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The following criteria have been determined to differentiate between
paragraph, sentence and clause^
The paragraph will frequently start with noQw , 'switch subject.' The
subject is expressed as a noun (either common or proper). There may be a
change of verb aspect and/or mode at a paragraph boundary.
Sentences within a paragraph are frequently linked together with the
conjuction nihoe . 'and so'; nit . 'and then'; niikvanaw . 'but'; or nen ,
'then/so' (in a non-declarative sentence). The subject, if expressed, is
expressed as a pronoun. There will frequently be consistency in the verb
aspect and/or mode. [See pages 538-543 below.]
Sentence is defined as a string containing a finite predicate <a predi-
cate containing no relational ending). The verb will be at the end of a
string, or else clauses and phrases following the verb will refer back to it
by the use of pausal endings. CSee 'Pausal Forms,' page 533 below.]
A clause is a string containing a predicate, either finite or non-finite.
All clauses containing the relationals ^,'then'; -kvanow . 'at the same time';
-Qe . 'and so, ' are considered coordinate. Many clauses containing the rela-
tionals -Qw . 'switch subject,' or -e' 'conditional,' are also coordinate.
A clause is considered coordinate if the relational ending can be dropped
and a conjunction substituted for it with no substantial change of meaning.
oam noQvatat no/o/sa.
she cook ed-and- then ate
'She cooked and then ate. '
gam noovata. nit no/o/sa.
she cooked and-then ate
'She cooked and then ate. '
The follouing coordinate clause types have been observed-
1. yerbal: +/" subject + predicate
a. Intransitive verb :
oam hanauianta .
'He is digging. '
b. Transitive verb with object included in verb ^
'He went rabbit hunting.'
'He cut himself. '
c. Derived verb similar to verb with included object
oam ki ' ta .
'He lives.' (lit. 'He has a house.')
Dam kiita .
'He made a house . '
d. Transitive verb* with either a direct or
indirect object ,
pam nav aw vori .
he hi 5- fat her to-him looked
'He saw his own father.'
he dog beat
'He beat the dog. '
e. Quotat ive verb =
QjLm inumi Qflpgqflwu- P^^' i- inuwi LLid-
he to-me said to-here to-me he-aaid
'He said to ne, "Cone here."*
f . Directional verb =
he house-to entered
'He entered the house.'
2. Equational: subject + noun or adjective
Dam taaoa ina'a .
that nan ny-father
'That nan is ny father.'
b. Adjectival :
O^n l^jUJiA I^lLqa-
that nan good
'That nan is good. '
3. Locative: subject + post-position
pan kiv eo ' e .
he his-house in
'He is in his house. '
The following subordinate clause types have been observed^
1. Purpose clause: (ending in -nioe 'sane subject,' or -nioat
' di f f erent subject ' )
O^n itanuv DohtaniQc oQviv oitu.
he U3 to-visit therefore cane
*He cane to visit us . '
Ofln itanuv hahlavvanioat ggv^Y filiiA-
he us/we to-be-happy therefore cane
'He cane so that uie night be happy.'
2. Object of volitional verb: (ending in -nioev 'sane subject, 'or
-nioat 'different subject' >
a^m kiininiaev naayakna.
he to-go-to-town wants
'He wants to go to town.'
OAQ OUi kiininioat naawakna.
he hin to-go-to-town wants
'He wants hin to go to town.'
3. Object of verb of saying or knowing- (ending in -oev 'sane
subject , ' -oat ' different subject ' )
pan oootaniQev tuwi ' ta .
She to-nake-piaques knows
'She knows how to nake plaques.'
vaw out Qituhoat o^n lavavt i .
Quotat ive he arrived he said
'He said that he (other) arrived.'
4. Conditional clause ^ ( -e' ' sane subject , ' -qw ' di f f erent sub-
if they cone for-us they-will-sing
'If they come, they will sing for us,'
if they cone we for-then will-sing
'If they cone, we will sing for then.'
Seven word classes have been identified as functioning in the "initiator"
slots of typical Hopi sentences.* These word classes are:
4. Modal izers
5. Cause-and-ef f ect Markers
?• Attitude Markers
Although there is some uord-order flexibility, "if initiators occur together in
a Hopi sentence, they uould generally follou the order given above. (The
conjunction always occurs first.)
1. The conjunctions are: noow . nit . niikvanaw . nihae . and nen . The
meanings and usage of Hopi conjunctions are discussed under 'Velationals'*
on pages 545-549 below.
(a) pahsat 'then'
(b) pu* 'then, and, now'
Note s The two above temporals are often used together.
( c ) qaavo ' tomorrow'
( d> taavok 'yesterday'
(e) Many other structures may also be used as temporals:
uuyistiqw ' when spring comes'
♦ This discussion is based partly upon Ekstrom's 196® work for a paper
entitled "Markers of Discourse Levels in Hopi."
3. There Are three evidentiaia which function at the clause level:
yaw 'it 15 said*
kur *it is assumed*
ura 'according to memory'
vaw occurs in just about every clause of a Hopi folktale. It
indicates that the speaker is reporting what he has heard-
XflM DUhukwflptiWO tuutuva
quotative Puhukwaptiwa is-sick
*I hear Puhukwaptiwa is sick,'
ura is used to indicate something the speaker is repeating from
UEA iUn YuKlwnat au^
I-recall we Yukiwma went-to
'I recall we went to Yukiwma.'
kur is used when the speaker is assuming from the evidence that so-
and-so is true*-
kur kwaatu tsg^nQmokiwta
assume the- two-eagles are/were-hungry
' I assume the eagles are/were hungry . '
A sentence unmarked with an evident ial indicates that the speaker was
an eyewitness to what he is report ing.
4. Modalizers include^ (a) .^ (b) 5^, (c) kur . (d) nawus . (e) kva ,
(f) sen , <g) so'on . (h) han . (i) tuma .
^^^ UX indicates that the following sentence is a question. It
normally occurs in yes/no questions, and is optional in content
quest ions. It is occasional ly replaced by noow .
va urn Danosoni
-Q- you to-there-wi 1 1
'Wil 1 you go there?'
Lz5lI uri ^^intaaki
-Q- you are-do ing-what
•What are you doing?'
noQUf UQ iUkAi oanQsoni
and you also to-there-uill
'And will you also go there?'
(b) With the declarative (unmarked) node ai indicates that the
action was ineffective:
as pan wari
vainly he ran
'He ran in vain. '
With the potential (marked by *ni ) mode ^^ means 'should' or
^s. nsn 2^ o^ntin;
should he not do-like-that
'He shouldn't do that, *
'I wish he wouldn't do that.*
SJ. un ilMni out Utqn;
wish you to-me that hand
'Please hand that to me. '
(c) With the conditional relational ending kur means 'if ^
kur oam pite ' itamunoem tawlawni
if he arrives f Of — us he-wil l-sing
'If he comes, he will sing for us.'
With the verb in potential mode kur means 'let's assume' ^
kur um sunat aiivav' tani
let ' 5-a5sume you twenty doliara-have-wi 11
'Let's assume you have twenty dollars.'
Also, with an indefinite and verb in potential node, kur
indicates 'lack' or ' inability' •
lack one will-cone
'There is no one to cone.'
flfla kUC hihta jfta sisvini
he lack something with will-pay
'He had nothing with which to pay.'
OAQ JLUr: hxn kwilalatanl
he can' t/couldn' t walk
'He can't walk. '
Combined with the negative a^, kur indicates 'ability'
(i.e. absence of 'lack'):
kur hin pan Oi kwilalatani
can't/couldn't he neg. walk
'He can walk . '
( d > nawus means that the actor acted, or will act , out of
nawus nu' panoso'o
compel led I went -there
' I had to go there. '
(e) kva means 'probably':
kva nu' soon unoem Pggt^n;
probably I neg. for-you ui 11-hoe
*I probably won't hoe for you.'
^ f ) sen means 'maybe' =
maybe he will-come
'Maybe he will come, '
^Q^ soon means 'negative'; it is used primarily with the potential
um ?09n piWp;
you neg . will -come
'You won't come. '
When used with the negative oa, soon means 'must':
£.2211 UQ 2£ QHuPt
neg. you neg. will-cone
'You must come. '
(h) Infrequently, especially when one is thinking or talking to
himself, the form han is used to indicate purpose or
deliberateness. (This form requires the declarative mode rather
than the potential mode).
h^n 21 inav awnen ^1^1 oanoQawu
I my-father will-go to-him saying
'I will go to my father and say to hin. '
h^ 01 vanti
I do/did this
'I Will do this. '
( 1 ) When the concept of 'purpose' or 'deliberateness' involves a
group discussion, the form tuma is preferred. (This for^ also
requires the declarative node rather than the potential mode).
let ' 5 to-town
'Let ' 5 go to town. '
3. There are four cau5e-and*-ef f ect markers ^
(a ) pi 'because, for'
<b) ispi 'because, for' (normally requires relational
ending -Qe'e or -q ' 6 )
( c ) ooviy 'therefore, so'
(d) taq 'lest'
(a) stdn ni^t^sa. q± t^^ngnQKiwta
he ate because he-was-hungry
'He ate because he uas hungry.'
<b) fiA£l n66sa. ijuu. tsi^nomokiutaQe' e
he ate because he-was-hungry
'He ate because he was hungry.'
(c) o^ tsgSnQmokiwtaQe ogviY uM^J^
he was-hungry so he-ate
'He was hungry so he ate.'
(d) un tunatvalte' iaa uh oQsn;
you watch-out lest you will-fall
'Be careful that you don't fall.'
B- There are two correlatives, one contrastive and one non-contrast ive.
(a) piw 'also, again'
(b) tuwat 'in turn, on the other hand'
(a) Piw Dam oanso'o
also he went- there
'He also went there < in addition to doing other things).'
(b) un tWW^t gflpgag'Q
he in- turn went -there
*He in turn went there.'
7. There are two markers which indicate the speaker's attitude toward what he
( a ) okiw 'unfortunately'
(b) antsa 'truly'
<a) Qkiw a^n tuutuva
unfortunately he is-sick
'He is sick <I'm sorry about it).'
(b) noQw YAM antsa £££& kuaavQk'at Qflt^
and report truly there hi s-pet -eagle was-sitting
'It's said that really his eagle was sitting there.'
As illustrated in the preceding example, strings of three or even more
initiators are common in Hopi sentences . This is especially true at the
beginning of a paragraph.
Reduplication is a highly productive process in Hopi. It occurs both in
the noun systew and in the verb system. Normal reduplication is formed as
CWlViC2V2 aaaad reduplicates as C1U1U1C1U1C2V2 fliayaia
C1U1C2C3U2 tuhoe reduplicates as C1V1U1C1U1C2C3V2 tuutuhoe
C1U1C2U2 vuku reduplicates as C1^1C1C2V2 vuvku
Hopi "k-verbs" reduplicate the second syllable to form the progressive
kwala * it boiled' kwalalata *it is boiling'
kuialalayku 'it was boiling*
To form the Hopi optative mode the final vowel is reduplicated, with a
glottal stop between the vowels^
yeese 'They sat,' or 'They were sitting.'
yeese'e 'You ( plural ) sit down, '
Noun plurals in Hopi often involve reduplication:
kiihu ' house' kiikihu ' houses '
In Hopi, a word usually has a longer form when occurring either in
isolation or finally in a main clause (or any clause after the main clause)
This ''pausal" form occurs in most word classes throughout the language; in
verbs it occurs only in the relationals.
inumi ' i inumi
paasi * i paas
'field ( oblique case ) *
'in the house'
'when, if he comes '
' from where '
The last example, in question form, would be;
pan haqaq«S ' ?
'Where did he come from?'
A verb phrase consists of a verb which may be modified by one or more of
OOQ iiU£ IlLD giavini
he cannot will-pay
'He cannot pay. '
0^ iits Duhtsemoki
he quickly Qot-disgusted
'He got disgusted quickly.'
iua lyiLA pgnti
he once-for-all did- it
'He did it once for all.'
he vainly is-working
'He is working fruitlessly.'
a^j!I a'niS unanQwav'ta
he intensive has -a- heart
'He is brave/courageous/tough. '
Negat i ve ■
Qj^ fl£ Pity
he neg. arrived
'He didn' t come. '
OAn ag'OTl Pituni
he neg, will-cone
'He won' t cone. '
'He boasts. '
In the verb, the Hopi speaker has a large inventory of affixes available
for modifying the stem:
Third-oosit ion Prefix ( furthest from stem) :
5u- ' suddenly, with intensity' :
pitu 'he arrived' suptu 'he arrived suddenly'
Second-oosition Prefix ( nearer ig stem):
tu- OR tuu- 'others/corn as object':
laakinta 'is drying it' tuulakinta 'is drying corn'
navotna 'cause it to tunvotna 'cause people
be known' to know it'
na- OR naa- reflexive 'self as object ' , or 'reciprocal ' 'each other
as object ' =
tuku 'cut' natku 'cut himself '
'reciprocal ' -
ngu ' a ' grasp ' naangu ' a 'marry '
'truncated noun as object':
i^apto 'went to hunt' tapmaqto 'went to hunt
First^oosition Prefix (cloaeaj^ ^^ sten): :
Reduplication, with various functions -
1 . Piuralizat ion-
tuwa 'he found' tutwa 'they found'
2. Repeated Action**
pitu 'he arrived' piptu 'he arrives repeatedly'
3. To Form Progressive Uerb Stem:
yuku 'he made' yuyku 'he is making'
Inflectional when affixed to intransitive verb stem:
wari < k ) -na
ran ( themat ic ) cause
' drove it < as horse or car ) '
poninxta 'it moves about'
pon in i toyna 'he moves it about '
Derivational when affixed to transitive verb stem:
yukuna ' judge'
Uoice : defined as the relation of the verb action to the subject.
With -lu- :
•iua Enphasizos the fact, or conpleted act:
yukiua 'has been finished*
-iuta* Emphasizes the state, or resultant condition:
yukiuta 'is in finished condition'
tuhpeuta 'is roasted'
'iuma Emphasizes that something is in process:
.tuhpeuma 'it is roasting'
Uith -ilti :
"ilti Emphasizes incipient, beginning state:
yukilti 'became finished'
Uith -v' - ['accomplishment of an act']:
-y' ta» Emphasizes present condition:
somi'ta 'has it tied'
tuui'ta 'has learned it'
yuki'ta 'has finished it'
"V'va Emphasizes beginning of state:
tuui'va 'learned it'
Uith -viuia [Cessative; emphasizes cessation of a state]:
kuuanviua ' is faded'
suhuviua 'is no longer salty'
♦ See also "Number" on pages 539-540 belou.
( Unmark ed ) : - i 1 1 i :
COMPLETITIVE: yuku 'he nado it' yukilti 'it is made*
-y' ta: -iua:
DURflTIVE: yuki'ta 'he has nade it' yukiua 'it has been made'
Aspect : defined as verbal indicators of the manner in which actions are
performed, or of the intention of the actor.
-to [suffixed to the conpletitive stem] 'go for the purpose of
maqto 'go for the purpose of hunting'
tiimayto 'go to uatch a dance'
With directional verbs -to is used to indicate that the verb is
moving towards its realization. For example:
pituto 'is arriving'
uupto 'is climbing'
-ma [suffixed to completitive stem] 'come from doing'
tiimayma 'came from watching a dance'
-ma [suffixed to progressive stem] linear, 'goes along doing'
royayatima 'goes along spinning'
-ta,* or -ti- Continuative; occurs mainly with k_ verbs. ( -ti- occurs
when combining with other aspects , such as inceptive, 1 inear , or
spatial ) .
roya 'give one whirl'
royayata ' is whirl ing'
r oyayat ima ' goes al ong whir 1 i ng '
♦ See also 'Number', on pages 539-540 below,
-nuna Spatial? uith progressive stem. 'goes about doing'
royayat inuma ' goes afaout spinning '
-va Inceptive; uith progressive stem. Emphasizes beginning (end of
process isn't in focus).
royayat iva 'begin to spin'
-lauu Durative? uith progressive stem. 'action continues over
cons i der abl e t i me '
langakinlauu 'continues pulling it'
Fourth^oosition Suffix : number indicates that the subject is plural.
(Dual subject takes singular verb ending. Thus if no dual form of the subject
exists, as in the case of pronouns, a plural subject plus singular verb results
in dual reference in Hopi.)
Several of the voice and aspect endings have forms indicating plural
* Uhen occurring uith Voice suffixes *v' - and zImL-
** Uhen occurring as Aspect suffix.
♦♦♦ It is purposive ( -to ) uhen occurring uith completitive stem. It is
1 inear ( -ma ) uhen occurring uith progressive stem.
If one of the above is not used, and if the verb is not innately plural, -va is
suffixed to indicate plural subject.
Flf th-n osition Suffix : There are five nodes in Hopi: declarative,
generalized, potential, optative, and general-potential. The various
neanings of Hopi verbal nodes are illustrated in this section.
NOTE : The nodes operate at a higher level grammatically than the
other Hopi affixes. Whereas the louer-level affixes affect primarily
the meaning of the verb itself, the nodal endings affect the neanings
of the surrounding words, and place certain limitations on the words
uhich may co-occur with them. When -aa 'negative' occurs uith a
verb in the declarative mode it is a straight negative, but with the
potential mode it means 'shouldn't.' In Hopi, urn aa pitu means 'you
didn't come'. But um oa oituni doesn't mean 'you won't come' but
rather 'you shouldn't come' or 'don't come', ('You won't come' is
um so'on aituni , )
The declarative node is unmarked and indicates that the action or state
has taken place or is in progress.
The generalized mode [called "nomic" by Whorf and "gnomic" by the
Voegelins] is formed by suffixing -nouu to the verb. It indicates that
the action or state occurs regularly.
oam naaoavo niimanawu
he daily hone-goes
*He goes hone daily,'
uuvlsiiau hsJL uti'Myngyq
uhen-spring-cones one plants
'One plants when spring cones.'
The potential node is formed by suffixing -ni to the verb. It indicates
that the acion or state indicated by the verb is contenplated as possible or
impossible. It is used for the Indo-European concept of "future", as well as
for subjunctive mode.
<a) Future: aaavo oan aituni
t onorr ou he u i 1 1 - come
'He'll cone tonorroui- '
kur hin oan oituni
cannot he cone
'He cannot cone.'
( c) Necessitative:
'He must come.' (The double negative results in
(d) Polite Command:
yn aa P^'tuni
you neg. come
'Don't come. '
(e) Contrary to Fact:
kur auma cut navoti' vunaue' so^on out niinavani
if they him/it know neg. him will-kill
'If they had known it/him, they would not have
k illed him- '
The optative node is formed by reduplicating the final vouel of the verb
(along with insertion of a glottal stop), or by using the pausal forn of the
post-positional. The optative mode can be used either with second person (the
command form) or with third person (indicating a uish).
paki* i ^come in'
qatu'u 'sit down*
DSQ QSm lila. Pi•t^'^
may he quickly arrive
'May he arrive quickly,'
'May it rain, '
' Come here, '
The general-potential mode is formed by suffixing -mantani to the
verb. It indicates that one should generally do so-and-so.
hak tuututuoavnaniaev tuui' te' tutuoavnamantani
one to- teach- others if-he-knous should- teach
'The one uho knows how to teach others should teach.'
hfii :£9£1 pastamantani
one 1 ike-this should-hoe
'One should hoe like this,'
The follouing expansive verb-inflection example shoue a Hopi verb uith
noat of the affix slots filled:
tuu * others'
stem: 'to hear'
( spatial aspect )
( plural )
'They habitually go about teaching people.'
SOME VERB PftRftDISMS
yooyoki ' it is raining' yooyokni ' it uill rain'
yokva 'it began to rain' yokvani 'it uill begin to rain*
yokvana* 'he caused it to rain' yokvanani* 'he uill cause it to rain'
yoknguu 'it habitually rains'
yokva'a 'may it rain'
yeese 'they are sitting/living' yesni 'they uill sit/live'
yesva 'they sat down' yesvani 'they uill sit doun'
yesvana 'he seated them' yesvanani 'he uill seat them'
yesnguu 'they habitually live'
yeese 'e 'you all be seated'
* This form uould be used mainly uith reference to deity.
'he is climbing'
'he has climbed'
'he caused him to climb'
'he climbs repeatedly'
•he will climb'
'he will cause him to climb'
'he climbs habitually'
'he habitually causes him to climb'
'cause him to climb it*
The so-called k-verbs in Hopi usually exhibit the semantic idea of one or more
undulations, such as stepping, uaving, and boiling.
' it uas boil ing'
'it is boiling'
' it is going
'it will boil'
kualalatani 'it uill be boiling'
kualalatimani 'it uill go along
kualalativa 'it began to boil' kualalativani 'it uill begin to boil'
kualalatinuma 'it is going kualalatinumni 'it uill go about
about boiling' boiling'
'he boiled it'
kualakin-ta( "tota) 'he is boiling it*
kualakintivalya] 'he began boiling it*
kualakinti-na< "uisa) *he went along boiling it'
kualakintinun-a("ya) 'he uent around boiling it'
kualakna-to< "uiaa) 'he uent to boil it'
kualaknanalya] 'he cane fron boiling it'
VERBS OF HANDLING
The Hopi verbe of handling (picking up. carrying, leading, etc) indicate
the number of the object in the root. (ft dual object takee the singular root.)
'put it down'
'picked it up'
'drew it out'
'put it in'
oya 'put them doun'
bmahta 'picked them up'
tsaama 'led them'
kima 'carry them'
ipua 'drew them out'
tangata 'put them in'
liihiikna 'drop them'
Sixth-oosition Suffix : In Hopi there are five final-position endings
which may be suffixed to predicates. If they are non-pausal forms, they
indicate the relationship to the f ollouinQ predicate. If they are pausal forms
(or non-pausal followed by ooviv'o ) . they relate to the orecedina predicate.
Also occurring in this position are four endings which change a verb into a
noun, [See under 'Noun Derivation,' pages 557-559 below.]
The relational indicators are:
-qw (-q'«J) 'switch subject'
-t<'a) 'next clause follows in tine'
-qe('e) 'next clause follows in time and is a result of
this one' (ordinarily used only with the
declarative mode; the use of -oe with
other nodes creates specialized meanings.)
-e'<e) 'following clause is dependent on this one' (all
nodes except declarative; replaces final
vowel: Ditu becomes pi te' , )
-kyanQw(o ) [plural : -kyahkyangw( o )]
'next clause happened at sane tine as this one'
The relational ^i !« assuned to be in the sane mode as the main verb of the
grammatical string. It is seouential (in tine) when not preceded by
negative. However, when preceded by a negative, this zL is contrast ive
(without regard to time). Examples;
g^ia n^f^gflt I Daami ' i
he having-eaten went-to-his- field
'Having eaten, he went to his field.'
Optat ive :
iiini oflKii;, oatu'u
to- house having-entered sit-down
'When you enter this house, sit down,'
pan n<^g>sat . ni imam
he having-eaten wi 1 1 -go-hone
'When he has eaten, he will go home.'
un Qa pant it ■ vant ini
you neg. do- like- that do-iike-thia-will
'Don't do like that, but do like this.'
hoii 0^ PqpUti vantinouiu
one neg, do- like- that do-like-this-( general )
'One doesn't do like that, but does like this.'
Contrastive Potential General;
hs^ SLA. Pantit , vantiwantani
one neg. do-like-that do-like-this-(general )-(potential )
'One shouldn't do like that, but should do like this.'
Additional examples of relational usage in Hopi are also contained in the
illustrative materials on the next few pages.
CHART QE RglOTlQmi ENDINGS
SWITCH SUBJECT SAME SUBJECT
-qw -qe -e'
-qw -t -t
"Q»*» -kyangw -kyangw
The five conjunctions which correspond to the Hopi relationals were
mentioned previously under Initiators (see page 525 above). They are:
1 . noqw -qw
2. nit -t
3. niikyangw -kyangu
4. nihqe "Q«
5. nen "©'
The conjunction nay be substituted for the relational ending without change of
meaning. An exception is niikvanaij vs, -kvanow , where nuKYfltPQW 1« contrastive
while -kvanow is usually non-contrast ive.
1. QjLn noovataQw ouwa n66n6sa
she cooked they ate
'After she had cooked, they ate.'
paw noQvata. Nqqw auilA T\i4Pt^^
she cooked and [then] they ate
'She cooked and [then] they ate,'
2. £sn nt^<Ssat oaswi'l
he ate-and went -to- the- fie Id
'He ate, and [then] went to the field.
paw ni^g^sa, nit oaswi ' i
he ate and went-to-the-f ield
'He ate, and [then] went to the field,
3. oam n^QvataQc. r\66sa
she cooked-having ate
*She, having cooked, ate.'
paw noQvata. nihoe ng^c^sa
she cooked and ate
'She cooked and ate.'
4. adjn hahlavkvanQUi taylawu
he being-happy is" singing
'He being happy is singing,'
Odin q^h^hlaYii.. nllkvanQu taulayy
he being-unhappy but is-singing
'He is unhappy, but is singing, '
5. aSQH O^n Qlisl itamunaem taulauni
when he arrives for-us he-will-sing
'When he arrives, he will sing for us.'
csLn Pi^unif U&n itflpunocn tawiawm.
he will -arrive then foi — us he-will-sing
*When he arrives, he will sing for us.'
In order to suffix a relational ending to a verb in the general mode (ending in
-nowu ). it is necessary to put a -ni( h )- between the -nowu and the relational
ending. For example-
Odin tawlawnawunikvanQW wunimanouu
he/she singing-< gen ) -while dance- ( gen )
'He/She used to dance while singing. *
In Hopi, verbs are derived from several sources. They may be drived from
another verb, from a noun, pronoun, adjective, or postpositional.
Some derived verbs are frozen forms. They exhibit the characteristics of
a derived verb, but the root from which they have been derived is not longer in
use . For example^
naawakna 'want '
tuuwaia 'yatch' [verb]
Some verbs are derived from another verb:
(a) By reduplication:
(b) By adding causative *na :
Some verbs are derived from adjectives by suffixing zil 'become', -iuta
'is', or -ta 'causative':
itsivu 'angry, hot tempered'
itsivuti 'became angry'
itsivu'iuta 'is angry'
aliSngii 'different in kind'
aliingti 'became different*
al^ngta 'made it different'
A few Hopi verbs are derived from postposi t ionals :
enang 'with* [object with object]
anangta ' added'
There is also an idiomatic use of a verb derived from a pronoun or noun.
The meaning 'want' is implied if the potential ending -ni is added to a noun
m im putni 1
-Q- you it-will
'Do you want it?'
The most common process for deriving verbs is the addition to a noun of
the possessive ending -v* ta . or the causative endings -ta ( complet it ive ) or
"lawu ( cont inuative ) •
k i i hu ' house ' C noun ]
ki'ta 'has a house (lives)'
kiita 'made a house'
kiilauu 'is making a house'
tumala ' work ' C noun ]
tumalay'ta 'is working'
Some verbs are derived from nouns by suffixing *niwhti , resulting in a
meaning of 'became '. Example^
hi s-wif e-became
'She became his wife.'
If a noun or postposition/locative needs to take a verbal modal,
relational ending, or noun derivational ending, the suffix *ni( h )- (for
singular/dual) or -va- (for plural) is added. Examples^
his"wif e-( gen. mode )
'She used to be his wife'
him behind-( gen. mode )
'He used to follow him.'
him behind-(pl , )-( gen. mode)
'They used to follow him,'
fl noun phrase nay consist of: (1) a pronoun, (2) an unmodified noun, (3)
a modified noun, or (4) a clause with a derivational ending, usually (a) -oa .
(b) -gat , (c) -oev - or (d> -qu .
1. pan *he*
Z. taaqa 'man'
pohk o ' dog '
3, pan taaqa 'that man'
hak taaqa 'some man'
put yuyat 'his mother'
4. (a) taaqa itsivutiqa
man mad- got - uho
'the man uho got mad'
^ b ) nu ' taaaat itsivutiaat au yor i
I man angry-got-uho to-him sau
'I sau the man uho got angry.'
- or -
'I sau that the man got angry.'
(c) nu' taaoat tuuahaev au lavayti
I man found-uho to-him spoke
'I spoke to the man uhon I found.'
<d) ina it taaoat tuuaa(j nu' au lavayti
my-father this man found-whom I to-him spoke
'I spoke to the man whom my father found-'
uikaanouat um somau tuki
the-rope you tied broke
'The rope you -tied broke.'
Notice that if the subject o4 the verb and of the object clause are the sane,
then ending -aev is used (see example "c" above). If the subject of the object
clause is different, the ending is -qu . [See also "Noun Derivation, pages
Nouns in the Hopi langup^B nay occur in more varied forms than similar
nouns in English.
Hopi nouns are inflected for:
Case: subject ("direct") or non-subject ("oblique")
Number: singular, dual , plural
Possession: the noun is possessed (rather than doing the
possessing, as in English)
Hopi case endings are:
Unmarked for direct case
*t for unpossessed oblique case
-y for possessed oblique case
A noun in the oblique case may occur: ( 1 ) as the direct object of a verb,
(Z) as the referent of a postposition, or (3) as the referent of a possessed
(1) osn inav uuvahta
he my-father hit
'He hit my father'
(2) cam inav au vori
he (ly-father to-him sau
'He sau my father.'
(3) sain inav vuvat ^u yorX
He ny-father his-mother to-hin sau
*He sau ny father's mother,*
Inflection for number varies according to the noun class, as is
illustrated in the follouing pages.
Possession is indicated by affixing one of the follouing:
uh- *your ( singular) *
it ah- 'our'
unuh- 'your ( dual , plural ) '
-an 'their (direct)'
-y 'his/their oun (oblique)'
-yat 'belonging to another (oblique)'
-yanuy 'belonging to others (oblique)'
Hopi nouns nay be divided into at least five classes, as delineated belou:
Class I ; fl group of nouns not inflected for number, and which may include
inanimate nouns such as oaahu 'water' or body parts such as hokva' at 'his
louer leg'.* Body parts in Hopi are obligatorily possessed. In this
dictionary ue have chosen to give only the form which shous third-person
♦ The correct form for 'four-footed things' Is naaltJQ hokvav' vunQQam
'foui — legged'. Note that although the sense is obviously plural, there
is no plural marker.
Inflections for wa* 'hand/arm* include:
put na'at 'hia hand (direct)'
may 'his own hand (oblique)*
put nayat 'another's hand (oblique)'
ina 'my hand (direct)'
inay 'my hand (oblique)'
Class II : Inanimate nouns which plural ize by reduplicating the first
The inflections of oaasa 'field' include:
paasa 'field (direct)'
'his field (direct)'
' his own field ( ob. )
'their own field ( ob, )
' fields ( oblique) '
'his fields (dir. )'
'his own fields'
'their oun fields'
'other's field (oblique)' paavasayat
'their field (direct)' paavasa' am
paasayamuy ' their field ( oblique) '
'their fields ( d. ) '
paavasayamuy 'their fields (o,)'
ivasa 'my field (direct)' ivavasa
ivasay 'my field (oblique)' ivavasay
uhpasa ' your ( sg, ) field ( dir , ) ' uhpavasa
uhpasay ' your ( sg. ) field ( obi . ) ' uhpavasay
'my fields ( dir. ) '
'my fields (obi. )'
' your ( sg. ) fields'
' your ( sg. ) fields'
In the immediately preceding examples the possessive prefixes it ah- 'our' or
umuh- ' your ( dual plural ) ' could be substituted for uh- .
Class III : Usually animate nouns , they are inflected for number
(singular, dual, plural) and case (direct, oblique). Except in rare instances,
they are not inflected for possession. The noun hoonauu 'bear' is inflected as
hoonauu 'bear (singular direct)' hoonauut 'bear (singular oblique)'
hoonauut 'bears (dual direct)' hoonautuy 'bears (dual oblique)'
hoohonaut 'bears (plural direct)' hoohonautuy 'bears (plural oblique)'
Only three nenbers of this noun class are inflected for possession:
taaqa 'man, husband'
ijuhti 'uoman, uife'
pohko 'dog, domesticated animal, car'
Pohko inflects as follous to indicate possession:
pok'at 'his animal (direct)' pokmat 'his animals (direct)'
pohkoy 'his own animal (oblique)' pokmuy 'his oun animals (ob.)'
pohkoyat 'other's animal (oblique)' pokmuyatuy 'other's animals (ob.)'
The noun oohko may be prefixed by the shortened form of another member of this
noun class, thereby specifying* what animal is being discussed. Thus, kaneel<?
'sheep' may be shortened and affixed to oohko . giving the form kanelvok'at 'his
Class IV : These nouns denote kinship. They are inflected for number,
case, and possession. All family-relationship terms in the Hopi language are
obligatorily possessed.* A good example is tuoko'at 'his younger brother'.
which may be inflected as follous:
tupko'at 'his brother (direct)' tupkomat 'his brothers (direct)'
tupkoy 'his oun brother (ob.)' tupkomuy 'his oun brothers ( ob. ) '
tupkoyat 'other's brother (ob.)' tupkomuyatuy 'other's brothers (ob.)'
tupko'am 'their brother (direct)' tupkomat 'their brothers (direct)'
♦ As mentioned earlier for body parts, uie have chosen in this dictionary to
give only the form which shows third-person singular possession.
tupkoy * their own brother (ob.)' tukomuy 'their own brothers (o.)
tupkoyamuy 'others* brother (ob. )* tupkonuyatuy 'others' brothers (ob. )'
itupko 'my brother ( direct ) ' itupkom 'ny brothers ( direct > '
itupkoy 'my brother (oblique)' itupkonuy 'my brothers (oblique)'
In the immediately preceding examples, ijz '"y* could be replaced by itah'
'our', uh" 'your (singular)', or umuh- 'your (plural)'.
Class V : Other Nouns: these end in -hu and pluralize by substituting
-tu for *hu . For example:
k uaahu ' eagl e ' k uaatu ' eagl es '
soohu ' star ' sootu ' stars '
Nouns may be derived by (a) combining adjective with noun, (b) combining
noun with noun, or by (c) nominalizing a verb.
(a) adjective with noun: mohoe 'first' plus tama'at 'his tooth' result
in mohpetama' at 'his front tooth',
(b) Noun with noun: ooosi 'eye' plus caala 'liquid, juice' results in
DQsvala 'teardrop' •
(c) Nominal ization of a verb: the final vouel of a verb may be changed
to i ( "iotization" ) or one of four suffixes may be added to a verb (or to a
postpositional filling a verbal slot ) ,
Example of iotization: m^ 'hand' plus soma 'tie' plus the change of a to
i. (iotization) results in masmi 'armband* -
The verb nominal ization suffixes come in the same position as the
relational endings discussed earlier (see pages 54S-549 above). These suffixes
( 1 ) -qa 'agent'
(2) -pu / -vu 'result'
(3) -ni 'result*
(4) -pi ' instrument '
(1) aorokna 'drill a hole' plus -oa *agont' results in Doroknaoa 'the one
uho drilled a hole'.
anak 'behind' plus -nih- * ' verbal izer' plus -oa 'agent' results in
(2) aoro 'exhibit a hole' plus -k- (singular thenatic consonant) plus -ou
'result' results in aorokpu 'hole'.
ooro 'exhibit a hole' plus -w- (plural thenatic consonant) plus -vu
'result' results in oorowvu 'holes'.
(3) hanaua 'dig a hole' plus -ni 'result' results in hanouni
(4) aoro 'exhibit a hole' plus -k- (singular thenatic consonant) plus -in
(variation of -na ) ' transitivizer ' plus -oi 'instrument' results in oorok inai
' auger ' .
auuui 'sleep' plus reduplication plus -Qi 'instrument' results in
DuvuuDi 'bed' .
♦ See above, end of 'Verb Derivation' section, page 551
The follouing is an example of a Hopi verb changed by derivation to a
noun, then changed back to a verb, and finally changed again to a noun.
qa ( ggent )
w < plural)
'Those who hold a belief
+ + + H
The Hopi postpositional system consists of a series of bases to which
almost tuo dozen endings may be suffixed. The bases are:
inu- ' first-person singular'
u- ' second-person s ingul ar *
a- 'third-person singular'
' first-person plural'
' second-person plural '
na- or ne-
The postpositional form for 'third-person singular', given as a^ above,
is actually highly irregular in Hopi. This is illustrated by the follouing
au( * 1 )
' in him, at hin'
angqu (anq*iS) 'from hin'
engen('i} 'on his behalf*
ehpeui('i) 'against hin'
ang( 'a) 'upon hin'
Rs discussed on page 533 above, a longer "pausal" forn is created by adding —
or exchanging — the sounds given in parentheses.
The postpositional endings are:
- ngaqu( - ngaq ' 6 >
-ngen< i )
-pyeve( ' e)
- ngk ( i )
-hpeui( ' i )
-h3auva< ' a)
-hpiy( ' o)
'to, into' [second-person base becones au- ]
'touard* [second-person base becones uu- 3
'on behalf of
'on account of
'on top of
'uiith (subject with object)'*
' fron, through'
aku< ^ a)
' in back of
'in the language of
'by means of (inanimate)* [3rd-per, sg. ohly]
*uith (object uith object, or inanimate
subject uith object)* [3rd-per only]
The following forms also fill the sane slot as Hopi postpositions (though
they cannot have a referent as can the postpositions):
peu< * i )
yangqu( yangq ' 6 )
pangso( ' o)
pangsoq( * a)
pangqu( pangq ' 6 )
pahpiy< ' o)
'at , in here'
' from here'
' from here'
' from there'
' from there'
If the postpositional ending is attached to a f irst- or second-person
base, it can have no modification:
gam inumi vori
he to- me saw
' He saw me . '
* This ending is irregular following bases for 'first-person plural' and
for 'other'. resulting in itamum 'with us' and nuhtum 'with
If the postpositional ending is attached to a third-person base, it can
be preceded by a referent <a noun phrase):
oam taaaatuv awuni vori
he the-tuo-nen to-then sau
'He sau the tuo nen.'
oam taaoat tuuahaev au^ Uv^V^i
he man he-f ound-uhon to-hin spoke
'He spoke to the nan uhon he had found.'
In this situation the entire clause 'nan uhon he found' is the referent of
POSTPOSITIONS USED AS PREDICATE
A postposition nay fill the predicate slot of a Hopi sentence:
pan out au' i neans 'He uent to hin- '
pan put anuna neans 'He uent uith hin-'
'He is/uas uith hin.'
pan k iv ep' e neans 'He is in his house.'
For declarative or optative, the pausal forn is used. For declarative
plural, -va is suffixed to the short ( non-pausal ) forn. For optative plural
-va' a is suffixed to the short forn. To obtain the general node or to add
relationals to the singular forn, -ni- is suffixes to the short forn. The
inflections of au 'to it/hin/her' is illustrative:
Declarative: au' i 'he uent to it' auya 'they uent to it'
Potential: auni 'he uill go to it' auyani 'they uill go to it'
Optative: au' i 'go to it' auya'a 'you (pi.) go to it'
General: auninguu 'he goes to it' auyanguu 'they go to it'
auniqu 'when he goes to it' auyaqu ' uhen they go to it'
aunihqe ' because he uent to it ' auyaqe ' because they uent to it '
aunikyangu 'while going to it' auyakyahkyangu 'uhile going to it'
aunit 'after going to it' auyat 'after going to it'
aunen 'if /when he goes to it' auye' ' if /when they go to it'
There is frequent overlap in Hopi between adjectives and verbs. An
adjective can occur bound to the noun which it modifies, or as a predicate
describing the subj ect of the sentence.
Some adjectives have a bound form and a free form, while others must have
the passive verb suffix -iwta in order to stand in the predicate position.
Some adjectives have case endings:
tsav 'small' (direct case)
tsakw ' small ' ( obi ique case)
Examples of adj ect ives which have both bound and free forms:
loma- lolma 'good'
hah lav- hahlavi 'happy'
Other examples of the use of adjectives:
lomataoa 'a good man'
taaaa lolma 'The man is good-'
hahlav'unanoua 'a happy heart'
iaaaa hahlavi 'The nan is happy.'
honaakuvi 'crazy uater (uhiskey)'
taaoa hoonao' iuita 'The wan is crazy/drunk.'
Hopi - English
English - Hopi
P. David Seaman, Ph.D.
Northern Arizona University
with the assistance of
Jonathan O. Ekstrom and others
(please see Acknowledgements)
Northern Arizona University Anthropological Paper No.2
Copyright (c) 1985 Arizona Board of Regents
Departnent of Anthropol ogy
Northern Arizona University