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Mahteyi Itur Warn gonu Ekergud 

Ancient tale about Itur Warn and Ekergud, told by Mesak Tibiyai 

(1) Didif di-efesij mahteyi osok gij Ekergud ge-onu* me-abina Itur Warn # 
I iSG-tell ancient.tale jump in Ekergud 2/3DU-with 3SG-husband Itur Warn 

I am telling an ancient story about Ekergud and her husband Itur Warn. 

(2) Goga ge-eker gu monuh mei Meska efej Warn owohoh inda # 
they 2/3DU-sit at place river Meska lower Wam underneath upward 

They lived up at a place beneath lower Meska river, up there below Wam. 

(3) Ekergud eker gu Inska eitofu # 
Ekergud sit at Inska forehead 

Ekergud lived at Inska Forehead (village). 

(4) Ofa eker jah si-uma beda eyajga Ekergud # 
s/he sit at ADV-there then look Ekergud 

While he (Itur Wam) lived there he had looked at (knew about) Ekergud. 

(5) Tina Itur Wam me-okosa Iskuruk Wam me-eyera ^ Arod Minj ge-onu 

but Itur Wam 3SG-sibling Iskuruk Wam SSG-sibling Arod Minj 2/3DU-with 

Ockoj Minj ri-ah gu rerin mei Meska efej^ inda # 

Ockoj Minj 3PL-lie at they.possess river Meska lower above 

But Itur Wam's younger male sibling Iskuruk Wam, (and) his sisters Arod Minj and Ockoj 
Minj lived up at their village of lower Meska river. 

(6) Beda rua ri-of mekeni # 
then they 3PL-fell garden 

^The commitative 'gonu' is only used when coordinating dual human nouns. 
^Younger sibling opposite sex. 

^In its usage here, efej 'dry* also refers to the lower area of a river. The term oforga 'headwater* can also refer to 
the upper area of a river. These two terms help to define the elevational position of a village in relation to the 
deictic center, hence many village names include the terms efej or oforga such as: Meyekiba Ofogra 'upper 
Meyekiba' and Meyekiba Efej 'lower Meyekiba.' Also, nearly all mountain villages are on a river, therefore it can 
be assumed that tne name of the village is also the name of the river, even if the term mei 'water/river' is left 
implicit in the text. 


Then, they would cut down trees in the garden, 

(7) Rua ri-edi mekeni mere eteb # 
they 3PL-strike garden virgin. forest large 

They made a garden out of a large part of the virgin forest. 

(8) Beda ri-of mekeni # 
they 3PL-fell garden 

They cut down (trees) in the garden. 

(9) Bedo ri-es mah-ij # 
then 3PL-light fire-into 

They burned off [the garden). 

(10) Mah efeb edgehin mei Meska indo # 
fire smoke envelop river Meska upward 

Smoke (from the) fires spread upward towards Meska river. 

(11) Eja beda ej-ot [ojotl rof Warn Ofog inda # 
go then INCEP-stand concerning Wam off.shoot upward 

(The smoke) went up and began entering Wam Ofog (village). 

(12) Beda nou mona noba motu ma ri-em-en gu mod # 
Then for day and night they 3PL-MOD-come to house 

Then early in the morning (they went to work) and came back to the house at night. 

(13) Beda mah tein eja gij mega efaga # 
then fire also go in tree body 

Then the fires (from the garden) burned the tree trunks. 

(14) Mega efej ej-ei gij moskusefi ongga a-ng-h tumu 
tree dry INCEP-build.up in moss which PERF-lie on.face.of 

mega memaga me-osu inda eja^ # 

tree mountain 3SG-mother upward go 

The dry trees had grown moss on the surface in the upper mountain ranges.® 

(15) Beda mah eisa egigir efes # 
Then fire shine sparks bright 

Then the binrning fires sent up cinders and shined brightly. 

(16) Motu beda Itur Wam eker rot mar etma efeb # 
night then Itur Wam sit concerning thing hand string 

At night Itur Wam sat making string. 

^The primary meaning of connector rot is 'concerning/about/ but it also functions as an anaphoric 
demonstrative referencing participants, events, and props that are retrievable in the text.. It also expresses 'in 
order to' in (16) and (18). 

^In this construction eja *go' functions adverbially to indicate that movement is away from the deictic center. 
^The build-up of moss on the burning trees explains the amount of smoke moving up the valley. 


(17) Beda of a eij gu ma j meg noba eij mogra ofou^^^ gij =^ 
then s/he twist at porch and twist belt round into 

Then he weaved on his porch and made g-strings. 

(18) Me-eyera Arod Minj ge-onu Ockoj Minj ge-oru mah 
3SG-sibling Arod Minj 2/3DU-with Ockoj Minj 2/3DU-burn fire 

eisQ rot # 
bright concerning 

(Itur Wam's) siblings Arod Minj and Ockoj Minj burned a bright fire for (Itur Wam's work). 

(19) Bedo Itur Warn eij m ogra of oh # 
then Itur Warn twist beU round 

Then Itur Warn made waist string-belts. 

(20) Eij mar efeb erek ke-uma " orofosu-tut mona-mona # 
twist thing string like NOM-that every-RED day-RED 

He weaved string belts like that each and every day. 

(21) Mono beda rua ri-ef mekeni noba motu beda Itur Warn 
Day then they 3PL-work garden and night then Itur Wam 

en beda eij mogra of oh # 
come then twist belt round 

During the day they worked in the garden and at night Itur Wam made string belts. 

(22) Eij mar efeb mono beda ef mekeni # 
twist thing string day then work garden 

He made string (at night) then during the day he worked in the garden. 

(23) Itur Wam ok mejga os mekeni noba motu beda en noba 
Itur Wam carry fence. material sweep garden and night then come and 

eij mogra ofob # 
twist belt round 

Itur Wam carried fence material, swept the garden, and then at night he came and made 
string belts. 

(24) Eij mar efeb erek komo # 
twist thing string like that 

He made string like that. 

(25) Beda Ekergud eker gu Inska eitofu imba # 
then Ekergud sit at Inska forehead downward 

Then (at that time) Ekergud was living below at Inska Forehead (village). 

^"String specifically made to hold up loincloth. 

^^Due to the numerous occurrences of ke-uma 'NOM-that*, it will be transcribed as [koma] throughout the 

remainder of the text. See (7) under section 2 for an explanation of the morphemic structure. 

(26) Beda ofa eyajga Una mab em-eisa erek koma # 
then s/he look but fire MOD-bright like that 

Then she looked but there was a bright fire like that (just mentioned). ^^ 

(27) Beda odou ecira-cira fob # 
then liver travel-RED already 

Then she became very curious. 

(28) Tina guru jefeda osujohu oida di-osok mei inda eja jeskaseda 
but no therefore think QUOT iSG-climb river upward go 

di-ek mah eisa inda # 

iSG-see fire bright upward 

But no (she didn't know whose fire it was) so she began to think, I will climb upward to see 
(whose) bright fire it is up there. 

(29) Jeskaseda di-eja di-ek fog # iSG-go iSG-see first 

(she went up) in order to take a look. 

(30) Evek koma beda Ekergud e-n-ja fob eris mosuska # 
Like that then Ekergud PERF-go already cut bamboo 

(Having departed) then Ekergud had already gone (to) cut bamboo. 

(31) Eris mosubga bera-if # 
cut sugarcane COP-this 

(That is), she cut some sugarcane. 

(32) Beda orka egeka koma era erek moskur beda oroubsib # 
then carry two that using like stick then lean 

Then she carried those two (sugarcanes) (and) used them like (walking) sticks then leaned 

(on the sticks). 

(33) Beda ofa osok mei Yes inda eja # 
then s/he climbs river Far upward go 

Then she climbed and went up to the Far river. 

(34) Beda eja esaga gu m ei Meska Miyo u of oka ^ ^ # 
then go reach at river Meska Miyou junction 

Then going (there) she reached the Meska Miyou river junction. 

(35) Beda ofa ec aki gij mei Meska Miyou # 
then s/he dip foot in river Meska Miyou 

Then she dipped her foot into the Meska Miyou river. 

^^Verbs of perception niav be followed by Una *but' introducing the object to convey a sense of surprise, as also 
in lines (82), (84), (97). (105). (153). (155), and (178). 

^^Ofoka means Viver mouth or estuary, but it is also used as 'river junction' where one smaller river flows into a 
larger river. Also, ofoko with a high' pitch on the second syllable means 'river estuary', and ofoka with a high 
pitch on the final syllable means *name'. 


(36) TinQ mei Meska Miyou eyej noba mei Mesko ofoufem # 
but river Meska Miyou cold and river Meska hot 

But the Meska Miyou river w^as cold and the Meska river w^as hot. 

(37) Beda ofa oku akJ jeska mei Mesko Miyou 
then s/he pull foot from river Meska Miyou 

noba osok mei Yes indo eja # 
and climb river far upu^ard go 

Then she pulled her foot out of the Meska Miyou river and climbed upw^ard going (to) Far 


(38) Beda eja esoga gu mei Jinggo ofoko # 
then go reach at river Jingga junction 

Then going (there) she got as far as the Jingga river junction. 

(39) Beda ofa ec aki gij mei Jinggo Una mei Jingga eyej 
then s/he dip foot in river Jingga but river Jingga cold 

noba mei Yes ofoufem # 
but river Far hot 

Then she dipped her foot into the Jingga river, but the Jingga river w^as cold and the Far river 
w^as hot. 

(40) Beda ofa osok inda eja noba eja esoga mei Jeribo ofoka # 
then s/he climb upward go and go reach river Jeriba junction 

Then she ascended going upw^ard as far as the Jeriba river junction. 

(4 1 ) Beda ofa ec aki gij mei Jeriba Una mei Jeriba eyej noba 
then s/he dip foot into Jeriba river but river Jeriba cold and 

mei Yes ofoufem # 
river Far hot 

Then she dipped her foot into the Jeriba river, but the Jeriba river was cold and Far river was 

(42 ) Beda ofa oku aki jeska mei Jeriba noba osok m ei Yes # 
then s/he pull foot from river Jeriba and climb river Far 

Then she pulled her foot out of the Jeriba river and ascended (to) Far river. 

(43) Beda eja esoga gu mei Meska Irum ofoka # 
then go reach at river Meska Irum junction 

Then going there she reached the Meska Irum river junction. 

(44) Beda ofa ec aki gij mei Mesko Irum # 
then s/he dip foot into river Meska Irum 

Then she dipped her foot into the Meska Irum river. 

(45) Irum eyej noba mei Yes o-m-foufem # 
Irum cold and river Far PERF-hot 


(But) the Irum (river] was cold and the Far river was getting hot. 

(46) Beda ofa osok mei Meska inda eja # 
then s/he climb river Meska upward go 

So then, she ascended going up (to) the Meska river. 

(47) Beda eja esaga gu mei di-ojuj [dujuj] ofoka # 
then go reach at river iSG-descend junction 

Then going (there) she reached (a place called) I Descend river junction. 

(48) Beda ofa ec aki gij Una eyej noba mei Yes o-m-foufem # 
then s/he dip foot in but cold and river Far PERF-hot 

Then she dipped her foot into (that river), but it was cold and the Far river was becoming hot. 

(49) Beda ofa oku aki jeska noba osok mei Yes # 
then s/he pull foot from and climb river Far 

Then she pulled her foot out of (the river) and ascended to Far river. 

(50) Osok osuwu^'^ egenS'Uma eja # 
climb reach one-that go 

(She) ascended going along reaching that one (river). 

(51) Beda eja esaga gu mei Meska Wam ofoka # 
then go reach at river Meska Wam junction 

Then she went along further reaching as far as the Meska Wam river junction. 

(52) Tina mei Meska Wam bera moswa efen mosu o-n-juj-if 

But river Meska Wam COP dry.season possess mother PERF-descend-here 

en keingg^^ mei Meska Wam toumou # 
come ADV river Meska Wam silent 

But as for the Meska Wam river, its main tributary (mother) during the dry season had 
descended here flowing (into) the Meska Wam river quietly (in a small stream). 

(53) Ofa en-ek mei Meska Wam ofoka guru # 
s/he DUR-see river Meska Wam junction NEC 

She could not see the Meska Wam river junction. 

(54) Jefeda aki ekirsa beda ofa osok m ei Yes inda eja # 
Therefore foot exceed then s/heclimb river Far upward go 

So she walked faster then ascended going along up to the Yes river. 

(55) Ofa osok m ei Yes in da eja tin a mei Yes o-m -foufem ai-grogra # 
s/he climb river Far upward go but river Far PERF-hot DIM-boil 

She went up to the Far river but the Far river was already a little bit boiling hot. 

^^Osuwu is synonymous with esogo 'reach at' in (51 

usuwu IS synonymous wiin esogo reacxi at m [oi) 

The units keingg and/ou^ function as grammatical morphemes directly following verbs. In general they allow 

itransitive verbs to take direct objects. 


(56) Beda eja esaga gu mei Eisbira of oka # 
Then go reach at river Eisbira junction 

Then she reached the Eisbira river junction. 

(57) Erek kom a ojgom u beda of a ec aki gij mei Yes tin a m ei Yes eyej n oba 
like that only then s/he dip foot in river Far but river Far cold and 

mei Eisbira o-m-foufem ai-grogra # 
river Eisbira PERF-hot DIM-boil 

Just after that, then she dipped her foot into Far river, but Far river u^as cold and Eisbira river 
was already getting a little bit boiling hot. 

(58) Of a osok m ei Eisbira in da eja beda eja esaga ahah Mo ufor in da 
s/he ascend river Eisbira upward go then go reach front Moufor upward 

beda ec aki gij Una em-eyejkita # 
then dip foot in but MOD-cool 

She ascended (to the) Eisbira river going along then reached the front of the Moufor (river) 
above, then dipped her foot (in) but (the water) might have been getting cool. 

(59) Tina guru jefeda oksons fob # 
But no therefore return already 

But no (it wasn't hot), so (she) decided to proceed. 

(60) Ofa ot jab si-uma beda osujohu # 
s/he stand to ADV-there then think 

She stood there thinking (about it). 

(61) Tina guru jefeda er-efa mosuska jab si-uma # 
but no therefore INS-plant bamboo at ADV-there 

But no (she couldn't figure it out) so she planted the thick kind of bamboo there. 

(62) Ofa er-efa mosuska beda er-ocunc jah si-uma # 
s/he INS-plant bamboo then INS-point to ADV-there 

She planted the thick bamboo then using that pointed it to (the river) there. 

(63) Ekergud esma gu ejmeg beda oksons inda en^^ fob # 
Ekergud drop^^ at back then return upward come already 

Ekergud had already turned around and returned upward coming back, 

(64) Ofa oksons ojgomu inda en beda esaga gu mei 
s/he return just upward come then reach at river 

Meska Warn ofoka komo # 

Meska Warn junction that 

She just continued going upward reaching back to that Meska Warn river junction. 

^*^In this structure en 'come' is used adverbially to indicate thai movement is toward the deictic center - the place 
Ekergud had left. 

^^Esma is the transitive verb 'drop'. However, here and in (77) and (80) it is also used figuratively to mean 
'return'. In (274), (276), (277) the tree dropping (it's chopped up parts) is implicit. 


(65j Erek koma beda ofa efnif beda ebes moswa efen 

like that then s/he glance. back then separate dry.season possess 

mokusmaga efen jeska # 
grass possess from 

After that then she glanced back and separated the (dead grass of) dry season and the tall 
grass (from the river). 

(66) Tina se mei ofoka en-ah-if niei ofoka di-en-ekirsa 

But [exclamation] water junction DUR-Iie-here river junction iSG-DUR-exceed 

ai-jah # 

But (she thought), hey, here is a river junction, a river junction I almost passed by. 

(67) Erek koma beda Ekergud ec aki gij mei Meska Warn ongga ofoufem 
Like that then Ekergud dip foot in river Meska Wam which hot 

ebeskreni-meni ongga konosa efet aki # 
scorching-INT which nearly burn foot 

Because of that then Ekergud dipped her foot into the Meska Wam river which was scorching 
hot (and) which nearly burned her foot. 

(68) Erek koma beda erek mok insa ke-if # 
Like that then like cup aforementioned NOM-this 

So then it was like this cup (of hot tea),^® 

(69) Tina guru jefedo ofa osok mei Meska Wam inda eja koma # 
but no therefore she climb river Meska Wam upward go that 

But no (still not sure), so she went along ascending that Meska Wam river. 

(70) Beda ofa eja esaga gu mei Ineibi ofoka # 
Then s/he go reach at river Ineibi junction 

Then she went along reaching the Ineibi river junction.. 

(71) Erek koma beda ofa ec aki gij mei Ineibi Una mei Ineibi eyej noba 
like that then s/he dip foot in river Ineibi but river Ineibi cold and 

mei Meska Wam ofoufem # 
river Meska Wam hot 

After (arriving there] then, she dipped her foot into Ineibi river, but the Ineibi river was cold 
and the Meska Wam river was hot. 

(72) Beda ofa osok mei Meska Wam # 
then S/1ie climb river Meska Wam 

Then she ascended (to) the Meska Wam river. 

(73) Ofa osok inda eja ojgomu beda ec aki gij mei ofoka # 
s,/he climb upward go just then dip foot in river junction 

'**The story teller is pointing to the hot cup of tea that he was drinking from while telUng the story. 

She just went along ascending (to there] then dipped her foot into the river junction. 

(74) Tina mei Mosum Ofon eyej noba mei Mesko Warn ofoufem # 
but river Face tooth cold and river Meska Warn hot 

But Face Tooth river was cold and the Meska Warn river was hot. 

(75) Beda ofa osok inda eja beda ej-esaga gu Makowu Una 
Then s/he climb upward go then INCEP-reach at Makowu but 

ekirsa Makowu # 
exceed Makowu 

Then she went along ascending, then began reaching the Makowu (river), but passed by the 
Mako\\Tj (river). 

(76) Beda eja esaga jah mei Meska efej-uma eja Una mei Meska em-eyej # 
then go reach to river Meska lower-that go but river Meska MOD-cold 

Then she went as far as that lower Meska river, but the Meska river might be cold. 

(77) Beda ofa esma gu ejmeg oksons # 
Then she drop at back return 

Then she turned around (and) went back. 

(78) Ofa eja er-efa m osubga jah si- um a oisoska ongga 
s/he go INS-plant sugarcane to ADV-there until which 

e-n-ej-oksons [onjoksons] si-uma^ 
PERF-INCEP-return ADV-there 

She went and planted sugarcane there until (the time) which she decided to start going back. 

(79) Noba oksons # 
and return 

And she returned. 

(80) Esma gu ejmeg inda en oksons # 
Drop at back upward come return 

She turned back coming upward back (to the earlier spot). 

(81) Beda esaga gu makowu^^ si-uma # 
Then reach at tree ADV-there 

Then she reached the bamboo stand there. 

(82) Ofa ek Una moroju en-ah-if gu mei ofoka # 
s/he see but path DUR-lie-there at river junction 

She looked (there), but there was a path there at the river junction. 

(83) Tina guru beda en-osoka moroj inda en inda en # 
but no then DUR-jump path upward come upward come 

"Type of tree with edible leaves. 

But no (doesn't know whose path) then she followed that path coming upward. 

(84] Beda ofa orogna Una mei m-efesi ^^ ongga ri-o-ng-k mejga gij # 

then s/he emerge but river NOM-inside which 3PL-PERF-carry bush. fence in 

Then she emerged (to a place), but there was a pond where they had planted a bush fence. 

(85) Beda mei efen a-ng-h fogora ri-e-n-j keingg gij a-ng-h 
then water possess PERF-lie hence 3PL-PERF-throw continuous in PERF-lie 

Then, there had been a pond (there), hence people had planted (things around the pond) 

(86) Tina guru beda ofa osok mega mei Seki # 
but not then s/he climb tree river Seki 

But no (she didn't see any people), so she climbed a tree (above) Seki river. 

(87) Osok mei Seki ai-insa jah mei efej # 
climb river Seki DIM-ANA to river tributary 

She climbed (a tree above) that river tributary mentioned earlier. 

(88) Ofa osok beda eker toumou gu mei Seki esta jah mei efej 
s/he climb then sit silent at river Seki branch to river tributary 

erek neda tera mei efen noba mei efen ah gu mebi # 

like cockatoo above river possess and river possess lie at ground 

She climbed the (tree) branch then sat silently (above) that river tributary like a cockatoo 
above the pond with the surface of the water below her. 

(89) Erek koma beda abJQ-irga si-uma ge-es mah gij mekeni # 
Like that then girl-2/3DU ADV-there 2/3DU-burn fire in garden 

After that then the two girls were there burning off a garden. 

(90) Erek koma beda mowa edi-irga jijiji beda magon en ongga er-eikeya # 
like that then sun strike-2/3DU on-and-on then thirst come which INS-suffer 

So then, the sun shone on the two girls for a long time, then they began to suffer from thirst. 

(91) Tina guru beda Itur Warn oubk-irga oida abja-irga ge-ageyamei but no 
then Itur Wam send-2/3DU QUOT girl-2/3DU 2/3DU-scoop water 

egema jeskaseda di-ej fog # 

some in. order, to iSG-drink first 

But no (relief) then Itur Wam ordered the two girls, you two girls, scoop some water so that I 
can drink, first. ^^ 

(92) Goga ge-onggobur^'^ beda ge-eja ge-ageya mei noba ge-orka 
they.two 2/3DU-run then 2/3DU-go 2/3DU-scoop water and 2/3DU-carry 

^^Mei efesi is probably the reduced form mebi efesi 'ground inside' which means 'standing body of water' or 


-^Sentence final adverb /og, 'first' is used here as a imperative. 

^^Onggubur seems to be synonymous with ofof 'run'. 


meic Itur Warn orka # 
ladle Itur Warn carry 

They ran off then went to scoop up water and carry it (back] in a ladle that belonged to Itur 

(93) Ge-oga ge-o-n-juj rot beda ge-er-ageya mai # 
They. two 2/3DU-PERF-descend concerning then 2/3DU-lNS-scoop water 

They had descended for (the water] then they used (the ladle] to scoop the water. 

(94) Bedo ge-orogna koma jah noba ge-ougif l<:^i^gg ^^i # 
then 2/3DU-appear that to and 2/3DU-bend ADV water 

So then, they appeared at that (river] and bent over the water (to scoop some up], 

(95] Beda ge-egema ge-eker jah-unj en # 

then 2/3DU-other 2/3DU-sit to-there come 

Then one of them came over there (near the water) and sat down. 

(96) Ge-egema ge-eker jab-if en ge-ogeya mei Una ei # 
2/3DU-other 2/3DU-sit to-here come 2/3DU-scoop water but huh 

The other one came over here (this side of the pond] and sat down to scoop up some water, 
but huh? (she noticed something). 

(97) Goga ge-eyajga tin a se meidu bera ri-efen a^'^ egem a en -efeni 
they.two 2/3DU-look but [exclamation] what COP 3PL-spirit other DUR-reflect 

gu mei efen-if-o # 

at water possess-this-ENT^^ 

They looked (at something] and were surprised, because there were spirits/reflections 
reflecting on the pond, what could they be! 

(98) Meidu bera en-eker-if-o # 
what COP DUR-sit-here-IMP 

As for this here, what was it! 

(99) Ri-efena era meidu bera en-eker gu mei efen-o # 
3PL-spirit or what COP DUR-sit at water possess-ENT 

As for these spirits/reflections or what, what were they doing on the pond! 

(100) En-oufa masusur^^ gu mei efen guru # 
DUR-good useless. thing at water possess NEC 

It wasn't good for useless things to be on the pond. 

(101) En-oufa masusur gu mei efen guru # ^^ 

^^In this text, and in others too, the 3SG unmarked form efeni 'spirit' and the 3PL form ri-efeni 3PL-spirit are 

used interchangeably as in (97) and (108). 

^*Meyah uses mood clitics to indicate speaker attitude, /-a/ emphatic, /-o/, entreaty, and /-;/ complainine (also see 


^^Masusur literacy means 'not eatable' or 'useless thing'. It is also used as a derogatory term when addressing 


"Line (101) is a restatement of (100). 


DUR-good useless. thing at water possess NEG 
It's wasn't good for useless things to be on the pond. 

(102) En-es g^gon mei efen # 
DUR-sweep 2/3DU. Possess water possess 

One of them swept the (surface) of the pond (to rid of the spirits/reflections). 

(103) Tina guru beda goga ge-esiri gij heda ge-Qgeya mei koma beda 
but no then they. two 2/3DU-fall to then 2/3DU-scoop water that then 

ge-ebir mei rot # 

2/3DU-brush water concerning 

But no (the spirits/reflections remained), then they fell down (on their knees) then scooped 
out (all) that water, then brushed (the remainder) away. 

(104) Ge-ebir mei rot mei si-uma jeska noba ge-er-os 
2/3DU-sweep water concerning water ADV-there away and 2/3DU-INS-rub 

mebi ongga ah eher # 
dirt which lie dry 

They swept the water away (to rid of the spirits/reflections on) the water there, (and) using 
their hands they rubbed (or erased away) the dirt which was (nearly) dry. 

(105) Ge-eyajga Una en-ah guru # 
2/3DU-look but DUR-lie NEG 

They looked but (the spirits/reflections) were not (there), 

(106) Beda ge-ot joug # 
then 2/3DU-stand ADV 

Then they stood there watching the pond (to see if they returned). 

(107) Goga ge-ot joug Una mei em-eya o-n-juj ke-if 
they.two 2/3DU-stand ADV but water MOD-flow PERF-descend NOM-this 

en oksons fogora em-en-i em-en-i kwokwa oksons fogora 

come return hence MOD-come-PRO MOD-come-PRO fully return hence 

a-ng'h gu oka oksons # 

PERF-sit at foot, print return 

They stood there watching the water flowing back, descending it returned coming fully back 

to its original position. 

(108) Erek koma beda ge-eyajga tina efena a-ng-li gu mei koma oksons deika # 
like that then 2/3DU-look but spirit PERF-lie at water that return again 

After (doing] that then they looked, but the spirit/reflection had already returned there on the 

(109) Beda goga ge-esiri keingg beda ge-ageya mei koma rot ^ 
then they.two 2/3DU-fall ADV then 2/3DU-scoop water that concerning 

Then they fell (down) towards the pond then scooped up that water (to rid of the spirit). 

(110) Beda ge-ogeya mei koma oksons-sons-sons ^ 
then 2/3DU-SCOOP water that return-RED-RED 

Then they scooped up that water again, and again, and again. 

(111) Bedo ge-Qgeyo mei noba ge-otklnaja # 
then 2/3DU-scoop w^ater and 2/3DU-pour 

They scooped up the water and poured it out. 

(112) CogQ ge-ageyo mei nobo ge-otklnaja jeska # 
they. two 2/3DU-scoop water and 2/3DU-pour away 

They scooped up the water and they poured it out away (from the pond). 

(113) Beda ge-ebir mei rot tina en-ah guru-i W^ 
then 2/3DU-brush water concerning but DUR-lie NEG-PRO 

Then they rubbed (the dry ground) to (rid of the spirit/reflection] but it was no longer there! 

(114) Er-os mei oforga joug jah Una en-ah guru # 
INS-rub river head.water ADV at but DUR-lie NEG 

One of them (using their hands) stirred up the water but (the spirit/reflection) wasn't there 


(115) Erek koma beda gogo ge-ot joug mei em-eya oksons fogora 
like that then they. two 2/3DU-stand ADV water MOD-follow return hence 

em-en-i kwokw^a fogora e-m-fen osok # 

MOD-come-PRO fully hence PERF-possess climb 

After (doing) that then they stood (watching) the water flow back, hence it just fully returned 
filling the pond again. 

(116) Erek koma beda efeno orogna beda eker gij oksons deika =^ 
like that then spirit come. out then sit in return again 

After that then the spirit/reflection appeared again sitting there (at the pond) 

(117) Ri-ah ri-oh ri-ah jiji beda ge-odou eskes # 
3PL-lie 3PL-Iie 3PL-lie over.and.over then 2/3DU-liver lazy 

The spirits/reflections just kept returning, then they (the two girls) become tired of (trying to 
rid of the spirits/reflections). 

(118) Tina guru jefedo ge-ageya mei jeskaseda ge-e-n-ja rot 

but no so 2/3DU-scoop water 2/3DU-PERF-go concerning 

koma tina ge-ebes ge-ebirfoga # 

that but 2/3DU-avoid 2/3DU-head 

But no, (they just gave up) so they scooped up some water in preparation to leave that place, 
but they turned their heads away (for a moment). 

(119) Beda meidu bera Ekergud e-ng-ker gu mei Seki esta fogora ofo e-ng-ker 
then what COP Ekergud PERF-sit at river Seki branch hence s/he PERF-sit 

jah ge-ebirfaga neida^'^ # 
to 2/3DU-head above 

Then what was this, as for Ekergud, she had been sitting on a branch above the Seki river, so 
she had been sitting above their heads. 

(120) Tina guru jefeda goga ge-emesa beda ge-ejei g^-oga rot ^ 

but no therefore they. two 2/3DU-afraid then 2/3DU-curse 2/3 DU-voi ceconcern 

But no (they didn't know that) therefore they became afraid (when they noticed her) and they 
cursed at (her). 

(121) Beda ge-agot oida masusur noba bi-eseisefa bi-eja jeska mega esta ^^ 
then 2/3DU-say QUOT useless. thing and 2SG-lost 2SG-go from tree branch 

Then they said, you useless thing!, and, go away from the branches. 

(122) Magef mafman-if # 
we. two possess-this 

We own this (water). 

(123) Tina Ekergud ogot gu-irga oida didif tein masusur guru # 
but Ekergud say to-2/3DU QUOT I also useless. thing NEG 

But Ekergud said to them, I am also not a useless thing. 

(124) Didif tein di-osnok ^ 

1 also iSG-person 

I am also a human. 

(125) Didif Ekergud^ 
I Ekergud 

1 am Ekergud. 

(126) Di-en jeska Inska ke-imba en Maklnbos Inska # 
iSG-come from Inska NOM-below come Makinbos Inska 

I came from Inska below, from Makinbos Inska. 

(127) Di-eiseisa mah eisa Warn mah gij-uma # 
iSG-curious fire bright Wam fire in-that 

I was curious (about) the bright fire, that fire in Wam (village). 

(128) Ekergud agot erek komo # 
Ekergud say like that 

Ekergud talked like that. 

(129) Erek koma beda abjo-irga koma ge-agot gu Ekergud erek koma # 
like that then girl-2/3DU that 2/3DU-say to Ekergud like that 

So then, the two girls talked to Ekergud like that. 

~^The spatial noun neida appears to be synonymous with skida 'above'. 

(130) Beda gogo ge-ois ofa ge-efebesa # 

then they.two 2/3DU-call him/her 2/ 

Then they (decided) to call her their sister-in-law.^^ 

(131) Erek komo beda Ekergud ojuj jeska mega esta inda en # 
like that then Ekergud descend from tree branch upward come 

So then, Ekergud came down from the tree. 

(132) Beda ereb mebi # 
then land ground 

Then she landed on the ground. 

(133) Erek koma beda goga ge-eita meic IturWam orka insa ongga akseij 
like that then they.two 2/3DU-take ladle Itur Warn bring ANA which long 

beda ge-eita gu # 

then 2/3DU-give to 

After that then they (the two girls) took Itur Wam's ladle, that one that w^as mentioned earlier, 
which is long and gave it to (Ekergud), 

(134) Goga ge-agot oida bi-orka meic si-if rot mei-if # 
they.two 2/3DU-say QUOT 2SG-carry ladle ADV-here concerning water-this 

They said (to her), carry this ladle here with this water. 

(135) Erek koma beda gogo ge-eja rot ge-efebesa beda 
like that then they.two 2/3DU-go concerning 2/ then 

ge-eja esaga gu mod # 
2/3DU-go reach at house 

After thai then they left (to make plans) concerning their (future) sister-in-law, then they 
reached the house. 

(136) Erek koma beda ge-ej-orom beda Ekergud eker toumou gu mer 
like that then 2/3DU-INCEP-plan then Ekergud sit silent at room 

ke-unj efesi moucku efesi # 

NOM-there inside basket inside. 

After (arriving at the house) then they started to make plans for Ekergud to sit silently inside 
a room over there, inside a basket. 

(137) Beda ofa eker toumou noba ge-es meidibi ni megej ni 
then s/he sit silent and 2/3DU-put.up sleeping. mat and fire. word and 

beda ge-es joug # 

then 2/3DU-put.up ADV 

Then she was to stay silently (hide) and they would put sleeping mats and firewood on (the 
basket) then obscure (the basket). 

**This means they want her to marry their brother Itur Warn. 


(138] Beda goga ge-es erejrej beda ge-ofor toumou # 

then they. two 2/3DU-put. up around then 2/3DU-construct silent 

Then they would put up (things] around (the basket] then construct (things) in a stealthy 

(139) Erek koma beda mowa edi jijiji beda mowo-roru ^ 
like that then sun strike on. and. on then afternoon-RED 

After that then the sun continued to shine hot until the late afternoon. 

(140) Erek koma beda IturWam orogna-uma en # 
like that then Itur Warn come. out-there come 

It was like that, then Itur Warn came along and appeared there. 

(141) Beda ofa ejeka me-eyera-irga oida abja-irga mei insa 
then s/he ask 3SG-sibling-2/3DU QUOT girl-2/3DU water ANA 

ge-n-ja ge-ageya egema jeskaseda di-ej # 

2/3DU-PERF-go 2/3DU-scoop some iSG-drink 

Then he asked the two girls, girls, can you give me some of the water you went to get so that I 
can drink some. 

(142) Beda abja-irga koma insa ge-osos Ekergud fob # 
then sibling-2/3DU that ANA 2/3DU-convince Ekergud already 

(At that time) those two girls, mentioned earlier, had already convinced Ekergud (to hide in 
the basket). 

(143) Ge-agot gu oida bi-agei meic-if ahais-mes # 
2/3DU-say to QUOT 2SG-hold ladle-this strong-INT 

They had said to (Ekergud). hold this ladle (Wam's) strongly. 

(144) Bi-a-n-gei meic ahais ojgomu beda mono ongga bi-ek Itur Warn 
2SG-PERF-hold ladle strong just then time which 2SG-see Itur Wam 

em-en noba o-ng-kub meic beda bi-edebecki # 

MOD-come and PERF-pull ladle then 2SG-stand.up 

Just hold that ladle strongly, then when you see Itur Wam about to come and pull on the 
ladle, then you stand up. 

(145) Bi-edebecki esij meic koma job # 
2SG-stand.up on ladle that towards. 

Stand on that ladle facing (Itur Wam]. 

(146) Erek koma beda ge-osos erek koma fogora en-eker toumou # 
like that then 2/3DU-convince like that hence DUR-sit silent 

(They said) that then they convinced (Ekergud) like that, so (she] sat quietly (in basket). 

(147) Erek koma beda Itur Wam eja-uma eja beda agot noba ager-irgo 
like that then Itur Wam go-there go then speak and yell-2/3DU 


rot mei # 

concerning water 

After that then Itur Warn came along there and then spoke and shouted at the two girls for 
some w^ater. 

(148) Tina goga ge-agot oida bi-ek bebin meic insa koma 
but they.two 2/3DU-say QUOT 2SG-see you-possess ladle ANA that 

gu bebin mer efesi koma # 

at you-possess room inside that 

But the two girls said, you can see your own ladle inside that room over there that belongs to 

(149) Beda bi-esinsa bi-eita mega koma # 
then 2SG-self 2SG-take wood that 

So then, get the wooden (ladle) yourself. 

(150) Erekkoma beda Itur Wam eja-uma eja ojgomu ^ 
Like that then Itur Wam go-there go just 

After that then Itur Wam just went over there. 

(151) Beda ofa ogot oida osk etma jeskaseda okub meic egens insa 
Then s/he say QUOT reach hand pull ladle one ANA 

rot mei en # 

concerning water come 

Then he said (thinking to himself) that he will reach out to pull out the earlier mentioned 
ladle for some water towards him. 

(152) Tina ofa okub rot asok^^ koma tein # 
but s/he pull concerning girl that also 

But he also pulled out the unmarried girl. 

(153) Beda bi-ek tina Ekergud edebecki jesko mer efesi-uma job # 
then 2SG-see but Ekergud stand. up from room inside-there to 

Then you look (expecting to see the ladle), but Ekergud stood up from inside the room facing 
(toward Itur Wam). 

(154) Beda ofa osok gu merso inda eja # 
then s/he climb to floor above go 

Then she climbed up going onto the floor. 

(155) Beda Itur Wam koma emesa beda bi-ek tina aha meic koma esij 
then Itur Wam that afraid then 2SG-see but put ladle that on 

asok koma etma # 
girl that hand 

^Usualh' refers to an unmarried younger woman. 


Then Itur Warn became afraid, then you see (the ladle), but he had put that ladle on that 
unmarried girl's hand. (Or the ladle is in the girl's hand).^^ 

(156] Beda meic esiri jab si-uma noba Itur Warn oku jeska jah mer 

then ladle fall to ADV-there and Itur Warn flee from to room 

igers-unj oj'uj noba agot oida mar ongga e-n-t-id # 

bachelor-there descend and say QUOT thing which PERF-bite-lSG. 

Then the ladle fell there and Itur Warn ran away from (Ekergud) to the male's sleeping room 
there and he said, something has bitten me. 

(157) Tina abja-irga ge-agot oida mar ongga eiseisa bi-ofoka eiseisa bi-efeni 
but girl-2/3DU 2/3DU-say QUOT thing which curious 2SG-name curious 2SG-spirit 

eiseisa bi-ofoka # 
curious 2SG-name 

But the two girls said, (she) was curious (about) your name, curious about your spirit, curious 
about your name. 

(158) Erek koma beda Itur Wam otkonu oska beda aha meic koma jah noba eja 4^ 
like that then Itur Wam stomach bad then put ladle that at and go 

So then, Itur Wam became angry and put the ladle down and left. 

(159) Beda of a eja eker # 
then s/he go sit 

Then he went away and stayed (somewhere else). 

(160) Erek koma beda ofo eja eita mei enjgineg beda ej # 
like that then s/he go take water other then drink 

After that then he went and got some other water to drink. 

(161) Erek koma beda abja-irga ge-ocunc gu Itur Wam fob # 
like that then girl-2/3DU 2/3DU-point to Itur Wam already 

After that then, the two girls had already pointed out (Ekergud) to Itur Wam. 

(162) Erek koma beda Itur Wam ri-ah # 
like that then Itur Wam 3PL-lie 

So then, Itur Wam (and the three girls) they stayed there.^^ 

(163) Erek koma beda rua ri-os mekeni insa # 
like that then they 3PL-sweep garden ANA 

It was like that, so they (all) worked to clean the earlier mentioned garden. 

(164) Beda ri-o-ng-k mejga # 
then 3PL-PERF-carry fence. wood 

Then they carried wood (to make) a garden fence. 

^*^This act signifies that Itur Wam and Ekergud must now get married. 
^Mtur Warn accepted his fate to marry Ekergud. 


(165) IturWam ok mejga beda eradgodu jeskasedo oisa eheirens fob W^ 
Itur Warn carry fence. wood then hurry in. order. to finish fast already 

Itur Warn hurried, carrying fence wood. hurr}dng to finish quickly. 

(166) Bedo ofa ok mejga oisa ebeirens fob # 
then s/he carry fence. wood finish fast already 

(After that) then he had ahready quickly finished carrying (the) fence wood. 

(167) Erek koma beda ofa ecira rot mei # 
like that then s/he travel concerning cloth 

(So), after that then he (left and) traveled (to find some) cloth. ^^ 

(168) Beda eja fob^ 
then go already 

So then, he had already gone. 

(169) Ofa eja jah mebi Morum " # 
s/he go to land Mpur 

He w^ent to the Mpur (Kebar) area. 

(170) Itur Warn eja jah mebi Morum ke^imba eja # 
Itur Warn go to land Mpur NOM-down go 

Itur Warn went away to that Mpur area down below. 

(171) Ofa eja ecira rot mei Una eja gu mesta cinja jeska # 
s/he go travel concerning cloth but go to moon five away 

He went (in search of) bride price cloth, but he was gone for five months. 

(172) Erek koma beda ri-er-efa marsi ri-okub mekeni ^ 
like that then 3PL-INS-plant seeds 3PL-burn garden 

Next, (after Itur Warn had gone) then they (the woman) burned off a garden and planted 

(173) Iskuruk Warn eisisi-ir ongga em-eij mes egema ojgomu # 
Iskuruk Warn encourage-PL which MOD-throw dog some just 

Iskuruk Warn trained (dogs) which he would then send out (hunting). ^^ 

(174) Erek koma beda mek ei I mowodu i^ 
like that then pig [pause] tree. kangaroo 

It was like that, (he would get) pigs / and tree kangaroos. 

(175) Erek koma beda ofa orka mekni mowodu ni # 
like that then s/he carry pig and tree. kangaroo and. 

^^Because he has to marry Ekergud he now goes in search of bride price cloth {kain tiirtor in Indonesian) as a 

douTv for her male kinsmen. 

^^Since the male can only collect bride price cloth from his own consanguinal relatives this indicates that either 

he is a Mpur person or has relatives among the Mpur. 

^^Line (173) is an idiomatic expression for a person who hunts with dogs. 


So he would bring pigs and tree kangaroos (to eat) . 

(176) Erek koma ojgomu beda mona juens mes ej-orko^^ mek yar-eteb 
like that just then time once dog INCEP-bring pig INT-big 

jab mejga ebic inda en gu hen efej inda eja # 
to fence center upward come to Iren lower upward go 

It was like that, that then one day a dog began to chase a very large pig upward coming into 
the center of the fence area to lower Iren village. 

(177) Ofa eja era meslgeb er-edi mek gu Iren efej inda en # 
s/he go use bow INS-strike pig at Iran lower upward come 

He (Iskuruk Warn) went and got a bow (and arrow) to shoot the pig coming up at lower Iren 

(178) Ofa agot bi-eyajga Una mes orka mek beda oku # 
s/he say 2SG-look but dog bring pig then flee 

He said (to Ekergud), look out, but the dog was bringing the pig (and the pig) was fleeing. 

(179) Ofa ahafij gu-ir gu mofrena ke-imba eja # 
s/he wade to-3PL to NOM-down go 

He waded across (a stream) going downward towards (them) at the new garden. 

(180) Erek koma beda Iskuruk Warn ofof-uma en beda ofof 
like that then Iskuruk Wam run-there come then run 

otoij mek-uma en # 
after pig-that come 

After that then Iskuruk Wam ran to there (the garden) coming after that pig that was coming 
(toward the woman), 

(181) Beda ofa esinmouk gu oida abja-irga-o i-osok mega-o i-eifef mega 
then s/hecry.out to QUOT girl-2/3DU-IMP 2PL-cIimb tree-IMP 2PL-get,on tree 

efaga-o i-osok mega-o jeska mek em-eska-i-o jeska mek 

body-IMP 2PL-climb tree-IMP because pig M0D-bite-2PL-IMP because pig 

en-oku-uma eja-o # 
DUR-flee-there go-IMP 

Then he cried out to (the girls), girls, climb a tree, get on a tree trunk, climb a tree because a 
pig might bite you, because a pig is fleeing there (toward you)! 

(182) Iskuruk Wam ois erek koma # 
Iskuruk Wam call like that 

Iskuruk Wam cried out like that. 

(183) Erek koma beda abja-irga ri-osok mega-unj ri-osok mega-if^ 
like that then girl-2/3DU 3PL-climb tree-there 3PL-climb tree-here 

So then, the girls climbed up trees over here and there. 

^^Phonemic form is [ojorka] 'begin bringing'. 

(184) Beda abja-irgo hero ge-osok mega-unj # 
then girl-2/3DU COP 2/3DU-climb tree-there 

Then, as for the two girls (sisters), they climbed a tree way over there. 

(185) Ge-osok mega efaga ojgomu # 
2/3DU-climb tree body just 

The two (sisters) just climbed up a tree trunk. 

(186) Noba Ekergud bera osok mega efaga Una aki egemo er-edi mega 
and Ekergud COP climb tree body but foot one INS-strike tree 

efaga erek ke-unj # 
body like NOM-there 

And as for Ekergud, she climbed up a tree trunk, but one of her feet was on the tree trunk 
over there. 

(187) Noba aki egema er-edi mongga ongga em-er-oh 
and foot other INS-strike planting.stick which MOD-INS-put 

mou efesi # 

sweet.potato inside 

And her other foot was on a planting stick which is used to place sweet potatoes inside (the 

(188) Beda efen maini ogub jesko # 
then possess loincloth drop from 

Then her loincloth dropped away (from her body). 

(189) Fogoro Iskuruk Warn ago ofon gij oida mek eska-ib fob 
Hence Iskuruk Wam hang teeth in QUOT pig bite-2SG already 

mek eteb eska-ib fob # 
pig big bite-2SG already 

That resulted in Iskuruk Wam teasing (Ekergud) saying, the pig already bit you, the big pig 
already bit you! 

(190) Tina Ekergud a got oida didif bera mek en-esko-id enesi ^ 
but Ekergud say QUOT I COP pig DUR-bite-lSG not.yet 

But Ekergud said, as for me, the pig has not bitten me yet. 

(191) Didif bera mek en-eska-id enesi mek en-et-id enesi ^ 
I COP pig DUR-bite-lSG not.yet pig DUR-eat-lSG not.yet 

As for me the pig has not bitten me yet, the pig has not eaten me yet 

(192) Ekergud era Mosou^^ er-ogot erek koma # 
Ekergud use Sougb INS-talk like that 

Ekergud said that using the Sougb language. 

^^This indicates that Ekergud is either from the Sougb tribe or can speak Sougb. In (239) slie uses the Hatam 


(193) Erek koma beda Ekergud mojen rot ongga aki eredeima ke-unj # 
like that then Ekergud embarrass concerning which leg spread NOM-there 

After that then Ekergud felt embarrassed about her legs being spread apart like that there. 

(194) Eredeima ke-if fogora maini en-ogub jeska insa # 
spread. apart NOM-this hence loincloth DUR-drop from ANA 

(Her legs) were spread like this, resulting in her loincloth dropping (away from her body). 

(195) Tina guru beda Ekergud osoka gu mebi beda Iskuruk Warn esiri rot Ekergud # 
but no then Ekergud jump to ground then Iskuruk Wam fall concerning Ekergud 

But no (the pig did not bite her), then Ekergud jumped down to the ground and Iskuruk Wam 
fell down (had sex) with Ekergud. 

(196) Beda of a mojen jefa # 
then s/he shame should 

Then (as a result) she became ashamed. 

(197) Jefeda ah toumou # 
Therefore lie silent 

So she remained silent. 

(198) Ri-en ojgomu # 
3PL-come just 

They (the others) just came (over to Ekergud). 

(199) Tina guru beda ri-ah toumou # 
but no then 3PL-lie silent 

But no (they didn't react), they just remained silent. 

(200) Ekergud eradgodu er-efa mou efesi ebeirens # 
Ekergud hurry INS-plant sweet.potato inside fast 

Ekergud hurried (to) plant sweet potato seedlings. 

(201) Beda mou efesi oisa noba moworu beda ri-eja jah mod ^ 
then sweet.potato inside finish and afternoon then 3PL-go to house 

Then (when) the sweet potatoes were finished (being planted) in the afternoon, they (all) 
went to the house. 

(202) Erek koma beda ri-eja toumou gu mod noba ri-ah-ah ke-unj # 
like that then 3PL-go silent to house and 3PL-lie-RED NOM-there 

So then, they went silently over to the house and stayed there. 

(203) Beda m efebesa -irga ge-agot oida ri-eja jeskaseda ri-ej-okub 
then 2/3DU-say QUOT3PL-go in. 3PL-INCEP-pull 

mekeni ni ri-er-efa marsi ni insa deika # 

garden and 3PL-INS-plant seed and ANA more 

Then the two sisters-in-law decided that they should all go and begin pulling (weeds) in the 

garden and plant seeds again, (like) mentioned earlier. 

(204) Tina guru Ekergud mojen ojgomu jefa # 
But no Ekergud ashamed just should 

But no (Ekergud couldn't get over her it), she just felt ashamed. 

(205) Tina guru beda ougif beda eker toumou # 
but no then bend then sit silent 

But no (she couldn't get over it), she just bent over and sat silently. 

(206) Tina guru beda eker gu mona juens mona jueka juomu jenjen ^ 
but no then sit to time once time twice thrice long 

But no (she still couldn't get over it), she sat (and v^aited) for a few days (for Itur Warn). 

(207) Tina me-ahina Itur Warn en-en ahrah-rah guru # 
but 3SG-husband Itur Warn DUR-come pop.up-RED NEG 

But her husband Itur Wam didn't show up (in the village). 

(208) Jefeda ofa otkonu oska # 
Therefore s/he stomach bad 

So she became angry. 

(209) Beda Ekergud oksons jab ojga fob # 
then Ekergud return to origin already 

So Ekergud already (decided) to return to her place of origin. 

(210) Oksons inda en beda ogu mamu efeb egens-is # 
return above come then write rock picture one-only 

She (decided) to go back (to her village) above, then (on the way) she paused to draw on a 

(211) Beda ofa ereibib me-ahina Itur Wam Una ofa en-en ebeirens guru ^ 
then s/he linger 3SG-husband Itur Wam but s/he DUR-come fast NEG 

Then she was lingering around (waiting) for her husband Itur Wam, but he didn't come 

(212) Beda Ekergud eja deika noba en-ogu mamu efeb egens-is # 
then Ekergud go more and DUR-draw rock picture once-just 

Then Ekergud went further and (paused to) draw a picture on a rock once. 

(213) Beda ereibib tin a guru -i # 
then wait but no-PRO 

Then she waited around (for Itur Wam) but he still didn't come! 

(214) Ofa ojuj mei Meska inda en # 
s/he descend river Meska above come 

^^She is 'doodling' on a rock, taking her time returning to her village hoping Itur Wam will show up. 


She descended to the Meska river coming upward back (to her village). 

(215] Oira oka oksons dektek # 

enter foot. print return long.time 

She took a long time to return to her earlier position.^^ 

(216) Beda en-erefa mosuska ^ 
then DUR-plant bamboo 

Then she planted some bamboo. 

(217) Er-efa mar mocongga # 
INS-plant thing arrow 

She planted (bamboo for making) arrow shafts. 

(218) Ofa ereibib beda en-eker inda en # 
s/he linger then DUR-wait above come 

She milled around then continued upward. 

(219) Tina guru-i Itur Warn en-esaga ahrah-rah guru-i # 
but no-PRO IturWam DUR-reach pop.up-RED NEG-PRO 

But it was to no avail, Itur Warn didn't arrive! 

(220) Er-efa mesik mocongga mongkiok ke-inda en deciga # 
INS-plant chili arrow tuber NOM-above come slow 

She planted chili pepper, (bamboo for making) arrows, and leafy tubers, as she slowly came. 

(221) Beda ogu mamu efeb egens-is deciga # 
then draw rock picture one-only slow 

Then she doodled once again on a rock. 

(222) Beda ereibib ojgomu # 
then wait just 

Then she just hung around. 

(223) Tina guru jefeda en-oku # 
but not therefore DUR-flee 

But no (Itur Wam didn't arrive) so she fled. 

(224) Beda er-eja jah efesi ojgomu gu Inska imba # 
then INS-go to inside just to Inska downward 

Then she went down to the inside (area of her village) Inska. 

(225) Ekergud oku jah efesi ojgomu # 
Ekergud flee to inside just 

Ekergud just ran to the inside (of her village). 

^^Oira oka oksons 'enter footprint return' literally means to return to her former position, in this case as an 
unmarried person. 


(226) Eja eker beda oku okrokra ojgomu # 
go sit then flee noise just 

She just went and waited, then fled noisily [angrily). 

(227) Erek koma beda Itur Warn en beda en-esaga # 
like that then Itur Warn come then DUR-reach 

After that then Itur Warn came (and) reached (his village). 

(228) Erek koma beda ofa ejeka me-eyera-irga # 
like that then s/he ask 3SG-sibling-2/3DU 

(After arriving) then he asked his two sisters (where Ekergud was). 

(229) Tina ge-agot oida me-eker Una Iskuruk Warn era mes er-eij 

but 2/3DU-say QUOT iPL.EXC-sit but Iskuruk Warn use dog INS-throw 

mes egema # 
dog some 

But they said, we were sitting down, but Iskuruk Wam was hunting with his dogs. 

(230) Tina mes oukuk mek beda oku fogora erabirma gu mekeni'if# 
but dog trail pig then flee hence spread to garden-this 

But the dogs chased a pig then (the pig) fled towards this garden. 

(231) Fogora ofa aga of on gij 4^ 
hence s/hehang teeth in 

That resulted in him teasing (Ekergud). 

(232) Ofa aga ofon gij beda ogot oida mek eska-ib mek eska-ib fob 
s/he hang teeth in then say QUOT pig bite-2SG pig bite-2SG already 

mek et-ib fob # 
pig eat-2SG already 

He teased (Ekergud) saying, the pig bit you, the pig already bit you. the pig already ate you. 

(233) ^e^ koma fogonsa^^ Ekergud mojen en rot beda eja fob # 
Like that hence Ekergud shame come concerning then go already 

Due to that then, Ekergud became ashamed about (what happended afterward), then she ran 

(234) Eja ojgomu fob'''^ 
go just already 

She has just gone. 

(235) Tina guru beda Itur Wam ostoij ofa fob # 
but no then Itur Wam chase s/he already 

But no (he still wanted her), then Itur Wam decided to chase after her. 

'^^Fogonso is an alternative pronunciation of fogora 'hence'. 

'^^The implication of Itur Wam's teasing of Ekergud is that he wanted to have sex with her and Itur Wam 

understands that is what happened, therefore the Speaker has left that information implicit in the text. 


(236) Ostoij beda ejiteyi noba agot oida bi-en-eja guru # 
chase then placate and say QUOT 2SG-DUR-go NEG 

He chased after [her) then (after arriving) placated (her) and said, don*t leave, 

(237) Ageinei-nei noba agot bi-en-eja guru # 
pleading-R£D and say 2SG-DUR-go NEG 

He pleaded (to her) and said, don't leave. 

(238) Tina Ekergud odowu ojgomu ojgomu # 
but Ekergud reject just just 

But Ekergud rejected (him) over and over. 

(239) Era mosruns^^ er-agot du-kwey bu bi du-kwey bihi gom **^ # 
Use Hatam INS-agot iSG-come again not iSG-come another one 

She used the Hatam language (and) said, I won't come back, I (just) came once. 

(240) Ofa era mosruns er-agot erek koma # 
s/he use Hatam INS-say like that 

She used the Hatam language and spoke like that. 

(241) Erek koma beda Itur Warn agot oida guru bi-en na-en-eja'^^ noba 
like that then Itur Warn say QUOT no 2SG-come iDU.INC-DUR-go and 

ofa ebisa jiji # 
s/he cry on. and. on. 

After that then Itur Wam said, no, come back, let's go, and he cried on-and-on. 

(242) Tina guru beda ofa osk meseya jah ofoka gu Itur Wam # 
but no then s/he pull. out comb to handle at Itur Wam 

But no (she was not convinced) then she pulled out a comb by the handle (and held it) 
toward Itur Wam. 

(243) Noba Ekergud eker rot ofog agei # 
and Ekergud sit concerning point hold 

And Ekergud waited (holding the comb) by the pointed end (toward Itur Wam). 

(244) Itur Warn ebisa beda eitoh er-orousa meseya ofog koma # 
Itur Wam cry then tear INS-slide comb point that 

Itur Wam cried then (his) tear slid (down) the sharp part of that comb. 

(245) Beda eitoh eja edi Ekergud enghvesi # 
Then tear go strike Ekergud chest 

Then the tear struck Ekergud on her chest. 

^Un (192) she uses the Souob language, but here she uses the Hatam language. 

''^Translation provided by Ger Reesink. 

**''This construction is an idiomatic expression 'you come - the two of us are going' or 'let's go'* 


(246) Erek koma bedo Ekergud eklk oksons beda ebisa noba eitoh er-orouso 
like that then Ekergud turnreturn then cry and tear INS-slide 

meseya ofoko oksons bedo eitoh eja edi Itur Warn engkwesi # 
comb handle return then tear go strike Itur Warn chest 

After that then Ekergud turned back then cried and her tear slid down the handle of the comb 
back (to Itur Warn) then the tear struck Itur Warn on his chest. 

(247) Erek koma beda ge-odou dels beda Itur Worn eja rot ofoko noba 
like that then 2/3DU-liver split then Itur Warn go conceming handle and 

Ekergud eker rot ofog # 

Ekergud sit concerning point 

So then, their livers (and the spoon) split in the middle, then Itur Warn left with the handle 
and Ekergud stayed there with the pointed part/^ 

(248) Itur Warn oksons inda eja beda eja jah Warn ofoka inda 
Itur Wam return upward going then go to Warn junction upward 

eja oksons # 
go return 

Itur Wam went back up (to his village), to the Wam river junction. 

(249) Ofa eja esaga gu Iren efej inda # 
s/he go reach at Iren lower above 

He went upward and reached lower Iren (river village). 

(250) Erek koma beda eyajga Una me-okosa^^ tein mojen rot insa onggo 
Like that then look but 3SG-sibling also ashamed concerning ANA which 

o-n-soka keingg me-ousa Ekergud insa # 

PERF-jump ADV Ekergud ANA 

After that (happended) then (Itur Wam) saw that his brother was also ashamed concerning 
that (thing) which (he did), jumping on (having sex with) his sister-in-law Ekergud entioned 

(251) Iskuruk Wam mojen rot fogora en-oku # 
Iskuruk Wam ashame concerning hence DUR-flee 

Iskuruk Wam was ashamed about (Ekergud), hence he fled. 

(252) Beda ofa eja ah igef gu merenrah # 
then s/he go lie alone at forest 

Then he went and sat alone in the forest. 

(253) Beda ofa era monjumi efeyi er-ei mod monjumi efeyi # 
then s/he use nettle leaf INS-construct house nettle leaf 

Then he used nettle leaves and constructed a nettle-leaf house. 

■*''This symbolic act indicates that they have ended their marital relationship. 
■*^Younoer sibling same sex. 


(254) Ofa er-ei modwok# 

s/he INS-construct temporary. shelter 

He made a temporary shelter. 

(255) Beda eja jah mebah gu esin-sinsa # 
then go to outside to self-RED 

Then he went outside (of his village) to (be) completely by himself. 

(256) Tina mos es gij monjumi efeyi koma # 
but rain fall on nettle leaf that 

But it rained on those nettle leaves. 

(257) Beda mos eya rot monjumi ofot keingg # 
Then rain flow concerning nettle flooding ADV 

Then the rain flowed on the nettle (shelter) (and) flooded it. 

(258) Beda ofos abtah-tah gij etma ahtah-tah gij aki ahtah-tab lahtah deciga # 
then skin itch-RED in arm itch-RED in leg itch-RED itch slow 

Then his skin slowly started to itch, his arms and legs / (they) slowly (became) very itchy. 

(259) Tina guru beda objgej etma deciga noba aki deciga ojgomu # 
But no then peel arm slow and leg slow just 

But no (he couldn't get relief), then he just slowly peeled (the wet nettles) from his arms and 
his legs. 

(260) Beda etma ofoj aki ofoj ojgomu fogora em-ojoros Iskuruk Wam 
then arm rash leg rash just hence MOD-until Iskuruk Wam 

ongga a-ng'gos # 
which PERF-dead 

Then his arms and legs just developed rashes hence it would continue until Iskuruk Wam 
was nearly dead. 

(261) Noba ofa eja agos fob # 
And s/he go die already 

And he had already died. 

(262) Tina guru beda Itur Wam eja beda ej-ohca me-okosa # 
but no then Itur Wam go then INCEP-search 3SG-sibling 

But no (Itur Wam didn't not know that) then Itur Wam went and began searching for his 
younger brother. 

(263) Noba ofa e-n-ja esaga gu modwok koma jab # 
and sfhe PERF-go reach at temporary.shelter that towards 

And he had gone (looking for him) as far as that temporary shelter. 

(264) Tina guru beda ofa ok en Islcuruk agos beda eji mebi nou # 
But no then s/he carry come Iskuruk dead then dig earth for 


But no [his brother was dead), then he came carrying his dead brother Iskuruk and he dug a 
grave for (him). 

(265) Erek koma beda eito mega mos efek beda er-edi # 
Like that then take tree rain fruit then INS-strike 

After that then, he took some rain tree fruit, then stuck it in (the ground). 

(266) Erek koma beda mos efej koma er beda a-ng-ksa gij # 
like that then rain seedling that grow then PERF-tall in 

After that then that rain (tree) seedling grew tall in (the ground). 

(267) Mega mos efej koma a-ng-ksa gij fogora e-m-fek noba e-n-tirebsi 
tree rain seedling that PERF-tall in hence PERF-fruit and PERF-shade 


That rain (tree) seedling was already tall with the result that it was already producing fruit 
and already providing shade. 

(268) Erek koma beda ofa oubk me-eyesa-irga Ockoj Minj ge-onu Arod Minj 
like that then s/he send 3SG-sibling-2/3DU Ockoj Minj 2/3DU-and Arod Minj 

jeskaseda ge-eferi^^ mekeni jeska mega mos noga^^ en-ot gij Iskuruk 2/3DU-trim garden from tree rain which DUR-stand in Iskuruk 

Warn odog negb^^ # 
Warn grave below 

After that then he sent his two sisters, Ockoj Minj and Arod Minj, to trim the garden away 
from the tree which was standing on Iskuruk Wam's grave below. 

(269) Erek koma beda Itur Wam of keingg jeskaseda erek mekeni mega 
like that then Itur Wam cover ADV like garden tree 

gij Iskuruk Wam odog negb jeskaseda mi-efen erek mekeni gu Iskuruk 
in Iskuruk Wam grave below iPL-trim like garden to Iskuruk 

Wam odog negb mos noga en-ot # 
Wam grave below rain which DUR-stand 

So then, Itur Wam covered (the grave) to make it look like a we trim a (regular) garden rain 
tree standing over Iskuruk Wam's grave below. "^^ 

(270) Erek koma beda Itur Wam oubk-irga keinggbeda ge-efen beda edeider ^ 
like that then Itur Wam send-2/3DU ADV then 2/3DU-trim then flat 

After that then Itur Wam ordered the two girls to trim the garden making flat. 

(271) Erek koma beda ofa eji mebera gij mos koma # 
like that then sAie dig platform in rain that 

*^Efen with a high pitch 'trim', efen with low a pitch 'possess'. 

^''nogo is an alternate spelling for ongga 'which'. 

^^Negb is synonymous with aegini 'below'. 

'^^He hid Itur Wam's grave from the sisters by planting a regular garden variety tree above it. 


After that then he dug out a platform in that rain [tree).^" 

(272) Beda Itur Wam o-m-f mega mos noga en-ot gu Iskuruk 
Then Itur Wam PERF-fell tree rain which DUR-stand at Iskuruk 

Wam odog koma # 
Wam grave that 

Then Itur Wam felled the rain tree which stood over that grave (for) Iskuruk Wam. 

(273) Erek koma beda os-os mos koma # 
like that then chop-RED rain that 

(Having done) that, then he chopped up that rain (tree). 

(274) Os-os noba agot oida bi-ek Una abja-irga si-if 
chop-RED and say QUOT 2SG-see but girl-2/3DU ADV-here 

ge-o-ng-ku erek ke-enefa goga ge-o-ng-ku ojuj erek 

2/3DU-PERF-flee like NOM-which they.two 2/3DU-PERF-flee descend like 

ge-e-n -ja tein bi-esma otoij-irga jeskaseda bi-agob-irga 

2/3DU-PERF-go also 2SG-drop after-2/3DU 2SG-strike-2/3DU 

jeskaseda ge-agos jab # 2/3DU-die to 

He chopped up (the tree) and said (to the tree), (when) you see the two girls have fled, they 
have also run away, you drop (your chopped up pieces) on them from behind in order to 
strike them (down) so that they just die at (that place). 

(275) Beda ofo os-os mega mos koma a-n-deij fob # 
then s/he chop-RED tree rain that PERF-enough already 

Then he chopped up that rain tree enough. 

(276) Erek koma beda of mega koma beda esma # 
like that then fell tree that then drop 

(Having done) that then he felled that tree dropping it (there). 

(277) Beda ofa oku jeska ojgomu noba mega koma esma otoij # 
then s/he flee from just and tree that drop after 

Then he just ran away and that tree dropped (it's pieces) afterward (on the girls). 

(278) Beda abja-irga koma ge-a-ng-gos # 
then girl-2/3DU that 2/3DU-PERF-die 

Then those two girls died. 

(279) Ce-ojaga koma tein ge-agos # 
2/3DU-woman that also 2/3DU-die 

Those two women also died. 

^"Traditionally, the Meyah dig a flat spot out of a tree which they refer to as a platform used in offering meat 
sacrifices to local spirits. 


(280J Beda ofa odou egens beda ej-osok [ojosok] noba er-akid meiteb efaga 
then s/he liver one then INCEP-cUmb and INS-tie knife body 

gu monggosum # 
to ceiling.beam 

Then he was determined (to do something], then he began to climb and (using something] 
tied a spear to the main ceiling beam (of the house]. 

(281] Era mar efeyi beda en-er-akld ^ 
use thing leaf then DUR-INS-tie 

He used a vine rope then he tied (the spear to the beam). 

(282] Erek koma beda agei mah jah mer ojagQ mer igers ^ 
like that then hold fire to room w^oman room bachelor 

After that then he started a fire at the u^omen's bedroom side and the bachelors' bedroom side 
(of his house]. 

(283] Erek koma beda Itur Worn esma beda ah jah gu mersa deis-mos # 
like that then Itur Wam drop then lie at to floor center-INT 

After that then Itur Wam dropped dow^n and lay there in the middle of the floor. 

(284] Beda ofa esinmouk gij mof esinsa efen # 
then s/he cry. out in u^ind self possess 

Then he cried out to his own wind. 

(285] Tina mof en-en guru # 

but wind DUR-come NEG 

But the wind didn't come. 

(286) Bedo ofa esinmouk gij mof me-ohona efen ongga mosruns # 
then s/he cry.out in wind 3SG-wife possess which Hatam 

Then he cried out to his wife's wind which was (from) the Hatam (area).^^ 

(287) Mof mosruns eja koma eja beda esah efaga gij mod juens # 
wind Hatam go that go then store body in house once 

The Hatam wind went (blew) then filled the house for a moment. 

(288] Noba mar efeyi egba rot meiteb efaga koma eja beda e-n-di 

and thing leaf tear concerning knife body that go then PERF-strike 

Itur Wam gu engkw-esi-if ^ 
Itur Wam at chest-here 

And the string with that spear broke and (the spear) went (fell) then struck Itur Wam in his 
chest, right here. 

(289) Beda ofa eso edi mah jeva mago ke-unj maga si-if i^ 

then s/he send strike fire with wall N0\4-there wall ADV-this 

^'More evidence that his wife was Halain. 


Then (that caused him to) send (his legs and arms) striking the fire setting that wall over 
there and a wall here on fire. 

(290) Beda mah et mod keinggi^ 
then fire eat house ADV 

Then the fires burned up (destroyed) the house. 

(291) Ofa tein ogos beda eribseb jah # 
s/he also die then scorch to 

He also died and was completely scorched. 

(292) Ai-insQ-uma [ainsoma] 

That's all. 


ISSN 0126 -2874 



VOLUME 47, 2000 



Edited by