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Full text of "The Roxburghe ballads"

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Illustrating tljc last |3cars of tfje Stuarts. 



EDITED, 
WITH SPECIAL INTRODUCTIONS AND NOTES, 



BY 

J. WOODFALL EBSWORTH, M.A., Cantab., F.8.A. 

Editor of four reprinted " 'Drolleries' of the Restoration," 

"The Bagford Ballads" with their "Amanda Group 

of Poems," " The Two Earliest Quartos of 

A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1600," and 

Author of "Karl's Legacy; or, 

Our Old College at Nirgends." 



WITH HIS COPIES OF ALL THE ORIGINAL WOODCUTS. 



1701. U. 



' . . . Absalom's mild nature suited best ; 
Unblam'd of life ( ambition set aside I, 
Not stain'd with cruelty, nor puff 'd with pride 
How happy had lie been, if Destiny 
Had higher placed his birth— or not so high .' 
Strong were his hopes a Rival to ren* n i . 
With blandishments to gain the public love ; 
I o I" ad the Faction while their zeal was hot, 
And popularly prosecute the Plot 
To further this, Ackitoplul unites 
The malcontents of all the Israelites ; 
Whose differing parties he could wisely join, 
For several ends to serve the same design." 




— Dryden's Absalom and Ach 



HERTFORD: 

IPrintcn for tbe TMlati Society, 

BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 

1885. 



HER ITOK l» : 







PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 



Nos. 24, 25, 26. 



To his Friend, a Reviver of Old Literature, 

ALEXANDER 13ALLOCH GROSART, LL.D., 

EDITOR OF MANY FAMOUS AUTHORS, INCLUDING A LONG LINK 

Cavalier $oets ant) puritan 3Dttrines ; 

WHOSE WRITINGS HE HAS GIVEN HACK TO THE WORLD WITH 

UNTIRED ZEAL, INDUSTRY, AND INTELLIGENCE; NOT 

ALONE THE ACKNOWLEDGED 'WORTHIES,' OF 

FULLER AND OF CHERTSEY, BUT ALSO, TO 

SECURE TARDY JUSTICE AND FAME 

FOR THEIR NEGLECTED GENIUS, 

' The Inheritors of Unfulfilled Renown : ' 
Fiji's jHitij Folume of &\)c Koiburrjljc Ballatis, 

(issued on the Bicentenary of Monmouth 's Insurrection ) 

illustrating tfte last gears of tfjc Stuarts in 
Political ano Social iDistorj), 

IS HERE 

DEDICATED, 

With affectionate esteem by his Friend and Fellow- Student, 

JOSEPH WOODFALL EBSWORTH. 

MIDSUMMER, 1884. 




3Jntrotwctton to tt)e £>econti Volume 

of the Secanti Sbnixs of Eailutrgfje Ballads. 

' ' Ancient libels and contraband books, I assure ye, 

We'll print as secure from Excbequer or Jury ; 

One tome Miscellaneous ive'll add to your store, 
Ilesolving next year to print one volume more. 

One volume more, my friends, one volume more ; 

Pay down your subscriptions for one volume more ! " 

— Sir "Walter Scott's Bannatyne-Club Sony, 1823. 

^A^rllE ENTIRE CAREER OF MONMOUTH 

^y|f is displayed in the series of Ballads, Songs, and 
Political Poems, given in the present volume, 
and in the concluding portion of the one 
immediately preceding. Here, for the first tunc 
reprinted, are many of the choice broadsides gathered by 
Samuel Pepys, and bequeathed by him to Magdalen College, 
Cambridge: treasures of the BtuUoujrca ^pfpusiana ; for the 
use of which we duly record our thanks to the Learned and 
reverend the Master, the Fellows, and the Librarian of that 
venerable foundation. Here are, also for the first time 
gathered, and re-arranged, all reprinted in extenso, a much 
larger number of similar ballads from the original Harleian, 
Pearson, or Roxburghe Collection, and from the Benjamin 
Hey wood Bright Supplementary- volume; from the purchases 
made by Narcissus Luttrell (marked occasionally by himself 
with the date when he obtained them) ; and from others, 



x Bicentenary of Monmouth's Insurrection. 

including Ant. a Wood's at Oxford, and in the Editor's private 
store of rarities, ^rofobcsfj ^Manuscripts and printed broad- 
sides. From State Papers at the Record Office, and in the 
rich garner of the British Museum, we have culled many 
things that help to make the past intrigues more clear. The 
character of the actors in the tragi-comedy of two hundred 
years ago can now be studied accurately by those who are 
unprejudiced, and not too soon disgusted at human weakness 
or vice. Ours is a BICENTENARY Volume OF MONMOUTH'S 
INSURRECTION, issued in 1885, but finished beforehand. 

Surely not without interest or historical value are our 
copies of all the original woodcuts, such as the Trial and 
the Execution of Algernon S} 7 dney (on pp. 426, 429) ; 
and of Lord W. Russell : even the inappropriate hap-hazard 
introduction of long-earlier civil- war engravings; such as that 
of John Wentworth, the Earl of Strafford, being ferried 
across the Styx, to meet his predecessor, William Noy, on 
the farther shore (see p. 463) ; or the mediaeval battle-piece 
which was brought into service to represent Sobieski's victory 
over the Turks at the Siege of Vienna in 1683 (see p. 372). 
These woodcuts include several that were by no means due 
to subscribers, because not belonging to the Roxburghe 
Collection, e.g. the contemporary pourtrayal of " Frost-Fair 
on the Thames," in the winter of 1683-1684 ; which forms 
the frontispiece to Part XIY., being the Third Group of 
Monmouth Ballads ; also the Beheading of Monmouth and 
the Hanging of his Followers in the West (on pp. 699, 
701) ; or the picture of the moated Rye-House, where King 
Charles II. was to have been assailed by the conspirators 
{Front 'ispiece to the present Yol. V.). They have, one and 
all, been given single-handedly by the Editor, at his own cost 
of ungrudged toil, without repayment of a penny from the 
funds of the Society, which are left wholly devoted to the 
payment of printing and paper. This task, voluntarily 
accepted, necessarily long protracted, and in his present 
failing health by no means light, is being wrought out in 
the hope of securing a speedy completion of the entire 
work, a full reproduction of 3E|je Ixoiburglje Ballnbs. It 
seems to be an insult and a degradation that subscribers 
omit to do their duty by affording the required assistance 
to this desired work, while the Editor conquers a three-fold 
amount of labour freely in their behalf. Were the printing 



Necessity of full Annotation. \\ 

of final parts rapidly paid for, by accelerated subscriptions, 
another year might sec the completion of the series. Winn 
.supplemented by a General Index and Catalogue of tin- 
existing Ballads, 2Hje i\o.tbiivcjhc ISallaos will rise in value 
as a library book of reference, an historical record, and 
unfailing fund of amusement for Students of the Past. Many 
original member* I/arc died: hence our fundi are diminished. 

The two volumes now completed by the present Editor 
of the Ballad Society's Boxlntvcdjc Ballads have a distinct 
character from that of the three volumes edited by Mr. 
William Chappell; by far the greater number of the 
present contents being political or historical document-. 
We have already explained what consideration governed 
our choice, to keep the whole of these satirical poems thus 
bound closely together in chronological order. It is surely 
a great gain that so large a collection has now been 
secured permanently, and exhibited with such advantages 
of accurate reproduction and illustration as we were able 
to bestow. No one can desire better printers than our 
Hertford friends (Messrs. Stephen Austin and Sons), and 
we have not scrupled to task their patience. 

No apologies are offered for the comparative fullness with 
which we have annotated these interesting and valuable 
documents. Some few individual students might have easily 
dispensed with the Editorial comments, no doubt, owinu 
to the richness of their own individual knowledge ; but even 
these few leaders may admit it to have been unlikely — 
without considerable outlay of time — that they could have 
hunted the dispersed and almost-forgotten links of many 
a dissevered chain, here reunited for the first time since it was 
broken two centuries ago. There are many obscure persons 
and events glanced at incidentally in these ballads, satires, 
and lampoons, concerning whom annotation is indispensable, 
if an intelligible view be desired of Old England in 1678-1685. 
During these seven years, between the time when Titus Oat i s 
calumniated the Papists and the date of Monmouth's insur- 
rection, the bitter strife of so-called religious zeal had become 
the chief excitement in the kingdom. Ever and anon the 
same battle has been since renewed, under partially changed 
conditions, even until our own days; and that the future will 
see it repeated is by no means improbable. 

To avoid any misconstruction, as to the present Editor ha> 



xti The Church of England abstained from intrigues. 

'Romanizing tendencies,' let it here be clearly stated that his 
denunciation of the anti-Popish slanders, and his exposure 
of the many infamous devices of Shaftesbury's " brisk boys," 
with the political and sordid trickery of Slingsby Bethel, 
Patience Ward, and other factious demagogues, have been 
made from honest conviction, after careful study of evidence, 
and are in no degree the result of any weak-minded delusion 
concerning the faultlessness of what is called TJltramontanism 
or Popery. At the time under consideration, the sober 
Church of England kept herself for the most part outside 
of all the plots, the controversies, and the foul-mouthed 
misrepresentations that were rife among the sectaries and 
nonconformists. Few of our divines joined in un-Christian 
vituperation against the persecuted Jesuits, who were falsely 
accused of having set fire to London, and of having plotted 
the murder of King Charles II. From the schismatics, and 
from people devoid of any religious principle, the agitation 
almost invariably arose. From the bitter sectaries came the 
chief support to all the seditious schemes for reviving the 
Good Old Cause of rebellion against Church and State. By 
the Rye-House Plot, and by Monmouth's Insurrection in the 
West, the dissenters, the fanatics, enthusiasts, and ' atheists ' 
supported' England's Darling ' as a ' True Blue Protestant ! ' 
He had little love for the Established Church, or indeed for 
religion of any kind ; although he believed it to be for his 
interest to accept the disguise and rank of a " Protestant 
Hero." There was no sincerity in him. He was merely 
playing the part that promised to advance him into a better 
position for claiming the sovereignty. We have no sympathy 
with James the Second, in his bigotry and folly ; neither have 
we with Monmouth, in his culpable duplicity, weakness, and 
vice. But there are persons who denounce as "Romanizing" 
and " unsound " any honest confession that grievous wrongs 
had been perpetrated against those professors of the ancient 
Catholic faith, who had stayed in the Church from which our 
own took its origin : worshippers who remained steadfast, 
and refused to waver in the midst of perils. 

_ Although the falsehood and villainy of Titus Oates leave 
his every statement open to doubt, even when no positive 
disproof of some few individual assertions may be at once 
producible, we are far from doubting that there had been 
precisely so much of a real " Popish Plot " in 1678 as 



The Perjuries of Oatcs andJBedloe. xm 

originated in a widely- spread desire of the Romanist 
Churchmen to obtain some amelioration of their condition 
in England. They sought a repeal of the iniquitous penal 
laws, under which they had long been suffering ; they hoped 
that better days were drawing near for them, seeing that 
James, the Duke of York, was presumptive heir to the 
Crown, a declared convert to their ancient Catholic faith, 
and zealous for their advancement. They believed that his 
brother, the reigning King Charles, might be led to avow 
a willingness to protect them, and extend their religious 
privileges. All the sworn depositions or pamphlets where- 
with Titus Oates and William Bedloe tried to incite the mob 
to fury, declaring the complicity of the Catholics in the 
burning of London in 1666 ; in the pretended conspiracy to 
assassinate the King, as he walked through St. James's Park ; 
and in the guilt of murdering the magistrate Sir Edmond- 
Bury Godfrey, who had officially received some of the early 
evidence ; we hold to be a tissue of lies, and a very transparent 
tissue, such as ought never to have obscured the sight of 
any sensible investigator. But that Edward Coleman, and 
a few other busy intriguers, had been secretly engaged in 
scheming and corresponding with foreign ecclesiastics in the 
pay of France, to advance the supposed interest of their 
Church, and to make way for a restoration of England into 
the Catholic fold, without feeling scrupulous as to the means 
so long as they could attain the result, is sufficiently proved 
by the letters produced at his trial. It was said that other 
letters had been hastily destroyed by him, and those which 
were found were left by inadvertence. But of this there was 
no certain evidence. 

Many of the Jesuits had been enthusiasticalty watching 
the signs of the times. Those who remained in their foreign 
seminaries felt more hopeful of England's re-conversion 
(in their ignorance of the deep underlying Puritanism and 
antagonism to Rome, which swayed the middle classes, as well 
as the populace), than did the active emissaries who flitted 
about from one hiding-place to another, ministering the rites 
of religion at grievous peril to themselves and to their enter- 
tainers. These men felt too much of the active persecution, 
the bitter intolerance, and the terrified fanaticism of people 
who styled themselves " True Blue Protestants," to rest 
in confidence that a victory of their own cherished faith 



xiv Defence of James the Second not offered. 

was near, and heresy soon to be extirpated. Scarcely any 
person then living could have foreseen the results to be 
brought about, after three half-centuries of farther delay, 
by the nation yielding justice to the persecuted Catholics, 
so that they might uninterruptedly enjoy the privileges of 
their own religious faith and ceremonies, whilst loyally 
obeying the laws and maintaining allegiance to the throne. 
We know how hard it was to effect this change, and how 
our third King George resisted it. Even now, it is doubtful 
whether a gross prejudice of ignorance does not enwrap 
thousands of professedly-educated men and women, regard- 
ing the infamous treatment which the Catholics had been 
compelled to endure in England, from long before the time 
of the Spanish Armada, but especially after the Gunpowder 
Plot of 1605, and until James the Second attempted to atone 
for some of the cruelties sanctioned by his grandfather James 
the First. The errors of one brief reign, the last four years 
of the Stuarts', raised almost insurmountable barriers against 
obtaining a due recognition of national injustice, and thus 
Catholic Emancipation became indefinitely postponed. 

We venture to believe that the popular ballads here for 
the first time reprinted, in Vols. IV. and V., may be found 
trustworthy records of the varying excitements of that 
important era, 1678-1688. The present volume is wholly 
devoted to the Duke of Monmouth and his Times, ranging 
from March, 1681, to the July of '85. Readers must turn back 
to our preceding volume, viz. to the " Group of Anti-Papal 
Ballads," especially to those of a date immediately before the 
Whig Revolution of December, 1688, should they desire to 
see the natural termination of the besotted folly and head- 
strong bigotry of James the Second. His inability to read 
the character of the time-servers and renegades whom he 
advanced to highest station, as a reward for their servile 
compliance with his wishes, found its fitting punishment in 
his being betrayed by them, whenever they beheld his fall 
from power to be near at hand. But we have not needed to 
here bring forward the many records extant of the miserable 
intrigues, the heartless treachery, and the general dissatis- 
faction which followed, even among the plotters and forsworn 
troth-breakers who had secured a Dutch invasion, and thus 
defrauded the legitimate heir of his birthright-sovereignty. 
We close our present volume with the failure of what was 



AiDjiJr variety of subjects in next volume. w 

rightly culled "The Dissenters' Insurrection in the W. 
and the Execution of " King Monmouth " and his misguided 
followers. 

Our next volume will be entirely devoted to some very 
different classes of ballads. One group, indeed, will be to a 
small extent styled "historical," but not political. They are 
simply Legendary and Romantic Ballads, on more or less 
renowned characters, such as Wbittington, Thomas Stukely, 
King Lear, Guy of Warwick, Fair Rosamond and Queen 
Eleanor. Another group gives us "Arthur and the Table 
Round," The Wandering Jew, and also pious iEneas, " The 
Wandering Prince of Troy," with Queen Dido ; Hero and 
Leander, Penelope, Constance of Cleaveland, Little Musgrave, 
Musidorus, The Lady Isabella, Hugh of the Graeme, Jephtha, 
Doctor Faustus, Gerhard's Mistress, Sir William of the West, 
the Widow of Watling Street, Lord Thomas and Fair Elinor, 
King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid, the Roman Wife who 
nourished her own father, Fair Margaret's Misfortune, the 
Bailiff's Daughter of Islington, the Famous Flower of 
Serving Men, the Master-piece of Love Songs, and many 
another fine old ballad that delighted thousands of youths 
and maidens at the ingle-nook in winter, or under the shady 
trees in hot summer-time ; these are all waiting to be 
reproduced in our early pages. A Group of Naval Ballads, 
on seafaring men's adventures, shipwrecks, battles, partings 
from sweethearts on the shore, encounters with pirates, or 
release from Algerine slavery, will begin the volume. A 
similar group of Military Ballads will follow, including 
"The Famous Woman Drummer," "The Loyal British in 
Flanders"; the Death of Turenne, and of the Duke of 
Berwick, the "Gallant Grahams of Scotland," and " Clavers 
with his Hielandmen." We shall not long delay Mistress 
Arden of Feversham, Johnnie Armstrong, Captain Hind, 
George Saunders, Captain Johnson, William Gismond, 
Captain Green, or Mary Carleton "the German Princess," 
who one and all came under the hands of the public 
executioner. As for Love-affairs, of happy and disastrous, 
of idyllic or commonplace, we give abundance. Our Volume 
Sixth will offer the utmost variety in subject, and it is 
warranted to cause general satisfaction. We have not told 
half its treasures. Be in time! Be in time! Walk up, 
Ladies and Gentlemen, and Pay your Money to tht Treasui 



xvi Charles the Second beloved and vindicated. 

— for without performance of such a scandalously-neglected 
duty our Ballad Society's condition will be worse than that 
of the old woman who could not get water to quench the 
fire, or fire to burn the stick, or stick to beat the dog, and 
who (like a certain Ballad Editor with his final volume) 
almost despaired of " getting home to-night." 

It follows inevitably that, in the midst of the forthcoming 
Miscellaneous and Romantic Ballads, we shall have to 
relinquish the society of the Merry Monarch, whom, with 
his courtiers, minions and foes, we have encountered so often 
in this volume and previously. We shall bring forward, 
it is true, no small store of racy ballads on Goodfellowship, 
displaying the tavern life and the improvidence of revellers. 
As a counter-balance to these, we furnish many pious 
moralizations, godly warnings, and apocryphal " miracles " 
(Kentish and Suffolk) : such as were accepted unhesitatingly 
by the before-mentioned " True Blue Protestants," who had 
scorned golden legends of mediaeval saints, but swallowed 
greedily the impostures of Teddington Drummers and of 
Gibbie Burnet's Groaning-board. Incidents of humble life 
also find reflection in these ballads, but we shall miss the 
figure of him who had long been the national favourite, 
despite certain acknowledged vices and shortcomings. His 
good qualities deservedly won affection, such as we admit 
ourselves to feel regarding him. It is absolutely sickening 
to observe the commonplace rant and foul abuse lavished 
against him, on pretence of morality, patriotism and liberal- 
ism, by the herd of periodical essayists in our day. Sheer 
ignorance and the spitefulness natural to small minds are 
the only excuses for them. We confess, without reserve, 
that his errors were neither few nor trivial ; but he was 
a much better man than most of those who rail at him. 
Take this careful estimate by one of the most judicious of 
contemporary observers and statesmen, Sir William Temple : 
we may be sure that he better knew the truth regarding Charles 
the Second than the men who now prate glibly about his 
heartlessness, irreligion, tyranny, or sensuality. Hightly 
considered, the words here quoted show us faithfully a sad 
portraiture of one who might easily have been our best king, 
had he only been true to his better self. 

" At my arrival [in England, from Nimepuen, in July, 1677], the King ask'd me 
many questions about my Journey, about the Congress, Draping us [=bantering, 



Sir William Temples Character of Charles II. xvn 

or chiding jocularly] for spending him so much Money, and doing nothing ; 

and about Sir Lionel [Jenkins], asking me how I had bred him, and how he 
pass'd among the Ambassadors there ; aud other pleasantries upon thai sub 
After a good deal of this kind of conversation, he told me 1 knew for whal he 
had sent for me over, and that 'twas what he had long intended, and I was doI 
to thank him, because he did not know anybody else to bring into that place. 
I told his Majesty, That 'twas too great a compliment for me, bul was a very 
ill one to my Country, and which I thought it did not deserve : That I heliev'd 
there were a great many in it fit for that, or any other place he had to give : 
and I could name Two in a breath, that I would undertake shou'd mal 
Secretaries of State than I. The King said, ' Go, get you j;one to Sheen ! we 
shall have no good of you till you have been there, anil when you have n 
yourself, come up again.' 

"I never saw him in better humour, nor ever knew a more agreeable Con- 
versation when he was so ; and when he was pleas'd to be familiar, greal 
quickness of Conception, great pleasantness of Wit, with great variety of Know- 
ledge, more observation and truer judgment of men, than one wou'd have 
imagin'd by so careless and easy a Manner as was natural to him iu all he >;ii>l 
or did. From his own Temper he desWd nothing but to be easy hims( If, ami that 
every bodij else shoiCd be so; and wou'd have been glad to see the least of his 
Subjects pleas'd, and to refuse no man what he ask'd. But this softness of 
temper made him apt to fall into the persuasions of whoever had his kindness 
aud confidence for the time, how different soever [they might counsel] from the 
opinions he was of before ; and he was very easy to change Hands when those he 
employ'd seem'd to have engag'd him in any Difficulties : So as nothing look'd 
steady in the Conduct of his Affairs, nor aim'd at any certain End. Yet sure no 
Prince has more qualities to make him lov'd, with a great many to make him 
esteem'd, and all without a grain of Pride or Vanity iu his whole constitution. 
Nor can he suffer Flattery iu any kind, growing uneasy upon the firsi approaches 
of it, and turning it off to something else. But this Humour has made him Lose 
many great Occasions of Glory to himself, and greatness to his Crown, which the 
conjunctures of his fieign conspir'd to put into his hand; and have made way for 
the'aspiring thoughts and designs of a Neighbour Prince, which wou'd qoI have 
appear'd, or cou'd not have succeeded in the World, without the applications ami 
arts employ'd to manage this easy and inglorious humour of the King."— Sir 
William Temple's .Memoirs, the Tliird Part, from the Peace concluded, L679, to the 
time of the Author's Retirement from Puhlick Business: Edition 1720, vol. i. 
p. 449, folio. [By the "neighbour Prince" Temple indicates Lewis XIV., but 
the duplicity and self-seeking were practised no less by William of Orange.] 

Thanks to the great kindness of a friend, associate in the 
Council of our Camden Society (the Honble. Harold Dillon, 
F.S.A.), the Editor is permitted to here print, for the firal 
time, certain letters written by King Charles the Second to 
his daughter Charlotte, Countess of Lichfield, "a blameless 
beauty." Easy, unstudied, and affectionate, they show to all 
unprejudiced readers the King's sincere consideration for 
others. She was the eldest daughter of Lady Barbara 
Palmer, Countess of Castlemaine, Duchess of Cleaveland: an 
evil-rooted thorn, wherefrom this fair grape Charlotte grew. 

" Whitehall, 22 Oct. [1070]. 
"I should not have been so long in writing to you. my deare Charlotte, hut 
that I was at Newmarkett, thare too all daj about bush* » 1 had little i 

VOL. v. 



xvm Hitherto-imprinted Letters from Charles II. 

to spare, and though I have very much businesse now, yett I must tell you that 
I am glad to heare you are with child, 1 and I hope to see you heare before it be 
long, that I may have the satisfaction my selfe of telling you how much I love 
you, and how truly I am your kinde father, p -p 

" For my Lady Lichfield.'''' 

[Note 1. — Charles, the first son of Charlotte and her husband Edward Henry 
Lee, was born on the 6th of May, 1680. Consequently, if this letter refers to 
her first pregnancy, as seems probable, the date of the letter may be assumed to 
be 22nd October, 1679. We return to Newmarket, in a Note, on p. xxn.] 

" Winchester, 5 Sept. [1682?]. 
" Tour excuse 2 for not convening hither is a very lawfull one, tho' I am sorry 
I shall be so long deprived of seeing my Deare Charlotte : your brother Herri/ 
is now heere, and will go in a few dayes to see Holland, and by that time he 
returnes he will have worn out in some measure the readnesse of his face, so 
as not to fright the most part of our Ladyes heere ; his face is not changed, 
tho' he will be marked very much [verso], I will give order for the two hundred 
pounds for you[r] building, and the reason that you have had it no sooner is 
the change I have made in the tresury, 3 which now in a little time will be settled 
again ; and so my deare Charlotte be assured that I am your kind father, 

[Addressed] "For my Deare Charlotte.'''' C. R. 

[Note 2. — Henry, born in 1663, is Charlotte's second brother, successively 
Baron of Sudbury, Viscount Ipswich, Earl of Euston, and Duke of Grafton (see 
our pp. 702, 738), who had recovered from an attack of smallpox. No year is 
marked, and we have to guess this additionally. The danger of her incurring 
infection of smallpox, whilst in delicate health, maybe the "excuse" alluded to.] 

[Note 3.— Danby had lost the Treasurership after 1679.] 

" 3 April [1682 or 1683]. 
" I think it a very reasonable thing that other houses should not look into 
your house without your permission, and this note will be sufficient for the 
Survaier to builde up your wall as high as you please, and you may shew it to 
him. The only caution I give you is, not to prejudice the corner house, which 
you know your sister Sussex is to have, 4 and the building up the wall there will 
siguifie nothing to you [verso], only inconvenience her. I shall be with you on 
Saturday next, and so deare Charlotte I shall say no more but that I am your 
kinde father, _, _ 

" For my LaV- Lichfield:' 

[Note 4.— Charlotte's elder sister, Anne Palmer Fitzroy, born at the end of 
February, 166^, became Countess of Sussex, having married Thomas Lennard, 
fourteenth Lord Dacre. She is mentioned in other pages of our volumes.] 

" Whitehall, 2 Oct. 
" I have had so much businesse since I came hither that I hope you will not 
thinke I have neglected writing to you out of want of kindnesse to my deere 
Charlotte. I am going to New Markett to morrow, and have a great deale of 
businesse to dispatch to night, therefore I will only tell you now that I have five 
hundred guinyes for you, w ch - shall be ether delivered to your selfe or any whofm] 
you shall appointe to receave it, and [verso] so my dear Charlotte be assured that 
I love you with all my harte, being your kinde father « p 

" For my Lady Lichfield.' 1 '' 



The ' Conversion ' of C/iarles IT. often misrepresented. \\\ 

Windsor, 1 1 Aug. 

"I received yours, my dear Charlotte, iust now, concerning the desire you 
make about Mrs. Young's reversion, but 1 was engaged in thai matter Bome 
dayes since, so as I can only tell you that I am very glad to heare that I shall 
see you face to face, and 'tis the greater satisfaction to me, because I did not 
expect it so soone, and be assured that I am as kinde to you as you can exp it 
from your kinde father Charles R. 

" For my Lady Zichjield." 

Incidentally we have shown many examples of the kind- 
ness of heart, the courtesy, the consideration for others, the 
clear-sightedness and the cleverness of " Old Rowley." His 
affection for his heavy brother James, his scornful rejection 
of the dishonourable Shaftesburian project to divorce Queen 
Catharine, or allow her to be ruined by the lying accusation 
of Titus Oates ; the difficulties besetting him as pensioner of 
King Lewis, while betrayed to his own rebellious subjects 
(themselves accepting the same hirelings-wages from the 
French King, without scruple), or mediating between two 
irreconcileable rival claimants of succession, James of York 
and James of Monmouth ; these meet us as we trace back 
the years. Lastly, the utterly untrustworthy indications of 
his being anything more of a convert to Romanism than a 
weary and exhausted man yielding obedience to the strong 
will of his brother and the force of concurring circumstances 
— the tiresome and ill-conducted fussiness of the crowding- 
English bishops, clamorous and pertinacious, contrasting 
unfavourably with the quiet ministration of Father Huddle- 
stone, a long approved and faithful servant, whose presence 
brought relief. If we have succeeded in breathing life 
anew into some of the dry bones of the buried centuries, 
readers may be not indisposed to accept our tribute wreaths, 
whether of " The Watcher at Whitehall," or "Ave Caesar, 
morituri te salutant ! " (p. 774). We Cavaliers are loyal 
to the throne, but not sycophantic in adulation, although 
avowing our love for Charles, as one untimely wasted. Our 
own taste, like that of most other true ballad-lovers, inclines 
us to the quiet solace of books, instead of the smiles of 
wantons or the glitter of Courts; we are contented with the 
sweet seclusion of a hermit's cell, alternated with committee- 
meetings in the best place on earth, that centre of the 
civilized world, London, wherein our friends dwell, and 
where the originals of these ballads are preserved, both 
manuscripts and broadsides. Long may they rest there safelj ! 



xx One-Acre Prior!/ an absolute Primacy. 

To reside for years in Boeotia, far away from all social 
intercourse with antiquaries and other scholars (except one 
true friend and ballad-lover at Clifton ville), might be held 
depressingly injurious for the "cultivation of literature on a 
little oatmeal," especially in pursuit of ballad-lore. A Rolling- 
Stone must gather its scanty supply of moss under difficulties. 
Well for us, if we possess a contented mind for a continual 
feast ; a mirthful spirit, that laughs at foes and obstacles ; 
with some of what Robert Burns calls "the carle stalk of 
hemp in man," such as ensures victory in any lawful contest, 
since it makes defeat impossible. 

Thus every oasis in the desert grows habitable, and in 
time becomes a Garden of Eden, to those who have found 
their right work to do, and who seek to finish it honestly. 
Self-reliant are such labourers, because they grow sufficient 
for their own wants and perils ; whether drifting across the 
world in earlier freedom of Bedouin experiences, or left at 
anchor, not to say run aground, befogged or water-logged, 
in a forgotten nook, like the ' gentle Johnnian ' who dwells at 

<BmMctt Prt'org. 

(A Cavalier'' s boiver, ' Far from the madding crowd." 1 ) 

MINE is a very small domain, 
Where long I've dwelt with Nycis' ; 
Few are our wants of heart or brain, 

For both it well suffices 
As though it were Pacific Main 
With all its Isles of Spices. 

One Maid we keep — would she were fair ! 

One cat, a famous mouser ; 
Some poidtry, flowers, and a full share 

Of dogs (Beppo and Towzerj : 
Nycisca's sweet, beyond compare — 

(Or so her husband vows her). 

To envy others silly seems ; 

Who wealth have, fain grow richer : 
Books form my sole ambitious schemes ; 

(For Nycis', none bewitch her :) 
Contentedly we weave our dreams, 

And lack nor Friend nor Pitcher. 

Grumblers of dyspeptic sort, 

Who count yourselves stupendous ! 
Why scorn our Lilliputian Court, 

Where simple joys attend us ? 
We thauk the Gods, this life is short, 

Till the New Life they send us. 



" The hope of Humanity not yet dead in him." \\i 

Some dull Philistines avow dislike to ballads, and feel no 
interest in history or in literature ; they hold no belief in 
generous enthusiasm ; they admire nothing except Puritanic 
sanctimoniousness and sordid money-grubbing. We heed not 
their approval or disapproval. After all, the true tribunal of 
Appeal sits in the future. Little else remains to us. Year 
by year we lose the valued friends who encouraged toil and 
rewarded it with smiles. John Payne Collier, Frederick 
Ouvry, Henry A. Bright, whom we have lost, can never be 
replaced; on some others sickness has already laid a wasting 
touch ; but there still live several firm friends, in England, 
in Scotland, and in the "Western Land of the United States, 
to which our longings turn increasingly, whose approbation 
will be prized for the completed work, if completed it can 
be. To them we herewith send greeting, in hope of speedy 
reunion. Perhaps our best friends and readers may be yet 
unborn, and for the most part dwellers hereafter in that 
future Mistress of the World, stretching from the landing- 
place of Pilgrim-Fathers to the Golden Gate of San Francisco. 
If the prophetic vision be illusive, it at least hurts nobody. 

ISspcraitta. 

THEY have pass'd away to the Silent Laud, 
The friends of my early days ; 
When my hair turns grey, I shall lonely stand, 

And hear uot their words of praise : 
With never a son to clasp my hand, 
Or a girl to chant my Lays. 

It may he, of all that I tried to do. 

In the life that lias ebb'd and gone, 
There is little to List till the days -row new, 

Or he told on my burial-stone. 
Save the struggle to give a Verdid true 

On the times by these Ballads shown. 

"i'et 1 dare to hope, when my bones arc dust, 

That in lauds beyond the sea 
A race may arise of a larger trust. 

With a spirit unstained and free. 
Who will prize this work as sound and just, 

And cherish my memory. 

J. "Wooni'VLL Ebswobxh. 

Molash Vicarage, Kent, Midsummer, 1884. 



xxii Additional Note on Newmarket (p. 144). 



* * 
* 



We have ourselves re-drawn and engraved on a reduced scale, as Frontis- 
piece to this volume, from an old and original drawing, the celebrated Rye- 
House, near Hoddesdon. So much importance was attached by the Rye-House 
Conspirators to the unguarded condition of the King and his brother in their 
frequent visits to Newmarket, that a few extracts may be acceptable from the 
hitherto unprinted MS. Letters ivritten by James Duke of York from that place, 
and addressed to his niece Charlotte, Countess of Lichfield. (See Introduction, 
p. xvn.) The letters tire undated as to the years, but this is of little importance. 

Netvmarkett, March 22 [168°]. — We have the worst weather now I ever saw 
at this tyme of year, which makes this place not so pleasant as it used to he ; 
but for me I like it very well since I have the happynesse of being with his 
MaQjesty]. ... J. 

Newmarkett, March 21 [168* or 1681]-— Till now, within this day or two, 
thar has been very little company here, and I never knew a meetting at this 
place where there was so little company as now : yett the weather has been much 
better than it was this tyme twelve months, and for all it has been a little windy 
it is not cold. The Dutchesse [of York'] and my Daughter [Anne] have been 
several tymes abroad to take the aire on horse-back, and twice to see the cock 
fighting, for horse matches there has been but one, which was yesterday, but 
this weeke they say there will be more. Her Ma : has not yet played at Bassett, 
which makes the drawing rooms very dull, and I believe will not whilst she stays 
here, but the Dutchesse dos. ... j 

Newmarkett, Octo. 8 [1682, more probably than as marked, " 1684"]. — There 
has been horse races now three days together. On Monday Griffin's horse beat 
Barnes, yesterday L d Godolphin's horse lost all the three heats to Mr. Wharton's 
gray Gelding, and, after they were over, Stapky beat Roc the long course. This 
day Dragon was beaten by Whynot, and Stapley won another match; it was of 
the D. of Albemarle. Tomorrow I am to goe fox hunting, and hope to have 
better weather then it has been since 1 came to the place, for it has rained every 
day, so that the King could not hawk neither this day nor yesterday, and I never 
saw this place so very durty as it is now. ... T 

[In our Bagford Ballads (p. 80), introducing previously an extract from Sir 
John Reresby on the amusements of Charles LL. at the same place, we reprinted Tom 
I/Urfey's " Call to the Races at Neivtuarket" which mentions Dragon (as does 
the foregoing letter), " Dragon could scower it, but Dragon is old." Compare the 
present volume, p. 141. "We may ascertain the precise date by these horse-matches.] 

Newmarkett, Nov. 14 [1683 ?].— It never was duller nor lesse diverting, for the 
weather has been so very bad, and so cold, that it has very much spoyled all the 
divertions here, it having been hardly wether to stir out of doors, so that cock 
fighting has been almost the only thing one could do here, and that for the most 
part we have twice a day. I have been a fox hunting thrice, and for all the wet 
cold season have had very good sport. Tomorrow I am to go to it againe. The 
D s of Portsmouth is not very well, having complained of a paine in her head 
all day yesterday, with a paine in her stomache, and an inclination to vomit. 

She was left blood this morning and keeps her bed and continues still ill 

Assuring you of my being still your most humble Servant, jr -, 

[Each letter addressed :] " For my Neicc the Countesse of Lichfield:'' 




CONTENTS OF VOL. V. 

Wholly devoted to the Historical Ballads on MONMOUTH and YORK 



Trinado.— "The folly of this Island ! they say there's but FIl'F. upon this Isle . 
be brained like us, the State totters." — The Tempest, iii. :. 



if the other TII'O 



Frontispiece : The Rye-House, near Hoddesdon, Hertford- 
shire, from an old Water-colour drawing . 

General Introduction (including five letters, never before 
printed, from Charles the Second to his daughter 
Charlotte, Countess of Lichfield ; and a Xote on 
Newmarket) .... 

Editorial Bon-bon : One-Acre Priory 
Editorial Valediction : Esperanza 

Dedication of Vol. V. to the Rev. A. B. Grosart, LL.D. 
Temporary Preface of Part XIII. . 

The Duke's Wish .... 

The Milkmaid's New Year's Gift . 
The Present State of a Lost Ballad 

Addenda, et Corrigenda, for the Part XIII. . 

Ehc Struggle for the Succession bctfoccu the Duke of got 

hud itfanmouth. (Sccono (Group.) 
The Oxford Parliament and the Monarchy . 



IV 



a 

\\ 
wi 

■v i i 

iv 

iii 

\iv 
w 

wi 



XXIV CONTEXTS. 



A Satyr to Julian, 1682 (from MS., first six, of twelve verses] 
A Satyr upon the Mistresses (from Trowbesh MS.) . 



PAGE 



A Worthy Panegyrick upon Monarchy 8 

A Poem entitled The Succession . . . .11 

The Ghost of the Old House of Commons to the New One . 13 

Dialogue between the Ghosts of the Two Last Parliaments . 16 

Westminster Ghost's Reply to Oxford's Parliament . . 17 

The Parliament Dissolv'd at Oxford . . .20 

Answer : To the Tune of the Devonshire Cant . . 21 

A Song by Matt. Taubman, " Now, now, the work's done " . 22 

A Catch :" Oh ! the Presbyterian Whigs " . . 23 

Parliament removed from London to Oxford : a New Song . 24 

Oxford in Mourning for the Loss of the Parliament . . 30 

Epitaph on Nell Gwynne's Mother, 1679 . . .33 

The Oxford Health ; or, The Jovial Loyalist . . 34 

The Fitz-Harris Mystery . . . . .41 

Fitz-Harris his Farewell to the "World ; or, A Traytor's Just 

Eeward : by Richard Gibbs of Norwich . . .46 

Monmouth and the Perplexed Prince (i.e. Charles II.) . 47 

Advice to his Grace the Duke of Monmouth. . . 50 

On the Right of Succession : A Poem, 1679. . . 52 

A New Presbyterian Ballad . . . . .58 

The Saints' Encouragement, 1643 . . . 59 

An Excellent New Hymn, exciting the Mobile, etc., 1681 . 60 

Animadversions on the Lady Marquess. (Compare p. 127.) 64 

The Loyal Subjects' Good- Will to King and Commonwealth 68 

A New Ballad of Jockey's Journey into England . . 72 

Lord Shaftesbury's Arrest and ' Ignoramus ' Trial . . 75 

Ignoramus Justice, 1682 . . . .78 

The Whig Intelligencer ; or, Sir Samuel in the Pound . 80 

Thrice Three Merry Boys are we . . .81 

The Merry Boys of Christmas ; or, The Milk-Maid's New 

Year's Gift (lacking lost Second Part: compare p. xiv.) 82 

The Merry Boys of Europe ..... 84 

The Merry Boys of the Times (The Courtier's Health) . 88 

Henry Bold's 'La tine Song' : from the same . . 89 

Monmouth's Associates . . . . .93 

Lady Ogle's History (from Trowbesh MS.) ... 96 

The Matchless Murder of Tom Thynne, 1682 . 102 

Epigram : When I was Young, etc. 

Epitaph : on Tom Thynne of Longleat Hall 

The Windsor Prophecy (by Jonathan Swift, 1711) . 

Tom Thynne's Ghost Unsatisfied 
The Court-Mistresses 



103 
104 
108 

115 
123 



129 
130 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 



The Unfortunate Whigs: An Excellent jNYw Song . 
Newmarket in 1682 (compare p. x.\n) 

The New-Market Song : by Tom D'Urfey . 

The Whigs' Disloyal Feast Prohibited, April, 1682 . 

The Whigs' Disappointment upon their intended 1\ ast 

The [Dis-]Loyal Feast of 1682 

Well- Wishes on the Duke of York's Return from Scotland 

J. D.'s Iter Boreale ; Tyburn in Mourning for Loss of a Sainl 

A Health to the Duke, and the King 

Health to the Duke : A Catch 

Postscript, fraudulently assigned to J. D. (Dryden) . 

Content's a Treasure ; or, The Jovial Loyalist 
The Contented Subjects ; or, The Citizens' Joy 
Jemmy and Anthony (Monmouth and Shaftesbury) . 

Matt. Taubman's Song: On the Duke's Return from Shipwreck 
Mug-House Loyalty and Coffee-House Sedition 

The Destruction of Care ; or, Commendation of the Mug 

Libellous Satyrs and Coffee-House Politicians 

New Song : ""Would you have at your Devotion." . 
News from the Coffee-House : By Thomas Jordan, 1G67 
A Satyr against Coffee .... 

The Norwich Loyal Litany .... 
Litanies against St. Omer's and from Geneva 

A Litany for St. Omer's, 1682 

A Litany from Geneva : In Answer to that from St. ( Imer'e 

A New Ignoramus, 1681 .... 

Ignoramus: a New Song, 1681 . 

Another Iter Boreale, 1682 

Monmouth's Foolish Fancy .... 
From Sir Eoger Martin to the Duke of Monmontli . 
More Advice from Sir Roger Martin 

Mrs. Anne Rooke, when she lost Sir John Dawe 
Advice in a Letter to Mr. Frank Yilliers . 

The Whigs' Downfall .... 

The Character of a Whig 

On Wi. Williams : An Epigram . 

Loyal Sheriffs of London and Middlesex : their Election 
Dagon's Fall (Shaftesbury's Flight), 1682 . 
Shaftesbury's Farewell; or, The New Association . 
Monmouth's Chances after Shaftesbury's Death 

The Impartial Trimmer .... 



137 
143 

1 11 
145 
14G 
1 is 
161 
153 

154 

Ibid. 

159 

161 
165 
168 

17(t 

171 

172 

173 

177 

Ibid. 

184 

185 
189 

190 
196 

199 
200 

204 
210 

2 1 '. 

•J is 

219 
W0 

221 

•222 
224 

226 
231 
237 
24] 

248 



XXVI 



CONTENTS. 



London's Loyalty : By Tom D'Urfey 
London's Loss of Charter 

Philander (id est, Charles the Second) 

A New Catch : " London ! London ! " 

A New Catch : " Some say the Plot goes on." 

London's Lamentation for the Loss of their Charter 

The Present State of England 



PAGE 

244 

247 

248 
Ibid. 

249 
250 

252 




(" How they chcitter'd aiidfecfc'd, round the Royal Oak ! ") 

C&ito £0onmoutf) <£roup. 

THE RYE-HOUSE PLOT. 

Part XIV. Frontispiece : Frost-Fair on the Thames, 1684 
Second Temporary Preface . 

Dr. Callcott's version of Anna Steele's lines on James Hervey 

Struggle for The Succession between York and Monmouth 

The City, before Discovery of Eye-House Plot 

A Scotch Song, sung at the Artillery Feast, 1682 . 

On the Loyal Apprentices' Feast, August 9, 1682 . 

Tony : A Ballad, made on reading Shaftesbury's Speech 

Loyalty Triumphant, On the Confirmation of North and Kich 

The City Ballad, 1682 : from the Whig Side 

Vive Le Boy ; or, London's Joy (on Lord Mayor Moore) 

Hue and Song after Sir Patience Ward. 

Advice to the City : by Tom D'Urfey. from the Tory side 

The Bye-House Plot .... 

Discoverers Discovered: M. Taubman's Medley on the Plot 

Five Years' Sham Plots discovered in a true One . 

A Song, by C.F., 1674 : " I told Young Jenny I lov'd her " 
More of the Bye-House Plot 

An Offering to the Eeader (in Church) 
On the King's Deliverance at Newmarket . 

Dr. Thomas Sprat's " Particular Account of the Rye-House " 



IV 

vii 
xvi 
257 
257 
263 
265 
267 
271 
274 
276 
279 
281 
283 
293 
294 

295 
266 
299 
300 
307 



CONTENTS. 



\\\ II 



Murder out at Last, in a Ballad on the New Plot . 
The Conspiracy ; or, Discovery of the Fanatick Plot 
"Whig upon Whig ; Or, A pleasant dismal Song on the Old 

Plotters newly found out 
An Elegy on the Earl of Essex, who cut his own Throat 
Jack Ketch's New Song ; or, A Warning to Conspirators 
The Loyal Conquest ; or, Destruction of Treason . 
Loyalty turned up Trump ; or, The Danger Over . 
Russell's Earewell ; to the Tune of, Christ-Church Bells 
Lord Russell's Farewell : to the Tune of, Tender Hearts 
The Debate : A Song .... 

A Terror for Traitors; or, Treason justly Punished. 
A New Song, by D'Urfey, Sung at Winchester to the King 
Justice Triumphant: in Commendation of Sir George Jefferej 
The Rye-House Plot Litany, 1684 . 

Anticipatory Epitaph on Boger L'Estrange 
The Relief of Vienna, September, 1683 

On the Eelief of Vienna : A Hymn for all true Protestants 
The Loyalists' Encouragement 
The Siege of Vienna, in 1683 

Vienna's Triumph, with the Whigs' Lamentation, &c. 
A Carouse to the Emperor of Austria, the Royal Pole an< 

the much-wronged Duke of Lorraine : by T. D'Urfey 
The Christian Conquest, at Vienna, 1683 . 

On Refusal of Aid between Nations 
The Christians' New Victory, at Barean : a ballad by J. S. 
A New Song, on Foes Foreign and Domestic 
On King John Sobieski 
Monmouth in Hiding at Toddiugton, Berkshire 

The Twin-Flame (Poem from Monmouth's MS.). 

Samuel Rowley's Song on Sorrow 

MS. Song: ""With Joy we do leave thee " 
„ ,, " how blest and innocent" 
,, ,, "All ye Gods that are above" 
,, ,, " Come, let us drink, and all agree " 

Good News in Bad Times; or, Absalom's Return to David' 

Bosom. .... 

Monmouth's Entanglement in the Plot 
The Prodigal: Monmouth's Return to Favour 
Monmouth Pardoned by King Charles. (Compare p. 641.] 
Monmouth's Entertainment at Court 
A New Song of a Devonshire Lad . 
A Merry New Ballad on Prince Perkin (from Trowbe.-di M S 

Nat. Lee's Love Song, 1680, "Hail to the Myrtle Shade ! " 

An Epitaph, on Algernon Sydney 

Colonel Sydney's Overthrow; or, An Account of his Executiii 



308 

310 

316 
318 
319 
321 

322 
323 
326 
328 
329 
332 
339 
340 

347 
348 
352 
353 
355 
359 

36] 

:;:i 

::77 
383 
384 
385 

39! 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

399 

■101 

l""> 
107 

413 

117 
Ul 

126 



XXVIII 



CONTEXTS. 



Frost 



Colonel Sydney's Lamentation and Last Fare well to the World 

Hail to the Shades Plutonian ! 

Pluto, the Prince of Darkness, his Entertainment of Sydney 

A Satire on the Reformadoes 

The Reformation : a Satire. 

Pindaric Ode on the Rye-House Plot 

Petitions to save Lord William Russell 

Congratulatory Pindaric Poem, by C. P. (summarized) 

A New Song of the Times, 1683 : by the Hon. fm, Wharto 

A < New Song on the Old Plot,' issued in 1682 

London's Wonder : The Great Frost, of 168f 

The Whigs' Hard Heart for the Cause of the Hard 

Erra Pater's Prophecy of auother Great Frost 

Frost Fair in 1683 . 

A New Song on Perkin-Mon mouth's Disgrace 

Tangier Demolished, 1684 . 

Tangier's Lamentation, on the Demolishment 

Sir Thomas Armstrong 

Robert Ferguson's double Epitaph on Armstrong 

On Sir William Jones : An Epitaph 

The Bully Whig ; or, Lamentation for Armstrong 

Sir Thomas Armstrong's Farewell . 
" And There 's an End of Bully ! ". 

The Bully : A Song by Tom D'Urfey, 1683 

Sir Thomas Armstrong's Ghost 

Monmouth as a Wandering " Perkin " 

The Newcastle Associators; or, The Trimmers' Loy 

The Beginning of the End . 

A Catch : " Here 's a Health unto his Majesty ! " 
A Catch, 1684 : " Now happily met " 
Tom Brown's Song in Praise of the Bottle 

" The Best-bred Man alive " grown weary. (Compare p. xii.) 
Loyal Poems on the Death of King Charles the Second 



lty 



Editorial Mitr'Acte : The Watcher at Whitehall 



TAGE 

429 
431 
432 
433 
436 
441 
446 
447 
448 
455 
457, 463 
461 
466 
469 
470 

471 
474 
477 

479 
481 

482 

483 
486 

Ibid. 

487 
489 
496 
499 

499 
502 
503 

504 
508 



510 




. Is men have sawn, so shall they reap : and gather at the last Corn or Thistles. 



CONTENTS. 



\\l\ 



Jfourtf) a^onmoutf) &roup< 

THE LAST STRUGGLE BETWEEN YORK AND MONMOUTH. 

The Accession of King James the Second 

The Shipwreck of the Gloucester (May 6th, 1612) . 

On King James the Second, his Exaltation to the Throne 
Papers attributed to King Charles the Second 
The Funeral of King Charles the Second 

The Mournful Subjects; or, The Nation's Lamentation 

Monmouth's Reception of the News from England . 

The Whigs' Lamentable Lamentation 

The Tories' Triumph ; or, Downfall of the Whigs . 

Coronation of James the Second and Mary Beatrix . 

The Success of the Two English Travellers, newly arrived in 

London (after the Coronation) . 
A New Song on the Coronation of King James the Second 
A New Song in Gratulation of James coming to the Crown 
A New Song (on Coronation of King James and Queen Mary 
Monmouth allured to make the Last Struggle 
Love in Extremy ; or, The Constant Lover's Resolution 
Monmouth between Love and Ambition 

A Mistress ( = " Her for a Mistress," etc.) . 

Kesignation : A Catch ( = " Ye Gods, ye gave to me a Wife" 

On the Foul and False .... 

On the Fair and Faithful 

State and Ambition : a New Song, to Sylvia, by Tom D'Urfey 
The Country Innocence ; or, The Shepherd's Enjoyment 
The Court of James the Second 

On the Countess of Dorchester. By the Earl of Dorset 
On the Countess of Dorchester. Ibid. 
On (the same,) a Lady who fancied herself a Beauty : Ibid. 
A Catch : composed by Hy. Purcell (" Once in our lives ") 

A Ballad called Lamentable Lory : 1684 (from MS.) 
Vanity and Vexation of Spirit 

Epitaph on Harry Care . 
The Vanity of Vain Glory. By James Shirley (extended) 
The Dutch Cave of Adullam 

Epigram, on Sir James Stewart, Lord Advocate 

Accompts closed with William Bedloe 

The Plotting Cards Revived : The Second Part 

The Paying-off Old Scores with Oates and DangcrfieH 

A Loyal Scotch Song .... 

Titus Oates brought to Punishment . 

Dates thrash'd in the Compter ami Sack'd up in Neil 
Epigram on Thomas Dangerfield lu- Whipping 



PAC.B 

;, 1 5 

520 
622 
526 

527 

63 1 
:.:;:, 
538 

543 
5 I ". 
547 
649 
551 
553 
555 

557 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

561 

51 l 

667 

668 

Ibid. 

571 
675 

576 

1 
581 

601 



xxx CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

603 



608 

610 
Ibid. 

611 



A New Song : Perjury Punished ; or, Villainy Lashed 
The Salamanca Doctor's Farewell ; or, Titus's Exaltation to 

the Pillory upon his Conviction of Perjury . . 60.5 

The Disastrous Expedition of Argyle 

Argyle's Lines written before his Execution. 

"Win. Jamieson's Epitaphium Comitis Argath., etc. . 

The King and Parliament ; or, The Destruction of Argyle 
The Scotch Lass's Constancy ; or, Jenny's Lamentation for 
the Death of Jockey, who for her sake was unfortunately 
killed hy Sawney in a Duel (original written by Tom 
D'Urfey) : two distinct versions . . . 613 

The Eebel Captive (Earl of Argyle) . . . 617,621 

The Plot Rent and Torn .... 622,623 

Monmouth's Expedition Awaited . . . .626 

A Song on St. Martin's Feast, May 29th, 1685 . ' 631 

The Country's Advice to the late Duke of Monmouth, and 

those in Rebellion with him .... 634 

The Duchess of Monmouth's Lamentation for the loss of her 

Duke (when in hiding after Rye-House Plot) . 637,640 

The Merciful Father ; or, The Penitent Son: a Congratulatory 
Song on the Happy Return to Court of James, Duke of 
Monmouth, in 1683 ... 641 

The Rebellion in the West . . . . 614 

The Western Rebel ; or, The True Protestant Standard set up 651 
Monmouth Degraded; or, James Scot the Little King in 

Lyme ...... 653.655 

King James's Royal Victory . . . 657, 660 

Monmouth Routed, and taken Prisoner with Lord Grey . 663 
Proclamation for arrest of Monmouth . . 662 

The Attainder of Monmouth . . . ibid. 

The Rebels Totally Routed; or, The Loyal Subjects' Satis- 
faction ...... 666 

Monmouth Worsted in the West ; or, his care and grief for 

the Death of his poor Soldiers, etc. . . 668, 669 

Seizure of Monmouth in the Island .... 672 

Monmouth Routed : together with his Promise and Resolu- 
tion to Return again, a little before he left the Land . 674 
Monmouth's ' Saying ' in the West of England that he would 
Return ; or, his last Resolution on his Voyage into 
Holland ..... 677,678 

" The Soldier's Return," a sequel to " Monmouth's Saying " . 680 
The Last Letters of Monmouth (now first given together 

consecutively), from the original manuscripts . . 681 

On Blood's Stealing the Crown. (Attributed to And. Marvell) 688 
Bludius et Corona . . . ibid. . Ibid. 



CONTEN is. 



XXXI 



Monmouth's Remembrance of Russell 
The Lord Russell's last Farewell to the World 
Rebellion Rewarded with Justice; or, The Last Farewell of 
the late Duke of Monmouth .... 
The Late Duke of Monmouth's Lamentation. 
Description of the Late Rebellion in the West : Heroic Poem 
Jacobitieal Advice to the Painter, in 1685 

Poem, on the University of Cambridge burning the Duke of 
Monmouth's Ficture, 1685, formerly their Chancellor. 
Written by George Stepney of Trinity College . 

Advice to the Painter, upon the defeat of the Rebels in the 
West, and the Execution of the late Duke of Monmouth 
Monmouth's Remembrance. A Song. 
The Tree of Rebellion, Schism, Sedition, and Faction 715 

The Ungrateful Rebel ; or, Gracious Clemency rewarded 

with Villainy ..... 718 

The Sorrowful Lamentation of the Widows of the West, for 

the death of their deceased Husbands . . 721 

A Song on the Times ; or, The Good Subject's Wish 726 

Editorial V Envoi : To the Tune of Capt. Radcliffe's Ramble 
Appendix : The Declaration of James Duke of Monmouth 

Note and Ballad on Henry, Duke of Grafton 

Index ...... 

Editorial Finale : "Ave Csesar ! morituri te salutant " 
iNote (apologetic and procrasti native) on Errata 



690 
691 

702 

Tim; 



7"7 

7' I 

713 

,716 

719 

724 
727 

7-JS 
731 

; 

711 
77t 
775 







■TSgg^SEBIEg 




The Struggle against the Succession of James, Duke of York. 

(For Note on woodcut see p. 710.) 

" On what pretence could then the Vulgar Rage 
Against his worth and native rights engage ? 
Religious fears their Argument are made, 
Religious fears his sacred rights invade ! 
Of future Superstition they complain, 
And Jebusitic worship in his reign : 
With such alarms his foes the crowd deceive, 
With dangers fright — which not themselves believe." 

— Absalom and Achitophel, Part II., lines 647-654. 



Zlft mojtwrglje Ballads. 




Void le bon Buveur de nos Ballades ! 



TN factious times ' Petitioners' might beg, 

But he ' abhorr'd ' their schemes, and broach'd a Keg ; 
When Rye- House Plotters rais'd a furious pother, 
Pie spurn'd the empty Cask, and tapp'd another ; 
With Popish Successor he held no quarrel, 
But found content and freedom in the barrel : 
At last came Revolution, much the worst — 
Which ended Life's enjoyment, and his thirst. 



" Cetait un Bon Enfant ! " 



Illustratituf tljc Inst Hears of tjjc Stuarts. 



EDITED, 
WITH SPECIAL INTRODUCTIONS AND NOTES, 



BY 



J. WOODFALL EBSWORTH, M.A., Cantab., F.S.A. 

Editor of four reprinted "'Drolleries' of the Restoration," 

"The Bagford Ballads" with their "Amanda Group 

of Poems," " The Two Earliest Quartos of 

A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1600," and 

Author of "Karl's Legacy; or, 

Our Old College at Nirgends." 



WITH HIS COPIES OF ALL THE ORIGINAL WOODCUTS. 



Fol, v. part £. 



HERTFORD: 

Printct) for t&c Saltan ^octctp, 

BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS 

1883. 



24. 

HERTFORD : 
STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS, PRINTERS. 



To his Friend, a Reviver of Old Literature, 

ALEXANDER BALLOCH GROSART, LL.D., 

EDITOR OF MANY FAMOUS AUTHORS, INCLUDING A LONG LINE OF 

Catmlter $oets anD puritan 2Dttrines; 



WHOSE WRITINGS HE HAS GIVEN BACK TO THE WORLD WITH 

UNTIRED ZEAL, INDUSTRY, AND INTELLIGENCE ; NOT 

ALONE THE ACKNOWLEDGED 'WORTHIES,' BUT 

ALSO, SECURING TARDY JUSTICE AND FAME 

FOR NEGLECTED GENIUS, 



' The Inheritors of Unfulfilled Renown : ' 

(Eljts jfiftlj Uolumc of 8flje Koiuttrrjljc Ballabs, 

(issued on the Bicentenary of the Rye-House Plot) 

3IHustratmrj tbe last gears of tfjc Stuarts, in 
IPolittcal anD Social ©tetorp, 

IS HERE 

DEDICATED, 

With affectiojiate revere?ice by his Friend and Fellow-Student, 

JOSEPH WOODFALL EBSWORTH. 

MIDSUMMER, 1883. 




Cemporarp preface. 

" Write me a Prologue, and let the Prologue seem to say, we will do no harm. 

— A Midsummer Night's Dream, iii. I. 



,HIS Second Group of Eaiburrjljc ISallatos on the 
Duke of Monmouth, now completed, carries 
on our history from the meeting of the Oxford 
( J^L > Parliament, in the March of 1 680-1, to the 

week preceding the discovery of the Rye- 
House Plot, in June, 1683. Not a very swift advance for 
us to make in two hundred and fifty-six pages, grumblers 
may say. But we never heed such ill-conditioned cattle. 

SUjovicfyt auf 33cj5nmg bcr Xljoten ju Jjatten ! 
.Sinber bet .Rtugljeit, Jjabet bie [Ratten 
(SOen junt Sftarott ami), tone fkl/3 geljott ! 

The incidents here brought before the reader arc 1< 
stirring than those belonging to the previous Group, or to 
the Group which next follows. We have no more triumphs 
over Scotch Covenanters at Bothwell-Brig ; a disconcerted 
conspiracy or an abortive insurrection is not at present 
in evidence. The trial and execution of Russell, and of 
Algernon Sydney, the death of Essex, of Sir Thomas 
Armstrong, and of Charles the Second, belong to the next 
portion ; while the woful failure of the Western Rebel- 
lion, the Fight at Sedgemoor, and the end of M on mouth's 
life on the scaffold at Tower-Hill, await the final pages. 

Nevertheless, to those who have the patience to read, and 
the wit to appreciate, this Second Group is full to oxer- 
flowing of the real materials of History. We leave it \< tr 
after-times to weigh its value. Dull dogs arc having their 
day at present. Pottering pedants no less than well-trained 
scholars may accumulate rich materials, by their industry, 



x Inglorious traffickers in the boasted Revolution. 

or by their good luck in having access to stored records. 
Their virtue is its own sole reward. The smatterers, the 
pert weaklings, pickers and stealers of other men's faggots, 
get both pudding and praise for their purloinings ; although 
their "Short Histories" are choak-full of blunders, their 
opinions are worthless, flattering the ignorant prejudices 
of a " Liberal " mob of bigotted dunces : while their own 
chances of reaching posterity without foundering, or casting 
all their shoes, saddlebags, and riders, are so small as to be 
not worth counting. 

The Laureate, when his early vigour broke the green 
withes of effeminacy, after trifling with sentimental Delilahs, 
told us emphatically to " cut prejudice against the grain ! " 
It is generally lost labour to do so. People now-a-days do 
not read with a desire to ascertain truth, but simply to 
amuse themselves over a book from Mudie's, or lazily take 
it as a fresh weapon to wield against controversial foes in 
defence of preconceived opinions. It is almost ludicrous 
to attempt convincing such persons of their errors. To 
show them unmistakeably the paltry squabbles, the sordid 
selfish motives, the falsehood, treachery, with alternate 
blustering and cowardly servility of the Revolutionary 
faction " in good King Charles's golden days, when loyalty 
no harm meant," may prove utterly profitless. They start 
with the ideas that the King was everything vile and 
tyrannical, but all his foes were of angelic virtue. While 
Slingsby Bethel is accepted as a saint, William Russell as 
a patriot, Shaftesbury as a high-minded, far-seeing states- 
man of true-blue Protestantism, and the Revolution of 
1688 as the culmination of national aspirations, crowned 
with resplendent glory, why there's no more to be said, 
except — read our Roxburghe Ballads I 

Honestly, we believe that it is time for the real truth to 
be unveiled and acknowledged. We make no claim for 
immaculate chastity or other transcendant merits on the 
part of the last reigning Stuarts. We disguise no act of 
folly or wickedness in the besotted James ; no weakness 
or vice in Charles. The faults of the Courtiers and the 
wanton extravagance, pride, selfishness, or treachery of 
the Mistresses are not only confessed, but the exact details 
of the multitudinous intrigues and complicated entangle- 
ments are held to view, from contemporary records, hitherto 



The trite tale of Tom TJiynne. xi 

imprinted and .virtually unknown: materials such as no 
other volume except the Memoirs of Count de Grammont 
or the Diary of Samuel Pepys could parallel. The questions 
that agitated thoughtful minds regarding Monarchy, the 
dangers of having a Popish-Successor, the benefits and 
disadvantages of irresponsible Parliaments, the foreign 
relations in disturbed times, the abuse of legal privileges in 
civic matters, the exact line of demarcation between servile 
obedience and factious obstruction, with many another nice 
enquiry, meet us continually in the following pages. Above 
all, unless we are mistaken in our estimate, we see the 
actual men and women who then lived and struggled to 
work out their ambitious schemes ; not names of puppets, 
but real flesh and blood. 

For instance, surely in the murder of Tom Thynne, as 
here elaborately unfolded, we can see more than a story of 
brutal ruffianism. The mask is stripped from the face of 
this vulgar libertine, turncoat plotter, factious " Petitioner," 
sycophant of Monmouth, and avaricious ensnarcr of an 
unwilling beauty as revealed in " Lady Ogle's History." 
We see this spoilt child of wealth, this " Tom of Ten 
Thousand," the grub or maggot for whom Longlcat was 
too small a nutshell, in all his native baseness. With others 
of Monmouth's friends, " like draws to like," the absence of 
high principles and even of commonplace honesty was felt 
to be no bar to private greetings or to public adulation. 

Incidentally is shown the prevalence of personal scandal 
and of seditious pamphlets or libels. Amid all the amuse- 
ments or frivolity of the time, there were plots to reassert 
the Good Old Cause and overturn the Monarchy. Courtiers 
and nymphs danced gaily on the thin crust of lava, under 
which a volcano heaved and threatened destruction. Above 
was the dissipation of the Court ; and below, the schemes 
for assassination advocated by Whig Revolutionists, in 
secret club or in stealthily printed pamphlets. We here 
advance contemporary testimony in support of our views. 
Few heroes, fewer heroines v appear before us. Scoundrels 
and demireps are not infrequent, but on the whole we sec 
the England of those days: sec, at least, the London of 
the time, and feel by no means sorry that such a | 
of rogues or fools are gone to their account, althoi 
they left like-minded successors to afflict us. 



xii A Molash Token of the Dukes Wish. 

We offer our defence of the Stuarts, where they stood on 
their right against their intemperate assailants. We try to 
avoid mis-statements and exaggerations, sparing no labour 
to clear-up any doubtful allusion or disputable assertion. 
To escape every possible blunder would defy the most 
conscientious Editor : a fact known to all hard-working 
students. Thus, on pp. 207, 209, " Pomfret eloquence " 
should be annotated as meaning Sir Patience Ward's 
harangues: he having been M.P. for Pontefract = Pomfret. 
Elsewhere we read, "For Pomfret he '11 never more stand!" 

Instead of any sins or partizan prejudices, our regrets 
may here be confessed. We have hitherto felt unable to 
recover three things: — 1. "The Duke's Wish," 2. "The 
Milk-Maid's New Year's Gift " (which is a lost second part 
of " The Merry Boys of Christmas "), and 3. The original 
words or tune of It zuas in the prime of Cucumber-time. 
They are needed respectively for our pp. 68, 83, and 252. 
No doubt they are lurking perdus somewhere, outside of 
our Priory. Too late for present use, they may come into 
a future Appendix. Meanwhile we here issue ' Tradesmen's 
Tokens,' instead of the genuine coin, although they be nailed 
to the counter ; since the precious metal alone is valued in 
Lombard Street or the Old Jewry. If we cannot at once 
show what the lost ballads actually were, we can declare con- 
scientiously that they differed from the following versions : 

TO ITS OWN INDESCRIBEABLY PECULIAR TUNE OF, Pie ask no more. 

"O Eaders of Pasquinades, where e'er you be, 
Chaucer Societas, or E. E. T., 
Eke Folk-lore ; 
Look through our pages well, love what you see, 
And I '11 ask no more. 

Side you with either one, Duke claiming Crown, 
Hold you instead by none, bowling both down, 

In struggle sore ; 
Own that the Commons were — safe, not to drown ! 
And I '11 ask no more. 

Keep pertinaciously paying for ' buiks,' 

Hertford prints graciously, 'bout these two Dukes, 

Sheets full two score ; 
Heaven sends you Ballads, while Molash finds Cuiks : 
But I'll say no more. 



A gay guess at the Milk-Maid's New- Years (iift. xiii 

"The Milk-Maid's New Year's Gift," we felt confident 
of recovering, sooner or later; especially later. Our two 
doubtful square-bracketted verses were in the Muniment- 
room of Nirgends College, whereat nothing that had strayed 
is ever sought in vain, except M. Libri's Ashburnham 
MSS., and another M. L.'s Electioneering promises. 

It is absurd to speak or write of literary documents being 
lost or destroyed. At least, we know that many things 
believed to be non-existent are simply hidden or out of 
reach. If we can learn in what place the missing article 
was last seen, or who was its possessor, hearer, or beholder, 
this is great gain, and we may hope for some fortunate 
circumstance to bring the treasure back into our hand. 
Words once spoken continue to echo through the world, 
with more or less confusion of the original utterance. No 
rapturous song, or lilting tune, no slanderous lie or pious 
invocation ever passes into utter silence. That reeds had 
blabbed the secret about the ears of Midas was not a 
cunningly devised fable, but a solemn truth, applicable 
to a thousand misadventures. Yet it is not every one to 
whom is given now the faculty of picking up dropt stitches 
from the loom of Time ; not every eye can decipher the 
scrolls that to common sight seem to be rased parchments. 
Only in happy hours, to the chosen few, do the broken 
sentences become coherent, and the lost Sibylline Books 
unroll their long-forgotten wisdom. 

We need not tell what lucky chance brought back again 
to view The Lost Second Part of the Roxburgh* Ballad 
(p. 83) : for it is unsafe to breathe rashly the secrets of our 
prison-house in the hearing of sceptics, who, remembering 
Shapira, behold incredulously the Rosctta-Stone or 
Monmouth's Note-book found after Sedgemoor. To them 
no "lucky finds" arc granted by the Fates, while they decry 
discoveries, whether of "some dull MS. oblivion long has 
sank, or graven stone found in a barrack's station." 

And while I mused, Love with knit brows went by, 

And with a flying finger swept my lips, 

And spake, ' Be wise : not easily forgiven 

Are those who, setting wide the doors that bar 

The secret bridal-chambers of the heart, 

Let in the day.' Here then my words have end. 



XIV 



3lo0t £>econO part of tge sperrp Bopg of CFirtetmag; 

C&c gpflfcgpato'* n^etu gear's <£ift* 

To the same Tune OF, Hey, Boys, tip go we! 

"LJO ! Merry Boys, who Christinas keep 

a week or more together, 
Who quaff and sing, but never sleep, 

whatever be the weather ; 
We Milk- Maids scorn, this New-Year morn, 

to taste your vaunted cheer ; 
Our cans hold drink more sweet than horn 

of ranting roarers' Beer. 

For shame ! ye rail at ' Female Toys, ' 

because on Sots they frown ; 
Men who can prize no rural joys 

must rake and scoff in Town. 
We're up before the Winter Sun 

doth in the East appear ; 
Before he set, our toils are done, 

while you swill C/irist//ias-Beer ! 

Take this, our New- Year's Gift, and be 

more just to Womenkind ; 
We are not proud, but frank and free, 

to Lads who hit our mind. 
Come, help us lift our heavy pails, 

and call us fair and dear : 
We'll meet you then next Whitsun-ales — 

though not with Christmas-Beer. 

*** If any Hottentot Gibberish Heretic is so lost to all sense of decency 
and humour as to insinuate a doubt that the foregoing newly-recovered copy of 
verses is not correctly transcribed from a unique Palimpsest of absolutely 
fabulous antiquity, preserved at Nirgends College — where documents are 
never manipulated in the way known to Revenue-officers before a settling day 
— he is assured that his opinion has been already summarized, by Dr. Blimber's 
most advanced pupil, as being "of no consequence whatever." 

Lastly (but this is far too sad a matter to jest upon), 
there is that lost tune belonging to our RoxburgJie Ballad 
entitled "The Present State of England," 1683. As 
enquired already by Truthful James, not the fiction-writer, 
" Are things what they seem, or is visions about?" Spirit- 
rapping cannot explain it, but there are mysterious noises 
afloat. One harmonious strain was wafted into the eternal 
echoes by Orpheus, whom Charon rowed back from the 
Netherlands across the Styx, bewailing Euridice, the girl 
he left behind him. The melody sounded like this : — 



XV 



Cfje Present %mz of a Lost IMlati. 

{An Orphic Hymn : Devils on Two Styx.) 

TT was in the prime of Cucumber-time, 

When Sunshine delights and surprises, 
That we caught a glimpse of a couple of Imps, 

Hertford P.D.s, who ' brought us revises.' 
They diet on type, as a Coster on tripe ; 

They 'stand not on forms,' but set them ; 
And they feed very high on all sorts of ' pye,' 

So long as the Chapel-rules let them. 

They are never perplext at corruptions of text, 

Save when Spelling-Deform turns them frantic ; 
Their dear little throats often warble our ' Notes,' 

But they laugh at the ditties romantic. 
They are gen'rous with leads, and can turn on their heads 

Naughty words, which our feelings might harrow ; 
With no thought of evils, while call d Printer 's-Devils, 

Each briskly alert as a sparrow. 

Yes ! " it was in the prime of Cucumber-time," 

(A Lied ohne Worte must haunt them) 
That the Compos and Press show'd no sign of distress, 

Though with whole reams of ' copy ' to daunt them. 
Bare justice it is that we none of us miss 

To yield them full praise for their virtue ; 
For if e'er our task ends, Members, thank these good friends — 

If you know how to thank! It won't hurt you. 

This was our own Midsummer Night's Dream, original 
or translated : " a dream that was not all a dream." None 
need feel aggrieved, " for a dream's sake." Liberavi animatn 
meam. So, Here's your good healths, and your family, 
and may you prosper ! Let us meet again speedily ! 



J. WOODFALL EBSWORTII. 



Molash Vicarage, by Ashford : Kent. 
15 June, 1 883. 



SttiDentia, et CorrtgenDa* 



Page 21, second note. The squib we mentioned is in the form of a Dialogue 
between a Roundhead and a Cavalier, the former commencing thus : — 

In Parent imperium habet Par, 
Vi et armis we will bring Peers to the Bar, 
For five hundred absolute Kings we are. 

The Speaker Pope-like is servus servorum, 

Both make their Electors fall down before 'urn, 

And pay excessive Fees when they adore 'um. Etcetera. 

P. 40. Bowman's name was John, who in 1682 sang Tom D'Urfey's " Now, 
now the Tories all shall droop ! " (an adaptation of Francis Quarles's " Song 
of Anarchus : " both the original and the copy being given in our Vol. IV. 
pp. 260-266). This was in D'Urfey's comedy, "The Royalist." 

P. 68. Although sung as a single verse by Richard Leveridge, in 1706, on 
the occasion mentioned, when Sir Robert Howard's "Committee" was 
revived, the words belonged originally to a broadside ballad still extant, 
several years older. It began, " If a man was secure that his life would 
endure." The burden was, like Jeremiah Clarke's setting, and our 
modern glee, And thus, thus, thus, thus, And thus ive will lengthen the 
measure. The title ran, " An excellent new song, call'd, The Pleasure of 
Love ; or, Worldly Pleasure far exceeds the Miser's Treasure." Licensed 
according to Order. Printed for J. B. in the Strand. We hope to give it. 

T. 134, Note 12 (line 128 of The Mistresses). The Prince of Monaco, with 
Mazarine's attachment to him, is mentioned on p. 127. 

P. 135, Note 15. Sir Daniel Harvey and his wife, Lady Elizabeth, lived in 
Covent-Garden. He is the person intended in the satire. 

Ibid, Note 17. The "Williams" here meant, in "The Court-Mistresses," is 
Susannah, daughter of Sir Thomas Skipwith, and wife of Sir John Williams. 
She was for some time mistress to the Duke of York. 

P. 145, lines 34 and 36, read, "Friday the 21 th ," and "bring this Ticket 
with you." There followed, in MS., sixteen names, John Wilmore, 
Zachariah Bourne, Edward Partridge, Alexander Hosea, etc. See p. 262. 

P. 152. The shipwreck of The Gloucester, in which so many brave seamen 
and courtly adherents of York perished, and from which the Duke 
narrowly escaped, was on Saturday the 6th of May, 1682 ; not the 8th, 
which was the date of Sir John Berry's Letter, given in the Clarendon 
Correspondence, i. 71. Dalrymple gives the letters of Sir James Dick and 
Lord Dartmouth. Among the many persons drowned were the Earl of 
Roxburghe, Lord O' Brian, Sir Joseph Douglas, Lieutenant James Hyde, 
Hollis the Duke's Equerry, and Hopton. 

T. 160, bottom line but two. Read Edmund Waller, not Edward. 

Pp. 177, 178. This song of " News from the Coffee-House " was written by 
Thomas Jordan, who, more suo, reproduced it afterwards as if brand-new, 
in his Triumphs of London, 1675. We left unannotated the mention of 
Admiral Michael Adrian de Ruiter, in line 23, because we come again 
to him in the Group of Dutch-War Ballads, in next volume. 

P. 209, Note 5, top line. " Pomfret eloquence" means Sir Patience Ward's 
rebellious harangues ; he having represented Pontefract = Pomfret. See 
pp. 277 to 279. 



CONTENTS OF PART XIII. 



" How come you here, you Interloper, say ! 
Have we thirteen at Table ? hence, away ! ' ' 

— Arthur ' s Round Table, Squared. 



Frontispiece : Le Bon Buveur de nos Ballades 
Dedication of Vol. V. to the Rev. A. B. Grosart, LL.D. 
Temporary Preface of Part XIII. . 

The Duke's Wish .... 

The Milkmaid's New Tear's Gift . 

The Present State of a Lost Ballad 
Addenda, for the present Part XIII. 
Efjc Struggle for the Succession tjetincen the Duke of got 

ant) fHonmouth. (Sccoivcj (Group.) 
The Oxford Parliament and the Monarchy . 
A Worthy Panegyrick npon Monarchy 

A Poem entitled The Succession . 
The Ghost of the Old House of Commons to the New One 
Dialogue between the Ghosts of the Two Last Parliaments 
Westminster Ghost's Reply to Oxford's Parliament . 

The Parliament Dissolv'd at Oxford 

Answer : To the Tune of the Devonshire Cant 

A Song by Matt. Taubnian, " Now, now, the work's done " 

A Catch : " Oh ! the Presbyterian WhigB " 

Parliament removed from London to Oxford : B New Song 
Oxford in Mourning for the Loss of the Parliament . 

Epitaph on Nell Gwynne's Mother, 1679 . 
The Oxford Health ; or, The Jovial Loyalist 



PAGE 

IV 

vii 

ix 

xii 

xiv 

XV 

\vi 

1 
3 
8 

11 
13 
16 
17 
20 
•-'1 
■11 
29 
24 
30 

33 

:;i 



XV111 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

The Fitz-Harris Mystery . . . . .41 

Fitz-Harris his Farewell to the World ; or, A Traytor's Just 

Eeward : by Richard Gibbs of Norwich . . .45 

Monmouth and the Perplexed Prince {i.e. Charles II.) . 47 

Advice to his Grace the Duke of Monmouth. . . 50 

On the Right of Succession: A Poem, 1679. . . 52 

A New Presbyterian Ballad ..... 58 

The Saints' Encouragement, 1643 . . .59 

An Excellent New Hymn, exciting the Mobile, etc., 1681 . 60 

Animadversions on the Lady Marquess. (Compare p. 127.) 64 

The Loyal Subjects' Good- Will to King and Commonwealth 68 

A New Ballad of Jockey's Journey into England . . 72 

Lord Shaftesbury's Arrest and ' Ignoramus ' Trial . . 75 

Ignoramus Justice, 1682 . . . .78 

The "Whig Intelligencer ; or, Sir Samuel in the Pound . 80 

Thrice Three Merry Boys are we . . .81 

The Merry Boys of Christmas ; or, The Milk-Maid's New 

Year's Gift (lacking lost Second Part : compare p. xiv.) 82 

The Merry Boys of Europe ..... 84 

The Merry Boys of the Times (The Courtier's Health) . 88 

Henry Bold's Latine Song : from the same. . . 89 

Monmouth's Associates ..... 93 

Lady Ogle's History (from Trowbesh MS.) ... 96 

The Matchless Murder of Tom Thynne, 1682 . . 102 

Epigram : When I was young, etc. . . .103 

Epitaph: on Tom Thynne of Longleat Hall . .104 

The Windsor Prophecy (by Jonathan Swift, 1711) . . 108 

Tom Thynne's Ghost Unsatisfied . . . .115 

The Court-Mistresses . . . . .123 

A Satyr to Julian, 1682 (from MS., first six, of twelve verses). 129 

A Satyr upon the Mistresses (from Trowbesh MS.) . . 130 

The Unfortunate "Whigs : An Excellent New Song . . 137 

Newmarket in 1682 . . . . .143 

The New-Market Song : by Tom D'Urfey . . .144 

The Whigs' Disloyal Feast Prohibited, April, 1682 . . 145 

The Whigs' Disappointment upon their intended Feast . 146 

The [Dis-]Loyal Feast of 1682 . . . . 148 

Well- Wishes on the Duke of York's Return from Scotland . 151 
J. D.'s Iter Boreale ; Tyburn in Mourning for Loss of a Saint. 153 
A Health to the Duke, and the King . . .154 

Health to the Duke : A Catch .... Ibid. 
Postscript, fraudulently assigned to J. D. (Dryden) . . 159 



CONTEXTS. 



XIX 



Content's a Treasure ; or, The Jovial Loyalist 
The Contented Subjects; or, The Citizens' Joy 
Jemmy and Anthony (Monmouth and Shaftesbury) . 

Matt. Taubman's Song : On the Duke's Return from Shipwreck 
Mug-House Loyalty and Coffee-House Sedition 

The Destruction of Care ; or, Commendation of the Mug 
Libellous Satyrs and Coffee-House Politicians 

New Song : " Would you have at your Devotion." . 

News from the Coffee-House : By Thomas Jordan, 1667 

A Satyr against Coffee .... 
The Norwich Loyal Litany .... 
Litanies against St. Omer's and from Geneva 

A Litany for St. Omer's, 1682 

A Litany from Geneva : In Answer to that from St. Omer's 
A New Ignoramus, 1681 . 

Ignoramus: a New Song, 1681 . 
Another Iter Boreale, 1682. 
Monmouth's Foolish Fancy 

From Sir Roger Martin to the Duke of Monmouth . 
More Advice from Sir Roger Martin 

Mrs. Anne Rooke, when she lost Sir John Dawe 

Advice in a Letter to Mr. Frank Villiers . 
The Whigs' Downfall .... 

The Character of a Whig 

On Wi. Williams : An Epigram . 
Loyal Sheriffs of London and Middlesex : their Election 
Dagon's Fall (Shaftesbury's Flight), 1682 . 
Shaftesbury's Farewell ; or, The New Association . 
Monmouth's Chances after Shaftesbury's Death 

The Impartial Trimmer 
London's Loyalty : By Tom D'Urfey 
London's Loss of Charter .... 

Philander (id est, Charles the Second) 

A New Catch : " London ! London ! " 

A New Catch : " Some say the Plot goes on." 

London's Lamentation for the Loss of their Charter . 
The Present State of England 



F Mil 

161 
L8S 

168 
170 
171 
172 
173 

L77 

184 

1 83 

189 

190 
196 
L99 
200 
204 
210 
215 
218 
219 
220 
•j.'l 

222 
224 
225 

- : 
241 

I'll 

217 

2 is 

249 
260 




"... A work which all admire, and well they may : 

For what insipid Sot can e'er write ill, 

When Waller, Lee, and Dryden guide the quill ? 

Falkland and Elland, Henningham and Wharton, 
Mordaunt and Howe, all dull as Scotch Dumbarton, 
Are such a medley of conceited Chits, 
I wonder who the Devil dub'd 'em Wits : 
Their skill in Poetry we may best discover 
Where their foul quills threw dirt at one another. 

And here, would time permit me, I could tell 
Of Cleveland, Portsmouth, Crofts, and Arundel, 
Mol Hoivard, Sussex, Lady Grey, and Nell ; 

Strangers to Good, hut bosom-friends to 111 : 

As boundless in their Lusts as in their Will." 

— Rochester 's Ghost to Julian. 



TI1K 



Struggle for ti)e Succession 



BETWEEN 



§)orfc ant. jKonmoutl). 



A Second Group of Roxburghe Ballads 
on 

3James, SDufte of 0S)onmoutt)- 



INCORPORATING, IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER, 

£ogal ^ongs on tU £DrforD parliament, 



AND 



LonnotTs ito of Cjmrter, from COfjig ©ftcriffs* 



Followed in Final Group, by 

Clje Kpc^ouge plot executions ; 

AND 

%fy ©megtcrn $wmmtiat\ of 1685 ; 

With the Fight at Sedgemore, and Death of Monmovth. 



Now first Collected, Annotated, and Reprinted for the Ballad Society, 
By J. W. EBSWORTH, M.A., F.S.A. 



1883. 

VOL. V. 



SEItra^ratastant fjopc set on JHonmoutf). 

Britannia. — " Oh happy day ! A Jubilee proclaim ; 

Daughter, adore th' unutterable Name. =Oceana. 

With grateful heart breathe out thy self in Prayer : 

In the mean time thy Babe shall be my care. =Shaftesbury. 

There is a man, my Island's Hope and Grace, 
The chief Delight and Joy of Humane Kace, =Monmouth. 

Expos'd himself to War, in tender age, 
To free his Country from the Gallick Rage ; 
With all the Graces blest, his riper years 

And full-blown Vertue wak'd the Tyrant's fears ; =York. 

By 's Sire rejected, but by Heaven call'd 

To break my Yoak, and rescue the Enthrall' d, =Marpesia, Scotland. 
This, this is he who with a stretch'd-out hand 
And matchless might shall free my groaning Land. 
On Earth's proud Basilisks he'll justly fall, 
Like Moses'' Rod, and prey upon them all : 
He'll guide my People through the raging Seas 
To Holy Wars and certnin Victories. 
His spotless Fame, and his immense Desert 
Shall plead Love's cause, and storm the Virgin's heart. 
She like JEgeria shall his breast inspire =Lady H.M.W. 

With Justice, Wisdom, and Celestial Fire : 
Like Ntnna, he her Dictates shall obey, 
And by her Oracles the World shall sway." 

— Oceana and Britannia, 1679. 

" Ferrum est, quod amant." — Juvenal, Sat. vi. 112. 

" It is most true. Full many a dame I've known 
Who'd faint and sicken at the sight of blood, 
And shiiek and wring her hands, and rend her hair, 
To see her lord brought wounded to the door ; 
And many a one I've known to pine with dread 
Of such mishap, or worse, — lie down in fear, 
The night-mare sole sad partner of her bed, 
Rise up in horror to recount bad dreams, 
And seek for witches to interpret them : 
This oft I've known, but never knew I one 
Who'd be content her lord should live at home 
In love and Christian charity and peace." 

— Sir Henry Taylor's Philip Van Artevelde, 1843. 




Cbe HDrfotD parliament ann tbc a&onarcbp* 



" Oxford to him a dearer name shall be 
Than his own Mother University ; 
Thebes did his green unknowing Youth engage : 
He chooses Athens in his riper Age." — Dryden. 




jlOB, ONE who loved ease and sauntering lazily through 
Life's garden-walks, with as little consciousness of 
To-morrow or the sight of unhappy faces as possible, 
the lot of Charles the Second had become by 1C81 far 
from pleasant. He was perpetually being rebuked, 
insulted, and disturbed by somebody. People still talk idly about 
his " Absolutism ; " but he did not become obstinately self- 
assertive save as a final expedient, when every other course had 
failed. He had been often harassed by multitudinous small tyrants, 
collective or single, until his patience was exhausted. So long as 
they were content to leave him at peace, he was willing to bo 
blind and deaf to anything that needed sharp investigation. Court 
Ladies, whom he had distinguished by his favour, were accustomed 
to yield their society with still greater freedom to their own special 
flatterers and reprobates; but his Majesty was the least intrusive 
or exacting of mortals. He took no notice of their infidelities, 
employed no spies, encouraged no bearers of evil report, but went 
his rounds with smiling forbearance of their well-known frailties, 
and only seemed to be annoyed when women failed to use the 
common decency of hiding their worst faults in his presence. 
Surely this was not too much to ask. Many of his courtiers had 
a passionate love of scandal, and in their total deficiency of 
reverence wrote bitter lampoons on him ; as they did against his 
Mistresses and their own personal rivals. But Charles generally 
laughed the heartiest, if the jest were good, and cherished 
malicious desire of revenge against his assailants. In open rail! 
with interchange of wit, he could hold his own against everybody. 



4 In Defence of Charles the Second. 

It was only when the libellers descended to the use of foul scurrility 
that he contemptuously left them to their own devices. Eochester 
deserved the temporary banishment from Court, which his rancorous 
invective and bemired imagination brought on him. Bebels plotted 
assassination of the King, and wily politicians tried to use the 
evidence of conspiracy to further their own schemes ; but the 
Merry Monarch was always the person most disinclined to believe 
that there was danger of being murdered, knowing that his brother's 
succession was undesired and unpopular. Not until the Eye- 
House Plot was unravelled, in which both the Eoyal pair were 
threatened, did he willingly let punishment fall on their proclaimed 
enemies. His own personal wants were few, and no philosopher 
required less of pomp or splendour, of luxurious dainties, jewellery, 
and imposing costume than did " Old Eowley." "While he yielded 
to an excess of generosity in squandering wealth on a set of brazen 
wantons, who deserved to be set to beat hemp in a penitentiary 
Spinning-House, his own wardrobe was reduced to a wretched 
condition, such as would have disgusted a Court-page. Sometimes 
a mild revel enlivened his evenings, as when in 1674 he good- 
humouredly yielded to Sir Eobert Vyner's hearty invitation, and 
stayed to "crack t'other bottle," reminding his Lord-Mayor host 
that "the man who is drunk is as great as a King :" both of them 
adding practice to precept in illustration. Sports at Newmarket 
or Winchester amused his noontide, since he enjoyed Eaces, and 
set them in fashion, but was usually unlucky in his horses ; for 
his jockeys sold many a race at the bidding of noble Dukes and 
Earls, who had heavy bets against him. On four legs or on two, 
there were skittish jades to plunder him, and each new favourite 
repeated the tricks of the same old game. He had loved the 
freedom of theatres, and no man better enjoyed the witty comedies 
of Etherege, Congreve, Dryden, and Wycherley, or could relish 
more delightedly any lively song in them, to which he beat time 
responsively, while a pretty actress met his smile. But even the 
play-house began to pall on him, when in Prologues and Epilogues 
the dramatic poets spiced the verse with manifold allusions to the 
topics most in vogue ; so that instead of being led " to fresh woods 
and pastures new," thoughts were flung back on the disquieting 
Shaftesbury, the perjuries of Oates, and the irritating factiousness 
of parliament-men or Nonconforming Sectaries. In his Eoyal 
Eox at the Duke's Theatre in Dorset Gardens, he had been 
accustomed to feel that none but friends were near. Court 
Masques had been a frequent amusement in his boyhood, before the 
Civil War ; with poetry from Ben Jonson, music from Lawes, 
dresses and decorations designed by Inigo Jones. But these ex- 
pensive luxuries were little to the taste of Charles the Second, 
although occasionally his Court-Beauties displayed their charms 



A Man more sinned against than sinning." 



in such entertainments as John Crowne's "Calista; or, The Chaste 
Nymph," with Lady Henrietta Maria Wentworth among them: the 
Duke of Monmouth being another of the dancers, who in later days 
became notoriously her lover. 

_ Year by year it had grown increasingly difficult for Charles to enjoy 
himself after his own fashion undisturbed. Alas, and well-a-day ! 
Spiteful railers acted as spies on him, and their hired informers wrote 
libellous satires ; not circulating 
stealthily, as of old in manuscript, 
through Courtly circles, but printed 
vilely on broadsides at seditious 
presses, to set the world against him. 
Many, who had flattered him to his 
face, nevertheless plundered and dis- 
honoured him behind his back, to the 
utmost of their power. The traffic 
in patents and monopolies had grown 
to be nearly as scandalous as in the 
time of Kilvert ; Tom Killigrew being 
an example of unprincipled rapacity. 
The demands of each peculator grew 
more exorbitant. The audacity and 
insolence of the Exclusionists in- 
creased in the same proportion. While 
the King became poorer under every 
fresh extortion of the harpies, he saw himself more humiliated 
by the sham-patriots who asserted their right to withhold neces- 
sary supplies. No wonder is it that with the coarse insults of 
the Commons in his ears, and the knowledge of their niggard- 
liness in granting money, even at the price of unreasonable 
concessions to their dictation, he had chosen to " pro-rogue and 
re-prorogue the rogues," delaying the meeting of Parliament, 
to avoid collisions. He tried meanwhile to obtain renewal of 
secret subsidies from France, as being on easier terms than he 
could obtain from his own revolutionary subjects. It is not a 
pleasant thing for us to have had a reigning monarch in the pay 
of a foreign power, under obligation to perform many irksome 
things in accordance with the ambitious arrogance and encroach- 
ments of Louis le Grand. But we ought to remember two facts in 
extenuation. First, that all the so-called Whig "patriots" of the 
day yielded themselves to French bribes of Barilhm from Louis ; 
including Hampden, Buckingham, Armstrong, and Algernon Sydney. 
William Russell kept himself from inclusion in the corrupt practices 
simply through already possessing sufficient wealth to rise above 
the temptation, but never expressed any honest repugnance to bis 
chosen companions being thus treasonably paid as emissaries of a 




6 The Crisis of his fate, in the Oxford Parliament. 

foreign monarch to act against their sovereign. Second, that Charles 
had been familiarized with the receipt of similar foreign help to 
that which he now sought, from his early years of exile, when he 
depended for food on assistance from France, while kept penniless 
by the usurpers. He could not but hope to be now treated more 
generously by his French ally than he was by each factious parlia- 
ment, every new one worse than its predecessor. His Duchess of 
Portsmouth was as greedy of gain as had been Barbara Palmer, 
Duchess of Cleaveland, in her early days of supremacy; and Louise 
would be perpetually reminding him that it was expedient to trust 
wholly to France, since she came thence as a decoy, and always 
acted under instructions from her former master. 

What has been already asserted (on p. 278 of our previous volume) 
is the simple truth, viz., that Charles II. indulged more in idle 
flirtation, wasting time in gossip, in dalliance, and in sauntering 
along his parks or galleries, than in absolute sensuality. This 
statement is supported by the contemporary evidence of John 
Sheffield, Lord Mulgrave, who was himself not a Scipio of ascetic 
virtue in such matters, and knew the delicate subject to its depths : 

There was as much of laziness as of love in all those hours he passed among 
his Mistresses ; who, after all, only served to fill his Seraglio with a bewitching 
kind of pleasure called sauntering : and talking without any constraint was the 
true Sultana Queen he delighted in. — Sheffield's Short Character of Charles II. 

Again, the same shrewd observer declares of him, in relation to 
the double-dealing of King Louis, who subsidized the English 
Commons to sedition while he enforced on Charles the performance 
of such acts as would be resented by these very Whigs and " Good 
Old Cause " insurrectionists : — 

He was so liberal as to ruin his affairs by it ; for want in a King of England 
turns things upside down, and exposes a Prince to his people's mercy. It did yet 
worse in him, for it forced him to depend on his Great Neighbour of France who 
played the Broker with him sufficiently in all those times of extremity. — Ibid. 

There had been many warnings given to him in the recent years, 
but we believe the really decisive moment, above all others, was 
that of which we resume consideration at beginning of the present 
volume: when at Oxford, between the 21st and the 28th of March, 
1681, the irreconcileable nature of the week-long Parliament dis- 
played itself. For life or for death the game was being played : 
timidity or procrastination on his part would have been certain ruin. 

The doctrine of passive obedience to the will of the absolute 
sovereign, as set forth by the loyal Kentish cavalier Sir Robert 
Filmer, had made little impression amid the gloom of 1646 ; but 
when his Anarchy of Limited and Mixed Monarchy was succeeded 
by his posthumous work, Patriarcha, not issued until 1680, it found 
a more attentive auditory, among those who had recently seen the 



Opposed theories of Government : Monarchy v. Anarchy. 7 

evils of rebellion, with the actual distractions and tyranny of 
anarchists, following the fall of ltichard Cromwell. People knew 
nothing of the thoughtful writings of Sir John Eliot, which had 
remained hidden away in manuscripts, not given to the world 
until within these recent years. 1 John Locke took upon himself 
the task of answering Filmer in Two Treatises on Government, but 
not until 1690; while Algernon Sydney's earlier work on Govern- 
ment found few readers, its weighty arguments being conveyed 
with too much ponderosity of style to suit popular compre- 
hension. But it should be remembered that such subjects cannot 
often be treated with the flippant wit or sparkling brilliancy such 
as Samuel Butler employs in conveying the soundest truths and 
wisest maxims. And even he, so full of glitter on paper, was usually 
dull in conversation, never quite at ease save when alone. 

It was a spiteful action against Dryden, by his malignant political 
enemies, to taunt him with having written praisefully in 1658 on 
Oliver Cromwell ; even as the detractors of " the melancholy 
Cowley " used against him his earlier authorship of the Pindaric 
Ode entitled " Brutus" (beginning " Excellent Brutus, of all human 
race"), to turn back any current of favour from carrying him into 
port. By J. Smith in 1681 was re-issued on a sheet, printed on 
both sides, John Dryden's Ode, commencing "And now 'tis time for 
their Officious haste ;" the poem being thus headed: "An Elegy 
on the Usurper O.C., by the Author of Absalom and Achitophcl, 
published to shew the Loyalty and Integrity of the Poet " (sic). The 
men who thus insinuated that Dryden was a changeling, at heart 
opposed to Monarchy, and only for filthy lucre fawning on the King 
whose father Oliver had helped to murder, were precisely those 
devoid of all loyal principle, and inclined to rancorously defame 
otters because their own thoughts dwelt familiarly on baseness. 

Meeting this particular instance of short-sighted malignity, it had 
been with a grim propriety of reprisal that other weapons of offence 
were drawn forth from the ancient armoury by the opposite class of 
politicians. Thus a " Panegyrich upon Monarchy,'' said to have I 
written in 1658, was reprinted and circulated. We here give it 
from two broadsides in the Bagford Collection, annotating variations 
found in a later reprint as a " Loyal Poem " issued in 1685. 



1 It had remained for Dr. Alexander Balloch Grosart, in bis quarto edition, 
a hundred copies, 1879, to print for the first time from the Harleian MS. 2,228, 
the whole of Sir John Eliot's Monarchie of Man, in two vols, [to which the 
present Editor had the pleasure of furnishing a copper-plate fae-simA oi Eliot s 
own ornamental title-page), with praiseworthy exactitude. John Forstei had 
issued only garbled extracts and analysis in his two memoirs oi Eliot, in 1 
Dr. Grosart followed up his good work with another couple ql quarto volumes, 
containing Eliot's Apology for Socrates and Negotium J' ; finishu 

two others in 1882, Be Jure Majestatis, and The Letter-Book oj S 
all for the first time printed verbatim, and of great value for student! oi Hi 



8 



[Bagford Collection, III. 37 and 89 ; Lnttrell Coll., II. 142.] 

a Mottbp 

jMnegprtcft upon S^onaxtyp; 

"Written Anno Mdclviii. 

33g a SLcatneb ano tralg Eorjal fficntlcman, far Enformatt'on of the 
im'scrablrj mfs=ko Commonwealths=fEen (falsclrj so calko) of 
that Eclubto Srrc ; ano noto rcui&ct) bo ©ne tbat honours the 
Author, ano tfje lEstablishcb ©obcrnmcnt of these Rations. 




IF wanting "Wings one may ascend the Skies, 
And Phoebus view, without an Eagle's Eyes ; 
Then Bouse up (Muse) from thy Lethargick Strains, 
And (having first invok'd the God of Brains) 
Let the Grand Subject of thy Measures be, 
No Soul to England like a Monarchy.* 6 



* Original Note.— " Monarchic/, & Monos Archdn, The Rule of one Prince or 

Governour -without a Peer, or the Government of one man over many. As in 
England, etc. Britannia ab initio mundi semper fuit Regia, § Regimen illius 
simile ille Ccelorum. Howel." [The reprint, of 1685, reads " No Rule in England 
like a Monarchy." But compare line 25, for mention of " The Rational Soul."] 



A Worthy Panegyric upon Monarchy. 9 

It is the Image of that Domination, 
By which Jehovah rules the whole Creation ; 
Angels nor Saints do in his Kingdom share, 
God is Sole Monarch, they but Subjects are : 
Whose Laws are such, as, when they did Rebel, 
Sequestred not, but sent them strait to Hell. 12 

As old as that paternal Sovereignty 

God plac'd in Adam, rul'd his People by ; 

Disown'd of None, but them whose Minds aspire, 

And Envy One should have what All desire ; 
For be 't a Few or Many we live under, 
Such shall repine, still, whilst not of the Number. 18 

The Antients did a Monarchy prefer, 

Made all their Gods submit to Jupiter ; 

And (when Affairs and Nations first began) 

Princes' Decrees were th' only Laws of Man ; 
Experience will avow it, where there's any, 
One Honest Man is sooner found than Many. 24 

The Rational Soul performs a Prince's part, 

She rules the Body by Monarchick Art ; 

Poor Cranes, and silly Bees (with shivering "Wings,) 

Observe their Leaders, and obey their Kings : 
Nature her self disdains a Crowded Throne, 
The Body's Monstrous, has more Heads than One. 30 

A Monarchy's that Politick simple State, 
Consists in Unity (inseparate, 
Pure and entire) ; a Government that stands 
When others fall, touch'd but with levelling hands ; 

So Natural, and with such Skill endu'd, 

It makes One Body of a Multitude. 



3(3 



In Order (wherein latter things depend 

On former) that's most perfect doth attend 

On Unity ; But this can never be 

The Popular State, nor Aristocracy ; 

For where or All, or Many bear the Sway, 

Such Order to Confusion leads the way. 42 



10 A Worthy Panegyric upon Monarchy. 

A Monarchy more quickly doth attain 
The End propos'd ; for 'tis the Single Brain 
That ripens Councel, and concealeth best 
Princely Designs, till Deeds proclaim 'em blest. 
Whilst Numerous Heads are rarely of one Mind, 
Slow in their Motion, lowder than the Wind. 48 

Treason, nor Force, so suddenly divides 

Th' United Strength that in a Crown resides : 

Sedition prospers not, it seldom here 

Results an Object of the Prince's fear ; 

Than when an Empire, Rome was ne'r so strong, 
Nor triumph'd under other Rule so long. 54 

A Monarchy abates those Feverish Fits 
Of Emulation a Free-State begets : 
A Prince can not his Reins so quickly slack, 
Or throw his Burthen on another's Back : 
But where so many Rulers have Command, 
The Work's transferred, and toss'd from Hand to Hand. 

The People, or the Nobles to debate 
The deep Concernments of a troubled State, 
Set Times and Places have assigned them, they 
First meet, and then adjourn from Day to Day ! 
Whereas a Monarch, who by Nature's One, 
Deliberates always, never's off his Throne. 66 

But hold ! Me thinks I see the three Estates 

Conven'd ; thrown open Prison-Doors and Grates, 

Extinct our paltry Jealousies and Fears, 

Grace offer'd [un]to All, but Cavaliers : 
And yet ! . . . with Patience the}' abound, 
In Hopes of Better, now the Wheel go's round. 72 

London, Printed for W.B. [" 9 March "], mdclxxx. 

[In "White-letter, double-columns : no woodcut. "We add one from our 
Roxburghe Ballads of previous volume. The final verse of the present broadside 
was not reprinted in the Loyal Poem of 1685, which ended abruptly with "never's 
off his Throne." The date it assigns to the original is 1656, not 1658. The 
Broadside re-issue was on March the Ninth, 168x. W.B. = William BucknalL] 

^ — c cecggggcBg*- 



Attempts to Exclude James from the Succession. 11 

The differences here noted, between the broadside of 1P>80 and 
the Loyal Poem of 1685, are comparatively trifling, but they are 
much greater in the two similar versions of another poem, con- 
temporary, entitled "The Succession." Where the disparity is so 
marked, it would but clumsily represent the differences were they 
merely shown by footnotes. We therefore give at once the brief 
Loyal Poem, in small type, and will add the more important Bagford 
Collection broadside version on our p. 54, after the two Roxburglte 
Ballads on the Oxford Parliament. It is interesting to compare the 
enlarged with the abbreviated version of " The Succession : " the 
former having been published while resistance was offered against 
the Duke of York's rightful claims to wear the Crown alter his 
brother Charles ; the shorter poem was re-issued after James had 
mounted the throne. 

The obstinacy wherewith the Oxford Parliament pressed forward 
the Exclusion of James, (although the Peers had so recently thrown 
out the Bill in the former year), resisting all warnings that this 
wrong to his brother was the one thing which Charles would not 
yield, was akin to that ill-omened pertinacity of their attempt to 
assume entire management of the mysterious Fitz-Harris case, 
instead of leaving him to the ordinary law-courts. It was evident 
that no rational or loyal conduct was to be expected from the 
Commons, and their week-long session was not an hour too short. 

% $ocm [entitled, &fjc Succession]. 

THat precious gem eall'd Loyalty grows scarce, 
The Saints pretending turn it into farce, 
While England's great Prerogative does grow 
Into contempt by the tumultuous Foe, 
Whose subtile secret liypocritick gins 
Would turn the Frame of Nature off its pins. 
A Painted Zeal must back what they decree, j 

And, while the cheat pretends to Loyalty, 
Heaven must be mock'd t' uphold their treachery. ) 

Blush then, DisloyaTMortals, let year shame 10 

All wild attempts against your reason tome ; 
Nor think your selves who" are hut Subjects, Kings, 
You know Religion teaches better things. 
Late reeling times sufficiently have shown 
The Effects of Masquerade Religion : 
When Charles the Great, whose memory shall live, 
Cou'd not their Loyal Principles survive, 
And those who dare oppose Succession 
Wou'd play the same Game over with the Son. 
This speaks your trust, the Wounds continue green 

Since that Blest Martyr was the hi ly BCene 

Of their impieties ; This Land was wrack'd, 
Its bowels torn, Nature's chiei fabrick crack'd, 
Into confusion hurl'd, till in the end 
(As each thing does unto its center tend,) 



20 



12 The revival of Loyalty in public spirit. 

The clouds dispers'd, and drove away Despair, 
"When in the Throne appear'd the much-wrong'd Heir: 
Whom Heaven preserve ! and may he ever be 
Secure from all pretending Loyalty. 

Princes are God's Anoynted, and the Crown, 30 

None can detain but Heaven's great Prince alone. 
When Nature's Law hath been impeach'd, such things 
Are wrought by Pow'r Divine, the King of Kings ; 
By that great Pow'r they rule, and by no less, 
And he who only rais'd them can depress. 

All Officers, whether of Sword or Gown, 
Are sworn t' uphold the Rights of England's Crown ; 
The Commons, too, before they voice can claim, 
Are duly sworn i' th' House to right the same. 
tgsg = How can we judge of this but as a Plot 40 

When such a Solemn Oath can be forgot ? 
" It's a high crime to let a Papist reign ! 
But Perjury we'll piously maintain 
For a great vertue, when self-interest 
In whispers tells us all goes for the Best! " 
That monster Faction evermore did range 
In these three Kingdoms to promote a Change ; 
Which being upheld by Frenzy, Pride and Scorn 
Of Monarchy, 'tis that's the wounding thorn 
To publick Peace, and makes the greatest scars, 50 

That fills men's mouths with armies, bloud and wars; 
'Tis that deposes Princes, blackens Fame, 
Whitens the Negro, makes the sound man lame. 
' ' A Prince o' th' Bloud is a regardless thing ! 
And, if we durst, we'd tell you, so's a King ! " 
Vertue' s bright lustre can't her self protect 
From base ingratitude and disrespect : 
It once hath been admir'd in that bright Prince, 
And still may 't be his glorious Defence, 

Against the tongue of every senseless Brute 60 

That dare Succession to the Crown dispute. 

[In "White-letter: as re-issued in 1685.] 

Attempts have been made in more modern days to annul or 
degrade the Oath of Allegiance, which is here so emphatically- 
mentioned. These attempts have hitherto failed, and long may 
they do so. 

We give three poems, probably by distinct authors, which must 
have powerfully influenced public opinion in March, 1681. The 
broadside version of the earliest of the three poems is entitled 
A Dialogue betiveen the Ghosts of the Two Last Parliaments, at their 
late interview : which title we reserve for the two later portions. 



13 



[Bagford Collection, III. 40.] 

%\>t (Btyost of tyt €>lti $ouse of 

Commons to tge i£hto £)m, appointed to mcrt at 

Oxford, 168^ 
[=ftfj£ OTtstminster's post's Mice] 

FROM deepest Dungeons of Eternal Night, 
The seat of horror, sorrow, pains and spight, 
I have been sent to tell your tender Youth 
A seasonable and important Truth. 

I feel (but Oh ! too late) that no disease 5 

Is like a surfeit of luxurious Ease ; 
And, of all other, the most tempting things 
Are too much Wealth and too indulgent Kings. 
None ever was superlatively ill 

But by Degrees, with industry and skill : 10 

And some, whose meaning hath at first been fair, 
Grow Knaves by use and Rebels by despair. 
My time is past, and your's will soon begin : 
Keep the first Blossoms from the blast of Sin ; 
And by the fate of my tumultuous ways 15 

Preserve your self, and bring serener days. 

The busie subtil Serpents of the Law 
Did first my mind from true Obedience draw, 
While I did Limits to the King prescribe, 
And took for Oracles that Canting Tribe ; 20 

I chang'd true Freedom for the Name of Free, 
And grew seditious for variety : 
All that oppos'd me were to be accus'd, 
And by the Laws illegally abus'd. 1 

The Robe was summon'd, M\_ai/nar~]d in the head, 2 25 
In Legal Murder none so deeply read. 

1 Tn some copies this is printed " And by the Law I Legally abus'd." I = A \ • . 

2 Sir John Maynard, born 1602, and survived until 1690. ' A m rviceable man 
to any ruthless faction who desired their victims to be slaughtered : lie had 
successfully managed the condemnation of Wentworth Karl of Strafford in l 

of Archbishop Laud in 1644, and of William Viscount Stafford in 1680. Tl 
innocence of each was of no account, so long as a show of legality could be made 
and their heads removed. Truly is it said of Maynard, "in legal murder none 
was so deeply read," and none so willing to ensure its perpetration. 



14 Westminster-Parliament Ghost's Advice. 

I brought him to the Bar, where once he stood 
Stain'd with the (yet-unexpiated) Blood 
Of the brave Strafford, when three kingdoms rung 
With his accumulative Hackne} r -tongue ; 30 

Pris'ners and Witnesses were waiting b}^ 
These had been taught to swear, and those to dye, 
And to expect their arbitrary fates, — 
Some for ill faces, some for good Estates. 
To fright the People and alarm the Town, 35 

B\_urnet] and 0\_ates~\ employ'd the Reverend Gown- 
But while the Triple-Mitre bore the blame, 
The King's Three Crowns were their rebellious aim. 
I seem'd (and did but seem) to fear the Guards, 
And took for mine the B[_ethek~\ and the W\_ards~] : 40 
Anti-Monarchick Hereticks of State, [Sir Patience jr., 

Immoral Atheists, rich and reprobate. * mgs y 

But, above all, I got a little Guide, 
Who every Ford of villainy had try'd ; 
None knew so well the old pernicious way 45 

To ruin Subjects and make Kings obey : 
And my small Jehu at a furious rate [==sha/teabury. 

Was driving 'Eighty back to 'Forty-Eight. 
This the King knew, and was resolv'd to bear, 
But I mistook his Patience for his Fear. 50 

All that this happy Island could afford 
Was sacrific'd to my Voluptuous Board. 
In his whole Paradise one only Tree 
He had excepted by a strict Decree ; 
A Sacred Tree, which Royal Fruit did bear, ) 55 

Yet It in pieces I conspir'd to tear : 
Beware, my Child ! Divinity is there ! 
This so undid all I had done before, 
I could attempt, and he endure no more. 
My un-prepar'd and un-repenting breath 60 

Was snatch d away by the swift hand of Death, 
And (I with all my Sins about me) hurl'd 
To th' utter Darkness of the lower World : 
A dreadful place, which you too soon will see, 
If you believe Seducers more than me. 65 

[Bg Mentfoottfr Dillon, lEatl of ftoscomnum.] 



Oxford Parliament shows Pride be/ore a Fall. 



15 




Roscommon's utterance was prophetic, and more speedily fulfilled 
than even the prophet himself could have expected. But the time 
was urgent, every unnecessary day's delay increased the danger, 
and two considerations hurried on the swift Dissolution. In the 
first place, the Commons by their uncompromising arrogance showed 
unmistakeahly that no service to the King or country could possibly 
be done by them : their irreconcileable hostility was displayed from 
their very entrance, with armed supporters, proud looks, and 
threatening words or gestures, as of men desirous to begin a revolt. 
Secondly, though they knew not this, the King had obtained certain 
intelligence of the fresh secret subsidy given to him by Louis XIV., 
and therefore not even the precarious chance of supplies being 
granted to him by the Commons was any longer of an important'!- 
sufficient to out-balance the danger of their longer sitting to work 
mischief with Exclusion, or perversion of evidence against the Couit 
in the case of Fitz-Harris. 

These three preceding poems form useful examples of the steadied 
Loyal spirit that was again pervading political society of the betfc c 
class, at the date when the Oxford Parliament was summoned. 
Faction had been busy and clamorous, looking for certain victory. 
But it counted its chickens before they were hatched, and most of 
them were addled. 

How well people understood that the Exclusion of James from 
succession to the throne was the " one thing forbidden them, one 
thing and no more," is shown in the following poem, as Answer to 
Wentworth Dillon's Ghost of the Westminster Parliament : — 



16 



[Bagford Collection, III. 40; Luttrell Coll., II. 162.] 

2i SDtaiogue 

Bettomt tfie dDgogtss of tge ^too llagt parliaments, 
at tficic late fntermcW 

— Fuimus Troes. Nitimur in vetitum? 
©jfcirti ffihast. 

[-4/ter <Ae specrfy Dissolution of the Oxford Parliament, March, 168°.] 

HAil, great Prophetick Spirit ! who could see 
Through the dark glass of ripening time, what we 
Too true have found, and now too late complain, 
That thou, great Spirit, shou'dst foretell in vain ; 
Full well and faithfully did'st thou advise, 
Had we been modestly and timely wise. 
" Free may you range," said'st thou, "through every Field, 
And what else more luxurious Gardens yield 
Is thine ; what e're may please, what e're delight 
The weakest stomach, nicest appetite: 10 

Of all the plenty of so vast a Store 
©3^ One thing forbidden is, one [thing'] and no more. 
By late and sad Experience of what's past, 
Probatum est, ipse Dixit : Do not taste ! 

Swift Ruine's there, and sure Destruction." 

How great a Truth, had it in time been known ! 16 



1 This was the broadside-title employed when the three Ghostly addresses were 
reprinted. D.M. (David Mallet), London, issued a broadside, entitled "Great 
News from Westminster ; or, A Congratulation upon the happy Assembling of 
the Lords and Commons in Parliament, according to his Majesties Prorogation 
of the 16th of this instant January," 16f§. It begins thus : 

All haile, great Isle ! still may thy Fame increase, 

Glorious in Arms, no less renown'd in Peace ; 

Let sacred Hallows now thy Joys proclaim, 

Since thy great Councils, who have rais'd thy name 

Above the nations that enclose thee round. 

With sacred Laws, etc. (Luttrell Collection, II. 149.) 

2 Fuimus Troes ; fuit Ilium, et ingens 
Gloria Teucrorum. — JEneis, ii. 325. 

Nitimur in vetitum semper cupimusque negata. — Ovid. Amor. iii. 4. 



17 

Westminster ®f)ost 

(In Reply to Oxford Parliament.) 

VAin empty Nothing, that wert lately All, 
How just, and how unpitied is thy Fall : 
"Well worthy of the horrours of this place, 
That would no warning take by ray Disgrace ; 
Glutted with plenty, surfeited with Peace, 
Weary of Blessings, sick of too much ease : 
Mad restless Troublers of our Israel, 
Who would not quiet be when things went well ; 
Of secret base designs meer manag'd Took, 

Rash, unadvis'd, incorrigible F , l 10 

Brisk Hotspurs, inconsiderately bold, 

By much too violent, and too hot to hold. 

Zeal flew as if 't had been to run a Race, 

Duty and Reason could not keep it pace : 

Insensible, regardless of my Fate, 

Dull Phrygian Sages, wise when 'tis too late. 

You liv'd, and then you had an easie way 

T' have provided 'gainst the Evil Day ; 

Who would not then be timely- wise, forbear 

Your vain unseasonable Sorrows here. 20 

Frailty (for men are frail) may err one time, 

But Malice only can repeat the Crime. 

Unthinking Senate, fed with empty words 

Of Patriot Lawyers and Protesting Lords : 

Abus'd by Popular and mistaken Friends, 

Serv'd a dull Property for base hidden Ends. 

Liberty, Conscience, and Religion, 

Sweet Names, and so is Reformation. 

Rank sign of sickly and distemper'd times, 

When fairest names disguise the foulest Crimes. 80 

The cry of Libert;/ helpeth Ambition, 2 

And Strait-lac'd Conscience cloaks Religion. 

Of publick Int'rest you had no concern ; 

But p £ uurep a Proverb, Ne'r too late to learn. 



1 It is, like the damsel with a Dulcimer, "beautiful exceedingly" to see tin- 
exquisite delicacy wherewith the pamphleteers shrink from applying the wi 11- 
deserved terms " Knaves" and " Fools '' to M.P.s, in fear of after-punishment. 
3 He that roars for ' Liberty ! ' faster binds a Tyrant's powi t : 
And the Tyrant's cruel glee forces on the freer hour.— Vision of 8m. 

VOL. V. 



18 Westminster Ghost's Reply to Oxford's. 

By no experience taught, miscarriage tam'd, 
Nor by sad instance of my Fate reclaim'd, 
What prejudice and private ends ill-us'd, 
False Zeal and like Religion ill excus'd : 
"Who (stiff-neck'd) rather would my Fate repeat, 
Than by new measures be securely great : 40 

No freedom of debate was left for you, 
When all was mov'd and manag'd by a few. 
Your leading M[aijnard~], J [ones'], and W[inningtori\, x 
As if all wisdom were in them alone : 
A House of Commons crumbled into Three ; 
Slaves in effect, and in appearance free. 
What ail'd the Pilot, slept he at the head ? 
Or was your Judgment by your Wills misled ? 
What evil Spirit's Influence did prevail, 
That you who might at large securely sail 50 

In a full Sea, and from all danger free, 
Would run upon that Shelf that ruin'd me ? 
These sure and sad effects I well foresaw ; 
These real ills, which seeming good would draw ; 
From these sad Consequences to disswade, 
I was sent forth, and gladly I obey'd : 
I told you then what now too true you find, 
Where Zeal flies out, and Duty leaves behind, 
'Tis Wisdom's shame, and Policie's defect, 
For still like Causes will have like Effect. 60 

I sought by wondrous Truth this Point to gain, 
Urg'd many reasons, but urg'd all in vain : 
None were of force against the Good Old Cause ! 
Counsel was thrown away, Fool that I was — 
Where men with Law and Prophets would not live, 
To think a Message from the dead should thrive ! [Luke, xvi. 
Spight of my fore-sight and my dear-bought skill, 
Cassandra I ; you faithless Paris still. 2 

1 Sir John Maynard (see p. 13), Sir William Jones (who answered the King's 
Declaration), and Sir Francis Winning-ton. To the last two we return on p. 188. 

2 It will be remembered how Phcobus was deceived by the maiden whom he 
loved ; after bestowing on her the gift of prophecy, which he could not recall, 
when he found his passion unrequited, he punished her by the doom that her 
hearers would disregard her sure foretellings as though they were the ravings of 
madness. The lately-lost and deservedly lamented true poet, Dante Gabriel 
Rossetti, painted a representation of Cassandra in the agony of prophecy, fore- 
telling Troy's destruction, but unheeded by her brothers Paris and Hector. 



Westminster Ghost's Reply to Oxford's. 19 

Your boundless passion did no measures keep, 
Well might you break your Neck with such a leap : 70 
Men may at distance hover about Kings, 
And, by their influence warm'd, move earthly things ; 
But when those bounds they would exceed, and fly 
Too near the Sun, scorcht, they drop down, and dye. 
What an occasion lost you to improve 
The Prince's Favour and the People's Love ! 
©^° This when considering Posterity 

Shall think upon, they'l hate your Memory ; 

And as once ancient Rome, they, in their turn, 

Wish 3 7 ou had never dy'd, or ne'r been born. 80 

Should your Successors tread your steps, they then 
Though they were Gods, like us shall die like men. 
Oh ! may the next (for sure a next will be,) J 
Avoid the Rock that ruin'd you and me : 
Deeply affected with a just concern 
At our sad Fate, self-preservation learn ; 
And merit (by avoiding needless Fears, \ 

By moderate Councils and praise-worthy Cares,) 
A Monarch's Blessing and three Kingdoms' Pray'rs. ) 

London : Printed for Al\_lan~\ Banks, Anno Domini mdci.xxxi. 

[In White-letter, three columns. No woodcut. Colophon shorn off by 
binder from Bagford copy : restored here from Luttrell Coll., II. 162, marked in 
Karcissus's handwriting, "A libell on both the Parliaments : 7 April, 1681."] 

Extensively read, moreover, and spitefully answered, was another 
Oxford Parliament Poem, preserved on a broadside and a Loyal P<n m , 
It mentions the Lord Chancellor, Heneage Pinch. 2 

1 So far as Charles II. was concerned, there was no "next" Parliament, 
although his own dissolution did not happen until four years later than thai oi 
the Oxford Parliament. The secret unsigned treaty with France partly accounted 
for his omitting to send out fresh writs. But, although there was the certainty 
of a recovered tone of loyalty in the country, such as augured favourably tor a 
new Parliament, some suspicion of the likelihood that there would 1"' fresh 
trickery employed by any re-assembled Commons (r/r. voting themselves inde- 
pendent of being dismissed without their own full consent), may have had to do 
with his choice. They might probably "self-preservation learn" only too 
well. Being still non-existent they remained uncalled. " Camarina i> muddy, 
don't disturb Camarina," doubtless was remembered by tin M. rr\ Monarch. 

2 One \V. W. addressed Finch, in a "Congratulatory Poem," May, 1681 : — 

My Lord, Aristotle the leain'd did say, 
That Wit and Vertuc always made the way 
For their Allies, to mount bright Honour's Chair, 
By rend'ring of them excellent and rare, etc. 



20 



[Luttrell Collection, II. 162; Wood's, 417, fol. 47.] 

C6e Parliament D&soltro at £DrforD, 

March the 28th, 1681. 

UNder five hundred Kings Three Kingdoms groan, 
" Go, F[inc?i], Dissolve them; CHARLES is in the Throne, 
And by the Grace of God will reign alone. 1 3 

" "What would the Commons have ? The Royal Line 
Heaven does dispose of, 'tis not their' s, nor mine; 
But His by whom Kings rule, and are divine. 6 

" I represent the King of Kings, who gave 
The Crown, the Sword, the Scepter ; what I have : 
I am God's Servant, not the People's Slave. 9 

" Their frantick Votes and mad Resolves I hate ; 
I know a better way to heal a State, 
Than to Sin rashly, and Bepent too late. 12 

" Bid them be gone, F\incK\ ! they are pjiurcp uncivil, 
To oblige me to follow them to the Devil ; 
To save Three Kingdoms I will not do evil. 15 

" The Presbyterians, sick of too much freedom, 

Are ripe for Beth Vein ; it 's high time to bleed 'em : 

The Second Charles does neither fear nor need 'em. 18 

" I'd have the World know that I can dissipate 
Those impolitick Mushrooms of our State : 
'Tis easier to Dissolve than to Create. 21 

" They sha'n't cramp Justice with their feigned flaws ; 
For since I govern only by the Laws, 
Why they shoidd be exempt I see no cause. 24 

' ' To the Laws they must submit : it is in vain 
E'er to attempt to shake off those again ; 
For where Charles commands, there must Justice reign. 27 

" When the People's Father does espouse the Law, 
All those who subjects from their duty draw 
Do, Viper-like, through Parent's bosom gnaw. 30 

" When they attend Me next, F[inch], bid them bring 
Calmer thoughts ; bid them propose Legal Things ; 
Such as may both become themselves and King. 33 

" This will the Joys of our little "World compleat, 
And all attempts of Foreign Foes defeat ; 
Making the People happy, Monarch great." 36 

FINIS. 

This was translated by Henry Bold, En tria Regna gemunt centum 
sub qwinque Tyrannis : it was also answered from the fanatical 
Parliamentarian side, thus : 

1 Heneage Finch, Lord Chancellor, Baron of Daventry ; in following May, 
Earl of Nottingham. See Note 2 on p. 19, and Windsor Prophecy on p. 108. 



21 



[Strawberry-Hill Collection, fol. 19 ; and "Wood's Coll., at the Bodleian] 

Co tfie Cune of tfie SDctoonslrirc Cant : ■ 

©t, 

&n angfocr to " £tje parliament Dfggolbrti at ©iforti." 

Nonne vicles, ut nudum remigio latus ? — Horat. Ode xiv. Lib. I. 

niHe safety of the King, and 'a Royal Throne, 

_L Depends on those five hundred Kings alone ; • 

Those under whom some say three Kingdoms groan. 3 

The Commons no new methods will assigne 

Of choosing Kings, they know the lloyal Line 

Was wont to be reputed as Divine. G 

Your English-men (who understand Who gave [Q. Eliaab. 

Their King his Royal Grandsire) scorn to have 

His Majesty their General, their Slave. 9 

As frantic and outragions as were 

Their Votes, they shew'd their vigilance and care, 

And nought like those could dissipate our fear. 1 2 

They are Dissolv'd, and with them all our hopes. 

Prepare for Smithjield fires, for Racks and Ropes ; 

For that's the pleasing exercise of FUPES. 1.1 

Now to create Intestine Broyls what need 3 

Is there? — of those experienced things take heed, 

When th' States' Blood's hot 'tis dangerous to bleed. 18 

1 We have found no copy of "The Parliament Dissolved at Oxford " = " Under 
five hundred Kings," etc., marked distinctly as "Devonshire Cant," Tel Chant ; 
but we safely suppose it to be the antecedent ballad here referred to. There WTO 
also another, entitled " The Devonshire Ballad, to the tune of 1642," beginning, 

Now all old Cavaliers now or ne'er stand to 't ; 

The Synod's dissolv'd, and the Ball's at your foot, 

But if Faction prevail, you're destroy'd branch and root : 

Br audi a ml Boot. 

It was an Election squib, printed in London for the Assigns of F. S. [perhaps 
Fabian Stedman], 1681, and reprinted in our own Bagford Ballads, p. 996. 

2 The arrogant claim to be the safeguard of the nation, while factiously doing 
their utmost to bring back civil-war, was a characteristic boast from one of these 
'■five hundred" parliamentary flies on the wheel, although blinded by the 
dust and imagining themselves to be the cause of the chariot's motion. It has 
always been the way in England that the noisiest and most noxious demagogues 
have the largest share of self-conceit, and, while imposing on their dupes "t 
followers, look upon themselves as being inspired, heroic, world-famed, and im- 
mortal. Compare the Roundhead's " In Parem imperium habet /''"," in s 
Poems, ii. 115. Two verses are given in our Add* nda, p. xvi. 

3 With an ill grace comes \\\\> caveat against the Papists causing "intestine 
broils," from those who broiled the intestines of Jesiuts in the Sham-Plot mudni ss. 



22 Ansicer to the Parliament Bissolced at Oxford. 

In all true hearts it would a Love create 

To see the Supreme Potrer dissipate 

All Petitioners, those Spungers of our State. 1 21 

The Commons' aims were but to regulate 

Things shuffl'd out of place in Church and State ; 

Not to cramp Justice, but corroborate. 24 

When they offend they justly feel the smart, 

Imposed on them by some ambitious heart ; 

Whose swollen envy breaks out like a % j. 27 

But here's the mischief, they espouse the Law, 

Hate those who Subjects from Allegiance draw, 

And of their Eoyal Master stand in awe. 30 

We've grounds to hope when next they meet they'l bring 

Wise Councels, Grave Proposals, ev'ry thing 

Conducive to the Peace of People and King. 33 

If so, we'll sing adieu to Pints, in vain 

Shall Rogues attempt to shake our Peace again, 

And then great Charles most happily will reign. 36 

London : Printed for T. Rawe in London-Yard, near St. Paul's, 1681. 

Matthew Taubman printed in 1682 a short song on the failure of 
this pretentious Oxford Parliament. It appears to have been sung 
to the then popular tune of " Now, now the fight's done;" the 
original words of which we gave already in vol. iv. p. 243. 

a Sonrj, bg fHatt. STaubmait. 

[To the Tune of, Now, now, the Fight's done.] 

NOw, now, the work's done, and the Parliament set 
Are sent back again like Fools as they met ; 
To prove without change they were true to their Trust, 
They voted their actions both legal and just : 

But on Roivley, who knew them, the cheat would not pass, 
Who cut off the Bump of the Politick Ass. 

Let. S[haftes~]b\_ur~\y plot, and 3f[o~\)t[mout~\h contrive, 

And Waller lye buzzing like a Drone in a Hive, [Sir Wm. w. 

Let Phanaticks fret on, and preach to the Crowd 

Sedition and Faction and Treason aloud : 
We'l drink off our Liquor to cherish good blood, 
And in our King's Service wee'l let out the flood. 



1 Hamlet. — That I can keep your counsel and not mine own. Besides, to be 
demanded of a sponge ! what replication should be made by the son of a king ! 

Rosenkrantz. — Take you me for a sponge, my lord ! 

Hamlet. — Ay, sir, that soaks up the king's countenance, his rewards, his 
authorities. But such officers do the king best service in the end ; he keeps 
them, like an ape, in the corner of his jaw ; first mouthed, to be last swallowed : 
when he needs what you have gleaned, it is but squeezing you, and, sponge, you 
shall be dry again. — Hamlet, Act iv., Scene ii. 



Oxford's Lamentation, 1G81. 23 



In the British. Museum Collection (1872, a. 1. fol. 146) is a poem 
entitled " Oxford's Lamentation ; a Dialogue between Oxford and 
London : concerning the Dissolution of the Parliament." Printed 
for T. Benskin in St. Bride's Church-Yard, 1681. Oxford asks, 

WHat is the Fomp and Glory of this World ? 
How soon is all into Confusion hurl'd ! 
I, who in Pride held up my head of late, 
With so much joy, expectancy, and State, 
Seeing my Sister Cities of the Land, 
lake Servants, at a distance from me stand ; 
Whilst I exalted was by King and Court, 
Am on a sudden made Dame Fortune's Sport ; 
And with one Breath am to the Ground thrown down, 
My Pomp, my Pride, and Glory, all is gone : 
One puff of Royal Fire away has sent 
My hopes, together with the Parliament : 
Was it for this I laid out so much cost, 
To have my Glory in a moment lost ? 
But few days since my Conduits did run Wine, 
And now as fast they run with Tears' salt brine. Etc. 

To Dr. Henry Aldrich's tune of 0! the lonny Christ Church Belh 
went another Oxford ditty, which we give instead of the Dialogue : — ■ 

& ODatcfj. 

OH ! the Presbyterian Whiggs, 
That taught us first these Scottish jiggs, 
Look how they strut, like Cock in a rut, 

And they crow so merrily, merrily. 

But oh, this Oxford, Oxford Town ! 

Our Clubs and Treats will be run down ; 

The Fleece, the Mitre we shall want, 

The Castle and the Elephant. 
And still we live in hope, that we shall 'scape the Rope, 

And pull the Lawn-sleeves down : 
If Hani Soit get not a Doit, 

Till we're sure that he's our own. 

But as " Honi Soit " Charles the Second perfectly saw through the 
Whig design of withholding all supplies from him, enacting their 
own permanence of sitting, and willingly renewing civil war, he 
dissolved them at the week's end, before they did more mischief. 

But thanks to the aioqM, who made the King dogged, 

For giving no more the Rogues were pro-rogued.— -/. Marvttt. 



MQ QOQ Q Q Q p aQc 



24 



SDrfortJ in gemming; 

jFor tfje 3Loss of the Parliament, JHarcfj, 1681. 

" We scholars were expelled awhile, to let the Senators in, 
But they behav'd themselves as vile, so we return a gen : 
And wonder to see the Geometry School all round about be-seated, 
Though there's no need of a Euelicfs rule, to demonstrate 'em all defeated 

" The Commons' courage can't endure, to be affronted thus ; 
So for the future, to be sure, they'll be the Upper House. 
But, by some feverish malady, their strength so soon was spent, 
That punning Wits no doubt will cry, ' Oh Weeked Parliament ! ' " 

— Ba yf or d Ballads, p. 841. 



T, 



HE week-long last Parliament of Charles the Second met at 
Oxford on the 21st March, 168x. After the Commons had factiously 
clamoured about Exclusion and the Fitz-Harris impeachment, 
quarrelling with the Lords, and premeditating further mischief, it 
was ignominiously dissolved by the King in person on the 29th of 
the same month. It might have adopted as an epituph, over its 
unhonoured corpse, the Infant's tombstone-lines : — 

Since that I so soon was done for, I marvel what I was begun for. 

Its importance by no means rests in any achievement of its own, 
for it succeeded in nothing. With bluster and talk it commenced ; 
with bluster and talk it came to an end. It was a magazine of 
combustibles with a damp fuse; a street cry of "In the name of 
the Prophet — figs ! " a labyrinth of passages to No-whither ; any 
other emblem of pretentious failure can weakly represent this 
Shaftesburian Oxford Parliament. Macbeth describes it best : — 

It is a tale told by an Idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. 
The Loyal party omitted not to ridicule their unscrupulous foes in 

& $£in Sonn;, maoc on tijc parliament's Ecmoumjj from 
ILorrtwn to ©xforo, March, 168£. 

To its own Tune of, Ye London Lads be merry. 

TE London Lads be merry, your Parliament Friends are gone, 
That makes us a' so sorry, and wou'd not let us alone ; 
But 'peacht us ev'ry one, both Papist and Protestant too ; 
But to Oxford they are gone, and the De'il gang with 'em I trow. 4 

Our guid king Charles, Heaven bless him, Protector of Albany's right, 

Beceiv'd from the House sic a lesson, 't had like to have set us at strife ; 

But Charles, he swore by his life, he'd have no more sic ado, 

And he pack'd them off, by this light, and the De'il's gang'd with them, I trow. 

There's Essex and Jemmy the Cully were mickle to blame, I dreid, 

With Shaftesbury that States' Bully, and a' the factious breed ; 

And wittol Grey, guid deed! who pimps when his Wife does mou', 

And holds the door for a need, but the De'il will reward him I trow. 12 



The Parliament removing from London to Oxford. 25 

Fool Thin and half-witted M\onmou~\th, "with Z[ovc!a]ce and Blabbering K[ent~\, 
With goggling Fly-catching B[randon\, that ne'er knew yet wbal tie mi anl ; 
And St[wmfo\rd follows the scent, with Politick Armstrong and How : 
And they all a Petitioning went, and the De'il's gang'd wi' them I trow. 16 

Then Heaven protect great Albany, and guard him from pistol and gun ! 

And all the Plots of Anthony, that old malicious Baboon ; [ = Shaftesbury. 

Though sham'd on the Pope of Borne, as Dugdah and Oates do avow, 

Put m time they'l hang the fause Loon, and the De'il hang wi' them, I trow. 1 

Before giving our two Roxburghe Ballads it appears fitting to 
offer some preliminary account of the situation. 

Monmouth and Shaftesbury -in close alliance made themselves 
very busy and ostentatiously offensive in preparation for the Oxford 
Parliament. Their followers went armed, desirous of provoking a 
collision w T hich might precipitate a civil-war, and the one thing 
which entered not into their thoughts was that they would be 
unceremoniously dismissed, a week later, before their mischievous 
intentions had time to bear other fruit than seditious words. 

In the previous November, it must not be forgotten, the attacks 
on the Duke of York were most bitter in the Commons, where it 
was voted that conspirators had been encouraged by a knowledge 
that he was a Papist ; and it was resolved that any violence offered 
to the King's person should be revenged on the whole body of 
Romanists, considering them all involved equally in the guilt ; 
moreover, that, without waiting for any such attempt, the Exclu>i"ii 
Bill ought to be passed, to keep the Duke from the Crown. So 
high did party feeling swell, and so daunted by the arrogance of 
bigots were the few moderate and sensible members, that the third 
reading of the Exclusion Bill passed without a division on November 
eleventh. Four days afterwards it was carried to the Lords, where 
the Court party was strong and courageous enough to resist the 
movement, rejecting the Bill by a majority of sixty-three to thirty, 
on the very first reading. The Commons, next, in sheer malignity 
and vindictiveness, ' resenting this notable defeat, thereupon 
pressed onward the trial of William Viscount Stafford, thirsting ;is 
they were for some one's blood, to be a scape-goat, and obtained their 
wish in the month of December (as we have shown in the two 
ballads on his execution in Vol. IV. pp. 225 to 235). Monmouth 
ivas officiously prominent in advocating the death of Stafford. 



1 After July, 1683, appeared a Mock-Song or Parody, which will come on a 
later page. It is on the position of the Duke of Monmouth (Per kin), and begins, 

You Loyal Lads be merry, for Perkin that Btate-Baifoon, 
Despis'd by Winy and Tory, for being so fcuse ;i Loon, etc. 

Some additional zest was supposed to be given to both Bongs by their being 
written in a Cockney imitation of Scotch dialect: worse spell than hen 
See first note on p. 27 for some names introduced in this Nt to 8ong : oth< rs tab r. 



26 Shaftesbury's double Dealings : Shuffle and Cut. 



Others of the imprisoned Catholic Lords were marked for a similar 
fate, till there came unmistakeable tokens publicly displayed that 
the popular madness of terror excited by the Titus Oates perjuries 
was nearly exhausted. At the execution of Stafford, when he 
made solemn proclamation of his innocence, the outcries of the 
mob, " We believe you, my Lord ! " gave warning to Shaftesbury 
that the experiment could not be safely repeated, and that nearly 
the last blood had been shed for the sham Popish-Plot. Hitherto 
he had directed autocratically his willing tools, while his opponents 
had seemed powerless in resistance. ■ Arch-wizard as he had proved 
himself to be, standing within the circle of perverted law, his 
charms and incantations were beginning to fail. Would he rashly 
step outside the circle to compel obedience ? Once he might have 
moved thus far, and prospered, but it could be so no longer. 

Great preparations were being made for his reception at Oxford. 
He desired the whole of Exeter College to be given up for the 
accommodation of himself and his adherents. He had been a 
student there, but Dr. Berry could only yield a few rooms. The 
letters are extant which passed in answer to Shaftesbury from 
John Locke, then so ill that he was endangering his life in exerting 
himself as he did, to fulfil the wishes of his master. Quitting 
Oakley in Buckinghamshire, in February, he proceeded to Oxford, 
and learnt from Monmouth's Secretary, Mr. Vernon, that " a 
College being past hopes," it was arranged to take Dr. Wallis's 
house, "judged as convenient as any in town, being in the lane 
between the Schools and the new College, near in the midway 
betwixt them, as quiet a place as any in the town." Alderman 
Wright (of whom we had some glimpses in Bagford Ballads) was 
another person willing to serve Shaftesbury to the utmost of his 
power, for payment, in the matter of stabling, close by Jesus College. 
Finally, there was room found in Balliol College. Ford Lord Grey 
of Werk was to lodge on the second story. The conspirators seemed 
to be anticipating a longer residence than events permitted. 

It appears almost certain that these extensive preparations were 
intended merely as blinds to the real purpose of Shaftesbury and 
the other conspirators. Lord Grey became so double-dyed a traitor 
that we are unwilling to accept his word as decisive on anything, 
but he certainly was admitted to the confidence of all the rebellious 
plotters, and afterwards declared that it had been arranged by 
Shaftesbury, William Eussell, and Lord Macclesfield not to go to 
Oxford at all, but to stay in London and prepare for an armed in- 
surrection, " if the King's conduct at Oxford should render it neces- 
sary : " id est, afford a plausible excuse for rebellion. These were 
the politicians who affected to dread the violence and intrigues of 
the Papists against the Crown ! This early intention to remain in 
London was not improbably connected with the lawless scheme of 



Schemes and Petitions against sitting at Oxford. 27 

other Revolutionists to seize the King's person at Oxford. Charles 
received intelligence of the treason, and with his newly awaken* '1 
promptitude defeated it, by placing himself under the protection of 
his troop of Guards, horse and foot, who were no longer under any 
controul of Monmouth. They had been denounced by Lord Eaa g 
as having among them many Papists ; but, when the King demanded 
the names of any such, not one could be given. Yet the false 
declaration, whereof Essex made himself the spokesman, was pub- 
lished to the world without correction or retractation, to damage 
the Court party in general and the Duke of York in particular. 1 

London chose the same members to serve in the Oxford parlia- 
ment who had served in the one preceding; 2 so generally was this 
done elsewhere that few above a hundred new members were elected. 
Thus the opinions and votes of the old majority were a foregone 
conclusion. Success was illusive, the Shaftesburian electioneering 
tactics overdoing the work : and thus they absolutely made an 
ultimate triumph impossible. He had burnt his own ships, and 
destroyed the bridges behind his enemy. This most cautious of 
tricksters ended by becoming one of the most reckless. 

Monmouth also had made reconciliation increasingly difficult, by 
his violence in the previous parliament ; when the Lords refused 
the Exclusion-Bill, which he advocated with singular absence of 

1 This was on January 25th, -when presenting a petition for the Parliament to 
sit as usual at Westminster, and not at Oxford. The petition was signed by 
Essex, Shaftesbury, Monmouth, the Earls of Kent, Huntingdon, Bedford, 
Salisbury, Clare, and Stamford; Lords Mordaunt, Eure, Paget, Grey, Herbert, 
Howard of Escrick, and Delamere. Luttrell summarizes the petition : it assumed 
to represent "the just apprehensions the nation had on the late surprizing dissolu- 
tion of the parliament, and the inconveniences that would attend the holding of 
a parliament at Oxford; and therefore they did humbly desire his Majestie 
would be pleased to lett the intended parliament sitt at Westminster. Eis 
Majestie told them (as is said) he look't on it only as the opinion of so many 
men." — Brief Relation, i. 65. The excuse had been that at Oxford "neither 
Lords nor Commons can be in safety, but will be daily exposed to tin swords "t 
the Papists and their adherents, of whom too many art crept into hit Majesty 1 * 
Guards." Probably the exact words of the King's answer are, as elsewhere 
reported, with instant rejoinder, "That, my Lord, may be your opinion ; it is 
not mine." It is noteworthy that the pretext offered, by Shaftesbury's party, 
for the plan of seizing the King at Oxford and bringing him prisoner to London 
was the "getting him out of the hands of the Roman Catholics." 

2 They were Sir Kobert Clayton and Thomas Pilkington, aldermen, with Sir 
Thomas Player, Knight, and William Love, Ksquire. Westminster returned 
Sir William Poulteney and the busybody Sir William Waller. The pretentious 
"Tom of Ten Thousand" Thymic with' Sir Walter St. John again came in for 
Wiltshire. The members in all were 513, of whom only 110 were new 
members, who had not served in the previous parliament, among them being 
Sir John Eeresby for Aldborough, linn for the Court. In general, the new 
members were believed to be more violently factious than even the "hi had been. 
'there were thirty-two petitions touching disputed elections, and a few mi a had 
been returned for two places, such as Wm. Levcson Gower and Sir John Fa 



28 King Charles and his Queen go to Oxford. 

taste, feeling, or prudence. He had declared that nothing but the 
Exclusion could preserve the King from the malice of the Duke of 
York : a speech heard by Charles with intense disgust, and a true 
comment that Monmouth's was " the Kiss of Judas." 

Ford Lord Grey, the evil genius of Monmouth's life, had been 
his entertainer at Chichester shortly before the Oxford Parliament 
sat, the Duke returning from Grey's house to London on the 26th 
of February, immediately before the Fitz-Harris discovery. 

Early in the morning of the 12th of March King Charles went 
to Windsor, and thence two days afterwards to Oxford ; the Queen 
going thither also, the same day, from Whitehall. They were re- 
ceived at the borders of Oxfordshire by Lord-Lieutenant Norris, with 
the county troops, and conducted to the loyal University-city, which 
had of old proved its devotion to Charles the First. They arrived 
at night. The Vice-Chancellor and heads of houses, with towns- 
men, received their Majesties " in their formalities with all demon- 
strations of joy and welcome." The King's guards, horse and foot, 
had preceded him, on the first days of the month. He lodged at 
Christ Church, and the Queen at Merton College. On the 17th 
he went to Burford, " where on the Downs he saw several horse- 
races run, and returned to Oxford again " next day. 

During the week preceding the opening of Parliament the roads 
were thronged with lords and gentlemen, the Shaftesburians with 
armed retainers, chiefly on horse, with blue ribbons in their hats 
marked " No Popery ! No Slavery ! " Swaggering among them was 
the pestilent Stephen College, obtrusively armed with sword and 
pistol, rejoicing in his nick-name of " the Protestant Joiner." (See 
previous Vol. IV. pp. 262, 263, 595 ; and p. 35 of the present 
volume.) "The Duke of Monmouth and Lord Grey went to the 
Oxford Parliament with a noble and numerous train." Many 
desperate men emerged from their seclusion, and accompanied them, 
hoping for an opportunity to overthrow the government. There 
had been debate as to the holding of term, or keeping back the 
students from attendance at a time of such commotion, unfavourable 
to quiet study : and the decision to intermit their attendance was 
wisely made. The Lords sat in the Divinity School, and the 
Commons used the Convocation-house, but felt crowded. Other 
schools were taken for their committees. 

The King in opening the new Parliament at Oxford passed a 
sharp rebuke on the late preceding Parliament of Westminster. 
Expressing a hope that there would be no renewal of the un- 
warrantable proceedings of the last House of Commons, which had 
forced him to dissolve them, he thought that it might be wondered 
how he had been patient so long. He marked out their duties and 
their limitation ; recommending (as a sop for Cerberus) the farther 
prosecution of the Plot, the trial of the accused prisoners in the 



An ' Expedient ' of Halifax, instead of Exclusion. 29 

Tower, and the providing for the speedier conviction of recusants. 
While declaring his readiness to listen to any 'expedient' for the 
preservation of the Protestant religion and the monarchy, so that the 
administration of the Government might be kept in Protestant hands 
if a Popish successor came to the throne, he emphatically warned 
them off from a renewal of the Exclusion. " What I have formerly 
and so often declared touching the succession, I cannot depart from." 
William Williams was again chosen Speaker, and approved. 
Halifax had suggested an "expedient," glanced at prospectively, 
which was recommended hy Sir Thomas Littleton and Sir Thomas 
Meres, but rejected as impracticable. It advocated the present 
banishment of the Duke of York ; his bearing the title of King after 
his brother's death, while governing powers were to be vested in a 
Protestant regent (Mary of Orange first, then Anne) ; James's heir 
to succeed and overturn the regency on his coming of age, if edu- 
cated as a Protestant. But nothing save unmitigated Exclusion 
would satisfy the Commons. Also, they wished to remove the 
Fitz-Harris trial from the common-laAv to an Impeachment, which 
the Lords rejected, so there was a quarrel between the Houses. 
Charles was perfectly prepared for the emergency. Coming in a 
sedan chair, with his robes and crown ready to be put on, he sent 
for the recalcitrant Commons, to hear this brief dismissal : — 

" My Lords and Gentlemen : — That all the World may see to what a point ire 
are come, that we are not like to have a good end when the divisions at the 
beginning are such: therefore, my Lord Chancellor, do as I have commanded vmi." 

The Lord Chancellor immediately spoke: — " My Lords and Gentlemen : — II is 
Majesty has commanded me to say, That it is his Majesty's royal pleasure and 
will, that this Parliament be dissolved : and this Parliament is dissolved." 

Tableau of consternation. Conspirators non-plus'd. Curtain. 

Resistance was impossible, and by their conduct the Revolutionists 
had given the King an advantage which he followed up by pub- 
lishing a printed Declaration of his reasons for dissolving this Oxford 
Parliament, and the one before it. The hopelessness of the struggle 
terrified the detected and baffled intriguers. They had gone armed, 
but they found loyal Cavaliers ready to cross swords with the swash- 
bucklers, impecunious tenants, Protestant Joiners, and adherents of 
the Good Old Cause of Republican anarchy, who dared again to quit 
obscurity for the light of day. One brief week they had daunted 
their ribbons of "No Popery! IS T o Slavery!" and vapoured at Oxford, 
to the dread and astonishment of Deans, Presidents, and Bursars ; 
to the delight of the mutinous rabble that haunts the purlieus 
of a University; and to the encouragement of hopes among the 
lodging-house keepers or needy tradesmen. These expected to nap 
a great profit, but found none: for Shaftesbury's followers were 
not people who loved to pay a score. Such disappointment forms 
the subject of the following Roxburghc Ballad. 



30 



[Roxburghe Collection, II. 384 ; Wood's, E. 25, fol. 96.] 

effort) in Mourning, for tl)e JLoSjS 

of tf)t parliament; 

©r, 

SLonfion's loub ILattrfttcr at Tjer late flattering ijer self fott|j 

lEiccssirjc QTratmuj. 
A Pleasant New Song. 

Now Tapsters, Vintners, Sales-men, Taylors, all 
Open their Throats, and for their losses bawl ; 
The Parliament is gone, their hopes now fail, 
Pall'd is the Wine, and Egar grows the Ale : [=aigre, sharp. 

Now Rooms, late let for twenty Crowns a week, 
Would let for twelve-pence, but may Lodgers seek. 
London Rejoyces, who was sad before, 
And in like Coin does pay off Oxford's score. 

To the Tune of, Packington's Pound; or, Digby's Far&wel. 

See vol. iv. pp. 193 and 136; 392, 393, and 397 to 400, for an account of 
these two tunes. Packington's Pound is given in Mr. William Chappell's 
Popular Music of the Olden Time, p. 124. We gave one Captain Digby's Fare- 
well on pp. 393, 398 of our previous volume ; another is " Farewell, my Arminda." 




Oxford in Mourning for the Loss of the Parliament. 31 

J^Ondon now smiles to see Oxford in Tears, 

Who lately derided and scoff'd at her fears ; 
Thinking their joys they would never be spent. 
But that always they'd last with the Parliament : 
But ! she's mistaken, for now they are gone, 
And fairly have left her to grieve all alone. 6 

Now Vintners and Tapsters, that hop'd for such gain 

By cheating the people, have cause to complain ; 

The Cooks, that were stor'd with Provision, now grieve, 

Whilst London to hear it does laugh in her sleeve : 

And now each fat Hostis, who lives by the Sins 

Of those who brought many, to whimper begins. 12 

So dolefully Tool now the Bells, that of late 

With loud sounds did a pleasure to hear them create ; 

The Inn-keepers, late that so Prodigal were 

Of Standings, have Horse-room enough and to spare : 

Whilst London rejoyces to think of the time 

When Oxford Bells jangl'd, and scarcely cou'd Chime. 18 

Now Salesmen and Sempstresses homeward do pack ; 
No more cryes the Shooe-maker, "What do you lack?" 
The Taylor by Thimble and Bodkin does curse, 
And swears that his Trading could never be worse : 
Yet home again bare- foot poor Prick-louse must trudge, 
Whilst Oxford he bans, and his Labour does grudge. 24 

The Chair-men, who thought to return with a load 

Of Silver to London, to store their aboad, 

Now homeward do foot it, though 'tis with much pain, 

And creep in their Chairs to secure them from Rain : 

When night does approach, there their lodging they make, 

For, a better to purchase, no monies they take. '60 

The Coffee-men wish they at London had stay'd, 

And not to have rambl'd in hopes of a Trade ; 

Their Shops of Sedition did fail of their end, 

And back now their Puddle to London they send : ! 

While she does deride them, and flout them to scorn, 

To see their Ears hanging as if they were forlorn. 36 

1 See the Satyr upon Coffee, on pp. 172 to 184, where we show tin- frequency 
and virulence of the lampoons and seditious libels that used to circulate in the 
public coffee-houses of London. Cavaliers avoided them, at this date. 



32 Oxford in Mourning for the Loss of the Parliament. 

Oh ! the Schollars now curse the gay Cracks 1 of the Town, 

Who troop'd it to Oxford to trade for a Crown ; 

The Youngsters put in, and bid money for all, 

But the jades were so skittish they gave them a fall : 

And many in watering their Nags have been burn'd, 

The Baths were so hot e're the Stream could be turn'd. 42 

Whilst Chirurgeons of all the best trading will find ; 
For the Cracks being fled they have left work behind, 
That doubtless repentance unfeigned will cause. 
The Gold-smiths and Drapers now stand at a pause : 
How [they plan] in their Journey the Padders to 'scape ! 2 
Whilst London for joy at their follies does leap. 48 

She hears the sad sounding[s] of Oxford's great Bell, 

Which [now] the Town's heaviness plainly do tell ; 

How their Laughter they lately against her did vent, 

For injoying the Court and the Parliament, 

Is now turn'd to weeping, and each one sits sad, 

To think what a loss by dissolving he's had. 54 

Remember then, Oxford, how London you flout, 

For she'l be still even with you, 'tis no doubt ; 

England's chief City must still bear the Bell : 

For near it the most part the King he will dwell, 

And chear her with favours, whilst Oxford sits sad, 

And many lament the bad trade they have had. 60 

Fints. 

[Printed for /. Jordan, at the Angel in Guiltspnr- street, without Newgate. 
Black-letter. Three woodcuts, one on next page, another on p. 159, but our 
right-hand cut on p. 30 is extra, from The Cloak's Knavery. Date, April 1, 1681.] 

1 Filles de Joie — T>o\\ Tear-sheets: the term "Crack" being an equivalent 
circa 1679, for a street-walker, or Light o' Love. Thus John Wilmot, Earl of 
Rochester (who died in 1680), in his Satyr against Marriage mentions "The 
Sunday Crack of Suburb 'Prentices." See Amanda Group of Bagford Poems. 

Two Pepysian ballads are: 1st — The Poor s.ojoq^ Lamentation; or, The 
Fleet-Street Crack's want of Trading (V. 416), =" Pray hear my Lamentation." 
2nd — An Answer to the Poor s^jotj^ Complaint. In a Letter from a Bully 
Spark, beginning, " As 1 was ranging Nelly " (V. 407). We have " The Crafty 
Cracks of East Smithfield," beginning "You Master Colliers, pray draw near! " 
in Pills to Purge Melancholy, v. 22. See opposite page for another instance. 

2 Padders = High-way-men; concerning whom see our Bagford Ballads, pp. 
10 to 16, 230 to 235, 241 to 296, etc. "We come later to Captain Hind. 



The Crafty Cracks, and Nell Gwi/nne's Mother 



33 



%* In Satyr Unmuzzled is the vile and inhuman attack on the dead mother 
of Nell Gwynne, the " She-Buffoou," as the pretty actress is called : 

Her Mother griev'd in muddy Ale and Sack 
To think her Child should ever prove a Crack ; 
When she was drunk, she always fell asleep, 

And when full maudlin, then the [Dame ] would weep ; ■ \\ 

Her tears were Brandy, Mundungus her breath, 
Baud was her Life, and Common- Shore her Death. 
To see the Daughter mourn for such a Beast 
Is like her Life, which makes up but one Jest. 

The poor woman was accidentally drowned, July, 1679, to Nelly's intense 
grief : theme of the Satirist's virulence. (Compare p. 524 of our previous volume.) 

A black-bordered broadside was circulated at this date, entitled "An Elogy 
upon that never-to-be-forgotten Matron, Old Maddam Gheinn, who was unfortu- 
nately Drown'd in her own Fish-pond, on the 29th of July, 1679." The lampoon 
begins, " Mourners, prepare, let doleful Echoes sound," and ends with this 

3Epftapfy. 

HEre lies intomb'd, within this Marble Pile, 
The wonder of her Sex, who for a while 
Fate durst not venture on, but, taking breath, 
He has resign'd her to the Arms of Death. 
Readers, lament ! for seldom shall you find 
The weaker Sex to bear so strong a mind : 
Strengthen'd with all the virtues France or th' Rhine, 
England, or Spain could e're infuse from Wine. 
But Bacchus unkind did tempt her to ingage 
Where she expir'd, by subtle Neptune's rage. 
Tho' Fate was cruel, yet her Fame remains, 
For drinking, none like her the world contains. 

To after-ages then a Statue raise, 

That so we may Eternalize her Praise. 




vol. v. 



T 



M 



Cbe SDrfotn ©ealtfi. 

" Drown Melancholy in a Glass of Wine ; 
We will be jolly : let the Miser pine ! 
Boys, drink about, we'll make the Tavern roar ; 
When the Bumper's out, we'll call again for more : 
It makes good Blood to run within our Veins, 
It puts good Reason also in our Brains : 
He that will deny it, hanged let him be ! 
Here's a health to all the Royal Family." 

— The Couragious Loyalist, 1683. 



._HE following Koxburghe Ballad reappeared with so many 
changes (for the most part not improvements) in 1685, as "The 
Loyal Health, to a delicate new Tune," that it virtually became a 
new song, only our first two verses remaining in it, with other four 
verses additionally given : two before and two behind, like guards 
in a procession. It thus began in the re-issue, with allusions to 
Stephen College and to Shaftesbury : — 

Since Plotting's a Trade, like the rest of the Nation, 
Let 'em lie and swear on, to keep up the Vocation ; 
Let Tinkers and Weavers and Joyners agree [College. 

To find work for the Cooper, they'l have none of me: [Anthony A.C. 
Let Politick Shams in the States-men abound, 

While we quaff off our Bumpers, and set the Glass round : 
The jolly true Toper's the best Subject still. 
Who drinks off his Liquor, and thinks no more ill. 8 

Then let us stand to't, and like honest men fall, 

Who love King and Country, Duke, Dutchess and all ; 

Not such as wou'd blow up the Nation by stealth, 
And out of the flame raise a new Commonwealth ; 

Nor such who 'gainst Church and the Bishops do rage, 
To advance old Jack Presbyter on the new Stage : 

But all honest Tories who'l fight for their King, 

And to crown the brave Work with the Court we'll begin. 16 

"Here's a health to the King, and his Lawful Successors," etc., 
is next verse : beginning our Koxburghe Ballad. Now we know the 
authorship of the original, and at once mark the changes. As a 
three-verse song entitled " The Healths," it was written by Matt. 
Taubman, who became the Civic-Poet ; and it was printed by him 
in 1682, along with his Heroick Poem on the Duke of York's Return 
from Scotland. The verses began respectively thus: 1. — " Since 
Plotting's a Trade, like the rest of the Nation;" 2.— "Here's a 
Health to the King, and his lawful Successors, To honest Tantivies," 
etc. ; and, finally, this 3, which was reproduced in 1685 {cf p. 40) : 



Stephen College, and his Protestant Flail. 35 

Here's a Health to all those love the King and his Laws, 
And may they ne're pledge it that broach the Old Cause. 
Here's a Health to the State, and a pox on the Pack 
Of Commonwealth Canters and Presbyter Jack ; 
To the uppermost Pendent that ever did play 
On the highest Top-Gallant o' tW Sovereign o' tlC Sea : 
And he that denies to the standard to low'r, 
May he sink in the Ocean, and never drink more. 

The " Sovereign of the Seas " was the name of a famous M~an-of- 
"War in Charles the Second's time ; a model of which is still shown 
at Greenwich Hospital, in the same room, and near the same case, 
as the earlier " Great Harry," of heavier and higher build. 

Oxford saw the short-lived triumph of "The Protestant Joyner," 
Stephen College (compare Vol. IV. pp. 262 and 263). Among his 
many boasts, to be taken cum grano, he claimed to be the inventor 
of " The Protestant Flail," a Aveapon closely resembling (or, almost 
identical with) our modern murderous " life-preserver," so beloved 
of burglars. He recommended it for use " in defence against the 
Papists : " any excuse sufficing. It is thus described in a Loyal 
Song, to the tune of Zacg's Maggot, or, The Holly Horse : — 

Listen a while, and I'll tell you a tale 
Of a new Device of a Protestant Flay I : 

With a thump, thump, thump, a thump, 
Thump, a thump, thump. 
This Flat/l it was made of the finest wood, 
Well lin'd with Lead, and notable good 
For splitting of Brains, and shedding of blood, 
Of all that withstood, 

With a thump, thump, etc. 

This Flat/l "was invented to thrash the Brain, 
And leave behind not the weight of a grain, 

With a thump, thump, etc. 
At the handle end there hung a weight, 
That carried with it an unavoidable Fate, 
To take the Monarch a rap on the pate, 
And govern the State, 

With a thump, thump, etc. 

It took its degree in Oxford Town, 
And with the Carpenter it went do«Ti 

With a thump, thump, etc. 
If any durst his might oppose, 
He had you close, in spite of your Nose, 
To carry on clever the Good Old Cause, 
And down with the Law's, 

With a thump, thump, etc. 

The Shaftesburians had been quite contented to applaud the 
services that were tendered by such perjured hirelings as Dugdale 
and Everard, or pamphleteers of Harry Care's calibre, so long as 
they worked against the Romanists ; but the moment these people 
changed sides their depravity was noted. In yet another Loyal 



36 College gets the wrong end of the Flail. 

Song, entitled "A Tory in a Whig's Coat," the Protestant Joiner's 
downfall is mockingly alluded to, in shara-Scotch : — 

Then up with au' the Leaven, with each dissenting Loon, 
Then up with Bully Stephen ! — but Colledge is gone down. 

Dryden, on December 4, 1682, in a Prologue to The Duke of Guise, 
deprecating the use of poison, alludes to the murderous invention: — 

Besides, your Drug's uncertain to prevail ; 
But your true Protestant can never fail, 
"With that compendious instrument a Flail. 

"What Dryden mirthfully declared of Shadwell might more 
truthfully have been prophesied of Stephen College, or Pitz-Harris: 

A double Noose thou on thy neck dost pull, 
For writing Treason, and for writing dull : 
To die for Faction is a common evil, 
But to be hang'd for Nonsense is the Devil ! 

In the Loyal New Song on the Old Plot ( = "Let the Whigs 
repine and all combine in a p £ uump Association "), the fate of 
College " points a moral and adorns a tale " : — 

Oh ! ye Tapland Crew, that Treason brew, and of Toncy make an Idol, 
And Perkiii sham with king in name, the King of the Golden Medal : 
Curse and umup the Blaek Cabal, that inspir'd your Rebel knowledge, 
E're Billa vera find you all, the Fate of pious College. 

In another Loyal Song, " The Plot cram'd into Joan's Placket" 
(=" Have you not lately heard of Lords sent to the Tower," to 
the tune of Jone's Placket is torn), Stephen College is exulted over : 

The Joyner he did march to Oxford to be try'd, 
Where he did find a Jury who were not Whiggify'd. 

And for his Joyning in the Plot a Halter he did gain, 

For the Plot is rent and torn, and will never be mended again. 

They say that Mr. Dugdale, so honest and so true, 
Is one of the King's Evidence, against this wicked crew. 
And now they aim to him defame, but all will be in vain, 
For the Plot is rent and lorn, and never ivill be mended again. 

The miscarriage of justice, through the London Whig Sheriffs 
packing the jury, who ignored the bill against Stephen College, is 
alluded to in a Loyal Satyr against Whiggism, 1682 ( = " As I did 
lately travel from the Town ; " compare later page), thus : — 

It was not Eight, but Faction did prevail, 
A well-grown Whig of Verdicts ne'er can fail ; 
then ye common Hirelings, Cheats, and Knaves, 
Heroes in SAva^g, Stabbers, and Alley-Braves, 
Turn, turn t' embrace so good, so safe a Cause, \ 
There you may act your Murders with applause, J 
Kill but a Tory, and you serve the Laws. ) 

Nay, though 'tis prov'd that 'twas your dire Intent 
To seize your King at Oxford Parliament, 
Yet bring it up to Town, and you shall be 
Prais'd by a Jury for your Loyalty ; 
Though at the very moment Oaths they take 
That all they do is meer' for Conscience sake ! 



37 



[Roxburghe Collection, IV. Go ; Wood's E. 25, fol. 27 ; Huth. ii. 50.] 

Cl)e £);rfort} t^ealtli ; 

©r, 

%fy Bfofrial 3Lopali0t. i£cto &>ong* 

TOe toill fce Iogal anD Brink off our Mine, 
though Pojye or Presbyter shoulD hot!) repine ; 
No State affairs shall e're turmoil our train, 
3Lct those take rare to tofyom thru appertain : 
WLz'l loue our 3&ino;, ana raish~l)im fjappa Dags, 
&nD artnk to all that baolg speak his praise ; " 
EHe'I tonal prohe, anD cber more null he 
MEith plotters anD their ^lots at enmitg. 

Tune op, On the Banks of a River ; Or, Packington's Pound. 




[Of the Tunes named, 1. "On the Banks of a River, close under the shade," 
begins "Love's Triumph over Bashfulness " (Roxb. Coll., II. 312). As to 

2. Tackington's round," and this woodcut, see pp. 47, 103, of previous volume.] 



38 Oxford Health ; or, The Jovial Loyalist. 

HEre's a health to the King, and his lawful successors, 
To Tantivy Tories and Loyal Addressors : 
No matter for those that promoted Petitions, 
To poyson the Nation, and stir up Seditions. 
Here's a health to the Queen and her Ladies of Honour, 
A pox on all those who put Sham-P/oAs upon her : 
Here's a health to the Duke, and the Senate of Scotland, 
And to all Honest Men that from Bishops ne'r got land. l 8 

Here's a health to L' Estrange, and to Heraclitus ! 

A fig for these Whigs that for Papists indict us ; 2 

Not forgetting those that continually spight us : 

For Loyalty still to our King does unite us. 

Here's a health to our Church, and to all that are for it, 

A shame take all Papists and Whigs that abhor it ; 3 

Safe may she be still, from new ways of Refiners, 

And Justice be done to true Protestant Joyners? 16 

Let all the contrivers of this our late trouble, 

Have their reward at last heap'd on them double ; 

Here's a health to the downfall of those whose devotion 

Does tend to nought else but to raise up commotion. 

Come, round let it go, boys, let each drink his Bumper, 

To all honest Men that yet ne'r lov'd a Rumper : 

The thirtieth of January let us remember, 

And let it be joyn'd to the fifth of November. 5 24 

1 Id est, those who never were enriched by taking possession of Church-lands. 

2 Another reading refers to Nat. Thompson, Slingsby Bethel, Gates, etc. : — 

And true Tory Thompson who never did slight us ; 

And forgetting Broom, Paulin, and Alderman Wrightus, 

"With Tony and Bethel, Ignoramus and Titus. 

Heraclitus Ridens, one of Roger L'Estrange's aliases. Henry Broom his 
publisher. Eobert Paulin, Mayor, and Alderman "William "Wright, both of 
Oxford, have been mentioned in Bagford Ballads : see our Index to them. 

3 Al. lect. " Confusion to Zealots and Whigs that abhor it." 

4 Alluding to Stephen College, "the Protestant Joyner," who, after his 
Oxford trial of the 17th August, 1681 (the London one having proved abortive), 
was executed there on 31st August. His sister, Mrs. Sarah Goodwin, was on 6th 
September, 1682, tried on a charge of high treason, for words spoken by her, 
hut there being no other evidence against her beyond her own husband, she was 
discharged. She had been an active witness at Aaron Smith's trial (July 4, 1682), 
as to a paper of instructions given to him by her brother. See the special 
Introduction, p. 35, for verses on his Protestant Flail. 

i In other words, " Let the Regicide fanatics and the Regicide Papist-plotters 
be equally abhorred! " And so say all of us. Cf. Vol. IV. pp. 214 to 224. 



Oxford Health ; or, The Jovial Loyalist. 39 

Here's a health to all Loyalists, let us carrouse it, 

For why ? there is wine to be had in the house yet : 

Here's [a health] to all those who never spoke evil 

Of Church or of State, but that still have been civil : 

Come, let it go round, boys, and fill up our Glasses ! 

We'l now be more merry then Whigs with their Lasses. 

Let Hipocrites who dare in all things dissemble, 

And by changing shapes the Camelian resemble, 32 

Make twenty wry faces, and all to disguise 'um, 

T et from Sedition none e're can advise 'urn ; 

Here's to the confusion of Plots and all Plotters, 

And here's a good health to him that ne'r alters. 

Come, let it go round, and fill each man his brimmer, 

For he's no good diver that first en't a swimmer ; 

And here's to our happiness, that we see dawning, 

In spight to the Plots that Geneva is spawning. 40 

A fig for their policies, they shall ne'r fright us, 

Do all what they can the} r shall never more bite us ; 

For Oliver now and bold Bradshaw are rotten, 

Tho' their curst names they shall ne'r be forgotten. 

Here's a health to all Cavaliers, that ne'r were turn-coats, 

We'll drink it in spight of the Pope and his Cut-throats ; 

Or in spight of those Rebels that envy our blessing, 

Who once more our Land [would] so fain be possessing. 48 

Here's a health to the Burghers, who still in their choices 

For eminent Loyalists do give their voices ; 

And will not be Byas'd, whatever betide them, 

Who fear no 7F7) ^-Landlords, who for it shall chide them. 

To the Prince & the Princess of Orange come fill it, [man: 1077. 

To the brim let it flow, but beware how you spill it ; 

Not forgetting the rest of the Royal Branches, 

We'l drink our brisk Wine, till each his Soul drenches. 56 

Here's a health to all those that express their good meaning, 

And hold to the end as they make their beginning ; 

Come fill it away, Boys, and let us be merry ! 

We'l drink each his Bumper, and never be weary. 

And no true Subject, we'r sure, will deny it, 

For this is the way that we always shall try it ; 

Come, fill it again to the ruine of Rumpers ! 

I'le make no scruple to turn off three Bumpers. 64 



40 Variation Verses of the Oxford Health. 

Then come, all you Loyalists, though the Whigs mutter 
And about nothing do keep all this clutter : 
In spight of the Pope or Jack Presbyter either, 
We will live merry, and will regard neither. 
Although they [may] Tory or Tantivy name us, 
We care not a pin, there's none honest will blame us. 
Wei drink to the King, and his lawful Successors, 
And to all those who prove [themselves] Loyal Addressors. 

dFmis. 
[Part at least, if not all, by JKat ftaurjmail]. 
Printed for P. Brooksby, neer the Hospital- Gate, in West-Smithfield. 
[In Black-letter. One woodcut. Date about July and before 17th August, 1681]. 

%* Instead of our present third to ninth verses, there are two indifferent 
verses used for completion of the Loyal Song mentioned in our special Introduction. 
Here's a Health to old Hull, who our Joys did restore ; 1 
And a Pox take each " Popular " Son of a 'aioq^V [= Monmouth. 

To the Spaniard and Bane, the brave Russian and Moor? 
Who come from far Nations, our King to adore : 
To all that do worship the God of the Vine, 
And to old jolly Bowman, who draws us good Wine : 3 
And as for all Traytors, whether Papist or Whig, 
May they all trot to Tyburn to dance the old Jig. 

Here's a health to all those love the King and his Laws, etc. 
This latter was Matt. Taubman's final and third verse (see p. 35). 

1 Probably intended for Jacob Hall, the renowned but dissolute rope-dancer, 
favourite of Barbara Palmer, Duchess of Cleveland, and taken into her pay in 1668. 
when he was performing publicly at Bartholomew and Southwark Fairs, and 
was " mightily followed," being a strong and active man, handsome, as his three 
portraits show. (It is more likely to be him, at this date of July. 1681, than 
Timothy Hall, who had scarcely yet risen into notice, and whom James II. in 
1688 made Bishop of Oxford, chiefly because he favoured the King's Declaration. 
He died at Hackney in 1690, after taking the oaths.) Jacob Hall was still 
popular in 1683, performing in Cheapside; for in Pome Rhymed to Beath we read 
When Jacob Hall on his high Rope shews tricks 
The Dragon flutters, the Lord -Mayor's Horse kicks ; 
The Cheapside crowds and pageants scarcely know 
Which most t' admire, Hall, Hobby-Horse, or Bow. 

• Hamet, the Morocco Ambassador, entered London on 5th January, 168^, and 
was received at the Banquetting House by the King on the 11th. An entertain- 
ment was given in honour of the Embassy, at the Duchess of Portsmouth's 
"glorious apartments at Whitehall, where was a greate banquet of sweetmeates 
and musiq." (See John Evelyn's account of it in the Biary, ii. 389, edition 1879.) 

3 "Bowman the Tory" with " Miles Prance the Renegado" are the inter- 
locutors in a Loyal Song beginning "Come, murdering Miles, where's your 
Sedan ?" A Mr. Bowman, possessed of influence at the Cockpit, was known to 
Pepys in April, 1661, probably the same man : an actor and vintner, of The Bog. 



41 



" The Commons their voting problems would in Riddles so involve, 

That what the Peers scarce understood, the King was forced to solve . . . 
Thus he that does a Pardon lack, for treason 'demnd to die, 
They'd tempt, poor man, to save his neck, by adding Perjury. 
The Nobles threw th' Impeachment out, because no doubt they saw 
"Twas best to bring his cause about, but not to th' Commons' Law.' 1 '' 

— Oxford Parliament Dissolved: Bayford Ballads, p. 843. 



T 



HE conflicting statements in the Fitz-Harris case make us un- 
willing to prematurely decide whether any credit is to be given to a 
single word of the man's confessions. That the Scotchman Edmund 
Everard was a knave, who gravitated as inevitably towards falsehood 
as Newton's apple to the earth's centre, is the one point clear. That 
Fitz-Harris was a many-faced traitor is scarcely less certain. Sir 
William Waller's zeal for making discoveries against Papists was 
equal to his love of fingering plunder, chalices, and coin ; which he 
seldom passed on with the rapidity of sworn declarations. On no 
possible supposition was Edward Fitz-Harris otherwise than a 
criminal plotter ; but the question of how long he had been duped 
by Everard, and how far he was biassed towards perjury by Clayton 
and Treby, or originally employed by any of the less scrupulous 
Romanists, who desired to punish their enemies by implicating them 
in fresh plots against the Court, involve consideration of a mass of 
documents as yet only partially accessible or classified, and not of 
much value when examined. Our own private collection is large, 
but many depositions were contradictory of one another, and in no 
respect satisfy inquiry. The crowd of Irish " Evidences " was more 
shifting and deadly than Goodwin Sands. 

When Fitz-Harris had been committed to Newgate, he had been 
subjected to examination by the Recorder Sir George Treby (suc- 
cessor to Jeffereys) and Sir Robert Clayton, on March 10th, 168t- 
On the fifth day of the Oxford Parliament (the previous days being 
occupied with formalities) the "examination" was submitted to the 
House and caused great heat, for Treby and Clayton had taken care 
to make it serve the purpose of faction. 

An Irishman born, son of Sir Edward Fitz-Harris, the intriguing 
youth had in 1662 been sent to France for his education as a 
Roman-Catholic, when fourteen years old. Three years later he 
returned to Ireland, then went to Prague in 1668 with intent to 
serve in the Hungarian War, but, peace being concluded, he returned 
by Flanders and England to Ireland. Under Sir George Hamilton, 
with Irish troops for the French service he returned to France, was 
discharged, went to Paris, lived there for a year, straitened in means, 
and was informed by Father Gough that the Duke of York was 
already converted, and that Romanism would soon be established in 



42 Early Walk and Conversation of Fitz- Harris. 

England. " And he said that Madam came over to Dover with the 
same design," thus referring to the visit in 1670 of Henrietta, the 
ill-fated Duchess of Orleans, sister of Charles the Second. 

Coming to England about the end of October, 1672, Edward 
Fitz-Harris obtained a lieutenancy in Captain Sydenham's company 
in the Duke of Albemarle's regiment ; which, in the summer 
following, mustered at Blackheath. Under the Act disabling lloman 
Catholics from bearing office, he and others were forced to quit their 
command. There was nothing but the paltriest hearsay evidence as 
to Plots, such as what Father Gough had told him, and what Father 
Parrey told him in 1673, and again in 1678. Parrey was his Con- 
fessor, and belonged to the following of Don Francesco de Melo, the 
Portuguese Ambassador. It was to the effect that the Catholics 
were disappointed in the King, for not fulfilling their expectations, 
and therefore it was resolved to destroy him, "and, if all other 
means failed, the Queen would procure the doing of it." 

In April, 1679, he declared that the Marques Montecuculi, Envoy 
to the Duke of Modena (Maria Beatrix D'Este being of the house of 
Modena), offered him a bribe of ten thousand pounds to kill King 
Charles, but he refused, and was told that " the Duchess of Maza- 
rine understands poisoning as well as her sister [i.e. Mary Mancini, 
married to Lorenzo Colonna] ; and a little vial, when the King 
comes there, will do it." After killing the King, foreign armies 
were to come over, money being levied in Italy, Protestants were 
to be destroyed, no more Parliaments to assemble ; and the Duke 
of York was declared to be privy to the whole design. 

To come later : in April, 1680, Fitz-Harris met Kelly the priest 
at Calais, whom he had known for twelve years, and talk was made 
about Sir Edmundbury Godfrey's murder. Also with Monsieur De 
Puy, the Duke of York's valet and barber, who told him that " the 
murder was 'consulted' at Windsor." The informer had a private 
spite against the Duke, because he held in Ireland an estate, part 
of which had formerly belonged to Sir Edward Fitz-Harris, and 
the son demanded restitution. But the Commons did not choose 
to notice this self-exposure of animus. 

There was also hearsay gossip of what Father Patrick had told 
him of a French investiture of Ireland. " He also desired him to 
send him all the Libels that came out in London ; and said that 
Libelling the King and the Government was a thing necessary to be 
done, in order to distaste the King, and make him afraid and jealous 
of his people." 

He had known Edmund Everard at Paris, in 1665, and had since 
continued acquaintance with him, increasing it to intimacy ; the 
opinion of Father Patrick encouraging him to arrange with Everard 
to join him in the Libel which brought him into trouble. 

Thus much of the Examination was brought before the Commons. 



The Lords refuse the Commons' Impeachment. 43 

Fitz-Harris had been previously removed to the Tower, by Government, 
to hinder him from being further tampered with by Treby and 
Clayton. The House resolved that the said Edward Fitz-Harris 
should be impeached of High Treason. Insolently to humiliate 
the Secretary Jenkins, they ordered him the next day to impeach 
Fitz-Harris. But the Lords refused to proceed on the Commons' 
Impeachment, and directed that Fitz-Harris should be left to the 
common-law (which an impeachment would have over-ridden, so 
might the Commons have worked him as their tool to give whatever 
false declaration they chose). This was angrily declared to be "a 
denial of Justice, and a violation of the Constitution of Parliament, 
and an obstruction to the further discovery of the Popish Plot, and 
of great danger to his Majesty's person, and the Protestant Religion." 
Farther, they resolved, " that for any inferior Court to proceed 
against Edward Fitz-Harris, or any other person lying under an 
Impeachment in parliament, for the same crimes for which he or 
they stand impeached, is an high breach of the Privilege of Parlia- 
ment." Next day, when re-commencing on the Exclusion Bill, the 
Parliament was summarily dissolved (as already shown on p. 29). 

This examination by Treby and Clayton, with the heat of the 
Commons and the pliability of the criminal, caused his doom to be 
inevitably death. Briefly to recapitulate : before March 1st he had 
intrigued with the Scotchman Everard (already one of the hired 
witnesses, in collusion with the ultra-Protestants), to assist him in 
concocting Treason in Grain, a libellous pamphlet against the King 
and the Government; he said, "the more treason in it the better." 
Edmund Everard had betrayed him to his masters, and had hidden 
Smith and Sir William Waller where they might hear Fitz-Harris 
commit himself in giving seditious directions. On arresting him 
the paper was seized, in great part interlineated with his own 
handwriting. Finding himself in custody and endangered, " for 
high treason in compassing the deposing and death of the King," 
he tried to gain protection from his captors by declaring that he 
had been only acting a part, deceptively, at the bidding of the 
Court and the Komanists, to make the King enraged against the 
Whigs or Presbyterians. Some thought that the papers when 
priuted were to have been hidden in the pockets or houses of the 
disaffected Commons, and thus cause trouble to them when found 
in their possession. Evidently Fitz-Harris showed himself willing 
to become a tool of Waller, Clayton and the rest, by any amount of 
prevarications. He failed, as he deserved, a true bill being found 
against him at the close of April, 1681 ; brought up for trial on 4th 
of May, making scruples about jurisdiction, he was, despite much 
trickery in furnishing jurymen who were unqualified, tried on the 
9th of June, found guilty, and on the 15th condemned to death. 
He attempted anew to obtain pardon, by offering to discover those 



44 Burnet assists Fitz-Harris to retire. 

Protestants who had set him on to accuse the Queen, the Duke of 
York, and the Earl of Danby. He was treacherous all round, so 
that not one word of his might be trusted. He was not even true to 
any religious faith, but could affirm himself neither Catholic nor 
Protestant. He had received the ministrations of Gilbert Burnet 
while awaiting execution ! He suffered on the 1st of July, along 
with Oliver Plunkett, titular Archbishop of Armagh, about whose 
innocence opinions were divided ; but of the double-dyed guilt of 
Fitz-Harris there was absolute certainty. 

This may well have seemed to be a dreary disquisition, but the 
Fitz-Harris case was of singular importance, if only as precipitating 
the Dissolution of the Oxford Parliament. 

A Loyal Song called The Riddle of the Roundhead ( = "Now at 
last the Kiddle is expounded,") has these verses : — 

Rowley now, with Wisdom and grave Reason, 

To prevent the swift approaching Treason, 
In season 

Put a period to their strife ; 
In Oxford all the stratagem's confounded ; 

The Roguish Joyner too : 
And may no better fate attend the Roundhead 

That wou'd the Church and Monarchy subdue. 

Oxford loyal youths, who scorn to sham us 

With a perjur'd Bill of Ignoramus, 
Or name us 

For " Loyal " Tray tors known ; 
Soon found a flaw i' th' bottom of the Joyner, 

By Justice and the Laws, 
Of Church and Commonwealth an Underminer, 

Who fell a Martyr in the Good Old Cause. 

In the Luttrell Collection (vol. i. fol. 47) is preserved a broadside 
entitled " An Elegie upon Edward Fitz-Harris, Executed at 
Tyburn for High-Treason upon Friday, July 1, 1G81," Printed for 
Thomas Suowdon, London, Anno, 1681. It begins thus : — 

Unhappy Man ! the Nation's scorn and hate 

How shall I do thy Death to deplorate ? 

No tears are due to such a Tragedy, 

Who liv'd unlov'd, must needs unpitied dye ; 

Upon that soyl where nought but thorns will grow, 

In vain the Heavens their balmy dews bestow, etc. 

The following Loyal Poem requires little special annotation : 
except an allusion to Erostratos at Diana's temple, and another, 
possibly, to a novel, but not The Perplexed Prince : which was meant 
to increase popularity for Monmouth. We give (on p. 47) an account 
of this little book, which is too silly and trashy to justify the im- 
portance assigned to it by those who first read it in 1682. 



45 

[Loyal Poems, and Single Sh. Broadsides, P.M. 1872, a. 1. fol. 43.] 

jfit$atris, ins jfarctocll to tbe OOorltJ : 

or, & GTragtar's Kuat Eeirjatti. 

F Are-well, great Villain, and unpittied Lie ! 
Instead of tears drawn from a tender eye ; 
Ten thousand Traytors like Fitz-Harris die. 3 

Unhuman Monster, to the "World ingrate, 
An Enemy to the King, the Church and State; 
Had'st thou been starv'd, 't had been too kind a Fate. 6 

His Crimes were horrid, infamous and base, 
Deserves a total extinct of his Race ; 
Banish his Name unto some dismal place. 9 

"What's worse than injuring Sacred Majestie, 
For which he suffer'd on the fatal Tree ? — 
May all men suffer for such dis-loyalty. 1 1 2 

England may then be glad, with Triumph sing, 
When all her Foes are vanisht with a string ; 
The Golden-Age from Halcinn-days will spring. 1 5 

Those Wolves that plot Protestant Lambs to gull, 
May H eaven obstruct the engines of their scull ; 
Give them of Tyburn, Lord, their Belly full ! 18 

Hot-headed Youths have been seduc'd of late 
Beyond their Wits, talk of the Affairs of State ; 
Obedience learn, to avoid Fitz-Harris' fate. 21 

Those public Libellers, with zeal and heat, [2nd p. begins. 

"With some unheard of Novels dayly treat : 2 
If they write falsely, tie them from their Meat. 24 

Tell th' Ambitious they're Fools, and strive in vain 
To undermine a Crown ; King Charles will reign : 
To be true and honest is the safest gaiu. 27 

I hope to see Justice at Tyburn done ; 
If so, some hundreds may have cause to run : 
Give them what they deserve, their Thread is spun. 30 

Bid proud Petitioners good Advice approve, 
Make an Address, and in one body move 
With all Humility t' gain their Prince's Love. 33 

I'de sooner lose a limb, from th' Monument fly, 
Endure the worst of Torments till I dye, 
Than willingly deserve my King's displeased Eye. ["displeasing." 36 

London, on thee all flourishing joys descend, 
Heavens bless the Government, and Governors to the end ; 
Unanimous to agree, your Soveraign to defend. 39 

1 Sic, ir>85 ; but the 1681 broadside has "May all men suffer, when Rob'd of 
Loyalty ; " " Good Lord" in line 18, and " Giddy-headed Youths" in the next. 

2 This cannot refer to the political romance in favour of Monmouth's claims, 
entitled The Perplexed Prince, because it was of later date : See next page for note. 
But the broadside reads " Novelty : " which may perhaps be the right word. 



46 Mis-Harris, his Farewell to the World. 

The Man that burnt Diana's Temple down, 1 
Did it on purpose a Villain to be crown'd ; 
'Mongst .Rogues (p uiubq Eogues) he got Kenown. 42 

How many thousands are there in the Nation 
Meer Knaves, but Saints in private Congregation, 
Loves Monarchy with mental reservation ? 45 

The Gods rebuke the error of the Age ! 
Let Moderation tumultuous men asswage ; 
But hang all those against their King engage. 48 

Let all dissenting Brothers love the King. 
To the Church [then] Unite ; 'tis a goodly thing 
With Brethren to agree, and with Te Deum sing. 5 1 

Heavens bless his Majesty, with plenty, joy, and peace ! 
To all that love the King Heavens give increase ! 
Confound his Foes ! to pray I ne're will cease. 54 

Non est Lexjustior ulla 

Quam Necis Artificis, Arte perire sua. 

[In "White-letter. Kb woodcut or date; from N. Thompson, early in July, 1681.1 

%* This Kichard Gibbs was a physician practising at Norwich, an M.D., 
and not unlikely to have used the words "novels " with its modern meaning of 
stories, instead of the word "Novelty" found on the broadside, insomuch that 
he himself both wrote and caused to be published a genuine novel, entitled The 
Disorders of Love ■, in 1692. He seems to have considered himself fully justified 
for the literary frivolity, by his office imposing on him the taking cognizance of 
all such "disorders" which interfered with the mens sana in cor pore sano. 
The small volume is a homoeopathic dose of romance, not so active in its 
inflammatory action as those compounded by Mrs. Manley or the cantharidian 
drugs of clever Aphara Behn. It will not hurt anybody, or prove worse than the 
disease it professes to cure. It mildly induces "An Exposition of Sleep." 



1 In the fortieth line is a reference to Erostratos, who set fire to the Temple 
of Diana at Ephesus : "The man who burnt Diana's Temple down." When- 
ever pamphleteer or speech-maker made a telling point with allusion to some 
event of ancient history, or mythologic fancy, it immediately became a stock-in- 
trade for the other vendors of similar ware. Thus in the poem entitled " Scandal- 
Proof; or, an Heroic Poem on the Renowned Champions of the Good Old 
Cause, Impudent Dick Janeway, and the rest of the Factious Tribe," beginning, 
"Come on, ye Scribling Eebels of the Age! " Erostratos again appears:— & 

But Thou amongst the rest art such a Fool, 
Poor silly Eogue ! they use thee for a Tool ; 
A certain necessary Implement, 
To print and own the lies that they invent ; 
A foppish brazen Fool, that's led astray 
By every cunning Whig that shews the way. 
With what officious Care thou plagu'st thy brains, 
To get the name of Villain for thy pains ; 
Like that inglorious Rogue that set on Flame ) 
Diana's Temple ; which to the villain's shame } 
He only did to gain a Cursed Fame. ) 



T« 



47 



agonmoutJ) ant) tfje PerpIcreD Prince. 

" Speak of me as I am ; nothing extenuate 
Nor set down aught in malice : then must you speak 
Of one tbat lov'd not wisely, but too well ; 
Of one not easily jealous, but, being wrought, 
Perplex d in the extreme ; of one whose hand, 
Like the base Iudean, threw a pearl away 
Eicher than all his tribe." — Othello, Act v. 



'■> 



The Perplexed Prince, its close connection with the Duke 
of Monmouth gives a claim to be here described with more than 
a passing word of identification. Narcissus Luttrell truly sum- 
marized it as U A lihell agt the Puke of York in behalf of ye Puke of 
Monmouth." The title-page bears no words except " The Perplexed 
Prince. London: Printed for E. Allen." No date, but it was 
certainly issued and purchased in 1682. It is dedicated "To the 
Eight Honourable William Lord Russell, by his most humble and 
devoted servant T.S.," whom we may safely conjecture to have 
been Thomas Shadwell, since in one sentence he four times girds at 
Dryden in the Dedicatory Epistle, viz. declaring that "the Book- 
sellers' shelves, especially their counters, being rilled with nothing- 
else but Intelligences, Addresses, Absalom and Achitophels, Medals, 
Prologues, Epilogues, 1 with innumerable more of the same tendency, 
it's not easy for a Perplext Prince to get room in their shops, or 
find leisure in their Customers to peruse unpleasing stories." He 
continues : 

" The Perplext Prince ! " say some ; " Away with him, and tell us of the Vic- 
torious Prince [i.e. the Duke of York], who having surmounted all Difficulties, 
tramples upon all that oppose him, and like the rising Sun, marches in splendor 
and triumph towards the Meridian of his Glory." " 'The Perplext Prince .'" say 
others, "how can that be? since he [i.e. Charles II.] was indewed by Heaven 
with a power to remove all Persons that occasioned any displeasing or perplexing 
thoughts, and although lie might in the Exercise of this power have been guilty of 
some kind of Injustice, yet the dignity of his Office [as Xing'] would have washed 
away the stain, for Kings can do no wrong." 

Thus we see how Russell (in accepting the dedication of this political 
clap-trap and catchpenny novel), like T.S., the opponent of Dryden, 
was willing in 1682 to admit the doctrine that " a king can do no 
wrong," so long as the contemplated wrong was the Exclusion of the 
Rightful Heir, James Duke of York. If the King refused to commit 
such iniquity, at the bidding of Shaftesbury and Eussell, these 
plotters of insurrection would no longer see any " Divine right of 
Kings," only the need of popular Election : Quod erat demonstrandum. 
The Perplext Prince is a sillier and drearier novel than one in our 



1 The Prologue and Epilogue to the Duke of Guise, no doubt, in 1682, the 
year after Absalom and Achitophel and the Shaftesbury Medal. 



48 Monmouth and the Perplexed Prince. 

possession, which assumes to be " The Secret History of the Dutchess 
of Portsmouth, giving an Account of the Intreagues of the Court 
during her Ministry. And of the death of K[ing] C[harles] II. 
London: Printed for Richard Baldwin, in the Old Bailey: " his fit 
place. Reprinted in 1690. Tet both novels may have been written by 
the same hand, an unknown Whig: not possibly Tory Mrs. Manley. 

In The Perplext Prince the disguise of names is intentionally trans- 
parent. The novel begins thus, with reference to Charles the First : 
" In Otenia there lately reigned a mighty Prince, who for many 
years swayed the scepter so exactly," etc. ; Otenia being England. 
Our Charles the Second is at beginning the Prince of West-teria. 
Scotland becomes Cross-land (St. Andrew's Cross) ; Worcester, 
Carranthe ; France Benesia (St. Denis). Monmouth's mother Lucy 
Waters, or Walters, becomes the Lady Lucilious (of Scotch descent 
instead of Welsh, for self-evident policy), who is wooed by the 
afterwards Perplext Prince, and lawfully married ; though secretly, 
at the advice of his brother Prince Purdino ( = James Duke of York). 
This is before the going from Benesia into Holland or Andruno. 
"About ten months after the private marriage" a son is born: 
this merely doubles the real measure of time between Charles first 
meeting Lucy and the birth of her boy : "But that's not much ! " 
as Othello says. The child is afterwards made Prince of Burranto 
=Monmouth, and called J&mes=LTeclacious, which was the name 
of his grand-father [James I.J and his uncle the Prince of Purdino" 
=the Duke of York. 

Then the Calvenians or Presbyterians invite the King to return 
home, and his brother disavows his own marriage to Arabella {i.e. 
Arabella Churchill), which act helps to incline the King to do the 
same in regard to the Lady Lucilious, and declare his son illegitimate. 
The Popish Plot is mentioned, as of the Gregorians, and Edward 
Coleman figures under the name of Coldero ; while Colonel Mansell 
is Captain Brodrick, and Dangerfield becomes Belego. The Pro- 
testants are called Luteranians (from Luther). The Earl of Shaftes- 
bury is brought insignificantly forward as the Prince of Glascedo ; 
the Parliament meeting at 0c/ffwo=Oxford. 

As the book is of extreme rarity, it may be well to here give a 
passage, which is a favourable specimen, with special reference to 
the position of Monmouth, his enemies and his adherents. The 
perjured witnesses Everard, Dugdale, with the Irish gang of Macks, 
who had sworn away the lives of innocent Jesuits, were now as 
readily giving evidence against Fitz-Harris and Stephen College : 
they would soon turn against Shaftesbury himself. The engineer 
was thus to be " hoist with his own petard." 

" However the Gregorians, though they fail'd of their expectations, yet they 
got a considerable advantage, for although they got not the life of their enemies, 
yet they sav'd the life of their Friends, by making the Witnesses against them 



Monmouth and the Perplexed Prince. 49 

invalidate their own Evidence ; notwithstanding which, they were in continual 
fear least the King should at last get some insight into their mischievous doings, 
and penetrate into their works of darkness, to prevent which great care was 
taken to keep the King always imploycd, either in talking, or hunting, or 
fishing, or else in visiting, or frequenting of Masks and Balls, or the like 
Recreations, whereby they did their utmost endeavour to prevent his having any 
time to consider or contemplate the present posture of affairs, and if they found 
him at any time Solitary or Melancholy, they would presently divert him either 
by discoursing of the Court-Ladies, to whom he was no Enemy, praysing the 
Beauty of some and highly commending the "Wit of others, extolling the free 
Jovial and affable Temper and Carriage of the Ladies of the present Age above 
the Coyness and Eeservedness of the Ladies of the last Age ; at other times, they 
would repeat their former discourse of the great Loyalty of the Prince of Purdino, 
and the great service which he had formerly done for the King, greatly com- 
mending the excellence of his Temper, in bearing his present troubles with such 
a Princely Fortitude ; admiring much how he could so patiently bear the daily 
Affronts of his insolent Adversaries ; insinuating that hereby it plainly appeared 
the Prince had so much Respect and Zeal for the King's Peace and Quiet, that 
he chose rather to relinquish and forego his right than be any occasion of difference 
or jealousie between his Highness and the people of Otenia ; bitterly exclaiming 
against the proud ambitious and aspiring mind of the young Prince of Burranto ; 
blaming his rebellious and undutiful Carriage towards such an indulgent Father ; 
highly agravating the pretended unnatural and Disloyal Obstinacy he discovered 
by continuing his intimacy and Familiarity with the Prince of Glascedo ; 
maliciously transforming every imaginary Fault into an unpardonable Crime ; 
by which means they procured the King to confide in a false and treacherous 
Brother, and to entertain fears and jealousies of one of the most Loyal and 
Dutiful Sons that ever Prince was bless'd withal. By these and the like means 
they kept the King from penetrating into their designs, and preserved themselves 
in his favour and Friendship. 

Although, strictly speaking, The Perplext Prince belongs to a 
date one year later than the death of Fitz- Harris, it is convenient 
to dismiss it here. It has been the fashion with the modern super- 
ficial writers of popular "Short Histories" to disregard the clear 
evidence that remains, for those who do not begrudge severe labour 
of wading through old records at first hand, whether manuscript or 
printed. Remembering how it biassed the ignorant populace, there 
is importance in so paltry a work as this novel of The Perplext Prince, 
which intentionally misrepresented incontrovertible facts, and in- 
sinuated the vilest slanders against foes, for the purpose of dis- 
placing the legitimate successor to Charles the Second, and raising 
to the throne the base-born adventurer James Fitz -Roy, alias James 
Scott, alias the Duke of Buccleugh, alias our Duke of Monmouth, 
as a puppet for the intriguing Shaftesbury to pull the wires. 

The following Loyal Poem repeats the warning addressed to 
Monmouth by those who saw the utter worthlessness of his claim 
to legitimacy, and who distrusted the influence of Shaftesbury. 
"Whether we are to take the signature of "Ephelia" as indicating 
the authorship to have been Sir George Etherege's (compare pp. 573, 
574, of our Vol. IV.), or a mere blind, is left an open question. 



VOL. V. 



50 



2ttrtnce to tyis derate 

[<&fyt SDufee of flponmout8]f 




A Wake, vain man ! 'tis time th' Abuse to see ; 
Awake, and guard thy heedless Loyalty 
From all the Snares are laid for it and thee. 
No longer let that busie juggling Crew 
(Who to their own mis-deeds entitle you,) 
Abuse your ear : Consider, Sir, the State 
Of our unhappy Isle, disturb'd of late 
With causeless jealousies, ungrounded Fear, 
Obstinate Faction and seditious Care ; 
Gone quite distracted for Religion's sake ; 
And nothing: their hot brains can cooler make 
(So great's the deprivation of their sense,) 
But the excluding of their lawful Prince : 
A Prince, in whose each Act is clearly shown 
That Heaven design'd him to adorn a Throne ; 
Which (tho' He scorns by Treason to pursue,) 
He ne'er will quit, if it become His due. 
Then lay betimes your mad Ambition down, 
Nor let the dazzling lustre of a Crown 
Bewitch your Thoughts ; but think what mighty care 
Attend the Crowns that Lawful Princes wear; 21 



10 



[= York. 



Advice to the Dulte of Monmouth. 51 

But when ill Title 's added to the weight, 
How insupportable 's the Load of State ! 

Believe those working Brains your Name abuse ; 
You only for their Property do use : 
And when they'r strong enough to stand alone, 
You, as an useless Thing, away'l be thrown. 
Think you, how dear you have already paid 
For the fine Projects your false Friends had laid. 
When by the Rabble's fruitless zeal you lost 30 \ 

Your Royal Father's love, your growing Fortune crost: > 
Say, was your Bargain, think ye, worth the cost ? ) 

Remember what relation, Sir, you bear 
To Boyal Charles ; Subject and Son you are, 
Two names that strict Obedience does require ; 
What Frenzy then does your rash Thoughts inspire, 
Thus by Disloyal Deeds to add more cares 
To them of the bright Burden that he wears ? 
Why, with such eager speed hunt you a Crown 
You're so unfit to wear, were it your own ? 40 

With bows, and leers, and little Arts, you try 
A rude unthinking Tumult's Love to buy : 
And he who stoops to do so mean a thing, 
Shows, He by Heaven was ne're design'd for King. 

Would you be great, do things are great and brave, 
And scorn to be the Mobile s dull Slave : 
Tell the base Great Ones, and the shouting throng, [ Grey > etc - 
You scorn a Crown worn in another's wrong. 
Prove your high Birth by Deeds noble and good, 
But strive not to Legitimate j^our Blood. 50 

lEpftclia. 

[In "White -letter. No woodcut. The one we use, representing James Duke of 
Monmouth, is from "England's Darling." Date, about 1681-82.] 



52 



flDn tbe Eigfjt of Succession* 

" There was a man to whom I was very near, so that I could see a great deal 
of his life, who made almost every one fond of him, for he was young and 
clever, and his manners to all were gentle and kind. I helieve, when I first 
knew him, he never thought of anything cruel or hase. But because he 
tried to slip away from everything that was unpleasant, and cared for 
nothing else so much as his own safety, he came at last to commit some 
of the basest deeds — such as make men infamous. . . . Yet calamity over- 
took him." — George Eliot's Momola : Epilogue. 



Ti 



HE question of "Who is to succeed our King?" was of more 
than the usual interest, connecting the reigning Sovereign with the 
prospective Heir. Charles the Second, with his distaste for toil and 
disagreeable realities, must have become heartily sick of the troubles 
occasioned by his brother's bigotry and uncompromising refusal to 
make any legal Conformity with the Church of England. So far as 
religion at all affected him, by no means deeply, he himself had 
always felt a preference for the Romish Communion. Those whom 
he best loved, his mother and his sister, had done their utmost to 
lead him wholly to the creed they professed. His wife, like his 
father's, and both wives of his brother, was a devoted adherent of 
the Pope. Many of the men whom he most trusted, so far as he 
trusted anybody, were either avowed Romanists or held a scarcely 
disguised partiality for the ritual. If we were to take the secret 
Treaty of Dover as being a sincere expression of his principles, 
intentions, and belief, we might be forced to own that even in 1670 
he stood committed by his own words to be what ultra-Protestants 
termed " a Papist." But we do not accept the secret Treaty of 
Dover as conclusive. For unfortunately, amid all the intrigues, the 
mines and counter-mines, foreign subsidies and home cajoleries, 
Charles believed himself to be at liberty to pledge any thing as his 
word that might suffice to tide him over present difficulties. He 
naturally liked the Romanistic doctrines, which promised absolution 
for sins and exemption from purgatorial pains. He liked the pomp 
and show, the music, the processions, the incense, and the general 
impressiveness of ceremonial belonging to the older faith. But he 
was never carried away by such enthusiasm to sacrifice his present 
position, and therefore he remained within the visible pale of the 
Church of England ; he listened to loyal preachers, and at not very 
distant periods took his place as a communicant before the altar. 
He had become so disgusted at the cant and hypocrisy, combined 
with intrusive familiarity and tyrannical controul over himself, 
among the Scottish Presbyterians of his early days, that he was 
unlikely to yield much favour to them, or to the more discontented 
sectaries after the ejectment in 1662. If left alone, unharassed, 



" The counterfeit '-presentment of Two Brothers." 53 

he was the last man to interfere with any other person's religious 
opinions or practices. But nearly everybody had grown heated 
with zeal of proselytism or antagonism, and the quiet man found 
himself surrounded with hornets. His brother's conduct must have 
been to him incomprehensible. Why run his head against a wall ? 
Why make so violent a proclamation of opinions, when a small 
amount of placid obedience to the legal formula would have de- 
feated all the insistance on disqualification under the Test of 1673, 
all the Parliamentary turmoil of the Exclusion, or the Shaftesburian 
insolence of presentation for Recusancy ? Charles would have bent 
his head in the temple of Kimmon, offered his pinch of incense 
before Artemis, or made any other small oblation for peace and 
quietness. No need of hurrying towards Martyrdom, or opposing 
the superstitions of the silly majority. He had experienced enough 
of banishment and penury ; why could not James be wise, and defeat 
his enemies by timely concessions? 

It was this unheroic and time-serving worldliness which made 
Charles commit his least defensible actions, the abandonment of 
William Yiscount Stafford and Oliver Plunket to the cruel fate 
on which unscrupulous foes insisted. Perhaps he drugged his 
conscience with some belief that both of them had really indulged 
in wild schemes for the subjugation of England under the Papal 
domination ; but even with this supposition (they having certainly 
no connivance with assassination conspiracies, such as the perjured 
witnesses would have fastened on them), the knowledge of his own 
secret inclinations, and his Dover promises, might have been expected 
to make him interpose and save them. These two crimes, and one 
later that may have appeared to him more easily justifiable, the 
destruction of the brave Algernon Sydney, are what we hold to be 
his " basest deeds — such as make men infamous." 

It may well be that loyal Cavaliers of high principles, who with 
pain and disgust beheld the King's cowardly connivance in such 
hateful perversions of justice, rallied to the defence of James, 
although not relishing his change of creed, because they believed 
him to be a Man of Honour; one who had already suffered sore 
persecution without yielding foothold for mere expediency. Since 
he could risk all loss sooner than be forsworn, surely he deserved 
loyal support in his just claim to be hereafter the successor of his 
brother. They took for conscientious firmness what was later 
suspected to be little better than narrow-minded obstinacy ; but 
we honour them for the error : insomuch that it shows the nobility 
of their own nature, while forming too high an estimate of James 
Duke of York. 



54 



[Bagford Collection, III. 88; Luttrell Collection, II. 216.] 

21 $oem 

Sipon the ftfrjht of Succession to the Proton of dftujlrmo. [1079.] 

THat precious Gem call'd Loyalty grows scarce, 
Faction would turn it to disgraceful Farce, 
When England's great Prerogative does grow 
Into contempt by Tumult, Monarch's foe; 
Whose subtil secret Je&uitick Gins 5 

Would turn the frame of Nature off its Pins. 
A painted zeal must back what they decree, 
Heav'n must be mock'd t' uphold their treachery. 
As if they judg'd That would maintain their Cause, 
Whose beams outshine it, to support our Laws : 10 

Bless'd in the Hemisphere of peaceful days, 
Beneath the warm, the bright, and sacred rays 
Of glorious Majesty, by whose sweet care 
Our Laws and Liberties maintained are. 

Blush then, disloyal Mortals, let your shame 15 

All wild attempts against your Reason tame. 
Think not your selves, that are but Subjects, Kings : 
You know Religion teacheth better things. 
Must all our ancient Laws then tumble down, 
By turning this to an Elective Crown ? 20 

No lawful President you can disclose, 
Whereby you power have Kings to depose, 
Or turn the circulation of the Blood 
An adverse way, not to be understood, 
But through a byass'd odd fantastick zeal, 25 

Which, being grasp'd, is slippery like an Eel. 

Late reeling Times sufficiently have shown 
Th' effects of Masquerade Religion : 
When Charles the Great, whose memory shall live, 
Could not their murtherous Principles survive. 30 

And our most Gracious Soveraign Charles, that now 
Does rule our Land, from thence did he not grow 
Immediate Heir to sway the Scepter here ? 
And though Religion made the Point seem clear, 
Yet theirs forsooth could him no Crown afford ; 35 

For by th' divine assistance of their Sword, 



A Poem upon the Right of Succession. 55 

Their piety forc'd him forth his native Land, 
Against both Law, Nature, and Heav'n's Command. 

Are these the pious things you'd act again ? 
Fie ! from dissembled Loyalty abstain. 40 

For those who dirt do at the right Heir fling Nu 'ff{l' 27 ' 
Can ne'r be sound in heart towards the King. 
As well by Nature as by Laws divine, 
The first-born are preferred in the Line nl^iiSl' n 

Of Consanguinity, why then shall we 
Dare to oppose God's heavenly Decree ? 
Heav'n may ; but sure I am, no Power on Earth 
Can rob him of that Crown, whose claim's his Birth : 
When God it sends, Descent the Scepter brings, 
By that we pay Allegiance to our Kings. 50 

Though humane Laws sometimes wax out of date, 
By length of time, a far more happy Fate 
Attends the Law of Nature, a long course 
Of time can't turn her from her former source : 
As well may man the heavenly Orbs controul, 55 

And to his will make those great Circles rowl ; 
As well may he command the Firmament, 
As intercept or hinder this Descent : i{', k , e 'tJ th 

Which when it comes, that Particle of time, vers. }}■ 
Th' undoubted Heir unto the Throne does climb. Case. 
He's King compleat by Nature's justest Law, 
And our Allegiance doth as justly draw. 
As Child to Parent does obedience show, 
The same do Subjects unto Princes owe. 
No Power on Earth, no Law, no Parliament, 65 

But the Great God can exclude this Descent. 
An usurp'd Power, though gloss'd with the consent 
O' th' populace, can ne'r be permanent. 
They're ever curs' d with some strange bloody Fate, 
Furious Distempers over-rule that State. 70 

Until surcharg'd with sickness, and with blood, 
At length they vomit up th' unwholsom food, 
That lately seem'd to nourish their sick brest, 
Till Loyalty doth give 'em ease and rest. 

What strange Convulsions History doth tell, 75 

Of States that did the lawful Heir expel. 
The second William govern'd once this Realm 
By usurpation, and the mighty Helm ls( coL e " ds - 



56 A Poem upon the Right of Succession. 

By Henry the First being occupi'd, 

Until their elder Brother Robert di'd : 80 

Who, to obtain that Crown that was his due, 

Colour'd this Land of a dread scarlet hue. 

It ended with his death ; th' imperial Crown 

Then by Descent for Henry's [head] was known. 

Next unto Maud, the Empress of that Name, 85 

The only Heir of Henry it came. 

"When Stephen he usurp'd it as his own, 

How heavily did this sick Nation groan, 

Till Justice seem'd to take that pious care, 

Once more to settle it on the rightful Heir. 90 

Examples are numerous almost as words, 
Which more compleat in Historie's records 
You'l find ; but to omit a search so far, 
The late unnatural intestine War 

Speaks loud enough, the wounds continue green : 95 
When Charles the First had been the bloody Scene 
Of their Impiety, this Land was wrack'd, 
Its Bowels torn, Nature's chief Fabrick crack'd, 
As 'twere at such disorder, till in th' end, 
(As each thing doth unto its Centre tend) 100 

The Clouds dispers'd, and drove away despair, 
When in the Throne appear'd the much-wrong'd Heir, 
Whom God preserve, and may he ever be 
From treach'rous and disloyal Subjects free. 

Princes are God's Anointed, and the Crown 105 

None can detain, but Heav'n's great Prince alone ; 
When Nature's Law hath been impeach'd, such things 
Are wrought by Power divine, or th' King of Kings. 
By that great Power they rule, and by no less, 
And as he rais'd them, he can them depress. 110 

The God of Nature can't his Rules controul, 
And make it seem against himself to rowl. 
Then let not Fancy to our weak thoughts bring 
That it is lawful to Create a King, 
From out o' th' Line, for being i' th' Bible seen, 115 
That Heirs to Crowns have interrupted been. l Sam - 1G - L 
You may as well allow, with the same zeal, 
That we by Law may pilfer, rob and steal, 
Because the Israelites commanded were ■ Exod - u - 2 > 12 - 35, 
To spoil th' Egyptians of their choicest Chear. 120 



A Poem upon the Right of Succession. 57 

Unto the Law we bound are at this rate, 
But not the strict Example t' imitate. 

All our King's Officers, 'tis not unknown, 
Are sworn t' uphold the Eights of England's Crown. 
The Commons too, before they Voice can claim bEi,z - c - '• 
I' th' House, are duly sworn to right the same. 
How can we judge of this but as a blot, 
When such an Oath's most willingly forgot ? 
It's sin, we think, to let a Papist raign, 
But Perjury we'll piously maintain 130 

For a great vertue, when self-interest 
In whispers tells us all goes for the best. 

That Monster Faction evermore did range 
In these three Kingdoms, to promote a Change ; 
Which being upheld by Frenzy, Pride, and Scorn 135 
Of Monarchy, 'tis that's the wounding Thorn 
To public Peace, and makes the greatest Scars, 
That fills men's mouths with Armies, Blood and Wars. 
'Tis that deposes Princes, blackens Fame, 
Whitens the Negro, makes the sound man lame. 140 
" A Prince o' th' Blood is now a petty thing, 
And, if we durst, we'd tell you so's a King." 
Virtue's bright lustre can her not protect 
From base Ingratitude and Disrespect. 
It once hath been admired in that Prince, 145 

And still may be his glorious defence 
Against the tongue of ev'ry senseless Brute, 
That dares Succession to the Crown dispute. 
But may our Good, our Gracious King long raign, 
Whose Breast all precious Vertue doth contain. 150 

May he raign, and live long enough to find 
His Subjects all united in one mind ; 
And may a Gem so precious from his Crown 
Not be defil'd, nor rudely taken down : 
And that Injustice should it not impair, 155 

Heav'n hath bequeath'd it to his dearest care. 

[In White-letter, double-columns, no woodcut. Date, " 1679," early marked in 
ink on the Luttrell Collection exemplar: also the original price, "one penuy."] 



I. 



58 



a BCm Pres&pterian TBallati. 

" Come heare, Lady Muses, and helpe mee to sing, 
Come lone me where as I lay, 
Of a Duke that deserves to bee made a King — 

The cleane contrary way : 

1 the cleane contrary •way.'''' 

— Song on the Duke of Buckingham, 1628. 



.N the end of June came this excellent Koxburghe Ballad. Our 
exemplar appears to be unique : it was not part of the original 
Pearson Collection. 

The tune named, "The clean contrary way," is only a variation 
of the popular " Hey, boys, up go toe ! " which occurs so frequently 
in 1681, as a revival of the forty-years earlier Civil- War songs. 
The opportunity afforded for bantering opponents by giving praise 
or prophecy in their favour, and, then invariably reversing the 
blessing, by adding the burden, "the clean contrary way!" was 
an old device, but none the less efficacious. Witches were accused 
of misusing the Lord's Prayer by pronouncing it backward, as an 
invocation or curse ; and on the principle that good things perverted 
become the most noxious ("Lilies that fester smell more foul than 
weeds "), the superstition was less unreasonable than are such 
ingredients of folk-lore in general. In a manuscript of the fifteenth 
century, formerly belonging to the late indefatigable antiquary and 
scholar Thomas Wright, which in October, 1847, was printed by 
him for the Percy Society (No. LXXIII. p. 88) as a booklet of 
Songs and Carols, he gives one of the many satires on Womenkind, 
Avhich was guarded against destruction at the hands of the shrieking 
sisterhood, in case they found it, by the poem being written in 
affected laudation of them : a golden key to the mystery having been 
Avisely concealed in Latin at the beginning. Latin was supposed to 
be unintelligible to the petticoated clamjamfrie, but it warned the 
initiated that every verse was to be understood the clean contrary 
ivay. Of the ten verses these are the earliest lines : — 

2Df all creaturs sail omen be best, 

Ejus conlrarium vcrum est. 

In every place ye may well se, 
That women be trew as tyrtyll on tre ; 
Not liberal in langag, but ever in secrete, 
And gret joy among them is fore to be. 
The steadfastnesse of "Women wil never be don, 
So gentil, so curtes thei be everichon, 
Mek as a lambe, styll as a stoDe, 
Crocky'd ne crabbyd fynd ye none. 

And so on: "Of all creatures Women be best — ejus contrarium 
verum est!" being the quiet burden to every verse. 



Shotting that " Of all Creatures Women be best : " 09 

On p. 67 we shall reach certain "Animadversions on the Lady- 
Marquess," who is probably one of the Court-Mistresses, so that we 
may apply it to Mazarine, or Cleaveland, or Portsmouth at pleasure, 
without belying any one of them. The date is doubtful, about 1681. 
The tune is specified as being Hey, Boys, up go we / It begins : 

The Lady Marquess and her gang are most in favour seen ; 
"With Coach and Men on her to tend, as if she were a Queen ; 
But if she be, 'tis of the Sluts, for all her fine Array, 
Her Honour reaches to the skies, But the clean Contrary tvay. 

Other instances of the phrase being employed in songs, earlier and 
later, are known. We hope to give some in the Civil- War Ballads 
before long. One is Alexander Brome's song, written in 1643, 
supposed to be addressed by Colonel Venne to his soldiers : 

QTftc Saint's ^Encouragement : 16^3. 

Fight on, brave Souldiers, for the Cause ! fear not the Cavaliers ; 
Their threat'nings are as senseless as our jealousies and fears. 
'Tis you must perfect this brave work, and all Malignant* slay : 
You must bring back the King again — the clean contrary tvay. 4 

'Tis for Religion that you fight, and for the Kingdom's good, 

By robbing Churches, plund'ring men, and shedding guiltless blood. 

Down with the Orthodoxal train, all Loyal subjects slay ! 

When these are gone, we shall be blest, the clean contrary way. 8 

When Charles we've bankrupt made like us, of Crown and power bereft him, 

And all his loyal Subjects slain, and none but Rebels left him ; 

When we have beggar' d all the Land, and sent our truncks away, 

We'll make him then a glorious Prince — the clean contrary way. 12 

'Tis to preserve his Majesty that we against him fight ; 

Nor are we ever beaten back, because our Cause is right ! 

If any make a scruple on't, our Declarations say, 

" Who fight for us, fight for the King," the clean contrary way. 1G 

At Keynton, Branford, Plymouth, York, and divers places more ; 

What Victories we Saints obtain' d ; the like ne'r seen before ! 

How often we Prince Rupert kill'd, and bravely won the day ; 

The wicked Cavaliers did run, the clean contrary ivay. 20 

The True Religion we maintain, the Kingdom's Peace and Plenty ; 

The Priviledge of Parliament (not known to one in twenty) ; 

The ancient Fundamental Laics ; and teach men to obey 

Their Lawful Sovereign; and all these the clean contrary way. 24 

We Subjects' Liberties preserve, by 'prisonment and plunder, 

And do inrich our selves and State, by keeping the Wicked under : 

We must prefer Mechanicks now to Lectuarize and pray, 

By them the Gospel is advane'd, the clean contrary way. 28 

And though the King be much misled by that malignant crew, 

He'll find us honest, and at last give all of us our due : 

Por we do wisely plot and plot Rebellion to destroy ! 

He sees we stand for Peace and Truth — the clean contrary way. 32 

The Public?,- Faith shall save our Souls, and good out -works together, 

And ships shall save our lives, that stay only for wind and weather. 

But when our faith and works fall down, and all our hopes decay, 

Our Acts will bear us up to Heaven, the clean contrary way. 36 



60 " The Clean Contrary Way ! " 

About 1681 or 1682 was written an adaptation from Alexander 
Brome's song, as " An excellent new Hymn exalting the Mobile " 
(whence came at the time the term Mob). Being very rare, we 
give complete this new cloth sewn into an old garment of the 
earlier Civil-Wars : — 

&n ISicellent &,tbs l^omn, exalting the Mobile to Hogaltg, etc. 

To the Tune of, 'Forty- One \_ = Eey, Boys, up go we : see Vol. IV. p. 260.] 

LEt us advance the Good Old Cause ; Fear not Tantivitiers, 
"Whose threat'nings are as senseless as our jealousies and fears. 
'Tis we must perfect this great work, and all the Tories slay, 
And make the King a glorious Saint — the clean contrary tcay. 4 

It is for Liberty we Plot, and for the Publick Good, 

By making Bishops go to Pot, and shedding Guiltless Blood : 

We'll uurep the Orthodoxal Beast, and their Adherents slay ; 

When these are down, we shall be blest the clean contrary way. 8 

When we the King have Bankrupt lain, of Power and Crown bereft him, 

And all his Loyal Subjects slain, and none but Eebels left him ; 

When we have quite undone the Land, by Ignoramus sway, 

We'll settle the Succession, and the clean contrary way. 12 

'Tis to preserve his Majesty, that we against him rise, 

The Righteous Cause can never die, that's managed by the Wise ; 

The Association 's a just thing, and that does seem to say, 

"Who fights for us, fights for the King," the clean contrary way ! 16 

Religion still must be th' intent, the Nation's Peace and Good, 

The Priviledge of Parliament so rarely understood; 

We'l pull the Law and Reason down, and teach men to obey 

Their Sovereign and the Rights o' th' Crown, the clean contrary way. 20 

Our Properties we'l upwards set, by Imprisonment and Plunder, 

And needy Whigs Preferment get, to keep all Tories under : 

We'l keep in pension Oates and Prance, to swear and to betray, 

The Int'rest of the King t' advance the clean contrary way. 24 

What tho' the King be now misled by the Old Popish Crew, 

He'l find our Honesty has sped, and give us all our due ; 

For we (he knows) do Rail and Plot, Rebellion to obey, 

And that we stand for Peace and Truth — the clean contrary way. 28 

And now, my noble Country-men, you cannot doubt my Zeal, 

That we have so true and Loyal been to King and Commonweal; 

And if at last we chance to Hang for what we do or say, 

Our comfort is, to Heav'n we gang, the clean contrary way. 32 

FINIS. 



[In White-letter. No woodcut. Re-printed by Nathanael Thompson in 1684, 
but the true date of the recast ballad is 1681-82.1 



61 

[Roxburghe Collection, II. 571.] 

2L J12eto j^resbptertan BailaU. 

To the old Tuxe of, The Clean Contrary Way. 

Since, poor Whiggs, our Senate's gone, 
Our Glory's now a-setting : 
[The'] Popish Plot 's laid at our door, 

[A ba]stard of our getting : 
[Our] blood}' Cheats, and Shifts and Tricks, 

And all our Devilish Play, 
"Will be disclos'd, and we prov'd Saints — 

The clean contrary way. 8 

Discoverers will discovered be 

As paultry perjur'd stuff, 
And we the Hellish Plotters that 

Prepar'd such Hell-hound Proof : 
[We] had the face to guild their Vice, 

And them like Saints display, 
And wheedled them to swear the Truth 

The clean contrary icay. 16 

We made their piteous Nonsense good, 

And Contradictions true, 
And relisht their unlikely Tales, 

So blundering like blind Hugh} 
What car'd we if they damn'd themselves ? — 

So we obtain'd the day, 
And meritorious made our work, 

The clean contrary way. 24 

When men did scruple to believe 

Things so absurd to Reason, 
We scorned Reason's ballance, and 

We still cry'd, " Treason, Treason !" 
When the Informers halted had, 

Our hubbubs bore the sway, 
Affrighting folks into their wits, 

The clean contrary way. 32 

1 Hugh Peters, the Parliamentary Preacher. See Yol. IY. pp. 55, 110, 617. 



62 A Neio Presbyterian Ballad. 

Such Tools we rack'd for Evidence ; 

Like those that search in Ditches 
And darksome holes for poysonous Toads, 

And hungry sucking Leeches : 
We gull'd Fife-Harris, for more guile, 1 

The guiltless to betray : 
For which he'l reap a sweet reward 

The clean contrary way. 40 

We made the Papists Traitors all, 
That none the Snare might 'scape, 

And all the Royal Protestants 2 
We would bring in the Trap : 

They must be Romanizers too, 
What e'er they do or say, 

And zealous wishers to the Pope, 

The clean contrary way. 48 

The Realm's Religion, that's by Law 

In its Establishment, 
We made as if afraid to lose, 

Though from it we dissent ; 
The Church of England, in the dust 

That level we would lay, 
To shew our selves true Protestants 

The clean contrary way. 56 

The long black-rebel Parliament 

We stood to vindicate ; 
We blossom'd new in th' good Old Cause 

Of Commonwealth and State ; 
Yet Momnouth's Duke cry'd up the while, 

And us'd him like a Toy : 
" A future Monarch " he's designed, 

The clean contrary way. 64 

'Twas such as we, for Charles the first, 

With many a Protestation, 
His Glory did so much pretend, 

His Weal and Preservation : 



1 See the account of his trial and execution, pp. 41-46. 

2 Id est, all of the Eoyalists who " protested " against the Oates' infamies. 



A New Presbyterian Ballad. 63 

But drew the sword against his Friends, 

And fore'd them all away, 
And him forlorn they did preserve, 

The clean contrary way. 72 

'Twas such, as we, the second Charles 

Did scornfully disown, 
Call'd him ' the Common Enemy,' 

Debar'd him from the Throne : 
"Who now, but we, cry out of Plots, 

And for his safety pray ? — 
And stand up stout in his defence, 

The clean contrary way. 80 

'Twas such, as we, in Scotland late 

Twice actually Rebel'd, 
And (maugre all the Mercy here) 

Our English venom swel'd : 
We, to Oblivion's act so kind, 

Unkind Oblivion pay, 
Like cherisht Vipers yielding thanks 

The clean contrary way. 88 

Yet we assum'd the confidence, 

Tho' conscious of what's past, 
To busy our Petitions bold, 

So frequent and so fast : 
Instead of Blest, we Blasted are, 

Alack, and well-a-day ! 
And we hencefoi'th shall trusted be 

The clean contrary way. 96 

Printed in the year 1681. 

[In Black-letter. Edges torn. No woodcut. Date, the end of June, 1681.] 

%* It is not improbable that the same hand wrote " The Turn-Coat of the 
Times" and this " New Presbyterian Ballad." 



64 



antmatnsctstons on tbe LaDp a^arque&s* 

" Woman was made Mans Sovereignty to own, 
And he as Monarch was to rule alone ; 
She was his Vassal made, to [view with] dread 
The angry frowns of Man, her Lord and Head. 
Heaven did to him His Power delegate, 
O'er all the Universe He made him great. 
His Power did the largest scepter sway, 
The whole Creation did his laws obey . . . 
The Legislative Power was fixt in him, 
Just Man, till Woman tempted him to sin . . . 
Man scarce had seen the first resplendent Light 
E'er Woman brought forth everlasting Night. 

p,uit!(j Pride invited her at first to sin, 
Ambition then the Devil usher' d in ; 
Those for ten thousand more have iulets made, 
And now she's Mistress of the Devil's trade : 
She'll tempt, lie, cozen, swear, betray and cheat, 
Hell's blackest Art ten thousand times repeat. 
She will no longer in subjection stand, 
But Man must truckle to her harsh command." 

— Earl Eochester's Woman's Usurpation. 

"IT ANY sensible people had in 1681 grown tired of the noisy 
__VJL strife waged between Whig and Tory. They themselves 
desired the good of the nation to be considered, rather than the 
party triumphs of City or Country versus the Court. 

The sensible people aforesaid were for the time in a minority, 
as they generally are, and claimed no political power. Fools and 
knaves clamber up when wise men hold aloof. To look on from a 
distance at what they could not hinder, and to bear patiently the 
manifold injustice that came alternately from either set of party- 
leaders, appeared to be the only course left open. They could not 
join the intriguer Shaftesbury, or favour his puppet the Duke of 
Monmouth, with the unprincipled "Whig Sheriffs Henry Cornish 
and Slingsby Bethell. Neither could they countenance the gross 
immorality of the "Whitehall Courtiers, with such wantons as are 
here satirized under the title of " The Lady Marquess and her 
Gang." There were loyal Cavaliers, with their virtuous ladies, to 
whom " true religion and undefiled " was more dear than it had 
ever been to the self-righteous and peevish Puritans, who have 
done so much to blight our country under their withering gloom. 
Loyal English Cavaliers must not be measured by the exceptional 
specimens who thrust themselves forward in revels and debauchery. 
Quiet, decent, reputable, chaste and learned were the country 
gentlemen, whose fathers and themselves had suffered uncomplain- 
ingly in purse and person for the Royal Cause. They were willing 
to suffer anew, willingly and gladly, if only the Monarch would 



The Evils surrounding Charles II. 65 

he true to himself, faithful to the Church which they loved, and 
freed from the influence of evil counsellors, who were leading him 
on towards tyranny and Rome. Such loyal hearts must have felt 
almost intolerable anguish and shame at seeing the long-continued 
supremacy of depraved women, the Court-Mistresses. Even to us, 
at this later day, it is the chief blot on the memory of Charles the 
Second. From this poisoned source flowed every evil of his reign. 

It is strange how large a share in producing revolutions has been 
borne by the scarcity of money, wasted on unthrifty wantons and 
debauched gamesters. The lavish prodigality at the Court of each 
successive Stuart, for the supply of amusements to the idleness and 
selfish luxury of the reigning favourites, led inevitably to ruin. 
When Parliament restricted the supplies, sometimes because money 
was misappropriated, but oftener out of spiteful rebelliousness, 
Charles II. felt justified in availing himself unpatriotically of 
the suhsidies granted by France, as the price of many an injury done 
to English piivileges and liberty. We are not of those who would 
press too hard on the King, and rave in the conventional cant of 
"Liberalism" against the secret Treaties and the promises extorted 
by Louis XIV., who all the time was playing a double part of 
treachery : stirring up the suborned and bribed subjects of Charles 
to rebellion, yet bidding him to be in earnest with a curb for the 
disaffected. Thus, a condition was made before granting subsidies, 
that Parliament was not to be summoned ; nevertheless the popular 
leaders were being tempted into insurrection on the excuse that 
their grievances were left unheeded and unredressed unless a fresh 
Parliament were immediately summoned and guarded in session. 

Prom his earliest years Charles had been learning the lesson, in 
his indolent self-indulgence, that help from Continental alliances 
was necessary. He knew that he had a Puritanical and traitorous 
people to govern, not only in Scotland but in England also, whose 
conduct to his father would be repeated towards himself, if only 
they could obtain the opportunity for revolt. Small blame is 
deserved by Charles for any distrust of his Parliaments, seeing the 
corruption and factious intolerance which even his "Pensioners" 
had displayed, before he Dissolved them in 1679. Far from 
considering him to be "a Tyrant," in the common meaning of the 
word, we only wonder at the tardiness with which he asserted his 
lawful authority. The nation needed the strong hand of a man 
like Cromwell. Thus if Charles had been freed and purified from the 
evil subservience to the baser sort of womenkind, beautiful though 
they for awhile appeared to outside view, and which subservience 
was a grievous curse and stain to him, he might have been all 
the better for additional exercise of the Prerogative, instead of 
needing it to be abated or encroached on by the French-bribed and 
mob-misleading members of Parliament. 

VOL. v. F 



66 Deterioration of the Sex, when out of the Collar. 

For men to be dictated to, cozened, and insulted by the caprices 
of women, too frequently unchaste, frivolous, and treacherous, and 
nearly always unnecessarily imperious, is one of the greatest satires 
on our common humanity. In modern times they have been allowed 
to assume a prominence and dominion over business, society, and 
political affairs that is well-nigh ruinous. They have deteriorated, 
not improved under the unwholesome relaxation of discipline. 
Despite all the boasts of their least amiable bell-wethers and 
unserviceable ewes, they will never be the true equals of man in 
the most important of his duties, studies, or achievements. Here 
or there, indeed, an exceptional example may be found, of great 
natural capacity and astonishing acquirements. But even these few 
are seldom found rightly balanced, their genius being unhinged, 
imperfect, and their unhappiness often painfully shown. They 
ceased to be representative women, without becoming veritable meu 
in sustained and unspasmodic majesty. 

Even from the best among them, the highest gifted and the most 
ambitious, what a wail has ever and anon gone forth, if they were 
left uncompanioned by the other sex ! One of themselves has told us 

flow lonely 'tis for women to sit still 

On winter nights, by solitary fires, 

And hear the nations praising them far off. 

What but a record of unhappiness is the biography of every one 
who has emancipated herself from what she deemed " the slavery of 
womenkind," and with scorn to them, and aggressiveness on the 
dominion of men, has ceased to be lovely without attaining to be 
revered ? If the error be great of yielding too much to women, as 
the toys of idle hours, the Odalisques of luxury, the gay partners of 
summer sports and youthful wastefulness, especially when they are 
allowed to assume the guise of goddesses and tyrants, surely no less 
injurious to them, and to us, is the opposite course of encouraging 
them to become dry pedants of learning, managing women of busi- 
ness, noisy declaimers of political rights and equality (which always 
from them means superiority), and all the other pretences of the 
Shrieking Sisterhood. These are nearly wholly the mushroom 
growth of modern times. Amid many calamities and afflictions the 
English nation under Stuart rule had not this to bear. Such inter- 
ference as Henrietta Maria used with Charles the First, or Ports- 
mouth banefully exerted over Charles the Second, was not much 
imitated by other women of the day, except among the anarchist 
Puritans. But even the worship of mere beauty is mischievous and 
disorganizing in its excess ; and how little the sex deserves to be so 
unduly exalted for adoration, and how terribly they have invariably 
misused their privilege and degraded their Circean herd of lovers, 
may be seen in this Roxlurghc Ballad on the Duchess of Portsmouth, 



67 



[Roxburghe Collection, III. 918.] 

3mmntfttt$ion$ on tijt iLaop (iparnurgg ; 

or, 

properties 2Displaj>'tL 

Vino here the Abstract of the World 's great Frame, 
Whose worth for ever Moraliz'd a Name; 
Whose noble gen'' rotes parts, I dare to say, 
Will get Renown, the clean contrary way. 

Tune of, Hey, Boys, up go toe. [See Vol. IV. p. 260.] 

THe Lady Marquess and her gang are most in favour seen ; 
With Coach and Men on them to tend, as if she were a Queen : 
But if she be, 'tis of the Sluts, for all her fine Array, 
"Whose Honour reaches to the Skies, But the clear contrary way. 

They have their choice of Musick sweet, which doth their senses charm, 
And there they sit like Saints to be, as if they knew no harm : 
But they can fit them to a Hair, by night or else by day ; 
And so they think to get Benown, But the clear contrary way. 

This House to them is like a Change, where all things may be had ; 
A Glass of Wine to chear their heart, 'twill make their senses glad : 
There is a Proverb, If you Dance, the Fidler you must pay ; 
At length it may their Fortune raise, But the clear contrary way. 

'Tis not his Musick nor his Wine that makes them for to run, 
There is something else within the case, which is needful to be done : 
The which I'le give you leave to judge, in truth to you it may, 
There's few returns a Mai[d again] x When, hey boys, down go they. 

There is an ill report abroad, which never yet was before, 
"What female Sex goes there are lookt on 2 as a common ojoit^, 
For if you should your Pipkin crack, your Credit will away, 
And must curse the hour so rudely spent, When, hey boys, in went they. 

When once your Beputation's lost, 'twere better you then were dead, 
Than for to say, " There goes a Maid, that has lost her puoq-uaprej^ : 
Therefore in time consider well on 't, lest you should go astray : 
When 'tis too late you may repent, That, hey boys, in went they. 

FINIS. 

Printed for J. Jordan, at the Angel in Guilt- Spur-street. 

[In "White-letter. No woodcut. Date, uncertain, 1681. Compare p. 127.] 



1 A piece torn out at edge here. "We run two lines together throughout. 

2 Orig. " are lookt upon to be no better then a common aiou^." 



I 



M 



Cbe Lopal @>utu'ecf*0 ®oot) Ulill 

" Could a man be secure that life would endure, 

As of old, a thousand good year, 
What arts might he know ! what acts might he do ! 

And all wiihout hurry or care. 
But we, who have but span-long lives, 

The thicker must lay on our pleasure ; 
And, since Time will not stay, Add the night to the day, 

And thus we may lengthen the measure." — The Committee. 1706. 



F we could recover " The Duke's Wish" with its burden of Vie 
ask no more, we should be guided more closely to the date of the 
following Roxburghe Ballad. In the absence of any known ex- 
emplar, let us indulge in a speculative description of the lost ditty. 
It had been issued after the time when the Duke of York ceased to 
attend the Church services at Whitehall, and avowed his conversion 
to Romanism ; consequently exposing himself to the attacks of his 
bitter enemy Shaftesbury, who, conjointly with fourteen other 
Noblemen and Commoners, in June, 1680, "presented the Duke as 
a Popish Recusant" (see later on p. 123). He had previously 
been compelled to resign his position as Lord High Admiral (in 
which he had taken so much interest, that to him, it may be fairly 
said, was due the restored efficiency of the service). The lost ballad 
probably assumed to be a statement of what the Duke of York 
earnestly Wished. Either, it was the outburst of an enthusiastic 
admirer, who held Utopian views ; or else, far more probably, it 
was the spiteful mockery of an opponent, pretending to relate the 
Duke's Papistical aspirations and desires to subjugate England once 
more to the sovereignty of Rome. (It had no connection with Dr. 
Walter Pope's " Old Man's Wish," which was of different measure 
and later date, 1684 ; to it we shall come hereafter.) 

As to our motto : the old Song (set by Jeremiah Clarke, and 
sung by Richard Leveridge, at revival of Sir Robt. Howard's 
Committee, 1706) suggested the lines in Moore's "Young May Moon:" 

And the best of all ways to lengthen our days, 
Is to steal a few hours from the night, my dear ! 

Our thirty -seventh line alludes to Shaftesbury's project of a 
divorce for Charles II., from the barren Queen Catharine of 
Braganza, in order that by a second marriage a family might arise 
to divert the succession from James Duke of York. And line fifty- 
nine has another allusion to the contemporary Politics: James 
having held the post of Chief Admiral until his foes compelled him 
to resign. He was reinstated before Charles died. 



69 



[Koxburglie Collection, II. 564 ; Huth, II. 10.] 

CD* ILopal anti %x\xzJ$tmzti §>ubim'0 CDooti Mill 

Co Sting anD Commontoealtl). 

ifor all trje fHcrcrjants tijat truth 3Lcat> trotfr tratje, 
Stnti jfftiners, 31 tfjcsc Ucrses here habe matie ; 
jfar their struct pleasure, mixtfj, anti great bclirjht, 
31 took the pains these Fcrscs ta incite. 
But inn goat) tafll ta itinn; ant) (Countrn Ijcre 
2To all true subjects plat'nlg sljall appear". 

To the Tune of, The Duke's Wish ; or [its burden], Pie ash no more. 




J.W.E. 




Miners of Minerals, where e're you be, 
You Lead Merchants that Trade by Sea, 
From the Shore, 
Bow down a while, and give ear to me, 
And I'le ask no more. 

I would have a Grove with Ore quick, 
With a Rib of Ore thirty foot thick, 

That's great store ; 
That would yield me ten thousand Load a week. 

And I'le ask no move 



70 Good Will to King and Commonwealth. 

This Ore I'd have both sole and stool, 
Or else you'd count me an unwise Fool, 

Of Wit poor ; 
And Wind, my workmen's heat to cool, 

And Tie ask no more. 15 

This Ore I'd have from Water free, 

To the depth of Seventy seven and three, 

That's fourscore ; 
And Ten Thousand yards of length to be, 

And I'le ask no more. 20 

Then would I build up stately Coes, 1 
And would possess my ground with Stoes, 

All Men before, 
So that no Ranglers could me oppose, 

And I'de ask no more. 25 

Then Lead I would desire to see 
At fifty pound a fodder to be, 2 

And never Lower ; 
Likewise all Trading good to be, 

And I'de ask no more. 30 

And then I would desire to see 
Each man worth fifty pound to be, 

None I'de have poor ; 
And to live in Peace and Unity, 

And I'de ask no more. 35 

Likewise I would desire to see 

Two sons born to his Majesty, |- See p 68# 

Them I'd adore ; 
And the Crown worn by the Heir to be : 

And I'de ask no more. 40 

And then a Bride I'de take to me, 
A Virgin pure I'de have her to be ; 

Her I'd adore : 
And one to be come of honesty, [*>. legitimate. 

And I'de ask no more. 45 

1 A Coe is a miner's hut. Stoes, another mining term, perhaps for fences of 
pre-emption. Ranglers = Rangers of the ground, those who shift quarters. 

2 Fodder, Anglo-Saxon, here = a hurden. 



Good Will to King and Commonwealth. 



71 



Then, if Fortune on us smil'd, 

I'd have her to conceive with child, 

Her death before, 
And to be deliver'd of two Sons meek and mild, 

And I'de ask no more. 50 

My Sons I would bring up so well, 
"With, learning high for to excell 

Ten thousand score, 
And to obey the true Gospel : 

And I'de ask no more. 55 

My Heir I would desire to see 
Chief Counsellor to his Majesty, 

My death before ; 
And the youngest Chief Admiral of the Sea ; 

And I'de ask no more. 60 

Then I'd desire the true Gospel 
Might increase and among us dwell, 

We are Sinners poor ; [Orig. They are. 

And our Souls by Christ to be freed from Hell : 

Then I'de ask no more. 65 

By Stomas ^aurjhtcm. 
Printed for Thomas Passenger, at the Three Bibles, on London-Bridge. 

[His time was 1P70-1682, and the date of this ballad appears to have been 1680. 
In Black-letter. Four woodcuts.] 




N< 



72 



Jocfcep's Journcp into <£ng;lanu, 1681. 

" "With Hair in characters, and Lugs in text, 
"With a splay mouth and a nose circumfiext, 
With a set Ruff of musket-bore, that wears 
Like cartridges, or linen Bandileers, 
Exhausted of their sulphurous contents, 
In Pulpit fire-works, which that Bomb out-vents ; 
The Negative and Covenanting Oath, 
Like two mustachoes, issuing from his mouth, 
The Presbyter, though charm' d against mischance, 
With the Divine right of an Ordinance : 
If you meet any that doe thus attire 'em, 
Stop them, they are the tribe of Adoniram ! " 

— Bue and One after Sir John Presbyter. 1 



OTHING more clearly proved the recklessness of discontented 
men in England, and their evil-willingness to overturn the 
monarchy, than the overtures they were continually renewing to, 
or receiving from, the Scotch. A recollection of the mischief 
wrought during the Bishops'-War, and later hy the presence of the 
Scottish Commissioners in England, must have led to the employment 
of Aaron Smith as an emissary sent from the Abchurch Lane 
conspirators in 1683. The doing so was of two years' later date 
than the following ballad, but the same movement towards 
co-operation between "Jockey" or Jack Presbyter and the English 
Independents jerked spasmodically throughout the interval. 

It was wrongly believed that the ambition of Monmouth's " Scotch 
Duchess" caused his political intrigues. But of all women she had 
the least real influence on him. Evelyn and Pepys mention the 
common report, and it re-appears in a Mock-Song of 1683 on 
Monmouth ( = " You Loyal Lads be merry ! " Compare p. 24): 

And once more he's got under Hatches, 

And means to set up for a King, 
The Politicks of his Scotch Dutchess 

This matter about did bring : 
Uds wounds ! she longs to be Queen, 

If Perkin and she knew how ; 
And yet, in a Hempen-string, 

They may go to the De'il I trow. 

In the ballad, 1. 13, "Politick Antony" is Shaftesbury, who was 
seized in his house on July 2nd, 1681 : " now in the Tower," says 
line 45. " Young Jemmy " is=Monmouth, line 20 ; Lord Howard 
of Escrick is on line 49, with John Wilmore (foreman of S. College's 
Ignoramus Jury), and Edward "Whitacre, Shaftesbury's solicitor. 
Of all these more anon, on our pp. 77 and 79. 

1 This was re-issued, as though new, in July, 1683, but had appeared originally 
about thirty years earlier, written by John Cleaveland. Since old Presbyterian 
weapons were furbished for assault, Tory counter-shields were also needed. 



73 

[Luttrell Collection, II. 105.] 

a iPcto IMIaD of 31ocltep\s Slourncpinto (ZEnglanD, 

m the gear 1681. flHitfj f)is :Ecmarns upon the 2Eimcs. 

OTrjen Jockey ftno oiscoucr'b all fjc sought, 
Sleighing fjoto mang focre to troubles brought 
JFor facing 3LogaI, tofjicfj since ['tis] i)cre a Crime, 
£n England toil I mis=speno no longer time : 
33ut bo rjis jrricno aouis'o, conduces to stag 
2To knoto tfje Author of our Sham-Plot piag, 
TOju'ch being oone, to Scotland he returns, 
Prages for Ijis Hfcmg, ana our Btbisions mourns. 

To the Tune of, Mogey teas Moou'd, etc. 

FArewell Bon[n]y Scotland, and Saundy adue, 
And a prosperous Journey poor Jockey attend, 
For tul England I'se gang, where's so mickle adoe, 

Tul speir gen their Plotting will ne'r have an End. 4 

I learn'd as I pas'd that Religion and Right, 

As i' th' year Forty- One, was the Cause of it all ; 

And the Presbyter now had found out a New Light, 

Which they lowdly (though falsely) Propriety call. 8 

But when I at London had found that their strife, 

And occasion of au their Factious adoe, 
Was : That in Cabals they were striving for Life, 

To overthrow Bishops and Monarchy too. 12 

Where Politick A\_nton^\y whisper'd the Crowd : 

" Lawn-sleeves were y e mark of the Visible a-ioij^)" 

And his Engines 'gainst Popery raileth aloud, 

While Sedition was waiting his cue at the door. ["Kew." 

And still in this Councel each factious Lord 
Did second this Earl in his Traiterous design, 

That a State Common- Wealth may agen be restor'd ; 

Which to compass, 'twas fit that Young Jemmy s'u'd joyn : 

Who gul'd with the glittering hopes of a Crown, [Monmouth. 

And with fatal applause was to side with 'em led : 
Therefore owes his misfortune to th' treacherous Loon ; 

And for which Jockey's Curse light on his fause Head. 2 1 

For the Poison which daily does flow from this Elfe, 
Invenoms Three Kingdomes from head to the heel ; 

And his Fumes make him nautious, ene to his own self, 
And the Crowd with the vapour begin for to reel : 28 



74 Jockey's Journey into England. 

Who drunk with Sedition, were drawn to attempt 
What au geud Christians s'u'd tremble to hear, 

Their Monarch to seize, and au Laws circumvent, 

Which au we'se [o'] Scotland do value so dear. 32 

The Blood of a Monarch these zealously shed, 

And willingly wad gang the same gate agen ; [gait=road. 

For they au i' th' noose of Religion were led, 

Which the best of geud Kings to the Scaffold did bring. 

Therefore sin' Plotting has made sike a din, 
And purjur'd Loones wad govern the State, 

Then back for life Jockey to Scotland agen, 

Sin' LOYALTY here is grown quite out of date. 40 

f^is lEnrjItsft jfrtenljg' gfofcice. 

"YTAy, prithee stay, Jockey, and make not such speed, 
±\ For Truth, we see plainly, begins to appear, 
And the Nation at length will from Plotting be free'd ; 
For when this Cloud's over, the day will be clear. 44 

Old A[nthon']y now is made fast in the Tower ; [July 2, i68i. 

Though for his Enlargement he's made a great stir, 
But the Judges most wisely say 't's not in their power 

To grant him what there he importun'd them for. 48 

Now H[owar\d with W\_ilmo~\rc and W\_hitac\re too, 

Must be careful they taste not the Cup, which their Friends 

By their wicked Designs to their own Ituins drew, 

And has shamefully brought 'em to merited ends. 52 

Then go not to Scotland till all is made clear, 

But carry the News of our happy Estate ; 
And that LOYALTY now does begin to appear, 

For Cabals and Caballers are quite out of date. 56 

I^Hen He that preserv'd us from every 111, 
Protect and continue our King on His Throne ; 
Spight o' Plots and Sham-Plots, be his Guardian still : 
And let Treacherous Designs in the Bud be o're thrown. 

Amen. 
FINIS. 

London : Printed for P.B. and M.R. in the Year 1681. 

[Probably for Pbilip Brooksby, but it looks like P.M. In White-letter. No 
woodcut. Date, marked in writing-, by Narcissus Luttrcll, " 29 Sept., 1681."] 



75 



^{mftesburg^ attest ann « ignoramus ' Crial 

" The Polish Fox may seem to sleep his time away, [Shaftesbury. 

But his pernicious Dream is only to betray ; 
Then up with How, the Mole, and many more that be, 
But up with th' little Pole upon the highest Tree. . . . 

" But now Great York is come, whom Heaven still be with ! 
You'll find (both all and some) 't was ill to show your teeth : 
Then up with ev'ry Rowid-luad, and every Factions Brother ! 
Your luck is now confounded, ye all must up together." 

— A Tory in a Whig's Coat. 1682. 

|_ HE preceding ballad mentioned Lord Shaftesbury being at that 
time (between 2nd July and 24th November, 1681) confined in the 
Tower of Loudon, as was also the infamous Lord Howard of Escrick, 
who was carefully guarded and kept apart from him. Even already 
Howard was suspected of having gone over to the Court, but he 
had been arrested on a charge made against him by Edward Fitz- 
Harris, who accused him of having instigated the treasonable libels ; 
for writing and commissioning which that truculent knave suffered 
at Tyburn. 

An active prosecution of such leaders as had recently been causing 
discomfort and danger to the Court was being carried on, in the 
summer of 1681. As already stated, Shaftesbury was arrested in 
his own residence, Thanet House, Aldersgate Street, on a charge of 
High Treason, 2nd of July, 1681, examined by a special council 
at Whitehall, and committed to the Tower, where Eord Lord Grey 
of Werk, the Duke of Monmouth, and others immediately paid him 
a visit of friendly condolence. As it would have been an absurdity 
to have a State prisoner holding unrestricted communication with 
the outer world, through disaffected noblemen, on the second day 
of imprisonment a closer confinement was ordered. It is indisputable 
that, although the treasonable activity of Shaftesbury was a matter 
of public notoriety, the prosecution was clumsily managed. Warcup 
arranged the minor details against him, but the witnesses were 
chiefly Irish "Evidences" of wofully damaged reputation, such as 
no one could willingly receive as honest men. Shaftesbury powerfully 
urged, before the Council, "that he thought they had not that 
opinion of him as to deal with Irishmen and Papists for subverting 
the Government, and that if he should do such things he was fitter 
for Bedlam." Unfortunately for the cogency of his reasoning, he 
had himself been an encourager of these very men, and with readi- 
ness to admit their credibility, so long as the lives of Jesuit Priests 
and Catholic Lords were being sworn away by such creatures as the 



76 Shaftesbury reckons up the accompt against him. 

two Macknamarras, Bryan Haines, "David Fitzgerald, Edward Ivey, 
Bernard Dennis, Eustace Comynes, or others of the gang. 1 

Petitions to be admitted to bail were made, as time wore on and 
no Trial was instituted, till in October Shaftesbury was not only 
willing to consider the game lost, but even to purchase safety from 
what he evidently felt to be urgent danger, by a proposal to Lord 
Arlington, Henry Bennet, to depart to his own estates in Carolina, 
and there remain until his life ended, if only he were released from 
imprisonment. His health had failed, and attacks of ague had 
abated his courage. He had foreseen the coming evil and secured 
his estate to his family, in expectation of forfeiture. He had 
arranged the sale of his horses, mares, and colts. Halifax and 
Henry Hyde were opposed to him, and knew the danger of his beiug 
at large fomenting sedition. That attempts were being made to 
suborn witnesses against him has been asserted and is not incredible. 
It was only repeating against himself the evil practices which he 
had encouraged, if not actually instigated, against the Catholics and 
partizans of York. But now his courage was failing him, and 
although his unscrupulous followers the Whig Sheriffs were doing 
their utmost to stifle all evidence that told adversely on his cause, 
he could not fail to be aware that he had lost influence in the 
Nation, and the King possessed a larger amount of loyal support 
than had been given since the early days of the Restoration. 
Stephen College, after being saved from punishment of his London 
offences by Whig Sheriffs packing an Ignoramus Jury (as was John 
Bouse, by the same expedient, after accusation by nearly all the 
same witnesses), had been proceeded against for treasonable words 
and acts at Oxford ; then tried in the cathedral city, condemned 
and executed on August 31st. Attempts to indict Warcup (who 
took the informations whereon Shaftesbury was charged before the 
Council), and three of the witnesses, had failed before Chief Justice 
Pemberton in September. Early in October (12th), Shaftesbury's 
secretary, Samuel Wilson, was arrested for treason, and committed 
to the Gate-house by the Council. It was understood that the 
King had replied to Shaftesbury's offer of submission and voluntary 
exile to America, there to abide innocuously, by a declaration that 
" My Lord Shaftesbury must stand or fall by the Law." 

Among the State-Papers consulted at the Record Office are many 
connected with the proceedings at the Sessions House, Old Bailey, 

1 A Loyal Song on him is entitled "Eustace Comines the Irish Evidence, his 
Farewell to England:" to the Tune of, hone, hone. Twelve verses. It 
belongs to the autumn of 1683, and begins, 

Be me Shoul and Shoulvation, hone ! hone ! 

I '11 go to me own Nation : hone ! hone ! 

Old Tony hence is fled, and Mussel lost his head, 

I starve for want of bread, hone ! hone .' 



Shaftesbury's Jury that returned " Ignoramus." 77 

on the 24th of November, 1681, against Shaftesbury. A chief 
witness, whose evidence told adversely, was John Booth, who swore 
that he had been appointed to join the fifty armed men to go to 
Oxford as Shaftesbury's guard, under Captain "Wilkinson, at the 
time of the Oxford Parliament. (Wilkinson, then imprisoned at 
the King's Bench, and knowing himself to be incriminated, had 
issued a pamphlet, asserting that he had been beset with suborners.) 
Others were John Smith, Edward Ivy, Edward Turberville, one of 
t lie bitter witnesses against Lord Stafford, Brian Haines, John 
Macknamarra, Dennis Macknaraarra his brother, and Bernard Dennis 
{Pamphlet Sheets, 515, 1. 2, art. 55). The ensuing ballad truly says, 

But had it been a Popish Lord, 

One witness then had serv'd, in a word. 

Then, such scoundrels as Turberville were deemed of sufficient 
credit to ensure the condemnation of accused Catholics. But now, 
under political pressure of the "Whig Sheriffs, a pliant Jury threw 
out the bill with Ignoramus marking their disapproval. Sir Samuel 
Barnardiston was the foreman, and the following are the names of 
the Grand Jury : — John Morden, Thomas Papillon, John Dubois, 
Charles Hearle, Edward Budge, Humphrey Edwin, John Morrice, 
Edmund Harrison, Joseph Wright, John Cox, Thomas Parker, 
Leonard Robinson, Thomas Shepherd, John Flavell, Michael Godfrey, 
Joseph Bichardson, "William Empson, Andrew Kendrick, John Lane, 
and John Hall. Whigs to a man, and many of them extreme in 
seditious opinions. We shall meet several of them again, for 
Papillon and Dubois are in the Shrievalty riots, and it was at 
Shepherd's house in Abchurch Lane that the Bye-House conspi- 
rators were joined by William Russell and Algernon Sydney. The 
"Association" MS. found among Shaftesbury's papers had been 
produced by Jenkins, and testified to by Gwyn, clerk to the Council. 
Shouting and holloaing followed the report of the Jury, for nearly 
an hour. Bells were rung, bonfires lighted, and the whole of the 
City was at night in commotion, as over a great triumph. The 
Shaftesbury faction had not enough wisdom to be content with such 
an ambiguous victory, though " every cock will crow loudly on his 
own dunghill ! " A medal was struck in honour of their leader. 
On the reverse was shown the Tower of London, with the sun-light 
breaking from a cloud, and the word JLcetamur with the date 24 
November, 1681. Shaftesbury was represented on the front. This 
Medal was the immediate occasion of John Dry den writing and 
publishing the poem, called by that name. 

A week later, Shaftesbury obtained release on bail, along with his 
secretary Samuel Wilson, Lord Howard of Escrick, John Wilmore 
(who had been foreman of the Grand Jury that released Stephen 
College with Ignoramus), and Edward Whitacre, concerning whom 
with Sir Samuel Barnardiston, see our following p. 79. 



78 



ignoramus Justice; 

Or, The English Laws turn'd into a gin, 
To let Knaves out and keep Honest men in. 

To the Tune of, Sir Eglamore. [See p. 80.] 

Did you not hear of a Peer that was Try'd, 
With a fa, la, la, la, la. 
That lookt like a Cask with a Tap in his side ? 

With a fa, la, la, la, la, 
This Noble Peer to the Bar was called, 
The Witnesses sworn, but the Fore-man J out-bawl'd, 

With a fa, la, la, la, la. 7 

Then up Sir Samuel he did start ; With a fa, la, la, etc. 

And found the Bill not worth a [M]art ; With a fa, la, la. 

With that the Court kept such a stir, 

The Foreman should prove so silly a Sir, With a fa, la, la, la, la. 14 

The Witnesses for the King swore plain, 2 

But had they been as many again, 

The Jury before they such Truths receiv'd 

Nor them, nor St. Peter, would have believ'd. 21 

Tlie Witnesses brought him a Tray tor in, 

But the Jury found it another thing ; 

For he who did still his King oppose 

Is made a true Subject in spight of the Laws. 28 

Thus this great Lord of High Eenown, 

Th' exalted Idol of the Town, 

Is clear'd by J/n/oramus-Sway, 

For betraying the King and the Church in a day. 3,5 

The Babble, to shew their Loyalty, 

I>id in full shouts Math the Jury agree; 

They Boneh'res made with great applause, 

And all to maintain the Good Old Cause. 42 

And now in spight of King and Queen, 

More Jollity was in the streets to be seen 

Than on the Twenty-ninth of May, 

Though it was the Restauration Pay. 49 

Another passage I chanc'd to hear, 

That the Doctor is fallen from the Front to the Eear, [ritus Onto*. 

He to the Saints does now incline, 

Abjures the King, and with Kebels combine. 56 

Yet these pretend now for to inherit 

(As Heirs do Estates) the Light of the Sjurit ; 

Yet let them say or do what they will, 

They '11 find themselves Lgnoramus still ; 63 

But had it been a Popish Lord, 

One Witness then had serv'd in a word ; 

They had not then enquir'd so far, 

But found it, and never had stept from the Bar. [« it" = Billa Vera. 



1 Sir Samuel Barnardistone, who was afterwards heavily fined. See next pa^e. 

2 This refrain is continued throughout, but may here be omitted. 



Ignoramus Justice, at Shaftesbury s Trial. 79 

If by this Law the Charter be lost, 

Will Tony's Estate repay all the cost ? 

The Boys will then find out the Cheat, 

And Be Witt the old Cannibal in his retreat. 1 77 

They '11 curse the Pate that studied to bring 

Plague to the Country, and ruin to th' King ; 

Divested thus of ' Chit op h el's P vide, [Acnitophel's. 

They'll do him that Justice that Juries deny'd. 84 

London : Printed lot Allen Bancks, 1682. 

*^* John Wilrnore, in April, 1682, was to have heen one of the 
Stewards at the frustrated Feast in Haberdashers' Hall. Edward 
Whitaker had been Shaftesbury's solicitor, and known as " the true 
Protestant Attorney." AVhitaker got into fresh trouble in October, 
1682, being tried for treasonable words spoken in Bath during July, 
1680, and judgement was taken by default, he not appearing. 
After the Revolution he rose in favour, and became Solicitor to 
the Admiralty. He may have been of the Hertford Whitakers. 
( White-acre or Wheat-acre : Wytacre, of an old parish Register.) 

Also, he being particularly mentioned in the preceding Loyal Sony, 
a separate paragraph is due to Sir Samuel Barnardiston, the foreman 
of Shaftesbury's Ignoramus Jury. He was afterwards heavily fined, 
"for writing and publishing in four several letters to persons in the 
country, scandalous and seditious reflections concerning the late 
fanatick conspiracy" [the Rye-House Plot]; of which he was found 
guilty, at Guildhall, on 14th February, 168f. The fine was 
£10,000, to be bound to good behaviour for life, and to be com- 
mitted till all were paid. He refused to pay, and lay in the King's 
Bench until June, 1688, when he paid £6,000, giving bond for the 
remainder, and was released. The judgement was reversed in May, 
1689, by eight judges to two, but the Lords in June refused to 
assent. He had been a Director in the East India Company, and a 
noted Exclusionist. Another Loyal Sony is devoted to his dispraise. 
Although it belongs to February, 168^, we need not delay it. 

1 In other words : mob him, and murder him, when he fell out of their favour, 
as the Dutch rabble murdered the brothers Cornelius and Johann De "Witt, 
or Van Witt, at the Hague in lb7'2 ; to the undisguised satisfaction of Prince 
William of Orange, who had winced under the rivalry of their popular influence. 
William told Gourville "that it was quite true he had not given any orders 
to have the De Witts killed, but that having heard of their death without having 
contributed to it, he had certainly felt a little relieved." The conspirators for the 
murder soon received reward of appointments from AVilliam, who had taken care 
not to arrive until the day after the double murder, and was made Stadtholder, 
his opponents being removed. Thus we have their names turned into a verh, 
"to Be-Witt" as sufferers of injury, even as "to Boycott" a person came into 
fashion, both phrase and Irish fact, during the Land League sedition of recent years. 
"The Boys" of line 76 were Shaftesbury's Protestant Boys of Wapping. 



80 



fflfyt SJEfjtg EntelltcfCttcer ; or, Sir Samuel (n tfte PourtD. 

To the Tune of, Hark ! the thund'ring cannons roar. 

HArk ! the fatal day is come, fatal as the Day of Doom, 
For Sir Samuel there make room, so fam'd for Ignoramus ! 
He whose conscience cou'd allow such large favours you know how ; 
If we do him justice now, the Brethren will not blame us. 

Stand to the Bar, and now advance, Morden, Kendrick, Oates, and Prance, 

But let the Foreman lead the Dance, the rest in course will follow, 

Tilden, Kendrick, next shall come, and with him receive their Doom, 

Ten thousand Pound, at which round sum the Hall set up a Hallo ! 8 

Brave Sir Barnard[ist]on now, who no Main would e'er allow, 
To lose ten thousand at a throw, was pleas'd — to all men's thinking. 
Ten thousand pounds ! a dismal note, who before had giv'n his vote 
" Not to give our King a Groat, to save the Throne from sinking." 

" But yet there 's a remedy ! Before the King shall get by me, 
I'll quit my darling Liberty, nor will I give Bail for 't : 
For e're the Crown shall get a Groat, in opposition to my Vote, 
I'll give them leave to cut my throat, altho' I lye in Gaol for 't. 16 

" "Were 't for Mon\_moutlh I'de not grieve, or brave Russel to retrieve, 
Or that Sydney yet might live : twice told, I'd not complain, Sir : 
Nay what 's more my whole Estate, with my Bodkins, Spoons, and Plate, 
So I might reduce the State to a Common-wealth again, Sir. 

" Or that Mon\jnout\h were in grace, or Sir Sam. in Jeffereys 1 place, 
To spit all Justice in the Face for acting Law and Reason, 
Or that Tories went to pot, or we could prove it a Sham Plot, 
Or Essex did not cut his Throat, or Plotting were not Treason ! 24 

" Thus I 'd freely quit my Coyn ; but with Tories to combine 
Or keep the Heir in the right Line, that Popery be in fashion, 
To see the Holy Cause run down, while mighty York is next the Crown, 
And Perkin 's forc'd to fly the Town, Oh, vile abomination! [p. = Monmouth. 

1 ' Sooner than obedience owe to their Arbitrary Law, 

Or my Bail in danger draw, for Breach of good Behaviour, 

I with Bethel, and the rest o' th' Birds, in Cage will make my Nest, 

And keep my fine, to Plot and Feast, till Mon[inout~\h be in favour." 32 

"We come to the ditty beginning " Hark ! the thund'ring cannons 
roar," which gives name to the tune, among our early-ensuing 
ballads on the victory over the Turks at "Vienna, in September, 1683. 
We need not here annotate the names mentioned above (Morden and 
Kendrick were on p. 77), as we meet them in their true place, when 
dwelling on the Rye-House Plot in later pages. The tune mentioned 
on p. 78, Sir JEglamore, belongs to Samuel Rowland's ditty of that 
name, first printed in his Melancholie Knight, 1615, and given in 
Roxhurghe Ballads, iii. 607. Also in Popular Music, p. 276. 



Hi 



81 

THRICE THREE MERRY ROYS ARE WE. 

U3o. 1 — €&e a^errp TBops of C&rtetmas* 

" Three merry boys, and three merry boys, 
And three merry boys are we, 
As ever did sing in a hempen string 
Under the Gallows-Tree." 

— Reaumont and Fletcher's Bloody Brother, iii. 2. 



.ERE, befittingly, come in "The Merry Boys of Europe," and 
their companion stave " The Merry Boys of Christmas ; " to which 
we have not the heart to refuse bringing "The Merry Boys of the 
Times," viz. Matthew Taubman's popular "Courtier's Health:" 
although a different impression had been already printed. When 
isolated, the effect is weakened of its allusions to the events of the 
time, with enthusiastic zeal for the rightful Succession of James 
Duke of York, whom faction would have debarred by the Exclusion 
Bill from succeeding to the Crown. 

We know that 1681 is the date of two, "The Merry Boys of 
Europe; " and "The Courtier's Health : " for the former appeared 
that same year, in John Playford's Choice Ayres, iii. 26, and the 
latter ballad was re-issued in 1682, along with Taubman's .Heme 
Poem to the Duke of York upon his Return from Scotland, beginning, 
" Still with our sins, still with our furies crost, The Barque is on 
the Billows tost." The date of the third, "The Merry Boys of 
Christmas," must have been close to the same time, for the tune 
of " Hey, Boys, up go we," was then in vogue, enjoying a renewed 
popularity; while the distinct mention of "Here's a Health to 
Charles our King ! " marks it clearly as issued before February, 
168*. Unfortunately, the unique specimen in Roxburghe Supplement 
is imperfect, and lacks the printer's name. It may have appeared 
earlier in the reign than the frosty Christmas of 1683, but there 
being no mention here of the exceptional severity of the season 
(whether present or past) excludes that year from calculation, 
as it does the next, 168 * : the last " New Year's gift" which Charles 
was to welcome. Consequently, we hold it to be almost certain 
that our "Merry Boys of Christmas" could scarcely be of later 
date than December of 1681 or of 1682; and thus believing, we 
give it admission prior to either of the other " Merry Boys." 
Walter Scott remembered Beaumont and Fletcher, no doubt, when 
he made Gilbert Glossin sing to Dirk Hatteraick : — 

Gin by pailfuls, wine in rivers, 
Dash the window-glass to shivers ! 

For three wild lads were we, brave boys, 

And three wild lads were we ; 

Thou on the land, and I on the sand, 

And Jack on the Gallows-tree. 

VOL. V. U 



82 



[Roxburghe Collection [i.e. B. H. Bright's), IV. 24.] 

Ct)e S®tvxy Bops of Christmas ; 

flJBSfjcn Hatis anti Easscs take ticlujfjt 

together for ta be, 
QTfjrg pass afoao tlje ®Etntct*$iiji)t, 

anti Itiw most JHEtrilg. 

To the Tune of, He;/, Boys, up go tee ! [See p. 60.] 




COme, come, my roaring ranting Boys, 
let's never be cast down, 
TVe'l never mind the Female Toys, 

but Loyal be to th' Crown : 
We'l never break our hearts with Care, 

nor be cast down with fear : 
Our bellys then let us prepare 
to drink some Christmas Beer. 

Then here's a Health to Charles our King, 
throughout the world admir'd ; 

Let us his great applauses sing, 
that we so much desir'd, 



8 



The Merry Boys of Christmas. 83 

And wisht amongst us for to Reign, 

When Oliver rul'd here : 
But since he's home return'd again, 

Come fill some Christmas Beer ! 16 

These Holidays we'l briskly drink, 

all mirth we will devise, 
No Treason we will speak or think, 

then bring us brave minc'd Pies : 
Roast Beef and brave Plum-Porridge, 1 

our Loyal hearts to chear : 
Then prithee make no more ado, 

but bring us Christmas Beer ! [cetera demnt. 24 

[What time those hypocritick Knaves 

denounc'd our harmless Joys, 
And silenc'd all the Loyal staves 

chorus'd by roaring Boys, 
In dolefull dump men bore the yoke, 

waiting the happy year ; 
When Monk came south, the spell he broke : 

we drank our Christmas Beer. 32 

[Then let's rejoyce, the day's our own, 

no more we'l let them reign ; 
Phanaticks shall not bear us down 

with 'Forty-One again. 
We've had enough Jack Presbyters 

and 'Pendents swaggering here : 
A Pox upon the Round-head curs ! 

Come, bring more Christmas Beer !] 40 

[In Black-letter. No printer's name, the broadside being unfortunately mutilated. 
One woodcut. Date, circa. 1681, possibly earlier. The final two verses, above, 
are recovered from the private Trowhesh Collection ; but for the sub-titular 
Milkmaid stanzas, or distinct Second Part, see our Temporary Preface, p. xv.] 

1 Samuel Butler had shown, in the first canto of Hudibris (November, 1662), 
how the Puritan in his ante-Carlylistic dyspepsia and intolerance had denounced 
these Cavalier dainties, being one who would 

Quarrel with Mine' d-pies and disparage 
His best and dearest friend, Plum-porridge ; 
Fat Pig and Goose itself oppose, 
.And blaspheme Custard thro' the nose. 



A: 



84 



Mo* 2 t — c§e a^crtp iBops of Europe. 

" When Bibo thought fit from this world to retreat, 
As full of Champaigue as an egg's full of meat, 
He wak'd in the boat, and to Charon he said, 
He would be row'd back, for he was not yet dead. 

' Trim the boat, and sit quiet ! ' stern Charon reply' d, 

' You may have forgot — you were drunk when you dyed.' " 

— Mat Prior's Bibo and Charon. 



S already mentioned, this appears as a song in John Playford's 
Choice Ayres, 1681, Third Book, p. 26, with special music by John 
Reading. The broadside begins " I will drink of my Bottle," but 
we restore the Choice Ayres 1 reading, "off," inasmuch as an 
omission of the second/ was a frequent misprint of the day. Also, 
in Wit and Mirth, an Antidote ayainst Melancholy, 1684, p. 122, are 
the first twelve lines, as a Catch. To our fancy, the whole of this 
good-tempered Bacchanalian chant is so good, far above the 
average merit of popular broadsides, that we are inclined to suppose 
some practised hand like Thomas Shadwell's must have written it. 
Not only in their own comedies of Charles's reign, many of which 
never came into print, were spirited songs by the dramatists, but 
their friends the wits and beaux were always ready to furnish 
them with additional lyrics. If these songs made a hit on the 
stage, when sung by a bewitching actress, one who was not 
prudishly punctilious, but enjoyed a double-meaning as well as 
did her auditory, the success of the song was speedily followed 
by it being hoisted or degraded into a second and wider popularity, 
in being repeated as a broadside street-ballad, with a large enough 
number of additional verses to fill the single page, and satisfy the 
cravings of customers for " a good pennyworth." 

Assuredly folks got full measure here. The quiet indifference 
with which the Bon Vivant contemplates the approach of death is in 
striking contrast with the cowardly terrors of pietistic Tub-preachers. 
This is Bibo's true music of sack-butt and psaltery: — 

"When my thread it is spun, and my hour comes to die 
Like Diogenes I in a Sack-Butt will lie. 
And that close wainscote-room shall my body confine, 
Who valued not Women, but loved good AVine. 

The original woodcut, copied by us on the following page, 

prophetically anticipates Charles George Leland's inimitable " Hans 

Breittman gife a barty," whereat they " all cot troonk ash pigs," 

especially illustrating the lines, 

I poot mine mout to a parrel of Bier, 
Und emptied it oop mit a schwigs ! 

"We ask, as of these merry boys, " Where is dat barty now?" 
All goned afay mit de Lager- Bier, 
Afay in de Ewigkeit ! 



85 



[Roxburghe Collection [i.e. B. H. Bright's), IV. 61.] 

C|)e 0E)errp Bops of Europe. 

fio 3Lfquor tikt tfjc orisfe Canarri, 
3tt makes the trail Soul fjlith ano metro ; 
£t helps the Back, prolongs the 3Lifc, 
&no is much better than a W&iU. 

To the Tune of, Noiv, now the Fight's done, fyc. [Vol. IV. 243.] 




I'Le Drink off my Bottle each night for my share, 
And as for a Mistris I'le never take care ; 
The one makes me jolly and evermore gay, 
But a Mistris destroys by her sporting and play : 
She drains all my Blood, till I look quite as pale 
As a Thief that's half-starved, long kept in a Gaol. 



86 The Merry Boys of Europe. 

She infeebles my Nerves, and doth shorten my Life, 
And empties my Pockets, and so will a Wife. 
Then, Women ! make Asses of those that you can, 
I'le find out a Comrade, some jolly young-man ; 
And in our full Glasses we'l laugh and we'l jest, 
So perhaps for diversion we'l drink to the best. 12 

When our senses are drown'd, and our eyes they do pink, 
And our selves do not know what we say or do think, 
Our wits we conceive are far better then they 
Who to the Sack-Bottle could ne'r find the way : 
Then a Pox of those Misers who hourly do scrape, 
And knows not the virtue that lies in the Grape. 18 

Then Beauties, farewel, for I'le ne'r be your slave, 
Nor for your fair looks sigh my self to a Grave, 
But the Bottle I'le hug which preserveth my life, 
Puts an end to my sorrows and banisheth strife : 

AVhen my thread it is spun, and ray hour comes to dye, 
Like Diogenes I in a Sack-Butt will lye. 24 

And that close Wainscot-room shall my body confine, 
Who valued not Women, but loved good Wine ; 
To Bacchus I'le surely be a Sacrifice, 
And ne'r be intangled by Ladies' fair eyes : 

Whose delight is to see men to sigh and to mourn, 
And their eyes they do feast when they see men forlorn. 

What a fool is that man that will bow and will cringe 
To Beauty, so he doth his freedom infringe ; 
And whilst he might live and for ever be free, 
Himself he deprives of his chief Liberty : 

His rest it is lost, and his spirits do fail, 

He's a foe to himself, and doth build his own Gaol. 36 

Then give me the Lad that will swim in the Bottle, 

And not in salt water like vex'd Aristotle ; 

For had he but then been acquainted with Sack, 

His judgment in tides he never would lack : 
When he by his study his brains did confound, 
He leapt in the Ocean, and there he was drown'd. 42 



The Merry Boys of Europe. 



87 



But this Liquor of Life, which I so much commend, 
To e'ry true Toper will prove a true friend, 
And wash from his heart all his sorrow and care, 
In Poverty keep him from doubt and dispaire : 
Then who can but love this unparallel'd thing, 
That makes nobles of peasants, and is drink for a King ? 

If the mind be disturb'd, take this Liquor but free, 
And you'l find in a moment you cured will be ; 
If you grieve or do mourn for the loss of a friend, 
This Liquor undoubtedly comfort will lend : 
'Tis good for all Men, and in every condition, 
Will keep them from charge of a prating Physitian. 54 

Then matchless Canary I'le sing forth thy fame, 

And will against Beauty for ever exclaim, 

For he that doth once fall in love with the Yine, 

Will never have reason at all to repine : 

For it cheers our dull souls, while we merrily sing, 
Long live Charles the Second, our Soveraign King ! 60 

In the height of our sport we no Treason conspire, 

To be brisk and be merry is all our desire ; 

Our hearts have no harbour for any ill thought, 

We despise spight and malice, and all that is naught : 
And in our full Bumpers we'l laugh and we'l sing, 
And for our diversion we'l drink to the King ! (j6 

Printed for J. Clarke, at the Horse-shooe, in West- Smith field, 
between the Hospital-gate and Duck-lane end. 

[Black-letter, with these two woodcuts. Date, 1681.] 




88 



Bo. 3.— C6e a^errp IBops of tfje Cimcs: 1682. 

" Come, make a good Toast and stir up the fire, 

And fill the great Tankard of what we admire ; 

Then bring in a Paper of excellent Fogoe, [i.e. Tobacco. 

That we may perfume the whole house with the hogoe. [= haut gout. 
And here let us sit, like honest brave Fellows, 
That neither are Tories nor Whigs, in an Ale-house. 

" "We have nothing to do with the feuds of the Nation, 

With Old Magna Charta, nor the Association : 

Let Shaftesbury fancy himself to be crowning, 

Or beg his Quietus, and venture a drowning. 
Let Titus swear on, and raise up his story : 
That's nothing to us, let the Saints have their Glory." 

— Loyal Song of The Pot Companions. 1680. 

T 

J_ HE ingenious Loyalty of this spokesman of "Merry Boys" 
anticipates our modern discovery of liquidating the Alabama claims 
(incurred by our certainly failing to preserve such strict neutrality 
as was justly due by international courtesy, if not by strict inter- 
national law : whatever might be our private sympathy with the 
helligerent South Confederacy). He says, flouting the Phanatics, 
"We'll Taxes raise without 'em, and drink for the Nation's good." 
Very self-sacrificing and praise-worthy conduct, no doubt. May 
the end always justify the means, and tender consciences be loyally 
soothed at a pinch. Tom Brown availed himself of the same loyal 
plea for deep draughts, as shown in his song " In Praise of the 
Bottle." Turn to next Group for this ; see also Yol. IV. p. 482. 

Loyalty was plainly re-asserting itself, and continued to do so 
with increased vehemence in 1683, seen in The Whigs Laid Open, a 
Loyal Song of that year's date (compare beginning, on p. 168) : — 

The name of a Whig and a Tory no more shall disquiet the Nation. 
"We'll fight for the Church and her glory, and pray for this Eeformation. 
That ev'ry Factious Professor, and ev'ry Zealous Pretender, 
May humble 'em to the Successor of Charles, our Nation's defender. 

The Exclusionists receive their castigation incidentally, when this 
willing adherent of the Duke of York sings lustily : 

We'll drink to the next in Succession, and keep it in the right line. 

No tampering with legitimacy permitted : no foisting in to claim 
the Crown any " Son of a W "[alter : Lucy], Duke of Monmouth, 
on pretence of his being a safeguard to Protestantism, though 
he would show himself a tool of Shaftesbury's Semi-Republicans 
and the Sectaries. The songster was no other than Matthew 
Taubman (who reprinted the ditty in the volume containing his 
"Heroic Poem to the Duke of York," 1682); and he scorned to 
hide his honest detestation of the Dissenters or Phanatics ; Quakers 
and Anabaptists fared no better with the " Merry Boys." 



Bold and bounding Brothers in harmony. 89 

Henry Bold loved the ditty so well that he translated it into 

Latin, and his brother, Captain "William Bold, printed both versions 

•in 1685. We add his rendering (which we had mentioned on 

p. 684 of Roxburghe Ballads, vol. iii., at the close of Mr. Wm. 

Chappell's labours, when we added a few Notes). 

Two tunes are named. The special new tune for " Come boys, 
fill us a bumper! " was printed in Mustek" 1 s Recreation on the Viol, 
lyra way, the second edition, 1682. The first edition had perhaps 
appeared in the previous year. The alternative tune, " My Lodging 
is on the cold ground," is inappropriate for the rhythm, and 
only named for the benefit of those who had not learnt the one 
composed expressly to suit "The Courtier's Health." For many 
" Merry Boys of the times" had been accustomed to sing jocular 
parodies or " Mock-Songs" as they were called, on Davenant's 
melancholy ditty, by which, as Celania, Moll Davis (the parson's 
daughter and pretty actress) won the susceptible heart of Old Rowley, 
on a short lease, in 1668. The parody had reference to the corpu- 
lence of an actor who was cast for the lover, Pinguister, and Nell 
Gwynne sang the burlesque, as Mirida, in James Howard's All 
Mistaken; or the Mad Couple, before 1672 : — 

MY Lodging upon the cold floor is, and wonderful hard is ray fare, 
But that which troubles me more is the fatness of ray dear ! 

Yet still I do cry, " Oh melt, Love ! and I pr'y thee now melt apace ; 
For thou art the man I should long for, if 'twere not for thy grease," etc. 

Later in this volume we shall come to the broadside ballad, 
lengthened from the original song, as " The Slighted Maid or the 
Pining Lover," beginning, ""Was ever Maiden so scorned, by one 
that she loved so dear?" (Boxburghe Collection, II. 423: it is 
given with the notes, in Popidar Music, 527, 528), "We shall then 
add the remainder of the Mock-Song. But here is Henry Bold's 
Latinization of our Matt. Taubman's " Courtier's Health : " — 

% SLatfne Sonrj. 

PAteram prcebe spumantem, Gomer detur et semis, 

■*- Applaudet Natio, Et cadus ponatur 

JEgrefert Rebellantem, Salus Regis imprimis 

Cui vetus suasio, In Cyatho libatur. 

Fanaticos obligemus, Circum-circa novetur 

Qui sitiunt Sanguinem, Vinum nemo ncget, 

Censuram nos faciemus, Successions potetur, 

Eibentes super Unguem. Et series recta sit. 



90 



[Roxburghe Collection, II. 89 ; III. 395 ; Huth's, I. 39.] 

Cl)e Courtier's f^ealtl) ; 

©r, 

mtvvp Bop0 of tge "€imt^ 

f§Jc that lours Sack both notljmrr lack, 

3If ijE but 3Lcmal he ; 
$?c that Dcno's Bacchus' supplrjcs, 

Chains max Hypocrisie. 

To a new Tune [its own], Come, Boy es, fill us a Bumper; 
Or, My Lodging is on the Cold Ground. 




Here she stands, and fills it out amain : 

Says they, ' Let's have the t'other bout again ! ' 

COrae Boyes, fill us a Bumper, we'l make the Nation roare, 
She's grown sick of a Bumper that sticks on the old score. 
Pox on Phanaticks, rout 'um, they thirst for our blood ; 
"YVe'l Taxes raise without 'um, and drink for the Nation's good. 
Mil the Bottles and Gallons, and bring the Hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a Tallen l — a brimmer to the KING. 6 



1 Tallen (quibble on tall-one), or tall-boy, was the cant name for such high 
glasses as those still used in the North for "prime Edinboro' Ale," and until 
late years considered indispensable for champagne, before the old saucer-like 
classical shape was revived, to extend a bouquet under one's nostrils. Ozell 
has, in translating Rabelais, v. xlii., " She then ordered some cups, goblets and 
tall-boys of gold, silver, and crystal to be brought, and invited us to drink." 



The Merry Boys of the Times. 



91 



Round around, fill a fresh one, let no man bawk his Wine, 
We'l drink to the next in Succession, and keep it in the Eight 

Line. 
Bring us ten thousand glasses, the more we drink we'r a-dry ; 
We mind not the beautiful Lasses, whose Conquest lyes all in 
the eye. 
Charge the Pottles and Gallons, and bring the Hogshead in, 
We'l begin, with a Tallen, a brimmer to the King. 12 




WE Boyes are truly Loyal, for Charles we'l venture all, 
We know his blood is Royal, his Name shall never fall. 
But those who seek his ruine may chance to dye before him, 1 
While we, that Sack are wooing, for ever will adore him. 
Fill the Pottles and Gallons, and bring the Hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a Tallen, a Brimmer to the King. 18 

I hate those strange dissenters that strives to bawk a glass, 
He that at all Adventures will see what comes to pass. 
And let the Popish Faction disturb us if they can, 
They ne'r shall breed distraction in a true-hearted man. 
Fill the Pottles and Gallons, and bring the Hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a Tallen, a Brimmer to the King. 24 

1 This proved true of the chief enemy, Shaftesbury, who died at Amsterdam, 
21 January, lGSjj, two years and a month before the life of Charles II. ended. 



92 The Courtier's Health. 

Let the Phanaticks grumble, to see things cross their grain, 
We'l make them now more humble, or ease them of their pain : 
They shall drink Sack amain, too, or else they shall be choak't, 
We'l tell 'urn 'tis in vain, too, for us to be provok't. 
Fill the Pottles and Gallons, and bring the Hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a Tallen, " a Brimmer to the King ! " 30 

He that denyes the Brimmer, shall banish'd be in this Isle, 
And we will look more grimmer till he begins to smile : 
We'l drown him in Canary, and make him all our own, 
And when his Heart is merry, he'l drink to Charles in's Throne : 
Fill the Pottles and Gallons, and bring the Hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a Tallen, a Brimmer to the King ! 36 

Quakers and Anabaptist, we'l sink them in a glass ; 
He deals most plain and flattest that sayes he loves a Lass : 
Then tumble down Canary, and let your brains go round, 
For he that won't be merry, he can't at heart be sound. 
Fill the Pottles and Gallons, and bring the Hogshead in, 
We'l begin with a Tallen, a Brimmer to the KING ! 42 

Printed for P. Brooksby, at the Golden Ball, in West- Smith field. 

[First copy in Black-letter. Three woodcuts. Date, 1681. Second copy has 
no woodcuts, it is a White-letter reprint of later date, and omits the couplet, 

Here she stands and fills it out amain, 

Says they, "Let 's have the t'other Bout again ! "] 




93 



^onmout&'.s associates. 



" Sumuntur a conversantibus mores : et ut qusedam in contactos corporis vitia 
transiliuut, ita animus mala sua proximis tradit." — Seneca : De Ira, iii. 8. 



s 



IB JOHX FALSTAFF is not likely to have needed Seneca to 
teach him what his own observant nature would gather from per- 
sonal experience, but he tells us, almost paraphrastically, how " It 
is certain that either wise bearing or ignorant carriage is caught, as 
men take diseases, one of another : therefore, let men take heed of 
their company." — Second Part of King Henry IV. Act v. 

Admitting the truth of the saying, Noscitur ex sociis, we find no 
exception to the general rule in determining Monmouth's character 
by the base quality of his associates. They had been far from 
virtuous and select men in the early days of his Whetstone Park 
adventures, when killing a Beadle, or when slitting the nose of the 
libeller Sir John Coventry. (See Volume IV. pp. 520 to 527.) But 
the immaturity and animal spirits of youth might be pleaded for the 
excesses of that bygone time, and at least the comrades were brave 
young military sparks, who in after years would probably grow 
wiser. The later friendships of Monmouth were almost invariably 
evil. Chief among those men with whom he chose to pass his 
hours were Ford Lord Grey of Werk, Sir Thomas Armstrong, and 
Tom Thynne of Longleat : not one of whom was unstained by 
numerous acts of dishonour, licentiousness, and rebelliousness com- 
bined with treachery and ingratitude. These were the men whom 
Monmouth best liked, and who exerted a baneful influence upon 
him. We doubt whether there was ever any genuine friendship 
uniting him and Shaftesbury, on either side. It seems to have 
been nothing beyond selfishness in both : each believing that he 
was using the other as his own tool for ambitious schemes. They 
grew mutually dissatisfied as time wore on. 1 

We are told by James Macpherson that Monmouth was " constant 
in his friendships : " but this scarcely agrees with the truth that 

1 James Macpherson has analyzed his character : — " Monmouth, highly beloved 
by the populace, was a fit instrument to carry forward his [i.e. Shaftesbury's] designs. 
To a gracefulness which prejudiced mankind in his favour as soon as seen, he 
joined an affability which gained their love. Constant in his friendships, and 
just to his word, by nature tender, and an utter enemy to severity and cruelty ; 
active and vigorous in his constitution, he excelled in the manly exercises of the 
held. He was personally brave. He loved the pomp, and the very dangers of 
war ; but with these splendid qualities he was vain to a degree of folly, versatile 
in his measures, weak in his understanding. He was ambitious without dignity, 
busy without consequence, attempting ever to be artful but always a tool. Thus, 
taking the applause of the multitude for a certain mark of merit, he was the dupe of 
his own vanity, andowedall his misfortunes to that weakness." — Hist., 1776, i. 179 . 



94 The League of Dishonour among Monmouth's Associates. 

such friendly sentiments did not ever hinder him from indulgence in 
illicit passion and intrigue with Lord Grey's wife ; or the ruin of 
Armstrong's military career; or the employment of Tom Thynne in 
the deliberate atrocity of debauching Miss Trevor under a contract 
of marriage. Still less accurate is it of James Macpherson to declare 
that Monmouth was "just to his word:" on the contrary, he really 
broke every promise and vow that he ever made, and although 
obstinately retentive of his own courses, instead of being swayed by 
duty or gratitude, he, like most weak men, acted with the grossest 
dissimulation ; to William of Orange, to Charles II., and several 
others. His own wife and the Duke of York he outraged without 
disguise, we admit, but in these exceptional cases the absence of 
concealment scarcely lessened the injury. 

Of Ford Lord Grey we delay a detailed account until he comes 
more prominently before us in preparing the failure of the Western 
Insurrection. But his name continually occurs during previous 
years, and always for mischief. His pusillanimity when challenged 
by Captain Sarsfield prepares us for his utter baseness and cowardice 
in leaving his troops endangered near Lyme in 1685, and his 
treachery in again fleeing from the battle at Sedgemoor. His 
depravity in seducing his wife's sister, Lady Henrietta Berkeley, 
brought about the scandal of a public trial; and the notoriety of the 
same wife holding adulterous connection with Monmouth, tacitly 
submitted to by the husband, leave nothing incomplete in the way 
of dishonour that is not fulfilled amply by the fact of his after 
treachery to Monmouth, which secured his own exemption from 
punishment, and the crowning degradation of being rewarded for 
his villanies by the favour of William III. 

Of Sir Thomas Armstrong much has to be recorded in connection 
with the events following the discovery of the Bye-House Plot, one 
among which is his own execution. 

There remains only Tom Thynne, and, since we have a Boxburghe 
Ballad on his assassination, we take the opportunity of dismissing 
him at this place. The proximate cause of his death having been 
his ill-omened marriage with Lady Ogle, we here give a hitherto 
unprinted poem on her history, briefly annotating it, but leaving 
the full explanation to the immediately succeeding pages. Our 
manuscript version of " Ogle's History" deserves preservation. It 
was certainly written before the death of Thynne, and therefore this 
historical document should precede the Boxburghe Ballad on his 
murder. 

Colonel Brett had been in collusion with Tom Thynne, to secure 
the lady's fortune to be added to that of the Longleat libertine. 
The Earl of Essex plainly hinted at Thynne having bribed the 
Colonel and Lady Ogle's grandmother to use their influence or 
authority over her. (See Introduction to the ballad on the 



Bribery and Corruption of Brctts and Potters. 95 

murder: p. 106.) Thynne's intimacy with the Eretts had already- 
continued some time, even to the stirring of gossip, for we find in a 
manuscript satire of this date, beginning "Let Talmish preach to 
his dull simple crowd," the following mention of Thynne desiring 
to wed Lady Ogle, after the death of Kate Brett : 

Let Carolina be the Count's abode, 

And Oates be usher'd down the Tyburn road ; 

Let Thinn want Ogle, now Kate Brett is dead ; 

And How be pleased with th' old Bawd Hewet's bed ; [Jack Howe. 

Let 3Ianchester defile his daughter Ann, 

And Duhnan Macklesjield do all he can ; 

Let Sydley be their learned Orator, 

And Bradbury their great solicitor ; 

Let Pruda Poultney bawd for all the tribe ; 

And villain Wildman honest men proscribe ; 

Let Nevill complement in Dialogues, [N- Payne. 

Ireton and Forbes be thought Demagogues. Etcetera. 

(Robert Montague, third Earl of Manchester, married Anne Yelverton : their 
daughter Anne was third wife of James Howard, third Earl of Suffolk. Maccles- 
field is Charles Gerard, the first Earl. Sedley is Sir Charles Sedlcy. To lawyer 
Bradbury, John Wildman, and Ireton's son Henry, we return in the Bye-House 
Plot Group. For James Forbes, see p. 217.) 

A grossly licentious poem entitled " Epistle from E[arl] of 0\_gle\ 
to Col. B[_rett\ " begins " The Man, dear Bret, that wears a condom." 
It is avowedly an Imitation of Horace, Ode xxii. Lib. 1. It had 
certainly shown the popular estimate of Colonel Brett's impurity. 
He afterwards married the notorious Countess of Macclesfield, mother 
of the ill-fated Bichard Savage. She had been divorced in 1696, 
on account of her infidelities with Earl Bivers and others. To 
marry such a woman might be thought punishment enough, even 
for such a man as Brett, but she was rich, and willing to connive 
at his continued libertinism : instanced by her good-humouredly 
wrapping her kerchief over her husband's head, when she found 
him asleep in a chair alongside her waiting-maid. 

Another person connected by mercenary considerations with the 
ill-omened marriage was Mrs. Jane Botter. Tom Thynne had bribed 
her to lend assistance, giving her a bond and engagement to pay 
her £500 within ten days after his marriage with Lady Ogle, under 
a penalty of £1000 if he delayed redemption. After Thynne's 
murder, Jane Botter having been left a widow, she claimed the 
full penalty from Thynne's executors, Thomas Hull of Bradford 
being one. They resisted payment, on plea of the marriage being 
not more than a contract, but the law decided against them. 
Bepeated appeals gave alternate success, but finally compelled 
Mistress Jane to yield the bond and bear the costs. The lawyers 
of the day made fortunes out of the squabble over this infamous 
bond of "booby Thynne," some of whose thousands were thus 
buried strangely in the Potter's field. 



96 

[Trowbesh Quarto MSS., XXIII. 24.] 

A "Widow young, whose name is Bess, 
Whose Birth and Fortune are no less 

Than Beauty, that the whole world knows 

Except the redness of her Nose, 

At first did marry a great man, 1 

Although no higher than a span ; 

Whose Stature mateh'd her Love so well, 

That which was least you cannot tell : 

For tho' this Inch of Man she'd wed, 

She wish'd another in her Bed. 10 

Wit's the object of her flame, 

While Ogle only had the name, 

Whose fate it was oft to embrace 

An absent Wife ; for in her place 

Her Body he did always find, 

But never cou'd enjoy her mind. 

At last kind Heaven did decree 
To set 'em both at Liberty. 
Poor Ogle dy'd, and with his life 

Left seeming sad his Maiden wife : 20 

For what sh' had lost not so much vext, 
As cui'ious who shoiCcl he the next ? 

Her friends, by whose discreet advice 
She did seem both coy and nice, 
Receive from none proffers of Love 
But whom their wisdom did approve. 
These friends, with all ambitious Pride, 
Wou'd have her lay all thoughts aside 
Of any Subject, and sit down [Ms. "object." 

Content with nothing but a Crown ! 30 

When our great Senate first was hot 
About the horrid Popish Plot, 
'Twas moved, as a means to prevent 
All future fear and discontent, 



1 Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle, son and heir of Henry, Duke of Newcastle, 
was the first husband of Elizabeth Percy. He was born about 1667 ; married 
her in 1680, and died in the same year. Dorothy, Countess Dowager of Sunder- 
land (Waller's Saccharissa), described him in a letter written to Henry Sydney, 
on March 12, 1679 : — " My Lord Ogle does prove the saddest creature of all kinds 
that could have been found fit to be named for my Lady Percy ; as ugly as any 
thing young can be." — Earl Rodney' 's Diary, i. 302. 



Lady Ogle's History. 97 

The Queen shou'cl lead a private life, 

And Rowley take another wife. [ = Charles n. 

Then our Young Widow they propose : 

Heart with pride and gladness glows ! 

In shoals her kindred flock unto her, 

And for preferments 'gan to woo her. 40 

She wou'd have all advanc'd and serv'd, 

And left behind none unprefer'd ; 

But there was of them such a crew, 

All the Employments were too few. 

This will not let her be at ease, 

For all, 'twas plain, she cou'd not please. 

But while her thoughts were at a strife, 
What she shou'd do when once a Wife, 
How she shou'd act her Royal part, 

When Mistress of our Monarch's heart, 50 

The King this Riddle did unfold, 
For he his Senate plainly told, 
" Tho' twenty kingdoms were at stake, 
His Queen he never wou'd forsake." 
Thus Fortune's Wheel, giving a slip, 
Quite o'erturn'd her hope of Queenship. 

She now being fall'n one degree 
From her own wish'd-for Majesty, 
Her friends, unwilling to give over, 

Stuck hard to get her Prince Hanover : x 60 

But whether she did not look well, 
Her face was dirty, I can't tell, 
The Prince wou'd not do her the honor 
To cast one glancing look upon her. 
Prince Inspruck did more courtly prove ; 2 
Made her two visits, talk'd of Love, 
Extoll'd her Beauty and her Wit ; 
But, in conclusion, thought it fit 
Without ingagement to retire : 
So she was left like one i' th' mire. 70 

The King and both the Princes gone, 
Men of all meaner Rank came on : 
And now advances in the List 
A bold one-ey'd Antagonist. [ = count Konigsmarck. 

1 This is curious. The Elector George of Hanover is meant, who was born in 
May, 16G0, and, through Anne's customary treachery to all family affection, came 
to be in 1714 our George I. Thus, if the statements in " Ogle's History" be 
true, " Betsy " had two chances of being made by marriage Queen of England. 

2 We have not followed the trail of this Tyrolean Prince Iunspruck, one among 
her many suitors. The Princess of Oost Eriese's son was also named. 

vol. v. H 



98 Lady Ogle's History. 

As Archers, shooting for a Prize, 

Always shut close one of their eyes, 

That they may better take their aym 

And be the surer of their game : 

So that this Blade might never miss, 

He quite had put out one of his ; 80 

But by a very great mistake 

It was the right one, that did make 

Him shoot at random, and so wide, 

Most of his Arrows fell aside. 

One had the fortune tho', to hit 

The Lady in a lucky fit ; 

Made her feel pleasure with some smart, 

And wounded her to th' very heart. 

Her kindred now began to fret, 
Swearing by this they nothing get ; 90 

That he was Loyal, and wou'd be 
A strong support to Monarchy : 
So they resolv'd, 'twixt one another, 
To keep about this a vile puther ; 

See her and tell her many a lye, [ms. "Fee her." 

Of him, and his whole family : 
Till that, for ease and quiet' sake, 
She did this solemn promise make, 
" Be satisfy'd, the Day's your own, 

And I will quietly lay down 100 

All thought of ever being content, 
Since that can't be with your consent. 
I cannot happy be without him, 
But such a stir you keep about him 
That to Mankind, for his dear sake, 
I here a long Adieu do make : 
And, since I can't have him alone, 
I am resolv'd I will have done." 
This said, she to her Chamber went, 

To give her fiery passion vent. 110 

This grief, which her swolne heart opprest, 
Wou'd never let her be at rest, 
Till, overflowing without spies, 
It found a passage through her eyes. 

Thrice happy they, whose kinder Fate 
Gives but the tythe of her Estate ! 
They may with safety own their mind, 
And seldom opposition find : 
But our rich Heiress must not chuse ; 
Neither, who[m] they prefer'd, refuse. 120 



Lady Ogle's History. 99 

For now the Bretts l do think it fit 
That Birth to Fortune shou'd submit ; 
That Title's but an empty sound, 
True Honor no where to be found : 
But whore is Wealth ? — there Somerset, 2 
Kingston, Northumberland, Thanet, 
Are all contain'd and sum'd up in 

This one poor silly name, T. T. [= Tom Thynne. 

For he has mon[e]y, and no wit, 

Therefore to serve their turns more fit. 130 

A Broomeyean 3 too, may they find 
Him, like the growth of all that kind, 
False and deceitful ; play the Fool 
Then on with hopes [,till], now at school, 4 
His Nephew shall be brought to smile 
Upon their sister Lady Boyle : 6 
But when by their dissembling Art 

He's master quite o' th' Lady's heart, [He= Thynne. 

May he their kindness then repay 
As they do Ogle the same way. 140 



1 See, on the Bretts, Colonel and Kate, pp. 94, 95, and 104. 

2 It was a strange coincidence, to find in this poem, written before February, 
168^, the name of Charles Duke of Somerset; seeing that he afterwards became 
her husband. Robert, second Lord Kingston, who had succeeded in 1676. The 
Earl, afterwards Duke, of Northumberland here mentioned was George Fitz- 
roy, the Duchess of Cleveland's third son to Charles II., raised to the title in 
1674. Thomas Tufton, sixth Earl of Thanet, had kept dangling after Lady 
Henrietta Maria Wentworth (to be supplanted in favour by Monmouth). He is 
mentioned, along with Lewis Duras, in a Ballad to the tune of Chevy Chase 
(= " Come all you youths that yet are free "), in the eighth verse : — 

Great Feversham and Thanet too 

are out of Wentivorth 's books ; 
For somebody has done her due, 

and she in August looks. [i.e., prolific in harvest. 

3 Brummagem = false coin, base metal : see pp. 668 of vol. iv. Thynne bcinp: 
ignoble (although ready for toad-eating, and tuft-hunting after half -nobles), would 
indulge in low spiteful railing at those who bore hereditary honours, as the 
"unearned increment of other men's toil:" he himself spent others' wealth. 

4 We venture, hesitatingly, to suggest a few changes, for something is wrong 
in the text, which reads thus: "False and deceitful; may the Fool Then on 
with hopes now at school His Nephew," etc. A word has certainly dropt after 
"hopes"— perhaps ivhile, or lur'd, or till. "May" was probably mis-written 
for play, or ply. This is merely guess-work. The said nephew of ' ' Tom of Ten 
Thousand " was Sir Thomas Thynne, son of Sir Henry Frederick Thynne of 
Kempsford, and succeeded to Longleat, on the murder of Tom ; he was elevated 
to the peerage in the following December as Baron Thynne of "Warminster and 
Viscount Weymouth. But he married Frances, daughter of Heneage Finch, 
second Earl of Winchilsea ; and not Lady Boyle whom the satirist indicates. 

8 Probably Elizabeth, Lady Boyle, whom Richard Boyle, 2nd Earl of Cork, 
1st Earl of Burlington, mentions in a letter dated July, 1682. 



100 Lady Ogle's History. 

But hold, my Muse, why say'st thou " When? " 
I hope that time will ne'er be seen 
That so much Beauty, Youth, and "Wit 
Shall to so dull a thing submit : 
A man who scarce has sense to think, 
Whose soul is rotten, breath doth stink ; 
With whom (he is so dull a Post) 
The end of marriage will be lost ; 
(For Trevor's Brat did prove to be 
Got by a better man than he.) ' 150 

Ah ! then, be wary, while you may 
And do not blindly throw away 
Your self, nor fill with grief your friends, 
To see you sacrific'd for th' ends 
Of those who [Ve] the picture of Long Leet, 
Expos'd to view, in hopes you'll stake 
[What is your own, for their vile sake.] 
To purchase such a House : no less 
Than all your Wealth and Happiness. 

But, Madam, you will suffer most, 2 
Your fame will be for ever lost ; 1 60 

Your wisdom doubted ; for 'tis known 
To your discerning ear alone, 
Her Father when his last he breath'd 
Your Grandchild prudently bequeathed. 
And how do you this trust perform ? 
How do you keep her safe from harm, 



1 We must take cum rjrano the insinuation of Tom Thynne having been incap- 
able of the paternity of Mistress "Trevor's Brat," seeing that it was accredited 
to him, and we believe the allegation was never disproved. Fools often become 
fathers, or the population would soon decrease at uo^drunqi.io^ - The probability 
of the ill-assorted couple renewing their intercourse (after Thynne's entrapping 
the heiress Elizabeth Lady Ogle into marriage), of itself shows that the satirist 
scarcely believes his allegation of defect. We suppose Anne Trevor to be the 
lady mentioned ; and if so she found a better husband in the Rt. Hon. Michael 
Hill, M.P., to whom she bore two sons, the eldest being named Trevor Viscount 
Hillsborough, father of the first Marquis of Downshire. Perhaps the disputed 
" brat'' was this very Trevor (his mother's maiden family name, she being sole 
daughter and heiress of Sir John Trevor, Master of the Bolls, etcetera). But 
not unless he were born before March, 168i. 

2 Clever though this poem be, to our mind, and throwing a clear light on many 
minute circumstances of the Mariage de conrenance which the bribed Colonel 
Brett and Dowager Countess of Northumberland arranged with "the Golden Ass" 
Tom of Ten Thousand, it has a confusion near the end in the persons addressed. 
We suppose lines 141 to 150 to be addressed to the Muse ; then lines 151 to 158 
are directpd to the second-time wedded Lady Ogle; lastly, line 159 to the end 
apostrophizes her grandmother, the Lady Elizabeth Percy [nee Howard). 



Lady Ogle's History. 101 

If your connivance bring to pass 

Her marriage with this Golden Ass ? 

Think what a stain to th' Pierces Bace, 

What a Dishonor, what Disgrace ! 170 

That such their Blood shou'd mingled be [*•«• the Thynne?. 

"With yours that springs from Boyalty. 1 

But if such thoughts ha' n't pow'r to make 

You this pretended Marriage break, 

Then from a Prophet, or a Friend, ["Then for," in MS. 

Learn what misfortune will attend. 

Your Grandchild marry'd, writings seal'd and sign'd, 
All will be settled, but her restless mind. 
Too late she'l in his carriage find more flaws 
Than Lawyers do in writings, a*d with cause 180 

Shall of his little love to her complain, 
And his too much for others, tho' in vain. 
Then he, like Rogues who having cut a purse 
Cry " Stop Thief! " first, begin to fret and curse ; 
Suspect her kindness ; and then, jealous grown, 
Lay to her charge those crimes which are his own. 
This done, he from the lewdness of the Town 
Takes a pretence, and fairly sends her down 
Into the Country : where, 'twixt Pride and Bage, 
She lingers out the Summer of her Age 2 
In silence ; while with hopes of pleasure fed 
He takes the injur'd Trevor to his Bed. 
If you shou'd be concern'd or mov'd at this, 
He'l tell you, plainly, Ogle now is his : 
" Henceforth you may your needless trouble spare ! " 
And once more send you to St. James's Scpuare. a 

[Date, certainly between December, 1C80, and February, 168^.] 



1 She being by birth a Howard, daughter of Theophilus, second Earl of 
Suffolk, who died 3 June, 1640. Lady Ogle's mother, Elizabeth Cavendish (nee 
Wriothesley), having made a second marriage (with Lord Montagu), the girl 
had been thrown into the guardianship of her own paternal grandmother. 

2 As did the second wife of Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, Lady Elizabeth Butler, 
whom he sent to the Peak, and was believed to have poisoned in sacramental wine. 

3 The Countess of Northumberland's residence was in St. James's Square. 

* # * In the seventh edition of The Dancing Master, 1686, Appendix, No. 8, is 
music exactly fitting this hitherto-uupriiited " Lady Ogle's History," the tuue 
being named "Lady Catherine Ogle: a new Dance." The alteration of name 
from "Bess" to " Catherine" may have been made to avoid legal difficulties. 
Tom D'Urfey wrote words to the same tune, farther disguising the name as 
Catherine 0;/;/>/, or Oijee : a Scotch song still popular as "Catharine Ogie." 
The tune is northern in character, appropriate for this Northumberland Beauty, 
ami will be jjiven iu the new edition of Popular Music. 



102 



C6e apatdrfess burner of Com C&pnne* 



M« 



" Tom of Ten Thousand is come in, 
Sure such a Hero much will win, 
On sculls as thick as his is Thin : 
Believe it!" 

—Bagford Ballads : The Wiltshire Ballad, 1G80. 



.(XNLIY in England will purchase nearly everything, as is well 
known, and " Tom of Ten Thousand " per annum had managed to 
surround himself at his princely seat of Longleat in Wiltshire with 
the usual circle of sycophants and toad-eaters, who earned their 
wages by flattering his inordinate vanity, before he attempted to 
swell himself into a politician at London, by accompanying the 
Earl of Shaftesbury and a dozen other disaffected Lords or Com- 
mons to the Court of King's Bench in June, 1680, then and there 
to present the Duke of York with the Duchess of Portsmouth as 
Popish Recusants. But the Duchess soon made her peace with 
these time-serving enemies, and their full malice was exerted against 
the " Popish Successor." As mentioned elsewhere, the rest were 
the Earl of Huntingdon, Lords Grey of Werk, William Russell 
(Bedford's son), Cavendish, and Brandon; of Baronets or Knights, 
Sir Edward Hungerford, Henry Calverley, Gilbert Gerard, "William 
Cowper, and Scroop Howe ; with a few untitled M.P.s., William 
Eorrester for Wenlock, John Trenchard for Taunton, and reprobate 
Tom Wharton for Buckinghamshire. Thynne mis-represented Wilts, 
as he previously had inadequately represented Oxford University 
in an earlier parliament. Having ample means to lavish, and win 
praise for hospitality, he ostentatiously played the host to Monmouth 
in his "Western Progress of 1680. He did his best to help onward 
an insurrection, although fortunately he did not live long enough 
to see the disastrous failure of Sedgemoor. He was a Turncoat, 
moreover, for he had earlier been attached to the Duke of York's 
interest, and a gentleman of his bedchamber ; had been sent on a 
congratulatory mission to Dunkirk in 1669, after having been 
nominally entrusted with a mission to the States in 1667. 

No two English etymologists agree. We may take or leave ad lib. 
the explanation, plausible enough and probably correct, that the old 
name Lange-lete is derived from leat (=lade, or lead, as in Scottish 
Mill -lead, a mill-race), signifying a water-course. Sir John Thynne, 
who died in 1580, had in 1540 bought the site of the old Priory of 
Lange-lete. It had been sold to the Crown, in 1539, by Sir John 
Horsey, of Clifton Maulbank, Dorsetshire. This Thynne was 
Secretary to the Earl of Hertford, afterwards Duke of Somerset, 
who, when he rose to be Protector during Edward VI. 's reign, 
favourably remembered his former Secretary. Knighthood reached 
him in 1547, after the Battle of Musselborough Field, in Scotland. 



A tear supposed to be shed for Tom TJnjnne. IOC 

The ground whereon the "cell of Long-lcat " had once been, and 
also part of the Glastonbury estates, thus came to the Thynnes. 
There is an old local rhyme : — 

Horner, Popham, Wyndham, and Thynne, 
When the Abbot came out, then they came in. 

The architect of the noble building is believed to have been John of 
Padua (see p. 110) : too good a shell for such a grub as Tom Thynne 
to nestle in. Nevertheless, he hoped to add field to field by a rich 
marriage, and great preparations were made in re-furnishing, but 
here the Parcce intervened. 

Of Tom Thynne's private doings we know quite enough to make 
impossible all regret for his removal from life. The having been 
murdered is an insufficient plea to lift into celebrity the treacherous 
unloving seducer of Miss Trevor ; the frivolous flashy wooer, against 
her liking, and the half-husband of Lady Ogle ; the loose com- 
panion and evil adviser of Monmouth ; the ridiculed " Fool Thynne " 
of many a poetic squib and ballad ; the Issachar of Dryden's satire, 
Absalom and Achito2)hel (Issachar biblically representing " a strong 
Ass couching down between two burdens : " Wealth and Folly) : 
the " safe and senseless Tom Thynne " of Earl Rochester's satire. 
On this Tom appears to have been written the tersely appropriate 

lEpicjram. 

WHEN I was young I then had no wit ; 
'Tis a great while ago, and I have none yet : 
I think I shall ne're have none till I dye, 
For the longer I live the more Fool am I ! 

Considerable stir was made at his death in February, 168^-, 
owing to the circumstances of audacious violence from hired bravoes ; 
their employer being Count Johann von Konigsmark. Thynne was 
shot at, and mortally wounded by one assassin, while riding in his 
coach through Pali-Mall. As he often had ridden in company of 
Monmouth, the first rumour interpreted the attack to have been 
with intent to slay the Duke. This was soon proved to be utterly 
false, but Monmouth felt indignant at the murder of his companion, 
and never rested until the culprits were brought to justice. The 
execution of the three assailants, the brave Captain Vratz, a German, 
the Swede Stern, and the Polander Borotski, helped for awhile to 
keep Thynne's name remembered in coffee-house gossip. But it is 
extremely doubtful whether a tear was shed for him in affectionate 
regret, save by his associate Monmouth. John Evelyn and Sir John 
Reresby did their utmost, in view of the sudden slaughter, to mani- 
fest something resembling respect. Not even Whig partizan zeal in 
modern times is able to successfully accomplish the apotheosis of 
Lady Ogle's persecutor ; whose hand she had been forced to take 
by her mother and Colonel Brett, although unwillingly, but whose 



104 One more intruder at the Westminster WalhaUa, 

embraces she could in nowise tolerate. Accompanying Lady Temple, 
wife of our ambassador Sir "William, she fled to Holland on purpose 
to avoid any consummation of the marriage. This was a few days 
before Thynne was slain at the bidding of another pretender to her 
hand, the Count Kiinigsniark, in revenge for his rival's success, 
and hopefulness of supplanting him if once removed. Well might 
London wits give to the sham-husband this mocking 

ISpftapfj. 
[ERE lies Tom Thynne of Longleat-Hatt, 



w 



Who never would have miscarried 
Had he married the woman he lay withal, 
Or lain with the woman he married. 

This Epitaph, with Horace "Walpole's commentary (see next page) 
and the earlier lines by Dryden on Thynne as Issachar, 1 will outlast 
the expensive white-marble monument at "Westminster Abbey, which 
family pomp and political affectation erected to his memory. His 
successor, Sir Thomas (created Baron Thynne and Viscount Wey- 
mouth), and his executor Thomas Hall of Bradford set this up. 
It represents Thynne at full length, semi-recumbent, and semi- 
disrobed, with full-bottomed periwig and a weeping Cupid. The 
assassins around the coach are shown on a bas-relief below. 

It was unkind of the dull metallic medicine, lead, to disagree 
with Thynne's digestion. If Count Karl Johann von Konigsmark 
himself had been hanged for the murder, it might have been 
satisfactory, or if each had slain one another comfortably in a duel. 
But most people of judgement must have begrudged the sacrifice of 
such a soldier as Captain Vratz, to appease the shabby Monmouth 
faction in the name of justice. Pemberton and North helped to 
save Count Konigsmark at the trial. He had been here on an 
embassy, and the other ambassadors petitioned in his favour ; besides 
the Court felt willing to extend clemency so far as possible. 
He declared, with the likelihood of it being true, that he had twice 
challenged Thynne, for impertinence ; but, instead of meeting him 
abroad, Thynne had sent six ruffians to slay him and his friend 
Vratz : they saved their own lives by killing two of the assailants. 
Acquitted and free, Konigsmark entered the Venetian service ; was 
sent into Greece as second in command of an expedition, and fell 
at the siege of Argos, August 29th, 1686. By entanglement in 
Thynne's murder he had lost caste, as he admitted that it was "a 
stain on his blood ; yet such as a good action in the wars, or a 
lodgement on the counter-scarp, would wash out." 

1 But hospitable treats did most commend 
"Wise Issachar, his wealthy Western friend. (See Vol. IV. p. 623.) 
Of course " wise " is prefixed in irony : lucus a non' t lucendo. Tom Thynne 
gave Monmouth his fine set of Oldenburg coach-horses. 



Tom Thynne between Trevor and Ogle. 105 

Lady Ogle, the beautiful heiress, and only daughter of Jocelyn 
Percy, eleventh Earl of Northumberland, and of Lady Elizabeth 
"Wriothesley his wife, youngest daughter of the Earl of Southampton, 
was by birth the Lady Elizabeth Percy : in early girlhood married 
to Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle, who assumed her name of Percy. 

The ugly story about Miss Trevor is memorable as a clear 
indication of the terms on which Monmouth stood with the un- 
principled Tom Thynne, and it does not lack contemporary corro- 
boration. Regarding the Epitaph already quoted, " Here lies Tom 
Thynue of Longleat Hall," Horace "Walpole explains : 

" Two anecdotes are attached to these lines. Miss Trevor, one of the Maids of 
Honour to Catharine of Portugal, wife of Charles the Second, having discovered 
the Duke of Monmouth in bed with a lady, the Duke excited Mr. Thynne to 
seduce Miss Trevor. She was the woman he lay withal. The woman he married 
was the great heiress, to whom he was affianced, when he was killed by Count 
Coningsmark in Pall Mall.'' — Reminiscences of the Court, etc. 

Lawrence Eachard describes her, unnamed, as "a Lady noted for her modesty 
and virtue, who had bravely resisted the temptations of a vicious Court, and 
more particularly the courtship of the Duke of Monmouth, as being a marry'd 
man. The Duke, inraged at the disappointment," employed Thynne to betray 
and abandon her. — History, p. 1019. 

We suppose this Miss Trevor to have been Anne, daughter of Sir 
John Trevor, of Brynkinalt, Secretary of State under Lord Arlington 
in 1680, and chosen Speaker of the Commons in 1685. There was 
a child by Miss Trevor (see our p. 100, Note 1 and a later page). 
Sir John Reresby suggestively mentions the wronged lady, thus : — 

January 2, 168|. — I dined that day with my Lord Halifax at my Lord 
Conway's, Principal Secretary of State. I acquainted the King and my Lord 
Halifax at the same time with an affidavit made before me as a Justice of the 
Peace, the same day, concerning a pre-contract between Mr. Thynne and Mistress 
Trevor, before his marriage with my Lady Northumberland. For there were 
endeavours to 'null the said marriage, it not having been consummated, and my 
Lady Northumberland having fled from Mr. Thynne into Holland. At all which 
the Court was not dissatisfied, the husband being one that had opposed its interest 
and engaged himself in that of the Duke of Monmouth. — Memoirs of Sir John 
Reresby, James J. Cartwright's edition, 1875, p. 230. Thynne's command in the 
Wiltshire Militia had already been taken from him by Lord Conway (Nov. 19, 
1681), and given to Colonel Penruddock. 

January 3. — I gave the King a copy of the affidavit which he had commauded 
me to prepare the day before. — Ibid. 

Early in February " there were several motions this term at the 
King's Bench bar by Counsel in behalf of Thomas Thynne, Esqre., 
in relation to the estate which he claims by the riyht of his ivife, the 
Lady Ogle : but it is put off to the next term." 

Thus matters were in train to legally free Lady Ogle from her 
unwelcome encumbrance, had Konigsmark not interfered with his 
gang of murderers to take a shorter way, but one that made 
his own chance hopeless thereafter. He misunderstood our nation. 

It could have been only in the irony of fate that so bright and 
beautiful a creature as the future Duchess of Somerset, wife of 



106 Lady Ogle escapes from her Second Husband. 

" the proud Earl," was even for a day fastened in wedlock's 
bands to Tom of Ten Thousand. Some scandalous trickery on the 
part of her own grandmother, Lady Elizabeth Howard, the old 
Countess of Northumberland, had been employed by Thynne to 
gain her as his wife, and secure possession of her fortune when she 
came of age. 1 She owned six old baronies, viz., Percy, Lucy, 
Poynings, Fitz-Payne, Bryan, and Latimer. John Evelyn records the 
Earl of Essex's disclaimer of being an accessory in this transaction : 

15th Nov., 1681. — I din'd with ye Earle of Essex, who after dinner in his 
study, where we were alone, related to me how much he had hen scandalized and 
injur'd in the report of his being privy to the marriage of his Lady's niece 
ye rich young widow of the late Lord Ogle, sole daughter of ye E[arle] of 
Northumberland; shewing me a letter of Mr. Thynne s excusing himselfe for 
not communicating his marriage to his Lordship. He acquainted me also with 
the whole story of that unfortunate Lady being betrayed by her grandmother, the 
Countesse of Northumberland, and Col[onel] Bret, for money ; and that tho', 
upon the importunity of the Duke of Monmouth, he [Essex] had delivered to 
the grandmother a particular of the jointure which 3tr. Thynne pretended he 
would settle on the lady, yet he totally discourag'd ye proceeding, as by no means 
a competent match for one that both by birth and fortune might bave pretended 
to the greatest prince in Christendom ; that he also proposed the Earle of 
Kingston, or the Lord Cranburn, but was by no means for Mr. Thynne. — Diary, 
ii. 386, Bickers' s 1879 edition. 

A week earlier she had fled to Holland, expressly to avoid 
the loathsome companionship of her contracted persecutor. Henry 
Sydney was of service to her, and writes, " The greatest business I 
had then on my hands was about my Lady Ogle. The 7th of 
November [1681] I went with her on board the yacht, and 
conducted her below Gravesend, and came back and told my story 
to the King, who was well pleased." After Thynne's death an 
express was sent into Holland to recall her, and she came " attended 
with many servants." Wherever she went, her great wealth excited 
the hopes of adventurous suitors, and it is not improbable that her 
fancy had really been caught by the handsome person and insinuating 
manners of Count Konigsmark. She was in her fourteenth year, 
and had already been nominally a widow for more than a twelve- 
month ; her first husband (Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle, son and 
heir of Henry, Duke of Newcastle,) having died in 1680. To him 
she had been married when only twelve years old, her birth having 
been in 1667. Thynne being murdered in February, 168-1-, left her 
again free, and rejoicingly so. On the 30th of the following May, 
at Montague House, she married Charles Seymour, the sixth Earl of 

1 There was not only bribery of Colonel Brett and the old Countess, but a 
conspiracy and subornation of servants. So late as the 11th of January, 
169f, the House of Lords was engaged reversing "a decree of the Lord Keeper 
against Mrs. Potter for £500, which she had obtained of Mr. Hawse, executor of 
Mr. Thynne, who gave her a bond for the said moneys in case he married the 
Lady Ogle, which he did."— Luttrell's Brief Relation, iv. 4. Compare our p. 95. 



The Proud Earl of Somerset's tiro Wives. 107 

Somerset, she being then little beyond fifteen, and he of not more 
than twenty years. A golden-haired blonde, in the perfection of her 
beauty, she evidently loved her stately, dark, handsome husband. 
She shared many of his ideas, but her own pride never became 
offensive like his notorious arrogance, which was so excessive as to 
become ridiculous. Anecdotes are numerous in regard to this, such 
as the rebuke administered by a countryman, who, while driving a 
pig, had been ordered to stand aside — "My Lord Duke is coming 
and does not choose to be looked upon!" to which he answered, 
lifting his pig to the carriage-window, "But I will see him, and 
my Pig shall see him too ! " Also, that, when his second wife, 
Lady Charlotte Finch (daughter of Daniel, Earl of Winchilsea), 
in 1725, had playfully tapped his shoulder with her fan, he had 
haughtily told the bride, " Madam, my first wife was a Percy, and 
she never took such a liberty ! " Dean Swift wrote that " he had 
not a grain of good judgement, hardly common sense;" but Swift 
was evidently prejudiced against Somerset, desiring his downfall. 

In our Collection of Manuscript Satires is " Ogles History," 
beginning, " A Widow young, whose name was Bess" already 
given, on p. 96. It is of date 1681. On p. 110 is another libel. 

She had other and earlier slanderers than Swift, for in the 
manuscript satire, beginning " You Scribblers that writ of Widdowes 
and Maids," and entitled "Lady FretchweWs song of the Wives," are 
these malicious lines upon her, evidently written in 1682, soon 
after her third marriage ; the tune is the ever-popular Paclcington' 1 s 
Pound: — marked as Four able Physicians have lately come down : — 

Great titles of Honour wee all doe adore, 

And 'twas this very title made Ogle a o.ioqAV : 

For the name of a Dutchess had so taken place 

That she lay with her Count, tho' she marri'd his Grace. 

And Albemarle can dispense with her man, 
Now she's marri'd a Duke, let him help't if he can. 

Another, of much later date, 1711, and on the same lady, was 
written by Dean Swift (as he himself boasts to Stella). He was 
not left unpunished for the libel, but is believed to have suffered 
under the supposition that he wrote it, even to the losing the 
the Bishopric of Hereford in consequence ; as the story goes that 
the victim of tho satire took it to Queen Anne and implored her not 
to allow the author of so virulent an insult to be raised to the Bench. 
It deserves a place here in connection with Tom Thynne. Swift 
wrote, moreover, in 1713, concerning this lady and himself: — 

Now angry Somerset her vengeance vows 

On Swift's reproaches for her [murder' d] spouse ; [Thynne. 

From her red locks her mouth with venom rills, 

And thence into the lloyal ear instils. 

The Queen, incens'd, his services forgot, 

Leaves him a victim to the vengeful Scot. [Argyle. 



108 



"About three months ago, at Windsor, a poor Knight's widow was buried in 
the cloisters. In digging the grave, the sexton struck against a small 
leaden coffer, about half a foot in length, and four inches wide. The poor man, 
expecting he had discovered a treasure, opened it with some difficulty ; but 
found only a small parchment rolled up very fast, put into a leathern case ; 
which case was tied at the top, and sealed with a St. George, the im- 
pression in black wax, very rude and gothick. The parchment was carried 
to a gentleman of learning, who found in it the following lines, written in 
a black d\A-English letter, and in the orthography of the age, which seems 
to be about two hundred years ago. I made a shift to obtain a copy of it ; 
but the transcriber, I find, hath in many parts altered the spelling to the 
modern way. The original, as I am informed, is now in the hands of 

Dr. W [no doubt Warburton], F.R.S., where, I suppose, the curious will 

not be refused the satisfaction of seeing it. 

" The lines seem to be a sort of Prophecy, and written in verse, as old prophecies 
usually are, but in a very hobbling kind of measure. Their meaning is 
very dark, if it be any at all ; of which the learned reader can judge better 
than I : however it be, several persons were of opinion that they deserved 
to be published, both as they discover somewhat of the genius of a former 
age, and may be an amusement to the present." 

WHen a holy black Swede, the Son of Bob, 1 
With a saint at his chin, and a seal at his fob, 
Shall not see one New- Year's day in that year, 
Then let old Englond make good cheer : 
Windsor and Bristow then shall be 
Joined together in the Loiv-counlree. 2 

Then shall the tall black Baventry Bird 3 
Speak against peace right many a word ; 
And some shall admire his conying wit, 
For many good groats his tongue shall slit. 
But, spite of the Harpy i that crawls on all four, 
There shall be Peace, pardie, and War no more. 

But Englond must cry alack and well-a-day, 
If the stick be taken from the Dead Sea. 

And dear Englond, if aught I understond, 
Beware of Carrots from Northumberland? 
Carrots sown Thynne a deep root may get, 
If so be they are in Somer set : 
Their Conyngs mark 6 thou ; for I have been told 
They assassine when young, and poison when old. 
Root out these Carrots, thou, whose name 
Is backwards and forwards always the same ; 7 
And keep close to thee always that name 
"Which backwards and /b; wards is almost the same. 8 

And, Englond, would' st thou be happy still, 

Bury those Carrots under a Hill. 9 



Why the race arts not to the Swift. 109 

1 Dr. John Robinson, who was Bishop of Bristol, Dean of Windsor, Lord 
rrivy Seal, and one of the Plenipotentiaries at Utrecht; setting out for that place 
at the end of December 1711. by reckoning of Old Style, but on his arrival in 
Holland, where the New Style had already been adopted, he found January 
well advanced : so January the first had slipped away from him, and he fell 
between the two stools, we mean Styles. 

2 That is, in Robinson, who held representative offices in Windsor and Bristol. 

3 Daniel Finch, second Earl of Nottingham, Baron Finch of Daventry, and 
sixth Earl of Winchilsea (father of the successor -bride to Carrots). He was 
known as " Don Dismallo." Swift had recently written a Grub-street ballad 
ridiculing him, as " the intended speech of a famous orator against Peace, 1711," 
and tells Hester Johnstone that Finch [ = "the Daventry bird] was such an owl 
to complain of it in the House of Lords, who have taken up the printer for it." — 
Journal to Stella, Dec. 18. The ballad was made to order, for " Lord Wharton 
says ' It is Dismal (as they call him from his looks) will save England at last.' 
Lord Treasurer [Robert Harley] was hinting as if he wished a ballad was made 
on him, and I will get one against to-morrow." — Ibid. Dec. 5, 1711. It begins : — 

An Orator dismal of Nottinghamshire, 
"Who has forty years let out his conscience to hire, 
Out of zeal for his country, and want of a place, 
Is come up, vi et armis, to break the Queen's peace. 
He has vamp'd an old Speech, and the Court, to their sorrow, 
Shall hear him harangue against Prior to-morrow. [Matt. Prior. 

When once he begins, he never will flinch, 
But repeats the same note a whole day like a Finch. 
I have heard all the Speech repeated by Hoppy, 
And ' mistakes to prevent, I've obtained a copy.' 

The end of the supposititious speech is this : — 

I'll speech against Peace while Dismal's my name, 
And I'll be a true Whig, while I'm Not-in-game. 

4 John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. " The Dead Sea " is Robert Harley. 
6 Elizabeth, at present Countess of Somerset, daughter of Northumberland ; 

widow of Lord Ogle and Thomas Thynne. She was Groom of the Stole, and 
first Lady of the Bedchamber at this time, in great favour with the Queen. 

6 Count Kbnigsmark, who had paid addresses to her during her first widowhood, 
and in rivalry or revenge contrived the murder of Tom Thvnne. 

1 ANNA, the Queen : whom he calls " A Royal Prude " in The Author on 
Himself, 

8 Mistress Abigail Masham, the Queen's woman : in the Tory interest. 

9 The Countess was golden -red-haired. Abigail's maiden name had been Hill. 
*** There can be no doubt entertained about the authorship, as the following 

extracts from Swift's Journal to Stella will prove : " I have written a Prophecy 
which I design to print ; I did it to-day, and some other verses." — Dec. 23, 1711. 
" My Prophecy is printed, and will be published after Christmas-day. I like it 
mightily. I don't know how it will pass. You will never understand it at your 
distance without help. I believe everybody will guess it to be mine. My Lord 
Privy Seal [Robinson] set out this day for Holland."— Dec. 24. " I called at 
noon at Mrs. Masham's, who desired me not to let the Prophecy be published, 
for fear of angering the Queen about the Duchess of Somerset ; so I writ to the 
printer to stop them. They have been printed and given about, hut not sold. ,, — 
Dec. 26.— "I entertained our Society at the Thatched-House Tavern. The 
printer had not received my letter, and so brought up dozens apiece of the 
Prophecy ; but I ordered him to part with no more. 'Tis an admirable good one, 
and people are mad for it."— Dec. 27. Long afterwards, he avenged himself on 
Queen Anne, for having been persuaded to rebuff him at the entreaty of Carrots, 



110 Longleat, and its architect, John of Padua. 

by lampooning the ' ' Royal Prude,' ' in a travesty, as the Lilliputian Empress, the 
prudish enemy of Lemuel Gulliver for his method of putting out the conflagration 
in Lilliput Palace. Thus it was " The Prophecy'" far more than the witty Tale 
of a Tub which formed the stumbling block ; but Swift, despite his genius, was 
not wanted to fill a mitre. His sorely wasted life would not have been improved 
by a bishopric, though he grumbled at holding an Irish deanery. He would 
have coveted the Primacy, and found himself ever dissatisfied. 

It was a vile slander, an unmanly piece of scurrility against a 
woman, and Jonathan Swift richly deserved any amount of punish- 
ment which the spite of the fair Duchess could bring upon him. His 
insinuating that she was privy to the murder of her second husband, 
conniving at Konigsmark's design because she intended to favour 
him, was a gratuitous insult, wholly unfounded in fact. No less 
brutal was the innuendo that she, like a former predecessor Countess 
of Somerset, would be prepared to "poison when old." People 
remembered the great Oyer and Terminer case of Overbury's murder, 
which ruined handsome Carr and his shameless wife, the Divorcee 
of Devereux, third Earl of Essex. The maiden-widowhood of both 
Countesses would be classed together in men's talk, as an additional 
wrong against the golden or red-haired "Betsy." She had been 
lampooned in a Satyr (" This way of writing," etc), April, 1682: 

Ogle's return' d, and will consider further 
Who next she'll show her [fjace to for a murther. 
I'le say no more than onely this one thins; : 
All living creatures [err] except the King ! 

In 1863 George Walter Thornbury wrote the poem John of 
Padua, a Legend of Longleat ( = " John of Padua duly came, a grave 
wise man with a dark pale face "), which was charmingly illustrated 
by the late M. T. Lawless, showing the grandeur of Longleat, the 
building and gardens, with their Italian architect sitting dead on 
his bench, whence he was accustomed to survey the works, and 
surrounded by his revering labourers : — 

And there were the long white terraces, 

And the great wide porch, like an open hand 

Stretch'd out to welcome, and the tower, 
That rose like a fountain o'er the land ; 

And the great elms bosoming round the walls, 

The singing birds' green citadels. 

They found him there, when daybreak came, 

In the self-same posture, self-same place ; 
But the plans had dropp'd from his thin wan hands, 

A frozen smile was on his face : 
And when they spoke, no word he said, 
For John de Padua sat there dead. 



Ill 



[Roxburghe Collection, IV. GO ; Wood's, E. 25, fol. 98.] 

Ct)e $$att\)lt88 09urtiet\ 

(Sibhuj art Account of the most horrible anti blootijj murttjcrinrr of 
ttje most roarthrj (Scntleman Thomas Thin, 35sq., raho tons on 
Sunday, February the trjoclftf), 1082, fjaruarouslg Kl'llcti in his 
oum (Coach tm some rjlaotr^ttjirstrj outlanor'sfi Uillains, urho shot 
fuje or six Bullets into his BcIIrj, rohcrcof he quichlg tiicti: sntJ 
the names of the murthcrers noiu Iumrr. in Newgate, hrho habc 
confessed the same, are as folloineth : (£apt. Christopher Furatz, 
a German, George Boroskie, a Polanber, John Stern, a ©erman, 
Frederick Harder antJ Amien Berg, accessories. 

To the Tune or, [ When'] Troy Town. 

[This tune belongs to the old ballad, " The "Wandering Prince of Troy," "When 
Troy Town for ten years' Wars." Roxb. Coll., III. 43. To be given soon.] 




COme and assist my trembling Pen, 
While I endeavour to explain 
The bloody minds of cruel men, 
That will no wickedness refrain, 
But bloody Humors to fulfill 
Innocent blood they daily spill. 



112 The Matchless Murder of Tom Thynne. 

Now my sad story I'll begin, 

The like, I think, you ne'r did hear, 
Now that Renowned Squire Thin 

Was murther'd it doth plain appear ; 
Their bloody minds for to fulfill, 
This squire most horridly they kill. 12 

On Sunday last this Gentleman, 

Clear of all Scandals or Reproach, 1 
At severall places he had been 

With noble Monmouth in his Coach ; 
This worthy person thought no ill, 
Whilst Villains sought his blood to spill. 18 

And thus they pass'd the Streets along, 

Till seven or eight a clock at night, 
And then great Monmouth would be gone, 
In whom so much he did delight : 
Poor soul ! he little thought of ill. 
While villains sought his blood to spill. 24 

His Grace he was no sooner gone, 

But this sad accident befell, 
By Villains he was set upon, 

Neer to a place that's call'd Pell-mell. 
Their Hellish minds they did fulfill, 
And there his precious blood did spill. 30 

Up to the Coach these Villains ride, 

As by his Servants it is said, 
With Weapons which they did provide, 
Whilst he, poor soul ! was not afraid : 
For harmless souls ne'r fear no ill, 
While villains seek their blood to spill. 36 

Meeting with him, as they desired, 

Their Hellish courage then grew hot, 
Into his Coach at him they fired, 
And into his belly him they shot : 
And so, like Villains, him they kill'd, 
And his most precious blood they spill'd. 42 



1 This is amusing enough, because notoriously false, his private life having 
been disgraceful, like that of other Monmouthites. Party spite, that blackens 
opponents, attempted to whitewash even so dingy a creature as Tom Thynne. 



The Matchless Murder of Tom Thynne. 113 




Away like Villains then they fled, 

With horror doubtless in their mind ; 
This worthy soul, three quarters dead, 
Bleeding i' th' Coach they left behind : 
Now had the Villains got their will, 
That sought his precious blood to spill. 48 

When these unwelcome tydings came 
To noble Monmouth's wond'rino: ear, 
His courage, which none e'r could tame, 
Did on a suddain plain appear ; 

He strait pursued those that did spill 

Mis precious blood that thought no ill. 54 

This noble Hero did all night 

Pursue these murtherers all in vain, 
Till Sol with his resplendant light 
Did to our sight return again : 

But could not find those that did kill 

That harmless soul as thought no ill. GO 

But Heaven did presently find out 
What lovely Monmouth could not do ; 

'Twas well he was the Coach gone out, 
Or he might have been murthered too : 
I fear that they who this squire kill'd, 

Poor Jamev's blood would feign have spill'd. ["*•*■ M ,°, n " 

•> t/ u j. l_mouth's. 

These Villains they were seiz'd at last, 

And brought before his Majesty ; 
This horrid thing they then confest, 
Now Prisoners they in Newgate lie : 
And be condemned no doubt the// will, 
That squire Thin's sweet blood did spill. 72 

Printed for J. Conyers at the Black-Racen in Duck-Lane. 
[Black-letter. Four woodcuts : on pp. 33, 111, 118, and here. Date, Feb. 168i.] 
vol. v. i 



114 



Ghosts provided, as per Tariff". 



*^* It is not necessary to recapitulate the purchased Epitaphs and Laments 
for Tom Thynne (which count among the funeral baked-meats, and were provided 
liberally with black-borders by the undertakers, along with scarves and hat- 
bands), except this brief mention of two Elegies : — 

" A Hew and Cry after Blood and Murther ; or, An Elegie on the most barbarous 
Murther of Thomas Thinn, Esq ; [sic] with some pious Ejaculations to Heaven 
for the Miraculous Escape of his Grace the Duke of Monmouth from the Hands 
of the Bloody Ruffians. London, Printed by L\angley\ Curtiss. 1681." This is 
preserved in the Luttrell Collection, I. 151, and begins, 

"Whilst with hot scent, the Popish Tory Crew 
A Prexbiterian Sham Plot do pursue, 
Behold a New and True Plot of their own 
Against a worthy person's Life made known. Etc. 

"An Elegy on the famous Tom Thin, Esq., who was barbarously Murthered," 
was written by George Gittos, and Printed, in the year 168^, beginning, "What 
arrogance dost thou, Malicious Fate." This also is in the Luttrell Coll., I. 150. 

Tom Thynne having been rich enough, with his Ten Thousand per ann., to be 
invested with a fully-appointed Ghost (which, we see, talked more sagely than 
the original possessor had ever done during his lifetime, and less maliciously), the 
brave Captain Vratz held an equal claim by notoriety to possess the same kind of 
property. He, like another 

Buin'd spendthrift, now no longer proud, 

Claim' d kindred there, and had his claim allow'd. 

He is named in a poetic broadside, "by a "Western Gentleman," dated the 18th 
of March, 168J, entitled " Captain Vratz s Ghost to Count Gonigsmarh : " 

"Who was't thus basely brought unto his end 
The loyal Monmouth } s wealthy "Western friend. 

"We might be ready, with Hamlet, to "take the Ghost's word for a thousand 
pound," let alone "ten thousand," but we decline respectfully to accept the 
endorsement of this particular "Western Gentleman." There is a look of the 
Trenchard man about him. With Master Dunibleton we "like not the 
security." We want some better name than Bardolph's or this Western 
Gentleman's. Once bit, twice shy. It is unsafe to trust associates of Tom Thynne. 




[This Fiddler belongs to p. 162.] 



s 



115 



Com C&pne's (D&ost ©nsatisfien* 

" His busy active Soul, that long was pent 
Within a putrid ill-eontriv'd tenement, 
Is quietly retir'd ; but, clog*d with Sin 
And Treason, in Elysium can't get in. 
Deny'd his rest thus in the Seat of Bliss, 
He sinks below into the damn'd Abyss : 
There he roves now, and restless till he find 
Some black-mouth' d villain suited to his mind." 

— The Politician's Downfall. 1682. 



Ill JOHN RERESBY, when he took the affidavit about Miss 
Trevor (p. 105), could little foresee that in less than six months later 
he would be issuing a Hue and Cry after Thynne's assassins. He 
chronicles the murder as 

"The most barbarous that had taken place in England for some time. Mr. 
Thynne, a gentleman of 9,000^. a year— lately married to my Lady Ogle, who, 
repenting of the match, had fled from him into Holland before they were bedded 
— was set upon by three ruffians and shot to death as he was coming along the 
street in his coach. He being one deeply engaged in the Duke of Monmouth's 
interest, it was much feared what construction might be made of it by that 
party— the authors escaping and not known. I was at Court that evening, when 
the King hearing the news, seemed much concerned at it, not only for the horror 
of the action itself, to which his good nature was very averse, but also appre- 
hending the ill constructions which the anti-Court party might make of it. 

At eleven o'clock the same night as I was going into bed, Mr. Thynne 's 
gentleman came to me to grant a hue and cry, and soon after the Duke of 
Monmouth's page [Gibbons] to desire me to come to his master at Thynne's lodging, 
sending his coach to fetch me. I found him surrounded with several gentlemen 
and lords, friends to Mr. Thynne, and Mr. Thynne mortally wounded by five 
bullets, which had entered his belly and side, shot from a blunderbuss." 

He tells us how the criminals are traced and successively arrested. 
First the Swede [Amien Berg?], in a lodging at Westminster, then 
on his information his master, Captain Yratz, was taken by Reresby 

" At the house of a Swedish doctor in Leicester Fields, I going first into the 
room, followed by my Lord Morclaiwt. I found him in bed, and his sword at 
some distance from him upon the table, which I first seized, and afterwards his 
person, committing him to two constables. I wondered to see him yield up 
himself so tamely, being certainly a man of great courage, for he appeared 
unconcerned from the beginning, notwithstanding he was very certain to be 
found the chief actor in the tragedy. This gentleman had not long before 
commanded the forlorn hope at the sie^e of Mons, where only two besides himself, 
of fifty under his command, came off with life. For which the Prince of Orange 
made him a lieutenant in his guards, and the King of Sweden gave him after- 
wards a troop of horse." 

Another Swede, Lieutenant Stern, and the Pole Borotski being 
taken by constables under Reresby's warrant, they are all examined 
by the Council, the King presiding. The elder Count Konigsmark 
being suspected, and found to have returned to England incognito ten 
days before the murder, and to have departed early next day after it, 



116 Exeunt Thynners inglorious?// at Pall Mall. 

was sought, and found at Gravesend disguised, on the 20th. " He was 
a fine gentleman of his person ; his hair was the longest for a man's 
I ever saw, for it came below his waist, and his parts were very- 
quick." He denied that he had any connection with the murder, 
and the King " was willing Count Konigsmark might come off ; " 
which he did, when tried as an accessory, at the Old Bailey : true 
hills having been found at Hick's Hall, with a Jury, half of whom 
were foreigners. Reresby adds : ''I carried the King the news the 
first of this, who was not displeased to hear that it had passed in 
this manner. The party of the Duke of Monmouth, who all appeared 
to countenance the prosecution, were extremely concerned that the 
Count did escape." 

On the 10th of March, 168+, Captain Vratz, Stern, and Borotski, 
were hanged in Pall Mall, close to the spot where Thynne was 
slain. " The Captain died without any expression of fear or laying 
any guilt upon Count Konigsmark." He bowed to Eeresby " with 
a steady look, as he did to others whom he knew among the 
spectators, before he was turned off; in fine, his whole carriage, 
from his first being apprehended till the last, relished more of 
gallantry than of religion." It certainly was not such as satisfied 
the irrepressible Gilbert Burnet, who was here officiating and 
sermonizing, as he had been with Fitz-Harris, and not more profit- 
ably. But Captain Vratz was worth a hundred Fitz-Harrises, and 
Tom Thynnes beside. We see no reason to disbelieve the assertion 
of so brave a man that he had merely intended to challenge Thynne 
to a duel, and that George Borotski having fired the blunderbuss 
was " entirely from a misapprehension of his orders." It was, 
however, awkward to have a blunderbuss loaded with five bullets 
when inviting a person to single combat in Pall Mall, even though 
the unwilling vis a vis was a Tom Thynne. 

The religious opinions of Captain Vratz were avowedly such as 
befitted his exemplary courage. He told Dr. Horneck he was con- 
fident that God would consider a gentleman, and deal with him 
suitably to the condition and profession he had placed him in ; or, 
as Evelyn reports, "he did not value dying of a rush, and hoped 
and believed God would deal with him like a gentleman." More- 
over, that He would not take it ill if a soldier, who lived by his 
sword, revenged the affront offered to him by another. Although 
Burnet cannot help being moved by the imperturbable courage of 
the soldier, he records, in a pamphlet on the execution, what he 
believed to be heretical opinions of Vratz, who, with a military 
distrust of the gossiping amateur Chaplain, declined to take him 
as a ghostly confessor (Burnet would have blabbed everything for 
notoriety), and considered it to he sufficient if he confessed his sins 
to God ; and thought it a piece of Popery to urge him to confess to 
another man. Altogether, we are compelled to admire this un- 



Captain Vratz faces Death and Shame undauntedly. 117 

daunted hero, and regret that so valuable a life was thrown away to 
atone for the removal of such a worthless being as Tom Thynne. 

" It is certain that never man died with more resolution and less signs of fear, 
or the less disorder. He had two opinions, that were, as I thought, hurtful to 
him; the one was, it was enough if he confessed his sin to God, and that he was 
not bound to make any other confession, and he thought that it was a piece of 
Popery to press him to confess. He had another odd opinion also of the next 
state : He thought the damned were only excluded from the presence of God, 
and endured no other misery, but that of seeing others happier than themselves : 
and was unwilling to let me enter into much discourse with him for undeceiving 
him. He said it was his own affair, and he desired to be left to himself ; but 
he spoke with great assurance of God's mercy to him." — March 11, 1681-82. 
Gilbert Burnet. Anthony Horneck, D.D., was the other minister. Last Con- 
fession, prayers and meditations of Lieut. John Stern, etc. Printed for Eichard 
Chiswell 1682. " George Borodzycr " was the spelling used for his own name 
by the actual murderer, whom men called Borozski. 

John Evelyn tells of his going to see the corpse of Vratz, which 
had been curiously embalmed by one William Russell, " without 
disbowelling, or to appearance using any bituminous matter. The 
flesh was florid, soft, and full, as if the person were only sleeping. 
He had now been dead neere fifteen daies, and lay exposed in a very 
rich coffin lined with lead ; " the King permitting it to be removed 
to Vratz's own country, he being of good family. The body of 
Borotzski was hanged in chains, at Mile End, where it might best 
be seen by foreigners entering London. 

Lord Win. Cavendish and Lord Mordaunt sent a challenge to the 
Count; they desired to follow and exact satisfaction from him. 
Lord Aylesbury stopped their departure, obtaining their parole. 
The King probably thought that enough had been already done to 
appease the ill-conditioned manes of so pestilent a Petitioner and 
Exclusionist as Thynne, whose befitting epitaph might have been 
written by Hamlet : 

Thou wretched, rash, intruding Fool, farewell ! 
Thou find'st to be too busy is some danger. 

*** The manes of Tom Thynne have been mentioned. But few are aware that 
this " unlicked cub of the Whig Cabal," as he was rightly designated, this spoilt 
plaything of luck and self-conceit, whom pompous flatterers treated to a tomb in 
Westminster Abbey (with a bas-relief representing the murder in emulation of 
Archbishop Sharp's at St. Andrews), was not allowed to pass quietly into the 
intermediate state, but was made farther ridiculous in a Poem entitled Tom 
Thynne' 8 Ghost, which introduces a description of the Infernal Regions, with 
Shaftesbury attempting to form anew an "Association" like that projected on 
earth, and indicating the old tutelage exerted over Monmouth, here again styled 
" Perkin " the impostor. It is this poem which follows on our next page. 

John Gibbons, Monmouth's valet or page, of p. 115, is again mentioned on our 
p. 215 and its tenth Note. 



118 

[Trowbesh Collection, V. 74.] 

Com Cbpnne's ©frost* 




IN dead of night when the pale Moon 
Had got to th' Nocturnal Noon, 
Betwixt her light and what was lent 
From twinkling Candle almost spent, 
As I lay slumbering on my Bed 
I saw methought a man was dead ; 
Gravely he stalk'd and stood and star'd, 
While I lay trembling and was scar'd. 
Dumb for a while, at last I broke 
Silence, and to the Phantom spoke : 
" Art thou," said I, " that man of Sin 
Or Ghost of Thomas late Squire T[_hin~] ? " 
He soon reply'd, with accents hollow, 
In words conform to these that follow : — 

" From the Tartarean shades below, 
That neither bounds nor bottom know, 
"Where a new life the 'Cursed gain 
Thro' constant torments, endless pain, 
I by permission come to tell 
What Government there is in Hell. 
Because I know thou wert a Tory, 
To thee I chose t' impart my story, 
For thou wilt joyfully reveal ] 

What Whiggs that long for Common-weal \ 
Like Spartan Boyes wou'd still conceal. ) 
Attend then, and my Narrative 
Communicate to all alive. 



10 



20 



Tom Thi/ mu's Ghost. 11!) 

" I am the Soul of one of those 
That both the K\ing] and Law oppose, 
And itch with Conscientious scurvey 30 

To turn the Kingdom topsey turvey ; 
llogues that presume themselves appointed 
To contradict the Lord's Anointed ; 
Those that wou'd murder an Addressor, 
And cut the legs of true Successor, 
And make him look in piteous case 
As Withrington in "Chivy Chase," 1 
Nay, cut his Throte and in his place 

Set Perh'n up of Extract base, l' d est < Monmouth. 

"Who has no more pretence to rule 40 

This Land than any other Fool, 

But may make out, I'le swear, as soon 

A Title to the World i' th' Moon. 

I was, I say, of that Caball, 

Till I was murder'd in the Hall; 

You've heard, I know, of that Barbarity, 

Hatefull beyond all Bonds of Charity. 

" Proceed we then with our Relation 
Of Action in th' Infernal Nation. 

Assist me, steed of Phoebus' Legion, 50 

"Whilst I describe the dolefull llegion. 

" One Monarch in that world controuls, 
"With flameing scepter, tortur'd Souls ; 
And Captive though he be, in chains, 
Yet absolute Emperour he reigns. 
No Factions there disturb the State, 
"Which is preserv'd by steady fate ; 
"Unalterable Laws they have, 
"Which the Almighty God-Head gave, 
And to their Prince, even on His Foes, 60 

A strict obedience does impose. 

" That Prince is Lucifer, whose power 
The subject Ghosts adore each hour; 
Who to advance their mighty King 
In blasphemies his praises sing : 

1 Everybody was supposed to know Chevy Chase, with its doleful account of 
Witherington's mishap, but profane modems have forgotten it with other good 
things of old, or when remembering mock what used to move Sir Philip Sidney 
" like the sound of a trumpet." Here is the ballad verse alluded to : — 

For Witherington my heart is wae, 
As one in dolefull dumps ; 
For when his legs were cut away, 
He knelt and fought upon the stump?. 



120 Tom Thynne's Ghost. 

Devoutly swearing there's no odds 

Betwixt his grandeur and the God's. 

These, tho' they suffer, 'tis in vain 

Amidst their torments to complain; 

If he but nod from ['s] burning Throne, 70 

There's not a Soul that dares to groan, 

For Hell admits of no Petition 

To redress Grievance of condition ; 

Nor do tumultuous Crowds appear 

With bold Remonstrances of Fear ; 

Nor Spirits murmur at Oppression, 

Nor prate of right or wrong Succession : 

Their King Immortall, oh ! 'mong you, 

That Charles the Second were so too. 

1 love him now, and, tho' a Devil, 80 

I'm much more honest grown and civil, 

For having ta'en a drachm of Stgx 

I have forgot my Whiggish tricks. 1 

"Next to the Prince there are that stand 
Awfully waiting his Command, 
Behebub, Moloch, Ashteroth, Baal, 
And Bagon ; who, before their fall, 
Tho' not condemn'd t' Eternal Night, 
Were Seraphim and Sons of Light. L « Where seraphins." 
Those cursed Peers, when e're he will, 90 

If he intends great woe or ill 
To sons of Earth, he quickly can 
Summon into his Dark divan : 
Not to give counsell, but to do 
"What his dire Dictates prompt him to. 

" You have, like him, one Noble Peer [Shaftesbury. 
Who would do mighty service there. 
Would he were there, instead of me, 
To shew his Squinting Policy. 



1 This certainly ought to be considered a neat touch. To whitewash Tom 
Thynne from his peccadilloes it was necessary that he should not only be slain 
but also go "to his own place," and there recover a right mind. ThusBorotski's 
bullets were the above-par Life Pills for this jaded debauchee. The knowledge 
of Hell shown by the satirists two hundred years ago is noteworthy. They felt 
quite at home there. At the shortest notice they were prepared to give "what 
Byron only tantalizingly promised to unroll: "A panoramic view of Hell's in 
training." Captain Vratz's declaration of belief shocked Burnet, as more heretical 
than his own' loose notions: Vratz expected to be "received into eternal happiness," 
and added his opinion that the only punishment of the damned would be their 
exclusion from the presence of God, and their seeing others happier than them- 
selves. See Burnet's Account, 1682. We have given the exact words on p. 117. 



Tom Tin/tine's Ghost. 121 

He 'tis, I mean, that looks at once 100 

Like Cerberus from triple sconce, 

But that his Eyes would fascinate 

And give a destiny to Fate ; 

For he, I fear, would break the Law 

By which this world is kept in awe : 

Since it is here his chiefest care [i.e. on earth. 

To break all Laws that Penal are, 

He would go nigh ev'n in this station 

To make a new Association. 

" (But if he did, Oh ! there are Judges, 1 1 

Instead of scarlet cloth with budges, [=Ermine tippets. 
Not such as these with which we trade, 
But Kobes of solid Darkness made : 
They'd firk his Toby ! for take this 
For fatal truth — and so it is — 
In the proceedings against furies 
There are no Ignoramus Juries : 
Plain evidence is there believ'd, 
And no convicted Soul repriev'd. 

No Mainprize l there allow'd nor Bail, 120 

But doom'd to an Eternal Jayl, 
The restless Prisoners howl and cry, 
Whilst they in burning Shackles fry.) 

" Yet, in my Conscience, he'd endeavour 
Ev'n to deceive the great Deceiver ; 
Or would pretend to court for Mistress 
The fatallest o' th' Fatal Sisters. 
And would so wheedle her that she 
Shou'd cut the thread of Monarchy ; 
So would he his dear wish obtain, 130 

And put an end to Charles his Beign. 
Nor would he value his Damnation 
To keep great James from kingly station. 
Here upon Earth he has a Pug, [,-.<>. Monmouth. 

"Which he, like Devil and Witch, does hug : 
For he ne're found his words were true in 
Any one thing but his own Buin. 
He whilom told the Younker, he 

Should sway the British Monarchy 

Of a known Bastard grown a Prince ! 1 40 

But poor deluded Perkin since 

1 Mainprize is, in law, a writ directed to the Sheriff, commanding him to take 
sureties for the prisoner's appearance in court at a given day ; or deliverance of a 
prisoner on bail-security. They had bale enough, poor wretches. 



122 Tom Thyme's Ghost readied Home : " Sweet Home ! " 

From fancy'd Honour is degraded, 
And all his fleur-de-lysses faded. 

"But I digress from my design, 
"While things on Earth and Hell I join. 
Suffer me then to represent 
The Methods of our Parliament. 

" When Lucifer to utmost borders 
Of Erebus sends out his orders, 

His Officers make no delay, 150 

But the great Summons soon obey. 
Unanimously they all Elect, — 
Not such as say ' they will protect 
The Common People's Liberty 
From their great Sovereign's Tyranny ;' 
For none his boundless Power questions, 
Or makes undutiful suggestions : — 
But such they are as when th' assemble 
Before his Footstool bow and tremble. 
They come with steadfast Besolutions 160 

To assert the fatal Constitutions ; 
Nor do they once 'capitulate 

Or grumble to maintain the State. [supplies granted. 

All that they have to him they owe, 
Mammon besides is his they know ; 
There is no sawcy well-clad Clown 
That claims the use of what's his own : 
Nor can from Hellish mouth such sin come 
As to deny him his own Income. 

There no Abhorrers on their knees 170 

Pay Topham Arbitrary Fees : l 
Nor bawling Lawyers Speakers make, 2 
Which only with the vulgar take. 

" But hark ! I hear the Midnight Bell, 
And that rings my Departing Knell. 
What I have said, pray con it o'er, 
Next time we meet I'le tell thee more." 

jFmis. 

[White-letter. "Woodcut from p. 113. Date, 1682, between March and Dec] 

1 Alluding to the hot ire of the Commons against any of their own members 
having expressed a loyal abhorrence of seditious deeds and petitions : which brought 
Sir Francis Withens and others to the bar of the house on their marrow-bones. 
Some members were expelled under this tyranny of the House. Sir John 
Topham had been the sergeant at their command. 

2 Probably refers to Sir Edward Seymour: twice chosen Speaker of the House. 



123 

" A Merry Monarch, scandalous and poor 
To Caru-ell, the most dear of all thy Dears, 
The sure relief of thy declining years, 
Oft thou bewail' st thy Fortune and thy Fate, 
To love so well and to be loved so late." 

— Rochester's Satire on King Charles. 

vJjS" the day when Captain Vratz, Lieutenant Stern, and the 
murderer George Borotzski were executed, in satisfaction of the 
vengeance demanded by the Duke of Monmouth for the loss of his 
useful and "hospitable" friend Tom Thymic, a still heavier blow 
than the death of " Issachar " fell on the aspirant after succession : 
the Duke of York returned to England. This was on the 10th of 
March, 1681. 

Like most events in those days, the immediate cause and occasion 
lay in the intervention of a woman. The Duchess of Portsmouth 
had for a long time stood opposed to the Duke of York, although 
both held the same views in religion, both avowedly felt the warmest 
affection for King Charles, and both had been "presented" simul- 
taneously as Popish Recusants by Shaftesbury and his flock of sheep 
calling themselves " True-Blue Protestants." The coarsest libels 
had been written, printed, and circulated against the Duchess of 
Portsmouth. The vilest names were flung at her in public and in 
private. Not the smallest consideration had been shown for her by 
political enemies, either as a woman, a foreigner, or a beautiful and 
fascinating guest of the nation. The wretched " Protestant Joiner," 
Stephen College, was the declared author of the farrago of nauseous 
rhymed verse beginning "What! down in the Dirt? By St. 
Leonard, her Grace," etcetera, which unblushing printers entitled 
" The Downfall of the French qo^tg; ; England's Metropolitan 
qadamj^g ; the three Nations' Grievance ; the pickled A^ood a.iotrA\> 
Rowley's Dalilah : all in a word, The p ( uurcp dirty Dutchess." 

But that the dislike and avoidance of her was simply from political 
antagonism, and by no means caused by any moral indignation at 
outraged purity, was speedily displayed to quiet observers, of mild 
cynicism, wdienever Shaftesbury and his associates believed it to be 
for their interest to conciliate " the d. dirty Dutchess," whose exile 
from the land they had earlier demanded. She was enlisted as 
their powerful ally against the Duke of York. She was flattered 
into the hope of becoming possibly the Queen of England : that is, 
so soon as Charles the Second could be persuaded to put away his 
lawful wife, Catherine of Braganza, and accept a divorce on account 
of her sterility. If the King's previous marriage could be declared 
null and void, there would be a claim recognizable for Louise de 
Querouaille, since she had insisted on the performance of a sort of 
matrimonial ceremony, at the Earl of Arlington's house, before 



124 Portsmouth's ambitious hopes for her son, Richmond. 

yielding herself wholly to the King, in 1670. It would follow 
that her eldest boy, Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond (see p. 
211) might be declared next heir to the Throne ! 

These ambitious hopes were sown with prodigal generosity, and 
had taken root only too surely. In a short time she had the sense 
to perceive that she was being used treacherously, as the tool of 
Shaftesbury. When Charles, in 1679, firmly resisted the attempt 
to persuade him to a divorce, she began to understand that her 
influence had been misemployed hitherto against York, to further 
the ambitious intrigues of Monmouth. To have the Duke of 
Richmond kept away from the succession through the inalienably 
just claims of her co-religionist York now seemed endurable, in 
preference to her own illegitimate son being superseded by the 
equally illegitimate son of Lucy Walter : Monmouth's paternity 
being doubtful, which was less the case with Richmond. Accord- 
ingly she now adopted new measures. It was at her house that 
Saville, Sunderland, and Henry Hyde arranged to recall the Duke 
of York from Brussels, when Charles fell ill in 1679 (see Vol. IV. 
p. 556). And there can be no doubt that it was in accordance with 
her advice that the Duke of York was again admitted to an audience 
of his brother, on the 10th of March, 168i. Permission was then 
obtained for James to bring his wife from Scotland, and resume his 
place boldly at the Court. It was believed that Portsmouth feared 
the discontinuance of her enormous pension, in case York succeeded 
to the Crown, as he evidently was likely to do. It would be better, 
therefore, to become his friend, and, by helping him now in his 
need, to secure his promise of assistance towards her thereafter. 
She turned with the tide, according to L 1 Opinion de ces Demoiselles : 

Aussi pointe d' fille qui ne crie : 

Viv' nos amis, 
Nos amis les enn'mis ! 

There being some uncertainty regarding the exact date of the 
Roxburghe Ballad, " Animadversions on the Lady Marquess," it 
was brought in (p. 67), as a fair example of the common estimate 
regarding such women as " Madam Carwell." She was probably 
meant. On p. 153 follows " York's Return from Scotland," and it 
is well to remember whose influence had been exerted in his favour. 

Among the various libels on the Royal Mistresses nearly all are 
written in coarse language, as might be expected. One attributed 
to Stephen College begins "Since Cleaveland is fled till she's 
brought to bed," and is entitled "England's Court s}9dum.r}g:" the 
second of the three verses being this : — 

Since "Women at Helm have ruin'd the Realm, 

And Statesmen have lost their Anchors, 
The Lords and the Commons know what will come on us, 

But the kingdom must break like the Bankers. 



Portsmouth's supposed exportation of gold coin. 125 

The attribution of this lampoon to the Protestant Joiner seems 
to us altogether a mistake. It is evidently a courtier's squib. 

We give, complete, from our large collection of manuscripts, one 
entitled more conventionally " A Satyr upon the Mistresses," which 
begins, "Immortal Powers, inspire me while I sing." Rochester 
had died on the 26th of July, 1680, but his foulest poems met 
imitations from inferior writers. One such satire, "Sardanapalus," 
has been attributed to John Oldham, and it began, "Happy, great 
Prince, and so much happier thou." Another was mistakenly and 
preposterously assigned to Samuel Butler, " The Court Burlesqued," 
beginning, " I sing a merry Monarch's fame." In it, Portsmouth 
receives a goodly share of raillery as " a gay tit from Prance," 
and " the cast-off of a Paris Count " (meaning Count de Leau) : 

With apple-face, and slender waist, 
All over Jilt, yet looking chaste. 

The common accusation is not spared, that she sent pies to France, 
concealing within them stores of guineas, 1 in telling how she 

Ev'n keeps her very Keeper poor ; 
Nor has lie yet the sense to see 
How much his generosity 
Dishonours his M[onarchi]ck station, 
And makes him slighted by the Nation: 
Whilst she, her country to advance 
Sends golden pies from hence to France, 
And strips the M[onar]ch of our Isle, 
T' enrich her own dear native soil : 
Is but a treacherous spy upon him, 
To hug him till she's quite undone him, 
Does all his grand affairs discover 
To cunning Leicis at the Louvre. 

Charles ! how happy had Ave been 

Had'st thou but had a fruitful Queen, 

Or else been ^aS before fifteen. 

And, as a summing up, we are honestly told of Charles : — 

For he, good Prince, could ne'er deny 
The Petticoat, good reason why, 
Because — as he himself does own — 
He loves a Lady 'bove a Crown. 



1 Compare " Two Wanton Ladies," in Bagford Ballads, p. 600, Jan. 15, 168 % 
Quoth Nelly, " Pray send for your treasure again, 

With a fa la la la, fa la la ; 
That you did send over while you were in fame, 

With a fa la la la, fa la la : 
Come, come, I must tell ye that you was too bold, 
To send from this Nation such parcels of gold, 
In such kind of dealings you must be controul'd, 

With a fa la la la, fa la la." 



126 Portsmouth's luxurious prodigality mid fickleness. 

The splendour of Portsmouth's apartments at Whitehall in 1675 
astonished John Evelyn, "luxuriously furnished, and with ten 
times the richnesse and glory beyond the Queene's ; such massy 
pieces of plate, whole tables, and stands of incredible value." 
Thrice at least, in her insatiable cupidity and fickleness, she had 
these rooms rebuilt and their decorations wholly changed : " expense 
no object." On October the 4th, 1683, Evelyn again visited her 
rooms, and his description enables us to see how true is the line in 
" The Mistresses" Satire, 

This Difference he makes 'twist Bad and Good : 

The first has All, the other wanted food. 

Following his Majesty this morning thro' the gallerie, I went, with the few 
who attended him, into the Duchesse of Portsmouth'' s dressing -roome within her 
hed-chamber, where she was in her morning loose-garment, her maids combing 
her, newly out of bed, his Majesty and the gallants standing about her ; but that 
which engag'd my curiosity was the rich and splendid furniture of this woman's 
apartment, now twice or thrice pull'd down, and rebuilt to satisfy her prodigal 
and expensive pleasures, whilst her Majesty does not exceed some gentlemen's 
ladies in furniture and accommodation. Here I saw the new fabriq of French 
tapistry, for designe, tendernesse of worke, and incomparable imitation of the 
best painting, beyond any thing I had ever beheld. Some pieces had Versailles, 
St. Germains, and other palaces of the French King, with huntings, figures, and 
landskips, exotiq fowls, and all to the life rarely done. Then for Japan cabinets, 
screenes, pendule clocks, greate vases of wrought plate, tables, stands, chimney 
furniture, sconces, branches, braseras, &c, all of massie silver, and out of number, 
besides some of her Majesty'' s best paintings. 

Surfeiting of this, I din'd at Sir Stephen Fox's, and went home to my poor but 
quiet villa. What contentment can there be in the riches and splendor of this 
world purchas'd with vice and dishonour ? 

All these decorations were destroyed, a few years later (we cannot 
tell whether the paintings so iniquitously taken out of the Queen's 
own rooms by her "Lady of Honour," the Mistress, were ever 
restored : probably not, but turned into money for gambling debts) : 

[1691.] April 10th. — This night a sudden and terrible fire burnt down all the 
buildings over the stone gallery at White-hall to the water-side, beginning at 
the apartments of the late Dutchesse of Portsmouth (which had been pull'd down 
and rebuilt no lesse than three times to please her), and consuming other lodgings 
of such lewd creatures, who debauch'd both K[ing] Cha[rles the] Second and 
others, and were his destruction. — Diary of John Evelyn, iii. 93. 

Louise de Querouaille had not been forgotten in the Satire entitled 
Cidlen with his Flock of Court Misses, 1679 : — 

As Cullen drove his Sheep along 
By Whitehall, there was such a throng 
Of Earls' Coaches at the Gate, 
The silly swain was forc'd to wait. 
Chance threw him on Sir Edward S\utton'\, 
The silly Knight that rhimes to Mutton : 
" Cullen,'^ said he, " this is the clay 
For which poor England once did pray ; 
The day that sets our Monarch free 
From butter'd Buns and Slavery. 



"m 



My Lady Marquess [Beaufort], and her Gang." 127 



This hour from French Intrigues, 'tis said, 

He'll clear his Council and his Bed. 

Portsmouth, he vouchsafes to know, 

Was the cast [Miss] of Count de Loe ; [De Lean 

She must return, and sell her place : 

Buyers, you see, flock in apace." 

A Satyr in Answer to a Friend, 1682 ( = " 'Tis strange that you, 
to whom I've long been known, Should ask me why I always rail 
at th' Town ! ") thus introduces her name and disparagement, in its 
summary of the gossip suited to London society : — 

If any then, hy most unhappy choice, 

Seek for content in London s crowd and noise, 

Must form his words and manners to the place ; 

If he'll see Ladies, must like Villiers dress. 

In a soft tone, without one word of sense 

Must talk of Dancing, and the Court of France; 

Must praise alike the ugly and the fair 

Buckley'' s good-nature, Feltons shape and Hair ; l 

Exalt my Lady Portsmouth's Birth and Wit, 

And vow she's only for a Monarch fit 

(Although the fawning Coxcombs all do know 

She's uiiq with Beaufort and the Count de Beau)."* 

This method, with some [few fag-] ends of Plays, 

Basely apply'd, and drest in a French Phrase, 

To Ladies' favour can e'ne Hewit raise. 

Among other Royal favourites mentioned in the following Satyr 
upon the Mistresses is Hortensia Mancini, Duchess of Mazarine 
(born 1647, at Home; died in June, 1699, at Chelsea), who has 
already figured in our previous volume, IV. Her notorious love for 
the Prince of Monaco excited the anger and unwonted jealousy of 
Charles II., even causing for awhile the stoppage of her pension. 
But she had always been inconstant, greedy of variety or novelty. 
Thus her aged admirer Edmund Waller, who addressed her soon 
after her arrival in London, December, 1678, begins his poem of 
" The Triple Combat" with the following words in her praise, 

1 Lady Sophia Bulkeley, ne'e Stewart (sister of La Belle Stewart Richmond), 
wife of the Hon. Henry Bulkeley, Master of the Household. (See Vol. IV. 204.) 
We meet Lady Betty Felton again, (wife of Sir Thomas, of Playford), daughter 
of Barbara Howard, Countess of Suffolk. She died suddenly the day after her 
mother's equally sudden death in December, 1681. See p. 216. 

- We suppose that Henry, third Marquess of Worcester (1667), and afterwards 
(2 December, 1682) Duke of Beaufort, is here intended. The gossip of the day 
certainly named " Beaufort and De Loe," or Leau, as having formerly had 
possession of the marketable chattel Louise, and it is by no means improbable that 
the title "My Lady Marquess " was impertinently assigned to Louise " Madame 
Carwell" in reference to her supposed claim on Beaufort. His wife was Mar}', 
widow of Henry Lord Beauchamp, and daughter of Arthur Lord Capel. Firmly 
refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the usurper William, the Duke of 
Beaufort lived in retirement after the Revolution. He was son of the great 
Marquess of Worcester, author of A Century of Inventions. 



128 Mazarine's intrigue with Frank VUliers. 

When through the world fair Mazarine had run 
Bright as her fellow traveller, the Sun, 
Hither at last the Roman Eagle flies, 
As the last triumph of her conq'riug eyes. 

She is clearly indicated in another manuscript Lampoon, entitled 
" Advice in a Letter to Mr. Frank Villiers " (Lieut, of the Band of 
Gentlemen Pensioners, 2nd son of George, 4th Viscount Grandison), 
1682, whose intrigue with her was of public notoriety (see p. 213). 
He died unmarried, and was buried inWestminster Abbey, Feb., 169f : 

Dear Frank, you ha' n't the art right 
To please my Lady Car tw right : 

Yet don't despair, for one so fair 
In time may play her part right. 30 

But tho' her beauty much is, 
Contempt's a thing that touches ; 

And, if she scorn, you'd best return 
To your old Italian Duchess. (See p. 220.) 35 

Again, in Cullen tvith his Flock of Court Misses, 1679 (already 
mentioned on page 126, a Satire which distributes its lashes pro- 
miscuously, leaving few galled jades with withers unwrung) : — 

Then in came Dowdy M[aza~\rine, 
That foreign antiquated Quean, .... 
Her Grace at these rebukes look'd blank, 
And sneak'd away to Villain Frank. 

On the authority of a manuscript Song, undated but circd 1683-84, 
beginning " Stamford is her sex's glory," to the tune of If Dr. P. 
take exception, Laurence* Hyde, Earl of Rochester, ranks among 
Mazarine's enamoured followers ; although he had been twenty 
years married to the beautiful Lady Henrietta Boyle. His wealth, 
more than his handsome person or his wit, made him acceptable to 
the rapacious Hortensia Mancini, who squandered thousands in a 
single sitting at Basset (introduced into England by M. Morin, 1682) : 

Lory Hyde's a great pretender to the Dutchess Mazarine, 

Though his p[owers] be weak and slender, yet his Money lets him in : 

Whilst his good Wife, t' avoid aspersion, 

With her own Porter takes diversion. 

Altogether, there was plenty of writing going on in the absence 
of panegyric. Most charitably, to save lampooners of the Court 
from any accusation of indulgence in unwarrantable slander, the 
Lords and Ladies afforded as much genuine material for satirists' 
animadversions as could reasonably be expected in a civilized com- 
munity. Whigs and Tories had little cause for self-laudation, since 
both parties were generally far from blameless. Of one manuscript 
in our possession we here give the earlier six verses (alluding to 
Monmouth's associates and his illicit connection with Lady Grey). 



Beaux who dangled around the Court- Mist resses. 129 
& Satgt to Sultan, 1082. 

To THE TUNH OF, Bey, Boys, Up ffO WC. 

SEnd forth, dear Julian, all thy books of Scandal large and wide, 
That ev'ry knave that in them looks might see himself describ'd : 
Let all the Ladies read their own, the Men their failings see, 
From Nell to him that heads the Throne, then Hey, Boys, up go we ! 5 

Let Monmouth see himself e put down, for being tnrn'd out of doors, 

And Grafton, for an arrant Clown, and both for sons of saaouw. 

Large scragged Horns, for both their heads, they well apply'd shall see, 

Dunbar and Larcy stain their beds : then Hey, Boys, up yo ive ! \_jaclc Darcy. 

Each Peer shall see his Lordship's name, each Whig shall read his Life, 

Lord Grey shall find his blazon'd fame of pimping for his Wife : 

Xlis vertuous Lady her rebuke in manuscript shall see, 

For all her favours to the Duke : then Hey, Buys, up go we ! [Monmouth. 

Mordent shall flutter up and down, and ev'ry man defie, 

Each witty Sonnet he shall own, and his own lines deny : 

Tet, ere he has read two pages o're, his Lordship's name shall see, 

For marrying Mulgraves painted o.ioqAi, then Hey, Boys, up go we ! 20 

Let little Tom, great Norfolk's son, look still as sharp as ever, 

He now may thrum his spouse [at home], for she's just such another ; 

A froward testy Thief is he, a dirty Drabbler she, [" Moll Howard ?"] 

For which in Julian s books she'll be : then Hey, Boys, up go we ! 25 

Let Armstrong politiquely move, and spark about no more, [Sir Thos. A. 

Let the old Fool be still in love with Fielding's cast-off a.ioqAi, 

When Madam Givyn has [swear]ing been, and cast poor Rowley, she 

Shall in short time be ripe for him : then Hey, Boys, up go we ! 30 

Having mentioned Charles, second Viscount Mordaunt, who with 
Lord Cavendish challenged Count Konigsmark after the murder of 
Tom Thynne, we here add the short description of him from another 
unprinted manuscript, entitled " Scandall Sati/red : " — 

The Fopps of my own Sex are so well known, 
'Tis base to trample on a foe that's down. 
Lett Mordent please dull Monmouth and his rout, 
Lisp by the hour, while they all crawl about, 
Admire his words, as some great Prophet sent 
To teach young Courtiers how they may repent : 
But by his conduct, and by what h' has writt, 
Wise men esteem his judgement and his witt. 
His stories and his Wife wee will omitt. 

Scandall Satyred begins, " Of all the Fools these fertile times 
produce:" its conclusion forms an appropriate finish for this Intro- 
duction to our hitherto unprinted manuscript on the Court Mistresses, 

Such crowds of Fopps are llutt'ring in my sight, 
That, spight of all the Muses, I must write, 
Speak truths of them, and my own name forswear, 
That shall [now] be conceal'd for shame or fear. 
For, tho' I want the wit to mend my fau't, 
Yet I have sense to know this is stark naught. 

vol. v. K 



130 



[Ebsworth Manuscripts, Quarto, xxxi. 5.] 

31 £>atj>r upon the 2®istvt$$tg. 

IMmortal Powers, inspire me while I sing 
Of black intrigues, which to the light I bring. 
Here spAirjg;, Buffoons, Court-saioqM, and sdund you'll see, 
Describ'd to th' life, without gross Flattery ; 
That Pluto, in his dark Infernal Cell, 
Shall be aghast when I these Stories tell, 
And think there's nothing half so ill in Hell. 

First let 's our Prince survey in all his Vice, 
And show how he on 's Subjects puts his Dice. 
Religion sure ne're yet had such affront 10 

To have its Head so [prone to swinish grunt] ; 
And what is worse, if worse can be to th' Church, 
The Head has left his Body in the Lurch ; 
Soon will Eeligion vanish out of doors, 
When 'tis perceiv'd 'tis rul'd by Rogues and soaoq^ : 
The truest Pater Patrice e're was yet, 1 
For all, or most of 's subjects, does beget. 
[Distaff] and Scepter are about a length, 
In thy hot [humour] lies thy wit and strength. 
Tarquin for less than this from Rome was sent ; 20 

Beware in time a second Banishment ! 
Bab May and Felton, Leg and Feversham, 2 
Hide, Savile, Guy, and many I cou'd name, 
Fam'd for their Suidund and betraying too : 
These are the Knaves the Nation does undo. 

Next, let us view the cock spAirjg; of the Court, 
Kate Crofts and Knight contrivers of the sport : 3 
Th' one for Shaftesbury, th' other Spy for Rome ; 
"When things move thus, who mayn't pronounce our Doom ? 
'Tis pitty thus two Factions for to see, 30 

Not only link'd in Ills, but Lechery : 
Two Elf's whose lust 's so great, I dare affirm, 
Wou'd take delight to see the world all uuads. 

Portsmouth must with her train of sdrayj appear, 
Godolphin, Arlington, with Fusion cheer, 4 
Where all stood by, as on a Bridal night, 
Spectators of this present dear delight ; 
And swore by [P«»] that he had pass'd the Test 
Of all his Empire to have .wiv'd the best : 
From this lascivious Palace up she goes 40 

With her two Wights : from it we date our woes. 



A Satire upon the Court-Mistresses. 131 

'Twas happy that from hence they made such haste, 

The Gods had else Lycaorfs sentence pas'd : 5 

And now is this lewd fair Parisian Slattern 

All England o're become a mighty Pattern. 

mighty C\_arweU] ! to thee do great men bow, 

All Gods and Powers else do disavow ; 

Priapus is set up in every street, 

And those that pass by him fall at his feet ; 

The Men and Women swear no Pray'rs they'll make, 50 

But such as are for C\_harles~] and [Pleasure]'s sake ; 

Each Idol which they find they burn, and [crush], 

But those devoted to lewd Joys, [or Lush.] 

Ne're wonder then that Lust o'reflows the Nation, 

And torrent-like, brings in an Inundation ! 

Monster ! can'st thou not be content to drain 

His Pride and Purse, but must torment his Brain ? 

Thou cam'st as spye for th' Jesuits and France, 

Popery and Arbitrary Power t' advance : 

The Bribe thou took'st of Jewels, four years since, 60 

To make that Peace, and to betray thy Prince : 

Of all Destroyers thou'rt the very worst, 

To Britain' 's Empire, ever be accurst. 

Fitz-Harris Plot I almost had past by, 6 
Nell WaWs and thy great piece of Villany : 7 
Machiavel wou'd blush to see himself outdone, 
And think with Knavery Mankind's o're-run ; 
To murder men, because they'd not supply 
The itch of [queans], and all themselves destroy. 
Hard fate ! that men must always be in fear 70 

Of being Trepan'd in some foul Popish Snare. 
Thunder and Tempests toss thee off the Earth, 
To th' dark Abyss, where things ne're yet had birth. 

To Mazarine I must direct my Pen ; s 
Of Vice and Lust she is the very Queen : 
Who, failing to be so of this great Nation, 
Resolv'd to be it of that lewd Vocation. 
Were Sol her [lurjking-places to survey, 
He'd very hardly do it in one Day : 

Her Lust's so great, as all the World doth tell, 80 

She has out-[done] Proserpina in Hell. 
Catholic she's call'd ; if such a thing there be, 
Certainly 'tis her lecherous [heart], not she. 
Some strange ill Comet reign'd when she came hither, 
For ever since we've had great Stormy weather. 
She's false to th' King, to spnuq, to sdraid, and slaves : 
And true to none but Jesuits and Knaves. 



132 A Satire upon the Court-Mistresses. 

The Plot she carry'd on, if Oats said true 9 

Castile Melior into this noose she drew ; 

The Queen was in 't ; and all those that knew 't 90 

Were counted mad, and threaten'd they shou'd Rue 't. 

Hence Dissolutions, and Pensioners sent to Italy, 

That when 'twas told to Fools might seem but rally. 

But Staley's Books l0 made it too plain appear, 

When the two thousand pounds was written there 

Paid to Sir Waheman, such a day, and where. 

Why shou'd I mention this poor Queen, ['t absurd 's], 

Who's like an Owl among so many Birds. 

How thou'dst rejoice to see another Flood, 

Not of Bain-water, but of Christian blood ! 100 

'Tis well you have so many Saints above, 

For your black Vices to atone great Jove 1 — 

If there were fifty times as many more, 

Your Life's so ill, you'd need 'em every hour. 

The Protestant o-ioq^ I cannot here leave out, 
Fam'd for not wearing of the double clout : 
Her Flowers of Speech have left their wonted source, 
And through her mouth have tei'ne another course. . . u 

Let falser Sussex' s-Wife n have here a place ; 
Perhaps she shou'd be put before her Grace : 120 

For of the Boyal heart she has the greatest share, 
And vastly rich in those Dominions there. 
The Poysoning Villanies renown'd o're France, 
To hear 'em told wou'd put one in a Trance. 
She's not so common as the a.ioq^ before, 
Who has enjoy'd all Nations o're and o're : 
This [one, belov'd] by Pages, [clasp'd] by th' Prince 
Of Monacho, and a few others since. 
She's come to finish what the rest begun 

Of Plots and Ills, with which we are o're-run. 130 

If Heav'n and Earth had joyn'd to do their best 
To make a Fair One to out-do the rest, 
They'd easier find another World to frame, 
Than for to Parallel this Charming Dame : 
The Husband spueq, the father f[ool]s his Child ; 
Strange ! nay, one wou'd think the world's grown wild ! 
Poor easy ppj[onQ ! if thou did'st but see 
What mouths and horns i' th' Court are made at thee ; 
Thou strait to some Inchanted place wou'dst run, 
That never yet had seen the light o' th' Sun. 140 

Hail Phadamanthus, and you Powers of Hell ! 
With all your Records, such like stories tell : 
Chdipus and Nero will rejoice to hear 
That there are others that out-do them here. 



A Satire upon the Court- Mistresses. 133 

This wicked high Intrigue was carry'd on 
By Brunhard, Harry, Knight, and Arlington : 13 
The first essay'd ill Fortune for to weather ; 
Thy Flesh and Plots too loosely hang together. 
Bennet, who once o're-rid by Jesuits M 

Does take odd courses to advance his Hits : 150 

He stops at nothing, nor his Wife, for gain ; 
Bait 'em with that, and soon the Beasts are ta'ne. 
"Witness the Crimes for which he was Impeach' d, 
Trying his Prince and Country to 've o're-reach'd : 
Such ills he did, that none who read, but Sots, 
Will say he was Contriver of all Plots. 
Harvy and Knight look more like t'other Sex ; 15 
Of each lewd Fop a common [tal]king Text. 
Fat ulcer'd Shrewsbury must here be in, 16 
For jilting Duke, and [pleas]ing of the King ; 160 

For which good Service it was after found 
She had per annum near three thousand pound : 
This difference he makes 'twixt Bad and Good, 
The first has All, the other wanted Food : 
To suffer this is beyond Flesh and Blood. 
Richmond and Cook, and the Rhenish-wine a.ioq^, 
Laivson, and Williams, and a hundred more, 17 
With saaorr \\^ of Honor, young and beginning Sinners ; 
Who [bussj for Petticoats, fine Lace, and Pinners ; 
Such musty Rubbish dulls my easy Pen, ) 170 

Bids me give o're, and turn against the Men : 
So shortly you shall hear of me agen. 



Notes to the foregoing Satyr on the Court- Mistresses. 

1 Compare Charles II. 's own admission, recorded in our Vol. IV. p. 597. 

2 Baptist May, King Charles's Privy-Purse. Probably Thomas Felton of the 
Bedchamber, younger brother of Adam ; sons of Sir Henry Felton of Suffolk. 
Not William Legge, one of the Stewards at the Artillery Company Feast, 20 
April, 1682 ; but George Legge, afterwards Lord Dartmouth. Lewis de Duras, 
Marquis de Blanquefort, Earl of Feversham, of whom anon, in Sedgemore Fight. 
Henry Hyde, second Earl of Clarendon, or his younger brother Lawrence, Earl 
of Bochester : see the Ballad of lamentable Lorry : " The youth was belov'd in 
the spring of his life." Henry Guy was another of the stewards at Guildhall, 
entertaining the Duke of York in 1682. He was Secretary of the Treasury, and 
had charge of secret service money. Had been Groom of the Bedchamber till 1679. 

3 Mrs. Catharine Crofts, or " Crafts,'''' is mentioned as being appointed procuress 
"to Lady Tudor" (Lady Mary Tudor, who became Lady Badcliffe about 1687), 
and accused of incontinence with St. Albans, in the licentious Satyr entitled " The 
Lady's March " (preserved in our manuscript collection), beginning, " Stamford's 
Countess led the Van, tallest of the Caravan." Mistress Crofts comes in thus, 



134 Notes to the Satire upon the Court-Mistresses. 

A bouncing Dame appears, and laughs ; 

Who should it be but Mistress Crafts ? 

The so.ioqM. may think her an intruder, 

Appointed pnejj to Lady Tudor : 
But here she comes, in hope of luck, Sir, 
Still itching tho' St. Albans [chucks] her. 

Old Mrs. Jennings next comes crawling, 
A lady too of Crafts 's calling. . . . Etcetera. 

Mrs. Crofts had seen sore trouble in December, 1679, for Lady Sunderland 
wrote to Henry Sydney: — "I can tell you nothing new but that poor Mrs. 
Crofts lies under grievous mortification, being most shamefully turned out of her 
lodgings, after having like a fool bestowed a great deal of money upon them. My 
Lord Plymouth is made the author of this rough action, but the Lady at the end 
of the gallery [Portsmouth] could not support her being there for fear of dangerous 
visits ; but that which makes it yet more cruel to the poor maid was, that there 
is not so much as a pretence of any body's buying them, for she had got the 
money of old St. Albans, and she won't be permitted to buy her pennyworth for 
a penny." She recovered position, and was at Althorp with the Duchess of 
Portsmouth in June, 1681. Knight is Mrs. Knight, the singer and actress, who 
was one of the King's favourites. Waller has a song, sung by her to the Queen, 
and Evelyn praises the unequalled compass of her voice in 1674. This was after 
her return from Italy. She was a devout Catholic, and is represented before a 
crucifix, in a painting by Sir Peter Lely. 

4 Sidney Godolphin (who married Miss Blague, Evelyn's friend, Mrs. Godolphin) , 
and Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington ; Arlington's mansion being at Euston. 

5 Lycaon was changed into a wolf, for his impiety, in offering up human limbs 
as a meal for Zeus. 

6 Edward Fitz-Harris, executed along with Oliver Plunket, 1st July, 1681. 
See pp. 41 to 46. 

7 Mrs. Wall was the personal attendant and confidant of the Duchess of 
Portsmouth, and was subpoenaed to give evidence at the trial of Eitz-Harris, to 
whom she had given money for alms from the Duchess. 

8 Hortensia Mancini, Duchess of Mazarine. See previous p. 128. 

9 Ah, If. " Much virtue in an If."— As you Like It, Act V. last scene. 

10 William Staley, the goldsmith, was the earliest of the victims executed on 
Oates's evidence about the Sham Popish Plot. A ballad on Staley's execution is 
extant, and has been seen by the present Editor, who hopes to give it later from 
the Christie-Miller unique exemplar. Compare vol. iv. pp. 130 and 236 ; also 
pp. 158, 200, 202, for Sir George Wakeman, falsely accused, but acquitted. 

11 Nell Gwynne, who is said to have herself used the special designation here 
applied to her, in contrast to the 'Catholic' objectionable- term, which she left for 
Portsmouth. Nelly was evilly celebrated for her promiscuous swearing, in days 
when it took a good deal to shock people. To be pre-eminent argued natural 
genius, or long experience to gain facility. This note must count instead of ten 
lines suppressed (without injury to the poem or the reader). H. G. H. will miss 
them, the only Decalogue for which he cares, if all that we hear in the Groves of 
Academe be true. 

13 Lady Anne Palmer Fitzroy, eldest daughter of Barbara, Countess of Castle- 
maine. Roger Palmer and Charles II. both claimed the parentage. She was 
born in 1661, and after she married Leonard Lord Dacre became the Countess of 
Sussex. For her wedding dresses bounties were granted amounting to £1344. 7*. 

13 Henry Brounker (brother of William, Lord Brounker, Commissioner of the 
Admiralty), formerly gentleman of the Chamber and draid to the Duke of York, 
and whose misconduct caused the miscarriage of the sea-fight in 1665. He has 
been gibbetted by Clarendon, and by Pepys. The former says that Henry 
Brounker was expelled the House of Commons, whereof he was a member, as an 



Notes to the Satire upon the Court- Mistresses. 135 

infamous person, though his friend [Secretary William] Coventry adhered to 
him, and used many indirect arts to have protected him . . . [Brounker] being 
a person throughout his whole life never notorious for any thing but the highest 
degree of impudence, and stooping to the most infamous offices, and playing very 
well at chess, which preferred him more than the most virtuous qualities could 
have done."— Life, and Continuation, par. 655. Pepys declares of him, on his 
dismissal by the Duke of York, that " every body, I tliiuk, is glad of it ; for he 
was a pestilent rogue, an atheist, that would have sold his King and country for 
sixpence almost, so corrupt and wicked a rogue he is, by all men's report." 
— Diary, iv. 483, 1877. This Knight is perhaps John, the chief surgeon to the 
Queen ; but more probably his namesake John Knight, Comptroller of the 
Great Wardrobe. One John Knight, Sheriff of Bristol, was knighted in 1682. 

14 Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, had notoriously lent himself to connivance 
with Louise de Querouaille, when her pretended marriage with the already- 
married King took place at his house, Euston, in October, 1671. 

15 Which of the Harveys this is, we feel not certain. Probably not Sir Eliab 
Harvey, Knt., Lieut, of Waltham Forest, Essex; but Sir Daniel Harvey, Kut., 
M.P. for Surrey, married to Ralph Montague's sister Elizabeth. 

16 Anna Maria, nee Brudenell (daughter of Robert, second Earl of Cardigan), 
widow of Francis Talbot, eleventh Earl of Shrewsbury, slain in a duel by her 
seducer, the second George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. About 1680 she 
married George Rodney Bridges. 

17 Probably Frances Teresa, La Belle Stewart, Duchess of Richmond, and not 
Mary Villiers, sister of Buckingham. We are not certain about this Mrs. Cook, 
improbably L'Estrange's lady-love ; more likely to have been the actress who 
sang one of D'Urfey's songs. Miss Lawson, daughter of Sir John Lawson (of 
Brough, Yorkshire) and Catharine Howard. Miss Lawsou's aunt Mary Villiers, 
Duchess of Richmond (sister of George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham), 
introduced her at Court: See Cullen and his Flock of Misses, 1679, and Rochester's 
Windsor. She preserved her innocence amid all temptations, we believe : although 
" a soft believing inexperienced maid." Mistress Williams had been an actress 
(like Nell Gwynne, Mary Davis, and Mrs. Knight the renowned singer). 

*** It is not improbable that the half-promised attack on " the men " was 
fulfilled in the (unpublished) Satire entitled "An Essay," beginning 
Of all the Vermin that did ere debase 
The Statesman's trade, or kingly rule disgrace, 
That Insect Sunderland is sure the worst, 
With which the Nation ever yet was curst ; 
A creeping fawning parcel of a Chit : 
No other thing, but a knave ; no other wit 
Than an unmanly, senseless, scornful Scream ; 
Wou'd make a man of Sense almost Blaspheme, 
And swear it wou'd Mankind much less reproach 
To make a Minister of Mistress Roch. 
Who is't that can with any patience think 
That he shou'd have to do with Pen and Ink ? 
Or that this Age shou'd have the blushing shame 
Of giving him the place of Walsingham ¥ 
This Tool of State wou'd think that he were less, 
Did he but touch the thing call'd Business: 
That grosser part his Lordship still declines, 
And to his under Scribes with scorn resigns ; 
While he of the deep mysteries of State 
Does in this manner most profoundly prate : — 

" What ail you English Fools, who start at France, 
If toward Flanders it but throws a -lance? 



136 Notes to the Satire upon the Court-Mistresses. 

Of that great Pow'r you'd not think half so much, 
Knew you what beastly creatures are the Butch. 

La ard, what a stir is here about A lost ! 

Cannot we eat and drink when that is lost ? 

Come, come, France is our Cousin and our Friend, 

So long we need not fear ; and there's an end." Etcetera. 

Or it may just possibly be "Whigland," beginning, "Since all the world's 
grown mad, I'll e'en go sing." It was written after Sedgemore, and reproaches 
" Monmouth'' s Ape, Lord Grey" for cowardice, ending the rebuke by enquiring 

How could his white Liver hope to prevaile 
O're generous, brave and guilty Albemarle? 

Another Satyr begins, "Of Villains, Eebels, spp^onQ, sdraid, and spies." 
To which, probably, follows specially another similar poem, " A Supplement to 
the late Heroick Poem: Hie ego qui quondum," beginning, "I who of divers 
Villains sang before." 

After mentioning so many frail damsels, we feel unwilling to omit giving one 
of the before -named poetic tributes to the " Court Beauty " who (like La Belle 
Hamilton) escaped slander. The Ladies' March MS., tenth verse is, 

Lawson, she who, disappointed, 
Grieves to lose the Lord's Anointed, 
Follows next, in the reverend clutches 
Of her old Aunt the pnug; and Dutchess. 

This is mild and harmless, whilst other Ladies are mercilessly sacrificed. In 
Windsor, attributed to Rochester (and therefore, if correctly assigned, of date 
before the autumn of 1680), the fair Lawson is mentioned, warning her against 
her " two reverend Aunts, renown'd in British story for Lust and Drunkenness." 

Almighty Power of "Women ! Oh, how vain 

For Salique Laivs, for you must ever reign ? 

Yet, Lawson, thou whose arbitrary sway 

Our King must, more than we do him, obey ; 

"Who shortly shalt of easy Charles's breast 

And of his Empire be at once possest : 

Tho' it indeed appears a glorious thing 

To command Power, and to enslave a King : 

Yet e'er the false Appearance has betray'd 

A soft, believing, inexperiene'd Maid, 

0, yet consider, e'er it be too late, 

How near you stand upon the brink of fate ! 

There is no evidence that she did not consider. Resisting temptation, she 
preserved her purity unstained. Her father was a Catholic, and she with her 
four sisters held the same faith. Sir William Musgrave tells that the five 
became nuns at York. Thus was frustrated the design of her intriguing aunt, 
Mary Villiers (aunt by marriage, her second husband Thomas Howard being 
brother of Sir John Lawson's wife). 

The date of our Satire on the Court Mistresses is certainly after the beginning 
of July, 1681 ; probably early in 1682. 






I 



137 



Cbe Onfortunate WU$$> 

You Calvinists of England, who surfeit with your case, 
And strive to make us Whiff land, to breed a foul disease : 
Hearken, you painted Saints, for we will let you know, 
Of the cares and the fears that by the Whigs do grow ! 

With furious Zeal you do enflame, and cause our Country burn, 
You work confusion, but the blame on Innocents you turn ; 
Your holy Masque is dropping off, God grant it may do so ! 
And stop the cares and fears that by you Wbigs do grow. 

May Colledge, Rouse, and Hone, their fate on Traytors all attend ; 
What though it seems a little late, yet still wc know your end : 
Just Vengeance does not sleep, though you do think it so, 
You'll have shares of the cares that by you Whigs do grow.' 1 '' 

— The History of Whiggism. 1 



T will be noticed that about this time, 1682, there were many 
contemptuous songs and ballads on the decadence of the Whigs. 
They had been so arrogant, little more than a year before, and until 
the sudden Dissolution of the Oxford Parliament in March, 1681, 
that their being now crest-fallen and disarmed was in strongest 
contrast. Repelled at many points, conquered but not subdued, 
they were in reality attempting by secret plots to regain the power 
which had been wrested from them by force and cunning superior 
to their own. We desire to see their condition, their bitter spite 
and humiliation, before the Duke of York's return from Scotland. 
The fugitive poems, songs and broadside-ballads of the time enable 
us to mark the turn of the tide. 

Among these numerous attacks on " The Unfortunate Whigs" of 
1682, is "A Loyal Satyr against Whiggism," a four-paged sheet, 
London, Printed for C. P. [Charles Pates], and are to be sold by 
W. Davis, 1682, beginning thus, "As I did lately travel from the 
Town, Through distant roads and deserts scarcely known." It 
describes the Whig at that date, 1682, after enquiry and answer : — 

. . . What daring Treasons were but now maintain'd 25 

By Sh[af(csbury~\ and City, both in Faction train' d, 

And how the bloudy-minded Wh igs do aim 

To play again their old King-killing game : 

Which when the good old man heard me relate, 

In flowing tears he mourn'd his Country's fate, 30 

1 This Court-party Loyal Song was sung in 1683 to the tune of Martin 
Parker's spirited old ditty " Neptune's raging Tempest," beginning "Ye Gentle- 
men of England, who live at home in ease " (the original on which Thomas 
Campbell, with late acknowledgement, founded his memorable " Ye Mariners of 
England, who guard our native seas"). We come to the old ballad in next 
volume, with full Introduction. Stephen College has been mentioned on p. 35. 
John Rouse was a servant of Sir Thomas Player, arrested at the same time as 
College, and also saved by an Ignoramus jury, in October, 1G81 ; but like the 
other Joiner, William Hone, he suffered death for the Eye-House Plot in 1G83. 



138 Extracts from a Satire against Whiggism, 1682. 

And gave me this Advice, " Beware, my Son, 
Lest by the Wiles of Traytors thou'rt undone. 
For I have known th' Experience of those times 
"When Loyalty was thought the worst of Crimes ; 
A nd when Rebellion with a daring eye 35 

Was cover'd hy a Veil of Sanctity. 
But thou art young, therefore I'le plainly show 
How thou a Monster Whig may'st safely know : — 
lgg° It somewhat favours man ; so I have seen [favours=resembles 

When on a Christmas Evening we have been 40 

On frolicks bent, a thing of such like note, 
With hairy Chin, dimiuish'd hanging Coat, 
Broad Hat, stiff Band, and a malicious Eye, \ 
Which at a distance fully seem'd to be [ 

The very Villain that sequestred me. ) 45 

It rais'd my wonder, but as 't towards us prest, 
What should it prove but a Baboon well drest ! 
For so morose are they, and more precise ; 
As we're in truth, they're positive in lies : 



What one but says, the other straight will swear, j 50 

Let it be right or wrong, or foul or fair, [ 

It is all one, since they the Godly are ! ) 

Vile hypocrites, who' re only good in show, 

Whose whole Religion lies in seeming so : 

For, were their Souls laid open to our view, 55 

We should not find amongst 'em all one true. 

Therefore beware," (again the old man said) 

" Lest by their flattering tongues thou art betray'd ; 

But if they find you loyal, wise, and brave, 

They'l leer, and smile, and smiling, dig your grave ; 60 

Such is their malice, spight, and mortal hate 

'Gainst all that love their Country, Prince and State." Etc. 

Another extract from the same poem, A Satyr against Whiggism 
(mentioned on p. 36), deals with the hypocrisy of sham-saints, who 
practised secret vices, whilst the cavaliers held open revels : — 

Another Tenet Whig does surely hold, 

Is to rail at these times and praise the old ; 

To cry out on the Nation's horrid pride, 155 

And cast all sins upon the Tory side ; 

As if that formal looks and dress precise \ 

May'nt hide a heart more proud than ever lies > 

In these that wear more handsom Decencies. ) 

Then SuuoqA\, Drinking, Swearing, to our charge 160 

They all impute, and lay our crimes at large ; 

And Crimes they are, but such with them are done : 

Jenny can tell how well the Tap did run. 1 

1 Jenny being one of Shaftesbury's reputed mistresses, kept for show if not for 
use. In those days, and a century later, it gained no credit to be like Pitt an 
" Immaculate Boy." John Devonshire's song of " The Immaculate Minister," 
beginning "Come then, be silent, and join in the ballad, A better sure never Avas 
pinn'd to a wall," which was sung to the tune of The Priest of the Parish, reads, 

Then what's all this nonsense and humbug about him, 

His chastity, purity, virtue, and pride, etc. 



" Give them Rope and Hanging, since it is their due." 139 

Of the following year, 1683, is the song of "The Couragious 
Loyalist ; or, A Health to the Royal Family," beginning " Drown 
Melancholy in a Glass of Wine." It was sung to the tune of 
London' 1 's Loyalty ( = " Bouse up, great Genius of this potent 
Land"). We give it complete hereafter, but here is one of the 
verses exulting over " the Unfortunate Whigs : " — 

Boys, we'll be merry, whatsoe'er ensue ; 
Drink Sack and Sherry, till the sky look blue : 
Let the Whigs lament, and whiningly complain, 
We, with one consent, drink to the Royal Train ; 
Heaven bless great Charles, and the Duke of York ; 
All the Lords and Earls, arid every Royal Spark : 
Down with every factious, shamming, whining Crew, 
Give them Eope and hanging, since it is their due ! 

Martin Parker's hope-inspiring ditty of " When the King enjoys 
his own again!" (beginning, " What Booker can prognosticate?" 
Roxb. Coll., III. 256) is cited as furnishing the tune of the following 
ballad ; the same tune as that of Marry me, marry me, quoth the 
bonny Lass, as Mr. Wm. Chappell has shown {Popular Music, p. 435). 
But there is, in the words of " The Unfortunate Whigs," especially 
at the beginning, a strong imitation of Tom D'Urfey's song (already 
mentioned in our Yol. IV. pp. 80, 81), beginning thus, 

Sawney was tall and of noble race, 

And lov'd me better than any ane ; 
But now he loves another Lass, 

And Sawney '11 ne'er be my Love again. 
I gave him a fine Scotch Sark and Band, 
I put 'em on with mine own hand ; 
I gave him House, and I gave him Land : 

Yet Sawney will ne'er be my Love again. 

We need not add the two remaining verses here, as we return to 
the D'Urfey song in a later page, where we give the sequel to it, 
beginning "When Sawney left me he had store of gilt" {i.e. 
gold=gelt ; not that he was in that unenviable condition). It is 
entitled " Jenny'' s Answer to Sawney, wherein Love's cruelty is 
requited ; Or, The Inconstant Lover justly despised." The music 
was probably by Thomas Farmer. Printed for Philip Brooksby. 
It is in the Roxburghe Collection, II. 223. 

The following Roxburghe Ballad is printed in White-letter, 
without any woodcut (but we introduce one of a Whig revel in a 
Wapping booth), and probably belongs to May, 1682. 



140 



[Roxbiu-glie Collection, III. 914.] 

0n excellent jReto £>ong 

of 

Zfyt Unfortunate 22lf)tgS- 

To the Tune of, [When] The King enjoys his own again. 




rpHe Whigs are but small, and of no good Race, 
_L and are belov'd by very few ; 
Old Tony broach'd his Tap in e'ry place, 
to encourage all his Factious Crew, 

At some great Houses in this Town, 

The Whiggs of High Renown ; 
And all with a True-Blue was their Stain 

For since it is so, 

They have wrought their overthrow, 
Old Tony will ne'r enjoy his own again. 

They all owne Duty to their Lawful Prince, 

and Loyal Subjects should have been ; 
But their Duty is worn out long since, 
[as was] by the Association seen : 
But these are the Whiggs, 
That have cut off some Legs, 
And fain would be at that Sport amain ; 
For since it is so, 

They have wrought their overthrow, 
Old Tony will ne'r enjoy his own again. 



[Shaftesbury. 



[i.e. colour. 



10 



[sic. 



20 



A New Song on the Unfortunate Whigs. 141 

And yet they are the Sham-pretenders, 

and they swear they'll support our Laws ! 
These be the great Defenders 
of Ignoramus and the Old Cause : 

They'll defend the King, 

B} r swearing of the thing, 
These are the cursed Rogues in grain ; 

For since it is so, 

They have wrought their overthrow, 
Old Tony will ne'r enjoy his own again. 30 

The True Religion that shall [they cast] down, 

which so long a [time] has won the day, 
And Common-Prayer i' th' Church of e'ry Town, 
if that the Whiggs could but bear the Sway : 

For Oats 1 he does begin 

Now for to bring them in, 
As when he came mumping from Spain ; 

For since it [is] so, 

They have wrought their overthrow, 
Old Tony mil ne'r enjoy his own again. 40 

How all their Shamming Plots they would hide, 

yet they are Ignorant they say, 2 
When as Old Tony he was Try'd 

and brought off with Ignoramus Sway : 

Then Oats he was Dumb, 

And could not use his Tongue, 3 
This is the Shamming Ro in Grain ; 4 

For since it is so, 

They have wrought their overthrow, 
Old Tony will ne'r enjoy his own again. 50 

1 Titus Oates, of course; see vol. iv. pp. 156 to 162. 

2 " Ignoramus," the beginning of the legal form of throwing out the True 
Bill of Indictment against 'Tony Shaftesbury. His proposed " Protestant 
Association " was mentioned in line 14. Compare pp. 76 to 80, and later. 

3 An allusion to his employer or dupe, Dr. Ezrael Tongue. 

4 See the poem by Richard Duke, vol. iv. p. 160, and the allusion to Oates as 
a " Rogue in Grain," 1681, vol. iv. pp. 157-8. Whilst so generally outspoken 
in virulent language, it is noteworthy here, as on p. 17, how generally pamphleteers 
shrank from fully spelling the words "Rogue" or "Knave," especially applied 
to Commons Members of Parliament, who frequently deserved the appellations. 
But " privilege " had been asserted vehemently and malignantly, consequently a 
wholesome fear of the pillory and cart's-tail sufficiently explained this avoidance 
of the word ; not any moral scrupulosity. Since " The greater is the truth, the 
greater is the libel," they only hinted what they thought, confined to initials. 



142 Be- Whig'd Steed-holder precursing Newmarket. 



Then let all true Subjects sing, 

and uoit?(j the power of all those 
That won't shew Loyalty to their King, 
and assist him against his Whiggish Foes : 
Then in this our happy state, 
In spight of Tray tors' hate, 
We will all Loyal still remain ; 
For since it is so, 

They have wrought their overthrow, 
Old Tony icill ne'r enjoy his own again. 60 

God preserve our Gracious King, 

with the Royal Consort of his Bed, 
And let all Loyal Subjects sing 

that the Crown may remain on Charles's Head : 
For we will drink his Health, 
In spight of Common- Wealth, 
And his Lawful Rights we will maintain ; 
For since it is so, 

They have wrought their overthrow, 
Old Tony will ne'r enjoy his own again. 70 

JftrttS. Printed for S. Maurel, in the Year 1682. 





Wijjhji 


^Ms^s^ 




KM 




ymmijfc 









143 



jBctomat&ct* 

" The child had been thinking how strange it was that horses, who were such 
fine honest creatures, should seem to make vagabonds of all the men they 
drew about them." — Muster Humphrey 's Clock, i. 200. 



F 



OR several good reasons we are willing at this place to introduce 
Tom D'Urfey's Newmarket song of 1682. First, because we gave 
a different Newmarket Song ( = "To horse, brave Boys of New- 
market, to horse ! ") among our Bagford Ballads, p. 80 ; when the 
following ditty was mentioned. Second, because at the Newmarket 
meeting in March, 1682, the newly-returned Duke of York held a 
levee of his enthusiastic adherents, to the gratification of his brother, 
who held no petty jealousy. Third, because it was the very ease 
and freedom from formal precautions of "Old Rowley" at New- 
market in 1682 which caused the conspirators for his assassination 
to plot the destruction of himself and the Duke for the following 
spring, on their return from Newmarket when passing near the 
Rye-House, Hertfordshire. 

We have had occasion (on our p. 4, and elsewhere) to notice the 
King's love of Horse-racing, both at Newmarket and Winchester. 
Sir John Reresby gives us several interesting particulars in regard 
to this meeting. Two days after the execution of Captain Vratz, 
Lieutenant John Stern and Borotzsky he records in his Diary : — 

March 12 [1682]. — His Highness the Duke of York arrived at Newmarket 
from Scotland, which he had long endeavoured to get leave to do, some advising 
the King against it. 

March 16. — My Lord Halifax told me I must go with him the next day in his 
own coach to Newmarket, which I accepted as a great honour done to me .... 
March 17. — Except myself, there being nobody in the coach with his lordship, 
he discoursed with me, concerning his son," etc. . . . Among other things he 
was saying how free he had been with the Duke of York in the point of changing 
his religion : for he had written to him that, except he became a Protestant, his 
friends would be obliged to leave him, like a garrison that one could no longer 
defend ; and that his Highness's answer was, that then his case was more desperate 
than he understood it to be before, for that he could not alter his principles. 

March 18. — We arrived before noon at Newmarket ; this day I was presented 
to the Duke by my Lord Halifax, who was very kind to me in his expressions . . 
My Lord stayed there till the 26th. I lay in the same lodging with his Lordship. 
.... The King was so much pleased with the country, and so great a lover of 
the diversions which that place did afford, that he let himself down from Majesty 
to the very degree of a country gentleman. He mixed himself amongst the 
crowd, allowed every man to speak to him that pleased ; went a hawking in the 
mornings, to cock-matches in the afternoons (if there were no horse-races), and 
to plays in the evenings, acted in a barn, and by very ordinary Bartlemeufair 
Comedians. . . . The crowd was so great here by reason of the Duke's first 
arrival there, of every body coming to wait upon him, and of several ' Abhorrences ' 
brought up and presented to the King from all parts of E>igland, that there were 
not beds for the company. — Memoirs, 1875 edition, p. 245. 



144 



[Tom D'TJrfey's Several New Songs ; and 120 Loyal Songs ; 1684.] 

C6e Jfteto^atfcet ^>ong;. 

Sung to the King There. To the Tune of, Old Sir Simon the King. 

THe Golden Age is come, the Winter storms are gone, 
The Flowers do spread and bloom, and smile to see the Sun ; 
Who daily guilds each Grove, and calms the air and Seas ; 
Dame Nature seems in love, and all the world's at ease : 
" You Rogue, go saddle Ball, I'll to New-Market scour; 
You never mind when I call; I should have been there this hour." 
For there is all sporting and game, without any Plotting of State, 
From Whigs, and another such Sham, deliver us, deliver us, Fate ! 
Let's be to each other a Prey ; to be cheated be ev'ry one's Lot ! 
Or chous'd any sort of a way, but by another's p^nrep Plot. 
Let Cullies that lose at the Race, go venture at Hazard and win ; 
And he that is bubbl'd at Dice, recover 't at Cocking again : 
Let Jades that are founder'd be bought ; let Jockeys play Crimp to make sport, 
For faith ! it was strange, methought, to see Tinker beat the Court. 14 

Each corner of the Town rings with perpetual noise, 
The " Oyster "-bawling Clown joyns with " Hot Pudding-Pyes !" 
And both in consort keep, to vend their stinking ware ; 
The drowzy God of Sleep hath no dominion there. 
" Hey, boys ! " the Jockeys roar, " if the Mare and the Gelding run, 
" I'll 'bet you five Guineys to four, he beats her, and gives half a stone." 
" Ged dimme ! " quoth Bully, " 'tis done, or else I'm the son of a [Sc]ore ; 
And fain would I meet with the man would offer it, would offer it once more." 
See, see the p 4 umnp Fate of the Town ! a Fop that was starving of late, 
And scarcely could borrow a Crown, puts in to run for the Plate. 
Another makes chousing a Trade, and dreams of his Projects to come, 
.And many a Crimp-match has made, by bribing another man's Groom. 
The Town's-men are Whiggish, G. rot 'em ! their hearts are but Loyal by fits ; 
For, should you search to the bottom, they 're as nasty as their streets. 28 

But now all hearts beware ; see, see on yonder Downs ! 
Beauty now tryumphs there, and at this distance wounds : 
In the Amazonian Wars thus all the Virgins shone, 
And, like the glitt'ring Stars, paid homage to the Moon. 
Love proves a Tyrant now, and there doth proudly dwell ; 
For each stubborn Heart must bow ; he has found a new way to kill : 
For ne'er was invented before such Charms of additional grace ; 
Nor has Divine Beauty such power, in ev'ry, in ev'ry fair Face. 
" Ods but ! " cries my Countrey-man John, " was ever the like before seen ? 
By Hals and by Feathers they've on, 1'se took 'em e'en all for men ! 
Embroider'd, and fine as the Sun, their Horses and trappings of Gold ; 
Such a sight I shall ne'er see again, if I live to a hundred years old." 
This, this is the Country's discourse, all wond'ring at this rare sight ; 
Then, Roger, go saddle my Horse ! for I will be there to-night. 42 

By Tom D' TJrfey. 

*** The often -mentioned Sir Simon the King is given in Popular Music of 
the Olden Time, p. 264. Mr. Chappell quotes from the Travels of Cosmo, third 
Grand-Duke of Tuscany: "Newmarket has in the present day' [1669] been 
brought into repute by the King, who frequents it on account of the horse-races ; 
having been before celebrated only for the market for victuals, which was held 
there, and was a very abundant one." One of three versions is in Pills, ii. 53. 



A 



145 



C6e ftOJ)igs , Disloyal jFeast iprofritritcti. 

" A Royal Pair, with their illustrious train, 
To Lai/doll's joy, are now return'd again : 
Great Charles did in the front appear, 
And Princely York advanced in the rear. 
The right Successor is return'd again, 
Whom former Faction sent an Exile o'er the Main. 
Then to the mighty Duke of York and Albany, 
Now London, London, show thy Loyalty ! " 

— London's Joy and Loyalty. 1682. 



MONTH after the execution of Captain Vratz, Stern, and 
Borotski (March 10th, 168-J-), the Duke of Monmouth went north, 
to the horse-races for the plate at Northampton, viz. on the 18th 
April. A great feast, packed by guinea tickets, was to be held by 
the Whig party on the 21st, at Haberdashers' Hall and Goldsmiths' 
Hall, whereat Monmouth, Shaftesbury, Essex, and others, with the 
Sheriffs, were expected to be present, and the popular sedition of 
their speeches was already discounted in the enthusiasm of their 
adherents. But the Court felt disinclined to allow such a rallying 
of its enemies, and two days before the date of the banquet an order 
appeared forbidding the meeting, as being "seditious and tending to 
raise distinctions and confederacies amongst his Majesty's subjects." 
The Lord Mayor was charged to prevent the unlawful assembly, 
which he did, and the city was well guarded by four companies of 
Train-bands, and several guards of constables or watchmen. The 
intent to spread disaffection at the projected meeting was uncon- 
cealed, for the guinea tickets bore a printed notice to the effect that, 

It having pleased Almighty God by his wonderful providence to deliver and 
protect his Majestie's person, the Protestant Eeligion, and English liberties 
(hitherto) from the Hellish and frequent attempts of their enemies (the Papists), 
in testimony of thankfulnesse herein, and for the preserving and improving 
mutuall love and charity among such as are sensible thereof, you are desired to 
meet many of the loyall Protestant nobility, gentry, clergy, and citizens, on 
Pryday the 21 day of this instant Aprill, 1682, at St. Michael's Church in 
Cornhill, there to hear a Sermon, and from thence to goe to Haberdashers' Hall 
to Dinner, and to bring this with you. 

Loyal wits made merry over the consternation, the nutter among 
the stewards, John Wilmore, Partridge, and the rest, after the 
purchase of provisions and preparation of harangues. There had 
been considerable merriment at Oxford, regarding a similar dis- 
appointment of Monmouth's party in the previous October ; when 
John Lord Lovelace and Alderman "William "Wright figured meanly 
about Monmouth's unpaid Racing-Plate. 

VOL. V. L 



146 



2Rje SEJJjtrcs' Disappointment upon tTjcfr tntcntcti jjcast. 

To the Tune of, Cook Lawrel. 

HAvo you not heard of a Festival conven'd of late, 
Compos'd of a pack of Notorious Dissenters, 
Appointed by Tinkers in Whigland to meet, 

To sign and to seal Covenanted Indentures ? 4 

The day was appointed, and all things prepar'd, 

In order thereto, by the Sages o' th' Nation ; 
And a Reverend Sermon was then to be heard : 

T' exhort 'em to th' Oath of Association. 1 8 

All sorts of Trades-men were bid to be there, 

The Lords- Petitioner s and Commoners' too ; 
But the Cooper 'fore all was to take the Chair, [=Shaftesbury 

To set forth the matter, as well he knew how. 12 

The godly Gown-men all chain'd and fur'd, 

Two Shrieves, and the De'il knows what of the Rabble, 

Invited on purpose, and set on, and spur'd 

To make a confusion worse than our old Babel. 16 

The chief of the Feast was a Fop and a Mouth,, \i-e. Mon-mouth 

Cry'd up by the City Cooper, and Player, 2 
"Whose name they'd extend from North unto South, 

By the trick of a Black-Box to make him an Heir. 3 20 

For down into Durham 4 an Envoy was sent, 

Amongst the chief of the Northern Clergies, 
To find out a writing to that very intent, 

Who had thirty good Guineys to defray his charges. 24 

The Reverend Titus was Chaplain o' th' Feast, [Titus Oates 

Brim-full of Plots, with Oaths to maintain them, 
The De'il could afford them no such a guest, 

'Mongst all the p.uurcp Crew to entertain them. 28 

Next came in Janewag, Curtis, Vile, and Care, 5 

With his Packet of Lies thrust under his arm ; 
Then Bon Bangerfieldo, more subtle by far 

Than poor Mother Cellier that acted no harm. 32 

All sorts of Informers were bid to be there, 

And the p 4 uiui;p Ignoramus Jurors too, 
To participate of this Festival cheer, 

By way of Thanksgiving for what they did do. 36 

1 Shaftesbury's Protestant Association, sworn to Exclude any Popish Successor. 

2 Sir Thomas Player, City Chamberlain. 

3 The fabulous Black-Box, supposed to contain the proofs of Monmouth's 
legitimacy. See Vol. IV. pp. 624, 625. 

4 Dr. John Cosin, Bishop of Durham (1660 to 1674), was falsely reported to 
have held possession of the marriage certificate between Charles and Lucy Walter. 

a The publishers of scandalous libels, Richard Janeway, Langley Curtis, 
Thomas Vile, and Harry Care, with the weekly Packet of Advice from Rome. 
For Thomas Dangerfield, who died after his public whipping and injury by 
Robert Francis in 1685, see owe Bag ford Ballads, p. 707; for Madam Cellier, 
who is represented shielding herself from missiles, see p. 190 of our present volume. 



The Whigs' Disappointment on their Intended Feast. 147 

Some hundreds more were to be at the Feast, 

And all things thereunto were fitted, 
But in steps an Order which forestall' d the Guests, 

Disbanding the Cooks ere the Meat was half spitted. 40 

Tag, Rag, and Long-tail were all to come in, 

To sit at this King of Poland's table : [=Shaftesbury's 

The Feast, I conceive, else was not worth a pin, 

Without the consent of an insolent Rabble. 44 

"What pining, and fretting, and fuming was there, 

When all the good Creatures were so laid aside ; 
'Twould make a Saint both to stamp and to stare, 

To see such a zealous Assembly decry'd. 48 

Here now the Nation was thus far fettled, 

And all things brought to a much better cue ; 
Here a new Government was to be settled 

And the De'il knows what beside they will do. 52 

Some think it was like the Oxford old stroke, 

Which was well [put forth], being given in season ; 

And some think they are under a burthensom yoak, 

'Cause they may not Assemble for Sedition and Treason. 56 

Some hold it not prudently acted at all, 

To check an Assembly of so great an intention, 
Who study' d and aim'd at the Torys* downfall, 

In raising the Whigs by a new invention. 60 

Some say they were nettled, and gall'd within, 

To see our great York embrae'd by the City : 
If that be the cause on't, we care not a pin ; 

Let them hang up each other — and so ends my Ditty. 64 

The tune chosen was singularly appropriate, being that of Ben 
Jonson's " Cook Laurell would needs have the Devil his guest;" 
— from his Gipsies Metamorphosed, 1621 (Roxb. Coll., II. 445). 
Having already (on p. 81 of previous volume, IV.) given the first 
and second verses of the Tory Loyal-Song in ridicule of the pro- 
jected Whig Feast at Haberdashers' -Hall on April 21st, 1682, we 
are unwilling to disappoint any readers who enjoy such pasquinades 
and had hoped to find the remainder here. On the other hand, 
suppose Strix Implumis grumble, and say that such stupendous 
Liberalism as the National Clubbists of two centuries ago ought to 
be protected by some litigious Chamberlain's ordinance from ever 
being laughed at, or black-balled with printer's ink ; that Gehenna 
is a Caucusian Institution, and its representatives have vested rights 
among the Philistines : what are Editors to do ? How can they 
satisfy both sides ? Suppose they leave the impossibility un- 
attempted, and conform to what the Scotch Lady called "the 
grand way of our forebears, when ilka bodie did what was richt in 
his ain een ! " So here is the Loyal Song complete ; in fair reprisal 
for the Whig attack on Dauby, to the same tune. 



148 



To the Tune of, Sawney will never he my Love again. [See p. 141.] 

TOny was small, but of Noble Race, 
And was belov'd of ev'ry one ; 
He broach'd his Tap, and it ran apace 

To make a solemn Treat for all the Town ; 
He sent to Yeoman, Knight, and Lord, 

The holy Tribe to entertain, 
"With all the Nation cou'd afford : 

But Tony will never be himself again. 8 

He sent to the Shambles for all their store, 

And left behind neither Fowl nor Beast ; 
The Spiggot ran swift, and fain would do more, 

To make all the Lords a noble .Feast : 
He sent to Market, he sent to Fair, 

His Loyal Guests to entertain ! 
But of the Banquet he had no share, 

And Tony will never be himself again. 16 

At two great Halls in London Town t Hab - and csoldsm. 

Design'd to meet a Zealous Crew, 
Of Lords and Knights of high Renown, 

And all were Protestants True Blew ! 
They threw in Guineas free as Brass, [About 200. 

The noble Frolick to maintain ; 
But on great Charles the Sham wou'd not pass : 

And Tony will never be himself again. 24 

"With " Duty to their Lawful Prince," 

A " Loyal Subject ev'ry One ! " 
" To pray for him " is the pretence, 

And then to rail and Plot against the Crown. 
From Church they did intend to th' Hall, 

Their Noble Guests to entertain ; 
But they were routed, Horse and all : 

And Tony will never be himself again. 32 

In favour of the King and the Luke, 

The Heir- Apparent of the Throne, 
His Highness they Exclude, and took 

A Fop-Pretender of their own. [i.e. Monmouth. 

The meek Guide Moses they withstand, 

A Golden Calf to entertain ; 
But Royal Charles dispers'd the Band, 

And Tony will never be himself again. 40 



The Bis-Loyal Feast Forbidden. 149 

" The bloody Papists shall no more 

Contrive against his Life and Reign ! " — 
Tho' 'twas themselves did the feat before, 

and are as ready to do 't again. 
Thus they Exclude the Rightful-Heir, 

The Gaudy Fop to entertain ; [stUt=Monmouth. 

But they were met by the good Lord, Mayor, 

And Tony will never be himself ay ain. 48 

"With thanks and " Pray'rs for our good King," 

they vow'd to sacrifice the day ; 
But Royal Charles he smoak'd out the thing, 

and sent the Rabble with a xoj away : 
He sent his summons to the Cit, 

Seditious Meetings to restrain, 
The Feast was broke, and the [Meat off the Spit], 

And Tony will never be himself ay ain. 56 

And now the Capons flye about, 

"With Friyacies of Amber yreece ; 
And Chickens, ready drest, they shout 

about the street for Pence apiece ! 
The Whiys will wish the Council choak'd, 

"Who did this Noble Feast restrain ; 
All down in the Mouth, thus to be bauk'd, 

Poor Tony will never be himself ayain. 64 

FINIS. 

London : Printed by Allan Batiks, 1682. 

It is reprehensible, uncharitable, irreligious, anti-" National," 
unpatriotic, and illiberal, no doubt, to laugh at such an extremely 
Pious Family of Whigdom's Radical Reformers, nobility and un- 
commoners ; who intended so lovingly to combine a nonconformist 
sermon with gluttony and wine-bibbing : beginning with a hymn, 
and ending under the table. What more could they do, in worship 
of their loquacious Dagon, unless they inaugurated a new Green- 
Ribbon Club for him, and listened to his unreasonable eloquence ? 
Nevertheless they were within a few hours of ignominious defeat. 
We endeavour to lament for them, with old Lafeu, and we melt : 

" Mine eyes smell onions, I shall weep anon : 
Good Tom Drum, lend me a handkereher ! " 

Funeral March played here, lugubriously, by the Orchestra. 

The struggle for supremacy between Monmouth and York was 
now being transferred from the Court to the City, and in both 



150 Poor 'Tony would never be himself again. 

fields the young Claimant had wasted his great advantages. Politic 
observers interpreted the auguries against him, and cautiously 
withdrew themselves from his influence. A few months earlier, 
all the civic power seemed vested in the "Whigs, under the guidance 
of Shaftesbury and George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham. 
But Tony would never be himself again ! Finding his schemes baulked 
in the prohibited feast, his authority set at naught by Hampden, 
Trenchard, Russell, Monmouth, and other conspirators, while plainly 
marked out for destruction by the Yorkists, Lord Shaftesbury was 
rapidly failing in health ; also in that clear-sightedness and readiness 
of resource which had hitherto distinguished him pre-eminently. 

When the Duke of Buckingham finally lost favour at the Court, 
he threw himself all the more desperately into Civic intrigues with 
the factious Whig Aldermen and Sheriffs. He had previously done 
his utmost to excite the jealousy of Charles, who was unwilling to 
detect the infidelities of Court Ladies, so long as it was possible to 
avoid observing them: Buckingham poached such game unblushingly. 

This practice made old Rowley puff, 
And turn his Grace in dudgeon off ; 
Who, much disgusted, now sets up 
To be the Faction's only prop : 
Hoping, as most believe, in vain, 
To please the blockheads, and regain 
JSy rich rebellious City slaves 
What he had lost by Fools and Knaves. 

— The Court Burlesqued. 

We give the following Loyal Song on " The Duke's Return from 
Scotland," because the tune to which it was sung, known by the 
first line, "Now y e Tories that glory," is the same to which the 
Roxburghe Ballad of Iter Boreale was appointed to be sung. 
Matthew Taubman wrote the two earlier verses (and printed them, 
along with a third verse, which was suppressed when four fresh 
verses were added). Not improbably the whole of both versions 
came from the ready pen of this Civic Poet. It was not likely that 
any publisher would prefer to employ another hand to remodel 
Taubman's work, while he himself was quite ready to do whatever 
was required at a reasonable price, so to secure his own article for 
the ballad-market. Believing this, we give the three undoubted 
Mat Taubman verses (without omitting here the third) ; and the 
others in unchanged type : marking the point of separation by a 
short rule and our second note. 



151 



&3LtllWLi8\)t8 to t\)t i&opaijf atmlp : 

£)n tfie Mtf'g Return from &>cotlauo, 1032. 

To a new Play House Tune. 

NOw ye Tories, that glory in Royal Jemmifs Beturn, 
I' the tavern roar it and score it ! your caps and bonnets bum ! 
'. At the Lads and the Lasses set foot to foot in their turn ; 
And he that passes his Glasses may he never 'scape the Horn. 1 
Royal James is come again, there 's for honest men room again, 
The true Heir is come home again, Fop Pretenders we scorn. 
Then hey! Boys, laugh it and quaff it, let Whigs and Zealots mourn. 

Let Impeaches and Speeches be with the Authors pull'd down, 
And all that preaches or teaches against the Heir of the Crown ! 
No more the Zealous shall tell us of th' Succession to the Throne, 
Till the rebellious old fellows his Lawful Interest own. 

Monarchy is got up again ! Ev'ry man take his Cup again ! 

Till we make the Whigs stoop again, who our Peace wou'd inthral : 
Aud ev'ry Rebel that Libell'd, do at his foot-stool fall. 14 

Then th' station o' th' Nation on terms more honest will be, 

Nor bold Oration in fashion, to rail at Monarchy ; 

The City Royal be loyal, and common Justice agree 

T' avenge lost heads on the Tryal of O^ate'js and S[_haftes~\l\jir~\y . 

Then Dissenters shall aid the Throne, and Addressers perswade 
the Throne, 

'Gainst the Traitors invade the Throne : London Charter be free, 
And Ignoramus be famous for Truth and Loyalty. 2 2 1 



Let 's be Loyal and Joy-all, 'spight of each factious Calal, 

Who daily deny all, dene all, that we can Loyalty call ; 

AVho, [while] smoaking and soaking, wish the Return of the Rump, 

Sadly looking, sit croaking, to see it worn to a Stump. 

Then set the glass round again, for our time 's not spent in vain, 
But let us now drink amain, Fill it up to the Brim ! 
Come round, Boys, let 's trowl it and bowl it, till our joys they do 
swim. 

1 This not only indicated the " Bull's Feather," of matrimonial- mishap, hut 
(as shown on p. 445 of Vol. IV.) was a nickname for the Compter prison. 

2 Thus far goes Matthew Taubman's earlier version, along with his Heroick 
Poem, 1682. The later reprinted Loyal Song omits the third verse, and continues 
iustead, after the fourteenth line, " at his footstool fall," the four following verses. 



152 The Duke of York's Exile Ends. 

Por him our choices and voices shall hereafter he free, 
Whilst each one rejoyces, our noises shall deafen th' raging o' th' Sea : 
"We'll attend him, befriend him, let Malice vote what it will, 
Coyn we '11 lend him, defend him, and we '11 rejoyce in him still. 
Then let us no Mirth refrain, since that now he is safe again, 
Well having escap'd the Main, from the salt waters set free, 1 
Then hey ! Boys, laugh it and quaff it, and let us merry be. 35 

Though the Zealous grow jealous, and create much needless fear, 
By which means they'd drill us and will us like themselves to appear; 
But no wonder, since Plunder is that at which they do aim, 
That the Whigs wander, under Ileligious Guile, which they shame ; 
But at last we have found 'em, and from the bottom unwound 'em, 
So that each man may sound them, and laugh at the Old Cause, 
Which was the ruine and undoing of King and Kingdom's Laws. 

Then let 's scout 'em and flout 'em, who rail at the Succession, 
That would rout Him whom we so esteem, beyond all expression ; 
Pill [up th'] Claret, who's for it ? and let each Bumper go round, 
Who doth bar it, or spare it, may he with Goat's Horns be crown'd. 
Here 's a Health to the Dutchess, grant her long life, health, and 

riches, 
And a Young Prince is all our wishes, whilst all the Factious 
repine, 
Then come away wi 't, ne'r stay it ; Let no man baulk his Wine ! 

[White-letter. No woodcut. Chiefly by Matthew Taubman. Date, May, 1682.] 

1 The narrow escape from shipwreck of the Duke in his second journey to 
Scotland had occurred on the 8th May, 1682, after departure from Yarmouth, when 
many of his personal attendants and seamen lost their lives, meeting death 
with a willing heart and loyal cheers. The malicious and false report, of James 
being more anxious to save his dogs than his friends and crew, is given spitefully 
in his favourite way by Gilbert Burnet the inaccurate ; but is disproved by 
documentary evidence. See Dalrymple's Memoirs, pp. 68 to 72 of vol. ii., Appendix, 
1773 ; also Sir John Berry's Letter in Jas. S. Clarke's Life of James II, ii. 730. 

*** Another Loyal Song, to the same tune, was an attack on the detected Rye- 
House Plotters, about December, 1683, entitled " Justice Triumphant : in com- 
mendation of Sir George Jeffreys, Lord Chief Justice of' England,'''' beginning, 

Now the Traytor, King-hater, that glories still in his crime, 
And every Associator, give thanks, lor now it is time. 
Let the Whigs in the Tower, who thought to make us a prey, 
Rejoyce, 'tis yet in their power, to keep a Thanksgiving -Bay : 
Loyal Jeffreys is Judge again, let the Brimighams grudge again, 
Who to Tyburn must trudge amain : Ignoramus we scorn ! 
May Heaven direct him, protect him ; Let guilty Traytors mourn ! 

The five verses will be given on a later page, in the Final Monmouth Group. 



T 



153 



3[tct Xoreale : gork's iRctutn, 1682. 

" When too much plenty, luxury, and ease, 
Had surfeited this Isle to a disease; 
When noisome blains did its best parts o'er-spread, 
And on the rest their dire infection shed ; 
Our Great Physician, who the Nature knew 
Of the Distemper, and from whence it grew, 
Fix'd for Three Kingdoms' quiet, Sir, on You. 
He cast his searching Eyes o'er all the Frame, 
And finding whence before one Sickness came, 
How once before our Mischiefs foster'd were, 
Knew well your Virtue, and apply' d you there : 
Where so your Goodness, so your Justice sway'd, 
You but appear'd, and the wild Plague was stay'd. 

When, from the filthy Dunghill-faction bred, 
New-form' d Rebellion durst rear up its head, 
Answer me all : Who struck the Monster dead ? 

See, see, the injur'd Prince, and bless his Name, 
Think on the Martyr from whose loins he came : 
Think on the Blood was shed for you before, 
And curse the Paracides that thirst for more. 
His Foes are yours, then of their wiles beware ; 
Lay, lay him in your Hearts, and guard him there." 

— Thomas Otway's Epilogue to Venice Preserved. 1682. 



HE lines quoted above, as our motto, are from the beginning of 
one among the many Poems hailing the Duke of York's return 
from Scotland, and the special Epilogue was spoken to him at the 
Theatre which bore his name and patronage, in Dorset Gardens, 
"The Duke's House," on April 21st, 1682. The Duke's Return 
from Scotland was commented on in many loyal poems by Nat Lee, 
by Kichard Duke, and in addresses at the Theatre. Among such 
are those beginning " All you, who this day's Jubilee attend," by 
Thomas Otway, addressed to the Duchess of York; "Come then 
at last, while anxious Nations weep," is by Nat Lee : and " In those 
cold regions which no Summers chear," is by John Dryden. We 
have already mentioned the long Heroic Poem on the Duke of 
York's Return from Scotland, 1682, by Matthew Taubman, and give 
his song on our p. 170, referring to the recent Shipwreck. 

There had always been a devoted band of admirers "through 
thick and thin " of the Duke, during his absence, which had been a 
virtual exile, and if they could do little to show their loyalty save 
tossing off a bumper with good wishes for his health and ultimate 
succession to his rights, we doubt not their sincerity. It would 
have been safer to drink to Shaftesbury, and the wine or beer 
might have been little affected by the change of toast, but every 
Cavalier would have spurned such a suggestion indignantly. So 
they "toasted the Gentleman in Scotland's Health," even thus: — 



154 Loyal Healths to the Duke of York. 



& Pjcaltfr. 

LEt tli' ambitious soar high on the wings of Renown, 
And mount like blind Birds, to come tumbling down ; 
Let Lover's pale face his sick fortune declare, 
Let traitorous Statesmen the Rabble ensnare : 
Wine's all my Ambition, my Love, and my Care. 
In Brimmers each man shall drink Loyally round, 
Till his Fancie's in th' air, and himself on the ground. 
Our Hats down before us for Pillows we'll fling, 
Where Funics shall sleep, whilst the Able do sing, 
" All health, all health to the Duke and the Xing ! " 

The Return of the Duke was celebrated in a Catch, which alludes 
both to Jack Presbyter and to Sixteen-Hundred-and-Forty-One : — 

f^ealtij to the Bufce, & ffiatrij. 

Since the Duke is Rcturn'd, wee '11 defic all the Whigs, 
And let them be hang'd for Politick Priggs : 
Both Presbyter Jack, and all the whole Crew, 
That lately design'd Forty-One to renew. 
Make room for the Men that never deny'd 
To God save the King ! " and the Duke ! " they reply'd ; 
Whose Loyalty ever was fixt with that zeal 
Of voting down Schism, and proud Common-weal. 
Then bring up a Pottle, we'll Huzza the Glass, 
And drink off a Bottle, each man in his place : 
'Tis a health to the Duke, Boy, give me my measure ! 
The fuller the glass is, the greater the pleasure. 

Six distinct poems holding the same title of Iter Boreale are 
known to us, and it may be well to here mark tbeir distinctions. 

1. — The earliest of these is by Richard Corbet, Bishop successively 
of Oxford and of Norwich, who died in 1 635. His Iter Boreale begins, 

Four Clerks of Oxford, Doctors two, and two 
That would be Doctors, . . . Etcetera. 

2. — Next Iter Boreale, longest, and most ambitious of the group, 
is that one "attempting something upon the successful and match- 
less March of the Lord General George Motile, from Scotland to 
London [during] the last winter ; Veni, Vidi, Vici, etc." It was 
printed for George Thomason (the shrewd and loyal collector of the 
unrivalled store of King's Pamphlets), on St. George's Day, April 
23rd, 1660, five weeks before the Restoration. The poem was 
written by the Rev. Dr. Thomas Wild, concerning whom we shall 
have much to write in a later volume. The original quarto issue 
of ten leaves is in our private collection at Molash (a gift from Miss 
De Vaynes) ; also the reprint in Wild's Poems. It begins thus : — 



Six distinct Poems entitled Iter Borcale. 155 

The Day is broke ! Melpomene is gone ; 
Hag of my Fancy, let mc now alone 
Night-mare my Soul no more. Go, take thy flight, 
Where Traytors' Ghosts keep an eternal Night. 
Fly to Mount Caucasus, and bear thy part 
With the black Fowl that tears Prometheus' heart 
For his bold Sacriledge. Go, fetch the groans 
Of defunct Tyrants, with them croke thy tones ! [=Thc Regicides 

Go, see Aleeto witli her flaming whip 
How she firks Nol, and makes old Bradshaiv skip : 
Go, make thy self away ! thou shalt no more 
Choak up my Standish with the blood and gore 
Of English Tragedies : I now will chuse 
The merriest of the Nine to be my Muse. Etcetera. 

It is by no means without merit, although stilted in diction. 
Sir Walter Scott characterized it as being " written in a harsh and 
barbarous style, filled with clenches and ear-wickets, as the time 
called them ; which, having been in fashion in the reigns of James I. 
and his unfortunate son, were revived after the Restoration." (Scott's 
Dry den, xv. 296.) 

3. — Iter Boreale, the Second Part, relating to the Progress of the 
Lord General Monk. To the tune of, When first the Scottish Wars 
began. Printed fur Henry Broome, 1660. It is in the Bagford 
Collection, III. 16, and begins, 

Good people all, hark to my call ! I'll tell you all, etc. 

These two, Nos. 2 and 3, will be given unmutilated in our forth- 
coming Ballads and Songs of the Civil War, Part Fifth. 

4. — Iter Boreale his Country Clown ; or, The Country Scourg'd 
for their Barbarism to the Citizens. London : printed for the 
Author, 1665. It refers to the misadventures of those called the 
"Runawayes" who fled from London during the affliction of the 
Great Plague. (In the Society of Antiquaries Library.) It begins, 

Not a hard Bed i' th' Country to procure. 

5. — Iter Boreale, in folio sheets, is in our private Collection ; 
reprinted as one of the Loyal Poems and Satyrs upon the Times, 
since the beginning of the Salamanca Plot : Written by several 
Hands. Collected by M[atthew] T[aubman], 1685. The original 
belongs to December of the year 1682. Given entire later. Begins, 

After long-practis'd Malice in the South, 

Brutus (the people's Ear, the people's Mouth) 

At length most prudently has sally'd forth, . . Etcetera. 

6. — The Roxhurghe Ballad here to be reprinted, entitled, Iter 

Boreale ; or, Tyburn in Mourning for the Loss of a Saint. Written 

by J. D. A New Song, to the tune of, Now the Tories that glories 

in Royal Jemmy's Return [given already on p. 151]. 1682. It begins, 

Behold great Heaven's Protection ! 



156 The jaded J.D. poets : not John Dryden. 

The author is declared to be " J. D." Not improbably the publisher 
desired that people should believe this J. D. to be John Dryden, 
and thus a better sale might be secured, for " Glorious John " was at 
the height of his popularity at this time, and in the full flush of his 
genius. We must for the present leave undecided the answer to 
such a question as "Who was this J. D. ? " We cannot possibly 
accept John Dryden as the veritable author of this " Tyburn in 
Mourning." There was a John Danvers, a Royalist, who wrote 
"The Royal OaJce" account of Charles II. 's escape, in 1660. 
Another J. D. wrote a Poem in 1664 on the two Yew-Trees repre- 
senting Giants at the Physic-Gardens, Oxford : which poem we 
mentioned in Bagford Ballads, p. 814 ; where we identified the 
author as John Drope, M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
(Not having been included among our reproductions from the 
Bagford Collection, it will be given in the present volume.) It was 
reprinted in this same year, 1682, and begins, " Although no 
brandisht Cherubins are here." Another J. D. signs the lively 
Cavalier ditty entitled, "The Lover's Mad Pits and Fancies," be- 
ginning, " I doat, I doat, but am a Sot to show it." (Given already 
by the present Editor in his Bagford Ballads, p. 516.) There was 
also a "J. D., Minister in Surrey," who figures in Slate Poems, iii. 
94 ; and Jonathan Dryden, cousin of " glorious John." Jonah Deacon 
should be named. These are the chief wearers of the initials J. D. 
Slingsby Bethel, the Independent and Republican Exclusionist, 
appears to be the special "Saint" mourned over, as escaping 
the national collar at Tyburn. He had all the bitter spite, the 
narrow-minded and money-grubbing niggardliness befitting an 
extreme Sectary. " After riches poured in upon him, his oeconomy 
was much the same as before. Parsimony was so habitual to him 
that he knew not how to relax into generosity upon proper occasions; 
and he was generally censured for being too frugal in his entertain- 
ments when he was Sheriff of London." John Oldham gibbets 
him, "like stingy Bethel save, and grudge yourself the charges of 
a grave." Dryden rebukes his miserly habits, showing hitn as the 
cursing Shimei of Absalom anal Achitophel : 

Chaste were his cellars, and his Shrieval Board 

The grossness of a City Feast abhorr'd. 

His Cooks with long disuse their trade forgot ; 620 

Cool was his Kitchen, though his brains were hot. 

Slingsby Bethel fled to Holland before 22nd July, 1682. (See p. 
165, and later pages, our introduction to "Another Iter Boreale") 



]. 



Oi 



[Roxburglie Collection, III. 915.] 

gter Boreale; 

©r, 

^putint in Counting for tijt Mom of a &atm« 

A New Song, to the tune of, iVcw y e Toryes that Glories. 

Written by J. D. 




BEhold Great Heaven's Protection, 
Jehovah Frowns for to see 
Pretended Zeal claim Election 

In Rights of Monarchy. 
Great Charles, in spight of all Treason, 

Preserves his Kingdoms in Peace ; 
He rules by Law and by Reason, 7 

Whilst Whigg melts in his own Grease : 
Ignoramus is out of Doors ; 
Five, O flye, ye Base Sons of sojoq^, 
Poland or Holland will hide such Bores, 

"Who Rebellion have sown : 
For nothing but Royalty, Loyalty, 

Shall in our Isle be known. 14 

The Be\_th~]ellites are in mourning [see opposite. 

To see their Syre so Cold : 
Zownes ! who thought of adjourning 

A Zealot so Factious bold ? 



158 J.D.'s Iter Boreale. 

To Prayers, ye Pestilent Whiggs, 

The Devil may hear you in time : 
What think you by Oliver's Jigg ? 21 

Gad, 't brings my Song into Rime. 
Hamburgh once again take thy own, 
Tyburn long for thy Son doth Groan ; 
Cromivel's disturb'd with her making moan, 

Curses the sins brought him there : 
Then let us be Merry, drink Sherrj', 

The Zealots no longer fear. 28 

"Whine louder, ye Priests of the Zealous, 1 

For Heaven is Deaf to your Prayers : 
Why do ye Deceive us, and tell us 

You travel in Heaven's Affairs ? [=travaii 

What Saint e're came, or Professor, 

From [the] Grave to teach to Dethrone 
Your lawful King and Successor, 35 

Whom next to Heaven we own ? 

If these be Tricks of your Whiggish Tribe, 
~No Saint will ever the Devil chide ; 
Though in the bottom of Hell he hide 

Such Lovers of Kings the wrong way : 
Then Hey ! Boys, Trounce it and Bounce it, 

For Monarchy gets the Day. 42 

Must Nine-penny Esquire be forgotten ? 2 

! do not to memory bring 
Those Hamburgh Sayings, where Hot ones ; [were? 

" p^uui'BQ Rogue, did'st thou Murder the K[ing] ? " 
Must still the Zealous o'er rule us ; 

Shall Council Gowns be above 
Majesty, Sword, Mace, then tell us 49 

Who better than Moor\_e~\ 3 can Love ? 
Loyalty burnetii within his Breast, 
Religion is his chief Interest ; 
The City he would with Peace invest : 

Was they not blinded with Zeal. 
Then Hey ! Boyes, Laugh it and Quaffe it, 

Let Moor[e~\ to the King Appeal. 56 



Eefers to Robert Ferguson, on whom see late pages of final Monmouth Group. 
Probably John Hampden, Esquire ; of whom anon, in the Rye-House Plot. 
Sir John Moore, chosen Lord Mayor of London, 1681, a strong Tory. 



Tyburn in mourning for toss of Saint Bethel. 159 

Be gone, base Sons of the Nation, 

That Love not the Power of Kings ; 
Go, seek Dad Be\_th~]eVs new Station, 

'Twill hold Ten thousand such Things : 
Go, mourn the Sin of Rebellion, 
You would set up in the City ; 
Take with you your New Friend Pa\_piUion~]} 63 

The rest of the Old Committee. 

Let Love and Loyalty once more Reign 

Within your breasts, for great Charlemaine, [ = chas. it. 

And for the Prince that's come home again, d. of York. 

Who our Peace will support. 
Then Hey ! Boyes, Drink it, ne'r Shrink it, 

Here's a Health to the King and Court ! 70 

London : Printed for C. Tebroc, Anno Dom. 1682. 
[C. Tebroc is disguise-reversal for Charles Corbet. "White-letter. No woodcut.] 

*** We have again incidentally mentioned John Dryden (in disclaiming for 
liim the authorship of the preceding Roxburghe Ballad by a different "J. D."), 
and must allude to the spiteful reprint by John Smith, in 1681, of An Elegy 
on the Usurper 0[liver] C [romwell] , by the Author of Absalom and Achitophcl : 
published to shew the Loyalty and Integrity of the Toet : beginning : — 

And now 'tis time : for their officious haste, 
Who would before have borne him to the Sky, 
Like eager Romans, e're all Rites were past, 
Did let too soon the sacred Eagle fly. Etcetera. 

But, as this unauthorized reprint is virtually unknown, we here give the Postscript 
appended on the other side of the sheet, pretending to be also from Dryden's 
hand. It betrays the malignity of Dryden's foes, who desired to stop his pension. 

Postscript. 

Tile Printing of these Rhimcs afflicts me more 
Than all the Drubs I iu Rose-Alley bore.- 
This shows my nauseous Mercenary Pen 
"Would praise the vilest and the worst of men. 

A Rogue like Hodge am I, the World will know it, [i.e. L'Estrange. 
J[odge was his Fuller, aud I, John his Poet. 
This may prevent the pay for which I write ; 
For I for pay against my Conscience fight. 
I must confess so infamous a Knave 
Can do no Service, though the humblest Slave. 

1 Thomas Papillion of Fenchmich Street was committed to the Marshalsea, for 
the Pritchard line; he fled to Holland in November, 1G84, and came back along 
with Slingsby Bethel, and other "returned empties," in February, 168,". 

2 A brutal reference to the outrage on Dryden, December 18, 1679. 



160 " Mephibosheth " Pordage's libels on John Dryden. 

Villains I praise, and Patriots accuse, ") 

My railing and my fawning Talents use ; > 

Just as they pay I flatter or abuse. ) 

But to men in Power a p • • j, am still, 

To rub on any honest Face they will. 

Then on I'le go, for Libels I declare, 

Best Friends no more than worst of Foes I'le spare, 

And all this I can do, because I dare. 

He who writes on, and Cudgels can defie, 

And knowing hee '1 be beaten still writes on am I. 

London : Printed for /. Smith, mdclxxxi. 

The repetition of the same mean taunt is found in Samuel Pordage's verses, 
The Medal Revers'd: A Sat y re against Persecution, By the Author of Azaria 
and Hnshai. London : Printed for Charles Lee. Anno 1682 (beginning, 
" How easie 'tis to sail with wind and tide ") : wherein we read, 

This well the author of the Medal knew, 

"When Oliver he for an Hero drew. 

He then swam with the Tide ; appear'd a Saint, 

Garnish'd the Devil with Poetick Paint. 

When the Tide turn'd, then strait about he veers, 

And for the stronger side he still appears. 

Thus continued " Lame Mephibosheth, the Wizard's son," his contest with Dryden. 
More foul is the attack by Thomas Shadwell, in The Medal of John Bayes : 
A Satyr against Folly and Knavery. London : Printed for the notorious Richard 
Janeway (= " Seditious Dick "), 1682. In this the tirade is continuous, e.g., 

Your Loyalty you learn'd in CromiveVs Court, 
Where first your Muse did make her great effort : 
On him you first shew'd your Poetick strain, 
And prais' d his opening the Basilick Vein. 

Given in Italic type, and with this explanatory Note : " See his Poem upon 
Oliver. And ivisely he essay' d to staunch the Blood by breathing of a Vein " 
(Quarto, p. 8). Here u u-isely u is the gratuitous and malicious interpolation by 
Tom Shadwell. Edward Waller had belauded the Protector, of old, no less than 
Dryden had done, but escaped the Satirists by courtier-like pliancy and frivolity. 
Dryden was feared by them as a dangerous foe, and libelled accordingly. 



-= ,e3ca -30><S5S5? «i3est*l--«=- 



161 



T 



Content's a Crcasure. 

" I am content, I do not care, 

"Wag as it will the world for me ; 
"When fuss and fret was all my fare 

It got no ground that I could see ; 
So when away my caring went, 
I counted cost, and was content." — John Byrom. 



HE Return of the Duke of York from Scotland gave satisfaction 
to those who saw to what ruinous extremes the revolutionary 
intrigues and tumults of the Shaftesbury faction were tending, with 
Monmouth as the future puppet king. One outburst of loyalty is 
the spirited Roxburghe Ballad following immediately. It was sung 
to the popular tune called (from the burden) And a Begging ive will 
go ; or (from the first line of the original song), " There tvas a jovial 
Beggar:" for which see Bagford Ballads, p. 216. The Jovial 
Loyalist, who here presents himself before us, is a rollicking soul 
who feels no desire to enter into any plots whatever, loves Ins lass 
and his tipple, pays his dues if cash be ready, and does not injure 
his digestion by considering abstruse questions of casuistry. If 
called on to fight for the Xing, or for the King's lloyal Brother, he 
will answer the demand bravely, and do his best to punish rebellion, 
without hair-splitting. But, on the whole, he prefers claret to a 
carbine, and a set of boon companions to meeting conventiclers, 
either as friends or foes. He stands up for his Queen also, Catharine 
of Uraganza, so long as he is able to keep the perpendicular, and 
treats with contempt the base allegations of Titus Oates against 
her. He is even so complaisant (if liquor be good) as to drink the 
health of him whom he styles "the Prince," though there can be 
little enjoyment in it if he means Prince George of Denmark ; still 
less if it be William of Orange. 



'o v 



Mild est propositum in Taberna mori, 
Vinum sit opposifum, morientis ori : 
Ui dicant, cum Venerint, Angelorum ehori, 
' Dens sit propitius hide potato) i.' 

So sang worthy Walter de Mapes, beginning his carol ; which in 
the happiest mood genial Leigh Hunt translated, a little too late 
for our " Jovial Loyalist " : — 

I devise to end my days, in a Tavern, drinking, 

i\Iay some Christian hold for me the glass when I am shrinking, 

That the Cheruhim may cry, when they see me sinking, 

" God be merciful to a Soul of this gentleman's way of thinking ! " 



VOL. V. M 



162 



[Roxburghe Collection (i.e. B. II. Briglit's Supplment), IV. 8.] 

Content's a treasure; 

<€,%t lofnal iLoualist, 

A MOST PLEASANT NEW PlAY-SoNG, GREATLY IN REQUEST, HOTH AT 

Court and Theatre. 

Content's a Treasure, nothing more can be, 
'Tis all that can make happy thee or me ; 
Content and Loyalty, and harmless Mirth 
Are those that give to all our Joys a Birth : 
Wine is a Charm, 'tis armour-proof and mail, 
It quicks our Senses, when our Wits do fail ; 
Keeps us from Cold, and hushes all our Cares, 
And in the midst of Dangers stifles fear. 

To A New Tune of, We are jovial Topers ; or, There was a Jovial Beggar. 




W///////M//////////////////A 




WE are Jovial Topers, that [of] no man evil think, 
But study to be Merry, and drink off our Drink, 
And so Merry we will be, Will be, will be, will be, 
And so Merry we will be. 

No Plots we e're invented, against the Church and State, 
But still we keep our Loyalty, and shun all rash debate ; 
And so Merry ire mil be, will be, will be, etc. 



The Jovial Loyalist, Contented. 1G3 

In scarcity and plenty, we always are content, 
We ne'r repine at Providence, but take what it Has sent. 
And so Merry ice will be, etc. 12 

When the weather's Rainy, or Cloud}', for to warm us, 
Each man turns off his glass or two, which never yet could 
And so Merry ice will be, etc. [harm us. 

A Health or two we pass about, to those we're sure are Loyal, 
But those that otherways we find, we generously dene all ; 
And so merry ice will be, etc. 20 

We give to every man his due, no Mortal can say other, 
We live like kind Companions, and still love one another : 
And so merry ice will be, etc. 24 

Let th' worldlings sweat & moile, for guilded Clay, we care not, 

'Tis all but dross, we value not, then spend it, Boys, and spare not, 

And so merry we will be, etc. 28 

Rich Nectar does inflame us, and makes our thoughts divine, 
All sorrows it does banish, there's nothing like brisk wine ; 
And so merry tee icill be, etc. 32 

If we have our Mistris, she still does make us jolly, 
'Tis Claret or Canary, that makes us see men's folly ; 

And so merry we uill be, etc. 36 

The World it is an Ocean, wherein all men are sailing, 
Then briskly drink about, Boys, and let there be no failing, 
And so merry we will be, etc. 40 

Come, fill us t' other Bumper, we see no cause to part yet, 
Wine is the only Jewel, that ever charm'd my heart yet. 
And so merry we will be, etc. 44 

Though Fortune it does frown, we'l ne'r be melancholly, 
'Tis vain to grieve for ought below, rash sorrow's but a folly : 
And so merry ice will be, etc. 48 

Come, fill us t' other Bumper, Boys, Let it be just a Brimmer, 
And he that will not pledge it, a Whigg is, or a Trimmer : 
And so merry tee will be, etc. 52 



164 



Content is a Treasure. 



To Charles our King, his gracious Queen, and to his Royal 

Brother, 
Come, fill it up again, Boys, here's to the Prince another. 
And so merry we will be, etc. 56 

"We have the world at will, Boys, there's nothing we can lack, 

Since our Cups with Nectar flow, tis [the] Nectar we call Sack : 

And so merry we will be, etc. 60 

There's none so happy live as we, on us delights do showre, 
"We live from hate and envy free, more safe than those in power: 
And so Merry we will be, will be, will be, will be, 

And so merry we will be. 64 

FINIS. 

Printed for J. Blare, at the Looking- Glass, on London- Bridge. 

[Black-letter. Date, about 1681. Five cuts, thus distributed; one on p. 87, 
another on p. 114, two on p. 1G2. The fifth is a table with mugs, card, flask, 
and candle, a fragment of a Jacobean picture representing a Tinker on the 
tramp. We give the entire cut here, uumutilated, instead of the fragment.] 




T 



165 

Cfte Contenten Subjects. 

" Let the Whigs revile, the Tories smile, 

That their business is completed ; 
Let all rejoice with heart and voice 

That the Whig 's at last defeated. 
The Whiga for Loyalty so fam'd ! 

With all their hopes are undone ; 
Since now brave Ptitchard is proclaim' d 

The Loyal Mayor of London. . . . 

" For North and Rich, and every such, 
They set up a Papillion : 
'Gainst Pritcliard, hold, Whig Cornish' gold, 

With Ryot and Rebellion. 
To love the King can you pretend, 

Who Royalists deny all ? 
And with such vigour dare contend 
Against the Man that's Loyal ? " 

— London's Jog and Triumph, on the Instalment of 
Sir Wm. Pri t chard Lord Mayor for the ensuing 
year 16S2. Tune of, The Tangier March. 



HE strife between the rival partizans, Whig and Tory, was 
fiercest in London, and on no field more keenly fought than when 
battling for the victory of the Shrievalty and the Mayoralty. Let 
it never be forgotten that the sharp practices of the Whigs, in 
nefariously packing Juries, thanks to their own Sheriffs being un- 
scrupulous partizans, inevitably forced on the retributive triumph 
of the Tories, who beat them with their own tactics, and secured 
victory all along the line, by the employment, at worst, of the self- 
same bribery and intimidation which had been hitherto esteemed 
glorious, so long as it was found efficient by the Shaftesbury irre- 
concileables. Often since then have we seen the same thing repeated, 
in modern times. A howl arose from "virtuous indignation ! " so 
soon as the winning cards were found to have passed into opponents' 
hands : cards which the " Liberal-minded " losers had formerly 
without scruples used for cheating, but now denounced, with all 
such gambling and sharp practices, as distastefully immoral. 

We have often to mention the parsimonious Slingsby Bethel (one 
of the most factious of Whig Sheriffs, in companionship with Henry 
Cornish, see pp. 156, 198, etc.), and are tempted to give here the 
contemporary satire against him, "an abuse to Sheriff Bethell for 
keeping no house," printed for S. P. Q. L. (Senatus Populusque 
London.), 1681, entitled "The Last Sayings of a Mouse, lately 
starved in a Cupboard : as they were taken in short-hand, by a 
zealous Rat-catcher, who listened at the Key-hole of the Cup -board 
Door." It begins, 

Wretch that I am ! and is it come to this ? 

short continuance of Earthly bliss ! 

Did I for this forsake my Country ease, 

My liberty, my bacon, beans, and pease ? — Etcetera. 



166 

[Roxburghe Collection, III. 905.] 

%\>t Contented Subjects ; 

CSe €itl5tm'' lop* 

No Power without God's Providence 

shall ever last or stand ; 
Then God preserve our Gracious Prince 

and Soveraign of this Land. 

The Tune is, Noiv, now the Fight's done. [See Vol. IV. p. 243.] 

NOw, now the time's come, Noble Pritchard is chose, 
In spight of all People that would him oppose ; 
The King and His Subjects I hope will agree, 
That troubles and dangers forgotten may be : 
Then now, London Citizens, merrily Sing, 
" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper our King ! " 6 

The difference now I hope is Compos'd ; 
And the confidence that in our Mayor's Repos'd, 
I do hope will be answer'd in every degree, 
If so, then no Subjects more happy than we : 

Then, brave London Citizens, merrily sing, 

" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper the King ! " 12 

Our flourishing Monarch, whose Fame doth abound, 
The Defender of Faith I do hope will be found : 
Let the Turk and the Pope both of him stand in fear, 
Whose Protestant Principles now are so clear ; 
That the brave London Citizens merrily sing, 
" God bless Noble Prichard and Prosper the King ! " 18 

Do but mind how the Heavens upon us do smile, 
And the Pope's expectations do clearly beguile ; 
To oblige Sinful Men from their fault to refrain, 
That in Heaven above they with Saints may remain : 
Then, Protestant Subjects, be merry and Sing, 
" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper the King ! " 24 

The Divisions of late, that did strangely increase, 
I hope will conclude in a Flourishing Peace ; 
And England be freed from the dangers and fears 
Which seem'd for to threaten her several years : 

Then may loyal Citizens merrily Sing, 

" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper the King ! ' ; 30 



The Con tented Subjects. 167 

And who can foretell what God's Love will bestow 
On us Sinful Men, who Inhabit below ? 
Since dayly we find that the Powers above 
Sends us dayly symptomes of Mercy and Love : 

But let l brave Loyal Citizens merrily Sing, 

" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper the King /" 36 

Thrice happy are Subjects, yea, Blessed are they 
Who Honour their Prince, and God's Laws do obey ; 
Upon that Blest Land will Providence flow, 
'Twere happy for England if we could do so : 

Yet brave London Citizens merrily Sing, 

" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper the King ! " 42 

"What Prince ever Reign'd in this Island before, 
More filled with Love, that hath Mercy in store ? 
That freely forgives many who do offend, 
In hopes to find Mercy himself in the end : 

Then brave London Citizens merrily Sing, 

" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosjier our King ! " 48 

Then lift up your Souls, both in Heart and in Voice, 

Bless Heaven so kind, for so happy a Choice, 

As lately was made, to the People's content, 

Of which I do hope they will never repent : 
While the brave London Citizens merrily Sing, 
" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper the King ! " 54 

You brave English Subjects, that Honour your Prince, 
Take Pattern by me, and let Reason convince, 
That our King doth endeavour this Land to advance, 
And not keep you like the poor Serviles in France : 

Then let London Citizens merrily Sing, 

" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper the King ! " CO 

Of Whigs and of Torys we hear shall no more, 
These Names of distinctions did trouble some sore ; 
But since God and the King to England are friends, 
Know, where strife amongst Subjects so strangely depends, 

The Citizens then very faintly idtt Sing : 

But God Bless the Mayor, and Prosper the King ! 66 



1 Tn broadside misprinted, " Bid let us brave Loyal Citizens,''' etc., and in 
burden of next verse misplaces "London" before " brave Citizens,''' 1 as also in 
the final verse, where we leave it unchanged : Prichard throughout, for Pritehard, 



168 " Jemmy " Monmouth and " 'Tony " Shaftesbury. 

Do but mind with what Joy this Mayor was receiv'd, 
'Twould make you admire, 'tis by some not believ'd : 
But 'tis certainly sure, give but Credit to me, 
That goes not by Here-say, but this I did see : 
Then London brave Citizens merrily Sing, 
" God bless Noble Prichard, and Prosper the King ! " 

Jims. 

Printed for P. Brooksby, in West-Smithfield. 

[In White-letter. No woodcuts. Date, October 29, 1682.] 



Bicmmp ana antftonp* 



" Now the Plotters and Plots are confounded, and all their designs made known, 
Which smelt so strong of the Round-head, and Treason of 'Forty-One ; 
And all the Pious Intentions for Property, Liberty, Laws, 
Are found to be only Inventions, to bring in their Good Old Cause. 

" By their delicate Bill of Exclusion, so hotly pursu'd by the Rabble, 
They hop'd to have made such confusion, as never was seen at old Babel. 
Then Shaftesbury's brave City Boys, and M\_onmouth~]'s Country Relations, 
Were ready to second the Noise, and send it throughout Three Nations. 

" No more of the fifth of November, that dangerous desperate Plot ; 
But ever with horrour remember Old Toneij, Armstrong, and Scot. 
For Toney will ne'r be forgotten, nor Ferguson's popular Rules, 
Nor Monmouth nor Grey when they're rotten, for Popular Politick Fools. 

" But I hope they will have their desert, and the Gallows will have its due, 
And Jack Ketch will be more expert, and in time be as rich as a Jew : 
Whilst now in the Tavern we sing, ' All joy to great York and his Right ! 
A glorious long reign to our King, and when they've occasion we'll fight.' ' 

— The Whigs laid open. 1683. 

fj EMMY is Monmouth of course, and Anthony Ashley Cooper, 
Earl of Shaftesbury, is associated with him in the following Rox- 
buryhe Ballad, which had been written by one of their partizans, 
and circulated to further their plans. It has about it the ring of 
anticipated triumph, and was appointed to be sung to the tune 
of " Young Jemmy is a Lad," belonging to the ballad of " England's 
Darling" (already given, Yol. IV. p. 503, but compare one on 657). 
His partizans were active in disseminating praise of him, e.g., 

Monmouth' s brave mind cou'd no disguise endure, 
Still Noble ways preferring to Secure. 



1G9 

[Roxburghe Collection, III. 917.] 

gjemmp and Slntijonp* 

To the Tune of Young Jemmy. [See pp. 503, 657, of Vol. IV.] 

j^JONJIO UTII is a brave Lad, the like's not in our City ; 

He is no Tory Blade ; (give ear unto my Ditty !) 
Long may he live in happy years, Victorious may he be, 

And prosper long those Noble Peers, Monmouth and Shaftsbury ! 

We care not for such Sots, as are the Crew of Papish ; 
They with their Cursed Plots and Treasons are so Apish ; 
But all our City knows them well, bad Subjects for to be : 
Then prosper long those Noble Peers, Monmouth and Shaftsbury ! 

Some say they was bad men, that swore against the Earl ; 
Which hath to England been a costly precious Pearl : 
But may they be convinced, that their Errors do not see : 
Then prosper long those Noble Peers, Monmouth and Shaftsbury ! 

Some say the Papists think to work their overthrow ; 
And they so closely link, and Plotting was also; 
But God, who bring all things to light, his Eyes still open be: 
Then prosper long those Noble Peers, Monmouth and Shaftsbury ! 

If that their Popish Plots had not soon come to light, 
Then all Good Protestants had been put to the flight ; 
But God does bring them all to light, as you may plainly see : 
Then prosper long those Noble Peers, Monmouth and Shaftsbury ! 

Great Monmouth they've abus'd, and likewise Shaftesbury, 
And with their Tongues misus'd have said they Traytors be ; 
But they that answer to the Laws are Subjects good and free ; 
Then prosper long those Noble Peers, Monmouth and Shaftsbury ! 

And now, the simple Men, they are at it again, [<?/• p- W. 
They are not like to Men, they are more like to Swine ; 
And now they think they are to prove self-murder of Godfrey l : 
Then prosper long those Noble Peers, Monmouth and Shaftsbury! 

1 See our introduction to the verses entitled A Satyr upon Coffee, pp. 176, 181, 
for account otthe troubles into which JS'at Thompson fell for publishing evidence 
which proved the likelihood of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey having committed 
suicide, and of his brothers lending themselves to the deceit of making it appear 
that he had been murdered, in order to retain his property unforfeited. 



170 The Duke of York's Bet urn, after Shipwreck. 

And now methinks 'tis strange, that he himself should Murther, 
No, no, 'tis but a Shamm, that comes from Home, or further ; 
For Godfrey was a Loyal Man to his King and Country : 
Then prosper long those Noble Peers, Monmouth r««rfShaftsbury ! 

But these, they know it well, it was their Popish Crew, 
By some of them he fell, for this Good Man they slew ; 
But yet, for all their cursed Plots, we fear not Popery : 
But prosper long our Noble Peers, Monmouth and JShaftsbury! 

And now for to conclude, I think it is no matter, 
If the Popish Plotting Crew was Hang'd up in a Halter ; 
Which maketh Strife in this our Land, as you may plainly see : 
Then prosper long t/wse Noble Peers, Monmouth «;w/Shaftsbury ! 

jFfm's. 

Printed for P. Shuter, Anno mdclxxxii. 

[White-letter. No cut. Date, October, 1682; before Shaftesbury's flight.] 



©n ttic Bufcc's Return from Sfjiptareck, 1682. 

{Mentioned on our pp. 152, 153.) 

THrough Tempests at Sea, through Tumults on shore, 
The wand'ring bright Planet again is restor'd ; 
Still welcome, but ne're more welcome before, 
To all honest Men, who his absence deplor'd : 

We sigh'd in the Shade for the Sun we adore, 
And now with fresh Incense our Altars run o're. 

To the King and the Queen, to the brim let it flow ; 

The Duke and the Dutchess shall have the next place ; 

To the Royal Blew-Cap about let it go, [i.e. Admiral York. 

The blooming fresh Blossom of the ancient Race. 

May he reign, and live ever to conquer his foes, 

Who Monarchy hate, and its rights dare oppose. 

Rut Pilot, take care and look to your charge, 
Keep 'loof to the Windings, the Glass is run out, 
For if you want depth you endanger the Barge, 
Then launch in the Ocean, and tack it about : 

If Quicksands or Shallows our vessel withstood, 

To waft her off safe we will raise a new Flood. 

Then fill up, and see no Ebb in the Glass, 
For want of High-water the Ship runs aground, 
Then if we must fall while he safely does pass 
Wee'l in the full-tide of Allegiance be drown'd. 

The Dog that dares bark while this Planet does shine, 

In a thirst let him dye, and in darkness repine. 

By Matthew Taubman. 



171 

a&ug#ouge Lopaltp anD Coffeehouse ^enition* 

" I was t' other day in a place, as they say, 
Where Doctors and Schollars assemble ; 
Where the folk do speak nought hut Latin and Greek ; 
'twould make a poor Yicar to tremble ! 
" For hither resort a throng of each sort, 
Some clad in blew-aprons, some sattin ; 
And each 'Prentice boy and brave Hobedehoi 
Doth call for his Coffee in Latin. 

" But did yon but hear their Latin, I fear, 

You'd laugh till you'd burst your breeches ; 
To see with what state they break Prisciaii's pate, 
And yet do but scratch where it itches." 

— Woolnoth's Coffee-Scuffle. 1662. 



w, 



HILE puritanical Sectaries were plotting treason over their 
coffee laced with argument," including casuistry and 
sanctimonious cant, our Jovial Loyalist felt merry and contented over 
a cup of sack. At that same date, 1682, he was singing Sir Edward 
Morgan's song, "The Destruction of Care,"(Pepys, V. 97), beginning, 

If Sorrow the Tyrant invade thy breast, 
Draw out the foul friend by the Lug, the Lug. 

This jovial toper of the Roxburghe Ballad " Content's a Treasure" 
and the hero of a Mughouse Diversion could not fail to harmonize 
their musical glasses wherever they met ; and as they were strictly 
contemporaries, and fellow-citizens, that they did thus meet is 
beyond question. Good liquor gives wholesome politics, so long as 
it is not in excess of quantity. It is your sulky sots, or blind 
drunkards whose drink is adulterated with tapster abominations 
of logwood, Cocculus Indicus, or aqua fortis, that rush into the 
excesses of "No Popery" riots either in 1680 or its centenary 
anniversary, 1780. "From good liquor ne'er shrink" was a 
favourite encouragement: but bad liquor was an evil that always 
led to mischief. " You knave, there's lime in this Sack too ! " 
was Falstaff's just complaint. Except wasting their own time and 
money, not much harm was done by the festive gallants who " sat 
late at the Roue," at the Bell, or went to the Devil, " the Sun, 
the Dog, the Triple Tun,'''' or similar hostelries ; although these 
were among the worst conducted in London. It was at the Coffee- 
House that sedition was stealthily inculcated, and conspiracies 
formed for assassinations and tumultuous rising. Libels there 
circulated unchecked, sneers at lleligion and Loyalty found a 
congenial home, and with a boast of having clear minds and 
wakefulness under the inspiration of the Arabian berry, the 
Coffee drinkers discredited its virtues by their peevish temper, 
factiousness, and proneness to lying, hatred, malice, and all un- 
charitableness. The frequent complaints against Coffee-Houses as 



172 Sir Edward Morgan'* Song of " The Mug." 

being nests of sedition caused several attempts to be made by the 
Government in 1679 to regulate, if not to suppress them. But they 
had grown already too popular to be easily closed authoritatively. 
The gibes of those who preferred the panacea of " a Mug, a Mug," 
were, on the whole, more effectual for repression. We give the 
Mug-House ditty, because one verse attacks the seditious Coffee- 
drinker and another denounces the villainies of stumming wine 
(see Vol. IV. p. 53). If we choose to hum it to the Beggar's Opera 
tune, "If the heart of a man is oppress'd with care," there is no 
extra charge incurred for infringement of some bogus copyright: — 

Wat ffiallanfs OEortijg Commentation of the fHurj. 1682. 

If Sorrow the Tp-ant invade thy Breast, 
Draw out the foul Fiend by the Lug, the Lug ; 
No thought of Tomorrow disturb thy rest, 

But dash out its brains with a Mug, a Mug. 
If business unluckily go not well, 

Let dull Fools their own ill Fortune hug : 
To show our allegiance we'll go to the Bell, 

And drown all our Cares in a Mug, a Mug. 8 

If thy Wife be not one of the best, the best, 

Admit not a respite to think, to think, 
Or the weight of thy Forehead weigh down thy breast, 

Divert the dull Demon with drink, with chink. 
If thy Mistress prove peevish, and will not 'gree, 

Ne'r pine, ne'r pine, for the scornful Pug, 
But find out a prettier and kinder than she ; 

And banish Despair with a Mug, a Mug. 16 

Let Zealots o're Coffee new Plots divine, 

And lace with fresh Treasons the Pagan Drug ; l 
"With Loyal blood flowing in our Veins, that shine, 

Like our Faces, inspir'd with the Mug, the Mug. 
Let Sectaries dream of Alarms, Alarms, 

And fools let them still for new changes tug ; 
We, fam'd for our Loyalty, stand to our Arms, 

And chink the King's Health in a Mug, a Mug. 21 

Then, then to the Queen let the next advance, 

With all Loyal Lads of true English Pace, 
That scorn the stum'd Notion of Spain and France ; 

Or to Bourdeux or Burgundy to give place. 
The Flask and the Bottle breed Ache and Gout, 

Whilst we, we all the season lie snug ; 
Not Spaniard or Florentine can vie with our Stout, 

And Monsieur submits to the Mug, the Mug. 32 

Printed for Phillip Brooksby. 

1 Here in 1682 (and also in " A Satyr against Coffee," for which see p. 184 ; 
is the euphemism "to lace Coffee" with brandy, etc., which many would have 
believed to be modern in phrase and practice. But what is new, that has not 
been aforetime ? History repeats itself, and the Machiavellian Shaftesbury with 
his intrigues for Mob -popularity and 'stummed' Claret-drinking has been 
remembered and imitated in the tactics of another disturber of aucient landmarks. 



173 



libellous ^atprs anti Coffeehouse politicians* 



" From evening's Coffee, lac'd with long Argument 
Of the King's Power and .Rights of Parliament, 
And hot brain'd Company, who make it their vocation, 
Waiving their own, to mind th' Affairs o' th' Nation ; 
"Whose noddles for these many months have been 
Hatchers of Grievances, unfelt, unseen : 
111-nianner'd Fools whose ignorance is Hate, 
They understand not, therefore blame the State. 
Their real grievance is their want of sense, 
Beasts in all things, but in Obedience." 



"B"! 



W; 



-The Deliquium, or Grievance of the Nation. 



HILE critics sat approvingly in the pit of the Duke's Theatre, 
ready to applaud each stroke of wit that told against dull cits or 
intriguing Statesmen of the faction opposed to the Court, the Whigs 
dispersed wholesale their libellous pamphlets, and circulated their 
manuscript lampoons at the Coffee-houses. Most of these places 
were in their pay, and were regarded as the hot-beds of sedition. 
It had not always been so, for the oppressed Cavaliers had formed 
their chief supporters before the [Restoration. Rugge's Diurnal 
mentions Coffee, Chocolate, "and a kind of drink called Tee, sold in 
almost every street in 1659." But by the year 1675-76 the amount 
of disaffection and plotting, encouraged among frequenters of the 
Coffee-houses, became so notorious that Charles sent out a Procla- 
mation against them, as being nests of " f&lse-Intellit/encers," and 
seditious pamphlets. The professional libeller, Julian, " Secretary 
of the Muses," is reported to have distributed man)*- of his scandalous 
manuscripts, from under his cloak, at these ill-regulated haunts of 
gossip. Clubs and coteries assembled therein. They made matters 
unpleasant for unintroduced strangers and suspicious outsiders. No 
one was safe who presumed to utter an opinion against the authority 
of the mobile vulgus; nevertheless spies lurked among them, as they 
did everywhere. Dryden, Shadwell, D'TJrfey, Ravenscroft, and 
other dramatists, both in plays and in their Prologues or Epilogues, 
sowed lampoons broadcast, political and social. In the theatres 
might be equal obscenity mingled with the mirth, but much more 
malignity was found among the Coffee-house Politicians. On p. 172 
appears the Mug-house song, with its defiant permission : 

Let Zealots o're Coffee new Plots divine, 

And Lace with fresh Treasons the Pagan Drug ; etc. 



174 



Lace applied to Coffee, and to Libellers. 



"With this compare the conclusion of our Roxburglie Ballads' " Satyr 
against Coffee," where the Whifflers (i.e. trifiers, smokers) are told, 

Give o're, ye "Whifflers then, enough ! 
Convert your Powder into Irish snuff, 
And fay your Lace upon some other stuff. 

The " lacing " required for coffee was then, as it is now, tin petit 
verre d'eau de vie ; but, as our motto shows, it was also doctored 
with long political argumentation. The lacing suitable to the 
pamphleteers Langley Curtis, Henry Care, and scandalous Dick 
Janeway, was such as shortly afterwards, in 1685, tickled the 
catastrophe of the peripatetic unphilosophers, Dangerfield and 
Oates, at the cart's-tail. We are no declaimers against any amount 
of " tight lacing " required to bring their bodies into shape. Palmam 




" Call you this Backing your Friends ? " 



170 



qui meruit ferat : better than Swanbill corsets. They had been used 
to back-biting of another sort, and deserved all they got in requital. 




Pamphleteers had an uneasy time of it, amid turns and vagaries, 
for whatever was popular and rewarded to-day became libellous 
to-morrow ; either punished by parliament as breach of privilege, 
or by judges shown to be treasonable, involving fine, imprisonment, 
and pillory. While the Popish-Plot mania perverted reason, every 
word whether spoken or printed against the perjurer Gates had been 
dangerous utterance. There were miscreants like Dangerficld lurking 
ready to hide treasonable documents in the houses of innocent men, 
who might be charged with a guilty knowledge ; and there were 
spies and libellers like Everard, false to both sides, who were paid 
to produce or to forge evidence against obnoxious persons. Sir 
A\ illiam Waller the busybody was perpetually searching for incrimi- 
natory papers ; although he preferred " portable property " of value : 
very seldom accounted for, when once it had fallen into his clutches. 



176 Sir Edmundbury Godfrey used as a Shuttlecock. 

After Coleman's death, rumours floated that the Jesuits had hidden 
treasure in the Savoy, therefore Waller searched it assiduously. 
Among the discontented flitted Charles Blount, the reputed author 
of an Appeal from the Country to the City, late in 1679 (see Bay ford 
JJds., p. 761, note). Others attribute it to Robert Ferguson, whose new 
edition of The Growth of Popery was used to increase a dread of the 
Duke of York's succession to the Crown. Frank Smith and Jane 
Curtis were tried at Guildhall on Feb. 7, 16itf, for publishing 
scandalous libels, he having printed for the Whigs a paper of their 
Association. Ben Harris, after long detention, was fined £500, 
and had to give security for good behaviour, for publishing the above 
Appeal from the Country ; but his gang of sympathizers would not 
allow anything to be thrown at him, while he stood in the pillory. 
They took opposite measures afterwards, when Nathanael Thompson 
got into trouble, more than once. He suffered severely both in 
person and pocket, but consistently held on, as a loyal Tory, and 
must have found support somewhere, or he would have been abso- 
lutely ruined. Along with John Farewell and William Paine he 
underwent trial at Guildhall on the 20th of June, 1682, "for 
writing, printing, and publishing two scandalous libells entituled 
Letters to Mr. Miles Prance, insinuating that Sir Edmondbury 
Godfrey killed himself, thereby defaming the justice of the whole 
nation " {i.e. that to disguise the suicide and avoid confiscation of his 
property his relations had transpierced the body and removed it to 
Primrose Hill ; compare p. 169). They were convicted, as the Whigs 
arranged, and Mr. Justice Jones gave sentence on July 3rd, each 
being fined £100, while Thompson and Farewell were also con- 
demned to the pillory. This was at the very time of the Dubois 
and Papillion commotion. A few months later, Dryden thus wrote 
in his Prologue to the Duke of Guise, December, 1682 : — 

Make London independent of the Crown 

A realm apart, the kingdom of the Town ; 

Let Ignoramus Juries find no Traytors, 

And Ignoramus Poets scribble Satyrs : [Shadwell and Settle. 

And, that your meaning none may fail to scan, 

Do what in Coffee- Houses you began, 

Pull down the Master, and set up the Man ! 

This was, in short, to play " the Eutopian Game " that had hitherto 
been in fashion, like ancient Saturnalia revived; as alluded to in 
our ballad of " Tom and Will" (Vol. IV. p. 200), and in the 
following verse from the Loyal Song of The Plotting Cards Revived: 

This is like some Eutopian Game, 

Where Servant-Maids controul their Dame, 

And Kings are Servants made ; 
Felons their Judges do indict, 
And he a Traytor is down-right 

Who falsely is betray'd. 



Burlesque News from the Coffcc-Uouse. 177 

For a world of Topsy-Turvey this suited well enough, occasionally, 
but our English nation has always grown weary betimes of such 
anarchy. Revolutionists, Reformers, and Radicals love destruction 
for its own sake, and never get enough of it until their own nests 
are feathered. Of this same year 1682, and to the tune of Would, 
you he a Man in Fashion ? (see Vol. IV. p. 349), is another complete 

Ncrjj Song. 

WOuld you have at your Devotion 
Young Fop Whiggs that love to prate ? 
Take a dram of Tony's Notion 

In a Coffee Dish of State. 
If that poison will not warm ye, 

Richard's Tea will do the Thing ; 
There are Statesmen will inform ye 
How to live without a King. 

(Compare p. 196 : probably "William Richards, who is addressed in 
An Epistle from Mrs. Mattheivs to Will Richards, beginning "Dear, 
sweet Richards William?''') Although at the date of the Duke's 
return most of the Coffee-houses were in the pay of the Whigs, and 
chiefly encouraged by the seditious, one " Sams" Parson is mentioned 
as "a Coffee-House where the inferior Crape-gown-men meet with 
their guide Roger \_L' 'Estrange], to invent Lies for the farther 
carrying on of the Popish Plot." (Shadwell's Medal of John Bayes, 
p. 23.) The Luttrell Collection (II. 146), preserves a poem entitled 

$eras from tftc CaffcE=P?0Use ; 1 

In which is shewn their several sorts of Passions, 
Containing Newes from all our Neighbour Nations. 

A POEM. 

YOu that delight in Wit and Mirth, and long to hear such News, 
As comes from all parts of the Earth, Butch, Danes, and Turks and Jews, 
I'le send you to a Eendezvous, where it is smoaking new : 
Go hear it at a Coffee-house, — it cannot but be true. 8 

There Battles and Sea-Fights are fought, and bloody Plots display'd ; 

They know more things than e'er was thought, or ever was betray'd. 

No money in the Minting-House is halfe so bright and new, 

And, coming from a Coffee-house, it cannot but be true. 16 

Before the Navyes fall to work, they know who shall be winner ; 

They there can tell ye what the Turk last Sunday had to Dinner ; 

Who last did cut Be RuUf-r^s corns, amongst his jovial Crew, 

Or who first gave the Devil horns : which cannot but be true. 24 



b" 



A Fisherman did boldly tell, and strongly did avouch, 

He caught a shoal of Mackarel, that parley' d all in Butch ; 

And cry'd out Yaw, yaw, yaw, Myn Here ; but, as the Draught they drew, 

They stunk for fear that Monck was there : which cannot but be true. 32 

1 Spelt " Colfe" throughout the Poem, and in its title. 

VOL. V. K 



178 Burlesque News from the Coffee-House. 

Another swears, by both his ears, Mounsieur will cut our throats ; 

The French King will a Girdle bring, made of flat-bottom' d Boats, 

Shall compass England round about— which must not be a few — 

To give our Englishmen the rout : This sounds as ift 'were true. 40 

There's nothing done in all the world, from Monarch to the Mouse, [Cf. p. 165. 

But every day or night 'tis hurl'd into the Coffee-House. 

"What Littie or what Broker can by Art not bring about, 1 

At Coffee-House you'l find a man can quickly find it, out. 48 

They '1 tell ye there what Lady- ware of late is grown too light, 

"What Wise man shall from favour fall, what Fool shall be a Knight. 

They'l tell ye when our fayling Trade shall rise again and flourish, 2 

Or when Jack Adams shall be made Church-Warden of the Parish. 56 

They know who shall in times to come be either made or undone, 

From great St. Peter'' s Church at Rome to Turn bull-street in London ; 3 

And likewise tell at CI' rkcnwell what o.ioitan. hath greatest gain ; 

And, in that place, what Brazen-face doth wear a Golden Chain, 64 

At Sea their knowledge is so much, they know all rocks and shelves, 

They know all Councills of the Dutch, more than they know themselves ; 

Who 'tis shall get the best at last, they perfectly can shew, 

At Coffee-House when they are plac'd, you'd scarce believe it true. 72 

They know all that is Good or Hurt, to unrep ye, or to save ye ; 

There is the Colledge and the Court, the Countrie, Camp and Navie ; 

So great a TJniversitie, I think, there ne're was any : 

In which you may a Scholar be for spending of a Fenny. 80 

A Merchant's 'Prentice there shall show you all and every thing, 

"What hath been done, and is to do, 'twixt Holland and the King ; 

What Articles of Peace will be, he can precisely show ; 

"What will be good for Them or We, he perfectly doth knoiv. 88 

Here men do talk of every thing, with large and liberal Lungs, 

Like women at a Gossipping, with double tyre of Tongues ; 

They'l give a Broadside presently, soon as you are in view, 

With Stories that you '1 wonder at, which they tvill swear are true. 96 

The drinking there of Chockalat can make a Fool a Sophie : 

'T is thought the Turkish Mahomet was first Inspir'd by Coffee, 

By which his Powers did over-flow the Land of Palestine : 

Then let us to the Coffee-house go ! 't is cheaper far than Wine. 104 

You shall know, there, what Fashions are ; How Pcrrywiggs are curl'd ; 
And for a Penny you shall heare all Novells in the world ; 4 
Both Old and Young, and Great and Small, and Rich and Poore you '11 see : 
Therefore, let 's to the Coffee all, Come all away with me. 112 

FINIS. 

London : Printed by E. Crouch, for Thomas Vere, at the Cock in St. John's 
Street, 1667. With Allowance. 



1 Astrological Almanack-makers. 2 See extract from Slingsby Bethel, p. 198. 
3 See Bagford Amanda-Group. 4 Novels = Novelties. See p. 42, note 2. 



Prevalence of Libellous Satires in 1G82. 179 

We read in Tom D'TJrfey's Epilogue to the comedy of The Royalist, 
of the present date, 1682 (referring to the Duke of York in Scotland), 

For who are these, among you here, that have 
Not in your Rambles heard of Tory Cave, 
That lores in Coffee-house, and wastes his wealth 
Toping "the Gentleman in Scotland'' s Health" ? 

The prevalence of libels, in the form of Satires, Lampoons, 
" Advice to the Painter," and interminable " Litanies," was marked 
by Thomas Otway in his Ode, " A Poet's Complaint of his Muse : " 

About him nothing could I see 
But parti-colour' d Poetry : 
Painter's Advices, Litanies, 
Ballads, and all the spurious excess 
Of ills that Malice could devise, 
Or ever swarm' d from a Licentious Press, 
Hung round about him like a spell : 
And in his own hand too was writ 
That worthy piece of Modern Wit, 
The Country's late Appeal. 
Put from such Ills when will our wretched State 
Be freed ? and who shall crush this Serpent's Head ? 

Although a large proportion of early ballads has utterly perished, 
of those registered in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., and 
even many belonging to intermediate years preceding the Civil Wars 
of Charles I., there are not many of the printed satires, songs and 
ballads of political import during the time between the Restoration 
and the Whig Revolution but remain extant in some exemplar, 
whether in public or private libraries. One diligent collector of 
such wares, who was a Diarist, carefully observing what passed, 
but with an evident bias towards the Whig interest, notes at the 
end of June in this year, 1682 : — 

" About this time the Presse abounds with all manner of libells ; some on one 
side reflecting on severall Ministers of State ; others against the late parliaments, 
and ridiculing their proceedings, turning the Popish Plott into a shamm, and 
crying out 'Forty and 'Forty-one : of these latter Heraclitus [Rideus] and the 
Ob.sei vator are famous. 

"'It has been the endeavour of late of some persons to run things up to a 
strange height, creating fewds and differences, and dividing the interests of 
Protestants : now no other names are known than Whig and Tory, Church 
Papist, tantivee, fanatick, &c, so that all things are come to that passe, that they 
judge by the men, and not by the meritt of the cause : if any thing of Whi^ or 
Tory comes in question, it is ruled according to the interests of the party ; if in 
the citty of London, against the Tories ; if in any of the counties, against the 
Whiggs ; so that neither side will believe either of the contrary parties." — 
(X. Luttrell's Brief Relation of State Affairs, i. 199.) 

Let us take in due succession a few of the libel cases belonging 
to the time when such seditious sheets were most numerous. 

On the 1 7th May, 1 680, came out a proclamation " for suppressing 
the printing and publishing unlicensed news books, and pamphlets 



180 Pamphlets on Monmouth's illegitimacy. 

of news." Matthew Turner, "a Popish bookseller," was fined a 
hundred marks, on 18th June, for publishing The Compendium of 
the Plott. Letters on the "Black Box" imposture had appeared, 
about April, and another pamphlet in favour of Monmouth's legiti- 
macy came out in July, A Letter to a Person of Honour concerning 
the King's Pisavoiveing the haveing been married to the Puke of 
Monmouth's mother. This was characterized as a most virulent 
libel. On September 11, Mrs. Cellier, "the Popish Midwife," who 
had been acquitted of former charges, was convicted of having 
libelled certain persons in her account of the previous trial, entitled 
Malice Pefeatcd. (We give a sketch from a contemporary picture of 
her sitting at the pillory, not in it, with her screen, on p. 190.) She 
was to be thrice pilloried, pay a fine of £1000, continuing in prison 
until it was paid, and give security for behaviour during life. Fiank 
Smith was again entangled, in January, 168x, about publishing the 
print of a seditious speech made by Shaftesbury (one that was burnt 
by the common hangman) : but he got off through an Ignoramus of 
the jury. Printed papers of a pretended miraculous cure worked 
by Monmouth's sister, Mrs. Fanshawe, and, per contra, a squib from 
the Tories, A Relation of an Apparition which appeared to the Lady 
Grey 1 (with whom Monmouth was notoriously on terms of evil 
intimacy), were being circulated at the same time. Also the fraudu- 
lent tale of Elizabeth Freeman, the " Maid of Hatfield," having 
previously seen an Apparition that commanded her to wait on his 
Majesty, Avarning him of dangers and against calling his parliament 
to Oxford. Such were the silly tricks which Shaftesbury and the 
"Whigs employed to work on the "Protestant" populace. In 
February appeared " a blasphemous pamphlet" called The Presby- 
terian's Pater Noster, Creed, and Pecalogue, written by " one parson 
Ashington," {i.e. Bev. Thomas Ashenden, Bector of Dingley,) of 
Northamptonshire : for that neighbourhood even in his day had 
affection for irreligion, as it now grovels in blasphemy and atheism. 



1 Often alluded to in contemporary satires. First, from " The Lady's March " : 

The next fair Lady Grey appears, 

Her charming eyes all bath d in tears ; 

In such a pitiful condition 

That most men thought it was her Vision. 

In another manuscript satire, probably written by the same author, beginning 
" Stamford is her sex's glory," (tune, If Br. P. take exception,) the fifth verse is: 

Lady Grey, whose early merit, 

T[remors] without number rais'd, 
Was forewarn'd by Hatfield Spirit 

That she might amend her ways : 
But let the Devil leave contriving, 
She '11 rather uurcp than not be .wiving. 



" Narrative of the Plot : " tune of Packington's Pound. 1S1 

Nat. Thompson and Joseph Hindmarsh being indicted for this 
broadsheet, Ashenden publicly recanted at Peterborough. Pamphlets 
and libels abounded after the dissolution of the Oxford Parliament. 
Among them, in May, were Fitzharris's Treason in Grain, and An 
Answer to his Majesty's late declaration (by Sir ¥m. Jones). On 
the other side appeared An Apostrophe of the Loyall Party to his 
Majesty against Parliament. Ben Harris was detained in prison 
nearly two years (as already shown) for publishing the Appeal 
from the Country; in September, 1681, the authorship of several 
scandalous pamphlets, which he had formerly published, was re- 
vealed by him in the hope of regaining his liberty. 

On the last day of August, 1681, the London Grand Jury pre- 
sented the publishers of the Observator, Heraclitus Ridens, and The 
Loyal Protestant Pomestick Intelligence; weekly pamphlets "that 
design to divide his Majesty's true protestant subjects, and much 
reflecting on the magistracy of the city of London." They had 
been somewhat bitter against the absurdities and arrogance of the 
Commons, and of the dissenters. Also "many Popish pamphlets 
and ballads are dispersed about this time (October), tending to 
create a disbelief of the Popish Plot." These included republished 
parts of the four-fold Narrative of the Popish Plot, beginning, 
" Good people, I pray, give ear unto me," given complete among 
the Bagford Ballads, pp. 670 to 692. Nat. Thompson, Benjamin 
Took, and Joanna Brome, were summoned for some of these, and, 
on the opposite side, Vile, Jane way, Richard Baldwin, Vade, etc., 
were before the Council, ordered to be prosecuted, for publishing 
false news and libels. Others were rebuked by the Lord Mayor, in 
January, 168^-, and dismissed on promise of better behaviour. On 
3rd May, 1682, Nat. Thompson was up again at King's-Bench, 
with John Farewell and William Paine, about the pamphlet 
alleging Godfrey committed suicide. Harris and Richard Janeway 
were acquitted, 16 May. Having paid his fine of £100, after 
having been again pilloried, Nat. Thompson was arrested anew, 
March 14, 168.1, and committed to the Gatehouse, " for printing 
scandalous and seditious news." After the Bye-House Plot, and 
when Hugh Speke had been remanded on 6th November for scanda- 
lous speaking, Samuel Johnson, Minister, pleaded not guilty to an 
indictment against him for " writing a scandalous libell called Julian 
the Apostate.'" Found guilty on the 20th, he was not sentenced 
until February following : fined 500 marks, to find sureties, and 
the book to be burnt by the hangman. 

This Sam Johnson was chaplain of Lord William Russell, his 
" Master." So we can guess what inspiration he received, and 
what hopes of reward he cherished. He desired to influence people 
against the King's brother, and exclude him from succession to the 
throne, by insisting on the danger to a national religion when a 



182 Sam Johnson x " Julian the Apostate." 

sovereign of opposite faith was in power. In Julian the Apostate 
there was also a lurking suggestion that it was expedient to rebel, 
and even to assassinate ; giving the example of the emperor being 
slain by one of his own soldiers who is a Christian — of Johnson's 
sort. The chaplain has been described by Dryden himself, in 
Nahum Tate's second part of Absalom and Aehitophel, 1682, under 
the name of Ben Jochanan, and the portrait seems faithful, without 
flattery. We give it on our next page. This same Samuel Johnson 
is mentioned in the seventeenth verse of a grim satire called The 
Assembly of the Moderate Divines, which begins, "Pray, pardon, 
John Hayes [i.e. Dryden], for I beg your excuse : " — 

There's Johnson the Apostate, who deserves to be hemp'd, 

For he alone (were all others exempt) 

Were occasion enough for the Clergy's Contempt. 

There's Colchester Sickeringill, the Fanaticks' delight, 

Who " Gregory Gray-Beard" and " Meroz" did write : [See Vol. IV. 

You may see who are Saints in a Pharisee's sight. 

There's Tifits the Witness, the Nation's trite Theme, [T. Oates. 

Who for Satan and Hell hath so great an esteem 

That aoipjumt'Q would be a Preferment for him. 

We quoted as a motto on p. 171 a few lines from Woolnoth's 
pasquinade, The Coffee Scuffle, occasioned by a Contest between a 
Learned Knight and a Pitiful Pedagogue : with the Character of 
a Coffee-House. London, printed and are to be sold at the Latine 
Coffee House near the Stocks, 1662. It is in 4to. and begins, " Of 
Gyants and Knights, and their terrible fights." Sir A. Langham 
and one Evans a schoolmaster are understood to have been the 
persons lampooned. Another pamphlet to be noticed is Coffee- Houses 
Vindicated. In answer to the late published Character of a Coffee- 
Ilonse. Asserting from Reason, Experience, and Good Authors, 
the excellent Use and physical virtues of that Liquor ; with the 
grand conveniency of such civil places of Resort and ingenious 
Conversation. London: Printed by J. Lock, for J. Clarke, 1675. 

In short, libels were innumerable. Langley Curtis, convicted of 
printing and publishing a scandalous pamphlet called The Night- 
tvalkers of Bloomsbury, was sentenced along with Lawrence Braddon 
(who had tried to represent on inconclusive evidence of children 
that the Earl of Essex was murdered in the Tower), and with Hugh 
Speke again on 21st April, 1684. Curtis was fined heavily, and 
condemned to the pillory, which he well deserved, as did most of 
the pamphleteers on his side of the controversy. 

In the Stationers' Company's Registers (G. fol. 80 verso) we read, under date 
of 8th or 9th September (blotted), 1683, to Mr. John Grantham, is "Entered 
then for his Booke or Coppy entitled The Night-walker of Blumsbury, being the 
Result of severall late consultations between a Vintner, Judge, Tallow-chandler, 
and a brace of Fishmongers and a Printer : In a Dialogue between Ralph and 
Will." The mark of Mary Davis is added. Witness, Martin Newton, vjd. 



Dryden* 8 portrait of " Ben Jbchanan" Johnson. 183 

We need not pursue the story. These cases will show the nature 
and frequency of the libels and seditious gossip that circulated in 
the "Whig Coffee-houses during the reign of Charles the Second. 

It may be interesting to notice, in the twenty-fourth line of the 
following Satyr against Coffee, that the publicans had two centuries 
ago anticipated the modern Coffee Tavern, by adding this beverage 
to their other attractions, to earn a crust. Most people drink too much, 
even of non-intoxicants. The truly temperate man knows when 
to stop : and does it, without processional rant or cant, wearing of 
blue-ribbons, beating of drums, or blowing his own noisy trumpet. 

%* It would be culpable to omit tbis representative portrait of Samuel Jobnson 
by Dryden. It follows after one describing PJialeg {i.e. James Forbes, another 
Scotchman), who is mentioned separately on our later p. 217, with extract from 
the same poem, Second Part of Absalom and Achitophel : 

But leaving famish' d Phaleg to be fed, 350 

And to talk Treason for his daily bread, 

Let Hebron, nay let Hell produce a man [Hebron = Scotland. 

So made for mischief as Ben-Jochanan. 

A Jew of humble parentage was he, 

By Trade a Zevite, though of low degree; [Levite = Priest. 

His pride no higher than the Desk aspir'd, 

But for the drudgery of Priests was hir'd 

To read and pray in linen Ephod brave, 

And pick up single shekels from the grave. 

Married at last, and finding Charge come faster, 360 

He cou'd not live by God, but chang'd his Master. 

Inspir'd by want, was made a factious Tool, 

They got a Villain, and we lost a Fool. 

Still violent whatever cause he took, 

But most against the Party he forsook ; 

For Benegadoes, who ne'er turn by halves, 

Are bound in conscience to be double Knaves : 

So this Prose-Prophet took most monstrous pains 

To let his Masters see he earn'd his gains. 

But, as the Devil owes all his Imps a shame, 370 

He chose th' Apostate for his proper theme ; 

With little pains he made the picture true, 

And from Beilexion took the Ro<nie he drew. 



184 



[Roxburgke Collection, III. 831.] 

21 &at?>r against Coffee. 

A Void, Satanick Tipple ! hence, 
Thou Murtherer of Farthings, and of Pence ; 
And Midwife to all False Intelligence. 3 

Avoid, I say, of Hell thou art ; 

For God no liquor doth to man impart 

But that which quenches Thirst, or chcars the Heart. 6 

Bak'd in a pan, Brew'd in a pot, 

The third device of him who first begot 

The Printing-Libels, and the Powder-Plot. 9 

A Swill that needs must be accurst, 

And of all sorts of drink the very worst, 

By which the Devil's Children (Lies) are nurst. 12 

Now, if I fancy not amisse, 

Vespatian, 1 who [drew Tax from nastiness], 

Would for no smell of Lucre suffer this. 15 

The Sister of the common Sewer, 

That passes through the Beins with streams impure, 

That robs the Vintner, and undoes the Brewer. 18 

For by this poor Arabian Berry 

Comes the neglect of Malago and Sherry, 

And sooty Surges rise to Charon's Ferry. 21 

The Sweat of Negroes, Blood of Moores, 

The Blot of Sign-post, and the Stain of doors, 

And the last shift of Publicans and soioq^. 24 

Give o're, you Whifflers, then, enough! 

Convert your Powder into Irish Snuff, 

And lay your Lace upon some other Stuff. 27 

[FINIS.] 

[In "White-letter. No printer's name, woodcut, or date, but it possibly 
belongs to 1675-76; when Charles II. sent out a proclamation against Coffee- 
Houses, as nests of " Fahe-J?>telligencers, ,, and the circulation of seditious 
pamphlets. — Compare our introduction to " Mug-House loyalty,'" pp. 171, 172.] 



1 An allusion tolerably well understood, and to a transaction that may have 
afforded a precedent to a modern Chancellor of the Exchequer, who went so low as 
to level a tax against his own Lucifer's matches. The Text reads " impos'd Excise 
on [th]is." With King Lear (iv. 6) the Satyrist should ask, " Give me an ounce 
of civet, good apothecary ! to sweeten my imagination : " but he needed a cwt. 



A 



185 



Cj)C JBortoicJ) ILopal Litany 

" There 's not a soberer dog, I know, in Norwich. 
What, won'd ye have him drunk with porridge ? 
This I confess, he goes a round, a round, 
A hundred times, and never touches ground." 

— Matt. Stevenson's Norfolk Drollery. 1673. 



MONG the numerous Loyal Addresses, either expressing thanks 
for the King's Declaration, or " abhorrence " of Shaftesbury's pro- 
posed Association, there was one sent to King Charles II. " from 
the single men and apprentices of the city and county of Norwich." 
This was early in October, 1681, soon after which date and occa- 
sion we attribute the following Litany. By internal evidence, we 
believe it to have been issued before the death of Shaftesbury 
(January, 168j); even before the return of Monmouth from 
Gloucestershire in the previous December; we> suppose it to belong 
to the time when Shaftesbury was newly out of the Tower. In 
August or September, 1681, some conventicles had been suppressed 
at Norwich, and proceedings commenced against the preachers. 
Capital had been sought to be made out of these cases, which pro- 
voked a loyal reaction. " This town I find divided into two factions, 
"Whigs and Torys ; the former are the more numerous, but the 
latter carry all before them, as consisteing of y e Governing part of 
the town, and both contend for their way with the utmost violence." 
Thus wrote Dr. Humphrey Prideaux, on August 17th, 1681, from 
Norwich, where he had accepted a prebendal stall, worth from a 
hundred to two hundred a year. He found that the place " swarms 
with alehouses, every other house is almost one, and every one of 
them [query, the houses, or only the alehouses?] is alsoe a bawdy 
house. The brewers of late [mostly Whigs] haveing several of 
them succeeded in the Mayor's office, have increased the number 
of those houses for their own advantage ; which, proving of very 
mischievous consequence to the place, this Mayor [Hugh Bokenham, 
a gentleman of good family in Suffolk, his estate reputed worth 
15,000/.: who became in 1689-94 the M.P. for Norwich,] hath set 
himselfe to redresse it . . . and hath reduced them to a more 
tolerable number." The Brewers made an outcry and complained 
to the Commissioners of Excise and to the King in Council. So 
hard is it to set crooked things straight. 

The " Loyal Addresses " came in, with enthusiastic persistence, 
and were received by the King with his usual pleasant courtesy. 
It was a very different piece of work to come before him, glowing 
with affectionate reverence and being knighted or otherwise re- 
warded for one's pains, instead of meeting a distasteful frown for an 
impertinent, ill-worded and worse delivered " Petition " — a scarcely 
disguised Demand, for the immediate issue of writs to call a new 



186 The Loyalty of Norwich. 

Parliament, or a Remonstrance and Resolution against it being 
moved from disaffected London to loyal Oxford. The seditious 
language had become so threatening, and the mastery over the 
Crown so vehemently attempted by " the Country party," that few- 
could have expected the King's firm resistance to its demands 
would have passed successfully without a Civil War. But the 
Whigs had shown their hand too plainly. From nearly every shire 
were forwarded assurances of loyal support to his Majesty, and 
thus strengthened at heart, with sufficient temperance to enable 
him to avoid any palpable breach of Constitutional Law, such as 
had made his father imperil the allegiance of many who would 
otherwise have shielded him from the rebellious Commons, Charles 
the Second became master of the situation. He not only won the 
victory, by skill and courage, at Oxford, but he continued to advance 
in popular affection, beside regaining the power which had seemed 
about to be wrested from him. One Loyal Poem is The Case is 
Altered now ; or, The Conversion of Anthony, King of Poland 
[Shaftesbury], published for satisfaction of the Sanctified Brethren, 
beginning " Ev'n as a Lyon, with his paws uprear'd." It tells that, 

Thus for a while I dane'd to my own Pipe, 

Till I was grown Association ripe. 

But then Addresses from each County came, 

And Loyalty did soon put out the flame. 

Then was the time that Tyburn claim' d its due ; 

But had it not, for want of such as You : 

Yet it had some small satisfaction giv'n, 

By the deserved Death of Traitor Stephen. [Stephen College. 

Cabals and factious Clubs so rife were grown, v 

And old Rebellious Seed so thick were sown, 

I hop'd ere this the day would be my own. 

November, 1682.—" The Mayor and several of the citizens of Norwich have 
waited on his Majestie, and surrendred up their Charter to him, and presented 
him also with a Petition, wherein is this remarkable : that whenever his majestie 
shall please to grant them a new one, they humbly pray him to reserve to himself 
the approbation of the Mayor, Sheriffs, aldermen and common-councill, and that 
none shall be sworn into those places without the said approbation." — Luttrell's 
Brief Relation, i. 236. The loyalty of Norwich was rewarded, King Charles 
granting a new Charter in April, 1683. In 1671 the King and his Court had 
been sumptuously entertained there. 

Although the Virtues habitually dwell with the Bishop of Norwich, 
Puller in his Worthies mentions certain litigious propensities of 
Norfolk, which contributed many pilgrim step-fathers to America : 
" Whereas pedibus ambulando is accounted but a vexatious suit in 
other Counties, here (where men are said to study law as following 
the plough-tail,) some would persuade us that they will enter an 
action for their neighbour's horse but looking over their hedge." 
This is the spirit of factious Whigs denounced by Dean Prideaux. 



187 



[One Hundred and Twenty Loyal Songs, 1684, p. 195.] 

€bc ifcortoicF) Lopal iLitanp. 

[Sung to the Tune of, Chevy Chace.~] 



DEfend us from all Popish Plots, 
That to the People 'fray, 
Aud eke also from Treacherous Scots 1 
As bad or worse than they. 

FromParliaments'longi2(»H^s and Tails, 
From House of Commons Furies, 

Defend us eke from Protestant Flayls, 2 
And Ignoramus Juries. 

Protect us now and evermore 
From a white sheet aud Proctor, 

And from the Noble Peer 3 brought o're 
The Salamanca Doctor : 

A Doctor with a Witness sure, 

Both in his rise and fall, 
His Exit is almost as obscure 

As his Original. 

Designs and Dangers far remove 
From this distressed Nation, 

And uiuup the Trayterous Model of 
Bold Toney's Association.* 

And may the Prick-ear 'd Party that 
Have Coyn enough iu Cupboard, 

Forbear to shiver au Estate, 
And splinters mount for Hobarl. 5 

From sixteen self-conceited Peers, 6 
Protect our Sovereign still ; 

And from the p^uurcp Petitioners 
For the Exclusive Bill. 1 



Guard (Heaven) great JAMES and his 
'Gainst Toney upon Toney ; [Estate, 

And from the House of Commons that 
Will give the King no Money. 8 

From those that did design and laugh 

At Tangier in distress, 3 
And were Mahometans worse by half 

Than all the Moors of Fez. 

From such as with Usurping hand 

Drive Princes to extreams, 
Confound all their Devices, aud 

Deliver Charles and James. 

But may the beauteous Youth 10 como 
And do the thing that 's fit ; [home, 

Or I must tell that Absalom 
He has more Hair than Wit. 

May he be wise, and soon expell 
Th' Fox, 11 th' old Faivnwg Elf: 

The time draws nigh Achitophel 
Sha' n't need to haug himself. 12 

This Jury I've empanel'd here 

Of houest Lines and true ; 
Whom you I doubt at Westminster 

Will find Ignoramus too. 

[Probably by Richard Gibbs, M.D., of 
Norwich ; see our page 46, and the 
Note on his Fitz- Harris' s Farewell.'] 



[White-letter. No woodcuts. Earliest dated copy is the above reprint, 1684. 
But we see no reason to doubt that the true original date had been the end 
of November, 1681. The mention of Achitophel may ref er to Shaftesbury having 
been already described in Dryden's poem, which appeared on 24th November, 
1681. Nevertheless, the name had been similarly applied by previous writers.] 



1 Robert Ferguson and Samuel Johnstone, allies of Monmouth. See later 
pages, on the Rye-House Plot for account of Ferguson, supposed continuator of 
The Growth, of Popery ; and pp. 181 to 183 for Sam Johnson. 

2 Stephen College's murderous invention. See p. 35. He had been executed 
at Oxford, 31st August, 1681, after being saved by an Ignoramus Jury in London. 

3 Shaftesbury, and Titus Oates, with his pretended degree as Doctor, obtained 
at Salamanca ; an " invisible " and bogus distinction. He was turned away from 
Whitehall in August, 1681, forbidden the Court, and deprived of weekly pension. 



188 



Notes to the Norwich Loyal Litany. 



4 Shaftesbury's proposed Protestant Association, of which an account was found 
among his papers ; but not in his own writing. 

5 Sir Henry Hobart, whose seat was in Norfolk. He was killed in a duel by 
Justice Le Neve, 1698. 

6 As shown on p. 27, first note, The Sixteen who had presented a remonstrance 
to Charles II. early in the year, against assembling the Parliament at Oxford 
instead of at "Westminster. They were, the Earl of Essex, their spokesman ; the 
Duke of Monmouth, the Earls of Kent, Huntington, Bedford, Salisbury, Clare, 
Stanford and Shaftesbury ; the Lords Mordaunt, Eure, Paget, Grey, Herbert, 
Howard of Escrick, and De la Mere. 

7 To bar James from the succession. They were chiefly Lord Wm, Russell, 
Sir Henry Capel, Colonel Titus, Sir Francis Wilmington, Sir Thomas Player, 
Sir William Jones, Colonel Sidney, Thomas Bennet, John Trenchard, Boscawen, 
and Montague, in the Commons. Essex and Shaftesbury in the Lords. 

8 But Charles's last factious set had been dissolved in previous March, 1681. 

9 King Charles had conferred the government of Tangier on Colonel Sackville 
at beginning of November. We cannot here spare space to tell the story of mis- 
used Tangier with its destroyed forts : the Queen's dowry. The brave Ossory, 
the Duke of Ormond's sou, was about to depart thither when he died. We 
disbelieve the story of Mulgrave having been intentionally consigned to a leaky 
vessel bound for Tangier in 1680 ; and he evidently disbelieved it himself. 

10 Monmouth : by December he was at his house in Hedge Lane, back from 
Gloucestershire, where he had visited Sir Ealph Dutton's in November. He had 
spent the summer at Tunhridge. 

11 The Fox, the Elf, and Achitophel, all refer to Shaftesbury. 

12 A delicate hint that the operation would be voluntarily performed for him, 
con amove. " May we ne'er want such a Friend, or a Halter to give him ! " 

%* The woodcut of an early Printing-office, with adjacent type-foundry or 
stereotype cauldron, appropriately illustrates these abusive Litanies. 




189 



mtantcs against ^t. SDmct^ anU ®enctm. 

" Twenty from St. Omer'a all prov'd me perjur'd, 

And fifty from Staffordshire made it as plain ; 
Ireland dy'd wrongfully to my Soul's hazard, 

And all that I swore against dyed the same ; 
Besides, my own Evidence came in against me, 

Call'd me Rogue, and Spiller of innocent blood : 
Yet still I'll deny all, to save those w' advanc'd me, 

Whose party maintains me with gold, drink, and food." 

— Oates's Lamentation, and Vision, at the King's Bench. 

L HE fraudulent " Narratives " of the sham " Salamanca Doctor " 
Titus Oates had familiarized the ears of the rabble with the name 
of St. Omer's, as the great Jesuit Seminary in which he had for 
awhile been allowed to reside, until his own infamous conduct made 
his absence be enforced in a manner more summary than pleasant. 
While their frantic fears of a Popish Plot unsettled the minds of 
those who belonged to a better class of citizens than the debased 
populace of Wapping, Shaftesbury's " ten thousand brisk Protestant 
Boys," the solemn oaths tendered in a Court of Justice by any of 
these Jesuit priests, or their scholars from St. Omer's, were found 
insufficient to save the lives of the falsely-accused martyrs, whom 
the perjuries of Oates doomed to the most horrible of tortures in 
death. Even so late as the spring-time of 1682, when sanity had 
returned to most people who had been deluded and terrified, the 
name of St. Omers was still deemed of sufficient potency to be used 
as a catch-penny title to the rare Litany, printed on both sides in 
double-columns, which is here reproduced as one more specimen of 
what the rabid Exclusionists delighted to receive instead of poetry. 
Their cause was already lost, but Error always dies hard. It may 
be useful once more to examine the literary garbage which they 
found nutritious. 

That the " Litany from St. Omer's " would be speedily answered, 
at such a time as 1682, might be safely reckoned. We add the 
rejoinder, much shorter, more pithy, and more stinging, than the 
verbose railing that provoked it to be issued as " A Litany from 
Geneva : in answer to that from St. Omer's." We deem it un- 
necessary to reprint the dreary (< Second Part of the Litany for St. 

Omer's," which followed as a supplement ; possibly issued after 
the " Litany from Geneva." Compare p. 196. It is wholly without 
literary value or political importance, and died still-born. 

On the next page we introduce a picture of Mrs. Cellier, " the 
Popish Midwife," mentioned on pp. 180, 195, as undergoing her 
sentence of the pillory, for writing the libel called Malice Defeated. 



190 



[Ebsworth Collection, V. 45.] 

% 3Utanp for &t. Dmer's. 



s=Utr 




FRom Antichrist, both East and West ; 
And Cardinals so madly drest, 
Who bear a Wooden-Cross for crest ; 
And also from a Northern Test : l 

Libera nos, Do mine ! 

From Saul, 2 of very strange ambition ; 
And Demas, 3 of the like suspicion ; 
From Judas,* with his false contrition ; 
And from the Spanish Inquisition : 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 



10 



That tript up Argyle. 2 Duke of York. 3 Peyton. 4 Turberville, see p. 77. 



The Whigs' Litany for St. Omcrs. 191 

From Hall if ax, 1 with Hull and Hell ; 
From Papal Candle, Book and Bell : 
From all who Souls and Bodies sell ; 
And those who cannot Powder smell : 2 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From Observators that so bite us, 
From Thompson, and from Jleraclitus, 3 
Who with their Satyrs so benight us, 
And with their Libels so bes[m]ite us, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 20 

From that vile Vermin of Aggressors, 
"With Persecutors and Oppressors ; 
From all Abhorrers and Addressors, 
AVho lead the Van of all Transgressors : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From Satan's Reuben in the West, 4 
Most truly styled Europe 's pest ; 
From him that cannot be at rest, 5 
Unless that he be made his Guest : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 30 

From all that do his Slipper kiss, 
And so his [kicking] sweetly miss, 
From all will not his Grandeur hiss. 
And then [cram] into his slipper [th]is : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From all who write him " Holiness," 
And slowly lay on him the stress : 
Who should be in a Tyburn-dress, 
For Burning of our English Bess : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 40 

From all the Popelin[g~\s* in the Tower, 
Who there Plot Murder every hour ; 
And there may be till England's Power 
Shall bring on them a bloody show'r : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From every one that falsely limps ; 7 
From foreign and domestic Pimps ; 
From all the Fatal Neicgate Imps, 
Who go for Whales, yet are but Shrimps : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 50 

1 Henry Savile. 2 Sham Powder Plots. 3 Heme. Itidexs. 4 Louis XIV. ? 
5 The Pope. 6 Catholic Lords. 7 Duchess of Monmouth ? 



192 The Whigs' Litany for St Omer's. 

From Popes, the Greater and the Lesser ; [2nd col. begins. 
And from a Catholic Successor ; 
From vile Le Chese, 1 the French Confessor, 
"Who hates a Protestant Professor : 

Libera nos, JDomine ! 

Prom Beelzebub and [all] his flies, 
Prom LuoVs great Rector, and his Ties ; [£"• Tythes. 

From Fetter-Lane 2 and Holbnurne Lies, 
And from all Irish Perjuries : 3 

Libera nos, JDomine ! 60 

Prom all those -who make Gold their Hope, 
And turn all truth into a Trope ; 
Yea, from a canting, cursed Pope, 
And [they] that with him deserve a Pope : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

Prom all espousing Canting Notes, 
And from all Cutters of our Throats, 4 
From leaky and tremendous Boats, 5 
And from all enemies to Oats, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 70 

From all that falsifie their stitches, 
And from all that which so bewitches ; 
From Women that will wear the Breeches,* 
And from all sordid Polish Itches, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From Enemies unto the Nation, 
Who long to see its Desolation ; 
From all who wish not our Salvation, 
But imprecate their own uorjBuareg; : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 80 

From all who cannot sleep with Homers, 
Unless they Sin to serve the Homers ; 
From all the beardless Boys at Omers, 
And also from all Bedlam foamers : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From the Tantivy and the Tory, 
"Who may not live till they be hoary ; 
All Truth they turn into a Story, 
And in their wickedness do glory : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 90 

1 Tere la Chaise. 2 Dryden's house. 3 The two Macknamams, etc. 

4 The Arnold Case. 5 The Gloucester. G Lady Powys and Mrs. Uier. 



The Whigs' Litany for St. Omer's. 193 

From all the stiflers of the Plot, 
And from a cursed pimping Scot ; 
"With every filthy foreign Sot, 
Who mcriteth St. Tyburn's Knot, 

Libera nos, Domine .' 

From all that like to Rowers be, 
Who one way Row, another See ; 
Like those once at the Isle of Bee, 1 
And from a Gospel-Index flee : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 100 

From Frenchified Flouts and \_Spanish~] Flams, [Verso. 
From Romish Tygers and their Dams ; 
From vile Projectors of the Shams, 
Who act like Wolves, but not like Lambs : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From Godfrey that Himself did kill, 2 
A Popish malice to fulfil, 
And then went to Green-Bury-LTill, 
To pierce his heart, but no blood spill : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 110 

From bloody Cain who Abel slew, 
And little reason for it knew ; 
Yea, from an Arnoldiziny Crew, 3 
Who would in blood their hands imbrue, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From those that like the Spider spin, 
And also think they have no Sin ; 
^om chastity in Orange Gioyn, 
'And bloody Bonner s of Squire THYN : 4 

Libera nos, Domine ! 120 

From all upon a Papal Bench, 
With all the Masquerading French, 
And also from that foreign WENCH, 5 
Who leaves behind her such a stench, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From Jesuits and Monks and Friars, 
Long unto Europe pricking Briars ; 
Who always are such cruel Tryers, 
And of Mankind the greatest Liars : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 130 

1 Shi, 1628. 2 See p. 17G. 3 Giles, etc. ' P. 102, etc. 5 D. of Portsmouth. 

VOL. V. O 



194 The Whigs' Litany for St. Omer's. 

From all the Fury of the Stags, 
And from a Fire that's made of Flags ; 
From them who give to Children Bags, 
And after go themselves in Rags : 1 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 

From every flagitious Lsh, 2 
That Iluine unto others wish, 
And cannot sit down with one Dish, 
Nor yet distinguish Flesh from Fish, 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 140 

From all that dread a Parliament, 
Lest they be called to repent, 
And then be unto Newgate sent, 
There (Pomishly) to keep a Lent, 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 

From Bedlam and from Billingsgate, 
From Almanacks now out of date ; 
From Lrish-Evidence so late, 
And also from a New gate-Grate, 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 150 

From Petitioners, those spurious Elves, 
Who others sell to keep themselves ; 
In danger are of rocks and shelves, 
And may be brought before their Twelves : 3 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 

From that prodigious Swedish Count, i 
Who did escape a Pall-Mall Mount, 
And turn['d] his guineys to account, 
[When Vratz and Stern did bear the brunt] : 5 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 160 

From every May-Pole house of slaughter, {Fourth Col. 
And that Just-Ass (a Man of Laughter;) 
That none like him may be hereafter, 
To be a Pimp unto his Daughter : 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 

From every one within the Land, 
With Jacob's voice and Esau's hand, 
Who unto others gives command, 
But doth himself not understand : 

Libera nos, Lomine ! 170 

1 C/.p.203 ; King Lear, \\ A. 2 Papishes,^. 1G9. 3 Juries. 4 Kmigsmark. 5 Dropt. 



The Whigs' Litany for St. Omer"s. 195 

From every daring dreadful Sivitzer, 
Not drinking in a Pint but Pitcher; 
Prom Gadbury, a lousy Stitcher, 1 
Put now of Nabals the Pewitcher; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From foreign and Domestick Paws, 
With Trucklers unto Romish Laws ; 
From all Magpies, Rooks, and Jack Daws, 2 
That spends much time to gather straws, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From all who Vices vilely link, 
That one thing speak, another think; 
These stand upon a fatal Prink, 
And Healths to Pope and Devil drink ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From every Romish pain and pang, 
With all that from the Devil sprang ; 
From Madam Powis and her gang, 3 
Who Plot till they at Tyburn Hang : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From all that Light for Darkness put ; 4 
From Gammer Gibson and her Glut, 
From Celliers, that Midwife-Slut, 5 
Who Dangerfield doth so besquirt : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From all who live Epitomized, 
And all that die Hyperbolized, 6 
Who were with Treasons stigmatized, 
And are for Treason canonized : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From all that put into the Poot, 7 
TJnto the loss of a Leg and Foot ; 
Who at Non- Cons their Arrows shoot, 
And grow (like Toad-stools) without root ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From every cursing, swearing Carter, 
And from Roger, the Crack-farter, 8 
From all would burn the City- Charter, 
And unto Whigs would give no Quarter : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 



1 Astrologer John. 2 See p. 219. 3 Countess Poivys. 4 Vice versa. 
5 See cut, on p. 190. 6 Stafford, etc. 7 Scotch torturers. 8 R. L'Estrangc 



196 Responsive Tory Litany, against Geneva. 

From bloody Papists without pity, 
"Who "were the Burners of the City ; l 
From all who think themselves too witty, 
And will not Buy this (harmless) Bitty, 

Libera nos, Bomine ! 

London: Printed for W. Richard, 1682. 

[In White-letter. Printed on hoth sides of folio sheet, four columns. No 
woodcut, hut we prefix one of Mrs. Cellier, the popish Midwife, pilloried for 
Libel. Date, between March aud May, 1682.] 



-r-^a-<7"-Ms>ssa*"'CNa-— >- 



*** The writer of A Litany from St. Omer's suffered under such a diarrhoea of 
words that we really cannot inflict on readers his other forty-six verses, issued under 
the title "A Litany for St. Omers, Part II., from the same Hand, and to the same 
Tune." London: Printed for W. Kichard, 1682 (compare p. 177). It begins, 

From all that like the Triple Crown, 
And worship Marie's silken Gown ; 
From every Corydon and Clown, 
"Who now are in or out of Town : 

Libera nos, Bomine ! 

Instead of these wearisome and pointless verses, we give the reply from our opposite 
camp: A Litany from Geneva, in Answer to that from St. Omer's. But the libel 
was not "from St. Omer's," it was an attack directed against the Catholics. 

[Wood's Collection, 417, fol. 89 ; Trowbesh's, V. 46.] 

2i JLttanp from dftenetoa ; 

3ln 3n0tott to tfiat from §>t. £Dmct% 

To the Tune oe, Caralilly Man. 

FRom the Tap in the guts of the Honourable Stump, 2 
From which runs Rebellion, that stinks like the Rump, 
On purpose to leaven the Factious Lump ; 

Libera nos, Bomine ! 

From him that aspires as high as the Crown, 3 
And vows to pull Copes and Cathedrals down, 
Fit only to govern the World in the Moon ; 

Libera nos, Bomine ! 8 

From the prick-ear'd Levite,* that can without pain 
Swear Black into White, then unswear it again ; 
Whose name did design him a Villain in Grain ; 

Libera nos, Bomine ! 

1 1666 calumny. ~ Shaftesbury. 3 Monmouth. i Titus Oates. 



Responsive Tory Litany, against Geneva. 197 

From his Black-Bills, and Pilgrims with Sticks in their hands, 
That came to make up a Religious Band, 
Then ravish our Wives and inhabit our Land ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 16 

From the Month of the City, 1 that never gives o're 
To complain of Oppressions unheard of before, 
And yet for his Letchery will not quit score ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From the Cent per Cent Scrivener, 2 and ev'ry State trick, 
That rails at Intemp'rance, who yet will not stick 
To clear a young Spendthrift's Estate at a lick ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 24 

From the force and the fire of the insolent Rabble, 
That wou'd hurl the Government into a Babel ; 
And from the nice Fare of the Mouse-starver's Table ; 3 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From the Elder in New-street, that does goggle and cant, 
Then turns up his Whites, to nose it, and pant, 
And at the same time plays Devil and Saint ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 32 

From Jenkins's i DTomilies, drawn through the Nose ; 
From Langley, Dick, Baldwin, and all such as those, 
And from brawny Settle's Poem in Prose ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From a Surfeit occasion'd by Protestant Feasts, 
From Sedition for sauce, and Republicks for Guests, 
With Treason for Grace-Cup, and Faction at least ; 40 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From the Conscience of Cits, resembling their Dame, 
That in publick are nice, but in private so tame 
That they will not stick out for a Touch of that same ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From the blind zeal of all Democratical Tools ; 
From Whigland, and all its Anarchical Rules, 
Devised by Knaves, and Imposed by Fools ; 

Libera nos, Domine ! 48 

From the late Times Reviv'd, when Religion was gain, 
And Church Plate was seiz'd for Reliqucs prophane ; 
Since practic'd by Searching Sir William 5 again : 

Libera nos, Domine! 

1 Sir T. Player. °- Sir 11. Clayton. 3 Bethel, p. 165. i Wm. J., p. 231. 5 Waller. 



198 Slingsby Bethel, the Ignoramus Whig Sheriff. 

From such Reformation where Zealots begun 
To preach Heaven must by firm Bulwarks be won, 
And Te Deum sung from the mouth of a Gun, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 56 

From Parliamentarians, that " out of their love 
And care for his Majesty's Safety," wou'd prove 
The securest way were His Guards to remove, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From sawcy Petitions, that serve to inflame us, 
From all who for th' Association are famous, 
From the Devil, the Doctor, and the p^uurep IGNORAMUS : 

Libera nos, Domine ! 64 

London, Printed for the Use of all true Blue Brimighams, 1682. 
[White-letter. No woodcut or printer's name. Date, soon after May 4, 1682.] 

%* It may be well here to add a few words more regarding Slingsby Bethel, 
who is so often mentioned in our pages, and who seems to be especially marked 
out as the subject, of the Iter Boreale of our p. 207. 

Slingsby Bethel and Henry Cornish, being the Sheriffs in Dec. 1680, when Wm. 
Viscount Stafford was condemned to death, remonstrated against a commutation 
of the hanging into beheading, and had to yield when told by the Lords that the 
cavil might cause a total remission of the capital punishment. This alone 
quieted them, so anxious were they to secure his death. Even at his last hour, 
when Stafford asked that the rabble might be silenced to allow him to die in 
peace, Slingsby Bethel answered brutally, "We have orders to stop no one's 
breath but your's ! " {Lord Somers's Tracts, viii. 317, Note.) 

We find on p. 178 a reference to the decay of Trade iu England. In connection 
with which, and as giving a favourable specimen of Slingsby Bethel's style of 
writing, one year later, when he was inclined to Trim between his Republican 
Independentism and Court policy, here are his opinions given at conclusion of 
his tract, The World's Mistake in Oliver Cromwell, 1668 (p. 20) : — 

" I am wholly ignorant of any one action, in all his four years and nine months' 
time, done either Avisely, virtuously or for the interest of this Kingdom, and 
therefore that I am none of his Admirers, I ought to be pardoned by my readers. 
Much more might be said upon this subject, but this may suffice to shew, that if 
[Cardinal] Mazarine (at the hearing of Oliver's death) thought he had then 
reason for calling him a Fortunate Fool, if he were now living he would find 
more cause for it : Cromwell's lot, as to Reputation, having been exceedingly 
much greater since his death than whilst he was in the world. And that from 
forgetfulness of his impolitick Government (from whose Entrance we may date 
the commencement of our Trade's decay) . And, through want of memory, in 
men's giving to him the [report of being] the Cause of our former wealth and 
prosperity, which truly belongeth to others. But what opinion soever Mazarine 
may have had of Oliver, he was without all perad venture a person of more than 
ordinary wit, and no otherwise a Fool than as he wanted Honesty, no Man being 
wise but an Honest Man." 

Thus Slingsby Bethel ends it. Did he reck of his own rede in after-years ? 






199 



a Bcto ignoramus* 

" Lay by your pleading, Law lies a bleeding, 

Burn all your studies down, and tbrow away your reading; 

Small power the Word has, aud can afford us 

Not half so many privileges as the Sword has : 

It fosters Impostors, it plaisters disasters, 

And makes your servants quickly greater than their Masters ; 

It ventures, it enters, it circles, it centers, 

And makes a 'Prentice free in spight of his Indentures." 

— Cavalier Song : The Power of the Sword. 1656. 

J.N the present Editor's Boston reprint of the 1670 Merry 
Drollery, p. 191, he gave the words of the rare and spirited song 
of "Love lies a Bleeding " : ten verses, the first of which is this: — 

Lay by your pleading, Love lies a bleeding, 

Burn all your Poetry, and throw away your Reading. 

Piety is painted, and Truth is tainted, 

Love is a reprobate, and Schism now is Sainted ; 

The throne Love doth sit on, we dayly do spit on ; 

It was not thus, I wis, when Betty rul'd in Britain : 

But Friendship hath faulter'd, Love's Altars are alter'd, 

And he that is the cause, I would his neck were alter'd. 

In 1681 the tune regained popularity, and was used anew for a 
Loyal Song, known (from the last word in its burden) as Ignoramus. 
It refers, of course, to the trick too often used by the Whig Sheriffs, 
who packed Juries with their own creatures, often unqualified by 
law to serve, and thus prepared the condemnation of any Tory who 
might be on his trial, while they secured the virtual acquittal of 
any Whig criminal by refusing to find a Billa Vera ; throwing it 
out with "Ignoramus" written on the back. Thus John House 
escaped punishment ; and so would Stephen College also, had it not 
been that, some of his offences having been perpetrated at Oxford, 
he was removed thither, tried, condemned, and executed, after 
having obtained the Ignoramus of the London Grand Jury. Lord 
Shaftesbury's case was the most important of all thus decided. 

After some sharp practices, employed to defeat equal unjust 
straining of the law, "the whirligig of Time brought about its 
revenges." A Tory Lord-Mayor favoured the election of Tory 
Sheriffs. Tory Sheriffs followed the evil precedent set by their 
political foes, and, as they were expected, carefully packed the 
Jury-box with unhesitating partisans, who gave verdicts in 
accordance with their bias. A fresh song signalized the triumph, 
and this is " The New Ignoramus: being the Second New Song to 
the same old Tune of Law lies a Bleeding.'" Before giving it here, 
we revive the original Tory " Ignoramus" ditty of 1681. 



200 
Hrjitoramus, In Excellent jjiefo Song. 

To the Tune of, Lay by your Pleading. 

Since Reformation with Whig 's in fashion, 
There's neither Equity nor Justice in the Nation 
Against their Furies, there no such cure is 
As lately hath been wrought by Ignoramus Juries. 
Compaction of Factions, that breeds all distractions, 
Is at the Zenith point, but will not bear an action. 
They sham us, and flam us, and ram us, and uiuvp us, 
And then, in spite of Law, come off with Ignoramus. 8 

Old Tony Plotted, Brimighams Voted, 

And all the Mobile the Holy Cause promoted ; 

They preach'd up Treason, at ev'ry season, 

And taught the multitude Rebellion was but reason. 

With Breaches, Impeaches, and most disloyal Speeches, 

With Royal Blood again to glut the thirsty Leeches, 

They sham us, and flam us, and ram us, etc. 16 

'Tis such a Jury wou'd pass no Tory, 

Were he as Innocent as a Saint in Glory: 

But let a " Brother " ravish his Mother, 

Assassinate his King, he wou'd find no other. 

They shamed and blamed, at Loyalists aim'd, 

But when a Whig 's repriev'd the Town with Beacons flara'd. 

They sham us, and flam us, Etcetera. 24 

This Ignoramus, with which they Sham us, 

Wou'd find against a York, to raise a Monmouth a'mus ; [=aninius. 

Who clears a Traytor, and a King-hater, 

Against a lawful Prince wou'd find sufficient matter ; 

They sought it, and wrought it, like Rebels they fought it, 

And with the price of Royal Martyr's Blood they bought it. 

They sham us, and flam us, Etcetera. 32 

At the Old Bailey, where Rogues flock daily, 

A greater Traytor far than Coleman, White, or Staley : 

Was late indicted, witnesses cited, 

But Tony he was set free ; so the King was righted ! 

'Gainst Princes, Offences prov'd in all senses, 

" But 'gainst Tony there's no truth in Evidences .'" 

They sham us, and flam us, Etcetera. 40 

But wot you what, Sir ! They found it not, Sir ; 

'Twas ev'ry Juror's case, and there lay all the Plot, Sir. 

For at this season, shou'd they do reason, 

Which of themselves wou'd 'scape, if they found it Treason ? 

Compassion in fashion, "the Int'rest of the Nation," 

Oh ! what a Godly point is self-preservation ! 

They sham us, and flam us, Etcetera. 48 

'Las, what is Conscience, in Baxter s own sense ? 

When Int'rest lies at stake, an Oath and Law is Nonsense ! 

Now they will banter Quaker and Ranter, 

To find [" guilty"] a Royalist, and clear a Covenanter. 

They'l wrangle and brangle, the Soul entangle, 

To save the Traytor s Neck from the old Triangle. 

They sham us, and flam us, Etcetera. 56 



Loyal Sony*, to the tunc of" Lay by your pleading" 201 

Alas ! for pity of this good City, 

What will the Tories say in their drunken Ditty ? 

When all Abettors, and Monarch-haters, 

The Brethren, p^nuup their Souls to save Malicious Traytors. 

But mind it, long-winded, with prejudice blinded, 

Lest what you now reject, another Jury find it. 

Then sham us, and flam us, and ram us, and cram us, 

When against King and Law you find an Ignoramus ! 64 

LONDON : Printed in the Year Mdclxxxi. 
[White-letter. No cut or printer's name, but from Nathanael Thompson.] 

We have already commented on the subjects here incidentally 
mentioned, such as the " Brimighams,"=irnpostors, properly base- 
coin ; the "Mobile" or Babble, hence called "Mob;" the " Good 
Old Cause" of a rebellious commonwealth. Also, in previous volume, 
IV., on Coleman with his letters to Pere la Chaise ; on White the 
Jesuit, and on William Staley (see pp. 132, 203). Richard Baxter 
is mentioned in line forty-ninth. He did not find a Saint's ever- 
lasting Best, for his polemical tendencies embroiled him in pamphlet 
warfare, and he was yelled at and bullied from the Bench as "an 
old knave." One Loyal Song arranges its programme with "Let 
Baxter preach sedition." Shaftesbury (p. 230) bequeaths to him his 
venomed teeth, quite unnecessarily, since Bichard was not fangless. 

Two other Loyal Songs to the same tune are of later date ; one, 
"The Loyal Conquest; or, Destruction of Treason," belonging to 
the summer of 1683, after the Bye-House Plot was discovered : it 
begins, "Now loyal Tories may triumph in Glories: " seven verses. 
It was printed for J. Dean, Bookseller in Cranbourn Street, near 
Newport House. Another is after the beginning of August, 1684, 
and entitled, " The Newcastle Associators ; or, the Trimmers' 
Loyalty." It begins, " Lay by your Beason, Truth's out of Season, 
Since Treason's Loyalty, and Loyalty is Treason." These will 
follow. But of earlier date, and extremely rare, is the second song 
of the series (the first being " Since Reformation with Whig 's 
in fashion"): "A New Ignoramus," beginning, "Since Popish 
Plotters join'dwith Bog-Trotters." It is a Whiggish Answer to the 
Tory Song of" Ignoramus " which ice have given on previous page. 

The aforesaid Bog-Trotters are the Irish "Evidences" or 
professional suborned- witnesses, who had ensured the condemnation 
of Archbishop Plunket, and afterwards turned upon their employers, 
swearing against Shaftesbury. We gave a list of these "Knights 
of the Post," on p. 77, exclusive of Eustace Comyns. 

%* Let it here be added, that the libellers mentioned on p. 197, in line 34 of 
A Litany from Geneva, were duly considered on our pp. 181, 182, viz. Langley 
Curtis, "seditious Dick" Janeway, and Richard Baldwin. Elkanah Settle's 
Absalom Senior ; or, Achitophel Tiansijrosed, is alluded to in next line. Thus 
Dryden writes of Settle, "For to write verse with him is to traasprose] " 



202 

[Trowbesh Collection, on the Popish Plot.] 

& 51?eto ignoramus ♦ 

Being the second New Song, To the same Old Tune, 
Laiv lyes a bleeding. 

Since Popish Plotters join' d with Bogg- Trotters, 
Sham-Plots are made as fast as Pots are form'd by Potters, 
Against these Furies there no such cure is 
As what our Law provides, our True and Loyal Juries. 
The action and paction, that breeds our Distraction, 
Is secretly contrived by the Popish Faction, 

WJio sham us and flam us, trepan us and uiuvp us, 

A.nd then grow enraged when theg hear Ignoramus. 8 

Traytors are rotten, yet not forgotten, 

Nor Meal-Tub Devices, which never well did Cotten. [n.b. 

At ev'ry Season inventing Treason, 

And Shams that none believ'd that had or Sense or Reason. 

With fetches and stretches, these notorious Wretches 

Would get Loyal Subjects into their bloody Clutches. 

They sham us, and flam us, Sfc. 16 

If wicked Tories could pack their Juries, 

That would believe Black, White, and all their Lying Stories, 

Then, by Art Stygian, Whigg 's prov'd a Widgeon, 

And should be Hang'd for Plotting against the Pope's Beligion, 

They'd hear-a, and swear-a, thing that was as meer-a 

Gross Lye as e'r was told, and find it Billa Vera : 

Then sham us, and flam us, Sfc. 24 

This Ignoramus, for which they blame us, 

And to the Pit of Hell so often curse and uraep us, 

Are men by tryal honest and loyal, 

And for their King and Country ready are to Die all : 

They show it, and vow it, Honest men do know it, 

Their Loyalty they hold, and never will forgoe it. 

They sham us, and flam us, Sfc. 32 

At the Old Baily, where men don't dally, 

And Traytors oft are try'd, as Coleman, Whitebread, Staley, 

Was late Indicted, Witnesses cited, 

A Loyal Protestant, who spight of Rogues was Righted. 

Offences commences 'gainst all men's Senses, 

'Cause the honest Jury believed not Evidences. 1 

They sham us, and flam us, Sfc. 40 

1 These self-same ' Evidences,' Bog-trotters, had now turned against the Whigs. 



" A New Ignoramus " Answer from the Whigs. 203 

For which a Villain, who for Ten Shilling 
To Hang a Protestant shall be found very willing, 
Now at this season, and without reason, 
Shall call the Jury Traytors, and the Law make Treason. 
In fashion is Passion, Curses and uorrcuuxu(j ; 
How quiet should we be, were llogues sent to their station. 
They sham us and flam us, §-c. 48 

'Las what is Conscience i' th' Jesuite's own sense ? 

For the Church one may lye, and forswear without offence. 

Now what a Lurry keeps barking Tory, 

'Cause he is not able the Innocent to worry, 1 

Doth wrangle and brangle, 'cause he cannot intangle, 

Nor bring honest Tony to the Block or Triangle. 

They sham us, and flam us, §c. 56 

I'le tell you "What, Sir ; You must go Plot, Sir, 
And get better Witness e'r Wise Men go to Pot, Sir. 
When such abettors, Protestant haters, 

Would uuit'p their Souls to Hell to make them wicked Traytors, 
We mind it and wind it, and are not now blinded ; 
For what we now reject, no honest Jury '11 find it. 
They sham us, and flam us, they ram us, and uuivp us, 
When, according to the Law, we find Ignoramus. 64 

London, Printed for Charles Leigh, 1681. [White -letter : no woodcuts.] 



1 The erudite belauder of Ignoramus Juries spells this " whorry." He belonged 
to some Spelling-Deform Shaftesburian Association. Ante nos vixerunt, etc. 
lie borrows all his ideas from the earlier ballad, as this sort of gentry often do. 

*»* Students of tbe language of impertinence, commonly called Slang, may 
here find in the tenth line of the Whiggish song an employment of the phrase 
"to cotton" to something, so early as 1681, believed by many to be modern. 
" Is there any thing whereof it may be said, ' See this is new ' P It hath been 
already of old time, which w r as before us." Allusions are also found, in thirty- 
fourth line, to the executions of Edward Coleman, Thomas Whitebread the 
Jesuit, and William Staley (on whom see p. 132, Note 10), following after Titus 
Oates's false accusations of them for high-treason. Concerning these executions, 
6ee the Anti-Papal Group in our previous Vol. IV. of Roxburghe Ballads. Also, 
Bee pp. 678, 680, 696, and 701, of our Bagford Ballads, concerning Thomas 
Whitebread, Provincial of the Jesuits, accused by Titus Oates and Dugdale ; 
acquitted, when tried in December, 1678, but condemned in June, 1679, and 
e» cuted on the 20th. (On pp. 680, 688, of the same work we gave the fourfold 
Narrative of the Popish Plot.) We here add the scrap from King Lear, Act ii. 
6C. 4, for comparison with the imitation of it on our p. 194 : — 

Fathers that wear rags, do make their children blind ; 

Put fathers that bear bags shall see their children kind. 
On the same page, " The Fury of the Sta^s" alludes to Sir II. Howard's Poem, 
Duel of the Stags, beginning, "In Windsor Forest, before War destroy'd." 



204 



another 3iter 15oreale. 

" What, shall a glorious Nation be o'rethrown 
By troops of sneaking rascals of our own ? 
Must Civil and Ecclesiastick Laws 
Truckle once more under the Good Old Cause? 
Shall the ungrateful Varlets think to live 
Only to clip Royal Prerogative ? 
Shall all our blood turn whey, whilst we do see 
Men both affront and stab the Monarchy:"' 

— The Dissenter truly Described. 1682. 

In the introduction to onr former Iter Boreale (p. 153), on the 
Duke's Return from Scotland we mentioned the present poem, which 
seems to belong to a date soon after, and in the same year ; pro- 
bably December, 1682. The other poem celebrated an arrival; 
this, on the contrary, hails a flight. Both are from a writer in the 
same camp, and possibly one hand manufactured both. 

It is not indisputably clear which of the five following persons, 
if any, is here intended by the name " Brutus ; " 

1. — Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury (probably); or 

2. — Slingsby Bethel, the Whig Sheriff; or 

3. — James, Duke of Monmouth. All three of them successively 
fled to Holland, and one of them seems to be intended. If we give 
any preference to Monmouth, we admit that objections may be 
urged, on the same grounds, as to the identification of either of the 
others. The mention of Monmouth in line 40 as " Perkin " {i.e. 
Sham-Pretender to sovereignty) might seem to invalidate his claim 
to be " Brutus." But so would the distinct naming of " St. Tony " 
with his Tap, in line 42, exclude Shaftesbury ; and the nickname 
of "Sneaksby" for Slingsby Bethel (pointed, moreover, by the 
ridicule of his notoriously miserly habits and Whig rancour), no 
less imperils him as a claimant. 

4. — The signature "your Friend and Servant Junius Brutus" 
was appended to An Appeal from the Country to the City, for the pre- 
servation of his Majesty's person, liberty, property, and the Protestant 
religion, 1679. It is scarcely probable that the anonymous writer 
of this seditious pamphlet (whether he were Robert Ferguson or 
Charles Blount) could have been intended by the Brutus of the 
Poem (although Robert Ferguson did actually flee to Holland about 
the same time as Shaftesbury, who soon afterwards died in his 
sight). It was scarcely likely that the author of this Iter Boreale 
knew accurately that Ferguson was the author of the Appeal : but 
if so, the identification might be deemed nearly complete. "Brutus" 
is described as a venomous Demagogue, "the People's Ear "_ (or 
spying listener), " the People's Mouth " (preacher and libel-writer, 
who kept a private press for the printing of seditious broadsides, to 



The doubtful Hero of this Iter Boreale. 205 

be dispersed lavishly). Every word applies well enough to Robert 
Ferguson : if fixed on him we avoid all the difficulty of other claims. 

5. — Sir Thomas Player also was "the People's Mouth," being 
Civic Chamberlain ; so designated on p. 197. Compare p. 206. 

1. — Shaftesbury fled from his residence, Thanet House, Alders- 
gate Street, at Michaelmas, 1682, and for weeks lay concealed, 
sometimes at Wapping, sometimes in the City, until near the end 
of November, when he took ship via Harwich for Amsterdam. 
Previously he may have "gone North" to Newcastle, to found 
something of an Association there; but we believe "the North" 
was intended here to represent Holland. 

2. — Slingsby Bethel, the Whig Sheriff, conjoined with Henry 
Cornish, introduced the practice of packing juries with "true-blue 
Protestants," who convicted or acquitted, or wrote " Ignoramus " 
instead of returning true bills, in total defiance of justice, but 
obedient to the dictation of these Sheriffs : an evil practice that was 
afterwards turned against themselves, causing the well-deserved 
exile of Bethel, and the execution of Cornish on some doubtful 
evidence. As to the niggardliness and sordid grasping of Slingsby 
Bethel, contemporary testimony is unanimous. Compare pp. 156, i 65. 

We have already on p. 198, given an extract from one of his 
earlier books. Another of his pamphlets is The Providences of God, 
observed through several Ages, towards this Nation in introducing the 
True Religion ; and then, in the Defence of that, preserving the 
People in their Bights and Liberties, whilst other Kingdoms are 
ravished of theirs, as our Counsellors designed for us. Printed for 
Bichard Baldwin, near the Oxford- Arms in Warwick-Lane, 1691. 
He also wrote Observations on a Letter written by the D[_uke~] of B\_uck- 
inghani], and The Interest of the Princes and States of Europe, 1694. 

3. — Monmouth is designated " Brutus " in State depositions, and 
in A Pindarique Ode on the Whiggish Plot, wherein Caesar is meant 
to represent Charles II. (as often had been before, compare Vol. IV. 
p. 389), and with a supposition of the original Brutus having been 
an adopted son of Julius Caesar whom he afterwards murdered. To 
quote the exact words, " Ccesar was suspected of having begotten 
Unit UK ; " thus, like the relationship of Mordred to King Arthur, sin 
brought about retribution : — 

Mcthinks the dark Cabal of Six I see, 
Double-Triumvirate of Villainy, 
Exceeding that which went before 
In numbers much, in mischief more. 
Ccesar' s adopted Son does first appear, 

" Art thou, my Brutus, there ? 
Thou that wert once so great and good, etc. 

The name is certainly applied by implication to Monmouth with 
thinnest disguise in this Ode to Brutus, beginning, " 'Tis said that 
favourite, Mankind, was made the Lord of all below." The author 



206 John Sheffield, Lord Mulgrave's " Ode to Brutus." 

was John Sheffield, Lord Mulgrave, already so often named. These 
are the concluding lines, and the application to Monmouth is forcible, 
as is the irony of the passage about his filial ingratitude : — 

From mighty Cccsar and his boundless grace 
Though Brutus once at least his life receiv'd ; 
Such obligations, though so high belie v'd, 

Are yet but slight in such a case, 
"Where friendship so possesses all the place. 

There is no room for gratitude, since he 130 

Who so obliges is more pleas'd than his sav'd friend can be. 
Just in the midst of all this noble heat, 
"While their great hearts did both so kindly beat, 

That it amaz'd the lookers-on, 
And fore'd them to suspect a father and a son,* 
(Though here ev'n Nature's self still seem'd to be outdone) 
From such a friendship improvok'd to fall 
Is horrid, yet I wish that fact were all 
Which does with too much cause ' ungrateful ' Brutus call. 

In coolest blood he laid a long design 140 

Against his best and dearest friend ; 
Did even his foes in zeal exceed, 
To spirit others up to work so black a deed ; 
Himself the centre where they all did join. 
Cccsar, meantime, fearless, and fond of him, 

Was as industrious, all the while, 
To give such ample marks of fond esteem 
As made the gravest Roman smile, 
To see with how much ease Love can the best beguile. 

He, whom thus Brutus doom'd to bleed, 150 

Did, setting his own race aside, 
Nothing less for him provide 
Than in the world's great Empire to succeed : 
"Which we are bound in justice to allow, 

Is all-sufficient proof to show 
That Brutus did not strike for his own sake : 
And if, alas ! he fail'd, 't was only by mistake. 

Line 151, "setting his own race aside," refers to the abortive 
Exclusion of James Duke of York, for advancement of Monmouth. 

Although we have indicated four possible claimants of the 
questionable nickname "Brutus," viz. Shaftesbury, Slingsby Bethel, 
Monmouth, and Ferguson, it is within probability that the person' 
intended may have been the equally obnoxious and more disreputable 
Whig, Sir Thomas Player, who had been Lord Chamberlain of 
London, and bore a very evil repute in connection with the old 
procuress Mother Cresswell : she seems to be alluded to under the 
name of " Nesswell "as a disguise, at the close of this Iter Boreale. 
Clayton was another of those who in 1682 retreated to Holland. 



Original Note. — " Csesar was suspected to have begotten Brutus." 



207 



3Jter Boreate* 

1682. 

AFter long-practis'd Malice in the South, 
Brutus (the People's Ear, the People's Mouth x 
At length most prudently has sally'd forth, 
And cautiously retir'd to his North. 
His poyson he has left behind in London, 
By whose infection Whigland' s chiefs are undone. 
Charter lies bleeding, echoing Orphans' crys 
Peach Heaven, -whilst the guilty Causer flies. 
AVhole Corporation suffers for believing 

Sneaksby, 2 who but one Garret had to live in : 10 

Yet, had he had his Arbitrary swing, 
"Wou'd all our Nobles to his Nine-pence bring. 
Wou'd curtail Monarchs, and by grand Debate 
Peduce Great Britain to a Hamburg- State, 
For 'Eighty-Two shou'd be as 'Forty-Eight. 

But since great ends by Providence are cross'd, 
And Jesuit-Whig Design's in blanket's toss'd ; 
Since Jurors must no longer be forsworn, 
Nor private sense 'gainst solemn Oath suborn ; 
Since Oates' Deposals are Immortaliz'd, 3 20 

And Elliot still remains uncircumciz'd ; * 
Since Loyalty must take, and All are for 't, 
Since Fo mfr et-eloquence won't take at Court ; 5 P-^lrd™ 06 
Since Pyots for the Publick-Weal can't be 
Secure without invading Royalty ; 6 
And legal bearings-up against the Power, 
In Peoples' -Pight, force Demagogues to th' Toiver ; 
Since all the juice of Tony's Tap's quite spent \ 

Which suckled long both Good Old Cause and Tretit, 1 > 
(For some, who this-way look, are that-way bent) ; ) 30 
Since Bacon's Brazen Head, fix'd on his shoulders, 
" Time "Was ! " can only say to Property Upholders ; 8 
Since Legal Monarchy must rule the Poast, 
And Care determiu'd is to keep his post; 9 
Since Envy, Hatred, Malice do small feats, 
Party detected in all holy Cheats : 
Thousands of guineas can't have influence 
On him who hath of Loyalty due sense : 
Since neither Wapping Treats, nor Whigs'-Hcad Clubs, 10 
Assert the right of Ferkin or the Tubs ; 40 

Since Truth and only Truth must now prevail, 
Maugre St. Tony's Tap, or Stephen's Flail ; 



208 Notes to the present Iter Boreale. 

And Brutus, lately London's Demagogue, 11 
No office has but where men disembogue : 
'Tis time, high time to quit that hated place, 
Where nought but Loyal must dare show its face. 

So Fiends associate Wizards still forsake, 
Cajoll'd with hopes untill they come to stake ; 
Thus inmate Rats, who first espy the flaw 
In ruinous Buildings, prudently withdraw. [ = avoid 

Neswell's 12 Whig-BabeWs fall, and parting seem to say, 
" Perish ye with your Cause, so I be out o' th' way ! " 

[In "White-letter. No woodcut. Probable date, December, 1682.] 



Notes to the foregoing "Iter Boreale." 

1 See preceding pages of Introduction as to Brutus. 

2 Probably quibbling on the name of Slingsby Bethel, the "Whig Sheriff 
renowned for miserliness. Compare the Mouse extract on our p. 165. 

3 Titus Oates, the " Salamanca Doctor," his Depositions. 

4 The Elliot mentioned is Adam Elliot, Master of Arts, and a Priest of the 
Church of England, known as "Parson Elliot;" who in January, 168|, caused 
Titus Oates to be arrested for having spoken scandalous words against him. 
Elliot laid his action at 5007., and had Oates committed to the Compter Prison, 
whence he was set free on bail. Elliot wrote A Modest Vindication of Titus 
Oates, the Salamanca Doctor, from Perjury ; or. An Essay to demonstrate him only 

forsworn in several instances. The same Elliot on the 16th February, 168 if, at 
Guildhall submitted himself to Charles Lord North and Gray, who had brought 
against him an action of scandalum magnatum for this libel, the Modest Vindi- 
cation, published by Joseph Hindmarsh ; wherein Lord North had been shown 
up to ridicule. Having asked pardon in open Court, Elliot obtained forgiveness. 
"We possess in our private collection the Modest Vindication, and esteem it highly, 
as a clever biting satire, although rambling and long-winded, in prose, of fifty- 
six pages, folio. He himself jests about Oates having declared "that I was a 
Mahumetan, and had been thereupon circumcised, and also that I was a Popish 
Priest, having received Orders from the See of Rome." A Dr. Elliot was im- 
peached by the Commons in July, 1689, for dispersing King James II. 's Decla- 
ration, and was probably the same person. His talent and adventurous spirit 
deserved a happier fate. He is mentioned in Midsummer-Moon ; or, The Livery - 
Man's Complaint, 1682 (which begins, " I cannot hold, hot struggling Bage 
aspires"). Preceding lines refer to the Duke of York's escape from shipwi-eck 
in the Gloucester Frigate (Sir John Berry, Captain : see his Letter), 8th May, 
1682 ; the poem is a virulent satire on York, in blind rage and spitef ulness : — 

Tho' Heav'n in anger sometimes may relieve, 

Pardons still do not follow a Beprieve. 

Not fell Charibdis, Godwin's, and the Ore, 

If Fate ordain 't, shall keep a Prince from shore ; 

Since he, that would by Brother's Blood be crown'd, 35 

Shall (tho' in Egg-shell Frigat) ne'er be drown'd . . 

"When nothing else the desperate Game retrieves, 

You'l chuse the City circumcised Shrieves : 

To whom, if you would take Advice from me, 

Good Father Elliot should a Chaplain be. 



Notes on " the Brazen Head;' and Calves heads. 209 

5 George Villiers (son of Barbara), Baron of Pomfret vel Pontefract, 1674. . 

6 Perhaps the Guildhall Riot, at election of Sheriffs, is here meant. 

7 For the Republican Good Old Cause of Rebellion and anarchy see previous 
Monmouth Group in vol. iv. pp. 263, 598 to 603, etc. Trent is here mentioned 
as an equivalent for " the Power of Rome," of course, in allusion to the Council 
of Trent, 1563. That people who became disgusted at the extreme bigotry of 
" True-Blue Protestantism" went over to Rome is illogical, but not surprising. 

8 The old story of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay having constructed a Head 
of Brass, which they expected to speak, yet left it to be watched by a silly clown, 
•who failed to awaken them when it intermittently spoke, "Time is!" "Time 
was ! " and " Time is past ! " has always been a favourite subject with our poets. 
Robert Greene (whose works have been at last collected and edited in thirteen 
quarto vols, of the valuable FLuth Library by the Rev. Dr. Alexander Balloch 
Grosart, of Blackburn, Lancashire,) introduced it in his play of Friar Bacon and 
Friar Bungay, 1594. Byron alluded to it in Bon Juan, Canto 1st, stanza 217, 

Now like Friar Bacon's Brazen-Head I 've spoken, 

' Time is ! ' ' Time was ! ' ' Time 's past ! ' a chymic treasure 

Is glittering youth, which I have spent betimes, 

My heart in fancies, and my head in rhymes. 

W. M. Praed intended to make use of the myth in a serial, but unfortunately 
never continued into a second attempt his " Chant of the Brazen Head." We 
find the anonymous author of The Court Burlesqued thus employing the allusion, 
when mentioning the second Duke of Buckingham's fopperies of chymistry: — 

Or else he would have bless'd the Nation 
With the strange art of Transmutation : 
Taught us to 've metamorphos'd metals, 
And into gold turn brazen kettles ; 
Which would have sure surpriz'd us more 
Than Bacon's Head had done before. 
But this great project, like the rest, 
(Tho' pity 't was) became a jest, 
And all the secrets that the Bubble 
Found out, to recompense his trouble, 
Instead of turning lead or brass 
To gold, that would for standard pass, 
Was to change metals to his loss 
And bring his Gold to worthless dross : 

The only costly generous Art, 

At which himself is most expert. 

9 Post equitem sedet atra Cura. — Eor. Od. III. 40. 

10 Shaftesbury's predilection for the unsavoury district of Wapping, where his 
"ten thousand brisk boys " lurked, ripe for mischief, ought by this time to be as 
well understood as the frequent allusions to the silver " Tap," i.e. the issue in his 
side. The Whigs' Calf's-Head Clubs, on 30th January, in brutal mockery of 
the Execution of Charles I., date from Cromwellian days, and like most evils 
of the Commonwealth descended to modern time. Stephen College and his 
Protestant Flail were already noticed on pp. 35, 36. Perkin— Monmouth. 

11 Brutus, as already shown, might be disguise for Slingsby Bethel, or the 
Duke of Monmouth. The place of refuge is Holland, whither they retreated. 

18 Probably, this Neswell is intentional disguise-misprint far Mother Cresswell, 
with whom the Chamberlain Sir Thomas Player had evil connection (p. 246). 



vol. v, 



Wi 



210 



^onmoutb's " jfoolisf) Jfancp" 

" Let 'em in Ballads give their Folly vent, 
And sing up Nonsense to their Hearts' content." 

— A Lenten Prologue refused by the Players. 1682. 



HILE the months of 1682 were rolling swiftly away, the 
position of James Duke of Monmouth showed the reverse of 
improvement. He had lost all his public offices, hut felt no 
immediate pressure on the score of money, since for twelve years 
he drew the bulk of his wife's annual income, leaving her less than 
a bare hundred out of her own thirteen thousand, which he felt no 
compunction in spending on his loose companions of both sexes. 
From a contemporary Satire, The Court Burlesqued, we draw this 
unflattered likeness of her husband James Scott, Duke of Monmouth : 

Another Duke, the spurious Son 
Of him that tamely rules the Th[ron]e, 
The only Darling of the Court, 
From Prince to jrunj, of every sort ; 
The factious bubble, and the tool 
Of those that would usurp the rule ; 
The dancing, fencing, riding bauble, 
That bows and cringes to the rabble ; 
The brainless, fawning, pretty thing, 
That hopes erelong to be a King, 
Enters the list among the rest, 
"With his Star shining at his breast : 
And none but crafty knaves about him, 
"Who, tho' they court him, yet they flout him. 
Gay as a Peacock at a Ball, 
Tres humble Serviteur to all ; 
A busy Fop among the Ladies, 
To show 'em what an am'rous blade he 's. 
Forward to fight, in battle warm, 
Altho', poor thing ! he means no harm — 
Except it is to his own Father, 
Or to his Popish Uncle rather ; 
Ready in all things to oppose 
His country's friends, instead of foes. 
The only idol of the town, 
That struts and rattles up and down, 
That all the factious fools, who hope it 
"Will one day reign, may view the puppit : 
That they may fill his empty Grace 
With noisy shouts and loud huzzas, 
And make him use his worst endeavours 
T' abuse his King, the best of fathers ; 
In hopes he may, by usurpation, 
In time, reign Tyrant o'er the nation. 
But, Oh! remember, J[e?mn]y Sc[ot]t, 
Thy arms have such a bastard blot, 



Shaftesbury's opinion on the Religion of Sensible-men. 211 

That many think thou may'st as soon 
lgS|~ Expect a Scaffold as a Crown. 
For he that is so vainly proud 
O' th' flatt'ries of a factious crowd, 
Of ruin very seldom fails, 
When Fortune turns the ticklish scales. 
Then shake off the rebellious crew, 
Or else prepare to have thy due ; 
For tho' thou hast been twice forgiven, 
Thou still retain'st the ancient leaven : 

But, Jemmy Frog, beware the Stork, 

Thy father has a brother, York ! 

He tried to forget the aforesaid " bastard blot," and it was noticed 
that, when he rode in his carriage after return from Holland, he 
bore on the panels the Royal Arms, but with the bend-sinister 
carefully painted out. Like Buckingham and Shaftesbury, he had 
turned to curry favour with the citizens, Aldermen and Shrieves, 
after being forbidden to present himself contumaciously at Court. 
"With wealth at his command, his wife's money, and what the rich 
merchants were willing to advance for the help of his pretensions as 
the possible Protestant Heir to the Crown, he found no difficulty in 
attracting towards him his own little Court of flatterers, revellers, 
and libertines. Grave plotters looked askance at the gaudy butterflies 
whom he chose for his associates. But since each set only used him 
selfishly to further their own ends, there was no open quarrel. 
Nevertheless, a coolness began to show itself between Monmouth 
and Shaftesbury. 

The following ballad rebukes Monmouth for having yielded 
himself trustfully to the guidance of 'Tony Shaftesbury. He had 
certainly been flattered and " fool'd to the top of his bent," by the 
wily Achitophel ; in whom the ambition of thereafter pulling the 
strings of this weak but handsome puppet, " England's Darling," 
had been mingled with the strongest personal hatred towards the 
" Popish Successor," James Duke of York. There is no certainty, 
and scarcely a probability that Shaftesbury had ever really felt any 
loving friendship for Monmouth. Their mock reverence for austere 
Protestantism was the most bare-faced imposture. Shaftesbury 
admitted that the only religion he held by was that which suited 
intellectual self-guided men ; and he skilfully avoided committing 
himself dangerously, after such unusual candour, by explaining 
that they kept this secret unspoken. He became willing to abandon 
Monmouth as problematical Heir, and take instead the eldest son of 
"Madam Carwell," the young Duke of Richmond, Charles Lennox. 

As a competitor for the Crown of England, in succession to their 
putative father Charles II., llichmond was an equally good-looking 
favourite of the crowd. We believe that Aphra Behn describes 
him faithfully, in the Poem entitled Bajazet to Gloriana, 1G8?-: — 



212 Aphra Behn on the Duke of Richmond. 

Yet if by chance m' Ambition meet a stop 
"With any Thought that check'd th' advancing Hope, 
This new one straight would all the rest confound, 
" How ev'ry Coxcomb aim'd at being crown'd! " 
The vain young Fool, with all his Mother's parts, 
Who wanted sense enough for little arts ; 
Whose composition was like Cheder- Cheese, 
(In whose production all the Town agrees) 
To whom from Prince to Priest was added stuff, 
From great King Charles e'en down to Father Goff. [=Gough. 

Yet he with vain pretensions lays a claim 
To th' glorious title of a Sovereign ; 
And when for Gods such wretched things set up, 
Was it so great a crime for me to hope ? 

The authorship of the poem is not avowed, hut (as shown on our 
p. 562 of Vol. IV.) its chief object is to represent the passionate love 
of Bajazet (=John Sheffield, Lord Mulgrave) for Gloriana, who is 
intended for the Princess Anne, before her marriage to Prince 
George of Denmark. 

Thanks to a contemporary manuscript we are enabled to give the 
correct text of the following ballad (which when reprinted as a 
Loyal, Song in 1685 was without title, and marked indecisively as 
sung "to an excellent new tune "). It reported itself to be " From 
Sir Roger Martin to the Duke of Monmouth," and to the tune of, 
Have at thy Coat, Old Woman ! Of this tune, possibly much older 
than 1625, the music is preserved in all the known editions of 
Playford's Dancing Master, and in Mustek's Delight on the Cithern, 
1666: whence it has been copied into the great treasury of our 
National Melodies, Mr. William Chappell's Popular Music of the 
Olden Time, p. 366. It appears to have been earlier known by the 
title, Stand thy ground, Old Harry ! from a ballad that has 
otherwise faded from memory. To the same tune went the 
Pepysian ditty (Pepys Coll., I. 282) beginning, " Come, Hostess, 
fill the pot ! " and the ante-Commonwealth ballad which gives our 
present tune-name, Hare at thy Coat, Old Woman ! This is (Pepys 
Coll., I. 284) declared to be 

' ' A merry new song of a rich widow's wooing, 
Who married a young man to her own undoing." 

Printed at London for T[homas] Langley, 1633, or earlier. It begins, 

I am so sick for Love, as like was never no man, 
Which makes me cry, with a love-sick sigh, 
Have at thy coat, Old Woman ! 
Have at thy Coat, Old Woman ; Have at thy Coat Old Woman ! 
Here and there, and everywhere, Have at thy Coat, Old Woman ! 

As already mentioned, Nat. Thompson gives no specification of the 
tune, nor any reference in the title to Sir Roger Martin. 

It dates itself clearly to the year 1683, either before the discovery 
of the Rye-House Plot, or soon after. Shaftesbury's flight and death 



" Villain Frank " Villiers, and Newport. 218 

are indicated : therefore it was after January, 168f . The prominence 
given to Lord Grey and Sir Thomas Armstrong do not prove that 
the date was later than June, 1683, but indicate the contrary. 

Frank Newport, son of Lord Francis, first Viscount, is frequently 
confounded with Francis Villiers, who was designated " Villain 
Frank " in the squibs and satires of the day : a gallant, enamoured 
of the Duchess of Mazarine. Thus in 1679, in the satire entitled 
Cidlen with his Flock of Court Misses, their names are associated, 

Then in came Dowdy M[aza]rine, 
That foreign antiquated Quean, 
Who soon was told the King no more 
Would deal with an intriguing o.iotj^. . . 
Her Grace at these rebukes look'd blank, 
And sneak'd away to Villain Frank. 

John "Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, rail'd at him, in A Satyr, beginning, 

Must I with patience ever silent sit, 
Perplex'd with Fools who will believe they've wit ? 
Must I find every place by Coxcombs seiz'd, 
Hear their affected Nonsense, and seem pleased ? 
Must I meet Hen\_ninghd\m where'er I go ? 
Arp, Arran, Villain F[rank~\, nay Poultney too? 
Shall He\rber~\t pertly crawl from place to place, 
Shall H\owe~\ and B\_rando\n Politicians prove, 
And S[utherland] presume to be in love ? 

(Most of these "Coxcombs" are mentioned elsewhere in our 
pages, and were associates of Monmouth. Harry Henningham 
courted the Muses as a versifier, so awkwardly that it was said, 
" His Mistress ne'er knows — so odd 'tis express'd — Whether he 
means to make love or a jest." We cannot identify "Arp;" 
next is ' sot ' James, Earl of Arran, the Duke of Hamilton's son, 
married to the Lady Anne Spencer ; Mr. Poulteney, son of Sir 
William ; probably Henry, fourth Lord Herbert of Cherbury, who 
married Lady Catharine Newport, Frank's sister " Katy ; " Jack 
Howe, who had some facility of verse, is here meant, brother of Sir 
Jervois Howe, and boastfully familiar with Frances Duchess of 
Richmond, 1679 ; Charles Gerard, Lord Brandon, son of the Earl 
of Macclesfield, who entertained Monmouth in Cheshire, with races, 
in September, 1682; also George, 14th Earl of Sutherland.) 

In Satyr Unmuzzled Frank Newport is complimented, but scurvily : 

Search the whole Court, in all that blessed Race 
Not one man's planted in his proper place ; 
Scarce one man just or faithful found to be. 
Only Frank N\ewport~], Henry K\jUiyrew\ 
Why did I name 'em, since ye all well know 
When we say " faithful " it implies them two ? 
Once faulty Men, hut now as just are known, j 

They mortgage Oaths, and lay their Honour down !■ 
To every Footman lends them half a Crown. ) 



214 



The Neuports, like Father, like Son. 



In The Lovers' Session (after June, 1685) he is classed with actors, 
Jevon and Joe Haines, also with " Villain Frank " Villiers : — 

But if so low buffooning can merit our praise, 

Frank Newport and Jevon and Haines must have praise . . 

Villain Frank, well advis'd by a small pocket-glass 

Of his p.unrcp disagreeable Vermin-like Face ; 

And knowing what juster pretensions would be, 

Brought the Bench a Mandamus subscrib'd S. P. 

(So Father Godwyn, after 1682, is said to have " brought a Letter 
signed 8. P.") 

In a Satyr on the Players, 1682, Jevon is mentioned, along with 
Nokes, Cave, and 'Tony Lee (who is probably meant in our Vol. IV. 
p. 662, instead of Nat. Lee, actor and dramatist) : 

Jevon' s chief bus'ness is to swear and eat, 
He'll turn procurer for a dish of meat ; 
Else the poor hungry ruffian must, I fear, 
Live on grey-pease and salt for half the year. 

The most laboured and continuous attack on the elder Frank 
Newport is in a satire erroneously attributed to Samuel Butler (in 
the fraudulent Posthumous Works in 1720, reprinted by R. Redly, 
third edition, 1730). It is merely an imitation of his Huflibrastic 
vein, and is entitled " The Quarrel Between Frank and Nan," 1680, 
beginning " Of civil dudgeon many a Bard has sung, and tales 
have oft been heard ; " with this Verse- Argument : — 

Nan and Frank, two quondam Friends, 

In which they'd both their private ends, 

Fell from love to sudden wrath ; 

Much ado is 'twixt 'em both : 

Many a ojoi[^\. and Rogue is call'd, 

But oh ! brave Frank ! the bawd is maul'd. 

One manuscript copy marks that it referred to " Lord Newport and 
Nan Capell the Orange Woman." There was an infusion of spite 
in Frank's nature ; it was congenital, hereditaiy, for immediately 
after the Revolution his father, Lord Newport, who had been 
Treasurer in 168 J, made himself busy by kicking at the overthrown 
Jacobites. Thus on January 28, 168g-, "My Lord Newport 
informed the House, that my Lord Castlemain was in Shropshire ; 
and so setting forth how dangerous a man he was, that he had 
been ambassador at Rome, etc., he moved he might be brought up 
in custody : which was ordered. See the Journal." — Diary of 
Henry, Earl of Clarendon, ii. 255. He also pertly stigmatized a 
communication from James II., mentioned in the Lords, by saying 
that " he hoped the House would not read every private man's 
letter: for he was no more King." — Ibid. ii. 259. Frank Newport 
died unmarried in November, 1692. On pp. 218-220 we rejoin 
Frank Villiers. Other persons named are separately annotated. 



21; 



[From an early Manuscript.] 

jTrom %>ix IRorjer a^artin to 2D. of ^onmoutb* 

To the Tune op, Have at thy Coat, Old Woman. 

T[} was a foolish fancy, Jemmy, 
JL to place your trust in Tony ; l 
He dip'd you all in Treason, 
Then humbly dyed in season : 

"When his Spiggot dropt out, 

The Plot ran about, 
Far beyond your Grace's reason. 7 

'Twere fit you'd mind these matters, 
And help your Brother Tray tors ; 
You left your friends together 
To stuff for one another : 

While you, we all know 

"Were in Portugall-Row 
"With a Lady and her Mother. 2 14 

"When you went from Jermin street, Sir, 
"Where friends you went to meet, Sir, 
Poor Betty was much greived, Sir, 3 
You could not be beleived, Sir ; 

Had she been in the way, 

You had carry'd the day ; 
But alas! you were deceiv'd, Sir. 21 

Frank Newport's wondrous hearty, 4 
and argues for your party ; 
His parts are most inviteing, 
And lately shin'd in writing ; 

And he bears in his face 

As much wit as your Grace : 
Which, to tell the truth, is biteing. 28 

Thus, Sir, while you're attended, 
Your troubles will be ended ; 
Keep Frank still for your writer, 
And Poulteney for your fighter ; s 

And to add to your sway, 

Turn Foster away, 6 
And make poor Harriot fright her. 7 35 

Let Forbes have a place too, 8 
About your mighty Grace too ; 
And Charleton has great reason 9 
To look out sharp in season ; 



216 A Nosegay for Bettys y e Coy'd. 

Give Gibbons's place 10 
To the nobler race, 
And take Sir Richard Meason. n 42 

Por he has more ways than any, 
To turn and wind the Penny ; 
He'l lie beyond all measure, 
And pimping is his pleasure, 

And for his part 

he's more Pogue in his heart 
Than Grey or Armstrong either. 12 49 

May friends like these protect you, 
And none but these respect you, 
May halters, chains, and fetters 
Crown all rebellious natures ; 

then in a short space 

I'd wait on your Grace, 
"With a list of all your creatures. 56 

[Date, probably early in January, 168§.] 



Notes to the foreyoing Ballad. 

1 Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, who had died at Amsterdam, 
in January. For the ungenerous " Spiggot " allusion to his malady, see previous 
volume, on the Wine- Cooper's Delight," p. 53. 

2 Monmouth's favourite mistress (after Eleanor Needham), Lady Henrietta 
Maria "Wentworth, by this time supreme, and her mother Lady Wentworth. 
Compare later pages, in next Group, on "Monmouth at Toddington." His 
mistresses were singularly in the Plural. 

3 Can this allude to Lady Elizabeth, Frank Newport's sister (first married to 
Sir Hy. Littleton, and secondly, to Edward Harvey of Coombe) ? — or was it 
Lady Betty Jones who afterwards married Lord Kildare ? Probably not Lady 
Betty Felton. In 1680 she was mentioned disparagingly in connection with the 
lewdness of the Duchess of Mazarine, in Rochester's Farewell to the Court : 

"While Sussex, Brocjh'dl, Betty Felton come, 
Thy s9.ioq_^\_ of Honour to attend thy throne ; 
For what proud Strumpet e'er could merit more, 
Than be anointed the Imperial 9iouj^_ ? 

She is still worse treated in a manuscript song beginning, " Of all Quality 
s9joi[ai Betty Felton for me!" Barbara, Countess of Suffolk, her mother, died 
suddenly, after an apoplectic seizure, on the 13th December, 168L. Lady Betty 
Felton "was seized also with a fitt of the same the next day, and died of it." 
They were buried on the 28th in great state, at Saffron Walden, Essex. Lady 
Betty's marriage had displeased her parents in July, 1675. Henry Saville noted, 
in a letter to Viscount Halifax, that " Mr. Felton has at last got my Lady Betty, 
and has her at lodgings at the Mall. Her parents are very disconsolate in the 
point, and my Ld. Suffolk swears all manner of oaths never to be reconciled." 

4 Francis Newport, third son of Francis, first Viscount Newport, of Bradford, 
and Lady Diana Russell: See Introduction, pp. 213, 214. 



" Talked thou of nothing but of Ladies ? " 217 

5 Mr. Poulteney ; second son of Sir William Poulteney, who had heen removed 
from the Commission of the Peace for Middlesex, in 1(581. The son fought a duel, 
in July, 1682, with one Mr. Howard, and gave him a mortal wound causing death 
soon after. The cause was " a gentlewoman which the said Mr. Toulteney hath 
married." In September, 1689, he displaced Dr. Wynne, who had been Secretary 
to the Lord Shrewsbury (as Secretary of State). 

6 One Forster (male) is connected with Lady Henrietta, in a MS. Satyr : 

Harriot will doe the thing, what e'er it cost her, 
But first intends to get the sneaking Forster. 
Probably Forster of Dotayl, Shropshire. 

7 " Earl Barkley's daughter Harriot " is the notorious Lady Henrietta, sister of 
Lucy and of Mary (the wife of Ford Lord Grey of Werk), who intrigued with her 
sister's husband. See Howell's State Trials, ix. 127, and frequent references in 
our pages. "Liberal " Grey coveted his ?<«deceased-wife's-sister " Hen." 

8 James Forbes, a Scotchman, is Dryden's Phaleg, Absalom and Achitophel : 

Here Phaleg, the lay Hebronite, is come, 

'Cause like the rest he could not stay at home ; 

Who from his own possessions could not drain 

An omer even of Hebronitish grain. [i.e. Scottish. 

Here struts it like a patriot, and talks high 

Of injured subjects, alter'd property. 

An emblem of that buzzing insect just 

That mounts the wheel, and thinks she raises dust. 

Can dry bones live, or skeletons produce, etc. . . . 

A waiting man to travelling Noble's chose, [E. of Derby. 

He his own laws would saucily impose, 

Till bastinadoed back again he went [tost in a blanket. 

To learn those manners he to teach was sent. 

Chastis'd, he ought to have retreated home, 

But he reads politics to Absalom ; 

For never Hebronite, though kick'd and scorn'd, 

To his own country willingly return'd 

But leaving famish'd Phaleg, to be fed, 350 

And to talk Treason for his daily bread. Etc. 

James Forbes, clerk of the green cloth, was knighted by Dutch William in 
1689, as reward for his former factiousness. Such doings were quite en regie. 

9 This Mr. Charlton was a gentleman of £2000 per annum, against whose 
serving on the jury Sir George Jeffereys took exception, at Hicks Hall Sessions, 
October 10, 1681. The Sheriff resisted the order of Jeffereys; altercation and 
adjournment followed. Charlton was one who proffered bail for Shaftesbury, in 
November. Probably the same person as the Francis Charlton, who was after- 
wards taken at Oxford, for the Bye-House Plot, in August, 1683 ; and again 
summoned by proclamation in 1685. His outlawry was reversed in April, 1689. 
There was a John Charlton, informed against by Lord Grey and Goodenough, 
but the accusation came to nothing. 

10 John Gibbons was Monmouth's "man," valet or page, who on the 20th of 
February, 168J, arrested Count Konigsmark at Gravesend (see p. 115). Gibbons 
was implicated in the Bye-House Plot, being privy to the assassination scheme, 
and thus compromising his master, Monmouth. 

11 Sir Richard Mason of Worcester Park, near Epsom, who in 1688 "married 
his daughter to one Mr. Brownlowof the Temple ; the lady having 1600?. portion, 
and the gentleman giving 300?. a year pin-money, and 2000?. a vear jointure." 

12 Ford Lord Grey of Werk, and Sir Thomas Armstrong. See Note 7, also 
pp. 28, 75, 102, and the pages devoted later to the Bye-House Plot. 



a 



218 



q$qw amrice from §>tr Eoger e^artin. 

" His neighbour Femo^ieK], with his antick face, \ 
These forty years has studied French grimace ; > 
In ogling C[art\ivright his delight does place. ) 
Yet, so unhappy does his passion prove, 
She takes it all for dotage, not for Love : 
While poor Frank Villiers, full of awful fears. 
And tender Love, has follow'd many years, 
Yet no reward his constant Passion claims, 
But that he may enjoy her in his Dreams. 
His Sister docs him service with her Friend, 
But Mistress Nancy to her cost does find 
Her feeble charms are by her Friends out-shin'd ; 
Yet strives by Art her comrade to out-do, 
Counterfeit Beauty must give place to true : 
And yet the meanest Beauty claims a part, 
E'en Sivan can move with her old rotten heart." 

— Satirical Letter to C. W. 



.AVING given Sir Roger Martin's Remonstrance to the Duke of 
Monmouth, from an early manuscript, we owe it to the enlightened 
reader of Court Scandals in the olden time to here subjoin another 
piece of hitherto unprinted " Advice " from the same Censor Morum ; 
but without pledging ourselves to any declaration that he and he 
alone was the responsible author. Children and lampoons were 
of doubtful parentage, both within the lustre of Whitehall and in 
more dusky purlieus. If we conscientiously weeded out all spurious 
growths, our English garden of life and literature would show many 
bare places. An expurgated Burke or Debrett would be of as little 
value as a Mason-College certificate of merit in Art or Letters. 
Our present business is to " trot out" the associates of Monmouth, 
whose characters were, unfortunately, for the most part "shady" : 
he having chosen them sympathetically for that qualification. 

In the following musical squib, to which Sir Roger Martin's 
name is attached in our manuscript, mention is made of Frank 
Villiers's lively sister Nancy; of " King John " Sheffield, Lord Mul- 
grave ; of Phil Kirke (see p. 219) ; of Katy Newport (not Kate Brett, 
who died earlier) ; of Berkeley (the "Harriot" of our Monmouth's 
" foolish fancy ") ; of Jack D'Arcy, Lord Conyers Darcy's son, who 
dangled after Lady Betty Kildare, nee Jones, had a weakness for old 
Guy's young wife, if not an actually criminal intrigue with her, 
and was accused of having designs on the Duchess of Grafton. 
These small impeachments did not disturb the fellowship with 
the respective husbands. Lady Cartwright also is here mentioned 
(whom we believe to be Sir George Cartwright'3 widow) ; and "the 
old Italian Dutchess," Hortensia Mancini, Duchess of Mazarine, 
on whom a life of excitement in gambling and gallantry brought 



The Tune of " Here's a Health to Betty ! " 219 

premature grey hairs. " Dimple " represents Henry Herbert ; 
Bellingham is assigned as lover to Kate in a satirical Letter to Julian ; 

that kind Fate would order 't so, that Bellingham might do so too, [i.e. marry. 
And, with his folly and estate, oblige the world and marry Kate ! 
How many then full sail would enter, that in that port now dare not venture : 
But tho' he's Fop enough to woo, present, and treat, and keep ado, 
When he should wed — he won't come to. 

The tune known as Here's a Health to Betty belonged to a Country 
Dance, but we have not yet found the original words. Tom D'Urfey 
set fresh lines to the tune, and printed them with the music (which 
is in Popular Music, p. 367). His verses are entitled, " The Female 
Quarrel ; or, a Lampoon upon Phillida and Chloris." Phillida had 
exposed the frailties of her friend Chloris. It begins, 

Of all our modern stories, To minuets sung, or Borees, 

None stir the mood, as late the feud, 'Twixt Phillida and Chloris. 

The same tune was used for the Pepysian Ballad, " One morning 
bright," with its burden and title of Fourpence half-penny farthiny. 

Note on " Magpies, Boohs, and Jack Daws," on p. 195. 

A ballad on " The Magpies " gave its name to the tune of Dumb, dumb, dumb, 
or I am the Duke of Norfolk, in "Some Nonsense" (see Vol. IV. p. 564). 
"Rook and Jack Daw" refer to a frustrated alliance of the little Nancy, whom 
Charles Sackville Earl of Dorset thus satirized : — 

fHts. Stone Eooke, brfjen she lost Sir John Same. 

Like a true Irish Merlin yt has lost her flight, 
Little Nancy sate mumping and sullen all night, 
Tho' if Jack Daw escap'd her, ye loss is not great, 
She may yet catch a Woodcock, and yts better meat. 

An early note in the manuscript Epigram adds ' ' she was married after to Lord 
Dorset." But this appears to be an error. Dorset's first wife was Elizabeth, 
widow of Charles Berkeley, the Earl of Falmouth (killed in 1665) ; she was 
daughter of Colonel Hervey Bagot. Mulgrave describes her as "a teeming 
widow, but a barren wife." Nor can it be Dorset's second wife, for she was 
Mary Compton, second daughter of James, the third Earl of Northampton. 

Thus Dorset, purring like a thoughtful Cat, 
Marry'd, but wiser Puss, ne'er thought of that ; 
And hist he worry'd her with railing rhyme, 
Like Pembroke's mastiffs at his kindest time, 
Then for one night sold all his slavish life, 
A teeming widow, but a barren wife. 

Note to second verse of the Advice, on next page. 

The close sequence of Phil Kirke after Mulgrave's nickname is ominous. Mrs. 
Kirke protested her innocence, but before July 8th her husband had severely 
wounded Mulgrave on her account, and " she was turn'd out of St. James's," 
and took "a very private sanctuary in Whitehall." Moll Kirke was in Paris 
married to Sir Thomas Vernon. Probably it was the same Kirke who (as second) 
dangerously wounded Captain Par in a duel, 6 Dec, 1681. Phil Kirke is not 
the Colonel Kirke, governor of Tangier in 168", whom we shall meet at 
Bridgewater, the Shepherd of " Kirke's Lambs : " his name being Percy. 



220 



[From an Early Manuscript, Trowbesh Collection.] 

amrice in a letter to ^r. Stank Witters, 

To the Tune of, Here's a Health to Betty. 

LEave off your ogleing, Francis, 
And mind your sister Nancy ! 
She's quite undone, if once King John 

Should get between her soipunuij. 4 

I hear Phil lurk does thrum, Sir, 
Your Brother's Lady [,M]um, Sir; 
'Tis ten to one he'll get a Son, 

May stand 'twixt you and home, Sir. 8 

Katifs joy commences 
At ev'ry Fop's pretences ; 
Should Dimple bring a priest and ring, 

She'd lose her little senses. 12 

My worthy friend his Brother 
Has got just such another ; 
A hopefull Imp, whose sire's a draid, 

And a common oaoiptt. her mother. 16 

BarUey ne're will leave it ; l Lad y Henrietta b. 

Propose, and she'l receive it ; 
Jack Darcy knows where 'tis she blows, 

And will make affidavit. 20 

Dear Frank, you ha'n't the art right 
To please my Lady Cartivright : 
Yet don't despair, for one so fair 

In time may play her part right. 21 

But tho' her beauty much is, 
Contempt's a thing that touches ; 
And, if she scorn, you'd best return 

To your old Italian Dutchess. [Mazarine. 28 

Now to conclude, at parting, 
All I have writ is certain, 
And so I end, your faithfull friend 

And servant, Roger Martin. 32 



221 



€&c Wbm f Dotonfall. 



w 



L 



" There are a Crue of Rogues infest the Town 

would undermine the Crown, 
The Whiggs, the Whiggs, the Whiggs, 
The Whiggs I mean : Let all true ISritains sing — 
' They may be hang'd, may be hang'd, may be hang'd, 
May be hang'd, and so God save the King ! ' " 

— New Catch, to the Tune of, There dwells a Pretty Maid. 



E have written concerning the never-exhausted popularity 
of the tune, Hey, Boys, up go we ! (Vol. IV. p. 260, etc.), but 
give other examples of its employment here on pp. 147 and 162. 

"Wi. Williams" (see pp. 29, 224), is named in the following 
Loyal Song. Mr. William Williams, of Gray's Inn, Counsellor-at- 
Law, and Recorder of Chester, had been Speaker of the Commons, in 
October, 1679. Soon after, Sir Robert Peyton became entangled in a 
mesh by Mrs. Cellier with Thomas Dangerfield, and was expelled the 
House. Peyton quarrelled with Williams, and challenged him, but 
only got into fresh trouble, since the other, instead of fighting, swore 
the peace against him, and had him arrested on warrant. That 
Peyton had actually caned or " batooned " him, as asserted in the 
song, is by no means improbable. In Whig Sheriffs' elections 
Williams and Polloxfen were on their side. Having under orders 
licensed Dangerfield' 8 Narrative, he got into trouble, and was 
censured, with actions against him. Williams, like other " liberal "- 
minded men, ratted to the Court, and was made Solicitor-General 
in 1687. These self-elected Tribunes of Radical hot-beds are 
always the same : the noisiest Demagogues are greedy of place and 
plunder. They turn their coats, when bribed sufficiently, like 
Sir William Williams, late Speaker of the Commons. 

While enjoying the lampoons that circulated in 1681 and 1682 
against the factious Whigs, who in their opposition to the Court 
had indulged in the grossest personal attacks and seditious intrigues, 
we are by no means called upon to condone the faults of their 
enemies, when resisting or punishing them by straining the law 
against them in the very way which the Whigs had hitherto monopo- 
lized, by means of vexatious prosecutions, questionable testimony, 
and packed juries obedient to time-serving Judges. We only ask 
for fair remembrance that nearly every expedient which deserves 
censure had been previously employed against the Tories with 
merciless rigour and unprincipled selfishness. Whig tyranny brought 
about the reaction, many persons sincerely agreeing with the curt 
declaration of the contemporary Loyal Song, " Panatick Zeal," 

The old Proverb doth us tell that Each Bog will have his dag, 
And Whig has had his too ; for which he'll soundly pay : 
So a Tory, / will be, will be, will be, and a Tory / will he. 



222 Whig " swims on the land, and crawls on the water." 

If anything beyond their former overbearing tyranny, whilst 
possessing a civic majority and command of mob virulence, were 
necessary to complete the condemnation of the party led by Shaftes- 
bury, it would be found in their pusillanimity after defeat had 
fallen on them. Their victors were certainly not always generous, 
and the pamphleteers were quite as ready to calumniate or satirize 
them, in their downfall, as formerly to do their bidding against the 
Jesuits and Catholic Lords. Indeed, there was much more hearty 
detestation and humour expressed against them than had ever been 
displayed on their behalf. Here is one burst of satire : 

Ehe Character at a Mhtrj. 

AWhigg is a vermin of monstrous nature, 
'Tis the Spawn of Sedition, the Devil of a Creature, 
That swims on the Land, and crawls on the Water. 3 

Whose conscience is still at defiance with Law, 

Though he cringes to those that keep him in awe ; 

Yet for King, or for Country he cares not a straw. 6 

He makes it his business new brawls to create ; 

Like powder, still upwards to fly in his face, 

And ne're in affection to jump with the State. 9 

Three kingdoms already he once has undone, 

He murder'd the Father, and struck at the Son ; 

And he'l ever drive on the designs he has begun. 12 

When once he's engag'd in behalf of the Kirk, 

No villainy spares he, to drive on his work : 

He lives like a Tray tor, and dyes like a Turk. 15 

His Religious Rebellion, daub'd over and painted, 
Neither better nor worse than a Devil be-sainted ; 
The Gallows and he should be better acquainted. 1 8 

He's hot for Religion, though his be to choose ; 
For Property bawler, having nothing to loose : 

We shall never be well, till his Neck's in a Noose. 21 

Which no body can deny ! 

Undated, as usual, we suppose the following ballad to belong to 
the same time of issue as " Keligion a Cloak for Villainy " (see 
Vol. IV. p. 250), to which the last verse but one bears reference. 
It appeared, in white-letter, after the reaction set in, when the 
Plot-Evidences no longer found judicial support. Possibly it was 
after the discovery of the Rye-House Plot in June, 1683, but this is 
improbable. We incline to the date 1681. The allusion to the 
Habeas Corpus Act, passed in 1679, of itself might indicate that 
the ballad appeared not long afterwards. 

On next page, line 34, " Priscian's a little scratched." The meaning is clearly, 
" Our present men are grown to be like old President Bradshaw of the evil 
days, 1641 to 1648." A quibble on. precedent. We should have preferred to find, 
Now our Presidents are grown Like him of Forty-Eight, 
The Evil race of Forty-One : Ours balance them in weight, etc. 



223 

Cfie WfoiW DotmMFall, 

Tune of, Hey, Boys, up go We. 

NOw, now the Anti- Christian Crew 
Shall all go down, because 
Our Magistrates do well pursue 

And execute the Laws : 
Those Rascals, who do always rail 

Against all Law with spight, 
Would make a Law against the Law : 

Great York should lose his Right. 8 

To perfect which, they made their choice, 

Of Parliaments of late, 
Of Members that had nought but Voice, 

And Megrims in their Pate. 
Wi. Williams he the Speaker was, 

And is 't not wondrous strange ? 
The Reason 's plain, he told it was 

Because they " would not change." [c/. Epigram, next p. 

He told you Truth, nor think it strange ; 

He knew well their intent, 
They never meant themselves to change, 

But change the Government : 
For now, cry they, " The King 's so poor, 

He dares not with us part ; 
And therefore we most Loyally 

Will break his Royal Heart. 24 

' ' The Habeas Corpus Act is past, 

Then so far we are safe ; 
He can't imprison us so fast, 

But strait we have Relief: 
He can't deny us ought we ask, 

In so much need he stands ; 
And before that we do Money give, 

We '1 tye up both his Hands. 32 

"The President of Forty-One, 

Which were till Forty-Eight, [s ee opposite p. 

Now our Presidents are grown : 

For why ? they had their weight. 
So weighty were they, they cut off 

Our Royal Monarch's Head ; 
The self-same reason bids us now 

To act the self-same deed. 40 



224 Whig Williams's Downfall and Uprise. 

" And when we have a Martyr made 

Of anoth'r Gracious King, 
Then all the Traitorous Plots we 've laid 

We '11 to perfection bring : 
And, to protect our wicked Deeds, 

Religion shall go down : 
We '11 rout out all the Royal Seed, 

Pretenders to the Crown. 48 

" Thus, having Monarchy destroy'd, 
We'll govern by Free- Will; 
The Light of tK Spirit shall be our Guide, 
Then what can Man do ill ? 
fjdr" Religion is the surest Cloak 
To hide our Treachery ; 
The Rabble we '11 confine to th' Yoak, 

Pretending to be free." 56 

Therefore, my Country-men, trust not 

Where Religion 's the pretence; 
For if you do, you '11 find a Riot 

To destroy your Innocence. 
For those who lead you to Rebel, 

You T find i' th' close to be 
Pure Instruments were sent from Hell, 

To foment Treachery. 64 



We add the Epigram. Sir Trevor Williams, of Monmouthshire, and John Arnold, 
were fined £10,000, Nov. 1683, for slander. Also Barnardiston. Cf. p. 79. 

©n M. TOilltants. 

Williams, this tame submission suits thee more. 
Than the mean payment of thy Fine before. 
Poor "Wretch ! who after taking down thy arms, 
Has a Court-smile such over-ruling Charms ? 
Bankrupt in Honour, uow art tumbled down 
Below the abject' st creature of a Crown. 
Is this the Man the wiser World did wait on ? 
Unworthy now the very [rod] of Peyton. 
What will Sir Trevor Williams, Barnardiston, 
And Arnold say, but that he should be [hjiss'd on ? 
Is this Wi : Williams, who made such a noise, 
Dreadful to all the lewd " Abhorring " Boys ? 
Is this Wi : Williams, Spark of Resolution, 
Who was so fierce for Bill of pjiorup Exclusion ? 
Is this Wi : Williams, spoke the thing so strange ? 
" Great Sir, your Commons are not given to change !" 

Is this Wi : Williams, now at last set right ? 

Is't so ? Then, Drawer, light me down to[-night]. 



D. 



225 



Cf)C Lopall Scuffs of ftontion* 

" No more shall Shrieves Whig-Juries blind, 
And Loyalists shall Justice find ; 
Nor Ignoramus Law prevail, 
A curse o' th' Nation to entail." 

— A New Year's Gift to the Templars. I685. 1 



"EMAGOGTJES revel in a theme that gives such opportunities 
for rant about Liberty, " the encroachments of Tyranny on chartered 
rights," and the venal corruption of everybody who does not worship 
King Mob ; but we are unable ourselves to feel much excitement 
over the contested election of July to September, 1682, in which 
the Court-party managed to secure the triumph of the two nominees 
desired, whom the sharp practices of the predecessor Sheriffs had 
vainly tried to overthrow. Dudley North accepted the distinction 
thrust upon him, but Ralph Box timidly shrank from the trouble 
and insults which threatened him, while party-spite was so unscru- 
pulous and fanatical. Declining to serve, he in September paid the 
exemption fine (£400 ; in those days a heavy sum), and retreated 
into the seclusion which he better loved. Peter Rich took his place. 

Although beaten in contest for the shrievalty by legal wiles, the 
favourers of Papillion and Dubois refused to accept defeat without 
another struggle. In this they were biassed by Shute and Pilkington 
(who was afterwards to be thrice Lord Mayor, and a zealous 
Orangeite : see Bagforcl Ballads, pp. 485, 486). Charges and 
counter-charges were freely bandied. For irregularly continuing 
or resuming the election of Sheriffs, after the Lord Mayor had 
adjourned the assembly, there was a committal of Shute and Pilking- 
ton, the penalty for contempt. Then followed a spiteful and ridicu- 
lous arrest of the Lord Mayor, on shallow pretences. This event 
forms the subject of another but later Loyal So?iy, entitled "Ryot 
upon Ryot ; or, A Cant upon the Arresting the Loyal Lord Mayor 
and Sheriffs;" sung to the tune of Burton Hall, Ignoramus, or 
London's Loyalty (by Tom D'Urfey, a song beginning, " Rowze up, 
great Genius of this Potent Land," see p. 246). It thus commences : 

Rowze up, great Monarch in the Royal Cause, 
The great Defender of our Faith and Laws ! 
Now, now, or never, crush the Serpent's Head, , 
Or else the poyson through the Land will spread. 
The noble Mayor and his two Loyal Shrieves, 
Bearing the Sword, 's assaulted by usurping Thieves ; 
Who their rebellious Ryots would maintain by Law: 
Oh, London ! London ! tvliere's thy Justice now ? . . . 

1 See note on this ditty, of date January, 168|,onp. 231, before "Dagon'sFall.'' 
vol. v. a 



226 The riotous Arrest of the Lord-Mayor, 1682. 

"Was this the way your Ryots to repair, 
In spight o' th' Charter to arrest the Mayor ? 
And 'gainst the Sheriffs your sham Actions bring, 
'Cause justly chosen, and approv'd by th' King P 
"What call you this but Treason ? whilst the Fool, 
That did arrest the Mayor, expects to rule ; 
And, save his own, no other power would allow : 
Oh, London ! London ! Where's thy Charter now ? 

Another was entitled " Loyalty Tryumphant ; on the Confirmation 
of Mr. North and Mr. Rich, Sheriffs of London and Middlesex," to 
the tune of, Joy to the Brideyroom and the Bride. It begins 

Fill up the Bowl, and set it round, 
The day is won, the Sheriffs crown'd, 
The Rabble flies, the tumults yield, 
And Loyalty maintains the Field. 

Saint George for England then amain, 

To Royal Healths the ocean drain. 

The following ditty was sung to the tune called The Riddle of the 
Roundhead, so named from the ballad which commenced thus : — ■ 

Now at last the Riddle is expounded, 
Which so long the Nation has confounded, 

For the Roundhead 

Begins the game again 
Which so well they play'd in Forty-four; 

Now with greater hope : 
For the fine Sham-Plots will ne'r give o'er, 
Till they piously have routed King and Pope. 

*x* The Loyal Song entitled London'' s Lamentation for the Loss of her 
Charter, belonging to 1683, is necessarily separated from this ballad, which it 
logically follows. Before coming to it, we must consider the effects of all 
these defeats upon the prospects and the health of Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury, 
now growing desperate at defections, pusillanimity, and divided counsels, where 
he had been hitherto the almost undisputed leader in all sedition. 

Immediately preceding it, on p. 229, we give some of those promised transcripts 
from State- Papers, mentioned on p. 650 of our Vol. IV., which help to instruct 
us in the knowledge of the great cobweb which was catching so many small flies. 
Anticipating its own proper place (which is after the discovery of the Rye-House 
Plot), we give on p. 250 " London's Lamentation for the Loss of the City Charter." 

The Jenkins of our p. 230 is not Sir Leoline, but a fanatic minister, William, who 
with Dr. Owen was proceeded against on the Five Mile Act, in December 1681 ; 
with Dr. Doolittle was carried to prison in October, 1684, and died in Newgate 
on the following January 29th. " From Jenkins's Homilies drawn through the 
nose," is one of the clauses in "A Loyal Litany from Geneva," 168t\, demanding 
the emphatic Libera uos, Bomine ! (See p. 197, where it is given complete.) 



227 



C6e lopal ^fteriffs of LontJon anti ^innicser, 

upon tfjefr (Election. 
To the Tune of, Noio at last the Riddle is expounded. 

NOw at last the Matter is decided, 
Which so long the Nation has divided, 
Misguided 
By Interest and blind Zeal, 
Which so well in Forty-Four they acted ; 

Now with greater heat 
They again act o're, like Men distracted, 
To give to Monarchy a new Defeat. ' 8 

Famous North, of noble Birth and Breeding, rgjr Dudley N. 
And in Loyal Principles exceeding, 
Is pleading 

To stand his Countrey's Friend, 
To do justice to the King and Nation, 

Some so much oppose, 
To renew the work of Reformation, 
And carry on again the Good Old Cause. 16 

Next, renowned Box, as high commended, [sir Ralph b. 

A nd of Loyal Parentage descended, 
Intended 

To do the City right, 
With true Courage, and firm Resolution, 

He the Hall adorns ; 
But the Heads were all in great Confusion, 
Such din there was and rattling with their Horns. 24 

' ' Prick up ears, and push for one another, 
Let not Box (an old Malignant), Brother, 
Nor t' other, 

Our Properties command. 
He's a King's-man, North is nothing better,^- lect - Malignant. 

They walk hand in hand : 
He, you know, is the Lord-Mayor's Creature, 
And therefore 'tis not fit that they should stand. 32 

" Where are now our Liberties and Freedom? 
Where shall we find friends when we sho'd need 'em, 
To bleed 'em, 

And pull the Tories down ? 
To push for our Int'rcst, who can blame us ? 

Sheriffs rule the Town. 
When we lose our darling IGNORAMUS, 
We lose the Combat, and the day 's their own. 40 



228 Loyal Sheriffs of London and Middlesex. 

"Then let every man stand by his Brother, 
Poll o're ten times, Poll for one another ; 
What a Pother 

You see the Tories make ; 
Now or never, now to save your Charter, 

Or your hearts will ake ; 
If it goes for them, expect no Quarter : 
If Law and Justice rule, our heels must shake. 48 

" Rout, a rout ! joyn 'Prentice, Boor, and Peasant! 
Let the White-hall party call it Treason, 
'Tis but reason 

"We should our Necks defend. 
Routs and riots, tumults and sedition, 

Poll 'em o're again, 
These do best agree with our condition : 
If Monarchi/ prevail, we're all lost men. 56 

" The Lord Mayor is Loyal in his Station, [sir John Moore. 
'Las, what will become o' the Reformation 
0' th' Nation, 

If the Sheriffs be Loyal too ? 
"Wrangle, brangle, huff, and keep a clatter ; 

If we lose the Field, 
Poll 'em o're again, it makes no matter : 
For tho' we lose the day, we scorn to yield. 64 

" Ten for Pox, and twenty for Papillion, [Thomas r. 

North a thousand, and Dubois a million : [John Dubois. 

What Villain 

Our Interest dare oppose ? " — 
With those noble Patriots thus they sided, 

To uphold the Cause ; 
But the good Lord Mayor the Case decided : 
And once again two Loyal Worthies chose. 72 

Noble North and famous Pox promoted, 
By due course and legal Choice allotted, 
They Voted 

To be the City Shrieves, 
And may they both to London's Commendation 

Her Ancient Rights restore, 
To do that Justice to the King and Nation 
Which former Factions have deny'd before. 80 

London, Printed for N. Thompson, 1682. 

[White-letter Broadside. No woodcut. Date, July or September, 1682.] 



Some of the ways in which enemies worked. 229 

£ Note on Secret EnteIHgmce. (See p. 229.) 

From the veritable "Information" and secret intelligence that 
had been sent to Sir Lionel Jenkins (preserved among the State 
Papers, whence we copy them direct), a few specimens may serve 
to show into what a state of disquieted suspicion the country was 
fallen, thanks to the Shaftesbury policy exciting terrors of Popery 
and encouraging treacherous betrayals of neighbours or employers. 
His own adherents were now meeting retributive reprisals. Two 
are from records dated a few days after the Oxford Parliament was 
dissolved. One S.C. writes from Chichester, April 1st, 1681 : — 

There is a bold impudent young fellow in this City, his name is James Landor, 
who dares speak evill of dignities, both here and throught this county, where he 
is made an Emissarie to do that mischief . . . When the news came to Chichester 
that y e King had dissolved the Parliament, he came into a public house and 
boldly uttered these words, ' ' What, has the King dissolved the parliament ? 
Then lett all of us that voted for them goe our selves in person to Oxford to 
make good what wee have done : " or words to that purpose, and it is doubted by 
good men that if he be left at large, he may be sent abroad the second time to doe 
more mischief in the present juncture of affaires. — (State Papers, Domestic, 
Car. II., No. I. 8.) 

Endorsed " Advice, 13 Apr. 1681." — To the Rt. Honhle. Sir Leoline Jenkins, 
Knt., his Maies Principal Secretary of State at Whitehall : 

Dodiington, April 11, 1681. Rt. Honble. There is one Laurence Morris 
comitted to Ely Goal [sic] by Sr. Lio : Walden for dispersing seditious pamphlets, 
and particularly a h;ilf sheet entituled Vox Pqpuli, Vox P>ei, of which he had 
1400, and has dispersed y e greatest part of them. He saith that he had them 
from one Brooksby a Bookseller, who may be easily found out. . . . Etcetera. 
(Signed) N. 

Joshua Bowes of St. Andrew's Hollburn, in deposition 11th day of Nov., 1682, 
makes oath that Elkanah Settle gave him the Libell entitled ' Macs Triumph ' 
in imitation of The King of Poland's Last Will and Testament. The first line of 
the said Libell beginning thus : — 

My Game is won, then Patrick, tell me why. 
And the last line ends thus : — 

Then let my praise be tun'd to Roger's fidle. 
Settle affirmed himself the author of Mac s Triumph, also of The Character of a 
Popish Successor, and of Absalom Senior ; and that Speaker Williams sent five 
guineas to Settle for having written half a dozen lines in his favour in Absalom 
Senior.— {State Paper Office, Ibid., No. 343.) 

This gives important evidence, not merely of the wretched 
poetaster, hack pamphleteer, and double Turn-coat " True Blue 
Protestant Poet " Elkanah Settle (who became Romanist after the 
accession of James II., and "True Blue Protestant" again when 
Butch William stept into supremacy) ; but establishes incontro- 
vertibly the fact that the bitter satire on Shaftesbury, entitled The 
Last Will and Testament of Anthony King of Poland, was not a 
fiendish howl of exultation over the dead exile, but was a more 
excusable jest, anticipative of his decease and issued at the time of 
his fall from power, while he had still two months to live. It was 
a merry rehearsal of the dispersal of his effects (including his ears, 
his venomed teeth, his clothes, and his bowels) : written to lampoon 



230 " Shaftesbury's Last Will" issued in his life-time. 

his projected Association, by exemplifying the worthlessness of his 
chosen companions, Monmouth, Armstrong, Howard, Grey of Werk, 
Titus Oates, Richard Baxter, and the hireling scribbler Harry Care, 
who became a Romanist, and died not long after. It begins, 

My Tap is run, then Baxter tell me why 
Should not the good, the great Potapski dye ? 
Grim Death, who lays us all upon our hacks, 
Instead of Scythe doth now advance his Axe : 
And I, who all my life in broils have spent, 
Intend at last to make a Settlement. 

Imprimis, for my Soul (though I had thought 
To 've left that thing, I never minded, out), 
Some do advise, for fear of doing wrong, 
To give it Mm, to whom it doth belong. 
But I, Avho all Mankind have cheated, now 
1 ntend likewise to cheat the Devil too : 
Therefore I leave my Soul unto my Son, 
For he (as wise men think) as yet has none. 1 Anthony, 2nd Earl. 

Then for my Polish Crown, that pretty thing, 
Let Mon[mo/ith] take 't, who longs to be a King! 
His empty Head soft Nature did design 
For such a light and airy Crown as mine. 

With my Estate, I'll tell you how it stands : 
Jack Ketch shou'd have my Clothes, the King my Lands. 

Item. I leave the p^uuxcp Association 
To all the wise disturbers of the Nation. 
Not that I think they'l gain their ends thereby, 
But that they may be hang'd as well as I ... . 

But first to Titus let my Ears be thrown, [T. Gates. 

For he, 'tis thought, will shortly lose his own. 

I leave old Baxter my invenom'd Teeth, [Richard B. 

To bite and poison all the Bishops with .... 

Let Jenkins in a Tub my worth declare, [Wra., see p. 226. 

And let my Life be writ by Harry Care. Etcetera. 

1 W. D. Christie, who was quite incapable of relishing a joke, discharged some 
of his bile against Dryden for having mentioned Shaftesbury's heir as "that 
unfeathered two-legged thing, his son." Plato's man had not entered into his field 
of vision. Did the poor creature never once get outside of his dull coterie, into 
any feast of reason and flow of soul, where a witticism was welcome ? Was he the 
descendant of a race of irrisible " Elect" Presbyterians, to whom Lyndsay, Dunbar, 
Allan Ramsay, Burns, Scott, Gait, Aird, Christopher North, and the immortal 
creator of " Bon Gualtier," " Firmillian," and "The Glenmutchkin Railway," 
were strictly prohibited, " banned and barred, forbidden fare " ? One is puzzled 
to conceive of such a person's childhood. Play he could not, and it must have 
been difficult to be always picking and stealing, gormandizing and tale-bearing. 
To keep such an individual outside of Gartnavel, Morningside Asylum, or the 
Crichton Institute may have been somewhat meritorious in his countrymen, 
but was scarcely fair to us Englishmen, since it permitted him to insult 
"Glorious John" Dryden, by pretending to "edit" his works, without 
having the slightest comprehension of his genius, sympathy with his nature, or 
knowledge of his life and times. This is "what no fellow can understand," 
except the Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus, who follows no general rule. 



231 



Dagon's jFall, 1682, 



" Old Tony's fled, from Justice gone, and all his Shamming Plots are done ; 
The Plague is ceas'd and gone away, then let us make a Holy-day. 

And to great Charles, our gracious King, in joyful consorts let us sing. 

" To Amsterdam the Traytor's fled, to save his false designing Head, 
Thither the Holy Brethren crowd : a murrain scatter all the Brood ! 

lhat to great Charles, our gracious King, in joyful consorts we may sing. 

** At Hague they keep their Rendezvou, like Crows this Carrion they pursue, 
Waller and Willmore, all the crew, with Starkey, Smith, the chase pursue : 
Whilst to great Charles, our gracious King, we'll in a joyful consort sing. 

" But now the Wolf is gone astray, the harmless Sheep may sport and play ; 
"When Traylors dare not shew their face, then Honest men shall come in place ; 
Who to great Charles, our gracious King, will in a joyful consort sing." 

— A New Year's Gift to the Templars. 168f. L 



T 



HE flight of Shaftesbury marked the turning-point of a great 
Struggle. It was an absolute acknowledgement of defeat ; not only 
because the forces of the Court were at last found to be too strong 
for his resistance, but also because he saw that the divisions and 
incongruities of his own Camp certainly presaged approaching ruin. 
He, the Machiavellian Plotter, was accused of rashness. His advice 
was now disregarded, and he was over-ruled in council by the 
temporizing of the self-conceited half-duped Russell, the incurable 
frivolity of Monmouth, the secret treachery of Grey, and the 
cowardly procrastination of John Trenchard. Therefore, foreseeing 
the inevitable collapse of all that he had intrigued and plotted to 
secure, he avoided the impending fate of any glorious martyrdom, 
and selfishly sought his own safety by flight to Holland. He fled, 
moreover, in such chagrin and disgust as acted on his already en- 
feebled frame, and speedily brought death to him in his place of 
exile : to the relief of the Dutch statesmen and burghers, who began 
to fear lest they might be troubled on his account, and liked not his 
fellow-outlaws. 

So far as we have evidence, and there must be much more re- 
maining for study in the State archives of Holland, or in private 
families of Amsterdam, Shaftesbury was not in close intercourse 

1 This loyal outburst was written in honour of Sir Edmund Saunders being 
sworn in as Lord Chief-Justice of England, 23rd January 168f : a great blow to 
the Whigs. The "New Year's Gift" was sung to the tune of Tom D'Urfey's 
" Joy to the Bridegroom fill the Sky ! " a song of 1682 : not Thomas Randolph's 
"Joy to the Bridegroom and the Bride ! " which was much earlier, circa 1633. 
The refugees named above are annotated on other pages, Sir William Waller, 
John Wilmore, John Starkey, and Aaron Smith : see pp 236, 79, 238, etc. 
"The Wolf" is one of Shaftesbury's many titles, others being Tapski, Potapski, 
King of Poland, Three-Names, The Cooper, Jehu, Achitophel, Little Machiavel, 
Bejanus, Dagon, the Badger, the Eox, and the favourite 'Tony. John Starkey, 
bookseller, had in 1682 reprinted Bacon's Government of England; having betn 
complained of, he absconded. See, more fully, the quotation on p. 236. 



232 Shaftesbury seeking refuge in Amsterdam. 

with, the chief citizens. He had fallen into a disreputable coterie 
of Brownist sectaries. Those last weeks of his life were spent 
miserably, with petty annoyances, petty companionships, petty 
intrigues. No wonder is it that he rapidly fell away, and died 
within two months after his arrival in Holland. 1 

Like the obnoxious busybody Sir William Waller, and the " pesti- 
lent Scot " Robert Ferguson (the Arod and Judas of Dryden's and 
Nahum Tate's Absalom and Achitopliel), he had been made a citizen, 
on his own petition. It was not an unsolicited honour, if honour 
it can be reckoned. That he was forced to crave such protection 
against demands for his extradition from the States which he had 
once officially denounced, ten years before, in the words Delenda est 
Carthago ! may have added little to his mortification. But it is 
none the less impressive as an instance of historical retribution. 

"World, thy slippery turns ! Friends now fast sworn, 
"Whose double bosoms seem to wear one heart, 
"Whose hours, whose bed, whose meal, and exercise, 
Are still together, who twin as 'twere in love 
Unseparable, shall within this hour. 
On the dissension of a doit, break out 
To bitterest enmity : so, fellest foes, 
"Whose passions and whose plots have broke their sleep 
To take the one the other, by some chance, 
Some trick not worth an egg, shall grow dear friends 
And interjoin their issues. 

But neither in the case of Coriolanus, nor in that of Shaftesbury, 
did the morning's reflection justify the evening's amusement of 
reconciliation. It is safer to keep constant to our friendships and 
also to our antagonisms. Wise men always do. Of course, when they 
have shot their foes, they can afford to love them ; but not before. 

On arrival at Amsterdam, Shaftesbury had lodged for a week in 
Wann Street, at an inn ostentatiously called the Bible, and he died 
at the house of a broken Coffee-man, one Keck, a Brownist elder. 
Robert Ferguson delivered his interminable harangues at the 
Brownist meeting-house, and must have been a noisy companion : 
but Shaftesbury left him forty pounds in the will which he made 
four days before death closed the weary struggle. The end came 
on Sunday forenoon, the 21st of January, 168f. 

Massal, an Italian spy and self-elected correspondent of Archbishop 
Sancroft, reported Shaftesbury's movements. His papers are 
preserved in the Record Office. His affectation of piety sits ill on 
him, he being an unscrupulous adventurer, who offered to assassinate 

1 He had left Thanet House, Aldersgate Street, at Michaelmas, 1682, and lurked 
in obscure places, chiefly in his favourite Wapping, sending messages to his 
fellow-plotters, till their procrastination made him despair. He left England so 
late as November 28th, and sailed from Harwich. A list of his associates is 
on pp. 236 and 237, while p. 240 gives satirically the Last Association of all. 



Shaftesbury's death, in exile and ruin. 233 

William Waller, " for the good of man and glory of God." But he 
thought that a sanctimonious phrase would be acceptable when 
writing to a Prelate : even to so blameless a man as Sancroft, who 
had protected him in London, having known him as a Turin pervert 
from llomanism. Massal wrote : " The pride of man comes sooner 
or later to be punished by Divine Justice. [Which no body can 
deny.] The Earl was confined to his bed very ill since the first 
days of his fatal arrival in this city ; the Gout, to which he was 
constitutionally subject, having seized him in the stomach ; and 
being attended by so much grief, which his intrigues, so pernicious 
for all England, caused him. In fine, all natural causes, assisted by 
God's providence, made him pay the tribute to Nature, in spite of 
himself and his extraordinary ambition." 

It was a worse than untended death-bed, for the presence of the 
secret traitor Ferguson, and the illiterate illiberal rabble of a 
Brownist conventicle must have made death itself a pleasant 
exchange. Macaulay writes of it : — " Shaftesbury, indeed, had 
escaped the fate which his manifold perfidy had well deserved." 
But we are by no means inclined to tolerate any exultation over the 
death in exile, defeat, and humiliation of the one man who had 
hitherto for many long years displayed unconquerable courage, 
inexhaustible resources, cheerfulness, far-reaching vision, and self- 
reliance. Surely in him was combined a large proportion of the 
qualities that not only lead a hero to distinction, but, if wisely 
directed, confer lasting benefit on mankind. This wise direction 
was generally lacking. To a far greater degree than that deep 
thinker, Burke, of whom the words were long afterwards written, 
Shaftesbury "to party gave up what was meant for mankind," 
and reaped the punishment. All the powers that wait on man 
seem to have conspired at his birth to bestow their separate gifts 
upon him. But the one best gift of all had been withheld: the 
knowledge how to turn the others to account, in purity, in honesty, 
in faithfulness and love. In the course of these pages we have not 
scrupled to dissent from his views and rebuke his actions. Unseen 
or manifest he had been the wire-puller, the Deus ex Machind of 
every intrigue and wickedness, either in original wrong-doing or in 
the evil which came as reprisal and consequence. But while we 
remember the paltry tricksters that remained, when he, who had 
guided them, had gone away to die like a poisoned rat in the land 
he had long hated, we cannot help revering his better qualities, his 
intellect, courage, and ambition. Instead of adding a fliiit-stone to 
his cairn, we lay our humble tribute on his grave. 



234 



tDagon's jfall 

[Being a 3Logal Song of Exultation oner j&fjaftrgburg'g JItgljt.] 

To the Tune of, Philander. [See Vol. IV. p. 38.] 




AH, cruel bloody Fate ! What can'st thou now do more ? 
Alas ! 'tis now too late, poor Tony to restore : 
Why should the flattering Fates persuade 
That Tony still should live, 
In England here, or in Holland there, 

Yet all our hopes deceive ? 6 

A noble Peer he was, and of notorious Fame ; 
But now he 's gone (alas !) a Pilgrim o'er the Main : 
The Prop and Pillar of our hope, 
The Patron of our Cause, 
The Scorn and Hate of Church and State, 

The Urchin of the Laws. [Urchin=hedgehog. 12 

Of matchless Policy was this Renowned Peer, 
The bane of Monarchy, the People's hope and fear ; ■ 
The Joy of all true Protestants, 

The Tories' 1 Scorn and Dread : 
But now he 's gone, who curst the Throne, 
Alas ! poor Tony 's fled ! 

For Commonwealth he stood, pretending Liberty ; 
And for the Publick Good would pull down Monarchy ; 
The Church and State he would divorce, 
The Holy Cause to Wed : 
And in time did hope to confound the Pope, 

To be himself the Head. 21 



18 



Dagoit's Fall : in Exultation over Shaftesbury. 235 

A Tap in 's side he bore, to broach all sorts of 111, 
For which Seditious Store the Croud ador'd him still : 
He spit his venom through the Town ; 
With which the Saints, possest, 
Would Preach and Prate 'gainst Church and State, 
"While he perform' d the rest. 30 

When any change of State or Mischief was at hand, 
He had a working Pate, and Devil at command ; 
He forg'd a Plot, for which the heads 
Of Faction gave their Votes : 
But now the Jflot is gone to Pot, 

What will become of Oates ? 36 

Under the fair pretence of Right, Religion, Law, 
Excluding the true Prince, the Church h' would overthrow : 
With such religious Shams he brought 
The Eabble on his side, 
And for his sport, the Town and Court 

In parties woidd divide. 42 

Now, what 's become of all his squinting Policy ? 
Which wrought your DagorCs Fall, from Justice fore'd to flie. 
Old and decrepid, full of pains, 
As he of Guilt was full, 
He fell to Fate, and now (too late) 

He leaves us to condole. 48 

Now, learn, ye Whigs ! in time, by his deserved fall, 
To expiate his Crime, e're Fate revenge you all ; 
For Rights, Religion, Liberty, 

Are but the sham pretence 
To Anarchy : but Loyalty 

Obeys the Lawful Prince. 54 

FINIS. 

[In White-letter. Printed for Nat. Thompson. No woodcut, but we add a 
rough old cut which was intended to represent Anthony Ashley Cooper, first Earl 
of Shaftesbury, the ' Tony of this ballad. Date, December, 1682, before his death.] 

%* A quite distinct composition, April, 1680 (in the Editor's private collection), 
is Logon's Fall : or, Sir William Waller Turned out of Commission. It begins, 

Good God ! what means this sudden alteration ? 

The Fop that has so long disturb' d the Nation, 

By 's pride and pomp and power, is now turn'd out, 

And hardly pity'd by the silly Rout. 

He was as stout and lofty as old Hector, 

Usurp'd the power of our puiuup Protector, 

As fierce and cruel as a Tyger's whelp. 

He wanted neither strength, nor art, nor help 

To do and undo ; he was grown so great 

That the Creation was amaz'd to see 't. 

He had his Coach and Horses, Footmen too, 

And into the City rode, to make a shew ; 

But little thought, when drawn by Whitaker, [Edw., see p. 79. 

His fatal downfall it had beeu so near. Etcetera. 

There followed, An Answer to Logon s Fall ; or, The Knight turn'd out of 
Commission : being a Vindication of Sir W[illia?n] Jf'[aller]. It begins thus, ' 



236 Sir William Waller, factions Son of rebel Father. 

He that lately writ the Fall of Lagon 

Is a rigid Papist or a Pagan. 

But over-ruling Providence, that must 

With humane projects play, as Wind with Dust, 

From whose all-seeing Eye no clandestine 

Plots or Conspiracies to undermine 

Prince, Church, or State, there 's none so well can hide, etc. 

No printer's name or date mentioned, but April 1680. There was a thud 
pamphlet bearing the same title, Bagon's Fall, or the Charm Broke. It is a 
single sheet printed on both sides, in prose, commencing thus : " So now things 
begin," etc. London: Printed for John Smith, 1681. 

Sir William Waller has often been mentioned in these pages, but merely 
incidentally. He comes not prominently into the foreground, but deserves the 
hearty contempt he excited among bis political antagonists. He preceded 
Shaftesbury in his flight to Holland. His peculations, malignity, and hypocrisy 
were well known, but he was a useful man to do dirty work, and took care to 
enrich himself during its performance. We endorse the character of him given 
by the spy Massal, a few days after the Earl's death, although the cool offer to 
arrange for Waller's assassination is atrocious, of course, but a noteworthy 
incident of the time : — " If it is necessary to get rid of the Knight, inasmuch as 
he is a perpetual firebrand, I know very well the most infallible means of doing 
it, which I will put in execution when it is wished, and there will be opportunity 
of putting the wife to bed without making her cry, as is said in the proverb ; . 
for he is very debauched in wine and women. I know him too well not to know 
his hypocrisy and natural malignity ; and this is why I should think I did 
nothing wrong in contributing to the death of a man who desires to ruin a 
kingdom." This benevolent offer was declined, let it be written to the credit of 
government : Waller was left to his natural death in 1699, but was not hanged. 

Of Sir William Waller and the other refugees in Amsterdam, when Shaftesbury 
arrived, the following account is from our private Collection at Molash : — 

"His Lordship found but very cold entertainment there, for the Delenda est 
Carthago, which was by publick Order of the States General entred upon their 
Books of Journals, came fresh into their memories, so that he was neither Com- 
plemented upon his arrival, nor any notice taken of him by either the Magistrates 
or Ministers of the Establisht Church there ; nor indeed by any other sort of 
people than a few pitiful Brownists, the despised Dissenters of Holland, such 
persons being his companions as had either fled from Justice like himself, or were 
the sons of Traitors, and persons disaffected to the Person of his Majesty and his 
Government, such as Mr. [Richard^ Cromwel, Mr. Phelps, Mr. Venner, Mr. 
Medtay, Alderman Freeman, Israel Hayes, Hayes's, Son, Thomas Garret and John 
Slarkey, who, for printing divers seditious and treasonable Pamphlets, was forced 
to leave the Mitre, and hang upon his Lordship for subsistence, but gave him little 
Reputation among the sober and discerning Protestants of that countrey, as will 
appear by a letter from thence to a worthy Citizen of London, and a Speech 
made to the Lords the Biirge-masleisby the late English Consul [on his departure, 
to be succeeded by Henry Bull, Merchant], which I here present the Reader 
with." — Memoirs of the Life of Anthony, late Earl of Shaftsbury ; tcith a Speech 
of the English Consul at Amsterdam concerning him, and a Letter from a Burger 
there about his [Shaftesbury's] Heath. London, Printed for Walter Davis. 168§. 

The Dutch burger's Letter, printed and mentioned, is in answer to one con- 
cerning the Earl of Shaftesbury, Sir William Waller, and Mr. Robert Ferguson. 
It relates the satisfaction felt at the Earl's death, as it relieved Holland from 
being compromised, and the hopes that it would " disperse the small inconsider- 
able Party he had with him in our City. When his Lordship first came to 
Amsterdam, his Agents Mr. Ferguson, Mr. Israel Hages and others, endeavoured 



Contemporary list of Shaftesbury's last associates. 237 

to perswade us that there were several Noblemen, and above two hundred Eich 
Merchants of London that all designed to quit England, and, if possible, get 
themselves made Burgers of our City ; all which proves very false, for I find 
that these great numbers of Rich Noblemen and Merchants are sum'd up in a 
Bankrupt Knight [Sir William Waller'], a scandalous Scotch Independent Parson 
[Robert Ferguson], formerly Teacher of the Eroivnist-Chmch in Amsterdam, and 
about two or three miserable poor Printers and Booksellers [John Starkey, for 
oue], who, now the Earl is dead, must either live upon the Poors-Box of the 
Brownist Church, or else, with Ropes about their necks, beg their Pardons of 
the mercifullest of Princes. And here give me leave to remark something you 
mention in yours to me, and that was where you say, that certainly the turbulent 
restless soul of the Lord Shaftesbury could not long subsist and live amongst such a 
Rascality of People as his Lordship had to converse with ; the which I understand 
was one great cause that hastened his Death : for I am informed, that when he 
found that the Magistrates and Ministers of Amsterdam did not visit and court 
him, as was promised his Lordship by the English Phanaticks at Amsterdam, 
especially being refused to be made an Upper Burger, as they term it here, and 
his Lordship receiving rather a discouragement from the Magistrates than other- 
wise, I say this was it which seemed to shorten his days, and so he died miserably 
in a Broken Coffee-man's House [by name Abraham Keck], one of the Elders 
of the Broivnists' Church." 



^ftaftestap's jTarctoell. 

" No sooner was my Soul discharg'd of Clay, 
But up it sprang, and pinion'd quick its way ; 
I pass'd the Orbs with wonder and delight, 
And wa' n't took notice of all my flight ; 
At last, on Heaven's Battlements I stay'd, 
And all that bright Imperiau round survey'd ; 
Observ'd how the Primum Mobile did fly 
Ten thousand times more swifter than the eye : 
The vast Expanse did all with Glory shine, 
A Gate of Pearl did on my right hand stand, 
And Peter (as I guess, by th' Keys in 's hand) 
Who ope'd the door, and all pure Souls receiv'd : 
I thought to enter too, but was deceiv'd." 

— A Congratulation of the Protestant Joyncr. 168$. 



I 



N " Dagon's Fall" we had a Loyal Song of Exultation over 
Shaftesbury's Flight. In the following Loyal Poem we have a not 
ungenerous Elegie upon his death, from one of those who had been 
his political foes. There is more heart in it than will be found 
among the affected eulogiums and rhapsodies that came from the 
purchased hirelings, bidden to praise him when the extent of loss to 
the factious sectaries and conspirators began to be appreciated. 

Charles II. felt no personal animosity against Shaftesbury, and 
did not permit any interruption of the funeral rites or honours paid 
to the corpse on its return to Wimborne St. Giles. Charles I. had 
acted less generously against Sir John Eliot's remains, in November, 
1632: unjustifiably, except on the plea of timid policy, knowing 
that Pym would have worked mischief by some seditious display. 



238 Satirical Poems on Shaftesbury's Farewell. 

It was gratifying to ascertain (as shown on p. 229) that 

1.— "The Last Will and Testament of Anthony King of Poland" 
was not a heartless rejoicing after his death, but a merry antici- 
pation of it as a possibility. It begins, " My Tap is run." We 
give extracts from it on p. 230, and here mention other poems. 

2. — " Sejanus ; or, the Popular Favourite in his Solitude and 
Sufferings," belongs to the few weeks in Holland before his 
death. It begins, " Is this thy glory now ? is this thy Pride ?" 

3. — " Tony's Soliloquies," thus beginning, " When the Plot I first 
invented," is of earlier date, but after the Ignoramus trial. 

4. — "The Case is altered Now; or, the Conversion of Anthony, 
King of Poland; publish'd for Satisfaction of the Sanctify'd 
Brethren." Begins, " Ev'n as a Lyon, with his Paws uprear'd." 

5. — "The King of Poland's Last Speech to his Coun trey- men," 
beginning " I know, you hop'd all once to be." 

6. — "The Politician's Downfall; or, Potapslci's Arrival in the 
Netherlands, and the Congratulation of the Protestant Joyner at 
their Meeting." Begins, "Is Tapski dead? Why then the 
States-men ly'd." 

7. — "A Congratulation of the Protestant Joyner to Anthony King 
of Poland, upon his Arrival in the Lower World." Begins, 
" Welcome, my Lord, unto these Stygian Plains." (See our 
motto, on p. 237, extracted from this poem.) 

8. — "The King of Poland's Ghost; or, A Dialogue between Pluto 
and Charon, upon his Reception." Begins "Hold! Stygian 
sculler." 

9. — "A Codicil to the former Will, added in Holland where he 
dyed." It begins, "Mourn, England, mourn! Let not thy 
griefs be feign' d." 

There are also some few Epitaphs and Elegies, which need 
detain no reader long. One is entitled, 

10. — " An Essay on the Earl of Shaftesbury's Death : " beginning, 
"Whenever Tyrants fall, the air and other elements prepare." 

Far superior to these is No. 11. — The poem in which we here 
take leave of one who is closely connected with the events of Charles 
the Second's reign ; especially with those in which he did not 
always choose to show himself as director. It has the vigour of 
John Oldham the satirist, towards his closing days, and forms an 
appropriate Farewell to Shaftesbury. 

— ^K^^SE^r^H — ■ 



239 

[Trowbesh Collection, V. 70, and 121.] 

SfyafttsWxfs jfaretoeil ; 

©r, 

CSe Scto association, 

GReatest of Men, yet Man's least Friend, farewell ! 
Wit's mightiest but most useless Miracle ; 
Where Nature in her richest treasures stor'd, [ = wherein. 

To make one vast unprofitable Hoard ; 
So high as thine no Orb of Fire can rowl, 
The brightest, yet the most excentrick Soul : 
Whom, 'midst Wealth, Honours, Fame, yet want of ease, 
No Power could e'er oblige, no State could please ; 
Be in thy grave with peaceful slumbers blest, 
And find thy whole Life's only Stranger, Rest. 10 

Oh, Shaftesbury ! had thy prodigious Mind 
Been to thy self and thy great Master kind, 
Glory had wanted lungs thy Trump to blow, 
And Pyramids had been a Tomb too low. 
Oh, that the world, Great States-man, e'er should see 
Nebuchadnezzar' 's Dream fulfill' d in thee ! 
Whilst such low paths led thy great Soul astray, 
Thy Head of Gold mov'd but on Feet of Clay. 
Yes, from Bebellion's late Inhumane Rage, 
The crimes and chaos of that monstrous Age, 20 

As the old Patriarch from Sodom flew, 

So to great CHARLES' 's sacred Bosom thou ; [iggo 

But Oh ! with more than Lot's Wife's fatal fault, 
For which she stood in Monumental Salt, 
Though the black scene thy hasting foot-step flies, 
Thy Soul turns back, and looks with longing eyes. 

Ah ! Noble Peer, that the records of Fame 
Should give Erostratus and Thee one name ; [See p. 246. 

Great was his bold achievement, greater thine, 
Greater, as Kings than Shrines are more divine ; 30 

Greater, as vaster Toils it did require 
T' inflame Three Kingdoms, than one Temple fire. 

But where are all those blust'ring Storms retir'd, 
That roar'd so loud when Oliver expir'd ? — 
Storms that rent Oaks, and Bocks asunder broke, 
And at his Exequies in thunder spoke. 
Was there less cause, when Thy last Doom was giv'n, 
To waken all the ltevcllers of Heaven ? 
Or did there want in Belgians humble Soil 
A Cedar fit to fall thy Funeral Pile ? 



240 Shaftesbury's Farewell : the New Association. 

No ; Die ! and Heav'n th' expense of Thunder save, 

Hush'd as thy own Designs, down to thy Grave. 

So hush'd may all the Portents of the Skie 

With thee, our last great Comet's influence, die. 

May this one stroke our low'ring Tempests clear, 

And all the Fiery Triyon finish here. 

"With thee expire our Democratick gall ; 

Thy sepulchre and Lethe swallow all : 

Here end the poyson of that viperous brood, 

And make thy Urn like Hoses' wondrous Rod ; 50 

So may our Breaches close in thy one Grave, 

Till Shaftesbury' '* last breath Three Nations save : 

And dying thus, t' avert his Country's Doom, 

Go with more Fame than Curtius to his Tomb. 

But is he dead ? How ! cruel Belyia, say ! 
Lodg'd in thy arms, yet make so short a stay. 
Ungrateful Country ! Barbarous Holland shore ! 
Cou'd the Batavian climate do no more, 
Her Shaftesbury'' 's dear life no longer save ? 
What ! a Republick Air, and yet so quick a grave ! 60 

Oh ! all ye scatter'd Sons of Titan weep, 
This dismal day with solemn mournings keep ; 
Like IsraeVs Molten Calf your Medals burn, 
And into tears your great Latemur turn ; | See p. 77. 

Oh! wail in dust, to think how Fate's dire frown 
Has thrown your dear Herculean Column down. 

Oh, Charon ! waft thy Load of Honour o'er, 
And land Him safely on the Stygian shore. 
At his approach, Fame's loudest Trumpet call 
Cromwell, Cook, Ireton, Bradshaw, Heivson, all ; 70 

From all the Courts below, each well pleas'd Ghost, 
All the Republick Leyions 1 numerous Host, 
Swarm thick, to see your mighty Heroe land, 
Crowd up the shoar, and blacken all the strand ; 
And, whate're Chance on Earth, or Powers accurst, 
Broke all your Bonds, your Holy League all burst, 
This Union of the Saints no Storm shall sever : 
This Last ASSOCIATION holds for ever. 

[In "White-letter. No woodcut. Date, January, 168|. In line 67, our second 
copy reads " Mischief " for " Honour."] 



241 



a^onmout&'s Cfmnce.s after ^>&ateburp'0 Dcatfj* 

' ' But hold ! what makes the gaping Many run ? 
Is France defeated, or is Rome undone ? 
Is Portsmouth Nun, or Kate a Mother grown ? 
Will conscientious Corny n swear for none? 
Have Poets quite forgot to smooth and glose, 
And lead admiring Cullies by the nose ? 
Have we a War with Monsieur, Peace with Spain ? 
Or, have we got a Parliament again ? 
All in good time, when Heav'n and Charles shall please : 
But 'tis a Wonder greater far than these." 

— Midsummer-Moon; or, The Livery Man 1 s Complaint. 1682. 



a 



AD the Earl of Shaftesbury's death taken place two months 
earlier, the excitement in England would have been enormous, 
the eulogies and the exultations alike unmeasured. At the date 
when he breathed his last, half forgotten at Amsterdam (January 
21, 168|), had he been in his native land, imprisoned, or sacrificed 
on the scaffold (which was a most unlikely event), the outciy would 
then have been great, beyond all comparison, and the national 
remembrance of him might have refused to weigh his errors. 
But he had fallen out of favour, "the fickle reek of popular 
renown," the proverbial ingratitude of commonwealths, and the 
fate of demagogues who have lost the ability to sway the rabble, 
were all to be exemplified in his downfall. His flight left many 
discontented. Achitophel had gone home and hanged himself. 

We cannot excuse those adherents who had formerly been so loud 
in proffering their lives, their services, or their coffers, to enable 
him to overturn the government and bring back a triumph of the 
Good Old Cause, for the heartless neglect they showed in his last 
days, the lukewarmness of their affection or grief when news of his 
decease reached England. Scarcely any emotion seems to have 
been felt or expressed. They did not understand that their sole 
leader was overthrown, and their present purposes were hopeless. 
A bare mention of the event is all that Narcissus Luttrell thought 
due : "Letters from Holland inform, that Anthony Earl of Shaft&bury 
died at Amsterdam, to which place he retired since he left England, 
and made himself a burgher of that city." Again, under 19th 
February, "Letters inform, that the body of the late Karl of 
Shaftshtnj is arrived in Dorsetshire, in order to its interment at 
Wimborne St. Gyles."— (A Brief Relation, i. 247, 250.) 

There were factious riots and squabbles continually fomented by 
the disaffected of Monmouth's party in the City, involving several 
arrests, trials, fines and imprisonments ; nearly always the loss 
falling on those who were opposed to the Court. Sir Patience 
Ward, formerly involved in the Pilkington Scan. Mag. trial (for 

VOL. v. R 



242 The eve of Rye-House Plot discover//. 

damage done to the Duke of York), being found guilty, fled into 
Holland, near the end of May. On the 12th of June the Court of 
King's Bench gave judgement for the King in the case of Quo 
Warranto, " that the liberties and franchises of the said city of 
London be taken into the King's hands." (See ensuing ballad on 
London's Loss of Charter.) A week later it was known that there 
had been discovered " a dangerous and treasonable Conspiracy 
against the person of his Majestie and the Duke of York, by some 
of those called WhigsT Full consideration of which will be given 
in our Third Monmouth- Group, on the Eye- House Plot and its 
consequences. 

These commotions encouraged quiet men to become " Trimmers." 
That is, finding stormy winds adverse to the voyage they hitherto 
intended to make, they now "trimmed their sails," shifted their 
helm, and tried to get into port without shipwreck, acknowledging 
the change of current and of gale. Consequently, Monmouth's 
party suffered sore defection. Halifax was a noted expositor of 
this policy, which, holding somewhat of a pendulum oscillation, was 
never final. The following poem marks the time with sufficient 
accuracy ; before the horror excited by the revelations of the Rye- 
House Plot for assassination and insurrectionary Civil- War had 
turned " moderate men " and " Trimmers " into reactionary Loyal- 
ists. The allusion to Shaftesbury's flight, but not his death, indicates 
the date as being November or December, 1682. 

It may be superfluous to point out that the claim to be an 
Impartial Trimmer" is one of the barefaced frauds which the 
Revolutionary schemers used so freely. The advocacy is evidently 
against the Court, against moderation, against all but Russellite 
Revolutionary Whiggism. Their impartiality was on a par with 
their reciprocity ; both being " all on one side." " Take everything 
greedily, but give nothing generously," was the well-understood 
Rule of Three constituting a popular Tribune, then as now. We 
take the following poem from our private Collection at Molash. 

Note tojinal line of " The Impartial Trimmer" : — 

* # * George Legge, created Baron of Dartmouth on 2nd December, 
1682, had been previously distinguished as a naval commander, as 
governor of Portsmouth, Master of the Horse and Gentleman of the 
Bedchamber to the Duke of York, colonel of a foot regiment and 
lieut.-general of the ordnance, before being raised to the Privy 
Council. To him was committed the demolition of Tangier forts. 
He fell with James II., and died in the Tower of London, 1691. 
To Sir Thomas Armstrong we return hereafter. The description of 
Monmouth is truthful and severe: "his Dancing envy'd, and his 
Dressing prais'd," but too weak for a responsible Leader. 



243 



Ct)e impartial Crtmmer* 

[tfofccm&cr, 1632.] 



S 1 



I Inee there are some that with me see the State 
Of this declining Isle, and mourn its Fate ; 
French Counsellors and sojott^, French Education, 
Have chang'd our natures, and enslav'd our Nation 
There was a time when Barons boldly stood, 
And spent their lives for their dear Country's good. 
Confirm'd our Charter, with a Curse to light 
On those that shou'd destroy that sacred Right, 
Which Pow'r with Freedom can so well unite : 
The hated name of Rebel is not due 1 

To him that is to Law and Justice true. 
Brutus' bold part may justly claim Renown, 
Preferring Right to Friendship and a Crown ; 
For 'twas not Treason then to keep our own. 

But now the Nation with unusual need 
Cries " Help ! where is our bold, our English Breed ? " 
Popery and slavery are just at hand 

And every Patriot is a S\underlan]d. [See^p. 135. 

Shaft sbun/s gone, another Change to try ; 
He hates his Word, yet more the Monarchy. 20 

No Head remains our Loyal Cause to grace, 
0^r" For Monmouth is too weak for that High Place : 
More proper for the Court where he was rais'd, 
His Dancing envy'd, and his Dressing prais'd ; 
Where still such Folly is so well protected, 
Those few that ha' n't it are oblig'd t' affect it : 
For Statesmen, King, and a.toq^, and all have sworn 
T' advance such Wit and Vertue as their own. 
Degenerate Rome and Spain deserve t' outbrave us, 
If Hyde or Halifax can e'er enslave us ; iiienry Jiyde. 

Or he that kneels betwixt his Dogs and ojou;^, [Charles n. 
Rul'd by a woman he can use no more ; [Portsmouth. 

Whispers with Knaves, and jests all day with Fools, 
Is chid to Council like a Boy to School : 
False to Mankind, and true to him alone, [*••■ Tork - 

Whose Treason still attempts his Life and Crown. 

Rouze up and Cry, " No Slavery, no York ! 
And free your King from that devouring Stork ; 
Tho' lull'd with ease and safety he appear, 
And trusts the Reins to him he ought to fear. 40 

"lis Loyalty indeed to keep the Crown 
Upon a Head that would it self dethrone ! 



244 Tom D' Urfey's " London's Loyalty" 

This is the case of our unthinking Prince, 
"Wheedl'd by Knaves, to rule 'gainst common-sense : 
That we provok'd our "Wrongs to justify, 
Might in his Reign his Brother's Title try. 

Live long then, Charles ! secure of those you dread, 
There's not five Whigs that ever wish'd you dead. 
For as old men rarely of Gout complain, 
That Life prolongs, but sooths its wholesom pain : 50 

So we with as small cause (God knows) to boast, 
Bear much with you, rather than with him roast; 
For if a Subject does such Terror bring, l> tm York - 

What mayn't we fear from a revengeful King ? 
Both leud and zealous, stubborn in his Nonsense, 
He'll sacrifice Mankind to ease his Conscience. 

happy Venice ! whose good Laws are such 
"No private crime the Publick Peace can touch ; 
But we most wretched, while two Fools dispute, 
If Leg or Armstrong shall be absolute. t see p- 242 - 



LonuotTg Logattp. 

" You London Lads rejoyce, and cast away your Care, 
Since with one heart and voice Sir John is chosen Mayor ; 
The famous Sir John Moore, Lord Mayor of London Town, 
To your eternal praise shall stand, a subject of renown, 
Amongst your famous Worthies, who have been most esteem' d : 
For Sir John, Sir John your Honour hath redeem'd. 

Sir John lie's for the- King's Bight, which Rebels would destroy . 
Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy ! " 

— D'Urfey's Vive le Roy ; or, London's Joy. 1682. 



w, 



E delay a few ballads of the present date, 1682 ; now removed 
into the next Monmouth Group. Among them are the eight-verse 
"Vive le Roy" whence we borrow our motto; Tom D'Urfey's 
" Tony, a Ballad made occasionally after reading a late speech of a 
Noble Peer" (Shaftesbury : the ballad begins " Let Oliver now be 
forgotten"); and the same author's "Scotch Song, sung at the 
Artillery Feast," given in honour of the Duke of York, when the 
Whig Feast of April 21, 1681, was prohibited. It begins thus, 
" Woons ! what noo is the matter ! gude faith, 'tis wondrous 
strange." They are extremely rare. Also another by Tom D'Urfey 
which has a history attached, his " Advice to the City," beginning 
"Remember, ye Whigs, what was formerly done." 

Having on p. 224 mentioned Tom D'Urfey's Song of "London's 
Loyalty," which is of the present date, 1683, it is convenient to 
give it here complete. It was re-printed among Several New Songs 
by Thomas ffurfey, Gent., (sic) in folio, with the music, 1684. 



245 



JLonUotVs 3lopaltj>- 

To a new Tune, call'd Burton Hall. 

ROwze up, great genius of this Potent Land, 
Lest Tray tors once more get the upper hand ; 
The Rebel crowd their former Tenets own, 
And Treasons worse than Plagues infect the Town. 
The Sneaking Mayor and his two Pimping Shrieves,' 
Who for their honesty no better are than Thieves, 
Fall from their Sov'raign's side, to court tbe Mobile : 

Oh ! London, London ! where 's thy Loyalty ? 8 

First Yorkshire Patience twirls his copper Chain, 

And hopes to see a Commonwealth again ; 

The sneaking Fool of breaking is afraid. 

Dares not change sides, for fear he lose his Trade ; 

Then Loyal Slingsly does their Fate divine, 

He that abjur'd the King and all his Sacred Line, 

And is suppos'd his Father's murderer to be 2 

Oh ! Bethel, Bethel, where 's thy Loyalty ? 16 

A most notorious Villain 3 late was caught, 

And after to the Bar of Justice brought ; 

Put Slingsby pack'd a Jury of his own 

Of worser Rogues than e'er made Gallows groan ; 

Then Dugdale's Evidence was soon decry'd, 

That was so "just and honest " when Old Stafford dy'd, 

Now was " a perjur'd Villain, and he ly'd : " 

Oh ! Justice, Justice, where's thy Equity ? 24 

Now Cl\_aij~\ton 4 murmurs Treason, unprovoak'd, 
First supp'd the King, and after " wish'd him choak'd ; " 
'Cause Danbi/s place was well bestow'd before, 
He rebel turns, seduc'd by Scarlet Qioq^w. ; 



1 Lord Mayor Sir Patience Ward, with his Sheriffs, Slingsby Bethel and Henry 
Cornish. See another note, 2, on p. 249. 

- That is, Charles the First : of whom Bethel was reported to have volunteered 
the beheading in the fatal January of 164,", " sooner than want an executioner." 

J Shaftesbury, freed by the Ignoramus Jury. See pp. To to 79. 

4 Sir Robert Clayton, Lord .Mayor in 1680, who retreated to Holland, like 
others who had made themselves unbearably obnoxious, in May, 1683. The 
text alludes to his " pious wish " thatthe civil banquet might choak the King, 8th 
March, 16^}. That his factiousness was caused by disappointment at failing to 
be made Chief Treasurer, is amply borne out by contemporary documents. 



246 Tom D' Urfey's " London's Loyalty." 

His sawcy pride aspires to High Renown, 
Leather-Breeches are forgot in which he trudg'd to Town, 
Nought but the Treasury can please the Scribbling Clown : 
Oh ! Robin, Robin, where's thy modesty ? 32 

Player 1 now grows dull and pines for want of ojoii^, 

Poor Cressivell she can take his word no more, 

Three hundred Pounds is such a heavy yoak, [June,i683. 

"Which not being paid, the worn-out pAvvg; is broke ; 

These are " the Instruments by Heaven sent ! " 

These are the Saints Petition for a Parliament ! — 

That would, for Int'rest sake, destroy the Monarchy, 

Oh ! London, London, where's thy Loyalty ? 40 

Heaven bless fair England, and its Monarch here ; 
In Scotland bless your High Commissioner ; " 
Let Perkin 3 his ungracious errour see, 
And Toney 4 'scape no more the Triple- Tree : 
Then peace and plenty shall our Joys restore, 
Villains and Factions shall oppress the Town no more : 
But every Loyal Subject then shall happy be, 

Nor need we care for London's Loyalty. 48 

[By Cam D'EIrfro.] 

London : Printed for Joseph Jlindmarsh, at the Black Bull in 

Cornhill, 1683. 

1 Sir Thomas Player, the Civic Chamherlain, who had declared that the Great 
Fire of London in 1666 was caused by the Romanists, and idiotically persisted in 
affirming that he " expected to wake up some morning and find his throat cut 
by the murdering Papists." But people are accustomed to folly and disloyalty 
from a Chamherlain, and need not feel surprise. His evil connection with Mother 
Cresswell has been noticed on pp. 20, 209. "We shall meet this procuress again. 
Player was fined 500 marks (about £333 6s. 8d.) on 26th June, 1683. 

2 York. a Monmouth. 4 Shaftesbury, by this time dead. 

%* P. 239, line 28, refers to Erostratna ; see annotation on p. 46. Oldham's 
O.lc, beginning " Now curses on you all," alludes to the Ephesian sacrilege :— 

How gallant was that wretch, whose happy guilt 

A name upon the Ruin of a Temple built ! 

" Let Fools," said he, " Impiety alledge, 

And urge the no great fault of Sacrilege ; 

I'll set the sacred Pile on flame, 

And in its ashes write my lasting name : 

My name, which thus shall be 

Deathless as its own Deity." 



Ti 



247 



LonDon'0 Loss of Cfjartcr. 

" In London was such a Quarter, the like was never known, 
About the forfeited Charter, betwixt the Court and the Town." 

— Song in Praise of the Loyal Stationers. 1682. 



HE "Writ of Quo Warranto against the Charter of London had 
been delivered to the Sheriffs near the end of December, 1681 ; but 
our ballad belongs to soon after June 12, 1683. It will be 
convenient to introduce it here, out of chronological order. Civic 
broils suddenly lost the zest of being waged between factions of 
nearly equivalent strength, when once they became mixed up with 
the stirring events of the Rye-House Plot (discovered on the 
following 19th of the same month). 

It has been easy for radical Revolutionists, who sympathize with 
all opposition to constituted authority, so long as that authority is 
not held in their own hands, to rail at the recall of the Civic Charters 
in 1683. But like the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, in 
times of seditious outrage, or the temporary abrogation of Trial by 
Jury, when no just verdict can be won from any terrified or 
traitorous jurors, howsoever clear be the evidence of guilt, the 
pressure of circumstances has often been accounted sufficient 
justification for extreme acts at critical times. "We may according 
to our humour take one or other explanation and excuse, for the 
King's party acting so sharply in curbing the City's privileges. 
But the root of the matter was this : the Revolutionary men had 
advanced defiantly towards rebellion, and had made preparations for 
Civil War, which if successful would have certainly overthrown the 
King and the Church, and been followed by judicial murder of the 
King, as in 164.% if he were not cut off by assassination. The 
system of packing Juries by Whig Sheriffs had been carried too far 
not to be met by the Court wresting from its foes the nomination 
of the Sheriffs. For this movement the fulcrum was gained of a 
"loyal" or Tory Lord Mayor. That unqualified and disqualified 
voters were pressed forward in order to secure a majority who might 
return Whigs for the Shrievalty is indisputable. On strict scrutiny 
the apparent Whig majority was declared to be a minority. 1 The 
privilege of nominating a Sheriff by drinking to him, which had 
been unchallenged by the Whigs so long as their own Mayors thus 

1 After the poll had been declared adjourned by the Lord Mayor, on July 
6th, '82, the numbers illegally taken were, for PapiHion, 2754 ; Dubois, 2709 ; 
Box, 1609, and North, 1557. After unsatisfactory debates at the Guildhall, an 
order was given by Council that the poll should begin de novo, and great care be 
taken tu preserve the peace of the city. Then followed contused proceedings, 
but ultimately Sir Dudley North remained as Sheriff, Sir Ralph Box cried orf 
and paid the line for exemption, and Peter Rich held office in his place. 



248 The Whig Sheriffs of London. 

chose their own Sheriffs, was now indignantly repudiated, when 
Sir John Moore selected Tory North or Tory Box. The contest was 
severe, but the Court party at length triumphed. Papillion and 
Dubois not only fought hard to avoid defeat, but even braved the 
Law by presuming to arrest the Lord Mayor, Sir "VVm. Pritchard, 
while in office, aided as they were by the notoriously immoral Porde 
Lord Grey of Werk, and other Monmouthites of the True-Blue 
Protestant fraternity : viz., Player, Slingsby Bethel, Cornish, Rich. 
Goodenough, Pilkington and Shute. This was in April, 1683. 

Matthew Taubman had satirized Ward's Sheriffs of 1680 in a 
short song (wherein Philander again represents Charles II.), entitled 

A Pox on the factions of the City, 
For choosing two Presbyter Shr[ieve]s, 
Alas ! 'tis a great deal of pity, 

My heart for Philander grieves. 
lie sent the Recorder of L[ondo\n, 
Who by the factious was run down ; 
They are such Rogues they wish us undone ; 
Hang up tbose Dogs, oh ! Billy Scroggs. 8 

They tell us of Plots and of wonders, 

To run Church and Monarchy down, 
Whilst still the loud Pa[rliame]nt thunders 

Against both Mitre and Crown. 
The Co[mmo]ns to th' City are trotting amain, 
Where they sit plotting who next shall reign, 
Whilst we lye sotting ; Charles to the Wain : 

'Rogue 'em again ! 16 



"to"- 



The Sheriffs were Pilkington and Shute; the Recorder, Jeffereys. 

A Loyal Song called " Lovalty Triumphant, on the Confirmation 
of Mr. North and Mr. [Peter] Rich, Sheriffs of London and 
Middlesex" begins, "Pill up the Bowl, and set it round, The day 
is won, the Sheriffs crown'd." It is to the tune of D'Urfey's Joy 
to the Bridegroom fill the shy : as to which see pp. 231 and 271. 

Another writer gave us, to the tune called Torn Farmer's Maggot, 

& £cto Catch; 

London ! O London ! how comes it of late 
There's such debating on matters of State ? 
Of talking, of warring, and jarring among your selves ? 

'Tis the way to be quite all undon. 

A Pox on the politick Rogue that begun 
To rail, and to scrible, and put forth Libel, v 

'Gainst Monarch, and matters beyond your view ; 
In prying in things where you have nothing to do : 

'Tis wondrous pity, so great a City 

Should ever be pester'd with such a Crew. 



London Charter about to be surrendered. 249 

For anything that we know to the contrary, the same author 
gave us also the following ditty, which he entitles similarly 

& £rfo Catch. 

SOme say the Plot goes on, and some for Rebellion hope, 
But we'll combine, to drink good Wine, in spight of Phanatick or Pope. 
Jack Presbyter huffs and dings, And dirt on the Church he flings ; 
The Citizens swear they want but a Mayor 
To make them do wondrous things. 
But a curse on all Rogues and Fools ! sure we are not all such Owls, 
That twice in an age they can ever engage 
The Nation to uurcp their Souls. 

Among Nat. Thompson's Loyal Poems one appeared recording 
"The Great Despair of the London-Whigs for the Loss of the 
Charter" in fifty-one lines, which begin thus : — 

Then is our Charter (Polexfin ') quite lost ? 

Is there no aid from the new sainted Post ? 

Are our Sham Plots and Perjuries all in vain? 

If not, we'll summon Patience back again. 2 

Saints' Prayers to Heaven w' have found will not prevail, 

But more propitious Hell will never fail. 

Therefore Titus Dates is exhorted to summon Shaftesbury "the 
once-great Tapski's Ghost," and with him his former agent Stephen 
College the Protestant Joiner, " The proto-martyr for the last Good 
Cause." It is well that Satirists of old were no more trustworthy 
than the ancient Canidia and modern Spirit-Rappers ; otherwise 
the Night-Side of Nature would be as choak-full of nuisances as 
a Revolution Club. The Protestant Joiner's Ghost disembodied 
appears to have been restless and unprofitable, as when it inhabited 
his insignificant frame. A broadside printed for A. Turner, 1681, 
is entitled " Stephen College's Ghost to the Fanatical Cabal." It 
begins, " From the unf'athomed Bowels of these cells." 

Another Loyal Poem, entitled " The Charter: A Comical Satyr," 
begins, "As Sampson's strength up in his hair was ty'd, Rebellious 
strength was in the Charter hid." We give " The City Ballad," 
1682, in the next group: "Prepare now, ye Cits, your Charter 
to lose." 

1 Henry Polloxfen, with Counsellor Richard "Wallop, engaged on the case. 

• Sir Patience Ward, convicted of perjury on 19th May, 1683, immediately 
afterwards retreated to Holland. He was answerable for the libel against the 
Papjste, on the Monument, during his Mayoralty, 1680-81, but Sliugsby Bethel 
was no doubt the chief offender, sheriff of the previous year. 



250 

[British Museum Collection, P.M. 1872, a. 1. fol. 45.] 

Lon&on's lamentation ; 

©r, 

An Excellent New Song 

©n tfjc 3Los3 of 3Lonoon's ©fjartrr. 1683, 

To the Tune of, Fackington s Pound. 

YOu Free-men, and Masters, and 'Prentices mourn, 
For now you are left with your Charter forlorn : 
Since Lone/mi was London, I dare boldly say, 
For your Riots you never so dearly did pay. 
In Westminster-H.aU 
Your Dagon did fall, 
That caused you to Riot and Mutiny all : 
Oh London ! Oh London ! thou 'dsl better hud none, 
Than thus with thy Charter to vie with the Throne. 9 

Oh London ! Oh London ! how could'st thou pretend 
Against thy Defender thy crimes to defend ? 
Thy Freedom and Fights from kind Princes did spring, 
And yet in contempt thou withstandest thy King ; 

With bold brazen face 

They pleaded thy Case, 
In hopes to the Charter the King wou'd give place : 
Oh London ! thou'dst better no Charter at all, 
Than thus for Febelliou thy Charter should fall. 18 

Since Britains to London came over to dwell, 
You had an old Ghartei to buy and to sell ; 
And whilst in Allegiance each honest man lives, 
Then you had a Charter for Lord Mayor and Shrieves : 

But when, with your Pride, 

You began to backslide, 
And London by Factions did run with the Tide, 
Then Loudon ! Oh Loudon ! 'tis time to withdraw, 
Lest the Flood of your Factions the Land over-flow. 27 

When Faction and Fury of Rebels prevail'd, 

When Coolers were Kings, and Monarchs were Jayl'd ; 

When Masters in Tumults their 'Prentices led, 

And the Tail did begin to make War with the Head ; 

When Thomas and Kate 

Did bring in their Plate, 
T' uphold th' Old Cause of the Rump of the State : 
Then tell me, Oh London ! L prithee, now tell, 
Had'st thou e'r a Charter to Fight and Rebel ? 36 



1 Judgment was given against the City on 12th June, 1683, " That the 
liberties and franchises of the said City be taken into the King's hands." Charles, 
Louis, and York (Court-cards) walk in its funeral procession (see cut opposite). 



London s Lamentation for loss of Charter 



251 



"When zealous Sham- Sheriffs the City oppose, 
In 'spight of the Charter, the King, and the Laws, 
And make such a Riot and Rout in the Town, 
That never before such a Racket was known ; 

When Rioters dare 

Arrest the Lord Maifr, 
And force the King's Substitute out of the Chair ; 
Oh Loudon ! whose Charter is now on the Lees, 
Did your Charter e , r warrant such actions as these ? 

Alas for the Brethren ! what now must they do, 
For choosing Whig-Sheriffs and Burgesses too ? 
The Chatter with Patience is gone to the pot, 
And the Doctor is lost in the depth of the Plot. 

St. Stephen his Flayl 

No more will prevail, 
Nor Sir Robert's Dagger the Charter to bail : 
Oh London ! thou'dst better have suffer'd by Fire, 
Then thus thy old Charter shou'd stick in the Mire. 



[April, 1683. 



45 



[Aldermen. 

[Sir P. Ward. 

[Oates. 

[S. College. 



[Clayto?i 



54 



But "since with your Folly, your Faction and Pride, 
You sink with the Charter, who strove with the Tide, 
Let all the lost Rivers return to the Main 
From whence they descended ; they '1 spring out again : 

Submit to the King 

In every thing, 
Then of a Neiv Charter new Sonnets we '11 sing : 
As London {the Phoenix of England) ne'rdirs, 
So out of the Flames a Netv Charter will rise. 63 

Printed by N[athanaet] T[hoinpson~\, at the Entrance into the Old Spring-Gardens. 

[White-letter. No woodcut; this one belongs to p. 30 r. Date, June, 1683.] 







r . w.e . 



L< 



252 



€&e Present §>tate of (ZEnglanti 

"And long might'st thou have seen 
An Old Man wandering, as in quest of something, 
Something he could not find : he knew not what." 

— Samuel Eogers's Italy : Ginevra. 



LONDON'S Charter having been endangered or recalled, other 
cities either loyally submitted and were rewarded by renewal of 
privileges, or for their contumaciousness were punished. The 
Monmouth partizans, united with Republicans and anarchists, con- 
spired and boasted of impending reprisal, while feeling daily their 
decrease of influence. They hoped to gain everything by a stroke 
of violence, such as was soon to be revealed in the Rye-House Plot, 
when Dissenting Jack Presbyter was once more to be set up to 
overthrow Mitre and Crown. Thus befittingly we end our present 
Group, in the temporary lull, after the death of Shaftesbury, whom 
his former sycophants regarded ungratefully as a removed 
encumberance. While he led them on to victory, he had over-cowed 
their spirit ; when he tried to organize rebellion in his defeat, they 
failed in obedience. 

Another ballad is entitled "The Present State of England] con- 
taining the Poor Man's Complaint in a Laud of Plenty, occasioned 
by the many abuses offer' d by the Ingrossers of Corn, and likewise 
Brandy-'Stillers, which makes a scarcity in a time of Plenty." To 
the tune of, Folly ! desperate Folly ! Printed for Charles Bates. It 
is in the Pepys Collection, II. 77, and begins, " As I was musing 
all alone." 

The tune cited in our following ballad of " The Present State of 
England," when reprinted as one of the Hundred and Twenty Loyal 
Songs (1G84, p. 253), is "It was in the Prime of Cucumber 
time;" which probably marks the beginning of a lost or hidden 
ballad. Hidden for awhile from us, but assuredly not wholly lost, 
only " gone astray," it is floating on some distant echoes into Limbo 
Fatrum, where all rich treasures shall be recovered. 

In the Elysian Fields, if all be well, we hope to meet hereafter 
the shade of the best Diarist who ever lived upon this earth of ours : 
that Samuel Pepys who secured John Selden's hoard of old Black- 
Letter Ballads, and supplemented them by his own loving industry. 
He kept them safely for posterity from foul contact of the vulgar- 
minded by wholesome rules at Maudlon College on the Cam ; which 
rules, with other heirlooms, TJniversity-Commissioners peculatively 
will one day abrogate, and disperse the treasures at command of 
Brimigham coconomists, for cash payments from America : 

Since these sharp practices must he, 
"When Raffs gain glorious victory ! 



The Survival of the Fitted. 253 

Yes, in the quiet evening of our days we hope to meet him, 
" where beyond these voices there is peace." If not too much of 
change has come upon his genial spirit, we shall find him fraternize 
convivially, and listen to such tales as we convey of later times or 
their amusements. Avoiding unsafe ground of controversy, leaving 
unmentioned the small fry of critic fledgelings (some of whom 
irreverently pilfer from him, and traduce his character), Deformed 
Spellers, Dunbrowning Spinsters, boiled-down-extract bookmakers, 
who misuse their Morleys in the art of self-offence, and grimy 
resurrectionists of buried poetasters, whom we forgot without injury ; 
we gladly tell of theatres that remain undesecrated by Salvation 
armies, with fair actresses that keep apart from any booth, General 
or particular : bewitching nymphs, such as our Pepys would have 
loved to prattle with, had he survived another brace of centuries. 
There are a thousand ties of sympathy uniting us, and we should 
not discourse on any topic that caused irritation. His heart might 
warm to us, as ours did long ago to him. Then, when in pure 
benevolence he smiles and speaks, with a soft chuckle, such as un- 
adulterated nectar and ambrosia have mellowed perfectly, where 
Cumberland crotchet-mongers never can intrude to vex the Shades 
with local option, undoubtedly the words of Pepys to us would be, 
" Ask me, O Ballad-Editor ! ask what you choose, and I will 
straightway give it to you ! " Surely, ah ! surely our request must 
be, from all the stores of unrestricted knowledge offered to our gaze, 
" Tell us, dear Samuel Pepys ! straightway tell, if Lethe has not 
washed the whole away from you, what you can still remember of 
the tune and words belonging to that ancient ballad, sought in vain 
upon our upper crust, where Time still keeps a weary show of 
useless parliaments, more troublesome and talkative than when the 
Merry Monarch reigned, — that ancient ballad, mentioned once amid 
black-letter broadsides : 

' It was in the prime of Cucumber-time ! ' " 

Until which joyous meeting we must wait, and leave the line 
without due annotation. Forgive these tears ! 

Nevertheless, being of a charitable disposition (so long as political 
warfare is not waged hotly in " the present State of England"), we 
mention that some faint echoes of the far distant melody are to be 
heard vibrating in the Temporary Preface, p. xv, as " The Present 
State of a Lost Ballad." There they may be found by the Initiated 
or Illuminati, but no Philistines need apply ; for to such people 
music will inevitably sound discordant. Let them rest content with, 
the sober text, and consider themselves excluded from the comment. 



254 



[Trowbesk Collection, V. 91.] 

Cl)e present &tate of 6nfflanD. 

Tune, It was in the prime of Cucumber time. 

JAch Presbyter 's up, and hopes at one swoop 
To swallow King, Bishops, and all-a ; 
" The Mitre and Crown must both tumble down, 
Or the Kingdom," he tells you, " will fall a." 
Sure, 'tis a hard Fate, that to Prop up the State 

We must pull down the State Religion : 
But the Saints have a new one, more holy and true one, 

Compos'd of Fox and Widgeon. 8 

An Engine they've got, call'd a p^uuiup Popish Plot, 

Which will bring iu a Thorough Reformation: 
Which tho' 't be half Fable, it mads all the poor Rabble, 

And puts out of wits half the Nation. 
Thus their work's quickly done, for each Mother's Son, 

That to th' Church or the King is Loyal, 
Shall straight he indicted, or else be sore frighted 

To be brought to that Fiery Tryal. 16 

'Tis no more but pretend he's to Popery a Friend, 

The Brethren cry aloud " he's a Traytor ! " 
And their [hired] Evidences bring against him pretences, 

And all of a Treasonable Nature. 
Th' Impeachers are such, so Honourable and Rich, 

That no Bribe can to Falsehood invite 'em ; 
Tho' they contradict themselves and ev'ry body else, 

A good lusty Vote can right 'em. 24 

~No matter for blood, their Oaths shall stand good, 

In despite of all circumstances : 
The City- Cabals say they cannot swear false, 

And each Pamphlet their Honour enhances. 
Who dares to deny but one single lie, 

Of the many they swear on their credit, 
Must down on his knees, is rebuk'd and pays Fees, 

And must cry Peccavi, he did it. 32 

If any's so bold their tricks to unfold, 

Or offers to prove them Lyers, 
Strait up steps another, and swears for Rogue 1 s-Brother , 

And flings the poor wretch in the Bryars. 



The Present State of England. 255 

Thus Villains, about ten, 1 the worst scum of Men, 

(While the Godly Party maintain 'em:) 
All England do Govern, and each such a Sovereign, 

The King must not speak again' 'em. 40 

Old Noll and 's Dad Nick have taught 'm a trick, 

To make Plots, and then to reveal 'em ; 
Thus runs round the Jigg of a Politick Whig : 

Sure Pardon, if they don't conceal 'em. 
Then inspir'd they bring in, for sad men of sin, 

Any one that is Honest and Loyal : 
But if Pardon's deny'd, all flock on Fitz-si&e* 

To Hector the Mercy-Royal. 48 

Thus most men, for fears, dare not for their Ears 

Put Whig and his Pout to second ; 
Which, if they refuse, they're far worse than Jews, 

And Papists and Tray tors are reckon'd : 
And ev'ry poor Ape, who for changes does gape, 

And to be prefer'd by the Party, 
To help the Good Old Cause will stretch his lean Jaws, 

With loud lies to show himself hearty. 
Lies those Worthies three, Care, Vile and Langley 3 

Do publish as fast as they make them ; 
Their being in Print signifies something in't, 

And the Rabble for Gospel mistake them. 60 

Mean while ''Pendant laughs, and at 'Byter scoffs, 

And at 's hot-headed Zeal does flout-a; 
The Coxcomb to see thus shaking the Tree, [=3fonmouth. 

While he's ready to gather the Fruit-a. 
Let Papists be hang'd, and Presbyters p ( uraep, 

And may goggle-ey'd Tray tors all perish ; 
Put let true hearts all sing, " Long live Charles our King, 

The Church and the State to cherish ! " 68 

[In White-letter. No 'woodcut. Original date, Jul}', or August 1681.] 

1 No doubt who these were, in early days of the sham " Popish-Plot " madness. 
Titus Oates, William Bedloe, Stephen Dugdale, Edward Turberville, John and 
Robert Jennison, John Smith, Thomas Dangerfield, and the frightened tool Miles 
Prance, were chief; Eustace Comyns with the two Macknamarraa, Ivy, Dennis, 
and Haines came later. Probably Oates is the " goggle-eyed Traytor " of sixtv- 
sixtli line. 

* i.e. Edward, Fitz-Harris, executed on July 1, 1681 (along with Archbishop 
Plunket). The Commons, on pretence of impeachment, tried to shield him. 

3 Pamphleteers, Henry Care, Thomas Vile, and Langley Curtis. See p. 181. 



^ere en&etl) 
Ci)e SeconD dSroup of BaliaDS 

on tfie 

struggle for Succession 

dcttnccn 

Cl)e 2Dufte of fl^onmoutl) anU tt)e 
2Dufte of g>orft. 



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saoytmrglje Ballads. 




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Illustrating tfje last gears of tljc Stuarts. 



EDITED, 
WITH SPECIAL INTRODUCTIONS AND NOTES, 



BY 

J. WOODFALL EBSWORTH, M.A., Cantab., F.S.A. 

Editor of four reprinted " ' Drolleries ' of the Restoration," 

" The Bagford Ballads" with their " Amanda Group 

of Poems," " The Two Earliest Quartos of 

A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1600, " and 

Author of "Karl's Legacy; or, 

Our Old College at Nirgends." 

WITH HIS COPIES OF ALL THE ORIGINAL WOODCUTS. 



Vol F. part M. 

THE RYE-HOUSE PLOT, OF 1683. 



HERTFORD: 

IPrintct) for tU IBaUaD ^ocietp, 

BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 

1884. 



25. 

HERTFORD : 
STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS, PRINTERS. 



Cemporarp preface* 

Bottom. — " Will it please you to see the Epilogue, or to hear a Bergomasque Dance 
between two of the company ? " 

Theseus. — " No Epilogue, I pray you ; for your Play needs no excuse. Never excuse, 
for when the players are all dead, there need none to be blamed." 

— A Midsummer Night's Dream, Act v. 

—i r3 3^3QQQi^s=: 




HORT is the interval between the completion of 
the present Part XIV. and the winding-up of 
•Koibunjlje Ballatis Volume Fifth in our " Final 
Monmouth Group" belonging to Part XV. It 
is already completed in manuscript, and partly 
set-up in type. A Preface therefore might have 
been relinquished without national Lamentation. 
Nevertheless, here is one, piping hot, crying, " Come eat me ! " 
As at the Cleikum Inn, near St. Ronan's Well, Meg Dodds used 
to ask, so may we demand, " And why for no ? " 

Although the chief interest of this entire Part XIV., or 
" Third Group of Ballads on Monmouth and his Times" is 
concentrated on the Rye-House Plot, its origin, its discovery, 
and the punishment or dispersal of those persons who had joined 
in the two-fold conspiracy for insurrection and assassination, 
there are not lacking other topics of more than ephemeral 
interest: such as the contest over the Civic Charter, the siege 
of Vienna, and the Frost-Fair on the Thames. Indeed, scarcely 
any portion of the interest can properly be called ephemeral, 
for nearly all the growths are absolutely perennial : each act of 
villainy and folly in the past having been fully paralleled, if not 
exceeded, by later generations. We learn much that was quite 
unknown to our forefathers, about themselves ; even as we may 
handle their bones, and study their internal defects, better than 
could the original proprietors, who nevertheless made shift to 
use their limbs efficiently at close quarters. 

Acquaintanceship with the past, when not profound but shallow, 
is apt to degenerate into contempt and self-sufficiency. This 
danger never attends true students. It suits pert dogmatisers 
to write and speak flippantly about Old Ballads. This is done 



viii "Limbs were borne np bravely, by the brave heart within!' 

from sheer ignorance. It was not thus slightly that they were 
valued by the one man of modern times (since Sir Walter Scott) 
who had the genius to make such dry bones of History live, and 
to raise before us a glowing picture of the times he had so deeply 
studied : the now-undervalued Thomas Babington Macaulay, 
who is sneered at by scribblers that are unable to compass one 
hundredth part of his attainments. Here or there he may have 
misinterpreted some details ; he may have allowed his partizan 
prejudices to fatally influence many a statement of controverted 
points against the Tories, and erred in the estimate of character. 
Now and again, when on his guard about politics, the individual 
bias of his strong personality was too much for him ; or he failed 
to escape from the fetters of early thraldom among Noncon- 
formists and " The Clapham Sect." We acknowledge the love 
we bear towards him, Chief Warrior of the Philistine Camp, 
against whom every puny sumpter-boy would now sling stones. 
Despite objections, his position remains immeasurably superior 
to that of every assailant or rival. That he was a brilliant 
historical Essayist, rather than an Historian of the lofty standard 
reached by Edward Gibbon, may be admitted by Whig or Tory 
without discussion. Seeking to please the populace, writers 
are apt to forget the dignity of History. If he sometimes like 
inferior men descended to parliamentary rancour, and " to party 
gave up what was meant for mankind," he redeemed the fault 
by the wealth of his multifarious knowledge. 

To Lord Macaulay, although his graver studies demanded 
many hours of a life too brief for his ambition and our needs, 
was fully known the value of these fugitive broadsides, manu- 
script lampoons, anonymous and libellous satires, or even the 
sorriest street-doggrel that amused an illiterate mob. The 
materials he loved to revel in, and used so skilfully, have been 
to the present Editor familiar for amusement and for study since 
his earliest boyhood. He holds some peculiar advantages con- 
nected with songs and ballads, their tunes and literature. With 
him must perish, if unrecorded, much that had been gathered 
by oral communication from those who have gone before us ad 
plures, whither we are soon to follow. Some portion may still 
be serviceable for later students of ballad-lore. This he hopes 
to set forth, from month to month, and from year to year, so 
long as he can wield a pen, a quarter-staff, or an engraver's 
burin. Not alone for the sake of any present members of our 
small Ballad Society : who seem oblivious of the danger of delay, 
or they would not thus neglect their payment of subscription, 
which if doubled would increase rapidity of issue threefold; since 
books are now delayed from being sent out, after being made 
ready, until fresh funds are gathered slowly. Life is but short. 



" Welcome the Coming, speed the Parting' Guest ! " ix 

Should death bid him quit the helm, a threefold substitute were 
needed, verily, a Cerberus tri-caputed, " three gentlemen at 
once." Who is there that now loves ballads better than he does, 
among artists who can copy and engrave the pictures : or among 
those writers who know the secret history and current scandals 
of the time while Charles the Second bore the sway ? These 
Roxburghe Ballads deserve his utmost care, and far more scholar- 
ship than he lays claim to. Who comes forward for the sceptre 
ere it is dropt ? Other students may arise who, better than our 
contemporaries, will prize this ballad literature as relics, which 
bring them nearer to the men and women of the Stuarts' reign. 

By the time these sheets are issued every page of the 
succeeding Part XV. will likewise be ready : the entire history 
of Monmouth shown by ballads, songs, and poems of his own 
day, will then be complete. No such attempt had ever been 
made before ; yet it is doubtful whether more than a dozen of 
the actual Ballad-Society Members on this side the Atlantic 
prize the labour bestowed for their benefit. It would be different 
with the more enthusiastic Villon Society. Some men will 
grumble and feel dissatisfied at every page which has not been 
filled with unannotated texts of Miscellaneous Ballads. Let 
them take heart of grace, even in Paisley or Old Jewry. They 
shall have such ballads in plenty, when once this consecutive 
series of Historical Ballads has been finished in next Group. 
As good fish remain still in the water, uncaptured, as any that 
have been netted hitherto in "Collections," or that have been 
patiently angled for in fading manuscripts. Do they imagine 
that the Editor of The Westminster-Drolleries of 1671 and '72 
loves not mirth and melody quite as well as they do, and of 
different class from the satirical sheets that monopolize so large 
a share of our available space ? Is he unmindful of sportive 
larks and quibbles, of convivial catches, quirks, and epigrams ? 
— he, who brought to readers, for the first time also, the Choice 
Drollery of 1656 ; with Merry Drollery of 1661 and 1670 ; not to 
mention the extra gift of the additions from the original Antidote 
against Melancholy, as issued in the year after the Restoration ? 
He had promised that there were "pippins and cheese to come." 

Well, Friends and fellow-countrymen, most potent, grave, and 
reverend Seignors, if you be willing, let it please you now to 
learn that there awaits you on demand " The Final Group of 
Monmouth Ballads." Therein you shall see — what you can see. 
Pay your guineas like gentlemen, and do not breathe upon the 
glasses! The showman holds the string (pretty tightly too), an' 
it like you ; 'tis he alone regulates the music between the Parts. 
The free-list is entirely suspended. So no Hewlettes need apply : 
They never pay, even for their last cravats. 



x " Raree-Shoiv ! Pretty Show ! " 

Look to the left, my little dears ! and there you shall see 
(beginning with p. 538) "The Coronation of King James the 
Second," with some processionizing, but a scanty outlay except 
on the Queen's jewels. In the background may be seen a crowd 
of discontented Noncons., with baffled Whigs, all trying to smile 
amiably for once, and appear innocent of evil, but not succeeding 
in their laudable endeavour. 

Next, look to the Centre, your High Mightinesses ! and you 
behold the Land of Hogen-Mogen, somewhat damp, but thoroughly 
dammed in the orthodox manner to keep the floods from over- 
flowing. There you find frogs and Ferguson, geese and Grey 
of Werk, Rumbold, and other republicans, the braw Duke of 
Argyle without his Post, and Monmouth himself, looking as if 
he could not help it. Also a variety of inferior characters, too 
numerous to mention. You see them plotting treason, which 
does not agree with them ; borrowing money from Mrs. Smith, 
widow, and pawning jewels of Lady Henrietta Wentworth : in 
fact, doing disreputably what conspirators are addicted to, when 
out at elbows, after having compulsorily " left their country for 
their country's good," but wishing to get back again. To help 
them, there are ships awaiting, ready to carry off the separate 
expeditions ; some to the Western Isles of Scotland, others not 
simultaneously to Western England. In the distance a storm is 
evidently brewing. Does everybody see it comfortably ? Then, 
by your leave, we pull another string. 

Now look to the Right, my juveniles ! and do not tumble off 
the footstools, you who are short of sight or stature. There 
you see a view of Dorsetshire, by Lyme-light ; with a lot of 
skirmishing and vapour. Much waste of time, boats cast away, 
or seized with arms inside, while crowds on land are sent away 
for want of weapons to equip them, or stores to feed them. 
Those fugitives are Lord Grey's horsemen. Like other folks of 
old, we marvel " How they run ! " That is Sedgemoor yonder, 
coming into view, betwixt the light and darkness. Much more 
smoke than fire, with galloping of chargers (Grey being in flight, 
as usual), but it is, remember ! the last civil-war battle fought 
on English ground — as yet. 

There is one other picture, my little men ! you who are not 
tired. Well, we are, if you are not : we feel disinclined to dwell 
long on it, for it is a gloomy tableau, being " The Execution 
of James Scott, the Duke of Monmouth." There, ladies and 
gentlemen, it closes the. performance. But to keep you all from 
weeping, and from indigestion, we add an epilogue or L 'Envoi 
and Finale, showing how good Cavaliers mourned King Charles. 
The smallest contribution will be gratefully . . . Thank you, Sir! 



The Irreconcileable Puritan : his vera effigies. xi 



Sufficiency of tragic incidents fill our new pages to form excuse, 
if any such excuse were needed, for our jesting here upon the 
door-mat with the Reader ; unless he be impatient, either to 
enter in exultingly, or to turn his back in sullenness, and depart. 
The motto on our tesselated threshold reads, according to your 
humour, Vale ! or Cave Canem I Grim Cynic, who art scowling 
at us Cavaliers, because we laugh and sing a jovial stave, or quaff 
the wine-cup in these Bowers of the Fancy : no one asks you to 
make one of the guests at our festive board, or lend your croaking 
voice to swell the Chorus. Is it not enough that you, and more 
of your complexion, have trodden down the flowerets with your 
hoofs, and desecrated every fane, in your intolerant and self- 
conceited Puritanism, since Queen Bess tried to curb you, in her 
sovereignty ? Wearing a change of vizards, a change of names, 
a change of Shibboleth, as time wore on, you, the Fanatic 
Misanthrope, remained unaltered in your bitterness, in all your 
sanctimonious hypocrisy, foul heart, rude hands, and blighting 
breath. What innocent enjoyment have you left unassailed, 
unpolluted, in this our country, once called Merry England ? 
Perils enough we have, present and future, chiefly from such as 
you. Many still rave as being " true Blue Protestants." But, 
sound Churchmen that we are, we admit no fear of Popery ever 
again enslaving us. Little we dread the noisy atheism, or smug 
self-conceit of the agnostics ; the mock-valour of fools and 
cowards who gibber against Religion. Foreign domination 
would not be endured ; home tyranny soon brings its own 
defeat. But who shall save us from the poisonous leprosy of 
Cant ? The mobs of old were gulled by hypocrites and liars, 
by wretches like Titus Oates ; there were swarms of sectaries, 
all declaring themselves pious, yet full of slanderous hatred 
against the Church ; there were Slingsby Bethel, Ben Harris, 
Frank Smith, Elkanah Settle, Henry Care, Robert Ferguson, 
Wily Waller and Patience Ward. As they whined and cheated, 
two centuries ago, so can such sanctimonious sinners cheat men 
still. Religion suffers by their profanation of her Robes. 

Not unneeded for their lesson now are given these Roxburgh e 
Ballads. Surely not in vain do they offer signatures and minia- 
tures of the "Holy League" among the tricksters and sham- 
patriots who prepared the Revolution. What pure deed could 
come from such besmirched intriguers ? What honest word 
ever fell from their lips ? Not the virtues of his foes, but the 
marvellous folly, vice, and bigotry of James with his rash advisers 
soon brought defeat to him, and victory to the plotting William. 
Yet what was the first result of the struggle, and for many years, 
but a change of tyrants ? from an incapable despot to a more 
inexorable and cunning alien. At present, however, we have 
only to do with the last Stuarts who reigned on English soil. 



xii " Come, let's go cry, ' God save him at Whitehall ! '" 

Before 1680, probably about 1673, the heartless and sarcastic 
John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, had written of King Charles 
the Second the memorable lines, 

There reigns, and long may he live and thrive, 
The easiest Prince, and best-bred Man alive : 
Him no ambition moves to seek renown, 

Like the French Fool, to wander up and down, [=Louis XIV. 

Starving his Subjects, hazarding his Crown. 

During the few remaining years of life between 1680 and 
February i68-|-, if it came to pass that Charles ceased to be "the 
easiest prince, and best-bred man alive," while he was forced to 
assert his prerogative of sovereignty, with somewhat of tyrannical 
usurpation, against men who continued to plot his ruin, surely 
the blame is deserved by them, far more than by "Old Rowley," 
who struck in self-defence. 

We close the pages of our present Group with the death of 
Charles. To us it is a bereavement, the loss of a friend, and we 
shall miss his figure from the brief remainder of our story. The 
longer we have studied the secret and the public records of his 
day, the less we wonder at his failings ; the more we prize 
his easy disposition, his tolerance of other people's weaknesses 
and errors. He never assumed to be a moralist for the rebuke 
of their sins, while continuing self-indulgent to his own. 
" Live and let live ! " was his unspoken motto. If only people 
would have left him to his quiet ! but they refused to do so, and 
in his last hours he felt contrite for omitted duties or neglected 
opportunities. We believe that our incidental portraiture of 
him will be pronounced just, by all those readers whose opinion 
we value. We show in these two companion-volumes only the 
closing years of his career, and were not called upon at once to 
examine in detail the circumstances that disastrously perverted 
him from what he might have been. This task is not neglected 
in our forthcoming Ballads of the Civil-War, the Commonwealth, 
and the Restoration. The hour is late : tarry till we meet you on 
the morrow. Gute Nacht ! Schlafen sie wohl, Meine Herr'n ! 

Seine Freund', 
Das altliche Josephchen, 

J. WOODFALL EBSWORTH. 



Molash Vicarage, by Ashford, Kent. 
27, xi. '83. 



CONTENTS OF PART XIV., 

Being the Middle- Port ion of Vol. V. 



Second Temporary Preface .... 

Dr. Callcott's use of Anna Steele's verses on James Hervey 
Struggle for The Succession between York and Monmouth 
The City, before Discovery of Eye-House Plot 
A Scotch Song, sung at the Artillery Feast, 1682 . 
On the Loyal Apprentices' Feast, August 9, 1682 . 
Tony : A Ballad, made on reading Shaftesbury's Speech 
Loyalty Triumphant, On the Confirmation of North and Rich 
The City Ballad, 1682 : from the Whig Side 
Vive Le Boy ; or, London's Joy (on Lord Mayor Moore) 
Hue and Song after Sir Patience Ward. 
Advice to the City : by Tom D'TJrfey, from the Tory side 
The Bye-House Plot .... 

Discoverers Discovered: M. Taubman's Medley on the Plot 
Five Tears' Sham Plots discovered in a true One . 

A Song : "I told Young Jenny I lov'd her " 
More of the Bye-House Plot 

An Offering to the Reader (in Church) 
On the King's Deliverance at Newmarket . 

Dr. Thomas Sprat's " Particular Account of the Eye-House ' 
Murder out at Last, in a Ballad on the New Plot . 
The Conspiracy ; or, Discovery of the Fanatick Plot 
Whig upon Whig ; Or, A pleasant dismal Song on the Old 
Plotters newly found out . 



PAGE 

vii 

xvi 
257 
257 
263 
265 
267 
271 
274 
276 
279 
281 
283 
293 
294 
295 
266 
299 
300 

307 
308 
310 

315 



XIV 



CONTENTS. 



An Elegy on the Earl of Essex, who cut his own Throat 
Jack Ketch's New Song ; or, A Warning to Conspirators 
The Loyal Conquest ; or, Destruction of Treason . 
Loyalty turned up Trump ; or, The Danger Over . 
Russell's Farewell ; to the Tune of, Christ-Church Bells 
Lord Russell's Farewell : to the Tune of, Tender Hearts 
The Debate : A Song .... 

A Terror for Traitors ; or, Treason justly Punished. 
A New Song, by D'Urfey, Sung at Winchester to the King 
Justice Triumphant: in Commendation of Sir George Jefferey 
The Rye-House Plot Litany, 1684 . 

Anticipatory Epitaph on Roger L'Estrange 
The Relief of Vienna, September, 1683 

On the Relief of Vienna : A Hymn for all true Protestants 
The Loyalists' Encouragement 
The Siege of Vienna, in 1683 

Vienna's Triumph, with the Whigs' Lamentation, &c. 
A Carouse to the Emperor of Austria, the Royal Pole and 

the much- wronged Duke of Lorraine . 
The Christian Conquest, at Vienna, 1683 . 

On Refusal of Aid between Nations 
The Christians' New Victory, at Barean 
A New Song, on Foes Foreign and Domestic 
On King John Sobieski 
Monmouth in Hiding at Toddington, Berks. 

The Twin-Flame (Poem from Monmouth's MS.). 

Samuel Rowley's Song on Sorrow 

MS. Song : " With Joie we do leave thee " 
„ ,, " how blest and innocent " 
,, ,, " All ye Gods that are above " 
,, ,, " Come, let us drink, and all agree " 
Good News in Bad Times; or, Absalom's Return to David's 

Bosom. .... 

Monmouth's Entanglement in the Plot 
The Prodigal : Monmouth's Return to Favour 
Monmouth Pardoned by King Charles 
Monmouth's Entertainment at Court 
A New Song of a Devonshire Lad . 
A Merry New Ballad on Prince Perkin (from Trowbesh MS.) 

Nat. Lee's Love Song, 1680, from his Tragedy of Theodosius 
" Hail to the Myrtle Shade ! " 

An Epitaph, on Algernon Sydney 



PAGE 

318 
319 
321 
322 
323 
326 
328 
329 
332 
339 
340 

347 
348 
352 
353 
355 
359 

361 
369 

371 

377 
383 
384 
385 
392 
393 
394 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
395 

399 
401 
405 
407 
413 
417 
421 

422 
423 



CONTEXTS. 



XV 



Colonel Sydney's Overthrow; or, An Account of his Execution 

Colonel Sydney's Lamentation andLastFarewell to the World 

Hail to the Shades Plutonian ! 

Pluto, the Prince of Darkness, his Entertainment of Sydney 

A Satire on the Reformadoes 

The Reformation : a Satire. 

Pindaric Ode on the Rye-House Plot 

Petitions to save Lord William Russell 

Congratulatory Pindaric Poem, by C. P. (summarized) 

A New Song of the Times, 1683 : by the Hon. Wm. Wharton 

A ' New Song on the Old Plot,' issued in 1682 

London's Wonder : The Great Frost, of 168f 

The Whigs' Hard Heart for the Cause of the Hard Frost 

Erra Pater's Prophecy of another Great Frost 

Frost Fair in 1683 . 

A New Song on Perkin-Monmouth's Disgrace 

Tangier Demolished, 1684 .... 

Tangier's Lamentation, on the Demolishment 

Sir Thomas Armstrong .... 

Robert Ferguson's double Epitaph on Armstrong . 

On Sir William Jones : An Epitaph 

The Bully Whig ; or, Lamentation for Armstrong . 
Sir Thomas Armstrong's Farewell . 
" And There 's an End of Bully ! ". 

The Bully : A Song by Tom D'Urfey, 1683 
Sir Thomas Armstrong's Ghost 
Monmouth as a Wandering " Perkin " 
The Newcastle Associators; or, The Trimmers' Loyalty 
The Beginning of the End .... 

A Catch : " Here 's a Health unto his Majesty ! " . 

A Catch, 1684: " Now happily met " 

Tom Brown's Song in Praise of the Bottle 
" The Best Bred Man alive " grown weary. (Compare p. xii.) 
Loyal Poems on the Death of King Charles the Second 



P.»GE 

426 
429 
431 
432 
433 
436 
441 
446 
447 
448 
455 
457, 463 
461 
466 
469 
470 
471 
474 
477 

479 
481 
482 
483 

486 
Ibid. 
487 
489 
496 
499 
499 
502 
503 
504 
508 



Editorial Entr'Acte : The Watcher at Whitehall 



510 



» * m a * &ns^<r- 




ALGERNON SYDNEY, 

NATUS, 1622; OBIIT, 1683. 
{See pp. 423 to 434.) 

— K§)°Oo©*<— 



" "TJ'Orgive, blest Shade ! the tributary tear 

-^ That mourns thy exit from a world like this ; 
Forgive the wish that would have kept thee here, 
And stayed thy progress to the seats of Bliss ! 
No more confin'd to grov'ling scenes of Night, 
No more a tenant pent in mortal clay, 
Now should we rather hail thy glorious flight, 
And trace thy journey to the realms of Day ! " 



-^~^5ffgWgS$2* — 



THE 



struggle for tt)e Succession 



BETWEEN 




orfe an* ^tonmoutf)- 



A Third Group of Roxburghe Ballads 



on 



James, 2Dufte of 09onmouttn 



INCORPORATING, IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER, 

%%t Kpe^oti0e plot, toitfj \t# consequent trials ant) 

executions ; %ijt £)uertfiroto of tlje &utk$ at 

Stoma, 16S3 ; C&e (feat fvo&ufm on 

tije CJjamcg, X6S34 ; ano tge 3)cat& 

of Cfiarfeg tfic £>cconti, 1684=5. 

FOLLOWED BY FlNAL GltOUP, ON 

&Ijc Western Insurrection of 1C85, iuttlj tTjc Jujljt at Srtujcmoor, 
ant) HDcat^ of fHomnoutfj. 

— s~?p&m*&* — 

Now first Collccled, Annotated, and Reprinted for the Ballad Society, 
By J. W. EBSWORTH, M.A., F.S.A. 

1883. 

VOL. V. S 



2Tfje Ege^ousc -pot jDiscobrry. 

Priitli.— " "We stand 
Upon the very brink of gaping ruin. 
Within this City 's form'd a dark Conspiracy, 
To massacre us all, our wives and children, 
Kindred and friends ; our palaces and temples 
To lay in ashes : nay, the hour too fixt ; 
The swords, for aught I know, drawn e'en this moment, 
And the wild waste begun. From unknown hands 
I had this warning : but, if we are Men, 
Let 's not be tamely butcher'd, but do something 
That may inform the World in after-ages 
Our virtue was not ruin'd, tho' we were." 

— Otway's Venice Preserved ; or, A Plot Discovered. 1682. 

Antonio [ = Shaftesbury] the Senator. — "Here 's a tickling Speech about the 
Plot. I'll prove there 's a Plot with a Vengeance. Would I had it without 
Look. Let me see 



Most Reverend Senators 



' That there is a Plot, surely by this time no man that hath eyes or under- 
standing in his head will presume to doubt ; 't is as plain as the Light in 

the Cucumber ' no, hold there ! Cucumber does not come in yet 

' 't is as plain as the light in the Sun, or as the Man in the Moon, even at 
noon-day. It is indeed a Pumpkin-Plot, which, just as it was mellow, 
we have gather'd it, prepar'd and dress'd it, shall we throw it like a pickled 
Cucumber out at the window ? No ! That is not only a bloody, horrid, 
execrable, apqiraiuup and audacious Plot ; but it is, as I may so say, a sawcy 
Plot : and we all know, most reverend Fathers, that which is sawce for a 
goose is sawce for a gander. Therefore, I say, as those bloodthirsty Ganders 
of the Conspiracy would have destroyed us Geese of the Senate, let us make 

haste to destroy them ; so I humbly move for Hanging.' Hah, hurry 

durry ! I think this will do ; though I was somewhat out at first, about the 
Sun and the Cucumber." — Ibid. Act v. 

" It ivas in the prime of Cucumber-time." 

— The Present State of England. (See p. 254.) 




.T.W.E. 



Cbe City, before Oiscotierp of Epe#ouse Plot. 

" Old Tony's fled, from Justice gone, 
And all his shamming Plots are done ; 
The Plague is ceas'd and gone away, 
Then let us make a holiday : 

And to great Charles, our gracious King, 

In joyful consort let us sing ! . . . . 

" No more shall Shrieves Whig -Juries blind; 
While Loyalists shall justice find : 
No Ignoramus Law prevail, 
A curse o' th' Nation to entail : 

But to great Charles, our gracious King, 

All shall in joyful consort sing.'" 

— A New Tear's Gift to the Templars, 168f. 

^^^TfeTHERE is close connection, logical and chronological, 
; ^y£|j between the intrigues of the short Oxford Parliament, 




dissolved on March 28th, 1681, and the Pye-House 
Plot of a year later (although not fully exposed until 
June, 1683). This makes it necessary that the succes- 
sive steps or events should be carefully studied and 
clearly understood. Until the last Parliamentof Charles was dismissed 
with a judicious promptitude which fatally defeated the plans of 
the conspirators (Shaftesbury, Russell, Macclesfield, Monmouth, 
Essex, Grey, Trcnchard, and others), they had seemed to be steadily 
gaining ground. Intolerant, exacting, insolent, and almost reckless 
of consequences, they foresaw no defeat. Acting against Charles II. 
as though he were their enemy, they made the grave mistake of 
undervaluing him. They were especially blind to his real influence 



260 Turning the Tables on the Whig Sheriffs. 

over the nation, through its loyal affection for himself, and a bitter 
remembrance of the past rebellion. We have shown incidentally 
how both sides, loyalists and seditious sectaries, found it impossible 
to avoid the conviction that old times were returning: that 1641 
was being renewed in 1682. Enough for a single generation had 
been one such experience as the anarchy which followed the death 
of Cromwell, or the grinding " Tyranny of the Sword," with the 
sanctimonious cant and hypocrisy of the Tub, from the Independent 
preacher-troopers who had earlier been his tools and bloodhounds. 

The easy complaisance of the Second Charles, unlike the mingled 
obstinacy and vacillation of his father, misled the judgement of so 
acute an observer as Shaftesbury. "When the King in self-defence 
began to exert himself, it followed inevitably that he must not only 
continue to direct his own affairs with energy, but that he would 
need to disarm and overpower those who had clearly doomed him 
with his brother to destruction. In 1682 he recalled from Ireland 
the brave James Butler, Duke of Ormond, having urgent desire that 
such a clear head and strong hand should be available. The great 
Duke " was entirely of opinion that his Majesty had better never 
have attempted to assert his authority than, after having gone so 
far in that way, to desist before he had established it ; and that so 
unsteady a proceeding would make him more contemptible than 
ever." Charles must have felt the force of this, when recalling the 
vacillation of his own father, whose treacherous abandonment of the 
most zealous agents, and time-serving expedients to win over any 
irreconcileable enemies, had drawn total ruin on his cause. 

Party-spite and the supposed interests of anti-monarchical faction 
have done their utmost to disguise the infamous perversion of justice 
by the Whig politicians of that day. We have seen how impossible it 
had been to obtain a fair trial for persons falsely accused of having 
murdered Sir Edmondbury Godfrey, or of their having conspired to 
assassinate the King; so long as Whig Sheriffs, under Whig Mayors, 
packed their Whig juries to give verdicts in accordance with the 
perjured testimonies of Oates, Bedloe, Dugdalc, Turberville, and 
Dangerfield. It required skill and persistence to destroy the system, 
and we grudge not our admiration for the tactics employed by the 
Court in reprisal for past wrongs and for self-preservation. With 
certain untameable beasts of prey, alike ravenous and treacherous, 
even the bravest hunter cannot afford to stand on terms. Not the 
laws of sport, but the fatal necessities of self-preservation, are obeyed. 

If wisdom had prevailed in the councils of the disaffected (as 
wisdom rarely does), the civic triumphs of the Tories might have 
been endured more patiently, and sincere patriots would have 
awaited the inevitable reaction, in case any overbearing and extor- 
tionate acts of the party in power exceeded the limits of lawful 
authority. But the leaders of sedition were wilfully blind to the 
general content. They refused to acknowledge that the present 



Revolution Tree of Liberty rooted in Crime. 2GI 

loyal reaction was a natural consequence of their own former law- 
lessness. They listened only to their own voices, and deceived 
themselves, while asserting that the country was miserable in its 
slavery, and longing for Civil- War to again overthrow the monarchy. 
Even admitting the plausible statement that much was being trans- 
acted by the triumphant Tories which could scarcely be justified 
except by the lex talionis, there remained the certainty of a future 
reversal in store, if only the chief citizens of London should honestly 
believe that wrong had been done, and consequently that there was 
need to bestir themselves for redress. 

In after-years it became the fashion among the Whig survivors 
of the Rye-House Plot sedition to boast themselves the true parents 
of their so-called " glorious Revolution " ; not seeing that they were 
self-condemned by the vaunt. Their own culpable impatience under 
the punishment of their former blunders and crimes ; their dark 
intrigues, in combination with reckless anarchists who befooled 
them to abet schemes of subornation, mutiny, and assassination ; 
all directly provoked fresh measures of repression. It was only the 
stupendous folly and bigoted defiance of common prudence on the 
part of James II. which, as it were by accident, gave at last the lost 
game back into their hands. 

To the great indignation of the Whigs, who had been prohibited 
on April 19th from holding their own Disloyal Feast on April 21st, 
1682, a very different banquet was allowed to be held by the 
Loyal Apprentices of London, with the young Freemen, at Mer- 
chant Taylors' Hall, on the 9th of August following. Many of the 
nobility graced the entertainment. Sixteen stewards were chosen, 
the brave James Butler (the great Duke of Ormond), the Dukes of 
Albemarle and of Richmond, the Earls of Halifax, Sunderland, 
Craven, Berkeley, and Ranclagh (whose daughter had now entered 
the ranks of Royal Mistresses), Lord Finch, Sir John Earnely, Sir 
Stephen Fox, Paymaster of the Forces, Mr. Godolphin (probably 
Sidney Godolphin), Sir William Pritchard (soon after to become 
Lord Mayor), Sir Thomas Beckford (who had been Sheriff in 1677), 
and two others. Narcissus Luttrell, enamoured of himself and his 
clique, as his name befittingly indicates, after enumerating them, 
allows his partizan spite to escape, at seeing his political foes enjoy 
their feast harmoniously, and declares in his Diary, i. 212, these 
three remarks " worthy consideration : 1st, they stile themselves 
the loyall, by way of eminency, as if no others were so beside them- 
selves" [Answer : The others were dis-lojnl on their own showing, 
and certainly " beside themselves " with rage and envy] ; " 2nd, the 
incouragement this gives to idleness and debauchery" [Answer : A 
very pretty objection, but how odd it is that we never heard this 
plea against idleness and debauchery of guttling and guzzling while 
the Whigs were previously arranging their own least; but then it 
was to be preceded by a seditious sermon from the Rev. Thomas 



262 Wing-Divine's Grace before half -cooked Meat. 

Jekyl, at St. Michael's Church, Cornhill, as grace hefore meat, to 
help digestion and thirst after dry theology] ; " 3rd, that the Court 
thought fitt to prohibit the late feast of the "Whig, yet allowes of 
this, and is countenanced by many of the chief ministers of state 
(fitt company for boyes and apprentices), for what design is worthy 
consideration." \_Answer : Admitted, because circumstances alter 
cases. A government has no call to discountenance any such 
meetings if they be called and conducted by persons who are known 
to be loyal subjects ; but it is very different when the so-called 
leaders are in open revolt against the State. To tolerate seditious 
assemblages would be suicidal, so long as power can be brought to 
support authority.] 

We have already seen how bitter had been the disappointment of 
the Whigs when baffled in their attempt to hold a seditious banquet 
at the Halls of the Goldsmiths' and Haberdashers' Companies, on 
April 21, 1682. 1 It was more galling, because this demonstration 
had been organized expressly to overshadow and depreciate a rival 
banquet given loyally to welcome home the Duke of York by his 
admirers or adherents, on the 20th, which rivalry was for the first 
time sanctioned by the Court, through the Lord Mayor being 
left without interruption. Tom D'Urfey wrote the sham " Scotch 
song, sung at the Artillery Feast," and printed it next year (the 
year of the Rye-House Plot), but did not include it among his 
numerous reprints in Pills to Purge Melancholy of later years. It 
is consequently, like most of his ultra-political songs, extremely 
rare. In fact, he found it convenient during the usurpation of 
"William and Mary, and also during the reign of Anne, to quietly 

1 See pp. 145 to 150. On the first of these we gave a copy of the quarto 
horizontal-oblong printed bill, or " Ticket," issued as an invitation and voucher 
for the Feast. Read, " Friday the 21th," and "bring this Ticket with you." 
Then follow two columns of uames, in manuscript, of the appointed stewards, viz. 
John Wdmore, Peter Mortemore, John Burrough, John Wickham, Tho. Barnes, 
Zachariah Bourne, Tho. Wicks, Sim. Smith, Edward Partridge, Alex. Hosea, 
Edward Proby, Benj. Gerrard, John White, Sam Read, Peter Hagar, and Tho. 
King. Of these John Wilmore was chief. As shown on p. 77, he had been 
foreman of the Grand Jury that released Stephen College by rejecting the true 
bill with Ignoramus. John Wilmore soon felt the punishment, for he had kid- 
napped to Jamaica a boy of 13 years old, one Richard Sivitcr, and the matter was 
considered at the King's Bench bar in May, 1682, a writ do homine replegiamdo 
was delivered to the London Sheriffs, who did their utmost by quibbles of law to 
shield their associate. Wilmore was forced to send an express to Jamaica to bring 
back the boy, and thus mitigate his own fine ; meantime he kept close, and a 
Mr. Dessigny was tried for a similar offence, convicted, then fined £500, and com- 
mitted to custody until payment was made. Richard Siviter arrived back from 
Jamaica in January, 168;}. Thus, incidentally, we see the commercial and social 
morality of the leading lights among the Revolutionary Whigs, who, like their 
modern imitators (to use the language of Hudibras), 

Compound for sins they are inclin'd to, 

By Suuuuep those they have no mind to. 



D'Urfey's mockery of the abortive Whig-Feast. 263 

drop out of sight most of his violent Tory ditties. He had learnt 
to back the winning horse, elsewhere than at Newmarket. If he 
had been charged openly with having turned his coat, honest Tom 
would have had in readiness a score of excuses ; but it might suffice 
to say, that he had only acted as aldermen, courtiers, statesmen, 
warriors, and lawyers had done before him, for their own personal 
profit under pretence of Protestant zeal ; and also, that after having 
been a sincere Yorkist during the time when nefai'ious schemes for 
Exclusion were rife, he had not turned his pen or his back against 
James the Second until that monarch's own conduct had become 
outragious, destructive of our national liberties, our Church of 
England, and every sound principle of constitutional government. 

& Scotch Sonrj, stmtj at the Sctillcrrj tfcast, 1682. 

WOons ! what noo is the matter ! grud feth ! 'tis wondrous strange, 
The TFhiggs do keep such a clatter that nean can pass th' Exchange. 
They cry braid, ' it is pitty, their numbers are no more ; 
The Duke does diue in the City ! ' and muckle they fear his power. 
They begin th' awd trick agen, and Cabal like awd Nick agen, 
Feast three hundred pound thick agen, sike a height they soar : 
Ah, bonny London! thoiCrt undone, if e'er thou art in their power. 7 

The wise Old £[arl] with the Spiggot, that never knew rest or ease ; 1 
Ods bread ! is grown sike a Bigot, the Nation has his disease. 
More I think 1 could name ye, that makes this raree show, 
Bold Geo>ge, and Politick Tommy, converted by Doctor T.O." 1 

Both the Sheriffs there should ha bin, met for National Good agen, 

[And they seem'd a' richt ivud agen,] as they were before, 
Ah, bonny London! thoii'rt undone, if long thou art in their power. 14 

More, to show us what Ninnys are all such rebellious beasts, 
The Cuckolds sent in their guineys to make up this Godly Feast : 
Never caring or thinking what insolence was done, 
Or that their Plotting and Drinking should e're be oppos'd so soon. 
But when they knew they were barr'd agen, they sent out the Black Guard agen, 
' All our Bonfires were marr'd agen ; ' Slaves did shout and roar : 
Ah, bonny London ! thoii'rt undone, if e're thou art in their power. 21 

Bight and Royalty governs, which Rebels would overthrow, 
They once were fatal to Soveraigns : Ah ! let 'em no more be so. 
But, to baffle Oppression, inspir'd by Fate divine, 
Defend the Crown and Succession, and keep it in the Right Line. 

Every Soldier will fight for it, each bold Genius will write for it, 

And the Wings hang in spite for it, losing Regal power: 
Anil bonny London, they're undone, that thought to usurp once more. 3 28 

[Date, November, 1G82. We supply a dropt line.] 

There had been a Loyal Feast given by the Artillery Company 
on 20th of April, 1682, to welcome the Duke of York on his return 
from Scotland : it was preceded by Dr. Thomas Sprat's Sermon at 

1 Shaftesbury. 3 Sir George Treby, Sir Thomas riayer, and Titus Oates. 
s Tom D'Url'ey has forgotten to keep up his Scotch dialect in this final verse. 



264 The " Gay Fop-Monarch " and his Henchmen. 

Bow Church. But the present song, exulting over the Whigs 
having been baffled, belongs to seven months later, when another 
similar Feast was given by the Artillery Company, the Duke of 
York again being their guest, on the 28th November, 1682, at 
Merchant Taylors' Hall. 

Once again, the Court was but adopting in reprisal the very 
system which the disaffected Whigs had often employed to gain 
popularity and power. Even at Oxford, during the " weeked 
Parliament" of March 168-?-, Shaftesbury, Russell, Monmouth, and 
Essex had kept open tables for all comers, to tempt their visitors 
into sedition by unpaid feasts and revelry. 

Shaftesbury's policy of flattering the base vulgar, and making 
treats or banquets alike the bribe and the disguise of treason, is 
denounced in " The Loyal Scot; an excellent new Song, to a new 
Scotch Tune," beginning, "Bread of Gued ! I think the Nation's 
mad." After naming him as " that machine of monstrous policy," 
and "the voice of all the geudly rabble Mobile" it continues; first 
on Shaftesbury, and next on Monmouth : 

For, like Roman Cat aline, to gain his pious ends, 

He pimps for au the loose Rebellious Fops in Toon, 

And with Treats and Treason daily crams his City Friends, 

From the Link-man to the Scarlet-Goon. [=Aldermcn. 

And with high debauchery they carry on the Cause, 

And geudly Reformation was the Sham pretence : 

And religiously defie Divine and Humane Laws, 

With obedience to their Rightful Prince. 16 

Then, as Speaker to this Grand Cabal, 

Old Envy ' Tony, seated at the head o' th' Board, 

His learn' d Oratiou for Rebellion makes to all, 

Applauded and approv'd by ev'ry Factious Lord. 

Cully JEMMY then they vote for King,— [*•*. Monmouth. 

Whom curse confound for being sike a senseless Loon ! 

Can they, who did their lawful Lord unto the Scaffold bring, 

Be just to him, that has no Title to the Croon ? 24 

But they find he's a Blockhead fitted for their use, 

A Fool by nature, and a Knave by custom grown ; 

A Gay Fop-Monarch, that the Rabble may abuse ; 

And, their business done, will soon Un-throne. 

And Jemmy swears and vows, gin he can get the Croon, 

He by the Laws of Forty- Ane will guided be ; 

And profane Lawn-Sleeves and Surplices again must doon, 

Then hey for auld PRESB YTER Y! 32 

To ridicule the seditious rant which found favour among such 
conventicle politicians some unidentified scribe wrote a poem of 
eighty-one lines, which is here given from our Trowbesh Collection, 
as a record of partizan warfare. We need not reproduce all the 
redundant capitals and italic type of the original. 



2G5 



£>n flbe JLopal Apprentices' tftast. 

[Held at Merchant Taylors' Hall, London, August 9, 1682.] 

THe busy Town grew still, and trait'rous Whigs 
Had lately chang'd their looks and periwigs, 
Left Envy's face behind, and sniv'ling Cant, 
And Hectors turn'd, with Loyalists to rant. 
I know not which it was, whether they thought 
Some Conventicling saioq^ might there be brought 
By strict Devotion to meet a ' Brother ; ' 
Or whether 'twas they scented out some other 
"Warm zealous game, as pasty, pudding-pie, 
Not " Superstitious " now if Whigs be by ! 
But something 'twas made " Godly'st Men o' th' Nation " 
Back-slide a little now for Becreation ; 
And here's a Penitential Psalm of one 
That tells his Brethren what himself has done 
" At Loyal-Feast in Merchant Taylors' Hall, [April 20, I6S2. 

'Mongst Coxcomb-Lords and worshippers of Baal ; 
Whither foolish King and Princes too had sent 
Fat Bucks, in Sacrifice to Idols meant ! " 
Yet 'mongst such fools a Whig can eat and drink, 
"Whilst h' one thing speaks, and doth another think. 20 

He in deceit can manage cunning slight ; 
Not so the Tories, they must be down-right, 
And naturally are so to all men's sight : 
But Whigs with Reservation speak and write, 
And far out-do the greatest Jesuite. 
"Well; "Fools" we must be then, the Whigs will have 
For their dear selves the other Sir-name, " Knave." 
Then let them hav't, we'll give the Devil his due, 
Whig earns it better than Papist, Turk, or Jew : 
'Tis but re-counting in Phanatick strain 
The foulest crimes, and then they're Saint again. 
A fallen Star to-day, perhaps to-morrow 
May shine like Lucifer, and from him borrow 
A brand or two of his infernal light, 
T' intoxicate poor people in the Night. 
" New Lights " and new discoveries they bring, 
Dark-Lanthorn Counsels how to 'buse the King; 
Make every thing ridiculous appear, 
That pleases him, or any Loyal Peer. 

" The Koyal Fam'ly's but a Popish Crew, 40 

And Doctor Crape-Gowns are all Papists too ; '' 



2G6 Loyal Apprentices Feast, August 9, 1682. 

A pnny Prayer's the best thing, they can tell ye, 
"Whilst their Devotion's fixed upon their Belly. 

" Loyal Addresses and Ahhorrences " 

(Quoth Turn-Coat Whig,) "are sottish flatteries; 

The King delights in Parasites, we see, 

And none but Fools can in his favour be ; 

Dissolving Parliaments deserves damnation, 

For keeping Puhlick Justice from the Nation ; 

And th' Godly persecuted, 'Las ! 'tis worse 

Than Tyranny, or Arbitrary force. 

Popery is come already ! "Where be we ? 

Brethren, stand fast in Christian Liberty ! 

See how the Loyal Beagles of the Town 

Flock from their shops, t' adore the Idol Crown ! 

Those silly Curs, that sometimes us'd to help 's, 

And foll'w our keen Kebellious Blood-hound "Whelps, 

They're now declaring for the Royal Cause, 

Think Kingly Blood too sacred for our jaws. 

Help ! now or never, Baxter, Curtis, Care, 1 GO 

And all True Patriots of our Holy War ! 

The King and Court can't be more odious made ; 

Strike now ! strike home ! or all our Plot's betraid." 

Thus far the Whigs ; for here the true sense lies 
Of all their Libels, Rhithmes, and Forgeries : 
And yet they're " Loyal still ! " But, ye must know, 
'Tis with a Mental Reservation though ; 

As Brother Poet has at last confest, l m - SeUle - 

Who, if he'd hid this truth, had spoil'd his jest. 
Ay, we've experiene'd well what Loyalty 
Since 'Forty- One his Brethren-brood and he 
Are like to shew ; which makes us think, and say, 
Old Nicies as True and Loyal too as they. 

But you, brave Loyal Youths (that " Fools and Fops " 
Are nick-nam'd by the Rebel-rout), your shops 
Shall be protected by the sovereign charms 
Of Charles and York, and their victorious arms. 
With Heaven's assistance, win your selves renown, 
Redeem the credit of this Ancient Town ; 

Say, ' London's 'Prentices have done the thing, 80 

Joyn'd Zeal to God with Duty to the King.' 



1 Richard Baxter, the Noncon. divine, was continually getting into trouble 
at this time, through not concentrating his attention on spiritual matters, but 
putting in his oar over-zealously where the political factions waged an inglorious 
boat-race near Billingsgate. The local dialect was employed " liberally." 
Langley Curtis, publisher of seditious libels, which Henry Care and others had 
written for hire and mischief; both mentioned already, see pp. 146, 174, 197. 



jyjJrfey's Ballad on Shaftesbury's Speech. 2G7 

[Wo need afterwards refer to the tune Let Oliver now be forgotten : which is 
virtually the same time as An old Woman cloatlicd in grey (see Popular Music 
p. 45G), and known by the name drawn from an uurecovered song called " How 
unhappy is Phillis in love!' 1 We give bere, in preparation, D'Urfey's song on 
Lord Shaftesbury ; printed in the rare New Collection of Songs and Foetus by 
Thomas D'Urfey", Gent., 16S3, on p. 52 : but it belongs to December, 1G80.] 

Con*? : a l5allatJ 

fftatie occastonallrj fro rratiinrj a late Speed) matie im a liable Ipecr. 

[To the Tune of, How unhappy is Phillis in love.~\ 

LEt Oliver now be forgotten, his Policy's quite out of doors, 
Let Bradshaw and Hewson lye rotting, like sons of Phanatical s9.toq\\^, 
For 'Jong's grown a Patrician, by voting p t uuiup Sedition, 

For many years 
Fam'd Politician, the Mouth of all Presbyter Peers. 

Tony, a Turncoat at Worcester, yet swore he'd maintain the King's Right ; 
But Tony did swagger and bluster, and never drew Sword on his side : 

For Tony, like an old stallion, had still the pox of Rebellion, 
And never was sound ; 

Like a chamelion, still changing shape, and his ground. 18 

Old Iiotvlcy return'd (heaven bless him), from Exile and Danger set free, 
Sly Tony made haste to address him, and swore none so Loyal as he : 

The king that knew him a Traytor, and saw him squint like a Satyr, 
Yet through his grace, 

Pardon' d the matter, and gave him since the Purse and the Mace. 

And now little Chancellor Tony with honour has feather' d his Wing, 
And carefully scrap'd up the Money, but never a Groat for the King. 

But 1'onifs luck was confounded, the Duke soon smoak'd him a ltoimd-head ; 
From head to heel, 

Tony was sounded, and F[o>-]& put a spoke in his wheel. 36 

But Tony that frets in his passion, like Boy that has nettled his breech, 
Did late in the House take occasion to make a most delicate speech : 

He told the King like a crony, ' If e'r he hop'd to have Money, 
He must be rul'd ; ' 

Oh, fine Tony ! was ever potent Monarch so school'd. 

The King issues forth Proclamation, by learned and loyal Advice, 
Bat Tony declares to the Nation ' The Council will never be wise : ' 

For Tony rayles at the Papist, yet is himself an Atheist, 
Though so precise, 

Sneaking and apish : like holy Quack or Priest in disguise. ."> I 

But Destiny shortly will cross it, for Tony grows gouty and sick, 

In spite of his spiggot and fawset, the Statesman must go to Old Nick : 

Yet Tony's madder and madder, and M \onmmth~\ blown like a Bladder, 
And others too, 1 

Who grow gladder, that they great T" [<»•]& are like to undo. 

But now let this Hump of the Law see a Maxim, and so we will part, 
Who e're with his Prince is so sawcy, 'tis fear'd, is a Traytor in's heart. 

Then Tony cease to be witty, by buzzing Treason i' th' City, 
And love the King : 

(So ends my ditty) or else may'st thou swing like a dog in a string. 72 



1 A later version reads " And L . . . ee too," meaning John, third Lord Lovelace. 



268 Quo Warranto, and the Mayoralty of Pritchard. 

We know not from whose active mind came the first idea of re- 
calling the Civic Charter, unless it were Charles's own. Despite 
the allegations made by his enemies, of it having been long medi- 
tated, there is improbability of it being entirely foreseen as an 
ultimate consequence, either by himself or by any other. Robert 
Spencer, the Duke of Sunderland, alone could have had such 
prescience : the arch-plotter who held a dozen skeins of treachery 
within his unscrupulous mind, and cheated everybody with whom 
he had dealings, himself included. 

It is more safe to trace back the links of the chain, than to have 
forecasted the end. Certainly, the inquiry into the legitimate 
exercise of civic rights, for the purpose of repressing and punishing 
abuses, extortions, and the assumed independence of all external 
controul, was not in itself an act of tyranny. We know that there 
had been many illegal acts perpetrated by the Whig Sheriffs, and 
it is not to be wondered at that such an inquiry should have been 
in time instituted by the Attorney-General in obedience to a sug- 
gestion from Whitehall. Hence the process Quo Warranto. It 
was intrinsically a question, " by what authority do you assert that 
you exercise your power, and amass wealth beyond the controul of 
a government which holds you in safety?" It took a long time for 
the tedious pleadings of the lawyers to be brushed aside, and the 
real truth discerned. Save for the litigious and seditious animus of 
certain demagogues, there would have been no tampering with the 
civil privileges either meditated or performed by the Court. But it 
was a fight d la outrance, and the Quo Warranto was of their own 
provoking. Whatever may be thought of the ungenerous spirit on 
one side, or the impolicy of special rejoinders, there can be no doubt 
that the steps taken by government were perfectly legal. It was 
only because the Judges were willing to decide in accordance with the 
wish of Royalty, that there was such an outburst of clamour, then 
and later. The Whigs had applauded Scroggs and Jeff ereys while still 
their partizans, but railed at them and Pemberton in opposition. 

We have written of Sir John Moore as a Tory, but perhaps this 
is accepting too literally the misrepresentations of his enemies. 
Had he been such, a greater effort would have been made to defeat 
him from becoming Lord Mayor. He was by no means so pro- 
nounced a partizan as his successor Sir William Pritchard, whose 
Toryism is indisputable. But neither was Moore in any respect a 
narrow-minded bigot and tool of the sectaries, as had been his own 
immediate predecessors Sir Robert Clayton and Sir Patience Ward. 
The verdict passed on Moore by Thomas Carte seems to be correct, 
viz. that he was "a very honest man, but timorous in some cases, 
and doubtful of exerting his authority. The Duke of Ormond was 
the person who inspired him with courage ; he generally dined with 
him twice or thrice a week during the contest which now happened ; 
and was the only person about Court employed on these occasions. 



Lord Mayor Moore's Nomination of Sheriff North. 209 

The first point gained in these elections was that of an Alderman 
in Sir Joseph Sheldon's stead, upon whose death Sir Richard Iloioe 
was chosen, notwithstanding all the efforts of the faction. This 
was the greater blow to their reputation, because it was in the very 
ward where Shaftesbury lived : " Thanet House, his residence, being 
in Aldersgate Street. The next victory was at the election of 
the Sheriffs, "in which the \_Whig\ party proceeded xoith their usual 
insolence and violence" And so say all of us ! 

There had been hitherto no dispute regarding the privilege exer- 
cised by successive Lord Mayors of nominating one of the ensuing 
Sheriffs by drinking to him publicly on an appointed day. It was 
recognized to be an immemorial custom or right : decisive, as the 
choice of one churchwarden for the ensuing year, by the Vicar's 
own solitary nomination, is established in the parish vestries of 
England. Had Sir John Moore thus pledged some noted Whig, such 
as Papillon or Dubois, not one of the faction would for a moment 
have insinuated a doubt of the Lord Mayor's competency to nominate 
the new Sheriff. Nor would any of the Tories have made a riotous 
demonstration in opposition, for it is one marked characteristic of 
Conservatives to accept the inevitable and accomplished fact, for the 
time being, but to do their best to secure victory another time. 

Having awakened to a knowledge of the danger to city and 
country if the aggressiveness of the fanatics continued to receive 
support, Lord Mayor Moore bravely encountered their anger by 
publicly drinking to Dudley North, " a man of very good character 
and interest in the City, and brother to the Lord Chief Justice of 
that name" [Francis North, Lord Guildford]. "This was deemed 
a designation of him to the office of Sheriff, according to the custom 
of the City, which had raised one hundred and fifty thousand pounds 
by the fines of persons who refused to [respond to the] pledge when 
the election came on." It is futile for "Whigs and Radicals to 
defend the rebellious factiousness of 1682 ; which was illegal, as it 
was inefficacious. Out of sheer party-spite the Mayor's right of 
nominating by pledging was disputed. Thomas Papillon and John 
Dubois, the Whig favourites, were put up as candidates ; while 
Ealph Box was named by the loyal party, and the Mayor voted for 
him alone, expressly declaring that Dudley North's position was 
already secured by his having been pledged. All others who voted 
for Box voted also for North. But the clerks had been tampered 
with, and were partizans, believing that the usual tactics would 
succeed. Therefore, the Lord Mayor adjourned the Court to another 
day, in order to get true lists of the liveries, and thus check the foul 
practices. He then left the hall, and was followed by six hundred 
of the loyal voters, who had not yet recorded their votes, because of 
the adjournment. Nevertheless, although illegally, Pilkington and 
Shute, whose Shrievalties were ending, presumed to carry on the 
polling with the one-sided remainder. 



270 The Insubordinate Sheriffs. 

At the appointed time the Lord Mayor resumed the Court. But 
the riotously and illegally voting residuum of the previous day, 
supporters of Papillon and Dubois, came not to the poll, refusing on 
the plea that the matter was settled. The others, who voted for 
North and Box, then came forward, and gave them a majority, so 
that they were declared to have been duly elected. 

Ralph Box, apparently, lacked nerve to withstand the persecution 
of the faction, and preferred to pay his fine of exemption, £500. 
This vacancy was to be filled. Therefore, Peter Rich, " a stout and 
wealthy citizen," was put up as candidate at the next Common 
Hall. Pilkington, Shute, and their partizans insisted that Papillon 
and Dubois were already in possession of rights, as elected formerly, 
and declared that it must first be debated whether they should pro- 
ceed to a fresh choice. Lord Mayor Moore refused to consider as an 
open question the previous illegal polling, continued after he had 
adjourned the court, insomuch that without him no such Common- 
Hall could be held. He then 

" ordered the common-sergeant to propose according to custom that whoever 
were for Mr. Rich should declare their consent by holding up their hands. 
Above five hundred hands were held up, and no negative being put, the 
Mayor being acquainted therewith by the Sergeant, came upon the hustings, 
and declared Mr. Rich chosen Sheriff. The old Sheriffs said, he was not chosen 
by the major part, who had not yet determined whether they would proceed to a 
new choice or no. The Mayor told them, they had nothing to do with holding 
or adjourning the court, and for their mistake in that particular had been lately 
sufferers ; and therefore he hoped they would be wiser than to be guilty of the 
like mistake again : and thereupon, no poll being demanded, he adjourned the 
Court. It looks as if the [ Whig] party had not agreed upon their measures, or 
doubted of their success in this point ; for the Sheriffs [Pilkington and Shute'] met 
in the afternoon, and opened books to confirm the election of Papillon and Dubois. 
The Mayor, hearing of it, sent to them to forbear, and go home. The Sheriffs 
returned for answer that it was none of his work but theirs, and still proceeded. 
The Mayor came himself at five o'clock to Guildhall, and commanded all persons 
to go to their houses, and then went away. The Sheriffs, not afraid of [commit- 
ting] a second riot, continued the poll, and in the end declared Papillon and Dubois 
duly elected." — T. Carte's Life of Ormond, iv. 639. "We use the 1851 edition. 

This was an important contest, and victory here secured other 
triumphs to follow. The successful loyalists did not delay to sound 
their paeans, and could scarcely be expected to avoid exulting over 
the defeated Whigs. They felt no commiseration for the unscrupulous 
foes who had expected to be conquerors and tried their utmost to 
win — but failed. One of the ditties which celebrated the event 
may well be given here. It was sung to the tune of Tom D'Urfey's 
" Joy to the Bridegroom fill the sky ! " i.e. an Epithalamium on the 

marriage of Lady W (a broadside of which is preserved in the 

Pepys Collection, IV. 93, entitled "The Joys of a Vertuous Love; 
or, An Invitation to the happy state of Marriage; " and a duplicate 
in C. 22, e. 2, fol. 131). Compare our pp. 231, and 248 on the tune. 



271 



JLopaltp Crtumpljant, 

£Dn tljt Confirmation of £pi\ North ana $Bu Rich, 
£>j)mff"0 of London ana Middlesex. 

Tune of, Joy to the Bridegroom [Jill the sky! See previous page.] 

Fill up the Bowl, and set it round, 
The day is won, the Sheriffs crown'd ; 
The Rabble flies, the tumults yield, 
And Loyalty maintains the Field ; 

Saint George for England ! then amain 

To Royal Charles the ocean drain ! 6 

With Justice may it ever flow, 

And in an endless circle go ; 

The, brim with conqu'ring Bays be crown'd, 

And Faction in the Dregs lie drown'd : 

Then to the Queen and Royal James 

Sacrifice your flowing Thames. 1 12 

Thanks to Sir John, our good Lord Mayor, 
'Gainst Sheriffs 1 tricks he kept the Chair; 
The Court and City's rights maintains, 
"While headstrong Faction broke the reins : 

Then to the famous Sir John Moore ! 

May after-age that name adore. 18 

What zeal (ye Whigs) to " the Old Cause " 

Thus makes you act against the Laws, 

That none for Sheriffs must contend 

But your old Ignoramus friend ? [=Henry Cornish. 

But now your hopes are all destroy'd, 
And your two Champions laid aside. 24 

Is this your love to Church and State 

That no good man must serve of late, 

While you can find one factious Rogue 

To sway the Poll, and get the vogue ? 

By unjust means your Rights you claim, 

And lawless force maintain the same. 30 



1 Id est, a river-full of wine to the Queen and the Duke, in bumpers, but 

a whole ocean-full to King Charles. 



272 Loyalty Triumphant, in September, 1682. 

But brave Sir John, while th' storms increase, 
His wisdom made the tumults cease ; 
In spight of all illegal Poll, 
The routs and riots did controll : 

When he shall gain a lasting name, 

And after-age Record his Fame. 36 



'o v 



Amongst the men of chiefest worth 
The Vote is given for Loyal North, 
In spight of Pilk\Jngton~\ and Sh[ute~], 
Papillion, and the rabble rout : 

Then to brave North a double dose, 

Who the strong Factions did oppose. 42 

Now Box withdraws, Dubois contends, 
And noble Rich the stage ascends ; 
By legal 'gainst illegal Vote 
The Loyal Tribune they promote : 

Then to brave Rich a help of hand, 

Who the loud tumults did withstand. 48 

For Ropes and Gibbets the next year 

The Whigs (we hope) need not despair ; 

If Rich find Timber (give them scope), 

Brave North will never grudge them Rope : 
Then, to conclude, we '11 crown the Bowl 
With a Health to the K[ing~\ and each Loyal Soul. 

[In White-letter. Date, 29th September, 1682. When re-issued in 1685, the 
name of "Charles'' was changed into " James," in the sixth line, as in other 
ditties, although confusingly. It was a way they had in Covent-Garden.] 

The election of the Tory Sheriffs North and Box (the latter replaced 
by Rich) was in September, 1682. The next Court triumph followed 
swiftly on October 4th. The election of Lord-Mayor gave Sir William 
Pritchard, " the eldest alderman below the chair," his proper posi- 
tion, despite the opposition in favour of T. Gold, Sir H. Tulse and 
H. Cornish. Pritchard gained the show of hands, but a scrutiny was 
demanded on behalf of Cornish by his friends, Francis Jenks, 
Michael Godfrey, and ten others. Ultimately Pritchard was found 
to have 2138 votes, and Cornish only 2093. So success was again 
with the Court party, and a stop put thereby to the iniquitous 
Ignoramus Juries. We are told that " the carrying of these elections 
broke the spirits of the faction in the city, which, now there was an 
end of Ignoramus juries, Shaftesbury thought was no longer a safe 
place of residence. He retired privately from home, and having 
appointed a meeting of the chief persons of quality [Russell, Grey, 
and Essex~\ that were embarked in his measures, at Cassiobury, and 
there concerted what was best to be done, he made a retreat into 



Sir Thomas Pilkington non-Shuted. 273 

Holland." On this flight, and upon his death two months later at 
Amsterdam, we have already written (p. 233). In next Group we 
give a summary of three hitherto unprinted letters, dated February 
168 g-, from Abraham Keck, Thomas Sheppard, and Francis Prince 
to the Countess of Shaftesbury, on the decease of the Earl. 

We need not linger over the legal proceedings against Pilkington 
and Shute, for continuing the Poll after Lord Mayor Moore had 
adjourned the Court ; for which they were summoned before the 
Council, committed to the Tower, for misdemeanour-riot, and bailed 
by friends ; who refused to renew the recognizances when they 
came before the King's Bench bar : so that Pilkington was obliged 
to be bound for Shute, and Shute bound for Pilkington, who 
" could not forbear uttering some passionate expressions of resent- 
ment for being, after all his services, deserted by his party ; which 
now, giving up their game for lost in the City, soon dwindled away 
to nothing." — Ibid., p. 640. 

Secret plotting continued, however, but discovery came before 
the final judgment was declared against the City, and its Charter 
Avas surrendered. The ensuing ballad was issued by the faction when 
their defeat was imminent. It matters little by whom the ironical 
and malicious buffoonery was written. The interest is concentrated 
in the fact that these missiles from either camp were either applauded 
or howled at by the mob, according to their individual bias; and 
at the time in question the Whig was far from being popular or 
acceptable. Sensible men, who had been grumbling not unreason- 
ably at some of the vices and mismanagement of the Court, had by 
this date, 1682, found a worse tyranny exercised by the Revolu- 
tionists. Easy-going citizens were disinclined to exchange King 
Log for King Stork. The threatened return of Puritanical tyranny 
had proved sufficiently hateful to cause the reconciliation of all truly 
moderate men in opposition against it. It was better to endure the 
wastefulness, the effeminacy, and even the brazen wantonness of 
courtiers, than to again feel the harsh travesty of priestcraft exerted 
by the Nonconformist Jack Presbyters, with enforced acceptance 
of their Good Old Cause. 



-=*eecce©e* e 



VOL. V, 



274 



€i)C Citp TBallau, 1682. 

PRepare now, you Cits, your Charter to lose, 
You're caught in a Noose 

That is laid ; 
You 're betray'd, you're betray'd, 
By those Lords you ador'd ; 
Your Sons shall be sold, and your Daughters be p,Joq^ ; 
Your "Wives turn'd to spAuig; : who is that will pity 
Such hungry Baboons, who hare eat up a City ? 8 

Now open your eyes, see your 'Prentices rise, 
Your Wives and your Daughters obey ; 
For the Bucks which they eat 
Were provocative meat, 
For a Brace more their God they'll betray. 
Hang ruling by Law, 'tis weak as a straw, 

When the Sword its sharp point shall advance ; 
Then off with your Coats, and put on your Boots, 

For England is modell'd by France. 17 

A Catholick Prince with an Oath can dispence, 
Whenever his Measures shall alter ; 
Your Shrieves and Lord Mayor 
Shall each have a share 
Of a sanctify'd Popish Halter. 
Hark ! hark ! the time's come, sound trumpet and drum ! 
Do you wonder? 
'Tis the Guards who doe wait 

At the base City-Gate, 
And want but the Word for to Plunder. 27 

London, Printed Anno Domini 1682. 
[White-letter. No woodcut. Reprinted in 1689.] 

Our Roxhtirghe Ballads show the gross folly and wickedness of those 
who conspired for an armed insurrection, with Russell, Trenchard, 
Essex, Hampden, and the few more of eminent station ; or for a 
cowardly murder of the King along with his brother the Duke of 
York, followed by a new Commonwealth republic, projected by such 
as Walcot, Rumsey, and their Cromwellian allies. Before reaching 
these ballads on Russell, Essex, Algernon Sydney, and Sir Thomas 
Armstrong, let us here give the earlier song of exultation on the 
Instalment of Sir John Moore, the Lord Mayor who was in power 
before the Bye-House Plot was discovered. The tune named, St. 
George for England, had been a favourite revival at the time of the 
Restoration. It was used for a burlesque ditty in licentious praise 
of Jane Shore, " Why should we boast of Lais and her Knights ? " 



C 'est le Moore, qui fait le monde va rond. 275 

The original St. George ballad had began, "Why should we boast 
of Arthur and his Knights?" There was a political "Second Part" 
issued in 1660, in honour of George Monk, by the Cavaliers. Eut 
this, beginning, "Now the Rump is confounded, There's an end of 
the Roundhead," is to a different tune and burden, viz., To drive the 
cold Winter away. (See Rump Songs, 1662, ii. 159.) A veritable 
Second Part of "St. George for England" was written by John 
Grubb, schoolmaster of Christ-Church, Oxford, and sold there by 
Henry Clement, 1688. Entitled " The British Heroes," it began, 

The story of King Arthur bold is very memorable ; 
The number of his valiant Knights, and roundness of his Table. 
The Knights around his Table in a circle sate, d'ye see, 
And altogether made up one large hoop of Chivalry. &c. 

The Tune of St. George for England is in Popular Music, p. 287. 

Sir George Jeffereys is joined with Sir John Moore in the lively 
chorus, on account of the Civic Charter. Ex-Mayor Sir Patience 
Ward, with his former Sheriffs, Slingsby Bethel and Henry Cornish 
(all of them being unscrupulous Whigs of the most malignant type), 
are treated with no more clemency in the ballad than they deserved. 
"Use every man after his desert, and who shall 'scape Whipping?" 
asks our wise Dane. Why, certainly, not Patience Ward, or Slingsby 
Bethel, or Henry Cornish. "Sir Bob" Clayton, who had been 
Mayor in 1679, preceding Ward, and " Sir Tom " Player, the City 
Chamberlain, had fully earned the right of being well flagellated by 
the satirist, like this precious triumvirate: Which no body can deny! 
except the most prejudiced of wrong-headed politicians. 

Every statement of Gilbert Burnet is coloured and distorted both 
by his personal dislikes and his sectarian or political bigotry, con- 
sequently not one word of his can be received sine grano. His 
account of Moore's election is darkened by his remembrance of the 
later movements in regard to North and Box, but is worth notice, 
if only for its admissions of party-tactics. We feel sure that where 
he admits Whigs to have been weak, they must have been very 
culpable. They left no individual freedom to their own partizans, 
thus they coerced Moore until they lost him as an ally. Burnet says, 

" The Court had carried the election of Sir John Moor to be mayor of the city 
of Loudon at Michaelmas 'Eighty-one. He was the alderman on whom the election 
fell in course. Yet some who knew him well were for setting him aside, as one 
whom the Court would easily manage. Re had been a non- conformist himself, 
till he grew so rich that he had a mind to go through the dignities of the city : but 
though be conformed to the Church, yet he was still looked on as one that in his 
heart favoured the sectaries ; and upon this occasion he persuaded some of their 
preachers to go among their congregations to get votes for him. Others, who 
knew him to be a flexihle and faint-hearted man, opposed his election : yet it was 
carried for him. The opposition that was made to his election had sharpened him 
so much that he became in all things compliant to the Court, in particular to 
Secretary Jenkins, who took him into his own management." — Own Time, 347. 



276 

[British Museum Collection, Press-mark, 1872, a 1. fol. 40.] 

Wfot 3U ftop : or, JUnoon's 3Joj>. 

SI RTtuj Sonp; on tTjc Instalment of tfjc present Eort) j/Haiior of 
London [Sir John Moore, 29 October, 1681.] 

To the Tune of, St.'jGeorge for England. 

YOu London Lads rejoyce, and cast away your Care, 
Since with one Heart and Voice Sir John is chosen Mayor ; 
The famous Sir John Moore, Lord Mayor of London Town, 
To your eternal praise, shall stand a Subject of Renown, 
Amongst your famous "Worthies who have been most esteem'd ; 
For Sir John, Sir John your Honour hath redeem'd. 

Sir John he's for the King's Right, ivhich Rebels wou'd destroy ; 
Yive, Vive, Vive le Roy. 8 

When with a Hide-bound Mayor 1 the Town was in distraction, 

Sir John leapt in the Chair, and cur'd the Hall of Faction : 

He to the People shew'd their Duty and Allegiance ; 

How to the Sacred King and Laws they pay their due Obedience. 

Sir George unto the People a Loyal Speech did give ; 

But Sir John, Sir John your Honour did retrieve. 

Sir John is for Allegiance, which Rebels icou'd destroy. 

Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy. 1 G 

When thou wast lost, Oh London, in Faction and Sedition, 

By Whigs and Zealots undon, while they were in Commission : 

When Treason, like Old JVoll's Brigade, did gallop through the Town, 

And Loyalty, a tired Jade, had cast her Rider down ; 

The Famous Sir George Jeffreys your Charter did maintain; 

But Sir John, Sir John restor'd thy Fame again. 

Sir John is for the Monarchy, which Rebels looiCd destroy. 

Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy. 24 

When th' Mayor with Sheriffs mounted, sad jealousies contriv'd, 

And all the Town run after, as if the Devil driv'd, 

Then famous Sir John Moore thy Loyalty restor'd, 

And noble Sir George Jeffreys, who did thy Acts record ; 

Sir George of all thy Heroes deserves the foremost place : 

But Sir John, Sir John hath got the Sword and Mace. 

Sir John is for Justice, which Rebels ivou'd destroy. 

Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy. 32 

1 Moore's predecessor Sir Patience Ward, chosen at Michaelmas, 1G80, with 
the Whig Sheriffs Slingsby Bethel and Henry Cornish. See p. 278. 



Vive le Roi ; or, Loudon's Joy. 277 

Sir Pa[tience Ward'] wou'd have the Court submit unto the City, 
Whitehall stoop to the ' Change, and is not that a pity ? 
Sh[eriff Bethel'] (save Allegiance) thinks nothing a Transgression: 
Sir Tom rails at the lawful Prince, Sir Bob at the Succession : 
"While still the brave Sir George does their Fury interpose, 
But Sir John, Sir John maintains the Royal Cause. 

Sir John he's for his Highness, whom Rebels ivou'd destroy. 

Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy. 40 

Sir Pa[tience] for a Parliament, Sh[eriff] Be[thel] a Petition, 

Instead of an Address, cram'd brimful of Sedition. 

Sir Tom he is for Liberty, against Prerogative, [Player. 

Sir Bob is for the Subject's Right, but will no Justice give, [Clayton. 

And brave Sir George does all their Famous Deeds record ; 

But Sir John, Sir John your Loyalty restor'd. 

Sir John he'' s for the Interest which Rebels ivou'd destroy. 

Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy. 48 

Sir Pa[tience] he calls for Justice, and then the Wretch will sham us ; 
Sh[eriff] Be\thel] he packs a Jury well vers'd in Iynoramus : 
Sir Tom wou'd hang the Tory, and let the Whig go free ; 
Sir Bob wou'd have a Commonwealth, and cry down Monarchy. 
While still the brave Sir George does all their Deeds record. 
But Sir John, Sir John your Loyalty restor'd. 

Sir John he is for Justice, which Rebels won' d destroy . 

Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy. 50 

And may such loyal Mayors as honest Sheriffs find : 

Such Sheriffs find a Jury will to the King be kind. 

And may the King live long, to rule such People here ; 

And may he such a Lord Mayor find, and Sheriffs every year ! 

That Traytors may receive the Justice of the Laws, 

While Sir John, Sir John maintains the Royal Cause. 

Sir John is for the King still, whom Rebels wou'd destroy. 

Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy. 64 

London, Printed for Allen Banks. 

[In White-letter. No woodcut. Date, 27th October, 1681.] 

On the 28th October, 1681, Sir John Moore, being the Mayor elect, took the 
Oaths at Guildhall. Next day he was " sworn before the Barons of the Exchequer 
at Westminster, whither he went by water, accompanied by the late Lord Mayor 
[Sir Patience Ward], the Aldermen and Sheriffs of the city [Henry Cornish and 
Slingsby Bethel], and attended by the several companies in the Barges, and then 
returned again by water, and landed at Blackfryer'i stairs, and from thence 
passed to Guildhall, with the usual solemnity. Their Majesties, attended with 
many of the nobility and prisons of quality, were pleased to see the Show, and 
then went to Guildhall, and did the City the honour to dine there; their enter- 
tainment was very splendid and magnificent: and in the evening their Majesties 
returned to Whitehall very well pleased, amidst the repeated acclamations of the 
people, which were very great both at their entrance into the City, and departure." 



278 Scan. Mag. and Perjury expensive luxuries. 

Mention has been made frequently of Sir Patience Ward, the 
" Occasional-Conformist " (but sectary at heart, who hypocritically 
took the sacrament to qualify himself for holding the offices of 
Sheriff in 1670 and Lord Mayor in 1680). When sharp retribution 
fell upon those who in their plenitude of power had reviled and 
calumniated the Duke of York, the notorious offenders Clayton and 
Pilkington were not forgotten. Sir Patience Ward found a conve- 
nient memory, for what he choose to recollect, and a still more 
convenient forgetfulness of what might have been awkward to put 
in evidence. So he swore, among other things, that he had been 
present on a certain occasion, and had not heard — or could not 
remember to have heard spoken — the libellous words of Alderman 
Pilkington defamatory of the Duke of York as " a Papist, who had 
already caused London to be set on fire [in 1666], and would now 
return to cut all their throats." l Pilkington having been con- 
demned to pay a ruinous fine, £100,000, Sir Patience Ward was 
put on his trial for open and premeditated perjury. Paying money 
was especially unpleasant to this friend of Clayton — who had raised 
a fortune by fleecing prodigal young spendthrifts, mortgaging their 
estates at usurious interest, and who only bestowed largesse on an 
hospital by way of nest-egg to obtain profitable controul of its 
finances, or reputation as a saintly benefactor among those whose 
votes might help him to some fresh investment. Not liking the 
prospect of pillory, imprisonment, or payment of the fine and- costs, 
he fled in May, 1683, to that refuge for the destitute of moral 
worth or reputation, Holland. The following unmerciful piece of 
ridicule appeared as a Loyal Song in his dispraise. If it wearisomely 
rings the changes on the word " Patience," we must remember how 
deservedly hypocrisy was despised, after recent exposures. 

The 5th verse names Pomfret, vel Pontefract, previously represented 
by Patience Ward in successive Parliaments. (Compare p. 207, 
" Pomfret eloquence " signifying Ward's harangues.) 



1 The Duke of York had proceeded against Sir Thomas Pilkington, the late 
Sheriff, for Scandalum magnatum, on the information of Sir "William Hooker and 
Sir Henry Tulse, both aldermen. Pilkington' s reported words were "He [the 
Duke of York] had burnt the city, and was now come [home from Scotland] to 
cut the citizens' throats." No wonder that the Duke resented the insult, and 
sought by legal process to punish his assailant. The case was tried on the 24th 
November, 1682, before a Jury of Hertfordshire, at the King's Eench Bar, and 
Pilkington was cast for the full damages, the sum being one hundred thousand 
pounds. He surrendered in discharge of his bail on the 28th. Sir Patience 
Ward had been present at the time when the scandalous words were alleged to 
have been uttered, but he swore that, to the best of his remembrance, he did not 
hear them. Legal evidence having been accepted, of his presence, and of the 
utterance of the words before him, he in turn was prosecuted for perjury, with 
condemnation to fine and pillory ; on which he took flight to Holland. 



279 

$ue and g>ong after patience SSJartK 

To the Tune of, Hail to the Myrtle Shades. [See our later p. 422.] 

A LI hail to London'' s fair Town ! Hail to theMayor and the Shrieves! 
Hail to the Scarlet Gown ! whose sentence our Patience grieves: 
Justice and Law hath prevail'd, with Patience a Yerdict to find, 
'(jixin&t Patience, whose conscience fail'd; OlxPatience! why art so blind? 

Patience, the joy of the Town, the comfort and hope of the crowd ; 
Patience, who got great renown, by Perjury, Lies and Fraud : 
Patience who ne'er had the heart his Sovereign's rights to maintain ; 
But Patience he had the art to swear and forswear again. 

Patience for Church and for State, and Patience for Meeting by stealth ; 
Patience, who would translate the State to a Commonwealth. 
Whose Zeal has his Patience betray'd, to lie for the Saints in distress; 
Nay, tho' he 's forsworn ('t is said), he swore he could do no less. 

Patience whose Zeal did contrive the Monument, figures and spire, 
That while there 's a Papist alive, we may not forget the Fire : 
The Pillory now is his Lot, he has rais'd such a flame with his Crew, 
That London is now too hot : Oh Patience ! where art thou now ? 

Patience, for Zeal to the Cause, did preach to the Captives in gaol ; 
Patience, with great applause, gave large to an LLospital : 
To Use now his Money may lend, for Pomfret he '11 no more stand, 
Nor Warrants for Thompson send, to please Titus o' th'Perjur'dBand. 

Patience, with Collar of Brass, to woful disasters did fall, 
Patience, with Copper Face, and a Conscience worse than all ; 
To Holland, to LLolland he goes ; for plainly now it appears, 
That (in spight of all Wliiggish Laws,) Lynoramus can't save his Ears. 

Some say that the Saints may not Swear, but Lie ev'n as much as 

they can ; 
Yet Patience in spight on 's Ears, will swear and forswear again ; 
That Patience should be so far lost, Alas ! who with patience can bear? 
That a Saint should be Knight o' th'Posl, and an Elder without an ear. 

Let ev'ry good Subject with me, who Patience a Yirtue doth praise, 

Lest he fall into Perjury, with Patience pray for more grace. 

But now I with Patience have done, lest with Patience I keep such 

a rant, 
That astray more with Patience I run, and weary your Patience out. 

[White-letter. No woodcuts. Printed fur Nat. Thompson, May, 1683.] 



280 Block ugly Balls, aim'd straight at your Wickets ! 

The influence of Shaftesbury (still alive at the date of both these 
ditties, " The Loyal Scot," and " The Artillery Feast,") is recognized 
in Torn D'Urfey's more celebrated " Advice to the City, sung to 
the King at "Windsor," late in 1682, wherein we read, "And Tony 
their Speaker the Rabble leads on, For he knows if we prosper 
away he must run ; " and his American estates in Carolina were 
plainly indicated as the only home remaining for him. His own 
thoughts had turned thither, when imprisoned in the Tower, and 
anticipating a fatal termination to his trial (see p. 76). This 
"Advice to the City " was the song which so interested the King- 
that he himself held one end of the music-sheet along with D'Urfey, 
who sang it, and Charles rested his arm familiarly on Tom's 
shoulder. His Majesty held formal etiquette in contempt, and 
could always unbend cheerfully. His own well-bred ease and his 
unaffected kindness did much to retain the affection of his people. 
That he laughed heartily at the Whigs was natural, for they had 
always been full of hypocritical pretence of superior sanctity, and 
stood in opposition to his every wish. The time was drawing near 
when sharper weapons than melodious raillery would be needed for 
employment, against those who sought to deprive him alike of throne 
and of life. 

Here, then, is Tom D'Urfey's " Advice to the City," so recently 
factious and rebellious, which was fast recovering its sober senses. 
Thus Narcissus Luttrell notes, early in March, 168J;, "The tempers 
of men are much altered to what they were within this twelemonth, 
most now seeming Tories." Luttrell was so strongly biassed to- 
wards "Whiggery that he creduously accepted whatever statements 
told against the Court, howsoever void of truth they might be, and 
yielded faith to the plausible boasts of the "Liberty" clamour in the 
city. Therefore we may safely accept his concession as to revival 
of loyalty. It is unimpeachable testimony. 

The music had been previously composed by Signior Opdar, and 
Tom D'Urfey was evidently more than usually proud of having 
written this particular ditty. Alluding to the incident already 
mentioned, he thirty-seven years afterwards continued to print a 
notice in his Pills to Pur ye Melancholy, i. 246, 1719 : — " Advice to 
the City, a famous Song, set to a Tune of Signior Opdar, so remark- 
able that I had the Honour to sing it with King Charles at Windsor ; 
He holding one part of the Paper with me." . Like Browning's 
Peter Eonsard, quoting the third Satire of Persius, Tom D'Urfey 
might have said, 

Venienti occurite morbo ! 

With which moral I drop my theorho. 



281 



2it)trice to ti)e Cttp. 

[Bo QTom Q'mrfrn.] 

£>tmg to tfjt &tng at ££lmo£or, to a CDcovuo* 

REmember ye Whigs what was formerly done, 
Remember your mischiefs in Forty-and- One ; 
When friend oppos'd friend, and Father the Son. 
Then, then your Old Cause went rarely on : 
The Cap sat aloft, and low was the Crown ; 
The Rabble got up and the Nobles went down ; 
Lay Elders in Tubs rul'd Bishops in Robes, 

Who mourn'd the sad fate, and dreadful disaster, 

Of their Royal Master, by Rebels betraid. 9 

Chorus : Then London be wise and baffle their poiver, 
And let 'em play the Old Game no more ; 
Hang, hang up the Sh[rieves], those Baboons in power, 
Those popular Thieves, those Rats of the Tower, 
Whose canting tale the Rabble believes ; 
In a hurry, and never sorry : merrily they go on : 
Fy for shame, we're too tame, since they claim 

The Combat : 
Tan tarrararra, Tan tarrararra, Bub a dub, let the Drumbeat, 
The strong Militia guards the Throne. 19 

"When Faction possesses the Popular Voice, 

The Cause is supply'd still with Nonsense and Noise, 

And Tony their Speaker the Rabble leads on, 

For he knows if we prosper that he must run ; 

Carolina must be his Station of ease, [South Carolina, see p. 7G. 

And London be rid of her worst disease : 

From Plots and from Spies, from Treason and Lies, 

We shall ever be free, and the Law shall be able 

To punish a Rebel as cunning as he. 

CnoKirs : Then London be icise, and baffle their poiver, 

And let 'em play the Old Game no more ; etc. 38 

Rebellion ne're wanted a Loyal pretence, 

These Villains swear all 's for the good of their Prince ; 

Oppose our Elections to show what they dare, 

And losing their Charter arrest the Mayor ; 



282 Notes to Tom D'Urfey's " Advice to the City." 

Fool Je\nhs] was the Captain of the Cuckoldy Crew, 1 
"With Ell[is], z and Jea[_kyl~\, 3 and II[oublon~] the Jew ; 4 
Fam'd Sparks of the Town for wealth and renown, 
Give the Devil his due ! and such as, we fear, 
Had our Sovereign been there, had arrested him too. 

CiroRUS : Then London, be ivise and baffle their poicer, 

And let 'em play the Old Game no more ; Etcetera. 57 

[In White-letter. No -woodcut. Date, late in 1682 : between the riotous arrest 
of Lord Mayor Pritchard by the ex-Sheriffs Papillon and Shute, 1st July, 
1682, and the flight of Shaftesbury in November, the same year.] 

1 "Fool Jc "is the designation of Francis Jenks, who was fined three 

hundred marks on 26th June, 1683, for his connection with Thomas Papillon's 
riotous arrest of Lord Mayor Pritchard on 1st July, 1682 ; and for which violence 
Papillon was cast with 10,000/. damages, and went into the Marshalsea. 

2 Alderman Ellis, a merchant, of St. Paul's Churchyard, was one of the "Whig 
inspectors of the disputed Poll, at beginning of October, 1682 ; along with 
Player, Leonard Robinson (chosen Civic Chamberlain in 1689), and Jenks, who 
met together and dined on the strength of the contest. He had been one of 
the rioters at Guildhall, with Henry Cornish and John Trenchard in the 
previous summer. 

3 << j ca " i s intended for Jelcyl : not the Rev. Thomas Jekyl, who was 

to have preached the Whig Feast Sermon at St. Michael's, Cornhill, on April 
21st, 1682 ; but his kinsman, known as John Jekyl the elder, who was lined 
two hundred marks, on the occasion mentioned in Note 1, in the Court of King's 
Bench, along with Tho. Pilkington (500/.), Samuel Shute, Sir Thomas Player, 
Henry Cornish, Richard Goodcnough (under-Skeriff and afterwards informer), 
Ford Lord Grey of Werk, etc. 

* " JT the Jew" is Aaron Houblon or Hoblon, one of the brothers 

Houblon, Abraham, Isaac, and James. In 1679 their house was in Winchester 
Street. Houblon is mentioned in a Loyal Song of October, 1682, called 
" London's Triumph, or, the Instalment [= Installation] of Sir William Pritchard 
as Lord Mayor for the ensuing year; " to the tune of Tangier March. It begins, 
" Let the Whigs revile, the Tories smile." The fourth verse is as follows, 

Let Ward repent, and Jenks relent, their practice so malicious, 
Let Eubland rue, with all the crew, that they were so officious ; 
Such Jews as these, who did deny their Saviour for a Tester, 
No doubt again would crucify their Sovereign Lord and Master. 

Compare our p. 165 for the opening verse. Here is another, the third, from the 
same ditty, ridiculing the City Chamberlain, Sir Thomas Player : — 

Let Player Tom receive the doom, so long due for his cheating, 
Who did purloin the City coyn, to keep up holy Meeting ; 
To rob the Orphan and the Poor his great discharge of trust is, 
And run upon the Widows' score, to do the City justice. 

He is elsewhere accused of having held an intrigue with Sir Robert Clayton's 
wife, and invited to renew it at Camberwell, instead of at Mother Cresswell's : — 

Player may meet his Mistress here, sometimes Sir Robert's wife, 
They free from care in joys may share ; it may prolong one's life. 



283 



C6e iRgoIDouse Pot. 

" Dost thou not feci thy counsels all laid open? 
And see thy wild Conspiracy hound in ■ 
With each man's knowledge ? Which of all this order 
Can'st thou think ignorant (if they will but utter 
Their conscience to the right) of what thou didst 
Last night, what on the former, where thou wert, 
Whom thou didst call together, what your Plots were ? 
age and manners ! this the consul sees, 
The senate understands, yet this man lives ! " 

— Ben Jonson's Catiline s Conspiracy, iv. 3. 1611. 

_L N pleasant Hertfordshire there are few places more tempting to 
the wandering student of history, the angler, or the idle lover of 
holiday-making, than the celebrated " Rye-House," beside the 
river Lea, near Hoddesdon. Little of the ancient moated manor- 
house remains, and that little bears the mark of change, since the 
days when its name was first associated with the Assassination Plot 
of the maltster, Richard Rurnbold, and his reckless companions. 
Discovery of their intentions caused a strong revulsion of national 
feeling, and gave an excuse for eight executions, including those 
of Lord "William Russell and Sir Thomas Armstrong; also, through 
the treachery of Howard and folly of Monmouth, the death of 
the far nobler Algernon Sydney. Four years earlier, unchecked, 
and exulted over, had been the judicial murder of many Catholics, 
priests and laymen, innocent of all crime except an attempt to 
inform others with a knowledge of the faith they fully believed to 
be true : singly they were hunted down to death, or slain in batches, 
with all accompaniments of disgusting cruelty upon the scaffold. 
These men had been sacrificed on the worthless testimony of the 
basest perjurers and convicts, wretches wholly despicable, outcasts 
of jails, often framed in the pillories ; for such were Titus Oates 
and Bedloe, " Don Dangerfeldo," whose whole existence had been 
a warfare against society, and the dishonest debtor Stephen Dugdale, 
who sought the ruin of each former benefactor. These " Evidences" 
and " Knights of the Post," these self-contradicting and forsworn 
denouncers of the Jesuits, had been encouraged in their hateful 
trade by the very demagogues who now had leagued themselves 
together for insurrection, and some few for murder. Three years 
before, the voice of Russell had been loud in demanding ruthless 
execution of the injured Stafford. "Who but Hampden, Grey of 
Werk, Monmouth, with all his coterie under the guidance of the 
moribund Shaftesbury, had been clamorous for exclusion of the 
Duke of York from the succession ; but later they were united with 
a gang of miscreants, whom accident alone had hindered from 
murdering at once both James of York and the King Charles his 
brother (known as "The Blackbird" and "The Goldfinch"): so 



284 First Proclamation ; against Ramsey and Wakot. 

to bring back a triumph of The Good Old Cause, that props itself on 
Rebellion, Regicide, and a Republic. 

The news flew fast through London that another Plot had been 
discovered ; a true Plot this time, not a lie, like that which had 
been laid in accusation against Jesuit Pickering, of making an 
attempt to shoot the King while he walked leisurely through St. 
James's Park. Pickering had never fired a gun or pistol in all his life, 
and the charge should have been dismissed as too ridiculous for 
belief, while unsupported by any credible witnesses or independent 
proof. Put men who had begun to understand how mad and silly 
had been their credulity in regard to the sham " Popish-Plot,'' now 
found reason to believe that a worse conspiracy existed in their 
midst, and that the country had but narrowly escaped from a 
renewal of anarchy commenced by murder. 

The first public notice was a proclamation for the apprehension 
of unimportant persons, with an old Cromwellian irrecoucileable, 
Colonel John Rumsey, 1 who was believed to be brave and rash, even 
to temerity, but not hitherto accounted treacherous or dishonest ; 
Richard Nelthorp, a disaffected lawyer, of Republican principles ; 
Nathaniel alias Edward Wade, another barrister; Richard Rumbold; 
Richard Goodenough (former under-Sheriff to Bethel and Cornish), 
the person whom they chose to riotously arrest the Lord-Mayor 
Pilkington, a few months earlier; Captain Thomas Walcot, an Irish 
gentleman, asserted to be worth a thousand a year, who had accom- 
panied Shaftesbury to Holland, six months before, and had in 
February brought over his corpse for burial ; also three persons of 
less account, William Thompson, a carver, of Wapping, Whitechapel, 
James Burton, cheesemonger, of the same locality, with William 
Hone, the Joiner. They were accused of conspiring the death of 
the King. A hundred pounds reward was offered for the apprehension 
of each, in this first proclamation ; issued on the 23rd of June. 

A few days earlier, some whispers had passed cautiously among 
persons friendly to the Court that one Josiah Keeling, a Salter, 
belonging to the Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate, had been 
examined before George Legge, Earl of Dartmouth, and Sir Lionel 
Jenkins, Secretary of State. Keeling had sworn that some forty 
persons were banded together in conspiracy of Murder, and had 
named several lawyers, Wade, Nelthorp, and especially Robert 
West of the Middle Temple, barrister, beside the two brothers 

1 "We retain the customary spelling of the Colonel's name as Rumsey : but he 
himself signed it " Romzey." We hold it to be mere pedantry to alter accepted 
compromises in regard to old appellations, otherwise we should certainly have used 
what appears to be the correct form, Romzey. In all except State-papers, the 
other form was employed, as it is now. Need it be said that spelling was still 
loose and unsettled ? Maxtield vel Macclesfield ; Gerrard, Gerard, or Gerald, 
taken indiscriminately. It was known who was meant, which was sufficient. 



London Coffee-houses debate the Discovery. 285 

Rumball or Rumbold, Richard and William ; also that known fire- 
brand of mischief, the late under-sheriff, Richard Goodenough. 
Moreover, Josiah Keeling's single testimony being held lightly in 
esteem, while unsupported; he had two days later confirmed the 
same by bringing his brother John Keeling, a Turner, of St. Anne's, 
Blackfriars. Together they had sworn informations against Good- 
enough, with implications against West. When next day the name 
of Lord William Russell was boldly mentioned, as one of the "persons 
of quality" concerned in the projected insurrection, the matter began 
to look serious. On the 23rd, Josiah Keeling was examined at 
Hampton Court before his Majesty, as was also lawyer AVest, who 
had now surrendered himself to Sir George Jeffereys. The first 
Proclamation was issued at this time. (See, more fully detailed, our 
later p. 303 ; and description of Richard Rumbold, p. 309.) 

Next day Colonel Rumsey was brought in, to be examined by Sir 
Leoline Jenkins, and two days later judgment was delivered in the 
Pilkington and Shute case of riot, involving a fine of 500 marks to 
the otherwise incriminated Richard Goodenough. Lord Chief- 
Justice Saunders had died a week earlier, and Raymond was 
absent from tbis King's Bench decision. The numerous fines 
inflicted on Whig rioters were a sufficient subject of talk at the 
coffee-houses, but even this topic less excited the politicians than 
the intelligence that Colonel Algernon Sydney (elder brother of 
Robert Earl of Leicester and of Henry Sydney, our representative 
to the States) was already arrested. Algernon, with Major John 
Wildman, and Bedford's son, Lord William Russell, were committed 
to the Tower for High Treason. Boastful talkers, who had usually 
been noisy, were observed to look strangely nervous and affrighted, 
slinking out from back-doors, and with bated breath peering 
suspiciously round every corner, as though they feared a constable 
with his warrant there awaited them. Parties of men belonging to 
the London Militia, under the command of trusty officers, were 
going from house to house in search of arms ; and not without 
success, it was reported. When darkness fell, few persons cared 
to venture into the ill-lighted and dirty streets, ankle-deep in mud 
after some three weeks of incessant rain. But it was believed that 
several of the few were attempting to escape pursuit of justice. 
The taverns were nearly empty, and scarcely any of the seditious 
club-men dared to rally over their thin potations, who had been of 
late so swaggering and full of threats that " True-Blue Protestants 
were going to make a clearance in both Court and City." The 
noisiest of them were now seeking opportunity to gain reward and 
pardon by betrayal of companions. 

It was noticed in the theatres that every word which spoke a 
loyal sentiment obtained a quick burst of applause, and that, though 
the audience might be few in number, they were more in harmony 



286 Second Proclamation : against Monmouth and Grey. 

with the actors than had been seen for a long time. The actresses 
did their best to look bewitching ; but mourned the absence of the 
Court, although the King had returned from Windsor to "Whitehall. 
Some chill seemed to deaden the mirth, for everybody suspected 
that assassins were lurking in the lobbies, or arrests were threatened : 

O'er all there hung a shadow and a fear; 
A sense of mystery the spirit daunted, 
And said, as plain as whisper to the ear, 
" The place is haunted ! " 

That such loyal subjects as the actors could not banish dangerous 
characters from their houses, coming there for mischief with pretence 
of seeking amusement, was understood, when the new Bull-fight 
Theatre in Red-Lion-field's artillery ground was at this date pro- 
hibited from being opened for performance of the Spanish butcheries, 
because they might gather crowds, whom conspirators would lead to 
insurrection. 

Another proclamation, on the 28th of June, showed how widely 
spread were the seditious practices, since it offered 500/. reward 
for the apprehension of the Duke of Monmouth, of Ford, Lord Grey, 
of Sir Thomas Armstrong, and of Robert Ferguson, a man who had 
been engaged in every seditious plot of late, writing libels, Appeals 
from the City to the Country, an account of the Blaclc-Box proofs of 
Monmouth's legitimacy, pamphlets on The Growth of Popery and 
Arbitrary Government; yet who managed strangely to slip out of 
every imbroglio, and escape to Holland or back again, whensoever 
he pleased, through the fingers of those who were ostensibly com- 
missioned to arrest him. He had in the November previous gone 
to Amsterdam with Shaftesbury, and written often to his wife in 
London, most effusively as his "dear heart," his "best beloved," 
" his soul's treasure," with an infinity of pious sentences, and 
expressions of anxiety about her safety, combined with medical 
recipes (probably as disguise, in case the letters were opened, which 
he addressed to be kept for her at certain coffee-houses). It was not 
likely that so zealous a plotter, who contrived always to leave his 
friends to bear the punishment of their association with his crimes, 
would be seriously endangered, and grace a gibbet yet awhile ; 
although so highly valued with the rest "for conspireing the death 
of the King and the Duke of York, to levy men and make an 
insurrection." He must have felt it to be a delicate mark of flattery, 
the setting so large a sum as 500/. upon his clever plotting head. 
It felt steady on his shoulders, nevertheless. Others w r ould fall, 
no doubt, but not Robert Ferguson's. 

Men remembered already that he was the Judas of Dryden's lines, 
in the Second Part of Absalom and Aehitophel, 1682. He had 
managed a private press for seditious papers, and was always 
engaged in feverish plots and pamphlet-writing. Greedy for money, 



Robert Ferguson, the " Judas " of glorious John. 287 

which never seemed long to benefit him, he bore many an alias, 
" Eoberts" being one. He was ready to descend to any depth, and 
knew exactly what amount of virulence was sure to please the 
vilest politicians. He had manufactured accounts of ghosts, of 
portents, and of miraculous cures from the disease called King's- 
Evil, to bolster the cause of Monmouth, at the bidding of Shaftesbury. 
In his own plotting brain had been conceived and matured the 
story that Bess Freeman, the Maid of Hatfield, saw the apparition 
of Lucy Walter; how another Bess, Elizabeth Parcet, had received 
Monmouth's regal " touch," and had been cleansed satisfactorily ; 
how Monmouth's sister, Mrs. Fanshawe, successfully imitated his 
walk and conversation ! When Declarations were deemed necessary, 
on beginning a riot or Civil War, who so ready with his pen as 
Robert Ferguson ? He possessed considerable literary ability, was 
accomplished in disguises, had a glib command of religious common- 
places, and canting vehemence that suited extreme Sectaries. But 
he was utterly unscrupulous, untrustworthy. We feel convinced 
that he was more than once playing a double game, deceiving his 
rebellious associates by revealing their schemes prematurely, and 
yet jockeying the Government with false information, more often 
than with true. Innumerable were his escapes, his disguises, his 
journeyings. His reappearance was, like that of a stormy petrel, 
a certain sign of bad weather to other voyagers. We have seen 
him as the comrade of Shaftesbury's last days at Amsterdam, 
assiduous at his death-bed, but drawing towards the exiled noble- 
man little favour and much suspicion from the Dutch citizens. 
After the Bye-House-Plot has destroyed many of the conspirators, 
we shall meet him again, as the tempter of Monmouth, to involve 
himself in Argyle's schemes ; as the decoy of other Scotchmen ; as 
companion to Lyme for the Western Insurrection, and writer of the 
infamous Proclamation which accused the reigning king of fratricide : 
thus making any pardon of the ill-starred " Perkin " impossible. 
After Sedgemoor, we shall see that Ferguson, instead of being 
hanged, obtains a free pardon : for reasons known to Sunderland and 
James the Second, whom he had ostensibly reviled and outraged. 
It is impossible to believe in his honesty, yet he was too noxiously 
restless to be nothing more than a betrayer of the men whom he 
continually excited to rebellion. At every shift of garments, at 
every turn of Fortune's wheel, at every shipwreck of his party, 
this wily nomad contrived to find a spar, and slip out from the 
whirlpool, carrying plunder to some place of safety : not long to 
abide there, or to rest. As already said, he was known as "Jadas:" 

Shall that false Hebronitc escape our curse ; [ = Scotchman. 

Judas, that keeps the Rebels' pension-purse, 
Judas, that pays the treason-writer's fee, 
Judas, that well deserves his name-sake's Tree ? 



288 " The Trail of the Serpent is over them all" in 1683. 

The Hue and Cry description, in the London Gazette of August 
2nd to August 6th, 1683, brings the schemer clearly to our view : 
— '■'■Robert Ferguson, a tall lean man, dark brown hair, a great 
Roman nose, thin jawed, heat in his face, speaks in the Scotch tone, 
a sharp piercing eye, stoops a little in the shoulders. He has a 
shuffling gait, that differs from all men, wears his periwig down 
almost over his eyes; about 45 or 46 years old." It needed a 
clever masquerader to overcome the blazonry of such peculiarities, 
but the kenspeckle Scot could double on pursuers and wear a lamb's- 
fleecc wben necessary. It is, however, declared authoritatively that 
the publicly naming Ferguson in the June 28 Proclamation was 
deceptive ; for Legat the messenger who held the warrants had been 
ordered by the Secretary, Sir Lionel Jenkins, on no account to 
apprehend that wily Scotch conspirator, but to pass him by as if 
unseen wherever he might be met. There is good reason to believe 
this statement to be true ; Ferguson being a serviceable Jackal, 
whose movements could only endanger those who associated with 
him. 1 If he did not actually betray them for reward (which may 
have been, for he was always needing money), he certainly indirectly 
guided pursuers. He was more useful to the Government while 
himself at large, seducing men into transparent plots with noisy 
demonstration, than he could ever have been if turned into an open 
witness or king's evidence, like his ambiguous countryman the 

1 Robert Ferguson confessed, or boasted, to Zechariah Bourne, that he was 
himself " the author of those two Libels, viz., A Letter about the Black Box [see 
our vol. iv. pp. 624 to 627 J, and A Letter concerning his Majestic' s Declaration 
"tbat Monmouth was illegitimate] : that as he walked in the fields at that time 
"April, 1680], the Discourse was about the Black Box, it came into his mind to 
write about it, which he did in an Ale-house in Chancery -Lane, and that after- 
wards when his Majestie's Declaration came out concerning the Duke oiMonmouth, 
he finding no body took notice of it in Print, resolved to write an answer to that, 
which he said he did as he lay in his bed one morning ; and further told me, he 
got one [printed copy of it] thrown on his Majestie's Hat as he walked on the 
Tarras Walk at Windsor, and another laid under his pillar [i.e. pillow], but 
would not tell who it was had so disposed of them two for him ; and farther told 
me that the Duke of Monmouth gave him fifty guineas for that piece of service, 
and so hath done every year since. Mr. Bethel that was Sheriff of London [at the 
time] was once at my house with Ferguson, and had some private discourse with 
him." — Deposition sworn in July, 1683, and signed Zee. Bourne. A paper was 
found in Mr. Charlton's custody, a printer's accompt for 56/. 10s (whereof 
received 33/.) including the following: The Black Box, first impression, 1500 
copies; ditto, second impression, with alterations, 1500; the Answer to the 
Declaration, three sheets, 3000 copies ; the Ttoo Conferences, five sheets, 2500 ; 
and Reasons for the Lndictment of the D. of Y., 1000; paper and print. 
Ferguson's name occurs twice, as having given the orders, and made large 
promises to him, unfulfilled. " This is a brief account of what past under Mr. 
Ferguson'' s Order, which shall he faithfully made appear to his face, if he dare 
stand the test." — State Paper. Robert Blane deposed that about November, 
1682, " Ferguson was not then disguised, but in the habit he used commonly to 
wear, which was a russet colour Campane coat, and a brown short periwig." 



Russell responsible, the Stalking-IIorse of Sedition. 289 

seditious William Carstares. "We believe Robert Ferguson to bave 
been false to every one, from first to last. 

Modern triflers, who help to carry on the Fiery- Cross of Falsehood 
from unscrupulous Revolutionists of two centuries ago, find it easy 
to declare glibly that there ivas no Rye-House Plot at all, except in 
the fabricated evidence of such scoundrels as Richard Groodenough 
and the Keelings. They simply prove themselves to have been too 
indolent to examine, or too unskilful to digest, the enormous mass 
of incontrovertible proofs still extant, proving the existence of a 
widely-spread conspiracy for insurrection ; with an inner plot, 
little more iniquitous, of the desperate and murderous faction 
who preferred to bey in with murder, and go on to anarchy or a 
Commonwealth. We decline to acquit Lord William Russell of 
responsibility for the worst schemes of his associates, simply because 
he chose to lead the country into rebellion, while intending to draw 
a chalk-line thereafter, as an imaginary Rubicon, saying to those 
who helped him to overthrow King and Government, " You must 
really go no farther ; stop at this point, and let me be the sole 
dictator ! " We can see clearly enough the utter worthlessness 
of such men as William Lord Howard of Escrick and Ford Lord 
Grey ; whose testimony, nevertheless, sufficed to convict Russell of 
complicity to the full extent of Treason. But the main facts are 
incontrovertibly established, independently of the cowardice and 
selfish trickery of the two chief betrayers. Owning that Howard 
was a double-dyed traitor and renegade, a blasphemer and ingfate, 
fully deserving the contempt which was shown to him afterwards 
by Algernon Sydney, we must not forget that he had been trusted 
as a companion and fellow-plotter by Russell, Essex, Hampden, 
Monmouth, and the other arrangers of rebellion. They knew how 
despicable he was, and yet they associated with him : later they had 
to feel the smart of his betrayal. To those who now study his 
whole history, Ford Lord Grey should be equally infamous, yet he 
earned pardon and reward for his renewed treachery ; especially 
from William of Orange, who made him Earl of Tankerville. 

No unprejudiced searcher of State-Papers can possibly believe 
that Russell was innocent of treason-conspiracy. He was morally 
implicated in the guilt of rebellion. He had been intriguing and 
caballing for years past, before he became one of the "Council of 
Six " (Russell, Monmouth, Essex, Sydney, Hampden, and Howard). 
He had already done his petty utmost to embroil King, Lords, 
and Commons in mutual hatred. He was willing to aid avowed 
promoters of Revolutionary anarchy, in which he imagined himself 
to be fitted to " Play at Providence," and restore order by bringing 
everything to his own Bedford Level of mediocrity. This was what 
Russell's soul desired. That there were two distinct plots organized, 
each by a different group of seditionists, each willing to accept 

VOL. V. U 



290 Associates of Howard who undertook the " lopping." 

co-operation of the others, is indisputable. One was a treacherous 
and semi- aristocratic rebellion of the Whigs ; that if successful 
would lead to the forcible banishment or exile of the King and 
his brother, but more probably to the death of both, for it was to 
be expected that they would resist civil war more vigorously than 
their father had done, and they were supported by an efficient army. 
None but fools or madmen could possibly be blind to the likelihood 
of some such black events ensuing on the projected Insurrection, as 
had been seen of old, viz. the judicial murder of Strafford, Laud, 
and Charles the First ; if once the second Charles and James of 
York could be dragged down from power by those who now again 
proclaimed the Good Old Cause : which meant rebellion, overthrow 
of the monarchy, and the enforcement of fresh tyranny from an 
irresponsible sovereign mob who called themselves "the People." 
Shaftesbury, Essex, Russell, Monmouth, Tren chard, and Hampden, 
had laboured to hurry onward a successful Rising. They stirred 
up the ignorant rabble by Pope-Burnings, Progresses, Petitions, 
Pamphlets of Appeals, and Speeches, as also by the falsehoods 
of the Plot-Evidences, to make their demonstrations against any 
"Popish Successor," and all absolute authority of the monarch. 
The) r found everywhere the chief obstacles to be overcome were 
either the personal affection for Charles, or the national indifference 
to such stale devices of the wire-pullers. 

Meanwhile, there was an inner circle of practical men, survivors 
of the old rancorous Republicans, "Fifth-Monarchy" fanatics, who 
used their pretended leaders as tools and masks. They meant to 
inaugurate rebellion with the crime of murder, which the more 
timid Whigs affected to deprecate, and said they could do without. 
To secure the death of the King and his brother, under the euphemism 
of '■'■Lopping' 1 ' 1 them off, was the understood design. It is idle to 
protest that Russell did not deliberately plan the slaying of York, 
or of Charles. Russell and Shaftesbury had never felt any difficulty 
whatever in constructing some useful pretext for justifying to their 
own dulled conscience every possible measure that might thwart 
" the Popish Recusant ; " and neither one nor the other would have 
hesitated to remove him by what they styled " legitimate means," 
while proceeding on their pathway of rebellion, step by step. They 
fired the train, and felt no responsibility for the fatal explosion. 

Had he continued to live, Shaftesbury might have grasped with 
increasing rashness at power, beyond the compass of the others ; but 
he would have been inevitably overthrown by still more violent 
men of ' extreme' opinions, until another military despotism came. 
Without him they lacked personal courage and generalship. 

Russell was wholly deficient in genius, in true statesmanship. 
He possessed the pompous self-assurance of a Vestry Committee- 
man, and held the inordinate pride of family, belonging to a 



" To find tlie mind's construction in the face" of Russell. 291 

race who imagine themselves born rulers of men. An aristocratic 
demagogue, he was neither generous in spirit nor discerning in 
judgement. Unable to read the minds, the capabilities, the trust- 
worthiness of his avowed friends or his declared enemies, but with 
his thoughts concentrated on himself, it was impossible that he 
could succeed in any great undertaking. We behold his portrait, 
painted by Lely, a portrait deemed satisfactory by Russell's Whig 
admirers, partizans who are blind to his every defect, solely 
because they choose to consider him a Martyr ! instead of seeing 
him in the true light as a conceited and factious blunderer. To 
us, that pictured countenance of "Bedford's Son" tells plainly its 
owner's incapacity. "Well built and tolerably regular, as to mere 
features, clear-skinned, sleek, puffed up with self-indulgent pride, 
ever well-trimmed in curl, ever neat, and closely shaven, it 
satisfied requirements of the public eye. But there was in it, to 
deeper observers, an over- weening sense of self-importance ; an 
obstinate repugnance to admit the claim of merit in any thing or 
person if not conducive to his own plans of advancement ; an utter 
inability to understand what was outside the squirrel-cage in which 
his thoughts went round. His sluggish nature held within it the 
latent cruelty which is generally found in such persons who have 
no generous imagination. Cold-blooded, vindictive, while disguising 
from himself and others by a semblance of patriotic ardour the 
secret malignity which was unsatisfied without the degradation of 
its victim, his conduct in reference to the aged Viscount Stafford, 
less than three years before, proved incontestably what lay under 
that masquerade of heroic dignity. 1 

This is the boasted hero and political martyr, whose blood is 
supposed to have secured the after-triumph of the Revolution. We 
are indeed left at the mercy of strange devices, when jugglers try 
to carve a statue for our worship, in the semblance of this pretentious 
failure, William Lord Russell. 

Wisely said Livy : Nulla ingenia tam prona ad invidiam sunt, 
quam eorum, qui genus ac fortunam suam animis non a3quaut, 
quia virtu tern et bonura alicnum oderunt. — Lib. xxxv. 

1 We attach no importance to the modern attempt (by one J. M., 1852, without 
courage to give his name, John Martin,) to invalidate old assertions that Russell 
found advantage in King Charles maintaining his privilege to change the punish- 
ment of high treason to beheading, although he had disputed that privilege in the 
previous instance of its exercise to favour Viscount Stafford. Dr. Thomas Sprat's 
words in 1685 are these: " Upon the whole process he [Lord William Russell] 
was found guilty of High Treason. But in stead of Drawing, Hanging, and 
Quartering, the usual and legal penalty of that crime, the execution was by bis 
Majesty's clemency changed into that of Beheading. Though it is well known, 
this very prerogative of the Kiug's having it in bis power to alter the Punishment 
ot High Treason had been vehemently disputed by the Party, and particularly by 
Lord Russel himself in the Lord Stafford's Case." — A True Account and Declara- 
tion of the Horrid Conspiracy against the Late King, etc., 1685, p. 120. 



292 The Rye-House, near Hoddesdon, in early times. 

"We have found an exact description of Captain Thomas "Walcot 
in a State-Paper addressed to Sir Leoline Jenkins (the concluding 
part of one already quoted on p. 391, concerning Monmouth and 
"Mrs. Nedham" (sic) ; probably written by one of Oglethorpe's 
men, as a spy, if not by the Major Oglethorpe himself: — 

" Upon discourse w th sev 11 about Capt. TFalcot, he appears to be y e most 
daring dangerous villain in the whole Gang. Highly enthusiastique, bold and 
malitious. He was a Captain of Dragoons under S r Men. Ingoldsby ; and 
quitted that cofhand for Capt. L. St. Ludlow'' s own Troope. Hee is a tall and 
somewhat slender man. His complexion (as described to mee) a darkish Brown, 
with some ruddy added to it. About 57 years of Age. Edward and Mary 
therefore [= thus] describe him. If this be [not] important, I humbly beg 
y r Hon r s Pardon." — (Hitherto unprinted MS. at Record Office.) 

So many ballad-verses concerning Russell and the other plotters 
must speedily follow, in these pages, that it was expedient to give 
this introduction with a greater fullness than might have sufficed 
for a less important group. But let us here break off for awhile, 
and add two of the ditties which marked the Discovery of the Eye- 
House Plot. The first indeed had preceded it, being Matthew 
Taubman's " Medley on the Plot," issued with the music alongside 
of his Heroic Poem on the Duke of York's Return from /Scotland, 
1682. This was before the death of Shaftesbury; it was reprinted 
and became popular in 1683, on discovery of the Eye-House Plot. 




[The Eye-House at Hoddesdon, Herts, from an old Drawing.] 



293 



a (Dcolcp on tfie plot 

To a New Tune [probably composed for it]. 

DOwn Discoverers, who so long have Plotted 
With holy shams to gull the Nation, 
Both Peer and Prelate they useless voted 

By the old Babes of Reformation : 
Property's all their cry, Rights and Freedom, 

Laws and Religion they pull down, 
"With old intestine Lance to bleed 'em, 

Prom Lawn-sleev'd Prelate to purple Throne. 8 

Confound the Hypocrites, Brumighams Royal, 

"Who think Allegiance a transgression ; 
Since to oppose the King is counted Loyal, 

And to rail high at the Succession : 
Monarchy's " tyranny ! " Justice is cruel, 

Loyalists, *' Tories and Rory Knaves ! " 
And Dagon's Liberty's a Jewel, [ Da i> on = Shaftesbury. 

That we may again be Brewer's slaves. [id est, Not Cromwell's. 

Drink, drink my Boys, since Plotting 's in season, 

And none Loyal call'd but busie Brats of Fashion ; 
Rome, Rome, no more of thy Holy Treason : 

We have those at home of more Divine Extraction. 
We have Peers and Parsons, Smiths and Coopers, too, [Ant. Ashley c. 

Carpenters and Joyyiers of the Reformation, [Stephen College. 

All your brood of cloister' d Jesuits out-do, 

To reduce to Duty a divided Nation. 24 

Let Whigs and Zealots dabble deep in Treason, 

And suck from the Spiggot Heavenly Revelation ; 
We in the Glass will find more solid Reason, 

And our hearts inflam'd with nobler inquisition. 
Let them boast of honest Brumighams and true ; 

And with those wh' compose the Kirk and Separation, 
We have honest Tories, Tom, Lick, and Hugh, 

We'll drink on and do more service for the Nation. 32 

By fHatt. (lattumnn. 

%* The following Loyal strain indicates the notable frauds and bare-faced 
lviii^ narratives of Titus Oates (his disproved stories about Pilgrims of St. Iago, 
invading armies armed with Black Bills, unseen by all but himself), and that Don 
John of Austria was "a tall black man " (in answer to King Charles II., who well 
remembered that Don John was short, fair, and fat). In contrast to these fables 
of Oates, it shows that a real Plot was now discovered, framed by the Whigs. 



294 



jFtoe gears' £&am ipiotsntscotier'n in a Cruc 2Dnc. 

To the Tune of, I (old young Jenny [J Wrf Aer. See p. 295]. 

NOw Innocent Blood 's almost forgot, 
"We have found the original grounds of the Plot ; 
Now every Moon-blind Rebel may know 
That Providence sees our actions below. 
Now Oates for Pegs may pack up 's Awls, 

And there inform his Master [Satan, of course. 

To furnish Rooms, make fire in the Halls, 

For company that comes faster. 8 

These are not like our Plots of Old, 
When Evidence swore for silver and gold. [Evidence=Oato. 

There are no Armies under ground, 
No sham Magazine, that ne'er was found ; 
No Spanish Pilgrims and Black Pills, 

But open professed Traytors : [«** p - 293 - 

Where Perjury spares, the Sword it kills, 

These are our Saint-like Satyrs. 16 

These are the Blades, detected by Laws, 
In contempt of Justice decide it with blows. 
These are the Blood-hounds of our age, 

That brought our late Monarch upon the Stage. [i.e. Scaffold. 

Yet these more barbarous brutes of ours 

Would murther both King and 's Brother : 
And lay the guilt at innocent doors, 

And still continue the murther. 24 

From thence the sacrifice begins, 
To massacre others for their own sins : 
And this has been the Plot's support, 
First made in the City, then forc'd on the Court. 
But now the Mystery 's brought to light, 

True Innocence is no protection ; 
Surprising Rebels dare not fight : 

Their Souls are Imperfections. 32 

If they had butcher'd the Royal Line, 
To murther its Friends they were to join ; 
The like was never on Record, 
In the wide Wilderness of the World. 
To rob the Kingdom of all that 's good, 

And none but Rebels surviving, 
To Lord it o're three Nations in Blood ; 

Each to be an Oliver striving. 40 



The tune used fur " Five Years' Sham Plots." 295 

The Saddle is now on the right Horse, 
The Whig must mount for Tyburn in course ; 
For these can be no false alarms, 
We have their Confession : the Men and their Arms, 
Make Catch perceive his harvest is near. [—jack Ketch. 

He swears, if his Horse do not fail him, [2ty&wn-Mare. 

He '11 not take a thousand pound this year 

For what his Trade may avail him. 48 

[In White-letter. Date, June, 1683.] 

*£* The tune cited, belonged to a Song printed in Wit at a Venture ; or, Clio's 
Privy Garden, 1674, p. 57, and the following year in Songs now in Mode, 1675, p. 27. 

& Sana;. 

I Told young Jenny I lov'd her, 
"With a zeal that I thought would have mov'd her ; 
I gave her earnest in hand to boot, 
For I knew by my bargain I could stand to't : 
But the Gipsie, cunningly taught by her Sire, 

Cry'd, " Marry, or else forsake me ! 
When you've filled my belly and your desire, 

You'll be hang'd before you will take me." 8 

While her Dad of his own accord, Sir, 
Made himself as drunk as a Lord, Sir, 
In hopes t' have found it a Wedding-day, 
I took up my Jenny and car'd her away ; 
Let her scratch and bite, let her kick and wince, 

Now I've got her into my clutches : 
She's witty and fair, she's a gem for a Prince, 

And in time she may be a Dutchess. 16 

This Song did not escape the penalty of being popular, for it was lengthened 
into a broadside ballad and vulgarized, under the title of '■'■Jenny Crack; or. A 
brisk Encounter between two Lovers, Shewing the brave behaviour of a Young 
Gallant, that storm'd his Mistris's outworks, etc. ; but she at last rallying her 
Forces, baffled his Sentinells, made him draw off his men, and himself was forced 
to sneak out of her Sally-port sadly disabled. To a New Tune, much in request, 
call'd, I told young Jenny, etc." In two Parts. Printed for P. Brooksby in 
West-Smithfield. Begins similarly, " I told young Jenny I lov'd her well." 

We have ourselves explained the cant usage of the term " Cmek" (see p. 32), 
which is here invidiously given to Jenny in this Pepysian Ballad (P. Coll., III. 
177). We might suppose that the hitherto unreprinted ballad in Roxburghe 
Collection, III. 116, is the legitimate sequel to it, viz. one beginning " As J amy 
Crack and I together ligg'd in bed : " The title is, " The jS'ew-married Scotch 
Couple; or, The Second Part of the Scotch Wedding." But the connection is 
broken; the tune named being a "New Northern Tune," belonging to Tom 
D'Urfey's Song, " In January Last, on Mononday at Noon," witli its burden of 
" the glenting of her apron" sung by Betty, in his comedy of " The Fond Husband; 
or, The Doating Sisters," so early as 1676. (It is in Roxb. Coll., II. 414.) 



Mi 



296 



a^orc of tfjc Epe^ottse plot. 

Van den Bosch.— ..." The days have been 
When not a citizen drew breath in Ghent 
But freely would have died in Freedom's Cause." 

Artevelde. — " With a good name thou cbristenest the Cause ! 
True, to make choice of despots is some freedom ; 
The only freedom for this turbulent town, 
Rule her who may." — Philip Van Artevelde, Act i. sc. 7. 



EETINGS at the house of Thomas Sheppard, a Vintner in 
Abchurch-Lane, had been arranged by Shaftesbury before he quitted 
his own residence of Thanet House in Aldersgate Street, about 
the 1st of October, 1682. But when, haunted by fears of being 
arrested, he took to hiding in other parts of the city, one was a 
merchant's house in "Wood-street, "next St. Alban's Church, the 
corner house, next door to Mr. Biddolph's " (Blaney's Deposition) ; 
and later in the low neighbourhood of Wapping, surrounded by his 
Protestant " brisk boys " of worse than doubtful reputation (since 
the less that men have of religion the more loudly they " protest " 
that they are religiously intolerant of others) ; he believed it to be 
unsafe for him to venture to the meetings held at Sheppard's house. 
Thereunto Russell certainly was brought, while seditious talk was 
made in his and Monmouth's hearing as to the ease with which the 
Royal Guards might be surprised, so relaxed were they in discipline; 
as Monmouth knew, who visited them, on purpose to make espial 
over men whom he had formerly commanded. Instead of giving 
personal attendance, therefore, Shaftesbury deputed Colonel Rumsey 
and Robert Ferguson to be his representatives at the Abchurch- 
Lane discussions. Ford Lord Grey, Monmouth's evil shadow, and 
"the bully Knight" Sir Thomas Armstrong, assisted at the plotting 
Conclave. There was among them all a general desire to stir up 
rebellion, to advance themselves to power, and overthrow the King, 
his brother and adherents ; in short, " to Bell the Cat," but neither 
courage nor skill was equal to the emergency : 

" The plan of the Bell may do very well, 
But, gentlemen, who'll tye it on ? Tell me that ! " 

Colonel John Rumsey had been a stalwart Cromwellian, and had 
served in Portugal. Such a man, if coming to the front, would 
inevitably incline to a renewal of the old struggle for a Republic 
or Commonwealth ; since it had once been successful, and had been 
again attempted soon after the Restoration, by Venner and the 
Fifth-Monarchy men who refused to accept the sovereignty of any 
save the Saints, as they accounted themselves. Their insurrection 
was on January 7th, 166^ (see Vol. IV. p. 252); too early for 
popular support to be afforded, even by the fickle and brutal rabble. 



Abchurch-Lane stubble, ready for the flame. 297 



Where now are all the hails and acclamations ? . . . . 

Who would depend upon the popular air 

Or voice of men ? . . . 

The eager multitude {who never yet 

Knew why to love or hate, but only pleased 

T' express their rage of power) . . . 

They follow Fortune, and hate men condcmn'd, 

Guilty or not. 1 

There were other seditious meetings, at the house of " atheistic 
"West," the lawyer, and sometimes at Captain Walcot's lodgings. 
Several desperate men went thither, who wished to try one vengeful 
bout before they died. For three-and-twenty years they had been 
eating their own hearts in bitterness, some of them in exile. Others 
were broken tradesmen, loose adventurers and half-resolved intriguers, 
with little to lose except their misused lives, who might easily 
solidify into assassins or evaporate into informers, unless they 
happened to be anticipated by a more active neighbour. Among 
them was formed the Rye-House-Plot, to assassinate the King when 
he returned from Newmarket, where, in March, 1683, he went as 
usual to enjoy his favourite sport of horse-racing. 

We shall see hereafter (on pp. 333, 33-4) that Charles II. attended 
the Winchester Races in the September of 1682 and of 1683. 
The popularity of Newmarket Races was secured by the King's 
presence, and Tom D'Urfey wrote two Newmarket Songs (one of 
which we reprinted on p. 144 of this volume, and the other in 
Bagford Ballads, p. 80). They describe the scene exactly as the 
Merry Monarch frequently beheld it. Even at times of extreme 
danger to himself he preserved a calm demeanour, and he did not 
allow the Rye-House Plot to stop his visits to Newmarket. His 
courage did not fail him on his death-bed, a few months later. If 
he allowed no check of fear to debar him from indulgence in his 
pleasures, we must also remember that he refused to abandon his 
brother James at the bidding of the Protestant faction, although 
almost any conceivable price would have been paid by the dis- 
contented conspirators to secure such a boon. But Charles held 



1 Although in his rugged nature more assimilated to the pleheians than the 
"gentle Shakespeare," who was essentially aristocratic (as Hartley Coleridge; 
puts it, " Shakespeare a Tory and a Gentleman "), rare Ben almost equals him in 
a deeply-rooted contempt for the rahble. There is a vigour in their exhibition 
of the fickleness and brutal cruelty of the mob, that shows with what gusto both 
wrote. After all these years, it is questionable whether our lower strata of 
society are better, than what were known in their days ; if not actually worse. 
The quotation above is from Jonson's Sejanus, a tragedy revived and popular 
shortly before the Eye-House-Plot discovery. Juvenal's tenth satire is often 
recalled in Sejanus. Would that Jouson bad translated Juvenal ! We note in 
passing, that to the revival of the play may have been due the application of the 
name to Shaftesbury, e.g. in Sejanus; or, the Popular Favourite in //is Solitude 
and Sufferitigs : a poem beginning " Is this thy glory now ? is this thy pride ?" 



298 " Let every feeble rumour shake your hearts." 

firmly to this one principle. If he ever felt tempted to swerve 
from it, as we may show hereafter, it was in the last months of his 
life, when he admitted Monmouth to a secret interview ; but this 
seems justified by the conduct of York, in Scotland, threatening 
almost a rebellion in his turn, and Charles felt the difficulty of 
controuling him. That he was to be abandoned or superseded is 
utterly incredible, and without documentary evidence. Charles 
refused to deprive of his birthright the brother who had shared his 
wanderings, and in whose affection he trusted, although continually 
harassed on his account, and annoyed by his stubbornness. We 
have seen that Charles offered a compromise of limitations and 
restrictions on his successor, to propitiate the Russell faction, instead 
of the abhorred " Exclusion," which to their own loss they 
demanded and would take no substitute. The " Expedient " of 
Halifax (see p. 29) might have satisfied reasonable men, but these 
men were not reasonable. 1 Until their unconciliating and factious 
intolerance was displayed so forcibly, by Lords and Commons, with 
the probability (known now to be a certainty) that they were about 
to vote their own permanence in contumacy, the Oxford Parliament 
had possessed a last opportunity wherewith to gain redress of many 
grievances. The Commons brought upon themselves their punish- 
ment of sudden dismissal. They deserved to fall thus ignominiously 
and ridiculed. When it was found to be too late to win back the 
forfeited privileges, the moderate politicians saw their past error in 
having supported the Exclusionists, and regretted the perversity of 
their leaders. Eut these leaders remained incapable of temperate 
judgment in looking back, and thus could feel no remorse. They 
indulged one another with bitter denunciations of the Court, of 
arbitrary power (no person being more autocratical than each of 
themselves desired to become), and while continually talking of 
what might happen "after the King's death," it grew natural to 
take a preliminary step of hurrying on that event, by conspiracy, 
and to avoid a failure of their ambitious hopes, either by an armed 
insurrection with Russell, or a deliberate murder with Rumsey. 

Major Abraham Holmes was one of the representatively desperate 
men, not devoid of good qualities, intermittent fits of patriotic 
sincerity and courage ; but rash, like the Rumbolds and Argyle. 



1 It is worth noticing that William of Orange used all his influence over the 
Whigs, with whom he maintained a secret and treasonable correspondence, to 
oppose the King's conciliatory policy. Any offer of cramping the future power 
of James II. found William adverse ; not because of consideration for his father- 
in-law and uncle, hut solely because he was himself continually plotting for the 
chance of winning the Sovereignty, and resented the idea of any limitations being 
fixed to his own will and power. William was the incarnation of cold-blooded 
selfishness, and, like his enemy Louis XIV., stirred discontent continually 
among his neighbours, to weaken them and forward his ambition. 



The King's Deliverance at Newmarket. 299 

An accidental fire breaking out at Newmarket, during the time 
of the King's visit (March 3 to 22, 1683), caused him to make a 
premature departure, and saved his life. When he hurriedly passed 
the Eye-House on his return to London he was attended by five 
guards only, and the opportunity was lost that had been counted on 
by his intended murderers. In the narrow way they were to have 
lain in ambush behind a wall : to have fired at the carriage as it 
passed, killing the horses to ensure a pause for taking better aim 
at the King with their blunderbusses. Two of their men, disguised 
as carters, were to have drawn a cart across the roadway as an 
obstruction, and then to have done their utmost as assassins. The 
moated house was suitable for harbouring many men in concealment, 
although it could not have withstood a siege. As a surprise the 
deed might have been perpetrated, and at the first news of it in 
London there was to be an armed insurrection, a seizure of important 
strongholds, and the proclamation of the Good Old Cause. 

On p. 307 will follow, unmutilated, a description of the Eye- 
House, in 1683 ; as it is given in Dr. Thomas Sprat's Official True 
Account of the Conspiracy, and how it was discovered. A view of 
the Eye-House (specially drawn and engraved by us) is on our p. 292. 

When the King's danger and escape became afterwards revealed, 
there was a joyous feeling of thanksgiving for his safety and of 
horror at the murderous conspiracy. Not until so late a date as 
September 9th (by the neglect of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Sancroft, and disloyalty of Compton, Bishop of London) was any 
Day of Prayer set apart in gratitude, and by that time the execution 
of many conspirators had slackened the zeal of those who at first 
made loud rejoicings. Canting seditionists had insulted the religious 
ceremony, by affixing on church doors this libellous pasquinade : 

Sin ©ffcrmcj to the Beaotr. 

YOu Hypocrites, forbear your pranks, 
To murther men and then give thanks ! 
Forbear your tricks, pursue no further, 
For God accepts no thanks for murther. 

On this Thanksgiving-Day, after the Church-services, with 
sermons against rebellion and disaffection of "Whigs and Dissenters, 
there was at night an universal ringing of joy bells with blazing 
of bonfires. 

The following poem had preceded the Offering : a Loyal expression 
of rejoicing at the King's safety. We possess two printed copies. 
Nat. Thompson's is entitled " On the lung's Most Happy and 
Miraculous Deliverance at Newmarket ; " while John Smith's of 
Covent Garden has the shorter title which we use. 



300 



SDn tbe Eing's IDcltocrance at iftctomaritct. 

SO weapons prosper which are form'd 'gainst Heaven, 
Or 'tis Vicegerent Heaven's peculiar Care, 
To whom are more than vulgar blessings given, 
And fire has sav'd whom men more cruel wou'd not spare. 
Some greater Genius him defends, 
By mighty means for mighty ends, 
And makes his Foes his Footstool he, 
Or (what his Goodness more delights to see) 

Makes them his Friends. 10 

!. Nor do we more congratulate 

The present safety of the State, 
Than future Peace which we anticipate. 
Now Treasonous Arts are so expos'd to view, 
The Plots as soon as hatch'd are blasted too. 
" Popery's coming in ! " they well might cry, 
Whose methods would fulfill the Prophesy. 
Nor did they cheat the World, who took such pain IShaftesluriam. 
The Jealousies they rais'd shou'd not be vain. 

First Arbitrary Power must down, 
(Meaning the Crown). 
Then must some Minister be in disgrace, [Danby. 

Because a Rebel wants his place. I s "" T - cln y ton - 

More Liberty the People crave, 
Yet know not how to use that which they have. 
Next, that Men's Properties secur'd must be, 

They'd make the King a Property. 
" What monstrous blessing wou'd a Change create ! " — 
Might Atheists mend the Church, and Knaves the State. 
But shall we twice be gull'd by one pretence ? 
With our Allegiance have we lost our sense? 30 

These very Tricks ruin'd us once before, 
Curse of such Arts which now are Arts no more. 

3 All that is envi'd still attends the Throne, 
And him that sits thereon. 
But when these Earthly Gods shall dye like Men, 

Let only Nature then 
(Nature, the Pule of Him by whom Kings reign) 
Appoint who next shall grace and truth maintain. 

May names of matchless Heroes of this Pace, [Stuarts. 

Distinguish happy times, till time it self shall cease ! 40 

jFtms. 



A Fire at Newmarket saves the life of King Charles. 301 

The fire at Newmarket providentially drove Charles II. hence, 
before the conspirators were ready to waylay him at the Rye-House : 

March 3rd, in the morning early, their Majesties and His Royall Highnesse 
went from Whitehall to Neivmarket, the carriages and wagons being gone three 
or four daies before. 

The 5th, Her Royal Highnesse [Duchess of York] went hence for Newmarket, 

7th. Letters from Newmarket inform that their Majesties are in good health, 
and divert themselves with hawking, hunting, horse-racing, etc. 

On the 22nd instant, at night, between nine and ten, a fire happened at the 
town of Newmarket, which besran in a stable by the carelessness of a groom 
taking tobacco : the wind being high, it burnt so furiously that it consumed above 
half the town, being quite one side of thereof; but his Majestie's house received 
no damage. However, it proved a great losse, several persons being burnt, and 
divers fine coaches and horses. 

Robert West deposed, on 23rd June, 1683, before Jenkins, that after the 
Newmarket fire Richard Rumbold told West and Keeling, at a tavern in the 
City, " that the King came by his house with a slender guard of six Horse, much 
tyred ; and that six men well provided might have made the attempt [to slay the 
Royal party], and succeeded in it." 

October 8th, the King returned to Newmarket, followed two days later by 
his brother and the recently-married Prince George of Denmark, "Est-il-possible ?" 
They stayed a few days, departing on the 20th for Whitehall. A similar visit 
was paid by the King next year, in the last October of his life. So that he 
cannot be said to have avoided Newmarket. His personal courage was indisputable. 

The discovery came, as usual, through the treachery of an accom- 
plice. In every conspiracy there are some members who have 
joined it from discontent and unsettled position. They are usually 
the first to lose enthusiasm, to distrust the chance of success, to fear 
treachery of others, and thence to purchase safety as a reward for 
themselves by being the quickest to betray their comrades. "This 
is the moral of all earthly tales," especially Irish. A decaying 
Vintner, one Josiah Keeling, had been early introduced into the 
Plot by Richard Goodenough, formerly under-sheriff to Bethel and 
Cornish, therefore accustomed to hearing seditious murmurs against 
the Court. Becoming frightened, perhaps, when he learnt how 
much more desperate were the plans of his associates than he had 
earlier expected, the man Josiah Keeling went to George Leg<>e, 
Lord Dartmouth, to betray all that he knew, and was speedily 
examined before Sir Leoline Jenkins. His Information, signed 12th 
June, 1683, incriminated Richard Goodenough, as having first 
proposed the murder of the King and the Duke of York ; also a 
number of other persons of small account, such as James Burton, 
William Thompson and Andrew Barber. That at the Mitre within 
Aldgate he had by appointment met Richard Rumbold, or Rumball : 

one Richard Rumball a Maltster-man, living at, a place called the Ri/e (if 
this informant mistake not the name), within two miles of Hoddesden, in the 
county of Hertford, or thereabouts, did agree on the Saturday next before his 
Majesty's return from Newmarket last, to go down to the Rye, being the house of 
the aforesaid Rumball, and there to effect their design of taking off the King and 
the Duke. The manner whereby they proposed this should he effected, That the 
said RumbaWs house, where they were to meet, being by the High-way's side, 



302 Deposition of the tico Keelings, and Goodenough. 

they that were to be actors in the fact were to hide themselves under a wall, or a 
pale ; and when his Majesty's coach should come over against the said wall or 
pale, three or four were to shoot with blunderbusses at the Postilion and the 
horses ; and if the horses should not drop, then there were to be two men with 
an empty Cart in the lane near the place, who in the habit of labourers should 
run the Cart thwart the lane, and so to stop the horses ; besides those that were 
to shoot the postilion and horses, there were several appointed to shoot at the 
Guards that should be attending the Coach. — Josiah Keeling' s Information. 

He told of meeting Robert West the barrister and going with 
him to the Dolphin Tavern in Bartholomew Lane, behind the Royal 
Exchange, where they met the said Rumbold and one W. Hone of 
Southwark, a carpenter ; together they discoursed on the New- 
market ambuscade, and the weapons to be employed. Later, after 
the King's unexpectedly hastened return, Rumbold told Keeling that 
"he had seen the King passing by his house, and that if he [Rum- 
bold, had] had but five men with him, he could have dorre his 
business, for that there were hut five Life-Guardsmen with them." 

Farther, he told about the arrangements for an insurrection, 
involving the lawyers Wade, Nelthorp, and the already mentioned 
West, as also Captain Walcot, " who went over with the Earl of 
Shaftesbury, and came back with his corpse." He indicated likewise 
a Colonel, whose name he did not know, but who was evidently 
Colonel John Rumsey. " West further told this Deponent on Easter 
Eve, that since the design to be executed on the King's return 
from Newmarket had failed, they intended to take the King and 
Duke off between Windsor and Hampton Court." 

Secretary Sir L. Jenkins seems to have been cautiously unwilling 
to act on this single information, and in fact he was continually 
receiving secret warnings of murderous intentions. Finding that 
another witness was required to confirm his evidence, which met 
lukewarm acceptance, if not declared suspicion and incredulity, 
Joshua Keeling contrived that his own brother John Keeling should 
be admitted to both see and hear what passed at the next meeting; 
and Richard Groodcnough accommodated him ; so that, two days 
after the first betrayal, a double Deposition of the brothers Keeling 
(14th June, 1683) gave the Plotters into the hands of the Court. 
Col. Rumsey's name was now mentioned, with Wade the councillor 
of Bristol, as furnishing money for the projected insurrection, also 
" that the Duke of Monmouth and all his friends would be concerned 
in raising the said money : and that the said Duke would be at the 
head of the said party, which they propounded to be four thousand 
in number, and that many more would quickly fall in." In answer 
to Josiah Keeling's enquiry whether the design of killing the King 
and the Duke of York between Windsor and Hampton-Court was 
still entertained, " Goodenough replyed, ' JS"o, because they [the 
Royal brothers] did not usually go together, but they would do it 
at the Bull Feast in Z^o^-fields." [Compare our p. 286.] 



The Three-fold nature of the Protestant Plot. 303 

Next day was signed the more important Information of the two 
Keelings concerning a fresh meeting with Goodenough, that after- 
noon, identifying Colonel Rumsey as the person who had married 
the Lady Smith and had commanded forces in Portugal for his 
Majesty the King of England ; and Goodenough's first naming 
" William Lord Mussel, son to the Earl oi Bedford; and that the 
said Lord Basset told the aforesaid Goodenough that he would be 
concerned in it to his utmost, and that he would use all his interest 
to accomplish the aforesaid design of killing the King and the Duke 
of York." 

A week later Josiah Keeling named Robert Ferguson with many 
others who had come to Wapping " to visit their honest Wapping 
men," and dined at the Fortune tavern there, and at the Horse-shoe 
on Tower-Hill, with seditious toasts drank " To the man who first 
draws his sword in defence against Popery and Slavery," which 
they named as " the two Brothers," and explained that they meant 
The Two Brothers at Whitehall. Also, " the pinning of Macninney 's 
head on the Monument for burning the City in '66, " Macninny " 
being their nickname for the Duke of York. Ferguson's vicious 
invention is seen clearly in both these toasts. 

Let it be recapitulated that the alleged Plot was threefold. Some 
sought, 1. — To master the Guards, seize Whitehall, and secure the 
person of the King and of his brother. 2. — To lay wait for the King 
and his brother on the return from Newmarket or elsewhere, and 
slay them by ambuscade, laying the blame afterwards on the 
Papists. 3. — A simultaneous rising in various parts of the country 
by leaders of determined men ; followed by a similar rising in 
London, by men who were already prepared to join, deceived by 
specious misrepresentations. They nicknamed the assassination 
"The Lopping Point," and the insurrection " The general Point" 
in their so-called " consults." Such was the Rye-House Plot in 
all its complications. 

Now followed the first Proclamation (mentioned on our p. 284), 
offering rewards for the discovery and apprehensions of sundry 
persons, *eiz. Colonel John Rumsey, Richard Rumbold the Maltster, 
Richard Nelthorpe, Edward Wade, Richard Goodenough, Captain 
Thomas Walcot, William Thompson, James Burton, and William 
Hone. These men of small mark, the tools, having been proclaimed 
on June 23rd, the second Proclamation, issued on June 28th, 
named for apprehension the leaders, James Duke of Monmouth, 
Ford Lord Grey of Werk, Sir Thomas Armstrong, and Robert 
Ferguson : £500 being offered for the seizure of each. 

Betrayals were coming in swiftly. On the previous day, Thomas 
Bheppard, the wine-merchant (at whose house in Abchurch Lane 
the conspirators met formerly), had signed an information, June 27th, 
incriminating important persons, citing Robert Ferguson, as to 



304 The Scotch, as in 1646, seek pay for Rebellion. 

the intended general Insurrection. This included many disaffected 
Scotchmen, Sir John Cochrane, Robert Baillie of Jerviswood, James 
Stuart, Commissary Alex. Monroe, Lord Melvin, Alexander Gordon 
of Earlston, Sir Hugh and Sir George Campbell, of Cessnoch ; " and 
that the Lord of Aryile had made a proposition, That if they would 
raise him thirty thousand pounds he would begin it [the Insurrec- 
tion] in Scotland ; but finding no hopes of raising that sum, the 
Scotch were willing to accept of ten thousand pounds." This sum 
Francis Charlton promised to see paid. Colonel Algernon Sydney 
was named, with Russell ; also " my Lord Essex was hearty in this 
business, and that John Trenchard was a man to be depended on in 
the West : They had likewise good hopes of Sir William Courtney, 
and that [previously] my Lord Shaftesbury had sent Captain Walcot 
down to him [_ Courtney'], who returned with a very cool answer 
that he found them not what he expected, but believed if it came 
to a Rising they would prove right enough." This was sworn : no 
longer before Jenkins alone, but in presence of Sunderland, who 
countersigned the deposition. 

It was not on hearsay evidence that government depended. 
Colonel John Rumsey was now affording information that lacked no 
circumstantial detail. Confirmation soon followed, in the confession 
of Major Abraham Holmes at the Gate-house, on the 29th June, 
and of a multitude of other men successively, Joseph How, Andrew 
Barber, Robert Blaney of the Middle Temple, Thomas Lee, the 
dyer, of Old Street (mentioned as " of St. Giles's, Cripplegate parish), 
one Hicks, of Friday Street (not John, tobacconist and Anabaptist 
preacher), but chiefly Robert West, barrister of the Middle Temple 
— from whom we learn that Richard Rumbold, being a one-eyed 
man, was commonly called Hannibal, " and that it was usual at the 
meetings before-mentioned to drink a health to Hannibal and his 
Boys." West was an active talking man, who had got the name of 
an atheist. He had withdrawn, but surrendered. Zachary Bourne 
gave corroborative testimony on July Gth. He had been seized in 
Essex, as he was making his escape to Holland. Rumours were 
circulated that a Peer was coming in with evidence, as a betrayer ; 
and such an article, fit for any despicable use, was found available 
in William, Lord Howard of Escrick, who had been arrested hidden 
behind a curtain in a chimney, bedaubed with soot, and weeping 
in the most frightened and cowardly condition, in his house at 
Kniohtsbridge. He purchased indemnity for his many past offences 
(as Ford Lord Grey did, two years later), by betraying all that he 
knew — and something more. Thanks to his information, sufficient 
was learnt to incriminate and condemn William Lord Russell, the 
Earl of Essex, Algernon Sydney, and others who were arrested. 
William Carstares, known by the alias of "Read," was already 
taken, at Tenterden in Kent, and at first believed to be Robert 



Captain Walcot' s intended betrayal of his associates. 305 

Ferguson, who, as usual, had slunk away, and left his confederate 
John Runisey behind to yield himself up and play the traitor. 
Captain John Walcot had intended to do the same, and wrote a 
letter from his hiding place to Secretary Jenkins, acknowledging 
that the Plot had deep foundations, and promising to discover more 
than was yet known if he might have hopes of a pardon. 1 But in 
his terror he withdrew from the place to which an answer, by his 
own wish, was to be directed : he was to remain in Westminster 
Hall, until sent for. He strove to escape, and was arrested. He 
was the first person appointed for trial, on the 12th July, 1683, 
Colonel Rumsey bearing evidence against him, as did Zachary 
Bourne and Robert West. He was convicted and condemned to 
death, suffering punishment on the 20th of the same month. 

William Hone had been taken in his flight, in Cambridgeshire. 
He and John Rouse were tried, convicted, and executed together 
with Walcot. They all behaved manfully, in sorrow confessing 
their offences, although Wdcot felt bitterly the exaggerations of 
West against him. At Lord William Russell's trial the evidence of 
Rumsey, Sheppard, and Lord Howard of Escrick appeared conclu- 
sive and irrefutable, in relation to the treasonable conspiracy, for 
the risings in Cheshire and elsewhere, a surprisal of the King's 
Guards, the formation of a Council of Six to organize rebellion, 
corresponding with Argyle for a similar insurrection in Scotland 
(Algernon Sydney being deputed to send a messenger, and choosing 
Aaron Smith, who had managed the defence of Stephen College) ; 
and with John Trenchard, in reference to raising men at Taunton ; 
along with other matters, including the presence of Monmouth, 
Grey, Russell, Ferguson, and Armstrong at the consultations in 
Sheppard's house, Abchurch Lane. Francis Shute, the late Sheriff, 
had recently died, after being involved with Howard. Monmouth's 
foot-man, John Gibbons, had been keen for mischief, even for the 
assassination, as also John Roe, late sword-bearer of Bristol. 

The suicide of Arthur Capell, Earl of Essex, in the Tower, 
on the very morning of Lord William Russell's trial, helped most 
materially to strengthen the impression against him, and insure his 
condemnation. It was believed to prove that Essex felt deeply a 
consciousness of guilt, and feared a fatal result to himself and his 



1 Walcot' s Letter is singularly explicit. While in the country he hud seen his 
name proclaimed, and came at once to town, "last night;" he refers to Ferguson, 
" my intimacy with a Scotch Minister, through whose hands much of the business 
went, I judge occasioned my knowing very much : And I do further humbly pro- 
pose, That if his Majesty think it advisable, I will follow those Lords and Gentle- 
men that are fled to Holland, as if I fled thither, and had made my Escape also, 
and -will acquaint the King, if I can find it out, what measures they resolve of 
taking next. I do assure his Majesty the business is laid very broad. ... I shall 
he ten times abler to serve him than either Mr. Freeman or Mr. Carr ; for they 
will trust neither of them." Of this material the Revolutionary Whigs were made ! 
VOL. v. x 



306 Summary of Executions for the Rye-House Plot. 

friends (Russell included), whenever the details of their plot should 
hecome fully revealed. Remorse felt by Essex for having introduced 
to them the traitor Lord Howard of Escrick, his own kinsman, had 
a chief share in depressing his spirit. He had earlier conquered 
what he believed to be the prejudices of Russell and of Sydney; 
hence he now yielded to his own gloomy disposition, with its 
morbid terrors, and committed self-murder. He thereby unwittingly 
ensured the fall of Russell, who was condemned, and executed on 
the 21st of July. More skilfully combating his foes, Algernon 
Sydney prolonged his own trial, and although condemned (on 
Howard's evidence, with the unfair production of a manuscript 
answer to Sir Robert Filmer's arguments in favour of monarchy), 
he might have been respited, and probably then spared, had it not 
been for the double treachery of Monmouth irritating the Court 
against him, at the very crisis, so that Algernon Sydney fell as his 
victim. His execution was followed, after a long interval, by those 
of James Holloway and " the bully knight," Sir Thomas Armstrong ; 
the first one arrested in the West Indies, the other recovered by a 
strained use of extradition from Holland. 

"We bring forward separate Roxburghe Ballads on these executions 
of Russell, Sydney, Armstrong, etc. This general introduction 
seemed indispensable, preparatory to the illustrating each successive 
event in detail by its respective ballad. First, let us give complete 
the Account of the Rye-House in Hertfordshire, published officially 
under Royal sanction in 1685, after having been carefully drawn 
up by Dr. Thomas Sprat (the intimate friend and biographer of 
Abraham Cowley; consecrated Bishop of Rochester in 1684). It tells 
of the situation and fitness of the Rye House for the uses designed 
by the conspirators. A local History of Hertfordshire, 1870, gives 
no description of this truly memorable place, beyond the extremely 
slight and. unsatisfactory notice in Part First, p. 34. The omission 
could not be accidental, but must have been intentional, to express 
contemptuously disbelief in the existence of any Rye-House Plot 
whatever — as it is designated "the alleged conspiracy to assassinate 
Charles II. and his brother." But no close student of History, after 
searching the records that are extant, can possibly come honestly to 
such a conclusion of disbelief. 

*** On our p. 291 we give a sketch of the Bye-Bouse, as it appeared in early 
days, from a Water-colour Drawing preserved at the British Museum. A 
different representation of the building, seen in 1832, was reprinted by Charles 
Knight in his Old England, vol. ii. p. 188, 1845. Crowds of Whitsuntide 
excursionists still visit the Eye-House, and revel at the tavern, built in the old 
fore-court, and water-cresses are gathered from its former moat. Early in the 
century the mansion degenerated into a Workhouse for Stanstead Parish : a 
change indeed, for 

" A jolly place it was in times of old ! 
Eut something ails it now : the spot is curst." 



307 

a Particular account of tfje Situation of tfie 

Epc^ouse* 

(Following Dr. Thomas Sprat's True Account of I he Horrid Conspiracy, 1685.) 

"npHE Rye-House in Hertfordshire, about eighteen miles from 
JL London, is so called from the Rye, a Meadow near it. Just 
under it there is a by-road from Bishop Strafford to Hoddesden, which 
was constantly used by the King when he went to or from New- 
market ; the great Road winding much about on the right-hand by 
Stansted. The House is an old strong Building, and stands alone, 
encompass'd with a Mote, and towards the garden has high walls, 
so that twenty men might easily defend it for some time against 
five hundred. From a high Tower in the House all that go or 
come may be seen both ways for near a mile's distance. As you 
come from Newmarket towards London, when you are near the 
House, you pass the meadow over a narrow causeway, at the end of 
which is a Toll-gate, which having entered you go through a Yard, 
and a little Field, and at the end of that through another Gate you 
pass into a narrow Lane, where two Coaches at that time could not 
£0 a-breast. This narrow passage had on the left hand a thick 
Hedge and a Ditch ; on the right a long range of Building used for 
Corn-Chambers and Stables, with several doors and windows looking 
into the Road, and before it a Pale, which then made the passage 
so narrow, but is since removed. When you are past this long 
Building, you go by the Mote and the Garden Wall, that is very 
strong, and has divers holes in it, through which a great many Men 
might shoot. Along by the Mote and Wall the Road continues to 
the Ware-River which runs about twenty or thirty yards from the 
Mote, and is to be past by a Bridge. A small distance from thence 
another Bridge is to be past over the New-River. In both which 
Passes a few men may oppose great numbers. In the outer Court- 
yard, which is behind the long Building, a considerable body of 
Horse and Foot might be drawn up unperceived from the Road ; 
whence they might easily issue out at the same time into each end 
of the narrow Lane, which was also to be stopt up by overturning 
a Cart." — P. 135 of Dr. Thomas Sprat's Copies of the Informations 
and Original Papers relating to the Proof of the Horrid Conspiracy 
against the Late KING, His Present Majesty [James II.'], and the 
Government : As it was Ordered to be Published by His Late Majesty. 
In the Savoy : Printed by Thomas Newcomb, One of His Majestie's 
Printers ; and are to be sold by Sam Lownes, over against Exeter 
Change in the Strand, 1685. 



308 

[British Museum Collection, 1876. f. 1, art. 21.] 

j^urDer out at 3Last, 

m a 
IBaHatumtiiP^cto pot. 

To the Tune of, Iley, Boys, up go We! [See pp. 60, 67.] 

NOw, now the Plot is all come out, that caus'd our Doubts and Fears, 
And all the Tribe that made the Rout, both Commoners and Peers ; 
The mighty Patrons of the Cause, 'gainst Pagan Popery, 
Who rais'd a Gibbet for our Foes, and hey, Boys ! up go we. 4 

"With Sanctify'd Religious Zeal, the Brethren did agree 

To raise our Ancient Commonweal on Christian Liberty ; 

To undermine the Church and State, and blow up Monarchy : 

Put now, alas! 'tis our own Fate, and hey, Boys ! up go we. 8 

A holy Covenant we took, to sacrifice the King, 

And next to him the Royal Duke, a Ploody Offering ; 

For which, according to the Yote, the Papists all shou'd dye ; 

Put now the Saints have chang'd their note, and hey, Boys ! up go we. 

Our Zealous Covenanting Saints, Associating Peers, 

Each heart for fear with Patience pants, 1 to lose more than his Ears ; 

Taney's dead, and Monmouth 's fled, the Helm is turn'd a-L.ee ; 

The Plot (the Nail) is knock'd o' th' head, and hey, then, up go we ! 

No longer may the Papists boast their Ploody black Designs ; 
Old Rome, thy Ancient Glory's lost, for all thy Learn'd Divines : 
For Royal Murders, Treasons base, and matchless Treachery, 
The Jesuits must now give place, and hey, Boys ! up go we. 20 

How well did we contrive the Plot, and laid it at their Door, 
For which old Stafford went to pot, and many guiltless more ; 2 
Put now the Tide is come about, the truth of all we see : 
And when the Murder all is out, then, hey, Boys ! up go we. 24 

Ramsey's Gold and Rumbold bold conspire to kill the King ; 
And Pickering, in fatal hold, 3 must answer for the thing ; 
Nelthorpf IFest, 6 and all the rest, with Perlcin 6 may agree 
To be o' th' Tower (not Throne) possest ; then hey, Boys ! up go we. 

Our City Ryots, and Countrey Pouts, 7 that to Rebellion tend, 
Our Paces, and our Hunting-bouts, in Insurrections end ; 
The Rebel now is catch'd i' th' Snare he lay'd for Monarchy : 
At last the Gallows claims its share, and hey, Boys ! up go we. 32 

Edinburgh: Reprinted, in the Year 1683. 

[In "White-letter. Single-sheet broadside. No woodcut.] 



Notes to the previous " Ballad on the New Plot." 309 

The Tune and burden, Bet/, boi/s, up go ire ! has been frequently mentioned in 
Vol. IV., pp. 65, 205, 257, 264, 292, 293, 305, 342; and in the present Vol. p. 58. 

1 Sir Patience "Ward, the Alderman, sentenced to heavy fine and pillory, for 
connivance by perjury after Pilkiugton had scandalized the Duke of York. 

2 See Vol. IV. pp. 225 to 235, for account of William Viscount Stafford. 

3 Compare the opening lines of " The Conspiracy " on a following page (311). 
Since we kuow not of any Pickering engaged in the Rye-House Plot, this can 
refer to no other than the Jesuit, Thomas Pickering, who had been falsely accused 
and foully executed on the 9th of May, 1679. The meaning appears to be: "We 
now see that the real conspirators to kill the King were (not Pickering, who had 
to answer for their false accusation, by imprisonment and death), but Rumsey 
with his gold, as hirer, and Rumbold, the stalwart instrument," etc. Had the 
name in our text been Pilkington, it would have been intelligibly connected with 
the fostering of the Plot. 

4 Richard Nelthorp, a Republican lawyer, who had recommended Aaron Smith 
to Algernon Sydney as a fit person to send as messenger to the disaffected Scotch. 

5 See p. 304. Robert West turned double traitor, as already shown, and gave 
full depositions, continually renewed and extended as time wore" on. In giving a 
list of the disaffected refugees in Amsterdam (on p. 236), we mentioned Richard 
Cromwell. Robert Ferguson told Robert West "that Mr. Cromivel, son of Richard 
Cromivel, who usually goes by the name of Mr. Cranbourn, was so vain as to 
endeavour to make a party for himself or his father in the City ; and Goodenough 
formerly, viz. about Christmas last [1682], told this Examinaut that he believed 
the said Mr. Cromivel audi Mr. Ircton, the son of Lieutenant-General Ireton, would 
assist in the intended assassination of the King and Duke iu Person." — Copies of 
the Informations, p. 60. 

6 The term Perk-in (= impostor) here applied, frequently, to Monmouth, 
was prophetically appropriate, for his descent afterwards in Devonshire resembled 
the disastrous insurrection at Cornwall of Perkin Warbeck in 1499 ; the nickname 
was five years later iniquitously misapplied to the Prince of Wales, born in 1688. 
Among other "impostors," John Partridge, the "shoemaker and almanack- 
maker in Covent Garden," was involved in the conspiracy, and according to Richard 
Goodenough, "erected several [astrological] schemes, and thereby found the Duke 
of York would scarce outlive March or April, and that the King was under an 
evil direction too, and the People would be victorious." — Ibid. 

7 Alluding to the festivities given at Longleat by Tom Thynne, and others in 
the neighbourhood, during the Western progress of Monmouth in 1680. (See 
our former pages, 622, 623, in Vol. IV.) "Treats," to be given to intoxicate 
the officers at Plymouth and elsewhere, figured in the programme of insurrection. 

*** We have a precise description of the one-eyed "Hannibal," Richard 
Rumbold, in No. 1837 of the London Gazette (June 25 to 28, 1683). " We are 
commanded to give notice that Richard Rumbold, Maltster, one of the persons 
named in his Majestie's late Proclamation, to have Traitorously conspired the 
death of His Sacred Majesty and his Royal Highness the Duke of York, is of a 
middle stature, about 46 years of age, a smart man in discourse, having lost one 
of his eyes, his face somewhat thin, wearing his own hair, which is brown, and 
not very long ; he is a round trussed man." 



.<C-J<^r : &r'i$^~-£-J' 



310 



€f)e Conspiracy 



Wi 



Hodge. — " Come, fellow-servant, you '11 believe our Plot, 

Of Mussel, Hambden, Sidney, and what not ? 

Of Bedford, Walcot, Bow-Steeple and the Eye ? " [ Vide infra. 
Porter. — " For Eussel would, but Hambden would not lie, 

Eumbald and Walcot too did both deny. 

Ayloffe to boot : but cowards are not brave, 

For fear 's a passion which all cowards have. 

Yet to the Plot I firm belief afford : 

Of th' Evidence I credit not one word." 
Johnny. — " Can you distrust what Grey and Escrick say ? " 
Porter. — " What ! two such excellent Moral Men as they ?" 

— Oliver's Porter, Fidler, and Poet in Bedlam. 1683. 



E have already (on p. 267) given Tom D'Urfey's original song 
beginning "Let Oliver now be forgotten;" named, alternatively 
with " How unhappy is Phillis in Love," as the tune required for 
the ensuing song "The Conspiracy; or, The Discovery of the [Rye- 
House] Fanatick Plot." The music will be found at the beginning 
of the Hundred and Eighty Loyal Songs, 1685, and 1694. 

Among the scurrilous rejoinders made by defeated insurrectionists, 
when recovering from affright after detection and punishment of the 
Eye-House Plot, appeared a Dramatic Sketch, without title (whence 
we borrow our present motto). It begins "0 Glory! Glory!" The 
interlocutors are Oliver Cromwell's Porter, his Fidler (i.e. "Hodge," 
Roger L'Estrange, writer of the Observator, etc.), and his Poet (viz 
John Dryden, whose former praise of Cromwell was mocked by the 
Whigs: compare pp. 159, 160). They meet in Bedlam, converse 
and quarrel. Their allusion to How-Steeple deserves a note : 

One of the minor details of assassination of the Abchurch-Lane conspirators 
(as deposed by Sir Nicholas Butler) was that William Hone was to have shot the 
King and his brother from Bow-Church steeple, with cross-bows, when they were 
standing opposite on Lord Mayor's Day. — Sprat's True Account, p. 113. 

The ballads give a tolerably full roll-call of the conspirators. The 
survivors were nearly all rewarded by promotion to lucrative berths 
after the Revolution brought Orange William to sit among his old 
confederates ; but few of them turned out well, and the habit of 
discontented plotting, which had made them suffer a bad half hour 
in 1683, was not so easily eradicated that they could blossom into 
peaceable and trustworthy citizens six years later. Those who had 
been slain were "martyrs of the Cause;" yet few mentioned 
the one really noble heart among them, Algernon Sydney : whose 
character was far too heroic to be appreciated by men who accounted 
treachery and dissimulation among the cardinal virtues which had 
secured " the Glorious Revolution," and banished Popery from this 
happy isle. How happy it became, under the influence of William 
and his Dutch favourites, it is not our present business to show. 



311 

Ci)e Con0piracp : 

^ge SDigtoberp of tge [Epc#oti0c] j?anattcfe plot* 

To the Tune of, How Unhappy is Pliillis in Love ; or, Let Oliver 
now be forgotten. [See pp. 267 and 310.] 

LEt Pickering now be forgotten, 1 
Old Rumbold has wip'd off his scores; 
Since Presbyter Jack went a Plotting, 

The Jesuit's turned out of doors. 
For brewing and swilling of Treason, 
King-killing without any reason, 
Of all the Pack, Noble or Peasant, 

None can exceed old Presbyter Jack. 8 

First, the hot Sectaries Voted, 

" 'Twas Treason to murder the King ; " 

And next the bold Regicides Plotted 
To compass the very same thing : 

Their Votes and Arbitrary Power, 

That sent the Lords to the Tower, 

"We now see plain, every hour, 

They'd the old Game play over again. 16 

Rumsey and Rumbold, 2 intended 

At Hodsdon their Ambush to bring ; 
But Heaven and the Fire prevented, 

And Providence guarded the King. 
The Whigs the Treason propounded, 
But when the Trumpet sounded 
For Cambridgeshire, all were confounded, 

Taken, or fled, both Peasant and Peer. 2 i 

Monmouth, to wit, who was able ["for wit" 

To make to a Crown a Pretence, 
The Head and the Hope of the llabble, 

A Loyal and Politick Prince : 
But now he's gone into Holland? 
To be a King of no-land, 
Or else must be Monarch of Poland : 

Was ever Son so Loyal as he ? 32 

Lord Grey, and Armstrong the Bully, 

(That prudent and politick Knight,) 
"Who made of his Grace such a Cully, 

Together have taken their flight. 



312 The Conspiracy. 

Is this your Races, Horse-matches, 

His Grace's swift Despatches 

From Shire to Shire ? under the Hatches : 

Now above Deck they dare not appear. 40 

Brave Russel, and Sydney the Bully, 

That stood for the holy Old Cause ; 
And Trenchard l drawn in for a Cully, 

In spight of Allegiance and Laws ; 
And IVildman 5 too, with his Cannon, 
With Walcot, 6 Hone 1 and Aaron* 
With Mead 9 and Bourn, 10 every man on 

To Tyburn goes, the next in his turn. 48 

Next Yaliant and Noble Lord H[owar~\d, u 

That formerly dealt in Lambs-ivool, 
And knows what it is to be Tower'd, 

By Impeaching may fill the Jayls full. 
And next to him, Cully Brandon, Vi 
The witty and famous Hambden, Vi 
Must take his place, who did abandon 

All Loyalty, Religion, and Grace. 56 

Hone and liotvse, u the King and his Brother 

That they were to kill 'em confest, 
And now they hang up one another, 

Holms, 15 Blaney, 16 Lee, 11 Walcot and Wed : 18 
May all such Traytors, discarded, 
To Tyburn be well guarded, 
And ev'ry thing be so rewarded, 

That would oppose so gracious a King. 04 

JFinis. 

[In White-letter. No woodcut. Date, near the end of 1683.] 

Mies. 

1 Thomas Pickering. See Note 3, on p. 309, to previous ballad. This is 
.Richard llumbold, Ruinbaid, or Rumball, the Maltster, of the Rye-House, near 
Hoddesdon, Herts ; formerly a Cromwellian Trooper. His brother William 
joined him. He appears again, in the expedition to Scotland with Argyle in 1685. 

3 This flight to Holland was generally reported, but erroneously. Monmouth 
was in hiding (see p. 390), not far from Whitehall. Houses were searched for 
him, Thompson's twice, but this seems to have been merely make-believe. 

3 As companions of Monmouth, Armstrong was associated with Ford Lord 
Grey of Werk. Before the death of Shaftesbury, Grey had been tried at the 
King's-Bench bar, 23rd November, 1682, for abduction of his wife's sister, 
Lady Henrietta Berkeley, having debauched her. He was arrested after being 
proclaimed for the Rye-House Plot, but, by either the stupidity or connivance of 
Henry Deerham vel Deering, the messenger who arrested him, and whom he made 
drunk as an excuse, Grey escaped from the very gate of the Tower, and fled to 



Notes to The Conspiracy. 313 

Ilolland ; where the other fugitives avoided his society (too disreputable even for 
their loose morals), because his Mistress, not his wife, accompanied him. The 
third verse of the plain-spoken " Song sung before the King at Winchester" (see 
p. 335) refers to this incident in his career. As usually happened, the seducer of 
others could not preserve his own wife's honour. It was wickedly said, in answer 
to his boastful excuse for licentiousness, that he had nevertheless been battled all 
round : He had experimented on the whole family, but could not find what he 
desired. We meet him again at Scdgemoor. A year later, viz. in 1686, Charles 
Sackville, sixth Earl of Dorset, girds at this contemptible wittol, coward, and 
betrayer, in his Faithful Catalogue of the Most Notorious Ninnies, saying, 
Virtue, thy weak Lieutenant ran away, 
Just like that cursed miscreant Coward G\re]y. 

We shall return to Sir Thomas Armstrong after his capture in Holland, 1684. 

I John Trenchard, always seditious, boastful, and procrastinating : he was long 
afterwards fined 40,000/. 

5 Major John Wildman, afterwards dismissed by course of law, and still later 
rewarded in London. He was to have provided the cannon, and two small pieces 
called " Drakes " were found in his possession. 

6 Captain Thomas Walcot, described as an Irish gentleman of about a thousand 
a year : which, remembering his nationality, is open to suspicion. Irish rent- 
roll, perhaps. He had accompanied Shaftesbury to Holland and brought back 
his corpse. He acknowledged his guilt in planning the surprisal of the Guards, 
whilst others were to assail the King. 

7 William Hone, a melancholy enthusiast, another "Protestant Joiner," to 
emulate his predecessor Stephen College ; whose halter he inherited, not without 
desert. Hone's fall excited no similar attention, he having invented no Hail. 
He had been first examined before Sir William Turner. 

8 Aaron Smith, formerly solicitor for Stephen College, the original " Protestant 
Joiner" (none are genuine without the Hicks-Hall mark). He had been sent 
into Scotland, his charges being paid by Algernon Sydney, fourscore guineas, to 
treat with Sir George Campbell and others for a rising. "And Mr. Ferguson 
hath since told this Examiuant [West] that the said Aaron Smith behaved himself 
very indiscreetly in the said Journey, and run a hazard of discovering the design." 

s One Matthew Mead of Stepney, " a Nonconformist minister, zealous in the 
business of an Insurrection, but was not for beginning it in London," as Robert 
West declared. Through Mead, John Nisbet was in direct communication with 
Alexander Gordon of Earlston alias " Pringle." 

10 Zachary Bourne, a brewer, turned evidence against Walcot (who had offered 
to turn evidence himself, before arrest), with West, the Keelings, and Bumsey. 

II William Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Escrick, Yorkshire (on whom see 
pp. 340, 402, and elsewhere ; also Vol. IV., and Bagford Ballads). His wife was 
Prances, daughter of Sir James Bridgeman of Castle Bromwich, Warwickshire, 
and niece of the Lord-Keeper Orlando Bridgeman. It is satisfactory to remember 
that, although the title descended to his son Charles from this utterly degraded 
man (he died in 1694), it in him became extinct, as he left no issue, and all his three 
brothers and two sisters died sine proles. The curse seems to have weighed on 
the traitor's family. The allusion to his having "formerly dealt in Lamb's- wool" 
has been already explained in our pages. During his former confinement in the 
Tower, Howard bad taken a false oath, or an allegation in which he prevaricated 
with mental reservation, and then " took the sacrament on it," but sacrilegiously 
profaned the rite by substituting "Lamb's-wool" (i.e. ale poured on roasted apples) 
tor the consecrated wine. This, and his generally degraded character, had not 
been forgotten in the Satire of this date, entitled " The True Englishman " (not 
Defoe's " Wherever God erects a house of Prayer "), beginning, " Curst be the 
tiin'rous Fool, Whose feeble mind Is turn'd about with ev'ry blast of wind." 
Here, with allusion to his profanity, is Howard's portrait: — 



314 Notes to The Conspiracy. 

Let a mean scoundrel Lord (for equal fear 
Of hanging or of starving) falsely swear ; 
Let him, whose knavery and impudence 
Is known to every man's experience, 
With scraps of broken Evidence, contrive 
To feed and keep a fainting Plot alive ; 
Nay, though he swears by the same Deities 
"Whom he has mock'd by Mimick Sacrifice. 

12 Charles Gerard Lord Brandon, son of Charles, first Viscount Brandon (the 
first Earl of Macclesfield) and " a French Lady." When his father died, in 1693, 
he succeeded as 2nd Earl of Macclesfield. He had been a Colonel in the army ; 
was ambassador to Hanover in later years. He divorced his first wife, daughter 
of Sir Richard Mason, Knight, of Shropshire, for her adultery with Earl Rivers, 
and she afterwards was married to Colonel Brett (see p. 95). After his brother's 
death, unmarried, in 1702, the titles became extinct. The notoriety of Brandon's 
wife, before the divorce, is shown in " Lady Fretchwell's Song of the Wives," 
fifth verse (from Trowbesh MS.), daughter being written for daughter-in-law : — 

Old Macclesfield's daughter, whom G err ard did wed, 

All the portion she brought him he wears on his Head. 

With art and with practice she 's come to a pitch 

That her eyes cannot kill, tho' she wounds with [in reajch. 

Poor hobbling Dunblaine with her kindness is slain, [Danby's Son. 

Ev'n Parker and Dlmcomb begin to complain : 

Nay, her husband and she never yet could agree, 

For he ne'er could abide a thing lewder than she. 

13 John Hampden, Junior (grandson of the Chalgrove field Hampden, who died 
from an explosion of his own pistol, shattering his arm, through his own heed- 
lessness in allowing his orderly to keep adding charges, one on another) : against 
whom Monmouth expected to be summoned as a witness after falling back 
rebelliously on receiving his pardon. Hampden was condemned to pay a fine of 
40,000*!., with imprisonment. He became gloomy in his remorse, and afterwards 
committed suicide, Dec, 1696. The ballad marks that "he did abandon all 
Loyalty, Religion and Grace." The " free thought" of these extreme Whigs, 
having left them destitute of religious principle and consolation, in many instances 
terminated in self-murder : thus was it with Essex, Ayloffe, Hampden, etc. 

14 John Rouse, servant of Sir Thomas Player the Chamberlain, had long been 
disaffected and under suspicion. Thus, at the same time as Stephen College, he 
was in June, 1681, apprehended, examined by Sir Leoline Jenkins, and committed 
to the Tower for High-Treason ; but in October an Ignoramus Jury saved him. 
He was released on bail, and afterwards discharged on proclamation. Not having 
learnt caution by this experience, he entered into the Rye-House Plot, was arrested 
in Essex, 4th July, 1683, tried at the Old Bailey on the 12th, condemned, and 
executed with William Hone on the 20th at Tyburn, after owning the conspiracy. 

15 Major Abraham Holmes, an undaunted Fifth-Monarchy man, who corre- 
sponded in cypher with Argyle and was his friend. Taken in London, examined 
at the Gate-House on 27th June, he confessed his share. He survived Sedgemoor 
fight, in which he had engaged and been wounded, losing an arm. He Avas believed 
to have obtained a free pardon from James II., but was sent back to the West, 
where Chief-Justice Jeffereys had marked him down for slaughter, and he fell. 

16 Robert Blaney, a barrister of the Temple, who had been a witness for Sir 
Patience Ward in the trial for perjury, in previous May. Blaney was arrested, 
on 30th June, as was also Thomas Lee, a dyer and anabaptist. Both confessed 

17 Thomas Lee, the dyer, of Old Street : see previous Note, and p. 304. 

18 Robert West, a barrister of the Middle-Temple, turned Evidence, after 
having led many into treason. See pp. 285, 302, 304, 309. 



315 



mbiQ upon flying. 1683. 



T 



" What should I do ? should I the Godly seek, 
And go a Conventicling twice a week ? 
Quit the lewd Stage, aud its prophane pollution, 
Affect each Form and Saint-like Institution, 
So draw the Brethren all to contribution ? " 

— Otway : Prologue to the Orphan. 1680. 



HE following savage howl of exultation over the defeated con- 
spirators dates itself as belonging to the day of Russell's trial and 
the suicide of Arthur Capell (second Baron, but commonly called 
Earl of Essex) in the Tower. It was maliciously appointed to be 
sung to the tune belonging to a lament for a much earlier unfortu- 
nate, Robert Devereux, second Earl of Essex, who had been favourite 
of Queen Elizabeth, viz. the ballad beginning " Sweet England's 
Pride is gone : hone ! hone ! " It gave opportunity for wailing 
or howling, accordingly as grief or buffoonery and mocking might 
be the intention of the singer. 1 Thus, at the line, " Essex has cut 
his throat! hone, hone! " hearers would be expected to enjoy 
all the associations of incongruity in the ridicule applied to the 
melancholy son of a brave and distinguished father, who had died 
as a loyal Cavalier. Party spite was so strong that the past services 
of Arthur Earl of Essex were forgotten, in the horror excited by 
revelation of the Rye -House Plot. His own self-reproaches for 
having caused the ruin of his friends Algernon Sydney and William 
Russell, by influencing them to admit the double-dyed traitor 
Howard of Escrick, seems to have been the sole cause of unbalancing 
his mind and causing him to destroy himself. As is well known, 
his death powerfully impressed the jury assembled to try Russell, 
and was held to have swayed them to condemnation. Nothing can 
excuse Ferguson and Monmouth for afterwards availing themselves 
of the malice and ignorance which resided amid the rabble, whom 
they attempted to persuade that Essex had been murdered. 



1 A Loyal Song begins, "Be my Shoul and Shalvation ! hone, hone! " 
Another, to the same tune, of date early in 1685, began thus : — 

What have the Whigs to say ? hone, hone ! 
" Tories have got the day, hone, U hone .' 
Lord Shaftesbury is dead, and Duke of Monmouth fled ; 
We 're bravely brought to bed, hone, hone ! 

" Our gracious Soveraign too, hone, hone ! 
Is taken from us now, hone, hone ! 
Tho' he the best of men, yet we try'd too, and agen 
Dayly to Murther him, hone, hone .' " &c. 



316 Whig upon Whig : 1683. 

Monmouth's ' Declaration' at Lyme, in 1685, written by Ferguson, 
charged the crime on James II., and also accused him of having 
murdered his brother Charles. To this we shall come hereafter. 
We notice the testimony of the French valet, Paul Bomeny, on p. 345. 

It is beyond our purpose to trace the infamous libels which 
Lawrence Braddon affected to believe, and to gather evidence for 
supporting, as to an alleged impossibility of Essex inflicting so ghastly 
and deep a wound upon himself; therefore that he must have been 
murdered. There have been frequent cases known since (one of the 
wife-murderer, committing suicide in October, 1882, who had "nearly 
severed his own head from his body "), and only malice could have 
imagined so incredible and utterly unnecessary a crime against the 
Duke of York or his brother. In truth, the news of Essex having 
committed suicide occasioned grief to Charles ; who, on good 
authority, is reported to have said, " Alas! Lord Essex might have 
trusted my clemency, for I owed his family a life." This alluded 
to the death of the father (Arthur, first Baron Capell of Hadham), 
who had died bravely for the monarchy : beheaded on March 9th, 
1648. We may here take notice of a Poem " Upon the Execrable 
Murder of the Right Honorable Arthur Earl of Essex," which begins, 

Mortality wou'd be too frail to hear 

How Essex fell, and not dissolve with Fear ; 

Did not more generous Rage take off the blow, 

And by his Blood the steps to Vengeance show. 

The Tow'r was for the Tragedy design' d, 

And to be slaughtered, he is first contin'd ; &c. — State Poems. 

Instead of this we add an elegy, following the ballad ; and hereafter 
give the New Poem, " Come, with a nimble thrust of Rapier' d Wit." 

There is also a Pepysian ballad (II. 172) "On the Barbarous, 
Execrable, and Bloody Murder of the Earl of Essex-. To the Tune 
of, My Life and my Death [they are both in your power']. Printed 
and sold by J. Wallis, in White-Friars." It begins, " Attend, and 
give ear, good Christians, to me." Also another (Pepys Coll., II. 
177), entitled "Rome's Cruelty; or, The Earl of Essex barbarously 
murthered in the Tower." It begins, "The Earl of Essex in the 
Tower," and was sung to the tune of There is one black and sullen 
hour ; but as this takes its name from Tom D'Urfey's song in " The 
Banditti," Act i., the date of which is believed to be 1686, it follows 
that either this Pepysian broadside, printed for Philip Brooksby, 
must have been a three years later reprint, or, more probably, that 
D'Urfey's song belonged to the year 1683, revived in 1686. 

N.B. All the other names besides Essex's are annotated elsewhere. 



317 



SOfrig upon ©H&jg; 

3 pleasant "bi'smal Sonrj, on tije ©lb ^plotters nctalg fcuurti out. 

To the Tune of, hone, hone, &c. [See p. 315.] 

BEloved, hearken all, hone, hone ! 
To my sad Rhimes that shall (0 hone, hone I) 
Be found in Ditty sad, which makes me almost mad, 
But Tories hearts full glad : hone, hone ! 

Essex has cut his throat : hone, hone ! 

Mussel is Guilty found : hone, hone ! ["■'-, " gone to pot." 

Waleot being of the Crew, and Hone the Joy tier too, 

Must give the Devil his due : hone, hone ! 8 

Rumsey swears heartily ; hone, hone ! 
West swears he does not lie : hone, hone .' 
Lord H \owar\d vows by 's troth, That they are good men both, 
And take the self-same Oath : hone, hone ! 

I heard some People say, (0 hone, hone I) 
" Monmouth is fled away : hone, hone ! " 
And some do not stick to say, If he falls in their way, 
He will have pumtip fair play : hone, hone ! 16 

" Armstrong and Grey, God wot : hone, hone ! 
And Ferguson the Scot, (0 hone, hone I) 
Are all run God-kuows-where, 'cause stay they dare not here, 



To fix the grand Affair : hone, hone 



" Juries (alas !) are thus : hone, hone ! 
There 's no Ignoramus : hone, hone ! " 
But you T have Justice done, to ev'ry Mother's Son, 
And be hang'd one by one : hone, hone ! 24 

" Now how like Fools we look : hone, hone ! 
Had we not better took (0 hone, hone !) 
Unto our Trades and Wives, and have kept in our Hives ? 
Which might have sav'd our lives : O hone, hone ! 

" The King He says, that all (0 hone, hone !) 
That are found Guilty, shall (0 hone, hone I) 
Die by the Ax or Rope, as some dy'd for the Pope : 
Brethren, there is no hope : hone, O hone ! 32 

" The Sisters left behind, hone, hone ! 
Must with vile Tories grind, hone, hone ! 
And still be at their call, to play at Up-tails-all ; 
Nay to be [proud to fall], hone, hone ! 

" The Tories now will drink, (0 hone, hone !) 
The King's Health with our Chink : hone, hone ! 
Queen, Duke and Dutchess too, and all the Loyal Crew. 
Journee, Mor/j/tw ! Morblew ! hone, hone ! " [_« Jerney."] 10 

[Date, between the 12th and the 20th of July, 16S3.] 



318 



[Luttrell Collection, I. 35.] 

Qn lEIcrjg on tlje 3£arl of ISssci, irilja rut ijfe oinn 
2Efjroat m fyz (Eafocr, Juln 13, 1683. 

HOw many strange uncertain Fates attend 
The Wandering Pilgrim to his Journey's End. 
Earth turns to Earth, [but] water, air, and fire 
Against the breath inform'd them do conspire ; 
As every man were his own fatal Catch, 
'T is in his hands to forward the despatch. 
Some in the fields of Venus, some of Mars, 
Some meanly hang themselves, some hang a[ve]rse : 
But mighty Essex, his Victorious Arm, 
With griefs opprest, receives the swift alarm. 
A meaner foe than Steel he scorns to own ; 
Or fall by any hand, but by his own. 
Achitophel may hang himself, and Oats 
With Judas swing, and some may cut their Throats, 
Whom black despair may urge ; But Essex he 
The first that cut his throat for 's Loyalty. 
Oh ! that despair should 'tend such fiery zeal ! 
This mighty Sampson of the Common-weal, 
Rais'd to defend and set his Israel free 
From Popish rage, Philistian tiranny ; 
To shake the Pillars of the Church and State, 
He crowns it with his own untimely Fate. 

Essex the famous General ; that name 
So dear recorded in the Books of Fame, 
With royal blood, and fatal conquests cloy'd, 
Ten thousand of the King's best Friends destroy'd: 
But thou 'rt the first, and shall recorded be, 
That rid him of one Secret Enemy : 
What titter Victim cou'd great Essex hring 
T' atone his crime against an Injur' d King ? 
But here thy rage too desperate appears, 
To dye a Martyr to thy doubts and fears. 
Oh ! dire Revenge ! Oh ! too officious steel, 
To make that Wound which Time can never heal. 
Had'st thou but few days' courage to with -stand, 
Jack Catch had done the Business to thy hand. 
But Ob, Despair ! more desperate than thy Guilt, 
That durst not trust thy self to stand the Tilt ; 
Lest thy false Tongue shou'd through thy Throat impart 
The bloody Treasons that opprest thy Heart. 

This must convince the World, and thy wrong'd Prince, 
Thou with thy Guilt had'st rather hurry hence, 
Than stay to Justifie thy Innocence. 



London. Printed for /. Smith. 1683. 



319 



[Trowbcsh Collection, V. 212.] 



3Jacft Mttfys il?eto &ons ; 

©r, 

Wanting to Conspirator 

To the Tune of, ... . [Left blank thus in original]. 




I Hang and Behead, Until you be Dead, 
Dire ! 
Haw-Head, Bloody-Bones, Fling members and stones 
In the Fire. 

Is 't not better be merry, with Claret and Sherry? 

'tis Season, 
Than to have your Soul let out at your Poll, 

for Treason ? 

Tour Brains for to puzzle, like Walcot and Russel ; 

conspiring ; 
'Tis better be swilling, than Plund'ring and Killing, 

and Firing. 



320 



Jack Ketch's New Song. 



'Tis better to save one's neck, and be brave, 

or be Sotting ; 
Tban have a Chop with a Hatchet, or a Halter to stretch it ; 

for Plotting. 16 

The Drunk and the Brave, nor Traytor nor Knave 

can be ever ; 
Their Deaths he defyes, but at Tilting he dies, 

or a Feaver. 

To be Traytors proclaimed, Describ'd, and be Nam'd, 

and [for] Money ; 
This 'tis to be Cullies to the vilest of Bullies, 

Old Tony ! 24 

To be frighted each Hour, with Newgate or Tower, 

and Trying, 
Conviction, and Sentence ; at Tyburn repentance, 

and dying. 

Then leave Plotting and Treason to the void of all Reason, 

and Sense : 
Your Pardon, Jack cries, 'Tis the Whigs I advise : 

No offence. 32 

[In Six-line Verses. "White-letter. No woodcut : we bestow two. Reprinted 
by Nat Thompson in 1684 ; but the true date is July, 1683. J 




J.W.E. 



321 



[British Museum Collection, 1872, a. 1. fol. 32.] 

Cl)e JLopal Conquest; 

©r, 

SDramimon of ^reagom §>ong. 

To the tttne of, Lay by your Pleading, the Law lies a bleeding. 
'[See pp. 199 to 203.] 

NOw Loyal Tories may triumph in glories, 
The Fatal Plot is now betray'd, the rest were Shams and Stories. 
Now against Treason we have Law and reason ; 
And cv'ry bloody Whig must go to pot in time and season. 
No shamming, nor flamming, no ramming, nor Smuuwp, 
No Ignoramus Juries now, for Whiggs, but only Hanging ! 6 

Look a little farther, place things in order, [==sir E - ■#• <?• 

Those that seek to kill their King, Godfrey might murther. 
Now they're detected, by Heaven neglected, [Essex. 

In black despair cut their throats, thus Pluto' 's work's effected. 

No shamming, nor flamming, etc. 12 

Catch grows in passion, and fears this New Fashion, [=Jack Ketch. 

Lest ev'ry Traytor hang himself, and spoyl his profession. 

Tho' four in a morning, Tyburn adorning, 

He cryes out for a score a time, to get his men their Learning, 

No shamming, nor flamming, etc. 18 

Now we have sounded the bottom which confounded 
Our Plotting Parliament of late, who had our King surrounded. 
JIam[pyien and others, and Trenchar\jC\ were Brothers ; 
Who were to kill the King and Duke, and hang for their Murthers. 
No shamming, nor flamming, etc. 2-i 

Surprising the Tower and Court, in an hour, l z - Bourne's evid. 53. 

And enter in at the Traytor's-Gate ; but 'twas not in their power : 
now Guards are doubled, ere long they will be tripled, 
The harmony of Gun and Drum makes guilty Conscience troubled. 
No shamming, nor flamming, etc. 30 

If Grey is retaken, the Hoot o' th' Plot is shaken, 
Russel and the rest condemn'd the bleeding Cause to waken. 
Monmouth in Town still, with Armstrong his Council ; 
The Lady G[rey~] may find him out, under some Smock or Gown still . 
No shamming, nor flamming, etc. 36 

VOL. v. Y 



322 The Loyal Conquest. 

Give 'em no quarter, they aim at Crown and Garter, 

They're of that bloody regiment that made their King a Martyr. 

Leave none to breed on, they'd make us to bleed on ; 

They are the bloody'st Canniballs that ever man did read on. 
JVb shamming, nor flamming, no ramming, nor Buiuiuwp, 
JVb Ignoramus Juries now, for Whigs, but only Hanging ! 42 

London, Printed for J. Dean, 1683, Bookseller, in Cranbom-street,m 
Leicester-Fields, near JVewfiort-TLouse. 

[Black-letter. No woodcut. Date, July, before Russell's execution.] 

*** We need not annotate tins Loyal outburst of song, for every one of its 
allusions are tbe common property of other political ditties belonging to the same 
time of excitement. It was issued after the condemnation of Lord William 
Russell and before his execution, consequently fitly comes into this position, 
immediately preceding the three ballads which are almost wholly devoted to him. 
In passing let us notice the mocking allusion to Ford Lord Grey of Werk (who 
escaped from his captor at the very gates of the Tower), and to his wife's known 
connection with the Duke of Monmouth. The belief that Sir Thomas Armstrong 
lingered in London was erroneous. He knew better policy than to stay and meet 
enquiry; but he had to meet his fate nevertheless, in 1684, and forfeited the 
slender chances of a Trial by having been outlawed during his absence. Compare 
" Sir Thomas Armstrong's Farewell," on our pp. 477 to 488. 

The Court party already rejoiced at disaffected Revolutionists having played 
into their hands. One new song of the time was in the Loyal Garland before 1686 : 

Eopltn; 5Tutneto up Crump; <©r, &ftc ©aiujer ©for. 

IN vain ill men attempt us, 
Their day is out of date ; 
The Fates do now exempt us 
From what we felt of late. 
The Nation is grown wiser 

than to believe their Sham ; 
He that was the Deviser [id. est, Shaftesbury. 

themselves begin to blame. 

They thought the Trumps wou'd ever 

turn on Rebellion's side; 
Rut kinder Powers deliver 

us from their foolish pride. 
For see, they are deceived, 

and can no more prevail, 
Those who the Rump believed 

asham'd are of the tale. 



0; 



323 



Eusscir.s jfaretocll 

" "Were I, like these, unhappily decreed 
By Vennj-Plet/ies to get my bread, 
Or want a meal— unless George (Jroom and I 
In our next measures luckily agree — 
I'd damn my Lines to wrap up soap and cheese, 
Or furnish Squibs for City 'Prentices, 
To burn the Pope, or celebrate Queen Bess" 

— A Satyr upon the Poets. 1683. 



'N a later page, viz. p. 691, we reprint complete one of the 
three ballads entitled " Russell's Last Farewell to the World," 
beginning " Farewell, farewell to Mortal Powers," from the 
Bodleian original : of which the music is found in Play ford's 
Dancing Master, p. 163, 9th edition, 1695, being the same tune as 
James Whitney's Last Farewell (the words reprinted by us, in 
Bagfurd Ballads, p. 559). We had mentioned the two others, 
entitled similarly "Lord Russell's Farewell," each of them sung 
to a different tune. These we now give, although neither 
of them is properly a Roxbarglie Ballad, until we make it so by 
inclusion here. One, by a perverse exhibition of malicious ingenuity, 
is made to accompany the lively notes of Dr. Henry Aldrich's well- 
known " Hark! the bonny Christ-Church bells," that is dear to all 
Oxford men and lovers of music. (Aldrich was not made Dean until 
1689.) Nothing could have been more insultingly provoking, or 
derogatory to the memory of that extremely self-conceited and 
respectable personage, Lord William Russell, than to make his 
melancholy Farewell glibly roll itself off to the liveliest of tunes, 
associated with festal bell-ringing and conviviality of taverns : 

Tinkle, tinkle, tinkle goes the small bell at Nine, to call the Vergers home ; 
But ne'er a man will leave his cau, till he hears the mighty TOM ! 

It is beyond one's power to keep a grave countenance under the 
circumstances. There is a knaggish persistence, as of a scolding 
but coquettish vixen, bantering and badgering the poor aggrieved 
and convicted nobleman to his face, that really deserves the out- 
burst of solemnified moral indignation which some garrulous old 
men possess so liberally. Yet all that we are able to declare is, the 
performance is extremely reprehensible, and likewise risible ; but 
we wonder at their impudence. 

The third "Russell's Farewell" is a Pepysian ballad, tendered 
to those who feel shocked at the Christ-Church Bells parody. 
Perhaps its dullness may appear more sublime. Beginning with the 
words, "Pride, the bane of human creatures," it goes to the tune 
of "Tender Hearts of London City" (Roxburghe Coll., II. 272, 
437 ; IV. 21) ; a ballad we meet early in our next volume. 



324 

Eussers jTatetocll 

To the Tune of, Oh, the bonny Christ-Church Bells. 

1. 

OH, the mighty Innocence of Jiussel, Bedford's Son ! 
That dy'd for the Plot, whether Guilty or not, 
By his last equivocating Speech ! 
" By the words of a dying Man, I here protest I know no Plot 
'Gainst the life of the King or Government, 
Either by Action or intent." 
Fy, fy, fy, fy, fy, fy, my Lord ! What are you about to do ? 
To sink to Hell, by th' sound of your Knell, both Soul and Body too ? 

2. 

Oh, the shallow memory of this blood-thirsty Lord ! 
To deny and confess, and all to express 

His guilty Insolence the more : 
" I, at Mr. Shepherd's house, did hear some little slight discourse, 
How easie 't was the Guards to seize, 

Yet I am guiltless, if you please ! " 
No, no, no, no, no, no, my Lord, your Guilt 's too plainly seen, 
And M[on?nout]h too, with Shaftesbury s Crew : to destroy both King and Queen. 



Next your Lordship does protest, ' ' No man had ever yet 
That Impudence against his Prince" 

To your Face to propose any foul Design : 
Then you confess, immediately, At the house of Politick Shaftesbury, 
You heard such words, were sharp as swords, 

The worst can be thought, or English affords ; 
Which rais'd your Righteous spirit to exclaim against their sense ; 
Yet this you conceal'd, and never reveal'd ; all in your blind defence. 

4. 

" Popery," your Lordship says, " Is bloody and unjust !" 
What then you design'd, with those you combiu'd, 

Was Farce, to jest our Lives away ; 
For when the Duke of Mon[meuth] came t' acquaint your Honour of his fear, 
Of being undone by the heat of some 

Too violent for the Bloody Cause, 
Away you go to Shepherd's strait, where pernicious words were said, 
In Passion all, with Judgement small, but consequence of Dread. 

5. 

" From the time of choosing Sheriffs, I did conclude the heat 
Would this produce ; " That 's no excuse, 

But just confession of the Fact. 
Presently your Lordship says, for farther confirmation still, 
You are " not surpris'd to find it fall " 

On your Honour (you deserv'd it all) : 
Immediately you would proclaim aloud your Innocence ! 
Why, your Lordship 's mad, in a Cause so bad, to put the Sham -pretence. 



Russell's Last Speech, burlesqued by a Parodist. 325 

6. 

Oh, ye True- Bletv- Protestants, whose times are yet to come, 
You see your Fate, early or late ; 

Follow you must, 't is all your Doom. 
M[_on>nouf~\h, Armstrong, Ferguson, Greg, Goodenough the Under- Shrieve, 
With all your Ignoramus Crew, 

That Justice hate, and Treason brew ; 
Scaffold, Tyburn, Halter, Ax, those Instruments of Death, 
As 't is your due, may 't you pursue, till you resign your Breath. 

[In White-letter. Date, between 21st and the end of July, 1683.] 

Note. — Russell spoke few words at his execution, but delivered into the hands of 
the Sheriffs a paper, which almost certainly was the composition of the notorious 
Gilbert Burnet, afterwards "printed for John Darby, by direction of the Lady 
Bussed " (Darby being afterwards convicted thereof on 20th November), and 
circulated in a folio of four pages. The spoken words are those which are 
repeated in the foregoing ballad of " Russell's Farewell " : 

"Mr. Sheriff, I expected the noise would be such that I should not be very well 
heard. I was never fond of much speaking, much less now, therefore I have set 
down in this Paper all that I think fit to leave behind me. God knows how 
far I was always from designs against the King's person, or of altering the 
Government. And I still pray for the preservation of both, and of the Protestant 
Keligion. Mr. Sheriff, I am told that Captain Walcot yesterday said some things 
concerning my knowledge of the Plot : I know not whether the report be true or 
not." [He was answered by the Sheriff, "I did not hear him name your 
Lordship." To which another person added, "No, my Lord, your Lordship was 
not named by any of them."] 

Russell continued : — " I hope it is not, for to my knowledge I never saw him, 
nor spake with him in my whole life ; and in the words of a Dying Man, I 
profess I know of no Plot, either against the King's Life or the Government. 
But I have now done with this world, and am now going to a Better. I forgive 
the whole world heartily, and I thank God I die in cbarity with all men, and 
I wish all sincere Protestants may love one another, and not make way for 
Popery by their animosities. I pray God forgive them, and continue the 
"Protestant Religion amongst them, that it may flourish so long as the Sun and 
Moon endures. I am now more satisfied to die than ever I have been." See 
p. 403, where appears another portion of the speech, mocked in preceding song. 

%* On next page is given the Pepysian ballad of " Lord Russell's Farewell," 
beginning "Pride, the bane of humane creatures," issued immediately after his 
Execution. The tune named belongs to a Roxburghe Ballad in our next volume 
(Roxb. Coll., II. 272, 437 ; Ibid., IV. 21), the first verse being : — 

Tender hearts of London City, 
Now be mov'd, by grief and pity, 

Since by Love I am undone ; 
Now I languish in my anguish : 

Too too soon my heart was won. 

This Roxhurghe Ballad had the same tune as " Iu the West of Devonshire liv'd a 
Nymph of beauty rare," the title of which ballad is " The Devonshire Nymph ; 
or, The Knight's Happy Choice." This, also, we reserve for our Vol. VI. 



326 

[Pepysian Collection, II. 165.] 

lorn Russell's jfarctoel, 

Wtyn foas IMjeatirti fax f^ujfc&rcason, m SLmcoIn's^nn^teftis, 

3uto 21st, 1683. 

To the Tune of, Tender Hearts of London City [see p. 325]. 

PRide, the Bane of humane Creatures, 
Will corrupt the hest of natures, 
When it soars to its full height : 
Who can stand it or command it, 

When the Object is in sight ? 

Reason is no more our Jewel ; 
When our dearest thoughts are cruel, 

All her maxims are forgot : 
Else what reason was for Treason, 

Or this base inhuman Plot ? 10 

Russell, that enjoy'd the Treasure, 
Every way replete with Pleasure, 

Had Allegiance quite forgot ; 
Hopes of rising did advise him 

To this base inhuman Plot. 

What, alas ! could he desire, 
That himself could not require ? 

Pride did only him besot, 
To aspire to grow higher, 

By a base iuhuman Plot. 20 

Safely he might have liv'd for ever, 
In a gracious Prince's favour, 

And more Honour there have got, 
Than his thoughts, whate'er they wrought, 

By any base inhuman Plot. 

Those false Hopes that did deceive him, 
With his nature will not leave him, 

Nor with his poor Body rot ; 
Whilst Records the World affords, 

This Treason ne'er will be forgot. 30 

Better be the Earl of Bedford, 

Than for Treason lose his Head for 't, 

And to make his Name a blot, 
In each Libel, as a Rebel 

In a base inhuman Plot. 

If his Prince had ever left him, 
Or of any Grace bereft him, 

Ere his Treason fore'd his lot, 
Yet Obedience and Allegiance 

Should have kept him from this riot. 40 



Lord Russell's Ghost, seen with a real Head on. 327 

Treason is a crime 'gainst Nature ; 
Against Kings, the Higher matter 

Sure can never be forgot : 
He that blames him, does prophane him, 

And his Soul is in the Plot. 

Russell died then unlamented 
By all men, but who consented 

To this pjiurnp inhuman Plot, 
To destroy the Nation's Joy : 

The King and Monarchy should rot. 50 

But Heavens preserve the Crimson Boyal, 
And bring all the rest to Trial, 

Who Allegiance have forgot : 
And confounded be each Bound-Head, 

In this p ( uun:p inhuman Plot. 

Printed for P[hilip~] Brooksby, at the Golden Ball, in West Smithfteld. 
[Black-letter. Three woodcuts, and two lines of music. Date, July, 1683.] 

%* On p. 182 we mentioned Langley Curtis's libel, for which he was in 1684 
sentenced to 500/. fine, with pillory exposure. It is entitled The Night- Walker of 
Bloomsbury : Being the result of several late Consultations between a Vintner, 
Judge, Tallow-chandler, a brace of Fishmongers, and a Printer. In a Dialogue 
between Ralph and Will. Entered according to Order. London : Printed by 
J. Grantham, 1683. It is a silly pointless single-sheet of two pages, concerning 
a pretended Apparition of Lord William Bussell, which walked in Bloomsbury 
Square, with its head on, and cryed out, " Oh ! I have no rest, because of the 
Speech that I never made, but Dr. Burnet." The constable asked it, " Can't 
you be quiet in your Grave? I'll make ye quiet?" and then gave the Mock- 
Ghost a drubbing. Curtis asserts that it was a trick of the Papists, meant to 
implicate and injure Dr. Gilbert Burnet — but he afterwards recanted, as usual. 



a Ccrror for Cmttors. 

" Indeed this Counsellor 
Is now most still, most secret, and most grave, 
Who was in life a foolish prating Knave." — Hamlet, Act iii. 

JjORD WILLIAM RUSSELL is the hero of the following ballad, 
although his admirers may consider the treatment of him to be " on 
the north side of friendly." But for him to be well abused, as a 
leader, was in itself a compliment beyond his deserts. 

On the tune, Diybys Farewell, we have written in Yol. IV. 
on pp. 392, 393, and 397 to 400. It was mentioned here on p. 
125. The other tune-name of our ballad is On the banks of a 
river, close ttncler the shade; which refers to a song in Playford's 
Choice Ayres, without composer's name (1683, iv. 17) ; also given in 
the posthumous edition of Dryden's Miscellany Poems (1716, ii. 173). 



328 "Like that siveet Saint that sate at Russell's side." 

Lengthened to a broadside-ballad, it will meet us in a later volume 
of The Roxhirghe Ballads (being in Eoxb. Coll., II. 312), entitled 
" Love's Triumph over Bashfulness ; or, The Pleas of Honour and 
Chastity over-ruled." The original Song has only two verses : — 

&fje Bebatc: & Song. 

ON the bank of a River, close under the shade, 
Young Chris and Sylvia one evening were laid ; 
The youth pleaded strongly for proof of his Love, 
But Honour had won her his flame to reprove. 
She cry'd, " Where's the lustre, when clouds shade the Sun ? 
Or what is rich Nectar, the taste being gone ? 

Mongst flowers on tbe stalk sweetest odours do dwell ; 
But, if gather'd, the Rose it self loses the smell." 

" Thou dearest of Nymphs," the brisk Shepherd reply'd, 

If e'er thou wilt argue, begin on Love's side : 

In matters of State let grave Reason be shown, 

But Love is a Power will be ruled by none. 

Nor should a coy Beauty be counted so rare, 

For Scandal can blast both the Chaste and the Fair. 
Most fierce are the joys Love's Alembick do fill, 
And the Roses are sweetest when put to the Still." 

Mention is made in the following ballad of Bachel Lady Russell, 
one whose virtues deserve all our admiration, although we fail to 
recognize any extraordinary merit in the man who had the honour 
of being her husband. In fact, whatever was estimable in him may 
fairly be considered to have been developed solely by her influence. 
Without her he would have continued to be a commonplace person, 
and with every advantage of her society he remained little more. 

It is true that only a few days after his death she wrote of him 
as "the best husband in the world," when she was "a woman 
amazed with grief" {Letter to Chmles II.) ; and that more than a 
year later she could feel and say (to Dr. Fitzwilliam), "An inesti- 
mable treasure I did lose, and with whom I had lived in the 
highest pitch of this world's felicity." But this was natural to her 
sweet and loving spirit, thus attaching to his memory qualities 
beyond his own merits. Hers was indeed a true and honest heart. 
She records, "I strive to reflect how large my portion of good 
things has been ; and though they are passed away, no more to 
return, yet I have a pleasant work to do : dress up my soul for 
my desired change, and fit it for the converse of angels and spirits 
of just men made perfect; amongst whom my hope is my loved 
Lord is one ; and my often repeated prayer to my God is, that if 
I have a reasonable ground for that hope, it may give a refreshment 
to my poor soul." (31 January, 168-f-.) 

Such women generally fall to an inferior class of men. 



329 



[Roxburgke Collection, III. 796.] 

21 terror for Crattors; 

©r, 

treason Jugtlp pumggeiu 

JSetng a delation of a ql.uuibcj (Conspiracy against the Eife of the 
l\in<j anb the Sulmersion of the (Gcbcrnmcnt, hatch'b anb contriucb 
bo ill^affcctcb ^persons, namclo, Captain Thomas Walcot, William 
Hone, anb John Rouse, mho lucre braum, hang'b, anb qnartcr'b, 
for P?iai> treason, on jFribao the 20. of this instant 3uto [1083]: 
Us also tfje ILorb Russel, iiilja mas behcabeb in Lincoiu's-Inn- 
Fields on the 21. of the same iflontlj, tohosc Jatal anb bescrbrb 
Punishments man he a Oil amino; to all others to auoib the like 
Crimes. 

To the Tune of, Diglnfs Fare-well ; or, On the bank of a River, etc. [p. 327.] 




[Execution of Lord William Russell, July 20, 1(383.] 



330 A Terror for Traitors : 

TOu Traytors of England, how dare you Conspire, 
Against such a Prince whose love we admire ? 
And against his dear Brother, that Royal brave Sparke, 
Right heir to the Crown, sweet James Duke of York. 
But yet I do hope that they'l ne'r have their will, 
To touch our dear Princes, who ne'r thought them ill : 
O Russell, you plot[t]ed against a good King, 
Whose Fame through all Nations in iEurope doth [ring]. 

But Heavens will protect him, and still be his guide, 
And keep him from danger, and be on his side ; 
And all that do plot against him or the Heir, 
I hope that their feet will be catcht in a snare. 
By this Conspiration your Ruine you've caught, 
And under a hatchet your head you have brought : 
Russel ! you plotted [against a good King, 
Whose Fame through all Nations in iEurope doth ring']. 

You might have liv'd manie a year in much Fame, 
And added much Honour unto your good Name ; 
But now this a blot in your 'Scutchon will be, 
For being concerned with this gross Villany. 
But now your dear Parents in heart may lament, 
Without all dispute they've but little content. 
To think that you plotted [against a good King, 
Whose Fame through all Nations in iEurope doth ring]. 

Your Lady may grieve, and lament for her loss, 
To lose you for Treason it proves a great cross, 
But it was no more than what was your desert, 
No reason but that he should taste of the smart ; 
But had you then been a good Subject indeed, 
You would not have suffer'd, you would have been freed : 
But Russel, you plotted [against a good King, 
Whose Fame through all Nations in iEurope doth ring]. 

Now let me but ask you a question or two, 
What would you have had, or intended to do ? 
The Laws of this Nation ye would have thrown down, 
Then ye would have aim'd at the Scepter and Crown ; 
But Heaven, I hope, will all Plotting disclose, 
And the Laws of the Nation shall punish the Foes 
Of our great Monarch, and gracious good King, 
Whose Fame through all Nations in iEurope doth [ring]. 



Russell's Treason Justly Punished. 331 

When Persons have Honor and Pleasures great store, 
Yet still they are having and grud[g]ing for more ; 
Their hearts are deceitful and puffed up with pride, 
And Lucifer certainly stands by their side : 
To things most unlawful he makes them conspire, 
But he laughs at them all when they stick in the mire. 

Russel ! you plotted [against a good King, 

Whose Fame through all Nations in ^Europe doth ring.'] 

True Subjects of England are filled with fears, 
And for their great Soveraign they shed many tears ; 
To think this no reason will Traitors convince, 
But still they'le be Plotting against a good Prince : 
Those that should have been a great help to the Land, 
They sought for our ruine, we well understand. 
But Russel, you plotted [against a good King, 
Whose Fame through all Nations in iEurope doth ring.'] 

There was Walcot and Rouse was both in the Plot, 

And Hone I do reckon must not be forgot ; 

At Tyburn, for certain, each man took his turn, 

And then in the fire their bowels did burn. 1 

[While few people pity, of all who stand nigh,] [Line b X"j d in 

A death so deserving none [them] will deny. 

For sure they plotted against a good King, 

Whose Fame through all Nations in ^Europe doth \rmg~\. 

Let this be a warning to Rich and to Poor, 

To be true to their King, and to plot so no more ; 

And that our good King may have Plenty and Peace, 

And the loyal Subjects may daily increase : 

There never were People more happy than we, 

If unto the Government all would agree. 

Then hang up those Traitors who love not the King, 
Whose Fame tit rough all Nations in -ZEurope doth \_ring~\. 

jftm's. 

[No printer's name. "White-letter. One woodcut. "Ring" misprinted "Reign," 
passim. "We supply conjecturally one lost line. Date, after 21st July, 1683.] 

1 The fire was blazing fiercely in the sight of these men, ready to have their 
entrails cast in it, and to heat the pitch with which their quarters were to be 
coated. The record of national brutality is hideous : not worse than the history 
of Alva's cruelties in the Netherlands, but scarcely better. See old cut on p. 319. 



T 



332 



^eto ^ong, sung at COmc&ester. 

" Come hang up your Care, and lay by your Sorrow ; 
Drink on ! he's a Sot that e'er thinks of to-morrow; 
Good store of good Claret supplies ev'ry thing, 
And the Man that is drunk is as great as a King. 
Let none at misfortune or losses repine, 
But take a full dose of the juice of the Vine ; 
Diseases and troubles are ne'er to be found 
But in the p^iucp place where the Glass goes not round." 

— The Miser, by Tom Shadwell, Act iii. 2, 1672. 

HAT King Charles II. felt an increasing interest in Winchester 
is shown by his preparations for building there ; a new Palace being 
in progress during the last years of his life, and a large sum of 
money lying ready for such expenditure at the time of his death. 
A poem " On the King's House now building at Winchester, ,'' 
begins, "As soon as mild Augustus could asswage A bloody Civil- 
War's licentious rage," and pleads for his continued patronage : 

To Winchester let Charles be ever kind, 

The youngest labour of his fertile mind : 

Here ancient kings the B> itish Scepter sway'd, 

And all kings since have always been obey'd . . . 

Let not the stately fabrick you decree 

An immature abortive Palace be, 

But may it grow the mistress of your heart, 

And the full heir of Wren's stupendous art. [Sir Chr. w. 

After describing the situation, the adjacent Cathedral and College 
(involving a tribute to William of Wykeham), the poem praises the 
fitness of Winchester for those sports in which the King delighted : 

A healthy Country opening to his view, 

The chearful Pleasures of his eyes renew. 

On neighbouring plains the Coursers wing'd with speed 

Contend for Plate, the glorious Victor's meed : 

Over the Course they rather fly than run, 

In a wide circle like the radiant Sun. 

Then fresh delights they for their Prince prepare, 

And Hawks (the swift- wing'd Coursers of the Air,) 

The trembling Bird with fatal haste pursue, 

And seize the Quarry in their Master's view : 

Till, like my Muse, tir'd with the Game they've found, 

They stoop for ease, and pitch upon the ground. 

That the following impudent and scurrilous ditty (amusing withal, 
as were most of Tom D'Urfey's " unbaptised rhymes,") was sung 
before his gracious Majesty, without check or rebuke, is a clear 
token that the systematic opposition of the London Whig aldermen 
had gone so far that the public lampooning of them in leisure hours 
at Winchester was considered to be a commendable act, agreeable 
to the King himself and to those whom he delighted to honour. 



The Berkeley v. Grey scandal, at King's Bench. 333 

Since the sovereign offered no objection to his discontented subjects 
being thus held up to the ridicule they had so laboriously earned, 
we are not willing to stand forward invidiously as Censor Morum. 
It is no business of ours. On the whole, we enjoy it, rather than 
feel scandalized ; whatever Puritans may grumble. 

For instance : except on the legal fiction that " the greater the 
truth, the greater is the Libel," nothing can be urged conclusively 
against the rebuke administered to the infamous Ford Lord Grey ; 
who had not only joined in the riot of arresting the Lord Mayor, 
(proceedings had been taken against him for the offence, though he 
denied that he was present), but had undergone a public trial for 
debauching Lady Henrietta Berkeley, younger sister of his wife 
Mary 'Annabel,' on Nov. 23, 1682. His injured wife was by no 
means of a blameless character herself, for her intriguing with 
Monmouth had been so notorious that the most disgraceful names 
had been commonly applied to the husband, such as ro^i^, In n Q, 
and pjojpnQ. She, with her sister Lucy, and their father, appeared 
as witnesses at the King's Bench bar, and " testified very fully as 
to the unlawful love and affection his Lordship had for the Lady 
Henrietta, and his solicitations to that purpose : then there were 
three or four other persons who testified that she was carried away 
by three of the other defendants, chiefly by one Charnock, coach- 
man to the Lord Grey ; and that his Lordship had owned he would 
never restore her but on condition that he might come to her when- 
soever he would ; and that he owned he had the lady in his power 
and protection." It was going badly agaiust him, if she had not 
perjured herself for his sake, and sworn that he was not privy to 
her escape. D'Urfey's Song not being in the original Roxlurghe 
Collection, we venture to make a few slight changes in the text, 
marking them within square brackets. The reader may feel 
certain that nothing of the smallest value is lost. 

As to the date of the following song, an important matter to 
determine, on account of its numerous personal allusions : It must 
have been in the month of September, either in 1682 or 1683. In 
the one case, nearly a year before the discovery of the Bye House 
Plot (June, 1683); in the other, soon after it. Charles II. in both 
years attended the Winchester races. 

In 1682, on August 30th, "attended by many of the nobility 
and gentry, he set forward from Windsor to Winchester, to see the 
horse-racing there." On September 2nd, "his Majestie and his 
Boyal Highness [the Duke of York] returned to Windsor from 
Winchester, from whence, in some short time, they goe to New- 
market." (See Introduction to this Volume for James's Letters.) 

King Charles was again at the races next year. On the August 
29 or 30, 1683, " His Majestie, with the whole Court, is gone from 
Windsor to Winchester, to passe some short time;" and "Their 



334 Le Boi s'amuse, at Winchester. 

Majesties and the Court returned from "Winchester to "Whitehall the 
25th" September, 1683, says a contemporary diary. Could it have 
been sung during this interval. We have nothing save internal 
evidence to guide us, but we see in one of the personal lampoons 
distinct reference to an event later than September 1st, 1682; and 
this appears conclusive, despite the d priori likelihood that if it 
were written and sung a whole year later there would have been 
some unmistakeable indication of the Rye-House Plot. 

Although Ford Lord Grey was not publicly tried for abduction 
and debauchery until the 23rd of November, 1683, the scandal 
was so notorious in the previous September that no weight can be 
attached to this indication of date. One allusion to Wallop and 
Winnington might point to June, 1682; but another to Wallop 
alone seems to refer to Danby's case, seven months later. 

The outrageous attempt made by the Whigs, Papillon and Dubois, 
to arrest the Tory Lord Mayor, Sir William Pritchard, was in 
April, 1683. This decides the date, for it could not be possible 
that these words were written previously to that event : — 

Dubois and Papillion, the Cities sham Shrieves, 
Whose truth and whose loyalty no man believes, 
That arrested the Mayor, and no danger he saw ; — 
To keep from self-hanging, I leave to the Law. 

Moreover, the allusion to Sir Patience Ward points to his sentence, 
1683. Consequently we hold it to be certain that the song belongs 
to the middle of September, 1683. After this date, and before the 
month ended, Sir George Jeffereys had so won favour with the 
Court that he was raised to be Chief-Justice of the King's Bench, 
vacant by the decease of Sir Edward Sanders, on 19th June. In 
that month of June proceedings had been threatened against Sir 
Robert Clayton for extortion, and judgement given against the city 
in the Quo Warranto, leaving the liberties in the King's hands. 
Sir Patience Ward, convicted of perjury, 19 May, fled to Holland. 
(See p. 339, a ballad on Sir George Jeffereys' Installation.) 

On p. 332, as our motto, we give complete the jovial Catch for four 
voices (music composed by Robert Smith), written by Tom Shadwell: 
" round as a Globe, and liquor' d every chink, Goodly and great he 
sails behind his Link," as in Dryden's verse. The fourth line was 
quoted happily by the Merry Monarch himself, in reference to his 
Civic host, Sir Robert Vyner, in 1674, on the occasion early alluded 
to in our p. 4 : a story with variations. Charles the Second could 
appreciate conviviality, and knew by heart the best things of both 
the Toms, Shadwell and D'Urfey, as also of Butler's Hudibras. If 
Vyner was importunate, to " crack t'other bottle," it was all in 
loyalty and love : And the Man who is drunk is as great as a King ! 



335 

[Tiwbesh Collection, V. fol. 106.] 

a Jftcto ^oncj, mane ty a person of duality, 

attiJ Sung htfoxz fiat's fHajcstjj at OTtnrfjcstcr. 
[Soon after Suppression of tfjc Jmjc^ousc plot in 1683.] 

Tune of, Cock Laiorel [would needs have the Devil his Guest. 1 Ben Jonson's.] 

A Tori/ came late through Westminster-Hall, 
And, as he pass'd by, heard a Citizen bawl ; 
" The Judges are Perjur'd, and we are undone, 2 
Our Liberty *s lost, and our Charter is gone. 

" This comes of our Prating since College is dead, 3 

This comes of our Plotting without Tony's Head : 

For he had more wit in his Treason by half, 

As he hook'd himself on, he crook'd himself off." 4 8 

He scarce had said this when a Baron approach' d, 5 
That ruin'd two Sisters, the younger Debauch' d : 
The reason he cry'd I'm loath to describe, 
He " would have a peoii-uoprej^ out of the Tribe." 

The next came a Peer, and Knight of great Fame, 6 

One famous for Stabbing, the other was Lame ; 

Oh Heavens ! in what a strange Age do we dwell, 

When Bully s Reform and Cripples Rebel. 16 

"With them the Sweet Speaker Wi : Williams I saw, 7 
His head full of projects but empty of Law ; 
For he ('t is observ'd) has been dull as a Dog, 
Since Payton 6 batoon'd him for calling him Rogue. 

Peart Wallop 9 and Winnington 10 Mutinies breed, 

Yet still in the Cause for no purpose are Fee'd : 

For Cradock u will offer himself for a Drudge, 

If either of them will be lit for a Jud<?e. 24 



*D^ 



Old Ma\_yna~\rd, X2 all ages, in Faction was chief, 

Now mumbles by rote, ne'r looks in his Brief : 

But rotten Rebellion will never last long, 

He spit out his Teeth, and will cough out his Tongue. 

Now by the Recorder 13 new Cards must be plaid, 

That body of Laws with a Sarazen's-Head, 

That (Span'el-like) fawns on the King to his Face, 

And yet makes the Whigs just amends for his place. 32 

For Magistrate Patience,^ I plainly confess 
I've little to say because he 's in distress; 
But he that [once] sat in th' Citie's Chair 
Would a Pillory grace : so I wish he were there. 

Dubois and Papillion,^ the Citie's sham Shrieves, 

Whose Truth and whose Loyalty no man believes ; 

That arrested the Mayor, and no danger he saw, 

To keep from self-hanging I leave to the Law. 40 



336 Tom D' Urfeifs famous « Winchester Song." 

For Law they complain' d, of the Lawyers they boast, 
They 'r pleas'd, till by Law they their Charter had lost : 16 
Law, Law was the cry of the Mutinous Crew, 
The Devil 's in 't, if they ha' n't Law enough now. 

Scribe Cl[ayto~\ri's 1 '' wife deckt with the spoils of the Poor, 

Embroider' d in Scarlet like Babylon's ojou^; 

But let me advise him to strip off her Eed, 

And make her a Petticoat of her Green Bed. 48 

Old Player 's 18 grown rampant, late pickt up aft 's door], 

And swore he'd recant, and be Whiggish no more ; 

By Tories made drunk, in the Company's view, 

The Saint kiss'd [his Miss], and drank healths in her Shoe. 

Now listen, ye Whigs, and hear what I speak, 

A Monarch (like Heaven) can give and can take ; 

But you for Rebellion no reason can bring, 

So hang your selves all : and God save the King ! 56 

[In "White-letter. Date, September, 1683. The author was Tom L'Urfey.] 



*3* Notes to the foregoing Ballad. If we occasionally repeat explanations 
already given, by ourselves elsewhere, it is to avoid continual cross-references. 

1 Cock Laurel was written by Ben Jonson for his Masque entitled " The Gipsies 
Metamorphosed," thrice presented before James I., in 1621. The original Cock 
Lorrell was chief of a gang of thieves. The tune is in Popular Music, p. 161. 

2 This refers to the decision of 12th June, in the Quo Warranto. 

3 Stephen College, executed Aug. 30, 1681. 'See p. 262. 

4 A characteristic miniature of Shaftesbury, who had died in the previous 
January, 168-;}-. On letters to his Countess, from Amsterdam, see p. 576. 

5 Ford Lord Grey, see introduction, p. 331, and compare later pages, 387, 390. 

6 "We do not with certainty identify these two, ' ' A Peer and Knight of great 
fame ; One famous for stabbing, the other was lame : " chiefly because of 
ambiguity in the text, as to which was Crippled, the Peer or Knight ? If the 
Peer (who may be Macclesfield), then the other "famous for stabbing " must be 
Sir Thomas Armstrong, known as "the Bully Knight," who had (see IV. 569) 
mortally stabbed Sir Car Scroop's brother at the Playhouse, during a performance 
of Macbeth, about 1675. In this September, 1683, Armstrong had returned 
for safety to the Continent, along with Lord Grey : always incontinent. We are 
not aware of Francis Charlton being Knighted ; otherwise he could have answered 
the description, if it be meant that the Knight was lame. lie visited Ferguson, 
and Zachary Bourne mentions him as "Mr. Charleton with a Wooden Leg." 

7 See pp. 221, 224, and next Note. " Wi: Williams" was his usual nickname. 

8 Sir Robert Peyton, against whom Speaker Williams had been personally 
severe, four years previously. See pp. 177, 178 of Vol. IV., and Note 7. 

9 Richard Wallop was counsel for the Duke of York, when indicted for being a 
recusant (on 3rd of King James I.), in March, 168^. With Henry Pollexfen, Sir 
Francis Winnington, and others, he was assigned to Edward Fitz- Harris, at his 
request in the following May. They did their utmost for him, but the man was 
doomed. Wallop defended the City on the Charter case, Quo Warranto, in June, 
1682; later, the Earl of Danby, Feb. 168| ; and Thomas Rosewell, a Noncon. 
minister, on accusation of treason, Nov. 1684. He also, along with Sir George 
Treby, acted as Counsel for Oates, when tried for Perjury, in 1685, after the 
death of Charles II. He was assigned with Winnington in the got-up test 



Notes on Tom D'Urfey'a " Winchester Song." 337 

case of Sir Edward Hales and his servant Godden. "With Pollexfcn he defended 
Richard Baxter, and was told by Lord Chief-Justice Jeffereys, "You are in all 
these dirty causes, Mr. Wallop ! Gentlemen of the long robe should be ashamed 
to defend such factious Knaves." He became a Judge and died 22 Aug., 1697. 

10 Sir Francis Winnington, active as a Counsel along with Wallop, had been 
Solicitor-General, but was removed at desire of Danby. He became M.P. for 
Worcester, and in 1692 for Tewkesbury. He declined to be made a judge in 
April, 1689 : possibly not liking the Williamite regimen, but scarcely guided by 
the adverse opinion of loyal Cradock as earlier stated in the New Song. 

11 Mr. Cradock was a London Mercer, in Paternoster Row, who was arrested 
by Shaftesbury for Sean. Mag. in December, 1681, and damages laid at five 
thousand pounds, but bailed. In the following May he moved to have the venue 
changed; as from Shaftesbury being concerned' in trade and free of the Skinners' 
Company, of which Sheriff Pilkington was master, it would be impossible to get 
a fair trial in Middlesex. This was opposed by the Earl's counsel, but accepted 
as reasonable by the bench. Shaftesbury then petulantly flung up the case ; 
saying, that he would rather let his action fall than try it elsewhere. This 
showed his reliance on the packed jury being in his favour if in London. The 
Court dryly told him that his words confirmed them in their opinion. Similarly, 
when he brought a Scan. Mag. against Justice Edmund Warcup. A little later, 
Cradock got the grant of £600 per ami., for collecting the dutv of the markets, 
made a forfeiture in the Quo Warranto against London ; but he died soon after, in 
April, 1685, of St. Anthony's fire, and among his six pall-bearers were Chief- 
Justice Jeffereys, Sir William Jenner, Recorder, and four other Knights. 

18 Sir John Maynard, born in 1602, the old Parliamentary lawyer of long 
experience, and sharp-toothed to the last ; who, after conducting the prosecution 
of Strafford in 1640, lived to do similar hangman's-service against Stafford forty 
years later, also to survive the Revolution, and be made one of William IIl.'s 
commissioners of the Great Seal : but he was nevertheless displaced iu June, 1690, 
shortly before his death at an advanced age. 

1 > There is a difficulty about this identification, because of date. Is it Treby ? 
It may refer to Sir George Jeffereys, who had been the Recorder of London, from 
the 22nd of October, 1678, and as such was a violent brow-beater of the Popish- 
Plot victims and their witnesses. By his vigorous encouragement of the Ahhorret s 
and repression of the Petitioners for Parliament, he drew on himself the vengeance 
of the party which he had hitherto favoured; accordingly he was deprived of his 
office, he being so harassed that he resigned, on 2nd Dec, 1680. At the probable 
date of the song, September, 1683, Sir George Treby, of the Middle Temple, 




generally known as such. He did play his Court-Cards straightway; and within 
a few days after this song had been sung, he was made Lord Chief-Justice, as we 
show on p. 339, in the ballad on his Installation : "Justice Triumphant." 

Sir Patience Ward had been Lord-Mayor of London in 1680-81. When 
convicted of perjury on 19th May, 1683, he at once tied to Holland. He has 
been mentioned on our p. 249, and elsewhere in connection with Shaftesbury. 
He is thus described in "A Hue and Cry Song after Patience Ward," to the 
iuue of Hail to the Myrtle Shades ! (named on p. 279 ; reprinted on p. 422) : — 

Patience, with collar of brass, to woful disasters did fall, 

Patience, with copper face, and a conscience worse than all ; 

To Holland, to Holland he goes : for plainly now it appears, 

That (in spight of all Whiggish Laws) Ignoramus can't save his Ears. 

Again, in D'TJrfey's "Song of London's Loyalty," 16S4, beginning, " Rouze 

V| >L. V. 



338 Notes to " Winchester Song," and" Justice Triumphant." 

up, great Genius of this potent Land ! " sung to the tune of Burton Hall (also 
here reprinted, on our p. 245), we read concerning Ward, 

First Yorkshire Patience twirls his copper Chain, 
And hopes to see a Common-wealth again ; 
The sneaking Fool of breaking is afraid, 
Dares not change sides for fear to lose his Trade. 

15 See our pp. 248, and 269 to 272, as to Thomas Papillon and John Dubois. 

16 On the writ of Quo Warranto, and the forfeiture or recall of London's 
Charter, see pp. 247 to 251, and 268, 273. 

17 Sir Robert Clayton had been Lord Mayor in 1679-80, and, with bis scarlet- 
garbed Lady Clayton, he is thus hit off in Tom D'Urfey's already given Song 
of " London's Loyalty" (our pp. 245, 246) :— 

Now Clayton murmurs Treason, unprovok'd, 
First supp'd the King, and after Avish'd him choak'd ; 
'Cause Banbifs place was well bestow'd before, 
He Rebel turns, sedue'd by scarlet o-toq^. 
His sawcy pride aspires to high renown, 
Leather-breeches are forgot in which he trudg'd to Town ; 
Naught but the Treasury can please the scribbling clown : 
Oh, Robin ! Mobin ! where 's thy modesty ? 

18 "Old Player , s grown rampant, late pickt up a W."oman. The text in 
final verse is " slightly disguised " (as Sir Thomas Player was sometimes, but in 
his case it came about with liquor, and in company with Mother Creswell). 
Perhaps it is due to this notorious Lady, with whom he was supposed to be on 
particularly intimate terms, that we mention her portrait, still extant, drawn 
by M. Lauron, in P. Tempest's Cries of London, 1711. Like most of her 
profession, she advanced strong claims to the character of a pious matron, and, if 
she did not die in the odour of sanctity, she certainly left ten pounds for a clergy- 
man's fee, who should preach her funeral sermon, mention her name, but "to 
say nothing but what was well of her." Somebody was found, of course, and he 
fulfilled the injunctions, taking a general discourse until he reached the conclusion, 
when he named her and her request, with which he complied literally, saying, 
" She was born well, she lived well, and she died well; for she was born with 
the name of Creswell; she lived in Clerkenwell : and she died in Bridewell." 
Sir Thomas Player had been re-elected Civic Chamberlain (thanks to political 
faction) in 1682, and died (thanks to nature, not Jack Ketch) in January, 168|. 



The following Notes belong to the next ballad, " On Sir George Jeffereys' 
Installation as Lord Chief- Justice." 

1 As mentioned on previous p. 337, Jeffereys was made Lord Chief-Justice in 
September, 1683, after having been Recorder of London and displaced for Treby. 

2 Heraclitus Midens, the Tory Journal which scarified the Whigs, as did the 
Observator, conducted by Roger L'Estrange ; whom they caricatured as the dog 
" Towzer," and insinuated that he had become a Romanist. Comp. p. 377. Nat 
Thompson, the loyal but persecuted publisher, is mentioned in next line, see p. 176. 

A William Williams, on whom see pp. 221 and 224. 

4 Gilbert Burnet, concocter of Lord William Russell's printed Last Speech. 

5 The Council of Six : see pp. 340, 343. 



339 



3>usttce Crtump|)ant: 

Hit (JEjrcrllcm &?uo §>ong, tti Commendation of £>ic 
George Jeffereys, HoiO Cljtcf Justice of England. 1 

To the Tuxe of, Now y e Tories that Glories [see p. 151]. 

NOw the Traytor, King-hater (that glories still in his Crime), 
And every Associator, give thanks, for now it is time : 
Let the Whigs in the Tower, who thought to make us a prey, 
Rejoyce, 'tis yet in their power to keep a Thanksgiving -day ! 
Loyal Jeffreys is Judge again ; let the Brimiyltams grudge amain, 
"Who to Tyburn must trudge amain ; Ignoramus we scorn : 
May Heaven direct him, protect him ! Let guilty Traytors mourn ! 

Noble Jeffreys, so loyal, of England 's Judges the Chief, 
Whom factions sought to destroy all, the JJ r higs' both Envy and Grief : 
Sir George, in Justice instructed, whose fate the Crowd did contrive, 
With Topes in Tryumph conducted, to fley and burn him alive. 
He, with old Heraclitus, and Towzer, 2 that does so bite us, 
And Thompson, with all who right us, were led about for a show, 
And burnt for Pa2)ists, by Atheists, [who] own'd no Religion or Law. 

England's Justice, so loyal, whom all the Tribe did oppose, 
Has now before him the Tryal of the new Good Old Cause ; 
Williams, 3 who did so gore him, when he did sit in the Chair, 
Must now, for Treason, before him hold up his Hand at the Bar. 
Noble Jeffreys, who thinks it a scorn Oates or Evidence to suborn, 
Or by taking Bribe be forsworn, as some others before ; 
But he, Chief Justice, our trust is, they'll pay for the old Score. 

Let not Rebels enslave you, with hopes to make you more free, 
Nor wilful Bigots deceive you, with shews of Loyalty ; 
No Blunderbusses be planted against the life of the King ; 
Nor Rouse nor Jiussel be Sainted, for first promoting the thing : 
Let not Rascals forge Speeches/ to make rebellion and breaches, 
And clear the blood-thirsty Leeches, who for Innocents pass, 
By hatching Treason, 'gainst reason, to set up an Ignorant Ass. 

Then shall London promoted be, by a Loyal Lord Mayor, 
In spight of Villains that voted against the Lawful Heir ; 
No Committees of Rebels, who in blind corners harangu'd ; 5 t The sijr - 
No more Seditious Libels, when Care, Vile, Curtis are hang'd. 
Then all hands shall address the Throne, Peace and Plenty possess 

the Throne, 
Rogues no longer oppress the Throne : Oates shall gull us no more, 
And London quarter a Charter, more glorious than before. 

[In ^Yhite -letter. No woodcut. Date, September, 1C83.] 



340 



€J)C iRgN&ousc Plot Litanp. 1683. 

" From immoderate fines and defamation, 
From Brad-don' s merciless subornation, [Laurence Braddon. 

And from a bar of assassination, 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

" From a body tbat's English, a mind that is French, [Charles IT. 

From a Lawyer that, scolds like an Oyster-wench, [Sir Wm. Jones. 

And from the new Bonner upon the Bench, [Qu. Jeffereys'i 

Libera nos, Domine !" 
— A Third Collection of Poems against Popery. 

When in 1817 three separate trials, for publishing three separate Parodies 
of a political and so-called blasphemous character, were successfully contested by 
William Hone, friend of Charles Lamb, and yielder of delight to all who read 
the Every-day Book, there seemed to have been a general forgetiulness of the 
multitudinous Litanies which during two centuries before had been so common. 

Lord Ellenborough, before whom the two latter trials were argued, has been 
much ridiculed aud censured for his charges to the Jury, denouncing such Mock- 
Litanies as being insults to religion: viz. Hone's "John Wilkes's Catechism," 
"The Political Litany," and "The Sinecurist's Creed," likewise all those 
earlier parodies which were quoted in defence by Hone, as showing what had 
been tolerated of old. Ellenborough was conscientious in his animadversions. 
He believed them one and all to be objectionable, libellous, and condemnable. 
He would not have tolerated these, belonging to Bagford aud Roxburghe Ballads. 



* * 
* 



T. 



HE Council of Six is mentioned at the beginning of this Litany 
on the Pye-House Plot, and frequently alluded to elsewhere: e.g. in 
the " Pindarique Ode." We insert at this place an account of this 
Cabal, as given by one of themselves, viz. the traitor Lord Howard 
of Escrick, on July 11th, 1683. It shows incidentally how it was 
deemed necessary to awaken by factitious means, both in England 
and Scotland, the slumbering discontent : — 

After the death of the Earl of Shaftsbury, it was considered that as there had 
appeared both in City and Country a very prompt and forward disposition to 
action, so it might justly be feared that either the minds of men might (in time) 
stagnate into a dull inactivity, unless proper Acts were used to keep up the fer- 
mentation, or (which was equally dangerous) that the unadvised passions of a 
Multitude might precipitate them into some rash and ill-guided undertakings, 
unless they were under the steering and direction of some steady and skilful hand. 
For prevention of both these Evils, it was thought necessary that some few 
persons should be united into a Cabal or Council, which should be as a concealed 
Spring both to give and to guide the motion of the Machine. 

The persons designed to this general care were the Duke of Monmouth, the Lord 
Pussel, the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney, Mr. Hambden Junior, and another 
whose abilities and qualifications did in no degree fit him for such a province. 

[Howard's humility and tenderly-expressed modesty is peculiarly 
touching. When there was an allotment of punishment to be 
expected, the traitor's fine sense of his own disqualifications could 
not fail to become manifest : when money Avas in view, he swelled, 
and remembered that he was of importance.] 



Lord Howard of JExcrick's betrayal of Confederates. o41 

The first meeting of these Six was ahout the middle of January [168f], at Mr. 
Hambderi's house, at which Consultation there was only propounded some general 
heads, which were afterwards upon more mature thoughts to he debated : viz. 
Where the Insurrection should be first made, whether in the City, or in the more 
remote parts of the Country, or in both at the same instant; what Counties were 
thought to be best disposed to, and best fitted for, this enterprize ; what persons 
in the respective Counties were the most useful and most ready to be engaged ; 
what Towns easiest to be gained, and the most proper for a general Rendezvous ; 
what Arms were necessary to be provided, how to be got, where to be disposed ; 
what sum of Money was of absolute necessity to answer publick occasions ; how 
and by what methods such a sum of money was to be raised, so as not to draw into 
observation, nor to administer occasion of jealousie: And lastly, which was the 
principal, and thought to challenge the chiefest care, how Scotland might be 
drawn into a Concert with England, and which persons there fittest to be consulted 
withal about this matter. 

This was the sum of that day's Conference. 

The second Meeting was about ten days after, at the Lord Eussel's house, 
where were present every one of the 'foresaid Six. 

At this Meeting it was propounded that a speedy understanding should be 
settled with the Lord Argile, and that in order thereunto some fit person or 
persons should be thought of to be sent to him, and to be a constant medium of 
Correspondence betwixt him and them ; that care should be taken to be rightly 
informed of a true state of Scotland, of the general bent and inclination of the 
People, of the capacities or incapacities they were under, and that some trusty 
Messenger should be forthwith dispatched thither to invite two or three of the 
most valuable Gentlemen of that country into England to the end they might be 
advised with about the general Design. 

The persons nominated to be called into England were the Lord Melvin [or 
Melville], Sir John Cochran, and I remember another gentleman of the family 
and alliance of the Lord Argile, who (if I mistake not) was of the same name 
also and a Knight [i.e. Sir George Campbell of Cessnock], but of this I retain 
but an indistinct remembrance. 

Some other things were considered of, but of no great moment. 

At the conclusion of this Meeting it was agreed, that there should not he any 
other meeting of this Cabal (unless in case of some extraordinary emergency) 
until the return of the Messenger sent from hence, and the arrival of the foresaid 
Gentlemen out of Scotland. — Information of the Lord Howard to the King, p. 71. 

The messenger sent to Scotland was Aaron Smith (chosen by- 
Algernon Sydney, and furnished by him with funds for the journey). 
He had acted as legal adviser to Stephen College at Oxford, but 
unsuccessfully. Aaron Smith assumed the alias of Samuel Clerk, 
and made pretence that the business to be transacted with the Laird 
of Ochiltree (Sir John Cochrane), and other Scotchmen, was about 
a company to allot certain land-property in Carolina. This business 
was the ostensible object of the Scotch intriguers journeying to 
London. Most of them escaped for the time, in various ways, and 
fled to Holland (afterwards joining the Duke of Argyle in the 
expedition which preceded Monmouth's landing at Lyme : Robert 
Baillie of Jerviswood was seized in London, conveyed to Edinburgh, 
tried and executed, December, 1684; the evidcnce"fatal to him being 
tne depositions of William Carstares, alias Reid, or " Red," alias 
~\\ illiam Swan in Kent : but he said there that his name was Moor). 



342 Argyle 1 8 attempt to foster Rebellion in Scotland. 

Alexander Gordon of Earlston, who was 'a zealous field-conventicler 
and Bothwell-Bridge rebel,' had been early taken at Newcastle, 
bearing an alias, Pringle, and trying to get a passage by sea. On him 
were found important documents, which he vainly attempted to 
destroy. Some bore evident marks of containing secret meaning, 
different from what the surface showed : the phraseology dealing 
with ' breaking merchants,' that it was better to venture out than to 
keep Shop till all be gone, that " (if all hold that is intended) they 
think it is almost at a point to set forward, if they had their Factors 
home, who are gone to try how the Country will like such goods as 
they are for," etc. Among other suspicious matters was this one, 
not understood until after Keeling's and Kumsey's betrayals : " if 
any strange thing fall out this week or the Next, I will again post 
it towards you." This letter was signed "Jo. N.," written by John 
Nisbet (one of Argyle's agents, who was arrested in Kent). 
It was dated March 20, 1683, and the week indicated would be that 
in which the King was expected from Newmarket ; when he was to 
have been waylaid, but for his having departed eight days sooner in 
consequence of the fire. This letter was found on Alexander Gordon. 
Another, in cypher, written by Argyle's own hand, was also found, 
addressed to Major Holmes ; it was guessed at, by the intelligent 
Grey of Crechie ; William Spence afterwards (19th August, 1684) 
gave the key to this cypher, and it affords unmistakeable proof of the 
insurrection being planned. The clue is contained in these words, 
which follows the cyphers: "The total sum is 128 Guilders, and 
8 stivers, that will be paid you by Mr. JJ." The system is this : 
Eight columns are made, with one hundred and twenty-eight words 
in each column descending : then the true sense appears. It was 
written by Argyle, the very day before Josiah Keeling made a first 
betrayal. 15., or Butler, is the alias of William Spence. It was 
pretended that it stood for " Mr. Brake, a Minister in Lewarden in 
FrieslandP Argyle was finding refuge in Holland. Major Holmes 
had long been his dependent and friend, bearing one alias of "Robert 
Thompson," and sometimes another of " West;" trusted by Argyle, 
but needing the assistance of Spence to decypher his letters. These, 
when interpreted, expressed dissatisfaction at delay, and at the 
niggardliness of the English conspirators in providing money, to 
be sent to Holland, where it would be spent for arms and ammunition 
to be used in the projected Scottish rising. 

We have briefly annotated the chief allusions to persons in the 
following Litany: one of the numerous lists of things to be avoided or 
prayed against politically. It had originally appeared as a broadside. 



343 



[Trowbesk Collection, V. 68 ; Brit. Mus., 1872. a. I. fol. 127 verso.] 

i^cto lUtattp, orgigu'o foe tgief Cent : 

[On ti)e &j>fr#ouse i&tot,] 

antr to lie <mng in all tlje Coufcrnticlcg in ano about 
London foe tgc instruction of tijt Whiggs. 

Bg C. ©. ffient 

Set familiarly to an excellent old Tune, call'd, The Cavalilly Man} 
Ulora Counsels of Six, where Treason prevails, 2 



F 



[j From raising Rebellion in England and Wales, 
From RumboUVs short Cannons, and Protestant Flayls ; 3 

.For tf^er, ^oo^ Zor^, deliver us ! 

From Shaftsburtfs tenets, and Sidney's old Hint, 4 
From seizing the King by the Rabble's consent, 
From owning the fact, and denying to print ; 5 ['"tin print. 

For ever, good Lord, deliver us ! 

From aiming at Crowns, and indulging the Sin ; 
From playing Old NolVs game over again ; 
From a Son and a Rebel stuft up in one skin ; 6 

For ever, good Lord, deliver us ! 

From Swearing of Lyes, like a Knight of the Post, 7 
From Pilgrims of Spain, that should land on our Coast, 8 
From a Plot like a Tu[b], swept about till it 's lost ; 

For ever, good Lord, deliver us ! 

From Oates's clear Evidence, when he was vext, 

From hearing him squeak out LLagh Peters' 's Old Text ; 9 

From Marrying one Sister, and Raping the next : 10 

For ever, good Lord, deliver us ! 

From tedious confinement by Parliament Votes, 11 
From B\jirne~\t' 's Whig Sermons and Marginal Notes ; n 
From saving our heads, by cutting our throats : 13 

For ever, good Lord, deliver us ! 

From Presbyter Ban-Dogs, that bite and not bark ; u 
From losing one's Brains by a blow in the dark, 15 
From our friends in Moor- Field x, and those at Moor-Park ; " ; 

For ever, good Lord, deliver us ! 



344 A New Litany designed for this Lent, 1683. 

From Citizens' Consciences, and their Wives' Itch, 
From marrying a Widow that looks like a Witch, 17 
From following the Court with design to be Kich ; 

For ever, Fate, deliver tis ! 

From Trimmers Arraigning a Judge on the Bench, 19 
From slighting the Guards, that we know will not flinch, 19 
And from the Train 'd '-Bands' Loyal aid at a pinch, 

For ever, Fate, deliver us ! 

From all that to Casar sham Duty express, 

That cringe at his Coach, and smile in his Face, [«■ '■ " c° uch -" 

And two years ago thought it scorn to Address, 

For ever, Fate, deliver us ! 

From having the Gout, and a very fair Daughter, 20 
From being oblig'd to our Friend 'cross the Water, 21 
From strangling and Fleying, and what follows after, 23 

For ever, Fate, deliver us ! 

From Wit that lies hidden in gay Pantaloons, 23 

From Women's ill Nature, as frail as the Moon's, 

From Franckifs 24 lame Jests, and Sir Roger's Lampoons, 25 

For ever, good Lord, deliver us ! 

[By T. D., most probably Tom D'Urfey.] 

London, Printed for Joseph Eindmarsh (Bookseller to his lloyal 
Highness), at the Black-Bull in Cornhill. 1684. 

[In "White-letter. No woodcut. True date, of first issue, 1683.] 



Notes to the foregoing "Litany.'" 

1 This tune of The CavaMy Man (= Cavalier) is given in Mr. "W. Chappell's 
Popular Music of the Olden Time, p. 441, with the first stanza of the original 
"North Country Maid's Resolution and Love to her Sweetheart," from the 
Halliwell Collection at Manchester, Chetham College, beginning, 

As from Newcastle I did pass I heard a blithe and bonny Lass 
That in the Scottish Army was, say, " Pr'ythee, let me gang with thee, Man ! ' 
Unto a jolly Cavalier blade, as I suppose, her moan she made, 
For evermore these words she said, " I follow my Cavalilly Man. 
my dainty Cavalilly Man, my fmnikin Cavalilly Man, 
For God's Cause and the Protestants', I'll pr'ythee let me gang wi' thee, Man ! 
There are eleven such stanzas. "We know of another copy, in the Euing 
Collection. No. 257, at Glasgow. Printed for F. Grove on Snow-Hill. 

2 As shown in the special introduction, this " dark Cabal of Six "included 
Monmouth, Essex, Russell, Escrick- Howard ,_ Algernon Sydney, and John 
Hampden, junior. Compare the verse on p. 205. 

3 These short cannons were called Drakes, and the conspirators had been 
accustomed to avoid mention of small arms bv talking of them as swan-quills, 
etc. See West's Information, June 23, 1683 (p. 28). For Stephen Colleges 
" Protestant Flail," see previous mention on our pp. 28 and 35. 



Notes to the Rye-House- Plot Litany. o40 

4 Algernon Sydney : who bad been a member of tbe Commonwealth Long 
Parliament ; but had not signed the warrant for the King's execution. 

" One reading is " Denying the guilt ; " spoiling the rhyme, and perhaps 
indicating Lord William Russell's prevaricating mode of defence, and dying 
declaration. Ilindmarsh's text preserves tbe rhyme, as being " denying to 
print;" but may have been mere guess-work, not authentic. If we take 
the latter reading, it means Monmouth, not Russell. 

6 Unquestionably tbe Duke of Monmouth is meant. Al. led., " shut up." 

7 A suborned witness, lurking at street posts near Law-Courts, ready to be 
hired for perjury among other knaveries. 

8 Allusion to the lying Narratives of Gates and Bedloe, about the ten thousand 
pilgrims of S. Iago, who were to land on England's shore, and murder heretics. 

a " Preacher to the crop-eared rout, in Oliver's time." See Vol. IV. p. 617. 

10 Alluding to the infamy of Ford Lord Grey, who, after marrying Earl 
Berkeley's daughter Arabella, debauched her younger sister Henrietta. At the 
trial, 23rd Nov. 1682, she shielded him by declaring that she was married to a 
Mr. Turner, son of Sir William Turner, of Bromley in Kent. In the King's 
Bench prison she cohabited with young Turner (which Grey had not intended), 
but lived afterwards with her seducer in Holland. 

11 Such as Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby, his Tower-imprisonment lasting 
nearly five years, from April, 1679, to February, 168J. Sir Thomas Peyton was 
imprisoned for having challenged the Speaker, Wi : Williams. 

12 Dr. Gilbert Burnet, whose Whig sermons were accounted seditious, so that 
he was removed from the Rolls Chaplaincy. That he was virtually the concocter 
of tbe paper called the last Speech of Lord William Russell, seems to be certain, 
despite bis denial. He never hesitated when a falsehood promised to serve bis 
turn. Truth wms not in him. Sir John Dalrymple declares that " It may appear 
ungenerous in the living to throw reflections on the dead. But it is a piece of 
justice I owe to historical truth, to say, that I bave never tried Burnet's facts by 
the tests of dates and of original papers without finding them wrong. . . . His 
book is the more reprehensible because it is full of characters, and most of them 
are tinged with the colours of his own weaknesses and passions." — Memoirs of 
Great Britain and Ireland, 2nd edition, 1771, vol. i. p. 94, note. After tbe 
death of Charles II. Burnet avoided Monmouth, to escape entanglement in bis 
plots for insurrection, knowing them to be foredoomed to failure. Not because 
of any hatred against seditious treason or usurpation, since he afterwards abetted 
the trickster Revolutionists and William of Orange, which led to personal profit. 
He recognized "William and Mary Conquerors." 

13 The death of Arthur Capell, Earl of Essex, in the Tower, on the morning 
of Russell's trial, which it fatally influenced against him. See pp. 305, 315, and 318. 
In An Account how the Earl of Essex killed himself in the Tower of London, 
printed by Henry Hills and Thomas Newcomb, 1683 (Single Sheets, folio, 515, 
1. 2. art. 67), we read the clear information of Paul Bomeny: who had been 
servant to the said Earl for three or four previous years : how Essex had been 
anxiously desiring that his penknife might be sent for, to pare his nails ; and, not 
getting it when be wanted, he demanded one of his razors for the purpose. How 
lif -hut himself up in a closet, and in the absence of his man cut his own throat. . 
Evidence substantially corroborated by Thomas Russell, one of the warders of the 
Tower, who had the custody of the Earl. 

* Robert Ferguson, Stephen Lobb, John Hogg, and other "Ministers." 
13 Probably, the alleged assaults on the Whig John Arnold, J. P. for Mon- 
mouthshire, in Bell Yard, near Jackanapes Lane (15th April, 1680); for which, in 
the following July, John Giles was convicted, lined £500, and pilloried. Herbert, 
another Monmouthshire Justice, beat Jaue Powell, who had been one of the 
witnesses against Giles. For this Herbert was lined 100 marks by Justice Jones. 
Later (22 November, 1683) John Arnold, being himself detected in evil practices, 
was tried for scandalous words against the Duke of York, and cast in damages of 



346 Notes to the Litany : John Arnold, and Francky. 

£10,000. This revived memory of the assault ; Arnold being suspected of having 
inflicted his own slight wound of throat-cutting (as ungallantly was a Lady in 
our own Land of Misfortune), like Sophyrus (see Vol. IV. p. 154 : 1st verse, 
" There is an old story, that 's much to the glory of one that was call'd Sophyrus ; 
Whose fears may be read, though the man be dead, By any that are desirous") :— 

Now will any man dare this wight to compare 

With a Heroe that I can name, [Justice Arnold. 

Who by cutting his Throat grew a man of great note, 

And purchas'd eternal fame ? 

Sophyrus did well ; but He doth excel, 

If he be but right understood : 
For 'tis a plain case, as the Nose on one's Face, 

It was done for the People's good 

Now, whoever bears spleen to the King or the Queen, 

Or to James the Duke of York, 
He shall have my Vote for cutting his own Throat, — 

Provided he' 11 perfect the work. 

16 Robert Ferguson had preached to riotous congregations assembled at Moor- 
fields, exciting them against Romanists. Moor-Park was Monmouth's residence, 
near Rickmansworth, Herts. It was restored to the Duchess after having been 
forfeited by his attainder, in 1685. 

17 We cannot believe that an allusion is here made to Somerset marrying the 
twice-widowed Lady Ogle. It may refer to the trouble of Law-business and 
payment of £1000 fine, which fell on Captain Robert Clifford, for the forcible 
abduction of Mrs. Synderfin from Hounslow Heath to Calais, in May, 1682. 

13 The attacks on Sir William Scroggs (who died 25th October, 1683) and on 
Sir George Jeffereys. The latter when assailed by the Commons had shown 
pusillanimity such as Charles could not tolerate. James was less scrupulous, and 
found a willing tool in the man whom he ultimately made Lord Chancellor. 

19 They were frequently decried, not only to weed out Romanists (compare 
p. 27), but also because Essex and others were opposed to a standing army. 

-° This may allude to Henry Bennett, Lord Arlington, and his daughter 
Isabella, alias " Tatta." She was married prematurely to the Duke of Grafton 

in 1672. .• . . 

21 Scarcely Louis XIV.; far more probably (considering the tone of the 
Litany), Orange William. 

22 The usual horrible atrocities of execution for High-Treason. _ 

23 Possibly a reference to Jacob Hall the rope-dancer, and in next line to 
the Duchess of Cleveland, who favoured him. If not to Jacob Hall, the allusion 
may be to one of her footmen, who is earlier alluded to in a satire attributed to 
Andrew Marvell. 1667, " After two Sittings," lines 79 to 100. 

24 This Francky is neither Francis Villiers = " Villain Frank" (see pp. 213, 
218), nor is it young Frank Newport, who is mentioned in one of the latest 
Sessions of The Poets satires, beginning " Since the Sons of the Muses grew 
numerous and loud : " his line being, " And ' Banks /' cry'd up Newport, ' I hate 
the dull rogue.'" (See pp. 128, 213, 214, 218 to 220.) The Francky mentioned 
in our text°is of a lower social stratum than these, being Francis or Frank Smith, 
the "leacherous Anabaptist" publisher of libellous pamphlets, Protestant Intel- 
ligence, Dotnestick and Foreign, and scurrilous lampoons. For one of these, 
"Francky's Jests," entitled Turn Ticklefoot, he was prosecuted, fined and pilloried. 
In our Bagford Ballads, p. 928, we have already described his warfare with the 
equally disreputable Ben Harris, publisher of Monmouthian catchpennies endited 
by Robert Ferguson. As worthless a couple as "Harry Lungs" Care, and 
Langley Curtis : of whom we read in the Loyal Song of the Raree-Show : 



Notes to the Litany : Roger L' Estrange. 317 

These are the Hucksters that Treason retail : 
They '11 sell you a sheet with a Pennyworth in 't ; 
There 's our Cowantier Care, and never will fail, 
To scribble, while Langley dares publish and print. 

25 Roger L'Estrange's lampoons were published in the Observator and Heraclitvs 
Midem : unsavoury to Whig palates, which had found Ferguson, College, and 
Tutchin quite refreshing to their taste. Some of them are clever enough and 
amusing. At the close of a dull 'Sermon prepared to be preacWd at the Interment of 
the Renowned Observator, with some remarks on his Life, by the Reverend Toryrory- 
itmmeeplot-Shammee Younkercrape,' printed by the notorious libeller Langley 
Curtis at the Sign of Sir Edmondbury- Godfrey, near Fleet-Bridge, 1682, is 
added this pretended Epitaph on Eoger L'Estrange, whose Observator Dialogues 
began on April 13, 1681; the first volume ending with No. 470, on January 
Bth, 168f:— 

fifi's lEpttapfj. 

HEre lies the Man, whom Fate among us hurl'd, 
With bombast Dialogues to plague the world. 
Who rather than not vainly keep a pother, 
Set one side of his mouth against the other. 
And bid the Pope believe what wonders he 
Would work to save his falling Monarchy : 
With that he told a thousand tales, and more ; 
And, when his empty reason fail'd, he swore. 
But falling short of all the brags he made, 

Here he succumbs in Crape-Gown Masquerade. [i.e. Clergy. 

So let him rest until the second Change, 
The blustering, but unfortunate L[e\ S[trange~\. 

Another piece of dreary abuse was printed for W. Hammond in 1683, entitled 
The Loyal Observator ; or, Historical Memoirs of the Life and Actions of Eoger 
The Fuller, alias The Observator. It is in the form of a Dialogue between 
Ralph and Nobbs. L'Estrange's Heraclitus Ridens ; or, a Dialogue between Jest 
aurl Earnest, so often mentioned, was published weekly on Tuesdays, beginning 
February 1, 1681, "printed for the use of the People," and' bearing the 
Horatian motto, Eidentem dicere verum quis vetat ? (sic.) London, printed for 
B. Tooke. Ends in No. 82, on 22nd of August, 1682. 



* 



.* 



By this time, September, 1683, the enlightened British Public began to 
feel tired of monotonous comments on Plots, and were eager for variety ; as 
perhaps the readers of these Roxburghe Ballads may also be. It so happened that 
the change of diet afforded to our countrymen, precisely two centuries ago, is 
communicated to ourselves in the next four ballads, concerning the Relief of 
Vienna from the Turkish siege, by the Xing of Poland and the Duke of Lorraine. 



w. 



348 



€F)C Belief of Vienna, 1683. 

From Mahomet and Paganisme, 
From Hereticks, and Sects, and Schisme, 
From High-way Rascals and Cut-purses, 
From carted spAvcjj, scolds, and dry-nurses, . . . 

Libera nos, Domine ! 

From Serjeants, Yeomen, and their Maces, 
And from false friends with double faces, 
And from an enemy more mighty 
Than Usquebaugh or Aqua Vita. 

Libera tws, Domine ! 

— Merry Droller)/. 1661, and 1670. 



HILE the excitement of terror at the sham Popish-Plot had 
lasted, beginning four years earlier, it seemed as though no topic 
could interest the populace unless it were concerning the supposed 
machinations of Jesuits and their abettors for the re-establishment 
of Papal Supremacy in England : which lying "Narratives," issued 
in folio pamphlets, found readers incessantly. The nation for the time 
showed a distaste for wholesome food, and craved ravenously for such 
garbage as Titus Oates, William Bedloe, the Smiths, the Jennisons, 
and other "Discoverers" furnished without stint. Eor the Libel 
market, in their own day, the slanderous " Evidences" catered : 

Thousands a thousand times told have bought them, 
And if myriads and ten of myriads sought them, 

They would still find some to buy ; 
For however great were the demand, 

So great would be the supply. 

But a great change was visible after the first two weeks of excite- 
ment caused by the Bye-House Plot revelations. Apathy and 
weariness were soon apparent, whenever pamphleteer or Coffee-house 
politician tried to resume anti-Papal diatribes. A sense of disgust 
and shame for having so madly yielded belief to men whose false- 
hood was gradually being made manifest ; a conviction of having 
been jockeyed and befooled by wily unscrupulous politicians, who all 
the time were projecting treason, foul as that which they contrived 
calumniousl}' to charge against the murdered Jesuits, showed the 
restoration to sanity of the very people who had lately accepted 
the unsupported testimony of notorious criminals as being equal to 
a conclusive demonstration. 

There was now a speedy turning to books, pamphlets, and 
broadside-ballads for amusement. Accounts of trials and executions 
were found to be dreary literature. Theatres again were crowded, 
and the latest comedies of those whom we now call "the Dramatists 
of the Bestoration " found willing purchasers: the lively quartos, 
issued by Henry Herringman, "gentle George" Etherege's Man of 
Mode; or Sir Footing Flutter, with fresh editions of Dryden's 



Some of the Pamphlets mid Ballads in 1083. 340 

Marriage a la Mode and his The Wild Gallant, on the 8th November, 
1683. At the very outburst of the Rye-House Plot revelations, on 
19th June previous, readers were enjoying Adam Elliott's clever 
Modest Vindication of Titus Oates, which exposed the lies and 
blunders of the perjurer. On the 25th June was entered on the 
Stationers' Registers, to John Darby, " Julian's Arts to undermine 
and extirpate Christ limit;/ : By Saml. Johnson, a Minister of the 
Church of England" (such he pretended to be). He had miscalcu- 
lated his time for this base calumny against the Duke of York : it 
fell pointless, so soon as men understood the connection of its 
appearance with the planned rebellion and regicide. Thomas 
Melbourne was by the 3rd October issuing the ballads of " Folly 
plainly made manifest" and "The True Lover's Unfortunate Destiny; 
an account of a Maiden of Redriffe [i.e. Rotherhithe], who lately 
died," etc. A fortnight later, on 16th October, Jonah Deacon was 
publishing " The London Frolick ; or, Deceit Discovered." Ten 
days afterwards, on 26th October, there was entered at Stationers' 
Hall, to Joseph Hindmarsh, the romantic Love- Letters between a 
Nobleman and his Sister, which under a thin disguise gave a history 
of the recent scandal criminally connecting Monmouth's friend 
Ford Lord Grey of "Werk with his sister-in-law, therein figuring as 
" Annabel," the Lady Henrietta Berkeley. It is strange how often 
that family has achieved an evil notoriety. The Triumphs of 
London, by Matthew Taubman, in book-form, published by John 
and Henry Playford, offered new songs, with music by eminent com- 
posers, to be enjoyed by the citizens, so soon as they had witnessed 
their Pageant on the 29th. Among other songs or ballads published 
soon after, by Joseph Coniers, by Jonah Deacon, George Larking, 
Joseph Hindmarsh, Gabriel Sedgewick, John Millet, Charles 
Dennisson, and Henry Brugis respectively, were the following, 
several of which will reappear in our later pages, they being 
preserved in the Roxburghe Collection. " Strange News from 
Plymouth; or, A Wonderful and tragical Relation of a Voyage 
from the Indies" (14 Feb., 168f). "The Kentish Miracle" (to 
Jonah Deacon, 27 March, 1684), beginning "Take Comfort, 
Christians all." "Shall I, shall I ? No ! No ! "—which begins, 
'Pretty Betty, now come to me!" (Roxb. Coll., II. 421), unless 
it be the " moralization " thereof, which also we possess. " A new 
song of Moggie's Jealousie ; or Jocheg's Vindication," beginning, 
"There was a bonnie young Lad" (Roxb. Coll., II. 358). "Surprised 




__ion 

City :'" = " How can I conceal my passion?" (Roxb. Coll., II. 
324 ; IV. 22). " Poore Tom the Taylor's Lamentation," beginning, 
"Tom the Taylor near the Strand" (Roxb. Coll., II. 263, and 
IV. 27). "The Crafty Miss; or, An Excisemau well fitted." 



350 Some of the Ballads issued in 1684. 

This begins, " There was an Exciseman of late" (Roxb. Coll., II. 
577): 19th June, 1684. On 7th August appeared "The New- 
Created Cuckolds of Westminster;" and three weeks later, "An 
Excellent Example to Young Men : a Dialogue betwixt Youth 
and Conscience;" also, " Mercy and Cruelty striving for Victory: 
a Dialogue betwixt a Good Christian and an unmerciful Miser : " 
all three entered to Jonah Deacon. Hindmarsh has "The Rampant 
Moorman ; or, News from the Exchange." A parody on Dr. Walter 
Pope's recent Song of the " Old Man's Wish" (= "If I live to grow 
old, for I find I go down : " which is in Roxb. Coll., II. 386), 
is entered on 28th November, 1684, to Gabriel Sedgewick, fortunately 
not by its title, "The Old Woman's Wish," there being two 
parodies so named, but by its first line, "As 1 went by an hospitall." 
To John Millet on 15th January, 168$ (conclusively settling the 
date, before the death of King Charles II.), is entered " A Pleasant 
Dialogue between Two Wanton Ladies of Pleasure : " viz. the one 
beginning "Brave Gallants, now listen, and I will you tell," 
which we reprinted in our Bagford Ballads, p. 599. To the same 
publisher, marked by initials only on the broadside, and on January 
22, 168*, is entered the pamphlet entituled "The Dutchesse of 
Portsmouth's Farewell." This also we reprinted, in Roxburghe 
Ballads, vol. iv. p. 283, it beginning, "I prithee, dear Portsmouth, 
now tell me thy mind." On the same day was entered to Henry 
Hills, " The Siege of Vienna, a Poem by W.C." (This W.C. was 
possibly William Cleland vel Cleaveland who wrote with some 
vigour and humour. He was a Captain of Horse, and afterwards 
involved in Argyle's insurrection. To him we shall have an 
opportunity of returning in the Final Monmouth Group.) 

The subject of this poem seems to been peculiarly attractive to 
readers of verse, for we possess a sheaf of ballads or broadsides, 
that had first appeared in the preceding September and October, 
1683. Into the examination of the causes of the war betwixt the 
Turks and Christians we need not fully enter. But it is indisputable 
that Louis XIV. desired the humiliation of the Austrians, and that 
the English felt a warm interest in the contest, although they were 
not nationally engaged as a belligerent power. We sent no 
recognized auxiliaries, but there is evidence in the ballads that 
" English Volunteers " had enlisted in the struggle for defence of 
the Christian religion from the inroads of the hitherto triumphant 
Turks. We prefix a condensed account of the siege to the ballads 
of " Vienna's Triumph " and " A Carrouse." 

"The Relief of Vienna: A Hymn for True Protestants," is 
contained in the volume of Eighty-Six Loyal Poems, p. 222, pub- 
lished by Nathanael Thompson, 1685, and in our private possession. 
As to the writer of " The Relief of Vienna," etc. : — George Daniel, 
antiquary, of Canonbury, inscribed on his copy of the same book : 
" This volume is rare and particularly curious. The author turn'd 



Yet another Daniel come to Judgement. 



351 



Bartlemy-Fair Player, Eully of the Town, and Highwayman." 
Hard words, Master Daniel come to judgement ! We wish that you 
had given us chapter and verse, the man's name, and the date of 
his final exit in D. pendant circumstances, sus per col. But, as 
Paul Dombey said about the mad bull, we " don't believe that 
story! " George Daniel, thou art demonstrably incorrect thus far, 
that we ourselves have identified certain poems in the volume 
(which are by various hands), and know them to have been written 
bv persons of better position, College graduates, than your apocryphal 
" Bartlemy-Fair Player." Names and dates certified, Master George ! 
And now to the exciting narrative of the Belief of Yienna : — 

" Think with what passionate delight the tale was told, in Christian halls, 
How Sobieski turn'd to flight the Muslim from Vienna s walls : 
How, when his horse triumphant trod the burghers' richest robes upon, 
The ancient words rose loud ' From God a man was sent whose name was John." 1 " 

This was originally the exclamation of Pope Pius V. when he 
heard of Don John of Austria having conquered the Turks at 
Lepanto, in 1571. But it was repeated, more appropriately, by the 
priest at the Te Deum in which Sobieski joined as thanksgiving 
for the Belief of Vienna, in 1683. When the Turks were about to 
besiege the city, we are told by Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy, that 

the Emperor Leopold "had neither men nor money sufficient to enable him to 
confront such a deluge of invasion ; and, after many abject entreaties, he obtained 
a promise of help from King Sobieski of Poland, whom he had previously treated 
vtfh contumely and neglect. Poland was at peace with Turkey, nor had the Turk 
in auv way failed in observance of the recent treaty. But neither Sobieski nor 
other Christian adversaries of the Turks were very scrupulous as to such obligations ; 
and the Polish King promised to aid the Austrian Emperor with fifty-eight 
thousand men." 




R 



352 



Dn tt)e i&eitef of Vienna* 

a $pmn foe %vut protectants* 

Enown'd be [the] Christian Arm, the Turkish Whigs be p^uurep, 
And lousie Holwel in their Head, who our £/«<? Saints has 
shamm'd. 

These are your precious Bogues ! rather than not rebel 1 

Against their lawful Prince, aud God, they'l joyn the Devil of Hell. 

These are your True- Blue-men, who "Persecution" cry, 

"When they, with Julian 3 their old Friend, the Christian God dene ! 

But he has found an Arm to do the Royal Work, 

And vindicate Himself, against True Protestant and Turk. 

'Twas a true Christian Prince, that made him know His pleasure 
And taught the Villains what is due both to their God and Censor. 

God bless our good King Charles, and James, his own dear Brother, 
And may they botli live long, to succour one another. 

God bless the King of Poland too, and every Christian King, 
The Name is sacred : Hang the Dogs who do not love the Thing. 

[la "White -letter. No woodcut. Printed hy N[athanael] T[hompsori\, at the 
entrance to the Old Spring Garden, near Charing -Cross.'] 

1 See next page, commenting on this fact. We have identified "lousie 
Holwel" as "John Holwell, Philomath;" who perhaps wore the dozen white 
luces in his coat, or cranium : he certainly had a bee in his bonnet. That the Turks 
would be successful had been prophesied by this John Holwell, Philomathematicae. 
Earlier, in 1674, he had published A Sure Guide to the Practical Surveyor, 
London, 8vo. ; and in 1679 printed for the author A New Prophecy; or a 
Prophetical Discourse of the blazing Star, that appeared on April the 23rd, 1677, 
being a full account of the events that threaten England, etc. He describes 
himself as residing "at the east end of Spittalfields, over against Dorset Street, 
next door to a glazier's,'' where he taught arithmetic, geometry, surveying, 
navigation, fortification, astrology, etc. His father and grandfather had fallen 
in support of the monarchy during the evil days of usurpation, and their family 
estate of Holwell Hall in Devonshire had been thus lost for ever ; but at the 
Restoration in 1660, John Holwell obtained the posts of Astronomer Royal and 
Surveyor of Crown lands, with an honourable place for his wife near the Queen. 
Later he was appointed Mathematical teacher to the young Puke of Monmouth, 
whom he appears to have warmly admired. In 1682 he had published, in 
English, a bitter attack on the Popish party, under the title of Catastrophe 
Mundi, which was answered in 1684 by J. Merrifield, Student in Astrology, in a 
quarto, named Catastasis Mundi . . . also HolwelVs Falsehoods Discovered. 
After the accession of James II., in 168*, John Holwell was sent to America as 
surveyor of New York, and died there, with strong suspicion of having been 
poisoned in coffee, to hinder his return after completing the survey. 

2 This alludes to " Julian the Apostate," written by Samuel Johnson, June, 
1683 ; not to Eobert Julian, the self-styled " Secretary of the Muses." 



I 



353 



Cfre Loyalists' Encouragement. 

Beneath Vienna's ancient wall lie level plains of sand, 
And there the pathway runs of all that seek the Holy Land ; 
And from the wall a little space, and by the trodden line, 
Stands, seen from many a distant place, a tall and slender Shrine. 

It seems, so standing there alone, to those who come and go, 
No pile of dull unconscious stone, but touch'd with joy or woe : . . 
Smiles have been there of beaming joy, and tears of bitter loss, 
As friends have met, and parted, by The Spinning-Maiden's Cross. 

They took the treasure she had won, full many a varied coin, 

And, o'er the stone where she had spun, they rais'd that shapely shrine : 

And still Vienna'' s maids recall her meekly suffer'd loss, 

And point the fane beneath the wall — The Spinning-Maiden's Cross." 

— V. Whewell : Die Spinner inn am Kreux. 



F ever a book be written entitled " The Wrong-headedness of 
Mankind" (and ample materials exist for its composition, in fact 
overwhelming in quantity), the Nonconformists will monopolize 
the attention of that cynical historian who attempts the stupendous 
narrative. The race of Puritans, devoid of any real sympathy with 
human love or suffering except such as suited their own atrabilious 
nature and creed, found a substitute for generous warmth in their 
inordinate sectarian zeal. So that rebellion and anarchy could be 
encouraged, they were ready to applaud any conflict with authority, 
except their own : Says the following song, they would wear " A cap 
of Geneva or Turkish turbant." Thus we read on p. 360, " Ruin and 
strife is Whigs' element still." The Royalists of England were, on 
principle, opposed to the Hungarian revolt under Tekeli, and his 
alliance with the Moslem force, which sought to overthrow the 
tyranny of the Austrian Emperor, and imperilled Christendom. 
There is a natural alliance, of affection and principle, uniting 
England and Austria, one that has been seldom interrupted. But 
since the defenders of Vienna were Roman Catholics, whom the Pope 
had by money and blessing assisted, the English Whigs chose to 
denounce them, and to praise Tekeli's revolt. (See pp. 383, 384.) 
Hence these Whigs were named " Teckelites." 

Sir John Reresby notes the outbreak of the Austrian trouble : — 

March 1. [1683.] — At this time all Christendom seemed to be in danger of a 
"War, the rebels of Hungary having called in the Turks to assist them against the 
Emperor, and, one or two excepted, all the Princes of the Empire, the Kings of 
Spain and Sweden, joining in defence of the Empire against the Turk on one 
side, and the French King (likely to fall upon Flanders, or some of the Princes 
of Germany) upon the other; whilst we enjoyed a happy peace at home; and, 
which was the more likely to make it last, was the death of so busy and factious 
Lord Shaftesbwy, who was fled not long before into Holland. — Memoirs, p. 273. 

vol. v. 2 A 



354 



Ct)e 3Lopaitsts' encouragement. 

To the Tune of, Now, now the figMs done [See Note below]. 

YOU Loyalists all now rejoice and be glad, 
The day is our own, there's no cause to be sad, 
The tumult of Faction is crush'd in its pride, 
And the Grand Promoters their noddles ali hide, 
For fear of a swing : which does make it appear, 
Though Treason they lov'd, yet for Hemp they don't care. 6 

Then let us be bold, still, and baffle their Plots, 
That they in the end may prove impotent Sots, 
And find both their wit and their malice defeated, 
Nay, find how themselves and their pupils they cheated : 
By heaping and thrusting to unhinge a State, 
Of which Heaven's Guardian fix'd is by Fate. 12 

Though once they the rabble bewitch'd with their cant, 

Whilst cobler and weaver set up for a Saint ; 

Yet now the stale cheat they can fasten no more, 

The juggle's discover'd, and they must give o'er : 

Yet give them their due that such mischief did work, 
Who revile Christian Princes, and pray for the Turk. 18 

! give them their clue, and let none of them want 

A cap of Geneva or Turkish turbant, 

That, clad in their colours, they may not deceive 

The Vulgar, too prone and too apt to believe 

The fears they suggest, on a groundless pretence, 

On purpose to make 'em repine at their Prince. 24 

London : Printed by L. P., for T. Passinger, at The Three Bibles. 

[In White-letter. Probable date, October, 1683. Reprinted, 1686.] 

%* Frequent mention has been made of the tune belonging to this ditty 
(which is preserved in The Loyal Garland, song iv. of the sixth edition, 1686). 
The words of "Now, now the fight's done, and the great God of War," etc., 
have been given in our Vol. IV. pp. 243, 349. The same popular tune was used 
for the Eoxburghe Ballad entitled "Vienna's Triumph," immediately following 
" The Loyalists' Encouragement," and given on our p. 359. 






355 



€J)e §>tcgc of Oicnna. 1683 



T. 



J. 



" Let her great Danube, rolling fair 

Eutwine her isles, unmark'd by me ; 

I have not seen, I will not see 
Vienna: rather dream that there .... 
That not in any mother-town 

With statelier progress to and fro 

The double tides of chariots flow 
liv park and suburb, under brown 
Of lustier leaves ; ' nor more content,' 

He told me, ' lives in any crowd, 

When all is gay with lamps, and loud 
With sport and song, in booth and tent, 
Imperial halls, or open plain ; 

And wheels the circled dance, and breaks 

The rocket, molten into flakes 
Of crimson or in emerald rain.' " 

— Tennyson's In Memoriam A.H.H., xcvi. 



HREE distinct Roxhurglie Ballads are devoted to a consideration 
of the same historical event, the triumphant raising of the Siege of 
Vienna in September, 1683. Hitherto kept far dissevered in the 
Roxburghe Collection, each one in a different volume (B. H. Bright 
having added the most important), they are by us brought once 
more into close connection, and they serve to show the excitement 
of their day, when rejoicing over a Turkish defeat was held to be a 
Christian duty. Into the large question of foreign policy, or the 
success of an international league against the common foe, we are 
not called to enter. Some people boasted an immense sympathy 
with " the much-wronged Duke of Lorraine," owing to hatred of 
Louis XIV., who had taken his dominion ; but they gave little 
assistance to the Duke Charles Leopold. Some few English volunteers 
are mentioned in "The Christians' New Victory :•" — 

See how our English Volunteers charge, as men that know no fears, 

Where e'er they come the battle clears ; Hark ! how the trumpet blows, Boy ! 

The defeat of the Turks before Vienna is one of the Decisive 
Battles of the "World, and has been well described by Sir Edward 
Shepherd Creasy ; not in his Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World 
(1851 : 16th ed., 1869), but in his History of the Ottoman Turks. 

That delightful city of Vienna is remembered joyfully by all who, 
like the present writer, have shared its hospitality, and revelled in 
its pleasures. It saw several stoutly-contested sieges, and not a few 
revolts. Sometimes, as in 1477, it was attacked by the Hungarians, 
and again in 1485 under their king Matthias. Solyman I., the 
Magnificent, with his Turks, besieged it later, September, 1529, but 
was defeated on October 14th, with the loss of 80,000 men. 



35G Investment of Vienna, by the Turks. 

The condition of Vienna, before the crowning victory that is thus 
celebrated in our Roxburghe Ballad, has been well described by 
Edwin Hodder, whose account from Cassell's Cities here follows : — 

The Turks again in 1683 were casting covetous eyes on Vienna and the Austrian 
dominion, and being tempted by the unsettled state of Hungary, Mohammed IV. 
was induced to make war with Austria. An army was accordingly despatched 
under the Grand Vizier Cara Mustapha, which penetrated to Vienna, and besieged 
that city, having first defeated the Austrians, under the Duke of Lorraine, before 
Xeiihausel, and compelled them to retire upon the Capital. The night before 
Lorraine's arrival at Vienna, the Emperor and his Court had fled, amid the 
clamours and execrations of the people. Lorraine therefore, on his arrival, found 
the inhabitants in a state of extreme confusion and alarm ; he heard on all sides 
nothing but reproaches against the Emperor and his ministers, whose conduct was 
by all attributed to the baneful influence of the Jesuits, a party which had for a 
long time been prominent in the Councils of the Court. Lorraine found the city 
entirely unprepared for resistance, surrounded by extensive and rapidly-growing 
suburbs, and, in addition, such fortifications as the city then possessed were in an 
utterly dilapidated condition. The energy and renown of the Duke, however, 
somewhat calmed the general apprehension. He, with Starensberg [Count Ernest 
Rudiger Starhemberg, "brave Starenberg " of our p. 366], the governor left behind 
by the Emperor, promptly destroyed some of the more outlying suburbs, put the 
fortifications as far as possible in a state of repair, and so placed the city in 
a condition to offer some resistance to the approaching and victorious Turks. 
Lorraine left a reinforcement of 8,000 infantry in the city, and fell back with 
his cavalry beyond the Danube, with the view of harassing the movements and 
interrupting the communication of the Vizier's army, which, notwithstanding, 
arrived before Vienna on July 14th, 1683. 

In a very few days the investment of the city was completed. Frequent attacks 
were made on its walls ; the inhabitants were reduced to the last extremities for 
want of provisions, their numbers were sorely thinned both by sickness and in 
combat; the enemy became possessed of the principal outworks, and the Governor 
was in constant dread lest the city should be taken by storm and sacked by the 
merciless Ottomans. In the meantime, the Duke of Lorraine had been by no 
means idle, and the skill and promptitude of his deeds deserve the highest admiration. 
Having done all that lay in his power to delay and interrupt the operations of 
the siege, he at length reached the King of Poland, and persuaded him to lend 
his assistance and push forward with his army to the aid of the Emperor's subjects, 
to which he was bound by promise to the Emperor. Contingents arrived at about 
the same time from Germany and Saxony, so that Snbieski and Lorraine were 
enabled to march to the relief of Vienna as joint leaders of an army of 60,000 
men, and on the 12th of September, to the unspeakable joy of the citizens, the 
Christian standard was seen by the beleaguered city floating on the Ivahlenberg. 

The resistance of the garrison, although apparently to themselves so nearly 
unsuccessful, had made considerable inroads in the ranks of Cara Mustapha'' s army, 
which became entirely disconcerted on the unexpected approach of the army of 
relief. Just before the arrival of Sobieski and Lorraine on the Kahlenberg, an 
attempt to storm the town had been repulsed with considerable slaughter, and 
the confusion and consternation incidental to this movement were taken advantage 
of by the returning force, which at once vigorously attacked the Turks. In this 
onslaught the Polish monarch and the Imperial general vied with each other in 
skill and bravery, while for coolness and intrepidity the action of the combined 
troops was above all praise. At nightfall, the Turkish leader, fearing the worst 
for his army, held a hasty consultation with his generals, and it was decided to 
retreat during the night. The withdrawal of the Turks was more than a retreat, 
for they became panic-stricken, and left enormous booty behind, consisting, among 



Rise and Fall of the Vizier, ' Black Music/])// a.' 307 

other material and effects, of 180 pieces of artillery, several of which were adapted 
I'm- heavy siege work; tents, ammunition, provisions, and many luxuries of the 
East. Even the ensign of the Vizier's authority was left behind, together with a 
standard [erroneously] supposed to be the sacred banner of Mohammed. 

The entry of the King of Poland and the Duke of Lorraine into Vienna was 
welcomed with the wildest acclamation ; the inhabitants testified to the King 
especially their gratitude by marks of affection that amounted almost to adoration ; 
they hailed him as Father and Defender, and struggled among themselves to touch 
his garments or to kiss his feet. 

The enthusiasm of the welcome accorded to Sobieski was in marked contrast 
with that accorded to the Emperor upon his return to his capital. Feeling deeply 
the humiliation that [had formerly] accompanied his hasty departure in the time 
of their approaching trial, the inhabitants offered to him neither honours nor 
welcome on his passage into the city. 

The importance of this defeat of the Turks before Vienna cannot he dwelt upon 
with too much stress ; it was one of the great decisive battles of the World, for the 
raising of the Siege of Vienna in 1683 was the first decisive symptom of Turkish 
decline — a decline that has been continuing from then until the present day. 

Luttrell's Diary-memoranda of news received from abroad prove 
the English interest felt in the contest with the Turks : — 

July 13th, 1683. — Foreign Letters say that the Grand Vizier hath given a 
totall overthrow to the Emperor's army m Hungary ; that thereupon the Emperor, 
etc., was tied from Vienna to Lintz ; and that the Turk was going on toward 
Vienna with an army of 160,000 men, which will goe near to endanger the whole 
Empire. — A Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, i. 269. 

August, 1683. — Letters from Germany speak of the fierce attacks the Turks 
make upon the citty of Vienna ; that they push on the seige with all the vigour 
imaginable ; but that they have gained little upon it, the beseiged makeing a brave 
defence, and the beseigers have lost above 10,000 before it. — Ibid. i. 275. 

September, 1683. — The German letters tell us that the Turks, to the number 
of 150,000, under the command of the Grand Vizier, bad laid close seige to the 
citty of Vienna for 60 daies past, and that the Imperiall forces, assisted by the 
king of Poland, electors of Bavaria and Saxony, and several other princes, did 
attempt the relief thereof the 12th instant, it being brought very low, and happily 
effected the same, routing the Turks with an incredible slaughter, taking above 
50,000 tents, the Grand Vizier's own horse, several great cannon, ammunition, and 
provisions, and an immense treasure : but for a more particular account thereof I 
refer you to the printed accounts thereof. — Ibid., i. 280. 

We shall find frequent mention of the Grand Vizier, Kara 
Mustapha, in the following ballads. His predecessor and uncle was 
Ahmed Kiuprili, the second Vizier of his race, described by Turkish 
historians as "the light and splendour of the nation;" a man of 
superior abilities, and entirely different character. Kara Mustapha, 
or " Black Mustapha," his successor, has been described by Creasy, as 
one whose characterwas in everyrespect the opposite of Kiuprili's; and 
who to slender abilities united the wildest ambition, and almost boundless pre- 
sumption. He was son-in-law to the Sultan [Mahomet IV.] and, by the influence 
winch that marriage gave him, he obtained the high office which he abused to the 
ruin of his master, and the deep disaster of his country. Kara Mustapha'* 
favourite project was a new war against Austria, in which he hoped to capture 
a, and to make himself the nominal Viceroy, but real sovereign of ample 
provinces between the Danube and the Rhine. But the first years of his Vizierate 
Were occupied in an inglorious war with Russia. That empire had been no party 



358 Slaughter of multitudinous Turks. 

to the late peace of Zurawna, and it supported Dorescensko against the Porte, when 
that fickle Cossack grew discontented with the Sultan's authority. Kara Mustapha 
led a large army into the Ukraine, and besieged Gehzrym, but was beaten by the 
Russians, and fled with ignominy across the Danube. In the following year he 
resumed the war with fresh forces, and after several alternations of fortune, he 
stormed Gehzrym on the 21st of August, 1678. But the losses which the Turks 

sustained, both from the Russian sword and the climate, were severe A 

peace was made in 1681, by which the Porte gave up the disputed territory to 

Russia Five years afterwards, a territorial arrangement was concluded 

between Poland and Russia, which recognized the sovereignty of the Czar over 
the whole of the Ukraine. 

In 1682, Kara Mustapha commenced his fatal enterprize against Vienna. A 
revolt of the Hungarians under Count Tekeli against Austria, which had been 
caused by the bigotted tyranny of the Emperor Leopold, now laid the heart of that 
empire open to attack ; and a force was collected by the Grand Vizier which, if 
ably handled, might have given the house of Hapsburg its death-blow. ' Through- 
out the autumn of 1682 and the spring of 1683, regular and irregular troops, both 
horse and foot, artillery, and all kinds of munitions of war, were collected in the 
camp at Adrianople, on a scale of grandeur that attested and almost exhausted the 
copiousness whicli the administration of Kiuprili had given to the Turkish 
resources. The strength of the regular forces which Kara Mustapha led to 

Vienna is known, from the muster-roll which was found in his tent after the siege. 
It amounted to 275,000 men. The attendants and camp-followers cannot be 
reckoned, nor can anything but an approximate speculation be made as to the 
number of the Tartar and ether irregular troops that joined the Vizier. It is 
probable that not less than half a million of men were set in motion in this last 
aggressive effort of the Ottomans against Christendom. — History of the Ottoman 

Turks, chapter 16. By Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy, M.A. Edition 1878. 

Of this multitude not more than 50,000 ultimately regained the 
Turkish frontier. A similar number had died in the warfare, before 
the decisive battle for relief of Vienna. As to the destruction 
wrought in the invaded countries, it is believed that the Turks 
carried into slavery 82,000 grown persons, chiefly women, 204 
being maiden daughters of the Christian nobility, and 26,000 little 
children. " It is said that in lower Austria, and on the frontiers of 
Hungary alone, 4936 villages and hamlets were given to the flames 
in 1683" (Henry Elliot Maiden's Vienna in 1683, p. 36). Again, 
" A moderate estimate of the Christian loss is five thousand men, or 
about one-fifteenth of those on the field. . . The Poles alone confessed 
to the loss of one hundred officers killed, and they were neither so 
long nor so hotly engaged as the left wing. The loss of the centre 
was probably less. Thuerheim [ Starhemberg s Life and Despatches, 
Vienna, 1882] and Schimmer \_Sieges of Vienna^ give of the Allies 
four thousand, and twenty-five thousand Turks ; but the latter 
figures are quite uncertain, and the Christians made the least of 
their losses. As the fight was so much hand to hand, with little 
artillery fire, it would resemble ancient battles, where the loss of the 
vanquished was always proportionately large" (fbid. p. Ill, Note). 

On the next page we borrow one of Jonah Deacon's woodcuts, 
bearing his initials, I.D., from our Bar/ford Ballads, p. 350. 



350 



[Roxburghe CoUection, III. 912.] 

Vienna's Crtump!) ; 

Mitf) tge Whiggs' Lamentation for tge £)t)mgvoto of 

tfyt Turks. 

To the Tune of, Now, now the fight '« done. [See Vol. IV. p. 243.] 




"\TO\v, now's the Siege rais'd, and the numerous Train 
J\| Of the Turks {Jove be prais'd !) are defeated again : 
Their Mahomet" s aid they in vain did implore, 
And they swear they'l not trust the dull God any more : 
The Sham of the Load- Stone 1 at last they have found, 
And their God is condemn'd to be laid under ground. 

Let the English give praise, let all Christendom joyn, 

In singing of lays to the Powers Divine : 

Vienna once more hath the Victory won, 

And the TURKS, though so mighty, are put to the run. 

The Gyant Goliah by David was slain ; 

Thus who fight against Heaven do fight but in vain. 



12 



1 See Note ut foot of page 361. 



360 Vienna's Triumph ; overthrow of the Turks. 

The Grand Vizier's fled, 1 in vain he did hoast, 
And 'twill cost him his Head, since the Battle he lost : 
His many of thousands, he Invincible thought, 
Yet they by few hundreds to confusion were brought ; 
To the great King of Poland let the Honour redound, 
"Whose actions with Credit and Fame do abound. 2 

To the Duke of Lorrain great praises are due, 3 

"Who had fought but in vain if proud words had prov'd true ; 

At the Emperor's Threats he laugh'd in his sleeve, 

And all his great proffers he scorn'd to believe : 

But great as he was, he withstood all their Charms, 

Chusing rather to dye in his Country-men's Arms. 24 

His Loyalty true all the "World doth admire, 
But the Wliiggs who look blue, and Commotions desire ; 
Ruine and Strife is Whiggs 1 Element still, 4^{) 

They're an obstinate People, if crost in their Will : 

And what their Will is, is as hard to be known 

As it is to find out the Philosopher's Stone. 

No Devotion but theirs ! all others, they say, 
Of the Devil are snares, for to lead us astray ; 
The Pope to avoid, they'l do what they can, 4 
And instead of an Image they'l worship a Man : 

To the Turks they no Martyrs, but Converts, would be ; 

But in time we may see them all dye by the Tree. 36 

Printed for*/. Beacon, at the Sign of the Angel, in Guiltspur-street. 1683. 
[White -letter. "With bars of music, instead of woodcut. Date, October, 1683.] 

1 The Grand Vizier was Kara Mustapha, son-in-law of the Sultan. He was 
afterwards put to death at Belgrade, strangled with a bowstring. See pp. 365, 375. 

2 John Sobieski, King of Poland. See Introduction to the next ballad, p. 363. 

3 Charles Leopold, Duke of Lorraine. See next page but one, 362. 

4 This is very ungrateful and prejudiced on the part of the ballad-writer, 
inasmuch as the Pope, Innocent XL, Odescalchi, had not only given best aid, in 
drawing contributions of arms and men from European Powers for this new 
Crusade, but had also granted absolution to King John Sobieski to enable him to 
violate the oath sworn to keep truce with the Turk. Islam of old was true to its 
faith and word (although Turkish Bonds do not sound like safe securities in more 
modern days). " The Turks, scrupulously observing their part of the agreement, 
believed that they thereby secured the neutrality of Poland. Sobieski had suffered 
injuries and affronts at the hand of Austria. The punctilious pride of the 
Emperor was likely to add to the difficulty of forgetting these . . . A dispensation 
from the Pope released t he Poles from the duty of keeping their oaths to the Turks.' 
But breaking of oaths is apt to grow into a bad habit, wherefore " The Emperor 
and the King exchanged oaths not to resort to such a dispensation from their 
engagements to each other! " Satisfactory to their own conscience, no doubt. 



361 



3 Carouse to tfte €mpcroc of Austria. ics3. 

" I'm glad to hear the Cannons roar, 
Resounding from the German shore, 
Better news than heretofore, 

That Babel's Beast is wounded : 
The Christians brave, both all and some, 
Charge with the Horse and Kettledrum 
The Enemy of Christendom, 

Till Turks are quite confounded. 

" The King of Poland (in a phrase) 
The great Grand Seigneur did amaze, 
And the noise his Siege did raise ; 

Couragious Solymannus ! 
If you resolve to come again, 
You must recruit both might and main ; 
Or else it will be all in vain, 

To think that they'll trappan us." 

■ — Bejoyce in Triumph : The Ottoman Defeat at Vienna. 



T 



HE following Roxburghe Ballad and Loyal Song was written by 
Tom D'Urfey, and is among his Several New Songs, 1684; and 
Pills, i. 300. Also in N. Thompson's Collection of One Hundred and 
Eighty Loyal Songs, 1685 and 1694, p. 71 (the music of it being on 
p. 69), but with many variations from the broadside. Our third, 
fourth, and sixth verses are omitted (our fifth verse being made 
third) ; but both end similarly. There are six verses, not seven, in 
all. It begins, " Hark ! the thund'ring Cannons roar ! " The two 
verses different from the broadside (compare lines 41 to 48 on p. 367), 
but numbered respectively as fourth and fifth, are as follows : — 

With dull Tea they sought in vain 
Hopeless Vict'ry to obtain ; 
Where sprightly Wine fills ev'ry Vein, 
Success must needs attend him ; 

%* In the first verse of the preceding Roxburghc-Ballad mention is made of 
the " sham " Loadstone : the Caaba or Kaaba, at Mecca, the birthplace of Mahomet. 
We are told that " it was originally a Temple in great esteem among the heathen 
Arabians, who, before they embraced Mohammedanism, called by this name a 
small building of stone in the same temple, which has in turn become an object 
of the highest reverence with the Mohammedans, believing it to have been built 
by Abraham and Ishmael. On the side of it is a black stone, surrounded with 
silver, called Braktan, set in the wall about four feet from the ground. This 
stone has served since the second year of the Hegira as the Kebla : that is, as the 
point to which the Mohammedan turns his face during prayer. The pilgrims or 
Jladi/is touch and kiss this stone seven times, after which they enter the Kaaba, 
ami offer up their prayer. The Mohammedans first turned their face towards 
Jerusalem, until their leader ordered the present direction." The change was, 
no doubt, dictated by the same isolating policy as that of " Jeroboam, the son of 
Nebat, who caused Israel to sin," by setting up the Golden Calves. 



362 " The much-wronged Duke of Lorraine." 

Our Brains (like our own Cannons, warm 
"With often tiring) feel no harm : 
While the sober sot flies the Alarm, 
No Lawrel can befriend him. 

Christians thus with Conquest crown'd, 
Conquest with the glass goes round ; 
Weak Coffee can't keep its ground, 

Against the force of Claret : 
Whilst we give them thus the foyl, 
And the Pagan Troops recoyl, 
The Valiant Poles divide the Spoyl, 

And in brisk Nectar share it. 

Infidels are now o'ercome, etc. (See our p. 368). 

The title and the nineteenth line mention "the much- wronged 
Duke of Lorraine," Charles Leopold, who had been driven from his 
hereditary possessions by Louis XIV., refusing to be reinstated under 
humiliating conditions, and had taken command of the Austrian 
Emperor's troops. Lorraine's wife was the Emperor's sister, and 
widow of the deceased Polish King, Michael. Lorraine being a 
candidate for the sovereignty of Poland, and favoured by Austria, 
there could not long be safe alliance between him and John 
Sobieski. It was his expulsion by France which earned for him 
his English popularity as "the much-wronged Lorraine." 

Charles Leopold Duke of Lorraine stands vividly before us in the 
description given of their meeting, in a letter by Sobieski to his 
own wife, " the incomparable Maria," afterward to be mentioned. 
Sobieski found him " modest and taciturn, stooping, plain, with a 
hooked nose, and marked with the small-pox ; clad in an old grey 
coat, with a fair-haired wig, ill-made, a hat without a band, boots 
of yellow leather, or instead, of what was yellow three months 
ago ; " yet not boorish or slovenly, but of right presence, " et meme 
(Vun homme de distinction." Within seven years later Lorraine died 
suddenly, on the 18th April, 1690, " at a convent of friers between 
Lintz and Passati, in his journey to Vienna; 'tis thought his death 
is not without suspicion of poyson" (so wrote Luttrell, Relation, ii. 35). 
Notorious Richard Baldwin published a Poem on the event, begin- 
ning, "Hark! hark! what noise is this I hear?" and ending thus: — 

May the August Emperour a new General find, 

Matching the bravery of his arm and mind ; 

And the Leagued Princes such success acquire 

As bears proportion with their just desire. 

May you French Lillies with your Laurels 'twine, 

And Victory with all your Armies join ; 
Till humbled Lewis find his Treason's vain, 
And Lorraine's fortune to outlive Lorraine. 

His grandson married Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary, and 
became Emperor of Austria. Sobieski survived until 1696. His 
grand-daughter was mother of our Prince Charles Edward Stuart. 



Joint Sobieski, the King of Poland. 303 

Among the Princes conjoined with Lorraine and Sobieski to 
relieve Vienna were Prince Eugene of Savoy, then barely twenty ; 
Prince Waldeck of the house of Waldeck- Wildungen ; young 
Maximilian of Bavaria ; and Prince George of Brunswick- 
Lueneburg (thirty years later to become our George I.). But their 
tower of strength was Sobieski, whose directions they unhesitatingly 
followed, and whose achievements in veritable history seem to 
equal, if not to surpass, the heroic deeds attributed to the Paladius 
of old romance. 

Sobieski, King of Poland, known as John III., had been a 
Polish nobleman, but had passed several early years in Prance, had 
served there in the Musqueteers of the Guard, and was married to a 
French wife, Marie Casimire de la Grange d'Arquien, sister of the 
Count de Maligni. Certain slights passed on her by Louis XIV. 
are supposed to have influenced her strongly, so that she counselled 
him to yield to the advances of the Emperor Leopold for assistance, 
and thus thwart the suspected designs of King Louis. " The failure 
of an intrigue, by which her father, a needy Marquis, was to have 
been converted into a wealthy Duke ; a refusal of the French Court 
to receive her, a French subject by birth, as an equal should she 
revisit France : these causes made her an Austrian partizan. 
Sobieski, at the age of fifty-three, still burned with youthful ardour 
for his wife of forty-one ; though scandal would have it that this 
King Arthur had his Lancelot in the Field, Marshall Jablonowski, 
one of the foremost of his officers. 'His incomparable Maria,' as 
the King addressed his queen in his frequent letters, was at all 
events vain and intriguing, and seldom influenced for good the 
husband whom she also adored." So true is it that a petticoat is 
mixed up with every piece of mischief: " Who is she?" remains 
the invariable enquiry : the feminine x or y without which no 
equation is solved, simple or quadratic. 

The following Roxburghe-BaUad mentions that " Starenberg is 
wounded," probably referring to "Captain Count Guido Starhem- 
berg, nephew of the Commandant [of Vienna], who personally 
superintended the removal of the powder through the opposite 
window " of the Imperial Arsenal, where eighteen hundred barrels 
of it were stored, when a fire had reached the other windows, at 
the beginning of the siege. He was killed at the storming of 
Belgrade, September, 1G88. The internal defence of Vienna, 
garrisoned by 11,000 men, was entrusted to Ernest Kudiger, Count 
Starhemberg, " an officer of tried skill and courage. He had served 
with Montecuculi against the Turks [in 1664], and against both 
Conde and Turenne with the same commander and with the Prince 
of Orange. He entered the city, as the fugitives forsook it. He 
set the people to work upon the fortifications, organized them for 
defence, and assured them that he would live and die with them." 



364 John Sobieski's Courageous Advance. 

The siege began on the 15th of July and lasted to the evening of 
the 12th September. The Turkish Miners showed the greatest 
energy, the hired labourers for the defence quitting work whenever 
they heard the others approaching. The gunners on both sides 
exerted themselves, walls and bastions were shattered, and the 
garrison were becoming exhausted by shortened rations, repelling 
assaults, and making frequent sorties to interrupt the besiegers. 
After a fortnight's labour it was in the power of the Grand Vizier 
to have taken Vienna by storm, had he chosen to make a general 
assault, as his officers desired, and to persist until successful, as 
with his overwhelming number was possible. The sole explanation 
of his omission is, that he expected the city to capitulate, and then 
wealth and power would have remained in his own hands, the city 
undestroyed for future residence ; whereas, if his soldiers carried it 
by storm, it would be plundered and burnt by them. His troops 
murmured at the delay, many being kept comparatively unem- 
ployed. He took no precautions to guard the Danube from being 
crossed by the relieving army, which was known to be in progress. 
Even when Sobieski had made good his passage at Culm, above 
Vienna, with a force of less than 70,000 men, passing round and up 
the Kalenberg mountain north-west of the city, the Vizier offered 
no opposition, and allowed the Poles to occupy the heights un- 
harassed; when too late sending a Turkish force against them, that 
wasrepulsed. (Seep. 371.) This was on the 11th of September. 

Undaunted by the extent and equipment of his encamped foes, as 
beheld from the Kalenberg, Sobieski resolved on an immediate 
attack. He had detected their want of generalship, their failure 
in simplest precautions, their exposure in long Hues without fit 
entrenchment. Writing to his wife, the night before the battle, 
his words were prophetic and decisive; "The General of an army 
who has neither thought of intrenching himself nor concentrating 
his forces, but lies encamped as though we were one hundred miles 
from him, is predestined to be beaten." 

Almost without artillery, having been obliged in his forced march 
to leave the greater part behind, and traversing ravines and broken 
ground of descent whereon he might have been easily kept in check 
by a skilful enemy, there must have been great rashness in Sobieski's 
advance. It was justified by success, and also by his intuitive con- 
viction that his enemy would continue to fail in skilful defence. 
The Vizier disbelieved in any considerable force being with Sobieski 
on the Kalenberg, although he knew of Lorraine's proximity; 
then, when convinced that an attack on his lines was meditated, 
delayed to order that the hollow way should be occupied beforehand, 
to resist the Polish advance. What follows has been already indicated 
on pp. 356, 357, but we prefer to add Sir Edward S. Creasy's 
earlier account, for comparison with those of Hodder and Maiden. 



The Turkish Forces in Retreat. 36-j 



Unwilling to resign Vienna, Musfapha left the chief part of his Janissary force 
in the trenches before the city, and led the rest of his army towards the hills, 
down which Sobieski and his troops were advancing. In some parts of the field, 
whire the Turks had partially intrenched the roads, their resistance to the 
Christians was obstinate, but Sobieski led on his best troops in person, in a direct 
line for the Ottoman centre, where the Vizier's tent was conspicuous ; and the terrible 
presence of the victor of Choczim was soon recognized. " By Allah ! the King is 
really among us ! " exclaimed the Khan of the Crimea, Selim Ghirai ; and turned 
his horse's head for flight. The mass of the Ottoman army broke, and fled in 
hopeless rout, hurrying Kara Musfapha with them from the field. The Janissaries, 
who had been left in the trenches before the city, were now attacked both by the 
garrison and the Poles, and were cut to pieces. The camp, the whole artillery, 
and the military stores of the Ottomans, became the spoil of the conquerors ; and 
never was there a victory more complete, or signalised by more splendid trophies. 
The Turks continued their panic flight as far as Raab. There Kara Mustapha 
collected round him some of the wrecks of the magnificent army which had 
followed him to Vienna. He sought to vent his fury by executing some of the 
best Turkish officers, who had differed from him during the campaign. His own 
fate, when he was executed by the Sultan's orders a few weeks afterwards at 
Belgrade, excited neither surprise nor pity. 

The great destruction of the Turks before Vienna was rapturously hailed 
throughout Christendom as the announcement of the approaching downfall of the 
Mahometan Empire in Europe. — Creasy'' s History of the Ottoman Turks. 

The brave Sobieski valued the courage of his foes magnanimously, 
even after his great victory. He wrote thus to his Mariette: 

They made the best retreat you can conceive, for while hard pressed they would 
turn sword in hand upon their pursuers. But the head which directed that 
courage was wanting ; and for that want they were a gallant mob, but no longer 
an army. Grateful for the result though we may be, there is something pathetic 
in the magnificent valour of a race of soldiers [the Janissaries] being frustrated 
by such incapacity. The Christians, exhausted by the toils of the last few days, 
could not pursue to any distance. 

Our unequalled Gibbon has described the first formation of these 
troops, of well-disciplined Turkish infantry, the Janizaries or 
Janissaries, from the choicest prisoners, " the stoutest and most 
beautiful of the Christian youth," under the rule of Amurath I., in 
the year 1389. In later times they became turbulent and dangerous 
like the Praetorian bands, and were abolished iu Juue, 182G, by 
proclamation, and a curse laid on their very name. 



*ggO 1^ - 



366 



[Roxburghe Collection II. 5S2 ; and (Bright's Supp.) IV. 2 ; Pepys, II. 2.')0.] 

21 Carrouse to ti)e €mperour, 

tfyt Kopal Pole, anD t\}t mucl^totongco SDtifcc of Lorrain. 

To A New Tune at the Play-House [Hark ! the thundering Cannons roar]. 

m 




HArk ! I hear the Cannons Roar, 
Echoing from the German Shore, 
And the joyful News comes o'er, 

that the Turks are all confounded : 
Lorraine comes ! they Run, they Run ! 
Charge with your Horse thro' the Grand Half-moon, 
And give Quarter unto none, 

Since Starenberg is wounded. 1 



1 Ernest Rudiger, Count Starhemberg, Governor of Vienna; or his nephew, 
Captain Guido de Starhemberg, who died in the storming of Belgrade, Sept. 1688. 



Tom D' Urfey's " Carouse to the Emperor." 367 

Close your Ranks, and each brave Soul 

Fill a lusty flowing Bowl, 

A Grand Carrouse to the Royal Pole, 

The Empire's brave Defender : 
Let no man leave his Post by stealth, 
Plunder the Barbarous Visier's wealth, 
"We '1 drink a Helmet full [to] th' Health 

Of Second Alexander. 16 

Pill the Helmet once again, 

To the Emperor's happy Reign, 

And the much-wrong'd Duke Rorrain: 

but when they 've beat the Turks home, 
Not a Soul the Field will leave, 
Till they do again retrieve 
What the Mounsiear does deprive, [= deprive him of. 

and fix him in his Dukedom, 24 

Then will be the Scheme of War, 
When such drinking Crowns prepare ; 
Those that love the Mounsieurs, fear 

their Courage will be shrinking : 
Loyal Hearts inspir'd with Hock, 

Who can form a Better Flock ? W **• " from." 

The French will never stand the shock, 

for all their Claret-drinking. 32 

Mahomet was a senseless Dogg, 

A Coffee-drinking drowsie Rogue; 

The use of the Grape, so much in vogue, 

to deny to those adore him : 
Had he allow'd the Fruits of the Vine, 
And gave them leave to Carrouse in Wine, 
They had freely past the Rhine, 

and conquer'd all before them. 40 

Coffee Rallies no retreat, 

Wine can only do the Feat, 

Had their Force been twice as great, 

and all of Janizaries : C See P- 3G5 - 

Tho' he had drank the Danube dry, 

And all their Prophet could supply, [mispr. "Profit." 

By his interest from the Skie, 

Brisk Rangoon ne'r miscarry'd. 1 48 

1 Langoon was a Bourdeaux wine, from Langon ; named in Gallantry-a-la-Mode : 
Suspition then I wash away, 
With old Langoon and cleansing whey. 



368 



Tom D'Urfey's " Carouse to the Emperor. 



Infidels are now o'recome ; 

The most Christian Turk at home 

Watch' d the Fate of Christendom, 

but all his hopes are shallow : 
Since the Poles have led the Dance, 
If England's Monarch will advance, 
And if he '1 send a Fleet to France, 

He 's a Whigg that will not follow. 



56 



Jfinfe. [Bg Earn WWixhy.] 

Printed for P, Broolcsbg, in West- Smithfield. 

[In Black-letter. Printer's name cut off from first copy, which is but a thin 
single-column slip, full of misprints: n.w.c. Second copy has three woodcuts, 
now given one on p. 366, and the other two here. The early copy of the 
music is given in Playford's Dancing Master, seventh edition, p. 203, 1686, 
under the title of Vienna. Original date, 1683.] 



















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369 



€bc Christian Conquest, at Otcnna, 1683. 

" My Janizary Slaves, your pow'r aloue 
I need not question to secure my Throne : 
Nor can I doubt a force so often try'd, 
Which Christian Fields with Christian blood has dy'd. 
Go on, then, boldly to dispose the Fates 
Of crazy Europe's ill-supported States, 
Untill the trembling Princes of the West 
Bow to that Hand which has subdu'd the East. 
Let the deluded World be taught by you 
What to our Prophet and our Arms is due. 
So fight, as may our Enemies perswade 
A Pow'r not humane does their States invade. 
Instruct the Christians in each loss to read 
How we of old against them did succeed. 
In ev'ry Breach and Batt'ry still relate 
The story of our Honour and their Fate : 
In springing Moynes, or taking Bastions, tell [=Mines. 

Thus Candy, thus defenceless Rhodes, once fell. 
Recounting these, the better to inflame 
Your courage, no less than provoke their shame." 

— The Grand Seiynior's Speech to the Ottoman 
Forces at Belyrade, who are now at war 
with the Christians, 1683. L 



'UR English people in 1683 had not grown enthusiastically cos- 
mopolitan. They held fewer sympathies with foreigners than the 
earlier generation surrounding Milton, who expressed a brotherhood 
with the Vaudois. The chief exception to this rule of insular 
narrowness was in the case of the Germanic races warring with the 
Turks around Vienna, and two years later the French Huguenots 
were welcomed heartily, after Lewis XIV. had revoked the Edict 
of Nantes, in October, 1685, when shelter and employment were 
afforded to the fugitives ; on the whole to the advantage of the 
country which yielded them her hospitality. 2 

It is a good principle in private life to be guided by the maxim 
of Squire Broadlands, "The Old Country Squire," which was this: 

A Smile for a Friend, 
A Frown for a Foe, 
And a full front to every one. 

1 This is a single-sheet, printed on both sides, London, for John Smith, 1683 ; 
preserved in the British Museum " Poetical Broadsides," C. 20. f. fol. 126. 

3 William Durant Cooper in the Camden Society, No. LXXXIL, 1862, 
furnished, from the State Paper Office, Lists of Foreign Protestants and Aliens 
resident in England, 1618 — 1688. The subject was pursued in the Herald and 
Genealogist, vol. i. pp. 159 to 174. Valuable additional Lists of Huguenots who 
settled in Sussex are preserved by the Sussex Archaeological Society, Vol. 13. 

VOL. v. 2 E 



370 Non-intervention languid, when no Profit invites. 

Nationally, we have always been moved more strongly by our 
enmities and antagonisms, by indignation or jealousy, than by 
spontaneous warmth of friendship, or willingness to protect the 
persecuted. If we help any victim, it is from hatred to the wrong- 
doer. But it is only in recent times that we gush sympathetically in 
all directions, with sentimental yearnings, whenever our newspapers 
make capital out of their foreign correspondents' interminable reports 
from everywhere ; for the editorial leaders re-combine the scattered 
items of information, to arouse a fiery anger with large sale, by 
exposure of all conceivable and inconceivable abuses, oppressions or 
misfortunes, that cry aloud to Sirius and the nebula) in Orion for 
redress in ready money. 

Since we possess these three Itoxburglw Ballads on the Warfare 
around Vienna, let England hail at once, with sufficient gratitude, 
the token afforded of our solitary enthusiasm for somebody outside 
of ourselves at the time when disaffection was weltering through 
the land, and the Rye-House Plot recently discovered, but not yet 
fully punished. Since that date were seen the strangest alternations 
in the fickle-minded populace of England ; the hot and cold fits of 
meddlesome interference or selfish isolation of non-intervention ; but 
generally wrong in either case, and repented. The generosity was 
always denounced by noisy demagogues, who on the plea of political 
economy objected to pay the cost of bygone wars, whilst themselves 
too cowardly to risk their own person in battle. The abstention 
was undeserving of laudation, because not due to moral or religious 
objections, though these were sometimes named in extenuation as 
an after-thought. The paltriest timidity and mercantile caution 
held back our rulers from daring to step in for defence of former 
friends and allies, to keep them from being ruthlessly destroyed by 
brute force, since it was "no affair of ours." Some of us will never 
forget the national degradation, and shame at this selfish withdrawal 
from yielding substautial aid, when honour, friendship, and the due 
reverence to a brave people were disregarded. It is only a mockery 
when we drug our conscience by boastfully proffering non-belligerent 
ambulance-service to both combatants, while shrinking from the 
decision to cast our own sword in the balance. Burdened with the 
charges of old-time payments to hireling forces on the Continent, 
while we fought their battles with a prodigal outlay, since William 
of Orange first imposed the yoke on our people, we yet should rise 
superior to all fear for future days, sooner than yield to pusillanimous 
or miserly advisers of " Peace at any Price." Englishmen have read, 
with glowing cheeks and throbbing pulse, the noble sonnet by Milton, 
beginning "Avenge, Lord! thy slaughtered saints, whose bones 
Lie scatter'd on the Alpine mountains cold." Spirit-stirring though 
it be, still dearer to some of us already, and destined to be no less 
memorable a land-mark, in later years, is the solemn protest uttered 



" How it strikes a Contemporary'''' Poet. 371 

by one who stood alone in our time, excellent in two kindred arts, 
and whose hallowed dust lies pillowed where the sea- waves break 
on the shores of Thanet, at Bircbington, the well-loved poet and 
painter, Dante Gabriel Bossetti : — 

©it Refusal of &fo ucttoccn Nations. 

NOt that the earth is changing, my God ! 
Nor that the seasons totter in their walk, — 
Not that the virulent ill of act and talk 
Seethes ever as a wine-press ever trod, — 
Not therefore are we certain that the rod 

Weighs in thine hand to smite the world ; though now 
Beneath thine hand so many nations bow, 
So many kings :— not therefore, my God ! — 
But because Man is parcelled out in men, 
Even thus ; because, for any wrongful blow 
No man not stricken asks, ' I would be told 
"Why thou dost strike ; ' but his heart whispers then, 
'He is he, I am I.' By this we know 
That the earth falls asunder, being old. 

We must return to 1683, viz. " The Christian Conquest," and the 
Siege of Vienna. The woodcut, copied on page 872, is a worm- 
eaten and striking illustration of some much earlier siege ("All's 
one for that! " Falstaff says), apparently of German workmanship, 
Wherever it may have wandered from, it suited the ballad-publisher 
more characteristically than borrowed pictures often did. But 
the beleaguering force ought to have been Turks, not mediaeval 
warriors in armour, cuisses, grevieres, helmets, and breast-plates 
as here shown. Genuine representations of the siege operations, 
engraved on copper-plates by Boman van Hooge, to accompany G. 
V. Geelen's Relation succinct . . . le Siege de Vienne, and pub- 
lished at Brussels in 1684, give so forcible a representation of* the 
horrors inseparable from such a contest, that we add elsewhere our 
own slight sketches of these elaborate works, to enrich the present 
bicentenary record of Vienna's great Deliverance. 

" For many thousand men," said he, 
" Were slain in the great Victory." 



372 



Roxburghe Collection ( = B. H. Bright's), IV. 34.] 

Cl)e €W^tian Conquest. 

iScmrj an Account of tfje great orjcrtrjroirj of the Turks before trje 
Imperial CDttg of Vienna in Germany, inrjo, ho iSroo's Blessing ano 
trje happu (JDonouet of the living of Poland, the £htfce of Lorain, 
&c, ioere totallg rcutco ; rjabing lost near ©ne hunoreo thousand 
men in trjc Jiclo, strtrj trjousano (£cnts, ano too iBillions of 
IHoncg hi the ©rano Visier's QEcnt, &e. 

To the Tune of, When the King enjoys his own again. (See p. 139.) 




.7.W.E. 



GOod People, all siug and rejoyce, 
And praise tlie Lord with heart and voice, 
Such a Deliverance he hath shown 
The like before scarce e're was known ; 

For the Infidels and Turks Had raised mighty works 

Before Vienna's stately walls : ' 
But God did them defend, And will prove a certain friend 
To such as for help on him calls. 10 

"With a hundred and fifty thousand strong 
The Infidels did vaunt along, 
And for to take this City fair 
This Army great they did prepare : 

But it proved all in vain, For they beat them back again, 

And like brave Christians they did fight ; 
Such resistance they did meet, Did frighten them to see't, 
At last they were inforced to flight. 20 



The Christian Conquest, outside Vienna. 373 

The Valiant King of Poland he 
Led on his men couragiously, 
To that with Trumpet and with Drum 
Before the Infidels they'r come. 

The Duke of Lorain Came prancing o're the Plain, 2 

And like a noble Heroe fought; 
Till, fearing the defeat, They began to retreat, 

And at last they put them to the rout. 30 

And of so many thousand men 

There's very few return'd again, [ vide ante, p. 358. 

They met with such an overthrow, 

The like before they ne'r did know ; 

For the Christians did fight In a Cause that was right, 

So great Jehovah did them bless : 
The Grand Visier he is slain, And will ne'r return again, 

His mournful ditty to express. 3 40 

These Infidels were insolent, 
And nothing could their minds content, 
But, vaunting, said that they were come 
To over-run all Christendome : 

Such reckoning they did make, But it prov'd a great mistake, 

They now unto their sorrow find, 
And it makes them very sad, That their fortune was so bad, 
To leave Grand Visier here behind. 50 

The Valour of the Polish King 
Throughout all Christendome doth ring ; 
Likewise the Brave Duke of Lorain, 
Who next the King did lead the Van : 

In brave Bavarian Duke 4 Did there [arrogance] rebuke, 

And the Elector of great Saxony ; 6 
"While the Noble Prince Waldeck* Their insolence did cheek, 
Who all did fight couragiously. 60 

Sure Mahomet was fast asleep, 

When Christians' Can[n]on made them weep, 

Like mighty thunder they did rore, 

The like they ne're did hear before ; 

Bravely the Fight begun, And as well was carried on, 

With resolution stout and bold : 
And now they do lament, They lost their Leader's Tent, 

Which was worth two millions of Gold. 70 



374 



The Christian Conquest, outside Vienna. 



And threescore thousand Tents beside 
They left behind, for all their Pride, 7 
Besides so many thousands slain, 
Not half so many alive remain ; 

For the Christians, brave and stout, Did put them to the rout, 

That did such lofty Language use, 
There will not be many men That will e're get home agen, 
To tell this lamentable News. 80 

[jftm's.] 

Printed for J. Wright, J. Clark, W. Thackeray, and T. Passinger. 

[In Black-letter. Three 'woodcuts : of which that representing- two horsemen, 
one firing at another, who holds a couteau de C/iasse, is on p. 376. True date, 
September, 1683; hut perhaps delayed in issue until February, 168-*. Compare 
Note 3, on the fourth verse ; given with other notes on next page. The cut 
below originally represented a London Train-Band.] 



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The Death of " Black Mustapha," at Belgrade. 375 



Notes to The Christian Conquest. 



i 



The Turkish Encampment was studied by John Sobieski, King of Poland. 
On the 11th of September, the day before the decisive battle, Sobieski with 
his Poles beheld from the heights of the Kalenberg the outstretched Turkish 
encampment. The Abbe Coyer m his Memoir of Sobieski writes, " From this 
hill the Christians were presented with one of the finest and most dreadful pro- 
spects of the greatness of human power ; an immense plain and all the islands of 
the Danube covered with pavilions, whose magnificence seemed rather calculated 
for an encampment of pleasure than the hardships of war ; an innumerable multi- 
tude of horses, camels, and buffaloes, 2,000,000 men all in motion, swarms of 
Tartars dispersed along the foot of the mountain in their usual confusion ; the 
tire of the besiegers incessant and terrible, and that of the besieged such as they 
could contrive to make : in hue, a great city, distinguishable only by the tops of 
the steeples and the lire and smoke." To Sobieski s eye was at once visible the 
fatal want of generalship of his foe, in the disposition of this armed multitude. 

2 Charles Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, had already been heavily tasked with his 
small force, opposed alike to the Turk and Tekeli, supporting garrisons, and doing 
his utmost to hamper the enemy when they made incursions into Upper Austria 
and Moravia, but especially to prepare bridges for the relieving army above 
Vienna. His head-quarters were at Krems on the Danube, where Saxons and 
Bavarians joined him, after he had rescued Presburg from Tekeli. When 
Sobieski was seriously entangled in the cavalry charge which decided the victory, 
it was the Duke of Lorraine's able reinforcement with his Germans that preserved 
the Polish King, by renewing the attack with the left of the allies. 

3 Since news of Kara Mustapha having been strangled at Belgrade did not 
reach England uutil February, 1684, this declaration that ''the Vizier he is 
slain" might seem to indicate the composition of the ballad thus late; but we 
suppose the versical report of his death to be premature and inaccurate. This is 
the probable solution. Great as were the faults, fatal the blunders of this Vizier, 
he showed in his last hour dignity and resignation. He had fled to Belgrade, 
and, when the news of the terrible mischance at Vienna reached Constantinople, a 
messenger was seut to the Vizier with his death-warrant. He knew his doom. 
Before he opened the letter, he asked for five minutes' respite, to say his prayers, 
and then gave himself in readiness to die. He was buried in Belgrade, and an 
honourable tomb was accorded to him, which was preserved intact, until the last 
Turkish war, when the miserable Servians, with characteristic meanness and spite, 
tore the body from its tomb. To dishonour the dead, whilst incapable of any 
heroic resistance of the living, was their embodiment of the Slavonic idea. 

4 Undoubtedly "Barbarian" in the original was an awkward mistake for 
Bavarian (synonymous in 1870) : it refers to Maximilian of Bavaria (later to 
become distinguished at Blenheim and Ramilies) ; at this time aged 21. 

■' Waldeck, of the House of Waldeck- Wildungen, commaudiug the troops of 

the Circles ; formerly associated bravely with Grange in the Netherlands, and 

UOW winning praise from Sobieski. When the Polish Lancers were thrown into 

eonfusion and their officers were slain, Waldeck moved up with his Bavarians 

the centre and saved the Poles. 

1 The Elector of Saxony, with Prince Waldeck and the Elector of Bavaria 
had been posted in the centre. Jablouowski commanded the right. Lorraine, 
Louis of Baden, Count Leslie and Count Caprara held the left. Sobieski was 
with the centre or right centre, Lubomirski with his irregular Poles being on the 
left. This was the disposition before the battle. 



376 



Notes : Plunder of the Turkish Camp, Sfc. 



1 Sobieski made no secret of enjoying the unexampled plunder. Dating- on 
the 13th from "the Viziers Tent," he tells his bien-aimee Marielte, seule joie de 
son time, charmante et bien-aimee Mariette, " The Vizier has made me his Heir ; 

he has done everything en galant ho mine You cannot say to me, 'You are 

no warrior ! ' as the Tartar women say to their husbands when they return empty- 
handed .... For two nights and a day plunder has gone on at will ; even the 
towns-folk have taken their share, and I am sure that there is enough left for 
eight days more. The plunder we got at Uhoczim was nothing to this." Brave 
hero, he' deserved all that he got, his share of spoil, the rapturous acclaims of the 
troops and the rescued Viennese who had fought so well ; all that history can 
record of his prowess. But the mean and grudging jealousy of the Emperor, 
is sickening to record : his ingratitude being the one thing which Sobieski did not 
deserve in repayment from the House of Hapsburg. 

*** We have yet another ballad on the Victories gained by the Christian 
armies over the Turks. But it is of a later victory than the September raising 
of the Turkish Siege at Vienna : one of the Hungarian battles, before the death 
of Kara Mustapha. The locality appears to be Bar can, and the time Oct., 1683. 




[This cut belongs to p. 374.] 



T 



;;:7 



Cbe Christians' JBeto Wctotp, at 15atcan. 

" But, Ottoman, pray get you gone, 
We Christians do but draw you ou ; 
We'll greater booty have, or none, 

And it' you'll now prevent it, 
If ever you turn your face this way, 
We'll make the Cannon-musick play ; 
And you shall dance the English Hey, 
Till all your bones lament it. 

" Our Eoyal James v/iW make you know 
The sharpness of a Yorkshire Ho ! 
And prove by land and sea your Foe, 

If Charles command to do it ; 
Both England, Scotland, Dutch and Bane, 
And all his Islands of the Main, 
Will not be able to refrain, 

If he once bid to shew it." 

— A Plaudile on the Ottoman Defeat at Vienna. 1 



HE subject of this ballad, "The Christians' New Victory Over 
the Turks, in Hungary," is in much closer connection with the 
Duke of Monmouth than at first sight appears. Re-issued early in 
the year 168f, with a loyal reference to "our Royal Monarch 
James," at that time newly seated on the English throne, instead 
of the former appellation, " our Royal Admiral James " of November, 
1683, " The Christians' New Victory " indicates with sufficient 
clearness the interest felt in the continental struggle against the 
Turk, and the rapturous applause which attended the success of 
the allies in his humiliation. In a great measure the persons who 
now rejoiced, and bought these ballads on the triumph in Hungary, 
or the earlier ballads on the defeat of the Turkish forces at Vienna, 
were the same who had cherished a hope of Monmouth succeeding 
Charles the Second, and who would watch the beginning of the final 
struggle between the weak "Protestant Hero," " Young Jemmy," 
and the more astute Romanist, "The Popish Successor," known as 
" Old Jemmy." "Whoever may have been "J. S.," the author of 
the present ballad, he is not unlikely to have written some of the 
speedily-following ditties, celebrating the fatal blunder of the 
Western Insurrection. 

This seems but a slight connection of events, but the enthusiasm 
connected with the military exploits in Hungary was so great, and 
widely diffused, that for a short time it was looked upon as almost 

1 This was a sequel to Tom D'Urfey's " Excellent New Song on the late 
Victories over the Turks " (given on p. 366) ; compare p. 361 for first 
and second verses : the present motto being seventh and eighth verses. J nines, 
Duke of York, was reinstated as Lord High Admiral, ou 16th of May, 1684. 



378 Opportunities for Monmouth as a Volunteer. 

a certainty that Monmouth would throw himself bravely as a 
volunteer companion and leader into what some deemed " the new 
Crusade of Christendom." It was no idle gossip, but a veritable fact. 
We know little about the men who left our white cliffs to fight the 
Turk, but " Our English Volunteers " are mentioned in this ballad. 

The better qualities of Monmouth would have found room for 
displaying themselves in a warrior's life, with its privations, its 
unselfish care of others, its exercise of foresight, calm endurance, 
and masterly skill of organization. Everything seemed to favour 
the plan. He had youth, health, and military ardour. For the 
present his ambition was curbed and himself disheartened. Yet 
Charles remained fond of him ; still later he won praise with 
proffered help from both William and Mary of Orange. He saw 
a tempting prize before him, of sympathy from the English nation 
if he distinguished himself gallantly with prowess and generalship. 
We know what was his secret ambition ; nothing less than the 
sovereignty of three kingdoms. But from Orange he disguised this 
aim. Had he freed himself from such men as Kobert Ferguson 
and Ford Lord Grey, made his peace fully with York, and gone 
a volunteer against the Turk, all might have enderl better for him. 

As formerly, on p. 357, it may be convenient to show how 
the news-letters brought intelligence of the second great victory : — 

October, 1683. — " Letters from the imperial! army in Hungary confirm the 
news of a second victory the Poles and Imperialists have obtained over the Turks 
at Barcan in Hungary ; killing 6,000 upon the place, tak[ing] several prisoners, 
among whom was a bassa [Bashaw = Pacha] or two; but not without a consider- 
able losse on the other side, but more especially the Poles." — N. Luttrell's Brief, 
Relation, i. 286. 

See our ballad entitled "The Christians' New Victory," on p. 
380, concerning this battle. 

November, 1683. — "Letters from Hungary inform of the good news of the 
Emperor's forces under the command of the Duke of Lorraine, haveiug taken 
Gran with an inconsiderable losse : the successe of the Emperor's arms does very 
much disturb the French King ; however, he had busied himself with takeing 
places in Flanders, as Gourtray, Audenard, etc." — Ibid, p. 284. 

February \1th, 168f. — "Letters from Turkey inform, that the Aga of the 
Janizaries had, by order of the Grand Seignior, caused the Grand Vizier to he 
strangled at Belgrade ; and they speak also of the great preparations are making 
every where through the Turkish dominions for carrying on the war against the 
Emperor."— Ibid., p. 301. 

Spon in his Travels, published 1678, declares that " Of all the 
princes of Christendom thei-e was none whom the Turks so much 
feared as the Czar of Muscovy." Two hundred years later, it has 
been the same danger. 

March 14th, 168|. — "Letters from Cracow speak of two great victories obtained 
by the Cossacks against the Turks and Tartars ; in the former battell the Turks, 
etc., lost near 20,000 men, and in the latter near 30,000 ; and that several places 
were revolted from the Turk*, and had put themselves under the protection of the 
King of Poland.''— Ibid., p. 302. 



The Second Christian Victory, at Barcan. 379 

And here, copied direct from the London Gazette, are the First 
ficial English Accounts of Barcan Victory. 

Linzt, October 13 [1683]. — This Night arrived here Count Lamierg from the 
Army, and gave the Emperor an account, That the Imperial and Polish troops 
had defeated 10,000 Turks near Barcan : that 6,000 were killed upon the place, 
and 8 or 900 taken Prisoners : That among these [prisoners] was the Bassa of 
Bilestria, and among the killed the new Bassa of Buda and the Bassa of Aleppo : 
And that the Troops in Bar/can seeing this bod} - , which was to protect them, 
defeated, had presently after surrendred on discretion. The 10th, arrived here 
from Madrid the Count de la Riviera with a supply of 100,000 Crowns. The 
advices from Hungary assure us, That the Grand Visier had caused Ibrahim Bassa 
and 30 principal Officers more to be strangled. — London Gazette, No. 1870. 

A full account is given in the following number of The London 
Gazette, from Monday, October 22, to Thursday, October 25, 1683: — 

Lints, Octob. 16. — "The Letters from the Imperial Camp near Gran confirm 
the account we gave you in our last, brought hither by the Count de Lambcrg, of 
the Victory which the Christians obtained against the Turks at Barkan, whereof 
they give us the following Relation. On the 9th instant, the Imperial and Polish 
Armies advanced in order of Battle, the Imperialists having the Vanguard towards 
Barkan, near which place was encamped a body of between 13 and 14,000 Turks 
being the best Troops of their remaining Army. They, encouraged with the 
advantage they had upon the Poles ou the 7th, no sooner saw the Christian Army 
appear, but advauced with full speed and most hideous cryes, charged the 
Imperialists, and endeavour'd to break in upon them ; the Christians kept 
themselves very close and firm, and repulsed the Enemy, who then turned 
towards the Poles, and made a very fierce charge upon them ; the Poles received 
them likewise with great bravery, and, being very well seconded by the Imperial- 
ists, made a great slaughter of the Enemy, who seeing one of their chief Bassas 
slain, and another taken prisoner, fled towards Barkan. The Christians pursued 
tin in very close, and fired upon them with their Cannon, which the King and the 
Duke of Lorrain caused to advance for that purpose. Of the Enemy, some got 
over the Bridge of Gran, which happily for us broke, others threw themselves 
into Barkan, some were drowned, and others taken prisoners ; so that of this 
whole body not above 4,000 escaped. The Imperial Foot and Dragoons advanced, 
and the Regiment of Castelli, and some other commanded Troops attacked the 
counterscarp of Barkan, being led on by the Count de Staremberg, and took it 
with their swords in their hands, and put all the Turks that were there to the 
Sword, but gave quarter to 500 Janisaries that were in the place, and who 
Burrendred at Discretion. The Christians after having pillaged Barkan, set fire 
t" it, and as well there as in the Enemies' Camp, which covered the said Fort, as 
likewise the City of Gran, they had a great deal of plunder : 20 pieces of cannon 
witli great quantities of provisions and ammunition, and many fine horses with 
very rich furniture were taken ; and the Prisoners declare, That after this second 
defeat the Christians will not meet with any considerable resistance any where, 
there being a very great consternation among the Tut ks. They in Gran continued 
t<> tire upon the Christian Troops that were in sight of them, till night, and 
r< Dewed the same the next morning; but their cannon was but small, and did us 
little harm."— Ibid. No. 1871. 



380 



[Pepys Collection, II. 138 ; Douce, I. 49, verso.] 

Ci)e Christians' J12eto Victor? 

£)UtY t\}t Turks, in Hungaria, war tfic Drave. 

£n tfjis tfamous Battle trje Christians JuH'o near SCfoentg CTrjonsanfi, 
took one ijuntircti anO tiricnta ©una, tfjc GVmrf Vizier's Stent anti 
Baggage, to an inestimable faahtc of ffiolti, Silber, anti kernels: a 
greater Ut'ctorrj rnas ftarblg cuer knoum in Europe. 

To the Tune of, \_JIarlc] The ThwuVring Cannons roar. [See p. 366.] 




ROund, Boys, a Bumper to Lorraine ! 
Drink it up, and fill again ; 
We'll empty the Thames, and drench the main, 

E'er we'll want any liquor. 
Here's a Health to the valiant King o' th' Poles, 
And all the Loyal German Souls ; 
Let's every one drink of our Bowls, 
'Twill make our Spirits quicker. 



! 



The Christian^ New Victory. 



381 



Advance your Pikes, and cock your Guns, 

See how the Turkish Bashaw runs, 

Wee'll root 'ern out o' their sculking Towns ; 

Brave Ensigns, furl your Flags here. 
Staremburg, that valiant Man, 
Falls on first with the Polish Van ; 
Let's charge 'em briskly hand to hand : 

He's a cowardly Sot that lags here. 

Let ev'ry Souldier keep their Ranks, 
Double their Files in the thinnest Flanks, 
The Foes stand thick ou the Danube Banks, 

Yet the Turks dare scarce defend her. 
Our thund'ring Cannon shall ring a Peal, 
And sound 'em many a doleful Knell, 
'Twill send 'em post to the King of Hell, 

If they quickly don't surrender. 



[Sec p. 363. 



16 



24 




C6e ^econti part 

To THE SAME TlJNE. 

SEe, how our English Volunteers 
Charge, as Men that know no fears ; 
Where e'er they come the Battle clears : 

Hark, how the trumpet blows, Boys ! 
They strike the Foe with terror and death, 
Nor give the Turkish Tyrant breath : 
Their bodies strew'd about the Heath, 
Make savory meat for Crows, Boys. 

that our Boyal Admiral James, 

With an English Fleet would fill the Thames, 

We'd turn all Turkey into flames, 

For the honour of our King, Boys, 
If we to Club-law once should come, 
We'd give the Turkish Rogues their Doom, 
And follow close by the side o' th' drum, 

And make the Heaven's ring, Boys. 



32 



40 



382 The Christians' New Victory, at Barcan. 

See, how the Eoyal Banners fly ! 
Hark, how the Cannons rend the Sky ! 
The hideous groans of the Turks that dye 

Do pierce the airey Regions. 
In Mahomet they vainly plac'd 
Their trust, in vain his Shrine 's embrac'd ; 
He lets 'em still be slain [, or] chas'd 

By Ccesar's Boyal Legions. 48 

No more let Europe fear the fame 
O' th' Ottomans, nor dread the same, 
But let 'em still adore the name 

Of Ccdsar's grand Successor. 
Our Arms with Turkish Blood we'll stain, 
Those Troops which fill'd th' Hungarian Plain 
Are trodden down, pursu'd and slain, 56 

By Mars his brave Professor. 

By 3. £. 

[License, in 1685:] This may be Printed, R[ichard~\ P[ococh~\. 

Printed for Philip Broolcsly, at the Golden-Ball, in Pye-Corner. 

[Black-letter. One woodcut, which had probably in Civil-War times represented 
Prince Eupert an