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of the American Ethnological Society 
Edited by FRANZ BOAS 






G. E. STECHERT & CO., New Yoek, Agents 






The texts of the South Band Pawnee dialect presented in this 
volume were recorded at Pawnee, Oklahoma, in the summers of 
1928 and 1929, in the course of work done on the Pawnee language 
under the auspices of the Committee on American Indian Languages 
of the American Council of Learned Societies. The texts were 
dictated by informants who spoke little or no English and translated 
with the help of Henry Chapman as interpreter. 

The Pawnee is one of four major languages which together form 
the Caddoan linguistic stock, Wichita, Kitsai, and Caddo l^eing the 
otlier three. These four major languages are all mutually un- 
intelligible, with Caddo the most divergent, and Pawnee, Kitsai 
and Wichita more closely related to one another than any one of 
them is to Caddo. Within the Pawnee branch proper of the Caddoan 
family, three dialectic divisions can be definitely distinguished at 
the present day. South Band Pawnee, Skiri, and Arikara. The 
Arikara is dialecticaUy the most divergent and is not mutually 
intelligible with the other two dialects, while South Band and 
Skiri PaAvnee are sufficiently close to be mutually intelligible 
without difficulty. 1 

The Pawnee live today in north-central Oklahoma, around the 
town of Pawnee. They were removed from their old homeland 
in Nebraska in the years 1874—1876. Earlier in the 19th century 
in Nebraska the three south bands, prtahawira^t^, hitkahax¥*^ and 
tsawi''\ seem to have chosen to live together, with the Skri inhabiting 
independent villages, while still earlier the three south bands lived 
independently of one another in separate villages. Politically, prior 
to the contacts of the Nineteenth Century, each of the four groups 
seems to have been definitely autonomous and to have acted in 
intertribal relations with peoples of other linguistic groups essen- 
tially as independent tribes. There is a tradition that in earlier 
times there were characteristic differences between the speech of 
the three south bands. To control any possible differences which 
might still survive, I have recorded texts from old informants of 
o.'U'h band. There is, however, no perceptible difference at the 
pK'sent day. Long continued contact in their life together has 
ai)i)arently obliterated any differences which may have existed in 
South Band speech, and today the only dialectic difference which is 
to be found among the Pawnee is that between speech of the South 
Bands and that of the Skiri. Even this dialectic difference seems 
likely to disappear in the not distant future as there is a tendency 
on the part of speakers of both dialects to merge differences. 

^ ^ . Losser, A. and G. Weltfish, Composition of the Caddoan Linguistic 
^lock. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 87 no. 6* 1932. 


VI Ptiblications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XV Mj 

Although Pawnee at the present time still number about 70o 

the rapid disintegration of the language presents a dismaying 
spectacle. While many of the older people speak the language m the 
classic style of former days, understanding and speaking ver\^ little 
English, Pawnees fifty years old and younger speak a simplified, 
more elementary version, using English for most purposes. Among 
the young children it is exceptional to find one who speaks Pawnee 
even in the simpler version of the parental generation. In the 
simplified dialect now so commonly spoken many of the modal 
distinctions are neglected and the process of noun-incorporation 
almost whoUy disregarded. The dominant tendency of classic 
Pawnee to compound and integrate ideas into one complex is also 
falling into disuse. Conversations with older people indicate that 
this type of integration has a very real aesthetic value for speakers 
of the older language. On a number of occasions verbal complexes 
which were compounded of many involved ideas were enjoyed by 
informants as '* beautiful words." 

The classification of the texts into Memories of Daily Life, Tales, 
and Vision and Sacred Stories is a convenience and does not 
represent a native classification. Names of individual texts where 
not a translation of a Pawnee title are also to be understood as a 
device for convenience. The titles in Pawnee were dictated by the 

Among my three main informants, Effie Blane, Fanny Chapman 
and Lottie Fancy-Eagle, interesting personal differences in style 
of composition may be seen. Effie Blane, from whom the bulk of 
the texts were taken, is in terms of literary standards the finest 
narrator. In her texts an emphasis upon graphic detail results in 
pictorially vivid impressions of native life. This freshness of 
pictorial impressions may be related to the fact that Effie has for 
years been almost totaUy blind, so that to a great extent she has 
been spared the constant visual contact with the humdrum objects 
and affairs of the modem small town life of the Pawnee. In the 
case of Lottie Fancy-Eagle, a woman well over eighty, a similar 
graphic frr^shne^ss is found in her accovmt of the himting expedition. 
The individual differences of the styles of the two women is brought 
out by a comparison of their versions of the story of Eagle Boy. 
In Effie B lane's version there is an emphasis upon homely detail 
while in tlie old lady Fancy-Eagle's story, it is the structural out- 
lines of th( st ory which has been stressed. The first texts taken from 
the old la* v Fancy -Eagle were the technical accounts, as because 
of her age I had hoped to obtain from her accounts of techniques 
now long t* >! (i;otten. At first the idea of dictation appeared strange 
to her and it u as not until later that her imagination was captured 
by the thou^^it that this might be a permanent record of old Pawnee 
life. It was then that she volunteered the record of a hunting ex- 
pedition. Fanny Chapman, who is fluent and distinct in her speech, 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts VII 

shows an interesting preference for long stories and consequently an 
extensive combination of incidents, a tendency which finds a fuller 
and more spectacular expression in the construction among some 
peoples of the epic. 

The two rather brief stories of William Riding-In, one of the 
oldest Pawnees, illustrates a tendency among old men who have 
retired from active and outstanding participation in the religious 
life of the people to a kind of clowning which is socially permissible 
only to those possessed of great virtuosity. Thus one of the most 
serious and sacred aspects of Pawnee life, tlie vision, is in his two 
tales told in humorous parody. By contrast the ordinary humorous 
story is represented in text no. 43, Scorched-Belly ; and texts nos. 10, 
11, 12, and 13, the Snake Den; Rabbit and Turtle Race; The Turtle, 
the Bisons, and the Fox; and Long-Toothed-Baby, told by old 

The story of the Dun Horse (no. 44) as rendered by Stacy Matlock 
is the result of a special set of circumstances. Stacy Matlock was 
educated at Carlisle soon after the establishment of the school, and 
although he might properly be classed with the older generation he 
speaks and reads English fluently and has had considerable ex- 
perience as interpreter. Being unaccustomed to composing in 
Pawnee for dictation and familiar with the story of the Dun Horse 
in Grinnell's book he proposed that he paraphrase the English 
version in Pawnee. His word usages are in the classic manner but 
the effects of English style upon the composition can be clearly seen. 

In the translation of aU the text material Henry Chapman was 
interpreter. His growing interest in the etymology and analysis of 
the Pawnee language as our work progressed, together with his 
unique gift for values and meanings in both English and Pawnee, 
imparted to his efforts at translation an unusual aptness and depth, 
rarely to be met with in the translation of two such different 

In addition to the patient cooperation of my informants and of 
my interpreter I want especially to acknowledge the help extended 
to me in my linguistic work by a number of Pawnee friends. I am 
especially indebted to my friend Stacy Matlock for his interest in 
the work and his help in making and maintaining the requisite 
personal contacts during my stay at Pawnee, and to Pauline Jake 
Murie for her constant help and companionship. Other Pawnees 
who extended to me many kindnesses were Mark Everts, Ida 
Phillips, the Jake family, and Bert and Mary Peters and their 

I want also to extend my thanks to the members of the Com- 
mittee on American Indian Languages, Professors Boas, Sapir, and 
Bloomfield from each of whom I received invaluable personal 
advice and stimulation. 



Foreword V 

Phonetic Key 1 

I. Texts by Effie Blane, pHahawira't^ Band. 

Memories of Daily Life 

1. Notes on Pawnee biographies 4 

2. There is a dance coming 23 

S. Times of starvation 26 

4. riic cultivated fields - 29 

5. Spear games and plum seed games 42 

e. Wooden bowl . 47 

7. Mortar 48 

8. The pestle 50 

9. Horn spoons 50 


10. The snake den 51 

11. Rabbit and Turtle race 55 

12. The Turtle, the Bisons, and the Fox 56 

13. Long-Toothed-Baby 59 

14. Meat-Child-Girl 66 

15. The boy who married a ghost wife 72 

Vision and Sacred Stories 

16. Qrig^in of planting seeds 82 

17. The story of Eagle-Boy 88 

J^ Origin of the Whistle or Deer Dance 91 

19. T he origin of the Young Dog Dance 108 

20. Woodpecker-Boy 122 

21. The birds avenge the boy magician who was 
killed by his father 131 

II. Texts by Lottie Fancy-Eagle, pvtahawira^f Band. 

Memories of Daily Life 

22. A grandmother's advice to her granddaughter 136 

23. The name, Woman-Many-Kettles-of Food 137 

24. When they went hunting 137 

25. Making tipi covers of buffalo hide 144 

26. Mud-lodge dwelling 146 

27. The significance of the gambling basket 148 

28. Making a coiled gambling basket 149 

29. Bouncing-sticks 150 

30. The sticks for the bouncing-stick game 151 

31. Making a mat 151 

32. How to make a belt 152 

33. Dried meat 153 

34. Making pots for carrying water 154 


The sy^l^>o^s used in the transcription of the Pawnee texts follow 
the recommendations embodied in "Phonetic Transcription of 
Indian Languages," Smithsonian MisceUaneoua Collections ygL 66, 
no. 6. % v 

ConsonarUs: . -\- 

The stops p, t, and k are intermediates or semi-sonants, the 
slight amount of voicing placing them somewhere between the fully- 
voiced sonant and the unvoiced surd. As the surd forms do not 
occur I have used the regular small letters instead of the small 
capitals customarily used for the purpose. The t also occurs upon 
occasion in glottalized form (f), and also nazalized (t''), i. e. 
with release of the posterior nares instead of oral opening of the t 
stop. This nazalization of the t is heard whenever the t is final, that 
is when the voice comes to a full stop after it. Thus although a final 
t may stand at the end of a noun or a verb complex, in connected 
discourse it would only be nazalized if it fell at the end of a phrase 
or sentence. 

The spirant 5 is a linguo-dental surd, somewhat more sibilant than 
the English s. The x closely approximates the German ich. 

The affricative ts is also intermediate. 

h has its usual value, w is slightly more rounded than in English 
as a consequence of which a double length u (w) cannot be distin- 
guished from uvm\ this is most commonly the case in the word 
tiku'tit, he kills it, which I have sometimes written as tikuwutd to 
represent the progressive increase in lip rounding throughout the 
duration of the vowel. 

The r is the most difficult Pawnee consonant to describe. It is a 
single-triUed r made in most cases with the tip of the tongue upon 
the alveolar ridge. By various recorders it has been heard as I, n, 
and d, as well as r. (See also Boas, Handbook of American Indian 
Languages, vol. 1, p. 17.) The mechanics by which the sound is 
rendered varies to a considerable degree not only from speaker to 
speaker, but also with relation to the phonetic context in which it 
occurs, so that the variation in the sound as heard is in part attrib- 
utable to individual inclination and in part to the position in which 
it occurs with relation to other phonemes. In one word of the 
language, the greeting na'wa, I have transcribed this sound as n 
because of its strongly nasal character. 

2 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. Xyjj 

Vowels : 
Most vowels have theu™ continental values: 

a as in father 

a (Greek alpha) as ^ in but 
i as ee in feet 
L (Greek iota) as i in hit 
i^ as 00 in hoot 

V (Greek upsilon) as oo in foot 
Before t and sometimes before k a vowel occurs which varies from 
a to V, as for example in the word tsu-raki or tsu'rvki, girl, and in the 
sten; -at, go. In the sft-me situation there also occurs a vowel sound 
which appears to fall between the full a and a, as for example in the 
wprd^ tsapat or tsapat, woman, and in tiwqri or tiwari, he goes about. 
T\^t>' vowels vary slightly from the English qualities : 
e as a in fate but without the diphthongal quality 
e (Greek epsilon) is made peculiarly. The lips are very wide, the 
aperture between them forming a very narrow slit, even more so 
than the usual lip position of i. The open sound quality is, there- 
fore, only approximated by the e in met. It occurs practically in all 
cases in double length and often appears like a diphthong of e and t, 
with the quality of the i appearing only at the last moment. 

With the exception of this case, diphthongs in the sense of two 
different vowel sounds which are elided, are absent ia Pawnee. 
Wherever one vowel is recorded as succeeding another, even when 
the two vowels are the same, they are distinctly pronounced and 
do not glide together, the two vowels pertaining to two different 
syllables, one composed of consonant-vowel, and one of vowel- 

Diacritical marks : 

* stands for glottalization, which in the few cases in which it 
occurs within a complex is neither very distinct nor very explosive. 
At the end of a complex in most cases it gives rise to an echo vowel 
which is either entirely whispered, or slightly voiced and followed 
by an aspiration as the glottal closure is released. Whenever this, 
was very distinct I recorded the extra vowel after the glottal stop. 

* stands for aspiration. 

Vowel lengths: the ordinary vowel is normal length; vowel with 
underscribed _ (as a) about one-half normal length ; vowel with 
superior • (as a-) about double normal length. 

In most cases length functions phonetically rather than semanti- 
cally, the length of the syllables varying with the phonetic context ; 
in a few cases such as the syllable ka, the double-length vowel ka' 
(sometimes normal length) means inside, while the short vowel ka 
means among, these lengths remaining to a great extent fixed in 
many different phonetic situations. 

Accent: whereit occurs is indicated by the acute accent following 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 3 

the syllable (ka'). Stressed syllables are most frequently of short 
length, occasionally of normal length, but never double length. 

Pitch: Tonal distinctions of the vowels have been indicated as 
follows: (illustrated with a) 

a is high tone 

d is middle high tone 

a is normal tone 

a is low tone 
These four distinctions can occur with normal, short, or double 
length vowels. Double length vowels also occur with combinations 
of the above tones, the shift from one tone to the other often giving 
the impression of a gliding repetition of the vowel sound, rather 
than of a continuous voicing: 

a* high to middle high 

a* normal to middle high 

&' middle high to normal 

a- normal to high 

d' middle high to high 

d' normal to low 
rfie range of tones of course varies to some extent with the in- 
di\ idual, but the range is in most cases quite wide, from nrtrma' to 
hi<ih approximating a musical fourth, and from the lowest to :ie 
highest tone, almost a fifth. 

As in the case of length, pitch is in the main phonetic in function 
rather than semantic. Only very rarely is a distinction in meaning 
indicated by a tonal difference. For example "pa, normal tone, 
m(^an8 moon, while pa, low tone, means elk. 

Pitch, length, and accent in Pawnee with the exception of the 
fcAv oases mentioned, depend upon the phrase or complex of words, 
rai I or than upon the isolated word. That is, the length, accent, and 
pi' li of a word by itself is different from the length, accent, and 
jjii i 1 .if the same word when it is part of a phrase. In most of the 
texts I have attempted to record as closely as possible the phrase 
groupings as dictated, separating the phrases by a diagonal line. 
I could hardly hope in this situation to duplicate the manner of 
fluent conversation, but in most cases the recording would be like . 
slow deliberate speech. In quick speech a good many of the tonal 
(I i < f inctions, especially the shifting tones on long vowels do not occur. 
Tin- relative lengths of the vowels, however, are maintained whatever 
the speed, so that while the pitch may to a great extent be dispensed 
with, without obscuring the meaning, relative vowel length cannot. 
A glottal stop, aspiration or nazalization at the end of a word is also 
glossed over or disregarded when the word occurs within a phrase. 
A text with grammatical analysis has been printed in the In- 
ternational Journal of AmericanLinguistics, Vol. IX, pp. 44 — 75 and 
may serve as a guide for the texts until such time when a complete 
giMinmar can be presented. 

4 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 


pi'tahawira't^ Band, tsa'Stawirahvka Woman-ceremonial-gift-horse 

(in the Pipe Dance) 

Memories of Daily Life. 

1. kotes on pawnee biographies.^ 

cri*rawa*wa'ka ati'as tiriikspari / atias tsiru 

That is what he said my father that was Hving. My father still 

tatiri-rikshu tiratarakaktakuwltsahu j d ati-ra d tiwgtsiriks 
I had when we immigrated here and my mother and my uncle 

d atika a iratsti- asku / e ira'ku 

and my grandmother and my brother one. and that (sitting) 

k'krahus he turarwat e pi-ta tiraxka 

old man — he would talk about things and men they would be inside 

he turai'Wat j he tixwaki kk*8UTai*wat 

and he would talk about things. And they would say, "Tell about 

axrasukspaWi ra^wiraxrisu^^ / kiru riwa*ku alias 

when you went about (e,) on the warpath." Then said my father, 

e tiratukapari ekuxruksttskd tirdwd'hat kare-sikd-pa-kis 
"- In my travels he (God) wanted God, Heaven for him not to be poor 

tiwera'ta ra*wirdxTi8u*^ j hhriru witire'tihisas kuruks 

when he went there on the warpath. Then I named myself 'Bear 

girarexkda^wi*'^ j iweratpari herikurutqaitit 

The-Two-Leading-Ones.' While I was travelling then for me it happened 

itkascri' ratkute-riku tsaxriks j awitarute^rit witi- 

in my sleep for me to see a person." He would see him (q.) (e.) he was 

pakskd-ats he iruie'riku aki rikutuxrq*^ j 

gray -headed (q.) and as he looked at him there-upon that is what he did 

ikararika-pakisii aru-sd rexkuxtaktsirasahu / tsiru tataktd 
his not being poor horses he would bring them (e.). "Yet I have the stick 

raktawiska 'ru* " axruksaktuwariusuku raxku- 

the pipe" the stick he used to carry about with him (e.) when he 

wdri rawiraku-ru f hern riwa-ku alias werixkuru*- 

woul(i travel (e.) on warpaths. Then said my father when he would 

^ The symbols (e. ) and (q. ) which appear in the translations stand for "eviden - 
tial" and "quotative". The morphological elements involved are -ax- (e.). 
and -wi- (q.). The evidential indicates that the narrator was not an eyt} 
witness of the event described, while the quotative signifies either liiat u 
quotation is being made or that the information has been derived from 
someone else by word of mouth. Both these forms occasionally occur in the 
same verb complex, but in the main they are alternatives. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 5 

raJctdiwa-ti M raruruksku pi'ta kMuksa^^ 

tell the stories for them. And he had a man it was his son 

irari kukuxraha*^ tuksasg^*^ resarH pitku j he 
his brother it was his son. His name was Chiefs- two. And 

kare^rukskirika'hu resaru pitku tqkw dsita'rqpat / 

he was not kind Two-chiefs. Someone he would get into a fight with. 

hem tiwa-ku alias werqkutpawaktiku awitltira'- 

Then said my father when he would advise him he would show 

wvru'tlt atias heru tiwa'ku nawa M* kutsikscrd kurqh'As 

himself my father. Then he said, "Now, then look at me! Old man 

we*tat he kuwekqrerktewariks j hi kukqre-rikiiwiu'at 
now I am and I am not bruised at all and I haven't fallen down 

kukakikutqsitit ratttskd^" tsikattt ratkuw(rri / herii 

nothing has happened to me. I want well for me to live." Then 

tiwa'ku he tirawqhat mre-rarihvt siretsiriru / heriru 

he said, "and Heaven it is the only thing we are afraid of." Then 

tivM'ku herikqreri tirawqhat kurarii* 

ho said, "That is what mustn't be the Heavens just simply 

stkqratsixkutsirexka / ti irrri-ta tsaxriks- 

for us to make any remarks about him this the way they do people 

ta-ka tirdwqhat he kusitixrdixku j a ke'tsi 

white the Heavens (God) — they make remarks about him. — But 

pa'H irikuxrdtqra'kqtsikskqsa kqrarakwii kustra- 

the Pawnees we are the ones who have good sense not to be we remark 

tsixknxrexku j heru riwa^ku atias nqwqhii' weretkd'pd'kis 
about him." Then he said, my father, "See, now, I am poor 

tiratku heru*' were'ra'ke-a tirdtpqri 

I that am sitting here, and it has been a long time this my existence." 

/ hi rewaka'hu he irikwwitsdksa-ra he 

And he would say, " — When I became mature (sensible) and 

kurahus hiru riwiwd-hat j riwa'ku atias 

ol<! men there there were (sitting about) then," said my father, 

trnwihat kurahus / hk retura'katkdwawu'ku atexwaki 

"those (sitting) old men then I heard them they would say (e.) 

kurahus / pi'ta hekuxkqreretqriruraktaituse pi'ta wesirix- 
the"old men, 'Men, we don't have a good story.' man when they 

kura*^ he tlxwaki tipi'raski / kitu atixwaki 

make him then they would say, 'It is a boy.' all they would say, 

tixrastsu'raki / heru teocwaki kurahus 

'You should have been a girl!' Then they would say (e.), old men, 


6 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol XVII 

hekuxkarerutsP rutirastaktaxWQwdri rawimkU'TU j amfuksa- 
*but it is all right when you all wander off on the warpath if nevertheless 

wdxtsurahats j nawa ha- ira'ku kurahus hern 

he should got killed.' Now then, that (sitting) old man then 

tiwa-ku kirurikra'he j irtdtuxrg^^ rakurd-ta^u ru*" iriraru 
he said what good is it That's why it hurts there wherever 

ateruksdwatstsa / tiwdka-hu alias tirawihat 

I should happen to lie," he says, my father, "these (sitting) 

kurahus he rewakuxtavt / he texwaki 

old men — they talk spitefully (their talk hurts) and they would say (e.) 

kurahus pvta tirasta*kuk^ kakura-M itka*ru he 

old men, . 'Men, those of you that are, it is no good earth 

i'tgwatata'ku j tura'M raru rakwsa j rikutski 

to have covered on top (grave). It is good just to lie birds 

draru sitexkqru^wa-hats j he istu rutaxwa-ku 

would simply they eat him up (e.).'" Then again he would say (e.) 

he ketsi tgku kardaxrixkitawi atias raxwttska*a 

"But, then one is not the leader of him (e.) Father (God) if he wants (e.) 

raskuwari / he irawihat kurahus texwaki 

for you to live. and those (sitting) old men they would say, (e.) 

turdhe ru*karikat rakuwari / kuwttikata*at rakuwd*ku 
'It is good in the middle to live. It is like going up (q.) a hill 

iwerarasahatu hern rikitdure^rU / h^ aocrixwakia*hu 

as he matures then he stands on top.' And they say (e.) 

kiirahus j riwctska'^ tird-wd-hat kirakardisika'pa-kts wetskt- 
old men, 'If he decides, God, to be poor you are not when you 

td-riki / he wekardtsika^pa-kcs he istu wekutst- 

stand on top then when you are not poor and again when you seem 

tawird-at werara-riktisa-ri f he irawihat kurahus 

to be going down when you are getting old,' and those (sitting) old men 

hk axrtxwaUd-hu iwekarasika-pd-kts^ hi isuxra-tsiks- 

then they would say (e.), *When you are not poor and if you are 

ka'pa-ktSit he taku tsaxriks rikd-pa-kis / he isutatsiks- 
charitable and someone person he is poor then you must be 

ka"pa'kis atias tqraitdwista / rurihvra arux- 

charitable to him Father (God) he will know it further he will take 

ra-ru karaskuka-pd-kis^ / heru riwwku he irawihat 

account of you for you not to be poor.' Then he says, — those (sitting) 

kurahus herii istii weistawira*hat j 

old men, 'Then again when you have gone down to the bottom, 

Weltfishf Caddoan Texts 7 

kqrawitire'tsawttspqri wttirdfewd*hat j he 

it will not always be that way there is a limit to time (q.) Then 

rqwitqkii'isu rqriruxrquxtdwva / ari-sit isuxra-ru 

suddenly it becomes hard for you yourself you are accountable 

Jcu isaruta-ra upt-ru j he kurahus we*ra'a istu 

if you do something. And old man when you become again 

j}vrd*u wekure*su'U / atexwakid-hu kurahus hicwi 

baby you look like.' They would say, old men, "By golly, 

kaku*ra'M rqkuskqtdtqwe'rihu tsa-kura^wiii rakuraxra j turahe 
it's no good to stumble about walking-stick to carry. it is good 

rukqrikat rakHwari he irqwihat kurahus 

right in the middle to live.' And those (sitting) old men 

herire'turuksakatku'ku j iridtuxra^a ratkuwdska^^ rii tri 
that's what I heard from them. That's why I want to right there 

raru atemksdwatstsa j he rewa-ka'hu aki csexwakfiks 
simply merely to lie." And he says, *'Now they were truthful 

kurahus e wekuretu^u pvrq^u istu wekurefihukq- 

old men, — now I am like a child again, I seem to bo standing at 

kd-rd I rixwake-hu tsuraki tiirahe ta tseru rardixku / 

thel)ottom." When they say girl it is good here clearly it means 

tswraki twestrtxra^u tixwaki tsnrdkiti^ kitu wtti- 

girl when they made they would say, "It's a girl." AH they 

ra^tsikste-hu^u j iwerarasdhatu tsii-raki j iwest- 

would be happy (q.) when she was maturing girl when they 

ri'tsirdsaxra j heihe kqra- 

have taken her (in marriage ?) (when they have kept her ?) then if they 

rtrika-pa-kis iasti d isa-sti he sirutsirdsa- 

are not poor her father and her mother then they keep her 

tsu-raki j he kttu sirwtikstqHwd'Wqri he 

girl and al] they feel her around (nurture her carefully) and 

ird'ku tsuraki werirasqhat / kuweri'ic 

that (sitting) girl when she grows up when she is about 

sihukstaruktta rikdtiha*ru^^ / a ixtat tsqpat weku- 

fifteon years and or more woman when she 

rqkwru he raru taxku j nawa trvreruxrdrira^ru 
looks like then just she sits, (e.) Now this is what their interest is 

tsu-raki isirixrasqwd'hatku j hem rutsid 

girl in raising her: Then she would act this way 

iwerdku tswraki / hetsi tihe ra-ku hqwa pi-raski 

that (sitting) girl. Then this other one (sitting) also boy 


8 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol- ^VII 

tar^docvmua^hat / kakutsiksa tswraki 

he has sitting about him (relatives) she had not done gi^l 

ira'ku / he t^ku pvraski ku ram itsira- 

that one (sitting) — any boy perhaps just if he proceeds 

hu'ru tsiru isikdrareraktaku^u j heriv riwa^ku iraku 

to spoil her while she is not married. then says that (sitting) 

piraskk iasti upi-ru rusikk-aaxwhwaktit iasti 

boy his father somebody, "You go talk to him, her father 

kirdsiktcsikutsetstkskd'pd'kis wesirgxwawaJctit iasti 

see if they won't have pity on me." they conversed (e.) her father. 

e werekltawi kakikttqwi tsu'raki / a hdwa piraski 

— He is the boss she is not the boss the girl and also boy 

rard sitvku j werawdku piraski iasti axruxrexku 

merely they two would sit. Then said boy his father, he meant (e. ) 

tsapa'ra*u kk'suxkehdre^rtt / hkru axruxkehare^rit 

his wife, "Prepare the room." Then she prepared the room (e.) 

tsapat hiru axrutskkaksqwa irirwtakt- 

the woman, then he called them (invited them) (e.) those that are 

tsis'it pi'ta I wkaxraraxka hkru axriwa-ku 

his relatives the man. When they were inside then said (e.) 

p^'ta rdtuxrakttstsu witikutsikskqti-ta 

the man, "My relatives, I want to do this: (my mind has become black) 

pvrq^ii tiratirixku / heru axriwa-ku tdtitska rakuhuwitsata 
child this that I have." Then he said (e.), "I want him to go there 

tsu'ToM crird'ku j e retitska siraskukutqtsikska*pa'kts^ 

girl where she is (sitting) and I want you to have pity on me." 

hiru axririwaki tirardxka'wi iriwetura'he j heru 

Then they would say (e.) these inside, "It is good." Then 

siaxririraum'USitit arusa d irirwrdku-u / 

they preceded to give him things (e.) horses and whatever there is. 

hiru axriwa-ku kurahHsq^u ku8vtsisdkura*ru kski-ttks 

Then said (e.) his father, "It will be these many days four 

heriri • hu - kuxta j hetsi riiwerarai • ta iasti 

then he will go inside." But then he already knew his father 

iriwkqxrasqkuraxwitsata kski-tiks / tsiru wttiratke^ 
when those days had arrived four yet it was night (q.) 

tiratqrdpake-hu kskiksa-pits werdku^u j iwerixktrikaa-rixkd 
that which we call six (o'clock) when it is. When he was awakened by him 

iasti heru aiaxriwi-ru-td j uku-ku kitu wewff^ixrdwq^u 
his father, then they sat down (e.). Leggings all they gave him (q.) 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 9 

dau^ru retaxichta wttitskusta kttu wewdurahiwd- 

moccasins eagle he had the tail (q.) all he is going to have fine 

ra&ta j Mru aocriwa^kii kurahusa^u wkuxrutpa- 

clothes (q.) then said (e.) his father when he was talking 

wdktiku a axrgwd'ku mxtqkii wetgsurqkuraxwitS" 

to him (e.) and he said (e.), "Over there you are going to their 

tdvxta tswraki iri'rd'ku / ird'ku piraski he 

neighborhood girl where she is." That (sitting) boy then 

kdrawa^kasta kakA*tvxta j nawa rHwera'Tat 

he will not say, "I am not going to go." Now he went there 

wewitihura-rawa kUit j kararaJUi'ii ira'kwwi 

when the landscape was just visible (q. ) all mud-lodge that dwelling 

tsiru k Uu wttixtsatvdwiku^^ hi'tai wererdvta j Mru axriat 
yet all they were asleep (q.) but they knew. Then he went 

pi-raski i-takii ikahaxriri raka^wi^n 

the boy over there in the middle of the room the forked post 

vsiriixtaawi j he ikarikat hi rire-m'tit tutkus- 
those two standing and in the middle then he sat down he kneeled 

kirdripixku j he isM axra-wqisitit kqra- 

without knees touching ground then again he went out (e.) it was 

wdirake-a j he hqw& axrdhwkd pitku hSru rutsira'ru^ j 
not long then again he came in (e.) twice then that was all. 

weterdt'ta arixrdkawa^ata werasdktga j ketsi 

They already know (e.) they would eat when the sun can^ up. Then 

iraka'wi hiru axrvwa^ku pt-ta ngwa vAs suruks- 
that dwelling then said (e.) the man, "Now, hurry, prepare 

ke-hdre-rtt tsuraki iasti / nqwa hiru riwa-ku pi-ta tqku 
the room," girl her father. Now then said man someone 

herakwku tsapat nqwa riisuksat j nqwa Mru 

one that would be over there woman, "Now, go there." Now then 

axriat a axrawd^ku iasti tikuraocwgrtksta 

she went (e.) and said (e.) "Her father, he sent me 

tirqtsqkipi'tiksta j nqwa Mru axrivxi'kii pl-ta 

they are going to gather." Now then said (e.) the man, (girl's father) 

rusikisuturat ira-ri j a qxrdhu-ka Mru axriwa-ku 
"Go get my brother." and he came in then he said (e.) 

tsiruru ta-aqpirdxrista vri-tai- 

"Yet now you are going to pick them up. (invite them) those who are 

takitavsu a hqwd tsapat irirutakttsisu 

our relatives and also woman (my wife) those that are her relatives." 

10 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

hem axrutsid pi-ta a axrd-pira a axrdrax- 

then he proceeds (e.) man and he invites them (e.) and they came 

ru'ka^^ I taku wttutasu-hat irirqkahu- 

inside (e.) here they were ranged along (q.) the north side {where the 

rdxkati'tu tsuraki iriwddrirwtgsu'hat / 

dark side of the earth is) girl (her people) there they were ranged along (q.) 

tsuraki vra-ku he ira'tsti a iwa'ririks a 

girl that one (sitting) and her brothers and her uncles and 

ipakti iseric axrdawaturukgwihat / nawa he 

her grandfather. Special place they sat between (e.) Now then 

iasti iri vra'ku M ira*ri hawa iriaxra- 

her father where there he sits and his brothers also there's where 

wihgt I hhru rutsid iasti hiru riraxwartt 

they sat. Then he proceeds her father then he sends 

tdru*tsius herii iri'sirutaki'kqwi he 

servant, apprentice then where those two middle poles are then 

tqru'tsius iriwetihihit / hern riwa-ku ira-ku tdrwtsius 

the apprentice he spread it there. Then he says that apprentice 

tsuraki ika^ri nawa rurutsihiirurat / hkru axridt 

girl her grandmother now let her go get him. Then she went (e. ) 

tsustit I hiru aocriwa*ku nawa wewdiuxta 

old woman. Then she said, (e,) "Greetings, now he must go (q.) 

wetiraxkd j ke^tsi weaxrarwhurehd^ats / pi-ta 

now they ar^^side." And all was prepared for the ceremony. Man 

i-ra'ku kdu aru'Sa kurdkuxrarua tqwiksa-pits 

that one (sitting) including horses they numbered about eight 

a ku rihukst'ri a k du rdiksu j hewe- 

or about ten and all things (possessions). And they 

re'vdkdt tsqpat / wk^sititqkaksqwa piraski 

were there (sitting) women. They had iuvitofl (called) them boy 

irirwtakttsisu j he iwera'ta pi-raski 

those that are related to him and when he went there boy 

iwesiritkaksa / iwerehwkoi pPraski / rihuksu 

when they called him Then he went inside the boy. Just when 

ira-riki tdrwtsius kuxrqwa-ku we*ta / he 

that (one standing) apprentice when he said, "He is coming." then 

pdkii sirutsqwa^^ ke-tsi he wdirekqwirau*hat 

two got up then — when he moved the door open (q.) 

su'huri riru* qxrihl^ txruts j heriru 

in this direction where there were several spread upon thereupon 

Weltfishy Caddoan Texts 11 

aosrcwi'iit hem axrim^ttt tsqwiha'ru wttvsa / 

he sat down (e.) then he sat down (e.) pillow it was lying there (q.) 

he isirawa*riki taku siaxritpirwrukvt hawa 

and those two (standing) here they grabbed his arms (e.) also 

hetqku herii siaxri'tirdskd^at / ru wttiukttskatasa 

over here then they led him further in (e.) There it lay at the back (q.) 

tsdrnhd-ru j hern risiaxrixkua j he itqkii 

pillow. Then that is where they placed him (e.) And over there 

asku axrd'ku hqwa hetqk4 asku j tsi iraraxka-wi hetqku 

one sits (e.) also here one. But those inside there 

wekqrdqoDreiwawdktvku / ruhe ira-ku iwerq- 

no one was even whispering (e.) that other that one (sitting) the one 

ka-witdtaku ira-ku Mwereraxkukuriku 

sitting next to him that one (sitting) he was holding it filled 

raktdwcska-ru / t8uuxre*re*pixkat raha-kukdasahu / 

pipe, a sacred bundle upon stick that always lies on top. 

h^ru axriwa'ku irirqhaktiku raktdwiska'm j he 

Then said (e.) the one that has the stick pipe then 

ira'k'A iasti axravxi-ku nqwa uvrura- 

that one (sitting) her father said (e.), "Now those that are my 

tdku'^^ wetatsqkuxruraxmtsta e 

different relatives they have now approached our vicinity and 

reatqkltqwi tsi rarii tqtvku / ruiwerq- 

you are the ones in authority but merely I am sitting." He that has 

haktikii raktdwcska'ru him aocriwd*waktit him axriwa*ku 
the stick pip© then he talked (e.) then he said (e.) 

irimratdku'^^ j he wesiaosrqra-msd tskqra 

those that are my different relatives, and they two smoked (e.) only 

siwitird'Wtsa j he iri-rahaktiku raktawtska-ru 

they two smoked (e.) Then the one holding the stick pipe 

hi axrara-wisqwawariku ru tira'wd-hat ketst 

then he blew smoke about there toward Heaven then 

kuxrardt'ta j him axriwa-ku iwesirqrawisqistd'ta j 

he knew. Then he said (e,) when they two had finished smoking 

hem axrd'ku irirqkutsterukstqr it 

then that one (sitting) (e.) the one that is going to "tame" him 

wttiraruiwd'hat / him axrutsia ira'ku 

he had several things (q.). Then he proceeded (e.) that (sitting) 

kustdwextsu a axrqkqrwwdtqt hawd qxraskqrwwqtqt 

son-in-law — he took his leggings off (e.) also he took off his moccasins 

12 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

hqwa pitaksu axraru'Wa / a axrarutspd^wu he 

also his wrap he took off (e.) and he set them down (e.) then 

herarutspa'm siaxrixruwahu'ru j iwerarutaku jn^raski / 
these other things they dressed him up (e.) he has them on boy. 

hitsi iasti kuxrixraitawu kuxrawa-ku tawerexwdkia 

But his father he showed him how he said when they say this 

h6 tarespd'kasta / he weaxrarakatdrihu^^ qxrtxwa- 
then you must say this, and there were a whole lot (e.) they were 

wdJctiku qxrixwitaka*^ tsikstit sikuaspqri j nqwa 

talking (e.) they were wishing (e.) well they two could live. Now 

he irakii vriwerutste'ra*^ hhn rivxt^ku 

then that one (sitting) the one that made him tame then he would say, 

vmoa irvrurqtdkti'^^ irikiixru- 

" Greetings, those that are my different relatives, he is the one who 

tgtsiksa tirwku tgtsakuraktukira'Wqrivsta j 

has made up his mind this one (sitting) he is going to *hustle' for us." 

Mru riwa'ku irisirexkui-tqwi rixkururariki 

Then he says, those that know him (e.) he that owns it (standing) (e.) 

rqkuxre*rd arwsa / hiru riwa*ku nqwa iriku'si- 

one that is good horse, then he says, "Now he is the one that 

kdq kttstqwextsu j nqwa ira'ku kustdwextsn heru 

rides it son-in-law." Now that (sitting) son-in-law then 

riwd'Waktit / hiru riwa'ku nd'wa irvrura- 

he spoke Then he said, "Greetings those who are my 

tdku*^^ wedreskutqtsikskd'pd'kts 

different relatives you have pitied me (you have granted my wish)." 

rararihukau*^ j nqwa heru riwa'ku nqwa ewere'tuxta 
He gave nothing. Now then he says, "Now I am going to go 

ewer etsirdw tea / heru ri-at pi-raaki / tsirii 

now we two have smoked." Then he went the boy. Meanwhile 

irira'ka'wi irirutiraxkd'Wtata sirixkuxra'tsikstqwi / 

where he lived they are going to remain inside to watch for him 

ketsi tsuraki ikd*ri j hqwa wSsUitqkaksqwa^^ j 

also girl her grandmother also they have invited them. 

iwerqwitsdta jn-raski hkru riririrarastqwu qritsa / 

When he arrived there the boy then they tied them the horses. 

heru riwa-ku kurqhiisq^u kira / him riwa-ku pi'raski 
Then said the father, "Well ?" Then answered the boy, 

esiriku^'d aru*8a j trirdxkuwa'ka tatik4t8tk'ru 

"Theygaveme ahorse." This is what he would say (e.) "This one tamed me 

WeUfish, Caddoan Texts 13 

e rvri'ku^'A aru'sa / hiru riwa*ku kurahusa^u 

and he is the one that gave me the horse." Then said the father 

ira^riM trikukuse'a iriaxrutste'ra^u 

"That one standing, that one will be his the one that made you tame, 

a ira-rtki iasti kura*^ / a ira-riki 

and that one standing her father his and that one (standing) 

isa'Sti a iratsti irwriki / tawit riwetekta'ru 

her mother, and her brother that one." Three that he has given them 

a irirutste'ra*u kskHiks / Mru 

and including the one that made him tame, four. "Then 

imxitxi'ku a tirawa'Ttki irirarure*d*hu 

youmust say (e.)» * — there (standing) they are ones merely that came along 

kakvtiks j tuUikaahii tsapat trisikurekuha'^u he rirehasta- 
four."* It used to be woman that is her son and she leads 

wirghirgsa / heru witiritpexru*rat tqku d'tigt 

ahead then they go following in line (q.) right here she would go 

he hmva takii tigt atira 'pirara he 

and also right here she would go she would carry goods and 

tihastdwira / herU irira'wergaxra isa'Sti iritira 

she would lead. Then the one behind his mother, what she would carry 

tadtki I kurahus iraru-ruksku 

bundle of war and dance paraphernalia. Old man (father) the one he had 

heroic iriwe'sirixrcd pi-ra^u / tmtU iriwetirax- 

then they take it for him the child. Bundle he is' going to 

rista pi'raski / riliweritsaxkqvyii ru 

have it (possess) the boy. They travel through'the village there 

iri irgrdxkd-m / tsu-raki iri-rutakitsiailc tsirA 

where there they are inside girl those that are her relatives yet 

iritiraxka / he qxrixwaki wetdd'hu / he ketai 
where they are inside. And they said (e.) they are coming. And then 

hqwa rvaocrewgtsUi'ku fsnraki ika*ri a 

also they went outside (e.) girl her grandmother (and everyone) and 

qxrl tasta-rurukvt j a*ru witaocwa-ka-hu tira-riki 

they caught the ropes (e.). Then he would say (q.), "This one (standing) 

ti' kuta^ I trinUste-rq^u tira*riki kuta^ j nqwa 

it is his, the one that made him tame, this one his. Now 

rii'weraxwu kurahiisq^u wttuta-kiks- 

there they went (e.) her father he was rubbing them (q.) (to bless them 

tqHwda-hu / Mru qxrvtaia hetqku qwde- 

in his gratitude.) Then they proceeded (e.) over here they would 

14 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. ^VII 

rutdktarepa'pu trvkuriratmru j MtU H-tsia 

tie sticks (q.) the things that are theirs. Then they proceeded 

ari -rapirarahvkat a axriraxkaku -s d / 

they took the goods inside and they divided them among themselves (e.) 

ire-wihat iwdririks iratsti d iasti j iriwerututsire^tsis 
there they sit her uncles brothers and her father. Then she finds out 

tsu-raki iriweru witiwa-ku isasti tsU^at west- 

girl rigl^t there she says (q.) her mother, "Daughter, now you 

taktqku^^ j nqwa iweriri-ru j nqwa iritixrarqixku 

are married."' Now they are issuing (the gifts) now that is what they mean 

tsuraki rqrapirihu'ru j nqwa hem rwtsia tswraki j 

girl she is one who is valuable. — Then she proceeded girl 

iwereraktqku^ii kakika-sd pi-raski j rihuksfk 

the one that married her he did not lie inside boy only 

sitixkdruru werasqku*risqta / he rahe-sa he ke-kqrvus 
they fed him when the sun went down and next morning — very early 

hdwa airitkaksd* j hern riririwqki ru-tsu-raki m sUas- 
again they called him. Then they said, "That girl there you two 

pi-ru'tiksta sitqsdkqwaxtsista j kirike siwi- 

are going to sit together you two are going to eat," Who? they two 

tirdt'ta isird-ku j hi 

know (q.) (they didn't know each other) those two (sitting). Then 

wesire-hakqwa^qts hiru rvat pi-raski he rerake*a 

when they had eaten then he went boy and it was a long time 

nqwa iras iriwesitutka^hure' ista j iiverd- 

now that night they two are going to stay inside all night when that 

sqkuri'Satq vriwesitutka-hure- ista hem 

sun went down they two are going to stay inside all night then 

vrakuaaxTukitskatqku he tswraki iriwera- 

that bed against the southwest side and the girl that is where her 

ruxkusa*a iriwetiratsdwa tsa'tki j nqwa hem 

bed is fixed that is where they hang bundle. Now then 

ri'tsia piraskt iwemtka-hure-ra / he isasti kitu 
they proceed boy when he stayed all night and his mother all 

wekuxritkqwd'kqru rqkwtdku-ki j he rqwjfqkardisu 

she had made them for her things to have on and suddenly 

sireruturia tsu*raki j heru rwri-at iriwesirerd 

they came for her the girl. Then she went there where she is (stands to) 

tskurusu j hiru axrarura-hi istatstirqra wUihihtt 

daughter-in-law. There all was fine (e.) new mats they were spread (q.) 

Weltfish. nnMcut<n Tcxte 15 

hk axra-sa tsdwiha-ru j he tsuraki risiqxrtxkus / 

and there lay (e.) pillow and the girl they sit her there (e.). 

aki the wekuthrirwvt Akawaxtsisu tikuwltite-hat 

And here, — there was prepared for her a meal it was so very large (q. ) 

rakara-rcksisu / takaski witeraskaruts / Mru axrutsia 
real plate (Indian) dry meat they were in (q.). Then she proceeded 

iraku tsapat h axrerutsard^*' / kitu aaxrixruwahwru 

that woman then she had her arise (e.) all she put themi on her (e.) 

wkqwiki kitu d kiriks / hermit axriritskqraxpahdtkqru 

dress all and beads. Then she proceeded to paint her face (e.) 

hawd iriruxratkahu*rata tihatkahurdxpahd-at / Mru 

also where her hair is parted her parted hair is red. Then 

axrutsia kitu wesiwdixrurewa-hats j hem 

she would do thus (e.) all they have finished dressing her up. Then 

axriwa-ku taustit nqwa tsu-at aikautsa aki 

says (e.) the old woman, "Now, daughter, get up." And here 

wekutqrirutstaxrdxkatqk'k qru*8a j d gxritsirasdwatsi'tit 

she had saddled up a horse. Then she led her outside (e.) 

him a xririk ttqwu / hem axrerastu • tsU ta *kaski 

then she helped her mount (e.) then she picked them up (e.) dry meat 

pi-raski kitu* ista*tu a qxmkctqwu / 

his mother boy including mats then she helped her mount. 

tsi tsusit wewitirqtse*riwis ista-tu / 

But the old woman she had packed them across her back mats. 

m skixrvtsaxkdwa ru tri wera- 

There they travelled through the village there where that which is 

kh'wi tsusttt iriweraa-ka tskurusu / d 

her dwelling is old woman where she dwells mother-in-law and 

siaxrqw itspa raw it ixwdwqa irit ixra'rdi xku 

when they arri\ ed there (e.) they proceed to eat (q.). That's what they mean 

irixwake*hu tirapirihu^u tau'rakij rakura^rahuritd ird'ku 

when they say she is valuable a girl to do something good. That (sitting) 

pi'raski ritiTiwerwtikvsta^rika iriwetutaktard- 

boy that is his real home (it is his real seat) he is going to work (hunt) 

spetsta I hqwd kqmutaktaraspe isa'Sti / 

for them again he cannot hunt for them his mother (and family). 

irituxrq^a pi'ta ira-ku rukstd-tq^u iriraxkutd-ra 

That's why man that one (sitting) that which hurt when he did that (e.) 

tsu'raki iwe ram rirarutoawdrika aki- pakuxtH 

girl thein merely when he gave these gifts away but long ago 

16 Publications, American Ethnological Society VoL XVII 

kutaru'ta he pi-ta iwefiixre'tais iras 

perhaps she did something(e.) and man when he finds out at night 

ruriruwite*wqt8ttd a texwaki triruta'kltsim 

directly he went out and they said (e.) those that are his relatives 

sikdrvrutaq^at j 
they didn*t have to inquire. 

tvrgra'ku hiriruzra*^ ikqrdrira't3iksteh'ii*ru jA'taski 

This story (sitting) that is why the feeling is not happy boy 

isirlayrq^u tai taH-raki kitw dta^ra'tsikste'hu*^ / e 

when he is made (bom) but girl all they would be happy. But 

ti'tvri he kuw^kare'ri-ra^" kttii wetikuraktarii'huru 

today — it doesn't mean anything all they have spoiled it for us 

tsaccrlkatd'ka j we kaki tawraki rak^Akwra^katka^^ / 

White people now it is not girl for her to hear us 

iwerawitskqq taaxrikatakd tixwakid'hu arvait wetaatakitqwi / 
since she thinks White people they say yourself you (plur.) are boss 

e ti'ti'ri hkriweri' it ari-a it wew itit tt- 

and today that is the way they are self they are in authority over 

kltqwi e ku wekqreriirA-he j rarikaiaii" tattririka- 

themselves and probably it is no good very much we held it 

taktqi'kah'Arikiit tiiriwervta taH-raki j tiiriweri-ta tqku 
disgraceful this way they are girls this way they are some 

pi'ta he wk. ram aUiwqri / d-kaa irikakiC'taika 

men and now merely they two go about. Oh, it wasn't that way. 

eriwerurutaira'TU* j 
And that is all. 

kurahUa axrawa-ku kakatkltqwi tastakitqm j 

Old man waid (e.) I am not in authority you (plur.) are in authority 

he iru'ku ihe weairckuksaktaku^u taqpat werax- 

and that (sitting) — one that has been married woman when 

kuxkuwuti pi-ta / he tuxre taqpat 

her's has died man and she is good-looking the woman 

kqrqrdku'U rar'd utaespqri j he vatw pi4a 

when she is not merely wickedly-going-about and again man 

tqku tdxwitaka ira^kii taapat tipqhi^ct kirqkua- 

someone he would want (e.) that woman she is quiet see if I can 

Weltfishy Caddoan Texts 17 

tdktaku I hern tardt pi-ta iri- tsapat rakurdxkusa-ru j 
marry her. Then he went (e.) man where woman her bed is 

he triwetukadwaJtsta'kqr it ukake'hdxrtri tax- 

and no matter where the sun was standing the place below she would 

rihtt heriwe Mm taxku / nqwa hem site'rutaikaksa 

spread (e.) and then there he sits (e.) Now then they would call him 

pttk4 jA*ta I he iraku pi'ta hem taxwd'ku tatitska 
two men and that man then he says (e.), *'I want 

sirdskukutatsikskd'pd'kis^ tqku te-rtt am^sa ari-sit 

you two to have pity on me there it stands horse yourselves 

siwitika-siu ateraktakiiksa / herii taxwd-ku 

give to each other (q.)" he would become married (e.). Then he said (e.) 

iaira'ku kdsirektaku haivd iritii'vt 

those two, "You can marry her.*' also that is the way it is. 

hawd tiru'kiwi iwera^4 tsapat hawa re-n/- 

Also this is different when she is made woman also the way is 

kiwi tsU'raki sirixkurasdhatka rakurdhe'ra / tixwitska 

different (e.) girl when they raise the good way, they think 

tira*rahuritiksta herawitakaisu tsu*Taki he 

she is going to do something worth-while and suddenly girl then 

ram rewihurqhats / aki- tqku wete^ripd-ra 

merely she disappeared and now someone he had hidden with her 

heriti ritsia ira'ku iasti d isasti i'kqa 

then they did thus: that one her father and her mother oh, 

sikake'timtste iwerlxripa-rd'ra / hem rutsia irakii 

they don't like him when he hid with her. Then he proceeded that 

jn-ta kurahHsa^u d iratsti j H'kqq witdra-fu iwe 

man her father and her brother, oh, it hurt (q.) since 

raru sirirahura'^ tsu-raki / hem ta-rat 

just his was made spoiled girl. Then he would go (e.) 

iosti vriraxkuhd pi-ta ataxtaUxkqkat 

her father where he would be (e.) man he would cut him up (e.) 

herqmruksqwdtspiwd'hat irak'd pi-ta he tqke- 

even though he has them sitting about that man then whoever 

rqru kuriwa-kasta / ird'kn tsuraki heriwerurutsira-ru 

just is going to say anything. That girl then that is all. 

18 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

wewititirduxkh'pa'kis iriwe ram Sitirihii- 

Now she has disgraced herself now just they keep her going from 

raha-ku / iriwerututsira*itustwru tsuraki iri-kure-ra-u / 

one to the other. that is aJl of the stories girls tlieir "ways. 

triratutsiksta-ka ke^tsi trirututaira'ru j 
the way we were but that's all. 

NOTES o:n^ pawnee biographies. 

(Free translation.) 

My father who is now dead told me this stor}^. When we came 
here from Nebraska my mother, my uncle, my grandmother and 
my brother were still living. When the men were gathered in the 
lodge, they would ask my father to tell them about his experiences 
on the warpath. 

He would say, '*It was Cod's will that I should be successful on 
the warpath. I named myself 'Two-Leading-Bears,' because I was 
blessed with a vision. While I was travelling there appeared to me 
in a dream a gray-haired person. It was my contact with him that 
caused me to bring in many horses." I still have the pipe that my 
father used to carry with him on the warpath. He would also tell 
a story of his brother's son whose name was ''Two-Chiefs." This 
boy was a disorderly fellow. He was continually getting into fights. 
My father would try to advise him. He would point out his body 
and say, "Now look at me, I am an old man already and I'm not 
all bruised up from fighting. I've tried to live a good life." He also 
advised him to respect God and not to take his name in vain as is 
the way of the White people. This is not the way of the Pawnees. 

"Now," he said, "I have had a long life. When I grew up I 
would sit among the old men and give heed to the wisdom of their 
words. They would say, 'For a man life is not a happy thing. When 
a man is born and they say it's a boy, everyone says regretfully that 
it would have been better had it been a girl. For it is the proper 
destiny of men that they should go out on the warpath and be killed. 
It is a bitter thought that this child will some day have to lie dead 
on the open plain. My father would say that these old men spoke 
bitterly about life.' They would say, 'For those of us that are men 
it is unworthy to be buried in a regular grave. It is far better to 
lie in the open and be eaten by the birds.' But then it all rests 
with God," my father said, "it is for him to decide whether you 
are to live or not." 

Those old men would say that it is good to live to middle age. 
Life is like climbing a hill, as one matures he climbs higher and 
higher, until when he is middle-aged he reaches the top. If it is in 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 19 

accordance with the w ill of God that you prosper at this time of life 
and later as you get older and climb down the hill of life, you 
should be generous to the poor and God will continue to reward you 
with abundance. The period of middle life does not go on indefi- 
nitely, but suddenly you find that you are at the bottom of the 
hill and life becomes difficult. If you have been ungenerous in the 
prime of your life, it will go hard with you at this time, and for this 
you will have only yourself to blame. When you become old you 
look like a baby again. ''Oh, it is a miserable thing to hobble about 
with a cane. Far better it is to live only through the prime of life 
and then to die in battle on the open plain." ''This is what I heard 
the old men say," said my father, "and now I know that they were 
right, for now I am like a child again, standing at the bottom of the 

For a girl the outlook for her life was far different, and it is for 
this reason that everyone would rejoice at the birth of a girl. As 
the girl was growing up her parents would nurture her carefully 
and if they are well off she would have everything that a girl needs. 
When the girl is about fifteen years old and has grown to woman- 
hood she would sit quietly at home and engage in no misconduct. 
And there would be a boy who was also well brought up. If the girl 
has been guilty of no misconduct with another boy, then the boy's 
family will seek her hand in marriage on behalf of their son. His 
father would send a disinterested party to interview the father of 
the girl to get his approval of the contemplated marriage. The boy 
and girl concerned had no voice in the matter. 

Then the father of the boy ordered his wife to prepare the house 
and invited his relatives to a feast at which he announced his desire 
to have his son marry the girl he had in mind. He then solicited 
their contributions toward the gift they would give the girl's 
family. They complied with his request by giving him goods and 
horses. Then he would announce that the nuptials would begin 
in four days with the visit of the boy to the girl's house. The 
father who was anxiously awaiting the arrival of the designated 
time, woke the boy early on the morning of the fourth day, about 
the time we now call six o'clock. When the boy was awakened he 
was given fine clothes, leggings, moccasins, an eagle feather fan. 
Then his father told him that he was going to where the girl lived. 
And the boy would never venture to contradict his father. Even 
when the boy was just in sight of the girl's house, although everyone 
was still in bed, they all were well aware of what was going on. 
When the boy came in, he squatted down between the two middle 
supports which face the entrance. Then he went out and shortly 
afterward came back again. After the second time he went awa3^ 

At sunrise the family prepares to eat breakfast and then the 
room is prepared for the ceremony. Then the girl's father would 
send one of the women to invite the boy's relatives. Then he 

20 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol* XVII 

would send for his brother, asking him to invite their relatives and 
those of his wife (the girl's mother). The girl's people would be 
seated along the north side of the lodge. The girl's brothers, uncles, 
and her grandfather would have special places, then came the places 
for her father and his brothers. The girl's father then ordered the 
apprentice to spread a mat between the two middle poles and then 
sends him to call the girl's grandmother. The grandmother then 
goes to the boy's lodge to summon him to the girl's house, saying 
that they are gathered and ready to proceed with the ceremony. In 
the boy's house all his relatives (women?) are gathered ready to 
attend the ceremony at the appropriate time. They have there 
eight or ten horses and a number of other gifts that they will take 
with them to the girl's house. When the apprentice announced that 
the boy had come, two men got up ready to welcome him. The 
boy at once sat down on the pillow between the two posts near 
the entrance. Then the two men grasp him by the arms and lead 
him further into the lodge guiding him to a seat at the west. At 
each side of the boy sat one of the girl's relatives. The room was 
very quiet, not even a whisper could be heard anywhere. One of 
the men sitting next to the boy has a ceremonial bundle pipe filled 
with tobacco. The father of the girl then addresses his relatives 
saying that the boy has come among them and that he gives over 
the conduct of the ceremony to them. Then the one who has been 
holding the pipe smokes with the boy, making a smoke offering to 
heaven. The man who is designated to receive the boy into the 
family then undresses the boy and presents him with a fine new 
suit of clothes including moccasins, leggings, and a wrap in which 
he proceeds to dress him. Before he left home the boy's father had 
given him detailed instructions on how to act at the ceremony. 
After the smoke offering and the presentation of the gifts, there 
were many speeches wishing the newly married pair a prosperous 
life. Then the man who had received him into the family would say, 
"Now my relatives, here is the man who is going to join our family 
and work for us." Then the man who owns the best horse presents 
it to the boy, saying, ''Now, son-in-law, you are to ride him." Then 
the new son-in-law addressed them saying, "Greetings, my relatives, 
I wish to offer you my thanks for your favorable reception of my 
suit." (Up to this time the boy has given no gifts standing solely in 
the role of a recipient of favors so that he is indeed thankful to the 
relatives of the girl who have so generously received him.) Then he 
departs remarking that since they have smoked he is ready to go. 
When he gets home his relatives are waiting at his house. They 
have gathered there in readiness to go to the girl's house to which 
they have been invited by the girl's grandmother. The horses that 
are to be given to the girls relatives are caught and tethered. Then 
his father says, "Well, what happened," and the boy answers that 
the man who had received him into the family had given him a 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 21 

horse. Then the father replied, *'For him there is this horse, and 
for the girl's father, this one, and for her mother, this one, and for 
her brother, this one. That makes three horses that his father was 
giving to the girl's family, and with the one intended for the man 
who received the boy, there were four. He told the boy to make 
light of the gifts when he presented them by remarking, ''These are 
some horses that just happened to come along as I was on my way," 
Then a procession bearing gifts sets out for the girl's house. First 
in line is his maternal aunt, then others follow in single file carrying 
presents ; the boy's mother is last in the line carrying the ceremonial 
bundle of war and dance paraphernalia. This bundle the boy has 
inherited from his father. The procession passes through the village 
until they get to the girl's house where all her relatives are still 
gathered. When it was announced that the procession was ap- 
proaching the girl's grandmother and others went out and caught 
the ropes of the horses they were to receive. Then the boy would 
tell for whom the different horses were intended. The girl's father 
rubbed each one with his hands in blessing. Then the horses were 
tethered and they carried the goods inside the lodge to be distributed 
among the girl's relatives. In the lodge ready to receive the gifts 
are her uncles, her brothers and her father. Then her mother says 
to her, ''Now, daughter, you are married," for the gifts have been 
distributed. That is what is meant when they say that a girl is 

At sundown the boy was given his supper, but he did not spend 
the night in the girl's house. Next morning early he was again 
called to the lodge and told that he was to eat his breakfast with 
the girl. This was tiie first time that the boy and girl had an 
opportunity to make each other's acquaintance. They had not 
known each other before this time. After breakfast the boy returned 
to his own home and that night returned, the young couple oc- 
cupying the bed at the southwest side of the lodge. The boy's 
bundle is hung in this part of the lodge. 

Next morning the girl is invited to the boy's house which is all 
arranged with fine new mats and a special pillow for the girl to sit 
on. A large plate of dry meat was set before her. Then the girl is 
dressed up in fine new clothes, including a fine dress and beads. 
Then her face is painted and the place where her hair is parted is 
painted red. Then the girl is led outside where there is a horse 
saddled and waiting for her, and her mother-in-law helps her mount 
the horse with the dry meat and other gifts. Then the boy's mother 
bundles up the mats and carries them across her back. They go 
through the village to the girl's house where the girl's relatives feast 
on the dry meat. That is why they say that a girl is an asset to her 
family. And the boy on the other hand, can no longer work for his 
family but only for the family of his wife. 

However, if the boy should find out that the girl is not a virgin, 

22 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

he will at once leave the house never to return, the gifts having 
been given without any justification. And his relatives knew without 
asking him why he had left the girl's house. 

This story explains why we were not happy when a boy was 
bom, but at the birth of a girl all would rejoice. But today things 
are changed. The White people have destroyed our old customs. 
The girls will no longer listen to us, but since they have heard from 
the White people that they alone should decide how to act, they 
do not do as we say. This way is bad, and nowadays some girls just 
go about with men, a thing we considered highly disgraceful. Oh, 
things were not that way in the old days! 

When a man has a daughter who is a widow he does not decide 
about her second marriage. He leaves this matter in the hands of 
his relatives ( ?), If the woman is good-looking and virtuous a man 
would come seeking her in marriage. He would come into the lodge 
where she lived and no matter what time of day it might be she 
would spread a mat for him on the floor next to her bed and he 
would sit down there. Two men would then greet him and he would 
present his suit, giving them a horse as a gift. Then the marriage 
was settled. This is another manner in which a marriage might 
take place. 

There was still another situation of a different kind. When 
a girl becomes a woman and her parents have nurtured her care- 
fully and they have every reason to believe that she will behave 
in a fitting manner, suddenly she goes off with a man. Her parents 
are very much annoyed at the man, and her father and brother very 
much hurt that the girl has been ruined. The father would go to 
the man's house and slash at him, even though all his relatives 
might be present, and no one would lift a hand to help him or say 
anything about it, for they felt the father was fully justified. 

As for the girl, she has disgraced herself and she will not now be 
able to make a bona fide and lasting marriage. She will just go 
from one man to another. 

These were the ways of girls in the old days. That is all. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 23 


The coming of the dance 

he tixwgki ivetdke-hd-ra he ihe i'tsaxriks 

And they would say now the dance is coming and so those people 

irakdriu he tirawerakitqwa werqkurdre*- 

those many and the crowds would be on top there when they were 

wa-tii I he urdxkiskat we ra-ru tikeha-x- 

looking on. And on the bare ground now just the dance 

ku tikeharasa^^ ase-tsakahu-ru / he 

would be there (sitting) the dance's name is "Unruly -horse". And 

iwerakuke*haxku u^kaa tuxke'ha-re kisatstaxke*- 

when the dance is there (sitting) oh it is a good dance naked (bare 

wqri'ku rahi-rd d*ti^ / he ihe tqrdxka 

meat) finally one would be. And so they would dance 

ta d'tvtqri he tira/ririkqte'tU he 

this they would do the would hump over and 

wititixratsahdriwvtit / he Istu 

they would get close together (probably two rows facing) and again 

he tirqrawikatq'hat he tatuta*ri 

and they would fall back and one would be doing thus: 

rdkurawiru'ku pakus rakuraxra / d vxtat 

he would be pretending gourd to have, and some of them 

he tirapakusitskari'til he asku he sitexkmtt 

then would have ^^ourd of hide, and one and they would pick up(e.) 

rdhikwts^u he tdhipirus tikska / 

a brave and quirt he would have his hand in (in the loop). 

he ira-riki rdhiku*ts^u rdv he tutaktqtsa- 

And that (standing) brave one that is then he would circle 

kqrdhd'ku he iritakqwikq he titahd 

around them and the one that would fall behind then he struck 

he tiripixrdtsqtihd he ra-kqrqrura4ii / he 

and he would strike on the hips and he wouldn't even get angry and 

istu wesiterawikd-ra hem tvhat he rikakut- 

again when they would sing then he would go and the one that 

sdd'hu atitqhd / tixwqkid'hu tvrqkehaxku 

was not arising he would strike. They would say, this dance 

tsaxr ikstaxkdu* iriwdi ku kqrawdvrdte-hu^u ndwa heru 
all people they are (q.) there are no divisions (q.). Now then 

24 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

tiraxrii'kat werexkuhakawa-xtsu tsdpat dkakuxrares / 

they would go when they would be eating (e. ) women would not be among. 

ndwa hqwd vri atvrdtkaha'rdwiu he tihakdrari*wakta 

Now also sometime during the night then the drums would sound 

iras I he t ixwaki wetikehaxrupari 

atnight and they would say, "The dance is going in repeatedly." 

he rawttakardtsu ke-tsi vri'Tokuka^wi he 

and suddenly then where there would be a dwelling then 

tqkehaxru'ka / tsiru ikdrate-tsikskasa heru 

the dance would come inside. Yet when I was not mature then 

turahiwds / hu ukatat hiru rakuraxkqtehaksdriki 

it happened. Oh on the west side there they would be standing in line 

kururihvra rihukstri / heru tiritdru*tsu 

probably more than (further) ten. Then they would build a fire 

tri'rixkukdriku he pi'ta rUtcwa'td iriraku- 

the ones that own the house and man he would get up the one that 

ka'riku j heru tiraxkdward raktdwtskd'ru heru tutsia 

dwelt there then he would put them in the pipe then he did 

a*tu'ta'katawu rutrirakukitaw&riki / a 

he would put it in his mouth the one that is the leader (standing) and 

kitu tihaktahukqtawihat rtxkurdwisa atixra-- 

all he would pass the stick around for them to smoke when they 

re'hats / heru tiwa*ku iri ira-riki criraki- 

would finish it then he says, "That one there standing that is the 

tdwiu rdkuxrexku vrikurakd^ru ndwa werex- 

leader." He would mean the one whose house it is, "Now we have 

raktdwisa j he irixrdraxra hdrikutite-wa^hat akapirus 
smoked." And those they have they are this big drums 

tixwakid'hu a-kdkqtus iri d-titd'ri weraxwihat 

they call them flat-mouth that they would do, there they sit. 

he hqwa ru4irlwaki wetdke-hdra rarisdru-sa 

Then again they would say, now the dance is coming "Real-horse". 

hawd rdixrqra asku^ii trirH-ki akakatu-su rexku- 

Also they carry them same kind those there flat-mouth they had made 

kdrq^u/ ke^tai iwerdke*hd*ra he sirixra pltku wkdwikis he 
them. Then as the dance is coming then they have two lances and 

rehixratsgsa j a tiixra*rvkd*rd rqkura- 

there would be feathers (lying upon) and there would be between those 

Wdtfish, Caddoan Tf^^t^ 25 

tsalca^ru a rakurdxkatvtu / ke'tsi isirdwara 

that are white and those that are black. And those two going 

isirardraxra he tdku te*rit trirakuMktaxra 

those they have and right here he would stand the one that had the stick 

raktawiska-TU j he isirdwaa wedrekuwikd/raa 

pipe and those 2 coming when they would sing a song 

he tasttutd-ri sirdkukwhu sirakuts- 

and that they would do when they would dance they would hold them (2) 

akurawiraxra ukdwik ts / herirn 

sticking them in the ground here and there as they go lances. There-upon 

ti'tsia hd'wa irirakukdriku rakuke-harukaxka- 

they did also where the dweller would live the dance would sit down 

wi'td tiriwerutstakurwa / heru tdhaktqwatsi'- 

outside (stop) like where the sun is here then he would bring the 

tiksa pi'ta irirakukdriku heru tutsiha- 

stick outside man the one that owns the house then he would place 

kaidwa-wu j herii tiwa'ku irirakUdwiu hgwd 

the sticks in mouths then he says the one that is leader again 

askura'U ndwa werexraktdwtsa / heru rutike-ha^rat 

the same way, "Now we have smoked." Then the dance would go on 

he rirexkuriruda hdkqwa-xtatsu vriraxkutkehdrufa*ru 

and the one that had prepared the food wherethedancestartedfrom(e.) 

heru fexrdkawa^ats / triruHtaird*ru ke*tsi siraMtke-ha^re'rit 
then thoy would eat.(e.) That's all then the two dances I saw 

pttku I irisitdtutke'ha're^rtt ti'sirakehaxku qse-tsakahu'ru 
two I saw these two dances these two dances "Unruly horses" 

d ihe rarisdrwaa* / 
and — "A real horse". 


(Free translation). 

When they danced through the viQage the people climbed to the 
top of the mud lodges to see them. The dance was called the 
"Unruly horse," and it was danced out in the open. It was a 
pretty dance for the men were naked. In dancing the men hump 
over and close in back and forth, each imitating the shaking of a 
gourd. Some had rawhide gourds. One man danced the part of a 
brave, with a quirt in his hand and encircled the dancers. If one 
fell behind he struck him on the hips and when a song began if one 
remained in his seat, he would strike him. Any of the people that 

26 PublicatioTis, American Ethnological Society Vol, X VII 

wanted to could dance in this dance. Women were not admitted 
to the feast. During the night when the drums sounded everyone 
knew that the dance would pass through the village from house to 
house. The dancers would come into a lodge and Ime up at the 
west. There would probably be ten or more dancers. The people 
whose lodge they had entered would build a fire and the man would 
get up from where he lay and fill his pipe. Then he would offer it 
to the leader who would offer it first to the house-owner and then 
to each of the dancers in turn. When they had finished smoking 
he says, ''This is our host." (He would mean the one whose house 
they have entered.) Then the dance leader would address his 
benediction to the host saying, '*Now we have smoked."^ For this 
dance they would use the drums we call * 'flat-mouth". 

Another dance was called the ''Real-horse". They also used the 
flat-mouth drums for this. Two men with feathered lances danced 
ahead. Black and white feathers were strung onto it in alternate 
order. Behind the dancers came a man with a pipe. The dancers 
kept time with the drumming and the singing. The lances were 
handled like walking sticks being thumped upon the ground as 
they went along. At about this time of day the dancers would 
stop outside a house and the owner would come out with a pipe and 
offer it to the leader. Then they would all smoke and the leader 
would say, ''Now we have smoked." A meal is waiting for the 
dancers at the lodge from which the dance started out and now 
they would go there for the feast. This is all I have to tell of the 
two dances that I saw, the "Unruly horses" and the "Real Horse" 


witi itat j he hqwd- axri-taktatsd^us heru-ri' 

There is (q.) a village and also they were hungry (e.) that's 

kuxrahurd^a j pvrq'ib weraxkur uwaxte-ku^u* / he 

probably the land children they were starving to death (e.) and 

qxrixwaki' tsapat rexkurwrukshu uxkdkuau he 

they said (e.) women they had (e.) mocassin sole leather and 

taxTU*kd'wartt / he texkirar itkvka he 

she would put it in (cook) (e.) then they would drink the soup (e.) and 

wetirdraxkis j heru axrirvwaki patsu-kd a 

they would be thin (bony). Then they said (e.) turnips and 

itspari kure-rd'ru^ / heru vrikuxrakta'kuwu pi'ta ihe 

Pawnee-potatoes theirs then they emigrated there men — ■ 

^ The order of events is not clear from the text, especially with regard to the 
activities of the house-owner. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts " 27 

dtexpa^respari^ / rahi-ri atrexkuku-tika kituks a itsat 
they would hunt (e. ) finally when they killed (e. ) beaver and coon 

herite'Tgwaxtsd'kgwg^ats / her'A weaxrara-at irikuxrvhi^ he 
that's what they would eat. Then they went somewhere and 

piraski kqrarvrarikttsu kuxraat / he kuxru^take^r it tqraha 
boy the youngest one he went and he saw several buffaloes 

rqkukdriu / hi qxra-wdwara-rua he axrawa-kasakta 
there were many and a voice came calling (e.) and it seemed to say (e.) 

tqrahd tvtqku wetwtasiigt / d'kaa kitii witirqtsikste'hu^^ / 
''Buffalo right here there is a herd." Oh, all they were happy (q.). 

kurqhiis axrawa-kasakta^ nq'wa dkda'Tu wetgtsixrd'kawaxtsista j 
Old man he seemed to say, (e.) "Now tribe we are going to eat." 

wewitiaxre'nka*a he axrgwa*kasakta kurqhus / 

When they would prepare then he seemed to say (e.) old man, 

pahi'tu siikstakta'Tat j a- qxrixkawu-tit d* wtta'r- 

" Quietly go along!" and they killed them (e,) and there 

qka kuwitikisatstdocwiat j a qxri- 

would be a dwelling (q.) the meat would be piled up (q.) and they got 

ra-rahuriruxtsi weaxrixta-kdskqru'ku j kd^ we- 

a lot of provisions (e.) when they made them dried meat all they 

axrtxrgra* tsd*xriks iweaxrqra'rdt pqhi-tu j aru*sd 

carried them (e.) people as they travelled (e.) slowly horses 

kttu' axrixrqra a tsa-riks kqtse-hqrd'ku j tqraxkisirk 
all they had (e.) and people afoot. With difficulty 

a axrara-ritaaxkai'sat j he axrawa-kasakta 

then they got to the village then (e.) and someone seemed to say (e.), 

turekstqriruxtsi hqwd pqhuks d qtit a pahuksdrd-su* j 
"The com is bountiful also pumpkin and beans and watermelons." 

he axrawa-kasakta askuru- witukska-kii tsd-xriks j 

And someone seemed to say (e.) (just one he stayed home (q.) person 

iweaxra-riki pi-td witc^* a axrqwd-ku tirat- 

that one (e.) (standing) man he is (q.)) and he said (e.) "While I was 

iLikskd-ku wikqre*ruruksta*he he sikuxTixrA-ra-wa j hiru 

here (Sitting-inside) it wasn't good — they left one behind" then 

axriwa-ku pi-td irukska-ku a axrqwd-ku isa-rakisikid 

he said (e.) man that stayed home and he said, "These are alive 

tiratdwd-wi j a we-tirdtke-a he tdtka-sq 

these that are hanging, and when night would come and I would lie inside 

he tiratqwd-wi re*ksu j herii ta-raxkirdxwaku j axrqwd-ku 
and these hanging corn then those rattles", he said 

28 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

irirahuraxku fohuhs he iritiwakti-ku ahi' 

"Where the ground is pumpkin and there it would call and so, 

dtaxwd'ka-hu / raxkuwdktvku wttisukstakikirdwarit 

it would be saying (e.) when it would be calling (e.), 'You all hurry up (q.)! 

tatsakuoorakta-raspikataat / heru axriwiiskd pi*ta 
they have gone seeking us on the hunt.' " Then he wondered (e.) man 

ktrike* tastirawdkti'ku j heru axriwdska ke-tuxratsikstqwvtit 
"Who is it that is calling'* then he thought (e.) "Let me try to find out 

rill' iriruxwakiriwixtsu triw itidxrquta / 

right where the voice seems to appear." Where he lay himself down (e.) 

iweaxraratk^-a-ra he qxriixra-tstksta heru axrura-hiwita 
when it became night (e.) then he was watching (e.) then sucfdenly (e.) 

he hirii qxrutsirq^d pUhuks axrawaktiku j iweax- 
and here it was (e.) pumpkin that was calling (e.) when he found 

ruosre^tsis pi*ta kdu witara-rta pqhuka j trirawa*wa*kqhu 
out (e.) man all he knows (q.) pumpkin what he is saying 

a axrawd'ku wttisukstakikird-wartt tatsakuxraktqraspi- 

and it said (e.), "You all hurry up (q.) they have gone seeking us on 

kdtaat M weaxrarwrdsaxkai'Sat he pi-ta heri- 

the hunt." And they arrived at the village (e.) and man they took 

wesiaxri'tsirdapari rakiira*i'WcL4i j heru axriwa'kii pi'ta 
him all about (the village) to tell about it. Then said (e.) man, 

isaraklsiki^it tirqhura*riitsi re*ksu j wereruta tsqpat irvra- 
"It has life these fields corn." They did woman where her 

kuruxrurdxte*hat Mritaxtqrwtsu kekqkiripaxki j 

field would extend there she would build a fire (e.) flame-small 

heru tarvtkaxkqv r^'tsu^ j he tarawisU 

then she would put in part of intestine and smoke there would be 

kdkqu'kvt triqxri'tsiksqriusuku he pi-ta tri- 

through the field that's what they used to do (e.) and man where 

axra^riki axrawd'ku tira-kisikiht j triwttqru'ra*kd«, 

he stood (e.) he said (e.), "This has life." That's the reason why (q.) 

tsjru axri'tsiksa*ri tsvrk iriwititaiksa'ri 

yet they used to do (e.) yet that is what they used to do (q.) 


(Free translation) 

There was a camp on a far off plain. All the people, and even the 

children, were starving to death. The women would take pieces of 

rawhide that they happened to have and cook them with water so 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 29 

that tley might all eat the soup. They were skinny and miserable. 
The women would also gather turnips and wild potatoes. As they 
wandeied about the men would sometimes chance to kill a beaver 
or a coan for them to eat. As they wandered further on, a boy had 
gone off from the rest and he had seen a large herd of buffalo. 
Someone announced the news and all were happy. An old man 
announced that at last they would again prosper. As they were 
making preparations for the hunt, the old man told them to proceed 
quietly. They killed many buffalo and each house had a large pile 
of meat. They made it into dry-meat and packed it onto the horses 
and also on the people's backs. They were all so heavily laden that 
they had. to travel along very slowly and it was with great difficulty 
that they finally arrived at their village. 

When they got there someone announced that their crops had 
been bountiful and that they had plenty of corn, pumpkin, beans, 
and watermelons. This was a man who had been left behind in 
the village. He said that he had fared badly while they were gone. 
At night he would lie in the house and it would seem as if the corn 
was alive^ and that there would be rattling. Then he would hear 
someone fejaying, '*Hurry up all of you, they are hunting for us." 
Then he went to the pumpkin patch where the voice seemed to be 
coming from and he lay down there ; presently he heard the pumpkin 
saying, "Hurry up, they have gone hunting for us." 

The maJi was invited from one lodge to another so that he might 
tell his story. He would say, "These fields are alive," and so the 
women decjided on a procedure. A woman would build a small fire 
at the end of her field and put on the fire a small piece of intestine 
so that the smoke would permeate the fields. This became the 
custom and it was because the man had told them that the fields 
were alive that the custom was devised, and continued to be 



tatiririkstaktdrihu tsapat / kurahus 

W (i considered it an important *'way" (us) women. Old man 

awetikttaku kara-rdta-u awetiwawdkti-ku / he 

he would be sitting on top mud-lodge he would be talking. And 

tutapawdkti'ku tsapat toerdkurardkd^kasa / he 

he would be talking to the women when they'were in the fields. And 

irakttaku kurahus he rewaka-hu ndwa tslktis 

that one sitting on top old man — he would say, "Now, dear ladies. 

30 Publications, American Ethnological Society VoL XV II 

tariUau wewditastdhuru-ku / tirdwa-hat axrutsti- 

your bodies now you are disfiguring yourselves. Heaven the bows 

rakta^rikska'tawihg tiraktarduxwa*' 

and arrows it has placed in your hand (ev.) the bows and arrows that 

mksti he rewa-ka-hu kurahus tixra-ru rdsku- 

are wonderful. "Then he would say old man, "He made it for you 

wa-ruksti-u j hern taxwa-ku kurahus taspd- 

to be wonderful." Then he would say (e.) old man, "Vou are 

ruksti takuhutaruwdd-hu / raskuhaxkawiha 

wonderful, you repeatedly keep swelling me up. When you put it down in 

rilA'SU he tuxrdtqhwtsa herireskuhutahuwdcL-hu 

corn, and it would come peeping above that's what you fatten me with, 

him tsiktis j heru ti-tsid tsapat hern tirihixwdka- 

my dear ladies." Then they did thus: women, then they began to 

rukusdit I he tsiru i-kdra-tetsikskasa he siterax- 

cut the grass. And yet when I was not mature then they would 

wdxra tsiru • • • kd-karyus tsirw rurakukatitstdtqta he 

get me up yet early in the morning yet when it is dark ' and 

wesita-tttkakdispa atird atikuxra 

we (two) would be in the field my mother she would have for me 

uraxkatskmu j awetird-raru-ku atira hu-u akutit- 

porridge. When she would be planting mother. Oh, the com- 

spa-tehat j heru tutsia atitkaxrdx- 

mound would be so big. Then she did thus: she would dig a hole in 

kqwu atirardxkqwu pUkusiksa-pits j d 

the top of the mound she would place them inside seven. And 

tatu'ta a'tiwawawrerikit dkakirdxkirus j 

she did she would stand them separately they would not be bunched. 

heru titka'rdwqtqt awirutitspapdrixrit / 

Then she covers it over with earth the mound would then be smooth. 

tglciii a*ti*at urqaxka-tit a* tqku rikiatipi'kuj 

Right here there would go {a row) blue corn and here speckled com 

a he ' tqku qtipdhat a he • tqku dtiktaxkqtq 

and over here red beans and over here yellow beans, 

kltse-rd he-tdku trat ilra- 

very white com (flint com ?) over here there goes (a row) large short 

haspa ati'tqku 

ears with large grains (selected from all varieties) and right over here 

kltse'riktaxkqta rtkistd-ka triweru'tutsiraklrikta-ru j he 
yellow (flint ?) corn, white com that's all of the seeds. And 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 31 

tiketaku he hqwa tihurwruat pdhuks j re-kd-- 

over here then also there is a patch pumpkin green-squash 

ts^u a tihe pahukstdrahi a 

with -curved -neck and also big -yellow-pumpkin-with -grooves and 

he-ta'ku rtcskiriis a 

over here green squash (long like watermelon, tapering at the ends) and 

hetaku pdhukska'ta iriwerututsirakirikta^ru / hem rv- 

here small pumpkins that's all of the seeds. Then they would 

tsia tsk'drus wesctixrdraruksta hern 

proceed daughter-in-law they are going to plant for her then 

ririrepira tsgpat a tsu'raki irisiriti- 

they invited (picked up) women and girls those that are 

tsisu pt-raski / heru ruririwaki asku ruaiks- 

related to him the boy. Then thereupon they said one go bring 

taktakirikta'ra tswraki iri i-ra'kn tskiirus / 

the seeds (from) girls where there she lives daughter-in-law. 

heru axrutsird-at weaxra-rdrqa ketsku 

Then she went for them (e.) when she brought them several 

wit'dxram*ru / heru ritkakdispu irirahuraxku 

they nxunbered (q.). Then they went to the field where the field is 

hM tqku ra-ritqwu / kurdkuxra-rua pi-tausihuks 

there right there she pointed it out they numbered about twenty -five 

tsapat heru tirar itkdkawkvt kw pltku tsuattt 

women then they go into the field about two old women 

sirqkMawe j heriru tvtsia hetiraxkatehdksu- 

they (two) would be among them. Then they did they would stand in an 

re*rU he tirttspa*kqrukusitit j kw ti* triratq- 

even row then they began to make mounds about here where this 

wdturi'hat aru' irirarqrixrux- 

long opening is (half a block) and there where the letters are placed 

kdru ' tsi ru • cri • kurqkuhurd • rqki 

inside. Post Office (one and a half blocks) the field would be that long 

hetspdtd'pe iri-sitixru / he tsustit 

in small mounds that is what they would make. And old women 

wesitvku iirdskat he wesitiraru-ku 

they two sit way at the other end and they two would be singing 

tqwikHrqhus tqtixtqwii'ta j 
■old men's songs, I know the song: 

32 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 


You are just hoeing around 

urdxhutsu uxra'Tukdwaha-ru 

big ground, lucky ground. 

herititd-ri j he ratkat rutirira'rax- 

And that's what they would do. And next they would then proceed 

kavMioiusttd a sitixre-hats / he ke-tsi irrisi- 

to put them in hills and they finished. And then the one they 

rixra'Tdxkqru'ku tskiirus wetarurakaruraxrarahu- 

are planting them for the daughter-in-law she would have a lot of food 

riruxtai j heru te-rakd^ruru td-kaski riki'Su j 

prepared then she would feast them (e.) dry-n^eat corn. 

he wetitatpa he tiwekutikau he 

And there would be sprouts and when they are about this high and 

wetihawdstatpa her4 tire^rut / he 

when there would be weed sprouts then they would cultivate. And 

gwd irirwretdtka'hu he ttxwgki weti- 

the first plant that comes up and they would say now the plants 

tatpa I heru tirawvrugt tsustit d tutsta-tiks- 

are up. Then she would go over there old woman and she would 

tq'wig I herii tiwa*ku he-ru tira'kutau 

rub the plant (in blessing). Then she would say, '*0h, big bow." 

heru tutsia pi-ra^u dtwtaikstq'iwg j tirdra*ku 

Then she did baby she would rub her hands on it. This way 

hereratsckstehu^u rakutaxrdka*d j tuxrq^a tsaxriks 

everyone is happy when the plants come up. Because person 

pdkuxtu witiwa-ku wekqrare-tdxraxka'hu iriwckara- 

ancient he said (q.) when the plants do not come up that's when 

witqte*rdkuriwd*wista j irituxrq^a rara^tsikste-hu'ru 

we are going to exist no more (q.). That's why everyone is happy 

werataxrdxka-a / i-rqwa'ka hqwa kqrqre4axrdxka'd 

when the plants come up. When he said again if the plants don't come up 

kqrqwitqterdkuriwd*wtsta irituxrq^a rqra'tsikste'hU'ru / he 
we are not going to exist (q.). That's why everyone is happy. And 

tsiru rire'tu'vt werakutdtka-a dwetatqtsikste'hu^^ / 

still I am that way when a plant comes up I would be happy 

tuxrq^a iriratira-vtusitqwi tirdrd'ku / nqwa iwerqkQ^'wi- 
because of the story that I know this way. Now when the stalks 

ks'tsd-ra he ratkat he tixra^rirespu j u*kqa rqkutax- 
became tall then next — they would cultivate. Oh, when the 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 33 

rdxkipd'ru raxkukskipaxkwkvt a werutira- 

plants were wet when it would have "dewed" (e.) and they would be 

ru'kgrus tsapat / a-te^witeraxpirdhd-ku 

just wringing wet the women. She would work round and round 

iri'Tqk'&tspd'ku rakutkarawttui-ru rahrri rw 

where the mound would be to throw earth on it finally — 

dkutit8pa*tehat / cstu a^rutikstdiwu a 

it would be about so large. Again she would rub her hand on it and 

werutihii'rvt kusaksihaxriri weraxkutkdxkipa-ra'ra / 

she would be all muddy at the left when the dirt would get wet, 

ruxra'ru rakutdiwu tsapat he weruti- 

The reason is when she would rub against it woman then she would 

hwrvt I irikusirakitqwi irdriki 

be muddy. It would be the height (of presumption) that (standing) 

tsapat irurihwruxtu he taku ram 

woman while she is all muddy then someone just simply 

Hsirqit / hdw" d-rutitskahu-rvt 

would say something about her. All her face would be muddy 

a ikstd-riri j irituxra^a kurahtts iraxwa-kahu 

and on the hands. That's why the old man was saymg that (e.) 

tariktqu wewditastd'huru raskiixrird-ru j 

yourself, bpdy^ shape you have spoiled yourself on account of me. 

ketsirA tiwa-ku tsirii kurusihwrvt kdtare'riwts hiHi 

Then he said, "While it will still be muddy the hoe there 

t^i"^aa I dtiki'tsii'hat werixkurdre'hats 

you will e^t them. There would be a stream when they have finished it 

^^w tiraxpakstqtsakdsisit rakurd'Tutsk^riwa j 

then the heads would be close together when they were swimming. 

he ketsi tsuraki wetdtuxrqkask Uspiru / 

-^^^^ s() girls we would be splashing the water with our feet. 

he llxwaki tsu-raki kirdtqke rqruriwaka- 

And they would say girls, "Who is the one that makes "the 

ri'hu'u I heru tatiraktdxkqtqhat kdtqre-riwis aru-ta- 

loudest splash." Then we would get out, the hoes then we 

tirdktqra weratkurakta*rikdrq^u / iwerixra- 

would be carrying them when we would have washed them. When they 

rirespi'ha heriwerurutsira-ru he wenxra-i-nkspu haiod 

have cultivated and that's all then they go to see also 

tskurus irirqruxruraxku j hqwa sitixrwraz- 

daughter-in-law where her field is also they are going to 

34 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. ^XVII 

kiwiraata he raw itakard tsw h^ t i^W^ki weti - 

roast for her. Then Huddenly — they would say, "Now the 

rikis I he siterikata* rikvsu / he 

corn is mature." And they would bring it up ear of corn. And 

tixwaki u*kaa turekstariruxsti / tixwaki 

they would say, "Oh, there are many ears of com." They would say, 

e'kaa twvt iri'rwtahu rakukd'riu 

"Oh, it is that way the way it always is [when there are many 

re-kspiu tikari j hern 

suckers (small ears growing near bottom) there are many." Then 

tiri-waki heti-kusisaku^^ i-taraktaraxkiwira 

they would go on to say, "The day will be this when we will roast them 

awit tskurua ndwa tsknm8 wesitqtuxrarax- 

first daughter-in-law. Now, daughter-in-law, we are going to roast 

kiwiraata j he ha-ritsiksariusu-ku rax- 

for you." And here is the way they used to do; bag made of 

kdkusu atikqwe*rara j 

moccasin sole skin (less stiff than rawhide) they would carry it on the back. 

hk. re'ksu rttiraxkawariku he te'rgrikqtdd*hu / 

And ears of com they would put inside and they would bring them up. 

d kutii'U rakta'wirus rekukstard-hu hu 

And it looked as if wagons had been bringing them. Oh, 

dratiriid'ku j hem ti-taia he tix- 

there would be a large pile. Then they would proceed — they would 

rdxkqhaririwarit he u^taritadric-au ru-tix- 

form a long narrow ditch and embankments (mud cheeks) they would 

raxwexru-rdwartt atiu-tdwike-ats he rekau 

form a line the mud would be so high and ears of com 

iritiraxkdta'we j he tixta- 

they would lean against it and they would make a big fire (place them 

riwvktta he rekau tixrqritkdxkqi j 

against in a pile) and ears of com they would throw them upon it. 

hii'U atutikauhurikdwqri rakuraririx- 

Oh my, one would stick one's hand in and out of (the fire) to turn them 

kgrardhaku k&kqkat hi kuka-kikstdrari-ta'ri j 

over and over in the flame and one*s hands would never become burned 

a wetiritpaxtdkd-at he rekakdadpahd'tu 

and when the coals would have gone out and naked ear of corn 

criru'ti'taia / ii-kqa atutgrastd'ru're 

that is what they would do. Oh, tl^e roasted corn would be left in all night 

Weltfiah, Caddoan Texts 35 

tritcxwgkia*hu triturekstdhare'rd'hu j hem 

that's what they say that's what makes the com dehcious. Then 

tiritsaka'm kd-karvus he wetixrdraspe 

they would shuck them very early and they would look for them 

tsk&'jArv^ Uqraus / heriru ti-tsia 

shells rovmd shells (clam). Then they would proceed 

attxtaxpi'kusitd hern ti-tsia hawd 

they would begin to cut them off then they proceeded again 

rawarttkiripaxki he retsiki iritixtdxpz-ku / 

>;iaall grains — knife that's what they would cut them with. 

he ketsi wetekara-nriwaku atixresapd-wu am 

And so, the robes would be spread out they would peg them then 

ti-akaxparixrU j hem tiriraririwahit 

the robes would be very smooth. Then they would spread them out 

tawit tuxrara-m uradxka4it (riti tt 

three they number blue com (com black) there are the ones 

irvkaraHrihu'Tiki a iritsvskiit rdrihwriki a 

those that are the small ones and those that are a little large ones and 

ra-nt irirdrihu-riki a wetiratsa-his hem 

truly, really those that are large and when they are dry then 

tiriwaki nawa tuhwraktaxkusdwqrit j he wetix- 

they would say, "Now let us now sift them." And they would 

karustgra-rd tsustit asa-kdru-su j hern 

be holding the sacks old women small sack of" tanned hide. Then 

ti*tsia he wetixraxkvsdwqrit hem tiriraxkdward / 

they proceed — when they have sifted them then they put'them in. 

he wesdixraktd-rd tikurdkuha-kaki kehax- 

Then they would have a stick this long the stick would be room- 

piriwus kurdkuxra-ku / hem tiri-waki 

brusher (broom) the stick would look like it. Then they would say 

wem-rakukltaku ndioa tsu-at sukstaxkwtsais rixwdska*"^ 

M'lien it would be full, "Now, daughter, punch theml"' they wanted 

askdriu / hem tiriwaki ndwa siksta 

It to 1)0 many (full). Tlien they woiild say, ''Now, bring it here 

tri'ru'tdskqraxkqtdkusu / he rtxrardixku 

the one that sets upon against the face [(lid)." And tliey would mean 

irakdmsku he rehaskixkasq tiksasa''' 

that bag and the string would be interlaced they were called 

dstiwvm iTvrahatqwi j he hqwa siriksawatatkuswku 

strmg-round where the hole is. And also they used" to cover it 

36 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

ka*rmhiri he tutasdwitsi-xkvt aratikqsiriwvku j 

inside and one would pull the string there would be piles of bags. 

hem siti'tsekqairwrat tskitma / hern 

Then they would take the bags to her, the daughter-in-law. Then 

tiri*waki ke^tsi* rirutiratsaisista k(ise*rtt j 

they would say, "Just they will proceed to get dry flint corn.' ' 

he hawdt kctsi tgku wetiriwvku atit tskH'Su j 

And also then over here there would be a pile bean pods. 

ati'kaririwgku he ritiruts he 

Therewould be a robe spread out and there's where they would be and 

wetihaktiku taustit j hem tiwa-ku tsusttt 

she would be holding a stick, the old woman. Then she says old woman, 

ndwa tsu'ot wetaxraxkahipi'Sta hem 

*'Now, (laughter, I [am going to beat upon that pile.'' Then 

tirdxkghit / hgwh rimtutsia weraku- 

she would beat upon it. Also she would do thus : when she would 

raxkdwati kltu j hem tiraxkuadwgrit hqwa 

be getting them out all then she would winnow them also 

rdwqri'tu askura^u / iri'mtd'ra iwere'kdsvruts 

roasted corn the same way. Tliat is what she did those bags setting 

dtit hem ri'tsia hem ri'tsimhu- 

beans. Then they would proceed and they would go ahead i\ lul 

rirdxrajb pghuks / weraritiwvku pqhuks hem rvtsia 

attend to them pumpkins. There was a pile pumpkins then they proceed 

axre*raxkawitatq'wiril'ttt a rirdxkimt8e*rit pg'huhs / 

they each one sat down beside one (e.) and [they peeled them pumpkins. 

hem riwa-ku tsusttt rekgtsHu tatgrd-kg- 

Then said the old woman braided pumpkin mats we are going to 

mksta j hhm riririhastatsgrdkusitit 

make them. Then then they proceeded to strip them into strings 

atrtgrghat / he werehakttsqsg he werixwgki- 

one would trim it. And there was a pole \yii^.g across and they would 

ci'hu wetihdkgra'Titsu'Si j kttu 

be saying, "Now she is hanging the 'mouths' on the pole." All 

wergkuiArghat ira-ku pghuks hem ird'ku 

when she has trimmed it that (sitting) pumpkin then that one (sitting) 

twriwds iritixwgwid'hu tskusu j 

it would be left that which they call pumpkin-bottom. "Sitting one." 

VAiwa werehdkgra'T dsasg kii asku sgkwm rakura- 

Now the "mouths" are hanging about one day when they 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 37 

ritsasa heru rvraru-wa j hern riririwaki tsuatd 

would hang then they took them off. Then they would say old ladies, 

tairu tura'he ti iriru-tu-M rekatst'tn, rakukarit'ku 

"Yet it is good this how they are braided-pumpkin to make them 

a iekuakvri'ku j heru tiriratsa'isikusiUt 

and bottom-circle (strung)." Then they would proceed to dry them. 

ndwa werd'TuU j heru tutaia iwerdru*tsi 

Now they that are (set). Then she proceeds those there (setting) 

he t tsaku* " he rdwari - tu tu or area rakura- 

— some day — roasted corn one mixes with it to put in water 

hdrqu / ii-kqa titqhakitawi he hqwa rwtutsia 

(to cook). Oh, the taste is of the best. Then again she proceeds 

irdru'tsi k(tse*rit rikistahisu j ke-tsi iriwetikqwdaa-ku 

those there white fliiit corn dried com and that's what one grinds. 

U'kqa titahakltqwi j heru tutsid rqkuwitska^ 

Oh, the taste is of the best. Then she proceeds when she thinks, 

kirditqru atika'wa i-taqta^u / heru tutsia he 

I guess I'll make beans-inside bread. Then one does thus : -^ 

werahqrikixrari'ku werakukskqwitsqku / tsirii 

when one would have meal when one would have been grinding it yet 

arutekirdritu he tuxrqres pqhuks d qtit / 

tlie water w*>nld be hot and one mixes them pumpkin and beans. 

heru tulsia a titkqraktutspirqwhat heru rttihq- 

Then one proceeds and one parts the ashes then one would pour 

rikitkdra*wi / heru titkqrardwatat ttkqrdktuxtsu j 

them down out upon there then one covers it with earth ashes. 

he wetikqri rqkutkqra-rqwa heru 

And theie would be much when you cover it with earth. Then 

tiritpaxrukddru'tau j he hqvxi ixtat rqkuruhsqri- 

one places the coals on top. And also some more when there is 

ktxrdrvwits tsi* kurvwekakiixrqres he he-tqkii 

any meal left that it was not mixed with anything then over here 

rutika'tsat / iriwe'ti isira^ku weslri- 

one puts it under. That's what it is those two (sitting) when they take 

ru'wa'xra he vra*ku iriwere^ atikd'wa 

them out and that one (sitting) that's what it is beans-inside 

a ht-ra^ku tqretka iweaireru'wa j heru 

and the other one (sitting) corn-pones when she took them out. Then 

tiitaia kirdrasi-tu asituxrikaru arw 

she proceeds cold water she would make them both clean. Then 


38 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society VoL XVII 

sttikiraxpdaarit / he wetutstdrgsa 

they would be just nice and brown. Then there would be a pot hanging 

td'kaski iria*tixhiTaritkiha*hu j vriwerututaira^ru 

dry-meat that is the soup they would drink. That's all. 

tardtpawdkahu he iriri-ra'Tiks kukakaxrcUdt-ru 

All this that I am saying — it is true I am not adding anything to it 

kardirariksu / 
that which is not true. 

(Free translation) 

We women felt greatly honored by a custom of the old men when 
we went planting. An old man would sit on top of a mud-lodge at 
this time and talk to us. He would say, ''Dear ladies, you are 
disfiguring your bodies with mud today, because the Heavens have 
endowed you with the wonderful bows and arrows^." Then he 
continued his speech: *'It is heaven that endowed you with this 
wonderful power through which you continue to nourish me. When 
you have planted the seeds and the corn grows, that is how you 
provide me with nourishment, dear ladies." 

The first thing the women did when they went planting was to 
clear the ground of grass and weeds. When I was a little girl I 
would be awakened very early in the morning and before sunrise 
my mother and I would be in the fields. My mother took along a 
pot of porridge for me. She would make round mounds of earth, 
and dig a hole in the top of each one for the seeds. She put seven 
grains of com in each mound and she would make sure that the 
individual grains were well spaced. Then she covered them over 
with earth and smoothed out the mound. The different varieties 
were planted in separate rows ; there was a row of blue com, another 
of speckled corn, then a row of red beans, then yellow beans, then 
another row of flint corn, then a row of stubby-eared com, a row 
of yellow flint corn, and of white corn. That's all of this type of seed. 

The pumpkin field was off to one side. The different varieties 
of pumpkin were also planted in separate patches. There was a 
patch of green-squash-with-curved-neck, one of big-yellow-pump- 
kins-with -grooves, another of green-squash-with-tapering-ends, and 
another of small pumpkins. These are all the pumpkin varieties. 

The next planting to be done is for the daughter-in-law. The 
women and girl relatives of the boy are invited to participate. 
Someone is sent to get the seeds from the daughter-in-law's home. 

^ Symbolizing the planting of the seeds. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 39 

When the seeds are brought, she leads them to her field. There 
would be about twenty-five young women and two old women in 
the party. The young women would line up at one end of the field 
and the two old women at the other end. The field would be about 
the length of this street (half a block) by the distance from here to 
the Pawnee Post Office (a block and a half). The young women who 
were lined up at one end of the field would iDegin to make the mounds 
for planting, while the two old women who sat at the other end 
would sing old men's (priest's) songs. I remember the song: 

'*You are hoeing around 
In the great ground 
In the lucky ground." 

After the mounds are finished, the seeds are planted. After the 
planting the daughter-in-law would give a feast of dry meat and 
com for the women who had planted her fields. 

When the plants come up and the weeds begin to sprout the field 
is weeded and cultivated. 

When the first shoot comes up an old woman goes there to per- 
form a rite of thanksgiving over the plant. She rubs the plant with 
her hands in blessing, saying, ''Oh, big bow," Then directly she 
rubs the baby with her hands in a similar manner, passing on the 
blessing from the plant to the child. Everyone is happy at the sight 
of the first plant. There is an ancient legend that states that when 
the plants fail to come up, we will all cease to exist. That is why 
everyone is happy when the plants come up, for upon it depend 
our very lives. Even now I am happy when I see the plants come 
up because it reminds me of the ancient legend. 

When the stalks are about waist high the women cultivate the 
fields. In the morning when the plants were wet with dew, how wet 
the women would get at their work. They would pile the earth up 
around the corn-hills and smooth them and her left side would get 
all muddy as she rubbed against the wet earth. No one would 
presume to mention the fact that the woman was all smeared with 
mud as she had muddied herself in a good cause. Her face and hands 
would be all muddy, and that is what the old man meant when he 
said in his speech, *'You disfigure yourself for my sake." He said 
too, ''While the hoe is still muddy, you will be eating com." After 
our work we all went to a nearby stream to swim ; the surface of the 
water would be dotted with heads. We girls woidd sit splashing our 
feet in the water; we would have a contest as to who could make 
the loudest splash. Then we would wash the hoes and carry them 
home. We would cultivate not only our own fields but also that 
of the daughter-in-law. We would also roast her com as well as 
our own. 

There would come a time when someone would call out, "The 
corn is ripe" and she would bring in an ear of com to show us. "The 


40 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XV II 

stalks are laden with ears and near the bottom are many suckers," 
they would say if there were a good crop. **We will set such and 
such a day for the roasting." The daughter-in-law's com is always 
roasted first. ''Now, daughter-in-law," they would announce, "we 
are going to roast for you." 

This is the way they used to roast the com : They carried on their 
backs a bag made of scraped hide into which they would toss the 
ears of corn as they gathered them. Then they would dump them 
into one big heap. The pile would be so high that it looked as if 
wagons had been used to do the hauling instead of the simple 
carrying bags. The next step was to build a long narrow ditch with 
mud embankments along each side against which to lean the corn.^ 
Then they would build a big fire and throw the ears of com into it. 
One would have to stick one's hand in and out of the flame repeated- 
ly to turn the ears over, but one would never bum oneself. When 
the wood has burned down the naked ears are roasted in the coals. 
The corn would be left to roast all night as this gives it a delicious 
flavor. Early the next morning, whatever shucks remained on the 
corn would be removed and they would proceed to cut the kernels 
from the cobs. For this purpose they would in most cases use a 
clam shell. Kernels from small-grained ears were removed with a 
knife. Large hide covers were then spread out upon the ground 
and pegged down tight so that they would be very smooth and 
upon these the kernels were spread out to dry. The blue corn was 
separated into three groups by size, the smallest, the medium, and 
the largest. When the kernels were dry they were winnowed and 
put into sacks made of tanned hide. After each sack was full they 
would beat upon it with a long stick to make sure that the grains 
settled compactly into the bag. Then they would place a lid inside 
the bag and pull the drawstring. After we had filled them all there 
would be a big pile of bags. Those that were for the daughter-in-law 
were carried to her home. The white flint com is simply dried 
without roasting. 

The beans in their pods would be spread out upon a hide which 
was pegged to the ground and when they were dry would be beaten 
with a stick to release them from the pods. When she had finished 
she would winnow the beans in a manner similar to the way in 
which she had handled the com. She would also pack the beans in 
bags in the same way. 

Then they would get to work on the pumpkins. Each woman 
would take a pumpkin from the pile and sit down with it. The 
first step was to peel the pumpkins. Then if it is decided that 
braided pumpkin mats are to be made, the pumpkins are cut 

^ The ditch would be about 6 feet long by 1 and a half feet wide, and three- 
quarters of a foot deep. The earth embankments were built along the two 
long sides. The corn was ranged along the sides pointing down .into the pit, 
the fire being built at the bottom. 

Wdtfish, Caddoan Texts 41 

spirally into strips from top to bottom. Other pumpkins are cut 
into rings and hung on a cross pole to dry. After the whole pumpkin 
has been stripped there is left a disc at the bottom which is known as 
"Sitting-one." The pumpkin is then left to dry for about a day 
wh^n it is in the proper stage for braiding and for the stringing of 
the bottom discs. After they are braided, the pumpkin mats are 
left out in the sun to dry. 

Later when she is going to cook roasted com the woman may 
put pumpkin into the pot with it. The flavor of this dish was 
excellent. Dried flint com is ground into meal and cooked, and this 
is also very good. One can also make a bean-corn cake, by mixing 
coriimeal, pumpkin and beans and adding hot water to make a 
dough. Then the ashes are spread apart and the dough poured in. 
Then the ashes and coals are raked on top and a covering of earth. 
If there is any meal left it is baked in the same way without the 
beans and pumpkin. When they are taken from the fire the one is 
called '* beans-inside" and the other ''com-pones". Then she would 
dean the cakes with cold water. They would be nice and brown. 
A pot of dry meat would be hanging over the fire and they would 
eat the bread with this soup. 

This is the end of this true story. I have not introduced anything 
that is not true. 

42 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, Xyji 

fl) rakuMtke*u^ he tsixtqhaocriri trire*wihaxtsa'^ (2) nawa he 
iweretiitakta^rhrit Uxwaki&*hu kstatsqwi-katus a raktaxkdwqriku'^ 
(3) hawd tririksasa*a hawa pttkusukda iririksgsq^a (4) iriwetiht 
ke*tsi piraski tiksqwusu-ku pitku-sukita (5) tawit tuturdsqra-ru 
he tirasa ktstatsqwi-katus hk riri-rqwu pitdkutsu* (6) a piraski 
pdku'sukita iririksqvmsu'ku iwesirerd^ku*^ (7) hqwd ke*tsi tiirv- 
ratu*tu'a tsqpat tire^ra-ku^ tixre*sku* kskitiks tuxra-rii tsqpat (8) he 
titqku siti'hii pitku hqwa ti-tqku pitku (9) wititiraxkusitskqwiku 
he re'hihtt he titriwesird-ku taxrapakid-hu wesitikqku^ (10) ti 
iri'siratku siwitiruxkusitskdioiku he rireha-ktuts (11) a tiirihe 
sira-ku herira^ku kdixts^u (12) he iwesira-ku cri ihe rqku kdixts^u 
(13) he tihe*rd'ku re-sargra a hqwa tihera'ku re'sqrara (14) kttu 
tirgsqrqrixku* (15) kskiksa*pits rutirvrdnxku tri-ra'sa kdixts^u 
(16) i'sira'ku hkru ri-wa'kasta awit riwesltasutd-nsta (17) heru 
rutsia ird-ku ha*wa he ra^kii heru resarqrii*wa Mm rutsia aruxra*- 
rikstqwiqt (18) heru rutsia tqwit asireraxkqi dpats (19) tawit 
arerdxkqi ira*ku a hqwa hera-ku*^ (20) hkru rutsia kitii iwesir^ax- 

(1) There is a mud-lodge village and on the outskirts there's 
where the spear ground hes. (2) Now then there I saw the 
sticks they are called game-spear and throwing-in-sticks 
(3) also they were called also two-upon-end (prongs) that's 
what they were called (4) these are however, boys they would 
spear two-upon-end (6) three names there are and this (lying) 
game-spear then that's what they spear grown men (big 
men) (6) and boys toy game spear that's what they used 
to spear with those two (games) (7) and also those like 
me (of my age) women this (game) they play (gamble) 
four they number women (8) and here would sit two 
also here two (9) they face each other sitting and there 
is spread and here where they sit we call it they two are 
sitting on (10) here where we sit two sitting facing each other 
and there's where the sticks are (11) and over here they two 
sit there's where it is (sits) gambling-basket (12) and they two 
are sitting there where — is sitting the basket. (13) And 
this other one (sitting) she has seeds and also this other 
one (sitting) has seeds. (14) All each of them has seeds. 
(16) Six they each have there where it Ues basket (16) those 
two sitting then she will say first you two are going to 
be the ones to play (17) then she does that one also the 
other one then she takes seeds out then she does she 
rubbed them with her hands (18) then she did three they 
put them in both (19) three she put in that one and 
also the other one (20) then she did all when they have 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 43 

kdvra (21) hern rutsia hera-kii kttu are*ru'tsit (22) heruxrariksta' - 
wiat he istib rurikdru-tsu heru tiitsia rakuraTU'ka*d (23) he sihuks 
ruxraxwiwa cri-kararuraxwirgrz-m rdxka-tsu^ (23) he asku hetaku 
ruPpiu'a iriUrn* tri-wetaxrapakia-hu sd'xki (24) hkriru tihaktarwat 
kskiksa'pits (25) heru tutsia tittakta-ru kskitiiksta'ru* (26) tikspd" 
ruksti criru'ki asd'tu akuterarquxtdd'ri kararqkurwku (27) nawa 
he tira^ku he tikqru*ku he kdu tuxraxwiu-a (28) kararakura^u saxki 
heru tivM'ku u-Uki sdxkutsu* (29) heru tutsia atkrgru'at he tirgru^at 
sihuks (30) heru tiwa-ku asku ru'riatirara-wii sihuks (31) ruatira- 
ru*at pitkusura-ru saxkutsii iwerdrq^u (32) he iwkrarukad istu he 
rid' saxki he tiwa'ku ii'ttki tutstqtat (33) hk ririxraktqriwitsat 
kskiksa'pits (34) he ratqkarqtsu pitku kuxriru saxkuisu* (35) 
irihe'^ te-witsat (36) hkru rutsia cstu arehaktaxldtu*ru (37) hkru 
rutsia iri'sirirgwitsqta a rikqrwtsit irikura^sard^ru^ (38) heru 
ru4sd iwerasdxkqrutsi'ka (39) hkru riwa*ku nq'wa u4iki siksutsa 
suTmkqwi'td (40) heru rwtsa trirghakta'riku heru rvkqwi-tit he 
hawd riru^rktsia are'kqru^ts'ii tqwtt (41) iwestrirawttsata heru 

put them in (21) then she did the other one all she picked 
them up (22) and she rubbed them with her hands and again 
she put them in there then she did to raise and bounce it 
(once) (23) and five they turn one way the side on which 
they are not marked 5-on-unmarked-8ide-score (23) and one 
this side if it turns she has made that's what we call 5-on- 
marked-side-score (24) thereupon she would take the sticks 
six (25) then one does the sticks number eighty (26) they 
are wonderful those certain ones seeds they seem to get 
spiteful one can't make anything (27) now then this one 
then she would be making (score) and aU they would turn 
facing (28) when she doesn't make 5-on-marked-side-score 
then she says, ''Partner, big-score." (6-on-one-side) (29) then 
she did she would take over (pass) then she takes over five 
(30) then she says one she would continue to take over 
five (31) she would take over forty big-count when she 
makes. (32) and when she bounced it again and if it 
turns 5-on-side-score then she says, "Partner it is stuck." 
(33) Then they take over sticks six (34) and suddenly two 
she made big-count (35) instead she beat her. (36) Then 
she flid again she would put the sticks together (37) then 
she did the one that was beaten then she picked them up 
the seeds that are hers (38) then she got up when she picked 
the seeds up (39) then she says, ''Now partner get up, 
you sit on here!" (40) Then she got up the one that had 
the sticks then she sat down upon it (player's seat) and also 
she did that she put down three (41) when they win her 
then she passed the prize over the one they have beaten 

44 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, X Vji 

rih^kurqhat iri-wesinxkawH'tika (42) heru riwvUt ira-ku irisirv- 
rawitsgta (43) hhu rutsia ira*ku iwerdkqku^ heru rutsia istu hawd 
siraruka-wad (44) he asku iwenxkawu-tiku heru tutsid iwestrix- 
kawu'tiku^ (45) heru trtsaxp^u heru tutsid rqkusqrwtsiha he 
ttrarahurdxwiwa (46) heru tiitsia he hd'wa tirauntsat he sinxkux- 
kqru'ku rahvri akutikgkurdxwiqt (47) heru tiwa-ku irirqkukqru*ku 
nu'wa rirerutsiksuhurd-ru' (48) dra-Sitttskakdpa'ktsku^ irisirixku- 
wiroJta (49) nqwa iwera^rarutsa* wewititrrqmrat (50) pi-td ihe 
\ri*rqwu tisirasuxrae-riku tirutqturqtsdkqku^ i-ruriaturaxpanxnt 
(51) tsi U'kqa akutikdntihit ariitiuraxparixrit (52) huk takuriku- 
kuxrihd'pat hetqkii asku tiktta (53) he uxkqkusu tarqtsqrat takura- 
kukati'wd'hat tcxwakid-hu tskdraxkqtqkusu* ira*sd raktaxkqwqrikus- 
kutsu asku tiktta (54) na'wahe tirahaktsa rikututd-ku he kitu tiitkite*- 
rat rardkaxki (55) kk-karu^vs tsiru dtvhi heru we-ta-rdt pvta (56) 
a'tihaktqntsdwati'ra ktstdtsqwikqtus (57) d ra'ta-rqrit pi-td tskqra 
raxkuhaktaruhurirtkispdriku'^ (58) he rahi-ri tikdfia kitii tira-ritsix- 
tqi'sdt pi'ta (59) ruraxwiha-ntskd^ta hentirawe^rqkii pvta ku 
rihuksiriwvtq^u (60) hqwa herdudha-retska-ta (61) hqwa tritirawe" 

(killed) (42) then she sat down that one the one that got 
beaten (43) then she did that one the one that is sitting 
in (on the game) then she does again also they two 
bounced (44) and one when she gets beaten then one 
does the one getting beaten (45) then turn it over (mouth 
down) then one does put the seeds down then one 
rolls them on the ground (46) then one does — again she 
would beat her and if they are winning against her finally 
the stakes would be this high (47) then she would say the 
one that is making them (winning), *'Now let this be all for 
the present." (48) There they would sit with poor faces those 
that had lost. (49) Now they all arise they have beaten each 
other. (50) Men — they that are spearing this you all see 
this round road it is a very smooth road. (51) But oh it would 
be like stone spread-out the ground would be very smooth. 
(52) Oh ! the sticks are about this long and here one extends 
out (53) and moccasin sole leather he would strip they 
would be this wide they call them skins-attached-on-the-side 
that (lying) big spear one it extends out (54) now, then 
this stick it is this large and all it is wrapped buckskin 
(55) early (morning) yet it is then he would be going 
man (56) he would carry the sticks across the shoulder game- 
spear (57) and there he would stand man alone he that 
is sliding the sticks (58) and finally it becomes many all 
they would come to the outskirts men (59) at the end of the 
spear ground they would crowd (bunch) there men about 
thirty (60) also this end of the spear ground (61) also they 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 45 

raku pi'ta (62) he isirawa-nki iwesirakuwauxtant iwesirahaktd'raxra 
he askii tawirus hqwd vritira (63) nawahe sitikd'stspa he tira*riki 
he titaxwira^ward (64) hk apats sdihaktarawant he sdqruxwawa*rd 
trisinxkuruxra4sikstawi^ (65) awe* sdihaktara' ward he wesituxra-ka- 
wiit'Sd (66) he i-sirawa-riki rusitiwd-hat asdiraru-at (67) iwesira- 
haktarqwq'rika heriru sitiwa-rd ke-tsi hetihe sirqwa^riki^ (^^) ^^ 
hqwd rihe rusitihaktu-tsit rusikake-rihwku^ kskiksa^pds d-hu iqwil> 
sa'pits Tqknxra'TU*a^ (69) nawahe ke*tsi triwestrexkukqwadiku 
heri sderirutkahura^wu^ he wkratirapiriwe-rd (70) kdii arU'sa 
rawixta'ka rawirdtsqra-rqwis uku-kw* a kitu ra^pi^u (71) dratunt- 
kaxtsa arii* Urdtke-a (72) hqwa ke4si piraski tira^kw pdkusqkda 
atixkqrutsi'hu tsvspatsqwi^u u^kqa he kqrgrdtehd'at (73) hqwd 
ati-rqpat pdkusqktta. 

are bunched there men (62) and those two when they 
are going to spear those sticks they have and one game- 
wheel (circle) also he w^ould have. (63) Now, then they 
would run and this one (standing) then he would roll it 
(64) and both they two would throw and they would each 
have standing two to watch for them (65) when they two have 
thrown the sticks and when the two sticks have stopped 
(66) then those two (standing) they would go there they would 
carry them (67) when they two have thrown the sticks there- 
upon they two stay there (stand) but the others those 
two (standing) (68) and also those they would pick the 
sticks up there aren't just the two six perhaps eight 
there would number. (69) Now then, but the one that is being 
beaten then they would go after his stakes again and again 
and the pile of stakes would be this high (70) including horses 
blankets shawls leggings and all possessions (goods) 
(7 1 ) the dust would arise then it would become night. (72) also 
then, boy this (sitting) boy's spear game they would be 
setting them down upon (stakes) earrings. Oh, — it 
wasn't altogether straight, (73) also they wotild fight boy's 
spear game. 


(Free translation.) 
The spear ground lay on the outskirts of the mud-lodge village. 
There were several kinds of game spears that I saw, one called 
**flat-across"(?) or ''throwing-in-sticks", and another called ''two- 
upon-the-end". These latter were used by boys and young men, 
while the "flat-across" spear was used by mature men. In addition 
to these two varieties of spear game, women of about my age play 
another type of gambhng game. There is a blanket spread upon 

46 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. ^n^yji 

the ground and four women sit upon it, two at each end. At one 
end are the two players and at the other are the twoscorekeepers. 
The position of the two players is called **they-two-sitting-on" 
and the position of the scorekeepers, "they two-sitting facing- 
each-other". Between the scorekeepers are the scoring sticks, 
and near the players is the basket. Each of the players has six 
seeds (plum seeds). One of the players says, "First you two (player 
and scorekeeper of the opposite side) are going to play." Then 
each of the two members of this team will contribute three seeds 
and the active player, when the six have been put into the basket, 
takes them out and rubs them all for luck. Then she puts them 
back in the basket and bounces it once and five of the seeds turn 
with the unmarked face upward, making "five-on-unmarked-side- 
score". If, on the other hand, one of the seeds turns on the un- 
marked side and the rest on the marked side, we call it "five-on- 
the-marked-side-score". Both these count six and the winner of 
such a score would get six sticks to her credit. There are eighty 
score sticks in all. The seeds had supernatural power and sometimes 
when one lost continuously it seemed as if the seeds did it for spite. 

Sometimes, when the player would get a score of all seeds facing 
one way she would say, "Partner, I have made the big count." 
Then the scorekeeper of the winning side would take over five 
sticks, then five more and so on until she had taken over forty. 
Again if a score of five-on-one-side were made the player would 
say to her partner, "It is stuck," and she would take over six sticks. 
It sometimes happened, however, that a player won the big score 
twice in succession and in that case she would have defeated her 
opponent. Then the sticks woidd be gathered together for the 
next set to be played. The one that had lost would ask her partner 
to take the player's seat. Then each of them would put in three 
seeds and the play would proceed. The loser pays off, by giving 
over the stakes to the winner. The new player turns the basket 
over and pours the seeds out onto the ground rubbing them around 
for luck. If this player is also unlucky, she too wiU lose and there 
will be a big pile of stakes for the winning side. Then a prudent 
player who is winning in this way will stop playing at the height 
of her success saying, "Now let's not play any more." At this the 
losers would sit there with downcast faces. And now they would 
get up to go for they have played out the game. 

At the men's spearing grounds there was a hard smooth track 
which ran around in a circle ; in this path the ground was as hard 
and smooth as stone pavement. The big men's spears were about 
five feet long; (they had one prong, a cross stick in the middle and 
another toward the end). Buckskin straps were wrapped around 
the stick. It was not unusual for a man to go down to the game 
grounds very early in the morning and to throw and shde his sticks 
about by himself for practise. Gradually others would join him 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 4:1 

until there were about thirty men gathered at each end of the game 
grounds. Two of the men played at a time and at a given signal 
the hoop was thrown and they would run and throw their spears 
at it. Each player would have two seconds and when the sticks 
have stopped, the seconds would go to where they lay and measure 
them. Then these were replaced by two more players and so on, 
as many as six or eight participating in any one game. When one 
would lose, he sent someone to get his blanket or whatever his bet 
may have been. The prizes included horses, blankets, shawls, and 
leggings, and all sorts of property. The game would continue untU 
nightfall, and the players would have played so long and so strenu- 
ously that the dust would rise all about the game ground. 

There was also the boy's spear game which was similarly played, 
in which they would have things like earrings for the stakes. The 
boys' didn't conduct their game in such an orderly manner. Some- 
times they would fight over the results of the game. 


(1) rakare^tsaxriks he tirdra-ku rakdra'ki he rixwakid'hu raku- 
haparutstqku rakuha'pi rakuhakirikispatsam (2) heru sitirihdkta- 
kusit runri irapgtsqwi hii'U akutiti'hat (3) heru sttixrakukatsise'Vit 
heru tuisia kataretskau (4) tird^kqwa he ikqrikat rirutikatsdkusifUt 
(5) he rahiri tuxrdtqwu tsiru irahdkipa'ra e kukqrerirdkqsis he 
ra*hiri rikurira4e*hat rahdtqwi (6) ndwa he hqwd ukitqhdxriri 
ruruxr^'nt tuxrq^a retsvpirus (7) he werixwakia^hu tipakstarukitd- 
kusta (8) he kttw ruxre'nt rukqresdkurihvt tsi tqwit kukuocrutstd- 
kura*ru (9) he weruripdrixrd heru iretska4a he ti*tqku kusiri-rvwitku 

(1) Indian bowl then this thing (way) sitting bowl then 
they call to have a wood-hump on a tree a tree that has a 
knot (2) then they would take that wood off there where 
the knot is oh it would be this big. (3) Then they would 
cut the wood nicely then one does a sharp hatchet (4) this 
wood on it (handle) and in the middle one would start 
chipping (5) and finally she makes a hole while the wood 
is damp and it is not hard and finally it is this big 
the hole, (6) Now then also on top she fixed it she 
did it crooked knife (7) and they called it ''there-are-heads- 
on-top" (carved projecting handle at the rim) (8) and entirely 
she fixes it, it was not one day but three probably it was 
that many days. (9) And when it was very smooth then 
was on that end then right here they are saving it (10) for 

48 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVjJ 

(10) rakuhapatsam tritixwakid'hu rakupakstarukitaku a-U'^q^a 
rakarapakstarukttaku (11) he wesitixrehats he kitu' wetuxre weru— 
rqkupdrixnt hern sitiriraxkitsixru (12) a sitixre^hats m*kdre*rihvt 
tsi rakukdriu. 

it wood to stick up that's what they call heads-on-top it 
would be named plate-heads-on-top (the projection on this kind 
was toothed at the top) (11) and when they finish then enti- 
rely it is good when it is made smooth then they would 
grease it. (12) and they would finish it it was not the the only 
one but there would be many. 


(Free translation.) 
A wooden bowl is made by first cutting the knot from a tree. 
The knot selected depends upon the size of the bowl io bemade. 
A sharp hatchet is used to whittle around the knot. While the 
knot is green a hole can be made more readily than when it begins 
to dry and harden. After the hole is of the required size the handle 
on the rim is carved with a crooked knife. This little projection 
is called heads-on-top. It takes from one to three days to make 
a bowl. After the carving is done, it is scraped and polished until 
it is a beautiful bowl. Then the bowl is well-greased. Several 
bowls are made at the same time. 


(1) hern tihdpirit tdixtsa-ku takurqkutwa takuriakutrat he tvkat 
(2) heru tutsia ti-tqku riakutira-wiu heri ti-kat (3) ruriatestii'ku 
aturasqhuriwits ruriatirakuxtsqwi (4) he wetuxrqkukdtsise he^taku 
heru tutsia atuxtsqwu (5) heru Putsia urutkftsu he ti'te*raxpu he 
ikarikqt tintpdru*tsu (6) heru irirdkuhu'ta heru ritutstcrdhqwu ru 

(1) Then one fells a tree elm so big: (1 foot) it is this 
long: (2 feet) and one cuts it. (2) Then one does right here 
so far (long) there one cuts it (3) one would make the foot the 
foot would be left that's where it is to stick-upright. (4) And 
the stick would be cut nicely there. Then one does one 
would stick it upright. (5) Then one does watery mud and 
one places it around and in the middle one puts coals. (6) Then 
where the wind would come from then dip it over that way 
there's where it gets blown. (7) And one has a shell (oyster) 

Weltftsh, Caddoan Texts 49 

riatixwarurvhu (7) he wetiriku tskd^pirus he tint/par axkdra-wu he 
tariru tutsia tskapirus rakurikdtawe-hu (8) he hawa istu rutirax- 
kdwqrtt he* tstu hawa ruterikdtqweusi'tit a*ke*tsi tarikatawid-hu 

(9) he tstu rutintparaxkdwartt he tarn tutsia rakuntparaxkatawe" 
ru*dhqku (10) he tstu ruterikdtqweust/ttt heru tuxrikqru he kttu* 
ruturase^rtt (11) he hqwd rutihwrutkttstii'Wa irahurutstdsq (12) he 
riruxrdrirq^a karda'sirikuritstqa kqrdasitdrqri4d*ra (13) heru 
ti'tsia rikvsu attxkqwitsat. 

and one empties the coals and thereupon one does shell 
for scraping with it (8) and also again one places them in 
and again also one proceeds to scrape with it then just one 
keeps on scraping it. (9) And again one places the coals in 
and thus one does to keep the coals scattered evenly around 

(10) and again one would proceed to scrape then one cleans 
it and all one would fix the foot (11) and also one would 
take the wet mud off that mud lying on it (12) and one's 
purpose for it not to become burned for it not to bum up. 
(13) Then they do corn they would grind. 


(Free translation.) 
An elm of a suitable size is cut down. This should be about a 
foot in diameter and two feet long. The small end would be whittled 
down to a point by means of which the mortar was stuck upright 
into the ground. This end of the stump was carefully and evenly 
whittled. Then at the other end of the stump wet mud would be 
placed around the edge to prevent the rim from burning. Hot coals are 
placed upon it in the middle and the top leaned toward the direction 
from which the w4nd was coming to fan the coals. The coals are 
then removed and the burnt surface is scraped with an oyster shell. 
After the charred wood is scraped away the pit is deepened by 
again placing hot coals inside, removing them when they have 
burned into the log and then scraping again with the oyster shell. 
While the hot coals are inside one must be careful to keep them 
evenly scattered about so that they do not bum the surface too 
unevenly. After the final scraping of the inside, the foot is scraped 
and smoothed and the wet mud which was placed around the rim 
at the mouth to keep the edge from burning, is removed. Now 
corn can be ground in the mortar. 

50 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XV II 


(1) hem tiriwgki ndwa ik$kdwitsa,ku (2) heru sitirihaktaspiO't 
rqkukqhuraru'ta he him tuxraktsd the tatarapakid-hu tskdrus (3) hem 
rihakapdtstihumku iriraha-kurdrrwi hem risitvrukat (4) he hawd 
ti'tqku vrirqkuwitskqa kustutsid*hvt he tihakltqwa rqkuhakdriu 
(5) hem sitiriwirit asdiocre-rit ti-taku iriakutvat he wesiririkse-nt 
wemti'pdrtxnt (6) heru nrirapaksitsqku ruksd*kqri ruxrdrira-ru 
kqrarqkukqas (7) heru rutsia aretdru4su heru rirdxkiwi heru teri- 
tqiwa tskdpirus he weruriikspdrixrU riwetihikste'hats, 

(l)Then they would say, "Now the pestle." (2)Then they 
would look for a stick there is a thicket extending and there 
woidd be a stick (tree) standing — we call it post-oak. (3) Then 
one (tree) that has a large body the bottom of the tree then 
that's where they would cut it (4) and also right here where 
one would want to hold it and there would be limbs a great 
many (wood) (5) then they would fell it they would fix it 
here it would be this long and when they have fixed it it 
would be very smooth. (6) Then right where the head is (sitting) 
there were many sticks one's purpose is for it not burst. (7)Then 
she does she would build a fire then she roasts it then one 
would rub it oyster-shell and now the pestle is very smooth. 
Now she has finished the pestle. 


(Free translation.) 
The pestle is made of the trunk of a post-oak. This is cut low 
near the roots so that the grain of the roots will be in the knob end. 
A tree with many limbs is preferable because such a tree is sturdy 
and can stand the strain of the pounding. The wood is seasoned 
by roasting it in the fire and it is then finished off by scraping 
with an oyster shell. When it is finished the pestle is very smooth. 


(1) he hqwa rute-pa-riktara he wetitqruts he tvpa-rikitkatquts 
iri iratdru'tsi (2) heru ritutpiu trirdrihwru rqkutkdtqsq he tirtipqrq' 

(l)And also one would bring horns and there would be 
a fire and the horn would be laid against it there where the 
fire is. (2) Then it would be facing that way the large end 
when it lay against (the fireplace) and she places the coals 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 51 

tsahur^xwi'hu (3) iwerararitdd-ra pari*ku hakukakikqsts a kdu 
tuxrmi he tsirw irararariiau he teskqwvttt a ra-ru- te-waks (4) hern 
irirapq^rikirisu he rituxtgraixkqru hem tiraxkttsixru a wirutrpdnxnt 

(5) d ra'hiri ratiriwi-ku rixkukaru-ku hern tutsia ateksatdtvd-wu 

(6) hern tihaskusit dstd-kts a tirdkvru heru tirdtsqwu a wetixkqruts- 
pd'wu rakdra-kl he wetiratse-rat (7) heru tutsia a tihukdwd-wu 
tdrghayikf (7) he ttxrdkqvxi*xtststat he tstu rutirardstqwu ndwa 

against (3) when it got hot horn it would not be hard and 
all sh^ fixes it then while it is warm then place the foot in 
and simply it is stretched (4) then where the horn is small 
then make notches there then one greases it — when it is 
smooth. (6) Then finally there was a pile those making them 
then One does put holes in the handles (6) then get a string 
buckskin string and string them then one hangs them up 
and when they would put things in them bowls then they 
would gather around. (7) Then one does — one places them in 
spoons. (8) and when they have finished their meal then 
again she would string them. Now that's all. 


(Free translation.) 
Buffalo horns are placed near the fire with the large ends ex- 
tending into the coals. The h^at softens the horn so that it can 
be more readily worked. The horn is expanded by pressing the 
foot on it. The small end is notched, scraped and greased. When 
several are finished holes are bored into the handles and they are 
strung on a buckskin string to hang them up by. When bowls 
of food are placed about for guests a spoon is put in each bowl. 
After their meal, the spoons are strung and hung up again. 


10. the snake den. 
(1) ritnnaxratuksta-kaktqkuwii'suku (2) wdiwa'ra'ruqt he axrg- 
kd'taha^ruat rakuxrurdre-ra (3) he htru aocre-kd rutki (4) he 
ta-raxkatqat rdtqra*kuki (5) he riaxra-kd rutki hk axrikskirika-hu 

(6) witilt rqrqtsawiktqhu tqwd-htsq'ku (7) hk trita-raktq'kywu 

(1) Over there where we used to emigrate (e.) (2) there was a 
row of mountains (q.) and there was a valley (e.) a nice land- 
scape (good ground) (3) and there there was a dwelling 
snake. (4) And they would go up (hunting) we (plur. incl.) 
(our people) (6) and there's where lived (e.) snake and they 
were kind (e.) (6) They are (e.) those that rattle the rattle end. 

(7) And they travelled that way those Hving there (sitting). 

62 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

vrdwihat (8) he kd'wita he irikuocrard'Wtxta'kvt e rkurhnt (9) e 
wkaxrawa'ku atira kirike-ru twvt tstesd*ru tatku-tscsta (10) werax- 
wd'ku isa-sti tstesaru rd-a a raru re-wiraxkatu-sa^ irititste^sA-ru 
(11) hern axriwa*ku irititska'pa-kis taraxke-s drw rirapanxrit 
ru'taku'ku (12) ke4si tstesa*ru akararwrd-hiwa (13) heriweaxrahd- 
tuxkd'ku (14) nawa iriwewttixhdtuxka'ku (15) tste-sarii criwewdw- 
xruri he axrtxwaki loetaktqkuwd iweaxraktakua he ke*tsi weaxrghq- 
tuxkd'ku (16) hern axnwa-ku ira-ri kdre-sutsia siksa (17) d 
isa-sti axrawitskd kqrdrakntsarisd^ra (18) tcxwakia*hu stkusi'ku- 
wutit (19) heru axre*d istu (20) he axrawakqrqxkd^^as a axrakikat 
rU'Wttirdtke'd (21) he axrqwa-kii iasti d ihe ira-ri he wltiwa*ku 
atira hqwd kare-sird-ripd^ istii weraktqkua (22) Mru axriwa-ku 
herurvtsird-ru tirdkikat trvkuxrira-wiu hk> axnxwqki wetaktqkud-hu 
(23) e kc'tsi ird-ku heweaxraha-tuxka-wi'tit (24) hk weaxraktqkwhu 
hi weaxrqraspe tste-sa-ru rdkuku-tsi (25) he kuxrqxkqvts tstesaru 
he siaxnxku'tit wdipdkste-sat (26) he weaxraktqkuwu kitu (27) hi 
axrawa-ku ird-ri atira ruweraxtsa- ka-wita tipdkste-sat (28) hern 
siaocre-ra d siaxrirqhvkat (29) he kuqxrwtqsittt (30) ra-ru kuwi- 

(8) And the youngest then he ran angrily then he stopped 

(9) and he said (e.), "Mother, how does she look, the queen, 
I am going to bite her." (10) Said (e.) his mother, queen 
if she comes and just a strip of legging flaps about that's the 
queen." (11) Then she said, those that are poor they are proud 
and it is fine her clothing, (12} but the queen she won't be well- 
dressed. (13) And he was sitting on that road (e.) (14) Now he 
was sitting on her path (q.) (15) queen he was waiting there 
for her (q.) and they said (e.) now they are travelling this 
way those that are travelling (e.) and yet he was sitting in 
the path (e.) (16) Then said (e.) his brother, "Dont do that, 
come here." (17) And his mother wanted (e.) him not to get 
vicious. (18) 'They say they will kill you." (19) Then he 
came (e.) back (20) and he cried out (e.) then he wept (e.) 
way until night came on. (21) Then said (e.) his father and 
also his brother, — said (q.), **Mother, again don't deny him 
again when they travel this way." (22) Then she said, "That 
is all this his cr3dng." It was such a long time and they said (e,), 
"Now they are travelling this way." (33) — But that one 
then he sat down on the path (e.) (24) and when they came 
travelling (e.) then he looked for (e.) the queen to bite. 
(2^) Then he did bite the queen. Then they killed him (e.) 
his head was pegged to the ground (q.) (26) and they were 
travelhng (e.) all. (27) Then said (e.) his brother, "Mother, 
there he lies (e.) the youngest his head is pegged." (28) Then 
they brought him and they took him inside (e.) (29) and 
something happened (e.) (30) just it seemed the ground was 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 53 

tihurasa'Titsasa (31) hk axra-ru titkaxtsakdwiru*tit (32) he he* 
tsi tiweaxra-sa wltuxra isa'sti a ia*8ti d ird*ri (33) he 
weaxrara-rawitaraxkisa wesiaxrixrahu-ru'ku (34) vrvkuruxrirawiu 
he axratdpais hk axrakcsikv ta hh iriru* amka-wgri kw 
karawUutsiks (35) hkru axriwa-ku isa'Sti hgwd irikare-svisia 
(36) he axrgwd'ku we hqwa taktakuiod^^ (37) hgwa hk 
weaxrgwakaraxkd'as (38) istu hd-wa hern axriwd'ku atira 
tatku*tstsfa tska*pd*kis (39) he tstii sikgrgrvkuku'tit itkwtsl tska-- 
pd-kis (40) iweaxraktqkicwa*^ wttikarv tsd-xriks (41) iwerax- 
rdtuxkg'ku istu (42) he ketsi pHa rgkukitawi (43) M tihe tqku 
ram kuruxre-a iri-r^iaturdts^'hat (44) karawite-hgtuxka iweaxrg- 
kaku weaxruxruri* tstesd'TU (45) hehe qxritpaksastawvtlt aru-sa 

(46) kttu axnxpakskitskqhu'kqru hern ketsi weaxraraxwu he ketsi 
axrqhqtuxkasa e kttu weaxrgratsqrimsat wewitisakmrvsat Iweaxraat 
cstu idsti (47) hirii axrvsa kitii kuwiti-paksta-kaskate^hat pgkuxtu 
kuxraxpaxrgtsd'his (48) heru aocriwa*ku ihe id'sti ihe ird*ri kaka- 
tqtsiks istu rgku-ktsikutd-ra (49) he istu, rusiaxrirWqhvkat he' 
axrgratsdwakta kuwitwritpdkus (50) e rihe' wewttirakd*a sigxri" 
tastikn rahi-ri ruwitisgkuxrwMtgu'kvt (51) he axrgtdpats ngwa 

up in the air (q.) (31) and just (e.) dust shot forth in places 
(32) — but here he was lying (e.) they did it (q.) his mother 
and his father and his brother. (33) And they all got very 
busy (e.) in their making it spoiled (e.) (34) It was a certain 
amount of time and he moved (e.) and he came back to life 
and thereupon he went about inside (e.) there seemed to 
be nothing the matter with him (q.) (35) then said (e.) his 
mother, "Again don't ever do that." (36) Then she said (e.) 
now again they are travelling this way." (37) Again and 
he was crying profusely (e.). (38) Again also then he said (e.) 
''Mother, I am going to bite the poor woman, (39) and again 
they do not kill me if I bite the poor woman." They were 
travelling that way (e.) there were many (q.) people. (41) He 
was in the road (e.) again (42). — But man who was mounted 
(43) and this other way just he came on the edge of the 
road (44) he didn't come on the path (q.) as he sat upon it (e.) 
he was waiting for (e.) the queen (45) instead his head was 
stepped on (e.) by it horse. (46) All he mashed up the head 
entirely (e.) and then they went (e.) — but he was lying 
on the path (e.) and aU after they had passed on (e.) and 
the sun had gone down (q.) he was going there again his father 

(47) here he was lying (e.) entirely his head was (mashed) 
dry-meat-wide (q.) long ago his blood had dried. (48) Then 
said (e.) — his father — his brother, ''I don't think again 
for him to become ahve." (49) And again they took him inside 
(e.) and they rattled (e.) it was like gourds, (q.) (50) And 
this time it was a long time (q.) they were working on him (e.) 

54 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

Jiu, , . pdku tiraraku wdi^ra-nks pctku siaxrixkuwutit (52) he tstu 
taxkisikvta (53) wituksurdxrise h ta-raktakuttm heru tarutsit- 
kaxtsd'kqwa (54) tsiru* ti-rasa-kariki he he tsiru rhhuraxku 
(55) tsiru* kuxrahaturd^rat. 

finally the sun was up on top (it was noon) (51) and he moved 
(e.). Now you see, twice this it is true (q.) twice he was 
killed (e.) (52) and again he became alive (e.) (53) it was a noted 
place (q.) and they would travel then there woidd be dust 
shooting forth in places. Yet this-sun-standing (today) — 
— yet the ground is there (55) yet the road is there. 


(Free translation.) 

Among the mountains and plains, where our people travelled 
during the hunting season, at a certain place there was a rattle 
snake den. Our people considered them harmless. On one of their 
hunts they came that way. The youngest of the snake family 
who lived in that den was feehng vicious. As he ran furiously 
along the road he stopped his mother and asked her what the 
queen looked like as she was the one he intended to bite. His 
mother answered that the queen wore leggings that flapped care- 
lessly about and that she was not at aU well-dressed. The poor 
women were proud and wore their best clothes so that they ap- 
peared beautifully dressed. 

When the hunting party approached, all the snakes ran away 
except the young snake who stayed in the road waiting to bite the 
queen. His brother and his mother tried to dissuade him from his 
purpose warning him that he would be Idlled. He cried so 
long and bitterly at being forbidden to do what he wanted, that 
his father and his brother asked the mother to permit him to do 
what he had in mind. The mother fiaally consented and the next 
time the himting party was approaching the young snake waited 
m the road and bit the queen. And so he was kiQed and his head 
pegged to the ground. When the party had passed on his brother 
told their mother that their youngest brother was lying out in 
the road with his head pegged to the ground. Then they brought 
him into the den. SuddeiUy something strange began to happen. 
There was a mysterious upheaval of the ground and dust shot 
forth in many places about the dead snake. His mother, father, 
and brother had caused this to happen and they now redoubled 
their efforts until after some time the snake began to move. Then 
he was fully revived and walked about the cave as if nothing had 

His mother scolded him and warned him not to do that again. 
This time when the hunting party was approaching he again cried 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 55 

loud and long and said he was going to bite that good-for-nothing 
queen and that they were not going to kill him. The hunting party 
was very large and was preceded by a man on horseback who rode 
along the edge of the path so that the snake who lay there in wait 
was trampled by the horse until his head was completely mutilated. 
The people passed on and left him lying on the road. After sunset 
his father came down the road again and found him with his head 
mashed completely flat and the blood dried up. When he saw 
his condition his father told the family that he doubted whether 
he could be brought back to life again. They took him into the 
den and rattled so that it sownded just like the ratthng of goiu'ds. 
They had to work a long* time over the body and it was not until 
noon the next day tb^t he began to move again. 

This story is a really true story. The snake was killed twice 
and twice he was brought back to hfe again. The place is still 
there an(? ^hen we would pass it in our travels, there would be 
dust (^iooting out of the ground in places. To this day the road 
and the den are still there. 


(i) titqku wttixwaki tkrapidtsta (2) hkru axriri-waki sitarapi-- 
atsta itsas a pdrus (3) he tqku iriku-rara^" the itsas (4) a tike' 
taku pzms kvtara^^ (5) Mru axriri-waki n-kaa (6) herii axriwa-ku 
itsas (7) pi-ra^u wdqruxwihat tawit (8) Mru axritva*ku kurahus 
Td*u (9J hern axriwa-ku asku rwraxtaku tasaxkasatsta (10) hawa 
swhuri asku (11) hawa* suhuri asku td'wd (12) nqwa a- kurahus 
ra^ii ksjci'tiks heru axriwa-ku itsas (13) asku^u- wtfixrarhu kqwikis 
(14) rikuksw sidtra-piu'Sata he witiretkwtsista (15) hkru axriwa-ku 
kurahus rq*u werikuravxta^u he wdktkqvts (16) heru rihira- hqwd 

(1) Etere they said (q.) they are going to race (2) Then 
they said (e.) they are going to race turtle and rabbit. (3) And 
these here those that belong to — turtle (4) and these 
others rabbit belong to him. (5) Then they said (e.), oh, 
(6) Then said (e.) turtle, (7) (children he had (sitting) (q.) 
three (8) Then said (e.) the old man himself (9) then he 
said (e.), '*One over there you are going to he in (ditch) (10) 
also this side one, (11) also this side one three (12) now 
then old man himself four." Then said (e.) turtle (13) the 
same kind they had them spears (14) ''Just as we go racinp^ 
then 1 am going to hide." (lie down among) (15) Then said (e.) 
old man himself, "When he beats me then I will he myself 
down among (16) then on the other side also you must be 

56 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

wensat (17) he tihe ra-kit hawd trirwta riiria-ritasat kitu (18) dsi- 
axre-rquxfu pd'rus crikuqoira'rA'ru pq'rus a- axri'rqkqwu4it 

going (17) and this other one ako he must do that. Let 
them carry on like that all." (18) Then they beat (e.) rabbit. 
(19) The ones that are his (e) rabbit then they killed them 
(e.) they killed them in the attack (e.). 


(Free translation.) 
The turtle and the rabbit were to have a race. The turtle had a 
number of people on his side and the rabbit a number on his side. 
The turtle had three children and he said to them, **One of you 
he over here in this ditch, another in this ditch further along the 
road, and a third one in another ditch still further along the way. 
(Each of the turtles had the same kind of spear). The father planned 
to start off the race and when he was outrun by the rabbit, he 
would hide in the nearest ditch and his first child would come 
out and take his place, then the other two in succession. By 
playing the race in relays in this manner they beat the rabbit and 
so they attacked all the rabbit's people and killed them. 


(1) titqku ihe kiwi-ku hiru witiat wltiki-tsuhat (2) he hiru axri- 
huka^tqku itsa-s hern axriwa*ku atipat kukstdhwat (3) a axrawd-ku 
ruhkrera kuse*rahu'at hqwa hiru asku axre-a axrawd-ku atipat 
kukstdhu-at axrawd-ku ruhkrera kuscrdhu-at (4) heru axriwd^ku 
Tuhk're-ra kuse-rdhu-at (5) kskvtiks iriwetuxrd-ru iriweru-tutaird-ru 
axrd'hu (6) he istu axrqwa-ku atipat kukstdhu-at heru axriwd'ku 
axra-kunq'wa raktfki (7)kiwiku criwe-uitiwd-ku (8)heruaxriwa" 

(1) Here there was a bison. Here he went (q.) there was 
a stream (q.) (2) and here there was sitting on the bank (e.) 
a tiu*tle. Then he said (e.) ''Grandpa, take me across." 
(3) Then he replied, (e.) ''Another one is coming he wiU take 
you across." Again there one was coming (e.), he said (e.), 
"Grandpa, take me across," He said, (e.) "Another one is 
coming he wQl take you across." he replied, (e.) "Another 
one is coming, he wiU take you across." (5) Four that many 
there were that's aU that came (e.) (6) and again he said (e.), 
"Grandpa, take me across." Then he answered, that one 
(sitting) (e.) "AU right grandson." (7) Bison that is what 
he said (q.) (8) Then he said (e.), "Where are you going to 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 57 

ku kirw rdskvsta (9) a axrawd-ku kuksikitqwrtit (10) hem axri- 
wa'ku Usa'S ka'suxtd'tktri a* tskutaka-rd'hat (11) heru axriwa-ku 
etu' suksku pdksiri he axriwa*ku itsa'S iskvka a isku-wihai (12) hkru 
axritoa'ku etw suksku askiriktd4tri (13) a axrawd'ku iswrvtku-kvt 
a* iskuhurvtkd'want (14) he axrawa-ku kivn-ku kirwtsturasi'kvsta 
rakti'ki (15) heru axriwa-ku atipat tatitska ratkuka^atd iritq'ku 
(16) heru axriwa-ku kiwi-ku herurvtsird-u hkru axrahu'kat heru 
kawihiri he axraxhruspakta-hu axrakiruspdktd-hu (17) hkru 
axriwd'ku rakti-ki ktrike-rd'sa (18) a axrawd-ku ika-ri rakuruxku 
atixraxkatawiraha-ku (19) ti-it riktstaxkatdwvsu heru* aki kvtaraux- 
tdwaxri (20) hkru axrura-Mwits he we-axraku-tu ra-ru Urvriwitsat 
(21) he axrawiu.hat heru axrikqwg!tat (22) heroic tarii* axriqt 
wdiraspe^ taku rixkutkuwawa'ra'u hkru axre*a kiwaku (23) heru 
axriwa-ku tira-sa- tdraha kuatstxkuwdwarit (24) heru axriwa-ku 
tird-riki ke-tsirqwi-wu triru-tqwi-ata hkrikura^^ (25) he 
itsa-s kgra-riri a-axrawiaxkdtqu-kat kara-riri (26) he tihk ra-riki 
a-qxrawi-at (27) he] the ira-riki ihe are-wi-at (28) rarii wde- 
wtkqu'kvt ketstikvtsu^^ (29) rid- kuqxrd* kiwaku hk siaocrqkuwd-waru 

sit." (9) Then he said (e.) "Mount me!" (10) Then replied 
(e.) txirtle, ''You might shake your back, and you would 
throw me off." (11) Then he answered, ''Well, sit on the 
head." Then he said (e.) turtle, "If you drink then you 
would throw into the water." (12) Then he answered, (e.) "Well, 
sit on the ankle." (hollow back of ankle knuckles.) (13) Then 
he said (e.), "If you go in the mud then you would press me 
into the mud." (14) Then rephed (e.) bison, "Where are you 
going to sit then, grandson." (15) Then he said (e.) "Grandpa, 
I want to go inside right here." (16) Then said (e.) bison, 
"All right." Then he went in (e.) and inside then he was 
smacking his jaws (e.) and he was smacking his jaws (e.). 

(17) Then he said (e.), "Grandson, what are you eating?" 

(18) Then he rephed (e.) "Grandma, when you have, she 
would parch (19) they are parched com." Then but he 
was doing it just for spite. (20) Then it showed and it was 
dying (e.) just he got him there. (21) And he fell down (e.) 
then he came out (e.) (22) Then there he went (e.) he was 
looking for (q.) someone to butcher for him. Then came (e.) 
a fox. (23) Then he said (e.), "Here lies buffalo, let's 
butcher it." (24) Then said (e.) this one (standing), "Let's 
go jumping, the one that jumps over it then it is his." (26) and 
he jumped (e.) turtle against stomach he would jump against 
(e.) against the stomach. (26) and the other one (standing) 
he jumped (e.). (27) And that other that one (standing) — 
he jumped. (28) just he jumped on (e.) way beyond (29) it 
became his (e.) fox and they butchered (e.) (30) and then 

68 Pvblicationa, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

(30) he wesiaxrara^re-hats he werutstaki sa^ri kiwaku irihewekurd'^u 

(31) he axrawd'ku iririhuksu sukspdtpa'a hern axriwa-ku kiwaku 
tsiru kssuxraratsikstd kisatski (32) he pi-rq^u iti'taktsirasq he 
rixrd'kawq^ats (33) hem axriat he ketst tira-riki itsas he axrar- 
ariwu'Siftit irvaxrakPtsuhat (34) he reha-kqwi-at hkri axrarqriwu 
kisatski (35) hk axra^wdsa- kiwaku a pi-rq^u he ke-tsi itsas werehu'- 
kitqku iriaxrqru'tsi kisatski (36) ke-tsi kiwaku a pi*rq^u kuxrtx- 
pdtpq^a (37 ) he axriraspextsitit heru axre^ra heri'tsqrtstahu^u 
kiwaku (38) ihe wewtti-tsqAsa-ri he weaxrahuka-tavsat he kitskqt 
kuxruxra-e-nt ku4u*u kitskdt kurqkuru-tsi (39) he ke4si axrarqtsa 
he axrqwa-ku kiwaku weretk utvu tit (40) he axra-wiha^u-kat a'ki 
wekuwttihu'uxk uvm tit (41) heru axrura-riwtts tskire'tatu axruxrarii.- 
tsqa (42) ketsi itsas wite-wasku (43) heru axriri-wa'ku pi-rq^u 
atias wetuxke-kawa-want hk weru^ntpawa-ru^tsq*" , 

they finished it (e.) then he was getting stingy fox now it 
was his (31) and he said (e.), '*That only blood you must 
eat." Then said (e.) fox, ''Wait, watch them! meat, 

(32) then children I will lead them here and they eat." (33) 
Then he went (e.) — but this (standing) turtle then 
be began to carry them where the stream was (34) and where 
the bank was there he was carrying them (b.) meat. (35) And 
he arrived (e.) fox and children — but turtle he wa^ 
sitting on top where they were lying (e.) meat. (36) But fox 
and children they ate the blood (37) and they began looking 
for it (e.) then he came there (e.) and his anger had spoiled 
him (he was anger-spoiled) fox (38) and he was getting angry 
(q.) and when he got to the bank then in the water he saw 
it looked like in the water they were (39) — but they were 
hanging (e.) then said (e.) fox, ''I'll kill him." (40) Then 
he jumped into the water (e.) and here, he had killed himself 
by drowning (q.) (41) Then there appeared (e.) the contents 
of the intestines they came to the top (e.) (42) but turtle 
he was laughing. (43) Then said (e.) children, (pups), "Our 
father, he has shuffled his fire about and then the coals came up. 


(Free translation.) 
There was a turtle sitting on the bank of a stream. Presently 
a bison came along and the turtle said to him, "Grandpa, take me 
across." The bison rephed, "There's another bison coming along 
and he'll take you." Then he asked the next bison that came along 
and he got the same answer, and then the next, but the fourth 
bison consented to carry him over. Then the bison asked the turtle 
where he was going to sit and told him to cHmb up on his back. 
The turtle answered, "You might wiggle the skin of your back 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 59 

and throw me off." "Well, then sit on my head" said the bison, 
but the turtle again objected saying, '*If you were to take a drink 
you would throw me into the water." '*Well then, sit on my ankle", 
said the bison. ''If we passed a muddy place, you might trample 
me into the mud." Then the bison asked, "Where are you going 
to sit, grandson ?" ''I want to go inside of you right through here." 
The bison consented and he went inside. There he sat smacking 
his jaws and when the bison asked him what he was eating he 
answered that it was some parched corn that his grandmother had 
made for him. But he was really eating the buffalo's internal 
organs. The buffalo got weaker and weaker and barely succeeded 
in getting to the other side of the stream when he fell down dead. 
Then the turtle came out and began to look around for someone 
who could help him butcher the buffalo he had killed. Soon a fox 
came along and he said, ''Here's a buffalo, let's butcher it." The 
fox replied, "Let's have a jumping contest to see which of us is to 
own the buffalo. The one that jumps right over the buffalo will 
be the owner." Then the turtle jumped and landed right on the 
buffalo's stomach. When the fox jumped he cleared the buffalo 
easily landing on the other side by a wide margin. And so the 
buffalo belonged to the fox.. 

As they were butchering the fox began to get more and more 
greedy and finally he said to the turtle, 'Tor your share you will 
eat only the blood." Then he left the turtle to watch the meat 
for him saying, "Wait and watch the meat for me while I get the 
children so that they can eat some, too." Meanwhile the turtle 
took the meat and carried it to the bank of the stream where he 
hung it over the water on a hmb. The meat was reflected in the 
water and the turtle sat upon the reflection. When the fox got 
back he and his pups began to eat the blood and then looked about 
for the meat. When he got to the bank of the stream he thought 
he saw the meat in the water with the turtle sitting on top, and 
he was so infuriated that he wanted to kill the turtle. So he jumped 
into the water and was drowned. The contents of his intestines 
floated to the surface. The turtle only laughed at the fox's mis- 
fortune. The fox -pups thought that their father had stirred up the 
turtle's fire and that the coals were coming to the surface. 


(1) a pire'tsaxriks siwiti-ku (2) tsdpat a pt-ta tskqra siwdckariku 
(3) he ira-kii tsapat axratskiriku he pvta axrgparesat (4) he tsapat 

(1) And a human child there hved two (q.). (2) Woman and 
man alone they two had a dweUing (q.) (3) and that (sitting) 
woman she was pregnant (e.) and man he went hunting (e). 

60 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, X VII 

ruaxnk&*ku (5) tsiru iwerarat pi'ta he hawd nkiixrutasitit sihuxrix- 
Ic uwu tit tsapat (6) hk kuxrwta. hk kuxnxkdraxka*sit he pirq^iic 
kuxriru'wa hk kuruxrarwtsia hk kuruxriukdtawu (7) he pi*ta 
qxra-vntsa^ he tsapat hiru axrvsa pird^u kuxrirwwa he hiru aocrku' 
kata (8) dkaa pvta iriweaxraki'kat hern axrvrit pvrq'u (9) a 
mtiaxruturikdtauts (10) hern weaxra*td pi4a weaxrawttska^ ru-- 
kura-rutuhu'Tot (11) iwera-rat pl-ta e hqwd iriruqxrutsia axraku- 
wuU ka tdraha axraexrqrwwaxra (11a) he riru axriexru^kusitit pl'tq^u 
ata'rexraxkipqru'hi he tare^tu*^ (Hb) aki iraxtsq tsapat pvrq^u 
isireruru'waxra (lie) aki astaxkqwi*^ sikute'VurqwihaH (Hd) hkru 
axrutsia tsi iweaxrqparkspqri he tqruturikdtasa (12) pi-rq^ii hetsi 
weaxra-hustt'us wekuwitutstakdrusu (13) hern axrekqru pvta 
kaxta* tsvHi wtti'pvta kqrawtti*kurahus (14) hem axriwdskd pi-ta 
tdku rikurwatsirihuwqri (15) kurwsirakitqwi^ rihurake-tsa-ra 
ira'ku tksi triwkkukuxrihu'rat (16) hk rahiri hqwd iritqru-ta rax- 
hihurqhat (17) hk ketsi iriru*tsiksd*hu (18) tsiru ira-ku tksi iriku- 
rqkutwa he titirdktqra (19) a sinxkutstirdkqru*ku heru axriwa*ku 

(4) And woman she stayed inside (e.) (5) Yet while he had 
gone man then again that happened they kiQed her 
woman. (6) And someone did it — they cut open her stomach 
and baby he took it out of her and someone did thus : — 
he hung it up. (7) And man he came home (e.) and woman 
here she lay (e.) child someone had taken out of her and 
here it is hung up (e.) (8) Oh, man he proceeded to cry (e.) then 
he picked it up (e.) baby (9) and he put it next to his hip (e.). 
(10) Then when he had gone man he thought (e.) I'll just 
wander off! (11) When he had gone man then also this is 
what he proceeded to do he killed (e.) a buffalo he took the 
udder off (e.). (11a) And then he proceeded to nurse him (e.) 
the baby, he would make the nipples wet (e.) and he would 
nurse (e.). (lib) Andhere that there (lying) woman baby she 
that they took it from (lie) and here afterbirth they threw it 
in the water. (1 Id) Then he would do so when he went huntiiiL' 
(e.) and he would have it next to his hip (12) baby then he 
knew how to sit up (e.) he was so very large (plump) (q.) (13) thei 
he built a dwelling man little grass house yet he was a mai 
(q.) he was not an old man. (14) Then he thought (e.) mm 
right here let us make it our permanent habitation (15) I wil 
depend upon it imtil the time when he grows up that (n\< 
Maxie^ he was about that tall. (16) and finally also tl; 
is what he did when he would leave him alone (e.). (17) 1 
then that was the custom (18) yet that Maxie^ when 
was like that then he would have a bow (19) and they mi 

^ The informant refers to her little grandson, Maxie, who was stand 
next to her. She intends to indicate that the child was about tl 
years old. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 61 

pi-raski atias titgku tawitsausu'hi pi^raski (20) (axruxrexkii 
imti) werasexkua heru taxwa-ku acts w&ta^ wetd-tuxta (21) hkru 
axriwa-ku prraski atias tiraki-tsuhat h raru te-wihurahats (22) hkru 
axriwttska ihe kurghus he axrawa^ku heru rutsira*u ke^etu* piraski 
witiwa*ku ira*ri sitd4a (23) titriqxrwta'n pi4a ru^kuraxku-ta 
hetaxwitska sitvku (24) hewete*ra^" hkritaxwa-ku w&td*^ (25) he 
pi'ta wekuxrukstdtawe raxkute-rit (26) he tira^kii ihe kuruksawaki 
tirehurake-ats suhuri kuxrihu*rat tihurake-ats kuruksawaki (27) hkru 
axriwa'ku pi-ta kira katsitsiwrukvt a axrawd-ku pi-raski rwstwiti- 
tatirihu'rat (28) pi4a ruaxrire-tskustqhvkat heru axrikd-at hkru 
axriwa*ku pi-ta kirqkustujtsiwrukvt (29) dwete-ra^ heru taxwa-ku 
das tikd'ku tstaa-he axrqkukstq'kut (30) a axra-wihau'kvt a kafdqx- 
re-tvitsa^^ (31) Mru axriwa-ku pi-raski atias kuka-kiratku-td-ra 
kakvra-kuwitsa (32) hkru axriwa-ku kurqhusq'u nqwa etsvru 
kirdkuhustutsihurahu-ru (33) heru axriwa-ku kurqhusa'u tsiru-- 
ta*tqtu'tdnsta (34) hkru axrik uwu tit tdrgha heru axriru-wa pa-runs 

him bow and arrows. Then said (e.) the boy, 'Tather right 
here there usually comes a boy" (20) he meant his (e.) his 
father. ''When you probably would be coming then he says 
(e.), 'Your father now he is coming now I am going to go.'" 
(21) Then said (e.) the boy, 'Tather, this stream then just 
he would disappear." (22) Then thought (e.) — the old man 
and he said (e.), ''Then that's all right because the boy 
said (q.) brothers we two are. (23) This is what he is doing (e.) 
man he would go way off (e,) and he knew (e.) they two were 
there. (24) When he would be coming (e.) and that's what he 
would say, "Now he is coming." (25) And man there were 
times when he would see him (e.) (26) And this one — "Won- 
derful-Bear", ^ this one he is tall he was not that tall. (This 
way was his height.) He is tall "Wonderful-Bear". (27) Then 
said (e.) the man, "Let's see if we can catch him," and 
said (e.) the boy "We are the same height." (28) The man 
then made a bag of intestine (e.) then he went inside (e.) then 
said (e.) the man, "See if I can catch him." (29) When he 
would be coming (e.) then he said (e.), "Your father, he is 
inside." And so nevertheless he ran away (e.) (30) and he 
jumped in the water (e.) and he didn't come there (e.). (31)Then 
said (e.) the boy, "Father, I can't do anything he won't 
come here." (32) Then said (e.) his father, "Now, wait, 
"See if I can't fool him some way." (33) Then said (e.) his father, 
"I thmk I will do this: " (34) Then he killed (e.) a buffalo 
then he took it out (e.) bladder then he proceeded to make 

1 She was pointing to her grandson, named Wonderful -Bear, who was 
about fourteen years old to indicate that the little boy in the story was 
about half as tall, meaning about six or seven years old. 

62 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XV II 

hkru axriru'kusdjJt kurahus (35) kqrarutsia*hu rqkuwa^ruri rahi'ri 
ruk uvu tutstakdrusu Axrawarurihu (36) hkru axriwa-ku ndwa tqku 
rexwitsa (heweaxrqrakdsistu weaxrutstqre-piha askatski) (37) hkru 
axriwa-ku kdsaxwa-ku wttikt-tsixtaqru (38) hkru axriwa'ku wesi- 
witiisuxtsdrq'u he tsu-ta (39) isutkqkuska pa-runs (40) hkru 
axrawa*kti he rqwitqkaraisu retvrdista he rqwitqkaraisu weaxrd-a 
(41) awdarutsiksqwaxtsd pi-raski he textdrustuhur'ktsa .awitarutsik- 
sawqtsuspira'rurukvt (42) hk axrawihau'kvt rututsipakstitskurarahvt 
(43) hk teravnru'tsq pa-runs irutkqku kqrawitvrqkutuvtit (44) hk 
siaxrarikatqhat pirquxtstri u-kqa axraki'kat (45) d*kqa 
rawitutsirasku pvta a pi-raski rahrri wtttriruku-tu aki rikvtt"^ 
astaxkqwi^u (46) hkru axriwa-ku pvraski ira-ri siwdd-ta 
(47) heru axriwa-ku kurahus a'kaa kutdtqha (48) he rahrri 
axruhu-rdsdxriksa (49) nawa iwere*wa-hii pvta werarqtsikste'hu^u 
(50) heru axriwa-ku kurahus hisikqre-rqku-wa (51) nawa 
ira-ku piraaxke-ats triwe-ti astaxkqud^u (52) a tihe ra-kii 
pire-tsaxriks (53) hkru axriwa-ku kurahus kusikqresqxwd 

iraxtqixtsqku (54) hkru axriwa-ku piraaxke-ats tstqahe rukMstxwa 
cri-kqrariwitska^ alias kqra-tstxkuwqra (55) heru siaxriwa he 

it (e.) old man. (35) the process is to blow in finally it was 
this large (q.) when he blew into it (e.) (36) Then he said (e.), 
*'Now someone if he comes here," [he had fastened it tight 
(e.) when he had tied it (e.) sinew] (37) then he said (e.) 
*'You must say, 'let us delouse each other.' " (38) Then he said 
when you are delousing each other then you must do: (39) Place 
it on top (of his head) bladder." (40) Then he said (e.) — 
''Suddenly I am going to come." Then suddenly when he 
came (e.) (41) even when he would do it boy then he would 
drag him up (e.) even when he would grab his hair. (42) And 
he jumped into the water (e.) he was still hanging onto the top 
of his head (43) and it would lift him up bladder that on top 
(of head) he can't submerge himself (44) and they two took 
him out (e.) by force '*0h," he cried, (e.) (45) Oh, he kept 
him there man and boy almost he was frightened to 
death (q.) and here that's what it was afterbirth. (46) Then 
said (e.) the boy, ''Brothers we two are (q.)" (47) then said 
(e.) old man, "Oh my, you are my son." (48) Then finally 
his actions were human (e.) (49) "Good," said the man no^^ 
he was happy. (50) Then said (e.) the old man, "Don't yc 
two wander off." (51) Now that Long-tooth-baby that ^v; 
afterbirth (52) and this other one human baby. (53) Tl 
said (e.) old man, "Don't you two wander off that bunch 
Cottonwood trees." (54) then said Long-tooth-baby, "Nev 
theless, let's us two go there where he does not want our fatl 
for us two to go." (55) Then they 2 went (e.) and tht 

Weltfish, Gaddoan Texts 63 

hiru axn^kdrikqku tsu'sttt (56) hkru axriwa-ku tsustit M" sireti- 
rixwd ukti-kf (57) ruwltiwa*ku axke-ats atika ti'sirettocwd*" 
(58)> he rawdakardtsu axrawd-ku tsustit wesiwitiwkitskatqku a 
axraky^tii pirdaxkeats (59) hern axri-tsitara-ruts firaski ruwi- 
tire-wagfaxraWkat (60) he rawitqkardtsu irvtstdrasa hi kuaxruxra-- 
sitit hVocra-kUskdta' he axraskatdivvrwUt (61) tsustit a qxratararvru 
he hiru ^tu- ra qxrvku piraaxke-ats rawite-wasku (62) he-tsi tsustit 
weaxrqkit piraaxkeats vntiwa-ru-ksti" wksiaxra-wiispa^'^ (63) d-kqa 
siqxrurai'wd'ti (64) hern axriwa-ku kuTqhusa*u d-kq^a tatpdkd-hu 
kuristkq-e-siwa (65) kurahusa^u axrqwa^ku hqwa iraxkitsukatqwk 
kusikqresi'tva (66) hk weaxrdhe^sa hetsqahk axrawa-kupirqaxke^ats 
a- ruke-tuxwa (67) tri- alias kqrqrvwttska''' rqtsixkuwqrq (68) hiru 
qxrvkqriku he smxrawihu'kitqu'kvt (69) ruwitura-hiwits hiru 
Icqrdaxriu sirakuidka-hai dxiaxrutastqtsatqte (70) piraski weax- 
rqki'kat pire^tsaxriks (71) hHsi piraaxkeats wetarqwasku (72) rawi- 
tqkardtsu tira-riki pirqaxke-ats stwttitirdktqra (73) he qxrakqntstqhtt 
ram wctikqrLxr~axkq*qs (74) heru siaxre-wa siaxrawitspa (75) heru 
axriwa-bi kurahusq^u axruxrexku piretsdxriks kwwitixrdsukskikol 

there was someone living in a house old woman. (56) Then 
said (e,) old woman, ''Hiii, here come my two grand- 
children.' (57) He at once answered (q.) Long-tooth, "Grand- 
mother, here we two come." (58) Then suddenly said (e.) 
old womto, — they two were seated at the back (west) and 
she killed (e.) Long-tooth-baby. (59) Then she hung the kettle 
over the fire (e.) boy he was looking on (q.) he was crying, (e.) 
(60) and suddenly that hanging then something happened 
(e.) and the water boiled (e.) then he pushed against it 
with his feet (e.) (61) old woman then he scalded her (e.) and 
here again there he was sitting (e.) Long-tooth-baby there 
he was laughing (q.) (62) but old woman she was dead (e.). 
Long-tooth-baby he was wonderful (q.) when they got home (e.) 
(63) oh, they two were telling about it (e.) (64) Then said (e.) 
their father, '*0h, I've been saying, *Don't you two ever go 
there.' " {m) Their father said ''Also where the stream bends 
(e.) don't you two go there." (66) Then when it was morning(e.) 
^^Nevertheless," said (e.) Long-tooth-baby. "Oh, let us two go 

(67) wheire our father doesn't want for us two to go," 

(68) There was a rock (e.) and they two jumped upon it 

(69) and it happened (q,) here they could not to get down 
their feet got stuck to it (e.) (70) boy be was crying (e.) human 
child, (71) but Long-tooth-baby he was laughing (e.). (72) 
Suddenly this (standing) Long-tooth-baby they two had bows 
and arrows (q.) (73) and he struck the rock (e.) just the 
rock shattered into pieces (q.) (74) then they two went (e.) 
when they two arrived (e.) (75) then said (e.) their father, 
meaning human-child, "You must probably have been crying 

64 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

(76) weraxivd'ku d*hu sttikutsiksastatsatate (77) hkru axrvwa-ku 
kurahus hawd kusikare-si^wa ruirexkd'hura'Ttta (78) he hir'it qritd- 
waxtsa-ku aki kuruks kvtikaku he syaxrvrqas (89) ^-kaa piraski 
aruwitaxkikat he*tsi piraaxkeats axra-wasku (80) he rawitakaratsu 
pirdaxkeats axrwtikitd'hat hk axrqwa^rurisii'at tri-axTd-a kwruks 

(81) rawttaxkqruspirqku u-kaa kardwttirqkutkq^u witiwa-ruksti 

(82) akqrdwitska'sta ru-tsaxrikskat awdqruksdwatspa'ku kura- 
husq^u rutuhu'Ta-pu iri*tqra*kitot, 

(q.)" (76) He answered (e.), "Yes our feet were stuck to it, 

(77) Then said (e.) old man, "Again, don't you two wander 
off that timber extending this way (e.)." (78) And there was 
a group of cedar trees (e.) here bear was in among and he 
chased them (e.). (79) Oh boy then he was crying (e.) but 
Long-tooth, be was laughing, (e.) (80) Then suddenly Long- 
tooth-baby looked back (e.) and he blew that way (e.) where 
it was coming (e.) bear (81) and there was the bearskin hollow 
and wrinkled (q.). Oh he can't obey (q.) (hear) he is wonderful 
(q.) (83) he would not want to among people if he would even 
say his father, "Let us now go where we dwell among the 
tribe permanently. 


(Free translation.) 

There were two brothers, the long-toothed-baby, and a human 
child, and this is their story. A man and his wife lived alone. The 
woman was pregnant. The man would go hunting leaving his wife 
alone at home. While the man was out hunting, his house was 
attacked and his wife killed. The attacker cut open the woman's 
abdomen and removed the child which he hung up in the lodge. 
When the man came home and found his wife dead and his child 
hanging up in the lodge, he was stricken with grief and cried 
bitterly. He took the baby and fastened it to his right hip with 
his buffalo robe (which was tied around his waist and slung over 
his right shoulder) and wandered off from his home. He killed a 
female buffalo that was with calf and cut the udder off, and by 
wetting the nipples the baby would nurse. (When the woman 
was killed the afterbirth had been thrown into the water.) 

As time passed the baby whom the man carried on his hip while 
he was on the hunt, learned to sit up. He was a fine strapping 
baby. One day the man who was stiQ quite young, buUt a Uttle 
grass house and decided that they would make their home there 
until the boy grew up. When the boy was about three years old 
he would leave him at home and as was the custom he would give 
him some little bows and arrows with which to practise shooting, 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 65 

so thai he could amuse himself whUe his father was away. The 
boy tol his father that while he was gone, a small boy visited him, 
but thtt as soon as he was in sight, the boy would say, "your 
father s coming, now I must go." And then the strange boy would 
just diappear in the stream. The father thought the matter over 
and wien the boy told him that the stranger had said they were 
brothe*s, he was no longer worried about their playing together. 
When the father would be approaching the house the strange boy 
would always leave, but sometimes the man would get a glimpse 
of him as he went out. 

Wh(n the boy was six or seven years old, the boy and his father 
laid apian whereby they thought they could catch the brother. 
The b*)y said that the stranger was the same height as he was. 
The father made a bag of buffalo intestine into which he crawled 
to hid<s from the strange boy when he came. But the boy refused 
to corre in, saying, "Your father is inside." And so the plan failed 
and thfe strange boy ran away and jumped into the water as usual. 
Then the father decided to try a different plan. He killed a buffalo 
and t(*ok out the bladder which he blew up, tying the opening 
securely with sinew. Then the boy was to invite his brother to 
join iit a mutual delousing party during which he was to fasten 
the inflated bladder to his head. The plan was successfully carried 
out aiid when the father came back the boy was at the stream 
graspiag the hair of his brother who was in the water but could not 
submerge himself on account of the inflated bladder which was 
tied t() his head. Then they pulled him forcibly out of the water 
and h^ld him. The child began to cry, he was so frightened. Then 
the man found out that this boy was the afterbirth that had been 
thrown into the stream. The boy said to afterbirth-boy, "We are 
brothers," and the father said, "you are my son." At length the 
boy b(;came accustomed to human ways, and the father was very 
happy. He warned the boys that they should not wander about 
at random. This afterbirth-boy was the Long-toothed-baby and 
the otlier boy was the human baby. 

The father warned them especially to keep away from a certain 
thicket of cottonwood trees. As soon as he was gone, the Long- 
toothed-baby said to his brother, "Let's disregard our father's 
warning and go over there to that cottonwood thicket." Then 
the boys went and there they found a house in which an old woman 
was living. "Hiii," said the old woman, "here come my two grand- 
children/' Long-toothed-baby answered her at once, saying, "Yes, 
grandmother, here we are coming to visit you." The two boys 
were sitting at the back of the lodge, when the old woman killed 
Long-toothed-baby and put him in a pot of water over the fire 
to cook. The brother saw all this and was crying, when suddenly 
something seemed to be happening to the pot. When the water 
boiled, the boy inside pushed against the pot with his feet and 

66 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, X VII 

scalded tlie old woman to death with the hot water. And there 
sat the Long-toothed-baby laughing. He was wonderful and so 
he was able to save himself and kill the old woman in this manner. 
When they got home the boys told the whole story and their 
father said, ''Didn't I warn you against that place!" 

Then the father warned them about another place at the bend 
of the stream where they must not go. No sooner was it morning 
than the Long-toothed-baby urged his brother to come with him 
to the forbidden place. There they found a large rock onto which 
they jmnptMl and when they tried to get off their feet were stuck 
fast to 1 lie rock. The human boy was crying, but the Long-toothed- 
baby only laughed. Suddenly Long-toothed-baby struck the rock 
with their bows and arrows and it was shattered to pieces. When 
they got home the father noticed that the boy had been crying 
and he told his father that their feet had been stuck in the rock. 

This time their father warned them against going into a grove 
of cedar trees. When the boys got there a bear began to chase 
them and the human boy began to cry, but Long-toothed-baby 
was laughing. Suddenly he turned his head and blew behind him. 
toward the approaching bear, and the bear was transformed into 
a wrinkled up bearskin. 

That Long-toothed-baby simply can't be obedient for he is 
"wonderful". His father would beg him time and again to go 
among their people, but he would refuse. 


(l)takuwitiitathetira'ku tskisa-tuxpi^ra^u iasti sikgrgftvitika^pd^kis 

(2) he tsu-raki ruaxre^rihvt tskisa-tuxpi^ra^u siwiterurapirihu^^ 
rusiwddrwrihvt (3) heaxrdruxtsa tswraki rakdra*ki taku witite-hat 
asku*u iriawtteruxkaruts (4) raxkuraxkatd-ta ketstikutsu arawc- 
tarikitawihirasat (5) heru" irikiixrvhi weaxrixkawUb'tiku hi axrq- 
hd'pa rihuksw witiha-kvt kd-pit he qxretuxkasa witixkawu-tiku 

(1) There there was a village (q.) and this one (sitting) 
Meat-child-girl her father (parents) they were not poor (2) and 
girl she was the only one Meat-child-girl (child of plenty and 
wealth) they loved her very much (q.) she was their only one. 

(3) She had (e.) girl a plate here it was so large (q.) the 
same that which they would set them upon (food). (4) When 
they went hunting (e.) far off she would ride ahead. (5) Then 
way off somewhere they woxild be killing them (e.) and there 
were trees (e.) only the trees were (q.) hackberry — there 
v\ as a village in among (e.) they were kilUng them (q.) it was 

WeUfish, Caddoan Texts 67 

U^iti'hi'pitsikat (6) hern axriwa-ku tsu-raki raxkura-rukitahdwari 
(I pi-raski (7) he isa-sti siwiteruraripaku karda*sihukitahdwari he 
Tgkis witeruxra-hat he piraski wdiksaktdraxru tikspakia-hu tskuske*- 
witiku (8) a tikdstspa rdsttkat he tihaktwvxkd-hat he tihakikt- 
U^wvtit heru Uxrat (9) a tswraki ketsi he- siUhd-kasa he ritixrara- 
hirwtsu heri stterarduxkttsaharustdd-hu (10) he ra*rit rakurastt- 
p^ritsta'u n-kga aturd-he (11) heru uraristt vri-irHat heri tixrqrika- 
^hd'ku (12) weaxrarake*a axrHat he tsv^tit tiaxrdkariku kararq- 
kuxre^ra (13) tswraki pdsaslteru-u isirerurapirihu-ru (14) heru 
%xHwa-ku tsustit hd-a tsu-at rqkis kktuxrdkta-at (15) ru axrakqhuri 
heru axriwa-ku tswat Mtuxisqru (16) iweraxwd-ku tsu-raki ndwa 
hem axrixtsqru'kust'ttt (17) a-ki wekutihaktikduna rqkuha-htskd'u 
he rawttqkardtsu axrixra-kdwarit iriratkisakqrdtqwi ru-wttik uwut it 
(18) tird'ku tsustit he axrawd-ruksti heru axrustia tsustit iweaxrq- 
iuwutika (19) heru axriha-kdwa-ru qaxrukqhuruskqwat heru 
ixru'tsia tsustit rihe a*axrakq'qt (20) witiaocrdunru-ku" tsu-raki 
le-tsi weaxra-wihqi kttsdpqhd4u stu-raki (21) heru axriwa-ku he 
ixrerqriwitsa rq'kts (22) heriwewitiaxrdunru-ku tsu-tit tskisa- - 

n the winter time (q.), (6) Then she said (e.) girl when they 
vould sUde on the ice (e.) and boys (7) then her mother they 
vould forbid her (q.) not to go sHding around on top of water 
md wood they would go for (q.) and boys they used to 
lave sticks (q.) they used to call them sUding-sticks (8) and 
)ne would run on ice and one would put the stick under 
md he would mount the stick then it would carry him. 

9) and girls then — they had a forked stick and they 
Fould put the packs on them that's what they used to slide with 

10) and really when the ice is slippery oh, it would be fine. 

11) Then straight where the camp is there they would take 
hem out (12) It was a long time (e.) they were camped (e.) 
.nd old woman here she would have her house (e.) she is a 
Lo good one (13) girl they would hate her because they loved 
ler. (14) Then said (e.) the old woman, *'Ha, there now 
laughter, wood let's go for wood !" (15) There they were way 
^mong then she said (e.), ''Daughter, let me delouse you." 
16) Then said (e.) the girl, "All right." then she proceeded 
o delouse her (e.). (17) But she had a stick hidden with her 
b very sharp stick and suddenly she put the stick inside her (e.) 
^here the hole of her ear is then she killed her (q.). (18) This 
sitting) old woman — she is wonderful (e.) then she did(e.) 
>ld woman when she had killed her (e.) (19) then she blew 
nto her mouth (e.) and she took the skin off then she did (e.) 
M woman there she crawled into it (e.) (20) she was imperson- 
ating (e.) girl but she had thrown her into the water (e.) the 
laked skinned girl (21) then she said (e.) — they arrived 
rith it (e.) wood (22) and she was impersonating (e.) old 

68 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, VXII 

tuxpi-rq^u (23) taku weaxrasa'karit he weraxrahwkitskqtaku 
iriweaxrq'u tskisa'tuxpi-ra^u (24) Mru axriwa-ku isA-ati tskisa— 
tuxpi-ra^u kaweruxratsq^us (25) heru axritsikdru*tsu iri'kuaxra'U 
fffkdrd'ki (26) kitw axrakdrihats he hqwd ruaxriwa-ku rstu (27) 
heru axriwa-ku tsustirg'u kurikakaxsirixra4e heru axriwa^ku atira 
tikupakstdd-ri (28) he rahvri qxrixkird-wa rahvri kqrawitura-he 
(29) heru axriwa-ku tsustirq^u tdtttska sirakuxrghu-ru-a (30) heru 
axriwa-hi ird-sa tsu-rdki ka-ki aki- he rewttska sdikuwihurdsista 
(31) hefstnahe* tsustird^u axrawa-ku e siruxrqhu-ruksta (32) heru 
siaxritsf^'-kurat kituks u-kqq rihuksu witqhukd-hu he ke-tsi we raru 
axre-wari dpa-ru (33) heru axritva-ku u-kqa rutirikdwitat tskdpaku-- 
tsq'ku rdaxke-tsik^ kitskqrardtsqku he, axruraktqhuriruxtsi (34) a 
kusikardaxrire-wihuras he axrakqtahd-ku (35) heru siqxritse-kurat 
hqwd iri-sirexkutqkurata a kuka-ke-rdhuras (36) heru axriwa-ku 
ia-sii ndwa ruwksditqkurduxta kd-ka (37) u-kqa rihuksu wttqhuka-hn 
he weqxritdkqraritsaktu i-ra-sa (38) heru axriwa-ku U'kqa rutirikd- 
witat astqtsqwqskdtus u-kqa kawika-tit (39) u-kqa wesiaxritqwiuxkt- 
tawdtpqri hetsi weqxritdkqraritsaktu (40) heru axriwa-hi rawttq- 
kardisu axrawikd-ra kd-ka heru axriwa-ku 

woman Meat-child-girl. (23) Right here the sun is standing 
(e.) and she was sitting in the back (e.) the one that is (e.) Meat- 
child-girl. (24) Then said (e.) her mother, ''Meat-child-girl 
are you hungry?" (25) Then she put them in for her (e.) the 
one that is hers (e, ) plate (26) all she ate up (e.) then again 
she said (e.) ''More!" (27) Then said (e.) the mother, '*You 
don't usually do that." Then she said (e.) "Mother, my 
head hurts." (28) Then finally she became sick (e.) finally 
she was no good. (29) Then said (e.) her mother, "I want 
them to treat you." (30) Then said (e.) that (lying) girl, 
"No." For now she thought, ''They are going to find 
me out." (31) Nevertheless her mother said (e.) " — They 
are going to treat you." (32) Then they went to get them 
fe.) beavers. Oh just when they came in (q.) — then 
now just she was tumbling about (e.) secretly. (33) Then 
she said (e.) "Oh, thefools 'top-faces' (faces like a top) 'long- 
tooth-ones' 'big-stomach-filled-with-water'." Then she called 
them many names (e.) (34) and they did not discover her 
image (dissembling) (e.) then they got out (e.). (35) Then 
they M (Mit to get them (e.) again when they would go for others 
(e.) t irt'ii they would not find any, (36) Then said (e.) her 
father. "Now they are going to go and get crows." (37) Oh, 
just wlii'ii they came inside (q.) then she was saying allsorts 
of mean words (e.) that one (lying). (38) Then she said (e.), 
"Oh, the fools, flat-chapped-feet, oh black eyes." (39) Oh 
they were jumping up and down and back and forth (e.) but 
she was saying all kinds of mean words (40) then she said (e.). 
Suddenly he sang (e.) crow "then he said: (e.) 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 69 

(41) 'Hsasiri kurustirdhuras ketsku werarutsiksawatstikati' 


exkavmtiksa*ru he kustirahuras 

^^iru axru'tsia axrararu-ku (42) he- axrawiha titaku raru wite*- 
^Ihukitau'kvt awa^hiri ruwiri ruwitiwdkta (43) he iweaxrawikdrqu 
h^ axrawd'ku 

'Watku* rikakdtuvt tirqxreUu*ktu'' 

(^4) heru axriwa-ku 

''tsdsi'Ti weqrutsiksawaxtsitdwiraru'sn 
he ktistirdhuras^' 

(4^) heru trirutarii *tsia 

''irqru'hw kd*ka" 

hetti weaxrirahuriruoctsi weaxrawdka-hu kqwikd-tit wetikuwihurdsista 
(46) he rawitqkarqtsu axrawd^kti kd*ka tsustit a kurahus tira-sd 
ka^hi sikurasixra^u (47) rihuksu riwitiwd-ku he siaxnxtqrustdwqtsi'Ut 
d siaxnxku'ttt (48) heru axriwa-ku kurqhus kd-ka pakuxtu sitix- 
ruxhu'ttt tsu-raki (49) heru axriwa-ku ndwa heriru axrihutsdkatspu 

(41) "Despite obstacles I could find out easily several 
even if it happened that number of years ago 
if were killed then I would find out." 

thereupon he did thus (e.) as he sang (e.) (42) — he jumped 
up (e.) right here just he jumped on top (q.) on the chest 
as he crowed (q.) (43) then when he sang (e.) — he said(e.): 

In vain I am not that way this suit on me." 

(44) then he said (e.): 

* 'Despite obstacles even if a grave would be woolly with 


then I could find out." 

(45) then he would proceed to da that: 

Under one who has power the crow. 

but she was giving him plenty (e.) she was sajdng (e.), "Black- 
eye he is going to find me out !" (46) Then suddenly he said (e.) 
crow, old woman and old man, "This one (lying) not 
is your child." (47) Just as he said that (q.) then they dragged 
her outside (e.) and they killed her (e.). (48) Then said (e.) 
to the old man the crow, "Long ago they must have killed 
yours girl." (49) Then he said (e.), "All right." Thereupon 

70 Publications y American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

Ica^kd iriwitihirasa (50) ii'haa hern axrewihdu*kat he weaxrara— 
rukd'tasa rdrewd*tuksu (51) he rawitakaratsu rawduxkitspixtsa 
he axrqhe-rit tsu-raki (52) u^kaa hiru raqxri-ku tswraki wesiaxrix- 
re^ri'ka (53) heru axriwd*ku atira tikurauxkd'pd'kis (54) ii^kaa 
riruwititsire'tsLS rakuwa-rukstvu riraku kd-ka (55) a axraraxkatdhat 
he wesiqxritsirasa tswraki 

they went to the stream (e.), crow being the one in the lead (q.). 
(50) Oh, then he jumped into the water (e.) and they were 
scattered along the bank (e.) spectators. (51) Then suddenly 
there stood a mist then he brought her out (e.) girl. (52) Oh 
there she sat (e.) girl when they took her out (e.). (53) Then 
she said, (e.) ''Mother, she treated me poorly." (54) Oh there- 
upon they realized he is a wonderful one that (sitting) crow. 
{b6) and they got out (e.) and they had with them (e.) girl. 


(Free translation.) 

Once there was a village and in this village lived a girl named 
Meat-child-girl. Her parents were wealthy and she was their only 
child and so they lavished all their love upon her. She had a plate 
of her own which was so large that she could have generous quanti- 
ties of food placed upon it. When the tribe went hunting she rode 
ahead on a fine horse. 

Once while they were far from the village on a hunting-expe- 
dition, winter overtook them and so they made their camp among 
a grove of hackberry trees. When the boys and girls would go to 
fetch wood, they would have a way of sliding across the ice. This 
the girl's parents forbade her to do. The boys would use long sticks 
that they would call sliding-sticks. A boy runs a way with the 
stick and then mounts it, the stick carrying him along for some 
distance further. The girls had forked sticks ; upon the fork they 
would place their packs and slide along upon them. The more 
slippery the ice, the more fun it would be. The wood is carried 
across the ice to the camp. 

They camped there for a long time. Among the people lived a 
wicked old woman. The girl was hated because of the many things 
her parents lavished upon her. One day the wicked old woman 
asked the girl to come into the woods with her to get wood. When 
they were in the woods she said to the girl, **Let me delouse you," 
and she consented. The old woman had hidden about her a very 
sharp stick and as she pretended to pick at the girl's head, she 
pushed the stick into the girl's ear and killed her. The old woman had 
magical powers. She blew into the girl's mouth and took off her 
skin and then crawled into it herself so that she might impersonate 
the girl. She threw the skinned body into the stream. 

Weltfishy Caddoan Texts 7l 

She arrived with the wood during the afternoon. The old 
woman who was impersonating Meat-Child-Giri went into the 
lodge and sat down at the west in the best seat. Her mother asked 
if she was hungry and then set before her her plate filled with food. 
The old woman ate it all up and asked for more. The mother 
wondered about this as this was not the girl's usual habit. Then 
the girl complained of a headache and finally she became very 
sick. When the mother proposed that she be treated, she refused 
for she knew that she would then be exposed as an impostor. 
However, the mother decided to compel her to be treated and she 
called in the beaver doctors. As the beaver doctors came in she 
was secretly tumbling about and calling them all sorts of names, — 
fools, face-like-tops, long-tooth-ones, big-stomachs-filled-with- 
water, etc. However, these beaver doctors did not discover the 
true character of their patient, and they left the house. Then 
others were called but without avail, until finally her father decided 
to call upon the crow-doctors. As they entered the lodge, she 
hurled epithets at them under her breath saying, '*fools, flat- 
chapped-feet, black-eyes." The crows began to jump back and 
forth over her and then the head-crow singing a song, jumped 
right on her chest. He began to sing: 

'T could readily find out. 

Even after many years have passed 


As he jumped onto her chest he continued to sing : 

**It is not in vain that I wear this magical cloak.*' 

Then he went on: 

''Even should the grave be old and overgrown with weeds, 
still I could find the killer." 

And further he sang: 

"You are now in the power of the crow." 

She began to shout derisively at him saying, '*Black-eye, so 
you are going to find me out." 

Suddenly the crow told the girl's parents that this was not their 
child and they at once dragged her out of the lodge and killed her. 
Then the crow said to the girl's father, *'Your daughter must have 
been killed a long time ago." They followed the crow to the stream 
and he jumped into the water. There was a crowd of spectators all 
along the banks. Suddenly a mist rose from the water and the 
crow brought the girl out of the stream. There she sat and she 
told her mother how miserably the old woman had treated her. 
Then they reahzed how wonderful the crow was and they took the 
girl home with them. 

72 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 


(1) he asku raruhura^ru qxruksitat ruxra*ru rihskira-wa ihera*ku 
tsu-raki (2) iasti hawa he triwttikttqwi (3) he piraski tiheta'ku 
axrd'ku hqwa karawitrkd-pd-kts (4) he tsu*raki irikuxreruratsikstq- 
tate-tit (5) ru wewitiraxkdtqat rwrihvra he weaxrerdhta titkq- 
kusdrista resd'TU (6) d-kaa tsu-raki a piraski siwituxre he ira'ku 
pi-raski he axrarirutste tsiti-raki^ (7) he kqru*vt titrinveru'ta 
karu-U'te-nt (8) heru axriwa-ku pi-raski tsirw rexra-wi-rdkuxta 
he' ctixwitsa (9) heru" weaxrqra^rat irikuxri-hi* he axrarawird-kaJb 
pvraski (10) he ru*axnxkqwii*tit he axrixwaki wewitira^wi-rq'kat 
pvraski (11) he rikqrarutsid^hu hu- wewitirawvrqkat piraski 
qxntkakustqrit re*sd'ru (12) he* kctsi ru'irerdxwari he tsu-raki 
axrixkirdwaxtstttt (13) heru axriwa-ku iasti dxrqwaktit axrawd'ku 
wewttqtuxraktqrapitd^haksta tswraki wewittxkira'wa (14) heru- 
weaxrararitsaxkdvsat iriaxrqkttke*u tsihe witirarUsaxkdvsat (15) 
kukqrawdisqkuxkqri he axrahurdhats tsu*raki (16) H'kaa rexkuka* 
pd'ktsu isastid iasti (17) mwekuxrira-wiu he axrawaktd tqrwtsius 
(18) ketsi weaxrira-rdxkqru heru axriwaktit tqru'tsius (19) re^sa-ru 
axrawa-ku kdsiwa*kn wetataraktaxkatduxta heru amraxkatorot 

(1) Then same place they were camped (e.) the reason was 
she was sick that other girl. (2) Her father also — he 
was at the head (q.) (3) and boy over here he was (e.) also 
he was not poor (q.) (4) and girl someone liked her. (5) There 
they went hunting (q.) further and they knew (e.) he is 
going to be (sit inside for him) son-in-law of chief. (6) Oh, girl 
and boy they were handsome (q.) and that boy then 
he liked her girl. (7) But it wasn't that way the way it is now 
he couldn't see her. (8) Then said (e.) boy, ''Wait, I am 
going on the warpath then I return." (9) Then as they were 
going (e.) way off some- where then he went on the warpath (e.) 
boy. (10) Then there they killed them (e.) and they said (e.), 
"He has gone on the warpath (q.) boy." (11) Then that was 
not the custom oh when he goes on the warpath (q.) boy 
the one that is going to be the son-in-law (e.) chief. (12) Then 
but ^s they were travelling about then girl she sickened (e.). 
(13) Then said (e.) her father he announced (e.) he said (e.), 
*'We must turn back (q.) girl she is sick (q.)." (14) Then 
when they arrived home (went among) (e.) where their village 
was (e.) just as they arrived in the village (q.) (15) it was not 
many days (q.) and she died (e.) (she got lost) girl. (16) Oh, 
they were very miserable her mother and her father. (17) 
Some time after that then announced (e.) the apprentice. 
(18) But they were planting (e.) then announced (e.) appren- 
tice. (19) Chief he said (e.) ''You must say, 'We are now going 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 73 

(^0) rurrhuxri'hi witihurarasd^a tsurctspd-ku'^ (21) hiru 

. n'^iaxraMqlcuwu he axrqwakdsakta we-tdkarikstiwitsa pvraski 
(22) ndwa " iweaxrd*ku kqrixwitska piraski tasdxwttska e*kaa 
tsufaki kuatute-nt (23) he rawctakarqisu axrqwa-ku isa-sti 
hu*' tiki resaru tuxkut tsu-raki (24) u'kqa piraski wituksakq- 
"^'(^'xtsu ru witiruhurq'hat (25) axrqwd-ku ru piraski atird kiru- 
^dhirahats kirurahura-a (26) hem axriwa-kn isa-sti tiki rihuksu 
tax^aktaritsaxkdvsat he re-hurahats (27) he tirirasakqku herjrutatq 
tiwi'Jcu (28) irituxrdrata heru axrurahiwits wewitisaku-risat he 
P^'Yaski witiaxrutstahure-pu (29) wdirawdtsu-ra heriru axriat 
mhtatawie-riksat kqrdwitvktta kqtse-hqrd'ku (30) heru** axrqat 
ira6 a qxrdhe*sa he hqwd qxrd-he^sa (31) pitku aaxruxrdtke*a he 
^^y%'he'sa he weaxrawitsuxta irvaxrakitki-u (32) heru qxrikitawvtit 
O'^r^re-wdtira rawttikitkqha^ruat (33) heru axriat iri axrqwa-ka 
isa'sti ruti'tu'tqtq (34) he hiru qxrutse-ta arwsd wtti-sa (35) M-tu 
'^itiwa^ku isa-sti arwsd sitiik uwu td e trird-sa (36) d-kga riweax- 
raki/Jcat pi'raski nntirqtstkstqa (37) heru axriwdska pi-raski tqku 
iriruasexkuksqwatstiwaxte-ku'tu iriru'tqta*kusta (38) a aocrute^ tri- 

huiiting. ' ' * Then they went hunting (e. ) . (20) Way off somewhere 
the name of the place is (q.) Gurrs Mountain. (21) There they 
wefe travelling (e.) and someone seemed to say (e.) **He has 
arrived with a herd boy. (22) Now as he was sitting (e.) they 
did not think boy that he wanted oh, girl I wish I could 
see her. (23) Then suddenly said (e.) his mother, '*0h son, 
chief his died girl." (24) Oh, boy he was eating there 
right then he stopped (q.) (25) he said (e.) that boy, '^Mother, 
where did she die, where is the place?" (26) Then said (e.) 
his mother, *'Son just when we arrived at the village then she 
died. (27) And there where the sun travels there's where her 
grave is." She said, (28) '^There's where the graves are." Then 
suddenly (e.) (there appeared) the sun had gone down (q.) then 
boy he tied it around his waist (29) he had an arrow-pouch. 
Thereupon he went (e.) to see the grave (q.) he was not 
mounted (q.) he was afoot. (30) Then he went at night, 
and in the morning (e.) and another morning (e.) (31) two 

nights overtook him (e. ) and in the morning when he was 

about to complete his journey (e.) where the village was (e.) 
(32) then he sat up on top (e.) he was looking about (e.) there 
the village was extending, (q.) (33) Then he went (e.) where 
she said (e.) his mother her grave is at a certain place. (34) And 
there was her grave (e.) horse is lying (q.) (35) because 
she said (q.) his mother, *'Horse they killed for her." So 
there it lay. (36) Oh he cried (e.) boy it hurt his feeUngs. 
(37) Then he thought (e.) boy, '*Right here even if I should 
proceed to starve to death I am going to sit right here !" (38) And 

74 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

ru*witikatawe*raku dta-imkat he iweaocrd'hesa he hiru axruxtsakurdvnre 
(39) hern axriwi'tit pi4a axrarewdat irv axrakttkahaxku^ (40) he 
rawttakardisu axraramskgwatat resaru iri*axrarurqka'wi (41) 
tswraki iriaxruksaka-wi kgra-rdtd-u (42) hern axriwitska pvraski 
d'kga rutuksat kird-taku karakd-ku (43) hem axriat rihuksu witU" 
ta aocrarikakuhurctspgtat iri*rahiwdtgm (44) he axrarcwd^ta he hiru 
ti irirgsdkgku ruraxkusaxriraspi ru wkgtat (45) he hiru riaxrdxku 
tswraki ru rihira wdutpiu (46) he axrahastii-ku tuxpg'hat ru i-raxku 
he kuxrardvta (47) heru axriwa-ku kgresirvhu'ka iritgkuresuksku 
(48) heru axriwi4it pi*raski weaxrd-he^sa (49) heru axriwa-ku 
ritgku hdwa sukspi-ttt su^'huri irirakttsukdtawi^ aru witita-ruts 
wekqrawttitdraxkis (50) wewitiriwaxte*ku'tu a hqwd weaxrahatstd*- 
(51) aqxrutstqkurd*ru kskvtiks iaxrqmtspu he rahiri weqxra^ku 
irrru qxrvku (52) tahetqku axrd*ku kqrakawitqtqku (53) he 
tirasdkuxku sihuks iriqxritpdwaktit (54) heru axriwa-hu tsu'raki 
kqweruxrqtsd'us (55) ru axriwd-ku hqwd kawerdhatstd'his (56) 
piraski axrqwa'ku d*hu heru axrutsia tsu-raki (57) tcmkuwitwtu 

all night (e.) he stayed he sat there leaning against it against 
the grave and when it was morning (e.) and there the 
sun was very bright (e.) (39) then he sat down (e.) man he 
was looking (e.) where the village sits (e.) (40) and suddenly 
smoke came out of (e.) chief where the dwelling is (e.) (41) girl 
where she had hved mud-lodge. (42) Then thought (e.) boy, 
''Oh, I'd better go there someone must be in there (sitting)." 
(43) Then he went (e.) just then he did that (q.) he peeped 
in (his forehead extended over) where the door was. (44) Then 
he looked about and there here where the sun travels (the 
south side) the seat on the end (southwest seat) there west 
(45) and there she sat (e.) girl there that way (direction) 
she was facing, (q.) (46) And she was making a string (e.) belt 
there that one then she probably knew. (47) Then she said (e.) 
''Don't come in right there you must sit." (48) Then he sat 
down (e.) boy when it was morning (e.). (49) Then she said (e.), 
"Right here again sit down this way just inside the vesti- 
bule (where the water bends)i Then he would lay himself down 
he was not strong (50) he was starving to death and also 
he was thirsty (e.) (51) the days numbered (e.) four as he 
came closer there (e.) and finally he was (sitting) (e.) right 
where she was (sitting) (e.) (52) over there she sits (e.) he 
wasn't sitting next (to her) (53) and this day (sitting) the fifth 
then she talked to him (e.). (54) Then she said (e.) girl, "Are 
you hungry ?" (55) Then she said, (e.) "Also are you thirsty ?" 
(56) Boy answered (e.) "Yes." Then she did (e.) girl, 

^ A seat at the end of the vestibule inside the second door to the lodge 
proper, on a raised hump of ground that is found there. Literally this 
can be translated as where the stream bends. 

Weltfishy Caddoan Texts 75 

kutstaxkataxkiripaxki he axritkiixkqkus ta-kaski witihuka (58) 
heru axrutsia d axritara&kqkus a kgrdaxrikdrikats he axrakdwaki'ta 
(59) hawq ruaxririkird-ru* hqwa rikuwitu4u tskdrutski a kqrdqx- 
rikifskqrihats (60) he axrqkusd*rit hern axriwa*ku tsu-raki hd-a 
irutkusarikqku riwitikasi'uts (61) heru axriwa-ku tqku tdkeha-- 
ratsta (62) he rdwatqkardtsu he axrghakdpaxta (63) rwwdikit- 
kaha- ruat heru- U'kqtat iaxrahakdpakta (64) he rawttqkardtsu 
aocraraxkaksqwa aoorqke-hqntsdxkqhat (65) he kqraaxrirqkutkqu 
iri'kuQorixwqkid'hn (66) hetsi* tswraki axrahii'kitqku (67) 
U'kqa he qxrutttkaxta-ka'at kehdxriri kukardwitirakutdke-nt (68) 
a axrqk&harawqtsi'tit ru* ise*ru witiraxkaksdusqt (69) heru 
axriwa*ku tsu-raki trititariusta (70) kskitiks tutstdkuraruksta rake*- 
haxru'kahu (71) he-tsi piraski istii- weaxratdraxkis iaxrahakqwa*- 
xtsu (72) askuu' dwite-ru td-kaski he* kakdxkqrihats (73) ise-- 
ru wiU'ra-a raxkuratked-ra hern witaxwd-ku tsu*raki the raku- 
saxku kasikukitqsa (74) he ra-hiri iwerake-haxru-ka (75) he 
tiwerqkehaxru'ka heriweaxrutakistaxrh-rhrit (76) he rdhi-ri trim 
axri'ku tsu'raki axrakusarawerqku he riweaxra-ku (77) asku 

(57) it was only so large a little yellow kettle (brass) and she 
placed it on the fireplace (e.) dry meat she put in (q.) (58) Then 
she did (e.) — she placed the dry meat upon it (e.) (plate) 
and he did not eat it up (e.) and he filled up (59) also she 
gave him water (e.) also it was only this size (q.) water-pouch 
and he did not eat (drink) the water up (e.) (60) and there 
were beds (e.). Then said (e.) girl, *'Look, that middle bed 
you can lay yourself there." (61) Then she said (e.) '*Right here 
a dance is coming." (62) Then suddenly — a drum sounded 
(e.). (63) The village extended that way then west side when 
that drum sounded (e.) (64) then suddenly they began to yell (e.) 
a dance passed through the village (e.) (65) and he couldn't 
understand (hear the words) (e.) whatever they were saying. 
(66) But girl she was sitting on top (e.). (67) Oh then the 
dust passed around (e.) in the room he could not see them 
(68) then the dance went outside (e.) there clearly they yelled 
along (q.). (69) Then said (e.) the girl, "They are going to 
do that (70) four these many days are going to be for the dance 
to come inside." (71) And so boy again he was strong (e.) 
from eating. (72) The same she would give him (q.) dry meat 
and he would not eat it up. (73) Clearly it went on (q.) when 
it became night (e.) then she would say (q.) (e.) girl, ''That 
other bed you may lie upon." (74) And finally when the 
dance came in (75) and this time as the dance came in he saw 
their shins (76) and finally right where she sat (e.) girl 
the bed that was behind (e.) and by now he was sitting there (e.) 
(77) once he would eat (q.) and they would fill up (e.) all day 

76 PvblicationSy American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

witihd'kqioa'xtsu he sttaxkdwakiit sakuxki'tu (78) iw^ct^xra'- 
kehaxru*ka iras he ra-hiri weaxruta-k^riku tsaxrihs (79) hk 
taxkeha-rawatsi'td rw isearu taraxkuksdusgt (80) a* raxkurd'tawe 
he tsaxkahdxriri rarii terawikd-ra (81) rahi-ri ruiriruaxrvku tsuraki 
weaxrqwd'ku tvtqku suhurukltawvttt (82) he weaxrd'he-sa rdriwvtsu 
heru axriwa-ku tsu-raki (83) ndwa tatirdi-ta trirgsutatsiksd-ra irasi" 
ra (84) heru axriwa*ku he hqtod iriresuxrd*^ utrvrikwtasjftit (85) 
heru axriwa'ku piraski (86) he iriruvt he-re'tuksitska rihukaii 
itqwitsa heru re'tsiritirasta (87) a axrqwd-ku tswraki he kitu 
retirdi'ta irirasutqtscksd'ra e* ri'tuxra^^ tirasl-ra (88) heru 
axriwa-ku tsu-raki e ku'ra-ru kqresutsia tirasku (89) kwisutd'ra 
he hqu)d kqrereskutsie'riksta (90) he ke*tsi iweaxra-ke-haxru^ka 
he kitu we raru qxru'tse-pe-riku wttiit tsaxriks (91) heru axriwa-ku 
tsu'raki wetuxrqrapitav)d'haksta wetuxkarikstiruxtsi (92) axrawa-ku 
tsuraki witiraxkika-ku dsas d d-as wttixwttska wetixhurq'hats (93) 
heru aocriwa'ku tsu-raki trikuxrasitska kuraru- kqresutsia (94) e kitw 
weqxruhunt tsaxriks tsu-raki (95) we raru siwtturai-wat a sirax- 
kuhutsqkdtspqra d pt-ta he tdxkttqku raxkurewdtira (96) he weaxra- 
wa-ku tsu-raki wetqrdxvxi^ kuwekqrdaxrutsi^ wesiwdisdwa-hu (97) hi 

(78) when that dance came in (e.) at night then finally he 
saw them (e.) people. (79) And the dance would go outside 
so clearly, then they yelled along (80) and at times then 
among the lodges just one would sing a song. (81) Finally 
right where she sits (e.) girl then she would say (e.), ''Right 
here sit down upon. (82) And in the morning (e.) just then 
then she said (e.) girl, (83) *'Now, I know what you made 
up your mind about when you came." (84) Then she said 
'' — also you are the cause of it this that happened to me." 
(85) Then said (e.) boy, (86) "— that's right I had thought 
just when when I arrived then we would be together." 

(87) Then answered (e.) the girl, *'Now all I knew the 
intention you formed and I caused it this your coming." 

(88) Then said (e.) girl, ''And anything don't do you here 
sitting. (89) If you do then again you will not see me." (90) And 
so when the dance came in (e.) and all now just he could 
clearly see (e.) they are (q.) people. (91) Then said (e.) the 
girl, "They are all going to turn back there is lots of meat." 
(92) She said (e.) girl, "They are always crying (q.) your mother 
and your father, they think, 'Now he is dead.'" (93) Then 
said (e.) the girl, "If that is what you want anything don't do." 
(94) And entirely she was back to (e.) human (hfe) girl 
(96) now just they talked together (q. ) and they would go to 
the stream (e.) and man — he woidd sit on top (e.) he 
would be looking about (e.). (96) Then said (e.) girl, "Now they 
are coming." There was nothing about her (strange) they lay 
together (q.) (97) and he was married to her (e.) and man 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 11 

weaxraktaku a* pvta weascrardd'hu re-ksu siraxkuwaa (98) hem 
axriwa'hu tsu'vaki rahe-sd riwetqwdsdwsta kitkahaxweriksu (99) 
hem aocriwa^ku pi-ta e retkttawitiksta (100) tsuraki axntaru'stu hem 
axriwa'ku weimvitsd'hu (101) he-tsi pvta irakitaku hem axrurahiwits 
axraxkUawa-riki (102) ru axriwa-ku pi-ta ruweraxkitawd-nt (103) 
he4si irawa*riki m axririwaki hii^^ tdxkdaku he hdvxt rerdwiska- 
watd'ku (104) hem axntawird-wu tsihe wewitawdd'hu he pvta 
rttaxre-iawira (105) a axrahu*pu he pvta him a siaxrvku ii'kaa 
witiratsikste-hii^u (106) hem axriwa-ku pi-ta ndvxi tiretku (107) 
hem axTariwaki ti-rdwihat (108) e-kaa asas tixkd'pd'kcs tixwitska 
wettxrdkurahats (109) axrawa*ku pi4a tiwesiresute-nt tisiretku 
kasardpaki msiti-ku (110) ii-kaa he weaxrurekstariruxtsi (111) he 
tsuraki kuwekardaxmratsikse kuxrutkahd-ra i-rdwihat (112) 
siwitixrakirikuxkisum-ku tihe rdwihgt (113) hem axrvtsia 
kuxrikstdrixku td-kaski a siaxrirdwqu (114) hem axririwaki i'rdwi- 
hqt tsiru ti'vt irirara-ra (115) kukusutsitsakura-m kskHiks he 
raraxwAsa (116) hem axrvwu hem axriwa^ku tsu-raki ndwa 
toetqsut^'nsta mkesixrakta'ra riwahdrikta-kii (117) hem axriwa'ku 

he was bringing them to them (e.) corn for them to eat (e.). 
(98) Then said (e.) girl, ''Tomorrow they are going to arrive 
the advance-scouts." (mud-lodge-seers) (99) Then said (e.) 
man, "Well I am going to sit down on top." (100) Girl made 
fke. Then she said (e.), ''They are arriving." (101) And 
man as he sat on top then there appeared suddenly (e.) those 
that were. standing on top (e.). (102) Then said (e.) man there 
they are standing on top. (103) But those standing then they 
said (e.), "Oh, someone is sitting on top (e.) and also smoke 
is coming out." (104) Then they went down (e.) just when 
they were about at it (q.) then man he came down. (106) Then 
they went inside (e.) and man there — they two were 
sitting (e.). Oh they were all happy. (106) Then said (e.) man, 
"Now here I am (sitting)!" (107) Then said (e.) these here 
stopping (sitting), (108) "Oh, your mother, they are miserable, 
they think, 'He is dead'." (109) Said (e.) man, "Here you 
(plur.) see her here we (2.) are (sitting), you must say, "There 
they (2.) are." (110) Oh then there was lots of corn (111) and 
girl she was not feehng well (e.) she probably was smelling 
those sitting. (112) They were looking upon this and wondering (q.) 
these others these sitting. (113) Then they did (e.) they 
must have had with them dry meat and they each gave them 
some. (114) Then they said (e.) those (sittmg), "Yet it is 
far off where they are coming. (115) It probably will be so many 
days: four before they arrive." (116) Then they went (e!) 
then said (e.) girl, "Now you are going to do: go bring 
sticks plum-bush." (117) Then she said (e.), "Right here you 

78 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

tataku tasakdtarutsi'Sta trirghakttsku'ki (H^) heri axrawa^ku 
kuraku-ru sirgkuwaure-nt (119) hern axriwa-ku tsu-raki (120) 
Lskuruuxkitd'ta kn hqwdkakirdkusta dstdiwari (121) tsi itwuuxkttd*- 
ta he hgwd karereskutsierikvsta (122) heriaxrwta hern axriwa-ku 
ndwa he iriaxrgrutsi riwahdriktd*ku (123) he riaxra^wikitsutsqi 
kukgrawttirikdwa-ru'tsat (124) hern axriwa-ku tsu*raki asku weturav- 
wits (125) he istu risiaxru'ta U'kga pi*raski wttitdraxkis (126) he 
axrqwikttsutsgi he tgrutawatitgwirii'tit (127) he ra*hiri axrawa*ku 
tsu*raki wettkukd wa^rwtsat iri ise-rvt kuruxria tsdxriks (128) a 
wUigxruxpakstgrgrahuriwa-rtt heru axriwa-ku tswraki (129) ndwa 
wetaskuktgku (130) alias wesitikute-riksta d- gsas d d*as wesiru-te-- 
rtksta (131) a axrgwa-ku tswraki ndwa rwsikstdra* tdwgxtsa-ku a 
kewaut rardtsa-ka-ru"^ (1^^) heriru axnUsia pi'Toski a axra^rgra 
(133) heru axrutsia kitw asiaocrgrawiska-uts (134) u-kaa kgrgrurg- 
vAskghargwire-ra-hu tdwaxtsa-ku a kewgut (135) heru axriwa-ku 
tsgpat (136) ndwa wetaskuktgku iritiretsixtirdstgrit kukgreskuxre" 
tsdrisa (137) a- kukgre-sutsia tirdhuriwgwi tsgpat kuraru gsutsid-ra 

(138) he rawttgkardtsu axrgwa-ku pi-td axrakltgku wetaktgkuwa 

(139) akirikutiit idsti a hgwa pi-raski ia-sti gwit irikutaktgkuwa 

(140) ii'kga wesiaxrite-rtt heru axriwa*ku tsu-raki (141) kgresi- 

are going to place them behind the very sharpest stick." (118) Thus 
she said (e.). They pretended that they wrestled. (19) Then 
said (e.) girl, (120) "If you overpower me probably again 
there will be no ways that I may be among. (121) But if I 
overpower you then again you will not see me any more." 
(122) Then he did that (e.) then she said (e.) now thjen where 
they are (e.) plum-sticks (123) then there he threw her on 
top (e.) it didn't stick her. (124) Then said (e.) girl, *'One 
time is left." (125) Then again they did that. Oh, boy 
he was strong. (126) And he threw her on top (e,) and he 
would fall upon her. (127) Then finally she said (e.) girl, ''Now 
it is sticking me," when clearly she became human. (128)And 
she straightened about her head (e.) then said (e.) girl, 
(129) "Now, you have married me. (130) My father now they 
shall see me and your mother and your father they are 
going to see you." (131) Then said (e.) girl ''Now go bring 
them cedar tree and ragweed the white ones." (132) There- 
upon he did (e.) boy then he brought them (e.) (133) then 
he did (e.) all he laid the smoke inside. (134) Oh the smoke 
smeUs good cedar and ragweed. (135) Then said (e.) woman, 
(136) "Now you have married me when we are going to be 
together don't ever scold me (137) and don't do anything 
these hving women just anything to do." (138) And suddenly 
said (e.) man one sitting on top, "Now they are travelling 
this way." (139) And here it was they her father and also 
boy his father first they were the ones that travelled (140) Oh 

WeUfi&hy Caddoan Texts 79 

rdktaxkVkat hqwd wesireskute-nt (142) U'kaa ruhe-taku weaxra- 
raituspitspu axnxwake-hu tsuraki wewitvku (143) u*kaa kukq/rdwdf 
i'kiwira askuu- iriwtti^ vrvaxrutslksu-a (144) iwereraritsaxka he 
weraktaku (145) ikarurerikatiha'rihvt i'siaxrd*ku a-kir uwekutiraz- 
kdtawu (146) a-ki ira*ku prta wekutiwitska hetaku tsapat 
kud'tu'td-ra (147) he axratsikstaa kuxruxre'tats ruwtturahiwds 
hirii axrikutsta tsapat (148) ram witikut u-kaapiraski awdq- 
ruksawatskikikspari he hqwd kqritqtsiksta (149) ndwa tvrdrd-ku 
TU'iriwdu'ta (150) triwerututsira'i'tustd'Tu* , 

when they saw her (e.)! Then said (e.) girl, (141) **Don't cry 
again you see me." (142) Oh, way back there the word 
arrived (e.) they were saying, (e.) *'Girl she is there." (q.) 
(143) Oh, she is not different same as she was (q.) the 
way she looked, (e.) (144) They are now in the village and he 
is married to her (145) it was not one year they stayed there (e.) 
and they were all going hunting (146) and that man he 
wanted some other woman to do something. (147) And 
she got angry (e.) (he hurt her feelings) she found out and 
suddenly (q.) there she lay dead (e.) woman (148) just 
she died (q.). Oh boy he would wander about crying in vain (q.) 
but again she did not pay attention to him. (149) Now this 
w^ay (story) that's what he did (q.) (150) that's all of the story. 


(Free translation.) 

They camped at the same place for some time because the girl 
was sick. Her father was the head chief of the camp. In the same 
camp was a rich boy who loved the girl and wished to marry her. 
When the people moved camp and were travelling further along, 
word went out among the people that the boy was to become the 
chief's son-in-law. They were both very handsome, and the boy 
was fond of the girl, but he did not visit her as the custom among 
us in those days was different from that which is current today. 

One day the boy told the girl that he was going on the warpath 
and asked her to wait for him until he returned. While they were 
off hunting everyone remarked that the boy had gone on the 
warpath. It was the custom in those days for the boy who is to 
be the chief's son-in-law not to go off on the warpath. As they 
were on the march the girl became iU. The chief then announced 
that his daughter was sick and all should return to the village. 
A few days after they got home the girl died. Her parents were 

The planting season then began and after the planting was 
finished the chief told the apprentice that he was to announce 

80 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

that they were to go on the hunt. While they were on the hunt 
they came to a place called GirUs Mountain. There the boy rejoined 
the people, bringing with him a herd of horses that he had captured 
on the warpath. They did not remember that the boy would be 
very anxious to see the girl that he was to marry and it was not 
until he sat dow^n to eat his meal that his mother told him that the 
chief's daughter had died. When he heard this the boy at once 
stopped eating and asked his mother where the girl had died. His 
mother told him that the girl had died just as they got to the 
village J and that her grave was to the south where the graveyard 

In the evening he prepared himself for traveUing. Fastening 
on his quiver he set out afoot to find the girl's grave. He travelled 
two days and two nights and on the second day of his journey came 
within sight of the village. He sat down upon a hill looking down 
at the village, as it stretched out before him in the valley. Then 
he went to the place where his mother had told him the grave was 
and there he found a dead horse that had been killed for the girl. 
The boy cried bitterly for he was deeply grieved and he resolved 
never to leave the grave even should he starve to death. All night 
he lay against the grave and in the morning he sat looking over 
at the village, when lo and behold he saw smoke coming from the 
chief's house where the girl lived. He thought he had better go 
and see who was there. As he peeped through the doorway into 
the room he saw a girl sitting inside ; she was sitting in the southwest 
seat facing west and weaving a belt. Although she did not look 
in his direction she apparently knew^ he was there. She said, ''Don't 
come in, just sit down right where you are." He sat there until 
morning and this time the girl said, *'Come and sit downright 
in here near the door." As the days passed he kept moving closer 
and closer to the girl; this continued for four days and all this 
time the boy had had nothing to eat or drink and he was weak and 
hungry and would from time to time lie down. Finally on the fifth 
day the girl spoke to him and asked him whether he was hungry 
and thirsty. He answered that he was. Then she took a very 
diminutive brass kettle and put it on the fire and in it she cooked 
some dry meat. Then she served it to him and although the portion 
was very small his hunger was satisfied long before he had eaten 
it aU up. Then she also got a little waterpouch and offered him 
some to drink and this time too his thirst was quenched long before 
he had drunk enough to empty the little pouch. Then she told 
him to lie down and rest upon the middle bed and that there was 
to be a dance and that the dancers were coming into the lodge. 
Presently he heard the sound of the drums to the west of the village 
and there was shouting and then the dancers passed through the 
village. He could not understand what the dancers were saying, 
but the girl who was sitting up on her bed apparently did. Dust 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 81 

aro^ about the fireplace but the dancers were invisible to the boy. 
Thei the dancers left the lodge and this was clear to the boy by 
the rt^ay in which the shouting seemed to leave the room. The girl 
told him that this performance was to be repeated for four days. 
Meaiwhile the girl continued to give him dxy-meat and he grew 
stroiig again. The dancing went on as the girl had said it would, 
and 3very night after the dancers left, the girl would assign him a 
different bed, so that he would get progressively closer to hers. 
At Ust the boy could see the shins of the dancers. Finally the 
boy aad the bed right next to the girl's and that night he was 
able to see the dancers clearly; they were people. Then they would 
leave the lodge shouting as they went along. Sometimes someone 
would sing a song in one of the lodges. The lood that the girl gave 
him Was also pecuUarly satisfying ; if they simply ate once a day 
that was enough to satisfy their hunger for the entire day. 

Next morning she told the boy to sit down right next to her 
and she spoke to him. She said, ''I know what you came here for." 
Then she continued, "You are the cause of what has happened 
to me." "Yes/' replied the boy, ''I did do something that I 
shouldn't have done, but I thought we would be together again as 
soon as I returned from the warpath." Then the girl said, ''I knew 
what you intended and it is I that have caused you to come here. 
But reniember not to misbehave in any way again or you will lose 
me forever." This time when the dancers came into the lodge he 
could see clearly that they were people. 

Then the girl began to be clairvoyant and she told him what 
was going on at home. She said, "They are returning from the 
hunt and they have plenty of meat. Your mother and father are 
erying for they think you are dead." Then she told him again 
that if he wanted to have her he must remember to behave at all 
times. Now the girl had come back to life and began to act 
naturally, and they talked together in the ordinary way. They 
would go to the stream and while the girl swam he would sit up 
on a hill and look about. Now they were married and he would 
bring corn for them to eat. Then the girl said that the people would 
be coming home soon and that the next day the advance-scouts 
would arrive. So the boy sat on top of the lodge while the girl 
was inside making a fire. She said, ''Now they are arriving," and 
presently he saw the scouts standing on top of a hill looking toward 
the village. They noticed that there was smoke coming out of the 
lodge and that someone was sitting on the roof. When they came 
closer the boy came down and then the scouts who were invited 
into the lodge, saw that the boy and girl were alive and well. The 
scouts were overjoyed and told the boy that his parents were very 
sad for they thought he was dead. He told them that the corn 
had grown well and that as they could see the girl was also aUve 
-again. At this they marvelled. The girl began to feel sick and it 

82 Pvblicatioris, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

was probably because of their human vital odor. The scouts mu^t 
have had some dry meat with them which they gave to the young 
couple. They told them that the people were still some distance 
away and that they would not get there for at least four days. 
Then the scouts went away. 

The girl said to the boy, ''Now go and get some branches of 
the plum bush and put them right here next to the wall. Get the 
very sharpest branches you can find." Then they were to have 
a mock wrestling match and if the boy overpowered her she would 
again be entirely human. But if she overpowered the boy she would 
forever be lost to him. Then they wrestled and he threw her upon 
the sharp plum brancjjes but she did not feel any pain. Then the 
girl told him that he had one more chance and this time he threw 
her on the plum branches with all his might and threw himself 
upon her and at last she felt the pain and they knew that now she 
was entirely human. When she got up she rearranged her hair and 
said, "Now we are truly married and my parents are going to see 
me and your parents are going to see you. Go and bring some cedar 
and some white ragweed." Then they smoked the lodge with the 
cedar and the ragweed so that the odor might permeate every- 
where. The smoke of the cedar and the ragweed is very fragrant. 
Then she said to him, "Now that we are married, don't ever scold 
me or go with other women." 

As the boy sat outside he said the people were coming. There 
were the boy's parents and also the girl's. She said, "Don't cry 
any more, here I am again." Word travelled all through the tribe 
that the girl was back and in her normal form. They were married 
and lived happily for some years, but once when they were away 
on a hunt the man courted another woman. When she found out 
what had happened, his wife was so grieved that she died. The 
boy wandered about aimlessly in his grief, but in vain ; this time he 
could not bring her back to life again, for he had broken his word. 

Vision and Sacred Stories. 


(1) pdkuxtu he axruksituxku rdtara-kuki he azrvtsiksdktatsd^us 
e piraski wituksku rakuka-pd-kis^ (2) heru axriwitska pvraski ru 
taku* rarw ke*tiat (3) heru e ika^ri dxraruxku (4) wkwitirariwaxte-- 

(1) long ago — there was a village (sitting) (e.) us (Indians) 
— they were hungry (e.) and a boy there was (sitting) (q.) 
a poor one (2) then he wanted (e.) boy, "Right there just 
let me go." (3) And — grandmother he had, (4) They 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 83 

kawu4u pi-ra^u (5) heru* kuru*axriat (6) heru axrikvtsuat he 
karqtikstaktdvta wttasdxkttste^hat (7) tirakitste'hat kakatikstaktdvta 
(8) weaxrakikat pvraski (^) axrahuka*tgku he axrakistutspd 
tsaxriks (10) raxkukspttsata he tariwdxte-kut (11) hem siaxre-wa* 
rikutski (12) iwesiaxrawd-ku kiriksrastikikat tiki (13) axrawd-ku 
titaku tdtctska ratkwta (14) tatdska ratkuhu-kata-ta (15) iriwesiwdia 
tsusawe (16) heru siaxriwd-ku nd'wa he sire'tarahwkatduxta 
(17) he siaxri-rikitauts heru axriwa-ku hqwd pitku sttawd-tsta 
ivesirikwritsi'sata hawa pttku sira-wa?^ (18) hqwa pitku sitia H^tsa-ha 
(19) he riru'siaxrirvrat wesiaxrghu-ata sikqrahwat siwite-wa (20) e 
wesiaxruri'tsi'sata ehe* sirawa'riki u-tsa-ha herihe siaxrwuxka-at 
(21) he tihe* sirqwa^riki raru* sikuxriat (22) wesiqxrwritsi'sata 
rahurvtat he rahi-ri hirii ise-rd rdxrura^ru-hat ise'rd wesiaxrqhw- 
katdwdspa (23) he weaxrariwaxtekwfu pi-raski (24) hd-wa 
axrahatstd'his hiru axre-ka kara^rata^^u he axrawitsat pi-raski 
(25) si'wdi'tqtsikskd-pd'kts wdint kurahus iriwe'siqxri'tsirgswkata 
pi-raski (26) hk axrare-wa-td' pvraski (27) tsu-vxrerepvru dxrakqri 
rarqtsdwd'wi ri'wqtaxpqkusta*ru'kitq'ku (28) axrare-wa-td tinrirq- 

were starving to death children. (5) Then he went way off. 
(6) And there was a stream (e.) but we didn't know that 
the stream was there (q,) (7) this side of the stream we did not 
know. (8) He was crying (e.) boy (9) he sat on the bank (e.) 
and there were bones lying about (e.) people. (10) When one 
would get there (e.) then one would starve to death (11) then 
two came (e.) birds. (12) When they said (e.) ''Why are you 
crying, son?" (13) He answered (e.) ''Here I want to go. 
(14) I want to go across." (15) What they were was (q.) buz- 
zards. (16) Then they said (e.), "All right, then, we will 
carry you across." (17) — they put him on top (e.) then he 
said (e.), "More two are coming. When we are tired again 
two they come, (18) again two they are grouse," (19) and 
then they took him (e.) as they proceeded to cross (e.) they 
didn't move through the water (wade) they flew (q.) (20) and 
when they were tired (e.) then the other those two (standing) 
grouse then they went under him (e.) (21) and those others 
those two (standing) just they went away. (22) They were 
tired (e.) all the time and finally here clearly was the 
land extending clearly they had crossed. (23) And he was 
starving to death (e.) boy (24) also he was thirsty (tongue-dry) 
(e.) there was a dwelling (e.) mud-lodge and he went there 
(e.) boy. (25) They took pity on him (q.) they were (q.) old 
men those that took him in (e.) boy. (26) And he looked 
about (e.) boy (27) sacred bundles there were many (e). 
they were hanging up there were gourds on top. (28) He looked 
around (e.) there where the sun sits against and there was a 

84 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

s&'kqku here'kqrihaxka'tqk'ii re-ksu d pghuks (29) he kurahus 
aarawa^riki kitu wttirqrdxpqha-at (30) tqku rcrit pi-raski Tiawa 
kitU' wesitixra'U i-weaxra-istqWit he aocrtxwqki wesdatdrd-u (31) 
e rdkirvku ru'siaxrcri'Ta-ru pahwks re-katstlkvau a riki-su 
(32) u*rqdxka'tit a r&ksta*ka hqwd siaxrira'TU tsuvxrereprru 
witvpqhustaru'kitqku (33) herirw axre'a iriwesiaxntpd'wakttt 
(34) ruriwe-tard-ra pa-ri tsuvxrkrepvru tirukstd4qwe tsiru 
tire-rdtqwe rdkirvku (35) ru tsPit rirusiqxre*ra^ rikutski 

siaxrirata iriwe'Tqrdrtxku'ku iriwetararu^witspa tirukstd-tqwe 
(36) he tsiru tire-rdtsqwe rdkirvku ts^skiit rerqtsqwe tsuvxrkre- 
pvru (37) iweaxrd'ioitsa*^ he tsiru axritaktqtsd^us (38) 
nqwa iweaxra*ioitsa^^ siwtti'tqtsikstd re^sd-ru (39) iweaxrqrax- 
kd'tvi a* axrqwd'ku ru* tqtvrd^ ti-axrawkatqwd-riki (40) herii 
axriwa*ku pi-raski ti-tqku ru khrvwu ketskuxki he rqwitqkaratsu 
ra^wdkqra-rua (41) hkru axriwa-ku axrawqkqrdru'ta tarahd tirw- 
tasu'qt (42) witisiksta'ktika' (43) hk riru, axrira'rikctqwvtit a- 
axrqwakn istakqwii4ika he kskitiks e- rira-rqwi'kqwqtqt he sikd- 
raise*kq)ini'ttt (44) heru axriwd'ku he istqkqwii*tika he kardisiri-- 
rakastqra d paksu (45) heru axriwd-ku he tsuxpakskuse-rit he 
a-wit isutpakspiu-rut (46) wkqa hk weaxrerara- kisatski iweaxnx- 

field at the back corn and pumpkins. (29) And old men 
those (standing) all they are painted red. (30) There stood 
boy. Now entirely they give him the way that one who 
is going to come (e.) and they said (e.), "Now we have given you 
the way/' (31) and planting seeds they gave them to him (e.) 
pumpkin seeds and corn (32) black corn and white corn 
also they gave him (e.) sacred bundle there were gourds on 
top (q.) (33) Thereupon he came (e.) they had advised him (e.). 
(34) Tliit's where they come from Pawnee, sacred bundle 
this way t hat used to be among still this way exists planting- 
seeds (35) then back they brought him (e.) birds they took 
him (e.) the things he had with him those are the ways he 
brought here this way there was among. (36) And still they 
are among us planting seeds a few they are among sacred 
bundles. (37) When he arrived there (e.) then still they were 
hungry (e.) (38) now, now there he arrived they were watching 
him (q.) chiefs (39) when they were inside then he said (e.), 
"There I came there where these are standing against." (40) Then 
said (e.) boy, "Right here — let them go a few," Then 
suddenlx he made a call (41) then he said (e.) when he called 
"Buffalo there's a herd. (42) Prepare yourselves." (43) And 
then they mounted (e.) and he said (e.), "If you kill them 
and four — they run out of (the herd) then don't kill them." 
(44) Then he said, (e.) — "If you kiU them then don't bring 
the feet and head." (45) Then he said (e.) " — Place the 
head in order — eastward turn the head." (46) Oh, then 

Wdtfish, Caddoan Texts 86 

kawu'tika he istu axrura^tqrahra (47) he istu weaxrrtaktatsd'us (48) 
prrasM axraratsakipu tsd'xriks (49) heru axriri'ku ta-kaski d ahitki 
(50) iriwekutikqte-hat ta-kaski a ahctki (51) he axrqhukatdwi' at 
a-taxkd'wakvta iriraxkuriku (52) kttu pi-ra^u asvkgrdaxriri'kqri'- 
hats iriwekuaxTU'tu'a (53) heru axrutsia hd-wa (54) iweaxrawd-ka 
iriwe-axratqkawd'xra riki-su a. pd'huks a dtit a kitu (55) hqwa istii 
axriwd*ku pvrashi witike-staktat hd^wa c hiru qxruxtqraha-rqriruxtsi 
e qxrixkavm-td (56) irihe- wdird-ri-sq*at (57) nqwa ird-ku pi-raski 
he weaxraha-rariku re'saru wttutka-ku (58) ird-ku pi-raski he 
axra-sq^^ piraski sitire'sdriru (59) rw kttu riwecriwdqrarwwd 
tlraxra-kitat (60) heru riaxrukstaxwdko/ra-rwata (61) he tiraoora-kita 
hh kqre*retikstaktdHa ti-tqku tqsdxkitste'rat tirakitste-raxpi (62) 
mka'katikstaktdi'ta tiraki-tsuhat tqku tqsdxhMe'rat (63) iriwdaraitiis 
tiwitsd^ pi-raski (64) iwera-ku iweaxrutka-ku fۤid'TU (65) stte- 
nTu*rapirihu a-sderuxrariwdspu kisatski (66) hk f^hiri axrq^d 
nsaru kltu (67) vriwdukstwhu^ii tiaxrukstd-tqwe e iwereoi^ki^kqwu*- 
tijcu tisu-huri (68) he kurqhus td-raka he teruraiwa^wat rakufS-'i'- 
ti^kdwghd-ru (69) he iweaxra'ku he texkdwu4d rutriwewdird* 

tley brought them (e.) meat, when they killed them (e.). 
Then again they were lacking (e.) (47) and again they 
were hungry (e.). (48) Boy he called together (e.) people. 
(49) Then they were giving out (e.) dry meat and fat. 
(53) They were so wide dry meat and fat. (51) Then he 
went along in front (of the people) (e.) they would eat enough (e.) 
wliat each had. (52) AU children they did not eat it up it was 
the same size. (53) Then he proceeded again. (54) When he 
spoke (e.) when the crops grew bountifully corn and pumpkin 
and beans and all, (55) also again he said boy, ''Go 
hunting (q.) again." And here there were many buffalo (e.) 
an<i they kiUed them (e.). (56) More there were (q.) (57) Now 
th^t (sitting) boy then he was married (e.) chief he sat 
inside for him (q.) (he is son-in-law) (58) that boy then his 
naine was (e.) boy Chief-they-fear. (59) Just everything 
he had that under his control (q.) this our camp. (60) Then 
they referred to him for his opinion, (his speeches were extended 
along) (e.) (61) and this our village and we didn't know 
here iLere was a stream this here stream. (62) That is what 
we did not know this water here there was water. (63) That 
story (q.) it came there boy. (64) He that was there (sitting) 
since he was son-in-law (e.) chief (65) they loved him, they 
would take them to him meat. (66) And finally he became (e.) 
a chief entirely. (67) That's what it was for (q.) this way that 
used to be among us (e.) and when they would be kiUing them 
(e.) later. (68) Then old man would have a dwelling (e.) and 
they would tell stories (e.) stories of luck. (69) And as he sat 
there (e.) then they would kill them (e.) that's what the "way" 

86 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

kurahus (70) he taru^aka-n-ka tskhkara^ku (71) kumhm arutarax- 
paha'tstakunxrtt weraxkukawu-tiku tdrgha (72) heru irrrakawi 
kurahus wtte*rariwitspa (73) kttu tiaxrukstd-tawe ru-riaxra^ra-rq*^ 
rdktri'ku a tsuvxrkrejn^TU (74) iriweru^tutsira-ru^ , 

is old man. (70) And there would be a tent leaves (71) old 
man he would be painted very red (e.) when he would be killing 
them (e.) buffalo. (72) Then to his tent old man they would 
take them there (q.). (73) All these ways that were among us (e.) 
that's where they came from (e.) planting seeds and sacred 
bundles. (74) Now that's all. 


(Free translation.) 

Long ago the people of our village were starving to death. In 
the village lived a poor boy alone with his grandmother. He left 
his grandmother and wandered off aimlessly. Things came to 
such a pass that even the children were starving. As the boy 
wandered far off he came to a stream that was entirely unknown 
to anyone in the village. He sat down on the bank and cried. The 
ground was strewn with the bones of people who had died there 
for when they reached this stream they could go no further and 
would stairve to death there. As he sat there two birds came along 
and asked him why he was crying. *'I want to get across this 
stream," he answered. The two birds, who were buzzards consented 
to carry him over. He was to he upon their backs and when they 
were tired two more birds would come to relieve them. These two 
birds would be grouse. The birds did not wade through the water 
but flew directly over the stream. When they got tired, the grouse 
took him on their backs and the buzzards flew away. The birds 
were getting more and more tired until at last they saw the land 
stretching out before them and so they knew they were across the 

The boy was hungry and thirsty and at last he came upon a 
mud-lodge, toward which he went. In the lodge lived some old 
men. They took pity on the boy and took him in. Inside he saw 
many sacred bundles with gourds on them hanging on the walls. 
Looking about the lodge he saw that near the wall at the back 
(west ? south ?) there was a garden where corn and pumpkins were 
growing. And those old men were painted red all over. The boy 
as he stood there received from them the planting ritual. They 
gave him planting seeds of pumpkin, black and white corn and 
also a sacred bundle with gourds fastened upon it. It was through 

WeltfisK Caddoan Tp.xt^ 87 

his contact with these old men and his visit to their lodge that 
sacred bundles came to the Pawnee and the planting ritual which 
still survives today. When the birds brought him back he carried 
with him the things he had received. There are still a few bundles 
left among us. 

When the boy got home his people were still starving. The 
chiefs were ready to listen to what he had to say. He told them 
that he had been to the place where the old men stood against 
the wall of the lodge. When they heard this they were ready to 
follow his instructions. He directed a few men to go off to a certain 
place and when he heard one of the men shouting, he told the 
people that a herd of buffalo had been sighted and that they were 
to prepare to hunt. They mounted their horses and set out but 
before they left he told them that if when they sighted the herd 
four animals should run out from among the group, they were not 
to kill them. If, however, they did kill them, they were to leave 
behind the feet and the head, placing the head so that it pointed 
eastward. After the kill theliunters returned with large quantities 
of meat. 

Later the people were again without food. The boy gathered 
together the people and gave them dry meat and fat. Everyone 
had a large portion including the children, who had so much that 
they couldn't finish it. 

Then he spoke and the fields grew a plentiful crop of corn, 
pumpkins, beans and everything. Then he told them to again go 
hunting, and they made a big kiU. And from a second killing they 
brought stm more meat. 

As a result of his deeds the boy gained recognition and married 
the chief's daughter. Then he got the name of *'Chief-they-fear". 
He was the most influential man in the camp. His opinion was 
sought in all things. The stream the boy discovered was unknown 
to us until after his experience there. The boy who was now the 
chief's son-in-law was loved by everyone and they would bring 
him many gifts of meat. Eventually he became the head chief 
of the tribe. 

From that time on our people held ceremonies in connection 
with the hunt to symbolize the gifts the boy received from the 
old men. Older men would gather in a lodge and tell of the many 
successful hunts that resulted from the ceremony. In the ceremony, 
they built an arbor of leaves and in it sat an old man painted all 
red. They took a portion of the first killing to this old man in the 

The whole order of the hunt, planting seeds, and sacred bundles 
were originated in this way. That is the end of this account. 

88 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, X\rjj 


(1) hawa tire^ra'ku pi-raski d itaxri siwitvku (2) M axrarax- 
kdtawa hk tskara* siaocrakd'ku (3) iwesira*ku siraxkuxratsaus 
(4) tsuraki axrukstara* rikvsu iriwekuruxrvtsird^ru he weaxra^ruxtsa 
dsJcu* reksu (5) hk axrawa-ku iritaxrd*raruksta hkru axriwa*ku ihe 
(he axruxra'H) ira'tsti (6) kare-saraxkatqwihii'riktit karc'sdx- 
kqrihats (7) he tsuraki weaxrahi-wvku tri-raxkurd^rarukstartt 
(8) heweaxrara^re-hgtsista tsu-raki he pi-raski witikuxraka'ruxtqut 
raru wttihurd^raxktsku kukqrawiti*ruts rikvsu (9) hern axrutsid 
itaxri axrgwd-ku kawi'skarihats (10) he axrakuvrntit iratsti he 
axruxtakusit arvkis witukspitqt hk axnxpirtcsds itaxri (11) he 
axrawakqrqxkqqs pvraski (12) he axruhurutsa heru axrp* rktaxkats 
(13) he tsuraki istu kuxraka-pd-kisa tskqra* sirukskii iratsti' ru- 
wera-ta (14) a- taxkikat tsu-raki (15) hkru axri-ruts rikvsii kski" 
tlks trikuxrurdri'wit (17) hkru axriru'tsit (18) hkru axrira'raspe' 
istu (19) he hqwd tstu axrard-ruras rihuksiri wewituxra-ru riki-su 
(20) he irvkuxru'vt he huxrdhuras asku qtit (21) hkru qxraxkdvsat 
rakura-rarq^u hewktaxki'kat (22) heru axrird-raru heru axrutsits- 
pard*ru^^ kski-tiks he weaocrara-r^'hats (23) hk rewtiska qra^ts 

(1) Again this is a story boy and sister they were sitting 
(q.) (2) and they went hunting (e.) and alone they (2) 8at(e.) 
(3) as they sat they were hungry (e.). (4) Girl she had (e.) corn 
that probably was all — that she had (so many) one ear 
of corn. (5) And she said (e.), "That's what I am going to 
plant." Then she said (e.) — ( — she had a dream) her 
brother, (6) ''Don't parch them don't eat them up." (7) Then 
girl she was cutting grass (e.) where she is going to plant, 
(8) and when she is going to finish it (e.) girl then boy he 
stole a meal for himself just there were bare grounds (q.) they 
were not lying there corn. (9) Then she did (e.) his sister, 
she said, (e.) "Have you eaten them up?" (10) Then she 
spanked (e.) her brother and she took off (e.) calf robe 
he had for a wrap (q.) and he got a spanking from her (e.) 
his sister. (11) Then he cried (e.) boy. (12) Then he arose (e.) 
and he is (e.) an eagle. (13) Then girl again she became 
sorry alone they (2) were brother when he had gone (14) and 
she would cry (e.) girl. (15) Then there lay (e.) corn four 
that is what he left. (17) Then she picked them up (e.) (18) then 
she looked for them (e.) again (19) and also again she 
found them ten (e.) there were that many (q.) corn. (20) Then 
something happened and she found one bean. (21) Then 
she went into-among (the field) to plant and she would cry (e.). 
(22) Then she planted (e.) and there were rows (e.) four 
and when she had finished it (e.) (23) then she thought, "My 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 89 

ktistuhurdspiat heru tafcii axraai (s^) h€ .h*^,ij'x«^ xx ,../ 7«.4:i.„.# 

lik taxwA'ku kirike'Tastiki'kat (25) a kardaxrihuras M weaxrd'Witsa 
a*taxka'kit tsu*rgH tskqra (26) he rahiri axratqwi-rwUt rikvsu d 
qtit (27) heru axriwitska tsU^raki kua*tqhurds iratsti (28) iweux- 
rdhe'sa he axrqwttska' twhwraspiat iratsti (29) awititarghurihu*^ 
a tiwdskd* kirikHaswvt axrqkii'tika (30) hkru axriat dtaxki^kat 
kuatexruras ' he tsuraki tiwa*ku iratsti tdxraspe (31) wesiku'wdc- 
kirikvtpiat raxkuki'kgt (32) he rahiri axrohuras hk axra-sa* taraha 
wduxretstdxtsd^ka (33) he tsuraki triwitiaxrqkdiwvtit (34) he 
qxratakusu'ixtqkd'hat he tri-witi' retaxkats (35) hk axrwtastdrurukvt 
(36) rihuksu wttwtastdrurukvt heru riaxri- pi'raski (37) rahiri 
wUe'tsikste-uxku't^ii itaxri (38) heru smxre'wa hk axrqwa*ku ii'kqa 
tt'ki wetirikis (39) heru siaxre*wa heru siaxriwitspa (40) he tswraki 
qxratgrw rk'ksu (41) he siaxrawd-wgd (42) he axrqwa-kii tsu-raki 
ka*kascrgraxkiwirasta taxratsa-isiksta a'ri-kqri he-rvkqri (43) ndwa 
heweaxrarat^a-lsika witikqri rikvsu d qtit (44) he axrqru tswraki 
kvu (45) ke'tsi axrgWQ'ku tsu^raki kakatsixwansta qtit (46) tstu 
taxrd'Tqruksta (47) naWd wesiqxra-ku pitsikat hqwa pvraski 

brother I must go look for." Theil there she went (e.) 
(24) and she cried (e.) and wheu qomedn§ would see her (e.) 
and he would say (e.), 'What are you citing afeoUt ?" (25) and 
she didn't find him (e.) and when she cam^ home (§•) she 
would be living (e.) girl alone. (26) Then finally it matured 
corn and beans. (27) Then she wished (e.) girl she could find 
her brother. (28) That morning (e.) — she wanted (e.) to set 
out looking for her brother. (29) She would be very sorry for 
herself and she thinks, "Why is it she spanked him (e.)." 
(30) Then she went (e.) she would cry (e.) she wanted to find 
him and girl she said, "Brother I am looking for." (31) Her 
eyes were so swollen from crying (e.) (32) and finally she 
found him (e.) and there lay (e.) buffalo the intestines were 
sticking out (q.) (33) and girl she sat down behind that (e.) 
(34) and it descended (from its perch) (e.) and that's what 
it is (q.) eagle. (35) Then she grabbed its feet (e.) (36) just 
she had grabbed the feet (q.) then it is (e.) boy. (37) At last 
she felt happy to death (q.) sister. (38) Then they (2) flew (e.) 
and she said, (e.) "Oh, son, corn is matured." (39) Then 
they flew (e.) and they arrived (e.). (40) Then gkl she picked 
(e.) ears (41) and they ate (e.). (42) Then said (e.) girl, 
"I am not going to roast them, I am going to dry them there 
would be many there are many." (43) Now and when she 
dried them there were many (q.) corn and beans (44) then 
she made (e.) girl braided seed-corn. (45) Then said (e.) girl 
''We are not going to eat them beans (46) again I am going 
to plant." (47) Now when they settled (e.) (sat) for the winter 

90 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XV II 

wktqri'US rakuparespari (48) raxruraxki raxkukH-tika a pd'rus 
hqwii itsat (49) rahiri wesiaxrarurutspa hkru axnwa-ku iwerakata— 
rdxkd'd (50) he istu nrttaxrird-raru tsu-raki (51) hawa axrare*- 
kskd'ria d atit (52) hgwa pi-rasH wekuxrarvusisa rakukuwutika 
td'raha (53) iweaxruksta'xkata^ta wekuxriraktiwaxte-ku't^u he 
ke*tsi rankstsii wesikqre-rika^pa-kts piraski a tsii*raki (54) hk 
wegxraraxwttspara hewesiaxrawari asde-rutsirdspari tsuraki d 
iratsti (55) he ta*raktawdu'hu rikvsu (56) iweaxraraxwa'ats 
rikvsu d atit (57) kitu kvtdra-wa tsu-raki d iratsti. 

also boy he knew how to hunt. (48) Deer he would kill (e.) 
and rabbit also coon. (49) Finally they had possessions (e.). 
Then he said (e.) when spring came (when green grass came up) 
(60) then again she planted (e.) girl (51) again the corn was 
bountiful (e.) and beans. (52) Also boy he had learned how 
to kill buffalo. (53) When they had gone hunting (e.) when 
they were starving to death and then truly they were not 
poor boy and girl (54) and when they arrived there (e.) 
and they were going about (e.) they would lead them about 
girl and her brother. (55) Then he would give them much 
corn. (56) When they had distributed (e.) corn and beans, 
(57) all it was theirs girl and her brother. 


(Free translation.) 
This is a story of a boy and his sister. When the people went 
on the hunt they stayed at home. Soon they got hungry. Of the 
few ears of corn they had only one was left and the girl had had a 
dream in which she was told not to parch and eat up that last 
ear of corn, but to keep it for planting. She told her brother not to 
eat it up and she went out to clear the field. As she was finishing 
her preparations, the boy stole the ear of corn and ate it so that 
there was no seed to plant. The girl spanked him and jerked off 
his buffalo calf robe. The boy cried and was very miserable and 
presently he flew off in the form of an eagle. Then the girl was 
sorry for the way she had treated her brother for now she was 
alone. She was so lonely that she cried. She happened to find 
four grains of corn that her brother had left, and after looking 
further she found ten more; she also found one bean. Then she 
went into the field and planted four rows of corn and when she 
had finished she decided to look for her brother. Wherever she 
went people would ask her why she was crying so bitterly. She 
didn't succeed in finding her brother despite her efforts, and so 
she was still alone at home. When the corn and beans ripened, she 
again wished she could find her brother and so she set out to look 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 91 

for him. She was filled with remorse at having spanked him. At 
last she had cried so much that her eyes were all swollen. In her 
wanderings she came upon a buffalo with the intestines sticking 
out and she hid behind it. Her brother who was flying about in 
the form of an eagle flew down to where the buffalo lay and the 
girl grabbed his legs. Just as she grabbed him, he was again 
transformed into a boy. The girl was overjoyed and she said to 
him, *'0h, brother the corn has ripened." She went out and picked 
some of the ripe ears and they ate them. She decided not to roast 
the corn but just to dry it. They had a very large crop. Some of 
the ears she braided together by the husks to keep for seed. They 
also kept the beans for the next planting. 

When they settled down for the winter, the boy knew how to 
hunt and he brought in deer, rabbits, and coon. Finally they 
accumulated a good deal. In the spring, the girl planted her 
garden, and again there was a bountiful crop of corn and beans. 
And the boy also had by this time learned to kill buffalo. 

When the rest of the people who had gone hunting returned, 
they were starving for they had been unsuccessful. But the boy 
and girl had plenty stored away and they gave everyone all the 
corn and beans they needed. 


(1) ketsi ihe tiweratikraiwa'tsista'nt e pakuxtu witukskitkahdxriri 
(2) hern axraraxkqtaat e ihe qxrHstksdktqtsqus (3) he axra-hd 
pi'ta e iwe pvrq^ii raxkuwaxte-ku^u (4) herii irikuxrdhura'a ruiri- 
kuxrukmktakuwd'su'ku (5) he iweraku pHa he axruksdrariku herii 
irikuxrvhi he aosfaravoitsd ratuksu kqrakurdhe-ra (6) iraku'pHa he 
axraHc tsqpat pi-rq'u (7) herii iwerarwaxriraxwdwqats ketsi iriru'- 
raxku'ta (8) hi weaxrqra pvrq^ii tsqpat hern irikuxrvhi tskard 
weaxrqhuri (9) nqwa he iraku pita heweaxrapa-rkspgri rexkurimtsa 

(!) And now, this story I am going to relate — long ago 
there was a mud-lodge village (q.) (2) Then they went hunting 
(e.) for they were hungry (e.). (3) And there was (e.) a man 
and there a child it would be starving to death (e.). (4) And 
in some part of the world where they used to migrate (5) and 
that man and he was married (e.) and somewhere then 
there came (e.) sickness it was not good. (6) That man 
then she made (e.) woman a child (7) and merely they had 
scattered (e.) and so each went his way (e.) (8) and she had (c.) 
the child woman and somewhere alone they were (e.). 
(9) Now then that man he was hunting (e.) he would bring 

92 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

raxrurazki a pd'rvs (10) pi-rq^ii tiwekuaxru4u WiWlUvakQ^Q^ 
pvToski (11) rahrri the axrakavm-ttkusiUt tqraha (12) rw tskara 
iwisiaxrqwqri he kahurayokitsii'tsiskat rusiqxra*kdrikq'ku ruxra-ru 
ira'ku pi4a rexkurarahu kisatski (13) hk weaxTwtqkaxtsivhat he 
Tohiri pi*ta irhku axrapare*sat tskara (14) wesiwitvku pvrq^ii a 
sitaxkd^ku (15) he aocrutsuksa^ri pvta pdruxnt d*ruti*ra^^ rahiri 
pi'th qxru'td^ri raxkvte-ra ruiriraxku*ta (16) he tira-ku ihe pi-ta 
(17) he tiraraocwdri tsd-xriks hk siknxrirqkaxrurds (18) hk tsqpat 
aiknxrixku'tit pvrq^ii sikuxritkite-raxpu (19) hk sikuxrtxkd*tg/ids 
(20) hetsi pi-ta axra-rariwitsd kisatski (21) he pi'td axrawa-ku 
irvrixwqke'usuku kdraska-ku (22) he tsqpat kukqrdqxre'Wakqra*rua 

(23) aki* iweaxrahwkata pvta he tqkti hiru qxri*kutstd tsqpat 

(24) witvkdWqxkd*8i8 aki ketsi pi*rq*u werqrwkuruxriwakuritkqsitd 

(25) hkru qxru'tsid pi-ta (26) a axre-rit pi-rq^u weaxraktrikqd-ra 
(27) hkru axrvtsia aaxrqrqrqhurdwaJtsi'ttt ixtat ru-witikd-ruts (28) 
hkrn aarutsid pi-ta ru-ta he wdikd'hura-ruat (29) hern rihe axrqra- 
riwu-si'tit (30) heru qxre-kqru- pi-td vru (31) tqtukstapakid-hu 
kdxt^a (32) hkru axrutsia qaxrararahurahi-kat (33) pi-rq^ii am 
taxtqkvsta hk iri he rukaka*sd tsqpat pi'td aaxrakaxtqrdrt-ru 

(e.) deer and rabbit. (10) Baby he was as big as this: (e.) 
he was in an advanced stage of babyhood (q.) boy (11) finally 
— he began to kill them (e.) buffalo (12) all alone they (2.) 
live (go about) (e.) and in the thickets there they had their 
dwelling (e.) because that man he would bring them (e.) 
meat (13) and the tent was half full (e.) and finally man, 
that one, he went hunting (e.) alone (14) they (2.) (q.) baby 
and they would stay there (e.) (15) and he would do (e.) man 
soon he would come there (e.) finally man he would do (e.) 
he would be gone all night (e.) he'd go somewhere (e.) (16) and 
this — man (17) and these wandering people then they 
found his dwelling (18) and woman they killed her baby 
they wrapped it (19) and they laid him against it (wall) (20) but 
man he arrived bringing them (e.) meat. (21) Then man 
said (e.) the way they say **Are you home V (22) and woman 
she did not call out (23) but when he went inside (e.) man 
then right here she lay dead (e.) woman (24) her stomach 
was burst (cut open) (q.) but then baby he just had cried 
to sleep. (25) Then he did (e.) man (26) he picked it up (e.) 
baby when it awakened (e.) (27) then he did he carried the 
bundles outside (e.) some of them remained inside (q.). (28) Then 
he did (e.) man over there — there was a thicket extending 
(q.) (29) then over there he proceeded to carry them (e.). 
(30) Then he made a dwelling (e.) man hay (31) we used to 
say small lean-to of grass. (32) Then he did (e.) he would 
carry the bundles inside (e.) (33) baby then he would have it 
upon him (e.) and where — she was lying inside woman 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 93 

(34) he pi*ta ird'ku he witaxpa're'Sat pi*ra^u aru* taxtdkvsta 

(35) he targha tdxk uwu ht tsapat tdraha (36) he ira*ku pvta 
hern tarii'tsia (37) atarexraru'wa pira*u trihtaretu^ hk rahvri 
axrarihii'ra pvrq*u (38) iri-rutahu werakurikispari he rexkurdruwd*- 
hu he weaxrarikd^us pvra^u (39) hk rahvri pi-ta karaaxri-raxru 
iwerard'ks'ru isira-ku (40) hk weaxrqkatarvi he rahvri qxrvtstira" 
karik riksu (41) he rahiri tqrwtd pi-ta he taxwa-ku resukskd'ku 
he ira'kii pvrq'u (42) he tirutkeharirahd'ru heri axrwtitkaxkus 
hkri titsta*tq'witsd'ku (43) ta'titsiksqrius'A'ku pi*raski dskatski 
he hdwa rixwakid-hu td-tu* (44) iretkaxku hem nti'kus a 
titd'hurks askatski (45) iwera'ku he tsvski^it titkardwqtat he 
rqkukdrPu hern sitiri-wdriku tsi iruri*rihvt pvraski eru iriri-wdriku 
iwkrvtsta'tqwitsqku (46) he kare-rikwraku'ta terurukstapirihw^u 
pi-raski (47) he tra-riki pi^raski iriatdxka-^i tsirii riatdxka-a 
he texwitsd ia^sti (48) he ira^riki piraski he rahiri kiixru4atsikste*a 
(49) aru tdxtsaku-rvsai he terariwdsa kisatski iwe'Wtttrikatihdxkqri^ 

man he burned the house (e.). (34) Then man that one — he 
would go hunting (q.) (e.) child then he would have it upon 
him (e.) (35) and buffalo he would kill (e.) female buffalo 
(36) and that man then he would do thus: (37) he would 
take off the udder baby that he would nurse then finally 
he got large (e.) baby. (38) The way it always is when it is 
crawling and when he would bring things (e.) and when 
he eats a lot (baby) (e.) baby (39) then finally man he 
would not carry it (e.) when it was a long time there they were 
living (40) and when he could walk (e.) and finally he made 
bows and arrows for him (e. ) arrows (41 ) and finally he would 

do that: man he said (e.) "Stay home!" (sit inside) 

and that baby (42) and this side of the room there he 
made him a small mound (earth-set for him) and there he would 
shoot at the target. (43) Here is the way they used to do it boy 
sinew and also they would say sinew bullseye^ (44) that 
dirt sitting then he would place it there and it is round 
sinew (45) when it sits there then a little he covered it with 
earth and a lot then they would shoot at it (aim) and 
being alone boy then that which he was aiming at that 
sinew-bullseye he is shooting at (46) then he won't go anywhere 
they love it very much boys. (47) And that (standing) boy 
he would stay there inside, (e.) yet he would be there inside (e.) 
and he would arrive (e.) his father (48) and that boy then 
finally he got used to it (his feehngs became happy). (49) Then 
the sun would go home (e.) and he would bring them home 
meat it w as many years (q.) there they (2.) lived (e.) (that 

^ Sinew chewed to a paste and made into a small round ball; used as a 
target bullseye. 

94 Pttblications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

isiaccrawari (ira-riki i-ksi) (50) iriwe-ky/witihu'rat wekararakii-u 
akapi-ra^u (51) hk ihe he kitu- weaxrarai-tusitawa (52) iseweru 
wttirantehaksat ira-witska^^ wete*tsikskasa irikuxrira-ioiu^ hk riaxru*td 
pi'td aocra-witsa hk ira^riki pvra^u he hiru axrrkastqrdxkutski^tts 
kistaxrd'riri (53) hk axraraxkutskihts pita ktcdkardaxriwa^ku 
wite'tsikste'hu^u (54) hkru axriwitskd pi-ta taku wetixrikuru- 
tatsikska*pd'kts (55) he istu tsi hawh rukanra-tdha-ri (56) 
iwerdwitsa he hirii-rihe axntskaraxkutski^ifs (57) U'kaa kaxtsu^ 

(58) nqwa he ira-ku pvta he werura-rdtsixtts he kukqrqaxruxwivra 

(59) hem axriwitskd pi-ta kirakirike'ru'vt kerikute ti*tgku 
weaxrasqkuxkttaure*rtksta he qxra*yntsa^^ (60) he htm axrvku 
pi*rq*u kttu irihe wewitirdxkutak^ds (61) ka-kuksta'tqwe pvrq^'k 
iraxkdsvu kisatstaxkewari-ku d-tth (62) tirdku pi-rq^u iwe- 
aocraraxkutskt'tsu ^ kdu wttqraxwira^ts (63) iasti triwerw- 
tiiraratsixtts iasti istu riwetiatatd'huras (64) hkta axrqwd-ku 
hkri witiqxrakitquts iasti (65) rihuksu tqkuweqxra-sqkuxwitsa^^ 
he piraski axra-rawatsitit (66) axrqrake*a axra^sa kurahus 
(67) hqwd axrqrake-a he hiru axre-ra pvraski (68) hkru 

Maxie)^ (50) that is how tall he was he did not have baby 
mouth (51) and — then all when he had learned the words (e.) 
(52) gradually he could see (q.) when he knew he now has 
*'sense". There was a time and he did that man (e.) when he 
arrived (e.) and this (standing) child then here there was 
clay on his legs (e.) shins (53) and he was ''clayed", (smeared 
with clay) (e.). Man he didn't say anything (e.) he was happy 
(q.). (54) Then he thought (e.) man someone he must have 
blessed mine (65) and again but also it wasn't a short time 

(56) when he arrived and this time his face was "clayed" (e.) 

(57) oh, the incense! (58) Now then that man then he 
was watching and he did not question him (e.). (59) Then 
he thought (e.) man, "I think I'll see what's going on I believe 
I'll stay all night right here." The sun was going to stop on top (e.) 
(almost noon) and he arrived (e.) (60) and here he is sitting 
(e.) child all this time he was ''clayed". (61) It was not the 
way among us child to wear a shirt naked (bare flesh) he 
would be (62) this child when he was "clayed" (e.) all 
with hand marks (q.) (63) his father that was what he was 
watching for his father again he went there to find him out 
(64) and there there was a hill (e.) there he lay himself on 
top (e.) his father. (65) Just when the sun had arrived so far 
there (e.) and boy he went out (e.). (66) It was a long time (e.) 
that one lying old man (67) again it was a long time (e.) and 

1 Maxie was the informant's little grandson who was standing nearby. He 
was about three years old. 

Wdtfish. Caddoan Texts 95 

axre-a kurahusa*u iwerahwkata pi-raski (69) hkru axre*tawira 
kurah'iisa^u ii*kgxi tirariki pi*raski heru rihird ru axrutsi^t 
rqkura*he*Ta ranksisu* wduxkaharqwire iriru witiwa-ku iasti klra 
tiki (70) irdku prraski idsti iweraxwa'ku take'ruxrq*a (71) hkru 
axriwd'ku pi-raski alias rw ti-taku tq'raxkausu'ku (72) hkru 
axrvwa-ku kurahusa'u d*hu (73) he sirikvtkaksajisu'ku (7d) pi-raski 
iriwetiwh-ka Mm axriwttska kurahiisa'u (75) ruka-kqtu*'^ kira- 
kustu'ruksuhu-rdwivra (76) ktrakirike -ruvt kvrakiru-ruxrd-hurad 
tirH'ia (77) iweaocrdhe-sa heru axriwa-ku pi-raski alias e rixwqki 
ralku-ta (78) heru axriwa-ku kurahusq*u eru ka-sial (79) a-ki he 
axrawilska kusluvm-rat (80) iweaxrqrake-d qxrd-ta he ratkal axrqat 
kurahusq^u hkru axriwi-tit ru-iriqxra-rqwihurahats witqldwaxtsa-- 
ku*a (81) he hiru amrqxkispdktd-hu hkru axriat he rahiri qxra- 
hurariwi'tsal (82) hkru axriat he rahiri axrdwitsat (83) rikuwdi-ut 
axrdraxkd'hu (84) he iri pi-raski irtqxrekd-d-hu (85) hirii axri-it 
raocruraxki tiratardpake-hu ta"^ (86) tsi iru-ki raxruraxki he hiru 
axri-it tsaxriks Mtu- (87) wdirqrdxkutskihts wdiht tvtrirutsiksqhu 
rd-nsta rqkuhatqwirdxra kispaktd-us (88) heru riaxri-d ra-nsta 
(89) e kweqxruxrakirikii pl-ta (90) he tslii ruqxre-d apa-ru 

there came (e.) boy (68) then came (e.) his '*old man'' 
(father) when he went in boy (69) then he came down (e.) 
his old man. Oh, this (standing) boy then further he 
was (e.) very handsome truly he smelled good (q.) thereupon 
he said (q.) his father, ''Well, son?" (70) That boy his 
father he then said (e.) ''Who caused this ?" (71) Then said (e.) 
the boy, "Father, right over there they always dance." 
(72) Then said (e.) his father, "Yes." (73) "And they always 
invite me." (74) Boy that's what he said. Then thought (e.) 
his father, (75) "I am going too, I will proceed to question this 
(investigate) (76) see what's the matter where this comes from 
this that is." (77) That morning (e.) then said (e.) boy, 
"Father — they say for me to go." (78) Then said (e.) 
his father, "Well you can go." (79) But then he thought, (e.) 
"I will find him out." (80) When it was a long time (e.) as he 
went (e.) and next he went (e.) his father then he sat 
down (e.) where he disappeared (e.) cedars extended toward 
him (q.) (81) and there they were whistUng (e.) then he went 
and finally he went close (e.) (earth-approach) (82) then he went 
and finally he arrived (e.) (83) it was this far where they 
were dancing (e.) (84) and there boy he was dancing (e.) 
(85) there they were deer (animals) what we call deer (86) but 
those animals then there they are (e.) people all ! (87) They 
were "clayed" (q.) they were (q.) this way it used to be dance 
to hold in the mouth whistle (88) then they were (e.) dance 
(89) and as he was looking on (e.) man. (90) Then back he 

96 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

Wituocrdkiriku (91) Mru axrutsid pvta (92) istu iweaxra-a iri 
sirakariku (93) he weaxratsikte'uxkwtu* (94) axrawitska^a pvra*u 
wesitikuru'tatsikskd'pd'hs (95) he weaxrasakuri*sat hk aocrawitsa 
pi'raski (96) he-tsi weuocra-ravta natva rukarkrikatiha*rihvt (97) tsi 
axrara-ke-a piraski wewite-tsikskasa aki irdku pi-raski we raru 
witi'ku (98) kurahusg*ii wekarawttvtsira-tsiksta aki ird'ku prraski 
(99) kitit wesikutdpdwaktd rd-nsta (100) iraku kurahus hem 
axriwa-ku taku tdtara-kitatruwetatsixwd^uxta (101) he ke-tsi rd*ku 
pi'raski (102) kitu wekuxrardrta (103) hkru axrivxi'ku kurahus 

(104) tiki tsiru rutasi-kusta (105) tsirw kutaxraraspiuxta iweaxrd-- 
hl'sa herii axriwa-ku tiki rahe-sd iriweta-tuxta (106) kukusikutsihe 
pitku (107) herii weaxradt pi-ta (108) kuwekuxrytk- pitku (109) he 
ketsi ira-Mb pi'ta he kuwekare-riwitska^ (1^0) tiwitska pi'ra% 
wesitaskuru'tdtstksta (HI) iwerarakaxrurds pvta u-kaa aru-sa 
daxruraktaut (112) hk axrakariks tiwitsd*^ trisiaxrdrurak&'wi (113) 
u'kaa rawititiruiixkdqwu (114) asawdki d kahaxke^ts (115) a-kaa 
piraski rahi-ri wite'tsiksteuxkit-tu kukarawite-a^ki-ta (116) e kurahus 
ruaxrikariikusitit taxraxkatdkusu (117) he ritsiksariusu'ku farax- 
katakusu rii-nxkukaru^ku (118) atitskarvtqkus he tiuspd-kqru 

came there (e.) secretly he was looking on (q.). (91) Then he 
did (e.) man (92) back when he came (e.) where they had 
their dwelling (93) and he felt happy to death (e.) (94) he 
thought (e.), '*Child now they have blessed mine." (95) And 
the sun had gone down (e.) and he arrived boy (96) but 
he knew (e.). now it wasn't a year (97) but it was a long 
time (e.) boy now he was mature (q.) and so that boy 
now just he sits (q.) (he is at ease) (98) his father he is not 
going to watch him (q.) and that (sitting) boy (99) all they 
had advised him about dance (100) that old man then 
he said (e.) over there we have our camp we are going to go 
there. (101) And so that boy (102) all he knew (103) then 
said (e.) old man, (104) "Son yet you are going to stay here 

( 105) wait I am going to hunt." That morning then he said (e.), 
"Son, tomorrow I am going to go (106) I may stay all night 
two." (107) Then he went (e.) man (108) he probably had 
stayed all night two (109) — but that man then he 
didn't think anything (110) he knew child they are going to 
watch mine. (Ill) He found a dweUing man. Oh, horses 
he stole them (e.) (112) and with the herd (e.) he arrived 
where they had their dwelling (e.). (113) Oh, they all went 
ahead of one another (in value) (One couldn't say which was best) 
(114) spotted (ones) and long-ears (mules). (115) Oh, boy 
finally he felt happy to death (q.) he hadn't even known of 
them (q.) (116) and old man he proceeded to make them (e.) 
saddles (117) and they used to do thus: saddles when they 
would make them: (118) they would put the hide in water and 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 97 

aru titskaritkirarit (119) heru tittsia aed^ha-htu oMhdkcpec^ hr^ 
ti'taku sUiha'pitatduts he kitu tskantkt tritiwttdtquts (120) 
iweaxrakaru ke^tsku ke-tu sitiwduxta irtaxritara^kitgt (121) ngwa 
iraku pvta kttu wewdiratqkipd'pu heru axrutsia aaxrgkwUt pa'^ 
(122) hkm axrutsia tira*ku kurahv^ (123) kttii wewttirdrixku 
raxkura*'k tsahu*ki a pa^ nawa irdku pa^ he ritsiksariusu'ku (124) 
atihakus asku sakH-ru d asku ratkaha*ru ird'ku pa^ (125) 
heritsiksariusu'ku atiraspe arwsa rahukuM (126) risatki'su 
ksM'tiks irirakuxriwd-ra (127) he hawk rutihd'pird tiraha* 
pa*wi raktarikstsu a tuxrakte (128) herititskqritpitaktit he 
wetihd*pakska'' a'bidihaktsd tsu^kiht heritqntaweusitit a raru 
tiustgru'wa d-kaa drutikirartt (129) heriru tutsid pi'ta atekspixrax- 
kqtqiwqa'hu (130) hk te-wu q-tuxre (131) hqwa tsahwH askura^^u 
iriritsiksqriusu'ku (132) hetsi kqruxrq^" risatki*su* (133) iraku 
tsqhu'ki hererukiwi ikspafii kate-pas kaJtqpiriwus tirakdsi'^u iwerq- 
ku*un%a heru rutsid kqte'pas (134) he rekirqru*wa rutikisqwdtqrd 
witikqtaxkda*ri (135) heru tutsid kitshrd heru tikawitsat he tiraxkdtqi 
(136) heru titirakdsi-ru askatski tiirikurqtutikski'tsu'a iria'kututa'su 

pull out the hair then the hide would be clean. (119) Then 
one does one makes two sticks the sticks are forked and here 
they would put the two sticks on the sides and aU skin that'^ 
what he put over there (120) then he made them (e.) several 
because they are going to go where our (inch plur.) camp is (e.). 
(121) Now that man all he had gathered up (q.) then 
he did (e.) he killed moose. (122) Then he did (e.) this 
old man (123) all he had carried (q.) he had made (e.) robe 
of moose. Now that moose — they used to do thus : (124)they 
would put it in water one day (sun) and one night that 
moose. (125) And they used to do they would look for horse 
to die (126) rib bone four the best ones (127) and also 
one would fell a tree these trees growing cottonwood (real-wood) 
and it is a good stick (128) and they would cover it with the 
skin and the stick would be covered the stick would he (slant) 
a httle then one used to rub it on there and just it takes 
the hair off oh, it would be clean (129) thereupon he did 
man he would rub his fingers up and down under against (the 
hide) (130) and spread it out it would be good. (131) also 
buffalo robe the same way that is what they used to do (132) but 
she does not use rib bone (133) that buffalo robe it is different 
elkhorn blade scraper sinew used on a bow when the robe 
is stretched (on a frame) then she does blade (134) and 
they took the water out it was very shiny is was tanned to 
a fine buckskin (q.). (135) Then one does fUnt corn then 
one grinds it then one throws them against (136) then one 
ties it as on a bow (stretched taut) sinew as large as my finger 
that's how large the string would be and the string would sting 

98 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVJI 

he tgha'Stu*^ heru tihdstawu rakuha'pi ru oishat a uraxwihtri 
(137) ria-titawirdhd-ku riweru'tire-hdtsista (138) arw iuislufukwhu* 
triraJcnkdstsu he istu rutitdwirahat.^ 

(140) iwesirare-hats pd^ a tsqhu'ki piraski rurutsikarw uku'ku^u 
a raxkasi'takis (141) e ketsi iraku pi'ta kurahus hkru axriwa-ku 
(142) nawa tiki hgwa ke-tsi wttitatuhure-haksta ira*ku pvta hetsi 
hawa rdruTutspa (143) tira-sd taruxtsd tikspakid-hu tdriki'tsu 
(144) nxiwa tirasd hqwa rdruxtsa raxkdHs d the kiska*ts (145) riksu 
iriruxratgtatdivd'wi he ira-ku pvta hkru axriwa-ku nawa tiki tat- 
karuksta ri-ksu rakukdri^u (146) heru qxrikai'sdt pvta kipistatkat 
witiwd'kqru irvrakuxrivxt-ra (147) kipista-fu rihuksu qxrutikd*ru 
(148) heru axrutsia axrarqra^a heru axruxriwd*nt (149) hk rutsik- 
sa-hu he tuxraktsa he tihdpa'xrwts (150) he ritiitstqWqsa ihe* 
iriraku"^ dkqwa^xtsisu^ (151) hiru ntarqtsdvm riksu iriweraxkura-- 
wtskdiqwurakuratsa-his (152) hh trirutidsia kurqkuratsqwi 
asku rdtkqha-ru heru tirarwwa heru tuxriwa^rit^ (1^^) 
"A'kga atikirikukttdHwu karaasipiru-su (1^5) heru tutsia 

(rough) then one hangs the string a stick (to a stick standing) 
there above and lower (137) that's where one would rub 
it on there now she is going to finish it. (138) Then she would 
feel it where it is hard and again one would rub it.^ 

(140) When he had finished the two moose and buffalo robe 
boy he proceeded to make them for him leggings and buck- 
skin shirt. (141) And then that man old man (father) then 
he said (e.), (142) "Now, son, also then I am going to 
proceed to finish myself (to prepare)." That man then also 
he had them (143) this one (lying) he had what they called 
(scraps of hide boiled gummy and wound on a stick). (144) Now 
this one (lying) also he had an abrasive (sand or metal) and 
also a plant pulverized to polish arrows (145) arrows everything 
that is connected with it and that man then he said (e.) 
"Now, son I am going to make them arrows many." (146) 
Then he went into the woods man among dogwood he 
pulled them (q.) the ones that are good (147) dogwood only 
he picked out (e.). (148) Then he did thus: (e.) he brought 
them (e.) then he fixed them (e.) (149) and there was a way 
and there would be a stick (upright) and the stick would be 
humped (150) and there it would hang — for it to be food. 
(151) There he would hang them arrows when the smoke 
would go against (e.) for them to dry (152) and this is what 
he would do for them to hang one night then one takes 
them off then one fixes them.^ (154) Oh, his eye would go 
upon against it for it not to be crooked. (155) Then he does 

iNo. 139 omitted 
2 No. liiS nmittfid 

irahixru'tsi he askatski wetihu*kurq dru* tiklrant hern tiitsia he 
tihitkh'Sit he tqwit tuxratsahd-riru hk askatski irituocratsdre-pu 
(156) iwerdkipa-ru e karard'mru'hu*^ he iwerahixrdtsqsa he 
tipitsi'Stu tdriki*tsu (157) he wetihioiyraUasa he tqku rututsid 
uraxwihiri (158) rakuxratsare'piha LStu hawd askatski (159) 
hem tutsia iwerahixrataasa iwerd-sq rvksu (160) (kakatukspa^ku 
raxkqis) hqwa ta-tutsiksa-hu riksu he titdkipu"^ hk tutirikqra" 
ruwdhd'ku kqraa^sikdtu^su^ (1^1) hern tutsid werqkurdrehats he 
hqwa ki'su tuksta-xru tsvskiht akutikqsa (162) he rqtqwira 
hem rutsid iwerqrdre-hats (163) he i-rghixratsasq he uraocmhtri 
he tuxrqxkuxkatdwd'wu (164) hem ridsia iwere-re^hq^ats m the 
re4skd*ta irira'kqmhaxkdwitm (165) pqkuxtu tiikstki tqhwru 
kqntki (166) tsi ti-tiri tiwetuxrde^rtt he we-reit pa*pitsisu kqw^u 
(167) m ire*tskatd rdxkukd-sika heru ritihaxkquts he tutstqre-p^u 
kdm^u (168) ira'sd riksu hk. riwererakukuwutika tdrgha (169) a 
tsa'xrik^ asku rvtsqt he rerurakuku-tika (170) ira^ku kiirqhus 
heriweaocrakqriru ri-ksu (171) irirwrqkutsiu-a tira-sd asku tirqsd*" 
rqHitska'tit d- rqmtspqhqt ri-ksu (172) kurahwsq^ii weraxwa-ku 

those feathers (sitting) then sinew he would have in his mouth 
then it would be clean (very white) then one does — one 
splits a feather and three one puts them against (the stick) 
and sinew there he would tie them (166) since it is wet then 
it is not weak (it is very strong) and when the feathers are 
lying on then one smears it gummy paste (of boiled hide) 
(167) and when the feathers are on then right here he does : 
the lower part (stub end) (158) to tie them again also sinew 
(169) then he did when the feathers are on that one (lying) 
arrow. (160) I didn't say (explain) abrasive again that they 
ueed to do arrow then one presses two objects together and 
one turns it over back and forth for it not to be flat (161) then 
one does when he has finished it then again bone he used to 
have a httle bit it would be like a fork (162) and he would 
rub it then he does since he has finished it (163) then those 
feathers that are on — on the lower end — there would be a 
feather against the others. (164) Then he does when it is 
finished the other end where the flint-point is held (165) long 
ago they used to be fhnt stone (166) but today this 
I have seen — now they are metal head (bullet) (167) there 
to the point of it when he splits it then there place it in and 
tie it point (168) that (lying) arrow. Then that's what he 
can kill with buffalo (169) and people one if he shoots 
(pierces) then for him at once to kiU it. (170) That old man 
he had made many arrows. (171) They were of all kinds this 
(lying) one their name is the one with black lying on (feathers) 
and the one with red lying on arrow^ (172) his old man (father) 
he said (e.) meaning the boy, "We two are going to go." 

100 Pvblicatiom, Ammmn Ethndlogieal Society Vol XV 11 

rurexk'k pi'vaski wetatsixwduxta (173) a riaxrgkqum'tikusitct tdrgha 
(174) Mru axriwa-ku kurghu'sa*u (175) rw tqku wetatscxwduxta 
ruxtaku tatard^kurvwa (176) iweaxrawa-ku heru siaxrutsitaxrax- 
kata'rikit arusd iwerakdri^u (177) hern siaxriwa kitu wesitirqra 
rdrahwm td'kaski (178) ru siaxriwa karure-sdkurihvt wttira'ke'a 
siaxrawara (179) he tird-ku pi-raski he iasti aocrak uwu tit pakstitku- 
ke-ts hk triaxrara'watsit'ra a kurqhu8a*ii axrqrawatswra rardkaxki 
(180) ru'wesiaxrawara hk axrqwa'kdsakta wesitqwa pqkuxtu pi-ta 
axrira^kqwihurahats (181) hk axrardwe-re-ttt tsd'xriks (182) aki 
tiwesirawitspqra aki rdtqra-kuki wekutiraktiwaxtekdwu-tu^ (1^^) 
H'kaa resa^rii rawitwht trisiaxrqwd^riki (184) piraski axratqka*hat 
resa-ru triaxrq^u hkri qxru-kitqwu (185) hkru aocrutsia tiranki resa*- 
TU (186) a£bxrqwd'ku wetikuraktiwaxte'kdiou'tu* (187) hkru axri- 
wa'kit, pl'ta irvkuxruta'kitsvsu arusd siaxrakta-wau-hu a td-kaski 
(188) weraocivd'ku pi*ta ru-ta^re-hat tdraha (189) hern axriraxkdtqqt 
kqrure'sdkurihvt wetira*ke*a (190) siaxrqwari d*kqa siaxritsirdspqri 
(191) kqrawitira^ke^a hk siaxriti-witsat tdraha (192) he qccrtxkq- 
wu4ikusttit rqkurdrisatu^ (193) hkru aocriwa-ku ira'ku iasti wewiti- 

(173) and that which he made use of to kill them (e.) buffalo 

(174) then he said (e.) old man, (175) ''Right over here 
we two are going to go, over there we (plur. incl.) live (our 
people are going about). (176) When he said that (e.) then 
they (2) would stand them upon against (they saddled up their 
horses) horses there were many. (177) Then they (2) went 
aU they carried packs dry-meat. (178) There they (2) went 
(e.) not in one day it was a long time (q.) they two travelled 
(e.) (179) and that (sitting) boy and his father he killed (e.) 
a wild cat and that's what he had for a quiver (e.) and his 
old man he had a quiver (e.) of buckskin. (180) When they 
were travelling (e.) then someone seemed to say (e.), "They 
two are coming long ago man the one that disappeared from 
them (e.) (181) and when they gather together people (182) 
here when they two had arrived there then our people they 
were just starving to death." (183) Oh, chief there were 
several (q.) where they two were standing (e.) (184) boy he 
dismounted (e.) chief the one that was (e.) then he put 
him on (e.) (to mount) (185) then he did (e.) this (standing) 
chief (186) he said, ''We are starving to death." (187) Then said 
(e.) man those he is related to horses they two gave out (e.) 
and dry-meat. (188) Then said man, "Over here the edge of the, 
herd is buffalo." (189) Then they went hunting (e.) it was 
not one day it was a long time (190) they two went about (e.). 
Oh, they lead them about (to visit) (191) it wasn't long and 
they came upon the herd (e.) buffalo (192) then they proceeded 
to kill them (e.) a great amount. (193) Then said (e.) that one 


Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 101 

hdrariku (194) hk axrawitska piraski raJcuha-rt^nwrtit ke. Jcardax- 
riwitska pvraski (195) iweaxra^rifra- wduxkarikst^'uM^ .(:}96)fbkiu 
axrivxi'ku pi-raski alias kusikustirarqhuru'^ (197) rwiweaxrara'- 
ritsaxkqi'Sata a'ki piraski triwekyte-tsikskd raku'td*ra isiritatsiks- 
ka-pa'kisu raxruraxki (198) a'ki iriwekutiruhuruksta hiru axru- 
ra-hiwits (199) axrawd*ka prraski atias ke-saktatsakipu resd-ru 
(200) hkriru axrutsia he axrwtqkaksq'wa (201) i'kqa iweaxrarax- 
kd'wi hbru axriwa-ku titaku tira^kii tatdskd ratkuta-ra (202) a 
axnxwaki ndwa triwetura'he (203) aki mwekutuxrardixku ra-rista 
tinikstd'tqwe (204)aki mkutqrd'ra] pi'raski ru-rikutara^ (205)nqwa 
tirukstd'ku kitu tisirdtsitsikstae*riku tira^hs d pqkus a kiwaku 
riri'rara (206) he kcrura-kusta crikqrdiraxku'tski'tsu^ he tardxwi- 
vans tsaxrikstaxkttu tritiHt (207) trikuwitqra pi-raski tarukstd'tqwe 
tiwe-kgrarira'tqwe (208) he rikspdrwksti^ tatutsikstaerikuswku 
nxkutdwarukd-ra (209) trvrurqkutsia'ra tirarwtsi tird'kts (210) hk 
tii-ta werqkutdwqriikd'Ta he Uritg/wiat akdhtri a raru te-kiratsqwia 
kitskqtvtu^^ (211) a ira-riki werqkutdwqrwkd^ri hem tutsikaksd 
asku tru'taswatd pi*te'8vtki hern tiitsia atirikskd-wa akdhtri (212) 

his father he was married (q.). (194) And he wanted (e.) boy 
to get married and he did not want to boy (195) when he 
brought it (e.) there was a lot of (meat) (196) then said (e.) 
boy, ' 'Father let her make me a bundle." (197) When they 
had arrived in the village (e.) and boy what he was thinking of 
to do that they blessed him animals (deer) (198) and he was 
going to make a rule (ceremony) then all of a sudden (199) what 
he said (e.) boy, 'Tather, gather them together chiefs." 
(200) Thereupon he did that (e.) and he invited them (called 
them) (e.) (201) Oh, when they were inside (e.) then he said (e.) 
''Right here is a way (dance) I want to do it." (202) and 
they said (e.) '*Allright that is good." (203) And here what 
he meant was Whistle-dance a way that used to be among us 
(204) and here he brought that "way" boy it is his way. (206) 
Now this way that was all those of us that used to see a bow 
and gourd and fox (skin) they carried. (206) And there 
will be someone that wouldn't be ''clayed" and there would 
be marks all the people that is how they are. (207) That is his 
"way" (q.) boy this way that was used to be among us this 
way that doesn't exist any more (208) and they were wonderful. 
I used to see it when they would perform magic (209) each 
would do thus : these things (lying) bows (210) then he would 
do : when he would perform magic and he rubs it on the 
mouth and just there would flow a liquid a black hquid 
(211) and that one (standing) when he is performing magic 
then he calls one that line of (audience) young man then 
he did he would put his hand inside in his mouth (212) and he 

102 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

h^tirg-riksta ke-wotut hk tatwtd tsvsh^vt rqkuratsirika ke'waut (213) 
Mtv/ta^ni?u tira-rawikawkvt pd'hat (214) hu- rira-riks (215) a 
iatuxraktae*riku kitu (216) nawa heru tutsia irgrutsi pahat ru 
atiraxvm witinxkuxra-rikstd/haku (217) irdru*tsi hk aocrixwd-ruksti 
vri'sirikstatsikstaxra rd-nsta he ririkstdra pahat he axrikspd 'ruksti^c 
iri ird'ku pi-raski irvwekurdra-^u he ta^rawird-kat he rita-ra pahat 
(218) he rdxkuwa-ka atias kasqrutsira'tstksta (219) he kurahusg?u 
iriaxraruxtdwi tsatki he htm taxrukitqku rurkxkua (220) rihuksu 
dtgru'te-rit kurahusq^u e-kaa dtarqtsikste-hu'u (221) a- kukakd*- 
rake-a he rqwitqkaratsu texwqki wetdkusWa (222) iwera-kusvra 
iriwetuxrq^a pi -raski irqraxra tird-ku pahat (223) heru tarwtaia 
piraski tridrdarctsixtd-rit he ta-rqktawqii aru-sa kskitiks triwewi- 
takqriks tiwttsa^^ (224) heru axriha-rariwrtU nawa iwergha*rqriku 
pvta he riwerera-tqwe rd-rtsta (225) rutriwitqrd-ra^ tirqrakqwaJtd' - 
kusa (226) taweruksta-tqwe titvri he wekqreriratqwe riwerututsira-ru^ , 

would hold in his hand ragweed and he did this : a little bit 
to bite ragweed. (213) And he did then just they would 
fall down upon berries (red berries, Mescal bean from Mexico). 
(214) Oh, it is real. (215) And we would be looking on all 
(216) now then he did those (lying) berries there they 
would go they would rub them on themselves (217) these (lying) 
and they are wonderful (e.) those that had that way Whistk^- 
Dance and they had them beans and they were wonderful 
(e.) where that (sitting) boy the one that owned the way 
and he would go on the warpath then he had it berry (218)and 
then he would say (e.) 'Tather you must watch." (219) And 
his father where his hung bundle and there it would be 
sitting upon (e.) when it would come (e.) (220) just when he 
would see it his father oh, he would feel happy (221) and 
it would not a long time when suddenly they would say, noA\^ 
herd is coming (222) that herd coming he is the one that did it 
boy that he has this bean. (223) Then he did that boy 
he would stand there at the outskirts of the village and he 
distributed them horses four that's the herd (q.) he brought 
here. (224) Then he married now since he is a married man 
and that was among us whistle dance (225) he brought that 
way this that happened to come along (226) this way that was 
among us today — that way is not among that is all. 


(Free translation.) 
This story is about people who lived in a village of mud lodges 
long ago. The people were starving and so they went out to hunt; 
all were hungry, men, women, and even children. While they 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 103 

were tra-^.iu-^gj ».%>^^-t, «,». opiJo^xio broke out among the people 
and they broke up into smaU groups and scattered out in all 
directions. Among these people was a man and a woman who had 
gone off by themselves and the woman gave birth to a baby boy. 

The man would go out hunting and bring in deer and rabbits. 
The baby began to get bigger and finally the man killed some 
buffalo. They hved aU alone in the thickets in a little house. 
Since the man would keep bringing in meat, the tent was half 
filled up with it. At first the man would be away hunting for 
only a short time, but gradually he began to make his hunting 
trips more and more extensive so that he would have to stay away 
over night. While he was off on one of these long hunts, an enemy 
group that was wandering about attacked his house and killed 
his wife. They wrapped the baby up and laid him behind the 
bundles next to the wall. 

When the man got home with the meat he had obtained, he 
called out to his wife as is the usual practise, **Are you home?" 
But the woman did not answer. He went inside and found his 
wife dead with her stomach cut open. The baby, however, had 
cried himself to sleep and he took it up in his arms until it awakened. 
Then he took the bundles out of the house, leaving a few inside, 
and carried them to another thicket where he built himself a small 
grass lean-to. He put the bundles inside this lean-to, and burned 
the house where the woman lay dead. 

When the man went hunting he carried the baby with him on 
his back. He would kiU a female buffalo and take off the udder 
so that the baby could nurse. The baby grew stronger until it 
learned to crawl and finally when it learned to walk he would 
no longer carry the baby. After they had been living in this way 
for some time the boy was old enough so that he could be left at 
home. The man made him bows and arrows and when he would 
leave him alone he would make him a target to shoot at. He would 
make a small mound of earth and for a buUseye he would chew 
up some sinew to a paste and make a small ball around which 
he would heap some earth. Little boys were very fond of this 
game, and even if left alone they can keep amused aU day. The 
boy stayed alone all day shooting at the target until his father came 
home. He became accustomed to staying home alone until his 
father came back after sundown with the meat he had gotten. 

When the boy was about three years old and could talk well 
he began to learn more and more about the world around him. 
One day the man got home and found the boy with clay smeared 
on his shins. He did not inquire w hat had happened for he suspected 
that his boy had been blessed by some supernatural power. Not 
very long after this incident he came home and found his boy with 
his face smeared with clay, and the odor of holy incense ail about 
him. He decided to stay near the house through the night, and 

104 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

watch to see what was going on. It was almost noon when the 
boy came home and this time he was completely smeared with clay. 
(It was not customary among us for a child to wear a shirt so that 
it could clearly be seen that his naked body was streaked with 
hand marks where the clay had been applied.) This was what the 
father had anticipated and he decided to follow the boy*s move- 
ments further. He cUmbed to the top of a nearby hill and lay Mow n 
there. When the sun was just this high the boy left the lodge. 
He was gone for quite a while and when he returned the father 
climbed down the hill. This time the boy was beautifully decorated 
and was fragrant with incense. *'Well, son," he said, 'Vho has 
blessed you in this way?" The boy said, **Over in that direction 
there is always a dance going on and they invite me there." The 
father decided to investigate further and to find out what })ower 
was responsible for his son's blessing. 

That morning the boy told his father that he was being invited 
to join the dancing and his father told him to go. The father 
followed him stopping at the grove of cedars into which the boy 
had disappeared. There he sat down and presently he heard some 
whisthng ; cautiously he drew closer and closer to where the sound 
was coming from until he reached the place where the dance was 
going on. His boy was dancing among strange people. These 
people were deer. They were aU smeared with clay and as was 
customary in this dance; they had whistles in their mouths. All 
this time the man had been watching the dance in secret. He stole 
away and went home, overjoyed at what he had seen for now he 
knew that his child had been blessed. After sundown the boy 
came home. 

Years went by and the boy grew to manhood. He led a quiet 
life and his father had no need to worry about him any further. 
His life was well-organized for he had been taught the way of 
the whistle dance. Then the man told his son that their people 
lived some distance away and that they would soon go and join 
them. But before they went he had several things he wanted to 
do. He said that the boy was to wait at home for him while he 
went off on a hunt and that he might be gone for two days. He 
was not worried about the boy for he knew that the guardians 
who had blessed him would watch over him. As he travelled along 
he came upon a settlement and there he stole horses. He led them 
back to their camp. They were all so fine that it would be difficult 
to say which was the best; there were spotted horses, mules, and 
all sorts. The boy was deUghted for he had never seen horses 

Then the father began to make saddles for them. This is the 
way saddles were made: A hide was soaked in water and the hair- 
pulled out so that the hide was clear and white. Then a frame 
was made with two forked sticks, one of which was placed at each 

JXr^UfioJi^ Ca^cic^n Texts 105 

end,^ and two more sticks one of which was placed along each side. 
Over this the skin was stretched. The man made several saddles so 
that he might take some to their people as gifts. Now he gathered 
up the saddles he had made and then he went out and killed a moose. 

Then he set to work to make a moose robe. This is how it was 
done: The hide was soaked in water for a day and a night. For a 
scraper they would use the rib of a horse. They would wait until 
a horse died and then they would take four of the best ribs suitable 
for the purpose. Then they would fell a cottonwood tree and 
prepare a stick which they would stick into the ground at a slant. 
Then they would drape the hide over it (with, the hair side up) 
and scrape it lightly back and forth (with the horse rib ?). In this 
way the hair would come off very readily and the skin would be 
nice and clean. 2 Then the man would rub fingers up and down 
against the hide to even out any bumps. Then he would spread 
it out flat and it would make a fine robe. 

Except for the use of the horse rib bone as scraper, the buffalo 
robe was made in the same way. For this a scraper of elkhorn 
with a blade attached was used. The hide is stretched on a frame 
and fastened there with sinew of the kind used in stringing a bow. 
Then the hide is scraped with the blade until it is clean and shiny 
and the water has been pressed out. Then it is further treated 
with corn meal made of flint corn which is thrown against the 
stretched hide. (The final step consists of rubbing the hide across 
a bowstring.) To an upright stick would be fastened a sinew string. 
The string would be tied onto the stick in two places, at the upper 
end and at the lower. It was tied so that it was not tightly stretched 
but hung somewhat loosely. The sinew string was about as large 
as my finger and felt quite rough to the touch. It was across this 
rough string that the hide would be rubbed (back and forth). 
Finally, the maker would test the texture of the robe with her 
fingers and wherever it was hard, she would again rub it across 
the sinew string. 

After the man had finished the moose and the buffalo robe, 
he made leggings and a buckskin shirt for the boy. Then he told 

1 These forked sticks at the ends were placed with the fork downward, the 
two side sticks running respectively from the left branch of the forward 
fork to the left branch of the rear fork, and one from the right branch of 
the forward fork to the right branch of the rear fork. When the skin was 
stretched over this frame the structure approximated our "western 
saddle" with an upright "horn" before and behind. 

2 The process here is not altogether clear. It seems as if one step has been 
omitted. It would appear that after the hide was draped over the slanting 
stick, the horse rib was rubbed upon it down the length of the stick and 
then the position of the hide shifted tmtil the entire surface had been 
scraped. Then perhaps the hide was pulled back and forth across the 
stick to soften it and even up the texture, tho' this is not specifically 
stated in the text. After testing it with the fingers it would probably be 
further rubbed back and forth across the stick. 

106 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

the boy that there were some things he wanted to prepare for 
himself. He gathered together all the things he n^ded for making 
arrows, a stick with hide wound around it which had been boiled 
down to a gummy consistency, an abrasive (sand or metal), and 
some material made by pulverizing a plant for poHshing the arrows. 
He told the boy he was going to make many arrows. He \A'ent 
into the woods and gathered dogwood twigs; he selected only 
those that were suitable. He took them home and prepared tliem 
in the following manner. (He peeled off the bark.) In every 
household there was always a forked stick stuck in the ground 
at the edge of the fireplace which served as a bracket for suspending 
the kettles of food over the fire. To this bracket he would fasten 
the sticks so that they could season and dry in the smoke of the 
fire. He would leave them there over night and them take them 
off. He would eye the stick up and down for any bumps or irre- 
gularities. Next he would prepare to feather the arrow. He would 
have some sinew in his mouth preparatory to using it for tying 
on the feathers. It would get clean and white in his mouth. He 
would split a feather and put three splints up against the stick; 
he would tie them there with sinew and since the sinew is wet, when 
it dried it would make a strong fastening. The feathered end is 
then smeared with a gummy paste (made of boiled hide) and the 
feathers are bent onto the stick and pasted down being tied again 
with sinew at their lower end. After the feathers are on an abrasive 
is used ; the tool is in two parts which are pressed together with the 
arrow between them and the arrow is turned back and forth so 
that it is well rounded. Then there was a bone tool that he used 
that was somewhat forked on which he wotdd rub it.^ The next 
step was to apply down feathers to the lower end of the feathers 
already attached. When this was finished he would prepare to 
apply the flint point to the other end of the stick. In former days 
fUnt was used, but in more recent times those I have seen have 
metal points. One splits the stick at the end to which the point 
is to be attached and one places the point in the spHt. Then it is 
tied around. With these arrows, if they pierce the object they 
are aimed at, one can kill buffalo or people quite expeditiously. 
The boy's father made many arrows. They were of aU kinds, 
black feathered arrows, and red feathered arrows. After he had 
finished making the arrows he told the boy they would set out for 
the village of their people. He was going to kiU buffalo on the way 
with the arrows he had just made. Then they saddled their horses 
of which there were many, and packed them with dry meat. The 
journey took quite a while and on the way the father killed a wild 
cat for a quiver for the boy. The father had a quiver of buckskin 
for himself. As they approached, someone announced that two 

^ This is a fairly common type of bone arrow straightener. In more recent 
times a tin can punched with holes was used as a substitute. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 107 

people were coming and that one was the man that had disappeared 
from among them a lonjsj time ago. When they reached the village 
they found their people starving to death. The chiefs gathered 
about them and the boy got off his horse and offered it to the head 
chief that he might mount it. The chief was grateful but he told 
them that they were starving to death. Then the man distributed 
as gifts horses and dry-meat and told them where there was a 
buffalo herd. Then the people set out on a hunt. Meanwhile the 
boy and his father were for days busy with invitations from people 
all over the village. It vvasn't long when the hunters came upon 
the herd and made a large killing. 

The father of the boy then got married and he wanted his boy 
to get married too, but the boy refused for he was thinking first 
of introducing his deer dance ceremony among the people. He 
asked his father to have his wife make a bundle for him and to call 
a gathering of chiefs. When they were gathered in their lodge he 
announced that he wished to demonstrate his dance and they all 
gave their consent. What he was going to show them was the 
Whistle Dance, a ceremony that we used to have in our tribe. 
It was this boy that originated that dance. Bows, gourds, and 
foxskins were included in the dance paraphernalia as we saw it 
performed. Everyone had his body striped with clay. This cere- 
mony used to be performed but doesn't exist any more. 

Wonderful magic was performed by the dancers. I saw these 
performances with my own eyes. Each had a trick of his own. 
One would take a bow and rub it on his mouth and bring forth 
a black liquid. Then another performer would step up and he 
would call a young man from the audience to put his hand in his 
moutK to show that he had nothing inside. He has a bunch of 
ragweed in his hand and he bites off a little of the end. Then he 
would blow out of his mouth a bunch of red Mescal beans. This 
was actually done for all of us saw him. Those that wished to, 
went and blessed themselves with the berries, by rubbing them- 
selves, for the beans were supernatural in character. Only those 
who were connected with the Whistle-Dance had these wonderful 
beans. When the boy who originated the dance would go on the 
warpath, he took the beans with him. He would tell his father to 
keep careful watch and when he was coming home, the bean 
would precede him and be sitting upon his sacred bundle. When his 
father would see the bean he was very happy. Before long they 
would see a herd of horses coming and the boy would be just 
outside the village. It was the power of the bean that helped the 
boy attain his success on the warpath. He would stand outside the 
village and distribute the horses he had captured to the people. 
This was the fourth herd he had captured in this way. 

Then the boy married and the whistle dance remained with 
our people until a few years ago. That is all. 

108 Pvblicationa, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 


(I) piraski wituks kttkghdriri weaxrqkd'pa'kis taku wekarawita- 
Tuxku hem tridraru'tqritsaxkaat raxkuwctskd*" rakuhakdwd-ts (2) he 
axrqraxkata'at hem piraski hem pakuxtu taraktqkqvm (3)he 
piraski taxratuxkaat a riwe'ta'ritat herii wdaritsixtawi'ttt he wetex- 
tamtspd'wi tiraraHttsku he rirerai'tus tirgrdtawe a^akipirvru 
(4) rkxkurarawgrihii kqraritsku*su he piraski iritdxpira (5) kara- 
wttitsikstgtsikskd'pd'ktsit dwit (6) hem- iraktakqwu heru tritqrutasat 
(7) heri ta*rqkd hem tdxwitska hem tdxwttsqt dsiterdrasu (8) htrw 
trikuxrdhurd'a wekuxrqra*rot he ratkat piraski axrahqtuxkq'qt 

(9) he ira*ku pi^raski he re'sa*ru axraritxha piraski wcte'ra-tsikstu 

(10) heru trite*mtsirasqt hem taxwaku iasti irihe turahe tiki rqkuka*- 
rurq^u (11) hem* irikuocri-hi he tqmksdwqtspa'ku piraski rutsikspa 
(12)herahvrd kakdxwitska awititaraikahurvku (13)heruwijiaxriuts 
pi'raski heru-* wetarqktqkqwu he kuxretkasi'tit (14) hem axre-tra^ta 
hem axriat pqkuxtu tixrqnxtariwisat (15) nawa he ird-ku pvraski 
he kqrqrdtehdat awttitdrikikat he axre-tsdxkqwkat hiru axre'turuhwru 
(16) hem axritsaxkawqriustfttt axrakqra'ntskuspiraxra axrawdwqd 

(1) A boy he was (q.) mud-lodge village he was poor (e.) 
someone he had none then there he would just go through 
the village he wanted (e.) to eat. (2) Then they went hunting 
(e.) and boy then long time they would have travelled 
forth (3) and boy he would go on the path (e.) and where 
the camp would be then he would sit down at the outskirts (q.) 
and they would have built fires (e.) this story (sitting) — this 
story this way among us Young-Dog. (4) When they would 
throw them away (e.) part of the intestines then boy that's 
what he would pick up (e.). (5) They did not practise charity (q.) 
long ago. (6) Then as they travelled then he would go along 
like that. (7) Then at a dweUing then he would think (e.) 
there he would go there (e.) they would give him food. (8) Way 
off there somewhere they were going and next boy he 
went on the road (e.) (9) and that boy then chief he had 
a boy he loved him (q.). (10) Then he would take him with him 
and lie would say (e.) his father, '^That's it is good, son, 
to feed him." (11) Then way off somewhere when even if 
he would say boy, "Let's go home," (12) and finally he 
would not want to he would be ashamed of himself. (13) Then 
he lay himself down (e.) boy. Onward they would have 
travelled and he went to sleep. (14) Then he looked about (e.) 
then he went (e.). Long ago they had gone on. (15) Now 
then that boy — it was not straight (easy for him) he would 
cry for himself and he went into the camp (e.) there where 
they had camped (e.). (16) Then he proceeded to walk about 

Welifish, Oaddoan Texts 109 

(17) he weaxre*tsdxkqa hem axrurahiwtts asd-ku axrqwakdraxkgas 

(18) hem axriaJb pvraski he him axrvku irikuxriiksakq (19) asa'ki 
wititqms ira*ku asa'ki heriwererirasd-m pghdtki (20) heru axrikusct 
d'kaa piraski iwesiaxraki'kat dpats (21) heru axrikustt hqwd ke'tsi 
witukstqrd* karwritsku'su hem axrikd-ruru (22) hem siaxrihatux- 
kdwa LTvaxraktqku'wqhii'ru (23) heru axrikvtsu'hat heru siaxriki" 
kd'usi'tit (24) heru axruxrikqrukusifUt a^a-ki kitu- aqxruxre^nt 
(25) he hiru axra-ri/tat kuwduxwdktqhu'u pi-rq^u axrqwd'ka hii-*'^ 
ruwerarawistdxkti (26) iri-weaxreturaxku heru* siaxriwdspa (27) he 
hiru axre-ra piraski irvaxrerwrapirihwru (28) heru axritsikaksq 
awUitaravkahuri'ku pvraski (29) tuxrq^a wttapitskqri heru axri- 
rikd'ruru a axrirqrastdwqu (30) ht hat*^ axriru pitaksu a taocwa-- 
kqhu pvraski resituksixtqtqku (31) a taxwaku iasti turahe rakux- 
ratsikska'pa-kisiki tsirw tdtku « retre-sa-ru (32) i*kqa weraxkuktq- 
kuwqra a sitekitsqru;-ku pir<^ki (33) hawd siaxrqki'tsukat he piraski 
kttu" ruwitiaxmxrikctru (34) iriru'Wttwrawatsta'he hqwd qsa-ki 
he kitw tqruxri'kqru (35) ra-hiri iwesidocrqwitspqrq he pvraski 

among the dwellings (e.) He was picking up the entrails (part 
of stomach lining) (e.) he ate it (e.). (17) And as he was walking 
among the houses then there suddenly appeared dog it was 
barking (e.). (18) Then he went (e.) boy and there it was 
sitting (e.) where there had been a dwelling. (19) Dog it was 
mangy (q.) that dog that's the kind they call *'red". 
(20) Then he picked it up (e.). Oh, boy they two cried (e.) 
both. (21) Then he picked it up (e.) again then he had 
them (q.) entrails then he fed it (e.). (22) Then they 2 went 
on the road (e.) where they had travelled (e.) (23) then there 
was a stream (e.) then they began to drink (e.) (24) and he 
proceeded to wash it (e.) dog entirely he fixed it (caused it 
to be good) (e.). (25) And there was the camp (e.). He talked 
to it as if it were baby, he said, ''Huuu there are the smokes 

(26) where the camps were (e.). And there they arrived (e.). 

(27) And there came (e.) boy the one that loved him (e.). 

(28) Then he would call him (e.) he would be ashamed of himself 
boy (29) because he had many hce (q.). Then he fed him (e.) 
and he gave him food (e.) (30) and also he gave him (e.) 
wrap and he would say (e.) boy, "Let's sit beside the house." 
(31) and he would say (e.) his father it is good to be having 
merciful feehngs for them while yet I am living (sitting) and 
I am chief. (32) Oh when the migrants had gone then they 
would be making fun of the 2 boys. (33) Again they cut the 
stream (crossed) (e.) and boy entirely he washed himself (e.). 
(34) Thereupon it was better (q.) also dog then all over he 
washed it. (35) Finally when they had arrived there (e.) and 
boy he would say (e.), **What's the matter, you two do not 

110 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

taxw&ku kirikeruyt sikqra^ixhuhwkqhu (36) nqwa he ra-hi-ri 
aiaxrahii'pa he qxrixkawwiikusfftti (37) he ra*hiri piraski arwsa' 
siraxku'taku'riwu (38) he ira-ku qsa-ki a-ki kutitatsikska^pa-kisd-ri 
(39) piraski wewttetsikskqsa (40) hem axriwa-ku iwerqratkfa*ra 
axntpawaktiku ira^ku asa-ki wewituxretkihu* (41) he tiaxre*tat 
hem axrurahiwits axrawikdrqa asakipirrru pitku situiti'a (42) aki 
kuti' tird'ku qsd'ki a*ki risikutia pvraski d asd*ki (43) herv ax- 
riwa-ku qsa'ki ndwa kdtsihurawirqkat rusirakurihvt criweaxrit'la-ra 
istu axrararu'kusitsixtqwi'hqt (44) hem axriwitska tird-ku piraski 
(45) wevntiraritsaxkai'suxta he4si titqku siaxrapd'ra (46) taku- 
kqrawiterdvta siaxrqrdwira-kqtq (47) H'kqa he siaxruxrai-witsat 
tri'sirardraspe (48) he rahiri weaxrurixkutpa-waktit ise-nt hem 
axriwa-ku qsd-ki ndwa tiki ti-tqku rikuruqsi-ku (49) axrqwd-ku 
kustitsaxkqu-kvt ari-sit (50) he hiru axri-a wttihatdmra kipa-ru 
a axra-riwttsa (51) he pvraski ari-sit rusiaxriha-kqwq' ats a axra- 
wd-ku nawq tqku riresuksku tstu td-tuxta (52) he hiru axre-a wite- 
kaku-tsu kskitiks aru-sa wdixrarastqtsdru-sta (53) u-kqa he pvraski 
ruaxrutsirdrastamru'kvt he piraski ruaxrirukitqwvtit pqhatki he pitku 

come in. (36) Now then finally they two went in (e.). Then 
they began to kiU them (e.). (37) And finally boys horses 
they would go for them (e.). (38) And that dog now then, 
he was blessing him. (39) Boy he was grown up (had "sense"). 
(40) Then he said (e.) when it became night it talked to him (e.) 
that dog he was dreaming. (41) And that tent (e.) then 
there appeared someone sang young dogs two there were (q.) 
(42) now then it is this dog and here it was those two boy 
and dogi. (43) Then said (e.) the dog, ''Now we will go 
on the warpath the two alone." When he did that (e.) again 
he was singing on the outskirts (e.). (44) Then he thought (e.) 
this (sitting) boy (45) they were about to enter the village 
but right here they two hid (e.). (46) Someone didn't know 
(q.) when they went on the warpath (e.). (47) Oh, then they 
came upon (e.) what they are looking for. (48) And finally 
it was ^o that it talked to him (e.) inteUigibly. Then said (e.) 
the doL "Now, son, right here you are to stay." (49) Then 
he sai<i (c), ''I will go into the camp myself." (50) And there 
he canii^ (e.), he had in his mouth dry meat (still moist) and 
he arrived with it (e.). (51) And boy himself they two ate (e.). 
Then he said (e.), *'Now here you stay! again I am going 
to go." (52) Then there he came (e.), he was biting them, 
four horses they were dragging ropes. (53) Oh then boy 
lie took hold of the ropes (e.) and boy he mounted it with 

^ At this point in the story a song was sung which is supposed to inxitate 
a dog and when this song was sung it is said that the dogs in camp would 
begin to howl. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 111 

sire'hastqtoircL (5d) he aslcu raru axre'a heriru siaxrikuksta'kut hi-- 
karawdekiripva pvraski (55) he axrd'he-sa hern siaxntakawd-Iutt 
heru axriwa-ku asd-ki kustitqka*hat kustidt kqtsehqra-ku (56) heru 
siaxriha^kawa^ats iriaxruksqrdstaxra tqku wewitisa-kard ke-karvus 
heriru siaxrespd-tasit (57) tsi aswki wetuxrasi'hu heriru siaxriwa^ 
(58) aaxrqwd'ku asa*ki tiki katsqkti4sihe i*tqku (59) tqku rikakiwaii 
aaxrqvxi'ku kustirirdvta itsakuxri-ra^ra tsi- kqreretsqkutsirira^ra 
(60) heru axriwa-ku asa'ki tiki vAtika-siuts kustutsiratsiksta (61) he 
sqkuxkitu axretka tsi* arii-sa axrixwd-wqa (62)'^ iweaxraratke'- 
a*ra heru axriwa-ku asa^ki^ iras tqtsixwduxta tiki (64) he kuwesikq- 
rdaxrird dkqwa-^xtstsu iweaxrd'he-sa he siaxrqwiru-tit (65) heru axri- 
wa-ku piraski navjq e hhrqkukustikwtit uksdwaxtsu ari-kcs (66) u-kqa 
wdikqri tqraha tsiru kqrwrrikstdraxra tsirw rarit kqrexretstkskqsq 
tsiru piraski rdkuu (67) U'kqa tiaxra^riki pikqruskd-tit wituxre 
a-ki kutikusixruxkitqwi (68) a axrukitqwhtd iriweaxraktdxruriwd-wi 
a axraku'td arvkis (69) trirwaxrvsa heri axratarwtsu pvraski 

(70) heru axriwitsdtkusiiit piraski he-tsi asa-ki weaxrqwdwqa 

(71) heru axrutsid piraski hqwd axrqwdsdtkusi'td rqkurastdraxra 

him (e.) '*Red" and two he lead (54) and one just it 
came (e.). Thereupon they (2.) ran away (e.) probably his eye 
did not move over (he did not sleep a wink) (q.) boy (55) and 
next morning (e,) then they (2.) got down (e.). Then said (e.) 
dog, *1 will get off I will go afoot." (56) Then they had 
finished eating (e.) that food which he had (e.). Here the sun 
was standing (q,) very early thereupon they started traveUing 
(e.). (57) But dog he was walking thereupon they went (e.). 
(58) Then he said (e.) dog, ''Son we will stay all night right 
Ihere (59) someone does not live (go about) there." Then he 
lid (e.), ''I will know it if they trail us. But they are not 
liling after us." (60) Then said (e.) dog, ''Son, you must 
lie down. I will watch." (61) And all day he slept (e.). But 
horses they ate (e.). (62)^ When night came on (e.) (when 
it became night) then said (e.) dog "At night we are going 
to go, son." (64) Then they did not have anything food in 
the morning (e.) and they stopped (sat down) e.). (65) Then 
said (e.) boy, "Now — let me see if I can kill something even 
if it is a calf." (66) Oh there are many (q.) buffalo. Yet 
he wasn't at the age to carry arrows yet really not grown up 
yet boy when he was. (67) Oh this standing (e.) black horse 
it is handsome (q.) and it was a runner surpassing-all. (68) Then 
he mounted (e.) he chased them with it and he killed (e.) 
a calf. (69) Right where it lay (e.) there he built a fire (e.) boy. 
(70) Then he began roasting them (e.) boy, but dog he was 
eating (e.). (71) Then he did (e.) boy again he proceed to 

1 No. 63 omitted 

112 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

(72) he axrasgJcuxhitaure'nksta he siaxraspa*tasit heriru siaxriwg 

(73) he istu riruaxrirukitawi'ttt asd'ki wewttirastarad*ri (74) iwerq- 
ratke-a^ra he weaxrurdtkaharikdrikat he siaxrawvru'ttt (75) iwerahe*- 
saistant iwesdiwitspduxta (76) iwerdhe-sa hern axriwa-ku ndwa 
iriwetatsixwitspduxta (77) kttkahdxriri witiraxka-wa* he rawtta- 
kardisu axrawa-kdaakta vretu ku hd**- r&ra he axretsitxtrhjn-nf hn 
qwtt irikuxrdwttsa* he axrgwakurdruat (78) he criwe-fi'* tirnriLi 
piraski rukska-pd^kisu (79) he axrqrantspa'tat he hiru axre-ra 
re'sd'Tu (80) qaxrawd-ku pvraski wewitiwa'kausu'ku atias kdu 
gaxrara-ru arwsa (81) heru siaxritsitsiraskdvsat we-te'td-vta qsaki 
wetitqtsikskd'pd'kis (82) e-kaa werqwdiukitskqtqku pvraski (83) 
heru aocTutsia resd*ru qaxnxwitakttt tsahu-ki a hqwd axrixkqwdwqrtt 
(84) ndwq iwera'ku piraski weterdvta he ird-ku piraski resa-ru 
kurdha'U riwesiwitiwqri a siwddraru-ku weraxkuratke-d-ra (85) he 
raJiiri the istu iweaxrqraxkqtd-ta he kqrgrerurapirihu^u pi-rai^hi 
iwererqtsikstdd-ra asakipiri-ru (86) rutrikuxri-hi wewiti'wu heru 
axriwa'ku asd'ki kuraru kqre'osutsia tsapat tirdhuriwd'wi (87) 
ruirikuxrl'hi he rahiri axrqraxkawvtd wesiaxrdruraka ira-ku pirqre" 

roast them (e.) to carry with him. (72) Then when the sun was 
going to stop on top (e.) then they moved on (e.) thereupon 
they went (e.) (73) and again he mounted with it (e.) dog 
its feet were hurting. (74) That night — it was midnight (e.) 
and they stopped (e.) (sat down). (75) Just when it will be 
morning they are going to arrive there. (76) When it was morning 
then he said (e.), *'Now we are going to arrive there (77) at 
the village (of mud-lodges) they were inside, and suddenly 
someone announced (e.) in that village, ''Look someone is 
coming!" And he stood at the outskirts (e.) and first he 
that arrived then he called over there (e.), (78) "And it is he 
this standing boy the one that was poor." (79) And they 
went to the outskirts of the village (e.) and there came (e.) 
chief. (80) Then said (e.) the boy, he would now address him 
as (q.), '*My father." AU he then gave him horses. (81) Then 
they (plur.) took him home (e.). They now know dog he had 
bless(ul him. (82) Oh, he was sitting up against the back (west) 
boy. (83) Then he did (e.) chief he put a wrap on him (e.) 
buffalo robe and also he put leggings on him. (e.). (84) Now 
there sat the boy now they knew it and that boy chief 
his son they two go about (q.) and they two would sing (q.) 
when night would come on (e.) (85) then finally ■ — again 
when they went hunting (e.). And he loved him boy since 
he loved him young-dog. (86) Way off somewhere they were 
going (q.) then said (e.) dog just don't do (anything) 
women these here (Jiving). (87) Way off somewhere then 
finally they stopped (sat down in among) (e.) then they two 

Weltfish. Caddoan Tp.xU 113 

sa'TU (88) iasti sikuxri-takaru atardtkgha'h he wtteraru*ku asaki- 
piri'TU (89) ii'kaa wtteriruocra4e heru axriwa-ku asd-ki kskiti-ks 
kerutstakurd*ru (90) heriru siaxriwa wttira*ks'a he siaxrirakax- 
ruras (91) he hiru axre^kd rurakukdrihvt kdw dsiaxrirakteraxpit 
aru*sa heriru siaocraktd-ra (92) hqwd ke4si asa*ki sirexkurukttdwi'tit 

(93) he axrawa-kasakta wetitakdas he hir% axra-runtkdxtsam 

(94) he axrawakasakta hi*u triweti re-sa-ru rqh^'u piraski tiwesi- 
rdkqrikstga (95) ii*kqa he hqwd axrwtasifUt tsaxrikstaxkitu- axrq- 
rd/ntspa'tqtq (96) he kitw hqwa vasti axrqraru aru'sa ii-kqa heru 
rihird axrqwitsat pvraski (97) tsi tskqra wesiwdekqriku a axrqwd'ku 
tira-ku qsa-ki kskitiks tasta'wirqpquxta (98) kqrarqkwu tsapat 
kuasuxrate'huru ii*kqa rurihirq wekqrawdika*pa*kis kurqhus (99) he 
tsikskt ise-weru sjamtse.kqru akaxtirqrd* rardkaxki (100) tqku 
awttarqka re^sd-ru heriru siwitarqkariku piraski (101) rakqharaxkitu 
he taxrakdrari'wqku rexkurarwku asa-kipirvru (102)ndwa axrux- 
ra-rn kskitiks piraski d qsa-ki (103) triaxrqwa-ku nq'wa pvtkusihiri 
riwekuxrqat (104) mtiwa-ku kskitiks tuxra'rdruksta rqtsekukqriks- 
tiwitsa he tsqpat rmsihuras (105) ndwa iweaxrd-wu kskitiks 

had a dwelling (e.) that chief's child. (88) His father he made 
the dwelUng for them there would be a night and they would 
sing (q.) young dog. (89) Oh they like it. Then said (e.) 
dog, "Four let it number these many days." (90) Thereupon 
they two went (e.) it was not long (q.) and they (plur.) found 
a dweUing (e.). (91) Then there was a dwelling (e.) just one 
alone all they got their horses (e.) (they tied every horse around 
the tipi) horses thereupon they drove them (the herd) back (e.) 
(92) again then dog they would mount with him (e.). (93) And 
someone announced (e.) there was a shot and there there 
was dust standing (e.) (94) and someone announced (e.), "Look, 
it is the chief his son boy here the herd they two are bringing. 

(95) Oh then again it happened (e.) all the people they 
went to the outskirts (e.) (96) and all again his father he 
gave them to him (e.) horses. Oh then further he moved 
(he did a greater deed) boy. (97) But alone they two had a 
dwelling (q.) and said (e.) this dog, "Pour you are going to 
go on the warpath (98) for you not to women for you to 
mingle with." Oh there further he was not poor old man 
(99) and right specially they proceeded to build him a dwelling 
(e.) a new dweUing tanned hide. (100) Right here the dwelling 
would be (q.) chief and right near there they (2) would have 
their dwelling (q.) boys. (101) AU the nights then the drums 
they would beat for them to sing (e.) young dog. (102) Now 
there numbered (e.) four boys and the dog. (103) What 
he said (e.) now twice he had gone. (104) He said (q.), "Four 
there will number for us to bring the herds and a woman 
then you find." (105) Now when they (e.) four it was that 

114 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

riwetuxra'vu a asd-ki iriwetarawaki (106) he hawa hiru axre-ka 
trihewesiwdixku'tit kdtaxka (107) kitu asiaxriraktaru-wa rawt- 
titstaxraxkatarikixku (108) heru aocnwa*ku asd-ki kctu hawa tasak- 
taruvsta (109) tirastqkurvwl he restaktaxkaku-siksta arwsa he 
irikurdsird'Tu he tstu restaruvsta d'os (110) he hawa riruaxrvwu 
ii'kaa kuwttektdkqwu (HI) he hiru axritawe arwsa ra-kuwakirav 
wUuntskistatsqku (112) ruwewitiraritsaxka ke4si irukstaxkdtaa 

(113) hk axra-kusvrat he hawa riqxrutast/ttt axrararitsixtavsa 

(114) he hawa riaxru-ta prraski axrqwd-ku atias tirawa-riki iriweku- 
tdsira (115) d-kaa rukuwekuwitarnratewd'hat re^sa-ru wekqrawt- 
tikd'pd*kis (116) a axrqwd-ku tira-ku pqhatki asku weturavwits 

(117) ndwa heru axriraxkatdat hd*wa u-kaa wewiteruxkqri aru-sa 

(118) hawa runrikuxri-hi he hawa axraraxkawi'tit (119) tsi wewi- 
terwrqka pi-raski triweaxrgraxkd*wi (120) heru axriwa*ku asd-ki 
ndwa werutera-rihvt (121) he hqwd pttku wesiaxratawkvt pvrafiki 
kskiksapits wewituxra-ru (122) a texwaki we hawa tihakdrariwakta 
rexkuwdkia hu-u he hqwd tirawira-kuxta pi-raski (123) a texwa- 
kid'hu wewttewatsitiksta he-tsi piraski wesiaxritsirdspqri sirexku- 

number and dog it was wonderful. (106) And again there 
was a dwelling (e.) this time they killed (q.) enemy. (107) All 
they took off their belongings (e.) now they were saddUng up. 
(108) Then said (e.) the dog, ''All also you are going to 
give these to them (109) these you are with and you are going 
to divide them (place them upon them) horses and the ones 
that are yours then also you are going to give them to your 
father." (110) Then again they went (e.). Oh they were like 
migrants. (Ill) And there there was among (e.) a horse 
a peculiar one a horse with black spots on his nose (forehead) 
(q.). (112) They were at the village (q.) then those that went 
hunting (113) and they were bringing horses at the outskirts (e.) 
and again that happened (e.) when they came to the outskirts 
(e.) (114) and again that's what he did (e.) boy he said (e.), 
"Father these standing they are yours." (115) Oh he had 
vast possessions (q.) chief he was not poor (very wealthy). 
(116) Then said (e.) this ''Red", ''One time is left." (117) 
Now then they went hunting (e.) again oh they had many 
(q.) horses. (118) Again way somewhere then again they 
stopped (e.) (they sat down among). (119) But now they had a 
dwelling (q.) boys there they lived (e.). (120) Then said (e.) 
the dog, "Now that's the only time that is left." (121) And 
also two they joined (e.) boys six they now numbered (q.). 
(122) Then they said now again the drums sound they 
would say (e.), "Oh, and again he is going to go on the 
warpath boy." (123) And they would say, he is going to go 
out (q.)-" But boy they were taking him about (visiting) (e.) 

Weltfish, Gaddoan Texts 115 

kdvikooha.^'i^'hii (i^d) iwereoewghi hu*u Tuwewiti'wu hd*wa heretu*TU*ta 
arawititerahurihu^u para rihe ate-rutsiksatsikstawi (125) he hawa- 
ruweaxra-wu H-kga kukakiraktiru asd-ki kitw iraravtawi (126) 
witiwa-ruksti a wetaxwa-ku ru ta*ti itat heruriru taxwu (127) ndwa 
iweririrakaxruras pitku pi-ta asiaxrixku'tit dpats (128) he hirii 
pirg?ii siaxrutsektsirasixku tsapat (129) nq'wa istu iweruxrasikskd-- 
pd'kis asa-ki iweraxwd-ku na'wa sikaresiku^it pira*u situtsirasa 

(130) hern axriwa-ku ndwa arwsd tsvskitt sikasirira-rvwit rusiruksqka 

(131) hem axriwa^ku asd-ki riwetitqwe asku rikutatwtu kakasti- 
wariksta riwetasikitdwista (132) heru siaxrekdriksta d-kga isira-ku 
tskdtaxka axriraktawu-hu (133) a hdwa taraxkqtdkusu d tatkqtdkusu 
a asitskqrvtu a kitu akawa*xtsisu (134) heru axre-d-hu heru re*d*hu 
rmwa ruwerixtscxtdispu he rawttqkardtsu axrawd-ku tdkusvra (135) he 
axratqkd'Susi'Ut u-kqa he axrardwere-tit tsaxriks tsixtahaxkitu raru 
witia tsaxriks kurexkuustqrit (136) he hiru wehiru axrikita pi-raski 
pikqrustdxkqta rakupi-karuskitdwiu (137) a tira*ku iriritsiksat- 
sikska-pd-kisu witiktta prkdruspqhat (138) a tihe rd-ku he axrH-kita 
pvkqruska-tit a hera-ku he qxrukita pi-karusta-ka (139) a ihe ratkat 

they would be making feasts for him (e.). (124) They would say 
(e.), '*0h, they have gone again." This part of the camp 
they would regret they would wish they had taken care of him. 
(125) And again when they had gone (e.) oh they were not 
frightened, dog everything he knew that, (126) he is wonder- 
ful (q.), and he would say, ''There that way is the camp." 
Then that way they would go (e.). (127) Now when they found 
the dwelling two men they killed them (e.) both. (128) And 
there baby they each had with them (e.) a woman. (129) Now 
again he blessed them dog. He said (e.), *'Now don't kill it 
babies they two had with them." (130) Then he said (e.), 
''Now horses a few you must leave for them leave the 
dwellings!" (131) Then said (e.) the dog, "It is among one 
I resemble him you are not going to lose that you are going to 
ride it." (132) Then they brought the herd (e.). Oh those 
two women-enemies (Sioux) they were giving them (e.) 
(133) and also saddle and saddle-blanket and rawhide 
and all food. (134) Then they came (e.) then they came 
now they were at the outskirts and suddenly he said (e.), 
''There is a herd coming." (135) And there began to be shots (e.). 
Oh then they crowded al30ut (e.) people the whole outskirts 
just it became (q.) people perhaps for them to be given. 
(136) And there now there he was riding (e.) boy yeUow 
horse (sorrell) a surpassing horse, (137) and this one the one 
he had blessed he was riding (q.) a red horse (bay) (138) and 
the other one then he was riding (e.) a black horse and 
the other one then he rode (e.) a white horse (139) and — 
next of the two that joined (e.) — — dark yellow (buckskin 

116 Pvblicationsy American Ethnological Society Vol. XV kj 

isiaxrataii'hvt he leu TcqiiiraxJca'ia (149) d hera-ku dxrukiia gsawa- 
kixpahat "A'Tcga weaxrgraxkatehaksdriki (1^1) ii'haa karavntire-- 
^sdocriks heriaocrutsiksd'hu (142) weraascrixwgkid'hurihuksu istaktq- 
kdhaku kasirira^kd'hu he wera axritqkaksqtvd'hu (143) ii-kqa 
itikurd'Tu dwiterakdruru a ihe tdpaxtu he terutkmdakaru'tsii (144) d 
ura'Wari'tu a tdpaxrd-nis iwerawitsahu (145) ndwa weraxwa^ku 
%sd*ki tiki tsqpat iriwetastdspe-tsta (146) kskitiks triwetuxrfn(rru 
(147) ndwa hem axriraxkatdat he weaxrixwakid-hu piraski witi- 
harariwvtiku (148) ru irikiixri-hi weaxrqitat he axrahardriwi'tU 
(14V) v'kaa iweaxrutqkd'ku rurikuwdirdte-wd'hat (150) U'kqa 
he W( (ixrarurd-risa^at arwsa (151) kgrurerikatiha'rihvt axrgharariku 
he kukqrdaxrirdwird'pu (152) he axrixwakid-hu e-kaa werahardriku 
he kuwekareriwari (153) hern axriwa*ku piraski tatitska ratkuksu- 
hurawirdkata (154) riuixrutse-kaksa iriaxrahurvwi wewitira^riki- 
Idwista (155) hem axriwa-ku asd-ki kurustvku hem axrirawirqpu 
(156) iriatdxtsa tsqpat herim taxku asd-ki (157) ru kitw raxkutspd*- 
tqtq he asa*ki rirutarqwerqa tqwewituxrara^ru tdwit iweaxrqrawirdpqra 
(158) he istu tara-sa kskitiks triwetiuxta (159) he tira'ku tsqpat 

tiorse) (140) and the other one he was riding (e.) spotted red 
horse. Oh they were standing spread lined up. (141) Oh it 
wasn't a human affair that's the way it used to be (e.) (142) they 
were aU saying (e.) just when when you dismount you must 
be coming and they were all calling them there (e.). (143) Oh 
wild beans (stored by rats, like butterbean) they would feed 
them (q.) and — corn meal (from small-grain roasted corn) 
then mush was placed before him (them) (144) and corn meal 
(from large-grain roasted corn) and pulverized dry meat when 
they arrived. (145) '*Now", said (e.) the dog, ''Son woman 
you are going to look for that (146) four that many times." 
(147) Now then they went hunting (e.) and they were 
saying (e.), ''Boy he is getting married." (148) Way off some- 
where they were camping (e,) and he married (e.). (149) Oh 
when he was a son-in-law (e.) the things were so extensive (q.). 
(150) Oh then he had many possessions (e.) horses (151) it 
was not only one year that he was married (e.) and he had 
not ^one on the warpath (e.) (152) and they were saying (e.), 
*'0h when he was married then he doesn't go about." (153) 
Then said (e.) boy, 'Iwant to go on the warpath." (154)Then 
he called them (e.) those he is with (e.) now they are going to 
ride (q.) (155) then said (e.) dog, "I wiU stay." Then they 
went on the warpath (e.). (156) Where she would lie woman 
Then he would sit there (e.) dog. (157) And everywhere when 
she would go out (e.) then dog he would come behind there 
were this many times three that he had gone on the warpath (e.) 

(158) and again this time (lying) four that he is going to go 

(1 59) and this woman she probably intended to do something 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts] 117 

kuwekuxrdwdska* kudtu*ta*ra he ihe iweaxrarawir&pu he-tsi tsqpat 
sikuxreruocwdsa (160) istu ha-wa tiheweaxraratkd'd'ra he hqwd 
axrd* (161) heru axrutsia tsapat asa*ki axritastarawatdtaku gax- 
rakusihat (162) wttirgtsthstad-ri siaxrixrisa he-tsi qxritqwatqta'ku 
(163) heru axrwtsid asd-ki aaxrextdtawvttt he weaxrd'he-sa (164) 
tsqpdt wegxretspdtqta akukardaxritse-we-rqat (165) ketskuxki 
kuxrutstdkura-ru he hqwd axrqwakdsakta he hdwa takusvra (166) he 
ira-ku piraski he weaxra*sa*^ asa-kipirvruxre-ra (167) raru witet- 
siksku kasikqkis asa-ki isi-ra (168) kukqrawitutsira'tsiksta hetqku 
raru wdikqqt (169) tkqa piraski rukqramtutse'tsiksu axrqwdskq*^ 
kutixruvt (1^0) a kardaxrikd-vsat piraski asiwderutsiksqwats- 
kdksd'hu he ta axrawa-ku^ heri axrqkdqwHd he ta-tq'ku asa-ki 
ruaxrutsitskitawiruspi'td (171) heru taxwd.ku piraski ndwa kustiat 
asiwderutsiksqwaxtsuriwu (172) d-kaa tsqpat atqruksdwatspa-kd-hu 
rutsihukd'ispa heru taxwa-ku ruru kustiat (173) a hetqku siqxrd- 
kaksdwa'hu he taxwa-ku kustiat (174) ndwa he vsira-ku he siaxrux- 
rdtke-d (175) heru axrurahiwds weaxrd*he*sa he hiru siaxri-a kqrdki 
wdirqriks (176) siwditsikserikusu-ku siwdikardku (177) he-tsi 

and — when they had gone on the warpath (e.) then woman 
someone visited her. (160) Again also the other night (e.) 
and again he came (e.). (161) Then she did (e.) woman 
dog he was sitting upon her feet she kicked it. (162) It was 
hurting her feeUngs as someone was lying with her (e.) but 
it was upon her feet sitting (e.). (163) Then he did thus (e.) 
dog he sat down outside (e.) and next morning (e.) (164) wo- 
man when she went out (e.) it did not follow her (come behind) 
(e.). (165) A few it was that many days and again someone 
announced (e.) then again they are bringing herds there. 
(166) And that boy then he was now called (e.) Handsome- 
young-dog. (167) Just his thoughts sat (q.) (he was disappointed) 
it would be glad dog when it came (168) it didn't pay any 
attention (q.) over here just it went among (q.). (169) Oh 
boy he did not feel right (q.) he thought (e.) something must 
be the matter. (170) And he did not go home (e.) boy even 
if they would keep calling him (q.) and there was a mountain (e.) 
there he sat down on top (e.) and right there dog he would 
curl up sitting down on top there (e.). (171) Then said (e.) boy, 
''Now I wUl go even if they went after him (q.)-" (172) Oh 
woman even when she would say, '*Let us now go home," then 
he would say (e.), ''Go on, I will go." (173) And others they 
were calhng him (e.) and he would say (e.), '1 will go." 

(174) Now then those two — night came upon them (e.) 

(175) then there happened (e.) next morning and there 
they became (e.) stones it is true (q.). (176) They used to see 
the two they were two stones (sitting) (q.). (177) But then, he 


118 PuhlicatioTis, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVJI 

weaxrgratdwe'tsPu qsakipiri-ru risiwitu'ta karitki siwitia (178) iri- 
witqruxktta arwsd tiaxrukstdtsawe karawitukstdtsaive (179) atirake'- 
hdxtawe asakipiri-ru ru*rikumtara^ taku riweratutsiraviustu'Tu. 

had put among (e.) Young-clog they two did that (q.) stones 
they became (q.) (178) he was the cause of it (q.) horses that 
were among them (e.) they had not been among them (q.) 
(179) and this dance among them Young-dog they are his 
things. Right here this is all of the story. 


(Free translation.) 

In a village of mud lodges there Uved a poor orphan boy. For 
his food he would have to go from house to house picking up 
whatever scraps he could find. When they would go hunting he 
would follow^ at some distance behind. When they stopped to 
camp and fires were built, he would stay on the outskirts of the 
encampment. This story tells of the origin of our Young-Dog 

These people were not charitable in the old days and so the boy 
trailed along behind and picked up the scraps of intestines and 
entrails that he could find for his food. Sometimes he went to 
one of the tents and would be given food. As they were travelling 
he became acquainted with the chief's son who befriended the 
boy, and they came to love each other very much. The chief 
encouraged his son's kindness and told him to see that his friend 
had plenty to eat. Finally when they had been off somewhere 
together the chief's son would ask him to come home with him but 
the boy would refuse for he felt ashamed of himself. He lay down 
and fell asleep and while he was sleeping the people broke up camp 
and moved on. When he woke up he found that the camp was gone 
and that the people had been gone for some time. He began to 
cry bitterly because of the hardships he had to endure and he went 
to the grounds w^here the camp had been picking up the leavings 
for his food. As he was wandering among the camp sites he sud- 
denly heard the barking of a dog. He found a mangy dog sitting 
on one of the camp sites of the kind commonly called "red". He 
took it in his arms and fondled it and they both cried together. 
Then he fed it with whatever entrails he had and they set out 
together on the road that the people had taken. At last they 
came to a stream where they both drank. Then he washed and 
cleaned the dog and began to talk to it as if it were a baby. "Look, 
see, there is the smoke of the campfires." When they got to the 
encampment the boy who was his friend came to invite them to 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 119 

come to their house. The boy was very much ashamed of himself 
becausehe was dirty and full of hce. His friend gave him something 
to eat and a wrap and asked him to come and sit near their tent. 
The chief was glad to see that his son was so sympathetic to the 
poor boy, for it was a pleasure to him while he still lived to see 
his son acting generously as befitted a chief. 

As they travelled on the people made fun of the two boys. When 
next they came to a stream the boy washed himself thoroughly 
and also the dog so that they felt better. When they got back 
to camp the chief's son again invited them to come into their 
tent and finally they accepted the invitation. There had been a 
very successful kilhng so that there was plenty of meat. The two 
boys would herd the chief's horses together. The dog was mean- 
while blessing, the boy that had adopted himj^STaalliS Jifi^a^na 
mature, one night jjj a dream the dog talked to him. And from that 
tenr*sailie the sound of two voices singing young^dog songs ; it was 
the dog and the boy singing together. (As the other dogs in camp 
heard the song they howled an accompaniment). Then the dog 
told the boy that they two should go off by themselves on the 
warpath. As the dog got to the outskirts of the camp he sang, but 
since they wanted their war expedition to be a secret they hid 
outside the camp. 

Then they came upon a strange camp. By this time the boy^ 
could understand very well what the dog said. The dog told him 
to stay outside the camp while he entered by himself. He came 
back with a piece of meat in his mouth that had been hanging 
upon a drying rack and they both sat down together and ate it. 
Then the -dog went into the camp again and this time he drove 
four horses l>efore him by biting at them. As they came along 
they were dragging their halters. The boy mounted one of them 
with the dog, led two others by the halters and the fourth simply 
followed along by itself. They fled from the strange village as 
fast as possible, riding all night and when it was morning the dog 
got off and walked. Then they stopped to eat what food they 
had with them and they were finishing their breakfast just as the 
sun began to appear on the horizon. Then they went on, the dog 
travelling along on foot. They came upon some deserted habita- 
tions and here the dog decided they should stop for the night. 
The dog, being a supernatural person could tell the boy that no 
one was trailing them and that if they were he would know of it 
and would tell him. The dog said, "Now, son, lie down and rest 
and I will keep watch." All day the boy slept and meanwhile 
the horses grazed. When night came the dog told the boy that 
now they were going to travel on. When it was morning and they 
stopped again they had no food so the boy told the dog that he 
would try to kill something even if it were only a young calf. The 
boy w^as not old enough to handle a bow and arrow, but nevertheless 

120 Pvblicationa^ American Ethnological Society Vol, XV II 

Tie TYinnntftd r 'Cir\{^. hU^Jr h/)rs e tha. t wa,R an excellent runner and he 
killed a £a1f froTnu^^mong^fcbe-Jaerd. He bufit a fife righi where 4e 
caff had fallen and began to roast the meat for himself and the dog. 
Then he roasted the rest of the meat to carry along with them on 
their journey. At noon they again went on their way and this 
time he carried the dog with him on the horse as the dog's feet 
hurt him. At midnight they made their next stop. By the Tiext 
morning they would arrive at their own village. When it was 
morning the dog announced that they were_ arriving at the village 
where the^peoplaJbad returned. Presently someone who had been 
standing at the outskirts of the village called out that they were 
coming and as he came toward them he called to the village that it 
was the poor orphan boy that had disappeared. All the people 
rushed out of their lodges and the chief advanced toward the boy. 
.The bpy^ addressed the chief as his fp^l^^^r nnd gnv^ h jm the hor ses. 
THe chief's family took him to their lodge and sat him down irrffie 
seat of honor at the west, and now they knew that the dog had 
blesseri him. The chief gave him a buffalo robe and some leggings. 
Now (neryone knew that the boy was living at the chief's lodge. 
He went about with the chief's son and at night they would sing 
young-dog songs. 

On their next hunt the chief's son went about with the boy 
because he loved the songs. The dog told the boy not to have 
anything to do with women. When they stopped the boys would 
have a dwelling to themselves. The chief had a tent made for 
them and in it they sang young-dog dance songs. The people 
enjoyed the songs. The dog told them to go on the warpath on the 
fourth day. Not very long after they set out they came upon a 
house standing by itself. They took all the horses from the people 
who Hved there and mounted with the dog. As they approached 
the camp the dust arose from the ground and someone shouted 
that the chief's son and the unusual boy were bringing a herd of 
horses. Again all the people rushed out to the edge of the village 
and this time the boy had surpassed his previous accompUshments 
and again he gave all he captured to his father. At their separate 
dwelling the dog told the boj that they must go on thfilSarpafh 
four tifiies and that during this time he was to have nothing to 
do_witli women. The chief who by this time had l^ecdme wealthier 
than bcibre had a buffalo-hide tent made for the boys. This new 
tent stood right next to the chief's. Every night the drums would 
beat and they would sing young-dog dance songs. Now there were 
four boys besides the dog. They had been on two war expeditions 
and the dog had said that they were to have gone out four_ times 
to capture horses and that then the boy could find a wife. On 
their next expedition atTEe direction of the wonderful dog, they 
came upon an enemy dwelling; they killed the people and took 
much plunder. They saddled up their horses and set out for their 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 121 

village looking like travellers on a long journey. The dog directed 
that the boy's horses were to be given to the chief and that the 
rest of the horses were to be divided up. Among the herd was an 
unusual horse with black spots on its nose. The people had returned 
from the hunt and were all in the village and again when the people 
saw him coming they all ran to the edge of the village. The boy 
did as he had been told and again gave his horses to the chief. 
Now the chief was very w eal^^hy for he had received many ho^'gg g* 
Then the dog, ''Red" said, '*Now we must go out once more."^ 
Again they went on the hunt and they now had many horses. 
When they set up camp in a grove of trees the boys had their 
own tent. Two more boys joined them, making six in all, and 
inside the tent the dog again announced that this would be their 
last war expedition. At the sound of the drums the people would 
say, "Oh, that boy is going on the warpath again." The boy 
was invited everywhere and handsomely feted. When word went 
out that they had left the people that had intended to give feasts 
in his honor regretted that they had not had the opportunity to 
do so. They were not frightened for they knew that the dog who 
was sponsoring^ffieif expedition had great superSa^UrAl ^pmyer. 
They came upon a family of two men, two women, and their 
babies. They killed the men but the dog told them to spare the 
women and the babies. He also instructed them to leave some 
horses for them and not to destroy the tent. The rest of the horses 
they took and there was one among them that resembled the dog, 
and this horse the boy was to ride and keep. The two Sioux women 
gave them saddles, saddle-blankets, rawhide and food and then 
they set out for home. As they approached their own camp someone 
saw them coming and shouted that a herd of horses was approaching. 
A shot rang out to announce their coming. The whole outskirts of 
the village were just jammed with people hoping to receive gifts. 

Now the boy (chief's son) came riding a beautiful sorrell horse, 
and the wonderful boy was riding a bay horse, and another of the 
boys had a black horse, and another a white horse; of the last 
two boys that had joined them one had a buckskin horse and the 
other was riding a red-spotted horse. It was a beautiful sight to 
see them all lined up. As they dismounted invitations were extended 
to them by many of the people. They feasted on wild beans, corn 
meal, roasted dried corn and dry meat. Now the dog told the boy 
to look for a wife for this was the fourth and final trip. 

On, their next hunting trip the bajr wais marriedL. In his new 
home he^ad^ast possessions. He had a large herd of horses. He 
lived with his wife for many years. He settled down and did not 
go on the warpath for some years. People began to criticize him 
for setthug_dawn so completely after his marriage and one day 
he announced that he wanted to go on the warpath again. He 
caTTe'd together his fellow-members and together they set out, 

122 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

mounted on horseback.^ The dog said he would stay at horne and 
he watched the boy's wife very closely. When she WOUld go to 
bed he would lie at her feet and wherever she went he would follow 
close behind. Three times the boys went on the warpath and the 
fourth time the woman was probably planning to deceive her 
husband. When they were gone, that night the woman's lover 
came to her, and then again on two succeeding nights. Meanwhile 
the dog lay at the foot of her bed, and troubled by her conscience 
she would kick the dog. Then he went and sat down outside the 
house. Next morning when the woman went out the dog no longer 
followed her. Shortly after this incident the cry went out that 
the boys were again coming with a herd of horses. The boy was 
now called Handsome-young-do^. He was very much disappointed 
when the dog did not come to greet him and acted quite indiffer- 
ently. He sensed then that there must be something wrong, and 
so instead of going home he went up on top of a hill and sat down 
there. The dog went along curling up right next to him. AU 
pleading was in vain; he would not go home. Even if his wife 
would come to him and say, "Let's go home together," he would 
put her off saying, "Go ahead and I'll come sometime later." 
But he would not come. They sat there all night, and during the 
night the boy and the dog turned to stone. In the mormngThe 
people saw the two stones, and this is really true for people used to 
see those two stones. 

It was this boy and his dog, who had turned to stone, that 
irim)duced horses to our people and also lihe Young^do^=^tetTW!0. 
So this young dog dance that is among us today belonigs totlro 
boy. At this point my story ends. 



(1 ) tqku witektdkawn he tiaxra-ku piraski taku* irikukarakutsitsax- 

riksu-a he ta-rikda witariruxre aru-sa (2) heru axraraxkatdat ru-* 

aocraraxwari nawahe istu weaxruxrarapttdwa-hat (3) heru weax- 

raktqhjtvu u-kaa wewitikari tdkaaki (4) ruweaxrararuhawira*hat 

(1) Here they migrated (q.) and this one (e.) (sitting) boy 
someone there is not a person who resembles him and he would 
ride it was a handsome one (q.) horse. (2) Then they went 
hunting (e.) extensively they travelled about (e.). Now then, 
again when they had turned back (e.) (3) then when they had 
travelled onward (e.) oh, there was lots (q.) dry-meat. 
(4) There when they had turned going down (e.) back the 

^ This was uniisual as a war-party usually left on foot as they expected to 
return with captured horses. 

Weltfish, Caddom Teasts IflT 

istu ujewUutaktqkumu'a tritara-MtJce-u (5) he aocnocwaki wewitira-rat 
kitkakaxwe-riksu he riaxrawakdsakta weti'tsd-mra-nt (6) he axrawa-- 
kisakta weturekstdriruxtsi a atit werutkextawa-his a pdhuks wewi- 
tirare^haats (7) d-kaa kitu awitara-tsikste^hu''' (8) nawa iweax- 
rara-r-at karure-heistivt tsiru sihuks kuxruxreistdriwds he riraritsdx- 
kaic^k^t ?9) iweactyralcAriy. n/wkArgnccrirarikUa (10) hitu wiiixrqra 
hetsi piraski wita*rikita (11) iweaxraktqkqhukdtqwu he kurqhus a 
tsustit rawitu4asukd4qvtat axrawiwd-hat (12) heru axriwitska 
piraski tawttiwd*ku kstawvtit he kitu istatsqriwisat heru ite*at (13) heru 
axrire-wa-ta htm karaaxrlwiwa-hat wewitisqkuri-sat (14) heru 
riwUska kqrestukitqwi'tit he dqkika'rit iweaxrahukata-ta he hiru- 
tsustit asku hiru axrihukd'taku"^ (1^) heru axriwa-ku tsustit e-kqa 
raktiki ra.a (16) heru axriwa-ku pi-raski d-kaa atikd tsiru tsqxruka-- 
tqku^ (17) heru axriwaku piraski atika siksa tuksikitqwu he rqrqhw- 
kqtqqt (18) he kardaxri-wttska tsustit heru axriwa-ku tsustit heru 
U'tikts weka-kiratkukitqwi kusikutqka-hat (19) he wekdrqaxrihisi' it 
heru axriwa'ku i'kga ikarv dra-titakus heru axrivxi*ku pi-raski d-hu 

immigrants turned to (q.) over to our village (5) and they 
said (e.) now they have gone (q.) village-scouts (advance- 
scouts) and someone announced he holds it up (ear of corn) 
(6) and someone announces there is a lot of corn and beans 
the bean plants are all dry (except the pods) and pumpkins now 
they are finished. (7) Oh, all they were happy (q.) (8) Now 
they went on (e.). It was not one day but five more days 
are left then they would go into tiie village (9) there being 
many (e.) they were not mounted. (10) All (horses) they were 
carrying (q.) (packs) but boy he was mounted (q.) (11) when 
they travelled across the water (e.) and old man and old 
woman they were lined up along the bank they were sitting 
about (e.). (12) Then he thought (e.) boy here is what he 
said (q.), *Xet me sit down, and all let them pass by, then 
I'll go!" (13) Then he looked about (e.) here they were not 
sitting around (e.). when the sun went down (q.) (14) then 
he thought, '1 had better not mount, and I will cause him 
to drink!" (horse) When he had crossed the water then there 
old woman one here she was sitting on the bank (e.) (15) then 
said (e.) old woman, "Oh, my grandchild he comes." 
(16) Then said (e.) the boy, "Oh, grandma, still you are 
sitting on the bank! (e.)" (17) Then said (e.) boy, "Grandma, 
come here, let me set you on (the horse) and it will cross with 
you/' (18) but she didn't want to (e.) old woman then said 
(e.) old woman, "Oh, son, I cannot ride any more I might 
fall of f . " (19) And she was not to be deterred (she was determined ) . 
Then she said (e.), "Oh, your grandma you should carry on 
your back." Then said (e.) boy, "Yes, grandma, I will 

124 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

atika kusti'taxp^a heru axritaxp^a (20) heru axrirahu'at he ax- 
rahastdtoira rihuksu axrarqhwkatdwitsat (21) heru axriwa-ku atika 
8U*hu*wi'ttt he takaraisu axraioa'ku ha- a ti'ki ihetqku (22) heru 
axriwa*ku pvraski iriaxruxrarexku ndwg atika su*hu*wvtit (23) heru 
axriwa-ku hari hextaku heru axriwa-ku piraski ndwa atika swhu" 
tqka*hat (24) heru axriwa-ku tswsttt he** vrikuxrdsirixku^ a-ki 
wekututstdtqte (25) ataruksdwatspa*kd*hu e.kaa atika swhu-vd-tit 
(26) heru taxwd'ku mmrh trikuxdsirixku^ (27) wkaa rqkuka*pa-kis^ 
piraski rahvri raru wdihasuhurqhat (28) rwlaru*- ruaxriqt piraski 
atentskqwawe'su are-xkutstaka-tsu^ha sqkuxkitu pvraski amtaxkikat 
ru'tiwitqkdkura'rua (29) heru- riraru-axrikq' at aki kutckaxka tsapat 
rixkuwqruksti'U (30) axrdwqtsdit asku heru axriwa*ku tire-ki'kat 
tsa^xriks (31) heru axriwa-ku heru keetqqt heru axriqt (32) he hiru 
axri'sa i-kad kistihuksu wewiti (33) heru axriwa-ku tsapat iasti 
wite-ruxku rdhiwarukstl-u (34) iweraxwd-ku u-kqa atias triweti- 
kdpd'kts piraski (35) heru axriwa-ku kurahus sikdrqsutqtstkskd-- 
pd'kis heru axririwqku d-hu heru axriwa-ku ndwa sukstakdspakstu— 
tsit (36) he kurahusa^u qxrikirqsqt e-kqa he hiru axri-sa tsustit 

carry you on my back." Then he carried her on his back (20) then 
he went carrying her through the water and he was leading it. 
Just when he had crossed with her (21) then he said (e.), 
''Grandma, now sit down!" (get down) and suddenly she 
rephed (e.), "Oh, son, over there." (22) Then said (e.) 
the boy where she meant, ''Now, grandma, now sit down!" 
(23) Then she said (e.), "No, over there." Then said (e.) 
boy, "Now, grandma, now get off!" (24) Then said (e.) 
the old woman, "Yeah, where is yours sitting at!" and here 
she had gotten stuck. (25) Even if he would say "Oh, grandma, 
now sit down !" (26) Then she would say, "Mmm, where is 
yours sitting at!" (27) Oh, he was miserable boy finally 
just he let the string loose (q.) (28) then in that direction he 
went off boy. she would slap his face she would urinate all 
over his back all day boy he would cry (q.) (e.) this way 
there extended timber (29) then he just went there among 
and there was a dwelling women they that are wonderful. 
(30) She went out (e.) one then she said (e.), "There is crying 
a person." (31) Then she said (e.) now I had better go!" 
Then she went, (e.) (32) And there he lay (e.) oh, just 
bones! now he is (33) then she said (e.) woman (father 
they had (q.) a wonderful one) (34) thereupon she said (e.) 
"Oh, father, he is pitiful the boy." (35) Then said (e.) 
the old man, "Did you have pity on him ?" then they said e.) 
"Yes." then he said (e.), "Now get the pack strap!" (carried 
across the forehead) (36) And their old man he lead them (e.). 
Oh, then there he lay (e.). Old woman she was sticking her 
tongue out back and forth (q.) she was saying (q.) "Now then 

rreUfCish, OuAldx^n, Texts 126 

ruwttehatkawaa'hu witiwa*1ca'Jiu nawa e* ktraai isexkuru^wa (37) heru 
axriwa'hu kurahua e irirdkuwa'ka tira*nki kurahiis he axrqwika-ra 
heru axriwa-ku axruxrexku irarwrgriki tsu*raki (38) kasutsira-- 
tsiksta kasihdspakstara'want he tskitskatat 

(39) tsasirikurnstiha'kitqrikvt rakta-kd rgkuhd-pi 
ara-tku rikqre'retutsi tirahaspakstu-tsi 

he isutastarawitsixkui (40) heri axru'ta he axrahastarawqnt rwax- 
raxpaksdwqnt (41) hawa- M ira*riki axrwta hqtud axrqwixtqrikut 
hqwa- he ira*riki hqwd naxTU*ta hqiod axrqwixtqrikut (42) hqwa' 
he-sirqwa-riki hawd risi-axru'ta siaxrqkastdrikut (43) hurahusa'u 
ratkat rwwttutsia kitu- aaxraru'wa he siaxre'wdxra (44) heru 
siqxri'tsitsirqsat irvaxrd'ka-wi (45) kurahus wctuksqsqwirqrq 
iria4druxra^^ tskqrd raxku'kd'wi (46) heru siqxritsitsiraspi'tit a 
axrqwa*ku kiiWqhus d'kqa wttuxrUsdxrikse wekutdtqhd (47) d-kqa 
kurqhus kdw weaxrararuwa^wd-hu kitw kltuks raxkuskawdriku 

(48) ru axriwa-ku kurqhus tsirw ruia-tuxta tri'tirdtqra-kituraxku^ 

(49) heru axriat ru a axre-tsdxkqu-kvt trvtirdtqra'kituraxkqku^ 
(60) iriaxra-kd'wi axru'ta*kitsisu heri axrqhu-kat iriru-tqhu raru 

see if you can take me off!" (37) Then said (e.) old man, '' — 
go ahead and say that!" this (standing) old man then he 
sang (e.) and he said (e.) he meant (e.) the one that is his 
(standing) daughter (girl), (38) "You must be watching, you 
must throw the pack straps and hook the neck!" 

(39) '*I could easily break off a limb cottonwood that 

standing tree, 
Should it be vain that which I am not these pack straps." 

'Now, pull on the straps!" (40) That's what she did and she 
threw the pack-straps (e.) then she removed the head (pulled 
it back and forth) (41) also the other that one (standing) 
she did (e.) also she jerked an arm off (e.) also the other 
that one (standing) also that's what she did (e.) also she 
jerked an arm off (e.) (42) also the other two (standing) also 
this is what they did (e.) they pulled off a leg (e.) (43) the father 
next he did (q.) all he took off (e.) and they helped him 
get up (e.). (44) Then they took him with them (e.) where 
they lived (e.) (45) old man he had traps (q.) that's why 
alone they lived. (46) Then they sat down with him (kept him) 
(e.) and said (e.) old man, *'0h, he is a handsome person, 
you are now my son." (47) Oh, old man all he proceeded 
to bring together (e.) all beaver that he would trap (e.) 
(48) then said (e.) old man, "I think I am going to go there 
where our village is (sitting)." (49) Then he went (e.) there he 
arrived among the village (e.) where our village is (50) where 
they hve (e.) those related to him (e.) there he went inside (e.) 

126 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

rtxkurai'wa-t^ (51) hern axriwa'ku tsapat n- tiki piraski raru 
tihurahats heru axriwctska kurahus kareste*wd-ku e ra-ru axrira-i-- 
wd-wat (52) he axnxwaki hu* pi'raski witukskitaku irahurax- 
wdrutsku witukskitaku (53) heru axre-a kurqMis heru axrirat tse-- 
riwis'heriru axre-a a axrdwitsa^ (54) a axrawd-ku axruxrexku 
tsapd*ra*u tatixwakid-hu he re-tatsiks sirixkuxrexku tird-sa piraski 
(55) dkga hetsi weaxrarqriwdsa td-kaski he weaxrixrd-hqru (56) he 
kitu* wesiaxTixrax kitst tkaru pvraski d-kaa he rahiri axraha-kqwax- 
tsusi'tit (57) witira*ke'a isiaxrvtsirasku piraski he rahiri axrata- 
raxkisa (58) heru axriwa*ku kurahus tsiru tstu ta-tuxtii ti tri-re-tat 
(59) heru axriat rwiri-axrawitspusuku axrwtakitsisu heru axririwqki 
hu' tiki kukakurahiwixtsu axrqwihurahats (60) heru axriwa-ku 
tsapat tiki hewere-rariwaxte (61) heru axre-a kukqrewitihd'kawaHs 
kukqrexre*ruxku heru axre-a (62) e ketsi ira^ku kurahus he axraru- 
rikstuts a tira^kis (63) iri* hqwa kuxri-rawiu he hqwd axrqat kurahus 
irvaxre-tat (64) heru rihird hirurihe axrira-riwaxte (65) heru 
axritva-ku kurahus wcaxrawitsa we'*tira/riwaxte (66) ird-sa piraski 
he axra-sq^a piraskiswka'pat (67) hqwd ke^tsi wewitiritaktquxtqwv- 

this is the way it was just when they tell stories (51) then 
said (e.) woman, **0h, son boy just he disappeared." 
Then thought (e.) old man, **I had better not say." And just 
they told stories (e.). (52) And they said (e.), '*0h, boy he 
was sitting on top (q.) that humped ground (hill) he was sitting 
on top (q.) (53) then came (e.) old man then he took him (e.) 
across (his shoulders) thereupon he came (e.) and he arrived 
(e.) (54) and he said (e.) he meant his wife, 'They say that 
and I think they mean this (lying) boy." (55) Oh, but 
he had arrived holding them (e.) dry-meat and they put them 
in water (e.) (56) and all they had greased him (e.) boy. 
Oh then finally he began to eat. (57) It was a long time (q.) 
sitting down with him (e.) (that they kept him) boy then 
finally he got strong (e.). (58) Then said (e.) old man, "Again 
back I am going to go, here where they camp." (59) Then 
he went (e.) where he always arrives (e.) those that are his 
relatives (e.) then they said (e.), ''Oh, son there has not 
been no way shown yet the one that disappeared (e.)." (60) Then 
said (e.) woman, '*Son noAv they are hungry." (61) Then 
he came (e.) he did not even eat (q.) they did not have anything 
then he came (e.). (62) — but that old man then he had 
arrows (e.) and bow. (63) there again this long time (again at 
another time) and again he went (e.) old man where they 
were camped (e.) (64) then far worse there it was they 
were hungry (e.). (65) Then said (e.) old man when he arrived 
(e.) here now they were so hungry! (66) that (lying) boy then 
his name is (e.) red-headed-woodpecker-boy (67) again then 
it was getting hard for themselves food. Old man he was not 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 127 

d-ri dhawaxtsisu kurahus wekarawite^sqwiraru'wqri (68) heru 
axriwa*lcu kurahus nq'wa tiki kasaruksuhu'rukdxkqwvtit (69) heru 
axriri riksu pitku he weaxritaktqtsdus aki- ira-ku kurahus kutiwa^- 
ruksti^ (70) heru axrutsia piraski irid axrwta pttku (xaxrqriksqwikqi 
ram wttikdhuraxtsat (71) aki- wekutikqsq pa'rus a* raxruraxki aki 
wesikuti-tsat kuwttuu^ kurqhus kqrae^rdvta he urqrvsit criqxra^ 
irisiqxrd'sqwa (72) heru axritva'ku kurahus ruwite'wasku tisvrasqwd 
raxruraxki rusitwtsi-tsq'ku kuratirikstd*ru heru siaxre-ra sikqkiks- 
kwwarusu'ku a rqru tiksptxrdxkate^rtktspu rqkutskdrtxru'waxri (73) 
aki' iriwe'rukutira-te-hat crirakutd-ri he rahiri targha hirti- tdxkqsq 
(74) hetsi iveaxriraktqriwaxte^kwtu tike rdtqra*ki'tat (75) he ke-tsi 
tirakdxkqwi he weqxruxkarikstiruxtsi raxruraxki we ra^ru tiretsq- 
wikqwa (76) hetsi tvre4at he weaxriraktiwaxte-kdwu-tu he kurqhus 
r%i qxrutsektqrat iriaxrutakitsisu (77) he kuxreruxre-tsis rahvri 
pttku kuwekuxrdrqrqt tdkaski (78) heru axririwaki erd pttku 
wetqraruwitspa ru- iri iaxra-ka' xkqwi he wkaxruxka^rikstiruxtsi 
(79) he rahiri kuxrixre-tsis he ra*hiri axraraxwttdusittt (80) he 
weaxnxwqkid'hu piraski ruxtqku wetvku (81) trikuruxrira-unu 

carr3dng the traps about (q.) (68) Then said (e.) old man, 
**Now, son, you must sit down outside." (69) Then he gave 
him (e.) arrow two and they were hungry (e.) but that 
old man probably he was wonderful (70) then he did (e.) 
boy he did that two he threw arrows among (e.) merely 
he pierced the thicket (q.) (71) but there was lying 

rabbit and deer and so he had pierced them. He pretended 
old man he didn't know and straight there he came (e.) 
w^here the two were lying (e.). (72) Then said (e.) old man, 
he was laughing (q.), *'Here lie two animals, they two are 
pierced my arrows. then he brought them two (e.) they 
used not to butcher them and just they would claw under 
in taking the hide off. (73) And here that way that is the margin 
(beginning) of it for him to do that then finally buffalo there 
would be lying among (e.) (74) but they were starving to death 
(e.) this other that is our camp. (75) And but this dweUing 
among and there was lots of meat (e.) animals now just 
they were hung about among (the trees) (76) but this camp 
— • they were starving to death (e.) and old man there he 
took them to them (e.) those that were his relatives (e.) (77) and 
they found out finally twice he had probably taken them 
dry meat. (78) Then they said (e.) "Oh my, twice he has 
brought them here way off where there their dweUing is among 
(e.) and there was a lot of meat (e.) (79) and finally they 
found out and finally they began to arrive there (e.) (80) and 
they were saying (e.) boy way over there he is (sitting) (81) this 
is how long it was when finally they began to come asking 

128 Publications, American Ethnological Society Voh XVII 

he rahvri axrentsqwiusttd e piraski siaxrite-nt (82) he kuxrexwaki 
iasti a isasti ruxta^ku ti-ku (83) heri sikuruxre-wa kitu* siwttirdnxku 
tsahu'ki tsi pi-raski we ram axriwqri u*kaa siaxrdwitsph tsapat d 
pt'ta (84) d'kga siaxraki'kat wesiaxrut^-rd pi-ra*u (85) hawd he^e 
rusiwddrwrihvt hern axriwa-ku pita tiMra*ku irvheruxra^ru siqxritiks- 
tdiwu (86) hern axriwa-ku pi-ta d-hn istu westtasutsirdsuxta 
piraskisuka'pat (87) heru axrutsia tsapat irdwihat tdkaski asiax- 
rirarahurd-ru (88) ii-kaa dsiaxrvtatsckskd^pd-kts istu iwesire*ruha 
pvraski istu ru'wcraxivu irire-tat (89) iriwerutira-ituste^hat 
tiraitusasa^^ piraskisukapat, 

(begging) and boy they say (e.) (82) and they probably told 
his father and his mother over there he is (sitting) (83) then 
they two came everything they had (q.) buffalo robe but 
boy now just he was going about (e.) oh they arrived 
there (e.) woman and man (84) oh, they cried (e.) when 
they saw^ him (e.) child (85) for it was their only one (q.). 
Then said (e.) man this other one (sitting) the one that 
caused it they were rubbing their hands on him (e.) (86) then 
said (e.) the man, "Yes again you are going to take him 
Woodpecker-boy." (87) Then she did (e.) woman those that 
lived there dry -meat they gave her bundles (e.) (88) oh, 
they blessed her (e.) back when they gave her that boy back 
they went where they were camped. (89) This is where the story 
ends. The name of the story is Woodpecker-boy. 


(Free translation.) 

There were some people travelling on the march. Among them 
was a very handsome boy and this boy rode upon a beautiful horse. 
The party had been on an extensive hunting trip and were returning 
home loaded down with dry-meat as a result of their successful 
kill. As they descended toward the village some advance scouts 
were sent out and someone signalled them from the village by 
holding up an ear of corn, signifying that the crops had been 
bountiful. The corn, the beans in their pods, and the pumpkins 
were all ripe. Everyone rejoiced at the news. They were still 
some distance from the village and it took them five days more 
to get there for the horses were all heavily laden and they had 
to make the journey on foot; the boy was an exception, however, 
and he rode along on his horse. 

Near the village there was a stream, and as they travelled 
across, old men and women sat along the banks to rest. The boy 
decided that he too would sit down and rest until the others were 
across and then follow behind. At evening he saw that no one was. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 129 

sitting iibout any more and that everyone must have crossed, so 
he went down to the stream to water his horse. When he had gone 
across he saw an old woman sitting alone on the bank. She was 
very glad to see him and she said, *'Well, here comes my grandson !" 
''I'm so^ry to see you still sitting here, grandma. Get onto my 
horse aiid then you can ride across the stream." But the old 
woman Refused saying that she was too old to ride and that she 
was afraid of falling off. She was insistent and finally persuaded 
him that he ought to carry her across on his back. He did as she 
asked, lei^ding his horse along by the halter. When they got across 
he said, ''Now, grandma get off." But she asked him to take her 
just a UttJe further. When they got to the place she had pointed 
out he asked her again to get off, but again she put him off asking 
to be taken a httle further on. This time when he demanded that 
she get off, she answered him insultingly, saying, *'Yeah, so you 
thought I was your real grandmother did you!" Meanwhile she 
had gotten stuck to his back and had no intention whatever of 
getting off. When he would plead with her to get off she would 
say, ''Mmmm, so you thought I was really your grandmother, did 
you!"^ The boy was very miserable and at last let go the halter 
of his horse and just wandered off at random. She would keep 
slapping his face and excrete all over his back and the boy just 
kept crying. He turned off into the woods. Here there lived some 
wonderful women and one of them thought she heard someone 
crying. She went to find out where the crying came from and 
she found the boy lying on the ground, his body reduced to just 
skin and bones. Then she spoke to her father who also was wonder- 
ful and told him in what a miserable condition the boy was. He 
asked her if she was sorry for the boy and if she wanted to help 
him and she answered that she did. He told his daughters to get 
their pack straps and to come to the place where the boy lay. 
When they got there the old woman stuck her tongue out at them 
and dared them to get her off. The old man parried her insults by 
assuring her that he would succeed, and sang the following song 
which he repeated a number of times. Meanwhile he had instructed 
his daughter to have her packstrap ready and as he sang she was 
to throw it about the woman's neck and pull. The others were 
to pull off her arms and legs in the same way. 

'*I could easily break off a limb, 

From that cottonwood tree standing yonder, 

In vain I use not these packstraps." 

After they had dismembered the old woman, the father removed 
the rest of her body and they all helped the boy to get up. They 

^ Implying that her intentions were far from grandmotherly or kindly. 

130 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

took him home with them; these people Hved alone in the woods 
away from the village because the father was a trapper. The boy 
was very handsome and the father told him that henceforth he 
was to be his son. One day the father announced that he was going 
to visit the village and when he arrived at the house of his people 
he found them telling stories as was the custom. His mother told 
of a boy who had mysteriously disappeared and though he suspected 
that the boy he had at home was the one they were talking about 
he thought he had better not tell them about it. Then they kept 
on talking about it, — how the boy had been sitting upon a hill 
when he was last seen, etc. 

Then the father put his pack across his shoulders and set out 
for his home in the woods. When he got there he told his wife 
the story he had heard and that he thought this was the boy they 
were talking about. He had brought with him some dry meat 
which they immediately cooked. They had covered the boy's 
wounds with grease and gradually he began to recover and to eat 
some food. They had to nurse him for a long time until he 
was well and strong. Then the father again decided to visit his 
family in the village and they again spoke of the lost boy saying 
that no trace of him had yet been found. He also found that there 
was very little food in the village and so he left at once without 
even taking a meal there. He had his bow and arrows with him. 
When he visited the camp again he found that the condition of 
the people was far worse than before and that everyone was hungry. 
When he got back to his house in the woods he told the boy whose 
name was Woodpecker-boy, how the people in the village were 
starving. Their food suply was also getting low for the old man 
had not been trapping for some time. Then he told Woodpecker-boy 
to sit down outside the house and gave him two arrows. The boy 
simply threw the arrows into the thicket when lo and behold he 
had killed a rabbit and a deer. The old man pretended to know 
nothing about it though it was probably through his supernatural 
powers that it had happened; he came rushing over to where the 
two arrows had hit and laughingly remarked, "Well, here are two 
animals that my arrows happened to kill." He brought them to 
the house and skinned them by clawing the skins off for in those 
days they did not have any formal method of butchering. This 
was only the beginning of a series of killings in which at one time 
there was even a buffalo lying in the thicket. Meanwhile the people 
in the village were in desperate straights, while at this dwelhng 
in the woods there was plenty. There was meat hanging on every 
bough all about the house. On his two subsequent visits to the 
village he took plenty of meat to his relatives and at last the 
people began to think that he must have a surplus. They went 
out to the house asking for meat and there they saw the boy they 
had been looking for. The word reached his father and mother and 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 131 

they packed up many buffalo robes and other things and went 
to see the trapper. When they arrived and saw their boy walking 
about and quite well, they cried for joy, for he was their only child. 
The grateful parents rubbed the trapper in a blessing^ and he 
consented to their taking Woodpecker-boy home again with them. 
The women of the house gave the boy's mother bundles of dry- 
meat and blessed her. Then the boy and his parents went home 
to the village. This is the end of the story of Woodpecker-boy. 


tsa 'stawirahi 'ka 
(1) takii witi^ itat the astarahi kdkahdxriri (2) he axnodqwaru*- 
ka*ri (3) witvku tsqpat wUe-raktaku kura*kdd'wi^u (4) e ihe piraski 
axra-ruxku tsqpat axra-ruxku pi-raski (5) he axrawa^ku atira 
tatdska ratkutdwarukd-ra alias kwrara'^u (6) heru axriwa*ku pvta 
e-kareretiwdskd*^ (7) heru axriwa^ku tsqpat irirututsird'^u katstritd- 
warwka trrkuratird'^u (8) heru axrura-riwds siaxrahu-kata pvraski 
d isasti heru axriwa-ku tsqpat tatstxtdwqrukd'rcsta (9) he kqrererai-ta 
idsti (10) he axrd'he^sa he ukaxkdt rtxtdwaru-ka ukaxkdt kdskat 
(11) he tsqpat wesikuxrara pahuksta-kd-ru he siaxra^kitsa^" (12) heru 
axrqrqriwds siaxrd'wihu-kvt tsqpat siwdird- pqhuks (13) heru 

(1) There there was (q.) village — Arikara mud-lodge 
(2) and they were performing magic (e.). (3) There was (sitting) 
(q.) woman she was married (q.) head medicine man (4) and 
— boy he had (e.) woman, he had her (e.) boy. (5) Then 
he said (e.), ^'Mother, I want to perform magic my father 
his way." (6) Then said (e.) man, '1 don't want to." (7) Then 
said (e.) woman '*A11 right, let's perform magic the way 
that is mine." (8) Then they appeared (e.) when they two 
went in (e.) boy and his mother. Then said (e.) the woman, 
*'We are going to perform magic," (9) and he did not know 
his father. (10) and next morning (e.) — outside they 
performed magic outside in the water. (11) And women 
they carried white pumpkin and they clowned (e.) (12) then 
they appeared (e.) they went inside (e.) women they carried 
(q.) pumpkin. (13) Then he did (e.) — when he sang (e.) 

Tiiis is a t\ pical Pawnee gesture consisting of a rubbing of both arms 
from shoulder down to below the elbows to indicate affection, gratitude 
or beseeching. The parents of the boy wanted to show the trapper how 
grateful they were for rescuing; their boy and at the same time to beg 
him to release the boy to them. Having saved his life the boy was in 
his power unless he chose to let him go. 

132 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

sttihd*wari heru siaxrk* ki-waks (17) heroic kitii aaxrura*kuuxkitqat 
tsapat iriwesi-ra^u rikvtski (18) heru axriraxru-kat (19) akv ira-ku 
pi'td he wekuxriratsikstgd-ri wervruvxkitd'ta^ (21) triweruaocru- 
tsird-ru he wekuxraraxwd^ats tsaxriks (22) he ira-ku pvta aki- kute'- 
tsikska rukararqkvtsird'U-a hkru axriwa-ku pvta rusiketpatira^kupt" 
raski (23) he sittpa-re- sat heru whiaxrawaru" irikuxrAhura-^a (24) 
he axrawttskd pvta iriwetdra-fu wetikuruvxktta^at (25) heru axrutsia 
axrak uwu tikd pi-raski a-axra-wiha^i he ra-rdki re'wihg?i (26) hkru 
axriwa^ku hkru axre*a ru axrakd-vsat (27) heru axriwa-ku tsapat 
kirwrdat pi-ra^u (28) heru axriwa*ku pvta pakuxtu- ta^a (29) herii 
ke-tsi axra-sa pi-raski he sikuxri-ririt rikutski (30) he-tsi wesiaxnx- 
kisikixru rikutski (31) heru axrurai-wat (32) a- axrawd-ku tiku- 
k uwu tit atias (33) heru axriwa-ku sitatwtqtsikskd'pd'kts pi-raski 
(34) heru axrawa-ku rikutski iri-rakitd'wi^u atias tihu-rghatsistd 
iriruxrahu-ru-^a hkru axriwa-ku pi-raski kirura-kusu- d-as (35) he 
axrawa-ku pi-raski tiwihaxkdku-su (36) iri-kuxri-ra-wiu he pi-ta 
taxku werukaku-tsetsiksu (37) a-ki kvtiwitska tatdk uwu ttt (38) 

(I guess it was doctor song) (14) then they were getting into 
the water (e.) they were going to perform magic (q.) (15) they 
dipped it under the water pumpkin. (16) While they were going 
about in the water then they are (e.) ducks. (17) Then entirely 
she defeated them (e.) woman that is what they were birds. 
(18) Then they went out (e.) (19) but that one man. And 
his feeUngs were hurting when she surpassed him.^ (21) That was 
all (e.) and when they dispersed people. (22) And that 
(sitting) man but what he had in mind it was not all right. 
Then said (e.) man, '*Let him and me go this (sitting) boy 
(23) and we will go hunting." Then when they had gone (e.) 
way into that place, (24) then thought (e.) man, ''That is 
what hurts he has surpassed me.'' (25) Then he did when he 
killed him (e.) boy he threw him in the water (e.) and actu- 
ally he threw him in the water. (26) Then he spoke (e.). Then 
he came (e.) there he went home (e.). (27) Then said (e.) the 
woman, ''Where did go child?" (28) Then said (e.) man 
*'Long ago he came." (29) Then but he lay (e.) boy and 
they picked him up birds. (30) But they had brought him to 
life (e.) birds, (31) Then he told the story (e.) (32) and he 
said (e.), "He killed me my father." (33) Then he said (e.) 
We take pity on him boy. (34) Then said bird the one that 
is the leader, "Father he is going to die the same way he did 
you." Then he said (e.) boy, "Where does sit your father ?" 

(35) Then said the boy, "He stay (sits) uponthespear grounds." 

(36) It was so long a time and man he sat (e.) he was in a bad 
mood (his feehngs were not mobile) (37) for he knew he had 

1 No. 20 not listed. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 133 

triwhsmxrixru'huTU'kii rikutski sirixkwtwrukvt he strixk uwu ttt 
(39) he axra-he-sa wduxtsdkure (40) he rutsiksa-hu nxkwvm 
axrutsia he weaxrarci^ru (kataskura*^u) (14) he wesiaxrqhau*kvt 
siwttdqwarukh'TLsta (15) h siaxruxrdruocruvtit pahuks (16) tsirw 
(41) he pvta rwirdmha^ntskd'ta ari-sit taxku (42) heru atskat he 
axre'tsusa^^ he rawitakaHSu he kuxrarirud' pvta (43) he axrakusu- 
hurixtakd*hat he siaxrrtwrukvt he siqxrer^*tsa^^ (44) ruwesirk-ruat 
ruwksikuxrirqt rikutski iri-rd-ka-wi (45) witiwa^ku iri-rakawi 
rikutski he- kaukfu (46) nqwa ruwesirerahl-kat (47) rikutstaxkttu 
heru ri-raxka (48) pi-raski triaxnxk uwu tika wekuxrakd-ku (49) 
rikutski siaxri-tatsikska-pd-kisu (50) heru smxriri-iits ikqrikat 
(51) raru siwdiri-uts (52) hk siaxrixkaruwd-hats kitu rihuksu 
rawttikistu'tspd (53) nqwa iwera* pl-raski he kitu sikuxritpd-waktit 
heru axrura*hiw*ts isa'Sti wekuxruksqtsikswrqhats piraski iwerd- 
k uwu ti (54) heru axrura*hiwits axrawd-ku pl-raski atira tiweretqnt 
he-tsi tsirw kuxrqittska td'titka (55) hkru axrvwa-ku atira tiweretqnt 
(56) hkru axriwa'ku atira atids tikurquxkd*pd*kis (57) he axriwa-ku 
atira rikutski iri irdkd-wi sittxriwdsat he kitu sirtxkqrihats (58) he 
rewa*ku irisitikurat hk sikuxri4qtsikska*pd'kts (59) hkru axriwa-ku 
pvraski critsqruxrd^a tirqtsixtdwqru*kd*ra (60) hkru axrqwa-ku 

murdered. (38) They were planning a proceedure (e.) birds 
to catch him and to kill him. (39) Then next day (e.) it was 
a nice day (q.) (40) and it used to be they would spear. (41) 
And man at the end of the spear ground himself he would 
sit (e.). (42) Then west and there was snorting (e.) and 
suddenly then he got frightened man (43) and they flocked 
down (e.) and they grabbed him (e.) and they picked him up 
(e.) (44) they flew with him there they took him birds where 
they live. (46) He said (q.) where they live birds lots ! down 
feathers. (46) Now they took him inside (47) all the birds 
then they were inside (48) boy the one he had killed (e.) he 
was inside (49) birds they that took pity on him (e.) (50) then 
they laid him down (e.) in the middle (51) merely they laid him 
down (q.) (52) and they ate him up (e.) entirely only the 
bones were lying there (q.). (53) Now when he came boy then 
all they talked to him then it was exposed, his mother 
she had forgotten (he had disappeared from mind) the boy since 
his death. (54) Then it was shown said (e.) the boy, '^Mother 
here I stand but yet I thought I was asleep." (55) Then 
he said (e.) **Mother, here I stand." (56) Then he said, 
**Mother, my father he treated me miserably." (57) And he 
said (e.), ''Mother, birds where there they live they took him 
there and aU they ate him up." (58) Then he said, 'That's 
where they took me," and they took pity on him. (59) Then 
said (e.) boy, "It was because we performed magic." (60) Then 

134 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

pi'Toski sdiku'tatsikska'pa-kis rikutski (61) kitu sdikutpd'wakttt 

(62) ifituxra'a rikutski strixra^u pakuks (63) he sikuxri-tatsikska" 
pa'kis pi-raski siaxTixkm^ktika, 

said (e.) the boy, "They took pity on me birds. (61) All they 
advised me." (62) That's why birds they made pumpkin. 

(63) And they took pity on him boy when he was kHled. 


(Free translation.) 

There was a mud-lodge of Arikaras. They were performing magic 
tricks. Among the people there was a woman who was married to 
the head medicine man. This woman had a son who wanted to 
perform his father's magic trick, but the head medicine man ob- 
jected. So the woman told the boy that they would perform a magic 
trick of her own. The father did not know of their plan. Next 
morning they went to the water to perform their trick. The woman 
carried two white pumpkins and they acted like clowns. (They 
were followed by other women carrying pumpkins?). Then he 
sang a doctor song and the women dipped the pumpkins under 
the water and when they reappeared, they were ducks. This trick 
completely surpassed anything that had been previously performed 
and the head medicine man was angry and jealous of his wife's 
superior skill. When the people had gone the man sat thinking 
of a way to avenge himself. He said he wanted to take the boy 
hunting with him and when they had gone some distance, he 
thought of the boy's success and his disobedience, and he kiUed 
him, throwing the body into the water. 

When he got home the woman asked him where the child was 
and he answered that the child had started for home long before he 
had. Meanwhile, some birds had picked up the dead boy and 
brought him to life again. He told them his story of how his father 
had killed him. The birds sympathized with him and the head 
bird decided that they would avenge the boy by killing the wicked 
father. They asked the boy where his father usually stayed and 
he told them at the spear grounds. 

The father was in a constant state of worry at the thought that 
he had murdered his son. Meanwhile the birds were formulating 
a plan whereby they could catch him and kill him. The next day 
the weather was fine and it was an ideal day for spearing. The man 
sat at the end of the ^ear ground by himself and from the west he 
heard a snorting noise. Suddenly he started in fright and the birds 
swooped down and flew with him to where they lived. The birds' 
house was full of down feathers. All the bh'ds were gathered there 

WeUfish, Caddoan Texts 135 

and also the boy he had killed. The birds who had succorred him 
laid his father down in the middle of the room and ate up all his 
flesh so that only the bones were left. Before the boy left, the birds 
revealed to him their secrets. 

At home his mother had forgotten the boy since his death. When 
he said, "Mother, here I am," she was startled and thought she was 
dreaming. Then he said again, ''Mother, here I am, my father 
treated me cruelly and the birds took him to their lodge and ate 
him up." Then he told her that the birds had blessed him and 
brought him back to life. They had taught him their secrets, the 
secret of how to turn pumpkins into birds, and that these were the 
birds that helped them to perform this trick. It was when they 
boy was killed that the birds had taken pity on him, and blessed 


pi'tahamra4^ Band, tstd'hantkgrp 
(Woman-kettles-of- food-many). 
Memories of Daily Life. 
22. A grandmother's advice to her granddattghter. 
(1) tirdku*ku ika-ri rixkutsikspqwaktikusu'ku heru tiwa-kfii {kd-ri 
(2) hiru isa'To'u pirau witirqkuxra^^ heru tutsiwdwaktit rdkuwa-k^ 
tura-he tsikstit rqkuwari (3) e pirqu kure-ti*^^ pvrqu kurati-ru 
tsapat he triretvtpqwaktikuswku tsikstit rqkuwari (4) tritdtuxra'at 
tsii-at rakuwitsdksa*ra e pi-rq^u wewititvtkqru'ku pi*rq*u heru 
tvtsiwd'waktit e tsustit w^-ret (5) he werikuocrahu-ta pi-ta wetiit 
raktv¥ a tswraki raktvki (6) a rurihird ixtat triweru-ki pirqhuki- 
tdkusu rihuksiri wetuxra^ru pirqhwkttqhusu d ihe raktvki weruxrd-ru 
sihuks (7) d asku pvra*u trikurqtixra-a were-tirixku asku pvra^u 

(1) When she sits here her grandma when she used to talk 
matters over with her then she says, her grandma, (2) '*If 
you should make child when you bear for yourself, then one 
talks to her to say, *It is good right to live.'" (3) And 
child that is mine, child mine a woman and I always talk 
to her right to hve. (4) That's the way we are, daughter, 
when you come of age and baby when you make them for 
yourself babies then one should talk to it. and old woman 
now I am! (5) And now mine have multiphed. men now they 
are grandchildren and girl grandchildren (6) and further 
along some more now they are great-grandchildren. Ten 
now they number great-grandchildren and grandchildren 
now they number five, (7) and one child one that is my 
oton child now I have one child. That's all. 

A grandmother's advice to her granddaughter. 
(Free translation.) 
When one would get advice from her grandmother, her grand- 
mother would say, ''When you have a child of your own, have a 
talk with it. Tell her that it's good to be upright in her ways. 

I have a daughter of my own and I would always talk to her and 
tell her to lead an upright life. Daughter, that's our way of living; 
when we are mature and have children, then we should talk to them 
and give them good advice. 

Wi>lffisih fladdoan Texts 137 

Now I am an old woman and I have grown grandsons and grand- 
daughters, and also great-grandchildren. I have ten great-grand- 
children, five grandchildren and one child of my own. I have just 
one child living. That's all I have to tell. 

23. THE KAME tstd'ha'Titkari^ 
(1) irituocraraixku irdtasa-ru* tstd*ha*ntkari^ (2) ndwa hk axrux- 
ra*rdixku irdtasd,*ru* tstd-ha-ntkari^ ndwa tatuxra-rdixku tirdtqsd*ru* 
ruiriaxrikuksta^u he axra*rikd tsahtt'k^ (3) irituxra*rdixku tird*- 
tgsd*ra tstd*ha*ntkari^ tsah4*¥ irdrika-hu tsqhu'k* (4) axriknksta*u 
ati^as ru iriweti axrukstikwd tsqhu*k^ ati^as (5) e iriruxraraixku 
tirdtasa'ru* triwerutvsira-ru^ . 

(1) That's what it means that which I am named Woman- 
many-kettles of-food. (2) Now, then, it means (e.) that which 
I am named Woman-many -kettles-of-food, now, I mean this 
that I am named the one that had made me (e.) — he brought 
out (e.) buffalo-robe. (3) That's what it means this I am named 
Woman-many-kettles-of-food buffalo robe his bringing it out 
buffalo robe. (14) the one that had made me (e.) my father, he 
is the one the one that brought it through (e.) buffalo-robe, 
my father. (5) So that's what it means, this that I am named. 
Now that's aU. 


(Free translation.) 
My name means Miss Many-kettles-of-food. My name signifies 
that my father carried out the great buffalo-robe rite. That's all. 



(1) iwerardxkatata iwetiwi'tiku iweraku'tli*ril*ta iritatutsiksta-at 

tsU-at iwerakuwi'tiku iruksta-tawk ukqwikis rdkurantsa-wd-wi (2) 

Tiqwa M- hk ruksta'tawk iwerqkwtu'rit'ta teruxku tsU-at tukstdrihu*^ 

re-kuriixku pvrask^ (3) ire'kuruxku he kitu rarlrutsiksakH'k* 

(1) When they went hunting they would stop when the camp 
was arranged in a row that's the way we were daughter, when 
they would stop that was our way feathered lance things were 
hanging on it here and there. (2) Now see, this is what was our 
way when the camp was lined up. They have (own), miss, it 
was a big thing for them to have a boy. (3) When they had one 

138 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

(4) irekuruxku pi-rask^ het^rwrvtspa kitu tatutsiksta-at ratukstd" 
kuriwa^wi (5) he piraski tcruxku he taruxraktaxtsd (6) tqwlt 
rqkutaktarwa rakururatsdwd'wi irahaktwtsi tiha* tqwit iwkruxrak- 
tdxtsqwi he raktaxtsu- titd a pttku sitita kitsi'S^ tisikutu-tu (7) 
iwerakutu*ru'ta htu- rdutsiksa-hu kdw werdkurardsdwa-wi werq- 
kutu-ru^ta (8) he tixwa¥ wewdqsuxrape'riksuxta (9) heru 
tiriturahuru^ hetsi we-tivm rixkvtpe'tiksat" kqraTaku*u4ii rexkux- 
rai'witsat" (10) he tsiru tektqkuwu nawa hd- tiraktdkuwu he 
re'wd-rd rari-pdkus^ tri'tuxrakqkddra*rud tqwd a tski'ri kski-tiks 
(11) he tiwa*rd rqripdkus^ he wetektdkuwu hetixwak^ wete-kusvra 
iwerekusvra (12) hk tiriwtsurahaksitd iwerekukusixwdsa he kurqhus 
ru tiwd'ku tiwere-huri-wd tqraha (13) heru tiwa-ku iwere'kusixwdsa 
nqvxi heru tiwd*ku kurqhus wetasurawirasiist^ nqwa he iriruti*tsia 
iri aru'sd raxkurdraxra (Id) iriweruivtsia-ri dtirarahurltspatpu 
werdkura-rikitqvn arqkuhastqvnraxra he kurahus iriwhtwtirax- 
kgid'rd (15) ketsi tuxrq*^ tiwkraturai'wa4^ mtukstd-tawe lira- 
tukstd'kurvwa'W^ (16) ke4s^ trikuxrikutsikstdMa-ru kwkqrarqku'- 

then everything he would have many possessions. (4) The one 
that they have boy he had belongings all. We were that way 
when we used to live. (5) And boy they have and there 
would be sticks stuck in the ground (6) three the sticks would 
number to have them hanging those sticks lying there there are 
three when the sticks are stuck upright shield it hangs and 
two they two hang bag for the bustle they two are so large: 
(7) when the camp was lined up all it would always be that way 
all when things are hanging on the end of it in bunches when 
the encampment is lined up. (8) And they would be saying, 
**You (plur.) are going to go-scouting (q.)-" (9) Then they make 
the camp disorganized thereupon they go they to go-scouting 
if it isn't far when they would come upon it as they went (e.) 

(10) and stiU they would be going-traveUing, now then, 
these going-travelling they stop soldiers (hunting police) there 
are as many in number as bands three plus Skidees four. 

(11) They would stop soldiers and now they would move on 
and they would be saying now they are coming-running as they 
came-running (12) then they began to spread across in a line 
as they would arrive back on the run then the old man this 
he says here they roam! buffalo. (13) Then he says as they 
arrive on the run now then he says old man now you (plur.) 
are going to charge. Now then they would immediately proceed 
where horse the one that's carrying (e.) (14) then they would be 
proceeding they would be coming out from behind when they 
were mounted some would be leading it (holding a string) and 
the leader now he would be standing in front. (15) And the 
reason why I am the one that is telling this story that was the 
way among (us) this life we used to live. (16) But that was 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 139 

hurvuocL'W^ (17) hk atias titqku axrakdqk^ he rqru kutaratsdka'rahat 
tqrgha (18) ndwa he iriru tiraraspd-tastt iwerarikdqw^ werdkura*- 
raspd'tasd he ksqwus iritihi*rasa (19) kstsi tuxrq^^ tiweratura-vwa-t^ 
critattri'raktd*tqwe irikuxrikurakta'ii ti-rahakd-ru'ts^ (20) heriru 
ti*8tiq werdkura-ruata werdkurarikitqwi kitu arwtqtvtsiraktae-rik^ 
he te'tkaxka wesire-akapaxru'waa* tdWqha (21) he ks*tsi wetax- 
rqkaktdkuwa e wesitiraktaxruri-wa (22) suhuri rexkua tdraha hen 
tvtkuksikqvsd iri rqkuktdkuwu he taraha- (23) dra tixrai-kqwari 
drqtektakuwi'Wari rakvtkuksvkad' tdraha (24) weslnxkuktaxruri' 
wA'wi ke-tsi rikuxrikutsikstdkia-ru tirdwd-hat trikuxrikutsikstdkta-ru 
tirdwd'hat criratukstqkdkawaxts^ (25) dwetektdkuwu he wktiraruat 
tqrahd* rexkukqwH'tika (26) he wetiwvtiku irirakuwvtiku ndwa hk 
tqhurgweysitd kisatsk* (^7) heri retuxra-rqixku iwkrahurqwe-hu 
hk ru'tsiks iseru tuksqka'wvhu*^ heru critixrqriwitspu kisatsk^ (28) 
iwenxrqriwdspu tnwkterwrd raxruraxkc paksdskuriiuiru* kitd'pat a* 
rikutski (rikutska-tit a re-taxkats)^ (30) iwknxrqriwdspu heru 

the way he probably made for us. If it seemed there weren't any 
in existence. (17) Then my father here he that sits up upon (e.) 
then merely it seemed as if he dropped them buffalo. (18) Now 
just then they would begin to move on those that are mounted 
when they would begin to move on, then holy man he would 
be there in the lead. (19) And the reason this I am relating 
that is the way we have among us he gave us that way these 
sticks that are placed within. (20) Then, directly, they proceed 
when they formed in a line when they are mounted all then 
we would be looking on and dust would come out when they 
would come chasing them buffalo. (21) So then we would be 
travelUng along and they would be chasing them about. (22) This 
way (in this direction) if it would come (e.) buffalo then he 
would come fleeing in among where they are travelling along 
and buffalo (23) they would be running about among then they 
would just travel about (disorganized) when he comes fleeing 
among buffalo, (24) when they chased them about. Because 
he made that way for us Heaven. The way that he made for us 
Heaven that is what we ate. (25) They would go moving on and 
now they are stream about buffalo when they had killed them 
(e.). (26) Then they would stop. Where they would stop now 
— they would begin to bring them in packs meat. (27) This is 
what I mean their bringing them — there was special there 
used to be a dwelling then that is where they would take them 
meat. (28) When they bring them there those that appear to 
them as animals wild cat otter and birds (black bird 
and eagle)^. (30) When they took them there then he used to 

1 No. 29 omitted. 

140 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XV I J 

rukstawir asiusu'ku kski-tiks hawa he ra*ku rikutski kski-tiks hawa 
kttdpat kskvtiks a paksitskqriwiru* kskvtiks (31) ru kctu iriwe'tiit 
irinxkqwu4ik^ istn hawa rixkawii4ik^ hqtvd kskvtiks ruxra^ru (32) a 
witeru'Tawiras^ he kitu re*rara kisatsk^ kitii' paksu (33) he ku ti 
rataxra hk, ku karere-tutsiretsi'S^ kurqru dtiwa-ka aturai'wa-t^ ketsi 
tiweratu'ra-vwa-P (34) rktitska wekuraxkurai'tiistawe hk trirarux- 
ra^-nt he irira-xwitska iritc'xrqtutsiksta'ot axratukstdkuriwd-w* 

(35) atura-wi-ras kski-tiks hem tutsira*ru werakurare-hats kskitiks 

(36) iwe kisatski nxrariwttspu he irite-kiikaxkitq'wi^^ he %ra*ka*w^ 
tskekqra*ku arukute-kaxte^hat (37) he kurqhus tritiraxka tukskurqvs- 
kqri^ he wetihdkvstd-ruhat werdkura-ruhat kisatsk^ (38) nqwa he 
kurahus td'Tu*tsivs pttku sttd*ra (39) nqwa he irwerahhUusta-rH^ta 
he kisatska-su siteru*wa d kisa-ts^^ kdu tri-kuxruta^kustci-ru he kitu 
irit&rqrii'wa (40) he tdrwtsivs triru sctdrira- raskqru'kicsittt dkutarq- 
rqstaxwiat kisatsk^ siraxkurdhqru*ku (41) hern te'rarasi-ru kiirahus 
irakdri^^ trvataxku kurahus akute-rurgrastaxunat wkrexkurqsvrq^^ 
(42) ke4sk qtipat ruksu kurahus he tdrwtsvbs tqwitsa*^ iriru- tiwd'ku 

run (charge) foiir, also that other one bu-d four, also otter 
four, and wildcat four. (31) That's all that there are those 
they killed. Again also when they kill them again foiu* 
they would number. (32) And then they would charge (q.) 
and all they carried them meat including head. (33) and 
while this life I am living and yet I haven't realized merely 
to speak to narrate it but this that I am narrating (34) I want 
the story to continue among (e.) and whoever if he sees it so 
he would be the one that knows (e.) that's the way we were! 
when we used to be living (e.). (35) He would run four then 
that would be all when he has finished four. (36) When meat 
they are taking them there and there would be a (main) head 
dwelling and that dweUing leaves it would be about that 
extent: (37) And old men they would be inside there there 
were many old men when they are placed scattered about when 
they are scattered about meat. (38) So then old men attend- 
dant two there are two(e.). (39) And so when those beeves 
are strewn about and leg-meat (hind quarter) they two would 
take off (e.) and back-meat all whatever number of beeves 
there may be and all they would take them off from. (40) And 
attendant directly they two would begin to make them into dry- 
meat-portions (e.) the portions would be about so high (e.) meat. 
When they two would be making them in water (e.) (41) then he 
would issue the portions of meat (e.) old men that many 
wherever he would sit (e.) old man each of them would have 
so high a pile of portions (e.) when they would issue the portions 
(e.). (42) But my grandfather that was old man and at- 
tendant he came-arrived thereupon he says now you are 
going to go out in front of the encampment to meet them two. 

WeUfish, Caddoan Texts 141 

wesitd'suturitskdvxt^ (43) hk atikd- ruksii triru* tiat he tarastdriwitsd*"^ 
dkute^rasta' xwiat iwe'rirarasiruksta't^ (44) he iriru rihaktisi'rukst" 
(45) nqwa heru thri-ru kisats¥ kurahus kitu* sirexku-ha ixkitii 
kitu' paksu ateriruk4a't*^ kttu werexkuhakusi-ra*^ (46) heru fiat 
kurahus heru tiwd'ku wescwdasutuntskauxt" (47) nqwa hk kB*tsi 
atika h atira ru- trwu kltu ate-rara kisatsk^ (48) heru taxioa-ku 
kurahus rihuksu kasarqrwwa pakskira^ru (49) heru isirira* paksu 
he iri ira*ka*wi kaxkitd'wi^^ (50) hk ukaxkat titpakstatsd'-karahat 
iritutsiksd'hu atinturh*huru tridtqric'vt raxkutpakstgtsd'kqk^ werix- 
kuturah'krd'^ (51) trirurutsird-ru. 

(43) Then my grandmother that was thereupon she goes 
and she would arrive coming bringing the portions the portions 
would be so high when they wiU have finished issuing the portions 
(hind-quarter and back meat) (44) and thereupon he is going 
to issue the beeves (from which hind-quarter and back-meat have 
been removed) (45) now then he would issue them (e.) meat 
old man all when they would give him (e.) the whole thing 
including head he would finish issuing (e.) all when they have 
finished issuing the beeves (e.) (46) then he goes old man then 
he says now you two are going to go out before the camp. (47) Now 
so then my grandmother and my mother directly they 
went all they would bring them meat. (48) Then he says (e.) 
old man only you must take take them off (e.) brains, (49) then 
you bring head and there that dwelling the main dwelling 
(50) and outside they would place the heads around in a circle 
tliat is what used to be they would make the camp disorganized 
t hat is what would be (e.) when the skuUs would be sitting around 

M a circle (e.) when they would make the camp disorganized. 

51) Thus that is all! 


(Free translation.) 

When we camped on the hunt, our tents had to be set up in a 

certain order. That was our custom, Miss. When they formed the 

camp, they would set up a feathered lance. It was a great honor 

to have a boy in those days. The family would see that he had 

everything that a boy should have. That was our custom in those 

days. The boy would have a clothes rack of three upright sticks.^ 

In one of the sticks (probably the middle one) the shield would 

lang, and on the other two (at each side) the two bags to contain 

he bustles. They are so large : ... When the camp was set up 

here would be racks with things hanging on them throughout the 


Probably three upright forked sticks in a row with a stick lying across them. 

142 Puhlications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

It would be announced that the hunters are to go scouting for 
the buffalo. When the hunters would leave, we would break camp. 
Sometimes they would sight the buffalo while we were still on the 
march. On the line of march, there would be hunting-police 
stationed before each of the bands. There were three of us plus the 
Skidees which would make four bands in all. The policemen would 
announce to the line that they are coming bringing good tidings.^ 
Then we would form a line facing the scouts. When the hunters 
arrived, the old man would announce that the buffalo are very 
close by.2 

The old man would announce, repeating as he went along the 
Une, *'You are going to begin the hunt!" Then when they had 
completed the final preparations, (which would consist of a process 
of decorating the horses as well as packing them) they would be 
mounted, some riding alone and some leading pack horses. As they 
got ready, the hunters would come out from among the hne of 
people. The announcer would be standing in front. 

The reason I am telling this story is because these were our 
customs on the hunt. Our father in heaven would bless us. When 
buffalo would seem to be scarce, it was as if he would just drop 
them from heaven for us. 

Then the mounted ones would start, and the holy-man would 
be in the lead. I am telUng this because Heaven gave us this 
ceremony ''These-pipes-inside". The hunters would go on their 
way and we would resume our march. As we went we could see the 
hunters chasing the buffalo and the dust rising. 

Sometimes a buffalo would flee in among the line of march. This 
would break the order of the march. Heaven provided this as a 
means for us to eat. As we were on the march, the carcases of the 
buffalo they had killed would be all about. When we would set up 
camp at the appointed* place, they would bring the packs of meat.^ 
I mean by that word bringing-them.that there used to be a special 
tent to which they first brought the special meat. When they took 
the meat to the special tent, various animals would be represented 
by the meat (or by these hunters?), — -wild cat, otter, and two thatare 
birds, black eagle and white eagle. As he carries the meat, the one 

* When they come running the scouts are bringing good news ; if they come 
slowly, they haven't seen any buffalo. 

^ An amusing custom was practised in connection with this old man : People 
would say, ivetestdha,tf now she has taken his foot. When the news of the 
htmt is brought, the little girls would try to trip the old man announcer; 
those who are successful will be lucky, and in addition the number of 
tiraes the old man is tripped is said to indicate the number of buffalo 
that will be killed. This note of "comic relief" in a serious situation is 
very characteristic of Pawnee life. 

^ First four men who represented foiu' animals would bring in meat. This 
ceremony is gone through for each of the first four killings, and then the 
rest of the meat can be eaten freely. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 143 

with meat representing a black eagle used to run to the tent with 
it four times, and the one representing a white eagle, four times, 
and the one representing an otter, four times, and the one represent- 
ing a wildcat, four times. ^ That's all they would have to give as 
an offering from this killing. They would have to make an offering 
of the first meat from three subsequent killings before they could 
complete their pledge. They would bring all the meat including 
the head. 

I have never in my life told this story as if it were an ordinary 
story. But I am telling it now because I want the story to survive 
so that whoever may read it wiU know how we used to live. 

He would make four killings and that would complete his pledge. 
The meat would be taken to the main house. It would be a circular 
enclosure of young trees with their leaves on. Inside it were many 

old men. It was this large: Besides the old men there 

were two attendants. The carcases would be scattered all about 
and the two attendants would remove the hind quarters and the 
back-meat from all the buffalo-beeves. They (the attendants) 
would then slice the meat into portions such as are ordinarily dried. 
It would make a large pile. Then the attendants would cook the 
meat. After each of the old men had been issued an equal number 
of portions, each would have a large pile. 

After they would issue the choice portions of meat, they would 
give out the remaining parts of the animals. Each pack consisted 
of the whole animal including the head with the hind-quarter and 
back-meat removed. Each pack was issued to some old man in the 
lodge as far as the packs went. My grandfather (who is now dead) 
was a very old man. The attendant would come to our camp and 
notify my grandmother (who is not dead) to meet my grandfather.^ 
My grandmother, my mother, and all the rest of the women would 
go to the main house to bring the meat home. The old man would 
say, "Just remove the brains and take the head back to the main 
house." There all the heads would be placed in a circle outside the 
arbor. And when they broke camp, those skulls would remain there 
in a circle. Thus it is finished. 

1 This means the first animal killed by a particular person on each of four 
successive killings. This was a person who volunteered to be one of these 
particular aninxals before they started on the hunt and the leader would 
announce his pledge. Then he would try to fulfill his pledge as quickly 
as he could so that his family could have the rest of his killings. 

2 The attendants likewise notified all the wives 'of the old men who had 
been in the main house. 

144 Publications, American Ethnological Society VoL XVII 


(1) ru-iwenxkawu4iku ke-tsi nawa heriwereruxrdrirff^ tri itdtuks- 
takaka-wa rargkaxk^ (2) tri rixkutskqnxraru^waxri hk tsapat 
ru tirira-rtriwd'wahU wenxkuratsa-isik^ (3) a ra-hiri irituxra^^ 
we raru rakura-ru-t" rihuksu tskaritk^ wenxkurarwwdb'xra (4) nawa 
ha* tri'tdtukstakakawd'wi-hu (5) wkrakutskarixratsans^ hern 
titdpirat werakutapirghure*hats rakwkdrihu'ru hkutuxra-ru pl-ta*^ 
aru rihvra rarakaxk^ (6) wenxkukara^^ drwtiraxkiskatstit dkntw- 
raka-^ rawlxtaki-P^ (7) he tuksawdxtsatswa wkraku-kd'wi he kara- 
Htsaka'wahdkvst" (8) wergku-kd^wi turuksakarvwd ra*rqkaxki 
(9) rihuksu ru gwit tri tatukstakaka-wdwi-hu rargkaxki (10) ati- 
turuat dru4ixtuxkgtstit ritutsiksa-hit (11) werixkutiixkaru-ku atux- 
ratsakaku tsapat rixkukdxkqru'ku strtxkutakaxtqrixwgriku si-sk^ 
dtuxTq"^ d qskatsk^ (12) aru titarixrurirgtsakdststit kuxri-vt i-ktts- 
aka'wa-hai wkrakuka-wi westrixkutakaxtqnxrure'hats wesinxku- 
kare^hats kitu hkru sitire-kaxtqwu (13) aru kute-kdxte'hat heru 
tiwa*ku tsapat nxkuktatsqkipiha tsu^rak* (14) heru tiwa*ku tsu-at 

(1) When they were killing them then now that is the thing 
that we depend upon that's what used to be our dwellings tanned 
hide. (2) There when they were taking off the hides and women 
there they would spread them about here and there when they 
were drying them (3) and always that's why when just they 
are strewn just only skins when they have taken them off. 

(4) Now then that's what we used to be having for dwellings. 

(5) When the skins were dry then she scrapes it when she has 
finished scraping it for it to be a big dwelling they would number 
aWivt twenty or more tanned hides. (6) When they made 
them they would be shining-white the dwelling would 
look like white cloth. (7) And despite the fact that it had 
rained when there would be the dwelhng then water is 
not going to be falling in here and there. (8) When there 
would be the dwelling they were nice dwelUngs tanned hide. 
(9) Only that first those used always to be our dwellings 
tanned hide. (10) The camp would be lined up the tents would 
be shiny -white that's the way it would always be. (11) When 
they were making tents they would be sitting in a circle women 
for them to be making the skin-coverings when they would be 
sewing the skin-cover (throwing-stitches) awl she would use 
and sinew. (12) Then the stitches would be drawn-tight-and- 
close-together it would be impossible if it were to have leaked 
when the dwelling was there when they finished stitching the 
skin-cover when they finished the dwelling all then they 
would hang up the skin cover. (13) Then the dwelhng would be 
about so laxge in extent. Then she says woman, for them to 
gather them girls. (14) Then she says, ''Daughters, you must 
go in there for a while!" But she wants (e.) to have them make 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 145 

kasuksuhurdktaxrH'kat a-ki tdxwitska^^ sidskurutakqrarutsta*^ rakuta- 
kararuxtsa*ra kardrakwkaxtd-his (15) a'tiraxkatd-wa'wa rqtukstak- 
taxkaiawawu'Suku tsiru trikararaxkutse'kgrdruxts^ hk ta-tsw^ hk 
site-rakaxtqrikvt kt*fu tsiru karu'takard-ruts (16) ratsu-a are*kax- 
td'his (17) tsi werakutakard^ruxts^ a^uksawdxtsatsit-a hqwd kara- 
kaxta^isisf^ d kare-ruks rakukUsaka^wa-hat werqkutakara-ruxts^ d 
ka'kikitsqka'wa^hd'k^ (18) iwerututsira-ru^ 

a fire for her tent so that the tent becomes sooty so that the 
skin cover would not be dry. (15) They would go hunting when 
we used to be going on the hunt yet when the skin cover that 
is not **sooted" (e.) and it rains then they take off the tanned 
hide (e.) because yet the skin cover is not '^sooted". (16) If 
it rains then the slan cover would be dry. But when the skin 
cover is ''sooted" even if it would rain then the skin cover 
will not dry and it could not be for it to leak when the skin 
cover is ''sooted" and it does not usually leak. Now that is all. 


(Free translation.) 

The purpose of the killing and the hunt was also to obtain the 
hides which we tanned and used for our tipis. We would remove 
the hides and spread them about to dry. When the skins are dry, 
we would scrape them. There would be twenty or more tanned 
hides for a large dwelling. When the hides are finished and sewn 
together, and put up on the tent, they would be shiny white like 
white woven cloth. Even if it rained when the tents were up, they 
would not leak. These were nice dwellings. These were the only 
kind of houses we had in olden times. When the camp was set up, 
the tipis would be white and shining. When they were making the 
tents, the women would sit in a circle and sew the tanned hides 
together with an awl, using sinew thread. The seams would be 
tightly sewn so that the tent wouldn't leak. When the sewing was 
finished, they would hang the skin cover on the tipi poles. The 

tipi would be about this big : Then the woman would ask 

that some young girls be gathered together, and she would ask 
them to go into the new tent. What she really wanted them to do 
was to make a fire in the tent so that the tent cover would become 
permeated with soot and therefore would not dry up. 

When we would go on a hunt, tipi covers that were not yet 
smoked would have to be taken down should it rain, for it they 
get wet, the cover will dry up because the skin is not yet permeated 
with soot. But, after the skin has been smoked, even if it rains the 
skin won't dry up, nor will the tent leak. 

Now that is all. 

146 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 


qkaxkitkahd' xriri 
(1) awit ttxrapd'karu*kusu'k^ tnwettocrapA'karu awit rakavM, 
rikututsiksu*k^ hk, tike'tsit (2) hern tirikariHsai-f^ iri-rukstardsAmhu 
(3) rakukdrihu'T^ rihukstri in'tika'wa^rikvh^ irvrgtukstakaka-wi 
iri'tukskawartt rihukstri (4) tsi kardrakukdrihu'ru tawiksa-pits 
asuhuri rakutakarwa kskiksci*pits kardrqkwkqrihu'ru (5) wertx- 
kuha*karq^u iraru-tsi tri vwergka-wa-rik^ (6) heru hdwa rurukstax- 
}i:6rtqsa irakdrihu*ru (7) he tvtqku rukstqwdturihurqxkqtasq tawkksh— 
pits hqwa heruxrariraha-ru tqwiksa-pits (8) hhrirutehiwat^ rutuksta'- 
rihu-ku asku rakuhiwdtqwi (9) aru iritqbu ru dtskat triretsvsakqrdtqwi 
iwerixkukawaurerikixka he tiratqku ru ti-tsia (10) tuksta'Sq^^ 
tskvskiwihiri tiratqsd irituksqsa^^ rwkitu i-werutttsqhat rwkttu irv- 
rghiwdtqwi kttu werirdre-ha-ts^ tskvskiwihiri (11) hk riru rtrihaktax- 
kitquts tsi we-ti-tsa-tus ru rqka*wA'rik^ heru ririhaktaxkitquts (12) 
kdw arixra^rc'hats hh ke-tsi tsqpat werixkqru'ku ihitkvu tixkqru-ku 
(IS) wenxkurd-r&hats heriru tiriraxkitqi heru ru ti'tsitqre-pd'pii 

(1) First they used to fell the trees (they used to make-wood- 
hills) when they have felled those trees first the one in the 
middle this is how large it used to be and it was long. (2) Then 
tiiey would make the cross pieces those that lay across there. 
(3) For it to be a large dwelling ten there would always be 
standing inside, the place where we used to dwell they stood 
inside there ten. (4) But when it is not a large dwelling eight, 
smaller when a dwelling is, six, when it is not a large dwelling. 
(5) When they made the poles those sitting where those that 
are standing inside. (6) Then also there were some at the back 
since it is a large dwelling. (7) And right here there were spaces 
at the back eight also then on the other side eight. (8) right 
there would be the entrance that was the side one only for 
there to be an entrance. (9) Then right there above where 
the smoke hole is (the nose-house-hole) when they stand them up 
inside then right here they would do it, (10) it was called 
"the sitting part*' this that is lying upon that is what it is called 
all as it lies there in a circle including where the entrance is 
aif when it is finished the lower part of the mud lodge (11) then 
they proceed to put poles on top but they are put across those 
that stand inside then they set the poles on top. (12) All they 
would finish it and then women they are making them 
willow mats they are making them. (13) When they have finished 
them then they would proceed to place them on top then 
they tie them together women now they have finished with 
their tying. (14) And then they get up on top men now they 
are winding them around the '*nose" I don't know how many it is 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 147 

tsapnt wotlxra*r&*hotis i^veritsfgr^'pa'plh^ (T^) ^^ itiru riraxkitau'kvt 
pl'ta wetvUtsustatse-riwisk^ kwri* rexkutaktatsa-kdrahat heru siUx- 
riwUsat ru iri-rard^te-hat ru* criretsusa-karatawi (15) iwenxra-rehats 
kitapd^^u arvtki ruriririrdtsqwu (16) heriru ririntkaxkttu*tsi'st^ 
iwerututsira*ru (17) westtrrakare'hats 

for them to make circuits (e.) then they take it to the end right 
where that which was the size right where the smoke hole is. 
(15) When they have finished with willow, grass (swamp grass) 
then they proceed to hang on top. (16) Then they are going to 
proceed to put sod on all over. Now that is all. (17) Now they 
have finished the dwelling. 


(Free translation.) 

First they would fell the trees. The first trees that they felled 
were made into the central forked posts. They were this large: 
(from a foot to one and a quarter feet in diameter), and they were 
very long. Then they would make the horizontal sticks that rested 
in the forks. In a large mud-lodge there would be ten center poles, 
but in smaller lodges there would be eight, and in quite small ones, 
six. In addition to these center poles there would be forked poles 
around the walls. When it is a large mud-lodge there would be 
eight on each of the two sides. There would be just one entrance. 
Right above the center poles would be the smoke-hole. 

Then they would make the lower part of the mud-lodge. It was 
called the '*sitting-part". This part was the whole circular found- 
ation including the entrance ; (this is the name for it after the sod is 

When the **sitting-part" is completed, radial poles are placed 
from the central framework to the outer framework. Meanwhile 
the women are making willow mats, which they tie together and 
place upon the radial willow poles. When the women have finished 
tjdng the willow mats, the men climb upon the roof and begin to 
place the mats all around the base of the cone. Several circuits 
were made until the smoke-hole was reached, but I do not know 
specifically how many circuits there would be.^ This would depend 
upon the size of the lodge. After the willow mat covering is 
finished, they would cover the roof with swamp-grass, and upon 
this they would place the covering of sod. That is all. They have 
finished the lodge. 

1 The specific manner of building t^is part has been omitted by the infor- 

2 These mats would overlap, the edges of the upper ones covering the lower 
mats a little. 

148 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 


(1) ketsi' ru irikuxruxrdhura^^ tWatsi-raxra trikuxriksakta'U 
ketsv atipdt ruksu triturukstaiwd-f^ (2) he taxkuravstaxka he site^ru 
ira-sa rdku'u (3) heru iritaxtsa M ta^msaxkaruts k^ixU^n he tesax- 
kqruts (4) he vra^sdrwts^ he reit rekatstikvsu riwdharit (5) heru 
turaxwirdrWu tqwit a rqkurdxkqtvt'ii tqwit (6) ndwa ke-tsi trikux- 
rutsiks tiratqrd'kuri'wd'wi pa'ri kuxriksaktard*wqu alias tiaxrqkitqku 
irv a-se-ruxrawa-wu tirutqkii*k^ (7) tsaxriksltsaxriks heri kuxriksak- 
tqra^wqu kitu (8) e ke-tsi trisikuxrikstika-kus^ tira^sa kdixts^u 
ketsi tri sikuxriksta-rdunrtt-ku iwera-sa kqixts^^ sirexkurikd-iviku 
raxkuraxka*wi kurahus he tarqsaxkqruts (9) tsiru trikuxruxra*hura 
asa*ru a kqixts^u nawa he iri-kuxruvt iraxkuraxka-wi kurahus 
(10) site-riku hkri ta-rqsaxkdruts he ke-tsi karatird-i-ta tri aruxra-rexku 
isinxrika-ku kurahus (11) e kqratira^vta irikuxruxra-rdixku tsi-ru 
rapqkuxtii iriwekuwitt* it (12) ketsi sikuxre*rqvta kurahus irikux- 
ruxra*rqtxku weru tutsird*ru 

(1)1 suppose that's where it originated there where we lived 
these our people the way that was given to them. My grand- 
father that was he used to tell about it. (2) And there would 
be a meeting of old men (e.) and they would make it ? that one 
it ^vr.uld be. (3) Then there it would be lying (e.) and there 
would be seeds in it (e.) the basket there were seeds in it. (4) And 
those seeds they are fruit seeds plum. (5) And one makes 
marks on them three, and there are black ones three. (6) Now 
probably that's the way it was this our (plur. incl.) existence 
Pawnee they were given these ways by him our father this 
one that sits above (e.) for them to use them these things. 
(7) Indians there they were given these things all. (8) And so 
this is what they used to have inside this basket but whatever 
they were representing when that basket when they had it 
inside (e.) when they were inside (e.) old men it would have 
seeds in it (e.). (9) But wherever it originated seeds and basket 
now that's what it probably is when they are inside there (e.) 
old men. (10) They would have it where the seeds are in (e.). 
But I don't know what it would mean that they have inside 
old men. (11) I don't know what it means, but long ago 
it is said that's how they were. (12) I suppose they probably 
know the old men what it means. Now that's all. 


(Free translation.) 

It must have originated among us. It was probably given to us. 

My grandfather, who is now dead, used to tell this story. When a 

basket was made, the old men would have a meeting. At the 

meeting they would have the basket with plum seeds in it. On 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 149 

three of the seeds, they would paint figures, and three would be 
painted black. This had a special meaning in our lives. Our father 
above gave all these ceremonies to the Pawnee. Whatever that 
basket represented as it lay inside there, I do not know. Only the 
old men knew. But wherever the seeds and the basket originated 
I do not know. I beUeve that when the old men had the basket 
inside, there would be seeds in it, but I don't know what it means. 
They always had this ceremony in olden times. I suppose the old 
men know its significance. Now that's all. 


(1) hidpct't^^ hem tiha-kd-stt hem tirdxkate*rit (2) he iweraku- 
rdxkate*rik^ he triwe tihdktarik^ irl imxraritskak^ (3) iwerahaktarik^ 
Mriru tvisitd-karahat he weruxraxtdxkate'riks^ iwergkitapaxriku 
kttapd^^^ (4) hem rvtsitd-karohat tirake*a rakuxratsa-kgrdhak^ am 
tiriwitsat (5) he hawa istu ru-tiuts e-kaa tirake*a raku'td-ri (6) hqwa 
istu tvtsitd'karahat ku rihuksvri ku rakuxratsd'kqk^ kitqpa't^^ he 
tardxkate'Ht (7) tri rawvukvk^ he tvtkatakus ihe td^kis mxrd'm 
sirexkumkd'h^ kdixts^^ nxkuxresk^ 

(1) WiUow then one spUts the twig then they scrape it. 
(2) And when one has scraped it then one holds sticks there 
where it sits upon them. (3) As she holds those sticks then there 
one would proceed to encircle it and when they are scraped 
as she holds the wiUow willow (4) then she starts it going 
round it takes a long time to keep taking them around then 
she takes it to the arriving-place. (5) And then again there 
she lays it down. Oh! it takes a long time to do it. 

(6) Besides again one takes it around. About ten times 
probably they would be circled willow she scrapes them. 

(7) Where it usually falls one must place against buckskin 
the reason is they bounce it up and down (e.) coiled gambling 
basket when they gambled. 


(Free translation.) 

To make a gambhng basket, spUt willow twigs and then scrape 
away the pith. When they are scraped, you take a twig and hold it 
in the form of a starting-knot. As you hold the foundation twig you 
begin to coil it around. And when the willow spUnts are scraped 
you proceed with the coiled sewing. It takes a long time to keep on 
coiling it round and round and to finish it to the top. Oh, how long 
it takes to make it! You keep coiling it around again and again. 
You probably make about ten circuits. You must pad it on the 
outside bottom with buckskin, because the basket is bounced up 
and down in gambhng and it is likely to wear out there. 


150 Publications, American Ethnological Society Viol, XVII 


(1) ksUtiks tutakta-ru wderutscksdktar&ru'k'' (2) iwertT^aktarik'^ 
raktaxkitdwitsqk'' iwerahaJdarik^ tHaku pitku Sltvk'' h§WU hetaku 
pitk^ (3) triwe tirdtsacs karttk^ sittxriku titd-hurus (4) iwerakuwihdt 
tsapat he tri iwerakdntk^ he tihaturaxkitawa (5) hk iri tsapat ird-k^ 
he iriru tvtsia rakuhaktu4s%'ka he iriwerahaktariku (6) he ira-ku 
tsapat iweri-ru rakuhdktariika'd tirutd-ri rahdktarukad'h^ he rihdk- 
taxvM^ats he riwd-ku wetikqru rdxka4s^^ (7) hkru rehdktqru-ka 
iwerqhdktqriika-a hqwa hern riwa*ku wetikqru (8) iwerakdra^u 
heriwere*kqru • pitk^ sitiha^kaspare'rvtit a hqwd ihe hkrera-reri-tit 
rdxka-ts^^ (9) iriwetikqru^ rdxka-ts^^ iriwerv tiwa*k^ (10) hehd the 
irghaturdxumra hewetvxkqru (11) heru tiwd-ku wetixrikatdhat 
wenxkurikdtqhat he ihe (12) he tvku rakuhaktqriku wetixrikatqhat 
heru rvtsia urqri-sit (13) istu weti-ta istu werutvtsia 

(1) Fotir it is the number of sticks it is said they used to use 
sticks. (2) When they held those sticks bouncing-sticks those 
sticks she has, right here two they were sitting also over 
there two. (3) That's when she strikes them upon stone 
they have it it is round. (4) While they were seated women 
where that rock is — several roads branch off. (5) Where 
woman that one — then she would proceed to pick up the 
sticks and the one that holds the sticks (6) — that woman 
she gives it to her to bounce the sticks. This she generally does 
the-sticks-bouncing — when they scatter — she would say 
now she has made them (won) face-downward. (7) Then she 
bounced the sticks as she bounces the sticks again then she 
would say now she has won. (8) Since she has won then she 
wins two the two sticks have fallen lying face-up and again 
— they fell there face-downward. (9) She is the one that won. 
face-downward that is what then she says. (10) And so 
those roads going when she has lost to her (11) then she says 
now she put her out when she has put her out (and so) (12) — 
she sits to hold the sticks they now put her back (out) then 
they proceed equal. (13) Again now^ they do, and again 
directly they proceed to do it. 


(Free translation.) 
They would use four sticks. When they played, two of the sticks 
would be right here and two on the opposite side. They would 
bounce them upon a round rock that they had for the purpose. 
The women would sit about the rock. At the far edge of the rock 
the ground would be marked with several parallel lines running 
horizontally (for the scoring). The scorekeeper then picks up the 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 151 

sticks and gives them to the player. After the player has bounced 
the sticks and they have fallen into their various positions, the 
scorekeeper would say, ^'Now she has gained one point (face down- 
ward)." After she has bounced the sticks again, the scorekeeper 
would say that she had won a second time as two of the sticks had 
fallen face up and the other two face downward, so that she again 
scored a point. When one of the players has advanced to the end 
of the score lines, they begin the play all over again. This they 
repeat over and over again. 


(1) sirakuhapaha-fit pitk^ a tike siru'Sa sirakuta-ka^ru pttku 
(2) siri-ripitdtasd pttku wesitid raxka4s^^ (3) ru riwa'ku raxka-ts^^ 
sirvtpi^u triwetuta'Tist^ sirahd'pghd'f^ iriweti'xkaru heru tiwa^ku 
(4) wetixrikataht irirahaturaxhtdwd-wi triweri'ocrikatqhat 

(1) Two sticks that are red two and another two that are 
lying two that are white two. (2) Two are lying face downward 
two, they two have become face-down. (3) Then she says, 
"face downward". Two that are facing when she is going to do it 
the two sticks that are red, she has won against her then she 
says, (4) ''She has put her out." Where those roads are branching 
out when she is put out. 


(Free translation.) 
There are two red sticks and two white. When two of them fall 
face downward, then a score of "face downward" is made and the 
scorekeeper would say, "Face downward". If, for instance, the 
two red sticks turn face downward again, then the player wins, for 
she has covered all the scoring Unes. 


(4) rutirahirasa askisi'f^ iwerakuha- static askisvf^ (2) he triru 
tihasta'rawu dskisvt^u werakuhasta^rawi wetihasta'ra herirusitiru 
istd'fu (3) sirdkuru'ku tsdpat pttku aslti-a sirdkukstu-ku istd'Pu 
(4) ru- tsaxriks pdkuxtu istd-tu riwhku kuxriocrqra wtterurukstdri- 
w€i*htt tsaxriks pdkuxtu ru"-*pdkuxtu heriterurarihtt hkriterurdri- 
lod'htt (5) riJhuksu rikuxrerurukstdriwa'hit tsaxriks pdkuxfu 

( 1 ) the first thing fibre string when one has made string fibre 
string (2) — that's when she hangs the strings fibre string 
when the strings are hung when the strings are hung up then 
they would begin to make a mat. (3) Two would be making it 


152 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XV fj 

women. Two there would be the two that had been making it 
the mat. (4) Very people ancient mat always probably 
they did have them they used to have them lying spread out on 
the ground (q.) people ancient a very long time ago they 
would have them spread out they would have them spread about. 
(6) Only those they had to spread about people ancient. That's 


(Free translation.) 
One begins by making the fibre string. After the string has been 
made it is hung by winding it back and forth on a warping (weaving) 
frame. ^ When the warps are hung they begin to weave the mat. 
There would always be two women working on it together. In 
olden times the people always used these mats. They would have 
them spread on the ground. It was the only thing they had to 
spread on the ground in olden times. That's aU of this story. 


(1) rakuritskurd'rawi rakurdxpahd-fu rakuratsa'kd-ru rakurdx- 
katifu rakuraxkirdre-U'S^ sihuks atuxrard-ru sihuks (2) rakunts- 
kuraxkatdrihu'TU riwerdkuxra^ru"' sihuks heru tiha-st^u tira-ku 
tihast^u (3) akvtihd'skate*hat werakuhd*sta^u he iriruxntskurara-ru^ 
heri tihdste-hats 

(1) When the fringes were hanging the ones that were red the 
ones that were white the ones that were black the ones that 
were green five they would number five. (2) When the yarns 
were wide when they numbered five, then she makes the belt 
this one she makes the belt. (3) It would always be so wide: 
when one made a belt the amount that the yarns number. Then 
she finishes the belt. 

^ This frame was not quite horizontal in position; the further beam rested 
on piles which were taUer than those of the near beam, so that the warps 
hiing at a diagonal. The frame consisted simply of two horizontal beams 
placed the proper distance apart for the length of the finished mat; each 
beam rested on two forked sticks which were driven into the ground, the 
two at the head end being taller than those at the foot, so that the head 
beam lay higher up than the foot beam. The weaving proceeded from 
the bottom upward. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 153 


(Free translation.) 
First the warps are hung. There would be yam of five colors 
in the warp: red, white, black, and green.^ For a wide belt they 
use five colors. When the belt is woven, it would always be as wide 
as the original warps. 


(1) iwerekurgriwLtsd hern tatvrit re-tsik* heru tgtitd'kastu* kisd'ts^u 
(2) he sitixkisatskus kisd-ts^u atitd'kastu* atirihu*^ kisa'ts^u titd- 
kastu^ (3) a ra'kdptkf^ iriwe-ti* tiraskatskatasah^ a ra-kdpckf^ 
vriteskatskdtasa (4) a ra^kapikt^^ iriwHi kltu kisd'ts^^ iwerututsira-ru 

(1) When they would bring them here then I pick up a knife 
then I make it sliced back-meat. (2) — They put the meat 
down back-meat one would sUce it it would be big back-meat 
one slices it (3) and the back muscle that's what it is that 
which the sinew is lying against — back-muscle where the 
sinew lies against (4) — back-muscle that's what it is aU 
back-meat. That's all about the back-meat. 


(Free translation.) 
When they would arrive with the meat, I would get my knife 
and slash the back-meat,^ 

They would put down the meat of the back and one would make 
sliced meat of it. After it had been sUced it would be a very large 
piece of meat. Also on the back of the animal (under the back 
slice) there is a muscle on each side against which the sinew Ues. 
This part and the back slice is all back-meat. That's all I have to 
tell about the back-meat. 

^ Perhaps it was intended to include the natural colored weft. 

2 The man who had killed the buffalo would butcher the animal and bring 
the portions home for the women to slice and dry. Back-meat was the 
long thick piece of flesh lying along each side of the backbone. A slash 
would be made first to the left of the backbone from neck to rump and 
then to the right. A slash would be made across the center of the strip 
of back-meat obliquely toward the left. This half of the back meat 
would be resting on the left hand as the right hand does the cutting. 
This slicing would be done so that the meat is not completely severed. 
After the first slash has been made as close to the left palm as possible 
(so that the meat is thin), the remaining flap of meat would be lifted and 
another oblique slash made into the flap to the left of the first slash. 
The remaining flap is again turned up to the left and another slash 
made ia it, etc. so that the meat is spread out long and thin. 

154 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, X VI 


(1) wttuksurdxrise iriaxrikspi'ku urvtki'tsu rakut^ntki*1ff^ hht 
site-ru kiUsk^ (2) iwesirexkure-hats kutsk^ hern tihuka*warit kqrak- 
tvtskat (3) iweraxkuhuka'Warik^ he td-rihaks heru ta*ru"wa (4) 
weraxkuksuhaksa heru taxrukd*takus he iwerihukd-tak^ heru td'rihak>^ 

(5) iriweke-tsi iriwerarihaks^ iriwetekirard-a'h^ kakirqhotatdra'^ i 

(6) ti* uruxt^^ irid'ti rihuksu atekirdrd 

(1) There was a special place (q.) where they would be 
(Mgging it (e.) mud, watery that is really sticky and they 
would make a bucket. (2) When they would finish it (e.) bucket 
then she puts it in in ashes. (3) When she would put it in (e.) 
and it is hardened then she takes it out. (4) W^hen it would 
get hard (e.) then she sets it right against the bank and while 
it sets next to it then it is hardened. (5) But then when it 
hardens that's what they were carryng water (in). It is not to 
hang over, (6) It is mud. it would be what only they would 
bring water. 


(Free translation.) 
There was a specially designated place where they dug mud that 
was very sticky. Of this they would make a pot. When they 
finished modelUng the pot they would bury it in the ashes. Having 
put it in the ashes, it gets hard and she would take it out. After it 
has hardened she puts it close to the bank of the fireplace. There 
it gets very hard. They would use it to carry water in. It cannot 
be used for cooking^ as it is of mud. They use it only for carrjdng 

Vision Story. 


(1) ts'A'at weisurarvrau* ird'tsti* hqwd ita'xri ru ira'tsti axrarura- 
"pirihu^^ ita*xri (2) heru axriwa-ku tsu-rak^ kuraru kare'rakvtsia 
ird'ku pi'raski trirara-riktis^ %rd'ku prraski e kuruxrvtsia (3)heru 

(1) Daughter, when you write brother and sister. Oh! 
the brother he loves her (e.) the sister. (2) Then she said (e.), 
girl, anything, just he was not to do ! that boy he is the one 
that is the oldest that boy he went ahead and did it ! (3) Then 

1 The cooking pot would be hung over the fire on a bracket, hence reference 
in the text to hanging over. 

2 This story is similar to that recorded in "Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee", 
Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, vol. VIII, 1904, as the EagJe 
Boy, pp. 169 — 173. This version differs from it in that there are hen 

Weltfiah, Caddoan Texts 155 

axrvwd'hu itd'xri kura^ru kare-rqlcvtsia (4) irvkuxrwta pvrask^ 
iwetrikuxrH'ta pvrask^ ifa*xrt wiUxrC'tsarisa iwerire4sarisa*ra ita*xri 
kuxre-ratsikstaa pvrask^ (5) he pvraski he axriratsikstda pi-rask* 
(6) e pi'Toski axraat irrkuxraat pi-raski kuxritatsikska'pd'kts 
irikuxru rikutsk^ tiraraxkdtasa kiixru retaxkqts (7) e ke-tsi wekux- 
ritatsikskd*pd'kis (8) retaxkdts axriwcL'ku (pvraski d ita*xri) 
tsikstit \sik&'sa*ra (9) e pvraski wkqxrd'ku wituxkuse he iaxra'ku 
hk rqwdaka-rdisu kuqxru-vt wekuwttwrusq'ru (10) hkqxra-ku hern 
axriwa'ku nqwa tsu-at tsikstit stkd'sa'ra (11) he ira*ku tiaxrw- 
toLsku axruxkiriru^ hewmxrqhUpa rikutski irvritqhu (12) rqwt- 
tqka*ratsu axru-ta tirqwixtdwa-wi qxruxwirdxkiri irvritd-ri wera- 
kutsa-istant (13) iqocrd-ku pi-rask^ he ird'ku pirask* rawitqka'rdts^ 
he aocru'td irirutaxwu rqkutsatstant rikutsk^ (14) he iaxra^kii ita-xri 
iweaxruxre'tsis iwehiru axrvu^ ira4sti rikutski (15) iwkcxrawitsd* 
tsqpat iratsti weti rikutsk^ (16) he rawttaka-rqisu tird-ku pvraski 
takaransit triweaxru^td-ra he witiaxrwrusa iriwewttuta^ri aocrqwi-tsqa 

she said (e.) sister anything, just he was not to do! (4) That 
he did the boy as he did that boy sister he got scolded 
by her (q.) when she scolded him sister he became angry the 
boy. (5) And so boy he became angry (e.) the boy. (6) And 
the boy he went (e.) he went somewhere the boy he was 
blessed by something it must be a bird these lying up against 
(the heavens) it must be eagle. (7) And, I guess, he had 
already been blessed. (8) The eagle said (e.) (boy and sister) 
right you two must live! (9) And the boy then he was sitting 
(e.) he was sitting comfortably (q.) and there he was sitting 
and suddenly it seemed as if (e.) it is said he quivered (10) and 
he sat then he said (e.) now, Miss, right you two must live! 
(11) and as he sat there he sat this way: he was shaking (e.) 
and now he had feathers grown on him bird the way they always 
are. (12) Suddenly he did (e.) these wings wings they shook 
(e.) (quivered) they way they do when it is going to fly (13) as 
he sat there (e.) the boy and that boy suddenly he did (e.) 
the way they going-do when it is going to fly bird. (14) And 
that*(e.) sister now she found that out (e.) just when he 
is (e.) her brother bird. (15) Just as she arrived (e.) woman 
her brother now he is a bird. (16) And suddenly this boy 
suddenly when he did that (e.) and he shook himself (e.) 
it is said he was in the act of of flying up (e.) when he flew (e.). 

two brothers and a sister involved, rather than only one brother and a 
sister. This version is also not expUcit as to the cause of the sister's 
anger at her brother. In the Skidi version the two children are starving, 
and while the sister is out preparing the field for planting, the brother 
is enjoined not to disturb the seed corn which is hanging in the tipi. How- 
(wer, he disobeys his sister's instructions and eats up the seed com 
while she is gone so that she has no seeds to plant. 

166 PMications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

werexhii'tsaa (17) hk> itaxri weraqxrd'wari irihuksu iri'wUitvd'ku 
(18) heri axru*td irvm*tahu rikutaki ra'ku-tsad (19) e (su^raki 
weraaard*wqri iweruxre*tsis iwe-rau^ rikutski iratsti (20) e tsirii 
he rawitakard'isu dxru*ta (21) rihuksu tri-wttu'ta he axrwtsd irirw- 
tahu triwekuwiti'Ta-wiat werwtsga iwerwat" tsirii kqrexrvvt hk itaxri 
d ira-ri wesiaxrakikat iwerwtsqa (22) rurahiri witi-vt qxrua'xra 
(23) trim siwttid itaxri siaxrqkikat (24) ru iriwekuxruvxkaigsa 
iri sirakttu'a irikuxruxrq^a rihitsk^ ru iweru^uxkatasa ru dsitcrqwd 
iri ira*sa siaxrqkikakspa*riki itaxri (25) he triwesiaxra-wari weku- 
siwdwra rant rikutski (26) e riru siaxrutsiratke-a (27) iweaxru^tsqa 
ira*tsti ruwkwdewihurqhats trra-wa-hat rii^ri wesikuxru-a ru atskat 
ru iwesiruvxkaJtqwe're-tit iwe'axrqtkta-ra (28) he isiaxrakikat 
ira-tsti a siaxrvte^ (29) triweisirwte^ heru axriwa-ku ita-xri hem 
axriwa'kii tsapat heru axriwa-ku ndwa tiki kirdkuka*tsi-tsia (30) 
iweaxrdhe-sa iwesiaxrd'wqri siwdu-te-riku heriru axriwd-ku tsapat 
ndwa tiki kirdkuka*tsi*tsia (31) heriru axriwd-ku tsit-raki ndwa 
tiki kirdkuka*sirdkuwutit (32) e pi-raski ruqocrikd^vsat hiru axrekdta 

(l7) And the sister she was just going about (e.) only that 
that he said (q.). (18) and then he did (e.) the way it always 
is bird when it fhes. (19) and girl she was just going 
about (e.) when she learned that he is bird her brother. 
(20) And meanwhile suddenly he did it. (21) Just when 
he did that and he flew (e.) the way it always is it is said 
he was about so high when he flew as he was flying away yet 
it wasn't far (e.) and his sister and his brother now they two 
cried (e.) as he flew off. (22) Finally it is said he was far off 
he was flying about (e.). (23) There it is said they two remained 
living the sister they two were crying (e.). (24) There the one 
that's fljring up next to the one that is joined with him the one 
that caused it bird there as he was flying up next to they two 
would come flying this way where that is lying those two 
standing-crying (e.) the sister. (25) And there when they two 
were flying about (e.) it is said they looked like real birds. 
(26) And right there night came upon them (e.) (27) as he flew 
off (e.). her brother he disappeared-flying (q.) the heavens i*ight 
there they probably came fl3ang there upward — when 
they two flew up against there as it became night (e.). (28) 
There they two were crying (e.) brother and they two stay all 
night (e.). (29) When they two stayed all night then she 
said (e.) the sister then she said (e.) woman then she 
said (e.) now, ''My boy! see if we (twoincl.) can do something!" 
(30) When it is tomorrow (e. !) when they two were flying around (e.) 
they two were looking at him (q.) then she said (e.) the woman, 
''Now my boy, see if we can do something!" (31) Then she 
said (e.) girl, *'Now, fellow, see if you can kill something!" 
(32) And the boy he went into the woods (e.). There he came 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 157 

pl'Toski (33) wititarustd raxrjiraxk^ iweaxrawa*hu tsU'vaki d-kqa 
triweturake tiki (34) Jieru siaarikaraxka-sit tararu siwitvtsia raru 
siwdikatwriwahit he ks'tsi iwesiruta'ra iwesiru4si raxruraxki (35) M 
ks'tsi vsirii'axra sikuxruxrae-nt isira-ku tsapat fi-raski heri axra-sa 
raxruraxki (36) hkru aarutsia- tsu-raki axruxruraxratd'wiha he 
mtiaxrahaxkavts (37) heru ti-taku ctskdhiri kttu axriraxpahaxru 
pd't^u (38) hk siaxrakqie-hakstsqwa raxruraxki (39) heru axriwa*ku 
tsu'raki iratsti qxruxrexku ka-sa-ra^ktrika'at (40) untvwa-ku 
tsu-raki iriwituxrardixku iwera-sa he sirwa' rikutski iri ira^sd 
tswraki itaxri mtiwd*ku (41) iri vratsta riwvtd witiwa-ku tri- 
iratstd ririwvttt hiru iratsti iriri^u heretwturiikvksta he pi-raski 
rw*rc*a hesirutwrukvt (42) e siaxra-wa rikutski pitku stwttva iriwe-- 
siaxra-tira trikuxritatsikska'pa-kis rikutski (43) iwesiaxrutihurds- 
kiskuxkqwvtit iwesiaxra-waa hk irisiaxrd'sqwa heriwe'siaxrutuhunts- 
kiskqwi'tiku sia*tdwi-tit (44) iwesiaxrwta-ra ra-hiri ru siwite*wari 
iriru siri'sqwa (45) he siaxrd'wiu-kvt trvra*sa raxruraxki (46) 
qpats siaxrd*iovil'kvt he tihe qxra-sa tsapat irirqu ita*xri e sikqrd.- 
axre'umi'kvt iri- iaxra'sd itaxri (47) tskqrd iri ira-sa raxruraxki 

up (e.) boy. (33) He was dragging (q.) deer. Then she 
said (e.) the girl, ''Oh! that's fine, my boy." (34) Then they two 
tore the stomach (e.) merely they two did (q.); merely 
they two spread it out (q.) and so when they two did that 
when they two were laying it down deer, (35) and so those 
two flying around they two probably saw that one sitting with 
woman boy and there it lay (e.) the deer (36) then she 
did (e.) girl then she dug a ditch (e.) and she laid herself in 
the ditch (e.). (37) Then right here on the face all he painted 
her (e.) blood. (38) And they (2) were l3dng side by side (e.) 
the deer (and the girl). (39) Then she said (e.) girl her brother 
it means (e.) *'Be very cautious!" (40) she said (q.) girl 
that's what it means (q.) that lying there and when they 
two fly here birds where that one is lying girl his sister 
she said, (q.) (41) ''Where lam lying if it sits down," she 
said (q.), "Where I am lying there if it alights jf brother 
if it is he I am going to grab him!'* And boy let him come 
immediately (!) and they two will catch him. (42) And they two 
came (e.) birds two they two were (q.) the one he is with 
(e.) the one that blessed him bird. (43) As they two began 
to descend (e.) as they two came (e.) where they two were lying 
(e.) there they were beginning to fly (e.) to alight. (44) As 
they did (e.) finally there they two flew (q.) just where 
they two were Ijdng. (45) And they two alighted (e.) where it is 
lying deer. (46) Both they two alighted (e.) and other the 
one lying (e.) woman the one that is the sister they two did 
not alight (e.) where there she is lying (e.) sister. (47) Only 
where there it was lying deer and there they two aUghted (e.) 

158 Publications, American Ethnological Society VoL J^VII 

he tri siaxrdwiu-kvt hk ra^ru qxrisd itaxri sikarawite'wiu'Tcvt it^xri 
iri-ra-sa (48) hern pvraski kuxruhuriruvt ira-ri tri-ra^u iriaxTur\y)its 
(49) hkaxruhuririwd'ta tutu wiivwa-ha ird-ri^ irisikuxratkd-pci-kcs 
iriru'Sttikutsikse tHaku (50) vriwewitiwa-ku ira*ri iwerama-ka 
trisikuxratkd'pd'kts he siaxrwtsawa triweaxrawa-ka pvraski ('52) 
rusiwtti'd karawtti-vt (52) n^wa iwe-qxrasahiiri'sat he istu siaxr^^ta 
(53) he karuriataha-ri trvsiaxrwd vsirits-ta-karohd'hi siku^rd- 
witska hqwa tstu sirakuwiukvt (54) heweaxrutasdtt trvrutqhu 
werqkusqkuri'satd (54'') iwesiaxrw'' weru siwitutsihuraxwHhci'Jdi 
vrvru'tqhu sirakum-tikstant (55) nawa he tira-ku pi-raski irikux- 
rdwiukvt itaxri iri i-ra-sa e irikuxrwtd irirvtqriusuku rqkutdwitsat 
(56) iweru'ta-ra rqwdskd^a atatdwttsat (57) he rihuksu riaxrwtd 
he ketsi rihuksii iwerixtdwdsat hi qxrvtka-stdrurukvt (58) ndwo^ hk 
iqxru'tu-rukvt wdutsiksqwdxtsa^ri axra^wi-tsa^hu he weaxrwtd'hvt 
(59) he tihe ra-ku weaxru-tsd^ tihe axra-kii iweqxrwtuhvt he ax^e-- 
ruhu.ririwaxrdd-hu axrqwdskgd iratsti ra-ku'tsaa (60) M aom*WU'ku 
pi-raski heru axriwa-ku tsU-at kuksuhurqkat (61) istu tqti'rqist^ 
rikure-hdts tiwerikutatsikska-pa-kisu (62) he kdu rikure-hats heru 

and merely she lay (e.) sister they two didn't alight (q.) 
sister where she lay. (48) Then the boy he was quick Ms 
brother the one that is one that is left (e.). (49) He jumped up 
hurriedly from his lying position (e.) then quickly he said (q.)> 
"Brother we two are humble we (two) stayed here all night right 
here". (50) As he said that, it is said, the brother when he 
said "We two are humble," and they two flew (e.) as he said 
that (e.) boy. (51) There they two live (q.) it is not far (q.). 
(52) Now when the sun had gone down (e.) and again they 
two did (e.) (53) it wasn't very soon when they two flew (e.) 
they two are encircling them two there they two wanted also again 
they two to alight. (54) And now it began to be (e.) the way it 
always is when the sun goes down. (54a) As they (two) flew (e.) 
then they two were nearly touching the ground (q.) the way 
it is when they were going to alight. (56) Now this 
boy the one that aUghted sister where there she is lying 
and he did that what they usually do to peck. (56) As he did 
that he wanted to peck it. (57) And just as he did that (e.) 
and so just as it pecked her she grabbed its legs (e.) ! (58) Now 
she grabbed it there! (e.) it is said it tried to fly away (e.). — 
She was holding it! (e.) (59) And this other one it flew (e.). 
This other one (e.) as she held him — it would pull her back 
and forth up from a lying position (e.) it wanted (e.) her brother 
to fly. (60) And he said (e.) the boy, then he said, "Miss, 
set me free! (61) Again I am coming, when he finishes me 
this one when he has blessed me (62) and all if he finishes me 
then I will come where here we (2 incl.) are living." Then he 

Wdtfish, Caddoan Texts 159 

itin-a trvtiratsi'raxra heru axriwa'ku pi*raski (63) hawa sikare-- 
sutsi'tsiksu tiretpgri kkwe-sireskut^'nt iri-kuxrasaku'ruksta hereti— 
rdtsta (64) heru tte'ra'pihat he ks'tsi weriku'tatsikska-pa-kis rikutsk* 

said (e.) the boy, (63) "Again worry! don't you two here I am 
living ! now you two have seen me ! Some day that will be I will 
come! (64) Then we (plur. inch) will Uve together. And then, 
he has blessed me the bird." That is all. 


(Free translation.) 

Now, Miss, you are going to write of a brother and a sister. Oh, 
how that brother loved his sister! One day the girl told him there 
was something he was not to do. (The boy was the older of the two 
brothers.) But the boy disobeyed his sister and did what she hg^d 
cautioned him not to do, and so she scolded him for it. The boy 
resented the scolding so much that he wandered off somewhere by 
himself. The boy got a blessing from a bird, — one of those that 
fhes high in the heavens, — probably an eagle. (I believe he had 
already received the blessing.) The eagle-boy said to his younger 
brother and his sister, ^"You must both Uve upright lives!" As the 
boy was sitting with them in the usual way, he suddenly seemed to 
quiver and then he addressed his sister telling her that she and the 
younger boy must be upright in their ways. As he was trembling 
in this way he was sprouting feathers like a bird . Then he flapped 
his wings (arms ?) as if he were going to fly like a bird. Then the 
sister knew what had happened and just as she realized that his 
actions signified that he was becoming a bird, he flew away. The 
sister went about distractedly remembering how he had simply 
admonished them to be upright and had then become transformed 
into a bird. As the bird ascended the sister and the younger brother 
both cried bitterly. Meanwhile the bird -brother flew higher and 
higher finally joining the eagle that had given him the blessing. 
Then the two birds flew down to where the sister and brother were 
standing and crying toward something that lay there. As the two 
of them flew about they looked like real birds. Just then night came 
upon them and the birds flew off. Thus the brother disappeared 
into the heavens. They stayed there crying for their brother all 
night. The next morning the sister said, "Now, young man, let's 
see if we can do something about this! Try to kill some game!" 
The boy went to the woods and finally returned dragging a deer. 
Then the girl exclaimed, ''That's fine, son!" 

Then they cut open the belly down the length and spread the 
carcass on the ground. The two birds, as they flew about, saw the 
girl and the boy below and the carcass of the deer. Then the girl 

160 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

dug a ditch and she lay in it. The boy smeared her face with blood 
and she lay in the ditch next to the deer.^ Then the girl warned 
her brother to be very careful so that they could catch the eagle. 
"The plan is that if our brother, the eagle, aUghts where I am Ijdng, 
I will grab him." The boy was to come to her assistance and both 
would try to hold the bird. 

The two birds came. Eagle-boy and the bird that had blessed 
him. They both alighted where the deer lay, but avoided the girl 
as she lay there. The younger brother became excited and called 
out, "Brother, we are so miserable, we have stayed here all night." 
As the boy spoke those words, the birds flew off and remained 
flying about nearby. 

That night, they did the same things they had done before, but 
it was quite a whUe before the birds came circUng about them. 
The birds wanted to alight again. It was after sundown when 
they swooped to the ground. The Eagle-boy aUghted where the 
sigter lay. The bird began to peck her. Just as he pecked her, the 
girl grabbed bis legs. The bird tried in vain to fly away, but she 
held it fast. Meanwhile the other bird flew away. Eagle-boy made 
such an effort to fly away that he dragged the girl up with him off 
the ground. Then he said, **Set me free, I will come back home 
when he has finished blessing me. Don't worry about me any more, 
I am ahve as you have seen. Some day I am coming home and we 
will all be together again. And I will have received a blessing from 
the bird." That is aD. 

^ The boy was probably hidden in the brush right nearby. 

Mthahaxhi^ Band, /^dArar^^use-nij'W Woman-she-has-a-fine-home. 

36. the story of the two boys with the half-shaved heads. 

(1) pi'td witvku h tsapat hkru axrvtsia hewitiaxruxru pl-raski 
(2) hawa tstu asku witiaxruxru pvraski (3) iwesirdmxku he 
iwesirerasqha't^ (4) heru ku ram sltaxwa isvrdwari iwesikakargrt^ 
tri Sikuxritatsikskd*pd*kis a-ki tisira*ku he sikutiwa'Tuksti pWaski 
(5) he isira'ku he ihuks sitit-rupsa (6) pakskdtakaaks iri weslwitesa^^ 
(7) heru axriwitskd* dwaxkisd'a (8) ti-taku ru kMaat ta'ku karara*- 
kura-i'tawi (9) nawa ru wera-rat kuxri"bt axrd-t" (10) witihakta*- 
ruhat he axratawira^aJt e hiru ra axre'hatura-rua (11) tri axrutsiksahu 
qxruksitura*rawu'Suku iwera-ta heriwekuxraratke^d heru axri-tsax- 
kqqt (12) iweaxretsaxka'ta heta qxrakUapa^tu*^ (13) heriaxrq- 
kqu'kvt he hiru qxre*ka hkriaxrextatdhiri-nt pt-raski (14) aki 
kutika-wihat nxkuka-pa-kis^ (^^) tsustit heru axriwa-ku kd'wcta 
kestewa*ta k^t-te-nt (16) heru rial ka*wita axrqwa-ku tire-rtt (17) heru 
axriwh'ku tsustit (18) tdktvs e*kaa taxrqkd'pd-kis ru-rihe^e retwrua 

(1) Man is living with woman then it happens (e.) she 
made for herself (e.) a boy (2) again another one she made 
for herself (e.) a boy. (3) Now she has those two (sitting) (e.) 
and while those two were growing up (e.) (4) then it is said 
aimlessly they two go (e.) those two roving. Now those two do 
not know that by which they two were blessed thus these two 
(sitting) they two are wonderful boys (5) and those two (sitting) 
half • they two have hair. (6) "Half-Head" it is said that is what 
they are called. (7) Then he thinks, (e.) the youngest, (8) 
"Right here I'll go! anyone not to know." (9) Now there 
now to a certain place he goes (e.) it is far where he went (e.) 

(10) it is said trees extend along a stream and he goes down (e.) 
and there at a certain place a road extends toward him (e.) 

(11) that is the way it always was as they used to camp (e.) there 
as he went when night came then he went through the village 
(e.) (12) as he went through the camp there are willows along 
this side (south) (13) he goes through them (e.) and there 
is a tent (e.) and there he stops outside (e.) the boy, (14) And 
inside they Uve they that are poor. (15) Old woman then 
she says (e.), "Youngest, you look about! someone seems to 
be there (standing)." (16) Then he goes, the youngest, he says 
(e.) "Here he is (standing)." (17) Then said (e.) the old woman, 
(18) "Sir, my! we are poor. Right over there is the camp; 

162 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XV II 

rihPe tirasku4a (19) hem axriwd'ku pi'vaski atika titqkw iriretvra 
(20) heru axriwa-ku tsustit ndwa siksu-ka* (21) Mru azre'hu'ka^ 
pi-raski axram4tt (22) hkru axriwa^hii ike tsustd tiki titqku he 
era'ku kakuxre (23) kwi-ruhu^u ti'tvri ruraskutd istu kuse-riwarit 
(24) hem axriwa-ku tsustd trikakdxr&'kvt he rahuri'tat tuhumka-hu 
td'mtsiits wekgrexrirake-" he rqhwka (25) hkru axriwa-ku ta'rwtsius 
siwitasi'warikstd apat hkru axriwd'ku pvraski kakatqwu-su-ku 

(26) hkru axriat istu td'rwtsms (27) heru axriwa-ku pvtakdam^u 
kakiwttska kqrdwtte'uricsu'ku hkru axriwa-ku riisuksat istu (28) iri- 
weaxrqhu-kat he istii axriwa-ku (29) apat tiwd*ku siraskuwarik^ 
hkru axriwa-ku pi-raski kakatqum'sH-ku hktsi- atipat nqwa rghe-sd 
ka-tsiri-wgrit hkru axriat td'ru-tsius istu (30) hxrawa-ku wetiwa-ku 
rghe-sa siraskuwgrik^ (31) heru axriwa-ku pitakitgwi% hqwd ipakti 
ruksqtsikstAuxke-a wishers siratku-warg rqhe-sd sikustiwarit (32) 
iwerdhe-sa hk weqxruhuruka-hu tdWu-tsius (33) iriwe-axrawitska 
wi-shutsii- a-tsiri-warik^ (34) wit'itks qxriksaktdra-xra raktaxkd'- 
wqriku (35) ke*kqruvs heru axriat iriwe-tiwihaxkdi-sat hiru axre-rit 
pi-ta (36) iri-siriwqrikstqnt (37) ti-tqku witd'ru-raruhat tsaxriks 

it is there you should go." (19) Then said the boy, "Grand- 
ma, here is where I have come!" (20) Then said the old 
woman, "Well, come in!" (21) Then he came in (e.) the boy; 
he sat down (e.). (22) Then said (e.) — old woman, ''Son, 
here that one (sitting) he is bad. (23) Would it were so today 
that you would go there back. He will beat you (at a game)." 
(24) Then said (e.) the old lady, ''We are not that kind. And 
all the time he is always coming here, the attendant. It will 
not be long when he will come in." (25) Then said (e.) the 
attendant, "You are going to play the hoop and spear game with 
your grandpa." Then said (e.) the boy, "I don't play the 
spear game," (26) Then he went (e.) back, the attendant. 

(27) Then he said (e.) (to) Leading-Man, "He doesn't want to ;. 
he doesn't play the spear game." Then he said, "Go there! 
again." (28) There then he went inside (e.), and again he said, 
(29) "Your grandpa says for you to play the spear game with 
him." Then said (e.) the boy, "I don't play the spear game. 
Nevertheless, my grandfather, now tomorrow we (2 incl.). 
will play the spear game together." Then he went, the atten- 
dant, back. (30) He said, "Now he says tomorrow you two 
are to play the spear game." (31) Then said (e.) Leading-Man, 
"So long his grandfather he keeps him waiting ! Hurry, that 
we may play the spear game ! tomorrow we two will spear (aim)." 

(32) The next day he kept coming in (e.) the attendant. 

(33) Now he wanted (e.) quickly that they might spear. (34) It 
is said it was sticks that they carried (e.) spears. (35) Early 
then he went (e.) down to the spear grounds there stood (e.) 
a man. (36) It is the one he is going to spear with. (37) Right here 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 163 

pi'tahtd'wi'u (38) ti'tqku riaxrd'rura'ruhat paksMtaka^aks (39) 
herii sixrcwusifUt he weaxrawa-ku pi-takitd'w^n iskukawwtika 
tiru'tasu'hat (40) hawa ti-tqkii itakavrH'tika (41) trire-kavrA'tika 
he rikspakia*hu wktia-kqwirat (42) he iwhrga-kawirata he kttii 
axrara*rurakdtsista e^^ixra-wu hk irutasuhat kdu axrixkavm-td 

(43) heru axriiod-ku pakskatakd'^aks ndwa atipat ndwa kttu wetas- 
kukdiou'Ut heru axrimhdxkawi'ttt (44) heru axriwa*ku pi'takita'wi^u 
tiwe-rata-wirata hdwa ra*su hawa ti*wdiraskukdwi'td heru axriwii'ku 
pvraski rikakutA'hu he witiatkawvtiku (45) heru axriwa^ku pi*~ 
takdq'wi^u tskara kertstqriwariksta tsaxriks (46) heru axriwa-ku 
pi-raski ndwa tsihii*wa (47) nqwa heru sixre*wusdd (48) iwesixra*- 
wu heru ra-hiri trikiixruta-hu irvrawirivm (49) heroic ra*hiri herirq- 
wirat ari'Sit pWaski (50) nqwa iriwerutire-udrat rwri*^^ ari-slt 
pvraski (51) iwervrqwirata kdu tirwtqsu'hat (52) nmva ru werw- 
ra-rat tihe ru-tqsu'hat kdii wesirerokqwu-td (53) e tsiru qxra-ku 
pakskqtakd*qks axrqwihaxkdku (54) ratkat rusiwdiri-kuwutd 
(55) heru axriat pi-takttq'wi^u trira-sa pvraski (56) kdii axrq- 
pakstu'wa axrqpaxriksukat (57) heru axripakstat tri-qxrakariku 
(58) Mm axripakstqtviu*katqum (59) aki- trikviu-td-r^ aki tsaxriks 

his side, it is said (north) the people Leading-Man. (38) Right 
here is where his side is (south) Half-Head. (39) Then they 
began to spear. He had said, (e.) Leading -Man, **If you kill 
them for me (if you win) these on this side (40) then again, over 
here if I defeat you." (41) Whoever wins they used to say, he 
has taken their souls. (42) And when he had won then all 
they will die (e.) (disappear) and they were spearing and those 
on his side all he lost to him (e.). (43) Then said (e.) Half- 
Head, *'Well grandpa, now aU you have won from me." 
Then he bets himself (e.) (he sits down upon the game-ground). 

(44) Then said (e.) Leading-Man, '*Since I defeated you, also 
you also you should bet yourself." Then said (e.) the boy, 
that's not usually the way it is to bet myself. (45) Then said (e.) 
Leading-Man, only do you then expect only the rest to be played 
for ? ! people. (46) Then said (e.) the boy, *'Now let's go !" 
(47) Now then they began spearing. (48) Then they were 
spearing then finally this is the way it is the one that's 
winning (49) then finally he wins you himself the boy. 
(50) Now that's when he won him when it is he himself the 
boy. (51) When he lost aU those on his side (those sitting along 
there) (52) now there they have gone (he took them ?) the 
other side of people. All they killed them. (53) And yet 
he stayed (sitting) Half-Head he was the object of the bet (sat 
upon the game ground) (e.) (54) Next they killed him. (55) Then 
he went (e.) Leading-Man where he lay the boy (56) all 
he took his head off (e.) he cut his neck off (e.) (57) Then he 
took the head (e.) where his home was (e.) (58) Then he hung 

164 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol Xyil 

kutihqwii'tilcu (60) iraka'wi tqM axrvifoks^su-hat tsaxrika a^^g- 
pakstatsg/wa-wi hk iriwerent tsaxriks paks^ (67) hern Lriwe*axra*a 
pvraski (62) iwe ram axrirahurahais axrawihurahats rara-riktis^ 
(63) he rahuri'tat tk-raspe (64) he piraski ruaxriwa*ku iritiwdska 
(65) irihkxrqat kqrexrutsirehdrahu*^ nqwa hkkuruxrvtsia pWaski 
irrkuxru'vt kiixrqwa'ruhsti (66) kuxrdwitska tuhurahuras piraski 
iri'kuxrd'Sat iweraxwa'hat pvraski (67) axra-aiixruras hiru axrex- 
ru^^ (68) hern ru axriat ru iriweaxrahwrii ird-ri (69) runriaxra-ta 
ru-riaxra^at ru qxrextatqi*sat tri ira-ri axraiirhnt (70) hkri ax- 
raure-nt tri ir&kd-wi (71) iriwktvhi* axrqkd'wi tsii*stit axraka-pd'- 
kisu (72) hkru axriwd-ku tsustit kkste'wa'ta kd'tvita hiru axrire-wa-ta 
hiru axre'nt (73) heru axriwd-ku atika tire^nt pvraski trikutu-tu 
taku ruksku pi-rask^ taku rukspitsd (74) axriwa-ku atika kirakd- 
rawa-td*^ (75) hkru axriwa'ku tsustit tdktis rurihe retwrua (76) tax- 
rgka-pa-kis tiraxrdpihat (77) axriwd-ku pi-raski atika hkrire-ti-ra 
ti-tqku (78) axriwd-ku tsustit nqwa siksu-kd* (79) hkru axrehu-ka 
hkru axriwl-tit (80) hkru axriwd-ku tsustit tiki tahe retu-rua he ketsi 

the head on the wall (west?) (e.). (59) Thus that's what he 
usually does thus people he was kilUng them. (60) There at 
his home someone's heads were strung along (e.) human heads 
that were hanging (e.). They are the ones people's heads. 
(61) Then since he came there (e.) boy (62) since then simply 
too long a time had elapsed (e.) since he disappeared (e.) the 
oldest one (63) always he searched. (64) And the boy he said 
(e.) that's what he wants (65) where he went he wasn't pre- 
pared. Then he did thus: the boy, he possessed something 
something that is wonderful, (66) He thought, '1 will find out 
the boy where he went when he went about (e.) the boy." 
(67) He found his track (e.) there were his tracks (e.) (68) then 
there he went (e.) there where his tracks were pointed his brother 
(69) where he had gone (e.) then he went (e.) right to the outside 
edge of the dwelhng (e.) he went where his brother had stopped 
(e.) (70) there he stopped (e.) where she Uves (71) that's the 
place where she lives the old woman the poor one (e.). 
(72) Then she said (e.) the old woman, ''Look about, youngest 
one," Then he looked about (e.) then he stopped (e.) (73) then 
he said (e.), ''My grandmother, here is (stands) the boy. He 
looks like someone that was here a boy someone that came 
here." (74) He said (e.), "Grandmother, he must have arisen." 
(75) Then she said (e.) the old woman, "My boy, right there 
is the camp. (76) We are poor we who are living here (e.) 
(sitting)." (77) Then said (e.) the boy, "Grandmother, here 
I have come right here!" (78) Said (e.) the old woman, "Well, 
then, come in !" (79) Then he came in (e.) then he sat down 
(e.). (80) Then said (e.) the old woman, "Son, over there 
is a camp. But I am going to say, son, there is one (sitting) 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 165 

^pirnn.'hajtff' tiki tird'ku tsaxriks kakkxre tsaxriks (81) wkkarexrira- 
ki'a he rahit'ka ta rwtsius iri-kura'^u ha- rearakd'pd'kis hi tuhurukd*- 
hu (82) kara wUi-ra-ke-a he axrh-hu-ka (83) hern axriwa-ku dri* 
rakti'ki Uxrqsixwdsa^ (84) axrawd^ku pi*raski d-hu* (85) heru 
qxru'tsd^ (86) ruwera-rat ru iri ira-ku pi-ta kararuxre^ra (87) were*- 
hu'kat kura^u td'rwtsius weraxwa*ku tdWu*tsius (88) pi-takdd'm^u 
tirekd'ku pvraski (89) kird ira-ri sikaruksd irapakstawi axriwd*ku 
tri'sikusipakskitqwi (90) heru axriwa-ku pi*takitqwi^u sikkskuxra— 
kqruru* axriwd*ku axruxrexku td'rwtsius riiavtsiktsirasa^a tihd-' 
kawaxtsist^ (91) hkru axriat heru axriwa-ku tqtwt'kri^a pakskqtakd^- 
aks (92) hkru axriwa-ku Tidwa heru siaxriwa (93) hk weaxrarqi-td 
ird'ta pvraski (94) axrqwd-ku tsusUt kqre-siwa-wqa rqka-rurd*u 
(95) ti-kista rihukqwirahat tsaxriks pakskira-ra (96) a ri-ki pqhuks 
hk ri'kist^ dtkqha*ru^ (97) a rikistqrit rawqritkutsu* hk tri-kista 
d*ru (98) nqwa heru rvat pvraski d axrghH-kat tri-ra-kd-wi pi-- 
takitdfwi^u (99) nqwa rakti-ki nawa siksa he tqkii tspvtit (100) heru 
axruisid- tsqpat a axrira-ru a qocrixrH-tsu (101) heru axriwd'ku 
pvraski kusikvtsikstqrat tatkd-waki^it werirake-ru hk ita-kqwaats 
(102) td'ru-tsius hkru axrirarqt tsustit iri-rdkqku (103) tsustit 

person no good person. (81) It won't be long (e.) and he 
comes in the attendant the one that is his. You see, we are 
poor (e.) and he is always coming in." (82) It wasn't long, (q.) 
and he came in (e.) (83) Then he said (e.), ''Well, 
grandson, so you have really come here!" (84) Then said (e.) 
the boy, ''Yes." (85) Then he arose. (86) There he went 
there where that (sitting) man the one that is no good. (87) He 
went inside his attendant. Then said (e.) the attendant, 

(88) "Leading-Man he's in here, (sitting inside) the boy." 

(89) "See if brothers could they have iDeen ? ! that head hanging." 
He said (e.), "They will be the best skulls." (90) Then said (e.) 
Leading-Man, "Cook a meal for us two !" He said (e.) meaning, 
the attendant go bring him in he is going to eat. (91) Then 
he went (e.) then he said (e.), "I came for you, Half-Head," 

(92) Then he answered, (e.), "All right." Then they (2) went. 

(93) And he knew (e.) where he was going the boy. (94) Said 
(e.) the old woman, "Don't eat if he feasts you. (95) They will be 
if he stirs it about (cook mush) human brains. (96) And if 
they are pumpkins they will be ears. (97) And if they 
happen to be big com (hominy) and they will be teeth." 
(98) And so then he went the boy and he went in (e.) 
where he lived Leading-Man. (99) "Greetings, grandson, heUo 
come in and right here sit down!" (100) Then she did thus: 
(e.) the woman (wife) — she gave them to him (e.) — she 
set them down for him (e.) (101) then he said (e.) the boy, 
"Go take them over there for me! I have enough a little later 
on I will eat!" (102) The attendant then hetook them to her(e.) 


166 Publications, American Ethnological Sociity Vol, X VII 

ruaocrira-raward (104) he ke-tsi rum aocriwa*ku pi*takitd'wi^u 
raktvki tatitska tstxku'wariku (105) Mru axriwd-ku pvraski (106) 
atypat kakatawu'Su*ku (107) hk-tsta^q kqraqxrvhisihd axrqwdska 
a'tsiri*wd,rika dtsvrqwu (108) he axriwa-ku pvraski atvpat kaka- 
tqwu'SU'ku (109) Mtsa'a axrqwa-ku ipakti hqwd triruksqtsikstqux- 
tda-ri (HO) he axriwa^ku prraski ndwa atipat ndwa wetatsiri-- 
wqrikst^ (111) atipat tvtiri tikit^vne'ka rqhe'sa ke^kqrvus hk kat- 
sirvwqrit (112) Mru axriioa'ku pi-takdq'wi^u (113) hqwd iriruks- 
atsikstduxke-a ipakti (114) axriwd-ku pi-raski e rdtdska rahe-sa 
axriwd'ku prtakctq'un^u ndwa (115) heru axriat pi-raski rii tri 
tsustit axra-kqrikaku nxka-pa-kts^ (116) axrghwkat pfraski (117) 
heru axriwa-ku atika karesirdka-wihat ks-karvus he* qxrawatsHi^ku 
tsustd (118) piraski rmxrikawvtd (119) iri we4i rihk axrqwa'- 
rukstv^u (120) kdw witikuxruxtirehariward rdrawa-ruksti'^u irg- 
ratsqwi tsuuxrhre-pvru (121) raktdwiskaru wdiha-kukitasd^ 

(122) heru axriwa*ku pvraski atika titqkii irvrasta'kqkd'wi kesux- 
ks'hdre'rd (123) ke-kqrvus kqresirapihat atika tvtqku ku-kararikskq- 

old woman where she lived. (103) The old woman directly she 
threw them away. (104) And so thereupon said (e.) Leading- 
man, **Grandson, I want us (2 incl.) to spear." (105) Then 
said (e.) the boy, (106) "Grandfather, I don't spear." (1^'^) Any- 
how he was determined (e.) he wanted (e.) to spear with him 
for them to play the spear game. (108) And said (e.) the boy, 
"Grandfather, I don't spear." (109) Nevertheless, said (e.) lus 
grandfather, "Again let him not be made to feel angry". 
(110) Then said (e.) the boy, "All right grandfather, now 
we (2 incL) will play. (Ill) Grandfather, today I am tired, 
tomorrow early — we (2 incl.) will play." (112) Then said 
(e.) Leading-Man, (113) "Again let him not be kept waiting, 
his grandfather." (114) Said (ev.) the boy, "I want to tomor- 
row. Said (e.) Leading-Man, "All right." (115) Then he 
went (e.) the boy, there where the old woman where she 
had her dwelling in the timber (e.) the ones that are poor. (1 16) He 
went in (e.) the boy. (117) Then he said (e.) "Grandmother, 
don't stay in here early." Then she went out (e.) the old 
woman. (118) The boy he bet himself (e.) (sat down upon). 
(119) That's the one that one he who is wonderful (e.). (120) 
Entirely he had prepared himself the way that is wonderful 
those hanging sacred bundles, (121) pipe it is said a stick lay 
upon it.^ 

(122) Then said (e.) the boy, "Grandmother, right here 
where your (plur.) dwelling is fix the room up! (123) Early 

^ The following excerpt was originally given after p. 1 62 no. 3 1 and when the 
text was read back was seen to be incorrectly included there. I have there- 
fore included it here before resuming the continuity of the text as given. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 167 

wtivcToA. ioc^«A/T (124) axrawd'ku tsusitt d'hu tikskawu*ttku irvraki- 
Wiktaxkii iriru4ira4e*hat re-rartieu crzraJdtmktaxku (125) kk-kqrvus 
heru kuwekuxrd'vm tsu'sttt (126) he ira-kd-tvi iri irakd-ku pvras'ki 
(127) hk wemxkiha*re he hiru axre*riiratsa tsuvxrkrepi-ru (128) he 
hiru axriha*katasd rakta'wtskd*ru heru axrikaktu-wa heru axriraxka- 
wgrit (129) heru axriat (130) rit'triwe'tiat tri-re^ra'rud he triwere-- 
hdkta raktawtskd'TU.^ 

(131) heru axrihaktu-wa (132) heru axriraxkawant (133) heri 
weaxrgvM'ku pi-raski tsustlt trtaku ku*kare*rd,ruhat heru axriwa*ku 
tsustit ti'rird'ruat (134) heru axriat pi-raski iriru riratse'hat (135) 
eri axraurhnt (136) iwera-riki hetiriru* qxrvUia raktdwtska-rii 
trvrera-ruhat iriwitutaktvwi'u (137) rakta-wi^ka^rii iweraha^kid-riki 
heri ruaxriwa-ku heru axriwa-ku pi-raski alias tdtdska siraskuku*- 
tatsikska'pa-kis"* (138) tritira tirahaktsa rakta'wiska-ru tiratux- 
rakdktqa raskuraktd-wisa (139) ist'ii axrawd-ku tarura-kita tiwe— 
rikuwd-ta-ra (140) rutira^kitd rqUtska raskurakta-wts^ (1^1) rihuksu 

in the morning don't you (plur.) be here! Grandmother, here 
haven't they killed any of them? buffalo." (124) Said (e.) the 
old woffi.^1^; ''Yes, they were kiUing them where the sand hills 
are (sitting) ^fe^-*j there is the end of it that are strewn along 
there wh*^^^ ^h?jSind hills are (sitting). (125) Early then they 
probacy w^fii the old woman. (126) At home where that 
one his sitting inside boy (127) and the room is prepared and 
there he had things hanging up (e.) secret bundle. (128) And 
there there was a stick lying against (e.) (the side) pipe. Then 
he took the pipe off (e) then he filled it (e.) (129) then he 
went (e.) (130) he goes there where the bones are strewn and 
he took the stick pipe.^ 

(131) Then he took the stick off (e.) (132) then he fiUed it (e.) 
(put them in) (133) then said (e.) the boy, *'01d woman, 
here are there any strewn along?" Then she answered, (e.) 
the old woman, "They are strewn along here." (134) Then he 
went (e.) the boy right where where the Une of the bones is. 
(135) There he stopped (e.) <136) While he was standing there 
thereupon he did thus: (e.) pipe where they are strewn where 
he was facing that way holding the pipe (q.). (137) pipe as he held 
the pipe, standing there then he said (e.) (sang), then said 
(ev.) (sang) the boy, "My fathers, I want you (plur.) to have 
pity on me. (138) That's why this stick (here lying) pipe 
I brought here this stick for you (plur.) that you (plur.) may 
smoke." (139) Again he said (e.), "The reason why I have be- 
come so lonesome (140) this is why what I want for you (plur.) 
to smoke." (141) Just as he said that (q.) then those strewn 

^ End of the first version of tkis incident. 


168 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

iriwitiwd'hu U i-axre-rd-ru-ta (142) M aMam^W<^^^^''' Uazra^- 
raxwa-ta kitu (143) rhwitu*ntkiixtsa (144) hern axrutse^-Huhahsdit 
kiwi'ku td/raha kttu arvkis kttu- axra-raxwa-ta (145) hem axriwa-ku 
irihuxrakltawi* (146) kiwvku witirihu^^ (147) heru axriwa-ku tiki 
nAwa sukspd'ku irikuxruvt tiwe-raxrakth-wis^ (148) heru axriwa-ku 
jn-raski e iriru'vt critdtitska siraskukutatsikska-pA-kcs^ (149) 
tir^'tat he ira-ri sikuxrikuxkuwutit (150) Aru axriwa-ku ira-riki 
kiwi'ku tiki tatiraktd-vt^ tsaxriks tikavm-tiku (151) hiru axriwa-ku 
kiwi-ku tritd-tuksf^ heru axriwa^kii kiwi-ku ndwa tirqsuxrakasqwd'hat 
(152) nawa siksd iri-kuxrasitska rascxkuruxrawi-at^ (1^^) ^^ 
ti-tqku he axruhuntspa-t^ pd-kts wituxre (154) he hqwd axruh'itntspa-t^ 
taraha kipiri-r^ heru axriwa-ku hqwd irita-tuksta (155) hqwd 
pa-kis triaxrqwa-k" iritd-tuksta (156) hkru qxrvtsid pd-kts (157) he 
vntiaxre-riwird-riwi-ttt (158) rdwitu-ritkaxtsa (159) he axra-wa-ta"^ 
he hiru axrdxraktsa (160) he irahaktsa he triwe-rehd-at kstdtsqwikatus 
(161) i- hiru raxtsa he wera-wa-td pd-kts (162) heru re-d kiwi-ku 
hk wttixrqwirqu-kvt hqwd wttixreriwirdriwi-ttt rdwttu-ntkaxtsa (163) 
he axra-wa-ta hkru axrdxraktsa tri hqwd kstatsqwi-kqtus (164) heru 

about (e.) (142) then they grunted (e.) and they got up 
from a lying position (e.) all. (143) The dust flew. (144) Then 
they began to line up (e.) bison buffalo including calves all 
they got up (e.). (145) Then said (e.) the one that is leader, 
(146) bison he is large, (q.) (147) then he said (e.), ''Son, 
greetings. TeU why it is that we (plur. excl.) have smoked 
here." (148) Then said (e.) the boy " — that's the way it is 
that's what I want for you (plur.) to have pity on me. (149) This 
camp — my brother they killed him." (150) And then said 
(e.) that one (standing) bison, *^Son, we (plur. excl.) know 
people he kills them." (151) Then said (e.) the bison, I am 
going to be the one." Then said (e.) the bison, ^'Greetings, 
you (plur.) scattered about here (152) now come whoever 
wants to help him." (153) And here then there came out 
from among (e.) a young bison he was well-built (q.). (154) Then 
another he came out from among them (e.) female buffalo 
young, and it said (e.) also, *'I will be the one." (155) Again 
young bison that is what he said (e.), *T will be the one." 
(156) Then he did thus (e.): the young bison, (157) — he 
rolled himself around (e.) (158) there was dust that flew about 
(159) then he got up (e.) and there a stick lay (e.), (160) And 
that stick (lying) — that's the stick game-spear, (l^l) and 
there the stick (lying) — when it got up the young bison. 
(162) Then came the mature bison and he threw himself 
down also he rolled himself around. There was dust that flew 
about. (163) Then he got up (e.) then there was a stick (lying) 
(e.) there again a game spear. (164) Then said (e.) the 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 169 

axriwd'Icu kiwi'ku vrlhu^lkvUira*^ h pcb-his he axrawd'ku pvraski 
irikasku'tsird*^ u-kaa wituxrdktiwa (165) heru axre-a taraha (166) 
hk witixreriwtrd'riwvtit axra-wd-ta hiru axraxku ta-wirus (167) kinks 
wltitaku ti'tqku ru'wUi-kirare^wsUt (168) hern axriwa-ku tihe"' 
ra-riki pd-kcs (169) axriwd*ku kasku-tsira^^ pl-raski (170) heru 
axriwa-ku taraha ka-sira'ptrihuru^ tikspakiahti kaivqriks wksire'vm 
(171) hawd axriwa-ku hawd tstapirihuru^ kt/nks (172) irataku 
iritu'kvt he werera*i4a irahdktii'ts^ ru'riwestte^ruxrira'^ pvta kqra- 
ruxre-ra (173) heru axriwa-kit kiwvkuts*'^ iri^axrarihu-ru tiwd'ku 
trikusikvtsira'^ (174) hk axrawa^ku e- rrkuxrake-nkst^ kitu (175) 
iveimwirat^ herikuxrake-nkst^ (176) heru axriwd-ku pd*kis tinsakta'- 
rata heru isihaktatsdwu wkatat (177) heru axriwa-ku pd-kts (178) 
wesi'tsawu he kvtu wesira-wirai irdsirvtasuhat heru axriwa-ku pd-kts 
he tsuxra-kawiriwis he isuxra-kapit (179) heru isiwa-ku ndwaatipat 
wetikuruxru'hu-ra heru axriwa^ku kurahus rakti-ki kaki triraskutd-ra 
tsaxriks wetastariwarit (180) e rd'su hdwa re^ arvsit wdiraskukdwvtit 
(181) heru axriwa-ku pi-raski e atipat tsikspartt istu (182) he kitu* 
weaxrgraxwaats axrixraktdraspe kstdtsqwvkatus (183) d raru 

bison, ''He will use me." and the young bison then said 
(e.), *'Boy, you must use me." Oh, they were fine sticks (q.), 
(165) Then came (e.) the female buffalo. (166) and she rolled 
herself around she got up (e.). There there was sitting (e.) 
hoop, game wheel. (167) Bead there was on it (q.) here it was 
very green, (q.) (168) Then said (e.) this other one standing 
young bison, (169) he said (e.), "Use me, boy." (170) Then 
said (e.) female buffalo, "You must value it high." They used 
to say, "Score in wheel game when spear touches bead when 
they are playing. (171) Again she said (e.) "Again value it 
the bead (172) right here when it touches. And they know 
those sticks (lying) they will be the cause man the one that is 
no good. (173) Then said (e.) the great bison, he is the one 
that is the largest, he said, "He must use me." (174) Then 
he said (e.) " — he is going to see us (plur.) aU. (175) When 
you win him then he will see us (plur.)." (176) Then said (e.) 
the young bison, "If you take these sticks then hang the 
sticks west." (177) Then said(e.) the young bison, (178) "When 
you are spearing with him and all when he wins your side," 
then said (e.) the young bison, "— you must cross his stick 
and break his stick. (179) Then you must say, *Now, grand- 
father, I am lucky.' " Then said (e.) the old man, "Grandson 
you can't do that, people you have lost them (180) and you 
again you should yourself you should bet yourself. " (181) Then 
said (e.) the boy, " — Grandfather, let's spear (dual inch) 
again." (182) And all they had gone off (e.) they were looking 
for sticks (e.) game spears, (183) and just merely they would 
come back (e.). Since he was very anxious (e.) the old man 

170 Publications, American Ethnological Society V^l^ XVII 

i/^axwitsa iivcgxrukiraru'ru ftun^tlei^ ^t^i*ra/wu (184) M^"^ axri- 
wd'ku kurqhus rakti*ki iriru'tasvtsi*u kurasixkuruxTdhtU'ts' (185) 
axriwd*ku pi-raski atipat kakatkttdwvris (186) axriwd-ku kurghvs 
rakti'ki wetasA'ta (187) Mm axriwa*ku pi-raski ndma atipat ru-taku- 
khriat iritkd-ku (188) tikaku raru tiha-kd-taruts (189) pirasM 
kukuxrdhaktd'^ (189a) heru axriat irikura'u tdru-tsius pi*takitdwi^u 
(189b) irikuaxrd^u heru axriat tdrwtsius heru axrvtsia dxrahu'kgta 
(190) ruriki-rd kqrawttvwitsat tri- axrahdktu-ts^ (1^1) he axrarax- 
katqkaksa' rdwitwritkaxtsa (192) he axrqkukstq'kvt ru a axrqwitsat 
istii pihaxkat (193) heru axriwa-ku tdru^tsius kuka'kihaktu*ts 
(194) heru axritsdrisa pi-takitdwi^u (195) axrare'tsarisa'ri tdrwtsvus 
kura'^u (196) hqwa istu* ru axriat swhuri tsiru witiat hktq we raru 
aosrutse*sitt'ku ira-ka'wi axraraxkatqkaksqhu kiwi-ku a tdraha 
(197) hqwd istu axrqkuksta'kvt (198) cstu ru a-axrakukspitsat 
(199) heru taxwa'kii tdrwtsius wewititira-wttsat (200) heru taxvxi'ku 
tdrwtsius kuka-kihaktuts (201) heru tarttsqnsd pvtakitdwi^u (202) 
heru axriwd'ku pvraski axruxrexku kura*^u tdrwtsius ru khsaJt 
rutihakd-tqruts ruke-sixraktara^ (203) hkru axriat raru vntihU-kat 
kukqrawtti'tsia raru wttihaktdtsqrikvt ru aocrihaktarimhaxkdH-sat 

for us two to spear, (184) then said (e.) the old man, "Grandson, 
you seem like you have some sticks (lying)." (186) Said (e.) 
the boy, ''Grandfather, I don't gamble." (186) Said (e.) the 
old man, ''Grandson, you have done it." (187) Then said (e.) 
the boy, "Now, grandfather, someone let him go where 
I stay (sit inside). (188) Right here just the sticks are lying 
against (the wall)." (189) Boy probably they were his sticks. 
(189a) Then he went (e.) the one that is his attendant Leading- 
Man, (189b) the one that is his (e.). Then he went (e.) the 
attendant, then he did (e.) he went in (e.) (190) further along 
he hadn't arrived (q.) where those sticks lay (e.) (191) and 
they grunted (e.) there was dust flying. (192) Then he ran 
away (e.) there and he arrived (e.) back to the game 
grounds. (193) Then said (e,) the attendant, "There are no 
sticks." (194) Then he got angry (e.) Leading-Man, (195) he 
was venting his anger at him (e.) attendant his. (196) Again 
back there he went (e.) on this side yet he goes (q.) over 
there now just it began to be happening (e.) that house 
they were grunting (e.) bisons and female buffaloes. (197) 
Agam back he fled (e.) (198) again there he ran all the way 
back. (199) Then he would say (e.) the attendant, "Now he 
has gone the limit of his power." (200) Then said (e.) the 
attendant, "There are no sticks." (201) Then he would get 
angry (e.) ^ Leading-Man. (202) Then said (e.) the boy, he 
meant his attendant, "There you must go they are lying 
in back; go bring those sticks!" (203) Then he went (e.) 
directly he went in. (q.) They didn't do anything (q.) just 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 171 

(204 j fiiru azriwa-ku pviaTcttdwi^u hit riwetuxrdktiwa (205) tri- 
kuaxt-Jb Aa? itte htwi'hu, 7i€rmxraha*ku (206) aheraha-ktsa irvrux- 
raktk-ra pvraski iriwetiha-kta (207) hem axriwd'ku pi-raski iriwe- 
tatsixra*pirihuru* kawariks ktrckstu-u hkriru sixre-wusitd (208) he 
isiocranm karawdvrake-a he witiaxraraxks'riwat hem ruxra4atat 
trvkurard-m (209) kukarawiti-raka'a he kitii axra*wirat ewemaxri-- 
rihvt kurahus pi'takitd'w^u (210) hem axriwd-ku ndwa raktfki 
rurvtsihurd'TU (211) hem axriwd*ku pi'vaski (212) atipat tskqra 
keristariwariksta tsaxriks (213) herim axru'tsa heriru siaxri-kasispa 
(214) siaxrahaktdraxra he rawitaka-ra-isu aaraka-sukats pi-taktta'- 
uoi^u (215) hem axriwi4it hem axrihaxkawl-td (216) hem axriwd-ku 
pvraski (217) ndwa siksutsa' wdaskitdm-ns hem axriwd-ku pvtaki- 
tq'wi^u nawa hem axruhwruisa* herim sixre'WUsiUt he wemrerihvt 
kurahus (218) hetqku siaxrvipiu-d siaxrakqsispa (219) iwerwtird*- 
ra*riks wesir^iaktaruhurghat (220) rihuksin, stvntahaktaruhwrahat 
he axrawa-ku pi-raski atipat wktata-tvirat (221) iwe-raha^kwaf' 
rihuksii kuxrakawartt td*unrus (222) he axretkaxka he axrarax- 
katdkaksa kiwi-ku a taraha d pa-kis tdwd (223) rawddxwu hk 

he took the sticks off (q.), then he took the sticks home to the 
game grounds (e.) (204) then said (e.) Leading-Man, ''Oh, 
they are fine sticks." (205) The one that is his stick (e.) bison 
that is the stick he gave him (e.) (206) and the other stick (lying), 
the stick that is the finest boy that's the stick he had. (207) Then 
said (e.) the boy, "This is the way we (dual incL) are valuing it 
game wheel bead count." Then directly they began to spear. 
(208) And as they were spearing it wasn't long (q.) and he 
took his belongings from the bundle (e.) and it includes those 
that are his. (209) It wasn't long when aU he won from him (e.) 
and only he was left the old man Leading-Man. (210) Then 
he said (e.), *'Now, grandson, let that be all." (211) Then 
said (e.) the boy, (212) ''Grandfather, only you weren't ex- 
pecting to lose them, were you?! people." (213) Thereupon 
be arose (e.) then they ran. (214) They had the sticks (e.) 
(I suddenly his leg was cut (e.) Leading-Man. (215) Then 
he sat down (e.) then he sat down in a hollow (e.). (216) Then 
said (e.) the boy, (217) "Now get up! you're the winner (q.)-" 
Then said (e.) Leading-Man, "All right." Then he hastened 
to get up (e.) thereupon they began to spear and he was the 
only one left the old man. (218) That way they turned facing 
(e.) they ran (e.). (219) That's the final trial (the real way), 
when they released the sticks. (220) Just when when they two 
released the sticks (q.) then said (e.) the boy, "Grandfather, 
nowlhave'won'you." (221) Asthestick flew, just as hespearedit 
the game wheel, (222) then the dust arose (e.) then they 
grunted (e.) bison and female buffalo and young bison 
the three. (223) There they went (q.) then they aU shouted (e.). 

172 Publications, American Ethnological Socieiy Vol, XV II 

axrarawahaxta (224) kurahus iriwHirawirat (225) he tirwtasuhat 
heru ri-ra-rat he'taku kitu sirirake (226) kurahus ratkat rusiwitiri'' 
kutpihdxkavts (227) i-rawi-ha-rwi^ heri siaxnxkuwuttt rawesirerake 
(228) a pi-raski ira-ku ru wera-rat (229) ru ira-ri werk-xpaksta- 
watsitiksa' (230) werexwaki tire-kistuts (231) werhxpakskus 
triaxrakistu'St^ hkru axre^watat heru axriwa'ku sikspd4a wekvih-sitka 
(232) heru qxre-wa^ta heru axrvtsPu tri-axrutu^a ird-ri (233) rawt- 
ti'wd'kd'hu wekvtixr&'titka (234) heru axriwa*ku rara^riktisu irv- 
rqku4a he tutire'ha-rqhu'u (235) heru rusixriwa iriqxra'kd'wi 
(236) Tututsira^ru. 

(224) Old man he won him (225) and these on this side then 
they went over here all they were killed in combat. (226) The 
old man next they killed him and left him lying on the game 
ground (227) that game ground that's where they killed him 
(e.) they have killed them in combat. (228) And the boy that 
one (sitting) there he went, (229) Then his brother's he 
brought the skull outside. (230) They said, (e.) ''Here Ue the 
bones." (231) He put the head down where the bones lay then 
he covered him (e.) then he said (e.), ''Get up, you've been 
asleep." (232) Then he got up (e.) then when he was like (e.) 
the way he is formed (e.) his brother, (233) he was saying, 
"Oh, I must have slept." (234) Then said (ev.) the one that 
is the oldest, "Whenever one goes then one must be prepared." 
(235) Then they went where they lived (e.). (236) That's all. 


(Free translation.) 
There lived a man and his wife. In the course of time they had 
two children, both boys. As the boys grew older they would wander 
off without apparent reason. In their wanderings they were 
blessed by a power unkown to them and as a result of this blessing 
their heads were half-shaved. Consequently they were named Half- 
Heads. The younger of the two planned to wander off without 
teUing anyone. He wandered off far from his people coming at 
last to a place where there were trees growing along a stream. Then 
he went down to the bank and found a road which he surmised 
lead to a camp, as this is the sort of place that was usually selected 
for a camp site, the south side of the stream being preferred for the 
camp grounds. He waited until it was night and then he went 
through the village. South of the camp there were some willows 
and walking through these willows, he came upon a tent; there he 
stopped just outside. The people who lived in this tent were poor. 
The old woman said to the youngest child, "I think there's someone 
outside. Look and see." "Yes, there's someone right here." Then 
the old woman said, "Sir, we are so poor! The camp is over that 

Weltfish, Gaddoan Texts 173 

Vay. You sKoulri go over there." The boy answered, **Grandma, 
I came to visit you here." **WeU, then come in", said the old 
woman. The boy came in and sat down and the old woman told 
him of a wicked man who lived not very far off whose attendant 
came often to theix tent to molest them. It was not very long 
before the wicked servant arrived. He said, *'You are going to play 
the spear game with your grandfather." The boy answered, *'I 
don't play the spear game." The attendant went back to his 
master, Leading-Man, and told him that the boy was not willing 
to play. He then ordered the attendant to ask the boy again and 
this time, while the boy repeated that he did not ordinarily play, 
he consented to play with Leading-Man the next day. When the 
attendant returned with the boys' answer, his master was annoyed 
at the delay for he was impatient to play. He ordered the attendant 
to hurry with the preparations so that they might play early the next 
day. Next morning the attendant came repeatedly to the tent to urge 
the boy to hurry and get ready. It was still very early when he took 
his spears and went down to the game grounds. There stood the 
man with whom he was going to play. The people of each side were 
lined up, those of Leading-Man on the north, and those of Half- 
Head on the south. Wicked old Leading-Man had ruled that the 
winner was to kill all the loser's people. Then Half-Head lost aU 
his people. He said, ''Well grandpa, now you have won aU my 
people from me." All he had left to bet then was himself. ''Since 
I have defeated you, you should put yourself up as the stake in the 
next game," said Leading-Man. The boy demurred that that was 
not the usual custom, but the old man taunted him saying, "You 
didn't expect that we would wager only your people!" Finally 
they began to spear again and the boy lost so that his fife was 
forfeit. The people of Leading-Man's side had already killed aU 
his people, and then they killed the boy himself. Leading-Man 
approached the body and cut the head off at the neck. Then he 
carried it home and hung it on the waU of his house. There were a 
number of human heads hanging there, from previous exploits of 
Leading-Man as he made it a practise to kill people and hang their 
heads on his wall in this way. 

Meanwhile at home his older brother began to get worried about 
the boy's long absence, and he began to search everywhere for him. 
He thought, "My brother would invite trouble going off to that 
place unprepared!" This boy, who was possessed of supernatural 
power, decided to set out in search of his brother. He found his 
footprints and followed his tracks which led directly to the poor 
old woman's tent at which his younger brother had stopped. He 
too stopped outside the tent, and the old woman sensing that 
someone was outside sent the youngest child to see who was there. 
The child reported that there was a boy outside who looked just 
like the boy who had come on the previous occasion. "Grandma, 

174 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. X VII 

he must have arisen from the dead/' he said. The old woman then 
spoke to the boy and said, ''My boy, the main camp is over that 
way, we in this house are very poor." Then the boy repUed, 'This 
is the house I have come to visit, grandma." "Well, then come in," 
said the old woman. Then he went in and sat down. The old 
woman said, "Son, over there is a camp, and in that camp lives 
an evil fellow. Before long his attendant will come here. You see 
how poor we are and yet he keeps coming here regularly." Soon 
the attendant came as expected and he said, "So you have really 
come!" and the boy answered, "Yes." The attendant then went 
back to Leading-Man and reported to him that he had seen the boy. 
"It looks as if they might be brothers; those two heads would make 
an interesting pair." Then Leading-Man ordered him to prepare 
a feast and to invite the boy to eat with him. The attendant called 
for him and Half-Head consented to go. Meanwhile he had been 
forewarned by the old woman. "Don't eat what he offers you," 
she had said, "if he offers you mush it will be human brains, if he 
offers you pumpkins, they will be human ears, and if he offers you 
hominy, it will be human teeth." When he arrived at the old man's 
house he received him effusively, "Greetings, grandson, come in 
and sit down right here!" Then Leading-Man's wife set the feast 
before them, and Half-Head said, "I'm not hungry right now, I'll 
eat later on, take the food to the old woman's house over there." 
Then the attendant took the food to the old woman, who immedi- 
ately threw it away. Then Leading-Man began to urge the boy to 
spear with him and at the boy's refusal warned him not to incur 
his anger. Finally the boy consented to play the next day, arguing 
that was he too tired to play at once. The old man taunted him 
with his discourtesy in keeping him waiting, but the boy held 
firmly to his decision to put off the game until the next morning. 

When the boy got back to the poor old woman's house in the 
timber, he said to the old woman, "Grandmother, I'd like to be 
alone here early tomorrow morning." The old woman left the 
house as he had requested. Unlike his younger brother, this boy 
was prepared to protect himself supernaturally against the danger 
of putting his Ufe at stake in the betting when he played with the 
old man. He had brought with him his sacred bundle with a pipe 
that lay upon it.^ Then the boy told the old woman to prepare the 
room so that he might make his ceremonial preparations, and to 
leave early in the morning so that he could be alone. Then he asked 
her, "Grandma, have any buffalo been killed in this neighborhood 
lately?" "Yes, there has been a kiUing, out there among the sand 
hills you'll find the bones scattered about." Early the next morning 

1 The following excerpt was given in error after the exploit of the first bov 
and was subsequently corrected by the informant. I therefore include 
it here as another version of the same incident with which the story con- 
tinues below. 

Wclifi^h, Caddoan Texts 175 

the old woman and her family left the house. Half-Head was alone 
there in the room that had been prepared for his ceremonial per- 
formance. He took the pipe from the sacred bundle that had been 
hanging on the wall. Then he filled the pipe and took it to the 
place where the buffalo bones were scattered about.^ Then he took 
the pipe from the bundle and fiUed it and asked the old woman if 
there was any place in the neighborhood where there were remains 
of a buffalo kiU. The old woman answered that there was such a 
place nearby. The boy went right to the place and stopped at the 
margin of the scattering of bones that lay on the ground. As he 
stood there, he pointed his pipe stem toward the bones that were 
scattered there so that they might smoke. As he held the pipe he 

**My fathers, I come to beg your compassion, 

And I offer you this, my pipe, that you may smoke." 
Again he sang: 

''Since I have become so lonely, 

I want to offer you my pipe to smoke." 

No sooner had he uttered these words than the bones were trans- 
formed into buffalo, who began at once to grunt, getting up from 
where they lay and raising a cloud of dust. Then they began to line 
up and there were bison, buffalo cows, and calves. Then the leader 
of the herd, who was a large bison, said, "Son, we extend to you 
our greetings. Tell us for what purpose you have offered us your 
pipe to smoke," Then the boy answered, ''I offered you my pipe so 
that you might take pity upon me and help me, for I am in serious 
trouble. My brother was killed at this camp." The buffalo leader 
told him that they knew that the man was a murderer. Then the 
bison said he would help him and asked for volunteers from the 
rest of the herd to join him in aiding the boy. First a fine young 
bison stepped forward to signify his wiUingness to help; then a 
young female buffalo, each signifying the wish to be of service. 
Then the young bison rolled himself about on the ground raising 
a cloud of dust, and as he arose there lay a stick. This stick was a 
game spear. Then the mature bison roUed himself about in the 
same manner and there was another game spear. Both the older 
the younger bison were anxious to have the boy use their spears. 
They were such handsome spears! Next the female buffalo rolled 
herself upon the ground and when she got up, there was a game 
wheel. This hoop had a bead on it which was green and shiny. The 
young bison again urged the boy to use his stick. Then the female 
buffalo said, ''When the spear touches this bead as it passes through 
the game wheel, that is to be the highest point in the scoring." 
When this score was made in the game they used to say, ''kawqriks''. 
Again the female buffalo spoke and told him that if the spear should 

^ End of first version of this incident. 

176 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

again touch the bead, the highest score would again be made. They 
aU knew that those game spears were to be the cause of the evil 
man's destruction. *The evil man is to use my stick," said the 
largest bison, *'and then when he has lost the game, he wiU see 
all of us in this herd." Then the young bison instructed him to 
take the sticks and hang them on the west waU of his lodge. He 
also advised him to play the game in the following way : when he 
was playing with the wicked fellow, and when he had won all of 
Half-Head's people, the boy was to break Leading-Man's spear by 
placing his across it. When this happened, the boy was to say, 
"Now grandfather, I am lucky." 

To this the old man replied, *'You can't leave off playing like 
this. Since you have lost your people you ought to play for your 
own Ufe. "All right, then, let's play again, grandpa," said the boy. 
Since the boy had destroyed the old man's game spears as he was 
instructed to do by the buffalo calf, all the people were looking 
everywhere for new spears, but they could find none. As the old 
man was very anxious to play he asked the boy if he had some sticks. 
the boy replied that he was not in the habit of gambUng. The old 
man taunted him with the fact that he was backing out of the game 
that he had started, and so finally the boy told Leading-Man to 
send his attendant to the house where he was staying and that there 
he would find his sticks up against the wall. As soon as the 
attendant reached the threshold of the house, the sticks began 
to grunt, and a cloud of dust fiUed the room. Then the attendant 
became so frightened that he ran back to the game grounds. He 
told Leading-Man that there were no sticks there, but Leading-Man 
became very angry and sent him back to fetch the sticks. Again 
as he approached the house the same noise and confusion occurred 
and again he ran back in fear. This time he expressed the opinion 
that the boy w^as going too far in his deception and that there really 
were no sticks. Then Leading-Man got very angry, and this time 
the boy told the attendant directly that he would find the sticks 
at the rear of the lodge and that he should go and get them. This 
time he got the sticks without mishap as no noise occurred when 
he approached the lodge. When Leading-Man saw the sticks he 
admired them very much. The boy gave him the bison's stick and 
the finest stick he kept for himself. The boy stipulated that the 
green bead would mark the high score. Then they began to play 
and in a short time the boy won everything the old man possessed 
and also all his people, and all that was left to he old man was his 
own life. At this point the old man tried to withdraw from the 
game, but the boy turned back upon him the phrase that he had 
used against his unfortunate brother when he had lost, "Grand- 
father, you didn't expect to merely lose your people, and yourself 
to be free ?" Then they resumed the play and as they ran with the 
spears, suddenly Leading-Man found that his leg had been severed. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 177 

He sat down in a depression in the ground, but the boy commanded 
him to get up, taunting him with the fact that he had been the 
winner before, and that now he ought to show what he could do. 
Leading-Man got up and they resumed the game. This was the 
last round as the old man had only his life left to wager. As the 
spears sped on their way, the boy said, '* Grandfather, now you 
have lost your Hfe." Just as the spear point touched the game 
wheel, there was a cloud of dust and the sound of grunting, and 
there appeared, the bison, the female buffalo, and the young bison, 
— just those three. There was a great shouting and there followed 
a combat in which aU the people of the wicked man's side were 
killed. Then they killed the old man and left his body lying on the 
game ground . 

Then the boy went to Leading-Man's house and got bis brother's 
skull. Under the direction of his buffalo helpers he found the bones 
and put the head in place. Then he covered the skeleton and said, 
*'Get up, you've been asleep." Resuming his natural form, the boy 
came to life again and sat up saying, ''Oh, I must have slept." 
Then the older brother admonished him saying, ' 'Do you see what 
happens when you wander off without being properly prepared ? 
Never let it happen again!" Finally the boys went home. That 
ends the story. 


(1) wituksituraxku hern vtaku he riqxra'kqriku (2) tsi triti^ 
paksitsa^kdrad'fu (3) irakariku rartksisu karawituxre (4) ire^tik- 
raxku he ritdwxUska karargkurd'he-ra h&itaru-vt (5) he rahvri 
axrgwttska resa-Hi witvku (6) turaxkttw witiUtqwi^ (7) he axra-- 
Tuxkii tswraki wituxre (8) heru axriwitska paksttsakdrad-fu rikuts- 
ihu*ratsiksta tsuraki ira-ku (9) hem axrypaksirimra'ojt iri- 
ira-kd^wi re-sa-m (10) he gxrapaksu-kat (11) hern axriwa-ku 
rusuksta-kawatsiti'ku (12) tswraki triru* witikd*ku (13) iriru 

(1) There were dwellings (camps sitting) (q.) and over there 
then there he lived. (2) But it is RoUing-skull (3) he that 
hves there really no good (q.). (4) That camp what he would 
want (e.) to be no good and it would be that way. (5) And 
finally he wanted (e.) chief there is (q.) (6) the whole camp 
he is the leader (q.) (7) and he had (e.) girl she was good (q.). 
{8) Then he thought (e.) Rolling-skull, "Let her take care of me 
girl that one." (9) Then the skull rolled where there he 
lived chief (10) and the skull went in. (11) Then he said (e.), 
''You all go outside!" (12) Girl thereupon she stayed inside (q.). 
(13) Thereupon he said (q.), "She is now going to take care 

178 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

witiwd'ku wktikutqtsilcstqwista (14) heru axriwa'hu d-hu wetaxra-- 
kqwa'tsitiku'Sta (15) he vra'ku paksitsakdraa-fu kqrawituxre 
weraxkuvAtska* tsaxriks rqkuriwarika (16) hern taru-tsia werax- 
kuwitska^ rqkuriwqriku werqxkutsqrisa^ra (17) he wetaraspd-tastt 
iweraspd'tasit he riwekutaruxntparu-vt raxkurdparaxkawdtaku tri- 
kuara-rwrtt tsaxriks rqkuriwarika (18) he kitu* ruaxrira-rdwatsitd 
hqwd ire'tura-ru'ta he kitu* qxraktakura-raspatdsiru'ttt (19) iweruts- 
irasku tswraki tskdra iweru4siraskd'ku (20) he ra*ru tarii'tsia 
raktitiri kura-ru rqxkutqrqri-rq^u a- raxkukqtsqt tsii-raki a raxkuwa-- 
kai'ksiri sikstdpaxpirq^ (21) a irqpdkstqwi he rikuqxrwtu'vt rix- 
wqke*hu tdat he textd'nt pdksiri heru taxwd-ku tswraki rdxkuxrexku 
tswraki sukstqrwwa-xri he kqreruxriwa (22) he vaxrara^ke-a 
axri'tsirasku tixrquxkd'pd'ktstt he rdhiri axrqwdska paksitsakdrad-fu 
kirdku itqat kirqwekdra-si tswraki rqkukukstqkut (23) heru axriwa-- 
ku paksdsakdrqd'fn takuru ta-tuxta (24) tsi-ru kwtdtdska kurqta- 
kuxrd* dkqwaxtsisu kisatski (25) heru axriat triwcaxrate-huru 
iri*rdkawi axrqwdska kusikukstqkut tswraki he rahvri rwaxriat 
rqkuwtu (26) heru axrira^ruqt iriaxrwtariusuku weraxpaksiriwcrd-- 
ata kuwituocrdpa-rwvt (27) tdrgha werdxkwtd iriwekakatird'vta 
(28) ndwa kisatski were-ruxrqrd tswraki kisa-tski iwerewitsat irira" 

of me." (14) Then said (e.) chief, **Yes we are going to go 
outside." (15) Then that Rolling-skull he is no good (q.) 
when he wants (e.) a person to kill him (16) then thus he 
would do when he wanted (e.) to kill him when he would get 
angry (e.) (17) and when he would start moving as he was 
moving then the coals would be this big the coals flying out (e.) 
they are for him (that's what he uses) person to overcome. 
(18) And all they went outside also the camp and all 
those with packs and belongings moved on (e.) (19) he now 
keeping her girl alone he was keeping her inside (20) and 
just he would do thus with a burning stick just he would 
burn her (e.) and he would pierce her (e.) girl and when he 
would say (e.), *'With the hand pull the coals this way." (21) 
And his head then they looked Hke (e.) what they call ticks 
and they would be on on the skull. Then he would say (e.) 
girl meaning (e.), ''Girl take them off! — they are no good." 
(22) And that was a long time (e.) he kept her (e.) he was mean 
to her and finally he thought (e.) Rolling-skull, ''I believe I'U 
go somewhere I am going to see if she will girl to run off." (23) 
Then said (e.) Rolling-skull, *'Over here I am going to go. 

(24) Meanwhile I want to bring you something food meat." 

(25) Then he went (e.), there he lingered about (e.) where the 
dwelling is he thought (e.) she might run away girl and finally 
he went way off (26) then they were lined up (e.) the way he 
usually does when the head would roll the coals were this big. 
(27) Buffalo he killed it. That I don't know. (28) Now meat 

Wdifl^K daAdoan Texts 179 

ka*wi he him tsi-ru axrikd-ku tswrdki he axrqrariwitsat Msatski heru 
axriwa-ku wetqtixwitsa' (29) heru axriwdska weka'kas rakukukstqkut 
tsii'Taki (30) hawa tdrake*a hqwd ru-ta paksiriwira'at iri* am— 
tqruksqwatsku raxruraxki he tarutku-ttt (31) gsewaxtsdkqwaxtsu 
tsUb'Toki ate*ruxrdra^ raxruraxki (32) he isiaxrakd-ku he dxrarqtsa 
tsuuxrerepvru iriwitiwa-ku kurahusa^u iwe*axra'Wg!tsitit nqwa tsii'at 
nawa tirwta rututse*sta tird^rihu" tirdtqwe siraku*tqtsiks~ ka^pa^kis 
(33) tuxra*rq^a tiwerasku (34) hewere^tqtsikstqra^ kuxra-kuhurahats 
heetu kdruxre tvrvtsirasku ke4si kurahusa^u ruiriwetiwa'wa'ku 
kurqhusa^u tirara-vtustu^si heetu turaxkdu he siririru (35) ke-tsi 
kurqhusa^u iriwetiwdkurq^a tiweturaiwatistqnt heru axriwa-ku ku- 
rcJiusa^u ki'tu (36) kHu turaxkitu heriaxrakitawi irirdxkuwa-ka 
heritdru*vt iriweti paksitsakdrad*fu istu hqwa- wdtipa^re-sat (37) he 
iraka-ku tsu-raki he rawitqkardisu he axrqwa-ku i'rardtsqwi tsuuxre— 
re-pvru irikuruxrutsira*a irardtsqm (38) he kuxre-rurukstd-rihu^u 
kuxrukstawd-ruksti a*ki kitu kutird-ka-wa rdkirt-ku (39) raraxkitu 
pq'huks re'ksu pahuksdra-su pqhukska-ta (40) heru axrtwa^ku 
tsu'ot iriwetaskd'pd'kis tvrwtsirasku tira*ke'a kardra'istqrit (41) 

he brought them for her girl meat he arrived where he lives 
and there still she was inside (e.) girl and he arrived there 
with them (e.) meat then he said, (e.) "Now I have arrived." 
(29) Then he thought (e.) '*She will not now to run away 
girl." (30) Again it would be a long time again he would do 
the skull rolled where then any kind of (sitting) animal and 
he would kill it for her (e.) (31) so that she coiild eat girl he 
would bring them to her animals (32) and then they were 
inside there (e.) and there were hanging (e.) secret bundles 
that's what he said (q.) her father as he went outside (e.), '*Now 
daughter, now this thing it is going to be that way it is a 
big thing this hanging for them to bless you. (33) It is because 
of it you are staying here. (34) I am doubting (carrying my 
thoughts) probably you may die," because it is no good this 
that is keeping her but her father he said the words her father 
these words because the whole camp — they are afraid of him 
(35) but her father these are his words this story I am going 
to relate then said (e.) her father all (36) because of the 
whole camp he was leader (e.). Whatever he would say 
it would be that way that's what it is RoUing-skuU again also 
he went hunting (37) and that (inside-sitting) girl then 
suddenly then said (e.) those hanging secret bundles whoever 
did that those hanging (38) then they held it a great thing 
it was wonderful way and here all they were inside planting- 
seeds (39) aU varieties pumpkin corn watermelon small 
pumpkin (brownish striped). (40) Then he said (e.), ''Daughter 
you are very miserable this one keeping you it is a long time 
when he wiU not come. (41) Now, daughter, we here (sitting) 

180 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

ndwa ts'A'ot tirazrdktwtsi he iraratsawi he axrakatqsa ttxwakia'hu 
rdka-ksu he hawd axrakipistaxka'tasa riwahdrikHd-ku tict kipcsu 

(42) hem axririwaki ndwa Uii*at kaskuraktu-tsit he tskuraktdra^ 

(43) heru aocnriwaki sutsikskiraxkdre*pu tskdrutski heru isikusvt 
d'fkiri tikurite-wa-hat (44) heru tsikustt rixwake*hu kiskats (45) 
heru axriri'waki rwvta'ku tvku taspitsuxta kirakusutsetsikskd*- 
pa-kis (46) hawa rwrihvra hqwa iritvku kakuxre tsaxriks triwiti- 
kaum-tiku tqku kgrawtturiru isira^ku pitku he iri-taxku aru* trikutax- 
kistatse-hat tdraha a irirurqkuksdwa-xtsu raxkukawwtiku (47) ketsi- 
tsU-raki tirdra*ku triwe'site-ruxrarikawda'hu nxwitska^ kirdtqku 
kiraka'sitse-tstkskd'pd'kis ^ (48) heru rihvra hawd riaxra-ku tqku 
kqrarqkuriru hqwa- ru-rihi-ra hqwd riaxrqwihat hawd tqku sikqrq- 
rtxku*riru (49) tri i'we-rrtqtstkska'pd'kcsu rurttuxra^a kitu iwererux- 
rqrikdwqa kiratvrdunhat kskftiks witvriruxtsi rixkutsdrvsu kird- 
tuke-ritatsikska'pa-kisuksta (50) taku** sikqrawitvriru tsu'raki heru 
qxriru*tsit heru qxri-ratse-rvwis (51) heru axriri-waki tftaku ru*- 
rita-suxta (52) heru aocriat tsu-raki iwe-ra-ta heaxrtxwqki weru*- 
turdwitsa he ka'Sttqkd*rqhat d'tkirit (53) he ke-tsi qxrukspa-re'Sat 
(54) heru axrqwitsat irvmrakariku heru hiru karqaofrrka-ku tsU-raki 

and those hanging — there was on the side they called it 
flat-stick and also there were sticks on the side plum sticks 
they are smooth-sticks. (42) Then they said *'Now daughter, 
you must pick us up and you must carry us." (43) Then they 
said, "You tie the water up in the pouch then you must take 
burrs those that are so large : (with a core of half inch diameter), 

(44) then you must take what they call piece of shell." (45) 
Then they said (e.), **Over there it sits you are going to 
arrive, see if he won't bless you. (46) Also further also there 
sits no good person that's the one that kills them (q.) someone 
he is not afraid of (q.) those two two and there it would sit 
then the bones would be scattered so far out buffalo and all 
kinds that he had killed." (e). (47) Then girl this story they 
are telling her these things they wanted see if one of them if 
it could help her (48) then further again where he sat anyone 
he is not afraid of also further also there they lived (e.) also 
anyone they are not afraid of (49) the one that helped her he 
did it all that told her this see if these four they were 
mighty (q.) they are very mean see which one is going to help 
her. (50) Anyone they are not afraid of (q.). Girl then she 
picked them up (e.) then she put them across (her back) (51) then 
they said (e.), "Right here you are going to go." (52) Then 
she went (e.) girl when she had gone then they said (e.), "When 
it is catching up with you then you must drop it burr." 
(53) And then he had gone hunting (e.). (54) Then he got back 
the one she hved with then there she was not home (e.) girl 
and he got angry (e.) he went about outside the dwelling and 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 181 

h.P oxTQ'fsqrisa axrextatqwqri he axre-tsarisd'Ti axrct§ufasp€ tsii'raki 
(55) hern axriwa-ku ndwa tsU-at ndwa ive-tdhurahats ruxrarexku 
iwerahuJcstqkut iwerirasuxruras he irirurvpaksariwira-at (56) hiru 
axrwrat tsn-raki he iriweaxra'tdka-rahat d*tktri he tira-ta he weaxre*- 
tsdnsa-ri (57 ) rihuksu wdiwitsat vrvaxra-ku d'iktri he hiru herw 
kdraaxrvrakii*ta (58) hem axrird-rvsqat a4kint akuwitaxkttdiwat 
iriwe*a7rapakskda'xra kqrgxixri'U rakuke-tspa-tqia (59) he ke*tsi 
vra'ta tsu-raki iweru-qxritqwira'at witiu-ke-haxku (60) heru axraxhi 
wituriruxtsi (61) rttqxraxkistdtse.wa-hat Lrikuxrqkawii'Uku raxku*ks~ 
qwaxtsitsdri'su wetdxkwttt (62) he i*rd'ta tswraki rwcriwetutkuksat 

(63) i*rd*a tswraki i-ra-ku he 
%'rajcb' tswraki tsu-raki 
heru axriwaku 

ndwa tikis nqwa tsdxriks 
ru'we-re^ra wetara-wixkita 

(64) ira'ku heru axrvwa*ku 

ndwa tsu'dt kutaspd'kd-hu 

(65) heru axriwa-ku tswraki 

ndwa taktis tsd-xriks 
tik&xrira*ra ruwere-rqwixklta 

he was getting angrier and angrier (e.) looking for her track girl. 
(55) Then he said (e.), **Now daughter, now you have died." 
meaning since she had fled. He found her track and the skull 
proceeded to roll along. (56) There went (e.) the girl and 
she had dropped it (e.) burr and this one going then he 
got angrier and angrier (e.) (57) just as he got there (q.) where 
it was (e.) burr and there then he could not go (e.) 

(58) Then there were a lot burrs the thorns would be long (q.) 
there the skull wandered about (e.) he could not (e.), to get out, 

(59) And then that (going) girl just as she was going down (e.) 
there was a valley (q.) (60) and there sat (e.) he was mighty (q.). 
(61) The bones were scattered so far (e.) those he had killed even 
the very meanest (e.) he would kill (e.). (62) And that (going) 
girl she is fleeing to it. (She sings the following song:) 

(63) "That coming girl that one sitting and 
that coming girl girl." 
then she said (e.), 

"Oh dear man, now a person 

there he is coming, now he is coming on the warpath on top. ' ' 

(64) That one (sitting) then he said (e.): 

"Oh, daughter, you seem to be saying something." 

(65) Then said (e.) the girl: 

"Oh dear man, a person 

he is chasing me he is coming on the warpath on top." 

182 PviUcations, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

(66) he i-ra'ku hiru axriwa*ku tsU^at tqku kakaturiru ndtva ki*spa*ku 
tak^-ru trvkuxruxira'ra tgke*ru (67) hem aocriwa'ku tipaksitsa- 
kdraa-t^u (68) heru axriwa*ku vra^ku ahahd" tswat tira'd irirute*rihvt 
raturiru (69) he vra*ku heriweaxru kiwi-ku paktsukutsu (70) heru 
axriwa-ku kiwvku nd/wa tsU'at nawa tgkuru suksat hd-wa tqku tvku 
hd'Wa trikutgtu4u tiratawe kusutsetsikska-jxi-kts (71) heriru ax- 
riuxkitgwa-tat tsu-raki ndwa iwere'at wekuxrvvt a* takgrdtsu igxruks- 
pakskda-xra trvkumxre'pakske'tspd'ta heri kuruxripakskgsispa 
(72) Mriru axriat iri- irgkuhaxkgku kiwvku (73) tsiru he-tgku vAta^ 
he weaxre-tsqrlsx'ri paksitsakqrda^fu he axrqwa-ku tsustawgskgttcs 
heru axriwa'ku ti-tgku ku-kgrare-d'hu tsu-raki (74) heru axriwa-ku 
tvtgku ru'tiat heriru axripakstriwird'at (75) he vra*ta tswraki 
tikuksirasat he tsu-raki iwerixrira-rgta he axrgkirgtsgkd-rghat (76) 
he rixpakstdhu'hdtviat ke-tu witgrura-kita kurgkutgkd*rghat ke-tu he 
irituxrg^a weraxkuu-tu rgkukuksatg (77) he hiru axri- tdwgxtsa-ku 
(78) he vra-ta tsU'raki he axrgre-wa-ta he hiru axrdxku tgwdxtsa^kat 
ku'ruksttsgriskutsu (79) he vra*ta tsu-raki he vaxrd-a tsu-raki he 
axrgra'ru-ku (80) heru axriwa-ku kuruks tsu*at kwtaspd-kd-hu 
(81) heru axriwa-ku tsu'Ot tgku ka*katuriru tirutsta'kgkusdwa-hat 

(66) Then that one then said (e.), "Daughter, anyone I am 
not afraid of. Now say! who is it that is chasing you, who 
is it ?" (67) Then she said (e.) "It is RoUing-skull.'* (68) Then 
said (e.) that one sitting, "So, daughter this one coming, 
he is the only one that I fear." (69) And that one sitting this 
he was (e.) bison a big bison-calf (70) Then said (e.) the 
bison, "Now, daughter now this way you go! also someone 
there is (sits) also he is like me it is possible that he can help 
you." (71) Thereupon she passed on (over the top) (e.) girl. 
Now she went there it is far and suddenly where the skull 
was among (e.) when it finally had come out from among th^m 
then the head ran. (72) Thereupon he went (e.) where that 
one in the valley sitting bison. (73) Yet over here he is 
coming (q.) and he was very angry (e.) RoUing-skuU and he 
said (e.), "White-flat-nose-bison!" then he said (e.), "Right 
here is there any one that came girl ?" (74) Then he said (e.), 
"Right here there she went." Thereupon the head rolled on. 
(75) And that going girl she was fleeing ahead. And girl 
that thing chasing her then she dropped the water. (76) And 
it would float off because the reason is (q.) for her to drop 
something because then that is why for the distance to be far (e. ) 
for her to flee. (77) And there there is (e.) grove of cedar trees. 
(78) And that (going) girl then she looked about and 
there sat (e.) among the cedars Bear-big-fighter. (79) And 
that (going) girl and that one coming (e.) girl then she, 
was singing (e.): (Song as above (80) Then said (e.) Bear, 
"Daughter you were saying something." (81) Then he said (e.) 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 183 

(82) hem axrvwa'ku tsU-raki ndwa taktis tikuxrita'ra paksttsakqrad'- 
fu (83) heru axriwa^kn i-ra^ku ku*ruks a*hghd tsil*at tira*a triru-te'- 
ri'hvt raturiru tqku kakaturiru (84) he riaxra'kii hu" axrakiste-im^hat 
heru axriwa-ku tsu*at ti-tqku rwsuksat hq/wa tt'ku irikutqtu-tu kcrd 
irihe* kv^utsetsikskd'pd'kts (85) nqwa tsU'raki ndwa heriru* ta-raJb 
tsu'raki (86) nqwa he ke*t8i ru-* iri-kuruxripdkskqtqhat tstu riku- 
ruxriat iri i-ra^fa tsii*raki he wetqntsqnsd'ri ru-axrqat ru" tswraki 
iri-axra'ta dxrirastat (87) he hiru axraxku M riaxra*at tird'ta 
paksdsakdrail'fu tsiru kuwitvvt he weaxre-tsqrisa'ri paksttsakdraa^Pu 
heru axriwa'ku hqwd askurd'U axruxru'wexku (88) witiwa'ku 
dstqtsqwqskqtns ti-tqku kqrqr&a* tsu'raki (89) heru axriwa-ku kuruks 
ru-rdqku tiat tsu-raki (90) paksitsakdrah-tu nqwa he hqwd trirw- 
axripdkskqstspa (91) he-tsi we-kuxri-vt tsu-raki axrd-ta irdwera-ta 
(92) he axrqre*wa'ta ts'A-raki i'stu he we hiru axrexkita wewiteruturd- 
witsdista (93) he axrqkiptstii*wa heru axrikq'ptt he axrqtsdka-rqhat 
wttikipiskqptt (94) tsuvxr&re-pvru stwitikiptstu-wa he hiru- axrq- 
riwahdrikta-kuat (95) rqkurariruxtsiu a kutaxra-kddiwat rakutskii^ki 
iri/f-ruxri-ra^a i-re-ruxrira-ra paksitsakdraa-fu (96) he ritikdtqu-kvt 

"Daughter anyone I do not fear including everyone in the 
world." (82) Then said (e.) girl, "Now, Sir, it is chasing me 
RolUng-skull." (83) Then said (e.) that bear, "Oh daughter, 
this one coming he is the only one that I fear anyone I do 
not fear." (84) And right where he was sitting (e.) oh the bones 
were scattered about (e.). Then hesaid(e.) "Daughter right there 
go also there is one (sitting) he is like me see if that one 
he will help you." (85) Now girl now thereupon she would 
go on (e.) girl. (86) Now so then there when the head 
got out again it went on where that going girl and he 
would be angry (e.) he went on (e.) there girl where she was 
going (e.) he was following her track (e.). (87) And there 
it sat (e.) and he went there (e.) this going RoUing-skull. 
Still it was far (q.) and he was getting angry (e.) Rolling- 
skull. Then he said (e.) again same way he calling it names, 
(88) he said (q.), "Flat-chapped-feet right here did someone 
come girl?" (89) Then said (e.) bear, "Over there she 
went girl." (90) Rolling-skull now then again the skull ran 
on (e.). (91) But it was far girl the one going (e.) the one 
following behind (92) and she looked around (e.) girl fagain 
and now there it came on top (e.). It was about to catch up 
with her (q.) (93) and she took the smooth-stick out (e.) then 
she broke it (e.) and she dropped them (pieces) (e.) she broke 
the stick (q.) (94) sacred bundle she took the two off (q.) and 
there there was a row of plum bushes (e.) (95) it was a very thick 
one and the Kmbs would be very long (e.) those that are sharp 
it is for the piu'pose of him the one that is chasing her Rolling- 
skull (96) and he would run against it that's why for the 

184 Publications y American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

iridtuzra*a raxkupakskdaxra rakura-ke^ru tsu*raki ruriwetufkuksat 
pakstitkukeats (97) hem axriwa-ku pakstitkuke ats he vra4a tsu*ra]ci 
he axrard-ru'ku hern axriwa'ku pakstitkuk ats tsU'ot kutaspdkA'hu 
(98) hem amwa-ku tsU'raki taktis tikuocrira-ra tsdxriks (99) hem 
axriwa'ku pakstitkukeats tsu^attaku kakaturiru ndwa take-ru (100) 
hem axriwa*ku tsu*raki paksttsakdraa'fu tikuxrira^ra (101) hem 
axriwa-ku pakstitkukeats isu*at tdku kakaturiru (102) tira-a iriru" 
te-rihvt raturiru (103) heru axriwa-ku pakstitkukeats nmva tsu-at 
ndwa ti-tgku rusuksdt titaku tiwihat (104) kirdrihe'e sikusutse*- 
tsikskd'pd'kis (105) he ratkat irvkuruxrexpaksketspd-ta heru 
riruaxriat irvra^ku pakstitkukeats (106) rihuksu witute-rtt he weax- 
rawa-ku ritsta-ke-ts tskdriwiru-tsa'ku ti-tqku kukardrvat tsu-raki 
(107) hem axriwa-ku pakstitkukeats paksitsakarad-fu taku r&'tiat 
tsii-raki (108) heru axriwa-ku paksdsakdraa-fu tsu-raki werd- 
hurghats (109) ndwa irakuksata tswraki he axru-ta axrare-wd-td-ra 
hiru axrexktta wekuxreruxiurdwitsa he tdku axraru-wa kiskats he 
axrataka-rahat (110) heru axri-kari m-wituxriwa (HI) ndwa 
iweraxpaksiriwira^ iri-rdru-tsi weraxwd-ku tirdru-tsi tatpirdxrista 
iri-rakuxre-ra he ixrikskqru'ku nqwa tsuraki vwe-re-at (112) hetsi 

skull to wander among (e.) for it to be a long time. Girl she is 
fleeing there wildcat^ (97) Then said (e.) wildcat and that 
one going girl then she sang: (She sings the above song.) 
Then said (e.) wildcat, "Daughter, you are saying something." 

(98) Then said (e.) girl, *'Dear Sir, he is after me person." 

(99) Then said (e.) wildcat, "Daughter anyone I do not fear, 
now who is it?" (100) Then said (e.) the girl, "RoUing- 
skuU he is chasing me." (101) Then said (e.) wildcat, 
"Daughter, anyone I do not fear, (102) that one coming, 
he is the only one that I fear." (103) Then said (e.) wildcat, 
"Now, daughter now right there go! right there they are 
(sitting). (104) See if those if they (plur.) will help you." (105) 
And next when the skuU came out from among then he 
went on (e.) where he sits wildcat. (106) Just when he saw 
him (q.) then he said (e.) "Long-back puckered-up-face 
this way did anyone go girl ?" (107) Then said (e.) wildcat, 
"RoUing-skuU that way she went girl." (108) Then said (e.) 
RoUing-skull, "Girl you are dead." (109) Now that fleeing 
girl then she did (e.) she looked about (e.) there he came 
on top (e.) it was catching up with her and right here she 
took it out (e.) shell, bone to finish arrows and she dropped it. 
(e.) (110) Then there were many (e.) they were pretty (q.). 

(111) Now as the skull came roUing (e.) where they are (sitting) 
he said (e.), "These here I am going to pick them up the pretty 
ones and I'll make arrows." Now girl there she went 

(112) and then as the skuU went among then the skuU came out 

WeUfiah, Caddoan Texts 185 

iraxpdkskaa he kuxrapakske-tspa^td iwe-ru'tumra'rat (113) werd*- 
ru'tsu rukspiraxra (114:) axrawd*ku tqkutiri*rikstu*ts (115) ru 
vrd*ku tS'A'raki witthakta^rwhat he him pi'vaski asku kuwiti-hwrat 
a asku tsvskkt axrdmrqke'ats (116) tsiru sikqrdwite'tsikskqsq 
(117) aki' tisirqwa*rvki d-ki ruaihute'rihvt sirqkukd^ku (118) he 
tira-ta tsu-raki siaxrute-nt heru axriwttska tsii*raki iriwetixrd'Stt 
tqku axraspihat (119) tisirqwa*riki pvraski a*ki ira-ri kakuvwihat 
a-ki imsikute-rikvt asku karawtte-tsikskasa d asku •tsvskut axra*- 
tsikskqsq d asku tsvskitt axra-tsikskasq (120) ird^ta tsu-raki hi 
axrqrd'TU'ku he i'sirqwa*riki pvraski siwitihuwi-tsaa irvrutqhu 
pirq^u ra*kuraxkusisd'ri (121) he ira-rtki kd'wi-ta pvraski heru 
axriwa-ku hii- dra tird-a tsU-raki (122) vrqwihat piraski he si*- 
kqrdaxre*ruksa'kvta (123) iriwitiit i-rdwihat piraski wituxra^ru 
tqwiksa-pits (124) he pitku rirusiaxrikd*ku trvsikdrqre'tstkskqsq 
(125) he ke-tsi vsira*ku he ke*tsi ira-ri sikuxrvtire-hd'riwqrtt vramhat 
he kahuraxki'tu stkuxre-rukstai'tqwa (126) heru axriwa'ku piraski 
tfki tira^a iriwi'ti* w- rui-tqku axrahuriwd'wi (127) tswraki 
witira*ru'ku he sikuxratku piraski (128) heru axriwa'ku trvaxrd'u 
ka-wtta heru axriwa*ku ti-ki kasiku-tit tqku tixre'ruxrira*ra heru 
siaxrihuwi'tsqwdure^rd heru axriwa-ku triaxra'tsikskqsa ndwa ts'&'at 

from among them there he is chasing her. (113) He put them 
down what he had picked up. (114) He said (e.), '*Right here 
I wiU place them." (115) There that one girl there was a line 
of trees and there boy one was so tall and one a Uttle 
bit taUer (e.) (116) stiU they were not mature. (117) And here 
these two standing and here they were alone they two being 
home. (118) And this one going girl she saw them (e.) then 
she thought (e.) girl they must be the ones here those that 
hve (e.), (119) These two (standing) boys and here brothers 
were not there and here the two were alone one not yet 
mature (q.) and one a little bit he was mature (e.). (120) That 
going girl then she sang (e.): (Same song as above.) and 
those two standing boys they two were walking about on the 
edge (q.) the way of baby when they would be plajdng (121) 
and that (standing) youngest boy. Then he said (e.) '*0h, 
brother here comes girl. (122) These boys then they did 
not know them. (123) They are the ones (q.) those boys they 
number (q.) eight. (124) And two those were at home (e.) 
the ones that are not mature (125) and then those two and 
then brothers they prepared them (as to what to do while the 
older ones were away) those then the whole universe they 
knew all about. (126) Then said (e.) boy, ''Son this one coming 
she is the one oh way over there she that lives (e.). (127) Girl 
she is singing (q.) and they two heard (128) boys. Then said 
(e.) the one that was youngest then he said, 'Tellow, you 
must kiU it someone must be just chasing her." Then they 

186 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

ku4aspd'ka'hu (129) hem axriwa*ku tsu'raki d-hu ruUhuocnra'ra 
paksu (ISO) heru axriwa-ku piraski ndwa siksa tsu-at tvreara'kaka 
(131) heru sire'tirvrihvt ird-ri ka^ki-wihat rutabu tvwu sitixrd-raspe 
axriwa'ku ndioa siksa sukswkat (132) hem axri-wu he hiru axre*ka 
e tsuraki ru^dxrihu'kat (133) ndwa axriwa*ku pvraski tsu*at suks- 
tdtsawu iriwe-dxrait tsuvxr&re-pvm i-mkstdraxra (134) he hd*vxi 
hiru axre'ru'ratsa tsuvxre-re-phm (135) he tsii*raki weaxrariru 
axrawdska isirasku tskdra irihe- siri-rikstiru (136) ruxrd-ru isi^ 
kdrare*tsikskqsa (137) Mm axriwttska tsu*raki tsdsvri tirasirdx- 
kusta-rUa he* re-si^riruxtsi (138) he weaxrariru a-we-tarukskukstd- 
kuksta (139) heru taxwd-kn kd'wi'ta tswat sukspi-ttt (140) ara 
tiku'ttksta (141) piraski ruaocrihu-kat tsuskiit irira-tsikskasa (142) 
heru axrutsia tsuvocre-re-pvru hiriaxrarwwa raka*ksu (143) heru 
axrutsia piraski ird-ri crikuxrixwaki witikuxrutire-spa^wu he weax- 
rqra rdkd-ksu (144) triwdiksasa^a piraskisuwa-ruksti tri piraski 
iriweaxru'vt (145) trikargaxre-tsikskasa axrawd-ku ndwa tsu-at 
sukspi'ttt ira-ri tikii'ttksta ndwa westtatawatsirutiksta wesitatU'tire-spa 
(146) heru sixrewatsiru*td heru sixrikqwdwre-rd (147) wdird'kda 

stood at the edge (e.) then he said (e.) the one that was mature 
(e.), '*Now Miss you were saying something." (129) Then 
she said (e.) girl, *'Yes, it is chasing me skull." (130) Then 
said (e.) boy, *'Now come on Miss, this is our home. 
(131) Then now we two are alone our brothers are not at home 
over there they went they are hunting." He said, "Now 
come on go on in." (132) Then they went (e.) and there 
was the dwelling (e.) and girl she went in. (133) Now he said 
(e.) boy, ''Mxss, hang them up." they were the ones sacred 
bundles that she had brought (134) and also there they 
had them hanging (e.) sacred bundles (135) and girl she was 
frightened (e.) she thought (e.) those two alone those he 
will be afraid of them (136) the reason is they were not mature. 
(137) Then thought (e.) girl even those sitting along the way 
and they are mighty, (138) and she was afraid (e.) and she 
was going to have run away. (139) Then said (e.) the youngest, 
*'Miss, sit down, (140) brother he is going to kill it." (141 ) Boy 
he went inside (e.) a little the one that was mature (142) then 
he did (e.) sacred bundle he took it out (e.) flat stick (ragged 
stick, wide-flat-club). (143) Then he did (e.) boy the brothers 
that's what they said he prepared himself accordingly and bo 
had (e.) flat-stick. (144) Their name was Wonderful-boy^. 
That boy that's the way he is (e.) (145) the one not maturr. 
He said (e.), ''Now, Miss, sit down, brother he is going to 
kiU it. Now we two are going outside we are prepared." (14(0 
Then they went out. Then they stood in (doorway). (147) The 
purpose is (q.) their standing in (doorway) girl so she couM 

WfiUfiAK CaAdoan Teycts 187 

iwesirdkawd-riki tau*raki karaa'sikuksgwa'tsitd (148) U'kaxkat 
re^kakuskajt siwitiwh-rit (149) he rawttakardisu ruaxrexpakscriivira 
axrakdhat he weaxrahakdrihwrd-ri (150) piraski siaxruxruwkxku 
aocrawd'kahu paksitsakdrqd'fu pirgkiitkd*pqa tsU-raki kardrvka-ku 
piraski (151) kusikarawitutsiwakumtsiksUi (152) hern axriwa-ku 
piraski paksitsakdraa-fu tirekd'ku tsu-raki (153) heru axriwa-ku 
paksttsakdrad'fu ruksawgtsitiksa (154) kdre'stiwitsat tritisiraspa-ri 
pirardxwaku-at (155) tsd-st-ri rakurihu*ru he tikutpakwratsiksta 
heru axriwa-ku piraski paksdsakdraa'fu ka-ki-uxta (156) heriru 
axritsdrisa heriru axrutsia iriaxru-td-ri kargaxruxre-ra (157) i-weax- 
rapaksaspd'tastt he we ra-ru dxrintpa'rdxkqwatd-ku rdpdxkutsu 
(158)^ heru axriwa-ku ndwa wetqraktdrurqhats i-we-rd-ta pirgkutka*- 
pgawewitiat (160) he ira-riki piraski he wttixrgha-kdwgis ru witura" 
wiras wdihakta rdka-ksu iweaxrurdwi-ras he axrd-wt-ka heru he-taku 
axrdwiukvt (161) heru* he-taku raru- axrintpa-ra-rirasat (162) he 
we-ra-wiukvt he tstu axrurdwi-ras irgraocra rdka*ksu ra-ru wditahd 
ikgrikat ruwdiraxkgas iriwe-wdiku-td (163) iri-kdrare-tsckskasa 
ruwdiwa*ku tsU-at siksa tiki we-tiku-td (164) heru axre-a tsU-raki he 
hiru axripakstdxkgtusku (165) heru axriat tsUb-raki witira kgrdstd- 

not run out. (148) Outside on the door (flap) they two stood 
(q.) (149) and suddenly there the skuU came rolUng (e.) it 
went by (e.) and it's mouth was getting big (e.), (150) Boys 
he was caUing them names (e.). He was sa3dng RoUing-skuU, (e.) 
''Children-dead-poor, girl isn't she in there boys ?" (151) They 
did not pay any attention to him (q.). (152) Then said (e.) 
boy, ''RoUing-skuU she is inside girl " (153) Then said (e.) 
RoUing-skuU, ''Have her come out. (154) Don't let me get there 
where you two are standing Children-no-good, (155) Even 
a big one — he would listen to my word." Then said (e.) 
the boy, '^RoUing-skull, she is not going to go." (156) Thereupon 
he got angry (e.) thereupon he did (e.) what he usually does (e.) 
he being no good. (157) When the head moves (e.) and now 
just coals were flpng out (e.) large coals. (158)^ Then he said 
(e.), "Now all of you are dead." As he went, chUd-dead-poor 
now he went. (160) And that (standing) boy and he patted 
his mouth (q.) (warwhoop) he charged (desperately, immediately) 
he had the stick (q.) ragged-stick as he charged furiously (e.) 
he jumped up (e.) then on the other side he landed (e.). 
(161) Then over there just coals flew ahead (e.) (162) and 
when he landed then again he charged furiously (e.) that he 
had ragged-stick just he struck it (q.) in the middle they 
immediately burst (q.) he had killed it (q.)- (163) The one that 
is not mature then he said (q.), "Miss, come on, my partner 
now he has kiUed it.'' (164) Then she came girl and there 
was a shattered head (e.). (165) Then she went (e.) girl she 

1 No. 169 omitted. 

188 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

rghi^ aaxrargtsakixru (166) hem axriratsdkipu hem aariru'tsu 
tsii'Taki (167) m* axritarii*tsu a axraratsararhru (168) tsuraki 
wtte-tsikste-hu^u htw tikstquxka-pd-kistt (169) hem axriwvru'tit 
a'ta'rgtsckste'hu^u piraski (170) trikdraaxre*tsikskasa he te^tsikste-- 
hu*u (171) hem axrnm-ku iri-axra^tsikskasa iriwc'tut rwHqku 
axrahuriwd'wi (172) ndwa iwe*rdwihat he ke^tsi ruirghurvwi ira-ri 
he wesiaxre'td'Vta axrixwakia wesitutsirasku (173) he-tsi iriwekux- 
rakataraxkd'd,*hu hem axriwa*ku tsu-raki siMsuxrurdre'rtt wttiha- 
tmstdtkari hem axririhiwvkusitd kdu- axrixrurdre-rtt (174) heru 
axriratsarikvt tsu-raki tsuvxre-re-pl'm rwaxrutsiratsdre-kiwat (175) 
hem axmtsia rikvsu d pahuks d qtit a rqktriktaxkitu kutirqra 
tsvuvxre-re-pixkat rikutiraxka (176) heru taxwd-ku piraski e-kqa 
tiki f^a^tatsiks tsu-at rakuwd-ruksthu (177) hem axmtsia tsiU'raki 
witukstd'tqwe nxkurdraxra tsapat kitskqa-xns (178) kd4qre*riwis 
triwite^ru'ruksct (179) ndwa hem axmtsia tvtqkxi he riaxrdhura*- 
rqwant rikvsu rikistd-ka a rikistdxkqta a rikistipvku a* urqaxka-tit 
a rikistdkqrus sihuks (180) tswraki rikuxrukstqkiriktqra hqwd 
pahuks (181) heru axrirardxkqru kitu (182) iriwewUuxrq*a 
ts'A'raki kitskqdxns irgrardxkqrwku (183) e aocrarake-a irirutqhu 

had (q.) a grooved rock she pulverized them (e.) (166) then 
she gathered them together (e.) (pieces). Then she put them 
down (e.) girl (167) then she built a fire (e.) and she burned 
them (e.). (168) Girl she was happy (q.), every way he had mis- 
treated her. (169) Then they sat down (e.) he would be happy 
boy (170) the one that was not mature (e.) and he would be 
happy. (171) Then said (e.) the one that is mature (e.) they 
are the ones way over there they that Uve (e.). (172) Now 
when they stayed there then — those travelling brothers 
then they knew it (e.) they would say (e.) now they two have her 
(173) but then the grass was coming up. Then said (e.) the 
girl, * 'Prepare the ground there are many weeds." (q.) Then 
they proceeded to cut the grass (e.) all they fixed it (e.). (174) 
Then she took them off girl sacred bundles she untied them 
(e.). (175) Then she did (e.) corn and pumpkin and beans 
and all kinds of seeds she had with her in the sacred bundle 
they were inside. (176) Then he would say (e.) boy, *'0h, 
partner I think girl (daughter) is a prophet." (177) Then 
she did (e.) girl the way was among (q.) to have them women 
shoulder blade (178) hoes these they used as (q.). (179) Now 
then she did (e.) right here then she laid out rows (e.) corn 
white-corn and yellow corn and speckled corn (egg corn) 
and blue corn (black corn) and shrivelled com five, (180) 
girl she had the seeds also pumpkin. (181) Then they 
planted them (e.) all. (182) She was now using (q.) girl shoulder- 
blade as she was planting them. (183) And it was a long time 

WeUfish, Caddoan Texts 189 

rakutaxraxkd*wgd (184) hern taxwd-ku tswraki tiki sikare'siwa 
ruiriraturukstakurare-riku (185) he ke-tsi piraski ruwititdxtqvt 
irikdrare'tsikskasa (186) aki* ru^we-ta-rat iriaxrahuraxku mtiraxku- 
tdu~tu (187) heru taxim-ku piraski iri*kdraaxre*tsikskasa (188) tiki 
tsU'Ot iwetiwd-rnksti trrtaratutsikstd-kd-ri he were-tatpa irikuxrqit 
(189) he iwerara-k^-ru he rahi-ri weaxrakguki-ats (190) hawd 
pqhuks weaxrqhakdsixke'tsit heru taxwa'ku piraski s-kqa tiki rw- 
tratdwd'wi (191) tswat iriwe'tiwd-ruksti (192) re-ksu iriwitutaktaix- 
ku a pq'huks d qtit (193) heru axriwa-ku tsu^raki tiki ra^ru sikqre-^ 
sitgru (194) tirate-hat irirurahe-ra rqkutdrau (195) iweaxrarake^a 
he axrakdi'Sat tswraki (196) he axru*ta re*ksu i-ratqwi hiru axritaxpa 
heru axriratsdrikvt (197) heru axrirgrikata'qt heru axrirdhqru 
re-ksu iriwe4iit uradxka4it (198) heru* siaxriwdistftd ^i-ra^ki 
(199) heru siaxriiva-ku u-kaa triwetuxtdhqre (200) e hqwd axrqra'- 
ke-a he hqwd pqhuks siaxrdra (201) hqwd rusiaxrutsird-hqru (202) 
it'kqa hqwd wituxtdhqri (203) wesiaxrdwqa piraski (204) hqwd 
rmiaxru'tsirq'ra qtit (205) hawa rusuixrutsird-haru (206) kHu 
w'ffuxrq^a kusikqrewtte-rdi-ta isira-ku piraski (207) ke-tu kdixri" 

(e.) the way it is when the plants would come up. (184) Then 
she would say (e.) girl, 'Tartners don't you two go where we 
were preparing the ground." (185) But then boy he would 
steal over there (q.) the immature one. (186) But when he 
AV'*iild have gone where the field is (e.) when he would steal 
o\rv (q.). (187) Then said (e.) boy the immature one (188) 
"Partner girl she is wonderful. Right there where we were doing 
thus and now there are plants standing whatever they are." 
(189) And when it was a long time then finally the patch was 
high (e.) (190) also pumpkin the vines were long (e.). Then 
said (e.) boy, **0h, partner, those hanging there (191) girl 
she is wonderful." (192) Corn he meant (q.) and pumpkins 
and beans. (193) Then said (e.) girl, ''Sons, just don't 
ynii pick them. (194) There is a certain time when it is good 
1 1 I )ick." (195) When it was a long time (e.) then she went among 
(e.) girl. (196) Then she did (e.) corn that one hanging 
there where grains on it (e.) then she picked them (e.). (197) 
Then she took them up (e.) then she put them in water (e.) 
corn they were blue corn. (198) Then they two began eating 
them (e.) boys. (199) Then they said (e.), "Oh, it tastes 
good," (200) And again it was a long time (e.) and again 
pumpkins she brought two (e.). (201) Also she put them in 
water for them (e.). (202) Oh, again it tastes good, (q.) (203) 
when they were eating (e.) boys. (204) Also she brought them 
for them beans. (205) Also she put them in water for them (e.) 
(206) because it was for this reason (q.) they two did not know 
(q.) those two (sitting) boys (207) because they were of 

190 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

ruhura tvrdwihat a the rdxwihat tsU^raki iri'i-rau kdu iriru stwi- 
tutsitahetspd'wis kusikarexre-rd-i'ta qtit a irarutspd-m pdhuks a- 
kc'tu (208) heru axriwa*ku tsu^raki (209) ndwa tiki rakis srsukspira 
heru axri'tsia wewtteruruts rdkis (210) heru axriwa-ku tukstdktqru 
ri'ksu (^11) heru axrirvtaru heru axri'tsia ti trirdtuxra-kd'ri 
rqkurqraxkiwira (212) a^axrixrqtsdhisit (213) he hqwd ruaxri-tsia 
dtit axrixtdrqu a* axnxril'tsu (214) ha*wa axrwtsia pdhuks he 
axrarqtsdkipu iri- hqwa- ratuxrakariusu*ku pdhuks werqkurqtsa-hvsu 
(215) heru axrutsia pqhuksdra-su he axrixrqtsdkipu a*ru axritdhaktit 
tsapat (216) a irqwihat piraski kusikarexre-rukstd-vta (217) rihuk- 
su kuxrikspdd'hu tdraha (218) awe'terqraspigt tdraha pvraski he 
te-rqra ikd-tit he hqwd wttd*raxwi'tat qwiska4it (219) heru sixrvwa'ku 
piraski tsi sikuxrawd*ruksti (220) aru-hirahurl-wi he kdu wererdvta 
tird/wihat tri i-ru-ta (221) heru axriwa*ku pvraski Tidwa tsu*at ndwa 
ird'ri wetixwqki raku-hu raweta*usta ndwa heru irikuxrardvta 
rqkiisqkurukstqrd ra-kuwitsahu (222) nxiwa irikuxrvra'udu he 
axrqwa-ku piraski ndwa tsii*at iriwetqwitsdusta (223) ndwa ruiriax- 

separate these here living and those there girl there the 
one she is. all right there they got acquainted with the taste 
of them (q.) they did not even know beans and those others 
pumpkins and all. (208) Then said (e.) girl, (209) ''Now 
boys, wood you two pick up." Then they did (e.) they 
had (q.) wood. (210) Then she said (e.), "Let us pick corn." 
(211) Then they picked, (e.) Then they did (e.) this way we 
do when roasting them. (212) Then they dried them. (213) And 
also they did (e.) beans they picked (e.) and they put them 
down (e.) (214) also she did (e.) pumpkins then she gathered 
them together (e.) where also the way we always do pumpkins 
when they are dry (215) then she did (e.) watermelons and 
they gathered them together (e.) then she built a cache pit 
and stored things in it (e.) woman. (216) And those (plur.) 
boys they did not know (217) only they probably used to eat 
buffalo. (218) When they woidd go hunting for them buffalo 
boys then they carried with them spear^ and also they 
would have wraps (q.) tanned buffalo robe dyed black. (219) Then 
said the two boys (but they were wonderful (220) also 
those travelling about and all they knew these here living 
(plur.) the way it is). (221) Then said (e.) boy, "Now Miss, 
now my brothers they have decided to come, now they are 
going to come." Now then the one that knows when the 
day is to be for them to arrive. (222) Now at so long a time 
Then said (e.) the boy, "Now Miss, they are going to 
arrive." (223) Now this is the day he meant (e.) (224) when 

^ More familiarly called ikts, the above name is sacred. It is a spear taken 
on buffalo hiints, well-polished and sharp, four feet long. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 191 

rutstakurkxku (224) iriwmxrawttsaustarit (225) hern axriioa-ku 
pirctski tsu*at criwerisakwru ira-ri rawdsqustant he kitu ista'kd*ruru 
iratutsiksta-kd-wa^ocri (226) pdhuks dtit rikvsu (227) he iriruxrq^a 
ira-ri rqwitsqhu rixrakdwaats (228) he ke-tsi ka-wita taxwdka-hu 
ird-ri itaxri sika-tse-a a-ki tdxwitska ka4sirisqwa itaxri* sire'ru 
(229) ruxrd'ru kdrqre-tsikskqsq piraski (230) taxwa-ku ira-ri 
kqrqrdtqrq sitqkitdwiruksta tri-sirqtse-ku^^ he ira-ri kaskurd-u he 
iriretpd-kasta (231) ira-ri tirastdpihat itaxri sitse-ruks kakuraherasta 
tqku siispiru-tit (232) wttika-sirakqtsiksitsqrakskdru-ku (233) ketsi 
ruxra-m piraski witiaxruxrird-ra (234) tikdrqre-tstkskqsq iwera-- 
tsiksku-stqta itaxri i-ra-ku (235) nqwa e riweaxrawawd-ku ird-ri 
kitu weqxrutirehqriwdriku (236) heru axriwa-ku piraski ndvxi 
tsu-at rdhe-sa ird-ri iwetawitsdu-sta (237) heriru axrutsia tsii-raki 
kdu axrqrakd-ruxkdrq^u iweaxrdhe-sa (238) witiwau-hat iaxrawd-u-- 
hat e hiru axrakitqwihat aki* iriwekutiit (239) heru siaxriwa*ku 
piraski tsii-at ru-werqxwihat ird-ri (240) he piraski rurusiaxriwa 
iriaxraxwi'hat (241) ru-sixrdwitspa ird-ri iriaxrqxwihat (242) heru 
sixriwa-ku ird-ri ti-ku tsu-raki (243) heru axriwa-ku tri-rqrariktisu 

they are going to arrive. (225) Tlien said (e.) the boy, *'Miss 
when it is that day my brothers for them to arrive and all 
you must cook that we were working (226) pumpkins beans 
corn. (227) Then so that they can brothers when they arrive, 
tor them to eat. (228) And so youngest he would say, 
Brothers sister we will be related to her." For he wanted 
(e.) we could sleep together sister they are to her (229) for 
the reason he is not mature (youngest) boy. (230) He would 
say (e.) his brother there is no doubt they are going to leave 
it to you how we should be related to her and brother you 
will give the way to me and I will say that. (231) ''Brothers 
you sitting here, sister let her be related to us. It is not going 
to be good anyone of you to lie with her (232) you will always 
be making yom- thoughts mean (q.)." (233) But it was because 
\ K>y he was working for his own sake (e.) (234) that one immature 
he was happy because of her (because his thoughts were stuck to 
her) sister that one. (235) Now then he said these words (e.) 
brother entirely he was preparing him (e.). (236) Then said (e.) 
Itoy, "Now, Miss, tomorrow brothers they are going to 
arrive." (237) Thereupon she did (e.) girl everything she 
prepared foods (e.) and the next morning (e.) (238) there was a 
hill (q.) that hill (e.) then there they sat on top (e.) and 
here it was they. (239) Then said (e.) the boys, ''Miss, 
there they sit (e.) our brothers." (240) Then boys they went 
there (e.) where they were sitting (e.) (241) they two got 
there brothers where they sat (e.). (242) Then they said 
"Brothers there is (sitting) girl." (243) Then said (e.) the 

192 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

iriwe'sitastarahmitit (244) kd*wUa kitu ram witiwawdkd-hu axra- 
wd'kqhu (245) l*kaa tsu-raki iriwetiioa'ruksti (246) hern axriwa^ku 
irirarariktisu piraski iriw&tiit ru*i'tqku axrahurivxi'wi (247) ax- 
riwd'ku he riwekwruruksta rdkuretsaxriksd'ra ruxra'rexku rakurax- 
kitud-ra (248) i-axraiva^ku piraski ti-sirastatara^u triwetira rwixtaku 
axrahuriwd'wi axnxrardxra rdkiri'ku (249) iriwesire'Sta-rdhuritct 

(250) he irdwihat piraski he rikutararauxioiat ta*kdski (251) he 
riteruxtsa ika*tit ke4u wttikarexreruksi-ta heru axre'tatoirda-hu 
tsuraki trii-ra-ku axratdtsd-hu (252) he kttu weaxrarakdrurutspa 
(253) riki'su dtit d pahuks (254) H^kaa piraski wttiratsikste-hu^u 
wesirite-nt tsii^raki d siaxrixrardxhurutspd*wu td-kaski (255) d 
axrixwaki tsii'at tiwe*re*sirvruts td-kaski (256) heru texwaki iriwe-- 
sitastarghuritit (257) nqiva hetsi i-rd/wihat he rixtvakid-hu tixwd*- 
ruksti piraski (258) trikuxrasaku^^ he weaxrukira*ruu piraskiripaxki 
astd*te'hura*ra crvsid'tse-ru (259) heru axriwa-ku kiripaxki tri'axra*u 
iri-axraku'tika (260) ndvxi wiskutsu ira*ri iritaskitawi (261) he 
ira*Ti kaskura'U kqrardtqra sitqru*usta (262) heru axriwa-ku tsvskiit 
iri-axra-tsikskasq piraski ndwa ird'ri tdtdska rakuuxrahtse'd-ra 
(263) he ke'tsi tqku axrd'ku kd'Wita (264) heru axririwaki piraski 

oldest one, "You two have done weU." (244) The youngest 
everything just he talked about. Then he said (e.), (245) *'0h 
girl she is wonderful." (246) Then said (e.) the oldest one, 
boy, ''They are way over there those that live (e.)." (247) 
Then he said (e.) "Then it seems as though for them to cause 
them to get acquainted." he was meaning for them all to get 
together. (248) Then said that (e.) boy this, "You two are telhng 
they are the ones way off those that live (e.) they that have 
them (e.) seeds. (249) You two have done well." (250) Then 
those boys then the packs would be so high dry-meat, 

(251) And each would have (lying) ceremonial buffalo hunt 
stick. Because they did not know each other then they came 
down (e.) girl where she is they arrived there (e.). (252) And 
everything the foods were placed about (e.) (253) corn beans 
and pumpkins. (254) Oh boys they were happy (q.) when 
they saw her girl, and they placed bundles for her (e.) dry- 
meat. (255) And they would say (e.), "Miss, these things are 
yours dry meat." (256) Then they would say, "You two have 
done well." (257) Now then those there then they would 
say they are wonderful boys (258) there was a day and he 
was anxious Uttle boy for it to be settled what relation she 
should be to us (259) then said (e.) the little one the one (e.) 
the one that killed it (e.) (260) "Now hurry brother you are 
the one to decide (261) and brother you must give it to me 
there is no doubt they are going to give the matter to you." 
(262) Then said (e.) a httle the one that is mature (e.) boy, 
"Now brothers I want for it to be decided." (263) And then 

Weltfishy Caddoan Texts 193 

Tbdwa tsU'ot rurihi'tqku ke-suksuhuwi-tit (265) heru axriraxkawi-ttt 

(266) heru axriwa-ku iriaxrgrariktisu (267) ndwa ird-ri tirwhu^u 
tiratgraktdxka*wi ti-sirakuxti siraxrdhuras tsU-raki (268) he ird^ri 
kgrexrasi'ku he karddse'tsikstchu^u ira^ri kitu tdtarakatsikste-hu^^ 
(269) he etu tird*ku tsu*raki heriwe-re^ rui*tgku axrahwiwd'wi 
rdkiri'ku axnxrgrdxra (270) ndwa weretstxrd'kgwa-xtsu rgku- 
rukiwira (271) he re^tqtsiks iriruraku^uxrd'te-hat rgtsgkukutu-kvt 
(272) heru axriwa-ku piraski rvdwa ird'ri e*re4uxra*rdixku (273) 
ndwa ru isira'ku irvtsvskut ratsikskgsa riwestxrd^u rdkuwa-ka 
trisirdku^u tsii-raki (274) heru axriwa'ku piraski ira-ku Tidwa ird-ri 
tatttska ratkuwa'ka ti trvkdrare'tsikskgsg nawa ird-ri kasvrdpakttks 
iwesirdskuru'ha (275) ndwa ird'ri tira^ku trikuruxriwd-kasta 
hdrikasirapitska kdwita Lrikiixrgwd-kasta heru axriwa'ku a-wit ndwa 
ird'ri ndwa irikasirdpttska vri*rdtitska* rdtkuwa-ka (276) heru 
axriwa*ku piraski ira^ri tatdska rdtkuwa-ka ird-ri irisitspiru-Ut 
he kdre-ruraherasta (277) witikgsirakqtsiksdsqrakskdru-ku (278) 
tsi re-titska ita-xri siratse-ku (279) kitu ruaxririwaki urgri-sd 
iwetdspd-ku (280) ruxra-rg*a kd-wtta kdu axrgwawd-ka kgkura-he 
wdiraskuxrgkuxkdkusku tsi tiwerd'ku ita-xri ruraherasta kdu rux- 

hcre sat (e.) the youngest. (264) Then they said (e.) boys, 
"Now Miss, over there sit down." (265) Then they sat down 
inside (e.) (266) then said (e.) the one that is the oldest (e.) 

(267) '*Now brothers the affair is (the reason) we are in here 
these two that found (e.) girl. (268) And brothers you are 
not sitting and you that are not happy brothers all we are 
ail happy (269) and because this girl it is she way over 
there they that hve (e.) seeds that they have. (270) Now 
we are eating something different (271) and I think it is the 
thing at the end for us to join." (272) Then said (e.) boy, 
*'Now brothers I mean (273) now those two the one a httle 
that is mature they have given him the matter to speak that's 
how they shotdd be related girl." (274) Then said (e.) boy 
^bat one, "Now brothers I want to speak. This one that 

immature. Now brothers you must be sure since you have 
gi\ (Ml the matter to me. (275) Now brothers this one whatever 
he is going to say you must agree accordingly youngest what- 
cver he is going to say." Then he said (e.) first, "Now 
brothers now you must agree to what I want to say." (276) 
Then said (e.) boy, "Brothers I want to say, brothers, 
if one of you should sit down with her (marry) then it is going 
to be no good. (277) You will always make yoin* thoughts mean 
(you will fight). (278) But I want sister for us to be to her." 
(279) All they say (e.), "Right you have spoken." (280) Be- 
cause everything that he said, "It is no good for you to make 
your own soles (q.) (moccasin) but since this one is here sister 
it is going to be good all your feet she will take care of." There- 

194 PtibUcations, American Ethnological Society Vol. XV II 

rakastargtsikstdtoa-vd heriru sixre-a itd*xri (281) heru acrriri-wi^ki 
tsU'ot aiksu'ka ruaxre*hu*ku^ (282) heru axriwa-kn iaosratsikskasa 
ndwa tsiti*at ita-xri wesitata (283) i'kga piraski iriaxruxrd'ru 
weaxrakakts (284) ndwa sirird^re-hats itaocri wesire*ru (285) ndwa 
axriwa'ku iriaxrarqrikttsu ndwa tswat ru i'tqku tiduraxku tvku a-as 
tituriku (286) heru axriwa-ku pi-raski iriaxratsikskasa ndwa itd-xri 
heruxre.tsunsta d-as tirasku (287) tiwesiratutsirasku heruxre4siiista 
d'os (288) heru axriwa-ku dsku tvrdwihat ird^ri ndvxi rit'ta-suxta 
rurire'turaxku (289) taspd'kasta tsu^raki wesitatutsirasku (290) 
wesitdtku'ttt paksitsakdrad'fu (291) ru vrvrd^ku id*sti trikasitvitsat 
(292) tiwd*kasta isu'kat ndwa tiki kirusvra he respa-kasta ti^taku 
iritati'ra tirirasku (293) tatixraitusta ruweraxku tsU^raki kurasixrau 
ru irixrapihat he rixrirdxwitsat axritsiktsirasku he sire-tirikisit 
he rixwaki ird*ri rdskuxri-tsts (294) triweti re*sd'ru axre-turariku 
(295) a- axratsikste-hu^u resd-ru iweaxruxrctsis heru axriwa-ku 
rc'sd'ru heru axrutsikdksa rdhiku-tsu (296) suksiMtawi-tit he 
isitsaxkdat tire*turu*ta (297) triwetiuxikitsdxkaat rakuturaraspata- 
siru'tit (298) rurirakuktakuwttspu iri4'ra*ku tsu-raki he riraxkitu'a 

upon they were to her sister. (281) Then they said (e.) 
"Miss, come in." Then she came in (e.). (282) Then said (e.) 
that mature one (e.) (oldest), '*Now, Miss, sister we are 
yours." (283) Oh boy the one that did it (e.) he was happy (e.), 
(284) Now they finished it sister they were to her. (285) Now 
said (e.) the one that is the oldest (e.), '*Now^ Miss, over 
there there is an encampment. He is there (sitting) your father 
he has a camp." (286) Then said (e.) boy, the mature one (e.), 
**Now, sister, he is going to find out your father you are 
here (287) since you are here with us he is going to find out your 
father." (288) Then said (e.) one these brothers, *'Now 
you are going where the dwellings are. (289) You are to say, 
'Girl we have with us. (290) we have killed it Rolling-skull.' 

(291) There where he is her father there you must arrive. 

(292) He will say, *Go in now son, where do you come?' 
And you must say, 'Over here is where I come to where you 
are. (293) I bring the word there she is girl your child way 
where we live, and it chased her there the one that was keeping 
her (e.) and we saved her. and they said my brothers 
for you to know.' " (294) This is the chief that has the encamp- 
ment. (295) And he was happy (e.) chief when he found out 
(e.). Then said (e.) chief then he called him (e.) the brave. 
(296) "Get mounted and go among the village this village 
extending." (297) As he goes through the village with the news 
for the people to begin to migrate (298) for the migrants to arrive 
there where she is girl and they wiU all join-together. Just 
when morning came (q.) then they spoiled (broke) the camp 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 195 

rihuksu witqhk'sa he axririturawdhuru (299) heriru are^ktakura- 
raspa*tasimxrit ru* werqraktqkuwitspu tri* irdwihat piraski (300) 
iriwe-Utdmat pi-raski tri-rukstaitustaxra (301) ndwa ruwe'ra'- 
raktakuwitspu trvra-ka-wi piraski (302) kurghus rawUe-wari ax- 
ratsikste*hu*ru iweru^tdke-nt ruriruwitvwa'ku kurghus iraku piraski 
iriru'witiwa-ku riaxrarariktisu wttuxrdixku (303) ndwa pi-rg^u 
turaxkitu wetaskitawi axriwd-ku kitu wekutatgrd-ka-ra^a (304) idx- 
rgwihgt piraski iaxruxra-ru-a^ tgwiksa-pits (305) he wekurdhd*rg^a 
iwe ra-ru rhku irukstturdraxra he rihe rekitgwi piraski (306) trim* 
witiretsdxriksa vrirqraxkdud'ra (307) ru- triru ti-tsire-tsis irdwihat 
pi-raski (308) akita-ru iwergratsqwe hiru axrura'hi (309) kurqhus 
witqruraktapirihu^u irdwihat (310) inxrdraxra rdkiri-ku a he-rdwihat 
ire'ra-i'tqwi ra iriwerwrira'te'hai iriwerwraxkitu-a iraktgkqwu tsikstd 

(e.). (299) Thereupon they proceeded to migrate way off the 
migrants arrived there where they lived the boys. (300) He 
is going among boy the one that had had the news. (301) Now 
when they had arrived there, the migrants where he Uved boy 
(302) old man he was going about (q.) (excited) he was happy (e.) 
when he saw them immediately he said (q.) old man that 
boy he said thus (q.) the one that is the oldest (e.) he meant 
(q.), (303) *'Now child the whole camp you are the leader," 
He said (e.), ''AU you are my children." (304) Those (sitting) 
(e.) boys those that number (e.) eight (305) and now those 
are his children. Now just he sits the one that had the camp 
and the other he is leader boy. (306) Thereupon they became 
acquainted when they joined together. (307) There thereupon 
they found out those (sitting) boys. (308) Tribe that which is 
among there it was good (e.). (309) Old man he loved them 
(q.) those (sitting). (310) Those they had seeds and these 
others that they know. Now this is the end of it since they 
joined together they migrated well. That is aU. 


(Free translation.) 
There was a camp and in a certain part of that camp Uved the 
Rolling-Skull. He was very wicked and planned all manner of evU. 
The head chief of the camp had a very beautiful daughter and one 
day the Rolling- Skull decided that he would have her to take care of 
him. The skull rolled over to the chief's house and when he got 
inside he demanded that everyone leave but the girl who was 
henceforth to take care of him. To this the chief consented as he 
knew the strength of the skull's evil magic ; and so everyone left 
the house but the girl. When the skull decided to kill someone he 
would get ferocious and would roll about so that large coals flew 

196 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XV t J 

from within it, striking the object of his anger and killing him. 
When the people came out of their tents and saw what danger they 
were in, they packed up their belongings and moved away. 

And so the skull was left alone with the girl. He heaped all 
manner of cruelties upon her while she was with him. He would stab 
her with a burning stick and he would order her to rake up hot 
coals with her bare hands ; at one time there were large ugl}'^ insects 
upon the skull and he would demand that she pick them off. Some 
time passed in this way and finally the skull thought he would go 
off on a trip. But first he wanted to find out if the girl would try 
to escape and so he deceived her by saying he was going off to get 
her some food but actually he simply went a short distance and 
hid near the house to watch her. When he saw that the girl did 
not try to run away he went off on the hunt and found a large herd 
of buffalo. As he rolled about hot embers flew from him and by 
this means he killed one buffalo in the herd. He took the meat 
to the girl and when he got there he announced that he had now 
come home. Now that he felt reassured that the girl would not 
leave him he would go out and hunt various kinds of animals for 
the girl's food. 

In the lodge there hung a sacred bundle and as he was leaving, 
the girl's father had told her that he was leaving his bundle behind 
and that in it was the power to protect her. He was doing this 
because the skull was so evil and because her life was in danger, 
and all the people had concurred in this as they feared him, and 
he was leader of the whole camp. 

The skull again went hunting and while it was away a wonderful 
thing happened to the girl. Inside the bundle were all kinds of 
planting-seeds, pumpkin, corn, watermelon and striped pumpkin. 
The voice of the bundle told her that her captor would be gone for 
some time. On the outside of the bundle were tied a war club and 
some smooth plum sticks. The voice told her to take the things 
that belonged to the bundle, a pouch of water, some large sand 
burrs, and some pieces of shell. Then she was to flee to where 
certain animals were who would protect her from the skuU. The 
second of these animals was very ferocious and was feared by all 
others. About his den were scattered bones of all kinds including 
those of the buffalo upon which he preyed. There were four of these 
ferocious animals but if three of them could not help her the fourth 
certainly would. Then she set out as she was directed, carrying the 
things on her back. If the skuU in his pursuit were to approach 
her too closely, she was to throw behind her one of the burrs she had. 

When the rolling-skull got home and found the girl gone he 
was furious. When he found the girl's footprints he said, ''No^\ , 
my girl, you are as good as dead." He meant that he would kill 
her for trying to escape. Then he rolled off in the path the gii i 
had taken following her footprints. Meanwhile the girl had droppt ! 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 197 

the sand-burr and when the skull got to that place he could not 
pavss for there was a big thicket of thorny burrs. About this time 
the girl got to a valley where a mighty beast Uved. All about his 
den were scattered the bones of his prey. As she approached the 
den she sang, ^ 

''A girl is coming to the one-who Uves here 

A girl is coming, a girl, a girl." 

Then she continued : 

^'Dear Sir, there is a ferocious person 
Coming on top of that hill." 

Then the beast answered : 

''Greetings, daughter, what were you saying ?" 

Then she repeated: 

"Dear Sir, there is a ferocious person 
He is coming chasing me, 
He is coming on top of that hill." 
Then the beast assured the girl that he was afraid of no one and 
inquired of her who this formidable person was. She answered. 
'It IS the RoUing-skuU." Then the beast sighed and said, "Oh, 
daughter, he is the only one I fear." This animal was a large bison 
calf. He directed her to another animal who hke himself possessed 
great powers. 

Then the girl went on over the hill and after she had gone for 
some distance, the skull had managed to come out of the thicket 
and liad rolled up to the den of the bison in the valley. He was 
very angry and as he approached he called the bison insxdting 
names. "You flat-white-nose, did a girl come by here ?" Then the 
bison answered, "She went off in that direction". The head rolled 
on and when she saw that the roUing-skull was catching up with her 
she dropped the water she had with her in the path behind her. 
In this way the road was made more difficult for the skull and the 
girl had more time to make her escape. At last the girl came to 
a grove of cedar trees and among the cedars Uved *a big bear. Then 
the girl sang her songs as before and the bear answered her in the 
same way as the buffalo-bison had, assuring her that he feared no 
one. But when he heard that his opponent was the Rolhng-skull he 
sighed and said, "Oh, daughter, alas, he is the only one I fear." 
And he was a really ferocious beast, for the bones of his prey were 
stittered far and wide about the place. He told the girl that 
further along in the direction he was pointiag out to her was 
another beast who like himself was also very powerful and that 
perhaps he could help her. 

Finally the Rolling-skull got out of his difficulties and following 
in the girl's footsteps came to the Bear's den and as he approached 
he cried out, "Flat-chapped-feet, did a girl pass here?" And the 
bear answered that she had passed by and gone in that direction. 


198 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. X VII 

Again the skull went along and when the girl looked aroun^ she 
saw the skull coming over the hill and that it was about to catch 
up with her so she took out the smooth stick and broke it. Then 
she dropped the pieces and broke the other stick. She had taken 
both the sticks from the sacred JMindle and now in place of the 
broken sticks there was a thickoramble of plum bushes with 
such sharp branches and thorns that the Rolling-skull would be 
certain to get caught for quite some time. Meanwhile the girl was 
on her way to the home of the wildcat and as she approached again 
she sang as before and he also answered her in the same way, 
assuring her that he feared no one. But when he heard that it was 
the Rolling-skull with which he would have to contend he said, 
"Oh, daughter, he is the only one I fear, go along in this direction 
until you come to some people that I think will help you, for I am 
powerless against this monster." 

When the skull got out of the plum thicket he resumed his chase. 
He came upon the wildcat. The instant he saw the wildcat he said, 
"You long-back -puckered -up-face, has a girl passed by here?" 
Then wildcat told him she had and pointed in the direction in 
which she had gone. "Now, my girl," said Rolling-Skull, ''you are 
doomed to die." When the girl looked about in Her fhght, she 
saw the skull coming over the hill-top and she took out the shell 
she was carrying and threw it in the path. Soon there were many 
pretty shells where the one had fallen. When Rolling-skull got 
there he decided to pick out the good-looking ones that would be 
suitable for making arrow-points. He was delayed here quite a 
while and after again chasing the girl for some distance he hid the 
shells he was carrying so that he could, go along unencumbered. 
Meanwhile the girl came to a grove of trees and as she ran she saw 
two little boys there, one not quite as old as the other. They were 
at home alone, and finally the girl realized that these must be the 
people to whom she was to come for help. The older brothers were 
not at home, only the two boys were there. As she approached 
she sang the same song she had sung on the other occasions. 
The two boys were playing at the edge of the bank as very young 
children often do and the youngest boy said, "There comes a girl." 
This was a family of eight boys of whom only the two youngest 
were at home. These boys were unknown to the girl's people. 
When the older brother had gone away they had instructed the 
little boys as to what was going to happen and what they should 
do, for these boys knew everything that was going on in the whole 
universe. The older of the two little boys said, "That's the girl 
that hves far away from here." The boys heard her singing as she 
came and the youngest said that his brother had better kill what 
was chasing the girl. There they stood waiting at the edge of the 
bank and when she came the older one said, "Miss, you seem to be 
in trouble." "Yes," the girl answered, "the skull is chasing me." 

Weltfiah, Caddoan Texts 199 

Then the boys invited the girl into their house and told her that 
their older brothers were away on the hunt and that they were 
there alone. They went into the house and the boy asked her to 
take the sacred bundle from her back and hang it on the wall ; there 
was another bundle hanging there already. The girl was worried 
because only the two little boys were at home and she thought 
that they couldn't cope with the terrible skull alone, for weren't 
the other beasts very mighty and were they not afraid of the 
Rolling-skull ? She was about to run away when the youngest boy 
reassured her saying that his brother was going to kill the skull. 
Then the boy came inside and took a war club from the sacred 
bundle and prepared himself as his brothers had directed. He was 
going to fight the skull with the war club. These boys were known 
as the Wonderful-boys. And they were indeed wonderful, even 
though they were so young. The youngest again reassured the girl 
telling her his brother would kill the skull and that now they 
wore prepared and would go outside. They stood against the door 
flap to keep the door closed so that the girl would not run away 
ill hor fright. 

Finally the skull came along and it became more and more 
insulting as it approached, ''You ragamuffins, is the girl inside?" 
When he heard that she was he told the boys to have her come out. 
"See that I don't get too close to you, you good-for-nothing children. 
Even great ferocious beasts listen to my commands." But the boy 
answered that the girl was not going to come out. Then the rolling 
skull got angry and advanced toward them saying, "Now you two 
rascals, you're going to die." And he let fly large embers as was his 
practise when he was bent on wickedness. At this instant the boy 
cried out in a war-whoop charging with uplifted warclub. As he 
charged he jumped completely over the head and the approaching 
embers and then turned and charged again, striking the skull right 
in the middle w^ith his club so that the skull was shattered to pieces. 
And so the skuU was killed and the youngest boy told the girl that 
his brother had killed the skull and that now she might come out. 
When the girl saw the shattered head she gathered up the pieces 
and pulverized them with a grooved rock. Then she built a fire 
and burned eveiy vestige of the pulverized head. At last she was 
happy in the thought that it was gone, for it had treated her very 

Then the girl made her home with the boys and they were very 
glad, especially the youngest. The older boy told the smaller one that 
she was one of the people that lived far from where they were. 
The older boys who were travelling far off knew all about what had 
happened. They talked about the boys and how they had taken 
care of the girl. 

Spring was coming and the grass began to come up and the girl 
told them to clear the ground of weeds. After they had cleared 


200 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

some ground the girl took the sacred bundle from where it had been 
hanging on the wall and untied it. She took out the corn, pumpkin, 
bean and other kinds of seeds that were inside. The smaller boy 
would say to his brother, '^Brother, I think the girl has magic 
power." Then the girl would get her shoulder-blade hoe such as 
women were accustomed to use and she prepared separate beds 
for each kind of seed. The corn was planted in the following order, 
the white corn, yellow corn, speckled corn, blue corn, and the 
shrivelled corn; she had five varieties of corn. Then she planted 
pumpkin seeds. Now the planting was all done with the shoulder- 
blade hoe. After some time the plants would come up and the 
girl would say, ''Don't you boys go to the planted fields." But the 
youngest boy would steal over and after he saw what was happening 
he told his brother that the girl must certainly have magic power. 
Gradually the plants grew and the pumpkin vines spread about. 
Then the little boy would say, ''Oh, there are strange things hanging 
from the plants and the girl must certainly have supernatural 
power." He meant the corn, the beans, and the pumpkins that 
were ripening. She told the boys not to pick any for there was a 
proper time to do that. Finally when she went into the fields she 
found that the grains of corn that were on the cobs were ripe and 
she picked some blue corn and cooked it. Then the boys began 
to eat it and they were delighted with the delicious flavor. Then 
after some time had passed the girl brought in two pumpkins 
and cooked them and again the boys were greatly pleased at how 
good they tasted, and then she cooked some beans for them. These 
boys did not know that there was such good food, for they lived 
apart from the people who planted, and it was the first time they 
had ever tasted anything like it. They did not even know of the 
existence of beans, pumpkins and other plants. Then the girl 
asked the boys to fetch some wood and they got some corn from 
the stalks and roasted it, as we do today when we roast and dry it. 
Then she dried some beans and some pumpkins and some water 
melons and stored them all in a cache pit. Of all this the boys were 
ignorant for heretofore they had probably lived entirely on buffalo 
meat. When the boys would go on a buffalo hunt they carried 
with them the hunt-spear,^ and they would have wrapped about 
them a black buffalo-robe. As the brothers travelled about they 

"These were sticks of a hard wood like hickory, taken on hunts and used 
for a twofold purpose, — as a drill to dig the holes into which the tipi 
poles are set, and as a forked pole from which to suspend the kettle over 
the fire. They are five to six feet long, forked at one end, and sharpened 
and burnt at the other. In use the burnt point is the drill, while to sus- 
pend the kettle, the pole is set into the ground east of the fireplace so 
that forked end slants over the fire. The upper arm of the fork is tied 
to the poles of the tipi above, while to the lower arm of the fork is tied a 
short stick which hangs over the fire, its lower end shaped into a hook 
on which the kettle is hung," H. Chapman. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 201 

knew everything that was going on at home. The boys who were 
clairvoyant told the girl that their brothers had decided to come 
home. When the day came for their arrival the boy told the girl 
to be sure to cook what they had planted, the pumpkins, the beane 
and the corn so that their brothers could taste the new foods. 

The youngest in conversations with his brother would always 
refer to the girl as their sister for since he is the youngest boy 
if they were related as sister and brother he could have the privilege 
of sleeping with her, for it was often customary for the youngest 
boy to sleep with his older sister. He would say to his older brother, 
"They wiU certainly leave the matter of deciding her relationship 
in our family to you and when they do, let me make a suggestion. 
I will say, 'Brothers let this girl be related to us as a sister, for 
otherwise if one of you were to marry her there would be constant 
dissension among you/" However, the little boy was not talking 
from a disinterested point of view as he would make it appear, but 
was planning to make things come out for his own benefit. He 
Uked the girl and hoped that she would be as a sister to them, and 
to this end he thoroughly coached his brother. At last the day came 
when the brothers were to arrive home and the girl set to work 
preparing the food. Next morning they saw some people sitting 
on top of the hill and those were their brothers. The boys pointed 
them out to the girl. Then the boys went to meet them and when 
they got there they told of the girl. The oldest brother praised 
them for what they had done. Then the youngest told them aU 
about what had happened and about how wonderful the girl was. 
And the oldest brother told them that this girl came from a tribe 
that hved far away, a people that were cultivators of the soil, and 
that through her their people and her people would become known 
to each other. Then the boys helped bring home the huge packs 
of dry meat and when they got to the house the girl had prepared 
corn, beans and pumpkins. The boys were very happy when they 
saw the girl and the fine food she had prepared. They set before 
her many bundles of dry-meat as a gift. They praised the two little 
boys for taking care of her and helping her. They would say 
''those boys are really supernatural." 

Meanwhile the youngest boy was very anxious to settle the 
matter of how the girl was to be related to them. He would urge 
his brother to bring the matter up as quickly as possible before 
his older brothers. He reminded him that the decision would rest 
with him and that he should be sure and let him (the youngest) 
have the decision his way. Then the second youngest put the 
matter before his brothers and they said to the girl, ''Now, Miss, 
sit down right here." Then the oldest brother addressed them and 
said, "We are all gathered here today to discuss the girl that our 
little brothers brought into our home. Brothers, we are all very 
happy to have her. Her people live far away from here and they 

202 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

have knowledge of planting-seeds and it is for this reason that 
we are eating new and different foods. I am of the opinion that we 
should take this opportunity to get acquainted with her people. 
The matter of how the girl should be related to us I think we should 
give to the second youngest boy to decide." Then the boy said, 
'^Brothers, I want to leave this matter to our youngest brother 
and whatever he may say I hope you will abide by." Then the 
youngest said, '^Brothers if one of you should marry the girl there 
would be constant dissension among you, and so I want her to be 
related to us as a sister." Then all said, *'You are right in what you 
have said." Then the youngest added, ''You should not be making 
your own moccasins and now that the girl is to be sister she wifl 
take care of that for us." And so it was decided that the girl should 
be their sister and they called in the girl and the oldest brother 
said to her, '*Now, Miss, you are to be our sister." And so the 
matter was decided and the youngest boy was very happy. 

Now the oldest brother talked of the girl's people and said that 
her father was going to find out where she was. One of the boys 
was delegated to go to the chief, her father, and when he was asked 
what his mission was he was to tell him that his daughter was with 
them and that they had killed the RolUng-skull. When he got there 
he told the chief his message as he had been instructed and told 
him that his brothers had wanted to inform him. The chief was 
overjoyed and very grateful and he called his brave who was to 
mount his horse and ride through the village to announce that the 
people were to move camp to where the girl was staying. They 
broke camp early the following morning and set out for the boys' 
camp. The boy who had acted as messenger was leading them. 

When they arrived at the boys' home the chief was very happy. 
He went about greeting them. The old chief immediately appointed 
the oldest boy as chief of his people. He addressed them and told 
the eight boys that they were now all his children. The chief is 
retired and the oldest boy now leads the people. They became 
acquainted and joined as one tribe. The old chief loved the boys. 
The wonderful boys learned that these were the people that pos- 
sessed the way of the planting-seeds. Now this is the end of the 
story. And ever after they travelled about together and they 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 203 


pi-raski a tdrgha, ndnxta* 
(1) irvaxrutsiksdhu raxku4urdru4a (2) ire^turarwta heru 
axriraxkqtawa^wu (3) iriwertxrdraspe tritirutsiksahu tdraha nxku- 
raraspe (4) heru wekuxri-ut (5) he axruksiu'td-hu triraxkute'hat 
tdraha (6) dwit iriwesixrixraiwttsata irdte*hat (7) he axrixwgki 
1 iwere4e'hat tdraha (8) ndwa he ire-tu-ru'ta heru tarwtsia (9) heru 
taxrdstawu arwsa irvraxkukdtarvru (10) rqkuktdxruriwa*wi 
tdraha (11) ndwa ke-tsi heru ra-rwtsia piraski weraxrdstawu tiraku 
piraski (12) wde^rurukstdrihu^u piraski rdku-ku a rihuksu taxwvtiku 
heru site'rutslrarukquts (13) heru ritaxtsd (14) nxmtska^ tsikstit 
dspqri (15) tsi iriwitvtslks witerukskdrahd-a (16) he irdku piraski 
wttu-xpirqre (17 ) ndtva iwera-ru-rarit iwerdra^wiruxtard (18) heru 
witiaxrutsiruwqhijL^ru heru qxrikitqwt*ttt (19) nqwa ruwerara*wvrat 
ruwetiat tdraha rqkuktdxruriwd-wi (20) he ira-td piraski he ti-tqku 
axrdruxpqtsuhdtqsq atd-rvka pdtswu pakstitkukets (21) he i'weax- 
ra-ta he riweaxru-vt piraski (22) ke-tu irwta heriaxre'rurakdraha'" 
(23) ruwewite-witsat triaxrardte-kat tsaxriks heriwedxrakqri tdraha 

Boy and buffalo. Comanche, 
(1) The way it used to be (e.) when the camps were lined up (e.) 
(2) those camps extending then they all went hunting (e.) (3) they 
were hunting this way that used to be buffalo when they 
would hunt. (4) Then it would be far (5) and it used to be 
far off (e.) where they were at the beginning buffalo, (6) at 
first when they found these there where the edge is (of the herd). 
(7) And they would say (e.), *'Here is the edge buffalo." (8) Now 
then that camp then he would do (e.) (9) then he woidd 
tie (e.) a horse the one that is swiftest (10) to chase about 
buffalo. (11) Now then then he would do thus: boy there 
he tied it (e.) that boy. (12) They held it great (honor) (q.) 
l){jy to have and just when they stopped (sat down) (e.) 
ih( n they built him a bed (13) then there he lay. (14) They 
wanted well him to Uve. (15) But that was their way (q.) 
they were meticulous. (16) And that boy he was a handsome 
chiid (q.). (17) Now he had it since he is going on the warpath. 
\ \^) Then he dressed himself up (e.). Then he mounted (e.). 
( M)) Now he had gone on the warpath he went buffalo to 
hunt them. (20) And that (going) boy then right here 
he had on the side his quiver (e.) he would have it across his 
shoulder arrow quiver wild-cat (21) and when he went (e.) 
then he was that way (e.) boy {22) because the way he is 
it was their pride (e.) (23) when he was near there (q.) where 
the edge is (e.) people there's where there are many (e.) buffalo 

204 PitblicationSy American Ethnological Society Voh X VII 

riwemtite'hat (24) ru ke-tsi iwere-mtsat piraski (25) ndwa heru 
raru*t$ia weraxtird-kawat a rvksu (26) rdht-ra kukskitiiks iratirdk- 
taxra tikspakid-hu tuxratsai-ta-hvt iweqxrutqairqhdksitd he axri-ras 
tdrgha vri irdkariksdwqra he axruxra-riku'ruxkvt (27) ram siwi- 
tirektaxkdkawd'kat ke-tsi iriruraxkuktarwatg (28) raxkuwitskqa 
tird'ta riku8te*ku'tit (29) ndwa ruiriratstardu piraski hetaku axrak- 
tdru'vt tdraha (30) he* ti*axrdtqwiat tar aha taraha-kipiri'vu witii-xre 
(31) tira4d piraski he riaxrurirdxkd-at he axruturd-witsat (32) he 
riweaxraptxkitawu taku rd*ru wttvtsat (tirHqrakdsapira-rawva) 
(33) tdrahd irrre*tsapirarawi'd (34) hawd cstu pitku we^ra-ruriktsa 
(35) heru irmxruxrird-rat kukarawitiwvhd-ku (36) d'ki iriwekute*- 
ruxrira'a pi-raski ird-ta tdraha witqkvtsuat rw ra*ru witdxrqwvtd 
kitsvkdrikat (37) he axrqwitska piraski pd-ra rihuksu siatdrikstu*- 
waxra d-ki (38) tsertt kuti-wttska^'^ tdraha vrahqku sirakurikstaxra 
piraski d'ki kutqrirutste (39) ru ke-tsi pvraski hern hem axriwttska^ 
ka'ki^ rdtkuhwkvt tuxrg?^ irurd^hiwd^ra (40) nqwa wemra^rutsia 
piraski ru-we-rd-rat irimwitihqku (41) k&tsi irahqku kuxrawaruksti 

that's where the edge of it (herd) is. (24) There then he had 
arrived there boy. (25) Now then he did thus: he took 
the bow out (e.) and arrow. (26) Finally about four that 
bow he has they call it he touches them upon against^ that's 
when they Hned up (e.) and they charged (e.) buffalo where 
the herds extended (here and there in groups) and they rode 
among (e.) (27) just they cut them up (q.) (scattered them about). 
Then each would chase a bunch (28) he wanted (e.) this one 
going to kill it. (29) Now the one I am teUing about boy 
over there he drove a bunch of buffalo (30) and there was 
among them buffalo a young buffalo he was handsome (q.). 
(31) This one going boy and he picked it out (e.) and he 
caught up with it (e.) (32) and there he had his arrow prepared (e.) 
here just he shot it (q.) (here where our ribs extend) (33) buf- 
falo where those extend over (between rib and -hip bone). (34) Also 
again two (second) there the arrow sticks. (35) Then he chased 
it (e.) it would not fall (q.). (36) But it had a purpose in connec- 
tion with him boy that one going buffalo there was a stream 
(q.) there just it sat down in the water (q.) (e.) in the middle 
of the water. (37) Then thought (e.) boy secretly just 
I ought to take the two arrows out but (38) purposely it wanted 
buffalo that one sitting in the water to have the two arrows 
boy. For it liked him (39) and so boy then then he 
thought (e.), ''I cannot I to go in the water because of his 
fine clothes." (40) Now he did thus: boy he went off. It 
stayed in the water (q.). (41) And that one in the water she was 

1 Four extra arrows are put against the bow while in action. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 205 

(42) he haraaxruhs tri i-rdtsaksu rqkukisika (43) hetstaa*he kux- 
rdkatahat (44) ndioa rwe*Ta4a he wesiruriksta if 45) he ird*ta piraski 
he kukdruxra-tsiksta kuwetasaru-vt i-ra-ta taraha (46) tsi tdrgha 
he piraski weruxrd^a iweranrutste'a-ra (47) iweraxwari taraha 
kdrgkut ru vweraxwari ru'we-raxtau-kvi tstu trvaxrate-hat (48) he 
ke-tsi irdwqri taraha he tskqra rard-vta i-rdxwqri e vrdxwqri ndwa 
ru'irikuxrardte-wd'hat he rqwdqkardisu d-ki wekutetskiriku (49) 
ndwa iweaxrqraks'ru he axrgru arvkis witv pvta (50) a titqku 
tdra-tse'hat e* ke-tsi tihetqku raru- sita-rwhurgrq^a (51) hern tqrwtsia 
ari'kis tikuaxriwiwa-ki (52) he irgkq'riu tdrgha kitu kiwi-ku he 
sixre-rd't'ta irariki arvkis trikuaxre-ha-u (53) ird-riki arfkts 
ruiriwekuwite-ha isirurikstaxra piraski (54) he ira^riki hem ta-rat 
arvkis irirexkuraxkusisa-ri (55) hern texwgki tira-a kqrere^a ari-kis 
tiiriratdrapa-riki (56) heru siteruxwirdrgas ari-stt arvpdhat dsika- 
keritste (57) heru texwgki arvkis ihe* rakdriu (58) he axra^rwrd'kita 
isikargrerirutsite-u toetqrurd-kita iaxrixwake-hu (59) id*sti td 
ratsakuxra-kd-ru (60) he tqrurdkita sirexkuxrirdxwqri (61) he 
rahiri wekuxra'tsikskasa ari'kis he kuxratku tirdra'ku ia*sti ru ihe 

wonderful (42) and it could not where there it was shot to 
live. (43) Nevertheless it got out. (44) Now when it was going 
then it had his two arrows. (45) And that one (going) boy 
then he didn't pay any attention to it there was something the 
matter that one going buffalo (46) but buffalo — boy 
it \\ as because it liked him (47) that one going about buffalo 
it did not die. There that one going about (e.) it went among (e.) 
again where the edge was (e.) (where the herd was). (48) And so 
that one going about buffalo then alone it knew that one 
going about (e.) and that one now where the herds are then 
suddenly and so it was pregnant, (49) Now it was a long 
time (e.) and it had (e.) calf it is (q.) male. (50) And right 
here would be the edge of them and then over here just 
they two would roam. (51) Then he does thus: calf those 
this high. (52) And that many buffalo including bisons 
and they knew it that one (standing) calf who made him (e.). 
(53) That one (standing) calf there it was his father (he was son 
of) his two arrows it has boy (54) and that one (standing) 
tbon he would go (e.) calf where they would be playing. (55) 
Ti n they said this one coming don't let him come calf 
rigi 1 1 i lere where we are (standing) (56) then they would chase him 
themselves young calves they would not like him. (57) Then 
they would say (e.) calves — those many (58) and it is 
because (e.) they did not like him it is because they are saying 
(e.) (59) his father that one the ones that eat us. (60) And 
it for this reason they would chase it about (e.). (61) And finally 
it was mature the calf and he heard this way his father 

206 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

ra*^u ari'kis (62) heru axriwa-kn atira td4atku piraski sirakukux- 
rirdxwari (63) e re-tatku ru i'tghu alias dxrqtvru criwitqrurdkita 
pi'ts tisirikwru (64) axrqti-ru alias he kukqrereskutsirarikdd-hu 

(65) he riru'vt atira tisqkuru'ku ratkuwitskd* alias kqretixrdtqruxku 

(66) tskdra rqkuwdwa'riki ari-kis isd-sti a ia-sti he tihuri he dtiwa-nt 

(67) he ke4si tqUtska alias kqrexrdtqruxku (68) heru axriwa*ku 
tsustirq^u heririi'vt tiki ricritqsi'l a*as ralsakuxra^kd-ru (69) ndwa 
herire'tttska arfsct tdtuxrq*^ taldska a^as irqsixku*u (70) hern 
aocre'ravtqwt'ltl piraski arvkts (71) he iwerdra*ke*ru he- taratsiks- 
kdtqu^kvl ari-kts (72) heru taxwa*ku Isustirq^u ktrikerwvl raxkw- 
Istkskdtqku ari'kts (73) heru axriwa^ku ari'kis Idtistka alias 
rdlkut&rd (74) heru axriwa'ku tsuslirq^u ti'ki luxra/uxtqwi d*as 
raskute*rtl irititl ratsqkibxra'kd'ru (75) heru axriwa^ku Isustirq^u 
a-kdreresiwitsuxta tuxrauxtqvn (76) hetstqahe" ari'kts axrawilska" 
(77) heru axriwd-ku Isustirq^u ititskd* d'as raskute'nl lirimxlsi 
rariksisu dkiUfru lirdte-hat he werilaklalsqus (78) he su-huri wetq- 
raxkdta triwetatsqkuraktqrdspia he werilaktMsdus liwerqrdxwaa 
(79) heru* ketslikutsu liat pe*nksu (80) irtliit raxkuwilska" kira- 

that — one that is calf. (62) Then he said (e.), ^'Mother 
I heard boy when they would chase me (63) and I heard way 
over there my father that is mine (e.) that's the reason hate 
these me. (64) That is mine (e.) my father and you never do 
tell me. (65) And it is that way, mother, there will always 
be a day when I think my father I haven't any. (66) But then 
when they stand about calves their mothers " and their fathers 
then they are together and they would stand. (67) And so 
I think father I haven't any." (68) Then said (e.) his mother 
"It is that way, son, that is your your father the one that 
likes to eat us. (69) Now that's what I want myself I did it 
I wanted your father for him to be yours.'* (70) Then thus 
he came to find out (e.) boy calf. (71) And it was a long time 
and he would get stubborn (thoughts would go against) calf. 
(72) Then she would say (e.) his mother, "What's the matter ?" 
when he would be stubborn (e.) calf. (73) Then said (e.) calf, 
"I want my father to see him." (74) Then said (e.) his 
mother, "Son that way is hard your father for you to see 
they are those those who hke to eat us." (75) Then said (e.) 
his mother, "You are not going to get there it is a hard matter." 
(76) Nevertheless calf he wanted to (e.). (77) Then said (e.) 
his mother, "If I want your father you to see, they are 
mighty really tribes that are at the edge and now they 
are hungry (78) and this way they are coming hunting they 
are coming hunting for us, and they are hungry these that 
are coming. (79) Then far off ahead he goes scout. (80) So 
they are when they want see if I can see anything buffalo 

WcUfi^h, Caddoan Texts 207 

ku1cusiutsirae*Ttt tdraha istd-ru-ta (81) heru axriwa-ku tsdpat he 
re-tsakuhurahatsista itttskd* d-as raskute-rit (82) hetstda-he^ taxwa-kH 
arvkts e-re'titskd* alias ratkute'Tit (83) he axtqwa-kn tsdpat ndwa 
d-as wetasute*nksta (84) he ke-tsi rerd-tqra itsakuhuritsqkawdrika 
he retsqkuhura'hats (85) Ks*tu wituxrardixku irararirdspqd he 
a-pd-ru sirite*nt ntsirixruriwi-ttt asirixkwttt (86) wttuxrardi-xku 
tsdpat irawa-kahu ikararuksitskd* sirakuwqa (87) axrawa*ku ndwa 
tretatstxwduxta d-as irira-ku kqresurdriru (88) aki kutira-ku irirq- 
kuxra*rexku ni*ra'riruqriustqrtt (89) hem axriwa-ku isd'Sti rihuksu 
iras tatsixwduxta ka'kisdksikat ratsixku'wqra (90) ndwa ru'we-sv- 
raxwa rihuksu iras (91) a^we-texre-sa^ iritqku kqraraxkuwqri hi 
risitdocwiru4tt (92) sqkuxkitu he risitaxraxkdku (93) a rihuksu 
ta-rdtke-a heriru sitaxwa ratka-hakt^tu he sitaxwa sirurd^riru i-tsix- 
wqra sdksikat kgtsqkuhurahats (94) irituxra^a iras isirdwari heru 
axriwa-ku tsdpat ndwa wituxrdvxku arfkcs ndwa tiriratki'd-ra ndwa 
ruriwetqtsixwitspduxta vrira*surdtshhat (95) triwetqtstoswdspduxta 
ka-sitdraxkis (96) ndwa iwe-riratke-d-ra isixraspd-tasit (97) nduxi 
ru-rikuxrirdtkaha-rqudu rqwitqkardisu ari-kis istu a-ki we^ku'tikuks- 
tqkut (98) heru axriwa-ku tsustirq^u siksa kqrdtiwa-kd-hu tritasntd-- 

if there is a herd." (81) Then said (e.) woman, "And we 
two are going to die if I want your father for you to see." 
(82) Nevertheless he wotdd say (e.) calf, '*I want my father 
I to see." (83) Then said (e.) woman, ''Now your father 
you are going to see. (84) And so it is doubtful. If they fool 
us then we have died." (85) Because she meant (q.) those 
coming in front and secretly they would see it they would 
get in their path then they kill them (two). (86) she meant (q.), 
woman, he that would be saying he that didn't want them 
(two) to come. (87) She said (e.) ''Now we are going to go your 
father where he is. Don't be frightened." (88) For there is 
a way that she meant that he is going to be afraid of. 
(89) Then said (e.) his mother, "Just when night we 
are going to go. It is not daytime for us to go." (90) Now 
there they went just when night. (91) When it would be morn- 
ing where anyone they would not go about and they would 
stop there. (92) All day then there they would stay down. 
(93) and just when when night would come thereupon they 
go (e.) all night then they went they are afraid if we go 
daytime we will be dead. (94) That's why night they go. 
Then said (e.) the woman, (now she meant (q.) the calf) 
**Now tonight now we are going to arrive there where the 
tracks begin. (95) Where we are going to arrive you must be 
strong." (96) Now when it is night they started on. (97) Now 
at a certain time of night suddenly calf back then it had 
fled. (98) Then said (e.) his mother, "Come here, didn't I say 

208 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

nsta (99) d*ki iriwekutirate-hat tsdxriks Takusurdtse*hat d-ki 
iriwe'kutira ari-kts istu irqkukstdkuku vrvkuxrasurdxkaha tsdxriks 

(100) heru taocwa*ku tsustira^u siksa kqrdtiwa*kd'hu tuxrauxtqwi 

(101) hdwa tsi'Tu tiratsixwqri he- re-rdtqra (102) heru te'rd arl-kis 
he ra-hvri kuxrutqtsikste-a irutkaha-rqwi tsa*xriks (iru'tasuxkaha*- 
ram) he ra^hiri rutatsikste-a iwe'sira*ku siksikat (103) he ihe we*- 
raratked-ra heriweaxrawd-ku tsdpat ndwa iriwetqtsixwttspduxta 
iritiretiiraxku (104) iwerqratke-u he iivesirewd iras d'ki wekqrexrvvt 
he ke'tsi tisirdwqra he ari-kis he tdxkukstqkut i-stu (105) iruxrd-ra 
tsdxriks irikuxrardxkqha (106) heru taxwa-ku tsustirq^u si'ksa 
tdsitska d'os raskute-nt he re-suxte-nksta (107) hqwa istu ru te-ra he 
rawitqkardisu hiru axre'ritii'ru'a iras irvhiu ram* witc'tuxkirard- 
ioata*rua (108) he aoorqkiwiktaxku^ he trisixrakdtqwa iriwe-siwitiki' 
tawa-nt iras rdriwi-tsu rardtke-a^riusuku (109) d-kga tiaxre-turua 
tairu wdiraxkiriku i-we-sirakitqim^riki (HO) heru axriwa'ku 
tsustirq^u ndwa iriitutd-ra irikasutsia (111) heru axrutsia tsustirq*u 
he wttixrqtawihurat he* ru-axra^rant he hiru axri^ tsdpat (112) heru 
axriwa-ku ndwa wituxrdvxku ari-kts trisutsvksa (113) he ari-kis 

that's what you were going to do ?" (99) And here it was the edge 
people the edge of the tracks. And so that's the reason calf 
back that he was running that's how the tracks smelled people 
(human), (100) Then said (e.) his mother, *'Comehere, didn't 
I tell you so it is difficult (101) also while we are here then 
it is doubtful." (102) Then he would come calf and finally 
he became accustomed to it those he is smelUng people (those 
tracks he smells) and finally he got accustomed to it, when 
they stopped (sat) daytnne (103) and — the next night then 
said (e.) woman, **Now we are going to arrive there where 
the camps are." (104) That night then they were going at 
night and then it probably was not far and then these two 
going then calf — he would flee (e.) back again. (105) Those 
coming people that's their smell. (106) Then said (e.) his 
mother, ''Come on you want your father for you to see and 
you are going to see him." (107) Also again then he would 
come and suddenly there the camp extended this way 
night it was just the camp appeared bright and clear (q.), 
(108)and there were sand-hills (e.) and that's where they (two) 
went up there they (two) were standing on top night just when 
it would become night. (109) Oh this camp extending this way 
(e.) yet they were awake (q.) when they were standig on top. 
(110) Then said (e.) his mother, "Now whatever I do that 
is what you must do." (Ill) Then did (e.) his mother, then 
she threw herself down and there stood then there it is (e.) 
woman. (112) Then she said (e.), "Now!" (she meant (q.) the 
calf) ''You do that." (113) Then calf it threw itself down 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 209 

rwwtUaxrita'wihurat (114) he him axra*rqnt piraski tikuwtti*hu*rat 
wituxpi-ra-re he axrqwitat ari-pdaxraxkata he rire-witat (115) ka'a 
ira'tiki tsustirq^u he axrqwitat tsahu*ki arwtqrttpdtstqwa (116) heru 
aacriwa-ku tsdpat ndwa tiki ru'we4d'suxta tiriretu-rwi vxtqku ikqhdx- 
riri d*as trite-ka (117) tsi*ru kitu tiwihat id-sti isd-sti d itaxri kttu 
tiwihat (118) he ra-riruxra-te ira^ku d-as tikirikd'hu*^ kitu pvra^u 
he raktd'tstksta (119) tqriruxrd-te tdkti rqhite'nt pi-rq^u he te*tsikste*~ 
hu*u he ti-ra-suxtarit he iskirikdskd'at iritvtsta u*kqtat iriti d-as 
(120) a- ti'tqku he irira-ku kurqhus a tsu-stit a hetqku itaxri axrq- 
wihat (121) heru isutsia a isu^kat d-as he re*wa*kasta su-huri tiki 

(122) heru ri-wa'kasta art tiki iri irdku pi'raski he rinxkus (123) 
heru riwa-ku tqke*svi d-as heru riwa-kdsta piraski a-tids tqtq (124) 
he irdku pvraski id-sti a isa-sti ha kitu* irikuxrutakitsvsu heru 
texwqki suuxrurds tsqpat (125) e* kakdxwitska piraski (126) ndwa 
iw&rqwa'ka piraski iwe-rdwi-ttt irvra^ku (127) heru axriwa*ku tiki 
a-as tqkd'si'i heru aocriwa-ku piraski atiastqta (128) rihuksu* triwi- 
tiwa*ku heru axriwa-ku kurahusq^u hdri kqrdtiwa-kd-hu tsdpat 
su'ksurqs irqwa-kqhu kurahus he rixre'tsqrisa-ri (129) heru axriwa-ku 

(114) and there there stood (e.) a boy. He was this tall (q.) 
he was a handsome child (q.) and he was wrapped (e.) yel- 
lowish-red-calf-robe and he was wrapped in it. (115) Oh, 
that one (standing) his mother then she was wrapped (e.) 
buffalo-robe holes around the hide (peg-holes). (116) Then 
said (e.) woman, ''Greetings, son, there you are now going 
to go this (end of) the camp over there in the middle your 
father that's where his dweUing is. (117) Yet all they are 
living his father his mother and his sister aU they are 
living. (118) And he likes to that one (sitting) your father 
he is kind all children he loves. (119) He likes to someone 
to see child and he would be happy and there since you 
are going to go then peep in with one eye it is going to be he 
west side that is he your father (120) and right there then 
here he sits old man and old woman and over there sister 
they sit (e.). (121) Then do thus: then you must go in. Yo\ir 
father then he will say, 'This way son.' (122) Then he will 
say, 'Ob, son here that boy,' then he will place him there. 

(123) Then he says, 'Who is yours your father.' Then he 
will say boy, 'My father you are.' (124) And that boy 
his father and his mother and aU he was related to then 
they would say, 'Find a woman.' (125) And he wotdd not 
want to boy." (126) Now when he said that boy when he 
sat down where he sits (127) then he said (e.), "Son, your 
father who is he?" Then said (e.) boy, "You are my 
father." (128) Just when he said that (q.) then said (e.) his 
father, "Look out, didn't I teU you wife to find." That 
he is saying old man and he was scolding him. (129) Then 

210 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

pirocski alias tsi-ru ruxra-rexku iwirixre'tsdnsa-ri (130) heru 
axriwa*ku pvraski alias tatiwakkks tikaratituitskga tsa-pat ratkuhuras 
(131) tirdruxrd-rwa tsdpat kakatirdvta he weaxrawa'ku rw ihe 
ira*riki tsapat iwakd a- as tiki asas kar&ku (132) he sa^ku d-hu heru 
axriwa-ku tsdpat iwd*ka kiriksruxru-hu'ru asas tird'ku riwd-ka 
ndwa kirikeru'vt (133) heru re-siwa-kasta alias tira-ku a-tira ruirikux- 
rarikdtiha^a he axrgsukstaktaxkdtqat e iaxrasuksaktdxruri-wa (134) 
he a-tira ti-taku pttku riksiri axrdxtsat ti-taku hawd cstu pitku 
wituxtsak atird (135) axrakuksau-kvt he hiru dxrasiri'a (136) e 
irikuxaxrdskuha iraku pvraski ruriru witiwa-ku d-hu alias ku^ite-xra 
piraski ruwitikusd he axrarikdlawvttt (137) axriwa*ku iriti kutdlix- 
ra^u he kare-ri tvtaku (138) heru axriwa*ku pvraski tiki ikiru-raat 
dsas (139) heru axriwa-ku piraski Idku Ivku (140) heru axriwa-ku 
pvta eru* sisikspa (141) e-kaa pvraski kitu* siaxrixrqhukalaiwari 
sidxrixrvkakis (142) heru axriuxvku piraski ndwa ruruksd asas 
tiki (143) heru axriat piraski heru axriwa-ku wedxrawttsata iri 
rd'ku isd'Sti alira dtias tiwd-kd'hu rusisikspa (144) heru siaxriwa 
(145) he ke*tsi pi-raski he weaxravxvku alias tsaxriks sika-kva sitva 
tdraha a arvkis (146) tatirdvta rutrilirawa-ka tira-td piraski iritu-vt 

said (e.) boy, "Father, wait." Meaning in his scolding him. 
(130) Then said (e.) boy, "Father I am truthful the reason 
why I don't want to woman to find (131) these many women 
I do not know. And she had said (e.) then that other one 
(standing) woman, if he says your father, ''Son your mother 
is she living?" (132) Then you must say, "Yes." Then 
she said (e.) woman, "If he says what's it all about your 
mother here if he says 'Now what's the matter V (133) Then 
you must say, "Father this one my mother it was some 
certain part of the year and you all went hunting (e.) and 
you were chasing them about (e.) (134) and my mother there 
two with arrows you pierced her (e.) here also again two 
she was pierced (q.) my mother (135) she fled into the water (e.) 
and there you came (e.). (136) and I am your child." That 
boy thereupon he said (q.) "Yes, father that's my child." 
Boy then he picked up (q.) and he placed him on his lap (e.). 
(137) He said (e.), "That is my child but he is not right 
here." (138) Then said (e.) boy, "Son where did go your 
mother?" (139) Then said (e.) boy, "Here she is." (140) Then 
said (e.) man, "Well, you two come here!" (141) Oh, boy 
all they carried him about (e.) they hugged him (e.). (142) Then 
said (e.) boy, "Now let her come your mother, .son." 
(143) Then he went (e.) boy. Then he said (e^ when he 
arrived (e.) there the one is his mother, "Mother, father 
says 'you two come.' " (144) Then they two went. (145) And 
then boy then he said (e.), "Father people they are not. 
They are buffalo and calf. (146) I know it that which he 

WdiJiisJt, Caddoan Texts 211 

(147) ndwa herw siaxrihii*pa il-kaa tira4d tsapat wituxre ruritax- 
rikitsawa (148) he tire4uraxkti he rarikscsu weaxritaktdtsaus (149) 
irvrd'ku pvraski heriaxrawi-ttt (150) hern axriwa'ku piraski 
axruxrexku tsapat krra (151) he axrawd-ku tsapat tasirdvta (152) 
hern axrutsia axreksnhat axriwa^ku hd- sire* sir irikstsawa pvraski 
wite-tsikste-hu^u i-we-siruxrikse^nt (153) heru axriwa-ku vra-ku 
tsapat (154) ndwa he r&wdska* piraski rdkute-nt e tiwerute'rit 
taraxkisiri rdwitsa (155) heru axriwa-ku tsapat he a*sku retpd*kasta 
tvwe'siratku (156) asku retpd-kasta tiraspd-wqri he tirakitsuhat 
U'ksawdxtsatstd'hts karesikvka tirdkira-rdwara (157) kirakusird*- 
wttsat iri-ratitska^ rakura-witsata (158) ndwa vriwetiwa^ku kw- 
kqrardkukfka iriwe-tirixrquxtdwvru (159) heru axriwa^ku tsdpat 
tatirdi'ta tire-turwta (160) ruxrauxtdwi*u dkqwa*xtsisu (161) hs'tu 
wewititaktqtsdus (162) heriru axre-kdruru tsapat (163) heru 
axrutsia takaskiripaxki a dhttki (164) kurqhus hdri kuwitit'tu 
kurqhus ira*ku iwe^rqa (165) a* kqrdqxrrkqrihqts he axrakdwaki-ta 
(166) hqwd tsit'Stct hawd kardaxri-karj/hats kitw riaxri-ta itdxri he 
sikqrdaxririkqri'hats he weruaxriraxkitsqwa heru axriwa-ku piraski 
tsapat axruxrexku rariksisu wetitaktqtsdus (167) he ira*ku tsqpat 

said this one (going) boy it is that way." (14:7) Now then 
they went inside (e.). Oh, this (going) woman she was pretty 
(q.) she was all greasy (e.)- (148) And these dweUings — 
really they were hungry (e.). (149) That boy then he sat 
down (e.). (150) Then said (e.) the boy meaning woman, 
"What about it 1" (151) Then said (e.) woman, '*You know of 
it," (152) Then she did (e.) she moved her hand (e.). She 
said (e.), "Here are your two arrows." Boy he was happy (q.) 
when he saw the two arrows. (153) Then said (e.) that woman, 
(154) "Now then he wanted l3oy to see you and now he 
has seen you. With difficulty he arrived." (155) Then said (e.) 
woman. "And one thing I am going to say since we are here, 
(156) one thing I am going to say, These your wanderings then 
this stream even if you are thirsty don't drink, these streams 
extending forth (157) see if the affair can get to where I want 
for it to arrive." (158) Now that she said for him never to 
drink she has made it hard for him. (159) Then said (e.) woman, 
"I know this camp (160) it is hard food. (161) Because 
they are hungry. (162) Thereupon she fed them (e.) woman. 
(163) Then she did (e.) a Uttle dry-meat and fat (164) old 
man you see, it was so small (q.) old man that one when 
he ate it (165) then he did not eat it up (e.) and he filled 
up (e.) (166) also old woman also she didn't eat it up (e.) 
all they did that (e.) sisters then they did not eat it all up (e.) 
and they were all greasy (e.). Then said (e.) boy woman 
meaning (e.) really they are hungry. (167) And that woman 

212 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

axrawd'ku tatirdvta rwtvvt trirarate-wd-hat taraha (J68) heru 
axriwa-ku tsapat piraski axruxrexku (169) ndwa ta'ku ketskusit 
rqkuwaktit tire-turu'ta (170) kitu- kusiwa-ku tirgwaktikstard tiras- 
takituru-ta (171) d-sku akaraxkdu he isuraktdhe-nt tixwakid'hu 
raxkdkusu iritikskarutsiusu-ku tdkaski (172) asku kd-ru he sinxkus 
raxkdkusu ru-tuxkitu (173) he a*sku rvAixrikd-ku'Su (174) rax- 
kdkusu ru'turaxkutsu he kttw riaocri*ta ndwa (175) iwe-axrdhesa 
he irisirixrexku raxkdkusu he hiru taxku iweaxrd-he^sa Mkqruvs 
(176) he hiru takgski tdraxkqku tuxkitw a axrixrdkawqats (177) 
tsapat irirdkuxra-ru heru axriuxi'ku tsapat ndwa ruksdktqkuhurd*- 
raspd'tasit (178) triweruxra^rexku sirixkuktdraspe taraha (179) 
iwe^ru^ra-he ha-wa werixrakdwqqts (180) ruiriwekuxraktdkqwu hern 
axriwa-ku tsapat tvtqku tqku rukskdtqat (181) weraxkatqat pvta 
iri'kurux iweaxrakcta-riki heru axre-rdrwa tdrgha (182) axratqwira 
he axrawd*ku tire-rdruat (183) heriru axriwaktit he axrqwa-ku 
ti'tqku wewitqra*rua tdraha (184) heru wdixriri-rat a axrvrarq- 
huriruxtsi (185) triruwdira-te-hat arixkqwH'tiku he iriruxra tsa/pat 
(186) ndwa istu wereaktqkuraxwa he weaxruxkarikstiruxtsi (187 ) he 
raru wdura-he tiwenxrdkawq-qtsu (188) he ke-tsi wesvre-rd'vta 

she said (e.), "I know it it is way off where the herds are buffalo." 
(168) Then said(e.) woman boy she means (e.), (169) ''Now 
someone you pick to announce this camp. (170) All he 
must say this announcement that he is going to make, 'This 
you, the camp, (171) one all the dwellings now prepare!' " 
They call it parfleche that's what they used to put them 
in dry -meat. (172) Each dwelUng — they put one forth 
parfleche the whole camp. (173) And one it stays inside 
(e.). (174) parfleche the whole camp then all they did 
that (e.) now (175) when it was morning (e.) and the one 
they mean parfJeche and there it would be (sit) (e.) when 
it was morning (e.) very early (176) and there dry-meat 
they would be in (e.) the whole camp then they ate (e.). (177) 
Woman the one that does it then said (e.) the woman, "Now 
let them all move on." (178) He means to look for them buffalo. 
(179) Now it is good again they have eaten. (180) Somewhere 
that they were travelling Then said (e.) woman, "Right here 
someone let him go up." (181) One went up (e.) a man whoever 
it was. when he was standing on top (e.) then there were (e.) 
buffalo (182) he came down (e.) and he said (e.) here they are. 
(183) Thereupon he announced (e.) and he said (e.) "Right 
here they were scattered along (q.) buffalo." (184) Then they 
started and they got a whole lot (e.). (185) That was the 
beginning of their killing and she caused it woman. (186) 
Now back they are were coming and there was a lot of dry- 
meat (e.) (187) and just it is good (q.) their eating. (188) And 
so they knew tribe that woman her being the cause of it 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 213 

akita'TU i'va'ku tsapat iweruxra'ru^ rixrakawaajts (189) kk*tu 
tiwdruksti a ira'ku tsapat a piraski he sikdrexrerdvta trisirqkuiva^tma 
he kusikakaruxratsdus (190) ndwa ru* weraraktakuraxwd'Wa tri" 
tiru'ta rakwrd'Tcksu rqkii'tat (191) iwere- itat ndwa irdku piraski he 
kukuxruksat piraski (192) he ke*tsi isiraku tsapat wekuxrdra'ke'a 
sixra-ku a piraski he ra^ra-i-ta tixruhuru kqrardkukvka (193) ndwa 
ird'ta piraski rui-we'ra-ta (194) cstu weaxrd piraski kuocrawintstu 
he axrahdvsa (195) hem axriwitska piraski kuxrahdtsta-his (196) 
hern accriwitska katsturdte-ki'ka'ista wttikituxra'kghikqm (197) hem 
axru'tsia ikstri rihuksu- taxmtii'ta rihuksu kuxrqkirdmxtit (198) he 
ire-tu'ruhat he aosrawa-kdrqwi-ttt rihuksu iaocrakira'ruktika (199) he 
svrdkukstqkut tsdpat d arvkts ruwe^si-razwa (200) heru siaxrva 
tdrqha d ari'kis he tireturdrwta axrawqkdxta (201) he rqhvra 
axrwaxkaru'watat tihe'tqku a axrawakahU'ta axraw&'ka sitqs- 
ird'i'ta iriru4a tisirdwara (202) iriwe*sitia titqku sirnkstqwe (203) 
irimxrd*ru dkita-m tiweretsixra-kdwaats sitatse-rd-t'ta (204) tdku 
ku raru kqre-sutsia (205) ruxra*rexku sikqrdasiriku'tika ndwa he 
ke*tsi iwerdwqkarqwi'ttt piraski mwttirdhuras axrqwitskq^^ (206) 
Ivr/iJcu kqresiki'ka iritixruxrardfxku (207) heru axriwa'ku piraski 

they eating, (189) because she is wonderful and that woman 
and boy then they two did not know what they should eat 
and they would not be hungry. (190) Now there they all 
w nt on the way it is when there is a real one to be a camp. 
(11) There it is camp. Now that boy then he had gone 
801 ('where boy (192) and then those two the woman 
it M as a long time they lived there and boy and she knew 
she made a rule for him for him not to drink. (193) Now that 
(going) boy when he went (194) again he was coming (e.) 
boy it probably was hot and he came into the water (e.) 
(195) and he thought (e.) boy he was thirsty. (196) Then 
he thought (e.), **I wUl not drink it let me just wash my mouth." 
(197) Then he did (e.) with his hand. Just when he did thus 
just when he put water in his mouth (198) then that camp then 
there were shoutings (e.) (voices sat down) jiist when when he 
put water in his mouth (e.) (199) then they fled woman and 
calf there they had gone. (200) Then they were (e.) buffalo 
and calf. And these camps they all yelled (e.). (201) And 
finally they all came outside (e.) over here then one shouted 
loudly (e.) he said (e.) you all know the way it is these two 
going. (202) They are the two right here they were among us. 
(203) the reason why tribe we are eating we all know. (204) 
Anyone probably just not to do. (205) He meant forthem not 
to kill them. Now then so they all yelled boy then he found 
out (q.) he knew (206) she said, "Don't drink," that's what 
she meant. (207)Then said (e.) boy overthere just hewent (q.) 

214 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society VoL XVII 

hetaku raru witiat axriwd'ku criwe*witt(axrduxkd'pd'hs (208) kttu 
isiruksku he axTuruksta*he (209) irirurdhe-ra heritaxwttska he 
ritarn-vt (210) he-tu iraku piraski heru rihvra he kardaxrika-pa^kts 
(211) iriruxraru tsapat ira-ku (212) kurqhus a tsu*sttt a itaxri he' 
svre-rurukstapirihu (^1^) piraski iwe-ra-ta iwerahu-kata kitu 
sirixre-tsdnsd-ri (214) Tidwa axriwa^ku piraski heriru'vt tdtuxra 
tikuxru'huru tisiratvitspaa kukardtkuki-ka (215) heru axriwa-ku 
ati-ra kuksxkuxsurd *m (216) heru axrire*surd*ru heru axripatsu-nt 
(217) ru we4idt irvsirdwaru wesituratuxkqat raru- iri-sikuxrawa 
M'tsi suhuri sikuxrirastat (218) heru iriwesikuxrqwq he isirdwarq 
he wesirardi'ta he siteruxrqtuxka wesite-rutstatdta (219) hawd 
taxwa'ku ari-kis atira ketsixwiru'tit wetikuwis-ka (220) d-ki hi 
axruxrirq^a id-sti axrqwitska alias wekuxrgsuxrgtsqus (221) he 
we*ru^axrirqwiu wewUqrdvta piraski axrqwitska alias tiwe*ra (222) 
heru axrima'ku piraski atira wetikuxrqtsqus (223) heru axriwa'ku 
tsapat trire'hizwa rqkuwdwqa (224) axriwa-ku tsapat piraski atira 
he^re-titska kuraskukuxrq*u (225) iri-ri-tsiksd^ri atika dsku tdtuksa 
(226) d'ki kututaktqvxku tdpaxrd*rus heru axriwa-ku tsu^tirq^u 
kirakqrasitska a-as rdskura*ruhq (227) he kqrere^iwttska tuxra^a 

he said (e.), *'I did myself poorly , (208) because those two that 
lived here then it was good (e.)." (209) That which is good 
whatever he would want then it would be that way, (210) be- 
cause that boy then further then he was not poor (e.) 
(211) she was the cause of it woman that one. (212) Old man 
and old woman and sister and they loved those two 
(213) boy as he went when he went inside all they scolded 
him. (214) Now said (e.) boy, * It is that way T did it she 
made a rule for me when they two first came here for me never 
to drink." (215) Then he said (e.), ''Mother give me some 
moccasins." (216) Then she gave him moccasins. Then he 
got his quiver (e.) (217) there now he goes where the two went 
he is going on their path just where they went. Then this 
side he tracked the two. (218) And where they went and 
those two going then they knew it and he would follow their 
path he is following the two. (219) Again he would say (e.) 
calf, ''Mother let us sit down I am tired." (220) But then 
his purpose is (e.) his father he thought (e.) my father he 
must be hungry." (221) And it is just about time he knew (q.) 
boy he thought, (e.) ''My father here he comes." (222) Then 
said (e.) boy, "Mother I am hungry." (223) Then said (e.) 
woman, "There is hay standing to eat them." (224) Said (e.) 
woman boy, "Mother I want you to make for me ' (225) the 
way they did my grandmother once I ate." (226) And here 
he meant ground dry-meat, (groundfluffy, bushy) Then said (e.) 
his mother, "You must want your father you to give them 
to him (227) and I don't want to because he did not hsten 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 215 

kdraretka^u iriratpa-ka tdhareswtsia hetstqd ru*ta (228) he rikw- 
tsikstda rurttuxrardvxku vrdkvka (229) he arvkis ruaxre-tsiks- 
katau'kvt he wekdraaxriwitska dtd-a wtte4sikskdtau'kvt (230) ari-kcs 
isd*sti axrixwivra (231) he ra*hi*ri axrawa-ku ndvM siksa ndwa 
wetatutd*rista trisuxra-rexku (232) heru axre*a ari'kis ru*axretsiks- 
tehd'ka (233) tsustira*u axriwa-ku ndwa siksa wttuxrurare ti-taku 
(234) axru'ta he axrdsvsat urdriri he axrwtd axreksutsaa (235) he 
hirijt aara-ruts tdpaxra-ms axriwd-ku ndwa siksa (236) heru axri- 
wd'ku drvkis ndwa ru*ru a-tira (237) heru axriwa*ku tsustira'u d-as 
kqresikdruru d'os (238) tsi axraat tsustira'u triruwUe-nt arvkis 
(239) ira-riki arvkis d*ki iriwekutuxruri vdsti (240) heru axre-a 
wewitiraxkis kukarexrihakqwd-xtsu (241) heru axriwa-ku ari-kis 
atias kaweruxrqtsqus axriwa^ku piraski d'hu (242) heru axriwa'ku 
siksa atias (243) titqku atira tikutkqru tdpaxra^rus (244) heru 
axrutsitsirqsqt ia*sti axixrutsirdspitsat iriaxri-hi^u (245) axreksu- 
kd-at isdsti he ta-ruaxrutsia axreksukd*gtq ari*kis heaxrekskqtdJiat 
(246) hiru axra-ruts tdpqxrd-rus (247) axrawd^ku ndwa atias 
suksdkqwqqts heru axrihd^kqwa^tsusi'tit (248) heru axrivxi-ku 

what I said don't do this nevertheless he did it. (228) And 
it hurt my feelings." What she meant when he drank. (229) And 
calf he got stubborn (e.) (his thoughts bumped against) and 
he did not want (e.) to come then he got stubborn, (q.) (230) calf 
his mother she was persuading him (e.). (231) And finally 
she said (e.), ''Now come here, now I am going to do that 
which you mean." (232) Then he came (e.) calf he then 
yielded (e.) (his thoughts straightened). (233) Hismother said (e.), 
"Now come here the ground is good (q.) right here." (234) She 
did (e.) then her foot went in (e.) in the ground and she 
did (e.) raise her hand (e.) (235) and there they sat (e.) ground 
dry-meat. She said (e.), ''Now come here." (236) Then said (e.) 
the calf ''Now go on, mother." (237) Then said (e.) his 
mother, "Your father don't feed him your father." (238) Then 
she went (e.) his mother he stood there calf (239) that one 
(standing) calf then he was waiting for him his father. (240) 
Then he came (e.) he was thin (bony) (q.) he hadn't been 
eating. (241) Then said (e.) calf, "Father you are hungry." 
Then said (e.) the boy, "Yes." (242) Then he said (e.), "Come 
here father (243) right here mother she made them for me 
ground -dry -meat." (244) Then he took him (e.) his father 
he arrived with him (e.) at the place (e.) where (245) she pressed 
her hand (e.) his mother and then he did this way (e.) he 
pressed his hand into (e.) calf and he took his hand out (e.). 
(246) There there were sitting (e.) ground-dry-meat. (247) Then 
he said (e.), "Now father, eat." Then he began to eat (e.). 
(248) Then said (e.) calf, "Father when you have fiUed up 

216 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

arihs atias weiskdwaki-tu (249) he ta*ru isutsia istJcspitua-hat 
triaxrukstu'tsi tdpaxrd'rtts (250) isasti weqoiruturdmtsat ari*ki8 
(251) heru axriwa'ku isd'Sti vrnva kaxraskdruru d'os (252) kakd- 
titska raskuka'Tura'u axrixre'tsqrisa'ri arvkcs (253) rurihvra 
wesiwitiwa (254) ndwa axrgwd'ku arvkis atira tikuhatsta*his 
(255) hawd tsustira*u iriru ta-ritsdrisa (256) raxkumtskqa vdsti 
he hqwd kuxrdsitska aski*ka (257) hem taratsikskataH'kvt he 
ra'hi*ri isd'Sti tdrwruuxkttdat (258) he rahiri axrgwd'ku tsustira*u 
ndwa siksa wttikiwqhaxku kiwdhaxtd'hi'su (259) he risixrqwq heru 
rutsia tsustirq^u hi axre'ksukd'ot (260) axrekskdtqhat he aocra*- 
Mtska (261) heru axriwa*ku rusukski-ka (262) heru aocrivxi*ku 
ari'kts ndwa rH-ru atira kustidt ratkat (263) heru tdxwa'ha tsustirq^u 
d'OJS kqresikikd'rd (264) iriru witvku ari'kts he kuwekqraaxrikttsa 
(265) hetsi w^axrukskikcL-hu ari-kts taru axru-tsm aaxrdspiiva*hat 
tdraha ari'kts isa'sti (266) heriru axriwHit ari'kts iri' isasti ax- 
rasjnwa'hat wewduturardtsiksta (267) he hiru axre-ra id'sti (268) 
axrqwd'ku siksa atias (269) atias kqrahatstd'his (270) heru axri- 
wa'ku piraski d'hu tiki wetikithatstd'his (271) heru axriwa'ku ari'kts 
rvdwa siksa atias ti-fqku atird ti'tU'ta tri' isa'sti axreksukd'ot (272) 

(249) then thus do do thus rub your hand about where they 
were (setting) (e.) ground-dry-meat." (260) His mother when 
he had caught up with her (e.) calf, (251) then said (e.) his 
mother, "Now you probably fed him your father. (262) I did 
not want you to feed him." She was scolding him (e.) calf. 
(263) Further on they were going. (254) Now said (e.) calf, 
^'Mother I am thirsty." (265) Again his mother thereupon 
she would get angry. (256) He would think (e.), "His father — 
also he probably wants to drink." (257) Then he would get 
stubborn and finally his mother he would persuade her (get 
ahead of her). (268) And finally she said (e.) his mother, 
"Now come here." There was a swamp (q.) a dry swamp. 
(259) and there they went. Then she did his mother — 
she pressed her hand in (e.) (260) she took her hand out (e.) and 
water came out. (e.) (261) Then she said (e.), "Drink." (262) 
Then said (e.) calf, "Now go on mother. I will go next." 
(263) Then she would say (e.), his mother, "Your father don't 
water him." (264) Thereupon he stayed (sat) (q.) calf and 
there was no more water (e.). (266) But he had been drinking (e.) 
calf. Thus he did (e.) then he rubbed his foot about buffalo 
calf his mother. (266) Thereupon he sat down (e.) calf where 
his mother had rubbed her foot (e.) he was guarding that place 
(q.) ij! (267) and there he came (e.) his father. (268) He said (e.) 
"Come here father. (269) Father are you thirsty ?" (270) Then 
said (e.) boy, "Yes, son, I am thirsty." (271) Then said 
(e.) calf, "Now come here, father, right here my mother, 
this she did." Where his mother had put her hand in (e.). (272) 

Wdtfish, Caddoan Texts 217 

hem aarutsia ari'kis he axreksukd'at he axrwta axreksutsaa he 
axraldtslca (273) heru axriwa^ku Tv&wa alias sukskfka wetdtuksM- 
kd'hu (274) iasH a tartUatsikskd*pd'kis heru axriwa*ku piraski atira 
hqwd I'stu M^skuriru'ta ruxra*rexku rqmtskqa askutkdra*u tdpaxra- 
Tus (275) he tsustira*u ru tqritsqrisa (276) he ke-tsi rardvta 
iru'td'H ari'kis idsti tuxrira'^a isire*rutstqtdtaa (277) karqa-sut- 
sirqtsqus a kqrga'sihatstd'his (278) heru axriwa*ku tsdpat he hdwa 
kuxrdsitska kqre-sikdrqrw d-as (279) heru axriwa^ku tsapat ndwa 
siksa (280) ndvxi he hqwd riru axrutsia witikdtstahd'a (281) heru 
axriwa*ku ndwa siksa ruaxrutsia axreksuka-at (282) hiru hqwd 
riaxri'ruts tdpaxTd-rus (283) ndwa hqwd ruaxriat tsustirq^u tsiru* 
witz'ku ari'kis wetuxruru id'Sti (284) ira'ku heru axriwa-ku atias 
siksa suksdkqwqqts (285) tire-ruts atira tikutkqru tdpaxra-rus 
(286) tsiru dxriat arvkis arutaxkdscspa weraxkukqkis atias weta- 
sdkqwqqts (287) ndwa warwrihi-ra he hawd axraun'ku hHu rurdx- 
kurawiutstqu raxkumtska^ atias wekuxrqsatstd-his (288) ndwa 
axriwaku arfkcs atira wetikuhatsta'his (289) he tsustirq^u trite-re'- 
tsarisd-ri raxkuwitskaa we hd'wa id'sti tasixrira'a rdkuki'ka heru 

Then he did (e.) calf then he put his hand in (e.) and he 
did (e.) when he drew his hand out (e.) and water came out (e.) 
(273) Then he said (e.), "Now father drink! I have been 
drinking." (274) His father then he would feel miserable for 
him. Then said (e.) boy, "Mother also again do this 
for me!" He meant he wanted her to make them for me 
ground-dry-meat. (275) And his mother then she would get 
angry. (276) For then she knew he was doing that calf his 
father his purpose is for the one that is following them, (277) for 
him not to be hungry and for him not to be thirsty, (278) Then 
said (e.) woman, "And again probably you want to. Don't 
feed him your father." (279) Then said (e.) the woman, 
"Now come here." (280) Now then again thereupon she 
did (e.) there was wiregrass (q.). (281) Then she said (e.), 
"Now come here." Then she did (e.) she put her hand in. 
(282) There again there they were (e.) (setting) ground-dry- 
meat. (283) Now again she went (e.) his mother. Meanwhile 
he stayed calf he is waiting for his father. (284) That one 
then said (e.), "Father come here, eat!" (285) These here 
(setting) my mother she made them for me ground -dry-meat. 
(286) Meanwhile he went (e.) calf he would run there (e.) 
when he would be happy. "My father you have eaten." (287) Now 
further on then again he said (e.) because he would wait this 
long when he woidd think (e.), "Father he must be thirsty." 
(289) Now said (e.) calf "Mother I am thirsty." (289) And 
his mother she scolded him she would think (e.) now again 
his father his purpose is for for him to drink, then she would 

218 PvJbUcations, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

ta^ritsdnsa (290) axrawa-ku isdsti ndwa siksa hawd ruaxrutsia 
wctikiwahaxku kiwahaxtd-hi'su he risixrqwa (291) heru axrutsia 
axrasuka'at he ax:askqtdhat he axrakitska (292) heru axriwa*ku 
isd'Sti rasukskvka heru axriwa'ku hqwd a*as karesikvka-rtt. 

get angry. (290) She said (e,) his mother, ''Now come here." 
Again she did that (e.) there was a swamp (q.) a dried swamp 
and there they went. (291) Then she did (e.) she pressed her 
foot in (e.). and she took her foot out (e.) and the water came 
out (e.) (292) Then said (e.) his mother, ''Drink!" Then 
she said (e.) "Again your father don't cause him to drink." 

(This story is unfinished.) 


(Free translation.) 

There was a camp and from this camp a party of hunters went 
far off on a buffalo hunt. The buffalo would roam far from where 
the villages were. When the buffalo were first sighted, it would be 
announced to the people that the edge of the herd had been seen. 
It was then the custom of each hunter to tie (tether) a fast horse 
which was specially trained for buffalo hunting. There was a 
certain boy among the people who would do the same thing as the 
more mature men did. 

The people held it a great honor to have a boy in their family. 
As soon as they stopped and camped, they immediately built him 
a bed so that he could lie down and rest, for they wanted him to 
have a successful life. This was their custom and they were careful 
to observe it. The boy that we have already mentioned was a 
handsome child. The boy dressed himself in all his paraphernalia, 
mounted his horse and rode off determined to join the buffalo hunt. 
He had slung his quiver of wildcat skin across his shoidder. He 
had worn all his fine regaUa for he was proud of his appearance. 

The boy rode beyond the main party until he came upon the 
lines of hunters. They were preparing to charge upon the herd. 
Beyond the line of hunters there were many buffalo and there 
the boy went, taking four arrows from his quiver he placed them 
against his bow in readiness to shoot. All were lined in order and 
at a given signal they charged on the buffalo. They rode among 
the herd scattering them into small groups, each hunter choosing 
one to kill. The boy also drove a group off from the herd. Among 
this group was a handsome young buffalo. He selected this buffalo 
for his kiU and pursued it. When he was close to it he drew his 
bow and shot it, his arrow hitting beneath the lowest rib. Again 
he shot it and again his arrow found its mark and though he 

Wdtfl9h, Caddoan Texts 219 

chased it, the buffalo did not fall. The boy thought to himself 
that he ought to get back his arrows and abandon the buffalo, but 
the buffalo had a plan of its own. It purposely sat down in the 
middle of a stream and when the boy got there he would not go 
into the water for he would spoil his fine clothes. Then the boy 
left the buffalo sitting in the water and went off. That buffalo was 
wonderful for ordinarily a buffalo shot in the same part of its 
body would have died but this buffalo went on as before, with the 
arrows sticking in her side. The boy had gone away not knowing 
what had happened in the young buffalo's life. Through its super- 
natural power the young buffalo maintained its hfe as it was in 
love with the boy. And so it went on and rejoined the herd, and 
presently the buffalo was pregnant. After some time it gave birth 
to a buffalo bison-calf. The buffalo and her calf would wander 
about apart from the herd and as the calf grew he would play alone. 
The other members of the herd knew that the boy by means of 
his two arrows was father of the calf. When the young calf woidd 
try to play with the others they would chase him away, saying that 
he was the one whose father was of ''those who eat us". The calf 
overheard what they said about his being the son of a human being. 
When he grew up he spoke to his mother about it saying, ''Why do 
you never speak to me of my father. Sometimes I think I haven't 
any father. When the rest of the calves stand about they are with 
their fathers and mothers, I think that I must have no father." 
Then his mother said, "Son, your father is one of those that eats 
us, and it was I that desired that he be your father." And so the 
calf found out the truth about his parentage. As time passed the 
calf became obstinate and unruly. His mother asked him why 
he acted so and he told her that he wanted to see his father. She 
told him that this was a very hazardous venture for them as his 
father's people were mighty and there were tribes all about the 
country. "Moreover," she said, "those people are hungry, and 
they come here to hunt and kill us. Also they send out scouts who 
roam far ahead of the bands, to see if they can locate the herds. 
And if you insist upon visiting your father we are certain to be 
killed." Nevertheless the calf insisted and the woman consented, 
reminding him, however, that if they accidently met the scouts 
they were sure to be killed. She warned him not to be frightened 
for she knew there would be times when he would be afraid. Then 
she told him of her plan to travel only at night and to rest and hide 
in a valley during the day, for if they went by daylight they were in 
danger of meeting death. After many days the mother announced 
that they were about to arrive on the territory where human beings 
were wont to roam and she cautioned him that he must be brave. 
When the calf first noticed the human scent he was frightened and 
tried to run back. But his mother reprimanded him and called him 
back, reminding him that she had warned him before about the 

220 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

danger of travelling in this region. Soon he became accustomed to 
the human scent and after travelling another night and a day the 
mother said they were about to come to the encampment. As they 
drew closer the calf was again frightened at the scent of the people, 
but his mother reminded him that he wanted to see his father 
and that he had better learn to put up with it. Suddenly they came 
upon the village. The night was coming on and the white tents 
stood out in the darkness. They went along the bottom of a 
sandhill. They went up a hill and stood there. The people in the 
camp were still awake when they stood on top of the hill. The 
mother told the calf to do just as she did. She rolled herself about 
on the ground and there stood a woman. Then she said to the calf, 
"Now you do that," and the calf rolled about on the ground and 
in his place stood a handsome boy. He had wrapped about him a 
yellow calf robe, and his motherwore a buffalo-robe, with peg-holes or 
eyelets about the edge. Then the transformed buffalo woman told 
the boy that he must go to the village and he would find his father's 
tent in the center of the camp. He was told that his father's 
parents and his father's sister would be there. That his father was 
fond of children. And that when he peeped into the tent his father 
would be sitting on the west side. ''Your grandparents and his 
sisters will also be occupjdng their places. When you go inside, 
your father will address you as son and place you next to his seat, 
and he will then ask you who your father is. Then tell him, 'You 
are my father.'" The boy's parents and relatives had all the whUe 
been urging him to marry but he had consistently refused, so that 
as soon as the father heard what the calf said he began to scold his son. 
The boy stopped his father and assured him that it was not as he 
suspected, and that he had not known any women. The calf's 
mother had told him that if the boy inquired of his mother he must 
tell of the incident when the boy had gone hunting and shot a 
female buffalo with two arrows and how it had fled to the water, 
and that it was through this incident that the calf was his chUd. 
Then the boy remembered the incident and said, ''Yes, it is true, 
he is my chUd but he is not one of us humans." And he took the 
boy on his lap and inquired for his mother and the calf -boy said 
she was right nearby. Then the father said that both of them were 
to come to his house. Then they all hugged the boy and carried 
him about. Then he went for his mother and they both came back 
together. Meanwhile the boy explained to his father that what 
the calf said was true and that the mother and the boy were really 
buffalo people and not ordinary humans. 

The woman was handsome and had grease all over her clothes. 
The people in the village were starving. When the woman came 
in they asked her what she had come for and she answered that 
they already knew. Then she took two arrows from her bundle 
and gave them to the boy, saying, "Here are your two arrows." 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 221 

The boy was very happy to get his arrows and to see the woman. 
She told hixQ that the calf wanted to see his father and despite 
many dangers, they had arrived. She also cautioned him not to 
drink from any of the streams he came upon in his wanderings, 
even should he be very thirsty, until a ceirtain time which she would 
determine. She had given the boy a very difficult task. 

Then the woman said that she knew that food was scarce in 
the camp and so she would feed them. She took a very small piece 
of dry meat and fat and gave it to the old man. Although the 
portion was exceedingly small it seemed as if he could not consume 
it and he was soon satisfied and could offer some to the others. 
And they too coidd not succeed in finishing it. They had all eaten 
theix fill and were smeared with grease, but still the food was not 
gone. Then the boy again spoke to the woman about the pUght 
of the whole tribe and of their hunger. She said that the herd was 
far away but she would direct them how to get some food for 
immediate needs. An announcer was to be sent about the village 
requesting every family to take a parf leche and pack it up as if it 
were full of dry meat. When morning came the parfleches were 
full of dry meat and everyone in camp had plenty to eat. They 
were all grateful to the woman and she said that they were now 
aU to decamp and get ready to go on the hunt. Everyone was happy 
again for now they had eaten. When they had been on the march 
for some time she directed a man to climb a neighboring hiU and 
scout about for buffalo. Then he said he had found them and 
announced to the people that the heyd was near. They made a 
bountiful killing and had plenty of dry-meat, so that now every 
one felt happy again for they had food. Ttey knew that the 
wonderful woman was the cause of their success. They noticed 
that the woman and the calf-boy did not eat and they wondered 
why they were never hungry. 

After staying for some time in the village, the people again 
went off on a hunt and the human boy wandered off somewhere 
by himself. Some time had passed since the buffalo-woman and 
the calf-boy had come to live with them. As the boy wandered 
about he remembered the rule his wife had made for him, but 
it was a hot day and the boy was thirsty, and so when he came 
upon a stream he decided that he would not actually take a drink, 
but he would just wet his mouth. He took some water in his 
cupped hand and just as he put it into his mouth there was confusion 
in the camp and the buffalo woman and her boy fled. They had 
again become transformed into a buffalo cow and a calf. Everyone 
came out of his tent when they heard the noise and they began to 
shout that these were the two that had been with them and had 
caused them to have plenty of food and that no one was to attempt 
to kill them. As soon as the young man heard the shouting he 
remembered how the woman had cautioned him. He ran among 

222 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

the people and told them that he was the cause of his own ruin. 
For the two that had fled were good and had brought prosperity 
to the tribe. Also the boy had become very wealthy because the 
woman procured for him whatever he wished for through her 
supernatural power. All the members of the boy's family had 
learned to love the buffalo-woman and the calf-boy and they all 
scolded him severely. He admitted that it was his fault and said 
that the woman had warned him never to drink from any stream. 
He asked his mother for some moccasins which she gave him and 
taking his bow and his quiver he went off in the direction in which 
the two buffalo had gone. At last he found their tracks and the 
buffalo knew that he would follow them. The calf would say to 
its mother, * 'Mother, let's sit down and rest, I'm tired." However, 
he was only pretending to be tired so that his father might have a 
chance to catch up with them. His father would be hungry, he 
thought and then he might be able to give him some food. When 
he thought it was about time for his father to be nearby he would 
say to his mother, "Mother I'm hungry." She would say, "Why 
don't you eat that grass over there." And he would answer, 
"Mother I wish you would make me the sort of food I had at my 
grandmother's." What he meant was pulverized dry -meat. His 
mother scolded him and said, "You must want to give it to your 
father and I don't want you to. He has hurt my feelings; I asked 
him not to drink when he was out, but he disregarded my request." 
Then the calf became stubborn and refused to go with her. She 
pleaded with him and fing^Jly said she would do as he asked and 
then he consented to come with her. They went on until they 
found a place that the mother buffalo thought was suitable and 
then she pressed her foot into the ground and as she raised her hoof 
there in the imprint was the pulverized dry-meat. Then she asked 
the calf to come on but he told his mother to go ahead and he 
would join her later. Then the mother went on teUing the calf 
not to feed his father. Meanwhile the calf waited for his father 
and when he came along he was emaciated for he had had nothing 
to eat. He asked him if he was hungry and when his father said 
he was, the calf pressed his hoof into the ground as his mother had 
done and when he withdrew it, there lay the pulverized dry-meat. 
Then he told his father to eat as much as he wanted and when he 
was satisfied to rub his hand over the ground to obliterate the 
footprint. Then the calf rejoined his mother and she scolded him 
saying that he probably had fed his father and she had wanted 
him not to. Then they went on and at last the calf said, "Mother I 
am thirsty." Again his mother suspected what he wanted and 
began to scold him. But when he refused to go on with her she 
did as he asked. She pressed her foot into the ground and when 
she withdrew it, water came out. Then she told the calf to drink. 
Again the calf said "Mother you go on and I'll join you later." The 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 223 

mother went on, telling him that he wasn't to give his father any 
water. The calf stayed, rubbing hi§ foot OY^^ tko ^^jace from which 
the water had come so that the flow stopped. H§ «**^- down at the 
place where the water had come out and waited for )lW> i^^her. At 
last he came along and the calf asked him if he was thirgty. He 
said he was, so the calf provided him with a drink in the same way 
in which his mother had done. Then he went on and again he felt 
sorry for his father and he urged his mother to make more pul- 
verized dry-meat for him. His mother got angry for she knew that 
he planned to feed his father and give him water. They came to a 
place where some wiregrass was growing and she put her hoof into 
the ground and there was the pulverized dry-meat. Again he 
waited for his father and gave him some of the meat. He was glad 
to see his father eating and then he went along. Presently he 
thought again that his father must be thirsty so he told his mother 
that he wanted a drink. His mother scolded him and again ad- 
monished him not to give his father water. They came to a dried 
swamp and there she pressed her hoof into the ground and as she 
withdrew it, the water came out. Then she told the calf to drink 
and reminded him to be sure that he didn't give his father any. 
(This story is unfinished.) 

Vision Story 


kehdxkura ta'raha 
(1) wetaipd'kasf' tsa^xriks pqkuxf^ iriwitvisiks (2) he asku 
axrd*ku pvta tiraxkdtaat he ira-ku pt-ta hern kutd-rat (3) he taxwd*- 
j^ux heritaxkddure-nt pvta (4) he irdriki pvta he kuxrukskd-pd^kts 
(5) irariki pvta he wditd^rikikat ru iwerexkusdktqd hentqrvtpiu d-wct 
iwerdkitd*ri¥ iwerasd-ktad (5a) he ira^rik^ iwerqsd-ktqd irdre*wd4% 
irasd^ktqd iriri vru4a irasqkuxtahuru^sa he rawttakardcs^ iriaxra-- 

Dance — Buffalo 
( 1 ) I am going to say people ancient they were that way (q.). 

(2) And one that was sitting (e.) men they went up (on an 
expedition) and that one man then he probably goes off (e.). 

(3) And there is a hill (e.) and he would stand up on top (e.) 
man. (4) And that standing man and he was miserable. 
(5) That standing man and he would cry for himself (e.) just 
when as the sun came up (e.) he would be facing that way (e.) 
east as he stands up there as the sun is coming up (5a) and that 
one standing as the sun is coming up as he is looking about 
that sun coming up there as it is (in the outline) that sun- 
circle and suddenly there it jumped out (e.) as it went it 

224 Pttblicaiions, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

vnkqwqtat iwera*ta rawite-tka'ra*^ (6) hern riwitsha pvta rikuksa- 
ttnriwu e iweaxrwtd'Ta iwera4a he axrarewa^ta he hiru axri* targha 

(7) askurd'^^ hqwa aarahtd^ure*rU istu he hawd riqxruiasitit hawa 
axrawikqwa'tat sdkuxkat (8) hem riwdskd qii'ta rikuksawiriwu 
iweru'ta he hiru ri targha (9) istu askura*^^ he hawd istu axrgure'rtt 
hmua askurd'^^ he hqwa rewikawqtat sqkuxkat (10) he hawd ru*- 
rutsia he hqwd asku*u ri tdraha askurd*^^ sqkuxkat axrawikqwq'tat 
(11) r^riwe witWqwtriwu iwerqwa-ta he hiru axrl^nt tdraha (12) heru 
axriwd'ku tdraha ndwa ti-k^ tqtird'i*t^ triswtqtstksw d he weretntqt- 
sikskd'pd'kis (13) axrqwd'ku tgraha tri'kuratira'U^ he retqru*vst^ 
qkita-ru tvrasku he retstdwe'tst" (14) tdsu'tasf^ tsa'xriks rascx- 
kuraiwaxrqd a weretdra^u kukard-sixkuru'ra*^^ aru'sara^kura'r&Tosu^ 
aru'sa rqkuksqwatstiru^^ ram tasvtsiramrukukvst^ ari-sit (15) 
ira*rik* tdraha iriwe'ru-ti* irqrdxka*wi isire^mxrwru ru ari'Sit iri- 
witiwa-ku ira-riki targha (16) tirgra-ku triwetatdra^u^ rakura^Mskd- 
wd'xri tgrghdraxk* (17) hem rwtsia ariturdxtqbus rakuhit werax- 
kurdxkqtd't" rwpakgwvketskat (18) heri qxrutpaksta^rdwake-hat 

running brought dust along. (6) Then he thought man let 
it run into me and as he did that (e.) in his going and he 
looked about (e.) and. there it is (e.) buffalo. (7) The same 
way again he stood on top (e.) same and again that 
began to happen (e.) again it jumped out from (e.) the sun. 

(8) Then he thought man let it run into me in its going 
and there it is buffalo. (9) Again the same way and 
besides again he stopped (e.) again the same way and 
again it jumped from within from the sun. (10) And again 
he proceeded to do it and again same one it is buffalo 
the same way from the sxm it jumped from within (e.). (11) This 
time it ran into him as he was getting up from a lying position 
and there it stood (e.) buffalo. (12) And then he said (e.) 
buffalo, "Greetings, son, I know what you feel and now 
I wiU bless you!" (13) He said (e.) buffalo, ''This way that is 
mine, — I am going to give this to you ! Tribe this, you that are 
sitting I will be among! (14) You are going to do people to 
get them up from a lying position and I give you the way so 
that it is easy for you horses for you to find them horse even 
when it is very wild just simply you are going to go ahead and 
catch them by yourself. (15) That one (standing) buffalo 
that's what it is those inside they make that way for you (e.) 
you yourself." That is what he said (q.) that one standing 
buffalo. (16) This way (sitting) now I give you this way so that 
you (plur) may have a dance Buffalo members. (17) Then he 
did thus: he would set aside a certain place for him always to 
visit when they went up (on an expedition) (e.) way up on a 
high mountain (18) and there where skulls are in a circle (e.) 
buffalo old man then there he would go in the lead (e.) when 

Wdtfish, Caddoan Texts 225 

tarcJia kurahiis heritaxrirasat raxkurdxJcqtd4^ (19) he kurahus 
accra-sd^a pirare-sa-m^ (20) he irirutiraxkitam-tit vrvPpakstara- 
wdkE*hat kuwesirexkuratdra^u iritira irard'ku kura'tqrghd'raxk^ 
(21) kuHriwerexkutarlstqnt raxkurdxkd'wi irawikawataku he irire 
i'ra*ku hitii^u^ tdraha (22) he sikuxrixkqkus rekaru tarsia (23) e 
werakurdxka'd heri sitixriku taku a^tvku targha pd'ks^ he tqku iritl^nt 
he iraku targhd pd-ks^ he titgrd-wis ihuks atipgha'ot (24) heru 
irittxrdktqrd'tou rqktdwtskd'ru (25) iweratpd'k" he axrWa^rika 
tira'i'tustd'Hks tirara^i'tusk^ (26) werakuraxka^wi tskqra dka^kikari^ 
iriwesirixkuru'ku tgrghd pa*ks^ heru tvtsia dhitki d katd'm heru 
sitiritkaxkqH rakutdru-ts^ iwerdtqra'Wts^ e irqrdxkd-m heru tvtsia 
(27) iri i-ra'ku tarahd pa*ks^ heru tutsiwd*waktit kitu irardxka^wi 
he asku ruiutsa (28) aru tihahe tvwn trirakuwitskd*^ he iwerixrare- -* 
hats iwerdh^'sa he iriweraraxkd-ist" (29) heru reraxka atirauks 
targha he tutkisikttstdhuret (30) he tiritkuta' targha rgritkutdwd*wi 
he pitku ask'd grwsa axrukstawe ahira-rik* gxruksraripdkus^ atiha-kta 
(31) he tuvt kitu tgrghd aspi-f^ werd'kukd'hu h^ iritihd'kta a ihe 

they went hunting (e.). (19) And old man he was named (e.) 
Baby-chief. (20) And they proceeded to sit down on top there 
where the skulls were in a circle when they were discussing 
something (e.) that's what the way is that way (sitting) Doctor 
Buffalo Members. (21) When they would get ready to do that (e.) 
when they were inside (e.) that one that was jumping out that's 
what it is that sitting it resembles buffalo. (22) And they 
probably placed it among wool buffalo. (23) And when they 
danced then there they would hold it there it would sit 
buffalo skull and here where he (it) stands and that one 
(sitting) buffalo skull — it would be painted half it would be 
red. (24) Then they pointed the sticks there pipe. (25) That 
which I say and it is true (e.) it is a true story this story 
(sitting) (26) when they are inside alone there would not be 
many when they are making (painting) it buffalo skuU then 
they do fat and incense then they put it among the embers 
when there was a fire since it is painted and those inside then 
he does thus: (27) where that is (sitting) buffalo skull then 
he proceeds to have a talk with it all those inside and one 
he would then get up from his seat (28) and here in this direction 
he keeps going whoever wants to and as they finish that then 
tomorrow and that's when they will dance (29) then they 
will dance he would be made buffalo and he would be tied 
several times round the waist (30) and he had a taO buffalo 
those tails they have on and two one horse he was among 
them (e.) the other one (standing) he was a soldier (e.) he 
would have a stick (31) and it is all buffalo hoofs when 
he is dancing and he would have that stick and ' the other 

226 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

ira-rik^ he arusa tiritkuta (32) he hawa tuxraxkak^ vt^u hk tespixrara 
(33) irawd'ri¥ kura-tdraha werar axkd-hu dkqpi'rvs kskvtiks heru 
u.katat he tritiwihat pvta herdixrariku werakuraxlcd-huheru titsia (34) 
ti'taku atixru'ts^ hawd istu hetaku tixru-ts^ pvta kski-tiks rurutiwi- 
wd'hat hhttiriku dkqpi'rvs atihaktiku tahuraxtsqku hawa hetaku kitu 
triti'td-ri (35) sihuks tuxrdxkusta^ru sinxra^kqrdriku irire-riu'S^ 
(36) ixtat iraraxkd'hu he tirdxpahd-at a ixtat rerd-rwrut uruxtu he 
kttu teruxraxkqku reka-ru targha (37) trirwki arusa witirirqwiru-ku 
heritihastqrikuki'tska dskd'tit henti arusa rdkukd'hu (38) rdhi-ra 
he tirdxkutsMtts kutski-ts^ arwsa rdkuu (39) iraku pa-ks^ iwerd^ku 
heru sitexrd'pirit d ri dkutwtu (40) he tuxre heru terutsid pahd-t^ 
sirexkuhapitsistq^u heru terwtsia (41) vt^ rikvtskd-tit rdrihurik* 
rikvtskd-tit hkritexrixrdxki-ru he iraha-ktsa he tqku sititstdre-pu i-tu 
iriwetid irqhixrdxkru rikvtskd'tit (42) ri irdpaksku tarahd pd-ksu 
iretsvsitska^^ heri sttixraktsqwu iri irdpaksku hetqku riru rira*ruat 
terdxrisu^ (43) iririxkurutspdwiha tsirii kqrara-kuraxkd'hu a hqwa 

that one (standing) and horse he has a tail on (32) and also 
he has them upon his (his head) feathers and he has hoofs. 
(33) Those (standing) buffalo doctors when they are dancing 
drums four then on the west side there they sat men 
they hold them there when they are dancing then they do 
thus: (34) right here they would put them down also again 
over there they put them men four they are sitting in the 
different places and he would hold that drum he would hold 
the stick drum stick also over there all that is what they 
are doing. (35) Five there are groups of seats they are holding 
drums those that know how. (36) Some those dancing they 
are red and some they are "muddied" mud and all 
they have them upon (head) wool buffalo. (37) Those that are 
horses they themselves are pretending and that rope he would 
have looped over one shoulder and against the neck black rope 
and there he is a horse when he is dancing. (38) Sometimes 
he would be "clayed over" in places white clay horse for him 
to be. (39) That (sitting) skull there sitting then they would 
pull up a twig (e.) and it is it would look hke this: (40) and 
it is good then they did thus (e.) red when they painted the 
stick (e.) then they did (e.): (41) feathers black bird those 
large ones black birds and then they would string those feathers 
(e.) and that stick (lying) and right here they tied it 
feathers that's what they are those feathers strung togethei- 
black bird. (42) Where that head sits buffalo skull there at 
the point of the nose that's where they stand the stick where 
that skull sits and right here at that very place they are 
hned up paraphernalia. (43) When they were placing them 
around there as yet when they are not dancing and also 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 227 

werakuJcstaxka-hu (44) wife-svtk^ hem taru-tsia raivixtd^ka he iri 
irapahsktc he ri taxkus (45) he iwerdkusk^ he iriwetdxwdska wite-- 
svtk^ kuraku vkutqtstkskd'pd-kis (46) cri irakttdwi^u hern riha-kirit 
raktd-wtskd'TU (47) hem riraxkdwant hem mtsikaksa hem rihd'ku* 
raktd'Wiskd-ru hem rirdwi-sd ru vra-ku tgrghd pa-ks^ (48) m-riwe 
tirawisawariku iriwetiwdska ku-rixkutatsckska-pd-ktsu (49) Utq- 
hura-rawd'hat kureta axrukstaaxwd-wari ketu iriwitutsckstahiirawda 
td'ku re-xkutatsikskapd-kis^. 

when they had been dancing. (44) The young man then he did 
(e.) thus: blanket where that skull sits then there he 
places it (e.) (45) and when he had placed it there at that time 
he would want (e.) the young man I wish it would bless me. 

(46) The one that is the leader then he picked up the stick pipe 

(47) then he filled it (put them in) then he went ahead and 
called him then he gave him the stick pipe then he smokes 
there toward that one sitting buffalo skull. (48) Just when 
he blows smoke towards it that's what he wants for him perhaps 
to get a blessing. (49) in this wide world if he ever goes off those 
travels they used to go on (e.) because the place where it is said 
the vision originated for him someone he would get a blessing (e.) 


(Free translation.) 
I am going to tell of the ways of our people in ancient times. 
There was a certain man who, when the men went hunting, would 
go off by himself and stand on top a hill. As he stood there he felt 
profoundly miserable and cried pitying himself. At sunrise he was 
facing eastward looking directly into the sun and suddenly he saw 
something leap out of the sun bringing a trail of dust in its wake. 
He felt so miserable that he would just as lief permit the thing to 
run into him. As this thought ran through his mind he looked about 
and saw that the thing was a buffalo. Again he stood up on top of 
the hill and everything happened as before, and then again one time 
more. Finally on one occasion (the fourth) the buffalo did run 
into him and as he got up from where he had fallen, the buffalo 
spoke to him saying, ''Son, I understand how miserable you feel 
and I am going to give you my blessing. I will endow you with my 
powers and my spirit shall henceforth be among your people. You 
will have the power to cure the sick, and to catch and tame horses, 
even those that are wildest. Those in the (mythical, sacred) 
buffalo lodge have created these powers for you and therefore the 
members of the Buffalo Society should represent these events in 
terms of a dance. Accordingly he set aside a sacred place high up 
on a mountain, a shrine that he might always visit when they went 
on hunting expeditions. When they went on the hunt a medicine 

228 Pvblications, American Ethnological Society VqL XVII 

man named Baby -Chief would lead them up the mountain to the 
shrine where there was a circle of buffalo skulls. At that place they 
sat down talking together of sacred matters. This is the way of 
the Buffalo doctors. 

When they were preparing to have a buffalo dance, they had 
an object that looked like a buffalo and that was kept wrapped up 
in buffalo wool. This object represented the buffalo that had 
leaped out of the sun.^ During the dance they would hold the 
buffalo -meteor. In the dance lodge there was a buffalo skull 
painted half red and half white, and here the decorated stick woxild 
stand^. It was in this direction that they pointed the pipe stems 
(as if offering them to the skull to smoke). This that I am teUing 
you is not a mere fiction, but a genuine account of what happened. 

While these preparations are going on only the few participants 
are permitted in the lodge. First they paint the buffalo skull and 
then they take buffalo fat and incense and throw it among some 
embers from the fire. Then he would hold converse with the 
decorated skull and all those in the lodge would proceed to do 
likewise. Then the leader would get up and walk around the lodge 
in a clockwise direction followed by any of the members who 
wished to participate. The dance itself would take place the next 
morning after this prelimary performance has been completed.^ 

One of the men would be dressed like a buffalo, with a belt tied 
several times around his waist and a tail Uke a buffalo's ; and there 
are two others, one hke a horse and another like a soldier; this 
latter had a stick all covered with buffalo hoofs which he carried 
when he was dancing.^ The one that represents the horse wears 
a tail, has feathers upon his head and hoofs. When the buffalo 

^ The object referred to is a meteor which is said to have resembled a buffalo 
in form, and which along with other paraphemaha comprised the con- 
tents of one of the Pawnee meteor bundles. 
" This decorated stick is referred to below as being covered with the feathers 

of a black bird and placed before the nose of the skull. 
^ As nearly as I coiild gather them the events involved in this preparation 
are the following : 

a- men assemble around the lodge ; b- place skull in position for painting( ? ) ; 
c- the skull is painted half red and half white to the accompaniment of 
some short songs; d- drops of white clay are sprinkled on the red half 
of the skull; e- the skull is put back in place at the west altar; f- embers 
are taken from the center fireplace and placed at the sacred station 
located in the northeast sector of the lodge; g- a substance composed 
of herbs and incense mixed with buffalo fat is thrown onto these embers ; 
h- the head man proceeds to walk around the lodge in a clockwise direc- 
tion from west to east, encircles the embers at the northeast station in 
a clockwise circuit, and stops, holding his arms over the embers; he 
then covers himself completely with the buffalo robe and leaning over 
the embers * 'smokes" himself with the incense. The line follows each 
doing the same and praying ? ; i- the members then go back to their 
* This buffalo hoof rattle was made of a stick a foot and a half long with 
buffalo hoofs attached to it all over the surface. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 


doctors were dancing, they were accompanied by four drums 
(drummers ?). During the dancing the drums were moved to five 
different positions in the lodge : the west, the southeast, the north- 
west, the southwest, the northeast. Some of the dancers were 
painted red and others were plastered with mud ; all of them had 
buffalo wool upon their heads. The ones that were pretending to 
be horses wore a black rope looped over the left shoulder and 


• 9 


• 5 



x»y ^ ^ 


h I 


) ^ 

I renter fireplace 

2- buffalo skull 
2a- position for painting 

3- pipes 

4- men near door 

5- members ranged about the lodge 

6- feathered lanee 


Lodge with Buffalo Members. 

7- embers with incense (northeast 

8- circuit to the incense 

9- headman 
10- paraphernalia before each member 

X- place of meteor during dance 
y- place of Chapman's family mem- 
bers who own the meteor bundle. 

230 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

across the chest. One of these might be covered with white clay 
so that he might represent a white horse. 

Then they would pluck a suitable twig and paint it red. They 
would then string together bunches of feathers and tie them to the 
stick. These feathers would be those of a large black bird. They 
would then set the stick upright right before the nose of the buffalo 

The place for the paraphernaha was right before the seats of 
the members. They would place them there before and after the 

A young man would place a blanket before the skull in the hope 
that the skull would bless him. Then the leader would pick up a 
pipe and fill it and give it to the young man to smoke. As the young 
man blew the smoke toward the buffalo skull, he wished that he 
might receive a blessing. That in his various wanderings he might 
come upon the place where the original vision occurred, since at 
this place someone would again be blessed. 


dset'karu, Mtkahaxki\ Band, 


(1) tiwa'ku alias raru kare^sutsia ram isutsia'ra heril riruresiuxta 
Hrqrvsit karaskutia-ra (2) tire^ra-ku rant sirixkuxr&ra'u (3) iwerd*- 
ku tswraki he rd-rit re-suxta rakuhi^u kd-karu*us (4) iwerakwkata 
iriru'tahu iweraraxkirika^u ke.karu^its he rihu'kat he riwi-tit (5) heru- 
ru*tsa he- re-watsitit he riwerera-ke-a iwera-sakuxkatdwitsa^ hern re*a 
tsu'sUt wewita^suxta (6) iweratwkata taku kakiwd-ku ndwa (7) he 
hiru ruxrihde he hiru ri-sa tsdwiha-ni he riretpvttt (8) hern sirwtsawa 
pitku titaku asku rikutwrukvt a titqku asku hem sirikutsitsirasat 
(9) he hiru raxtsa hqwd asku tsdwiha-ru sirikukus ha*wa (10) tira-ku 
tsdruxrd*a (sakurwtiwari) hiru riwa*ku iri-tu-tasta (11) iri-kux- 
rdwvtska rqtsakukuxrakatsckstqwi rakura*m*kird'wqri (12) hem 
ru'tsa^ ira*ku arikutastarekuruwa-wat a rikuskqrwwat hqwd uku-ku^u 
herarutsi uku-ku^u rakuxriwa-ra (13) he rihe* re^wa-ku sukskqwa 
hawd asu'ru rakuxriioa^ra hqwa pitaks^ (14) he wera*ku kurqhus 
(tektesaxkqnxku) wetiraxka (15) weisdraxka raktdwiska*ru irv- 

(1) He said, my father, just don't do anything just if you 
do then you wUl go right you won't do. (2) Here is the way 
really to make a way for him : (3) That girl — yourself 
you are going to go it will be early morning. (4) When he goes in 
the way it is done when they are awake early in the morning 
then he goes in and he sits down. (5) Then he gets up and 
he goes out then this time it is long when the sun is coming 
up high (between morning and noon) then she comes old 
woman, ''You can now go." (6) When I went in anyone did 
not say, "Hello." (7) And there was spread out nicely and 
there lay pillow and there I sat down, (8) Then two got up 
two right here one caught me and here one. Then 
they two led me. (9) And there lay another one pillow they 
sat me down again. (10) This one is the one who did it (W^alk- 
ing-Sun). Then he said, *Tt is going to be that way. (11) 
Whatever he wants for him to take care of them to go about 
and work for us." (12) Then he got up that one and he 
unlaced my moccasins and he took my moccasins off also 
leggings^ these other leggings nice ones. (13) And — he said 
"Put them on also moccasins nice ones also a wrap. (14) And 
that old man (Curly-Chief) they are (15) when they were 

^ re'sa'Turdhihu'ta^, Brave-Chief, took his leggings off. 

232 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

iruxra^ru heru ri-tsikaksa a rixra'ku (16) wetihaktu'at ti'tgku 
iriwetiwdJcqra'rgwari ira*ku kurahus he ruxra'tsiksta tixravtdwi*hu 
i'vawa'kahu tisutsiksa tisutsiksa (17) ndvxi sukstdmsa iriwetikuta- 
kdtawu kskHiks iriwermsarutsira-ru (18) iwerqkawatiktika rd'tu 
heru re-tiwa-ku iritdtitska* tiwesireskutqtsikskd'pd*kt8 ruhurihuksu 
iriwerutdtiritsa^ (19) iratutsiksakuki irirutirutspa weretpd*ku 
werexrd'wisa rutntsira'ru, 

i'sirikutawaurukvt tiku*u arii*sa ira'ku a hawa hera*ku. 

already filled up pipes the one that did it then they called him 
and he gave it to him^ (16) he raised up the stick right here 
he talks to all the universe (prays) that old man then he is 
watching he is showing him how^ he was saying, "Do it this 
way do it this way." (17) "Now smoke." he placed the pipe 
to my mouth four times that was aU. (18) When he emptied it 
myself then I said, "That's what I want here you have 
blessed me." Just formally there I stood up. (19) Those 
clothes I had on they remained. Now I said, "Now I have 
smoked." That's all. 

Additional remark: Those two that took hold of me (Brave- 
Chief and Walking-Sun) he gave me a horse that one and 
also the other one. 


(Free translation.) 
My father told me to marry according to the right way, that 
is in the customary manner. When a girl is selected for you you 
must go to her lodge early in the morning and when the people 
are awake go inside and sit down (near the east entrance). Then 
you should leave again and return home. Some time between then 
and noon an old woman came for me. She said, "You can go now." 
When I got there no one said heUo to me but I saw a mat lying on 
the ground with a pillow upon it and so I sat down. Then two men 
got up and came over to me, Ufting me up and leading me to 
another seat (further in the lodge). (WaUdng-Sun and Brave 
Chief.) The spokesman then incScated that he approved my 
mission and said, "He will take care of us and hunt for us." Then 
he got up and took off my moccasins and another man came and 

^ Curly -Chief gives the pipe to Walking- Sun and Walking-Sun raises the 

pipe and prays. 
* Curly -Chief is showing Walking- Sun what to do. 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 233 

took off my leggings and they gave me new moccasins, leggings 
and also a robe. Then the old man Curly-Chief after the pipe 
had been filled called Walking-Snn and gave him the pipe, directing 
him what to do. He raised the pipe and pointed it in a certain 
direction as he was told and spoke. Walking-sun put the pipe to 
my mouth and I took four puffs. When he had emptied the pipe 
I spoke and said, ''I am grateful for the blessings you have bestowed 
upon me," The clothes I had been wearing I just left behind. 
Again I said, **Now I have smoked," and in this way I expressed 
my appreciation for the way in which they had received my suit. 
The two men that had assisted me to my seat (Brave-Chief and 
Walking-Sun) in addition to the clothing each gave me a horse. 


tahaktahirasa, tsawi-^* Band. 


(1) he kurahus re-wa'ku he hiru axriat tskinxki we-rakuxrdtsqus 
(2) wettriwaxte*ku4ista tskinxki he axrawetu-ruat he axrakataat 
tskinxki (3) he axrare-wa-ta tskinxki wituxrurqre he hiru riaxra-- 
rant he hiru axri kiwvku (4) iweru'te*nt irariki kiwvku (5) witi- 
wd'waa iraMxtva*wi (6) hem axriat tskinxki irariki kiwvku vri 
ird-nki (7) he ti-taku tskinxki axrawi4it axrvtkiriku irakqtax- 
wdwqa (8) heru axriwa-ku tskinxki d-kaa tirqkis kuaskutatsikskd-- 
pd'kts (9) tri*kud'tu'vt iritirasu*ta tirasakqwa-xtsu (10) d* ke-tsi 
werikuriwaxte'kH'ttsta kuaskutqisikskd^pd^kis iri'tirasu-ta (11) 
tatitska rikua*tu*vt axriwa-ku kiwvku kakdtitska (12) e-kqa tirqkis 
kutiksdtsikskd'pd'kis (13) axriwa-ku kiwvku tdsixke-s karqsv- 
waktiks (14) axriwa*kn tskinxki tatvwaktiks kiwiku ruaxriwa*ku 
ndwa sukspqri kirqka*sihurdxruras kiwvku witirqkuksiriwird-riku 
(15) ruru tdstiru (16) axriwa-ku tirqkis kustutsia (17) axrivxvku 

(1) Now an old man said — there went (e.) a fox: 
he was very hungry. (2) He is going to starve to death the fox 
— there was a meadow (e.) and he went hunting (e.) fox 

(3) and he was looking about (e.) fox it was good ground (q.) 
and there there he stood (e.) and there it is (e.) a bison. 

(4) When he saw that (standing) bison (5) he was eating (q.) 
that grass. (6) Then he went (e.) fox that one bison where 
he is (standing). (7) And here the fox he sat down (e.) he was 
looking at (e.) that one eating green grass. (8) Then said (e.) 
fox, ''Oh friend, I wish you would give me a blessing, (9) I 
wish I was that way the way you are the way you are eating. 
(10) And so now, I am going to starve to death I wish you 
would bless me, the way you are (H) I want me to be that 
way." Said (e.) bison, ''I don't want to." (12) "Oh, friend, 
pity me!" (13) Said (e.) the bison, ''You are a liar, are you 
sure (truthful) ?" (14) Said (e.) fox, "I am truthful." Bh<u 
then said (e.), "Now go about see if you can find a place bis('U 
where it has been rolling itself. (15) Go on you are afraid." 
(16) He said (e.), "Friend I will do that." (17) Said (e.) bison, 
"Are you truthful?" Said (e.) bison, "Are you truthftil? 

Weltfish. Caddoan Texts 235 

kiwvku karesiwakUks azriwa*ku kiwvku karasvwakUks (18) nawa 
witisuksu4s iriratdraha^reriwird^risku (19) tskinxki rumtiaxriuts 
(20) axrawd'ku kiwvku kare-skutsikiriku (21) he axraure'Vit 
kiwvku kiwiku axrurd'wvras (22) he axrgpankta'ruraxwHtt 
(23) he axrare-wa-tat tskinxki iwerarevxi'ta-ra tskinxki he rekaksa- 
wrat he kare^ri^ririke (24) hern axriwa-ku kiwvku triwerututsira*ru 
kqrexrasikd'pd'kts (25) hem axriwa^ku tskinxki tirakis hatvd 
wereskutgtsikskd'pd'kts (26) heru axriwa*ku kiwvku witisuksuts 
hem axriure-nt tsPu kiwvku (27) hem axriwttska tskinxki rikuhuru- 
rahats (28) hawd karestikuksawi^at (29) he axrurd-wvras kiwvku 
irira-sa tskinxki (30) he axrvrawiriwu (31) hem siaxrdxwa apats 
kiwvku siraku'rs(?) iruksn tskinxki (32) he hiru axriwd-wad 
vrvhe rawitska* (33) raru witihakqwa-xtsu irahixwawi ruksu tski- 
nxki (34) heru axriwa-ku kiwvku tdsixke^s kukqresarii'tsia (35) 
nawa ru-ru wetd4at kiwvku irvra^u kuwitira-at he wekuqxrikaratse" 
hat irutsikstdtsqus irqhixwdwqd (36) heru axriat tskinxki irira^u 
(37) ruaxrqi'sat witiwetu-ru^hat (38) ^-kqa axrawd*wqd he hiru 
axre*d tskinxki (39) he iaxrawd'wqd tskinxki heru axriwHit 
tira*nki axrawd-waa heru axriwa*ku tirakts irikud*tuvt (40) heru 
axriwa'ku tird-riki kiwvku karasvwakttks (41) heru axriwd*ku 

(18) Now lay yourself down where the buffalo-rolling mark is," 

(19) Fox he laid himself down. (20) Said (e.) bison, ''Don't 
look at me.'* (21) Then he stopped (e.) bison, bison he 

barged in anger (e.). (22) And he put his horns close to the 
nnd (e.) (23) and he looked about (e.) fox as he looked 
attniit fox then he jumped in (fear) and it did not kill him. 
(24) Then said (e.) bison, '"That's all if you are not poor 
(humble)." (25) Then said (e.) fox, "Friend again you have 
blessed me." (26) Then said (e.) bison, ''Lie down." Then 
he stopped (e.) (as he stood) again bison. (27) Then thought 
(e.) fox, "Even if I die (let me die) (28) again I better not 
jump away." (29) And he charged (e.) bison where he lay 
fox (30) and it ran into him (e.). (31) Then there went two (e.) 
both bisons they two are the one that was fox. (32) And 
there he ate (e.) that which he wanted. (33) Just he ate (q.) 
that grass the one that was fox. (34) Then said (e.) bison, 
"You are a liar don't do anything. (35) Now go on now I am 
going." bison the one that is. It was such a length of time (q.) 
and his stomach was so large (e.) for he was hungry he eating 
grass. (36) Then he went (e.) fox the one that is. (37) He 
disappeared (e.) (went-among-over) there was a meadow. (38) Oh 
he ate (e.) and there came (e.) fox. (39) And as he ate (e.) 
fox then he sat down (e.) this one he ate (e.). Then he said 
(e.) "Friend I wish I was that way. (40) Then said (e. this 
(standing) bison, "Are you in earnest?" (41) Then said 

236 Pvblicaticma, American Ethnological Society Vol. XV II 

tird'sa tatiwaktiks tirdkis kutsiksatsikskd-pd-kis wetikuritvaxte^hl- 
ttsia (42) rusukspari kiraka'Sitar^te'Tiwird-risuras (43) ndwa rwru 
vAtisuksuts karesikukstdkvt axraure-rit kiwi-ku he axrurdwiras 
kiwt'ku iri ira-sd (44) he kuxrwta he kuxrdwttska wetikuku-tiksta 
he axrqkuksawi-at (45) nqwa rii*ru kaka^kd-pd-kis (46) axriwa*ku 
tskinxki tirqkis wetgsu*ta (47) hawd wer&ra^tat kutsiksqtsikskd*- 
pd'kis (48) heru axriwa*ku mwitisuksuts irira-tarahareioirdhtskti 
(49) heru axriure*rit kiwvku he weaxra-sd tskinxki (50) he ax- 
rurdwiras kiwt'ku trtra'Sa tskinxki (51) he axre*rawiru4sa weru- 
siaxraxwa (52) he hiru siaxre*pqku heru siaxrva istu tskinxki 
apats (53) heru axriwa^ku kaskurquxkd*pd'kis irrruksvt kiwvku 

(54) heru istu ruru axriat ruiriaxra-ta triritsiksqtsikska-pd'kisu 

(55) he re-huras kiwt-ku hiru axre-rit heru axriwd-ku tskinxki 
tirakts wetikuriwaxte'ku4a (56) heru axriwa*ku kiwvku intv 
ratutsiksqtsikska*pd*kisu (57) heru riwa-ku kiwvku keriras ratw- 
tsiksqtsikska^pd'kisu he were-rvta (58) heru axriwa^ku kiwvku ndwa 
rukE'Starqheriwiraraspe (59) heru axriwd-ku tirakts tiweretqra- 
hariwirdxnsku heru axriwa-ku ruwitisuksuts (60) heru axriurcrit 
kiwvku (61) tskinxki vra*sa he ra-rd-vta we hawa tikutatsikska-- 

this one (lying there), *'I am in earnest, friend , have pity on me 
I am about to starve to death." (42) ''Go about see if you can 
find a buffalo-roUing-place. (43) Now go on lie down! don ^ 
run away." Then he stopped (e.) bison and he charged (v.. 
bison where there he lay. (44) And he did then he thongli t 
"He IB going to kill me." And he jumped in fear (e.). (45) Now 
go on, you are not humble." (46) Said (e.) fox, 'Triend, 
now you have done it, (47) already it is settled to give me a 
blessing." (48) Then he said (e.), "Lie down where the buffalo- 
roUing-mark is." (49) Then he stood (e.) bison and this one 
(lying there) (e.) fox (50) then he charged bison where he 
lay fox. (51) And it raised him up (e.) and there were two 
that went (e.) (52) and there they were fighting (e.) then 
they two were (e.) again foxes both. (53) Then he said (e.) 
"How you ruined me (made me poor) the one that was bison. 
(54) Then again immediately he went (e.) where it went (e.) 
the one that had blessed him. (55) And he found the bison 
there he stood (e.). Then said (e.) fox, "Friend, I am starving 
to death." (56) Then said (e.) bison, "That's the one the one 
that I blessed." (57) Then said bison, "Are you the one? 
the one that I blessed." Then he knew him. (58) Then said (e.) 
bison, "Now go look for a buffalo-roUing-place," (59) Then 
he said (e.), "Friend here is a buffalo wallow." Then he said 
(e.) "Lie down here!" (60) Then he stopped-standing (e.) 
bison, (61) fox there that lay then he knew now again 
he is going to bless me. (62) Then he charged (e.) where lay 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 237 

pa'kcsuksta (62) he axruru'wiras irvra-sd tskinxki he axre^rawiric'tsa 
kdu axTixkqkat (63) vriwerututsirqru, 

the fox. And it lifted him up (e.) entirely it cut him up (e.). 
(63) That is all. 


(Free translation.) 

A fox was travelling and he was very hungry. He came to an 
open meadow, and about to starve to death, he set out to hunt. 
In the meadow he saw a bison who was grazing. The fox sat down 
near where the bison was and watched him eating the grass. He 
asked the biBon to have pity on him and bless him so that he too 
could eat grass. **I am starving to death. Please make me as you 
are so that I can eat the grass here." The bison at first refused saying 
that the fox was usually such a liar that he did not trust him. But 
the fox begged and assured him he was in earnest this time. So the 
bison told him to find a buffalo wallow and roll about in it. This 
he consented to do. Then the bison again asked him if he was in 
earnest and after he had again reassured him the bison said, * 'Don't 
look at me." Then he stood up and charged ferociously toward 
the fox with his head close to the ground. When the fox saw him 
coming he sprang up in fear and jimiped out of the way, so that 
he was not killed. Then the bison said, *'You are not humble 
enough to deserve a blessing." But the fox told him that he had 
already promised and so again the bison told him to lie down and 
again he prepared to charge at him. This time the fox thought 
he had better not jump away even if he thought he was in danger 
of being killed. Now the bison charged and ran into him and 
presently there were two bisons instead of one. And so the fox 
ate grass as he had requested. Then the true bison left him and 
told him he was a liar and he was to be sure to do nothing wrong 
while in his bison *s guise. 

He was very hungry so he ate and ate grass until his stomach 
was full. Then he found another meadow and again he ate and 
presently a fox came along and sat down to watch him eat. He 
said, "My friend, I wish I were a bison like you." Then the fox- 
bison said, ''Are you in earnest?" and the fox assxired him that 
he was, for he was starving to death and would like to eat grass." 
He told him to go and find a buffalo wallow and to lie down in it, 
and not to run away whatever happened. Then he prepared to 
charge and ran toward the fox, but the fox jumped away in fright 
thinking he was going to be killed. The bison then told him to go 
away for he was not humble enough to deserve a blessing. But 
the fox said that he had already promised and so again he told him 
to lie down in a buffalo wallow and he charged, goring the fox. 

238 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XV II 

Then they moved off the buffalo wallow and then there were two 
foxes fighting together. Then the one that had been a bison said 
to himself, ''Oh I have been ruined/' and he went back to the bison 
who had originally given him a blessing and again he told him that 
he was starving to death and asked him to bless him. But the bison 
recognized him as the one he already helped. He told him again to 
go and look for a buffalo wallow and to lie down in it. The fox 
lay in the wallow thinking he was about to receive a blessing. But 
the bison charged at him and gored him to death. That's all. 


(1) pi'ta witd rawirakH-ru rurakurihvt he hiru axre*hu*u tsaxriks 

(2) he weaxrasaku-ri'sat iwe-ra^a irakvtsuat we hiru axrehu*u tsaxriks 

(3) hern axriwttska rukHurastat tirahwru he weaxrasakA^ri-sat 

(4) hem irahu*ru iri irakt-tsuat (5) he tihetaku ru iriaxra-hu'u 
he weaxraratke-a (6) witia*xka he irahwru heru rihrra kardaxre-hu^u 
(7) iri irgdxkawi triwite-suratse-hat i-raaxka he axrvtkisutsakastats- 
qrasa (8) heru axrutsia axrqratsqhaka-xtsit kisutsa-kasu (9) he 
w^axri'hi iras he axrwta axre-ksuat he hiru axre-hata (10) heru 
axriwttska ruke-tkd'at tirahdtqwi (11) heru axrihu-kvt heru axraat 
wetikatitstutat (12) rawitqkardisu dxrqhu*kvt we hiru axri4qrvt'< 
wite-kdrihu^ (13) heru axrvraxka wUira-ritkata witira-vwa-ival 
irvrqhiwdtqwi tiheruxrariraha-m he hiru rakis triaxrikd-tqrv f - 

He has one hair. 
(1) A man came (q.) "a war-pather" he alone and thei' 
there were tracks (e.) a person. (2) And it was sundown (< 
when he came to a stream. Now there were tracks (< 
a person. (3) Then he thought (e.) *'Let me track it this track 
Then it was sundown (e.). (4) Then that track where th; 
stream is (5) and over there there's where the track was (v 
and it was night (e.) (6) it was a vertical bank (q.) and thi 
track then further it did not have a track (7) where tl - 
bank is that's the end of the footprints (q.) that bank an 
grapevines hanging over the bank (e.). (8) Then he did (e.) I 
spread them out (e.) grape-vines. (9) Then it was (e.) niglit 
and he did (e.) he reached with his hand (e.) and there \v;i 
a hole (e.). (10) Then he thought (e.), *'Let me go inside thi 
hole." (11) Then he went inside (e.). Then he went (e.) atid 
it was dark. (12) Suddenly he went in (e.) now here tlieiv 
was a fire (e.) it was a large dwelling (q.) (13) and there tlu 
were inside (e,) they were all surrounding the fire (q.) th< 
were telling stories (q.) where the entrance was this other si(l< 
and here wood they were next to the wall (e.) there was a 1( > ' 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 239 

rakuka'riu (14) he riaxrawi-Ut taku ka-kite-riku ira-hu rakis iri- 
rdru*tsi (15) he axru4a axrare-wd-tara he kitu axrutd-ke-nt vrakd-taku 
(16) he tara-rdwas rwirikuxrukstdxwa'wa he wekuxraratsdkipvtct 
iweraratke-a-ra trikuxruxra^a (17) he irakd*taku he kitu werutd" 
ke*nt irardxka-wi (18) he axruta kiriku vra-ku heaxrakdstikis (19) 
ihera*ku heaxrawirikis (20) dkaka-ruspa ihera-ku (21) he asku 
axrurustsa wdutusuhu-ra-ri (22) he ra*ku he kukaraaxretkahdxtawd 
Mra'ku kukaraaxra-ruxtdku kukarawcti-uspa (23) hern axriwa-ku 
irraxrakctdtoiu tdrwtsius rdkcs sikstarwa (24) sukstdru-tsn raku- 
tqriwvku (25) hem axriat tdru4sius he axrwta rakis iri- axraru4si 
(26) kuwctwu rdku'ku wttikqtitqwiku he qxruxtsqwi taru-tsius 
iwervtkiriku iweaxru-te-nt he rerirud tdru*tsius (27) tuxra'a kehax- 
riri ti-hi he kitw we-re'it tirdwihat hern axriwa-ku rexkita kutw 
tsaxriks rdkwku rqkis iri- rdrwtsi (28) heru axriwa-ku rexkita 
sukste-tsqwitspari he axriraktirua irakd-wihat M-fu kitu iriwe-fiit 
kdsahuruhsu irakd-wihat a rqwitqkardisu axrawa-ku irakd4qku 
sikaskutse-tsikska'pd'kis (29) he ti-rdwihat kuxriraktirua witiax- 
rixra-rawirivm ru iri'axrqre-kqwi ra-ru mtira-ku sidskwtqtsikska-- 

(14) Then there he sat down (e.) anyone has not seen him 
that wood where they are. (15) And he did (e.) he looked 
about (e.) and all he saw them (e.) he sitting back there. 

(16) And they would laugh at where they had been roaming 
and they had gathered together that night whoever did it 

(17) and the one sitting behind (back there) — all he has 
seen those inside. (18) And he did (e.) someone that one 
he had a peg-leg (e.) (19) and that other one he had a peg-arm (e.) 
(20) he wouldn't have any hair on and another (21) then 
only one hair he had on (e.) it would wave (q.). (22) And 
another one — he didn't have any ears on (e.) another one 
he didn't have anything on (e.) he didn't have any hair (q.). 
(23) Then said (e.) the one that was leader (e.). ''Servant, wood 
bring them here ! (24) Make a fire ! to make a high fire." (25) Then 
he went (e.) servant and he did (e.) wood where they were 
(setting) (e.). (26) It seemed like (q.) someone was sitting there 
was a dark object sitting (q.) and he stopped (e.) servant, 
he looked at it as he saw it (e.) then he became frightened 
servant, (27) because inside the room it is and all they 
were these here. Then said the head man, ''There seems to be 
a person one sitting there wood where they are." (28) Then 
said (e.) the head man, ''Investigate thoroughly." And they 
were frightened (e.) those inside because all they are 
scalped -ones those inside and suddenly he said (e.) that 
one, '*You must have pity on me." (29) And those they were 
frightened they ran into each other (e.) there where the exit 
was (e.) merely it sat here (q.) (it did not happen) for him to 

240 Pifblications, American Ethnological Society VoL XVjI 

pd'kisu iweaxrirawdtsitit (30) hem axre'watsiUt 'pi-ta M W^d^TU*- 
wdtsctd he him aocriraxwa-waktiku (31) tdxvxi'ku raxkuwd'kahu 
kakikutpaks^'Tit askurditspi tutpakscnt (32) hem axrca pvta ram 
witiwa-ku siaskutatsikska"pa*kt8U he siaxririrua he kuocrdraxwats m 
irrmrdxku'ta (33) mtutsira*m. 

be blessed they fled outside (e.). (30) Then he went outside (e.) 
man and when he went out (e.) then there they were 
talking. (31) He would speak (e.) he would be saying (e.), "He 
didn't see my head the one with one hair he saw your head." 
(32) Then he came (e.) man merely he said (q.) for them 
to bless him and they became frightened (e.) and they 
scattered there each one would wander off. (33) That's all. 


(Free translation.) 
A warrior was coming home alone at the close of the day. He 
came to a stream and saw human footprints. He decided to follow 
them. They led to the edge of a cUff where they ended. He 
pushed apart the vines that hung over the cliff and since it was 
dark he felt about with his hand and found a hole. Although it 
was dark he decided to go inside and there he suddenly found 
himself in a large room where a fire was burning. There were 
people sitting around the fire telling stories. Near the door there 
was a large pile of wood and here he decided to sit down. As he 
sat there he was able to observe the people more closely. They 
told of incidents that had happened during the day and they would 
all laugh at each other's stories. The warrior could now see the 
different people, — one had a peg leg, and one a wooden arm and 
another was completely bald and stUl another had only one hair 
on his head which woiild wave back and forth. One of them had 
no ears, and another no hair. The leader ordered his apprentice 
to get some wood for a fire so that the fire would burn up high. 
When the apprentice got to the woodpile he thought he saw 
someone sitting there. He stopped for he was frightened. He knew 
that all were present and that this must be a stranger. He told the 
leader that he suspected there was a human being on the wood pile 
and the leader ordered him to investigate more thoroughly. They 
were all frightened, for these people were all Scalped-men. The 
warrior suddenly spoke to them and asked them to help him. But 
they were all so frightened that they crowded around the entrance 
trying to get out. And so his request for help remained unanswered. 
Then he went outside and he could hear what the men were saying. 
They said, "He didn't see my head, but he did see yours, One-Hair." 
Then the warrior approached them again and again asked for their 
help and blessing, but this time they were so frightened that each 
of them wandered off in a different direction. That's aD. 


tsupint rardxkata'ru\ Woman-star, the-one-that-is-yellow, 
tsawi'^^ Band 


(1) e tskinxki siaxra-ku pi-ta d tsapat e siaxra-ruxwihat pi-ra^u 

(2) wituocra*TU vdkusiksa'pdfi nfihu pi-raski a kekiksdpits tsijcraki 

(3) siaxrd*ruxwihat kawi-td wcti^ piraski a tsu-raki kskiksa-pits 

(4) he ird'ku piraski e siaxre^rwrapirihu^ iwe'axrara-rikUsu piraski 
d taxkikat (5) heru axriri-waki itaxri kirike*ruvt raskukikat pakustd- 
rariit he axriwa'ku tuxra^a ratkukikat atias d* atira tdtdskd the 
ratkutka-ku resa* (6) heru axriwa^ku i'osti kSrituxra'ka-pdhsu 
asutka'ku re-sa-ru (7) e pahustdrarid maxriwa*ku e ra-ru kareretiwa" 
ka'hu tsu-raki wetatu'tsikse*rd tsU^raki wdikurwtste he re*witskd* 
wis (8) heru axririwaki i*kaa raru kuruxrasiwa'kwhu wesdixwakw- 
rawu ita'xri (9) wdixwqki tatara-ka-pa^kis e pakustdrarid axriwa- 
kdraxka'as (10) heru axriwa^ku ka*ka'Uxke'sa'ri tsuraki wetati'- 
tsikstsirasa (11) heru amwa-ku hurahus vasti* kuxri-uxikUks 

(12) heru axriwa-ku kurahus wetdsuxru*kuxta rdhe-sa ks'karuvs 

(13) e-kqa weaxra-tsikste^hu* heriwe*ao(yra*sd*a tskinxki weraru— 
raspixraxkqtaku (14) iwerdhe'sa he riweaxruxru-kat werdhcsa 
tsahu'ta*ka witiwdat (15) a svaxri-tste'ru iweruxrwkat tatsti'sa akaa 

(1) Now fox there were two (e.) male and feirfale and 
they had (plnr.) (e.) pups. (2) They numbered seven (q.) one 
boy and six gu'ls (3) they had (e.). Youngest it is (q.) boy 
and girls six. (4) And that boy — they loved him (e.). 
When he grew up (e.) boy then he would cry (e.). (5) Then 
they would say (e.) sisters, "Why is it that you cry, Scorched- 
Belly." And he said (e.) '*The reason that I cry father 
and mother, I want — to be the son-in-law chief. (6) Then 
said (e.) his father, **Are we not too poor for you to be son-in- 
law chief?" (7) and Scorched-belly then said '* — just 
I am not saying it girl I have already seen her (courted her) 
girl she likes me and she wants quickly." (8) Then they 
said (e.) "Oh, just you may be saying that." They doubted 
his word his sisters. (9) They said (q.), "We are poor." And 
Scorched-beUy he cried (e.). (10) Then he said (e.), "I'm not 
j\ ing, girl I brought her once." (11) Then said (e.) old man 
hi8 father, "He may be truthful." (12) Then said (e.) old man, 
"You are going to become his son-inlaw (go-into-his-dwelling) 
tomorrow early." (13) Oh he was happy (e.) and this was 
his name, (e.) fox, "He-has-claws-against". (14) Then next 
morning and he went into his dwelling (e.). When it was 
morning white robe he had wrapped about him (q.) (15) and 

242 Publications y American Ethnological Society Vol. XJrjj 

pdsiwitv^ wttiXimkiA'hu (16) ikaa um-m witH%W'hi pakustdrari'tt 
stti*ru*hn*ratse'raru'ku (17) he4u irika-ki utka-ku iwerutka-ku M 
ke*tsi axrura^a tsu-raki wituxra* wite-riru'tste (18) he- ke-tsi trihe 
axri'Ta-riks iwerutka-ku re^sa-ru (19) heriru axriwa*ku re-sa-ru 
axrd'wdsa kird ra-ru rira-ku tirixwakehu pakustdrari-it (20) kerihe 
rwaxri^ rakura-te-wawdriku weruxra*ru the re*sd*ru iwerutka-ku 
(21) hern axriwdska re-sa^ru tisirvrwpds eri'rerawdkuxte"wa*wqri- 
kusta trihe rakukdawia*ra (22) he isira-ku ia-sti^ ihe pakustdrari-d 
ia-sti d isa*sti weaxri-rake-skdwu-tu d itaxri (23) atexwakid-hu 
d'kqa paJcustdrarvd wera-tutka^ku re^sa-ru iriivddrwruksku re\sa*ru 
tsu-raki (24) he rixwakid'hu tsu*raki he axra*sa^a pdskdhure'sa*ru 
isu-raki (25) iriweru-tutsira-ru, 

they tamed him (e.) (he was married). Since he became son-in-law 
of chief oh he was hated they were saying (q,), (16) ''Oh 
chief 8()n-in-law Scorched -belly." They were making fun of 
of him (17) because he isn't one to be son-in-law he that is 
son-in-law and then she caused it girl she did it (q.) she 
loved him (q.) (18) and so, — it is the truth since he is son- 
in-law chief. (19) Thereupon said (e.) chief when he arrived 
(e.) ''Let just the way sit there (disregard) this they are saying, 
Scorched-beUy." (20) Then he is the one to make rules (mea- 
sure the ways) it is because — chief he is son-in-law. 
(21) Then he thought (e.) chief, "Since they hate him he is 
going to be the adviser (measure the words) rather than for 
him to become leader." (22) And those two his father 
Scorched-belly, his father and his mother they were dying 
of happiness (e.) and his sisters. (23) They would be saying. 
"Oh Scorched-belly why, he's a son-in-law chief he has had 
sitting (q.) chief girl." (24) And they are sajdng girls an*! 
her name is (e.) Chief-of-the-hated-ones-among-the-timber" gi] ^ 
(26) That's all. 


(Free translation.) 
Once upon a time there were two foxes, a male and a feni 
and they had pups. One was a male and six were females. 'I 
boy was the youngest and the six girls were aU older. The g 
loved their youngest brother very much. He grew older and 
last he reached maturity. One day his sisters found him cryj 
and they said to him, "Scorched-belly why are you crying ?" "I i 
crying, father and mother, because I want to become the son- 
law of the chief." His father said to him, '*But are we not t 
poor for you to aspire to such a position?" "I am not taUdi 

^ This is a cl€bss of stories told entirely for amusement and is analogous 
the coyote stories of other American Indian mythologies. 

WeltfisK Caddoan Texts 243 

about this without some justification," said Scorched-Belly, ''I 
have already courted the girl and she loves me and wants our 
wedding to take place as soon as possible.'* *'0h, you can't be in 
earnest/' they said dubiously. ''We are too poor." And Scorched- 
belly cried again and said, **I'm teUing the truth, I've already 
visited the girl." Then his father said, ''He may be telling the 
truth after all." Then the father said, "All right then, you will 
marry her early tomorrow morning." He was overjoyed and now 
he had a new name, "Fox -wearing -a-claw-necklace." 

Next morning he went to the chief's house. He was dressed 
in a white buffalo -robe and he was married right there and then. 
Everyone hated him saying scornfully, "See who has become the 
chief's son-in-law, that fellow Scorched-belly." Everyone made 
fun of him for he was hardly the right sort to be a chiefs-son-in- 
law. In spite of this the chief's daughter had married him because 
she loved him. When he came to live in the chief's house, the chief 
told him to disregard the way in which the people would mock him 
and call him Scorched -beUy. Since the people disliked him so much, 
he was to be the chief's adviser rather than a leader of the people. 
The parents and the sisters of Scorched-belly were very proud and 
they would say, "Why our Scorched-belly is the chief's son-in-law 
and has married the chief's daughter." The other girls in the tribe 
named her wife of "Chief-of-the-hateful-foxes-who-hve-in-the- 
woods." That's all. 


tskardrare'sa-ru Lone-Chief, tsawi*^^ Band, 


(1) wewitirikatihdxhqri* he rdku-ku rakutdwiku he tsustit aararuxku 
raktl'ki rakuruxrikatihararua kshrawi^u (2) sirqkuka*pd'ktsn 
siwttikd'pd'kis he sikqrexreriru*tsite dkda*ru^ kusikarawitqruxku 
(3) herahurvtat a siwttdxwari rusiraxkuwerdwari raxkic'tvxku ram 
siwttiwari a sirexkuw&rqa (4) e sita-mtspa^karu kiriku e sitax- 
pinxku weraxkuksttat siraxhupiraxra crirurdxkw^u sirexkuwqrika 
weraxkurahu'vu wekararaxkuxre-ra (5) e sttdxruras rakuwitat 
siraxkusurdraspe werexkusurarurdwqra a kisatski siraxkupiraxra 
(6) nqwa asku sqku*ru axrutasitit qkita-ru wekuraku itat iriqxruks 
itat (7) he tswsUt a pi-raski kura'^u siaxrahqtvxkdwa (8) sirqku- 
hqtvxkdwqra sird'kuwe'tqra he axrdwitsa kqrarqkuxre-ra kintsta'kd 
aru'Sa rexkuwitskq^a (9) we ram sirexkuhurqwa tqku tsdxriks 

(1) It was many years (q.) and there sat there were among 
— old woman she had (e.) grandchild it had these many years 
sixteen (2) they were poor they were poor (q.) and they 
did not like them tribe they had nothing (q.) (3) and all the 
time — they wandered about (q.) (e.) they were always going 
about behind at the camps just they wandered about (q.) 
they would follow behind (4) and they would pick things up 
anything and they would be picking up (e.) where the camp 
had been they picked things up (e,) whatever it might be (e.) 
what they threw away (e.) when it was spoiled (e.) when it is 
no good (5) and they would find (e.) to wrap with they 
looked for moccasins (e.) moccasins they had left about (e.) and 
meat they kept picking up (e.). (6) Now one day it happened 
(e.) tribe for it to be (camped a long time) camped where 
there had been (e.) camp (7) and old woman and boy hers 
they followed the road (e.) (8) they went upon the trail they 
followed behind and it arrived (e.) a no-good one white-man<' 
horse they thought (e.) (9) now just one they have left 

^ This story is a translation of the English version of the "Dun Horse" i 
"Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales", G. B. Grinnell, New York, 192/ 
pp. 87 — 97. Because he had difficulty composing for dictation, Stac\ 
Matlock proposed that he translate something from English into Pawnee, 
selecting this story as one of the favorite tales at the present time emon^ 
the Pawnee. The stylistic adjustment of the tale to the English manner 
of story-telling is clearly reflected in the greater compactness possible in 
the retranslation of the Pawnee into English. 

wttiraxkis wekuxruntsi'Sat ashn karawttikirika he axratatku'vt 

(10) askii axrakasii'vt iriaxrwta kitu wewiti* rdxkudu witukswvt 
kusikqrexritsetsikstdwi'hu pwri wekarardkw^u siitatsikstawi he isira^a 

(11) ke-tsi tsu'sttt a pi-raski kura*u piraski kuxrawd*ku sihu*ra 
wetatsitirdsuxta asa-kurahus he itsqkuxr&nxkn (12) he tswstit 
rivaxTvtsiratsdxpa aru'sa hem sidxrutsitsirasat ivitikistawvtiku ax- 
rauksti'tts (13) wewttirikatihaxkgri^ he axratawiku pa-ri witi* 
tsustit d rahU'ki pi-raski rakuruxrikatiha^ra-rwa ksprawiu wewttiri- 
katihdxkari (14) he axratawiku rdku*u pa*ri tsustit d raktvki 
pi'Toski werdku*u ksvrawiu rikdtiha*ru (15) piraski axrarewd-ta 
aru'sa axrii'tsaa pi-raski he axrgrewatpa kintsta-kd gxru-tsd* pvraski 
(16) ruaxrikusarura-wd iri iqxruksku axrukskitaku iriaxrawa-ku^ 
heru axritdwird'ot iri axrd-ku he pvraski weaxrqwttsqta iriaxra'ku 
aru'sd axrqwdwaktit (17) he axrqwd-ku weresuxrae-rit tirasa-kariki 
e ti'tiri he weresird-vta irvru*tqsitikstqrit istu ti*ra*wa'hat tuxrq^a 
istu rikutsirasa ku*tii*ru e titrri heriiswta (18) triitpa-ka hqwa istu 
kqraskutswra hqwd kqraskutsia*ra hk aru-sa ru axriwa-ku (19) 
kuutsikstsirasat ke*tstikvtsu trirt-tat trirqwd-ku^ rurihvra heriru 
ithnt tirqrdtke-u he kekqruvs iskuturia (20) e pi-raski ruaxrutsid 

behind someone persons he was skinny (q.) he was exhausted 
one eye he did not have (q.) and his back was sore (e.) (10) one 
leg was swollen (e.) that way is (e.) he all he is (q.) scabby 
he was swollen (q.) they did not care for it Pawnee it was not 
^ r us to care for and those two coming (11) and then old 
lan and boy hers boy said, *'Now come on we are 
g r to take it old horse and it will pack our things,*' (12) and 
old w ( »man she packed them on (e.) horse then they led it (e.) 
it was limping (q.) it was slow (e.) (13) it was many years (q.) 
and there was among (e.) Pawnees it is (q.) old woman and 
grandchild boy had these many years sixteen it was many 
years (q.) (14) and there were among (e.) they are Pawnee 
old woman and grandchild a boy he was about sixteen 
years. (15) Boy he looked about (e.) horse he got up (e.) 
boy then he looked about (e.) the dun horse it got up (e.) 
boy (16) then he left the place (e.) where there he had been 
sitting (e.) where he had sat on top (e.) where the hill was (e.) 
then he went down (e.) where he sat (e.) and boy when 
he arrived (e.) where he sat (e.) horse spoke (e.) (17) and he 

id (e.), "Now you see today now today then now you 
k .jw what's going to happen again. Heaven has caused it 
ba^^ it has led me from death and today do that! (18) 
whatever I say also again for you not to do again for you 
not to do and horse then said (e.), (19) "Lead me far off 
where the camp is where the hill is beyond that thereupon 
ril stand (stay) tonight and early you come for me!" (20) And 


246 PublicatioTis, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

iriaxreruxrarikd^a (21) hern azriat arwsd axruturata M-karuvs 

(22) he axrahuras siraku-tira arwsa rqkuxre*ra rqkutd-kd^ru witita" 
kd-a pikaruvs irartki wituxre wdikuskitqwi* (23) kukqrawititqwe 
irikurqkutu'a iriaxre-tat (24) he iras he kirttsta*ka axruxra-rika 
pi-raski kaskutsttsirgsat (25) tstu irdwa-ku"^ rurihrra he kintsta-kd 
axrqwa-ku pvraski (26) weisvra kaskutsihuria he tstu pvraski 
weaxruturata heru tstu hiru siaxriwd-nt rqkuxre-ra rqkuka-ti-tu 
aru'sa (27) axrurdtkahd-ru rihuksiri arwsd axrahurvwH (28) e 
ke-kqruvs he tdxruras he axririkiwira arwsa he axrqraruras trirurax- 
kutsiu-a arwsa rqkupqhd-tu pakspdhat kuraxkats rikutare-us qsawdki 
e kitu (29) he axruxriwa rqkuxriwa-ra arwsa pd-ri tqku rikarawt- 
tqriru'tsiu tqaxre*tat (30) kakira-ke-a piraski axrd-a witutsirasat 
arwsa witutsirasat ruiriaxrd'kd-wi iri ika*ri axrqka*ku (31) kqra- 
wttekdrihu^u rurqkitsirdwa sirakuka*ku pitku (32) he axra-ka-a 
qkaxpqkuxt^u tskaritki tswstd kuxrd-kaxkusit (33) he kuxrutstqre*- 
pd*pu Mtu d*aski qsitskqritki a- dskatski kqrdwctwrdkqre iriaxre-tat 
(34) he tsustit axrute^nt kurd^u pvraski rqkutsirdsaxra kiritsta*ka 
arwsa akuxrarqra kisatski a tsqhwki witetstkskiskqwdrasitt (35) 
piraski axrqwa-ku a*tika we*tatuxrqra rakukqri^u kisa-tski rakuwd*- 

boy did thus (e.) what he told him. (21) Then he went (e.) 
horse he went for it (e.) early (22) and he found (e.) he was 
with horse beautiful one a white one he was a white (q.) male 
horse that one (standing) he is fine (q.) a very beautiful one (q.) 

(23) one was not among (q.) one that was Uke it that camp (e.). 

(24) Then night and Dun horse told the (e.) boy, ''Lead me!" 

(25) Again that hill on the other side and Dun horse said (e.) 
boy, (26) "When you come you must come for me." and 
again boy when he went for him (e.) then again there 
there were two (standing) (e.) a beautiful one a black one 
horse (27) it was nights (e.) ten horses they were thereabout 
(e.) (28) and early then he found (e.) and they were different 
(e.) horses and he found them (e.) all kinds horses a red 
one, red-head (roan) gray one blue-tail (black-roan) spotted 
and all (29) and they were good ones (e.) very good ones 
horses Pawnee someone did not have one like it in that 
camp (e.). (30) It was not a long time boy he came (e.) he 
was leading (q.) horse he was leading it (q.) where she lived (e.) 
where his grandmother lived (e.) (31) it was not a large 
dwelling (q.) just enough for for two to live two (32) and 
the house was of (e.) old house skin old woman picked up 
the tent-cover (33) and she tied it all up all strings rawhide 
and sinew it was a no -good lodge (q.) in that village (e.) 
(34) and old woman saw (e.) her boy when he was leading 
the dun horse packed with them meat and buffalo robe 
she was very much surprised (q.) (35) boy said (e.), "Grandma, 
I brought you plenty meat to eat and here is buffalo-rube 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 247 

wad a tiwcra-ku tsqhu^hi raskuraxra rurdsi-^u (36) sukstarwwa 
MsatsM (37) arwsd ire-ra tsustit axrd'wasku e rakutsikste*hu'ru e 
weaxrd'ta rakuraru-waxra kisatski arusd axreriwira-at qxre'tsvska- 
tdpakta axra*wvka kurgku-ru qsa-riru^ (38) tsu-stit axrutkiriku 
raku*tstkskiskawd*rasvfu karawttirahunriksiku asku^u- arU'sardku^u 
piraski axrarqrii'Wa kisatski (39) aru^sd kare-riwitskd* tswstit ra^kua 
te-kskurd (40) irardkaha-ru arwsa dxrawa-ku istu piraski axrawdku 
rdhe-sa^ kqtaxkd tara^ra tikqri^ (41) heru rarqxwitsqtsta iriri'tat 
he restakapaksta a kdtaxka wenra-ririi'ta rdskura-kapaka (42) he 
isirqwvka i-ra-tdriki he iskukitqwvtit (43) he ritqrakdstspa he 
ikqrikat kdtaxka iriaxkitqwi*u re-sa-ru axrdruxwd*riki rdwiraku-ru 

(44) he axrqkitqwu irirakukavrub-tika he istu ta^ kski-ttks he isutd-wa 

(45) he iskitqwu kskHiks rdhiku-tsu kdtaxka (46) he tsakatou-tit 
hqwa istu karesutsia istu isata ktriku sirakukiU'tika ku raskukuri- 
wgrika ka-sirird'ita (47) piraski witiwd'ku tihe weaxrasakurikiwira 
he axrutasitit arusd axrawd-ku kataxka wetqrd-ra hewerutqsuat 
raku'pgka (48) he piraski retiraktu*wa a riksu he axra^wi-ka iriaxrd" 
riki kiritstd'ka he rara-wi-at (49) he dxrutqwiikqwkat he kdtaxka 
axruxra-e^rd kuxrdwitska^ we4itqhipista axre*ru resaxkitdwj^u (50) 

for you to have for you only. (36) Take off the meat." (37) 
Horse there it comes old woman laughed (e.) and her 
feelings were glad and when she went (e.) to take them off 
meat horse he rolled (e.) he snorted (e.) he jumped (e.) like 
a wild horse (38) old woman looked (e.) she was so very much 
surprised she couldn't believe the same horse to be. Boy 
took off (e.) meat. (39) Horse did not want old woman 
to come close. (40) That night torse spoke (e.) again boy, 
He said (e.), ^'Tomorrow Sioux are coming there are many 
(41) then they are going to arrive where the village is and 
you will have a battle and Sioux when they are in a line for 
you to fight (42) then you must jimip onto where I am (stand- 
ing) and you must ride me (43) and we will try hard (go fast)." 
And in the middle Sioux the one that is the leading chief 
where his were (e.) warriors (44) and he counted (e.) those 
he should kill and back he comes four then, "Do thus so 
many times (45) and count four braves Sioux (46) and 
kill them also again don't do it, again if you go probably 
they will kill you perhaps you would lose me Remember 
(you must know)." (47) Boy he said (q.) (promised). Another 
different day (e.) then it happened (e.) horse he said, (e.) 
"Sioux are coming in the line to battle." (48) And boy 
he took out his bow and arrows and he jumped where it is 
(standing) (e.) dun horse and ' he charged (49) and in the 
midst of them (e. ) and Sioux they saw it (e. ) that he thought 
he will hit their (e.) head chief (50) and all the arrows were 
thrown here and there (e.) they shot (e.) he threw the arrows (e.) 

248 Publications^ American Ethnological Society Vol, XVII 

he kitu axririkstarawd'wqnt siaocririwgriku axrqrikstardwartt rird-kat 
tirikskqri^ WLtiqoiririkstaxkusitskqvm he axrakatitstdtqte (51) he 
sikqreririri-tsat piraski he axrqku'tit re^sd-ru he istu ritaxriat istu 
(52) he kuxrdra-wi'rat criaxrgwd'riki kdtaxka iridxrakdri^u (53) he 
kuxrakdwu'ttt rdhiku-tsu he pdku sihiri axrqat kski-tiks axruraku-ta 
aru'sd iriwiteruxra-rika (54) he kataxka a pd-ri hetstqa-he^e axrira- 
poku" (55) he piraski axrdwqri he qxruxra-tsiksta dxrirapaku hern 
qxriiva*ku arvsU wetuxra'tu kskvtiks he tatakdwu4(t kdtaxka he 
kukqreru'tsi (56) rutqtutsira*u kukakikuraa he istu ttkwtika he 
istu tikitqwi'tit kiritstd*ka (57) e qxrakqsispa he weqxrawitsat 
iriaxrqwd'riki kdtaxka asku kataxka rdwiraku-ru axrqrikstu*wa e 
axrd'tsat (58) he riksu axra-tsat kiritstd-ka kuxrdkastaxtsat kuxrit- 
kxtstqritsqkus arwsa axrqwiu^hat e piraski axratqkd-hat (59) ruqxra** 
pakusat iriaxrawd-riki kqtaxkd (60) he rqrdruhat he rekdsispa 
rurqkuwitsata iriaocrqtvd*riki pd-ri he arwsa wesiaxrixkii*tit (61) e 
kataxka ruaxririwaki arwsa kuwituruks pi-ta tqrurukstdhikwvts 
kutu'u kdrai' arU-sa (62) hern axririrdxkqwat re-tsiki a katqrakiri- 
patski siaxrixkqwd'tsit kiritstd-ka e kitu rusiamrikqkat kisatskiri- 
patski (63) pd-ri a kdtaxka witiksdpaku sqkuxki-tu he weaxraratke-a 
a kdtaxka axriruwq^as (64) e pi-raski kqrexrurqtsikstd*he weaxrqri- 

with bow there were many arrows arrows were flying towards 
each other (e.) and it became dark (with arrows) (e.) (51) but 
they didn't hit him boy and he killed (e.) the chief and 
back he went (e.) again (52) then he charged where they 
were (e.) (standing) Sioux where there were many (e.) (63) and 
he killed them braves now two times he went (e.), four 
he could go (e.) horse that's what it told him (q.) (54) and 
Sioux and Pawnee nevertheless they fought (e.) (55) and 
boy he was going about (e.) and he was watching (e.) as 
they fought (e.) then he said (e.) (to) himself they number 
four now that are killed Sioux and nothing happened 
(56) I am all right I wasn't hurt at all and again I might 
kill and again he mounted the dun horse (57) and he 
charged (e.) and when he arrived (e.) where they were (standing) 
(e.) Sioux one Sioux warrior took out his arrow (e.) and 
he shot him (e.) (58) and arrow it struck (e.) dun horse 
shot him in the legs it pierced his legs horse he fell (e.) and 
boy he got off (e.) (59) he went on fighting (e.) where they were 
(e.) Sioux (60) — where the line of them is and he ran hard 
to get to where they were (e.) Pawnee and the horse they 
killed him (e.) (61) and the Sioux they were saying (e.) horse 
he was like a man he was brave it was Hke he is not horse. 
(62) Then they pulled out (e.) knives and Uttle hatchets 
they stuck him here and there (e.) dun horse and entirely 
they cut him up (e.) Uttle pieces of meat. (63) Pawnee and Sioux 
they were fighting (q.) all day and when night came (e.) 

ITx^lcfiiiTv, OuuiZdijKiutv TcMta 249 

warilca ar'H-sa (65) weruaxrutsirdrwa qocriksapaku heru axriat 
ruiririksdpoku wetetsiksu^vxkd*pd'kis aru*sa axruxrurqhats (66) 
heru axriat rurdxtqku iri arwsd axra'sa (67) Mm axriratsdkipu kitu 
aru'sa kataxkd siaxnxkakatka hawa kdU' kd'su d asu^" kitu axrari- 
wvkus (68) heru axrikataat iriaxrawd^ku'^ heru axriwi*ttt (69) heru 
witiaxrutsikate'Te-fu axrawitai tsahu-ki witiqxrvtpakskate-re'pu (70) 
heru axratsikska^ axratsikska*pd'ki8u arwsa iweruxkit'ti* (71) hi 
weaxrd'ku he axratku axrahvtdwia he axrahu-ta U'tdwi*u tiriaxra'ku 
karahutvxtawdktd^hu he utqwikat dxratsii-a (72) he pvraski ruax- 
rire'wd*ta ruiriaxrqrariwvkusku kiaatski kiripatski d ki-su aru*sa 
triaxrarauhurqhat (73) axruxra*^'nt axratswa qxrats'^uxruxta-ta 
kqrdwiturqtsiksta-he he axra'tsiksii^vxkd'pd*ki8 he kardaxrira^ke-a 
(74) he istu qxra'hvidwia he axrqre'wd'ta axra*tsu'a rutriaxrahurdk- 
tqku triaxrqru'tsi (75) heru axriwdska istu kirakqwerqratsdkipvtit 
irirutqhu kwtu axrqriwvku arwsa rdkutsta he kqrexrutsirae-riku 
(76) wite-tsuhurihu'u he istu tqwit kihiri axra^tsu'a axrahvtdwia he 
axrarewd'ta iri aru*sd axrd-sa (77) he qxruxral*nt axrintkvtdpd*tsu 
tqwdkihtri he axrqntkuitsdd'hu he axrapaksdHwd-ta urd-riri (78) 

then Sioux they fled (e.). (64) And boy he did not feel well 

(e.) when he lost (e.) horse. (65) When that was all (e.) of 

the fighting (e. ) then he went (e. ) where they had been fighting 

he felt sorry for himself horse he lost (e. ) (66) then he went (e.) 

right there where horse lay (e.) (67) then he gathered (e.) 

aU the horse Sioux that they had cut up (e.) also all the legs 

and feet all he put in a pile (e.) (68) then he went up (e.) 

where the mountain is (e.) then he sat down (e.) (69) then 

he draw his all about him (cloak) (e.) he was wrapped (e.) 

buffalo-robe he drew it up over his head (e.) (70) then he 

thought (e.) of his sorrow (e.) horse that was killed. (71) And 

as he sat (e.) then he heard (e.) as the wind came and the 

wind came (e.) wind there he sat (e.) the wind made no sound 

and with the wind it rained (e.) (72) and boy he looked 

about (e.) where the pile was (sitting) (e.) meat small (pieces) 

and bones horse where he had left them (e.) (73) he saw it (e). 

Rain coming (e.) when the rain passed (e.) he was feeUng no-good 

(q.) and he was feeling miserable (e.) and it was not a long 

time (e.) (74) and again the wind came (e.) and he looked 

about (e.) the rain (e.) where the place is (e.) where they lay 

(e.). (75) Then he thought (e.) again see if they have gathered 

together the way it ought to be dead piled up (e.) horse 

lying dead and he didn't see very clearly (76) it was a big rain 

(q.) and again three times it rained (e.) the wind came (e.) 

and he looked (e.) where horse lay (e.) (77) and he saw (e.) 

its tail moving (e.) three times and his tail was going (e.) 

and his head lifted (e.) from ground (78) boy became 

250 Publications, American Ethnological Society Vol. XVII 

pvrasJci dxrarirud he axrawdska rakukukstakvt (79) ruwitl-ku he 
axra-ku axruxra-tsikstqwi'tit (80) tstu hqwd axrahutaim-ttt he 
axrd^su^a he axrahvtd'wia he axra-tswa (81) pi-raski axrute-nt 
axra-tswa gxrare-wd-ta axra^stwa (82) pi-raski axrurewd-ta arusa 
axru'tsda he axrarewdtpa kiritsta*ka axrwtsd (83) piraski ruhart- 
kusarurihvt ririaxru-ksku arukskitaku riaxrawa-ku^ hern axrit>awi- 
rd'at iriaxrd'ku (84) e prraski weaxramtsata iriaxra^ku arusa 
axrawawaktit he axrawd'ku (85) weresuxrae-nt tirasd'kariki e 
ti'tiri he weresira*it triruticsitstkstgnt tstu tira*wa-hat tuxre tstu (86) 
rikutsirasku kuwituru e ti-tiri he riisu'ta iriitpa^ka hawa tstu karas- 
kutsiara hawa irikukaraskutsiara (87) he arusa ruaxriwa^ku kuitstks- 
tsirasat ke-tstikuts trir&tat irirawdku rurihi-ra (88) heriru ite*rtt 
tiraratke*a he ki-kqruvs tskuturia (89) e piraski ruaxrutsia triax- 
reruxrarika^a heru axriat arusa axruturata ke-karuvs (90) he ax- 
rahuras sirakutira arusa (91) rakuxrera rakuta^ka witita*ka pikarus 
irarekuri wdu-xre wdikuskitqwe wdctkukarawditawe*nt trikurahutii'U 
triaxre-td (92) he iras he kirdsta-ka axruxrarika piraski (93) ka^s- 
kutsitsirasat tstu rirawa*ku^ rurihrra wecsi-ra kaskutsihuria (94) 
he tstu pi-raski weaxtura*ta heru tstu heru siaxriwd-rd (95) rakuxrera 

frightened (e.) and he wanted (e.) to flee (79) he stayed (q.) 
and he sitting (e.) he began to watch (e.) (80) also again 
the wind blew (e.) and it rained (e.) and the wind came (e.) 
and rain came (e) (81) boy he looked (e.) it rained (e.) he 
looked about (e.). It rained (e.) (82) boy he looked (e.) horse 
he raised himself (e.) and looked around (e.) dun horse he 
got up (e.) (83) boy he left the place where he was sitting (e.) 
sitting on the top where the hill (e.) then he went down (e.) 
where he is (e.) (84) and boy when he went (e.) where he is (e.) 
horse he spoke (e.) and he said (e.), (85) *'You have seen today 
and right now then you know if you think again Heaven 
it is good again (86) let me come back hereafter now right 
now^ then what you must do whatever I say also again 
don't do that again don't do that." (87) And horse said (e.), 
**Lead me away far off where the camp is where the hill is 
further (88) thereupon let me stand tonight and early 
come for me." (89) And boy he did (e.) as he was told (e.) 
then he went (e.) horse when he went for it (e.) early (90) and 
he found (e.) there were two horses (91) it was beautiful a 
white one it is white (q.) gelding more handsome it is fine (q.) 
it is the finest (q.) there was not among them (q.) that which 
is Uke it that camp (e.) (92) then at night and dun horse 
told (e.) boy, (93) "'Take me again where the hiU is further 
when you come come for me." (94) Then again boy when 
he went for him then again then there were two standing (e.) 
(95) a beautiful one a black one horse and nights ten 
horse he left there (e.) and early then he found (e.) — 

Weltfish, Caddoan Texts 251 

rakukcb'tit arusa a ruratkaha-ru rihuJcsiri arusa axrahurt-wtt e* M" 
karuus e tdxruras he axririkikiwira arwsa (96) he dxrararuras 
irinmxrukutsiu'wa arusa rakupaha-t pakspdhat kurdxkats kutare-us 
asawdki e kitu he axruriwa (97) rakuxriward arusa pa-ri taku 
rikarawttgriru'tsihu tdaxre-tat e piraski (98) wekararika'pa^kts he 
axraktakuksa ruxre-ra tsu'vaki kuaxraha resaru iriaxrikddwiu (99) 
e rahiri e siaxriru resaru rakukddwiu he axrarurukspivt pi-ra^u a 
tsapat ruxre-ra axraktaku (100) e asku sakwru heri axriranktcsu 
piraski axrakwt (101) heru (axtsikite-raxku ? ) ruxtawanki arikis 
a rutatd^u he rahuritit tsustit ika-ri heru axrutsirasku iriaxrakdriku 
(102) heru irikurakut (103) e kintsta-ka (kusikararitsikitawvtit?) 
ruwtterarihvt werexkuhakawa-tsistarit e werexkuraxkaistartt kura-^u 
a taxrirasat iriraxkurarata resaru iriraxkwta (104) arusa wduksarit 
iriaxmksitat wUukstikatihaxkari iriaxria-ri asakurahus (105) e 

different kinds (e.) horses (96) and he found them (e.) different 
colors horses red one roan (redhead) gray blue spotted 
and aU — beautiful (e.) (97) more beautiful ones horses 
Pawnee anyone there was none that looked like that there 
in that camp (e.) and boy (98) now he is not poor and he 
married (e.) beautiful one girl she is the daughter (e.) chief 
the one that is leader (e.) (99) and finally then they made 
him (e.) chief the head one and he had many (e.) children 
and woman beautiful one the one he is married to (e.) (100) 
and one day then the oldest one (e.) boy he died (e.) 
(101) then (they wrapped him in) the spotted one calf and 
it was buried and always old woman his grandmother then 
he kept her (e.) where his own lodge was (e.) (202) then there 
she died. (103) And dun horse (he was never ridden) only 
at one time (q.) when they are going to have a feast (e.) and 
when they were going to dance (e.) doctor and he went ahead 
(e.) when he went chief wherever he went. (104) Horse he 
lived (was standing) (q.) where the camp was for many years (q.) 
where he became (e.) an old horse (105) then there he died (e.). 



SOCIETY. Vols. I— III, 1845—61. (Out of print.) 

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