Chinese (Hong Kong Cantonese) Eric Zee Phonetics Laboratory, Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong The style of speech illustrated is that typical of the educated younger generation in Hong Kong. The recording is that of a 22-year-old male university student who has lived all his life in Hong Kong. Consonants Bilabial Labio- dental Dental Alveolar Post- alveolar Palatal Velar Labial- Velar Glottal Plosive PP h tt h kk h k w k wh Affricate ts ts h Nasal m n q Fricative f s h Approximant J W Lateral Approximant 1 p pal 'father* p h p h a"l 'to lie prone' m mal 'mother' f fan 'flower' wal 'frog' t tal 'dozen' t h t h al 'he/she' n p h an1 'to climb s sal 'sand' ts tsa~l 'to hold' ts h ts h a"l 'fork' J JBUl 'worry' 1 teul 'angry' k kal 'to add' k h k h al 'truck' rj . p h arj1 'to cook' k w k w a1 'melon' k wh k wh a1 'to boast' h hal 'shrimp' Illustrations of the IP A 59 Vowels Monophthongs (1) or (2) i i: sil 'silk' hipH 'to assist' himl 'moderate' y y: syl 'book' hytH 'blood' synl 'sour' e e: scl 'to lend' hekH 'to eat' serjl 'sound' OS ce: hoel 'boot' soek-l 'to whittle' soerjl 'hurt' a a: sal 'sand' hak-l 'guest' saml 'three' o: sol 'comb' hok-l 'shell' foql 'square' u UI ful 'husband' futH 'wide' mm 'cheerful' i i sikl 'colour' siql 'star' e e setl 'shirt' senl 'to inquire' B b SBpl 'wet' semi 'heart' u u sukl 'uncle' suql 'loose' Diphthongs (1) or (2) ai a:i sail 'to waste' ei ei seil 'west' au a:u saul 'basket' 12U BU Seul 'to receive ei ei heil 'rare' eu e:u teu-l 'to throw' ey ey sey"l 'bad' oi o:i soil 'gill' ui u:i fuil 'ash' iu i:u siul 'to burn' ou ou soul 'beard' iN \ •! \ • oe\e o \ a \ Tones 1 (high, level) sil 'silk' sikl 'colour' H (mid, level) siH 'to try' siH 'to reveal' -1 (low-mid, level) si-J 'matter' sik-l 'to eat' J (low-mid to low, falling) siJ 'time' 1 (low-mid to high, rising) sil 'history' A (low-mid to mid, rising) sti 'city' 60 Handbook of the IP A Conventions (a) Consonants, vowels and diphthongs Syllable-final plosives [p, t, k] are unreleased, i.e. [p, t\ k" 1 ]. Syllable-initial [t, t h , n] and final [t, n] are apico-laminal denti-alveolar; syllable-initial [s, ts, ts h ] are laminal alveolar; and syllable-initial  is apical denti-alveolar or apical alveolar, [n] rarely occurs in syllable-initial position; syllable-initial [rj] is often deleted, [i, y, e, oe, a, o, u] occur in open syllables as well as syllables closed by a plosive or nasal. In open syllables, [i, y, u] are about cardinal; [e] = [e]; [oe] = [oB]; [o] = [o]; and [a] = [a]; [i, y, u, e, ce\ o, a] are lowered in syllables closed by a plosive or nasal, [i, y, e, oe, a, o, u] are long in open syllables and short (a third shorter) in syllables closed by a plosive or nasal, [i, e, e, u] which occur only in syllables closed by a plosive or nasal are extra-short (two thirds shorter than [i, y, e, oe, a, o, u] in open syllables). All diphthongs are long; the first elements in [ai, au, oi, ui, iu, eu] are longer than the second elements; and the first elements in [m, mi, ei, oy, ou] are similar to the second elements in length, [au] = [au]; [ai] = [ai]; and [eu] = [eu]. The alternative transcriptions for vowels and diphthongs given above differ in whether these length distinctions are indicated. (b) Tones [1, H, -I, J, \ A] (= high; mid; low-mid; low-mid to low, falling; low-mid to high, rising; low-mid. to mid, rising) are long tones; [J] is relatively shorter. The short or extra-short variants of [1, H, -l] occur on syllables closed by a plosive. On a compound-final syllable, [H, -I] and their variants and [J] are often replaced by . Transcription of recorded passage jmU jetl ts h iH I pekl furfl t h uqJ t h aiH joeqJ heil tou-J am kenl pinl koH lekl til II k h eyJ tei-J ami ami t h ml tou^l jeuJ koH jiml haqJ k w oH I lil koH jenl tsoekH l:sy-l kin-J tai-l leul II k h eyJ tei-l tseu-l wa-l lakH I pinl koH hoi ]\A tsirj'l touH lil koH jem ts h eyJ tso^l kin-l IbuI lei I tsmi-l synH pinl koH lekl til lakH II jyl si-l I pekl furp tseu-J pokH meq-l keml ts h eyl II timl tsil I k h eyJ jyt-J ts h eyl irekl seil lei-l I kol koH jem tsmi-l jyt-l hei-J lal sst-J kin-J teul II tseyH heu-l I pekl fuql moiU saiH fuJ I weLl yeuA forjH heiH II kenl tsy-l I t h aiH joeqJ ts h etl leiJ saiH tso-1 jetl tsim-l I ko-1 koH jen'l tsBu-l tsikl hakl ts h eyJ tsol kin-l teul lakH II jyl si-l I pskl furjl vraJ jmU jirj-l syl lal II Orthographic version (non-standard, vernacular) wmm • im • imwmmtw. • S&& • mmmmi • mmxmmmmm #«•««• immsn • mmm • m& • *Mmm&r-w • mmxm Handbook of the International Phonetic Association : A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet International Phonetic Association, July 1999.