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Full text of "A Grammar of the Maguindanao Tongue"



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; A GRAMMAR .:;: ." ;" :- 

MACailNOANAa TONOyE 



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A GRAMMAR 



01" THE 



MAGUINDANAO TONGUE 

ACCOR[)ING TO THR MANNI.R Ol" 

:^Pt:.\KIMG IT 



IN 



THr: IMTERIOR AND ON THE SOUTH 
fOASI OF Tl-IF. ISL/\ND OF MINDANAO. 



Rl-y. KATHE^ J. 11?ANM.\IU ■, OHDi-R OF }VJ>V\rS. 

\\y C. C. .SMri[|, 

CAri'AIN R )URT1-,F-N1 1 1 D. fi. CAVALUV. 



\yA?niNGTON: 

cc>vfj*nmf-:nt v\un-i ing orncR 

I9f>6. 



WAH lirrAHTMKNT. 

<>VklL'» II* t'FlJkK iiJ' Sl^.KF. 



f 

- ,- t 



'^ r '"I - (^ 



TRANKLATOK^K ]iEMAKKS. 



C.)ti taltiii]^' up t.lio work of transit tiri^ :i Moro ^'laininHr, tiie 
only bffok Micro wais to follow, Eit Ir^irtti tin? only one that ciune to 
rlio iumds of the uii'lei-signt'il, was a ti^^n^tll, bri^'f aS'aii. <"'ni'jl 
'' Grri.mat.icudela,Lt:iigmLM^gniudajiiio", by Ja-ciiitij Juatmiaxti, 
-b'r^nit. 

The work wjih midertriliisn vn\)i Ji view to learning: something 
of Misrti. T}i<' <lijU^(t of thr Mapiiinliiimoft of tlie Cottateto His- 
trict, aiuT tliot of the Laifaos of t.lni lake i-egion is- quite siuiiljw, 
and it is believE'd tltat tho ;<riiiiiiiiar of ttie forioer^ tl'Oiittd of iti 
thcRo i^ai^'OJ^, will f^iiffi<;o for tho lattor. Tlin vor-almlary of one is 
sli^^litly "iifferent, howovtT, from that of the othcr. 

hi t.iie la^^t paniifiviiih uf the preface the author ^latiiM tliat \n 
thf fiijiil pa^vs of tho book tlierr is a viir;tbnl;iry uf Spanish, 
JVlorOj iu\i\ Ma]ay- P'ln- thifi, OTio of English, JJatjinTKlaiiaDj ;iml 
Malay will bii subsUtntid in thi' traiishi,tinn. 

The translator ia Ml 'H awaie that this piiinplilot i.n notf io!i fr-ouL 
errors, an<l the apology offer<^fl is that hu hazJ. put his hi'sl i.!ll'<>vt» 
oji it with tho idoa, and tlic hopk\ thnt it may \>e iTiiprov<iLL npoa 
by some Ono (^l.sc 

A f<!w notes have Ix'nn jultleil by tho inKltTM^noil, 

r. t'.HMITll, 

T ran viator. 
OA.Mr OvEirrOM. Mtnd., P. I., 
March 31, 190r>. 



PREFACE (AUTHOR'S). 



In taking up my pen to write a grammar of the Moro tongue, 
I tee that niiiny difficulties may arise to prevtjnt my object from 
Ijeing attained— difficulties common to all tongues ■which have 
not been poHslieil or improved by printiTig-. 

This la orie of those toTiguea nut mnch know^n., and. in which 
scarcely any manuscripts exist, sa.ve a few poorly kept notebooks 
which serve the Moros of these diatricts to transmit amon^ them- 
selves ilie usages and custama of the dialect. Such notebooks 
are generally written in a bri^f -^tyle, after the manner of letteni 
which pass between them, in both of which maeh rudeness pre- 
vails, and which are written with nohttle work or difficulty. 

The fiearcity of writings in this to ngue^ and the incorrtetncss 
of those that exist, make it difficult and almost impossible to 
cf>tnpose a gralnmar which shall bo full and perfect. G-ramniar 
being the conjunction of rulee for proper epeaklog., it will be 
aef^n that it ia not easy to obtain these rule« by liistening to the 
natives, as each one pronounces, more or less, after his own 
inclination. 

Time and coD&t^ncy, with observation and experience of some 
yearH a8 to the mode of expressing Moto ideas, has Riade it pos- 
sible to Up"^ the rules put down in this grammar. The Malay 
language, somewhat like the Yisayan and Muro, both of which 
recognise it as a mother tongue, haa aided me iti the prepaxatiort 
of this book. 

We have Cfiinfidence in God that this treatise will serve to 
facilitate the atndy of the Moro ton^e for onr brother mission- 
aries whom iMvine Providence has destined to follow th^a work^ 
and for others who may coriie to these lands who wish to learn 
it; and it will also serre the purpose of permitting the natives to 
learn the beautiful language of Castillo. 

(5> 



I do not believe* as. I have said l>efore, that my work wOl be 
perfect; even imperfect it ttiII be of some use, and may be the 
means of prompting some oae in perfect it, or to do better than 
I have done, 

Oa the last pagea of this book will be found a yocabulary of 
Spanish, Mnro, and Ma,lay, "which demonstrates the relations 
existing between Malay and Moro, also between Moro and the 
other tongues and dialects of the Philippines, 



GEAMMAR 

OF TUE 

MAGUINDANAO TONriUE. 



CONCERNING LETTERS AND THEIR PRONUNCIATION. 

The consonants are 30, as follows: B, (;» IK(t, H, J, K.lj.M, N, 
P, Q, B, «, T, V, X, V, Z, and the Spanisli % 

Tliere aro £qut vowt=lii; a, t^ i, and ii. V ia sometimes pro- 
nounijed o, though tliere is no diHtinct character to represent the 
latter soand, and custoui regulates its use. 

In addition to letter H already mentionedj this tongue contains 
the Spanish cIi, also <iK and ts, pronounced by at^centnjiting tbe 
d in da, and making ts sound like the Spamsh les; ug^ ia used 
with frequency, also in^sif, common to all the tongues of the 
Archipelago; f is lacldng and i» takes its plsioe, Tho lottrrs I and 
r are not ns^d hefore «unsonanta, but precude vowels. It is very 
fre<iuent, among peoples who speak this tongue, that these two 
letttra art? con foiin tied , either being used in several of their 
espreasions. The Malanaoa ordinarily use the r^ while tho Ma- 
guindanaos prefer the h 

In all other letterf^ the pronunciation is Spanish. 01 is always 
hard, as in fra, go, ^u. H is not aspii-ated and is silent, as in 
Spanish words, V is r-eadily disttng-uished from li, liaving the 
sound of the vowel u, as vflti.», which is pronounced '^nato*' 

The Maguindanaos nwe an e sound hetwt^i a and t\, aiul this 
sound (not given in tlie t^xt) mu*jt he leai'i^yd by practice when 
the stndent is among those who u^n it. 

•iiK 1* pnjfiKninrod ang (a m In ijrnil and h the IndfifinitB proimuu i/. 

t m^a Ia nil alitji^viHtion iof niaiic'^ 4l>ot}t vJ'b rih in -'rti'). I'lir fi fulL ili':34.Tij)tiun of 

J Kfny lit niitJ'i tbitt lbi> a., Of atiil ii in tbr 4']i.iiiiipUiii ^y, e,'l>, and ku urt? )irGiiuiinci^d jih 
JD t|if SpiLitlth al]jli(iltpt 

a) 



8 

PEONUNCIATION OF LETTERS. 

(AdJitJoii by iranslft-tor.J 

ConsoTtants, 

It— Be (<; as in end), 
C — Cu (<>aBin tnd). 

(■—He fe aa in f7id}. 

U— Adiy (A a.^ ill arm), 

J — Kota (" at^ in note, and a as In arm), 

K — Ka (a as in arm) . 

L — EUy (E as in end) . 

n — Fminy (E u,a in end). 

N— Ennj (E as in end). 

I*— P(^ (f* aa ill end). . 

(j~Kh (h as in p/wne), 

K— Erry (E as in ^wdj. 

S— Essj" (E as in end) . 

T"Te {i^hninend). 

Y — Yo (e as in enrf), 

X — Eki.s (E as in end, and i as in Hi). 

Y — Eg^rioga (E as in meat, l as in Hi, v aa in end. n as in ar»i. 

Z — Selt-a (-e as in end^ and a aa in arm). 

S— Pronounced as in Spanish in the word caiittu (canyon) . 

Vovpels. 

t 

H—a. CpTonounced as in far). 
e — (^ (i>ronoiince(i as in end). 
\ — i (pronounced as in i?l). 
II — u (pronounced asin^rwne). 



INTBODTJCTIOI^. 



Tjaiigtiage is the conjnn-ctiijii of \rords for expressing ideas 
which the people of a tongue use. It therefore follows that the 
Magnindanao toiig-ue is the union of words used hy the MagTiin- 
dannos to espress their ideas, and the graiiiniar of this tongae 
is the art of speaking and writing it correctly. 

Grammar is made up of Analogy, whicli treats of the relations 
whiqh words Ijear to <?a<^h other; of Syntax, w^hich treaty of the 
construction of sentences; of Prosody, treating of pronunciation; 
and Orthography, which treats of elementary sounds, spelling, 
and the manner of writing a language. 

(») 



I 1 



PART I-— OF ANAXOGT. 



Analogy, sni before fjtated, treats of the relations ■wliicli wordu 
bear io eaoh other. The anion of ■words, which together esproas 
a clear idea, i^^ called a sentence, thus; Maliiiiu .^ti Alafala ('iliiu 
inaii^n imj—God lovca maiiMnd. Sit tftii akll-liali^da iiial.f|iu Kn 

jwfl \n—Th€ just mav does no harm to his mighhov. 

With refarence to laeaniiig and u^e Vk'orda are, divideil into 
nine claf^Me??, caHcd Parts <»i Speech,* via, Article, Noun, Pro- 
nonn, Vcrbj Pfirticiple, Adverb, Prep<:isition, Conjunction, !*nd 
Interjection. 



Chapt™ |._<)F the AKTICLE, 

The article u-sorl alone nove;' wakes sense , hut mnat accompany 
aguhstantivenann?for thi^purpos*^ tlms; Si Juan sum^akayo^ 
Jo}i.7i itnd th^ vyood.\ In tlie fore^oin^ f^ent<'n<re si and sii ure defi- 
nite articles, si being used with proper and su with cinrimon 
nouns, si always preceding the proper noun, Tlie indefinite 
ai'ticle tisisu (singular) and alien (plural), thus: Isacabengala— 
A shirt. Aden a iniiijir, adon iiiaiiirndaKJlaTit'- iiiiii^' — Som&de&ire 
and soTiiP- do not desire. Ailon iiisiiiiA, adon luarat— jSom^ are 
good J others bad. 

* Vutico tit at llir ibiljiTliTfl i^ PqC ^t^d fn tlie parfH i^^f ?piMM']i, 

I The coif^tmction of eti[l€n<:fi iu tliir- Itxt iiiHiiriilly fullnws tlic riiaile»< <•( ''^:pr'^niilini 
j]i Mnry, Tlioivfuie Ui'i lil-?ral tTaiiBUtiun ut Mife fiOLl^uotj b; T!"^ -folut ai'-l all tht 

JTlieinJefibileartielef sin^uliir, Lk«, is tSe Moio won! foi on? ia), ami tin' indefinilo 
artjclt, pluiul, adeh, \^ rmi" (^-nr^). 

Imk Ib eqDkval-Qnt to the ^iiiini^li pnO (JiiU'T.) or pna (fi>ia.), ar-cordicii^ tij whcilicr 
USE^J witlii e, iQjiiHruIiiLi? ur fi.'tiiiiiiiiD toiLipltmcEil^ aiirl aili^n t<> IIDOM liiiii&c.) or udu'4 
(fern,), al^o acroixlliig ta wl»plher ur,i'ir wLtfci n miihfu Lino o r iepjiniae ixnupLemeDt. 



(ii) 



IS 



Declension of the definite article sj* {the) singular, preceding a 
proper noun: 

None. Si Juan John (The JoUii), 

Gen^ Ni, or cani Juan __. Of John, John^s, 

Dat. Cani Jiian To, or for John. 

Aec. CaiiiJuan AtJohn. 

Foe. AyJuanl Jiiaii! QhJohn! John! 

Abl Cani Juan._._,. ..__ With, of , in^ on, by, for^ from, 

without^ and ov^sr John, 

There ia no plural definite artiole^t 

The name of the Deity alwaya carries tte definite article sii, 
thua: Su AlataU { The God) and not SI Alalala. 

Declension of tlie definite article !*ii;t (the) sing-ular: 

Norn-. Su asif The dog. 

G-en. Sa, na, or uana aau Of the dog. 

Dat. Sa, <;ana asu. Tt>, or for the dog- 
bee, Sa asTt Atthedo^. 

VoG. Asu[ ayasul. Dog! OhdogT 

Abh Sa,canaa3ii _ With, of, in, on, tiy, for, from, 

without, and over the dog. 

Decleiiaion of the definite article sn (the) plural: 

Nom. Sumgaasu The dogs, 

Oen. Sa nu, canu mga asn Of the doge, 

Dat. Sa, cahu mga iiau To, o?- for the dogs» 

Ace. Sa, i, cannmgaasTi Atthedogs, 

Voc. Aanlayaaul Uogal Oh dogs I 

AbL Sa, canu mga itsu With, of, in, on, by, for, from, 

■without, and over the dogs. 

*Tte Btiiclenl iBaiviiye uaed before nprop^r nouD, t^seepl when fhe Dfil^' ia ri^l^rreil to. 

tHg:a,eqiL[va1euttoa?r, ^ailwbeD u&ed uilh tlie kriu nir., tu nU JJie, is an jiMneviJitiun 
lor manfa (both b'b fts In arm). Jt might bn cofleit a plural definite flrikle demitinn 
cither ■DaBculiDity or fcngJamitj, ns in the following examples: ^n m^B Ian — The man 
ur All the -men; Su ID^ft bal!i»y — TheK<nnen vr Ml f-fiB j/:omsn. 

Itwihhi e&AU tMtlt l^t'FoiTQa tL« ^fHo^^f LJie Sl>aiii»b los {Ihe) irLftBc-iilme^ and Uh 

if Th.e article BiL iB ns^ vbea tho Dei ly 1b ref'trred to, and vriCh cqhiiuoii nounfl, and 
alBO admltii of muculknit; orfeuuEninitj', Ihus: 8d ttHt-^TJietnan; and Su ^httj—Thf 
Kontnn. Id thJ^ reepecC Stia dUTerent fronj tb« Spanish article the, wljjob la el (maur.] 



13 

1. Sti ii-aJa,y ni Pedro The house of Peter. 

*2. Pinangubut wa asu si Pedro_ The dog bit P-eter. 

*3. Pangani si J<we caiii Pedro _ _ Josepli begs Peter. 

*4. Iniiuatayan iii Pedro su 

saladeiig Tliedetjr waa killed by Peter. 

f), @ii Hundatig -aiiia <::aiii iiata 

ku This cria is for my son, 

U. San den su ama iiin Your father is over there 



Chapter 2.-OF THE NOUN. 

The nounj ia that part of speet^h which serves to make known 
things or peraoiia, and th-e qualities which pertain to them. 
There are substantive nonns and adjective nonns. X 

OP THE SUBSTANTIVE HOUN. 

The ^substantive noun is the^ name which serves to make any 
thiTig^ or per^^un Irnown w^hicli ia within the conception of iliaji^ 
thiiw : Palaii— A uTOOded Mil ; Lilian— road ; IsLiin ^ — Moro ; 
Capia— goodites*. 

First. The ]ionii may be proper or common. 

A projior noun. i!4 the name ^if B^me particular perwm, pia<;e, 
pE'ople, or thing, thna : Mo^iifndanao, Malaiia4», ZainboRn^a^ 
Manila. 

A coiiim^m noun is the name which is applied to any one of a 
kind or d!iS3 of objects, thus: X^it — niaji; K»yo — tree: Kiida — 
horse . 

Second. A noun may be either primitive or derivative. 



*TfF|five an iiici of tlie constriirlu-ii "f fstjitftimw in tills tongiiri, tlio fl^wnri^ IhirdpBait 

1 iSlttcnof JogtholVtor, 

ii, Buifa l;lie(Jopc|)li uf Pet-cr, 
4. Kllli?! of PtWr the (lt<.r. 
Tlio scroiid ii i?i|I|Iyii]ciiI. to t'llrr nm^ hefte't hytke flon; the third to Peffr V'"* he^Q^d ff 
hi) jGn^h; Kfirl tilt? foil rtli tij Till: deei' rrru' I'iUsd by Fe!er' all tiLo^^'Ju^ liow iLiiivertal U 
|}i(! use -nf tliL' j>jiS';iin t'okt, ^vbkl^ '^'iil bfl treJited of hiter, 
f Tbe pjirt nf ppea^b wliitli s'srv-ea In give a oaiuQ to any pifraOii or tbiiL^. 
t As tliA ^liJeotEve \s not givtn in tb« pfrrtu of epeecL io. this gnmintar, a Mom adjcctivi^ 
iioQTL iBpraclically oura'ljectlve. 
S A Mohamqieda.Q- 



14 

A primitive noun is OTie that lias no origin from auotlier iionn, 
as: Lupa — earth: VnUi — roch: Ig' — water. 

A doT-ivativo noiiii iw ouf? tliat originals froin another uoun, 
Hb: lllimaii— piWozf. derived from nliij head, and iiu, a suffix, 
wliitli iti urtPd wtLr;n reffjieiice is made Ui a place. 

DeriTatives from other nouiia are csilled *'iigminalH," thuM: 
Pnlaiijiri — a ridge of v?ooded hiltSj from Pnlau — a wooded hill, 
and nn—(i place^ 

Deri'vativ^^s TPhicli arc from vorbs are called ^'verbals," tlius: 
ni^aaii — hedy from Mi|ra — to bf lyijtg dotun, aud an — aplace. 

To forin^ in Moro, derivative nouns eitheTfrom nonna or verbs, 
prefixes and suffixes Jire used with a primitive "word, and tlie mode 
of*{tppLyingth.ent is as follows: The terms ca and pugc« are placed 
before nouns which express a quality, in oths^r words, before 
adjcc^tives, and by thi!^ loeiins abf^traot nouns are formed which 
ospre&a whsit in desired, thus^ Ca (the English suffix ness) a 
prefix, and iiiiti (white) makt^ capiiti — whitejtess; ca, M'ith pin, a 
term referring to Einythiiig good, should be nsi^d as follows: 
Cii\yin—good7it:3S. (]a, with the term nyJig^ whioli expresses the 
idea of living, should Iw: used as follows; Caiiya^ — life, Pajjrca 
Alatala signifie-s the Deity: and pai^n 'tuit— humanity, showing 
that iiiig-ea in tln.'f>e cases is equivalent to the Eii^dish snffis iiy. 

Pa^'cntiilMint or <'a|iacaiiibiia1 aig-Tiifles the act of getting np or 
vising, showing that pagtii and I'a hero are eatdi equivalent to the 
English snfRs iag^ 

Prefixing the terras pa, i>ag', pen, tir ped to the duplicated first. 
syllable of a rtwit, a uOUn iS fortUed of whieh the Tixjt gives an 
idea, thus: Tiijjriio.s— j*e*^tf, i.4 (changed to jjatutu^'ut^s— ^Jiemi^?^; 
siirnt— fo write, is changed to pjisiisprat— pi?nmrrw; iigttHid— (o 
till the land, is changed to paiigaii^aiiideii or to tim^ftiigauirteii— 
farmer; dado — to plowj la changed to jiiidado-a pEoivman,' 
iidai^ang — fi> do business, is changed to p-endadn^an-da^aug — a 
ntercJiaut: pedsesedftea^owe who begs alms^ comes from ^edeeft — 

The foregoiTig prefixes (pa^ pafe% pen, ped) after being used 
with a root to form a word, still form other words by using the 
sufG-i an,* a^; Pendagaiigiiuan— as^oj^'-V and p-einbiimmn — a fight' 
in^ plave^ which comes from luh\iti\l—io fight or (p£arreL 



#Tlii' nsp i>f thiH teim an n khUIx If* tn il^notp el pLaoe- 



15 

Witb the prefisea c»iii and ca L1.111I the siiffis au, nouns and 
verba often take the following f oriii?^: HiiIla^iiI — to divide', may be 
changed to caiiiMlin^iii — division; ran^uM— to sv/aH, to fnran- 
l^Hil — one who looks stern or fierce; iiibiinii — to fight, tocniiilkunu — 
war; balkiisal — pniaphin, to l>al>iisalAU — a puitiphin fields pjliii'- 
bula^o j^^j'ni/, topaiiihulaai* — a plantOrtion <or garden) \ Mil^tib — 
a cockjight^ to siieuban— a coekx->U. 

The t-??mi ta Tis^d with certain noiins oj^ verbs espre^jses tlie 
idt?a of time (ko!iso!i), thus: Tfi^iilim — rainy s&mov: Tsipaiio- 
iianff — the tiirit of very warm weather: Tii-o'alrmpfH; — clearing 
time (clearing tht? land vt trees, shrubs, *^tc.): Ta-oaimuiula^ 
planting tim^^ This ten n has another Vise explained in the fol- 
lowing exLimplesi Tagiifiiaiu— a drinker^ jtiid Tabi'rtc — a talker. 
Ill the last two ('Xiiiiupley, ta, thougli a prefix, apparently ia 
t'q-uivaleiit to the; English .stiftLx er. 

The tenn ki nw.;d with eertain words espresse^ the idea of 
ownership, thiis: Ki-iialay^o «■"«£>■ 0/ the hon&v iW-HMsai^—owm^r 
of the boat (small boat) ; ki-bas»LC — ottnier of ciitttvatcd land. 

Kinft used with other words si^ifies imitatioTi, thns: Khia- 
sila — (o imitate the Sjid^i^idi'ds: kiiia-lHlam — to imitate theMoroa; 
ii ilia- in sic— (c imitate the Chinese. 

Thenaine of aninj^truinentii?;ed toa-:'tomplish something ^-ith, 
is expressfsd by using i|»a with the verb which expresses the 
action, thus: Tpaiualiil— f/te corUri trance ufied to blow the cliaj}' 
front rice: Jpa^imrat — an instntmenf used in uniting: ipa*tip- 
a^eit — o.ny tool for cutting or chopping wood. 

To show th^ njitionality of a person, tR^^ is usf^d with tbo 
Spanish name of the country, thus: TagVi'TjS\MLiimSpaniard; 
tii^n-XfriViiA— African; tu^a- America— /I mcn'coTt. 

Terma which magnify a priinitiv*! are not nst'd in Moro, i. e., 
in the cane of the vjord great there is no rnle for forming the term 
grea^i??"^ bat ii different word must be used, thua: Masla — great; 
mtkv.a\\a\~biff, ffiout, ihick, greater. 

Wor<is to espreKsdiminutiv^es are formed by repeating a priijii- 
tive, thus; Ualrtyiialay— a amail houtie; auan^>-aimng'— a small 
hoat- 

Coll*^ctive nouns which in the singular express a multituiie of 
things OT perK>iis are used i][ Moro in two ways, Jifx^orfling to the 
objects wlli<^ll are referred ttJ, If i*niiiiEite objetita are referred 
to, tampucis used; if inanimate^ the prefix ca and the suffia an 
are employed or the suffix alone may be used. 



16 

Examples, 

1. Tumpuca taii__ A gathering of men. 

TnmpucaMibili ___ A flock of sheep. 

2, CamaDgaan AplacewheremaBymangotrees 

grow, or mango grove. 
CaTiatnaii A pile of rocka. 

Ningan A place where manj' cocoanut 

^ trees grow, or a cucoanut 

grove. 

Many things are expressed by a single word, thus: Kayo — tre^; 
iiatii^rocA:,- ila^nt — sea. 

There are also- (composite terms made up of tivoov more words, 
tliiis: PaiiilU}' a ^^yo— carpenter ; ki-ualay— o^mer of th& house: 
ta^UualQ}'— the person living in or occupying the house. 

A Bubatantive noun baa no gender or number in the Moro 
grammar, thna: A^u—dog; mpt-^mttle; and ku^a—horse, of 
themselves do not express either masculinity or femininity^ and 
may bo used in the singular or plural. 

IKow, in order to distiiig-uish the sex. marim (male) or liabay 
(female) is added to the noun, and to form the plnral tlie term 
is modified by niga* 

^uramples, 

Sapi mama BulL 

Sapibabay Cow. 

Ash a mama Dog. 

Aauaimbay Bitch. 

Tau miiputi ,,^__,,. , __. A white man r 

Sn mga tau maputi The white men. 

Kayo masla A big tree- 

Sn ni ga kayo a masia _ The big trees, 

OF THE ADJEOTIVK NOUX. 

The adjective, wliioli serves to express the qualitiefi of persons 
and things-^ is lacking- in this tongue, of gender, number, and 
cat^e; it follows, then, that tht^re ia a sole termination for all 
genders, cases, and nanil)ers, thns^ Tau iiiaiiga— a red jnan^ and 
liengala marina — a red shirt: s« sIcA niaftcm — the blaQic cat; and 
urn inga papanuc a maitem— the black birds. 



17 

It is cnstomary to form adjectiveaof the root of averbornonn, 
placing before the root the term mn, thus, witli the root pia, 
which expresses tho idea of goodneaa, we get iniipia — good; with 
IMiru, which sigiiifi-es the iilca of height, we make miipuru — high, 
and with capalf which espreases tlie idea of thickness^ "we get 
III a<! apul — thicks 

CfF COMPARATIVES ANB SUPERLATIVES, 

Comparatives <aro formed by simply uniting to the positive the 
word Irtbi, which signifies tnore. To express an idea of less tha 
word, ciilaiig is used, also di t-auto, which is equivalent to not so 

Kxdiapltis, 

Sn Timacu mapiiru a palau, Timaco is a high wooded hill 
entabes labi a mapiiru au but Pico Cogoiial is higher 
Ealalaan. (more hi^h). 

Si Jnan labi a mapia cani John is better (more good) tha.n 
Roque. Roqiie, 

Sn ualay m Pedro culang :i Peter's house is not longer than 
maleii^Ti oaua ualay m Jose. Joseph's, nor ia it shorter. 

Sn hegas ania di tanto maputi That rice is not so ■white as 
sa btjgas n.a,mi. ours. 

Superlatives are formed with the terms taiiW and cablbaiiaiL 
both equivalent t<j much or very. 

SnJadi tantoaragans The King is very powerful. 

Sn islamcalabauan ainesqnin__ The Moro is very poor. 

Diininutives are expressed by the terina inalte<^ and padiilUf 
etiuivalent to very small and little^ respe<;tively- 

Mait^cauata... A very sioall child. 

Glat padidu A little tnife* * 



371- 



18 



OF >JUMEEAL5. 



3. 
4. 

7. 
S. 



The following are mma of the 

U L^a - 

3. Dua -,__,. 

Telii__._ 

Apat 

Lima 

Auetn 

Pitu 

Ualu 

Siau 

10- Sapiiln 

11. Siipulu isa __ _ 

IS. Sapulu diia 

IS. Sapuln telti _ . _ 

14. Sapvilu pat -_ 

ir». Sapiilu liiim 

10, Sapulu np:n 

17. Sapulu pitii 

20. T>iiftpuln.. 

TehipulTi ^ 

Apatpulu 

Limapuhi _ 

100. MsLgatns 

^00. Dua-gatas 

300, Telu-gaUiJi _ 

l/WO. Sauguibu 

2,000. Dua-iiffiiibii__, 

10,000, Salacsa. 

^0,000. Dualacsa 

100,000. Sa-juta. 

1,000,000. Sa-kati 



30. 
40. 

r.o. 



cardinal iiTimerals: 
One- 
Two> 
Three. 
Four. 
Five. 
Sis. 
Seven. 
Eight. 
!N"iiit!. 
Ton, 
Eleven. 
Twolve. 
Tliirteim. 
Fourteen. 
Fifteou. 
Slsteeii, 
St?venteeii. 
Twenty. 
Thirty. 
Forty. 
Fifty. 

One hundred. 
Twohnnclred. 
Three hundred- 
One thousand. 
Twtt thousand- 
Ten thousand. 
Twenty tliouHand. 
OTie Jmndred thousand. 
One million. 



Ordinnl nunn-ThlB. 


Miiltijilifjitivo niimerJils. 


Su niuna 


The first. 


TTgagaiba 


Single. 


S« icadua 


The second. 


Ngagadua 


Twofold. 


Su icatehi 


The third. 


Ngaga telu 


Threefold. 


Su ieapat 


The fourth. 


Ngaga pat 


Fourfold. 


Su icalima 


The fifth. 


Ngaga liiaa 


Fivefold. 



19 

CliAlTEli a— OF PRONOUNS. 

Dec^leiision of the pronoun Saki {I) , first persoTij dngxilar ; 

Nom. Saki, altu T. 

Gen. Ku, salaki.laki Of i:iie, 

Dat. Salalti» sa Ralaki_ To or fornix. 

Ace. Salalii, sa salaki At me. 

Voc. 

Abl. Salaki, sft salaki Of, in, foi\ on, over, attd 

with me 

PluT^il ( rve) , when evt^Ty one if* Teftii'reil to : 

Nom^ Salkitanu, sekitann, tanUj We, all of us. 
lekitann. 

Qen. Saltiian^i, sa salkitanu, tann__ Of us. 

Ditt. Salkitami, sawalkitanii To or for u:^. 

Ace. ^'AYkitunu. sa salkitjmn At as. 

VOG. 

Abi Salkitanu m aalkitanu With, of, m, for, oii.with- 

o-tit. and over ns, 

Plviral (jv^e), when only two peraona (thou and 7, or ijoti and 
me) are refen-fd to : 

Nam. Salkita, sekita, in _. We. 

Oen. Salkita, sekita, ta, Icliit-iL Of u&, 

Dai. Balkita^ sa salkita ._ To Or for us. 

Ace. ^Ikita.sa salkita At ns. 

Voe. 

Abl Salkiti. ea salkita With, of, in, for, oo, with' 

out, arid over Urt. 

Plaral (ii^e) , T^hen all esoejit you or ye are I'eferre*! Ui : 

Nom. Salka™, kami We. 

Gen. Snlkumi, nami» lekaini Of us. 

Dat. Salkami, sa salkanii To or for ji^. 

Ace. Salkami, sa saltami . At uft, 

Voc. 

Abl. Salkami, sa salkami . With^ of, in, for, on, with- 
out,, and over us. 



20 

Declansion of t^c prononn. thou^ second person, singular : 

X^o?n. Seka, saleta, ka Thou (you) . 

Geii^ Nengka, aaleka, sa aalka. Of thee (yon), 
leka, ka, 

Dat. Salka, sa salka To or for tliee (you)- 

Ace. Salka., sasaika _ At the^ lyoii). 

Voc. Seka ■. Thou fyoii). 

Ahh Salka^saealka Of, in,, for, on, by, with- 
out, over, and with thee 
(you). 

Declension of the pronouu yon, socoitfl person, plural : 

Norn. Salkanu, kanu You (ye). 

Gen, Salkanii, sa salkaitu, nu niu. Of you (ye), 
lekana. 

Dat. SalkanUn sasalkami To or for you (ye>. 

Ace, Salkanu^ sasalkanii _ At you (ye), 

Voc, ^^kaou^kaua.. ..._. ,._ You (ye). 

Ahl, SalkanUj saaalkann With, of, iu, for, oil, by, 

wi\}i,find over you (ye). 

Declension of the prononua he, sIii'., and it^ third personj 
singular: 

JVojn. Saltaniii, sekanin, nlii He» nhfl, it, 

G&n. Sa-lkunin, wa f>r na, lekiinin Of him, of her, of it. 

Dat Salkanin, caua Kalkaniii, sa To or for him. her, orit. 
salkauin. 

Ace. Salkanin, aa salkanin - At him, her, or ifc- 

Abl. Salkjiuin, Hii salkanin With, of, in, for, on, by, 

without, UT/ii over^hiui, 
hor, or it. 

Dei^lensiou of the pronoun thej/, third person, plural: 

JVowi. Silan , j^alkilan They. 

Oen. Kanilan, sa-kanilan, nilan Of them. 

Dili. Kanilan » sa-kanilaii To or for them. 

Aec. Kanilan, sa-kanilan, liilau At them. 

Voc. 

Abl. Kanilan^ aa kanilaa With* of^ in, for» on, by, 

without, and over them< 



SI 

The demonstrative pronouns are iiiia — -thrs, anfin—that^ fiifii — ■ 
that ojie, and tliey are declined without change* using witli tliem 
tke proper prepositions for the inakiTig of st^nse. 

Lati. Ill], salaM- My, niine. 

Nengka., salka, ka . . - - . , ThiTi-e, youra. 

Lekanin, iiin, palkanin , , - . . . His. 

Lekitanu, tanu, salkitami Ours (belonging to all of us). 

Lekitan ta, aalkita Oars (tliiiie and mine). 

Lekaini, nami, salkami Ours (excluding a particular 

one, or some particular onm ) . 

Lekanii, nu ..__^_.. ,_ Your and yonrs. 

Kaiiilanj nilan Theirs. 

Tlio genitives Inhi, lekn, Ickmiiii, Ipkilnmi, h^kLta, lekimii, and 
iiilan, it is customary to pi !ice Ijefore the noun, thna: S^i Inki a 
liilJay— m^ house; sii leknuiii u b^'ng-alii— /n's shirt; Irkniiii i\ 
Uigiwd — your foTVJt. 

I^TEltHOQATIVIil AND RELATIVE rROXOUN^- " 

The interrogative pronouns iu tbi^ tongue are fiiignlii ? or 
tingiien * — O'ho''' : iij^Jiiti I — what thing ? : »iifnifi I — trhich ? ; and 
antunflj — 'which tiling'/ The r*?lativt' pronoun, or that which 
take^ ita place iii this tongue, la siuifly the word ii {which) -u^d 
as follows : Sii kmlii n i^nauiji^n iii Pedro— T'/^p horse which pQier 
honght : Sii mgn tjni, n i1» siila iiilnn |iH^Arlnti s;a AlfttalH— rZ/c^e 
mm wkidi are free froM -sin arc the friends of Gnd. 

i (i) is also a relativt* pronoun, thus: Ntrsihi i kiima iif n f— 
What {thznfj} is that ti-Jdrh he tj'it out? 

The tenn illations dpii, lini, ami uii are also iisod, and it is cus- 
tomary to place them with nouna, verhs, ami personal pronoiins 
naed as possessive;;. They appear to indicate .some relation. T>ut 
cannot be c(msi(le=ted aa true relatives, tlmn : Titi^tiui nucnn sit 
beiigitlji liiiJ Saki iiaciia \\\i\—Who took wrj i^hlrt? I was the 
one v'ho tooJ^ it ,' { / )i)}j.-i^lf fooh it.) To signify onr e^xpri-ssiou 
tlint hIiU'Ii it is cnstomyiy nmofig tlir? Moros to simplyphice the 
article before^ the verb, and in thin cii?e it taki;,s tho place of el 
relative, thus; S^^aiii 1[iii-^iif'iiil>»l-k]i ! Hh i»^gt|iiiLiL?aiL \n-~ 
What do you do/ (What /.s tJ>e thing which /jotfr do^} That 
'ivhich I like. { The thing which I tiki'. ) 



n 

Su mindaran^eTi cagay mapia He who sang yesterday has a 
SIX siiala TiiTL good voice. 

Su iiiiCLiuiiia cagay iiata ni An- He who came yesterday is the 
cnng- son of Ancnng. 

soMf^ iLMEECis]]:s SHowirJa u;^e op phokouks. 

PaRalul:)y,an iienglta aalalti Yon pursue iiti. 

Di pacuan-kayii tamuc Ini. . . _. Da nnt take my jewels, 

Bn entn a pinainatay akn iiiii He is the one who struck me 

<-agiiy- yesterdiiy, 

Cauu iiiiug salkanu umnut Wlion do you 'wisli to follow 
salati tiiinaii sa palanr' me to the hill':' 

Mftngay akn hii i^imiij^ salka To-morrow I will go to your 
naUiy. house. 

Mapia ka bun dapay da akn ?_ _, Can not you pass without me? 

Udi kena ^salkanu <la gnna ii;n__ Without you I can do nothing. 

Miiii akn den _,- -- . T am ^oing now. 

Mnli aku den sa ualay ka ._^ I am going baok to my house- 

Andmi niaiigay nkn hu Where shall I go? 

Laiigiin kiiiiii it^alimu n^imi We all love you very much, 
saika a tiinto. 

In^at ca amayca pamulasan ako Woe to thee i f you inanlt me ! 
nenka T 

Duanin aku n^isala akn sa Ala- Woe is mo, who have offended 
tala: Gorll 

Am pun an nenka akii_ Pardon lue- 

Biijumin akn eudii piipagtim- I have come to make x>eace he- 
hangnen salkanu, twt?en you. 

Salig-kasalaki.dika niaguirec-- Pay attention to me, do not be 

frightened, 

Dc'vionstrative pro noims. 

,Di ka, inalipunget sa iiata, sa Do not scold this child nor that 
anan, euj;u sa entu. one nor the One yonder. 

Di Tiu pagcna anan a mga nlae Do not take those flowera nor 

a kayo, Gwgv. aii mga siirat t^iese books nor tbat bvauch 

anift. engu an umbus eiitu no of mangoes (fruit), 
mauga. 



S3 

Sugati ka den saii acaromainisj Content yourself with, that 
eiigu su iiiTintay entu, eagn orange and lemon and i1o not 
di pan-gani-ka sa Balacaii. ask for another thing. 

Ingay ka Balaki su entu pod a Give 2119 that other haiidker- 
inun&ala. cM^f. 

Possessive pronouns. 

Aua-ka sa laki a nalay ongu L^ave my lumae and call your 
tatiag-^ka sn uata. nen^kn^ son and his mother, 
engu fill ina iiin. 

Pila ^a cauatan puji sin tataan How far is it from liere to yo^ir 
sa ingued nengka eiigu ^i town and to ours "^ 
sekitauu ? 

Pagnidan ka Hii-taniuc-kii sa Ship my tilings mi your boat 
Buang nengka, en-gu-kani anul in .Tiiaii'H- 
Juan. 

TabaJJgiii nengka sekaTiiii sa Help yourself with your liaiiflK 
mga lima nengka enga ea ca- and your .strength, 
baguer iien^ka, 

Inici^rogatire- and Telaih'e pronouns^ 

Ngain a langim a taman iTiein- Of what have they made that 

balan su ualay anaiiV lionsf^ V 

Tinguia hu ped iiengka a mian- With wliic^h did you fall ? 

Tiiig^uu 1 CQinaliscLllta? -— Who wounded you? 

Ngain qn p©li, iiiawla ataua Which "wound, tho large or the 
padidn? small oneV 

TingHiiH \ pedaalig nenka?_ __ ... In whom do you confide? 

Tingtiin silan? Who are they? 

Ngaina inguedminau-gay-kaV-- To which town have yon been? 



Chapteh 4.— of the formation AND CON"JUNCTION 

OF VERBS. 

To he, To JiJive^ and To lie in a place. 

The verb to he and the verbal expression to be in a place are 
wanting in Maguiiidaniio, and to espreas ideas of their nature 
th« substantive is simply used vpith tlie adjective for to be, and 



u 

'With the place for to he in a place, as may- be ween by the follow- 
ing examples: 

Su tayo laacapal The tree is thick. 

Si Bodiilfo (R;idolph) to-apulvi Itudolph is a tall man. 
a tan. 

Su islam taEan Tlie Moro is a coward. 

Su manobu uiauarati--... The Moiitesis brave. 

8i: glat sa linanati na ttilugaii _ _ The poeketknife ia on the bed, 

Bu asa sa lama-lama The dog is in the park. 

Ordinarily, to espresa the idea of ''to be iii a place," itlscus" 
toinary to use one of the terint^ sailor lu, which are both adverbs 
of place equivalent to fi^r-e and ther*;^ thus ; AndikEi J<)j^<;^i Ln Sfl 
1>aAa<^ — Where is Joseph;' [There) In th^field. 8i Pedro shi a 
uulay — Peter is {here) at home. 

To hase is expressed by the word adeii,* thus: Aden aku 
iK^ii^alft^/ have a shirts Aden ka siiiidan^f Day aden aku— - 
Have you a cri.-i ^ Ves, I Jiave. Aden a tan 1 n J Aden buii — Are 
there people (here ? Yes, there are. To take is also expressed by 
ntleiu 

Aden with thepreiij im ezpressos past time, and with the suffix 
bii, future time, thns : Cagay iiafU-n aku }i\\m—YeMcrday I had 
moneif. Fa^^-aniiy nadon akii lipt^n— £e/yre {onGc. upon a tvm) 
I had slaves. Aina^ aden bii akn ttaUa.^tit'r ~Ti>-morroiv I will 
have strengths 

To espresA the idea of '* not to take, and not to have/' da ia 
useii, which means ; There i^ or are v^me, tliun : Da palay k<> — 
J Jiave no pataa (unhuUed rice). Wa taa Xii^There (f.re no 
people th-erc. Da miislanlii — He has vo handkercJiief. 

OF THE FORMATION OP VERBS AND THEIR TENSES. 

To better Tinder sta.nd the formation of verbs, it must be observed 
that their roots may be verbals signifying the action of the- verb, 
and substantive nonns or adjectives converted ii^to verb forms 
by means of composing terms used with them. In fact^ there 
Jiro HCJircely any common nonns in this tongue which can not bo 
transformed into verba. 

'Ad(?Ti is ^leowAeii hs tu& Indcftnite phiml 111'ifHf.f/mjc, <hv^j«]«,iin fs;pja[heil on yn^i' It 
and £11 the third Doto ua that fuf^e. 



35 

TTieir formation is sabject io the following rules i 
First- An espression of the nabire of a verb, in other ■words, a 
kind of a verbal root, Ruch as swrnt (or su\Q.t)—ii-ritt€n, and 
eNil>al — (ion**, is chaii^^ed according to the t*jnn used with each as 
a prefix or tyuffis. See rule second* below. 

Second. To fix the signification of the rootn in the active, in 
general, the tfirms uin, inum, liia, «tia^, |IH§, etc., arc need ac- 
cording a^ the root tx^ging with a vO"wel or consonant, thns: 
Hnlat—ivritt'^jj , by the incorporation of the term inn becomea 
s'lniiilat^fo write: a?id embal — done, by the prefixing of pji^ or 
pag-j] t>econieB jiacfuernbal — to do* 

Third, Afl a general rnle^ it ig -^^gtomary to form "v^^rljs from 
verlMil roots which T>e^n with a vowel hy naing the prefixes ma 
or mn^ in the present and future, -with the^ preiix iia for the past, 
and with pag or pana for the. imperative. 

Boot Vlw^ Tofalh 

Present.,, Maulugako-.-, 1 f all. 

Future Maulttgakobu I wdll falL 

Pa^- Nailing akoi I did fall. 

Tniperative Panaliig-ka _ _ _ Yon fall or fall you. 

The Moros of Lanao in place of piN^^fising the term na to form 
the past of tlit; present, place 1 between m and a. in iiift, thus : 
mhirilij^' &kii^I did fall. 

There are somo vtjrbs in which- the past is formed by placing 
111 Iwtween in and ii, for ejample: Mniiii— (o go up; present, 
tiranic ixko—I go up; pafit. niriiaitSc^ \\\M—wGnt up hv. ObwTve* 
how^ev^r^ that this form ig ordinarily psi^sivp. 

Fourth. Vcrlm wliowo roots be^in with a consonant are usa.E4lly 
formed by plai;ing t^etween the initial consonant and tlie vowel 
which follows, link for the present and futnrej iniiiii for the past, 
and for the imperative, the root alone, or by adding pa^ aa in 
verbs which begin with a vowel. 



*Iii [h«-e <rKaiiii^^e»i it fB«;f^]| tlin.t rh*? term cDHinuetKing witli a vowtl itaRed with th$ 
root b^giiihlTi|£ -i^'iMi a -i^orjeititihtit, unil rhe one Efai-ting wtUi & i:mt!ioiiar]t with thi^ toot 



E-'^arrtphis. 

Root Salat To write. 

Pr^^^nf , ,,_,,__, Sumulat akO-, .,.---- I write. 

Future Smnnlat bee also I \Yill write- 

Bast Siimmulat ako I did write. 

Irnperative - Sulat Tiaor pauulat ka Write you or yon 

(The ''9" in pasalat write. 

ifl changed tf> "n" 

for euphony's salse.) 

We may call the foregoing rules general and cuetotnary in the 
use of vftrbs- Ther« are mariy osceptions^ however, as there are 
inauy verbs whoso roots begin ^th a consonant and are not con- 
jugated witt the terms iirii iind liiiiiii, but with th-o prefixes iiifl, 
tin, andj>a^. 

Thus, for eaamplc, of the root Uinn—lov&, Liimiiiiu in not iii 
luodifi cation, but Hialimii — to love ie, aa is iialiiiiii — he loved. Of 
tho root asluUit—pur^ued^ w^e get niAualuba — to pursite; iiana- 
liibft — he purs^icif: and saluha, or panaliilva fimperative) pursue 
you or youpursu^i. Of t^aJag—nest, ^umala^^ is not nsed to sig- 
iiify the mn^dng of U, but pedsalaj^is the term to be used in thi^ 
case. 

There are verbs vphich admit of tw^o forma, and others vi'hJch 
admit of only one. These are distinf^uished by their beginning 
with a vowel or coasooant, and also by the signification of the 
verb, and in accordance with this signification i t takes one form 
ortheotJier; thus, with the root ^aiiadj*j2pre88ijig*'tQ learn," we 
Kayj ma^anad uko^Ilearn, and to signify '"t^ go out " j^iimiiiiat 
ako — I go out, is used. 

Verbs whose roots begin with [> are -converted into ni in con- 
jugiitions by bii, ma and na, thua of pegnes we say itiaiiiegiies — 
to eonguer; of panic, niainnnic — to go up. 



37 



MO|>Rj.K OP CONJUGATIONS OP TKE TWO ACTITE FORMS WHICH 

HAVE JUST BEEN RXrT^AlNED, 

Conjugation of the aetivp^ form by '' um '* and ^' inum.'^ 
Soot: Lutail — To go down ideacend): 

t 83ki bimuta4 I go down (descend). 

Sing. - Seka Inonitad. ,._ You go down (descend). 

( Sekiiniii lumutjid He goes down (descend.s). 

i Salkjiini luniutail We go down (descend). 

Plur, -■ Siilkiinn luiuatJKl - You go down (desceniJ). 

(Salkikm luintitad They go dowTi («.leaceml) . 

( Saki linumutad I wont down (descended). 

Sing. ^ Scka liiiamutad You went down [descended) - 

Sekania limimntiid He went down (descended). 



Sjilkaroi linumutad . We went down (dea(;ended). 

Flur, -I Salkanu linninntad_ You went down, (descended). 

( SalkiUn limiimitiid The^ went down (descended^. 

t' ii'ki;. 

rt,- _ J Saki liimutad "bu or I will go downi (descend). 
«*«ff- 1 lumutad ako bn. 

The future is like the present in all respects, excepting tlmfc 
the term l>u is added. 

IHPERA.TIVB. 

ci' ( Palutad ka,._ . Descend you or you descend, 

'^mg, )p^i^^^ 3j^^ Let him descend. 

pr \ Palutad kanu You descend. 

■ i Lalutad siltin Let them descend. 

It is cnstoniary among Moios to use, by pref-erence, for the 
imperative tke root alone followed by ka (^ou)., thus: Ltitiul ka — 
de^cendyou; sin ka — comeyou; Incao ha — walkyou. 

Th« Malanaos in the pust tenses of verbs which curry the term 
um do not use iiiuiti^ but place between the first and second 
syllabletj of the root the ti^rm iniii, thus : Of siirat— #o wt-He they 
g^t Rnmiwrat— he wroie ; and of s*>ha— fo sail they gtst soniiuba— 
he sailed. 



28 

Conjugation in the active form loith '* ma''' or "magJ''' 
Root: (JiuMln— To emGarfc." 

t Saki magueda I embark. 

i^ing. -. Seka inagTieda You embark. 

( Sekaniii niagueda ._...__ He enitarks. 

i Salkitanu magueda We embark, 

Flur. ' Salkanu magueda Yoa embark. 

( Silan magueda Tbey embark. 

t Said nagaeda _ I embarked. 

Sing. \ Seta iiagueda _ . You embark-ed. 

( Setaniii uagueda He orabarkod. 

i Salkitann nagueda We embarked. 

Piiir. j SalkaTiTi nagiiedft You embarked. 

( HjJan riagTieda They embarted. 

The siime iis the present with the addition of tlie term hii. 

IMPERATIVE. 

o- j Pagueda ka ^ Embsirk you o?" ynn embark. 

^" '{ Pagu^da nin Let Mm embark. 

Phir S ^^B^"^^^^^^^ Yon. embark. 

' i Pagueda silan Let them embark- 
Other teuaes are formed of these prefises (iiia, iiiag, iia, pag), 
and have no proper fonu. To cspreas what they sigiiif j, use is 
made of teOiLie adverbs or t^niis which modify, according to the 
case, the idea expressed by said tenses. 

The term pe<I is a fomi very much used as a prefijc to verbR, 
and there is no rwle to determine its use. It is u.sed in practice 
iritli all kinds of verbs.* as often wUli those in "which the term 
uni is used as wath tliose 5n TV'hich ma in tlie active is naed. and 
f<jr euphony^'s sake it may be changed to pejf, peni, or pe, 

Exa7nple.s. 

Pelacan-lapa^i eilaii .,,,= TlieyHrewalking(forpleafture). 

Pedaulat ako kanu mga pagttli I write to my frienda. 
kn. 



20 

Ya pedtal-a silan pendadaura They say that other men hi suit 
nilaii rtu iMgji ped a tan. them/ 

Bi ka pedeegad di pt^daengal Neither cry nm tAn^, 

OF THli: SHiNIFIOATlDN OK ACTIVK VERBS. 

To lii thf rieiif^e of an iK;tivi? verb It i?? well to uote tlifi idea 
exprejised hy tho root of which it is fortiied. 

First, If the root expresses the gein'Tal idea of a thiiij; a.ccom- 
pliahed or executed . the verb will sij^iiify tlie aetion by which that 
thing- is done, thus^ t*!pe<l signifieti the idea of soniethin^^ <^nt, and 
the verb jbedlt^ixHl is to cut, aud bisjiy, t-spressiiig the idea of 
something seratehed will have fov its vct1> form iiiabisay — to 
scratch . 

Second. If th*} r(X)t in the name af sonie iiistnnn^^nt, tho vtrh 
formed with it will *'Kpri?ftS thi^ aotion of nsin^-- that instrument, 
thiifs, paria— f( hou) has for it^ verh form iimpaiia— fo use the bow 
(fjhoot ai ivwii) . j^neil — a saw has pn^ur^iicil — to san\ and rutiupi — 
a guitar lias iiiaikj^iilIapE — tfi .'iirum the g^ufrtr. 

Third, If the root esjiress+^s the jd(?a tif a charge, offii^e, or 
occupation H tlie verb will si^^nifv the esercist? of that charge, 
office, or occTipatifiu, thuSj pjiitihiy s« kiiyo^a carpenter may 
ben^oine the vcrl>;il Hentence p('4lputitl<ky sa kayo — to work as a car- 
penter; gjkiiitit ir^ medicirii-. and prii^amiitii^ io vure: J^iftriyrtn— - 
— O. COnl-tiiiSfilOity he<^olnes \»'iisi\v\i^A\i^td ftdjUl a covimi^aion. 

Fourth. Finally, if the rootiw of !tn Jiflverbial nature, the verh 
will signify the idea which tlie ^dveih intiinatt^s, thus, sa liiia^^f — 
the. other side of the rfrer has for ji verh form Iniiiipag— (o cross 
it (theriv^r)- ma^^iktn— J"'ffrhas jK'iisilii'n— .foyef v'^ct^r, ami sin — 
here Las siiiiiiii — (o come here. 

In addition t<:) the above, in order to know well the si^ificatioD 
of verbs, the following rules should Ik? learned; 

First. When ca is interposed between the composing term and 
the root it makes tho verh espres-s the idea of quality, power, or 
command, thus^ Mat-apift— ^o make a. thing good, inaraombal^o 
order a thing done, luaoaiilian— fo ordet to go behind, and paca- 
inum— io order to drink. 

Second. The term r, a suffis, unit*^ to the verb gives it a 
tranaitive senae^ an<l indicates aa object on which the verh does 
not depend diieotly in the active. It i& nsed either in the active 
or passive. 



30 

Examples. 

IcataU'i ku kanilan _. I will make it known to them. 

Pembuliiuii-i pulaus He will decorate the post, 

Puguen^ala-i dalepa He will give the place a iiame. 

*' To tlieni," ' ^' the poat,'^ ami "the place,** in tho abovo sen- 
tentjesare wliatwecalliiidirect caaea orobjects removed from, the 
action of the verb, 

ThirfV To form a frequentative (denoting the frerLuent repe- 
tition, of an action) verb, the root of the vfsrb is repeated, for 
ex:imple, tim^ia<-aii-l»r£Lii d^notas to travd backward.^ and for - 
vxtrd'S. or tit travel the sonte road freqtiaifli/, pugiuiimii-iniiTii— 
drink, and dHnh nfjafn. 

When the (;oinp<xsiii^ term i.s j>la<?ed in the second mcniber of 
a wor<l it sii^fnifios reciprocity (mntujil Jtctioii and reaction), and 
i*^ the samr* as if tlie term an were placed ut the end of a fre- 
iliientative,. tlius. pujibi-itinj,''|Miuht, or }Hhiia-ped|»»aln, or pii^la.- 
pnnlaii — to di-^pufe^ are all the same. 

^.i-ampUs of verlis to Jit ihefovgoing easeff. 

Malalaguy ka iiuiiiii hu ruga You run Jirt fast as deer do 
saladeuK- (run), 

Knman bu ailan amai ca may- Th'.'y will eat when they are 

■ntem silan. hun^^ry. 

Di ka niesina t^a. ca.pia na ped Da not envy the welfare of your 

nengkaa tau. neighbor. 

Napaguelctan ku canti niga, I rushed in among those who 
bunuan a tau. were fij^liting. 

Duminatlo ailan a» pamnlaan They have plowed the garden 
engu sa basac, and the field. 

Na^ueguet nin sn kayo,-, Ho has sawed the lumber. 

Pinanaku su mga papanuc dii I have thrown rocks at th<^ birds 

masugat. and did not hit tbeiti- 

Sij mgJi i)epanday f^a kayo di Those who work as carpenters 

tanto marasay, do not suffer aiiy. 

Marguen den sn pepanday sa The occupation of horseshoeing 
putau sabap sa <^ayau, is hard on at^connt of the h-cat. 

Gamuti ka sn mga bacataun a You cure those who have skin 
tan. ^ disease, 

Tintrnin i pendatu sa ingued Who is the dato or the governor 

antu 'f of that town V 

Canu sumin ka ba f Wben Trill yon come? 



31 

Lip^ ka saguna Cross to the other side of the 

river now, 
Pakan ka an "niga kuda en^ su Order that the horses anil dog 
asa- be fed. 

Macasia ako "bii sa mga taii_ I will have the people coine 

here. 

NgainpagnengfLliiiilpaULu&ntu. What name have these hills 

(wooded hills), 
Inicatau ku salka -_ 1 made you know it. 

Cnmtibing cubing lalaynn sn Play, and play again the cnhing 
mgft uata. (a sort of areed instrument) 

for the children. 

Uman uman gay bunubunuan Every day they laugh among 
nilan, fcbemselves- 



CiiAPTEK 5,— OP THE PASSEVE FOEM OP THE VERB. 

To learn the Moro tongue intelligently it is indispensable to 
know well the verb and its forms as it is customarily used iiniong 
the Moros. This ih particularly so of the passive fonn , common 
to all tong'ues derived from the Malay. The reason for t.liis, ap- 
parently, is tliat all orientfi.1 peoples in <?xpressing their ideas give 
3nor» attention to an object on whi<:h falls the action of the verb 
than to the subject. This i« just the r^vf^trs^ of moie civili^t'd 
languages, and is why it happens, inaiiy tiin^^gn to thoy^ who are 
learning oriental tongues* that without noticing it, they ^xpre^a 
their iiiea* by the passive form, thinliing they are using the 
active - 

Four forms of the passive ai'e known to the Ma^uindanao 
tongue: The radical passive, the passive in *' i," the passive in 
''en," and the passive in '*an/' 

Off THE RADICAL PASSIVE. 

This passive is propfr in any radical diction which has a verb 
significan(;e, or better yet, io a diction where the verb may be 
active by means of the terms which customarily determine it, 
and which of itself expresses a full radical and a passive idea* 
thus, the radicals t<^p<Mlj surftt, and bc!(ad espress the ideas, 
respectively, of cut, ^rritien and plowed, and from these we may 
say: Teped ka su kayo — Cut is the tree, or The tree is cut by you. 



33 

and lt€>tai] ka s» siirat ^ru— Place the hook there or Let ths hook 
be plactid there hy you. To use this passive tlie subject is placied 
ill the genitive in a sont^nce, and tho complement of the action 
f>f tt^ v*;rl) is in tln/ noiaiiiati ve ^ as majbe seen hy \he pTet^^oding- 
exampleB. Iii the Mala,y tongue thia passive is used in all ita 
modes, \fXit in Maguindanao it is ased for imperatives, rarely in 
other modea. 

OF THE PASSIVE IN "l." 

Thispa,saive, vrLich in the Malay tongue is dij isueedbyBimply 
pla<;ing i before the firat letter of the radical as a prefiSp 

it^xatnplea. 

Boot: Te\nn\—Cut. 

Iteped ku sii kayo - I cut the tree or the tree is cut 

by me. 

H-oot: Fauic — To go up {(tscfiud). 

Ipaiiic ku su uatu-- ---,__ _-_ I ascend the rock or the rock is 

ascended by me. 

Root: ^i^tml— To plaee. 

Inibetad iii Juan su mga ben- John placed the shirts there or 
gala lu. the phirtti were placed there 

by John, h- 

Make use of this passive when the verb espreeses exterior ac- 
tion, instl'umi^tit, caT3ge, or motive v^hy the tiling is done^ or the 
time Avhen it ia es^■<^^ited. 

Piaee the agent (the pei^oji or thing that everts power) in the 
genitive and the instrument (not necessarily a musical ixtatru- 
ment or instrument used for any particular thing, hut au articlo 
of any kind, a thing, a iiouu) , cauae, etc., in the iiomimative. 
Thus we say: Ipskgriiasa kn r^usrindaug? — Sell you if 'C arts? Oanii 
\\i^\\\\f\^\iiAl— When CTOi^s you the river-? Su aoad lutkpitti ipaH- 
jiag V,^—Siai(iay in the jnormng I will c^ross to the other inde^ 
Ngalii ipaiiiiru ka cami m^h imi'l^What are you showing to the 
people ? 

We also make use of this passive when w© present or give 
something to a person, placing the agent in the gonitive, the re- 
ceiver in the nominative, and the thing or object in the accuaa- 
tive. Thus, we may say: Inlpait ku si Lula sa inimsala— r 
broirght to Louis a handkerchief. 



33 

It is well to t*a.r hi mind of thL& passive, and of passives in 
geneial, that ordinarily the agent of the sentence comrs inmic- 
diately after the TCrb^ and the subject of ttL^ same ^omeH before 
the verb or after the ag-ent. From this we can see in the seir- 
tenees Icaliiiiu iki Jiuin si Luis— J£ is Joltn ivho loves LouU, and 
Imealiinu ni Pablo si Jose — It is Paul who toned Joseph, that 
many times they leave ofE the articles i^hich j^enerally iiccom- 
pany proper nounw [ninnesl , and in these cases the anbject of the 
sentence would be donbtfnl if it were not for this rule. If the 
sentence ia an interrogative it is supposed that the agent always 
precedes the yerb. 

OK THK PASSlVi: IN '' 1^." 

This passive, which in the Tagalo tongue has the termination 
in and in the Visayan oti, ia employed Uj ^spross acttuu by the 
agents modifying the subject of the samo. Thns "verba whioh 
signify ix> do, to ask, to call, to r(!ceive, tci esit, to drink, to think, 
etc., are expressed by this pitssive, 

Thea^enfcis platted in the genitive, and the hist tenn of the 
sentence in the noniinativo. The termination v.n added to tin- 
root forma a -verbal expression, and in past tenses the term in is 
placod after the first cen sonant of the root, hut if the toOt begins 
with a vowel, in is placed before it. 

E.i-am2ites. 

Taunguen ka. an bantay _ CaII th& gnard, 

Inembalen nllan su ualay They have made the lionse. 

Init«n ku su mamis si Jose I have brought eJindy !<> Joseph, 

Pikiren kn mapia an cat^ucar I am pondering over the danger 
nami. wJiich we are in, 

Binilaiigkn sn inga pilac I have counted the dollars, 

Inumeiika sn gamut Drinlf the medicine, 

OP THE PASSIVE IN' "AN." 

This passive, which is common to Tagalos, Visayana, and 
M-aros.isnsed in this tongue to express action over ii place, which 
is the termination or object ot the action. It is formed by this 
term (an) being placed aft*?r the rout of a verb. 

314 — 3 



34 

The place is arranged or put hi the nomina+ive, the agent in 
tht? gojntivr, andtho complement in the accusative. When it ha^ 
two c-amplemeitts the direc;!- one is placed in the Eictju^iiitive and 
the iinlirect one in the iiomiT>a.tive. 

MoTo HHO '»f verbs ir4 made iind-t^r this passive than under th^ 
prc<-cdin^ ojie^* — whej] a pliit^e iw referred to, vrhen they signify 
o<'C'iipations l>y ivhicdi one iiiakea his living, and wht-n to Imy, to 
BflL to drefsK others^, to close, to mis, to stnell, te like, and to 
toLichj etc., arc referred to. 

Inil>eta,den kn feu snrat san sa I have placed the book there 
cabRn, in the box, 

Ngciin a Tialay nalusudan ni Whieh house did Louisgointo? 
Luis? 

Sa ximniilaan nengka mamul^iati I am going to plant many cocoa- 
bu bn madakol a niiig. imt trees in your garden. 

Minnnntan ku sn diitar tainan I have followed thc:iilain to th^ 
sa pEdnn. i-vooded uiounfc. 

Di ka tayniigan !^u dit^v Do not tonch the dress, 

Udndan ku su la,dia, sa, aabaji I am emptying the rioup in the 

cup. 

Tinguin paga^latan Ifanii mgi\ Who respectf: the aged? 
Inlces? 

It must bo noticed rcspet^ting theac paflnivfjs and their use that 
there are verh:^ >vhich come under tlie three (paijsives), besides 
the radical ; others come under some, while aome admit of <m\j 
one, tbc use of the verh showing whether it is in the riglit paj^sive 
or not. 

To have some idea and ^ve some rule on this* it phonld be 
remembered that the passive in ''!'' serves for verbs ^phicli signify 
action oi the agents as the osterior terni, or the instrument with 
whichitiscsi^cntod; tlie passive in "an*' for verbs which express 
action of the agent sis the agent or material from which aecrtain 
thing is made, and finally the passiye in '^an'' serves to express 
the place or end of the action of the verb, 

OF Tnn USE OF THE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE. 

To know when it is proper to nse the active or the passive the 
si^ificfi.tion of the verb must be looked to, also the object on 
which falls its action. 



35 

Altliough it may noi be possible to fix by rules in ^whioh eases 
one slionld be used by preference over the other, the following 
rules may yet bo of 8erv\ce, which are (common to other tongues 
of the Archipelago : 

First. The active form is used, when the plirase or sentence is 
begun by the agent of the same placed in the nominiitiye, though 
we= speak in a sense already determined, 

Saki malimi akn kanu mga aiiia I love these good men. 
a mapiaa tau. 

SakisinnulatakosacalatAsantu* T writ^ on this paper, 
Seka mangay ka bu pedtaua- You will go to call Peter. 
guen 31 Pedro. 

Saki di ako matau bichara I do not know how to speak 
easila. Spanish. 

Se<'<jnd. Ordinarily the at^tive form is ased when we speak in 
an indetermined sensii or determined only In part- 

Exampfe^. 

Minnm ka sa ig a Pulan^ui Drink yon w^ater from the river. 

Macus ako bn aa mga iilac a I will talte the flowers from the 
kayo. tree, 

Su Luis timinian.ag sa padi Lonig called, the father. 

Paln&ud ka aa mga papan Bring in the boards. 

Si Juan namasa madakel a John boiight many things, 
taninc. 

Kuman kann sa bayahaa ania, Eat of those guavas, which are 
namalenibu a tanto. very good. 

Si Jose mult bu ea timus a Joseph will brinj^ salt from tiie 
Mores. MoToa. 

Third. Ordinarily, also, the active form is used in interroga- 
tiyos. Thus wo say: Tlii^ifi iiiaiiiitit hn sa ninn^a Moros ^\\ j^t^il- 
talmmnl senor ^{fhv^rnH^Qrl— Who will explain to the Moras what 
his ft^rceUeucy th<; gov<^nor say^'^ 

Othef Example A. 

Cannmacanma suamanengkaV, When will y&nT father come? 

Tinginaminumitmn? "Who has followed him ? 

Tingin-i mamasa sa seda? Who buys the fish? 

Pilaca tau nalusudaanalay?__ How many persons entered the 

house 'j^ 



36 

Foiirtli. The ar^tive form being the most ordinary and frequant 
way of espressing oiie'a i^elf, use is m^ii^Q of it when we apettk in 
a dotenniBed sense outside of caSes already indicated, N"ote that 
in indetoruiiiiate cases wben the sentene^e haa two oomplecocnts 
nse ia made of the passive in " a,ii.'' or the passive in "i." 

Init ka sin susurat antu? _ Did you bring that boolrV 

Ipayupas ka mapia bi^ Tantay a Sweep well the floor of the 
"Littlay, house. 

Pangiii layau ka si Luis engu Hunt yon Louis and his com- 
au manga ped nin. panions, 

loingayan in su munaala cani He has gii'en to Bamon the 
Earn on. hnndlrerchief- 

Pinamasaiiin langun a palay sa He thought all the palay in the 
padian, Tiiarket, 

Tinguin inauydan suaulat kuV,, Who has taken my letter? 



Ohaptkr iV— raPINTTlVEB, SQBSTANTrVE VERBS, AN"D 

VERBAL NOUNS. 

Inlinitivea are formed of ini^^rativfis^ placing before these the 
torm cftj which for infinitives of pa^it time is converted into JiimU 

Examples. 

Of the root iiiili' — to .relict : 

Preaentiind future Mamili ako T select or will select. 

Past Minamili ako __ T did select. 

ImpenttivG Pamili ako Select you -^r yoa select, 

Infmith'!e 2)t(\si-ni Capamill To select. 

Infinitive past Kinai>aniili Tohaveseletited. 

Of the root ^anad — to tciirtt : 

Freae'itandfuturi^... Maganad silan _ They leam or will learn. 

F'f&t ^tTag-anad iiiia___ Helearneit. 

Imperative Poganail kanu _ Learn you or you learn, 

Infinitive pre.'iait Capaganad To Learn. 

Itiflnitive past , Kinapaganad , _ To have Ir-arned. 

Su kinapagauad mapia sn ca- After John had learned the 
paiigadi, nabautis ai Juan. prayer he wae baptized. 



37 

Su capaliu. sa lalan cU den muna The ^oingintothe streetahonld 
Ti^anagup ta. be aftev one has psTformed 

liift ablutions. 

Su cailay ko aalka inacaridn su Beeing you causes me sorrow. 

Su kinauma bu patiday a kayo. After the t^arpeiiter had arrived 
jiateped Ka imlay su banner a a strong wind demolistoltho 
enda. houafi. 

Sa capalusudkasaualay amga On entering a strange house 
salacau a tau pagadat ka ka- liave r^spe<'.h for the people 
nil an. there, 

Sy cjiptitulu^ ko, aainljayaug On going tobod it iecuj^tomary 

aku den. "with mo to pr.iVr 

Su caintmat ku mapita pedtade- On rising in the morning I (;om- 

man ako sa Alatala- mend myself to God. 

A Rubsfcantive verb or won^ formed of a verb consists of the 
root alone with the term ea placed liefore it after the manner of 
forming abstract nouns from adjectives (see 01iai>ter3, page !4), 
and we may thus s*ay: CiibiA^, enlai-nii^ cabisiiil^ ciif^mhiil, caliOH, 
etc., words which signify, rospectiv^ly, captivif^rf. travel, enU'itnce^ 
jiKtrk (something done), and fmitJ, coming from the verbal roote 
M^^—to iahe. Wan— /o ttavel, Illsud—io eiiter, HhUal—^o do. 
and fefii~f p.at. 

The following verbals it will ho noticed aro formed by repeat- 
ing the root, and nsing ca at thn htginning of the word- It will 
also be not^(;ed that in English the esjLmples belo-w^ are word^ 
ending with ble : 

Caguilec-griiileo - Terrible- 

Calimu-limu ^. __ _,_ Araiable. 

Calini-lini -,-,,_ Agreeable, 

CabagubagTian — ^.. iJew (admirable on account of 

newness). 
Di pacasicaan InaccesBible. 



Chapter 7.— ADVICE AS TO THE MANNER OF OONJU- 

GATINa VERBS. 

First, There are verl© wliit^h vary in tVieir conj ugation accord- 
ing to their Bij^nifica-tio-n. We saw tliat the verbal root ^^mslA 
(chapter 4, page 3G) when made a verb with the prefis. iim signi- 
fied tQ Imrn; in^apad su m^a uata sa hitiara casila— i/te children 



hani to sprain Spaniah; and when given a verb form with nm 
interposed signified to go out, tlius: Oa"W ^itmanat bu SftlkaiiLi :4& 
iialay iiin? — When wiU you //are left {gone out of) your house f 
The same may be said of the root r^ttiiibay. If we aay pedsainbay- 
iiiig ako, the "translation is /^ra^, but if we say siimatiibay ahu 
srt fflat, then the translation is I beg yoi' to lend me the kuifn. 

Set^ond. The 8ignifi.cation of other verba varies according to 
whether ot not any syllable of the root is repeated, aa happens 
with the roots pasan and lag-iiy; of the former we ^et paikiaNAii^ 
to buy, and |ia|»asan— f o sell, ami of the latter, malaifiiy— fo ascape, 
and Hiatal A^fuy—io run. 

Third. Of the composing term of verba, or terias which modify 
then" sig^niflcance, used ill the Malay, Tagalg,y,ndVi3ayan tongues, 
somo are used in Magniiidanao, generally the best known ones 
which have been quoted in a fow of the foregoing pages. 

Piiiaca. — This term expresses the idea of ''^to take the place of,'' 
or *' to be reputed." 

Examples. 

Su pinacaala sa langnn a mapia The best of all good things is 
sn calimu na Alatala. reputed to be the love of Qoil. 

8eka pinaealukee ku You are hlce my father, 

or 
Ton are enough like my father 
to take his place. 

Sabnhayapinacajadicanuinga The alligator is as the king of 
seda, all fishea, 

or 
The alligator tabes the place of 
the king of all fishes, 
or 
The alligator is reputed to be 
the king of all fishes. 

Kioa,— 'We have seen that this term serves for past time to 
intiiiitives and for forming certain substantive nouns (see Chapter 
0, page ^6» and Ch*ipttT ii, page 15), thug: Sw kinaiili Nilaii eaim 
mgra inarat a ifin— After they had returned they met with sonte 
bad men. Sii icirialiitad kii ma^ahf — On my eondng dozim at 
night. 

Capag*. — This term espreasea the idea of '' after," "on doing/' 
"ongoing/" " on entering," etc., and, like verbaU, begs geni- 
tive of the person or agents and accusative of the object or 



39 

tGnnination of th9 .iction, Sii cafisi^aiia im aina hii maim l>ii akii 

maiicm— O^J my father'^ going out {or after he goes out) I will 
go aim. 

Tallfiiig of pant time, rikpa^*' be[;t>meg kiiiii|»n^) tliug; 

Su kinapagkaii nilan minagtaii After havingeatL^ntlieyesciifted 
silan. tbemselvea. 

Bu pagcaltisud r;a r^Imbaii sin- Oueiitermg thecliurchworsliip 
LQen ka wa Alatala. G-od. 

The tomi i^ig-oa has tlie same si^nifiijance as iM|ta!^, its is soen 
by the faet that in the Ijist sentenee citpj»^'H>Jiid could have ))een 
used !is well aa paiTiialH-^ii'l, tho word ustvl. 

Macji and Naca are used for t.lio past time. We have seen be- 
fore that tliey express the ideii of pnwer, cummaml, etc. (see 
Chapter 4, page 39). MacapAiiifi iiku— i" can ihac^ powrr to) go 
up; Xni^atiibimt aku caiiii mga tau^J have ordrrcd i he people to 
rise: 3Incj)surat alto caiiii in?^a (liit st — I ma-kr thi' cJnhiren write. 

Ca, — This term, m addition to ils serTiu^ to fomi substantive 
nanus of "verbs, and abt^tract nouns of adjectives, is used to ex- 
press tlie idea of a thing being finished or accoinplished^ this by 
joining it to the root and repeating the first syllabic of the root, 
tVrng : <^nj;rn^n»iiini ktj ^ii ualjiy— 7 haue jit^t <'ome on t of the houae, 
or / hare Jnst finished coming ont of the house; CailiUj^a^ Tiiii 
sai^iuia— Oi^ cros^iitg to the other aidv of the river, or Having 
finisired crosfyiKg to tfiG otlmr mle of the river. It also expresses 
a uonitnaKd, or statement tersely uttered, thus: Caijab'"*ll»ii ka — 
Walk fa^t (JTnrry up). Also ideas contained in the vjords 
''hardly," '^'sca^<^ely/"' efc, thns: Andaii <l<^n ca^nin^iioda alio 
pA^iita abo — Sccfvcelij had I etii7)arJceii irhcn I beeame ill. 

The term en as a. prefia:, ivith tlie temiination aia, to "verbs 
makes them passive and serves for present time, thns : ^^alipiin- 
^iietQii nkoiiiii — T (nn scolrhdhsfhUti : (.'iitailt'iikaiikiisii iiigjiliikrH 
ku— / think of my eldcra, or theij arp. thought of by ute. Tor the 
past time kina is used, thus: Sii iiala a kinaiiyji^ \ii— The child 
that was raised by vi^ ; Tamnii a khieiiiliahiii na Dios law (hiiia— 
Since the time the world iras created by if^ Maker. In addition 
to the foregoing, ea with the termination an in words has the 
significance espreaa0<l in the following examples : 

yapatayan A place wht;re a massacre has 

taken i^lace. 

Cabayabasan A plaice where guavas abound. 



40 

Cababassilan- __. A place where there are many 

pumpkins, 
CiipjLi::aaaru(:im . ,., A place of bad odors. 

Citamigan .... A place pf s^eetw^SSr 

With the term ait as a fina.! to a word w(s alao get the followiug ; 

DTida-Duda,an A place to expet^torate (a apit- 

tooii). 

TJnut-UnutaTi A leader, one to be followed. 

Patt^o-Paigoan A tub. a placo to bathe. 

Pliia.— Thia term is of past tiuie and isigoifies the completion of 
a tbiu^, ortlinanly referring to the piist. 

Examples. 

Pinaaiia aku iiu Gobernador _^. Tbo Governor e:rcus©(l me. 
Pmal>!ttiiy aki3 iiin ,,^___ He ordered me fiogge<i, 

Imi iiEiIuba nil Jisu tJUHaladeng . . The deer was pursued by the 

'log. 

IffakI and palti (panaive). — Tbe term maki, which for past time , 
U luihi, Higriifiey " to desire/' " to accompany," or to u^e with 
other words .something which tho root states. 

Examples. 

!N"a^iTubi tiara silan Hi Lni.senga Louis and John talked between 
r1 Juan, themselves. 

Di ka makisinibuT cana mga Do not mix with bad men. 
Diarat a tau- 

Makipag-upfla bu akucanumga I will om.harkwithmy brothers, 
1-j.E^ud s^ "tian. 

This teni] (mihk[) nniti?d to a noun r^ignifiea to '"look likCi'* 
"' to CJirry one'^^ self like/' or '' to appear like/' conforming to 
what the noan expresseSi, thus: ^^i Pablo makipanday n kay^o— 
Paul looks like a carpenter^ 



CuAi-Ti'jJC «.— VBBBS WHOSE COWJUOATION OFFER 

SOME DOUBTS. 

Pasa— To sell : 

Pn 1-p^sa ako ^^a kuda 1 sell the horse, (I am willing 

to s*^ll him.) 

ICapasa nin sji ualay.. - He sold the^ house. 



41 



Ped-pa^a ako hu &a sapiii I will sell tbe liat. 

Pasata ^ix simdaug »nan_ Sell you that cris. (Not inter- 
rogative.) 

Paiiiasa— To buy: 

Maniasa ako I buy. 

Mamasa ako bu I 'will buy. 

Na111a9.31tin.__ He bought. 

Paiiiasw k!i,_ Buy you, (Not inteiragafive. ) 

Sticapania?^^ nnkanuniga pap- On buying tiie birds yoii tie 
uniic, iket nu pm. them well, 

Su kinapamasa iiu datx) sa mgii On the buying (or aft^r the 
guinis nanasa, buying) of tlie goods by the 

Dato tJtf^y got wet. 

Peguas -To conquer: 

Mamegues aku I conquer. 

Nameguos nin __ _ He conqu*?rcd. 

Pegues k;t Conquer you. (Not interroga- 
tive.) 

Su CapcgiiGS __ Toconiiuer. 

Su kinapegegues To have concint^red. 

Leiien — To endure {bear): 

Lenen ku __ 1 endnre, 

Nacalcn silan_ They endured, 

Alen kii Endure you.. (Not interroga- 
tive-) 

Pagalen ka _ _ Endure you. (Not interroga- 
tive.) 

Sti (japagalen raapia To ondure is good. 

Su kinapagiielennilan nalaguy Their euduriiig catised their 
sa mga lidu iiilan. eiiemiea to flee. 

(Irngra— Tb devastate (pillage) : 

M:igra,gKi su mga tan They are going to jiiilag-e tbe 

people. 

Nagragra silaii They pillaged. 

Qragra ka Pillage you. (Not interroga- 
tive.) 

Pulau^* pulling alBD fdgnifies to pillage. 



43 



Xaeliif — To waste 



Liamaclac ako T waate. 

Linuinaclftcsila-n _,. They wasbed. 

Dika,pag-2acla^ Do not waste. 

Su ciipag laclacmarat To waste i a wrong. 

S\i kinalac-luc nin On account of his haying 

"wasted. 

Tanked— !^'o assure : 

Tamaiiked aku au taladku I a^ure that my promise will 

"be <:arrie<l out. 

Initeoked or tiiiumanked nin su He assured that what he >^tated 
lienala catula Din. was true. 

Tanked-lca? .__ Do you assure it? 

Sacatanked .._ Toasaure. 

Ki:natankGd To have siasnxed. 

^^tiiL^iisi — to laugh : 

Penguinguifsi ailan, They laugh. 

Minguingiiitii ako uagay I lau^lied yer^terday. 

Nyuinguisi ka- Laug-h you, (!Not interroga- 
tive.) 

Su eangmngmsi To hiugli. 

Kinangningnisi To have langhRd. 

Nguingnisian ku aaleka_ I will have laughed at you. 

With the adverbs siri (here) and hi {there) the verb Muiiiiil (to 
go) la formed, For the imperative of this verb use the adverb 
SUA shown lit examples below: 

Sin ka Come you {Hterally, Here you), 

Lu-ka or mu ka _ Go there (literacy, There you>- 

Muu silan Go fchem there {literally. There 

them) , 



Chaptrk 10.— of adverbs. 

An a^verh modifiea the signifi(;ation of a verb or some other 
word with which the verb is joined or usech 

The adverb is divided into those of place, time, mode (ma-Tiner), 
quantity^ comparison, order, affirmation^ negation, and doubt. 



43 



AliVKllB^ OF PLACE. 

Andan? Where? wMtherV to whut 

pJate ? 

Sm Hore^ in this place. 

Sia There, in that place. 

Sa.ya _._ Ht?re , hither. 

LmiorRiHi Youder, thither, tbere. 

SiiD _._ ._. Yonder, thither, there. 

Miuja --.. ^ In front Qf {the first one)- 

SiLiij^uran., . . Id front of^ atead of. 

Sit liijnd or Oian Behind, at the hack of. 

Pantag-Sa-pantag nniaii In front. 

Sa baba. or Sa hipa. Under. 

Sa Kuaiian_ . _.. On top of, above, over. 

Sa purn Uy^ liigt, above. 

Didalem___ Under, underneath, below. 

Sa dalem or Sa luaiid . . _ Within, 

Sa. pagiieletan Between, in the meantime. 

Ip-cdv yamung, aa «ha.y Clohe to, near by, 

Sa liu, Sa guemau Out. 

Maj^iJteia Near. 

Mauataii .-_ --- Far. 

ADViatliS OP TTME. 

Sa.guna --- Now, at this time, 

Amag To-morrow, 

Mapita - - Early in the inoniing- 

Cagay _. Yesterday. 

Cagasandau Day before yesterday. 

Amay-amay-bn After, afterwards, 

Amay-amay Presently, immediately. 

Taman _. In the mean time. 

Sa lunc In the mean time. 

Upen Before. 

CaguinarCagoina pan Beforei 

Ou-pen or Niarpen At thia time, ri^ht now, 

Kunguet-Naiiri Late. 

Bago-pen _ Recent! y. 

Mnna-Pagaoay _ _ Anciently^ formerly. 



u 

Capusan _ __ Finally^ iiltiiuately. 

AndiiTig — ABcicntly, 

Lalaynn Always. 

De den a tanto FfeTermore, 

I>alapeii ^ Not jel 

Mag-aan ^ Promptly , quietly. 

Sarta In tlie meantime- 

ADVEKBS OF MODE (MANNER). 

Maya, mauayn So» tlnis» in thi** inanneT. 

Mana Consistent with, agreealjle to, 

PsQunV-... How? 

Podtibaba Puxpoaely, knowingly. 

Datibaba Involtintarily. 

G-ninana niii Voluntarily. 

Macadesan Alinzptly, 

Maripes, Tnabaliiig-balingan, Frequently, 
unoan-nxnan. 

Malumhiit, malanat, tana-tana, . Slowly, 

IN'acamtoelag-belag Separately, 

Bagaer Strongly. 

JTatecaii _ Snddeiily. 

Magaguet Tightly, closely. 

Teguden Forcibly, violently, 

Mapia Freely, spbntaneonsly. 

Marat Badly, wickedly. 

L^ayan Eternally, forever. 

Mategae Hardly, rigorously. 

Malemec Softly, mildly, gently. 

Tuniana .._ Softly, geTitly. 

Naaamaan , , Abundantly. 

Da pen Scai-cely, hardly. 

Da acaloE^ da ipag-aealon TJnpardonably. 

Oatatancaan --- Justly. 

Uiia-una Prindpally, mainly. 

Asar bu Casually. 

Midbegas, miktegaa __ Tenaciously. 

Manem Also, likewise. 

Lnar Simply, only, 

Manamar Goastautly. 



45 



ADVERBS OF hJTJANTITY. 

Stigat _ Sufficient, enough, 

Calabanan Escesaive, more than enongh, 

yama _ _. Abundantly, excessively. 

Maiiakel - Much. 

Paidu, Babaidii Little, small in quantity, 

Pila? Ha-wmnch? 

Da _. __... Nothing- 

Tanto Very, much. 

Paidn sama n liulang Little,, more or less, 

ALiVKRHS OF COMPARISON- 

Labi _ More. 

Culang - Less. 

Mana So, so much, aa well, as much. 

Madiadi pen Better yet. 

Lati Jtpap^a Bette^', 

Labi marat Worse. 

ADVMKBS OF OUl>ER, 

Muna ._ . .,__.__ Firstly. 

Cauli .. --- Lastly, ultimately. 

Tuiiduj^ After, nest. 

M^iigaisa Single. 

Cagatlua .-- Twofold. 

ADVERItS or AJ^IMHMATIOK AN1> NEGATION. 

Tlay Yes. 

Di, da :No. 

Diden Never. 

Dipeu Not yet. 

Da acalan Never, 

Di ketia, da Neither, not either. 

Eenai'benaL Certainly. 

ADVEEtBS OF DOUBT. 

Antapen Perhaps. 

Sumalac , baei .. - By chance, by accident. 

Pabila In case of. 

TJgaid - Probably. 



45 



ADVERBIAL ItfODKS. 

Salebu- _ _ To the excep-tion of, at the es- 

peiis6 of. 

Alang-alang So so. 

Dikenaalang-alang-,. Not any way, under no conaid- 
eration. 

Sa puDan At the beginning, 

Pagneletan Among themselves. 

SaluG -- To the middle, in the middle, 

Sa duambala - Of both eides. 

Takilidan-taliguidan Ai tho side. 

Sacaimnaii.sa biuang To the right, to the left 

Amag Ktiapita To-morrow in the morning. 

Mapita-pita _ . Very early in the morning. 

Tuminfleg __ On foot. 

Kgaga ma<caiaa - SometimeSr 

Casalac ha One with another, 

Madelag a tanto _ . Barely. 

Atu-ata - In a little while. 

Da acalon^ da pacaidannm,. ._ ._ It does not matter, it makes 

no difference. 

Tamau sin taman luit From hero to there. 

FKEPOSITIONS- 

Puun, t<aniau Since. 

Sampay, taman _._ -.. Until. 

Sangul -,- Toward. 

Sabap, fia For, on acconnt of. 

P6da._ With. 

Sanguran Ahead, or in front of, 

Linanau Over. 

B^ha Under, 

Sanbay Into, 

Sa - -- At» on, into. 

Paguelatan Between, among, 

Cann, canu For, 

Mana, ysi According to. 

Da --- Without 

Unut, licnd Eehind- 

Pnxa-pnra - Under, below. 

Macaren Against 



47 



Amaica _ If. 

tJdi. amaicadi If not, but, except. 

Dikena Neither, nor. 

Amayca _.. fncaae. 

Asal ia thafc, provided that. 

A pabila, pabila In case of. 

Amayca mayaj amaica iii;iytu_ _ Tliiabein^aBit is^beLngasitis. 

Calo-calo If by chance. 

Amayca, n So that» thercfora, 

EndukenV Why for, 

Caguiiia ca Why, 

Mana ya Therefore, 

Entanna But. 

Endu Why for, for what. 

Di, di TQanem.-,. Noc. neither. 

Pidfian --- Though, notwithstanding'. 

TJ-inaytii ..._ Ifitia thus, 

Manem Also. 

TJ-dibumarian _ If it is not ao. 

Caantap It may be. 

Cagainaca Although. 

Ngu pen-_ .__ So that 

INTEIU EOT IONS, 

Aiiiau!_ Oh! 

Abaal Ahl (Aii exclamation of admi- 
ration, ) 

UmbesI --. WouhltoGodI 

Ay! Hello! (salatation). 

Ingat oaiiu! Look out! 

DcTiguer caiiTi! Silence! 

Canugn-Tiin? What a pity! 

Dua-nin! _, Poor soul! 

Sarig-lca! ,._ Conragel 

Cagangaan! Howquickt 

Uaen ta pen! We shall &e«I 



48 

SENTENCES AND PHRASES IN COMMON USE. 

SENTENCES AND PHRASES IN COMMON LTSE FOR ASKING^ GrVl^-a^ 

BEGUING, AND APFIRMING- 

Ngain ngalan entuV What ia this called^ 

Tain kaaalnki sal umait -.. Tell it to me sigain. 

liigay nenkH salaki su pilac Give me the money, 

Di aku miug I do not irish to. 

Dala pilac-ku ___ - I hav^ do ooTiey. 

PanaiLguit-ba inia u sa ualay ni Take this to Peter's hause. 

Pedro. 
Tdnal ka salakt su curai aiian_ _ _ Reach m-e tliat chair, 

Ngain iki;iganengliaV_' What do you wish? 

Tinguin ka? __ Whonre youl^ 

Ngain i ngala riengka? What is year nauie? 

Ya ku ngalaa &i Juan My name is John . 

Aden dtalun kn salka .__..._._. I have to speak with yon. 

Catanan aku nengka? Do yon know nte? 

Uay, catauan kn seka _ . Yea^ I k^iow you. 

Naugaet a gay a quina kilala-i It is a long time aitii^e we met. 
la den, 

Ipakineg' ka pia-pia_ -_-,_.. Listen to me well, 

Uay, pakineguen ku pia __ Yes, I will listei^ tu you with 

■with pleasure. 

Pannn? Ho'w':' 

Nacambolag-belag Separately, 

Malimn sn Alatala canu manga God loves maitkind. 
tan- 

Pekinasila ka? Do yoa speak Spanish 'd 

Matau aku sa paidu Yes, a little. 

Ngi:iu i pauguonin nengkaV What do you be^? 

Di mapaeay, da oabalel)eg-iu _ _ It can not be, it ia impossible- 

Uay_ Yea. 

T7ay DatQ Yes, air. 

Di,_ No. 

Di Dato- . No, sir. 

Sapuhi a salamat Many thanks. 

Sinumin ako ka pasalamat akn I come to give yon thanks, 
salka. 



49 



t^ENTETfCES AND PHRASES IN COMMON USE FOR 1*ASSING THE 

COURTESIES OF THE UAY, 13TC. 

Salamdn aku salkanu . I salute 7011 all. 

Asalam mualay cum - _ ^ Peace lie Tk-ithyou all, 

Alad kn misalam With yoa alllet itbc irt^ace- 

Su Alatala ya mataa salkaiin Qoii be ^th you. 

Maguetan aku den _ God be with you.. I now depart. 

Ngain i betad neaglfa? How are you? 

Ngain i betad niTi saguna? How are you all? 

Ngaiu i betad ni ama nengka?-, How^ is yoiir father? 

Mapia sa calidu iia Alatala Well, ty the grace of God- 

Micapia aku den, na salka 1 aiti now well and you are also, 
micapia ka. 

Micapia aku den Also am I vrell. 

Ngaini betad iiuniasakit antu?. How la the aick one? 

Cauli-ulian den'r ._ Ar& you getting better? Get- 
ting bettor, you? 

Mana ca gagaan au masakit The sick one is getting worae. 
antu. 

Sin sa, duna dala mapasad a The=re is not on earth a coni- 

pacapia au guinaua ta. plete comfort. 

Manguet ka a tanto Bin sa duna. May you live many years. 

Canu i cambalingan ka, ainV When are you coming again V 

Amay malulen This eTenin^. 

5a amiaendau Day after to-morrow. 

Taman sa cappalnmau Till I see you again. 

Maguetau aku salka I take my loavc of you. 

Endnken kapaguetau ka? Why do j'ou go? 

Ayiinka niuna- .__.. .._ Sit down first {before you go). 

It ka sin su cursi ea ayanan sii Bring the taptain a chair, 

Capitan. 

Diaku den mayan, capengagan I can not sit down, aal am in a 

aku. hurry. 

Madafcel a pengula-ulan ka 1 have itnich to do. 

Mbalirigaii aku bu aniay I will return shortly, 

DiakumaguetaTi ?acadenanka, I will not leave my laaater, 

Poguctau ka sugnna den Leave this instant. 

Macapaguilayata bu aniay We will soe each other thia 

cagabi. evening. 

374 4 



5U 

Idaain ka ailan Bgain i (^al>etad Ask them how they are. ' 
nil an? 

End liken t;a pinana kanin?, Why diil he make yon letive? 

Caguina ca minacau sekanin sa Because be wont to Spain. 
Espana. 

Maguetan akii den I nm going, 

Macau ka sagTina ? Aro you going i]ow? ^ 

Mtingay akn sa tjalay .^_ . ._. I am going home. 

Endau ka pnn r' Where do you come from? 

Pim akn sa Simban _...._ I come from church. 

AdeTi a inlsugn iiilan salaki They have Bent me a message. 

Panic ka__ __ You go up, 

Lutad ka den ., You. come -down now. 

Thitad ka S"a pag^alunj^an _ Take down the mirror. 

Luand ka You come in. 

Auaka Bin. Go away from here. 

Lacanka den Go. 

Di ka pttdtiina Do not stay. 

Tana ka pen , , Stay. 

Di ka pengagaleliec ._..,__ Do not move. 

Pengagalebec ka Yon are moving. 

Ubay ka sin Come close, 

Sibay ka J Get away, or Go away. 

Iseg-ieeg kanu samaitnaanliaii- Movfi yourselves a little to the 

rear. 

Sin ka Come here, 

Ai^a ka sa paidn . - . . _ _ . Wait a little. 

Di ka papalaguy - Ppnotrun, 

Lacau-ka m.agaa.n _ Go fast. 

Ana ka aan Get away from there. 

Calngat akn . . ._..- I am tired. 

Di itkn pacalaean ._._.^_. ______ I cvan go now no more* 

Panjilus ka sa lalan _ Follow the street. 

Manalua tana aa lalan aaift We will go forvfaj^d on thlB 

road. 

Ngain i mafliktm Ra dua lalan Which is the shorter of these 
aiian? two roads'/ 

Nia i masiken_._ This is ahortcr. 

Nia va mauatan_ This is longer. 

Mauatan penV _. Is it yet far j* 

Masiken don _ It is now close. 



51 

Endan sa ingrued ? Where ia tlie town ? 

Dikiicataiian, Gapitan I ilo not know, Cai«tain. 

Endausu lalan a peilsanguran Whore is the road ^^"hic'h goe?i 
sa. ? to ? 

Endau su nkitan sa ... ? Which la the way to ? 

Si>.guTiapen i ltinapacaTinia-kii_. I lia^e just arrived, T am a 

straiij^er. 

Itulu neiigka aalaki sit. ui^a Show mc tho streets ox roade. 

lalan - 
Tlnut ko salaki Accompany mfi, t^r Follow jiift. 

Itulti nengka salaki su lalalan Show mn tlic ro:id to the town. 
a pcdsangul saingued 

Ngain i lalan a masla ? Which is the bij< road ar hi^'h- 

Mayan tanu pensa paidu_ We i3,re somewhat sorry. 

Mftdakf;la bndtfi. Th^rti& niui^hmnd, 

NriRa-tindulas aku I have eKpped, 

Paidii aku ya Iran maulug I nearly fell. 

Uli ka aa ualay, engu nit ka su Go home and briii^' tho carriHi^Ct^. 
oarruaa. 

Tsangan ka, oo^;hero___ . . Get tho coacliman, 

Magaiika Hurry up. 

Matitu Upright. 

Sa cananaii . .- To the viglit. 

SaMuaug - Totheli^ft. 

Saiikaaaaabala_ Get to cn]e side. 

MbalingaiL jka Come b<ick. 

Clidka .-_-,-,.--_,,„: IvTillcome tVom the "Hherside. 

SENTENCES AK1> PHRASES IN COMMON TJSB FOR ])EX<)TINa rtf^MJj;- 
THINO RELATIVE TO TIME, THE SEASONW, THE WEATHER, ET*"^, 

Ngain. gay sagnnaV . -, ._ How is the tiijie ? or How i& Oie 

day'^ 

Mapia gay Tlie timeia gcjod, Qr Tho di^y ifl 

good, 

Marat a gay _ The time is bad, or The d^y ih 

bad. 

Gay a mayaii saguiia Summer season *>/■ time of heat. 

Liiiekepansu gay The day is getting cloudy, 

M&capal a lekep There is mucSi mist. 

Pag^lana gay A rainy day. 



53 

Di pagnlan It does not ram. 

Molan "bn -Uiinan sa magabi It will ram <all day, 

Merguesden-iiilaii___ Tbe ram is very heavy, 

Diknpiigiitiii.maiiafiakHbii Do not go out, for you will get 

wet. 

Ben-U b-mi^ ciiuaiiJisa !i.kii Whii.t you said was so, tori did 

get w-et. 

Tngay nengka salaki su payoiig. Give me the uuLbrella. 
Muu ilka den, ca bcnal hnn a 1 mii going, for it is imly very 
uiayau sin ii tanto. liot here. 

Pencladalendeg It tlmndera. 

Peparti - LightLipg is striking. 

Liimalap-lap- !Lightmng zigzags. 

Pjirti Lightning. 

PegkOat Flashes of light. 

Naulug STi iaa parti sa aalay ni Lightning struck John's house. 
Juan. 

Oilii-calu basi tumalus bii au It is possible that it will teimi- 
anlmsubn., nate in a humcane. 

Magullec aku a calabauan sa I am very much afraid, of tlmn- 

mga dalendeg, der. 

Liiaad tann sa alnng a ualay Yon all go into the b.;ill of this 

ania, " house. 

Pedaebang sa inga bitnnu The smra arc now coining ont. 

Aiiiay ca suanedep su senang Wh*;n tlie sun sets you return 
Iwilin^ k.a sia. here. 

Malinanag su ulan-nlan , . _ The moon shines. 

Magabi den It is now night» or late. 

Cadtibiias den It is now dayliglit. 

Magan paniutianden sn senang_ It will soon be dawn. 

Ilai ka u pagulan Seeif it nuns. 

M^apita pe]i a tantOj caaahutan Very early in the morning, do 
kaV i^OTi iinderstaiid? 

Mapita-mapita Very early in the morning. 

Ngain i capuin na senangV What time ia it? 

Catanan nengka su capnlu ita Do yon know what tini© it 13 ? 
nenang? 

Mapiilid den It is one o'clotik, 

Lujal It is three o'clock. 

Magan den malulem It is near dark. 

A*ial den suseiiang.. , It struck five. 

Da3a pen basi I believe not. 



53 

Aden h.oras san sa ualay ? Is there a clock at home ? 

Mautii a aenanjj; paign ako Tdu. . At twelve I am goin^ to Iwithe, 

Pucaua ku sa luc a gay Wake roo at inidniglit. 

Mai>ia nay atauadi^n*! ilahi ku By yes or "by no, I am going to 
BU boras, see wlmt time it is, 

Diiia peu basi. ca mapxilu pt^n It ca-ii not l>e, because the sun 
su aenang. is liigh. 

Di ka pelipai>i sit. eugii bu salka. Do uot forget wliat I Iiave com- 
missioned you to do for me. 

Wgiiin i ngalaii su ulaii-Tilaii In wliat moiLtli are w^e ? 
sagaua? 

Naca-pila ulan ^ di nengka Wince yon have been to Cot- 
calacaii sa CotavatoV tabatoV 

N^aca-pila gayka sin j^a vialay?__ Yon have been liome? 

"UalT3 ragun, isa u3an eiigii anem Eight years ^ one month, and sis: 

gay- days. 

SENTENCED AND FHKASKS IN COMMON USE FOR DEMOTING SOMK- 
TUJNU li-ELATLVE TO EATlNCf AND DRrNKI^'U. 

Cogntem ako I am hungry. 

MinK ka kunit'iTi? Do you wish to oat? 

Uay ea pehmugan akn den Ye^, be<?aii5e I am dying of 

hunger. 
Kan ka sa agad-agad You eat something, 

PaJitagac ka sin engu ka itiaoa- Stay here to eat. 

kail. 
NgJiinkiiiganka kninan? What do you wisli to eat? 

Pagiiisnpan . . Anything. 

CaguiEac^iHagunaMmpita^ galii It i« very early yet, and I do 
aku magufcem. not feci liki; eating. 

Kutnan tatiu -^.., ^. Let ns go and oat. 

Saki kinunian aku den _,, . I have alri;ady eaton. 

Napatifjaladakanuden Ru ken._ Put the food (dinner) on the 

platea, 

Kla den sa dulaiig SU ken The food (dinner) is now" on tlie 

table- 

Ayan ka ein tampil sa cauanan Sit here to my right, 
ku, 

Ngatn entui" lengan ka Aeii, What 19 that? finisih it all, it is 
ca paidu. ha. very little. 

Panalagnd ka SJicadenan Serve the gentleman. 

Nia ken calabanen a inatimus - - Tbia food is very salty. 



54 

Pacainnm iiko - I am thirsty. 

Ingain aku sa ig engu arac Give me^vater and wine. 

Ta,giiy ka sa arac, engu paoa- Serve win-a, and move faat. 
^aan ka. 

Su^^at den Enougb. 

Nausugaku deii I am satisfied, 

Kan ka. sa casl>udiin, cii mapia.__ Eat the fafc part, "which tastes 

better. 

Inguiii aku sa jjalanaji a sapu . , Give lue all lean. 

Miu^ ta sa bambanj^ ataua Do you ■wish bread or ri.ce? 
ninay V 

KuiiuiiL aku sa maiLUC a pia- Eat xoiist cMcken, 
guiaii, 

Kukenvamapia The food (dinuer) tastes well. 

Da timua inia k<?n This food la aaltless,insipidjatid 

tasteless, 

ItiTimkasapaidTi Drink a little. 

Isa sakedii saig A glass of water, 

Itcn kft sin mi canan a gaina- Bring a clean plate 
gasan. 

U/ias-i Mt siisalidnt Clean the spoon. 

Paidn ka i cjtkan You scarcely eat. 

Paidu pan .. A little more. 

Siibiiul a padidii pen Still a small piece, 

Ha SungUit p£;n A mouthful more. 

Sh]yTKNCIi:.S ANSI rHUASKS IN COMMON TTSK FOR DENOTING 
SOMETHING lULLATIVK TO SL,KErLSG A-V]> WAitlNG. 

Manj^ay tJinu tumnlug Let us go to sleep, 

Tumulng tami den We sleep now. 

U ka den tuhig ka Go to sleep, 

Di alcu pacatultig 1 am not sleepy. 

Midtaqilitlep ka baai? ---- ^ _. Y<^u kave hael a lucky dreani- 

Pagnodiim, pagtnlugaen Wake np, sleepyhead. 

PftinaTigncdankannden All arc awake. 

Pi<.;auiin ka si Juan .__ Wake rFolm up. 

Bnitmat ka, magan ka_ _ Get up instantly. 

Ba para^ nengka bagu pen liit- It can be seen by your face that 
cagucdam, you. have just gotten oat of 

bed. 

Nacaguedam uku den, cadenan. I am now awake, sir. 



55 

N'aua^uedam sii cadenan. neng- Your master has waked up. 
kal' 

Pfidturugpanseliamii H& is yet sleeping. 

Apa ka sa paidii! You M'ait a bit! 

Dideu»capacatalugaltti acala,- No; for I too am falling with 
bauan. drowsmesa. 

Talngkami lan^n' All of you to sleep! 

Ngain a horas i cai^a uen^lca?-. At what Ilout will yon go to 

bedV 

SI'IPTENOW^^ IN COMMON USK FOK DENOTINQ SOXETHirJU KELATIVE 

TO SiatVlCK, ETC- 

PangTiilay ka ea maiialagad Find m9. a servant, 
aalaki , 

Aden aacatau sii lupa a iniiig There ia one below who wishes 
inanalagad salka. to take sorviee with you. 

U matau m^iialaj^adv papanic If ho knows how to serve, let 
ka sekaniti. hlin come up. 

Endau ka tan? Where iire you fronii' 

Tau aku sa IIocos - - - I am from I1(:>C03. 

Pila ragrun su kicaaguet ka sun What is your ag-e? 
duna? 

Dala ako pen inacapanalagad. __ I have never served anyoue- 

Calitagac ka den sin sa ualay. __ Remain here then. 

Sukayan no aalka sa pat a hiring I "will give yon four pe[iOB a 
iiiiian uhm, u capacay salka, moitth, if yon like, and if not 
udi pang"uilay ka fea salakana yon may look for another 
cadenan. master. 

Malat Sn kinalayaiii nin___, H© has bad habits. 

Pangilay ka sa Mliuan nengka Look for one to take your place 

sa^una den, immei^iately. 

Cna ka aa i^ aa piirigni^ engn Draw water froiif the well siiid 

taguy kji sa paigoan. put it in the tnb. 

Pani.^in kastt luaud a ualay Sweep out the parlor. 

Ucain ka i^upintu Open that door. 

Pintnan kji paniluanKan anan.- Close that window- 

Uaden pacannia ^^in n tau,talu K anyone coinea, teil liim T nm 

Va 4ala aku sin &t\ iialay^ not at home. 

Matau ka mules sa ifiga ItTidar"-, Do you know how to govern or 

mjina^e horses V 
Endau liananalagad? Where have you served? 

IJ ako nanalagad sa nalay ni I Lave served in John^s house. 
Juan, 



56 

Naseka tingmka? And you, -who are yon? 

Saki su piimagapuy ... I ani the cook, 

Matan ka mamag^puy inapiji?^_ Do you kiiow^ how to cook well? 

Tucau-i aku l?u tajra.gi ca _ Try me befoie you take me. 

Pagapuy ka saguma Q-o in tlie kitchen now. 

Taluun ku pen aalka, massin- I warn yon beforehand, I am 
gnila ako a ta-iito sa cakan. very delicate in my eating. 

TJ aden a macalupet sa paguisu- He who breaks any things ah-ould 
pan bayadan an alaga nin. pay for it. 

SBKTENCES IN COMMON USfc FOR DENOTING ttOMETHINa RELATIVE 

TO ErSINa, ETC. 

Cadeuaii, pidtalu nengka salaid You toLd me to wake you very 
na mapita-pita pukaua ku early, air. 
salka. 

Siimebang" den sn senangr* Is the aun rising? 

Ming ka cnmua alio sa ditar a Do you wish me togetontsome 
mapia? clean clothing? 

Di»cTiaka mnna sa isa cayab, No, "bring me a sheet, for I wish 
ca paigu aku. to bathe. 

It ka salaki ditar a mapia Bring me clean clothing:. 

Naca-kilalakasapatatabungan Do yon kuow^ any good barber? 

a inapia V 

Pacalilala akusaisa Tknowone. 

IS'apaiiguila^^ka sekaniii, Giigu S9e if yon can find him, and 
n^uit sekanin sa glat a ipana- have him bring a good raaor. 
bnngau niapia. 

Mataukatninabungaiipia-pia?__ Can yon shave ■well? 

Uay, cadenan, aaki bu i mapia Yes, sir. lam the best barberon 
p^itatabungau sa ]alan antn, this street, 

Pagingat ka sa capanabungan. Shave me with much care, for 
ca malemu aku capaiian, my skin is very thia (tender) , 

Gnntin^-gni akn __, Cut my^ hair. 

Ming ka sa mababa tanto? Do you wish it very short? 

Di, malo-malendu-iendu sa No, a little long, 
paida, 

PilaiHucay ku salba? What do I owe yon? 

Seka bixiuiytau What you wish to give. 

Pila i kiu^ari ka sa aacit iilan. How much do you want a month 
panabuiigan ka salakt gaga shaving mo every other day? 
dua g-ay? 

Amay ca man, iia sin ka den Com.o then, from., to-morrow, 
punn sa amag. 



57 

Taguykasia saig __ Pat wat«r here. 

Cnasabangala, saliial engu iaa Getashirt^pairof trousers, and 
a ipanisiiig. ^ towel. 

lei-Ti ka su fapiu Bring ine the bat. 

Nia su mga talumpa _ _ _ _ _ ^ Here are the shoes. 

It ka sin sa isa kayjip Bring a sh^jet and soap, 

Cadenan, su ig nahigu deii sa Sir, the tub is full of water, 
paigoan. 

Pagaipjit ka sa nalay Take care of the house. 

Paganadi ka sa citnditur kn, Learn how todresfl me, andfcik^ 

engu paguingat ka pia su imich care of my clothing. 

liitar. 

laua nengkasu budseng sa mga Take thtdust from th^ise shoes, 
talumpa an an* 

st:ntbnces l^ common use for de>jotino something relative 

TO .\ iTOtRKEY. 

Endaii mapia, u magneda tanu Which is the best way, by water 
ataua lumalag V ct hy ki^d ? 

Migcarat an lalan sa lupa, sa 'fh? road is bad, you can goT^y 
ragat mapacay mukit^ en- eea, but it is befit to go by 
tauna lahimapiasa Iauasaig_ river. 

PaMneg ka, bankero, sin ka Listen, boatman, come here, 

Pila isucain nengka ibotas kn How much do you want to take 
seka? me to the other side of the 

river V 

Upat-palu a cuarta _ Four reales (bits). 

Muig ka sa dna? Will yon take tvPoV 

Na u tanu den, ijigat kann ca Let ns go, then, and don't tip 

baai ta^nu matalekeb , _--_ over. 

Ayau ka sa lunc, engu di ka Sit in the center and don^t 

ngagalebec. move. 

Mamitaii t^ni^i pen?, -_-_ r --- . Is it ve^^y farV 

Di , cadenan, uiasikejt tanu don , . No, sir, we are now^ close, 

Nyeiii a hor-as i oaumji tanuV, __ At what hour will we amv-eV 

Mauguet tanu, ca. casnnsung Late, because tlie current is 
tanu Ru ragues- against us. 

Nelat kii su layag _ - - Put up the f^ail. 

Naciida, ingat ka, ca marat ^u Pilot, have a, care lest we go 
capaganang tanu 'wrong. 

Ngaiii cariatan sin taman sa How far is it from here to th-e 
ingued? town:* 



68 

Tela horaa, cadenan Three hours^ air. 

Ipajignilay aku nengkasa kuda Find me a liorae and a ^ood 
f^Tigu iaa ^ pangTinaan, ^uide. 

Piiaibayad kusalka,Capitaii?__ Howimich do I owe you, Cap- 
tain? 

Cadenan, nia don su nabilang __ Sir, here is the acconnt. 

Marguen den It is v-ery dear. 

Kataacaan den ania sa malay- It is according to the regular 

aman. rate. 

Pakipanguilay kasa tialaya di Findmeahouae that is not dear. 

K^gefln cauguet nengka Bia aa- Will yon live in it for some 
ualay ania ? time V 



PATIT TI-^OF BTl^TAX, PnOSOT>Y, AND 
OltTIlOGUAPIIY. 



Chapter 1.— OP SYNTAX. 

Syntax is that jx-irt of grammar which tcacTicn u^ the wiode of 
ticitiiig words tti expret^a iiiteUigeiitly our conceptions. 

If, in espresrtin^ our tlio-uglits by words, we j^viard the rules of 
(jonytructiou, .syntas is said to he regular; if oUierwise it is said 
to lie figurative. 

Ill this pamphlet we deal only with regular syiifais, 

OF cokcori>a:ncr. 

Ct)TicoriIiince is the coiifottiiity of variablo words in grara- 
matica-l use. It TiLay bo of gender and nuinber Jimong snbstaiitiTe 
nouns, adjectives, pronouns, und articks. Tills concordance lias 
no place in Hagnindaniio, aa all nonn^i are common of t"wo, aud 
articl^^s and adjectives of three, wilhout any of them chan^iig 
thpiT fcerniirtations. Thij^ alsji happens of the contordMnce of 
iimnber and person, %vlii<:h consists of placing the verb in the 
nmnber and person of the suI>JE'ot, as in this tors^nf^-^ the verb has 
the same termimition for all iinuiberff and per^^ons, an has been 
alreiidy stated. 

Sn bepgala maputi.„.,^ The shirt ia white. 

Su tan maputi The man is M'hJte- 

Sn mga layac maputi The sails ;ire white, 

Mangay bu si mga sondalo The soldiers will come. 

Mangay ka bu sin You will come. 

Maiigay bn aiu si JuEin John will oom«. 

In thi;s<:i w^^ntence.s it will be ween that the same word inApiitl 
{u^hite) serves for ail genders and numbers; and the same term 
uiaugay {vnll coittc) K-^rves for all numbers and persons. 

(59) 



00 



Regimen is the dependence whick Home words have tf) others 
in a sentence. Thii* depernlence is considered in Maguindiiiiao, 
more or Icsfl^ at^ in other tongues. 

A a\il>ata.zitive iiised with n preposition requires another sub- 
.stantive- as: Kuda iii Jose — Horne of Joseph. 

A s^ibj^tantive used with a proposition also reqairea the verb 
to he in the infinitive, as: Suliit t'n ftai)agatnit"-Boofc/or lettmiiig. 
or Booh/or to ham. 

A noun without a prepo&itiort makes the subataotive appear aa 
the snhject: Su awn iialftla^iij— 7'ftf? thg escappd; SaeaiintH Mi 
Luis — Arrivt-d Loi*i,y, or Loui^ arrived. 

A pronoun is required to iippear only aft a snbject of the verb, 
a^: Seka iimnjiilu-? d.en — Yon pti&s now; SaJtidimataiiaku liimatL- 
fi^iiy — Ida not know how to sivim^ 

The adjective Ijefore ^ preposition may Tie used vdth a siib- 
atantive, ii pronoun^ or a verb, thns: HatJi^iiel f^a eatalad — Faithful 
toapromiffe; Malcmt ami s&h}ik^— Easy for ijou: Maiu^^it sacapa- 
nuni — Tired of teaching. 

An active verb may be uftsjd with a suhwUntive^ pronoun, 
adjective, adverb, another verb, or an entire sent/mce, thtia: 
8aiiiali^ ako sa Alatala— / wnflde iff God; Nallay ako sokaiun— 
Isatf? fii-in; Aden aiapla tau — r/^ere «/■<? t/orj^^p^op/c; Padlalii nin 
baliuaiiat; a tant<) — Speak 'oerff clearly; M\\y^ ako inbalin^an— J 
li'ish to return; Isapalaii ka ^alka iiia^uc^a^ canit p<rd nenka--/ 
proinhit you from going around figkting pt^ople. 

In the regimen there are two chissea of complements or subj^cta 
used: The direct complement is that on which talk the action 
of the verb directly, a«: Cnan kiisuh^n^alii— Take the. ';7tirt;Si\\Li 
tnstliiim ak":» sa Alatnla— J love God. The indirect complement iw 
that on which faHs the actioa of the verh indirectly^ as: Di nhi 
n\\^^^ tntiilen nn iiia^adi vann ni^ija vala — //c does ^toi u-Mi tit 
expla In the >ie.7ttencc-'i to the etiiklren; TnuEt iiUau f^ii m^a kuda sa 
valaj' — They have fftken tlte hordes tiomi'. In these tw^o sonteiicert 
*^ the children "y.nd ''home'^ are objects or indirect (rompleinentf!. 

In the first two examples under direct complements 'Hhc 
Hhirf and ''God'' are direct coiupletnenty as are "sentences^* 
and *Miorses" in the examples uitder indirect complements. 

There are ftonie otJier rulen treating of the re^imeii of words 
and of conwtriictiort in Magnindanao^ bnt we abstain from giving 
more, aa real and fixe<l rules are not yet known to this tongue. 



(il 



OF CONSTR-UCnoK. 

Construction is the plctcing of words iu thi'ir proper order in a 
sentence. 

The iiatiiTal order it^ that the ^irtk'l*? he first, iuid it alionld bo 
followed by i\ noun, which in turn is followed by un. adjective, 
th(! v^rb aiid J id verb coming aftoTw^mls. Between these pftrt^ 
uf £1 sentejieo others are HOmetimes placed in order to better or 
more littelligently uarry out the idea intended. 

Graimnaticiil sentences may be simple or comples. A simple 
eenteiice consists of a single proposition: Mayan su Keiiari^- Thti 
sun heats; Sii hay*' uiababa— 37u^ tree u io(r\ A complex aentecce 
is one some element of which contains a subject arid a predloate: 
Miii^ ?^u AlatalH ma^a-sor^A ^iilan^iiii a taii^ — Godvn-'ihesallme'n 
to save themsehms. 

A simple sentence may be a first or second. Firsts are those 
^Tiich have a direct subject, verb, and complement: Sii pjinday 
a hayo memlial sii vulay iiin— 77/e carpenter riKLken his house. 
SecondK are those which have a subject aTid verb: Si Luis )iaga- 
nat — Loins studies. , 

Respecting the verb in a sentence, it may be -a substantive, an 
active-^ a passive, a neuter, a reciprocal, or a reflexive or reflective 
verb. 

We have before stated th^^it this tongue is lacking in the verb 
'* to he " and the verba! espregaion " to be in a place," and to 
express ideas of their nature a su}>Btantive is simply used with 
the adjective for " to b&," and with the place for " to be in ^ 
place/' as mjiy he seen by the following; Seka ma^^iida tan— 
You are yonng^ and ^ftn SU fl^H — The dt}*j is orcr fhere^ 

The verbs "to have "and ''to take " are esprfi's&ed by aiteii; 
Aden taw ^ft yi\h\y—Thi'T^ Qr<e peojff^'- at hotn^c; A^Itu inauuG «i 
Luis — Louis has chickens. 

Neutet voxbs forni sentences in tbo same manner as the verb 
adf^n, thus: Naeanma si VMor masak it— F/c^or arrived sick. 
This ie a first simple sentence, Guaiiuanatsftkauiii — JJe left, isa 
second simple sentence. 

Sentences, of active verbs are farmed with the subject in the 
nominative, the verh, and the direct complenient or accusative^ 
if they are firsts: Su aiaa maLInia cana mg-a rata nXn—Thefathe}' 



63 

loves Mr childretL If they are aeoonds, Tvith the sTihject and 
verb only: Pt^tlni m\^ik— Peter recUnas. 

Senleiicea of psiRsivo verbs are more iHflitmU tlian others on 
account of being more complicated. These are formed according 
to tlie modes of paaaivee, which we have already expla-ined. If 
they are in th^ passive in " i,'' tht; direct complement ia placed 
as the subject m the nominative, the verb in the passive in *' i,'^ 
and the sabject in the genitive: Ipanie kii su siapiii— Up tvith the 
hat, OT Bring the hat up. If the instrument (thing or nown), 
cause, or time used for accompliahiu^ anything is expressed^itis 
placed in the nominatives the agent ni the genitive^ and the sub 
jt?et or dires^t conaplement in the accusative: Sii i>atii-c inf-moaleii 
i>ll[^kfl. sa AlhiUiir — Vou hHvC 'juadi'. ihn hoat witlt a Jiatchet: Sahap 
»^kaiiii>iiibal-aiihti sa valay— Ort your account I have -made the 
house; Sii iilaii-iilaii ^iitii pamiilaaii ♦■njfca sa palaj— PJan^ th^ 
rice this month. 

The passive in ^*en" has no variations, and is formed by 
placing the direct complement as .subject in the nomiiiiitive, the 
verb in the passive in ''en/' and the sahject in. the gerritiv*;; 
Libeten en^ka %\\ vftlaj-"^^'b<* f/ou neariug the fimtac? 

lu the passive in '^ en *' the place is used, qr where the act)0?lia 
executed, as the subject in tlie noniinativCj the verb which now 
ttecomes aik, the agent or sul)je<^t in the genitive, and that whirh 
19 the object of the verb -or direct complement is placed in the 
accusative: Ududan en^''kik sii lalaii m Ig" — Yoiz are npiUing the 
tvatfv in the ^trett; Papasaii. In nii padlau sa lan^HTi a tainan— 
Ihtrchase oil the. things ai the tuarkei. 

Sentences of infinitives are formed in this tongue the same as 
!n other languages. In a.ddition to the subject, and the verb in 
the personal mode, called *' determinate,^" they carry others 
which paas for the present of the intinitivB called^' determined,'"' 
They may be flrsts or seconds. They are firsts if they consist of 
a subject, determin;ite verb, determined verb^ and direct ctimple- 
inerit. as: S^i m^a Xoi'os miik^ capa^annt sa baka^a casila— 27^^ 
Moras wf.ith fa lea-rn the Spaniah tongue; Sii 3ng"a niarat a taii di 
Tiiapa^^ay oapa>aiit ^a ^ttr^a—The loicked can not attain glory. 
The seconda are those which have Eot the direct complement 
expressed, thas: Lanfirim tiiiiu mapatiat ■cnpag'innu^t — We all 
should obey; Vu^ajn j^ekauin fli capatay — He desires not to die. 



63 

Filially, senteiices ^itL r^lativfi pionouna are also fonnfid as in 
other langTiagea. They are compoHed of two sentencea (tailed 
the first or niitecedent a.nd the fieeond v/ith a relative* aa the term 
H, wliicli is a relative, ocours in the second part of the senteiice, 
tJuie: Su tail a pedsii^aL ili pan^^uyag sa mga vain aia—Tlje man 
who gambles does not support hh children; Sii "i^ft iiianuho n 
maugajigauitf p<^dcaua;^a silan— Tfie Monteses tcho work hecmae 
rich. 

Chapter 3.-^F PROSODY AN'D ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Proaody teaches the mcOe of accentuating -words properly in 
order tlint they may he pronounced correctly* and that euphouy 
may obtain. 

It ia not known in this tongue, ^vben it is written in Arabic 
charactera, ho\r the worda are aecentuiited, and for this very 
reason, and on accL^unt of the crrii^ity of the dialect, it is difflcnlt 
to- make any sot rules for accentuating when it is expressed in 
other elmractera. 

Pra<itlc«iii speaking with the natives will enable one to get the 
proper sounds of "words, which can then l^e accentuated witli 
some degree of correctness. 

For tlie same reasons given above, fixed rules of orthography 
cu.n not he given in Miiguindanao, and, as before stated, practice 
in speaking with the natives wnll enable one to write and spell 
properly. 

In this tongue there arc no Ifuown rules of punctuation. The 
MaguiiidaTiaos have a final point or period only — this they call 
**hayat/' 



A BRIEF yOCABULAKT OF FNGT^ISII, MACUIN 
I»ANAO, AND MALAY. 



OF THE SKY, SUN, MOON, STARS, TIME, ETC. 



Eapllsli. 



God..-.._ 

The universe 

The sky 

The firmameiit . _ 

The horizon 

The atmosphere 

The suit 

The snTiriee ___ _ 

The euTieet 

The sutiT^^yg-,, 

Echpse of sun 

The moon - _ . 

New inooii 

Quarter moon 

Full moon - . 

The north 

South 

Eaat __ 

West 

Star 

Flash of light ,. 

Lrigbtnin^_ 

Thunder 

Earthqnal^e 

Cloud ---. 

Rainhow 



MBgai:iid«iw>. 



Allah-all ah ta-hiiiji ._ 

Alam . . ___ 

Horga . 

Langit _. 

Kahi-Iatigit 

Kauang-Kaiiang 

Seiiwng 

Sebang... _ 

Sodep 



HhIfit. 



Sinar a senau^ . 

Galanfi or ganuia 

Ulan-nlaii 

Bit^o or schang 

Icapitn a sebaiig 

Talama_ .__-_^ 

Ma.saric 

Kiblat 

Sebangan. 

Setlepan 

Bituun 

Kilat.. 

Parti o^l-eti .. 

Daleiides 

Linug 

Gabnn . _ . _ _ 

Bnlufcn - 



Alliih. 

Alain, 

Surga. 

Lan^uit- 

Kaki-hingit. 

Udara, 

Matjibari 

Matabari naik, 

MiitsJi harih masok. 

Siiiar iiiata hard. 

(Jraiiana. 

Enlan, 

8a, h!j,ri hnlaii. 

Bnlan sabliih. 

Peruaum, 

Utaia. 

Sfilatan. 

Timor. 

Barat- 

Bititring. 

Kilat. 

Petir-pai i a-petir . 

GJuntar, 

Gem pa taiiah. 

A van. 

Plangni- 



SH- 



(tlo) 



t>G 



Etigllah, 



Mist -. 
Dew - 
Coi««?t 



JJiayuimiiuiUD . 



MftUy. 



Morning star 

EveiiTtig star 

Orion 

The Pleiades 

Pole star _ . . ... 

Nortliea&t 

Northwest _. 

North ;inil nortlieast 
win<L 

South iuiil riontlu'-ust 
wind. 

West iind southwest 
wiiul. 

The wiirni stmMon 

Rjiiiiy season 

The year 

The month -- .. 

One 'woek ..___. . , 

Sunda.y 

M!oniiiiy_ __ 

Tuesday.- ..-- 

Wednesday 

T2iur,4<.lJiy 

Friday _ 

Saturday 

The first month ______ 

The second mouth .-_ 

The third month 

Fourth month 

Fifth month 

Sistb month. . . _ . . 

Sev<?ntli niunth 

Eighth month 

Ninth month 



Lekep _ 

Namu^ 

Eitunii liericor or 
herasah. 

Miicabnngas . 

Macarnni_.. ,,, 

Bitnun-^uinlJiir 

Kartica ft/ Langao_. 

Bitiiwn-utara 

Utava 

TJtara-aa taj^urn 

Buan iitara 

Timor 



Ssdatan-Barat 

I Musiin !h luayitu .._. 
Musini-barat 

! Ragnn or lagun 

Ulan-uljiii - . 

Saca-padian _ 

Acad 

\ Isnin ,__ 

: Salam 

Arba 

Kammis 

Guiamat 

Saptu 

Mu j arram 

Bapar ... 

Rabi-el-aval 

Rabi-el-ajir. .. _ . ._ 

Oruiumadil-aval 

Guinmadil-ajir 

Ra^uiab 

Xaban 

Rama^lUm Piiasa 



Kabns. 

Em bun - 

Bintang berlcor or 
bcra&ab. 

Timor. 

Petiing. 

BiTitan^ el jabar. 

KarWca. 

Bintaug-kutub. 

Timor-land. 

Barat-laiit, 

Barat-BariJt mi umtn 
selatan. 

Solatan-T< m jjitra » 

Timor, timordaud. 

Musiiti paiias-Mih 

Mtisim-haian. 

Tahiin. 

Bulan. 

8atu uingo, 

Achad, 

Senen a isnein. 

Selaaa. 

Rabu, 

Khaiuis, 

Jiimaat- 

Sabtu. 

Mtiharraiii, 

Safer. 

Rabi-alaval. 

Rabi-alakhir, 

Jemad-alaval. 

Jemad-aljikhir, 

Rejab. 

Shaaban. 

Ram than. 



67 



Bngliflbr 



Tenth month 

Eleventh mon-th 

Twelfth month 

Theday --- -.-_ 

To-day 

To-moTTOW 

Yesterday 

Midduy _. 

Early morning 

Late evening 

"Very early nioming . _ 

The world 

The earth 

"Water — , 

The people 

The aiiinials 

The birds 

The fishes 

The sea 

The high a^rts 

Sand.-.- 

Rock 

Swamp 

Lake 

Biver - --. 

Plain 



^iHE^EimilBDao. 



Sanal i 

Chiulcaida 

Chiuljigiiia __ 

Sagoey _ 

Saguna_ 

Amag _ 

Cagay 

Gntuseiiang 

Mapita ._.. ___ 

Malulem , , . . ^ . 

Aniag mapita-pita _ . 
Dunji.- ._ _, ..._,, . ,_ , 

Liipa 

Ig: - 



MRlny. 



Manuaia 

Binatang 

Papanuc __. 

Stida 

Dagat-Lant. 
Kaludan _ , 

Pedtad 

Uato 

Pauaa 

Lanao 

La.nas a ig_. 
Datar 



Wooded hill 

Cauyon 

Ravine 

Woods 

Precipice. __ 

Spring 

Clay or mnd 

Island 

Jstbmus 

Cape 



Palau 

Aliig a madalem. _ , 

Landeng^ 

Dam a kayo-Calasan _ 

Lacnngan 

Bualan 

Bndtii . . 

Balet 

TaQitay 

Tnca_. 



Shaval. 

ZU kaedah. 

Zil hay-jah. 

Hari, 

Ini liari. 

Esoc, 

Kelmiiriti. 

Teiigah hari. 

Pagi, 

Malam. 

Esoc pagi-pagi. 

Bunia. 

Tanali, biimi, 

Ayer, 

Manueia. 

Binatang. 

BiiTong- 

I kail. 

Lant. 

Pasir. 
Bato. 
Paya. 
Dajiao* 

Padang - Tanah la 
pang. 

Gunnng-Bakit. 

Lembah yaii^ -dalcm. 

Xelah gi^nuiig. 

liimba-hiitan. 

Karang iKitu. 

Mata-ayer, 

Lunipnr. 

Pulan. 

Leber -taTiah, 

Hujur-tanah. 



68 



Bui^Fi^h. 



MHguinilaiiao. 



Port .___ 

Bay 

Seashore 
Canal 



MiLlny. 



Estuary 

Brklge 

Mouth of river 

Cturent 

High tide 

Low tido 

Well 

Wat^jr 

Salt -water 

Fresh water. ._ 
Fire - 

Lightning 

The light 

Ashes -- 

Darkuesa 

Spring 

Source of river 

Cav& 

A post of wood 

The wind . . _ ._ 



Lin^c-Labiiiiii i Pc-Iabuh-aTi. 

Su^nd I Telut. 

Ligiiid UidH^iit ; Ftiiitey-Rifiisir. 

Pantecan ___j Serakaii-Farit (si 

\ hecho demaiio). 

Cacar _.__ ^ ' Saluran-Sarotan. 

Tiiay Titi-aii. 

Hinanga I Muvara. 

Reguea Hania. 

PaguTug _ _ . Ayer pisaiig. 

Paguirat Ayersurut. 

Parigui_ Prigi. 

Ig -- Ayer. 

I^-niH,tii[iaa . Ayer masiii. 

J^ a matab^n Ayer tavar. 

Apuy.. .._ Api, 

G-ueti -. ---! Eunga-api. 

Sulu. 'Traiig. 

Hiiu, Uiiibi , Hahu. 

Malibuteng ' GHap, 

Biialan ! Mata ayer_ 

TJln aiig Hiilu sunguey, 

Tacnb I Gpa^ 

Kayo I Kayo. 

Endn,- v Augiu. 



CONCERNING MAN. 



Man _._ Tau 

The people I Maimsia 

Male - ' Mama 

Female ■ Babay 

Body ! Lauas 

Head _.__ 

Stomacb 

Foot - 



Oran^. 

MaiHinia. 

Laki-laki. 

Parampnan. 

Bjidau. 



Kaki. 



69 



JiJngiiciL, 



Arm 

Shoulder 

Bone 

Brain __- 

Cheat 

Breasts 

Cheeks 

Ears _ _ 

El"bow 

The eyee 

White of the eyea 

Piipils 

Eyebrows --.^-r-.^,-. 

The eyelids 

Thefaoe 

The f eatiirea 

The f ori^hoad 

Hair 

Hand 

Right hand 

Left hand .. 

Thenailr? 

The month 

Lips 

Lnnge ..._... 

Navel __,_ 

Bone 

Marrow 

Liver 

Heart 

Neck _ 

Nose 

Nerve 

Vein-. 

Stomach ._ . 

Rib .__. 

Blood 



Nglay 

Bicnggimg 

Tulan 

Utec 

Laleb 

Susu 

Pipi 

TaliiiKa- 

Sikii. 

Mata,__ 

Puti a inata . 

Tauaniata 

Kiray 

Taciilab 

Biaa-Paras 

Paras _ ._ _ . 

Beneng _ . 

Biic - 

LLina 

Lima cananati 

Limabiuaiig 

Kiiku __ 

NgaH 

BLbil 

Masnc-caloal 

Puset- 

Tnl ftTi .- 

tJtec a iulaii . 

Hatay 

Pusiing _ 

Lig 

Hiniiij:? 



afdJii}\ 



LcDgan. 

Tiilang. 

Ot^k_ 

Dad a. 

Snsit. 

Pipi, 

Telinga, 

Siku, 

Matai-piiti, 

Biji inata. 

Koiiiiigt 

Kelupak mata, 

Miika. 

Paraa, 

Dahi, 

Bambiit. 

Tang Jill. 

Id. cj^Tiaih 

Id. kiri. 

Kukn. 

Mulu-t. 

Bibir, 

Peparu, 

Pnsat. 

Tulaiig, 

Otak tulan S' 

Hati-Limpah, 

Jantong:. 

Leber. 

Hidong. 

Urat. 



Ugat 

Ugat-rugii ! Urat-darah. 

Caslaiin ' Ampedab 



Gnsnk 
E-ugu . 



Rnsok, 
Darah. 



70 



Engireb, 



Saliva 

Tongue 

Teeth 

The skill _ 

The memory __ 

UnderatEiiitlmg 

Will 

TLeeoiil 

Jndjf ineiit 

Love 

Goofliie^^wof henrt — 

Anger 

Desire _.-__.. 

Affliction or aorrow- _ 



TliOTight 

Odor orjioent- 

Sight 

Pain . ,-,.-„ 
Cold, distant - 

C<>Qji:li 

Consumption. 

Blind 

Epilepsy __. . 
Inflamm iition 

Lame . 

Dumb 

Deaf --.. 

Leprosy 

Swelling 

Hiimpbi^cked . 
Matter^ pufi .. 



llaeiiiurS&ua^ 



Dnda 

Dila.-- 

Kgnipen 

Upis ___ 

Tan ad 

Sabnt __,,__. 

Gruinftna, 

Nana 

Akal-balik _ 

Caliniu 

Hattay 

Ripunguet 

Khig 

Kasuaan-Caridu gui 
nauj^. 

Capikir,pandapat_ . 

Caeii]m-Bauii 

Oailay 

Sivkit__. ._._.-.._.. 

Leseina 

Batnk 

Praynren 

Buta 

Eabuy-babuy 

Bingni 

Timpan^ 

Man 

Bisu 

Panmti - 

L^ml)a,g 

Becnng 

Nana,. - 



Mftlfty. 



Luda- 

Lidah. 

Gigi. 

Kulit. 

Ingatan, 

Biidi. 

Kahand&k- 

Nyavvah-Jiwa. 

Akal-Eiidi-bicha ra. 

PeTi^ijaikan. 

Hati. 

Marali. 

Kainginan, 

Kaaueah-an. 

Pilriran. 

Chinm. 

Peng-liat. 

Sakit- 

Selismah. 

Batok. 

Batok-Kring. 

Buta- 

SaTan-babi. 

Eentiin. 

Timpaiig. 

Bien-Kelu. 

Pekat. 

Kusta. 

Bengkuk. 

Bangkok. 

Nanah. 



71 



OP BUILDINGS, BUILDING MATEElAl., A,NU FUltNTTURK, 



Eu^IIbIi. 



House 

Door - 

Floor 

Room : 

Corner 

KUcheii- ., 

Roof- 

Gable ..._, 

A partition _ 

Board .. 

Stone 

Briols _ 

Linj e _ 

Kail 

Look 

Key 

Window 

Staircase ..*-,. 

Chair ,, 

Bed 

Broom .._ l 

Crarlle ..- 

Mosquito liax 

Mattress __ 

Pillow _ 

Sci^ora 

To sew 

Pincers 

A wooden buwl.. 

Hatchet 

Anvil , -,--- 

Plate - 

Jar _ 

Spoon -,- 

Claisel 



TJalay 

Pintu 

Laatay 

Bilik ____ 

Pinjuru 

Dapuran 

Atep . --- 

Kasjiu 

Dindiii^ 

Papan 

Uato --- 

Eata 

Apng 

Paku - 

Kunyi 

Qunsi 

PanihtaKftn. --._._ 

ToJi-c 

Cursi^.^ ,^--- 

Igaan 

Payupas 

Duyan. -,---. 

(^lainhu 

niaui 

Ulo-naii 

Glinting 

Manianay 

Sepit 

Dulangn 

PatTik 

Randasa.li . 

Latiipay . 

Cudeii. 

Salidut 

Panasauff,-- 



MnlAy. 



Itumah. 

Pintu. 

Lantei- 

Dilik. 

Peiijuru. 

D;iiM>r. 

Atiip. 

Di:igdiijgr 

Papan. 

Batu. 

Batii-bakax. 

KapuT- 

Piiku. 

Kunclii- 

ATiak-kuncln. 

Jonilela. 

Krofil. 

Tempat-TidoT. 

Peniapu. 

Buayan, 

Knlanibu. 

Tilam. 

EantEih 

Glinting. 

PcmidaTigan. 

Sepit. 

Dulang, 

Kapak. 

Len^lat^m, 

Pingan. 

Pruik. 

Sen dot;. 

Pahai> 



73 



KiigTIjih. 



Mivffnhnliiiirio. 



MiJ.iy. 



Bridlo 

Grinder, mill 
I _. 



Mine 

Yours . 

His ,,,„ 

Wc (all^jf ns) 

We (you ami T) 

Wt! (esoIu.siTe of y oil , 
pluriil) 

YouoJ'yo {plural), -- 
They 



Cakaug Kaiig. 

: Sjinciil . . i Chankul. 

'Bain guilingaii | Eatu guilingan. 

Saki, Aku i Aliu-Saiya Jamba. 

. Laki i Pum akii, 

I yeka-Laba ' Angkay-Dikan. 

i Salkaiiiii-Lekaniii lya- Dia. Nia. 



ftalkitanit. 

SaDcit^ 

SEilkacii _. 



Salkami 
S;itkiraii 



Kita orang. 

Kita. 

Kami- 

KaiEni-Kamu oi^iig, 
Dia, orang-Marica. 



A PEW ftKNTKNCEB. 



Of what country i« 
that nian V 

"Wliiit is your name V, 

What i« this for? 

Where are you frouiV_ 

Bnng here another . . 

UnilersULnd .- -- 

Take, cany 

Be Cftreful not to ar- 
rive late. 

What is that worthV- 
To-morrow yon will 
bity. I 

How much per day?_| 

Give meaneedle with 
tt little thread. ' 



How many are there ? 



Ng-aiii ftTi ingued a 
tan antu 'c 

N^ain Bm ngala 
nengka? 

Ngaia i guna anan?. 

Endau ka, puu r* - 

It ka fein sa salacan _ 

PacasabTitaii 

Panangiiiten 

Ingat ka, dika mau- 
guet. 

Pila i alaga anan ?. . 

Aniag iiiamasa ka 
bn. 

Pila ngaga isa gay?. . 

It ka sill sa ragiimn 
iM\gXi paidu a ta- 
nur. 

Pila ttilan? 



Ifeu? 
Apa ka nama iigkau? 

Apa ka ^nia ita? 

Derimana angka;i 
datang V 

Casi ka lain. 

Mangarti. 

MembaTia. 

Jangan lombat dar 
tang, 

Brttpa ka arga ini ? 
Beao anekjiu buli- 
bili. 

Prapa satu hari? 

Casi flama sa ja 
satu bataiig- giaroin 
sama sidi kit be- 
nang. 

Brapa eaping ada ? 



73 



Kn^lldlt. 


'M^i^ulmruiiiKj. 


JWaJiLy. 


Wlioare in port.' 


Tingiiin sa dalem n 


Apa ada dalam la- 




lineo? 


buan V 


Take that home 


Pananguit ka ana sa 


Meiibna angkau itu 




iialay. 


yang rujuah- 


They H,re unable to 


Di ia uialdlala ngain 


Tiada- lah - ber kenal- 


distitigniah frieiids 


pagari iigain lidn. 


an Icavan dengan 


from enemies. 




lav^n. 


It aleeps by da.y and 


Ainav ka gay tnmu- 


Siang'tidor. rualam 


watches {or is 


lug) naagabi ndi- 


jaga (Yangkring). 


awake) by night 


!iga {sndalaiiug). 




{the ciickfjt). 






Sell, buy 


Paaan ^ pam asan 

Padidu, masla __ ___ 


fTual, mpmlipji. 


Small» large 


Kei^hilj bcsar. 


Live, die 


Kiimnn Tninniii 


Makan, mi num. 


Let it lie thus 


M any ag-ma tay 


rdop-mati. 


God wOly it ! . 


UmbesI _ 


Kira nia 1 


Good, bad 


Mapia, marat . 


Bait, jahat. 


Right, left _ 


Cauanan, biuang _. _ 


Tanan, dangkiri. 


Yes, no -- --- 


Uay, di 


Ja, tiada. 


111, ont _ 


Lusud, lin ___ 


Didaloni, luar. 



KOME VERBS. 



To fan _.._ 
To abolish 
To bate --- 

Tolmg 

To abridge 
To open.,. 
To abuse , - 



Maiigambel 

Yaua . .__ 

Parigandam , 

Qakeaen 

Paf^ababaan 

Bnca-an-Pembaka __ 
Mitziipu 



To finish : Mapasad 



To kick 

To accompany 

Toadvis*? 

To lip down . _ _ 

To increase 

To aocuuLulate 
To accuse 



Sumipa 

Maped-Munut 
Pagniiidan . . _ 

Miga 

Umanan 

Matimu 

Maaah-i sa sala 



Kipaakan, 

Bnang. 

Benehi. 

Dakap- 

Renkaskao. 

Membnka. 

Maki -ManipTi, 

Putiiskan- 

Timdang. 

Ikut. 

Nasehat. 

Baring, 

Ber-tambah. 

Pungut, 

Dava. 



74 



>":nfillsL, 



To admire 

To drown 

To reach . 

To feed 

To lodge 

Torent-- 

To raisR- ^-. 

Tolove „, 

To frighten 

To unite . _- 

To appear 

To appland witli 

To tighten 

To approve 

To appoint .„ 

To plow 

To pull 

To drag__ 

To snatch 

To repent 

To arrest- __. 

To kneel .__: 

Totlart --. 

To aaw 

To tie 

To riare ._ ._^__ 

To aid 

To dance 

To deacend 

To bathe 

To sweep, ^-. 

Todrink_ 

To kiss 

To yawn 

Tondicule _._ 

To parade 



M^uEitOaijail. 



Salacauan 

Paca-g-uetan. 

Maaand 

Uyaguen _. _._ 

Ingay nw pedtulugan 

Sukayan 

Itiingnl 

Malimii __. 

Pagpuil-eken - 

Baluten-Iketon 

Ipayac 

Cafiuad 

Lupit _ 

Benaren 3u capia_ . _ 

Tatidaan _ 

Doniado 

Bandnt - 

Gnyndon _ 

Ina^an ____.- 

Sanditan en guinana 

Bilanco. 

Mincut - 

Ituk _.. 

Magaro-g-ari 

Iket--- 

Maoaraa . 

Tabang-an 

Pag^ayan _ 

Lntad 

Paigo 

Paynmpas.- 

Mimim _ _ 

Sinm 

Marij^iiap 

Pedta-taiia ... 

Makiida , 



Mftifl-y^ 



Heiran. 

Tengguelam. 

Samjiei. 

Peliharakan. 

Tninpang, 

Sevai. 

Angkat, 

Ber-Kasih. 

Takiit. 

Ikat. 

Inei- 

T ekok-Taiigan. 

Lepit. 

Menanguio, 

Tuju. 

Bajak. 

Petek. 

Mekita. 

Rampaa, 

Meniesal. 

Tangkap. 

Meltitiit, 

Lempar-buang. 

Lotong-gergaji, 

Ikat.. 

Biaui. 

Tolong. 

Menari. 

Turon, 

Mandi. 

STipa. 

Mimim, 

Ghim. 

Meug-Uap. 

Olok-Olok. 

Tunggaug. 



5 



English. 



MakEikiiiddDao. 



To nod 

To fall 

To calriiLate 

To change _ 

Tosiijg 

To load 

To punish 

To dig 

roliunt... 

To sift 

To <:loae. 

To suc^k 

To curtail _,. 

To nail 

To "boil 

To covet 

Tocateh 

Tohang__ 

To«at ..__ = = _ 

To pity 

To buy 

Tofix 

To buy 

Tofini^^h 

To confide 

To knoAV _ - - 

Toeotiservo 

To refer 

To count 

Toagretj .._. 

To invite 

Tosh-orteu 



To sew 

To grow 

To believe 

To raise chickens 

To cover 



Maii^a.ntnc, 

Maiiltic 

rtiing, bilantr 

Sambi . 

Pedsengal 

Musaii .__ 

Pergaan 

Pedaangknl 

Manganab 

Masiri 

Kimt;hi-en 

Sua.up<!n 

Maga-islam 

Patucau-- 

Pac^iiliitu. 

Ungaya 

Cmxn 

Bitinen 

Knman-Makan 

Maliinn 

Eaailin^JiTi 

Pat^apia-en . 

Paiuasan 

Mapasad _ 

Par acliay a - Ma-sar ik _ 

Mafeilaki _ _ . _ 

ItnngneTi 

Tuntulen 

Bilang 

Masnrut 

Angat^n _- 

Taped^ju 



JVlHki-j . 



Pamanay 

MbetTs ___. 

Parat^haya _. 

Uyaguenia-yam 

Sapcng-an__ 



Mengantok. 

Yatoh- 

Hetong, biiang. 

Tukar. 

Me-nyjinyi, 

Musit. 

Hukunikan. 

Men-gali, 

Meiibma-kejai". 

Ayak. 

Kunchi, 

Mcn-hi^ ap. 

Men-sun at. 

Pakukaii, 

Masak-Eebus. 

Meng-ing^uiu. 

Taiigkap. 

Gant^iig. 

Makaii. 

Mengji-sihani, 

Bandirigkan. 

Men-baikien. 

Bli. 

Habie-kan. 

Perohaya, 

Taku. 

Simpan- 

Biiaiig. 

Merija^li. 

Yemput. 

Baniung, Potong 
MenetaJc. 

Yahit. 

Ber Taniboh. 

Pcrcliaya. 

Meiig-rano, 

Tndong. 



76 



Iljigli»ih. 



To M-tisper 

TocarG 

To give 

To let-out sail. 

To say 

To leave 

Toflpill .. 

Tomelt- 

To desert 

To untie 

To neglect 

To desire 

To loot 

To dismay 

Tofiay 

To awaken _ , , 

To marry 

To destroy _ _ _ 
To disappear _ 

To defer 

To divide 

Todouble,--- 

To sleep 

Totiegin 

To push 

To elevate 

Toligbt.. 

Toiind 

To -encounter- 
To deceive _ _ _ 

TolDind 

To teach 

To string 

To underatand 

To enter 

To poison 

To send 

To sel-ect 



Mjl^llilllllllJ:.!..' 



Pagtunga 

Pagnipat 

iDgay 

Luinayac 

Tain 

Tagak 

ITduden _,. 

Tunag 

Tagaken 

Bukaun __ 

Malipat --. 

Ungaya 

Carnsen 

Mahilo - . 

Upi§en , 

Pnt^ann 

Talad i kauing 

Magra 

Maparac 

Pacaiignoten 

Baliagi-en 

Lepin 

Tuinulug 

Punan -- 

Tulak 

Pangulibod- 

Tntndan 

Matun - 

Macaserabak 

Matipn-Magakal 

Iketen - - 

Mannrn ___ 

Pangatngnon 

Sabut 

Lunmsnd 

Membiaa 

Menuit-Suguen 

Mamili 



M&liiw 



Ber-bisek, 

Peduli, 

Ber-kasi-Membri . 

Ber-layer. 

Ber-kata^ 

Meni^j^alkan. 

Tumpah-kan. 

Hanchur. 

Ting^alkan* 

Bnka. 

Malaleikan. 

Ber-ka-handak. 

Koyak, 

Pengsan. 

Kupaa Imlit- 

Ber-jaga. 

1 nkar- chiucliiii . 

Bosak, Ber-layac. 

Lenniap. 

Tanggoli. 

Baliagi. 

Lapiskan. 

Men-tidor, 

Mulay-Mulaina. 

Tolak. 

Heiiggap, 

Mema^ang. 

Ber-pumpa. 

Men-iiapat- 

Ber-tipu. 

Men y ir at-choban. 

Meng-ajar, 

Kikir- 

Mengarti> 

Maank. 

Merachunkaii. 

Ber kirim. 

Men-pOih, 



77 



English. 



Tchide 

To scatter. 

To wait 

To \tQ in a place 

To sneeze 

Tode^lh'er... „. 

To diamine 

Toesoiti:' 

Toes plain 

To estiiiguiflb _ . 
To favor 



MiiE'Jiiiiiinftii. 



Magnena. _.. 

Iparnr. 

Magagapa __. 
Aden _,_.__.. 
Macaiiiban _ 

Iiigay 

Pariksa 

Pamitiaran . 
Tuiitiileii___ 

Biumeji 

Pacauntnn 



Holay, 



To fry 

To amoko _-. 

To sain 

To govern 

To drop 

ToH^iont ^-... 

To try 

To have (ijwf to take. - 

To inhabit- 

To talk." ---- 

To do 

To make pi>^^ 

Totic^kle 

To inherit _. 

Toi\'ouiid 

Tolioil.--- 

To thread 

To .swell __ __ 

To humble .. - 

To honur . 

To .steal 

To inquire 

To interpret- 

Togo 

To play 



liin. 

Sendaguen . .. 

Pedaif^npan __ 

Manaban 

Mamarinta - 

Ma^-tag 

Pela\is 

Tjiaman 

Aden 

N^kaleben 

Tahmn 

Embal 

Kerata 

MjingTii tet; 

Pt?pptiwaka 

Ma-pali 

Diuaidi-mard.idi 

Snbiden __ 

Lumehak .. 

Dampuan -, 

Magadat _ _ . 

Mantgkan 

Pariak^ia 

Uhigan na niana 
or i.salin_ 

Lacan^ mangay. ,.n. 

Daremtan ,--__-_... 



Sembuni. 

TabuT. 

Menaiitikan. 

Ada. Yadi, 

Eerain. 

GeSek, 

Prekssi. 

' Ber-niala. 

_--' Me-niantakan. 

Padani. 

g-Mali i Ber-untung, 



Goring. 

Miiinm rokok. 

Meii-dapat. 

Men-re ntah- 

Bochor. 

Menjeret. 

Men-Xiisa, 

Ada. 

Tinggal- Diam , 

Ber-tntor. 

Melamboi. 

Men-^eli. 

Dapa.t puKaka, 

Me-lnka-kan. 

Mendid(^h. 

Pintal. 

Beng-kak. 

Pijak. 

Honnat-kan. 

Meni^hariH 

Preksa. 

Kahi-arti, 

Pergi. 
Main pili. 



78 



KagllHh. 



To swear 

Tolick_ 

To wasli 

To read ._,___ 

To arise_ 

Tocall 

To Mrrive 

To fill 

To carry 

To cry - 

To rfiiii . 

To pound 

ToM"ither_. 

To chew ,__ ._ 

To]dll___ 

Tt> measure . 

Toiler 

To lie (tell falsehood)- 

To 131 IK .,^^ 

Toloolc -_. 

To ^rind 

Tobite_ ^ 

Torlio 

ToimiTimir 

Tg hoar (bring forth) _ 

To swim ._. ___... 

To wreck _. 

To navigate 

To fleny. 

To do business 

To name _.___,: 

To obey 

To observe 

To obtain 

TohMii 

To occupy, ., 

To offer 

To bear 



Mnif D inilnnan, ' 



Pedsiapa 

Dilaan 

Pipian 

Magbacha 

Tindeg-en _ . 

TanagTien 

MaCiiiiina 

Mapenu 

Oiten 

Pedaegad _ 

Mag-Tilfin 

Riipeten, pedlu-pit.- 

Peiltaiie^ 

Mama . . . . 

Bnniium 

TembuJcon 

Pedsedeka 

EniTrntuden 

Pedsiijibnr . 

Pandang-Muy-lay... 

Guilileit 

Mugiibut 

Matay 

Mamiiraa- _.. 

tiienil>a,t,a, - 

Luman^ny __^^ 

Maled 

Magauan 

Ipalau .,.._.... _ 

Peddagan-dagan _ - . - 

Ngalanan 

Maf^uinTignt 

Tiilikan 

Masant 

Maguena 

NftPtapic , . . - 

Dtalad 

Matin eg _._,,,_ 



Ber-Rujjipah. 

Menjilat, 

Basoh. 

Men-bacha. 

Naik. 

Paiiggih 

Sampei-l:iataiig . 

Meng-i,si, 

Bava. 

Menangnis, 

Hnjan, 

TuinlKik, 

Ber-layu. 

Muni ah < 

Mon-bunLoh- 

Eer-ukur. 

Minta-Sedekah, 

Bahong. 

Champim 

Pain^kiiig. 

Boi'-kisar. 

Meo-gigii. 

Mati. 

Ber-snngut. 

Te-per-aiiak. 

Beniang, 

Berpesah, 

Berlayar. 

Mangkac- 

Berdagan. 

Bernama. 

Tiinit 

Nampak, 

Dapat. 

Scuibaiii, 

Pakei, 

Tavar. 

Deiigar. 



79 



Ecj^ljah. 



'MngiilndHiiaii. 



To smell 

To forget 

To oppoap 

To oppress 

To harangui? 

To order . ._ 

To live 

To return _ __ 

To stroll 

To Sin 

To beg 

To Iwrrow ._ 

To shortiim 

To fij^ht 

To think 

To pardon. ^-_ 

To weigh . 

Tcifish 

To point __ 

To fold 

To put 

To dslt 

To prepidire 

To lend 

To prohibit 

To promise 

To scrape 

To split 

To mark 

To receive 

To repel 

To gathei" 

To redeem 

Toclieer 

Tt^ laugh 

To oar - _ - 

To strap 

To quarrel -- 



Eaun 

CalipatjiQ.- __ 

Mtitii . 

Lupiten __ . .. 

Mii^adi_ __. 

Bii^iiun 

Mfmyag 

MLnlin^fan 

Lacan-lacan 

Masala _ 

Pang-ani _, 

Miitang 

Mupirt .. 

Magncac - .. 

PEiniikir 

AmpTinan _.. 

Tixnbaii^ _ ._ 

Maiiikep 

E.mn<>bnr 

Lepiiji. -. 

Ibetad 

Idsaaii 

Manlniu 

Fa^liut^mg 

Isa]ial 

Tumalad 

Kibiscn . 

TJpaken _ _ _ . 

PamitaLan . . . . 

Tarinia 

Pauau-, 

Tebaseii 

Tebiiaen___ ■. 

Malilini 

TatiiMa - , . . 

Mapnra-pedayonp: -- 

Inaaaai . -. 

Palaua - . 



Clduui. 

Lupa. 

Malan^iii, 

Any ay a. 

Minta-Doa. 

Snruh, 

Hi<lop. 

Balik. 

Benpalati. 

Berdosa. 

Mintah, 

Pin jam. 

Kupas-lfupsin. 

Bcr-klahi, 

Jikir. 

Anipiinkan. 

Timbiing. 

Panehin^, 

Lapnchat. 

Any am. 

Letak-bnboTi. 

Tania. 

Sediakaii. 

Kiiai piiij^am. 

Karankang. 

Berjanji, 

Kikis. 

Meretiik . 

Garu-garis. 

Trinia. 

Tolok. 

Kampongkan. 

Tebiis. 

Beraaka. 

Tertaua, 

Berdayong. 

Renclanx. 

Berteng-kar. 



so 



Uiig^^aJ*. 



To respond 

To twist --,-- 

To rob 

To implore 

Tobreat,— 

To snore 

To ,iTinip 

To saliitc.-^. _^_ _,. _. 

To bleed 

To raneack _,_ 

To seduce 

To reap 

To follow 

To plant 

To^it_-_ 

Tq feel 

To be 

To loosen - _ 

T<j -siaile 

To blow 

To support 

To a^scand- 

To Biffh - 

To wear___ 

To tremble 

ToBtretch. .... 

To bavc a core . 

To throw 

To toueh. .._^ 

To take _ 

To cough 

To toast 

To work 

To swallow 

To value 

To coii(iaer___ 

To Bell 



]VIii?Liijii]||Dao,< 



^UJliaiUll 

Bibidei] _^ 

Menagcau . . - 

Paiigani _ _ _ „ 

Pedaa 

Pelenguc 

Sumayan 

Salamdu. _ ,. 

PaTiipan;in . 

Lusudan 

Akalan. . ,, ^_ 

Malaga 

MniiTit _ . - - 

Mauiula : 

Mayan 

Mitgatel 

Aden_ - 

Butaiian 

Tataua 

Yu.peii _ - . _ - _ _ 

Leneii 

Manila .. 

Guiinnaua___ 

Manaiil 

Kelcereu 

Cayaten . 

Iitgat , 

ItUg... ----- 

Sapun-iiapenet 

Taxima 

Eatuc-enibatac 

Pangniann 

!Ngalebeg-,- 

Linuun 

Betuiin su ala^a 

Mapipit _ - 

Pasaii .- 



UaUy. 



Ja vab . 

Pnlaskan. 

Rampas. 

Miiita. 

Pecbah. 

Grob o deng-kor. 

Helompat. 

Ber-salain. 

Berdarah. 

Saiiiun. 

Kasisiiap. 

Tuei. 

Mecgiknt 

Muiiabur. 

Dudnk. 

GataL 

Ada, 

Lepaacan, 

Hinm^uiii. 

Eertiap, 

Berdiri, 

Pan j at. 

McT^ielah. 

TenuTi. 

tJeoientar. 

Ben tang. 

Iij^at. 

Tarek. 

Ketok. 

Ambil. 

Batok, 

Pang'pan^. 

Karja. 

Telan. 

Milei taroh baxga, 

Meiiang. 

Jualp 




I ' 



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