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Full text of "Sketch of Lakhota, a Siouan Language. In: Handbook of North American Indians, Vol 17: Languages"

1. Phonology 

Table 1 gives the consonant phonemes of Sioux, and 
table 2, the vowels. The discussion that follows specifies 
the significant variants of these phonemes for the Teton 
dialect. Although the transcription is phonemic, it uses 
and adapts some conventions and diacritics from earlier 
practical orthographies and uses capitalization and punc- 
tuation in accordance with written English norms. 



Table 1. Lakhota Consonants 



Labial 



Dental 



Palatal 



Velar 



Post Velar 



Glottal 



Obstruents 














stops 


voiceless plain 


P 


t 


c 


k 






voiceless aspirated 


ph 


th 


ch 


kh 






voiceless glottalized 


P ? 


t ? 


c 9 


k ? 






voiced 


b 






€ 




fricatives 


voiceless plain 




s 


s 




K 




voiced 




z 


z 




8 


Resonants 














nasals 




m 


n 




h 




lateral 






I 








Glides 




w 




y 







441 



SKETCH OF LAKHOTA, A SIOUAN LANGUAGE 



Table 2. Lakhota Vowels 





Front 


Central 


Back 


high oral 


i 




u 


nasal 


i 




H 


mid 


e 




o 


low nasal 




Q 




oral 




a 





Stress and Pitch 

relative loudness, high pitch 
Diacritics used in phonetic transcriptions: 
v less loud than vowels stressed 
A fading loudness, high falling pitch 
v increasing loudness, high rising pitch 



Rood, David S. and Allan R. Taylor. 1996. Sketch of Lakhota, a Siouan 
Language. In: Goddard, Ives (ed.) Handbook of North American Indians 
Vol 17: Languages. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.