-rawv Ti9*wv SiSouv 



Sing. I 
Dual i 



Present Imperative. 
to-TT] t£9ci 8£8ou 

to-TaTW Tl9^T« 8l80TI«) 

to-Tarov t£9£tov 6i8oTOV 

lO-TOlTWV TlfltTWV 5l8oT«V 



^8((kvv$ 

48(Ckvv 
48€(kvutov 
iSuKvv'ruv 
j8cCkvu(ji<v 

i8(£KVVT« 

^8€£Kwo-av 

8<LKVVa> 

8(I.KVV^S 

8<IKVV|] 

SciKVv'llTOV 

8ciKVU'llT0V 

8ciKVv'(i)fl(V 

8<lKVWtlTC 

8«iKVu«a-*i 

SciKVVOlfll 

8eiKvv'o« 

SCLKVU'OI 
StlKVu'oiTOV 

8tiKVWo£r»iv 

8ciKVlJoifl€V 

StlKVv'oiTC 

8<IKVV0KV 



8(Ckvv 

8€IKVUT*» 
ScfKWTOV 
8«IKVVT«V 



606] 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 



119 



l^lur. I 



2, 


to-TttT< TC6iTI 8£8oTC 


8«(kvvt« 


3. 


uTTavTwv or ti8«vtwv or 8v8o'vt«v or 


8n.KvvvT«v or 




Ifl-roTwo-ov Ti6*Ti*>(rov 8i8o'TW(rttv 


8ilKVVT«(rttV 




Present Injinitive. 






lo-TOLvai Tt©ivat 8i8o'vat 


8<iKvtSvai 



Present Participle (335). 
io-Tos TiOds SiSovs 



SciKVVS 



Second Aorist Indicative (802). 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 






co-rris 
3, ia-rt) 

2. <o-r»iTov 

3. 4(rTtiT*iv 



|1. I 
2. I 



c<rni[nv 
(TTtjcrav 



i'6«Tov 
*6«rav 



i'Sorov 
i8o'niv 
*8ofiiv 

f80TC 

fSoo-av 



i'Svv 
fSvs 
<8v 

t'SvTOV 
^8vT11V 
(SvflfV 

(Sv<ra.v 



Second Aorist Subjraiclive. 



Sing, 



Dual 



Plur. 



(TTW 

OTTiTOV 
<miTOV 

o-rw^cv 

a-rr\Tt 

<rT»<ri 



6llT0V 
0TJTOV 

OtJt« 
6(«rt 



8«s 
8i<> 

8wT0V 

8urrov 
8w^cv 
8wT* 
8 wo* I 



Sv'ti* 

8v't)s 
Svr|Tov 

Svl^TOV 

Svwficv 

8\JT]T» 



Second Aorist Optative. 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 



1; 



I 3. 



(TTaCris 
(TTairi 
(rTaiT]TOv 
(TTaniTTiv 

(rTtt("qT< 
(TTatijo-av 



6«(llT0V 
6(lTfTT|V 



8oiijv 

8o(lJ5 
8otT| 

hoir\TOv 

8oiTlTTlV 
SoiT|[JltV 

8o(T|rav 



(See 744) 



120 

Dual I 

Plur. I 

Sing. I 

Dual I 

P]ur, J 





INFLECTION, 
Commonly thus contracted: — 




2. 


OTTaiTOV 


0«iTOV 


SoiTOV 




3. 


oTTainjv 


6i£r»}v 


Sofrnv 




1. 


O-TaipKV 


e<:/i<v 


Sot^ifv 




2, 


o-ratT< 


e«iT< 


holrt 




3. 


o-raUv 


ecwv 


SoUv 








Second Aotist Imperative. 




2. 


<m^vt 


e/s 


So'c 


Stiew 


3. 


<m{T» 


0^T« 


8o't« 


Si^Ttt 


2. 


cttVJtov 


e^Tov 


8oTOV 


8vTDV 


3. 


otttJtwv 


e^Twv 


SoTOI*' 


hh-tav 


2 


crTrJT* 


e^T< 


S0T€ 


8vT« 


3. 


fl-Tavrft)v or 6/vT«v or 


80VTWV or 


8vvT«v or 




(TTlJTWO-aV 0ITWO-OV 


SoTwo-av 


SvTwo-av 






Second Aorisi Ijijinitive. 






CTTiivai. 


8<tvai 


Sovvai 


Svvai 




Second Aoj'ist Pm 


•n'fi;)/e (335). 






<rTdt 


e«£s 


hovs 


h^ 



[606 



PASSIVE AND MIDDLE. 
Present Indicative. 





f^- 


Vtrrafiai 


TtOijiai 


SiSofiat 


6<(Kwp.ai 


Sing. 


P- 


Tto-Tcurai. 


Tte<(rai 


8£5oo-ai 


8<Uvtra-ai 




I3. 


'Iwrraroi. 


TtetTat 


8(6oTai. 


8<£KVtrTai 


Dual 


(2. 
1 3. 


W-Too-Sov 


riBio^ov 


8£8oo-6ov 


8<£Kvu<r0ov 




IrrturOov 


rlSta^ov 


SfSoo-eov 


8i(KW(r0ov 




j-L 


wrT(if4«6a 


ri9/^t9a 


Si8oV<0a 


8iiKvv>u6a 


Piur. 


■ 2. 


lo-Ta<r0€ 


T£$((r$c 


8t8Do-0< 


8<£KW(r6« 




U. 


lo-ravToi 


Tt6<vTat 

Imperfect 


8i8ovrtti 


8<(Kvt)VTat 




•^3. 


tcTOJilV 


lri,94\iy\v 


iSiSofniv 


i8€iKvvVlv 


Sing. 


toToo-o 


hiOttro 


4S£8o<ro 


Ihi Uvwro 




toraTO 


hietro 


imoro 


ihtiKwro 


Dual 


f2. 
I 3. 


Xo-raa-^ov 


<TC0«(reov 


^UhotrBov 


IhiUwar^ov 




Uttcut^v 


^Tte^o-flnv 


48i8oVeiiv 


ihtlKVVff^V 




j-1. 


lo-Tafi€8o 


irievea 


i8i8oV<0a 


48«tKvv|M0a 


Plur. 


• 2. 


t<rTa<r6« 


*T£0»(re< 


^6£8o(r0€ 


iSiUwaBi 




U, 


to-ravTO 


iriSivTo 


«8C8ovTo 


ISilKWVTO 



606] 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 



121 



Present Subjunctive. 



{1 . l<rTwji,a«. 

2. io-TQ 

Dual {^- ;<^/9o»' 

1. t<rTwfjic0a 
Plur. ■ 



{1. l<rTwfjic0< 
2. io-rt^<r0€ 
3. UTTWVTa 



Sing, 



] 2. U 



to-raio 
3, tcrraiTO 



Dual P- '^<^'r»^<^^«*' 

13. 



l<rTai<r$T]v 
1. UrraCf«0a 

Co-Tat(r0i 
3. torratvTO 



(1. UrraCi, 
2. Cfrratc 



Sing. {I 
Dual P 



Plur. 



t<rToo-0« 

lCcrTa<r0ov 
ioTTcwrOwv 
1i(rTacr0€ 



Ti0i)Tai 
Ti0T](r0ov 

T1011O-0OV 

Ti0ca^(da 

T10'>|O*0€ 
Tt0(flVTai 



SiSufLai 

8i8({) 

8i8<»T(u 

8i86i>cr0ov 

8iS(ikr0ov 

8iSwiM0a 

8iSw<r0< 

8iSwvTai 



Present Optative. 



Tl0<(fJlllV 
Tl0€io 
T10<ITO 
Tt0€ia"0OV 

Ti0*wr0T]v 
Ti0<iyi0a 
Tt0«i<r0< 

Tl0<iVTO 



8i8oi!ni]v 

818010 

8i8otTo 

8i8oio-0ov 

81.80 t(r0T]v 

8i8oCp>c0OL 

Si8oia-0t 

8i8oivTo 



Present Imperative. 



T(0c<ro 

Ti0^o-0« 

t(0«o-0ov 

Ti0^<r0wv 

Tt0€(r0« 



8£Soa-o 

8i8o'<r0« 

8C8oa-0ov 

8i8o'(r0(uv 

8£Soo^c 



to-Tcw-Owv or Ti0«V0«v or 8i8o'o'0«v or 
io-rao"0«o-av Ti0^<r0«(rav 8i8o'o-0«o-av 



8ci.KVv«>}Lai 
8<ikvu'd 

SflKVvTJTai 

8«VKVV1)O-0OV 

8«IKVVT|O"0OV 

8ciKvu<^i0a 

8ilKVV110^< 
8«tKVV«VTai 



8ciKWoCfi1]V 

8<IKVV010 

8ciKVU0lTO 

8ciKVvoia'0ov 
8<itcwo(o-0i]v 
8ciKvuo£{X(0a 

8<lKVVOlO-0< 
8ciKVV0lVT0 



8<£kvv0-o 

8«lKVVO-0« 

8€tKW(r0ov 
8€iKvu<r0«v 
8€£kvvo-0« 
8<iKvvV0«v or 
8€iKvv<r0«o-av 



IrflTTao-Oat 



Present Infinitive. 
T(0€o-0ai 8t8o<r0at 8«£Kwa'0av 



Present Participle (301). 
lordficvos Ti0^^cvos 8i8oVcvos 

Second Aorist Middle Indicative (605). 



8ciKVu'fJlCV0S 



Sing, 



Is 
Dual { 



1. 

2. 
3. 


ItrpLia 
irrpLoiro 


fOov 

♦ 0iTO 


t80T0 


2. 
3. 


t'irp{acr0ov 


€'0ca-0ov 


f8o<r0ov 
i8oV0tiv 



122 



INFLECTION. 



[500 



Plur. 4 2. I 
I3. I 



iirpCacrOi 
pCaVTo 



iOc(r84 

tOiVTO 



«'8ocr6( 

«80VT0 



Sing, 



Dual 



Plur. 



■ 2. 

1 3. 



Sing, I 



Dual 



Plur. 



Sing. 



Dual 



riur. 



{3. 

{I: 



Second Aorist Middle JSubjunctive. 



irpCw^ai 

iTptTjrai 

irptrjcrOov 
irpttio-Oov 

irpLw)^t6a 
irp£ii<r9t 

TTpCwVTai 



Orjrai 

eijo-Oov 
Ot^crOov 

B-qa-Bt 
6«VTat 



8(^ 

StoaOov 
Swkrflov 

8«VTai 



Sccfnid Aorist Middle Optative. 



irpioI/iTjv 

irpiaio 

irpiaiTO 

^pCaicrdov 
irpiato-fti^v 

irpi.a(fjif6a 

irp(aL(r6< 

irp(aivrpo 



Otio 
SciTO 

0<urOov 

6<(p.cea 
6«tVT0 



8oijiTiv 

Soto 

SoCto 

Sot<r©ov 
SoUrfti^v 

SotfjLcOa 

SourSi 

8oiVTo 



irpCw 
irpicwrOw 

irpiao-fiov 
irpiacrOwV 

irp(aa-d( 
^pido-Owv or 
irpLOcrdcjcrav 



Second Aonat Middle Imperative- 
80U 



60V 

BiVBov 
0<(r6«v 

0<o-6wv or 
B^orObxrav 



8o'<r6« 

8oV9ov 
SoVOwv 

8o'(r0« 
Soo-dttfV or 
8oar6<D(rav 



Second Aorist Middle Injtnitive. 
irpiaa-6ai 6c'o-6ai 8o'(r9at 

Second Aorist Middle Participle (301), 
irpid^tvos 6<(WVo$ So'imvos 



fi09J 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 



123 



507. "IdTrjfit and a few other verbs have a second perfect 
and pluperfect of the /it-foniu These are never used in the 
singular of tlie indicative, wliere the first perfect and phi- 
perfect are tlic regular forms. 

508, Tliese tenses of luTq^i are thus inflected: — 



Sing. 



Dual 



V\m\ 



f 2. iVrarov 

8. {crrarov 

fl. f(rTtx}uv 

2. i'crraTc 

3. (OTOO-t 

Infinitive. 



Skconu Pkrfect. • 



ta-Tut 

tcrrr\TOV 
cVnfJTov 

€<rTWJi(V 



€<rTa£Tis 

to-Tail] TO V 

or -aiTOv 
«{rTaLr{ni]v 

or -a(Tr)v 
<<rTaiTi(i*v 

or -aificv 

*VTa£!]T* 

or -auTf 

I'crrafTio-av 

or -aitv 



tcrToiTW 



(OTTavTuv or 
(o-TaTwo-av 



fOTTttvat ]*articii)le. «Vtw9 (342) 

Slconi) PurpEnt-iiCT. 



Dual. fo-raTov, tVTaTtjv 

Plur. €o-ra^<v, t'crraTt, (VTacrav 

For an enumeration of these forms, sec 804. 



509. Full Synopsis of the TnJicative of lar-ofxtf riBr^fxi^ 
SiScjfjLi, and StLKvvfxL, in all the voices. 



Active. 



Pree. 


t<rTT)fit, 




TtftT^ftt, 


SfSwfii, 


ScUvvfiL, 




set 




place 


give 


show 


luiperf. 


t(rrY\v 




iri9r]v 


{8180UV 


ihiiKVVV 


Fut. 


0-TT|0-W 




011 o-w 


8wo-u» 


8«C^o> 


1 Aor. 


f<rTTj<ra, 


set 


(0TiKa 


thu>Ka 


c8u|a 


2Aor. 


lo-TTjr, stood 


{04TOV etc. 


«8oTov etc. 





in dual and plur. in dual and plur. 



124 




INFLECTION. 


[610 


1 Perf. 


ttrrr^KO, 


W0iiKa 


8^8«Ka 




2 Perf. 


la-TttTOv etc. 
jndualaiidplur 
stand (608) 


•» 




Zihtix^ 


1 Plupf. 


€l<rTT)KTl 

OV io-TTJK-ri 


^T<0^K11 


l8<8(&Kii 




2 Plupf. 


ia-rarov etc. , 

in dual aud pirn- 

stood (508) 


■J 




i8«8UxT 


Fut.Perf. io-T^Jw, shall 










stand (705) 


Middle, 






Pres. 


tcrrajiai, stand 


Ttdtfiai 


8C8ojtai (sin: 


iple 8«£Kwjiai 






(trans.) 


only in pass.) (trans.) 


Impf. 


t(rTajii]v 


tTlOtJl^V 


i8i86|i.Tiv 


iStlKVVftllV 


Ynu 


(TTi^o-ojiai 


dTJcrop,ai 


-8«o-ojiai 


-8cC|o(iai 


lAor, 


(trans.) 


i0tlKd(itiv (not 
Attic) 




<8€igAfii]v 


2Aor. 




W/hl^v 


'lh6\i.r]v 




Perf, 


i(o-Ta(iai(pass.) WOnjiai 


8^8ofj.ai 


8€8«i'yjiai 


Plupf. 


(?) 


(?) 
Parsivk. 


iZth6}i.y\v 


i8€8<£*yjiiiv 


Present, Imperfect, Perfect, IMuperfect: 


as in Middle. 




A or. 


io-TdOt^v 


iri$riv 


i860tiv 


ih^ix^v 


Put. 


(TTaQiic-ojiat 


T<0r|O-o^ai 


8odi^(rofJ.ai 


8«tx6'i^(rO(iav 


Put. Perf 


. fo-T^igojiai, 






(8c8cC|o^ai, 






shall stand 






late) 



AUGMENT. 

510. In the secondary tenses of the indicative, tlie 
verb receives an augment (i.e. increase) at the begin- 
ning, which marks these as past tenses. 

511. Augment is of two kinds : — 

1. Syllabic augment, which prefixes e to verbs be- 
ginning with a consonant; as Xvco, imperfect e-XOov; 
XeiTTw, second aorist e-Xi-irov* 

2. Temporal augment, which lengthens the first syl- 
lable of verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong; as 
a7&), lead^ iraperf. 77701' ; OLfcio)^ oi/^w, dwells aor. wKTjo'a* 



519] AUGMENT. 125 

612. The augment is confined strictly to the indicative, 
nevei' appearing in the other moods or the participle, evea 
when any of these denote past time. 

Imperfect avu Aokist iNniCATivE. 

513. The imperfect and aorist indicative of verbs 
beginning with a consonant have the syllabic augment 

Avoj, tXOor^, tAucra, lX\>6]X.y\v^ iXvadfJurjVi iXvOrjv'y ypac^oj, writer 
€ypa<^ov, typai/ra, iypa<^r^v\ ptr-rcj, (hroio, tpplTrrovt ippL<f>r]v. 

For p doubled after the syllabic augmeiitj see 69. 

614. In Homer any liquid (especially' X) may be doubled after 
the augment c ; as tXXaxov for tXa^ov, ifXfJuxOi for c/xa^t. So some- 
times cr; as ccrcrctovTO from cr«to). 

515. The imperfect and aorist indicative of verbs be- 
ginning with a short vowel Iiave the temporal augment, 
which lengthens the initial vowel ; a and € becoming t?, 
and t, 0, V becoming t, to, v. E,g. 

Ayw, lead^ 17701/, 17x^^1' i «A.awcj, drive^ y)\!a.vvov\ tKcrtuoj, implore, 
iKKTcvov, iKtTCVda; oi'ttSt'^oj, reproach, ojp'ttSc^oi/ ; v^pil^w insult^ v/3pL- 
<j$r)v ; aKoXovOiw, accompany, rjKokovBrjcra ; op^ow, erect, wp^wcra. 

516. A long initial vowel is not changed, escept that d gener- 
ally becomes t;; as d^Xtw, struggle, rjOXtjaa. But both d and 17 are 
found in dvdkLdKuy and dj'dAouj, and (ii(o (poetic), hear, lias ffl'oj'. 

517. BouXo/Aat, wis/t, Swa/Attt, /m dt^e, and /At'XAw, intend, often 
have 77 for c iji the augment, especially in later Attic; as i/3ovk6pr]v 

or y/3ov\6pr)y, i/3ov\ij0rjv Or r}/3ovXy)0rjv; ihwd/iTjV Or i^Suva/iTjJ', 
tSuioj^jyr or ^7Su^'7}^T;l' ; cyucAXoj' or rjp,<.kXov. 

518. A diphthong takes the temporal augment on its 
first vowel, ai or a becoming y. E.g, 

Alrtui, a.'^k, rfr-qQa; eiKa^w, gues?, vjKaera; OLKao, dwell, u)K7)(ja.', 
av^dvw, increase, rjv^rja-a, -qv^ijOrjv ; aSw, sing, TgSoy. 

519. Ov is never augmented. Et and tv are often without 
augment, especially in later Attic; but mss. and editors differ in 
regard to many forms, as ttKacra or jJ'Kucra (from tiKa^w, lil^en), 
cvSov or rjvhov (from ^uSoj, f:leep), <vptOr)v or -qlpiO-qv (from tupc'aKw, 
Jind), tv^dpL-qv ov Y)v^dp.T]y (from fv^o/xat, pray). EditioJis vary also 
in the augment of auacVto, dry, and of some verbs begiuning with 
ot, as oidKO(jTpo(f>t<j>, steer. 



126 INTTLECTION. [520 

REDtTPLICATION. 

520. TliG perfect, pluperfect^ and future perfect, in 
all the moods and in the participle, Jiave a redu2)lica- 
tion^ wljich is the mark of complt'tcd action. 

521. Verbs begiiming with a single consonant (ex- 
cept p) are redu])lieated in tlic perfect and future per- 
fect by prefixing that consonant followed by e, E.(j, 

AtKu, Xi-XvKa^ Xi-XvfiaL, XeXv^evai, Xi-XvKio';, Ac-Av/xtVos, At-AOo-o- 
/iai; XtLTTd), AcAoiTra, XiXufXfio.L^ XcXiiipOfJuai. tSo Ovu), sarrijicr:, tc'-^uku; 

For the plaperlect, see o*J7. 

522. N. (a) Five verbs have ti in the perfect, instead of the 
redit}.)licatioii : — 

Xay)^dvu} (Aa\'-j, ohlain hy lot, aXrjxo-y ctAr^y/xat; 

Xixfxl:idv<jj {XajS-), takCy tiXr]4>a, ciXrjpLfjJXi (puet. XiX-Qfifjxit) ; 

At'-yw, collect, in eoniposilion, ~tiXoxa.f -tt'Acy/jiai witl\ -AtAcy/xai; 
StaA('yo/jiat, di.^cus.^, has St-iiXty fxai \ 

jiUfiOfjuai (/xcp-), ohtain part^ ufjuapraty it is fated ; 

from stem (pt-) ctpi^Ka, have said, tipr^fmi, fut. pf. ttpT](xo}jmit 
(see (Ittov). 

{()) Au ivrej;'u!ar reduplication appear*^ in Homeric haSoLKa and 
S«i'8i(i, from Sci'^w, /eu?*, and S<i3«y/iai (for 8t8<y^t), ifJ'Ctff, from 
a btem Sck- (see iSit'Kt-i;/;!:). 

523. Ill i^erhs beginning with two consonants (except 
a mute and a liquid), witli a double consonant (f, f, a/t), 
or witli p, the reduplication is represented by a simple 
e, liaviug the same form as the syllabic augment. !!.(/. 

5WAA(*>, Actul, €<TTaXKa\ ^^Te'w, sccV.;, i^rJTrjKa.; ij/ivSu), cheaty l\piv- 
(TfJiaU iipivcrfi€i'0<i ', pttrru). Ihrow, Upplfifjuoa, ipp'tcfiOai (0,Q). 

524. 1. Mosl verb.s bei^innini; wltli a ntuU* and a liquid liave 
tlie full reduplication; as ypa^w, ivrilp, yt'ypa<^a, ytypap./xa(, y«ypa- 
c^Oaiy y<ypa/xp.tVos. 

2. But tliose beginning witli y»/, and occasionally a few in /jA 
01' yA, have t; as yi'U}pi^(jj, reco(p\iz(i, ])i.'vf. cyi'toptKO. ; ytyrwcrKW 
(yj/o-), A:n6W, ty^wKa. Soe j^Xaardyijj and yAiJ^w. 

525. N. Mifj.\'r}<yK(jj (fj.va-), remind, lias fiepvr}}jua.L (vwrniiu'), 
rcmcmbei\ and Krdoyxat, ficf^ucre^ has both kikt-qpjxi and tKT-r)pxu, 
possess. See also Homeric perfect passive of jJ-ttto) and pvirow. 



531] ATTIC REDUn.lCATIOX. 127 

526. Verbs beginning with a short vowel lengthen 
the vowel, and tliose beginning with a diphthong 
lengthen its hrst vowel, in sill forms of the perfect and 
future perfect, the reduplication thus having the form 
of the temporal augment. E.g. 

"Ayw, lead., ^j(u, r^y/xai, lyy/itVo"; ; aKokovOco}^ follov^, YjKo\ovOY)Ka, 
yKoXovOy]KiyaL ; opOou), creel, UfpBwfjuxi ; 6/Dt'^w, hounil, ojptxa, i^fjiGfuii ; 
drifj-ou), ciLsIiOnor, r/rifXivKa, r}7i/j.<jjfjM.t, Int. ]>]. rfrlfxcoaofUiL. Atpcw, 
tidf', rjprjKa, r}pr}fw.L, yprjaoy^ai] iUd^o), ii/ceny yJKacTfJUiL; tvpiaKw^Jinti, 
rjvprjKU, rjvp-qp/it {OV cvprjKit., cvprjfxai, 51 U). 

Loui^ a iii'dY bi^come rj (see 010); as in dydXicTKiOf pf. dvrjXojKa 
or dva\o^Ka, 

Pj.lU'EllFJCCT, 

527. Wlien tlie reduplicated perfect begins with a 
cojtsonant, the plu])erfect prefixes the syllabic augment e 
to the reduplication. In other cases the pluperfect keeps 
the reduplication of the perfect without change, E.^. 

AiJo), XtXtfxat c-XtXvKr}-> XcXvjiai, i-XtXvfir^i' \ ariXXu), cCTrtiXKCL, 
(ardXKr], ecrruA/iai, iordXpiqv; Xap-fiduu)., <A.X7)4>ay uXyi<^r) \ ayy€ AAw, 
•^YytXKuL, rjyy^XKTj, tj-yyiXfjuu, qyyiXp-qv'y alpiw, rjprjKa, jJp^ky); cvpi- 
CTKio, rjVprjKa, r)vprjKr], -qvprffx-qvy (or cvp-). 

528. N. Kioin caryjfxi {(ttu-), s&.t, we liave both tlanqK-q Colder 
form) ;m](1 k<TTr)Kyj (fhrougli peri'. €ar7)Ka)\ and from perf. tot/fa, 
veacynhle, iwKQ. 

ATTIC llEDU PLICATION. 

529. Some vei-bs beginning with a, f, or o, followed 
by a single consonant, j-eduplicate the perfect and pln- 
perfcct b}^ prefixing tlieir first two letters, and length- 
ening the following vowel as in the temporal aug^nent. 
This is called Attic reduplication. Ejj. 

'Apow, jilouf/li, d.p-r]popxxi ; eftto), vomit^ €fXY)fx<.Ka ; (.Xlyxui^ provCy 
iXy'iXtypjai] (Xuvvoi (cAu-). ilrii;('., iXrjXaKa, eXyjXafJUiL] aKOvw^ heaVy 
aKrjKOit. For the pliiyierfect, see 5-i-i. 

530. N. The Auic reduplication (so called by the Greek gram- 
marians) is not peculiarly Attic, and i.s found in nomor, 

531. K. Other verbs whicjj have the Attic rednplication are 
dyctpoj, dXei<p<jj, dX<(t>, iytipou cpn'Sou €/JX<)/tai, iaOio), oXXvfxi, OfxvvfXL, 
opvdGo), <^ipii). See also, for ionic oi jioctic forms, aj.p('(o, aXdofw.i, 
aXvKTtw^ dpaplrrKw, Iptlnw, t)^w, tj/jlvw, (odu-) oScuSucrynat, o^oj, opao) 
{oTTUjra}, 6p(y(jj, 6prl;j.i (^;> )• 



128 INFLECTION. [632 

632. N. 'Eyetpo) (<yc/>-)> rouse, has 2 perf. iyp-rjyopa (for ty^op-a, 
643), but perf. mid. ly-rjytp^i. 

533. By strict Attic usage, the pluperfect takes a temporal 
augment in addition to the Attic reduplication. Thus, aKouw, 
kear^ aKTjKoa, plup. rjKfjKorj; so aTr-coXtuXtt (of dTr-dXAC/nt, air-okdyXa), 
(ii^bifiOKiL (of ofxviJfiL, 6/Aa)/xo«a), and 5t-a>p(opvKro (of St-opwo-cu, 
St-opwpvy/Aai) occur in Attic prose. See also Homeric pluperfects 
of fAaww and iptiBio. 

But the M86. and the editions of Attic authors often omit the 
additional augment, as in iX-TjXty fjLijv (487, 2), 

REm;PLICATED AORISTS. 

534. N. The second aorist active and middle in all the moods 
and the participle sometimes has a reduplication in Homer; aa 
7rt(f>pa8ov from <^pd^ti), tell; ttIttlBov from TTiiOtxi (ttlO-), peviiuade ; 
TerapTTOfjirjv (640) from Teprroj, delight; k<kA6^tjv and kckXo/jkvos 
(650) from KcAo/Aat, covimnnd ; rjpapou from dpaptirKtu (ap-). Join 
(531); cjpopov from opvvfju (op-), rou^e ; TriiroXwv (partic.) from 
TToAAu) (ttoA-), shake ; KiKdp.<i) (snbj.) from Kdfivu) (ku/x-), so XcXd^di 
from Xay)(^dv(jj ', irc^ihiaOai, inf. from ^etSo/xat (^t^), 5/>are, so 
Ke-XaOcaOaL, Xt-Xa^taSat. In the indicative a syllabic augment 
may be prefixed to the reduplicallon ; as iKiKX6p.r]v, i'iri<t>yov (from 

635. N. The second aorist of dya>, lead, has a kind of Attic 
reduplication (529), which adds the temporal augment in the 
indicative. Tlius rjyay-oy (dy-ay-), subj. dyayoj, opt. dydyoLfu, 
inf, dyayuv, part, dyaywv; mid. rjyay6p.r)y, dydyuipjai, etc., — all in 
Attic prose. See also the aorists rjvtyKa and rjvtyKoy (from stem 
«VfK-, «V<i/CK-, IvtyK-) of </Kpw, the Homeric dXaXKov (for dA.-aA<K-o(/) 
of dXt'^co, ujar{/ djT", and Ivivbrov or ^^KiTr-aTr-ov of cVtVrw (cVitt-), f/uWe. 
See also IpvKui, rjpvK-aK-ov. 

Keuui'licated Presents. 

636. A few verbs reduplicate the present by prefixing the 
initial consonant with t; as yi-yvilxTKni (yi'O-), know, TL-OrjfU {Oi-}, 
put, yi-yvopxiL (for yi-yiv-ofxai), become. 

For these see 651 and f)52, with 794, 2. 

E AS Algment ok Redutmcation before a Vowel. 

637. 1. Some verbs beginning with a vowel take the 
syllabic augment, as if they began with a cousonant. These 
verbs also have a simple c for the reduplication. When 
another « follows, £< is contracted ioto «. E.g, 



543] AUGMENT AKD REDUPLICATION. 129 

'ClOloi (<^0-), pusihf tunTdy €(ocr/juu, t^uOrjv; dXlaKOfJuxi, he captured, 
€d\u>Ka, 2 aor. taAwt/ (or rjXiDv) ; ayvvya (dy-)i ^^^<i^% ^o-io-i 2 pf, 
tdya ; tpSo), tlo^ Ionic, 2 pf. lopya] olvto^wxt, 6iti/, twvov/iT^r, etc.; 
iOl^uij accu.sff)?n, ct^icra, d^tKa (from td^-) ; <aaj, permit^ ildu-a^ cia^a; 
^;^a), Aaye, tt^oi' (from c-exo»'). 

2. These verbs are, further, tXia-auj, cXxw, <irw, tpyafo/zai, fpTrw 
or €p7rujw, torriaw, t);/At (t), with th^. aorjsts flhov and cIAoi' {alpiity) ; 
the peifects ttcu^a (witJi irregular tt), Ionic iw^a (^^-)» ^•'^ *^'-'^" 
(iK-, €tK-), and plpf. (.lUTYjKr} (for i-tar-) of lar-qpi. See also Ionic 
and poetic forms under di'Sai'uj, aTTr*t>, ilBopai, fiAw, erTroj/, ctpw, 
cAttw, £yvvfXL, r^^w, and i^opai. 

638. N. 'Opdco, i'ee, and dp'-oi'-yto, f)/)eri, generally take the tem- 
poral augment after c; as itvpuyy^ ewpixKa (or cdpdKa), €u)pdpja.i 
(with the aspirate retained) ; av-twyov^ a.y-t<x}^a (rarely rjvoLyovy 
yjyotia, 544). Homer has trjvhavoy from dv^yu), please; €(^yo)(6ti 
imp. of olvo);p€w^ pour vnne ; and 2 plpf. cujAtt^i and cwpyci from 
iATTO) and cpSu>. 'Eoprdjw, keep holiday (Hdt. opr dt^fji), has Attic 
imp. koipTat^ov. 

539. N. This form is explained on the supijositioii that these verbs 
originally began wiih the consonant p or tr, which was afterwards 
dropped. Thus iUov^ saw, is for ^fiSof (of. Latin vid-i); Kopya is for 
fffopya, from .stem ftpy-, d. Eng. work (German Werk). So ?/?7ru;, 
creep, is for a-epvw (cf. Latin serpo), with iniperf. i-atpsroy, i-eptrov^ 
t7piroy (see 80); and ?xw, /^are, is for fffx^^i wiience imp. i-cexoy^ i-^xo^y 
tlxov. 

AUGMENT AND KEDDPLTCATION OF COMPOUND VERBS. 

540. Ill compound verbs (882, 1) the augment or re- 
duplication follows the preposition. Prepositions (except 
ire pi and irpo) here drop a final vowel before e, E.g, 

IIpo<T-ypd4>uf, Trpocr-(ypa<^ovy 7rpoa-yc-)'pa<^a ', cia-ayoj, tlcr-rjyov 
(133, 1); iK-fidkXo)f ii-c^aXXov (63); avX-Xcy cj, (rvy-^Xcyoyt avp- 
itXckoj, avy-ivKeKOv (78, 1); <njy-;(caj, (rvv-ix^ovy (Jvy-K€)^vKa\ (tv- 
(TK€vd^<v, <rvv-i(TKiva^ov (81); d7ro-/i^aAAa), aTr-i^aXXov, Q.va~lia.ivu>, 
a.v-<f3Y} ; — but TTCpi-cj^OLAAov and -n-po-cXcyoy. 

541. N. npo may be contracted with the augment; as irpou- 
Xzyov and irpov^aivov, for vpoiXcyoy and npoi^aivov. 

542. K. 'E*f in composition becomes t^ before c; and Iv and 
avv resume their proper forms if they have been changed. See 
examples in 540. 

543. K. Some denominative verbs (8G1), derived from nouns 
or adjectives compounded with prepositions, are augmented or 



130 INKLKCTION. [G^4 

reduplicated after the preposition, like compound verbs; as vtto- 
wTtvw (from VTTOTTTo^i) f svspcci, vwi^TTTCvov, as if tlic verb were fi'Oin 
VTTO and onTtvin; dTro\oyto/Aat, defend one's self, an-€.koyr)(jdfJir}v \ see 
also lKK\r)aux^<ji. nu/xti/o/;iew, trdnsyress lav\ iraprjvo^ovv^ etc., is 
very irregulai'. Kari^-yopfw (from Kar-^yopo'i), accuse, Ints xaTi7yo- 
pow (not tKaTTjyopovv). Sec Siatrdo) and StJ kokcw iti tht^ Catalogue 
of Verbs. 

Such verbs are called indirect compounds (88*3, 2). 

544. N. A few verbs take tlie augment before tlie pio.position, 
and others have both augments; as KaOi^ojxai, ?it, CKaOe^f-TO-, KaOt^u}, 
ixdOi^ov; xaOevhw, sleep, (xdOcvBov and t<aOr]vSov (e]iic KaOtvhov) '^ 
dvix^f V^^^X^M^i y}viuxop.7]V (or y)v<Tx^M^)'^ d<f>(f}pn.> d<t>ty}v oi- r}<^ir)v. 
See al-so d{J.<^uwv^i, dp.<f>Lyvocii}, djLi7ri(T;^o/xat, €i'o;(Atw, ami q.}x<^i<t- 
fi-qriiji, dispute, inipf. 7}fx<f>Li7/3tJT0vv and ^/ji<^cor/:i tJtovi' (as it* the 
last part we)-e -cr/Syp-cui). 

545. 1, Indirect compounds of Svo--, ill, and occasionally 
those of €v, loell, are augnie.iUcd or rcduplicat^'d alter tho ad- 
verb, if the following part begins with a. sliort vowel. Kg. 

AvorapccTTtaj, be displeased, SvarjpedTOVv '^ tytpyfrco), do goody 
ivrjpyiTQvv or tvcpyirovv. 

'2. In other cases, compounds of hva- have Uie ani;nient or 
reduplication at the beginning, as SvaTv^^o) (from Suct-tv;^?;?, 
unfortvnate), iSvdTvxow, hiBvarvxrjKa \ and tiio.^e of €v generally 
omit the augment. 

546. Other indirect componnds are augmented or redu- 
plicated at t.be beginning; as olKohofxiin, build (from oIko- 
SofjLo^y house-builder), il)KoB6^ovv, oiAfoSo/Ai^aa, ajKoSojuT^rat. ^see, 
however, oBoTroUu), 

OMISSfON OF AUGMENT AND KKDUJ^LICATION. 

547. Homer and the lyric poets often omit botli the syllabic 
atid I. he temporal augment; as ofilktov, €X^^> BCjKt (for wfitkovyj 

548. Herodotus often onnts the temporal augment of the 
imperfect and aorist, and llie syllabic augment of the pluperfect.. 
He never adds the tH.mporal augment to the Attic reduplication 
in the pluperfect (.^33). He always omiiK the augment in the 
iterative forms in (jkov and (TKOjj.r}v\ as Xd/StaKov, ix^aKOv ("78). 

549. The Attic tragedians soiiiolimf's omit the augment in 
(lyric) choral passages, seldom in the dialogue. 



B63] 



ENDINGS. 



131 



550. The reduplication is very rarely ouiittcd. But Homer has 
5<fXGTai, from S/xo/iQ', ^"1' 5f5?'xaTa(, rcccvw, and a few otlior case's. 
Herodotus occasioiialiy tails to Jenf^tlu'ii tlie initial vowel iu the per- 
fect; as iu Ka7 a.ppi^5T\Kai (lor KaT-tjpp-). 



ENDINGS. 

551. The verb is inflt^ctecl by adding certain endings to 
the- ditt'ereut tense steins. 'J'liosc wliich mark tlie jjersons 
in the fiiiite jnoods ai*e called i^en^^oj/a/ (-indiiigs. There is 
one class of endings for the active vc}ice, and anotlior j'or 
the middle and passive; but the passive aorists have the 
active endings. 

There is also one set. of endings in each class for primary 
tenses, and one for secondai-y tenses. 

552. The personal endings of tlie indicative, snbjunctive, 
and optative, which are most distinctly preserved in verbs 
in fjii and otlior primitive forniSj are as follows: — 



AcTivr. 





Primart/ 
Teu&cs. 


Sccfivdary 
Tt'nscs. 


primary 


Sing. 1. 

2. 




V 


o-ai 


3. 


<ri (Tt) 


— 


rav 


Dual 2. 


TOV 


TOV 


o-Bov (Oov) 


3. 


rov 


Tt^V 


o-eov (Oov) 


riur. I. 
2. 




(ICV (JI€S) 




0. 


va-i (vTt), do"t 


V, <rav 


vrat 



MlDlH-K aK1> PaSSIVK. 

Secoudiinj 
Tenses. 

(TO 
TO 

(tOov f6ov) 
(r0i)v (01) v) 

o-0« (Oc) 



653. The personal endings of the imperative are as fol 
lows : — 



Active, 
Sing. Dual. I'lur. 

2. 6l TOV T« 

3. Tu Tti)v vTWv or Twcrav 



Middle and Vassive. 
5'n((7. Dual Plttr. 

0-0 o-0ov(0ov) 0-01 (O*) 
o-0w(0w_) o-0wv(0a>v) o-0wv(0a)v) 
or 
o-0a)Q"av (0w^av3 



132 INFLECTION. [554 

664. The endings of the infinitive are as follows : — 

Active : cv (contracted witb preceding < to <iv), 

vai, sometimes cvau (probably for Fivov). 
Middle and Passive: o-0ai (primitive 6at). 

555. For the formation of the participles and the verbals in 
T05 and Tcosj see 770-776. 

Remarks on the Endings. 
666, ]. Only verbs in /xt have the primary endings fu and o-i 
in the indicative active. For fu in the optative, see 731. The 
original <n of the second person singular is found only in the epic 
cCT-o-t, thou art (807, 1). 0a (originally perfect ending) appears in 
oldOa (for olb-Oa) from oI8a (820) and in r)<7-0a from «/At' (806); 
whence ((T)9a in many Homeric forms (780, 4; 787, 4), and rarely 
in Attic (as c<^7-<T^a). In the third person singular n is Doric, 
as in tlOyj-tl for TLOy-m; and it is preserved in Attic in cV-xi, is. 

2. A first person dual in fxcOov is fonnd three times in poetry: 
TTcpL^uifxcOovj subj. of 7rc/)t8tSoj/xt, , //. 23, 485; XtXiifJifXcBov, from 
XciTroj, S. El. 950; bpfxuyfxiOov, from opfxaa), S. Ph. 1079. Generally 
the first person plural is used also for the dual, 

3. In Homer 701^ and aOov are sometimes used for ttjv and aOr^v 
in the third person dual of past tenses. This occurs rai'ely in the 
Attic poets, who sometimes have Tr)v for tov hi the second person. 
The latter is found occatiionaUy even in prose. 

4. In the first person plural ficq is Doric. The poets often have 
tMCdOa (ov fiiOa (717, 1). 

5. In the third person plural v<n always drops v (78, 3) and the 
preceding vowel is lengthened ; as in Avouat for Xvo-vai. The more 
primitive i^rt is Doric; as f^tpo-vn (Latin /erunf) for <j>ipov(jL.^ 

^ A comparison of the various forms of the present indicative of the 
primitive verb he (whose original stem is as-, in Greek and J-atin es-), 
as it appears in Sanskrit, the older Greek, Latin, Old Slavic, and 
Lithuanian (the most primitive modern language, still spoken on the 
Baltic), will illustraLe the Greek verbal endings. 

SINGULAU- 
Older Greek. Latin. 

^[i-(i( (for i(r-(ii) [e]s-um 
iu-'U-i, es 

icT-rt es-t 

TLDRAL. 

<{r-(i^v (Dor. <l(i^s) [c]fi-u-mus 
Itr-ri es-tis 

k'vrl (Doric) [e]s-u-Dt 





Sanskrit. 


L 


as-mi 


2. 


asi 


3. 


as-ti 


1, 


6-ma5 


2. 


s-tha 


3. 


s-a-nti 



Old Slavic. 


Lithuanian. 


yes-m' 


es-mi 


yesi 


esi 


yes-t* 


es-ti 


yes-mi 


es-me 


yes-te 


es-t« 


s-u-t' 


es-ti 



559] TENSR STEMS AND FORMS OF INFLECTION. 133 

6. ©t seldom appears in the imperative, except in the second 
aorist active of /u-forms (755), and in the aorist passive, which 
has the active forms (651). 

In the third person plural of the imperative the endings vtcdv 
and (rdwv (Oiov) are used in the older and better Attic, 

7. The primitive middle forms Oov, Byjvy Bi, Box, etc. appear in 
the perfect aud pluperfect after consonants ; as TtTpltf>-Bi {rptfi-u})- 
See 489. 



TENSE STEMS AND TORMS OP INFLECTION. 

SIMPLE AND COMPLEX TENSE STEMS. 

657. Tense stems are of two classes, simple and complex. 
A simple tense stem is the verb stem (often in a modified 
form), to which the endings are applied directly. A com- 
plex tense stem is composed of the verb stem (with its 
modifications) prolonged by a tense suffix (561,5), to which 
the endings are applied, tSee 4<)8. 

558. {Simple Tense Stems.) Simple tense stems are 
found 

(a) in the present and imperfect, the second aorist ac- 
tive and middle, and the second perfect and pluperfect, of 
the conjugation in fxi (500), except in the subjunctive; 

(b) in the perfect and pluperfect middle of all verbs. 

(a) From <py}fu (stem <^a-), say, come ^or^iv, <f>a-T€, <^a-mt, 
€-<^a-T«, etc. From Tidrjfu (stem (?<-), put^ come 2 aor. €-^«-t«, 
i-6e-T0, Oi-aBu), Oi-a-Bat, dc-fievo^, etc.; and from the reduplicated 
TiBc- (536) come riOe-ficv, TiBt-Tt, n'^c-crat, riOi-Tai, t-Ti^c-vro, i-TiBi- 
o-^t, TL&€-<TOy TiBe-aOai, etc. 

(6) From Xc-Xv- (r*idu plicated stem of Xv-co) with the middle 
endings (552) come Xikvfjuu, X«Xu-a-at, X£Xu-<r^«, XiXv-aOaty AcXv- 
/x(Vo9 ; i-XeXv-fjiYjVy t-Xt'Xv-cro, t-XtXu-cr^€, i-Kikv-vTO. 

659. (Complex Tense Stems.) Complex tense stems are 
found in all other forms of the verb. E.g. 

A.v<ii (stem Xv-), has (pres.) Xvo-fxcv, Xvi-n, Xvo-fxt&a, Xii-<r$€, 
Xuo-vrat, etc. ; (fut.) Xv<TO-fX£Vy Xvcre-Te, Xucrf-cr^ou, etc. ; (aor,) 
i-Xvcra-fxtv, <-Xv<ra-T«, i-Xvcra-udi, Xxxja-crBai^ etc. j (1 aor. pa.ss.) 
€-Xi5^v, l-Xy^-q-yxvy i-Xv6rf^i, etc. 



134 INia.ECTION. [660 

560. Thiy distinction will be seen by a comparison of tlie 
present indicative niiddie of TiOrjiu {tlOi-) witJi that of c^tXt'tu 
(<^i\i-) in its uncontracted (lioineric) ftjijn : — 

rCOt-p-at ^nXt-o-jJtaw Ti0(-(jit0a 4*^^*"0-M<^ct 

Ti6«-<rai <J>tXt-t-(<r)ai T£6f-<r6< 4>^^^*"*'"^* 

Ti6«-Tat 4»iX€-«-TaL riBt-vra.L ^iXi-ovrav 

661. (Tense ^ufflxe,<i.) 1. In the present, imperfect^ aud 
second aorist active and middle of the conjugation in u>, in 
all futures, and i)i the future perfect, the teusc stem ends 
in a variable vowel, called tlie thematic vowel, which is o 
before /x and v and in the optative, and is elsewhere c. 
This is written %- ; as A.{)%-, present stem of Av-w ; Ai-n-%-, 
second aovist steni of AaV-w. In the futures and the future 
perfect the theinatic vowel is preceded by a. To these 
]>roloiii;od tense stems the endings arc added. E.g. 

Avo-fxev, Avt-Tf, XvovuL for Xvo-vat (78, 3) ; t-AtTTo-j', €-At7rc-?, 

t'XlTTO'fJ.fV, €-Xi7rt'T€'. £-AtV«-Lr^f, t-XLTrO-VTO ', XvCTO-fl(V, Xv(J€'Ti, Xu(TO- 

vTai. For the terminations oj, £i«;, a in tlie singular, see C^tJ. 

2. The subjunctive has a long- tlieniatic vowel "Vr,-, whicli appears 
in both conjugations; as A^'yoh/z-cv, Xtyrj-rc, Aeycu-at for Aeyw-vat 
(78, (i) ; Ouificv foi* Oi-fn-^tv, Orjrc for Bi-yj-r^- 

'1 The first aorifet stem has a suffix era-, the first perfect ku-, and 
the eecoud perfect a-. 

4. The first aovist passive has a suffix Bt- (or Br)), and the 
second aorist passive t- (or -q-) ; as AciV-w, lXiL4>Br)Vj X€i<f>-B^-vaL, 
(XiL<fyBi'iti) Xti<pBCi>; ^atVa> (<f}av-)^ €<pdv-T}-v, 4>av-7J'vaLy ^uv-e'-^ro? ; 

iXv-Brj-V, tAir^T^-?, tXv-Br}-fX€V, Xv-Bi'VTitiV, XV'Bi-VTif;. 

Tlie fn-st and sncond passive futures have Bt)(j%- and ^o-%-; as 
XiL4>-&ijao-fxaiy Xv-Bt](T€'(T$tf <f}ai't)(TOfxai, <^av-r/cr£-Tat. 

5. 'Pho thematic vowels, and a^A; (ra-, Ka- (a-). Be- (Brj-) or £~ (77-), 
Br}fT%- or -^o-^-, (1-4), are called tense suj^ixes. 

562. {Optative Sv/Jlx.) The optative inserts a moot/ i;ujfix t- or 
it;- («-) between both the simple and the complex tense stem and 
the personal endings. (See 730.) 

For the subjunctive, see 718; 5(51, 2. 

TWO FORMS OF INFLECTION. 

563. To the two classes of tense stems correspond gener- 
ally two fonns of inflection, — the simple form and the 
common form, 



hi>b] TWO FORMS OF INFLKCTION. 135 

J. 'i'mo SiMi'ij: FoKM of lNri,t:cTiON. 
664. To tliis I'orni (sometimes called the ^i-i'orm) belong 
all tenses wliich have siniple tense stems (558) and also 
both passive auvists, — always excepting the subjunctives 
(501, 2.). It has these peculiarities of inflection: — 

1. The fii'st and tliird pcM-soiis 6iiii;ular of the ])resent indicative 
antive have tlie endings fu and m (oo2) ; as <t>r)'fjLL, <t>r]-<JL\ TiOrf-txh 

TiOrj-OL. 

2. Tlie second aorist imperative active generally retains tlie 
ending 6l (Ofj^J) ; as prj-Oi, go. So rarely the present; as (f>a'$Ly 
say. (See 752; 7r);j.) 

3. The thii-d person plural lias the active endings am and o-ai/(r),yi). 

4. The infinitive active iias tlie ending i/ai or tvai (-V)-!); a.s 
ii'J:.~vaL, U-i/ai (ir}fXL), i-.vul [ti/i.!-) 

5. Paiticiples with stems in o-vr have nominatives in ov?; as 
BiBovq, SiSo-j/j-o? (see 5C0, 5). 

G. In all forms of this class exct']'>t the -jccond aori.sL and the 
optative, the middle endings aat and ao regularly retain <t; as 
TiOi-daL, I-jlB^-go ; Xc'Xv-o-at, 1-\1\v-go. But 2 aorist IBov (for 
iOt-Go); optafive UrTalo (for LGTa-L-cro). 

7. The passive aorists, whicii belong here altliough tliey do not 
have simple stems (o-'iS), have the inflection of tlic second aorist 
active of tlie /it-form ; Avw, iXv-Orj-v] (palvio (4>av-), iffidv-rj-v, ^arw, 
4>av€Lr]v, <f)^V7j-0L, (jtavrj-vai^ cf)ayeL<; (for <l>av-t.~vT<;), inflected like 
tGTrjv, GTU), OuYjVy GTrj'Oiy <T7^]-vaiy 9(-{.<i (;'){)(;). 

II. 'J'ul; Common Fohm oi- iNrMXTiON. 
565. To til is form belong tall parts of the verb in w, ex- 
cept tlie i)ftrfeot and pluperfect middle and the passive 
aorists, and also all subjunctives. It has tlie following 
peculiarities of inflection. 

1. It has the thematic vowel and the other tense suffixes men- 
tioned ill noi, ]-:i. For tlio inflection of the piesent and imperfect 
iinlicative, svit G'2-J and 024. 

2. The imperfect and second aorist have the ending v in the 
third person plural ; the pluperfect )ias rrav. 

3. The imperative active has no ending in the second person 
singular. For ov in tin; fiist aori.st, sen 7-17. 

4. The infmitive active jia.s uv (Vur t-w) in \\\k pt('S(^nt, fntun*, 
arid .second aorist; t-vai in the perfect.; and y-ut (or at) in the 
first aorist. See 7r}^)-704. 

5. Participles with stems iji ovt have nominatives in oiv (5G4, 5). 



136 INFLECTION. [666 

6. The middle endings ecu and co in the Becond persou singular 
drop cr and are contracted with the thematic vowel; as Xvtaaty 
Xvtaiy Auj7 or AiJct ; iXvccro, tXvfo, eXvov (88, 2). For Ionic uncon- 
tracted forms, see 777, 2 ; 785, 2. 



FORMATION AND INFIiECTION OF TENSE STSTEMS. 

566. To understand the inflection of the verb, we must 
know the relation of each tense stem to the verb stem, and 
also certain internal modifications which the verb stem 
undergoes iu some of the tense systems. 

FORMATION OF THE PRESENT STEM FROM THE VEKB 
STEM. — EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS. 

567. AVlien the verb stem does not appear unchanged in the 
present stem, as it does in Xv-w and Aey-w (459), it generally 
appears in a strengthened form; as in kottt-w {K07r-)y cut, 
fjuxv$dv~ii> (fxaO'), learn, apicK-m {oLpt~), please. In a few very 
ivregular verbs no connection is to be seen between the 
present stem and the stem or stems of other tenses; as iu 
^cpu) (<^«p-), hear, fut. otcrw, aor. YjviyKa. 

568. Verbs are divided into eight classes with reference 
to the relation of the present stem to the verb stem. 

569. FiiiST Class. (Verb Stem unchanged in Present) 
Here the present stem is formed by adding the thematic 
vowel %- (o65, 1) to the verb stem. E.g. 

Aeya> (Aey-), say, present stem Xt.y%-^ giving X^yo-ficv, Aeyf-rc, 
Xiyo-fxai, Xty€-Tai, Xiyo-vratj c-Acyo-i', c-A«yc-9, i-Xtye-rc, i-Xfyt-dOtt 
i-Xlyo-vTO, etc. in the present and imperfect. For a>, ci?, ti in the 
present active, see 623. 

570. N. Some verbs of this class have the stem variable in 
quantity in different tenses; as Suw, ^iSoj, 0Xi/3<i>, Trviyo), Tp((:i<i>, 
Tv<f>io, \p\)->(io. See these in the Catalogue of Verbs. For Xv^y see 471. 

571. N. Tlie pure verbs of the first class which irregularly retain a 
short vowel in certain tenses are given in 639 ; those which insert <r in 
certain tenses, in 640. The verbs (of all classes) which add f to the 
stem in some or all tenses not of tlie present system (as povXonai) are 
given in 657 and 658. Reduplicated presents of all classes are given in 
651 and 652. These and others which are peculiar in their inflection 
are found in the Cataloirue of Verbs. For special peculiarities, see 
yiyyofiai^ ^^w, ?tw, *X^t irtirTw, tIkto). 



578] EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS. 137 

672. Second Class. (St€7ns with Strong Forms.) This 
class includes verbs with mute stems which have strong 
fonns with « (oi), ^v, or 77 (31) in all tenses except in the 
second aorist and second passive systems, in which they have 
the weak forms in i, v, and a. The present stein adds %- 
to the strong form of the stem. E.g. 

ActV-o), leave^ 2 aor. t-XnroVi 2 pcrf. Ac'-Aot7r-a; ^cvy-a>,,/?e<?, 2 ax^r. 
€'(f>vy-oy; tiJk-<i}, melt^ 2 aor. pass. i-TaK-Tjy; with present stems Xcitt^-, 

573, To this class belong oAci'^-o), tpciV-a), XetV-o), Trf.iB-<j), uTup-o), 
<rT€t;(-(i), <^tt8-o;juu ; Ktv^-o), 7rtv^-o/«u, tcvx'W, <^tiJy-a); K7J8-a>, Xij^-o), 
(T^V-o), TTyK-o); with Ionic or poetic tpuK-io, iptvy-ofjuii, Tfitjy-(o; — all 
witli weak stems in t, u, or a. Sec also Ban- or ra<^-y stem of rW-Qira 
and iTa(f>oy, and tiKw (loLKa). Tpwy-w^ gnaw^ 2 aor. e-rpay-oy, iiregu- 
larly has a> in the present. For pTJy-vvp.L and ^toj^a (17^-), see 689. 

For exceptions in a few of these verbs, see 642, 2. Sf:e Oil. 

674. Six verbs in cw with weak stems in v belong by 
formation to this class. These originally had the strong 
form in tu, which became if (90, 2) before a vowel, and 
finally dropped/:, leaving e; as irki-ui, sail (weak stem ttXv-), 
strong stem ttXcu-, nXif, ttAc-, present stem Tr\i%-. 

These verbs are di-m (weak stem ^u-), run, vc-o) (vu-)) ^^iin^ Trkt-ta 

(ttXv-), 50/7, TTVC-O) (TTVOh), bveOtbe^ pt'-OJ (pV-), JIOW, )^C-(J) (X^')i P<^^^' 

The poetic crcuo (cru-), wrp^, has tiiis formation, with iv j-etuined. 
(See 60].) 

575, As verbs of the second class have the strong stem in 
abnost all forms, this stem is here called the verb stem. 

576, TniHD Class. {Verbs in wto)) or T Clasa.) Some 
labial (tt, p, <p) verb stems add r%-, and thus form the 
present in ttto); as kottt-q) (kott-), cut (present stem kottt^-), 

f^XdnT-w {jSXafi-), hurt, plTrr-ui (pl(f>', pX<i>-), tJlTOW (71). 

577, N. Here the exact form of the verb stem oaiinot be deter- 
mined from the present. Thus, in the examples above given, the 
stem is to be fonnd in the second aorists eVoTnjv, ifSXd/Srjv, and 
ippL<f>-qv •■, and in KoAvTrro) (KaXu^-), cover, it is seen in KaXvfi-rj, hut. 

578. The verbs of this class are aTrr-oj (a<^), ^a7rr-a> (jSa<^-), 
PXd-n-T-iii (pXap-), BaTTT-in (Ta<^), ^pir7rr-tD (Tpu<^"), KoXvTrT-o) 

(koXv^-), Kap-TTT-d} (KapTT-), xXeTTr-W (xXtTT-), KOTTT-U} (/fOTT-), KpVTTT-Qi 
^KpV^- or KpV<^), KVTTT'Q} (kV^-), pdlTT'U) (pa<^), pnrr-di (pl<p-, 

pt^), OKdirr-ui ((TKa<^), uk^tttopjoll ((tkctt-), (TKijirTio ((Tkt^tt-), 



J38 INFLECTION. [o79 

o-KojTrTa) ((TKujTr-), TviTTix} (tutt-). with Homeric and poetic yi/u^LTrrw 
(yva^tTT-), cVtTTTuj (cVtTT-), uiici /xapTTTuj (/xapTT-). 

579. FouuTii Class. (7o/a Clans.) In this class the 
present stem is formed by addins^^ l%~ to the verb stem and 
making the euphonic changes which this occasions. (See 
84.) TJiere are four divisions. 

580. J. {Verbs in aaix) or tto).) Most presents in aaw 
(ttio) come irom p;datal stems, k or x '^'^'^ generally y with 
t beeoming aa (tt). These have i'utures in ^w ; as Trpucraw 

(TTpay-), do, present StOJn 7rpd<r<r%- (for 7rpdyi%~), fut. Trpaiu), 
fjiaXii(j(To) (fLuAuK-, seen in /xaAnKo?), softeUf lut. fLaXa^oj; 
Tapddau) (rapo.;^-, seen in Tapa;)(>j), COnfuse, fut. TQpa^cjj; 
K-qpio-au) {Kr)pvK-)y proclaim, fut. K-qpviio, (Sec 84, 1.) 

581. So also di(T(r<i) (dtV-), oAAafrcrw (oAAay-), a/jdcraw (dpay-), 
l37ja(Tw {ISr]X'), ^pdcrcno (8pay-), IXicrau) (eAiK-), Opdaam {OptJ-X' •)•> 
^a<TU} (pjULy-)^ p.va(jw (^vk-), oputJcrcD (apu;(-)} ttAi^o-ctw (TrAi^y-, 
rrAay-), vTyc/croj (Trrt/K-), Trrycraw (TrTi'y-), craTToj ((ray-), Tarrcruj 
(ray-), <f>pd(Taw (</>puy-), <ppL(T(Jij) (<^ptK-), ^uAao-rrw ((^uAa»c-). See 
also (;[>)c 8ct8tcrao^it, fouic uiui poetic a/xiJcrt/w and TrpoLGc/ofxai, a/ id 
poetic d<^i;crcr(jj and vuaaoj.^ 

582. Some presents in crt/w (ttoj) arc formed from lingual 
stems, wliicli have futures in o-oj or aorists in era; as (ptcrcrw, 
row (from stem iptr-, seen ifi ipfrrj^i, 7'owe7'), aor. -fjpccra. So 
also dpfjiOTTU) (fut. up/xoaoj), fSXiTTU) {p.iXiT-, GG), AtWo/xut (Atr-), 
Trdcrcrw, TrAaaaw, TTTtrrcraj, wilh Q.<t>d(J(Tii) (Hdt.), and pOetic 
tfLCtcrcTW, Kopuacrw (KOp\J^-). 

Many pi-e^cnty of tliis kind are formed on the analogy of verbs 
with real lingual stems (see 587). 

583. N. Xi€craw, rook, comes from an old stem ttck-; while the 
tcnse.s viipo), Imipa, etc. belong to the stem ttctt-, seen in later 
TTCTTTut and lonio Trenrofxni of (Mass Til. 

684, II. {Verbs in ^lo.) Presents in ^(o may be formed 
in f.wo ways : — 

686. (1) I*'rom stems in 8, witli futures in o-oj ; as ko^i'^oj 
(Kop,i8-, seen in Ko/x.t8-7y), carry^ fut. Kop-to-oj; <f>pd^u) (<^pao-), 
say, fut. 4>pd(Hj}, (See 84, 3.) 

1 The lists of verbs of the fourth class nre not conij)lete, wliilc tiiose 
of the other classes which arc given contain all the verbs in couiuion use. 



695] EIGHT CLASSES OF VEUBS. 139 

586. So dpfio^d) (dpfio^-), apTra^w, eX7rt^o> (cATrtS-), ^pt^oy (tpL^), 
OavfWi^uif r^</> (t§-) witii €^OfjuaL (<§-), ktl(,<i), vofii^u), o^oj (o5-), TrcAa^w, 

G)(d^U), <T\L^lO ((7;^tS-), CTW^OJ. 

587. N. Many verbs in ^o>, especially most in a^o>, with futures 
in aw, were foi'ined on tlie analoi^y of those witli actual stems in S. 
(See Meyer, Gr. Gram. §§ 5:-M, 522.) 

588. (2) From stems in 7 (or yy), with futures in ^oj ; 
as (T<f)d(o} {(T<f>ay-), slay ((J<f>dTT^l} in ])rose), fut. o-^o^oj ; pi^oi 
(p«y-)) (^ (poetic and Ionic), fut. p^^oj; kAo^oj (KAayy-), 
scream (cf. clango)^ fut. KAay^w. (See 84, 3.) 

589. So Kpd^oj (Kpay-), crakiTL^u) (aaATrtyy-), art'^w (crrty-) ; witli 
poetic oAaAa^w, /^a^w, /^pt'^w, ypu^oj, eAcAt'^uj, Kpt^w, yniJ^oj, grumble, 
crra^oj. 

590. X. Some verbs in {w have stems both iti 5 and y; as 
Trai'Z^oj (7rat8-, Traiy-), ;>^f;;/, fut. raifoG/xat ('>fi(I), aor. tiraio-a. See 
also p(H-lic forms of apTra^cu ami vdcrauj. (See oS7.) 

591. N. Ni'^oj, r(•f^^/^ fill, vi't/zw, forms its tejises from a stem 
vt/?-. spim in Ilonicrio wTTTo/juit and later vitttw. 

592. IIT. {Knhi.rged TAquid >Sfe7ns in Pn'Mm/..) Of these 
there are three divisions: — 

593. (1) Presents in AAoj are formed from verb stems in A 
witli L%- added, Ai becoming AA ; as cttcAAoj, sendy for cttkX-l-w ; 
ayye'AAw, announce, for ayycA-t-w ; o-c^oAAtu, triji vp, for o-<^aA-t-oj; 
present stems ctt€AA%-, etc. (See 84, 4.) 

See oAAo/xat (aA-), ySoAAw (fSaX-), ^aAAo> (^aA-), ok^'AAoj (okcA-), 
TraAAoj (ttuA-), WAAoj (tcA-), with poetic SatSoAAcu, tciAAoj, ctkcAAoj, 
Ti'AAfu. 

594. (2) Presents in aivw anti atpoj are formed from verb 
stents in av- and ap- with i%- added. 

Here the t is transposed and tlien contracted with a to at; as 
<i>atv<jj (<l)av-), shoiu, for (f>avL-w (present stem </»atv%-), future <^avoJ ; 
)^aiptjj (x^p-)i rejoice, for ;^up-t-(ju. (See 84, o.) 

595. So €vcl>paiv»jj (tvcfypav-) ^ KtpSatvo} (KtpSav), fJuxtvofJuaL (/iav-), 
fjLLaivtj) (/itav-), ^aivui ($av-), ^rjpaLVu) ($r]pav'), iroifxaivu) (■Troifiav-)^ 
paLVfi) (pav-)t (JOLLVit) (crav), CTYjiMxlvoi (arjpxiv-), rerpaiVo) (r(.Tpav-)y 
XK^aivw (v<l>av), )(paLi'(i} (xP^^') '•> ^ith poelic KpatVoj (Kpav-)^ 'JraTrraiVio 
(TraTTTav-), TrtatW (niav-). Atpoj (dp-), Ku^aipoj (KaOap-), rcKfiatpo- 
pjxi (riKpuip-), witli poetic €vaLp«i (fVap-), t^^aipoj (€\^ap-), <joup<j} 
(crap-). 



140 INFLECTION. [596 

596. (3) Presents in «vw, «pw, ivoi, ipuif vvwy and vpia come 
from stems iii tyy cp, tv, Ip, vvy and vpj with i%- added. 

Here the added t disappears and the preceding «, t, or v is 
lengthened to tt, I, or ij ; as tciVoj (Tc^'-), stretch, for tcv-i-w; 
KCipo) (Acep-), sA^a;-, foi' Accp-t-a>; Acpiroj («ptv^), j^gc^ for Acptv-t-oj; 
d/AVt'O) (dy:>tuv-), li^ar^ offy for d/jiVK-t-o> ; (Tvpw (avp-), c/raw, for 
aup-i-o>. 

597. So ytivofi/iL (yci"), KTuvo) (KTiv-), and poetic ^ctVw (^tv-) ; 
dytipo) (dy«p-), Stipw (^tp-), iycLpto (tyip-), t}XtLpixi (tfxep-), p-cCpofiai 
(/x€p-)) (f>0(Lpio (cf>0€p-), UTTtCptxi ((jTrep-), witli poetic Trc/pw (Trep-). 
KAt>'<jo (KXtK-), atvop-at {(JLv-)t al(T)^vui (al(^)(v^'-), Oapovvu) (Oapovv-), 
o^vvw (o^vv-), ttXvvw (ttAvv-)) /juipTvpo/juu (fuipTvp-), 6Xo<^vpop£Lt 
(6\o4>vp-). OUrLpio (oLKTLp-)j pity (commonly written oiVretpo)), 
is the only verb in Zpa>. 

598. N. *0(f>tiX.o} (o0cX-), &tf obliged, owe, follows the analogy 
of stems in ev, to avoid confusion with o0t'AAoj (o0c\-), increase; 
hut in Homer it has the regular present ot^cAAw, Homer has 
fiAo/Attt, ;3re55, from stem cX-. 

599. N. Verbs of this division (HI.) regularly have futures 
and aorists active and middle of the liquid form (663). For excep- 
tions (in poetry), see 668. 

600. N. Many verbs with liquid stems do not belong to this 
class ; as Bi/xoi and hcpo) in Class I. For /iaLvio etc. in Class V., 
see 610. 

601. IV. (Stevis in av.) Here belong Ka[ui^ hum, and 
Kkalixi, weep^ (Attic also xdw and KAd<o). The stems Kav- and 
KXav- (seen in Kavu<ii and KAauao/mt) became Kapt.- and xAa/rt-, 
whence xai- and /cAat- (90, 2). (See 574.) 

602. N. The poets form some other presents in this way ; as 5o/a? 
(Saf-),biirn, valii)(vaf-), $ioim. So, from stems in aa-, ^a/o/xat (juaer-, 
iMaffi-, fj^ai-), sfick, Saiofiai (Sa^-), divide. 'Ovvlu), marry, has stem dirv-, 
whence fut. (in-tKrw. 

603. Fifth Class. (N Class.) (1) Some verb stems 
are strengthened in the present by adding v before the 
thematic vowel %-; as <^Odv-o) (<i>Oa-), anticipate (present 
stem <f>Oav%-) ; <t>6iv-iD (<f>0(.-), waste; SaKv-w (Sa/c-)? ^^f^> 
Ka^v-iji {xap.-), be weary; rifj.v-io (tc/x-), cut. 

604. So Paivuj (Pa-, Pay-, 610), ttlvw (tti-, see also 621), TtVw 
(Tf), Svvw (with 8voi)i Honi. ^koj (with Ovw), rush: for iXawia 
(iXa-), see 612. 



C12] EIGHT CLASSICS OF VKUIiS. 141 

605. (2) (a) Some consonant stems add ai^; dfxaprdv-o) 

(dfxapT-), err (preSiMlt stem dfxapTav%-); ala-Bdv-Ofmc (aiaO')^ 
perceivfi; ^Aatrrat'-cj (^Auo-t-), sprout. 

(b) Hcn>, if the lasl vowel of the stem is sliort, another 
nasal (/a iM-.fore a laljial, v before a lingual, y before a pala- 
tal) is inserted after this vowul ; as kavOdviu (Xa^-, Aav^-), 
escape notice (kavOav%') ; \afj.Puv-u3 (Auy5-, Aa/xyS-), take; Oiy- 
yaVo) (^ty-) ^iyy-)j touch. 

606. So av^u.V'<jJ CwiUi av^-oj), hafjOdv-u) (Sap^-), a-jr-t:;!(^fti/ o/xu( 
(*X^')> Kdv-^ (wilIi t^-w), olSdv-ui (ot8-), oAicr^ai'-a> (oAtrr^-), o</>At- 
(TKdv-u) (o</»A-, o^AicrK-, 014); with portic oAiratV-o^t (dAtr-, 010), 
dA0av-oj (aA<^-), <pi8aiV-aj (<piS-). Wit.Ii inserted v, y, or /x, aVoai'-aj 
(aS-), Kiy;!^ai'(iJ, ej>ic ki;^(X^(ij (ki;^-), X<iy\di-^u) (Aa;^-), fJuavBdu-ii} (/zct^-), 
TTur^fii'-o/xcu. {ttvO'), Tvyxdv-o) (tu;(-), willi pontic ^avSaiz-w (X"^")) 
Ipvyydv-fj) (cpuy-). 

607. (3) A few stejns add ve: fivvt-w (with ySi'^w), stopvp, 

LKv^-Ofxai (with U-w)^ come, kwI-im (ku-), Icisa; also a/x7r-iCT;^i'<'- 
0/xai, have OHf and vTr-io-xi't-o/Aai, 'proniisCy from To-x-w. 

608. ('!) Some stojiis add w or (after a vowel) i^»/i>. These 
foi'm the seeoud class (in i/t/xt) of verbs in /xi^ as hf.Uvv-}xi 
(8tiK-), ,s/iozy, Kcpcii'i'ij-Ati (Ktpa-), mix^ and are ennuieratud in 
797, 1. Some of these have also jn-esents in i/uw. (See 502, 2.) 

609. (5) A few poetic (cliiefly epic) verhs add va to the stetn, 
forming presents ill V7yp.t (or deponents in vajuuL): most of these liave 
presents in vaw; as Stl/iio;^ (Sa/x-i/a-), also hixp^vdoj^ suhdun. These 
form a third chiss of veibs in /xt, and are ennnicrated in 797, 2. 

610. N. Baii'w (/3a-., j3ai''), go, and oo-0putVo/xoi (6(T<j>p-y 6(T<j>pav-)t 
smell,, not only add v or av, hut lengtlien ui/ to aiv on the princij^le 
of Clafis J V. (594). Tlioy beioiig Iiere, however, Ixfcau.se they do not 
have the inflection of ]iq\iid vo.rbs (509). See also K^pBaivu), paiVoj, 
TfTpatVoj, witli Homeric uAiTaiVoyxai (dAir-, oAirat'-). 

611. N. Seine steniss of lliis class lengthen a short vowel (on 
tliG principle of Class II.) in other tenses than the present; as 
Xafjifiduti} (Act^-), fnt. XTftpo^L (Xrj/3-) : so Suki^w, Xayxdyo), Aoj'- 
Odi^o). Tvyxdviii. See also cpuyydi'w, tpxofxai, and TrvvOdvofmi. 

Tiiree verbs in vvfjn (ti(KS), ^tvyuv/j.u tr-qyvvfn, pyyvvpn, belong 
equally to Class 11. and Class V. 

612. N. *EAulVoj (t'Aa-), drive, is irregular in the present Rtera 
(probably for ^Aa-nr-w). "OX-Xv-fxi (oA-), destror/, adds Xv (hj 
asBimilation) instead of w to the stem oA-. 



142 INFLECTION. [613 

613. SixTn Class. (Verbs in o-kw.) These add aKye- or 
LaK^i- to tlio voT'b stem to form the j^rcseiit stem ; as 
yf)fja-<jK(jj {yy)poL-), (p'ow old (]>resent stem -yi^pao-K/^-); tvp-iuKw 
{<.vp-)fjind {ihpL<jK%') ; dpi-(fKii) (n.pf.-)yXilcase^ <tt€^-i'<tkoj {(TTip-)y 

deprive. 

614. These veibs are, further, dX-iaKOfiaL, dp.f^\-io-Kw, dfxnXaK- 
{(TKW (poetic), dnIA-tCTKoj, d7ru<p-LO-K(o ([>Oct.), dpap-LO-Ko} (iKn-t,.), 
(Six-<JK<j) (poet.)> jii-jipi^-aKii) {(Spo-)y (li/a/^iw-o-KOfAat (j3to-), (SXio- 
CTKco (^toA-, /?Ao-), ytyiDv-iaKis), yi.-yv(i)-(TK<D (yvo-), Si-Spd-aKW (Spa-), 
€Travp-L(TK<jj (poet.), rjlSa-ifKO), Binj-dKU) {Oav-., Ova-), OpwaKu) (Oop-y 

OpO-), lAd-CTKO/JUlt, fXtOvCTKU)^ KLkXtj-UKW («:Ar/-) (poet.), KV-lO-KOfJUH 

(kv-), fU-p.vrj-aKU) (p.va-), Trt-Trt'rrKw (Ion. and ]*ind.), Trt-Trpd-aKW, 
TTLtpav-a Ko) (^uu-), declare (Moin.), TL-rpw-a-KO} (rpo), ^ao-Kw, 
X(i'(^K(o. See also tlie verbs in 017. *04>X'i<JKdvo) (60A-) take.s laK 
and tlion adds av (000). 

615. N. Many presents of tliis classs are rednj^licated (5;iG) ; 
as yi-yvwa/fo) (yi/o-). See GO'J, 1. *Ap-ap-t'a>ca> ]i?t-s a form of Attic 
rediij)lication (o-^)- 

616. N. Final o of the, verb stent becomes w, and final d sometimes 
becomes a or t;; as in ytycwaxw (7fo-), 6i5pdaKu (5pa-); Ov^aKoj {dav-y 
dm-), Doric dugiffKu) (ior dm-taKiv). 

617. N. Three verbs, dXi;-a*fw (dXuAf-), o.void^ dtSd-aKoj (di5ax-), 
teackt and Xd-<TK'w (Xax-), speak, omit a- or ;^; bf-fnre <t^uj. So Honi»^ric 
HcKii) ov tcTKij) {i\K- ov Ik-)^ liken, ami TiTv<rKotJ.(n (rvx--, t^k-^-, for Ti-Ti/<- 
axofiaiy prepare. Sec also ^iayu) (for fn-y-aKU)) ana Trdaxw (for Tra^-(r*fw). 

618. N. These verbs, from their ending <TK(^y arc called inceptive., 
though few liave any inceptive meaniiig. 

619. SeVknth Class. {Presents in fxi vnih siwple stems.) 
Here the verb stem, sometimes reduplicated ((352), without 
the thematic vowel, ap])ears as the present stem. E.g. 

^Tjfxl {<t>(i-), say, <pa-fxiv, <f>a-r€ \ riOrffxi (Ot-), put, riBt-fxtVy 
TiOt-re, TiOt-pjjLi., TiOi-fXiOa^ i-riOc-crOey i-riOc-vro ; SiSiopn (^o-), 

For the strong- form of these stems in the singular of tiie 
active, see 027. 

620. All verbs in ^t, except those in vvfxt under 008, and tlie 
epic forms in vrjfu (or mp.aL) with ya added to the stem (009), arc 
of this class. They are enumerated in 794. (See 502, 1.) 

621. Eighth Class. (Mixed Class.) This includes the 
few irregular verbs which have any of the tense stems so 
essentially different from others, or arc otherwise so pecul- 



6ii-lJ PRKSKN'r AND IMTERFKCT INDICATIVE. 143 

iav ill formation, that tliey cannot bo brought under any 
of the prer.tiding chisstjs. They are the following: — 

atpc'cj (at/j<:-, tA-), lake^ fiit. atpr/o-tu, 2 nor. aXov. 

tl^ov (/rtS-, tS), smr., viiliy 2 aori.^t (in^ jtiX'ScHt act.); 2 pf. oTSa, 
hioio (820). Mid. ci'Sy/Aut (poet.). EiSof is used as 2 aor. of 
opoLw (^ee b(jlovv). 

t^TTOi' (ctV-, fp-, /5t-), .s'/io/je, 2 aor. (no pies.) ; fnL (tp^'w) <pai, 
pf. ci-prj-fciL. 'J'lte -Lt'ji) tp- (p<:-) i^^ for ;:tp- (fpf.-), seen in Lat. 
ver-hwa ((140). So cf-cVw. 

tfjXOfjuat, (<px-> cAcu^-, o\ij^-, cA^-), fyo, flit. t'Atu'ao/Aat (i>(>f;i. ), 
2 pevf. tAyjAu^a, 2 auv. -^A^ot/. 'J'iie At.tic future is f?/xt, .v/^a// r/^ 
(SO;S).^ 

la-BCuy (iirO; tS-. </)ay-), ea/, fut. cSo/auc, 2 aor. €<f>ayov. 

Ofjaw (upa-, OTT-, /:to-), it-t, lut. oi/'O/xac, pt. copaxa, 2 fior. ctSoi' 
(see .'ib(ive). 

7racr;(aj (wuO-, iraS-), suJJ'cr, fut. 7rccVo/wit, 2 jif. •n-eVoi'-^a, 2 aor. 
enaOov. (See G17.) 

TTti'w (tti-, TTO-), dni}l\ ful. TTto/uAt, ]>f. TTcVajKa, 2 aor. tTrtof. (Sco 
604.) 

rpix<^ (tR^X'-' ^P"-h')j ^'^'h ^^^- hpaixovfxaLj ]>[. hthpajx-qna (Go?), 
2 aor. thpap.ou. 

4>€poj {<ji€p', ot-, cVcK-, by rediiplit^ation and syncope iv<V€Ky 
cV<ryK-), iif^cir, Jho : fut. OLaoj, aor. ryv^yKu, 2 p. «V-r/i'o;(-a ((!43 ; (>.''2), 
iv-yuey-p.au aor. j\ yp'C)(8r)v. 

Fur full forni.-i of tltese veibs, -See tlie Catalogue, See also the 
ir)-egular vurh.-s in pi (805-^20). 

622. M. (')ecasional Honvric <>r ]io(tic irrtigular foiin=< appear even 
ill some vej'lxs of tlje first s(•v^•ll cliLbbt.;^, See aKax^i^^, 6-^i^i^, ylyvo^ai., 
and xft*'0<i*'tJ hi tlie Catalogue. 

I.VILECTIO.V OK THt PnEStN'J' -\.VD JMJMCltrKCT I.VDK'ATJVE. 

623. {Common Form.) The pro.seJit indicative add.s tiie 
piiniary endings {^o2) to tlie present tense stem in %-, cx- 
cejjt i]i the singular of the aetive, where it has the terjui- 
nations w, €is, ci, tlu^ origin of wliich is uncertain. The 
first person in oj is iii(U'])endent of tliat in p.i, and botli the 
forms in o) and in /xt won; jji'obably inherited by the Greek 
from tlio jjarent language. For tljt^ thirii pei'son in ov<tl (for 
ovui), see 5oG^ 5. 

624. Of tlie. two foiin^ of the second person singular middle 
iu Yj and <t (500, '5), tliat in u is the true Attic form, whicli was 



144 INVIJ-CTION. [625 

used in prose and in comedy. I5uL tlie tragedians seem to liave 
preferred the form in 7^/ wliich is tlie regular form in the other 
dialects, except Ionic, and in tlie later connnon dialeet. TJiis 
applies to the future middle and passive and to Uie future perfect, 
as well as to the present. 

625. Boi'Aofiat, wish, and oloixul, think, have o\\\y fiovXa and 01^1, 
with no forms in ij. So otpofjuai, fnture of opaw, see^ has only oipa. 

626. The imperfect adds the secoudai-y endings to the 
tense stem in %-. See the paradigm oi ktu). 

627. (Mi-/orm.) Here the final vowel of the stem is long 
(with 17, w, v) in the singular of both present and imperfect 
indicative active, but short (with a or «, o, v) in the dual and 
plural, and also in most other forms derived from the present 
stem. This cliange frojii the sti'ong stem in the indicative^ 
singular to the weak stem in other forms is one of the most 
im])ortaut distinctions between the ^t-form and that in w. 
Theentiings here include /it, 9, ai in the singular of the jjrcsent, 
and (Tav in the third person plural of the imperfect. (See50G.) 

628. TJie tliird person phiral of the present active lias 
the ending dm (5;'j2), which is always ooutracted with a 
(but never with t, o, ov v) of the stem; as laTaat (for to-ra- 
ao-t)j but TiOi-da-L, StSo-ucrt, BaKuv-aat. 

629. The only verbs in fu with consonant stems are the irregu- 
lar dfXL («V-), be, and rj^i (ijcr-), .sit. (See 80G and 814.) 

630. Some verbs in rf/xi and w/it have forms which follow the 
inflection of verbs in aa and ow. Thus tlie imperfect forms iriOa^ 
and €TiOa (as if from tlBIw), and iSiBovv, iBiSov<:, cSi'Sou (as if from 
StSoto), Hre nnicli more connnon than tlie regular forms in 7^9, 7; and 
w;^, iti<:, u). So TiOiTs for TLOrj<; in the present. (See also 741.) 

631. Some verbs in vfjLi have also presents in vw; as SaKvvio for 
BeUvvfxi. 

632. Avvafjuai, can, and tVi'aTa/xat. h'no7v, often have cSiW (or 
r^Svvoi) and j^TTiaruj Uiv iBvvacro and r^-n-icniicro in tiie imperfect, and 
occasionally Bwa and l-niijra for SuVaaat antl l-7r'L<na<jo.i in the 
present. 

633. For the present (with the other tenses) in the dependent 
moods and the participle, see the account of these (718-775). 

1 Kirclihoft and Woeklein iu Aeschylus, and Bergk in Sophocles, 
give only the form iu. tq. 



6301 MOniFICATION OF 'J'HE VERH STEM. 145 

MODIFICATION OF THE VrOtMl STEM IN CERTAIN 
TFNHli; SYSTEMS. 

634. Before discussing the otlier tense systo.nis (IT.-IX.), we 
must UR'utiun some modifications which the verb stem reguhuly 
underg'oes in ceil.aiu iorwH. Moo irre^njarities, such as are found 
only ill verbs of the eij^lith class (021), arc not noticed Jjere. 

635. (Lengthening of Voioeh.) Most stems ending in a 
short vowol lengtlieu this vowel b('i'ore tlie tense suffix 
(5(>1, 5) in all tenses fornied from tliem, except tlie present 
and ini])erfef:t. A and e become ?;, and o becomes w; but u 
after c, t, or p becomes a (29). E.g. 

Tlfj-do) (rlfxa-), ho7i07% rifxi^-irw, €rifj.rj-cra, TtTifxr^-Ka, rcTifxij-fiai, 
tTlfjL-q-Otjy; <f>i\(<j) (<^iA<-), love, (lnX-qao)., ec^iXT^o-a, ttc^/At^ku, 7rc<f>t\r^~ 
fjjOLL, i<f>iXy]dr}V \ SryAo'ijj (S/;Ao-), iihow., h-r{\w<Tii), cSr/Ao^ai, hihr'jXojKa^ 
SaxpvWf BuKpvo-oj. 13ut caoj, €ucra>; tao/wit, laaofjuuiy Spdat, Bpfuru), 
tSpacja, 8(.Sfi<xKa. 

636. 'i'ljis a]")p]ir's also to stems wliich hccome vowel stems by 
metaLliesis (04f)); as /i/aAA</> (/^"A-, /^Au-), ffouw, pf. /StpX7j-Ka; 
Kdfxviji (KUfx~, «:/j(.a-), lobor^ KcV/xj^-^ia ; or by adding' c (0.v7); as /?oi?- 
Xofjuxi (/?oiiA-, fiovXc-)^ rvi\sli, (SovXrj-crofJiaL, jitpovXn^-^ai^ (.j^ovXij-S-qv. 

637. For the long- stem vowel in the singular of tlie jireseul 
and imperfect indicative of verbs in ^tt, Sf^e (127. 

638. N. *AKpodofw.t.Ji€(n\ has aKpodcrofuxL etc; XP*^^^ give orach-s.^ 
leniTthens u to t^; as XPl^^ ^^* ^^ Tpy]irii) and CTprjcra from steni 
Tpa-] (me T(.Tpaii'<i}, dure. 

639. Some vowel steins retain the short voavoI, contrary 
to the genci'al rule (G3r>) ; as ycAaoj, laugh, ycXaaofxai, lyi- 
Aaaa ^ apKfoj, SUfJiCBy <j.pKc(r<o, ■qpKtca] /JLa;^o/xat (/^oxt-), fight^ 
^xiaofjjixL (Ion.), ffjiax(-<Jo.fJ-T]V' 

(a) This r>ccur,s in Die following verbs: (]tnre veibs) aya/xat, 

atOtO^i, a/vfo/xac, oAeui, dr'^oj, dpx^oJ, dpooj, dpi'^cot yeXno), kXxvin (spft 
cAkoj), fp.fuj, €paa>, ^c'w, OXdfj), KAdw, hrcak^ ^i'cu, tttvoj, <nrd<ji), r^XiiUy 
Tpt'w, (/)Aa(r), x<^Aa(jt>', and epic d^ijSt'cj, kotc'oj, Aot'oj, t-etKCoj, and tlie 
stems (da-) and (df-) ;— (other Vt',ri)S with vowel stems) dpurKuy 
{dpf.~). dx^ofxai (dx^^O' f^uwoj (cAa-), IXdaKOpni (lAa-), p,t6v<TKU} 
(p.<.Ov-)\ also all vt-rbs in n^'vypn and cvrt-p-t, with stems in a and e 
(given in 707, 1), wiih oXXv^jll (oAc-) an<l opLvvfjii (o/jio-). 

(0) ']'he final vow^^l of the stmn is variable in qiiantity in differ- 
ent tenses in tlie following verbs: (pure verbs) alvtu>, alpcto, Sf'tu, 



146 INFLECTION. [040 

TToOio), TTOi'cu); — (other vorljs) ji'sCvu) {jia-), tlfiia-Koi (cvp~y ft-pc-), 
fiaxofxai (iJXL)(c-), Trtvoj (tti-, tto-), <^^ai'<D {<j>6a-), t^^tVuj {(^Ol-). 

640. (LiS(frtion of cr.) Vowel sLe2n,s wliich retain the 
short vowt-I (039) and some others add a- to the final vowel 
before all endings not bcgimdjiij xoilh a- in the perfect and 
pluperfect middle. The same verbs have a before Bf. or Br) in 
the first pa.ssive t*^nse system. E.g. 

TiXlio, finish, TiTfX€-a~iJuii, inTiXicr^rjv., iTtXicrO-qv, rcXeaOrjaofxaL \ 
ycXdo), iaufj}i, (y€Xd-(T~Oi]Vy ytXcwOrjvai; XP*^**^' 0^"^ oracles, xprjijo), 

641. ']1ii.s occurs ill all tlie verbs of 039 (a), except dpoa>, so 
fai- as they fonn tiiese tenses; and in the following: dfomi. hpduy, 
Opavo), KcAci'ci), KAfi'u) (k'At7'w), Ki/au>, K^at'oj, Kpouoj, Kvkioj (or KvAtVoo)), 
Xa?o}y vioi. heap^ ^uw, Traiw, TraAui'w, rai'u), 7rA<u>, Trptuj, crct'u), Ttj'uj, "Oo), 
Xtltij, xpci**^' XP^'^' '^'^^ petit. ic pat'cj. Some, liowever, have forms y)oth 
witli and without a. See tlie Catalogue. 

642. (Strong Form of Stem in Second Class.) 1. Verbs 
of the second class have the strong form of the stem (572), 
as Xtin- or AotTT- in AciVw, tyjk- in ttJku}, vcv- in {vifo)) k^'oj, in all 
tenses except in the second aoi'ist and second passive tense 
systems; as ^cuyw, c^tu^o/mt, 7r<:'<^cuya, €<^uyov ; ActVoj, Act'i/fu>, 
A^'AotTra, tAtTror; ttJkcjj, tt/^uj, rtrrjKa, ^tukt^v ; p€tJ (for /)t/roj), 

ptVCTOfXai, ippVYjV. 

% Exceptions are tlie perfect and aorist pa-s?ive of re^xw (tijx-)> 
wldch arc regCiiai- in Ionic, and roost tenses of x^'*** (X"") *'*'"*' f<^'^ 
(o-v-). After the Attic reduplication (51^0) tlie \v(.'ak form apj^ears; 
a.s ill dA€t'<^w (ttAt^-), dA-);A(.(^u : sec also (pciKw and tpctVa). The 
perf(^cts cppuijKa (p<u)) ami ia-rili-qyjxi are from stems in t- (G5S, 'J). 

643. (E changed to o iii Second Perfect.) In the second 
perfect systejn, t of the verb stem is ehang^d to o. Eg. 

y.r€py<o, love, t<TTo^jyijL ; 7rt|jnr<o, sctif^, TrtTTO^tc^d *, kA^tttci}, ■</<'<i/, 
K€KXo<f>a (o7C; (!0*J) ; rpc't^cD, itouvUh, T€Tpo<^a; tUtu) (tck-), />i-nt9 
forth, rtTOKa; ytyvt>/uuii (ycv-), hecotiit't yiyova, (yiyovrj, ytyoi^tvai, 
ycyoi'aj<;. 

So ty€Lpa> (<yep-), iypr^yopn (o;'^2) ; ktciVw (ktcv-), cktovh (in 
compos.); Atytu, CaUccl, tLXo)^a; irdax^o (-rraO-, invO-), TTCTrouOa; 
TTipho/jLat, TTfVopSn; Tpcno), T€Tpo<f>a; 4'<pio (iytK-), U'rjvo)(a; cpOtipio 
(^4iB(p'), i<f>0()pu; x*'^^ (x^^ )' '^^X''^^- 

For AciTT-oj, A<'-Aoi7r-a, ami -rrtid-w^ Trc'TroiO-a, see 31 ; 6-12, 1. 



649] MODIFICATION OF THE VKRB STEM. 147 

644. (A khgthcned to yj or d in Second Perfect.) In some 
verbs a of the stem is leiif^tlieiu'ci to T/<u-a in the second perfoot. 

'J'liese are ayvvfxi (dy-)i ^"7" (Ionic tr/ya) ; OdkKoi (OaX-), TiSrjka ; 
Kpdt,u) (x/L>uy-), KiKpayu ; Aoctkw (Auk-), \i\aKa\ ;xatVo/xut (/xuv-), 
fj.ifj.r}va; aat/Jcj (o-ap-), <ri<Tr}pa; (patvu) (<pay-)j 7r(<pr}va. 

645. (E dtangcxi to a.) In monosyllabic liquid stems, c 
is <;(^,nc;rally clian^^ed to a in tlie tirst perfect, perfect mid- 
dle, and second passive tense systems. E.g. 

^TiXXti) (aT«A-), .sc«J, ccttoAku, liTTaXjjJUy iiSToX-qv^ OTiiXrjaopJxi'y 
KCipo) (Kip'}, Sihear, K^Kupftui, it:dpr)v (Ion.); irTriipo) (oTrip-), sow, 
l(T7rapfxaL, Cdirdprjv. So ill Stpto, KTttVtu, fj.c(pOfxaL^ rttVw, Tt'AAu), and 
<pB€ipu}. 

646. N. The same change of c to a (after p) occurs in arpi^Hi). 
turn, koTpiifXfxaL, iaTp6.4>Yjv, <jrpo,<^i/j<y opjxi (hut 1 aor. i<.TTpl<^Oy}v^ 
r;iroj; rpcVo;, tuni^ 7 h papLpuut, eTpdfrrjv (hiiL tTpitjiOQVy Ion. crpu 
(pdrjv) ; rpicinD, noun'sfiy TtOpafxpJxi, iTpd<t>ijv (but i0p6(l>9r}}') ; al>;o 
ill tlie btiConti aoi'isi. passive of kAcVtoj, .s/^'a/, ttAcVw, weuue^ and 
Tt'pTTcu, dciiyht, l^Xd-rr-qv, l-nXaKy^v, and (e])ic) Irdp-n-qv (1 aor. tVAc- 
^^)7V, lTrXi)^Oriv, iTip<})OY}i', raiely e]>ic tTdp<l>Or)v)- it occurs, furtlier, 
iu the second aori.^t (uctive oi* iniddU;) oi Knlvuiy hill^ rtfii'w^ rui^ 
Tpl-JTO), an<l rcpTTtu; vix., in fxrai/oi' (poet.), trujaoj/, irafj-Ofji-qy, Irpa- 
TTOv, iTpaTTOfjiyjy, TtTapiroixrjv (lioui.); also in several Homeric and 
poetic lorn IS (see otpKopuxf., TvipBu), and ■nTipau)), For tciVuj, IrdB-qv, 
see 711. 

647. (N of stem, dropped) Four verbs in v^o drop v of the 
stem in the perfect and Hrst \iassive systems, and thus liave 
vowel stems in tliese forms : — 

Kplvtii (kplv-), separnfey ntuptKiLy KiKpLfjuuL, iKplO-qv't kXIvu) (kAij'-), 
incline, KCKAtxa, KixXipuun., tVALi^v/f; -rrXvvo) (n-Auv-)! f^'Os/i, TrcrrXvprn, 
hrXvOrjv't Ttivot (tcv-), Stretchy rcTUKa (045), TcVa/xut, tTaOrjv, cV- 
raO-jcrofiai, So KTilvu) in some poetic forms; as iKrd-B-qv-, iKTd-p.-rjv. 
See also ''pic f^tem (fytw-, <f)a: Vov the regular Jlouieric iKXivOrjv 
and CKpivOr]v, se'- TO!). 

648. VVljeii finni »/ of a stem Is not thus dropjied, it becomes 
nasal y b'-fore ko. (7^^, 1), and is geneially rt*]>hu;ed by a before fxai 
(b-i); as </)utVw (^ai/-), 7rc</)«yKa, TTc^Mupxii, t<^dv6i]u. (See 700.) 

649. {McUUhe^i.-i.) 'I'lie sti'iiA sc^inetinies suffers 7)i(?/(i/Ac.Ni5 (04): 
(I) in Liie pre=^ent,, as Ovrj<rKtjj {Bjv, Ova-), difi, (filO) ; 

(j!) in otlipv i<v.ises, ns /JoAAoj (/faA-, jS.\a-), ^Arow, /Si/SXrjKa, 
l^tfiXv^puii, il3Xy}dyv; and (poetic) ScpKo/jiat (8cpK-), 5^f,2 aor. «6pa«oj' 
{8pas-, 0'40). 



148 INFLECTION, [050 

650. {Syncope.) Sometimes syncope (65) : 

(1) ill tJie present, as yiyvofmi (ytv-), become^ for yt-ycK-o/iat ; 

(2) in the second aorist, as itrrop.-qv for l-Trtr-o^-qv ] 

(3) ill the perfect, as ■nf.Tavvvp.i. (Trtra-), expand, iriiTTapxiL for 
Tn-TTtra-^L. See t^cpw in 621. 

651. {Reduplication.) Sometimes rcdvplicalion, besides the reg- 
ular reduplication of the perfect stem (520) : 

(1) in the present, as yi-yvu)(TKU), hww, yl-yvopai, TL-Or^fiL. 

(2) in the second aorist, as vtiOw {ttlO-), persuade^ ttc-ttlOov 
(epic) ; so ayw, rjyayov (Attic). 

652. 1. Tlie following ai-e reduplicated in the present: — 

{a) In Class I., yl-yvoymii (for yt-ycro/Aai) ; "utx*^ C^*^^' ^t-^^X'*^) » 
^lipvu} (for fxL-}x€v(jj), poetic for /xtVw; tt^tttu; (for 7n-7r€T-w) ; tlktio 

(for TC'TlK'to). 

(b) In Class VI., fSL-/3pio(TKu} {/Spo-), yt-yvuidKU) {yv<y-), St-SpaaKU) 
(6pu-), fU'fjLvrjdKu) (/Jim-), Tn~TTpo.(TKio {irpa-), TL-TpiJj<TKU) {rpo-}, with 
poetic TrL'TTLO-Ktjj and 7n-<f>iivaKw, and dpaphKoi with peculiar Attic 
reduplication (615). 

(c) In Class VII., the verbs in px which are enumerated in 
794, 2. 

2. For reduplicated second aorists, see 534 and 535. 

653. (E added to Stevi.) Kew stems are oftt-ii formed by 
adding c to tho viwh stem. 

654. (1) Fron^ lliis now stem in c sonio verbs form tho. 
present stem (by adding %-), sometinu-.s also otlier tense 
stems. E.g/ 

AoK€-(.j (6oK-),wem, pros, stem {^0K(.%-y fut. So^w; ya/xt'-oj (ya/x-), 
marry, fut. ya/xoj, pf. ycya/xr/Ka ; oj^c'oj {wO-}, push, fut. aSa-w (poet. 
tu^T^cruj) . 

655. These verbs arc, further, yfywKo;, yrjOio), KTviriw, Kvpeo), 
puapTvpcio (also puapTvpopxii), ptTrrcw (al^o ptTrrw), <l>L\tio (.'^ee epic 

foi'in.s) ; lUld ]>oetic Sovttc'u), ctAt'w, inavpcw, KcXahcui, stt'TCo), TrarfO- 

pxiL, /jiyc'oj, cTTuyt'o;, ropiu), and xpiunpiui. Sec also TrtKreuj (ttck-, 

TTCXT-). 

Most vcrl>fi in tcu liavo their regular stums iti c-, as ttoUu {ttou-}, 
mate, fut. TrotTJo-w. 

656. N. A few chienY poelic verbs a<ld a in the same way to 
the verb stein. See jSpvxdopjat, yodw, Brjpidu), /xiyxao/xut, pyjTid*^, 
pAJKaopxiL, 

657. (2) Generally the new .stem in c does not appear in 



COl] PRESENT SYSTEM. 149 

the present. But in some verbs it forms special tenses; in 
others it forms ail tlie tenses except the present, imperfect, 
second perfect, and tlie second aorists. E.g. 

BovAo/xat (jSovA-). wish, povXtjaofxai (^ouAc-, 030) ; aloBavofmi 
(cu(tO-), perceive, alaOrjcroyuii (ai(rOi-), rjaOrjfmL', /xtVuj (fjnv), reituun, 
titfitvYjKo. (/UVC-) ; /laxo/jUK (/mX")) 7'^^^ ^^^- (tiaxfl-Ufmi) /A<xxoi//xat, 
ifmx(-(TdfJ.r]v, fxt^idxrjfJtxit. 

658, 1. The following havf> tlie stem in c in all tenses except 
those mentioned (G57) : alcrOdvofjuu {ahO^), dKi^tjj, dKOofMxi (Ion.), 
dfiaprdvtD (dfjuipr-), aV-SaVcu (dS), aTr-ix^dvofxai ('(X'^')* ^^idv(D (av^-), 
dx^OfJ-f^h l3\a(Trdv(jj (jt^Aacrr-), /JovAo/xai, (Sookw, Sew, wat}!, cPtAoj and 
OiXtjj, Ipofjuii and fi'po/xat (Ton.), Ippw^ cuScjm, ivploKoj. (ipoiy kc'Ao/u/u 
(poet.), KLxdvu (KiX')y AaaKw (ArtK-), fxavOdvuj (fxnO), fxaxofi'it, fxcSo- 
fxaL, /AcAAcu, /AcAtjo, jJ.v^u)y olofJuxL, olxoiuil, oAiat'di'.;* {6Kt.(rO 'iAAi./uf, 
6cf>\L(TKd\'U} (o<^A-), TTiTOfjuOLL, oTO/j^u/xt : see I'oenc a/x7rAaKtaKa> and 
dTTa(j>L(JKu), and llie stem Su-. See also K£pSatV(u. 

2. The following- Ijave the stem in t in ^i^ecial tenses Toi-nied from 
the verb stem or ihs weak stem (^l) : S-^pOdi'Oi {SapO). ^cVto, v^p(jj, 
d(T<^pciCvopjii {d(r(f>p-), iraiWy irlTOji-'iiy ttilO-o {mO-}. p(t<) (po-). cmif^ii} 
(arifi-), rvyxdvu} {rvx'), X^^*'' (X"^") 5 ^^idi yiyvop-xt, ^x^o, rp^Xuj. 

iJ. The following i'orm ueriaiti tenses froni a st.eni lu.ulii hy add- 
ing c to tlie present stem witliout the thematic vowel : StSac/Kw, 
KaOi^io, Ky^(x)y xAaiw, o^w, o^ci'Aoj, nVro), x<^tptjy. 

659, N. In 6p.vvpL, smear, the stem op.- is enlarged to dpo- in 
somo tenfses, as in ol/xo-cra; in dkLcrKop^u, be captured, dA- is enlai\:;i'd 
to ciAo-, as in dXdxropxu. So Tpvx<j^ ("rpi^X')' i^-cfmust, rpvxdxrw. So 
probably orxojmat, ite ^ch^, lias stem olx(*- for oixt- in the perfect 
©rxw-Ka (cf. Ion. oiX'q-po.i). 

FORMATION OF TENSE STEMS AND INFEEGTION OF 
TENSE SYSTEMS IN THE INDICATIVE. 

I. PitiisLNT System. 

660. 'J'ho formation of the present stem and the inflec- 
tion of tlic present and imperfect indicative have bccu 
explained in 568-622 ^m\ 62;3-G.H2. 

661. The eight renminini; tense stems (II. -IX.) are 
formed from the verb stem. This is the simplest form of 
the stem in all classes of verbs except the Second, where it 
is the strong form (.'375; 642). 

For special niodiiications of certain tense stems, see G34-0,o9. 



150 INFLECTION. [602 

For the inflection of the subjunctive, optative, and imperative 
in all tenses, see 7] 8-758; for the foniiatiou of the infinitive, see 
759-769 ; and for that of the participles and verbals in -ros and 
Tio^, 8ee 770-776. 

II. FuxrUE SVBTKM. 

662. {Future Active and Middle.) Vowel and mute stems 
(460) add 0-%- to form tlie stem of the future active and 
middle. The indicative active thus ends in ctu, and the 
middle in o-o/Aai. They are inflected like the present (see 
480). E.g. 

Tl/iaoj, honor, Tl^rjuui (ri/Ai;a-%-) ; 8pau), do, Sputro) (635) ; kotttoj 
(kott-), cuty k6{J/o}; jSkdvTKi) (/3Aa^-), hw!, j^Aai/'a), /3Aai/'0/xai (74); 
ypd(ji<jiy write, ypd\p(ji, ypd^Ofiai ; irXtKU), iwisfj TrAt^tu ; trpaacru} 
(irpdy-), do, -JTpa^tjjy Trpa^o/jiat ; rapa(T<jw (rapa^-)' confute, rapa^'oi, 
Tapa^o/xat; <^pa^aj (<^puS-)i tell, <^pd(xuj (lor <f}pah-au)) ; irtlBtix, per- 
suade, TTUcTiJi (for 'jru6<rw) ; AclVoj. leave, ktixftu), \iL\popJX(. (0*42). So 
o-7reV5(jJ, ■potiTy <nT€t(Tu) (for <T7r€i'B-<Toj, 79). Tpetjxi), nonrish, Qpixpiji, 
Bptipofjuou (95, 5). 

663. {Liquid Futures.) Liquid stems (460) add €?4- to 
form the future stem, makiii.g forms in <ftu and «Vai, con- 
tracted to w and ou/xatj and inflected like <^iAoi and <^i\ovp.ixL 
(4<)2). See 482. ]£.g. 

4*a/va> (<^ai/-), sAow, fnt. (</)avf-<u) </)avai, (^avt'-o/iai) <^ai'Oi)^i ; 
OT€'AAo> (o-r<A-), 56n<i, (crrcAc'-cu) crreAoi, {aTtXi-ofmC) <7TcAoO/Aai; 
vc/jLw, divide, (vi^i-uj) v«/jioJ ; KptVw (Kpti/-), judye, (Kpivt-m) A-pcvw. 

664. N. Here c%- is for an original «cr%-, tlie or being dropped 
between two vowels (88). 

665. (Aide Fufure.) 1. The futures of KaXiuj, calf, and TeXiio, 
finish, KoXicTiJi and tcAcVoj (6;^9), drop <t of the future stem, and 
contract koAc- and tcA«- witli w and ofmt, maki:)g xaXu*, KaAou//ai, 
TcAw and (poetic) rcAoij/xau These futures have thus the same 
forms as the presents. 

So oAAv/uu (oA-, oA«-), destroy, has future oA<Vcj (Horn.), oAcw 
(Hdt.), oAw (Attic). So pxxxiuopjai, Homeric future of p.d.xofJ^*- 
(fm)(€-).Jighty becomes fmxpiifiaL in Attic. Ka^c'^o/Aat (c3-), 5if, has 
KaOihovfLai. 

2. In like manner, futures in ao-w froni verbs in aioaJ/xt, some in 
CO- 0) from verbs in cmJ/xt, and sonie in aaw from verb.s in a^w, drop 
cr and contract aut and <aj to oi. Thus crKtSai/ioJ/Ai (crK^Sa-), acacter, 
fut. o-K<Sao-aj, (fTK€^(o) (TKiBu); (TTOpii'vvp.L (aTOp€-), spread, crTOpctro), 
(o-ropt'uji) CTTOpoJ; fiifid^'Ji^ cause to go, jStfida-w, {fiipdu}) /ii/3uj. So 



6C9] FIRST AOKIST SYSTEM. 151 

iXawu) (cAa-), drive (012), future tXao-di, (Aaoj) «Aw. For future 
«A(>(u, €AoWi, etc. in Homer, see 784, 2 (c). 

3. Futures in tatu and tao/iai from verbs in tjw of more than 
two syllables regularly drop o- and insert <; then uto and wo/xat 
are contracted to iw and toC^i; as ko/ii'^uj, carry^ KOfiiaoi, (KOfuio)) 
KO/iiu), KOfiLdOfiai, (KOfU€OfjLai) Ko^iovfjLat^ inflected like <f>iXo), <^(Aou- 
/xat (402). See 785, 1 (end), 

4. These fovniH of futvu'e (665, 1-3) are called Aiiicj because th© 
purer Attic seldom uses any others in these tenses; but they ftre 
found also in other dialects and even in Homer. 

666. ( Doric Future.) 1. These verbs form the stem of the 
future middle in o-<:%-, and contract o-toyoat to croC^uxi : -rrXiut, sail^ 
irKiVfTovfWiL (o74); Trytw^ breathe^ ttvivo-ov^ou \ i/c'a*, sicim, vtvfTovfXjat ', 
KAat'tu, weejfy KAavaovyjuxi (OOl) ; <pivywy Jiee, <f>iv$ov}xaL ; -jftTTTw, /allj 
Treaov/JUiL. See also nac^u) (5.00) and TrvvOavo^ai. 

'J'he Attic has these, with the regular futures -rrXixxjo^mL^ irvtv- 
(TOfjuii, KXavaofiai, <f>eviofjuxL (but never -n-CCTO/iat). 

2. These ai'e called Doric futures, because the Doric forms 
futures in crtoj, o-tu, and crto/juii, crovfjuxi. 

667. N. A few irregular futures drop a of the stem, which thus- 
has the appearance of a present stem. Such are )(tu) and ^c'o/acu, 
fut. of ;i(«w, pour; e^o/juai, from <cr^t'aj (<S-), eat; iriofxai, from irt>w 
(tti-), drink {G2\). 

668. N. A few poetic liquid stems add a like mute stems ; 
K<'AA(u (k«A-). ^a"rf, KcAo-dj; Kiptjj, meet^ Kvp(T<jj; 6pvv/xi (op-), rouse, 
oprroj. So Otpofxai, be wanned, Hom. flit, dipoopai'y <f>Siipw (<li6tp-), 
destroy, Horn. fut. f^Otpaw. For the corresponding aorista, see 

111, FinsT AoRiST System. 

669. {First Aorist Active and Middle.) 1. Vowel and 
mute stems (460) add aa to form the stem of the first 
iiorist active and middle. The indicative active thus ends 
in cru, whicli becomes at in the third person singular; and 
the middle ends in aafji-qv. E.g. 

Tipxiw, €Ti/xi?cra, €Tlixyjcrdp.T}i' {^yi~>) : 5pdia), €Spa<7a ; kotttoj, «KOi/'u, 
tKO\pdp.Tf]y ; /SXaTTTio, i/Skcupa ; yp6.<fnjj, eypai/'tt, iypaxpdpLYjV ; TrAeKoo, 
€7rA«^a, <7rk(.^dp.y]v ; Trpuorrw, iTrpct^a^ in pd^dpLrjv ; rapdaaw, irdpa^a', 
<t>pd^u}, t<l>pa(Ta (for i<t>pa^(ra) ; TTtiBui, tTTuaa (74) ; ctttcVSui, tairucra 
(for ccr7r«j'Wa); Tp«'</)(iJ, tOpixpa, iOpi\pdiJ.r}V (95, 6); tiJkw, mtf//, 
tTTj^a; ttAcw, .^fJzV, <7rA€va-a (574). 

For the inflection, see 4^0. 



152 INFLECTION. [070 

670. Three verbs in fxi, 8t'8cu/xt (8o-), give, Xtjfu (c-), seixd^ and 
TiOr^fxt (0(.-)j put, have Ka for aa in the first aorist active, giving 
«Sajfca, r/fca, and iOrjKa. These torn is are seldom used except in the 
indicative, and are most common in tlie singular, where tlie second 
aoristB arc not in use. (Sef^ 802.) Even the middle forms rjKa^rjv 
and idrjKaixrjv occui", tlie latter not in Attic Greek (810). 

671. X. Xc'oi, paui\ has aorists <x^a (fioni. ^x^va) and t^ca/xr^i^, 
corresjiondiug- to the futures ;(ta( ain] xw^juai (007 ). EZTrof, said, 
has also first aorist Jttu; and <^ipu}, htar, has rfveyK-a (from stem 

i'or Ifomeric aorists like ^^riacTo^ ^5vij€to, l^ov, etc., see 777, 8. 

672. (Liquid Aorists.) Liquid stems (4 CO) drop o- in aa, 
leaving a, and lengthen their last vowel, o. to t) (after t or p 
to J) and € to €1 (89). See 482. E.g. 

^taiVoj {^av-), lt^r]V-a (for €<l>av(Ta) ; artXXw (crT€X-)) iO'Tuk-a 
(for iaT(.\-cra) cVrc lA-a/jtTyr ; ayyc'AAw (ayycA-), announce, TJyytiKa, 
r}yy€L\dp.r)v ; TTipoivo} (7r€pav), finish, iiripava ; fiKiLVijj (pxav-), i^tain, 
ifildva', v€fxti)y divide, Iviijm.^ iviLp(Xfj.T}v \ Kptvio, judge, iKpiva', a/xvva>, 
keep off', rjpvvay rjp\Jvdpr]v ; <f>Of.ipiii (<^^€p-), destroy, i<p^apa. Coin- 
pare tlie futures in (jij'd, and see GG-i. 

673. N. A few liquid stems lengthen av to dv irregularly; as 
KcpSaiVw (KipSav-), (/ain, tKiphdvu.. A few lengthen pav to prjVj as 
riTpaiv(jj (rcrpav-), 6fjre, trtTp-qva.. 

674. iY. (a) ATpoj ((ip-), ^'at^e, has ijpa, ypdfX7}v (augmented) : 
b;it a in other forms, as dpu), apov, ftpa?, dpiopjai, apatfi-qv, upa/xtvo? 

(h) The poetic kc'AAw, Kupw, and opvvfxi have aorists fKtAcru, 
^Kvpao., and tapaa. See the corresponding futures (GGS). But 
oKiWu) (in prose) lias aixciAa (see S9). 

IV. Sj;co.kj> Ao]{Jst System. 

675. (Second Aorist Active and Middle.) The stem of 
the second aorist active and middle of the common form 
(.^(io) is the vevh stpm (in the second class, the weak stem) 
witli %- affixed. These tenses ai'c inliected in the indicative 
like the imperfect (see G20). E.g. 

ActVu) (57'2), tXiTroi/, iXiToprju (2 aor. stem At7r%-) 5 Aa/x/^dipo) 
(Aa/?-), take, tXafiov, iXafSoprjv (2 aor. stem kap%-). See 4S1. 

676. N. A few secon(3 aorist stems ciiange e to a ; as TtpLvoi 
(T(fi-)y cuf, Ionic and poelic trapov, hapoprjv. See 640. 

677. N. A few stems are syncopated (650); as -niropat (-n-cr-), 
fiy, 2 aor. m. l-rrropr^u for iTTiT-op-qV, cyeipo) (tyfp-), rouse, r)yp6pr)v 



683] FIRST PERFECT SYSTEM. 153 

for r}ycp-Ofj.riv\ ^XOovy wp.nt, from stem f'Au^-, for rjXvQov (Iloiti.); 
fTTOfUii. {aiTT'), follow, iOTTOfxyv, for icmr-ofx-qv ; <;(o> (oiX')^ huce^ 
ecrxoy for i-(rt)('Ov, So Uie liomeric iKtKXufjLyv, ioi c-kc-kcA-o/xt^i', or 
KiKXcfxr]!'^ from iccAo^ai, coiinnniol ; aXa\KOVy for aA-oAcK-oi', froii) 
aAe'^'to (dAcK-), avnv/ ojl': foi" vln^^e and hIImt U'(In]»lic.atfed second 
aorists, soe 531 ; O-So. For lyyayok, :2 aoi*. of u-ya», m'(' ;>i5. 

678. (Mi-/on».) TJje stem of the; second aorist of tlie 
/u-form is the simple verb stem witli no suffix. The stem 
vowel is re.milarly lun;^' (7;, o>, or v) tliroii^^hout tlit; indicative 
active, and tlie third person h;is the ending oav. ( i'Vn* the hmg 
vowel in the inqierative and infinitive, see loo-y 7G(3, 2.) E.g. 

larrjfu (ara-), 2 aor. lur-qv, tifrtj^i, (.crrq. tfJTijtrai', elc. For I lie 
inflection, see 5UG. For BiBoifxi, \r)^i, and riU,}iM, ^^-e W2. 

For the L;rt\'\t variety of foi ms in these .suctjiul aorists, see tlic 
conijileto eiiuiiieratii)ii (VDh; 7U;Q. 

679. 'J'he second aorist middle of the /u-fonn regularly droj^s 
G hi cro in tlie second jxtrseji .sin;;ulai" (."^'Ji, G) alier a siK>it vowel, 
and tlieii contracts tliat vowel with o; as t^ou lor i-Oc-cro {tOco) ; 
cSou for i-So-cro (iSoo), 

680. Verbs in vfXL form no Attic second aori.sts from the stem 
in u(707, 1). 

681. For second aorists nn'ddle in -qfXTjv, Lp.r]Vy and u/xr^r, aiid 
some fi'oni consonant steins, see SOO. 

V. Yin^r VrAi}£cr Svstlm. 

682. (First Perfect on d Pluperfect Ad ioe.) The stern of 
the liist perfect aetive is farmed by adding Ka- to tin- r(!du- 
jjlieated verb stinn. It ]uts kh, Kas, t<u in tJ^e indieativ(; 
singular, and Kacri (for Ka-i'o-t)) rarely kuo-i in ijoet,ry, in the 
third pei-son idiiral. For the inflection, see A'^0. E.g. 

AOoj, (A«AvK-) At'AvKa ; r-uOu), />cri»aWo, TrtTTCiKa (lor 7rc-7r£t^-Ku) ; 
Kop.L^(ji (KO/xtS-), carry, KCKOfxtKa (lor KC-KO/xtS-Ku, 7-i). 

683. 1. The pki perfect changes linal a- of the perfect 
stein to €-, to which are ad(hxl acu'istie terminations a, a^;, c 
(069) in the singular, «a, <us, tt{y) being contracted to 7;, t/s, 
tL{v) in Attic. The dual and plural add the regular sec- 
ondary endings (552) to the stem in «-, with aav in the third 
person plural. E.g. 

'EAtAv«)7, e'AtAuKr/s, c\<\uKCi(l'), cXcXvKCTOV, tXcXvKC-jXd', €\(Xv- 

Kt-ri, cXiXvKC-crau : crr/AAat, caraXKa, iiTTaXKyj, eo-TuA/f7;v, caraAKft(i'), 
€crrdXK€-fj.€v, iordXKi-uav. Vov Ci(i'}, seu oJS, 



154 INFLKCTION. [»84 

2. In the singular, Herodotus has tlm original ca, ca?, €£, and 
Homer has €u, tf^, <t(»'); later Attic writers, and soin(jtinies tho, ora- 
fcorH, have tiv^ ft?, u. In the dual and phiral a for c is not classic. 

684. The stem may be modified before k in both perfect and 
pluperfect, by lengtheijing its final vowel (035), by cliauging c U> 
a in monosyllabic liquid stems (645), by dropping v in a few verbs 
(047)» or by metathesis (049); as (^lAcw, love, Trct^t'AjjKa ; 4>0cLpii) 
(<f>^ip-), des'troJ/i t^fiSapKa; Kpiym {Kpiv-)y Jti<^</^f niKpiKa ; /^ciAAcd 
(jiaK-), throw, pifi^jjKa (006). 

685. N. Et of the stem becomes ot in (Stt'Sto) S^'SotKa (31). 

686. N. The first perfect (or perfect in xa) belongs especially 
to vowel stems, and in Homer it is found only with those. Jt was 
afterwards formed from many liquid stems, and from soiije lingual 
stems, T, 6, or being dropped before Ka. 

VI. ShXONl) I^EIU'ECT SvSTEM. 

687. (Second Perfect Active.) The stem of the second 
perfect of the common form is the redui)licated verb stem 
with a affixed; as ypdff>-u), write^ y^ypa^a (stem y<ypa<^a-); 
Kjycvyuiy Jlee, 7r€^£vytt ((542). 

688. ]. For the change of e to o in the stem, see 643. For 
ktkoLTra and 7r<Voi^u, see 042, 1, and 31. 

2. For the lengthening of a to ?; or a in some verbs, see 044. 

3. For the lengthening of the stem vowel in Aay^afw (Aa;^-), 
\ap.Pdyi»i (AayS-). XavOdvw (kaO), rvyxdvo) (tux-)> ''^"^ ^^me other 
verbs, see Oil. 

689. N. ^Eppwya from p-qyvvp-i {p-qy-) and d^Ba (537, 2) from 
€^<jj {i}$-) change r) of the stem to w (31 ). 

690. N. Vowel stems do not form second perfects; aKtJKO-a, from 
d/cou-oA, hear (stem oxou-, aKo/:-), is only an apparent exception. 

691. N. Homer has many second perfects not found in Attic; 
as TTpo-^t/SovXa from 0ovXopja.iy wish ; ^ip.r)\a from ^cAw, concern ; 
ioXirn. from cAttw, hope ; Sthovtra from Sovrcoj {Bovrr-), resound. 

692. (Aspirated Second Perfects.) Most stems ending in 
IT or yS change these to <^. and most ending in k or y change 
these to Xi io the second perfect, if a ^hort vowel precedes. 
Those in <f} and x riiake no change. E.g. 

BXaiTTtji (y3Aa^-), ^c^Aut^a; koVto; (kott-), KiKo4>a\ oAAacrCTaj 
(oAAay-), lyAAaxa '. <i>v\d<J<ru) (<t>vXaK-)y irt^tvXaxfJ- 

But TrXrjcrau), TTtTTkTjya; <^tiiyaj, ■ni<f>€vya; crTf/>yo>, taropya; Aa^rw, 
KiXafx-yra, In ayw (dy-), W. V '^ lengthened by reduplication. 



699] PERFECT MIDDLE SYSTEM. 165 

693. The following verbs form asjiirated second perfects: aywj 
aAAa<T(rcu, avotyio, ^XawTuj^ ^LKvvfiL, K-qpyacnuy kXitttw, kotttoi, Xu/a- 
/?aVw, Xdnruiy At'yoj {cotlcct)^ fidadu), Tre'/xTrw, Trpdcrcru}, rrrrjcra^w^ rd<r<rio, 

TpiTTiO, Tplfiuj, <f>tptU, <f)vkd<J€rti>. Of tlieSe ^tLKVVp.L^ Kr}pv<j<ju^ XxLfi- 

/Sdvu}, ircfiTTuj, and 7rrT](r<jw ai'e exceptions to 092. 'AvoLyot has both 
dv-ioya and avtw^^a, and Trpaaao) has both 7rtVpa;)(a, /mutf done^ and 
TTtTTpaya, /are (well ov ill). 

694. N. Tlie aspirated peyfect is not found in Homer: only 
TiTpo<f>a (rpcVoj) occurs in tragedy, and only 7r<Vo/x<^a in Herodotus 
and 'riincydides. H is comnion in comedy and in the subsequent 
prose. 

695. The inflection of the second perfect of the common form 
is the same as that of the first pRi-fect (see 682). 

696. {Second Pluperfect Active.) The stem of the second 
pluperfect changes Hnal a- of the second perfect stem to <-. 
It lias the same inflection as tlie first i)liiperfect (683). E.g. 

*K7r€<f>-jtnj, i7n<f>-qvr)<i, i'jrc<f>ijvn(v), lir<.4>r}v€pi€V, irrc<f)7Jvt<jav, etc. 

697. (Mi-fonns.) A few verbs liave second perfects and plu- 
perfects of the sinjple /xt-form, v\hicli affix the endings directly to 
the verb stem. Tliey are never found in the singular of the 
indicative. E.g. 

0irtjcrK<o (dva-, Bav-\ die, 2 perf. W^va-rof, TtSva-p-Cv, TiOvdcri', 
2 p]pf. irlBvacrav. (See 508.) 

These /lu- forms are enumerated in 804, 

VII. PKHrncT MinnLK Systkm. 

698. {Perfect and Pluperfect Middle.) The stem of the 
perfect and pluperfect middle is the reduplicated verb stem, 
to whJcli the entJings are directly affixed. E.g. 

Avuif AcAu-^'jLt, At'Au-crat, Ac'Aurat, A«'Av-<t^€, kikv-vrai] i-XiXv- 
fxrjv^ i-kiXv-fxcSay f-Ac'A v-rro ; XcL7r<jj(X€L7r-), XtXiLfx-fjuiL (lb), Ac'Acti/rat, 

XiXcLTT-TaL. 

For the inflection, see 480. 

699. The stem may be modified (in general as in the first per- 
fect active), by lenglbcning its final vowel (635), by changing < to 
a in monosyllabic liquid stems (045), by dropping v in a few verbs 
(017), or by metallu'sis (040); as <^tAe-w, 7r«^t'Ai7-/jtat, l'7ri<^iX-rf 
p.-qv\ <f)0<.Lp(x) (<}>6<.p-)y €4>0ap-fxaL, €<^ddp-p.r}v\ Kpivfa (Kpiv-), KiKpL-pxuLj 
i-KtKpi-p.r}v\ jidXXui (^aA-, y?Aa-), l^f/SXTj-pm, i-pcfiX-q-p^-qv^ (See 
684.) 



15G INFLECTION. [700 

700. When V is not dioppcil before fjuai (G17), it is generally 
roplaoed by (j (S3), ami it sojuetirnes becomes p. (78, S) ; as <j>aivo> 
(<j>av-), 7ri(f>'JLcr-{w.L, i-nKpao-- }j.r]v '■, o^yi'oj (o^uv), sharpen^ (L^vfJi-fmL. 
Before endings not beginning with fx, the original v reappears; 
as 7r6<j>av-TaL, 7rii^(xv-0(.\ but forms in v-crat and vao (like Tri<j>o.v-(ju.L, 
i-7r^<f>av-Go) seem not to occur. 

701. Ill tlic third person plnral of the perfect and pluperfect 
middle, conso:i:iht stems are compelled to use the perfect participle 
with etWand r)a:iv (ISG, 2). 

Here, ho\V(?vor, the Ionic endings arai and aro for vrai and mro 
(777, :]) are occasionally used even in Attic prose; a>s riTdx-arai 
and iTtrd^-aTo ('riiucyd.) for rcrayfxivoL < ten' and t](j<xv. 

702. 1. I'^or peiTects in a/x/wit of GTpl<j>ui, t/jcVoj, r/jt^oj, see G4G. 
2. For tlie addition of cr to certain vowel stems before endings 

not l)eginniiig with or, as TCTc'Acorftat, see G40, 

703. {Future Perfect.) The stem of the future perfect 
is furmed by adding a%' to the stem of the perfect middle. 
It ends iji oro^ai, and has the inflection of the future mid- 
dl(i (GG2). A short final vowel is always lengthened before 
crofMaL. E.g. 

Avo), At-Au-, kiXv-aofJuat\ y/ja^-oj, yi-ypa<j>-, yty pdipofJuai (74); 
AttTTW, AcAttTT-, AcActy/o/juat ; Sf'o), biyidy St'Sc//at (039), StSyj-aofjuai ', 
vpunTCTii} (rpuy-), rreTrpay-, irCTrpd^opju.i. 

704. The future perfect is generally passive in sense. But it 
ha.s a middle Jiieaning* in fitfivrpOfMH, shall ranc)iibe)\ and rrtTruiJoro- 
/xat, .<}i(iJl hai^e cfasnd; and it I? active in KCKTTJGOfjuu, shall possess. 
It is found in only a small numl>cr of verbs. 

705. N. Two verbs have a special form In Attic Greek for tlie 
future ])erfect active ; OvrjaKio, die, has reOvtj^ti)^ shall be dead, formed 
from tlie perfect stem r^OvrjK-; and Xcrr-qixL, set, has eVrvJ^cu, shall 
stand, from l(jTr)K-, stem of perfect hjr-qKa, staml. In Homer, "^'e 
have also Kcy^apyju-o) and Kt)(apr/rrofjiaLy from y^atpof (;^ay5-), rejoice; 
and KCKu,^Ti'i<Tui (iiTeg.), fioin x^^^ (X'^^)' y^^l^^- 

706. N, In most verbs the future perfect active is expressed by 
the perfect participle and taofxai (future of ct/jtt', be) ; as cyvwKort? 
iaofjLtOa, tve .shall have learnt. The future perfect passive may also 
be expressed in this way ; as aTTT^AAay/icVot la-6p.f.Ba, we shall have 
been freed. 

VIII. First Vassfve SvfiTFM. 

707. {First Aorist J'asHive.) The stem of the first aorist 
passive is formed by addinj^ $€ to the stem as it appears in 



712] seconh passive system. 157 

the perfect middle (omitting the reduplication). In the 
indicative and infinitive, and in the imperative except be- 
fore yr, 0€ becomes % It has the secondary active end- 
ings (552), and is inflected (in general) like the second 
aorist active in t^^ of the fii-fovm (078). E.g. 

Avw, X^Xv-fULLy iXvOrjv (XvOf]-) ; AttTrw, Xc'A«t/a-/xat, €Xc(<l>$rpf 
(XciTT-drj-, 71); Trpda-aw (irpdy-)^ TrtVpdy/xat, i-Kpay6r)v (Trpdy-Orf-) ', 

TTiLOis), 7r€7r CLG-fJUDLL, llTtCd-BiqV \ <f>lXtO)j 7rt<f>LX7J-fW.L^ i<f}LX'I^OTJV y TtAc'oJ 

(ttAv), 7r«7rAcvo--/iut, iTrXtvaOrjv (641); tclvo) (t«»^), rha-fjuai, It6.0i)v 
(047) ; /idXXu) (^oA-, pXa-), Pi/^Xrjfjiai, €^Xr}$r)v\ rtAto), rcriXiKT'imi 
(640), tr{.XiG6rjv\ oxouw, ^Koucr^t, yjKowrBiqv. See 480. 

708. K. TptVu) has TtTpafifjuat (040), but iTp€<pOr)v (Ion. hpd- 
<l>Or}v) \ rpc(/)oj has TtOpafifxai, iOpi<^dy}v\ and (jTpt<f>o) has tarpafx- 
fjuiL, with (rare) €(jTpt<f)Orjy (Jon. and I)or. iaTpa^yO-qv). <I>aiVw has 
7r€0a<rjaat (700), but (.<^av6r)v> 

709. N. N is added iu Homer to some vowel stems before 8 of the 
aorist passive; as iSpi/w, e.rect, 'ibpv^ai, iSpvv-Ovi', as if from a stem in 
x>y (Attic ISptdiji'). So Hoiii. iKUvdr)v and iKplvSr^v (647), from original 
stems ill v. 

For ^T^^T;f froui -ridi^ti.f. (^f-), and ^tu^t;*' from ^6w, saci-i;fce, see 96,3. 
For i6p40Or}v from rp^<poj, nourish, and other forms with interchange- 
able aspirates, see i*6, 5. 

710. {First Future Passive.) The stem of the first future 
passive adds <j%- to the prolonged stem (in Orj) of the first 
aorist passive. It ends in Orjo-ofiaLy and is inflected like the 
future middle (G62). E.g. 

Aioj, tXvOrjv, XvOijaofxai (stem XvOr}<T%-) ; A«tVa), iXu<^$rjv, A«t- 
<^Br)<TOpjcii\ Trpacrcrw (-Trpdy-), €Trpa^6ijVf TrpaxBrjcofJUU', ttclOuj, IttCl- 
(rOrjVj TTiiaOijijOfiair ; T€tVw, tTaOrjv. jaOricropxxL ; irXiKijiy €TrXi')($r}Vy 
TrXt)(67')<TOfjuai ; rlpAw, tTlfiijOYjVi rlfxyjO-jaofxaL ; TtA«a), iTiXfcrOrjv, 
TiXcaOrjaofxaL ; »f AzVtu, iKXiOrjv, KXiOijcrOfxai.. 

711. The first passive system rarely appears in verbs with 
monosyllabic liquid stems (645). But TctVw (rcy-), stretch (647), 
has irdOrjv and TaOyjo-Ofxai. 

IX. Si:coNi> Passive Systkm. 

712. {Second Aorist Passive.) The stem of the second 
aorist passive is formed by adding e to the verb stem (in 
the second class, to the weak stem, 31). In the indicative, 
infinitive, and imperative, except before vr (707), « becomes 
15. The only regular modification of the stem is the change 
of < to a (C45). For the inflection, see 482. Kg, 



158 



INTLECTION. 



[713 



BAaTTTw (fiXafi-), hurt, ifiXdjSrjv; ypd<f>i>i (ypac^-), writey iypd(j>y}v; 
ptiTTUi {p(.<f>-), throw, €ppL<l>Y)v; <^aiV<xJ (<^ai'-), i<f>dy7jv\ crrpii^iii, turUf 
i(TTpd<^Y]v{i)'i a ); repTTiOy ujiiuse, iTdpmrjv ; o-r('AA(j(ff tcA-), ^cjjc/, ecrrdXrjv, 

713. N. TLX-jcGix} (irkrjy-), strike, lias 2 aor. pass. iirXijyrjv, but 
in composition ii-eirkdyrjv and KaT-e7rAay7;i' (from stem TrAay-). 

714. N. Some verbs have both passive aorists; a-s ^ActTrro) 
(PXafi-),hurt,ifiXd<f>OY]v Ciud fpXd/ir)v\ aTpt<j>ii}j turn Jar pi4>Biqv (rare) 
and i<xTpd<f>r)v (040). TpcVoj, turn, has all the six aorists: tTpiipa, 
<Tpc\lfdp.r}Vy hpairov (epic and lyric), ^rpaTro^xtjVy iTpi<}>6y}Vy eVpaTTiji/. 

715. {Second Future Passive.) Tlie stem of tlie secoud 
future passive adds cr%- to tlie ])i'olonged stem (in -q) of 
the second aovist passive. It enda in r]<TO}mi and is inflected 
like the first future (710). E.g. 

BAaiTToj (fiXap-), ijSXdfitjv, /3Xapr]-crofJiaL\ ypd<f>iii, iypd(j>Y]Vy ypa<f>7J- 
(TQfjuiL; <f>aLV(i} (cf>av)y i<l>dvrjv, (f>avij' (rop/xL; (ttcAAw (o*t«A-), iorrdiXrjv, 
araXrj-uopucii ; orrptKfxoy iaTpdc^rjv, OTpa<^r^oopjiH. 

716. N, Tlie weak stem of verbs of the second class, which 
seldoTU appears in other tenses tlian the second aorists (042), is 
seen especia]ly in the second ]>assive system; as crrjirin {cratr-), cor- 
rupty i<rdn7)Vy (Ta7n]<TopuiL ; t->]k<j} (raK-), melty eraKYjVy piiD (pv-)yjioiv, 
ippvr^Vy pv-qcropuai] ipeirrix) (eptTr-), throw downy rjpLTrrjv (poetic), but 
1 aor. rjpiL<f>Oy}v (tpetTT-). 

717. The following table shows the nine tense stems (so 

far as they exist) of Xvo), ActVoj, Trpao-o-oj (Trpay-), ^atVo) 

(<f>av-)i and (TTtAAoj (o-t«A-), with their sub-divisions. 
Tense System., 



Present. 


\v%- 


Xtnr%- 


irpd(r<r%- 


<i.aiv%- 


o-T<XX%- 


Future. 


Xva-%- 


Xii4;%- 


^9h^%' 


4»avi%- 


^Ti\i%- 


I Aorist. 


Xvo-o- 




iTpd|a- 


(Jn^va- 


CTTtlXtt- 


2 Aorist. 




Xnr%- 








1 Perfect. 


XcXvKtt- 






'n-«i)a'yKa- 


co-ToXKa- 


2 Perfect. 




XlXoiTTtt- 


ircrrpd'ya- 


Trt4>T]va- 





iXa- 



Perf. jPerf. X«Xu- XtX*nr- 
Mid' JFiiL.P.X«Xi<r%- X<X«4%- 



ir€Trpd5%- 

IPass.i-^^^- ^^^*<^^)- X«L4>e«(ti). irpdx0<(il)- <i)ave«(il)- 
Fut. XveT]<r%- X<nj>eTio-%- irpax0n<r%- <i>aveT^(r%- 

Aor, 4)avt(T))- 

Fut. 4>avii<r%- 



2 Pa5&. 



IJ. 



icTToX- 



<rTaXe(ii)- 



V24J SUBJUNCTIVE. 159 

FORMATION OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS AND 
THE PARTICIPLE. 

SUli./UNCTIVE. 

718. T])e subjunctive ]ia.s the priiiiary endings (552) in 
all its tenses. In all forms (oven in verbs in /At) it has a 
long theumtic vowel %- (5G1, 2). 

719. {Common Form.) In the ccmnnon form of inflec- 
tion, the present and seeond aorist tense steins change ^/t- 
to %-, and the iirst aorist tense stem cliangcs final a to *"/,,-. 
All have w, i^?, t) in the singular, and wat for invai (78, 3) in 
the tliird ])(>rson ])lural, of the active. E.g. 

AftVoi, pres. snhj. Xuttuj, Xcittu/mxi, 2 aor. AiVcu, Xiyrti)pjaL; Auw, 
1 aor. Xvcru}, XixnjjfMxi. 

720. A ])fcrfect subjunctive active is rarely formed, on the 
analogy of the present, by changing final a of the tense stem to 
^In-; as At'Au^'a, A€AuV<<j; €tkr^<pa, ilXi]<l>u). (See 731.) But the 
more common form ot tiie t«:n.se is tlie pei-feol active participle 
with <Z (subjunctive of ttV, be) ; as AcA^jku;? J, ciA7j(/>oj9 w. 

721. Tlio perfect subjunctive middle is almost always 
expressed by the perfect middle participle and ol j as AtAv- 
/levos ui, tJs; rj, etc. 

722. A few vej'bs witli vowel stems form a perfect subjunc- 
tive middlL* directly, by adding ""1^,- to Uie tense, stem ; as KToi-o/xat, 
acquire, pf. kIkt.-j^l, poascss, subj. KCKxojfUxt (forKC-KTi^-w/mt), Kt/rrj, 
KiK-njrai; so fxifjiytjaKw, i'emitu!, fjLtfjunjfxai, rememher {meuiini), subj. 
fxip.vCifxo.Ly fxcfivilifjicda (lldt. fjitfjiv(.wfji<Oix). Tlieise follow the analogy 
of tcTToi/Aai, -yj, -rjrai^ etc. (724). (For a similar optative, see 734.) 

723. (Mi-fonn.) In all /xt-fonnSj including both passive 
aorists (5C4), the final vowel of the stcjn is contracted with 
the thematic vowel (^oovyj), so that the subjunctive ends 

ID <Z) or u}fjLat. 

724. 1. Verbs in rjfit (with stems in t- and a-) have o>, J«, if, 
w/xat, yj, rJTai, etc., in the subjunctive, as if all had stems in c. Thus 
tarrjfxi (crra-) has terries, '■^'^ij' tcrr^Tai, ctt^s, o^ttJ, etc., as if the 
uncontracted form were i<jt£^, not la-Ta-u>. These verbs have 
Ionic stems in t- (see 788, 1). 

2. The hiflection is that of the subjunctives ^tAw aud cfyiXCtfjuu 
(492). 



160 INFLECTION. [725 

726. For the inflection of the aorist passive subjunctive, with 
< of the tense stem contracted with o> or 77, as kvOu) (for Av^c'-w), 
KvdCifiiv (for Xv6i.-ix)fAcv), etc., <j>avCi (for <jiavi-<i>), etc., eee 480, 3. 

726. For a few subjunctives of the simple perfect of the /in- 
form, as €<rT0J (for ccrra-w), ^c^ui<rt (for ^c^a-<i><Tt), see 508. 

727. Verbs iu wfu (with stem in o) have by contraction ai, aJ?, 
(p, etc., uj/wtt, w, wToi, etc. (for o-w, o-7j«, o-ij, o-oj/juii, etc.) ; as StSwfu, 
subj. StSoi, StSw?, StS(o; StSto/AOi, StSw, StStoTttt, etc. 

728. Verbs in ku/u form the subjunctive (as the optative, 743) 
like verbs in w; as BtUyvfUy subj. Scikvv-o), SuKvv-wfjuai. 

729. N. Awa/AOi, can, cVt<rra/Aai, undetstand, Kpi^fjxkL, ^^"^j 
and the second aorist iirpui^rjv, haughty accent tlie subjunctive (as 
the optative, 742) as if there were no contraction; thus Swwfjutxi, 
eirto"Tu)fuu, Kpi}JMfJiaiy irpiw^wx (compare iiB^pxii). 

OPTATIVE, 

730. 1. The optative adds the secondary endings (552) 
to the tense stem, preceded by the mood suffix (5G2) t or n; 

(t<); as XvoiTt (for XiJo-t-rt), Xn-TixCrjV (for lura-i-q-v) , XvOtltv 
(for \vBt-u~v), For tlie ending jat, see 731. 

2. The form irj appears only before active endings. It 
is always used in the singular of ;j(.t-forms with these end- 
ings (including the aorist passive, 564, 7) and of contracted 
presents in oi-qv and ojT^k of verbs in aw, €<u, and ow. After tij 
the first person singular always has the ending v. See ex- 
amples in 737 and 739. 

3. Before the ending y of the third person plural u is 
always used; as Xiouv (for Xvo-u-v). 

4. In the second person singular middle, ao drops <t (564, 

6); as Xcrraio (for laTa-i-<TO, Io-tci-l-o). 

731. {Verb^ in oj.) Verbs in o> liave tlie ending ^i (for v) 
in the first person singular \n all tenses of the active voice. 
In the present, future, and second aorist systems, the the- 
matic vowel (always o) is contracted with t to ot, giving 
ot/xi, ot«, ot, etc., oi^r}v, oto, oiTOy etc. In the first aorist sys- 
tem, final a of the tense stem is contracted with t, giving 
at/xt, a«, at, etc. (but see 732), ai^x-qvy ato, atTo, etc. The rare 
perfect active (like the subjunctive, 720) follows the anal 
"ogy of the present. E.g. 



ni) OPTATIVE. 161 

Ac'yoi/At (for Af-yo-t'/xt), Acyot? (fo^ Acyo-is), Ae'yoi (for Acyo-t), 
XcyoiTC (for Acyo-i-re), Atyotcr (for Atyo-K-v). AttTTw, 2 aor. Xlttoiju 
(for At7ro-i-/i.t), AtTTOtcr (for Xnro-u-v). Avaai/u (for Avo"a-t-/u)j 
\v(Taifx€v (for Aucra-t-^€v), Xv(Tatfxr]v (for A{;cra-t-/i.7;v), Avcratcr^« (for 
Adcra-i-cr^c). Perf. ciXr)<^a, opt. itXrjipoifiiy etc. 

732. The Attic generally uses the so-caJled Aeolic terminations 
€01?, €t€, and «(av, for at?, ai, atcv, in tlie aorist active; as Avcrctas, 
Aucrctc, Aucrtmv. See Avcu and <^atW in 480, 1 and 482. 

733. The perfect middle is ahnost always expressed by the 
perfect middle particiiile and cirju; as XcXvfjc.(yo<; clr^y (see 480, 2). 
The perfect active is more frequently expressed by the perfect 
active participle and tl-qv than by the form in oi/xt given in the 
paradigms; as AtX-uKto? €t7;v. (See 720; 721.) 

734. I. A few vei'bs witli vowel stems form a perfect optative 
middle (like the subjunctive, 722) directly, by adding i~p.r)v or 
o-L-firjv to the tense stem ; as KTaoyjo.Ly pf. KCKTrj-fmiy opt. KtKTrjfMTjv, 

KCKTIJO, KiKTrJTO (for KCKTrf-L-flT^V^ KCKTIJ-L-Q, KCKTlJ-i-To) , etC. ; alSO 

Ki.Kr(^p.r}v, KCKTi^o, hcktQto (for KCKTr^o-i-fijjyj etc.) ; so /xt/ivj/o-Ko), 
fji.tp.vr)fJUOii, opt. fj.£p.\r^ fxTjv OY fJL€fxv<^fxr]V \ KoAtcu, KCKAi^/xat, opt. KiKXyj- 
fxijv, KiKXyjo, KCKXrjfJicOa; and ySoAAo), fi^^XrjfJboXy opt. ^ia.'lii.pX-Q<j$<., 
So Horn. XiXvTo or XtAvKro (for AtAu-t-ro or AtAu-i-j/ro), perf, opt. of 
Xvui. Compare haivvroy pro.s. opt. of Salvvfxi. 

2. The forms in <ofj.T}v belong to tlie common form of inflection 
(with the thematic vowel) ; those in rjfirjv, etc. and vro have the 
/it-form (740). 

735. A few verbs have oirjv (737) in the second perfect opta- 
tive; as €KTri.<^ivy(x^ iKTrt^tvyoirjv. 

The second aorist optative of ?;(a>, have, is (xxoirjv, but the regu- 
lar (T^otfxL is used in composition. 

736. A very few relics remain of an older active optative -with v 
for fii in the first person suigular; as rpi<t>Oi.-v fov rp^<pot-^i, aixdproi-v 
for dfjLdpTOi'fJ.i (from aVaprdvw). 

737. {Contract Verbs.) In tlie present active of contract 
verbs, forms in 117-^, 17^-9, 17^, etc., contracted with the the- 
matic vowel o to otT^f, of>j9, oi-qy etc., are much more common 
in the singular than the regular forms in ot^t, ot?, ot, but 
they seldom occur in the dual and plural. Both the forms 
in oLriv and those in ot/it are again contracted with an a of 
the verb stem to w}v and (u^i, and with an c or o to otijv and 
ot/it. E.g. 



162 INFLECTION. [738 

TifjuorO-LYj-v, TLfm-oirjVy rlfxtorjv; <^iX€-o-i)j-i/, <^iXc-on;y, <}>ikoLyjv'^ 
orjXo-o-iTj-p, or}Xo-o{r}y, h-qXolrjv ; rlpja-o-L-fu^ Tlfm-OL/ju, tI^wju ; <j>iXc-o- 
L-fiL, (^tXt-ot/Ai, </)iXoI/ju; hrjko-o-L-fXL^ 817X0-01/JU, StjKol^u. (See the 
inflection in 492.) 

It is only the second contraction which mates these contract 
forms. 

738. For the optative pLy(Lr)v, from piywa, skiver^ see 497. 

739. (Mt-/orw.) 1. Tlie present and second aori.st active 
of t]ie jUi-forin, and both aorists passive in all verbs, have 
the suffix it;, and in the first person singular the ending v. 
Here a, c, or o of the stem is contracted with irj to airj, €117^ 

or 0117 ; as la-Ta-L-q-v, [o-Tairjv ; CTTa-tTy-/xey, crTaLr}p,€v J kvOe-Lnj-Vj 
\vU€L-qv ; oo-LTj-Vj ooi-qv. 

2. In the dual and plural, forms with i for ir), and u-v for 
ir}-<Tav in the third person ])lural, arc much more common 

than the longer forms with t?;; as orai/zer, orairc, arauy 
(better than o-TaLrj^cvj crTaiyTc, cTTaiTjcrav) . See 506. 

740. In the present and second aorist middle of verbs in 
ijfu and o>/xi, final a, c, or o of the stcjn is contracted with 
t into oi, €L, or 01, to which the simple endings fxyjVf etc., are 
added. E.g. 

*I(TT(u^r)v (for LcrTa-i-p.r)v), tfrraio, lO-ratTo; OcLfJirjv (Oe-L-firjv)^ 
$€L0 ($€-L-(To, $t-L-o)y $tiTo\ Soi/xT^i' {ho' I- p.-qv) . See the inflection in 
506; and 730, 4. See also the cases of perfect optative middle 
in jiixiQv and vro in 734. 

741. N. The optatives TL$oip.r)v, tlOoIo, tlOoIto, etc. (also 
accented tlOolo, tlOolto, etc.) and (in comjiosition) Ooifi-qv, 6olo, 
OoLTo, etc. (also accented ctvv-Oolto, Trpoa-BotaOe^ etc.), as if 
formed from TtOitu (or Tiduy), are fonnd, as well as the regular 
nOufxrjv OeLfxr^v, etc. See also -npooLTO and other forms of Ty)}U 
(810, 2). 

742. N. Awa/xai, iirLaTafuciL, Kpcfiafxat, and the second aorists 
i-rrpidfJLr)v (605) and <^v^^^rJv (froni ori'ioj/xt), accent the optative as 
if there were no contraction; Svvaifirjv, Svvaio, SvVatro; ^TrCdraLTO^ 
ivLCTTaKTOc, Kp€fMuo, vpuxLOy TTpLaLVTO, ovaidBi. For the similar sub- 
junctives, see 729. 

743. Verbs in vv^l form the optative (as the subjunctive, 
728) like verbs in <d; as SttKi/iJ/xi, opt. S<i»fvuotfit, Setifi'voi/w.-iyv 
(inflected like Aijot/At, Xvoipi-qv), 



762] IMPEKATJVK. 163 

744, N. Second aorists from stems in v of tlie /xi-form (as 
<8vv) hiive no optative in Attic (see 500). But Homer Jiaa a few 
fonuij like Bvr], Bxifjicv (for Sv-trj^ 8u-i-/x<i'), from cSw. 

746. A few second perfect optatives of the /xi-fonn are made 
by adding ltj-v to steins in a-; as Tidvairjv (for TC^a-i7;-K), co-roiV 

(OUy), See the enumeration of /At-l'ornis, 804. 

IMPERATIVE. 

746. {Common Form.) The present and the second 
aoi-ist active and iDiddle of the common form have the 
thematic vowel t (o before rrojr), to which the imperative 
endings (553) are affixed. But the second person singular 
in the active Jias no ending; in the middle it drops o- in ao 
and contracts c-o to ov. E.g. 

AttTTC, XetTTf-Tw, Xuttotov^ Xan(-r<i}Vy XttVe-Tc, Act7ro-»/Tojv ; XctVoxj, 
XcLiri-crOiiiy X.(.LiT(.'<Tdov, kuTTi-aOiiiv^ AciVc-cr^t, X€t7r£-o"^ojv. So Xart 
and AtTTOu, 

747. Tlie first aorist active and middle are also irregular in 
the second person singular, where the active has a termination ov 
and tJie njJddJe ai for final a of tlie stem. In other persons they 
add the regular endings to the stem in era- (or a-). E.g. 

Avcroi', Ai;o"a-Taj, Xviia.-TOVy Kvad-Tuiv, Avcra-rc, Xvcrd-vroiv ; Avcou, 
AOcTtt-fr^oo, Xvda-uOc, Xvaa-aOfjiiv. ^rjvovy (fn/jva-rm, etc ; xjyrjvatj <l>r]vd- 
o-^tu, <f>rjva-(jOi, <fiTjvd-(TO<i)v. 

748. 'i1ie perfect active is very rare, except in a few cases of 
the f4.i-fonu (508) witli a present jneaning. Hut Aristophanes has 
KCKpdyir€, screech, from Kpa{o> {Kpay-), and Kcx^vert, (jape, from 
)(da-KU) {)^uv-). 

749. Tiie tiiird person singular of the perfect passive is the 
only form of perfect imperative in common use; for this see 1274. 

750. N. The ppnanH persai^ singular of the middle occasionally 
occurs as an emphatic form; as TrtVavcro, slop.' 

761. N. The perfect imperative in all voices can be expressed 
by the perfect participle and 'aOi, taTot, etc. (imperative of tl^u, 
be) ; as dprjfxtvov «Vr<i>, for ilprjdOu}, let tV kave been said (i.e. let what 
has been said stand), Trtrriicrixivoi iCTTujv, suppose them to have been 
persuaded. 

762. (Mt/orm.) Tiie present imperative of the /it-form retains 
6i in the second person singular active only in a few primitive 



164 INFLECTION. [763 

verbs; as in </>a-^i from i)>rjfiL (<^a-), say, l-Bc from cZftt (i-), ^o, tcr-Bi 
from £i/it, fte, and from oZSa, A-now. (See 806 ; 808 ; 812 ; 820.) 
For Homeric forms in ^t, see 790, 

763. The present active commonly omits Ol in tbe second 
person, and lengthens the preceding vowel of the stem (a, 
t, 0, or v) to 7), it, ov, or u ; as Larrf, tlOci, SiSou, and SiiKVV. 
The other persons add the regular endings (553) to the 
short stem ; as «rra-ro>, Tcjra-Tt, laTd-vTiav ; TtOt'Tu) ; StSo-T« j 

BilKVTL^VTQlV. 

754. The present middle of verbs in 7}fii and ojfu has the 
regular form in cro, aud also poetic forms in cu (for a<xo) and ov 
(for €<T0 and oao), in the second person singular ; as taTacro or 
taT<i>, TiOtcro or ri'^ou, StSoo-o or StSow. But verbs in vpj. always 
retain vcto; ^shtUvv^jdy htUwdo. In the other persons the inflec- 
tion is regular: see the paradigms (506). 

755. 1. In the second aorist active the stem vowel is 
regularly long (7;, o), v\ except before vT<jiv {60^) y aud Bi is 
retained in the second person singular. E.g. 

^tti-Bl (ora-), ottt-tcj, crrT-re, aTa-vToiv] ^ij-Bi, (/3a-), /^tJ-toj, 
I3rj^€f fdd-vT<ov\ yvw-^t, -yvto-ra), yvii)-T€f yv6-vTuiv\ Sv-Bi, Stj-toj, SD-t«, 
Sv-vTiDv, (See 678 and 766, 2.) 

2. But we have ? for Bl in ^t? (from tl-Byj^l), S09 (from StSw/it), 
« (from t7;/At), and (t;^/? (from la^ov, 2 aor. of ^x*^)- These verbs 
have the short vowel in all persons; as Bky Bt-roj, Bi-rt^ Bi-vrmv] 

3. 2T^^t and '/S^^t have poetic forms ard and /3a, used only in 
composition ; as Kard-fid^ coine downy Trapa-ord, stand near. 

756. 1. In the second aorist middle, go drops <t in the 
second person singular after a short vowel, aud contracts 
that vowel with o. E.g. 

'EnpidnYjVt TTpiaao (poet.), Trpcw (for Trpui-o), iBtfxrjVt Bov (for 
d€-(TO, Oco) , ^S6fj.i]v, Bvu (ftji So-cro, 8o-o). liut^ e[jjc St'^o (St^-t^o)* 
Xt'^o (Xt^'^o). 

2. The otlier persons liave the regular endings (553) ; as 
Trpui-aBii} ; Bi-aBujy Bt-cBwv ', SocBu), So-cr^e, S6-aBit}v. 

757. 1. The first aorist passive adds the ordinary active 
endings (^t, r<i>, etc.) directly to Be- {Br}-) of the tense stem (707) 
after which Bl becomes tl (95, 2); as XvBtjti, XvBuj-toj, etc. 

2. The second aorist passive adds the same terminations 



766] INFINITIVE. 165 

to t- (rj-) of the tense stem (712), 6l being retained; as 
<i>6.VTfSLf KJyavj-TiO 'f <JTaXr]-6if (ttqXi^tw, etc. 

3. Both aorists have c-vrmv in the third person plural; as 
XvBi-vrwVy (i>av€-vrwv, a-TaXi-vraiv. 

758. N. A few second perfects of the /u-form have imperatives 
in 6l: see OvrjaKu), TiBvaOi, and Stt'Soy, StSt^t, \i\ 804. 

INFINITIVE, 

759. {Common Form.) The present, second aorist, and 
future active add f.v to the tense stem, tlie thematic vowel 
(here always c-) being contracted with <v to ctv; as \iyuv 
(for Aty-c-ti/), lhf.Lv (for /$-«-«v), Xe^av (for Af^-f-ff) . 

760. N. The ending €v (without preceding c) appears in Doric; 
as yapv-ci/ in Pindar (Attic yr^pvtiv). 

761. N. For contract presents in av (not ^v) for duv^ and oOv 
for octv, see 39, 5, 

762. N. The second aorist in fXv is probably contracted from 
€-€i/, not from i-tiv (759). 

763. The first aorist active substitutes at (of uncertain 
origin) for final a of the tense stem (6(50) ; as Avcrai, <i)r}vai. 

764. Tlie perfect active substitutes t-vai for final a of the 

tense stem; as XfXvK-i-vaiy ytypa </>-«'- vat, 7r€<f)7}v-i-vaL, \€XoLTr-€-vai. 

765. 1. The infinitive middle adds o-^ai to the tense stem 
ill the present, future, and first and second aorists. E.g. 

Ac'yt-a^at, Xiit-uBai, <^atVc-a^aL, <^avtl-(jdai. (for <j>av€t-(j6ai)j 
(jy-qva-a-daLy Auo"a-o"^at, AtTrc'-cr^ai. 

2. Both jDassive futures likewise add o-^at. E.g. 

A.v$T^(j€-<j6aL, X€.L<f>Oi^(T€.'<T$ai, 4>ainjcr<.-<7$aL, (jraXri(jt-<jdai. 

ii. For the perfect middle and the passive aori^sts, see 760, 1 ; 708. 

766. {^U-forms.) 1. The present, second aorist, and 
second perfect active of the ^t-fonn, and both passive 
aorists, add vat to the tense stem in the infinitive. E.g. 

'Icrra-vai, nOi-vai, Si8o-vat, Sct/cvv-vai, crr^-fat, yvw-vat, Si)-vai, 
TcBvd-vat.^ XvO^-vai (707), <^avT]-vai. (712). 

2. In the second aorist active the final vowel of the stem 
is regularly long (G78; Too, 1); as lo-ri^^t (crra-), crr^-mt; 
iPr}V (/3a-), prj-vat.. 



166 INFLECTION. [767 

767. Some fu-fonns have the Jiiore primitive ending tvat (for 
fivai) in the infinitive active. Such are Sovi'at (from old ho-fivaiy 
6o-€vai) ; ^€tt/ai (for Oi-f^vai) ; tlvat, 2 aoj*, of Itj/xi (for <-fivai) ; 
"J j)erf. (ScSuVat (foi* Se-^pyci'at). 

768. ]u all the simple forms of the middle voice (the 
present and socojjd aorisfc of tlie /zt-form, and all perfects), 
vowel stems udd aOai directly to the tense stem. E.g. 

'IcTTa-a^ut, TiOi-aOaLy SiSo-cr^oi, Oc-dOaL^ So-cr^on, l(.'(T$ai (from 
fry/jLt) ; AcAt>-cr^ai, Tcrifi^-aOaL, 8t8r)\(ii-aOaL, ScSo-o-^at, irTa-odca (from 

TTtTO/JUlL, TTTa-). 

769. Consomint stejiis here (7f>8) ;it]d the iuore primitive 
ending ^at (554). Eg. 

'EardA-^ai, AcAct(/>(9at (71), 7rc7rA€';)(-^a(, TCTpt<^-^at, -nK^av-Bai. 
So rja-Oai, prcs. inf. ot ij/xai (ija-), stf. 

rAUTlCIlM.KS AND VKJUiALS IN TO? AND reo?. 

770. All active tenses (except the perfect) and both 
aorists passive add vt to their tense stem to form the stem 
uf the participle. Stems in ovt of the common form have 
nominatives in wt/ ; those of the /Ai-form Iiave nominatives 
in ous. E.g. 

Aiyo)-. ])res. Xtyo-yr-f noni, Xiymy; fut. At^o vr-, nom, Ac'^ojj'; 
1 aor. Xi^a-VT', nom. Ae^a^. <I>utVa) : aov. <f>r]vo.'VT; nom. t^ijvas. 
AciVto: 2 aor. XiTro-kT-, nom. XtTrui*'; 1 aor. pass. Aei<^^c-i'T-, nom. 
XcKfiOu': (TV). Src'AAw (o-roA-) : 2 aor-. pass. araAc-ir-, notn. crra- 
Aci's. "liiTrj/xi: ]ircs. taTa-jT-, nom. laTus, 2 aor. o-ra-vr-, noni. crra?. 
TtO-QfJii : pres. rt^e-ir-, noni. rt^ciV; 2 aoi*. ^c-it-, noin. ^ti's. At'Sw/Jii : 
pves. SiSo-vT-, nom. Si8oiJs; 2 aor. 8o-vt-, nom. Suus. AciKtaJ/xi : 
5£i/c»/y-»/T-, noa). SetKyvS' Aww ; 2 aor. Sv-t^r-, uoiu. So?. 

771. For the inflection of these participles and the formation 
of the feminines, see 335-337. 

772. The perfect active participle changes final a of the 
tense stem to ot in the stem of tlie participle. E.g. 

AtXvKa-, XfXvxor-, nom, AfAu/coj?; Trifprjya-, 7r€<^t}voT-y iJom. 

For the inflection, and for the irregular feminine in ma, see 
335 ; 337, 2. 

773. N. Ho;i)er lias many varieties oi the second perfect participle 
of the ijn-form; in aws, gen. awTos (sometimes adros), fern, auio, as 
7«7awi, ^€(io.u}% ) in Tjwt, gen. t/wtos or »j6tos, fern. •f)v7a, as redynilih Tt- 



?77] DIALECTIC AND rOKTlC KOKMS OF VKUBS IN a 1G7 

6vrjC>T0i or -oTOf, r€Ovr}v'ia (804)- Herodotus lias fwr, fwtra, f6s, gen. 
fwTo?, foiarjs, as €(7T(dis, etc., some forms of wliicli (e.{/. iaT€C}Ta,Ti6vtC}ri) 
occur in Homer. The Attic contracts au*?, auj^a, a6f, to w?, wjo, 6s 
(or ib<i) (34-^), gen. u)tos, tiarj?, etc., but leaves ndvid)^ (2 perfect of 
^vTjffKw) uucontractod. 

774. N. The Ktf-m of the feminine of tiie -second perfect participle 
in Homer often has a siiort vowel when tlie other genders have a long 
one ; as dp-qpij^, dpdpuca ; Tf&rjXtj^, nOdXuia. 

775. All tenses of tlie middle voice add /xc^o to the 
tense stem to form the stem of the participle, Jf^.g. 

Avofxtuo'; {kvo-fxii'o-)^ \vcr6fXCuoi (Xvcro-fxivo-), Xvaa/xti/o? (Xvcra- 
/XCI/0-), taTa/x€vos {lara-fxivo-)^ BifX€vo<i (Oi-fxcvo-), Trpidfxcvo^ {-rrpia- 
fxtvo), XiTTOfJuvcy; (Xiiro-fXivo), XcXv/xeVo? (XcXu-/x€i'0-). 

For the inflection of participles in fxivoq, see ;}*)]. 

776. 1. Tlic stem of tlio verbals in to<: and t<o<; is formed 
by adding ro or t(o to the verb st(;j)i, which g'Ciierally 
has the same form as in the first aorist i^assive (with the 
change of </> and ;)( to tt and k, 71) ; as Xvr6^, Xureo? (stems 

Xv-TO-f Xv-TCO-), aOl*. pass. iXvO-r]Vj T/yiTTTo'?, TTftO-Tt'o? (SttMllS 

TptTT-ro-, TTticr-Tco-), aor. pass, ir pi <I>6yjv f €7ru<j$-qv'f Taxro?, rax- 
T^o^if from Tairao) (stem ray-), aor. pass. iraX'^V^') &p(-TTT6% 

from T/j<'0aj (95, 5). 

2. The verbal in ros Is sometimes e(}uivalent to a ]terfeot 
passive participle, as K/jfro'?, thndedj ra^TO?, ordo.raJ ; but oft^Mier 
it exp)-esses copahUity, as Xvto?, capah/e of bebuj loosed^ (Ikovcttos, 
audible ; Trpa ktos, iAaf ma^ i^e r/ojje. 

3. Tlie verbal in no^ is ecjuivalent to a futui'c passive participle 
(the Latin participle in dus) ; as Xvre'os, f^^'^/ ^"i>^/ /^e loosed, soluen- 
dus ; Tlfjir)Tio<i, to he honored^ Jionorandu:^. (See 1591.) 

For the im}>ersonal use of tlie neuter in nov in the sense of htl 
and the infinitive active, see 1597, 

r>IAr.l£CTlC ANJ) POKTIC I'ORMS; OF VRUIV^^ IN fl. 

777. 1. The Doric has the pei'sonal endings n for at, fxi<i for 
fX€.v, rav for r-qv, (rOilv for aO-qv^ fxtiv for ixrjw, vtl for j/m. The poets 
have fxcaOa fur fx(.Oa. 

2. When a is dropp<'d in crat and <to of the second person 
(505, (>), Homer often heeps the uucontracted forms tat, rjai, ao, €o. 
Herodotus has eat and ao (indie), but generally r) fovrjai (suhj.). 
In II dt. and sometimes in Homer, co may becojne cv. In Honier 
aai and (to sometimes drop a ev(;n in the perf. and plnperf. ; as 



168 INFLIECTION. im 

fjLifivryxL for fxi^injo-ai, iaavo for cacrvao. A lingual Sometimes 
becomes a before aat; as in KtVacraai for KiKah-aat (KCKaa/iai). 
For Ionic contract forms, see 785, 2, 

3. The Ionic has arai and aro for vrcu and vto in the third 
person plural of the perfect and pluperfect, and aro for vto in the 
optative. Before tliese endings tt, fS, k, and y are aspirated (<^, x) J 
as Kpv7rr<o {Kpv/S-)y KtKpv<fi-aTai; Xtyui, X^Xi^caraL, XiX^x-aro. Hdt. 
shortens >; to c before arat and aro; as oiVt'-arat (pf. of oikcoj), Att. 
(yKi^-i'Tat; iriTLfMi-aro (plpf. of rl/Jiaco), Att. crcn/iv^-i^o. Horn. 
r;trely inserts 5 between the vowel of a stem and araiovaTo; as 
€Xy)Xc-h-aTO (iXavvoj) ; see also paivo). 

Tlie forms arat and aro sometimes occur in Attic (701). 
Herodotus has them also in the present and imperfect of verbs 
in yxi. 

4. Herodotus has ca, ea?, ti(v) in the pluperfect active, as 
€Tf.Or}jrca\ whence conies the older and better Attic t), r]<;, ii(v). 
Homer has to, y}<;, €i(i/), with «c in lyScc (821,2), and rarely ov, €?, €. 

5. Homer and Herodotus generally have the uncontracted forms 
of the future (in cu) and co/mt) of liqnid steins; as /xcfcw, Attic 
pivio. When they are contracted, they follow the analogy of verbs 
in <u). 

0. The Doric lias atw, crt'o/xui (contracted cru), aovpjOLL or crcvp/n) 
for o-o>, aopjai in the future. The Attic has dovpxn. in the future 
middle of a few verbs (GOO). 

7. In Hoiner a is sometimes doubled after a short vowel in the 
future and aorist; as rcX^'w, T«AcWa>; koAch CKoAco-o-a. In ko^i'^w, 
Hoin. iKOfMLcraa, tKOfxLcrcrdpiyjv, the stem ends in 8 (see 777, 2). 

8. In Hoiner aorists with a sometimes have the inflection of 
second aorists ; as l$ov, I^c?, from Uj/to/Aat, covie ; ^jirjdtTo (more com- 
mon than lpY}(Taro)y from ySaiVw, go. These are called mixed aorists. 

9. In the poets -qaav of the aorist passive indicative often becomes 
cv; as u}pp.yjO(v for {6pp.T^0rjcrav, from oppAu), urge. So dv or (v for 
■j^aav or caav in the active of verbs in p.L (787, 4). 

778. Homer and Herodotus have iteralive furms in (jkov and 
aKop.r)v ill tlie imperfect and second aorist active and middle. 
Homer has them also in the first aorist. These are added to the 
tense stem; as e^^u), in^pf. i^^i-crKOv ', cpuu), 1 aor. ipv(Ta-<rKc; c^ctry'oi, 
2 aor. (<j>vy-) <fivy€-(TKov\ icrTtjpL (ara-), ora-orKc; 5i'Sto/xi (So-), So-aKi. 
Verbs in €a) have n-aKOv or c-<xkov in the imperfect; as KoXtc-a-Kov ; 
7rwX<-o-K€TO (dropping one c). Verbs in aa> have aaorxov or aa-Kov; 
as yoaa-oTATf, yLKd'<T*:ofj.iv. Karejy otlier verbs have acTKov in the 
imperfect; as KpvTTTadKov from KpvirTu). 



781] DIALECTIC AND POETIC FORMS OF VEItBS IN n. 169 

These forms, are inflected like imperfects, and are confined to 
the indicative, and denote repetition; a.s TrwAfo-Kcro, he went (regu- 
larly). They generally (in Hdt. always) omit the augment. 

For /xt-fornis with these endijjgs see 787, 5. 

779. Some verbs have poetic stems, made by adding d%~ to 
the present or the second aorist tense stem, in wliich a or t (rarely 
u) takes the jjlace of t)ie tliematic vowel; as a^vvad%-, BnDfia$%-f 
<j>XcyiO%-, from dfJLVi'o}, ward ojff Sicukoj, pvrsuCj 4>\(yuj, hurtu From 
these special forms are derived, — .sometimes presents, as <^Xtyt^w; 
sometimes imperfects, as iBio}f<a$o)' ; sometimes second aorists, as 
eaxcdov {<JX<.0%~) ; also subjunctives and optatives, a>s eiKaOoif 
CLKdOoifii, dfi-vvdOoLTo '^ imperatives, as a.fj.vv6.0aTt^ dfiwdOov ; infini- 
tives, as dfxvvdOeiv, SuDKaOciVj ciVa^ai/, (T)(iduv \ and participles, 
as eiKdOijJVj (j)(iOd)v. As few of these stems form a present indica^ 
tive, n^iany scholars consider iBn^KaOov, cpyaOov, etc., with the 
subjunctives, etc., second aori^ts, and accent the infinitives and 
participles SnnKaOuv^ dfiwaOe'iVy eUaOuif, iiKaOwv, etc., altliough the 
traditional accent is on the penult. 

See in the Lexicon aAxoL^ctv, d/ivvu^u), 8tu)Ka^u>, tiKa^ctv, ipydOt-iVy 
YjepWopxiLy ■^yipiOofJUJ.L, fxiTaKiddiJi, a)(idi\>y ipOivvOui, 4>\ty<:6u>. 

780. (Subjunctive.) 1. In Homer the subjunctive (especially 
in the first aor. act. and mid.) often iias the sliort thematic vovi-els 
€ and (Attic t; and oj), yet never in the singular of the active 
voice nor in the third person plural ; as ipvaaofiiv, dXyTyo-ert, fxvOrj- 
<jo/iai, <v^€ai, BrjXrjcreTaL, u/JtCi'i/'crat, cyii'pofxcv, IfiupiTui. So some- 
times in Findai". 

2. In both aorist passive sultjuiictivcs Herodotus generally has 
the uncoil tracted forms in cio, tw/xtv, kxxti., but contracts €17 and tfj 
to r) and r}\ as d^atpc^c'w (Att. -^w), (^avcojcri (Att. -wfrt), but <pav7J 
and <f>av^T(. (as in Attic). 

3. In the second aorist passive subjunctive of some verbs. Homer 
lias forms in ctoj, jyr;s, t;*;, aopL<v, Tjen (780, 1), as tli(;y are connnonly 
v^'ritten ; as Sa/Ktw (fi"om tBdfJ.r)y, '2 aor. pass, of Sa/^trdoj, subdue)^ 
dapLTJrj^, dapL-jr^y SaptTycre; Tpa-nf.iOfxev (troni ^rdpnrjv-, of rt'pTrw, amuse). 
It is highly jirobable that 7; should be written for a in all per.sons. 
This is more fully developed in the second aorist active of tlie 
/u-forni (see 788, 2). 

4. Tn the subjunctive active Homer often has w/xt, tjctOu^ rjcn; 
as iOtXuifUy i$<.\r}<TBai iOikyjcn. 

781. (Optative.) 1. The so-called Aeolic forms of the first 
aorist optative active iu £ta?, cu, tiav are t]ie common forms in 
all dialects. 



170 IKKLECTION. [782 

2. Homer sometimes lias oiaBa (556, ]) in the second person for 
ots ; as KXaioiaOa. For aro (for vto) see 777, 8. 

782. {Ivfiniiive.) J. Homer often lias /xcvat and fxcv for <.v 
(75!J) in the infinitive active; as aixvvi}x(.v(xii afxvvcfxiv (Attic a/j-v- 
vtLv) ; iXBifjitvixi, iXdifjitv (iXOtlv) ; a^t/xcrai, oj^i^tv (aitiv). For 
tiie porfecl (only of tlie /u-lurm), see 7iJl : tlie i>ert. in eVai does iiot 
occur in Homer. So Horn. /Atfui, Dor. ^cv for vai in tl»e aorist 
pa.ssive ; as oixoMO-j-fxtvai (o/xoioj^^-vut), B(>.t)-fJif.vaL (also Su^-mi), 
Honi.; aicr;^ui'^:9-/Aci' (aiCT;(i;i'^-i'ui), Find. (6ee 784, 5.) 

2. Tlic Doric has et- (7(IU) and the Aeolio rjv for ci^ in the iiifin.; 
thus dciSti' and yap\kv (Dor.) for dttStii/ and yrjpvcLV^ (j>tpyjv and 
t^rjv ( Aeol.) for <j>cpciv and txav, utttjv (Aeol.) for d-rruv. 

783. {Particiide.) TJie Aeolic lias otcra for oucra, and at?, atcra 
for as, (XGiXy in tlie participle; as l)(pLcra, Opi\pai<;, Optipaiaa. 

Si'iccjAi, Dialectic Forms of Contuact Verus. 

784. (Verbs in ao).) 1. In Homer verhs in aw are often con- 
tracted as in Attic. Jn a few cases they remain uncontracted; some- 
times without change, as mUTaoucrt, vauTdijJv, from vaUToio}, dwell; 
sometimes witli d, ab in Trtivuaj, hunyt^r, Supaiti, thirst; sometimes witli 
tov for aov in the imi>erfoct, as p-ivoiviov from fxivoivdix)^ Inng for. 

'2. (a) Tlie Mss. of Humer often give peculiar forms of verl>s in 
ao), by v\'Iiich the two vowels (or tlie vowel and diphthong) which 
elsewhere are contracted are assimilaf^'.ffy so as to give a double 
A or a double O sound. ^ 'J'he second syllable, if it is short by 
nature or has a diphthong wit.li a short initial vowel, is generally 
prolonged; sometimes the former syllable ; rarely both. We thus 
have ad (sometimes da) for ac or arj (aa for act or qt^), and ow 
(sonietimes wo or ojw) foi' ao or aoi (oa> for aot) : 

6p6w for opdw 

opowcri '■'' opdoucri (t.f.opaovcri) 

6p6wa-a " opaovcra (i.e.6paovT-ia) 

ifpdvttv *■'• opdoifv 

opowvrai " opdovrau 

alrtouio ^' alridoio 

(h) The lengthening of the former vowel occurs only when the 
word could not otherwise stand in the Homeric verse; as in 

1 Although these forms are found in all editions of Houuir, yet most 
Homeric scholars are agreed tliat iliey are not ficnuiue, but are early 
substitutes for the regular forms in aw etc. which they represent. See 
Monro, Homeric Grammar (2 ed.), pp. 50-54. 



«paa3 l( 


ir opads 


■opda ' 


' 6pd<t or opdiQ 


opdacrGi ^ 


* 6pd<(r9t 


opdacrOai ' 


' 6pd<o-0ai 


jtvdacrdai ' 


' fivdtcrOai 


opddv '' opddv (Diir. opdev) 



785] SPECIAL FORMS OF CONTRACT VERBS. 171 

■tj^ij>ovT€.% for ^^aovT€s, r^^oioipj. for r/j^doLfit, ^vaaaOai for fivdcaOal^ 
IxvoiOVTO for (€)fxvdoyTo. In this case tlie second vowel or diph- 
thong is not lengthened. But it may be long in a final syllable, 
as in fiivoivaa (for -an), or wlicii laaa or wcrt conies from ovrui or 
ovcTLf as in rj^woaa, Spoiaxn, for rjISu-ovna, Spa-ovai. The assimila- 
tion never occurs unless tlie second vowel is long either by nature 
or by position ; thus opao/Aci/, opatrc, 6pa<ra> cannot become opoiofxu', 
opoarc, opaaro. 

(c) These forms extend also to tlie so-called Attic futures in 
aaoi, acu, ui (O'ia, 2) ; as t Aow, tAoojat, Kpc^om^ Saiid(t, Sa/xoojut, for 
iXddo) (cAaa>), etc. 

IJ. 'J'lie Doric contracts ac and ar; to r/; as bprjn for opatrf, 
cp^^ for opaei and 6pd>/. A jieeuliar form (of contract ion ?) occurs 
in the dual of a few imperfects in Homer, as 7rpo<Taii8i7ri7V' (from 
irpocravBdio), <fiOLTiJTy]u ((^otrdw), avkrJTrjv (cruAdtu). So Horn, opyjai 
(or op^at) for opdeut (Attic 6pa) in tlie jires. ind. middle of opdo^. 
(See 785, 4.) 

4. Jlerodotus sometimes changeq aw, ao. and aov to coo, co, an<J 
<ov, especially in opdw, ciptrjrdw, and 0otrd(ij; as ope'w, 6p«'oj/rc?, 
opcovo-L, ciptJT€Of, €<fiOiTiov. 'J'hcse forms are -tfuorally uncontracted. 

In other cases Herodotus contracts verbs in aw regularly. 

5. Homer sometimes forms tlie iir{;senl iniinilivc active of verbs 
in aoj and cw in ij/Acj/at; as -yoTj^cvat (yodw), Titv^fXCvaL (7ra^'a(u), 
<j>LXijiicvai {4>L\(iii). (See 785, 4.) 

785. (Vf.rh<; in fo>.) ]. Verbs in cw generally remain uncon- 
tracted in both Homer and Herodotus, lint Homer sometimes 
contracts €c or €a to €t, a-s Tapfiti (rdpfiii). Hdt. lias generally 
Set, mu>if, and Sctv, but in]])f. <S^e. iiol.h Homer and Herodotus 
sometimes have cv as a contract ftntu for €o; as dyi'ociirrc*;, 8ta- 
vocwrro: so in tlie Attic futures in kho, irro/xai (CO-'), 3), as KOpxivpSa 
(Hdt.). Forms in cv for con, like oi^KDo-t, TroicOai, are of very 
doubtful authority. 

2. Ilomcr sometimes drops c in cai and co (for co-ut, co-o, 777, 2) 
after e, thus changing c'cat and ceo to c'ai and <'o, as pvOtat iov pvOceat 
(from pvOiopai), diroaipio (for dTroatpcco) ; and he also conlracts 
c'cat and c'co to ciat and cto, as pvBclaL, oXhclo (for ai8cco). Herodotus 
sometimes drops the second c in tco; as <^o/?co, airc'o, i^Tjyio. 

3. Homer sometimes has a form in eno for that in <a>; as vukcluj 
(vnKtio). So in tVcAct'cro from tcAcioj (rcAc'w). 

4. For Homeric infinitives in y^/xevai, see 784, 5. ^opi<i), carrt/, 
has <fiOpTJp.cva.L and <^op^i'ai. Homer has a few dual imi)erfect3 like 
opjOLpT^TYiv (ofWxpTcw) aud aTriLXrjTrfv {diraXfoi). (See 784,3.) 



172 INFLECTION. [780 

786, (Verbs in oo).) 1. Verbs in oa> are always contracted in 
Herodotus, and his Mss. sometimes have tv (for ov) from oo or oou, 
especially in Stxatdo), thiukjuist, 

2. They are always cojitracted in Homer, except in the few 
cases in which they have forms in oa> or ow resembling those of 
verbs in aw (784, 2) ; as dpdwat (from apoo), plough) ] Brjiooxv 2ind 
(impf.) ByjiOiDVTO (from Brjioai). 

DIALECTIC FOKMS OF VERBS IN MI, 

787, 1. Homer and Herodotus have many forms (some doubt- 
ful) in which verbs in rjfXL (with stems in e) and o>/xi have the 
inflection of verbs in to; and ow; as tlOcI, SlSoli^ StSot. So in com- 
pounds of Lr}fu, AS avu7'i (or di'ttt?), fiiOut (or ~Ui) in pres., and 
TrpoUiv^ TTpdUt'i, av'Uiy in impf. Horn, has imperat. Kad-tara (Attic 
-r)). Hdt. has tCTTtt (for Tarj^o-i), inrcp-cTtOia in impf., and irpoa- 
BioLTo (for -OiiTo), etc. in opt. For ihlhovv, etc. and iTiOciiy irCOa 
(also Attic), see 630. 

2. In the Aeolic dialect most verbs in aa>, €a>, and oa> take the 
form in fu ; as (jyiX-qfu (wit,li ff>tkciaOa, <^iXct) in Sappho, for 
</)tA.c'w, etc. ; opyjfxt (for 6pdo})y KoXrjfXLy atv7}p^. 

3. A few verbs in Honi. and 11 dt. drop o- in a-ai and (to of the 
second person after a vowel ; as imperat. iraptuTao (for -ao-o) and 
impf. ifiapvao (Honi.); t^tTriVrtcu (for -aa-ai) with change of a to e 
(Hdt.). So Oeo, imperat. for Oecro (Att. ^oO) and ivOco (Horn.), 

4. The Doric has n, vtl for o-t, vcn. Homer sometimes has crOa 
(556, 1 ) f or o- in 2 pers. sing., as SiSiocrOa (BlSoKrOa or SiSotor^a), 
TLO-qaBa. The poets have v for o-ai' (with preceding vowel short) 
in 3 pers. plur., as tcrrav (for laT-qaav)^ l(.v (for tco-ar), irpoTiOcv (for 
TTpof-TiBtcrav) ; see 777, 9. 

5. Herodotus sometimes has arai, aro for irat, vto in the pres- 
ent and imperfect of verbs in /xi, witli preceding a changed to « ; as 
irpoTiOcaTaL ((or -(.vTai) , ihwcaro (for -avTo). For the iterative end- 
ings (TKov, (Txo/x>?i', see 778; these are added directly to the stem of 
verbs in pn, as lara-crKOVy B6-(tkov, ^lawv-orKCTO, I-ctkov (ilpu\ be), 

G. For poetic (chiefly Homeric) second aorists in rjpr)v, ly.'.'jVt 
vprjv, and from consonant stems, see 800. 

788, 1. Herodotus sometimes leaves <w nncontracted in the 
subjunctive of verbs in r}fu\ as Oiuypiv (Att. Bdpcv), hiaBiiUvrai 
{-BCivrai), ojT-U(i)(XL (Att. d*f>-tw<n, from d^-o;/Ai). He forms the 
subj. with «tu in the plural also from stems in a; as airo-o-Ti-ua-t. 
(-oxwort), i7rtoT«-wvTat (for €Vt(TTa-ovTat, Att. tmo-TwvToi). Homer 
sometimes has these forms with tio ; as Biwfjuvi o-reui/AO' (724, 1), 



793] DIALECTIC FORMS OF VERBS IN MI. I73 

2, Gerjerally, when the second aonst subjunctive active is 
uncontracted in Honiei', the final vowel of the Btem is lengthened, 
t (or a) to rj or «i, o to w, while the short thematic vowels e and o 
are used in the dual and plnral, except before at (for vcri). Thus 
we find ill Honier : — 



(Stcmti in a.) 
fkiui (Atlic p«) 

<^Ti^T], Pnn, p«^, 4>0iii3 

<rTlf|<TOV 

(rTi]oj«v, o-Ttiojitv, <rT^u>ji€v 

(Stems in «.) 



(Stems in 0.) 



Tiie editions of I Tomer retain ct of the Mss. before o and tu; but 
probably ij is tlie correct form in all persons (see 780, 3). 

3. A few cases of the middle inHected as in 2 occur in Homer; 
as ^Xij-traL (ySoAAw), oX-craL (aAAojuai), aTro-OuOfjuai, Kara-SiLOfiaL) 
60 KaTa-Orjau (Uesiod) for /caTa^«-?jat (Att. KaraOrj). 

789. For Homeric optatives of SaivvfxL, SCw, Xvu), and <f>Oiyuj, — 
SaivuTO, ^iirj and SiJ/xtv, AcAijto or A«Avvto, (f>Otfxrjv (for KJiOi-i^rjv), — 
see these verbs in tlie Catalogue, with 734, 1 ; 744. 

790. Homer sometimes retains 61 in the present imperative, as 
St'Sw^i, o/xnj^i (752). Pindar often has 8i8oi. 

791. Homer has /x«vat or fxtv (the latter only after a sliort 
vowej) for vol in the infinitive. Tlie final vowel of the stem is 
seldonj long in the present; as IcrTa-fJitvaiyU-fjitvaL, fitOU-fjicv, 6pvx>- 
fjiivai, ofjvv-fxiv, TiOi-fjicv, but TiOrf-fjitvaL, In the second aorist active 
t}ie vowel is reg'iihnly long (760, 2), as aTrjfjitvai, yvio-fjuvai; but 
rlB-qyiU hiBfUfxi, and irjfiL have OifJLtvai and OifJiiVy hofjifvai and hofxtv, 
and (<fx€v) fjifO'ifjify. (See 802.) In the perfect of the /u-form 
we have €crTCL-/x<vat, tara-yxv^ TcOvd-fJUuaL, riOvd-fJLtv. 

792. Homer rarely has y)fji€vo^ for ifitvo^ in the participle. For 
second-perfect participles in w? (aaj9, cw?, -t^w?), see 773. 

ENUMERATION OF THE MI-FORMS. 

The forms wltli tills inflection are as follows : — 

793. T. Presents in yn. These belong to the Seventh and 
the Fifth Class of verbs (see 619 and 608). 



174 INFLECTION. [704 

794. Those of the Seventh Class are 

1. Verbs iu /xt with the simple stem in the present. 
These are the irregular «t>4 be, cV, go, <i>r]fx[, say, ^fxai, sit. 
and Ktt/xm, lie, which are inflected in 800-818; with -^fxi, say^ 
and the deponents ayafxai, hvuafxai, fViVra/xutj ipafXUL, Kp€fxafW.L. 

See these last in tlic Catalo-in', uiul also Ionic or poetic (chipHy 
J-Ioii^oric) forms under arjixi, S.'a/xat, SUfxyi (stein hu-), 8tCi?ft(u, ihu), 
tXrjfxi, Kt)^di'io, oi/y/xut, pvofxai and €p^o/xai, aivvu (rrtv^iai^ <f>€p(Ji. 

For BdfxvrjpLi and other verbs in t^/^/xt, see 7il7, 2. 

2. Verbs in fxi with reduplicated present stems (G5J), 
Tliese are Lirryjfxt, riOrjfxi, and SiBt.ifxi, inflected in 500, frjfxt, 
inflected in 810, Oi^ijfit (rare ^or St'w), 6i7id, fo'xpyjfjn (xP<^-)> 
/evid, oviviqfXL (y^a-)j hencJU, irifXTrXr^fXL (rrAa-), j/l//, TrifXTrprj/xt 

(Trpa-), ^t6rn. (For the hist five, see the Oiitalogue.) 

See also itrrafmL (late;), and Horn. {iijU^y stri^Hng, present par- 
ticiple ot lare pCfi-qp-i- 

795, N. l\LpirXiqp.i and TrLfx-rrp-qp.L int^ert /i hefore tt ; l)ut tlic p. 
generally disappears after /x (for ^') iji (pL-m7rXtjpiL and €pL-Trt7rpr]fxi; 
but not after v itself, as in iunrLfUTrXdirau. 

796. N. 'OvLvrjfjLL (of uncertain formation) is perhaps for 6v- 
ovrj-piy by reduplication from stem ova-. 

797, Those of the Fifth Class are 

1. Verbs in n"/it, which add w (after a vowel, vioj) to the 
verb stem in the present (G08). These are all infl(;ctcd 
like 8cLKvup.i (50r»), and, except crpivvvp-i, quench (803, 1), 
they have no "Attic //f-forms excfjpt in the ])]-esent aiul 
imperfect. The ioUowing belon<( to this class : — 

(Stt'ms in a), KcpcL-wvpa, Kpt{xd-vvZp.L. 7:€rd~vvupi, aKc8d'Vvvp.i; — 
(stems in t for ccr), oxn^vpi, Kopl-vvvpi, ajii-vx'vp.L ; — (stems in a>), {oV 
wvpiy pw-vvvpiL, (rTpd)'Vvv/jj.\ — (consonanL stems), ay-vvpLt, dp-wpxiL^ 
B^LK-wpLii upy-yvpt, ^eir/-i/vp.L diTO-Krlv'VVpL (ktclvu)), pLLy-vvpHy oty- 
vvpLi (in compos.), oX-Xvfxt, 6p.-vvp.i, 6p.6py-vvp.i, 6p-vvfj.L, Tnjy-vvfjn 
(Tray-), TTTap-wpai, pijy-yvp.t {f>y}y-), orop-vvfju, (Ppdy-viipu- See tliese 
in the Catalogue, and also Ionic or poetic (chiefly llontenc) forms 
undei' aiuvpaiy d^vvpiai, ydvvfju/.i, 8j.LUVp.t, KaCx'vpjiLy Kluvpni, opiy-vvpi^ 
Tdvvpxii (see TftVw), tCuv/juu (see nVw). 

2. Verbs in ur}p.i (chiefly epic), wliicii add ua to the veib stem 
in the present (009), These aie 8dp.ui]/M, KLpujjfxi, Kprjjjunjpi, p.dpva- 
p/xi, TTipirqpXy -nlXvapxiL, -KLXvqpx, fjKLhvi)p.\. (>r Kihrqpi. Many of these 
iiave also forms in vaco. (See the (.)atalogue.) 



800] KNUMfCRATION OF TUK MI-FORMS. 175 

798. Tl. Second Aorists of the fjn-Fonn, The only second 
aoribis iormed from verbs in fxi are those of ir^fxi (810), of 
LirT-rjm, rlO-q^i, and Si'8w/xt (500), of aphvv^i (803, ]); with 
i-npLiXfj-riv (505) ; also the irregular uivrj^-qv (later wvdfxrjv), of 

ovLVTjfjLL, and i-nX-jiJ.iji' (l)Oe,tio) of 7ri/A7rAi7/>tt. 

See also Ilcmicric uorist luidtllo foi'ius of fAyvvfXL, opvvfiL, and 
Tnjyuvpj.^ ill the Catiiloj^ue. 

799. The second aorists of this loriu belonging to verbs 
in tu are tlie follcnvjng: — 

AAiicTKo/AaL (uA-), he udan: cdAwt' or yjX(x>Vj wos iahaiy aAw, 
a\oLr)v, uAwj'at, uAoi's;. (Seti 80;}, '2.) 

BcitVoj {(io.-), (jo: lpr}v, fid, /iutr/K pr^Oi (also /?d in comp.), 
firjvaL, ySas. Hoiu. paT-qv for i/SiJTrjv. 

Btooj (/3lo-), live: (fiiwu, /JlCj, /ftajy;i/ (irregular), ftiCivaL, jiiov';. 
(lloin. itnper. /itwrw.) 

Fr/parTKuj (yr/pa), ////^(/j t'W, 2 aor. inf. y-qpavui (]ioet.), Honi. part. 
y7}pil<i. 

TLyvioTKd) (yvo-)y I^now : (yi'dJi/, yi'ot, yt'Oi'T^w, yi'di^t, yvCjvai, yvOv<;. 

C^tSpdcTKu) (S/ja-), ?■?;>*; cSpai', t8/j(is, t^/J'Jt, clc, subj. S/jtu, Spas, 
S/ju. cLc, Opt. Spalrjv, SpavaL, Spd%. lldt. tSpv^i', Sp^mt, Spa?. Only 
in ooMiposition. (Se'^ 801.) 

Avoj (Sij-), (;j/^c-r; tSuj/, entered (DOG), Si'w, (for opt. see 744), Sv6l, 

QVVU.L, Sv^. 

Kr^tVw (kt€v-, KTa-)y I'ill: act. (poetic) tKTav, €ktu9, tKra, tKTaptv 
('i JjI. CKTui', sultj. KT€(jjp.(.yy inf. KTaptvai, KTapcvy Hum.), Krds. 
Mid. (Hotii.) iKTdpi]v, loan killed^ KidaOaiy KTdp.ivo^. 

TiiTOp'jLL (Trra-, tttc-), /?// .* act. (])0etic) trrTrjv. (tttw, late), Trrai'v^i/ 
(TTTrjOi, TTTyvaL, late), tttu*;. Mid. iTTTapi/jv^ TTTafrOuL, nrdpivoi. . 

[TAfidj] (rAa-), oidwe: crAv^r, xAtJ, tAuo;i/, rXyjOi, xA-^mi, tAu?. 

^^aftu (<f)Oa-)y auiicipate: l4*^r)Vy <f>Ou), <f>0aL7]y, 4>$rjvaL, 4>0d<;, 

4>uu) (<^i;-), produce: t<l>uv, VJas };rodin:ed^ (nu, (/rvuj, <^{;t/at, ^U9 
(lilie t6i;i'). 

Add lo tin-!se the >,inglc forms, aTrotrKA^i^ai, of u7ro<TKtAAtu, (/?•?/ 
up, crX''*' hnpmal. cif t;^tu, /'f/(-c, Trl^t, i III] If Jit t.. of TrtVoj, drink, and 
epic forms of ^vpftdXXoi (bOU, 1) and of xiy^ai'oj (Kt;(ai'w). 

800. 1. Some poetic (chiefly Homeric) second aorists of the 
pt-form in 7)prjv, tprjv, and vpr/v are forjned from stems in u, t, and 
V belonging to verbs in oj. J-^.f/. 

BaAAoj (I3a\-, f3Xa-), throiCy 'J aor. act. (tf^XTju) ivp.-pXrjTr}v 
(dual) ; mid. {IjiXy'jp-qv) efSXrjTo; <i>$(v(jj (<^^t-), wasfe, 2 a. ni. €4>0l- 
fjiT^v; (TCviD (cri)-), urfjcty caavp-qv (in Attic poets lavro, crvp^vo?); 



176 INFLECTION. [801 

See these verbs in the Catalogue. For other Homeric aorists 
see aoj, diravpdiOy jSi^puXTKU), kXvw, kti^oj, Avw, oiTaw, 7r«Aa^aj, ttAww, 

2, Some ave formed from consonant stems, with the simple 
ending fir^v. E.g. 

"XWofjuai (tt\-), Icapj 2 a. m. (aX-/x7^v) aXcro, aXro; 8c;(o;aqi (Stx*)* 
receive, {tBty-firjv) BiKTo; (iXty-firji/) ekcKto, laid himself (o rest (see 
stem XtX')- 

Besides tliese, see dpapio-Koj, y^vTO, grasped, ttoAAoj, TrtpOu). 

3. For tile inflection, see 803, iJ. 

801. N. Second aorists in -qv or afxrjv from stems in a are inflected 
like €<rTrjv or i7rpLdfj.r)v; but tSpdv substitutes a (after p) for 17, 
and tKTui' is irregular. 

802, 1. The second aorists active of TiOrjfjLi, lr}p.L^ and Sc'Sw/xt have 
the short vowel (« or o) of the stem (078; 75r)) in the indicative 
(dual and plural) and imperative (utov, ti/xev.etc., being augmented): 
in the infinitive they have Oihai, uvai, and SowaL, and in the second 
f)erson of the imperative Ocq, «?, and 80?. 

2. As these tenses have no forms for the indicative singnlnr, 
this is suppli(;d by the, irregular first aorists iOrfKa, rJKay and tSwKc 
(670) ; so that the actual aorist indicative active is as follows: — 

tOijKa, iOijKa'i, iOrjKi, tOtTOV, IOIty^v, lOt/xtv, €OcTi, tOi(Tav, 

y}K(x, ^Ka'i, yjKt, ctTOV, cittjv, UfjLtv, UTC, (.laav. 

iBu)Ka^ cSojKtts, iSwKCy cSoTOj/, iSoTTjV, i8o/xf.Vy iBoTC, <Socrai'. 

803, 1. The two other second aorists active from stems in « are 
t<T/3rjv, went out {(j(iivvvp.L, quench), inflecttid like tarijv, and <l7ro- 
<rK\T)vaL, dry up (.(tkcXAoj). See 797, 1 ; 799. 

2. The other second aorists, from stem in o, are inflected like 
tyvwv, as follows : — 

Indie. lyvix)Vy eyi'cj?, tyvtji^ t-yj/wrov, €yvu)Ti}v, tyvdyp-cv^ tyv(i)Tt, 
tyvuyaav. Subj. yvQ} (like Sw). Opt. yvoir}v (like S(ky}v). hnper. yvCtOi, 
yvojTto, yvu)TOv, yi/wTwi^, yvton, •yi/orrwi' (755). Injin. yvijivai. 
Par tic. Yvoi;^ (like Soi;?). 

3. The second aorists otv-^p-y^v Hud <7rX-^fj.y}v (798), ond thp poftic 
aorists in r)piT]Vy Lf/.r)Vy and v}xr)v (800, 1) or in /xtjv from coiisonant 
steins (800, 2), are inflected like the pluperfect middle (G98). 

804. III. Second Perfects and Pluperfects of the pL-Form. 
The following verbs have forms of this class in Attic Greek, 
most of them even in prose : — 

'luT-qpL (ara-) ; see 508 (paradigm). For Ionic forms of the 
participle, see 773. 



806] IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE MI-FORM. 177 

BatVo) (^a-), gn; poetic 2 pf. pijiacri (Horn, fic/^ddcn), subj. 
pi.Pui<jLy int. liijiavai (JJom. /Stpd/itv), part. PtjSm (Horn, flcfiaws, 
fiffiavla); 2 jjlup. (Hon), fitfiaaav). 

TlyvofjxK. iytv', ya-), become^ 2 ]it". -y^'yom, am ; (Horn. 2 pf. ■ycyaacri, 
2 plup. dual ytydriqv^ inf. ycydficv, part, ytyaoi?, ycyama), Att. yeyws, 
ytyuio-ft (pouLJe). 

©yrjcTKio {Oav-, Ova-)^ (lie ; 2 pf. Tc^raroK, TtOvafziVi TcOvdcrL, opt. 
TC^mtTpi', impel'. TtOvaOi, TtSvaxuiy inf. Tc^mi'at (lloni. T€^»/a/A<mt 
or rt^m/icv), part, r«^^'£a)s (773), rt^Kwcra (Horn. rt^jTjois, with 
TC^P'Tjva;?), 2 plup. iridviKjaV' 

A£t'8tu (&t-, St-), e)>ic in pres.,/^ar, Attic 2 pf. St'Sto, St'Stas, ScSw, 
plnr. hihiyitv^ 8f8tr£, ScStWt; 2 plup. IhthUiv^ l^ihicrav^ subj. 8«8t7/, 
StSiWt, opt. 6c8ut77, iniper. Sc'St^t, inf. 8<8t«W, part. 5£8ca>9. (Horn. 
2 pf. Stt'Swj Su'Smxs. Sct8it, pi. SctSi^ti', iinper. 8«t5t^t, Sti'Strc, inf. 
SaStfjLCv, part. SctStw?; plup. «8ctSi^«i', cSct'Sto-ai/, rarely Sct'Ste (777,4). 

[EtKo)] (<(K-, tV-), 2 pf. foua, seewj; also 2 pf. «o;y^£»', tL$d<n (for 
ioLKd<Tt), inf. fiKcVcu, part. tiKcii? (Horn. 2 pf . ICktov, 2 plup. I'CKTriv)^ 
used with the regular forms of loiKa, ii^K-q (see Catalogue). 

Oi8a (tS-), tHow,' see 820 (paradigm). 

See also poetic, chiefly Homeric, forms under the following verbs 
in the Catalogue : di'tuyo), jStPpi^crKii), tyctpco, «p;^o/xat, Kpd^d)^ fjuxLOfJuxt.) 
ira/JX^i TTCt^o), irLTrTojj [tAclo)], ^vcj, and stem (8a-). 

IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE MI-FORM. 

805. The verbs ci/zi' be, tJfXL, go, f-^fjn, send, </>7?/xt', say, rjfmi, 
sit, KUfuii, lie, and the second perfect olSa, know, are tiuis 
inflected. 

806. 1. dfil (stem eo--, Latin esse), he. 

PitERENT. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. Optative. ' Tmperative. 

2. d -Us «ttis «o-et 

Dual i ^* '*'"'^**^ V°^ •^■^<*^ ^^'^ «ttiTOv fo-TOv 

1 3. I<rr6v tJtov ctrt^v or «lVJTiiv €o-t«v 

{1. la-\i(v w(Mv ttjjuv or (Vtijwv 

2. «o-T^ TiTt ftrt or tttiT* ?o-T< 

3. €l<r£ w<ri cttv or €lT|<rav Xcttwv, Jo-Two-av. 

6vT«v 

T-nfiU. tTi^at. Panic, olf, uucra, o^', gen. otrov, ouu7;sj etc. 
Veria/ A djcctive, iario<; {(rvv'tdTtov). 



178 



INFLECTION. 



[807 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 






Imtkukkct. 
IndicuUoc. 

T| or T|V 

TJtrOa 

■^CTTOV or ^TOV 

i^o-n]v or i^Ti^v 

^T( or ^o-Ti 
Tjo-av 



Indicative. 

JEQ-OfJiaL 

<<r(i, co-T) 
tarttL 
cVeaOov 
«o-c(r6ov 

tcovTai. 



FUTUIIE. 

Optative. 
ccroio 

((TOITO 

JeVolctGov 
i'croivTO 



Infinitive. 



Par tic. 



2. Ei/xi' is for €V-/At (footnote on .056, fi), c? for eV-o-t' (€tri)i f<^'' 
eVrt see 056, 1 ; w is for €o> (fV-w), cii^j' for la-iij-v), ftt'at ioi* cV-vai, 
oJi' for cwi' (cV-uit'). tl. For tlie accent, see 14], 3 and M4, 0. Hie 
jiarticiple ulv keeps its accent in composition, as TrupoV, TrapoCt/a, 
TrapoVro?, etc. ; so Igtul (for ttTcrui), us Trapc'crrui. 

807. DiALKCTs. 1. Present hulk, Aeolic c/x/^t, tlie most, prinii-. 
tive form, nearest to l(T-fu (S0C,2). Horn, luai and J? (for J ), ci/x^V 
(for fV/xfV), tao-t, Hdt, «*? and ct/xcV. Doric tJjmi', eVon', ci/xtV and 
ci/x€? (older r/fxiy), hrC (foi' ctcri"). 

2. Imperfect, lloin. -rja, €a, tor; tr^aOa, rjiv, irjV, -tjiqv] iaav (for 
rjaay), Ildt. ta, c'a?, turc. Tonic (iteralive) €0-ko;'. Later 7f<; for 
■^tr^a. Doric ?^ sing. r;<j, 1 ])1. ^/ac?. 3. Fui^'rc. Mom. €a-o-o/x«i, etc., 
with iGcretrai and ttrtrai ; Dor. 1<t(tq, loatlrai., lacrovvTai. 

4. iSu///. Jonic €uj, cjjs, f^ (e.v*^^ V^O^ ^''^•' ^''J<^t; Horn, also ciw. 
0. OJL>^ Ionic tOts, lou 6. hnpcr. Hotn. tcr-ao (a regnlar niitl(31e 
form). 7. Ivjin. Honi. t/x/xcmi, ijj.<yai, Ifxiu, tfxfjuw; i)ov. rjfxev ov 
iLfxiv'y lyric cppe;/. 8. Panic. Ionic and Doric «<uv. 

808. 1. el/Mi (stem /-, Latin z-r*?), c/o. 

Fur: SENT. 



Indicative. 


SlibjitnrMvr.. 


0;)i^f!*U^. 


hnperative. 


fu- 


ctjxi 


l'« 


toi^i or lod^v 




sing. -^ 2. 


d 


*-'T15 


Vo.s 


I'Ot 


-3. 


ttc-u 


l^Tl 


tot 


Vtk) 


Dual{^- 


IVov 


ItItov 


I'OITOV 


IVov 


ItTOV 


I'llTOV 


loiTTlV 


IVwv 


'L 


C(uv 


twjwv 


I'oujicv 




Plur. \ 2. 


trt 


Ct)T€ 


IIOIT* 


tre 


3. 


Votrt 


tuo-i 


lowv tovTOJV, 


Xtujv, nr truxrav 



Ivfin. Uvai. Panic. Iwv, lov<Tti, lov, gen, toWo?, towi^?, etc. 
Verbal Adjective^t itos, irt'os, Ir-qrio';. 



810] 



lli]U:Gi;LAR VEHBS OF THE MI-FOKM. 



179 



Imvehvkct. 
iSiufj. Dual. Plural. 

1 . rfa or fi'tvv iJfitv 

2. Iff us or 'gticrda iJtov tJt€ 

3. ii<L or -Qtiv ■n*'"^*' igo-av or Tf|'<(rav 
Imperfect forms rja/icv and i^ttrt iire riire and doubttid. 

2. In compounds the participle Itoi^ koeps tlie accent of the 
simple form ; as TrapiojWy napLOVfra, TraptojTO?, TrapioDai. (Sou S0G,3.) 

3. Tliu pre.sent dfu generally (aUvayij in Attic) lias a futui'e 
sense, f^hall go, t;iUinj^- tlie place of a luture of Ip^oiuxi, wliose future 
iXivcrofj/iL is rare.Iy (or nev^r) used in Attic prose. 

809. J)iAi.ic(rrs. 1. Present Indie, lloin. flaOa for tt". 2. Imperf. 
Horn. ] ]). >}ia, ijiuv, 3 p. tJu, Ty€, it; dual Ij-qVy pi. 1 p. rjofxtv, 
3 }t. lyiOi', ryi'aui/ (ijaav), '{(jay. 1 1 (It. T^i'u, r/tc, rjlQav. 3. .S'u/y". Jiom. 
LYjcrda, iTjfn. 4. 0/v^ Horn. ittT; (for tot). 0. Jnjin. Horn, l-fjicvai^ 
Of t-/w.ct' (for t-tVut)' J''""^'y 'lff.ii€.vai. 

0. Future, J J on). eiVo/xjii ; /Jorii-f, IIoui. ciVa/xT^r or £cto■d/JnJ^'. 

810. 1. i"?;yLti (stem e), .sv^nc?. 

AC'ilVE. 

PnK?ENT. 

Indkaiivi'.. t^uhjunclive. Optative 



Sinj:. 



Ihia! I '-^ 
l3 



Plur 



1 . 1'Titi.i 
•2. I'tis 
3. tT](n 

iVrov 

Utov 

1. Ufi-tv 

3. tdcrt 



tui 

tfis 

tflTOV 

ttJTOV 

tufifv 

(fJT* 

i*5(ri 



t<tT)V 

Uiiis 

UlTOV or t(iT]TOV 
UlTTjV or t«lT)TTlV 

t<t^tv or UCiip.(v 
(ctT€ or t*t*r]T€ 
ttitv or t(iT)o-av 



Imperative. 

fc'tTOV 
t/T«V 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plnr. 



t'tt 

Utov 

fc'fTC 
t«o-av 



or (tTWffav 



Infin. 
t^vat 

Panic. 
l«£s, 
t<i(ra, U'v 



(-3. 



Future, rjaio, etc., regular. 

i"V/-o--; Aorist, yf<a, sj/fas, ij'ffj only 
in indie. (802). 

Perfect (in composition), ciKa, 
etc., regular. 



180 



INFLECTION. 



[810 



Second Aorist (generally in composition). 
Indicative. Subjunciive. Optative. Imperative. 





\^- 


-(802, 


) W tll]V 




Infill. 


Sing. . 


2. 




tfs iVtJS 


Is 


clvat 




Is. 




b' «i^n 


?TW 




Dual ^ 


f2. 


«Itov 


11T0V iItov or cVtlTOV 


Jtov 


Partic. 


L3. 


arv\v 


11T0V cTltt^v or i{'f\rr\v 


Ktwv 


its, tlo-a, 




f^- 


tlH€V 


wficv tl\uv or cVt]|uv 




Plur. . 


2- 


«It< 


■qTC itri or tlr\rt 


iT« 






u. 


«t(rav 


^Vi ttiv or tiii<rav 
MIDDLE. 

PHEJ^KKT. 


JvTWV 

or 'iroxrav 






/jidicad've. 


Subjunciive. Optative. 


Imperative, 






f^- 


t'cfjLai 


ttofjiai tc£(iT)v 




/«;?n. • 


Sing. ■ 


2. 


tio-tti 


tfi t€tO 


l'c<ro 


1[«r0ai 




u. 


tcrat 


tiiTat UiTO 


U(re« 




llna.1 < 


2. 


II«r0ov 


tfjo-Bov t«i<r0ov 


1Ct(r6ov 




J f U<Vl * 


13. 


U<rQov 


tfjo-Bov t«t(r0Tiv 


Uo-e«v 


Partic. 




f^- 


Uficda 


tto(it6a tcC^Lida 




ti}i«VOS 


riur. -< 


2- 


tt(r6t 


tT)o-0€ t€to-0€ 


tto-e* 






u. 


iftvTai 


twvrat UtvTO 


t^o-e«v 

or Uor0w(rav 






Imperfect, 










f^- 


U>iiv 








Sing. ■ 


2- 

L3. 


tttro 

t<TO 








Dual ' 


f2. 
13. 


t«r0oy 
l<(r0Tiv 








Plur. i 


L3. 


¥(0-64 

ttVTO 









Future (in composition), ijcro/mt, etc., regular. 
Fin-jf /Ion's? (in composition), r}Kdp.r)v (only in indie), 670. 
Perfect (in com position), ^lyUAt. Jmper. tZcrdoi. Injin. cXcrOar.. 
Partic. ilfxiyos. 



812] IRUEGULAR VERBS OF THE Ml-l'ORM, 183 

Seco.vd Aohist (generally in composition). 
Indicative. Subjunctive. Optative. Imperative. 



fu- 


tlV^v 


uS^ai 


ClJi-TlV 






sing. \ 2. 


<to-o 


i 


<10 


O^ 


Injin. 


V3. 


«Ito 


ijrat 


tiro 


(ia-Bta 


Mat 


I)ual{^- 


dtrBov 


ifo-eov 


(l<r6ov 


iVOov 




iVo-e^v 


■no-Oov 


iio-Ot^v 


io-0«v 


Panic. 


rJ. 


tijuea 


wH-cda 


(ific0a 




ilHtVOS 


Plur. \ 2. 


«W6% 


ijo-ei 


<i<re< 


'Mi 




-.■^ 


<lvro 


(uvrat 


tivTO 


ifo-Owv or 2<r6«)o-av 





Aorisi Passive (in compositioji), tT^j;!'. 5u/>y, t'^ui. Parfic. iSus. 
Future Passive (in composition), i$TJ(jO}juxi. 
Verbal Adjectives (in composition), tVos, cxco?. 

2. The imperfect active of dtpirffjn h a</>(V '^'* ^/<^fV (•''4'')* 
Tlie optatives d<^iOir< and d<^LOici/, for a<f>Un€ and d<^rct<v, and 
TrpooLTo, 7rpo'oifT(?f, and Trpooti'TO (a/so accent-ed -rrpoorro, etc.), for 
Trpoctro, TTpotL(rde, and Trpoai^ro, souietinics occur. For similar t'orniii 
of TiOrjfjLi^ see 741. 

811. Dialects, 1. Horn. T^y^i (willi initial T); imj>. ulu for 
iT?!'; 1 aor, crjKa for i^'^i; - <<f>i'' cVai^, €'/xt?i', ti/ro, by omission of ang- 
nient, foj- clcrav, tXfx-qv, uvro; iiihii. €^(.y iov ihat- hi ai'lrjfu. Worn. 
fnt. di'f'o-w, aor. d^cc^a. 

2. Hdt. perf. mid. Av-imrai foi* dv-elvraL, and [x;rf. pass, partic, 
(Mt'fXiT-ifXiyoS', for jue^-etjufVo?, swnmoned. 



12. 




4>7]fxl 


(stem <^a-), sat/. 


Pri-.s. 




iMPrUV. 






4.11 fit 

4'tis or 

4>T(0-t 


4>^s 


C«f.TJV 

«<}*Ticr0a or t^ryi 


Suhj. <f>C}, <^fj<i* <i>f}, etc. 

Opu <f>aLr}V, <f>air}<i, etc. 

J viper. <paBl or </)d^i, </>aTw, 


<j>ar<>v 
4>aT<Sv 

4>aT^ 




?<|>aTOv 
^drnv 




etc. 

ft) fin. t^oyca. 

Panic. <^d<>) <^ao-a, </)a;/,~in 
Attic prose (^dcTKo);' is used. 


4>aa-i 




74>cio-av 







Future, <^7jau>, <^i7(T€tp, <^i7(j<uv. 
Aorist, i<pr}cra, 4>iq(tix), (*>ij(TaifJ.i, 4>rjaai, <j>rjad<i. 
Verbal Adjectives, </>(ito?, K^ar^'o?. 
A perfect passive imperative (3 p(irs.) Trcc^aa^w occurs. 



182 INFLKCTION. [833 

813. DiALPCTS. J. Present, hid. Doric ^a^it^ <f>arh ^am; 
Houu <f>ijCT^a for <|)tJ<;. Infin. poet. <|)d/i.tv. 

baperfeci. Hoiii. c^rjv, <^^s or (prjcrOa, <prj ( Doric c</>a aiid <^a), 
t<l>(jiv iiuil <f)dy (ior l^ifxcrav and if>d<rav)> 
Aorht. Doric <^acrt ior i^rjot. 

2, Ilonjcr ]]ns somo middle forms of <^??Ait; pres. imper. <j>do, 
<^tta^uj, <P(x<tO(.\ injin. KpdcrOtu-^ panic. ft>dfj.tvo<i ; iinperf. €<^dixr)v or 
4>dfjij]v^ £<PaTO or (^aro, f.<l>avTO and cpdvTO- Doiic y^^ tpuaofxat., 
Tlu'.se all liave an active sea.se. 

814. .y)fiaL (stem i-jct'')., sit 

(Chiefly poetic in simple form : in Attic prose KdO-y^fxaL is 
gejierally used.) 

Present. Indie, ij/xat, ryfrat, i^arut; i](Tdov\ iJ/Ac^a, i^cr^e, T;kr<2t. 
Impcr. rycro, rjdOu), cic. In/in. rjcrOat. Purlin, •q^tvo'i. 

JmperfdcL rj^yjv^ rjuo, r}aro\ yjcrQovy yoOr^V, 7jy.Su, rjod^, rjvro. 

815. KdOrjfiai is thus infiocted : — 

Pre.<cnl. linlic. KdO-qyai, KaBqcrai, KaOrjTai; KaOrjcrOov; KaO^fiiOaj 
KdByjfrOe, KdOrjvTiu. Subj. Ka$il}pL,Uy /iuO/j, /<a&rJTai, CtO. Opt. Ka$Oiy.i}v, 
KdOoio, /ca^OiTO, t^tc. Jmpar. KdOrjdo (in conied}', KaOov), KaOtfcrOtDy 
etc. J)ijiii. KaOtjcrOai. Portia. Kii6r]fxcvos. 

Jmper/ccf. if<aOyj/j.7}v, €KdO-q(TO, iKdB-qro, etc., also Ka0^fj.r)v, naO^ao, 
xaOyjaro and Ka67]ro, fete. 

816. N". The (7 of the stem is diop])ed except before rat and to, 
and ill Ka^i7-Tut and (t}Kd$r)-TO evp,n tliere. Tlie middle eudijjgs 
added direcUy to a consonani stem or to a Ion;; vowel ov diyihUiong 
(as ill Kci/xut) give the, present and imperfect tlic appearance of a 
perffiCt and pltiperfect (80'-i, o). 

817. DiAnF.CTS. Homer liaK ct'arat, rarely carat, for yvrat; and 
ciuLTOf rarely €aro, for tjuto. Hdt. has Kar/arat ciuii Kariaro. 

818. KelpLat. (stem Kei-y /ce-), lie. 

Prr.acnt. }n(Uc. KUyaiy Ki'io^ai, /<urui; KurrOov; Kitp-cOa, KtlrjOfi 
Ktlvrai- Suhj. and Opt. These forms occur: Kti^rai, hia-KirjrrOcy 
KiOLTO, trpoQ-KCotvro. hnper. KiXao, K(.i<T$tD, etc. Infm. Kuadau 
Par lie, KilfX^vo^. 

liii perfect. t.ncifi.t)Vy iKciuo, (kuto; €K€LorBoVy ckciV^f; €fC€tpt$a, 

Future. KUfTOfmL, regular. 



821J 



IRIiKGi:LAK VKliiiS OF TiiK MI-FORM. 



iSS 



819. DiALKCTS. Homer lias Kfiarai, KCictTai, and Kiovrai, for 
KiivTca] KiCKCTO (iLcriitive) foi* ckcito; xcaro and Kuaro for txeii'To; 
SUbj, KrJTai. lidL has Kt'trai, KCkcSm, KUaOaiy and exferOj for Kftrut, 
etc.; and always Ktarat and iKeaTo for Ke^^T(u and €K€ivto. 



820. 



0i6a (stem tS-), ^?i{?z^. 



(Ot8a is a second perfect of the stem IS~: see elSov m 
the Catalogue, and 804.) 



Secomj Perfect. 



Judicative. 



Sing. 



Dual 



1, 

2. 

(1: 



L'lur. j 



ol8a 

ol<r6tt 

ot8< 

I'o-TOV 
Vo-TOV 

Ilo-tc 
Vo-ocru 



Subjunctive. 

<l8Ti 

etc. 
regular 



Optative. 

ct8(ti]s 
(18(11^ 

etc. 
regular 



Imperative. 
Vo-Gi 

I'O-TW 
Vo-TOV 

t<rT«v 

tore 
to-Twv 01" Vo-T«<rav 



Injin. <l8^vai„ Panic. «l8ws, <t8uia, clSos, gen. ttSoro?, dhvla^ (335). 

Si:cONJ) Pm:i>l;ui-ect. 
Sing. Dual Plnr. 

1. -q'Sti or T^'8iiv titrjuv 

2. Tfj&i^o-Ba or ^^StwrGa tJo-tov TI'ttc 

3. t|][8<i(v) -n'o-TTiv ij<rav or ^'8((rav 

Future, adOfxoL etc., regular. F£?ria/ Adjecttvc, lo-rt'o?. 

821. Djaj-KCTS. 1. The Tonic occasionally has the rej^nlar 
fui'FTriS oi8as, oiSu/ici', ot^do-t ; and very often 'iBp-cv for to-/x<K Ionic 
fut. etSrycw (rare and donbLfnl in Attic). 

2. Ionic -tjSta^ V^^^^ -^Sian, Ilotn. TjuSrj'i and rjSij?. 'i7€t'877, laav, 
in pluperfect. The Attic i)oeLs rarely have rjBip.ti' and ^Strt (like 
rj^co-ap). 

3. Hotn. (rSo/ACi' etc., for ci5ai//cr in subj. ; r5//fwi and iBfxey in 
infin.; (8rui for ttSma in the participle. 

4. Aeolic Boeotian ltto) for icrro) in imperative. 
6. For Doric Taa/xi ( = oT8a), see Catalogue. 



PART IIL 



FORMATION OF WORDS. 

822. {Shtiple and Compound Words.) A simple word 
is t'oi-nied from a single stem; as k6yo<i (stein K^y), speech^ 
7pd<^o) {ypa(i>'), write. A compound word is formed by com- 
bining two or more stems', as koyo-ypd(po^ (-^070^) yp^^')} 
speech-writer; d*<po-7roXi9, citadel (upper city), 

FORMATION OF SIMPLE WORDS. 

823. {Primitives and Denominatives.) (a) Nouns or adjec- 
tives i'onned d\rcct]y from a root (lo3) or from a verb stem 
are called primitives; as dpxv (stem apx^-), beginning^ from 

OipX', stem of apx^i ypa^^vj (ypatpev-), IVTlter, ypa(pt<; (ypat^iS-), 
5/j//f (for writing), ypap.p.rj (ypa/x/xd- for ypa^-p.a-), line (828), 
ypap-jia {ypapipxiT~)j written document^ ypacjuKOfi (ypa4>t/fo-), ft&?6 
^<? ?mi6, all fi'om ypa(f>-, stem of ypd<f><j}, wHte; TroiT^-rij?^ ;)oei 

(maker), Troiij-cnsj J^Ot^sy (yjia/cinf/), -rrOirj-pAy poem, Troirj-riKO^j 

able to viake^ from ttow-, stem of 7roiCa>, make. So Sikt^ (SiKd-), 
justice, from the root 8tK- ; Kaxo?, 6a(i, from xaK-. 

824. Kouns, adjectives, and verbs formed from tlie stems 
of nouns or adjective.s^ are called dciiominativea ; a?? fiaai- 
Ati'a, kingdomy from l3acnXc(v)' (263); dp;(aro?, ancient, from 
dpx^' (stem of apxv)i Scxacoo-wrj, J^^ slice, from St/caio-; Tl/xd-w, 
honor, from rl/Aa-, stem of the noun rip,!). 

825. N. (1) The. name verbal is often applied to primitive words, 
because f^enerally tlieir root or stem acUiafly occurs as a verb stem. 
This, however, does not sliow that the noun or adjeotivn is deiived 
from the verb, but nieroly Dial both have tlte same root or stem. Thus 
the root ypa<p' contains only tl)c general idea write, not as yet devel- 
oped into a nouti, adjective, or verb. By adding a it becomes ypaipcL'^ 

184 



831] yOnMATlON OF SIMFLE WORDS. 185 

t\ie stem of ypa<p-fi, a wn£in<;, wliicli stem gcneraUy appears as ypa<t>d- 
m tlie plura], and is iiiodificd by caae-endiiigs to ypaipd-l, ypatpd-s, etc. 
(See 10«; 17U.) iiy adding the thematic vowel % (&61, 1), 7/'"V'- is 
developed ijito ypa<p%-^ tlie present steju of the verb ypd<f>oj, nrite, 
which is modified by personal endings to 7pd<^o-/ifv, we xonle, 7pd0e-T«, 
you write, etc. 

(*2) liven a noun or adjective derived from the stem of a denominar 
tivo verb is called primitive ; as aiX-qTrjt, Jlutc-player^ from aiJXe-, the 
stem of aiiUu), play the Jiule ; the latter, however, is formed from the 
Btem of au\6-'i/jiute (829). 

826. (Suffixes.) Hoots or stems are developet] into new 
stems by the additiou of syllables (not tlicaiiselves stems) 
called suffixes. Thus, in the exam])les in 823, final a- in 

apx"'» *^^' ^'^ ypcKpcv-f t5- iu ypa<^i5-, /jUi- in ypa/x^-, fxar- in 
ypufxfxar-, lko- in ypa4>LKo-^ etc. are suffixes, 

827. N. Uarely a noun st.ein has no sutiix, and is identical with the 
verl) stem ; as in ^iJXaf, guards from stem ^i/Aa*:-, seeji also in <pv\do(x<jjy 
J guard (580) ; (p\6^ {<p\oy-)^ Jiume, from same stem a.s (^X^7-w (831). 

828. N. 'I'hc final consonant of a stem is subject to the same eu- 
phonic changes before a sulVix as before an ending; as in ypdfi-tia for 
yfu.0-fj.a^ X^fts for Kiy-<ns^ SiKai^-r-qs for SinaS-T-qs. (SeC 71 ; 74 ; 75.) 

829. N. A final vowel of the stem may be coiuraoted witli a vowel 
of tlic suttix ; as in apxa'ios, ancient, from dpxa- and lo-s (85U). Hut 
such a vowel is sometimes dro]i])eci; as in ovpdv-ios, heavenly^ from 
ovpavo- and lo-s, ^a<TtX.ix6s, Arinyi?/, from /iJaotX£(i/)- and jko-s; iZvo-ia, 
good-will, from dyoo- and m (842). 

A final stem vowel is sometimes changed ; especially from o to t in 
denominatives, as in oIk^-u), dwell (oho-s, hovH-^, oIx^-tt}^^ house- i^f-.rvant, 
and oUiio^ (oj'uK-io?), domtsiic y — soDK'timcs fionj a to w, ns in oTparid^- 
T-yjs, .so/fiter (aTparia-), 2i*;(\tu)-TTjs, Sicilian Creek (ZiKiXia-); — some- 
times from d to T?, as in oXij-a^, zcoody, from tX?? (i-Xa-). 

830. N. (1) Many vowel stems (especially vei-b stems) lenpOicn 
tlicir final vowel before a consonant of llie suffix, as in verbs (036); 

as irolr}-fj.a, Tolrj-ais, FOii7-Ti»f6t, 'jroii7-Ti7S, from noii-. 

(2) Many ^^^ <r before /w and r of a sufifix, as in the jjerfect and 
aorist passive (^i40) ; as KiXiv-a-T^t, commander^ K^\€t/-<r-/j.a, command, 
from K<\fv- (jceXfUdj), xex^Xtv-a-^ai. 

(3) Otlun-s add B, aK <nae-tx6<i, station, from ara- ('iVttjmi). 

(4) Others dro]) a final consonant, as (ruippo-avfyj, temperance^ from 
cojippoy-. 

831. N. Tn many imuns and adjectives, especially those in oj and i?, 
tlip. interior vowel of the stem is lengthened or otherwise modified, as 
in the second perfect (043; 044). A change of f to o (ei and (o to ot 
and ou) is. especially common (31). Thus X-fjOrj, forgnfulness, from Xa(?- 
(cf. X^Xrj^a); 76foT, fi,ff.'<prinij , from ytv- (cf. 7<'7o*'a); Xoi7r6j, remaining, 
from XfcTT. (cf. XAoiTra) ; o-ropyv, afcction, from <7Tfp7- (cf. tOTopya) ; 
iro/xiri7, sc7iding, from tt^mt- (cf. T-ffTroM^a) ; Tpiiro?, fi/r7i, from Tptjr- ; 
<^X(5$, jfam^, gen. 0X076?, from ^Xe7- ; (tttou^t;, /m.^fe, from an-fi/-. So 
also In adverbs; see (ruX-XT^jy-fiijv (Xa^-) : see 860, 2. 



180 FORMATION OF WOllDS. [832 

I. FORMATION OF NOUNS. 

PRIMITIVE NOUNS, 

832. Tlio siiDplust and irtost common suflixes in nouns are o- 
(noin. 0? or ov) ainj d- (noni. a or yj). Nouns thus formed liave 
a great varit^ly of meanings. The change of « to o (B3]) is l)ere 
reguhir. E.g. 

Ao'yo-? (Aoy-o-), apeech., from A«y-, stem of Acyw (8,SJ); t/joVo?, 
tnrny from rpcTr- (stem of rptTrw, turn); cttoAo?, expedition, and 
cTToAjj, tijuipinent, from o-tcA- (stem of cttcAAoj, send) ; /xa^-J? (/:ia;(-a-), 
haltle^ fjom /xa;(- (stem of ^^(op.ai, Jigkt) . 

833. (/l^cn/.) 1. Tlic foDowing suffixes denote the atjeni : — 
«ii- (nom. iv^) : ypa<f>-cv-q, writer, from ypa<i>- (ypa<^<i)) ; yovcv<;, 

parent, from yiv~. 

Tt]p- (nom. T-qp) : uiDT-qp, saviou7% from aou- (o-oia), o-oj^oj, 5a ce). 

Top- (nom. Tcjyp) : pyrwp, orator, from pc- («p«'w, fpo), .*;/i«// .<;«y). 

Ta- (nom. tt;?) : ttohqtiq^, poet {iiiaker), from iroic- {-noUm) ; opXT" 
(j-rys, dancer^ fiom opx«- (opxt'o/xut, dance). (See 8130, J,i^.) 

L^ To thoRe correspond the following feminine forms: — 

Ttipd- (nom. Tiipa) : awnipa, fem. of (jwryp. 

Tpid- (nom. rpta): iron'/TpLa, poelcss: ; op;(T/aTpia, d<incing'(jirl. 

Tpi8- (nom. rpi'-?) : <}p)(riaTpL^, d(incing-girl, gen. -t'Su?. 

TiS- (no:n. ri?) : 7rpo<f>rjTL<;, projdie.tess ; olK€TL<i, female servant. 

J3. Verbals ii^ rr/p and Tpt<j are oxytone : tliose in ru)p, rpux, and 
Ttipa have recessive accent (1 10, 4). 

834. (/!(7/(jfj,) Tliese suflixes denote ac^/f^": — 

Ti- (num. Ti"?, fem.) : Trtcr-rts, belief, froni 7ri^- (ttci'^oj, hciieoe). 

o-t- (nom. (Ti?, fem.) : Av-o-i?, hos:in<j, fiom Au- (AiJo)). 

(Ttd- (nom. fTia, fem.) : hoKLp.a-<riix, testtuf/ {hoKipAC^u), test). 

\ko- (nom. fx6<;, niaso.) ; 6hvpfx6<;, v:ailiuff (oSop-opju. wad)', cnraa- 
po'?, spnam ((jra-oj, draio) \ pvOpLO^ (830, o), rh'jihm {piw, fiow, st.em 
pu-). (See 07-3.) 

835. N. TIjo. suffix Ma- (nnm ii-q, fem.) has the same foree as simi)lo 
a- (832) ; as ywiOfXT], JcHoivledge (7»'o-); ddf^T}, odor (6^^, 65-). 

836. N. From stems in to {if) t>f verbs in (o<i) come nouns in da. 
denfttln.i; action ; as/3acr(Xf('d, kini/tj/ poxocr, kingdom, ttcliScIo., education. 

For feminines in fid oi nouns in fi^r, see 841. 

837. (Rei<ult.) These suliixes denote the re^vlt of an action : — 
p.aT- (nom. pxi, neut.) ; rrpay-pji, thing, act, from irpay- (Trpucraoj, 

do) ; prjim, saying (thing saul), from p€- (fut. ipih) ; Tprj-pLO^ section, 
gen. Tp.t'}pxxTos, froni rptt-, rep.- (r/p-roo, cu?). 



842] DENOMINATIVE NOUNS. 187 

«cr- (jioni. 0?, neut): A.a;(o? (Aax*<'"')> ^o^^ ii'om Aa^- (kayxdvtj}, 
gain by lot); i6o<i (iOca-), cuatom, Iroiii c^- (iiwOa, am accuitomed); 
yivo<i (yfi/tcr-), race, ivoin ytv {yi-yov-a, 8^3]). 

Jji sauit prjiuilives tliis Buffix i<j- dtnoles qualiti/ ; asjSd^os {^a6«T-), 
depth {Uom r 001 fiad-)\ /Sdpo^ {(^ap((T-),wtiylu (trom rool ^ap-); OdXirot 
(yaX7rf(T-), Aeai (yd\Tr-uj, lodvm) . 

.838. (Means or Insifument,) This is denoted by 
Tpo- (uotii. Tpof, Latin /ru?;t) : dpo-Tpov, piou()h^ avnlrum, from 
apo- (apoo), piough) ; Av-Tpoi/, ransom, Ironi At;- (Aijw) ; AoO-rpof, 
//ar/i, li'oin Aon- (Aoticu, tvaah), 

839. N. Tli(i feminine in rpa soineUinPs dciuit.e.s an iufitrument, as 
X'^'"^a, earthen pot, from x^'- (x^'^. pour) ; ^v-<t -Tpo., scraper (^y-w, .v?*a;>fi) ; 
someliinc-s oUrt relations, e.g. ^'^ace, as n-aXai-ff-Tpa, plaMfor wrestling, 
from iraXat- (TraXa/w, Wrestle, (i40). 

840. Some; primitives are formed from stamft jn 
avo-, as (TTt<f>-avo-^, crown (aTf<^-ii>, crow7i) ; 
ovd-, as r]B-ovrj, plen:<nre (iJSo^fu, he pleased) ; 

ov- or «v-, as dK-u}Vy imaije, from tU- (^oiKd, resemble) ^ KkvB-oiy^ 
wave, from kAuS- (kAu'^oj, das/i). 

DENOMINATIVE NOUNS. 

841. {Person Concerned.) A )>erson concerned witli anything- 
may he denoted by tlie following' suHixes: — 

€v-, masc. (nom. eu'?), sometimes «id- (for if-ta), fern. (nom. 
ua): ap-cu?, priest^ fjom Itpo-?, sacred (^21)), fern, itp-cia, priesioss ; 
y8a(7iA-ci'T, A:/Trr^ (derivation Uncertain), fern. /^uaiK-tui, queen; 
7ropdpL-cv<;, ferryman, froni 7rop6fj.6"^, ferry, 

Td-, masc. (nom. tt^^), ti.5-, fcni. (nom. n?) : ttoAi-tt;^, riiizen, 
from TToAt-?, ciVy, fem. TroA.r-TW./'^J'irt/^ citizen: olKt-Tr]^, hooac-serrant, 
from oLKO-9, h<>u<c, fem. oik«-tis, housenmUi ; OTpriTuo-Tifj<;y soldier, 
from (TTpaTid, army (82!.)). 

842. (Qunliiy.) Nouns denoting quality are formed from adjec- 
tive, stems ijy tiie.se suffixes: — 

TT^T- (nom. 7179, fetn.) ; i/c<>t7;? (yforrjr-), youth, from i'<o-? yovuff ; 
l(T6'Trj% (laoTTjT-), eqvality, from rcr(>-<;j equal (ef. Latin vi:ritas, gen. 
rc'7-i-/d/t>, and tu7-/ux, gen. idr'tmis). 

a-vvd- (nom. (TvvY), fem.) : BLKOLO-avvq, justice, from hUaio-';, ju:^t ; 
uiixfypo-uxivyjy temperance, from crw<^puw {(jio<ppov), temperate. 

id- (nom. ttl or tu, fem.): ao<p-ia ivisdoyn (ao^o-?), Kaxta, I'l're 
(KaKO-s), dX»5(?£t/t, M-iW^i, for (IAtj^cct-ui (aA>;^>7S, frue), ctji/(xu, kind- 
nesSt for €v^'0-ta (ciupoo-?, tvifov;, kind). 



188 FORMATION OF WOHDS. [843 

843. {Place.) This Js-denoted by these suffixes: — 

1. 10- (uom. toi', Heut. ) with the teniiinatioii rrip-i^v: hiKaurrip- 
lOK, court-kmisc, aKpoa-rr/p-toi', place of hearlny {auditorium). These 
are probably from old steins in r-qp- (Babrius has hiKa(iTrip<j)v^ from 
ZiKafTTYipy for Suao-Tuv, of judges). So ayjfW.v-T7]p'U)Vy .seal (place of 
sealing) J from o-q}mvT7]p. 

tio- for t-to- : ^oupttoj/, harber's shop, from Kovpiv-^, harher ; so 
XoyCiov (Aoyo-s), speakinfj-plm-i', Vlova-dov (MoOcra), haunt of the 
Muses. 

2. wv- (iiom. wv, masc.) : di'Spuii/, men^s apartment^ from dwjp, 
gen. d^-Sp-o?, 7??rt;j ; a/XTTiXuiv, vineyard, from a/xTrcXo-?, vi?ie. 

844. (7Jmimua'uf?s.) Tliebe are formed from noun stems by 
tljH I'o] lowing- sufJixus : — 

10- (momi. toj/, neut.) : 7ra(-5-io»/, /i7//^ t7/!7(/, from TraiS- (Trais, 
child) \ Kr)TT-{ou, little (iurdeu (KyiTo<i). Sometimes also i6io-, opio-, 
v6pio-, vXXto- (all witli nom. in loc) ; oIk-i^lov, little house {oiKo<i); 
TTdih-apiov, (ill ie child : p,(.\-vEpLov. tilde i^onfj (/xf'Ao?) ; i-n'vXkioVy hide 
verse, ver^ick, Latin vtr^icutus {l-no<i). Here final to- of the stem 
is dropjH-d. 

icTKo- (nom. t'fTKO?, masc.) and ictkol- (nom. t'(7K7;, fern.) : iraih- 
Igko%, l{OW)g hoi/. Traih-LcrKyjy ytntny girl; so v(.tj,viaKO<i, vf.dvL<TKyj, from 
stem pcav- (nom. t^oiy, youik). 

845. X. Diminutives sometimes express endeannent, and some- 
times contempt; a^ narpihiov, papa {irdrrfp, father)^ SwKpaTiStoi/, 
EvpiTri'Sioi'. 

846. {Patronymics.) These denote descent from a parent or 
ancestor (generally a father), and are formed from proper names 
by tlie suffixes 8d- (nom. St;?, masc. parox.) and 8- (nom. 5 for 5s, 
fern, oxytoiie); after ;l consonant i8d- and tS- (uom. t'8^« and tV). 

1. Stems (in d-) of the first declension sliorten a and add 8d- 
and S- ; as Bopfd-Si^s, o^on of Borea!^, and Bopcd-?, gen. Bopcd-5o?, 
daughter of Boreas, from Bop/d^, Boreas. 

2. Stems of the second declension droj) tlie final and add i8d- 
and (8-; as npia/JL-i'8T79, son 0/ Priam, X\pcap-i^^ gen. npLup.t'§os, 
daufjhier <jf Priam, from Tlpiapcx;. Kxccpt those in 10-, %Yhich 
change o to a, making nominatives in tdS?;? and id? (as \n ]) ; ai> 
©€a-Ttd8T;s and ©tarid?, ion and daughter of Tkemus {BtaTio-f;), 

3. Stems of the third declension add ihd- and t8-, those in €v 
dropping v before t; as Kckpott-i'Stj?, .«on (or descendant) of Cerrops, 
KcKpoTT-i's, gen. tSos, daughter of Cecrops, from KtKpoip, gen. 
KiKpoTT-o^; *ATp€iS37? (llom. *ATpei8>?9), .^rt» rt/ /ffr^us, from 
'Arptv-s, gen. 'Arpt'-ws; UrjkuSr)^ (Horn. IltjXetSTjs), son of Pelens, 



851] ADJECTIVES. 189 

from llr}X(.v-<:, gen. Uy]\i-u)<:, Horn, also UrjXyjLoi^f; (as it from a 
form Ilr]kTJio<i). 

847. N. Occasionally patronymics arc formed by the suffix wv- 
or Ctdv- (nom. i«v) ; as KpoK<ov, gen. Kfjoi'tu}vo<; or Kpoyiovo<; (to 
suit the metre), son of Cronos (Kpo'vo-s). 

848. (Gentiles.) 1. These designate a jierson as belonging to 
some coitufvi/ or ioitm, and are formed by tlie following suffixes: — 

«v- (nom. 16*;^ niasc.) ; ^Eperpt-ty?, Ervtrian (^Bpirpio.) ; Meyap 
tv9, Megarian (M^yapa, pi.) ; KoXw^tv?, t)/* Colonos (KoXcj^o-?). 

Td- (nom. Tjyy, masc. parox.) : Teytd-ri;?, 0/ Tegea (Tty<a), 
*H7rttpoi-r»;s, o/* Epirus (*H7r£ip09), 2tKtAtui-ri;9, Sicilian Greek 
(2t^<Xia). (See 829.) 

2. Feminine stems in 18- (notn. /r, gen. /5of) correspond to mascu- 
lines in €v- ; as Mf^ap/r, ilf<?<7arian )007»mn; and femininf^s in rtS- (nora. 
Tis, gen. Ti5o5), to masculines in rd-, as 2iXf\(LJ-T(?, Sicilian wovian. 

ADJECTIVES. 

849. 1. Tiie simplest suffixes by which primitive adjectives 
(like nouns) are formed from roots or stems are o- and a- (iioni. 
niasc. OS ; fern, ly, a, or 09; neut. o^) : crowds, cto^tJ, cro^dv, wise; 
KaK'Ofii bad; XotTr-d*;, remaining {ktiir-y Xoltt-, 881). 

2. Sojiie have v- (nom. vs, cta, v), added only to roots: rjS-vsy 
sweet, from 17S- (iJ5o/xai, ie pleased) ; /Jap-w, -'/tf^^y^^ (root ^ap-, cf. 
fiap-iy:, weight) ; Ta;^-v<;, 5U)iy^ (root Ta;^-, cf. Ta;(09, siyi/iTiess), 

3. Some have «r- (nom. ?;?, «?) : «/'«i;6jJ? (ipcv^o--), false (i//tu8- 
o/Aut, h'f) ; (Ta<j>-rj<; (cra^^cr-), ///am (root cru<^-). 

Most adjectives in 7j<; are compounds (881). 

4. Some expressing inclinadon or tendency have fAov- (nom. /awk, 
yi/oj/) : fJLy7J-/jL(j}Vj yniiul/ulj from /Ava- (fXi'/ivrj-fjuoLi) ; TX?}-yu(.<jLJv, suffering, 
from rXa- (see rXau)) ; €7ri-Xrj<r-fj.u}Vy forgeiful, fi"om Au^- (Aav^ctvoj), 

850. Adjectives signifying belonging or related in any way /o a 
person or thing are formed from noun stems by the suffix 10- 
(nom. to?) : ovpdv-to^, heavenly (ovpav6-<:), oiKeios, domestic {olko-^, 
see 829); SiKaLdy Just (St/ca-), *AOr]vaio^, Athenian (*\OrfvaL, stem 
'kSrjvd-). 

851. 1. Denominatives formed by iko- (nom. ik6<;) denote rela- 
tioiif like adjectives in tos (80O), someti mes^ff nc5i* or ability. Stems 
in I drop i before iko-. E.g. 

*Apx-tKd<t, fit for rule (apx^i rule) ; 7roA€/i-t?cds, warlike, of war 
(TToAt/AO?) ; ^vcr-iKO?, natural (<:f>v<jL-) ; ^acrtA-tKO?, kingly (fiaaik- 
i}k)', ypa<f>-LK6^, capable of writing or drawing (ypa^)J). 

2. Similar adjectives are formed directly from verb stems by 



190 FORMATION OK WORDS. [862 

TLKO- (iioiii. TiKo^): TTpaK-TiKOf;, fit for action, praclical, from irpay- 
(TTpdaaoj) ; alaOrj-TiKOfiy capable of feeling. 

852. Adjectives denoting material are formed by 

ivo- (noiu, ivo<;^ pioiiaroxytone), as AiUt»/o?, of stone (A.t'6'o?); 
€o- (nom. (OS, coiitr. ov<;), as \pija(o<i, \pvoov<;, golden (;^pCfrds), 

853. N. Adjectives in ii/oi (oxytoiie) dennrc linic, as (ap-iv6$, vernal 
(tap, spring), pi'XTfp-ifos, by night (cu^, nighty voKrtpo^y by night). 

854. 'J'hose denoting; fulness (chiefly poetic) are formed by tvr- 
(nom. <t<i, tfTCu, <^); j^apt'ets, graceful fxapi-*;), gen. ;^upi'-c t'TOS ; 
i)A»;-tis (^7l?), woofhj ; cf. 829. Latin grutinsus, silvOiius. 

855. ()tlier adjectives witli various meanings are formed by 
vai-ii)us suffixes besides tlie sim)iU', o-; as vo-, Xo-, po-, i\i.o-, iio-, or 
o-ijjLo-, TtipLo-, all with nom. in o? : Ba-vik (5<t-), tcrrUde^ 5«t-Aos, 
(imifl, 4>0ov(-p6f;, enrious (<f>0ov6^^ ^ntit/), /xcf;^-t/xos, warlilcey \pr)- 
(Tt/Aos, useful, 'nr7rd-aifw<i, fit for riding {or for cavalry) (fi-om iTnra.' 
!^ofjuii)j TTCia-TT^pios, ])erKnasive {inCQoi), Verbals in \6% are active, 
those in m are passive; those in pQ<i are generally active but 
sometimes passive, a,s <^o;9t-po<;, bolh frightful and afraid. 

856. N. Most adjectives in ro?, Ao?, and pos are oxytone. 

857. All participles are primitive (verbal) adjectives: so tlie 
verbals in tos and no^i. 

858. Con i]\a rati ves and superlatives in T«pos and raros arc 
denominatives; but those in liov and iaTO<i are primitives, adding 
these terminations directly to the root (357, 2). 

ADVERBS. 

859. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives (see 365-367). 

860. Adverbs may be formed also from the stems of nouns or 
verbs by the following sufiixes: — 

1, 86v (or 8d), tjSov: ava-tpav-bbv, openly (ifa-fpatvLJ, (pay-), poet. 
also di'a0a;'5a ; Ki^;'-Tj6Af, like a dog (<uajv, gen. Kvi'-di). 

*2. 8t)v or dSi^v: Kpvii-5r}w, sccwthf (npurTtxi, conceal)', auXXii/S-Sijc, 
collectively (cuXXaM/Jafw, Xa^-, Gil); aTfop-abr)v, scalteredhj (cnrfi'pw, 
.soio, scatter y st.cui airtp-) ; di'^-Sr^u, prfifusi-tg (u*"lTj^ti, let out, rtlciu i-). 

3. tC: 6fonaa-7l, }»/ name (dfo/Jid^oj) ; AXtjucr-ri, in 6'7'<?c7,.- (AXi7v(fw), 

4. See also ihe lueal endings Oi, e^v, 5(, eic. (292-21)6). 

DENOMINATIVK VERBS. 

861. A verb wliose stem is derived from the stem of a noun 
or adjective is called a denominative (8'24). The following are the 
pfiiici]>al terminations of such verbs in the present indicative 
active : — 



870] COMPOUND WORDS. 191 

1. au> (sU^m in a-): riyuao), honor, from noun tI^x} (rt/AQ-), honor. 

2. tu) (t-) : dpt6'/j(.<w, cc/i<Ji/, from af>i0fj.6-^, number [^2U). 
t^. Ota) (o-) : fxtaOoui, la for hitc^ irojii ^uirr^o-^, pa>j. 

4. €uu» (<ti-) • /SaTiAevo;, be khtg, from //aaiAfi-s, ^'if'f/ (^<;f^ 8G3). 

5. oju) (aS) : SiKaiij)^ Ju(/(je, fioni 6ik7; (Slku-), Jn!=^iice (802). 
0, i^« (i5-): t'A-fft'^uj, /((9;/<7, ivom cATrt's (tA-TriS-), /<o;*e (8G'i), 

7, aivw («»")• a>//A/uVo), sifjiii/}/, from ot//^ (ay^^ir), ^'y/v (SGo). 

8. vvta) (ui/-) : ^66Hj>, iitrciioty Irottt ^SiJ-s, ^'u-'Ct'/ (Stio). 

862. Voibs in a^i», t^uj, atnj, and tVoj aie of Mte fo'mtii class: 
for tlifir formation, see oT'J-.'jlHi. SoniO dcnoniinatives of tiji.s 
class end in AAio, aipoj, iipw, ami Opto; as dyyeWw (JyytAo-?), 

fxapTvpo/MxL {fJuipTVf;, stem ^uipTijp-)* f<(^l^(> uHfJic^fi. 

863. Many verbs in *uu) on; fni-mw! mnieiy by (.he anuloj^y ff Uiosc 
(like }iaai\iO-w) willi sLcni;^ in di/: liius iiovXfuui, lulc ry?/JKs(7, from 
^cjvX-fi; d\y)0fViO, be (rnlfffitl, from (iXtj^tjs. 

864. Likewise nia)iy i)i liw and most, in Qiw mcrc'ly follow tlic 
analogy of ihnso lik^^. e\iri^<j {(\irt5-) and (jtpd^uj {(jipaS-)^ whicJi iiave 
uciuai (^t.enis in 5 (see o87). 

865. Tljo sioms in a^' and vv of vcjlj.s in qihj and Li/w cunjf; frtun 
nominal su-ms wiUniUi. u: .see llit* c^xamiilcs al.iovc. 

866. Some verbs in fw conif; from adjC'Clivis in ?;? by ili'^pping eo-- 
of ihe .slftm ; asturux^'w, be f'/riXinitti', frum fiJTi'X'?^ (tOT)>x<o^-)- 

867. N. Verbs forjnt-d from tlie same n'Min stem with iJifferent 
ending.s sometimes iiavo different meanin.tis; as :rc»Xe^.(f'u) nnd dioetie) 
ToXf^i('fu>, vi/ttt< vju/\ jro>if^6u.', viuK'r t^osulc, i^jotli jiom TToX^^ti"?, z^.vr/* ; 
6ouX6uj, e7isi<iv(\ 5ov\(vu), be n stavf, ivtnu doO\o-i, ^hiir. 

868. (Desideraiirc!^.) \. Verijs expi'cssing a i/csirc to do any- 
Ibing arc sonu'times fornji^d from other veibs and h-om nouns by 
tiio ondini;' attw (r^tom in a<i-), someLiniefi aw or moj (u- oi' ta-) ; as 
Spft-cr^iw, (J'\<irc to (h) (Spa-to) ; yi\a-(7iif0, tlvsirc 10 (du/jh (ytAa-d)) ; 
4>ov~6.(jj, bc: hlood'thirsty (^di/os) ; KAm^tr-ia'w, dv^ire to v:€C/> (KXaiic. 
Stem Kkav). 

2. Some vcriis in Law de,nole a bodily condition; a>. o<^^uAptaw, 
/<ay!? dismacd eyes (<)|)litlialmia), u})^pni<ii, be pale, €pv6pLd<)j, blush, 

COMPOUN]) WORDS. 



869. In a f;ompounti word \vc have, to consider (I) thn 
first part of the coiu[iound, (2) the hist, [jart, and (o) the 
meaning of the whole. 

870. N. Tlie modificaLions which are necessary when a compound 
consists of more Uian two |iari,5 will suggest themselves at once. 



192 FORMATION OF WORDS. [871 

I. FIRST PART OF A COMPOUNn WORD. 

871. 1. Wlien the first part of a compound is a uoun or 
adjective, only its stem appears in t\ie compound. 

2, Before a consonant, stems of the first declension gen- 
erally change final a to o; those of the second declension 
retain o-, and those of tlie third add o. Before a vowel, 
stems of tlie first and secoiid declensions drop a or o. E.g. 

QaXaaao-KpaTtvp {OaXaaaa-), ruler of the sea^ ;(opa-5i5dcrKaAo? 
(xopo-), chorus-teacher, iratSo-Tpi'/irjs (7raiS-)> (^diner of 6oys, K«^aX- 
a\y^<; (K(.<f>aXd-), causiug headache^ Xop-r^yo^; (xopo-), (orig.) chonis- 
director; so 1X^1*0-^01709 (ix^u-), Jish-enter, t^bvcrto-Adyos, em^mrmy 
into nature, Tlie analogy of tiie second (or o-) declension prevails 
throughout. 

872. N. Tliere are many exceptions. Sometimes tj takes the place 
of j as x^Tj'^^pos (x°i, libation), bvinger of UbaLions, i\a(pr}-06\ov 
(i'Xa0o-j), deer-slayer. Stems in ea (22C) often change ea to 0; as 
T€ixo-fxaxia {retxec-), Wall fighting. Tlie stems of fav^, ship, and ^oOs, 
ox, generally appear witiiout change (mi" and ^ov) ; as vav-fsaxioi, sea- 
fight, P0U-K6X0S, herdsman Sometimes a noun apjieans in one of its 
cases, as if it were a distinct word ; as fcdta-otKO':, ship-house, mi'd-iropos, 
traverfied by ships. 

873. Compounds of which the first part is the stem of 
a verb are chiefly poetic. 

1. Mere tlie verbal stem sometimes appears without change 
before a vowel, and with «, t, or added before a consonant. H.g. 

T[cL$-apxo^, ol^edicnt to authority; />ici/-e-7rToA«/xo?, ^teudfasit in 
battle ; apxi'"^ (ktwv, master-builder ; AtTT-d-ya/zo?, viarriage-leaving 
(adulterous). 

2. Sometimes cri (before a vowel a) is added to the verb 
stem. E.g. 

Au-cTt'-TTOj'O?, toil-relieving; crTp€i/'i'-Si*fo<» {crTpc<f>-), Justice-twisting ; 
rtp{pi-vQO% (r(pTr-), soul-delighting; TrX-q^nnrof; (irXrjy-), horse-lashing. 

874. 1. A preposition ur an adverb may be the first j'art of a 
compound word ; as in irpo-fSaXXu}, throw before (882, 1), aa-Xoyidj 
continual talking, e.v-ytvi]<:, well-born. 

2. Here no change of form occurs, except when a final vowel is 
elided, or wlien Trpo' contracts o with a following e or o into ov, as 
in Trpoux^ {irpo, ix^)^ ^'^^^ before; irpovpyov (Trpo, €pyov), forward, 
ffipovSo^ (npo, oSou), gone (03). 

3. Euphonic clianges occur here as usual; as in <y;^a)pto? (iy 
and x*^P^) • see 78. 



881] COMPOUND WORDS. 193 

875. Tlic following inaeparable prefixes are never used 
alone ; — 

1. av- (a- before a consonant), called alpha privative, with a 
negative force, like Knglisli un-, J^atiu in-. It is pietixed to noun, 
adjective, and verb stems, to form adjectives ; as av-<A<i)^ep09, unfree, 
av-aiSrj^, shaiiielcss^ dv-o/zocos, unlikey a-TraLi, childless, aypa^os, un- 
written, a-^to<j, godless, d-(f)oit/o<;, wineless. 

2. 6ii<r-, ill (opposed to cv, well), denoting dijiculttj or (rouble; 
li.s Suo'-TTopo-;, hard to pass (opposed to tu-^ropos); Sua-Tux?/-;, unfor- 
tunate ((jpposed to f.\j-T'oxri%)' 

3. VT]- (l^atin we), a poetic negative prefix; as t/iJ-Troii/o?, ii7j- 
avenged; \nef-^iprr)%, unerring (for fj^/xtpTrj?). 

4. t|^i- (Latin .sem;-), /m^/; as i)p.L-Oco^, demigod, 

876. K. A few intensive prefixes are found in poetry, — dpt-, 
epi-, 5a-, ^a-, as d(:>L-yv<j)TO<;, well-hioion; 8a-^otj/os, bloody. 

877. N, Tlie piefix a- is sometimes copulative (denoting union)', 
as in d-Xoxo^, bedfellow (from X^xo^). 

IL LAST PART OF A COMPOUND WOiiD. 

878. At the beginning of the hist part of a compound 
noun or adjective, «, e, or o (unless it is long b}' position) 
is very often lengthened to yj or w. E.g. 

STpur-1770? (rrrpuro-?, dyw), genernl ; {nriiJKOO'; (viro, aKOvw), 
ohedient; KaT-yj0c<t>rj<i (Kara, <p<<^w), covered; cV-ujvu/xo? (cirt, ouopux), 
naming or named for; Kar-ijyopo<; (Kara, dyopd), accuser; Ijut di/-oA/io9, 

879. The last part of a compound noun or adjective 
is often changed in form before tlie suffix. Tliis takes 
place especially in compound adjectives, and when an 
abstract noun forms the last part of a compound noun. 

E.g. 

<Pi\6-rif^0<i (TLfj-yj), honorlovhtg ; (V'<i>pu)V (<f>pTi]\'), jogou;>; ttoAv- 
7rpdy/AUJ^ {irpayiMx), meddlesome; kiSo-^oKid (\lOo^, /Sokij), alone 
throwhig, vnvfjiaxiu {vav^, lAaxYJ), sea-fight ; iv-Trfiu^LO. (Trpaiiv), success 
(doing well). 

880. N. An abstract noun comjiounded with a preposition may 
retain its form; as irpo-$ov\i/], forptkought. 

881. Compound adjectives in 77s (849, 3) are especially 
frequent. 

1. The last part may be a noun, generally a neuter in o« (stem 



J94 FORMATION OF WORDS. [882 

in i(7-); a,s cv-yevT;? (ytVo^), ivrll boriij ScKa-tTTJ? (cto?), o/^en years; 
tv-TXJ)(r]fi (rvxr)), fortU7iatC. 

2. Tlie ias^t part may be fonmid from a verb stein; as a-<^av-7;? 

882. 1. A compound verb can be formed directly only by 
prefixing a preposition to a verb; as rpoa-ayoj, bring to, 

2. Indirect compounds (dcnoniijiatives) are formed from 
componnd nouns or adjectives. E.g. 

Ai0o/^oX<oj, Do'ow sioTK^s, denom. from Xi^o-j3oXo?, sione-thrower ; 
vofxoOiTiuj, make taws, from vo^o-OiTY}<:, lav^-maher; afrnOiu), disohf.y, 
from aTTiiOi^f;, (liaobed^cnl ; Kinyjyopfii}, accua/j, f)*o)i) KUT-^^yopo? (87B), 
accuser. See 543. 

III. MEANING OF COMT'OTJNDFa. 

883. Conipound nonns and adjectives are of tlirce classes, 
distiuguislied by the relation of the parts of the compound 
to each other and to the whole, 

884. (1) Objective compounds are those composed of a 
noun and a verb, adjective, or preposition, in which the 
noun (as iivst or sacoud part) stands to tlie otlier part in 
some relation (commonly that of object) which could be 
expressed by an oblique case of the noun. E.g. 

Aoyoypa'^09. s})eec/i-n:n'ter ('Ao'yoi'? ypa'^wi/); p.i<j-6.v$p{i>-no^, tnan- 
hatint} {^urZiv nvBpumov%)\ \\j(ji~iTOvo^, loil-rplieinn(^; crrpuT-i^yo?, 
general (army-Uadiyig^ arparoc aycu^) ; aiiO-Xoyo^y worthy of vieuiion 
(a$io% \6yov): apiaprl-voo^ (^7-3, Ij, erring in nand (afcaprwv vov) ; 
Irro-Oioq, qodiiko. (tao? OifZ) ; Tcpr-i-Kt'puin'Os (^73, 1), deliyhling in 
thunder (rcpTro/At^o^ K<paij»'tlj) ; SiO-rpe'^*??, reived by Zeus (cf. Sa- 
-mTQ^, fallen or sent from Zcu-a, atid ^ii-Tpe^ij?, a proper iiat)ie). 
Sl> with a }.>vepoRition : «y-;^i.jpto9, naUvp. (cV ;^wpu); <<^-tV7rto?, belon(j' 
ing on o horse (e'c^' lttttuj); €c^-<crTiO?, on ihc hearth (4<p* tari'a). 

885. N. Wiieu tln^ ias(. part of an objective compound is a cmnsicu-e 
verbal m o? formeO hy Uje sullix o (83'2), iL gcueiully accents the 
penult \f Uiis is s/wn, hiherwi^ti ihc last .s}' liable. Uui if Uie Inst part 
is iiilransitive or pa.ssive (in Konsc), the accent is I'ecessive. 'I'hus 
\oyo-ypd0o^, spccdi-icritijr ; 'XiOo- 06>^os, thrower of stones, but \M-&o\o^, 
polled with stones; ^^jt^o-ktAi'Os, matricide, ))iatricidal ; but arpaT-ijy^s, 
general ; \oyo-TToi6^, storii-taaker, 

886. (2) Determinative compounds are nouns or adjec- 
tives in which the first part, generally as adjective or 
adverb, qualifies (oj- delerm.ines) the second part. E.g. 



889] MEANING OF COMPOUNDS. 195 

'A/fp(>-7roAts, citadel {aKpa ttoAi?); ixtd'-qixppia (fJ-f-dr] ^/xcpa, 6G), 
mid-day; ^tvho-fxavTiq^ false prophet; OfjLO-BovXo^, fellow-slave (ofwv 
hovXivtoi/) ; Sucr-zxa^r/?, learning with dijficuUq; ajKU-Trtr?;?, sunft-Jii/ing; 
Trpo-fiovX^, forefhou(/Iit ; dfx<l}i-Ocarpovj amphitheatre {theatre extending 
all round); a-ypacl>o<i, umw'ittcyi. Were belong adjectives like /xeAt- 
T]hrj<i (^Sus), honey-sweety 'ApT^i'-^oo?, saufl as j4?-fs (Ares-swift). 

887. N. Hem belong a few cojnpouuds .sometimes called copulative, 
made of iwo nouns or two adjec-iivcs, and si:^nifyin.i( a con)binaLion of 
the two tilings or qualititis. ^Strictly, tliu firsl, part lin^ila tlie last, like 
an adjective or advi-rb. Such are larpo-nai'TiS, pht/siciait-prophet (a 
prophet w])o is also a phi/iiician) ; ^i^o-udxatpa, sword-iiObre ; duSpd-irai'i, 
man-child; yXvK C-iriKpo'i, sweetly hitter; fiio-Tavpo^, goddndl (of Zcus 
changed to a bull). 

888. (3) Possessive or attributive compounds aro adjec- 
tives in which tho first part qualifies tlie sfu^ond (as in 
deterniinativtis), and the wliolc denotes a quality or attri- 
bute belonging to sonm person or thing. E.g. 

*Apyupo-ro^o?, with silver-bow (apyvpow to^ov £X*^^)i <(iKO-haip<j>}Vy 
illfated {ko-kov ^Mpova lx^v)\ TrtKpo-yu/xo?, wretchetlh/ ntarned {iriKpou 
■ya/AOi/ £_)(aji/) ; bfxo-vop.o^Jtaviiuj the same /aw.v; iKaToy-K(<l>ako<;, hwulred- 
headed; Sc^a-CTTJ?, of ten yc<ir^ (duration); ayu^o-ciSTJ?, having the 
appearance (ctSo?) f^f good ; tiz-^co?, inspired {hnviny Ood vnthin)\ 
diKv-iTQv^j awlft- footed {wKu.^ TToSii? «X'^'')> — ^^'^ 7To8-u)Kr)<; (ttoSu? 
(jjKv<i)yfnot-swifty is a determinative. 

889. N. In compound verbs, the original verb remain.s the funda- 
jncntal part, niodilicd more or less in moaning by the preposition 
prefixed. Other compounds than those here mentioned prudent no 
diliiculties in respect to meaning. 



PART IV. 



SYNTAX. 



DEFINITIONS. 



890. QSuhject and Predicate,) Every sentence must 
contain two pai'ts, a subject and \\ predicate. The subject 
is that of which something is stated. The predicate is 
that which is stated of the subject. Thus in the sentence 
Aa/)ao9 ^acri\€V€i rwv Uepacov^ Darius is king of the 
Persians,, Aap€2o<; is the subject and j^acriK^vei rcov 
Ylepcrwv is the predicate. 

891. 1. Wlien any part of tlfj.{, he, connects the subject with a 
following- noun or atljective, tlie verb is called the copula (i.e. 
Tjieans of coupling), and what follows is called the pi*edicate; as 
Aaptco'q ion /SaacXiv^, Darius in king^ SoXwr larl <T0<f>6'i, Solon is 
wL^c, ^vherG tVrc i.s the copula. Tlie copulas cVtc and daC arc often 
omitted, especially in proverbial sayings, as ;ifaXt7ra ra kuAci, Jtne 
thinga are hard, P.ii:/?.435S with nouns like avdyKTj, necessity, oJpu, 
time, and with the impersonal verbal in -rtov. For copulative verbs, 
see 90S. 

2. Elfju, however, can form a complete predicate, as in ttci Ocol, 
Gods exist. 

892. (Object.') That upon Avhich the action of a verb 
is exerted is called the object. Tiie object may be either 
direct or hidirect: thus, in eZu)Ke ra y^p-qpiaTa tS avSpC, 
he gave the money to the man,, -^^pijfjLara is the direct 
object and duhpl is the indirect (or remote) object, 

893. Verbs wliicli can have a direct object are called 
transitive; those v^'hich cannot are called intransitive, 

196 



SIJBJKCT. 197 

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 
SUBJECT. 

894. The subject of a finite verb (446) is in the 
nominative ; as o durjp ^XOeu^ the ma7i came. 

895. 1. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusa- 
tive ; as (j>r}ai rov'; avhpa<i direXOeci^^ he says that the men 
went away, 

2. But the subject of the infinitive is generally 
omitted when it is tlie same as the subject or the object 
(direct or indirect) of the leading verb; as jSovXerai 
direXOeli/^ he wishes to go a^vay ; cfi^al ypd<j)€i.Vi he says 
that he is writing ; irapaivovfiiv aoi fievecv^ we advise you 
to remain. 

3, So when it is tlie same with any important adjunct of the 
leading veri) ; as KaKovpyov €o-t\ KpiBivT aTroBavuv, it ii> like a male- 
factor to die by sentence of the law (928, 2), iJ.4,47. 

896. Tiie subject nominative of the first or second person is 
omitted, except when special emphasis is required. 

897. The nominative of t)ie tliird person is omitted ; — 

1. Wheii it is expressed or implied in the context; as 6 Kvpo^ 
irpadGci a /?ouAfrat, Cyrus does ivhat he (Cyrus) pleases; 

2. When it is a general word for persons; as Aeyovcrt, they say ^ 
it is said ; 

3. When it is indefinite; as in oxpl rjv^ it was late ; xaXto? e;(6i, it 
is well; Srj\oi, it is evident (the case shov:!i) : RO in the impersonal 
construction with tlie verbal in rtW, as in 7ru<TT€ov {iarl) tw v6p.io, 
we must obf.y the law (1597). 

4. Wiien the verb implies its own subject, as Krjpvcra-ecy the her- 
ald (tajpv^) proclaims, cVoATrty^t, the trumpeter sounded the trumpet^ 
Kiii\v€.L, a hindrance occurs, hi passive expressions like irapidKCv- 
aarai p.ou preparation has been made by me (/ am prepared), X,hi\ 
subject is really the idea of preparation etc. contained in the verb. 
See 1240. 

5. With verbs like va,- it rains, afTTpaTTTCi, it UghtenSy atUi, there 
is an earthquake (it shales), where, however, some subject like Zcvs 
or ^€09 was originally supplied. 

898. Many verba in the third person singular have an infini- 
tive or a Ejeatence as their subject. These are called ivipersonal 



19S SYNTAX. 

verbs. Such ave irpiiru and Trpoo-ijKti, il is proper, IvcaTi and cj^crrt, 
il is possible^ SoKtt, it seevis good, ovp,[iaLV€i<, it happeum, and the like; 
as licQTiv vpiv rovTo ttouIvs it is in your power to do this {to do this 
in possible for you), t^-u albo 8ti and ;(p»;, it is required^ we ought; 
as Set r}p.a.<i oariXSCiv^ we must <jo airay. 

Tiie w^vcid impersonal is applied witli greater piopriety (though 
less frequently) to the verbs of 897, 3 and 4. 

SUBJECT NOMINATIVE AMD VEliB. 

899. 1. A verb agrees with its subject nominative in 
number and person; as (^70;) Xlya), 1 sa?/^ ovto9 Xeyet^ 
this man saT/s^ ol avhpe<; Xeyovcni/^ the men nay. 

2. But a nominative in the neuter plural reguhuly 
takes a singular verb; as ravra eyhero, these thtm/s 
hap'pened^ ra olfci]pLaTa e-neaevy the buildings fell. So 
ahvpard ecrn (pr dBvvardv eari)^ it is impossible. 

Exceptions sometitnes occui% especially with nonns denoting 
persons. Several are found in Xenophon ; as in yl.1,7^'. 

900. A singular collective noun denoting pci'sons may 
take a plural verb; as to TrX/jOof; l-^i^taavro noXep^elv^ 

the Durjorlly voted for wiir^ T. 1,1 -25. 

901. N. When several subjects are connected by and, they 
genevally have a plural verb. Hut the verb ntay agree with one 
of tlje subjects (generally the nearest), and bo utidtirstood with 
the rest. Tlie dutter geneially happens when they are connected 
by or or nor. E.g. 

2o<J!)oi (yixi Tt Kui (TV 7/fjL(i^y you and J were wise^ ]'. 7'A. 154** ; 
paxovpitOa KOivrj eyw tc «at u\\ you and I will f (/hi together, V.Hp. 'd'^^'^i 
06 av p.6vo<i ov^ ot <Tol <f>i\QL TTf/wTOv TavTYji' So^av ta)(€.TCy it was iwl 
you alout f)or your friends who frst took up r/ii.s notion, V. Lg.SSS^. 
*E/x.€ ovT€ Katpof; our* cA-Jri? ovtc (^6f3o<; ovr uXXo ovZlv iirr}pf.v, 
neither opportunity uor hope nor fear nor anything else incited me, 
I). IS, 298. 

902. N. If tlie subjects art^ of different persons, the verb is in 
the first person rather than tho second or tliird, and in the second 
ratlior than the third. (See examples under 901.) 

903. N. A verb in the dual may follow two subjects in the 
singular, or even a plural subject denoting two persons or tilings. 
But oven a subject in the dual may have a verb in the plural. 
(See IL 4, 403; f), 10, 275; 10, 218.) 



910] PREDICATE NOUN AND AD.TECTIVK. 199 

904. N. Sometimes a verb agrees with the predicate uomina- 
tive ; as at Se ilu<f>Ofnxl kol ^oprj-yiaL ivhaip.ovuis iKavbv a r] fit to v 
cVtiv, his taxes and paymentfi for choruses are a suj/icient siffn of 
prosperity, Ant. 2, y. 8. 

905. N. Rarely a singular verb lias a masculine or feminine 
subject in the plural; as iuri St ctttcl crTiiSLOL l^ *A(^vSov «\ tyjv 
aTTUvrlov, and there i.^ a distance of seven stade^ from Ahydcs to the 
opposite coast, Hd.7,34. In such cases the plural form often seems 
to have arisen from an afterthought, especially v^-hen the subject 
follows the verb. 

See also the phrases tdTiv o" etc., 1029. 

906. N. A pre]>osil.ion witli a numeral ir.ay rc]>resent the sub- 
ject of a verb; as drriOai/ov avruii^ irtpl rpiuKoaiOv^y ahovt three hun- 
dred of them perished, X. //.IjC". 

J'REUICATK NOUN AND AD.)KGTIVE. 

907. With verbs signifying to he, to become^ to appear^ 
to be named, chosen, made, thought or regarded, and tlie 
like, a noun or adjective in tlie predicate is in the same 
caisc as the subject. E.g. 

OuTO? iiTTi (iaa-tXcvf;, this man L^ hhif/ ; ^ hXt^ayhpo^ Oto^ wuopA.- 
^(.To, Alexatider lua.s uamed a God; jjpf^y] crrpaTT/yo?, he was 
chosen (/encral ; r) 7roAt9 4>povpLov KaTiTrr], the city herame a for- 
trcfis, T.7,2iS; ouTO? iariv (.vhaLfxmv, this man is ha)i)iv : r) ttoXis 
{ityciXr] l-yivtTQ, the city became great ; T/u^T/rat fuya%, he has (p'own 
[to he) great : vopi^craL cro^6<;, he is thoutjUt wise. 

908. The verbs whicli are liere included witli the copula cyu 
(8!M, 1) are called copulative verbs. Tlie predicate uuminative 
with the passive verlxs of this class represcnls the predicate accusa- 
tive of the active construction (1077). 

909. 'I'he predicate adjective, wjtli tliese verlis agrees with the 
subject in gender and number, as wcil as in cas*^. (See 910.) 

910. Tlje pn;dicate of an infinitive with it'^ subject accusative 
expressed (805, 1) is in the accusative; as /3ov\crni t6v vlov cTrat 
cro<^dv, he vnshes hi:^ son to be v:ise. So when llie ]>articiple is 
used lilce tlie infinitive in indirect discourse (111)4) ; as rjBf.(Tav 
Toy Kvpov /3a<7tXto. ytvofievoy, they knew that Cyrus had become 
king. 

For such a predicate with the subject omitted, see 927 and 
928. 



200 SYNTAX, [011 

APPOSITION. 

911. A noun annexed to another noun to describe it, 
and denoting the same person or thing, agrees with it 
in case. This is called appositioru and the noiin thus 
used is called an appositive, E.g, 

Aapcio*; 6 /JacTiAfy's, Darius the king. *AOrjvaL, fJnydXij ttoAis, 
A f/teti.'!, a great city. *Yjua? toij? <xo<pov<i, you, the wi^e one». 'W^Ziv 
rCoy 'AOijvaiwv, of ua^ the Athenians. @€iM(TTOKkyj<; ^kq) (sc. iy(^) 
Trapa crt, /, Thcmistocles^ am come to yuu^ T. 1,137. 4>tAj;crtos koX 
Atjkojw oc 'A;(atoi', Philesiu^ and Lycon, ike Achacans, X.^.5, C'^. 

912. N, A noun in a))position witli two or more nouns is gen- 
erally plura] (or dual); as vttws toVos re, Hvpiot ^wtofioTai, sleep 
and toil, lordly conspirator,^, A.£u. 127; $dp(jo<i koI 4>6jiov, a4>povt 
ivfx/Sovkdi, rearing and fear , two ^(jnseless counsellorSy V. T't. 69^. 

913. N. An adjective m^y have a genitive in apposition with 
a genitive whicli it implies; a*? 'A^^mios ^v, ttoXccos t^? pLtyt(TTrj<;i 
being (a citi::en) of Athens, the greatest city, l\Ap.'29'^, 

For a genitive in apposition with tiie genitive implied in a 
possessive pronoun, see 1001. 

914. N. A noun which might stand in the partitive genitive 
(1088) sometimes takes the case of the words denoting its parts, 
especially when the latter include the whole of the former; as oiKiai 
at fxty TToAAat TrcTTTajK^crar, okiyai St -mpLrjaav, mo^t of the houses had 
fallen, but a few remained (whei-e we might liavo rdv oitcLoiv), 'JM, 
89. So ovTOi dAAo? dAAa Ac'y^t, these men all say different things^ 
X. A.2, P^ 'Jliis is called partitive apposition. 

915. N. A noun may be in apposition with a whole sentence, 
bfting in the nominative when it is closely connected in thought 
^vith tiie subject of tlie sentence, elsewhere in the accusative ; as 
Kilvrai TTCfToi/Tc?, TTto-Ti? ov (T/xLKpa TToAtt, they lie prostrate, — no small 
(cause of) confidence to the city, E.Rh.4l[>. 'EXtm^v KTdvwfiey, 
MeviXtfji XvTTTjv TTLKpdu, let vs kill Helen, (which will be) a bitter grief 
to Menelaus, K. Or. 1105. 

916. X. A noun may be in apposition with the subject or the 
object of a sentence, whei'e we use as or a like word ; as iTTTrot 
riyovTO OvpjOL r<3 *HA:V), horses were brought as an offering to the Sun 
(in active, rTrffou? dy<ii/ 9vfjua., to bring horses as an offering)^ X. CS, 
V^; t^caTiv vpiv 7}fxa<; Xa/Se'iv tvfxpdxov;, you can gain us as allies, 
X.>1.5,4^ So Tv)((7i' T/j'09 <^A.ov, to gain some one as a friend i 
Xf><^fJ.Cif- TOvTiit <^t'A(i), J frfut him as a friend. So T1V09 SiSda-KoXot 
yJKtT€ ; as teachers ofxrhnt are you come? V. Eu.287». See 1080. 



921] AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 201 

917. N. Homer often adds ati appositive denoting a part to a 
noun or pronoun denoting a person; as AtjconiTyji/ ovTaa-tv cJ/xoi^, 
he wounded J), m the shoulder-^ 7/. 11,420; oAA' ouk 'ArpctSfj 'Aya- 
fi€fiyovi rjySave Ovfit^^ but he was not pleasing to the heart of Agamcin- 
non, son of Atrcus (lit. to A., his heart)^ 11. 1,24. 

For 6 hi in Homer followed by a noun in apposition, see 937, 1. 



AGREEiMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

918. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, 
number, and case. Tliis applies also to the article and 
to adjective pronouns and j^articiples. JE.g. 

'O <ro<fi6<; dmjp^ the toL^e man ; jov <ro<pov avSpo'iy rw cro<f><Z avBpit 
Tov cro<f>6y uropa, rioy cro<f>uiy dv8p<i)Vj 6tc. Ovtos 6 dv^jp^ this man; 
Tovrou TOii avSpo?, TOirro>y tiIjv dvhpiov. At irpo rov aropLaTO^ yrjii 
vo-vyja-xomrai^ the ships engaged in battle before the mouth (of the 
harbor), T,7,23. 

This includes predicate adjectives witli co])uIativft verbs, the case 
of which has already been considered (Q07) ; as at apLcrraL Sokovuoj. 
tlvai <^vcr«i?, the natures which seem to be heat, \.MA, P. 

919. The adjective may be either attributive or predicate. An 
attributive adjective simply qualifies the noun, without the inter- 
vention of any verbal form (like all tlie adjectives in 918, exce]it 
apKTTai). Tlie p]-odicate adjective may bo connected with its noun 
by the copula (801) or by a copulative verb (008); as 6 dvrjp 
dya06<i i(TTii', the man is good : kuXutcli dya^d?, he is called (jood. It 
may stand to its nonn in any relation which implies some pari of 
ci/xl; as TTTrfvai; Siwkcli; tol? fATr/Sa?, you are pursuing hopes which are 
winged (i.e. hopes being winged), E. frag, 273; dOdyarov ryjv pyjprjv 
KaTa\€iipov(Tiy, immnrtal is the memory they will Icm^e behind them (i.e. 
rr}v pvrjprjv ov(rav dOdyaroy), T, 9, 3; iroiu tov<; M)J3ov? do-^<mj, 
he makes the Medes (to be) weak. Every adjective wliich is not 
attributivH is classed as a predicate, 

A predicate adjective is often known by its position with 
respect to the article; see 971, and the examples. 

920. N. A collective noun iii the singular denoting persons 
may take a plural participle; a.s TpOLav iX6vT<:<i *ApyuuiV cttoAo?, 
the Argives' army having taken Troy, A. ^7. 577. 

921. K. An adjective may conform to the real rather than the 
grammatical gojider of a noun denotiog a person ; as <^iX« rcKvovy 
dear child J Jl.2%M, 



202 SYNTAX. [922 

922. N. Avo, two, la often used wit}i a plural noun ; as tvpoi 
^vo irXiOpivv (1085, 5), o/tivo plethra in breadth^ X. ^4. 1,2^. 

923. N, All aiiribuiioe adjective belonging to several nouns 
generally a/jrees with the nearest or tiio most prominent one, and 
is understood with the rest; a-S tov KaXoi' nayo.Bhv avZpa koX ^waiKa, 
the honorable man and woman, P. 6'.470«; Trai/Tt koI koyw koI }xr)xo-VYJ, 
by every word and device. 

924. N. {a) A predicate adjective (lilie a verb, 901) is regu- 
larly pinral il" it belongs to sevorui singular nouns, or dual if it 
beioiiys to two, K the nouns are of diiforent genders, tlu^ adjec- 
tive is connnoidy njasculino if one of tlie nouns denotes a male 
peraun, i\\n\ conmiunly neuter if all denote things. Thus, «i8< 
TTdTipa Tt Kal fxtjT^fia Kill dSiXtpov^ Kal ttjv iavTOV yvvaiKa alxpiO.- 
XdiTov^ yiyevrjfxivovii he saw that both his father and his mother^ his 
hrofht'Ts, and his otV}i vnfe had been made raptivc^i, X.C'J, U; 86$a 
Sij Kal iTTi^fXeia Kal roG? Kat T(.\vr} Kal i/o'/ao? UKXripdv koX /xuAaKWj/ 
TTporepa tiv e'l?, V.Lfj.'^WlK 

(b) But it sometimes follows bofh the gender and number of 
the near(;st or inosi. prominent noun ; as -rrpoppL^os avro?, r} yvvrj. 
TO. TTdiSiQ, Kaxiar' a7roXoip.r]v, may I perish most wretchedly root and 
branchy mijselj\ my wifn^ my ddldren^ A\\IiJ)^7. 

925. K. A masculine or feminine noun in the singular, denot- 
ing- a claas rather than an individual, may have a neuter predicate 
adjective, uliich is used as a noun; as Ka\6v rj oXriOtux, a beau- 
tiful thing is truth, J\ X<y. (JG.'J*-' ; dOdvarov dpa y} i^i'X'? > i^ '^^<? ^oiU 
then immortal (an hnmorial thing) ? WPh. lUO^ 

926. N. A ])reilicate adjective is sometimes used where we 
should use an adverb or adverbial phrase; as cKovrt? r/XOov, they 
came wiilinghj ; opKio^ Se trot Atyo;, J say it to you on 7ny oath, 
8. /1 7i. '{Of) ; TTpioTOf; S* i^cpiCLvt Ntarajp, and first, A^estor in(juired, 
//. 10, o4.'l Theie is often, however, a great (Jistinntion between 
tljc adjective and the advei'b; as -rrpoijo^ avrov<i «rSo)/, / was the 
frst to see ihcm ; yrpwrov^ rti>Tov«; tlSttv, they were the Jivf-t whom I 
saw; TTpihroy (adv.) avrovi u8oy, firsl (oi aU that 1 did) J .^aw 
them. 

ADJECTIVKS BELONGING TO THE OMITTED SUBJECT 
OF AN INFINITIVE. 

927. When the subject of an infinitive is omitted because 
it is the same as tJie subject nominative of the ]eading verb 
(895, 2), adjective words and nouns which would agree 



928] OMirrKD SUBJKCT OF AN INFINITIVE. 203 

with the omitted subject are assimilated to the preceding 
nominative. E.g. 

Boi'Xtrat cro<f>os ftvat, he ivisfhes to he wise; Tltpcj)'* t<i>'r) cTvai^ 
he mid he u-aa a Persian^ X.yl.-1,4^''. Ou;^ ofw\oyY}(Ttt) aKXi^ro? 
yKtiVi I. shall not admit thai I am come unhidden, P. >J//. 174<*; ovk 
I4>f} avTo<i dAA* Ikuvov (TTpo.T-qyf.lvi he (Cleoti) said that not {he) 
himse}/, hut ht (Nicias) was general; lie said ovk (fya>) aiVoy (crrpu- 
T7}yC}) aXX' €Kuvo9 uTpaTTjyu, aiTos bein^ adjective (J)8*), 1) and 
€Ktti/09 Rubbtantive ; 1\4,128. Siicl\ adjective words or notiiis may 
be ill the prediciitc with copulative verbs (007) or in other con- 
structions. Tiie assiniiiating" nominative may be either expres.scd 
or understood. 

928, But w])cn tlie subject of an infiiiitive is omitted 
ber;ause it is tljc same as the object or other adjunct (895^ 3) 
of the leadings verb, — 

1. If this adjunct is a dative, adjective words and nouns 
may either be assimilated to the dative, or stand in the 
accusative in agreement with tiie omitted subject of the 
inllnitivc. E.g. 

np(V«t <Toi tivai TTpoOvfxijd (or irp60vfxov)y it becomes yon to 
he zealous ; vvv ooi I^^gtiv avhpl yiv^aOaL, now it is in your power 
to show youraelf a man, X. /1 .7, 1 -^ ; iravri TrpoarjKu ap)(pvTi <j>povifH^ 
elpcii, it becomes every ruler to he prudent, X. Hip.!, 1 ; uvfx4>€p<t avTo7<; 
<^Lkov*; tlvai, it is for their interest to he friends, X.Oe. 1 1,23. *ESo^<v 
airrol^ crv<TKtvauafxtvoi^ a uxov Kal i^orr kccrafiivoi^ irpoUpaty 
ihcy decided to pack up vdial they had and arm themselves completely, 
and to advance, X. /4.2, l^; but tBo^tv avroli Trpo^vXaKa? kg ra 0-777- 
aavTa^ avyKoXuv tov? arpaTioyraf;, they decided to station piclets 
and to asscmlfle the soldiers (ib.'6,2^)', in 1,2^ wo find two datives 
and an accusative. 

2, If the adjunct is a genitive, predicate adjectives are 
generally assimilated to itj but other adjective words and 
all nouns stand in the accusative. E.g. 

K vpov c Ston-o <jt>? TTpo6\}p.ora.Tov yt vicrBai, th ey asked Cyrus to 
he as devoted to them as possible, X.7^. 1,5^; but (witli a noun) 
'A6r}vaLij}v iS(.7J0r}fTay <T<l>Lac I3or)0ovi yivicrOat, th^y asked the Athe- 
nian.^ to become their helpers, Hd. 0,100; KaKovpyov icrrX Kptdivr 
aTToSavuv, cTTpar-qyov B< p.ax^l^^^'*^y Tots TroAcjut'ot?, it is like a 
nialefactor to die by the sentence 0/ a court, but like a general {to die) 
/Ighfivg thp enemy, P. 4,47; Seo/mi vfxCjv fx( fXvy}fxtvov<: twv tlpTjfXi' 
y<iiy TO. hUaia if/7}<f>ia-aa$ai, J beg of you to remember what has been 
saidy and to vote tchat is justy 1.19,51. 



204 SYNTAX. [929 

929. Words in the construction of 928 which refer to a preced- 
ing accusative are of course in the accusative; as oAAov? iriiTiLKa 
(rvfifiaB-qTd<; fioi <f>0LTaVy / have induced others to go as my fellow-^ 
pupils, P,£'w.272«. 

930. N. The principles of 927 and 928 apply also to a predicate 
with wv or with the participle of a copulative verb; as yBiuav 
<ro<f>ol 6vT€Sy they knew that they were wise (but r}Bi(fav rovrov? 
ao<f>ov<; 6vTa<;, they knew that these men were wise). 

931. N. When an infinitive depends on a participle which sup- 
plies its omitted subject, predicate words take the case of the par- 
ticiple ; as rjXOov iiri tlvo. twv SoKOvvnav cTvat cto^cuj', / went to one 
of those who seemed to be wise, r.^;?.2P; twv Trpoo-TTOiou/xeVu)*' flvou 
<to4>(,(jtC}u Ttmst some of those who profess to be sophists, 1.15,221. 
So roi? ooKOvoiy etyaL o-o^ot?, to those who seem to be wise, 

ADJECTIVE USED AS A NOUN. 

932. 1. An adjective or participle, generally with the 
article, may bo used as a noun. E.g. 

'O 5i'Kaio?, the jubt man; o €;^^po?, the enemy; ^A.09, a friend ; 
KaKTJ, a base woman ; to ^iuov or p^iaov, the middle ; 01 /caKOt', the had ; 
TO19 ttya^o??, to the good ; Tiov KparovvTiov, of thoae in power; ko-ko^ 
evils ; TO. OvrjTa, mortal things : ol ypa\pa.p.tvoi 2wKpdT7^v, the accusers 
of Socrates. 

2. In some cases, a noun is distinctly implied ; as tt) ia-Ttpaia 
(sc. TjfjLipa), on the next day; ^ St^td (sc. x^^p)* ^'^^ ^'-9^^^ hand; r^ 
€vBua. (sc. oSd?), the straight road; o d/cparo? (sc, otva), unmixed 
wine ; €? rrjv i&vTdv (sc. yrjv), into their own land. 

933. The neuter singular of an adjective with the article 
is often used as an abstract noun ; as to KaXoy, beauty 

(= Kd\\<y;)y TO SiKaiov, justice (= BLKaioavvrj) . 

934. N, The participle, which is a verbal adjective, is occasion- 
ally thus \ised for the infinitive, which is a verbal noun; as to 
SiSio^tfear (—to ScSwVat), T. 1,36; <V toi p.17 /xfAtraivTi, iu the vmnt 
of practice (in the not practising) (= Iv rw /X17 pcXcrav), T. 1,142. 
So iu Latin, opus est maturato, there is need of haste. 



THE ARTICLE. 
HOMT.RIC USE OF THE ARTICLE, 

935. In Homer the article appears generally as a demon- 



939] HOMERIC USE OF THE ARTICLE. 205 

strative or personal pronoun; sometimes (in the forms 
beginning with t) as a relative. E.g. 

T^v 8* t-yw ov kvcTiii^ hut I will not free Acr, //.1, 29; tov 8c k\v€ 
4>or^o? 'AttoAAoov, and J^hoehus Apollo heard him, //. 1,43; o yap 
^\6e Ooai i-ffl vYJa.<: \\x(xtiov, for he came to the swift ships of the 
AchaeauSy 7/. 1,1*2. As relative, 7n;pa ttoXXo. to. KatWo, many fres 
which were burning^ //. 10, 12; hdpa. ra ot ^cifos Su>kc, gifts which a 
stranger gave him, Od.2\, 13. 

936. N. Even in Homer, adjectives and participles used as 
nouns (932, 1) have the article, as in Attic Greek; as ot yofy 
apiCTTot Kv vq\}(j\v Kiarai^for the bravest sit by the ships, II. 11,658 ; oi 
oAAoi, the others; rd t «dn"a ra r* cVcro/xcva, both things that are and 
things that are to 5e, //. 1,70. 

937. 1. When the article is used with nouns in Homer, it is 
generally a pronoun (especially o hi), with which the noun is in 
apposition; as 6 S' l/Spa^t )(aAKC05 "Aprj^, and he, brazen Ares, 
roared, JL 5,859 ; r} 8' a^Kova-^ afm toIul yvvri kUv, and she, the woman, 
went with them unwilling, 7/. 1,348. 

2, Nearer the Attic use of the article are examples like these : 
avTap 6 Toicrt yiptav ohov JiyifJLOvtvtv, but he, the old man, showed them 
the way, Od.24,2'2o; tov S* oiov -ntxT^p tvpov, and they found him, the 
father, alone, ib. 226. 

3, Hardly, if at all, to be distinguished from the Attic article is 
that found in examples like these : ore 8^ rrjv vrjaoy a<t>LK6fxtO\ when 
now we came to the island, Od. 9, 543 ; to tc a^tVo? ^ClpLinvo*;, and the 
might of Orion, II. 18, 486 ; al 8c yvv(UKi<: lara/xcvat Oavpux^ov, and the 
women stood and wondered, //. 18,495. 

4, It is, therefore, often difficult to decide the exact force of an 
article in early Greek. The above exam[)les show a gradual tran- 
sition, even in Homer, from the original pronoun to the true defi- 
nite article. 

938. N. The examples in 937, 3, are exceptional; and in such 
cases the nouns usually stand without the article in Homer, as in 
Latin. Thus Sitvr} S< Kkayyt} yivtr apyvptoio /BiOLOy and terrible 
came the clang from the silver bow, //.1,49, would in Attic Greek 
require 17 xAayyij and rov fStov. 

939. Herodotus generally uses the forms of the article begin- 
ning with T in the place of the ordinary relative, — of which he 
uses only the forms os, rj, ot, and a*, except after prepositions. 
Thus oAAos opvt? Ipos, tw ovvopua. ^otvtf, another sacred bird, whose 
name is Phoenix, 2, 73. In other respects, he uses the article as it 
is used in Attic prose. 



20G SYNTAX. [940 

940. N. The lyric poets follow t\ie Homei'ic nsagn with respect 
to the article more closely than Herodotus; and the tragic poets, 
especially in the lyric chorus, admit the Homeric use of the article 
as a relative or a personal pronoun. 

ATTIC USE OF THE ARTICLE. 

941. Ill Attic Greek the article generally corresponds 
to our article the; as 6 di/tjp^ the man.; roiv TroXeoiv^ of 
the cities; roL<^ ''EXXr^aiv, to the Greeks; Ta heKa er-q^ 
the (well known) ten years (at Troy), T.],ll. 

942. The Greek jnay use the article in certain cases in 
which the English omits it. Such are t])e following (94o- 
951): — 

943. Pioper names may take the article; as 6 SwKpaTT;? or 
SojKpttTTj?, Socrates. 

944. A l:istract nouns often take the article; as rj dpcrr). virtuf>, 
r) htKaLOdwr], justice; rj evXafSaay caution. But dpCTi] etc. are also 
used in the same sense. 

945. 1. Xouns qualified by a domonstralive jironoun regularly 
taki; the article; as odto? '• nv^p, this mail ; iv TalcrSt xal? TroXicnvy 
in flit'iie cities, (For the |.>osition, see 074.) 

2. J5(jt this article may bo omitted wit.li pi'oper iianies, as ovto<; 
NcoTiToAt/xo?, this Neoptolemus^ D. 18, IM; also whei'e the dcmcui- 
Stralive is equivaU'iit to here or there, as apCifxtv oAf/you? tovtov^ 
avdp(.ir7Tov<i, v-e $<^e few vicn here^ X. /1, 4,7*; so ovtoo-X 6.\rqp, this vian 
hercy and ouro? avrjp used contemptuously; see also vYjt.<i iKuvat 
iirnrX^ovin, ifhips are mih'ng up yonder^ T. I,;')!. 

^. The ti'agedians often omit this article u'iih demonstratives. 

946. ]. Nouns witli a possessive jirououn take tiu^ article when 
they refer to definite individual.^, hut not otherwise; as 6 t/xo^ 
7raT7?p, my father, 6 (to? K0iv(O]'6<i, your pnrlver, I)J8, 21 ; but (709 
K0LV(jiv6*i would mean a partner of i/ours. (For j»redicates, see 050.) 

2. So also witli nouns on whicli a possessive genitive of a per- 
sonal, demonstrat.ive, or reflexive pronoun depends; as 6 iraTTJp 
/xou, my father ; 6 ipxxvTov irar-jp, my own father ; 6 tovtu^i' iraTrjpy 
their falh<>r ; ^ hivrwy yrj, their own land. Rut 7ra1<; iavTOVy a child 
of his own. 

947. ToiovTO?, too-oGto9, TOLoaBcf roaoaSe. and TY}\LKovro<; may 
take the article; as tov tolovtov dvSpa^ such a man. It is always 
used with Suva, such a one (420). 



954] ATTIC USE OF THE AKTICLI-:, 207 

948. A numeral may have the article, (a) to distinguish a pari 
ol' a immber; (b) to express a round uumber, especiaJly witli dfji<^i, 
■rrepL, virip, or <i9 ; (c) to e.xpress merely a number in the abstract. 
'J'lius, ru)v irivTt Tti.% 8oo /Aotpas i/t'^oFrat, thty hold two of the Jioe 
parta^ T. 1,10; l^nvav i^/xtpas d/x(^I tol? rpiaKOvra^ they remained 
about thirty dat/s, X. AAyb'^'^; ottw? /xf; €ptrs ori cVrt ra SwStKa 8U e|, 
£//m7 .s'u^ that twelve is twice i;ix, \\Jip/Sd7^\ 

949. Tiie article is often usad, where we use a possessive pro- 
noun, to mark something as belonging to a person or thinn^ men- 
tioned in tlie sentence; as €p;(CTat utrr^; re rj MavBdvr] 7rpo« tov 
Trarf'pa Koi tov KvpQv '■ 6v viov €;(Ov<Ta, Ma'i'idane coincs to her father 
(lit to the father) herself, and vnlh her son Cyrus, X, C 1,:3'. 

950. TJie article may liave a gcnei-jc force, marking an object 
as tlie representative of a class; as 6 avOponro^y man (in general) ; 
ot yt'/joi'Tt?, the afjed (as a class). 

951. The article sometimes )ias a distributive force, where we, 
should use each or a; as \mL<T)(ytlrai Suicrav rpla -qfuSapUKo. tov 
pr}vo'; Tw (TTpuTuoTY], he promises to give three half'darics a month to 
each soldier, X, 4. 1,3^1. 

952. I. An adverb, a ])i-eposition with its case, or any similaj' 
exprt-ssion, may be used with the article to qualify a noun, like an 
attril.>utivc adjective; as ot rort avOpio-jroL, the men of that time ; tov 
TToAut Kdhpov, of ancient Cadmus, S. O.T. 1 ; ol Iv uartt ' KO-qvuXoL, the 
Athenians in the city. 

2. Here a )>oiiii d^^}1otinf;• ynen or ////«/?.'? is often omilted ; as ol iv 
0.OTII, those ill the city; TOi<i ToVe, to tho-^c of thai time; ol dy.<f>'i MAa- 
TiiivuL, those ahnut Plato (generally Plato and hi.^ school, or siii/i>]y 
Plaio). 

953. Tiie nouns yq, land, -npaypjcxra, things or affairs, vios, son, 
and sometJn)es oUicr Jjouns whicli are readily sus^gested by the 
contf^xt, may be omitted aftei* tlie aJticle, when a qualifying adjec- 
tive or genitive is added; as as ti)^ lavTw (sc. yrjv), to ilielr own 
(and; iK t>}*» irtpioLKiSo^, foni the nf'i(jhf>orh)fj coWi^ry ; to. t^9 7^c^ 
X«p<i, the ajfairs of the state : to. twi/ ■noXtpcmv, what belfjjiy.<; to (he 
enemy; TitpLKXyj<; 6 'BaydiTnrov (sc. utds), Pericles, the son of Xan- 
thippu.'i ; TYjv TiiXifrT7}v (sc. oSov), the gwd'est way. Expressions like 
ra (or to) rrjs '^vX'O'*' "J"^ ''"V^ opyr}<;, with no definite nouns under- 
stood, sometimes do not dilTer fjom Ti.';^!?, Fortune, and opyi;, wrath. 

954. Instead of repeating a noun wit.li new adjuncts in tlic 
same sentence, it may he sufficient to repeat i(s article; as ot tCjv 
TToXLTdv TTuiSt? Kui ol Ttui/ aWwv, the children of the citizeyis and those 
of the others. 



208 SYNTAX. [966 

955. 1- The infinitive, as a verbal noun (151G), may take ? 
neuter article; as to tlStvat., the knowing; aot to /xiy aLyrjaai Xoi-nov 
rjv, it remained for you not to be siienty i). 18,2;j. 

2. In like manner, a neuter article may precede a whole clause 
considered as a noun; as to yvdOi o-avrov 7ravTa)^ov Vn XPW^' 
iwv, the saying " know thyself" is everywhere useful. 

956. A predicate noun or adjective seldom has the article ; as 
vv^ rj ^fJ^ipTt iyiviTo, the day became night, Hd. 3,103; xoAtiTat ij 
axpOTToAis £n vtt* 'A^iyvaiW tto'Ai?, the citadel is still called '■'city" by 
the Athen\(ins^T.2,\^. So when it has a possessive pronoun; as 
ovTos. tfXo<i iroipa rjvy he was my compamon^ V.Ap.\t\*-. 

l^ut when the predicate refers definitely to distinct persons or 
things, it may have the article; as ual S' ovtol ol £iSor€9 raX-qBi^; 
and are these those (whom I mean) who knov) the truth f P. H. A/. 284*. 

957. N. Ba<riA<u9 is generally used without the article to design 
nate the king of Persia; as Tovrovi a-noTri^Tni /3a<rtA€t, he sends 
these to the King, T. 1,128, But the article is sometimes found: 
compare K4jlCti and 170. So sonie.Un\es p,(yci<i j3aaLXcij<; ; as fAiyd- 
Aou jSacrtXtoi? fiacTtXiux, a palace of the Great King, X./l. 1,2^ 

958. N. The article is often omitted in some familiar expressions 
of time and place, which are probably older than the Attic use of 
the article; as a/Aa ew, at daybreak; wkto<i, hy night ; a/^ta ijpt, at the 
opening of spring; iv ayopdy in the market-place; Kar aypov, in the 
country ; Kara y^v, by land ; kutq SoXaouav, by sea ; Ik Be^La%. from 
the right ; etc. 

' POSITION OF THE ARTICLE. 

959. { At trihuiive Position,') 1. An atti-ibutive adjeotivo 
which qualifies a noun witli tlie article conimonly .stands 
between the article and tlie noun ; as 6 aocpb^ (^i^>jpy ^^^e 
wise man; rcbv fieydXoiv jroXecov^ of the great cities. . 

2. The noun with the article may be followed by the 
adjective with the article repeated. The first arliule is 
sometimes omitted. In these cases the noun has greater 
emphasis than in the preceding form (1). E.g, 

'O avqp o (ro0d?i sometimes a.v7)p 6 (T0<f}6<i, the vise man (but not 
o avrjp cro^d?, see 971); al TrdAci? at SrffWKparoijpiivaL, the stages which 
are under democracies ; di'Opiiyrroi ol ahtKuiraroL, men who are the most 
unjust ; TTW? -^ aKparo? SLKaiocwrj Trp6<; aZiKiav rrjp aKparov ex*'? {th^ 
question) how pure Justice is related to pure injustice, l\ Up. 545*. 



96«j POSITION OF THE ARTICLE. 209 

960. This applies to possessive pronouns and all expressions 
which have the lorce of attributive adjectives, wlien they are pre. 
ceded by the article (052, 1), and to dependent genitives (except 
partitives aud tlie genitive of the jtersonal pronoun); as 6 cfto? 
TTarrip, my father ; ^ ^rq /xi^Trjp, thy mother ; 6 t/Aovrov Trarrfp, my own 
father (but 6 Trartjp ^ov, my father^ see 077); ol iv a^rct avBpuynot. 
or oc avOpdiTTOi. ol <V aara, the men iti the city ; o\}ht\<; rdv totc 'EAAt;- 
vojv, none of the Greeks of that time f to tw ovrt. i/t'ctjSo?, the real 
falsehood; ilq r^v tVttVwi' TrdAii/, into their city; ot rwy &r}ptu<oy 
(TTpaTyjyoi^ the generals of the Thebans y iu rrj aya/Bdo-n rrj /jlctci 
Kupov, in the upward march with Cyrus, X.AJ), V. For participles, 
see 9G9. 

961. N. Two or even three articles may thus stand together; 
as TO. 7ap rijs tC}v ttoAAuji' ^f/v)(rjs o/Aftara, the eyes of the soul of the 
mulfitw.le, P, So. 2o4«. 

962. An adjective in either of these ]>ositioiis will) reference to 
the article (050) is said to be in tlie attributive position, as opposed 
to the predicate pos^ition (see 971). 

963. N. Of the three attributive positions, the first (c.^.o aoi^m 
avr}p) is the most common and the most simple and natural ; tlje 
second (6 avqp 6 ao(f>6^) is the most formal ; the third (avrjp 6 
(ro<f>6<:) is the least coniinoji. ■ 

964. N. The article at the beginning of a clause may be sepa- 
rated from its noun by /z<V, he, ri, yt, yap, SyJ, GUI', and by rt? in 
Herodotus. 

965. The /•ar(i7i>;f genitive (1088) rarely stands in either of the 
attributive positions (9C2), but either precedes or follows the gov- 
erning noun and its article ; as ol Katcol riov voXitwv, or tw ttoActwi' 
ol KaKOt, the had among the citizens (rarely ot rCiv TrokiTiov kukoi'). 

Eveu the other forms of the adnoniivial genitive occasionally 
have this position, as Sia rbv oXcBpov tu)v {Jvo-Tparia>Twi/ 6pyL(6p.ivot., 
angered by the death of their fellow soldiers, X.AA,2^^. 

966. 1, *0 aXXo<: ill the singular gone.rally means the rest^ seldom 
the other; ol aAAoi means the others: as yj a\Xr] 7rdAt«, the rest of the 
state (but aAA»; TrdAi?, another state); ol oAAot 'EAAr^ve?, the other 
Greeks. 

2. Both 6 aAAo9 and oAAo? (rarely trepo?) may have the mean- 
ing of besides; as tx)Biup.ovL^6p.€vof; vtto tw ttoXltwv Kal twv dXXoiv 
^tVwv, congratulated by the citizeus and the foreigners besides, P.(?.473<^; 
ou yap ^v XPP"^^^ ^'''*^' aAAo ovhlu ?iiv^poi', for there was no grass f 
neither any tree (lit nor any other tree), X.AA.bK 



210 SYNTAX. [907 

967. N. IToAi^ with th(3 article generally (though not always) 
means the greater port, especially in ol ttoAAoj', the multitude, the 
majority, and to ttoXv, the greater part. So ol 7rAtioi/e<r, the majority^ 
TO -nXilovy the fjreatcr party ot ttAcio-toi and to TrXeiaTov, the greatest 
rtumhcr ov part. 

968. N. W]»<^?i a noun )ias two or more qualifying words, each 
of theui may take an article and .stand in either attributive posi- 
tion (959), or all may sf.and between one ai-tiole and its noun ; u.s 
Kara ttjv *\ttlkiiv Tr)v iraXaiav tf>(jjvr}v, accordiuf) to the old Attic dia- 
lect, V.Crat.'^V^'6^\ TO. TCL)(yj tci kuvTwv ra fmKfio., their own lovr; icalls, 
T. 1,108; TTtyuTToi'Tf? €i9 ra? dXAas *ApKftSiKa9 -noXwi^ sending to the 
other Arcadian cities, X.7/, 7,4^*^; r^r in 'Apcriy? 'HpaKA.<ous TratStv- 
av, the instruction of Hc^rules hi/ Virfue, X.j'I/. t?. PV Occasionally 
one stands Ijetweeii the article and (he noun, w]h]l' anotin^r follows 
the noun witiiont an article; as ot o-tto t<'Lu iv tj; *A<7i'a iroXtwv 

lEiXXrjviSfjJv, those (conung) froni the Greek cities in Asia, X.//. 4,3^^ 

969. N. When an att.ribntive parlici])le (i)H)) with dependent 
words qKalJfies a nonii with the article, eitlicr tlie j)articii"»le or the 
dependent words jnay fo]lo\\' the noun; a-S rby piovTa irorafxov 
Sia T-fjs TToXtcu?, (he river which run.'^ ihrough the city, X./J.i'),2* ^ tov 
l<^(.a TfjKora. Kivhvvov tyJ ttoXcl, the dni^rjer iuipcnding over tk<* citj/, 
1). 18, 170; Tj cV Tuj 'lo-^/jLw iTTL^ou^}. yeuofiivr), the delai/ vjhich 
occurred at the. hthn-us, 1\2, IS. IJut Bueh expressions may also 
lake either of the attribntivc positions (l>r)9, 1 or 2). 

970. N. The Greeks connnonly said ihc l^u/dtrates river, tov Et^ 
<f>pdTr}v TTOTu/ioV, etc., rather than the river Euphratefi. So sonietimes 
with names of mountains (rarely witii those of cities or islands). 

971. (^Predicate Podiion,) When an adjective either 
precedes Uic article, or follows the noun wiUiont taking 
an arti(;le, it is alwa^'s aj^'edicato adjt;ctive (sec 019). E.<j. 

*0 avT^p uo^o'i or {ro<^m 6 a\r^p (sc. cVtiV.), the man is rnise, or 
wise is the vuni ; ttoXXoI ol Travovpyoi, inamj are the enll-doera ; l<f>-qp.i- 
pov<i yc roL? rvxa-^i KCKTrjfixBa, we possess our fortunes fur a day (sc. 
ovaas), Gnom. 

972. N. The pi-edicatc force of svw.h adjectives must often be 
expressed by a periphrasis; a.s TrTTji'a? Sto'jKtt? ra? t'ATrtSa?, the 
hope^ you are pvr.^uing are vnnrjed, lit. you are pursuing hopes {being) 
wingedt K.f!*ag.273; r^yovpH'Oi avTov6p(jjv Ti^v $v/xfxdx*jjyy being 
leaders of allies who were indepertdcnt, T. 1,97; «//tA^r txy^v rr)V 
K€<f>oXr}v, having his head hare, X./I.1,S*^. So iroaov dyfi to crrpcu 
rcvfjua ; how great is the anny he is bringing ? 



079J rosrnoM of thk article. 211 

973. The position of aiich an adjective (971) with reference to 
tlie article la called the jnedicate position. 

974. A noini (juulifiecl hy a denionstrative pronoun 
regularly takes tlie. aiticle, and the pronoun .stands in 
tlie prt'dicatc position (971). E.g, 

OvTo^ avr}f>, this 7nun, or 6 avijf) ouros (iievev 6 outos dvTJp), 
U-cpl Tovritiv tC)v TTukcwvi alioul these cities, (See 945, 1-3.) 

975.. N. liut if an adjoetive or otlier qualify ing word is added, 
the demonstrative may stand between tins and itb noun; as r} 
arcvyj avrr) oSo?, ihts narrow road^ X.-4.4,'J''; toj a<f>LKOfxivui tovt(u 
^tvui, to thin straugcr who has come, \\Pr.'ii\l\^. (See 1177, i?.) 

976. N. "Ekgctto?, iKoiTCpo^ii cifxffxjj, and a/j.<l>6T€po<; have the 
predicate position like a demonbtrative, as iKafjrr} i) ij/At'pu, each 
day; but witli ckuo-to^ tho article may be omitted. TotoCros, 
T0(70VT0<;, Toidtjdf, TOfToo-Sc and tj^AikoDtos, when they take tlie 
article, have the first attributive position (959, 1). 

977. 1. A dependent genitive of i\\& personal pronoun (whether 
partitive t)r uot) has the predicate position (971), wliile that of 
other pronouns (unless it is partitive) has tlie first attributive 
]iosili()u (iJ.'jy, 1); as rj/xuyv rj tto'Ai? or rj ttoAi? yfJ.C)Vy our cit7j (not 
1^ i){j.C)v TTo'Ai?) ; T} rovr<i}y ttoAi?, these men's city (not tj roAt? rov- 
Tu)v) ; /xf.T(.7refx\paro*A<Trvo.y7]<irY}v itxvToZ Ovyarcpa kuH rov iralha 
avTtjq, Astfj(if/es sent for his axon daughter and her son, X. C. 1,3'. 

2. liul if a qualifying word is added, the personal pronoun may 
stand between tliis and the nonn; as r) SoKowa r}fj.Civ TrpoTtpov 
u(x}(f)pou\jyr}, what ])reviously seemed io be our modesty^ T. 1,32. (ijee 
975.) 

978. 1. The adjectives aicpo?, juw'ctov, and ta)(aro<;, when tliey 
are in the predicate position (971), mean the fop (or extremity), the 
middle, the last, of the thing which their nouns denote; as t/ dyopa 
/j-tcTT] or ix€(Tr) T} tiyopa, (he middle of the market (while i} }j.i(jy} dyopa 
would mean the middle market) ; aKpa -q x<ip, the extremity of the 
haml. 

^1. When no article is used, as in the older poetry, tlie context 
must decide the meaning. Compare summus, viedius, extremns, and 
ultivius \\\ Latin. 

979. Ua<; and avfXTra^, all, and 0A09, tohok, generally have the 
predicate position; fus 7rd^'r«? ol av^pt^ or ol av8pc<; TrdvTC;, all the 
men; oAj? 17 ttoAi^ or 17 ttoA:? oAt;, all the city, liut they can also 
be used like attributive adjectives, preceded by the article; as ^ 
ruCTa StKoU'a, the whole of Sicily, to oAot' -ytVo?, the entire race. 



212 SYNTAX, [980 

The distinction here was probably no greater than that between 
all the city and the whole city in English. We find even ot Trarrcs 
avOfiuoTTOL, all mankind^ X. /4 . 5, C, 

980. AvTos as an intensive pronoun, ipse (989, 1), has the 
predicate position; as avros 6 avTJ^, Me man himself. But 6 avro^ 
ayqpj the name man (989, 2), 

PRONOMIKAL ARTICLE IN ATTIC GREEK. 

981. In Attic prose tlie article retains its original 
demonstrative force chiefly in the expressioji o /xeV . . . 
Se, the one . . . the other} E.g. 

Ot /icr avr<iv iro^tvov, ol 5' iail>ivh6v{iiv, some of them shot with 
bow.^, and others used slinks, \. A.'dy \P. A<t tou? fitv clvai Sucrru- 
Xfit, Tou<j 5' curv;^^??, some muM be uufortunaie, and others fortunate, 
K- frag. 207. 'Vdv froXcwv al fikv rvpavvovvrai-, oX h\ Z-q^xoKparovvrai, 
aX Sf dpiaroKparovin-ai, some states are governed hy tyrants^ others 
by democracies, and others by aristocracies, P. 7^;>.338*'. 

982. N. The neuter to fitv , . . to hi may be used adverbially, 
partly , . . partly. For tovto p.iv . . . rovTO hi in this sense, see 1010. 

983. N. (a) 'O hi etc. sometimes mean and he, hut he, etc., even 
when no 6 /xfV precedes; as *Ivap<DS *kB-qvaiov<; €TTr)ydyeTo - ol Si 
rjXOoVi Inaros called in Athenians; and they caviCy T. 1,104. 

(h) Witl) prepositions these expressions are generally inverted; 
as TToAAa fuv . . . <V hk rot?, P. Eu. 303^^ ; irapa, pxv tov ivka, Trapa ^ 
Tov o-iS)^p05, X, Hp.A.2, 11. 

984. A few .other relics of the demonstrative meaning of 
the article are found in Attic, chiefly the following: — 

Tov KoX TOV, this man and thai ; to koI to, this and that; ra koI rdy 
these and those ; as thu yap to Kai to Trot^crat, koI ro /xt) Trot^crat, for 
ice ought to have done this thing and thaty and not to have done the 
other, D. 0, t>8, 

Tlpo TOV (or TTpoTov), before this, fonneHy. 

Kai TOV or Kai Tijv, before an infinitive; as koI riy KcXcvaai 
hovvai (se. XiytTai), and {it is said) he commanded hitn to give it, 

So occasion ally tw, therefore, which is connnon in Homer. 

J In this use, and in otlicr pronominal uses of the article (as in 
Homer), the forms 6, i}, oi, and ai wore probably oxytone (6, ij, ot, a't). 
They are printed here without accents in conforniity with the, pre'S'ail- 
ing usage in school editions of Greek authors. See 1-30. 



y80J PERSONAL ANJ) U^TENSlVK PUONOUNS. 213 

PRONOUNS. 
TEKSONAL AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS. 

985. The noiiiinatives of the personal pronouns are 
seldom used» except for einpliasis. (See 896.) 

986. The forms ifxov, ifxoi^ and i/x€ are iDore ejnpiiatic than the 
enclitics fxov, fxoi, ymc. The latter seldom occur aftej- prepositions, 
except in rrpos fie. 

987. Of tlie personal ])rooouns of the third person, ov, oT, 
etc. (o8y), only ot and the plural forms in cr<j>- are used in 
Attic prose. There they are generally indirect reHe.xioen, 
that is, in a dependent clause (or joined with an infinitive 
or participle in the leading clause) referring to the subject 
of the leading verb. E.g. 

"'^Xt^av OTt 7ri}x\pii(. cr<^a? 6 *Ij/Sa)V /3a(nXti'y, the}f said that the 
king of the huHam had sent them, X.C.2,4'. '^irpiuPtvovro eyt<X-j~ 
fjXLTa TTOiovfJiivoi, 0Tr(j}<; a<j>i<TLv on fxiyicrTr] Trpd^acri? ayj rov TroXi- 
fx€LVj they sent embassies, making charges, that they might hove the 
strongest possible ground for war, T. 1,126. ^^vTavOo. Xiytrai 'AttoX- 
AwK (K^iLpai MapaiHxy j/tKi^aay Ipttfivro. ot Tripl cro</)ta9, here Apollo 
is said to have flayed Marsyas, having beaten him in a contest (with 
himself ol) insk-ill, X.A.],2K 

For tlie restrict-ed use of these pronouns in Attic Greek, see 
also 392. 

988. In Homer and Herodotus, and when thej"- occur in 
the Attic poets, all t];iese pronouns are generally jjersonal 
pronouns, though sometimes (direct or indirect) reflexives. 
E.g. 

^Ek yap (T<j>to3v </>ptVa? tlXcro TlaAAas ^ AO-jmrj, for J^allas Athena 
bereft them of their seiusc'^, //. IS,;^!!; rov Kpiov 6.tto €0 (M4, A) 
irifXTTf. Ovpa^ey he sent the ram forth from himself through the door, 
0''/.n,4f>l. Ai*n-(Va 8(' ot tvSovTL i-Tridrr} ov<.ipcK;, and soon a dre<niL 
came to him in his sleep, J Id. 1,34; ovSafioiai rCyv i/Dv cr^ca? irtpLoi- 
HiovTOiv a.<7L bp6yXii\<j(joL, they hane the same speeeh with none of their 
present neighbors, J Id. 1,67. Tm Tparrw fccPv (r^i*: i>ii'Z)' i'i tohaC 
manner do you say she died ? S. Tr. 87S. 

989. Al-to? has tliree uses: — 

1, In all its cases it may be an intensive adjective pro- 
noun, himself] herself, itself] themselves (like z);st;). E.g. 



214 SYNTAX. [090 

Avro? 6 aTpaTr]y6<>, the {/cnerulhimnelj; t-jr* a trot? rot? cuyia- 
koU, on the very coasi.^, *!'. 1,7 ; eVtcrri;^?; avri^, knowledye itself, 

2, Ai)to? ill all its cases, when preceded by the ailicle, 
jneans the name (^ideni). E.g. 

O auTos oyqpy ihc same jnan; tov avTot/ voXtfxoy, the same war ; 
TuvTil, the smne thiyigi; (41^). 

3. The oblique cases of at^Tov are tlic ordinary personal 
pronouns of the third person, Jdm, her, it, the^n. E,g. 

IrpixTyyov avroy aTrcSci^c, he ilcsi(/uaied him an yeneral. See 
four oilier examples in X./l. 1,1,2&3. 

It will be noticed that the uomlnative of auro? is never a per- 
sonal pronoun. 

For <j<l>ij a<f>LV, viv, and /xtV, see ^{04 and 395. 

990. N. A i)roiioun mUIi wliicli a\rro<; intensive agi'ees is often 
oniiMed; as ravra (ttou'lt^ a vr ot (.^o.v/uT?), i/ou did this yoiLr^clvcs ; 
TvXiV(rrcov ct? rnvra^ avrots i/j./3d<TLv (mi. vfuv'), you iiiusf Art//, 
emharkiny on these yvurseloea (in pa-son) ^ I).4, IG. .So avros t*^-*; 
(ipse dixit), himself (the luasrer) soid it. 

991. N. Aw-09 ^\•itll an ordinal nuniejal (372) may designate 
a person as tlie chief of a given number; as -^pfOrf npc<T/iivTy<i 
StVaro? avToq, he was chosen antbaysador a,s the chief of ten (Jiimtself 
the tenth), X. //.•.^2'^ 

992. K. Tlie oblique cast.;s of uiVo? are often used where the 
indirL'ct reliexive^s (f*.S7) might stand, and sonietinies even whej-e 
the direct reflexives (Ot/-'>) would be allowi^I; as aVAw<j ti]i' iavrov 
yv(s}pir)v *iTrt<j>aiv<TO "StWKpa.rrj'i Trpos rov<i OftiAoCvras avTw, Svcraies 
Xised to dechre his okju ojfiuian plainly to those who conversed with him^ 
X. ;l/.4,7^ wljei-e oi ?niL;ht liave been used; but in l/J^, we have 
iXiTi^iLv inouL Tovq (ruvSiuTpt'^ovTas lavrw. 'i'ho union of an inten- 
sive and a personal pronoun in aiVJq explains this freedom of 
usage. 

KKKLEXIVE PKONOUKS. 

993. Th^ reflexive pronouns (40 J ) lefer to the subject 
of tlie clause in which they stand. Sometimes in a de- 
pendent clause they refer to the subject of the leading 
verb, — that is, they are indirect reflexives (987). E.g. 

TviiiSL cruVTOv, hioic thj^rlf; <T7i<y<f>a^€v (avrov, he slew him- 
self At'Sw^t' aoL IfxavTov ZovXov, I give my^aelf to you as a slave, 

X. C4,62. Oi ■flTTl'oiXiVOi €<IVT0V<; T€ KOL TO. €avTu>v TfafTa aTTO- 

[SdWovmVy (he vanquished lone loth themselves and all thai belongs to 



1001 J J^OSSESSIVK PRONOUNS. 215 

thevi, X.C.3,ii''^. 'ETrtifTfv AOrjvaiovi lavjov KardyiLv, he per- 
suaded the Aikeniaiu to restore him (from cxile)^ 'J\ J, 11 1. 

994. K. Occasionally a reflexive refers to some eii)i)hatic word 
wliicli is neither the leading nor a dependent subject; jls ciTro 
era u tot) 'ycu crc St8a|co, 1 will teach you from ijour own case (from 
7/ovr^elf), Ar. AMiSfi. In fact, these pronouns con-espond ahnost 
exactly in their use to the English reflexive??, myself thyself him- 
f^elf etc. 

995. N. The third person of tlic reflexive is sometimes used 
fertile fii'str or second ; a-s Sci" jJ/au? tpiirOaL cuvtoij?, we must oak: 
ourselveSy V. Ph. 7S^. 

996. N. Tlie reflexiv(^is sometimes used for tlio reci]>rooa] 
(4()-]) ; r}fxLV aurot? StuAl^o/xc^a, V)c tvHl discourse with one another 
(i.e. among ourselves), D.4S, G, 

997. N. A reflexive may be strengthened by a preceding aiVov; 
as otos TC ai'TO? avrw fto-qOfHv^ nhle (him'ur.lf) to help him.self 
P. 6'. 48o''. To yiyvuiGKiiv avTov iavT6v,for one (himself) to l:now 
himself V,ChA^b\ 

For the personal pronouns ou, ot, etc. as direct and indirect 
reflexives, see 987 and 088, 

rORSESSIVE rUONOUNS. 

998. 1. Tlie possessive pronouns (40G) arc g-onorally 
equivalent to the possfissive genitive (1085, 1) of tlie 
personal pronouns. Thus 6 ao<; irarijp = 6 irartjp aovt 
^ our father. 

For the article with possessives, see 0-10, 1. 

2. For «/xo? and (to? here tlie enclitic forms p.ov (not (fj.ov) and 
o-oG may be used; r}p.ujv and vjjiuiv for rjp.tT(.po^ and {i/xeVcpos are 
less frecpient. 'J'hese genitives have the predicate position as 
regards tlie article (07)). 

999. The possessive is occasionally equivalent to the oh j active 
genitive of tiie personal pronoun ; as ^ c/xi; ivvoia, which commonly 
means my good-will (towards others), rarely means yood-will (shown) 
to me ; as ivvoia yap €p(j rrj <r{],for 1 shidl speak out of good-will to 
you, P. (7.48')* ' (See 10So,*:5.) ' 

1000. N. 2</»tTCpos, their, and (poetic) o?, his, hcr^ its, are regu- 
larly (directly or indirectly) reflexive. 

1001. N, An adjoot.ive or an appos^itive in ih« genitive may 
refer to the genitive implied in a possessive; as ra/xa Sv(tttJvov 



216 SYNTAX. [1002 

xaxa, the woes of me^ unhappy one, S. 0. C. 344 ; t^i^ vfAtripav rtav 
<TO<f>icrTwv Tej^mjy, the art of you Sophists, 1\ H, M.2Sl*^. See 913. 

1002. N. Uy U\e possesHive pronouns and the possessive geni- 
tive, Uie words my father can be expressed in Greek in five forms : 
6 f/xo? iraryjpf o Trarrjp 6 t/xo?, Trarrjp 6 ipoi, 6 Trarrjp /xou, ajid 
(afte)' another word) fiov 6 Trarrjp (a,s €.<Py] pov 6 Trarvjp). So 6 ffos 
TraTijp^ etc. 

1003. N. (a) Our own, your own (plural), and their own are 
generally expressed hy rip€rtpo<;, vptTipOiy and a<^<Vepo?, with 
avTiov (989, 1) strengtiieuing the rjpdv, ii/aw, or (T<f>il)v implied in 
the possessive; as tov TjptTipov avrwF iraripa, our own father; rrj 
vpiTipa avTUiv prjTpi, to your own mother; rou? iX<fiiT€pov<i auroii' 
TToihai, their own children. For the third person plural lavTUiv can 
be used ; as rovi kavruiv TraiSa? (also (T<f>Civ aurwv -jraiSa*;, without 
the avlicle) ; but v.'c Seldom tind 7//xu>v (or vpu>v) avTiav. 

(b) Expressions like Toy epoy avrov Trarepa for toy ipavTov 
niiTtpa, etc., with singular possessives, are poetic. In prose the 
genitive of the. reflexive ((pavrov, crcaurov, or lavrov), in the 
attributive position (909), is the regular form; a& p(.ri-nip\paTO t^t 
iavTOv Ovya.T€.pay he sent for his; {oion) daughter^ X. C 1,3^. 

DEMONSTUATIVE PRONOUNS. 

1004. OiiTo? and o8e, tlm^ generally refer to what is 
near in place, time, or thought; eVeii'o*?, tkat^ refers to 
•what is more remote. 

1005. X. ,Thc distinction between ovro9 and oSe, both of which 
corj'espond to our this, mnat he learned by practice. In the histo- 
rians, ovTo? (with ToioxjTos, TocroxJTOs, and o^Ttj><;') frequently refers 
to a speech just made, wliile o8t (with TotoaSc, roo'daSc, and uiSc) 
refers to one about to be made; as raSc ccTrcy, he apoke as follows, 
Imt TovTa iiiTtv, thus he spoke (said after tlie speech): see T. 1,72 
and 79, 85, and 87. But elsewhere ovtos (especially in the neuter) 
often refers to something tiiat follows; as paov yap rovTwy irpou- 
pr]p.(v<jiv p^Oyjcrei, for you tvill more easily understand it when this 
(the following) is premised, V. Rp. blO^. 

1006. N. OuTo? is sonjetimes exclamatory, as ovtos, tl' ttouD; ; 
You there! what are you dointff A,RA9S. 

1007. N. The Greek has no word exactly corresponding to the 
unernphatic demonstrative whicli is often used in Knglish as tiie 
antecedent of a relative, an I saw those who were pr.isent. Here a 
participle witii the article i-^ generally used ; as tl^v toii? Trapdrras; 



1016] INTERROGATIVK ANJ) INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 217 

if a demonstrative is used (eTSov tovtov^ ot naprjcrav^ I saic these vien 
who were present), it has special etn])ba.sis (lO^iO), A relative witli 
omitted antecedent soinetimes expresses the sense required ; as 
elBov ous iXaficy, I saw (ikone) whom he took (102G). 

1008. N. The demonstratives, especially oSc, may call attention 
to the presence or aiiproacli of an object, in the sense of here or 
there; oSt -yap Br) /Jao-iXcu? X^P^^> f^^' ^^'"^ *'^^ '^' '^'^ ^'^^9 ^f '^'^ 
lamU S.iln. loo; for j^c? €Kdv<xi (T.1,51) see 1)45, 2. 

1009. N. OuTos sometimes repeats a precediij^ de.scription for 
emphasis in a single word; as 6 yap rh cnrifi^ 7rapao-;((oi/, o^to? 
tCji/ <f>wTu)v atTios, for he who supplied the seed — that inun is ra^pon- 
sibiefor the harvest, D. 18, 15'J. 

1010. N. ToCto ^iv . . . TovTO St, fir^t . . . secondit/, }tartly . . . 
partly, is used neai-ly in the sense of rb fxiv ... 70 6f (f*B2), es])e- 
cially by Herodotus. 

For ovToaiy 68l, €Ketvo(7i, ovtwotl, ujSi', etc., see 412. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 

1011. The interrogative t(9 ,' i^hoP y^kat? may be 
either substantive or adjective; as rivas elhov ; zvho7n 
did I see? or riW? avhpas elhov ; what men did I set? 

1012. T/9 may be used both in direct and in indirect 
questions; as ri /SovXerai; what docs he want? epcora t/ 
fiov\€cr6€^ he asks what you want. 

1013. N. In indirect questions, however, the relative* oart? is 
more common ; as Ipuyra o tl j^ovXioSt {lOODJ. 

1014. N. The same principles apply to the ])rononiinal adjec- 
tives TToaos, TTOto?, etc. (420). 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

1015. 1. The indefinite rU (enclitic) generally ineans 
some^ any^ and niay be either substantive- or adjootive ; 
as toCto Xe^et T^9, i^ortie one says this ; avSpouro^ rt?, 
some man, 

2. It is sometimes nearly equivalent to the English a 
or an; as elhov avOpcoirov riva^ I saic a certain man^ or 
/ saw a man. 

1016. NI. Tis sometimes implies that the word to which it is 



218 SYNTAX. [1017 

joined is not to ha taken in its stiict meaning; as kXcVtits ti? 
dva7r£<^iwTut, he Aas hccn shown up as a sort of thief, 1*. /iy>.334*; 
/jLc'yu9 TU, rather large ; TpiaKOVTa. rtfas aniKTCLvav, (hey killed sovie 
thirty, T.8, 73, 

So wiUi tlu* adverbial rl (lOG(l) ; as ax^^ov rt, very nearly, T.3,(;8. 

1017. N. Oeca.sioiia11y Tw means everyone, like Trains; as tJ 
/jLcV Tts Sopi) Ojj$dad<jj, let every one sharpen well A/.v spear, IL2,'Sii'J. 

1018. N. Tlie neuter rl may mean t^omefhitiy important; as oioyrai 
Tt eiviu, ot-Tt? ouSti/os a^iOi, they think they are ^omcthiny, when they 
are worth nothing, WAp.-W^. 

RELATIVE I'llONOUNS. 

1019. A relative agi'ees with its antecedent in gender 
and nunibcv; but its case depends on the construction 
of tlie clause in whicli it stands. Ejj. 

EiSoj' Tois avhpwi di yXOov, I saw the men who came; o\ ixvhpt.% 
ov<; £tSc? a7rrj\$ov, the men whom you saw went away. 

1020. N. Tli(i leliitive follows the person of tiie antecedent; as 
Vfj.e7<: dl TovTO 7rotc7T€, you who do this; eyth o? toi'TO fVoi'i/fru, 
/ who did this. 

1021. N. (a) A relative I'eferring to several antecedents follows 
tfie rule given ioi' prp.dinaf.e atJjectives (02'f) ; as -rfpi TroA^yxou Kui 
illi-ijyr}^;, a fiiyLijTt]v tx^i Swupav iv to) ^t'w twv Q.vOfjo)7rwv, about war 
mill pfuce, which iiure the greatest powf.r in the life of men, Lb, '2; 
d7rn\Xay/VT(<i^ TroXifxoiv khi kiuBvv(jjv koi Tupa)(YJ<;, C('<? yv uvu -Trpo? 
dAAi/Aoii<r K(iOioTap.cv, freed from w;u?-n, dangers, and confusion, in 
xdiich we are now invoiced tinth one another, L8, '20. 

(/>) TIjc iC'lntivL' may l)e pluia) if it refers to a (;o)iecfive nomi 
(OOO) ; ;t?5 nX/jOu oItt e p ^tKucrout/ij', lo (he muliitude who are lo judqc 
}>.Pkdr/2i\()\ 

(c) 0\\ the <jllier liand. I'mn^, irJitnuer, may liave a plural aiUo- 
cedeut; a^ ■7^a^7a o tl (iovKovrai, cvcryrhmf/, whatsoever the;} want. 

1022. X. A neutei* rt-Iafivr; mny rffer (o a masculine or fL-nii- 
niue antete,deiit. d'-nolin^- u thinL;; as hia TTjf TrXiove^iav, o -naaa 
<l>vcn<i Sia)K«tv 7ri<l>vKtv, for {/din, which every nature riaturally follows, 
P.Iip.'Sdi)': (Sec 025.) 

1023. 1. In Homer the forms of the relative are sometiines 
used as demonstrative prononns, like the article (H.'^o) ; as o? yap 
^fuVaro? Yj\0cv, for he came second, Od. 1,280 \ o yap yc'pas €crrt 
OavovTiMV, for this is the right of the dead, //.23,9, 



1027] HELATIVK PRONOUNS. 219 

2. A few similar expressions occur in Attic prose, especially the 
Platonic ^ 8' os, ^aid he (whe3-e y is imperfect of ^/zt, say). So koI 
OS, and he, koI ol, ami ihcy^ and (in Ildt.) 09 Kai os, this man and 
that. (Compare t6v Kal tov, iJ84.) So also 0? /xcV . . . os Si, in the 
oblique cases, arc occasionally used tor 6 /a<V . . . o S«'; as ttoAcc? 
'EXAt^hSus, d ? /A£j' dviiLpuyv, ik as S< tovs (f}vydSa<i KaTixyuyy, destroy- 
ing some Greek' cities, and restoriny their exilc^i 10 others, JD. 18, 71. 

1024. N. {a) Jn the epic and lyric poets re is often appended 
to relative woids witliout affecting their meaning; as ovk ditts d 
Ti 4>Y}(H. Old; dost thou not hear what the Goddess says? //. lo, l;iU. 
Sometimes it seems to make the relative more indefinite, like n? 
in oCTTis, whoever, qmcumffue. 

(h) I^ut 0X6% T£ in Attic Greek means able, capable, like hvvar6%, 
being originally elliptical for toioitos oIo?, such a,v, W liaving no 
appai'eiit force. 

1025. (Preposition omitted.) When tlie relative and its ante- 
cedent would properly have the same preposition, it is usually 
expressed only with the antecedent; as d^-o t^s aur^s dyvot^a^ 
rfifTTip TToAAa TTpOLiuBi tC}v kolv(ov, by the same want of sense by which 
(for d<^' r}<T'rr€p) ytm sacrifice many of your public interests^ J3. 18,134. 

Omission ok 'imf. Antkci:iiknt. 

1026. The antecedent of a relative may be omitt/cd 
wlien it can easily be supplied fj^oni the context, espe- 
cially if it is indefinite (1426). E.fj. 

'E\al3iv u ipovKcTO, he took what he trovfed ; tnaOw biroaov^ 
chvvaTo, he persuaded as many as hp could. *'A /xi) oi^ ovBi oiofiat 
dSiVQi, what y do not know I do not even ihinh I know, V.A}).2\^. 
Eyoi KaL wv «ycL) Kparu) p.tvovp.cv Trapa aoi, J and those whom I com- 
mand will remain with you, X.C. 5, l"^*"'. 

1027. N. In such cases it is a mistal^e to say that. Tavra, ikuvol, 
etc., arc understood ; see lO^JO. The relative clause here really 
becomes a substantive, and contains its antecedent within itself. 
Such a relative clause, as a substantive, may even have the article; 
as t)^ovfTa Trjv iTTiMvvfuav rrjv tov o ionv, having the name of the 
absolutely existent (of the ''what is"), P. PA. 92^; ikuvov opiytrai 
TOV liTTLv l(Tov, they aim at that absolute equality (at the '^ what is 
equal"), ibid.li}^; rw <jp.iKp<Z p.€p(i, ro) o "^pX* **^ aura!, throuyh the 
small part, which was shown lo be the ruling power within him (the 
''what ruled "), P, Up. ^42^. Ueve it nnist not be thought that tov 
and Tw are antecedents, or pronoun.s at all. 



220 SYNTAX. [1028 

1028. N. Most relative adverbs regularly omit the antece- 
dent ; as rjkOtv ore tovto ii^tv, he came when he saw this (for then, 
jche?i). 

1029. N. The following expressions belong here: — to-rtv oi 
(oV, oU,>ou9), soi/ie (90;")), more common than tbe regular etViv 
oi, sunt qui, there are (those) who; ccrnv oiTivt'; (especially in ques- 
tions) ; tfioi (fioin ivL, =: tvi<TTi or tKio-t, and oi), some; <vior€ 
(m and on), sometimes; lo-riv oJ, somewhere; co-tiv jJ, in some 
way ; lariv ottws, somehow. 

1030. N, When a clause coutaiuiug a relative with omitted 
antecedent precedes the leading clause, the latter often contains a 
demonstrative referring back with emphasis to the omitted ante- 
cedent ; as d lf^ovXf.To ravTa IXa^iy, what he wanted, that he tooky 
entirely different from ravra aiffovXtro tka/^iu, he took these (definite) 
things, which he wanted; a ttouTv alaxpoy, ravra vofju^e fi-qSt Xtyuy 
ilvu-L Kukov, what it is base to do, this believe that it is not good even to 
my, 1. 1, lo (here ravra is not the antecedent of a, which is indefinite 
and is not expreascd). See 1007. 

Assimilation and Attraction. 

1031. When a lelative would naturally be in the ac- 
cusative as the object of a verb, it is generally assimi- 
lated to the case of its antecedent if this is a genitive or 
dative. E.f/. 

'Ek tCjv ttoXhov u}v ix^i, from the cities which he holds (for a? 
cx«0*) 'Toi? fya^ot? oT? l^^ixcv, with the good things which toe have 
(for a txofxcv). *A^iot t^9 IkivOipia^ ^? K€KTrja6c, worthy of the 
freedom which you have, X.^.1,7^; ct ru) rjycfxovi Tnarivoofxtv w av 
Kvpo% SfSw, if we shall trust the guide whoin Cyrus may give us, X.A, 
l,Z^^. This assiniiiatioi\ is also called attraction, 

1032. N. When an antecedent is omitted which (if expressed) 
would have been a genitive or dative, the assimilation still takes 
place; and a preposition which would have belonged to the ante- 
cedent passes over to the relative; as l^-qXisiOf. rovro ol? cTrparre, 
he showed this by what he did (like exftVot? a); crvv ol? fidXiara 
^lAci?, with those whom you most love (crvu tKUvoif; ot?y), X.^.1,9^; 
d/x€ Altera? JSv jut Set TrparTciv, having neglected what {iKtivtuv a) I 
ought to do, X. C. 5, 1^; oU ivrvx^JKicav «V AtijxTpoL? ov fxtTpiw^ 
iKi)(fty)VTO, they had not used moderately the successes which they had 

^, gained at Leuctrn (rot? <VTv;('^ptacriv a cvrvxrj'^ta'a.v, see 1054), 
D.18,18. 



1038] RELATIVE TRONOUNS, 221 

1033. N, A relative is seldom assimilated from any other con- 
fitruetioii tlian that of tlie object accusative, or into any other case 
than tlio genitive or diitivc. Yet exceptions occur ; as Trap Zv 
jioYi&tif; ovK airoXrupti xapLv^ you will get uo thanks from those whom 
(Trap* tKuviov oU) you help, Aescli.2, 117. Even the nominative 
may be assimilated; as pXairrcaOaL a^* ix^v rjfxlv Trapia-KCTMLO-TfU^ 
to he injured by what has been prepared by us (like Att* t'x^iWv a), 
T.7,67. 

1034. N. A like assimilation takes place in relative adverbs ; 
as ^uKOfiL^ovTO <.v6v<i o6cv virtiiBivro TratSu? koX yvvat^a?, they 
immediately brought over (heir children and women from the places in 
which they had placed them for safety (wliere oOtVyfrom which^ stands 
for tKcWev oi, from the places whither)^ T. 1,80. 

1036. N. The antecedent occasionally is assimilated to the 
case of tlie relative, when this innnediatcly follows; a.s tAtyoi' ort 
7ra.vT(i}v oil/ ^iovrat Trtvpayort^ iuv, they said that they had done all 
things which {irdvTa wv) (hey needed, X. //. 1,4-, Tjjy ovauiv rjy 
KaTiXiTTt oi) 7rXiL0vo<; d^ia iO-Tiv r) TtTrdpiJiv Koi BtKa roAajTon/, the 
estate which he left 2S not worth more than fourteen talents, L, 19,47. 
Compare urbtm quam statuo vestra est, Verg'.>4 <?«.!, 573. Sucli 
evpressions involve an anacolulhon. 

This invert/id nssimilaiion takes place in ovh(.\<; ocrrt? ou, every- 
body, in wliicii ovhu^ follows the case of the relative; as ov^ivt 
oTti) OVK dtrOKpLvopLcvo^; (for ovSa^ iuriv orw), replying to everybody y 
1^7»V<^».70^ 

1036. N. A peculiar asfjimilation occurs in certain expressions 
with olo?; as ;(apt^6/i«vov ota> crot dvhpC, pleasing a man like you 
(for roiouro) oios o-v), X.M.2/J^] 7rpo<; dv^pa<; roXfxrjpoxr; olov<; koI 
' PiOr}vaLOv<;, against bold men like the Athenians, T.7,21. 

1037. The antecedent is often attracted into the rela- 
tive claiise, and agrees with the relative. JS,g. 

Mr} a.4>f-X-qcrB<. vpuiv avTiov y v Sta iravro^ dfX rov \p6vov oo^av 
KtKT-qcrOc KoXyjv, do not take from yourselves the good reputation which 
{what good reputation^ you have always had through all time (for 
TYjv KaXrjv S6$av -qy KtKTrjcrOi), D.20, 142: notice the omission 
of tlie article, wliich regularly occurs. 

Tlie subject of a verb i<i rarely thus attracted ; as o7;(«rat «^<vya)v 
ay iTx^^ pdpTvpa, the witness whom you had (for 6 pLaprv; ov t^X^'*^ 
has ru7i away, Ar.Pl.9iio. 

1038. N. This attraction may be joined with assimilation 
(1031) ; as i^pofiiararot itrn (5v i-yw olSa 'EAAtJvwv, you are the most 



222 SYNTAX. [1039 

ignorant of the Greeks whom I know (for Tttiv 'EXA7;kjjI' ovi 0t8u), 
T. 6,40; €^ 1J9 TO TTpCjTov i<TX^ yvvixiKOf;^ from the wife trhich he took 
frsly 1). 57,87; cVoptiJtTO avv rj €*;(£ BvvdfjUL, he vinrched with the 
force which he had (for <rvv rfj hwaiiti rjv <*x^^'), X. //. 4, 1^^ 

Relative in Kxci.amations. 

1039. Oio?, oVo?, and i^ are used in exclamations; as ocra 
TTpdyiiaTa tx****? ^^^'^'^^ vinch trouble you have! X.CA,'^^'-, oi? 
aa-T€t(K, how witty ! 

Hki-ativl not nni'EATKr*. 

1040. A relative, is seldom repeated in a new case in the 
same sentence, but a personal or demonstrative pronoun 
commonly takes its jilace. Ejj. 

*^KtLV0L TOLvvv, Oi? ovK €)^apLCoi'd' 01 Acyoi'Tc? ovB* €cf>i\ovv aVTOVf; 
wcTTrtp v/jia? ouTOi vvv, those viei), then, whom the orators did not try to 
gratify^ and whom they did not love a<i these now love you (lit. nor 
did they love them as etc.), 1). 3, 24. Here, avrou? is used to avoid 
repeating the relative in a new ca$c, ov<;. 

1041. N. Somo.tiiiies, however, a new ca^o, of the relative is 
understood in the latter pai'f. of a suiitonce; as 'Apiuro? oc, or rjfJifis 
rjOiXopAv (iaaikia Ka^to-Tavut, Kut i?nl\Ka^iv koX Ikdfiofxtv irKTrd, and 
Ariaeus, whom we wi.<:hcd lo vmke king, and {to whom) we yave and 
{from whom) we received pledges, etc., X.A.Z,'2^. 



THK CASES. 

1042. The Greek is desct^nded from a lan^qnat^e which had 
eight cases, — an aUatire, a locative, and an ivslrumeuful, besides tlie 
five found in Greek. Tlie functions of the ablative were absorbed 
chiefly by tlie genitive, partly by the dulivc; those of tlie instrii- 
iTiental and locative chietly by tlie dative. 

NOMINATIVE AND VOCATIVE. 

1043. The nominative is xxsad cliielly as tlic subject 
of a finite verb (894), or iu tlie pi-edieatc after verbs 
signifying (o hc^ etc. (907). 

1044. The vocative, wit.h or without m^ is used in 
addressing a pcTSon or tiling; as o) av^pe^'AOvvaioi, wr.n 
of Athens! aKov€t<f, Alaxti^ ; dost thou hear, Aeschineaf 



10r;l] ACCUSATIVE, 223 

1045. K. Tiio Momiimtive is sometimes used in exclaiiiations, 
and even in oilier expressions, wliei-e the vocative is more cpm- 
jiioii ; n,s w/iot iyu) 8ttAo<;, wretched me ! So tj llpoKVTj iKJiaiv^^ 
ProcfiC, come oui ! Ai. /I r. 005. 

ACCUSATIVE. 

1046. The primary- pnrpose of tiie accusative is to denote tJie 
jiearer or direct ul^ject ol a vei'l), as opposed to the remoter or 
indtrect oltject denoted by the dative (892). It thus bears tl)e same 
relation to a v^^-b wliich the olijective genitive (1085, 3) bears to a 
noun, 'I'he object denoted by tlie accusative niay be the external 
object of tfie action of a transitive verb, or the internal (connate) 
object whicli is often iini)lied in tlie meaning of even an intransi- 
tive Verb, liut the accusative has also assumed other functioiis, 
as will be seen, which cannot be brouglit under this or any other 
siui^le category. 

ACCUSATIVE OF DIllKCT (KXTERNAL) OBJECT. 

1047. The direct object ol" the action of a transitive 
\K\\) is [)Ut ill tiie accu.Siitive; as rovro o-cJfet ^ycta?, this 
pn.'i>erves us ; ravra Troioufituj we do these ihhujs, 

1048. N. Many verbs which are transitive in Knglish, and 
govern the objective case, take either a genitive or a dative in 
Greek. (See lUU!) ; UOO; \\^'.\.) 

1049. N. Many verbs which are transitive in Greek are intran- 
sitive in Jvnglish; ;i.s OfAOVfJLai TOv<i &tov<;, J will sv^ear by the God.s ; 
7ravTU9 tXdOiVy he e:>ca]H'il the. notice of ail , aL(Txvv(.Ta(. tov Trartpa, 
///.' feels sfi<nne bcfjre hii father ; (Jtya (or cthutt^) tl, he keeps silent 
about so7Jicthiuf/. 

1050. N. Verbal adjectives and even verbal nouns occa.sionally 
take ;tn object accusative instead of the n.'gnlar objective genitive 
(1142; lOSO, ')), a.-. €7nuTyfjLvyfi yjirav to. rr po<T->]KOvTa, (hey Vif.re 
ucqnanit^^d with vhat w«.s' propter, X.C.-'^,-^'^. So to. fxerewpa 
<t>povTUTTrjqy ona who ponders on the thing^i ahove (like ^pom^wv), 
i\Ap.]^\ 

COGNATE ACCUSATIVE (lNTli:RNAL OB.JECT). 

1051. Any vi\y\) wliose meaiiinpf jiermits it may take 
an accusative of kindred isignification. Tliis accusative 



224 SYNTAX. [1052 

repeats the idea already contained in the verb, and may 
follow intransitive as well as transitive verbs. E.g. 

Hcura? ^Soi/a? iJSeo-^at, to enjoy ail pleasures, P. PAi/. 63*. 
EuTiJx^o-av TovTo TO f.\}Tv\r]^a, they enjoyed this good fortune , 
X.yl.6,3^ So TTiudv Trrw/xaru, to sujjcr {to fall) falls, A.Pr.919. 
Nocrov vouuv or v6<tov aadtvilv or v6(Jov Kafjivav, to suj/er under a 
disease; dfxdpTyjfia dfJuipTavuvy to coviviU na error (to sin a siji) ] 
SovAttaj/ ^ovkivav, to be subject to slavci-y ; apxy^ opx'*''' '^ ^^^^^ *^" 
o^ce ; dyu>va ay wi/i'^co-^ai, to undergo a coutcst ; ypacfiyv ypu^ca^at, 
to bring an indictment; ypa<^r^v SiujKCti/, to prosecute an indictment; 
hUrjv 6<f>kuv, to lone a lawsuit; uUrjv vt-Kav^ to gain a victory ; pdxqv 
VLKav, to gain a battle; irofxTrrjv irifxTruVi '^ form or conduct a jjroces- 
sion ; nkrjyrjv rvTrrciv, to utrik-e a blow; i^ijkOov tfdSov?, they went 
out on expedition?^ X.If. 1,2'^. 

1052. N. It will be seen tliat this constructioii is far jiiore 
extensive in Greek than in English. It includes not only ac^cusa- 
tives of kindred formation and meaning-, as vUrjv vlkSlv, to gain a 
victory ; but also those of merely kindred meaning, as paxrjv i/i/caj/, 
to gain a battle. The accusative may also limit tlie liieaning- of the 
verb to one of many applications ; ;vs 'OKv/xttux KKar, to gain an 
Olympic victory j T. 1,120; idnav ya/xov?, to give a wedding feast, 
Ar. ^u. 132; \pri<^i<j^ vikiT, he carries a decree (gains a victory with 
a decree)y Aesch.3, 68; porj^pofxia W^Trttt', to celebrate the Hoedromia 
by a procession, I). 8, 31. So also (in poetiy) fiaivtiv (or iXOilv) 
TToSo, to step {the foot) : see E.^/. 1153. 

. Foi" the cognate accusative becoming the subject of a passive 
verb, see 1240.. 

1053. The cognate accusative may follow adjectives or 
even nouns. E.g. 

KttKOt irao-av KaKiav, bad with ail badness, P. /il/?. 400** ; SoDAos 
ra? /itytcrra? SovAcia?, a slave to the direst slavery, ibid.bl^^. 

1054. A neuter adjective sometimes represents a cognate 
accusative, its uouu being implied iu the verb. E.g. 

McyaAa dfjuipravtiv (sc. dfjuuprypaTa), to commit great faults ; 
ravTo. kvTTuadaL xai ravra )(o.ipuv, to have the sa^ne griefs and 
the same joys, D. 18, 292. So ri xprjao/xai Tovrut; (= rtVa xpeuiv 
"XpTja-Qpai;), what use shall I make of this ? and ovBtv ;(p^ao/xat tovto), 
/ shall make no use of this (1183). So xpy<jipo<i ovBiv, good for 
nothing (1053). See 1060. 

1055. 1. Here belongs the accusative of effect, whicji 



10r)93 ACCUSATIVE. 225 

expresses a result beyond the aetion of the verb, which is 
effected by that action. E.g. 

JJp€<T(3<vtnf Trjv dpTJvrjVy to negotiate a peace (as arabassadora, 
TTpco-fiici^ ), J). 19, 184 ; but rrp€.(xfitv€Lv irpior/Stuxyy to go on an embassy. 
Compare the Knglinli breaking a hole, as opposed to breaking a 
stick. 

2. So after verbs of looking (in poetry); as*Api; ScSopKcWi, to 
look war (Ares) (see A..;>V.53); ^ /3ov\rj cfiXcipi vairv^ the Senate 
looked mustard, Ar. £y.6'31. 

1056. N. For verbfi which take a cognate accusative and an 
ordioary object accusative at the same time, see ]07C. 

1057. N". Connected witli the cognate accusative is that which 
lollops verbs of niolioii to express the ground over which the motion 
pas.se.s; as oSw livai (cA^dv, iropivt^uBai, etc.), to go {oxter) a road ; 
'TrXiLv OdXacrorav, to sail the sea : 6po<; KaTa^aivcw^ to descend a moun- 
tain; etc. Tliese verbs thus acquire a transitive meaning. 

ACCUSATIVE OF SPKCIFICATION. — ADVERBIAL 
ACCUSATIVK. 

1058. The accusative of specification may be joined 
with a vcrlT, adjective, noun, or even a whole sentence, 
to denote a part^ character, or quality to which the 
expression refers. U,(/, 

Tv4>X.6s ra Ofifiar tt", t/ou are blind in your eyesi, S. O.T'.STl; 
KoAos TO ct8o9, heaufi/ul inform; iiTrttpot to 77X17^05, infinite in num- 
ber; hiKaLO<; Tov rpoTTOVy Jual in /a's character; Stivoi ^xr}v, mighty in 
battle ; Kdfxi^<jj rrjv K€<l>aXrjy, J have a pain in my head ; to? <^piva^ 
vyutLvuv, to he ^ound in (heir winds ; Svin^ipti ttjv (j>}jcnv, he diners 
in nature. TioTafioi, KuSvc; ovo/xa, €vpo<: 8vo 7rXc^po>v, a river, 
Cyduus Inj name, o/iwoptcfhru in breadth (022), X, A . \,2^^. *EAX7^i'€? 
Udi TO ytVof, they are Greeks hy race, TivccrBt rrjv SidvoLav ^rj 
€v T(J SiKfio-Ti^pitj), oAX* €v Tw ^cttTpo), imagine yourselves (become in 
thouijkt) not in court, but in thr /heatrc^ Aefccli. 3, 153. 'EiriOTfltcr^* 
(p.c) ov p.6vov TO. ficydXa oAAa ^at ra p.iKpa ■niipuip.tvov dd diro 
Btiiiv opfxaaBaL, you know that, not only in great but even in small 
things, J try to begin with the Gods, X. C. 1,5". 

1059. iV. This is sometimes called the accusative hy synecdoche^ 
or the liynittng accusative. It most frequently denotes a part ; but 
it may refer to any circumstance to which the meaning of the 
expre.ssion is restricted. This construction sometimes resembles 
that of 123J), with which it must Jiot be confounded. 



226 SYNTAX. f](Vifl 

1060. An accusative in certain expressions lias the 
force of an adverb. Kjj. 

^ovTOv Tov TpOTTOy, ill th'iH wuj/y thus ; TTjv m^LCTTrju (sc. oSJi/), in 
the quickest woj/ ; (rrjv) dp;(>ji/, «/ 7?ri7 (wjtli negative, uot at cill)\ 
riXofi^ finally ; TrpoiKa, a$. a (jl/(, gvalis; ^dpiVyfor the ,so/>e of, hU-qv, 
in the manner of; to Trpdrov oi' irpuiTov, at Jivat ; to Xonrov, for thp. 
rest; rrarTa, in all tilings; raAAa, in other respects; oxZiv^ in iiotkiixj^ 
not at all; rl; in whaty u^hy? rt, in any reaped, at all; ravra, in 
7'cspect to this, ihtrefore. So tovto /xtV . . . tovto St (lOlO). 

1061. N. Several of these (1000) arc to l>e explained by 1058, 
as ToAAa, tl; irhy? ravra, rovTO (with /xtV and Be), and sometimes 
ouSeV and rl. Some are to be explained a.s coj^ntate accusatives 
(see 1053 and J054), and some are of doubtful origin. 

ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT. 

1062. Tlie accusative may dejiote extent of time or 
space. U.(/. 

At ffTTOi/Sai €VLavrov taovrai, the truce is to be for a year, T. 4,118. 
"E/utvfV 7)fx€pa<i -rlvre, he remained five days. *A'7r€)^€i r} UXdrtaa 
Twv ©>^/iwv crraSiOv? cfBhofi^JKOvra, Plntoca is seven!// sfodrs distant 
from Thehefi, 'i'. 2, 5. *ATri)^ovT(x 2upaxoi;crdiv ovrt ttXovv ttoXvv 
ovrt 686 V, (Me^ara) not a long sail or iand-jovruey distant from 
Syracuse, T. 0, 19, 

1063. N. This accusative with an ordinal nnnibci* d<MU)tes how 
long siyice (in(;]uding the date of Mie event); as f^So'/o;i' rjfLcpuv ry'i 
Ovyarpo^ avrw rfrcXfvrrjKvia^, when his d/tughtcr had d(cd SiX days 
before (i.e. this being the sevendi day), Aesch.i3,77. 

1064. N. A ]>ecu]iar idiom is found in expressions like rpirov 
<T09 TOVTi (this the third year), i.e. two years ago; as aTr-qyyiXOi] 
4»iA.t7r7r09 rpirov rj riraprav ero? rovrl 'Hpatoi' rcij^o? TroAiopxJii/, 
two or three years ago Philip wa^ reported to he besieging He.raion 
Teichos, J).^,i. 

TERMINAr. ACCUSATIVE (POETFC). 

1065. In poctr)^ tlio accAisative witliont a prei)o.sition 
may denote tlie i)lace or oltject towards which motion is 
directed. E.g. 

Mvrj(TrYJpa'; diftiKtro, she came, to the suitors. ()d. ],;j;J2. ^AvejSr) 
fxeyav ovpavou OvXvfnrov t«, she ascended to great heaven and 



I01)i] ACCUSATIVE. 227 

Olympus, It. 1,4^7. To KotAoj/ *A pyo? fia<: <^i^ya?, yoing as an exile 
to (he hollow Aryo.^, S, O.C/678, 

In prose a preposition would be used licre. 

ACCUSATIVE IN OATHS WITH p/j AND fid, 

1066. Tlie accusative i'ollows tlie adverbs of swearing 
pij and fid^ by, 

1067. An oatl) introduced by vy] i.s affinnative ; one intro- 
duced by /xa (un](;ss vaiy yes, pi-cccdes^) is negative; as vt} rov 
Ai'a, yea, by Zeus; fxa rov I^ia, no, by Zeus; but vaX, /la Ata, 
yea, by Zi^us, 

1068. N. Ma is .soniotimcs oinititcd wiion a negative precedes ; 
aij ou, TiwVOXvfXTTOv^ »y, i*?/ /Ais Olynipu^y S. i4ji.7j8. 

TWO ACCUSATJVES WITH ONE VEUH. 

1069. Verbs sigiiifyitig to ask^ to demand^ to teachy to 
remind^ to chtlw, or unclothe., to conceal., to deprive^ and 
to take away, may take two object accusatives. H.(/, 

Ou tout' ipij^TUi crt, 1 avi not asking ijou this, Ar. A/". (i4l; ovSeVa 
rrjf; (xvyovo-M^ ilp-yvpiov Trpdrrtt, you demand no fee for your teaching/ 
from any one, X. M. I, G'^ ; ttoOiv yp^iXTO at. Si^acTKuv Tyv <TTpaTiqylav; 
with what did he beyin f*; tcuvk you slrateyy? ibid.'\y\^; rrjv ivp-fJA- 
XiiJ^v avvip.LfxvfjiJKOVTt<i roh<i ^AOrjvaLOv^, rcinindint/ the Alk€7iiuiis of 
the allinnce, 'J'. 0,0; rw /itv cuurou {xiTCjva) €kuvov r)fX<fiU<T€y he put 
his own (iwiic) on ihe other boy, X, Cy.\,'6^'^\ iK^viav lyi XPV^'^VP^^^ 
€(f$T}ra^ airippiny vie of my omcular yorh, A.i4^. l'JO*,>; ttjv Ovyo.TipoL 
iKpvTTTi rov &(iuarov rov ai'^pos, ha concealed from his daughter her 
huiibnnd''s death, L. 32, 7 ; TOVTh}v ryv rijxyv aTroanpa. p.(., he cheats 
tile oul of ihe price of these, 1). 1^8, J-'i ; rov ndyra 8* 6X}3oy yp^ip Iv p! 
d<f>(L\iro, but one day deprived fne of all my happiness, K. //cc.286. 

1070. N. In po(;ti7 some otlior veri>s Iiave tliiK construction; 
tinis XP*^^ Vi^tTO akprfv, he mashed the dried spray from his skin, 
OdA\,22A; so Tcpuj^puaOai rtm alpa, to punish one for blood (shed), 
st'(; K,AL7n. 

1071. N. A^evbs of this olas.s .sonictiines liave otlier construi;- 
tionb. Fur v<M-bs ot drj)rivinij and tahivy away, see 1118. For tin; 
accusative and genitive wilii verbs of reminding, see 1106. 

1072. N. The accusative of a tiling with some of these verba 
is really a cogjiate accusative (3070). 



228 SYNTAX. [1073 

1073. Verbs signifying to do anything to ov to zay any- 
thing of SL person or thing take two accusatives. U^g. 

TavTL fi€ TTOiovo-tVy tkcy do these things to me ; ri fx ilpydao) ; what 
didst thou do to me 1 KuKa TroXAa lopyiv Tpwa?, he has done mauy 
evils to the Trojans^ II. 16, 424. ^EKtlyoy re xal rov? KopLyOLOv<: TroAAa 
re Kol Kana tAcyc, of him and the Coriulhiafis he said much that was 
bad, lid. 8, 61; ov <f>povTLaTcoy ri Ipovaiv ol ttoAAoi ly/xa?, we must 
not consider what the multitude will say of us, l\ C7-.48*. 

1074. These verbs often take tv or koAws, well, ov /ca/cws, illy 
instead of the accusative of a tiling; roiVou? iv frotfi, he docs them 
good; vfxai /caxois ttowi, he does you harm; xaKoi^ ly/Jid? Ae'yct, he 
speaks ill of us. 

For tu 7racr;(€i»/, tv aKOvuv, etc., as passives of these expressions, 
see 1241. 

1075. N. Ilpd<T(Ttj, do, very seldom takes two accusatives in this 
construction, Trott'o) being generally u.se<i. Eu Trpaacw and Ka/cw? 
Trpdadui are intransitive, meaning to he well ojfl to be badly off. 

1076. A transitive verb may liavc a cognate accusative 
(1051) and an ordinary object accusative at tlio same 
time. E.g. 

M«X>;t09 pit typdij/aro rrjv ypa<l>y}v raxTrjv, Meletus brou(fht this 
indictment against me, V.Ap.li)^; MtATiaS);? 6 rr/v cv MapaStiivi 
p-dxrjv T0U9 ^ap)3apou«» I'lKTjaa?, MUtiades, who gained the battle at 
Marathon over the barbarians, Aesc)i.3, ISl ; wpKuyaav Trdvra'i tov^; 
orpaTtwra? tou? ^tyiVrou? 6pK0v<;, they made all the soldiers swear 
the strongest oaths, T.8,75. 

On tliis principle (1076) verbs of dividing may take two acciistv- 
tives ; as ro arpdnvpua. KariviL^i^ SwSfKa p^pt}-, he made twelve divis- 
ions of the army, X. C.7, 5*^. 

1077. Verbs signifyijig to naine^ to choose or appoint., 
to make^ to think or regard^ and tlie like, may take a 
predicate accusative besides the object accusative. E.g. 

Tt rr)v -noXw -rrpoo-ayopcvci? ; what do you cull the state f Tyv 
rota-OT-qv Bvvap.Lv dvBpiiav tyojyt KaAw, such a pomcr I call courage^, 
P. ii:/). 430^ SrprtTT^yor aiVroi' aTrtSct^e, he a/^/win/ed him general, 
X.y4.1,l^; tv£py(Tr}v rov ^CXnT-rrov ifyovvTo, they thought Philip a 
benefactor, D, 18,43 ; Trdvrwv Bco-Trorrjv iavruv TrcTrocqKtv, he has made 
himself master of all, X. C. \,'6^^. 

1078. This is the active construction corresponding to the 
passive with copulative verbs (90S), in which the object, accusative 



1084J GENITIVE, ^29 

becomes the subject nominative (1234) and tlie predicate accusa- 
tive becon)es a predicate noniinative (J^U7). Like lliu latter, it 
includes also predicate adjectives; as Tov<i <n;/x/xa;(Ov^ irpoOvfjuiv^ 
TTOulaOaiy to make the allies eager ; Ta<i a/Aapna? iitydKa<i rjyev, he 
thought thcfauliii great. 

1079. N. With verbs of naming the infinitive tlvai may connect 
the two accusatives; as ao<f>(.(TTrjv ovo^d^ovin t6v avSpa iTvai, they 
name the man {to be) a aop/iisfy 1*. Pn 311*. 

1080. N. Many other transitive veibs may take a pr(;(licate 
accusative in apposition with the oliject accusative; as eXjifSc tovto 
Soipot', he took this as a gift; iTnrovi ayuv dvfjui tuj 'HAiw, to hriug 
horses as an offering to the Sun, X. C.%''!>'^~ (see DIO). ICspecially an 
interrogative pronoun may be so used ; as n'ra^ tovto\}^ opw ; v)ho 
are these whom J see? lit. / see these, being whom ? (See 010 ; 072.) 

1081. N. A predicate accusative may denote the effect of the 
action of the verb upon its direct object; as 7rat8cucti' rtva ao</>ov 
(or KaKov)^ to train one (to be) wise (or batJ) ; rovq v'uU Ittttotu*; 
ihiBa^cv, he taught his sons to be horsemen. Sec 1055. 

1082. N. For one of two aecnsatives retained with the passive, 
see 1230. 

For the accusative absohite, see 1500. 

GENITIVE. 

1083. As the chief use of the accnsiitive is to limit the nieaning 
of a verb, so the chief use of the genitive is to limit tiie meaning 
of a noun. When the genitive is used as the object of a verb, it 
seems to depend on the nominal idea which belongs to tlie verb : 
thus i-mOvfjiC) involves liriBv^juav (as we can say c-mOvfiu) cmOv^iavy 
1051) ; and in i-mOvfjiu) tovtov, I have a desire for this, the nominal 
idea pre])onderates over the verbal. So fiacnXtvu Tyj<i x<»ip^<» (1100) 
involves the idea ^SacriAcv? eVrt r^? ;<uipa?, he is king of the coxiutry. 
The Greek is somewliat arbitrary in deciding wiien it will allow 
either idea t.o projion derate in the ooiistruction, iind after .some v(!rhs 
it allows both the accusative and the genitive (1108). In the same 
general sense the genitive follows verbal adjectives. It has also 
uses which originally b(ilong<id to the ablative; for example, with 
verbs of separation and to express source. (See 1012.) 

GENITIVE AFTER NOUNS (ATTKIliUTiVE GENITIVE). 

1084. A noun in the genitive juay limit llic meaning" 
of another noun, to expres.s various relations, most of 



230 SYNTAX. [1085 

which are denoted by of or by the possessive case in 
English. 

1085. The genitive tluis dependiui,^ on a noun is called 
aUribiitioe (sec 019). It.s most important relations arc the 
i'ullowing: — 

1. Possession or other close relation: as r^ roC narpu-i 
oLKLix, the father s h.oui<e ; r}fxQ)v rj Trarpi'?, our counlrt/ ; to twv 
drSpwv -ycVos, the Unewje of the 'iiiea. So tj tov Aios, the diuiyh- 
ier of Zeus; ra tw»/ Btwv, the thiuys of Ihe Gods (yr^'i)- The 
Possessive Genitive. 

2. The SuiMKcT of an action or fcclin;^: ;is yj tov ^}Hiv 
evvoLa, the rjood-nu'll of the people (i.e. which the people feel). 
The Subjective Genitive. 

M. The OiJjLicT of an action or feeling: as Sta to Uavau.- 
ulov fM<ro^y owhitj to the hatred of {\.(^. felt, arjainsi) PansoniaSf 
'J\1,00; TT/jo? Ta? ToG ^(.ifxCjvos K<LfjTf.fjrj(T<.i<i, (/.s* reijurds hia en- 
durance of the whiter^ \\Sij.2-2{)^- Su ot BiCiv opKot, ihe oaths 
(swoni) i)t the na/tie of (he Gods (as wo say Oiov^ o/u-i/umt, 
1049), X..1.L^.j7. The Objective Genitive. 

4. Matki;ial or Contkxtsj iiu^hidin^- that of which any- 
thing consists: as poC)v dyeXri, a herd of aUtle ; oAcros Tjfitpisjv 
SfVS/juji/, a (jrove of enUivaled Iree-^, X. AJt,''\^'-; Kprjvq ijSe'o? 
u8uT0?j a apriny rf fresh water, X-.-l-O,-!*; Svo ^^ylviKi^ aA<^tTw(/, 
two (juarlH of meal Genitive of Material 

5, MKAsOinc, of S])acc, time, or vahu^ : as Tpidv rjfxipwv 
6809, a journe\j of three days; oktw crTii^iuiv Ttlxp^, a v.)all of 
nujlit stadefi {iit leiifjth) j tpl<j.koutll TaXdvTwv ov<rta, an estate 
of thirty taleiiL^ ; purOo^ rcTrdpiov prjv^v, 2'aif for four months; 
npaypuTu. TToXXdv raAafTwi/, ajfhirs of (i.e. involvhuj) DUniy 
talents, Ay.iV.47L'. Genitive of Measure. 

G. Causl; or OuKiiN ; p€yii\{i)v dScxTy/xarwr ^pyrj, anyer at 
great offences; ypu<l>y dcrcjStta?, a7i indict m-cnt for impiety. 
The Causal Genitive. 

7. Tifjc Wnoj.fc:, after nouns denoting a part : as ttoAAoi 
Toil' pyjTopuyVf many of the orators; di'^p tCjv iXtvOip^ovy a man 
(i.e. one) of the freemen. The Partitive Genitive. (Sec 
also 10S8.) 

Tliese .s*^ven cbissuss ai'e not (;xliaustive; but lliey will give a gen- 
eral idea of these relations, many of wjiicli it is difficult to cla-ssify- 



10J>1J GKNITIVK. 231 

1086. N. Kxaiiiple.s Iik« TroAt? *Apyoi)<», ''//e cuy of Argon, Aw 
Eg.HV'l, TpOLf}^ TTTokUOpov, the cily of Troij, Oil.\y'2^ in wliicii the 
goniLive is uf^ed instead ol aj^iposiLion, are poetic. 

1087. 'J' wo genitives denoting diffei'ent relations joay depend 
oil one noun ; as imrov SfiOfxov -ijfjLipas, within a dntf^ run far a horse, 
]). in/J?;! ; Ota rrjv rov dvifjiov anioaiv aifToJi' <? to Trc'Aayosj ^y (he 
l/j);u/'x <lrivin(j !hrm {the tercets) out info (he St'«, T. 7,-M. 

1088. (Partitive Genitive.) The partitive gouitive 
(1085, 7) may follow all nouns, pronouns, adjectives 
(esijcciall}' superlatives), [)artioij>les with tlie article, 
and adverbs, which denote a part. Uj/. 

Ot (lyfTt-^oi TUiv av$ pi^TT mv, the (jaod nuionfj (he w^m ; o T^/itau? 
Tov apiB ^ov, iho half of tJiP. innnh^r ; avSpa olS'j. tov hijp.QVy I know 
a v)Qn of ihc people ; toi<; dpaiaTciL^ tw yavTioy, to (he vpper hmchcs 
(f the m'dnr'fi, 'J'. /),•'] 1 ; ohhti^ rm' TraihuiVt »'-> f»iP. of (he. chilth'en; 
TTtxi'Totv Tiui/ prjT 6f)0jv Sfu^oraTO?, (h(^ most rJoqueuf of (dl the ora/ors , 
o ^ovXofxivofi Kol afTTtui' Kal ^tVwr, c/m// njic who jilca.'<('.< of Jn)fh c/fhem: 
avd straiif/ns, T.'J, ^U; Sla ywaiKKliv, divine amovij vomcn, Od.'l^ 
lUif) ; TTOX) T)}^ 7V^ ; ^i^'i iLM'rnnnnV vhere on (he earth '! tl^ tujv TroXt- 
Tuiv; who of the eimens? 5ts r^s i^/Atpas, (wire a day: (.i<; tol-to 
droia^, (o ////.s pilch of fnlhf: i-rn ^lya hrvafxi^a^^ (o a f/rcnf dcf/ree 
of f offer, 'J\],]]S; (y TO}Wio TT u p a (7 K ( VY} <i, i)i this ^tafe of prc/>oyn- 
tinn. "a /x€i' SiijiKcc TOP iprjcfiicriiaTOi jaVT IcrTii'y the jxtrff^ of the 
decree which he ]irosecufc.< are these (lit. iclidt parts of the da.ree he 
p}-o>iecu(c.^y i-'ic), ]>. 18, ilfS. Ku<fir]fWTaT* avO pwTTu)V. in the VkihI 
plausihlc wrn/ ]>osslhle {htai^t plansihli/ of me it), I). 1 !),'>(). "Or€ Stti'fi- 
TuTO'i cruvToG TavTiX TjuOa, when yon wrre at the hciyht of your power 
iu thf-S'; inoifcra, X. M ,\,'J^^. (Sgo 00.*).) 

1089. Tlu'. pailitive genitive lirts^ (lie p?*edieat.(^ j>osilion as 
v^ariis tii(^ avtieit' (071), wliile otiie.r alfriluidve genitives (cxeept 
personal jn'ononns, 077) Ijav*; tiie uftritnitive posilioii ('J:")?i). 

1090. N. An adjective or part.icijile generally agreet; in g<;nder 
wilj) a ()epej)(liint. jiaililivc genitive. Hut Konietinif'S, o^]u^ei;illy 
wlirn it is .singular, ir, is nent<M*, n;;)'eeiiig witli p.ipo<i, pan, nnder- 
stood; as tCjv -rrokcfiiotv to ttoXv (for ol ttoAAo/), the yrrotcr pari 
of (he enewy. 

1091. N. A partitive genitive «oniet.inies depends on rl? or 
fitpo<; understood; as €(f>tnjav tTrt/uyn'mt G<f>Civ tc 7rpi}<; €k(lvov<; 
xal exiii'ivv Trpo^ lavTOv<;, they said that <:omr of ihdr off)}} Wfu had 
mixed with them, arid .<ome of (hcvt irith their oim virn (rtwis being 
understood witli o-c/kuc and <K€tvojv); \.A.\),b^^, 



232 SYNTAX. [1092 

1092. N. Similar to sucli ]?lirases as ttov y^s; ci? toOto dvota?, 
etc., is the use of l)(oi and an adverb with tho, genitive; as iru? 
tX«i? 80^179 )• in what slate of opimon are youf V,Rp.46<S'^; <u 
cruifxaro<; ^X'^ifr', io be irt a good condition of body, :7>iW.404*'; w? et^c 
Ta^'^vf* rt.?/<3j>7 a.^ Atf C£)w/J (lit. m f/ie condition of ^peed in which he 
toas), T.2, 90; so tk -jroScov ilxc>^t Hd.(i, IIG; tv e^tiv (fip^vdv, to he 
right m /ii5 miJiii (see ]i. HipA&2). 

GENITIVE AFTER VERBS. 
Predicati-: Geniiivi-;. 

1093, As tlie attrilnitive genitive (1084) stands in the 
relation of an attributive adjective to its leading substan- 
tive, so a genitive may stand in tlie relation of a predicate 
adjective (907) to a verl). 

1094. Verbs signifying to he or to become and other 
copulative verbs may have a ])rcdicate genitive express- 
ing any of the rijlations of the attributive geintive 
(1085). E.g. 

1. (l^osseiodve.) 'O v6fj.o<i <Vriv outos ApaK-otros, this lav? i.t 
Draco's, J), 2\\,k)\. HiVLnv cp^pnv ov Travros, oJOC o.uhpo'; <TO<f>ov, 
to hear poverti/ is not in the jiowcr of every onc^ hut in that of a wise 
7nan, Mau.Mon.'Ki'-l. Tou Otu)v vop-il^trat {o x*^P^^) ' '^ ^''^"^'^ ^'^^ 
i.^ the place held aarrod f S. 0. C. ^iS. 

2. (SulJcQtive.) Ot/xui avTo (to prj/m) Tlcpid>hpov ttvat, 7 
think it (the snyiiig) iV Periander^;, V. ]{p/o<^0\ 

3. (Ohjecdvc.) Ov T(ov KaKOvpyooy oTxro?, aXXa tt}<; Si'ki;?, 
pity is not for t't'il doer;i, but for Justice, J-i, frag, 272. 

4. (Afa(cri(d.) 'Epvfxn XlOoiV -rmroiiqp.ivov, a u^ail built of Stones. 
T. 'l,ol. Ot OificXtoi iravToUov XiOiov vnoKtU'TaL, (he fmndntiohs 
are laid {coiisbttiny) of all kinds of intones, T. 1,03. 

;", (^f<:'usvrf.') (Ta retxr}) crTa^uov rjv oktw, the walh were eight 
stadf'S (in length), 'J'. -l.Cfj. *E7r€i8di/ (twv ig Tt? TpiuKoyra, whfn 
one is thirty years old, V.Lg.72]^, 

0. {Origin.') Toiovrojr cVrc -rr pay ot^wt^, from such ancestors are 
you sprung, \.A.Z, 'J'*. 

7. (Partitive.) Touroui' ycuoif poi, becovie one of these for viy 
safcey Ar. A^107. 'S.6X<ov tw' CTrra ao<j>La-TCov ckAtJ^t^, Solon was 
called one of the Seven Wise Men, 1.10/235. 

1095, Verbs signifying to name^ to chootie or appoint, 



1099] GENITIVE. 233 

to make^ to think or regard^ ai)d tlie like, which gener- 
ally take two accusatives (1077), may take a genitive 
in place of the predicate accusative. E.y. 

Trjy 'Aoriav iavTtov ttolovvtcli, (hey make Asia ikeir own^ X.Arj, 
}^'6-\. 'E/A€ 6h tC)v TTCTrtta/Atvfwv, put me down ci.v (one) of those 
wh(i are pcrauaJed, V.RpA'M^'. {Tovro) t^s rffjLtTipas a/^cAeta? 
dv Tt? Out] SiKat'w?, 0711J one viiyht JM^thj reyard ihis <is belotujhig lo 
our neglect^ 1). 1, 10. 

1096. 'J'hose verb.s (1005) in tlic pas.sive are among tlie copula- 
tive verbs of 907, and t.]jey stiJl I'eUiu the genitive. See tlie last 
example under 1094, 7. 

GenitivI'; i-;xim{i:ssin(; a Part. 

1097. 1. Any verb may take a genitive if it.s action 
affects the o])ject only in part. E.*j, 

IIc/X7r€t Tuiv AijStoi/, he ^eihh aouie of thr Lifdians (but Trt'/xTrtt 
TOii? AojSoxj?, he >ie>ids the Lr/dians). HiWt rov olyov, he driid':^ of 
(he wine. T^s yrj<i hefjiov, they raimgcd (soinc) of the tandy ']'.],;}(). 

2. This pi'ijieiple applies es[>ecially to ve)b.s sigjiifyiiig 
to share (i.e. to give or take a part) or to enjoy, JS.y. 

yiiTU.)(Qv T^s Ati'a?, they shared in the hoofy ; so often ^truTroit?- 
(T$al r(.vo<;y to rja'wi a fthare of auythintj (cf. ]t)U()) ; a-noXxxvo^tv rdv 
(iya^wr, we enjoy the blti^tiWi/s (i.e. our fthnre of (hevi); out<ju«» 
ovaiaOf. TOVTuiv, fhu^ maij you cufoi/ these, I). 2^S, LK.). So ov Trfjour'jKtL 
fjLOL Trj'i apx^^' ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ concent in the {jover^ime^t ; fxinori fxui 
TovTov, I have a ah a re in this (llGl). 

1098. N. Many of these verbs al.so take an accusative, wlien 
they refer to tlie whole object. Thus l\ax<. tovtov means he 
obtained a fihare of this by lot, but IXax^ tovto, he obtained thi^^by lot. 
Mfrc'^w and similar verbs may rej^uiariy take an accusative like 
/j.ipo<:, pan ; as tu)v KtvZvvixiv itXuarov p.(fjo^ y.(.diiov<nvy they vnll 
hiivt (he grcaleiit s/iorc of the dangers, J.U, 'J (M'ljei'e ptpov; would 
mean that thoy have only a part of a ^harc). 'Vhh u.se of fxipos 
sliows tlie naim-e of Uie genitive after these verbs. 

In <Tvvrpifif.iv TTjs KC<^aX^s, to hruii^e hii^ head, and Kureayivai 7^9 
*c€0aA.T;q, to have his head broken, tljo genitive is )>robably partitive. 
See Ar,AchA\%0, Pa.l\\ L1S,5'J. These verbs take also the 
accusative. 

Gi;mtivl- with Vauiol'S VEjtits, 

1099. The genitive follows verbs signifying to take 



234 SYNTAX. [UOO 

livid of\ to touchy to clahn^ to aim at^ to hit^ to attain^ to 
inisny to make trial oJ\ to bet/ in, E.y. 

'EA.d/J€To TTJ? \i.ifiO^ avrov^he look his kandy X.Ji.i, l^^; irvpo^ 
tiTTL Buyovra y.y <v6u<i Ku.U<j&:a, it in posslhle to touch Jire and not 
be burned immediately, X. C. f), 1^^; r^s ^ui't'crcto? ^trurouta^ai, to 
ini) cUihn to myacldj, T. 1,1'JU; iJKicrra tw aWorpLOJi' opiyovrai, 
tlic'i/ iire Icdni eay^rj'or lokai is aitoilier's^ X. .Si/.A,l'J ; ovSt ^r]v ak\ov 
(jro)^al^oijif.vo% Irvxi tou'tou, lurr did he. uim at anvfher man and hit 
thi^ one, i\\\\..'J.a,\ ; rr}<i dfjiTy<i c^iKtVr^at, to atmin to virtue, I. 1,5; 
68ov iVTTopiw Tv^di', fa Jind fi pds.sahle road, X.//. 0,0^-; TroWZiv 
Kdl ^txXtTTuiv )(iof)Lu}v tVcAa/ioKTO, the// fool //o:>se.-<sion of "iiiany rouf/h 
Jttact's, ibid.; tuitttj^ a7rocrc/juA<'i'Ta rT/<; tX7rt6o<i, <lisa}>]join(cd in thin 
hope, 11(1.0,5; <r4>nkiU tt}? d Aij 6' t t'a^, /nioiuf/ 'missad the truthy 
V.}ipA~A^\ TO iipiVKfOia Trj^i AkrjB Cta^y to be chi'.ated out of the 
truth, ibidA\t)^\ irupiUTai'Ti<i tov )^ix}piOv, haoixg mudc an attempt on 
ihc ptucc, 'V. 1,(j1 ; ctKo? apx^f-v p€ Xoyov, it is proper shat I should 
spcnh- first, X.C.{j,\^ 

1100. N. Vei Its of t(t/:lii</ hold mav luive uii ul)j«'.r.t accusative, 
wii.li a j^enitivL' ot* tlio part tnl;rii liolrl uf; as iXajiov rr)<i ^o)wrj<; tov 
"OpovTav, thctj seized Oniutas hij liis yirdie, X.A. 1,0'^ 

1101. 1. 'V\\i'. i>Oft,s exleiid the cutistiuction of verbs of tahing 
hold to tliosf of puUiitfj, f/rof/i/i/if/, leadiuji, and the like ; as akkov 
pxv \kaCvri<i Ipviov akkov hi )(iT<^i^o<i, puUiy)(j one by the cloak, 
Onoth('.r bij the tunie, IL'2'J,4ii'A ; fiovu aylTTjv KCp<x<sn\ the lieu ltd 
ihe heifer bij the honii^, Uf/.:!,-!:-!!). 

2, So ev\;n in ])iose: to. v-ijiria TTOihia Stoucrt TOiJ ttoSos <T7rupTa>, 
ih<:{f tie the itifahts b>{ the j not with a and, nj.'), 10; ^r/Trorc dyuv 
Trj^ ij i/t'a? TOV Lirirov, never to had the horse hij the bridle, X. /i-'i^-O, !). 

;i. L'inh'r this iiead is usually placed the ))o(;tic genitive witli 
verbs of inij/lorhuf, (U'uoting tlie ]>arl grasjted by the supiiliaiit; 
as <yu€ kicr<jt(jKiTO yovvwy, ^he implored vie bi/ (i.e. elasjduff) my 
knees, //.!), 'J OJ. 'J'liu explanation i.« less simple in Atcrao/xai "Lyvb'i 
OAv^TTioi), / implore bif Olipiipiart Ztus, Od.'J,ijH: compare. jiV 8c 
ere 7rpo<; Trurpos yowii^op^.i., and now } implore thee by thy faihar, 
Oc/.l;i,:3l.''l. 

1102. 'i'he goniUve fullows verbs .signifying to taste^ 
to smelly to hear, to percaive^ to tjO'mprehe)idy to reiiienilie/r^ 
to forget^ to dei>i:re^ to care for, to spare ^ to iic(jlcct, to 
wovdy.r at^ to admire^ to denpii^e. E,g, 

*EkivOtpLr]<i yt.vGuLp.ivOL, hdoinfj ta^itt^d of freed oin, Hd.G,5; 
Kpoppvojv dv4>paivopai, J sviell onionSy Ar./t.0o4i tjiwvy'; olkovuv 



1108] GKNITIVE, 235 

^i 8oKa>, viethinh I hear a voicf, Av.J^a.Ctl; alaOdvcfrOtu^ ^t^yny 
crOu.Ly or €7n\avOdvtaOaL toiJto>^ (0 pcrceivCy remcmhe.r, or foryei 
these j o(TOL a\\y/\iov ^vyUa-av^ (ill vlto comprehcmhil each other's 
speech, T. ],;j (llUl); tovtuh/ tw fjLadrjfiaT u)v iTnOvfiQ}, J Ion rj for 
ihi^ Icarinvf/, X. A/.'i,(i3" ; y^pyj^aTiiiv (ptL^tdOaL, to h^ spnrivf/ <>J 
W0)>f'/, ihiilA,'!'^^-^ TT/s a.pCTy<; d}Lc\i7t', fn tir(/I('(:t virtue^ I.],4S; tl 
dytKTaL Tov TTuTpo?, if you (ulmire your J'<i!h('.}\ X. C. 3, ] '*''. M rjhi vo<; 
ovv oXiyoypiiTC /X170C KaTacftpoytiTC tu)U irpocTT it ay fxivnw^ do not l/ani 
ucylecf or (Irspise any of vty vijuvcilons, I..'J,4S. TCjv KaTrjyopwv 
Oavpji^u), I nm astoni.^hcl at my orcuscr.s, J^.25, 1. (Kor a cnusal 
genitivti witli vcibs like Oavfjux^o), .see lV2iK) 

1103. N. Voihs of hearing, learnwf/^ et-c. )iiay luko ;ui accusa- 
tive of lljc \]]]i\'^ licai'd t'tc. ami a genitive of the ]K't*soii heard 
frnm ; as TctvTtitv toloiWov^; rlxoiJo) Aoyou?, / hfar such sayiuy^i 
from these men; TrvOicrBai rofrro vp.u)v, to learn (his from you. The 
i^enit.ive licit; l)ulo)ii;s iiinlei- lloO. A scMit(^iiee may tako tlic jjlace 
of the acciiKativf! ; a^ tovtuw aKOvt ri kiyoixriv, hear fr(»ii) these uihat 
they say. See also iLT:ohi)(ppju, avcrpt {a .statement) from, in the 
Lexicon. 

1104. N. Vei'lis of yaulerstauJinij, n9=. CTriVra/iat, have tlie aoou- 
sative. 'lvvLt)iJLL, quoted ahove vvil.li tiie genitive (1 102), usually 
takes the accusative of a thing. 

1105. The inipei'soualfi /xt'Aft and /[xcra/icA^t take tlie i^oni- 
tive of a tliin*; with tlie dalive of a lu-ison (1101); a^ fuXa p.01 
TOvTov, I care for this; pcrajjiiXiL aoi tovtov, thou repeutfst <f this. 
Upna-^Ku, it eonccms, has the same constiuetioii, but tlie genitive 
belongs under 10!J7, 2. 

1106. Causative verbs of this class take the accusative of a 
person and the genitive of a thing; as p.i^ fx di-a/in/a^j? kukCji', do 
not remind me of evils (i.e. cause me to rcuw.mher them), k\ /I/. 10-15 ; 
Tov<i TTtilh-j.'i ycviSTtoif uipiToq, ve must maic the children taste hJood, 

P. Up. rj;i7^ 

But verbs of revwidimj als<i take two accusatives (lOOO). 

1107. N. "O^a;, emit <imcU (smell of), has a genitive (perhaps by 
an ell)]:isis of 6ap.y/v, odor) ; as o^oucr' dp.(Spo(Jta<; kol vlKTapo^^ they 
smell of amhrosia anil nectar, AY.Ach.\i)Q. A second genitive may 
be added to designate tlic source of the odoi'; as el 1-7? k«<^uA^9 
o^uj p.\jpov, if my head stnells of perfume, Ay.EccL^'H. 

1108. N. Many of the verbs of 100(1 and llOL' may take also 
the accusative. See the Ijcxicon. 



236 SYNTAX. [1109 

1109. The genitive follows verbs signifying to rule, to 
lead, or to direct. E.rj. 

"Epoj? Tt^v OtCyv /3a(n\tv€Lf Lovr 3.<t kiuff nf the Gods, P. Sy.ldo'^'i 
XloXvKpuTrji 2d/xoi; rvpavyCovy PolyvrnU's, while he was tynmi of 
Samos, 'y.\,\',i; MiV(j)S ty}<; yvy'K\\rjyiKYi<: $(L\d(Tcrr]<; iKparr^ac koX 
tCjv KvK\d^iMv vYjcriMv rjp^c, Miuos bccuinc master of what is now 
(he Greek acciy and ruler of the Ct/chidcs, T. 1,4; rjhovCju tVparct, 
he was 7na:i!er of plc.as^urcs^ X. M. 1,5''; yiyoviicvoi avroyofjujjv tujv ^u/x- 
/xa^wK, leading their allies (who were) independent (972), 'JM,97. 

1110. N. Tills coiistnictioii is soinetimes conueotod with tliat 
of 1120. But the genitive Iiere depends on tlic idea of king or 
ruler implied in Hie verb, wliile tliere it depends on the idea of 
roi)i.;>an*son (see 10S3). 

1111. K. For other cases after many of tliesc verbs, see the Lexi- 
con. For tlie dative in poetry after rj-yio/jMi and dydcratD, see 1101. 

1112. Verbs signifying fuhiess and 7vant take the 
goiitive of material (1085, 4). U.f/, 

XprjfJidTiov €U7ropci, he had abundance of money^ ]). I8,2^j; 
(Tf.aayjj.iyo'i irXovrov rrjy ip^'X*!^ icrofxai, I .s'/ia// have my soul loaded 
with wealth, X. 5//. 4,04. Ovk av aTropoiTrapaSf ty/xarojv, he would 
he at no loss for examples, P.7t;).5r>7'^ ; ovhh' Sfjan -rroXXoiy ypa/x/xa- 
rojy, there will be no need of many writings, I.4,7S. 

1113. Verbs signifying to fill take the accusative of 
(lie thing filh'd and the genitive of material. I^.g. 

i^aKpijiop tTrXiyortv e/xf, he filled me with tears, F. Or.'iQS. 

1114. N. Atop.aty I wanty besides the ordinary genitive (as 
TovTiiiv €^ioyTo, (hey were in want of these), niay take a cognate 
accusative of the thing; as ht-jo-ofMii. v/xtuv fitrpiav htrjcriy, I will 
make of you a moderate request, Aosch.3,01. (See 107C.) 

1115. N. At? niay take a dative (sotnetimes in poetry an 
accusative) of the; person besides tlie genitive; as hii p.oi rovrov, 
I need (his; avrov yap af. Set llpop.r}0€<ii<;, for thou thyself need est a 
Prome(heus, A.JV.80 (cf. ov 5ct /xe ckOtiv). 

1116. N. (a) Besides tlie common pi i rases ttoXXov S^t, it is 
far from i(, oXi'yov Stt, tf wants little o/t(, wehave in Demosthenes 
ovhi TToXXov S^r (like Travro': Set), i( wants every(hinff of it (lit. 
it does not even want much), 

(h) By an ellipsis of ScTv (1.^J^4), oXtyov and funpov comt to 
mean almost; as oXi'yov irdvT€<:y almost ally P. i?/». 552'*. 



1120] GKNITIVE. 237 

Gekitivk ok Sepahation AN1> CoMTAniSON, 

1117. The genitive (as ablative) may denote that 
from which anything is separated or dutimjuished. On 
this principle the genitive follows verbs denoting to 
remove^ to restrain^ to release^ to cease^ to fail^ to differ^ 
to give up, and the like. E.g. 

*H vr)(JO<i ov TroAu Su)^tL rrj^ rjireipov, the island ]> not far dis- 
tant from the inain-land, ^KnLGTTJfir} \wpt.l,o^ivq Sixatocrvny?, 
knowledge separated from justice, V. Menex.^i^^'i Xvaov /jlc B€ar/j.C>v^ 
release v)e from chains ; t7r€<T)^ov t^s Ttt;i(7JCTt cjs, they ceased from 
building the wall; touVov? ov Travaio r^s ap)(ijf;, I will not depose 
these from their authority^ X. 0.8,6^; ov travccSe r^? p. ox^r) plasty 
you do not cease from your ra$c(dity ; ovk (ipcvcrBr) t^? «A7rt'8os, he 
was not disappointed in his hope, X. //.7,5"^*| ovBiv Watt? Xatp<- 
<^tIn'TOS, you will not differ from Chaerephon, Ar.A^oO'J; T^<r €A«i> 
Oepia^ irapaxioprjaaL ^JiAiVTro), to surrender freedom to Philij>, I). 
18j08. So dnov (airrw) toD KTJpvKOS pi} A«iVfcr^ui, they fold him 
not to be left behind (he herald {i.e. to follow close upon hiin)^ T. 1, l-Jl ; 
-f} €7n(XToX7j 17V ovros (ypaipey d7ro\tL<f>6(.\<; rjpww, the letter which this 
man wrote without our hww/edge (lit. separated from ux), 1). lf^3G. 

Transitive verbs of tliis class may take also an accusative. 

1118. Verbs of depriving may take a genitive in place of the 
accusative of a thing, and those of taking away a genitive in place 
of tlic accusative of a person (10G9; 1071); as ipX r^v TraTpwo)^ 
aTreaT€pr)Ki, he has deprived vie of my paternal property, D. 20, 3 ; tujv 
a\\u)v a^aipovpfpoi ;(pr//JiaTu, taking away property from the others, 
X.Af.l,D^; v6<T<i)v aTTCifriprjaOc, of how much have you been bereft! 
1).8,G3. 

1119. N. Tlje poels use this genitive with verbs of viotion; as 
OvXvpTTOLo KarriXBopiVy we descended from Olympus, 7/.20, 125; 
\lv6C)vo<i l/Sa<;, thou didst come from Pyiho, S. 0. 7". 152. Here a 
preposition would be used in prose. 

1120. The genitive follows verbs signifying to sxir- 
pasis, to be inferior^ and all others which imply com- 
parison. E.g. 

(^Av6p(i}7rof;) ^vvtaei virepex^L twv dWtjjv, man surpasses the 
others in sagacity^ l\Mc7icx.''2'^1*^; imhtL^ayTt^ rrjv dpiTrjv tqv ttAiJ- 
Oov^ TTfpLyLyvofuvYjv, showing that bravery proves superior to numbers, 
1.4,91 ; opCjp vcTTcpL^ovo^av rrjv nokiv rCiv xatptuv, seeing the city (00 
late for its opportunities, D. 18, 102; tpTrnpia woXv irpo^x^rf. twv 



238 SYNTAX. [1121 

aXXu)v, in experience you far excel the others, X. //.?,]'*. ^^gv 
TrXrjOa yc rjfxC>v \iL(^9(.vTi'i, when they were not at all ij/yt-riav / 
(Icjt behind by) us in numbers, X./KV,?^^ So rwr/ c^^pwv- i^i^^^jQ 
(ov rjaaauOai), to be overcome by one's; enemies ; but Uiose two verh 
talve aJ^o t!;e genitive with i^Trd (1234). So rOiv i^Opi^v Kp^.Tilv / 
prenail over one's encnucs, and t^? OmXduurjf; Kparuv, to be tin^sier of 
the sea. Compare the examples under 1100, and sec 1110. 

Gknitivk with Vemhs of Acci;sik(; v.ic. 

1121. A^erb.s fciignifying to accuse, to prosecute^ Iq con- 
vict, to acquit^ and to ootid emit take a genitive Jeiiotiju>" 
the crime^ vvitli an accusative of the person, J^-g, 

AlriCifxat avTov rov <f>6uoVy I accuse hhn of the viwiler : typ^{^h^^^ 
avTov irapavofiiov, he indicted him for <iu illegal jirojiof^idnij ; hwfr 
f.Lf. Swpojv, he pro^ecut€>i me for Iribe.ry (far f}if(s). KAcWa Swpoj ^ 
Ih'ii'Tt^ Kol kAott^;?, hauinp couvicled Cleon of hrdtery m^] z^,,/-^ 
Ar. A^ 5'.)L "E ^c uy c TrpoSoo-t'a?, }ie. mus brouyht to trial for /7-er/C'/(/-7V/' 
but airi^vyt 7rpo8ocria9r he was acquUted of treachery. ^tvZc^ 
fxapTvptwi/ dKio(j(a-Oat TrpoaooKwi/, cxpe.ct'mg (o be comnctcd <,f fal^^,^ 
witness, 1).30, 18. 

1122. '0<^A.tfTKaVuj, lose a suit, Itns I in* constnicti'^ii of a pr\s.sive 
of tills class (1239); as 0}4>\f. ^cAott^s, he uas convicted of tltofi. It 
njay also liave a coj^nate jiccusaLivp ; as oIc^Ac K-Xo-n-T;*; Si'kt^v, he icon 
convicted of theft (]0'A). For oUier acciisativeB ^itli o<^Aia/cartu, as 
fiojpiav, folly, aldx^vvrjv, shame, y^^p-j/xara, money (fne), s'.^e llie Loxicon 

1123. Cojjiijounds of Kara of tills class, including ^^Trj- 
yopCj (882, 2), commonly take a genitive of the ^ycrson, 
whicli depends on tlie Kara. Tlipy may take 'dho an object 
accusative denotinj,^ the crime or pnnishment. E.g. 

OoScw avTos a-uTot; KaTtjyoprjrrc TrwTroTi, tio man ever himse!/ 
accused him.^iclf, D. 3S,20; KarcjSruov tCjv ^AOyji'aioJv, they (_!ecried 
the Athcmaris, T. 1,C7; Oavarov KaT^yvinCFav avrov, ihey Coudonoied 
him to rU/ah, T. 0,01 ; vftGiv 5e'o/xat p.r^ Karayrwrat 0(i)po5o>v'tuv ip.ov, 
I hcg you not to declare me guiify nf tnkiny bribes, L.^l^oj. ^^ 
Trktla-ra KaTCipcvaaTo /xov, he mid the most lies against me, I), ly^jjj 
Af'yw 7rp6? Toi;? IpLOv KnTnipr)<i>La-ap.€vov<; Oolvoltov, / speak {^ those 
who voted to condrnm me fo death, V.Ap.'iS'^. 

1124. y. Verbs of condensing which are compounds of Kara, 
may take three ca.scs; as iroWCjv 61 Trar/pf-i rjpCn' /xr^^Kr p.ov 
$dvaTov Kartyv(i)aav, our fathers condemned many to death for 
Med ism, T.4, 157. 

For a genitive (of value) denoting the penalty, see 1133. 



11301 GKNITIVE. 239 

1125. N. Tlie verbs of 1121 often take a cognate accusative 
(lOol) on vvliicli the genitive (depends; as ypu.<^rjv ypd<p€oOaL 
vl3p<.o)<;^ to Oririfi an indictmetit for outraye ; yp'u(f>T)v (or Slktjv) viri- 
vctr, (l>c\}yiL\'j aTTo<p<:vyuvy 6cf>K€LV^ dXomn^ etc. 'i'he force of this 
jiccnisative Hceiiis to be feJt in the con.'jt.ruclioii of ITJl. 

genit:vk of cause and souiice. 

1126. The genitive often denotes a cause^ especially 
with verbs expressing cmotious, as adnuration^ wonder^ 
affitdion^ hatred^ pity^ a-Hfjci\ enny^ or revenge, Ejj. 

irontlcr not n( (heir IxddiU'.ss, hut at (hvir Jathj^ '1\ (i, oO ; 7r<}XX6.KL<i (T€ 
cvBuLfjiUHaa tov Tponov, I q/ien conn fad you happ'f Jor ijoar char- 
acter^ V.Cr.'V->^\ ^TjXw crc ToO vov^ t)}^ Se SctAi'a? aTuyw, J envy 
you for your niitul, but loathe you for i/our couianlitc, ^. EL\{.)'27 ; 
fjitj piOL <p6oirtj<Tr]<i TOii /xa^ t)/x tt T o 9, don't (jrudije me the knoicUdffC^ 
P. ;S'w. *2.'i7''; (jvyytyviliGKCLv avroh xprj ttj<; c'tt i 6* v/Xi'a?, vjp. mvst Jbr- 
f/ive them for tlicir d^.-uve^ ibid.'MiC>^; Kai (T<^«a? TL/jnoprjaofJiai rrj^ 
ivOd^c dTTi^io^, and J shall punish than for cominfj hither, ll(h3, 145. 
TovTov<; OLKTipisi Ty<; i'octoli, / pify ihe^e for their di.'ieusCy X.5^. 'P^; 
tC)u dBiKYjixdT (jjv 6pyL(,e(jOriL, to be fi'Up-y at the off'cnceSy \^. '61^11. 

iMost of these verbs may taho also an accu.>?ntivo or dative of the 
person. 

1127. X. The j^ouitive sometiuicf; denotes a purpo'^fi or v)otive 
(wliiiie 'iviKit is i;encrallY expressed); as r^q twi' 'EXX-qvujv <X<v0(.- 
pw,for the liberty of the Greeks, V). 18, ](;0; so lly,7i;. (See l.Vit>.) 

1128. N. ^'erbs of disj)uting take a caudal genitive; as ov 
f^aaiXu dvTLTTOLOopLiOii r>/s dpx^)^^ ^'^<^ do not dispute xoith the KInf/ 
about, his dauiinion, X. A.'I,-)-^ ; VlvpoX-rro^; r}pi<iiL<jpyiTt]atu 'Epi)(S€i 
Trj^ TToAcojs, Euviolpus disputed with Ercchlheus for the city (i.e. 
dispuit.d its possession with him), 1. 12, 103. 

1129. The g'ciiitivc is somctinies used in exdamations. to 
give the eaufte of the ri.stojiisliir.cn t. E.g. 

Q Yldiruhoi'. TTJ^ Ti>^VT]<;, PoseidoJi, what a tradf.! Ar. Eq. M4. 
i^ jic'j (iaaiXtv, r^9 A.< tttottjt o v TfZv (^/jci/Jjf.' Kiny Zcxts! 
u^hat subtlety of int tiled ! Ar. A^. ITjO. 

1130. 1. The genitive soniotiines denotes the fiource. E.g. 

lovro iTv)^oi/ GOVy I obtained this froia you. Ma'^f p.ov rdBt, 
learn this f ran vh\ X. C. 1,0^^. Add tlie. examj.iles under IKKi. 

-. So witii yiyvopxiL., in the sense to be born; as Ao.p€Lov kclI 
lldpiKraTiSo? yi'y I'OvraL TraiSe<; 8uo, of Darius and Parysatis are Oor?i 



240 SYNTAX. [U31 

1131. Ill poetry, the genitive occasionally denotes the 
agent after a passive verb, or is used like the mstrumental 
dative (ILSl). E.g. 

Ev " At^a hi] Kilaaiy aas dAdxou (TtpaytU AlyL<7$ov tc^ thou 
liest now in J/adefi, slain hy iky wife and Aeyi^ikua, E. £.7. 122. 
Hp^o-at TTupos h-q'ioLO Ovptrpa, lo burn the gales with destructive 
fre, lL2,AVo. 

These constiuctious would not be allowed in prose. 

GENrnVK AFTiiK compolj>:d verbs. 

1132. The genitive often depends on a preposition 
included in a compound verb. E.g. 

npOK^irat TY}^ x^P^^ Yj/jiiov opj] /uttyoAa, high mountains lie in 
front of our iond, X. jl/. 3, TV-^ ; vTrcpt^avT^dav tov \6<I>ov, they ap- 
peared above the hiU, 'J'. 4, 1)3; ovtu)^ vfjLt^v v-mpaXyw, I grieve so 
for you, Ar. /ly.40(j; aTrorpcVct fj.c tovtov, it turns me from ihi.% 
r.Ap.Sl'^; TiZ iT7f.fidvTL TrpuuTO) TOV TCt)(ov<;j lo him v^ho should first 
mount the wall, T.1,l](); ovk avOpioirwv vncptc^povti, he did not 
des))ise men, X, A g.W, 2. 

For the genitive alter verbs of accusing and condemning, com- 
pounds of Kara, see 1123. 

GliNITiVE OF TRICE OK VALUE, 

1133. The genitive may denote the price or value of 
a tliijig. E.f/. 

Ttv'xt' afj.u(3tv, ;^pwca xakKclwv, kKaTOpL^oC tx'i'caPoiwy, he 
yace goUl urmor for bronze, armor vwih a hundred oxen for that 
worlh nine oxen, /A 0,230. Ao'^a ;3^piy^aT(uv ovx. iJjvrjTr) (sc Igtlv), 
glory is not to he bought with money, 1.2,32. Jloorov 8i8acrK€i; TrtVrc 
fjivCjv. For whcK price docs he teach f For fioc vunae. l\/l;).20'\ Ovk 
U.V d7Tih6fi.rjv TToWov to.? tATrtSa?, / would not have sold my hopes for 
<f f/rf'n( ttcal, v. Ph.'J^^ ; flCt'^o^'OS aiTa ripAoi'Tai, they value them 
more, X.C 2, 1'^. (But with vcj-bs of valuing rep i' with the geni- 
tive is more connnon.) 

In judicial langua.i^e, Ti/iav tlvl tlvo% is s-Si^\d. of tlie courtAs judg- 
ment in e.sti mating- tlic penalty, TL^ddSal tlvl tlvo<; of eitlier party 
to tlie suit in pioposing a penalty; as aXXa Stj <^\jy^? 7ip,y}criiip.o.L ; 
icrto<; yap av /xot tovtov TifiyaaiTi, but now shall I propose exile as 
my puui-ihmentf — you (the court) might perhaps ftz my penalty at 
this, V.Ap.Zl'l. So TLfxaTaL 5' ovv p.OL 6 dvi]p Oavdrov, so the 7>tQn 
estimates my punishment at death (i.e. proposes death as my punish- 



1338] GENITIVE. 241 

ment), P. /i 77.86''. So also Sc^oSpta^ vrr^yov Oavdrov, they im- 
peached Sphodrias on a capital charge (cf. 11^4), X.H.byA'^*. 

1134. The thing bought sometimes stands in tiie genitive, 
either by analogy to the genitive of price, or in a causal sense 
(112C); as rou Bwh^Ka fiva<; Ilacria (sc. oc^<i'Ati>) ; for what (do I 
owe) twelve ininae to Pasiaa ? Ar.N,22; ov^iva tyj<; avvovaia^ 
dpyvptov Trpdmij you ask no vionr.y of anybody for your teaching, 

1135. 'J'he genitive depending on aJio«, toorth, roorthy, and its 
coini^ounds, or on diioto, think worthy, is the genitive of price or 
value ; a^ a^io? itjtt Oavdrov, he ?.< vyorthy of death ; ov ©tfjuaroKXia 
tC)v p^y icrrwv Su^piCjv Y}^Liii(mv ; did they not think Themistoclcs 
worthy of the highest gifts? T.4,154. So sometimes dripo': and 
dn/xa^oi take the genitive. (See IMO.) 

GENITIVE OV TIME AKD PLACE. 

1136. TJie genitive may denote the thne within which 
anything takes ])lace. E.g. 

IToibu )(p6vov &£ Kol 7r€TT()p6r)TaL TToXt? ,* Well, how long aince 
{withift what time) was the city really tahenf A.Ag.'21^. ToO iTnyi- 
yvopivov )(iLp(i>vo<i, during the folloxoing winter, T.8, 21). TavTa 
r7J<; -fjpipat; iyivcro, thi^ hajipened during the day, X. ^4.7,4" (rr^v 
■tjfjitpav would jnoan through the whole day, }0&2). AcKa €tu)v ov^ 
^$ov(Ti, they will not come tvithin ten years, T. L7. 042<=. So hpa^^fXTjv 
(\dix(3av(. Trj<; ijfxipa'i, he received a drachma a day (951). 

1137. A similar genitive of the place within which ov at 
which is found in poetry. jE.fv- 

"'H ovK "Ap-yco? rjcif 'AxauKo?; wa.^* he not in Achaean Argos? 
Od. 3,'2C}1 ; Olij vvv OVK t(TTi yvvrj kut 'A)(auSa yaiav, ovt€ TIvXov 
uprjf; oy T* "a p y 1 ? ovrc MdktJkt^s, a wuman whose like there is not 
in the Achaean land, not at sacred Fylos, nor at Argos, nor at 
Mycenae, Od. 21, 107. So in the J:Ioinerio iriSioio 9iuv, to run on 
the plain (i.e. within its limits), //. 22, 23, XoviaOai irorapoio, to bathe 
iu the river, //. 6, 008, and similar exjiressions. So dptanprj^i x^^P^'^^ 
on the left hand, even in Hdt. (5,77). 

1138. N. A genitive denoting place occurs in Attic prose in a 
fev^f such expressions as Uvai rov Trpocru), to go forward, X. A. 1,3^ 
and iTrCTdxyvov t^? 6?)ov rovii (T)(o\uirc/joy TrpocrioyTus, th<:y hurried 
over the road (hose who came up more slowly, T. 4,47. Tliese genitives 
are variously explained. 



242 SYNTAX. [1139 

GENITJVR WITH ADJKOTJVES. 

1139. The objective geiiitive follows many vcrUil 
adj(ictives. 

1140. These adjectives are chiefly kindred (in meaning 
or d(n-ivatioii) to verbs whicli take the genitive. E.g. 

M<'to;(09 (TO'^ias, ]nir((i/:i)ig of o:isdoi)\ i*. Lg. USU'' ; tcro^tpot tu)V 
Trarpwojv, ^haruuf cfiualhj ikcir father' $ cf^lnfe, isac.(!,'23. (10l)7,L'.) 

^KiricTTyi /j.rj<i cViJ/JoXot, having adaiui'd hiioU'laJyc, P. TTu-l^yi)'' ; 
OQ.\d(T (TY)<i ifXTTCLporaTOL, )/ty.s£ expeyicnccd in ihc $ea {iv riatnya- 
Uon),'VA,m. (1(H)9.) 

'YTnJKoot; Twi' yovt'wi', ohpdipnt {hcorkcnvif}) to hin parcmt-^y P. /?;>. 
•If^'^*^ ; a}ivr))xu>v twv KivhvvujVy vmainr/ful of the dangers, A lit- 1* a, 7 ; 
aytucTTO? KOKwi'. Without a taste of eiuls, S. -4fi.oS2; cm^cA^^j dya- 
6'ut;', d/x£Af;<; Kuhtui', carliifj for ///<? ^ocjf/, vci//<rtfu[ of the bud; 
0€i8o)Ayt )(j)-qixdTwv, sparing of y/ionct/, P. A'yJ. 548''. ( 1 i O'i. ) 

Tuv r}0(H'u>u Truer (Jt/ cyK-paT^'o-Taro?, most perfect master (fall ])Jc<i<=- 
wr<i, X. ^/. 1,'i^"^; i/tw9 dpXf-KO^, fit to cofninmid a ship. J^ A'y^'JSS'^; 
eauroi' wr u*^/ju'Tfi>p, noi l/citu/ master of Jiimself ibid.^u\}'^. (IIOJJ.) 

Mtfrro? K a K w r, /'i/// (;/* tvds ; cttictti'i fJ.Y}<; x"ci'0<i, uo/// of h'noicl- 
edge, J'. ///j.4H(^*; Xt'iOrj^ vjv 7rXtoj<;,bci/'g full of forgetfulncss, ibid. ; 
TrAf/crrwr fVSt^'frraros^ wir'->'f tcuudng in vun^t thing!^, ildd. 570*^; i/ 
i/'uX^? 7'V^''') ''■'^^ crrj//.aTo<j, (//e sok^ vM-Z/Jf '^Z' //jt' ^Or/i/, I'.Cvaf. 40ii^; 
xaOapd irdi^TOiv toji/ Trcpt to aa>pA kukujj/. free {pufo) fyom nil the 
evils tJiat belong to ih« bndij, ibiii4iy6'' \ roiovnov drhptov 6p4>arrj, 
bereft of i^uch nn.n, f..'i.Gll; ^7:nT77}/xy} i tt lift gpiYjS otrL<^opo9, knowl- 
edge d is (nut from knoirletlge, V. J'hil. ij]*^', (trefjov to rjbv rov dyu-Oov, 
the fdcai^ant {i^) ili$tinct from th(; gucl, T. 6\ r)Ol)'i. (Ul'J; 1117.) 

*E).'OXO<; SetAt'a*;, cJtrirgeohle mitk cowardice^ j^. M,5; tovtwv 
utTio9, resj^onsihh'firthis^ P. G. 407''. (112].) 

"A^to? TToAAaJr, ftorth miich, genitive ol Vidvc (113")). 

1141. C^omiikhiikIs of (dpha privatire (87-'), 1) cnniof.iiuos take a 
gejiilivfi oi kiiKJiX'd nicaiiiiig, wiiich i]p|iH)irl<^ on the idf'a ot" y.vpa- 
nuiun iinj)liyd in l.lif^tn ; ;is iItt^ii*; apptVoji/ 7:<t.-Zu)i\ ^Icsiimd' (cOitd- 
less) of male children, X.C. i.li-; Ti.jxr^(i drt/zos ndrrrjf;, <fc><f(tnie of 
all honor, V. Lg.77V'\ xp^f"^'"'"*' dSiop6Tn.T0<;.mfist fn-f- from taking 
bribes, T. 2, 05 ; aTT-jt^t. fiov Tnli'Tim' x^'-Z'-wi^out', fif-e. fram the bUif^ts of 
all storms^ S.O. C. 077, d\po4igTO<; o^iiiW KO)KVp.aTOJK, unihoMi the 
sound of shri// ivadings^ S. .f/. :j*Jl. 

1142. Some, of tliese iidjectives (1139) are kindred to 
vor\)S which talvO the acou.'DativH. E.g. 

*E7rtcrTi7/X(ui' rij? t €)(vg^. understanding the art, P. ^7.418'' (1104) ; 



1147] GKNITIVK. 243 

cVtrriScv/xcE TToAfw? avaTpiirTiKoy, a practice Subversive of a .<itate, 
\'*.Rp.^'6\}'^\ KaKOvpyo<i twv aA.Awv, iavrov Sc iroXv KaKOvpyortpo^y , 
doing evil to the others, hut far fjrealer eoil to hinif^eff, X.M.lyO^; 
(rvyyv*x)fJ^^^ twv avOpioTTLVijJV a ^lapr r) fAtirwy, considerate of human 
fauUSy X. C. 0, P"; avfx(p7)(f>6fi ooC <l}x.i romov rov vo'/xov, / vote with 
you for this law^ P. /^y;.;itiUS 

1143. Tlie possessive genitive sometimes follows adjec- 
tives denoting posseasion. E.g. 

01 KLvBvyoi tCju £(/>co-r7;KOTwi/ tStoi, the dan(jers belong to the 
commanders, D.2,:28; upos 6 ^^^po? r^? 'Apr<fjLtSo<:^ the place is 
sacred to Arteritis, X.-l.o, ii^^* ; kulvqv Travrajr, covnnon to all, 

Kor the dative with such adjectives, see 117'i. 

1144. 1. Sucii a genitive soiiietiiiies denotes niej*e connection; 
ay ifvyyeyr^i avrov, n relative of his, X.C'1,1--'; ^SwKparou? 
o/xwi'ti/xo^, a nnmcsahe of ■'iterates, ]\So/3\b^. 

'yUa adjt^Mive is huru rejili)' uslmI ;is a suijRtantive. SucJi adjec- 
tives iiaturally take the dalivti (Ml')). 

2. Hero, jjioltably UelougB ivayr}<; toi) 'A ttoA A.wi'o?, accursed 
(one) (fA/JoHo^ Ae.scl).;.^ Utl ; also tVaytiq Kui aAtT);ptot r^? ^eou, 
accursed tf (he Ooddess, T. 1, 1-0, and cV rtut' aXtTYjpcwv TU}y Trj<i Oiov, 
Ar. 7i//.410: — cVayrj? ci.e. I'Hing really sul^slantiveK. 

1145. Aft(M- s<jU]o. adjo.ctivos tiie genitive, can be bos^ explained 
as dep.'-ndin- on ilje .'iiili.staiiLive implied in tlit^ni; a^i t^<; apx^)^ 
tnivO^'i'iK, rcyiorisddc fir the ojjice, i.e. liable to cvdvvaL for it, 1). 18, 
J 17 (see 8c'So)Ka yc €vOvi>3.f; cVciVoij/; in tiie same scolloii); mipOivot 
ydp.ijiv *i5/)arrii, maidens- ripe for ivarriagc, i.e. haninr/ reached the Of/c 
((I)/)a) fir marriage, lid. 1, 190 (s^ee <\ ydp-ov t^pqv d7rt,K0p.<vr}i\ 
Md.0, 01); 4>6pov {j7rorf\u<:, svhjcct to the payineui (tcAo?) of 
tribute, 'J\I, in. 

1146. N. Some adjectives of place, like ivavrio^, o}>posite, may 
take tlie genitive instead of the regular dative (] 174), but cliiefly in 
pooirv ; MS ivnvTioi. icyrav *A yatwi/, they stood opposite the Achaeans, 
Jl.l7',34-U 

See also tov Hoyrov imKapcrun, at an angle loilh the PoJitus, 
Ild,7,3(). 

GENITIVK WITH ADVERBS. 

1147. Tlie, genitive follows ailvei-bs derived from ad- 
jee-tives wlileh take tlic genitive. E.(/. 

01 I pLTTtLpix}^ ixvTOV iX^^T^*^^ ^^^'^^^ ^"^'■^ "■^''^ acquainted tviih him, 
dt^a^toi? jrj<i TToXao^, in a 7Jia7Vier unworthy of the state. Twv aXKdiV 



244 SYNTAX. [1148 

^AOrjvaLUiv aTrarrojv Stac^cpoVrajs, beyond (ill the other Athcnianfi, 
Y*.Cr.b'^^, *Efxd)(ovTo dittos Xoyov, they (the Athenians at Mara- 
t\\on) fought in <t nian/ier worthy o/uotc, Ud. 0, 1 12. So €vavrcov(l1 40). 

1148. The genitive follows many adverbs of place. U.g. 

Eto-oj rov cpu'^ro?, within the fortress ; t^to tov rciX'^uSi outride 
of the wall; ikto'; tC>v opo)v, without the boundaries; xtjip\<; tov 
<TwfmTO<;, apart from the body; iripav rox) TroTafj.oi]^ beyond the river, 
T. 0,101; TTfjoadcv tov cTTpaTon^hov, in front of the camp, X. //. 
4,1^-; afi<t>OTipiiiO(.v rvj? oSov, on hoth Siu/es of the road, ibid.b,2^\ 
(.vOv r7? <tao-^;AtSo<;, straight towards PliasSlis, 'J\S,88. 

1149. N. Such adverbs, behicles those given above, are chiefly 
cvTo<;, within; ^I'xti) apart from ; eyyu?, dyx'* TcAa?, and ttXtjo-lov, 
near; jrdppw (7rp6(ja>), far from ; OTTicrBiv and KaroTny, behind; and 
a few others of similar meaning. Tlie f;onitive aft^r most of them 
can be explained as a partitive genitive or a.s a penitive of separa- 
tion ; tliat after tM resembles that after verbs of aiming at (1009). 

1150. N. Aa^pa(Ioiiic XdOpyj) and Kpv(j>a, without thchwwledge 
of sometimes tai;e tlie genitive; as Xddpr) Aaop.^ SovToi, without the 
knowledge of Laoinedon, 7/. 5,2G9; Kpv4>a T^y ' AOy]vaL<iii', T. 1,101. 

1151. N.'Avei' and artp, without, dxpt- and /ixe'xpt, until, cveKa 
(ovviKa), on account of piTa^v^ between, and TrAiyy, except, talce the 
genitive like prepositions. See I'JiiO. 

GEMTIVE AlifiOLUTE. 

1152. A noun and a participle not grammatically con- 
nected wiih the main constrnction of tlie sentence may 
stand by tiiomsclves in the genitive. This is called the 
gp.nitive ahi^olnie. E.g. 

TavT €7rpdxOrj Kovtui/o? CTTpar-qyovvTo^, this was done when 
Conon was general, 1.0,56. OvZkv tCw hiovraiv -noiovvT uiv vpojv 
KaKto^ Ta Trpdy/MiTa ^Xf-f-, affairs are in a hftd state while you do nothing 
which you ought fo do, D. -1,2. (dnZv SiSorrojr qvk o,v iK<^vyoL 
Kaxa, iftlic Cinfia .■ihould grant (it to b(! 8o), /le could not escape evils, 
A.Sc.llO. "OvTO? yt ip€voov^ 1<JTLV dirdTTj, when there is false- 
hood, there is deceit, P. .So. ^OO*^. 

See 1508 and ]o03. 

GENITIVE* WITH COMPAKATIVES. 

1153. Adjectives and adverbs of the compai-ative de- 
gree take the genitive (witliout /?, than), E.g, 



1150] DATIVK. 245 

KpuTTiJiv iari rovrviv^ he is hetler than the^e. Nc'ot? to uLyciv 
Kpe^TTOv «crrt tov XaXeiVy for yovth silence is better than prating, 
Men. 3/0 ». 387- (Xlovrjp^a) OolTtov Oavdrov Bel, wicke(hi€ss ruus 
faster than death, P. /1/j.39\ 

1154. N. All adjectives and adverbs whicli mph/ a coniparisoji 
mav take a genitive : as (Ttpoi rovroiv^ others th<m these ; vurtpoi Tt]<i 
adx^'i^ /OD late for (Inter than) the battle; tyj iurtpo-ia. r^s ftuixv"^> ^'^ 
the day after the battle. So TpnrXd(nov ly/iwi', thrice as much as we. 

1155. K. The genitive is leiiS common than rj when, if rj were 
used, it would be followed by any other case than the noniinative 
or tiie accusative without a preposition. Tlius for iStan K yjfxiv 
fiaXXov irtpuiv, and we can (do this) better than others ('r.],iSC)), 
fxaXXov T* €T€poi<; would be more common. 

1156. N. After ttAcW (irkcW), more, or iXa<T<rou (p.€lov)^ less, tj 
is occasionally omitted before a numeral without affecting the case; 
as 7r€fx\pui 6p}'T<: <V* airor, irXilv liaKoaiov^: tov apiOpiOVy I will 
send birds ayaiufii him, more than six hundred in nwnber, Ai\ ylv. 1251. 

DATIVE. 

1157. The primary use of tlie dative case is to denote that to or 
for wliich anything is or is done: this includes the dative of the 
remote or indirect object, and the dative of advantuf/c or disadoan- 
lage. It also denotes that hy which or with wliicli, and the time 
(sometimes the place) in which, anything takes place,- — i.e. it is not 
merely a dative, but aUo an instrumental and a locative case. (See 
1042.) The object of motion aft^.r to is not regularly expressed i)y 
the (Jreek dative, but by tlie accusative with a proposition. (Sec 
1065.) 

DATIVE EXT'RESSINfJ TO OR FOR. 

D/*Tivjt; or 'jinc Lnjuhixt (bijECT. 

1158. Tlie indirect object of tlie action of a transitive 
verb is pat in tlie dative. T]a.s object is generall}^ hi- 
troiiuced in EngUsli by to. E.g. 

Ai'Sojcfi pudOov T<Z crpanvfAart, he gives pay to the army; vintj- 
XvuraC CTOL BtK<i ToXavra^ he proyniscs ten talents to you (ov he prom- 
ises you ten talents); jSorjdcuxv Triptpo/jnv rois avfxpdxoi<:, tve will 
send aid to our allien; tXtyov tw fiaiji.Xi'i tcl ycyeio^/ztVa, they told 
ike king what had kappene.d. 

1159. Certain intransitive verbs take the dative, many 



246 SYNTAX. [1100 

of which in English may have a direct object "with- 
out to. E.g. 

Toi9 OcoL^ tvxofxaL, I pray {(o) the Goth, D. 18, ] ; XvcrircXovv riy- 
iXovTiy advantageous io the one having it, V. Jfp.'AO^'^ ; ttKova avdyKr] 
T^8e, yiddinc] to thi.'< necessinj^ A. ^^.1071; tol<; v6fxoi<; TrttOovTu.i^ 
they are obedient to the laws {they obey the laws), X.MA,i^^\ fSoYjOdv 
^LKaiocrvuYj^ to asisist just ice ^ V. HpA2'i'^. Ei rot? TrXiocnv apt- 
(TKOvri^ IcrfjLtVy toloS^ au fx6vOL<; ovk 6()Bu3^ 6.Trape<jK0tfxcy, if we are 
plea Wig to the majority, it cannot be right that xoe should he displeasing 
to the!^e alone, T, 1,38, 'ETrtcrrtvov avrcZ al TrdXcts, the cities trusted 
hiv}, X.^1.1,9^ Tor? 'A$'r)V<uot^ -rraprjva, he used to advise the 
A thenicnis, '[WyQ'j. Ti^v fxaXtcrTa iTiTifxCivTa Tol<i ttctv payixevoi^ 
TjSi'oj? Of tpoifirjv, J shoulfl iil<e in ask the man mho censures Viost 
severely what has hcf.n done, D. 18, GJ. Tt' iyKak^v rjp.lv l7nx^Lpcl<; 
7}ji.a^ (XTToWvvaL; vhat fault do youjind wdh us that you try to destroy 
UN? P. CV.50*^. TouTot? p.i.p.(^tL Ti; have you anything to blame 
these for f ibid. ^E-n-iiotd^ovaLv dAAr/Aots xut tpOovovcriv taurot? 
fxaXXov y ToU aAAot? dvO pwiroi^i, they rerile one another, and are 
viore malicious to theun^elves^ than to other men, X. M.[\J)^^. *]hxn\l- 
'irat.vov 7019 CTT paT',jyo7<;, they were angry with the generals, X..*i.], 
4'^; ifiol opyil^ovTixL. they are angry with v}€, ]'. .4/j. '23^. So irpcTra 
pOL Acyetr, it is bfcohnrig {to) me to spt-ak ; irpoorJKa poi, it btiougs 
to me; Soxet /jioi, it seems to me; Bokw poi, methitiks. 

1160. The verbs of this class which arc not translated 
\vith to in l^Jiglish are e.liiefl^^ those signifying to banejit, 
serve, obey, defend^ assist, please, trust, satisfy, advise^ exhort, 
or atiy ol" their opposites; also those exprossin^^ friendli- 
ness, hostility y bla^ne, abuse, rej'iroach, envy, angtr, thrents. 

1161. \. Tlie i in pergonals Set, pirtari, piXci, ptrapiXci, 
and TTpocnjKci take tiie dative of u }}eTson ^vitli the genitive of a 
thing; as Bu iwi tovtov, I have need of this; piTtcfrt poi rovTOv, I 
haoe a share in this; peKti poi tovtov, 1 am interested in this; -npo- 
QT/xtt /lot TovTQv, I avi coucemcd in this. (For the geiiiLive, sec 
10'J7, -\' 1 lOi; ; 111 0.) "EtcaTL, it is possible, tukes tlje dative nlone. 

1162. N. Act and XPV ^"^^^^ ^^'^^ accusative when an infinitive 
follows. For Stt (in poetry) with tlie accusative and the genitive, 
see 1115. 

1163. N. Some verbs of this class (IKiO) r.iay lake the accnsa^ 
tive; as ovhcU uvtou? i ptfx4>iT0y no one blamed them, X./1.-, H^o. 
Others, whose meaning M-onld place them Jiere (as purc(o, hafe)^ 
tiike only tlie accusative. AoiSoptu), revile, has tlie accusative, but 



1167] DATIVE. 247 

XotSopfo/xat (middle) has the dative. 'Ok^ftSi^w, reproach^ and cVirt- 
udJ, censure, liave the accusative as well as the dative; we Juive also 
ovii^iC^'-v {^^TTtTifiav) TL TLvL, to cast any vcproack (or cen.sure) on any 
one. TtfxiDpdv tlvl means reg'ulaily lo aveiu/e some one (to take ven- 
geance for film) ; TLfUDptLGOai (rarely Ttfx^jypuv) rfm, to punish some 
one {(0 avenge oneacif on him): see X.C.4i(i^ TLp.ixjpr}(TiLv (tol tov 
TTuiSo? TOV 4>oyca ■UTnu-x^ovfMiL^ I pt'oniiiie to avenge you on ihc mur- 
(icrpr of your son (ov for your soji, 1 126). 

1164. h Verhs of ruling (a.^ aj'acrcroj), whicli take the genitive 
in prosf> (HOP), have the dative in jioetry, esp'^cially in Homer; as 
•7roAA7<Ti^ ui]aotaL Kal "Apyc'i wuutI audircTiLv, to rule over wany 
hlandii and all Argo^, Ji2, 108; hapov ovk ap^u OtoXs, he mill not 
rule the (/oda long, A.Pr. 040. KeAeuai. /o conimand. wliicli in Attic 
Greek lins only the. accusative (generally with the infinitive), has 
the (iative in JJoiner; see //.L'.nO. 

2. *Hyiojiaiy in the sense of guide or direct, takes the dafive 
cveii Jn pro.se; as ovk€tl -rffiXv yyijatnu, he will no longer he ovr 
guide, X.yl.3,2-^0. 

Dativk of Advantage on Disadvantai;!;. 

1165, Tlie person or thing for wliose advaniaf/e or dis- 
advantage an3'thijig is or is done is put in tJie dative 
(dativus cojnmodi et i7icommodi'). This dative is gener- 
ally introduced in English hy for. E.g. 

rids 6.\n}p avTu> ttoi/cl, every man labors for hiimelf Swf/. 1306, 
^{>\wv 'a 9t]vo.lol% v6p.ov^ iOrjKC, Solon made laws for the Athenians. 
KaLpoi npotiyrai Tg ttoXci, lit. opportunities hare been sacrijiccd for 
the state (for ii$ disadiauiage), I). 10,8. *liyuTO avTwu cxaaro? ov)(l 
Tw Trarpl Kal rg prjTpl p.6vov ytyivrjodm, oAAo. koX tyj TraTpiSi, 
each of them believed that he was bom not ?ncrely for his father a'.ul 
mother, hut for his country also, D. 18,205. 

1166, N. A peculiar use of this dative is found in statement g 
of Viiue; as nZ ij^g ^vo yci^tul t(/>^iaTo, two gevcradons htuJ already 
passed away for him (i.e. he had seen ihern pass away), 7/. 1,250. 
'il^c'pai /xuXiora gaav Tg MvTtXjJi'r; iaXoiKvla kind, for Mitylene 
captuTdd (i.e. i^ince its capture) there had been about seven days, T. 3,29. 

Hv ■Yip.ipa TTifXTTTg iTTLTrXiOviTL TOis *A0gvaLOL<;, it wa^ the fifth day 
for the Athenians sailing out (i.e. it was the ffth day since they began 
to sail out), X,H.2,V^. 

1167. iS'. Here beloji^^ such Homeric expreasions as toIo-l S' 
avi(TTr}, and he ro^c vp for them (i.e. to address them), //. 1,08; toIul 
p.vOwv ■ripXf.v, he began to t^peak before them (for chem), Od, 1,28. 



248 SYNTAX. [1168 

1168. N. In Homer, verbs signifying to ivard off take an 
accusative of tlie thing and a dative of the person ; as i^avaolai 
XoLyov afjivvov, ward off destruction from the Danai (lit. /or the Danai), 
7/. 1,450. Here the accusative may be omitted, so that Aavaoldt 
dfxvvav means to defend the Danai. For other constructions of 
d^wo), see the Tjexicon. 

1169. N. ^^xofiaL, receive, takes a dative in Homer by a 
similar idiom; as Si^uto ot (TK^iTTpov, he took his sceptre from him 
{Wl. for him) J 1. 2, ISO. 

1170. X. Sometimes tliis dative has a force wiiich seems to 
approach that of tlie possessive genitive; as yAaJao-a Bi ol ScSerai, 
a7id his tongue is tied (Wt. for him), Theog. 178; ot lttttoi avrot? 
^(Bivraij they have their homes tied (lit. the homes are tied for them), 
X. yl.3,4^5. The dative here is the dativu^ incommodi (1105). 

1171. X. Mere belongs tlie so-called ethical dative, in whicli tlie 
personal pronouns have the force of for my saJce etc., and some- 
times cannot easily be translated; as rt aot fjuxOyaofiai ; what am 
I to learn for you ? A r. A''. 11 1 ; rovni^ navv //ot Trpocrcx^re rov voOv, 
to this, I heg you, give your close attention, D. 18, 178. 

For a dative with the dative of povX6p.ivo^ etc., see 1584. 

Dative of Kklation. 

1172. 1. Tlie dative may denote a person to wliose case 
a statement is limited, — ofteji belonging to the whole sen- 
tence ratlier than to any special word. E.g. 

" kiravra Ti2 <j>of3 ov ficvw ipo<j>cl, everything sounds to one who 
is afraid., S. frag. 58, '^<j>iZv fuv ivroXr] Ato? Ix^c rt'Ao?, as regards 
you tioo, the'ordcr of Zous is fully executed, A.Pr. 12, 'Yn-oAa/Jt/^a- 
vnv 8ci Tw ToiovTio, OTL ivrjOr)^ Ti? avOpioTTO^y vnth regard to such a 
one we must suppose that he is a simple person, P. Rp. 5[)S<*. TWvrjX 
V plv raXut, 1 have long been dead (o you, S. 2^h. 1030. 

2. So in such expressions as these : cV ht^ul l(j-n\iovTLy on the 
right as you sail in {with respect to one sailing in), T. 1,24; crvvi- 
\6vTi, or oxT (TvvfXoi'Ti tt-rrtu', co7}ciseh/, or fo ^pcak concisely (lit. 
for one having made the matter concise). So oI? epoi, in my opinion. 

Dativk of PoSSliSSlON. 

1173. The dative witli €ifxi\ jtjvofiac^ and similar verbs 
may denote the possessor, E.g, 

Etrrtv ipoX Iku. ^^'Oi, 1 hare (sunt mihi)/7-t>n(f5 there, P. Cr.Ab^; 
Ti's ^\'}p{Lax<y; ycinj<T<.Tai poL ; what ally shall 1 find? Aw Eq. 222 \ 
aXXoi"» piv XP*J/J^ciTa tan TroAXa, "^ piv hi ^vppaxoi ayaOor, others 
have plenty of money, but we have good allies, T. 1,80. 



U75J DATIVE. 249 

DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 

1174. The dative follows many adjectives and ad- 
verbs and some verbal nouns of kindied meaning with 
the verbs of JIGO and J 160. E.tj, 

C^vcT jx(.v-q% <^LkoL<;^ hmile to friend.^, E. A/c. 1151 ; vtrox^'i TOi? 
J/0/A019, subject to the laws; tTrLKLV^vvov rrj ttoAci, dangerous to the 
state; jSka (iipov rep cru>fjLaTL, hurtful to the body: cvVou? cuvtoj, 
kind to himself; ivavTiO'; uvrJ, opposed to him (cf. IHG) ; toi(j8* 
aTracrt kolvov, comvion to all tht'se, A. Af/. i}23, '2,Vfji.<p<.p6vTwi 
avTu;, proftahly to himself; cfjurohojv ^fjLOi, in my way. 

( With Nouns.) To, Trup' rjfxtjv S(opa toU ^tois, the gifts (givcu') by 
U.9 to the Gods, WEuthyph. 15*. So with an objective getiitive and 
a dativf'; as iirl KaraSovkwan t<Zv liiWrjuwv ' A$r]vaLOL<;, for the 
subjugation of the Greel:^ to Athenians, T.3, 10. 

DATIVE OF RESEMBLANCE AND UNJON. 

1175. The dative is used A\'it]i all M'oi'd.s implying 
Wce7iess or unlikenesSy agrt'ement or d'a^agr cement^ union 
or approach. This includes vei'bs, adjectives, adverbs, 
and noujis. JE.g, 

2Ktdr<f cotKo'rcs, like shadaivs ; to 6p.oL0vv lavrov dXXoj, to make 
himself like to another, P. 7?/). ;J03*^ ; tuutois ofJ-OioTnTov, most like 
these, l^.G.bVi^', ojTrAia/AtVoi to7'; auruts K^jpi^ OTrAoi?, armed with 
the saine arms as Cyrus^ X. C. 7,1-; 19 op-olov oi^o? tou'toi? 7) 
ai'O/xOi'ou, b(^i7(g either like or unlike these, P.J^h.li'^; o/io/cj? BiKaLov 
dBiKit} (^Xdil/tiv, that he joill punish a just and an uuj'usl man alike, 
P. ii'y). 3ii4*= ; uVat aAAT/Aot? dvop.oiw<;, to move unlike one another, 
P. 7V. ;^(j*^; Tov op<livvp.ov t/AavroJ, my namesake, \).d.'J\. Out< 
tavTOi? ovTt dAATjAot? 6p.o\.oyov(jiv, they agree nr.ither with them- 
selves nor with one anotlicr, V. l^hdr/2'M^\ iip,<i>i.ujiYjTov(ji ol ^t'Aot 
T0t9 ^lAots, ipL^ovt.ri S< 01 i\0pOi dAAr/Aots, friends dti^pute n-ilh 
friends, but enemies quarrel with one another, P. Pr. XM^ ; rot? 
iTOvqpol<i ouj.<i>ipiijOaL, to be at variance iriih the bad, X.j1/.2,9^; 
7p' a(Vr{J opoyvuipoiv, he teas of the same mind with him, T. 8, GL^. 
KaKoT? opiXCjVf associating with had men, 'Mdu. Mon.27-\ ; rot? 
<f>povipij^TdTOL^ 7rXr}CTLa(,t,drauy near to the widest, 1. 2, 13; ip6<i>0L<i 
TrKrfUid^uv (tov ittttov), to bring him near to noises, X.^7.-',n; 
aAAotS KCLVivvilv, to share with others, P. 7C;j.3C9*^ ; to cavTov tpyov 
d-rraaL kolvov KaTOTiBivoi, to make his oicn work coynmon to all, ihid.; 
Stopcvoi TOU9 <j>(.vyovra<i ivvaWd$u.i <j4>Iui, asking to brinfj the exiles 



250 SYNTAX. [1170 

to terms wifh them, T. 1.24; Povkojxal at ai'rtu SiaAcy^a^at, / want 
you to coui-crse wiOi him, V. Li/s.'2l\'^. 

( With Nouns.) "Atotto? i] ofj-OLOT-q^; rovTinv €k€lvoi<;, the UL-enf-s.'^ 
of these to (hose is stnuu^e, V.ThAbi^^] Ixu KOLViMi'luy aAAr/Aoi?, 
they have simp.ihhif} in common, wiih each other^ J'. 6o.'2Cu'-^\ rcpocrjioXa.^ 
TTOiOV^cvQL r<j rCL\ti, makincf attach \ijK)n the tea//, «7n5po/n;v tuj 
rcLXt<ifxQ.rL, on assault On the u-ally 'I'. 4, 2;'; Aio? jipovraloLv eh 
iptv, in ricuhi/ loiih the tJiUudeilnyii of Ztus, E. 67/''- -i- ^ ; cVt/raffrutrfi 
fxtpov<; TiuoH Toj oAw ryf; ipv^rj^, o rchcllion of one pa) f of the soul 
<i(//iinsl the whole, l^. Ii/A'i^-l^, 

1176. TUc tialivo Ihu^ (iiipt^iuls on aiivt^rbs o^ place tlU\^ tiyne ; 
as lifjui Ti] rjpipa, at rhu/hi-calc, X. /l.L\ P; vhwp 0/J.ov rw ttt^Aw 
yp.<iriop€vov, water stalnid tcith hloud together with the mini, ']\7,^1 ; 
TO. ToiJroc? €i^c^:^9, u-hai comes next to thin, P. 77.30''; rotaS' tyyi'*;, 
near these, \\. fler.'M (iyyvi generally Ira.s the g'enitive, Ul^J)- 

1177. 'J'o this class bclon.;;- fxaxofj-ai, 7roA€/x€a>, and otliers 
si.c;nifying' to contend ov quarrel vith : a<^ ^idxicrOaL tois: 07j/?at'ot<;, 
to Jiijht with the Tkchao^; TroX^/xowU' rjfxlv, they urc at. iritr wth v^. 
So <9 X^^P^'* fA^^cTi/ rii''i, f'K <9 Aoyoi'f ^KBclv tlvu to come to a cunjiict 
(or to words) with aujj one; also 8ta c^tAi'a? t«Vai rti'/, /fJ he frteudhj 
{to go throu(/h friendship) vnth one: soe 1\7,44 : S, 48; X. J . -3, ii^. 

1178. X. After adjectives of lileucss an ahiiili^ed form of 
exjivtfssion may be used; as KOpuu Xaptrcaaiv 6p.oou, hair Ule 
{thai nf) the Graec^, //. ]7,")1 ; ra? ttras TrXrjyas ifxoi, the sajnfi 
number ofhloivs loith vie, Ar. A*. G-iU, 

. IJATIVI-: Al'TEPv COMPOUND ViillBS. 

1179. The (lat.ive follows many veilis com])oiinLled 
wiili ti^, (7Vh\ or evr/; aiul some compounded willi 7rp(J9, 
irapdy 7r€pi\ and utto. /^.(Z. 

Tot*; oyjKoiq tfjLfxlvii o 3)//>to9, //fC people alddts hi} the oaths, X. //- 
2, l^"*; at . . . rjooi^ai ^^xfi ^TTiorri/xrjv olhtjiiai^ ipTroiOVOLv, (such) 
pUtioir^s pniiluce r.o KaaivUiige in die. ;^<jul, X. A/. 2, P° ; Cv<KavTO TUJ 

ric/otKAci, tlu'fj pressed hard on Pericles, T.2, r)9; i/Lavrw awtjor] 
olhlv iirifTTafxcvijj., I was conscious to laystlf (hat I Inew no(hin</ (111. 
2ri(h mi/stif), 1\ /1;>.*2'2*^ ; -ijhr} ttotI (joi i-nr)\0(.v ; did il cerr occur to 
yon? X. iV/.'I,-l^ ; -rrpoailS'iXXov rw Tcix^<^P-"-^*-y '^'^'H eittorked the. 
fortif cation, 'VA, 11 ; aScA<^o9 dvhpl ■napf.iy}, let n hrother stand hfj a 
man (i.e. (ct a man's brotln.r stond by him), V. Hp/MV^"^ ■. toU KaKOi? 

7r€pL7rt7TTnvo-(\', th/^.y are inrcdvrji m tSV'.ls^ "S.. M A,2-'^ \ VTToVttTaC TO 

TTtSiOv Tw u/jw, (he plnin lies helou' the temple, Aescb.3, lib. 



1184] DATIVK. 251 

1180. N. Tins dative sometimes depends strictly on the prepo- 
sition, ami sometimes on ttie idea of the coinpouml as a whole. 

CAT;SA1. and IXSTIUIMKNTAI. ])ATIVK. 

1181. The dative is used to denote cause^ manner^ and 
riuavs or im^irumcnt. Ejj. 

Causk: No 0-0) airoOaviiiv, havinf] died of (Ii.<imse, T. 8, 84; ol 
yap KnKOvoLii TOVTO TTOtci, oAA' ay volo., for he tlocs tiot do thl^i from 
ill'iuilL but from if/norance, X. C3, l^s- jjui^ofxcvoi tov ttuIv iTTiBvfXiay 
forced bji a desire lo drink, 'J\7, 81; alcrxvvo^L toi ruu npi'mpov 
ajuapTt'ai?, / am admnivd of {because of) wi/ former fault f:^ Av.N. 
J.SJ>5. M.A XNER : Apojuw ih^to (<; tov<: {S:ip{idpov<;^ they rushed against 
llic barbarians mi Oic ruu, ii J. (jj 1*2 ; Kp-ivyfj TroXKfj iiriLcnv, thfri/ viU 
adoance u-iih a lond shout^ X.,^.1,7*. Tf) 6Xr]0u'L-. in inith ; rtp oiTt, 
in realih} : f-iia, fared ihj ; ravryj, in (his mauner, ///ux; Aoyoj, in word , 
(pyw, in deed; rfj lp.,j yvu\a:'j., in inj/ judfjincnt ; tSta, ]/rirafel>/; 
hr)/io(Tia, public/ f/; KOii^fj, in common. .Mkans or Instucm i:n r : 
'OpCofXCv TOi? 6(f>0(LX.p.ol<;, v-e see icidt our ej/es ; yvu)uO(.v7K<; rrj 
OKtvij Tiiiv ottXoji', rccofjiuzcd hi} (be fashion of I heir annSy T. 1,8; 
KaKOL<; ladOj-i KaKa, (0 cure erds hi/ evih, S. fraj;'.7o; oi'Sft? cTaivov 
r}Sova7^ CKTyjtraro, no one fjoins praise bi/ plcasvrea, fitob.20,i)l. 

1182. N. The dative oi respect is a foiin of the dative of man- 
ner; as 7019 crdypiaaLv dSuVarot, . . . rat? \pv)(a7<; dvoyjTOi, incfjndde 
in their bodice,. . .senseless in their minds, X.M.'J,]'-^^ \ varcpov or 
Ttj ra^tt, npoTCpov TJj Sura /a ft Kal fCpuTTov canw aUhmujIi it is 
later in order, it is prior and su/ir.rifn' in jxnr.cr, 1).;},]."). So tto'Xi?, 
Qd4>o.KO<; ovofxaTi, a city, Thapsacus hj name, X./l.],-^^^ 

'i'his dative often is equivalent to tlie accusative of specification 
(1058). ' 

1183. 'X.paop.o.L, to use {to serve onts self hy), takes the dative 
of means i as )^C)i'Tai dpyvpico, they use monaj. A )icuter pronoun 
(e.g. Tt' Tt, Tt, or rovro) may lie added as a co;::;'naf.e accusative 
(1051); as rt' ;^pyjo-<:7ut' ttot airrt^ ; what will he do with him? (lit. 
xohuf use will lit vintf itf lihnf), Ar. Ach.^''\'). No/xi^d* liaM ftomctimea 
the same moaning and construction as xpdofiai. 

1184. 'J'lie. <lative of manner is used with comparatives 
to denote the def/rce of iHfJ'ercncc, E.g, 

noAXuJ ffpciTTOv hrTiv, it is inuch better {better by much) ; iiiv rfj 
Act 0a A17 jiei^ovd Tiva 0>/? (hai /cut eXarrcj, if you say that anyone is 
a head taller or shorter (lit. hj the head), r.Ph.)0\^. TToAt Xoyifna 
yj RXXa? yiyovt dcFOcvccTTcpy), Greece has become weaker by one 



252 SYNTAX. [1185 

illustrious city, Hd,6, 106. Too-ouro) rj^iov ^oj, / live so much the more 
happily, X.C'.8,3*°; '''^X^ 8' drayKijt aaOivtaripa /utuKpaJj and art 
is weaker than necessity hy far, A.Pr. 514. 

1185. So isonietiuies with superlatives, and even witli other 
expiessions which inij^ly comparison ; as opBoraTO. }mKpm^ most 
correctly hy far, P.Z^.TCb*; axf-hov hUa Iriai npo r^? tV SoAa/xt^t 
vaujLUA^t'as, about ten years before the sea fight at Salamis, ibid. t)98^ 

DATIVE OF AGENT. 

1186. The dative sometimes denotes tlie agent with the 
perfect and pluperfect passive, rarely with other passive 
tenser. E.g. 

E$€Td(Tai tJ. TTiTTpaKTai roi? aXAot?, tO ask tohat has been done by 
the others, 1).2,'27 ; KTru^r) avTOLS TraptGnivaGTo, when preparation had 
been Made by them {when they had their preparation made), T. 1,4G; 
TToWal Qf.pa.TTu.aL Tot9 tarpots tvprivrai, many cur'es have been dis- 
covered by physicians, 1.8, 39. 

1187. N. liere tliere .secMii^; to he a reference to the agent's 
lotui'est in tlie result of the completed action expressed by tlie 
perfect and plujierfect. \\'\i]i other tenses, the agent is regularly 
expressed by imo etc. antl tlie genitive (11234) ; only rarely by the 
dative, except in i:>oetry, 

1188. AVith the verbal adjective in -tco?, in its personal 
construction (1595), the agent is expressed by the dative; 
in its impersonal construction (1597), by tlie dative or the 
accusative. 

DATIVE OF ACCOMPAh'lMENT. 

1189. The dative is used to denote that by which any 
person or thing is accompanied. E.g. 

'EA^ovTojv Uipauiv 7ra/Ji7rX'>7^tI (ttoXu), when the Persians came 
with an army in full force, X.^.3,2"; i7fi«ts koX iTnTOfi rot? Suvutoj- 
TciTOi? KU.I dvSpdaL TToptviliptBu, let us march both with the strunyesi 
horses and with men, "X. C.U,2^; ot AaKcSat/xoVtot tS tc kutol yrjv 
GTpaTw TTpoatf^aXXov T<2 TiiX^trpjOiTi Kal Ta'L<; vtxvifLV, the Lacedae- 
monians attacked the wall both with their land army and toith their 
ships, T,4,ll. 

1190. This dative is used chiefly in reference to military forces, 
and is originally connected with the dative of means. The last 
example might be placed equally well uuder 1181. 



1196J DATIVE, 253 

1191. This dative sometimes takes the dative of avros for 
eiTiphasis; as fiiav (vavv) avrol': avSpdcriv (.IKov, theij tooh one 
(ship) men am! all^ 'J\2,90. Here jio instruiueiital force is seen, 
and the dative may refer to any class of j^ersoiis or tilings; as 
^a/xat (ioXt Siv^p(.a fxaKpa avrfjGLv pt^rjai kol avTo7s avdcirt 
firjXoiv, he threw to the yround taU trea^j wilh I heir very rools and their 
fruit-blossoms, 11, 9, 54 1 . 

DATIVE OF TIME. 

1192. The dative without a preposition often denotes 
time when. This is confined chiefiy to nouns denoting 
dai/, niijlit^ month, or year, and to names oi festivals. E.g. 

Tt} OLvrrj r}p.ipo. aTrtOaycvy he died on the same day; ("Epfxal) fiia 
yvKTL OL Tr\€L(jroL TTipUKOTT-qcrav, the most of the llermae were muti- 
lated in one niyht, 'J\G,ii7; oi 2a/iiot f^iTroKLopKyiOrjatxv ivdxia 
fj.T)VL, the Samiuns vwre taken by sicye in the riinth mouthy T. 1,117; 
SeKarw tr€L $vvtfSy]<fav, they came to terms in the tenth year/W], 
103; iixjTTCpcl Gccr p.o<f)opLOLq inri(Tr€vop.€v, xve fast as if it were 
{on) the Thesmophoria, hwAv. lolU. So rrj vcrnpai'a (sc. rjp.tpa), on 
the folloioin^ day, and Sivrepn, rpirtj, on the second, third, etc., in 
givinj:; the day of the moiitli. 

1193. N. Even the words nientionod, except names of fes- 
tivals, generally take €v when no adjective \voi-<l is join<.'d witli 
them. U'lius iv vvktl, at night (rarely, in ])0etry, vvktl), l>ut pxa 
wKTL, in one night. 

1194. N. A few cxjiressions occur like vcrrfpo) X/^of^*, in after 
time; x^'-fJ^^^cy; iopn, in the winter season ; vovfi-qvLa (new-moou day), 
on thefr^t of the month; and others in poetry. ''^ 

1195. N. With oflier datives expressing time h is regularly 
used; as iv rJ airrw x^'-f^^^'-y *'^ ^^'^ fiame winter, '\\2,''\\. 3iut it is 
occasionally omitted. 

DATIVK OF PT.ACE. 

1196. Tn poetiy, the dative without a preposition 
often denotes the place cohere. E.(j, 

'EAAaSi otVt'a vaiW, inhahiting dweUing$ in IJellns, 7/. 10,505; 
CLlOipi valo)v, dwelling in heaven, 7/.4,in0; ovpcorL, on the moun- 
tains, 7/. 13, '^90; r6$' o5^oio-u^ <X*'**'' ^<^"'»i7 ^"^^' ^^^ ^" ^"'•'^ shoulders, 
II. 1,45 ; p.Lfxv€i dypui, he remains in the country, Od. 11, 188. *Hcr^at 
So/Aot<;, to sit at home, A,Ay.W2. NOi' ay pollen. Tuyx<*^" i^*^' **'*')' 
now Ac happens to be in the country, S. ii7.313. 



254 SYNTAX. [1107 

1197. Ill ])ro«e, tlie dative of place is chiefly confined to the 
names of Attic denies; a.s jj M a pa. ioVL yidxri, the buttle at Mara- 
thon (l)Ut Iv 'A^r/t'ais): see fta Tou-f Mapa^tui't tt pOKivhwiv- 
iT(ivTa<i Tixtv TTpo-yOfojv Kai tou? tv nXuTacati Trapara^aficVov? kui 
roil? f V 2aAa/jti^t t/ayyn/^;(7ycrat'7a?, »rt, by those of our a7icestor.-i who 
moD'l in the front of dnnytr at Marailion, and those who arrayed them- 
sclres at PlaUieci, and those who fought the aen-fiyhl at Salaviis, I). iy,l2U8. 

Si ill soiul'. exception-S occui'. 

1198. X. Stjine advcilis of place are really* local datives; aa 
TavTrj, TjijBf., hcrr ; oiKOi, at home. So kukAw, iii a circle, all around. 
(See'-liUi.) 

PRKFOftlTIONS. 

1199. Tile pvejwsit.ions wero originally adverl)s, and as 
sur.li they ai»])ear in ec)iapu.sition with verbs (see SS-J, 1). 
Tlicy are used also as iiidejjeiukMit words, to connect nouns 
with other parts of the sentence. 

1200. Jificities the j)ropnsiti()H.'< ]iropeily so called, there are 
certain adverbs lifted in the same way, uliich cannot he coni- 
ponnded with veibs. Tlie^e are called vnproper prepositions. For 
t.he<<(' see 1220. 

1201. 1. Four jM-cjK)f<itinns tal%e tlie <jeuitioe only: am, aTro, 
€^ ((k), TTpo, — wif.Ii tlie imjM'oper prepositions ai^tvj drip, ^xpi, 
/jtc'Xpt, p.cTa^v, CKKa, ttX^v. 

"J, Two take tlie dative only : <V and trvv- 

'.\. Two take the arrusa/ivc only; at/a and fi<; or <<;, — with the 
improper |)re[»o.sition ok. ]-\>r dt'a in ytoetiy with the dative, see 
12();{. 

4. Fo\u- take the genitire and acrusative : 8ta, Kara, /ara, and 
lirip. Vol" fitrd with the. <Jative in Ilonier, ^w 1212, 2. 

b. Six take the f/nriiiivc, dative, Hiid accum/ioe : a/x</>t ( I'are with 
genitive), cVt', Trapa, 7re/u' Trpo'?, and i'tto. 

U.SKH OF THE VIMOf'O.Sl'J-IONS.^ 

1202. a^i.^1 (Lnt, amb-, conipjiic aji<()u, h^'ilh), oiiiiinnlly on hr>ih 

Ki'dcsof; Uoncv alxnu. C'hicily ]>')Otic and Ionic. In Allii^ 
jU'O.se TTtpl is i;(Mu'ral]y used in mojst sensos of d/xtpl. 
1. with the OLMTwr. (vt-vy rare in pros^'), ahovt, comcrnvnii : 
dfx<fH yvvaiKos, ah'iitt a rnomdiu A.. -If/. 02. 

1 Only a gcnernl statenKMit of tlio various nses of the pre])ositions 
is given here. For tln^ details the Lexicon must be eonsulted. 



1206 J ^^^^ OF THE VrJEFOSITIONS. 255 

2. with tliu iJA'jjvK (only i)Uftic and Ionic), ahuut^ conci'rnimjy 
on account of: d^^* w^wtai, ahuuC hia .s/wnldcrs^ JL ) 1, 'yJ,l ; 
dfi<f>i Tuj voVu) 70U7U}, c<nicci)iin'j titia law, IIU. 1,1-1(); dpi<}'i 
<p6{iii>, IhnnKjJiftaYy V\. Or.bto. 

^. wit.h l.lic At'ui sATivi;, ahoiit, iuai\ ot i)lact', LiiiK-, ituniUr, 
etc.: d/^0' oi^a, bj l/t'i ---^fi, Jl J,ilJi'; ft/«^/j 5e/A>?j', ;//"a/' ffVCJi- 
iiiff. X.C.tJ,4'''; d^.0i lI\fido(j^' duon'^ al'di'C (tin; linn^. dt^ 
ike. I'hiai/ii'' in-tti'ii.<}^ A.Aij.>^'4i). So d/x^-'t bc'tTryot' (/x'^i ''*'' 
teas a£ ^Uj>ji(:i\ X. C'.t''). r)"". Oi d/i0i TiJ'a (as ot dfj.<pi UXdrtora) 
means a ?;ta?t wuh /k> follotCcrs. 

In COM I'.: ahouly on hvUi sides. 

1203. avd (cl*. adv. av«, ahocc), o!i:;inally Ujj (nij]K).si:(i Lo Kara). 

1. witli lilt'. UAiivi: (only ei)i<: lUii] lyiic), "J on: dya aa-q-mpi^^ 

on a ^loj}\ JL\,\~o. 

2. with llic ACCK^AiMvi:, -hji aion/j ; and (;)' niotiuii (rvr.r, ikroufj/t, 

aviomj {cl. KaTa): — 

(a) of I'l.Ai i; : dj-d tov TruTa/xoi'i "/> tlw rioe}\ Hd/J,0(J; dvo. 
aipaiov., lhr(Hf(jh l/tc aVnc;/, Jl.\, U) ; otKclV dj^u Td ci/j(^, (o 
dict-Jl oil the. injf.y !>/ Lkr htils, \. .l.:J, '>"'. 

(b) ot TiMi:; di-d Tov TroXcfjLov, t}iroftf/h th<' war, lid. 8, \2-\ ; di-d 
XpOfOf, in rour^i' vf Liiifc.^ lid.;';, L^7. 

(c) Tn j)JMi;iiuiTiviv cxiin'ssions; : dvd (Karou, htj /niudn-.d-i, 
X.^1.0, 4'-' ; di'd Trdffav i}t/.tp7}i'^ cVLi'iJ da;/, (Id.^, .'J7 (so X. C. 

'" ''' Ijj c<)\)1'.: ti'ji, Jjofh, ((fjiiiii-. 

1204. dvTi, with r.i;Mriv]; only. iKHcnd of, for : dvil ■nQ\(p.oo dprj- 

vriv fXw/^fWa, (')/. 'jihifc. Iff viir UC l/.s c/nmsi' pfacr, T. -J/ZD; 
dfO" Jr, v'harfforc, A. /'r ill ; dvr dhi\i)>ov, fur a br(il/ter''ii 
.sa/v7>, S.J'Jl.fjM. ()ri;iin;d im.'aninfj-, I'lu-r af/tnusl-, agnnibt. 
In c<)^n^ : agnim-t^ in o]>]i<isLC(on, in n'Cnrii, insUad. 

1205. d-rrd (Laf. ab), w'lih r,i:sni\'i: ou]\\ fv'ui, <///' /rc^?v, nu-<aj 

froiH ; nri.i;iiially (a^ opiioscd t.o A) dmntinn mjiariit.n.'n or 
di'.purturv. ti'oni sonn-tliinu : — 

{(l) of iM.ACi-: : d0' iVTrwi' dXro, //f- Iiifprd frnm (he car (liO)-[,('S), 
y/. 10, 70;5 ; d-nb Oa'kdaar)';, at a di^l<i}t< c fn>ni the sen, 'i'. 1, 7. 

(h) of 'J IMJ:; ; d-nb rovTov tqv ;^^/>o'i'Oi', /VoJjI this tim^, X. /l.T, 0*". 

(c) of c.M--i: or ojMciv: d/rrt toi'/tch' 7oD ToX/iT?MaTOS iirjii'idf], 
for Uti^ bidd act he (cas jiraf.^^fl, T. li, ~o ; to f^^ dx-6 vo^^fAou, 
Co h'rc by ir.f(r, lld.5, li; dn oh rjpitU ycyoi^apifVy frdni v:ho'iu 
V'C arc {ijirviujJUl.l: KVl ; siJiii'.'linics tlr*- cff/^'ni (as .'^nvrcr): 
(trpdxdri dv' auTC>v oifb^v., nolhvifj v'U^ d'O/c by ihc.'iu, 'V. 1,17. 
In <;OMi'. : frv)n, mcci/, ojl\ in return. 

1206. 6td, throni/h (Lat. di-, cLis-). 

]. with lli(' (. Kvri in: : 

(a) i^i I'l.Aci:: 5td danioos y\0(^ it wchC throinfh Che bhicld^ 



25G SYNTAX. [1207 

(6) of TiMK: 5iiL vvKTOi^ through the nighty X.^.4,0'-'^. 

(o) of iNTKHVALS of tiuie 01* ]>lact.'. : 6id -noWov xp^^ov^ after a 

long tivue, Ar. f/. 1045; fiid Tplrrjs vfi^pij^, every other day, 

lia.2,;i7. 

{d) of MiiANH: 6\f7e 6i* ep/xTjviuj^, he Spoke through an intcr- 
prHer, X.A.2,Z^'. 

(e) ill various jilirases like 6i' oiktov ex«'*'* t>0 Vif-U > ^'^ 0iXiar 

iVmi, to he in friendship {loilh one). See 1177. 
2. Willi the AOOi;<^ATivii: 

{a) of Ar;K.N(;v, on accovnt o/, inj halp of by reason of: 6id 

TovTo, on this accovnt ; 6i' 'A^iJi'tjv, />j/ Ac/)) of AtliC.na., Od. 

8, 520 ; oO 5i' ^M^ ^tf'f owing to me, 3^. IB, 18. 
(/>) of j'l.ACK or TIMK, thrvngh^ during (poetic): 6id Sw^iura, 

through, the halla, iM,0{»6; 5id tyxTTo, through the night, 

Od. 1U,()(5. 
Iii cu-Mj*. : through-, also ajjarC (l.al. di-, dis-). 

1207. <ls or «s, with AcevittATivi: only, into, to, originally (as oj)- 

poficcl to A-) ^o within (Lat. m with the accusative): ft'i 
always in Attic ju-osc, except in Thucydidi^s, who has ^9. 
Both fK and ^j aro lor ivi ; .see fUso ^v. 

(a) of r'l.Aci:: f)i^^y)tro.v fi 2;(^•<■^/a^'1 £/;^'?/ crossed over into 
Sicily, '!'.(), 2; «i? fl.'po-aj tVopftcro, A^ dc;»ar£f'(i /ov y'er.sm 
(f/ic 7V*-siaus), X.C.8, 5-'; t6 ^t llaXX^i'i/f xtTx^r, the wall 
loicards (looking to) J'dllcne, T. I,5(;. 

{b) of t[mk; <^s ^w, uutil dawn, 0(M1,.>75; so of a tinie 
I oohc-d forward to-' Trpoclirt ToTi iavroo </s Tpirrji- rj/x^patf 
irapc'ivai, he gave notice to his men to he present the nejt day 
but one, X.C'.o, 1*^. .So <Tos f(s «Tos, from year to yoar, 

y. /tli. 340. So i% 6, until; cis rov ajrajra xP'^'*'"*') .'0^' ^'^ 

time. 

(c) of NiJ^iitEK and Mi:Aiii;Ri: : ti's ^laKotrious, (aiJioiditm^f) to 
iioo hwndrvd; t«s Su^-a/mi/, ?i/> to out's pouter. 

(d) of I'UUI'OSL; or KLI-KHKNCI: : iraiStUdl^ «(t TTJi- dpfT:?^, to 

train for virtue, r.0.b\9^ ; cis irovTa ttpCo-rov i'lvcn, to he first 
for eo'tirijthing. P. Ch. lfib»; xPV<^^/^'>'' ^^^ "^^ nscfulfor anything. 

Ill COM I'.: ?7i£(>, IJI, to. 

1208. iv, with DATivK only, in (Houi. hi), uquivak-nl to Lat. in 

Willi the ivblntivc : 
{a) of I'LAOj;: fV 2 fl-dpr 77, in Sparta ; — \'''\i\\ words imi)lying 

a uunilxr of pyopKs among : if 7i'*'«is' ftXAi^io?, Iraoe among 

WomcJi, y^.Or.liyi; h irain, in the presence of all ; iv 5i*fa- 

(TTors, before (coi'ain) a court, 
{b) of timk: iy rovri^i t^ (ra, in this year; iv ;(;fijuwn, in 

winter; ev fTftn TrevT^A-ovTa, within fifty years, T. 1, Ufc!. 
(c) of othor r<;Iatioiis; t6v llfpiKXt^a ^v <ip77) ftxo*'i ?^e?/ i*""'"'' 

a7?f77-^ tozt/i /'. (/(C^ii him in avgnr), T. 2, 21 ; h t<^ ^f<^ rd 

Tot^ou tAo? ^i-, oy/f f^- ^MO^ the issiie of this was with {in the 



1210] USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 257 

power of) God, not with mc, D. 18,193; ^v iroXXj aTropiq. 
^ffav, they iccrc in grtat pei'plexity^ X.A.'i^ 1^. 
As ff (like th and A) comes from ^v$ (see f/s), it, originally all owed 
the accusative (like Lal-in in), and in Aeolic ^"^ juay be used like cis ; 
as ^v KaWiarav, to CalUatc, l'ind.Py.4,2f)8. 
In COM p.: in, on, at. 

1209. *| or Ik, witli cnMTivr; only (Lat. ex, e), frovi, out of; 

oj'i^niially (as opposed to d-n-o) fyovi icithin (compare k'^). 

(a) of I'j.ACE; U I,TrdpTf]s <p(vy(i, he is banished from Sparta. 

(b) of TiMK ; ^/c iroKatoTdTov.from the most ancient time,'i\ I, \^. 

(c) of OKiGiv: fivaft fK Aio5 iariv, the dream corner from Zen.H, 
II. 1,63. So also \'^i\\\ pasFiiw verbs (instead of biro with gen.): 
iK <Polftov 5ap.el^, destroyed by Phoebus, S. Ph.2iib (tlif.^ agent 
viewed as the source), seldom in Attic prose. (See 1206.) 

(d) of GituuNU for a judgment: ^(iovXcvoi'TO it: tCjv 7ra/)o'vTc«ji/, 
tkey took i-ounsel with a view to (startin<j frorii) the inescnt 
state of thiuiis, T,3, 29. 

In coMi\: out, from, away, off. 

1210. ^iri, ou, upon. 

1. with the GKNrrivi:: 

(a) of PLACi: : firl Trupyov (<jTf], he stood ou a tower, jR. ]<>, 700; 
sometimes towards: TrXeuo-avrfs ^-rrl Xdpiou, having saiied 
towards iSamu:^, T. 1,110; so i-n-l 795 TOiaiJri?! y(f^<T6at yyJ>~ 
M»J5, to adopt (go over to) such an opinion, 1).4,0, 

(b) of TiML: i(p' i]p.C>p, in our time; i-n iip-fiv-q'i, in time of 
peace., 11.2,191. 

(c) of in-iLATioN or ur:rERKycE to an object: tol-s ^^ri rCof 
irpa.yp.drwv, thouc in charge ofipuNie.) a(f'airs, D. 18, 247; ^irl 
Aij9i/i7s ex^'*' """^ ^i'op.a, to bA named for Libya, \Xd.4,4h ; i-rri 
TIV07 \fyuy, {^peaking with rtferenre to some one, s(;c I*. Oh. 
155^ ; so iirl (r^o^^^i (^^ leisure; iw' fo-ai (sc fxolpa^), in equal 
measure, >^.El. 1001. 

2. witli the luTivL : 

(a) of I'LACK : rjVT itrl irvpyu}, they sat on a trnoer, /'^3, 153; 
Tro'\(S iirl rrj da\dTTri oiKoup.(fvr], a citij situated VpOH (by) the 
sea, X. A. 1,4^ 

(b) of TiMi: (of imnied fate .succession) : ^irt Toiroii, thereupon, 
X.C.;:i,r>2i. 

(C) of CAUSK, I'lJKl'OSE, COKDITIOKR, CtC. : fwl Trai5€V(T(l p.(yo. 

(ppovovvTCi, proud of their education, P. /^r.342<^; ^w' ^^a- 
ytjy^, for expoi'taci on, lid. 7, 100; ^7ri Toi(T5f, on these con- 
ditions, Ar. Av. 1C02 ; ^wl r^ (arj nai opioig., on fair and equal 
terms, 1M, 27. So i<p t^ and ^4,' w xf (1400). 

(d) likewise over, for, at, in addition to, in the power of ; and 
in many other relations: see the Lexicon. 

3. %s'ith the accl>ative: 

(a) of i'Lace: to, %ip to, loxcards, against: dvajSas irrl rby 



258 SYNTAX. [1211 

iVTTov, indfintinff his hor.-ir, X. j4.1,8^'; ^jrl 5f^id, to the riyht, 
oil tht'. riijlit }/(nid, N'./l.(), 4'; ^ttI ftaatX^a Uvai^ to marrh 
ayahifiC the A'iny, X.A. I,;i'. 
{})) 1)1" 11 Ml-, or srA<.-i:, (h-iioliiig co:tcimon : ivl b/na (tij, for 
ten T/car.s, 'I'.;'., (IS ; i-r' iwia I't'no ir^\cOpa^ he. Covernd {la>) 
tfV.cr) nino. pli-ihra, OdA],^)!! ; bo ^ttI ttoXiJ, wkloh/ ; t6 Hi 
jToXv^for the ra(j^t )iavt J &- tou ^tti TrKuarovy J'vu-m ViC rcmot- 

line far a p^ct, Av. H. 1418. 
In COM J'.: vpuu, over, afio\ Unnard, to, for, at, agaiusl, besides. 

1211. Kara (c'f. adverb ko-tw, luihao), ori-iiially doxcn (opposed Lo 

dvd). 

1. vvii.li flif.' CKVFTivi-; : 

{a) d<i\nK from : dWonevoi Kara t^s ir/Tpas, h-upin^i doirn from 
thc.^ract, X.4.4,2''. 

pnfwiiU'i^ an hh head. 1*. Jt'p. ;)'*b-'. 
(c) l>(i)iC(Uh: naTo. x^oi'd% ^Kptii/'C, he hnrk'd )>oneath the narih, 
S.y!)L*4; ol Kara. x(^ovh% Oiol, the ii'ods brloio, A.yY'.dbt). 

2. with tlie .\cw'^.\T\\\-., dnyui uhnui ; ni lUoUow ov<n\ throiiiik, 

among, iutOy (t<j'.un.-<(. : also according to, conccriwitj. 

(a) "f ri.ACi; : Kara povf, dv'^n ^tTV'f?»i,* Kara y^u Kal Kara 
f/dXaTToi', /;?/ Joiid and hif .sw/., X. y1..J, ;^''* ; Kara ^ifuirr]^ 
TToXty, op)>ositc the cilij Si u ope. lid. ]. 7(i. 

(6) of ■fiMi;: Kara TOf wdXt^or, during (at the timo. of) the 

■oar, U<l.7, i;J7, 
(c) iMvi KincTj vi:i,v : nara t/xT?, hij threes^ three }»j ihrt/r ^ KaO' 

ijfx^pat^, daf/ hy daj/, dailu. 
(J) arrording lo^coHrcrnJioj: Kara tov<; vo'noui, according to law, 

l}.i<,2; TO act' <'^<', as rcgar<ls vn/scif 1). IS, 247; so j.aTa 

TrdfTa, ill all ri*sy/'rL\ • to. xard fl-oXf/Ao;-, miJitar]} raattt'.rs. 
ill co.Mr. : domn, aejainat. 

1212. fitrd, 'irii)!^ amid, araong. .Sci' ervv. 

1. Willi l-lic (.r.M-nvi; : 

(fl) v>ith. i)) rarif^iriv}/ ^/-ith : fj^rr' fiXXu>i' X^^o traipijjv, lie. Ouv-H 
tnilli /hi' rcH of Ufii r.fiDipauioUS, Od. li), o2() ; fxtrd i;dji'TU}v, 
ffhwng the livlvg, S.I'h. I-]12. 

(b) ill. uuiod V'ith, vnth the cooju'ratioii of: /xera Mai'Tj^-^uj;' 
^ui'€wo\ffWi>v, tiicy fnujht in aUinnrr. with tiie Afan/iitcan.^, 
'J\r>, 100 ; oi'Sf /jl(t' ai'noO ?Vcii', tln'i>e were, on his side, T. -S, 6(J ; 
'Tw/plioXot^ dTTOATfit-yyo-t fxfTO. Xa/j/i/foi', thrg put JIij}>erbolvs 
to death }>ff the aid of ("hannhu/fi, T.H, 7;i. 

2. Willi the i>.\'ri\'K (poetic, clinfiy <'ijic), m}iong : ^era 5^ Tpird- 

rotCTu' 5.i'a.<Ta-€f, and he mus rcigniug in the third (feneration, 
JL\,ro2. 



j2]4] USES OF THE PREl>OSrriONS. 259 

3. with tin; AccujSATivii: 

(a) into (Ikc hiid^t of), afici' {in quest of), fur {\)oeX\v.) ; 
}XiTCL arpaibv ijXacr' 'Axatij', Iw. drove into thf- uvinij of Uw 
Arhncans, 7^6, rtbl); yrXiiov ^jlcto. xaX^oV, saiUufj after (in 
qUKSt of) copprr, Od. I, I'^l. 

(b) i,'i'J)uiiill)' ufl<:r, next to: ^terd rbv iroXtpiOv^ (iflrrCkc n'W ; 
/A^7i(rTi>s >i£Td "larpo;-, the lanjeU (river) nexi to the J^Hcr, 

Ill COM I'.: trick (of sli;u'in,^), aman(/, aficr (in qn/al of): it, also de- 
notes chauijdy as ill fjurawo^u:, chau'je OHf'i< 'mind, repent. 

1213. irapci (l)uiti. also napal), h>j, ntm\ ahnujaidi' <f (net* 1221, 2). 

1. witli the Cl^NiTlvi:, /VoDl /jr.-</(/{', //'o'ijj ; -napii irrjCjv atrovoariy 

(jiiv^ to rftnrn frtim the. shi/'-^. It. 12 1 U; Trup' ^/iiic CLvd-)- 
7fXXt TciSt, take, this hx-i.sntie fn>iii iim, S..A.2. l-^'. 

2. witli the r).\ii\i:. vn'fh, iwsiilr, near : ^rapd l]pid(UOio Oup-pcn', 

at ]h'i(iin\< f/dt's, //. 7,;M(i; Tiafia aoi varAuoJ', Chcy lodijed 
With you (hjcrc tjonr f/itasti>), J). iy,8'i, 

3. wil.h llie Ar<M:s\T!VK, to (o jiUtce) near, ti>; rilbo hy the aide 

of, beyond or beside, cxc<''j>t, aloinj vui.h^ bnuiise of 
(a) of I'l-ACl-; : Tp^^a^ Trap iroTa^di', (vnfiinj to th<: (hank- of 

Ihc) river, 7/, 21, '500; (ViAcrc Trapd tov% 0(Aol'^, (joluy in tt> 

(visit) Chi'ir friends, 'r.2,r)l. 
(tt) of 'iiMi;: irapd Trdi'Ta TOf xP'^^oc, t/iroU(jh<nit the lohi/ie 

time, I), la, 10. 

(r) of CAi:s;i:: Trupd T-Jjf rj^xiripav 6.p.lktiav, oH aU'O'iDU of oar 

nefjh'ct, r).4,l I. 
(d) of COMi'AUisos : Trapd rdXXa sVa, cciiiparrd V'ith (bf/ ihc 
side of) othrr iuii ranis, X. iU. 1,4'+. 

(c) Willi icl(;;i <if bei/oud ur brsidf, txud eyrepl : ovk i'oTi -Kapa 
TO.VT &K\a, thorr. nre no others br.siihs these., Av. A^.O'JH ; 
Trapa rdf fd;j.^i; coiUranj to the buo ()jr'i])ci I y Oe.i/oud il). 

Ill cOMi'. : be^idet aionfj h>j, Itil her ward, wrouijiij (beaide the. rnarlc), over 
(aci ill overstep). 

1214. irtpi, arovnd (on all sidos), (djoiU (compare. <S.(i<(>i). 

1. Willi thti oiiNrrn I-;, about, eouceruinq (I/.tf. de) : irepl varpd^ 

f'p^aOai, to iiiqnirc. ahont his father, 0(10,77; 5e5tw$ 7r<?pi' 
aoTov, farii/fi conri'ruihil hira. V. Pr.'odi)'*. I'oet.ic (cliicdy 
epic) abdi'r, si(rpa>'Si}if/ : i^parcpdt Ttpi TrdfTut', iiLi)j)Uy (ibovc 
all., /Z. 2], oO(i. 

2. with the j>Ari\-i:, ahuiit, arovnd, concerviw/, of vi.a^.-i-; or 

OaKsi: (chi';Hy p00ti<') : ci'ifv^ irtpi aTri^iCd x'-'^^^'o--. kc- P^'t 
on his tunic aho^d his breast, 7^.10,21 ; (ddaati' -mpl Mfn^- 
Xd(^, he feared far Monclav.';, /T 10, 240; SeftrafTts irfpl rrj 
X^P9-, tiu'oiKjh fear for our land, '\\ 1,74. 

3. with the ac*uisativk (nearly the same, as d^V'O^ oboxU, near: 

(aT&ixd'ai irtpi ro'ixoi', to sta)nl arvmid titc v:aH, i/.lH,:i7-1 ; 
TTfpi 'EWrjffirowToi'^ about tjiear) the Hellespont.^ \).'6.'^ ; mpl 



iJC)0 SYNTAX. [1215 

TouTous Tous xP^^'o^^) alcnit the.se tiviP.s, T.3, 89; wi' jrtpl 
ravra, heiuy about {cngafjcd in) Chit;, T. 7,51. 
In coM»\ : around, about^ cxccadhitjly . 

1215. irpo (LtiL. pro), Willi Llie G^;MTr^■J; only, hcfvrv.: 
(a) of i"LAt:i: ; Trp6 ^upiiv, htfoxt the. diinr, i^. El. 109. 
(//J of TiBft:: Trpo J^/ttj'Oi/, before aupjuiv, X. CO, G*^. 

(r) of iJjCFKNCK : ^dx<(TOai irpd Trai^wt', ^/ Jttjht fuv ihch' chil- 
dren, 7/. 8, f)?; (5tafc't»'5i/*'«t/ft*' irpd ^acTi\^w9, it; r»n ris/c i;t 
behalf of the kuuj, X.C.8,B'. 

((2) of cjiojojc or rjn- kkkj:nci; : K^pSo^: alvrjaci irpb SUa^y to 
approxic craft bcfure justice, rind.P//. 4, 110 ; Trpd Tot/rou 
Tidvavai d.v i^XoiTOy before thiii ha would jirefcr death,, 

in coMi'. : before, in defence of ^ forward. 

1216. irpos" (Honi. also irpori or ttoti), at or by (in front of), 

1. wiUi the gkmijvk; 

(a) i« fr^nt of UfOktwj towards: Kurai irpb^ BppV-T^s, it lies 
over against Thrace, D.L'IJ, 18:^. Jn .swearing: yrpbs Oc<jy, 
before (hy) the O'ods. S'nuetiincs yn'.rtaimH[f to (as cliar- 
acU'.r) : Tj K-dpTR, 7rp6s yvvaiKb^, isurely it is Vi-rt/ lik-c a Woman, 

(6) from (on the part of) : -np-^v irpbs '/T]f6s «xo»'t^s, havin{/ 
honor from Ze.u.-i, Od. U,ii0'2. Sometimes with pa.ssive verbs 
(like (>7r(5), especially Ionic; dnyxd^ycj^at Trpds llt«rtcrTpdTou, 
io l)C dishonored !>y Pi^i^tratns, 11(1.1,(31 ; dSo^oDirai rrp6? 
Tw*' TriXcw*', ;/(e?/ arc- /u^W «i contempt by ^tata;, X.Oc'c.4,2. 

2. with the iutive: 

(rt) a^.' ^irfi Trp6<: Ua/'iuXuii't Tjf 6 KGpos, vjhcn C'/nts wis at 

Babylon, X. 0.7,51. 
(Z-*) m addition to: vp6^ toiJto«9, /)ei:iV?<.'S fAxV; n-pos rots dXXois, 

bciiides all the rest, T.2,Cl. 

3. witli the ACcr;sATivic : 

(a) to: (Ifi aCfTij Trpos "OXiz/iTTo;', J am goiny myself to Olyni- 
pun, II A, 420. 

(b) towards: irpb^ Boppa^, towardfi the North, 'J\(',2; (of 
persons) jrpdi dXAi^Xof^ rjjvxicLi' (ix<Ji'^ they kept the peace 

towarda OJic ouother, 1.7,51. 
((.') vnth a view to, accordlh(j to: irpoi ri p.i ravr' ^pwr^s, (Lo 
wiiat end) for v hat do you a;>k me thisf X.^V. '5,7^; TpAs 
T7JV TrapoCaa^ owva^i*', accordiny to their poxocr at the tiine, 
D.15,28, 

In ooMi*. : to, towards, ayainst, besides. 

1217. crirv, older Attic £0v (Lat. cum), with n\Tivi.: only, with, 

in com])any v.ith, or h^i aid of Xvu \-^ chiefly poetic; it 
fttiUloin ncL-ur.^ in Attic prose except in Xcnophon, fxera 
with tUii genitive taking its place. 



1219] USES OF 'J^IIE J»REP0S1TI0NS. 261 

(a) in company vyiih : v\v6c (xvv MewXa^i he came wHh Mene- 

/au,s //. :i, 20(J. 
{b) by aid of: avy dtt^, with God's help, ! 1.9, 40. 

(c) in accordance with: cvv dlK<}^ wtthjuUicCj Pind. /*7/.0, 90. 

(d) aonictimes instrumental (like Aini])lc. thitive) : ^le'^aj' ttXov- 
Toy ^KTrjau ^vy alx^J■v^ thou didst gain yreat vjcalth by (with) 
thy spear, A.Pe. TSri. 

In COM!'. : with, together, altogether, 

1218. 1)17^9 (Honi. also vvelp), over (Lau super). 

1. witli the oENiTivt: : 

(a) of ri-ACK: <jt7J v-nip KC<}>a\TJs, it stood over (Ins) head, 
Jl. '2, 20; of lUOtiO]! over: v-nip Oa\aa(rr}s ^:al ;(;^ows voriv^i- 
tfOis (sc. ijtuv), as wejlitover sea and land, A. Jf/.57C. 

(h) for, in behalf of (opposed to /card) : ftudfxfva virfp rij^ 
-rrdXfw, sacrificed in behalf of the city, X.i/. 2,2^3. ^^^p 
irdyTijjv a'yCjy, a Stmyifle for ovr alf, A.Z-'c.^Do. Sonie- 
Linies with too aiid iiifin., like i'm witli subj. : vir^p tov to. 
avv^dt] nv -ylyyfcdai, to pu^ent what is customary from 
being done, Acsch.3, 1. 

(f.) eliiefly in the orators, concerning (like n-fpf) : ttjv virip 
ToC TToX^fiov -yfibfjLrjv ^x""^*^^! having such an opinion about 
the war, U. 2, 1. 

2. with tlie accubativl:, over, beyond, exceeding: vtt^p ovSdi' 

ipri<T(TO 5w/iaTo^, he Stepped over the threshold of the house, 
Od.l, 135 ; UTTfip d\a, ox>er the sea, Od. .'!, 7.*{; vvip t6 (i^XTi- 
<TTov, beyond what is best, A. Ag.ul'i \ vtrip hvyamy, beyond 
itspovjcr, T.G,1C. 
In coMi*. : over, above, beyond, in drfenat of, for the sake of. 

1219, vird (Hoin. also viral), under (Lat. Bub), by. 

1. with tlic gi:nitivk: 

(a) of i'lack: rd virb yijs, things under the earth, V.Ai).\%^. 
Sometimes from under (chietly poetic) : oti v-nb x^o^^^ v*^^ 
4>6u}ff5€, whom he sent to light from beneath the earth, 
lies. 371.009. 

(b) to denote the agent with passive verbs: d rts hi^iaTo virb 
TOV 5r}nov, if any ona was honored by the peojde, X. //.2,;ji^, 

(c) of causl : vnb 5('oi»s, through fear; v<p i(]5oi/^i, through 
pleasure; v-n' aTrXoia^, hy detention in port, T. 2,85. 

2. with the dativf; Cospecially poetic) : tiIjv inrd tto^xcI, beneath 

their feet, /Z.'2, 784; tCjv dau6uTuiy utt' *IXV, of those who 
fell under {thfi. vmlls of) Ilium, E. y/<t?c. 704 ; vnb rfj uKpo- 
Tr6\i, under the acropolis, Hd. 6, 105 ; ol v-rrb ^aaiXci Cxtcj, 
those who are under the, king, X. C.8, 1*'. 

3. with tlio A(:(u:sATivi: : 

(a) of i>lack, under, jjrojierly to (a place) under: virh airio^ 
rika.(j(. tiijXa, he drives (drove) the sheep into {under) a cave, 



202 SYNTAX, [1220 

/i.4,27i>; rtXeiO" virb Tpolv^', you came to Troy (i.e. to 
Ji('Sic{/C ii), Od.4y\40: rade wavra vwd a<pds Troififfdaiy to 
hriiKj all (itcae under th(.ir swaij^ 'J'. -^iGO. 
(b) of TiMi:, toioard.^ {cnU-rinff mlo) : v-rtb yCtcra, at ni{/htfaU 
(J>at. sul) noctem), 'J\ 1, \\o. tSometiincs at the (hue oj\ 
(Im-iufj : vTrb Tbv ffiiffp^bi; at the tiint of Che earthquake. 

Ill coMj'. ; under (iji place or rank), underhand^ slightb}^ qraduaUy 
(like sub). 

1220. {hnprojyer Prt'positiofiS.) Tliese un; duev, drtp, axpt, 
/xt'xpit ptcra^v, h'lHa, 7rAr/r, ami w? (see iLlOO). All take tlie geni- 
tive exctipf, w?, wliick takes the iiccuj>ative. Tiiey avc luiver used 
ill composition. 

1. av(v, VHUiOut, except^ apart from: dcfu dtcoXovt^ov, nnt.hont an 
attendant, ]\Sy.2\l'^; ivcv toO Ko.\r}v b&^av itxyKeiv, apart friAa (be- 
sldr.s) brinfjvuj (food rcpululioUy iJ.l8, 8(). 

2. oiTtp, irilhouty apart from (poetic) : arcp 'L-nrb^, without {the 
hoip of) Z(us, 11. 15,21>2. 

.". axpi, uniil, as far ax: dxpi t^i TtXivrrji, nntii the end, H.IB, 
179. 

4. [i^xP*-' '^^dit, as far as: pi^xp'- "^^s 7r6Xfwj, as far a*' the citij^ 
T.C/JG. 

0. fitTa^O, between: fitra^d crotplas Kal ap-adla^, betioeea wisdom and 
i(jiLo ru net, ] *. AV/. )i{).i'^. 

(!. cv«Ka or ifv*K<v (louir. flWAra, fiVAft-), OH account of, for lite sake 
of (<j.i'U^rd\\y jitu-r il.s Jioun) : iz/^ptos fiVf^a r^o-^f, on acivunt of t/u'.s 
ouira(ft\ II. \, 214 ; ^rj5^va KoXaKcuav e^f^a m*o'^<ji?» to jlattcr no one for a 
reward, X.7/5, 1". A\h<j ot■*'t^:a (ou tVf^a) for €i>€Ka, chiefly in the 
(li'iDuatists. 

7. "irXTiv, ci'fcpt; wX^*' 7' inov Ka\ (Toi, cfceptt myself and you^ 
iS.AV.OO'J. 

8. ft)s, to, used will) the accusative like etj, but only with personal 
ftbjccts : d^UfTo w\ Ilfp5k\a»' /:ai /t tt/v XaXKiSuTii/, he came to l-'er- 
diecas and into Chakidicc^ T.4,7i). 

1221. ]. 1m geiie];Ll, tlje accusative is tlio case used with prepo- 
sitioub to <i(;nof^ that townrfh whicJi, ovm- wliich, alonrj which, or 
upon which motion takes jWaoe; tlie genitive, to denote (,liat y'roui 
wliicli anythiuu,- proceeds; tiic dative, to denote that in which any- 
tiiing takes place. 

2. It will be noticed how the peciiliar meaning of oacli case 
often modifies the expicsslon by whieli we translate a given prepo- 
sition : til us Trapa means near, by the side of: and M'e have irapa toxj 
f^aaiXtiDS, from the nei//hhorhaod of thf klyxj; nafjd tw /^uCTtAf t, 
in ihf. I'leiffhhoihood of/he Lin//- irapd rov f^ocnXia, info the neigh 
^orhood of the, ting. 



1220] USES OF THE PUKJ'OSI'JMONS. 263 

1222. 1. Tlie original adverbial U5ie of the incpositions somc- 
tiincs appears wlicn tliey are used without a noun ; this oocur.s 
espt3ciaHy in tlie older Greek, seUloin in Atiic prose. Thus Trcpt', 
round ahouf or exceetlinyly^ in llonicr; and Trpos 5c or koX irpik, 
and ho.sule.s; iv Se, ami amony thnn ; iirl Si, and upon tkis; fura Si, 
and next; in Uciodotus. 

2. The preposition of a coinj)ound vcrh uiiiy also stand SL'i>a- 
ratcly, in which o.nse its adverbial force ]-)laiiily ajjpcars; as cVt 
KVt(f)a<; TJXOt V (ki/€</)u> eTT^A^tr), darhica^ aunt ou, II. 1,47") ; rjfxlv utto 
Aotyov dfj-vvai (<X7rafxvvaL)y to ward off' (Icsirudion from us, 11. J, 07- 

'I'hi^ is called tmesh^ and is fonnd chiefl}' in Homer and the 
early poets. 

1223. A pre))osition soniotinies follows its case, or a veib to 
\vlii(;h it belongs; as v(.uiv aTro^ vnaSus n^pi; oXtcra^i oItto (for ciTroAt- 
(Tu-s), Ot/.0,5li4. Kor tliC. chan,t;v. of accent (aiutsfrojthf:), see 110, 1. 

1224. N. A few pi-epositions are used adverbially, with a vci'b 
(i;onor:tlly iari) Understood; as irdpo. iov Trdpcan, Ittl and /lira 
(in Uomei-) for lirtarL and fxlrcuri. So Ivi. for ci/^ctti, and poetic 
dviu up! for dvatrra {dvdcTrqdi.). Vov the aconit, see Wo,"!. 

1225. 1. Sonictitnes th with tlie accusative, and Ik or aTro with 
tJie genitive, ai-e used in oxjM-essions which theniselvcs imply no 
motion, with reference to some motion inii)li('.d or expressed in the 
context; a.s a'l ^woSot ts to Icpov (yiyvovTo, the aynixh xoerc htdd 
in the fr.mplt' (lit. into the temple, involving' tin', idpa- ot ftoinii" imo the 
temple to hold tlie synod^), T. ],0C; to!*; Ik ]li'Aov Xy^<f>6uaL 
(«otKOT<9), lil--€ ihoRc cQptvved (ill l^ylos, and brought home) fraiu 
Py/o-t, i.e. the captives from Pylos, Ar.TV. bSO; hLrjpTzatrro Kal avra 
TO. uTTo Ta)i/ OiKiCiv ^ijAa, cvot the very timbers in (he houi<es (lit. 
from (he houses) hud been stohiUy y^.A. l.\L"°. 

*2. So Iv with tliH dative somctinies occurs with verbs of mot.ion, 
referring to rest which follows the motion ; as Iv rw Trora/xtij cTrtaoi', 
they fell (i}ito and remained) in the river, X. .-I//. ], -"^i- : cv yovvaoi 
TTtTTTC ZitwvT;?, she fell OH Dione's {uecs, Jl.'^'MO: sec S. 7i7. 1 ITO. 

These (1 and 'J) are instances of tii^ so-calied consfrxiriio pra^ gnavs. 

1226. N. Ativevbs of i^lace are sometimes intercl(an_q*o<] in the 
same way {V12h)\ as ottoi tcadicraptv, where we are st(ni<lini), lit. 
whither hnviufj come ire are sfamlivf}, I^.O-CH'.] ; ti? ayrott rov 
iKtlBtv 7r6X(.p.ov Sfv/jo rj^ovTu; ydto doc^ not knou'' that the war that 
if (here vnll come hither f ]). 1, 15. 

So l\'df.v KoX tuBiv, on this side and on that, lil<e tV 5c^ias (adextra), 
on the riyht. 



2()4 SYNTAX. [1227 

1227. A preposition is often followed by iti5 own case 
wlien it is pai't of a compound verb. E.g. 

IlapeKOfXi^ovTo Tr)y 'IraAtav, they sailed along the coast of Italy ^ 
'W 6, 44 ; i(irj\Oi fxi, ii occurred to me, Hd. 7, 4G ; i^iXBirm ri^ SiOfjui- 
T(j>^, let name one come forth from the house^ A. Ch. 603 ; iwiirpaa-a-ov 
avrS *A^0to'aTJ9, Amphisscanf! assisted /*('?», T. 3, 101. For other 
examples of the genitive, see 1132; for those of the dative, sec 
1179, 

ADVERBS. 

1228. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and other 
adverbs. E.g. 

Ov7o>9 unev^ thus he spoke; oj? Swa/xat, as T am able ; 7rpCi}Tov 
d-rniKOi, he first went away; to d\r]Ou><: Kaxov^ that which is truly 
evil : avrai c' oBYjyrjaova-t xal /loA.* dtr/ntVoj?, these will guide you even 
most (jladiij, A.Pr.7-2S, 

1229. N. For adjectives used as adverbs, see 920. For adverbs 
prcocdt'd hy the article, and qualifying a noun like adjectives, see 052. 
Kor adverbs witJi the genitive or dative, see 1088; 1092; 1148; 1174; 
1 1 76. For adverbs used as prepositions, see 1220. 



THE VERB. 

VOICES. 

ACTiVK. 

1230. In the active voice the subject is represejited 
as acting; as rpevro) tov^ 6<f)6a\fjLov<;^ I turn my eyes; 
6 irarrjp 0tXet tov iral^a^ the father loves the child; 6 
(TTTTo? rpe^^i^ the horse runs. 

1231. 'Dift form of tho active voice includes most intransitive 
vej'bs; as rpt^^^ ^'^''i- On tlie other hand, the form of the middle 
or passive voice includes many deiwnent verbs which are active 
a]id transitive in meaning*, as /3ouAo;jujii tovto, I want this. Some 
transitive verbs have certain intransitive lenses, which generally 
have the meaniujj; of the middle voice, as «(tt>7kcu / stayul, iaryjv, 
I stood, from i(Try)p.L, place ; others have a passive force, as avia-rrf 
cav vi-rr* a/rroxi, ihcy were dri^icn out by him, T. 1,8. 

1232. The same verb may be both transitive and intransitive; 



1239] THE VERB. — VOICES. 265 

as iXavvu), drive (trans, or intrans.) or march; «;(w, liave, sometimes 
hold or slay (as €)(i 3?;, stay now, J\/^r. 349'^) ; with adverbs, be, as 
cv cx«t, it i.^" well^ bene se habet. So TrparTw, Jo, cJ (or kuko)?) 
TTpaTTw, / (2J/1 well (or badly) off, I do well (or badly). Tlie intransi- 
tive use sonietime.s arose hom the omissio)) of u jamiiiar object; 
as iXavvav {T-rnrov or ap/xa), fo drive, rckivTav {rov jdlov), to end 
{life) or to die. Compare tlie English verbs drive, (urn, move, iii- 
n'ease, etc. 

PASSIVE. 

1233. Ill tlie passive voice the subject is represented 
as acted upon; as 6 7rat9 i'tto tov 7raTpb<i (j^cXelrac^ the 
child is loved by the father. 

1234. The object of the active Ijceonies the subject 
of the passive. The subject of the active, the personal 
agent, is generally expressed by t-Tro with tiie genitive 
in the passive construction. 

1235. The dative here, as elsewhere, generally expresiics 
tlie inanimate instrument; as /3aAAo^Tat Ai'^019, theij are pelted 
by stones. 

1236. Even a genitive or dative depending on a verb in the 
active voice can become the subject of liie i>assive ; its Karuc^powtrat 
utt' ifjLov, he is despised by me (active, KaTiKppovCj avrov, 11 0-); 
TTUTTCvtrai vTTo Tuiv 6.p)(OfUvu)Vy h^ is irxi^ted by Ids subJecL^ (active, 
7n(TT€vovaiv airuJ, 1160)j ap^ovraL vtto /5a(7tAt'wr, they (ire ruled by 
kings (active, ^acriAct? dpxovaiv aTLrroiv). 'Ytto aXko<f)vX(j)v fxaXXoif 
iirffiovkivovTo, they were 7uore plotted a(/ainst by men of other races, 
T. 1, 2 (activo,, iTTi/^ovkcvov aurot?). 

1237. N. Other prepositions than vtto witli tlie genitive of the 
agent, though used in poetry, are not common in Attic prose: such 
are irapd, irpoq, €k, and aTro. (See 1209, c.) 

1238. 1. The perfect and pluperfect passive may have 
the dative of the agent. 

2. TJie personal verbal in -Wo? takes the dative (1596), 
the impersonal in -riov the dative or accusative, of the 
agent (1597). 

1239. When the active is followed by two accusatives, 
or by an accusative of a thing and a dative of a person, 
the case denoting a person is generally made the subject of 



26G SYNTAX. [Ili40 

tlie passive, and the other (an accusative) remains un- 
clianj^^ed. E.g. 

Ovhtv dAXo StSufTA-crat uI'^/jwtto?, i man is lauf/h( nothing else 
(ill llifi active, ol'Se^' uAAo StSdo-A-out/i av0iju)nov), V. Men. 87'=. 'A AAo 
rt /xfi^oj' i7nTa)(By(T((rOi, i/ou trill lutre somu oOier grealcr cornmahd 
anjHh^c.fl on you (active, aAAo rt {ulCov v/uy inirdiovaiv, the}/ viU 
Impose 5o/j(e o'lti'.y grcalcr Cunnnmui on you), 'W 1, 140. Oi ^TriTtTpa/X' 
fLCVOL TTfV <f)vkaK r'jv, those to whom the (/nurd haa been intruded 
(iicliw', ^TTirpiTTnv Trjy <})x<kaKi]v TOVTOL^)j '1\ 1,120. l\L^9f.pav 
ivrjfxfxivo';, clad hi a le/ithcru jcriin (aclivt% ivdirTtiv tC rtn, to fit a 
thing on out), Ay.N.1'2. So iKKoimoOat. tI>v (X^SaXfxovy to have hU 
ef/e cut outy iiwd aTrtiTtfj.vi(jStLi rgv K€(^aAi;v, to hane his head cut off, 
etc., from ]>ossii)le active ct'irstnicllons iKKOirTtiv tl Tcyi., and aTrort- 
ixvav t{ TLVL. Tliis cousLruct/ioii bus noUiiiiL; to do with that of lO.'iS. 

The iirsl twti axainjiles arc cases of tlic cognate accusative (iDOl j 
of Iht thing icTained wit.h the )>a?;sive, while tlie accusative or dati\(.^ 
of the person ia uiadc the sul.iject. 

1240. h A connate accusative (1051) of thi active fovin, or a 
ueutor prony\in or adjective i-epi-eseuliiig' such an accusative, may 
become t.h(^ Buhjcct of the pa-ssive. JH.fj. 

O KiVSui/os Kiv^vvtvtTai., the risk is run (active, tov xivSwor kivSij- 
vtvn, he runs the risk) : see WLach. 187K Ei ovhlv rjiJLdpTrjTai /wi, if 
M<i fault hap. hccn committed % wie (active, ov-Sc^ rjfjLapTrjKa), And.l,o-J. 

'2. 'Vhii pas.-iive may also be used iiii]>ej'soiially, llu^ coj^n ate sub- 
ject bein-- implied in liie verb itself; ns <7rt(A^/ aiVoT? Trapio-Ktv- 
a if TO, Jihen preparation had hevv made, T. ],-1G; oJrc rju^/iy/raL ovrt 
io^xoXoyyjTixL- {i^c. ipoi), J)0 sncrtlrt/e has hccn done and no eonjrssion 
has been nuide (hi/ inc.). And. J, 7 J. 

.'3. 'J'his ciocin-s chieily in sui h nenlev ]"*aii)cipi;d oxjULSsions as 
rd crot Kajjiol /3 ( fj t w fx 1 1' a, thr lives /mssed hy i/uu and hij me, D. ]S, 
li'i r> ; (it TUiv TT f-TToXiT tv ^iviMV cvOxivixi, (he necounts of iho.ir puhlu: 
acts, ]).l,'2S: HO rd rjcre fJTjfxiya, the ivtp/ous acts which have hecn 
done; rd Kiv^vvcvOlvTa, ihe risks which Kcrc run ; t (i 7)jmpTTj' 
fxtva, the ^-nors which have h(:C7i ctnnmittcd, etc. J'-veu an iuttan.sitjve 
xkivh may thus liave a ])a.ssive voice. 

1241, N. Some intvan«>itive active forms are used a-*; passives 
of other vei bs. Thus txy ttoicTj/, to henf.Jit, tv -nduxav, to he benefited; 
IV kiy€iv, to /n'aise, tv aKOotLy (]^oel. kXvuv), to he praised ; alpuv, to 
capture, dXCivuL, to be. ca/nured ; dirOKjCivuv, to kill, dirodv-gaKtiv, to 
he killed ; fKfidXXciv, to cast out, iKiri-nriLv, to hn east out ; Bhok€lv, 
to prosecute.. <f>t\fy(.iv, to be prosecuted (to he a defendant)', aTroAvu), 
to acqxdt, dTro<f>cvyti}, to be artjuitted. 



1246] VOICES. 267 

MIDDLE. 

1242. In llie middle voice Uie .sidjject is represented 
as aclingr uj)on liimself, or in seme manner wliicli con- 
cerns himself. 

1. As acting f?w himself. E.g. 

*ETpa7rovTO TTpo? Ai^crrttui/, ikcy turned (hein^cU-Oi lo ]uri\cy, T. ],0. 
So 7rai;o/Aat, cease (.^(op ouc'\< ^■W/"), iTiiOtcrOat, trust (j/crsuadc o?;c'.s' 
self), <i>aLVOfjML, uppear {show oue\^ ^c^f)' Tliis most iial.ural u.sc of 
tlie iiiiddle is tlie least coniinon. 

2. As acting for himaelf or with rtference to him- 
self E.g. 

'O S^/AO? TiBtTai I'o/Aoi;?, the peoj)}e. mate law$ for llu'vist'lvos, 
wli(M(^as TLOrjaL vofj-ov; \v(uil(.l properly be said of ;i luw^ive)'; tovtoi' 
^.ninrljLTTOfjjin^ I sttnl for him {Jo conic to J'tt') ; dimrffjiTrtTO aiToi'?, 
he (lisynisscil tlicin ; 7rpofjd\X^To.i ryv aairiBn^ he holds his shield to 
protect himself. 

3. As acting on an ol)jcct hclongiitg to hvnwilf. E.g. 

^HA^e Auyo/Ad/os ^iryuTpa, he camc to ransiom his {own) dnurjhlcr^ 

;/. i,i;!. 

1243. N. 'i'lu; last two nsns )nay be united in one verb, as in 
the last example. 

1244. N. Often tlic middle expre.sse.s no more Mian is im/)lirfl 
in tlie active; tliu.s rpOTraio:/ icrraijOaL, to raise a trophy for ihfin- 
sdocSy f^eiieridly add.s notliiii;^ but Uie /'ipre!^<!!on to what is ini]»Iiejl 
in Tfjoirtuov laruvai, lo raise a trophy ; and eitln'i- foi'ni can be 
used. The middle sometimes apjtears not to diftVr a1 all from t)ie 
active in meaniuL^; as tlie poetic iSfcrOuLy to see, and l^eiy. 

1245. N. The middle son)c times has a eausatire meaniiii^; a"^ 
i^L^a^afirjv cr?, / had you taiujhty hv . N . \'<V-\^ \ but ihiBa^dfJLTjv 
means also / learned. 

'i'hiy gives j-ise to some P]")Ooial n.sos of Uip ndddlf'; as in ^:tvti'Z<'\ 
li.iu!^ Suivi 1^0 fiXLLy borrow (cause somebody to Ic-ml to oup.'s self) ; fiifrOd, 
let, fit.(7$uvfMu, hire {(unise to hr. let to oii(;'s Self) ; / let myst'lf for pay 
is ifjMVToy fxwBOi. So Ttv('», pay a penalty, Ti'vofjuu, jniiiisU (jinde 
another pay a penalty). 

1246. N. The middle of ceitain verbs is peculiar in its meanin;.;. 
Thn.s, alpui, take, alpovfjua, choose ; tx.-7rohitwfi.L, yive back, d-nohihofKaL, 
•^ell; (iTrTii), fasten, uTrrop'.at, rlitiy to (fasten myself to) ^ ho l^^p^h ^'^^^ 
to^ both with genitive; yapQ} rt-va, marry (said of a man), yapovpaC 



208 SYNTAX. [1247 

Ttvt, viairy (said of a woniaj] ); yp6.j>ii}, write or propose a votCy ypa<f)o- 
fiat, indict; rifjuDpCj rtvt, 7 avenge a persoiij TLfxu>povpja.L Tiva, J avenge 
viysflf on a person or I punhh a peraon ; t^vAarrw Ttvou, J guard 
some onCy <pvXii.TTO}Jxxi Tiya, I am on my guard against some one. 

1247. N. Tlie passive of some of these verbs is used as a pas- 
sive to both a(;tive and middle; thus ypa<prjvaL can mean either 
to be written or to he indicted^ alptO^vai either to be taken or to be 
chose Ji. 

1248. N. Tlie future middle of .some verbs lias a passive sense; 
as aStKw, / wrongy aBiKrJGOfjmxL, I shall be wronged. 

TENSES. 

1249. The tenses may express two relations. They may desig- 
nate the time of an action as present^ pasty ov fiUure ; and also its 
character as going on, as simply taking place^ or as////.s-Ac'fi?. The 
latter relation appears in all the moods and in the intiuitive and 
participle; the former appears always in the indicative, and to a 
certain extent (hereafter to be explained) in some of the dependent 
moods and in the partici])Ie. 

T. TENSES OK THE INDICATIVE. 

1250. The teiisGS of the indicative express action as 
follows : — 

1. PuKSKKT, ao.tioii going on in present time: 7/>a<^<o, 1 
am writing. 

2. iMi'KiiFECT, action going ou in i)ast time: iypa(f>ov, 
I wus writing. 

3. ]'KkKKCT, aetiou finished in present time: ytypa<f>a, J 
have writlcn. 

4. rMji'KuyKCT, action finished in past time: iy€ypd<f>r], 
I had written. 

5. AoKi.sT, action simply taking place in past time: 
iypai/fUj / wrote. 

(). FuTuuK, future action (either in its progress or in 
its mere occurrence) : ypd^ptD, I shall vn-ite or / shall be 
writing. 

7. Future Peufkct, action to be finished in future time: 
y€ypdil/€Tai, it will have been written. 



1267] TENSES. 

1261. Tliis is sliowii in the following table: 



269 





Present Tirnc. 


Pan lime. 


Future Time. 

FUTUHE 


Action going 1 
on J 


rLllFECr 


lMPE»J-tCT 


Action simply ^ 
takintr pla-ce / 


AOItl<^T 


Fi;ti)he 


Action 1 
finislied j 


rLUi'LlltrKCT 


FUT. PEUFECT 



For the present and the aorist expressijig a general truth 
(gnomic), see 1292. 

1252. In narration^ the present is sometimes used vividly 
for the aorist. E.g. 

KeXtvtL irefjupaL avBpa^' a.Tro(TT€\kov<TLv ovv, /cat Trepl axrrwv o 
Qt^LfTTOKkYJ^: Kpv<f>a Trc'/zTrti, he bida them send men: accordingly they 
dispatch thejii^ and Thcmistocle^ sends secretly about them, T. 1,01. 

This is called the Historic Present. 

1253. 1. The present often expresses a customary or repeated 
action in present time; as ovto? yiv uSoip, tyoi Si otvor ttlvuij he 
driuk^ mater, aud I drink wine, D. 10, 4G. (See 1202.) 

2. The imperfect likewise may express customary or repeated 
past action; as 2a»KpaT>;? wu-ntp eyCyvojaKev ovTiix; tAcyc, as 
Soci-ates thought, so he used to speak, X. M. 1, 1^. 

1254. The present /ztAAo), with the present or future (seldom 
the aorist) infinitive, forms a periphrastic future, which sometimes 
denotes intention or expectation ; as /zc'AAti tovto ttoiuv (or iroii^ 
criLv), he is about to do this; il fxiWu yj noXiTtia oroj^ea^at, if the 
constitution is to be saved, P. i?;>.412^ 

1255. The present and especially the iinj>erfect often express 
an attempted action ; as irtCBovdiv vp.a%, they are trying to persuade 
you, Isae. 1,2C ; 'AAdi^o-ov ihlhov, he offered (tried to give) lialon- 
nesus, Aesch.3,8;i; a l-npaaairo ovk iyiviTO, what was attempted 
did not happen, T. G, 74. 

1256. T!ie presents rJKw, J am come, and oixo/xai, T am gone, 
have the force of perfects; the imperfects having the force of 
pluperfects. 

1257. The present tlfu, I am going, with its compounds, has a 
future sense, aud is used as a future of tp^^ofxai, ikevcrofJLai not being 
m good use in Attic prose. In Homer iTfU is also present in sense. 



$70 BVNTAX. [1258 

1258. The i>rescnL with TroAat or any otlicr expression of past 
time has the force of a present and perfect combined; as TrdAat 
toOto A<yw, 1 have lo)i(j been teUlny this (which J now tell). 

1259. 1. Thcaoyi^t takes its name (dopiorro?, unlimited^ unquali- 
fied) from its denoting a simple past orcurrcnccy witli none of the 
liniitatioirs (opot) as to ro7?iplc/ion, continuance, repetition, etc., wliich 
belong to tlie other past tenses. It corresponds to tlio ordinary 
preterite in Kngiisli, wliereas tiic (ir^cic imperfect corresponds to 
the forms J icas doing, etc. Tlius, i-jroUi tovto is he was dointj thin 
or he did this h(dnliudh/ ; TrcrroLrjKt tovto is he has already done 
this; irr (.rr 011^ Kt I. roxno is he had already (at $onic past time) done 
ihift ; hut fTTOiYjai tovto is sini]>ly he did this, without qualification 
of any Idnd.^ 'J'he aorist is tlierr-foru conimoniy used in rapid nar- 
ration, tlie imperfect in detailed description. 'I'he a(jrist is more 
common in negative sentencL-s. 

2. As it is not always important to distinguish between tlie 
progress of an action and its mere occurrence, it is occa-sionally 
indifffii-ent wliether the impei'feet or tlie aorist is used; compare 
iXeyov in T. 1,72 (end) with tlirov, iXtiav, an<i t\€^€. in 1,70. The 
two tenses show different views (both n.ttnral views) of the same 
act of speaking, 

1260. The aorist of verbs whicli denote a state or condition may 
express the entrance into that state or comlition ; as TrAovrto, I am 
rich ; ^VAovVovv, / vuis rich ; iTrXovrrjaay I became rich. So t/HauL- 
Xivcn, he became king ; rjp^i, he took ffjjice (also he held oj/ice). 

1261. After tVtt'and tVciSr;, after thai, the aoi'ist is generally to 
be translated by our pluperfect; as iiruhr} aTryXOoVy after they had 
departed. Co \n\>a,ni post quam venit. 

1262. N. The aorist (sometimes the perfect) participle with 
tx<i) may form a periphrastic perfect, especially in Attic poetry; as 
Onvfjux(ra<; t)(o) roSe, J have woy^dered at thin, S.P//. 1-1152. In ]>rose, 
c^w with a participle generally Ikus itsconmion ftnxe; as ti)v rrpolKa 
tX<(. XujSwv, he has received and has the dowry (not simply he has 
taken it), D.27,17. 

1268. N. Sonte jierfects have a present ]neaiii?ig; tun Ovrja-K€(.v, 
to die, TeOvr]K€i'ai, to be dead; yCyvecrOai, to become, ycyortVat, 
to be; fXLfivrjcTKCLv, to reminfl, fie fxvrj crOni, to remeynher ; KaXuv, to 
call, KCKkrjdOaL, to he called. So olSa, I knoto, novi, an<l many 
others. This is usually oxj-ilaiMcd by the meaning of the verb- 

lu such v(;rbs the pluperfect ha-s the force of an imperfect; as 
rjht), J knew. 



3270J TENSES. 271 

1264. N. Tlid pcii-fect soiiietime.s ivfeis vividly to IIjc fiituie ; 
as (.1 /At aia^T/(TtTut, oAwAcL, if ^tc shall perceive ine, I am ruined 
(pei'ii), ^- Ph.lo. So stjinetiiiies tiie present,, as aTro'AAu/Aut, / perish' 
(for/ ahail ])crlsh), L. 1:^,11; and even tiie aoii^t, a.s a-noyXoy.-riv 
a /xt Att'i/ztis, I perish if yvu Icaoe vie, K. /l/.-J^G. 

1265. N. 'i'he j;^uconil jh^vsoji of tlu! future may HX]H*e.Sii a ]}cr- 
viiiii'iofi, ov even a eo)umand ; as npaitK; o\ov av OiXiis, you mny 
net OS yoii p/easc^ S. 0. ('. 'Juij ; 7rai^rifj<; ^l rovTO hfjdfTit^, and b// uli 
vieai'S do ihi> (you .skull do ikia)^ AwN. Wf2, So in iinju'ocatioii.s ; 
as uTToAtur^t, to dcsl ruction with you! (ilt. you :^h nil perish). 

For tlie pfirlphrastic future witii /xc'AAoj amJ the infinitive, bee 
Vlo\. 

1266. K. J'Le fului'e ]>erfect is sonietinie.s merely an cmjiliatic 
fulurt', dcnolin-- that a fnture act will he innHciUnte or decisive; as 
<f>pd^<, KUL TT €7rf)(L$cr ai, speuJ.\ ami if shuU he (no sooner .said than) 
dime, Av.]-*l.]()'21. Compare tlic similaj use of tlie [terfect ijjjini- 
tive, 1-^75. 

1267. 1. 'i'lio (li vision of tiic tenses oi tlie indieative 
into yritnari/ (oi- principal) and ^eco^ulari/ (o]- liiHlorical) 
is ex[)luined in 44^. 

*2, In dependent clauses, when the eonstruetion allows 
bo til .snbjunetive and optutive, ov both indit:ativ{i and 
oi)tative, the subjunctive or indicative legulaj'ly fol- 
lows primary tenses, and the optative follows second- 
ary ttnises. Ej/. 

11 fjdrrov<rii^ a ay f^ov\<oi/rai, (hey do whuUvar they j/lcn se ; 
(TTparrov a (iu6\ot.vT<), they did whaU'Ocr th cy pleased. Aiyoveriv 
on rovro /^'oijAorrai, thuy soy (hat (hey roish for (hi.s- ; tXe^ay (jti 
Tovro l^ovAoivro, they said (hot ihi'y vnshcd Jar (his. 

'I'ltH.st' cini>sluiclionri will be explaincHl licreafter (I't^Jl ; HS7). 

1268. N. 'I'iiii f;ii(.iMiic at^rist is a )>rimary t^M'se, as it rc^.fcrs to 
present time (l*Jir2); and the historic present is secondary, as it 
reftMS to jiast time (I'J.V^J. 

1269. Tlje only exce])t.ion to tliis priijci]>le (1207, 2) occurs in 
indirect discourst^, where the foi-m of Mie diiect discourse can alwayii 
i>e ro.tained, even after secondary tenses. (See 14S1, ^2). 

1270. 1. Th<i disiinetif)n of primary and secondary tenses ox- 
lends to tlie <lependent moods only wlicre tli« tenses there keep tlie 
same disi inelion of Inne whifh they have in the indicative, as iu 
the ojitative and infinitive of indirect dit>course (1*JB0). 



272 SYNTAX. [1271 

2. An optative of future time generally assimilates a dependent 
conditional relative clause or protasis to tlie oj)tative when it miglit 
otliei'wjse be in the subjunctive : thus we yliould generally have 
irpaTTOUv av a /iovXoivTOy they would Jo whatever they viujht ph-aw. 
See 14;iy. Sucli an oj^tative seldom assimilates tlie subjunctive or 
indicative of a final or object clause (13G2) in prose; but oftener in 
poetry. It very rarely assimilates an indicative of indirect discourse, 
although it may assimilate an interrogative suhju7ict{ve (1358). 

JI, TENSES OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS. 

A. Nor IN iNniKiiCT Discotrtsu. 

1271. In the subjunctive and imperative, and also iu 
the optative and infinitive when they are not in indirect 
discourse (1279), the tenses chiefly used are the present 
and aorist. 

1272. 1. Tliese tenses here differ only in this, that the 
present expresses an action in its duration, that is, as 
goiny on or npeated, while the aorist expresses simply its 
occurrence^ the time of both being otherwise precisely the 
same. E.g. 

*Eav -noirj toOto, if he shall be doing (Ais, or if he shall do this 
(habifually), iav Tron^aY} toOto, (simply) if he shall do this; et 
iro:oti7 Toirro, if he should be doing this, or if he should do this 
(habitually), it TroL-qcrtii toDto, (simply) if he should do this ; ttoUi 
TovTOf do jhifi (hahilualiy), -noCrjaov toOto, (simply) do this. Ovtoj 
VLKYJcraifjiL r <ya> xal vofXL^oifxr}v cro^o?, on fhls condition may 
I gain the viistory (aov.) and be ihouyht (pies.) wi,';e, Ar.A^520. 
BovAcTflU toGto TToitiv, hc wishcs to be doing this or to do this {habit- 
ually), fio\}ktro.L rovTo -rrot^o-at, (simply) he wishes to do this. 

2. This is a distinction entirely unknown to the Latin, which has 
(for example) only one form, si facial, corresponding to «! TroioiY/ 
and it TT oiy] <jt(.tv. 

1273. The perfect, wliich seldom occurs in these con- 
structions, represents an action as finished nt the time at 
which the present would represent it as going on. E.g. 

Aedoi/ca fxrj XyjOtjv ttcttoitJict;, I fear lest it may prone to have 
caused forgetfulness {fxt} ttoiyj would mean lest it may cause), D. 19,3, 
MrjBiVL ^orjOtLV 09 av firj Trportpo? ptpor)6r)Kii><; Ifxiv rj, to help no 
ant who ahall not })rcviously have helped you (o? av /x// • . • po-rjOy 
would mean who shall not previously help you)^ D.19, 16. Ovk (i.v Sia 



1270] TENSES. 273 

ro^TTO y cliv ovk tvBv^ ScSojKorc?, they would not (on etiquiry) 
prove to have failed to pay immediately on this account (with St8ot«v 
tJiis would jnean they would not fait to pay), D.30, 10. Ov fiovkev- 
caSai tTi f^pa, aXXa ^€ ^ovkivaOaiy it is no longer time to he 
deliberating, hut (it is time) to have finished deliherating, P. CrAiS\ 

1274. N. The perfect imperative generally expresses a command 
tliatsometJiing shall he deci^iive ^\\^ pennanent ; as raOra tlpi^a-Oai^ 
let this have been said (i.e. let what has been said be final), or let this 
(which followa) he said once for all; pi-XP^ rovht tjpto-Ooi v^dv r) 
j3paBvTrj<;^ at this point let the limit of your sluygit^hiess he fixed, '1M,71. 
This is confined to the third person singular passive; the rare 
second person singular middle being merely emphatic. The active 
h used only when the perfect has a present meaning (12G3). 

1275. N. Tlie perfect infinitive sometimes expresses decision or 
permanence (like the imperative, 1274), and sometimes it is merely 
more emphatic than the present; as citrop rrjv Ovpav KiKkilaOaij 
they ordered the gate to he shut (and kepi ic»), X.//. 5, 4^ "HXa-wtv 

«Vl T0U9 McVwVOS, t!iGT €K€lVOVi i KTT tTT krj )^Oai Kal Tpixiiv tirl TO. 

OTrka, so that thcj/ were (once for all) thoroughly frightened and ran to 
arms, X.A.],^^^. The regular meaning of this tense, when it is 
not in indirect discourse, is that given in 1273. 

1276. The future infinitive is regularly used only to 
represent the future indicative in indirect discourse (1280). 

1277. It occurs occasionally in other constructions, in 
place of the regular present or aorist, to make more 
emphatic a future idea which the infinitive receives frozn 
the context. E.g. 

*FjSir}Or]aav rdv Mtyapeojv vavcrl ctpa^i ivptrp07rtp\}fiiVy they 
asked the Megarians to escort them with ships^ T. 1,27. Ovk a-rroKuy 
Xvrrtiv hvvaTOL OfTt^, not being able to prevent, T. 3,28. In all snch 
cases the future is •:lrictly exceptional (see 1271). 

1278. One regular exception to the principle just stated is 
found in the periphrastic future (1254). 

B. In Indirect Discouiisc. 

1279. The term indircci discourse includes all clauses depending 
on a verb of saying or thinking wliich contain the thoughts or words 
of any person stated indirectly, i.e. incorporated into the general 
structure of the sentence. It includes of course all indirect quota- 
tions and questions. 



271 f^YNTAX. imo 

1280. Wlien the optative and iiifiiiitive stand in indireot 
discourse, eacli tense represents tlie corresponding tense of 
the same verb in tlie direct discourse. E.g. 

*EAcyci/ OTL ypd<f>oiy he said that he was toruhuj (he said ypa^o), 
i am icritinf/); iXtytv otl ypdrpoi, he said thai he would write (lie 
said ypdipiD, 1 ivili Jcrile) ; tXtycy otl ypd^etcv, he said that he had 
xuriuen (he ?.akl iypaipa)] tXeyct' on yeypa^ws ilr), hc f^aid ihor 
he h((d already v:nlie.n (he said y<y/>ft<^a). "HpcTO el n? (fiov (.'t} 
o-o<f}(x}T(.po<;, he ashed whrAher any one mas umter than 1 (hc asked ttrrt 

<pTjal ypd<l>€iVy he says thai hc. is writing (he says ypd<}>io) ; <f>Tf]crl 
ypdxpiiv^ he. says that he mill write (ypd^u)) ; <l>r](Tl ypdiffai, he soys 
that he wrote ^cyput^u); <I>yjoI ycy/Du^«Vut, hc says thai he has 
written {yiypa<^a). J-'or the jiarticiple, .see 1288. 

^LTTiv cm nvhpfx dyoi ov ('ip^ai 5(oi, hc said that hc was bringing a 
man whom it was nce^.-istiry to confute (he snid dvhpa dyco ov dpiai 
Set), X. //.5, '1^. 'liAoyi'^oi'TO cj?, il fXT] /idx^t^'TO. aTrof/r ryrroti'TO 
at 7ro'Aei9, ihcy conoid trcd that, if they should tiot fight, the cities jrou/d 
revolt (Uie.y Mi(UiL;hl iav p.y /laX'^JM*^*^' d-nocr Tt^aovrai, if v^p. do 
not fif/ht, they will rcv(/lf]y il/id.i],i^. 

1281. N. These constructions are explained in 1487, 1-104. ni>d 
Mf)7. Ilei'e tlicy merely show the I'oreo. of the (evs^es in iiulirect, 
(1iKconr.«^e. Compare csiu'cially the tiilferenoe be(.\\e('M 4>V^f- yp^- 
<j>tLv and f^ifjcn ypdxpas. nhove witli that between (SovXerac iroicly 
and fSovXirai Troirjcrai luxler ]"J72. Nolice al<^u the same distiue- 
tion in tlie present and aorist Oj'ttative. 

1282. N. The consf.niction of I28U is tlie st.ritlly ])roper use of 
f.hr fntiiro infinifivu (1270; 1277). 

1283. N. The future perfect infMiiMve i-^ occa^^ionally used 
liere, to expi-ess future comjtletion ; as voixl^in h' rrjSc rrj ^)/i-(f>a 
€fjif KaTaKCKoipea-Oiii, helieve that on that day I shal/ have hern 
alre.adt} {\.r.. ^hnll he the same as) cut in jiieecs, X./l. 1, 0^*^. 

1284. N. Tlie fntui-e perfort, p.trt iriple very rar*-ly nronvs in .'t 
sitnil.'ir sens** (see 'j\7,2')). 

1285. 1. The present inHnitive may represent, the iwpfrfn .ns 
\vell ;vs Ibe i^tvcseiit. indiralive; as nVa? €v)(a<i VTroXafx/idi'ir ivx^' 
(T^at Tov ^lXittttov or ifnrcvhiv ; irhat j>yai/i'ys do ynu supj>ose Phd>p 
made when he xoasi pouvinf} lUiatiousf (i.e. nVa? r)V)(CTo;), D.lO.b.iO. 
The perfect infinitive likewise represents botli perfect and plu]v>r- 
fect. In snrl) nn.ses tlie time of thf^ infinitive nuast nlways Ui 
sliown by the eontext (ns nbove by or* taTro'^cv). See V2Si). 

2. For tiie present optative rejii-esenting tlie iinperfeet, see 3488. 



1286. Verbs of /topinf/, expecthuj, proviisinf/y swtoriuf/, and a few 
otliers, form an intt^rniyiliate class between x'Qihs wlncli take tlje 
infinitive in indirect di.scoiii.se and tliosr whJclj do nut (see 1270); 
aiui though tljey regularly liave tljc future infinitive (1*280), tiie 
iiresent .'ii)d aorist are allowed. E.f). 

"liXm^oi' fJidxW € or cu^u I, i/iCi/ expccfcd that (here would be a 
biif/l^, 'i\4,71 ; but a owTroTi -Qk-rrLOiv -rraOitVy what he never expected 
to sulJcVf K. //. /'\ 740. Xeiioplioii has V7ri(fx<'''<> MX^^^ Trapi^tiv, 
C.C>,1^', riud also LiTTCcrxtTo /JovXtvaaaBai, A. '2,6'^'^, 'O^dtrui/rfs 
ravTiwi ifjifiivt^v^hafh/// suwn to abide by these, X. //. 5,3-*^; l)ut 
ofjLOcrai iJi'tii (jLei^ t^J' Oip)^Yfv KOi\n}Vy iravTix^ h^ vplv air ohov vat rr^v 
yuipav, to swear tiidt the (jooertnucni ^houUI be (unmnon^ hut (hat ail 
shuuid (}ioe up (he Uiud to you, I>. 2-"J, 170. 

in KnL;Iit>lj wt! can say 1 hope {expect or promise) to do ihls^ like 
TTuiUP or TTOi^yut ; or 7 hope J shall do this, like ironjirtiv. 

1287. N. The future oj>tative is never nst'.d except as tiic 
repi'esontativc of the future indicative, eitiier in indirect discourse 
(sec 12S0), 01- in the construction of lo7'J (wliicli is governed by 
the privici))les of indirect discourse). Kven in these the future 
indicative Is generally retained. See also 15U3. 

in. TENSES OF THE PAL:T101PLE. 

1288. Tiui t(oisc.s of the participle jjciierally cxiJi'ess tlie 
sanu*, tinio as those of tke iiulicative ; but tliey are [fresont, 
past, oi- future relatively to tlie time of the verb with vvliieli 
they are connected. E.g. 

Afi-aprdviL TOVTo iroiCiv, he errs in dohuj thifi : fjfxdprat't tovto 
TTotun', he erred in doiru/ (his; dpLapryatrat tovto Trotoii^, he vuU 
err in dinn>j this. (]Je)-e TroLujy is first prcsoit, llien jjast, tlieu 
future, absolutely; but always y))-(?.ve»/ to the verb of the sentenee.) 
So in indirect dlscouise: oiSa ToyTOf ypd<povTa {y pdipavj a, 
ypdipovra, or ycypa<l>6Ta), I know that he is umt'mr} (that he 
icroU',vd/l taritCy or ha'; uvitleyi). Ov noXXoi 4>aivovTat cA^ovtc?, 
nul hianij appear io haoe Qone (on the exj^ediliun), 'JM,1{(. (Tor 
other exauijiles, see loSS.) 

TaijTa ctTTOfTft, d-n-qKBovy hainvg said this, they departed. 'Etit/- 
viaav TOv<i ilpr^Kora^, thej/ praised tho^e tcho had (alreadij) spok-tii. 
Totro TTOirjawv cp;^€Tai, he is cumiiuj (o do thin; tovto TTOLTjOiov 
r}K6i.v, he came to da this. "AttcA^*: ravru Xaj^ioy, tale this avd be ojf 
(Xafitlip being past to a.7rtX0c, bul absolutely future). 

1289. Tlie ijrescnt may here also repj'esent the imperfect; as 



276 SYNTAX. [1290 

olSa KaKiLVit) (rti)<f>pQVQ\}VTtf tare SwKparct crunjar^jv, / knov) ihat 
ikey both were (eiitperate as lon(j as {key associated witli Socraies (i.e. 
iduifjipovuTy^v), X. M. 1,2'^. (See 1285.) 

1290. N. The aorjst participle in certain constructions (gen- 
erally witli a verb in the aorist) does not denote time past with 
leference to the leading verb, but expresses time coincident with 
that of tlie verb. See examples in 1563, 8; 1585; 1580. See Greek 
A foods, §§ 144-150. 

IV. GNOMIC AND ITERATIVE TENSES. 

1291. The present is the tense commonl}^ used in 
Greek, as m Eiiglisli, to denote a general trutli or an 
liabitual action. E,g. 

Tlktcl TOi KOpos vfipivi orav kukoJ oXj3os iVTjTui, satiety begets 
insolence, wlienever prosperity Jhltowa the wicked^ 'J'heog. 153. 

1292. In animated language the aorist is iLsed in this 
sense. This is called the gnomic aorhU J^'iid is generally 
translated by the English present. E.y> 

Wv Ti<; TOVT<j}v Tc TrapajBaivr} , ^rjfjuixv avrots crrt^ccruv, i.e. they 
iynposc a penally on all who (i-ans^/ress, X.C1,2^. Mt* rjfxipa tov 
fjxv KaBclXcv vipoBiv, Tov S' ^p aviti, one day {often) brings down 
one man from a height and raises another high, K. frag. 424. 

1293. N. Here one case in past time is vividly used to i-epre- 
sent all possible cases. Examples containing such adverbs as 
TToAAaKts, often, rjSrj, already^ outto), never yet, illustrate the construc- 
tion ; a>s o.Bvp.o\}vr€.<i avSptq outtu) rpoircuov lorTv^aav, disheartened 
men never yet raised (i.e. never raise) a trophy, P. CVifins, 108*^. 

1291. N. An aorist resembling the gnomic is found in Homeric 
similes; as rjpiTrc 3* an ot< rts SpOs rjpiTrty, and he fell, as when 
some oak falls (lit. as when an oak once fell), /M3, iJ80. 

1295. The perfect is sometimes gnomic, like the aorist. 
Ey- 

To hi prj KfjLTTQS<j}v dwu^TayuJWUTTU) twota TtTt/xijT(U, but those who 
are not before jnen's eyes are honored xoiik a good will which has no 
rivalry, T.12,45. 

1296. The imperfect and aorist are sometimes used with 
the adverb dv to denote a customary action. E.g. 

ALr}p(i>T(i}v dv avroiV ti \(.youv, / vaed lo ask them (/ ivould 
often aak them) what they said, V.Ap.'22^. UoXXaKi*; Y}KOvcrap,iv 
dv vp.d<;, we used often to hear you, Ar. Lys.ol}. 



1303] THE PARTICLE "AN. 277 

1297. N, This iterative construction must be distinguished 
from that of the potejitial indicative witli af (1335). It is ec]uiva- 
lent to our phrase he would often do this for he used to do (his. 

1296. N. 'i'he Ionic has iterative fonns in -ukov and -aKo^r^v 
in both imperfect and aorist, (See 778.) Herodotus uses tiiese 
also witli dv, as above (I29C), 

THE PARTICLE "AN. 

1299. The adverb av (epic k€, Doric tea) lias two 
distinct uses. 

1. It may be joined to all tlie secondaiy tenses of the 
indicative (iu Hoinev also to the future indicative), 
and to the optative, infinitive, or participle, to denote 
tiiat the action of the verb is dependent on some cir- 
cumstances or condition, expressed or implied. Here 
it belongs strictly to the verb, 

2. It is joined regulai'ly to a, ?/, to all relative and 
temporal words, and sometimes to the linal particles w?, 
077-0)9, and o^pa, when these arc followed by the sub- 
junctive. Here, although as an adverb it qualifies the 
verb, it is alvva3^s closely attached to the particle or 
relative, with wliich it often forms one word, as in eaV, 
orav^ eireihav. 

1300. N. There is no Englisli word which can transhite av. 
In its first use it is expressed in tlie would or should of tlie verb 
(^ouA-OCTO av, he would wish ; iXoLfiijv dvy I should choose). In its 
second use it generally lias no force which can be inade apparent 
in English. 

1301. N. The following sections (1302-1309) enumerate tlie 
various uses of av: when these are exjjlained more fully tflscwiipm, 
reference is made to tJie proper sections. 

1302. The present and perfect indicative never take av. 

1303. Tlie future indicative sojnetimes takes av (or kc) 
in the early poets, especially Homer ; very rarely in Attic 
Greek. E.g. 

Kut t<€ Ti? w8' (f}i€i, and some one will (or may) thu^ ^iprak, 11. 4, 
17G ; uXXot or kc fic n/xrycroucrt, others who will (perchance) honor me, 



278 SYNTAX. [1304 

//. 1,174, 'llw. future lAiUi av stems to be an intermeiliate form 
between the simple iutuvi;, iviU ho)tt>r, ami the optative witli du, 
would honor. One of Uie few examples in Attic prose ih in 

1304. 1. The past tenses of the indicative (i^renerally 
the imperfect or aorist) are used with ai' in a potential 
sense (1335), or in the apudosis oi an uiiluliilled conditioii 
(1397). E.g. 

Ol'hii^ ay KUKOi/ €TT0L7]O-au, they could (or would) have done no 
harm; YjXdiy ay d fKf'A^vcra, /le wimld have, couie if 1 had comviaudcd 
him. 

2. The imperfect and aorist indicative with av may also 
have an iterJitive sense. (See 1290.) 

1305. 1. In Attic Greek the subjunctive is used witli av 
only in the dependent constructions mentioned in 1299, 2, 
wJicre d,v is attached to the introductory particle or relative 
word. 

Seel3G7; 137G; 1382; 1428, 2. 

2. lu epic poetry, where tlie indei)ondent subjunctive 
often has tlie sense of the future indicative (1355), it may 
take Kc ov dv, like the future (130,'i). E.<j. 

Et 8t Ki ^rj hilirjaiv, cyo) he Ktv airro? iXwfiai, and if he doi*s riot 
(jive her up, J wilt take her vitjsefy 11. 1,324. 

1306. The optative with av hius a potential sense 
(1327), and it often forms the apodosis of a condition 
expressed by tlie optative with e/, denoting wjiat would 
Itappen if the condition sliould be fulfilled (1408). 

1307. N. T\\\ifutxire optative is never used with av (1287). 

1308. 1, The present and aorist (rarely the perfect) 
infinitive and participle with av represent the indicative 
or optative ^vith ai^; each tense being equivalent to the 
corresponding tense of one of tliese moods with ar, — the 
present representing also the imperfect, and the perfect also 
the pluperfect (1285 j 1289). 

2. Thus the present infinitive ov participle with av may 
represent either an imperfect indicative or a present opta- 
tive with uj'j the aoristj either an aorist indicative or an 



jijll] Tin: I'AUTICLK "AN. 279 

aoi'ist oi)tativo witli av] the perfect, either a pluperfect 
infiicative or a perfect optative with ai'. E.g. 

(Prcs.) ^r)Crlv uvrow iXivOfpov^i av iJvai, tl rovro (7rpa$av, he 
says that (hey v;ould {nolo) he free (rfaav av), if thf.y had done this; 
^■nclv uvTOV<; ikivO^fiOv; av tlvai, il tovto Trpdif-Lavt he says that 
they u-o'ild (hercafier) he free (tltv av), if (hey should do this. OlSa 
avrov^ i\(vO€pov<; av ot'ra?, u rovro iTrpa^av, I know that they 
would (now) be free (rjaav av), if they had done this ; ot8a avrov<i 
i\cvO<pov^ av wras:, d raOra 7rpd$(iav, I know that they would 
{hereof (a) be free (ucv ar), if they should do this, IIoAA' av ^xo^v 
<Ttp* <f7r«rr, allhouyh I miyld (= c;(Ot/xi dv) say many other things, 

(A or.) 4>arTii/ avrov IkOtlv av (or oi&x avrov ik&ovra av), u 
rovro iyivi.ro, they say (or / know) (hat he mould have come {■rjXBe.v 
dv), if Ihi.-i had hQj>))e)nuI ; <f>a(Tiv avTov ikOtlv av (or oJBa aiWov 
iXOovriL dv), €1 TOVTO yivoLTQ, tltc.y sa/f (or / know) that he iconld 
cohic (iXOoL dv), if (hi.-! !>hoidd happen. 'PaSi'w? ai' a^c^cU, frpoci- 
Xiro (iTTO^ai'cri', tchcreas ha mtf/hi aasHy have hoen acquitted {d4>(.i0y) 
dv). he j)rcfei-rcd to die, \.M.U'^^- 

(Perf.) El n.rj Ta<; dpCTd<; fVciW? -rrapiaxovTO, vdvra Tav$' vtto rCyv 
fiapfidpi^v dv iaXwKivat. {<f>-j<riL€v dv ris), had they not exhibited 
tho<p. f'XjtloUs of v<ilfn\ tee lui^fhl say that all thi>; ivould have been cap- 
tured by the harbarions (caXujKH dv), 1). ]0,-Jl'J. Ovk dv yjyovfjmL 
avrov<; Slki-ji' a^iav h<.?i(OKCvai, il ai/Tu)v Kara\pr)<i>L(Tai(TOi, I do not thint 
thr.ij (cotdd (then, in f.lto fiiMD'O, prove to) have suffered prn)ter pwii.^h- 
mi-nt (hehfOKOTi'; dv iTiv), 'f i/ou shoidd coudemri th^-yii, 1^.27,0. 

'i'he ront"Xt )!Jii^t deride in (stoIi ca^e wliethor wo hiwe tlio equiiw 
lent of tl)e iiirlicalive or of l-hc ojitat.ivo witli dv- In t.lu^ examples 
givojt, l.lie foni! of tlio. proiasis ^'cuerailv settles the question. 

1309. Tlie infitiit.ive with dv is used chiofly in indirect divS- 
e.onrsi) (1 304); IkiI Qm ]iar(.iri)>)e wiili dv i^ )norp common in otlier 
const.fiKitinii.s (sec cxaniplos al>ovc). 

As tlie early poct^ avIio use tli^ future indiciitive with dv (l.'JOS) 
seldom use tljis conslruetion, the future infiuit.lvc aud y^art.iciple. 
wil.li di' -ore very rare. 

1310. WhfMi dv is uKod Avitli tlio subjunctive (as in 
120*1, 2), it i.s grnoriilly .sejjarated iVom the introductory 
■v.'(U'd ou]y by nioi)os3-lla]jic itnrticlcs lil<e //«V, hi, r<, ydp, etc. 

1311. AVlicn dv \ii used witli tl\e indicative or optative, or in 
any oMier potential eonstrnclion, it may cither he jihaced i»ei:t to 
its verl.i, or bo attaelicd to some other enipliMtic word (a-s a nega- 



280 SYNTAX. [1512 

tive or interrogative, or an important adverb); as tolxlot dv ri 
TToXiv ol TOtovTOt tV/pou? 'jr€t(xavT€<; aTroXecrcLaVy fiuch meUy if they 
should get others to follovj theviy would very soon destroy a state, 
T.2,G3. 

1312. In a long apodosis dv may be used twice or even 
three times witli the same verb. E.g. 

OvK ay rjyciaO' avrbv kolv (TrtSpafJiC^v ; do you not think that he 
would eoen have rushed thither? D. 27,50. In T.2,41, dv is used 
three times with Trapex^dOai. 

1313. "Ar may be used elliptically with a verb under- 
stood. JS.g. 

01 oUtToi peyKOvcnv aXk* ouk av irpo toC (sc. tpptyKov), the 
slaves are snor\T\g ; hut in old limes they woidd n*t have done so, 
Ar.N.b. So in <pol3ovfxtvo<: wcnrtp dv d Trai<;, fearing like a child 
{u>aTrtp dv l^oliiiTO d ttol^ tjv), P. G. 479*. 

1314. When an apodosis consists of several co-ordinate 
verbs, dv generall}^ stands only with tlie first. E.g. 

Ovhiv dv OLa<^opov rov iripov Trotoi, oAA. IttX ravroi' tottv d/x(^o- 
rtpoi, he would do nothing different from the other, hut both xoould aim 
at the same ohjeci [dv belongs also to louv), P. i?j:J. 300'^. 

1315. "Av never begins a sentence or a clause. 

1316. N. The adverb raxa, quickly, soon, readily, is often i)re- 
fixed to a;', in which case rdx dv is nearly equivalent to lo-w?, 
perhaps. The dv heie always belongs in its regular sense (1299,1) 
to the verb of the sentence ; as rax* dv tkOot, perhapt; he would 
come ; rax Av rjk$<.v, perhaps he would (or might) have come, 

THE MOODS. 

1317. The indicative is used in simple, absolute asser- 
tions, and in questions which include or concern such 
assertions; as 7pa^ei, he writer; €ypay{r€V, he wrote; 
7pa>/ret, he will write; yiypacpev^ he has written; tI 
eypdylrerc ; what did you write? eypayp-e tovto ; did he 
write thisP 

1318. The indicative has a tense to express every variety 
of time which is recognized by the Greek verb, and thus 
it can state a supposition as well as make an assertion 
in the past, present, or future. It also expresses certain 



1322] THE MOODS. 2S1 

other relatious which in other languages (as iu Latin) are 
generally expressed by a different mood. TJie following 
examples will illustrate these uses; — 

Ei TovTo oAT^^f's tcTTi, x^t/ooj, if thvy IS iruCy I vejoice (1390) ; ci 
lypa\litv^r)\Bov av^ if he had written^ I should have come (1397); 
u ypdxptLt yvu)cro}juiL, if he shall write (or if he torites), I shall hww 
(1405). ^EnifJitXiiTai ottws tovto yevrjor trai, he takes care that this 
shall happen (1372). Ac -yet otl tovto Trocct, he says that he is doing 
this; sometimes, (.Wiv on tovto irottL, he said that he was <loing this (he 
said ttoiCj). (1487.) EWt fit t/CTCtvas, ok //t/ttotc tovto eiroLrjo-a, 
that thou hadst killed me, that 1 might never have done this/ (JoU ; 
1371). EWt TOVTO akrjOU T]v, that this were true ! (1511). 

1319. N. These constructions are explained in the sections 
referred to. Their variety shows tiie impossibility of uicluding 
all tlie actual uses eveji of tlie indicative under any single fundor 
mental idea. 

1320. The various uses of the subjunctive are shown 
by the following exaniplets: — 

"liiifitv^ lei w.-? go (1344). Mj) Oav/JLaayre^ do not wonder 
(134C). Tt'tiTTw; what shall / say? (135S). Ov pi,7] TovroytvrjTaL, 
this (surely) will not happen (1360). Ov8< iSw/xat (llunieric), nor 
shall I see (13o5). 

"Epx^TaL Iva TOVTO ISgy he is coining that he may see this (1365) ; 
^o^cirut fjLrj TOVTO ylvtjTai, he fears lest this may happen (1378). 
'Eav tX.$r), TOVTO voLrjfTw, if he comes (or if he shall come), I shall do 
this (14U-S) ; eaV ns « A^t^, toGto 7roiu>, if any one {ever) comes, i 
(always) do (his (1303,1). "Otu^ ^\0g, tovto -rroLrjatj), when he comes 
(or when he shall come), I i<hall do this (1434 J-, orav Tts tkOr], 
tovto TTOioi, when any one co7)ies, f (ahcaya) do (his (1431, I). 

1321. N. 'J'he subjunctive, in il.s siin|.»]e.st and !i]')j>anmt]y most 
primitive use, expresses simi^le futurity, like the future indicative; 
this is seen in tlie Homeric ind<;pendent construction, tSw/Aat, / 
shall see; f.Wri(Ti rt?, one xclll say. Then, iu exhoi'tations and pj'o- 
liibitious it is still future; as iiu/acv, let us go ; p.T] 7ron7<TT^Tc toOto, 
do not do this. In final and objt'ct clauses it expresses a future 
purpose or a future object of fear. In conditional aiid conditional 
relative sentences it expresses a fntuie supposition; except iu 
general conditions, where it is indefinite (Imt never strictly pres- 
ent) in its time. 

1322. The various uses of the optative are shown by 
the following examples: — 



282 8VNTAX. [13*-i3 

EvTvxpiy)<i, viay you be foriunate ; /xi) yevoiTO, mcaj d noi be 
do7ie. ; ilOt ^1) dTTuXutvTu, ihixt Ihti/ muy iiol jjcrUh (1;')07). 
"EA^ot avy he may yu, or Ue mlyld yo (13'27). . 

*H\.Otv tVa TOVTO I Bo L, he c'U/(ic (Uat Ac uiiyiu sec f/its (laCo); 
itpofduTO ^r) TOVTO yc'votTO, he feared teal (Ins shoulti hap/ien {l\iiii). 
KtiA^ot, Tovr' ui' tioir}(TaifXi.y if he ihauld come, I should do t/ax 
(14(JJ5); il Tis IkOoL, tovt' tTToiow, i/' u/j// one (clcv) ca7i(e, / 
(alwayi;) did (his (l^V.Ci, '2), "Ort iA^/ot, tout' uv -Trotr/aat/ii, 
whenever he should come (a( Qn_y fuKt' lo/ieu he i^hould eouie), I should 
do this (14-iU); ort rts iXSoi, tout' eVoiovv, ichentwr any o)ie ca/^<(', 
/ {alwaijii) did this (Mol, li). 'ETrc/jttAtiTO ottij? to^jto -yep-r/aoiTo, 
/ifi ^oot ca/e that ihis i^hvulti huj}]>cii {\'-\l'2). KtVtv on tooto Troiorr, 
(TTOtiJcrot 01' TTOtT/atu), /ic .'^uifi (/<ui he tt'ti.s duiuy [would do ov /([^(/ 
</u«e) rAi'i- (1487). 

1323. N. Tlie ojilative in mjiny of il.s us(^s is a va;^iu'i' aiid 
less distinct Vovui ot exprcssif,)! tliun the buhjiniclive, iiulicitlivu, 
or iiiiperalive, in constvuctions of tlio same general cliai'actei'. 
This aj^pears especially in its iiidt^i»eiidei)l uses; as id llic lioinf'i'ic 
'E\(.vi]v dyoiTO, he may lake Helen im<ty, 1L),\\) (si^f^ yvvaiKu 
ayicrSo}, //, '3, 72, ref ruing to the same tliiiii^', and nai ttotI tis 
t tiTTjcrtv, and snine^ime one will .sft//, l-J(K), ahovi;) ; loifiev, i^'<i'!) ?(Vr 
yo (cf. liit}Xiv, lei us f/o'); fXTj yaoLTO, may it Jiol hapl><ni (cf. yui/ 
yivrfixiy hi il >j//i happen); iKoiTO dv (Iloin. soiinjtimes i'AotTO aloni*), 
he woidd take (cf. Horn. ?Ar;Tat sonictiinfts wiiJj k«', he will tul'c). 
So in i"\it«ve (conditions; as €t yeVotro, if it should haj/jjen (cf. tuv 
yivrp-aiy if it fihall hopjieu). \n fjtiior dc]>end(inl clauses it is L;en- 
erally a correlative of tlic suhjnncLivc. soinetimes of tlie indioativo; 
here il rf^prescnt?, a dependent pubjunotivc or indicativt^ in its 
chanyefi relation when tlio verb on wiiicli it dc'itt'nds is chan.^ed 
from present or future to past time. Tim >;\u)c change in relalion 
is exprt'.s.sed in En-lish b)' a change fvoni ^h(dl, vull, way, dd, fs, 
etc. to should, u^ould, mir/ht. dul, mis, etc. To illusUatt' tht-sc last 
adations, compare tp;^€T{xt u'u Ihy, t^ofitiTui fjLy ylvqTuL, lav Ti? iA^// 
toDto TTOiw, (Vt/jttAftrac ottius toCto yti^^rtTui, and A^'yti ot\. tovto 
TToui, with the conespoiiJiiig lorms alter past leading verbs givun 
in 18'22. 

For a discussion of the wlude relation of tlie optative to tlic 
subjunctive and the oilier moods, and of th^' original jacaniug of 
tiie sul)JMnctive and optative, see Moods and 7c'".^e>-, pp. ;tTl-'lSO. 

1324. The imperative is used to express coiiimands 
and prohibitions; a^s rovro Troiei, do this ^ yu,?; (p^vy^re^ 
do notfiy. 



1327J THK Moons. 283 

1325. The infinitive, which ia a verbal noun, and the 
pai-ticiple and the verl)al in -tIo^^ wliicli arc verbal adjec- 
tives, are closely connected with the moods of the verb in 
many constructions. 

1326. The following sections (1327-1515) treat of all 
constructions which rcciuirc any other form of the finite 
verh than tlio indicative in siinplc assertions and questions 
(1317). The infinitive and iiavticiple are included here 
so far as cither of them is nsed in indirect discourse, in 
protasis or apodosis, or after oJcrre (oj?, i<fi <L or i4>* wre) and 
TrpiV. Tliese constructions are divided a^ follows : — 

J. J^ofccntial Optative and Indicative with av. 
IJ. Imperative and Subjunctive in coujuiands, exhorta- 
tions, and prohibitions. — Subjunctive and Indica- 
tive with ^tJ or ^T] ov in cautious Assertions. — ''Ottw? 
and oTTUis fxy with the independent Future Indicative. 
III. Independent Hojucric Subjunctive, like Future In- 
dicative. — Tnterroc^ative Subjunctive. 
TV. Ovi fxr) with Subjunctive and Future Indicative. 
V. Final and Object Clauses with iva, ws, o7rw<;, 64>pa, 
and fin}. 
VT. Conditional Sentences. 
VIL Relative and Temporal Sentences, including consecu- 
tive sentences with wo-t* etc. 
VIII. Indirect Discourse or Oraiio Ohliqua, 
IX. Causal Sentences. 
X. Expressions of a Wish. 

I. POTENTIAL OPTATIVE AND INDICATIVE V^ITH av. 

POTENTl AT. OPT ATI V 10. 

1327. Tlic optative witli av expresses a future action as 
dependent on el rcum stances or conditions. Thus iXBoi av 
is he may go, he might (could or v:ould) go, or he would be 
likely to go, as opj)Osed to an absolute statement like he will 
go. E.g, 

"Etl yap Kev aXv^aifXtv xnKov r}fMip, for (perhaps) we may fidll 
escape the evil day, Od.]C},2G0. ITav -yap ai' ttvOolo puctv, for you 



284 SYNTAX. [1328 

can learn anything you please from me, A.Pr. G17. Tt' t6v^^ ^y 
iLTTOcq dWo; tohat else could you say of this manf S./ln.G4G. Oux 
av XeitpOcLtjv, I would not he left behind (in any case), Hci,4,97. 
Ai9 i<i rov avrov TTora^bv ovk av ifJilSairj<:, you cannot {could not) 
step twice into the sanpc river, V.Crat. 402'^. 'HSe'to? &.v ipoifirjv 
XtTTTLvr}}/, I would gladly ask (/ should like to ask) Leptines, D. 20^ 
129. IIoi oZv TpanoifjicO^ av t n ,' in what other direction can toe 
(could we) possibly twnf VJCu.2^i)^. So l3ovXoLpr}v avf vclim, I 
should like: cf, i/SovX6fj.7jv ay, vcllem (1339). 

1328. The optative tlius used is called potential, and corre- 
sponds generally to the English potential forms with may, can, 
might, could, would^ etc. It is equivalent to the Latin potential 
subjunctive, as dicas, credas, cernas, putes, etc., you may say, believe, 
perceive, thin):, etc. The limiting condition is generally too indefi- 
nite to be distinctly present to the mind, and can be expressed 
only by words like perhaps, possibly, or probably, or by such vague 
forms as if he pleased, if he should try, if he could, if there should be 
an opportunity, etc. Sonietinies a general condition, like in any 
possible case, is felt to be implied, so that the optative witli av 
hardly differs from an absolute future; as in ovk av ptdc(.^t)v 
Tov Opovov, I mill not (would never) give up the throne, Ar. ii.830. 
See the examples in llV^O. 

1329. The potential optative can express every degree 
of potentiality from the almost absolute fut\irc of the last 
example to the apodosis of a future condition expressed by 
the optative with cl (1408), where the form of the condi- 
tion is assimilated to that of tlie conclusion. Tlie inter- 
mediate steps may be seen in the following examples : — 

Ovk av hiKaio)*; €<: KaKov Triaoip-L tl, I could not justly fall into 
any trouble, S. /1ji,240, where SiKalux; points to the condition if Jus- 
tice shoxdd be done. OtJxf to-$LOvcn vXtLUi 17 ^vvavrai fpiptw 5tap- 
pay^Liv yap av, nor do they eat viore than they can carry, for (if 
they did) they xooxdd burst, X. 0.8, 2^1, wliere tl iaOiouv is implied 
by the former clause. 

1330. N. The potential optative of the second person may 
express a mild command or exhortation; as xiapolq av ctcw, you 
may go in, or go in, S. Ph. 674 ; K\voi<: av -fjSr), hear me now, S. EL 637. 
See 1328. 

1331. N. The potential optative may express what may here- 
after prove to be true or to have been true; as 17 ifxt} (<ro<f>La) 
(^avKyj T19 av tirj, my wisdom may turn out io be of a mean kindt 



1337] THE MOODS. 286 

P,5y. 175'; irou Srjr ay cjey oi iiyoi ; where may the strangers he? 
(i.e. where is il likely to prove thai they are)f S. £/. 1450; tlrjcrav S* 
^y otlrot KpYJTi<i, and thc^e would probably prove to he (or to have been) 
Cretans, nd.1,2; avrui Si ovk av irokXjal ciijcrai', arid these (the 
islands) would iwt prove to he many, T. 1,9. 

1332. N, Occasionally av is omitted with tho potential optative, 
chiefly in Homer; as ov n KaKu)r<.pov aXkoTrdOoifiL, I could suffer 
nothing else that is worse, IL 19,321. 

1333. N. The Attic iioets sometimes omit dy after such indefi- 
nite expressions as ta-nv ocrri?, icrny oTrof?, umv ottch, etc.; as tcrr 
ovv oTTiD'i ' A\Krj<m<i «? y^pas {loXoi; is it possible then that A Icestis 
can come to old aye ? E.Al. 52 ; so 1 13, and A. Pr. 202. 

1334. N". For the potential optative in Hojner referring to 
past time, see 1391^. 

rOTRNTlAL INDICATIVE. 

1335. The past teuses of the indicative with dy express 
a past a(;tion as dependent on past circumstances or condi- 
tions. Thus, while ^kOtv means he wentf rjXOtv dv means he 
would have gone (under some past circumstances). 

1336. This is called the potential indicative; and it probably 
arose as a past form of the potential optative, so that, while iXBoi 
dv meant originally he may go or he would be likely to go, riXBiv dv 
meant lie may have gone or he would have been likely to go. It is the 
equivalent of the Latin forms like diceres, you toould have said, 
credcres, you tvould have believed, cerneres, putares, etc., which are 
past potential forms corresponding to dicas, credas, cernas, putes, 
etc. (1328). Thus putct and pntaret are equivalent to otoiro av, 
he would be likely to think, and wcro av, he would have been likely to 
think. 

1337. The potential indicative sometimes expresses (in its 
original force) what tjmuld have been likely to happen, i.e. might have 
happened (and perhaps did liappen) with no reference to any 
definite condition. ^.7. 

'Ytto Ktv Ta\acr{<f>pr>va. irip Sco? <TA.< v,/(?ar might have seized (i.e. 
would have been likely to seize) even a man of alout hearty 7/.4, 421. 
'HA-^f TOVTO ro\)Vf.iho<i rdx av opyfj IBuxar$<v, this disgrace may per- 
haps have come from violence of wrath, S. 0. T. 523. *Ev ravrrj tj 
TjAtKio. At-yovTf? TTpo? v/iS.<: fv rj uv /xaXicrra iirLcrrcvrrari, talking 
to you at that age at v!hich you would have been most likely to put 
trust in them, V.ApAS^^, 



286 SYNTAX. [1336 

1338* Generally, however, the jiotential indicative iiuiilies a 
reference to some circuinsUnces different from the real ones, so 
that tJA.^cj' av coimnonly means hr. would have gone {if something had 
not been as ir was). The unreal )iast condition here may be as 
vague and indefinite as the fnture condition to whicli the potential 
optative refers (1328). E.g. 

Ov yap Kiu hvyd^tn-Oa (inipf.) dvpaojv aTnoaao-Oai XiBov, for 
we could not have moved the stone from the doorwaif, Od. 0, 304. Com- 
pare ovSlv av KuKov iroa/crtuiv, they could do no harm {if they should 
iry)^ with oii^v av KaKov irroL-qaav, they could have done no harm 
(if they had tried). Tovtqv ti*; ai^ aoL Tui^Spo<; a^uyiiiv €vpiOr); 
who could have been found better than (hii v\anf S.^;. U9. 'Oi/fc ^v, 
Kat Ta'i x^tpa? qi)K av KaOewpiiiv, it was late, and they vwuld not have 
seen the show of hands, X.//. 1.7'. Tloi(j)v av tpytiiv aTricrrrjcrav; 
from what labors would they haiK' shrunk f I. -1.83. 

1339. When no definite condition isimderstood witli the j^oten- 
tial indicative, the imperfect with av is regularly past, as it always 
is in fJorncr (].303). See the examples in 1838. 

The imperfect witii av referring to present time, which is com- 
mon in apodosis after Momer (1307), appears seldom in purely 
potential expression, chiefly in il^ovkofxrjv dv, vellem, / should wish, 
/ should like (whicli can mean also / should have roished) ; as 
i/3ovX6fjLr)y av avrovy aXrjBrj Xcyav, I should like it if they spoke 
the truth, f.. 12,22. 

1340. The potential indicative may express every degree 
of poteiitic^lity from that seen in 1337 to that of the apodosis 
of an imfiilfille.d condition actually^ expressed. (Com]>a]'C 
the potential optative, 1329.) Here, after Homer, the im- 
perfect with dv may express present tin^e (sec 1307). The 
intermediate steps to the complete apodosis may be seen in 
the following examples: — 

*Hy€T< rr]v clfjTJvtjv ofxa>^ • ov yap yv o rt av i7rot€ir€y you .<itiil 
kept the peace; for (here wai^ nothing which yon could have done 
{if you had not), D. 18, 4:"S. lloXXov yap ai' ra npyai'a r)v a^ia, 
for the tools would be w.orth much {if they had thL^ power)y V.Rp. 
374**. 

For the full conditional sentences, see 1397. 

1341. N. For a pecnliar i-»otential expression formed by imper- 
fects denoting obligation etc., like t^ft, XPV^' ^^^-^ '^^^^^ ^'^""^ infinjtiv(\ 
se« 1400. 



l;t48J THE MOODS. 287 

II. IMPERATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE IN COMMANDS, EX- 
HORTATIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS.-SUBJUNCTIVE AND 
INDICATIVE WITH jxt) OR jj.ii ov IN CAUTIOUS ASSER- 
TIONS. -"Oir«s AND birws y.r\ WITH FUTURE INDICATIVE 
IN COMMANDS AND PROHIBITIONS. 

1342. The imperative ex2:>rcsses a command, exhorta- 
tion, or entreaty; a.s Xey^^ ispea/c thou; (j)€vye^ begone! 
t'XOi-TO)^ let him come ; ^aipouTCdu^ iH ihevi rejoice, 

1343. N. A coinbinatioji of a com inand and a question is found 
in such phrnses as otcr^' o ^^oloov; ilost thou hww what to dot 
Ar. /If. 01, wliero the iinperativfj is iho verb of \ho. relative clause. 
So otaOa vvv a. /xot y(.v€a6(x) ; Jo you know what viust be done for vief 
E./. v. 1:203. 

1344. The firnt person of the subjunctive (generally 
plural) is nsed in exliortations. Its negative is fitj, E.g, 

"Ifjifxtv^ lei u.< go; iB(x)fj.€y, let us sec; fir} tovto iroiuy^xty, lei us 
not do this. I'll is su])plies the want of a first person of the imperative. 

1345. N. l^olli subjunctive and imperative may be preceded by 
ay£ (aytr<), <^€p€, or tOiy come! These words are used without 
regard to the numl)er oi- person of tlie verb whicl) follows ; as aye 
IXLfxvtTC iravrcs, 7/. 2,331. 

1346. In proliibitions, in the second and third per- 
sons, the present imperative ov the aorist subjunctive is 
used witli fit] and its coniponii{]s. E.g. 

Mr} iroCei tovto, do not do this (^habitually) , ov do not go on doin^ 
this; fjiyj TToLT^fT/}^ TOVTO, (^'uiply) do not do this. Mr) Kara tou? 
vofiov^ BiKadrjTC ftrj jSorjB j(Tr)T(. tw 7r€7rov^dn Btivd' fir} tvop- 
K€tT€, "c/o not jufiije according to the laws : do not help hivi who has 
suffered outrages; do not abide by your oaths,'' 0.21,211. 

The two forms here differ merely as present and aorist (1272). 

1347. N. 'J""he third j)erson of the aovht imperative sometlines 
occurs in prohibitions; the second person very rarely. 

1348. in Homer tlie iudejjciident Auhjinictive with fiy 
(genei'ally in tin* t}nrd per.son) inay express fear or anxiety, 
with a desire to avert the object of the fear. E.g. 

Mr) Srj vrjas < A oai, may thpy nt/( seize the ships (as I fear they may), 
7/. 1(>, 1-28. Mr) TL ;^oA(-Kra;x€i/os O^^V xo-xov vui<; *Ax<if^t'> ^^^?/ ^* 
not (as I fenr he may) in his wrath do any harm to the sons of the 
Achaeans, 7i.2,196. 



288 SYNTAX. [1^49 

1349. N. This usage occurs also in Euripides and Plato. 
See Moods and Tenses, §§ 20 1 -204. 

1350. Au independeut subjunctive witli ^ij may express 
a cautious assertion, or a suspicion that something may be 
true; and with /x^ ov a cautious negation, or a suspicion tliat 
something may not be true. Tliis is a favorite usage with 
Plato, E.g. 

Mtj aypoLKOTtpov rj to aXrjBh eliruv, I suspect that the truth may 
he too rude a thing to tell, R G. 402*. 'AXAa fxr) ov tovt rj x'^^^'^ov 
but I rather think that this viay not he a difficult thing, V. /^7J.39*. 

1351. The indicative may be thus used (1350) witii /x^ or }j.r^ 
ov, refeniiig to present or past time. E.g. 

'AAAa ft^ ToCro ov KfiXC)'; t^fioKoyrjaafxcv, hut perhaps^ toe did 
not do well in assenting to this^ V.Afen.SO'^. (Compare <f>oj3ovfjuxi p-rj 
tTraOiVy I fear that he suffered, 1380.) 

1352. In Attic Greek otw? and ottw? p-q are used collo- 
quially with the future indicative in commands and prohi- 
bitions. E.g. 

NOi' ovv OTTOJ? <7oi(r<t9 pt, .'?o now save vie, Av. N.l\77. KardOov 
Tot OTKivT}, x*^*^? ipili iyravOa prjBiv (/ff05os, put down the 'packs, 
and tell no lies here, Ar. H.ii'27. "Ottw? ovv tuea-Ot a^tot t^9 ikcv 
$(.pLa<i, (see that you) prove yourSflves worthy of freedom, X./l.l,7^ 
^Otto)? poL pt] cptts oTir tcTTt ToL SjjStACu Sw l$j sec that you do not tell 
me that twelve is twice six, P. /?;;. 337**. 

1353. N. The construction of 1352 is often explained by an 
ellipsis of qKOTTiL or crKOTrilre (see 1372). 

1354. N. The subjunctive occasionally occurs here with ottoj? 
/xtJ, but not with ottws alone. 

III. HOMERIC SUBJUNCTIVE LIKE FUTURE INDICATIVE. 
-INTERROGATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

1355. In Homer, the subjunctive in independent sen- 
tences sometiiues has the force of a future indicative. E.g. 

Ov yap TTQ} tolov<; lSov di'cpa?, ovBi cS<Dftat, for J never yet saw 
nor shall I ever see such men, //. 1,262. Kai ttot* rts ctTri^o-ti', and 
one will (or may) some time .^ay, 11. G, 459, 

1356. N. This subjunctive may, like the future indicative, take 
x< or 3lv in a potential sense. (See 1305, 2.) 



xm] THE MOODS. 289 

1357. N. The question re trdOm; what will become of me? or 
what harm will it do me? (literally, what shall I undergo f) carries 
this ust? even into Attic Greek. E.g. 

"Q fuM tycu, Ti ndOw; O^/. 5, 465. Ti iraBw TXr^^iov; what will 
become of vie, wretched one? A. A 912. To /xe'AAoi/, el XPV^ Trtlo-ofuu • 
n ya/3 ira^oj ; 1 shall suffer what is to come, if it must be; for what 
harm cau it do me ? E. Fh. 895. 

1358. The first person of the subjunctive may be 
used in questions of appeal, where a persoji asks him- 
self or another what he is to do. The negative is fi-q. 
It is often introduced by /3ov\€l or ^ov\<:cr6e (in poetry 
OeXeif; or deX^re}. JE.g. 

EtTTo) tuSjto.; shall 1 say thisT or ^ovKct. ctTroj ravra; do you 
wish that I should say this? Hot rp air oj /iai ,* trot tropivOC) ; 
whither shall I turn? whither shall I gof E. //6c. 1099. IIou 87 
fiovXci KaOi^OfxcvoL dvayvojfxcvi where tww wilt thou thai we sit 
down and read? I^PWr.228^ 

1359. N. Tlie third person Is soinetimes found in these ques- 
tions, cliiefly when tU has the force of we; as Tt tc<: cIvm tovto 
<f>YJ ; what shall we say this is 1 D, 19, 88. 

IV. Oi jjL^ WITH SUBJUNCTIVE AND FUTURE INDICATIVE. 

1360. The subjunctive (generally the aorist) and 
sometimes the future indicative are used with the 
double negative ov fnj in the sense of an emphatic 
future indicative with ou. E.g, 

Ov p.7) TTiOyjTatt he will not obey, S. PA. 103. Ovtc yap yCyvcrca 
ovrt yiyoviv, ovhl ovv /iiy yivrirai^ for there is noty nor has there 
heen^ nor will (here ever he, etc., P. ^;;. 492*. Ou -noT ef ifXQX} yc ;ai) 
t^aOr}^ To^ty you never shall suffer (his at my hands^ S. El. 1029. Ov 
Tot /iyJTTOTc (Tc . . . aKovTo. ns a^cty no one shall ever take you against 
your willy etc., S. aClTG. 

1361. In the drnmatic poets, the second person singular 
of the future indicative (occasionally of the aorist subjuno* 
tive) with ov ^y} may express a strong prohibition. E.g. 

Ov fJiY} KarajS-^o-ti, don't come down (you shall not come down), 
Ar. F. 397. Ou /xf; rdSc yr^p vastly do not .^peak out in this watft 
E. Hi)y. 2 1 8. Ou /ir/ (r k (/» \p 7 s, do not jeer, A r. A^. 296. 

This construction is not iiUerrogative. 



290 SYNTAX. [1362 

V. FINAL AND OBJECT CLAUSES AFTER I'va, «s, otto*?, 6'4»pa, 

AND jjiTi. 

1362. The final particles arc iva, a>v, ottco?, and (epic 
and lyric) 6(f)pa^ that, in order that To these inust be 
added /atj, le^t oi* thaU which became in use a negative 
final particle. The clauses which are introduced by 
these particles may be divided into three classes: — 

1. Vu re filial clauses, expressing a purpose or motive; 
as €p')(^eTai tW tovto t^i?, he is coming that he may see 
this. Here all the final particles arc used (see 1368). 

2. Ohjee{ clauses with oirox; after verbs signifying to 
strive for^ to care fo7\ to effect ; as afcoTret ott&xj tovto 
jevijaeTUi^ see to it that this is done. 

3. Clauses with pLtj after verbs of /ear or caution; as 
(f)o/3elTaL fi7] TOVTO jevTjTai, he fears that (or lest} this 
may hajipen. 

1363. The iirst two classes are to be sjMicially distinguished. 
The object clause.s in 2 are the direct object of tlie leading verb, 
and can even stand in apposition to an object accusative like 
tovto; as CTKOTTtt ToiJTO, oTTws /XT; m oi/^erat, see to thiSf namely, that 
he does not nee you. But a final clause could stand in apposition 
only to TOVTOv €yCKa, /or the sake of/his^ or Sea tovto, to thin end ; as 
ipXtTai TOVTOV eviKa, u'a rjp.a<: l^rj, he is coviiny for this purpose^ 
namely^ that he may see us. 

For the origin of the clauses in -3, and the development of final 
clauses, see Moods and Tenses, §§ 307-310. 

1364. The negative in all these clauses is prj) I'xcopt 
after /xtJ, lesi^ wlicre ov is used. 

I. VTJRK FINAL CLAUSE?5. 

1365. Final clauses take the subjunctive after primary 
tenses, and the oi>tative after secondary tenses. Fj.g. 

AoKci /AOt KaTaKaCcrut Ta? txpAta<;, Iva fxr} ra ^ivyf} Tj^i-^v cTpa- 
Trjyrf, I think we should hum ow xtmjnvi^, thai our cattle vwy not he 
our commanders J X. /!.:^,'i^. EtTrcu ri ^ra ^aAA', Iv 6pyi(J"0 T^k^oi^i 
shall I speak still further, thnt you may he the more ongryf ^.0. 7. 
364. XiapaKoXtl^ cciTpois. ottco? ^xy) aTroOavr), you call in physici(nn, 
thai he may not dit^ X.AI.^^W, Av<rtTcA.ct €ua<u iv tw -napovrt^ p^ 



1370] THE MOODS. 291 

xcu rovToy TroXifuov tt poirBw^iBay it is expedient to allow it for 
Q timey Isst we add hint to (he nujnbcr of our cuemieSj X. C2,4^^. 
4>t\os t^ouXcTO uyuL Tol^ ^tytcTTa Sui/a/AtVow, ivu. dBiKiby fxi] hlBoir] 
Sixrji'i ^'^ winked to be a fneud to the luo^c jwcocrful, thai he viiyht do 
wrong Qf id ^Wl he punish tdy X.y4.i?, 0-^ 'Vovtov IvtKa (^tXiov oltTO 
Stio-^at, <o? iSvvifiyov<i t^^^ ^^^ thought he needed friends for this pur- 
posey nanielyy that he mujkt have helpers, X. ^4.1,^-'. 'AipLKofjLrjVy oirw: 
ffov TTpos 5o'/jtous cA^oVro? €v npd^atfjii Tt, I came that J 7uifjht (/a in 
some good by your return homey S. 0. T. 1005. 

Kt^oAif KiiTO.v€v<Jopxxiy ocfipa irtTroiOr}';, I will nod my aaseniy that 
you nuiy trunt vie, //, 1,5*22. "EvOa KaT€axf-T\ 6<f>p* trapov Odtrroiy 
he tarried there, that he yniyht hury his covipaniou, 0(/-ii,'JH4. 

1366. N. Tliu future indicative is rarely found in final clauses 
after ottoj?, o<^p<i, ojs, and /xij. This is almost entirely confined to 
poetry. See 0</. 1,56,4,103; /^20,30l; kwEcclAQ^. 

1367. N. The adverb av {kI) is sometimes joined witli olj, 
oTTOj?, and 6(j>pa belore tlie sulijnnctive in final clauses; as ti? av 
fiaOp'^s am-dKovuov, hear the other .<iidc, that you may learuy X. ^ -2,5^^. 

For this use, see Moods and Tenses, §§ ;j"25-*28. The final opta- 
tive witii av is prol)ably always potential (1327). 

1368. N. "Ocjypa is the itio.st comnion final particle in Homer, 
ti? in tragedy, and Iva in corned v and prose. Jint ottw? exceeds Iva 
hi Tbucydides and Xenophon. '12? was never in good use in prose, 
except in Xenophon. 

1369. As fiual clauses express the purpose or motive of 
some person^ they admit the double construotion of indirect 
iliscoursu (1481,2; 1503). Hence, instead of the optative 
after past tenses, we can have the mood and tease which 
would be used when a person conceived the purpose; 
that is, we can say either y^kOtv Iva i'Soi, he cavie that he 
might see (K>65), or r}XOiv iVa IBtj, because tiie ])erson 
himself would have said </j;(o/juii iva rS«i», I come that J may 
see. E.g. 

"Bwiliovkivf. Tot? ttAA-ot? eKirXcvcrai, OTroi? tVt vXiov 6 (Ttros 
6.Yrla)(^rf, he advised the rest to sail dway, that the provisions mit^ht 
hold out longer, T. 1,05. Ta -rrXoia KariKaviKv, Iva p.-q Kvpo9 Sia^if, 
he burned the vesselSy that Cyrus might not pass over, X.j4.1,4'^. 

1370. N. The .subjunctive is even more common than the 
optative after past tenses in certain authors, as Thucydides and 
Herodotus; but much less no in others, as Homer and Xenophon. 



292 SYNTAX. [1371 

1371. The past tenses of the indicative are used in final 
clauses with Iva, sometimes with otto)? ov (os, to denote that 
the purpose is dependent on some act wliich does not or 
did not take place (as ou some unfulfilled condition oi 
some unaccomplished wish), and therefore is not or was 
not attained. E.g, 

T/ fx ov Xapiip ixT€iva^ ivOvi, w? (Ba^a ^rjfrorc, k.t.X. ; why did 
you not take me and kill me at once, that I might never have shown 
{as I have done), etc.? S. 6*. 7M391. <E>«u, <^«u, to ^^ to. TrpdyfJuiT 
dv^pcSirots <X*tv <t>u}vy)v, lv r}<Tav fxr]B€v oc Sctvot \oyoc, Alas! alas! 
thai the facts have no voice for men, so that words of elot^uence might 
be as nothing, E. frag. 442. 

II. OBJECT CLAUSES WITH OTTO)? AFTER VERBS OF 
STRIVING, ETC. 

1372. Object clauses depending on verbs signifying 
to strive for^ to care for, to effect^ reguliU'ly take the 
future indicative with oVoj? or ottco^ fxij after both pri- 
mary and secondary tenses. 

The future optative ma^ be used after secondary 
tenses, as the correlative of tlie future indicative, but 
commonly the indicative is retained on the principle of 
1369. E.g. 

^povTi^' OTTws fjitj^ku avditov rrjs TifJLrjs raun^s 7rpa^€t5, ioke heed 
thai you do nothing wiwovthy of this honor, 1.2,37. *'E,7r<.^i\{tT0 ottw? 
ft^ dcTLToi troTi liTOLvroyhe took care that they should never be ivithoril 
food, X.C8,1*5 (here co-ovrat would be more couimo\i). *E7rpao-- 
crov OTTU)? Tt9 /io-j$€ia ^ ^ 1 1, they were trying to effect (this), that some 
assistance should come^ T. 3, 4. 

For o7ra>9 and ottw? /xtJ with the future indicative in coin- 
mands and prohibitions, often explained by an ellipsis of uKOiriL 
or CT/coTTtcTt ill this construction, see 1352, 

1373. The future indicative with ojriii'i sometimes followfi verbs 
of exhorting, entreating, conwmmling, and forbidding, which com- 
monly lake an infinitive of the object; as SuxxtAevorrat ottw? 
rifjuopi^dtrai TraKra? rov^i tolovtov*;, they exhort him to take ven- 
geance on all such, P.i?;;. 54D«. (See 1377.) 

1374. 1. Sometimes tlie present or aorisfc subjunctive 
and optative is used here, as in final clauses. E.g. 



1379] THE MOODS. 293 

"AXXov Tov iirifXiXiQUii 17 ottw? o rt piXnaroi TroA-Irat w^ty; 
toiV/ you care for anylkiny except that we may be the best possible citi- 
zens f y.G.olb^, 'ETTtfttAeTO avrwv, oTrwt da avhpaTroha Starc- 
Xoiev, he took care that they should always remain slaves^ X. 0.8,1'*'*. 

2. Xeuophoii allows w? with the subjunctive or optative here. 

1375. N. MtJ, lest^ may be used for ottojs fx-j with tlie subjunctive. 

1376. N. "Ay or Kc can be used here, as in final clauses (1367), 
witli oTTtt)? or w? and the subjunctive. 

1377. In Homer tlie construction of 1372 with ottoj? and 
the future is not found j but verbs signifying to jylan, con- 
sider, and try take ottws or wi and the subjunctive or opta- 
tive. Kg, 

^pal^txifXiO' oTTOj? 6)^ apLcrra yivrjTait let us consider how (he very 
best may be done, Oc/. 13,305. ^pacrycrai ws Ki virjTai, he will plan 
for his return, OJ. 1,205. BovXtvoi/ onw; o;^' apLcrra ytVoiro, they 
deliberated that the very best might be done, O(/.9,420. So rarely with 
kio-o-ofmi, entreat (see 1373). 

III. CLAUSES WITH firj AFTKU VERBS OF FEARING^ ETC. 

1378. After verbs denoting fear^ caution^ or danger^ 
fji.i]y that or leH^ takes the subjunctive after primary 
tenses, and the opt;itive after secondary tenses. The 
subjunctive may also follow secondary tenses, to retain 
the mood in which the fear originally occurred to the 
mind. The negative form is /X17 oh (1364). E.g. 

^o^ovfjuai fXT] toOto yevyjTat (vereor ne accidat), I fear that this 
may happen; <f>o(iovpxxL prj ov tovto yivqrai (vereor ut accidat), 
1 fear that this may not happen (1364). 4>poi/Ti^<o pi) KpdrnjToy rj 
poi atyav, / am anxious lent it may be best for me to be silent, X. M, 
4,28*. OvKiTL i-rrfriOcvTo, S^Siort? pr) a7rorpr)0€Lr}<Tav, they no 
longer made attacks, fearing lent they should be cut oJ}\ X.^.3,4^. 
*E4>oftovin-o p^-q Ti TrdOrj, they feared lest he should suffer anything 

(1309), x.%2,n, 

1379. N. The future indicative is very rarely used after pij in 
this construction. IJut ottujs prj is sometimes used here, as in the 
object clauses of 137*2, with both future indicative and subjunc- 
tive; as SfSotKtt oTTtu? prj avdynTj -ytvT^crcTai, I fear that there may 
come a necesaity, D. 9, 1'o. 'Ottui? prf here 13 the equivalent of pri^ 
thai or lest, in the ordinary construction. 



2M SYNTAX. [1380 

1380. Verbs oi fearing may refer to objects of fear which 
are present ov past Here fj.-^ takes the present aud past 
tenses of the indicative. E.g. 

AtSotKa fxrj TrX-rjyCfv Sf'ct, I fear that you need blows, Av.NA^Z. 
^o/SovfJuda fXT] u.fj.<fiOT(p(Mv afJjOL r}fJiapTrJKafJ.iv, we fear that we have 
viissed both at onccy T.3,53. ActStu fiij 6:7 ironn-a dta vrfficprta clntv., 
I fear that all which the Goddess said was true, Od. by'iOO. 'Opa p-rj 
TToU^wy tXcycvy beware lest he was speaking in jeat^ P. Th. 140''. 

VI. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

138L In conditional sentences the clause containing 
the condition is called the protasis, and that containing 
the conclusion is called the apodosis. The protasis is 
introduced by some form of €t\ if 

At for d is sometimes used in Homer. 

1382. The adverb av (epic /ce or Kh') is regularly 
joined to d in the protasis when the verb is in the 
subjunctive ; el witli dv forming idv^ av, or tjv. (See 
1299,2.) The simple d is used with the indicative 
and optative. Tlie same adverb dv is used in the 
apodosis with tlie optative, and also with the past tenses 
of the indicative Avhen it is implied that the condition 
is not fulfilled. 

1383. 1.' The negative adverb of the protasis is regu- 
larly /iTj, that of the apodosis is ov. 

2. When ov stands in a protasis, it generally belongs to some 
particular woid (as in ov noXXoi, few, ov <f>r}pi, I deny) , and not to 
the protasis as a whole; as idv t€ oif Kal 'Awro'i ov (prjre iav re 
<^7T€, both if you and Anytus deny it and if you adinit it^ V.Ap.2o^. 

1384. 1. The supposition contained in a protasis may 
be either particular or general. A particular supposition 
refers to a definite act ov to several definite acts, supposed 
to occur at some definite time or times; as if he (notv) has 
thisy he loill give it; if he had it, he gave it; if he had had 
the powevj he would have helped me ; if he shall receive it (or 
if he receives it), he will give it; if he .<ihoidd receive ity he 
would give it. A general supposition refers indefinitely to 
any act or acts of a given class, wJiich may be supposed to 



1387] 



THE MOODS. 



29/ 



occur or to Lave occurrecl at any time; as if ever he receives 
anything^ he (ahoayfi) gives it; if ever he received anythirig, 
he (always) gave it; if (on any occasion) he had had the power^ 
he would (always) have helped me; if ever any okc shall (or 
should) wish to goy he will (or would) always be permitted. 

2. Althougii this disUiictioii is seen in all classes of conditions 
(as tlie examples show), it is only in the present and past conditiojis 
wliicli do not imply non-fuJfilnient, i.e. in those of class 1. (below), 
tiiat t!ie distinction affects the constructioiu Here, howevei", we have 
two classes of conditions which contain only general suppositions. 

CLASSIFICATION OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

1385. The classification of conditional sentences is based partly 
on the time to which the supposition refers, partly on what is 
implied with regard to the fulfilment of the condition, and partly 
on the distinction between particular and general suppositions 
explained in ]384. 

1386. Conditional sentences have four classes, two (I. 
and II.) containing present and past suppositions, and two 
(III. and IV.) containing future suppositions. Class L 
has two formSj one (a) witli chiefiy particular sup\)ositions 
(present and past), the other (b) with only general suj)po- 
sitions (1. present, 2. past). 

1387. We have thus the l"ol lowing forms : — 

J. Present and past suppositions implying nothing as to 
fulfdment of condition : 

(protasia) u with indicative; (aporfosis) any 
ionn of the verb. Ei Trpacro-tt tovto, KaXZi^ 
*X^^) if ^^^ ^"'*> doing (his^ it is well. Et iTrpnit 
toOto, KaAws Ix^iy if he did this, it is well. (See 
1390.) — In Latin : .si hoc facit, bene est. 

1. (prot.) «ui' with subjunctive; (apud.) pres- 
ent indicative. 'Euc rt? kActttj^, KoXdicTai^ 
if any one (ever) sfenis, he is [always) pun- 
hhcd. (See 1393, 1.) 

2. (prot.) ci with optative; (apod.) imperfect 
indicative. E" rts- kX^tttoi, tKoXd^crOyifany 
one ever .'ifol^, lie was (always) puvished. 

I ^See 139", 2.) — For the Latin, see 1388. 



(a) Chiefly 
Particular : 



(b) General 



296 SYNTAX. [1386 

II. PrescDt aud past suppositions implying that the 
condition is not fulfilled : 

(protasis) £1 with past tense of indicative; (apodosis) 
\ydst tense of indicative with av. Et iirpa^e tovto, 
KaXa>? a^ t(rx^V} \f /'<? had done thiSy it would have been 
well. Et € IT pa a at tovto, KaXus av tt'x^^', if he were doivg 
this, it would {now) be well, ov if he had done this, it 
would have been well. (See 1397.) 

In Latin : si hoc faceret, bene esset (present) ; si hoc 
fecisset, bene fuisset (past). 

III. Future suppositions in more vivid forra: 

{prot.) idv with subjunctive (sometimes « with future 
indicative) ; (apod.) any future form. *Eav rrpauur] 
(or Trpdiij) TOVTO, KttAw? Uf-h if he shall do this (or if 
he does this), it will be well (sometimes also et Trpditi 
TOVTO, etc.). (See 1403 and 1405.) 

In Latin : si hoc faciet (or fecerit), bene eHt, 

IV. Future suj)positions in less vivid form : 

(prot.) d with optative; (apod.) optative with av. 

El IT pd(T<r 01 (or TTpd^iLe) tovto, kuXu*? Slv €;(0t, if he 

should do this, it would be tveU. (See 1408.) 
In Latin : si hoc faciat, bene sit, 

1388. N. The Latin commonly agrees with the English in not 
marking the distinction between the general and the particular 
present aud past conditions by different forms, and nse.s the indica- 
tive in both alike. Occasionally even the Greek does the same (1395). 

1389. N. In external form (lav with the subjunctive) the gen- 
eral present condition agrees witli the moro vivid future condition. 
]^ut in sense there is a much closer connection between the general 
and the particular present condition, wliich in most languages (and 
sotuelimes even in Greek) coincide also in form (1388). On the 
other hand, tdv with the subjunctive in a future condition agrees 
generally in sense with d and \}\ti future indicative (1405), and is 
never interchangeable with u and i\iQ present indicative. 

I. PRESENT AKD PAST CONDITION.S WITH J:^0TH1NG 
IMPLIED. 

(a) SlMJ'LK SL'I'I'OSITIONS, ChIKVI.Y P\TtTlCnLAR. 

1390. When tlie protasis simply states a present or 



1393] THE MOODS. 297 

past particular supposition, implying nothing as to the 
fulfilment of the condition, it haii tlie indicative with el. 
Any form of the vei'b may stand in the apodosis. U.g, 

El rjavx^OLv ^lXltttto^ ayiL, omirt 5a ktyuv, if Philip is keeping 
peace (with us)y we need talk no longer, l).8,o. Ei iyu) <PatSpov 
dyvoCif Kal ifiavTov iTTiXtXrjajJuaL' oXXa yap ovhirtpa Ion roimovs 
if I do not know Phaedrux, I have fovfjotien iwjaelf; hut neither of the ac 
is sOy p. Phdr. 22S^. Et $iov rjvy ovk rjv atV^poKcpSij?, if he toas the 
son of a God, he was not avaricious^ V.RpAOS^. 'AAA* il Sokci, 
vXiiiiptv, but if il pleases you, let us suilf S. Ph. G'JG. KaKiar* a-jroXoi- 
fir}v, BarStav tl firj <^tAw, viai/ 1 die most JvretchedlT/, if I do nut love 
Xanthias, Ar.R.blO. 

1391. N. Even the future indicative can btand in a pvotasis of 
tliis class if it (expresses merely a present intention or necesBity tliut 
sonietliing shall hereafter be done; as aTpe TrXrJKrpovy d pax^h 
raise your spur, if you are goi^ig io fight, Av. A o. 750. IIc*re d /x^'AAet? 
pjxxurOaL would be the jnore coiinnon expren^ion in prose. It is 
iniportant to notice that a future of this kind could never be changed 
to the subjunctive, like the ordinary future \n protasis (1405). 

1392. N. For present or piust conditions containing a potential 
indicative or optative (with av)y see H'21^3. 

(b) I'resent anu Past Glkekal Suri'OssrjiONS. 

1393. In general suppositions, tlie upodosis expresses 
a custoynary or repeated action or a ycntral truth in 
present or past time, and the protasis refers in a general 
way to any of a class of acts. 

1. Present general suppositions have edv \vitli the 
subjunctive in the protasis, and the present indicative 
(or some otlier present form denoting repetition) in the 
apodosis. E.g. 

*Hv c'yyvs tXOr) ^aruTO?, ovhth PovXirai SinjaKUv, if death 
comes near, no one is (ever) tcillivg to die, K. ^/. 07]. "Attu? Aoyo?, 
av Q.7rrj to. it pay pxxTay /xaratoV rt <^aivtTai Kal kivov, all speech, if 
deeds are wanting, a}/pears a vain and empty thing, J). 2, 12. 

2, Past general suppositions liave el with the opta- 
tive in the protasis, and the imperfect indicative (or 
some other form denoting past repetition) in the 
apodosis. E,^, 



298 SYNTAX. [1394 

Et TLva^ 0opvl3ovfi€vov<; atcr^oiro, KaTacr^ivvvvai Tr)v rapa;^i» 

€7r€LpaTo, if he saw any fulling into disorder (or whenever he .saw, 
etc.), he {always) tried to quiet the confusion, X. (A 5, 3". Et ns 
dvT€L7roL, €v$v<; TcOvrJKiL, if any one refused^ he was iimnediately 
put to death, T. 8, 66. This construction occurs only once in Homer. 

1394. N. The gnojnic aorist, wliich is a primary tense (12G8), 
can always be used here in the apodosls witli a dependent sub- 
junctive; as ^J^' ri? Trapa/JatVi;, ^ij/xiW aiVoi? iiriSKrav, if any 
one tranf^grens^eSy they {aiuunjs) lutposc a penally on hiru, X. C. l,Lf^. 

1395. N. Tiie indicative is occasionally nsed in the place of the 
subjunctive or optative in general suppositions; that is, these sen- 
tences may follow the construction of ordinai'y present and past 
snppositioivs (1390), as in Latin and English; as €1 n? Bvo rj /<at 
ttAcovj rt? ^i/Aepu? Aoyt'^erat, /^tarato's (UTiVy if any one counts on 
two or even more days, he is a fool, S. T?-. 9-i4. 

1396. N. Here, as in future conditions (1406), d (without av) 
is sometimes used with tlic subjunctive in poetry. In Ilonier this 
is the more frequent form in general conditions. 

11. PRESENT AND PAST CONDITIONS WITH SUPPOSI- 
TION CONTUAliY TO FACT. 

1397. When the protasis states a present or past sup- 
position, implying that the condition u not or wan not 

fulfilled^ the secondary tenses of the indicative are used 
in both protasis and a])odosis. The apodosis hay tlie 
advert av. 

The imperfect liere refers to present time or to an 
act as going on or repeated in past time, the aorist to 
a simple occurrence in past time, and the (rare) pluper- 
fect to an act completed in past or ])resent time. E.g, 

TavTu OVK av t^vvavTO -nou'lvy d fxy SuiLTr] fxtTpla IxpCiVTOy 
they would not he able (as they are) to do this, if they did not lead an 
absteinious life, X. C. l,'^^*'. TloXv av OavfjuxaTOTcpov rjvy €t fTipCtvTO, 
it would be for more wonderful, if they were honored, V. 2{pA6U^*. 
Et yo-av avBp(<; ayaOo\, ti? en; <^i79> ovk av ttotc ravra €7ra(JX<>Vy 
iff^^!/ ^i^d been good men, as yon say, they would never liaise suffered 
these things (referring to several cases), P. C. 51G«. Kat t(/a>9 ^v 
a-TTidavov, et /XT7 tJ apxr) KaTfXvdr), and perhaps I should have 
perished, if the government had not been put down^ V.Ap.^2^. Ei 



1401] THK MOODS. 2M 

^ir€XpLVti}, iAfai/u)9 a*' rjBrf €fi€}iaOi^Kr}f if yon had answered, 1 

should already have learned enough (which now I have not dnne)^ 
^.EuthyphAi'^, Ei fxr} i^cT? ^X^crc, iiropfivofXiOtx av iirl t6v 
^acrtAca, if you had not coync (aor.), \cc should now be on our way 
(impf.) to the King, X.^.2,ir 

1398. N. Ill Homer the imperfect in this class of sentences is 
always past (see //. 7,273 ; 8, 130) ; and the piesent optative is used 
where the Attic would have tlie iuiperfect referring lo present time; 
as el jxiv tl<; tov ovupov oAAo? iVia-mvy yj/tvho'; Ktv <f>aifxtv kul 
vO(T(f>Lt,ot/JiiOa fxaXkov, if any other had told this dream (13i)7), we 
should cad it a lie and rather turn away from it, 11.2, SO : see 24, 222. 

1399. N. In Homer the optati\'e with xe is occasionally past in 
apodosis; as koI vv Ktv Ivff aTroAotro AtKCta?, tl fxr) vnrjai 'A^po- 
StVi;, and now yicnca^ would there hnoc perished, had not Aphrodite 
perceived /am, //. 5,.3! I. (Ilfrc aTrolAtro \\otild bo tht3 le^uJar form 
in Homer, as in other Greek.) 

Homer lias also a past j>otential 0]>t:itive : see //. 5, 85. 

1400. 1. Tlio imperfects ihti, xpv^ ov ixPV^^ «^V''j «'*'^o? 
•^v, and others denotinij oblujatlou.^ propriety^ jjosdhility^ and 
tlie like, arc oft(;n used witli the inHnitive to form an 
apodosis implying the uon-fulfihncnt of a condition. "Av 
is not used here, as these pli rases simply express in other 
words what is usually ex])ressed by the indicative with av. 

Thus, iBit <J€ TOVTOv (fyiXiHv, you ought to love him (but do not), 
or you ought to have loved him (but did not), is substantially equiva- 
lent to you would love him, or would have loved him (^'^t'Act? av 
TovTov), if you did your duty (ra Siovra). So i^rjv (tol tovto 
TTOtrjo-ai, you might hax>c done thi^ (hut you did not do it); tiKos r)v 
CT€ TQVTO TToirjcniL, you would properly (ctKorws) have done this. 
The actual apodosis is licre always in the infinitive, and the reality 
of the action of the infi?iitive is generally denied. 

2. When the present infinitive is used, the constnuction 
refers to the present or to continued or repeated action in 
the past; wheu the aovist is used, it refers to the past. E.g. 

Tova^i fxy} ^rjv <6ti, these ought not to be liaing {as ihey are), 
S. P.4. 418. Mfvtiv yup ^^rjv, for he might hace stood his ground 
(but did not), 1). 3, 17. ^avclv gc xpv^ Trdpo<; Wkvwi', you ought to 
have died before your children, K. And. \20S. Et i^ovXtro BUauy; 
tLvai, €^v avr^ piaOuja-ai tov oIkov, he might have let the house, ij 
he had wished to be just, L.32,23. 

1401. N. Wlieu the actual apodosis is in the verb of obligation, 



300 SYNTAX. [1402 

etc., cSci av can be used ; as u ra Stoyra ovtol awtjiovkcvaav^ ovhtv 
av u/xas vvv cSct Iiov\f.\}f.a6ox, if these men had given you the advice 
you needed, there would now be no need of your deliberating, DA. I. 

1402. 1. Other imperfecta, esi^ecitilly IfiovXo^rjv, sometimes 
take the infinitive without av on the same principle witli eStt etc.; 
as €J3ov\6fjL7jv om (pi^ttv iyOdScy I would I were not contending 
here (rt.s- / am), or / would not be contending here, Ar. R. 8()G. 

2. So w^cAoj' or io4>(.XKov, ought, aorist and imperfect of oq!>AA(.>, 
owe (epic for o<^ctAa>), in Homer ; whence conies tlie use of w<^€Aoi' 
in wi.slies (loli') ; as w^<A« K{)po? t,riv, would that Cyrus were alive, 
X.A.2,1*, 

3. So ifj.€.\Xov with the infinitive; as <f>BiaiaOaL tfJukXov, «i firj 
iiiiri':, I should^ have perished (was about to peri-^h), if thou hadst not 
ji2)oken, Od.\'6,'6^Z. SoD.l!),15i). 

III. FUTURE CONDITIONS, MOKE VIVID FORM. 
SuiiJUNCTU'E IN l^noTASis WITH FoTuiui Apodosis. 

1403. When a supposed future case is stated dis- 
tinctly and vividly (as in English, if I shall go^ or if 1 
go)^ tlie protasis has the subjunctive with lav (epic eX 
Acf), and the apodosis has the future indicative or some 
other form of future time- E.g. 

El /xtV Ktv Mci/c'Aaoj' 'AAf'lttvSpo? Karav €4>v7j, avro? cTraff 
¥!iX€vY)y «;(cVu) Kai KTTJfxara Trajra, if Alexander shall slay Menelaus, 
then let him have Helen and all the goods himself //. 3,281. "Av ns 
dvOiCTTTJTaL, TTf-ifjaao^fOa xiLpovaSm, if any one shall stand opposed 
to us, we shall fry lo overcome him, X.A.7,^^^. 'Eav ovv Xr)^ vT^r, 
TTorc tcrci oIkoi ; if therefore you go noWy xohen will you he at home ? 
X. C. 5, 327. 

1404. N. The older Knglish forms if he shall ^o and if he go 
both express the force of the (ireek subjunctive and future indica 
tive in in-otasis ; but tlic ordinary modern Englif^h uses if he goes 
even wlien the time is clearly future. 

1405. The future indicative with ct is very often used 
for tlie subju'iictive in future conditions, as a still more 
vivid form of expression, especially in appeals to the feel- 
ings, and in tlireats and warnings. E.g. 

Et fir] Kadi^tLfi yX^dOdv, carat crot Kaxd, if you do not (shall 
not) restrain your tongue, you will have trouble, E. frag. 5. This com- 
mon use of the future must not be confounded with that of 1391. 



1413] TITE MOODS. 301 

1406. N. In Homer tl (without av or Kt) is sometimes used 
with the subjunctive in future conditions, apparently in the same 
sense as ti kc or yjv, as <t Sc vrj' iOtkr) oAco-ai, but if he shall wish to 
destroy our skip, Ot/. 12,348. Tliis is more common in general con- 
ditions in Homer (see 13P6). Tlie same use of el for idv is found 
occasionally even in Attic poetry. 

1407. N. For the Homeric subjunctive with Kt in the apodosis 
of a future condition, see 1305,2. 

IV. FUTURE CONDITIONS, LESS VIVID FORM. 
Optative in both Protasis and Aponosis. 

1408. When a supposed future case is stated in a less 
distinct and vivid form (as in English, if I should go), 
the protasis has the optative with el, and the apodosis 
has the optative with ai^. E.g. 

Eiv;? 4>op7jroi ovK av, tl irpd<T<TOi^ KaXws, you would not he 
endurable, if you shoultl be in prosperity, A.Pr.diy, Ov TroWrj av 
aXoyuj. CLT}, cl <f>ol3o2TO tov Odyarov 6 roiovTo<i ; v',ould it not be a 
Qreat absurdily, if such n man should fear death? l^y^/^G8^ OiKOt 
8' avTo?, d (pOoyyyjv Aa/ifot, (ra4>caTaT a»' At^tttv, but the house 
itself if it should find a voice, would spt-al: inos^t plainly, A.Ag.S7. 

1409. Tile optative with dv in apodosis is tlie potential opta- 
tive: see 1329. 

1410. IST. The future optative cannot be used in protasis or 
apodosis, except in indirect discourse representing the future in- 
dicative after a past tense (see the second example under 1497,2). 

1411. N. Et KC is sometimes found with the optative in Homer, 
in place of the simple d (1405) ; as d Sc kiv "Apyo^ Uoi^cd', . . . 
yafx^pofi kIv fxoi tot, and if we should ever Coyne to Argos, he would he 
my son-in-law, Jl.0, 141, 

1412. N. For the Homeric optative used like the past tenses of 
tbe indicative in umeal couditions, see 1308 and 1399. 

PECULIAR FORMS OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 
Ellipsis and Sddstitution in Protasis or Apodosis. 

1413. The protasis sometimes is not expressed in its 
regular form with el or tar, but is contained in a parti- 
ciple, or implied in an adverb or some other part of the 
sentence. When a participle represents the protasis, 



302 SYNTAX. [1414 

its tense is always that in which the verb iUelf would 
have stood in the indicative, subjunctive, or o[)tative, — 
the present (as usual) including the inipei'fect. U.t/. 

TIo)? hiKT)^ ovarj': 6 Zevf; ovk aTroXajXtv ; )ww is it thttt Zeus ha$ 
not been dcMrofjcd, if Jus! ice exists? (el Bikyj icxTLv), kv.NJMA. 2u 
Sc kXvujv tiaiL rd)(a^ but you icill soon know^ if you lUtcn (~ ihu 
/cAv)7<j), Ar. A v. \'oOi). 'AttoAoO^i fxr) tovto /xa^wv, / shall be ruhicd 
unless I learn this (<a.v /Jtv) /za^w). Towi'Tct ray ywai^l crvwaiuiv 
€)(Ot<j, such thirii/s louuid yon hove to endure if you should dwell among 
women (i.e. (X fjvvvnioi':) , k.Se.Vj'y. ^YiTrLdr-qcnv nv rif: aKovaa<i, 
any one would have disi/elieveti (sutdi a thing) if he had heard it (i.e. <; 
■iJKovcriy), 'i\7/2S. Mafifxav 8' av atTT/tra^ro? (.^c. aoZ) tjkov aot 
<^€pa>v av apToy, and if yoxi (ever) cried for fwd (tl aiTT;<Ttuis, 
139;J, li), / used to eame to you with bread (1200), Ar.iV. 13b:i. 

Ata ye vj/xus avrovfi ttulXui u.y d?roX(jjX«iT«, if it had di'pendtd on 
yourselves^ you would long Ot/o have been ruined, }).\S,4U. Ovno 
yap ovKtTL rov \017rov TrdaxoifJitv av Katcio^^for in that casr joe should 
no longer sujfer harm (Llie protasis l)ciiig in outoj), X. /1.1,1'°. 
0»j5' Kv StKutW <s /caKov TTiaoifXL Ti, nor should I justly (i.e. if I had 
justice) full into any trouble, S. j4ri.*240. 

1414. 1. Tliere is a (probably unconscious) .suppression of tiio 
verb of the protasl.'^ in several plirasos introduced by et /x7/, except. E.g. 

Ti? Toi aAAo? 6fxoio<;, el ^rj UaTpoKXoq; who else is like you, except 
Pairoc/us (i.e. unless it is J\)'/ //. 17,475. El firj 8ia rbv trprrraviv, 
tVtVtatv dv, had it not been for the Pryianis (except for the /^), /c 
would hare been thrown in (to (he /*'V), P. G. 516*. 

2. The .protasis or the a]>odo.sis, or \)Otli, may be supi)ressed 
with the Homeric tu? el or o>? el t< ; as rdv yec<; i^Keiai w<; el -irTtpov 
r)k y6T)fm, their ships are .swift as a wing or thtfught (as they would be 
if they were, etc.), Of/. 7, 30. 

For the double ellipsis in aJo-n-cp S.v tl, see 1313. 

1415. N. In neither of the cases of 1414 is it probable that any 
definite verb was in the speaker's jnind. 

1416. N. The apodosis is sometimes entirely suppicssed for 
rhetorical cfTect; as el fiey Sioaovcri yepa^, if they shall give vie a 
prize, — very well, HA, 135 ; cf. 1 , 58{), 

1417. N. Et he /xtJ without a verb often has the ineaning other- 
wise, even where the clause would not be negative if completed, or 
wiiere the verb if snp])lied would be a subjmictive; as ^r) TToi^o-r}<; 
Tavra * el he pLrj, alriav (i€i<:, do not do this : ofh^rnnse (if you do not 
do what I say) you will he blamed, X.An.7, 1«. 



1421J THE MOO])S. 303 

1418, The apodosis may be expressed by an infinitive or 
participle in intlirect discourse, each tense representing its 
own tenses of the indicative or optative (1280; 1285). If 
the fiijitc verb in the apodosis would have taken av^ this 
particle is used with tlie infinitive or participle. E.g. 

'Hyovfiai, tt TOirro Troictrt, irdvTa KaXCy*; t^^ctVy I believe thai, if 
you are dooifj ihis; all is v:ell ; yyovfjuu, tai' tovto TroirJTC^ TraVra 
KoAio*; cicLv, I believe that, ^f you (shall) do ihis, all will be well; oiSu 
vfjLo.'i, i^v TovTa ytv-qrai^ tv Trpa^ovTa^, J hww thai i/ou will prosper if 
thif: is (shall he) done. For examples of tlie infinitive and participle 
wiUi av, .see 1;308. 

1419, The apodosis may be expressed in an infinitive 
not in indirect discourse (1271), especially uuc depending 
on a verb of loishhnj^ cormnanding, adoislng, etc., from which 
the infinitive receives a future meaning. E.g. 

BouAcTui iXdilv iay tovto ytvrjTaL, he wishes to (jo if this (shall) 
be (lone: KtXivoj Vfjui^ t'ai' o^':vya$€ airikOuy, I counnaud yon to 
depart if you can. For llu* |)rincii>le of iiidirecL discourse which 
appears in iha protaais hero after past tenses, yee \^){Y2,\. 

1420, N, Somotinies tlic apodosis is inercly inij)lied in 
tlie (jontt^xt, and in such cases a' or Idv is often to be 
translated supposing thaty in case that, if perchance, or if 
haply. E.g. 

"AKovfjoy KO.L (fj.ov, far oroi Tavrd SoKy^ hear me also, in case (he 
same shrdi please you (i-e. that then you may assent to it), F. /^/j. 358**. 
Su TT/jos 7:^1' TToXiyy CL iTTL^orjOoLt y, i)(i!}povy, (hey marched towards 
the city, in case they (the cili::eJis) should ru.'^h oui (i.e. to meet them 
if they should rush out), T. 6, 100. On tliis principle we must 
exjilain at k<V ttcu? ^ouAcrat, if haply he may wish (i.e. in hope (hat 
he may wish)y //.],()'(); ai k tOiXrja^a, Oc/.3,9i^; and siniilar pah- 
sages. For thi^ construction, both in Homer and elsewhere, see 
Mtwds and 'Jhisc.^, §^ 48G-4U1, 

MlXi:i> CONSTRI'C'UONS. — A«? IN Apoi>osis. 

1421, The ]j rotas is and ai)odosis sometimes belong to 
different forms. 

1. Especdally any tense of the indicative with tl in the 
protasis may be followed by a potential optative with dv in 
the apodosis. E.g. 

El Kar ovpavov ilX-nkovda^, ovk av Biolui fiaxoLp.r}Vi if you 



304 SYNTAX. [1422 

have come down from heaven^ I would not fight against the GodSy 
II. 6y 128. Ei vvv yt hvcTTVXOVficVy ttuj? Tavayr^ av TrpaTTOvrts ou 
crw^oifiid' av ; if we are now unfortunate^ how could we help being 
saved if we should do the opposite ? Ar. R, 1449 (liere irpdTTovT(.<i = d 
irpaTTOt/xcj/). Et ovTOt op^w? aTTi<jry)<jav, vpti'i av ov )(pt<j)v ap)(^OLTt^ 
if these had a right to secede, you cannot (could not) possibly hold your 
power rightfully, T.3, 40. 

2. Sometimes a subjunctive or a future indicative in the 
protasis has a jjotential optative in the apodosis. E.g. 

*Hv <<^?f? ^loi, kt^ixL^ avy if you (will) permit m<?, / would fain 
speak, S. ^/. 554; ovh( yap av TroAAat yc<f>vpaL wcrtv, t)(OLfxcv av 
oTTOt <f)vy6vTt<i cTiDOiOfxiv, foY Hot cvcH if ihcre shall be many bridges, 
could we find a place to Jiy to and be $aved,X*A.2yi^^ ; d^t-KOLrjpcv 
av, d prj d7ro8ui(T(u, / should be guilty of wrong, should 1 (shall 1) 
not restore her, E. Hcl. 1010. 

3. A potential optative (witii av) may express a present condi- 
tion, and a potential indicative (with av) may express a present or 
paat condition ; as tl-mp aXXw rw TraOoLprjv av, Kal aol -miOofiaL, 
if there is any man whom I would trust, J trust you, P. Pr. 329'>, il 
rovTO l(T)(vp6v Yjv av roirrw TtKfXijpiov, Kafxol ytvicr6(ji TiKfXTjpiov, if thh 
would have been a strong proof for him^ so let it be also a proof for 
me, D.40,58. 

1422. The apodosis is sometimes introduced by St, aXkd, 
or avrdp, which caunot be translated in English. E.g. 

El St K€ fxi] hitujjcTLv, iyijj he Kiv avros ^Aoj/jUii, but if they do not give 
her up, then J will take her myself J 1. 1, 137. 

Ei AFTEK VerDS OF WONVBIIISG, KTC. 

1423. Some verbs expressing wonder^ delight, contentment^ 
disappointvient, indignation, etc. are followed by a i>rotasis 
with «i where a causal sentence would often seem more 
natural. E.g, 

Qavfxd^iji S' ?y(jy£ ti jXY)Bcl<i v/xdv p.Y}T cvOvfxurai fx^T opyi^crai, 
and J wonder that no one of you is either concerned or angry (lit. ij 
no one of you is, etc., I wonder), D. 4,43; ayavaKrCi tl a vou) fir) 616s 
T tlfxl d-n-c'Lv, I am indigiiant that (or if) / am not able to say what I 
mean, P.Z,at7i. 194*. See also 150'2, 2, for the principle of indirect 
discourse applied to these sentences. 

1424. K. Such verbs are especially Oav^xd^d}, alcrx^opxn, aya- 
nddi, and ayavaKTioi. with Savov ccrni'. They sometimes take otl, 
because, and a causal sentence (1505). 



J428J TiiE MOODS. 505 

VII. RELATIVE AND TEMPORAL SENTENCES. 

1425. 'l'^® principles of construction of relative clauses include 
3.11 temporal clauses. Those introduced by €io%, irplv, and other 
particles nieajiing untily have special peculiarities, and are there- 
fore treated separately (1403-1474). 

Relative clauses Juay be introduced by relative pronouns or 
adverbs. 

1426. The ant-ecedent of a relative k either definite 
or indefinite. It is definite when the relative refers to 
a definite person or thing, or to some definite time, 
place, or manner; it is indefinite when no such definite 
pei*son, thing, time, place, or manner is referred to. 
Both definite and indefinite antecedents may be either 
expressed or understood. JE,(/, 

(Dejinite.) TaCra a €)(a> opa?, yoa see these things which I have; 
or a €X^ 6pa9- 'Ore i^ovXtro yXBtp, (once) when he xolshedy he came. 

(Indefinite.) TTavTa a av ^ouXa)vTat c^ovatv, they will have every^ 
thing which they may want ; or a av jiovKmTai ^ovGiy, they mil have 
whatever they viay want. "Orav IXBgj touto irpd^ijiy when he shall comv 
(or when he comes)^ I will do this. "On ^ouAotro, Tovro €7rpao-cr<j', 
whenever he wisftedy he (always) did this. 'Cl<i av (liru), Troito/xev, as / 
shall direct, let us act. "^A t;(£t /?ouAo/Aat Xa/^civ, I want to take what- 
ever he ?ias. 

DEFINITE ANTECEDENT. 

1427. A relative as such has no effect on the mood 
of the following verb. A relative with a definite ante- 
cedent therefore may take the indicative (with ov for 
\\s negative) or any other construction which could 
occur in an independent sentence. JS.cf. 

Tis €gO* 6 xtopo? S^T* <V w PtpyKafiiv; what is the place to which 
we have conief S. 0. C. iVJ. "Kw*: i<nl xatpo?, 6.vri\dfi<.<yOi tC>v 
7TpayfxaTii)v, (now) while there is an opportunity^ take hold of the busi- 
ness, D. ),yO. TovTo oi'K tTTOLrjcrtu, iv w Tov S^/xov €TLpr)mv av, he did 
not do this, in vjhich he might have honored the people, D. 21,09. So 
pYj ytvoiTo, and may this not happen, D.27,67. 

INDEFINITE ANTECEDENT, — CONDITIONAL RELATIVE. 

1428. 1. A relative clause with an indefinite antece- 
dent has a conditional force, and is called a conditional 
relative clause, s Its negative is always pLij. 



306 SYNTAX. [1429 

2. Relative words, like d, if, take av htsfore the subjunc- 
tive. (Sec 1299,2.) AVith ort, o7roV«, tVa, and (Va8>;, aV 

forms oraf, oTTOravy iirav or ctttJ^ (louic cVeaf), au(l cVttSaj/. 
"a witli av may form a;/. ]ii Jfoiner we generally find ore 
Ki etc. (like d kc, 1403), or or< etc. alone (1437). 

1429. Coiulitional relative sentences have /o?t>* classes, 
two (I. II.) containing prei^dit and pant^ and two (III. 
IV.) containing /u^ii'/'^ conditions, wliicli cori-e.spond to 
those of ordinary protasis (1386). Class T. hiis two 
forms, one (^0 with chiefly particnlar suppositions, tlie 
otiier (I)} wjth only gen(;ral snppositions. 

1430. I. (a) Present or past condition simply stated^ 
with the indicative, — chiefly in particular suppositions 
(1390). E.g, 

"O Ti /Sovkirai So'icro), / will give km vJmtcn^r he {now) wishes 
(like €1 Ti /^oijAcnit, h^^(jiii, if he now wi^'hcs ayn/thing, 1 will (five it). 
**A fXf) otSa, ouS* oro/tii u^ivaL, what I do not know, J do not even think 
} know (like a. Tii'a /jltj oi^Su, if there are any things which I do not 
know), P. /4;;. 21^; ov^ /jltj tvpiaKov, Kf.vord(^LOv nvroU inoirjaav, 
for anj/ whom they did not fnd {- u r^^as ixi] ivptaKOv), they raided 
a cenotaph, X.C,4^. 

1431. (^) 1. l^i'esont general condition, depending on 
a present form denoting repetition, with subjunctive 
(1393.1)'. 

2, Past gejieral condition, depending on a past form 
denoting rejKHition, with optative (1^593, 2). E,(/. 

"O Tt t.v fiovXrjToL h'.iuifxt, 1 {(iUvay-<) give him whatever he wnnt^ 
(like (dv Ti l^ovXrjTaL, if ha cocr wants anything)', o tl /JovXoito 
iBi^ovv, J (always) yaae him whatever he wanted (Hke d ti J3ovX.oito). 
1.VfJifJ.a)(Uv TOVTOi^ (OikovtJLu uLTravTt<i, ov? dv op oj a i TrapKTKtvaa^t- 
vov^, all V}i.<h to he alUc^ of rho>:e whom they see prepared, D. 4,G. 
'WvLK dv otKOi yivijiVTai, BpCxjLv ovk dt'acrj^cra, when they get home, 
they do things unhennddt^, Ai. 7-^^. 1 17.'). Ov\ piv iSot furaKrajs 
lovras, TtVcs t<: €t<i' i/puJTu. Kal i-nd ttvOolto iirgvii, he ((f/i"at/<:) 
asked those whom he saw (at any time) marching in good order, v^ho 
they were; and when he learned, he praised them. X. C5. ri^''. *E7rttOv; 
Sc avotx^^tv;, darjiLptv rrtxpd tov ^oyKparr}, and {each morning) 
when the prison was opened, we went in to Socrates, F.Ph.bii^. 



1437] THE MOODS. 307 

1432. N, The indicative soinetimes takes the place of the sub- 
junctive or optative hore, as iu other j^eneral euppositions (1395). 
This occurs csi)ecially with o err is, which itself expresses the same 
idea of in^efinitcnoss which ov wJtli the .suhjunctive or (jptative 
usiiall}' expresses; as ocrrcs firj tu)v apLO-rtjjv anriTai jSovXtVfid- 
rwvy KaKtcTTOs ilvai BokiI, whoever does not ding to the best counsels 
see7TV< to he mo^i hose, S.Ati. US. (Here 6'i av }xy) arrTTjTac would be 
the comniott expies-ioii.) 

1433. II. Present or past condition stated so as to 
i)i)ply that the condition is not or was not fulfilled 
(^supposition contrary tofact^^ witli the secondary tenses 
of indicative (1397). U.g, 

*A fxY) ij^ovXtTo Sowai, ovK av tSoiKiv, he would not have given 
what he had not wished to </ive (like d riva /at; e/^orAcTO 6o^;^'at, ovk 
av cSwKti/, if he had not wished to give certain {hing,<, he would not 
have given them). Ovk av i-nc^'apov^cv Trparruv a {xrj -qitKyra^cda, 
we should not {theri) be vrnderiakiug to do (as we now are) thinysi which 
we did not undfrsiand (like u rira pL-rj ^Trio-ra/xt^a, if there were any 
things which we did not understand^ the wliole belonging to a suppo- 
sition not realized), R Ch. J7l^ So ov yijpa? cT€Tfitv, Od. ], i?]8. 

Tjii.s case occins much less frequently than tlic others. 

1434. HI. Future condition in the mor& vivid form, 
with dv and the subjunctive (1408). JS.g, 

"O Ti av (:iovkt)TaL, Swcrw, / will give him whatever he may wish 
(like idv Tt /^ovXyjTaL, Siurrw, if he shall wis-h an?/thing^ J null give it). 
Orav firj (xBivu), Trcndva-ofxaL, when I (shall) have no more Strength, 
J ,'^hall cease^ S. An. 9]. AXoxovi kuc vyma tIkvh a^Ofifv Iv jo^cfrcrtr, 
tTTTjv -nroXUOpov c A w /x c i/, we will bear off their wives and young chil- 
dren in our ships, when we (shall) have ta/.en the city, //. 4,288. 

1435. N. The future indicative cannot be substituted for the 
6ubjunctiv»i here, as it can in common jirotasis (1405). 

1436. IV. Future condition in the less vivid form, 
with the optative (1408). K(/. 

"O TL /3ouXoLTo, Soltjv dv., J should give him whatever he might 
wish (like ti Tt j3o\}XoLTo hoirjv dv, if he should ivish anything, I should 
give it). Uuvl^v <l>dyoL dv 'Won jiovXoiro, if he were hungry, he 
would cat whenever he wi(/hi wish (like tl nort (^ovXoito, if he should 
ever wish), X.M.'2, V^. 

1437. Conditional relative sentencefi have luost of the pecnli- 
arities and irregularities of common protasis. Thus, the protasis 



308 SYNTAX. [1438 

and apodosis may have different forms (H21); the relative with- 
out dv or K«' is sometimes found in poetry with the subjuuctive 
(like €1 for idv or a Kt, 139G; HOC), especially in general condi- 
tions in HoiJier; the relative (like a, 1411) in Homer may take kc 
or dv with the optative; tlie relative clause may depend on an 
infinitive, participle, or other constrnction (1418; ]410) ; and the 
conjunction Se may connect the relative clause to the antecedent 
clause (1422). 

1438. Homeric similes often have the subjunctive with tu? ore 
(occasionally oj? or av), sometimes with cu? or tu? tc ; as w? ore 
Kiv7J(Trj Zt4>vpo<; paOv Xrjf.ovy as (happens) whtn the xueM wind moves 
a deep grain-Jield, 11. '2^ 147 ; uj? yvvrj KkaLrjcrt . . . a)?*08ucr«v? SaKpvov 
f-l/Scv, as a wif^ weeps, etc., so did Ulysses shed lears, Od.Syb'2'd, 

ASSIMILATION IN CONDITIONAL RKLATIVE CLAUSES. 

1439. When a conditional relative clause expressing 
eitlier a future or a general supposition depends on a sub- 
junctive or optative, it regularly takes the same mood by 
assimilation. E.g. 

'Eav Ttr«? dl av Suvwrrat tovtq 7roLu)(7i, KaXCxi €$€!., if any xoho 
via y be able shall do this, it will be well; d riK? dl hvvaLvro tovto 
TTOiotcr, KakCjq av €';(Oi, if any who should he (or were) able should 
do thiSy it v)Ould be well. Et'^c ir<ivTt<; ol hvvaivTO tovto iroiotcv 
thai all who may be (or were) able would do this. (Jiere the opta- 
tive TTOiouv [1507] makes dl SumiKro preferable to dl ay Swtuirai, 
which would express the same idea.) 'ETreiSat' wr av -n-pLrjTai. 
KvpKy; yti^Tot, when (in any case) he becomes xnastcr of what he has 
bought, D. 18,47. 'H? aTrdAotro Koi aA-Xos, o ri? touivto. yi pe^oi, 
that any other might likewise peiish who should do the lih'e, Od. 1, 47, 
TeOvCLL-qv oT€ yiOL fir]K€TL ravra ;xf Aoi, vioy 1 die whenever J shall 
no longer care fir these {orav fieXg would express the same idea), 
Minm. 1, 2. So in Latin: Injurias quas ferre nequeas defugiendo 
relinquas. 

1440. Likewise, when a conditional relative sentence 
depends on a s-.condary tense of the indicative implying 
the uon-fulhhnent of a condition, it takes by ^assiniilatiou 
a similar form. E.g. 

El TLvc^ dl iBvvavTo tovto c trpa^av, kuXoj? av eix^v, if any who 
had been able had done this, it would have been well. EI <V tKimj tyj 
<f)wi/rj Ti Kol tw Tpowiu fktyov iv ol? €7 t6pdppy]v, if I were speak- 
ing to you in the dialect and in the manner iti which I had been 



1447] THK MOODS. 309 

irrought up (all introduced by tl ilvo<; Irvyxo-^ov uyv, if I happened to 
be a foreigner), V.Ap. 17''. So in Latin : Si .solos tos diccres miseros 
quibus inoriendum esset^ nemiiieiu tu quideni eorum qui viverent 
exciperes. 

1441. N. All clauses which come under this principle of assimila- 
tion belong (as conditional forms) equally under 1434, 1436, 1431, or 
1433. This principle often decides which form shall be used in future 
conditions (1270, 2). 

RELATIVE CLAUSES EXPRESSING PURPOSE. 

1442. The relative with the future indicative may ex- 
press a purpose. E.g. 

Xlpiuf^uavTripTrtLv rJTis ravr *ptt Kal Trapttrr at rot? TrpdypacriVy 
to send an embassy to say thL% and to he presftu at the (ran^action^^ 
D. 1,2. Ou yap tCTTi, poL ^pyjpaTa, ottoOiv Iktig ui^for J have no 
money to pay the fine with, V. A p. '67^. 

The antecedent here may be deiinjU! or indefinite; but the 
negative particle is always pt'), as in final clauses (1301). 

1443. X. Homer generally has tlie subjunctive (with k( joined 
to the relative) in this construction after ])rimary tenses, and the 
optative (without kc) after secondary tenses. The ojit.itive is 
sometimes found even in Attic prose. The earlier (Jreek here 
agrees with the Latin. 

1444. N. In this construction the future indicative is very 
rarely changed to the future optative after past tenses. 

RELATIVE CLAUSES EXPRESSING RESULT. 

1445. The relative with any tense of the indicative, or 
with a potential optative, may express a result. The nega- 
tive is ov. E.g. 

Ti9 ovTio fJuiiiviTaL ocTTU OV ^ov\tTa{ COL <f>i\o<; ctvai; who iV so 
mad that he does not wish to be your friend'? X. /I.il, 5^-. (i/ere 
CxjTt ov ^ouAcrai would have the same meaning.) Oi'SeU av yivoLTo 
ouTti>9 dSa/Aai'Tii'09, o^ av pttvutv Iv rrj SiKatoaw^^, no one would ever 
become so like adamant that he would remain firm in his Justice 
(= Z(TTC piLVf.i.iv av), V.Rp.'^QO^. 

1446. N. This is equivalent to the use of (xkttc witii tlie finite 
moods (1450; 1454). It occurs chiefly after negative leading 
clauses or iiitcrrogatives implying a negative. 

1447. The relative with a future (sometimes a preseut) 



310 SVNTAX. [1448 

indicative inay express a result which is aimed at. The 
negative here is fxij. E.g. 

El';^cto fJirjSefiMV ol <TvvTvX''y}V yf.vi.aBai. rj fxiv Travati KaTaarpi.. 
xparrOai rrjy EupionrjVy he pidtjvd that no such chance imght befall him 
as io prercuf him from sixltjugaung Europe {— uJcrrc }xiv Travcrai), lid. 
7,54. hovkyjOeU TOioVTOv p.vr)p.<Xov Kj.Taknr(.iv o fxrj tyJ<; avOp(jj7TL\/ij^ 
<^v(T<w<; iuTiv, when he wt.^hctl to Icar-e such a memorkil as miyhi he 
bifyimd human nature ( = wore fiy etmi), 1.4,89. 

1448. N. Tills coiKStructiou (1147) is generjiUy equivalent to 
that of uJo-re witli the iiifijiilive (1450). 

CONSICCUTIVt: CLAUSES WITH THK INFIKITIVK AND 
THE FINITE MOODS. 

1449. "'ilare (sometimes w?), so as, so that, is used 
wifJi tlie indiiilive and with the indicative to express 
a res\ilt. 

1450. With the infinitive (the negative being /xy), the 
result is stated as one which tlie action of the leading verb 
tevrls to ])roduce; with tiie indicative (the negative being 
oi;)j as one which that action actuall}' does produce. E.g. 

njr voLovuiv (jCTTt ^LK-qv fxT) BiBovai, they do everything so as 
(i.e. in such a v:ay a.^) not to be ^ninished, i.e. they aim at vol being 
puninhcd, not implying that they actually ef^cape ; P.6\479*". (But 
■nav TTOLomLV JJorc StVi^f ov hiZocKiLv would tueau (hey do everything 
.^0 thai they art not puni.shcd.) OJtoj? ayew/xokoj? ^X^^^^ <«j<7T< ikiri- 
^€r€ avrk XPV^^^ ytinfo-eo-Oau are you so scnsrJess (hat you expect 
than (0 become good? D.2/26. (But with (ucrre tXmXap the moan- 
ijig would he i^o senseless as to expect, i.e. aenseleK-i enough to expect, 
without implying necessafily that you do expect.) 

1451. N". Tliese two constructions arc e.ssentially distinct in 
their nature, even wiien it is indifferent to tlie general sense 
whicli is used in a givpn ca^e ; as in oiIjtu)? ^cttI Buvot tZart Slkt^v 
pi^ SiSovai, he in .<to i^kilful as not to be. punished , ?t,\)d ovtoj? «aTt 
Sfivo? wan ^Kr)u ov BiSuxriv, he u .'io skdful that he in not punished. 

TUe use of p^y with tlie infinitive and of ov with the indicative 
shows that the distinctiou was really felt. Wiien the infinitive 
with woT€ lias ou, it generally represents, iu indirect discourse, an 
indit^ative witli ov of the direct form (see Moods and Tew^es, 
§§ .^04-508). 

1452. 'J'he infinitive \vi:h oJ<jtc uniy express a jmrpose like a 



5460] THE MOODS. 311 

gjial clause: see aJcrre BUr^v fxr) SiBovai {= ivjl fxi) StSuiai)) Ojuoted in 
1450. It iiia,y also be equivalent to an object clause with ottws 
(I37'i) ; ^^ i" fiyj)(ava'; cvfj-jaofxtvy wcrr' i<; ro'irav at tujvS' draAAa^at 
fl-oftuv, t^^ w''*'^^ /^*''/ (ictuces to a-liolly free you frovi these, troublea 
(~ oTTU)? <T€ dTraAAa^o/jC€»'), A.^u. 8J. 

1453. 'J'he infinitive after wgt< soniotimes expresses a 
condition, like that aftei- <</>* j; or €(^' (Trt (1460). J^.g. 

*E^ov avToU Tu)v XoLTr<ov apxc-y'^XXyvw, w(Tt' avVov? v-rraKOVKLp 
jSafTiXih 2' b^iruj in their power to rule thf. rest of the Orceh, on coynH- 
tion thai (hey should ihem^elve? obey the Kiu/jy I). 0, U. 

1454. As wcTTt with tlie iudicalive ha^ no eiTect on tlie form 
of tbe verb, it may be used iji the same way with any verbal form 
wiiicli can stand in an independent sentence; as wo-t' ovk av avrw 
yv<tipicrai}xi, .s'O thai 1 should not Icnow hi?/i, ]•-. Or. liVli ; wcrrc fxrj 
kiav (TT€v€y s>} Jo not hmey)( overmuch, S. EL 1 \~'2. 

1455. N. 'lis re (never toari) in Homer has the infinitive only 
twice; elsewhere it means simply as, like i^aTrtp. 

1456. 'C? is sonietimes usf^d like ohtt^ with the infinitive 
and the finite moods, but chieHy in Aeschylns, Soi)liocleSj 
Herodotus, and Xenojihon. 

1457. N. V^oi'bs, adjecUvys, and n<mns which commonly take 
tlie simj^le infinitive occasionally have tlie iurniilivu with Cam or 
oj?; a.S \pY]<^Ladfxiyoi Z<m dpLvv^iVy hacitig voted to defi^xl them, T. 6, 
fiy ; TTiLBovaiv iudTi f-rrix^tprjaaL. they persuade them to make an 
attempt, T. 3, 102 ; <f>poi'i.fXwT€pOL wart yxu^cip, toiler in leaniitiQ, 
X. (7.4,3'^; oAi'yoi out <yKpaT€l^ clyai, too few to have the power, 
X. C 4,5'^; dfayKij wcttc Kiv^vvf-vuv, a nccci^siii/ of incurriJig 7'isk, 
J. 0,51. 

1458. N. In tlie some way (1457) <ZaT€ or oJs wdth the infinitive 
may follow j.h*- co(n]>arative with rj (lo3l); as iXdrrw l^oi^ra 
ouVu/xiv r/ locrrc row? <^tAof? d/<f>eXu}^, having too liiiiti power to aid his 
friends, X.//.4.M-'3. 

1459. N, "O-tsTi or di% is occasionally followed by a participle; 
as oJCTTf CTKtipaaOaL Sc'oi/, .so that tve innst cousidej'} D. iJ, 1. 

1460. 'E(jE>* w or €<^' aire, on condition that, is followed by 
the infinitivOj and occasionally by the future indicative. .£.</. 

A<^te/i<V 0"£, l-nX rovTt^ fj.fvTOL, «<^' a>T< pt)K.irL <f)i\oao4>€iPy toe 
rt-Uase youy hut on this condition, that you tihall no lomjer he a phUoso- 
pher, V. Ap.2il''-; inl toutw vrrc^io-Taput, t<f>* wrc vtt* ovSfi/o<; v//fW 
ap$op(n, [withdraw on this condition, that J ^hali he ruled by none 
of you, Hd.3,y.3. 



312 SYNTAX. [U61 

CAUSAL RELATIVE. 

1461. A relative clause may express a cause. The verb 
is in the indicative, as in causal seuteuces (1505), and the 
negative is generally oi. IC.g. 

©av/xucrrui/ ttolci^, os -^ixiv ovSiv StSojs, t/ou. do a strange Odng in 
giving us noihing (like ort av ovhlv StSw?), X. ;1/. 2,7^2. go^a? d.}m$i<t. 
ctfat, OS . . . €ict'Atv€, believing him to he unlearned^ because he 
commanded^ etc., Hd. 1,33. 

Compare causal relative sentences in Latin, 

1462. N. When tlie negative is /at), the sentence is conditional 
as wel! as causal; as ToAatVwpo? «?, <J /xvJtc Btol TrarptZot ttat /xij^' 
upuL, you are wr^eiched^ since you have neither anc€i<irai gods nor le^n- 
pies (\my>\yhig also if you really have none), P.£u.302^ Compare 
the use of siquidem in Latin. 

temporal particles signifying until and 
U£:fore, 

"Etiis, to-Tt, axpij H^*XP''i ^^^ i>4>pa. 

1463. Wlien i'w?, tore, axpt, M^XP'? ^^^^ ^^^^ ^P'^ o<^/)a mean 
wA;7e, .vo /c/i^ as, they are not distinguished in their use 
from other relatives. But when they mean ufitily they have 
many peculiarities. Homer has do? or dui<; for tws. 

1464. Wlieii €(x)^, t'cTTe, dxph f^^XP''> ^"^ o(j)pa, until, 
refer to a definite past action they take the indicative, 
usually tli« aoi'ist. ^.</. 

Nijxoy TToAiv, €to? iirrjXOov cts Trora/AoV, f swam on again, until 
I came into a riva; O(/.7,280. Tuvra tVoiou*', fi^XP*- '^'^oros iyi- 
v€TO, this they did until darhies^ came o«, X.yl.4,2^, 

This is tlie construction of the relative witli a definite antece- 
dent (1427). 

1465. These particles follow tlie couiitruction of con- 
ditional relatives in both forms of future conditions, in 
unfulfilled conditions, and in present and past general 
suppositions. E.g. 

*E7rto-;(«9, €crr av kqI to. Xolttu tt poa {idOr}':, wait until you (shall) 
learn the rest besides (1434), A.Pr.OOl. EiVot/u.* af • • * <<o« Trapa- 
TCLvaL^L Tovrov, J should tdl him, etc., uniil I put him to tor/tire 
(H30), X.CM,;i". 'HSt'ws ai' tovtw m (^uKcyofxrjVy tws aura?. . . 
aTTc'Soj Ka, / should (in that case) gladly have continued to talk wiih 



1471] THE MOODS. 313 

Aim uniil I had given him back, etc. (1433), P. (7.506 . *A K Sv 
auvvraKTa ^, dydyKj] ravra aei irpayfmra 7rap()(eiv, cw? av x(l)pav 
ka^l)} ^'hatever things are in disorder, these must abcays make travhle 
until they arc put in order (]431, 2), X.C4, y^'. Xl(pi(fi(vofi(y 
€Kd(TTOTC^ €0)? dvoL^^Oftr) TO ^tCT^iHTT^pLOVy wc waitsd each day until 
the prison was opened (1431, 2), l\Ph. Gy<*. 

1466. N, The omission of dv after these particles, when the 
verb is in the subjunctive, is more coinmon tiian it is after el or 
ordinary relatives (1406), occurring sometimes in Attic prose; a.s 
fj.eXP' 'f^^c^O? yiv7]TaL, until the ship sailSy T. 1,137. 

1467. CJauses itUroduced by ea>9 etc. freqiiently iiiiply a pur- 
pose ; see the examples under MG5. When such clauses depend 
upon a past tense, they adinit tiie double construction of indiiect 
discourse (1502, 3), like final clauses (18G9). 

1468. N. Homer uses ch o ta, until, like cwy kc) and Herodotus 
uses ii o and e? ov like Jws. 

npiv, before, until. 

1469. Tiph h followed by the infinitive, and also 
(like €U)<;) by tlie finite moods. 

1470. In Homer irpiv generally has the infinitive without 
reference to its meaning or to tlie nature of the leading 
verb. But in other Greek it liay the infinitive chiefly when 
it means simply before and when the leading clause is 
affiriTiative; it has the finite moods only when it moans 
until (as well as before), and chiefly when the leading vevb 
is negative or implies a negative. It has tlie subjunctive 
and optative only after negatives. 

1471. 1, Examples of irptV with the infinitive : — 

Nttu 8t TIi;S(uoj' TTplu eXOelv ulas 'A^atiov, and he dwelt in 
Pedacum before the coining of the sons of the Achae.ans, 7/. 13, 17*2 
(here -jrpXv iXQclv = Trpo toG iXOtlv)- Ov p! aTrorpixpui nrpXv \(iXKi^ 
p.a\i<Ta<j6ai, you shall not turn me away before (i.e. wttil) we have 
fought together, Jl. 20,257 (here the Attic would prefer nplv av 
p/xx^criitpitOa) . * knoTriixTTOvuiv aiTOv -rrplv aKOVcrac, they send him 
away before hearing him, T. 2, 12. Mtacri^vyjv ttkoptv 7rp\y Xltpcrai 
Xafiiiv TTjy pacriXilav, we took Messene before the Persians obtained 
their kingdom, 1.6,20. TlpXv w9 "hf^opov iXOtIv p.i<JiV Tjfxipav ovk 
iXT]p€v<TiVi she was not a widow a single day before she went to Apho- 
hus, D.30, 33 (here the infinitive is required, as irpLV does not mean 
Mf\lil\ 



314 SYNTAX. [1472 

2. Examples of TrpiV, untily with the indicative (generally 
after negatives), and with the subjunctive and optative 
{alicays after negatives), tlie constructions beiug the same 
as thos(^ with iW (1464-1407) : ^ 

OuK ^v aAc'^77^' ouScv, TrpiV y iyui <j<f>icnv tSct^a, etc., there was 
no relief, vnl'd i s/inwed (hem, etc. (i40l), A./V. 479. Ov XPV /*< 
ivOivBt aTreXOitv, irpiv av 8w Slktjv, I 7Hiist not depart hence untU J am 
pwmhed (1434)^ X.An.b^l^, Ouk av tl^ur)^ Trplv 7r€tpi^^e 1179, you 
cannot know until you have irltd it (143G), Tliuog. 1125. 'E^PV^ /x^ 
TrpoTipov (TVfj.l3ovktveLi', nplv rjp.ci'i iBiSa^av^ etc., they ouyht not to 
have given adcicc until they had msiructed us, etc. (14't5i'), 1-4,19. 
OpwaL TOv<i nptaj^vTipov*; ov TtpouQtv aTTidfra?, Trplv av dcpoiaLv ot 
apxovTC9, they sec that the elders 7\ever (jo away untd the authorities 
dismif;s tlicvi (i4ol, 1), X.C^. 1,2^ ^ k-nrjyoptvf. pnqhiva j^aXXuv, nph 
Kvpoq £p7r\r)(T$tirj Orjpuiv, he forbade any one to shoot until Cyrus 
should be sated with the hunt (14G7 ; li)02, 3), X.C. l,i^*. 

1472. X. In Homer npLv y ore (never the simple TrpiV) is used 
witli the indicative, and TrpiV y 6t av (sometimes TrptV, witliout 
av) with the subjunctive. 

1473. N. npiV, like coj? etc. (146G), sometimes has tlie subjunc- 
tive without av, even in Attic (ireek; as p.rj artVa^c Trpiv fjui0r}<i, do 
not lament before you Icdow^ !S. Ph. 917. 

1474. ITpij/ rj (a developed forui for TrpiV) is used by Herodotus 
(rarely hy Honiei), and -rrpoTipov rj, sooner than^ before, by Herodo- 
tus aucl 'Ihucydides, in most of the constructions of TrptV. So 
7rdpo<iy before, in Homer witli tlie infinitive. Even vorcpov ^, later 
than, once t-aK'cs tlie infinitive by analogy, Ji.g. 

npcv yap :7 ottiVu) cr</)ea? ai^aTT Xwaat. rjkm 6 Kpo7ao^,for before 
they had sailed bach, Croesus was taken, Hd.1,78. OuSi rjBtaav 
irpoTtpov yj TTtp ^TTvOovT TprjxivLwv. they did not even know of it 
until ihcy heard from the Trachinians, Hd.7, 17.5. M^ aTrancrracr^ai 
aTTo rrj^ TrdAto? irpoTipov rj iiekujai, not to withdraw from the city 
until they capture it, lid. 9, 8(5. HpoTCpov r) ala6i<T0(xi avrov^, be- 
fore they perceived them. T. 0, .5f^. Seo T. 1 , fii) ; ^, G5. T<Ki/a i$iiXoyTo 
irdpo^ 7riT€r]va ytviaOai, they took away the nestlings before they 
loerefedyed, Od. 16,218. So also tjiaiv vcrrcpov tKarov rj avroi;? 
oiKr^aai, a hundred years after dieir own settlement, T. 0,4. 

Vm. INDIRECT DISCOURSE OR ORATIO OBLIQUA. 
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

1475. A direct quotation or que.stion gives the exact 



1481J THK MOODS. 315 

words of the original speaker or writer (i.e. of the oratio 
recta)* In an indirect quotation or question {oratio 
ohliqua) tlie original words conform to the construction 
of the seiilence in wiiicli they are quoted. 

Thus the words raCra f^ovXofxat may he quoted either 
directly, Xiya rif: "raiJTa f^ovkofiai" or iiidirecUy, A<ya rt? otl 
ravra jSouAcrai or ij^Yjcrt rts ravra fiovktdBdiy aovie one says thai he 
wiskefifor this. So ipwTa '• tl /SovXu ; " he nsis, " what do you umntf" 
but iudij'ecMy iptiyra ri /jovXiTai, he asks what he wants. 

1476. Indirect quotatiojis may be introduced by on 
or a>v, that, witli a finite verb, or by the infinitive (as 
in tlie above example) ; sometimes also by the participle. 

1477. N. "Oti, that, may introduce even a direct quotation; a-s 
elrov on iKavoi ia-fiiv, they said, " we are ahle," X. /1. 0,4^''. 

1478. 1. "Ottw? is sonietitnes used likn oj<j, (hut, e.specially in 
poetry ; as toOto jlltJ jnot 4*p6.^, otto)? om tl Kaxo?, S. 0.7'. 54 8. 

2. Homer rarely has o (neuter of 69) for on, that; as AtiJfTo-trc 
yap ro yi 7rdvTi<;, fjioi y€pa<; €p;(£Tat aAAi-^i/or you all see this, thai 
my prize goes another way, 7/. ], Il^U ; so r>, 43.'3. 

3. OvvcKa and oOovviKa, that, sometimes introduce indirect quo- 
tations in poetry. 

1479. Indirect qnestions follow the same principles as 
indirect quotations witli on or a>?, in regard to their 
moods ajid tenses. 

For the words used to introduce indirect questions, see 1605 
and 1000. 

1480. The term indirect discourse applies to all clauses (even 
single clauses in sentences of different constru'jtJon) wliich indi- 
rectly express the word?i or thought of any person, even those of 
the speaker himself (see 1502). 

1481. Indirect quotations after oTt and w? and indirect 
questions follow these genei'al rules : — 

1. After primary tenses, each vo.vb retains both the 7Jiood 
and the tense of the direct discourse. 

2. After past tenses, each indicative or subjunctive of the 
direct discourse may be either changed to the same tense 
of the optative or retained in its original ynood and tense. 
But all secondary tenses of the indicative in unreal condi- 
tions (1397; 1433) and all optatives remain unchanged. 



316 SYNTAX. [1482 

1482. N. The imperfect and pluperfect, having no tenses in 
the optative, geiieially remain uuclianged in all kinds of sen- 
tences (but see 1488). 'J'he aorist indicative likewise remains 
unclianged wlien it belongs to a dependent clause of the direct 
discourse (1497, 2). (See 1499.) 

1483. Wlieu the quotation depends on a verb which 
takes the infinitive or participle, its leading verb is changed 
to the corresponding tense of the infinitive or participle (av 
being retained when there is one), and its dependent verbs 
follow the preceding rule (1481). 

1484. "Av is never omitted with the indicative or optative 
in indirect discourse, if it was used in the direct form*, but 
when a particle or a relative word has av with the subjunc- 
tive in the direct form, as in idv, orav, os av, etc. (1299,2), 
the av is dropped when the sabjunctive is changed to the 
optative after a past tense in indirect discourse. 

1485. N. "Ai' is never added in indirect discourse when it was 
not used in the direct form. 

1486. Tlie negative particle of the direct discourse is 
regularly retained in the indirect form. (But see 1496.) 

SIMPLE SENTENCES IN INDIRVXT DISCOURSE. 

Indicative and Oi-tative aftkh on akd «s, and in Ivdikect 
QutKTios-s. 

1487. After primary tenses an indicative (without av) 
retains lioth its mood and its tense in indirect discourse. 
After past tenses it is either changed to the same tense 
of the optative or retained in the original mood and 
tense. £.(f, 

A<y€t on ypd<f>cL^ he sai/.'y that he is writing; Xiyti on lypa^iv, 
he f^ays that he was uyritiug ; Xcyci on iypix^piy^ he nays that he wrott ; 
Xi^£i. on ytyoa<f>£v, he loill say that he has written. 'Epcoru n 
^ovXovTGt, he asks what they want; dyvooi Tt tr olt^ a- ovcrivy I do 
not know what they will do. 

El-TTtv oTt ypd<f>OL or ori ypd<j>it, he said that he was tm-iting (lie 
said ypd<^iii). Y^.TTtv on ypdipoi or on ypdipHy he said that he 
would write (he said ypdipu)). ^Ittcv on ypdipmv or on typatptv, 
he said that he had written (he said iypaij/a.^ I wrote), ^l-rtv ot» 
y(.ypa<f><jj<i tlr} or on yiypa<fjcv, he said that he had written (he 
said yiyfia<ftay S have written). 



1490] THE MOODS. 317 

(Ol'T.) *ETnipu}p,r}v aural htiKvwaiy oVi ololto jAv tivax ao<po^,tiy) 

8' ov, f tvicA to s/io/o him that ha believed himstlj to be tDisf\ but was 
not >o (i.«. ouTaL fixv . . . hrrt 5' o('/}, r..4/^.-fb". 'YTraTrwv on avro<i 
TaKcl TTpd^oL, tjjX^ro, hintin(j that he uufuld hijnsei/ iiUend to things 
thfire^ he di'.jniyied (lie said avros xaKCt irpa^<j), T. 1/JO. KXc^^v oVi 
TrifX'p(-i-^ cr^as o 'iv^wi/ /ifaonAtu?, KtAcu'oui' C[j<jjTa^ ii orov o 7r6\ijj.o<i 
el-q, they mid that the king of the Indiana had mil than, convnayid- 
mg them to ask on what account there was toav (they said Hircfxiptt^ 
17/ia?, and tlie question was cV tivos ^cttIv 6 7r6A€;w)<; ,*). X. C\2. 4''. 
'HptTo €1 Tis €yxou €17/ (ro(pu)T<.fjo<i, he asl:ed whether ihtre wua any one, 
wiser than I (i.e. €crn rts cro<^ojT<:po9 ,'), P. .>!;;. 1^1*. 

(InIUC.) ^EAtyOl' OTt cATTt^OlJCri <T€ Kal T1]V TTQXlu l^lLV fJLOl 

;^apii', they <^aid that they hoped you and (he iitai^ would bf: (jrut<'fxd to 
me^ 1.5,*2;3. 'H*f€ K ay yi\\<^v Ti<i ok 'EAaTtia Kanikr^Trraty stmut 
cue was come with a report that Elatea had been taken (here tho i»'r- 
ieci optative miglit iuive iiecn intni). I). 18, U)0. ' \7rQKp(.v6.y.ivoL on 
TrifXipovai -npicrf^a'i^ ivOv<i d-r-jWa^av, haoing replied thai ihey 
would se7id ambassadors, they dismis:>('d them at once, V. \,UU. 'Htto- 
povv Ti TTOTc XiycL^ I was uncertain what he meant {tI ttotc X^yci;), 
i^. Ap.2l^. ^EfiovXevopTO rlv avTOv KaTQ\ciipov(TLv, they were 
considering (the question^ u;hom they should leave here, D. 19, 122. 

1488. N. Occasiotially the present optative represents the im- 
perfect indicative in this cotistrnction ; ns aTrenpiyayro on ovStU 
pidpTv^ vapiirj, they replied that (here had he/'n no udlne.'is present 
(ouScts Trap-^f), D.30,2(J (here the context makes it clear tliat TTttpCii; 
does not stand for -no.ptcrn). 

1489. 1. In a few ca.se« the Greek changes a present indicative 
to the imperfect, o!- a perfect to tlie I'lu perfect, in indirect discoui-se, 
instead of retaininf;* it or changing it to the optative; as iv afropta 
■^crai', tn/oou^ci'Oi OTt im Ta7<; /3a<7(A<W Ovpaif: y/aav. TrpovSe^io- 
Kcaav Bi avTOVfy ot ySapjSapoi, they ivere in despair, considering that 
they were at (he King's gates, and that the barbarians hod betrayed 
them, X.A.B.V^. (See the whole passag'e.) Tliis is also the Eng- 
lish usage. 

2. In Homer tliis i^ the ordinary construction : see O(/.3,l(J0. 

SuUjrSCTlVF. OR Ol'TATIVi: KEI'JCKSKVTIN^ TUB ISTJiKllOG ATI VE 

yi;njt\crivi:. 

1490. An interrogative subjunctive (1358)^ after a 
primary tense, j'etains it«s mood and tense in an indirect 
question ; after a past tense, it may be either changed 



318 SYNTAX. [1491 

to tlie same tense of the optative or reta'med iu the sub- 
junctive. E.g. 

BouAtvo/Aai oVcus o-c aTToSpaJ, 1 am Iryinfj to think how 1 shall 
escape t^ou (irwq at aTroSpCj;), X. C ]>4^^, Ouk olS' <t XpvadvTo. 
rovr<o 5ai, / do not Liww whether I i^hali yiv-e (f/itJii) lo Chrysantas 
here, ibid. 8,^1^^. Ouk 1)(^lj ri ctTrw, / do not kftow what } shall sai/ 
{tl ft-TTw;), 1>. 0,5:1. Cf. jNoii liJibeo (]uid dicam. 'Ettt/poito d 
napahouv rrjy ttoXlv, they asked whether they should give up the city 
(TrapahCjfitv rr/v ttoAiv ; shall we gioo. up the city?), 'J\ J,2.>. HTropti 
o Tt )(^fjrj(TaiTO roj Trpay/iari, he /vas nt a lo'^s hoiu to deal with the 
marier (tl xpyawfun ;), X.//.7,l"^. 'E/jfooXtuoirro ctrc KaraKaw- 
crujo-Lv UT€ Tl uAAo ;(p'>;o- wvTat, fA'7/ n-cre dclihcraiiufj ivhethcr 
they should buxn them or diapose ofthc>n in some other way^ T.2, 4. 

1491. K. In these quosLions tl (not idv) is used for whether^ 
with both subjunctive and optative (s';e the second example in 
1490), 

1492. N. An interrogative subjunctive may be cJiaiit'ed to the 
optative when the Jeading veib is optative, contrary to the general 
usage of indirect discourse (]270, '2) ; a-s ouk iLv €X0<-^ o Tt XPV^^'-^ 
CTawTw, you would not know what to do with yourselj] P. GASii^. 

Indicativi; or C)prATivK with av. 

1493. An indicative or optative with au retains its mood 
and tense (with av) unchanged iu indirect discourse after 
oTi or w and in indirect questions. F.g. 

At'yti (ov l\€y(.v) oTt TovTO Ai' fyevfTo, he says (or said) that 
this would have happened ; iXtytv on ovro? hLKaLio<; av aTroddvOL, he 
said that this man would justly die. 'HpojTwi' tl hoicv dv to. Trtara, 
they asked whether they would give the pledges (Boiyrt dv ;), X.^.4,8\ 

Inxinitivk and PAKTicipr.t; jn Inoiuect DiPCOL'KSK. 

1494. Each tense of the infinitive or participle in in- 
direct discourse repj'csents the tense ol the finite vei'b 
which would be used in the direct form, the present 
and perfect including the imperfect and pluperfect. 
Each tense witli di^ can represent the corresponding 
tenses of either indicative or oi.itative with du. E.g. 

*Appu}(jTc1v 'npQ<^icr liberal, he pretends that he is sick, i^d)p.o(jiv 
appwcTTtLv TovTOVL, kc look on oath that this man was sick, D. IJ), 124. 
KaTocr;!(£tr (ftTjcn tovtov^, he says that he detained them, i^irf. 39. 



U97J THE MOODS. 319 

"TE*^ X/^'?^^* *civTu5 TOis 0T^/:fatous l'niKCKr)pv)(^ivo.i^ he said that 
the TiaOaiii; had ojfcrtd a rtward for him, ibid. '1\. 'ETrayyiAAtTaf ra 
hU.oJjo. TTOn^crtiv, he proimsem lo do ivhui is riy/it, ibid. 4o. 

"Hyycikf. TovTov^ i pxofi.ivovs, he aunuunced (hat these were 
comlntj {obroi (.px(>vrai) ; txyyikXn TOvroMi iKOovTas,he arwounces 
that the^e came {oiToi yXtfov) ; dyyiXku loDro yevyjcrofiivotr^ke 
amwwitcs that ihui icdl be dofic ; rjyyuKt tovto ycvrjcr 6 fx€vov, 
he artfiounccd that ihia would he douf ; iJyyeiXe TO^rro y<.yi.vr]ficvovy 
he Qnnowwed thai this had been done {tovto yiyimjrai). 

See examples of a^ wiili iniinilive and participle in llidS, For 
the present infinitivfj and pai'ticiple as iutperfect, see 12S5and 1280. 

1495. 'I'lie infinitive is said to stand in indirect discourse, and 
its tense.s correspojul to those of the fiiiitxi moods, nhcn it depends 
on a verb iriiplyinf; tlmu^ht or (lie expression of tliou^tit, and when 
atao tlie thought, «>■ originallij coucciund, would have been expressed 
by some tense of the indicative (wilii or witliout di/) or optative 
(with ai'), .so iliat it can be tiansj(>ned without chani^e of tense to 
the infinitive. 'J'hus in povXtTat IkOtlv, he wii^hes lo go, iXOuv 
represent?; no form of cither aoi'ist indicative or aorist optative, 
and is not in indirect discourse. But in <^7^criv tXOuvy he say:^ that 
he loenl, IXOtlv repre.sents yjXBov of the dii-ect discourse. (See Greek 
Moods and Tenses, § 08 i.) 

1496. 'J'he regnlar )iegative of the infinitive and participle in 
uT^-ect disco ui'se is oiJ, but exccpiions occu)'. Rspecially the 
infinitive aft,cr verbs oi hoping, ]n-07ni.-<in[/, and swearing (see 1280) 
regularly has /xij for its negative ; as w/xvuc p-qBtv clptjKivai, he swore 
that he had said nothing, D.2], lit). 

INDIKKCT QUOTATION OV COJrPLEX SENTENCES. 

1497. 1. AVhen a oojnplex sentence is indirectly 
quot,cd, its hading verb follows the rule for simple 
sentences (1487-1494). 

2. After pjjniary tenses the dependtnt verbs retain 
the same mood and tense. After past tenses, dependent 
primar}^ teiiscs of llie indicative and nil dependent sub- 
junctives may either be changed to the same tense of 
the optative or retain their original mood and tense. 
When a subjunctive becomes optative^ dv is dropped, tdi^^ 
'6rai/y etc. becomijig ei, ore^ etc. But dependent i<enond- 
ary tenses of the indicative remain unchanged. ^.//. 



320 SYNTAX. [1498 

J. Av VfiiU k€yr)T€, TTOtijcretv (4>t}(jIv) o ^ltjt cuaxwiyv /atJt* 
dSoiiav avTtZ <t>ipcL, if you (s^halt) saij so, he nays he will do whatever 
does not brhnj ahftiue or i/iscrcfltt io km, D. 19, 41. Here no change 
is made, except in ttol-johv (H94). 

2. ATTCKptVuTo oTi fxavOavoLcv a ovK CTTLCTTaLvrO) he replied, 
(hat ihcy uyere Uarynny what they did not unden^tand (he said fjuavOd- 
vovcTLV a OVK CTTLdTavTai, wliicli iniglit liave been retained), V.Eu, 
270*. Ki Tipji <f>€vyoi'ra krjipoLro, -Trpot^yopcvw on wy 7roA.c/ii'o> 
Xpyj^oLTO, he announced that, if he should catch any one running 
(luxiy, he should Ircdt hivi as an enemy (he said ct nva Xrjij/Ofjun, XPl' 
<jOfjLai)y X. C.-\,\^ (H05). No/Ai'^oJi', ocra rrj<i 7roA.€<ji»9 7rpoAa/:fot, 
TrdvTa ravTu f^€paiio<; £^t.ty. helieving that he should hold all tJio^e 
places securid// which he ahouhi take from the city he forehand (o<t* ^v 
TTpoXdfiu}, t'^w^i \). 18, 2fj. 'ESoKct pLOt rauTT^ Ti-ttpacr^at aiiLiBy}v(\.iy^v6\y- 
fjLOVfiivw o7t, iav pcv KixOiii, cr<u^ij<ropai, i( seemed best to me to try 
to gain f^afety in thui way, thinking thai, if I should escape notice, 
I should be <iaL'cd (we uiii;lit liave had tl XdOoLpL, €r<oOTjaoLp.7]v), 
L. 12, 15. 'Et^acrav tou? avSpa? dTTOKrivclv ou<; c)(ovai. ^wpra?, 
they said (hat they should kill the men whom they had alive (oLTroKTi- 
vov/xtr oi'? cx^ptv, whieli might have been cliaiii^ed to aTrOKTivilv 
ov\ c;(Oi€j'), T.2, 5. T\p6hrj\ov ijy (tovto) iaoficyov, <l fxi) kwXu- 
crcrCy it was plain that this would be so unle.'^s you should prevent 
(tcrrai, d p.r] kcjAu'ctctc, wliicli niiglit liave become tl {Lrj k(vKvo-olt<), 
Aeseh.3,90. 

"HXTTL^oy Tois 2iKfAov9 TCLvrrj^ ous p-iTCTTiiiipavTo, diravTri- 
acfrOai, they hoped the Sikels whom they had sent for would meet them 
here, T. 7, 80. 

1498. One verb may be changed to tlie optative while another 
i^ retained; as 8>;Awaa? oTi troipoi dtn pdxierOat, ct rts i^cpxoLTO, 
haoing shown that they were ready to fghi if any one should co^ne 
forth {hoipLOL i(Tp.€v, idv tl<: iUpXV'^'-)* ^- ^-'^j l^- '^^^^^ sometimes 
causes a variety of construction.^ in tlie .same sentence. 

1499. TliP aorist indicative is not cliant^ed to the aorist opta- 
tive in dependent clauses, becjnise in tliPiio th*^ aorist optative goii- 
erally represents the aoiist subjunctive. 

The present indicative is seldom clianged to the present optative 
in dependent clauses, for a similar reason. 
Kor tlie imperfect and iiluperfcct, see 1482. 

1500. N. A dependent optative of the direct form of course 
remains unchanged in all indirect discourse (1481, 2). 

1501. N. Occasionally a dependent present or perfect indica- 
tive is changed io the imperfect or pluperfect, as in the leading 
clause (14Sli). 



J602] THE MOODS. 321 

1502, The principles of 1497 apply also to all depen- 
dent clause.s after pa.st teJises, which express indii-eetly 
the piist thought of any person. This applies especially 
tf) the following constructions: — 

1. Clauses depending on an infinitive after verbs of wish- 
ing. commanding^ advising, and others whicjli imply ihovgkt 
but do not take the infinitive in indirect dif^toursc (1495). 

2. Clauses containing a jn-otasis with thcapodosis implied 
in the conte.vt (1420), or witli the apodosis expressed in a 
verb like 6avfxd(ij) (1423). 

3. Temporal clauses expressing a past intention, pur[)ose, 
or expectation, especially those introduced by ews or TrpiV. 

4. Even ordinary relative sentences, which would n^gu- 
larly take the indicative. 

(1) *E/5oTjAor'7o iXOclv, «i TovTO yci'OiTo, they nii.thed to go if this 
should happen. (We n-tiglit lutve cui/ roOro yivyjraL, expressing 
tlie form, if thif. shall happen, in which the wi-li would he conceived). 
Here iXOuv is not in indirect discourse (1400). 'EK^Kivanv o n 
^vvaLVTO X(i(i6vTa<: fxeTaSiu)KiLVt he commanded them to fake inhnl 
ihey coxdd and pursue (we might have o n ay hwij^vrai, ropresont- 
ing o Tt av SvinjcrBe)^ X. C.7,3^. Tlpoclvov aurot? prj vavpxi-)((.Lv 
'NjCoptv^ioi9, yv fiyj CTTi KfpKvpav rrktfjjOL koI /jic'XXcuo-t i' aTTuf^aiviLVy 
the}/ instructed ihevi nut to engage in a aeo-Jighi with Corinthians, 
wdess these should be saili^ig against Corcym and should he on the 
point of landing (we might have d pr) irXtoiev koI /xf'XXoiti/), 
T.1,40. 

('2) ^vXaKaf; (JvpTripTTti, o7r(U9 (^vXaTTOity avTov^ Koi tl rwv ay pitav 
n <f>avtLrj OrjpLiov, he sends {sent) guard.'i, to guard him and {!o he 
readg) in ca^ic any of the savage bensia shnvhl a})}>cur (llie tIionc;Iit 
being (dv TL ^"^I'rj), X.C.I, 4^. TuXXa, tJv* c7t va-i>fuix(-Lv ol ^AOk^ 
valoi ToXp-qa ui<T L, -raped KivdCoi^To, Ihcymada the other preparations, 
(in he rfiady) in case the Athenians shotdd still venture a nanal bnfde, 
'r.7,59. "fliKTf.Lpov, tl a Xoi V oivT o, fhry pitied (hern, if rhty (vera 
to he rapiurefl (tlie tlio tight Indng ue pitg thevi if ihcy arc to he 
captured, cl dXuxj ovtih, whicli mii^iit he retained), X-A-UA^. 
*E;(a(poi' dyuTTtov ei n? carrot, / rejoired, being content if any one 
would let it pass (the thought was dyarrC) <t rt? cdorii), ]\J^p.'\oO'^. 
*i^OavpcL^£v ci Ti9 dpyvpiQv 'rrpdrroiro, he wondered that any one 
demanded, money, X. Af. 1, 2'' ; hnl in the same book (1, 1'^) we find 
t^au/jui^e 8' il p7) (jyavcpov avroi'i icrriv, he wondered that it W(ii> not 
plain. 



322 SYNTAX. [1603 

(3) SirovSa? iTTOL-qcrtivTo €to<i airayycXBtiyj to. \c)(OlvTix ct9 Aa/cc- 
Sut'juova, they made a truce, {lo continue) until wlmi had been ,<ai(i 
&hout<l be reporledat Sparta (Uieii* tboufflit was eios av aTrayytXOrj), 
X.7/. 3, 2-^. 01 yap Brj CT<^€a9 aTTiei 6 Oto<; tjJ? aTroiKirj^y Trplv Srj 
aTTiKoiVTaL t's avTr)v Ki^vTqv, for the Ood did not mean to vfdcasie 
them from the colony until ihey fihouUl actually come to Libya (we 
might have aTrtVoii/ro), Hd.4,107. McVoi^t? €aTa<ray OTTiroTC Trup- 
yofi TpdiiDu opfjLi^<j(.L€, they stood waiiiug untU (iov Llie time when) 
a coluynn should rush upon the Trojans, //.-1. 334. 

(4) Kai YjTtt arjfM IhiaBai, ottl pa ol yafijSpolo Trdpa TlpOLToLo 
<j>tp OLTO, he asked to see the toL'cn, u-hich he was bringing (as he 
HHii\) from Proetus, }l.Q,\7G. Karrjyopcov tCji' AlyLvrfTcuiV ra ttc- 
TTOLrJKOLCv TTpoSdvrc? rrjv'^XXd^i, ! hey accused the Aeginetans for 
what (as tliey s\iid) they had done in beirayuKj Grf-.ece, Hd.0,49. 

For tlie same principle in causal senLencos, see ]50G. 

1503. N. On tliis princi]")le, clanse^^ inttoduced Ijy Tva, ottojs: ojs, 
o^pa, and jxr) admit the double construction of indirect discouise, 
and allow t)ir, subjunctive or future indicative to .stand unchanged 
after pa?t tenses (see 13G9). 'J'lie same principle extends to all 
conditional and all conditional relative and temporal sentences 
depending' on clauses with Tva, etc., as these too belong lo the in- 
direct discourse. 

Ovx OTL, <iv\ oirtDS, |ii^ on, jit] oirtos. 

1504. Those expressions, by l-lic ellipsis of a verb of 
saying, often mean / do not speak of or 7iot to speak of 
With ovx ^'^ iiidicativo (e.g. Acyo)) was originally under- 
stood, and with fxij an imperative or subjunctive (e.g. Xc'yt 
or iLTTyq). JS.g. 

Ov^ o7r<o<» TO. GKCVT] d-^iSocrOc, dAAa koI al Ovpni d<i>r)pTrdcrOr}a-(jLV, 
I do not mention your celling thu furniture (i.f. not only did yon sell 
the furniture), but even the doors were carried off, Ly.s. 19,31. M^ 
OTL 0(0^, dXXa Kol dvOpuiiTOi . . . ov (f>i\ov(n tov^ aTriCTToCi/ra.?, not only 
God (vot fo f^pcnh of Cod), hut also wen fail in hwc those who d'S/rust 
them, X.C.7,2^''. UiTravptO' rj/xcU, ovx ottcj? at Travaoficv, we have 
been stopped ourselves ; there in no ((dk of stop}>ing you, S. EL 70G. 

When these forms Mere Urns used, the original ellipsis was prob- 
ably never present to the mind. 

IX, CAUSAL SENTENCES. 

1505. Causal sentences express a cause, and are intro- 
duced by 6Vt, ot)9, because^ iirei^ iTreiBrj, '6r€^ o-irore^ since^ 



1509] TUE MOODS. 323 

and by other particles of similar meaning. They have 
the indicative after both j)rimary and secondary tenses. 
The negative particle i.s ov. E.fj. 

Kt/Scto yap Aup-awi', ort pa 6vfj(TK0vTa<; opuTo, for she pitied the 
Danai, bccnu:^^ she. antv (ht'm f/.'/c'v, U. l,oG. "Ore tov6' oJtoj? <x^^' 
TTpocnjKCL irpoOvfio}^ iOcXcLv aKtwciv^ since this is su, it {:> hf.coiiiing thai 
you should he wdlinq to hfuv taf/i'Hi/, 1). 1, 1, 

A pok'iiLial optative or indicative may stand in a causal sen- 
tence : see ]). 18,49 and 70. 

1506. N. On tlie principle of indirect discourse (1,)0*2), a 
causal sentence after a ]jast tense may have tlie optative, to imply 
that tlie cause- is asbij^ned on the aulliovity of some other person 
tljan the wriiei-; as roy ncpocAca fVavt^ov-, on aTparrjyos <^v ovk 
tVc^ayot, (hi'f/ aiju>t'd Pcric/cs, because {as thf-y said) being general 
he did not lead (hon out^ T.^y'2]. (Tiiis assigns the Athenians' 
reason for abusing Pericles, but does not sliow the historian's 
o])inion.) 

X. EXPRESSION OF A WISH. 

1507. When a wlsli refers to tlic future, it is expressed 
by the optative, either with or without e'^Oe or d yap 
(Fiomcric also aWe, at ynp}, that, if. The nega- 
mnris /x>/\ which can stand alone with the 0[)tative, I^.g, 

^Y/XLv ^cot Solcv iKTTCpatxL Jlpidfxoio iroXiv, may lie Gods grant (o 
you to destroy Pr tains; city, JlAy 18. At yapJ/JLol Toarat^vBt Of-ol Svvii- 
pnv TrepiOiicy, that the Gods u-ould clothe vie tcith so much strength^ 
Od.S,20'K To fxcf i^vy Tavra 7rpy(rcroL<; Tajrip h X^poi tx^^'*^f^^ 
the present may you confiuuc to do these things ichich you hare now in 
hand, fid.?,;"). Et^t i^t'Aos rjp-ii^ y/voio, that you may become 
our friend, X. J LA, ]^'^. M/;k:'ti ^t^rjv c'yoj, 7>k/// / no longer live. 
Ay. N.\2o''y, TcdyuLt-qv, ore p.0L p.-qKin TaCra pLc\oi, may I die 
wh(.'7i I ahall no Unigcr care for these things (]4^iO), Mimn. 1,2. 

The force ol the Ilmiscs here is the same as in prot,asis (see 1*272). 

1508. In po*^t)-y ti iilone is so;netinics used witli the optative in 
wishes; as d poi ycVotro <l>$6yyos cV ^p-x^looLv, that / tuig/ujind 
a voice in my arms, E. Jlccii'Mj. 

1509. \. 'J'Jie pocis, especially Homer, sometimes prefix o>9 
(probably exclatnatcuy) to t.lte optative in wishes; Jis ws olttqXolto 
Kol aXXo? on? rotaCra yc p'X^h lily'<:w(sc kt any other prrish vdio 
may do the like. Od. 1,47. 



324 SYNTAX. [1510 

1510. In poetry, especially in Homer, the optative alone some- 
times expiesses a concession ov ;)fr?«iVron, afniK'tiiiies a command or 
exhortation; a^ avn^ *hpy(.irjv 'KAcVt^i/ Mti/t'Aao? ayotro, Mejulaus 
may tale hack A r (live J /den, //.4, 10. Tc^rat'ij?, w Upoir, rj ko.- 
KTai/c B€XXcpocf>6vTrjV} either die, or I'iil BcUerop!iont&s^ //. 0,164. 
ilevp, and in wishes witliout d, d ydp, etc., we probably have an 
original indepeiident use of tlie o])tative; M'liile wishes introduced 
by any form of d are probably elliptical protases. 

(See Appendix I. in Greek Moods and Teuae^^j pp. 371-380.) 

1511. When a wish refers to the present or the past, 
and it is implied tliat its object in 'not or was not at- 
tained^ it is expressed iu Attic Greek by a secondary 
tense of the indicative with eWe or el ydp^ which here 
cannot be omitted, 'i'he negative is /i//. The imper- 
fect and aorist are distinguislied here afi in protasis 
(1397). Kff. 

EWf. TovTo iTToUi, that he were doing this^ or that he had 
done this. ]L.lBi toOto CTrotTjaev, thai he had done this; d yap fxrj 
iyiviTO toOto, that thii< had not happened. Et6^' €tx'5 /^fAn'ou? 
<f>pii'a^y that (hi)u hadst a Itciter understanding, K. El lOH]. El yap 
TO(TavTr]v Svi^apiv cT^^ois that 1 had so graat pniver, K..-1M072. 
KlOc ool TOTf. ^wtytvopr^Vy that I had then met with you, 

1512. The aorist w<^<\(>i', ought, of 64>dkw, debeo, owe, aiid 
ill Homer soinfttunes t}ie imperfect (o<^<AAoi/, are used with 
tlie infinitive, chiefly in poetry, to express a present or past 
unattained wish (1402, 2). E.g. 

''Cl<j>(\i TOVTO TTotilv, would that he were doing this J^Vit. he ought 
to be doing this)., or xnauld that he had done this {habitxially)) uj<f>tKe 
TOVTO TTOt^o-ai, u-ouid that he had done this. (For the distinction 
mafle by the tiitfcront tenses of the infinitive, see 1400, '2). Trjv 
0(/>cA* iv vijicrcn KaraKr/iirey ''Apr<fj.i<i, wouid thai Aricniiti had 
slain her at the .^^hips, IL\d,C)d. 

1513. N. "(^(^cAoi/ Nvitli tlie intiniLive is negatived by pij (not 
ov), and it niay evi.:n b(.* preceded by dOc, d yu-fly or <jj<; ; as p^ij ttot 
ox^eXov Xnrdu tt]v ^Kvpov, O that J had never left Scyros, S.P/i.9C9; 
KL yap uj4>€\ov oWl tl dvm, that they were ohic, V.CrA^^; 
iLs tu^cA^s dXf'a^at, wuvld that you had perished, //. 3, 428. 

1514. Til ]T/>nu'i- (lio pr'-.out, o)it.Hti\e (^nnt'rally wjlh d$i or d 
yap) may express an unattained wish in present tune; as £1^* w? 



5517] THE INFINITIVK. 325 

tj^oiOLfiL PiYj Sc fjjyi IfiniBos cit?, thai I were again as young and 
my strength were Jirm, //. 11,670. 

This corresponds to the Homeric use of tlie optative in unreal 
conditions and their apodoses (1398). In both constructions tlie 
present optative is conimonly future in Homer, a^^ in other Greek. 

1515. Hoiner never uses the indicative (1511) in wishes. He 
always expresses a past wish by the construction with u>ij>c\ov 
(1512), and a present wish sometimes by uicfiiXov and someiinies 
by the present optative (1514), 

THE INFINITIVE. 

1516. 1. TJie infinitive is originally a neuter verbal 
nonn, with many attributes of a verb. Thus, like a 
verb, it has voices and tenses; it may have a subject or 
object; and it is qualified by adverbs, not by adjectives. 

2. When the defmite article came into use with other 
nouns (see 937, 4), it was used also with the inJinitive, 
which thus became more distinctly a noun with four cases. 
For the subject of tlie infinitive, bee 895. For tlie case of predi- 
cate nouns and adjectives when the subject is omitted, see 927 
aTTa^28. 

INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE ARTICLE. 
Afi Runji::cT, Phedicatk, OnjiXT, ok Ai'posrnvi;. 

1517. The infinitive may be the subject nominative 
of a finite verb (especially of an impersonal verb, 898, 
or of tcrrt), or the subject accusative of another infini- 
tive. It may be a predicate nominative (907), and it 
may stand in apposition to a noun (911). £.(/* 

IvviP-q aurw cXOclvy it happened to Iim to go: €$yjv fitvciv, it 
was possible to remain; ijdv TroKXohi €;i^^poL)s f)((.Lv; in it plcuiam to 
have mam/ enemies? ^rjalv <^Civo.L toutoi? fjitvciv, he says il is possi- 
ble/or these to remain {fxivciv beini;' subject of (.^ilvai). To yv(ovaL 
iTriarijfx-qv Xa^tlv €<ttlv, to learn is to acquire knowledge^ P.7V/.2O0*=, 
liO yo.p Bavarov 8c8t€j/ai olhlv aAXo 1<j-t\v yj hoKcIv <jo<^ov f.ivai 
fir) ovTa, for to fear death {the fear of death) is mithing else than to 
seem to be wise without being sOy P. ^/).20*. El9 oI*j}vo<; apicrroj, 
AfivvtcrOai TTCpi Trarpi;?, one omen is beat, to fight for our country^ 
ii. 12,243. For the subject infinitives with the article, see 1542. 



326 SYNTAX. [1518 

1518. The infinitive may be tlie object of a verb. It 
generally lias tlie force of an object accusative, some- 
times that of an accusative of kindred signification 
(1051), and sometimes that of an object genitive. 

1519. The object infinitive not in indirect discourse 
(149.">) follows verbs wliose action naturally implies another 
action as its object, esi)ccially those expressing wish, com- 
mand, advice, cavse, attempt, intention, prevention, ability, fit- 
ness, necessiity, or their opposites. Such verbs are in geiit-,val 
the same in Greek as in English, and others will be learned 
by practice.^ The negative is ^-q. E.g. 

Bou'Acrat kXdcXvy he wishes to go; f^ovXcTai roiiS TroAira? ttoAc- 
fjLLKov'i CLvai, he wishes the cidzctts to be warllte ; TrapatvovfJ-iy crot 
fiivciv, Vfe advise you to rcmaiji ; -rrpociXcTO TroXcfirjcrai, hfi pre- 
ferret! to make war; KiXuxL ac fj.ij a7r€Xdc2v, he commands you not 
to depart; aiiovdiv apx^-f-v, di^y claim the riijht to rule; diLovrai 
6av€Li/, he is thought to de:>ervc to die; St'o/juzi vfjiCjy avyyvw fj.r]V ^ol 
iXCiv, I ask you to have consideration for me. So kwAu'ci cc fia^L- 
^(.Lv, he prevents you from marching: ov 7r^<f>vKi SovXivf ty, he if> 
not horn to be a s/ttrc ,' avtifSaXXtTiu toCto ttolc iv, he postpones doing 
tht^ ; KLy^vyivti 6ayt7y, he is iii danger ofdcafh. 

1520. X. Tl)c t{Misos liore used are chiefly the present and 
aorist, and tliese do not differ in tlioir time (1272). In this con- 
struction the infinitive h;is no nioj-e referynce to ti7)te than any 
other verba) noun would have;, Init tlie menning of the verb gener- 
ally givef; it a reference to the future; as in d^ioCrat ^ar^tt/ (above) 
Oayuy expresses time only so far as OavaTov ^\onld do so in its 
place. 

1521. The infinitive may depend on a noun and a verb 
(generally cVti') which together are equivalent to a verb 
which takes an object infinitive (ITdO). E.^. 

^AydyKyj iaTL TraVra^ aTrcA^cti^, dici-c is a necessity thai all 
fihould v^ithdraw ; *ciVSvvo<; rjy avTiZ iraSfilv ti, he was in danger of 
svfferi7^g S07nfthnfg; fAn'Sas <;^<:i tovto TTot.r}cr at, he has hopes of 
doi^-tg thin. "Qpu. airicyai., it is time to go oKoy, P. v4;j. 42". Toi*; 
<TTpariwTai<j opp-r] ivlirtat € k t £i;)( iVai to yiopiov, an vnpuhe to 
forffy the place fell upon the soldiers, 'r.4,4. 

For the infinitive wifli rov d/^pending oti a noun, see 1547. 

1522. 1. 'J'he infinitive in indirect discourse (1495) is 



1625] THE INFINITIVE. 327 

geuerally tlie object of a verb of saying or thinking or some 
equivalent expression. Here each tense of the infinitive 
corresponds in time to the same tense of some finite mood. 
See 1494, with the examples. 

2. Many verbs of this class (especially the passive of 
\ty^) allow both a personal and an impersonal construction. 
Thus we can say Atycrtu 6 Kvpo^ tkddv, Cyrus is Miid to have 
gone, or Acycrat rov Kvpov iXBtlvf it is said that Cyrtis 'icent. 
AoKf'oj, scein, is generally used personally; as Wti tW o-o^os, 
he seems to be wise. 

1523. J. Of the three common verbs meaning to fiay, — 

(a) <f)r}fjii regularly takes the infinitive in indirect dis- 
course \ 

(b) iiToi' regularly takes on or ok with the indicative or 
optative ; 

(c) Xcyoj allows eitlier construction, but in the active 
voice it generally takes on or oW. 

Other verbs which regularly take the infinitive in indirect 
discourse are oto/mt, rjywfjLdi, ro/At'^oj, and So/c^'w, meaning to 
believe, or to think. 

'2. Exceptional cases of dirov witli tlie infinitive are more com- 
mon tliMn those of <l>t)fu wIlIi on or oj? (which are "pery rare). 

FJttoi', cuvthunvfcd, takt;s tlie infinitive regularly (1519). 

Vov tlif^ two Constructions alioweJ after verbs of hoping, expect- 
ing^ etc., see 1280. 

1524. N. A relative clause depending on an iiifiiiitive in indi- 
I'ect rli.tcnnrae !?on}etime.s take* tlie infinitive by assimilation; as 
iTruBt) Sc ycvicr&ai cxl rrj OiV/o, (e^r]) dv(.i^yix(vr]y KaTaXafijiavav 
T)]v Ovfj-jiv, and when thc7j ravie to the Imufie, (hn sa^'fl) (heij found the 
door open, P. 5_t/. 174'*. Herodotus allou-s this assimilation even 
after cl, if, and StJrt, I^ccausc. 

1525. Tn narration, tlie infinitive often seems to stand 
for the indicative, wlton it depends on some word like 
Xtyerai, it is said, expressed or even implied in what jire- 
cedes. JS.g. 

*A7riKO/A(Vouq 0£ i^ ro "Apycy;, Star COiijOai tov <i>6pT0v. and 
hcivini] annc to Arf/fs, thry ircrp. (it is aald) sctiim/ out their corqo for 
sale, lid. 1,1. ^laTLOefrdu )< ail imperfect infinitive (1280, 1) : see 
also Hd. 1,24, and X.6M,3^ 



328 SYNTAX. [1526 

Ikfinitive with Adjectives. 

1526. The iufinitive may depend on adjectives cor- 
responding in meaning to verbs which take an object 
infinitive (1619), especially those expressing ability, 
fiinesSy desert^ willingness^ and tlieir opposites, E.g, 

Auvaro? iroicij' rovro, ohle to do this; 8<ivo? Atyctv, shlled in 
speakinfj; a.$LO<; tovto Aa/^eTv, worthy to receive tftif^ : vpoOvixo': Xt- 
ycLVy eager to speah. MaAa/coi KapT^pcIv^ (^oo) effeminate to 
endure^ P.Iip.bbO^*] i-n-Knrnxwv kty€ivTf. kol atyaVy knowing how 
both to speak and io be silent, P. PA^/r. '270'. 

So TOLovTOi otoi trovYipov Tivo^ tpyov It^LtcrSai., capable of aumng 
(suck as (0 aim) al any vicio-us act, X. C.],"J^; also with oTo? alone, 
oTo? ail TTOTi^pera jSaXkcaOai, otie likely (o be always chariging, 

1527. N. AtKatos, yu.*f/, and some other adjectives may thus be 
used personally witli tlie inHnitive; as StWato? iari tovto Troiciv, 
he has a right to do thi:; (equivalent to ^iKixLov iaTiv avTov toito 

TTOUlv). 

Limiting iNFzvrrivE -wnn Ap.jectivks, Ai>vERns, akp Nouns. 

1528. Any adjective or adverb may take an infinitive 
to limit its meaning to a particular action. E.g. 

(diapjOL ai<T)(p6v opav, a sight disgraceful io behold ; XoyoL vpiv 
^pYjcrip/oTuToi uKovcaL, words most usefvl for you to hear ; rd ;(aA€- 
TTUiTaTa (i'peiv, the things hardest to find. rJoAireia rjuLuru. ^uktrnj 
trv^^v, a goDCTmneiit least hard to live under, V.PoLW2^. OUia 
rfhiffTT} eV8ttttTao-^ai, a houi^c most pleasant to live in, X.M.?>,S^, 
KaAAtaru (adv.) iS^Tv, in a vtunne?' most delightful to behold, 
X. C.8,3^ 

1529. N. I'his infinitive (1528) is generally active vathev than 
pas.^ive ; as npaypa )(ak€7r6v noie^v, a thing hard to do, rat.lier than 
XaXcTTov TroiiXdOuiL, hard to he done. 

1530. N. Nouns and oven verbs nifvy tal.e the infinitive as a 
limiting accnsiitive (1058); b.% Oavim. IBe (x6q.l, a wonder to behold, 
(9(/. 8^300, 'ApiO-Tcu'ecTKC ;jta;3( tcr^at, he was the first in fighting 
(lilie pidxyv), //. 0,400. Ao/fci? 8ta<fiep(.iu avTov<: iStiv; do you think 
they differ in appearance (to look at) f P. A^;;. 11>5*. 

1531. N. Hei'e belongs tlie infinitive after a comparative with 
■ijy than; as v6a-r)fxa ptl^ov y <jicp(.tv, a disease too heavy to bear^ 
S. O.T.I 293. 

For ouari with this infinitive, see 1458. 



1536] TJIE INFINITIVE. 320 

Infinitive of Purpose. 

1532< 1. The infinitive may express a, purpose, E,g, 

Ot ap\ovri.^^ ov<i uXcadc ap\t(.v fiov, the rulers, whom you chose 
to rule me, l\Ap,26''. Tr)v ttoAij' (fivXaTTCLv avroi^ TrapchwKav, 
they delivered the city to them to guard, //.'1,4^^ Scdcraadiu waprjv 
ras yvj/uiKQ? TTtctj/ ^tpoixra?, the women were to be seen bringing 
them (something) to drink, X. H. 1,2^. 

2. Hero, as with adjectives (]r>20), tl)e infinitive is active rather 
tlian passive; as Kravtlv i^oi viv eSoaav, they gave her to me to 
kill {to be killed), E. 7Vo.874. 

1533. N. In Homer, where uiatf. only rarely has tlio sense of so as 
(140o), the simple iiifiiiitive may express a r(?>-u/r: as rtV CT<^toc ivvtrjKt 
fidxecT Oull; who brought them into conJlicL so as to contend f ILl^S. 

Absolute Intlnitivk. 

1534. The infinitive may stand absolutely in parentheti- 
cal phrases, generally with ws or oaoi'. E.g. 

Tlie most coiiinion of these is w? iiro^ cIttc'lv or w? cl-n-t'iv, so to 
speak, Otiiers aie w? (rvvTopu)!; (or (TvytXoi/n, 1]72,2) ctTTCiv, to speak 
concisely; to ^vfnrav ttVcii', on the whole; w? aTrCLKacrai, to judge 
(i.e. as far as we can judge) ; ocrov ye /x* ciScVat, as fur as I know ; 
w? ifjioi SoKCiv, or */xoi Bok€.2v, as it seems to me; oJ? oO'toj y olkov- 
crai, at first hearing (or without oj?)- So oXlyov hiTv aiul fiiKpov 
Be IV, to want little, i.e. almost (see 1116, h), 

Herodotus has oJ? AoywctVciv and ov ttoWw Ao'yw ciTretv, not 
to make a long story, in short. 

1535. X. In certain cases clvai seems to be superfluous; espe- 
cially in €Ku)v cXvaiy willing or willingly, whicli generally stands in 
a negative sentence. So in ro vvv cXvai, at present; ro rrj^tpov 
iTvai, to-day ; ro cV cxdVots clvat and similar phrases, a5 /ar n.<; 
depends on them; rrjv -rrpiOTrjv clvaL, at first, Hd. 1,153; Kara rovro 
cTvaL, so far as couccrns this, P.i-*r.317»; m irdXaia ilvai, consider- 
ing thfiir age, T. 1,21 ; and some other phrases. 

Infinitive in Commands, AVisnES, Laws, etc. 

1636. The infinitive with a subject nominative is some- 
times used like tlie second person of tJie imperative, espe- 
cially in Homer. E.g. 

Mt^ ttotc koX cn^ yovaiKl -nip rj-jno^ cTj'at, he thou never indulgent 
to thy wife, Ot/. 11,441. OU fiy -TrcAa^tu', do not approach these 
{= fi^TTcka^c), A.Pr.712. 

For the third person, with a subject accusative, see 1537. 



330 SYNTAX. [1637 

1537. The infinitive with a subject accusative sometiDies 
expresses a wish, like the optative (1507); and sonictinics 
a coiumaiid, like the third person of the imperative. E.g. 

Ziv TTCLTCp, ij Aiavra Xa;(Ctv >) TvSe'os vlov, Father Zeu>^, viay (he 
lot fail eilher on Ajax or on the sou of 'J'x/deus (=zAm<; \d)(oi, etc.), 
//. 7, 170; diol TToAtrat, fXTJ fxe Sovkclag rv)(iiyy ye (fod> who hold 
our ciiy, may slavery uoi he my lot, A.Se.20'i. Tpwa<; (nciB' 'EXturjv 
aTToBovi'ait let the Trojans then svrreuder Helen (=d7ro5ot€v), /A ;t,28o. 

1538. X. This construction (1537) lias been explained by sup- 
plying a vt'vb like 80s, grant (see 669 Ti<Taa6ai, grant that I may (aire 
vengeance, //. 3, 351), or y^woiro, may it he. 

1539. N. For the infinitive in exclamations, -which generally 
has tjje ai'ticle,*see 1554. 

1540. In Jaws, treaties, and proclamations, the infinitive 
often depends on «5o^< or S.'SoKTat, he it enacted^ or KiXivtrai^ 
it is commanded; which may be expressed iu a previous 
sentence or understood. E.g. 

At«-a^<tt/ S( Trfv Iv *Apc£u> 7rayu> 4*6vov, and (be it enacted) that 
the Senate on the Areopagus shall have Jurisdiction in case^- oj' murder^ 
D.-?^3,22. ""Ettj 5c clvai ra^ anov^o.'i -n-ct'TTj/cot'Ta, and that the treaty 
shall continue Jifly yifars, T. 0, 18. * hKoxstrt Atol • tol'? oTrAmw 
aTTLivai- TToAtv oiKaSt, hear ye people I let the heavy armed go back 
again home, Ar. Au.4lR, 

INFINITIVE WITH THK ARTICLE. 

1541. When the infinitive has the article, its character 
as a neuter noun becolnt^s more distinct, while it loses none 
of its attributes as a verb. The addition of the article ex- 
tends its use to many new constructions, especially to those 
with prepositions; and the article is sometimes allowed 
even in many of the older^jonstructions in which the infin- 
itive regularly stands alone. 

TntIMTIVE WlTIi TO A« SciUECT OR OUJI'-CT. 

1542. The subject infinitive (1.517) may take the article 
to make it more distinctly a noun. E.g. 

To yvC)vai lTTL(jrri}i.-r)v Xapelv tdxiv, to leam is to acquire hiov^l- 
edge, F.77i.200^ ToCto iun to a^iKtly, this is to comnut injustice, 
P. C463"=. To yap BavaTov ScSte'vat ovhiv aAAo €(Tt\v y ^OKtlv 
<TO(pbv tlvai fxi/ 6vTa,/vr to /car death (the /car 0/ death) is nothing 



1547J THE INFINITIVK. 331 

else than (o seem to he u^ise without being so, P,^p. 29*. The predi- 
cate infinitive^ here omit tlie article (10J7). See 956. 

1543. The object infinitive takes the article chiefly after 
verbs which do not regularly take the sinijile infinitive (see 
1519), or when the relation of the infinitive to the verb is 
less close tlian it usually is. Eg. 

To TiXevTTJaat Travruiv rf Tr(.TTpu)fXivrf KariKpiviv, Paffi atJJudgcd 
death to all (Wke Oduarov TTavrwv KCiTiKpivtv), I.],4;J; d to kw Aver at 
'rqv TfJiV Y^XXy'jVifiV KOivinvCav liriirpaKtiv cyoi <^tAtV7^u;, if I had sold to 
Philip the prevention of the unitij of the Oreeka (i.e. had prevented (his 
a.<: Philip's hireling), D. 18,23. To ^vi'Oikuv r^8' ofiov n? av yvvr} 
SwaiTo ; to live with her — what vwnan could do it ? S.Tr. 545. 

1544. N. Sometimes in poetry the distinction between the 
object infinitive with and without to is hardly jievceptible ; as in 
TX-qGO^L TO KarOavt'iv, I shall endure to die^ A. ^7. 1290; to bpav 
ovK -ijOiXy^aav^ they were unwilling to act, 8. 0. C.442. 

Ikkiuitive with to with Adjectives and Nouks. 

1545. N. The infinitive with t6 is sometimes used with 
the adjectives and nouns which regularly take the simple 
infinitive (1520). Pig. 

To /5ia ttoXltCjv Spav i<f>vv afj.Ti])(avo<;, I am helple^a to act in defi- 
ance of the citizens^ S. /hi.79. To «? rrjv y^^ -qfxCjv iv fBdkXi^Lv . . . 
InavOL tlai, ihey have the power to invade our land, T. G, 17. 

Ikfinitjve \vith to\I, tw, ot{ to in Varfol-s Constructions. 

1546. The genitive, dative, or accusative of the in- 
finitive witli the article may depend on a preposi- 
tion. E.g, 

Tlpo Tov T0V9 6pKov<; dr-ohovvat, before taking the oaths, D. 18,26 ; 
Trpo? T(Z fiijSki^ €K TTJf; TT picf f^ila<i AayScii', besides receiving nothing by 
the CJisbixnciy, D. U), L'20 ^ 5iii to ^<Vos" cinxt ovk uv oi'ct d5t«v^^^Kat ,* 
do you think you would not be wronged on account of your being a 
stranger? X. j1/. 2, 3^^ 'Ytt^p tov to. fifTpia fXTj yiyvcaOai, that 
moderate counsels may not prevail (~ Iva p-q yLyvrjTai)^ Aesch.3, 1. 

1547. The genitive and dative of the infinitive, with 
the article, can stand in most of the constructions be- 
longing to those cases; as in that of the attributive 
genitive, the genitive after a comparative or after verbs 



332 . SVNTAX. [1548 

and adjectives, the dative of cause, manner, or mean^, 
and the dative aftei* vcj-bs and adjeetives, Ejj. 

ToC TTtttv i-mOvfjiLa, a desire to drink, T. 7,84; vtolsi ro crtya*' 
Kpt^TTov €i7TL Tov XaXi'iVy for youth ulence U better than prating, 
Men. A/on. 387; tVeV^o/Ati' tov BaKpv(.Lv, ve ceased our weeping^ 
V.Pli.)]!^; drjOtLf; tov KaTaKovitv TU'd? dtnv, they are unused lo 
oheyiTig ni-i)j one, D. 1,23. To! <^av(p6^ ilvai roioDro? i^y, by having it 
evident thai he was such a man, X.MA,2^] rtp KOdfiioy^ ^yjv Tn-artv- 
ctv, to tru^l in an orderly life, 1.15,24; luov rw tt podT ivtiv, equal 
to lamenting beforehand^ A. /I 7.203. 

1648. Tlie inlinitive with tov may express a purpose, 
generally a negative purpose, where with ordinary genitives 
htKa is regularly used (see 1127). E.g. 

^KTii)(iaOY]^ATaXdvTr)^ tov fiyj Ar^fjrd? KaKOvpyilv Tr)v ^vfioiav, 
Atalante wa^ fortijitfl, that pirates might not ravage Euboca, T. 2, 32. 
MtVtD? ToX-gaTLKOv KaOgpii, roO Ta? 7rpo<ro8ow fioAAoi' tcVat avrtj, 
Minns put down piracy, that his reveyiues might come in more abun- 
dantly, T.1,4. 

1549. Verbs aud expressions denoting hindrance or free- 
dovi from anytliing allow either tlie inlinitive with tov 
(1547) or tlie simple infiiutive (1519). As the infinitive 
after such vei'bs can take the negative fxt] without affecting 
the sense (1G15), we have a tliird and fourth form, still 
with the same meaning. (See 1551.) E.g. 

El'pyft cr€ TOvTo trote'LV, iXpyii crc Tov tovto TToaiVy ilpya ere p.r) 
TovTO rroL.ctVy dpyti ore tou ^xt) tovto Troitlv, all imeaning he pre- 
vents you frovL doing this. Top- ^iXimrov ■jrapiXBa.v ovk iSvvavro 
KwAGcrat, (hey could not hinder Philip from passing through, D. 5,20. 
Tov hpaTTCTcvity aTncpyovai; do they restrain them from running 
away? X.A/.2,1^^. "Oinp ca;(£ firj tt)v IleXoTrowrjaoy TropOclv, 
which prevented (him) fro7)i ravaging Peloponnesus, T. 1,73. Ave 
cti'Spa? li(.L TOV fXT} KaTaSvvaL, it toill keep two men from sinking, 
X.^.3,5H. 

1550. N. When the leadn)g verb is negatived {or is interrogative 
implying a negative), tlie double negative {Mr} ov is generally used 
with the infiiutive rather than the simple p.rj (101 G), so that we 
can say ovk clpyci cr< p.r} ov tovto ttolcIv, he does not prevent you 
from doing this. Tov fxr} ov Troit'iy \s rarely (if ever) used. 

1551. The infinitive with to p-^ may be used after expres- 
sions denoting hindrance, and also after all which even imply 



I555J THE INFINITIVE. 333 

prevention, omission, or denial This infinitive with to is 
less closely connected witli the leading verb tlian are the 
forms before mentioned (1540), and it may often be con- 
sidered an accusative of specification (1058), and sometimes 
(as after verbs of denial) an object accusative. Sometimes 
it expresses merely a result. E.g. 

Tov o/xtXov tlpyov To fXTj TO. eyyvs r^? n-oXtw? KaKovpyeiv, they 
preoented the crowd from injuring the neighboring parts of the citt/t 
T. 3, L Ki/xwva Trapa rpet? d^«tcra»' xptj^^ov^ to fxrj OavaTw ^ijfxtS)- 
a at, they ailowed Cimon by three votea to escape the pujiishvient of 
death (they let him off from the punishment of death), 1). 23, 205. 
<toySo? avS' virvov irapao-TaTu, to fxi) ^Ae'^apa <jvp.^aXtlvy fear stands 
by me instead of sleep ^ preventing me from closing my eyelids, A.Ag.15. 

Thus we iiave a fifth form, €ipy€i ai to pr} tovto Trotetv, added 
to those given in 1549, as equivalents of the English he prevetits 
you from doing this. 

1552. N. Here, as above (ISoO), pyj ov is generally used when 
the leading verb is negatived ; a,s ovBiv yap avrw ravr' iirapKtaei to 
pi] ov TTf.af.lvy for this will not at all suffice to prevent him from 
falling, A.Pr.918. 

1653, N. 'J'lie infinitive with tov prj and with to piq may also 
be used in tlio orcVniary negative sense; as ovhcpia 7rp64>aai<: tov 
pr) hpav TuCra, no ground for not doing this, V. Ti. 20*^, 

1554. 1. The infinitive with to may be used in exclama- 
tl(ms, to express surprise or indignation. E.g. 

T^9 yntupiu?' TO At'a vofxi^CLv, ovra tyjXikovtovl, what folly ! to 
believe in Zeus, noro you are so big ! Ar. A''. 819. So in Latin : Mene 
incepto desislere victam ! 

2. 'J'he article here is sometimes oniitted ; as roiouron Tpi(j>eLV 
Kvva, (0 keep a dog like that ! A v. K.Sti5. 

1555. The infinitive with its subject, ohjc^ct, or other 
adjuncts (souietiiuPS innlncling flopondAJit olrvusos) may he 
preceded by to, the whole standing as a single noun in any 
ordinary construction. E.g. 

To 8c pyJTK -ndXat. tovto irtTrovBivai, 7ri<f>r]Vivai tI Ttva rjptv 
avpiJuiiyCav tovtwv dvTippoirov, av ^ovX<I)p€Oa XPW^'^'-^ '^'* "^^P **^*'' 
Viov cuvoias tvipytrrjp av tywye Our)v, but the fact that we have not 
suffered this long ago, and thai an alliance has appeared to us to 
balance these, if tne (shall) imsh to use it, — this I should ascribe as a 
benefaction to their good-will, D. 1,10. (Here the whole sentence 
TO - . . ^YjaOai, is the object accusative of 6ti'r)v.) 



S34 SVNTAX. [1556 

1556. 1. For the infinitive as well as tlie finite moods with 
tMTTfiy ok, €<^' to and c<^' wt£, see 1440-HOO. 

2. For the infinitive and finite moods with TrpiV, see 1409-1474. 

3. For the iniinitive willi av^ see li)OS. 

THE PARTICIPLE. 

1557. The participle is a verbal adjective, and has three 
uses. First, it may express an attiibute, qualifying a noun 
like an ordinary adjective (1559-1502) ; secondly, it may 
define the circumstances under whicli an action takes place 
(1563-1577); thirdly, it may be joined to certain verbs to 
sup})lement their meaning, often having a force resembling 
that of the infinitive (1578-1593). 

1658. K. Tlieso distinctions are not always exact, and the 
.same participle may belong' to more fliaii one class. Thus, in 6 ^jlt] 
Sap£i? uj'^pwTTO?, the unjiogged man, hapcL<: is both attributive and 
conditional (1063, 5). 

ATTIUnUTlVE PARTICXPLIC. 

1559. Tlie participle may qualify a noun, like an 
attributive adjective. Here it may often be translated 
by a relative and a finite verb, especiall}^ when it lias 
the article, i?.^. 

'O Tra/awi' KaLpo*;, the present occasion, D. .3,3; Otol allv torrcs, 
imniovtai Oo<hy 7/.21,518; TroXts KoAAet Siac^c'pouaa, a city exrel- 
liuff in beauty: di^p KaA.w9 TrtTraiStu/jtcVo";, a man who has been 
well educated (ov a well educated man) ; ol TrpiajSw; oi vvo ^lAiVTroij 
■jr€fi<f>divr(.<;, the amhaasadors who were s^eni b>j Philip; arSpe? ot 
Tovro TTotvJo-oj'Tc?, Tfieri who are lo do thi^. 

1560. 1. Tlie participle with the article may be used 
.ijubstanti vely, like any adjective. It is then equivalent 
to he who or those toho with a finite verb. E.g. 

Ot KpaToCi'Tti;, the conquerors; ol TreTreio- fit vot, those who have 
been convinced; irapa roi'; aplo-roL^ hoKOvaiv cirai. amoyig those who 
S€€m to be 6csi, X. J^f.4,2^; 6 rr^v yv<l>fir}v ravr-qv «t7rwv, the one who 
gam this opinion, T. 8, 68; roi? 'ApKaSwv <j<ptTipoL<; overt. ^vfip.a.\oL<i 
TTpoiLTTOv, they prof:}aiv)ed to those who were their allies among the 
Arcadians^ T,5, 64. 



1663] THE TARTICIPLE. 335 

'J. The article is sojuetiines omitted; as ttoAc/xouVwi/ TrdAt?, a 
city of helli(jcrcnis, X. C'.7,5'^ 

1561. N. Soijietimes a pai-ticiple becomes so completely a 
noun tliat it takes an object genitive instead of an object accusa- 
tive; as Ikuvov Tf-KoiVy his father (lor o Ikuvov TtKijJv)., JO. £/. ^of). 

1562. N. 'J'lie neuter participle willi (lie article is soiiietiines 
used as an abstract noun, like, the iiifiiiilive ; as to hthio^.fear, and 
TO Oap<jovv^ covnige, for to ScBUmi and to Oap<r(.Xvy 'JM,3G. Coni- 
j);ire to KaAoV for to KaAAo?, btauty. In boUi cases the adjective is 
used for the noun. 

CIRCUMSTANTIAL PAIITICIPLE. 

1563. Tlie participle may define tlie circumstances of 
an action. It may express the following relations : — 

1. Time; the tenses denoting various points of tiine^ which 
is relative to that of the verb of the sentence (1288). E.g. 

TdOru iirpuTTC (T T par Tjyuiu, he di<i Oii^ while, he was yenerid ; 
ravTo. TTpd^a crTpuT-qythv^ he loill do this while he is yeneruL 
l^vpu.vv*-\)Ga<i 0*. tTT} Tpia 'iTrTrtu? €)((j}p(.L c? 2tyci0i', (lud when he 
had htan tyrant three ytars^ Ilijijjiaa vnthdrew to Siyc7im, 'J\G, 50. 

2. Cause. E.g. 

Acyoj Be TOvK fVc/ca, /fouAo/xci'O? 8o^ai (JOt o-rrep </jt0t, and I 
apeak for thk reason, because I wish that to -stc-m yood to you Khich 
iieevis f'o to me, P. P//.l(l2". 

3. Means, vuinner, and similar relations, including 7nan- 
ner of eviployment. E.g. 

irpoci'AfTO /jtuAAoj/ T019 v6}ioi.<i €fjifjL€vu}V (iTToOayuv tJ irapavo- 
fiCjv ^7Jv, he preferred to die ahiditi// Jjy the /«jrs radier than to live 
(rnnsyres^dyiy fhem. X. Af.4.A*. ToGro i'mHq(r€ XaOu'n^, he did thi.'f 
f^erretb/. ^ATri^ijfxci Tpt.r}papx^v, he t^Kta nh.^cnf on duty as trierarch, 
Arj^Ofxevoi. ^uiaiu, they live hy plunder, X. C'!/2'^. 

4. Purpose or intention; generally expressed by the ftd~ 
ure ]-»artici])le. E.g. 

*HA^c Xva6fxivo<i Bvyarpajie catne to ron^oyn hi.-^ daughter, //. 1.13. 
ITf/xTrfti' TrpfcrjSft? ravra ipovvra^ Koi Avaavhpov alTrjcrovTa<^y 
to send a7nhns.<:ndors to .^ay //iiV and to a$k for Ly.<a7ider, X. J 1.2, I*'. 

5. Condition; the tenses of the parti('ii)le representing 
the corresponding tenses of the indicative, subjunctive, or 
optative, in all classes of })rotasis. 

See 1413, ^vliere examples will be found. 



330 SYNTAX. [1504 

0. Opposition^ limitation^ or concession; where the par- 
ticiple is generally to be translated by although and a 
verb. E.g. 

*OAtya SvvdfJLCvoL irpoopav ttoAAol linxtipovixtv TrparrtiVy although 
we are able to foresee few thing,^, we try to do many thiiuja, X.C 3,2^^ 

7. Any attendant circumstancCj the ])articiple being 
merely descriptive. This is one of the most common re- 
lations of this partici])le. E.g. 

"^pXtTO-L Tov vtov cx^^*^'*' ^^"^ coviea bringing her son, X. C. 1,0^ 
IlapaAa/f oVtc? Boiwtovs iurpaTLvaav tVi ^apuaXov^ they took 
Boeotians with them and marched against Pharsalus, 'JM,111. 

The participle here can often be best translated by a verb, as 
in tiie last example. 

8. That in which the action of the verb consists. E.g. 
TdS* ctnc (^aJ^'a)|/, ihua he :>pake saying, A. A(j.20i). Ev y liroi-q- 

aa<i dva/Ai/jyca? fxt, yon did well in revundivg me, P.Ph.HO'^. 
For tlie time of tlie aorist participle liere, see y2i)0. 

1564. N. Certain participles of time and numner have almost 
tlie force of adveriis by idioniatic usage. Sucli are apx^H-f-^o';, at 
first; rt\cvTo}v,at la^^t , Jinally ; SutXtinhv ^povov, after a while, <f>tpiDv, 
hastily ; <f}cp6fj.evo^, with a ru-di ; KararttVu?, earnes.tly; <fjOd(Ta'i, sooner 
(anticipating); XaOiLv, secretly; tx^v, continually ; dvixras, quickly 
(hastening) ; xAatoJi', to one's sorrow ; xaipoJi', to one's joy, with im- 
punity. E.g. 

"AiTip apx<^f^*-^o'i tlTTOv, as I said at frst, T.4,0-1. *E<7€7rca-oi' 
<f>ip6fj.€voL <s Toi)? 'EAAT/m?, they fell ujion the Greeks vnth a rush, 
l-ld.7,210. Tt Kvirrd^ii'; ix^^i ^'^'V ^l^ V^^ ^'^^P Peking about? 
Ar. M 509. KAaioj^ d(/'ci TUivSt, you will lay hands on them to your 
sorrow, E. Hei\ 270. 

1565. N. *Ex<u»', ^ipuiVy ayojv, Xafiuiv, and xp^/icvo? may often 
be translated with. E.g. 

Mia <i>x*'r'* Trpfcrj^ti': ayovcra, one (ship) U'a<t fjo-ne with aniboi^sa- 
dors, T.7,25. See X. Cl,3i, in 1503,7. Bo^^ xP^H-^^^'-i "'^'^^ ^ 
shout, T.2,Si. 

1666. N. Tl -rraOuiv ; having suffered what? or what has happened 
to him? and t( fjuiOujv ; what has he taken into his head? are used in 
the general sense of luhy ? E.g. 

Tt' rovTo fxad<j)v Trpoatypaif/ev ; with what idea did he add this 
clause? D. 20, 127. Tt' iraBovaai Ovrjrai^ ti^a<TL yvvatiiv ; what 
makes the^n look like mortal women f Ar. A''. 340. 



]bn] ME PARTICIPLE. 33y 

1567. N. The same participle may sometimes be placed under 
TJiore tliAii one of these heads (l'){j8). 

Genttivl and Accusative Adsolute. 

1568. When a circuinstantial ])articiple belongs to a 
noun wln'ch is not grammatically connected with the 
main construction of the scntejice, tliej stand togetlier 
in the genitive absolute. E.g. 

^Avi/SYf ovhcvbi Ku>XvovTOi, he mnda the ascent with no one inter- 
fering, X.A.}y2'^. See 1J52, and tlie examples there given. 

Sometimes a participle stands alone in the genitive absolute, 
wlien a subject can easily be supplied from tlie context, or when 
some genera] snbjeot, like 6.v9()(x>7r(jjv or Trpay^dnov, is u)iderstood; 
as ot TToAfjUtot, irpocnovTojVi Tt'tu? {xlv r)(T}Jxo.Cov^ hut (he enemy, as Ihey 
(men before mentioned) came on, kept quiet for a time, X.^.5,4^^ 
OuT(jj 8' ex^^^"^*^^' tiVo? (ecxTLv), x.t.A., and thin being the rase (sc -rrfiay- 
fidTiov), it is likely, etc. X.A.S,^^^. So with verbs like va (897,5); 
as vovTo<i 7roAAw> tuhcn it tvas rui7ii)tg heavily (where originally Aids 
was undLM'stood), X. //. 1, V^. 

1569. The participles of impersonal verbs stand in the 
accusative absolute, in the neuter singular, wheu othci-s 
would be in the genitive absolute. So passive partici- 
ples and 6V, when they are used impersonally. E.g. 

Ti' 8^, {i/xu9 €^01' a-TToXicraL, ovk Ittl tovto tJ\9o^€v ; why now, when 
we might hove de^iroyed you, did we not proceed to do it? X.A.2,^'^'i 

Ot S' ov /?oi7^rJcravTts ^<ov vyuU ainjXOov ; and did those who 
brought no aid when it Joas needed escape aafe and sound f V.Alc.i. 
115^ So IV 8* -rrapacrxov, and when a good opportunity offers^ 
T. 1, 120; ov -jrpoo-^KOv, improperly (it being not becoming^, T.4,95; 
■rvxov, by chance (it having happened); -n poar a-^Otv fioi, wheu I 
hud been comniandetl ; ilprj/xivov, when if han been >-aid ; dSwnTov 
ov <V I'vxTt (rr}/ir}vaL, it being i7npos:$ibl€ to signal by night, T.7,44. 

1570. N. The participles of persona! verbs sometimes stand 
witli their noiJns in the accusative absolute; but very seldom 
unless tliey are preceded by to? or uKnnp, E.g. 

'SfHoTrrj iSuTTvovv, (^crtrcp toOto -npodmayp-^vov <xvtu7^, ihcy were 
supjnntf in silence, as if this had been the conwiand given to them, 
X.Sy.\,U. 

1571. N. "ilv as a circumstantial participle is seldom omitted, 
except witli the adjectives ckwi', willing, and aKiov, unwilling, and 



SSS SYNTAX. [1672 

aftei' ar€, oia, w?, or Kalirtp. See </zoC olx ckowos, against my mll^ 
S. /iy.455; Ztiis, KaL-ntp av$6.hy}<; (j>pf.vo)v, Zeua, although stubborn in 
viind, A.Pr.907; also aTropp-qrov ttoXil, tcheii it is forbidden to the 
state, S.^n.44. See 1012. 

AuvERus WITH Circumstantial Pahtich'le. 

1572. K. The adverbs a^a, fiira^v, €vdv<i, avrtKa, apriy 
and i^ai(^vr}<; are often couiiected (in position and in sense) 
with tlie temporal ])aiticip]«, while grainniatically they qualify 
the leading verb; as a/ia KaraXapovret; irpoatKiaTo a<^L, as Soon 
as the}/ overlook them, they pressed hard vpoii thcvi, lid. J), 57. Nckw? 
fiiraih opvaaayv cVavaaro, Necho stopped while digging {the 
canal), lid. 'J, 15^. 

1573. N.xlV. participle denoting opposition is often strengtli- 
ened by W oi* xaiVep, eoen (Hoiueiic aWo ko.i. . --nf-p), and in iiegOr 
tive sentences by ovhi ov firj^f ; also by Kai ravra, and (hat too; as 
tTToiKTipiii viv, KiitTTcp o }' T (J. SvofJLevT], I pit7j hivij cvcH though he is 
an enemy, S. /i/. 122. Ovk av TTpoSoirjp, oiSs Trcp Trpacraoji/ ^aKoi?, / 
would not be faithless, even though I ahi in a u'retched state, }'l. Ph. 1021. 

1574. Cirfiunistantial participleSj esijccially those denot- 
ing cause or jiurj>o.s<?, arc ofton preceded by w?. Tliis sliows 
that they express the idea oi- the assertion of tlie subject of 
the leading verb or that of some other person prominent in 
the sentence, without implgivg tliat it is also the idea of the 
speaker or writer. E.g, 

Tov XltpiKXta cV ahia eTxou w? TrttVui'Ta <T^a9 TroXifMi'LV, they 
found fatdf with Pericles, on the ground (hot he had persuaded them to 
engage in war, T. 2, 50. ^ Ayavo,KTov(Ti.v oj? /xcyaAwi/ rtKtur arccTTf- 
prjfiivoL, they arc indignant^ hficou^e {as they say) they have, been 
depruyrd of some great blessings, V. Hp. o'ii)^. 

1576. The cansal participle i^ often empliasizcd by urt and 
Oiov or oTa, as, innsmvch as ; but. these particles liavc no such force 
as 0J9 (1574); as arc ttoi? ^v, yhiro, inasmuch as he was a child, ho 
teas plcaf^cd, X. C ] , ^'. 

1576. "Drrrcp, (IS, as it were, witli the participle expresses 
a comparison between the action of tlic verb and that of 
the participle. E.g. 

*ClpXOwTO C^CTTcp aAAot? fTTLheLKvvfMtvot., they danced as if (hey 
were showing off to others (i.e. they danced, apparently showing off'), 
X. j4.5, 4^"'. Tl toZto XfycL'ty otmrip oi'k <Vi trot vv o Tt av jSoL'A?; 
Xt'yctv; why do you say this, as if it were not m your power to say what 



J681J THE PARTICIPLE, 339 

you please? X. M. 2, 03". Although we find as if a convenient 
translation, tliere is really no condition, as appears from the nega- 
tive oiij (not fjLTj). See 1012. 

1577. N. "QdTnp, like other words meaning as, may be fol- 
lowed by a protasis; as <xKT7rcp u irapidrdTiL^, as (it wonld be) if 
you had Hoed near, k.Ag. I'JUl. For ^oirtp av tl, see 13J3. 

^VVPLEM l^KTAKY^ TAliTIClPLE. 

1578. The supplementary participle completes the 
idea expressed by the verb, by showing to what its 
action relates. It may belong to either the subject or 
the object of the verb, and agree with it in case. U,</. 

Tlavofitv (Ji Xtyovray we stop you from speaking; TravopaOa 
Xtyovrtt;^ we cease speaking. 

1579. This participle has many points of resemblance to the 
infinitive in similar constructions. In the use of the participle (as 
in that of the infniitive) we must distinguisli between indirect 
discourse (wliej-e each ten.se piesejves its force) and other con- 
stvuctionp. 

PAiniCIT'LlC NOT IN iNPIHtXJT DlSCOUnSK. 

1580. In this sense tlie ])articiple is used with verbs sig- 
nifying to begin, to continue, to cndxire, to persevere ^ to cease, 
to repent, to be vjeary, to be pleased, displeased, or ashamed; 
and with the object of verbs signifying to p)crmil or to cause 
to cease. E.g. 

'*Hp;s(ot' ;)(aAc7raiVojt', / was the frst to he angry, //. 2,378; ovk 
dvi$ofw.L (Cjaa, I sk(dl not endure my lifc^ K.Hip.35i ; cTrra ^pipa<; 
fiaxop-ivoL hitreXcaav, they continued fighting seven days, X.AA,S^; 
TifjLwfxevoi )(aipovaiv, they delight in being honored, K.Hip.S: tXcy- 
XOp-^voi yjxSovTO, they were displeased at being tested, X.A/. 1,2*'; 
toOto ovk alax^vofjuxi Atyoji/, / say this without shame (see 1581), X. 
C 5, 1^1 ; ryv <inXoao<t){av iravcrov ravra Xtyovaav, make Philosophy 
stop talking in this style, P. G'.482a; iravcTai Acyoji', he s/ops talking. 

1581. Some of these verbs also talce the iufitiitive, but gener- 
ally with some difference of njoaning; thus, ataxi'i'«Tat toi5to Xi- 
ycLi'yhe is ashamed to sai/ this (and does not say it), — see 1580; 
OLTTOKapvn TOVTO TTOitlv, hc Cfiasfs to do this, through weariness (but 
anoKapi'U tovto Troiwf, he is weary of doing this). So apx^Tat A^- 
y€Lv, he bcgin.t to speak (but ap^^rat A<ywv, he begins by speaking 
or he is at the beginning of his speech)] navo) (Tt fid )^<. <t a i, I pre- 



340 SYNTAX. [1582 

vent you from fighting (but Travoj o-e /xa;(o/x€ vov, / stop you while 
fighting), 

1582. The participle may be used with verbs signifyiug 
to perceive (in any way), to find, or to represent, denoting an 
act or state in which the object is perceived, found, or rei> 
resented. E.g, 

*Opcj> (Tf. KpTJirTovTa X*^P^' ^ ^^^ V^^ hiding your handy E. //cc.342; 
rJKOvad crou Xcyovro?, / heard you speak; ivpc KpoviSrjv arep 
rjfjL€vov aXkdiv, he found the $on of Cronos sitting apart from the 
others, II. 1,491:5; ^ao-iAc'a? imroirjKC tous €v*AlSov rLfjuDpovpcvov:, 
he has represented kings in Hadi^s as sujjermg punishment, P. (?. 525*^. 

1583. N. This must not be confounded witli indirect discourse, 
\\\ which opw <yt upwirovra wouU^ mean / see that you are hiding; 
ctKou'w (Ti ktyovray I hear that you say (olkovid taldiig the accusative). 
See 1588. 

1584. The participles ^ouAcS/xevos, Jvishing, rjSopcvo^, pleased, 
TTpoaBc^opcvo^, expecting, and some otliois, may agi'ee in case witJi 
a dative which depends on upi, yiyvopjoa, or some similar verb. E.g. 

T(J Trkr)B(.L ou ^ovXopivi^ riVy it was not pleasing to the majority {it 
teas not to them wishing if), 'J\2,.'i; Trpoo-8txopiv<^ p-oi to. r^s 
opYq<i vp^v €i Ipf. ycy<n;rui, / have been czpccting the manifestations 
of your wrath against me, 'J\2,G0. 

1585. AVith verbs signifying to overlook or see^ in the 
sense of ^o alloiu or let happen (Trcpiopw and c<popu), witli 
Tripul^ov and iTTu^ov, sometimes JSov), the participle is used 
in a sense, which approaches that of the object infinitive, 
the present and aorist participles differing merely as the 
present and aorist infinitives would differ in similar con- 
structions. E.g. 

M^ -rrtpLi^itipf-v vjS pLdOetaav Trjy XaKchaipova x«t KaTa<j>povrj- 
6t1(Tav, let us not sec Lacedaemon insulted and despised, 1.6,109. 
Mjj p.* Ihilv BavovB* VTT acTTiov, not to sec me killed by citizens, 
E. Or. 710. HcpuStiv Trjv yryr rp-qOcltrav, to lei thc land he ravaged, 
i.e. to look on and see it ravaged, 'J\2, 18; but in 2,20 we have 
-rnpuSuv Tr}v yrjv rpr}OrjvaL, to permit the land to be ravaged, refer- 
ring to the same thing fvoin another point of view, rp-qSiivaL being 
strictly future to -mpuScLv, while rpr)Bcl(iav is coincident with it. 

1586. The participle with Xavdavio, escape the notice of, 
Tvyxdvio, happen, and <i>6dvfi}, anticipate, contains thc leading 
idea of the expression and is usually translated by a verb. 



1588J THE l^ARTICirLE. 341 

The aorist participle here coincides in time with the verb 
(unless tJiis expresses duration) and does not denote past 
time in itself. (See 1290.) E.g. 

^ov^a- Tov TratSo? t\dv6avt ^oVxwv, he was unconsciously support- 
ing the slayer of Ids 5on, Hd.1,44; hvxov Ka^ij/xtvo? ivTav$a, 1 
happened to be sitting there (= tv^t} €Ka6rjfxyjv tvTavSa), P.£"u. 272*; 
avrol <f>OT^<jovTaL tovto ^pdaavrti, they will do thi"! themselves first 
(^~ TOVTO Spd(Tov<jt TTpOTipoi), V.Rp,S76'^; TOv<i 5* <Aa^* etVcA^oJv, 
and he entered unnoticed by them (= d(rfjX$i. XdOpa), //.24,477; 
l<f>Srjcrav ttoAAciJ TOV<i 11 tpaas diriKOpcvoLy they arrived long before 
the Persians^ Hd,4, 13C; Toi>9 dvOpujirovs Xrjoropiv tVtTreo-wrc?, we 
shall rush in unnoticed by the men, X.A.7y li*^. 

Tlie perfect participle here has its ordinary force. 

1587. N. T!ie participle with Star^Xc w, cojiiinue (15S0), otx^ 
fxaiy be gone (1250), ^a/xt£w, be wont or be frequent, and sonic 
otliers, expresses the leading idea ; but tlie aorist participle witli 
these has 'no peculiar force; as olx^rai <f>cvy(iiv, he has taken flight, 
Ar.P/.938 ; ov OafXi^a^ Kara/SaCvuiV ch tov Tleipaia^you don't come 
down to the Peiraeus very often, V. Pp. 328^. 

So with the Homeric jSrj and t^av or Pdv kom f^aiv<ji\ as fir} 
<f><.uyojVf he took flighty 7^.2,065; so 2,107. 

pARTlCirLE IN iKDirtECT PlSCOUKSE. 

1588. With many verbs the participle stands in indi- 
rect discourse, each tense representing the corresponding 
tense of a finite mood. 

Such verbs are chiefly those signifying to see^ to hear 
or learn^ to perceive, to know, to be ignorant of^ to remem- 
ber., to forget ., to show^ to appear^ to prove., to ackno^vledge., 
and ayyeXXo)^ announce. E.g, 

Opw hi p tpyov hcivbv l$iipya<Tpivr)Vj but I see that I have 
done a dreadful deed, S. 7V, 70C ; rjKovat Kvpov iv KiXiKLix ovra, he 
heard that Cyrus was in Cilicia (ct. 158:3), X./l.l,4^; orav KXvrrj 
r}$ovT* 'OpcGTTjv, when she hears that Orestes vAU come, S.El.2i)3. 
OiSu ovhi.v €7rL<jTdpcvo<i, J know that J understand nothing; ovk 
jl^ta-av avrov t cOvrjKOTa, they did not know that he was dead, 
X. j4.1,10'®; tVctSai/ yi'tLo-tv aTria-Tovpcvot, after they find out that 
they are distrusted, X.C 7, 2"; p.(pvy}pai IXOtxiv, I remember f hat 
J went; pifxvrjpaL avrov iXOovro., J remember that he loent ; Scifw 
rovTov <x^pov ovra^ I shall show that this man is an enemy (passive 



342 SYNTAX. [1689 

ovTos Stt;^0ij(7-CTat e;(0po? ojv). Airrt^ Kvpov cVtcTTpaTc voj'ra 
trpdroi Ty-y-yttAa, J Jirsl anuuunced to hhn that Cyrus was on his march 
against Aim, X.A.2, 3^^. 

See 149-t; a\id 130y for examples of tlio participle with ay 
representing both indicative and optative witli av. 

1589. N. A^Ao? etfXL and <^avcp6s ciVttako the participle 
in indirect discourse, where we use an impersonal conytruc- 
tioii ; as St/Ao? yv olofxcvos, it was evident that he thought (like 
S>]Kov yjy ore o'oiro). 

1590. N. With (TvuoiSa or o-vyyiyvoxrKo) and a dative of 
the reflexive, a participle may be iji eitlier the nominative or the 
dative; as uvvoiSa ifjuivTw rjSLKrjfjiivw (or -^Stici^yLttVos), I am 
conscious to vii/selfthat I have been ivronged. 

1591. Most of tlie verbs included in 1588 may also take 
a clause with on or a? iu indirect discourse. 

1592. 1. Some of tliese verbs have the infinitive of indirect 
discourse in nearly or quite the same sense as the participle. 
Others have the infinitive in a different sense : tlms <^atVtrai (jq<^q^ 
<S»' generally means he is manifesdy i/n'ye, and (^alvtrat Go<f>6i clvaL, 
he seems to be tvise ; but sometimes this distinction is not observed. 

2. Others, again, may be used in a peculiar sense, in wliich they 
have the infinitive not in indirect discourse. Thus otSa and cVi' 
arafixa regularly have this infinitive wlien they njean knoir Jtow; as 
o7Sa toOto TTQL^craL, I know how to do this (but oTSa tovto 7rot»J- 
o-a?, 7 knoiv that J did this). Mav^avw, ^ifxvrjfuxt, and l-niXavOa,- 
vofjuxi, in the sense of team, revieviber, ov forget to do anything, lake 
the regular object infinitive. See also the uses of yiyviixr Ktj>>, Bu- 
Kvvfu, Brjkfjjy <^alvopAii and <.vpl<jK<ii in the f. ex icon. 

1593. 1. 'a? niay be used witli the participle of indirect 
discourse iu the sense explairied in 1574. E.g. 

*ftv fijjKir ovTo. kCivov Iv ^ati voci, think of him as no longer living, 
S.PA.415. See IGT'l. 

2. Tlie genitive abfioJiito with uJs is ^sometimes found wiiere we 
should expect the participle to agree with the object of the verb; 
as o>? TToAc/iov ovTo^t Trap vp-iov aTTixyyiXu} ; shall J announce from 
you that there is wart (lit. assuming that there is war, shall J announce 
itfrorn youf), X. A. 2, 1^^ ~ where we might have iroXt^ov ovra ^itli 
less emphasis and in closer connection with the verb. So ws wo 
ixovruiv rwvh' lirlfTraudal. crt xprjy you must understatid that ths 
i$ 80 (lit. believing this to b^ so, you tnust undcrslattd if), S.Aj-*Jt>\. 



I5d0] VEHBAL ADJECTIVES. 343 

VERBAL ADJECTIVES IN -Tfos AND -Wov. 

1594. The verba] in -rio^ has both a personal and an 
impersonal construction, of which the latter is more 
common. 

1595. In the personal construction it is passive in 
sense, aiid expresses iteeesaity^ jike the Latin participle 
in 'dus^ agreeing witli the subject. E,g. 

^Q4>e\7jTia aoL ?/ ttoAi? iaTiy, the city v)ust be heuejited bt/ you, 
X. M . 3, 0^ "AAAa? /xtTUTTc^TTTcat ttmt {t4>r)), he said that other 
(skips) mu<tt be aeyitfor, T. 0,2o. 

1596. N. Tlic noun denoting" the agent is liere in tlie dative 
(1188). Tills construction is of course confined to transitive verbs. 

1597. In the impersonal construction tlie verbal is 
in the neuter of the nominative singular (sometimes 
plural), with ecTTi expressed or understood. The ex- 
pressioji is equivalent to hel, (one) rnvst^ with the in- 
finitive. It is practically active in sense, and allows 
transitive verbals to iiave an object like their verbs. 

The agent is generally exiu'esscd by the dative, some- 
times by the accusative. U.(/, 

TuOra rjfiLV (or 17 /xa?) -jrotrjT^ov €<ttlv, we. must do this (equiv.v 
lent to TuLvra rjfj^f; Btl Troti^crai). Oictt^'ov raSt, we inust bear these 
things (sc. Tjfuv), li.Or.liji). TC av avTi2 -jroLrjT eov iirj ; what would 
he be ohliiicd to do? {— tL hioi av airrov ttoi^o-ui), X.A/. 1,7^ (1598). 
*Eil/r}<f>L<ravTO -rroXc^-qria tivai, they voted that they must 70 to war 
(- hcLv TToAe/xctj/), T. 1,88. Hu/xfuixoi, out ov Trapahorea rot? 
*A0r)yaLOL<; (.GTcVy allies, whom we must not abaudoyi to the AthenianSy 
T.1,S(). 

1598. N. Tliongli tlie verbal in -re'oj' allows both the dative 
and tlif accii^at.ive of the agent (1188), the equivalent 8«Z with the 
infinitive allows ojily the aecusative (1102). 

1599. N. The Tatin hns this construction (1597), but generally 
only with verbs which do not take an object accusative; as Kun- 
duin est tibi (Itcov icni (tol), — jMorienduin est omnibus. So Bello 
utenduni est nobis (tw TroAt'/x*^' Xf^'O^'^^^^ tcrrtv 7/xir), we must go to 
war. 'J'he earlier Latin occasionally has the exact equivalent of 
th(j Greek impersonal const luetion ; as Acternas poonas tinienduoi 
est, Lncr. 1,112. (See Madvig's I^atln (irannnar, § 421.) 



S4i SYNTAX'. [lf>00 

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. 

1600. All interrogative pronouns^ pronominal adjectives, 
and adverbs can be used in both direct and indirect ques- 
tions. The relative oo-rt? (rarely o?) and the relative pro- 
nominal adjectives (429) may be used in indirect questions. 

Tt Aty€i ; tvhai does he sayf Wotc y]X6cv ; when did he come 9 
Xloaa ctScs ,* how viany did you seel "Wpovro tl Xtyoi (or o n 
A^'yot)) ihey asked what he said. "Hpovro ttotc (or otto'tc) rjXOcv, they 
a.'^led when he came. 'Opas 7jfxa<:, oaoi icfx^v ; do you sec how many 
of us there arefy?.Rp.Z21''. 

1601. N. The Greek, unlike the English, freely uses two 
or more interrogatives with the same verb. E.g, 

*H TiVi T i a.-nc^Lho\}(ja r^x^t] BiKoxocrvyq av koXoito; the art which 
r€7}dcr$ what to what would be called Jvslicef P. /^;7. 332<i. See the 
five iiiteriogatives (used for comic effect) in D.4,3C: TrpooiBiv 

CKaO-TO? Tt? X'^P^y^^' • • * TOT* Kttt TTttpa TOV Kol TL Xaf^OVTa TL 8ft 

TTOulvi lueairnig everybody knows who the X^PVY^^ '*' '^ ^^' '^^'^' ^^^ '^' 
to get, when and from whom he is to (jet ify and what he is to do with it. 

1602. N. An interrogative sometimes stands as a predicate 
witli a demonstrative ; a« tl tovto lXt$a^; what is this thai you said? 
(•= tXffa? TOVTO, TL 6y; lit. you said this, being what?) ; nVa? rowS' 
ctGTopo) ; who are these that 1 see f E. Or. 1347. 

Sucli expressions cannot be Hterally translated. 

-1603. Tlie principal direct interrogative particles are apa 
and (chiefly poetic) ^, These imply nothing as to the 
answer expected ; but apa ov implies au affirmative and apa 
fiy a negative answer. Ov and firj are used alone with the 
same force as with apa. So fiCyv (for fir) ovv) implies a nega- 
tive answer, aud ovkovv, therefore (with uo negative force), 
implies an ailirmative answer. E.g. 

"'H (TXoXr) iOToi ; will there be leisure ? *Ap* elo-C tlvc<: a^iot ,* are 
there any deserviuy ones ? *Ap* ov (SovXcaSc iXOilv ; or ov (iovXtaQt. 
iXOuv; do you not wish to go (i.e. you wiah, do you not) ? *Apa fXTj 
jSovXcadc iXBuv ; or fxy (or fxQ)v) /SovXtaOf. iXOuw ; do you wish to go 
{you don't wish to go, do you) ? Ovkovv ctol BokcI avficftopov ttrat; 
does it not seem to you to be of advantage f X. C. 2, 4'*. This distinc- 
tion between ov and fi-j does not api>ly to questions with the inter- 
rogative subjunctive (1358), whicli allow only fiy. 



1609] IKTEUROGATIVE SEJSTENCES. — NEGATIVES. 345 

1604, "AkXo TL rj; is it anything else than? or (more fre- 
quently) oAAo tl; is it not? is sometimes used as a direct 
iuterrugative. E.g. 

"Akko Ti ^ ofiokoyovfiiv ; do we not agree? (do we Jo anything 
else than agree ?)f WGAli)^. "Akko rt ovv Svo ravra iktyc^ ; did 
you not call these two ? ibid, 495<=. 

1606. Indirect questions may be introduced by ti, whether; 
and ill HoDier by ^ or ci. E.g. 

*HpioTrjaa d jSovkoiTO ikOciv, I asked whether he wished to go. 
''ClL)((.ro TTcuao/jtcvo? rj ttov <t* Ciiys, he was guhc to iin^uire whether you 
were mill living.^ OJ. 13,415. Ta €Kn<x}{juiTa ovk otBa d tovt<^ 3w 
(1490), / do not hiow whether I shall give him the cups^ X. C. 8,4'*^. 
(Here d is used even witli the subjunctive: see 1401.) 

1606. Alternative questions (botlt direct and indirect) 
may be introduced by irortpov (noTepu) . . . ■^j whether . . . or. 
Indirect alternative questions can also be introduced by d 
... 17 or £LT€ , . . dre, whether . . . or. Homer has ^ (50 • • • 
rj (5<) in direct, and rj (rje) ... 5 (50 ^^^ indirect, alterna- 
tives, — never norcpov. E.g. 

ndrcpof ia<i apx^f-v rj akkov KaOiaT7)i ; do you allow him to rule, 
or do yoH appoint another? X. C. :^, P'^. 'E/SyuAeutTO d Trtpnoui/ 
Tim? 5 TrdvTts lottv, he was deliberating whether they should send some 
or should all go, X.yl. 1, 10^ 

ISKGATIVES. 

1607. 'JMic Greek has two negative adverbs, ov and py. 
What is said of each of these generally applies to its com- 
pounds, — ov5ci9, ovB^, ovTCj etc., and prjhuiy pyhe, piJTt, etc. 

1608. Ov is used with the indicative and optative in all 
independerU sentences, except wishes; also in indirect dis- 
course after on and 0)9, and in causal sentences. 

1609. N. In indirect question.^, introduced l^y d, whether^ pr] 
can be used a.s well as ov\ as l3ovk6pivo<; ipiuOai d pxxOujv ti<; ti 
pcpirqpivoi pr) oiScv, wishing to a.^h whether one who has learnt a 
thing and remember.^ it doe^ not k'now it? V.Th.K)'^'^. Also, in the 
second part of an indirect alternative question (1006), botli ov and 
py are allowed ; as aKorrCyp^v il r}p^v TrptVct rj ov, let us look and see 
whether it suita us or not, V.HpAol'^] d 8t AkyOis *; py, ■rrupdaopxu 
HaOtiv, but I will try to learn whether it ji' true or not, ibid.^6'60'; 



346 SVNTAX. UGIO 

1610. MtJ iy used with the subjuuctive aud imperative 
jii ail coiubfcructions, except with the Homeric subjunctive 
(1355), which has the force ol ji fiituve indicative. Mi? is 
used in all fiual and object clauses aitei- Tvu, ottw?, etc., witli 
the subjunctive, optative, aud indicative; except after fj.7J, 
lestf which takes ov. It is used in all conditional and con- 
ditional relative clauses, and in the corrt;spoiiding temporal 
seutences after €to«», -npLv, etc., in relative sentences exin-ess- 
iiig a purpoae (1442), and in all expressions of a wish with 
both indicative and optative (1/507; 1511). 

For causal relative clausf.s with fx^j (also conditio ual), sec 14(32. 
For ci ov occasional!}' used in prot.;tsis, see l;iS:3, 2. 

1611. Mt) is used with tJie infinitive in all constructions, 
both with and without the avtiele, except in irtdirtct din- 
course. The infinitive in indirect discourse regularly has 
oil, to retain the negative of tlio direct discourse j but some 
exceptions occur (149G). 

Fov wo-T€ ov villi the infitiitive, se<; l'l^>]. For f^rj wiMi (he 
infniiLive after verbs of hoping, proviisiuy, .^weariny, etc., see H!J(j. 

1612» When a participle expresses a condition (15(>3, 5), 
it takes /^t?/; so wlien it is equivalent to a conditional i-ela- 
tive clause; as ol ixij ^ovkofxcvoi, anywho du not wish. Other- 
wise it takes ov. In indirect discourse it sometimes^ like 
the infinitive, takes puj irregularly (1496). 

1613. Adjectives follow the same principle witli paitici- 
ples, taking fxy only when they do not refer to definite per- 
sons or things (i.e. when they ean be expressed by a rela- 
tive clause with an indefinite antecedent) ; as ol /-t^ ayaOol 
woXTrat, (any) citizens who are not good, but ol oI-k dyaOol ttoXl- 
TUL means special citizens who are not good, 

1614. Participl^^s or adjectives coiinectec] with a protasis, a 
command, or au infinitivo whicli would be negatived by /x?/, gener- 
ally take /!>/, even if they would otherwise have ov. 

1615. When verbs ^vliich contain a negative idea (as 
those of hindering, forbidding, deifying, conceaUi)g, and dis- 
trusting) taUe tlie infinitive, pr) can be added to the infini- 
tive to strengthen the not^^'-ition. Such a negative cannot 
be translated in Knglisli, and eau always be omitted iu 
Greek. For examples, see 1549-1.551. 



1(519] NEGATIVKS. 347 

1616. An iiifiiiitive w]iicli would regularly be negatived 
by /ii?; either iu tlic ordinary way (1011) or to strengthen a 
preceding negation (1015), generally takes the double iiegar 
tive fxr) ov\( the verb on which it depends itself has a negative. 

Thus SUaiov luTL firj TovTov a4>ilvaLy it 'is just not to acquit ftim, if 
we neL;ative tiic leading verb, generally becomes ov SiVatoV £(rn firj 
ov TovTOf a(^t1vai^ it is not just not to acquit him. So tu? ov^ ocrtdv 
aoi ov y.r] ov ^ofjBtlv hiKCiiouvvr), since (as you said) it was a failure 
in picfyfor you vol to ai<i;i:^t justice, P. ]{pA21^. Again, etpyci (jt firj 
TovTO TTOLtlv (!.').')(»), Uc pvcventii you from Joiitg this, becomes, witli 
ttpyif. negatived, ovk dpya crt firj ov rovro nouiyy he does not pre- 
vent you from (hnug this. 

1617. K. («) Ml) ov is used also when the leading verb is 
interroL;ative im)»lying a negative; as ti iyL-noh^v p-rj oix'- ^^P^O" 
/xtVou? anoOavuv ; what is there to prevent (us) from being insulted 
and per <sh ivy? X.An.'i^ V^. 

{h) It i.s sometimes used with ]iarticij)lcs, or even nouns, to 
exiHiiss an exception to a negative (or implied negative) statement; 
as TToXct? ytiXiiraL XafSuv, fxrj ov TroXiopKt'a, cities hard (i.e. not easy) 
to Cdplurcj except by iiiege, I). U), 123. 

1618. When a negative is followed by a simple negative 
(ov or fiTJ) in the same clause, each retains its own force. 
If thc-'3' belong to the same word or expression, tlicy make 
an ajfirmative; but if they belong to different words, each 
is independent of the other. E.g. 

OvSk Tov <I>opjLuW<i ovx opoLy nor does lie not .^ee Phormio (i.e. 
he sec^ Phormio tcetl euough)^ D.30,4G. Ov hC a-rrcLpuxv yc ov <fi-qGH<; 
CX^^^ ^ ''"' ^"^ni^' ''^ '■''" "<^' surely through inexperience that you vnll 
deny that you have anything to say^ D. 19, 1*20. El p.r) Wpo^cvov ov\ 
{iTTtSc^avTo, if they had not refused to receive Proxenus (had not not- 
received him), D.19,74. So fjirj ovv . . . 8ta raCra prj Boto) SiK-qv, do 
not then on tin's accoxint let him escape punishment (do not let him not 
be punished), J>. iy,77. 

1619. But when a negative is followed by a compound 
negative (or by several compound negatives) iu the same 
clause, the negation is strengthened. E.g. 

Ov8ct9 ds ovhkv ovSivbs av r]p.<jiiv ovSitrorc ylvoiro a^to?, 
no one of us (in that case) would ever come to be of any value for 
anything, V.Ph.\^^. 

For the double negative ov fxi], see 1300 and 1361. For oi^ ""^t, 
fxrj OTi, 01';^ oTTws, p.r} oroi?, see 1504. 



PART V. 



VERSIFICATION. 

RHYTHM AND METRE. 

1620. Every verse is composed of definite portions called 
feet. Thus we have four feet in each of tliese verses : — 

^y]<jo\yitv 7rp6<: I rovi <rTpa\T}]yov^. j 
FAr from | nicSrtal | c^res re|treitiug, | 

1621. In each foot there is a certain part on which falls 
a special stress of voice called ictus (stroke), and another 
part on which there is no such stress. The part of the foot 
on which the ictus falls is called the arsis, and the rest of 
the foot is called the thesis.^ The regular alternation of arsis 
and thesis in successive feet produces the rhythm (harmonious 
movement) of the verse. 

1622.' In this English verse (as iu all English poetry) the 
rhythm depends entirely on the ordinary accent of the words, 
with which the ictus coincides. In tJie Greek verse, how- 
ever, the ictus is entirely independent of tlie word-accent; 
and the feet (with the ictus marked by dots) are t^T^o-o,'— 
fxcy TTpo?, — Tou? o-rpa, — TT^you?. lu Greek poctry a foot 
consists of (1 regular conibi nation of syllables of a certain 

^ Tlie t.cnn ipo-ts (raising) and d^c-n (placing), as they were used by 
nearly all tlip. Greek writers ou Ithythni, referred to the raising and 
putting down of the foot in marching, dancing, or beatiug timo, so that 
O^ffii denoted the part of the foot on whicli tlie ictus fell, and S-po-i^ tho 
lighter part. Most of the Roman writers, however, inverted this use, 
and refeired arsis to tlie raising of tlu; voice and thesis to the lowering 
of the voice in reading. 'J'hc prevailing modern ase of these terms 
unfortunately follows that of the Koman writers, and attempts to 
reverse the settled usage of language are apt to end in confusion. 
348 



1024] RHYTHM AND VKUSE. 349 

length ; and the place of the ictus here depends on the 
quantity (i.e. the length or shortness) of the syllables 
which compose tlie foot, the ictus naturally falling upon a 
long syllable (1629). The regular alternation of long and 
short syllables in successive feet makes the verse metrical^ 
i.e. measured in its time. The rhythm of a Greek verse 
thus depends closely on its metre, i.e. on the measure or 
quantity of its syllables. 

1623. The fuiulatneiital di.stlDction between ancient and most 
Diodern poetv}' is siniplv tliis, tliat in modern poetry the verse con- 
sists of a rej^nlai- combinaLion of accented and unaccented syilabies, 
while in ancient poetry it oonsists of a regular conihiiiatioii of long 
3,ndi short syllables. Tlu^ rhijihin is tlie one essential requisite in the 
external form of all jtuetry, ancient aiid modern; but in ancient 
poetry, rhytlini depends on metre and not on accent; in modern 
poetry it depends on accent, and the quantity of the syllables (i.^. 
the metre) is i^enerally no more rei^arded tlian it is in prose. Both 
are equally rhyihmU-td ; Ijut tlie ancient is also vietrical, and its metre 
is the basis of its rliythm. What is called metre in English poetry 
is strictly only rlivthm. 

1624. The c)ia))ij^e from metrical to accentual rhythm can best 
be seen in modern Greek poetry, in which, even when the forms of 
the ancient language are retained, the rhythm is generally accentual 
and the metre is no more regarded than it is in English poetry. 
These are the first two verses in a modern translation of the 
Odyssey : — 

^dXXc Tov I av8pa, 0€|a, tov iro|XuTpoirov, [ oo-rtj To|o-ovTowt 
Toirout 8ijf]X6e, irop|6iio-as tii« j Tpofas t^v \ tvSofov | 'jr<iXiv. 

The original verses are : — 
"AvSpa fioi I cvvcn-c, ] Movcra, iro[Xih-poirov, | os ^aXa | iroXXa 
nXA^x^^i ^.'«'<^ Tpot|tis U[pdv irToXt|<9pov *|iripo-€v. 
If the former verses set oui' teeth on edge, it is only through 
force of acquired hal)jt ; for these verses have much more of the 
nature of modern poetry than the Homeric originals, and their rhythm 
is precisely what we are accustomed to in English verse, where 
Still stands the [ forest priimeval; but 1 under the 1 shade of its ] branches 
is dactylic, and 

And the ohive of peace j spreads Us branchles abroad 
is anapaestic. 



350 



VERSIFICATION. 



[1625 



1625. It is very difficuit for us to appreciate the ease with which 
the Greeks distinguished and reconciled the stress of voice which 
constituted the ictus and tlie raising- of tone which constituted the 
word-accent (107, 1). Any combination of the two is now very 
difficult, and for most persons impossible, because we have only 
stress of voice to represent both accent and ictus. In reading 
Greek poetry we usually mark the ictus by our accent, and either 
neglect the word-accent or make it fiubordinate to the ictus. Care 
should always be taken in reading to distitignieh the wards, not 
the feet. 

FEET. 

1626. 1. The unit of measure in Gn^ek verse is the short 
syllable (w), which has the value of ^or an -^ note in music. 
This is called a time or mora. The long syllable (_ ) has 
generally twice the length of a short one, and has the value 
of a i note or J in music. 

2, But a long syllable sometimes has the length of three shorts, 
and is called a U-isetne (i_), and sometimes that of four shorts, and 
is called a leiraseme (u_j). 'J'lie trisenie has tlie value of J, in music, 
and tlie tetrasenie that of J. 

1627. Feet are distinguished according to the number of 
times which they contain. The most common feet are the 
following : — 

1. Of Three 7 -hues (in § time). 



Trochee _ ^ 


<f>(uve 


J J- 


Iambus ^ _ 


i^r}v 


/J 


Tribrach v^ v^ v^ 


XeyCTt 


/jV 


2. Of Four Times 


(in 1 or \ tiine) 




Dactyl _ w v^ 


<f>aLVCT€ 


■j n 


Anapaest v^ v_/ „ 


o-«^o/xat 


n J 


Spondee 


tLTTtOV 


J J 


3. Of Five Times (in | time). 




Cretic _ v^ _ 


<j>aiViTO) 


J /J 


Paeon primus __ \^ v^ v^ 


tKTpmTC 


J :n 


Paeon quartus v^ v^ w _ 


KaraXiyo) 


n j-j 


Bacchius v^ 


d</>€yyi?s 


/J J 


Antibacchius ^ 


<paLvr)TC 


J J / 



1631] FKK'J\ r:TC. 351 

4. Of Six T^mes (ifi f or J time). 

Ionic rt maiore ^ ^ fxAaVerc I 1 PI 

Ionic a maiore ^ ^^ Trpocn^idddL ^\ \ J 

Choriainbus _ ^ w _ iKTpiiro^L J H J 

Molossus (rartf) /iouAcuW I I J 

5. A foot of foul- shorts (wwww) is called a proceleusmaiicj 
and one of two slioits (ww) a pyrrhic. 

For the dochmius, w w _, see 1(191. For the cpitrile, see 

16S4. 

1628. Tile feet in \ time (1), in wiiich the arsis is twice as long 
as the thesis, form the double class (ytVos hnrXdinov), as opposed 
to those in '\ time (*J), in which tiic arsis and thesis are of et^ual 
length, and which form the eijual chiss (y*Vos laov). The more 
complicated relations of arsis and thesis in the feet of five and six 
time!^ are not considered hei'c. 

1629. The ictus falls naturally on a Ion- syllablt^. The 
first syllable of the trochee and the dactyl, and the last 
syllable of tlie iambus and the ana]>aest, therefore, form 
the arsis, the rcnmiiider of the foot bciug the thesis j as 

— ^^1 — \J \y, \^ — 1 \y vy — • 

1630. When a long syllal>Je in the arsis is resolved into two 
short syllables (1031), tlie ictus ]no]>erly belongs on the two taken 
together, but in reading it is usually placed on the first. Thus a 
tribrach iised for a trocliee {jL ^) is w w ^; one used foj' an 
iambus (^ _rl) \^ \y -C ^^^ Likewise a spondee used for a dactyl is 

jL _; one used for an anaj^aest is 1. So a dactyl used for an 

anapaest (_ ^ ^ for for ^ v-/ „) is _ c^ w 'l^he only use 

of the tribrach and the chief use of the spondee are (as above) to 
represent other feet which have their arsis naturally marked by a 
long syllable. 

RESOLUTION AND CONTRACTION. — IRRATIONAL 
TIME. — ANACRUSIS. — SYLLABA ANCEPS. 

1631. A long syllable, being naturally the metrical equiv- 
alent of two short ones (1G2G), is often resolved into tliese; 
as when a tribrach www stands for a trochee _ w or an 

iambus ^ On the other hand, two short syllablf-^s are 

often contracted into one loncf syllable ; as when a spondee 



362 VERSIFICATION. [1032 

stands for a dactyl _ v ^ or an anapaest ^ ^ — The 

mark for a long resolved into two shorts is ^^^^^ that for 
two shorts contracted into one long is c^. 

1632. 1. When a long syllable Las the measure of three 
or four short syllables (1626, 2), it may represent a whole 
foot : this is called syyicope. Thus a triseine (i_- = J J may 
represent a trooliee (— w), and a teiraseme (i_i = J) may rep- 
resent a dactyl (— w w). 

2. An apparent trochee (i— w), consisting of a triseme (i_) 
and a short syllable, may be the equivalent of a dactyl or a 
spondee, that is, a foot of four times. This is called a long 
trochee, or z,^Doric trochee (see 1684). 

1633. On the other hand, a long syllable may in certain 
cases be shortened so as to take the place of a short syllable. 
Such a syllable is called irrational, and is marked >. The 
foot in which it occurs is also called irrational (ttou? oXoyos). 
Thus, in dXV av ixPpiov (^w^>), the apparent spondee 
which takes tlie place of the second trochee is called an 
irrational trochee; in Sovmi SU-qv (>-^w— ) that which 
takes the place of the first iambus is called au irrational 
iambus. 

1634. A similar shortening occurs in the so-called cyclic 
dactyl (marked ^^v^) and cyclic anapaest (marked v^ v.^), 
which hav.e the time of only three short syllables instead of 
four. The cyclic dactyl takes the place of a trochee — v^, 
especially in logaoedic verses (1679). The cyclic anapaest 
takes the place of au iambus w _, and is found especially in 
the iambic trimeter of comedy (1658). 

1635. An ayiacrusis (dvoKpovo-i?, upward beat) consists of 
a single syllable (which may be long, short, or irrational) 
or of two short syllables, prefixed to a verse which begins 
with an arsis. 

1636. The last syllable of every verse is common, and 
it may be made long or short to suit the metre, without 
regard to its usual quantity. It is called syllaba anceps. 
But the continuous systems described in 1654, 1666, and 
1677 allow this only at the end of the system. 



tm] RHYTHMICAL SKRIES, ETC. 353 

RHYTHMICAL SERIES, — VERSE. — CATALEXIS. — 
PAUSE. 

1637. A rhythmical series is a continuous succession of 
feet of the same measure, A verse may consist of one such 
series, or of several such united. 

Thus the verse 

TToXXa TO. ^iiva, KoiBtv ayWOpiaTrov Savorfpov Trt'Xct 

consists of a First GJy conic (1682, 4), -^^ ^ I „ ^ I _ w I l_ (at the 
end of a verse, ^»^ wl _ wl _ wl _ /\), followed by a Second 
Glyconic, _^l-^wl_v/l_/\. Each part forms a series, the 
former ending with the first syllable of avdpwTrov (see above); and 
either series might have formed a distinct verse. 

1638. The verse must close in such a way as to be dis- 
tinctly marked off from what follows. 

1. It must end with the end of a word. 

2. It allows the last syllable {syllaba anceps) to be either 
long or short (1636). 

3. It allows hiatus (34) before a vowel in the next verse. 

1639. A verse which has an unfinished foot at the close 
is called ccUaledic (KaraXi^Krtxo?, stopped short). A complete 
verse is called acatalectic. 

1640. 1. If the omitted syllable or syllables in a catalectic 
verse are the thesis of the foot (as in trochaic and dactylic verses), 
their place is filled by a pause, A pause of one /tme, equivalent to 
a short syllable (w), is marked A (for A, the initial of X«t/A/jia); 
a pause of two times (_) is marked a . 

2. But in catalectic iambic and anapaestic verses, the thesis of 
the last foot is lost, ana the place is filled by prolonging the pre- 
ceding arsis : thus we have \^ lLjL (not ,^ ^ w /,) as the catalectic 

form of s^ s^ ; and v^ v^ .-:j ^ (not v^v^_i!lv^wA) as that of 

w w _ w w_. (See 1664 and 1665.) 

1641. A verse measured by dipodies (1640) is called hrachy- 
catalectic if it wants a complete foot at the end, and hypercatalectic 
if it has a single syllable beyond its last complete dipody. 

CAESURA AND DIAERESIS. 

1642. 1. Caesura (i.e. cutting) of the foot occurs whenever 



354 VERSIFICATION. |^1043 

a word er^ds before a foot is finished; as in three cases in 

the following verse ; — 

2. This becomes linpoitant only when it coincides with 
the caesura of (he verse (as after t(^^t>o\js). This caesura is 
a pause witliin a toot introduced to make the verse more 
melodious or to aid in its recital. Ju sojne verses, as in 
tlic iambic trimeter acatalectic (1658) and the heroic hcxa^ 
luctei* (1(>G9), it follows definite principles. 

1643. When the end of a word coincides with the end of a 
foot, the double division is called diacreais (Siaipct^w, division); 
as after the first foot in the line just (juoted. Diaeresis 
becomes important only when it coincides with a natural 
pause produced by the ending of a rhythmic series; as iu 
the trochaic tetrameter (1651) and the dactylic pentameter 
(1670). 

1644. The following verse of Anstoplianos (A^ui>. 519), in tro- 
chaic (i) rhythm, sliows the irrational long (1633) in the first, 
second, and sixth feet; tlie cyclic dactyl (1C34) in the third; syn- 
cope (1C/J2) in the fomtb ; and at the end catalesis and pause 
(1639; lOtO), with syllaba unceps (1G3G). 

ToAr;!^ v^ I Tov Aid|vu|Iao>' rov \ iK9pc\}lfaiTa ] fxi. 
^>l_>l-^^li_II_oI_>!_wl_A 
A rhythmical series (1G;^7) (^nds with the penult of Aiovvaov, This 
is a logaoedic vorse, called EupuUdaan (1G82, 7). 

VERSES. 

1645. Voises arc called Trochaic, Iambic, Dactylic^ etc., 
from their tundaiwcutal foot. 

1646. In jiiost kinds of verse, a monovieter consists of 
one foot, a dimeter of two feet, a trimeter^ tetrameter^ pentor 
meter^ or hexameter of throe, four, five, or six feet. But m 
trochaic, ian\hic, and anapaestic verses, which are measured 
by dipodles (i.e. pairs of feet) j a monometer consists of one 
dipody for two feet), a dimeter of four feet, a trimeter of 
six feet, and a tetrameter of eight feet. 



■1661] TROCHAIC RIIVTIIMS. 355 

1647. WJieii trochaic or iainbic verses are measured by single 
feet, Uiey are called irlpodies^ tcirapodies, hexapodiesy etc. (as having 
three, four, six, etc. feet). Here irrational syllables (lGa3) seldom 
occur. (See 1G56.) 

1648. Rhythms are divided into rising and fulling rhythims. 
In rising rhythms the arsis follows the thesis, as in the iambus 
and anapaest; in falling rliythins the tliesis follows the ai'sis, as in 
the trochee and the dactyl. 

1649. Ill Greok poetry, tlie same kind of verse may be 
used by the line (Kara frri'xoi'), t]iat is, repeated continuously, 
as in the heroic hexaiudter and the iambic trimeter of the 
drama. Secondly, similar verses may be combined into 
distichs (1670) or into sijiiple systems (1654). Verses of 
both these classes were composed for recitation or for simple 
chanting. Thirdly, in lyric poetry, wliicli was composed to 
be sung to music, verses may be combined into strophes of 
complex rhythmical and mctrit;al structure, with anti- 
strophes corresponding to tliem in form. A strophe and 
antistrophe may be followed by an epode {afteV'Song) in 
a different metre, as in most of the odes of Pindar. 

TKOCnAIC RHYTHMS. 

1650. Trochaic verses are generally measured by dipodies 
(1646). Tlic irrational trochee ^ > (1633) in the form of 
a spondee can stand in the second place of each trochaic 
dipody except the last, that is, in the even feet (second, 
fourth, etc.), so that the dipody has the form ^ ^ -1 o. 
An apparent anapaest {<^ kj > for ~>) is sometimes used 
as the equivalent of the irrational trochee. The cyclic 
dactyl A^^ (1634) sometimes stands for the trochee in 
proper uamcs iu both parts of the dijjody, except at the end 
of the verse. 

The tribrach {6 ^ ^) may stand for the trochee (1631) 
in every foot except the last. 

1651. The chief trochaic verse wliich is used hy ike line 
(1649) is the tethametkh cata lectio, consisting of seven 
feet and a syllable, divided into two rhythmical series (1637) 
by a diaeresis (1643) after the second dipody. E.g. 



356 



VEUSIFICATION. 



[1652 



— w — v^ 



(2) Kara (rtXyyrjv 
\j \j \^ — >■ 



w? ay ity xp'i'J 



StVpO TOV VOVV 

TOV /Slov Ta^: 



(3) fvyyovov t Cft-iyv VlvXdhrjv tc 



(1) CD aoifiwTaToi ^carat, Sevpo tov voOv TrpoVxtrc* 
— w > -:_v^ ^ — w /\ 

— ^— A 

— ^— > I — ^ — A 

Notice the tribrach in the first place of (2), and the c^^clic 
dactyl in the third place of (3), 

This verse is familiar in English poetry, as 

Tell me not iu mournful numbers, life is but an empty dream. 

1652. The'^lame tetrameter (c^;(a^a)^'), called HijDponacteari from 
Hipponai (see 16G3), is the preceding verse with the last syllable 
but one long. E.g. 

dfx<^t8c^to9 yap ilfii kov;^ d/xapTavu) KOTrrmv. 

Vjf \^ \ \y wl \J . \^ \ 

1653. The following are some of the more important 
lyric trochaic verses : — 

1. Tripody acatalectic (the Ithyphallic) : 

flT^TTOT tKTaKltr].^ _ ^^ — vy _ v/ (1647) 

2. Tripody catalectic : 

o? yi <Tav XiTTwv.^ — ^ — ^^ — A 

3. Tetrapody or dimeter acatalectic: 

TOVTO TOV fl€V Y}pOi dil 

fiXaa-Toivii Kol (TVKo<i>avTt2.^ 

4. Tetrapody or dimetev catalectic: 

StLva TTpdyfJuxT tiBofJUV.^ 
a(T7rl8a<: <i>v\koppou.^ 

5. Hexapody or trimeter catalectic: 

apTrayal Se SiaSpo/ji.av 6p.aifxov£<;. 
\y \j \ \^ \J \J — v^l — v-/ — A 

i Ar. N. 575. " Hippon. 83. ' Ar. Av. H78, U70. ^o A. ^e. 351. 

2 ibid. 626, * A . Pi\ 535. ^ ibid. 1 472. 

» E. Or. 1635. « S. Ph. 1216. » ibid. 1481. 



W v-zl ^^ '^ 

\^ > i w — w 

\^ — \^ \ — ^ — A 



1658] UMBIC KHYTHMS. 357 

1664. A stanza consisting of a series of dimeters acata- 
lectic (1653, 3), rarely with au occasional monometer 
(_ w — ^)y and ending in a dimeter catalectic (1653, 4), 
is called a trochaic system. E.g. 

ravra fjAv Trpo? avSp6<; luri — ^ — ^ 1 — \j — \j 
vovv l\ovro^ Ka\ <^p€va<i Koi — ^ — > i — \j — > 
TToAAa TrtpiTTiTrXcvKoroi,^ — \^ \^\^^\ — \j — a 

For iambic and anapaestic systems, formed on the same prin- 
ciple, see 1606 and 1677. See also 1636. 

1655. The following contain examples of syncopated 
trochaic verses (1632, 1): — 

vvv Karao-rpo<i>al viwv — \j ^ \j I — ^ — /\ 

Bcap-LiiiV) (.1 Kparrjcru Siko. re Kui pXdfia 

— ^L_l — v_/L_l — \j — v_/ I — v^ — A 
TOvSi fxrjrpoKTovov. — '^ l_ I — \j — /\ 

SwfxaTwv yap tlXofxav — ^ — ^ I — ^ — A 

dvarp07ra<iy oTuv'Apiy? nOaaoi u}v 4>l\ov ^rj.^ 

^ ^ <^ \ — lw\y<^i_l \j \y \y I — Iwww — A 

1656. In lyric ti'ocliaic and iambic verses, the irrational syllable 
is found chiefly in conjcdy, and is avoided in tragedy. 

IAMBIC KHYTHMS. 

1657. Iambic verses are generally measured by dipodies 
(1046). The irrational iambus > ^ (1633) in the form of 
a spondee can stand in the//-.s^ place of each iambic dipody, 
tliat isj in the odd places (Hrst, third, etc), so that the 
dipody has the form o — ^y — . An apparent dactyl (> 6 \y 
for >— ) is sometimes used as the equivalent ol the irra- 
tional iambus; and tl\e cyclic anapaest ^ ^ (1G34) is used 
for the iambus in both parts of tlie dipody, except in the 
last foot, especially by the Attic comedians (1658). The 
tribrach {\j <:^ ^) may stand for the iambus in every foot 
except the last. 

1658. The most common of all iambic verses is the 
TBiMRTKK ACATAi.ECTic, in which most of the dialogue of 

1 Ar. R. 634 ff. ^ A. Eu. 490 ff. » ihid. 354 ff. 



358 VERSIFICATION. [1669 

the Attic drama is composed. It never allows any substi- 
tution in the last foot. With this exception it may have 
the tribrach in any place. The irrational iambus >— in 
the form of a spondee can stand in the first place of every 
dipody. The tragedians allow the (apparent) dactyl > C ^ 
only in the first and third places, and the cyclic anapaest 
only in the first place; but in proper names they allow the 
anapaest in every place except the last. The comedians 
allow the dactyl > ^ v.^ in all the odd places, and the cyclic 
anapaest in every place except the last (1657). The most 
common caesura is that after the thesis of the third foot. 

1659. The following scheme shows the tragic and the 
comic iambic trimeter compared, — the forms peculiar to 
comedy being enclosed in [ ]. 



>- 



> 



\j \j \j \j \^ \j \ \j \^ \j \j \j \j 
^ \j \j !> \^ \^ 



>_ 

\y \^ \^ 



1660, When the tragic trimeter ends in a word forming a cretic 

(_ v^ ), tljis is regularly preceded by a short syllable or by a 

monosyllable.^ In general the tragedians avoid the feet of three 
syllables, even where they are allowed. 

1661. The following arc examples of both the tragic and 
the comic form of the iambic trimeter: — 

(Tragic) xl^ovof; ^€v ds \ TTjkovpov 7j\K0fxtv -jriSov, 

'S.KvOrjv €9 oi|/AOi', dfSaTOV eU \ iprjfiLav. 

"H^aicTTc, (TOi I Bk )(prj fiiXnv \ cVtCTToAa?. A.Pr. 1-3. 
(Comic) o) Ztv ftaa-ikiv • \ to XPVA"^ T'^^ i vvktiov oaof 

aTTipavrov oijSfVo^' VH-^P^ I y<-v^<y<-T(xL ; 

aTToAoio SrJT, | w Tr6\<fii, -rrok'XCiv ovviKa. Ar. A^. 2, 3, 6. 

I This is known as " Porson's rule." *'Nempe hanc regulam ple- 
ruraque in senariis observabant 'i'ragici, ut, si voce quae Creticum 
pedein efficeret tcrniinaiT'tur versus, canique vocom liyperinonosyl- 
labon praeeederet, quiiuus pes iambus vel tribracliys esse dcberct." 
iiuppl. ad Fraef. ad Htcuham. 



1005] IAMBIC RHYTHMS. 35Si 

1662. The Iambic Trimeter appears in English as the 
Alexandrine, which is seldom used except at the end of a 
stanza : — 

And b(5pe to mer|it Heaven by mik[ing Earth a H(?]l. 

1663. The lame triinetei- (cr;^a{aj^), called the Choliambus and the 
Hipponactean (see 1052), is the preceding verse witli tlie last syl- 
lable but one long. It is said to have been invented by Hipponax 
(about 540 n.c), and it is used iu the newly discovered mimes of 
Herondas. E.g. 

aKoiJcra^' 'I'mriJivaKTO'i* ov yap oAA' tjiko).^ 
ouToj Tt aoi hoL-qaav at <f>LXaL Movcrai.* 
O — \_/ — I \D — \^ I vy 

1664. The tetkametkk catalectic, consisting of seven 
feet and a syllable, is common in Attic comedy. There is 
a regular diaeresis (1643) after" the second dipody, where 
the first rliythmical series ends (1637). 



tl7r€p rov avhp' 



virip^aXcL, 



\-/ — \^ 



Kol fxrj yi\<x)T 



> 



wl1>_ (1640,2) 



In English poetry we have 

A captain bold 1 of Halifax, |1 wbo lived iu coiiultry quarters. 

1665, The following are some of the more important 
lyric iambic verses : — 

1. Dipody ov mononieter: 

TL hrjO^ 6pa s ; * o — \^ — 

2. Tripody (acatalectic and catalectic) : 

Tt TotrS' av€v KaKdv;^ ^ — ^ — w — 
«7r oAAo tttJSu,® v^ — v^ I 

3. Dimeter (acatalectic and catalectic) : 

uiAro? tV So'/Awv tfSdvJ y^ — \y ^ \ \j — \^ — 
^rjXio at TYJfi I ciu^oijAta?.® > — \^^_l > — ^ — 
KOl TOV AdyOV I TOV ^TTij}.^ > _ w __ 1 v-/ I (1640, 2) 

» Hipp. 47. * ibid. 10!»8. ' a. Ch. 22. 

^Herond.3, 1. *A.^//. 211. » Ar. .IcA. 1008. 

8 Ar. N. 1030. * Ar. K 703, « Ar. A. 1452. 



S60 VERSIFICATION. [1666 

4. Hexapody or trimeter catalectic : 

TTpcVet irapijU <^CKvtots d/Avy/io«.* 

1666, Iambic systems are formed on the same principle as 
trochaic systems (1654), of acatalectic dimeters with an occasional 
monoraeter, ending with a catalectic dimeter. E.^. 

■^TTTJfXiO* * c3 piVQV^VOly >_v-/_l >_W-_ 

Trpos Toiv ^twK 8<'|acr6't ;xov >_\-/ — l> — \j — 

Qoifxar^ov, ojt !!> v-/ w »^ 

f^avTOfxoXui Trpoi v/xa9. > — ^ ^ — I w i 

These verses ejid a long iambic system in Ar. Nub. 1090-1304; 
see also Nub, 3446-3452, and Eq. 911-940. 

1667, For the inational syllable in lyric verse, see 1656. 

DACTYLIC RHYTHMS. 

1668. The only regular substitute for the dactyl is the 
spondee, which arises by contraction of the two short syl- 
lables of the dactyl (^ __ from jL^ kj). 

1669. The most common of all Greek verses is the herojc 
HEXAMETER, the Homcric verse. It always has a spondee 
in the last place, often in the first four places, seldom in the 
fifth (the verse being then called spondaic). There is com- 
monly a caesura in the third foot, either after the arsis or 
(rather more frequently) dividing the thesis. There is 
sometimes a caesura after the arsis of the fourth foot, and 
rarely one in the thesis. The caesura after the arsis is 
called masculine^ that in the thesis feminine or trochaic, A 
diaeresis after the fourth foot, common in bucolic poetry, is 
called bucolic. E.g. 

avSpa fiOL ivvc7r€j Movcra, TroXvTpotrov, o? fiaXa ttoWo. 
irXayxBrj iirtl TpoLTj<i Upov TTToXuOpov Uncpaiv,.^ 

\^ \j I t > v^wl v^vy I \J\J I l»ii 

^ A. Ch. 24. 2 Oef. 1, 1 and 2. 



1672] DACTYLIC RHYTHMS. 361 

— — I. WV^ I \J\^ i \J\^i 1 I i^ 

— WW I \^\^ I \j\j I wwjt wwl — i=; 

1670. The klkgiac distich consists of an heroic hexam- 
eter followed by the so-called Elegiac pentameter. This 
last verse consists really of two dactylic trimeters with 
syncope (1G32, 1) or cataloxis in the last measure; as — 

riaAAa? ^ A\Or]v<i.L\r] |J ^<.7pa<i v\ircp$iv f'x**-^ 

WW l_ ll ill WW 1 WW I A 

At the end of tlie poutanieter verse tlie pause (a) takes the 
place of syncope ([__i) in the middle. 'I'lie veise probably arose 
from a repetition oi the first penthemlm {■mvO--qpx-p.ipU^ Jti^e half- 
feet) of the hexameter, liut tft/Uaha anceps and hiatus are not 
allowed after the first trimeter, hut onlv at the end of the verse 
(1638), The last two cojnpleio feet are always dactyls. A diaeresis 
(1643) divides the two parts of the verse. The pentameter is 
never used by itself. 

1671. The following is an Klegiac Distich: — 

rk Si l3C\o<: Ti 8< I TtpTTvov d\vtv XP^WvT* 'A ^/soIS^tjjs ,* 

TiOvo.L\rjv oT€ t p.ot 11 fxrjKtTf. 1 ravra fjii\\oL^ 
.— \^ \^ I w^/ I WW I I WW I 

I WV-/ ll ill Wwl WW I A 

1672. In the Homeric verse a long vowel or a diphthong in the 
thesis (not in the arsis) is often shortened at the end of a word 
when the next word begins with a vowel. This sometimes occurs 
in the middle of a word. E.fj. 

w TTOTTOt, I ^ pAXo. I St; fUT<.\l3ov\cv[cra.y Otol | oAAofS.* 
;(pvcr<'a) d\va crKjJ|7rrp(i), koI \ XidcrtTO \ Travras *A|;(utou? (see 47, 1).* 

l3€(3Xr)aL, ovB' dXiov (SeXo'; €K<f>vyiv, ok ("xpiXov roi-"^ 
But ^ptTtpw cVl otK(j) €V"'Apy€t, Ti7A,6^t iraTpij-;.^ 

J 77. 1, 202. * Mimn. 1, 1 and 2. ' 77. II, 380. 

2Theoc.4, 1. * 0(1.5,286. 8 7Z,1,30, 

■Solon, 4, 4. «//.!, 15. 



362 VERSITICATION. [1673 

1673. When a short vowel stauds in Homer where a long one 
is required by the verse, it uiay be explained in various ways. 

1. By supposing A, /x, v, p, or a to be doubled at the beginning 

of certain words; as TroAAa \i<j(xo{xtvu) ( vy w _), //.22,9I 

(we have eAAtW€To in //. 6,45). 

2. By the original presence of f making position (see 3 ; 90 j 91 ); 

as roioV fOL TTvp ( ), //. 5, 7, So before StiSo>, /ear, and 

other derivativeti of the stem 8/rci-, and before S^jv (for ^frjv). 

3. By a pause in the verse (1642,2) prolonging the time; as in 

<f>tvyu)fxcv ' tTL yap kcv oKviaificv KaKov ^fjuap.^ 

1 \^ \j \y \j \^ \j — . — 

1674. The following are some of the chief Ijric dactjlic 
verses : -^ 

1. Dimeter: 

fxvaroh6\Kos 80/X09' — w v^- I — k^ \j 
fiOtpa hi](i}i<CL^ — v-' v^ I 

2. Trimeter (acatalectic and catalectic) : 

Tra/nrpi-rrTOL^ iv tSpaidLV,* 1 — \-/ v^ f 

TrapOivoi. I 6p.^po<^6\pOi'^ — \-/\^l — \-/\_/l — A 

With anacrusis (1635) : 

iytivaTQ fxcv ixopov avraJ v." w \j — \_/v^__ — 

rraTpoKTovov OlSiTro^av. v-'i ^ w — w \^ — A 

3. Tetrajnetei* (acatalectic and catalectic) : 

irip.-mi ivv Sopi kox 5(€pt irpaKTOpiJ i ww I — v^v^ I — wv-' 

ovpavi\oL'i re ^tloi? SwIpT^/xara.^ ^ \^ \j \ ^ \y \^ \ l—vyw 

iXdiT €\7rQ\l/6p.i\vai 8uva]/xtv.^ wv^ I v^v^l kj kj \ ^ A 

ANAPAESTIC liHYTHMS. 

1675. Anapaestic verses are generally measured by dipo- 
dies (1646). The spondee and the dactyl (— — and — w^) 
may stand for the anapaest. 

The long syllable of an anapaest is rarely resolved into two 
fcihort, malting \^ kj <C ^ ^or v^ w — . 

J Oci. 10,269. *A,^^. 117. 'A. ^^.111. 

2 Ar. A^. 303. * Ar. A^. 299. 8 Ar. N. 30.5. 

• E. Her. 612. « A. Se. 751, 762. « Ar. R. 879. 



1677] ANAPAKSTIC HHYTHMS. S63 

1676. The followiDg are the most common anapaestic 
verses : — 

1. The mononieter : 

rpoirov al\yv7niov} ^ "^ — \ ^ \y — 

Kol Oifjn<; I alvuv*^ — v^ '^ I 

(Tvfi<f>u)\vo<; ofxov.^ I \J ^ — 

2. The dimeter acatalectic : 

fifyav Ik | Bv^ov \ KXa^ov|TC5 "Aprj.* ww — I 1 1 \j \j — 

oiT eVlTrartoi? | aAy€<Tt | Trut'Stov.* Iww„l_wv^) 

And thci ollive of pedoe | sends its bviiuchiOS abroad. 

3. The dinioLcT catalrictic, or paroeviiac : 

y)pav 1 crTpaTta>|rtv dpcDlyrJi'.*' I \^v_/ — I^^wljI — (1640,2) 

OVTU) I TrX0VTY)\<T{.T(. 7r6.v\T(.%? I \ \j KJ V-^\ — 

The Lord [ is advanc(iug. PrepKrc | ye I 

4. The TETUAMETEn (jATALKCTic, coiisistiiig of sBveii feet 
and a syllable, or of the two precedi]ig verses combined. 
There is a regular diaeresis after the second dipody. This 
verse is frequently used by the line (1G49) in long passages 
of Aristophanes. 

- Trp6u)^CTi Tov vovv I TO?? a^avciTots || ^p-^v^ TOt? al\€v iovo-if 
Tots aWtpiOL<;, I Tolaiv ayrjpa}<;, || tois a^^tra fj.T)\hop.fVOi(JLV. 

1677. An ANAPAESTIC SYSTEM consists of a series of 
anapaestic dimeters acatalectic, with occasionally a niono- 
mefcor, ending always with the paroemiac (or dimeter 
cataiectic). These arc very frequently employed in both 
tragedy and comedy. E.g. 

^€KaTOV plv <T0? t68^ tTTcl TlpldfJiOV \^ \^ JL \j \J I \J \-f J-. \^ \y — 

fttya? avnSiKOS, 



\j \j .-^ \j \j 



Mcv^'Aaos avui r)V *Aya/jic/Ava)v, k^ \^ \j \j I vl/v-' 

oiBpovov Atd^tr tcaX Staxi^irrpov ww \^ \j I 

rZ/i?? oXvpov ^€vyo<; ^ArpuSay, \^w— I v/vy 

arokov ApyciW Xt^w»'avrav \^w \ ^ \j \y 

ijpav, orrpartMiTiv apiiiyrjv.^ v/w 1 \j \j v^ 

I A. Ag. 49. * Ar.Av.22\. » ibid. 50, ' Ar. Av. 736. » A. Ag. 40-47- 
*tf6id. 98. *A.^^.48. « t6t(i. 47. »tiitd.689. 



3G4 VEJtSI>-ICATION. [1673 

1678. Anapaestic systems are especially common in march 
movements in tragedy, where tliey were probably chanted by th© 
leader of the chorus, as in the Tra/aoSo?. 

LOGAOEDIC HHYTHMS. 

1679. Logaoedic rliythm is a rhythm in J time, having 
the trochee as its foundation, but admitting great freedom 
of construction. Besides the trochee — w, it admits the 
irrational trochee __ >, the tribrach www, the cyclic dactyl 
^^ w, and the trisenie (16,'^2, 1) or syncopated trochee l«. 
These are all equivalent feet, of three times (= w w w). 

1680. 'PJie first foot of a logaoedic verse allows special freedom. 
It may be a trochee or an irrational trochee _ >, and sometimes 
a tribrach www An apparent iambus (probably with ictus 
C _) sometimes occurs (1082, 7). Great license is here per- 
mitted in using- diiferent forms in strophe and antistrophe, even 
in verses which otherwise correspond precisely : see 1682, 7. 

When a logaoedic verse has move than one rhythmical series 
(16ii7), the first foot of each series has this freedom of form (see 
1682, 7). 

1681. An anacrusis (1C35) may introduce any logaoedic verse. 

1682. The following are some of the most important 
logaoedic verses which have special names: — 

1. Adonic: aufi/xaji^o? €(T(to^ —\^^ 1 _ w This is the final 
verse of the Sapphic stanza (G). 

2. First PherecraliC : CTrraTruAotcrt ©y/^at?.^ — w w 1 ^_ w t _ w 

Catal. a? rpffxofxiv Xiynv.^ —\^ w I __ w I „ a 

3. Second Pherecratic : iraiho^ hv(T(f>opov arav.* > I— ww I — ^ 

Catal. €K fxiv St/ TroXt'^w*'.* > I— ww I , — A 

4. Glycon'ic: (Three forms) : 

(a) hrrrC dva^ IToo-ctSov, a>.^ — w w I w I — w I — A 

{I) 07j^a rZiv TTpoTfpwv ^cio?."' __ > I -v/w I _ w I — A 
(c) <i>C}Ta (idvra Travcrayia^'^ w I w l-xvw I — A 

iSapph. 1,28. ^S.^j. 643. iS.^n.lOl. 

« Find. Fy. 11, 11. » S. An. 150. « ibid. 107. 

>S. O.C.129. e Ar, ^-g.SSl. 



lfl83J LOGAOKDIC lUIYTHMS. 365 

5. Three Alcaicsy wliicli form the Alcaic sLatiza (a, a, i, c) i 

(a) d(fvvtTr}fa Ttov avf^Jnoy o-rdcrLV * 

w : \_/ 1 \_/ I — \y v^ I v^ I — /\ 

(a) TO fj.lv yap IvBcv KVfm KuXiV8crat 

^ '. w I _ !> 1 ~v-/ ^ \ w I — A 

(b) TO 8* ti'^iK * d/ji/x«s 8' ai' TO fii<r<Tov 
"O : . w I > I w ! — Kj 

(c) vaL 4}opr}fJicda avv /AtXaiVa-^ 
— v^" w 1 — \y v^ I w I w 

Compare in Horace (Od. 1/i) : 

Vides ut alta stet nive candiduin 
Soracte, nee iam sustineant onus 
Silvae laboranLes, geluque 
Flumina constiterint acuto. 

6. Sapphic: TroiKtjXo^pot'* | dOdvar* \' Pi<f>po\hLra.~ 

w j w I ~\-/ w I w 1 — v^ 

I _> I 
Tlireo Sa|>])hics and an Adonic (I) form tlie Sai^phic stanza. 

7. Eupoluiian : w ^([(jj/xe'vot, KaT«]pa) |[ Trpo? v\p.a^ l\XtvBi\pu><i,^ 

W I _ ■v-'j — \^ v-/ |l II KJ \ wj Wl /\ 



w \-/ v^ 
w 



(See 1044.) 

The Eu])olidean verse is used by tlie line in comedy; as in Ar, 
A^./y. 518-502. 

1683. Tli(i first strophfi of tJie first Olynipic ode of 
Pindar is given as an example of the free use of logaoedics 
in lyric poetry. 

apKTTov pXv v^uipf 6 8t jl ;i(pDao9 uWupavov -nvp 

Kj : i 1 —\y w 1 w I I II . w ! —\^ \^ \ w 

QTC hunrpiTTiL II KUKTt /jKydi^opo? t^O)^a Trkovrov * 

w v_/ *^ I v^ I I II — v^- w I —\^ w I -^-' w I >w/ 

«t 8' af/^Aa yapviv 

\j I ^ I V./I /; 

» Alcae. 18, 1-4. « Sapph. 1,1. « Ar. A^. 518. 



;366 VERSIFICATION. [1684 

iXoiaLj ifiiXov ^TOp, 

— w i —\^ \^ \ v_/ 

fXrjKtT aiXlOV CTKOTTtt 

— \^ \ — \^ \ \^ \ /^ 

aWo OixXTTVOTtpov Iv ap.i^pQ. ^atvvov axTTpov €p7;|[/Jta9 ot aWcpoq^ 

y^ I . v^l\_/v_/v_/l v_/ II v_/l v_/l — \-/v_/ ll II \J I '^ I A 

fJLiqo OXvpLTTia^; aytLra j| ^iprtpov av^aGOfxtv ' 

— \^ \ — \^ I \^ \ v_/ll — \^v^ I L_ 1 ^1 /\ 

oOcv 6 TroXv<f>aTO<i vp.vo<: d//<^t^aAXcrai 

\y : \y\y\y lv_/>^w I w I v_/ I v_/ I — A 

<ro<f>C}v f^rjTuacTL, KiXaBuv 

KpOp-OV TTttiS', €9 a^p'tai' tKO/AtVou? 

'^:i — I \^ I wIl_ \ \y^\^ \ /\ 

fxaKaipav '\tp(i}yo<; CfTTiav. 

Kj : \ — I www I wl w! /\ 

DACTYLO-EriTRlTIC RHYTHMS. 

1684. 1. About lialf of tlie odes of Pindar are com- 
posed ill a measure called dactylo-cpiiriiic^ which consists 
of dactyls, with their equivalent siJou(iees and syncopated 
forms (l_j), and epitritos. The epitrite (i— ^ ) is com- 
posed of a long (or Doric) troeliee (l_ w, see 1G32, 2) and 
a spondee. The dactylic ])arts of the verse generally have 
the form — ww^wwJl„or (eatalectic) .^ww — ww-^A. 
The epitrite also may be eatalectic, l_ w _ A, The verse 
may have an anacrusis. 

2. It will be noticed tliat in tliis verse the long troeliee (i_ w) 
has the same length as tlie dactyl and the dactyl has its full time, 
wliile in logaoedic verse the trochee has its ordinary tiiue and the 
dactyl is cyclic (equivalent in time to the trochee). 

1685. The first strophe of Pindar's third Olympic ode 
is an example of this measure : — 

Tv;/Sa/)t8at? t« (fnXo^iLvotq d^uv KaX\\XiwXoKdfHx) 0^ "EXtva 

v_/v_/| wwl ll w II wwl v_/v_/ I — A 

KXilvav AKpdyavra ytpiiipu>v cv;(o/xat, 

— : WW ! WW I 1l_w 7\ 



1688J 



FEET OF FIVE OR SIX TIMES. 



367 



; — Kj\j\ — ww| iii—v-/ 1 wv^l vw| — 7\ 

tmroJi' du>TOi'. |1 Motcra ovrui fioi ;ra/&<(TTaI|Koc viO(rtyakov ivpovTi Tpoirov 

:l_v^ llu-v_/ li_v-/ II WW l_wwl I L_w — 7\ 

Aojptu) <f)t3j'}vav Ivapfxoiai Tre&Aw. 
U- w II l_ w I l_ w 

RHYTHMS WITH FEET OF FIVE OR SIX TIMES. 

1686, Some of the more irapoi-tant rhythms with feet of 
five or six times (1(>27, 3 and 4) are the following: — 

1687. 1. Choriambic rhythms, with the choriambus 
_ w w_ a.s the fumiamental foot: — 

TratSu ft€i/ av|ras ttoglv av\ra Btyi.lva} 
— WW I w w— i vyw_ 



2. Choriambic verses of this class are rare. Most verses formerly 
called clioiiambJc are here explained as logaoedic (1682). 

1688. 1. Ionic rhythms, with the ionic a minore w w 

as the I'undainental foot, admitting also the equivalent 
w WL-. (1620, 2):~ 

7rt7r^paKtv\fLiv 6 7r(p<Ti\yrTo\tf; rjSij 
jia<TtX<to<; I crrpuTos <t? av]rLTTOpoy ytt'lrova XiOpdVf 
XivoBiapio\ a)(^tBta 7rop\0pov apil^pai 
*Adapay\riSo<; "EAAas.'* 



w w -:!_ 

WW 

WW 

WW I I 



w w 

W W 

W W 



w w 
w w 
w w 



\J \J 



2. A double trochee __ w _ w often takes the place of the two 
long s}'llal>les and llie t-wo following shorts. This is called auacichfis 
(amxAacrt?, hreafcwf) up)y as it breaks up the feet. E.g. 

Tts 6 KpatTTvc^ I TToSl ttj^StJI/xotos <u7rc|T0U9 ivda-a-utv ; * 



^ A. Se. 929. 



3 S. 0, T. 484. 



» A. Pe. 65-70. 



♦ ibid. 95. 



368 VERSIFICATION. [1C89 

1689. Gretic rhythms, in which paeons occur by resolu- 
tion of long syllables (__^v^ or <^^*^_ for _w_) : — 

OVK dvaa^ija-Ofjuxi ' | fiij^ Xiyt | fxoi av Xoyoy * 
ctfs fJLefjd\a7]Kd crc KAc|a)>'09 €Tt ) fiaWoVj ov 
KaTaTifiu) I TOi(nv i7r\Trtv(Ti KarlrvfiaTa. 

— v^ — I — w 1 w \^ ^ I wwv/ 

— *-' — I — \^ w \j I \y \^ \y I \^ 

\^ yj '^ — I — w — I — \^ I — \^ — 

1690. Bacchic rhythms, with the bacchius w as the 

fundamental foot : — 

Tts dx<«>, I Tis ohfxa I irpoo-tirra \ fi d<f><.yyiji ;^ 

^ I ^ 1 w i w 

GTtvd^ta ; \ Tt p€^a> / j ycVo>fttti j 8v(T0L(TTa j TroXcrais ; ^ 
w 1 \y 1 w I y^ 1 w 

DOCHMIACS. 

1691. Dochmiac verses, which are used chiefly in tragedy 
to express great exeitenient, are based npon a foot called 
the dochmius, compounded of an iambus and a cretic (or a 

bacchius and an iambus) w__ I — . w _ (or w 1 w_). This 

peculiar foot appears in nineteen different forms, by re- 
solving the long syllables and admitting irrational longs 
in place 'of the two shorts. Its most common forms are 
o _ I -_ w „ and w w w ( _ w As examples may be given 

SvaaXyci Tv)(a,* w w — 

TTTtpo^iopov Zifxa^i} \j \j \j — \j — 

y.l<7(}$i.ov pxv olv.^ ^ \j \j — w »_ (for > \j — ) 

/x«yaAa p,tyd\a KaiJ w w v-* w v-' w — (for w o _) 

fxtroiKtlv (TKoroi Oaviov 6 rXdfxvn'.'^ w w — |w >_ 

fitOctTac CTTpaTo^y (JTpaToTTthov Xi7ru)v? ^ w — I \j \j \j 



\j — 



J At. Ach. 29y-,'J0I. ♦ A. Ag. \ Wo. ' K. Ba. HOB. 

2 A. Pr. 115. f> add. 1147. « E. Hip. 8o7. 

8 A. Eu. 788. • ibid. 1090. » A. 5e. 79. 



APPENDIX. 



CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 



APPENDIX. 



1692. CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 

Note. — TIlis catalogue professes to contain all verbs in ordinary 
use in classic Greek which have any such peculiarities as to present 
difficulties to a student. No verb is introduced wliicli does not occur 
in some form before Aristotle ; and no forms are ^'iven which are not 
found in writers earlier than the Alexandrian period, except souie- 
tinu's the present indicative of a verb whiclj is classic in otiier tenses, 
and occasionally a form which is given for completeness and marked 
as later. Tenses whicli are not used by Attic writers, in either prose 
or poetry, or which occur only in lyrical parts of the drama, are 
enclosed in [ ], except occasionally tlie present indicative of a vert) 
whicli is Attic in other tenses. 

The verb stem, with any other important forms of tiie stem, is 
given in ( ) directly after tiie present indicative, unless the verb 
belongs to the first class (560). The class of eacli verb in w is given 
by an Arabic numeral in ( ) at the end, unless it is of the first class. 
Verbs in m of tlie Seventh CIa.ss (G19), enumerated in 794, are marked 
with (I.) ; those of the Fifth Class in yl^i,t (008), enumerated in 797, 1, 
with (II.) ; and the poetic verbs in yrjfn or yafiai (009), enumerated in 
797, 2, wln'ch add ya to the stem in the present, with (TIT). A few 
epic peculiarities are sometimes disregarded in the classification. 

The modification of the stem made by adding « in certain tenses 
(053) is marked by prefixing («-) to the first form in which this 
occurs, unless this is the present. Presents in <w thus formed have 
a reference to 054. A hyphen prefixed to a form (as -tdpay) indicates 
that it is found only in composition. This is omitted, however, if the 
simple form occurs even in later Greek ; and it is often omitted when 
the occurrence of cognate forms, or any other reason, makes it prob- 
able that the simple form was in use. It would be extremely diflficult 
to point out an example of every tense of even the best Knglish verbs 
in a writer of established authority within a fixed period. 

The imperfect or pluperfect is generally omitted when the present 
or perfect is given. Second pcrfectii whicli are given among the prin- 
cipal parts of a verb (4G2, 1) are not spoeially designated (see ^XdirTw). 

371 



372 APPENDIX. [1692 

A. 

[(da-), injurey infatuate, stem, witli aor. oocro (datra), a<ra; a. p. 

ddadtjv ; pr. mid. darai, aor. daadpL-nvy ciTCd. Vb. aarof, Av-aToy. 

Epic] 
*'A'Yafiai, admire, [e\)\c fut. dydaonat, rare,] i77<io- <?'?>', ij7a(rd/ii7v. (I.) 
'A-VY^XXw (d77fX-)i announce, <i77€Xu> [dyytUu], ijyyeiXa, ijyycXKa, 

rjyyfXnai, vyy^'Kdrjv^ fut. ]). dyytXdi/jffotJiai ; a. m. ifyydXdpLiijv. Second 

aorigts with X are doublfuJ. (4.) 
*Ay*ipta (dy€p-), collect, a. ^yeipa ; [cp. plpf. p. dyrjy^paTo ; a. p. -fiyipd-nv, 

a. m. {iiyupd^j^-qv) <rvy-ay€lpaTo, 2 a. m. dyephpiyjv witii part, d^pi/ievoj. 

See rjycp^dofiai,] (4.) 
"A-yvvjii (fay-), in com p. also (l7»'i;w, ftreaA:, d$u>, «a^a (637, 1) [rarely 

epic ^^aj, 2 p. (dya [Ion. t-nya], 2 a. p. <?a7^>' [ep. Uyrfy or 47:7*']. 

(II.) 
"A-yctf, Zcad, 4$u, ^{a (rare), ^x<^^ ^7/tati ^X^'?"! <ix^^<^<'Mat ; 2 a. 177a- 

70 V, iJ7a7AM^>' ; ful. m. A^oMai (as pass.), [Horn. a. m. d^dntiy, 2 a. 

act. imper. A^f-rt, inf. d^^ufvai (777, 8).] 
[(d5€-)i f>^ salad, stem with aor. opt. aS-fiadfy, pf. part. a5t]Ku>s. 

Epic] 
[(d«-)t J'^*'^ f5tem with aor. Atffa., a<ra. Epic] 
"AtSw, 'ling, qco^t {4<tu}, rare), j^aa, ^ffd-qv. Ion. and poet. d«C5w, 

dclaw and dfiao/Atti, -^ftaa. 
['A^$ci»: Honi. for aiiju.] 
["Ati|H {di-), blow, d-riTov, df(j{, inf. d^mt, d^^f^'ai, part, dtft ; imp. 

a^f. Mid. iTjTttc and 477x0, part. dTj/^vos. Poetic, chietly epic] (I.) 
At5^o|jLat, poet, af^o/xat, re^-pect, aiS^aofnai, ij5f<r/xai, pa^iT^ijc (as mid.), 

^ 5 cordM'?»',( chiefly poet.), [Hom. imperat. al8c7o]. 639; 640. 
Aivia, praise, alvicio [^o.lvf^ani'], ^vtaa [^vijcra], rjytna, ^vrjfjiai, ^W^tjv, 639. 
[ACvujjtat, take, imp. a^n//i7jf. Epic] (IL) 
Alpc'h) (atpc-, cX-), Jrtie, aipijaw, ^pijica, nP**?Aiai [Mdt. dpafpij^ca, dpaiprj- 

M«*]t VP^^V*', ai pfdriaofjMt ; fut. pf. TjpTio-o^ai (rare) ; 2 a. elXoy, ?Xw, 

oic ; c(X6/tijv, ?Xw^iai, etc. (8.) 
Atpw (ap-), £aA*e lip, apu, ^pa (674), ^pxa, ^p^t-ai, VP^W, apO-^ffOfj^i ; 

■/lpd/j.7)y (074). Ion. and poet, dcfpw (dtp-), yjetpa, -fiipdyjv, [17*^^0' 

(late), Houi. plpf. Snapro for i5*pT0 ; a. m. d(ipdp,-r)v.'] Fut. dpoO^tai 

and 2 a. i7p6m^v (with Apwuai (d) etc.) belong to dpwiJiai (dp-), (4.) 
Ala-6dvo}JLai (ahd-), perceive, («-) alarB-^ao^taiy -^ffdrjpiai ; ^(r^6/x7?v. Pres. 

atadonai (rare). (5.) 
'At<r(r« (diV-), rush, df^w, ^I'^a, ^tx^^v, ^i^d/xT?*'. Also 4^a-ta or ^ttci» 

(also dffffuf or Attu>), (E^w, J^a. Both rare in prose. (4.) 
Ala-xVv« (dlffx^vy-)^ disgrace^ alcx^vd, ^{^^vva, [p. p. part., p.p. ijfrx^P-- 

M^TOs,] idX'^^^'nv, felt ashamed, <xl<xxvvdi}<yoti.ai ; fut. m. aio-x^^'oC/iat. 

(4.) 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 375 

*Atu>, hear, imp. i'iov, [aor. ■-^iaa.'] Ionic and poetic. 
['At«, breathe ouiy only imp. ai'ov. Epic. Sec d-ntu,] 
['AKttxC^w (dx-, see 587), aj^ict, red u pi. pres., with dx^** ^"^^ ax*^*^! 

be grieved (only in pr. part, dx^wj/, dxeviov), and axojjiai, be grieved; 

fut. dKaxv<^^t aor. d.KdxT}oa. ', p. p. d»<dxi7Mcn (dKi7X^^'i^''0' dKaxv^^^acy 

dKax^ftfPot or d^-ijx^Mfot ; 2 slot, yjnaxof, aKax^f^V^- Scc &x*'^P-'^^ 

and fixoA'cu. E])ic,] (4.) 
['AKaxfJLtvos, sharpened, epic porf. part. wjUi no present in use] 
'AK^Ofiai, heal^ aor, V«'''aMi7»'- 
'Akii8<u>, neglect, [aor. d*r7j5f<ra epic]. Poetic. 
*Akovw (dKov- fol* ttAO^-), /K-aT'i dKoOffOfiai, TjKOvaa [Dor. pf. iKovKa], 2 

pf. dtcrjKoa (for aK-TjKOfa^ t**'^Ot - P'pf- ^'-"T'^'j or d*rTj*c6)j ; ij^oucr^i?*', 

dvobo-^TjcT-OMai. 
*AXtt\at« (dXaXa^-), raise war-crij, d\a\d^OfMti, ^XdXa^a. (4.) 
'AXdojjiai., wander, [pf. d\dX7?^aj (as pres.), w. inf. dXdXija^at, part. 

dXa X7j>tfvo5], a. dX^^jjv. Cliiefly poetic. 
*AX8tt£vw (dXSai'-), nourish, [op. 2 aor. i)\5auov.] Pres. also d\5r}(ncij}. 

'Poetic. (4.) 
*AX(C4*^ (a^**0-)i d'noint, dX(/^w, ^Xfi^t-a, dXT7X(0a, dX^Xt/i^ai, T)\ti<f)Bi]i>, 

d\ei<p6r)aopLat (rare), 2 a. p. ^Xf0t?K (rare). Mid. f. aXf/i/o/^ai, a. 

r)X<i\l^dtJir}v. r>2f>. (2. ) 
'AX^tu (dXf^-, dX«.), tfjttn/ of, fut. dX^fo/iai [ep. («-) dXt^T^ffw, lid. 

dXf^TjffOAiai] ; aor. («-) 17X^^17(70 (^'Xt^a, rare), i7Xf^dA';f ; [ej;. 2 a, 

dXaXfto^- for dX-aXfc-of] 067. 
['AXt'ofiai, avoid, <;pic ; aor. ^Xfd^?;)'.] 
*AX<w«, avert, dXevcru, 7}\(vja. Mid, dXtOo^tai, avoids aor. iiXcydAiTjF, 

with subj. i^-a\(V{TijJtxai. l^ottic. 
'AXiw, (?nn(?i i7Xf(Ta, dX^XcffMat Or dXTjXf;iai. 630 ; G40. 
["AXOofiai, be healed, (<-) dXOifiJOfjiai.] h^nic and ]ioeuc. 
'AX£<rKO}Jia( (a'X-, dXo-), i'/; raptiircdt dX^jo/^at, T/Xw*,a or ^aXw^a, 2 aor. 

^Xup or (dXajp, dXui [oplC dXww], dXoitjv, dXuJ^a*, dXot/j (7!)!)) ; all 

passive in nieanlitg. 060. No active dXiffnuj, but. nee dv-oXto-Kw. 

['AXiraCvofiai (dXiT-, dXira*'-), wiili epic pre."^. act. dXiTpoivw, sin; 2 

aor. ^Xtroi', dXtr^MT?!', pf. part. dXiTi7M«i'o?, sijmiijf/i cp J. i'oetic, 

elijerty epic. (4. 5.) 
'AXXtt<r<r« (dXXa7-), Change, dXXd^u;, iJXXa^a, ^Waxa, rjWayt^at, i)\\d' 

X^Tjj/ and TjWdyijy, dXXax^^^o^"^' <^'^fl dWay-rjco^ai. Mid. fut. dXXd- 

^o/xai, a. T7XXafd;ATj»'. (4) 

"AXXonai (dX-), ?eap, dXoC/iai, ■fjXdMijc ; 2 a. ij\6tJ.T}i' (rare). [ICpic 2 a. 

dXcro, dXro, iX/^fuo';, by syncoi>e.] 800, 2. (4.) 
[*AXvKTdt« and dXvKT^w, be excited, imp. dKvKrai^Qv Hdt. pf. dXaXv- 

KTTjMat Horn. lonic.J 



374 APPENDIX. [1688 

*AXv(rK« (dXt/*f-), avoid, dXiJfw [and dXiJJoMot], ^Xi;fa (rarely -a^ijr). 

Poetic. 'aXiJ(t*cw is for dXi;*t-(T(cw (017), (6.) 
'AX<^dv« (dX0-),^nci, acquire^ [epic 2 aor. ^X0o>'.] (5.) 
'Ap-apTavw (aVapT-), eri\ (c-) oiMapTTjffO/iai, rjfidpryjKay r?^pT7j|«ii, ij/tap- 

TiJ^T?;' ; 2 aor. -ijixaprov [ep. ij/i^po'"©'']- (5.) 
'AupXto-Kw (d^i^X-), d/i^XAcj in comiios., miscarry, [afj.^\dj<Tu), late,] 

rjfji(3\uj(Taj rjfj.p\(j}Ka^ Tj^/SXaj/xai, i}^j.^\w6r\v. (6.) 
'Aj«£pw (djufp-) ami dfi^pSui, deprive^ ^^Kpcya, ri^x4pdr)v. Poetic. (1. 4.) 
'Afii'ir-^X'* *^"d dfi-ir- io-xw (d^^f iiiul «X'«')i ^or^;' about, Clolhc^ d^^fw, 

2 a. ^Mi"(-o'xo>' ; [epic irnpf. djuTrexo"-] ^'l'^- djuir^xoMo.', dA-n-fa-xoMo*, 

aixTT i(T xv^o^xai ; iini). iJpiirftx^M'?*' ; f. dfi<p4^otJ.ai \ 2 a. ■>7MTt-<J'X<^M^»' and 

'AfJLirXaKio-Ku) (dM^XaK-), err, 7U?.ss, i7^TrXdK7j^ai ; 2 a. ^^t7^Xa^fov, part. 

duTrXaniJiv Or d7rXa*,'wi', roctic. (6.) 
PAjiirvvi, d>t7rviJv^»7»', fi^nirfDro, all ej)ic : see dva-n»iu}.'\ 
Afivvw (d^iti)/-), ward off ^ ful. d/jil/vtD, d/xl/voO/iai ; aor. r}}xvvo., r^fxhydn-qy, 

(4.) 
'Ap.v(ro-« (dMyx-)i nn'aLcky [dM^lw, i^Mi^^a (Theoc), ijjui'^tty^^*']. Poetic 

and lunic. (4.) 
'Ap.c^i-'yvo^w, doubt, yiti.<piyvb€ov and TjfxtpcyySeov, r}n.<ptyv6ri<ja ; aor, pass. 

part. d^4i<'Yvor}0ii%. 544. 
AfJLC^i-ivvvfjn, (sec i'vvL'^i), clothe, fnt, [ep, d/*0j^(Tu)] Att, d/i0(tiJ ; i}ix<pifaay 

■qpLfpUa-ficii \ djx<pi^<TOfxai, d/j.<pit(rdjj.r)y (iwat.). 544. (II.) 
■AfjL<^i<rPiiTiw, dispute, augmented rifjupie- and ^m«^«o- (^44) ; otherwise 

rrj;ul:ir, 
'Avaivojiat (dvtiv-), refuse, imp. vi^atvoV^", aor. ^vrjvd^Tjv, dc^vafr^at. (4.) 
AvdXio-kw (aX-, aXo-, 050), and dvdX6«, expend, dvaXuxroj, dviXwcra, 

and dviJXwcra (*caT-7/»'uXu)cra), dvaXw*ca and dtTjXw*,a, dv<(Xw^a( and 

dv^Xcjyxat (icar-tji-aXw^at), d»'dXw0»?v and dv7}\C)6r}V, dva\ii}6i^(T0fJiai. 

See aXio-KofjLQi. (6.) 
'AvaiTv^w, U'ke brpAith; see ttv^w (ttpi;-). [Epic 2 aor. imperat. aM^rvuf, 

a. p. djuTTi'i^v^Tjv, 2 a, m. a^irplrro (for d^TTvyfTo).] 
'AvSclvw (^a^-, a3-), plcasn [inipf. Hnni. -^pSauou and f-»Jj'5ai'oi', Hdt. 

TjirJavoc and ^iji-Savof; fut. («■) dS^o-w, Hdt. ; 2 pf. ?d5a, epic]; 

2 aor. dJoi' [Ion. Habov, epic fDaSov for ^//raSov.J lonic and poetic, 

See oi(j-ticuo%, pleased, as adj. (5.) 
'Av<xui, ?iold up ; see tx«, and 544. 
['AvTjvoQe, defect. 2 pf., springs, sprung; in II. 11, 2GG as 2 plpf. 

(777, 4). Kpic] 
*Av-oiY>'oHi atid dvo^Y^ (rc:o ofy yvjxt) , open, imp. dvit^yov {rf^oiyov, 

rare) [epic di'V7y»']; dvof^u, df^v^a (^foi^a, Tare) [Hdt. dvot^a], 

df4it>X0; dW(fj7Mat, dpct^'x^'?" (subj. di'oix^w, etc.) ; fut. pf. dpcfjj^o^i 

(2 pi. dvii^a. laUi, very rare in Attic). (II.) 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 375 

'Av-op66«, set upright^ ;iuginonl dfwp- and ^vup-. 544. 

'Avvw, Attic also dvuTw, ac-complish^' fut. avvcta [J^om. dj'iJw}, 6.vv<to' 

;iai; aor. iji'ucra, jift/crd/iTj*/; pt. :7*'iiKa, ij^'^^Aai. 0o9. Toetic a!.SO avoj. 
"Avui-ya, 2 perf. as pres., towxmand [w. 1 pi. ^vi^yinv^ sub. dvwyw, opt. 

d»'wroi;ii], iinper. dfoz-yf (larc), alsfi dt'wx^^ (with d»'tjx^'«'i f^^^x^f)-! 

[inf. d»'UJY(f;x<»'] J 2 plpf. ^i/w-yfa, ijcwy" (Or dviiYei)) [^.Iso ^t'wyoc 

(or Acwyo*-), SCO 777, 4J. [Present forms dj/wye* and d»'W7fToc 

(as if from d^/otYw) 0(;cur; also fut. dt-w^w, a. -^vw^a.] Poetic and 

Ionic. 
['Aw-ovpdw, take away, not found ii^ present.; imp. dir^jtJpwf (as aor.); 

kindred forms are epic fut. dTroup^crw, aiid aoj*. part, diroupa?, dTrot/- 

pd^t^vor.J Poetic. 
['Aira^tfa-Ktt) (dir-a^-), deceive, ■i]ira<pT}<ra (rare), 2 a. ■^•Ka<pQv, ni. opt. 

djra</)of;A'»)i'J. l*oelic. (6.) 

dTr-tjxtfd/itif, ].alO pres. 6.tr(x0o}xai. (5.) 

['Airdep(r(, swept of, eubj. dirofpcrr?, opt. airo4pcr(i.f (only in 3 pens.). 

l':i}tc.] 
'AiroKT{vvvp,i and -u«, fornix? of avoKrdvoi. See kt<£v«. 
'Airoxp^, it auflices, impersonal. See XPT- 
"AiTTw (d<p'), tourJi^ fut. dv^w, cf-^opiai ; aoi*. ■^^a, T^^d/zTji' ; pf. r^fiixai^ 

a. p. -^^^Tji/ (see €<x<peri). (3.) 
Apdofiai, pT(Zi/y ipdffOfiai, ■^pdcdtxrjfy ijpdtiai, [lon. api^tro^iac, -^pr/ad- 

^ijv. Kj). act. inf. apij/x^wt, (c/u'ai/.J 
'Apapio-Kw (&p-),fU, ^pcra, ^p^Tji/ ; 2 p. dpdpa, [Ion. ip^pa, plpf. dp'r}p€i(;') 

and :jpiipet(;') ;] 2 a. -npapoy ; 2 ;i. m. part, dp^ffo? (as adj.),///jn(/. 

Witli fonn of Attic redupL in pros. (CIG). Poetic. (6.) 
*Apd<rcr» or dparxd) (dpa-y-), strike., dpdiijy 'rjpa^a^ 'Opdx^V*'- (4.) 
Api<rK(a> (dp€-^^ please, dp^au), yjpico., rfp^^driv ; dpiaop^xi, ijp(od^T}v. 

i\m. (6.) 

['ApTjyiivos, oppressed, pm-f. pass. part. Epic] 

'ApK*'*), assiat, dpv/crw, ijpKeiTa. 030. 

'App.6TTw, i)<>et. ap^otw idpiio^-')^ jit^ dpfx6ff(j},'i}ppL0<ra (^cwdp^o^a Pind.), 

rjpfiOKa (AriStOt.), i7p/juJ<rMa<, ijpfx6<Ttfrju, fut. p. dpfjiOfffiri<TOfx.a<. ] a. in. 

i}PfiO(xdfjiT]y, (4.) 
"Apwjxac (dp-)^ win, secure, fut. dpov^i, 2 a. •f/p6}irjy (dp6p^rjy). Cliiefly 

poetic. See arpw. (II.) 
'Af>6wt, plough, rjpoaa, [p. p. Ion. dpiJpoMai], ■npit6-t\v. fiOO. 
'Apirdjw (dpTra7-), SCI>6, dpirdaw and dp-rrdcrotiai [ep. a'pjrd^O)], rfpiraca 

[■^pTTQ^a], rJpTraffft, ^^piraiTMaf (late ^pTra7;iO(), Tjpjrdor^Tjf [Jldl. TjpTrd- 

X^Tjv], dpvtxcQi}frop.ai. For the Attic forms, see 687. (4.) 
*Api)w and dpuTd), 6?r«ip water, aor. i^puo-a, iJpucrdAiTjj', iJptJ^iji' ["^piJ- 

(T^^v, lou.j. eij'j. 



376 APPENDIX. [1692 

"Apx", beyiiiy rule, ap^«, vjp^d, (^px«) Vpyi^t (mid.), VPX^V*', ^PX^- 
(XOfxai (ArisiOt,), ap^o/xai, i]p^a.p.-qv. 

"AitTTw and (^ttw : see dtVcrw. 

['AtitciXXw (dTiraX-), tend; aor. drfrijXa. Epic aud lyric] (4.) 

AiPttivto (ai;av-) or aiaCvw ; ful. ai/avw ; aor. Tilriva., TjiJdvtftjv 01' aud^'^^K, 

avai'driaonai] fut. Jil. aiiawC;i«i (as pasS,). Augment 7JU- or ay- 

(610). Chiefly pontic aud Ionic. (4.) 
Av|dvtD or av|w (aiJ^-), increase^ («-) au^v^-w, atJf^cro/iai, ij^f^j^a, TjufTjxa, 

TjC^ijMttJ, ijuf 57^171-, ay^ij^iJcroMat. [Also loil, pres. d^fw, iillpf. affov.] 

. ^^'^ 
[•A<|)dcr<r« (sec -382 and 687), /ec^ handle^ aor. ^^atra; used by Hdt. 

ft<r d0dw or d<^dti>.] (4.) 
'A<^-tr](xt, let gpy iiiipf. d<ptyjy or ^J^i'T?*- (644) ; fut. d^jjtru), etc. See tlie 

iuflt'Ction of tTjMt, BlO. (I.) 
l^A^vo-a-ta (a<pvy-), draw, pour, d0i'^w. Poetic, chiefly epic. See 

d0t;tL». ] (4.) 

['A(|)ipw, draw, T}<f^i'ca, 7}(f>i>ffdnrjv. Poetic, chiefly epic] 

"AxOofiai, he dispLrasr.d, (t-) a.xO^<rofiaiy '))x^^<^^'?^ OLxO^ffBriffoyiai. 

y X\v\i\ko.y. (dx-), hi', trtnihhil, impf. axyvM^. Pootic. (II.) Also 

epic pres. axofj.ai.] Sec aKax£t«. 
[*'Awi s/iv'atc, u<Tu>, aaa ; 2 an]', siibj. *uj/a<?c (or ^uj/ify), pr. inf. S^Kvai, 

i^' satiate tnui's self. Mid. (do^t) aarai aS fut. ; f. dcofiai, a. a<7d- 

/i^v. Kplc] 

B. 

Bdi;« (^ay-), spr.ak, -utter, ^Sd^u, [ep. pf. pass, ^<?^a»frai]. Poetic. (4.) 
Batvw (/Sa-, /Sac-), go, ^r}<roMai, ft^prjka^ 0^^a^ai, i^ddrjv (rare) ; '2 a. 

f^jiv (701)) ; '2 pf., see 801 ; [a.m. epic ^^lyffd/xTjf (rare) and ^^yjadfiTjy, 

111, H.] In active sense, causp to go, poet. /Stjctw^ f/STjo-a. See OK). 

'Ihe s/viple form i.s used in Atfic prose only in the pres. and pi-rf. 

active. (5. 4.) 
BdXXw (/3aX-, /^Xa-), tim^w, f. [^aX<fu)] ;3aXw, rarely (€-) ^aW-ocw, 

;3^/iX7jha, /if^/3Xij/xai, OjiL. Sia-^(^\ri<rO( (734), [cpIC fifpdXn^at], ifiX-n- 

6r]v, li\y\6rj<To^a.i ; 2 a. «^aXoi', i^a\6fi'nv ; ful. Ui. jSaXoG/iat ; f. p. 

(SffiXriffOfiat. [Kpic, 2 a. dual ^y^-/:*>>'77-r7i'; 2 a. m. i^\-/jfiy)yy with 

J^ulij. /^XTJfTai, Oj^T.. ^Xiio or /aXfTo, inf. /5i\-^(T(?ai, pf. fiXr^fj^fpo^ ; fut. tyy^^- 
^Xi7<reai, pf. p. /iJ^/iiXr/ai.] (4.) 
BdiTTW (/ya0-)i f^V>i ^d>/'w, f^cn/'a, {i^fia^fxai, ^^d<f>Tjy and (poet.) i^d<f>dr]y; 
fut. m. ^di/'OMat. (3.) 

BdiTKt.) Oa-), poetic form of ^ctifw, <?(?. (6.) 

Bacrrd^w (see 587), rarr//, {ia<ndctji, f^dcraca, (Later forms from 

stem jSaffTcy-.) Poetic. (4.) 
Bt^o-o-t.* (/Stjx-)i ^^^' i^vrrio, C(n((/k, ^^^w, *i9»;fa. (4.) 
[BtpTjpi (/3a-), po, pr. part. jStjaa?. Epic] (I.) 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VEKIiS. 377 

BiPp<&<rK« Opo-), eat, p. iS^/Spwica, ^^fipufxai, [^^p6dijy; 2 a. ^ppu?v\ fut. 

pf. ^e^puffofiai'] ; '^ p. pan. pi. ^€fipu>7(s (804). [Houi. opt. ^«/9pw- 

eoti.] (6.) 
Bi6«, iitJC, /3iiiffo/«it, ^^f(j(ra (rare), fit^iojKa, ^(plwfiai ; 2 a. ^/Siujj' (799). 

(For d^iuxrdnijv, see fiid>ffKo^ai.) 
Biw<rKOfi.ai (iSio-), revive, ^/jtwadA*!?^', restored to life, (6.) 
BXdiTTw (/SXa/^-), injure, /JXa^w, tfJXa^a, fS^^Xa^a, fi^^ka^^ai, ^fi\d<p6vv; 

2 a. p. i^Xd^rji., 2 f. li\afirf<Top.ai ; fUL. in. fiXd^o^iai ; [fut, pf. /;*fj5\a- 

i^o/xat Ion.]. (3.) 
BXao-Tcivw (^XaffT-), i;;)rout, (t-) ^SXacrrTjaw, [ic^XdaTijKa ain-l i^XdorriKa 

(524) ; 2 a. *'/:fXa<rTOK (5.) 
BX^irw, 5et;, ^Xf^l'Ofxai [Mdl. di-a-jSX^f w], ^jSXc^a. 
BXCttw or pXtcro-w (^wXit-, /3XtT-, 6G), £(j/.f; /iouet/, aor. (,?X((ra. (4.) 
BXw(rKu> (^X-, M^O'i jS^o-i f>^)) J/ti'i f- Mo^o^/^tii, p. fifptfiXwua, 2 a. ^^^o^o*'- 

Poetic, (6.) 
Bo4ti>, shout, j3oTJ<To/iat, ({ibrjcra. [Ion. (stem /:ft)-), P^aofiai, (puiaa, 

i§ij<rdfiy]v, {^i^(jjp.ai) 0i^u}fxhos^ i^ujffdrjv.j 
36(rnt>t, feed, (t-) j::JocrxTjcrw. 
Bo-uXo(iai, loill^ wish, (augm. ^^ovX- or rjf^ovX-) ; (<-) PovXi'iao^at, jjc^ou- 

\y}p.ai, i^ovX-^ih}^ ; [2 P- TtpO'fii^ovXa, prafev.] [Kpic also j^^iXoMai.j 

517. 
[(ppax-)t Stem, witli only 2 aor. tjipax*^ Juid ;3pdxc, r^.'^owndcf/. Epic.] 
BpCJrt (anc 587), he drorcsy, aor. t^p\^x. Poetic. (4.) 
BptBw, he heavy^ ^ptcw, Uppiaay fi^^plOa. Mark m Attic prosu. 
[(ppoxO) fitein, swallow, aor. t^ffo^a. (o]>t. -^po^ctf), 2 iior. i>. dva- 

j3pox€(i ; '2 pf. dj'a-^^/?poxe^', /^ 17,54. l^'ic] 
Bpiixiop-a-t (f^pvX't OoH), rr>ar, L> p. ^^fip'oxa ; ^/Jpu;^T7(TdM^*' ; /ipLxTJ(?€^. 
Bvv^a> or pvw (/3u-)t ^^^P ^P^ ^utrw, t/iiJcra, ti^tiv<jp.a.i. (J07. Cliiofly 

poetic. (5.) 

r. 

TajUw (7aM-)i viavry (.said of <i man), f. 7a^w, a. e7^Ma, p. 7(7<iM»?'«a ; 
p. p. 7f7dM^Mai (of a woman). Mid. marry (of a woman), f, ya/j^o- 
fx<xi, a. ^ynp.dfxrii'. 054. 
rdwp.at, rejoicct [epic fut. 7an;cr<T0Mai.] ('iijcfly piir.Lii:. (II) 
r^Ywv<^ {y^^-)t ^ pci'f. as prcs., shove, sub. 7^7 wvw, iniper. 7('7wi'(, 
[cp. inf. yiytjfifjLCv^ part. 7f7wi'w^ ; 2 \)ipf. ^e7wt'«(, wjrh tyiyiji^i 
and 1 sing, ^ytyuyevi' lor -foy (777, 4).] DtM'ivr-d ])res. 7e7u)^^w, 
w. fut. 7€7w;'i7<rw, a. ^7c7ui'Tj<7a. Cliiufiy portic. I'rcsont also yeyw 

vlCKii}. (6.) 

rdvofiat (ytv-'), h^ hoi'n ; a. iy€n>ip.i]i>, bcgaC. (4.) 
FcXaw, laugh, yiXdfiop.ai, ('7Aa(7a, iy(Xd<rdr]p. 639. 
[nvTo, i-eut'ci, epic 2 aor., 7J.18, 476.] 



378 APPENDIX. [1692 

Tr\BU (7^^0i rejoice, [yv^-^au, iffl^VTa ;] 2 p. ytfijda. (as pres.). 654. 
Fiipda-Kw and -yi^pdu) (yvpci-)^ grow old^ yrjpd<raf and yrfpdffo^ai^ hipo-ffHy 

ytyipaKOL {am old) \ 2 a. (79fJ), inf. yripdvai, [^Hom, pt. yfipd^]. (6.) 
n^vofi-ai and "yivojtai iytv-)^ become (051), yfVT^o-onaL^ y^y^f^ipxn, 

[iycvTf)8riv Uor. and Ion.], yivt)$yi<TotAai (rare); 2 a. iyiv6ij.'qv [epic 

yivTQ for ^7/ffTo] ; 2 p. yiyova, am (for 7t7dd(ri, 767WS, and otbur 

^ii-fonn^, see 804). 
T\.^v<A<TK<ii (7V0-), JlOSCO, knoWy yyil}crop,ai, [Hdt. dv-^7vut(ra,] *7i'utjra, 

tyi'iijffpAt^ iyvihad^v ; 2 a. tyvuiv^ perceived (799). luiiic and Jate 

Atlic ylvu}(TKtjj. (6.) 
r\ii4>«, cut^ grave, [iv-^yXvyfra^ Hdt., ^7Xui/'d/x^*', Thooc.,] 7^7Xu|i;tai 

and <7XuMMat (524). 
rvdLjjLirrw (7faMTr-), ^cnclt, 7vd/ii^w, [<7va/A,i/'a, iym^drfv,] Poetic, 

chiefly e])fc. (3.) 
[Fodw (70-, COO), bewail^ 2 a. 760^, only epic in active. Mid. 7odo/tai, 

poetic, epic f. 7o^<ro^ai.] 
rpd<J)w, writCy 7pdi/'ui, typtixj/a^ yiypa<pa, y^ypafifiai^ 2 a. p. ^ypd^-rjp 

(iypd<pOrjv is not clasfjic) ; 2 f. p. ypacpi\<jopxn ; f ut. pt. ycy pax^opLon^ 

a. m. iypa\l^6.fj.ijv. 
rpulfw (7pu7-)> grunt, 7pu^u) and 7pu$oMai, f7/>u^a. Chiefly poetic. (4.) 



[(5a-), sUnn, taach, learn, no pres., (<-) 5a7)<ropLat, 5t5d7j»ca, JeJdTj/iai; 

2 a. ni. (?) inf. SfSdatrOat ; 2 pf. \A. 5t5au)s (B04); 2 a. *5aov or 

S^oaoj', taiujht ; 2 a. p. ^SdT/f, learned. Horn. Si^u), shall Jlnd.] 

Poetic, cliiL'fly epic. 
[AaiBdWo) (5aj5aX-), ^cc7t ou^, ornament, epic, and lyric. Pindar has 

pf. ]!.' ]);ui, 5f5ai5aX^^vos, a. pt. 5at6aX£)eis ; also f. inf. 6ai5aXwcr^^v, 

from stL-ni in 0- (.see ^50). J (4.) 
[Aat^w (5a(7-), reJit?, 5ai'^&;, ^5d(^a, bcMiyfJidi, idatxOf}*'' El)ic and 

lyric] (4.) 
Aatvv|j.i (5at-), entertain, Saiaoj, tdataa, {Uai<Tdi)v) Jaitrtfe^. [Epic 

Safvl, impf. and pr. imperat.] Mid. 5afvi^/iat, feast, Sa.la-op.ai, ^Sat- 

(Tdfj.r]t/ : [t'[jic pr. opt. oaivCro for iaiwi-ro, SaivDar' for 6aivui-aT0 

(777, 3): SL^e734.] (II.) 
Aaio^ai (Sao--, Sacn-, aat-, C02). divide, [epic f. Sdo-OMai,] a. ^<5a(rdMi7*'i 

pf. p. d^5aa/xai [opic 6/6ai/iatJ, (4.) Sec also 8aWo)jtai. 
Aatu) (Ja/:-, Safi-, 5ai-, 002j, ^-m^J/^, [epic 2 p. {/Stjo, 2 plpf. 3 pers. 

5t57}((>' ; 2 a. (^^aoMTjf) Subj. 5dT;Ta(.] Poetic. (4.) 
AdKvoj (5»)K-, 5a*.-), tiite, drj^ofiai, 5^d-ijyfj.ai, ^St^x^W, h]x^'f}ffOfiai ; 2 a. 

?'$axov. (5. 2.) 
AdjivTijAt (000) and Sajivdw (hap.-, S^a-, ^a/xa-), also pres. 8ajAd!;« 

(587), iamfi, sufttZnc, [fut. 5a/idcrw, oa/xdcu, Sa/xi (with Hoin. ba.p^<h 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 370 

SafiJ&ti:<ri)y a. iddjiaaa, p. p. 5^5;iij/iat, a. p. iSfi-^O-rjy'] anci ^5a^6.ff6-ijv ; 
[2 a. p. ^5dfJiVi' (will) Sdfi(y) ; fut. pf. 6c5fji^<xo^ai ; fut. m. dafidco/JMt,] 
a. ^SaMaerd/ti^t-. In Attic prose only ^a/wtfw, ^^aM^itr^i?*', ^3ofia(rdMt;;'. 
6Co,2. (5.4.) 

AofOAvw (6ap^-), s^CC;), 2 a. Uapdov, pool. «5pa^ov ; (t-) p. »:aTa-5c5a^- 
tfrjicws. Only in comp. (usually )caTa-5ap^d;'a;, except 2 aor.). (5.) 

AaWonai, divide, w. irrug. iar^atr^af (?). See SafoMQi. 

[A«afj.at, appear, only in impf. BUto, OtZ.O, 242.] 

A48itti /ear .• see 6^5otica. 

A48oiKtt, perf. as pre.s. (Sfd-^ Sfoi-, 6/:i-, 31), [epic 5f/5ou-a,] /car. 
[Kpic fut. iefffOMtti,] a. <3ct(ra ; 2 pf. 5^5ia [epic SeiSia,] for full 
fonns see 804, See 522 (^). [From stem bft- Homer forms im]}f. 
.Sfof, BU, feared, jled] [Epic present 5<i8a), /<'?«?•.] See also 
5U^ai. (2.) 

AifKviini (5e(f-), show: for synopsis and inflection, see 504, 50(), and 
500. [Ion. (5fA--), 5^^^w, e5<^a, 5/5f7Mat, (d^x^V^' ^Sf^d^Tj^.] Kpic 
pf. ni. 8(iS€y)xai (for S/iSfy/xat), ^/r<?e^ probably comes from atiotlier 
stem 5€K-. (II.) 

[A^fuij (6cM-, 5>*(-)' ^^iW, (5(i/Aa, S^BfiTjfxai, iBdfidfjLtju.'j Chiefly Idiiic. 

A^pKOfiat, 6'ce, ^5/pxf'7»'; 2 a. tBpaKov, (iSpdKijv) Spavft'r (040, 2 ; 040); 
2 p. 6^3opKa (04o). J'oetic. 

A^pw, T^ayi 5fpw, tdfipa^ B^5ap}xai ; 2 a. ^3d/)i7i'. Ionic and poetic also 
Sdpu («fp-). (4.) 

A<xo(*ai, rcoeirc, d^^ofiai, i^Bty^Mi [Horn, i^^'*'^'" f^'* 6f5/xaTai], ^5^- 
X^Tjf, iBiid^y)v\ [2 a. n^, cliiefly epic, iBi-^y-riv, BUro, jnipei*. 5^^o 
(75^j, 1), inf. B'!x^ai, part. B4f}itvo% (souictimeu as pres.).] 

Aiw, fc^irf, SVw, tBffoa, S^BtKa (rarely 3^5T?<a), S/St^as /5^f?Tj>., 5cf?7)- 
ffOAtai ; fut. pf. 3<5jJ<roMai, a. m. <'5ij(rd/ii7i'. 

A«*o, ti'flJjf, JiCt'^Z, (c-) Sfijffu, iBirica [ep. f^ijira,] SfS^Tjica, 3f6/Tj/Aai, 
iBiiienv. Mid. 5(^oMO(, osi-, 5e^(ro|iai. From epic sU-ni Btv- («-) come 
[^SfiJTjcra, OfZ. 1>, 640, and Sfuo^a*, 5€y77(TOMai.] Impersonal hil, debet, 
there is need, (one) 0Ui}ht, Bt-qati, iB^ri^i. 

[At]pida», act. rai'e (Sijpi-, 050), convene;, aor. iB-f^plaa ('J'beoc), aor. p, 
Byjplyfftju as middle (Hon:.). Mid. Brjpido^iai and 5-nptofjiai, as act., 
By)pt(TOfMii ('1^1000.), edtjpicdp.rjy (Ih.in.).] K]»ie and lyric. 

[At|w, epic present witli future meaning', shall find.] See (8a-). 

Atairacrt, arbitrate^ w. double au£;ment in perf. and plpf. and in com- 
pounds (543 and 044); 5iajT^jw, StTJTTjaa (dTr-tiiTjTTjj-a), SfJi^fri^xa, 
6f5tTjVij/Aai, 3ii7TT5^ilf (^?;-<:3<t;t)J^7jv, late); oiaiT^cro^iat, KaT-c5(i)Ti7(Tdju.77v. 

AtoKov^u, minister, iBiaKbvovv\ BiaKovi^c^ii {^or.mi. BtdKovy^ffai)^ BeBid- 
ic6vTj/Aai, ^5m*;oi'Yi^-n»'. Later and doubtful (poetic) earlier forms wit}i 
augment Bitj- or BeBir)-. See 543. 

AiSio-Ktoi (5i5ax-)i f^J^ BiBax-ffKu; (G17), (cacA, SiSd^w, ^BlSa^a [epic 



380 APPENDIX. [1692 

^SiSaaiojaa'], 5(6ldaLxo., deSHaynaiy fSiSdx^Vf \ SiSd^o^ac, ^ScSa^djaijv. 

See stem Ba-. (6.) 
Ai8tijii, bind, chiefly potitic form for fl/uj. (I.) 
AiBpoo-KU) (^pa-), only in comp., run aioaijy -^pdcofiaiy -5/5pa*ca ; 2 a. 

-(5paf [Ion. -»3pi7v], -5pw, -SpafTjy, -Spacai, -Spat (799). (6.) 
Ai6«(n. (5o-), /jive, 5wcruj, <'5u)/ca, ^^JcjA'a, ntc. ; see synopsis ami inflec- 
tion in 5U4, 50(>, and 500. [Kp. 36Mf*'at <Jr 56^v for SoDvai, fut. 

5i3u)cr{»> for 3ii(Tuj.] (I.) 
AifjJiai (<5{<-), hefrighUnc<},flee (704, 1), inf. iifadai, tojlee or (o dnt?e 

{chase) ; fiiuj^at and 3io//ivj»' (cf. SuvwMai 7'29, and ti^oi'mt?*' 741), 

c/iai'€, piirt. ^i6Mf "Js, ckaaing, Impf. act. iv-Utaav, set on (of dogs), 

//.18, 584. (I.) 
[At^iljiai, seei, with tj for f in present; 5tfi?aoMai» ^3*fT)<r<iMT7»'. Ionic 

and poetic.] (I.) 
[(8iK-), stem, with 2 aor. «iuov, ihrtvo, cant. In Pindar and the 

trai^ediaiis.] 
Ai^*'*** ^hinsl, 5if ^o-w, fSli^ijffa. Sec 490. 
AoK^u) (5oK-)i ^'^^«^ (Ami*, 56^w, fdo^a, d^ioyp-ai, iidx^v^ (rare). ]*oetic 

SoK^ffoj, i66Kr)<Ta, 5«66*cTj(ca, 5f36*<Tj>iaii fSoxiieTj*-. Impersonal, 8oku, 

it seems, etc. 054. 
Aovir^oj (Sow-), sound heavily, iSovirrjca [epic Jownjca and (in tmesis) 

^TTi-^SouTTTjo-a, 2 pf 3^5oi/7ra, SfiouTTws, /a//ftt.] Ciliefiy poeCic. <i54. 
Apdo-i7-op,ai or SpciTTOftau (Va7-), (jra^p-, aor. ^dpa^dfnjv^ pf, d^Spa- 

ypiai. (4.) 
Apciu*, (^o, Spdcuj, fSpaca, 5/6pdjfa, 3/5pa/iat, (ravcly S/dpdfffMi), (^iSpd- 

ad-qv) dpdadd^. 040. 
Axivajitti, i)e af)fe, aiigm. ^5uv- and ijauv- (517) ; 2 p. sing. pros, (poet.) 

Suvg. [Ion, 5iyvy], imjjf. J5uva<J0 or i6uv(j} (032) ; bvv7}(ropiai, 5(dvi'rjfmi, 

idvy^dvt' (idvpiaO-qf, cliietly Ionic), [epic idwijadpiTji'.] (I.) 
AiJ«, enter or cause to enter, and 8flv« (Su-), enter; Siitruj, tSiiffa, 

S^it-xa, S^^UMoi, <li6$r}i', f. p. 5yf/7i(j-0Mai ; 2 a. Uvf, inflected 5U0 : see 

504 and 799: f. m. iwro/xat, a. m. iSladn-ny [ep. i5la6p.T)v (111, 8)]. 

(5-) 

E. 

['Ed<t>0Ti (//.IS, 543; U,419), aor. pass, commonly referred to dirrui\ 

aiso to Hoiiai and to tdTrrw.] 
*Ea« [epic f^dw], pptnnil, ^acu?, ffdtra [ep. fdffa], f^d»ca, itdfiat^ f M^tjv ; 

fdvopiai (as pass.). For augment, see 537. 
'E-yyudw, pledge, bf-troth, angrn. ^771^- or ivcyv- (^77e7i'-)i s^e &43 ; 644. 
'E^ttpw (^^7fp-), 7'aisr?, roii.se, iyepd, ^yapa, iy/jy^ptMi, r)yipdt)v\ 2 p. 

^7PTj7opa, am uioaAe [Horn. iypTjy6p6d(Ti (for -6pd£ri)i imper. ^7P^- 

7op^f (for -6par(), \ni. iyp-f)yopdat or -6p^ai] ; 2 a. m. -fjypdniov [ep. 

iypbuT^v'], (4.) 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 381 

"ESii), eatj (poetic, chiefly epic, present) : see io-eu. 

'Ejofiai, ((15- for ffc5-; of. sed-eo), sit, [fut. inf. iip-^fffffo-dat (Horn.) ;] 
aor. c'iffdfiv^' [epic io-adfujy aud ^(^adMV^]' [Active aor. daa and 
?a(ra (Honi.).j 8(3. Chiefly poetic. (4.) See 1£5« and Ka0«'5o(iot. 

'EOtXrt and OiXw, wisA, imp. rjOiXov ; (e-) idcXrjaoj or fleX7j(7w, -fi6i\-r)tTa, 
i}6i\^Ka. '^6^\u} is the more common form except in the tragic 
trimeter. Impf. always rjdeXov; aor. (probably) always -^B^X^ffa, 
but subj. etc. ideXrjauj aud SeXricru}, ^OtXijaai and dfX^iraiy etc. 

*E9tt««> (see 687)^ accu^fom, ^tJfo-w, fr^ua, cf^t^a, cf^taMac, eidiadij-^. 
The root is a/-fe. (see 637). (4.) 

["E0wy, Horn pres, part.] : see (totda. 

El8ov (/6-, f <5-), vid-i, 2 aor., saw, no present (see 639) : f5w, fSot/ii, 
fjf or tS^, I5(tv, ldu)y. Mid. (chiefly poet.) ctSoftat, seem, [ep. f/o-d- 
^ijv and ^<(ir- ;] 2 a. €lS6fir}v (in prose rare and only in comp.), saw, 
= el5ov. OlSa (2 pf. as pres.), Anow, pip. -qStj, knew, i. eta-onai; 
see 820. (8.) 

ElKaJw (see 587), make like, etKa^oy or ^Ka^ov, ff«io-ti), «C*faa-a or ^Kaffd, 
((KaapLai. OV i/KaffMat, eiKda-drju^ dKaod-fjcofiai. (4.) 

(EtK«) not used in pres. (ttV, iV-), resemble, appear, imp. e/Ko*-, f. <^^a; 
(rare), 2 p. Hoixa [Ion. ofna] (with foiyfuv, [ttKTov,] (tidtn, (Uivai^ 
fUibs, chiefly poetic) ; 2 pip. ii^K-n [with lUTfjv]. Impersonal tot«, 
ii seems, etc. For toixa^ see 537, 2. (2.) 

[EtX^w (A-, fA-), ;3r<?w, r<?;^ (G54), aor. tXaa, pf. p. ?f\;ia(, 2 aor. p. 
^ciXt);' or fiXijc w. inf. dXTj/utfi-at. I'res. pass. itXofmi. Epic. Hdt. 
has (in comp.) -ffXrjo-a, -crXijMai, -uX-^Q-qv. Pind. has plpf. ^(iX<<.] 
Tiie Attic has uXioyuaa, and trxXw or ci'XXw. 598. See tXXu (4.) 

Elfit, Z>^ and EIp, go. See 800-809. 

EIttov (fiir-), said, [epic ^'etiro^], 2 aor., no present ; <^Tw, efwoifxi, diri, 

i'nritv, fiiroJv ] I aor. elrra [pOet. «*i7ra,] (opt. €t^^a^^ll, inipcr t'tirov OT 

eltrdv, inf. tltrai, pt. crTrds), [Hdt. dTr-ctTrd^Tj;']. Other tCTOses are 
supplied by a stem ip-, pe- (for ftp-, fpe-) : [Horn. pres. (rare) 
efpa>], f. ^p/w, ^pw ; ]). (tpijKa, ctprjuai (522) ; a. p. ippy\8riv^ rarely 
^pp^drjf [Ion. tlpi6r}u^ ; fut. paSS. pTj^jJcroAtai ; fut. pf. flpi^aofuii. See 
^^"irw. (8.) 

Eip-yvvjit and •lp'yv«w, al.-io ei'p^w (fW-)» ^^"^ '"'» / *«/>^w, tfpfa, dpy^ai, 
tXpx6f}v. Also ip-yw, ^P^w, 'ipia, [Hum. (ipy^aij 3 pi. ^pxo.Tai w. 
plpf. ?pxaTo,«Vx^H- (II-) 

Elp'yo), shut out, fip^oi, f'ip^a, dpypiai, ttpxQfiv ; dp^o^iai. Also [cpY^^i 
■<^pioi, -tpyfjuti^ Ionic] ; ip^ofun (Soph.). [Epic also ^^p7w.J 

[ECpopai (Ion.), ask, fut. (c) dpriaofMi. See cpop.ai.] 

[Etp« (^pO) ^^I/* epic in present.] See ctirov. (4.) 

Etpw i^P-)i sero, joiyi, a. -elpa [Ion. -?p(ra], p. -elptfo, elp/xat [epio 
UptmC]. Rare except in compos. (4.) 



382 Appendix. [1692 

['Eto-Kw (iit-), liken, compare, (017) ; poetic, chiefly epic: pres, also 
ttxKuf.'] C17. Upoff-rji^ai, art likCy [and epic riiKro or tixro], some- 
times reftirrcd to €tKU3. See ftnu. (6.) 

EtwOa [Ionic ew£>a] {-fid- for (TfTj^., 537, 2, and 080), 2 perf., aw accv^ 
tomed, 2 plpf. e/ii^T). [Hoin. has pres. act. part, idiav.] (2.) 

*E»c»cXii(rid5«, call an assembly ; augm. tjkkXtj- and ^^(h-Xij- (543), 

'EXavvu, for Aa-pu-w (Gl2), poetic Adw (Aa-), rfmc, march^ fut. 
(AdfTtj) Aw (CC5, 2) [epic ^\d<jao>, ^\6u ;] i^Xacra, /Xi^XaKa, /XiJ- 
Xa/wi [Ion. and late Ai^Xao-Mcii, Horn. plup. Ai^X^Saro], ^Xd^Tjt/, 
^Xacrdpii/*'' (5.) 

*EX(^Xw, confide, iX^y^u, ^Xc7^a, ^\^n\ey^Ml. (487, 2), ^f^^yx^V^, <fXf7- 

'EX£<r<r« and <tX£o-or<i) (Ai^-), roll, A(^w and flXffuj, ftXtJa, u'Kly^Mly 

('Mx^v- [Kpic aor. mid. Ai^^dpcTjt/.] (4.) 
"EXkw (late Aki^oj), pull, eX^w (Ion. and late Att. AjciJo-w), tl'X*cu(ra, 

(iXKutca, fiX^-uffpim, (i\Kiia6riv. 5:37. 
'EXirfj;*!* (^Xttio-), hope, aor. ^XTTicra ; aor. ]). pari. iXinGdiv. (4.) 
["EXirw, can.se to hope, 2 p. toXTra, /to;ic; 2 pipf. iiiXirfiy (3 pcrs. sing.). 

043. Mid. fXTTOMoi, /lop^, like Attic iX-n-l^u. Kpic] 
*Eji£w, vomU, fut. ('pew (i-are), ^noOfiat ; aor. i7^f£ra, 639. 
'Evttipw (^i-a/D-), A;j7^, 2 a. :7i'ap(?v. [Horn. a.m. ^i-ijparo.] Poetic. (4.) 
*Ev^fl-« (^i- and stem crfjr-) or ivv(V«, say^ tell, [ep. f. ^fi-(r7ri7o-w (o-fTr-) 

and hl\fijj;] 2 a. tvi-<nrou, w. iinper. (W(r7r« [ep. hicrres], 2 pi. ?(nrcTC 

(for h-a-K^Tt), inf. hiffneiv [ep. -^Mf*']- J'oetio. See f/To;'. 
*EvtirT« (^c(Tr-), chide, [epic also tV/crffw, 2 a. hii^ivov and iji-iTrajro*' 

(535). (3.) 
"Evvvp-t (f- for f«T-), ves-tio, clothe, pres. act. only in comp. ; [f. faau, 

a. f<Tffa, icffdtirji' or feo-a-; pf. ^cuat. Or (Tftai,] eifjL^voi in trag. In 

comp. -fo-u), -?(ra, -iadnioy. Chictly epic: dy.<pi-^vvvixi is the connnon 

form in prose. (II.) 
'EvoxX^w, harass, w. double augment (544) ; ^ctixXou*', ^foxX^uj, 

■^vtjJxXriaa., -fjuibx^rifjiai.. 

"EoiKtt, seem, 2 perfect : sec «r<w. 

'EopTi^w (see 587), Ion. dprd^u}, keep fe.i^twal ; impf. (u^pra^ov (538). 

(4.) 
*Eir-avp€« and iir-avptcKw (avp-), both rare, <^n;oy, [2 a. Oor. and ep. 

4iravpov; f, m, inavpvffofj.ai,'] 2i. inyjvpdfj.rju^ 2 a. ^TTTjupipiT;*'. Chiefly 

poetic. 054. (6.) 
['Etr-€vr|vo6t, defect. 2 pf., sii on, ^le on ,' rzlso jls 2 plpf. (777, 4). Kpic] 

Sec dprj^odf. 

'ETrCo-Tajittt, nnfieri.£an(?, 2 p. bing. (poet.) f7r(aT(( [Ion. (niarfai,] imp. 
jjridTTdMT?*', 2 p. sing. r]irl<jraco OX t^ttiVtw (632); f. ^Trt£rri?ao/xai, a. 
^TTifTT^^Tji'. (Not to be confounded with forms of i<f>i.<TT-n}i.t,) (I.) 



IG9'Z] OATAl.OGUE OF VEKBS. 383 

[^Eirw (ortir-), be after or busy with, imp- f^iroc (j)oct. '^iroy) ; f. -^'^w, 
2. a. •tfftroi' (fur f-<7fn--oj'), n. p. Trepi-i<p6rjv (ilUt.): active chiefly 
Ionic or puetic, and in coini)us.] Mid. itVopLat [poet. fcrno/Mn'], fol- 
low, f. (4^0fj.a( ; 2 a. fdvb^Tjv^ rarrly poetic •iairbp.rn', onrw^iat, etc., 
w. imp. [tnT^ro (^lor (tttco),] ottoO. bO ; 5J7, ii. 

'Epd«, lorn, vpdffOrjv, (fia<rOT}<rofj.ai, [iipaad^r);' (<-Pi^)]. POeLic press, 
ilpap-av, inii>. rjpdurjv. (I.) 

'Epvd^ojiai, Wor/-., rfi/, aui^ni. dp- (o37); qiyiffofiai, dpyaff/JMt, dpyd- 
a-St^i'^ ilpyaodfiQi'^ fpyaaOr}<yop.ai. 587. (4.) 

"Ep"y« and I'p'yw : soe t'Cpyi''vp.\. ((ipyu) and upy<^. 

'EpSw and tp5«, ?/iuj7j, i/o, pr(d)ably for ip'c-u - pi<;^ (by metathesis) : 
the stiMn is ftpy- (si^c r^l'J), whcoite f/3(7-, pn- \ tut. tp^oi, a. *>^a, 
[lull. 2 pf. €0/3ya, *J pliif. ^o/>7€a.] loiiic and ]hh;UC. See /(^fai. 

'EpttSuJ, itTOp^ iptlcu} (later), ■ijp€i<ja, [rjpeiKO., i(irjp(.i(Jtxa.Ly witll ipi]p^' 
Sarat and -aro, 777, I^,] rjptca-Orji' '^ fptlaofxai (Aristot..), r]pfiadp.Tr]v. 

'Eptttcw (f'ptiA', €piK-)^ tm)\ fntrat., i^ptt^a, ip-qpi.yp.a.1.^ '2 a. ripikOy. lonic 
ami p()etic. (2.) 

'EptiTTW ((pdir-^ <?/><^-)i ^^''"^^W ^//^iJ.'», fpffV'w, [i7pctf a, 2 pf. iprjpnrcL, har.c. 
faUtn, p.\).ipi]pip.^ai (plpf. ipipiVTO^ Hom.), 2 a. TJpnroy, Vplinjy^ 
a. m. avTipcr^dfirjc (Iloiti.)], a. ]). r}pd<p6ijv. (2.) 

'Ep*'<r<r*i> {ipf.T.)^ slriJcn, row, [e]). anr. i7pf(7a.] 582. (4.) 

['EpiSaivw, contend, for fV*r<J ; i''"'*- 'i^- ''^f- ^piS^caorOai, Kpic] 

'Epfl^w (^p(5-), conle.ud^ ^pi<7a, [r}pi<Tdfj.o>' I'pJ';.] (4.) 

"Epofxai (rare ov ?), [lo)i. ttpofxai, ep. ipt« or tpeojiavj, for the Attic 
^pujTciu), as'jt, fuf. (t-) (prjconci [Ion. <ip^(To>jaij, 2 a. rjpb/jiTjv, See 
ttpo^ai.. 

"Epiru), creq), iiM p. fi'prrov ; fnt. ^pt^cj. Poetic. 530. 

"Eppw, (/O to destructiim^ (t.-) (pprjcri*), jjppijca, u<j -ripprjKo., 

Epvyyivw (^pi/7-), cruet, 2 a. r'pi;7o»'. (5.) [fon. ^pfuyoftai, ^p<6^opiai. 
(2.)] 

'EpvKoj, /io/c/ /jac/.*, [ep, f. ^pufw] ^pL^a, [c]). 2 a. T^ptSp^atcoc.] 

['Epuw and ttpijw, 'irato, fut. ^pv^j, aor. <rpuao and fpytra, pf. p. (fplfxai 
and (tpu<Tp.ai. Mid. ipvojiav (t) and elpvofiav, take, uyider onc^s pro- 
tection, ipvdopai and fipilcroMoi, ipv<jdni]y and (lpvaap.r]v \ witli Hojn. 
>j(-formfi of pres. imd im])f. ftpi-arat (3 pi.), fpto-o, epDro au<l frpuro, 
^ipvuTo^ €pva0ai and eipua-doA. l*^pio.] 0;*9. Sue pOo^ai. 

"Epxofjiot i^px--, Ad'fl-, Au(9-, A^-), //o, coTKc, f. ^Xtvaofxai (Ion. and 
puet.), 2 pf. ^\r,\v$a [ep. (Xy'iXotjOa and (A^Aoi'^a], 2 a. ^X^ov (poet. 
:7Ai-^ov): see i^l. In Att.ic;iros't', ci^i i^ used for ^M6cop.ai (1257). (8) 

'Eo-6(w, aiso poetic (o-6w and i8« {^(jO-, iS-, <pay-)y edo, eat, fut. ^Softac, 
p. ^StJSoxo, ^S^SffTMOi, [f-p. ^5T)5o^iat], TjS^cr^Tyv; 2 a. •^ayo;/; C^pic preS- 
inf. tdfjjsvaL ; 2 pcrf. part. <'5r;aar^.] (8.) 

'Eo-TtAw, /ea5i, angmeiit flarj- (507). 



384 APPENDIX. 

EiiSo), sleep, iinpf. fvSov or TjvSof (519), («-) fvB^ffia, [-evb^aa]. Com- 
monly in Ka9-tii8<o. 6y8, 1. 

EiP€p"^(Tcw, do i?oo(i, <^ep7fTi7aw, etc., regular: Bometiraes augmented 
fi>vpy- (545, 1). 

£vpi(rKw (eijp-), JiucZ, ((-) (Opiia-w, 7;i(pTjKo, Tjyp-rjMai, rjvp^dijy, (iipt6-f)cotM.t' 
2 a. t;J/)oi', TjvpbfjLTjv. 030 (6). Often found with augment ev- (016) 
^6.) 

Ev<^pa£vw {(v<f>p<xy-), che<i1\ f. fjJ<^pavtj ; a. r}t<ppa.va.y [lon. also ^y^pT^va ;] 
a. p. r}V<ppdvQriv, i. p. €v<ppo.v6yiaona.f. ; f. ni. (v<ppavoi}/JLa.i. 519. (4.) 

"Ex** (<^'X-)t ^louc, imp, cixo*' (539) ; f^w or ffxv<r^ {<^X^-)y 'taxvua, 
^fTxi?Aiat, i^x^^V^ (chiefly lon.) ; 2 a. icxo^ (f*^'* ^-o-cx-ov), cxcS, 
irxo^V aJld -trxorjui, ax^Ji <yxf'^^'» ^''X^t'l pOCt. fcrxfOov CtC. (779), 
[Horn. pf. part. ffvt'-oxoKwt for Dx-ox-'«'r (^-13 ; 629), ])lpf. iiT-u)xarot 
xoe.re, shxUy II. \2, 340. j Mid. <xofiai, cling to, 'iiop.on and crx^ao^iaij 
4<Txi>f*-f]V' 

"Exj'w, c'ooAr, (e-) f. ^^o^iai and iyf^-fjconai, f^Tjcrui (rare), a. ^^Tjo-a, 

z, 

Zau, live, w. f-jf, ^^, etc. (490), inipf. <fwv and «r^v ; {-^(tw, ftJcroMai, 

(f ifTj(ra, *ifTj*.a, later), lon. ^ww. 
Ztv'/vviii (f<i^7-i ri'T"! cf. jug-uni), yoke, ^fo^w, H^^i^-i t^cvyp-ai, i^ti- 

xOvv ; 2 a. p. ^^uyvf. (2. II.) 
Z^w, boil (poet. lt«iw), f^'aoj, »j:ea-a, [-efea^ai lon.J. 639. 
Zwwv^i (fu)-), (/ird,*^w(Taf t^ucpai and e^to^at, ^^ujcrd/uTjv. (II.) 

H. 

'Hpa(rKti> (yj0a-), come to JurtJi/ioocZ, with T]pd«, t^c rt£ manhood: ^^Vw^ 

^^r?<7a, Ti/^v*a. (4.) 
*H'/€p(6op.ai, be collected, poetic passive form f)f d>((pa; (dyep-) : bee 

77y. I'ouiid only in 3 pi. riytp^Ooyrai, w'lih the subj., and iufin., 

find vytp^dom-o. 
"H8ojiai, be phased; aor. p. iV^^*-, f. p. T}(jOT}ao^Q.i, [aor, ni. i7(raro, (?(^. 

9, 353.] The act. tj8w w. impf, 7}5of, aor ^cra, occurs very rarely. 
'H<p^9ojtai, be raised, poftic passive of dfi'pu) (dcp-) : see 779. Found 

only in 3 pi, -ntp^Ooyrai (inipf, r^epiQovro is laLO). 
'"Hp.ai, ail: see 814. 
'Hji(, my, chiefly in imperf. ^v 6' ^7w, ,sai*(i /, and jJ 5' 5y, srtid he 

(1028, 2). []';pic ^ (alone), he said.] 'Unl, Tsay, is colloquial. 
*Hji'6«, 6ow, SinA', aor. ■^Ati-aa, [pf. y)r-tMv-i7;Ai'« (for ^fx-nj^iVKe^ 62i)) 

Honi.] Poetic, chiefly epic. 



1692] CATALOG UL: OF VEUBS, 385 

0. 
daXXta C$a\-), bloom, [2 perf. T^ffi7Xa (as present,)]. (4.) 
[0aojiai, gaze aC, admire^ Doric for Oedofiai, loii. 6r}io^ai; $d(To^ai and 

6a<ToviJ£n, i6o.aa.y.y]v (Hom. opl. ^Tjcrafar').] 
[0aofiat, milk, inf. d^cOai, aor. idt]<j6.^y}v. Ki)ic,] 
0ttir- or Ta<f>-, stem : see tf^r-. 
0AirTw (ra^- for flacp-), ^urt/, Ba^<a^ tBa^a, TtBa^nai, [Ion. t6d^dr)u^ rare ;] 

2 a. p. hd(p7)u ; 2 fuL TQ(pVo^ai; fat. pf, T(^a4/o^ai. 95, 5. (3.) 
Qavjid^w (see 5^7), WOJlc/er, dtxvfxd'TOfxai (9auad/rw?)^ tdaii^anct, rtdav- 

^awa, f6a.vfAda$j]v^ daup.a<j6r]ao^au (4.) 
0»iva> (^fc-), smU^!, e^vO), {tB*ivci Honi.j, 2 a. tOtvov. (4.) 
0Aw, io(.'i-(^, (<-) e^K-hcoi : see W^X«. 
6»pojiai, wai'm otui's self, [fut. e*p(TOfiaiy 2 a. p. {iSi^riv) subj. ^^pfw.] 

Cluefly ejiic. 
e/o), ($#1/-, (?*/:., dy.), n/n, fut. Bfvao^ai. 574. (2.) 
(9T]ir-, ^QB--, or Ta^-), astonish^ .stfin witli [2 pcrf, r/^jjjra, aw aston- 
ished, epic plpf. irtdrivta ; 2 a. (Ta(/>of, also intransilivo,]. .'il ; US, T*. 
diYY***" (^'VO) touchy 8'i^ofiat^ 2 ;l. *^i>t>i'. Chiefly jioetic. (5.) 
[©Xd»i bruiac,, idKaaa^ rtd^afffiai ('Dieoc.), ^d\dadj]i' (JiippoC). Jonic 

and poetic. See ^Aaw.] 
0X(pcj ($AiB-, dATS), squeeze, B\i^w, idM\pa, TtdKifxnai, ^d\i<i>dr}y ; fOKl- 

B-qp-y fut. 111. tfAfiPoMtti, IlOill. 

©v^oricw, earlier form BvtjVkw [Doric and Acc^Iic dvaf^Kw'] (6av-^ Bva-)^ 

die, Bavovfiai, T*Ovr}Ka ; fut. jif. Tf^^ii^w (70.0), later Tidv-niofxai ; 2 a. 

(Ba^oy; 2 perf. see 804 and 773. In Attie prose always airo-tfaj/oD^at 

and av-f'Oafouy but TfSyrjKa- 010. (6.) 
0pa<ror«and BpaJTU) {rpax--, Bpax-)^ disturb^ aor. t'ffpa^a, ^BpdxBvi' (rare) ; 

[2 pf. TfTpTjxa, !>c disturbed, iioin.] See TapdoQw. (4.) 
0pava), brtlise, Spavaw, (Bpauaa, rfSpava^j-ai and riOpavfiaiy i6pava6-r\^ 

(041). Ciiiefly poetic. 
©pXiirTO) (rpu^- for ^pv^-), crits/l [tOpvy^a Hippoc], jt'BpvfifiaLy i&pvpdnv 

[ep. 2 a. p. ^Tpii(pjj»']i ^pui^o^aj. 95, 5. (3.) 
€>pw<rKw and 6pw'o-K« (i'op-, 5po-), //?a/^ fut. Bopovfj.ui, 2 a. tOopov. Chiefly 

poetic. (6.) 
0v« (^t;-)> sacr(4cc, imp. tB'vov\ Btaw, t&vaa, Tf&uxa, rt'^y^ai, hv0r)v ; 

B6<Top.ai, *$Zffd^T}y. 95, 1 and 3, 
©vo) or GiJvw, rage, rusih. Poetic : cL-w.sic only in present and imperfect. 

I. 

*IAXX« (i'aA-), S/i?lcl, fut. -mAa', [ep. aor. r»jAa.] I'octic. (4.) 
[*Idx» and taxt'w, shouC, [2 pf. (I'axa) a^tp-mxfra]. PoBiic, d)ief!y 
epic] 



386 APPENDIX. [1G92 

'ISp6«, sweat, IZpwcnv^ \hpu)aa : for irregular contractiou Ihpuxji etc., Bee 

497. 
'ISpuw, place, iSptJffoj, Upvffa, UpvKay Upvfiat^ ihp6$y}i' [or ihpvveriv (709), 

chiefly epic] ; IBpvaofxai, UpZadfJinv. 
"lt,ta ((5-)i i*'^^^ 0^* ^'^ oiJd. Vjojiai, ;;/£; used chiefly iu Ka$-/C«i which 

see. See also iffiat. (4.) Also ijdvu. (5.) 
"ItjP (f-), send: for infection sec 810. (I.) 
'iKvfojiav (iK-)> poet. Kkw, come, Y^o/wai, T7^a/ ; 2 a, iK^i/iTjj'. In prose 

usiually a<p-iKfto}iai. From (ko, [ep. imp, fvoc, aor. J^ov, 777, 8,] Also 

iKavfaj, epic and tragic. (5.) 
'IXdo-KOjjiai [epic iKdofxai] (/Aa-), propitiate., lAdaOjuai, iAatrtf^j^', tAaffaVrji'. 

(6.) 
["IXi^pi («Aa-)s te propitious, prt'S. only iniper. Utj^i or tKdSi ; pf. subj. 

and opl. lAiiKw, l^r\Kotni (Honi.). Mid. 'I\a^ai, propitiate-, epic. 

Poetic, ciiiefly e]iic.] (I.) 
"IXXw and i;XXo[iai, roll, for ^yAAoj. See dklu. 
['IjiAcrcrw (Bce 582), iay/i, aor. iVatTa.] (4.) 

^Ip.tCp<i> (t/ifp-)> Ion (J for, [IfjLttpdf^v (<?P'c.)> V*pt''7*' (Ion.)]. Poetic and 

Ionic. (4.) 
"Iirrafiat (7rTa-),y?y, late present: see WTOjiai. (I.) 
["IcrdfJii, Doric for olSa, know, with fo-aj, r^ari, Jaa/^fy, loavTt.] 
[To-Kw : see ^t(TKu.] 
"lo-rq^jLi (cTfl-), 5t'^ place: for synopsis and inflection, see 504, 50G, 

609. (I.) 
*I<rxvaivii> dax^'ai'-), make lean or dry, fut. i(Tx*'a''t«^i ^or. ifax^a^"* 

(C73) J^rcr;^F?;i'a lon.J, a. p. icrx^ai'^Tji' ; flit. HI. itsxvavovp.ai. (4.) 

''lo-xw (for <Ti-cix^i cT'^'^X"')* ^«yc, AcW, redupl. for fx" (<^*X -'*')• ^*'- 
See *x"- 

K. 

KaBaCpw (Ka^up-), pitrify, KaBapm, fKadrtpa and ^wa^dpa, KfKtttfafj^a', 

^Ka6dpOr]y I KaOapovf^ai, ^nadrjpdfjiriv. (4.) 
Ka0-^Jojiat (t5-), ^it down, imp. ^«a^€CoV»)"i f. Kadtiovp.ai. See Jjop-ai. 
KaGtuSw, A'Ze^/), imp. ^^m^^uSoj' and «a0T]u5ov [epic Ka&cvioi/}^ sol' 544 ; 

fut. (<-) KQ^ffSTTaw (058, 1). bee tuSw. 
Kaflitw, Sff, ?)Y, f. KaBiu> (for «a^tVw), Ka^t^woMft' I a. ^ndBltra OV Ka^rcra 

[Horn. KaOu(ra, Hdt.. KaTftaaJ tVatficra^iTji'. See i'Ja*. Fov inflection 

of Ka$J7^a{, see 815. 
KaCvD^ai, perhaps for na^-^ufj^ai (a'o5-)i excel, P- KtVaa^ai [Dor. K*/faS- 

^(i-os]. Poetic. <n.) 

Katvw (wa*/-), frl7/, f. Ka^w* 2 a. ♦'KafO;', 2 p. {k^kovo) Kara-Ktxofiirts 

(Xon.). Chiefly poetic. (4.) 



IQ92] CA'VAWGVE OF VKRBS. 387 

Kaiw (nav, xaf-, Kafi-, nai-, 001), in Attic prosc generally ndu (not 
coutracled)j hum; Kavcv; tKavfra^ poet. part. /r«'ar, [epic CicTja] ; 

KtKavKQy KtHav^iaiy ^KQuSjji', Hav6v(^0uai^ [2 a. indrji' Q tut. Ulld. KavCFOpLai 

(rare), [oi'-«wau(TaMT)»', Hdt.]. (4.) 
KaX^w (wa\(-, ff\(-)i <''fi^^ ^"^- «a^(i (rare and doubtful in Attic 

KaAfffO)) ; iKa.\(.aa<, K*KKr}Ka^ if/w Arj/xai (Opt, *f(*fAif(), KtK\T}fi.t$a)y fKXTj- 
6171/, AfATj9^5(To/iat ; fut. LTl. xaKovfjLaiy a. ^«oA«(rd/iTj>' ; fut. pf, ffCK\T)(ro/uoi. 
C39 (/O ; 734. 

KaXviTTw {naKvB-)^ COVC.l\ KaKvf^tt), ^KaAuil'a, KtKdKvfifjiai, ^caAu^^Tjv, 

KaKvtp8r}crofi,ai ; aoi*. ju. ^koAuiI/cimt;*'. In prosB chiefly in compounds. 

(3.) 
Kd^vo) (jfaM-)i i^iboVt Kanovnat, KtKurjKa [ep. part. w«k/itjwsJ ; 2 a. 

(Kafiov^ [e\h ^Ka/^ii/jitji'.] (5.) 
Kd^irTO* (*fa>iir-), hcnd^ Kdfxt\/u}, tKafi\p3^ HfKafjifiai (77), iH6.y^(pBr]v. (3.) 

KaTT)Yop^(«>, accuse, regular except in augment, Ha7vy6povy etc. (543). 
[(Ka4)-)> pant, stem with Horn. i)erf. part. HfKa<pr}w^ ; cf. rcfli'Tywj,] 
[KfSdvvv^i., tipiC iov trxf^dfuvui, scaUcr, iK^6a<J(xa, ^KtSdadrjy.'j (H-) 
K«Lp.at, lie, Ktiaofiai ; inflected in 818. 

Ktipw (w(p-), shear, f. Kfpu?, a. tKupa. [jjoet. *Kf/3ffo], ntKapfjiaij [(^w*'p6tj^) 
Ktpdus ; 2 a. p. tHapvt' ;] f. m. vfpoDjuoi, a. ni. iKfipdi^-qv [w. poet. part. 

Kfpora/i^coj.J (4.) 

[K«Ka5ovi 2 aor. deprived <//, caused to leave. ^ ^f/ca5<^M'7*'i retired^ Htna- 
Stj^tc?, sAtfZZ deprive, reduplicated Horn, forms of xaC'*'-] Sec xo-t**- 

[KcXaS^u^ shonC, roar, fut. «*Aa57'((Tc«j, KfAaSi^croMa') ^-Or. iKtKdSijcra ; Ifoui. 
prcs. part, fcf AdSoii-. Kpic and lyric] 

K<X(tlw, command, KfAtvau, in(\€v<ja, KtKtXfvKa, K€K(\ivciJ^aty ^Ke\fV' 

a6r]v ((>41). Mid. (Chiefly in compounds) h*\(V(to^j.o.i^ ^Htf^tundfjiV' 
Ki\\<a («<aO, land, KtKaw^ fii(\ffa, 008; 074 (6). Poetic: the prose 

form is 6k<XX«. (4. ) 
KfXo^ai, order, [epic (t-) KtA^crojuai, f K(ATj(rdjui7f ; 2 a. ni. iKiK\6fxr)v 

{bZi ; C77).] Tootle, chiefiy epic. 

K*VT€a) (jffi'T-, K(KTf-), prick, Ktvr-f]ai>}, (Kf'yrrjaa, [KtK^vTTjfxai lOH., 

iKfyTTiO-nf later, cvyHevTi]$r)cn>^iai lUlt.J. [Honi. aor. inf. xhaai^ 

from stem kc^'t-. 654.] Chielly lunlc rind poetic. 
KtpdvviJtii (Kcpa-, Kpa-), mix, ^Htpaca [Ton. ^wprjcra], xtiipafiai [lon. 

-Tj/iai], ^upddrjy [Jou.- ■n8T)v'] and iKipdadnv, f. pass, Kpa ei^trojuai ; a. m. 

iKtpaadfxr]v, (II.) 
KcpSaCvw (KepS'y K(pSav-), gain (505 ; 010), f. ^ffpJaca), a. ^ntp^aua (G73), 

[Ion. ^wfpSTjKa]. From stem «fp5- («•) [fut. KepHaofAai and aor, 

iHiplr)(Ta (Hdt.)] ; pf. vpoa-K€Ktp^-l]Ko.(Ji (Dem.). (5. 4.) 
KtvBu (*ffuO-, 1^!'^-), hide, Kti'<no:, fJCf n»fTa ;] 2 p. wfrVtu^a (OS pres.); 

[ep. 2 a. *fu5of, subj. HtHvdw,] Epic and tragic. (2.) 



388 Ain'ENUIX. [1692 

K^5» (ffn5-, Ko5-), vex, (€-) [xvSriaw, '^KriSncFOL ; 2 p. KfKV^a] : active only 

epic. Mid. Ki^So^ai, SOJTOUJ, ^K-ndiadnrjy., [epic fut. pf. K(Ka57)cro/*oi.] 

(2-) 
Kt)pvO'(r« (KTjpuK-), proclaim^ Kripo^a/^ fHTjpv^a, Kftr-hplxa, Km-npoy^m^ 

*Ki)piSx^'7*'i KT}pux&Tfl<rofxai ; Krjpt^opLai, ^«7)pu^a>iTj;'. (4.) 
Ki-yx<ivw, epic Kixavw (*f*x-)i .-^"^j (•-) fiXVco^^o^h [epic ^kixiKjo^tji'] ; 

2 a. tHixov. [Epic forms as if from prcs. KixTit^'-> 2 aor. ^Klxyjy. 

(0«tX*'S» f^X^M't'i fiXT'l'^^^'i '"X"'wi f'X*^"?! "'X^''^^ ^T-'id fttx-h}i(pat, 

Ktxdii KixvfJ^ft'os.'l Poetic. (5.) 
[K(8vi^}jit (y^iS-fa-), spread, Jon. and poetic for o-wSawvjjti.J See 

(T«f5vT)f(f. (Ill-) 

[Ktw^ai, move, pr«s. anfl imp. ; as mitl. of kIv^w. Epic] (11.) 
K£pvT](tt (III) and tcipvdw: forms (in pros, and inipf.) for Kf pdwvut. 
KfXPnjJtt (xpa-% ^<^'i<^i [XPV(TW HdU], (Xf"?*^** Ktxpjinai ', ixp^ca^iriv, (I.) 
KAA^w (/fAa77-, «Aa7-), clang, K\dy^w, tKKay^a] 2 p. KtK/^ayya [epic 

KtK\r)ya, part. *ff«Ai^70vT(5 ;] 2 a. ^KAayoP ; fut. pf. KtKkdy^Ofiai. 

Chiefly poetic, (4.) 
KXaCw (ffXav-, KAa/:-, (cAafi-, KAai-, 001), In A Ltic prose generally kXou 

(not contracted), weep, xKaCaofAat (rarely KKavaov^ai^ souietimes 

K\ai-ha<Mf OT KKarjaw), tn\auaa and ^KAavffd^T)^, ntuKavf^ai j flit. pf. 

(impers.) KtK\av(HTQ.i, (4.) 
KXdw, break, fxAaaa, Kt'^Aaa^ai, ikKauOvt' ; [2 a. l>t. «a4s.] 
KA^TTTw (KA«7r-), steaZ, ic\«\^w (rarely KAi'i^o^ai), iKhi^>a, KtKKotpa (043; 

092), fffVAf^^tai, (tV A<'9^T)i') KAf^^cfs ; 2 a. p. *\Xajr77V, (3.) 
KXt]'*!), later Attic KXttu, shut, xAp'o-w, tKKrtaa, KtKXrjKa^ K(x\r}}iaiy ^KAp- 
o6r]V ; KAi7<r^:ncro^ai, KfKKrJaofjiai, ^KKTjadfirjv (also later K\ti(Tw, (KK€t<7a, 
etc.). [Ion. kAtj^O), iKkriiaa, KtK\r]iu.at, iK\r)t<T8T}v.'\ 

KXtvw (ffAiv-), i'e7id, mdine, kKivu, tKMvay Ki'/tAi^ai, ^K\l$rtv [epic 
iKkipBr)Py 700], K\i8r)oo^ai ; 2 a. p. iKkivnv^ 2 f. KKiyrt<ro/xai J fut. in. 

KAtvot/>iai, a. ^KAcva^Tjv. 0'17. (4.) 

KXvw, Aear, imp. fjcAuoi' (as aor.) ; 2 a. imper. jfAv^i, wAOt* [ep, jf«'KAi«5i, 
KtxAuTc]. [Part. K\<>fi€vos, renoumoA.] Poetic. 

KvaCw, scrape (in compos.), -Wfaicrw, -ffcvatfia, -Jfi'Kvatxa, -KtKvai<jyMi, 

-iHfait^BvVy -fvamO-ixTOHai. AlsO Kvdw, with a<, a?) contracted to T}t 

and a<i, ari to 7j (490). 
KofiCJw (Ko/At5-), care /or, camj, ho/L«w, ^Kdfuua, KtHSfuna^ KfKS^ic^at, 

iK0ni<j6vy\ Ko^iaBr)co^a{ ; f. m. «o;ijoG>ta( (605, 3), a. Uo^nadnr^v, (4.) 
K6irT« (kowOi '^"^1 f'^^'t^i ffoi^a, K^Koi^a, (V.):3 [iC(K07r*js Hom.J, KfKonfiai; 

2 aor. p. ^frfTTi*-, 2 fut. p. xoit-nno^iat ; fut. pf. K(><6\pofiat j aor. m. 

^/iaii^dfjir)^. (3.) 

Kop^vvvtii (fop*-)) satiate, [f. Kopt tro} (Hdt.), Kopf'w (ITora.), a. 4K6pt(Ta 
(poet.)], KtK6pt(TMai [Jon. -tj/nat], iKopfadr^v ; [epic 2 p. part, KtKOpy)tai, 
a. m. ^ifop«(ra/<7iv.] (II.) 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 389 

Kop^o-o-w (Kopvd-)^ arm^ [Horn. a. part. Kopuffdof/utvos, pf. pt. «<«o;)u$- 

^«Vfff.] Poetic, cbJeriy epic. (4.) 
[KoTc'w, he angr\i^ aor. ^K^Ttaa, iKOT^0<x^r)v^ 2 pf. part (CfKOT-rj^s, angry ^ 

epic] 
Kpa^w (Kpa^-), cry out, fut. pf. i^Kpcfjo/Ltai (raro,) ; 2 pf, Kt'xpa^a 

(imper. KtKpaxSi and K(ifpa7*Tc, Ar.;, '^ plpf. ^KeKpct7«T« (Uem.) ; 

2 a. (Kfiayov. (4.) 
Kpa£v« (ifpav-), aCCOVlplish^ Kpavu^ <«pdfa [lou. «KpT)j/a], ^Kpavflrji-, 

vpa^'diicro^wai ; p. p. •\ slllg. KfKpavraL (cf. 7r«'(Jiai'Tai), [f. UK inf. Kp<i,vtt- 

adat^ Honi.]. Ionic and poetic. [Epic Kpaia£v«), aor. ^Kp^yj^a, pf. 

and pip. KfKpdavTai and HfHpdai'To ; inpaavd-tiv (Theoc.),] (4.) 
Kp^(ia(iai, hang^ (inU'ajis.)^ Kpennao^xai. See KpTip.wTi(Jii and Kp<(idvvii(Ai. 

(I.) 
Kpcp-dw-u^i (wpt^a-), ^VLspendy Kpffjid (for Kp^^ao-w), tVp/^aca, fKptfid' 
a$-qy; liKptfxaffd^i-rjy.'] (II.) 

KpTi(i.viiftt, 5i£S))cn(Z, (tcpn^-fa for ffpeMa-ca, perhaps through «pi7M»'<ii)> 
suspend; very rare in act.^ pr. part. KprinvdvTuv (Pind,). Mid. kpt}- 
(ivanai = Kp*na/lat. Poetic: used only in pres. and impf. (III.) 

Kp£tw (fpty-)! ^^TCak, squeak, [2 a. (t^pucof) 3 sing. Kpixt ;] 2 p. 
(K-/*fpr7tt) K(Kp:y6Tes^ squeaking (Ar.). (4.) 

Kpfvw (^cptf-), j^idfje^ f. HpivCi^ txplva^ KtKpiKa, KixpifAai, iKpidrjf [ep. 
^*cp(i'5T]i/J, Kpt^TitfOMai ; fut. ni. icpivoC^tai, a.m. [epic ^*f pi t/a^r] v.] 047. 
(40 

Kpovo), btot, Kpoutru), fffpovrra, KiKpovKa^ HfKpovfxat and KtKpova^at^ 

lKpovQ6r\v \ -Hpovco/xaiy iKpovcdfjLr]v. 
KpviTTW («py<f>-), conceal, Hpuv^w, l^Kpui^'a, KtKpv^xnat^ iKpV(pdr}y', 2. a. p, 

^ffpt/^tli- (rare), 2 f. «p(/<()T]aoMai or Kp\jBi)o ona.i. (3.) 
KTdojiav, ac^/uiVc, KTiitro^ai, ^ffTTjj-aM^"! *c*'«TTj^a{ (rarely txTTj^ai), ;>os- 

sess (subj. K«*(Tw^ai, opt. K«KTj{;i7)v or K*Kr(fintjv^ 7^4), *KT:^eT)i' (as 

pass,) ; KfKTnaouai (rarely ^KT^aoMai)) ahall possess, 
KtcCvw (kt(i'-, xtc-), A;i7;, f. KTtvio [lou. KTivfoj, ep. also jcTav/w], a. 

/^fTfti^a, 2 pf. ajr-<VTo:'j, [cp. a, p. ^^cTaflTjc ;] 2 a. ♦/fTafOf (for poeiic 

I^KTdv and ^vrciMT)*', fice 799) ; [e.p. fut. ni. KTavtop-ai.] In Attic 

proyp. ajro-fre/»'w is generally used. (345; 047. (4.) 
KtC^w (sec 587), /owurf, Kri<rt»y (KTictay ("ki-ktmoij ^KTi'a^ni' ; [aor. m. 

tKriad^rn' (rare)]. (4.) 
Kt^vvChi and ktiwOw, in compos., only prcs. and impf. See kt<Cv«. 

(II.) 
K.rvTr4<t) (ffTuff-), sounds cause to sovnd^ ^Krvr-n'ra^ [2 a. ^KTvirov,'] 

Chiefly poetic 054. 
ElvX{w or KvX(v8« and kvXiv8^«, roll^ ^«uAf<7a, KtHvAicfxai.^ ^Kv\ta9rii>^ 

KvXlaBriaofxat, 



390 APPENDIX. [16d2 

Kvve'w (fi/-), kissy ticvca. Poetic. npo<r-»njv^«, do homage^ f. irpoffKi^ 
v-fiata^ a. irpoafKvyijoa (poet, TrpoafKvaa)^ is commou iu prosc and 
poetry. (5.) 
KwT« ('(v<f>-)y stoop, H6\pu} and Kdipofiai^ aor. »»fy>/'o,2 p.^eVD^a. (3.) 
K^pta (Ki/p-), Tjiee^ chance f Kvpaw, invpaa (C6S 074 i>). (4.) Kup^w 
is regular. 

A. 

Aa-yxttvw (Aax-)t obtain by lot, f. m. x-n^ofiai [Ion. Aajo^a;], 2 pf, 
tiATjxa, [Ion. and poet. A«Ao7;ca,] p. m. («i'A7j7^ai) elKrrr^ifyos, a. p. 
(^■hx^v ; ii a-. ^Aax<»' [ep. a^ Ad;^^, 634]. (5.) 

AanPavw (Aa3-)i ^a^'C, Ai^(|/Ofia(, tt\r)<pa, tt\-nnnai^ (poet. AeArj^^at), ^Ai^- 
<^ei)t'. kT)(peT)aofiai ; 2 a. tAa/3o*', iKa&6fiV*' [ep. inf. Xe\a$to6ai (534).] 
[lOU. \dfi\pOfiaij A<Ad/37j«a, AfAa^fiOi, f\d^<pdT}i' J Dor. fut. Ad\^oD- 

Aa}iir«, c<:7il«C, Aa'fu/'fo, f\a^\pa, 2 pf. KfKa^nra ; [fut. m. -Aa/ii^o/xaj Hdt.]. 

AavBavw (Aa0-)i '^^ Ai(i, eica;ic i/ic Jioiice o/(some one), X^w, [fATj^a], 

2 p. A«'A7](Ja [Dor. X#'Adaa,] 2 a. (Aaflo;' [ep. A»'Aa^ov.] Mid. forget^ 

kT]a-o^a(y XfKrja-fiat [ilOHl. -atr^Qt], fut, pf, XfXi'jffi^cn, 2 'd. i\ad6fiijy 

[ep. \f\ae6tn)y.] (5.) Poclic KvOu}. (2.) 
AduTiJ (AajS- or Ao0-), Za/>, ZlcA% Adifw, tAai/za, 2 pf, A€Aa^a(G*J3) ; f. m. 

Adi^o^ttf, ^\a\pd^T)y. (3.) 
Ado-KW for \aK'(TKu (Aa«-)i Spe<lk, («-) KaKVCOfiat^ AaVrjao, 2 p. A«'Aawo 

[ep. AfArjKaw. feui. part,. AfAa^fyra:] 2 a. tAatfoj' [A^Aow^^Ai'!*']' Poetic. 

GIT. (6.) 
[Adw, Ato, -wis/i, A^s, Aj7, etc. ; infin. Kij^. 496. Doric] 
Aiyta, sat/, Af'^w, f Af^o, A«'A*7^ai (5t-((Ae7^a()i A*'x^t)»' ; ^^t. Af^*^ 

ffo^dj, Af'^o/xcj, A(A€{o/xai, all passive. For pf. act. tfpTjva is used 

(see'ilirov). 
Ai-yu), gather, arrange, count (Attic only in comp.), A^'^w, fAe^a, 

ttxoxa, <rAf7^o. or ktXty^at^ ikfxBr)v (raru) ; a. m, iXi^dti',)v, 2 a. p. 

iXf-ynv, (. kfyrjaofiat. [I'^p. 2 a.m. (^('7^')*') AfKTo, coun^erf.J Sce 

stem X<x-- 

AfCtrw (A*iir., AojTT-, Ai-TT-), leave, Affifw, XtXdfxfiai, i\*l<pdTii' \ 2 p. 
A/Aotjru; 2 a, ^AiTToj^, ^AinSfmt^, Sec synopsis in 47C, and intiecUou 
of 2 anr., 2 perf., and 2 pipf. in 48L (2.) 

[A«X£ii(iai, part, AfAt7j/**Vor, eager (Hom.).] 

Acvw, S(03ie, generally KaTa-Xcuw ; -Afww, -<'A(yaa, (ktvaB-qv (643), 
-Af KTdTjtro^ai. 

[(Xcx-) Stem (of. kfX'0^)> wlience2 a. m. {iktynr\v) Kktnro, laid him- 
self to rest, with imper. A«'|o (also kt^fo), inf. K-ara-A^xflai, pt. «aTa- 
At^^evos (600, 2). Also ("Af^a, lai</ to rest, with mid. k<'(o^ai, will 
go to rest, and ^ke^dutjf, went to rest, same forms Vr-itb tenses of 
Xf'7w, say, and A(7w, gather. Only epic] 



1692] CATAJ.OGUE OF VERBS- 391 

A^Bw, poetic : see KavOdvw. 

A^ttw i^v't^-), plunder, act rare, only impf. Ai^i'^oj'. Mid. Xi^tjo^ai 

(as act,), [I'ut. ATjJ<To^ai, aor. Mrjitra^TiJ', lou.]. Kurip. bas Ajjad- 

fiTjy, and pf. p. \t\r}afjLai. (4.) 
A£<r<rojiai or (rare) Xlrojxai (An-), supplicate [epic i\nrdnTjy^ 2 a. Ai- 

Td^TJi-.] (4.) 

[Aot«, epic for Aouw; AotVcrofta*, i\6fffffay (\0£a<Tap.riv.] 

Aovw or Xou), ?oa£;^, regular. lu Attic writers and Ildt. tbe pres. 

and imperf. generally have contracted forms of \6uj, as f\ov, Aoii- 

^f >', AoGtcj, Aoi;(r^Qif AoufKj'Os ("i^"). 
Awo, ;oo.<:c, sec synopsis and full iuilcction in 474 and 480. Horn, also 

^vw (ii) (471). [Epic 2 a. ni. fAvf^riv (aii pass.), Avto and aGto, Au^to ; 

pf. opt. AfAyro or \c\Vy70 (734).] 

M, 
Malvw i^ia^'-)^ madden^ a. *^r)ya, 2 pf. ^4^-nva, am mad, 2 a. p. ^^aVrjc. 

Mid. (Jia£vop,ai, i^e ?««(i [jua^oiVaj, ija-npdf^rjf^ juf^aVrj^at.] (4.) 
MaCoftaL (litter-, ^ittcn-, /to;-, 002), desii'C^ seek^ [^atro^oi, <Vot<rduT)t/; 2 pf. 
fitfiova (a***"), desire aaiicrly^ in snig., with ^i-forms ^t'naiov^ M*Va- 

fjLfv, fn'iJ.a,T(y fiffid^iffij fiffid.T<o, fif^jiawsy plpf. ^i*^aOQ.v, Also (^oomoO 

Doric COUti-act forms ^Hirai^ ^i^raj, ^wtro, ^wo6ai, ficu/iei'C^s.] Poettc, 

chiotiy epic. (4.) 
Mav9av« (^a^-), ZearJi, (t-) fiaS-nffonai, fitfiddrjxa ; 2 a. O'a^o"' (5.) 
Mapvajjiai (^iap-i/a-), Jighl (SMh}. ^dpvufiai^ imp. /idprno); a. «/*a/>»'d(TtJ7?»'. 

)'*outic. (III.) 

MopTTTw (^c/)ff-), ,<?C2>/;, MoV»l'(«'t ?'fiapif'0 [epic 2 pf. ntfia/jira^ 2 aor. fit flap- 
-Koy (r)3-:t), Witl) opt. ^f^Qjrouj', ^07r<rP.] Poetic, (3.) 

Mouro-w (At"7-), kncad^ fxa^w^ etc., regular ; 2 a. p. i^xd.'yi]v. (4.) 
Maxotiai [Ion. ^axfo^at]^fight^ i. fiaxovfiai [Hdt. ^aXffJonai^ Hom. >;£a- 
X^Ofiai or ^axw^MOi], p. fiffidxVf^ai, a, ffiaxi<rdfjL-nv [cp. also ifiaxv 

ffd^rfy ; Cp. pres. part. ^jLaxf^t^^vos or fioj5tfoi^f'**'05]. 
[MfSopLttL, rMnl' (*/, j)?rt7i, (<-) nfh-naofiai (rare). Epic] 
M(0-'tr]fii, K/'nd avmti ; sue irj^*. (810). [Hdt. pf. pt. ^e^cTi/t/t-os.] 
MtBvo-Kw (ntBv-), make drunk, iuf'Suca. Pass. fifSixTKOMah Oe viadc 

drunk, a. p. ^m* fluff 0t)»/, i»(;ca»(fi druvk. See p.<6v«. (6.) 
M<8vw, /)« drT/Jii, only pres. and impf. 
[MtipofAai (M«f>-)i obtain, epic, 2 pf. (I sing, ^li/^op* ;] inipcrs. etfiapraiy 

it isfalcd, flfjLapMfyn (^s snbst.), Fate. (4,) 
M^XXw, intend, angni. ^^- or -f?^- (r^I7) ; (<-) mAA71(tw, ifitWvaa. 
M^w, can.C(?*'«, cart? /(/r, (<-) fjuK-hcu [cp. ^i* Aiitro^aj, 2 p. jWfV»?A<j] ; 

^«Ai«Ai)Mai [ep. fAffiB\fTai^ /i«Vj3A€To, for ^(AiAfToi, n(fiKfTo (60, o)]; 

{ipL€\r}&Vi') (if^v^tii. Poetic. MA.€i, f£ concerns^ impcrs. ; ^*ATJ(T*t» 



392 APPENDIX. [1692 

ifiik-r\fft^ fiffi(\-()H€^ — used ill Attic prose, with hi^tkofiai and in^t 

M^jiova (^*fv~)^ desire^ 2 perf. with no present. See jiatojiai. 

Mc'vw, rtjnain^ f. fitvw [Ion. /i#f«'w], f/xfica (c-) ^tfityyjKa. 

Mtp\i.y\piloi (see 687 and 590), ponder, [^(p^i^pffw, ^^ep/x^pjfa], dir- 

ffxtpfi-hptaa (Ar.). Poetic. (4.) 
MtiSojiai, devise^ juiiaofiat, ifint^aM"' Poetic. 
Mi^Kaofiai (mt?'c-, /ia»c-, 050), blcat^ [Hoin. 2 a. part, fianufv ; 2 p. part. 

fitfiTjicwsy fjitfiaKv7a ; 2 pip. ifjii^riKov {111^ 4). J Chiefly epic. (2.) 
[Mi^Tidtu (liiiTi-, rt5<i), plan. Mid. p-i^riao^ai, (HiTiOfiai (Pind.), fx-qTtao- 

/lai, ^MT?Ti(raA*T?»'. Kpic and Jyric] 
MiaCvo (^laf-), SCai/ly ^lavw, i^lava [J Oil. ^^f-rji/a], fiffi(a<rfiai^ ifjuavOriVy 

fjiiai'6r](Tona\. (4.) 
MiYvv|ii (my-)-, Ionic lito-yw, »n^a;, ju^o), f^r^a, fiffiiyficii, i^ix^v^, mIx^V' 

ffOfxat ; 2 a. p. ^^f-yrji', [c^). flit,. /i(y)i(ro/ia( J 2 a. Ul. (/xikto aild /ir*fTO ; 
fut. pf. /t»/ti^o/iaj.J (II.) 
Mt|i.vti<rK« and (older) (ii|ivT)o-K<i» (^ifa-), remind; mid. remember; 

fivqaw^ inyrjffa^ fjitfiy-i^nai, remember^ ifi-yrjadrj^ (as mid.) ; nrrjad-heofAat^ 
fjiyrjaofiai^ fitfivrifro^Aai ; ifivijffdfjLijf (pOCt.). M^fivi^fiai (uiemilli) has 
Snbj. fxffjLfwpiaiy (722), opt. pitpivCfSfxrjy Or fjUfAvrj fir] v (734), \tf\p. fxffiVljao 
[Hdt. fJLt'nyio]^ inf. fitfiyijadaif pt, fitfivy\fjitvo$. OIG. (6.) 

[Prom epic /ifao/xai come i^vwovTo., fii'u6fJnvos., (?) etc. (784, 2).] 
MtfjLvw for Mi-Atfi'w (002, 1), remain^ poetic form of /ifVof. 
MCo-^tD forMi7-ffffw (017), mix^ pres. and impf. See (ityvviii. (6.) 
MiS^o), suc/i-, [Ion. fiv(tw., flor. -ifi6(i]aa (Horn.)]. 
Mv^w (a(u>-), f;rum6ie, mutter^ aor. f/^^^a. I'oetic. (4.) 
MvKaojiai (fiVK-y fivK-y 050), bellow^ [ep. 2 pf. fit^Zna; 2 a. /*i/^ov;] 

^AtuxTjo-aMTji/. Chiefly poetic. (2.) 
Mua-o-« or |j.vTTti> (fAu/(-)y wipe, a-rrct-^v^afxtyos (Ar.). Generally ano- 

fXVfftTO}. 

MiJw, shiit (the lips or eyes), aor. ffivaa, pf. p^ip-vKa. 

N. 

NaCti) (t^ay:-, vafi-^ vai-^ 602), swm, bc full, impf. vaToi', Od.9, 222. 
NaCw (i/ao-, va-^ 002), t/wciZ, [^cao-aa, caused to dwell, iva<T<rdfirjv, Came 

to dwell,] ivdadnv, was settled, dwelt. Poetic. (4.) 
Ndo-o-w (faS-, va7-), Stuff", [tva^n,'] vivafffxai Or f«Va7;iat. 582 ; 590. 

(4.) 
[N«tK^(» and v(ik«C«, chide, vtiKtao}, iytlK*<ra. Ionic, chiefly epic] 
N^p.0), distribute, f. yfnii, tvufjia, (<-) yfy*fi-nKa, vtvffxfifxai, ^PffiVdrjy ; 

ytfAovfiai, hnfidfji-r\y, 
N^o|iaL, go, come, also iu future sense. Chiefly poetic. See viwoy.au 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 393 

1. K^« ^_^'«L^-, fff-t i'y-), swim^ ^vfuaa^ y4vfVKa; f. ITI. {^vtvcovfiat^ 066) 
ytvcovfiivoi, 574. (2.) 

2. K«'«^ Aeap up, if^Tjcra, y(yr}fiai Or yeyjjcrfiai. [EpJC and loil. vrj^w, 
yr}i)<ra^ ^KTjTjffo^iji'.] 

3. N^w and v^0w, spiw, yi^troj, ^fij^a, ^v^eTjf ; [c]). a. ra. yri<Tayro.'] 
NCjw, later yiVrw, Horn, viVro/iai (i'iJ3-)» W^tj^'i) »'f4'W, Jf*'ii^o, vtytpLfidi, 

[-^v(<f>^Tjv ;] Wi^/o^noi, ^^'t^'d^Tji'. 591. (3. 4.) 
NCo-o-offcttt or vto-ojiat, go, fut. wVo^ai. Nf^o/ici, probably tlje correct 

form of the present, is, ace. to Meyer (§ 500), for ^'i-^or-i-a^at, from 

a stem vt(r. with reduplication. (See pres. vifft-rasy Find. Oi.3, 34.) 

Poetic. (4.) 
No^t», r^itt^, perceive^ voiitxw, etc., regular in Attic. [Ion. Uuaa, vtvuKa, 

y«vu>nai^ ^fw<Tci/nT]K.] 
NojiC^w (see 587), believe, fut. vo^ni [Ko^iffw late], aor. iy6}n<ja^ pf. 

vf*'(fft(fa, >'*;'(i^«rf(ai, Jior. J), ^yofxiaSr)!', fut. p. yojuiffBijaofiai, [f. IH. 

vo/iioi^^oi (Hippoc.).] (4.) 

n- 

g<«, scrape, [aor. ?^«<Ta and {*'<r<7-a, chie/iy epic], t^tanat. 039, 040. 
^i]paCvw {iripay-)^ dl'y, ^npafci, i^rjpdva [Ion. -T?*'a]i ^^'hpafffio.i and *{i^- 

paftAifti, ^^vpdyOijv. 700. (4.) 
gvu>, polish, ff urfa, [•ii^<T/4ai,] i^iJcreTif ; aor. m. ^^vaa^n*'. 640. 

0. 

*08oiroUw, T«afcc a way, regular ; but j^f. part, ufSovtironjfiffos occurs. 

So soinetinies with dhontoptu/, travel. 
(o8u-), be anyry, stem with only [lioni. w5vodfii}y, ffSciSurr/iat]. 
"Ojtw (o5-), sm«//, (*-) oCnffiJo, &C^iTa [Ion. oi,V(iru;, Cf^fcra, iate 2 pf. il5aj3a, 

Horn. pip. 6btiB(,(y)], 058, 3. (4.) 
OtY«, opfin, poetic or^w and (^^a [epic also fii'^a], a. p. part. olxO^ls. 

Oiyvv^ki, simple form late in active, [imp. p. wiyvvniiv Horn.], com- 

jnon in composition ; see ai'-o'tyvv^i. (11.) 
Oihita, swell, ^dvoay <j}ivxa. AltiO olSdvw. (5.) 
OtKxtpw {o'lKTip-), commonly wiittcn vln-rflpw, pity (o07), aor. t^K-ripa 

(tfKTtipa). (4.) 
Otvoxo^w, pour loine, olyoxovawt [olyoxorjffai (epic and lyric)]. [Inipf. 

ep. 3 pers. oiVop^dei, (fVox^i") ifyox^^*'^ 
Otojiai, think (625), in prose generally ol/j,ai and tf nrji^ in 1 per. sing. ; 

(€-) otriaofiai, ifr)B7}i: [Ep. act. ofto (only 1 sing.), often otw ; bfo/^at^ 

oiaafirjv, u>io6-ny.'] 
OtX0|Lav, be gone, («-) Oi'xVo^at, otxc^fa or (/f^wfo (059); [Ion. oYxv/j^t^i 

or vx^i/**'! doubtful in Attic]. 
*Ok^XXw (o»f<\-), run ashore, aor. 6K<iAa. Piose form of KtWw, (4.) 



394 APPENDIX. [1602 

'OXio-Bdvw, rarely b\nT6a(pw (ohiaS-), slip, [ron. wA.i'(t^7]o-c, wAtaeijKa] • 

2 a. &\icSoy (poetic). (5.) 
"OXXvp-i (probably for oK-yu-^n^ 01*2), rarely 6\\vu (oA-), dctiiroy, Jo8e, 

f. oAai [oAfCCi), (jAfw], dSAfCfl, -oActfAf*ra ,* 2 p. yAicAo, pei'is/i, 2 pipf. 

-wAwAtj (033). Mill. uAAffiai, pcvisk, 6\ov^ialy 2 a, u)Ad/.i»)v [w. ep, 
part. oyAo^/tfcos], 111 pj'ose dir-oXXvjit. (II. ) 
*OXo(|>0po^at (^()\o(pvp-)y bewaily f. oAo^u/jou^at, <l\o(pvpd^rit'^ part. oAo- 
<;>L'pafi5 ('J'liue.). (4.) 

'OjlVViJll ami &^VIPU) (o/i-, rt;tO-, Or>9), SXCC<(r, f. rVoC^ai, &>iO<ra, OMw^rtfta, 
opjiw^off^'Xi (with (j^tu^uuTci), (i/jo'tfTjf and t^^6a6i]v \ 6fxocrOr]aofiai^ u. m. 
Lj^oaa/ijj^. (II.) 

Cliicfty ppctic: only epic in pros, and iiupf. (II.) 
*Ovtvi))it (om-, 700), hc.upfiiy ou-hcuy (£f>j(j'a, wfi^f^Tjf; oKi'jao^tat ; 2 a. in. 

w^Ti^iTjf (late wydjUT)!'), opai/iiji', o^'aff^ci (798; 803, 3), [lloiii. inipc.r. 

vPi}ffo^ pt. Ofi'ifxfr'os^- (I.) 
f'Ovojiai, iufiuU, inflectOLl like 5i5o^ai, witli opt. iifono (Iloni.), f. 

(jvdaaonai^ a. uuvcdnvv {Cvva-ro, //. 17,25), a. p. naT'Ovoadris (lldt.). 

Ionic and poetic:.] (I.) 

lli))l>{H;.] 700. Ill Attic prose only ill compos. (4.) 
'Oirviiw (oTTi/-, oTryi-, 002), m/Je ^o ^cifc, fnt. oirtaoj (Ar). (4.) 
'Opdw (tJ/'a-, OTT-'), Se^, impf'i'f, itaptav [lOll, oipa,'c], o^l'y/xai, fo^awa or 

(wpana, ilfx^ai Or ^wpa^iat, itifpBr)v^ 6<p6r\aoixai'y 2 p. ontuTra (lOll. and 

poei.). lor 2 a. elboi^ etc., soo ttSov. [Uoin. pros. mid. 2 sing. 

o,,j)ai, 784, 3.J (8.) 
'Op-yaCv^ (Jp'/a;-), Ac unt/r'/, aor. fiip^dva, enraged. Only in Tragedy. 

(4.) 
'Opt^w, rcrtc/i, o/jf^ti>, fipf^a, [Ion. pf. ii. 6^*7^101, Honi. 3 piur, dpu>p*- 

XQTOi, ijllJ. dpajpf'xoTo,] d)p«';;(;5T)i' ; dpf^Ofiai, ufp€^ap.r}V' [I'^piC vptypvfjn, 

pr. pnrt. optyuis. (II.) J 
"Opvvjxi (op-), rca".<^(?, ruiisn, uprrw, (Jpcro, 2 p. upoupa (as mid.) ; [e]). 2 a. 

&popOf.] Mid. 7 lie, rufth, [f. opo i^Mai, p. opwpfM«'i] 2 a. C}p6^i-i)u [with 

(iopro, iniper. ^pac, opato^ Cp<T(v, inf. Jp^oi, pari, tip/jfi'os]. IN^eiic. (II) 
'Opiuo-o-w or opvTTu) ((/pLi^-), (i?'^, opi'^oj, iJpi/^a, op:;ipyxa (lart), opui- 

piy^^ai (rarely Sipvy^iai)^ i^pvx&ri^' \ (• p- tcaT-opvxO'hf^Of^ai^ 2 f. ^qt- 

opyxTJco.uai ; [wpy^uVilt'i CaKS^(i ft> (il{/, lldt.] (4.) 
'0(r4>paCvojxai (^oatpp-y dtr^poi'-, 010), sriicll, (t-) untppvaopLai, w(T(f>pdvdr}v 

(rare), 2 a. m. oj(T<pp6fir\t-; [lldt. &<rt^,payTi?.] (5. 4.) 
Ovpc'u), inipf. ^o)'p*^y»'i f. oop-haotkai, a. iovpriaa-t pf. ^oypTjwa. [loiiic lias 

oiip- for Attic tofp-.] 
[OirdSw (587). looxind^ ovrdtrw, oOracra, o6Taap.ai. Chiefly epic] (4.) 



1C&2] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 305 

[OvtAw, woundj oCfrTjffa, ovTvByjv ; 2 a. 3 sing, oura, inf. ovidfjifvai and 
ovrdfitv ] 2 a. mid. ouTcijUf fos as pass. Kpic] 

*04>ttXti> (6<pf\-y 5<J8), [epic reg. o^*aAw], owe, (c-) o^«i\:i<Tw, i(^<i'AT)cro, 
(fa)(pa'\T].fa ?) a. p. pi. o(pci\n^(i$ (C58, 3); 2 a. fifpeAo;/, used in wishes 
()512), Ochat. (4.) 

*04»AX.ti> (o(pfX-), increase^ [aor. opt. o<pfX\tit Horn.] Poetic, espe- 
cially epic. (4.) 

*04»Xi(rKAv« (o0A-, 6(p\iaK-), be guilty, incur (a penalty), (€-) o^A^<Tat, 
d3<fiAT](ra (':*), ^(pATjwa, diipATj^ai j 2 a. cc^Aoc {o<p\t(y and ^^Awc are 
said by grammarians to be Attic forms of inf. aiid pari.). (6. 5.) 

n. 

JXa.i.tfii (fl-aiS-, ffoi7-), sporty irai^oOfiai (GCC), fjranja^ VfftaiKa, Tfvaiff^ai. 

bi)0. (4.) 
ITaCci), strike, traiaw^ poetic (€-) irair}ao>^ tnanjaf ir*VaiKa, firaiaBrjv (G40). 
ITaXafw, wrestle, [n-aAaiVw,] iiraKaiaa, fVaAafnflT/v (040). 
ITAXXw (iraA-), brandish, trrj^Oi irfwaXfiai ; [lioin. 2 a. d/i-reraAw»', as 

if from TTfTTaKov ; 2 a. m. «7raAT0 and a-ciAto.] (4.) 
ITapttvopia), transgress law, angm. 'irap(y6fiouv and TrapTi»'(i;*OL'v, irapo- 

v*i'(i/;i^*fa (543). 

Ilapoiviw, insult (as a dritnken mayi), imp, inapifyow ; ivap^fif-naa, 
ir«5rapv'cT]Ka, fl■apl■^r^i^9^^' (544). 

Tlouro^ai, fut. i7ia// acquire (no prcs.), pf. irf'ira^ai, firdadfi-nv. Poetic. 
Not to be confounded with vdffofiai^ iiratrdfirjv, etc. (with d) of 

ndo-o-w or irdTTw (582 ; 587), sprinkle, vdau), Ifvafra, ivdaSvV' Chiefly 

poetic. (4.) 
nd(rx« (irafl-, 7^e^5-), for vad-aKui (017), sufer, irttaofiai (lOY rffB-nofiaiy 

70), 2 pf. TTfiroyda. [Horn. TTfTroa-Se (oF irtirSt^daTt, and w€ira$v'ia'] ; 2 a. 

Kiradov. (8.) 
naWofiai (n-ar-), eai^ f. -n-a/rofrai (?), ivaad^nv ', [ep. pip. fl-(ircur>*T)v.] 

<)55. Ionic and poetic. See iracro}j.tti. 

Ilavw, stop, cause to cease, -navct,}, erraixra, ireVauKa, Tr*iraUMaf, ^7raO0T)^ 
\_itrai.\ta9r)v Hdt,.], irai/S-^troAiai, ir^irawo-OMOi- Mid. iravofiLai,, CCOSC, 

n«t9(i) (-rreiG-, Ti0-), persuade, irttcat, fTTdtra, wfVciKo, Tr^Vcicr/iai, ^iref- 
tr^r;*' (71), TT€ia$i}ffo^ai ] fut. m. irefo-o^ai ", 2 p. irfTOiOa, trust, W. 
imper. vfirnaei (periiaps for vf'inffet), A. Eu. 5f>9, [Horn. pip. iirf- 
TTid^jifv for iTr(iTo{$€nfy;'\ poet. 2 a. fmSov and iiridS^Tiv. [Epic (i-) 
Titfi1o-a», 7reffi^T)(Ta», fl-(^if](rar-] (2.) 

[IltiKw, epic pres. = irf^r/o), comi).] 

n<tvA«, hunger, regular, except in -n for a in contract forms, inf. 
vtiV7}y [epic 7r*(»'i7,u<i'ai], etc. See 406. 



396 APPENDIX. [1692 

Ilctpw (Trcp-)i pierce, epic in pres. ; ineipa^ ir«Vap>tai, \_iTdprjy Hdt.] 

loiiie aud poetic. (4.) 
IIckWcd (»♦«-, 7r#KT-, 655), [Dor. f. jrt^w, a. tve^a (Theoc.)i ep. int^^. 

^Tji/J; a. p. *'ir<x^i7»'. f>ee epic ttcCkw. Poetic. 
n(Xdi;w (of, ir<'Aay, wear; see 587), [poet. ircXAw (irtAa-, irXa-),] 6nHf; 

Jiear, approach^ f. TfAturuj, Alt. TfAw (Clio, 2), ^jr«Aa(ra, [wfVATj^i,] 

iir€\aaBT}v and iirXadrju ; [(V«Aao-o/x)j^ ; 2. a, m. iiikhfj^r\vy approached.'] 

[Also poetic presents 7r«Aa0w, irAdifla), T^^A^'0>^a^.] (4.) 

n^« and ir^ofiat, i^, imp. fn-fAoc, iirf\6fir)v [syiicop. ^n-At, fjfKto 

(("irAfy), *7rAtT0, for firfAe CtC. ; 60 iin-irK6fx*vo% aad TrfpcirAd/if ^oij. 

Poetic. 

n^jliru, 5€Kd, irfV^"*), «TrtM>^a, 7r/iro^<^a (643 ; 693), ir«wtfifiat (77 ; 490,1), 

TTeiraCvw (Trtirav)^ make softy ^I^«'7^a^'a(673), ^fl-«ira*'07ii', Treira*'^i]<TO/iai. (4.) 
[IXcn-aptLV, show, 2 aor. inf. in Pind. Py.2, 57.J 
n^trpwrat, it is fated: see stem (irop-, irpo-). 

II«p8ofiai, Lat. _pedO, 2 fut. (pass.?) irapB-naofxaiy 2 p. ir«7rop5a, 2 a. firapio^. 

See G43 and G40, 
n«p0w, destroy, sack, yrtpaw [irfpaoMai (as pass.) Horn.], fvtpaa, [ep. 2 
a. ftrpadot^ (C4C), m. ^Trpaed/iTjp (as pass.) witli iuf. irtpOai for -rrtpe-eai.] 
l\^etic. 

n^pvTlfJll (7rfp-;'a-), ScZZ, mid. ir('pi>afiai : poetiC for TriirpdcKu. 600, (IH.) 
IIfor<r« or irtTTW, later ir«'»rTW (ir**--)! COOA;, irf't^o), Cirfifa, trfirtfifiai (75; 

400, 1), ^Tf>0Tj^.. See 583. (4.) 
n«TAvvujit (TTfTtt-), e'xpand, (n-tTtw-w) ir«Tw, «V(Ta(ra, irfitrafjiai, l^vart- 

ra<rp.ai latC], iviTdo:6r)v. See irtTVi^jil. (II.) ^ 

n^TOfJiat (7r«T-, TrT-)yJly (t-), Tm^^rofiai (poet. irfT^croMaO ; 2 a. ra. ^irrd- 

^Tji-. To tirrafiat (rare) belong [2 a. *Vtt;c (poet.)] and fTrTdnr}v 
(700). The forms irfirdTTjMai and iwor-ndTjy [Dor. -a/xai, -a07J^'] belong 

to Tryrao^aj. 
n<v0OH.ai (True-) : see irvvBctvotiai. (2.) 
XlTj^vvm. (TrTj7-, Ti-a7-),/a>£eu, tttj^w, «Tr»74a, ^ti^x^t/v (rare and poet.); 

2 a. p. iirayrjy, 2 f. p. irayr)(TO/^ai ; 2 p. irtinjya, ht fixtd ; [ep. 2 a. m. 

KaT^iTt)iCTo ;] TTiv^-uTo (PUt.) pv. opt. fof Tn\yvv-i-TO (734) ; [iTTiio- 

/la/, ^JT 77^0/1 J? v.] (2. II.) 
ITialvw (jTiat"), fatten, iriavw, iv\ava, irtirlaafiaii l^^iridydrjp']. Chiefly 

poetic and Ionic. (4.) 
[ntXvap.at (TTiA-t-a-). approach, only in pres. and impf. 609. Epic] 

See ircXdj;«. (III.) 

nCp.irXT]p.i (fl-Aa-), fill, TT\rj(Ttic, %ir\r)(Ta, Tr*VATjwa, itfwXrjffnai^ iirXrjffBrjVf 
irATjcr^Tjffo/ioi ; a. m. iTTKrjadfiTjv (trans.) ; 2 a. m. irKrifirty (798), 
chiefly epic, with *V-cVa*jto, opt, ^>i--TrATf>ir)v, ^/i-irXpro, Imp, ^M"""^1^<^j 
pi. ifi-irXiififyos^ in Aristoph. 795. (I.) 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 397 

Htjiirpiiffci (■irpa-)^ burUf irprjaw^ fir prjaa^ 7r*V/)7j^at and [ir/7rp7)(r^iat Hdt.], 
^npij^xSiJi' ; [Ion. t Jrpjj^TOfiai, fut. pf. Tr€ wptj <fo fiat. ] 795. Cf. x/>j/5ar, 

blow. (I.) 
IIiKvo-Kw (iri»'v-), maAe wise, [Horn. aor. ^7r^>'i/<r<raJ. Poetic. See 

irviia. (6.) 
Iltvfa) (fi-, wo), drillk, fut. TTi'o^oi (TTiovftof rare) ; irfVoiKa, irfVo/iOi, 

iir6dy\Vt 7ro0TjooMai ; 2 a. fTriov. (5. 8.) 
[ITiirC<rKw (in-), (/ire to drink^ iriffw, t'-Fr:<ra.] Ionic and poetic. See 

irtvo). (6.) 
IIiirpa<rK« (^irtpa-, irpa-), se/^, [ep. irtpoffuff iiTfpacay'] irfVpaK-a, vfirpdfiai 

[Horn. Tr«Tr<pT)^fVos], ^Trpeiflt)i' [Ion. -7)^101, -7)8^v] ; fut. pf. irfnpdaofAau 

The Attic uses ijro5tt>(ro^a( and air<5<^AtT)*' in fut. and aor. (6.) 

ntirrw (t^t-, ttt-o-, 659) for Trt-TreT-w, /a^Z, f. 7r«<roCMOi [lon. irtfftOfiai'] ; 

p. TfTTTWica, 2 p. part. TTfirruSj [ep. TTfirrijiiFf, Or -<a^f} ,* 2 a. /wtffoy 

[Dor. /TrfToy, reg.]. 
[n^TVTint (irtT-va-), spread, pres. and impf. act. and mid, 609. Epic 

and lyric. See ircravKvpi. ] (HI.) 
IKtvw, poetic for irfirrw. 
[nXdt« (TAorrOi c^^se t» wat^der^ fvXayla. Pass, and mid. irXdJonai, 

wander, n\dy^ofiai, will wander, /irAa>x^'J*'T wandered.] Ionic and 

poetic. (4.) 
nXd<r<rti) (sec 582 ; 587), form, [irXdcra) loil.], <VAaa-a, Tr*irXa<rfjiatj 

iirKdad-nv \ ^wAaffd/irjv. (4.) 
XlXUoi, plait, knit, [irAffo-,] /irXf^a, [n-tirXtxa or Trtir\ox<i lon.J, irfwXty- 

na.1, itrXix'^^^-i fl"A*;(;5ii(rofia( ; 2 a. p. VirAawT)*'; a. m. ^rAtfa^iTj*'. 
UX^o) (irAtt-, vX«f-y irAt/-), 5aiV, jrAtftJ(rofiai or irXfutrovf^ai, /vXfvffa, 

TTtiTXfVKa, irtirXtuff/Aai, iii\(.vaBr}y (later). 674, 641. [Ion. and poet 

irXttfW, irAwtroMOf, /TrAtcira, xfirXcaKa, ep. 2 aOr, ♦'irAu>»'.] (2.) 
nXiQ<r<r« or irXViTTW (irXrjy-, TAa>-, 31), strike, itXtJ^w, ^jtAtj^c, irtifKny- 

f^ai, inKijx&riv (rare); 2 p. irt'irXvya ; 2 a. p. ^tA^^ti*', in comp. 

-itrKdyyjy (713) ; 2 f. pass. rArj^iitro^ai and -n-KayiitropLai ; fut. pf. 

ir*TrA:i|0Axaj ; [ep. 2 a. irtvKijyov (or ^t*tA-), 7r«ffAi77'<JjU77»' J lon. a. Ul. 

^irATj^aV^jv.] (2. 4.) 
HXvvw (irAui'-), wash, TcKvPu, tvKvya, TT^irXvjxai, ^irAudll*' ; [fut. m. (aS 

pass.) i>c~v\vyoZuat, a. ^TrADvoMfli'.] 647. (4.) 

nx««, Ionic and poetic : see vXiu. 

Xlvioi {irvto-, ffvtf-, irfu-), hteathe, blow, Trytvaonat and 'wvfvfxov^fxi, 
i'jrytvaa, TTtirvfUKa, [epiC Tr€Trvvfiai, be WiSe, pt. irfwyv^fvo^, wise, 
plpf, TTtirvvao ; late iirvtvad-nv, Horn. a/i-n-niveTiv.] For epic S/i-irw* 
etc., Bee &va-irv^« and ajt-irwc. See irivvo-Kw. (2.) 

nvt-YW {ici'ly', vv'iy-), choke, vvtita [later ir^f^o^ai, Dor. wyl^ayMa*], 
ttifi^a, iritrvlyfi-at, ivviynv, •tryiyi)(rofi.t)LU 

TLoHta, desire, woBija-fu, voBrjaofiai, iir6Bri(ra] and woBfaofJtai^ ^ir(Jfic<rcu 
639 (6). 



398 AITKNDIX. 

IIov^«i lahor^ -novqffw etc., regular, [Ionic itoviau> and ^Wt'Cffu 

Criippoc.).] 039 (b). 
(irop-, irpo-), give^ allots fiteni wlience 2 a. fnopov (poet.), p. p. v^wpt^ 

>iaii chiefly inipers., ir^irpwra^ i£ is fated (witli irtn-pw/i^v?;, Fa^e). 

See TTtirttptCv. Compare jwCpojitti. Poetic except in perf. part. 
npd(r<rw or irpdrroj (Tpa7-), (2(9, irpd^w^ (vpa^a^ Tr^-rrpaxa, 'T^-rrpay/xat^ 

i-rrpdx.S-r}"^ irpax^^<^op.ai ; fuL pf. weir pet ^OfJLai ; 2 p. 7r^irpa7a, /iaue 

/ared (well or i7Z) ; mid. f. Trpa^o/iai, a. Hpci^dixrjy. [louic TTprio-o-t* 

(Trp7j7-), irptj^w, ^irpyj^a^ iriirp-qxa^ v^npj)ffxai^ ^fl-p^X^'/*'i T^n-yoi^a ; 

TrpjJ^OMat, ^TrpTjIciMij*'.] (4.) 
(irpia-), ^^Vi Stem, witli only 2 aor. iirpidpLtjv^ influcted tlirougliout in 

500 ; see eynopsis in 504. 
I7pto>, saw^ (TTp'iaa^ Tritrp'ifffiai^ ivpiadriv. 040. 
npoi<r(ropi,ai s(7rpoiV-), 6cf7, ojiee in Avcliil. (compare irpor^a, gratis^ ; 

fut. only m KaTa-Trpof^o/iat (Ar.) [Ion. Kara-irpoiiiOpLai']. (4.) 
Urapw^ai (Trrap-), sneeze ' [f. TrrapLD ;J 2 aor. trTo.poy^ \_iinapb^j.r)v'\^ 

{iirT6.pr)v^ irrapils. (II.) 
XIttjo-o-w (ttttjk-, TTTafc--), cower, ^TTT-fj^a, tiTTTjxa. From stem irrax-, 

poet. 2 a. (('TrTa^foi') ffaTaTTTafc-wj/. [From stem Txa-, ep. 2 a. 

xaTaTTT^TTjv, dual ; 2 pf. pt. irfTTTTjtJs.] Poetic also TrTuo-o-w. (4. 2.) 
IItCo-o-w, j50U?l(i, [(TTTttra], t7rTi(r>Aa(, late iirrlcdT)v, (4.) 
IlTC(ro-« (irTLr7-), /0?d, TTTiJ^a), tirru^a, ^7rTi;7/iai, ^tttijx^'J*' ; -n-Ttj^oAUH, 

iirTVk.<ipiriv. (4.) 
JIt^w, .'f;>27i [iTTi^jra;, irTvcrofiaiy iTrTCffOijv, Ilippoc], a. fwrvca. 
Ilvvflttvojiai {ttuO')^ kear^ enquire, fut. ir^uco^ai [Dor. TreucroO^tat], pf. 

TT^wiJcrMat ; 2 a. ^tt 1166^7?!' [w. Horn. opt. irarvdoiTo'}. (5.) Poetic 

also irtvdopLat {TTiuO-^ iruff-). (2.) 

P. 

'PaCvw (pa-, paF-), sprinkle, pavtj, tppava, (^ppdv$->)v) ^avd^li. [From 

stem pa- (ef. ySaUw), ep. aor. tpajo-a, pf, p. (*ppa<r^ai) (pparrai 

Ae.sehyl., ep. ^ppdSarai, plpf. ^ppdSaro, 777, 3.] See 010. Ionic 

and poetic. (5. 4.) 
[*Pa(w, s/n'/te, /ia/o-w, rppaio-a,] ippaladTju ; [fut, ni, (as pass.) )ia/ffOMat.J 

Poetic, chiefly r-pic. 
'PdiTTW (pa(^-), stitch, pdi^w, eppai^a, <tppap.fiai ; 2 a. p, ippd<t>-nv \ a. m. 

^ppa-^pdfnjv. (3.) 
TAo-o-uj (pa7-), = dpdtTjuj, tArow doro;i, pdfw, ^ppa^a, ippdxOn^- Sec 

dpdo-o-u}. (4.) 
'P^t« (y^P«7- for yrfp7-, G49), c?o, p^fu, ("pe^a ; [Ion. a. p. p€xOflVy ^exSeii-] 

See (EpSw. (4.) 
'Pf« (p«f-, pe/r -, i>v-)^JloiOy p(.voup.ai^ tpp€V<xa (rare in Attic), (<-) ippvrjKa ; 

2 a. p. ippv-qv^ ^v-^aopiai. 674. (2.) 



1692J CATALUGUK OF VKKBS. 399 

(p<-), stem of dp7}Ka, etprffxai^ ipp-^dT^v {fpp^Ov^)i }>^d7}ffOfjM.i^ flp-/j<TOjj.at. 

See (lirov. 
TViYfVHt (fpvy-<> hl')> break; prj^io^ epp^jfa, [fppTjyf^ai rare, ippvxffv 

rare ;J 2 a. p. ippdyrjv ; pay-fjaop-ai ; 2 p. fppurya, be broken (080) ; 

[pV^Ofxai,] (pp^]^d^JL^]y. (2. II.) 

'Pi7«« (p(70i shudder, [ep. f. ^t7T)(ra),] a. ^ppiyrjaa, [2 p. ("ppiYa (as 

pres.)] Poetic, chietiy epic, (i55. 
'Pi-yow, skiver, ^lyuxro), ippiyioffa. ; pn^s. subj. pt7(i5 for ^170?, opt. ^iT't^Tj^ 

mi. plyCjy and plyovy : see 497. 
'PiirTO) (pr^-, ^r0-)i thvow^ pi^^y «pp(i/'a (poet. (pi\l^a), tppi^a, (ppifxfxai^ 

(ppt4>drjy^ ^i<pOriaofiai ; 2 a. p. ippl<pT}v. l-*reiJ. al^iO piirWw (005). (3.) 
'Puofiat [epic al.so pvofjiav], (Ir/cnid, /iuroptai, ippvadfxr^v. [ICpic ;wi-fonns : 

inf. /iCcrd'at for pvfcrOai ; iitipf. o pei'S. ^ppiro and pi. p6aTo.] Cliicfiy 

poetic. .Sec ipiuw. 
'Puirdu, he, foul, [epic pinrou ; loil. pf. pt- ptpvTr(j>pivo^']. 
'Pwvvtifit (pw-), slreu'jUu'Jl, tppuaa^ tppu^iai (ii]ii)er. tppuxrOf farewell)^ 

ippil)aOT)v, (II.) 



2ttiv« (crav-), /aiyu OU, aor. ItaYjva [Dor. ^cram]. J*oetic. 595. (4.) 
Satpti) {ca.p-), sweep, aor. {(arjpa) pt. a-^pd? ; 2 p. a^ff-qpa, (jvin, esp. in 

part. ccarjpu}<i [l)ur. o-faapws.] (4.) 
2aXiriJft> (<Ta?i7r,7'y-), soVHiI u trumpet, aur, fcraXT^y^a. (4.) 
[Sa6w, >'a!,'C, pies, rare and jioct., o-awcrw, <ja<J}aop.ai, ^adwaay icaibBriv ; 

2 aor. 3 sing, adw (fnr hdui), inipcnat. odw, a-s if fi'oni Aeol. adw^m. 

For ei)ic ad(f»s, ad(^, see <r«^w. I'-pic] 
2dTTti> (cra7-), pack, load, [ioii. trdcro-cij, aor. (tra^a,] p. p. cr^cray fxai. (4.) 
2p<vvujii (ai^f-), cxtiufjuiah, a(3(<rw, tafieaa, t(T(i7}Ka, [fa(:i«T/j.ai,'] io^i- 

cOt)v \ 2 a. fc(iT)v (80;J, I), wtnt ont, w. inf. cr/'j^t-au [pi. dno-a^eU 

riipiKiC.j; f. in. <jfJr}(TOfJiai, (II.) 

2«pw, ?'cy/;)'e, aor. p. (o^tpStjy, w. part. c(4>d(i';, nwc-struck. 

2<Cft>, f<hakt'., odcfj, fCfiaa, c^a-dKa, cianapjon, icrdai^-nv (0-10) ; a. m. 

^ffttcrdjLiTjv. 
[2*iuu> (/Tfi;-, trtJ-), ?/i^>?v,', ^fr//^, a. (a(T(va, ^aafva^-nf ; ((Tcrv^ai, ^(t<tvOi)v 

(Sopli.) or iffuOrji; 2 a. ni. iaavprjv (with «jt/ro, cri)To, at^M^fot).] 

Tile Attic poets iiavc [atGrat], (roO^rai, covaUi (ind. and imper.), 

(ToO, ffoyo-^w. 574. I'oetie. (2.) 
ST])JLaCwu ((TTj/ia;''), show, crr)(xa.pCi, ic-nfjii)va. (sometimes i<ji}pQ.va'), crfa^- 

/iacTMCK, ^(TTj/idf^Tjv, o->7/ia»'(^^crojtAai ; luid. ar^y^apovixai, iay}ti.rivd^i)v. (4.) 
^T^TTto) {ar]TT-, cixTT-), vot, <Ti/]\p(i}, 2 p. <j^<Ti)va (as pres.) ; (r^(T■)J^^^c2c 

(Ari.stOl.), 2 a. J). ^'crdTrr/^, f. canricoixai. (2.) 

2ivo}iai (o-it"), injure, [aor. ^jifdfxrjy Ion.]. 597. (4.) 

SKairra* (axa*^-), d/^, OKd^w^ tana^^a^ *crxa0a, (crKajuMa*) ^""'cd^T/v. (3.) 



400 APPENDIX. [16&2 

2ic<5<ivvtJfii (<rK(Sa-)f SCatla\ f. ffK€lu> [(r/rf5d<ru),] iffniSaffo., icKihatj^i 
w. part. ioK^haa^ivo'iy i(jKf,h6.ff6yiv\ ^<7K(5aadfirjf. (II.) 

Sk^XXw (cTACfX-, <tk\(-), dry vp, [Horn. a. tVxijXa, lou. pf. tcr^cXijxa] ; 2 
a. (i'axXijf) diro-ffKX^i'at (7iHt), Ar. (4.) 

SK^irTOpLtti (cThfjr-), t?i(;w, <rtc{\po^iai^ ^<TX€tf'dfiijv^ tffKCfifun^ fuL. pf. ^tr/r^. 
^o^at, [f'(r((^0^>jf, Ion.]. For pres. and inipf. tlie better Attic 
writers use affojrw, cr^coirou/nat, ete. (see <rKOirfw). (3.) 

2KT|irT« ((TKTjTT-), prop, (TK^^u), tcTKij^a, (ffK-q^fxai, ^axTJ^^Tji' ; <r*c^^o/i«t, 
(<TK1J^dp.^V. (3.) 

2k(5viiplv ((TKiS-j'a-), mid. (TKiS^-a/naf, scrtiicr, also «i5ci7Ati: cliiefly poetic 

for <rK<5ttvvvjii. (III.) 
SKoirtw, Uicw, in better Attic writers only pres. and iiiipf. act. and mid. 

For tlic otliiir tenses ow*'i^u;uai, ^(TKt4>dfj.r]Vy and *<TKt^/Aai of oKt-mofiai 

arc used. See a-Kirero^at,. 
Skwtttw (okwtt-), jec)\ (^uw^Ofxai^ ea^wtl'tt, ^otf<tf^0Tjv. (3.) 
SpLdw, snip.ar^ with tj for « in contracted forms {4Ui)), v^^ for a/ua, 

etc.; [a. m. hfx-naafxTiv JIdt.J. [Ion. ofxiw and (Tfi-hx'^^i <^<^r. p. 5m- 

(t^tix^Wj (Aristopli.). 
Sirdw, drato, aFraaw (a), eo-iraaa, eo-TroK-a, *(T7^ac^^la^, ^(nraff^Tj^', (TTrafffli^cra- 

2Tr«ip« ((TTrep-), SO?(i, avtpw^ tavtipo., tanapfxai I 2 a. p. ia-ndpy\v. (4.) 
2ir<v5w, 7)CJW llhatiOHy airtioco (for (TTrO'S-cru, 79), imrnoa^ taTT(iCfj.ai, 

(see 490, 3) ; airt'iaofjiaij iffTrfiadny}v. 
2tA^w (<^T07-), drop^ [oTo^w,] ffTTo^a, [("ffTaY^ot, ^(rTa;!;^:?^.] (4.) 
2T«(pa) (<TT(i/i-, (TT<^-)' ^'^af^ *VTff(fa, (*-) ioTi&vfxai (042, 2; 058, 2). 

Poetic, (2.) 
SxtCx" (ffTtfix-, ffTtx-)> ff^i [♦"cTT^.^n, 2 a. tarixoc] Poetic and 

Ionic. (2.) 

2tAX« (cTT^A-), 5/?JfJ, <rT*Aa» [aTfAfu-], *crT<iAa, ("oTaAxa, f rrraApai ; 

2 a. p. iaTd\T)v ; (rTaA77(To/xa( ; a. m. ^aTtiAo^Tj*'. 645. (4.) 
ST<vdtw ((TTf^-aY-), groarii (TT*i/a^w, (VrtVa^a. (4.) 
SrtpYw, /ore, crr/p^w, fVTfp^a ; 2 pf. ("cTTopYa (04-3). 
2t<p<w, deprive, (Tr<p^<jco^ ^<rT('pij<ra [epic ^irrtpfaa'}, ioTt'pvxoy fffTtpri/xi^i, 

(anpridriu^ aTtprjdria-ifiai \ 2 aor. p. (fffTtpv) P^l-rt. <tt*p(U^ 2 fut. 

(pass, or raid.) (TTfpirTo^ji. Also pres. o-T«p(<rK«. (6) Pres. <rW- 

popLttt, be in want. 
[(Srtvfxai), pledge one^if self; 3 pcrs. prcsi. artOrai, inipf. trTtiJTff. 

Poetic, cliiefly epic] (I.) 
^tC^w (<TT.7-), prick, OTi'^w, [^ari^a Ildt.], foTi>/xai. (4.) 
SripvvpLi ((TTop-), («-} (TTopu (aroptVw}, iaT6ptua^ [^<rTopeV^>)t'J, ifftopv 

ffdnyjy. (II.) 



im] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 401 

Xrpi^iiiy turrit arpf^ia^ tarpt^a^ ifffTpa^fiat, 4<7Tp€<f>6nv (rare in prose) 

[Ion. f(rrpiip6j}f1 ; 2 pf. tarpo^a (late) ; 2 a. p. ^aTpd(^i]v, f. crpa<pi}- 
ffofiai ; mid. arpi^Ofiai^ itirpt^a^irji'. 040. 
STpwvviJp.t (cTTpoj-), same as o-T6pvV}ii ; (TTpwaw, (arpwaa^ ta-rpwfiaiy 
iarpwdr}v. (H.) 

2tvy^« (<rrt;>-, Go4), dreadj hate^ fut. aTvy^oo^at (as pass.), a. ^(ttu- 

7T)(ra [ep. foTu^a, mat^e terrible^ Ion. pf. /o-riJyjj'fa], a. p. i<xrvyri6riv \ 

[ep. 2 a. fcTTuyov.] louic and poetic. 
{7.rv^tkiliiA{(Trvipf\iy-)^ dank, :ioi\ farvtpfKi^a. loiiic, clilefly epic,] (4.) 
Svp« {aup-)^ draw^ anr. taupa, fffvpdfitjy. (4.) 
S<^d15<i) ((T?)a')'-)T .siay, Att. ])rose gen. <r^rr(a; (r4>a{w, tctpa^ay f^ipay- 

fjiai, [_f(T<pdxB^v (rare)J ; 2 aor. p. iaif>dyj)v, fut. atpayriao^ai\ aor. mid. 

/ff<^a^afii7K. (4.) 
24>aXX« ((r<^aA-), trip, deceiVGy <T(paXw^ fa<pn\a, (tr<pa\fiai ; 2 a. p. ^ff(pd' 

\T}f^ f, p. a(f>aKy}(rofi.at i fut. in. (T^aAoD>ioi (rare). (4,) 
2<(>(tTT« : see a-^alo. 
2x4t<«» (Ste 5B7), crxanw, faxafra, ^axao'aVil*' ; [lou. ^(rxaVffTjc. j From 

pres. ffxaw, imp. ((Tx<^f (Ar.). (4.) 
2tt»5«, later o-dija), opic usually <rw« (tw-, rri^J-), sav^, [ep. pr. subj. 

cruris (ffaf^s, (rJcf^s), ffrfrj ((Tooi, ff'f'ti), (r<iu'(r(] ; ffwffofj tauxra^ atcutfa^ 
(TtGupLaL or (T#/Ta)(T^aj, ^(Tc6^i}«', ffw^i^ffo/Aai ; (rw(T(j/tai, ^acoffd^iji'* See 
o-aow. (4.) 

T. 

(ra-), ^ff/LC, stem with Horn, impcrat. 7^. 

[(Ta^-), seize^ stem with llon^. 2 a. pt. rtTaydv*] Cf. Lat. tango. 

[Taviw, Stvctrh, rauvir^ (J), ^Tcifyffa, TfTaj/tJCT^ai, ^Taft/tr&Tj^ ; aoi*. m. 

iravuffadnrti'. IVes. pass. (>*i-form) retfuToi. Kpic form of t«(v«.J 
Tapd(ro-<i) (Tapax-), JlSiwr^, rapa^w, ^rdpa^a^ Tfrdpayfiai^ i r CLpdx&ri^ \ 

f. in. rapajo/iai ; [ep. 2 p. (TfT/)Tjxa) T«Tp7)xws, disturbed; pip. t»- 

rpVixcJ (4.) 
Ta<r<r« (ra7-), arrange^ rof*;, *Ta^a, r/rax^i TfTayfiai, irdx^'^v, rax&r}- 

ffOMai ; Ta^o^uj, fVa^a/iTji' ; 2 a. 1), ^Tdyrjy; fut. pf. T*re£fOj«ai. (4.) 
(tcw^-), stem with 2 aor. i-Ta(povi see (Oiiir-). 

Tftvt* (rtv-), Stretr.hy T€v<a^ tTfjvo, rfVaH-a, rtrafidi^ iTddrjVy ra6rie0fjt.ai\ 

Ttyovfiai^ fTftvdfiTjy. 040 ; 047. See ravvo) and TiTa£v«>. (4.) 
TcKp.aipo(jiai (Tf*f^ap-), judge^ infer^ f. re^f/AopoiJ/iat, a. ^TfKfinpdfi-ny. 
Act, T€Kp,atpo», rare and poetic, a. ir^Kfivpa* (4.) 

T<X^«, ^ZniSA, (T«Af(T<»>) T*A(i, ^TfA*<Ta, TerfKfxa^ TtTfKtcTfiai, ^TtAfV^Tjc ; 

fat, m. (T#A/o/ioi) TcAoufiat, a. ni. ^rtKtadpLTjv, 030; 040, 
T^X^Xo (rr A-), cau.<tc (o rise, rwe, aor. ^T<iAa ; [plpf. p. ^Tc'raXTo.] In 

compos. ^f-TtTaA^xQi, /v(T(i\a^i7»'. r)4r>. (4.) 

[(T«|t-), Jnd, stem witli Horn, red up! . 2 a. Ttr/ioy or * rf T^ioi/ (634).] 



402 APPENDIX. [1692 

T^(iv« (T(/i-, T/tf-) [Ion. and Dor. ra^vw, Horn, once tZ/iw], cut, t 

7fftu>^ Tf TfxrjKa^ TCTfxrifiai^ iTfi.-ildr]v^ Tfir]$y}oofiat ; 2 a. t Tf fiov, iTt^6^f]» 
[poet, and Ion. frafiov, iTafx6pnt}v'] ; fut. m. rtfiovpiai J fut. pf. TtT^ri- 

oofiau See Tji^^w. (5.) 

T^pirw, amuse^ ^ip^w^ frtp^a^ htptperiv [ep. hdp<pB-nv, 2 a. p. fTdpTrrjv 

(with 6ubj. T^iflTTfio)), 2 a. m. ( t)^ rap nffA^Tji'], (^'^4) ; fut. in. t*/>- 
rffo^at (poet.), [a. iT€p4fd^r]y cpic.J C40. 
[T«'po-o(xai, become dry. 2 a. p. iT(pay]v, Chiefly epic. Fut. act. Tipa(» 
in Theoc.J 

TtTtt^iov, having seized: see stem (ra-y-)* 

[TcTtiijjtai, Horn. perf. am troubled^ in dual rfTCr^aOov and part, t^ti- 

rjftfvos ; also TfTt>]«j, ^rouftZct?.] 
[T^Tjtov or tTc-fjiov (Hoin.),/oM;icf, for Tt-Tc/x-ov (5;^4).] See (rcp.-). 
TcTpa£v» (xtTpac-, Tpa-), ftore, late pres, rtTpalfu) and T^rpaw; [Ion. 

fut. TfTpavfw^ aor. ^T(Tpijx'a], iTtTprjvdfjir]!' (073). From stem (rpa-), 

aor. ^TpTjtT-a, pf. p. T€Vpi]/iat. CIO. (5. 4.) 
T«vx» (t*i'X-i TyxOi prepare, make, rtvita, tieu^ay [op. T(r(vx<^s as 

pass.,] T(Ti»7/*ai [ep. TtTtvxarai^ irfTevxaro']^ [irvx^vv Moni., irtv- 

x^iiv Hippoc, f. pf. TfTfv^ofiai Horn.]; f. m. To'^o/iai, [ep. a. *t€v 

lcifj.i]v, 2 a. (tvk-) TfTVKflv, TtTVK6fjir}v,'] Poetic. (2.) 
T-qKw (ryjK-), melt, [Dor. T4^■w], T-n^w, (ttj^q, hiix^-qv (rare) ; 2 a. p. 

fVaffTji'; 2 p. TtTTjva, am melted. (2.) 
T£0iini (^*-)^ ^'^^/ see synopsis and inflection in 50-1, 500, and 000. (I.) 
TUto) (tc/c-), for ri-T(K-w (052, 1 a), i>c.7^^ tnngr forth, Tt^ufiai, poot. 

also T«^w, [rarely TeKoC^ai], ^Ttx^^f (rare) ; 2 p. Ttrona; 2 a. /'t<- 

TiXXw (tiA.), pli/r^, TiXw, ^TiAa, T«TiAjuaj, fTiXOnv. Chicfly poctic. (4.) 

Tivt.) (ti-), Horn. Tfvo), pay, rfaw, <Tr<Tfl, TfrrAca, TtTifTfxai^ hiad-qv. 
Mid. TiVo/iot [ep. rft-u^iai], TtVo/iai, hladfxy]v. The fut. and aor. are 
more correctly written tJctw, «Tcia-a, etc., but these forms seldom 
appear in our editions. See tCw. (5.) 

[TiTaivci) {TiTau'),, stretch, aor, (iThrjva) TiT77i'OS. Epic for retVw.] (4.) 

[TiTpow, bore, late present.] See rtTpatv*.*. 

TlTp»«rif<i> (rpo-), WO?ind, rptiffo), f7pu(ra, Tfrpw/tci, iTpu>B-qv, rpuO-qaofxai; 

[fut. m. Tpwao^at Horn.] [liarely epic rpoiw.] (6.) 
Tiw, honor, [Horn. fut. riao), aor. *TiVa, p. p. Ttrr^a/.] After Homer 

chiefly in proa, and impf. Attic rfaoj, erifra, etc., belong to TtVoj 

(except Trpo-Tiffds, S. ^n. 22). See tCvw. 
(tXo^, sync, for TaAa-), endure, Thrjoonat^ TtT\i}Ka, 2 aor. «tA7)v (see 

790). [Epic /it-forms of 2 pf. TfTAa/i**/, TfrAafryf, T*TAa0i, T^rAit- 

/i«vai and Tcrxd^ev, rtT\y\d>t (804). From (raXa-), HonL aor. 
irdKaaffcu'] Poetic. 



1G02] CATALOGUE OK VKUBS. 403 

[TjiTJ'Yw (T/iTjy-i T^a7-), cue, poet, for t/m*'«; t^'7^w (rare), *T^»7iaj 

2 a. fT^«7o»', ir^dyr)y {T^dyfy ful" ^T/ia7Tj(Ta>').] (2.) 
Topi'w (''o/)-)» pi^^'Ci'.^ [pi'tis, only in cp. avTj-roptvvTa]; [op. fuL Topi^ow], 

Ttropvcrw (Ar.), [ep. a. ^Ttipwa, 2 a. «to/)o>'.] (555. 
TptVci) [Ion. Tpan-tu], ^j<r«, Tp('^u>^ fTp(\\a^ rirpotpa SOliietiuU'S TtTpatpo., 

TfTpa^/jttt, irpicfidnv [Ion. ^Tpa90J7vJ; f. ni. Tpi\\>ofj.ai, a. ni. iTin^6.nT\v ; 

2 a. [(Tpmryv e]jic and lyric], hpi-n-nvy tTpair6fxr}f. This verb has all 

tlie six aoi-ists (7U). 043 ; Oiil 
Tp('<^w (Tp*<p- for Opf^'y 05, 5), ncmiishy Opi^w^ *dpt^a^ Tfrp'xpa^ rt'dpat^- 

^at w. inf. Tfdpdepdai, f6pf<pdY]y w. iiif, ep*<p9ii'^ai (raru) ; 2 a. p. irpd- 

<pr]if] [cp. 2 a. fTpa<poy as pasy.]; f. ni. &p/ipatx<xi, a. ui. ^dptt^dfttjt^ 

64:3; C4G. 
Tpi'xw (Tp*x- foi" &p*x-^ '*^i ''^^ ; 5pa^-), run, f. Spa^oD^ai {-ept^onai only 

ill comedy), 60p*^a (rare), 5<5pa/i»j(ca, («-) S*5pdpi7}pLai; [2 p. StSpofia 

(poet.)J, 2 a. (hpanov. (8.) 
Tp^w (tremble)^ aor. trptcra. Chiefly poetic. 
Tpipo) (Tpij3-, TpiJS-), 7'W?;, Tpii^w, <Tp;v|fa, rVrpi^a, Tfrpi^^ai (187 ; 489), 

tT pt(p6-f]v \ 2 a. p. irpiQTiv^ 2 filL jl. Tpi^Tjao^ai ; fut. pf. nrpii^Ofiai ; 

f. ni. T/)"ii^o^iai, a. ni. ^r/ji^/a/uTji'. 

Tpt^w (Tpi>-)> .^•fy^vm^^ 2 p. T('Tpi7a as present [w. ep. part. T(Tpt7iTaj]. 

Ionic and ]>(>otic. (4.) 
Tpux«, cxhatifft, lilt. [op. Tpt/^o-] TpOxi^crui (Tpt'xo-, CoO), a. ^Tpup^waa, 

p. part. T<TpuxwM*'vosi [a. p. irpvx'^^'nv Ion.]. 

Tpw^Wi (Tpa7-, 573), gnaw, TpM^ofj^at [(rpw^a,] T<'Tp«7;*ai ; 2 a. frpa- 

jou. (2.) 
TvYX^vw (t*ux-> Tu;c-)t ^i^^ happen, Ttu^oyuai, (€-) [ep. <!T,l;i^T)aa,] pf. 

T*Ti;;i^T]wo, 2 pf. TfTfvxa y 2 a. <Tu;itov. (5. 2) 
Ttuittw (ti^tt-), Strike^ (<-) ti/tttVw, (TiiTrxTjaa (Aristot.), 2 a. p. tTuVTjv, 

fut. p. TUTrrrioQ^ai 01' TVTrrjaofiai. [Jonic and lyric a. tTui|<a, p.p. 

TtTLf/i^oi, 2 a. fToiroc ; airo-Tyi^wvrai (Hdt.).] 058, li. (3.) 
Tii4>w (tJ<p- or Ti;^-, for dv(p-), raise smokn, smoke, Tt^J^^ai, 2 a. p. 

i-T\)(p-nvi 2 f. p. Tu<p7}ffOfiai (Men.). 06, 6. 

Y. 

*Y'irMrxvionat., Ion. and poet. virCcrxofAat (strengtliened from uTrtxo^ai), 
promise, Onoaxv'^oM'^h vTrtaxVM'^^ J 2 a. ni. Otthtx'^^V'^' Scc lt<rx« and 
*X«. (5.) 

*Y4>a£vw (utpav-), locfzvc, u^ai'ti, ff^Tjca, I'Vac/iat (048), u(pdvBr}y ; aor. m. 
i<pr]vd^7}v, (4.) 

*Y«, rafn, "ctuj^ 5<ra, ucr^at, •(t^jjc [lldt. v<TOfiai &s pass.] 

4>a<iv« (<patv-)^ appear, i^hine, aor. pass. iipadvSvy {aa- for a<-)i ap- 
peared. See 4>atv«. (4.) 



404 AITKNDIX. [1602 

$a(v« (<pav-)^ show^ f. <pavw \^<pavfw], a. f<pT}ua, v^'<f>ayKa, Trf<pa(Tfiai (048), 
i<pdveT]u (rare in prose) j 2 a, p. ^<^ai'Tii', 2 f. <f>avtjaofiai ; 2 p. TTi<pnva j 
f. ui. (pavov^aiy a. m. 4<p-t\va^-nv (rare and poet,.), showed, but, Att- 
^pTj^afnif, deciarcti; [ep. iter. 2 aor. (fjai/effKf, appeared.] For full 
synopsis, sey 478; for inflection of certain tenses, sec 482. From 
stem <pa- (cf. &aivu}^ t>10), [HoHi. imjjf. <;»a^ appcaredt f. pf. 1r«^?»^J- 
(T^ra*, will appear.] For i<padi>Sr\v, see 4»a<fvw. (4.) 

^duTKu ((f.a-)i sav, only pves. and iinpf. See <^T)ji.t. (6.) 

4><£8ojJLat (</>f/5-, <f>j5-), spare^ (pdao^at^ i<pftaa}XJiv, [Honi. 2 a. m. jr*^i- 
J(i^T]v, f. 7r«^t5Tj(To^a(.] (2.) 

(4>€v-, 4>a-), /£i7i, stems whence [Horn, vitpa^oih Tr*<prt<TO}xai\ 2 a. 
redupl. Tfi<f>uov or i-nfipuov (for Tre-(p(c-oc) W. part. Ka,ra-iti<pv(Hv 
(or -^p).] ^ 

4>fpti» (^fp-, 01-, ^t'ftc-, ^K^tf. for ^i'-cKK-), ^car, f. ortro), a. r^veyna^ 2 p. 
^ki^^-oxa, ^t'Tj^fv^ia/, a. p, Tj*'*x0Tjt' ; f. p, 4u(x^V<^ohott and oiaBi'jaopLai ; 
2 a. )Jn7»fo^' ; f . ui. otao^ai (sonietinies as pass.) ; a. m. T|i'<7i(a^T]i/, 
2 a. m. imper. ivfynov (So.). 67 L [loji. ■^i*'«tKa and -a^rji', ^^'e^«o^, 
^i'i7K(7fia<, ■rji/<tx^i|i' ; Hdt. aor. inf. af-o^aat (or at-f/Jtra*) ; Horn. aor. 
iinper, oU^ for oicoi' (777, 8), pves. iniper. tpfprt for (pfp*T(.] (8.) 

4><VY«> (^►'i'?-* 010") « y^^P? <p»i;^o^at and <f»€y{oG;*at (000), 2 p. Tr«(f>ei'7o 
(642), 2 a. ("(^yyor; [Horn. p. part, vi<pvyfifyos ajid t{«pv(6t(s.] (2.) 

4>Tj}iC (^a-), say, 0^aw, *<p-(\aa\ p. p. iiiiper. Tr^paffflw (irf^atr/ieVoj be- 
longs to *aiVtt)). Mid. [Dor. fut. (paao^xca']. For the full inflection, 
see 812 and 813. (I.) 

4>6avu ((f'^a-)i CLnticipate, <p$r)<rofiai (or <pedffu))y t(pBa<Ta ; 2 a. act. 
»(^eT)*' (like *(TTTjf), [ep. 2 a. ni. (pBdtxtuos.'] (5.) 

4*0«ip« ((p€fp-)^ corrupt, f. (pdfpuf [Ion. 4>dfpfu>^ ep. t^^c'/xrw], a. «^0*ipa, 
p. (ipd^pKo., ^(p6apfj.ai ; 2 a. ]). fptfJ.piji', 2 f. p. ^dapriffOfiai ; 2 p. ii- 
«^0opa ; f. in. <^^fpoCMoi. 043 ; C46. (4.) 

*6tv«> [epic also tpdlw], waste, decay, <p6iawj tcpdtca^ tpdi^at, [ep. a. p. 
i<p6'iQi)v ; fut,. m. (pBiaof^ai ;] 2 a. ]n. fipBifxrjy, perished, [subj. tpeiwfiai, 
opt. <f)^(^ijk for <f^(-t'MTj»' (734) iniper. 3 sing, ^dlffdw, inf. <pe.Vtfai], 
part. <peiV«*'05. [Kpic <pdtyw, <p$tc(a, t<pBiaa.] Chiefly poetic. Pres- 
ent generally intransitive ; future and aorist active transitive. (5.) 

4>i\^«i> {<pi\'), love, tp,\iiffui, etc, regular. [JC]?. a. ni. i(p:K(x^^y, inf. 
pros. (^.ATiVft'a* (784, 5). Qo^.] 

^\6.bt, bruise, [fut. ip\dcu (Dor. ^\a(rjd>), aor. f^Xatra, *(p\aatJi.ai, i<pK<i-' 
(fBnv-l See 6Xd«. 

4>pttYviJfii (<f»pa7-), fence, mid. 4*P<'"'*Y*^h*'' > *3"'y '" pres. and impf. 
Sec 4»pa.<r(r«. (II.) 

4*pd^<«) ((f»pa5-), tell, (ppdott), t^fpacra, vippana, Trt'<ppatrfAai [ep. part. vt<ppa^ 

txfwos,] itppaffOtif (as mid.); {^^paaopkai cpic], 4<ppaffafij)v (chiefly 
epic). [Ep. 2 a. t(t<pp<xh'iv or ^r<^pa5oi'.] (4.) 



1692J CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 405 

4pa(r<rw {<pp<x.'y-)y feiice^ «<ppo^a, Ttippaffxat^ ^(ppix^V \ i<ppa^apLr]v. See 

4>pd7vvni, (4.) 
^pto-o-d) or 4>ptTT«.(<^p:»f-), shudder, <(pp."{a, w<>pi»fa. (4.) 
*p^« (^pi^>-). roosi, c^pifw, t^piifa, iti<pply ^ai, [^^pfJ*)^'']- 
^wXa(r<r« (^(/Aa*£-), guards <pu\d^w^ ^^yAafa, ir^^t/Aax-'i Trf^)t/Aa7^ai, 

^<J>uAax^i7*' J <pv\d^o^ai, i<pvKa^dfir]v. (4.) 
4>iipii), Jrtia;, [((pvptra,'] irftpvpfiatt [^(pvpVyjyJ ] [f. pf. wt<pvpijOfiai ]*ilKi.J. 

4»vpaw, miXy ifi regular, (pZpdatDy etc. 
4>vw (<^u-)i ^it'^ «^ i'^ Homer and rarely in Attic, produce, <pvaw, f<pv(Ta, 

jrt<pv><a, he (by nature), [with 2 pf. /ii-forma, ep. Trt(pudai, /^-wf^/o;, 

ir«<pvws ; plpf. iiriipvKov (777, 4)] ; 2 a. i<pZv, 6e, 6e fco?'n (70U) ; 

2 a. p. i(pvi]v (subj. ^i/(i) ; fut. in. tptoonai. 

X. 

Xtt^w (xo8-),/orce back^ yield, (pres. only in ava'xo^C^»)^ [f. xa<^o/*«ii 
a. -<xR<^<^a (Pind.)^ a. m. ^x^ffaM*!*' ; from stem *a5- (different from 
stem of KTf5«), 2 a. m. KtwoS^Tj*' ; f. pf. /f*»ta5»7o«, u)i7/ deprive (705), 
2 a. K«o5ot', deprived.'^ roeiic, chiefly epic; except hvaxdCoi^rti 
and haxdaaadat in Xenophon. (4.) 

Xa^pw (xop-)i t'CJoiCe, (<-) x'i'P'TTa) (058, 3), /Tfxdpyjxa, k*x^PV(^^^ S-lltl 
K*x<»P^'0'i 2 *^- P- ^x^'P'7t'i [t^pic a. ni. xi7paro, 2 a. ni. *?xap^^>?*'; 2 p. 
pt. iffx«P*?wi ; fut. pf, Kfx^pv(T(^t »c*x«P'?''^"A"" (^^''')-] (^0 

XaXaw, loosen, [xoAo(Tw Ion.,] ;x<*''^«<'"a [■'»ia I'ind.], «'xoAaa^7)*'. G39 ; 
040. 

[Xav5dvcj (xo5-, x^^'Oi 'ioW, 2 a. (xaoov, fut. x+'^^OMai (70), 2 pf. 
«*'xoi'5a (040).] Poetic (chiefly epic) and lonie. (5.) 

Xd<rK«, later xa.£fw (xa-j X"**")* i/^'P^'i f- x*'^*^-"^'? ^ P- f*x^*''* 3-3 pres. 

(044), 2 a. txayoi^. Ionic and poetic. (6. 4.) 
XiX,<a (x*5-)) f^t. x'^^oG^ai (rarely x*'(^*>(^°0^ *x^<^(^> 2 ]>. Kf'xoia (043), 

2 a, «x*<^'>»' (rar^-) ; a. m. only in x*'<ra'T?i ^^'- ^'-'h l*-*-^^ ; p. p. parL 

Kex*ofi*'yoi. (4.) 
Xi« (X<t^-, X'f -1 Xi'-)i epic x*'^^ ("B5, 3), /lOTtr, f. x*'*' [tp. x*H> a- 

eX«" [^P- *X**''']; f*'x*"*«i fX^^MQ', ^X^^V^'y X^jBr^na^Qi ; a. in. fx^a^i*?!' 

[cp. /x'-^f^J-J. [2 a. m. r'x'V')*' (yOO. 1).] 574. (2.) 
[(xX-aS-), stem <jf 2 pf. part. k«xAr5ws, swdliiuj (Pind.), w. ace. pi. 

/((x^dSviras, and jnf, Ktx^^^*'^'] 
Xdw, Acap up, X'^<'"<*'i *x^^°^-> '(t'x^f^-i Kfx<>>ofxQ,i (041), ix^^^v*'f 

X(t>o6ri(T0fiai. 

Xpavff-}x^« (xpaK^M-)* avert, /ie(p, late in present; [Horn. xpOi<J"A"7<^4'» 

^xpi»VM'7ffo» 2 a. f xpoio^to*']' <^54, 
XpoLojiai, iLse, xpVoftQi, ^xPi""**/^^"! "'XP'Tmon ixp^<^^^^ \ [^^t. pf. Ktxp^- 

tro^at Theoc.]. For xP'i''"'i xpV^o* [Hdt. xp^^ot, xP«'^^'i']i ^^^-i 

see 496, 



406 APPKNDIX. [1602 

Xpd«, give oracles, (Attic xp^iS', xP'h ("tc., 490); xpv<jf^y '^xpnoa, K^xpifo, 
[Ktxpv<^fiai ildt.], ^xp^fj^n^' Mid. consnU an oracle^ IxP^'^oH-oi, 
^XPVod^Tjv.] For xprjs aj)d xpp = XPvC*^^ ^"d xpH^'^ ^^^ XPTlSw- 

Xp^i (impors.), probably orig. a noun meauinp need (ef. a^*''«)> witJi 
^ffrf understood, there is need, (one) ought, must, subj. xpv^ opt. 
Xpeiv, inf, xpV«i, (poei. xp^") ; imporf. xpvv (pi'ob. = xp^ ^^) or 
<XP^*'- 'A.'ffoxpTi, it S7fj0ires, iiif. dffoxp^f, iniperf. antxpr)^ [Ion. 
aTro;(;^a, a7ro;ifpai/, airt'xpa ;] airoxP^<^*'i a»rtx^»)crf. 

Xp|ft« (5B7), loji. XPI^S*^! wianf, rt5^^ xP??*''^ [Ion. ;^pT]((Tto)], *xprio«i 
[loji. ^xp^i'^a]- ^p^^ aJiJ xpp («s if froin xpot*")* oceasioually have 
the meaning of xPvC^ih xPvO^- (*• ) 

Xp(w, anoint, stitig, XP* *'"**'> «xp'"<^*i ««'xP'mo' ^^ '<"<'xP'<''>*ft'j ^XP'*'"^')*' J 

[XP'0-i>Ai<rt Honi.], ^XP^iffdfiriv, 

Xpu^w, poet, also xpotl^w (687), coZor, smiii, ntxpofcpiat, ixP^^^^^" (^O 

^. 

■^Pdw, ru6, with rj for a in contracted forms (490), i^m, ^i', ^ifrj, etc. ; 

generally in composition. 
^tvEw, deceive, i|/eu(ra), i'v^cucro, ^i^ffo-jLia/, tifft/o^rjf, if'^ff^^ffoM"' ! i^fvco- 

Motj ^<f«y<7a/iTJt'' 71 ; 74. 
"*^^X*^ (iffX*)! C<?o/, i^iffw, t^v^a, tyi>Zyfxai, ^^i'vxBvy ['^ZxO'h<fOfj.at lon.] ; 

2 a. p. /f ux'7f or (generally later) i^vyTov (stem \^u7-)- 

'n6^w (w^, pusA, impf. gen. ^ciSfloyf (537, 1) ; ^aw [poet. ieTJffwJ, eoxrc. 

[Ion. &<Ta], <w(rjLiO( [Ion. itff/iaij, Jibndrjy ; uadrjoOfxai y f. Ul. &cJ"o^ia(, 
a. m. ^wo-aAiTjf [Ion. iirajurji']. 054. 
'HvCOfxai, ^l/^, imp. io>pov^rn' (537, 1) or wvov/atj^; wfrKJ-o/iai, iwurinai, 

iu>yridr\y. Classlc writera use i-npid^riv (504-500) for later wvr\aih^y]¥. 



INDEXES. 



N. B. — In these Indexes t!ie references are made to the 
Sections of tlie Gram mar, except occasion al)y to pages 3-0 of 
the Introduction. T}ie verbs whicli are found in the Catalogue, 
and the Irregular Nouns of § 291, are generally not included in 
the Greek Index, except when some special form is mentioned 
in the text of the Grammar. 



GREEK INDEX, 



A 1 ; open vowel 5, ; pronuncia- 
tion oJT 28^ ; in contraction D8 ; 
becomes T7 in temp, augment 015; 
a changed to *j at end of vowel 
verb stems 035 ; added to verb 
siems (like e) (550 ; changed to 
T in 2d pf?rf. 644 ; c clianged to 
6 in liquid steins (145, {i4('« ; Acol. 
and Dor. d for tj 147 ; as sufKx 
832, 8491. 

a- or av- privative 875' ; copula- 
live 877. 

<j., improper diphtii. 7, 10 ; by con- 
traction 38*. 

A'^aOos compared 301. 

aYttftai 7f>4i ; w. gen. 1102. 

iiyavcLKTita w. dat. 1159, 1100; w. 
ft 1423 ; w. panic. 1580. 

d^airaw w. dat. 1159, 1H;0; w. ci* 
1423 ; w. partic. 1580. 

ay^ikXuty pf. and plpf. mid. 490'"' ; 
w. partie. 1588. 

ayi aud o.'^tT* ^v. siiljj. and imperat. 
1345. 

a"y<v<rTOs etc. w. gen. 1141 (1102). 

a"yTip«s, declension of 300. 

d-yvws, adj. of one ending 343. 

&'yw, augrn. (;f lijayoi^ wOb ; ^yu^*-, 

With 15(35. 
&Y<^v^l«''3^'- o.yCivo, 1051. 
-dSTj*-, adv. endinj; 8C0-. 
dSi-K^w, ful. mid. as pass. 1248. 
dSvvard lirriv etc. 899-. 
d8wp(iTaT0« XPIH'^*^***' ll*il- 
d«K<t)v : see aKcjk'. 
d«T<Ss, epiceue uoun 158. 



-dtw, verbs in 801*, 862; fat. of 

005'^. 
dt^Stiv, dec!, of 248. 
'A6^vai:«, -i)Qav, .1)0-1 292, 293, 290. 
aOXto), TJ6XT|(ra 510. 
dep6os, decl. of 298-. 
"AOi^s, accus. of 199. 
ai, diphthong 7; aujrniented 518; 

.sometimes eiided in i)oetry 51 ; 

short in accentuation (but not in 

opt.) 113. 
at, Homeric for ct 1381. 
Alas, voc. of 22)". 
atSws, decl. of 2-';S', 239. 
aV0< or ai y*Pi ''"nicric f(>r (tBf 

etc. ]5()7. 
-aivo), (lonom. verbs in 86 P, 802. 
-aios (a'loi)^ adj. in 850, 829. 
ai:pu» 594 ; aor, 074 ; i)f. and plpf. 

mid. 490 ■, 
-ais. -aicra, -ouo-a, in aor. piiitic. 

(Aeol.) 783. 
-ais, -ai.(rt(v),in dat.j^kir. 107, 188''. 
• ais in ace. plur. (Aenl.) IHH'. 
aCo-OdKOH-ai w. ^^en. 1 Hf2 ; w. partic. 

1582, 1588. 
ato-xpos compared 357, 302. 
atcrxvvonai w. jjarlic. 1580; w. 

in On. 15KJ. 
-aiT<pos, -aiTaros, comj). and sup. 

in 352. 
alribt w. two accus. 1009. 
aCrtos w. gen. 1140. 
a£«, diov 510. 
dKouw, 2 perf. 520, 600 ; w. ace. 

and gen. 1 103 ; plpf. 533 ; <C or 

KoKws d<ouw 1241. 

409 



410 



GREEK INDEX. 



dKpodo|jiat 638 ; w. gen. 1102. 

aKpos w. ai-ticle 978. 

aicwv {i^Kuty) 33.'^ ; without &v 1571. 

dX€C4>« 572, 0422. 

dXrffcw 6581 . redupl. 2 aor. &\a\Koy 
635, 077. 

dXii8T|s declined 313 ; iXii0«, in- 
deed/ 3U. 

'oXto-Kojiai 050 ; 2 aor. 779. 

dXiTVjpios w. geii. 11442. 

dXXd ill apodosis 1422. 

dXXd(r<rw, pf. and p]pf. raid, in- 
flected 487'^ 4893. 

dXXi)Xwvdccliuea404. 

aXXo6i202i. 

dXXojiat, 2 aor. mid. 800-. 

aXXos, dec], of 410 ; w. art. 000. 

aXXoo-€ 294. 

dXXo Ti -tj ; or aXXo tl; 1004. 

aXo-yos declined 300. 

dXvo-Kw, formation of 017. 

aXs de(;lined 225. 

dXwirq§,epicenc noun 158; voc.2I0^ 

&jia \v. dat. 1170; w. paitic. 1572; 
dfia to) 958. 

dfidpTOiv, opt. 730. 

eifxPpoTOS (fiop) 00*. 

dficLpw w. gen. 1133. 

ofit's, dfx^, etc., Dor, for v^tls, etc. 
398. 

dfJLT]Tti>p 310. 

ofLOs and dfx6s for ij^htpo^ (ov 

dpwiO 407. 
dfiir^xw and dfxirto-xw 95*. 
d^irio-x.viop,ai 607. 
dfivvw 590 ; w. ace. and dat. 

(Horn.) 1108 ; dMuvde<j 779. 
dfx4>£ w. go.n., dat., and accub. 1202. 
dji^^i-^vviijii, augment of 544 ; w. 

two ace. 1069. 
dfx4>Lo-pTiTt«, augment of 544 ; w. 

gen. and dat. 1128, 1175. 
dfx4»OT<pw6«v w. gen. 1148. 
d)Ai^w and dp.4i6T«pos 379 ; w. art. 

976. 



av (epic W), adv. 1299-1310: see 
Contents. Two uses 1299 ; with 
secondary tenses of indie. 1804, 
1335, 1330, 1387, 1397, 1438 ; w. 
optative 1300, 1327, 1408, 1409, 
1430, never w. fut. ojn. 1307 ; 
w. fut. indie. (Hom./l303; w. 
6ul)j. used as fut. (Horn.) 1305''^, 
1356; w. Uifin. and panic 1308, 
1494. In conditions w. subj. 
1299^ 1305, 1382, 1387, 13931, 
1403 ; dropped wlicn subj. be- 
comes opt. 1497'^ lu final clau.ses 
w. w?, oirwj, and fi0pa 1307. 
Omitted w. subj. in protajsis (in 
poetry) 1300, 1400, 1437, w. 
potential opt. or in apod. 1^32, 
1333 ; not used w. ?5c[, xp^") t^i<^- 
1400; repeated in long apod. 
1312 ; cllip.sis of verb 1313 ; used 
only w. rirst of eevcrai coord, 
vbs. 1314; never begins sentence 
1315. See<dv,Tiv,av(d),anilTdxa. 

av {a) for Uv [d Hv) I299-, 13b2. 

&v for dvQ. (IIoiii.) 53. 

av- privative: see a- privative. 

av (d(!(r), by cra.sis44, 14282. 

-dv for -doji/ in gen. plui*. 188^. 

di-d w. dat. and ace. 1203. 

dva, up! IKi-', 1224. 

dva, i^oel. voc. of ivo.^ 291. 

dvd'yKti w. iniin. 1521; w. iorl oiii. 
8911. 

dvaXio-Kw and dvaX6«, augment of 
510, 520 (end). 

dvaXKis, adj. of one ending 343. 

dva^iCiiVTio-Ktoj w. two accus. 1009. 

dvd^ios w. gen. 1135. 

dvdo-o-w w. gen. 1109; w. dat. 
(Horn.) 1164. 

av8dv«, augment of (Horn.) 538. 

aveu w. pen. 1220. 

dv^X**' augment of 644 ; w, ]iartic. 
1580. 



GUEEK INDEX. 



4U 



Avijp declined 278 (see 67) ; Horn. 

dat. pi. 279. dfyjpii. 
avOpwiros declined 192. 
Avoi^w, augment of 538 ; 2 pf. 

dv^(jj7a and dydtfxo- 693. 
avojioitos w. dat. 1175. 
-avos, nouns in 840. 
ttvTf w. gcu. 1204 ; dye' tJv, where- 
fore 1204. 
avTiiroico^ai w. gen. 1128. 
ivvoras, aor. part., hastily 1564. 
avw, Avwrcpos, avwraros 303, 
&gtos declined 209. a^io? and aliiw 

w. gen. 1135- 
airais, adj. of onc ending 343 ; w. 

gen. 1141. 
dirdTup, decl. of Sic. 
airttpoy w. gen. 1141. 
airiOTTeco w. dat. 1 160. 
airXoos, airXovs declined 310 ; irreg. 

contr. 39^ 
dird w. gen. 1205 ; for iv w. dat. 

12251. 
iiroSt'xojxai w. gen. 1103. 
diro&C8ii>^i and diroSt&o^ai 1246. 
diroXavw w. gen. 1007'^. 
dTToXtftirofiat w. gen. 1117. 
diroXis, dccl. of 310. 
dirdXXvjii, augui. of pli)f. 533. 
'AiriXXwv, accus. of 217; voc. of 

122'', 22 r^. 
diroXoY^ojAai, angineut 643. 
diroo-Ttp^w w. two accus. 1069 ; w. 

ace. and gtn. 1118. 
diro(r(|>dXXojiat w. gen. 1099. 

diro4><UY*^ ^^- &^^'^' 1121. 

fiiTTw and diTTojxai 124(3. 

dp (Honi. for dpa) 53. 

apa, apa oi, and apa p,iq, interrog. 

1603. 
dpapio-Kw, 613; Att. redupl. 531, 

015, 052. 
dpYvpws, dpYvpoCs, declined 310 ; 

irreg. contr. 39' ; accent ^\l. 
dpifwv, compar. of AryaBbi 361. 



dpT)p<MS, dpdpvia 774. 

dpi-, intensive prefix 876. 

-apiov, dimin. in 844. 

apcniv or dppi}v 327. 

dpx^v, at first, adv. ace. 1060. 

dpx**! cipx**^''''''! ^' ps-itic. 1680 ; 
w. infin. 1581 ; dpx^MJ'or, at 
first 1564. 

dpwY<^s 31. 

-d5, -ds, case-endings of ace pi. 167. 

-aori and Tjon, locat. and dat. 296. 

d<nr(s w. ptup/a 383'. 

cwro-a or arra 4 1 0^, 

do-o-a or &TTa 425, 426. 

d<rTT)p, declension of 276. 

do-TpdiTTci without subject 807^, 

doTTu, decliiied 250, 253 j gen. pi. 
of 253. 

-arai, -aro (for -vrai.^ -vto) in 3 
pers.plur. 7773, 701, (Hdt.) 787*. 

dr* w. partic. 1575, 

dT<p w, gen. 1220. 

drtpos 46. 

dTijjios and dTtjid^w w. gen. 1135. 

-aro (for -yro) : see -ttTai. 

drpairds, fem. 194. 

arra and drra : see do-trtt and 
dorora. 

ou, diphthong 7, 

avaivw, augment of 619. 

avrdp in apodosis 1422. 

ai&TdpKT]s, a\)TapK«s, accent 122«, 
314. 

avT€u>v for avrCov (Udt) 397. 

aOrds personal pron. in obi. cases 
389, 9893; intensive adj. pron. 
391, 989» ; positjun w. art. 080; 
w. subst. pron, omitted 990 ; for 
reflexive 992 ; w. ordinals (S^ica- 
roi airrbs) 991 ; joined w. reflex- 
ive 997 ; compared (atJriraTot) 
364. 6 outAs, the same^ 399| 
9892, 980 ; in crasis 400, 44. 

avToC, ef<;., for iavrov 403. 

6.^o,Kpiui w. acc. and gen. 1118. 



412 



GREEK INDEX. 



a4)CT)}j.t, augment of 544 ; opt. forms 

8102. 
a4>vr|, gen. p]. &(pVboy 126. 
o-xOojiav w. dat. 1 160 ; w. partic. 

1580 ; 6,x^o^4y(^ rivi ehat 1584. 
axpt, as prepos. w. gen. 1220; as 

conj. 1408. 
-ctQ, denom. verb.s in 801' ; desid- 

eratives in 808; contract foDHS 

inflected 492 ; dialectic forms 

784. 
-Awv, gen. pi. (Horn.) 188^. 

B, middle nwate 21, labial 16, 22, 
and sonant 24 ; euph. changes : 
see Labials; ; inserted between fx 
and \ or p 00 ; changed to <P in 
2 perf. act. 092. 

-Pd, impevat. (in comp.) 765^ 

PaCvw, formation of, 004, 010; 2 
aor. of pu-iorm 799 ; 2 pf. of ^t- 
fonn 804 ; ^alvfiy iriSa 1052. 

pcLKxos (ifx) 061. 

pdXXw 593 ; perf. opt. 734. 

pao-tXua 175s 841 ; ^afftXffd 836. 

Pao-iXtus, declined 203, 264 ; com- 
pared 364 ; used witliout article, 
957. 

pao-tX«u*tf, denom. 801* ; w. gen. 
1109; w. dat. (liom.) 1164; 
aor. of 12G0. 

P<patOTfp«s 3702. 

P^Xt<pos, P^Xraros, and PcXxtwy, 
pario-TOs 3011. 

pvPdtw, future of 665^. 

pipots 7942. 

pIpXos, fern. 194. 

p£il4>i 297, 

Pt6«, 2d aor. of pU-iorm, 799, 

pX-, how reduphcated 524*^. 

pXaiTTw, aor. pass. 714. 

pXiTTw (/i^Xcr-), by syncope 6Q. 

PoVj 176. 

Poppas, poppdfi declined 186. 

po6Xop.ai, augment of 617 ; /SoiJXct 



in indie, (never jSoilXi?) 626 ; )5ov- 
Xolfivv a.y and ^^ouX6m'?v dv 1327, 
1839: see ipovXijiiiv; jSouXei or 
^ov\€<rd€ w. interrog. subj. 1358; 
^ovXo^iiyv Tiyi iffTiv, etc. 1684. 

povs, declined 268 ; formation of 
209; Horn, forms of 271 ; com- 
pounds of 872; stem in compus. 
872. 

pp^ras, declension of 238. 

ppor6s (mo/)-) "by syncope 66*. 

Pvviu (^u-«-) 607. 

r, middle mute 21, palatal 16, 22, 
and sonant 24 ; nasal (w. sound 
of v) before <, 7, Xi or f 17 ; 
euph. clianges: see Palatals. 

ya)kS) and ^ap-ov^ai 1240. 

•yao-Ti^p, declension of 274^. 

yy\i clianged to yti 77. 

-y^-yova aS pres. 1263, 

Y«Xa<r€£w, desiderative verb 808. 

-yivvaSas, adj. of one ending 346. 

Y<vos, decHned 228. 

Y^vTo, grasped SOO^: see also 

7<pas declined 228. 

-ytvw w. acc. and gen. 1100; yd' 

ofxai w. gen. 1102. 
7f), declension of 185; omitted 

after article 9o3. 
yr\pda-K<a 013 ; 2 aor. of /xi-form 

709. 
yiytxi declined 225. 
yiyvoiLai 530, 6521 ; 2 perf, of fit- 

form 804; copul. vb, 908; w. 

gen. 11502; w. poss. dat. 1173. 
yiyvbio-Kut 614; redupl. in pres. 

536, 0521 ; cj for 010 ; 2 aor. 

of Mi-form 799 ; inflect, of iy»<av 

803«. 
"yX-, how reduplicated 624^, 
yhtKvi decHned 320. 
YV-, how reduplicated 624'. 
7v40o$, fern, 194. 



GREEK INDEX. 



413 



^v«p£t«, angment of 5242. 

Ypavs, declined 208 ; formation of 

269; Horn, forms of 271. 
Ypa<f>« and 7pd4>0fiai 1240 ; iypi- 

<pt]v 1247; ypdipofiai w. COgii. 
■ accus. 1051, 1125. 
VPI^Si ^P^vs, Honi. for ypaOt 271. 
^vjiv6s w. gen. 1140. 

A, middle mute 21, iingfual IC, 22, 

and sonant 24 ; eupb. changes : 

see Linguals ; inserted in duSpdi 

(dvT^p) 07 ; before -arai and -aro 

(in Horn.) 777^. 
8a-, intens. prefix 870. 
8a^p, voc. batp 122**, 
Saiofitti (Saa--), divide 002. 
Satwfit, pres. opt. mid. 734. 
5at« (5af-), hum 002, 
Sctfiap, nom. of 210.^ 
8a(jiv(ui> {ha^-^ and 8dfi.vi^fi.i 609. 
8av(i)^o> and 6avcC^o^ai 1245. 
8<;ls, accent of gen. du. and pi. 128, 
U, in 6 ^iv ..,0 hi 981-983 ; in 

apodosis 1422, 
.S<, local ending 293; enclit. 141*. 
ScSu'vat 707, 804. 
&^8oLKa 085. 

8<i, inipers. : see 8<«, want. 
8fi8i'y|jLaL, S<t8okKa, and 8<L8ka, 

redupl. of (Horn.) 522 <> ; S/Sto 

804. 
SiCKwp.t, synopsis 504, 505, 509 ; 

inflection of /informs 500. Syut. 

w. panic. 1588 ; partic. 5funjs 

declined 335. 
8<tva, pron., declined 420; always 

w. art. 947. 
8<tv<Sv ioTuv cl 1424. 
8«\<t)ts i5(\<f>iP-) 2W, 2822. 
Sioftat w, geu. or w. gen. and ace. 

1114. 
hipr^ (6fpfn) 170. 
StpKOfiOi 646, 649^ ; "Apij SiSopK^vat, 

1006-, 



Sto-jwSs (^-) 830^ ; heterog. 288. 

Bto-irbnis, voc. Of 182. 

8/X**Tai (Horn.) as perf. 550. 

8<X«H'0''-) 2 aor. mid. of 800- ; w. 

ace, and dat. (Horn.) 1169. 
I Sf'w, bind, contraction of 495'^. 
i 8t«, want, contraction of 4952 ; 
' in Hdt. 785', Impers. 811 898 ; 
w. gen. and dat. (rarely ace.) 
1115, 1161 ; TToWoD 3«r, dXlyov 
3(1 1110 ; 6\lyov for dXiyou buy, 
ahnost 1116''; 5/ov (ace. abs.) 
1509 ; ivb^ etc. w. biovra 382^ ; 
*5«i in apod, without d*- 1400. 
See S<oftfti, 

St|\oi without subject 897^ 

8nX6s «Vi w. partic. 1589. 

SiiXow, inflect, of contract forms 492; 
synopsis of 494 ; infin. 39^ 761 ; 
pres. partic. brjXCjy declined 340. 

Atjji^T^p, declined 277^, 278; ac- 
cent of voc. 122''. 

Aiitio(r6€viis, ace. of 230 ; voc, of 
122-. 

-6t|v or -dSriv, adverbs in 860, 

-8y]s, patronyni. in 840. 

8id w. gen. and ace. 1200. 

SiaiTCio), augni. 543. 

8tdKoU«, augm. 543. 

fiiaX^-yofiai, pf. 522" ; w. dat. 1175. 

8iaT«X^« w, partic, 1587, 

Sid<|»opoj w. gen. 1117. 

8i8d(rK«, formation of 617 ; -w. two 
accus. 1069; causative in Luid. 
1245. 

8i8pdo-K» 613 ; 2 aor. of ^t-form, 
npa^lOi), 801. 

8i8w}ii, synop-^is 504, 509 ; infl. of 

Mt-forms 600; redupl. in pies. 

651, 7942; Imperf. 030; coua- 

tivc use of 1255 ; aor. in j<a 

I 670, 8022; 5oGvai 707; imper. 

I bibi^e,, mot 790. 

8lKai.of, person, constr. w. infin. 
1527. 



414 



GR3CEK INDEX. 



EEkiiv, adverbial accus. 1060. 
Stopt;<r<r«, augJH. of plpf. 533. 
SkStu, because, w. inf. (Hdi.) 1624. 
SiirXdtrios etc. (as conipar.) w. 

gen. 1154. 
hixQ. w. gen. 114'J, 
8vx|/a«, coniracLion of 49G. 
8i«Kde(j 779, 
SiwKw w. geu. and ace. 1121 ; w. 

'Ypa.(p'nv 1051. 
Sfiws, acceut of gen, dual and plur. 

128. 
Sot«, 8oioi (Horn.) 377. 
8oK^« (SoA--) "054 ; inipers. hoKet 

89B (1522'0 ; tboie ov biboKrai in 

decrees etc. 1540; (u?;) 4fiol SoKttv 

1534. 
8ok6s, feni. 194. 

-Sov (-5d) or -Tja^**, adverbs in 860. 
8ovX4v(i> and 8ovX6u 807. 
8pa{rtt«, desiderative verb 868. 
Spdw. Spdoru 035, 041. 
8p6<ro5, feni. 194. 

Bvvajtav, 794' ; augni. of 517 ; ac- 
cent, of 6Ubj. and opt. 729, 742 ; 

dvvfj. and idvvu 632. 
Svo declined 375 ; indeclinable 

376; w. plur. nonu 922. 
8uo--, inseparable prefix 875^ ; 

augm. of vbs. com p. ^vith 545. 
5ucrap<o-Ttw, augment of 545^ 
8\iw 570, 799 : see i'Svv, 
8«pov declined 192. 

E, open short vowel 5, 6 ; name 
of 4 ; pronuiicifitiou of 26' ; in 
contraction 38 ; as syll. augm. 
511, 51o ; before a vowel 537; 
becomes tj in temp, augm. 515; 
length, to Tj at end of vowel verb 
stems 635 ; length, to fi, when 
cons, are dropped