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1. For the earliest information about Ormuri (Oraw'ri) or Baraki 
we are indebted to Babur, who is also the first to mention Parachi. 
The passages in his Memoirs which refer to 'Bereki' have been 
quoted above (p. 3). 

The first European scholar who is aware of the existence of the 
'Vurmud" tribe in 'Caniguram' and the 'Barki' language is Leyden 1 . 
Elphinstone writes in his 'Account of the Kingdom of Caubul' 8 : 
"The next class of Taujiks are the Burrukees, who inhabit Logur 
and part of Boot-Khauk. Though mixed with the Ghiljies, they differ 
from the other Taujiks, in as much as they form a tribe under 
chiefs of their own, and have a high reputation as soldiers. 8 They 
have separate lands and castles of their own, furnish a good many 
troops to government, closely resemble the Afghauns in their man- 
ners, and are more respected than the other Taujiks. Their number 
are now about eight thousand families. All traditions agree that 
they were introduced into their present seats by Sooltaun Mahmood 
about the beginning of the eleventh century, and that their lands 
were once extensive ; but their origin is uncertain ; they pretend to 
be sprung from the Arabs, but other say that they are descended 
from the Kurds or Coords." 

1 Asiatic Researches, XI, pp. 363 ff., London 1812. 
1 I, p. 411. 

* Till recent times the Ix>garis have been reckoned among the best soldiers in 
the Afghan army. 

Burnes 1 mentions " the Burukee or Kanigramee spoken by the 
people of Logur", which "has an affinity to Persian, although 
those using it claim a descent from Arabia, and assert that they 
entered the country with Sultan Mahmood". 

2. According to Leech 2 "there are two divisions of the tribe, 
the Barakis of Eajan in the province of Lohgad, who speak Per- 
sian, and the Barakis of Barak, a city near the former, who speak 
the language called Baraki". Some of them settled in Kaniguram 
in the country of the Waziris, and "the Barakis of this place and 
of Barak alone speak the Baraki language". "We receive a war- 
ning from the study of their vocabulary, not to be hasty in refer- 
ring [?] the origin of a people merely from the construction of their 
language; for it is well known that the one now instanced was 
invented by Mir Yuzuf who led the first Barakis from Yemen 
into Afghanistan" (in the times of Mahmud of Ghazni). Eaverty 8 , 
too, mentions the tradition about the Arab descent of the 'Barakais'. 

3. Bellew 4 quotes a tradition according to whicii the Orakzai, 
Afridi, Mangal, Waziri, Khatak and Khogiani tribes of the Pathans 
are of Ormuri origin. The Ormurs are described as having been 
fire-worshippers, and as observing peculiar religious ceremonies. Once 
a week they congregated for worship, men and women together, 
and at the conclusion of their devotions the officiating priest extin- 
guished the fire they worshipped, and, at the same time, exclaimed 
"Or mur", a term expressive of the act, for in Pukhtu "or" (or) 
means "fire", and "mur" {mar) means "dead", "extinct". 

In ' An Inquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan ' 6 Bellew 
identifies the Barakis with the Barkaians, who according to Hero- 
dotus were transported "from the far distant Libya to the village 
in Kunduz of Baktria"(!), and he finds support for this theory in a 

1 Cabool, p. 269. 

> JASB, VII, pp. 727, ff., quoted in LSI, X, 123. 

» JASB, XXXIII, pp. 267 ff., quoted in LSI, 1. c. 

4 Journal of a Mission to Afghanistan in 1857, p. 63 t, Cf. also Tarlx-i Murassa', 
Kalidi- Afghani, p. 222. 

Introduction 30'. 

— misunderstood — passage from Arrian. Of greater interest is 
Bellew's statement that the Barakis "besides their head quarters 
in Kunduz and Logar, have settlements in Butkhak, and at Kani 
goram in the Vaziri country, and on the Hindu Kush, about Bamian 
and Ghorband districts". "Amongst themselves", he continues, 
"the Baraki use a peculiar dialect, which is more of a Hindi lan- 
guage than anything else, to judge from the few words I have 
met with". "They are a fine, tall, and active people, with fairer 
complexions than the generab'ty of Afghans, and are held in con- 
sideration as a respectable people. They have no place in Afghan 
genealogies by that name, being generally reckoned along with the 
Tajik population". Bellew derives the ruling tribe of ' Barahsi' 
in Afghanistan from the Baraki. 

4. Among the authors mentioned above Leech and Eaverty are 
the only ones who have given short vocabularies of the language 
(the Logar dialect); Leech has also given a few sentences with 
translation. Most of the words in Eaverty's vocabulary are copied 
from Leech. 

5. The first fuller description of the language is that given by 
Sir George Grierson in the Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal 1 , and subsequently in the Linguistic Survey of India. 8 His 
account deals with the Kaniguram (Waziristan) dialect, and is based 
chiefly on Ghulam Muhammad Khan's (Jawdid-e Bargista supplemented 
by material furnished by British officials in Waziristan. My indeb- 
tedness to these works, both in their descriptive and in their etymo- 
logical parts, is so great that it has been impossible to acknowledge 
it in each case in the following pages. I may be permitted 
to testify once for all how much every page of the following 
account of Ormuri owes to Sir George's lucid survey of the gram- 
matical system of the language and of its affinities. 

6. Our knowledge of the Logar dialect of Ormuri being limited 
to Leech's and Eaverty's short vocabularies, I tried during my stay 

310 Ormuri 

in Kabul in 1924 to get into touch with Ormurs from this valley. 
To begin with I was told by people who knew the Logar valley 
well that Baraki was no longer spoken in Barak-i Barak, the ancient 
headquarters of the Ormur tribe. Even a man said to be from this 
village denied the existence of any other language than Persian and 
Pashto in his native place. After some difficulty I got hold of a 
young man from Barak-i Barak, who, though not an Ormur himself 
knew something about the language. The information he could 
give me was very limited; but it proved on the whole to be fpirly 
correct, and the vocabulary which I got out of him included a 1'ew 
evidently genuine Ormuri words which my second informant did not 
seem to recollect. 

In the beginning of August, just at the moment when I ha<!h 
arranged to go to Barak-i Barak myself, news was received in Kabul 
that the insurrection had spread to Logar and that the rebels from 
Khost had crossed the Altimur Pass and entered the valley. But 
in spite of these difficulties the Afghan Foreign Office managed to 
fetch an old man, Din Muhammad by name, from Barak-i Barak 
to Kabul. He worked with me for about a week, but could not be 
induced to stay longer away from his home. 

7. Din Muhammad said that he was one of the few persons in 
Barak-i Barak still speaking pure Ormuri, and this statement agreed 
fairly well with what had been told me by my first informant. 
According to the LSI. 1 the Ormurs now occupy some fo\ir or five 
hundred houses in Kaniguram. At Butkhak, about ten miles east 
of Kabul, people said that they belonged to the Ormur tribe; but 
they all spoke Pashto, and I met with no one there who knew any 
Ormuri. The Ormurs living in the Khalsa Pargana of the Nowshehra 
Tahsil in the Peshawar district 8 are also all of them Pashto-spea- 
king. I did not hear anything about Ormurs living in Ghorband, 
Bamian or Kunduz (cf. Bellew, quoted above), and I think it is at 

1 X, p. 123. 

* Called Urmar$ in the Gazetteer of the Peshawar District, 1888—84, pp. 103, 
106, 114. 

Introduction 311 

any rate very improbable that they have preserved their original 

8. Din Muhammad was not acquainted with Baryista l as a name 
for his own language, which he called Ormu'ri. According to 
him the Ormur tribe are Sayyids and are descended from the two 
brothers 'Mir-i 'Barak and 'Mir-i Bara ] Mt, who came from Bar-yaman 
(Yemen) into Turkistan, the former being buried in Anxoi (Andkhui), 
and the latter in Mazar-i Sharif. 'Mir Yu'zuf (cf. Leech quoted 
above, 2) was the son of 'Mir-i Bara'Mt. 

9. I do not think the traditions about the Arab or Kurdish 
descent of the Ormurs quoted above are much more valuable than 
those which make the Pathans Israelites, the Baloches Syrians, the 
Ozbin Pashais Quraishis from Mekka, the Chitralis descendants of 
Alexander's deported prisoners, the Bashgali Kafirs the poorer brethren 
of the Englishmen, the nimca tribes of Kunar Germans, or the 
Gurkhas and Burmese Hazaras. 8 Nor is the tradition rendered more 
credible by being connected with Mahmud of Ghazni. Solomon, 
Alexander, Ali and Mahmud are the four historical personages to 
whom popular fancy generally attributes all important events of the 
past. The tradition about the Ormurs being Kurds, mentioned by 
Elphinstone, cannot be reconciled with the one which makes them 
Arabs from Yemen, and cannot be upheld without the support of 
linguistic facts, a question which will be discussed below. 

It is, however, very probable that the tradition of their having 
emigrated to Kaniguram in Waziristan from Barak-i Barak is true. 
The names Barahl and Bargista seem to indicate that Barak was 
their old, if not original, home. 

Nor is it impossible that there may be a nucleus of truth in the 
statement that they were 'fire- worshippers' till comparatively recent 

1 Cf. LSI. X, p. 123. 

' This "tradition" was probably invented on the spot by my I'athan servant 
in order to explain the similarity between the Hazaras and those Mongoloid peoples 
which he knew from his service in the Indian army. According to him Mahmud 
of Ghazni had conquered the whole of India, and had settled Hazaras in Burma 
and Nepal! 

312 Ormuri 

times. And it is interesting to note that Ormuri is the only modern 
Ir. dialect, which has preserved the ancient technical term of Zoro- 
astrian theology for "studying", "reading." 1 The account of the 
extinguishing of lamps at their religious festivals, reminds us of 
the slanders told about Yezidis, Druses and other sects of Western 
Asia, and need not have any foundation in fact. And the etymo- 
logy of the word Ormur suggested by Bellew (3) seems rather 
fanciful. 2 

10. In connexion with these traditions regarding the "lamp- 
extinguishing" ceremonies of the Ormurs, it is well worth noticing 
that the only member of this tribe who has played any r61e in 
history, was the famous arch heretic Bayazid Ansari, the Pir BoSan 
('The Saint of Light') of his own adherents, and the Pir Tarik 
('The Saint of Darkness') of his opponents. According to the 
Makhzan-ul-Islam* Bayazid was an Ormur (Wurmar) from Kaniguram. 
And, according to Leyden 4 , the famous and important sect founded 
by him was accused "of practising the abominations of the unchaste 
sect termed Cheragh-cush " ('Lamp-Extinguishers'). It seems quite 
possible that the heretical tendencies of Bayazid were based in some 
way on religious traditions and practices peculiar to his native tribe. 6 

1 V. VOC. 8.V. aW: _ 

* In Rep. p. 16 I proposed to explain Ormur as a Psht. form, derived from 
*arya-tnft(y)a: arya- would, however, probably result in Psht. *ar, not in *3r. 
— The Ormurs of Logar call the Afghans Kdi (Kaniguram pi. k a sl "the Wazirs"). 
The g in this word may be derived from *s{t)r, *xSy, *fSy. Is there any possi- 
bility that the original form is *Kafiya-, connected with KapiSd, etc. (cf. Sylvain 
Levi, J A, 1923, p. 62 f.)? 

» British Museum, Or. Mscr. 6274, f. 117 v.; India Office Mscr. 2792, f. 187 a; 
Dorn, Chresthomathy of the Pushtu Language, p. 22. 

4 I. c. p. 378. 

5 In London in 1926 I had an opportunity, through the courtesy of Sir E. Deni- 
son Ross, to examine a unique manuscript of Bayazid's theological work, the Xair- 
ul-Bayan. which had been supposed to be lost. The manuscript was written by 
Bahar TuH, a disciple of Bayazid, and was finished on Wednesday the 20th of 
Ramazpn, A. 11. 1061 (A.D. 1650). This book is the oldest Psht. work extant, and 
presents many interesting orthographic and linguistic peculiarities. But the language 

Introduction 313 

11. The Ormuri of Kaniguram (Waziristan) and the Ormuri of 
Barak-i Barak (Logar) are two distinct dialects, the Kaniguram form 
being, generally speaking, the more archaic. 

Eegarding phonetics one of the most important points of difference 
between the two dialects is that Log. has preserved s (< sr, str, 
xsy, sy etc.), z which has become s, z in K. ; e. g. Log. ywasi "graiss" : 
K. ywasi, Log. roz "day": K. ryuz; cf. 54, 57. On the other hand 
Log. has given up the distinction between K. $ and £ r ; e. g. ILog. 
?o "3", #Mj"6": K. £ r e, $ a h; cf. 60. In. loan-words we find £ in both 
dialects e.g. in Log. §dsta, K. gaista "pretty", s in both dialects 
in Log. Saitdn, K. saltan "devil" etc.; but e.g. Log. §dr, K., sor 
"town", Log. usyar, K. hugyar "wise". This variation depends on 
the date of the borrowing and whether its source is Prs. or siome 
Psht. dialect. — Log. strwa, K. sirtvd "soup" must be an ancient 
loan-word from Prs. sdrwa, sorba. — K. h has resulted in Log. g 
(v. 65). Regarding the occasional change of s <. c in K. cf . 69 ; regard- 
ing the dropping of h in Log., and the prothetic h of K. v. 74. 
Note Log. g- "to seize" < K. gl-. (v. Voc. s.v.). 

The vowel system of Log. makes a less original impression than 
that of K, owing chiefly to the frequent change of a into u (v. 27). 
It seems probable that K. a has been changed into Log. a (cf. 29) 
through the influence of Afghan Prs. 

12. The morphological system of Log. has been very miuch 
simplified. The geographical position of the two dialects renders it 
very natural that this should be so. K. is spoken by a compara- 
tively strong community in an isolated part of the rugged Waziristan 
hills, surrounded only by culturally and socially unimportant Fsht. 
dialects. Log., on the other hand, is a dialect that is rapidly dying- 
out; the Ormurs of Logar inhabit a broad, open valley, not far 

conforms in the main to ordinary literary Psht., which is based chiefly oni the 
Mohmand and Yusufzai dialects. We find Tery few traces of any influence otf the 
Waziri dialect Note, however, the word tai tan "master, husband". Lorimer jgives 
iiitan as the Waziri form of the word; bat Orm. of Kaniguram has taStan, a form 
which is evidently borrowed from the local Waziri dialect of this village. 

from Kabul, are in constant contact with Persian-speaking neigh- 
bours, and for several generations have served extensively in the 
Afghan army. 1 No wonder, then, that Log. bas lost the distinction 
of gender (v. 81), has simplified the formation of the plural of 
nouns (v. 82), and has reduced the number of irregular past parti- 
ciples (v. 123). The system of contracted pronouns (v. 102) is also 
much simpler in Log. than in K., and the use of the particles at and 
di has been discarded on account of its intricacies. 2 Eegarding the 
termination of the aorist 2 sg. v. 118. I have been able to detect 
one instance only of greater morphological archaism in Log., viz. 
the preservation of the aorist 1 sg. in -Im (v. 120). 

13. While K. has borrowed freely from Waziri Psht., the voca- 
bulary of Log. has been influenced by other Psht. dialects, and, to 
a still greater extent, by Prs. 

A number of genuine Orm. words found in K. seem to be missing 

in Log., although it is of cours 

se possible that thej 

exist in the dialect. 

We find e. g. : 

K. hond "blind" : 

Log. kor. 

» hins "bear" : 

» xirs. 

» nor$ r (narm) "soft": 

» narm. 

» pis- "to write": 

» nimista k-. 

» ro "iron": 

» din. 

» rawas "fox": 


» sikak "hare": 

* xargQs. 

» $ r ak "flea": 

» kaik. 

» tusk (xali) "empty": 

» xdli. 

» winjok "son of a co-wife" 

: » bacandar. 

» xwarind 1 "right (hand)": 

» rdst. 

» yanak "ashes": 

» xdkistcir. 

Cf. also words such as K. 

sukal "porcupine" 

pin "honey'', 
mbai "friends", hencci "tears", § r amot "forgetting" etc., of which 

Introduction 311 

I found no corresponding forms in Log. K. nwastak "to lie down' 
was probably discarded because it became Log. *nustuk and coulc 
be confused with nustah "to sit down" <C K. nastdk. 

On the other hand we do not find recorded among the words 
from K. such good Ir. words as Log. unddrdw- "to sew", fees "rope", 
yQ$ "snow", jusp "span", Mil "knife", malt "husband", moz- 
"to loosen", nefak "navel", nimek "salt", *skan "cow-dung", porn 
"wool", sinl "needle", zemdlc "winter", zinak "chin" etc. The 
interesting loan-word gram "village" is also peculiar to Log. (K. 
kflai from Psht.). 

14. The dialect of Logar does not seem to have changed very 
much since Leech published his vocabulary in 1838. The forme 
found in his vocabulary and collection of sentences, and in the 
vocabulary published by Raverty, agree very well with those I heard. 
We find e. g. she "1" (Log. se, K. so), rosh "day" (Log vqz, K, 
ryuz), yasp "horse" (Log. yasp, K. yansp), wolch "water" (Log. 
wok, K. w a k). 

Most of the innovations of Log. had already taken place. Thus 
| had become g in glon "thou takest", pabega "above"; wa, we 
had resulted in o (u) in ar-ghoshtakai "you did fall", ghoJc "said"; 
there was no distinction of geuder, shuk "became", for instance, 
being used as a masculine; the termination -on had been introduced 
into the aorist 2 sg. (cf. 118), e. g. on "thou art", daron "thou hast"; 
shera "gives", shoh "gave" correspond to the modern Log. forms 
(v. Voc. s. v. set-) etc. 

In some cases we find more archaic forms surviving than in 
present day Log. Thus we find ghe (*£e) "3" (Log. go, K. £ r e), 
hhuranak "hungry" (Log. xrunuk, K. axwaranak), glon "thou 
takest" (Log. g-, K. gl-), ivrosht (Rav. tcarosht) "beard"' (Log. auru?t, 
K. wVSt"), -tier-, -ne "in" (Log. -ne, K. inar), Rav. w'rizza (but 
Leech rizza) "rice" (Log. rezan, K. rijan), Rav. ra-dzai "come" 
but Leech raza "comes" (Log. ar-eam, K. rl-jam "I come"), sugh 
(= *su$) "red" (Log. sus, K. suf). Of special interest are the 
numerals: Ichoshty "60" (Log. $u$tu, K. $wai§tt), hawai "70" (Log. 

316 Ormuri 

awaitu, K. awai), hashtai "80" (Log. cdr jlstu, K. hastai), nuvi "90" 
(Log. mive, K. naivi). sMst "30", tsasht "40", panzast "50" are 
more archaic forms than either Log. gistu, ea$tn, panjastu or K. 
$ r istii, cdgtu, panjaitfu (cf. 99). 

15. The affinities of Orm. within the range of the Ir. languages 
has been discussed in Eep. pp. 26 ff. 

With W. Ir. and Par. Orm. shares the preservation of initial 
voiced stops (cf. Par. Gr. 7). The development of dw > b and the 
loss of intervocalic dentals, changes which are characteristic of 
N.W. Ir. and Par., are also found in Orm. But the points of 
special resemblance between Orm. and N.W. Ir. are not so many 
as those between Par. and N.W. Ir. mentioned p. 9. E.g. Orm. 
has w- "to sit down", but Par. has nhin-, Samn. -nln-, Orm. does 
not possess the verb *a-ni- "to bring" etc. 

According to Tedesco 1 Ir. *-ah became -i in E.Ir. I have tried* 
to show that this development was not universal in E.Ir., and we 
find no trace of it in Orm. On the contrary, we find Orm. K. so 
"1" (Log. se with palatalization due to the s, v. 28) < *syo, *syah, 
Orm. Icpk "who" < *Jco-ka < *Jcah, and probably Orm. Log. afo 
"that" (K. hafb m., haf f.) < -o, -ah. 

There seem to be no linguistic facts in support of the tradition 
of the Kurdish origin of the Ormurs. The only point of special 
resemblance that I have been able to detect, is the employment of 
an extra I- suffix in the word denoting "egg": Orm. K. hanwalk, 
Log. wullc: Kurd, hilka etc. 

16. Regarding the relations between Orm. and Par. v. above 
pp. 9 f . There are, however, profound differences between the two 
languages, cf. e.g. the treatment of the groups ft, xt, the demon- 
strative pronouns, the personal pronoun 1 pi. Par. ma, but Orm. 
max etc. 

17. Rep. p. 36 n. I have pointed out the possibility that Bal. 
may contain some elements borrowed from an Ir. dialect spoken in 

1 Monde Oriental, XV, p. 266; ZII, IV pp. 127 ft.; cf. my remarks Rep. p. 30- 
• NShgh., p. 84. 

Introduction 31? 

the country before the advent of the Baloches. To the examples 
adduced there may be added Bal. gwas- "to speak": Orm. Log. 
■fo.9- (*ywas-); cf. also Bal. dialect forms, such as sai "3", N. Bal. 
sa-<C*fra- (e.g. in N. Bal. samust'a "forgotten": Orm. K. $ r amot), 
got "ear" etc. When the Baloches first came into contact with the 
Indians, they still retained w-, as appears from the Khetrani loan- 
word vdhor "snow": Bal. gwahar, and from Bal. gwac (recent bor- 
rowing wac) "buffalo-calf" < Sindhi vachi. Possibly the transition 
from w- to gw- in Bal. is due to the influence of an Ir. substratum 
akin to Orm., gw- being substituted for yw-. 

18. Orm. contains several words which are known only from 
E. Ir. (cf. Bep. p. 32). A certain number of such words are included 
in the list Par. Gr. 9. Others are: 

ban- "to throw down": Psht. Iwan-, Yazg. bevan- etc., Av. dvan-. 

K. hond "blind": Sak. hana-, Minj. ydday, Av. anda-. 

K. mer$ r "sun": Minj. mira, Av. mi&ra-. 

se (K. so) "1": Sak. 6fou. 

sir "good": Sak. siira-, Soghd. sir, Av. srtra-. 

waw- "to obtain'': Sak. byau-. Av. avi-ap-. 

K. xwarinc a "right (hand)": Soghd. xwarant, Sak. hvarandau ace. 

sg., hvarameaini "on the right hand''. 

This last word is possibly an ancient loan-word in Orm. 

19. But the E. Ir. language with which Orm. has been in the 
closest contact for centuries, and which has exercised a profound 
and far-reaching influence on the development of the language, is 
Psht. Orm. possesses a great number of Psht. loan-words; but 
the connexion between the two languages is of a much more funda- 
mental nature, and appears to me to exclude the possibility that 
the contact dates only from the time of Mahmud of Ghazni. 

In the first instance there are several words in the two languages 
which, although showing a special relationship, have developed 
phonetically on different lines. Some of these words may be Psht. 
loan-words in Orm.; but the phonetical divergences show that the 
borrowing must have taken place a long time ago. 

318 Ormuri ^ 

Eep. p. 33 f. I have mentioned Orm. E. ^ark "lost"; 1MB 
"grass"; gigi "tooth"; K. bazar "fore-arm"; K. wan "co-wife"; 
K. wtnjoh " son of a co-wife " ; K. du$ki " a little ", prdn " yesterday " ; 
K. rdfai "brother's son"; K. xwarkai "sister's son"; K. ta "pater- 
nal uncle"; xwa$ (K. xwa$ r ) "sweet", nas- (K. nis-) "to take 
out" etc. 

Other instances are: Orm. bruS- "to glitter": Psht. breijecfol; Orm. 
yanj "bad", yunj "rag" (cf. 51); Orm. K. mrig, mrik "slave": 
Psht. maryai; Orm. n- (pret. K. nastah) "to sit down": Psht. 
nasfal; Orm. ndk "wife": Psht. naive "bride". 

The most striking morphological correspondence between Orm. 
and Psht. is the use of the so-called contracted pronouns (cf. 102). 
There is evidently some connexion between the Psht. and the Orm. 
forms, even if its exact nature cannot be determined. Note also 
Orm. tQs (K. tyus) "you": Psht. tarn (Waz. tus) ; Orm. genitive 
particle tar, ta: Psht. da < Av. taro. 

The transition of c > c in Orm. is due to Psht. influence, cf. 
also Log. g < f (v. 65). 

All these features show that, notwithstanding the profound diffe- 
rences in the original dialectical bases of the two languages, Orm. 
and Psht. must have been neighbours for a lengthy period, and 
there is no reason to assume that Orm. was introduced from the 
west of Iran. 

20. Orm. is at present completely separated from the Dard lan- 
guages; but it contains a few loan-words which point to an earlier 
contact. The most important word is Log. gram "village"; cf. 
also piyg "cock", K. ping a "the time just before dawn": Khow. 
jriyga-chiii "cock-crow, early dawn", and possibly dri "hair" (v. Voc). 





VOL. I. 

OSLO 1929