(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Royal Chronicle of Abbysinia, 1769-1840;"

THE ROYAL CHRONICLE 
OF ABYSSINIA 

17691840 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

C. F. CLAY, MANAGER 
LONDON : FETTER LANE, E.G. 4 




NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 

BOMBAY ) 

CALCUTTA I MACMILLAN AND,CO., LTD. 

MADRAS j 

TORONTO : THE MACMILLAN CO. OF 

CANADA, LTD. 
TOKYO: MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



:0>ni*)0D : M 432 a 



s|fll4*ir0P- a 432 b 



- s - : 



* AChrt 



: An- vu- s flicti- 1 ^ A.VU- 

: Vl/*^ : ?iA0D: ^.^f : H? ^0. : 



nai*n KA 



15 



: fl)|Z,0,A-tfi>- s 



Olfll Aj^ : 



::: 



20 



/W : " : 

: Ah s 



B <nn,A- B An 



s (DflA-n?' :i: 



25 



B AXn-t B 



4-A.A B Ac/nAMi 



W.B. 



s AA,? 



' Otao 



Tflfl.*> 



433a 



l- - 



[2] 

: -Hi A. fl-fl*: - K1 # 



<t.f : .- i lb : an '. ao : 

JlAfl* :i* fDkao : tff/M/nrtA'V * AtyB, : 0>Kh ??7-^C : JiHTCi 5 



IP A-ft * tDXh s ^-ft : 'TLh/i, A : W1'}&C ' 0>?>& : flJ-rtl- : h,A : "W : J'i'JH 



: 

10 



V7/ M '>."MflA:y|Z, VT ; h 



rn fii m '/ ^rh.^ * T-fl^^ : lim-fc-l: * 

OJ-A^ : A"H K 

n* : jrvnu 

.-^h/bA i -'kfls h^* '(D>n--tt{n 1 }0D'1".(D9 flh,: 
>flC : nA* i -Tbfl s 



433 b XAh : ^A^V^ s (DUDtMl* ' h < 7H.^-flrh.C 

: Vf-A 

<W<Pd A : n A,A/h i *1"MWJ- : AMlthV : A.f A-A : 
: &?,'} (Din-fr : ^iA 

* 25 



.' :: fl)?trth AA*/*' 

"?.hh,A: AA.U- i rhAW> r 

: -l^C i fldAt i ^fl-* : &"!(>& i JiiTA-H i ID^^f- * flA"> 
7-fl <D*7dH- s hao s 6 



30 

^.j^0 : 0^4. s hA'P s <D*7^H- ?iJP"JA<P ID.-V^<. *Dfl4A hC 
A-f rt 



: H^W n-l: : (Ir/nft'J'A : VlCA-f A : 



c 



[3] 



.- mtf-A- 

* fl/w^A^Y! : 

- Atf-rt, : Ml'dC * A^fl* 

- AW11- A?n*iCfcAfi tifl-l-'f 

5 Iflfl-C : 'hT^' s ffl^dH- : faoiWA : SflCA-frfl : 0>^^<- s fl&TlA s flC : 01*7 
nC : D^^<- fl^^Cl i 01*7*^ Aj^^/f-Cl : 



: flirt A-: ^w : YAt^C ::: h9W ' Olfl^ <P-fc 

JtAtK.:*"/ -nn-^ mu?*rt A^^.- hvi n 

10 



434a 



: n AC : Ol'VdH- : JtJ^h, A* * fll^ &<- * fl A4-rt, : HCK- : 0)1%: A.' ID A fr 

^t^TtfO- : flh- : (D^OT : jftD&M^C - fldA1":?irh.J^ 
15 >7-/*':'MflA:y a 7'r^:fln'fl^ s -hj^A : ttift : 



20 <wflirs: -^,:fli- s 

'- (Dibit- fi ?i : V|3? : ha<>l(DC s 
?t B V,W-^ : JtoDfrDgA'tfC 
rha-A B dAt 1 B im B AMlIh^V s "79 B iMv/i.f IHII ; |- : fl* : 



: h AA- s fl n j'djf 1> : h<w> s 
s HKAH-O :: XAf B fliA^ B 



3 o - 



IfOHA'f' s hlJUTtw - Oflw-s' 

"\9j!:'> M^':nh<wis|B,fl,:434b 

!flJ^A*i 



[4] 
B afpfao- CM - ooVfif} : Wi,A:?iA<w> 

s 2,4>-? : hi^H-A : aoVJ-th i M ' fl-fllf :* i IP/J.'C* : fllW"^ : M 
II A'MC HfcO-&# ' AoDlVMltt ' <tt 0*W 01 All : CJtf- : 



i 5 

: "|.^|| : All' 
ini\f.M: i ^A-> 



10 

fl^ oiA-fl A^ s h AH A : n AC : Hi-?i* .- ferh-h : s ru -I &<*> 

/S.flX'^ : &?* ' ?tAh : MOD : ^A : (Dfl A^7A : Mh : 

> Am? s flinh'J^'H : lA^ hC^nf-t ' ii9^ 4-1 p ' ' 



* *M1^ A.^ HOI-?!* : Wait : h*W : -. : : ' 1 5 

Afl : hK&C - Wi?:?: ' t\htn> i i^^thtoYl Afl-: 



:;.- IDOlCHfll i 'Jfl.? 'OhCH'S HAO"fl : AVfl.^ s 01 A 20 
ttl^Vl^? ^:: KllflCh. &A" : Ol^iA'I^On- r AHh 
435 a tfDll : ID-CH'B : ?lA<Wi :*h^'/ : 1'fl^ s ^fl.f e 

n</.jL'</' : ?^H : ^-HA 0-0^ : Hl^.P'} (D^A s HX*7ll.h-n JbC^: 
: A'/^.'H : fllH.'n : OlAA^VV : OlYf-A^fli*- s DAMl'l:if0u. : 

VU- ' a>lm ' &ao ' fc'lhU- flh'V.ai ^T'oo- : A?iA- * Ai^iH-fl : 25 

: ID-M-'X s "MM : n^"?^- : iD^ms^/nr^n-I 
-1-0) A& : iP'i'jE.ll. i HhoDTI : *Nw>A :?.' fllhAfl r 1-Hl 

.- 4>.A.' ffufivii. e 01:^7 . 



h. A: ( All.'/ B -hA/^fh : ^A B^h/bA n<i>CH < BiJ-: A.Vfi-t.-^.A.-! 30 
:^ AV B 



Hi 



[5] 

t A : ATJ-IP : W/*** ' -Hi A : Yf,"!'"* * /Ii0"> : fl'JA * IM1* i ID Aft? 
H.ft}ift'?iXfts;VA'> <S-ft : "th^A : flDPi, : 0C : 
flArh^iiD^ s H-M-hA e HoAd 
All' : H0>ft* : *Jn A 8 HCft : 0oft A : h? ^ ftfc A * Ifl^lf 1 : flfl A : ffllf "H' 
5 *10<: : ft f) A : ft 1 : V5U- * ft<P A& = 



: -Tin wi wo # m'jn A nhw 



10 OlAO-A :HnX-*rh B AAA'/U- * ftAhsrt"?^, s nh<W : ^.fl, : ^Sh s OD^Rao : 435 b 



^/w> : Mtt s 

-* ftA s -f-fllAjthtf^ ft^/hA^P :: fllrh-4- s flftd^^ * 
: -flrh,C Hfll-ft* * WC s h<w>Ti : A'H h. A : 



AftA fli^H-^ B Mat-ft - ft A : ft.f<0-tf- : t^rrt s j&->Cs nm>- 

20 flM^ : ^Jt^^fl"- s ID^f.A'M "l6-iro*>- - ftfltl s ^dltV- : j&liP-fh 



ftrht 
:: flJ-CH'Blf tfo-rt A4-A. A : 0) A-0 : TllD-ft* JK,08-ft s h<Wi : fl-flft 



: A'fll- 
25 AWC: fWJAO*-: ftftOTsft^'/ :flt- s fllAft : ft'lf-l> : 



:: V?^ s JB^ Art : 
A* e ftl-nd : Olft-n A :! iD^dH- : ft^ ^^' ft <W> s JlD^ A'VftC : 

MM - 



: ^fl-d : a>:3&<- s m^ K"P-^ ai^dH- s ftj^aip s KW 

fr:ft^K-U^:ft^sK^o:fll^ft<-:^A$^:^hV:^n^ 

AftTHft^V "VC^r OKD14-: d Alt' * -fltt-^ 04-s &;r> * ^T-ft. A * Vtf*' s A.fl 
: fli1rf-Aoi>- B 



[6] 



: M'l' 8 '/UAH A B fllXr V i-flC'/"} : 0>5A 
fr7H.Mlrh.C8 



srhtfO-ft "MM * ^- 
>-A-^ : CQ, 4 ? : 07-fl^ 
^C-fl : hflh<- 'J^/ : iP^'C'f- : I >7/*' 



i <W>Vftrli :!: A.*ft s CM ' b&Ort* ' "Vlfah s TiJi^C * flTI 



Y. : h^^^Vh * Ah B fli-HW-A- hr^^hflh <D?0-: A^rh -rth s V7H,Ml 15 

rh,C c H^^rh : fl AT^fl.A : 0^ s f-Jh'1'0 s HOI-K* Jt Aj^JB, :J: IDH W 



: nx\h B -Tin : IT-/^ B -MFIA B 

hlD-lin : *P6..* * AhA B ^m-fl^lPhim : >J II, A : r II A. :: 
436 b ii^ji" . ao'fato : A^A^//** :*fldA-h * ^fl'* ' O>$fr : J^> B <DUf B 20 

- B iai<Dpi)A i!i ip<:*f B TC: fldA^ s Jtrh-j^ s an-n<: B -frz-ti : //)!'> v .- 



eATC s IB:^<- B 

^VA"^ : h<n> s YflllATC 

s rtV-f :^A^ :5 ffl^dil* B "hart "IW ' haot'fiDBkTCiD B 25 



Of s i^A-rt s HDPAA:!i H^<WIB '^IDon^A')- B iP/V- B 
fl)Vn<- B Of B iPA-A : OMVI- :<wihVs ff 71^Jt ! H^h^ B rt 

. y^vs ^ .- nC?irt B ^V.^l- B "^IifeA 

30 



A* 
B /*! : a>h vi LM a>h Afl rt-n^s Hf :^ A<P B 

: '^flltf ATC s IMAI- Tlrh..!*- 8 



[7] 

: Mi"? 'f i Ifl 1 ? A W frfl : lifc^rt*^ : tf-A-' ^ fr?H.h- * 



09 : JtflA i "YC^r : ?iMl : rflA'l : JfcJJ? : <D-V : -flA^-feW" : -Ml A, : 

<DH : f I ft A(H: : 9 ft A. OI0 'H 1 Ml& iii fcfltf : A0-C i d Al'f HOJ-h* ' 

5 fcfcyCfrf * 0) Juje^hVAfc* fcltttlim- H.V :*A-<n- A^^ A? e if (fi.h'f',1 .: 



25 



: frtl s "Ih/b A s '^*^A- * (Dnahh-t- : n-(l A : ^ (' A* : r A 437 a 



10 H^dt '.is 



fl) fc AO * 
A? 1 : hr 

ao >dfr : OlMTdP 1 : Mf * A^ * 



* feVTI'J : ChA- s IfV.'f.'A : /ir/n: 



15 

9M : aHA-fc* s ID^V-VL * OJj8,V:^V:|-?i*:?iA<W>:i*'^:/ A 'C < J1-.- 

aifl)A 



30 ^7 > 7j& Hc^fi . HT^ nwa s ^nriA-^ r^ :* < r."fla-d .-m-h* 437 b 

^Ah. * 'Jtie : n+A 

* ^, Afllh : 'fld^ :: 
: flrD.-: t, : A^d*-fl i ^frO- s fcr-Mld 

-Trfl : U14- : hWT s h"7ih fcWii K'bAAln * Ahfl-h 



[8] 

.M 

<P*Ml : hlL-f- : ^JR/V- : HV"/<>h : fl/.h-I' s 



: Oh- 

dH- 

-7M i r/)^fti)<- : 'J^l : 0^ft<- s 1'^ : fl)^r/n iVnvJl^A'l' : rh 



: ATT-/** -MflA s yP.^'Mh i aiAChA : 



15 



438 a 

C : fliPTf 'tD(\ti - Chfl '- hMPt ' 

fc^l : HrhW * VH- ^.h-fc s >lHH : fllftAf B X/t^: P:%: (HVKh: Olt 20 
flh^ 4^-A ^V.hh.A :=': 



-llfl s hfrf i fflCMf : HM7V3L s TV* t aotl^^? - "YL*!kA: 
: hlK?' s H<W><- ^"fcU- : (lm'lf ,<.(: 

: :ij&A * lh(h.)A Hf ^4^CT i A'J/.C mfJndP: 25 

ky ^*: : 'H^* : ^iW>p,/I> i 'W >7-/*' : A a 7'VA,-> : 

XfliiAf Irt* 



OH <O i md A A^- .- flifl/i i OMVT- ^AjR^I- 1 OTC"? ao-mr* - 

f flhh* : fflfll Jt* ' rt An :^im IX: IT-/" i 30 



* 

M'l* : OIJP.^/. : 
Orhf ' flUOUOao- : hoh.+. : Oil:* : /*'C.9'B : ^ i Hf ^7'* r fllHft.1? : 



[9] 



-'ft Afl A : A-flA 



5 fc:<Atffr:^:n^:a^Ani:-: A^AV: fl/Iin^C^: (DAJtf !! 43 b 
A A * Hh A(1/W : ?*iP : -flH-'J : I-?'|J : <uA.'l"'i,Af*- : (Ohtro 
: flA A-f" : IP A-A : flOXTl. : h^T-^C : & JlTf"?^ ' O>?- ' t\ fflA'J : 



10 f^tfo- : -firMf : V^T : HfDf/OtfD- : &-l\ : ^h^A * O)Mn : f rh(-4- : 

: fl))X7i i fc<PA: 



: ?(\6- A : flA.^ : fllfl^ 
15 <D?- flfllrt^ i fl>fH- : n,* : ?ftA : Orh^ : -fiJtA.* : (Dj&fk 



: florid : jf * fcTI 11 ?^ s f ^V * VlCfl* ft ' 

ai 
: AM1.A i 



20 - i - -n A-I:*J V A*- V A^JR* ^g Mi"7"'f 1^ 

i OJC'V i ^Vfll : rh*PC^ : ^fl : C?A : hA : JPC-fl A : "Vlh, A : 
f- 9 ^^^h :: 



: A"m>- IT-/*' : ?A A : IP^-^^ : no Wl^- : {PftA : 

i r AA f 



30 



AMll. 



.[16] 
0C : fl)A - 



: flAfl 
: fci^'* : /";) : nhOh * II Vbfl * 



5 

mi >* .- H<W*> auwvflifc .- mr* .- mM <?? - n,-h * bcti-i:?-} .- A-I- 



: ?u/i> : 
All * 

: /l AO : H|?,niftlY : 
>lAfl : ff^<W>ftA : 'JT-/*' : 

: "HI* ' V7C s ^M 

* A0-A ' 



. ,5 

439 b ^r-/ A 'h:M.^:hn-*C :fll/2,n,:^An : HW>ft*A-tfi>- : A^^^"}^ rill* : 

: h9<h6* : fll Ahf- : <W> ft^V : ttl^J^C : OlAfll/.? 



:: (Dhao i rh^O-?. IT-IP i^-fl * OMVf- ^rh,^ A<S-fl s 7. 
0,* t &Wt& i IP^^* ^-}h^ : T* : iHrt 

fift?': tn)l'l\l\' 
* MCI : 10-M' : 25 



A i 



A"* : <w>-n A*J ' (DM: - Afl-S. : IT-IP 'J^'H : CTl A ' w>V^">'> ; h : O A^ s 30 
Ad- A : 9 AA : -n?irt, : M^^S'TC fl AAV -flrh,<- : AH-?. : hrfD : jK,nAri : fl>fl 



[II] 



ttiKC .' '}'h/ M : fl)? 4 ?/^ :!: fD'lKG : 
: flMZ.0. : 



5 If *-fVm- ft A-fl : 



: flH' Wi? : T* s 



ACM i 

fl),n, : 

10 flf-ft-h : 



: JiCTf : 
! A0- A : 

* OlA^ ' A0-A s 



: MflT : fl) fc A : 440 a 
* K"i/'0i>-:h0D: 
'fl : fll'J A.IJ- * 
s -nrh.4- : 
: Jt^H : 
: fl-S. : "JT-IP : 



: Tfl'fl : 
? fl i M* : ^H. : *Cfl ftA-M* ' 



15 



- &b-Tr 



^ A-ne .- n A* fi/hi : -MVIC : -nw-^ 



- h</ aic-v 



?t A- : 



: ID 
: fKli Arn> 



25 



: An,1?'C: rhC : A" A"? 



fllC 



44O b 



30 



: fl A s a>:i&<- : A^h tf flll^K 
' s in<n>Kh< s JlUVt'/ : A&fct r 
flh K->X. H AC : HlD-h-ls 
: flit* : flA^au- : flrMPTf : 



ri> A^'l* : 
s (I Jir/C * Olfl 
: MC 



Afl : li) J?rt IfJC 



[12] 

fl JlTJ : Ofto fl)C:* /A, : A",? flhtfn ^rh-T- i fllD-At i M* <J3. M 
-*W : flJPH- s "V'lA.'f'tfO- : AOT : VK4- : ooKfao. : \\Y\9Xh+ : A*} 
: -Hi A '/JE.'W'T' fl^-fl "Ihh. A : CM0D- : fr V"<n>- : 



nc 0^4. ^ flnM: P 5 

tDfrttG ' (Dli-t- ' 'hh/.-h./\ ' (Dkp : A^l 



, 

:*} 7- 
J'MflA : y^S ^ : ID^ft i "Z.lh.A i fcfi.-I: : ^A-rt : R<WJ^ 



, 5 
44 ia : a lh/i,A:*ainh.: < h/n-V:7^r::5: IP 

efldAt :rh<m-ft:^rt,A: A^.-^hh-A : Ktf.'l" i 

A.h : OI/U^^AT : fc^fch : TO'li : ^i Arh^C : un> : 



: fll?i 20 



' ffl'Jfr 
fll^^-H 
KM i A.f ^CV i ^T-U ?l'>.H : 'JI'IP : 0)Hfl>-& :J: fllrh^r VTt i HA.A 25 



V7C * H i .* A i A& : A// A Ml * Mll^-flrh-C ' V*<- : *^- A 
f: Ji : hC?9 iDt& : H P.+W9 - *.e.'/w : 7^- '17^ : fllrh 

AA>ih %"} <C*^- : <D- A* rh jRn^"l:u- :' A'>?-/*'rt : ^ AH x H* 
A? 1 -- Xirfh^iMHXinA>hfl.-f i-MiA f ^PC^A M-ih ait 5 * Ml*** .- 



1: : A A.* : 



[13] 



: - : Wd^^O- : Ifi^'^d H AC -' 011*1 :.': fl)WH- : 

fl>;v&4- .- TCAI : nfc ffi n - TCfti : m-ft* ^A^.-h^.- 

h AH : d'flV VS * :: fll^dH' fc^V : T Cftl : <D:i&<- : M.&- s otfAfr * ' 



: 44 1 b 



flJJ A- : fl):*&4- : hfttfn : fl A!' : 



: <D JWm lArti 
h9 n fl A s <w^-n 
: fl* : KIM ' 1^9 s fDkW* ' ^{iti s fi-(tiv : Ifl-^ : fljfl 



10 ft^C : n^ ?^ : T- ? WC Mao : VIA- s J&wrt A s 

: h90'-C rwih^. 1 / s fDM^ ' '>& ' W& 



15 



: frf - (D?>&$* * 7f O-OC ffl^ft^ i 0IM# : 
^^4- : 'hhH. : fllflUf rlli*/"^ : (DfrUG 



20 



: ftlDgAAfc :: 

*jtftfl-i^W ft AQ4; : 

: ^7f ^J' ::: MOD : U14- i fll-X* 



25 



i Jif 4. 

: Oh- * h<P ' (D'M-dt 
s fliH'J'f' : 'I-J^- A : *IKJG ' VbW 



:: 

kfo i fl^A^ i 
Of-ft* i 0.* AftU- A 



'h A : 



442 a 



.- chfr oiAn-ii- s hn-c s 



30 



i 01 Afl : 



: A-* : j&m-n/h .- 



: AfllA'^ Afe : 'll-nft^ s OlW-A- : 



: ATI-/*' 



' AA 



0- A * CM : AIM? 
- : <D?iA ' 



: I*V : /**Cl-h IU* fll-flM"! : 
" ' O>M*lt ' AAJi"7.{- : A& : 

h Afl-l: if oo-fc m-ftt- - 



hC 



: (DCltlfl 

. fl,*: AflA-y^ AA$AA-> 

: tflVfl : 



: fllAVf-A-HO- 

wai 



442 b 



MA Are m/rt : HID-MS 

- aiT-Avh : tDfr 



: ^.(1 : CXrt : M 



If*: 



: A"? ? : 
: j&^Af' 
oo- : VlJ- 



;V A* : 



IT-/** : 

- : An?trt 



' MIC 



,5 



2O 



^.n r A,? 1 A. 

* ttOha* : (!*" ! 

V : 
: A A/WI ' 



HI 



. 25 



: tl 



: Tf^C s 



-c: ?% A .- - 



[15] 



': 



- fld A-f- : i*A-A : -t-Trfh : 



A00- : 



AChA 



rh<n>-A i 



: H*A0D-*-Ntf- : 4 43 a 

UpAhl*" * 
Ho-frf ? 



s fllHrhAf 



^H.I^ : 
Ih s h 
: h SMlM" 



: - W Afch : IX- : Arh^^B s 
*L A s W7^ : flJtf" A 
: honlf : ^-n A *>(h : AV s 



25 



3 o 



: hw : 



* d7AOl 



O>(h0A- s (UtiM & (Dh9 : 



s A^Vb 



KA<m s 



e ->7l 



: froo 
: (Dthao : 



443b 



A0<- : 



: "MflA, : 

: ChA a>h$1lP : 



: fl<7i> W 



: Al/ ,/'>(," 8 Al'fc : OhM : >iH. : TlVb : fch : H tVlCh : 0* : 

: <D-ftt : 0'C i flW/ i ID-Ms r <J.ft : "V 
+VJ5- A"* ' ID-fc* * : A.* : Yrtm - Hoots, ::: jR-fl K?rhf lV/.: 





K (Dhft i V.9"|. 
(/) )X7 i A' : ^^ A : A^0.-f : f-fl/. r 



.'XA : fflAft : P'r/t 10 
hao. : / 
U- : "704-: 



ni ('.(! A- 



: fl^Tfl/h^ s ^ODtD'^ r fluoTOrh^ 1 : fll^Th- : H^>4>-flC?ifD- : ?iftiw> r 15 
i Ol A. 



. : Al-flC : ft At^ ^ IDTI^* : "l-tlC ' 'hl-fl^ : A"* : 
8 |/fl).?i-|: : hA^ : fl^A ; AMUli^V : 

4^^9 20 
: ATI-/* 1 s-MflA * V|Z. 
HJE, 



i A* s ^^a^i 8 nh<w> 8 j&n, 8 ^x-rh'p ^-m- ^ A* 

^AA:^l^A:CXfr:Hf^rr:h<w:Vfr^ 25 
8 01 1 8 flj^f^ : A-* : Chrt- s &-tl s ^.J 
s Ol^^fll 8 ^-n/. s X-P-1.-JI fll*JC1 8 

:;: ath-nfav - AfcA s ^C7-.-9 AA.ih :: : I'TOofe .- 



8 IT-/* 1 8 , i/ <. 8 air ftA s /"o A : Vf-C*J'l' s C^A- 8 AMlUW 8 A.f fr ft i 30 

8 Jtfff ^iWiClf : //i.'>^.ft s *>}.ft : Ohm* 8 ft, 8 ^*g^h : lr/n'>^. All 8 
8 ^.r C'/3l 8 ar'n't : X'Jt* ::': fll^/W s AlU : fl* A'h ' ?M>- ' Oh- 8 

iD-ft-l- : -V^^C 8 ^jf- : hTfY?- s -Jidh s ro^K- s ^"H7"-f 8 ai%- s flflirt'J i ai 4 ?/- s 



[17] 



&C : HA* Wgao : 0h- : flJ-ftf 1 ' M*l : 'JCT- : ID-At : fc-fM : h-*fl 444b 

H Olflh- : 



JK-^^flC : Til* 

to :?ihfl>-'> :^ft.y.- AH-t 

flA : 



i YairfldA^ M*?, - nit : AAfl ^ifl-V e-^-fl : <D-f)t 

rt'flh ::': h<Wi : 



: C?irt : frail VJ s ^fti 

-flH-^ : we * A^n-v 

A Aft : MH : -fl A : hhAS: : hh A>. : A* : ^OJWO s fr?H.lHI<ft.C 
Til* OAi : A Aft : KOhhPao* s ^g : fc-H*?^ * W : fl> jf 



IT-/* x^n A.- -HI A i y^s ^ a>h A-nv c?%ft vin A 

V7/^^:Dn^/ l flO.:H71-:i7^:hA:^K':^^-^ 

irn>- 



: C A-l- : 4-^ft : hn-|>- : h A<W> : : 
f /5-ft :4-^A: 0^:^^ : fflO.A?': A^-A 

30 <{.^^VO-.-ai^A'n^!fr;>i< l ,-'? AA 
* ai A- s AM: 

: n^* : MH>-flrh,C : AA.^ i fflHW s -OY.A : 
1 il/**^ : -Mfl A * if/^m ' flJ'^n &-l\ - "Ifrh, A : OHM: A 



W.B. 



[18] 



* (Dt* OD^ * V1^ : fllihtfDTf: VIC : 

r-fclf <m- tfoWl* inM-i (Hill 



:: 

f 7&C : fljJrtH ^.nm-h- : 4-A i "%l| ft. A s (Dh in lh ' Alg 
Ahfl : rtA fl 7:<DA < 7C a 7 : ?-> : MID d^? HI 

: (IMA-H * tD+KOhfh ' faPOhrt : ID^H^C^ : H*^ t <D 



445 b 'IT-/*' * ID^/h/h- s AdA-irao-s^^rh : < P*^ ' Jitlito'.M'.fll !'- Ifh i 

OlA^A e'JT-/*' i VteiMlWTO :;: (Dh*^'/: A^A? 1 : AMI* AA ? : fflA 



d A i A* A? 1 AMI,* : 7-n^ Jt'J^A 9A A A'A-flli aihT'h'J ^JE,'" i AA-n ' s 



AhTf.-fc::^A-:^5S- 1 ^-WV^H- 1 Hftl^J^C Hi 
/i'H ff 7''f s fflljt i flfluH : 
HI fll^A i "lh/b 

AA : r }W'.+lnb''Yj', tn l'i : lr''(D(iX<h 20* 
>irth i ACnVl-A : ai-^^A- .- flUP i hfth Yflifcd A-lh i (D^91l - "Idlt* ^7A H* 

: ^n.jS, : *'1 A ( 

:^A-.-aifliCHfli i ^n,f : ai-CH'B HA^yiA^-WJ 

: WLG+ mMn - u A- /^ A "Vih. A n^-?A che r 



'5' ID^^y.-rH^snA.A.^: 004169* * ffl"? 

AV i O-fli* i 0)Ji0'H i - 
tl-tlh i ?iA i ^-Tj^Vitfo- i *J^0o i IX. i A/.-A i 1*I^A ::* 



i 0* :5: l^n**!, : -Tlfl T'H" V7C OlAO,/ : ^T*^ * 30 
i fllOh i *K>C ::: fllX^-H ^:>TIP > ' OHDhf, * A^-A : 

'-f i <D-}- i OaiA'J i a>-fi'h (/!< - ai/i'jnc flj^-flh - 
^0 in<- : >'7/o i wVfl/. Uf kltt 



[19] 
Chti B :?tf At : etoWl'l' : (DtroWt'l' : (Itiao'i : Th/^V : -HlA : ^f-C^rt 



:: :: :: :: :: 

i ;l-<flfl s HiV'-Th IDiwiWM- : 



B 

s VNV-: JtA-fYJ-fl/ 1 '* : AM : 

: fl-flH"* : tn><Pd A * (Ultfo : hft^-nh^ : dll^ itlf ^h^ AVf-/t'> 
10 < w^^'h1-: ^(l^iliAilD-^ s 'l'^ ! : flM^ h^VU- hA^-nW ^.jf 
: W CKrt imVi.^'Jt AW-A-'J i a*K A^t Vl/* 1 ^ i ?iA fll'P/t 



:: 



15 ' 

:is :|: :j: sj: 



: r/nVfl) OlAfl- : hr/o : A(l : 



25 ?uh,A. : fl A-flf : IDh-n A IfOHM: : -tF^^A hO'C : If -H1UA B 
h9S>'-3> n<WPd A : H^C ::: ?/%*fc B DA^,* IPVj&l" 
B h.l> : Orhf : ^Jt* B fli^'C HI ?i<wirt B ftrh^V : Trf-ft 



30 fVrt B ^{P'A.^HV B ^h<n>- B ^itS : (ITM- : (D^H-HC s ?A B UAai. s 0(0^3:: n<l 

fc-JHh ininiffl : CM * AT 1 ^ 
:!: fllh^Tf s Mtf '. f^lao : M> A B 



s QH/w>V : rtAfl'> : Th/" ::.' fllhr-H * ^hP B ^0,12, B /wh^ B flA* '. 



[20] 



= lH'.^,/i. : All : 



5 



ft-rlW. H.V : *DT7/"* : ATl'IP : M/"-> i 'Mf! A B 'l.f'C'I.l'l H>ng < 0D+ 1 



447 a y n ft:atl\'mi'*"l- 



IV > An-/* 1 * B 
ndA-1- B 



B T.p-CT.ri 



B ffDfffc : IT-/** : 

B vn/. 



447 b fl+* :' 
AH 

d A* .-ITJA B Aft* : 




Ipdjh h(D' 10 

: m Am 



B ^pC^^I s fllArtA-'TJ s 



hao-. ToieAoiC^ : rh^A B 20 
:;. aiiV s 



All W s 



^ : ^-fl^ B 70.C 1 :5: 25 



B nDlf/*** :|: rtiHnir:^ B ^^/* f : hV s 

^'H fl ?'T- h1f- 9ftA ftjf B h^l^'f' 30 
B ilTf^ s +SVi> ' A'>7/*' : *Y\fr\C& ' 
^in A'lDMAfllC^ : ^"V"//*' B |/(ll-?i |: s 

A.f frfl : hCfl-f A A-* : fHlrh* m^+fl AJ" s 



[21] 



* run 



^^ 

1-:0^/V-y:KA<wi:fll|j'nh} p :aiA ; |-f:airt a ^/ 1 : 

nit "i^ : A0J? A- fcj'fl.'h i mcewrt- mh AIM A &q A h-nc 



n * 

:MnAP 



1 5 XAf : IT-/**: h'JH : ^-H A^fl A : X A'V. : 5\^ AJ^ * 



: ?">H : flJ^lA^ : "7 
20 CD Ah A: 0rtA.U-: (D^Pa**'. (D^tfl s t l?&*(fl>~ : (D&'HDiii'i'bS*' :js JiA-fl : 

: aiX'h 8 T^iiotWrifMM.fcA :<D-I' 
JiiP'H ^^f i X^AA-f Y :VAV ! 
s h A- : <D-> AE an-n^ : ^.f rt-A an-n^ : IT-/** ftETi ?^ 

: -flrh.4- : h 4 ^'/ ^iwfll. : ^HIC : ^d*-n fll A.* * 7^01 B H.V A7 
25 s :'*?dhA:rtA^:'jT-/ A ':<DlFnf :j: fljn^^l-/*' ( ID-A^ i XTC/h- B 

: Ah A- T^4^ : -n A * fc'Jl^^ * ID AT A s 



: ? A : fl^rwi? : flJ&l;!- : A^*P^- s hft<w> e fl s 
: A,Anl : ^A : aoKth9 '- H^O, hjtir'v* '. ao 

3 o "/.rhlf # 'J^. Hj&n, : A,;f-<-C- ?i^.h i Ad A ao't.th ' 

'- h^-^rn.h^ :5: OJA^/ 1 : IT-/" : AM i ^0,11- 

^JR A- 1 *d'7/*"fc : Hji-n A Kr^KH. +ai><Vh Ifl s Hoi 



HJt.Ar 111*: VIC ^^^ ^?t* i flif ^d-n T+iTt-/" AAih 



[22] 
MK- : n-Th A-H 1 ' fOWlS"^ : fll-MlC s AMI 'W : MH.h- : n^dtt.^ : Olfl 



: HlM<D 
: ^j&^hnV : fflHT'l- : nY.A" : l-'}/*'^ : hwi : AATC : fld A1- : rhtfo-ft r 5 

: A.A/1T : 1H - rA W : MM : flC* : hw : OD-tlfrlDW 
448 b n*W> 0<hf, i X^'/ n*D- : flh^^ 

i -MIA ^p-c^ft . n^^v- 

i ?ifl>- fl/u^fr s at A& : VB : 

' hero : oiK'/i : d'fl/'flD-: Art-O^i i ^Tf ID^^^A- : Vf-A-d: 10 



i &*tl f h^C : -flA'fcTM- AiJflU s AHIC:^* 1 * i <<.^fl>-^^ i f /** 

15 



: IP^A : 
K'JH : h?,&CV i flDW : ^-M^^f Ailf^/l <D& -- 8 20 

. : ^w 

AA.U- fl ^0- 

H. v : i-nc/u A nvf 

: : tTI ?^ : HT- * h'J'fcO : h-rt't OlflVf s ^fr : 
flJA^.-W^- A.^fli^X'** * fliMAA 

: CD/l^A^ : f fl.fc M^^rr : ^Jftlfl * JfcHTC ll.^*- f 7fA^ : ^^C : 0)Vf 



(DA : 4-^/i.A iDlff-A-ao- OJ'iA'l" 



449 a l'l: * rt'Jn-f' i Jifc*-: H") fllA^-'tUCA: "/UA: 4lD^> : fl>A^ t^C 3 
Ift OJ-flH-^"} : Ji/- IT-/** i ?iA : A,MhCV : 
WfAf' - M-tPao- ' h'V-nC'l' : IT-/" : 

fli A^, ^n-flrt i -hC<C A^fen him IT-/** i oi?i A -hC 



[2 3 ] 



: 7-fK- 1 

5 i-lDll W 1 -fl-M * ^l i A : " : f-fl^ i ,P * 

7-fl^ i r/nft'I' A : f Tf A^ OlA^ s /^AA s j^ftA : -nH-^"} i 1**^^^ i 
:!: flI^H. : 9^ : *?/*& : IT-/** -' Ol^CT * <W>Ad A1 ft-OC :j: ID* 
fll-flTf^ V>1^\? : (DfhfrewpO- 

. i HA Afl: 

10 -h/ : no- .- fl4m<i.fi:a>A& * /^Art, i nff .- 

* 



H^-flA : 

15 



Ah A : 0-flH-fc :: "J^X s 0) A*^ fllh'-'?^ i (D^/**?! * A^^^f :J: 449 b 
: ^^^ fl Jif^Ti ' flinilA'tfD- : fld At 1 *^9 : htfD^ATC 
20 ^T-/* 1 : flffflrh i <D^^ (\90-C ' rtl^ (D^aD^m h*Ji:n : 

frV : a-A-nue 



flinK i ngcnjt h-n-fc frftip-ft *<? fnn 

nC^ : OH0-A-& : ,pOh&-6* f/^Art, i flC^ :|s 
25 <D^n,V : ^V? 1 77"/* 1 1 Afc-fl^C : hiw : 



: IT-/** fl W fr : RO-fl ' fll^d-n^ : T4 

-nH-^" 

s f/"Art,:OC^ : 



3 o HTC s h-n-t i Dm- s A^-fl>-^^A: In*- -nA-f:">l^: h A- 
n jf C?1jt -MM : ^f fr A : hflao : ^CA &,$*Ghfc& t flj A 

' S.[\'f'.hf/n : TlDA' 
7-fl^i Ml/fl h^H 

aiun AW-C^I- cfcrt- 



[24] 

* . ^ 

MM & (DlM MAI" 



A.f A-A * <D; 

nA-fc^i^- hA- 1 o>:*&{- . fl0ifr;h ^g- Mi<rf : 

: dhm-tl : 0)9AA.D- : ^4- AtD-M : '//^Art flC - 1 

450 a 



: 
i fllAi/ 1 ^ : IT-/* 1 'J'P-?. : X">H i -fl A VfA- 



- s fl^HH : IT-/** 



toWta* : All) Ai'. /"Art. i mfc^m : r/)hi^- : l-nC/bA mAtil-A 

ffl+t A" 

1 ft A 



: fllT* : fifr-tl : HrhAP : -f'/'-fl/ 1 : 9 A A IT-/* 1 : ^J 



IT-/** YavG*?* : 1-A- * XAf s tWJtfo. : 

f : tioothGJ : 



45o b 

I AmncTi'fi * 

: 30 



.[25] 

UVm-: jtf i M-r : (DM : fctj?,'? 11 : OjM.-'J&fl). :A7 ' 



*n * UA- : 

j AlT-/**i^ft : Jtf^C : fl) s Ml^f : hfrW s Mtt f 
5 7-/" * A.hOH? * CD Ju"i>. i T1V7C : Jifltfo- l-ljt C : Uf : fcflh * * filth : 

':' oin-nH-li : hft-h-n^/ 1 Mf tt,to>ao- .-;: 



-- aifl 

Hs fllflK:h < PA-:|D'n'l!C:iDfll 1 K-*l':n^M:.- 



flje-T-l: .- iftfo- .- artiiCiD- .- hiw : m.ft - Mh^ iwrt-rtrh 



^ n*J^. hh-n ::: fljflOf : Wllfl : 1W ^fll -nH'*^ : 4CV U D*CV rh 45 1 a 
<5fl : OJOnh^ : ID-flrfh : 



: fllfl^ W' : (Id A* : Jl0-fl s AliWi : Kflll ATC : 'l'1/^h ' IT-/* 1 
:^g'h'H a 7-f : (Dfih * A-f2."flH"V : ?l)Cl : ^ft 
H. VVL s fl^ : i^ftA : ^ A'rfllf ''1' - mttlWOO- : 116 Al- : 



25 



: H A Wfl : 







A 

W. B. 



[26] 



A" : 'Ml : IT-/** ' 

Ji*/n , a)7ATC ftfl*/ 1 : IT-/**-- A& Mf?^ flirt"} - fl>n,A : /h-C 

45' b fl)*Jt;Vtl : 7f A7 ::: IHJA- flM^ * fc^O : (Ultra : 0. : tfofrrhV 5 



: Oft : Vl^A" fllJ?T : *^^^ .'!: fll^r^'V : ftt 
<D*KMlfr : X*}H s f rh<D-C s 9 AA : rt'flh- ' fll9ftA : 
fllhHTC : fllC* : ft-tlb 1^- A- 00-110 : flJ^j^^ A" fflf * ' 

J < }:r'J:::-: flirt "V : ^T-/* 1 H"Jt: AMlrffli I0 
V^A : H-h.^'1' A : P-9 : A,VlV : 1-flCP TiftiWi : h Vl : A'Jfl^ : * A-!' : 
: d A-!' : d^T-^ : fllX A^ : fl)rt < ^/ > 0- ^-Hfl : IT-/** 

C :: (D^i^ao- : ?in .- mlh ATC 
: ^-OA :H2tf V.-lA:?i(M]:n-|:' 

- 1 5 



' tihWt : -H-np i H,? : h^H : ^.^^RA "*A-h ^fl s Chfr * 20 
s (D-CH'B i <D?-flC> * flihHTC ^0 OC^ fliVf-A-<n- : Aft-f ^f 1 fl) 

inh^T iDVJJ n,-f : f : yAwif -i-n^ h.^ w 

flJ^^T' flJ6ft<P : A^^f ::: fll^V WV : 11V 

AA : OT^*}-!:^ * ^.ft : ^i^^C : -fl A*? 1 ^ ^JflW ! A/fc flRA-* 

1 9 rh^i : +^ A : a> tn ld9 A''i ' 9hC :;.- fli^Hlf: : *1f*L M - 25 

:h<Wi : Airt'/A : fllfll'JA : MH - h.f.oohto' fi'tlt: 0-rtV : fl)V 
452 a <PT Wm ::': fll^"}*} : 4^ A (D?l9 'H : .'l*9>tfl 

-Th A A?iA +C4. i < 



: n W-T fliVi'- V* i flid-n^ : hm^ tW f ?- -If- fl) Art-f ^ s fl)->^ 30 

* -flH-:^*> : HfcflA :J: 

** oirt'} :j: ^'fihcr'-T-Y. .- 

: fll A^- : h'fl't i ^P : HC^ : ll'J^ : Vl>- : hi^i : C'^-0' 

- -Mf-A^ fcm-l : IA-rt WT> ?iA - fl* .-:. htlao ' 



[27] 



: Cftf 



' ?flr/nfl : ftf/tlr/f>'II : 0)0 : Ylfto : h fl 7l>- : HA 



fflOh- : illlt/nWtiu- 



: TC : 



gft Afl>- : 



Oh- : 



: ft/P0tfD ' TlV*' : 
fl A :!.' 



i AdA,f --i: HLi&llf i Ji-flA Kj&-tnD-K-|: 

A^^^ ' 1-flCh flXTJt* ! :' ! -f'^.^rw * O) 
s (Id At 1 s I^A-A : Ai<n : AAf h-fcl- : flAi rt*HAi : 



* 452 b 



ATI : 



:^ t\d A-f- rt n- 



ft?H : 

Ah.- 

- A- s 



: AftA * ft 



25 fll+W s hT flffrh. Arh^ : H^^A- : ft^V/^ fjt A Ol?^ * AW/" 
dAI^-f- : If-^i s OHIO : AA6Ek^ : IDAfl.^ >< P ! ftA-5lr 
ID A A B /^Art, : ID-ft* : IDAfty n Afc4 0D&(\ '- flJ-ft* :: 

'- ft^B'-f : O)ft <H : O Af h^ 



30 ?l^- : h A- .' IDftHTC : ft. 
ftllm-ft ' 



: IT-/** : illft |)-H : W A" 



: ft 9fl : 
: lf)ft,fi|D-C : 
f s flirt? # fflft J 

: flft^.? : V^rtl * ID Afl A 

a~ A-fl* W" h A- 



[28] 
01 AHTC : /Ul^? * (Dig- A- : O)Xh ' Wh^d 0flA : VlVA ' Ji&VjB, : 



hn- 
h&CV s 

453 a Ji?"V.: VIC 



h-fl'fc : flf ^V : 

A^HTC h-fl-l; : 



: HA- ' 



VIC ::'. ai-h^fn-.'-nA-f: : tip ' hA: 

A" : V*7 

: : d A^ : OimV >?'/* s ^/CC : 11,^: 1 5 
' HfeftA : fl V^T -1: fflfM fc^ : 



: a>*J A.U- ::': 



: 1f-/* f i s OlUfl : A-flA : hfl'^ 
A-flh- : A-n A-t * %^ : h A- : gh ^M-OC-h ' 1 A- : (D-nH-^V : ^If^Vh : fllH 



0>-h- 



25 



a>n/i -vn A^c <D 

: : - : ' O>Kh ' IT-/*** X^rli^HD^ r (DrH^ : noTlA ' 

: fll-'V^I A'fl?! : OKD^ A s Jtf If s ^iffC i 01^ ' OllH, : ;X A^'lh : 

Vffl. * "h9p,'l:l : fl)4-ft :V^.A- : ^T-/^^ i 7-n^i i OJ-A1- 1 <h 30 
:? OlfcHH h^ : |&/h.<- : ftf-Mrf'l' ' (Oil'} 0J-nfl : I'M- 

m mf. iWdPao.: Aro'JA^ : 7J?.-A- : HlMffl. - 



: A A.U-31 : ? A" i II A* ' 



7- A ' 

: flMVI- : Kmif ao- : fl^"/C t oil * '(\Wi WtAfao ' Wai 1 } A* - 



5 -flCh-^- 0flA : 01^00 1'fl< : flutflfl s fl^H.? : 'flfr^V 

tf 7'V^h : 

: -n A-tii^- : h A- 



10 



' : T* : Ifr A- : 

flH* s dA^ : hril^ s'OA'fc'Jl^- hA-A : '1lAl' 
Tf'-f oiVffm^'f s fliflrtW- * flflAl- : tC'fl'.haD'. TfliAAf JH^s 
15 h-H^'-f : fljrt^."1in : IT-/** : <W>nft^ r H^flftC : 

*n-.(DUQ A/WinftC:6tl,4.:H'fl<-C:fl)'nH-^.-hrtA} p i tDaoKhs fl)JBl-nfl: 454a 

MK- 

hA- 1 j : ^-H"?^ rurt'}: rtdh 

*^? li :^m>:Tfl>eAe>l-|:-1-:<W>^h.:fll'}A^ s ftjf Tl 11 ?^ : OlA*! ' 'Vfl r 

20 





- :'}'h/*'rt i fclH s ^&A. ' Hit 1 s 
25 fl/h : ID-At 1 A^ : ai^j&)*fl-fl * ^'H'VCI' : M : JK,J\,A. s 

J&-flA Ji c 7H.^:rt ff 7dV:n?iHW : fiiMI'/. 1 '/'/.: ll.Vru.V ^-0^ s HlflCh i 



30 fllO-nC'/V : iK'h :;: ?lftW> : 1-|P'/AlflO. : ht't 1 : Orflfc If-/**? : 0^9" All.? 



: fctfD : Yflir Af h-t^ : IPC'J s IT-/** i "7d & s (Dh'fl A/'ao- s 



[30] 

: O)T)lh M 



::: flJ^H.">flJ.s tl<W>: ^A*' flft'? * crt-flft : OlVH)4 i till A ft. 
J?.rt00 i ITH- 1 IT-/** fc P:W i T* : fcfltfn : All' i C1<-1 : tlD 
454 b Afl'*An-|MJMMh ID^'flA : Tltf-A" i h-? i flfcftY-Cf : flldfr'P'H' fcA i 5 



::: a>9fct- ' hfl? * Oh- : ^fl IT-/**: 
r/iMl,-^ ^"lTCft : attiRA* ' 7-rtCA 

* Ph-.-^n : IT-/** : ^jf i hll^'-f Olrt"} : fllW-Arn>. : aoWfr i 10 
s n < e^<n>.rt:fh?C:'}7-/^:fl)nh.:'flH-:i'>: h9 ml &+ '. 1 fr * 
"Ifl : IT-/** :: OlflM-l: * A^ -I'OlTV * *>n. ^^ r '>7V>. i OiniV : 

<D^t<wi 

? ft A : 



r 'Tlfl : 7frA s flirt !/ 1 7fr A- : 1 5 
A*I* 1T-/ M * 
: -fl A 



fliVf-A": HI/A- i-flM.f : rt)h^//- -flhrt.^ B fl)A'- * M* * AIT-/** flirt 20 

' fliA'flrt 



n A : l^rh A : fll^H^ : h<^ : Prh^h : ^.^I'h : h^ A : h^ Vj&rt : ^.n, : 

25 



: H, 
Vffl. : H"J1- * W-A" : A^T-/" ::'.' fllrt'l/'tfo- * IT-/** * ^,n.A"flO- ' AiOT^fJ^ 

' * <D 30 

. IT-/* 1 /I 4 ?-?. MM * J?.'flA - 

: A7-n<: : ^n.-n . vf-A rvf-vv ^n-^ s ^r Aim 7*- A-Y. 

- VlhhCsiDAH0DXrh A,A.-f* : A.^^'Bhfi: 



: flVJt : Th/": (Dhao: YlDgAf fl-tt : (MAt 



: Ht Vfl>- : Ifi9h^{l # fll^fct : W i tfofrK. : fl)<J At : 

5 &j AtTfTf flirt? H#t A- ffll&f- s d A^t A'J'h/*' fl)Jitf TflJi? Af h 

*^ : fld At : *^r : t^t A : ? AA : f ff A^ .' fl) A A : /^Art, : fr<5 : Un : r ftA : 

rt-n Ji : ? A- * flitt A .- -nn-^v .- :V Ai iDH^ft A- flH-:v> h^- w .- OJH t 

TP i fl^^fC : flU/D^K- : JiA : *tA: d'JAt : ffll^f : dAl^'t * A? 
:!: flJT.H, : Brt^t ' -1*<L&0D : ^g/ : 'J'h/*' : fl)OAi:|D-ft'fr'f: : tohao : 

' IJ^A" : A<W>VJlrtt.- < PAJtn :: fflA 



rt>-|Z, : A^h rrt-n^ : 'PA^P-t.-flJ-A-^.-dOf - -T? A -1fl "J 

: j&'fl A" : <w>rh^3^ ' flit IP'/fc ' OlAi<w> : Xfllfi APh-fct ' fld At : IP Aft 

^ s HVAj^n : rh'TL'J s *J^ s 1^'tt^T^^ ' A?*h/*':H* 455b 

15 tA hl^fli'JAt : IJtArs fl)h<wj: WflirAf h-f:t * n^At - <:fl-d : *JC-h : (K 



20 



: ^0, i IT-/" : <DflM: : d At : Oh- s < P7'"^ : airh<. : 



A : fl>-At .' hr : 9rt A : ^-nC-fc^ : hh^D : rth^ : flit rt Afl : Afl- : flh<fD : 
25 ,n,:<Wi^rh < P.-fl)^.-fllMft ; J-:rtAfl-.- Afl :: 



- 
: ^^ i IT-/*' : 'PA, : 9 AA x -flH"V r 9UCh : fl)d Alt 



30 Ar/oVVirt s MpB tDStltt 1 (D1&4. : dAlt A7jtA-:7jtA-Y.: : 
: Al Aflrt : AH+t A * t\t\tn> s aaflt^ : HI 1UJ : A-'t : 
Vf'A" : 



A" ' (D(\ - J> At 



[32] 
0DttiA*f i AlA'dLlf?' fliM-flJi : A-tfo. 1 l/7C?<n- 1 H'l'rh 

'-f- : II llf/n : .1'. 0, : W> : V-^rh : A W ' fl) AMA : 
456 a <HM- : rtltf^f *^ 

fTH> "IT-/** : fllM"?"'?' : fllflJi : A^Ti"?^ ' ffr* 

':':iltfi.: Hf>2r, ! 5 
:|i (Dh0DsinO>: Af h'l^ : IMA'!** 

: M- : .&Klf' ' (Dhl-Uk '- Atf ' UtGao- : H^rh/2,^ fflHh.-Vn : 

^^-fl ::: OKDl/n- : h?^ : W 7<w> A i A"} 



( "> 
'/l : 7-n^ i IT-/* 1 : Ht^fll : AlOlH : fflH,Vai A'JT-/*' : *llG ft-WlO) 0* :|: 



: AU i (JB-At 1 ' fl.* * ATI-/* 1 : 



/Th flfl A-f' : h-rh-J?,- i M : 'Jn.je, : t^ A ' ^OOD^^ '. h9(\ : 

^i s fll'J A-!' : 
^ flirt"} fli/ 

"7* ::: fDflj&h-I: : ^A^ : -h^Vfll : fl>A^ x ^^^ 0iTlA 



: rW-^.-HTW :j: fllflj^M:: dA^.-^-f- : OVUffeAA: 4*^-00 : f/J^w/n : 20 
: fld A-!' : wA-fl : PTl : ILJf * fclf "V^f * flirt*} : -llfl : 



456 b 'W : IT-/*" ::: fflhn>:?;A0D^n/1- i fldAt rhtf-fl 

- ^.-n A : fln/-n% AfW i/7c?tfi>- HT*}-!- .;. fli^<wi . A^^n.-^ .- nd At- : 25 
r*-</D : x-nriK i (D/:^ ?# A- h? h9(\ -. r ftA gM-nc-tu- <D 

1-f >-0Dl7A -flCfr;/- : fliAiiwj.-yA^^n.^ s ndA-l-.-^i^.'^^^A-sirAA: 

rt-fiJt : 7fr A- : HDftflf-'-f : <D7fT : 0,-f : f i Olh^'-f : fll7^f ' f A7^t A*} 

T-/* f flin|&M: : dA^ : ^^X-h- : 9Vtf} A^T-^'-'fli^A^: AS 1 -' ^Tl^ ' 

flirt*} : X^-nCVh^ i 7O>6>tt"t t ? A 



: IT-/** H fllAi^ * YflieA0ii.9fl.-lh * flflA'l- : lit'?, 



[33] 
^^fl 

fflrt Tf '- 0D>7 A : lICYl-;*- ' Whan : TlDo A0o.pfl.1- : h6 At 1 



At 1 : fhtfo-rt : fllflh- : <D/ At 1 * 
5 6 A71- s fc"M B 7^35, s -ntl-^ : 

flirt ^ 



s frDxA0n.pfl.1- (16 

-Jt s OK- fl-flJi : A^C^jK, : (D^ao^a\ h& ' IT-/*' <P& :|: <D 
: fflflfl : *>7-/*': Ahfl s /^A-ft <DA : f'hll a ?'% : 6 
flf : 'T7A : "/.^D^ : VA^I" s HlD-X* : ftjf- : JiTi"?^ V'V :j: |D^0D: KU- : 
A^pfl.1' : Oh.://nV*Vl^ : < PAj^n:H < PTf s 7fl.C<H>.: 0C4*>fDrh^:^'H 457 a 
T'-f : Al-fl s /^A-ft B^9n s AA4 fllflllVfl : ATT'/*': AlDfr 

15 lf i.ao-\r 



' KM ' flfll-^/m-ll- s 1-H^Ct 1 :;: Ol3 1 l9 Jt'V^'H ' fl^l s 



25 

(D-l'aD^m ' lhll0D - anthC : A7'A- :: O>tl9^ : IW : tn*Xh : 

0)1*00 '.'Tl:h0D:,<L'h: A-* V^^-f' fr^^ ' flffrh : h^fr fclTfl s "JT-/** * 



^ A AP 1 * AIT"/** 

30 



- ifl. 
Ol^ 

W.B. 5 



[34] 
457 b ft<: : A(U Ai*fc 9 niaf-WI-A- s 9 tl A * /Hl/i U1C : M i |l>- BftlV : -0 A'fc 



h A- : fllftJ^Ml'T 1 Tfl ' A,?frfl ID JtHTC^n : flC^ : fl)ft s Mf "V- s I'll 



flUP : ?if)tf : TW : fl* A* 
: fflfc/'ft i IT-/" * J<P-S. c tfA- If f rhfl-C : fc0* 5 



?t?Uf i fldA'h : tft'fi ' (D$& ' n/ifr 

lV : 0-A"s XArw : fl'J A : 
flll- : 



' IDID'JA- s fltfD-flAA : fllft't : >ift//i> : II'^A : 

,: aim) :>?-/*': *S 0< 7 : 

'- rttf-V : A 11 ?"?^ fli-K* s fl)h<wi : o A^^TI.? s O^A^ B 1 5 
ai'JA s ^-h/* 1 B fl*TS' B hrfo-H B ai*i<w B 

h i ri i n :% ir> : ^H*ucr B hwi s ?-^D s n j&X-l: -- 

B ft-flrhl- ::: OlAi^n : lA"^1l^ : fl* At 1 s rf0o-A * flh- B 

-in i >!-/* s Ar/n-n AA B ^H*M: s ^.tiv^ : W^A* i-n^- B aiMi*?^ B r 

'JC-n s ai'JA 20 



s V>H B 5?,-flA- 



B fll'VJr B ttftDCfr > >l A^ B Thi*' B fl)hn s ^,*^A s Jill,-?- B 25 
s fllfcfll-'il' B ^-fl^e^ :.:s fllrt^,/ 1 s IT-/*** XAf B ?ir/n'll,iii ./. s /5fl^- : 

ft AH-n rDrMi-n^B vnn-Bh r >-f .:: aiti/^h-tM/^ti 

B l-.-J-flh- 1 yAA.ir<n>. s 'VflV. :: Ai>A B Mllh'flth.C t 

iw"/.,h. B -jn-T-h : ^9iV B "Vdi^ir <n>- s flm.e/T. -. &9 D t A A4 B hco- 

::'! H^V-flC B m-ftf- s rt7 s ('.flA-f-ffn- :?: (DTi^H.^ s -0 JfcC s ^,"/A* * 3 

i- s flmi^-l: B ffi||r/n f '/-|: s (Miff|.}i,n>. :j: ^'Jrt s -f-|.f 
s ^7-lP B IM A A.mn>- s ?i Ah B -l-^Jl"** ::: fllflJl'l: : A A^ lfmi s *>n.|S, B 
Bn/.JtsXAhs|D^*s^^:S7c^^jP'1-:fl}/ ll ^:i>A'^.jP^ 
Hfl>- VI-' B im B ^"/h, t hn-C B jnf - *?-/" : >ih A : 0J*.<Of*ft i 



[35] 

rVt : 
0)?iS |0 ;h1i'n : JiAO : H'PO 8 HTtWlfl) 8 fD^-n'J : hfl<w 1 14*11 ill 



5 
ffjfl(U-?t'|: : iWV 8 



- Art- ::: (ohao '. TfljA'VH^: O) l Ml'''}'bS>'* 



-fYl-flYl- : ITO W>^ : fllrh^ : fflfin.<P s A^ * ^(1 s 45 b 



5 '" j - jt fli^ K ! - 

H'h^Vai M^^1I <I V^ i n** B iDflH-t : dA^ s r i 



* Od A-l- .' 'JC'fl : -hd^V IT-/* 1 1 <tf Drh<l : aoll A : 11,1- : fcC 



20 m : 'm- :5: OI<W i Sf flJe^Tf^ - ' 1 ^ * rh^* ftTI 11 ? * 

MPfl. 9AA : <D-flfl ! 11K- ! wmvc - ainffCTjt h-n-fr i ail 

) : *^A i fll^^/h 



25 

: IDJK, A"? : 

h9h*i..+(\j!, 

' fl0 At 1 * IP A-ft 



30 



hf A-A h9(\ i X'V-'J flJ?ir j&fc-t d A^ : ^ iw> x A^'JO^ 



' 8 *8rh^ : : -JT-/*':'?^ : <w>'J'lA:'feA < feA & IDl'tl tt) 



[36] 

*^ A : (If, Ml 

APrt, : ID-nth:* : lYN'A i :* A- Ol A3- : A<Prt, :Zi fl> A A.I I- : <P A, : *IY/?H 
Oh'- V'Th : MtfP : &. tfnT * IX : A A ?- 1 ?. : ft) : &&. : Vl'^'l" : fllhr/n : 



l: : fl A* : JiMl : jfATIfl* s 
IT-/*' : Jl^UP i 1fl0D i ^A'h^ A" : Kt : 'PA.*^ s OlXT-S. :: O>hflD ' Y 



l- : XT^.: ID A"XAll A : iHl* f T W ' ^-tt^ s ID If; 

: flirt"} * ^^rllffr 'JVP::: Olhuoi raiA'A^IO-l- ' MM* ' 
:'>T-/*':2 l irUf :|D^/.snM.^n^:::fl)n^M::dA^:'hCf * A^-' 10 

"IDA- fl) A^ i frtpf.fhx: - hhtir*! - a>M - <n titi 1?: A- :;.- athao . V 

* IT-/**! 



: J>flAsaX.:fllM s VX^iTh/* 1 * ^9^ <DTl** ' 

J: : <5 
it A'l' : r-h 

* 

:: fl)H,Vfll : JltfD i ^Cfl i ^jf Mf 1 ?^ * tt** :: fll>l<W>: Yfllp 

& .^ti ?"^ flirt*} i mnA^n^A 



459 b 

<PAj^n : ar}& ' 



: A4"I:A : tt * 

- MrCt+-h:*S-l- fllhiio : - 

- /.n-d w>X-h. : ntr>- T-n^ A.f A-fl : fliT-nCfo 





: 30 

: fl^A ^CT'lh s hfl-C: : 'J'*}/*^ TlV" flj'JCT : Wrt : A"? 
A'l : ilkUU M: flH-h i A^./.A : fl/wC ? i (D'hftr'J hiw> : W^'h : 1T>^: 
^ <w->7 A : ^C^r : OhO ' A"?./ 1 1 JT'^h-l' IT-/*' ::' 



[37] 
: haofD&tllJW : IWA'N'JC'fl : M'.Ohfr* : flUf 



A: V1& : 

nft- ft : A-flJirt. : If K^fPfll i IDl-e : fc^ A ::': U>|1 ft : "M TW" 
5 *Jn 

: 1 V : ^fl. J8, Jt A : 



A* : fllJZ.Vj^.- 

: fll-A-^tfO-: flirt ?./ 1 * IT-/** i ^fl. 460 a 



: -Ml* : -nhA. : 01)8,0, ^Vb^ 'flf : At^T-/* 1 .'J: :5: 

: //PI1A/..V : ^fl s^^^l*: OlOh- 



: -OH-^ : 0Df\tl&*t : H^^VflB. x "KFfsbl : ffl^Jf- : AiTi^^ ' -fl** S fflH. 



<D& Af s h^lD'Hcm.^ : JJ^ : H J&-0 A ::: ^hW-1*h i MH.^ i ?l A<W ^Olh^hJ: HI 



e h Ah : * Wl* si: If) ff ) X> : ^ft^ ^^ * flOf B fl)^<W> KOI A AT>0^ r (1 (^ 
: : 'h^/*'A : fb^ 1 fflrh^ rj': nfl^-h : rh-^* A flJlrh.^ : III II '> A ' 
: OJ/^IC* : A">fl-h : htfo : S.^^h'fl i 'Pfll-V 



25 

"7^ : n**VL : <WK-h : ? AA 
AA : riV::-: 

- flMl fl)hw> : Kflie 

i hlH : jE-^^/^rh- i T4>iXAnDi4-0Di h^Hs 0, 

3 o - a- . - --a- .- hTf : M9 - (Dtt^-tK- - ?AAl> Miaol !. 

: ooKh : h-H ?^ 04* .- 9AA -nH-'i B dAI^ : fl)?UCh i H^ 

W- A- *!&:;* m-^^i>.- ^JB^S^ :: aiWjt 460 b 



[381 



.* i M '"Midi : MfD < ft0D-1-h & (DMTf* * 'IMA".' 7&C0O- * (D/ilD- 

^^ 

fl>^^ 

"iMhlifDA-flfh: AV7H.M1 5 

: ?,'HA :: P^H'! M/*T- AV9ll.h-n*h,C * flM-l's Y^A" Hi-fi*: :. 
A,* 1 :! fcAtfD s ftAfl^e * fc A * "/*fc ' ^0i>-1-|: : fchoo- i OHD^-* 

-vn i rt<- :.* fli^i-/** : :^^<: - nue 



* ft-ah -- uic - tius'i- ai Aii-n HIMHI, = 



10 



: HMH hoofa? Oh ::: ^^A ^AV? 1 nfr7H.Ml<lbC 
is': W-A-tf- i AlAH-n: 'Jrfcfc M> fflflAOT: M^-nr 

^Tti fllHAf/o s X < 7H.*l'nrh,C * TdhJPtfD- : -fT^lln- .' 15 
A ID-S.* (/) A' V Il.h 'M Ji.f I h V hi, : Xft h : ^^"1* :i: 



: : 20 

461 a <Dti0n 7XTA9 H.V s Hoo^ : HiPjt^ "fc* 1 * M^7-IP Vl/^: -MflA 



0* ' hin>: VaiAT*? ^ i fl"/ Aft s 



* A-* * IT-/*" 8 Wh.WaoG '-hCptl ii> 0) 

* dA^ 1 00^1 X^LU- : fDfr?(? : AO W : (D(fi : ID AWU A- : M.lh i k flffo '. 



aiX-/i * IT-IP VT/* 1 ^ s -HiA 

30 



-'P^A :is A,9fl : fl)A& 

i-sv*'** nM* MA^JI n-/** nx-jt* AA.* ^^A- * 



[39] 

rtntti6 

'JC'fl 



fllfli'P s AW H* OlAiiwi : -A-ffr/yiV <D-A * flOP s (D 
: ^ A : W i Vrt, : W>->lA 7%C fl^?Hlf s 'ftf*' & fflOh. : IP^^'h : 
10 ^^/^; fl j*^^:XlD:|DA-:aiO/i:^HlC*^A-sain^:Hl-^Vai.!Ky A 461 b 



-'tl : Othao : TKWb Oh- : 6,pOh&*6 - P/^AA, s dCf 

H. 1 ? s If MM h.P'ft : "MlPtl '- Mn 
15 *>.4- 

An 



:! fl)OK- : -nH-^^ : lP^'e ; ^ : flJfCIJt 4-V-h, A i Vj3^fl s f A. 



20 '-r: ^'.ao'. SfcWC* OdA1- rh<n>-fl i ^/**h "J^/* 1 
: (I) H Xt\h : llin nX-rh- : ODdlM--} : H-h^ffl. 



Af 



: IT-/*' s 

i fc*e* * h^^? ti9^^ao :&d'. If/" : If <W 

flfl 



30 -f- : I : : (D9t\Cy & ID-nit^'J * IP/C-'C^ fr<5 : WO i 

l ^ /ilfV^ f /*'4fc i nc^rt : -f-C^. flfc A4- !: 
: end A-l- -- 'JC-n -f-V At IT-/" : fc9ue ID^R^ rt'fe'}?^ # flw 

B -nn-^"> s i*^.R-Th s m^^r^iiv * OHI-* nue * 

: ID Aft *M?f, - (DOt^-n ' 9 ftA 



:: OtYiao : o 



A/fe 



[40] 

Ohft* shtltn>'. tftft^ : 0>?i* i 

Hi 



IT-/** 



OlfcHTC i h-fl'fc 
IP'V * 



?' * f /** Art, i OC& : (DM/** : "/UA ::: 
^ :: 



i ^fl : IT-/** : A-fl^i g^fl ' flrtnfl : 



10 



An-A : ?ut niun> .- ^.n, i n^iitfo-c ::. hn-c 

: Off : A.^fr (D A/fr 



AO'rf 



: IDfl 



"#1 Ji. A * 



462 b 



rhC 

l/ll s 

XAf 

(D-fllt*:* 

?iA'|- * hVWlh 



H-f)A :5: 



fl^f. Ah : pA&'th : *> 25 

* aifMtti .: aiA 



- 30 



4 A* ID-A'I- 



: fl A9fl4-A '/" A*^* : ^AA 

vie 



IT-/*' 



i <:n- A : 

:* : r*lT}:fcAtl ^H. SAW .:: 
s 0>A : /"AA, : Wl'-h9h96 * 

* A AU^I' : (J1C Hr Ol 



: 463 a 

::-: mtof.'Mz oAl' : ^Wi H.V T* i AhHTC : hlkAAr^t HA 



: Mil : J&-fl A" : 
A'flJi --Mm- 
15 A^:^m-V :!: (DhtlD'.XaDAihWbr'sW : 0,-*- : 

' : ^H, 



: I'flC/i. A* 

: jf.O. : // 

25 K'rh<h s 'Jj&'J.-n.H : ^"J : OlJl^C * (Uh 
^ : IT-/** : <W>^7A : fl,^ hCA^ * 



hao : A%^<- ArM^WifldA* *^9: ail A : Th/** AflA-t* 

:e-hA^^sh^:<W^^:hAA^:|DA^:>l^^:Krn,7 

M A A : O) Aft : /l^/S. :! flll-Mlt 1 : ehf^O^ Sthlt ' (DA(D& 463 b 



.-:: athao -. g^^lnn hAh Yaip^nA: AAd 

W. B. ^ 



[421 
* fl.^ * hhao thtro 



OJl- rfC^rh. : A^m-W s Wrh i V^'.fth&fr ' 'fyfc * t\\l<*> : f,&* 

. Hnh<: i HMfl A *0>-C : n A* A * ftftfl aiTJV*' 111 * : flifll-/*' 5 



9 ftA : rt-fl^l 1 1-S0 : fflfl 11 * : 1 '- A^W ^*. HChY. : :*7 : 

B,rtwi^:lf;V:n,^: fl'h^A (D* AS" th:-l\ :>&(** 10 
'* : If-/* 1 c X9^.fl>. : Ol^^ : flAiff <5- : A*t\ - "Ij?, A-^ : (D 

C^- nfl<WihStfD. : O)h0t> : 'A'fllf;'^/ Af ^ 
Uf i ID^^ s l]l. A'/: i VMy-t- : -M/^^-tfl : flA^fl^ : \\ao : 



i flMl- A^fl^dD^is A-nX i flVM-: Alflfrft aiAi<w:??fl)o^'>/*'^ 15 



* 

h-fl-fc : 'W iPWVV- i 

W/h - 
n w fCOM;s|DWiX-^:eTfA.*.-fllA.-/* f AA..-?li' .lSl::: 



fll^ AO i 



'- :'L\h.:1 25 
A-* : A AJ^^'H ??' * flirt? : ^T'*rh'l' fllO^Ai : ID 1 } A ^/l A* 

A-* 



A"/Ar/ i < JA> B ^' I l : flings >?/*' .'h'!" 1 ? * rh7f : fl^'Wi OA* ^ 

* nV9^ A^^O^-A i 30 

?%A<n : wll? : IT-/** 

h.l jR, * 



[43] 



: J ' ^If^'-f V^ HI fllJiAllrt : A'llrt : li'lli:: flll. 
*>?-/*': AClflfl : hUV* HI 

: ,hW : # : *Tf Tf ' fl+* HI flirt ?./ 1 i IT-/** 

: A-* HI 



: Aj : ^TI^V'l"- : hjt^U H: flirt"?,/ 1 : Hit 1 ^0D:^AA%: 

* fli 



A- 

15 

A# : Vj^^fl : f A^* ' flfi i Ji,rt- HI 

k frtA^* - h&<* - 6-tl h?XC tl flihl'fcH h^hf.'-fa^ tC flh 

20 ^h 11 ? : | 

A-rt : IT-/* 1 : fllrt^ : 0flAU- HI fllfl^M: : OA^ : :*/ : IT-/**: I 

H^.4- OlfTDAJtll : 

1 : fllll?.?t-I: i OAt : ^78 ' <C^rt Afljf-CTjt s 'i-'l-^i. A Hi flit 
! s flifl ft 16' s X*^ 6 ^ & flifl H/i.fliX'h- 1 tfnV^TJt 1 ' 

25 9ftA ' IT-/* 1 :/v.YM : lltfi>-sft<W>9 s WltfD : kP&*Tfr/* M*. ' VJH--J& 
*n A : htV"/?! .' flO At : rktf-A HI fllrtfl ' A9^r : '(111$ * ' 
/*"ft : /nV - flflAt 1 s iPA-fl : fll7-/*'fc : /u^Vhl ' Vfl>C HI 
rh,C i ttfrAaof, : 17-1*' i K'-* rtfl * tti? 17-O Kgfy rtfl s CKf : 
flrt : ATJ-fl i h 9Kh i "I? i ftjZ.'V : (UP^OD^- : *7i9Jt'V^ ' ^flfl MH : JR-fl A 465 a 

30 haoXlh : ^f : fc'V : flffllK 1 ^<w> ; h HI 1*7fld1ri, : 'Vfl : Tit s >7C ' fllftfl : *A 
i ^1-/*' : X9<C1mC ' fli:5&^ : fliDjBil: M*fl ' fllt<wj&m ' tfD A 



n Art HI flioK- 1 -n A-tii^ * h A- . fliAtHii: ^14- * Mn I/A- n h^y* ^HJK, HI 

: *J^-n : IT-/": fll^^ : n^C^*-' fllOh * 



[441 

/I A.* : 7-fK- : 'I.H, : rAW : h"}H : f^T 

H.h- : eflAt- : fcflW> : <*><* ' ^*7H.h- ID-fc* ' h<H : f-rh^fl ' OlTiA'tf O> 

^H, : fcfl'H- : flh- ' A.* : <WM : frW : (Dl^ ' M^f : ID A * /*' A A. : 

M f 0-fl/iv- aftpRfah Mfc A : JtHTf." H0-3- :: Jtn : ui't^h 

/":?r < bC^.-fll3 1 l^H:^nX m A:'}T'/*':A9 l:nX'rh & i Ml*?^ ATf* 5 

yti - 0*rt? 0< J - Wip*. : H-fl A 'f *?' & - ^H"?^ * 
- Mitt- - M9 

i ID fc:*H AV^* : (D'tlW} ' 1* :: ID^iiD i 0oKh i fll 1 } A.lh i (1/i A 

: M.V '. RW W. - A .-:: a)H.V<D * A^T-/*' !-/* 3s, ' ^ A/**fh s 

1 i^H:^'nA::: A<<. : ?i^M'- : AV7H.Mlrh,C : 10 
sl.!!. ?lA<W>:flf "77? 
D+pr? MW 
- ' Ah A ^-h/*' : <PA, hrn,-I9JtC : hft<W : Vfl^ : 

a>aoRhitiM:ftMl'. fttt '-Mil '.frfiK than :(na\&'-:: (DtD 
OR i hy ^ : AO<W> : A'}?-/*' ::: OlAfl : V/*7l A<D AH ^ft-fct 1 - lb : X? fl^A ' 5 
IJ1C : Hfl,^ * IDlin ' "J7-/* 1 : A-nrt TlVb: ID^H Afl^A-' fl,^ J-: 
465 b d A^ : ^ W * ^T-/** fl^fll-/;. : ^rtC^ ::: fllOK- * MlC : ^Vh i Olfl 

H.V . (Hi c?i. A .- ainjf c?^ v-n A.n 

::: fflflh- : -nfr^l ^^W : (DwA-'R* ' IDtD^H-HC fllM^^h. : fl 

fl>KW> -' TfllA : lV : 0>A" : flUf : fflOh- : fc A.* : H.V 20 

8 HID A& i 



* 

- # aHllK'V> : +0- ' ^rfll'JA-f tfo- : <Dfl 
' Oh- :;: (D>l<Wi : YOiehV : OhtF - flUf : ^Am * 25 
fl'JA : A.* : ^AJth^ : "Ihh. A :J: fflfl^?l': ' ^ A* : flh- : -flH-^* : iP^'fi^ : 
: fll'JA: MlFVi 'llC * (DWlKC ^nit hUV^ : H^rt,^ :;: fl)?*Wi s 

* "If, ' a>: 
fll A1 :5-' 

Oh- : -f ^-rn '7- :: Olh/w : IflV : Ald-tt ' <D+C<!. ' & s hll a l'i ' ii 30 

i XftlWi : thao : (Dhao : jfmgi hl/*'^ sfT-/* 1 : X^Ue ffl^W n^flf, 

j^jS- Aill^'l'- ^Jtlii : ai^^AiaH^^ : A.tiV^ ! Wt- ' hW'-i' - 
pn.rt irft m 



[45] 
* "/U A- : fl) JiHTC : i^JB, A- - mllfrM: - 6 A^ Wrh ' Th/" 

:: Othao : YlUX* "I/*** ! IT-/** ! ^UP ! aril*"!' i 

: htfn: *!,* : fl0WJ * AIM 1 
: OUf : 



: flh- : 
: hCS : rh^ : *7^ s 



: 4 66a 
: ^UCh : (D^rt.'h ' h^T s flh- 

: aim 1 / a>M- fliflg CTIJt * fc&^ 
i A^- .- ^7-/**rt .- $& - WK1&. Mf, 
rt-n?* - a>h0D'.t(D!iWs>'h'.'}'i~r':lti9 v?saD t }&a) .- Ahl i 

"7* W IP V : nV,Vf-^ : fl^h-t * d A^ : flh * ^/D A hh : Orh^ 

: <P44- : flrt-^--t : flJOt-^jS 1 * O^ff f- : ttlV^^-A ID A A 1 H'A 



^J i (HMlrhX- : 
20 <D:V^ 

aih^^f - flittK?* - rt'frA"^ ai A.* : ^.P-MfiAi aHHf-M* wt*^-. 

InV : <0A" : nOf : ttJflh- : 1-rt^ : /''Art, : 017-0^ - fofrO)^ ' h^ ^** : 

': 011^4- : dAI^.-ainiiptfo-.-lniJOt-A- e oiflAt i 



25 :Atfi- 

flr f 



s -HI A ^p-c^A JT-/ A '>. h/ 1 ^ A'WWi K^H j&-n A * 466 b 

* * fl'Jdini : hfl-P : HC 1 } : ^^*-fl 
30 m.4-Tfl : rt"?*^ : TIU? : hfl^ i flJ^tfo? : Tr9 AC 

,V. : rll't.^^i : fDtfA -' H 

S'<? * Hfl b? '- 



:?^ AV : 



[46] 



A-n/h J" 



00- :: 



?i A-Y. : Hill- : toH : -(1 A i & AfflV : 1* : fcfltfD : -|C'|- : <*<*? : "> AV : A^ 5 
01- W. : flrtTV*': *,!. : tort : JVflA" : & A^tfO- * T*^ :5: fll^fl, 1 / : to'll 
: IflAU : Ii*.j&n4"4 VlAU ::: ^ WI A'/ 

* : A II" : Jl // : 



01 A^ bb A. 



: AdrtT : rt1-rt 



:: 



<D^H. : rtCh : ^'fl^ : 



467 a 



: fllfll 



:!* ffl/ir/DAA Ji'/'A. : 



Ai J^ W '. (D&pOhfrt A.*!^! * IHW" 

: H.V : 
^li*'fl 

V : fll^tfo : (fllh: AAfc 
MC<J : .1^^-11 A * ^^J&m ' 
U1C i 



: /ifl 



IT-/*' : Arh1C : <w->7A : ^^ J : 



25 



nn, : 



vie 
.- A-I- 1*1 (.-: ain^x-fc * AI- >& - >?/* .- noc**A .- aiX'jH 



: Ut(\h : m-A'h : XT.Ml : HD^/*'* : flOd.: <Dn->/*'rV- f 



toH 



K Ol7<- : UC^ifi*- :ji ff ) All : f 'J^fll. : noXTh- : X^M i 



[47] 

JiHH * IT-/** : 
: H0 



U AID 



: fflr/nn-f -"/I I A : *<D?l* r& fllhi^'H : h^W i -J-?-/* 1 : fl^S' :?: 467 1> 

i );/;AVrhrt. : Ai-flV- * n-/"* A^fl-h s 4-rt.A^ft 



10 



-l'fllh<P} p : ODWi* ' tD A *fl : ^-0^" W : /R^fcrt s Hh'Jfl A : ft Af> : *}^. 
hO-h^-tV : llf.Aaof. : f& : rt/n A i OlT-WC 



15 

9C:kao'. tt-fl.* Ah 'Jtlf s (I* A oirt*^./ 1 *> A. 



'Vfl,h : 

"h/* 1 : K^M : f rhfl^C i H>^1 A * 'J ?! : fl^^l A? 1 : fflfljE, V: d A'> : tfoft'Ai : 

20 AJf : fcTJ^ ' WA- : 3 > t9 'PA^jE, ; h : OinJi:-W :}?/" ::': fllh^Jtt^ W 

T :<m'PdA OAl : *JA. : -Tlfl "M-/": tD^H^on: OA^n^A)^ * (D^vCttD '- 



(D A" 



*^ k91t&C ' 'JT-IP i Vl/* 1 * -Ml A 468 a 

30 



h A. 



A/** i h-rt'fr i P ff A^ 8 Jirt7- : H<0-fc* .iffE^ : P If A^ U)3. Vh'fH; 



. 8 A.* 1 1-04- : HH r 0>A/fc * A.f-JttlAt fOfcHIC : (OXR (DfrlwaO' - 5 

: gAIJECiflBffH- feft MilMH: fc^MftC AM-H-W * orl-l 

: IT-/** W01 : 0):*&<: 8 07-^*1 (D^<n^m- *fl : ^S^ : h-fl'l: 
: HA<- : fllAi A .* H.V i Hflh^ 1 : Oth b? i *<: : MH.fc ID 
: MT- : fll^A^ : MCf-fl : ?iftiw>sDX-h. : AhA^-W flln 

Orh^s, * ^n'Jrrt : riiAf/n A/ih r -nc'/v^ : "W-^ i oiAA-nii*^ 

: flA^mC 8 f/)r/i)X/^ i ^HTC : ^4- : ?tA<W> : ^^ : 



G ' ^yidfr :: 'J-?. W>X*h. : tn>Klfr : //Ahh ' Orh^ : VU-^e 

UA- Afcft-f-4-W ainiiPim- s haD'.yWr'h IT-/** s 

^ nfcW^Tl : (D-f-OD^m r/Ah)l : 0rh : S>^i : fll'JA'l' : 77-/* 1 : 0)h 15 

A^ ' 

468 b *n 

hOW ^ r flA i W-C^-h Chfr ::: l^ ' flh- & 

- : f tf A.* ^^IC : fl)fUl*tfD. : 

.m - T.H. 20 



* a>nh- : Mir. - 



. : KM ' -11 A tf-A- : Hl- fl WOV : flft-flY. * i^KY-^ : /S,'Viw>rhC Aft 
Wi : Pri/**/* 1 * 
flA * OlO'flV : A A.* : 1'fl<- 

f.-n A : Avf-A- 

OiM- 8 hOW 8 IUI-/.II.II- 8 /E^nA? 1 8 A">7-/" : mi"? : flin^'iA."!- 8 J, 
<Ptl .-:s aiAiw s Yaifct^/*^ ">?/*' - X?hi.f,- s flC <:*/ flfl7*C .:: ' 

A.* : ^J&A- 8 H*^ 8 fljf Tf A.* * f riftil-V^ - HiD-Ti'l: * f'^- - f Vf A.* s 
:^ s Alf-fl : aiAi<wi : Yai;/; s Olrtfc 1 */* Arh^.r/o'l- s ^ A.^<7*n<- 8 0fll^ 
Afl"l: fll"*^! 8 m.H, s rtCh : Whan s Hf);/:(MA-J- : ?lfh-.e.' 8 JlV : fl>-A 8 
flOf :5: fflO/l 8 



[49] 



: iff)/) lift ^A 

OlOh- tfoVitfW : </)<"/ A s IT-/** : fl<w>n 
A* IDflpMl.-Wtfh : HA: MIC' 
5 



i Oh : : ^Tf"?^ s hjflU: 01?AA.U- : Vlt'fc 



:! "J'h/^rt s fli'JA: 9AA .- httfr - a>,\\C . mAf 1 * ^0 nirfijf.if (V : 01 

10 A'h * <P*C ::: O>M ' IT-/*' ,*/ A '^ : W A" s 



f :5in OI^-H -HK-^-h h*w> .- 

^,Vl-'> ^^WX : AA-fl?i : 
Aft't s f 7f A^ (D^AAA fli A& 



1 5 ro : IT-/*- : H AjK, : IDiiD^h- : -flfr^ I*^ < e ; i : Othtm t i K(Dr 

n'POC : aXDfJfl i ^ : JiTI'Tf s A,^fr : 

h^mt : IT-/** : HAjE, * HO* : AT^* s Hfl4-C : H^flCU : h<W> : 
::s 



20 ^ i i-n4-:(ifliA ; h < eu l tfi>- s ttrc-t- ^n4A HAII h<w .- i-i-n^ : m; 

00*1 : feftm'Jm.TA - 'JT-/" i ItJt* ! fl>"H ^^.^C s him : *Cfl 
: 01 A&fll^ : ^knoW : Olfl&fri: : d A^ : fllOO : <5-ft : 



-wn : 

25 Olrt !/ 1 : "JT-/** ' ^n,A9 s rh-4- : ^OA'Jhlio. : flh Ad 



: IDOI/P * A 

469 b 



3 o 

J& A- r H^^. : Olf^A^ : 'Wl* A * 



W.B. 



[50] 
(DO ft i &J ' JiTI"?^ M * (DhtfD : nl> : ^/"fi "Vh/* 1 



At 1 IP A-fl s *1 V ID-A- s flUP ::: (D^Vfl)-? 1 s AfD^ : <w>77 A : V A : ft A</D 
<-rt'flAi: < PfrA:flH'l:*lflC^ o; lh:y AA: < J fl Vl:i.- (Dd^M: 0A*sflJi ; hs 

nc ' /'H'lD&js: "ha*- A^jf s ^ii^-f * fl** flinW: w\\-- f n>-n 5 



AM : "/.ool- : ni^J?:C (DA A^' s '1-Htl.C? s Hl-fte : A"* : IPVf : ID A 



flf W 
470 a rhC : ID?i<lD : 

<w> : ^+OA-: A^&.-h-H ?^ sn/n.-^ft^ , 5 

A-A : Hp,ftA- s Mlf* 1 * :: O>n^?i'l: 
IT-/** : A>AA<(. : -OC* : AlD- ' <MAVl1"? * Hl*^ : Olflh 



: W"A- s rt-flll : OJ-^iA. - IDlVfl* : (DA- : 
s A& : ^-M ?^ : (DA^ s l-flCkAfc : W"A- : 

- hivClP > T+r 

: Hlk/n : ^A" '- Othoo : fOToAW IT-/* 1 A^S" 

(Dfcao- : l^/l/:///7i : ^K" ' Mf"?^ s lA:(D:%^ 
: nnWh - I'tlt't' ' &j : Aili^'f s hA : token* '. f(D? f Qh ' 

25 



Am A e. . /*'Art, *J a 71 s l^AA -OH-^^ : Wdj?'} 

^<p*A . urn- ^T-/*'.- (D-i-^^vh n* * 

(D?*fh : Xft<wi : ^^.*^ : ^^A^T?! ^A "Wh* 30 



AA> 

4* 47ob 
<Dfl<P*0i>- : fl, A? 1 MW : hoofi : ^h-fl V : TlA * n4>- "fch : -flV : VlC : H? 



H* 
Mr ^fl: V^C" KM'. ?,<;<$ ' (DfrACV ft htm : 



10 m>- : .pAi? ^*. : rt-flh ttf,ha>-'}'.><;? 

ttttifr ' Ml : V-fMl : rfirtl" fi JiitU- i -- * <wi s 





hCA* ft :!- ttarti+av 1 9lh0DfiJ -. 
15 A"* ft-nrh^h flai^A *3-fl si* 'TA'C * ^C J&^m- 1 V<hA : fl,H 



: HO^ s 01-K9/' * iw A^- A^ : K7H Ji Afl* : 
* 7-0*%. H. 1 ? : Oih hP ' 



20 
T |U5 ! 9ft A fXm^ - hW khan - pbll : 



47' 

25 -h^-l- A 9ft A : m^ A^ ^jfr hit"?* ' IK A- : fl0h VI" ! tlC'-Wr i fliH 

* |*lV : 0-0* * ^^^m : ftWt : IT-/" :j: tnlivf-tn" i IT-/** i AX A 
flh9 l\rao".n$u>&''(Dfi'h9 Hrao* ttf&thsaihaD t KID 

n-f-^HD : h9,'M, ::: O>hW> : ?? fllgO^ -0 A^'Jl^ h A" : ^H ft A 
: OUTDID : fiifDfin AIT-/* 1 : fllJttfD.'K-flnfHlD-fr* : fl'JA : A^ ' *l 

30 n-c <Dun ^T-/* 1 1 Ai AO?^ : Aflnhiw ID Aj^io-w s r Ari)f,n/ r: .- IDA 

/hTMl : fllh<W> i rfjfh : Ifl'^A : IT-/": Afl/h-l:* :: ^^.XlD IDC^ ^"V 
hflA<(, "MflAr X^MA : fl)0flAU.- fll'JA.ll- 
: TltlC : IDlPVf "I'ttC : tD^hm : 9\\C - ID<b*^ : IT-/" Vlfl-C 

IDA 



& "MIC * h,A :: OlfctfOi gfll'JA i IT-/** : 9AA 



AlD-A :: Othoo^i Oft : ff)"/A, IT/* 1 * lf<h<: V>.H : fl*A: A 5 



1A : ft,**' : yiCA't^*} ^AA : ID-' Wl : 

* 



47 i b ; 



0)A h : ^T-/** <PA, h<n : AJT'^ : m : 7^^-> : AM4ft : rhjE, ' 5 



. ^-01- /"A-ft *^.A 01^01- fclM 

Ml A B y^T'l- flJ^" A A.U- : aoKh i H^^Vffl ?t9*ft .- hi : h-n-t :: X'>.H s 20 
: -MflA : yj&'W* 



: ?tJ?^C :: ID^OD TlDgln} AU flh^ 11 ? 

IDA^^A- 4-A.As fliK-n/."* * 7^^s fli'JA. 



:: ni M/i (ii. AIT-/* 1 h<w 





' 30 



i ^IDlin XflA-l' :: h*W> ,ftA- AIT-/** IT-/*' A 



472 a 



[53] 
IDA& 



: -Vfl 



: M : <n> : 
: f-f- : fc'*-U- ::: 



: 9 -C : 
7ft : 



: 



- : ^0.4* : I'M. 



::': OKDUd flH':?' : At? ^VPrtl i (DID A^OI IMK-C m^VI (DC* 



H 

ifi 



20 4"}*J'f- : ini^^A'B : 
s '}X g 'fl/ I tfi>- i 



/8,n, : 
::': 



i IDr^CV 



hfr 



472 b 



25 



rt-flh - 
Aft 



:: fl)Jt(M s ^'>rtiA,5 p 'J AhA-n 



ITU s ?ift<W s^HV : C-fl^ : Ad A : ^**-fl ' ID^HV ^d^-rt i Ad A : P-A* :J: 
.'IDA& : *PUjt : OHf?* rH* 1 ?^ h^J^I^ * AVlD H 



30 



JZ.'fl A : A? ^^ : 7^<hhV fc^H,* : AH A-^ :5: 

: 



: Ad A 



[54] 
f-fl+A t fl+A i T<m 

A<n-*rh'} * fJJflttr/ni Mil' i 



. A. : : 



H i ^.Vj^Jt h<n M^ --J* fli^nCU * h<w "W*^ s fi>Mi A. A CKA- 

V Ji rl>-C : njt'VVS.Ih I flfcfc fljf Cljt e >tf>5C ::: *J^. : OAffl. i 



i ^Ak^C : htfn i ^AJP ATI-/" : 01^ s no^-^i^ : 0Hw/ M <Pd'f ,o 
:!: ID AO-A : /*' A*?? ?l*7H,>lV (OOD^Vi : A,f frft 
473a Jt^ e 01*^^*11- frhOH<- A.* T-fl/i,: H.V (D^A^ 1-04 

*3-ft iD-ni- hn- -ttiA y^fTT- OI/^A H! 



<wc un 



f . -n A : ^'}/ A '?i : -J-*fl M t ate A, s Mt- ^*7H> 
J* <DflM: dA^i ^^TT-/*' 



... : , (Dfi^fao- A-flh : OJ-^A. fliaiA" fli^A""? him t 



P.Vl, A ,!> : iDJZ,-fl A- .-:': 0>^ AV .- Ai A* 
AV hftuDcuDXrhi-flV IT/" - K*^XHl*M U >f^W'^H'*X^j^ 

c ^.TflC i fl+A i ID-fll- Al/hH-fl i <D : A* : ?lA, : AV : ?lft/w> : aoRh : flV : 

Off, 





If <m- 



3 o 



473 b 



[55] 



: A-* <D*Mltl. 
5 VIM ' flilTH- * hntFaD - Ma~\'' 9h fl-flJi* flirt" 



; >-!/*' : Xrff^ s <Dfll<:^ = ^At^M- n'firt" : (IMC 

10 



1 5 



: >-!-/* s X^ff^ t fll 



: n,K s hAU^-J- : flJ^-nfl-l- : fl) a fcfl : -nH^ i AT*-/" 
MM : d^ s flhort: 



20 rt-fih ^? rh^:flIfl)rt:flJfl>-'*iA.sJ&fld : 0?^ : ^jf ' hTlrft 'hfrW ID 



VIC : 

h 9f\ 



fl>- A" 



: JT-/*' : fc0"hrt : flJ^^ ! IW^CM^C fllfl&M: 

25 

A- 



|j^ M^JLfliai. : ml/.'/fi). : A'JT'/^sMH : ^'nA-sfl^A-l- s ^'PA'I : ^A* Uf * 



: fll^ Af ' 

?i Ah 



[56] 
<Dlf "M- i kyglt i &KOD * ,n,A- 

Hi fll*<DV*'J * ^W .' fl)/&n, HW 

/E.H.A- : 7/hVrt * t.b?: ' h^V : heft 



' 5 

C hH> J&'flA : ^D^rh 1 ?: A.^-T?4} p tfi>-: A^^lO-^s 
M Mtt 
*Jt< 

i-nc n* i i^ft A rt-nhf O>MM? - oij&n, A- >?/' ">nc -in 

474b 



: V'g'V : h9? \ '. ptDC&'> WPh H 

r/r IIMI i /if fa i oei ^^.^Vi * <tth m flirty/ 1 >?/* H w +&-1C2 > 



i Vf-A- : HHhA * Xi^.aA i Mtt i ttfAfrfa i ">AV "J^n, '5 

: ll+A :?: 



: ?Ah i ^fll AJ^- :: 

A-H -. a*h?& i "ft-P" iM$.t H j&-n A W- A- H^ AP A^S 

ath.f.^&Qll'.ai^&t -. >7-/*':nfllC*: a 7ni Hi 20 

.- i/tu'JA J^AA s ^jf * ^Tl^'-f i fliA^ i I'OCAuA fflOliPtfo- flAi 
rt'Jfl^ noWr : r/ Air/o i (DO r/i"/ A IT-/** ?AA ^jp^ : hll 
: 0>A^:7-nC/i,A::s n^^/^'^t* fflfll^fl: A'}?-/*':^: ^S s ^'M a V : f s 
'Hiai.A H flinj&^sdA^: AW 1T-/** : fl^S'-h J* A r ff V rj: 011*- 



A'}?-/*' 



TV*' : Art-n^ IDA- 1 Ill/lie: V ir<n>. : ^00 . fiih r/ : Vflir^h A i 
: HA/& OJ-fl-f- i ODCU-n : A^A Hi fDlvttlfl i flh-n^ / 



s A 30 

rjC-^^ 

HJf^ll "V'-T- : A-fl : VJ.H #* A-At : /irh'l: : If Mltf* 



475 



[57] 



Mil : J&11A B hJ^JiH.rt : JPfl-Mldfl-J: * W-A : ^o>-A^ * ^fi^s-Ml^s A.1* 

ID^-S-rt : fl<n>- .': <D?l? Ti' * "Ml Jl s ID-fl'l" * f/nlt'l 
: A& s ft-H"?'!- s flrn : fclH : 11 A s 3<itfD : &.TLT*lfli- : 



: >P s Alffl H^H-' 

^ftA.lf <n>- ">7-/*'rt ' QwGao- : A?tA 

Jt'H'Tf : flrn :j: O>hP& ' M 



10 



: HfliA" 

: A-fl .-;.- hfaof ' 9 A A B rTiTJO s T W* *J^C WMM& 



20 w> . 

475 b 



A;iA v f 
Ch.A :;- 

25 IDA^:1-nC^A B Ji : tttl9tlM:1i'Ht c /Z.'flA :!: Uf B 



s O)U(i s ft AJ* B 7-fl<- : fc : /^Art, s K'JH s ^-fl A ! 

: A?h B tfj^Cft B nrii-"/rn. <wTi"Ml : Arh 

-MFIA B -i.f-^A HJRI- . H^Ah s AtAHn.- ^j^cr^H-t^Ai- 

30 Tffc B VIC B *<P'^. : h'J'l- : >l AO* s r/lrt^ :: h&WlC s fl-ftft s ^ A B 



IT-/** s 

s "Yb/" {DaomPa' ^CflV s A-flH-^l rt-flh s ID A" s hA s 



W. B. 



[58] 



IDIM1V : 



.- - Ml AS* *> 



' flfl : 



: Aft A- : "Mi A ' W'C'Ltl ' h9P,l\& Kt\\&,W) 5 



flffl^V i 



:J: T*>^ : A?" : K^ : hao : Ai^n/. ::': Mil i ft 



7 : 



/I AH i HU Af 



1fV7C : 



47 6b 



VlC^ft : 



fc/'ft 



ID Aft : I^Ch. A : 



/Hi "Hfl : 



Aflo-: 



jB,-flA : A' 



Aft i 1 

-h-l' : ?ifth 



i IT-/*** 



. : A/hTffl : ^7<J.: "Tlfl : 'M\ - &K'M M '. 

* t 



25 



' ^-A s ^ j& A- : (1^. 



^ A- ArhlD-* '>?/*' 



T-/" ^XTh* -l-^'rh : T* 



IT-/** 



. : OtMll - f.41 A 



[59] 
flfl 



? /"Art, : flCy : A h'FCC? VIC ' ?T*/*'rt : M : Cfc? : 

W : 1 
- Afl s 
OieK 

OlC4 : ^VA^ : h^H s |8,T^C : hn> : fcltM IfMft-fl^ ' I^All- : KftA. : 

.-^'n^^ : *lCA-fc,?Vih Hl-WH 

i "haoC.fi : ^tli 11 ?^ : ^h4-: fllti? :: 



- 
Atti^V^ ^fr a>jMl < Tf h-n-fc ID 

OlK^H : f rhOJ-4- : fl^T^ : 0i>Kh s? A ^fl : ao 



1 5 -h '-? A : HlO-M: : 01 A" : ^fl^'h fll AA : 1'C^- : XlH J&-fl A- i A.^I'flC 



: Ml"?"'! 1 :*^JtTUJr : mApahfrd* hjffptf1ttt'$fli '- ^^A" e fflT^ : 477 a 

' All-/** -- fli^^ : "> T-/** : 
: 1*. OAi 

h">lnjZ,A-A "J-?. ^.Vox. 



: rt">T-A : 



25 : <. s (D : : ffll- : 

IT-/* 1 

HKftA fllfl^h-fc.^?! ' l ' 

^Tf : <D4"I-A -flli-.'VV i ?t^ a 

IT-/** HAI& !. aih<wiTf . ^.TW .- 

30 G^ Ot+P+hP ' tDM&4* -nH-^ rtnh : <Drh<nl- : IT-/** : 

i H0D?TA 
.' A-* * AIT-/** : >l ^*R i ff <P :;: 



aih1i:Q>h-n-t 



[6o] 



A" : iP^d 1 : IT-/** A* A : ft-flC ' MH^iA-*'' : fldV^A- : fllM : .^f A : .1 A : 
477 b *^A : .9A : fllA^C-nrh'e : fll'JA. : ^-fl : ") A i fflfc? *: : ^tf : d^Y : .lA 

: tf-A-A i %i t f vf A^ sm- A cod'/H-A -nn-^ IOD^M: * * A 

<D?d- flJ'fllW fefl A" fll^liwi : o^^h : IT-/*' : K^fli 5 
fl^*?/. ' fc-fU: ' HO>-*iA. : tip.ftoDf, : A>'h :: flllnV : &* : ^-ft : 



aim*- : -Ih^C'-f : Ui ft-nr: (o^^ao. -. -JT-/*'-- Jiiw jvn A s 

?ift<Wi i 0>-?lf : Or/ljE, IDn^-fc * A^ : +* A? 1 * 

I/ )""/. A. i 



- - 

: &flC : fl^rtA/*'^: flf ^7 : ^-Hfl i 15 
: ffl A A ' 1-nCh, A : 0)^6^9 : l?'^- : f ?f A*^ * fll^fe* : fl,^ : 

& aifl 

: AA.II- : ftjE-^-M^-f : <DA&:?-nCkA h'Wb: A?*- : fl?^ A 

:-: fll^H.: 

20 



rtl.fl i hl^'J'l.' fl)V& ?l^^ ?ty*.e.V/D : IK. '. AT?'/" i 



: <CVOI : ?; : frtt^ fllA^ : I'flC^A ' 



: to-Mr ' h4*& f h J&HD* r -M/h- - ^*O^ ai-l-4* AH 30 

-. Vf-A- : 



h : ">7-/" : fllfll 1 ) A^ /"A * ^JK. A- 1 ID*} Ad- : ft 
i & : hTI^'-f 01 A& i 1-nC/t.A fllhl^Tf 



OD : -I-', /h Art) : <Drh<: +J5"l i Mil : flA i Tl-/*' * Jm?#: (OhAtlV ". (D 
A& : kanl B -flA Atlft 
ID-Ms 

5 "tool ' ?,&h. s iD-fH- : A'flP :j: 


* OH-h^D^^.-Oifr.-nhiro.: 0,* 

^.fl : C 



' l**?*?? 1 ! : 



^pc^l*l ?%> : ^n.-^T-n^ AO 

W-^OI.-Hrhl'J.-airh^ : hfth: 
1 5 W* : ^X-^^lf tfo- : ?ttfi-'}*Y. : 



AMH.Ai'flrh.C s fliWi'Hao.^:^^^ s ^H s 11 A .1 fclf 1 

n: hchp,\*0o -. 



20 



B A.A/1- :.-: 0>Y\at> B *fld A-f B rhtfo-l*l B 



.- >i rh- P- s lV B <bfc a fc s |/*>,P.v/i s IT-/** B 
B f |M1 s ^ A : A- s <D A-f s AJJi'H < Tf : ft^ s IDIPCh s h'g'? s IWJ^^ B 

25 ft^-H'Tf B n.<:A s 9AA s -nn-^i B fl-oft m-^A>: HJK,AIW>P.- fljc^P. * a>fl 

" B Mi7"-f B ft^l^ : 9 h A s 0- A-& s ^A : %* :i: 



^,-fl A B aiiJ-fl* s 7- A^y s Aft^Aft B a>h A fli^ 
- fi>n?.M: OA^ W-.-ft^ ' ^ft.-^j&A- * fflftjf i 

30 



fUA, fllirnd A :!: mi\s?,M: d A^ 
4"tAim- .- h^iD-^A. -IB ait^'V^h B -flfr'V 

: OlC'V iwu Vl*- ::: tO^FC i Tf W : 



[62] 



ri> II e.Vl: : AA^ : /*# Ji h AJP.' ? : fcfltfD ' A^J" ' fHlfc : A" ' 'Iffl : Th/" * 
Mn * -flA : -I'M A -flV :: >/>7V" : X0 Juw : ^"/M r IT-/** : JtfMMi. 5 

CV t WtZtD*! YiaoYit ' U r /) fVH) A V !: H^t : H)B,n, A- : A-fl^ : ai A- : ?i hao 

: T+ : ^fl : CM ' Mil '- f,O^\ ' frtlt ' A")* ' 



ID?!* : ttt-t-fl M ' 



: nh<wi . ttw ^/.> AMI .:. Ahn-v .- -MfiA y^^s ^ . 

: UAfl) : V.p 1 '!?. : HjZ^+fld : ^'O'J ' 
'- Mtt : h.fSl'ir' : X? ^"^^ : l-fr-fl 1 * ^fl 15 

-Tin TI-I- - 'iic ain^h-i: * ^A^ : ^/%^ .- ne ai-f ^ an^ rh^- 

' ATT-/*' #-l:A<n>- 





: fll-^oflb : - < : 



479 b TfDondA^ tC'fl't-'ir'h : IT-/**: ^9 Tfl :: O) 

) n.e,?rf: i d A* : hV i ^j?V : M^H "h'?^ flH^T* A- : rt-flh 
(\ODCI : mho* - 'tm&adMr +19 1*rH .- IT-/** : A&jf.- 

-nC^. A fl'jOT? * HHhCVlh : *" ! fl>^AA.H- * fl*lf <m- : ATI 

'/^rh fflA^-n^A s fllV/^Ai W-A s }*?? : fllW-A" : Will '- O>MM :!: 
A ihlid ' M^A e aoihEao- * fllh/ 1 ^ Aw ^V^. :!: fl)flM: i AA^ : on 



.- ^S i Ml 

7' V^ : ID,9^.?f i f 7f A*** ' tDM.pOh&. ^.tll ' ^51^ ^g: /til ? 30 
:: fll A^A : :* A*A : ^.ni-f : I/TT^ : flllDllO : 
i 7-flCft.A : H/^'C^fl*- : AfDCtf* .' Olfl-flf-C ::: A^g : AlTf ?'?"- 

ml IP * yw-V* : Ximh. 4 ; : (D'l.aD'l- : A.+ hUV*** tlattatC A-fl A-l:" 

A-A ' 



' Ol'JA 8 IT-/** : Mn - ^VW : H-f-C : JV? : 0)A * TflCJtA HI 
0>V<D : AMlV : fDaoftllM ' HoTlAsT-T&C # (Dhaos YtDlMA* : l*Afl j 



: *JA. : 'hC^ :: 
: -I* V*7l : '^T'/*' * h0DOh<t>6? : 0)^ ^^ : ^h&CV"!^ # Othtm : R'ai 480 a 

10 AfldA-f* : ^C-n-.-t-t^h lir/ l 'tM*M9*f -* 

: ft,-!* : A^9 ' ajH-Ch^O : fl^WA.I' : fllfl^ 



:5: 

15 ^i^P^.4i flih^.-goilifldA 

: H'iA i 



: tDt\h : h<W :J: flll-fl^ : hi" 1 ? : flUf : 

-flrh,Cai>- 

s f -hit 



::': hOV^X s fc>-: ^^K'K- : (1(1^ A'l-' : fWHtfO-C : fllfl 
25 J&nn, : 'Tin IT-/** :;: aiflj&M: dA^ : <WiX-K. : 



s (D'flfr'V : TflOifD- Ms O)Y\aD: : Ka* : j f ftbb't' -'rfl 
fr^ nfl-flrfl,^ : OJ-V.fl ?lVl A 

aiaiUfl : Aft.^ hCA-t^'J <w'>rn A** : ai^i<w : XaiirMtt A^ :^C- 

30 >/* AhA-.'^ifV^ : HHhCVlftfD- : ; hfr<W>:Al'nA/ I tf-:iDhA'M^tfi- : JWV" 



lft '- ^ AflA : 
Ol'iA : 9flA s aoWi-klh : ()'/'() A6 : 00D A't : Itlllao 

:* (D^^Al : H'l-^Vfll : h? *!*! e M h-fl-fc : ID^fl. 



::.- athao mO II A At ?uh.- *>IX - tl-/*' Af 7t 

Hi ffin.eJrl: : A At i OJl : HtVlD : MPlUVt i II V HI O)Ji<*D: 

fl A At i A>- : oi'JA i "JT-/" : flrt"rJ Vl<: W HI n 

mfc Aftl'rt : H1-V ::': fl)?* MLA.1fl : AJl^ft.pftin' .-}> HI 

: hW : f J-flf ' : HlD-CH^ ' flll A? * VIC : ft?" fcf II- : AJft^ft HI fllfl 5 

: * A* .- :V<:P JT-/*' * ^9 v-f- h^huvl- tohao -. MW At i** A-ft 01 

'}?/*' : flrt"?.^ : 'lid -WJ : ::': :!: Adh'> fllAi^ i rfl A A* * ^fl A 
i Th/" : flrt^^ : V1<: : ^^.'J'} fll^lPfi: i AAlMlfl fll : fll/^rh A 



(1fsnft<| A s h^A.^-rt-n : rhAt :J: Olflj&M: 10 

A At : Ph : ^t : h9&<k+ s fl,* fi A??-/* 1 : Hftfllfl*-? 1 : rt'O/l : fl>-iA, : 
-flUA : 1t- :: Ol Afl : VXC : IT-/** : t A/^rll : T* : 1<W ' t^/"rl 

: ID A-?, i k9P:"l : t-nUA : ^t HI fllfl*; s *J .*(!, : fit* - h 0, 
::': fl)0j&?'l: : AAt : t^trh : fl* i ttih ' I** * llft'Hrh A ID ' fllWrh A ' 
??'/*' ::: OlAi^ : gflA At : 'JC'tt : ffl^A : '*?-/*' : ?7M : f rh">A : 0,t :=: 
: AfllO : IDA- 1 ?. : hftffo : <& : fl* ' *h>.5\ : 0,t : flinJt^t'M "iW * Uf 



48 1 a fllJitfD : iflA At i M0! M-dflfl ' ^T-/*' :fl)hW. : ;/;ll AAt : Xrh-fr 
hHlCiH.V.'I'flCh.A : IDAfTfA^rh-n-f: : h<W:'VC: 
AIT"/** ::: Who* '- ^flAAt i M' Ol'JA i ^7-/*' : llfl't, 1 } i Vl^ i 20 
::' flinAi:AAVl:Ht^VlD:?9 ^:*A" < P::: fllM-: ftllll.: 

i flT-rliA-1- HI ai>%<ni : i/HAAt i i*A-ft MV. 

VflAAt : ^frA : ID^A i IT-/* 1 1 ^H i /. : "fCC i 

At : J10D-A i ID^A : }7-/*':inflX : ^bt^i i OltlA'fc" i A>lUl i 

: Vtrh-'T't : h<n> iHhCS> ' *Jt^ HI fll^jtf ' ^rh-L'-'^V ::: 



A At : *JC'fl i t V*7l : >?/*' : X^/i^-) : flJrh^ i <i.A'? i 
*J"/t : *Jflt : fll^VlD : tlfrflh : >'>^C i f/> AA' 
: Vmr A At : +^y : tVTi i *>1-/": 

c-vn n-n*j rt^t n^rt . m ^^.r c h^ .- hr'vw . /*-c 30 

i lin,t i m jR,Hcr m At i /"Art. :: IH^/WI : r aiiill A At : 



U,t : w.f.i/c: i aiAti/^AA. : iD^A.-^AA i0D^'-l:iM||0iKflAA 

Hi 



[651 
Olflj&M: * 6 A* : <w># Ji : IK- : A^'i! : 



i 'JC'fl i HOHfc* 0A+i A+A-fr AV7HM MA- A 'hCfltfrt i 48 1 b 
Oi'JA 



:: 0)l\'L'(io. i 



'5 ftftjPfl :|: fllh^ : 3?fl)^fldA1' : 'JC'tt : ^/^h 

nM i "/dC ::s fljnil^iio- 1 htvC'lPav i IT-/** : Ah A/** : 1-04- : <D A/i A^ 

n A-nrt i IDC* . flin A-nrt tm^i- flii-*n A?* * ATI-H 

fl^AI' 5 X-CH- 1 n^^/^A^ : oii^ A 9A A 
/^s whKVt* "L0D+''HA-h ' 

20 ^^.^C :! 010)1/0 : WA- ' hVI't '- "l"** OtRJhC '- (D&6- : ID}k9 D 'H 

flAO- h^H : -OA :i: ^W : -}*Brth ^.^-f- 1 w^C 

: ^.m1- i ^0, : 



-. - : 
25 ^-0^ s A.QTA : -flfcfc i hUV ::. fl)M 

0,1- 8 tlCft-tl 8 H^lhC 8 Vf-A: 



OlC'V : 



B ^0, 8 AWi^s o) AhU^-tV ^07-^ sM-nc-t -0-CO:oi*hC HI iDllfl 

T^*^ 8 -OA-fcW' s 7- A-f- 8 } -l-fl, : {itt : H(/A : t\'^ tt l& & 

8 Vf-A- +X tt^+tK ' Witt flh^ 8 ^fr^ft :!.- flin?ift * 

W-A-00- * /^"n H: fllhr^h-f: 8 I^A^ 8 -i-rtW : *A 8 J% : h-fl* 8 ^j*0, 8 

w.n. 9 



[66] 



4 82b H^P^ :': fDAPdft i Ihlft 



i AljH" <Dft<w<: s JPflA i Jtt<P0 him : A.J&160- : A 

m i ^-fl^ * fltfD s "/.OT* rj: ?f)A: fl0i <7*fK. :: 
hn : Wi JtA, ' AIUA. ::: flJ^iro.-VfllKfMA'l- 
i Whfl !/* MIoBiMifiWhTSirt- : fD't'l^f.aD : t^iMf*^ :f/" 5 
Art, : DC,? : fr.**! : -fl A* "U^V^ :j: fll-fl A* W 7- A*^ fl"fc'> : ^S ! ^*M 

/id-n : *^ i h-M^'-l'^-.tDh^fb^' 

njth * 



10 



:: n^h-t : fi A^ : rtfl^U : ^^ : 1-0^ : OTA* A M^ avW}* ' (I) ft 20 
A 1 ? l-fl^ <wift4 A -flrh-C : <D ATf*^ A : A. : ft B ^Ti ?^ V^ :!: fl> Aft s 



s ^y, . I) ^ft- A^ 1 : M : flS^ A :: fcfltfD ?<w>OJ : 

X'7l.h,:'}7-/ M : 25 
AU^Vlh :& Olfl 

ft wit 



r/n Aft ll 1M-^ :5: ?i A ^C^fl hU V'> A,t W^ao- c n^X'l: i 6 A^ :: 

yniw-l-V.lfin "J'h/^nfl'h^A i Jihao : n?i ItfAVfD K^C^.-Ai'H ?^ 30 

flirt"} i K'1,11 "lAt 1 s f^i Allrt fllC*: A9ft ' IDh^'h Ol<w>Tn /h-N 
. 8 ^Vfli totf? 9tlh e A-A^ t fli^AA.^ ^X'^i T-T^ i * A i H-Wi Mil 



fllfllAft 



[67] 



::: fl)H"H* : 



s IDC* : H Ji AO 
e 



: rh</ 



: 'PH."? : 



: Ml ::s 



WO)6fldA1* s IP A-ft 



'-f : Jiftf- : flirt"} : 
:: KA : I/ AflJ. s fl>-ft ^ : n,^ : <w'} < 7/ M; h 



15 A, : 



s IDA.4* s 



:'>7/ v :Vn^s a ?dhA,lfai>- : 

VIC 



20 



25 



A* W-A-tfi>- : / 

->.H<n>- ^r^: A'J'h/*' : 



Afc : 



n-h<PU& : rftA-'^A s MH.-flrh.C 

30 ^.-O*: A^sh-nC i Hh^VV :!: ?lft<W> : 



CIO) : 



f /*"AA. nc fl^ft 



?lA- : 



' fl/"C ^ ' 



4 8 3 b 



<Dh<n:TAflfc e 



[68] 



-Ml A 

x ^V ::: him : VtD-fl'll x -fl?i A.^ i fll^J^C x -flfcfl.* x HWZ. ::': fcfl *D x 
H<w<D x {PVlA i fc"? x 01^*7^ i ^|PC^ x h<w : Aufl.'MlC : h^flA x 

* -MA. : wn A*? m^n^ 

: tfnVVlA : d^'flt : fln,* 
i htfo: ^flf-n/h. i ft All? '!' : 
rt)llXr/i> A^,* AV?lUV ^.f frA slflCft-f A<D?i? 1 "Hx'MlJi 



:J: 



ai-n A*1l^- s h A- 



10 

: A?ih ' 0fti 
484 a oi^nirY # fli3?1 s ^h A-^f s UAort i ^^D A3? * * H JK,^ A- 



: QAC V^TI -f-fl4. i X-P-"} s 9 A A i -flH-^1 : rt-rth : ^^ :5- 

iAnAffi>-:hAnrt:h'nC:AnAC:^?rtA^:}rP-^ '5 
fll AIM) :WiC^'H <I V : f : AlA^: fllrtT :! 0l^.)fD s ^g- 
fcA" tfDllfl*: ::: fll^A^J: llf/n : Hh- = 



* 7^-A- ruAlf)<r.A /i^V^ .-:: 
Mtt* ,-tl A * ^,*i^ 9rfV 30 

vnn- < IP^:*^ A'JH -n A- ^$9 
* +^89 !* iDh<ii> i sffliindA-i- 1 wr i hn TT-/** n 

i -Ji-/*'! n?f ff A AhUS'-J- : ^-n^ : JPT^* ? aiiumV A^f 
4 8 4 b AA x l\'H-l:*> x inhw'.frw/'MM' x <:n-d : noM H.VC 



[69] 



0> A& 

a flifcrsn: 



5 
-flV : tf-A" : i^J^^ : hK*?^, : HWA": ^dh A : fl-C^ fll4^C : A-rt^ i 



A A-t- ^C-n : flJlW : Th/** : H^C<C - *^<(. Art"flf &(!<: A^OTft i rti Art 

10 -flh : ^-fl^:^fPft .' "I't^ft 



15 



Art, nc^ KHTC 7-n4- AHTC .- hif. wn^rt^n - fljE-CTjc- <Prt * 

20 ID^liWi : ailh : ^flljfl^ : ^T-/ M : 44-<C ft^hA" * hl) 1 ?^ hA : 



^ AA WO. iW h-O-t ID Ml A/'tfo- 1(0-^ * *t<JC#* aa-rt A. 485 

h^H (D^l A^ P-rh"> A s 



25 

. 



ai A& /^Art, h^H Ar^. im-/** & a>h 



3 o - s s i --- : i no ^o: j&fl, 

# * 

-vnv. rt-nfc ^-n^ A,nsft 



[70] 
(D'JA- fl^W/h* : OhMr e n.1* : avWr** Mil s .ft HAD- flJftlW- ;: 



JHlA/%n>- s TiV^s AfcA-'hU 1 ^ : HHhCWflO-sfcgvwi :: 



<DlV 



485 b IT-/** i fl-*ft t c 0,1" Jifl-V i f-^i-n s fl<w-n Ad 9ftA no Wl-fcch :;: 



- (Dhao - eAT*? ^ s h? & : ^T-/** i fc<P3. ?t7H fe-OA (D 
& : A-M^'V^ P/^fc QC,?: fllA7A^ t^+1 ' -flA-fl 

:: :i: :i !:': ::'! :|! 15 

: K-n i rflffl A- ataoTriLh i *^?.ft A'^9Alfl :i: 



H A.ft ttt? -00- : ^ A 
tod n ft i <Dn0nflV} ::: OlH. V AU+* flTfl-fl : Olfl t" T^K' ATI1* ' 



rh,C : 



^ s TC8 jt0D8]f0gAa>C:* 8 TC-- Hfli-Vt 6M* fl^A- 25 



lfin-C : aiV-'lii: hdOh '\,^ s an^fJ .: Ol^'fc^V.-JiTith'flrh.C :;: (Dim 

8 Aft A- 8 



8 ID00.V. : oiftHC? s Vf- : oiA' - 

(Dtlao '. Xoo-Y. : IDRHC B fljA'f" s <.<.h.A B OlAI- 8 /lO,?-: fllA^^^.PC^^I :: 
486a (DA^.-ML-f :1Al>^Pi*l 8 fllA-S- '8 A<5-fl 8 flJA^:^P-C'/.ft:^n-|>:/in,-f- s 

8 01 A^ 8 Aflifc KG 4-S'fr :5: oiTiiiu-y. s A^-fl 



s fl)A 

: fl>A ' ^P-C 
: H'P'? r 



: a ?C^sfljA'h:?ft1fl > >JtC: I >T'/ A ' :!: 01 A^ : 



aiAl- : 

: ThlP : H4A : Hl-AfmjS, : ?<Win,^ : fllAI" : 

AJitfD- ATI1* : Alt'* tDfrllG - -fl^Tl 01 A* 
-ft: flJJ?% iDA^c^fl : fVV : IflCft-f ft : (DOlA^ sfflA^s V.^Tl : 
: fc"7: Attl^Ht? -n^tf s fl)HC? : 

s IDX'I s C"V> : fD^fl.-^ : fl^4 : fllJlA^^ : Vd'H) : (lh//n : -MflUA) HI 
15 OlhtfDrt : ^-n A ' Yi-n-d T">***s rlhA. 4 ? i JR&tllP .: fllA^: ^-(1^9 '- (D 



' ^JR'A * ^hh, A s HOJ-h* : 

20 An-^ s A- ! ^TJ^'-f -tnpy . mwip -. nwtf, I-T'/K- ^ ai^n nxd* -. 

i A0D9UC a)^J' li *U<: : <wJ?^^t * 4^-A^ m aiViV -. -n 
s mfUl : oA-nai s mf-A-.-^-fK-.-aii^P :<5-hj& mldll* athtm . ins": 



AiC'B i ^g-UDcHiD ! ffl+^A VI : IflD-M:: HIT* : 
25 hff-fc s Jt'J'?^ Hi fl)M : C?if s H"}^ s drt? '* H^i * +9*} ' (toW : Afl" V*B ::: 
HOD W i HflC^d flhtfn ^r 1 ) fa A : hfl^Ji.A'B ::: 



At!. 1 / 

w>AjPA/2,lffli- i ttJ^VfPtfo- : AVf-A- : ftfe* ?tfl/.^i,A : 01/2,0, i H 
30 ^^A^tm- * H IH. ' AA^.A i fliAAtf-h, A : 01 Aftn.fr: l&^rhejt ^<PP 

* n,* .-:. oiAn, 1 / : *^A<H>- Aft^n-n AftAY..-^?!* ^A: 

^O^ : O-n / : fttfD : ^*fr : OlVftA : hTW ' Oh^^ i VI : H 
Ul-li* Hl/"J :;: (DhttlCl OJ-ft* s *">-5. OI^A. s tt?.$C ' fl)AtfO-ft,A3l * 
: HftA,h# e ffl^ : j&^^AA- B A^^l- B ftn-|> : HfllAfc: 



: hl)A : +'f:A^f * *&>. * 'HUD-HldO- ' M-flC* * <D 

: 



VI 
:Hfl>-?l*:Vl-y o n,:9 d^ < h :; 

-vn T w MC 

IDl^ i 

487 a 



MIT) 

: <I 7hfc,A * 

' htfD : "Mf-A s fllC'Ml e r-?i'I- : hm : htM Us fllA^PlD- : 

* 

CPf, : 20 

tt. : 0M|i ^^^ K^Jth-flrh-C /"-H-*- TiX-rh* 



: AiA HWH : ffl^fr^ &><?(* ft 0)9 U-M : 0-nA ::': 

c?iA IHD^T^ * (Daofitt^ - wn^ nn&c 

* ID^fl A^^.-H.^ 0)A^- : htfn i JRl 25 



a>K 9*} : 



hn-o- <nv-y. vf-A- - - t 3 o 

i I-IK- JTAA s Tf>* i 

487 b *^ AV : 01^,0. x 17<-fc : /i^'fc i MA" HU"> * ID^tt, A? 1 : WA" 



Hi 



[73] 
B mn :: fl)M : 



Hi fll^TJ: AH' ' tl0D : ,hA/M : Olfl 

B "TflhA : W-df * HIT? fllfcCfl? : h.?# : A0A MlV.'lM 
HB (Dh9'tt '- tHCfll. 



Hlf* s Ol^rtfg^ s D?i? 'H:^<wije,fll fflOh r 

1-A4- * T.P-C1.A * 0) 
MflA m H^TOA 'feX'A 

10 fll': i -- .'-n s , : fll-- : iO-::: lDK{r"H : -t'aof.ai * 

: (Dflh i ID-fit : Jt&C^jE, i (Dt^-hn ?AA 



JHTC i 



15 friOHDKh 1 ao'inh'.tD'IA* -. flJ'H'n A? 1 : ri'dh i 017^ : flH^"} : flhiw : -0 
M: tDfih !>*}^C Olt^nAJP e fl-flh : fa,'}* - flMC (flll^/.A 



20 

a>$&1 - d Alt fl^Jt^y ': ^M:>. i T4> t^/^rht * m^n, "7dH. A 

OJ^dH. : +t A ^tlV : A?*} c Ohh'b : Ht^A? tfllAft i (DhW ' 

-Tin n,* :?: oiK^H * f rhi-c -in fl>t> Afbih . nHn, n^nn * 

i 



25 

: IDhV : ^/^rh i (D^-^t :H IDK^-H : 0t>Kh * hfclh 

i h^-nrh.^ i "f.iwi* ^'Pt i IDOI^K : ID A3- A '^.hh.A i flit 

n^Tt H^ H ID^^I : 6 Ait n4-"u- * m^n B CKP- wnifl rt 
-M^ * TiinTA^ B s/^rh B iD^^t : ^p/^rh B IH B j&t^xc B r fin -. 
30 tr'ttio- B A<r<H-n m i^n C?IP- Ae-rt,^ IDA^. > wn ^v?/** .-ii>rit : 

7-nif HI hi^frlf^ B t-nUA B fl+ : P-rt,^ B r/> (1 AM- B AiC^ B \\ao * t 
55: ID-h-is^B h^lh B t A/^rh B & : hlf^^ : Kft'-fc : rtCKet B 
AMH.^-flfii.C s flM-f-B HltCitf- B fllA^- :J: fflX^-H: flJl * 

B nue B Mn B A,jE,-n A B A<C, B IDA<C. ::. riM*R*iiM nx-r 

W.B. 10 



[74] 
: Xr-Vn : fc^fc-H"?"'}"- : Mil * "HI <^ft "VlJfcA i If 11 A 



: 
IT-/** fllT?/*** ?!> OHJfl-h I "/.OD-f- .'^.ftV^ :: <D?ilPTf i -fV/1 (I) 

vie: MI : iii'jiA* i im pfcft-fl nji-<5h i nvv i 

:: * .': :J: Ui :: 



ft A i ff"?* ' ft"}*- ID?" ft A : HD^II*- 01 A& "VM A : fc A : f rh6 W : fllf ^ 

4 88b 



:|: fflf ^A*-' fDPH^O. : htfO.-^^^B Ain^:>itfi>-: O.-l^'^C 10 



Vrf* 



fll!7Ch * a>k9 , 5 

Of : fl fc : ^ft :^h/i, A ' W&C *M"}f,tP - 9 ft A -flfr'V : ^dfl.^ CD*1 V 
rhhlfl : 



2O 



01^1- t ^^TI^ ' Jl'fc.-i^ftA ' -fl 

<D^ A V n* s T^h, i ^g- : ft-H"?^ Vrt'-t -- ^^-^ AVf-A- 

: Ol^O-ft : nh<W> : ^.n, : ^X'rh't" -na-^*} ^rh-^V : <^'}^ft : Jlft^m i 35 



ihK - 'dO^'J : X A : 
::: Kftrm : fenD/H: : S.'l-^/^.h. m 1-HTb i A& ^-H ?^ ?i?ll*'fc 



30 
: fclM: : C'*-n : fl> ^r 

489 a 



[75] 

: AWP : fl,* ::: fth> J JiTi"??' hff'fc "JJUh 
fl* A : 01*0 flhtfD : 0, : aoKihK : 'fla-'J'J : WAV A-fl i fcfltfD : 
JS-^tyZ,? 1 : AfcTlf.Jffldl.C ::': fl-MTl, : ftjf :^TI a 7 : f MM? ' <n94& * 
flirt A9 flh0D : 0, : *Dfrrh<h flfl-'J? : IflC^V : rt 19 s hfltfD hao-"}* i Oh 
5 



i W- A- rt'flh : fl*i : OT** : fl-K* : ^7rt : h^TI ^ H,Vl> fflf 



IflP : fllh^'M : -i'rtr *J : T* ' flld^rh hfth : T-^ftC :f: 

flirt*^*fl>- * ni-'j&c * fli^flf ^ v^<i. s AD .- 

H : ^nhP-tfO- : A^*^ : ^(lf ^ : V%^ e AU :|: ' 

K'Y-lh i ^jf : ^-H"?^ : Jiff'fr : ^em j&fll 



15 fcTWft : (UCHfll : fl^h-fc: dA'lh :ii fll^ffl. "VOW : "Jfl^, 



M ' 
: fljrt*^fl>- : htlao : 

: A-f-Hi*<: .- hn-o- 

:5: (Drh 



KA U,')ahp -. -nti? -. nm fl* .-. 

TfL V&wP j^Crt*V. i ilai-Ms .h^^nAdA.hs'^^V-.- 

25 tlUD.-faD-AKD'TOd : hOT.-'i'n-'fr !:: KJlA : Ahlf-fr : ^TlTA : M* fl-?t 



nc^ i fli-fim rAA : IT-/*- fliA^h : -Tin,i> vn 

KV : h'MlJl s 



30 |W>! M s 'Jfl.JZ, : 

:: 'Jflf ID^tt, 



[76] 



* . 

ffl'PfrCf fc0Ji'l; : ^h-flh i nt-t- * 

& ft-ii <rf . ?* n ic?9 o 



' WCy* : <1C : "fcV* : IT-/** i V-l/" : /.f-lft : A* 5 



49 oa 



^ AP : ^H^ : A'P/^'rhl^ s ?%A<W : A,AflfD s H/B,n, : l^X'rh'P * Hrt : *1"A : fliio 10 
' ^^(U-^ : n<WTn A1- ::: fll^^'H i h^^H*} : ^0.58, 



- DIG i fllA.hU A- : *1&P* :: ?ifl<n> 
IIA- ?l < ?H.^'flrh,C i ?flA.U- i nh^i : UA- : 9 A A tf-A, n-flrh,^ : ^'flX' :: 

i VIA i fllh 15 



^ A fll^A : Vlh. A 9AA : -OH-^^ : 

- 1-n 

?AA riv ID^A ^h^A n<*ff A 20 

i ffll-'J/^A* : TI-/" * 0:%^ flH-A ODO***!, '- (D-i'l'd'} : 



*1C A.f ^ A* : flTtf * 



25 
i Ml 



1 XftriD : flj-h-l: : r/i. A Ml : 0-.*fl. CM i 
AM) :/.-A : lhh,A:^n,U- * V>H 
490 b *K}&C : JS fflhV : fclMlh : fllA^f : fllXr-H : *J|>V7A rh^: Jlft* i fflrt? ^ : 30 

IM.SM * f AT*-/" i ^.p-hA HITD^- : fl>nhf i nuf fliX^-H .-rtyj 

* f-/h^A r 0)^9 jft ^Tl OAi : *7/..<tf * (oWIA-A? - 

AA IT-/^ X->.H MJ&^A? J an/h-f MI->I* * 

lg- 1 ODTrf :: (f ) -I V.-h (I i 9hb * A*h "ll/b A ' fll^i^'M i +thaof> : ^A r 



[77] 

>i.A: AMl.-f- : :*A :! 01 ff If III OlA-f t hW l\l t O>,ttG s O)M* 

: <D'V>Ak : A-* -flit-:* : Wf s If <J-M: "?$, : )fl)->i'|:'/. i M|>-f > 



1f* Afe : im- : <J-f| : "Ifr *, A s Mil*: s OH'<W> : fllfcC : Ji^hC : hfltf" : ft AH : 
5 rt-flfc : HO* * llffotnVH : 01C & OW^'teli Olflfc 



' : -MlA : 



: ^ fl.f : OUCH'S ' 

'-K?: ?i">H : aiA^:iwxh<:n- .- /I'JhCVfc s jR^A- 

A h//i>11 : flJ-CH* ::: Titian Ai^y : 1-0^ : 'JO.f ^JK, A HhlW 1-rt^ 



1 5 *|-A<fl>- .- A'/^.-n .- <DH.-fl 



25 ID Afl,'/ : 



: 01 Aj^f B ffl^^Cf -:: fllK^II ' AVlD : iP^^d" : 'Mt'2'l 

ui^tV Aft? 1 JtTH A,^ AA^, : Timi AJ? Af.ii- mfc'M 



30 -1HT i 0)A*^I- l^fl s Cfcfc : nj^T : A^ JlTI"?^ : hff t s < P*(?tfi- 

.-3i 0)^0, i W-A * ^ A? * ^ - : ^Ti^^ Jift'-fc ! 



'll .- TIT* i iPi aiVlC^t W-A" Hhi-- 0)^0,7 



'I*(D AT- ' tlrflfll] "Ml^ lltl*/n : I'fl^ ^J'C'lh i Krt^lt.*A^ ftty'jfcai* Ali A * 49 1 il 
rhtf-rh- M: fll^^.7 : fl AT-f s h^lh : fll-Ji'tS: s "Ml^ fD^fJl 6?d AT^ s ! 

h A * flo>-CH < Bo- : A^tll.-f- ^ft A- fl)?i^ 1> 'H li* 



[78] 



OT.H.'/: ft<m- : 
Jiff* * ID* flrh f <W : JulKH'fl : 9 Ml : ft<W> : 



^ fcff 'fc : H4>ftW t AdA.ll- : ttih : W i /**J3 1 Jt : fatt HI 5 
<Dftfe4 : P? AY.: 3^ : fll a fc**is A'flJl : W* :!: ID"?? : JiJ&lfc* A>ftft 
49i b <D A3- : Vft : M* ' * AHO, A : 0'<: : ^l *-* : -flO-d : OhM? W- : /itL-f H 



MM i l* IfA,* ^A.-'^Jlh.A.-^ ?'}!!,: jL'.^Awh ."Hd 10 

: ^^.A" : fltl<w : Ai^AA i 



totM ' h0 Arh* s JiO'h : ft : ft-H"??- : Xti,'k : 
V7C K (Dhyil ' OlA^-? 1 : KHTC : ^Vl- : 6P '- 0,^ : (D 



*MnA : 



s ID fl ?1A.*i 1 * 

flllfl 



: A^ ^ : ^A * "Ihh. A : OOXh : V 
: 'Vfl : ^A.A : Mrl-ftP *' (DdV? ' 
^A-.-JlAh.-fh^C: A"* : 
T^ : Ol^-ft : "Vlh, A : fllPh- r 7">C ' Ol A* rh-C : DlG'-A-il : " 

492 a jTftA IT-*/" i -Hi A y^^S ^ i <D?A A i lA^'l-- fli^aA- Ml,* :^/& A- : 3 o 



A'/ '!' : ID>i/Wy. : Arlli^ai-Ti- :: tD^VI fl^l :^n.f i fl-^fe: flhiTD* fl^Jl 
:: ID Aft ' Mil '- ?,'fl AVh"} : ?t?.^ : AWh : "hTO\ A" AA 



[79] 

dM-i- - eVlC i gift?* nY.A-l-' Juhm-r: r flA.h : aigflftM- i */ 



5 :iA-fc : rH<: s "HI .- 



: 1174- 

: ft"? <DH: <D-7f> * 
i;ilh:h^e::V-Kri^ 
: (I ! i ? <D-fl ^C : ^X-rh^J^ : ^,J&h>'H'H : ^ID-ft fl" i 



A/ 1 * j : 



20 



:;: fl)HV -Pin? 
.; fli-hA? 1 : ^jf hTf ?^ e fliTjt * Ha)tfl 

U- : AAitl.-^ : A- : (D*>f : ^^ ' DIG fllhTH^^fr 492 b 

i fl* ^.ft.-^rt.A^'JH i)MIA*^i-lfl>f .-amK^AO) 
4-rt. A * tf- A- : T^* i IWao'}'? . ahM* ' tlao bCV - 9f:C :: (Of, 
-n A : honH : H A<i. r h^hp- s 1^ : A(D A- : Kff 't :|: 

: fflfl>-Vin : f.<W^ U flh^WJ s JK-fl, : aoKgh*. 

:: OlA^4- : h AflA OD^/'VC : AfclCf OH 

sfl ' ^0,-f ^j&A-:!: mn-n :h<w:hC*B:i' n JtC:iDf < PU: hW : C^-H s Oh 
25 <W:fl. : OI^A : VM : Hllljl'/. iW/n AiC^ : 9^C ::': OlVl->- fW h^ * 
s l- Art! : Ki^ilJ. : U'NlHia :;: fl)^C<. ^fl s tl^C : OlX'JH s P, OX" A : 
: M : Atf-h,A s H^HH : onftTJi : <t^-fll-^^ : hUGhf, ' 



' flOlA*} : flon^^ : OI^AP - A^flj^^ 

3 o r : mtf: lliuftt'.Wn ' -^n A- B 



[8o] 

::: flll.Cf I- 



:5: fllfll- 



493 a 

IM- 



A hi : rtA^sflh^.'rt'f'A" : htrm.yiAA : Arh"? :J.' 01^0 c fl^fl V"/'t : 

* 

10 
* fl) 
A?i<JJ.V, : ^TlTI : ftjt* OlC*^ y^"?'?^ ::: ffl-OH^V 

flfl>- X* : 0DPd A ' 01 AJi n,-f s A- "i.'T - - h'M !'^ V^ ' 



AAU : -flfcA. i V^A- I ^^H A : M\9"g i m.X/hV'1- ::= 111)00 : jP.O, I ll'/^rf. ' 



fl 15 
ID^fh W :!> flirt 9^ ^fl t 



' fliA 
nc i njK,n-f::iP*/^'p 

A- fli^J^^Mtrt |S,^- 1 - 1 ^- : Tf Z,- flifli- 20 

: Jt^Z.^ : TfK- i 'Jn.fs0'fl < J:rftA^ft.-V^C:ifliy ft 
w9tl A i f ^ * <D^P A- Pirn. * IA^* A^S MlTf 

c iP^^-f: : (D'nCf t i W-A" i MhV * flirt n,V : t*}/**/! ^ A : 
^Jt :! Hill JVJi >lAh ^7A i fll-f'^f V * flUf 



flifliCHfli i da-nfl>-CH < B H^/^hA i 

:5: fli^^H UA- ^ft : ^h^A fl^A CT>if rh^,rn-f i Aft'^'J 1 1- 
.- flirtO.'/ >^ : Afl- 1 flifli, i *fl)-inr i 4^^* A *^<n> 7X i Mflrt 
a> WHtt- hC^A i Mfli-?!* : ^C*7 "VftA i 60 Afli-*V : if anM; 30 
' toMW 'flY.A- s ^A : "T.hkA * KOhPao- A^S hTf 11 ?^ :^,A- m 



nJlrtt^Jl^DT : Ifl'^-nC: lf))r/n: A'HC :: 

* >- * 



. igfr . ^ptfi : O'ttd -. fliX.riifl) : '(lit".'* - 'W? \\art\-\'. W-'P 

if (f ).V|: : .iff : ^ 



: If A 



: fll 



<D : l"flA : A<ks fllA<C ' 

' hR6-C - HC/O : ? 9 : fl^H, : ^'C : 'P/Z, : 
.^H,: 

^d.'fllhC s Ml" Ah : IfH's W-A" : ^T-^-f- fll-CH'B: 
i; /t_'i-f>r'.fii7- : finiH"iT: ifi/.H*4- :?: ^'J^HAln. : -VH : H*^"V : ^1f! : fllJt? 494a 



'/ : -f-*J/.* : ^^ : 



s ^ AA : ^K^'M 
: fllj& HC? : 



fl ?'T- 



'^ : '/'Vl A 
?- : flfDAl 



OlflXTrli ' ?l Ah : ,*C?^i ' 



-l:V- frftf :J&nA0- : IDJ&A-K- : K'JH 

i' : 4-A.Jl :-s fl):V A1 ! flm- ^ A^ ! 

P : fflhVl A. A 



. : -i-^-hn 9 A AA.U* 

:fllHw|- : '^n-^ : A'l^-J?,^ : "JT-/ M ::'. ffl'K*-!' A" : lUthfitLir : ffl'h'T ^ s j : 
"' : aft?: : llOlA'J : Olrl^ : 'V(l r |I7<- 1 A A/I' :: fll AV? 1 : A'J'?'/" : 'Mfl A : 

W.B. 11 



[82] 

-f^* : iDA^-ft :"Y.lh,A: ItMl :?lfth : 
: "111 : IH<- : 

494 b <C 



Ah : Ml" : ^CJP ? : A& ' hll^-' - $ jf.fi' : UlG : fllH">'hrt # H0 : 5 
/.-ft : 4-A.A : >ft<w ' RA'1r.U- : ID-Ms : fc^'WV!. : Olfl-?i'l- 

' Ml/f ! 



A"* ' MG A^g 1 : h-M^')- : (Dtf: ' RotAt :J: fllOAi : 7'J^C : /) Jl/.r/n : flUf * 10 



"Ml A * y^T* : (frtfiil- : "A"^ : fllAiK"}'} : ^ft : hfXC - "I.UD-f 
:: tDf - hW'-l' ' aCtiffil ' T^^V^ i 



: rh^ i ti%9f:C * (DtltD-M- ' aoVfi A: (DRh : IT-/*' ' 

..ft : 4-A.A*:! flin^rh: AH-' 
WA-.'Al^'P^'Th: IDWn:<C/.rt.-?irh 

: -f'ln A : l /W ; h : fll^0,y : ^^1 ' A"* : 5^0^^ : HIM" : 



:!: (D A'Hrt : ^7C : I/AO>- -nH-^l : A "7^ ' HtO-?!^ 0i>- : /^^'J'J'lh ID A. 

aihft^'fcif <n>- AKA- : <5-ft ^i^^C ^ " 

flflirtl wKFkJ'Grt^ : A/fe ^ jE, A- KHTC 
495 a JtHTC- ^n,rt,A*9: Hft*>* A.* 1 1-n<- ^HU' 

: A.* : l-fK- : 01 A^ : A.* : "Mfl A y^^Tt ::': fl>n*Jt/W : ?l A" : 



f -MIA * 



ft"? : A^^Vl : HID A Jt <P : ^*fe* : 1*9 :: :'* ::': # 30 

..- VIC:: fllJklH : (/ A" : IT-/** i t 



r |JA": 



[ 83 1 

flJl : <f.A.A : ?&(: ::: ffrf-A.AA : ft W 0>-H A - OJ-M-' 

9'} t >. :: 



^ A" : -MlCMll? : Wfc :!: (D^ : K'lhU- * <}fl.J& : H A0- : h ft-f- * 
5 UA*:7ift-|? :: OI^M: A0.fl:;*HV.-M: A? 01 * : A^H. : gHl:fi 
ID A'V* : Jl-VU- : fflh^Jt'Wlf : hdfl * A? 1 "* : <Pp - b&'kl - ' 

K(fl>-(> i IDC'^-n : fl)-|"ft4. * tf-A- A-H'fl : OlK^H-n : HC'V-* : -rtrh-C : OlH* 



! HA.7M1lll.r- 495 b 
: fllrw>V : -flhA. : H^,j&Am9 : fllD-^H : frHld : W^C* i ^Ifl ' 



15 



A ttift^- 1 <t.A 4-A.A : A'J'h/*' **! A '/jR^T^ at-Mr infl1- 1 oih 

^hn* s r A A /,-fi rrf- ;. (Dhvii <w>8-h. ^A . 4-A. A - to 

: ">?-/" : 1-h A : '/JR"?'" ^ : 0H0D* : -TlAi : f '. h-H^'-f' t ID*} 



: flfllftf : Olftjt K'HV 'Th : h,^ A.A * 



25 KA^D-.-Xr^"! :;: flinM^-M.'rh^ ^d: dAuHOT'l- : 0f| A Jit-/** : 
A* : MUD* : fll^A,?^- : fllhr'H : ^T*^ : ^jf: Ml"??- s Ol^ : 

: ^^* A.A : nh^*<-^ i OI'hAP'tfO. : ^ft 
: ^.ft : <f-A A : ID Kill f,^***? T : "tun s AM ' 



: Hh<w> : hC* s ttw'h'l'- i TC^ ::'! 

"'?'- : :^ A- : A/- A : W s OJ Aftjf : lftfA ai f% : ffllj^ : flfll A"> s flflTi A" 
:: flli^AA i ^T-/ M ^:-MnA: t /j& tf VS ; -:Aid^*<ii>- fflMH * 

496 a 



[84] 



fl V/* f rh fflfl 5 
: ffl1>. : 'VO : HA" ' 
flU? * fll-l'^Vh^ W-A- 

IfM" 



: A V-^ : Arh^ A. : fll^ln^'lJA : II^IIH : ?O>'6p,9 J Afl.* flh')'*' : gVTC ' 

i A^AsWsfDA^jf- Ml"?"-?- flj^jP/.-flfliAT: on-n/..- 

: OJAfl?i'J'l^ M-f-fllhC: A^jf * ^Tf^^:*!^. :: 
: '1^-n 1 } : f ' h-tt^'i t \ftt* : 9 tl A : ^-ft 4-A. A : -f'A^ : 'V^i : ^ 

: ,5 



Ah : fljAoi^J Al'h # hft/Wi : Ai AH Hh^Thh : K?" W-A- : H^n,AX :: 

- : -flH"V : ID-MS * (Dh : 'V.A+^ .:': 

M'.* ftA^ : OlCHlD- 



49 6b < 

/X-,? : ^S : fctt*!^ : ^ A : M" t t \le/n: tn-M ' fl,* :.': 

: h/.<W> : fl? ft'll i 4-A. Afl : fl-fl^ : 0-n 1 } : 9 AA : 'J 
: ^S : Jt1i a 7"'7- : fl)'}j^- ' flfllrt^ ::': tDtntfth : 

i*V/W : (L-f- : aihr^'^-H : rh^.'h^C : &1? - OlA^: flUf HD^jf- : Ml 25 





: -I'A? 1 ' f h'll tf 7 ')' : :\fc A- : fl 

ll- .*"?" A : JT'ft A : <f -A. A : M\fn> ' Y\ AP : 'I' M - : rh^.fll- : 
<D^.n<D-'1l-JEl<- :: fl)^tt.7."l'<7DAA A^V;^ : fflA^. : ^^A-' II (DC 30 
If H) : nimlTbF'M : flh/w: ^, WC : f/nK'rh A V7/"'l' :;: fl>Tn/. : *}fU ' ^ t A : 



.^-n rh-C : AhA : tMlVP # fllM'/ 1 * 1 /. ' AhA : p.lOhfiP : ID^fllfll 

nn-^v rt-n/t : m/i^-rt aih-n^A iih AP >* A*-- ai->* A* ^n-l-cx 11^ 



[85] 

*:*?: A-nh : hA Ji-n'JA"*/!! : i\f,M:tdMr - 1\l\ao - 

h AO : rt'fl?i : l//i.'/.f/HI) : <^rt ' ID A.fl4A ' 0)V><PP : rh* A : ID'^A'k : h< 
A-l\ i Hi- Afl*-? 1 : A AS' : Ml^f- ^A- : ggmS? # fll'^ Afe : ft 'i V<- Af J-V : A/5- A : 
4 -A.A : ir fl)PlD V : CM\l, ' T-n/'f- : Afl : Aftjf : Ml "V^F * ;* A" Hl^hO : 
A/-fl : 4-A.A : IMIIH : '^Afe : fcft^A.I> : (DV^If^ * (DdM-^ *A^: rh 
tfi-ft: fl)rw)}r/-'/.:hf/ft s fljTH : OhM- ' (D/ f i. ' Rf,M: it^^aofit 
: hft'lh :J: ?%A/W>:^a s JlAO : ^^ : OoX'K- ' ^^iH*H : 'Vfl i I^K- : 
: fl)%DO) : elf^ : h^ft'tU- : HO^^-f-'J : MU*7 : ID^lUVlf 1 

49? a 



-A. A 



: fl>h</oh : 



4-ilA : A^^ .' Mhfl A" ::: 0)Vn^ : Uf : 

25 - 



: MM : -flA ' 

: TIHD. 
A : aiA 



-flA -OA^^h : J7-/*' s -nft/^h: 
1 5 ^hfl- : ^jf : ^-H^V^ : OllJt ' fl fllA^ : <D ^jf : 

4-A.A : 110-fld O) 

l: : ^ Al- : hftrwi : A fl 7-S. : ID-CH'B : fl)%OJIH 



: QUf :: OlX*? 1 "!! : -1vo&fl1 : OJ-ftl" i -nrh,<- *7^ flUrhlf 497 b 



A-'li : A-flrh^ : ID V*H : (/ A- : 0*7^-^ A^h i fl* : ^-A : ->lf- * h'JH i ^,'0 A s 
CfrAiX ::: Oll^n, 1 / : fll/.^ : ^'A i ^0^, ^ AA : ^A : 
HUP ::: 



[86] 
: TIV*' tVl A 7^- : m'l.t : A/J-fl : C : fl"VL'> : j 



: XtfVA : 'l-JiCll* : fcCfcf fc : -fllM : lA^'Ml : fllfl!-?!'^ : & : Mf 
: :*A J&ltA" : Mr :: fllM-flC : Ah : Ufal'llM. ' (DlWMA - TJV7C - 



: :\e, A .:. ,n (Ml, A" : 4"|-A-tf- : A</-rt. A 
A..*0-'}"|-s 0)^ V'lvh-: fDhttfirao-: (Itt'h :: r/)?ir/n^Vi : Kfi! : 



: HOlC* : fflW-A- : I'CA.'f- : tD^-M-^ : ID-XIsX : -fvMP : flW-A" : 10 
(DflAi : W<P : OthCh? - "l-flM* - O>h&OD : 0* ' T* : (Dao{\ A : MO* - 



:: 



:;: OtWtt ' W^k >?/*': dnoW : 01^^ : fc0'K}C : (Drh^: ^"> 15 
1A * n.ll^JtC :5: tD+6~l\(i ' Th/" : h^J^flC : 9tlh'- fllljt ! 0^ :5: flit 1 
498 a ^^ flUf s (DlV : ^0.^ : +*A ' HhA : T"P : h9lA*<E't' ' IT-/*** ID*fl 
X'rh : Xfth : 7">^C fllA^Hfl : > >T-/*' : "7 Ah A: OC : fllO : 



s fllCHfl>- ::: 



f : fll^Cflf : fllA^II- ::': fllM^ : A.1UA ' ^IJiyn : bfroD'.W : A^fr : JlTI 

: 7J\ : H-A : fD A 



:;: fll^"*'/ tvS-/**rh IT-/* 1 i fllD-C^'B^ : Aftjt : Al'H^ : + A- c 

iA : <(.Cll-: fl)f : n^.?i': : ^A^ # JO 
* Ah.-i*S'/S,'l"h i H^flA : A^*7H> 

:r/Dh/.- flJ/lV h^Tf^ :!. flJlIt 1 H^ 
f.h hf. ' aolft : '>7-/*' : HAl.t *'l'Ah : A"* * (Dh.+P.'l 



[87] 

fl-}|>rf.'})A J Hindi s nJuw- : nC:00" 

f: : n fc : tf-A- : ^Hl-C : Ohiwi : J^VIC : OJ-CH* : r:*y A? 

ID*, A^VJ ' ** A s fcPV.'J ! nn,* ! W* : # :: 
Tit * VIC : fflK^Ti -hVh : IT-/** i ID V? : A# 'Ml 
5 ?* :<? flfllA'1 1 JDflffrh fcflh 
tU- : MiOifaS s flUDlJt ttOlA'JY.H-WsnAflA, 1 /:!: 

Ttl^A^X : froDKh* : fli^H-^ .- a>h9b6 l f,wKh- - 

A- h"*y :: 0)&- s h'Tf ^'Th : ^jK, Afc : h^H : J&^^- 
A A : OlW s Jk^^ft-h Afl- : hw * H^i.Tdiwi : -I'^A" : nhw> : 0,: aoX 1 
10 rh*P : hfh* : H^- a 7,f s h^A^ : <Dlf > 



: "MflA : l 

: Aftjf * Ml*??' : ^P- A- ' h W s P'^A^ .i 



1 5 ?&&< ! Tr&&a*' ' GBti^O*'}'- TA" : nA-lD-'J : I^^-'J ' TA- : 

: n A" s If, ' "I'VlA. Affi't ' 



0* e ffl^n, : tf-A : *J^^ : HChf # : h JB, : W - Hfll A^-f- * fl>Ji : 
20 Q^ : HrhflVf :J: a)?*^!! : flfD-M: : ^'PdA ' ^<W>0 : ^ 

->. * 
^f- 

: ID'J.R- : ttfllAT :: OlAl^ 1 / : T^ : A.A : 
s W A A0>J P : A^l'/*' : W-Atfi>- : OO^^'Wh * ID^iK- : 9ftA : OI^.P.- : 

25 (la>AJ:a)nh3't-'il'.'l-0D?,tn'. ( m'' 

IJ i < ? : AftE : hWtt ^jE, A- : hid* : 

A- s ilrh,^ - Mm- : *Olh"}H : IM" : ttl/f : Ai M-<P&,P : OoMrVW* :: nh<w : 499* 

Jill. : (lr/^ Ji^. : hjML ' iDfrt 0o AAtlfl : HOH?l'M : A^l*> : O>$tn> - 



*< i TW^-MfiA * 



: *%1l tf V ; T["- : $ A- : ^HV : fll^hH i rth"}^ : '^(if'P ' 9 Mi : 
. : Aj?,)'> : n^^^VlA.? i fll^dhA.lJ- :: O>flft>Y : ^K^h- s 



[88] 
fDj&n>A5>>:?.n.A) ' If-/*' : htfDTf ' fljhtfn-H : IrMA : Jill: h.W'ftC '--tltl* 



'Y. V*CV : Olfl 
- 'M\ ' V1<> i I 
: AMI "Ml Tl/*'s Mil :JM1 A :*<*: 



: /,-fl \f, 5 

A- 1 &j ! IWft sfll^JP/: fl flirt? : & : li'M fl 7 : Tf- : li*>f :fl)^ 7h<. hrw : ^,0h- 
C ::: OlX9 D 'H : Oh- : ')> AC ' '>"?'/*'>. "Mfl A ' ^^"IT^ : rK^ : V Afrfl : 

"t' 9 
Mi"H ' h't\& : ^rh-C : 'PAfrfl s OJrl^ P Aj^-fl ^ ffl^^TI 

::': :: :: :j: 10 

: V?/*'^ : rtA-T*-?: ID u i t P ' A'tl'- 
: A/,'A : ^^C : flJ-rtrh,^ : W^ : W,*/ 
.e/C : '^f : A^K' s KTf 11 ?^- : fflljt : flfllrt^ : f/lA/.-ft : S 
499b 7-$0 :;: ) A?i'rf-/: : :ij&* A" : "Ifcfl : A a n : Jf : ^-H ff ?^V^ : fll AO A : ^O/.-ft : 



: "1.1 : T^**^^ # fllh^OT : " ^ : : 1 

1 ^ : A-A"? ? : 



: 20 



: tA? 0< J : H. V : 1* :!: ffl'h/.hn : < >7-/" : A A-l 1 ^ : t\M<P : fll^l V : 
fDtl$.+Oh !:': OlhUV'!: : ^>. : HlA'C/'tfO- : OhP * flll. 11 ? : -nhf'tfO- : 25 
Ai AO : HA.^HV : M\\h m i\\' :: 



-7'- ' totf: riairt*} ?iyA^ A - Atli ID trt -n/. - 

. : flJiHH :: ai?!^^/. : 'I'fl^tm : "/.OT'I': ^fl'lh s 

* 30 



-Hfl A : -I.f -C7. A : ^HlfJ f /"Art. : flC^ : mft-Hh i rill/. : 
irtA-^l.-ACy : tDOtKh ' ?1^>'>^C : flin^'M/ : V^Wf^ ' 
i flo^ll' : >">>f.C: ::: jft njP.'TiF 1 ' A71'/" : fflftg- : Ml7^ : I^f . A>. : M s 



[89] 

* 500 a 



: ^ft-^J&A- : fl)V 
: nn-flrh.!?^ # 
* $& A->. : rh<: : -OrlbC : OlJiJP'Jt'W * life ' faro : O)C?> flfc 
.-i-a Jtfl,*:-HnA: lHl%ftKlHf i-Afl-flM^lf f 

rh4- : A-* : -ntW s fl-flfc : 'I^/ihAJ p fl-:Vf-lP : 



: r ft A s hn,-f : "Mfl A : ^PC^ft :; 
EtDClf<D:& : 



H. V : 0-fld : fll^g" s 



30 



* aiil 



# 5 oob 



n.*>. !:': Hfl^h-f tf- ^^ s (D Aft 'MlCJt, A 

-fl^ s h.Cft * fl)A&: fc^^s^^ys (OCHflJ. :!: 01*1- A- s (0-C 
H'Blf tfo-i : ^''V^ : (D-CH'B s H^i AH : A^*B :Js fllhi^'H : Ai^H : 0)^1^^ * Afl) 



9ftA s 
'- ttftF"} -JlHtlD - 

Vf.B. 12 



[90] 

0>H 



ft"? 
1 JPftft *&* ' fl>H 

It 1 flV * <hli 'Ml * <-fl : :* A- : w\'/.-\M\ : flC-fl i fl)-f-<yDfn a D.: i-n4- j 5 



: rftA : A-ll '$?,(*". fDlT-t*** 



10 

fll Wfl A.A : tfnT?/^ 0) W-C W * Cfcfr : CDVf- A- : '><Pf : no'J-?/*'^ : -|-'/. rtJ fl) # 
a OllP^'el' : ^T"/*'}: : 'P^^^Vl- e rilH^.Ti'f: i dA'> dCMrD i ?i hW'j' 

i AA.U-: ID^ 
: 0* : J&4>0>-9 : n^-fc*:/!^ i AHh^olf: ID-CH'B: f.^AP 

: Hrf. : llV-A.: fflft 15 



si: OHD-K^A : ^K" ! ^Tl^^ ' 1^ A-: fH^ : 9Ml i l^^l** 
-W i U14- : 1&-6? ' OJ^ft : ^^, A"^ i rh^ : -^0 &9l\? t 

h-O-t :!: flJ^AlnA sh-H'trt :rhrw>C: AW-AVf-A-: 
C : fll'jn. ^-flC : AH>P : H h^'^C ' (D^W ' A^-ft : :%|Z, A" * "* Al A h-fl 20 



: 25 

H^I -a 

'* A 



: 

30 



"Vfl TJ-/*' 

flUP^ ::': OlllH i 'ITDPT iT-^i^Afll ^" : 

501 b 



i ftAll cOLOUf ::': f/jflKVh : Th/*': MA* OlA^ : flUf sfflflU? : 
A<DlV> * 



5 C^A Hi 

i^*tWairiKrrh*5-Hi 

^ A* 



.:ffl 




* "MflA : 
* ^0 i rh<: : -)->^C i fc'JH : "f^^ : flA 

- -- ain-H Dpd A 

xii H^-n Af : ^(1,* * hbpll ' ffl-f'^hfl : ?ftA i ^g" * 

'5 A" 



- .: .: :: HI # 

A')?-/*' : -Ml A ^I > -C^ A : ^g : hll^?^ : h^ : j&flfl e h<wi : TlDgA 

^jf- 1 Mi"?** : ?^H -f!A : 1*74- 



5O2 a 



KVhjR ::: Uiliw: JL'.ll. : 



30 VlC :: IDthftp 9tlti : "JT-IP : &ft/..fc. A : (l,*i&h H* 



Hi 



[92] 

-' : <DH(? : "/UA" : M 
::': fUJi"*? flolffc flA^IM-A : f A,? * r f/HMl,A A# : 
i V J:*H i fllWn/ 1 1 Mtfn 8 J71 : OHfc* :: fl>-?i '|: A : 'Jflf' : 



Ml 

Atb^lin : 
: VIC K at^91l ' fllrt^P r IftaMfl At 1 *Jj&^ : IDIDll-flP 1 ' 



to 



502 b *^ s HfcAfl : SAE : ffln Afl i A-OK i J^ AA,I> ^J^A-n^ i 0,* : fl)SA"H : 

T<- Ol^Vfll * 
1**^* : A^jf /i'H ?^ : tl^ : fl^^C Olfl 

: 'W s ^- : ^Tl 15 



<n>rhAU- 1'^ AA? 1 : Wat* : KAiW) : 'J'PP : 'J-^^li A? 1 : A^jf 8 fcTi"?^ 8 20 
8 0>Y\lC 8 n^ < P*r'h'h:rh9.'> :!: OJ^r-H: P^^'h/*': ^yiA.'-iP^f) 8 

8 Ml'Tfs h">^ : ai^jf 1 hii^'-f : ^/z-A-.- fl^t -l-14rh B nft 

VAA rh 1? ::': fllK''*'/ M : ^H"> : O'Tlfl W A" 8 A'fl Jl * )"> ^C # 010^(1 : W A" 8 

B ai^CVl B fcfitfD : hV B -thfC-ls - tM-Wf - amahM* i V Aj^n^ : 

B 'HVW>UAA-: fllf.l'lhA-: ^n 8 MH.h-nrh.C B fl^'nAfP: A*>7-/*': 'p-'hrh ' 25 

B h AP B H^ll A B Ah B <D.n, s ->7/*': Mf : ?i^ 
aiMH:^<lA:?iria^:ll^^:h^^ 

: h*7H.fct1*li.C B tH^ID-Xr^ B htn> t P$ t 'h'1' '. dtlao : ^ ril-XiV. s A?VA. B 

^i^H^-nrh-C : ?i9W-A- B rTK* 1 ?? : Hl/Afc B 
B >?-/*' B 0)&j B hTI"?^ 8 Mj. : nilr/ s ^11, B fluD^/h^ s r/i'Hni.-i: 30 

flH-1 B rTi^TaD- B A^fr^"} 8|i 

: "'ill : 

flic?;*- B n*J.H. B M-C ai^/.A->.: H^-nX\h I)A.^7H: :: 

503 a O,'/ : A^h B '^fl : f : ^*H7^ B Ifl'J^. : fl rV(l B '}?-/" : -Mf| A B 7.f-r:'/.A B 



[93] 



W-A- : M^tfo-rt : ^-fl A- : In'ttltfo- ' VAw^C? : flH-^ : <wP0A si* 

fl Ji.f :rt : &fttM 



0>AM|i 



. 



: A/f- : h'Jlnrt Jhaht'. && M 



fls/n-H A0 : <D 
IS A* :i.' ainm-h* : ^*Pd A e rH^: fl+* * ^fl ^^l* = M/* 1 ^ * "MflA 



9 tlfi : ^T-/** : fllW^* HO? : fl^d.'/ : Ai Afl^ * IT-/** : 



fl A* : hrbP : A* i 'h<J/" JiA^ s -f-hf ^. m 

^:^:hr 

;5A-i W1- s ^Ji-t * ^ftA/ 1 : ffl^ 503 b 



25 

nhiwi : rh/P? : 

: fll^^C ' h-fc aiK^ 1 / ^VfP : & : hTi ?^ s fl** ::': ^fl 



:!: flhA^-rtA- s ^W : AMl- : 0* V*1^^ ' 'PAjtfl * fflfl : 
30 &A : jE,-nA- M * fl ^ r -nhA.* i ^^rH : Jt ?*!*'^ s htlfio - hlE O'? 
s h">nA : d^ll-::: CDfi/h* s hflJ-X-^ * M^-flrh-C * flffdA^sflh^ I* 
hf)/< Ji. A : flff ^"7^ * h^Vlf 00- ^OHXr^ ' ?ilW> < P*A ; h 
: {fflA : jf : JiTf"?^ : fl** : fll^HD s MA : VlCA-T-A s 



[94] 
AM* i fflHC? : "MIA- 

f Tl"?^- : fflflfc : W*A ' 



: (DlA'C'J : flon : 



: AJlfc?" :: 



:: h fl 7ll- 



W-A- : -w 



504 a A- i (Drh^ : ?iA't : ini\tn-M' 



-I : i 



: & ,5 



: fflh^H ::: fflfc^V ' 'V- 



+Y\9C : 



OUf : 9 A A 



<Prh-C 



-f'lflA : 



25 



: 0)OUf 



'h- 1 AOA.U- 



': 



1 : - i^v^i -hi 

. i 0)flUf : -^-flh.! 
<D A^: 7-flCfc. A : 



fl)OUf : 



- & - -OA.^ tf <P - 



TV" :</ft'Jl : 



fllA" : 



T : *> 
: O) 

: HlO-fc* : fflA" : 
: O)V/*'Jt s t : 



; flUf i 



s ID-CHtt 



> A" : (Dh9h<L fatt h<wirt ^hH TllP :: HhlW> : 
flli^-f- : ID-CH'B^ : OlAI- : M* '- ft"? ^A^A i h70-: A-'^s 
10 fllA-Nftfl'H- : ID-CH^B^ : HI-fltT : 0*)^:"^ : ID?i9"airth ft-* i 



: H^ A'JA" : 



1C : 



* ID-CH'BU- : 



"Hi A * 



-Tin 



fl : 



rh-C 



:|: 



25 



s ^JP>b*lV 0* ! A>i: 

(DfrttG '- IPVJZ-'V : 



:?: OlMH : J&-T1A 



30 



: rh-C : 
h AO : h^ 



H'l' A? 1 : 



: Ohtl't"- 
: h9l 
: fl,* ' ^HCffl 



: 5 o 5 a 



[961 



/-9 : VIK- : 
0ftA.U- WT> fl-flh :: OlMl : -flH^Vj: flJ-fc-f flD-fl hfl,* Ml/TH ' 



. : fcmtf. : T.H. : r/-|| Art : fll?i ,/'/. ?.fc : ft* :: f/?i r/n'/. : -|.H. : ^ 5 
>iw>. en**} A* 0) A.A/I- Kj&t* AT s ^'/"XU'tfO- : fllVl V : W A^'l-- : tf A- : 



5 o 5 b 



: IflC 



: 10 
: H^O, 



AfllA'1' : 



!: fll^H* IM: fl^-V: Al Afl : Hrtlf *: ?i9 w 
Oth AP : H^fl>A : TTH 1 /?, : ^.M 



: ^f-C^ft s 
9 ftA: ^-H 7''f : hA.: fll^ftA-'^ft * ^A-s OlMW : fllX-^l : Ji^^d^W : 

.'-vn - HA- * 25 







OhM-fl : ^Hf : flJ^n, i fc'H-OD-fc : Ah<W> : T^HoD. : Jnfl^ : ^|Cf :: Ottl 30 

AO : HhA*J>. i >!-/*>. i A7I0D 'P'J i ?i,lii-C : 'PA.^-n .-! <D/i AP : V7C 



[97] 

ID/I "I 1 / : fclD-fc? 1 : AftS'-H"?'?' : :* A- : ID JllD-ff fc? : hi^/"*? : fltfO, 1 / * 506 a 
:j: :: :: :: rj: :5: 



5 IDnftsTHPiH/"^: A.^A-.-IDAft'itn.'f' 'Jiff*: ID A3-: A">T-IP 

c fc^ : Jin-lJ- : ^A- : attfll : fl<*>?fll : art^lF* : if Jr/nX-ft. 



X A" : ^A : 
>- :' 
-' I'll 



20 HlD-h-f im- : hd.'f i7-fl& : IDhfl,-f- : Jf^ff- : rhm>-U- : Aft^Tftf -' 
: ftjf fcH 11 ?^ ^ A" sfllX^ : 'hfll-V :!: ffl^ A? 1 : 



:: IDllXtMi : 0* : ftjf : /i'M''?''!"- : :i^,A- sj: IB'I^- ' fflA^O*? MP : ft^" 5 o6b 

^^A- : hAJl : A^Afl : O>+ai>f,m ' h^A^A*? : "M II : Hill KMi * 
25 TtAh:'^^ : fll'I'^nA? 1 : W-A"<n>- : 



^(1,-t- '/'n^, .- ru^n.'f- : ^.-rx. ;: ai-^-hn- .-rftA.il- : 

s> 

"KM - && ' 



3 o 

A-n/i : ft"*1 : IDAfl^ : 

:: ::: ttC : Hh<n s ^/"K : O'tlfi :: flll/A" : A-flJlA. : Hfttf-! OlAft 



i : ID ^^.4*4- ' fl-Y.fl : 00/Mh : HIM- 

W.B. 13 



[98] 

/^:| 
/,-lf V'.]f. : ;V A- : hlfl A s nif-:VJ : lAVJ-'C'Th Ha fDAfl ' CM 



00- s V7H.Ml*h.C.- ASM JK-^CUJP m aifl'T ^ AK*7H,Ai'flrh,C AXA : 

s 



^ AA : 

507 a mft . ^frfr . (o^JH : j&^.hfr ^(DUIlP h?^lh H j&^ A P :J: 

fl^H,y : xr-iin.u- ?AA : -ntf-i 



15 
: V7^ : A A?" : 



:5: 

: <D?l < 74- : 
rh^C : ^fl 1 103- * Ji^-H *^ JP ft A : ID-A"^- : k9 20 

If A A-tH* : -nKrt, i A^ : a^ A A*B * -K-*(? s r AA ^g- ^-H ?^ ^^, 

A- * ^C-nrh'C:?*^^'! *^ : flAVAA : rhll ^AAA^ si: :J: 7*704 tb 

-Tifl H*^^ * V7C m-K-l- * ^H. : Ahh : -TrO,ih Mil 

: ^hflh : Hfllhh fc^rh,^ s fllrhChsT-m-V : XlflA : 

25 



. ^.JT^ .. A fl- . A$1f "7^ : ^|S.A- fll^n, : ^^TIP : ATIT* s h A-fl 

* AID 
- : 30 



HI 



[99] 



: Olflfl 57 b 



: fl : 



<w Ad A!" 



5 



10 - 



25 



30 



. : Ai^H-fl 'JCI 



:: nh<w : J&fl, i 
: 70U- : A+Am-^Tft : Olfl)^ 
:: 



s ftjf shTI*?^ : ^JK-A" * 



: X.Vfll : 



0^ :" fiiCHai .- <Df"hA 

15 flM: : dti ' fll*1-A- : ID^'V^Vl- ::': 



KA i 



: (D A A i >.C 



i (DttlWO i A^A 



: M*9& i ?-} : 508 a 
A^^^ 
: Vlh i OD 



0-fld 



: O)Kh & 



170- i 



ffl/.ril : h.^-f * ffl^HCfll. Ofl'V.^ hr/n: 



f 100 1 
: <oWf"tf- : Olfl ' XA s Oh- : 



:*1 XA 

A,.- 1-taiffl. * XftD : :*A Xlii.Xii(fi.c - ;\ - - i-- : :- : 5 
0x11-1 ci4-'i.u-:a>fri-yi- 1 An- :: 

IK : rf i^'/H.^-ILIi.! I A : J&^A. Afl ' Olhdn 

K< All at^A+r^ll.^-flrh.C ;: M?? x ^-h>.sK*7H.^'nrh.c: 

* :^A-c 

-nA- : ?irdA'lh : ?h. ; h: i ?^'i :?i < 7fU'nrh.C::: 10 
508 b iDf-fl^ : A'|: : ^ j& A : ^Tl^H.Jlf : OtttC? i *H^1"f h Aaih : WA- :: 



: flh">* : fllAt^-f' ' ^^I'h^ : tnffL h^V T i 5 



i a^H, s i^hChi*-*" Mlt^-flrlbC '^f, A- fl Ad Ajfl n4*-0o : 0C : 



: OM1- 1 >l Ad 
f frft Xll-^ Xl : 0X11- h A A ^-nCh : Hl'B^lFI : X A : 0X11* ^TC 



HXV n Al:^ : CX,Vl- : XA UAoi. 

hh *!>: XU'^h i Oho i !>-: RAd^^lh : AX*7H.X : X. 

Xfltl : A*/ ^ : flXl/^X'k i 0aM' : XW^'> : (D&.(D'M~' ' .^-<O-f : X^X^-^ # 2 5 

XAfl HX.f Mnc iX.^^. 



: ID-CHI?^ : W'A, CXfr ' X0:*f fill Mj^/ : IO-CHB 



l.j :: 

i W-A- : Xr/nVK- : OMivV? : X^IH- :: Xttf X : i^<-h : 
5 o 9 a 4^- * 1-^.A r1-h : XWX : '/.H. i V/'rK * <oX*<WY. : ^H, ' :Ml1 - fllX.f ; 



[-lot] 

- - :*lf?>-i fiO'ft TllC*! ' flfl"?/} : 

: -Tin i TWi we fl>An// n,A-<iD. . gjhi'tf 



i o Ol^rt : Chf : ft tf 



:!: Ji A : 



- a)-f-<Ml.fl .- 

: ?dH .-hJ^Uf : fllfl^ : Oi 



:: (filllf hr/n'H 

|f^-flA: 

' i 509 b 



. fch * M : 

25 



: h^TlF 1 : Wfl i JrtH* J&XA/ 1 : Mfl 



- * 
A? 01 * s rh/. : ^11 : 07<- : 0,7? J^C : h^H JE-MV A ' Wil'iv : 7/** ^ * 

1 J*fc H-HIOMI 0* : UK W : HAD?-' 9 flA ^^'M^?^ i h A. 



: flf! 
Jt 
-11 A : rtf"fl : Ul^ : HIM" : fl^r'h't" ' fittflAI/* & fl^rtf! : A^tl 



s 5 

i :^K,A- : D^n,-f .- A-ri^p-n . 



: /l A. :. fll^/^hn- : nftm-W : fllVfl^ : flUf ftg : 
5 .oa :Vj&A- i Mtt : f 'J^'fl : 01 1 - ftOrt* '\- yftA:*IP^^* : A^t 

At A. :: fflftjf ^Tl 11 ?^ : Ai A.>. rh/. 'W * f "^ : (D^.X.'P V^A" r HlM ao, , o 
m : 'Vn : ^10-'}^ : flJ'lV.-hO : l^ftA : AK'Ai'H ?^ $f, A: UI^^' : an - 



H7<-i n,1?^C:aih:iH:^ft^A-:<Wi'nA'J:ai/w>ft'fr:s-: ?if)r/: 
'^f * Hfttfi>- Atn,-f : ^^C : 0MH>h 

-n A : ^^^nc i nuich ai^h-c : -vn 



: r/n Ji A)l- s 

:!: aiH^-l- : WLlF A^h * '1lO,U-: flHMl.A" i 
ttlrh-C : -llfl : <C*frh ::: 'HA : V7^ : ODrhA WBC ' 9 lib : r/n J, All- 



: h-nh-n aiJtr-H vn/. . 

.- ^n.^, 'V'h^ . 

V : ;^ll : 'lh' 25 
OI'I-VICV : W. : flJ-C 
AV :: >if/nrt : |?,rt, W 

T"}** ' WIG 
: n^C : dhrfD : Jlhll :lhn: rt ?^ : HA* * 

. :^A- .- an-n<- n?i'M- : ttc iitijhvc hA^ : 30 

f.h 7rxiA.ii- 1 -V^ni i vn-rm.-ai'l-VlClfi- Jir^njP'/rih : A?i 

.>lf : f V48Cf ' f - ^'H a 7 : f : ;^^, A- :: H Ad- A : 0)1(1.?. - -fl?irt.lh : JllM ' 
i ^^/i,U- : 0"/UA- : tfin^Mi^'l- : aifMllf : A A A Vll- : 



: MM* : Jum-fl : fc'JH : 

: p&l s lt\9Y\OD : *|-|DTh 
flW* &j sMl"??' :">' : Afl-A 
5 fl'C :: mfl/fls (D tn Ht9 C :: lift 'Ml: tf-A" : ID-CH'B : 0ftA:^A * 



fl AC :: II AF'-Isi : M '- fl-f-lP/K-f : HJS 4 ? ^ * & : ^Tl'-f V^ : ?ftA : 
:: :: :: # :: 

s Old A* : 



: 6 A* : 'Jflp, : fl<w>4"M ' A"?^ ^ s 
Afl : fTK^'/JH^^^ ::': <DK"%yi-IMi*l|iQ- 
15 C.'ID'M.fl, : A?t^H.?i : ^-rtrh-C : WH : ^^*JB .:'. flh<W> - 



VflCft- s rftA.ll- : fl)'f-rh0'fl1n-:flM: s ^P.-p-C^Tft.'h^Vll- ::: A*M3l : 



: ffP : 5" 



:;: OlK < 7ll.^-flrh.C: unh-TV - (tiff} ' (D0- 

' ?h9C :!- h<W> : M : /i.rtlrtVl- : ^A : Wm ' Ifl-flVb : Jti^Hrt^dl^ : (D 
: -HP : ^'HHrhh ::': (Dh^-H : Ifittt s 
: :i/i A- : n^rt^- : h? ^ : U1<* '- rfi AP : fl Afl" : inhtl'l' t h<w t w : 

25 



(D'tib? : 9^7?" : OlAiAA^ : /To^fl : fllh A^Y. : ^* : XTC/h-: 
30 *1V : rh-^* : flfllC^ : /"rh :5: X^I-AlD-? 1 : -flH-^ rt-fl 

.?i : (Dt 



# httl - Mine - T-n^-l- : An 



[ '04 1 



A i ^ $ ni-l&C i 0)V>lf IJA- 

:% ' -fill:* ' 



5 1 1 b Jfc JlJP'HfljA&'Ph i ^AUD : Ai^^C'/h : *IC*1 : AiXY-C : (D^^, : A-fl : Hh 



: 4* A i fn^'e : 'JT'I*' : fcft/.Ji. A : rh^ :;: -)f\ : ha, tf XA,lfl r 



hilt* tl ?!* ': (D-X'ls^ : ^g" : ^'M fl 7"f : 

flA* ftl^imWPf : :V*A : nhn:/*'C l H-://nVi i ytt- .-J: 

.- A.? A-ft i Incrt-f A: .- 

: ^tTj^ A h"7lh : ID-M:^ i ftjf- : ^Tf ^^ : . 5 



: /l jRJVf V ::* ffl^/x-hfl : flUf : ?AA : M : VAlW--f : AK-n : (D^AA : 

fllXJ^lIf : ^fllf i fl^rh : <P ft" : /mhV : ^n^lh : H^ ^.4*^ * 20 
'. ^KK-H"?^ : ^|R A- : MA 



f K i fl^h-f" : Wltf ::: flJ^rtf i -f^hfl i * AA h(l<P.O- 

f <H>- : Ml i^lk^' M: 01^0 : I*CO : ^^J3^ : fllXn : <n>*jH Ui flJl A^Y. : All- 

IOUDI& : ^-fl 25 



fl'JA : oMA4 : fl'JA-tfO- : A^VJlTf^ : H<PA.^n ::': (DllUf : 



: ?lA : MAffl. : 110^7 ' fD^O^h * h^ilf tfO- :;: : :0D ' 30 

' OHD A^ : V 



CD A A : A|.jS- : ^-M ?^: Kff'f:: ffltAft : M^II-K- : Tf>, flhjR, ' h.f.lUD*'} ' 



:5: (DTIAS: : & ' 7 V. : 'filttf* '- hj frfl : (I */"> A- 
fl>- 

AH 



5 tB 



*> : ?l A : 



: &A- ' /Z-^^rhhai*-: rt-rth : fcjP'M'hfl-: iVflJi : 
10 0: Jk.jM-C* flAdA : AS fl>-h*3l 



s A-fl S 0)W-A- : ^Pl> : h*<W : 5 i 2 b 
* (Dh^'H 
15 Vf-A<H>- ' ^ll^^ :!: tot-Mi : 'PTf : 



: ffl9 AA: ^fr : n^-AftT^^ :|: (l)?iif.->-|:f| : JiA : II A OX. : fl^ff "h 



H^, n Ad : ffl^rt -fc : Olfl i H^'i"HH : flft A* : ?iA<n> : (] 

: n tf- A- 1 H-Ml II Ah ::': fllVf- Atfi- A-flTt X A9^ i ^^.^-?i?' : Hr/n-fl A(> = 
OilfVL 



25 



(Df i 



B Hj&fl> B 
s A 

i'-* - s -- .-D : 7iP>i : s'h B a><: AA. 

W.B. 14 



['06] 
7-04- 



: 6 ' M A ' 

s tf-A- s AA"?^ : fch'TH.?*? : & : JiTl"?^ : $f,fr'.M i *h 

: Ar/n Jl/.-ll : flhrw> : 1A 5 



<PA 
fllrh-C 



10 
X 

: ffl A/'-JlC :: 



:;: riinilh//i'll : 



1 ?AA 0)^A.I> i fliH.ViD-P : *1C? : A^-A i ^jRAr ffl^HT i 

iDn^x-t : dA^ ^^ n^-^i^ j^n nAC: a>nA^ 

HAG :j: fD^^Uf i TdH i fll^ft<: : qMAA i fllflUf : 7-fl^ Ul/, 25 



: 0.^: hffiLl : fnMfc'/ 

: ^A^.*: lV i fl^A ^^A-: (D-X-f im-^ 30 



: AV :?: 

A AO-h hAd H*/D- : ?i'>nA.h . aiAhi * 

: l A^ : H<WJt ' X^OA,II- :: flJM'H': All i A^ 1 * : /J-A i ^jP.A* : *ir>*lC& - 



[io 7 ] 

An- 



: a>nA?fU.fl : ^9^ s llr/ii JiA : 0) (1*711 ^ 

::s K<wrt : In* B -l-IOM-hniH : H A'fl s <O<H- B -M r 4-ft i <} A. : <Dfl Af OD 
5 rhC.'AV : (D(\d B ID-lVI- B U74- 



OlOA 



>-rt : nh^* s 1-?-n^h ::: (DhW : ^<WJ&fll- : ^Vlfl^^ : OlOh- 
10 &C i fllltVflJ-JP : Tnf- A" : V?ao. : A^fl s ^ A" : fflfl A^fl^ft * #>rh 



h A.S hon : ?6CbP : (D^O^^i rh<- :!* fllJi^ 5 U a 
:/^ft.-^A.:J&^R?s'1in.f:|Dj&nd:fll-^:i; g l4-* 
: h AH* s K Ad : 0A A.P : M n?i It 1 <t.ft s^jK, A- :!: flJ^Ti : 1-ttK- s 



15 - 



- 

: 0,* : 01014- # fl)?!? ^ : fllX-Ai * W"lfr&f "Vfl : 
: <5- A : ^ A. : (D^^ - 9 till A-fl : aJ^^I A"* * 
A-* : /^'^.'Ji : ?i A : fltf 74- ::: fl)h9'H +00$ fll * 

ai-fH- 1 074- <Dh9*X:' j M - in* W-A- aii/fl : /.-ft >i A. 
Jill,* :<wC : Ml- A* 1 ? e fli^HCT s 
25 tf-A-? : h-H"7-?.ll-:K < PA^ 5m-A:h</Di ; Hl-Ti'nhlVf- .'5s 

V7A 



: tth AO : 
3o *Jt ao : Vf- A- <DJE, A- : Tt? JBl-t^ : W 1 A" : ^.R-h,* 

: flhuDB^O. B AA.^ Hh'jnA.f rt : hAfl B 
.- W-A 



[108] 

HJE.M: e hmtUh A^^VC 'feAm'Jm.'rA : 

V ::': (nhl'.hi'V* : AMll.Mlrh.C * A0-A : JiCJl^ ' fUlr/n: (Ml. :'/nft-Jt<T- HI 

(D?^ A JP ' A*?*-? * <i"t\)M i Ti-flY. A : VThwA A" : -OVL A : tDfrp,0- ' AftlD- 

A-A * rh<PC^ .-:: M^A.U-A : A4AflV?m.S"A i Mm i ?ift,/ :t.ftm'>rn.'."fi 

M ' frfc'*?, h^ ?^ : a>-^ hC A'ltfVB ' (Drh^ : nW* * ?l < 7n.Ai'fl A.C Hi 5 



: f rhOKI : 



, 
r/)r/n A'/' : 'VU A : r- Arl= :-:= tlm : 1"flUA : llr/n^rli V- : 

Ohfr&:h tn 10-:?,9 \)Ca* ' lt<7H.h-nh.C( AliA 

' 
: fl)Afl(D ::: 

-:: 15 



tf-A- 1 ^X"^^ : 0-C h^V^ : m-MsX : ^-A : Al A. : Kha^*! : -flfr^V i Jfcjh 
HO :5: r //rf i/. hi : V^^T^ : Olrh^O * h-ft?* '- hC A-tjPV^ r <1 (1 ft JD^IJ- i 20 

^ tf V> s rh^PC^ Tfl-ds^A : /A. ^'P 1 ^ * :i^A^ HI 
51 5 a If A.rHA4A * h^y^T* Ai ?^ * ?iA^^A*e :*H?iAfl 
An- :^AshA.:0A-'J i Tflfl^ flHlH-:V> c 



25 



:/.A : fcA.: fliA-S- 



-. nh<ws - .- -- - .- 

:^ i ^^7 Al ' h fl'U- : ^'>7- A * CfcA : ^ A (D'f-AJP : 



H.V : i-^^m-f: : A">7-ip ^/^^ * -Mri A : ^p-c^ A .-^n i a o'mr"P - 30 

VIC 
:^^ 

>i A. 



[ 109 "J 



: s 

:! oH^OA- s OllH-'V : ^ A^ V * (DfltlH-l * ^H? fl ID fc 
: lU'SrhC - 'J^l** : Vl/* 1 * * -Ml A : ^PC^fl B H-HI& B 



5 *flA B ATTMP 8*7/^8 -Hi A--T.P-CT.fi B <5-fl sKA. : ^ri 

0-'}'> : W> : 
:: OJWfl! A# 



s MA?" : fll^C : (DflU? s 



O.A-* Mf flh^ i jurmr/. 

0) Afcj s ^Tf^^ : "I A3 (D^J^X'^tfo- s ?iflh e 



20 n^A.rt s imftAs^a^ysH^m -fltf-CVu- fl): 



-l: : r hnD<- : Mil f&Kth* '\(\- 
fc s hlH * IS-nX-A s -Ifl : <*" : 

25 A? J 8 A^T-ip s vi/^-v s -Mfi A s ^p-c^^l aih^'M s Mn UAS m^t^ s hit 



At 1 8 maiir 8 h/w 8 je,d 7 ; !' < P - A-f "7 s (Dhflo-*)* 8 <WP : e-l- s 
3 o iDi-M".-Ai a W8rtir > ^! < r*sA < 7^>i'H <I 7 ; T- 8 
Hi s T* 8 (IfrH: ho 8 f *^ 8 M -. iMCtn-O s 



5l6a 



[no] 



: 

' a l6\t's tD'^tf' ' 5 



-nit-i :! mini : ue fin- 1 * </n<pd A nxA-i- 



Uf ^^<- ^lfl& MS fll^^lTl^ : :5^4- : Pff <D(lUf ^HH i 'JT-IP : i7/^^ : 10 
' ^P-Cl < ft : hoDi^/iy-iUllT Afclk-f :->0: <D^^'H-n<-: It-f- ::: fll,? 

^.A i h A. i AVI- 



: (D Afl Ar fl^fl : rt-S.* : ffl AtfD*^ hTI^'-f i (D A& : 

: 15 



A-nc 



| 20 

5 ,6b OD'-h^O- '- hoDllftfr : A* : -flrh,^ ^ ff ?^'> ^OlJl^UP^dH- ' (DflKd* 
*"? : fllfcHH- i h<W>: ^ftV- : tfA-: HWA-: fl* ?: rt-rtAiVL: OlVf-A": MM - 
CM*L flltf-A- : M-h A'f" : 



^'fc* : llV s aDfyiftt-iiV' 'H (Dtflaos Mfao-'- nAdAlfai> : (D&770- : 25 

W- A- rt-fl? s h"7^ : *"7>. hV^ * Ml * 



W-A- - 



A;*"V M //* f rh<: : AT'J A*h AiA. : tohlp ' AAT*^ : fliAimfli^ 30 

AT? 



WA- hi* hi* Ifl^* Alfl* i 'J 

-in ^<-ID : ^9^ .- /.-n = ^ A. = 



[ill] 

p,C6 * tf- tMplh : (Dl * : fl^U- : A^fl : fc A. s rf^^A * ?,aol\fr* t 



* flhtfn: f,ft> ' aoRth'b' ' A^M : VIGao- : fl-0J s 
Afl : HjRVnC* m-ftt : JHl.p'fcir no-: A0-Afc: ^fl : Y\ A.: 
5 V0,f : AdAV: HH*A : A^^sO?!^^ :?: fll^, 

. H^f A : nh*>* s AlD^-H : ^AATh, ?^ :: HbV : f,^lS Goo- '. 
. j-j./A' .. (D^XCCtfD- : A^-ft : ^ A. ' fl)A&j h-H ?^ ^ JR A"* 
::: Al A i KU7-A-f- f IDAk-n^rh^ hfth 



10 V .' 



: Jf : .-i! A"* : 

A-ft ^.ft fcA. : Chrt fli^fH* 



Ah : hrn,^ : fljACfflhfc ^9Jt^ * /h^<P">s Olhr-H : ^Vffl.-^A : ft A. 



X ^VID c^ * -Tin .- T-I&C s 

fl JK. ' d^W * fl AT 1 ? edAI- : ^fl : h A. i tDhtttt - hao ' ^<w'H'flC < P 

tf-A" : *fr^- ::: IDh^-H i 'l-'}/ 1 "^ : ^-ft : ^ A. : 01 II 

: -Hi A ' 



Vl/^l- -Hi A : 

e d0-n.-HC>i^:W-A-: < JA? :nA tf ?ft:0I^H-^:;s filjMI. : 'HlA : ft 
^ A. ::': M : 0^h* : f ^* : K-S-^ : H A.jK,^*^ : ^V : 0>-?i* : 0) A 
25 ^- i H/ul&'nA-i : /u^^^A^ s Kr/nrt ' h AO* s ^in><^t :|: h^'J i 0I&H s 



'h A * 



3 o oi.-J.-^.-i.: Hje,U-."i''s0iJE,: 0ip, : * 0) 5 i 7 b 

- 



HOf * rh">K Olfcroft-fr s ^Ofr OJ^^.-TT : 

fc^T:-l-+nA? > >|iWl'tf 

-Hfl A : T.f-CM.ft n^t A^ : da-fl 0i^^4- V? 



[112] 

: (Dk9V? *7*H- : IT-IP 



: V-4'C: ffJ'M'll 

<P/*Vh i (D^^'V ::': fllr/nfr/i : & : Mi"?"'?- : <D A & : T-flCh, A fl 
: TC"? : fll^-hfl ' AA : IT-IP s VT/*"* : -ttl A : ^PC^A : fflfcV : 'P/*' 5 



:: <D-?rfcfc : ^jf : /tlf^'- f (D A^ : 7'OC^ A s flfl)-/ 1 .' A^A : h A. : ID-A1- ' 

: g }'Pf:'flH-^s 10 



: (DA^ - -MlC/i, A : M .' 0flA: 'flH"V:'>'Pf ' 0-0*: IDiwJt^ s "14*9 ' 

A^9*7cr :!. t\l\ao : hAO i rt-n?% - HfAiJ^C ai 
flJ/i^C HflJA^- : HfcAfl : ^A* Of^O. &] 



5 i8a 1 -- 



: frflftjh r 7-^? s inhM-h : <mhf J^'P r ^.fl i 



* 

* wsiy .- fcfitfD : ^-nc ^i?^ * H ftr x-^ 'J^e . o-nd * 



.: HID-}I-|: > M 1 7A 



- hA: Vfl<- Jtf*-<fDTf i & ' 25 

: fli A i l-flC^AA s Cl-tl r h9flM : AC^-rt : <w>flA- : 

i CJlil i OlM^ ! HhCk : A*>7-IP s A^Jt n')'?? : 0-fld :: 



en>m V : A*lT ' KTl ? fli A ' l-HC/b A i AI^-1 A-fl : ^ A 

e^flt.^**^ * ^jB..-0-fl--aihje,:AdAV: H^a>-unt 30 
* h A. i C?irt i iwi^TM- : mriUh^DlI "MIC 

D A& . 7-nch, A .- A">7-i*' i vi/^-i- - 

h A. .-!: ai^9 'H s *7dH 
n-A i toflUf 



[H3] 



<Dfl)HTiC : ft A 

-f-h A .- ^pc^A : e nn* 
: -in iT-^f nhtfD *n. nn.A-* ATI 11 ft? 1 "** *<PAP -in 



5 

AA-nfc s H2tf flA : <w>?fr : HAdA.il- ^^h-fi 8 IT-/**: Hh^u- 
f 'JC'h s Ad A .- fl)?im)'/. 



10 flifliwn * ^ifPt 1 : AV^I fflAlP'MuT* KA<wi : Vf-A- - l-flt* -. 

HA.- < jn.:fl>-2'f::: 01^ ^'H"?^ laiAAsl-nCh.A^^-n^^^A-! A* 
^A : 7-flCfc, A : A/f* : iwAJiln^ :: fllflUf : -f^*lfl /Km- : ^7IP : Vl/^^ : -Mfl 

A s ^P-C^ft AIWI WJ-tih n/m-n Ad aid^A -t flih^-H .- ^dH- : ai^ ^4- * 



^fc*- 8 ^ Al !: 

: fljflijf s '^^flo. : A^fl-^A. 



s hid* 8 

OK--- 



H1C s ID A^ B h-fl .- Apahfrfft*!? 8 a>tiA,pat-&>& ti*& (\19(l -. A-titt 

0) A$lV i lV ff ?, 8 )JI:4. Aft 8 fll Ahfl,-f : K A.^11 8 'P"? :fr 

25 AO-A.-U-n^.-J&^rirt" : A^T-IP 8 Vl/^.-M : frft'JP-A 8 



s <7DV,yH- : All-AV :: 

: -in s MH. 

Hn^ ri) /i.A m*.'R s ^htfi>- 8 AX^H.h-flrh.C 8 ?Ui^ :; AHh 
30 HDllsll-fl^ : JZ,^ft- : h^InC : otfifHh'Jdn :: 'J^s^^A-.-RAe-.-flh'J'fcAi^ * 
htfD : JK,^ : <w<PdA.U- s flhtfD : ^"00 A s Jt?<HM^ s AH^J^C ' Tf^ s JE.'Y, 
; -nfr^^ s rt-flh 8 cDj&il. s f-rhIA s h<L " 0>C* :p,'^A: A^Jt* 
8 h d A fl)^^. s ViTDft-K : r^i A, fliTiflJ-M.' s 9f\ A,U- 8 A?i<wi s 

^dc : w tti\ao : h AH s dd veu .- uahM -- rt<:iA 

' W.B. 15 



[U4] 
rh A ' rhfcfl * ft>'> * (DttC * OMVfc* ' h ?^ : <D-fc*Jr : ^fl : ft A. ' tihao : ft Afl: 



:: (D 

T:;: 5 

1 OJ^^<- i Jf i OlflUf : OT^h- : tdhfcU- A^ft s ^ A. 
: -Ml A ^P-C^ft OlA^ 

: 



: Xlt 1 : ft^V i OIJ&HCT:AiA'n7l :!: 0)^ 10 



: IK '- 
5i 9 b Tl': 



V? ' 



Uf : /.n-^ : <Wi r- : -IP : ' : ' 20 

ai-ftt 1 n,^ c hcft-t^i : O>^SV,A nuf i fl^-t* a>w - W-A- r 

: A 



: MH.h-nrh.C ::: ^flr/n: )iV : ^rt'/ 1 ^ : 

: ^^rt.: W-A" i Vr'h^VrnJ'i'J^ i H-fc : AifrO)* i HllP/^: V^.R'P ::': 25 
i ?h9C Hl-nu A 'MlJt 10-Ms * HjE,rh,A. i 'J'fl^'h 

i HID-?!* : Cft* : tttfrC ' A* ::': rillUl A^X 1ft 



h0D.-Hft.flA0- aihdfls^-flA 0Dftrh < h: < JA9rt 

If** : nM'llfty ::: fflHW : WA- fl'hHhCT: ^<D-?i A fllf^C IA* ft.* 30 



.* XIII i l/Afl) i fl&V*!?' i <wft'h i /,-fl :^^,A- 1 m*^PV i fl7P 

-l: i A0-A"> : a*>W)'V : HlD-X-f-tfo- <5- A ft A. : oiftjf 1 1 
7-flCft.A i <D& ft'H^-lh 1 1-A- : M- fl^ftHH i IT-/*" ftfth 



i Mi^- : OJA&rlflCJbA ::': tHr ''JfljZ, : 5 2oa 

VIC : hGi : 'Mi^n : hlW s JtAfl : fc^rt-flh : H/2,*^^^ : Juw>: 
:-HlUA e 



5 <DJt. si: IPTj&M h*gV i ^"Vfc ' 0>-?i* B OlflUf i 

tf-A- .- Mini (Dtt.tahP - tf-A- HOMYf* Afltf-:;.- m-K-i:^ ^-ft 
Mf <flh<ni 



:: tD\\\l\\t/n'\\ r 



10 

-!- s -Mn A s ^p-c^^l W-A H^-nu A- .;: h^n . w^-n A s 
: A^T- IP iM/^ i-h A :^pc^ A B ai A.^hy? - &ti .- *}-n A- 

A-0 : (D,^^ Vfrao .-;: fll^fl : ^^ C ; J 



15 



H ^rthA- : h*>H 'VJi<W>y- : -Th^/^h. ::: rhVVL : 
i XllUHlrh,C : X A-f .' AHRAe:-: fcft</D : Vli^ : 'JA?" : ^ AhA 



20 

?ift <ni : -fUi,*: i Hd Jt : 2W>'7/ A ''fc :!: fll'J'M*' : il/**^ * -Hfl A s ^P-C^ A - 
: 00(1 ft- : Afc'flCy? : ^Q-O- : H^fl^ : QhWj s V*7^ : ID^A 

^htt l < 7^:flJ^Art,:fl>-A*^:i;7<. : Ji0nrtA flU-iWi S2 ob 
h<W : H^lfl -IT-/*': HtfoAflA-f- : 1rfA- : (D4.&0D: 



* 
AU* B fll tf)^^ e tDlv> ' fl Af <-^A9 : tDtitao't' : 



30 



[u6] 



ini.Ji u- 



10 

HjB-tt, : X^^d^^^ * flin-flh- r ?iA^ : flhtfD : ^,^h, A ' ^H^P ' n^^^h- : 

|:^ i O.H'P 





* 



OlflOf 

: Atll^*- : IJt A" i ftlfc, ^jj i hTf?^ V^ 9 A A : 



HUtfO. : mlf Jfjn- 20 



?U-h^irm>- : 0)rh4- : ^^7 A : &T1 A flC :: 



O.U flih^m.^CA f hflh : A.'b^TA i h"7U- : oi-K-l:^ i h-V^ : A^J^C : 25 

t JlAh : ^d^-fl : Hm-fc-f <H>- i ^^A 10^9 :: fln-n<- : 
j^ ' "Idn 

A.A.t- fli^'JA-h fc^-mi:* 

)^A<- : (IhRpaD'.&A- 1 lltn-M: : ^<DA ' 

521 b UA- : n^nn ^ <JA. tA-flrh.-'fl^H-^ x^-n'M^: ?* H7-n^ A 30 

: A"<H>- : HWA- s nO>-A^ : 'fhh.tftfD- s XO^i'h : HIM" 



Ah i :*m. fctti s fli^^. i -- A-rtrh n-*-<. Arn* : 



ID A A : 7-flCfc. A - a>h9&f: : hTlrf-f- 1 IK A- .- oifcJF : w A-** : aoWt^ -. 

KA : -IVI-nh. : ll<h4>C : fllflA 19 m^&fl) A : "7dH- : OJ2&4- : fl-hOH^ : (D 

' AI1T : fllKi^AOT :'7dit:<D:?'&4- : fr'-l-As^i :*: 
Ai^ < >:nAA<n)!?i < ?lt^'flrh,C :5: H> HI 

5 0)7414- Wf.'H* ' IT-IP ' n/*' 1 ^ 'MnA T.P-C7.ft : ruWih .- 



9Mi Aft* irH:n Ai^^c e^ft y^riTM- r 

10 -'-- sfflirfl.^.-OT^/*'^ : ^l*<wi : A.^n : -HfTf-J hW f 



15 

fl* (*>' (D&''hdC<'- 522 a 
: 0D<PO A flm-ft-f : n,^? :|: OlHl'hft H^O, B 

: M.H : h9a)C^ i Vrh A, Kfth : OlC^ ^^Ti,? : 

tC^ 

20 rtl * i'- B av - P : ' -Mfl A 

4-<W> :^9X I : ^.ft : fcA. s fll^n^V : If}* : 



B T1* B V7C arfi0 Jt'WM B tf-flo^- : ftl^ : ^Cit B ->7iP : 17 



A- B Xyl s 074- : n,70- C :: HfD-K* s hft* s-TfO * <b*4- B ^ft : h A. B fll </'ft A.II- 

B 



ifitiao ^iije, 00)1-1? B O.M: # ?ii 

B ^ft : h A. : M B Kftiwi : hftr/nl : hwi : ^Af- B H<w^ B 01*^ A*i, B 
^,7 : tf-A- B ;hA/7l> B (JA^A,!J- :.:: <u7rfU?/J ' Til* B 
Afl A s A-flA s Hf rh^Jt B <JV .- a>hto# - <wT A-l- B HaiC* B flhon : 



: fc A ' h 9^"%^ : <D Vfl^ : f 
(D/*Vh 

522 b - 



: (DA& ! 



aiC 



* 10 

0* :: 01^^X7 M H^hHH i h^'^n < >7-i*' V7/^^ + 
f-IA* i <nh<5-: flll^-9 * A^ * IM^UH : rfJ^.-Il A Vll- : i^X 1 
*<J-fl ^ A- :V?.-> : W-A- : <nirh All- e h<wi : ft*! ft Ad Af :: fll^fl : 



* - ^'Viwi : fDh?"!! : Hf Ml. i 

: nh<w : -M^^ ^ A 'J'hlP Kft^/b A : ha* : 



: A flirt! ' MA 



1-nCh.AVL s ^AAfPao- .- ATl-iP Vl/* J; ^.'^hA.^e-C^A i 

: (1)11 *1r|: 



fcjf&C i A.* s <M,A s 'J'h 1 ^ IDfl^'lJt i hf : f Tf A^ : -f-ffTft : f ff 25 

art- h<h^ff t ' 16 f ff A:* * C ainAJPfl^A 



-MflA 



-Mfl A * ^fC^ft * A(D^ A* A.M A^- s X^-Hf A : kin> : ^X'h- : -tfl * t* 30 
A.lf<n>- (D?i^3: : /MHifrh- ' 'flV s V Ji (ii-C : ^fl,lf <n>- ini\\\\\tin'\l s 

I'ftC : hK"}*J : AOtfO- : 
"llfl : 



.-n* s T1A 8 



5 TM* B rtrh* * <Dn, : y^M^A : nSVJ-f* : 9^ ' (Dth-^fi nttM" 

^ 
V7 



Oi^- 

* 0)?^ ^Tl*?^ ' hb.p'li i oi^jS 1 : Mi"? 1 A*? s 
10 : ^ A. f Ck (D^n,^ : rtjf fll^A"<lI in'Plf ? i HOJ-h-f 0<- Jtfl> 

1 523 b 
: fDtf-A*<fl>- 
fO.fO.lf 9 IDh Alfl^ * noWJl" KA 

V : 
15 fcA : UAffl. :0>-A'|- : 1-7ftC :!: OJ^^Ii 

kA-f- 1 nAft : nhime j&n> .- WR^ . H^A *7cr^ .- ACT- 



20 l-^A-oi*- 8 ^C' 8 ffDC^aO- 8 8 I l{l 

: (D : t-aDa>-O~:'l1S*'p't:'i:hhffDi(D&? ' 

'J^'H 8 Cl>: a>tn>9frs 

: fllh A-'/. 8 troWi'tlToo- ' A77-IP 8 il/*'^ : -MnA ^P-C^ A 8 
A(h 8 ^T-foo- s aotl A 8 ^9n^ 8 flnftMi s Kfth s A* A^ m-nH-^1 A-n?t : 
25 XAs^ A*s n<w>Tn/h'Th :!: hAOJ^^s oj^n^d s/k.'f-Cf s fli^^i^ 
^V^i 8 't-oDiMlA* s 01*^ 8 fcTI <l ? : f 8 h-fl-fci s 7-e .- mhj'^'fft -. 

fll-4* 8 hr/oJj'/- 8 HIM- s n* 8 ai^^V s 't'OD^m- : "in 8 77^C .!: Afl s 

8 h 0D8 &Cjt^ 8 A*^ 8 h-H"?^ 8 h-fl-fc ::: 



30 AVL7 B ?iw)fl s n?i. 8 !/?,A.ftA"<fi>- s <Dje,-flA<n>- B hli^ . oi-M: B 
no- B ti0D B ^M-^-d- A- B aipVIo* ' fbi* oi^li-y- 8 tfD A^*>d- 8 Ad A s W- A- 8 



8 

B h-fl-fc 8 

: A7T-IP 8 



[120] 

-BlA B I^Cltl ' li<t>frfan>-8j : 



A&jf s Ml 
B -Ml**. s flJATlVfc : Au^fr ! fflflffrh. B fcflh s ^^ f/jl)/.n- : flUf ' 

s ^Tf "^^ s I'fl^ : ^rt*A i iwiAd A-f" : ^-n<- : HflJ-X* rtl*^ 5 
-Hrt : VIC * Hl-flC? 1 nWH- 1 ^fl.^, 

MHO : -!* - vi/* 1 ^ : -MIA s ^ec^fl 

h A. MH - HA- 1 (11174- oh AdPflp- 1 -h^lfin : A AJf : MlT^f * 1-fl^ ai A 



10 
i H.'i'lf <n>- A'-^fl A :: 





' Witt 0fiA : Mlao -MTIUAV * fc^'fl/. * Jlfth^C 15 



Hh MrPlftao- : flft A* : OJ^rtP- : H jRh A/'tfO- : A&fe<f> : 

8 Tfl-fl : <l>?l* 8 -J7-IP : V1/^^ : -Hfl A B ^p-C^A 8 /*'fl A 8 



8 

: HH^ID-^tfo- : A^f- B hTI"?^ s ?-fl : 01 A4^ s Ml "?" ' 



ohM-ao- - ft-flh 8 7$0 airt-flh s W^ : airt-n Ai "Ita. whlah 

: -flC^ : HfO-Tt*!: ' ^-A:>lA.:CKrt:^V, P >'}^ : -011 25 
: hf/D : -^f : (\ AC s fllh'Ph'n^ : 'hC'/'f tfO-A : H?i Afl s tfnfl^C^ :|: i 
s ^0 : Til- 8 VIC ::': fflhV'lh 8 (D 

8 XA : noj-A-fc^- s -t-ihti 8 ^h : nn u?<: 

-n^ : OHfr|::fcft0D8 AfctTDS m-ft-i: : ^^rm/ 1 : A*}?-/*' 8 

: KA. B Ano^^-fco B ^fljR^sfln^s^^.-^^/wiqffl^* 30 
8 H^rt^ : fl9hvi > : fl ^ : ^ Art : < A^n^ 8 nftivi* ! +^ : *" 

h-n-fc s ai?iAn II7C Jt^hUT-^^ H A.'^rtV fli^.m l F'J :i: a>A Afl B 

?'> : H A.1-^-|in^ : ?i/ 

>; j- 1 -f-h A B t. 



[121] 

- 'KhV JKthG : fD-CHflfoD-i oHIII:* * 



- f,K /h * # 



s nilf : <D*7nC : ft A"!* 



"Ml ft : 



AV1C 



15 



, ?trw>rt : 



25 



W.B. 



i ^Clfl s 



V?tOk 



: ? 



: h A. : Aft. : M/1C : XW : TlVh. : <D<J,H : (DftM\9G h A- 



A&Srt'Tf 



16 



[122] 

<D<w>1 
^ 



Afltfo-: fcfltfn: Afl fill A.: h<H: Afl 
Aflh : A-flf 1 



526 a 

:j: OlMH .' UAffl. Uf : AAlh : ^jf : Ai'M 1 ^^ IJt A" * 



- 

OMJ ^K s hTi^'- 'If: A- 

: K1H ! frtrnhfirao- -HJ/h A^tfo-* ^g- : 

- ' h&~ *^ : ^rw>^rn : <n>Tl A : 7C^ ^ : fl>-(; : ?t flr/n : (^ A '|: : 20 

: 0)n, s linC : W: (D^l^^f T : Jift^ : A}|0D: 
OMl 



K ath*(l9(h '- 



<w> i 






. : f ff A .* : 



52 6b 

, : H-M/hAF 0hW- : -f^iA^A sA&STi"?^ B 
: AMI- fi 



: fc?ll : 'fl A- : X16 s K^fi : H) 
5 0- fll'J/lhVfc : *><: Jih : OtfiXlil * "f.<W-f : fflh'Hlf , V : H?* i W AltlP i PA-dC,* 
^ A. : [H^O,] : j^A : <n>^rh : Hj&n, : HllP : 



x 
: -i AT fliA^iD-^^: fl^ oiftj^i ^Tl 11 ? * T-*?"/ 1 

r 
: aotlti : ^,V : KfltfD : 1-^/^Al : ^AOH : h*C : Kff 't ?"AA s Aft-f" "f ' 



^ s *7dH- : mlffr - 



<P*7 : fr? : h t^pW i J^ft A : 



7dH: 
\\ao 'S?ivTr$> 'PT'f' : H'hV/^t * a*>~&*& - *J4"n Hf^oiAjt *Vfl 

0)3* 5^7a 



25 

: frflC : ID-l-^lvh.: -flit^i Aj^fl^lh OHDKk* '- OV'kth'i'.'h'M s 



: HI- At 1 s A.lk A : 9K- : K A : OHA-h s T* A fl)h A ' fD- At : A.^ A 

: *7dH- <D^^ i ^Vdh A s fh A-Q^I- Hai-K-f 00- : Ap, .- &4- ^ 
30 g"f-:fl)flUP nh s ht^X s <Dtf-Avm- : Aflfcs fflA": HfcAfl s -V- A^sai}!? 

Uf ^dtf- : tH^^f- s m4&4 ::: (DflOf *1*A * AVPflVf s A-flKA : HAflA 
^C e Otf&'Mh s At"* 1 / B A-OAi : 0D44 : ffl t A-fl^ : A A9l : ffl^fl^ : ^ A s ^ A. * 



f A-<C sfli^TM- s Hl-nX-A : 0*:?tA<wi:h; l VH B fl-t.-flo-?'} : (Dem 



[124] 

dh < ID^y : AVJPtfO. : A>,a-^fl i $A. : fllA < P < 7 r frjP: fc A.JTH : 
10 : *flC : IIID-M: ' A'tfA'lh : fllflUfs -fYH'A- * -nil" 1 ': (Diw/n :?,(!. A* 
*e^ : "1*. $00- : ei/' 
7 A 



527 b 



Ah 

:AO-v[K^ih]:^fthA:fll/n>JP^:^V^:/,.A:^A.shftw>:0>-?i'|:: 15 
01 A-S- : A Jt-flCy? : W/**^ * 9 W>. : W*Vt :: (Dj&fl, A r foA : Jk'J.Mll. : Vf-A" * 
: &K M* hlW)*^ * OM^h : ? A A : ft A- : ^'P,? : ttlOh- : 
. .^ : fl|. . , : fflhyjtt^-M: HAt:^A: JiA. : 
* fll^'P*/!- : ^.J^4-^ ':' ainaHft-fc^ : 'Ml*: : iff-OT^ : ff.^ : 01^1 : A 

: OHDlW :?Wm:!: (D?i? I1 'H <Dtt7l : 20 

*7dH : (D$& ' J^fl A : 0)fl 

h i ^jf :7'H' I 7 : f sffriC, ^ftA-'-ni^: tvA-W". (D^C^'.nahMn 
' (Dhttt - IM- : f fr<C : fll^^nC : ? AA ^fl : K A. : ^A-fl^ : h9dlh : 
s Oil A : h9(\ :: fflVVO ' f ' hll !^ '- ffr^-.tD^frtlt''^^'' 

' flA. : tt)^^ ' A^ : (Oftl?? : ^^hfl : '0^1 :"} 25 
IDflUf : -KVin- ^ AU9'1' : 



528a fl|lV : V/^rh : ^tt.^ : OHflt 1 ! fl>-|5: A<t-A h A. 

: ai?!"}!! i IM- : HO? ^.^ ' Aftjf : Ai-H ?^ : tiy.A :9 li AA:'nH-1t IP 30 

ili^ll 1 .'*!"- : AWMf, ' flJ^ifTliA^'V :!: fDh a W '- flAl : ft^Tl^^f ' 
A-fl OlKi^'M s *7dM s fllrh^ : tfDrhfifD^d Uf ijrdAf 1 :: fllh/W>:^n-* : 

aiK'/i i A-ll ' ^A. AA.i> A'/V**-ThA- ffl^n W ^.n 0D1HC 

.: rtfl,y : A-nAi : 0-flfl nVX-^'f.- : lttf fc : 



[125] 



f:fcs Aft: A'l'-Ji B <w>">flt? r 'lv 
fcAO : H^CA 8 &-flC 7t9"JtrQ4.-i:i> 1 oifcAn H-hCA U7C 

<5U- :: OhMsA : JUJAffilfH 1 Mfift ftl*.?? s AfflAjEV.?: flrfifW'V^ All. 
5 ??-C -:: (J)?i?ft f.V s Til* : flffrh : AdA,U- H^tt, : r/oX/Ji V- 



10 }> : ?A : UAffl. 

* 

8 A^jf: fc'H'Tf : f fr<C,s fljA^g- : 

: Afl.^A: P^ : VT-fll : Olh'JH 8 frftR fa : 7-J^O : ^^rhtfo- 8 
A<n>- B A-fl ft : n,79^-C K aiA-nA'fr'Jl^- s aiA^ s /^AA, fl>^n,Atfi- : 
' 5 fhfc s V4-A 8 ODOh^L ::.' fflhi^'H s (D^ s 01 A^ s &? s WA- s 

s n,* :h<wiTaiAATC:fll^A^J3n./ I :tf-A-: iP^-f- :?iA:flf^:*^'> 528 b 

s ^"aiAjt^ s fl>nh : ?iiw) 8 KfliAAaiC^ B TC s 
^V 8 ^C^9 B H-l*A-fl4-i) - flh9nAA ?Ah B K?rh 
* A. s A ^jf : Kli^ -f s nA, s ep<w> < J< :;: aiAi^y s ao s 

20 7^jp s -irn s i^c : n<DC^ TC s ?AA j -nn-^ s i*.^e^ . aiA-nh 8 h<p<5.A 8 

tf-Atfl>- 8 tfD^^I^- 8 |Ml,lW. 8 /Sl ^ ! ID a X' a 4 8 ff)^'l/li- 8 ^jf : AlTf 

s H^T 1 ^ s fDApOhfrA 8 ^4^. : <D.pOh&-6 fl.'h* 8 Hf 8 

s hA h' I ?ir<n>8a)'Hs;i'H 

s h-n-t --ainh. saHAt- : Ird.'Wr . ntn-M- s T7^C 8 ^^InC-fcu-A 8 A^-A 8 

8 



oi>- 8 UAffl. : n^T-hs 01^5^ s tfoTlA AO s ai^'Jf >- s DUP B 77-iP 

3 ^?A 8^ec^A8 MnAsMAsMnA 8 nh/w 8 -i-nuA: JKH- 

8 aiffjt 8 hiP'V'Hh'l: : h^7^ 8 fld A1- B rhm>-A 8 MM 

: tin, : /mX'rh'h B fl^tfo^ : I/HC'V^ s fl)^^ 8 h J^h? :!: 
hft.fi ?AA 8 M-flC-tlh 8 <H>V,yMh 8 HlD-K-frtfO.: ^g-: /tTl^^ s j&tY 

s tithll-Y- s 



[126] 



IDflUP i 

: ^^ : ID7-H ::': fflrtOf s 1-fl^ i 9 /irh ^-ft * h A. A^S ! 

- 



* ?t A (JA<J). 
AH : UAffi. XA?i* i Hf $r"rao* - oih^-M i ffl^Ai i ^-A : Y\ A. 

://.'//.-: f/i/i'/'V /.7^. : rsf'ft-^ffin/Vfli :?tf)h ' AH :: 

i-* 10 



Xitt 
:: 

: ID-W : fllK^OP.-^fr fldA^ <W9 ' ffl^.'&Arfl.--nC :: 



fllH. 

'^]nA.^P-C^A : 



ID 30 

p'lltfav- '- at tint /..n : HA<n>- A.* <w>V,A s 'TL'HC ?wn>-^: flJ-CH* : 
X'V-^ : 1-A^tfO- 0>^'V^ < )<n-:'flH-:i t ffiin>;J-i- : fiUl^O-ll h^OH'P : Afl 

Am : rtirt^- s ^im*7: ffl&jf 1 Mi'fiF h-n-t.- A<C^: n-^^nc * cfcf-h. 

A'flJl i 7j?; 



5 - 



h A.A 



25 



[ 127] 



fllA 



rt-flfc : 0,19 J?;C : 



: fll^AA 'flH-'V i'hT s 

- 



30 -Iffl : 



A*A s 



HI 



"Ml A s m-WV- nuf -fllh^ i dA;M- .:: 



oi A ! /"A A. 



i fllAs 7-flC/bA: 

^'>H 



ailnV B -^A*tf B hwi s h<PJfi-fH- A^je, 



: M ' (Dlh9 '}l ' A'JYb 



B rtA<w> : 



B0DAKII-I-B 530 b 



-Hn A B ^P-C^A s H<wAfl A1- B Vl/^^ B flJH'M- -nVLA- B 



[128] 

A/iA i l^Vfll. : ^n,lh HJfl.n.AJPim- s (1 AJPtfo- : 7fK. : If 1'7-fK- : (D?\9 '}\ : 
f/oK-h. : Miyao* : TMP : If M7/*T : ttt'fU'f- : tfA* * If Ao- : ^fr : Old 

Kfh- 1 Mil: (L'.fl'li'K-tVm: ::': <J)r/n}K.: fflfl) /..<;. : 



: AT-31 rt -I-"M- f&fao- : art'-CH- 1 HiD-A-l- X^ifuD-c 5 

: (II lU.<- : 



-. ahth - IT-IP .- v?/^^ th A ^l-c^rl .- 

Atfi>-s/w^'}^:ai^^- ! nfli^V:^j5:fl 

Uf :*7dH-:fll^4-."fl^!ain^h'fc: dA-h : If^fAViTllH i frhl-C:flS o; h: 10 



: fllV'hT ::: OlhA^ChP : aof^t^O^ s m>V : M^^H TlVlW) i|: 



^C JilH i r/oAA- 1 H/e.^^'hA- :: fctfo-'Htf * 

^A * IDOTA^h s ^ A- : ^-A : ^A.: rh4-: 'hT-f 0o- * 
531 a <*> '- "IkrM - 
ID A A.lf tf- 

If 7-3$? : 

7dhA fflH-^f: A-flh 20 
h A. : 



-fl 

: M+t A^A,: C-fl: 

: : iwi i , ! 25 



yjR 11 ? 1 ?* AMlU-flA.C : ai 

i ^pc^A .- mkrhi ?: i nc * 

: * dA^ * nntf. ^7-i*:*7/* f 'V ' 

:i^,A- s ^A : Y\ A. : ai^S- - JiTf"?^ : ;V|& A- 1 a)V;)-<i-A "J^A.: <w->7A ao^ 30 
.L'ht'. : aofti i HjE-^^'f-A-.-ni: : fljM^CTin*- <w>h> r HWAfl- fl-f: 
fj : hKfrC ' 't-tnttn- ' (DMO* ' fll-A^ A<i.C?Oi>- :: What* : 

'-Th : fll A 

<n>- 



[ 129] 



0) 

: -Hi A ^*eC^fl r//nAhh 531 b 



s Ah :!: h^^Vb * I'fl^ : Atfi>- flh^D : ^*^. : 

If s fcHH- * >T-I : Vl/*^ : -Ml A :^P-C^A s 0)r/nA^Jl fi ^JB, A- : &>l\ s At A. : 
10 J&Vh^ : aotlh : P ?^ ftjS" : ^^"7^ s ^JE, A- * ID^flJ^ : A-?.* : 
^J& A- : OJVf-A"n>- 1 lA-^^tfO- : OH7D17A 0^9 s llV- < P'7 B '0 : 
^Jt^-ft * #A. : fll^jf : Ml"??' T-*?"/ : HI^K 1 : hlf 11 ?^ : AiA: OCff* fll 



1 5 

4* : K'Crh- : ln>- j^i :;.- fli/S-A : Ai A.A Tfl-^ * Afl-? 

: 



hfl- .- no-nd ml-^-l-Ar flilnV: ^Z,A : AIT-iP .- M/**1- s 1-hA 

20 



VIU1 & 



: If A,no AYl : aoKh ftjf 

P^.'CI- s aiarf A : flH^-* s n A-t* s Ad A * iwi^^ :!* HoJfX : &j 

30 <Tf : <DA * I'flCh.A^AA s '(!!"* : HCf 

AA : -nH-1f : WA/h : 1-^hO ?t9 AiAn^^ 

Ad A : HD&1- -- a)n, ; ^&-V4>nc If Mil A 



y AA : 1-nC ::: 

W.B. 17 



[130] 



* 

$00 flh'HicfD'M: : UlT*!^ * rUrH^m-VJ-- : fD'Mt'^t : 

: dA-lh fc^rt-nfc M<s, aifc^rt-flfc i-3$yx (D^rt-nJi 

: ft"*"} :: 0)41 fr:*? : /hll'D : 'KoJffl. ID'M'WVl- # 

'HlArT.P-C'I.fl : -f-AJP i 5 

I- A? ' 



A^-A Ji A. Mr fll^M* T* : flfl * Ol A^-i : A*7<5- 1 h'H ?')"' r 

fl)-flM-^'>: iD^H-^.-fliCHfli. flM: : dA-V : fli' 



fliA-S- : ao^^ao : tf-A- : ai^-H-T- flJ^^M.-f,^ 15 



* 

1 rhtfo-fl ' t\$ * A-HX tf-A- 1-A^. : ?iA*w : l\f) A1" Ji 
-/-IDTV : rh-5.fl /*'C^^ : HOH^'I: hi - O>1 
1 A Ol^/***^ : AT h^ * ID^Afi * A.'PlD-^'} : hOS'^jh^U- : n^Ji'l:^ i 20 
1 rhtfo-fl i -tvh A^ ' unl-l/*** A'l'Vl A : ^f-C^ft Mf .' ^^h A. 1 / art 

(W'JIA r C^d'lh ' t|U 

. ^/^^4- : Hm : fll-l-lPi^P : IP^-I- : l7*rTh A^ c ril-Ti-f- ,i . : rwi^'J^ 
Ai A : f rhjR-S. : no')-?/**-!' * If "Ml A^ : S'll- : ORVh ' fll-h^RiiD * W A" r iVflfc H|i 

n.rM/* i ^-1-jP.*'7i*-sflij&?'fl^ flflj&S l -l:il'fl- tDAp.ai>a>-?o-'> AeVl/*' 25 
;Hh :: 



^'H-C 011-04- - flllf : 4-Ai * ID IMA* " 

533 a '. t Vf-A-tfO- s anW)^'. mfD*4-tM>: flJl^^.-^ATl- : AT^IP 3 

* -MflA r T.f-CT.fl : oiAf/nAXh :^A-s^-A ' ft A. 



//n9?/.sfl)r:4sa>-?i'|J s^A hA..- foivW-rii M* 
-h * V 1 * i ntf-4- 



: tDY\Vt ' frV '-.'d-ao^ ' "S.& ' 



<n-cnfl-flr!i.(?ffi- .: Aft] 



^ : ^ A* : W" A" * V7^ * 

n, A ^fi ^ A. "vfciPY s vie * A'JT-i*- * v-i/* 1 ^ -MI A * ^!^c^ft s na 



W- A- rj^^ Jt? tf" - 9A A && ID W-A- 

1 5 ktlao * ^/^^C : MaoFfr : Olh/ A ''l"P/*> fl<-CHe^ s 0)?!* J>Ti : 



i <7Dftr ft : "^ : X^-C : fl,^ A, i ft Ah : "K i tDhVli '. Wr'h : <5. A ' h A. 
20 ft? ")? ; tf)^r/n A"/ : 'PT-f- <m'}l A : 1^1^ : Uti\X<h * 



::: Olhdn:j&n,:<M>>-:A'fl?|.-Hfrh^sai^J&^?i^.-AT >; h:!.- 



* - 



: n^9" n A A 

30 OhMi i A-hV^C.-hA^ni : OA-f:* 'P^tfo- s A-flH-^1 s 



* a> ft AIM* s ^ 

A* : WlL : <5-A: ^A. H^Af- i AW-A- B 'JA? : A^ i IDj&lfl. Ah'CVs A-flK 
s A-n?i s P-^A'flh H V-n-fl flili*'? H/v,V'fMl ^^^ ^A : h A. 



534 a i 

If^J&WlIDh : h9ll&, i fl)?i? A<C, :'' 

: Ji A. : tt^haD'} ' P-^ * 9^^' : "fcT : fl* ' Aim s 'M7 fc : hftm : 

A-flh * Ifl^i.JiAlfl i 0D,h4U- : W-A- * *Cfl: fllf Ji0 w <i' ::: 
rh.C 



?iftf/ rhft^.'^rhAs .e^D^h : irohl-fl </**? fllV^A : ^^Ih, i lV ' 
: </MiAU-:<-f|: JiA. fllH-f: * J&X"I: : HMl-VV-f : W-A-s^ 

fli^H Hhiwi : ^.A ^ A. : HWn X^X"I%: : ?ifthV : 



: XfltfD W-A- s ^-n^- : h^J : ID-Ms 
W- A- : ^X 1 VA i ^ H9 : KAiWJ : |D-Ms : h'fl f A?i^ A : "7l-;J- 



'5 



: flf-X* : 'H-fl/ 1 : jP AA ' X*7H>-flrh.C 
: ^ A- : -llfl IMA- - ^ A 9^ : ^-f- : A/-A i X A. : fflflhf * 



534b 

7A i II-K- : Ji A* : On-fl^ : I'Tlh^ : -flH-^ flXW *<- : A^-A ^i A. : 

C?iA:wiViT'>'1h:1'n<::^'Hh/.:'nil-:5: 07^7^-1 fl^-l-sM-U- = 
: A A. : IDfllD-VIs ' ffD<P6fr : ^^rh^o. : ^.fi: At A.^11 A?lA 





: IDAS ! ftT^'-lF 1 7-fl^i hll-n : ID17A : 1/74- 
: ^7-lP : ^7/^'V rlhTfC X90lt> foMlf ' ^HTC ^A. : fllh"} 30 



HJZ.'flA 

-MI A ^.pc^A ID/I/ID : AJ^^ : IT-/*' -Mn A .- ^p-c^A '> < 7/' .- 

'ft IKD* : T* : (DO)Rh ' Wh^M ' troPrfV* :!: IDT-n/. '1I 



'f : ft A. : ^C 

rf'l' ' JlrfD-5. - fljflfrrtv : fcflll : A- OJ-fc'fcfl s Thl** : 
CT.fi * 



(D 



T ' AMH^'flrh.C : Kiwi : W AAfl>-J p : A^ft s Ji A^Tf * <f.^P-tfO. : 

Af fr^'/.-H^T-^A^^rflhiwi! j&n,:<w>X m rh^*aijK,^^e- 535^ 
10 AW-A-: 



A^-ft : ft A. ::: mllP- 
' 
A'% iH'V'f s 



15 



: 04- : a>flM: ^A^ -' IDCHfll- 



20 1 : ?iA : A.Vh^C Aift^V-fclftfo- roCltrfi. : flj&frl:i 

s ^.^AfPtfo- .- ^ftfl*-/ 1 B hw .- intD%$?Mi - Wfr 



B 1-fl^.- A"* B AB A^fl B 



25 

ft A;JTi : ffl'JtO B Ji9hd : R A'V. : 



B MB A"*! A^-l'ls^A.p'H s -KHl/h s H-l-flUA B j&Mn:/ynA^h B 

30 h-nji.r: B tat-P-a*- & Ah A s ^*^.coP aj^^T<m- :: mh^n.-H-h-flUA * 535 b 
Oh^.-CKfr :: Mlf> WC tn-ft* ^h^^M^h^Cf!:^ - 

:: ^,^^^4- s fDjtfiP^ ' ft Atf- B ^ A B f ^/"<P : AV^ftf * Aj&^-flh- 



n^l1, I / 



M34] 

HI 



flAA/h 

XA-* : Ah. AM : h ?^ : ^A"^ * A^ft:/lA.^'H:/i^hW> i 5 



^ A>. : -d^f^'H '- hf*> ' -H-flrt, : 
: *"}niAm.:fllAnvh,hni: I'^rlhAF: 1 ? ' 
- H^ (I, A : ''l (1 t^^OV : 0* h70- ^^Vfuto : 1-^rTliA^ : , 



: S'i.:w>::':':'- : : .5 

536 a ^ ::s T|^ : ^^ C : h7S^ : *?%r 5t^<K : hfth : X-^ 1 ? : Olfl-M : (DC^ : ^Vd A 

* h A.^-M n?^7^ H.vm. A* A.U- A^S- ! ^'H^'-f *:* A-.-H. v : 



j: fllM AiT'^ : HW-'^A : hA^TI ai/idCln'l:ih : tfn*^,: /I'M 25 



: CD AH : ti.}\0- '- 

fl)X', 



At AH : l : . - : 30 

rh : ^jf h-H^'T'.-^A-::: 

?iAn a->i* f /"/*' i -I'M ^"^ i H.hll'ifo- aih'eV A ?" AA.ir<m- 

l/^h- ^y1^7^ ^A hA.^11 : <D0Dt\yH:fJ ::. HflJ-h* : < 

ID A& "l*ifc. A i fl)& * ^Tl <l 7 : f i At A. : OC ft i 01*7^ * Jill ? -Th i 



[135] 

m 



If tfo-: (DflKVh.: Jifl-fc Si (D-fvMliT 1 : 0flA: & : JlTl"?^ s 



i < * (D--- : : ' *>f. A- * CD A3- : AMU* 

* ffli)! : ^ li ! JI ' X9" flrfi^ ft*! ^ 

: f rhOHC : O^T^ "hl/^h i Ad A.U- : ^7-I* Vl/*'^ i -Ml A ^eC^fl 



7A 

i o fcfl <TD . ^.1-Ml^ : hfth i J&fctf, : hifDTI * fllli Afl 

-i"J4'rh Si ai^r -H i aoKY\ i ?& * Ji'H'Tf e kjityir . K->.H c 



IT-/"* -MflA IP-C^A fli^r 9ftA.U- : hfth Jt AGjR mllf J 
1 5 fl-i^ft /i A.^TI : fli^g' v^'M fl 7"^/e, A- 1 5>f)A ^ft : A- 

(Hl-f- : 



AfllA* 

^ A'H'fi 



Jill 
fcA ViV- s i& H/}0) : 



Si 



jK,n,A- 
30 JE.O, 



hao 



[136]. 

8 -- i n*A-i- : mA. AJ*I * -MI A 



1 fcn-V : P'A-n : A Aft * H/i^P'*.,? ' 0)*t (1.7, ' t W- ' tn>9ti i 
8 fl)Yf-A-0- : H.POh'H' : n^tlCA-ftf? : (Dk 

0)1* V7<: W& n Jiftnn/?, i H-n A . nhA-t s no* 



537 b 



'V A ^ jf- 







i T-fl*1 * 



1 H W s 



-f- ^ A* : h^VLs "}?-/*' : <!>?u/nV. 
: "J/hV * 'JT'IP i 



: Yaif 



0)0) A j^ 



:! :! JlKr.L)/i : hljt A 



HI* W-A- l-imj&m <5-A 

- 




CT.A !: 



538.1 fi *i'M fl 7'?- 8 j?.A- B -VH 8 

8 ll?i"}(m 8 



: a)Ana) s 



An- 8 



20 



30 



S ! ^^'M a 7 :: fs :^A- 8 

I-MIH 



AT^A- 



H'I:A : 



8 - : -M^ : 



0D,h^il s H-h s Trtrt 



i rhflfll B 

Jtjau-fl AIT-/** -HIA 

5 11A fcfltfo : 11. : aoKMZ J&V/*'* : AT : 

^ A" : KM IIA : n^i : hm A^ : ^T-f ffoJlfi ' WRC i -J'ln A : ^PC^f|: 
9 A A : <*-fl : 0^ A" i 0)9 il A : <wW>^ h A W Affl. : 9 A A,^ :: fllfl^S ^ 

flA? 1 : AiA.# i ^7^ "/UA- 0)<t>*i ^-H"7 : r : ::>A^:aihA^' 

-1"H1 A JP : n^/^rh : flinrh^^ : T-^CY. : I'^fl A-f : flH<O 
10 'P/^'rhy.-ai^h^ 1 /: 7T-/**3l * A'H^ft.- 

Ih : HlD-?-f <n- hl-fcfl h^^C s IDhHTC * ^'Vl- : fllhHlC : ^IA flli^ft A 



15 



Aftjf A-H^V^ i ^J& A- 1 tf-A- : Hhi flJHJiJnV ^^ A A3: Hfc AH 



i -HI ^T-lP * Vl/**^ i Jhlity A s 



25 

T-/*^ B -Mn A s ^1^C^I1 s a>Xh 

' fl)Th/*" : rTh-H^A : aoKh : 

' A'/' : 0^ rj: (Ofb^fl s -Mf| A B 7.^1.1*1 B f-f B fll 



3 o -MV in-? 1 : ai nfrrtV 

: flC :|: fl)?!? 11 B tfofrfl- : /t-f: : 

: flH'<7Dm s iwi'JlA : "M&C : hni s 



'J B <DJ s ^'H* 1 ?^ B 1*Cfl>?A s 

W.B. J8 



[138] 



539 a 



; -Hi A i 7.P^ft 0*00*9 ST-f *i?7A &A-- AY.: UK- : 

HjEAJiA-aD- : A7iA 5 

' ' 

' ' a)-r* lao : 



fll^-f fl A : ^m-l : M ^, A? : ^A i H^-H A : *A0 : .1 A 



0)66 - ? A3: .- 
Ai A. 



: ^Vl- : m^jf i AiH , 5 



A^7-i* : tt/*'* i -Mri A : 1.P-CI ft -- 

io- : A77-/* 1 1 -Mi A ^fC^.ft 



1 ID A^L ^Ih/i, A : ^fl "JT-iP 77^ ^-H*.eA art-fit TT-i** 1 20 
i ?f- 00* : 'fi^ : nh<5^-> : 0)^9^ ao : 



539b J^'A A<J-ft : fcA. ^Tf i CXA : noAffW flmD^^W :!.- htlao : 
: H"/, 1 ? i MH.Ai'flrK.C : '^^8: 0>-?i*: ?AA: ^H^-flrh- 

C:>i0o .. h:VHJP0iH: Arh'PC^s^nV^s^-'h i j&O. i h^fr'h 25 



00- :j: 
C s ?ift<n : W-A- i 7^/. i ^-/h^ i ilh m ^. : e.f/) : 

nbRvto-- toh^i . T^c-nA'tn^.-aiA^.-/*' 30 

Art, i a>4;f- A.f > 0n*^ Ml "tff i 01 A^ "Ihh. A a>>f %1 * X-^C i f A- 



. 

f A-<C 1 9H A ^-ft i ft A. i ^"M i m)?> A^jf : A-H 1 ^^ i /i A-A MM * 



B M.O- :j: <D?i*rt : frti Jt A^tl : 9 A- 1 * : C'U-'lb : Or* s 
AdA:ghU'h^':HaH?i-f-tfO-: < P(? : OHlrfW. : 

SB khao * OhM : fl) A& * M* : MlT 
: Tf>*s?-nC s htfo : t|A'} > ?Bfc D. < M:i a>KH\?.'l 



* <OP s Afll*^ :^1I <I V'T- : 0) A & r'T 



OTi V ^ 1 01 A A% Atfl * oo-frMtf hll"?**^ 01 A^flJE, 

: 0)A^n>'f- : :?J&A- s OlA^i e AfflJZ-Hr?: f fl)C* 
IDftjf fcTf 1 ?^ : lA'P : hKVi * "1.00+ : HIIA^ : fl)AW'A-tfi>- 



15 



^ : fj 

ft A : <- 



20 W-A" : Hrhlf : Kfto ' rhlf : nH^D?"* :: fllfcj^Tf : J&n,A* : ^ft : 



i : i''- - i -r- s .-fli - : 
::: flJrh/. : *^ B K-H ?^ s flJ^flrThlP s Vl/**^ : JfitltyA s (Vl-fl^ B A 



30 ftl:;: Olhlio B AA1" B rhflo-ft s rh^ B >A$ s ^fl : Thl* 

d-fl^ - * A-l-nvnn aKCV? 1 : AfrVu- B ^(L-fr s &^C * <srDl7 A Ad 540 b 



B7-A3? B neT-'/fli- s m-)k*isl7.|BV7/*' ; |- B 

: AMI,-* 5 - B ^A- : mA^. s AtfD** s fcTf "7'f 



[HO] 



Aflh 



rl.*l> ' fU5A s flhtfD : 0, : ffoK 

0)11 AUf .ll : 



: O)C 



flih'J'fcn i h^/SC OJAiHTC ^IA ai^HIC ^Vh i (DA.* 



10 



<5 



: lao : 



541 a 



Ol-ftt 1 ^^^htfo. :;: a>h a Vt : 

: AfcA i ^7^^ ngT-Vfll- i tlhiwi s ^(U : <W>*X-rh <P : TIC 
OKD-M" Jl ^^ i ^dh-f : AMll./i 
:J: J&'TbJB-A: 



20 



i Tdh^tfO- ::: "hWllb : Afl)^.* D?l < 7H.Ai'flA,C : 
OTHilCf fc - MlUh-nrh.C : HMD-Ms 



25 



|8,17C 



-C A O)^ i .fl, i 



">7lP i A. 



30 







AIT-/** i 



[HI] 

tf- A" 



O' AM 8 Jhlf 4*^ A 8 Hfl^-fW : HMf"?^ s flfc I <D JHTC 



nc^ 8 a>cif<D. 8 n^-t 8 dA^- : 'JW fl>-CH < B 

If m>. .- n&Jt'fc : dti*^ i rwML'f- : 3Afc * aiA^. i Ah* s JhlftyA s dCHai 541 b 



CD -Hfl A? 1 * 
: (111 A'*.-:: 01^,0, 
10 rhll- ::': dill ttaoWV : V^*^ s flJS-h-fc Ktt ' OhM : C?irt : "7* If ^ 



fr7tljffl<fi.C 

s A-fc i r^ :5s (DtltDC^ ' TWl* i 



(D AVfA-tfi>- 8 

8 s 8 ^ij. : ^ 8 -- 8 

20 B n^^A. s A^-A s h A.^-H s ^^/A - tf-A- 

s (DM-nC 8 A-flK s H^^j^h flJ-h*^ * /:.A : h A.PTI .- jS,n,A : A^jf 8 
8 ny.A. 8 minni-li 8 Ah s hWbth : (Dfrfr'h - n?iA ! H,hh :; a>h9f:'Ki -- 
8 K^&mrtAscDnfc 8 1^1^. 8 010^11:8 aiCt 
n ft .- ft A. . nC TCiivDl? A 8 >^^LC : hw s frCghao' 8 A">T-iP.-V7/*'* 8 Jhlf fy A s 



25 8 

8 iD-HI* tf-A- 8 |i) 8 nn<n)V 8 ^-fcJPA 8 Kr AIOD 8 -f-T<: 8 ^A9 8 



8 UooTr .- htn-6,a* AOJ^HTIC 8 



3 o h<w> s t<D Afll s H^"} 8 mini 8 H/uVil s *<*> Wfygao 8 TfJi: : H^l 8 (U/ 
s ^-1- : ^^ : ^f A8^nAir<n-s A^h-HnshA^^Asl-h^As^l^^* 8 

s !hl).?vf-n- 8 Vl^ 8 !> s 01-01^9 8 +AH>F 8 AC 



*, A th A flO^/"'lh s 0) tOMJn : Ah A**** : Hfcj&ft AfPtfO- : 



Aft 
M : A.P01H:} HJ^f-fr^ # flh*w> : ^n, 



:im.M-V : 



67-nC i Ag ftjl Vlf ^ : H^.^^DVl'P : A'hf ^^h 



i Trftl.frflrh.C : ^^-flrh,/. : 1-3?^ :*: OtMtt : 



* 20 



: Arh.'PT' s Hit-Aft,?!- : 

(D?<wi : 'T-flA^ X^fll-?!* Od : 25 



A A7 : MR, r <->i -|: rt : ^.TC?ft : 'JftOI : C A7 

- tdp, : Ari) (Ml ( ( : ^?*A/> * aiK-flX\h - i'"^/. * 30 
: C W A-flAi >3>- 1 FKkp .- Aflij&Ht? i M# A.^ f aif A^-f i 

^^Hao- ^W A?iA 

flhfl-l- : ft'fl^ : /^-Th ::: ID^^y : A^Vl- : 'W>th - Aftjf^ : Al'H' 1 ?''?"- : 

Ah : -flX A.th 



[H3] 



543 

M : hJPW : -fl,^ * T-Sr.-Ju/Dfc : AT 1 * : <D?i*Djr : 
: A A.YU- s 0>-0- : h/w> : M* :|: fl A* /m^i^ : flKfDA^ 1 */!) A 
5 rh,C : drtf-tfo- : Art-flit : T^9 : tlao : f IJ-flJP : -flfcrt/f :;: fllTi : *01 * 



: T* : r^^ll-f- : AMH.h'flrh.C : H^-fl^ : A"* : 



10 H> ^?"Ah.f : XMtl- : -Vn,h : fll-|IPyAhi Mil. jfc 
iH rt.^Art -fllb^ T-Jfj" : <.?* :; 
f,h-l: ::'s Mlao : J&fl, : iro^'h^ flhrt^ e 



i ft{n0-fc i IDh^ChifD- * tf- AlFltf^ : h A ^CUJP Ah 
15 1H,h-flrh,C <wfllV i 7-fl<: i A-fc : AV^ftf HR^'VVl- 1 -NUJ- 1 flhf f : a>h 



i "/UA" i 

^-flfh.C hi^Ahh 

20 Tl^? 2 A- : ^^Vll, Zrfll.Mlrft.C 



: ^,0, : aoXdiV : ^4C A^^H.Ii'flA.C ItrAlflh nW-A-: A-flh 

: ^ Ah fl-?l*3L : A.^C1* : "/U A" i ?l?ih * (DhjM^KC : 7Xh :|: 

,*W^:^n-:^n,l>:Ol^nCO:Ahao-: OlA.J&^^Cs'lX-yitfD. 543 b 
25 ^ j&fl,eftjfi hH"?^ fr : h^-fl-M^.-'P/^rh IKD-A1' 

i AMH.h-flrh.C tnfrH- : W-A- Hl-fl^* A.1- -<P^ i 
: (Dft<w> : MH.Ai'flrh.C ?i? t ,fl>^ HI 
fll<P s K^-flrh,^ i T%9 : Mao : 



30 

1ft i h A aiC* i A. j&ft A- 'J^irf- : Ah^lt^'flrh.C ?i<w3: 



-. T AA -fl?irt.* i 

n-vn KA ?*&CP 



: 7XJ>*: H^fl A fWflC : 01 /h^JP : (Ultfo : 0, : 
Ah A/.Ji. A : 



5 
* A-* AW* AiOTi^ftai'P i Ai'JA'fc^tl- 



:: : : ': :: :: :: 



, 



544 a 1s T- : ff POiePff (Dao: '. ml : 

rhAf i fllAiA^rhiw><w>s ^jf 



i HM:' 00^*^0.^ :* 0^9 )T^ * ^Ot B ^.f frA 1 15 

s OI^-nA* i l-A'fc^- ::: OlhU 1 ?^^ : Hl*'C^O- i 7*04- i 

A : r mi n r: aih^-H h^m i ^-n t .**? A-A : 



r nHwi i Pvh 



: Vf-A" : flhi?D:^K<w^ : (DAflfD s 
:: A. fl.^ l-At fl-^h : ^ Afl" i A^^-n : (D^l AY. i J&fl, i j& ^ 

1 AHJE,^*V^ .-: aiflMt 1 : 11^* : ^*A<w> (frWtflflao-. 
i ^dJ^C : OhM :: OlAiHH : Aoi^A^U- i Hfl>-?i* : f 7f A^ 0)A& i I'd 
Ch, A : htfD /UJ&^^AT i h9't- a l(\ ' A'J? :5: fl?l9 'H OimV : rh^O 0.^ 25 



30 
. : A Ji3i0 i oo4*^A fflfr* . :^-n A Ad A 



544 b 0>-?i* h<TO i .*3. i A?i < 7H.h'nrh,r: -t-tht??' A*n>M A,f A-A : fll^ 



Mi i ODgOl s at V : flMVfc* : 66 : IP^V : t\9i>Q : 
Ah A- : d0fl> /h<P^^ :?tfl-'>* HI 



5 * IP 



:;: fllW" A" A-^^'/ * AH'fc 

-fcyjr : 
H(D-?i* : 0C-fl i 



A;MH- : A.f frft: OJ-ftt : 0,1" hCft-fc^V-: 'JOi s (HV^rh s 



15 

rh V? AH-fc * fl'h : hCft-t s IP V,^ : h9 h-tl^ : hCft-fc V^ * <D A 



: KA s 
20 OlX-h- ?9n,-ftfD- i MI1A*A^'^0D- 

4- OJrhVO 0,^ hCA'fc^'J: ft^^t * 
H^fl, s IfiP-VL s -Wl* AdA : ^0: HUA-rhCA-f A f 
If )-flC i II f 7i ?i < 7H,/i'nrli,C i fliMi s H^.n : r J^C /i^lVt i It) i tMr 
"/!> : A& : ^'H l 7 : f i ^J& A- * -M : h*7H.^'fl A.C Hi 
25 htfotf-A- * f^A* : nh*7H^'nrh,C i ?i<wi3L : 1-fl^ 

: 01 AH-fcfc : ftt tlC A-fc^l rtwf : A"? i oohl ^.f M : Mrtttjit 



A/Orh/.h i ffl^tfo : AiJP'Aln i A* : lt, aoKtht : hfttfD : Afl 

: All <wAAh 
30 K*7H,h-nrh.C * II ft <*.Kr/ntl : If (Dfl)^ s 

"? s^A- : flfW.-JS.&AflJh :n*t<C : tf-A" : *T^ flKW H<CR<wi i Ah 
Ah : V7H.Mlrh.C : ^^(D^h :5: KA/W i 

' fid : 



W.R 



19 



[146] 
OD V-fc Ji.17-/" * tDh^aoW} hjtaojt: : fll^ndg- : ^J^T-fl * ^k^ : X A" 

HwV- : hV H<w>* H/w^ :: rtA-^rt IT-IP * 

,hV0 ' n,* : <H4ft : -flff-lV} t -fr^W i mi,/ : I'.ll, : 
fllJiCjt* ft./-? r I MHflJ ' *ft i Olfcfll-'&V : W. : fl+ -flM-M 
i ?aoKh. t A"* i fflC* : fc^flAC: fDH0i>Y-%ill)i Hf/nV : 'hfrA 5 

-*fl i A& i h-H^V^ : :* A- : /i AH* 9^^ t\9*Wb f- A- - 

545 b M i *MtfD. : ^^ : V7||.Jt-flfh.C ! H|8,lfl A : *W-A- fllAl AO 
Of : IPC^J hU^ : IPV^V : 9/h-^V i H. ? fD9frtSl 

: ?i A * i*V i hChlTao- fli?A : A^dflJ- i^^ncftfo- 1 ^ A A 

hOT:/*' llTiAP-l:: r/'. : 10 



: M : -Hi A : V^^VT^ -' flM i ^h A : ^P-C^fl : 
^A- i r/)rtl) A"rn- : Ai^h'h^ i JlA i ^,rt<W>^ ^,?n 
0,1" f hCA-fc^^ : (19 i f & i flfttfo.: Arwfr^i 1 : 'JAi' :?: Olrtrw.^ : , 5 

* i*vj* wi-n^ao- ^-M^'-f ^.A-S nn^ 



: ?iA i 7-fl<- : hW : ^H i V/^h- hC/i : XiPfclh Ol^^. : fllUfl : 20 



: /-ft : hA.^^ : fl7^7^ OKfDXrh^^h^nAA ' 3C"> XV-C * fl^A. i 25 
07^7^ i <DM : Mflo^ i 0>-ft^ in<- : aiH^-h : /.-ft : JlA.: .Iff i 

ID h- W AVf-A i ^JC-^ i K^nrt A : li Vfl A *7ff 1 ffl^-Hh i AID A-S- 1 
>nH. i aJ-ftl" i JP'/h'P :!. aiTii^'M : +0i>m ^^M^OrtA oiX^ 

f T . A^ue . '^^^ln ?ftA : ftfii "^ ^ A- nr j^<: pjt A m , 

546 a fhC 07*-fl^ Uf s WW ' (D-t-0Df,a\ t ^K" ^'M7 : f : ^^.A" : fl>-ft^ 3 



i -MflA : 7-P-C7.ft : fli^VdhA c /.ft .- ;ij& A- <DI> : :*>?. A : 
MflA ^P-C^ft Xftao MH.fc-n/h.C 

is the form given by Dilliuanii, Lex. 



t'47] 



: Ahh : "Ifl : <J-ft : fc A^Tf : V>H : -(1 A 1-|Dh^ e Ml <w 
" : /.ft'fcA.: ;)Tfs V^ ' ^fl,f : 0)JiV M^ll^Ul 
*<WTIA i n^JtC : fllflh : tt-A*h9(\ : fllflOf i 



-flH"V : iP^qjl- : n^/^rh : 0)0^%^ : fllh-flAk ID-ft-h : fl,^ i 0o)l77 
10 flo^lW : IDK^"H : ?> : aol\fr> : Art-flh i UfWrP ' ^Oh 

- >-K-rt i A Afl : Hf At9 C * fliXrif i OHIO ^A 

:?j?,A- : -nhA.-!' i VH- : A ?: ID^HC fcATfi OlA-h 

OHIO "flfcrt/I* KW ft 11 ?: <DHC?:#0C? <D 
TfJ** : h^A" H*lV 0^11^ 'P^lf : 

15 hftiw* : flJ-A* i Hfcftl-'fATW :: flinil'}* ^'PdA i -I-A& AJf : 

fljflfl*-?!* IDC1 ff't 1 1 ^g" i frft^ 



(D? %* :!* 



20 



: 
C. '. *ll : 0-110 : fl)*^ A fllhr-H : +t/h ' & ^^"7^ ^^ A" i 



25 



f,<h,9?,9> 

30 ^' 



^h i -I'Ai'MH : htlao : 'f'Ai'HH i AAfl?i * 
^hyCs 

fttfl>t 



[H8] 
: OVA.: flirt 60 A^.'flK^- 



547 a C i jtl* ^ , :fl>-' : OTC? i '^ :': 5 

: CA. .- H-M-n^: A-* ATI >* ^x Xft 

: -f-MiHl: ^rtf A* J&^hHH- 1 rhC7?^ hMttJiP MM 

i i^X'rh'P 



^ i ? <i nUi-flrh,C : hWJ : *? H^^l 9"^'^ 10 

AMM.XV h.? A-A i hCA-f A flH-l^-HH^h JiArwi : 
i V!H -OA: A9 0< J:^^HM 



no>-CH- ; -h:aiiwi>-:/wih-'>^.-?i<w.V 1 '>'> ; h: 15 



hA * $? RbP'.hao '. ^aoKk : & : 

: 

: h A/ 1 : 



i A.CA.V A-fl/i 

547 b MV>n A 
r 



S- 1 /i'M a 7 : f i :*A- A"?ODI X-V- 1 } Ft!'}?-!'* rTh^Vao-A : M/.hP W 


n 



: 4*4- AW i hrw W *<* Th/^fllfl.^!!./*! i ?uw>>. * 



MH.At-nrh,C :! C'^* : HD^^ : tD-flH"^ i ? A^ s OlKjt* & 01*1 

(l)i\\} f ,n : f,9AiC h'tl * 
10 MUHlrh,C: AhA^^CUJP :;: Jlft^w. : |-K* 

<w<Pd A.U- :! 



I 548 a 
: 0>A 



20 fi)fl^7i-l: aiC'V i f^ - bA>tn#\ti fb^i oh^T! h^w . flllll- ail 

i f rh^d s It'*' : aoTfl^'^ ' 





25 An : H^Afll i AuU1<: : IT-/" mlWll <Dhj)l - aWVt hjnt >IU 
V^ - 0)^016 IDJ&H-MC: h*Ul : KffiLl : OlA.117^ s hfl-1 Ol'ttH-'V : ^/i 

doit - K40 s ^A : $?, A-3: i OAi : a>-fl'l- * jfrfl A i (Dthf W 

JU^ : +h9C - ffn&frtn* : tf- A- : 

-t - -niiW - tfoAdA-f- pr *&&&& 

30 %d^a>-:h a 7V::?iA-^:fld^U J fli. : -^T-A- H^'rt :M7-n^ A.* 

^R,A : avthr&fr (D-t-ffoflh-.tlao : IT-/*': 



M& ^"0^ A* : aoriC* OhM* W* HOJ-h* i ^J?: 1 ? II 
s OT^rh^ : a>:Vn0- * A.'h :dfl : (Dft^^-hM^'-^^^G' Ah 



Hi 
f U A Ji-:Vr : WlM : tn\\^ t 60"t\ : H> 77(1 dtk : 'Vfl * &A0 VIC * 

548 b IDUP <7i>AMi -ncvv*^ <DA& fc-n: A& * Mi ?^ r:*A- # tin/hoi 

h^-fr i hiw*V?* : '! A" : Att, : fl.^D/.^C i M*? i hrfl) AU- i (1 ARU H: 

.U ::: fthfriarfj^iftfr!:' :** hit. 5 



:r'7.^? :rtfl>- i n./n? : AH.O : 9J:9tlTnC AiA 

:!: 10 





- M.^ aftlp Allil ' *flH-:i - ha>-6-: t ' ath^Th . A^g- 

- : ID/^H^ >A : (D-ftl" ^'OC 01^^- 1 ^0, 1 5 
Ih tD W-A-tfO- : rt-n^i : |0- 66 AA. 7VP : A-* : ffl Al^. i ^ A'h i hl^ll- HI 

Uf A^jf hlf* 1 ?^ i ^A-A.-h^ 

lr^ir^l^:h^:^^A^^lO^'/.:^fll^^^ 

tDlivPav ' A^ A"-f i KA hV- j&^rhaiVl- wM* ' Kt. 

tht? : nh9ni)A ' fllflf ^- :?- whin*,' ,'[:' M-l\ 20 



549 a 

>!-/* i ^rV?/*'^^: Amfl.-ni ^rmdn?! ^C>- 1 ipV;l- 1 AH<m?( o-X 25 

*fc i mn-n J&H.A- i H/yo'Jft : M'l' s A A.h : A?tiw> s ^h^h : M'f" : 



fh^ i flh/yn : /wiho'}^ i h^U- : Il7<- flinlA^>..-M*.^ i 30 
: Ah. : MIC ' M+ * 1T-/*1U * fl^H 

flM'VL: h^.'T^'l' iHCMflV i flMlf 
1 IHC i htfn: llV i n^'V^'h : tfotl-ll * /fill If //i>'/> : Alll* /"ft i /I A.-' ,111 1 

i AiUT-C i hft^ i ^^H.^-nrh-C i hCW * A* : 



ft :' 

hW& : (Dfih 

in\\/.t/n : flUP : tD^tDC'^ ' flfc.-'fY"*! *?uW>Jrts hj frft: J 
<Drh<: * 7^- : (D-lvMlfl 9flA : 4-ft * JlA. 

5 D gA*h9A OdA-/- 1 Q^A*0D- A^TtTft 

: flM^-'fi ' nW-nAd : fllflr/nfl'fc * flKP'JA : 9 flA <w>^"}"> ; J- : Ol 

A-flA 

Ai A. 



,0 i OJflJt : 

^W : Tf-lP : M/**^ : Ai*H4>^ft: A^-fl : AiA^.-J-H i ^^ c 
: A V* A A ^^f i fD0D?-'7ft : h^. : tD0D^fl\ ' <D">7- 549 b 



.*npfl)e 

1 5 <m : -f i iP: <w i fldA^: ^^ : 

: U A" * 



?l A./JTf i fl7/.7^ : *^ Atfi- : 



rh,Crt : hlV : rh^'t : W* : '^fl : Chf 
-h? / 1 : MH.^-flrh.C : ArfJ.fl : 
25 d-f-n/ 1 : 9 lib OJ-A-^. : h"?!* 





arlru>f.m. Vf- A- ai^ A* 

30 T?ndtl> -TlO s T'>^ VIC : 



: II Afl) : fl/wr/l 4 ? (D'Wa*-* 0'fld : aih9 Jt'V^'H : fl-fl/ 1 ' Aftj^ 

*<-: iD 

->nc 



A>UW s 'Jllfc ' hfl>-- hero : Jfl,A,A-? ::': </)f,0, : /,-ft: hA^lTI :'1bAfc - 
: >ifl/70 : f :V-n<- s -flf : A'fl Jl HlCf : f "& : htfoTI : -flY.A- : 'Jflf flJf. 

-H tf ?'1f- * :* A- M-7flC * HI* 

Cf : A.f:^^h:HA fl V^Vb:X/Wil^'lh: <I 7hS' ^V:V7f::/wi^ ; -:?i^H^'n 5 
A- : 



fr - ao'tlh : f '& : fll.'i^^ : flf V3? iii S'll- 
: *7*H : fD^H^ i flfl.* rhC ID^^ : A*7^- ^H fl 7''lF' i O)A i 



Jitt,A? : fll?!^ ft* ' rhC : ^dH i O>$& - htD-ff.^^ ID^^H * 

T* i f'& ::: <Drh^ r PS*: A^OAA : ^Afl*-? 1 : ID-A-^.:*^ l 15 
"f 1^ OJ^ : Al-H^'-f ->nH, : 'f^^^tfo. : >i9HVn<- : 
IDHh- : 0>-ft* : h**^ : (DhT'&'ltfl ASlPoo- ' 



* 20 



fc^l^ 1 -tffrcrA i 9flA fl>A>f. 

^ flA : 01 A^f. ttl^n,-f i fc1*7 i (1)^/1. A"/ : ^AhA Xj^V i A-0>i r 



1 30 
^H, -h1/* f ^ -A : <i.ft i h A. * /J-H . 01:^ A* Vf-A- v^.%-1: 



[iS3] 
1C : ffjffi"7ft HI flrtiV \\ao t WWy* 

flifl : iMvnflii fl-nifV dA^- HI oil-CA 9tlh: "iWl : rt-flfc 

ilr/n :?.'?' 



5 <Dfl.A0D-i4.ft : JiA.;rH : HA<O- : ^flA/h f-W While/nan- 



-I: otf C-fl A3: ^Jtl* 8 fl-mi^ ^ A- at& 

"T : fl-fllf^ c X">^ :: 7*70^1% i 'Ml : T W ' VlC 
10 fll^H : WA- fl**T : -1-^^+ : l^AA i T-?1 : OlAi AA i OTH^ : 
^ A : llV : 



^/^ : >'H a V : f : fll A^ 1-flCh, A !: 

X'^i ftjf- hWt $?,fr ai A3. : A-f-Cfl/iYl * ai-l-^-ha : 9fi A ^-A i h A. 

i 5 ^'H s ll : 



fli^n-* P-fl-fl s (D?,a*,^ 

20 p^HTC'-f : K^H i 'flA- : WI-'frijK, : A,pA B IDOlK'h- : hfl-"}: <iJ,O.V : 

I-1H- Vf-A- ^ A/w> : ai^A>AP * hCft-fc^T K9^ A ?i A-fl 

<!: Atf^^sfllAhOtJiA^aJ-^JiPtfO- : AgA.Ah?*^^AC/ I '> ft"? 
U'tf- : ^y*ie-|- ^ A hOJ-^^i^tfO. i A A-H fl i M-P-A-^ : IU/* 



5 
H j&'O A /u^^^V^ 1 01 ft^^hn- : 9"A A : P A : hfl^wi : h AflV i h 1 ? A i 



> h-fl't 9l1 A : 4^ : /I'M 55 1 



W.B. 20 



['541 

T-'JfcC art1fo(Dl&- 9t\ A 

: IDA^ID-IMiM- s PA-n fllTf-lP: Vl/*^ * 
Utjf.O^'L Hfc. : mHUW s <ufc00>. * '71* <n- : fltflV : flC* : ?fl A * .P A" 
- i fl)0fc : fVflfc * 7-^fcC (inn,* : II i H'|-|-fl^ i 
* AA/fe i n*A~|2 : fcfltfD : A^. MAA^'XftCTt 1 :?%H.7: 5 



}7fldVt -M : T "H- r >1CV ID KIM 1 Afll i 07^7^ : flD^h- : fll'J A* * A& 

.* Aftg- 



A-th iDflAdA-h .- fcJPVJvTM* i flAOAif ^A-'-f hmi ^ 

<n>. ^ : hW : -n^A" i H/}oi3r : Vf- A- : h'tih ' h A-Hf i X- Ad M VH1A 

i A<5-fl * ^ A.^'H : <D,n, : htft ' ^.71 ICVh 11 A i 'fcflVl- : <D-fc* flh 
t,U, i Vfl.^, i n^^-lftfo- -14-' flinAOtfo- ^^la^-^ iDhy^^TI '5 
552 a /*'^ : AyW74- i flin^i : *^-f i *M'^H flAi^^ ?i A/w : AtfO-? : fl^l: r 
J3 A-'-f ttUAOh - hrph-t-- fiftflilf s*?/^ : fcTf 1 ?^ fll A^7*flC^. A: 
i ^ A- fcflh H">^ : T^Jt^ft 1 ' flJ^PV- flUf ::: 

li^lW : "7C^r : flA^ H-tfl : 

i '^Vf^^ftA : AuA-'hA. : IDhA'I^^H-f- :^M:^:^<PVf ; h9 AA i 20 

* /iniil/n i AA'n?iA..-^i' li X > ?is < h*^h^9 x-*i . h 

AO i fli?iw : j&n,A i MPX'K 0<:h hiPX-Ai i -flhA.-^ * flij&n,A i flh A^ 

"111 



25 



A-nx ^ A* 

! inKi^'M i *7dM i a>?>& V4-A OTID-*^ ai^J^TI s W^k - art* 
A-H/ 1 : fulIX'f h i i^ awl i ai^^^-l^'H i Wl -. A-h -. hf^^'M * 9 30 
KM 



In) : <JjfcA.fl- : Wll.fc I II Jl//n ' ftll, : ^XMiT- : fcrtr/ : fc AH : V7C ' 



[155] 



5 A^-fl i Ji A..TH : ID* Jtf ) : fl3.<P'fc fl^-fl : ft A.J91I : fl Ji : OMl* i irK-i ? 



: -Mfl A ^P-C^ft : A A.OA 

* (DA A : 



OJ^fllC fflVn^ : OP i ft ! 



20 (D A&: 1-flCh, A Wltlt- : 

' flHfl/P : 



: OUP : <5-ft : 



ai^ A* 



: fll^^rh ffl^ f ^ A B 

' ^ A : mhVwm -. "I A* -. 

flit : OMll- : m*r : Jt ">*0 : fllh'JH * U A" 



1-nCh, A n-nH"V i ?d m 





30 ^hh: JOJOBA i 



: 0?4- 



fll-l&C : 



: -|*Aj&in>i ^g-s 
M '>sA'H4 
* Oil 7* <w7flC : 



-in * T"H- : V7C MH HA- : TI-IP tt/^-Thv -Mn A ^^-c^ft : n A 

AJ1A Jlfth * IDC:* TC n-Mi : IDC'V : -^/"ft i <Drh<: : <? A : 



C : ftj iMf^H- 1 firing : MB"'* * ID*? -!- * ftjf : JtTf "7 ?" : f fr<C, * 

5 

* 

/hC IDOh : 7^1^ : fll 1 ^*/ : A*7^ : h'H a 7 : f * ID A^ : l-flC/i, A ' 
: ^jfr : ^Tl* 1 ?^ V^ i fll'J A-h : (D A^ 1 7-flCh, A>. : -M<n>- 1 

I ^T/*'^ : h9ltf& : Olrh/. i ^"JlA Aft^- 

h A- : n'jn.ji * *v A 01^4-^ ^r AM^- ?i Ah nx-rh n A^ . 
v?/**^ thA ^ec^fl ^ndh, M.-T'H- * vics^i^^m-:^ 

>-At : -flrh,(?0- oiX9 l "H aoRl* - -flflWlP ' 1 AT i tD&,pa*fr& - 

553b 



i pA-'-f : rilllJ/.- 1 ;. : f : ID^f-fllh : 
Uf * In* ^n.^,: t^A* 0)M^J p tfi>-:A'n 

fll^r 4>r<n1J i rh^ : lO-A-f" >^9 ftg- 1 i : i 

*7^.:^'M <I 7'f : fllA^8l'nCh,A.-y i lri'>^:'^'fl/ l 'J:A:^rwi:^'flA w : VJ.-'VA 20 

art. j&fl, i ^jf : tWlt - $?, A- 1 -I-A.0M1 /u^^Aai3L Afrofe*?? 



-. AV^ A- s5 fD-ft+fc <<.Vai A-* 

Ol-?!* h<W : h.f,9tti i 'IftUlh :! flH" 
: :*J&Ar i ID-ft-h n,7?frC i i^AA: TlA-l*! ffl^At 25 



7-04- 
: 7-flCh 
. i M-fl i f/D^*JL : 1-^h.0 : 0fl A : ft jf i ^Tl^ : 



/. n/t<CC : 7"V^ e 0>*7^ i /tlf^"^ s fliAft : 7-nCkAfc i fH^ 00*17 A 
ai^ftaii^hlL fr" ft-n* ainAi 

554 a ^<CC: 7 ff 7^ flJ-h^f Vi fltllK*!? 7ftA *i> 



5 hfl r ft A i <S-ft ft A.^1i 07- V n: 0h9 D rfH 

^l K c^ft . 



: ^.ft : hA..?^ J^-f-flj&l* : (D+A-M i ?"ftA : IT-/"* 



^H. : 

: 04-C? i 



15 A^HC^f .- 7-H4- : Hflrt^ : oirtA^ fl^l^Ti :T?ndh,.-'1fl:T'H'i V7C 

: JT-l*' : V?/"^ : "Ml A ^P-C^ft ?^ftAO ITD^? A s 01?^ s 01^*0 A" 
i (Drt^d i (lOJ^I Olhl^'H i 



: fl)A 554b 

ai.iP 1 .- 9 ftA -HH-^ : ip^'e-l- ^'JIA .- I^-M- a)rt^4- H^ft'V m 



25 J3 : r/n 

I/A--' ft&C6? s tD^&l ' fl* Ji&;) : (D^ A* : 

- 7-nc/i.A 

H,.-? i A-^&U'0D- 

fl r/ 71f/.h 
30 H ft AO : '^ A^ * flH'AP - ^-ft ^ A.^Ti : ?ifth : *%<nJt flC ai>f : ftg- 

AO : Ol-NMin * '/ftA : 7>-lP : Vl/"^ : "Mfl A 



: AM JhlltyA M 
(1C : hf/n : 'V/ M /*' : H^^J^^ Ol'JT'I*' : Vl/^'lh : -J'VlA ^f-C^ft 



A /-A 



AO 



ID-fit" s n.'l' : '}?-/*' : 

aifl hA 



A : OKA : , 



'Ml Oi. A 



.- ^'*/ ^ /c-fi A% A^-M fldA t 'Jc-n - 



. nc 



, 



fllf 10 ?!!*- 



^ <W>"}7A 



* 20 



OTTI f 1 : 
Ai 
i <Pjt A : 



: O)fl At ' fl*4-A *wHO-ii 



* 25 



K 01 A.l* 7.H,^ : A-* 

t:e i/^'/riA 



j&n. i vn.^, 



55 5 b 



* AX A 



IDl/fl ' 

'I.' * 



aiflll i ^-n/ 1 * UAai 



[159] 



: -H! : T'H- : VIC fcTH : U A" ft : Mi"?^ : oi Aft 7-flC ft. A HA 

flflllYJ : :*A - IWW- I f/>fAvJV& :,,'>; A : ll.'J 
Aftj JtTi"?''!^ :: fl)rt?<J: J^Wrf- * Aft* JiTf"??' ' 
5 fll Aft 7-flCh, A : ft : fclf ^ i JB, A- : W^h : Ik^WK- : ffl^-hfl- * 00-0 



flJ Aft : fcC i {fJ^/k AX. s A.? J .S. : ^ftA : -ntW : rt-flh * fll'J'h'VH : ftg- 1 



10 ff)U(Jf : 

I>iy l 'Mi'7*H * ffl^ft^: flT>j 

JihA-'? 



<Pfi? i 0Ji^ i fcfltfD : Atfo-y 1 : OhMt '(Dti&t : fl^ Afl : OMI > 1131 1 hlfl 
1 5 A^ : *J^-iw>i VO^ : We : **<& ! ^ Arh* : fll^-nfr rh s boolCI ftj^ i ^Tl 

- e Fimp't- ' M'M'-Pil '- Mtt HA- s imftC -l"Hfl>-^ : rft A 
^ A- * Afl"l fli Aft IX 



20 rh^ s n-H : fl)CU : OAi : "-lP : Vl/*'^ s -Mn A .' ^PC^I > I : ' 

Mi"7-f fliAft -- -1-nCJt.A 

'^ -hh A i 



25 

: fliAft 



: nh^Llh A*"^ fc'H "7^ : iwCdft- 113: : 
30 Hl-n^ s X^ft ^fl-^ : fll^fl^A" AA^Z, : fliAft : IX- : 



: Ttif/nhtn : ^X.^^ s 'JA? : H<W>>-V. s ttao'l ' fr 

l\f> A1- : i^A-A : fc">H * h4"t : fflCI : iJ<*DT*iU * KOI AfliT'J^f-'J * 
011 1 fllC'V : -I" V^fc : ftK' i /I'M ?'-?"- * <U Aft 9-nC^ A : lion? : 



[166] 
* M\p * VH1 A ^ : IT-/" : <iH -/Mill : n^T^ : 0fl A P A- fl^ 



jm 

5 



-. 4fl;J- 
1'flCh, 

: ^,A : fl*nH"):<DC:4*: 01^* A 15 



: A)"/Ay>.n- AVl-lhfc t 

- 9 A A : A&T- : 1-04- s fll^y.}) : 0>h9 i^m : IDP^ s rC : fl>->i*3: 
-I-A JP : flll-'JV i n^VC^?" flMJ 



fl,^ . -JTV*': ^^ :^Jin- i C^fll : M*S\ :J: (0^9^^ t flh : 

: fli 1 } A^ ^T-/**! OJ/t^-HPao- : AfcA- 1 01^1- -Ml*: : IT-/** s Hp,f\ffi>p, t 

nchn hA'J'JY. h^yhoDC'i (Dk9 'U. r tt a*>xh . nAro^A^ft^- : 25 

557 a (!;* A : hw*y <h Aft i *W ^T-/** : (DhOh^f t A'^7 ^h A : foMHi A i 

hUA i n*e^' WKW 'M-tlP* 00 

* aiinf-?* : iD^^-n 4 } . vf-A- : A-flh h'h a ? i flflM+ft.i flifln^'r* 

^H. : aiX 1 /*. : Jtfl-"> * rti^./ll. V, i Ji^'lD-A^ i IVf'flO. : fl)K A^4-AT 

i/*'^^ ^y71^C aiAA<: * llJtniil aih^jft^TI 30 
i hft-V i P-A-fl rn?i rj.),7, ID Aft i A.PA-A ?: rnd ^ .-'/( 1 17-/ M i 
dC4 * J.m^ JK.M: JJJuio- h<wi 

A* H^MH- nn.1- s ??/" : ID?ijr"M r ^7/*'h Xy^T?^ : ^llA i ID 

f :flJA<'HU:/bAfc i Mil lM"fl7/.7<5- 



-. 9Mi ' Trl-/** 

HI 

shrh^rh^' * CD A 

f"V ' H --A- s -flH- : ip^-* 41 

5 IDOI^:^:Jj,:<w>:': 

rmjf - oi^ne : ^^tin ?ftA * 
h^H .- ^-n A i * w* * wi i * AA IT-IP : M/^I- -HI A ^p-c^n 

Ml* Mrt^ftAiMH.hf sfflAh^ : WM& - A.11-^li-n .! ai^^-H 
Wfc AV^. M i <:* ^ftAilT-iPiM/*** .tVlA:^P-C^ft: < i:*Cf : 

10 ^t^'fA fllXAd^f : ^'V'H'J :! OJflj&X't^H. i M 'h/^'rh i ^H/2, * IMfl 

' /i,f frft ^m 

* A- s VArh i OUDllO /Wj'JC'l * 
- flC : Ttfth i KV-nrt, : -rtrh,^ .'^VU^ : thA i 
:: S:-' ::': !: HI 

15 T7n*h, : -vn : 



Hi fl) ft, i TJV : -Mfl A : T.P-CT.fl :Mf : ^OTeT <D-ft1" -flrfl,Ch <D*>flC 



20 

II : ailn) 

A- 1 hoD^H : /^h i WCy i OMI * fllrt^ : 0*1^1 ^ 7n/l A'll 



A? 1 1 ?l A-Au^^nC s lf>'f- : > A V : 7/h.C : 

Mf iniml- :i: aihr-H s rh4- * K"}H 

30 ID : A/fe i ^|8,A- : OlA.* : 7-04- (DffD9VC : H^<- : HR7 i ^fl HA" : 

Mfl A : ^P-C^ft 9 t\a>-&> - ?> : ao? m- : KA- 



A,* : noAKIl^ i fliOh. h(b^ aihfiQ.% : a**h-t- ^Tl A 558 a 
.- flj^fK- ^hA.A:^.n : CJifr Hh^rt^^ hfl-C Hi flitiV i HA? * 

W.R 21 



[162] 

nfc"M o>n* i cDfl-H i oiCI i rfufoi +^ i fcTi"^ i "IUA- 



:V rtfc 

: ^T-IA 017^ OlrtA^ : nm^V^t fflX'JH s I/A-: flUP : ,lh 

nA?n<&-fl : Jiff* :?: (D^TI *7dH * M * nJi^CriDrt 5 



10 
i ?ft A i ai^jt - dfoiit $f,fc nrjf^ ^^6 h/w> 

-MnA ^pc^fl * aunt rt^/ 1 .- m>h<: xr^ 

-flrM- : (D^^y ' Firh * Oirt <(.^ fl A ? f d) H f .^i (;: 
^H, i <n>X-K- 1 a) 1 * A* i Aftg- : h-H 11 ?^ i ai A^ /*'Art, i >^H jK,-fl A- AuM A * 
A<C, 0)A<C, i Ml avKXfr i h0Di}iC^h i lofted ^Af * ai^.A 15 



(Dt A* A^g- : Mf^'-f : ai A^ /*'A& n ai/i<w> i CXf t IfM- * 
fli-hfeTl n*m^^ .- Xft^ : If I* iwA<H^ i $?&i\lao i MlM CD 

aiAn^*/lJt 20 
: X A^ n-flH-V s T IffjA ?* Jt^lh h/wi 0D*fl^4* : 

. A- h<w>: V^fcA-'M- ^jEfO^iliA ^,rt<mfr Jij& 

fllflt A i ?lA : A.'hV/*'* i Kr^avV i ftrh* i '^T"/* 

H^7-n/. i A-* i nMt i x-'j'j i y*7r* nhiw. r e.n,.- m.^ 

i -flhtfo- yf^S ^ : <wmV i ^ai-t- rtVT AX^n : 1-nA^i A-H'J*! 25 

:air>* 



30 



m 



[i6 3 ] 

: 9 A A * 'J'l'/" : fflffifjfl : fg'tfD^ff : 

&A-s (D-t-lVfrao s K^fl) A* Mlltl : fcAh i ? Jl'V i f7>ll/.,/ : nA"fc'> >: 
i */** i fflfh^ i flT-H : 0)0 ft B M&C : IT-/*** : flfcfc : 
: 'ftel' : atilf.M: : fllC^ : flfc: j'aof.m ' 6-tl '$,<*'. 
5 A-l- s 1/14- B 7"^^ B OjOJi s VTf^'Th : a)fc"}H : IM : fl VH<2.-1|- .' fl^ <5.fl r 



5593 

. p n, ^K-^^ . n0- < n ^rh-^-v : 

41 



: tU>J'> : 01 A* : 
: h^ : g|DgArh9A: t' 

s 

<DH s POlC : 0*0 : 

1 5 n?i^ i 

rli rt, : ^d^<C^ 4* 





htn>fa>%bffD Mltf" : ^l/^h i &<*> A4V-f : /5. A* 

20 aiA^ 1-nCh.A * ainh * 

- : AAA-f "^ i athao^ : il?,ftanj>. : h-AA. 

: AA-f "-f * y 

4i ai^y'H : ^9-flK- * h<W> : XhO)C2> : T*^ ^ i fldAI" s 

41 aiiV : ^n.j& 1 1^ A ai-f-fl 01 } r <5-A = (D A^ f-flCh, A i <D*iV s $$, A 
25 AAA-f ^ fliApA^T- ai^JPAm <f-A * aiAft l-flC^A -- (Idfr-il : *7-nC 
9 AA s OK W 8 A-n?i 8 (iH-'Lauit s tf- A- A-nh 0,7^ -C 8 flh^ : A fl-fc B m^ A s 

<Dfl 8 

559b 
8 ^-A: fl)A^s 7-nC^.A: ^-A s fl)A^: l-nC^A^s fh^8 

30 w^lA ^C,?? 8 anil 8 IDA A<- s AA-f" -f 8 |1M A : mK^H UAai. Olff B AA 
' 8 1-<w>jK,ni s <5*A B at Aft s -MlCk A s ^'>7 A ' ft.1^^C : n**T^ s AM * 
B A90-s 9X-K^ s A^-ft: flJA^ B 1-nCJi.A: ^AflJ-?'! AA-f ^ B fli-h 
n0-nd s i\KTnL B 7-^^- :: tD-f-jE^A B ^A : oiA B "MIC*. A* a>fl/i' 



[i6 4 ] 



: A&S-H 2 A" : flWd : OK*.^ : OhM ?%<*>h.V : 9 fl A : -flH"V ' 

* fcf H ? r*/**/* 1 : T<PP- : r/HUi.fV H-fcrt Wo : ^aoti A s WJ ' 5 

vn-t * Hi'p'J-f . m0 fl>jp,v- .- tir'-i- * vie: ,*/. nn-j-Hu-t < 
ne VM * ^<: fl/i 'IT-/*' -Mn A : -i.f-C7.ri : Afli*>j^ : n aid^ : 



10 



hdiOhC ! <D?i9 11 'M aiR-h ?? li< PAfrn : 

:'' ' TC 



5 6oa jE----.--.-: 01-s. : 9i-i<m i % 15 

HC i rtW^ i KCth ?> :: V7C : Ol'l-^hn- : IT-/** CD^-A : 7 
^" AA : flJ^Jt i flO) Al ^Z, A" : On-fl^ s JP^rh *>T/*' ^Vl A * 



fllf hrt fll i <WrhAll- H-f-hf ^ : ^ A A : IT-/** : M//D : A ?^- 1 rhft^ (D?ir If 20 



^ll i ^^Yh^ i 9hk : IT-/*' t tlao : J&?h- 1 

HID- MS i AflT iD^yjti^Ti 1m : MH j&-n A o*>KM. .- rh^c^f H je,-n A 

(D A& 1 7-nCh. A s <Drh<: : fl'?/*'?"/ ' ^o^A ftllTj^C > >7-/* J ^ i Mitn> 

::' ID-hC^. i flTl&C IDOllA- flfflrt^ : H? s "7^^^: ^^9 25 



! OlKl^'M -W/**^ : fllflji : aoMTft : ID Mil i Ufr> 000/14*1^ 

A^ 7-flC^.A : 0J&*&?^'C*ft > <'fr4tt 

/i/"^.'!- 1 hm i ^ff* i Aftjf : ht!^ i 0oC0: 



30 



m (DaoKh i <J-fl : fli A^ 7-nC^. A 

*:|D 
<DA& 



: <Dl-4-hfl : 9h A : & ' Jill <Tf : <flCd- : OlV 
?A 



: AMl 
5 -fl A : W '- Chl ' <D,n, :h\T ' IDWXh : Tf-/" : ItiF'W&C : fll^-hfl : 9 A 



: rh-C : Othoh^ : AiUT-^ : 0CV : \\aoi 
j*A : 'JLfll^ : -MUU? * *^" 
0* A : ID^r-H : -f'-J/* 1 Ji : ^T-IP s H/* 1 ^ : d) A<L : 



10 : .' 01 : l^^^-f- : HUP : 1-fl^ : ^/^-lA : r AA : lO-' 

J'iJVl s 

): i Oh P Afr n m 
: fld-nv 

flflA-f- 



: Ajf 
:: OlVlV : ^ A 

A-l-CriTA s 0)*% : fllD. : ftjf : Ml"? 
Hi A. : <{.^-a-^<5 fl^.* : &pOh6.6 : hfrtf : air- 
20 ^KimCV flTW : ID-nH-^1 : rt-H?i : ^ A* :5: aj- * : 



* A*<PAf >. : Ai'J'i* 
25 AA^:^V'n^:K'J^*h:W-A":h'^<::An:'h^<-:fll^/*'<-s*^A!f^l^s 561 a 



Tfll^ ATI i 

t m f i. /. .v/0'>-f A s 7^C ^ A 



3 o 



ft U-M: 



: H/t Vl'.V. : wmAMl^ '5* VlC : O^i : f& ' 

i nfcfl^ oiAhh 'W :>?-/*' H-VIA :^pc^A 

fli^flC Uf/it'HICh .-5; riHMl.A- 



[166] 

fi-tth i n.-1-li i ?ift,/i. 
HI <DflJi * <D-A-|- n,1* : 

/tft-U- i IDODVj.lVh : fcA r UAfll. t JT'ftA.U- : rm/n,| A' : Vf-A-<n- * 

M3. * VJH * JR-HA * n M-artie A*}-!-/*** -Hi A 
n,* tof,^?^ - W m (DM^-M* ^<wYiDAArti 5 



*: 1 >iA i -(1 A- s fl?h<: : <5-A 7-T1& * 
OKI i ?i A i ,0, A- 1 nr h^ * T-3?^ * i n A* : W^r C 

"> 10 



-t-ip,0D ' & : 
A'!/- Art X '/ 



: M!A"7 



- f fl>-?'|2 :?: !*<:* : V Ji rt. : 11 ?i A 'I' : 'JC'fl : ^aD : ;/; A V Ji rt. I W^k ' X^-fc 2O 

h<w : ^,1-n^h h^HlMa)- 1 ^VhA^ i fl&C-f- : VC^ fli^.i OKA f, 

?i^%A.- )A^:'Hlf.7..A :: 

A0-A HI aiAif?i^.n 

* Afl AC 0fl/&M ^H. * 

*tn7n<: AU-A.-WPA 25 



n A- i -m*,A- 

A* A.U- 

a> 
i A^a 7-flJi i A^ A i *) 'T'h aihAC 1 ' 9A A ^-IVi aiX^j^l^ 3 



41 mi-til^ : Xn : -Ml*: AH- A i 

1 <wflA- 1 A^S'A i Vfl.f, : tttoKh * flr A A^ Tii^hCiP +A/& 



*J A?" H^>-V. H*<wV "V-fc^fl 562 a 
04 At 1 'JC-fl : MH Jtfl4"fc * oiCli : /, : iD<w>T44 ffoiB 
: P : MlffrfiV i fcflh : H-fc A-fc A 1 ** fl'J^* i A'JAtfD i 1(19 c 



5 IDK1Hi|IAlT-l'iM/* f; |- :rtA < f'> : fl^^C ^X 1 ^ Mf!") i 
hUT-^ : fli^A s nCdJt i -1-Vfc i ?i/ 9 H < P i OiPh "V^h A 

.i aiflTTMsiaiC-t T*^ - /.-ft : r A^ = 'HU:h.A : 
i ^nTf i ^A- * hao i frnxiiaohhtV 1 Ai^ i Vi^VI- X^H 

* 

10 

* 



f"t-A- .- 6^01? : "YdhA -flH^^ A-flK : 



rh.C Hl-n^ : unllnl fl^Lfl i ^JtC : h<w> ^^rh Afcfl.nl 



MID- - 
20 -i ai'JA.U- A^ft <mCdJt :? 1*70411. -Tifl Wt, VIC 



i IT-IP 1 17/*'1- : rtA-TIs fl-Jl^Ci/WiXrfciJtjf : fcTl^ :0rhf : 



hfl9flA.U ^hl,?^ t^^hO'f'ao-A^^h^CV iD'f'^D^m : 17-iP VI 

/*' ; hsiDnfciD-At 1 ^OJRT'fs s iPt&iWC floAt 1 i^A-A * ftw> TiDoATf 

25 ^IDC'V -M/*'fc ^-fl * 7-fl^ ^9 A "XI : iDrh^ : nnTl A s Wflfr^ -\\aoi ^ 

^h-fl s ?AA : ftjf i fcTl^'-f * ID Aft : /"Art, iD^^hn- 1 gh,lf an- 1 

fl'JA f AXTP-I ID*lV : *Jfl. 'P/^rh IDlDi;n:^jtfc'H a 

-A V Y\ A ai1-/n>&m in-fit 1 



30 fl,t * hC A-t^l Afch : ->n,iJ- ^A ID A A 1-flCh. A il^^h-fl - QRJ4. 

i VIC i HVh'fhC i rft A.hID^O, i Mf - 0)htn> : ^ID^ 



TC fld Al- 



H 
OMI 



n/"C*J'h i |fW;F-' 



563 a C/b A 



h ' 



0> A <: 



-- </nf|A 



'. Intro : ^?n* : 9 flA i Mm- : Ol^-ft 5 



. h A- OI^H uAm. 



fl.* 



h A- : 1 V'fc : 



10 



A.A.1* :(Dao* f } At* 



15 



flJffl A& ' 



20 



t- 1/**^ : (Drh^ : <n"J7A s tfo-' 

i nV4.ft i enia)-* 1 * flit-lf V- glf <n>. : flAA-^f : /*-A : 



25 



30 



563 b 



- ^- 



[i6 9 ] 
<f>A-- - flrh,<- '- fl^jRA : hCA#A 



: IfA/M'fll ' fl-fc : hi^Tl-lP : M/"* : IPC0! 
5 -y? A * fc Ah : fctt : tDflTt : "V^&t ' "ICfT* - hot* : %(Dob(DC$ '- 



: H fl, /mX 1 ,h<P : 

ai < 7H-^:l 

: "7C 



flj-J- {P^ : ^fl.f Wi^ f 1 s Ol^rHtfD. : A^ft 



: jR ft, : aftl A : CJtf : AU1C * 



: IVHH/h : 1(^A,'/: !/'Hl 
UA: (Muff. : Wl-* 1 }'!*^ B hao : ^U'fl : r/oV.: fflflh// : &fl>: 



25 



AVf- A- B H^l-n^ B \\ao : j&K'-nd JP B A/5-A s iv A ^ s MCh, A B (D^tK- B 9 A A B 

htfD : p.0, : M. .:: fl)h ACV1 B ^-fl^ : 9 A AIf <H>- : j^h 
: flfc'H' : H-Mi/* 1 ^ s ^A B h A.^-H : fl?^ B ^A s <D A^ B 
30 "MlCh, A ::': fI)^.VffI. s g^ : ID^itt B 'Vn,l> B h<W> s ^9X'?iJ p s AHAJ^fl ^A B 



B a*-?!* . mm'/- B 0-n*J B {PAA B 

J3 A : HVfK- B ID-At B 0,* :i; WflftVll * flA^n^-A 

O-fl'J s ai*iV s ^ii A AnA^iU-A B hs*'^ -. ai-f-^'VA 

w. B. 22 



[170] 



at A * l-nCk A : hhao s A ?-*?- e 'f-g-'VA- # TfH-'rt * W-A- 1 HfcV : h<w : -0 

/''A -' //KMiV : IKM1, 



: 0, s r/nXMif. : ^A : ^9^ : (l^* 1 ? -flh i Olfi* 5 
e-tfD.: AA*^* ! 
flh<w> : ft J^'J ' 



564 b JfV^'H : ^'T-rVfP : A^-ft : /I A.^-M : ao^lM* '. W&t : < n !C?9 '-tl at LPao. c 

8 ffl A& : lUCh, A : 0)0 49fU.f| i Ai/*'^^^ : AAlh : MH ^-fl A : 10 



s flrh.Chs flrtA9 :: 



15 
: 



: K^H * -fl A : : 

^ A : HIM" : nitl^J^C : JuJZ.^C'h : ID^,^ AF A^ft Al A^H (Drh<i i ^A * 20 
h A^p-H : flJ-ft-J- -n A,<-e ?'& : aitCA fl A0 O^ft : h/*'^^ * Tlti H'JO, i hft 
em'. h.to'.'Lllirao-. Mir'^'-Xhao-- A^*7-nC^ i flhn i f.U.^/DXwfiV. 
fllC* : ? th^C : <Dn<-C i h-flC : 

-fl^A.^ s < At 1 * h-VU- *^A Ai A.' tt't-flfrnf, : 

-MI A ^fc^ft i j&<m 25 

flA- 1 A^CP- * Mt7W fl-flfcrt/fc ^h^lL^tf ' -Mfl A lf-Clft ^ft^* * 

ai rh i i . 

:| :: 



rt.iwl' : Ol/^d^l- : HX^AA : fb^ - (D h.Pfrtt h/W : fl) 30 
flfc i fld A-h tfA-ft ::': VIC :5: OlX'JH i IM" fl-Mf iw^h- r 



: fli/tft 



Ml A"7 ' "tC 
W''f i fl)A/fe : llft 
: IMA'I': r/U*i-f): fllJir/n 



: M : HJt W A s fllM : ?W -0 : h^lh s M;J : 

: OthtD-^? ' M*K : WbS*"! i -Mfl A i ^P-C^ft 
10 fflll A* Juflfc flKW ^m.h : A : Olflh W s 

e, 11, : ^ffrh 1 ? :: h\\aD *fl^ : ^^ 
:5: nojr : hf-? P" A'JT-/*' ft A-<T> ID^<W'M fl^ : A*MC flTl s fllC'V 



Hi IP^* : Vrhrt, * h<w : JflJoV^IP : Ml.* : 
1 5 ID A& : M : 4-rt. A* O)M '- fl.00^ * 



1 V ^rh-fl s fll^ A* - W" A- fl-flft : H A.^,^ 3- A* flTl : 
^H, : OK * fl>-fl^ : noft+yf : 0}|?H : U A" : fl<wft+^ s AV<D : rh'PC^ -Tlfl 

& s K-M ?^ - ^*JE, A- ^H ^-n A s ^nc i n^vii^ ^c^? 1 9ti A 565 b 

20 -fltt-^ : rt-nh : K A : "JflC : n A-fc^h s fll A>- 1 A.'h : 



1 aotl A : KA^'PW htm : r A AT-'TL'} fli^f V : flUf - tn>Kk* 
: fflflKrifll- : ttJ^-O/ 1 * A^^ i KTI^ i 
II A" 

25 



A - V*J * 'J^'^hC : Vf- A- : im-dC :: I"'}/*'?! : & i K'H' 1 ?^ : ^, A" '- atllXth 



30 

MM .- j&-n A- B n - <\d - 0,-hh : (Dt AV : W+*|5, Ah ni-^T M-hrt ^ A* 

W- A-s 1 } A^ : n /.rh-n : 0)01^ tt - ? : ^^"7^ : 01 A ^ * /*'Art,3: i A^h i 

* -i-n^i ^^hn .- aij&n, IT-IP 

: VTC Mf .-;: Mloo : $, 0, : aoKthV * h^f^ ' AV 



r 172] 



M 



: VIC :: 
'i.- JiA'fcC : IP*:* 'ViC s (ldA'1- : 



: "/DA" 



566 a 0>i\Rt\\ 

.-fl.'tls Jifl-fcC 

Tt. : fin-"} : IA- Jft fcU/A :: 



A AP - "Jr-/* * at - 

- 1-H& - 



: -Irfl T "H- VIC * 



: ATT-/*' : Jt'll-U- : 0)A ' 



hfrt '.hi* ?' V A : 
.AV : hj A-A : OAl : 



566 b 



fld A1- : 'JC-fl 



i nilr/n:^,n, : /WiX" 15 



(IMt eVIC hiw . OXYh 



' 01 1 1 



Ph- 

: Od A* : fl 1 } A" 



25 



: *h/*'rh.' AH'fcA 



: ?t*JH : f.UKt'li ' *<!*% AT A : "/.TtfO- : Afl^n, : AW : h-O-fc 30 

: h-fl-fc : A^- ^A^V^ si: iP^.-TC.-fldA^ 

^^^ : ht*'^ '. 0<C A-flV :i (Dao f hC ' t 
Mfl A : ^P-C^A : (Daofh A : A* * 01^9 : -0^ .^t "trfD-f* : jPA A 



[I73T 

Hi A .- ^f-c^ft -Tin ^ti aocd^ A-}? 1 . A^ A- hw> .- i A+I A** MI 

fcU-0iAlfl4.fr: <D10C : r/IA,? JtAO: A-ftft 



* ^ec^fl .- 

5 rftATNPM/^hA/M D 'JifliA* A 

&s flxfcflKS.'i : fth& : & s JiTi"?'!"' : */*%* :: Tf Wfl : -lift ft. : ?.,/nflA" i 
: HT^Cl :: WtinXh * ^ : ^TfV^ s h-0-fc i H A13? : HVfl^ : flft ft^ : 9tl A 
: ^^ : +<*>$, fll i AHX ^ A- * h Ah s Mftfl 



s g TV*'*A4 i IMlM 



fliC'V.' J<w:TflJA't^1flfl lT-/**sAi*i^"n sflJfl*Jt 567: 

^H,^ 



?9 : fl)'i,,/..H : Ol^-flh : A^H^ : Ifl : H'M"! * ^hV s OI0i>Rlr* 
Mr.HtfD- : -J<Pf * W 

-MIA ^p-c^A njaiA'j^^ 

OKDUn : A*^ W : "VC? i^Jt^ : t-^h9({ ' tlffo : 



: Tl* s VIC : 0) hJRfr : Ajffl^ rT"?* * flrhj&<w^ 



25 ffh-.-mfJ* -- fli'JA^^-- A^g- * Ml^-lP : fliA^L * /"Art, M.Hao-.- 
OI-flM s flJ^lR^ * iiDlli+.-nDlinAdl-: rh<?C: 
: Kg iro'JTf^ : fDIDlin * "f.an^ : ^AV^ * 

* A-* ^9^ : ait 1 V ^^ * fc<Pj : A-HI 

^ AO -- H jE-^^Vrt A" : JmoVvllt 1 -H*J* s ^ A0 fl^J& Ar% (Dfl^ A^ Vll- 1 
30 ^ : ThiP i fll ^l-lip <5lf: ^KHH * K < 7H.^-flii.C flh<w> 

^/^V s ao^tht? ' (D^^lf/^^.-^n : Yfl^f * 
i hVhf : Kfth KH, .-:: I'VQdlrb -Vfl s Tit * MC * IP<1* - aopftft 



t*lA 



67 b h<* ' fcO-fl/ 1 ' A*<5-A:*DC0- : Th/"fc: 'Jflf : riijMl.:,/i:rt.lVA : I/A": 11/f. 

1-tfoPT : O^A* : -flrh.Ctl 
JifKJY. : (Df,6B,l : fl)ft ' 
A.* s '>.<->: 

tfofffc^ : fllA* : A/.-ft : : 7'Mrf. ' $ 

: ATf-/* 1 10^*0 AP A-fl Ai i h^* 1 ? flXD** Al" "JT-/* f ::'i 
rilll Ail- fl 



Olflll i fllCI 

10 



::: OI^<Wi : TATlfll" ' ^/"d^ : Kfiftl i d A^ : \,fAA i 01 AJtlFI 

oi<wih4- s A-n J : ^-n^: : A.nsA \\a yrxhp AMI .- 



flTI : OlC^ : aoKh* : OI^A-f" : frtl'-aoCdR' : fll^g 1 
oi* A * Ji 



s0rhf A^ htm: ^thT : -fl^A.1' Art) A ft * 
AA 
Orllf 
fhiT 
(D Aft : P- V : 01^ A? 1 * Th/** ?i AJl : ft.ft.U- * 0)1-00?, m : IT-/** 



ait-Aai-P' ai^A-h IT-/** .:. ai-t-V* ^">nA 25 

O-::: IP^* s Vrhrt, : OM^ Ji/h-fr 
i flhW -t-ao-H-nCp! Afti^fl^ :!: 
<f I II At r/n'lHU. A : 'P'V^. * fl A^K'*-U- Al/*'^^ fl^-l'Tf : hV ^fl.^ : 

hn> VIC?*** f-VA VO^jK, : ?iAh 
A^O- 1 A-flJi .- VVB i .^HV- .'JfLf ,-^MV 30 
rirlv/j'.m : oW : MH.^'Orh.C h"?^ :iH>-: A-fl^ : >7ftC: oi-Mi^H 

A^aJ-W: 01/2,60.1 hoot ratfAWhrt, : hi 
A.tm-nrh AOl^ .- ai A.mo : oiVf-A- .- 

: I/ ?%'>(! A : H^^OAA : II "/(I. I'. : X'/ f : rt)/ir/n : /(/)/, A VrluV ' 



[175] 

: Ml"? 'f i 



Ml? : 
fll^/^^^Asf ^I*-! A.- 

: VIC: fli^/mTaieAVrhrt, : K^'J 

^^.^^^^, . V7/ M^ . .^^ . T^P.C^. A?lhs 

568 b 



: fl)-f-iw? T : 



: AlfjR : H^O foA^ H/iC^lXfelf fflh'J^CA H/m^ n : uih (l.-f- 

15 



flh Vf <P : h<wi : 0*11 P : AIT-/* 1 0) A? 01 * * 'JT-IP i M/*'^ * "Mfl A ^P-C^ A 



: ^ A.? 1 : AO-nd : ffl^^rh : fl>/5.^ : fl^rh : OI'T'* : - 

A-flh : JiJ^XAA? 11 s fiih"M fli3 i iJPai'JA^:'}'h/ M : ail ^ fl^h-fc 

25 /iAA^.-l^.: Ol^-h/* 1 ^ : lrt i *Jt<ni3: : Vfl^ i 



30 

ttii ' Mlfr* flJCO s Oirsfll^T : T e 



["'76] 

'A .- 

rh.CA:<D'Vfl : tf-A-i*"*^ i Vtf' : O)%lMl;f"f- : 
lfii.C s M9l : rhlPW ' r/nT?/*''!' fc< 
: ttfr ' (ir.''h<:.. : <nC9? : aoWh : -A-^. : fcAh : JiMf. 



* 

f fl ^ 



ai'JA'l- : Adhs^C,?? s H<PAj KlHi ^Ofl>-O- r I0 



: AAdh : "7^9 :: OlAum * jlfll^A^DAh^? fldA^ fl^A" 15 

ai^A s flrt^C :': tutu** JgAdAt 1 s ^n-ds^^Ai ^ftA.5 p AO-nd HI 

5 6 9 b f i) Jidl-"/ 1' : Jll" 1 ? : 1T-/^ : nfi^^'J'H^ : ^-h/^S: -f-*J7lP : fll 1 * A^ * TT-/** i * 



: t\tltn> '- C^fr A'fl 
": 
fll-A^ i 11,^: hn-7: ft'frl.-.f'.-nA: Aiir/n: f|)(J 



'\\ao-. Wdd : ri) I'.Ji-f : : mTl A * h Ad U7C 

VIC Kl^ : ftM^ : fl,t MT : )?ir,l.l/A ::': fll^fl rt^^ f HWs V7^ :! 25 
-Ml A ^P^fl : -l-r 1 * : ^fl.f : aot t : h<Wi : Mfl A i H/iT'VC : OlhtfD : 
A*I^ Ol^V- : Jlilr/n : (Ml, : r/o^Mi V- : fl : aott ' HflC^d flJ/u/D 



Oil s 

* fDflj&M: * dA^:aiCHai <Prt,:^^A- : flij&A *^^ HI 

fl. A 



"}&G i Tfl* Wl : CD^-f: : flH-M i afP* ' 



[177] 



Ot A& : 
IfPC 



: 'Hi A, : n^-T^: "VC?? '- O9-U ' (Dflh ' OHH" ' 'ft&C : faro i 

10 A 



9 ftA fll^ A^^O- : <D-M!lfl IT-/** ft^V'fi A : ^r-n : 0/^-0 Ad : fl)fWl'fc 
fl)?im : 7? WIIJI A A'l 1 * Xrh-J^ : VV : ft*^ s fflt.iro-'h ' H^rt/8,tf-rt ' 
15 <DA ' -Ml A. * ^fc'H'Tf V^ 
:hHTCVTh:fliln,-f' : d'Hi 



: h A AS hHTCV-'l- fl>A? 7C 

: An.fr i 

20 J^V-V:HX^ft,^: 

Tit 



: hf*'^ : fll<P A-S. 

TOirnd A-l' : h'V-J^ : 'I-'}/*'^ Thl** : Vl/^l* : 'Mfl A B T.f-CT.ft 

25 



" : ^ j& A- : (D A^. : A^jf : AH"?^ : Mf-t : ^ ' 



30 s ^ A" : ^ : A-H^ -T- : TfK- 



W.B. 



[178] 

<Di At 1 * yiv^J -nH-:V} ^tfo-"} 

: <n>AMl : A>T)I/.- ' flAlH ' j&l'AlD-?'' Oft : ID-fit i flC :J: <D7l-l 



* IW: <nh<Ml : fll-TfHVJl CDlW : I'lV 

^^*Aai.sHii:^hM1'fl WA 
i T'H- : 17C : fii^r/DrmoVi'i : aHt- 1 ai7AH 



0) 



s IlMOA s -: ,o 

7dH airtA^ 

ftfl) ftfcft A'|- s fl^A : AMTlX^V ' ^VC^? : flAi 



57la <- : l/Affl. s 

'P'VJ- : 01^^^^ fr?"^ flhtfn: hft? ^ : 



: (D&tt : <W)A- 



15 



770611. -in.-TW WC'-mhoD : SfliiAT*? ^ ^">/*'Ai 

^/^^.^ : 01*7011 : W^7A 0,79 J^C :?: OlTrfli s WA" 77-lP V?/**^ 1'Vl A : 

^fc^fl:nrtm;H^ ^v? 1 Ah^-to.-'j'pf .-/^Art,.- ^^A.-^.-AI'M^^: 

0rh? * A^ : ?7H : -fl A V^ i Cj^ ^i i ll^ i -f?001fl- flM-fcKh * ?ftA 20 
'J'PP /**Art, s HD-J7 A : flrhf : A3 8 (DY\ao t h A" htfD s 

* 



: 25 

: rhrtfll : OTrhAU- :J: 



V7C 



flA A 

: rAA:/..ft:7-fl<S. OH?!*^ ^C^SKtl iT-^i-'^n,! Mf ' 



i fl'JA" : 



[179] 



: K'to^ : h'fl * fl>'MflA : (ir/'fl A^i : f/jflr/nlVl; : flJ^HV * 571 b 

A "7 



: noil A* fl"?, i flirt fU- 
: (Dtttt s 

ftf A* B *^i^'> : hao : aA;*"!"//": AV^ * AJ 

: W : ^ft i ID A& : I-OC^, A ' <Dh"}H : f rhO-C * 



B XA'fc : ^"Vd^') : h/*VS-fr : 

dA-l- : ^C-n : '/-^hfl : ^A : 01 A A ! "1-flCh, A 
! 9f)A : ^T-IP : VI/^'V : ^VlA s ^P-C^ft B 



Oh- s ID-fit B 0,1- : lLl : 'J'hl*' i V?/**^ * -Hi A BT.P-CT.ft s fll^ft : (D A^ B 7-fl 

A :;.- flj?ijr"H : ^1/^h : h9<LTrtnC'- flirt 
s "A- B flue -I'fliTV s 

: fl)rh{. B ^^^C :!: fll^ftP : dC* : ? A" B 

20 flrY/n.m- s ^n-'Jrfll^CH.l.-^AA B i6^'.(D ' (O-.-^ B 
:|: fl>n<w i XflllAll : fl)C1 s ndAI" B rt^-JZ, B WS^h '. 

B -HI A s ^pc^ A s -f^A.? 1 A0-nd B ain^-rh * -w HU 

AOJ. B fc"7iV> flViV : /fl.^ H A B ?|JP^H. s riW- hfth B ^H. .- rt Ch *flin 572 a 

ID-h* B Z.ftBUDft'Jt : ^ : h-H^V^: fl)A^ B /h/Z,fl)-lh B h0DB C-*fH-a A 1 } 
25 7d1 s n^^ : ?'^^ s ^-ft : 1'fl^ ffl* 1 * : A : YFH* B *7/**^B f-hA 



-MfiA B 

gdAI- ::: fll^T-/* 1 ^ s n&B<D-iYI- s ^d^W s fllhft^^V? 1 B 

30 CkA B m-ftf- .- U74- : nflA? !: ip^*sf h-t^^<w:jflioAf h-fcih B fid At 1 s 

i*A-fl B ^-l/*'^ : fc07-?&C B 'JT'l*' B i7/^^ ; -Ml A B ^P-C^ ft s flJrh^ B fl)7^- B 
: ^ft B fl)A& B /^Art,! fllrh^ fi nfl7-Hl> - 
B /^Art, s Trflf B 0-flArB 



[i8o] 

"J A If : fl) rt /. i 
fll A & : /"Art, 



0'fl V : 0>fl>'* : *<*> .' }?/" '?! ^/"A : ffOthGtfl** i ft A r/n 

. : 5 

: IP 

* 



.'' -. i- . --a& ar-AJ^th n 10 

572 b Olh/ 1 ^ : h<P$. MM s J&-OA : ID^II-ntlP 1 : Afl)A^ i /"Art, : 

IP, II, 



AA'K- -I'fi^ao- : rt-njvf- s <P*7:tfyV-l-:^n'nB+ : V Ai'H fl V : f 15 



/. : hA : lYP&OD- : -flH^^ : t^fhantt i AT0O- : ^.ft : 

fl ATM s arta>,a> ' >l A 

'' A^A:OlA^:/*'Art,: iD-A'l-.-nfli.f- : ID? 
7-IP : Vl/"^^: /**A : fcyfciMQ : fflA^rt s fln^^ :|: fllh?-M : 7dH : fflfl J%: 20 

* h-fl :: ioK9 l> 'H * ^/"Ai aiAl nai*? flih'JH WA-: n-Mf ^ A 



' 00 A* : 

A A-hft/h-R* Vi> s 4-A.h : ai'f^hn s '>T-/" B (Uro-n Ad : ain^DA'b rdA-l- 

* fl-flft h^ ? HlKm /i-fl 25 
i fhj A- :Hftoi> " tfDl7/ i * h?9:fn?: : H^^.A : h ?!!-' Ml 



: hr/o : 



Ch. A3: I"? <W?1 A s P^-'M- : ID^-A s aoCdRl : A ^ i flrh'fi :: <I)9 AA.U- 30 
II AID. : 

573a 



: -Ml A B ^PC^f) B 
: (l-flC : 



s (Dl&~ '- 



sflAljf a.: fllh^H : U/fifl'Hf 
1?&C : 'Tlfl i ^-A s W>Cdj^ ^-ft iwCdj^rt 



15 



. flije,n, s ^.-i-n^ fl93nc 



: Mf : 
MflA s ^f-C^A B ^' 

B rt-n?i B 



::: <D?AA,II- . 

ffl A.& B m Aft ' Jt 1*7 A m A/& 



20 



573b 



: hi A 4-4-^. A s A.;in 



B -Tin - Tit 1 s 



s /**Art, s 

' O)(\K<h * 

/AA.8&An 



B UAai. B Oan^ s <5.f| s aoCd^- fDA-tl 



1-nCh.A B m^A"^ B ai-f-iDTV B dc4 s h<w 
^e-c^A s Hh-nmA-A B A-H 



B -n-n^ 



3 o 



B hi B 



^H. B r AW B n- B 4. A B 



W- A-B tl 



[182] 



' 5 

- 
574a , .- vie T-P- rt-n^ T- 

^-V O'fld* (D-\rm>a*lt* * fttlHD : ,H:r/n^JiV-: (iA'l-: All: 



-Ml**, : oi^g * Mi"?^ .- ^j& A- - n-nfrli i ?dC .- rw (1 e,?i-/: . ^H, : 

neAi^^ : fljJi-flfctfD- : l-ftt : fl^C : /1<W>: VlDlArh^A. fld 



15 



: rtA1>.- -Maiai : flj^/^d^.- M-- AA-'I '}: aiM 20 
' ft ' ^tTI ?^ Ml aiftjf : Klf^ 'f : h A-A : AAi% * ft-^T^A to A 



: &19g;C i ftjf ' i 1 OllOT : 

hfrb : *"^ i Ak-H^'-f : m^>& i ftg 1 * Ml^ 'IhV^ : ?AA : -flfr 25 
: ftg- : 



574 b *<n* :: |P^* i irhrt, i ftdM' ' A*-^ till ' tOW 

w>:; 

V7C 



1 for 



OlC'V : o 



* -vn 

i HVK-i B &.ltl-fl} : flJif-Ml 



i OfHlTI) 



* flftAt 1 rhtfo-rt : fllh'JH : I/A" : ^I-IP : 



mflK. .- 



20 : 



25 Ah 8 V?H.Ml,h,C 



8 oh- 8 pfr^ -. 



30 



rt-nh - 



6ATC s 



H Jtf f ^*0 : AH* ' ^dj&W ' ?iWi : Oh : 

/A n^rn^ * ^K (^TI^^) fcA-4 .- 

s rh<7 s ^jf 
, * '-flt 
15 'C * -- : ^.^^ : AitfDjfllgATl : OlC1f 

-HIA : 



i & 0l L'?Gh (1 

fl * ^r 

.- W-A- 

: 
:,: 



575* 



'- frith : 



: (D 



: A"l=: 



C?Ah s 

.- h-n<: 



JH1- :' ^.^^Clf 8 Art 

^ s rt-flfcsflHfi-i-.-n,-!-: 

s et 8 n,^:-: aih^TI B 



(D&*& & 



airt^/. 
W-A" s 



(',?! I/. 



:: 



: "HI 



: &*t\ : ID A& : /"Art, : 



C^/l : I/I iH'f .V.fl : J&^-nCnC : O.* : IDj^rh? : 
575 b 4-fl * ID A& : /"Art, 1 9llb : Thl** : V7/"'Th : 'Ml*A 

: f , (1. : /J^- : 



h- 



ID A A /"Art, : 



H 



: 10 



O-CH'Btl i 

: ^Ott 



A? 



<{. A1 s 

nff .- rh^r B 

ID A A ! /**AA. :: fli 

: H^-rt A? 1 



i i-nt 

: : A.A/1* 



s*,ti9 6 

: lll'l'lhtt'l 



: 15 



r, * 



: IDh^'M : ^hfl : ftjf : 
ID:%&7 : * A71- : tM' 

01-Y.O :"/.i7D'l' 



: ID^-A : ID A& ' 20 
ATC : ^ At A Vfc A: 



576 a 



' flflA'l' Xll-.R' ' ID^/JD : W ATI s fllCI ' floAl 1 .' 25 
l*W - tfS*'^ "Hfl A 
' h9(\U 



*7dH 

: 77-1*- 1 Vl/* 1 ^ .' 

n M+R in- 1 hcft*^ Hrh*9 

fnH A W' : ^JJ-flO- s rt-O^i fl-l* ? 

aihV i i ^ i pr- hfl-^ ia^ * 



- d.'!' : Vf-/*' : M : 

H^rt/w.|R 

'f'l' ID A-S- : 



[185] 

: Ohil-t- : fl,* * flJ^fcl ' -t-aoffrfl 

: U A- : flTif .- 1^^ T- !"/ A^T-/** i tvMlf ? i 190-A 

^^ . jtw> .- ^n, A-B 



5 
h<w> 0DAtBflA.U iflCh : -MlAs 

fld A^ : ft 'Y- : fara i |A?!.^'M^ * rh^ : ^-fl : fli A jf. 

' - tilth*. 



10 f rh">? ' Aft-nd : jTT"?* : ^^"/rt Vfte h7H 



* nC&:Orh*1 576b 
fllA-?- : A^OT^, : h<w>:KOliA t 77fl ; h:/<n'Mn.^tfi>-: f 



9 AA 'M/*' : Ol^iiwi i ^-no- : WfY\ ' HOD? : troll A : fDl&* - 

MsJt^TCA a^ft'^. tf 7"fi 
20 i^ .- aih^Uf : 16ti'.hA<L * 



: hao : Kfflffl'H i IC^ B ^<W>'HnC < P s ti&91\? : T- /"/ s 

f-flfllft : 



25 

: h<P jf 



B fl)1n V B XT WB Ktf * : |D^ A* B -flH-^ s fl-flft s 
' <jflJ : ^Al s Mll-fl B tDhr-H s "Ifiti B flirt A^ s flM-3- : fllh^li B 

30 / M Ki!^UC*IIK%^*ttCii^/ M ^i'l-^A> 1 * AO- 

A: T.P-CT.A s fljTti^'H : ^?-fl^ : OlAJn) s A--I: : ^j, A : 

^ s 



W.B. 24 



[186] 



U7C c -|-7.fIHfi. : A.. 

- : Ol'J'Pf : ^T-/** : lV : fl^, Vt 

-nw-^ .- *npdA flH^iinc 

' l * fl& * 4D 5 

i fl>OJi : <PA-fl H^A^nf,: A#C : fill s fl)C1 : A* 
fl)V>H : OA: nilf : Vbl f Vl/**^ x "MflA * 

: $?, A 



:Hfl>^.-fliCHiD:Oaii;*siD^A*."nH-:^: 10 
-/v/i.e,m iw^A : >K? icMH OA- .- 



: (Hi 

15 



: HA- i nO.'|: : m-h'I-->. : f/lClfffJ i fl^?'t : 9^,^: hAfl: O't\{>: 

rt A- : &M1&. i h9?i^lf tf. : i<hm i arti^-l- P Ai : a>- A1- n.* 

577 b Olflrh^^ :: IP^* 'T.^'H^ * fldA^ S.(Ht'.*(Dh0t>:%b<i?1l? '.h&(D'. A 20 



flirt? 1 "* s ftg : h'H ff V : ! : : H0>-^, * t 1 A? 1 1 ri) (1 XMi flirt <C4- elf**- : 

A^^fl^' frV i *^A : fl^H.: rWfratM - $f,& A^jf r Jill 

: <D:iA* -toWi : A-flh>^MH s flAl^n^fl 4.rt.A--r AA 25 



: * :: : : ': * 

TH- i V7C>imh^ - r a W' IT-IP.- V7/*'^ i '^hA:^f-c^A 

'7"/ Jl"fcy : -I-OITV^ ^h/..|;-: r/.l j .i: rf.A 30 

7 d-hft : huDs^A^C : fldAI- n'JA-ao- AoX'}^ OAi.-^'fl/. : ^0^, :;: 

' "HHt : tDflh ' Mlfr9 :: fflhytf ^l/*'^ fllrH^ : aollh : h^-<p :: 



: A*?-?- : 



: '/(! A'i (UrWH:: if h 
AH - aoh&.tt' :: T7fld1ffc ^fl Tit 1 VlC : thl? - flJt-<P 9Mi ' 6-tl 



Vfc 



- i <7D'}?A : iP^fr : ttn : fJ^A* 



A^J^C ffllf h: 
: *J<W? : h'fc ::: flJ^*^ 1 /: Oh-: A'dhs th^M '- 

H/Afl * '^A 
e fli-X'Isi : 'l-aofrm s fliOh * fli-fH- : -rtrh.4- fc'JH : 

10 -1^: s ^A"! h^*^'iw>: ^nd ^ft : fllA^r/^'Art,: <<.Vai 

- ^PC^ft :-Vfl : ^jf * Mf^'f : T-*7^ * K">H 

* T-*?"!- Mf 

hrt (D IM&T s 
::: fl)* W s AMl.-f : ^A: OlA-S-: AM-' 

15 H-nAP'tfo- * dlA, aihlA, : hC : Inlh, * 



20 nh<Wi : nhP'> : ^^A : nK">-|- : flf-A-JJ sj.- fllOh^ : t+IP : Kft^-h, A * 



- s h'7H,h'flrh,C : AV9/^^ * 'Jfl 
$00 s AVl/**^^ Kitt ?,<n>'? s 



2 5 ^^: ffliiA-s 1T : fll^ ^ : JZ, Ah s fllflV i fll^Chf V 
Tt^ : 

H. V r 



: ">7-lP YIP 9 * : MllP- nAdA,U- : flll-fl^ s /''Art ^H. 
30 CDID-d^shrn,^:!^^/"^ : Jt^H i ^^I'flC : KYhP!:': ^V : tt'WiKD 5 y8b 



' Afl,^ 

onvsp- 

li,HO$,fll : h ^^ :: IP^* s fllC^ VrhA. : (MA'f" rlion-rt s h">H s 



[i88J 
(DlW : fUlAfl * -flrh-C : tDUflCfr : ID-fit 





Tit 

Ht-nuAs vi/^t'-nctrt .- Ht 





-ft MM s Ml4"fc s <DC^ 
U A- : 

' *>+ ' 



: IDA <: i floil^ ?ft A i WU- : 'I'^'H ?^ -' 

i : * 15 

: Aft;*- <D*^ : h-H"?^ e 'P'Vftrt rh<: /w'JlA i &9n^ flilT-/* 1 1 1- 

A? 1 * ?I*IA : -nH-1 : IP^e^ : ^A : (D t P'^^'^? : /Wi'Jl 
579 a 7p-^y : hiw> : ^^hC ^jf ' hWt ' HtD-1 fl^ll? 



rhlf fl^flWB ^'-'^'H^^ ! HlO-S. A7f 20 



MflA : V^^T^.-OA-s flAft^ : flllnii : <PAj^fl 

A'T*'* : fl 

: htfD : Ofl A i 25 



:i: (D^* : ili i fld At A>-JK, fllf s fllC^ i h<w> : fl) # A'll fflCI 30 
rhJ'" A- fld A'N ^fl'd : hr/n'rf 0)71^ At 0>iA- : 



[i93 



: ID A* 



-ttVLA nvi<: Man : 

10 



: tf-A- : 

/wCU:rWfc 

* * A- : 



30 



a)0h- e 

25 "jT-^enA* M^MI*: yi*i : mi 



579 b 



HKTflA : mljt nflirt"} * ^A-.-aiAi/^^l- .-:. 



# 



: KflJO MS VIC : l*^* i T*? ^ s fld A^ hrh-- s fl-W fflC^ 



: till OlC-ll : ^l"^ 



[190] 

* -in 



: M'W : Ju/n: iy||. : flTi : fllC'V i OlCI &0Di1n}i!i flg7fD@?jf<D% 

<*< 
:fll'|- 5 
> 

A. A.* .- Ad A : 0D^-fl{. Mfc UA-to-i OWW * M fcViD-Jr, : HVIK- - n* 

fl* 
< II 

10 

"Vl h, A : ^TbM : fc/wi^. : H^-fl A? 1 : hA A. i fl?i^ (D A- i 



15 



:Vfl A.--H A i A^V^ i hfrto* * 0-MWihf,*' 

'T- 1 *fr 00 : (DK - 1-ft i H M-flCP : A -fl Jl i A.^P' fr^ :: 
A.J&^flC : flUICf jS.-flA^A^ : (D;Vn^ i ^ft 

20 



i A-flAi 



: f-V X'JH i jR'rt A : flH^**}?- : ^]f ' hW^ ' ^^^ H^il A : g A^ * 25 

! /% A s t({C : Hji-n A r A &* 



A*AiH D ff'P : 



* Hrhffrh:h?n,'|: : htfD : V? ^?! : fl'^: AAA AC? 



581 a 



Mb : Iflfin : AMI ff-flJl? 11 tt$p,P : rfwVM^ : Hil,^ * 

<w : rh-C s r-<i : "Miff ' Afcr*'** ftAf) & (Dh9 ')S.']i ' 

- "*.</* : m?" C s M 1 ? : Ji<w A 
5 iniTlAi"^ * A'H-n^l- : fclfO-.-flTI: fl>CU * tlV: 

: S^ftA : hlP^ ' tD^f^tL: 9J^ : ff^flA ' 



H> 

VIC : fllTM** : Vl/^^ : d^As KW* 01? 
10 .- /"A"!* 'JT-/*' flhft.-.pA '. wTr-biv ' Vl/^^.-MflA s ^f-C 



HA- 
: -1in*TW.-MC : 



1 s A"?-?. f > a>ii. V*7jt fli-K* aih^oo- s WW nn-nrh,t?<n- e nrt A? : 

s aiXSPO.^ : fv.P 

* n^A-fc^ : i1C 

* : fllC^ wiA 
i 0-fld : fl-flrh.4- * ^fl : OlAft 



20 

s fflftK 1 ' ^Tl 11 ?^ * VJ"! '"HflDf 1 s <w^7A : ^C^Vfitfelf s fflAA-f-^f s 58 ib 

1 



'.l'. VIC::': Mfci UflClh 

2 5 



: :V>A- : A^-h/" s X^A s ^P-"> :flI<.Vfll h^* : OJ-flt: 0,*: fl^ : 
Olftjf : hll !^' ' 0<h? : Aft : VfU^ftA : IT-/* 1 s OAi:fl>-A^ 
30 fcffiU ::: XCctlTh. s IW)!*?/*'^ : HOl-'J .3 A : dTl^ :!: hC Ifl^h, <W*> < 7 

9 l^h l-rh&^ a*Yir s t - ^fl 



: *Jt */n A ^rhjRft^ Ji^ ?ift i ^fl i HI A^dV (19 
* Vlf!: W-A- : J&-OA : Mn - Vpfrl-'itfr'l't- - *J^<nrt : ^A ' 



[192] 



.- AH-fcrt 

Crh : "fcfll : A-0- : w 1 >'7/*'f 1 : h JPV H^ s "llfl 
n-1 : -Mfl A : V&^T^ i aol >. 



fl)C i ^D^. i X-ndJP : (D A" x 

582 a A 



' TA >Hs 10 



: iMffl. 

lA<A.fl?i< 

Jvi^'pcflT-ftf-cn.-j'iAipfl. i 5 



A- : 

s nfl-flrh.C?0i>- :': 



: fr& rj: 



' d\A:>'t} : II A IT A AH ' 

.' (DHf hrC : HfrlV?,? : Wf.^dC ' (\hWtt : rhO* : 
Of :H ; *-?i l P*AH't ' ^-^hsIiAO l/.i'A.-n(>. : Hl"Mk 

s -flrfbC :|: hV3: : I) Al-Vl- fl ?l Ad U7C 4i :: :: .-J: 

: IP 25 



H.VO- : A'J'h/^V i d^A XTP-^ i Vfl^ 

i 



: fl'HA.^ : (0^9^^ Idtt : 



[193] 
m 



^4- * <D;JA i 

HID-&. h9A^ i j&nn i ai'j&iD i AA-I * 'jag, 0-ni 



110 

^jt 

NOf&l M^fc ?^rhie 1 0* j&flfl rh A A i n>">7A 01^*7 



5 Mf .'I.' flTJ IDC1 * HoXTh. : rt-fl> ^^ * ^rfcl?*^ i Mil : j?,-H A" ^ A A 583 a 

toh ftHTC i h, A^fl /^^^ i Mm- Hi ATI*}* * VIC i ^fl rt9 / ao\\ t K 



10 J& i M>JO Hi ID fl <1 : nUf Hi flKTD^A i &j 

ffl-WV- 1 ilf <m- Hi mh^^^Tf * 

Ahft-h"/ AT* : i<fo^TH- -hhf 3- fl^^d <n>rh A : ?iTH W Affl. s OH 
1 a>^ A* : A^ft a> A A /^AA.e A^f^M A1 * M 



A" ID 
|8,flfl 

20 ^A-I oKB^-n^i^m al^^ A < }v,-^p-c^ft 

fl1-;J- Hi fli?i^'M'7dHflirt^iflrthA HI fliViV i 4- 
^ll a> Al flrth A i aihr-M -7*H * fliOAi i fli-A1- 1 

n,* . A^HTC * ^ A,? A i Whoop, : 4-4- * -Min aj-A-h * n,* -n^i hh A 

Oi^ft fli^HC * lift AO : > A4^ HI IDA fl-1^^ If h = AMfl>- * (19 M 
35 Mn '- J&'flA AC. aiA<C, * ai^^hs-nH-^.-hAUi^^sairt'nfi HI 



aiA^ * fcCflTliaiC1 

: fc/*^ : nfe^9 : fl Ai^ao * h-rtj^ ID1 V i 'JO.^, AU flfl,* g" : 

fldVfc ^nt / PW.-V7C*iai?i9 li 'M:^'>/ A '^2 l iy 

30 ^A^^-: fofifJS: Ai'H a V :: f-: HflH^, : H: H^rhtfK- : h'>.Hrii>-:hi>./.^.- OlO 
Herhfll-^sK^HtfO- 1 V<Pm i (DO * HerhlI-<.:X'i I Htfo-^AUir l 'h: 
ID-4- : K'iHtfO- : A-Oft Hi flBhV ^tl/e, : ^H*} : KiW> A 1 * i 'PT-fr ID-A^ 



: fcfl<P"H- 1 T^^IC i fDr/oK'^ : &j : Tl'H* 1 ?^ <&, (OWO**! * 

W.B 25 



[.1941 

n^ip-^-n : 

(DM- : A^fl : <WCd- 9rtA 



o>H< -?*V7S i oiA* i A^-fl i 2A-i AMl MM -fl A & 5 



Hi 

W-A- HI nQAti. i -Tin : T"}^ * 'r/L'Vui)i;n 



un- 

i JrtllA A^^- MTi^fl^ s flJ-ftl- 1 7/J{Pi ortiV 
Hi fiijULA-: Ji.WM : ?AA^:^'M <f 7 : f ^.Af A 
i h^oTI j tfoh<- 1 J&fl.AP' Wf Hi 

hn-y.-7^aij&H(r : j^^vTlirh^i W-A 

a>Kh nj^n-^ fc0? li ni ^ 
: ^-H"?^ i JbAfl i A^hfl : ^*w>& 



HI 

Art 20 

-n Ji >??r >jt (D-1Y.-1I n- : fl^rn A <D*IV 

5 8 4 a -t-aof.m : n 'P/^rh : 

i MM i -fl A- Ai^'M^iM A V^-1 ID A A **4tl 
i HXlhO Afli A^, * XJP Ah 0<- 1 ^l^im- 1 hon : |B,^*n A- 
flihn,^ * ^HV^f * OT/^l^ t *+fl AJP s tDrthP Hi V7C Hi 

0)rt<: OID^- s IDMH i UA- : mif ooKh. rt-flli i 
^. Al 



Mtt f,-d A A <C, : <i) A <f u : 

HI ID^A* : tf-A<H- rt-flAi : ^4-^: tt>Mtt WA": (1 

h^|S. * mAl * AUICh H^-OAP' 
i MIIA- 1 j fcTf*?^ <&, ny ^^*^** tl/^h i 
f ^Tl 1 ^^ 7-*?^ i n->7A 0,iy"j^C him ,K<ftp i AX^^A 



[195] 



-too f,m 

IDA& s 4-4-h.A :i: flJ^TI * *7dH ' flirt 1 1 (l<P'f 1C : 



& i ^Tl^^f i HlO-j^ : +& A.P : A0-rt^ : 
ATi^ 'f * Hfl>&, : iD^J^If A" i fl-fl Ji i 
' H^ H/Z.'fl A? 1 : f n-|-7i ::! ^OD^m ' 



: aoKh t Whfjr '- ML-f W 01 A^ Aftjf : All^^f <&, t 



10 



.- OK- 1 "71 W : "70^9 Oih^jtli^'H : l'^/*'^ : ?i9 '7'H^ ; J- 1 Oh * 

K7H : A .' fl-H^S' fl* A 

15 



si: 



Mtt 

20 



'. AO 

xn 

. ^ H HOH^, 01^ A A ' aoli s ^ ID 
25 hlHif rh A'PirfDft'h. * d^ Ae^U- A^A * ffl A^ * /"AA fc'JH R-n A- <w>rAi 

Hri 



-OA.4- ^*7^ : ai^S i Mi'Tf e HflJ-^rt rhlf OA^, Hf 1*0 



30 HD A*J : anil A rh^.A * h9f\ t (D'h^fh^tl : hl^n : W^k flirt A^ * flMl 

C* 1 ? .-3: fliTi'JH s A- 1 flUf i taiT* ?iC* JPAA fl A^-frl^- W-AA.^ * flih 
fk-f i^H)^ fliKHTC - hM : n^: flr/nJiA.- roimi-l- flt-A^s rtA<- 



[196] 



* 

>0>-M:'IC4< fcA/fefc Yfllf 
TH : J*n4-fc i OlCI : 7fl)6 (DaDftyb : TO)? :J: l*^* : f h'fc^ ' flfl A1* iPA-fl * 



: VJH : -flA : t(h : 



hi 



m A& AtTJ ? Hn>- 

nx-rh * A* 
MHJ- i nhiwi ^(L^TD^rh^t Jijwi? IIT-/^ .-n-n 



h? rtm 



UA- : fl-Hf ^^/htfa- 1 A ciu-'f : -ii '> HVfK- 1 n^* i H^-fl AJP * 

H^7r- JC-A- Vtf* fli^-A- hlC flrwirhA 01*711 ^ 

airt ^^nK 7ai'h^hri : Hfc^rtm" *?" A i^^'C'l-- ^^aH^-^i Al^i 25 



0)01 A j*. ' fc-fl OlA 



56a *oi^<7D,rn i frtl Wi 'Clth.G OJOi^lA'C * "V-fc^A* ofl/i'J^' V-b * 30 



: in 118 Abbadie MSS. as in f. 548 b, error for V 
= solar epact. 



i 1^ c ^ft : 1-fl : (DTiA'C ' A-^ft :|: 0)0^*79 : *W|- r T*^ : ^ft 
fl)A& : /^AA. * flTm*e P'rh'Jft * OlX^JttfD : T^: (I'll: Ifr/rf.-r/nJVft : 

fcn-V 'feCA-rt m mil 1 ? A4JS. 'Jrfw^ : aiTiA'C "VCtfft W-cM i -MflA 

5 T.P-C7.ft n^"l u //* f i Olfmn^ * W fc* : 3 A- 
M: hj-hh h'^l> Hi fllfl 1 ^ A4 

H'/ e/"rr-l- : ft 1 : .?. (1, : (D A^- : ^nd 



: ?f <P 



'. lfnrV ' flHw>> ^C^A * 



15 



(Dflftrh 



h *D 
20 t'':> : i flC fll^X-h. * Jifth ifcHH ID7-fl<-( 586b 

rww nc : <D^E- ^-M"?"^ * ^J&A -fv/njz-m n^cy^ on-n^ 

: OIlDfllV- : Oil 1 * Olt^'Ohf i gf 1 1 dAI* IDT** 



XT Ad 

25 "v-T- 



'T-s "7<- Jifth : 0)74- 



<&-ft 

oil * . flH-:*'* 



fl < PA.R-fl--fl'7 



30 i 



:0>n * 



nnJ-ft 



[198] 
(D-t-wfiOo i 

oifi 1 ? Aftj& 



* b 



5 8 7a ^^ * 

hCA-f A i fliT* i -HVf- A- HiV flHl"l * 

'JAy i -t-wao ' CM 




W. B. 



26 



KING OF KINGS TAKLA HAYMANOT II 

In the name of God the Father whose existence is without 432 a 
a cause, in the name of God the Son, whose generation is from 
the person of the Father, and in the name of the Holy Spirit 
who proceeds from the essence of the Father, without the first 
being antecedent to the second or the second to the third 
without change of name or ceasing from being One ; who exist 
in one divinity and in one Kingdom ; distinct, without division 
of their simple essence, and single operation: and in such 
manner that the Father wills His fulfilment by the Son and 
the Holy Spirit. And by this Will of the Holy Spirit, the 
Royal Secretary begins to write the History of his Lord 
Mika'el Chief of the Dignitaries, and Power of the Negus, in 
the following tenor. 

On the 8th Teqemt (18 October 1 769) x Sunday, the grace 432 b 
of the Holy Spirit which descended from above upon him, moved 
and impelled Mika'el the Archangel and Holy Created Being 
to cause to reign the eldest son of King Johannes, and made 
Takla Haymanot Negus. Have you observed the acuteness of 
the intelligence and subtlety of mind of Mika'el, prince of the 
wise men ? Of the two sons of the Negus, he chose the eldest 
for the Kingdom, and left the younger. Yet some one may 
say "Why did he choose and make King the eldest? Per- 
adventure because his Father had in goodly manner disposed 
it ? But Has Mika'el, Master of Law, said to them ' Not that 
I had heard that the Father had so ordained in his favour; 
O why subtly search for a thing? Know ye not that the 
Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are those that grant a 
Kingdom 2 ? And have ye not heard that Laban held a wedding 
feast for Jacob and in the evening brought Leah nigh to Jacob? 
And when it was morning and he (saw) that behold (it was) 
Leah, Jacob said Why hast thou done this thing ? Was it not 

1 For dates, &c., vide Appendix : Chronography and Chronology. 2 Gen. xxix. 



[204] 

for Rachel that I served thee for seven years, and why hast thou 
despised me thus ? ' And Laban said ' How could I have given 
thee the younger daughter when it is the custom of our country 
to give the elder 1 ? ' " So Ras Mika'el spoke, a master of Parables, 
with understanding and knowledge, because he likened the 
King to the bridegroom and the Kingdom to the Spouse. Oh 
wisdom unfathomably rich of Mika'el, of profoundest judgment 1 
On the 13th, the Saturday, he appointed the dignitaries of the 
Church, he gave to Satiti Kidana Wald the charge of the Qas 
433 a Hatse. He gave that of the Mal'aka Tsahay to Alaqa Nahuda, as 
also the charge of the Royal Secretary of the Left (Wing). He 
appointed the Alaqa Fasil over the Church of Hamara Noh; the 
" Mal'aka Gannat" Nacho over that of Attala mi Qeddus Mika'el; 
the Goragatata " Wase " to the Church of Qeddus Rafa'el ; Liqa 
Kahenat (Chief Priest) Pantalewon to the Church of Ledata ; 
the Mal'aka Salaam Takle to Debra (Monastery) Sege : all he 
confirmed in their charges, each according to his place. On 
the 28th, Sunday, the Negusa Nagast Takla Haymanot created 
the Abeto Kefla lyasus, a Dajazmach of Semen, who was 
Governor of Tamben, by wish of his Overlord Ras Mika'el, 
because he sincerely loved his Overlord. On the 29th, Monday, 
the Azaj Berkyanos went out from Gondar marching by Faraqa 
Bet and halted at Loza. On the 30th of Teqemt, Tuesday, 
Ras Mika'el left Gondar and halted at" Kayla Meda to await the 
Negus. The Negus issued forth with the royal regalia, that is 
to say, the crown of marvellous workmanship, and admirable 
shape ; Ras Mika'el left Kayla Meda, stationing the Negus in 
front of himself, and the following behind. Thus stayed the 
N. N. Takla Haymanot and the chief of the Captains Mika'el 
with their armies, as often as they were on the march by the 
grace of God. And the Mal'aka Tsahay has written in lofty 
style, being in fact the Royal Secretary, and he began the 
relation of the history after the ensuing tenor. 

They departed from Gondar and halted at Loza on the 
30th Teqemt and on their parting from Gondar on the 30th, 

1 Gen. xxix. 25. 



[205] 

a great mystery was shown, deeply significant, for it was a symbol 
of the return of the Prince of the mighty ones, Mika'el, he being 
a youth of 30 years, and the symbol of his renewal is like the 
Eagle (Ps. ciii. 5), except that he is better than the Eagle in his 
renewal ; for the Eagle renews himself 1 in 500 years, while he 
renews himself every day. And in his sojourn in Loza, he 
likened himself to Jacob the Father of Israel, who dwelt on the 
mount of Luza and saw in his dreams a ladder (Gen. xxviii. 12) 433 b 
which joined the earth to the heavens, and the angels of the 
Lord ascended and descended by it. Thus Ras Mika'el beheld 
in his nocturnal vision everything that he did during the day, 
as if in the past, the night of the Resurrection of Our Lord 
Jesus Christ and saw it if even he only ate a berry of a grape. 
But this dream could be likened to the dream of the Chief of 
the Cupbearers of the King of Egypt, who saw in his dreams 
three berries of a grape which he pressed and put in a cup of 
the King, and Joseph interpreted the three grapeberries were 
three days, and that at the end of three days Pharaoh would 
restore him to his office. But Mika'el Prince of the interpreters 
dreamed a dream himself and himself interpreted the dream. 

Khedar 2 began on a Wednesday: the King and Ras Mika'el 
moved from Loza and halted at Balangab, whence they departed 
the 2nd Khedar on a Thursday and halted at Gera Daba. 
They moved on from Gera Daba and halted at Alawa, and from 
Alawa they moved and halted at Masqala Krestos; on the 
5th Khedar, Sunday, they spent the day (in repose) and passed 
the night. This night of Sunday which Ras Mika'el passed 
at Masqala Krestos, this second Moses was mindful of the words 
of O. S. Jesus Christ on the Cross and prayed for the Negus, for 
himself, and for all the men that followed him, saying, "Re- 
member, O Lord, The Kingdom." In the day then he rested, 
for the Lord said to Moses, " Honour the Sabbath of the Lord 
thy God," and for this the Prince of the illustrious, Mika'el, 
honoured being, honoured the day of Sunday. They marched 
from Masqala Krestos and halted at Dengel Bar, from Dengel 

1 Cp. "Mews his youth," Milton, Areopagtiica. 2 1 Khedar=10 November. 



[206] 

Bar they moved on and halted at Gerage, from Gerage they 
moved and camped at Wembarya ; they moved from Wembarya 
and camped at Gug; from Gug they moved and camped at 
Kelti. On the 10th Khedar Wati Sanbato, a trustworthy man, 
made submission and on that day they stupified many fish 1 . 
This capture of fish was not done by the seed of the true Berbera 
(Berbera ferruginosa) which they throw into the water and stu- 
434 a pify the fish for a time so that when they come to the surface 
they are netted, but by love of the Prince of Magnates, Mika'el, 
they were stupified and submitted to him, becoming dainty food 
on the day of the fast and fulfilling the words which God said, 
" Let us make man after our image and likeness, and masters 
of the fish of the sea 2 ." They moved from Kelti and camped 
on Arussi : Zar'u, Wadage, Bosi son of Mika'el trusting to him, 
submitted. On the 12th Khedar the Negus T. Haymanot held 
solemn audience and celebrated the feast ; likewise the Prince 
of Magnates, Mika'el, celebrated it with rejoicings and festival 
and gave bullocks without count to the Magnates, to the " Liq " 
as well as the Royal Princesses, to all the sons of the nobles of 
Shawa and also to all the cooks and bearers of the water-gumbos 
. (large earthenware vessels), the reason of all this that he did 
was because this day was the feast of S. Mika'el. They moved 
from Arussi the 1 3th Khedar, a Monday, and halted at Kuaga ; 
from Ker they moved and halted at Kuaga: the 15th, Wednesday, 
they moved from Kuaga and halted at Kuakera : from Kuakera 
they moved, 16th Khedar, and halted in the land of Fagta: 
on Thursday, the feast of our Lady Maryam, on which she re- 
ceived from her beloved son, the merciful and compassionate, 
the (Kedan) covenant of mercy. The Chief of the Captains, 
Mika'el, went up on to a high mountain and had audience in the 
same tent with the Negus, who placed him in front of himself, 
for he loved him more than himself: for he encompassed him 
and covered him as with a cherished shield, in order that he 
might not be afraid at seeing the assemblage of the people. 



1 By putting a vegetable preparation in the water. 
8 Gen. i. 26. 



[207] 

And Ras Mika'el, shield of the Negus and a sharpened sword 
that opens not, at the sight of the encompassing of the people, 
prayed and said, " Wherefore are the people assembled ? " (Ps. 
ii. 2). Thereupon he said to two Dajazmach, Goshu of Amhara, 
and Dejazmach Wand Bawasan of Begameder and Eshete 
Khaylu, "Go by the road to the right, you hither and you thither." 
First of all they assembled their guards who [were as though 
they] had wings on their feet, without which the precipice would 434 b 
have kept them back. There was a great slaughter in the land 
of Fagta as the Bible says, "The slaughter made the blood 
run like a river" (Ps. Ixxix. 3). A great number of pagans 
and Christians perished, more than 10,000, and the prince of 
Victors, Mika'el, conquered them for his missiles were swifter 
than the wind. His victory was not through a multitude of 
soldiers and of lances, but by a ball of lead which brought down 
a horseman on a white horse; and when they saw the cavalier 
fall, all the enemy fled and found no place of refuge to retire 
to, nor did any spot retain them; for the whole earth does 
not suffice for a timid man. And these witless ones ran round 
about the earth bereft of mind, as Sirak says, " The heart of a 
fool turns over like a wheel " (Eccles. xxxiii. 5). That day the 
people found no water to drink, for all the water of the river 
had become blood, first as the water of Egypt had turned to 
blood in the time of the Prophet Moses, aided by St Mika'el 
the Angel of Heaven : thus did these valiant men on Fagitta 
cause the water of the river to turn to blood, by the power of 
Ras Mika'el the Angel of Earth. The earth too was tinged with 
blood and their clothes were raiment of Basor which is red as 
blood. And thus was fulfilled the words of the Sacred Book, 
which says, " Blood came up to the bits of the horses, and the 
chariots were steeped to their middles" (Apoc. xiv. 20). For 
this the land of Fagta was called Armageddon (Megiddo) 
(4 Kings xxiii. 29), for that blood was poured freely of pagan 
and Christian, and while this terrible slaughter was being 
enacted Ras Mika'el played at chess, according to his custom. 
Oh, custom ! that burnt like fire the hearts of the enemy ; for 



[208] 

the soul of Ras Mika'el was not moved in the moment of great 
slaughter. We will return to the battle of the valiant, Chief of 
the Giants, Dajazmaeh Goshu, the giant Defazmach, Wand Bawa- 
san, with their armies. Then Eshete Khaylu killed six uncir- 
cumcised, five with the spear, and one with his sword (Gorade) at 
a blow, and showed great valour, wonderful to hear and relate, 
435 a being then of the age of 16 years. It is fitting to be astonished 
and astounded by such courage, for he performed then feats 
of great prowess as Gideon did in Midian, saying, "The war 
of Gideon is the strength of the Lord 1 " ; and he killed Horeb 
and Zeb and Selmanna and all their chiefs who had killed his 
brother, and avenged the blood of his brother, shedding the 
blood of these peoples. In such manner he acted at Fagta 
and avenged the blood of his father. So that (by the laws of 
nature) the birth of sons ceases not, it is glorious for him 
to have such sons ! And he also acted as David the Israelite 
did who in the presence of Saul his father-in-law laid down 
the trophies, so he also did and left 200 trophies with Ms 
retainers, before his father-in-law, Ras Mika'el (1 Sam. xviii. 27). 
Then Ras Mika'el was rejoiced at the valour of Eshete Khaylu, 
and first of all the warriors of Tigre, such as not distinguished 
their left from their right, returned with trophies. Then 
Ras Mika'el ordered his escort that they should put on one 
side in front of him, the chess board to look at it, while they 
were laying down their trophies. And the warriors of the 
Tigrines, for whom the victory had been won, threw down the 
trophies of various peoples in front of the Negusa Nagast (King 
of Kings), Takla Haymanot, a young man endowed with gifts, 
and our Lord the lord of the warriors, Ras Mika'el, Conqueror 
of the enemy from of old, who were together in the same tent, 
pitched on a high hill. The trophies, that is to say, the sexual 
organs, which had been just thrown down before them, resembled 
a heap of grain in the fields of a rich man. When the Royal 
Princesses and the waiting women saw this heap of sexual 
organs they marvelled and cried, in great astonishment, " What 

1 Judges vii, viiL 



[209] 

is this ? " as if they did not know, though they well knew. But 
let us dismiss the discourse of the ladies and turn to our first 
object, what was the reason that his enemies hated him even to 
doing him an outrage, their ruler who suffers no injury, like 
unto a great mountain wherein is found a gem of great price. 
The great mountain is Ras Mika'el, great and lofty, whose height 435 b 
reaches to heaven, even as Enoch said in the beginning of his 
vision, " I saw a great mountain in the midst of seven mountains, 
whose peak lifted itself towards the heavens " (Lib. Henoch, v. 
c. 24). And in this manner the prophet Enoch has pronounced 
in his lengthy science the greatness and glory of Ras Mika'el 
our greatness and our glory, of gentle disposition, who hates not 
after having loved, who dismisses not after having appointed, 
when he finds no fault. Come, Come, Oh my sons, I mean my 
thoughts that are born in my mind and move your feet in the 
ink and pen towards a far-off* region, I mean the words that the 
rebels used when they said, " We are conquered." For when 
Has Mika'el went forth to war, they could not encounter him in 
battle, nor stand up before him. What is the custom of these 
mock warriors, who could not resist him ? Let alone resistance, 
they fled straight in front, nor looked behind them : for how 
long did they run away but they could remain as they were 
without doing for one hour a deed of valour ? The valour of Fasil 
and Lubo was that they came on like men and they ran fleeing 
like beasts. But in this so great victory and prowess a great 
sorrow seized Dajazmach Kefla lyasus, a man of intelligence 
who weighed his words in the scale because the son of a brother 
of his was killed, the Abeto Gabra Kedan, a beloved youth. 
Discussion over the victory of Fagta would not finish, and 
without finishing, I return (to the thread of my story) and say. 
They moved from Fagta the 17th Khedar, where they made 
booty of much cattle. They moved from Farada and halted at 
Bure. Nana Gergis came, as well as people of Agaw, and people 
of Mecha came and saved their belongings. There they rested 
for three days: they moved from Bure, the 12th, Wednesday, 
and stayed at Sihnan ; they marched from Sihnan, the 24th, and 436 a 
halted at Quesquam, where is the Church of Our Lady Maryam, 
w. B. 27 



[210] 

and laid down many trophies. The Bom, Dagago Ragu'el, 
Nacho, Liban, Ennabese and all the people of Gojam came and 
prostrated themselves before the Negus. All thus came to the 
Negus, thanks to the power of his Chief Mika'el. Just as the 
fire does not separate from the hearth, and brightness from the 
light, so the power of God does not part from the prince of 
warriors and great captain, Mika'el. The hour that they gave 
was marked as the year of the world 7,000, according to the 
calculation of Bizan (?). There the Negus and the Ras stayed 
with their army twenty days. On the 30th Khedar, Thursday, 
Ras Mika'el gave audience to the "Liq" and all the sons of 
Chawa 1 (nobles), and gave a banquet. 

Takhsas began and on the 1st (9th December), Friday, the 
soldiers of the Negus and the Ras caught fish. On the 2nd 
Takhsas, Saturday, by the hand of Goche Wale, Wachaqa the ac- 
cursed came to make submission, and stood to receive sentence 
before the Chief of the Judges, Mika'el, and proclaimed all the 
malice of Lubo and the malice of all the Galla 2 and his own, he 
confessed all his crimes and repented. But the " Liq," Chief of 
the " Liq " (Chief Justice) Mika'el, knowing that this penitence 
was not genuine, because it appeared only when put in straits, 
said to Wachaqa, " If you tire yourself by much speaking what 
does it avail you ? If you had given yourself trouble for me in 
the land of Sadda, I would have given myself trouble for you, 
neither would all this have befallen you. Now the Lord has 
pronounced against you, just as he pronounced against Fantabil, 
the enemy of the bridge." (A story of one Fantabil who came 
to a bad end for destroying a bridge.) Thus saying he ordered 
the " Liq " to pronounce judgment, and these condemned him 
to death. This sentence came to (the ears of) the Negus Takla 
Haymanot who said, " They have given a just sentence." Then 
436 b that Wachaqa was handed over to the man who had to put 
him to death like a bullock. They moved from Quesquam, the 
14th Takhsas, Wednesday, and halted at Den, and here they 
tarried sixteen days. Ter s began on a 8unday,[and the Minister 

1 Vide Appendix : Titles. 2 Vide Appendix ; Names of Tribes, etc. 

3 1 Ter=8 January. 



[211] 

of Rejoicing, Ras Mika'el, made rejoicing for the magnates and 
the "Liq." They moved from Den on the 2nd of Ter and 
halted at Yamalog on the Daga, where they halted thirteen 
days. They moved from Yamalog, the 16th Ter, Monday, and 
halted at Talya, resting two days. Moving from Talya the 
19th Ter they halted at Ber Ambo. They moved from Ber 
Ambo, 20th of Ter and halted at Ambasit, where they stayed 
three days. On the 24th, Tuesday, they entered Qolala and 
remained there in the place of an old Tower seven days, 
N. N. Takla Haymanot and Ras Mika'el, chief of the Captains. 
They found large booty of bullocks, sheep and goats. Then 
Ras Mika'el, a midday fire that cools not, set fire to the land 
of Qolala, from one end to Selalo, and from the other as far as 
Agam Weha. Those that were afar, seeing the smoke of the 
fire, said, " Beware, beware of Qualala, because from henceforth 
there will be nothing but thorns and brambles, and no man 
will traverse it." On the 29th Ter, Sunday, Dajazmach Kefla 
lyasus set fire to the land of Enzagedem, he who neglected no 
wish of God, accomplished it in an instant, whether it was 
wrath or whether it was mercy. He burned all the land of 
Qolala and the land of Abala Maryam up to the boundaries of 
Agam Weha. The Blattengeta Takle, a valiant young man 
without an equal, and what shall I say ? for my day is short, as 
well as my knowledge, neither is it possible for me to recount 
all the acts of prowess of the brave ones that took place. The 
Blattengeta Walda Mika'el, Abeto Gabra Masqal, Basha Hez- 
qeyas, Abeto Walda Gaber, the Chief of the Militia of Salawa, 
and also other warriors, who trusting to their Lord, the faithful 
Ras Mika'el, fought and conquered in battle, and scattered the 437 a 
army of the enemy. I refrain from further prolonging this 
discourse for I would not tire those who listen. Yakatit 1 began 
on a Tuesday. The Negus and Ras entered the land of 
Wanaba, they halted at Gannat, hard by the river where 
they caught fish: on the 2nd, Wednesday, they moved towards 
Abolla and there they caught fish. They moved from Abolla 
and joined at Yebaba, halting at the Old Castle ( Aroge Gemb). 

1 Yakatit begins 7th February. 



[212] 

The Liqa Maquas Wand Bawasan caused to be brought to the 
King of Kings and the Chief of the Kings, Takla Haymanot, 
a liberal dinner and supper, that is to say, Matsen 1 (various 
foods); this was of incalculable amount, for there was every 
kind of food of various flavours in abundance. The wine 
was the wine of Kana 2 , so sumptuous was the ordering of his 
house. This Wand Bawasan, a man honoured and exalted 
on his father's and mother's side, needed no one to advance 
him being of the royal family by birth. Against him, I say, 
enemies ranged themselves, and drove out from his -country 
and seized the wealth that he had acquired from his youth, 
making him want even his daily food, in spite of the various 
foods that they had, and the troubles that had befallen him. 
After that, the return of Ras Mika'el took place from Damot, 
whither he returned, while on his return Eshete Khaylu re- 
membered what his father had told him while living. "If I 
die in a strange land, while you are alive let not my bones 
remain in a strange land, but bring them back to Waldabba." 
He said then to Has Mika'el, "Allow me to bear my father from 
his tomb, now that you are for me (my help)." Ras Mika'el 
told him to do what he wished, thereupon he sent a large body 
of troops to transport the bones of his father. They trans- 
ported them so that the limbs were not discomposed or the 
folds of his fillet disturbed, which he wore in life interlaced. 
They bore him away; then there was great wailing and 
lamentation when they saw the corpse of Dajazmach Eshete, 
their friend and their kinsman, and all of them said "Oh 
Dajazmach Eshete, second* Zacharias, who died by treachery, 
437 b Oh Babylonia, I mean the land of Damot, blessed Zarubbebel, 
I mean Khaylu, who wreaked on thee a great vengeance, 
helping the great Hosea (the Saviour) which is Ras Mika'el. 
Truly it is fitting to call thee blessed, Oh Eshete Khaylu, a 
second Joseph : thus they bore his father Jacob from Egypt, 
land of the pagans, towards his country of Canaan, just so did 

1 "flrTr old form of 0T'V (Amharic) bread, flesh, butter &c. presented to persons of 
distinction, I. Guidi, loc. cit. 115. "Present of food, " Armbruster, Diet. p. 261. 

Kana. The marriage feast of Cana. In the Synaxarium this Commemoration was held 
on 13th Ter=21st January. 



[213] 

those make the translation of the body of his father and bore 
it quickly to Waldabba, as in life he had desired. Truly it 
behoves us to call thee blessed, Oh Abeto Khaylu, second 
Jacob, who tookst the blessing of thy father Isaac, I mean 
Dajazmach Eshete, who was sacrificed in Fagta. But we will 
return to the previous matter. The Negus and the Ras Mika'el 
stayed ten days. On the 21st, Monday, the beginning of the 
Fast, they joined at Gunaguama and halted close to the river : 
Tuesday, 15th, they entered Enferaz, the sanctuary of the 
four animals (Apoc. iv. 6): they caught fish; and the 16th, 
Wednesday, they moved from Enferaz and arrived at the river 
Geyon, where they caught fish, and halted at Mosha. The 
17th, Wednesday, they tarried there: the 18th, Thursday, they 
remained there. The 19th, Friday, they stayed at Wandge 
Chawahi, they fortified it with stone (or according to MSB. A 
"at Chawahi Dangyia"). The 19th, Saturday, they halted at 
Dangal Bar: the 20th, Sunday, they spent the day resting. 
Dajazmach Geta came with Balambaras Mammo, Abeto Gabra 
Madhen, Abeto Kinfu, and Azaj Walda Rufa'el, son of Dajaz- 
mach Awsabyos and made obeisance to the Negus Takla 
Haymanot and the prince of the merciful ones, Ras Mika'el. 
In accordance with the clemency of these his old friends, the 
name of Ras Mika'el had the meaning of clemency, as Enoch 
says, for Mika'el signifies clement or merciful. On the 21st, 
Monday, they halted at Masqala Krestos : the 22nd, Tuesday, 
at Sabsaba: the 23rd, Wednesday, at Gera Daba: the 24th, 
Thursday, in Balangab: the 25th, Friday, the priests of Azazo438a 
gave a reception to the King of Kings Takla Haymanot and to 
the Chief of the Aeons 1 . Mika'el came into the Church which he 
had built at Azazo : he prayed for a long time and came out 
and gave audience to the priests in Ayra Qeddus Mika'el. 
Also the Negus held audience and the monks of Debra Tsahay 
came to the Negus, who said to them however, " Go first to my 
father and my chief, who has made me King, Mika'el, lamp of 
my kingdom, and sing canticles before his face. These monks 
sang before him a joyful song, saying, "The high General 

1 al>ves a name taken from the Gnostic philosophy. 



[214] 

Mika'el who rolls up lead in balls for a gun, and hurls them on 
the face of the enemy." Thereafter they returned to the King 
for the song (in his honour). On the 2Gth Yakatit, the Saturday, 
the Negus departed from the Ayra, and all the priests of the 
Church received him with canticles ; Christians and Muslims 
received him with dances and "cheers" and he entered the 
camp with the awe of his majesty, for his awe was (through) 
Ras Mika'el; and they laid down the booty before the King and 
the Prince. Megabit began on a Thursday. The 4th, Sunday, 
Ras Mika'el gave audience to Dajazmach Geshu and to Dajaz- 
mach Wand Bawasan, and invested him with a robe of honour 
which in front had the appearance of fire, and behind of the sun. 
He gave them bracelets of gold and decorations (ornaments) 
for the right hands and the left ; he girded their thighs with 
an "affa" (a dagger) and put on them at the same time a 
"kappa 1 " according to custom. He invested the Azaj Berk- 
yanos with a wonderful robe embroidered with gold, because 
he gave proof of his valour at Fagta and was as if he had 
whiteness without and iron within (i.e. though grey haired he 
was like a youth). He also invested Nana Gergis and many 
Agaw headmen to do them honour. Many and beyond count 
438 b were the warriors of Begameder and Ambasal that he invested 
with precious robes. On the 5th Megabit they issued forth 
from Gondar on a Tuesday, Dajazmach Wand Bawasan, and 
Dajazmach Goshu and they went to the provinces of which 
they had been appointed governors with their wives. The 
princess Eshet (that is to say, Esheta Maryam) and the princess 
Yawab Dar, preceded by many guns given them by Ras Mika'el. 
And while they were marching slowly on the road, they reached 
their land, and the youth of Begameder came forth to receive 
the princess Yawab Dar, a sun that rose out of the house of 
the two grandees, Metewwab, the Queen and Mika'el, Chief of 
the Captains. And the youths of Begameder who saw them 
cried " Whence have ye come ? Whence ? Your countenance 
shines in the Night." Dajazmach Wand Bawasan came into his 
house with the sun that is his wife and said, " Blessings on the 

1 A cape woru by the King and high functionaries on solemn occasions. 



[215] 

Seigneur who has brought me to this such great honour, to 
make me kindred with the prince of dignity, Mika'el." The 
Dajazmach Yamana Krestos arrived at the province of his 
command, Walqayt, but his brother killed him on the road the 
27th of Megabit, even as Cain killed Abel. Oh, what villainy ! 
On the 24th of Megabit, the Sabbath (Saturday) the Negus 
created Blattengeta Sennu a Dajazmach of Walqayt. This 
month he sent messengers to Mika'el, prince of giants, saying, 
"Give me a token of your clemency." And the Giant Ras 
Mika'el answered, "The thorn sent to ask the cedar: the 
beasts have come and destroyed the thorn " (Judges ix). He 
explained this parable by saying, "Why did he return from 
Damot?" Let us now write the story of the return of Mika'el, 
Chief of the Captains, from the land of Damot to Gondar. 
His return was not voluntary, but the Negus with the troops, 
the Magnates, with the "Liq" (justiciary), the masters with their 
servants, the royal children, the princesses with the waiting 
women, constrained him and prayed him to return for their 439 a 
sakes, saying, " How can we fast in a desert country ? " (For 
they had reached the fast days of our Lord Jesus Christ.) 
" Let us return to our country and fast in our houses that the 
heat of the sun may not make us ill, nor abandon the fast of 
our Lord, which is ordained for the salvation of our souls." 
Another reason was the will of God, which knew that Ras 
Mika'el had fallen sick of a slight illness, to the end that this 
illness would not seize him away from home, but in his house ; 
and the illness of Mika'el conqueror of his enemies, son of 
Hezqeyas, who showed himself strong and victorious, was com- 
parable to the illness of Hezqeyas 1 , King of Juda. And as 
Hezqeyas was cured by the (fluid) which flowed from a fig, so 
Mika'el, life of this world, was cured by the tears that flowed 
from the eyes of a living body, with a soul (not inanimate like 
a fig) and especially by the tears of our Queen Walatta Giyorgis. 
Since she wept saying, "Who will protect me in these times?" 
"Who will place me here close to the C x hurch, to receive the 

* Hezechiah, 



[216] 

Eucharist since it will not be any longer Has Mika'el, beloved 
of me and faithful friend, who guards me from the evil of 
sadness, as the prophet said?" "A faithful friend is the 
medicine of life " (Eccles. vi. 16). But if he is not cured of this 
slight complaint soon, what will become of the world, of the 
ruler of the whole world, lias Mika'el? For there is no one 
like him among the Captains, but leaving aside the Captains, 
but even among the Kings, has there been anyone who could 
be likened to Mika'el, Prince of the Captains, for the number 
of his troops? In times previous, while two wise men were 
bantering, one Edug Abuqer, and the other the Chief of the 
Captains, Walda Le'ul, whose wisdom was like that of the 
philosophers, which the month of the Investitures gives hope 
to the people, and from whose mouth issues not forth rebukes. 
Edug Abuqer answered in these words, " There is no one who 
439 b can compare to the rulers of this our time, to Wadage, Lord of 
Amhara, to Ayo, Lord of Begameder, to Warana, Governor of 
Damot, to Naeho, Governor of Gojam, to Mika'el, Governor of 
Tigre." The General in Chief Walda Le'ul, replied, saying, 
" Amend your language, Oh man, for you 'minish the grandeur 
of Mika'el. How can you compare Mika'el with the other 
rulers, seeing that he is worth more than five kings and his 
army numbers more than that of five kings." And when Badi 1 
King of the Arabs went into the country of Mika'el the Governor 
seeing the riches of his house and the great multitude of his 
army, he marvelled greatly. Then he, when he came to Gondar 
before the King and Queen, he spoke to them of the greatness 
and glory of the Governor Mika'el. When the King and the 
Queen said, " Make them come out to Debra Quesquam " ; on 
hearing this the Chief of the Captains Walda Le'ul replied to 
them, "Do not go out from Quesquam, lest Badi the King may 
see the fewness of your troops, with the same eyes that he has 
seen the multitude of the troops of the Governor Mika'el and 
despise you," and when in opposition to Walda Le'ul, Chief 
ruler, they sallied forth from Quesqufim, he sent food and drink 

1 *JJ>J King of the Fungs of Seiia:ir. Vi<la Appendix: Abyssinia and the Sudan. 



[217] 

to Badi King of the Arabs by the hand of a man who spoke the 
language of the country of Badi that he might eat and drink 
and not issue from his house and see the King and Queen. 
He knew the wisdom of Ras Walda Le'ul and said, " The Chief of 
the Captains has used cunning with me, even as Jehu's cunning 
towards Okozia King of Judah and Joram King of Israel," and 
leaving the food and drink he went out of his house and 
mounted to the top of the tower of Mankit to see the King and 
Queen : and having seen the fewness of their soldiers he held 
the King cheap and said " The Sultan is Mika'el, for his soldiers 
are numerous as the stars of heaven and the sands of the sea 
that cannot be counted for their number. But the soldiers of 440 > 
the King are somewhat few, like the locusts or some such thing 
in comparison with the soldiers of the Governor Ras Mika'el, 
for his army is strong as an olive tree and lofty as a cedar " 
(Amos ii. 9). The escort of the Chief of the Captains Walda 
Le'ul, hearing the discourse of Badi, King of the Arabs (he 
knew the language of his country) reported all this, and Ras 
Wal<ia Le'ul said, " Why have the King and Queen gone out 
to Quesquam after I had told them not to go out to Debra 
Quesquam, that Badi 1 , King of the Arabs, might not hold them 
cheap when he saw the fewness of their soldiers? " Many other 
sage things Ras Walda Le'ul said to his sister Queen Mentwab 
when she was nearing her death, and he spoke thus to her, " If 
Ras Mika'el does not seat himself in my place and become Ras 
and Commander in Chief all the world will go to ruin." And 
the Queen Mentwab, hearing this, answered, " Oh my brother, 
let Ras Mika'el be as you, and let your will be done, for thy 
will is mine, and without Mika'el my beloved there is no escape 
for me." But this question would carry us to a lengthy dis- 
course. Let us speak rather how the month passed (i.e. the 
events of the month). Miyazya began on a Saturday, and on 
the 15th a raid was proclaimed by a herald. After this 
proclamation a certain man while sleeping heard a terrible 
voice which said, " Be made a slave Oh land of Mecha, and 

1 Fide p. 216 note. 
w. B. 28 



[218] 

drink the cup of anger of Ras Mika'el, which will cause thy 
fall, that is the lead of the bullet of a gun : behold two things 
await thee : shame and destruction, and who will help thee to 
rise again ? " The man fell asleep again and saw in a dream 
an angel descending from heaven who said, "This is the Guardian 
Angel of Ras Mika'el, the Guardian Angel of the kingdom : the 
ill fortune of Begameder has gone to Lolma." On the 24th of 
Miyazya, Monday, he sallied forth from Faraqa Bet, and the 
next day Negus Takla Haymanot and the King's Chief M ika'el, 
440 b Judge of the Judges, departed with the army and halted at 
Sadda : they moved from Sadda and halted at Menzero : they 
left the day following Menzero and halted at Buta ; they left 
Buta and halted at Ankasha, resting there for three days, to 
honour the Sabbath and the Sunday. The clergy of the Island 
of Mesraha came with boats and rafts from one shore to the 
other of the sea (lake) which is the City of Ankasha below 
Ferqa Bar: they received him with canticles of joy, which 
rejoiced and inebriated their souls. The Negus and the Ras 
Mika'el when they heard the sound of the chants of the clergy 
of Mesraha, the chant called " Qisarya 1 ," were astonished and 
said, "This Miyazya is truly the month of Alleluia (Pasch. 
cp. Deut. xvi. 1), as is written in the Laws." And they 
marvelled also when they saw the various foods which they 
brought to the Negus Takla Haymanot and Ras Mika'el their 
Chiefs, laden on their boats and rafts. Genbot began on a 
Monday ; they moved from Ankasha and halted at Sabisa Bar ; 
they moved from Sabisa Bar and halted at Dara. During 
these days the Princess Walata Isra'el, daughter of Queen 
Mentwab, withdrew herself (disappeared). Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan and Ras Goshu stayed behind (did not join raid), 
and went out each to his own province. The reason of their 
staying away was that they were meditating rebellion. Negus 
Takla Haymanot and Ras Mika'el passed beyond the Abay, 
moved towards Mecha, which land they burnt with fire. They 
met Ras Fasil and fought in a great battle ; then they fought 
with great valour both Ras Khaylu Eshete, as well as the 

1 >tt<\C.fi chant of Caesar ? 



[219] 

Negusa Nagast Takla Haymanot and Ras Mika'el recognised 
his valour. Eshete Khaylu was yoked with a bull, he was 
always there where the Royal Crown was, and where the 
standard flew: many Tigrines perished there, the rebel Fasil 
fled nor could he withstand before Ras Mika'el. Then the 
King of Kings Takla Haymanot and Ras Mika'el returned 
and soon after entered Gondar. 

Sane began on a Wednesday and the 2nd, Thursday, Eshete 441 a 
Khaylu said to Ras Mika'el " I will go with thee, I will not 
separate from thee. I am desirous of coming, come death or 
life." Ras Mika'el blessed him with a great benediction, as 
Isaac blessed Jacob his son (Gen. xxvii) saying, " Be lord over 
thy brother, be thy blessing of the dew of heaven and the bread 
of the earth." Ras Mika'el blessed Eshete Khaylu for two 
reasons, one for his words " I will go with thee," and the other 
because he was without guile, while the two Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan and Ras Goshu had played the traitor; for this 
he blessed him greatly, retaining him as Chief. Thence he de- 
parted quickly from Gondar with the Negus, without replying 
and bearing with him the crown ; and he marched by an un- 
accustomed route, without taking heed of the annoyance or the 
trouble: and the soldiers asked him, "How shall we go by 
another road ? " He answered them, " Let it be according to 
the will of God," and while he said these words, the Angel of 
God, his beloved St Mika'el, descended from the mansions of 
heaven standing on guard over him, in sight of all in his 
presence, and marching in front of him. And he halted 
with him at Zhan Faqara, in his tent. As for the Negus 
none of the soldiers followed him, except Abeto Takla 
Giyorgis, his brother, and Qanazmach Nacho his son-in-law, 
the Azaj of Wakhne, Yohannes Ay chaw, the Shalaqa, Adgo, 
the eldest born of the Shalaqa, his friends, Zena Gabri'el his 
supporter, the Azmach Walda Dawit his councillor. But the 
magnates of Tigre and the soldiers of the general Mika'el 
that marched before and behind him were more numerous 
than the sands of the sea. They moved from Zhan Faqara 



[ 22O] 

and halted at Terage and it was in truth a terage (a place 
of a tooth) because like the tooth of a dog were the rocks 
of the road. They moved from Terage and halted at Adira. 
They moved from Adira and halted at Tsemsa, of a truth 
Tsemsa, for "Tsa" means Tsallama (ftA<w = darkness) and 
441 b Mesa means Meset (evening = JP'fVI* ) for darkness and closing 
was the sole feature of their existence. There they passed 
the day and night, for it was Sunday. On the 7th Sane they 
departed from Chemsa and halted at Ad Maqar, an evil city 
which resembles a sepulchre (<7D*H1C = tomb). The day after 
they halted at Ensesa ( = beasts) where the beasts of the field 
and the serpents lived with the men. The day after they 
halted at Fesoge, a narrow road and on a precipice. The next 
day they halted at Guma Tsaguar. It was in truth "Guma 
Tsaguar" for the country was like Gime 1 and it was called 
Tsaguar 2 for the difficulties were more numerous than the hairs 
(of a head). The next day they halted in Naguadit, which is an 
arid land. The next day they halted in Masahel and the day 
folloAving in Zarema, near Waldebba: there they spent the day 
and the night. The 1 2th of Sane, Sunday, the Feast of St Mika'el. 
On the 13th Sane, Monday, they halted at Maya Lehem (a name) 
like Bethlehem the city of David. The next day they halted at 
Buya. They moved from Buya and halted at Maya Sabr, and 
thence they halted at Tsabalaque, a fertile spot. The next day 
they spent the night at Takazze ; thence the Princess Mertsit 
was taken ill on account of the water. The next day they halted 
at Seha and the day following at Maya Shabni: the day following 
at Ad Wanfito, where they remained two days to celebrate the 
feast of the Dedication of the Church of Our Lady Maryam, on 
the 21st of Sane 3 . On the 22nd Sane, Wednesday, they moved 
and camped at Selahlakha a holy land where there is no breath 
of scandal. The next day they halted at Maya Shum : it was in 
truth a Maya Shum (water of the governor) because the country 



- Tsaguar =hairv. 

3 The Abyssinians keep on this day the feast of the first church founded, they believe, by 
the Blessed Virgin. 



[221 ] 

was the land of Has Mika'el, appointed by God alone, a man with- 
out falsehood ; the " water " was his justice that flowed like water 
without falsehood every day of his life. They moved the next 
day and halted at Axum, the second Jerusalem. On the 25th 
of Sane, the Sabbath, they reached Adua, and there was held 
high festival in the honour of the rich Prince of rich men, 
Mika'el. At the sight of this festival the King of Kings Takla 
Haymanot much marvelled, and could find no words to express 442 a 
himself, for he gave a banquet equal to that of Solomon such as 
his lord and father had never given, the honoured prince of the 
honoured, who had made him King and honoured him. But the 
Chief of the Captains Mika'el was greater in wisdom and know- 
ledge than Solomon the King, in doing what was pleasing to the 
heart of the Negus. Besides all this he entertained the Negus 
in his house with the troops for three months and two days, 
and it seemed to him but the sojourn of a day ! He slaughtered 
for him every day sheep and bullocks innumerable, millions of 
myriads. No one but only God could say the number of loaves, 
and all the furnishings of a house he gave the Negus and his 
army. And again I will record in this chapter of the history 
the highness of the exalted prince of the exalted Mika'el : for 
beautiful was the ordering of his house, plenteous were the 
banquets and the suppers, and those that daily slaughtered 
bullocks and sheep reposed not a single day, nor did any 
other work, neither did their dogs go to drink at the river, 
for they drank and saturated themselves with the blood of 
the slaughtered beasts. If I have spoken of the fair setting 
out of the house of this ordainer of this world, prince of every 
creature, Mika'el, I called to mind the ordering of the house 
of Solomon; every day he gave 30 measures 1 of fine bread, 60 
measures of flour, 10 fat bullocks, 20 bulls and 100 sheep, besides 
goats, deer and fat chickens. But let us return to our first 
purpose in regard to Adua, for the discourse about the feasts 
of the Negus, of the prince and all the magnates would never 



an unknown unit of measure. Qoros cp. Kebra Nagast f. 17 b. chap. 25, ed. 
Bezold, p. 14. 



[ 222 ] 

come to an end. The Negus departed from Adua the 23rd of 
Maskaram, Monday, by the road (taken) according to the counsel 
of the Chief of the Captains Mika'el, and tarried two days at 
Aqbasa. What shall I say of the feasts that took place then in 
Aqbasa in the house of the good and clement prince of good men 
442 b Mika'el ? Kather will I hold my peace, nor begin a discourse 
that could not be finished for it would be a hopeless task. 

On the 25th, Wednesday, Negus Takla Haymanot departed 
and halted at Abba Tsehma ; the day following he camped at 
Awalu : the next day at War'i : the next day at Magab. This 
month the great prophet and prince of prophets Mika'el saw 
a marvellous and terrible vision and he recounted it to Dajaz- 
mach Kefla lyasus and said to him, " I have seen in a dream a 
pot or pan of iron placed upon three arrows : in this was hot 
and boiling water and it appeared that there were a multitude 
of rats standing in front of me. I took the pot from the arrows, 
in which was the hot boiling water and threw it over the heads 
of the rats." The Dajazmach Kefla lyasus hearing this wonder- 
ful recital of the dream of his lord, shown him by the Holy 
Spirit, marvelled, he a strong man and a patient, and in all 
times a man knowing in counsel, even as Kusi 1 who with rebels 
made them food for spears and gun bullets. The author of this 
history has written the wonderful account of the wonderful 
dream of the prince of wonderful men Mika'el, because such 
was the custom of the Chief of the Captains in the battle 
charge, Mika'el, and prince of the strong men in conquest; 
that is to say, what he saw previously in a dream that was 
what he wrought when he awoke. This was the matter of his 
dream : Before him stood a pot or brazier of iron in which he 
poured hot water : this is a symbol of the man, (strong) water 
which caused the giants to perish. Into this boiling water he 
threw many rats : these rats represented the enemy, who rose 
against him and fell by his hand. 

Teqemt began on a Wednesday. The Negus departed and 
halted at Ad Talakha. In this place the King of Kings Takla 

1 Hushai the Archite, 2 Sam. xv. 32, etc. 



[223] 

Haymanot and the seigneurs prince of seigneurs Mika'el heard 
of the death of a rebel of the name of Tasfu : they heard that 443 a 
the warriors of the prince of warriors Mika'el had killed him 
the 20th Maskaram, on a Thursday. Thereupon they departed 
and camped between two mountains Deguate and 'Eda Tseyon 
(Zion) and between these Shemberit, he encircled it from one 
end to the other with spears and troops of the giant among 
giants Mika'el. Before this he, the rebel, pondered in his mind, 
and what he thought he spoke out with his mouth, saying, "Who 
is it shall be able to bring me down to the earth 1 ?" Hearing of 
this speech of the rebel the thunderbolt prince of thunderbolts 
Mika'el replied, "Even if thou couldst fly like an eagle, and put 
thy children on the summit of a mountain, even from there I will 
hurl thee down with bullets of a gun." This said, he constructed 
a rampart 2 inside of Shemberit and surrounded it with a fire. 
Thereupon the rebels sent to sue for mercy to the Negus and 
the patient prince of patient men, Mika'el, against whom they 
had practised perfidy, and who had had patience even unto 
that. For he knew that the foe would not escape from the 
hand of Mika'el, which was the hand of God : and the lion prince 
of lions, Mika'el, said, " Has the lion perchance pity when he 
finds a beast ? I for my part will not have pity on you, Oh you 
who have done every deed of crime." After this he sent a 
message to the rebels similar to that to the liar Warana, the 
angel that goes before the last Antichrist (since Mamno Gosh 
is the first Antichrist). The letter from the rebels sent from 
Shemberit ran thus, "Come quickly over to us and do not tarry 
for no one will escape, Ras Mika'el has us encompassed by every 
way and every place, wishing us to suffer, let himself suffer." 
Oh what a falsehood ! Oh what impudence ! How can sick men 
say that he is sick to a man who is well ? But by reason of this 
letter of theirs no one came from Gondar to them to aid these 443 b 
ungodly men, who had lost their senses, and whose prudence 
had been destroyed. Then was fulfilled the words of David 

1 I.e. from the top of his stronghold or " amba " as they are called in Abyssinia, 

2 Cp. Jeremias lii. 4, "fort," 



[224] 

that said, " Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel 
of the ungodly" (Ps. i. 1). Then the troops of Ras Mika'el 
burst open the gates of this mountain of rebellion, Shemberit, 
which was destroyed. Dajazmach Tekla lyasus ascended the 
mountain of rebellion leaping among the mountains and 
skipping among the hills (Sol. Song ii. 8) like a young goat 
or a strong antelope on the mountains of slaughter, and mas- 
sacred the rebels. Thence they broke through the gates of the 
mountain of 'Eda Tseyon, hard by, the Blattengeta Takle and 
Blattengeta Walda Mika'el who ascended the mount Antakte 
and seized Zamanfo with great wrath, even as the warriors of 
Israel seized Agag King of the Amalakites. They said to 
Zamanfo, " Where is now thy mouth with which thou dost talk 
and say, ' Who will ever make me come down to the earth, and 
who is this Ras Mika'el that I should submit myself to him ? " 
This madman chief of madmen, Zamanfo, said, "It were better 
that I had never been born in the womb of my mother," and then 
he said, yearning, "I would have wished that the earth should 
cleave asunder and swallow me up like Datan and Abiron 1 ." 
And the other rebels were taken and brought to the spot 
where Negus Takla Haymanot, the Abba Nagase Mika'el who 
found the Royal Crown; the sentence on the rebels aroused 
Abeto Gabra Masqal who seized Zamanfo from the hands of 
the warriors, by command of the Negus and by the wish of the 
strong worker of strength, Mika'el. Zamanfo was a piece of 
madness ( = bit of a madman) : and the other rebels, Walda 
Johannes with his adherents were like him. Then their lord 
Ras Mika'el addressed them words of wrath, though he was 
a father of clemency, and spoke to his attendants, "Do all that 
I have commanded you ! " and in words of vengeance and 
malediction cried "Cursed be he who does keep his sword from 
444 a blood, for the Book says, He who kills with the sword shall 
perish by the sword, and there shall be no one who shall bury 
him. For a similar law has been established. It is not fitting 
that a rebel should be buried in the ground, but sons of the 

1 Dathan and Abiram (Num. xvi. 30, 31). 



[22 5 ] 

deaconship pardon them and spare them for the clemency 
belongs to the lord, and error and submission to the servant." 
This was done by Ras Mika'el on the 6th Takhsas, the day of 
the feast of Our Lady Holy Virgin in two kinds (body and 
spirit) Maryam, Mother of God, who was exiled from the Mount 
of Quesquam. This occurred on the 2nd of the month where 
they were camped (while besieging the rebels), for the gift of 
victory was bestowed on the Negus Takla Haymanot whose 
throne name was Admas Sagad, and no one of the ancient 
warriors were equal to Ras Mika'el for strength and victory. 
On the third day after the rebels perished, as the Book says, 
"They were consumed as in a moment and perished for their 
sins" (Ps. Ixxiii. 19). The Negus took counsel with Ras Mika'el, 
the Chief, that he loved as himself, and he said that he wished 
to depart and scour the country (of the rebels). His Chief, Ras 
Mika'el, agreed, and the Negus sallied forth and made a circuit 
of Shemberit, passed the Mount Isugon, and ascended to the 
top, slaughtered oxen and gave food to those that had ascended 
with him. Let us turn to the recital of the history of the 
month of Sane. On the 2nd Sane Ras Mika'el went out of 
Gondar with the Negus bearing with him the crown of the 
Negus and the image (picture) of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
called Kuer'ata Re'su, guided by the Holy Spirit as David 
says, " And thy spirit lead me into the land of uprightness " 
(Ps. cxliii. 10). On the 5th Sane Dajazmach Wand Bawasan 
and Gerazmach Ayadar marched to Gondar, Eshete Khaylu 
went to his province of Begameder and, meeting at Dangure, 
joined the Captains above mentioned and entered Gondar with 
them. But before entering the city they ascended the mountain 444 b 
of Quesquam, and made their obeisance to Queen Mentwab ; 
the Dajazmach Goshu and Dajazmach Wand Bawasan entered 
the house of Dajazmach Geta and the Basha Ansabyos. On the 
7th Sane they mounted anew the mount of Quesquam and said 
to the Queen Mentwab, "What wish you that we should do 
with you ? Shall we put over you and us a Negus who shall be 
useful for us ? " She replied to them, " I do not desire that 
w. B. 29 



[226] 

that should be done, because I should be answerable for their 
crime": and she spoke these words in justice and without 
fraud, and her discourse was without guile. So these men 
hearing the noble reply of the Queen, said, "It is well, it is well," 
and returned to their houses in the city. On the 13th, Monday, 
the Patriarch Abuna Yosab entered Gondar with a small band 
of robbers with the object of robbing Yusef (Joseph) : and on 
entering Gondar he lost hope. If he had joined in Tigre with 
the Negus and Has Mika'el he would not have been overtaken 
by misfortune, and the faithful prince of the faithful Has Mika'el, 
who gives bountifully and remembers not (forgets and for- 
gives), would have bestowed abundant wealth on the Patriarch 
Abuna Yosab, nay, to such amount that he would have cried 
" Enough ! enough ! " But God did not vouchsafe this. After 
the Patriarch entered, Dajazmach Goshu, Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan and Gerazmach Ayadar summoned the commanders of 
the right and left 1 , and said to them, "What counsel have you? 
And whom do you desire to be Negus? Or perchance will you 
remain without a King?" And. the Commanders answered, 
"Have we summoned you to tell us that ? We have no King 
but Takla Haymanot, nor any other Has but one and only 
Mika'el, the Has of three Kings." On hearing these words 
Dajazmach Goshu and his adherents said one to the other, 
" What we have said is what the Commanders have said " ; and 
they deliberated afresh with the Princess Wald Sa'ala, daughter 
of the King of Kings, Adyam Sagad lyasu, a wise woman who 
445 a in her wisdom was like to the Sabela (Sibyl), and they said to 
her, " Send over to Has Mika'el to send us the Negus, but not 
to come himself at our displeasure 2 ." And she replied, "What 
error or what crime has the pure prince of the pure, Has Mika'el, 
committed that he shall not have the inheritance of Fares his 
father in his own city?" For there was a place in Gondar which 



pi. of A.4 ( 1 ) aii elder, senior, (2) ruler, prefect dp^t- arch- of the right and 
left, i.e. of the right and left wing. Similarly Qanazmach = leader of the right wing; 
Gerazmach = leader of the left wing. 



[22;] 

was called " the place of Ras Fares." And they answered, " Ras 
Mika'el, we are afraid of him, we are afraid of him, for when he 
gives judgment he turns neither right nor left (lit. he goes 
neither here nor there). Wald Sa'ala replied, " Prithee ! stay 1 
whether he comes or comes not, only God disposes all things." 
This said, she sent a man to the King of Kings, Takla Haymanot 
and Ras Mika'el, but he who was sent returned empty (without 
bringing anything) nor reached the province of Tigre, because 
a robber fell upon him and ill-used him sorely, not only beating 
him, but stealing his clothes. Wald Sa'ala said to her at- 
tendants who had returned naked (without result) " Fie ! for 
shame! Art thou not dead? He who will come is a raging 
fire, Ras Mika'el is coming and will not tarry." And she justi- 
fied her words in that way. On the 22nd, a Wednesday, the 
three dignitaries left Gondar and each went to their respective 
commands. Let us now return to the beginning of the story. 
After that the King of Kings, Takla Haymanot and Ras Mika'el 
departed out of Tigre, and came to Wag, they marched as far 
as Golyo, and from Golyo they arrived at Balasa, and from 
Balasa they came to Gondar. Ras Mika'el and Admas Sagad, 
Takla Haymanot, met Abba Salama and Germa Tseyon brother 
of Warafta. And then they entered Gondar and held an 
audience in the Audience Hall (M6~fis reception hall). The 
Commanders were convened, the azaj (judges) of the right and 
the left, and they brought Abba Salama and Germa Tseyon and 
made them stand before the face of the Negus, and condemned 
them to death because the Abba Salama had disturbed the 445 b 
whole world, and had spoken evil of the Negus. Then they 
were crucified, Abba Salama and Germa Tseyon. Ras Mika'el 
went into his house, and after a few days Abeto Gabra Dengel 
was crucified with a man ; and they put out the eyes of Sabhat 
La'ab, and he dwelt many days at Addababay after his eyes 
had been put out. After this Eshete Khaylu was created 
Dajazmach of Begameder. And after that Ras Goshu and 
Dajazmach Wand Bawasan rebelled, on account of fear of Ras 
Mika'el, and came as far as Dambaya. But Ras Mika'el on 



[228] 

hearing of their arrival sallied forth from Gondar with Negus 
Takla Hayiminot and came to Sarbakusa. There they fought 
for fifteen days and thence they marched towards Daguasa: 
there they fought for thirty days and there was a great battle : 
Dajazmach Khaylu acquitted himself valiantly, and with such 
prowess that the ear is not capable of hearing or the tongue of 
declaring it. While Ras Mika'el was in Daguasa he saw the tent 
of Semen Tasfu, and he called up Dajazmach Khaylu and 
Dajazmach Kefla lyasus and said to them, "Attack this rebel." 
Then they set out by night and made an attack and Dajazmach 
Khaylu took prisoners eight men valiant in battle. Then he 
returned and left those he had made prisoners before Ras 
Mika'el, who rejoiced at the prowess of Dajazmach Khaylu. 
"Oh Dajazmach Khaylu, where hast thou not shown thy valour?" 
But let us return to the beginning of the story. After this Ras 
Mika'el was defeated and entered Gondar: then he was captured 
and brought by Wand Bawasan to his province and settled at 
Debko : he remained a year there. Then he sent him to his 
country of Tigre, and for seven years he dwelt there, in his 
446 a command. After all that Ras Mika'el, Prince of the strong 
Captains and Chiefs, passed to his rest during the time of Our 
Negus, King of Kings, Takla Haymiinot was on the throne. 
Dajazmach Goshu great and advanced in years made me write 
this book of the history of the Kings and Governors who have 
been from the creation of Adam until the King of Kings, Admas 
Sagad Takla Haymanot, and we have collected it with pains and 
care from all the monasteries and islands and the houses of the 
Azaj (Secretaries of State) and the houses of the " Tsahafe Te' 
azaj " (Chroniclers of the archives). From all this we have 
compiled these books of history, after they had been for a long 
time scattered, even as Ezra the ancient prophet collected all 
the books of the prophets that had before been burnt in the 
fire: just so the Dajazmach Goshu, Chief of the Captains, 
collected all the books of the Kings which perished when the 
Royal Palace was burnt through the anger of Ras Mika'el, 
grievous in his wrath, and as the 300 (i.e. the 318 fathers of 



[229] 

Nicaea) collected the books of the New Testament, in such 
manner we collected them ; but there was no king or ruler, 
who with pains and study will hear or see us. 

Here ends the Book of the History in the peace of God. 
Amen. 



KING OF KINGS TAKLA GIYORGIS 

17791795 

By Alaqa Gabru 

In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, 
One God. Let us write with the help of God the Highest, and 
the intercession of Mary the Virgin, and by the intercession of 
Michael and Gabre'el and the intercession of St George the 
Athlete, the story of the reign of the honoured Anointed, whose 
eyes are as the morning star, and whose countenance is shining 
446 b and beneficent, whose stature is like an exalted angel, and his 
valour like the terrible Samson, his mind pure as the mind of 
the Creator, his wisdom great as the wisdom of Solomon, his 
dominion extensive like that of Alexander, the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis, whose throne name was Feqr Sagad. And I 
believe in my mind and I declare that he was the glorious 
Theodore 1 who it was said would come in the latter days 2 . The 
East was his progenitor of good works, which caused him to 
arise the Son of Justice and Love. If I had to recite all the 
tribulations that fell to him before becoming Negus, the leaves 
would not contain them. Because often the Governor (of 
Wakhne) made him come down by force, and against his will, 
denying him food and drink. He would not have been so 
afflicted by his own death, but saddened by the death of the 
chiefs who were in Wakhne 3 , by hunger and thirst, he offered 
himself to death like Christ as expiation (expiatory victim) for 
all : and he came down from Wakhne. Then he was made to 
ascend again to the mountain Wakhne by his brother Takla 
Haymanot. He sometimes descended in fear that they would 
cut off his hands and feet, and pluck out his eyes as in the 

1 Vide Appendix : FakkarS lyasus or Prophecies of Christ, a famous :ii>ocalypse of Ethiopic 
literature. This Theodore was to conquer the world and bring about universal peace. 

2 Cp. Beginot, La Cronica Abbreviata, n. 

3 A custom of Abyssinians to keep Royal (but inconvenient) relations on an amba or 
mountain stronghold to keep them out of the way. Amba Oeshen in former days was used 
for this purpose. 



time of the Negus Salomon. Then he underwent great suffering, 
but God who sees into the hearts of all, saw that he came 
down, not to seek for the kingdom but for deliverance from the 
afflictions we have recounted above. God preserved him as he 
preserved Yusef (Joseph) from the hands of Fare'on and Dane'el 
from the mouths of the lions, for he restored in his days the laws 
of Constantine made by the mouth of the Fathers (of Nicaea) 
and built churches, and made him ascend Wakhne again with 
great honour and joy. Let us turn to writing the story of the 
reign of the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis. In the second year 
of the reign of Salomon, in the month of Sane, the Evangelist 
Lukas, Year of the world 7271 (A.D. 1778), Kenfu Adam went 
to Wakhne with many chiefs and people, cutting him off (T. 
Giyorgis) from food and drink as before. He tormented him 
with hunger and thirst and with much contumely made him our 447 a 
Negus Takla Giyorgis descend. He did not make him descend 
with a good but an evil object ; yet God changed the counsel 
of death and made it a counsel of rejoicing even as he 
changed the book of death of Bahran, and caused it to 
be by the hands of the angel Mika'el the book of life and 
joy 1 . After that Kenfu conducted our Negus T. Giyorgis 
and King Salomon to the land of Damot and Governor of 
the Agaw, while his brother Adara Khaylu was Dajazmach 
of Gojam, having taken it by his hand (by force) from Has 
Khaylu. In the month of Hamle God roused the people 
of Mecha and Damot, so much that they said if Takla 
Giyorgis did not reign they would not submit, nor give tribute 
to King Salomon. When Kenfu saw the excitement of the 
people, he gave the kingdom to our King Takla Giyorgis in the 
country of Yebaba on the 12th of the month of Hamle on the 
day of the feast of the Glorious Archangel St Mika'el and there 
was great rejoicing from one end of the country to the other, 
for all loved him from his childhood upwards and hoped that 
he would come to reign, as the sower hopes for rain. Besides his 

1 The reference is to a legend of St Michael in the Senkessar (Synaxarium) of Abyssinia 
for the 12th Sane, 6th June called n>\A-ti ff 7,*ih,AM Batsalota Mika'el, Ludolf, Comm. p. 418, 



[232] 

father loved him more than the Negus, his eldest son: for this 
he was named Fiqr Sagad. This winter the Negus came to 
Taqusa, and returned having accomplished many things. After 
that he dwelt without going into Gondar seven months, for 
Abeto Kenfu prevented him. The Negus built a church in 
Yebaba, under the invocation of the Holy Apostles, and he 
made great devotions of penitence, for that the Lord had made 
him enter the city of his fathers and his regalia (Royal property). 
In the month of Takhsas the King was a child and yet a peace- 
maker, and brought about peace between Dajazmach Kenfu 
and Dajazmach Baqatu. When the Lord saw the great penitence 
447 b of the Negus he softened the heart of Kenfu who made him 
come to Gondar the 29th of the month of Takhsas, the day of 
the Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ. On him be praise ! The 
people and the clergy, men and women, gave him a reception 
with canticles and rejoicing and that day was a new Nativity. 
After the Negus .entered his chamber after a few days he sent 
Salomon up to Waklme with his wife and children, having de- 
corated them with robes of honour. The governors went each 
to their respective governments. Dajazmach Kenfu went to his 
province decorated with gifts by the hand of the King, he and 
his people. This summer the Negus made Princess Enkoy Lul 
come, the sister of Dajazmach Baqatu from Begameder, to be 
his concubine. In the month of Hamle at the end of the summer, 
there was, on Sunday, a proclamation of appointments and dis- 
missals. Kenfu sent to the King, saying, " To do me a favour, 
give an appointment toTsadalu,for I have given him my daughter 
to wife." The Negus, on hearing this, nominated Tsadalu Egabet 
Bajrond and invested him with a robe of honour. But Tsadalu 
was playing the traitor to the Negus and went from Kenfu 
Adam. After this he also who was governor of the " Westu" (the 
interior), the governor of the supplies (lit. food), that is to say 
"the Kantiba," betrayed the Negus, and went thither; by reason 
of that the Negus prayed, saying, " He who eats my bread has 
lifted his heel against me " (Ps. xli. 9). Asahel went there also: 
also Mehroka his friend combined with them, as the Book says, 



[233] 

" Asshur also is joined with them " (Ps. Ixxxiii. 8). On their 
account the Negus prayed, saying, " If my enemy hated me I had 
patience " (Ps. Iv. 1 2). From this time there was enmity between 
the Negus and Kenfu. Kenfu sent Tsadalu telling him, " I give 
you all the territory of the Negus as far as the Qaha." Tsadalu 
went over to Afala in the rainy season with many other warriors 
of Media. In the second year of his reign, that of the Evangelist 448 a 
Matewos, the Qanazmach Wasan, son of the Negus' sister, went 
to make war against Tsadalu and those that were with him, 
vanquished him and captured his war drums and sent him to 
the Negus. These then escaped severe punishment. After that 
the Negus departed and pitched his camp at Berahela and met 
Dajazmach Baqatu; he chose some warriors of Lasta, who were 
Kalu, Golja and Gabra lyasus. The Negus returned and Da- 
jazmach Baqatu went to his country. Then the Azaj Ya'eqob 
and the Liqa Guba'e Zena wearied themselves in making peace 
between the Negus and Kenfu. The Negus re-entered his palace, 
appointed Kalu to the office of Teqaqen Blattengeta and Golja 
to that of Balambaras and Shalaqa of the Eju, and Gabra lyasus 
the office of Eqqabet Bajrond and Shalaqa of Lasta. In these 
days Gadlu came in rebellion and encompassed Janwara, having 
joined Kenfu in a conspiracy; he did not understand the words 
of the Bible which say, "Touch not my anointed" (Ps. cv. 15), 
and again, " Lift not thy hand against the anointed of the Lord, 
he who does so is not guiltless " (1 Sam. xxvi. 9). The Negus, 
having heard of this patiently, sent a message to him, for his 
patience was equal to his power, saying, " Henceforth return to 
the land which we have given thee." Gadlu, on hearing this 
message of the King, answered with haughty words and what 
was not seemly. His language was outrageous; the Negus sent 
a message to his servant humbly and patiently, and the servant 
sent a message to his lord of pride and anger ! When the Negus, 
whose throne name Avas Feqr Sagad, heard this message of 
Gadlu, he burned like fire, and roared like a lion: the measure 
of his patience was his anger and he made a proclamation by 
herald that every one who was under his (the King's) command, 

w. B. 30 



[234] 

and did not follow him the next day would be no more received 
in audience. That said, he departed the 5th Ter, on a Thursday, 
448 bat the 12th hour, at nightfall the 3rd hour, glaring like a lamp 
and flashing like the sun. In such wise whom shall we liken our 
King Takla Giyorgis to? We will liken him perchance to David 
when he sallied forth to attack Golyad the Ilofelawi (Goliath the 
Philistine), or to lyasu (Joshua), son of Nawe, when he went 
forth to destroy Jericho, or indeed to Theodoros when he went 
against the people of Quz. But more than all of these he was 
then great in majesty. Let us return to the beginning of the 
story. Dajazmach Wasan came because the Negus had called 
him from the province where he had been governor. Leaving 
Gondar there was a raiding expedition and the Negus marched, 
followed by his ministers and chiefs, namely, Ras Ayadar the 
Blattengeta Adgah, the Azaj Mecha,the Fitawrari Selasse Barya, 
the Liqe Basalotu, the Basha Menywab, the Kantiba Kenfu, the 
Nagadras Yalemtu, the Azaj Zawdu, the Azaj Danfa. Three days 
after they had arrived at Gondar without repose, for he had come 
by order of the King, the Alaqa Gabru, author of this history, 
with the image of the "Kuer'ata Re'su," marching on foot because 
he loved his lord; and in order that this should be known he de- 
picted (in Gondar) in the church of Ba'ata, the oppression of 
him whose victim was his lord, the King of Kings, Takla Hay- 
manot, without fear of anyone; also Dajazmach Hezqeyas, Dajaz- 
mach Gabru Kedan, the Liqa Maquas Gabru and Azaj Ikonyan 
Wase, the "Aflfa Negus 1 " who with his own hands pitched the 
tent of the Negus on Angareb, the Bajrond Zena Gabre'el, the 
Basha Walda Kedan, the Dajazmach Yamaryam Barya, the 
Qanazmach Zogu, the Kantiba Kabte, the Basha lyasu, the Kan- 
tiba Gabra Selasse, the Azmach Walda Da wit, the Ligaba Atsqu, 
the Asalafi Khaylu of Agamya, the Asalafi Yabise of the Afro'ay- 
gaba(name of a corps of troops), the Azaj Kidanu, the Shalaqa 
Gigar and the Shalaqa Koramtu. Of the Chief Justices, the Azaj 
Zekru, the Azaj Ya'eqob, the Azaj Wadaj u, the Azaj Walda Rufa'el 



lit. mouth of the King. The highest judicial official who gives judgement 
on behalf of the King. 



[235] 

and all the guards of the King, who had been appointed or had 
been dismissed, the Ligaba Lencha, the Asalafi Nacho and sons 
of the nobles of Mecha and Damot, Hawi Bakaffa, Wati Sanbato, 449 a 
Adaru Zago, Walda Kiros, Sahlu Maracho, Walda Giyorgis and 
many soldiers of the Negus of whom we have no mention and 
have not written down the names. If the names of all the 
followers of the Negus were written down these leaves would 
not contain them. The Gerazmach Walda Abib did not remain 
to stay on guard over the King's mother. The Chief Justices 
remained, and they remained by wish of the Negus. The 
Azaj Kabte found himself in Kosoge, coming from Wakhne. 
This day the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, Adyam Sagad 1 
halted at Kosoge. The day following, Friday the 6th of 
Ter, the Negus departed in the morning: the Azaj Ya'eqob 
returned by command of the Negus : the Kantiba Qanwit and 
Kokaba Leda Gabra, the Azaj Mitar and the Azaj Warqe 
came. When the King reached Engash Blattengeta Kitu 
received him, Balambaras Galfa and Bajrond Gabra lyasus, 
Salawa Gabra Masqal, the Shalaqa Walda Sellase with a large 
force of the Negus. In the evening the Negus departed and 
ascended the hill and saw the encampment of the rebel 
Gadlu and his many troops and tents and horses and guns and 
breastplates beyond number. The retainers of the Negus who 
were with him were named: Balambaras Walda Sellase, Basha 
Dangaze; Bajrond Adara Gabre'el, 'Alam Daru, Akale of Warq 
Weha, whom the rebellion had nourished like milk, the friend 
of war, and fearful of the rod ; all these of Wagara, except 
Ausabyos 'Atsqu who had followed the Negus from Gondar.' 
And when the Negus saw these rebel soldiers, he recited the 
prayer of the psalm of David which runs, " O Lord, how many 
are they that trouble me, many are they that rise up against 
me. Many they be that say of my soul ' Thy God will not save 
thee,' but thou, O Lord, art my refuge ; my glory and the 
upraiser of my head " (Ps. iii. 1 3). And again he prayed, 
saying, " Oppress them O Lord those that oppress me, and fight 449b 

1 This seems to be an error, ttie writer having given his throne name as Feqr Sagad. 



[236] 

with them, O Lord, that fight against me, lift up a shield and 
spears, and arise to help me!" (Ps. xxxv. 1-2). Theii he passed 
the night at Enqash and the following day, on the Sabbath, 
the 7th of Ter, the Negus started in the morning and camped 
at Mehurtach. The Kantiba Qenwat returned, and the next 
day, Sunday, the 8th Ter, he took repose. While there 
Audakyos brother of Akale came: the next day, Monday, 
the 9th of Ter, he reposed there. Bajrond Kabte, Susenyos 
Nacho, the Sagaba Ya'eqob, Dabareq Yamaryam Barya and 
the sons of Fitawrari Ya Sellase Barya and all the people of 
Saqalt came. Then the Negus sent Abyatar to set fire to the 
house of Akale, and he set fire to it. The next day, Tuesday, 
the 10th of Ter the Negus started in early morning and ascended 
by a narrow and difficult road; the Negus and the soldiers 
marched on foot from daybreak to midday. Many men, mules 
and asses perished over the precipice. That day Fitawrari 
Ya Sellase Barya and Azaj Kabte marched in the rearguard. 
Blattengeta Kalo, Balambaras Golja and Bajrond Gabra lyasus 
acted as Fitawrari 1 , because Fitawrari Walda Aragawi had been 
left behind in his own province. They halted at Deradera; the 
next day, Wednesday, 1 1th of Ter, they took a rest because it WHS 
the feast of the Baptism (Epiphany). Gabra Abib joined them 
with the tent he had captured from the men of Gadlu, and the 
Negus gave it for the Kuer'ata Re'su. Gadlu turned back panic- 
stricken and trembling when he heard the Negus had advanced 
in wrath, as Salomon said, " The anger of a King is as the roaring 
of a lion" (Prov. xx. 2). The next day, Thursday, the 12th of 
Ter, the Negus started in the morning: in the guard was Bajrond 
Gabra lyasus. They made a halt at Bantaro. The next day, 
Friday, the Negus departed, Blattengeta Kalo being rearguard: 
they halted at Tsarakuha; Dajazmach \Vasan halted at Angarab, 
and with him Fitawrari Ya Sellase Barya, Dajazmach Kidfm, 
450 a Liqe Batsalotu, Kantiba Kenfu, Nagaderas Yalemtu, A/fij 
Danfa, Azaj Zawdu, Bajrond Kabte halted because they had got 
separated on the road. The next day, the Sabbath, the 14th ot 

1 Advance guard, lit. Fit, horn, head, fuvrari, rhiiiot'eim 



[237] 

Ter, the Negus started in the morning and halted at Adit: the 
following day, Sunday, 15th Ter, he took a rest. Korma came, 
and the Negus made proclamation by herald thus: "The in- 
habitants of Sagade that dwell in the country of their fathers 
shall come to me, up to end of three days." But Batryos 
of Boza, a thieving brigand and a traitor to his oath to the 
Negus, did not come. The next day, Monday, the 16th of Ter, 
the King departed in the morning : Korma was the rearguard, 
much provender was captured by raid, and many were killed 
over the precipice. Kenfa Gabre'el Yabo Barya arrived, who 
had left by order of the Negus : the next day, towards the close 
of night, Shalaqa Guangul Sarwe of the attendants of the palace 
went with Malke and a few soldiers in the rear of Walda Sellase, 
Dungaze, Adara Gabre'el, Kefla Adnay, the Fitawrari of Gadlu 
the rebel. They joined battle at Aiishala, and Bojen was killed 
and many others perished with him : of the troops of the Negus 
Sela Amsa 1 , Kenfu Gadlu fled first of every one, for he was 
seized with terror. This thing is marvellous, and very extra- 
ordinary that this man who had a mind to fight against the 
puissant King of power and exalted majesty, fled and was 
terrified beyond measure by a simple boy sergeant of the 
Negus. When the King heard of the defeat of Gadlu he prayed, 
repeating the Psalm of David cxliii. 2 which runs, "Blessed be the 
Lord my God which teacheth my hands to war and my fingers 
to fight," following it to the end. Then he halted at Samara. 
The next day, Tuesday, 17th of Ter, by order of the King 
AsalafI Yabise, Nure Aychew, Menywab and Abba Sahelu 
marched out. Then the King departed; Bajrond Kabte 
forming the rearguard, and halted at Tabarshesh. The next 450 b 
day, Wednesday, the 18th Ter, the Negus started and halted 
at Sarqua: and many serpents were killed, big and terrible, 
and leopard cubs were captured by the hands of the attendants 
of Danfa : he gave certain knowledge of the death of the King's 
enemies and their capture. Guests of the Queen came that 

1 A captain of 50 of the corps called Sala. 

2 Ps. cxliv. Authorised Version. 



[238] 

day, and the next Friday they arrived at the river Kaza; the 
rumour ran that spears (of Gadlu's army) had come up, and the 
King's troops prepared for battle. None of the men of the 
King loitered behind, but they said to one another, " I will go 
first " and " I will go first," but when the river Kaza was crossed, 
the spears were not to be found. The Negus was wroth and 
burnt like a fire, saying, " I will not stay here without getting 
to where Gadlu is." Then Ras Ayadar and Dajazmach Adgah 
started supplicating the Negus, saying, " O King, these words 
are not good nor fitting: let us rather remain here, till the troops 
have assembled together." After much praying the King 
consented. After that they pitched the tent and stayed there 
the night. Za Walde and Sebuhay, to whom Gadlu had en- 
trusted the guarding of the pass of Achalaqo, so that the King 
might not get out, arrived. The next day, the Sabbath, the 
21st Ter, the King departed and halted in AfFa Warq. Messengers 
came from the Queen and Ras Khaylu, and the next day, Sunday 
(22nd Ter), he took a rest. Monday, 23rd of Ter, the Negus left 
and arrived in the province of Atara. Kefla met him at Taher: 
that day a " Warq Saqale 1 " fell and was broken. Then when 
the Negus heard that the rebels were fighting with one another 
and had been scattered like smoke he marvelled and praised 
the Lord, and remained there. The next day, Tuesday, 24th Ter, 
the Negus departed and halted at 'Adi Kokab. Here were 
451 a found the goods of the rebels : many elephant tusks and rhino- 
ceros horns, cushions 2 , cooking pots and iron braziers 3 and 
carpets, and iron basins, tents, war drums, honey, butter and 
wine. And the next day, Wednesday, 25th Ter, there was a rest. 
Wadbabo Gabra Blattengeta of Gadlu's with a large force of 
guns and cuirasses 4 , presented the Negus with the gift of guns. 
The sons of Madabay came that day ; and from that day the 
house of the rebels fell weaker and the house of the Negus 
waxed stronger. The next day, Thursday, 2Gth Ter, the Negus 

1 Error for Warq Saqala ? 

2 <nYl-S = niakadda = a cushion (Amharic and Arabic). 

3 TVJ i Amharic, a brazier. 4 A-fl- Amharic, cuirass. 



[239] 

started in the morning and halted at Ad Dajazmach. There 
was sent there great booty, horses, cuirasses and guns: the 
Alaqa Zena joined them at Dalshihoch. The next day, Friday, 
27th Ter, the Negus departed in the morning and halted at 
Salawa: the raiders had a fight that day with the people of 
the locality. The next day, the Sabbath, 28th Ter, the Negus 
departed and reached Qabteya. A man arrived, sent by Gadlu, 
with this message, "Pardon me and have mercy on me, O 
King, my Lord." He did not say this in humility but in 
treachery. The Negus hearing this said to the messenger, 
"Come over to the camp, there I will tell you everything." 
After that the Negus went over against Adana. He saw the 
encampment of Gadlu which was on the amba, and he had 
pitched his tent on the edge of Qabteya. The Negus sent 
to say to Gadlu, "First of all send me my war drum, and 
after that tell me everything." Gadlu on hearing this replied, 
" The war drum is not here but at Berkuta." This he asserted, 
but the drum was in his hands for they heard the sounds when 
it was beaten; the man was a villain and was stupid in his 
villainy. That day the King halted there. Gadlu sent the 
Negus 20 bullocks and five sheep : the next day, Sunday, the 
29th Ter, the Negus summoned Dajazmach Wasan and said to 
him, " Go and seize the springs of the river that is at the foot 451 b 
of the amba as the Book says, for the most important thing in 
war is to shut out the water from the enemy, and guard it so 
that the troops of Gadlu may not drink of it." That day Kefla 
came to Qorarat. After that Dajazmach Wasan went, and on 
the march with his men and the Azaj Warqe encountered Gadlu's 
men in a battle and they fought,, and of the followers of Gadlu 
there perished many, and of the people of the Negus a few were 
killed. The Negus, hearing of this sent to the battle ground, 
saying, " Whoever fights on this day is no servant of mine, for 
the Sunday is no day for fighting but for prayer." Hearing 
this the King's people desisted from the fight and returned to 
their camp. The next day, Monday, the 30th Ter, the Negus 
issued the following proclamation, "Whoever loads his horse 



[240] 

I will give it to another " (i.e. whoever starts to go away I will 
confiscate his horse). So saying the Negus rose and made ready 
for battle, and getting off his mule Abba Walda Rufa'el laid out 
his cloak, and the battle began with guns and stones. In the 
front was Blattengeta Kalu who was like Gedewon the conqueror, 
also the Balambaras Golja who was like Yonatan (Jonathan) 
(2 Sam. i. 22) of whom it was said, " The bow of Jonathan turned 
not back, and was stained with the blood (of the slain)." Bajrond 
Gabra lyasus, who was like Adinon, of wondrous fame, while 
his head was crowned with purple, the token of his valour; 
Gabra and Azaj Yabo Barya, all of the men of Lasta, the Yalu, 
Tigrines, those of Kansisa and Gimja-bet; also the Dajazmach 
Gabra Kedan and Dajazmach Hesqeyas, those of Mecha and 
sons of Chawa (nobles). The Negus was rearguard with his 
chiefs, Ras Ayadar, Blattengeta Adgah, liqe Batsalotu, Azaj Ya 
Sellase Barya, all versed in war and cunning in counsel. The 
Azaj Media was that day like Asahel and stood solid as if a rock 
did not seem to him a rock nor a gun seem a gun. The battle 
raged, and then the Negus launched into the field of battle the 
452 a chiefs who were left in the rear, the Azaj Ikonyan, the Kantiba 
Kenfu, Nagadras Yalamtu, and Azaj Zawdu. From morn to 
midday of that day many of the men of the Negus fell dead 
through guns, and spears, and rocks, men of Yalu, Lasta, Tigre, 
Kanisa, Mecha, and sons of Chawa, many who were not killed 
were wounded. That day Dajazmach Wasan slew many, and 
the warriors Madkhen Naway, Taklu, his son, Kabte, Yabo Barya 
and Kenfu were like lions ahungered or thirsting wolves. Of 
the Gadlu's men few perished, for they would not come out of 
their enclosure (zariba) and they fought standing in the midst 
of their zariba. When the Negus saw that the combat waxed 
more furious he sent to the field of battle, " Come to me, you 
will have your belly full " (lit. it will content you ! cp. 2 Sam. xi. 
25) as David said, for at times this must be done and at another 
that. Is the spear for ever sharp ? Then the Negus returned 
with his chiefs, and the troops, and reached their own ground. 
That day the Negus neither touched food nor drank water, and 



[2 4 I] 

spent all night praying and crying, " How long wilt thou forget 
me, O Lord, altogether, how long wilt thou hide from me thy 
face, how long that I make sorrow dwell in my mind, and my 
heart afflict me all the day ? How long shall my enemies be 
exalted over me ? " (Ps. xiii. 1,2). And again he cried, " Where 
is thy former loving-kindness, O Lord, which thou swarest unto 
David in thy truth ? " (Ps. Ixxxix. 49). The month of Ter came 
to a close. The next day, Tuesday, 1st of Yakatit, the people 
of Tsadalu and Fiqra Mika'el joined the monks of Saquar. The 
Negus issued a proclamation of amnesty, ordering that the 
whole army should stay on the bank of the river which was not 
occupied and guard it so that Gadlu's people should not drink ; 
for the wisdom of the Negus was like the wisdom of Alexander. 
That day Gadlu called up a fool, Walda Mika'el, and sent him 452 b 
over to the Negus to say: "Pardon me and have mercy on me, 
O King." That was foolishness, not cleverness. Why did he 
send that fool, while there were so many old monks of the 
monastery that he could have sent ? The Negus issued a pro- 
clamation : " Let all my people set up their habitations (tokuls, 
huts) and hold a market, because a halt will be made till a fitting 
opportunity." The next day, Wednesday, 2nd Yakatit, two men 
were captured of Gadlu's following who had gone out from the 
mountain to drink water for they were tormented with thirst : 
the Negus gave those who took them a robe of honour. That 
day messengers from the Queen and the inhabitants of Gondar 
arrived. On the 3rd Yakatit the Negus sent messengers to 
Gondar for necessaries and towards Tigre and near Adris. When 
it was midday two soldiers came who had killed some of Gadlu's 
men and laid down the trophies before the King who gave to 
one a "Chufa" and to the other a "Bitawa 1 ." Of these two 
soldiers one was of the guards of Walda Sellase and the other 
of the tribe of Madabay. That day the Wechale, who had been 

1 Chufa is a bracelet of gold or silver worn on the arm and given by the King as a 
military decoration to soldiers who have killed more than one enemy, and may accumulate 
with the numbers killed. The Maldya is a similar decoration. The Bitawa is a higher 
decoration as is also the one called Yarbora. 

w. B. 31 



[242] 

wounded previously at Reguato, died, and they buried nine of 
them. On the 4th Yakatit, Friday, Gadlu sent over to the King 
to say thus, "Let the Blattengeta Kalu and the Azaj Ikonyan 
come over to me and we will meet at the gates of the aniba, after 
that I will come over to the Negus, my lord, carrying on my 
head the stone (token of submission). I will go where my lord 
goes and I will give up all I possess, guns, breastplates, horses 
and kettle drums." The Negus hearing this sent Blattengeta 
Kalu and Azaj Ikonyan; Gadlu came forth from the amba with 
Kefla Admay, and held parley at the entrance of the amba. Then 
Gadlu changed his tone and said, " I am afraid, and I will not come 
to (the camp), but give me pardon while I stay here." This he said 
after having given an oath and (under pain of) excommunication. 
453 a Their eyes became blind and spirit hardened because they saw 
not with their eyes, nor understood with their spirits, because 
they did not turn to me and I had no mercy on them (Isaiah vi. 
9, 10). This day the Azaj Kable went to the right part of the 
amba and found the Gadlu's guard ; one was killed by the hand 
of one of Azaj Kable's guard and many were made prisoners. 
He who was killed was named Abrahim, strong and terrible like 
Goliath the Philistine. Our Negus gave a " Bitawa " to the man 
who killed him. If he had had much wealth he would have 
given it to him, but he had no wealth in his hand, for he had 
left Gondar suddenly. That day messengers from Alaqa Zefera 
came. Let us return to our previous matter. The Blattengeta 
Kalu and Azaj Ikonyan returned and reported to the Negus 
that the peace had been abandoned and that Gadlu had changed 
his tone. The Negus knew from the first that it would not be 
done. This day he began the foundation of a house and set up 
the walls. Aukendyos died who had been wounded by a gun- 
shot. The next day, the Sabbath, the 5th of Yakatit, a brave 
youth of the King's soldiers, having killed one of Gadlu's guards, 
brought the trophies (cut from him) and the Negus presented 
him with a robe of honour. On the dawn of Saturday there 
were loud war cries heard, and the followers of Blattengeta 
Kalu killed two of the servants of Gadlu, took many prisoners 



[243] 

and the remainder fled and returned disgraced into their amba. 
The men of the country came before the King bringing many 
gifts. The Monday, 7th Yakatit, the King sent Abba Damo 
towards Waldebba to bring back his retainers who had fled 
there for refuge in Waldebba, having taken side with Gadlu. 
The Negus pardoned them. Tuesday, 8th Yakatit, the Negus 
gave orders to the troops to guard the water that remained. 453 b 
This day many came from Gondar with provisions, and entered 
the camp. Wednesday, the 9th Yakatit, the Negus issued from 
his tent and went to the camp with a few men and spent the 
day in surveying the country. At the sixth hour messengers of 
the Queen and Ras Khaylu arrived: the Negus re-entered his 
tent. He commanded Dajazmach Wasan and Wadbabo Gabru 
to go towards Berkuta and attack Gadlu's guard that were 
posted at the fort of the amba. That day Blattengeta Kalu 
fought anew severely with Gadlu, because Gadlu had ascended 
the mountain to set fire to the camp, on hearing that Dajazmach 
Wasan was not in his camp. Then Blattengeta Kalu defeated him 
and killed many warriors and men cunning in war; one of these 
was called Dangyatabash (Stone-scorcher). Gadlu re-entered 
his camp humiliated, and there was great lamentation on the 
amba, for Gadlu loved much the men who had been killed that 
day. Of the people of Blattengeta Kalu, few armed with shields 
and guns perished. The day after, Friday, llth of Yakatit, 
Dajazmach Wasan sent to the Negus a happy messenger, an- 
nouncing the defeat of the rebels. The Negus gave to the 454 a 
runner a " Chuf a " of silver and promised him much. Wadbabo 
Gabru came in with much booty and trophies. With him came 
Blattengeta Kalu. Dajazmach Wasan then entered his camp 
the first. Next day, the Sabbath, 12th Yakatit, the guards of 
Dajazmach Wasan came before the Negus to lay down the 
trophies. Then the trumpets were sounded, the curtain lifted 
which covered the Negus; and the Negus held an audience 
with great rejoicing. Gabra Haywat entered first of the servants 
of the royal household, because he had killed a valiant and 
terrible man, expert in battle and famous. After that all entered 



[244] 

who had killed (men) and laid down the trophies before the 
Negus, and each one left for his camp. The Negus, on seeing 
this, did not allow pride to enter into his mind, and spoke not 
vaingloriously, but prayed in the words of the Psalm of David, 
" O Lord, we have heard with our ears, our fathers have told us 
the work thou didst in their days in the days of old. Thy hand 
has driven out the heathen and plantedst them, thou didst 
afflict the people and cast them out. For they got not the land 
in their possession by their own arms, their arms did not 
save them, but thy right hand and thine arm, and the light of 
thy countenance because thou hadst pity on them. Thou art 
my King and my God, who didst command deliverance for 
Jacob. Through thee will we push down all our enemies" 
(Ps. xliv. 1 5), and he recited it to the end. Then at the ninth 
hour Gadlu sent the Negus five sheep, and the next day, Sunday, 
13th Yakatit, prepared the tables and gave a banquet to the 
monks of Waldebba. As Our Lord said, on him be praise ! in 
the Holy Gospel, " When thou makest a banquet call not thy 
friends, thy neighbours, nor thy kinsmen, but rather invite the 
poor and the needy" (Luke xiv. 12). The followers of Gadlu, 
servants, male and female, continually descended from the 
amba, and declared that they were perishing of thirst, the men 
454 band beasts that were in the amba. The Negus, hearing this, 
was deeply grieved at it, for his heart was compassionate like 
the heart of David his father when he said, " May all that be 
upon my enemies and adversaries who have compassed me 
about with hatred and have warred upon me in vain. Instead 
of loving me they have made accusations against me but I have 
prayed : they have requited evil for good and they have hated 
me when I loved them " (Ps. cix. 3), repeating the Psalm to the 
end. When it wasevening the guards despatched by the Patriarch 
and the Echege came before the King, the Abeto Demetros 
and Adara Gabre'el. On Monday, 14th Yakatit, Dajazmach 
Wasan and all the ministers came before the Negus. The 
Negus alone knew the reason of their coming ! Many of the 
retainers of Gadlu came before the King. That day the 40-day 



[245] 

fast began and the King began to hear (recitals from) the Book 
On Tuesday, the 15th Yakatit, Kefla Adonay came down and had 
a parley with the guards of the King, in order to settle terms 
of peace, and then returned on to the amba. The Negus on 
his part sent an embassy of mercy (amnesty) to Gadlu, who 
hearing it was exceeding rejoiced and made gifts of mules to 
the messengers of the King. This day the Negus had news 
of the death of Blattengeta Takle, son of a sister of the Ras 
Mika'el. Wednesday, the 16th Yakatit, those who had been sent 
to Gadlu returned and reported to the Negus these words of 
Gadlu : " Let some one come to-day (on behalf of the Negus) 
and take delivery of the war drums and horses and everything 
that is in my hands, and I will send my wife, daughter of the 
King's sister." The Negus, hearing that, sent Liqaba Atsqu, 
and Gadlu loaded the beast with the kettle drum, robed himself 
handsomely, and went forth to send back the war drum, but one 
of his servants came then, by name Wad Gadab, a foe to honest 
dealing, and said to him, " Why do you give up the war drum 
to the King before having an oath under pain of excommuni- 
cation that he will restore you your governorship ? " But Kefla 
Adonay said, " It is not fitting to thwart the Negus as has been 
done heretofore." About this proposal the guards of Gadlu 
started to fight with one another. After that Gadlu said to the 
messengers of the King, " Go and report to the Negus what you 455 a 
have seen, that my guards are fighting with one another about 
this matter." The messengers returned who were there, and 
announced to the Negus all that had passed, and he, hearing, 
said to the ministers, "Be careful about guarding the water 
day and night until everything is cleared up." Thursday, the 
17th Yakatit, the King sent a herald out to proclaim in 
these words, "I have given Gabra Abib all the jurisdiction 
of his father; of the people of Gadlu, those who come in 
by day I will receive; but those who come in by night I 
will not receive." That day messengers from Ras Khaylu 
came in, and of Mal'aka Tsahay Rob'am, and announced that 
Ras Khaylu had refused to make peace with Kenfu Adam, and 



[246] 

had fought with Adara Khaylu for the Negus. On Friday, 
18th Yakatit, the King went out and spent the day surveying 
the country : he returned about the sixth hour. Then Arabs sent 
by Adris arrived 1 . In the evening the guards of Dajazmach 
Wasan came in who had killed (their men) and laid the trophies 
before the King. On the Sabbath, 19th Yakatit, Yashalaqa 
Walda Sellase and Suri Haba had a fight with the men of 
Gadlu, and many mighty men were killed, and many wounded ; 
the remainder fled disgraced ; the guards who had made the 
slaughter came and laid the trophies before the Negus. At the 
ninth hour the house of the Negus was completed and he made 
his entry into it ; on the Sunday, 20th of Yakatit, Gadlu called 
together the monks of Waldebba, and sent to the King to sue 
for pardon: Lake, the brother of Gadlu, came in (submitted). 
On Monday, 21st Yakatit, three inhabitants of Walqayt, sons of 
'Ebaya Dengel, sent to the King to say, " Pardon me and have 
mercy on me." And on the 22nd Yakatit, Tuesday, a superior 
455 b of Waldebba died of an illness: and more trophies of the 
Gadlu's guards were laid down. Wednesday, the 23rd Yakatit, 
the monks of Waldebba went up by order of the King to the 
mountain of Adama to bury their superior. Gadlu addressed 
them, " O my brothers, pray for me that my Lord the King may 
have mercy on me and pardon my crime." Thursday, 24th 
Yakatit, the monks of Waldebba reported to the King what 
Gadlu had said to them. The King on this said, " As I have 
not failed to show mercy, to-day likewise let what you ask be 
granted." Then the monks of Waldebba went to Gadlu and 
reported to him what the King had said. The same day the 
monks of Washa came and went with them. Friday, the 2,5 th 
Yakatit at the ninth hour Gadlu mounted a horse and held an 
orgy 2 on the amba with his servants, for he was drunk and 
bereft of his senses, as the Bible says, "Wine and women snatch 
away the reason " (Eccles. xix. 2), and he was a laughing-stock 
of all the people, and monks were shocked at him. The 

1 Slieikh Idrys, king of Sen aar, son of Mulmnuned Aim Kl Kaylak, died A.M. 1-J1S. 
qfthe Funya, ff. 20 b. * .RflAi from (1A = to hold a meeting; ii.ssi-nil.U-. 



[247] 

Sabbath, 26th Yakatit, Wase the Affa Negus (King's mouth- 
piece) went with Wadbabo Gabru on a raiding incursion. The 
next day, Sunday, 27th Yakatit, Wase the Affa Negus arrived 
with great booty and trophies which he laid before the King. 
Gadlu's men killed an old monk, one of the monks of Waldebba 
in Dalshaha, and this one they impaled, and threw his pudenda 
before Gadlu, who was much elated and gave a robe to the 
man who had killed him, as it seemed to him he had done 
a good action. As Our Lord said, "Whosoever killeth, you 
will think that he brings a sacrifice to God " (St John xvi. 2 
that he doeth God a service). Monday, 28th Yakatit, mes- 
sengers from the Queen came and the friend of the King, 
Ras Khaylu. The same day the Negus pronounced judgment 
to the monks of Dalshaha, and restored to them the lands that 
had been taken from them by the Chawa : as David said, " Do 
justice to the needy and the orphan " (Ps. Ixxxii. 3). The men 
of Saquar departed. Tuesday, 29th Yakatit, those came from 456 a 
Gondar, bringing the supplies of the King and the expedi- 
tion. Dajazmach Sunnu came, and Adris 1 from the country 
of the Arabs with many Arabs ; some of these train elephants 
to work arid tame lions. On the Wednesday, 30th Yakatit, the 
men of Dalshaha left, whose land of which they had been de- 
prived the King had restored. Adris joined the King with 
many Arabs, who presented the Negus with a white camel : as 
David said, " The King of Saba, and the Arabs shall offer gifts, 
and all the boundaries of the earth shall adore him " (Ps. Ixxii. 
10). Here ends the month of Yakatit. On the 1st Magabit, a 
servant of the King who had been sent to Awaza arrived and 
reported to the King the matter about which he had been sent. 
Friday, 2nd Magabit, the messengers of the Queen arrived. 
The Sabbath, the 3rd Magabit, there was weeping in the King's 
palace, for the news came of the death of Princess Hirut, 
daughter of Ras Goshu, and wife of Dajazmach Bagatu. Sunday, 
4th Magabit, a great battle took place, at the four corners of 
the amba, and the retainers of the King, who were Salawa 

1 See Appendix : Abyssinia and the Sudan. 



[248] 

Gabra Masqal, Dajazmach Wasan, and men of Madabay, and 
Lasta, killed many of the soldiers of Gadlu, of the latter few 
were lost. The same day Walda Aragawi was sent to Tigre. 
Monday, 5th Magabit, the King issued his proclamation by 
herald, "We have given Adris his former jurisdiction." The same 
day Bona, who had been previously wounded, died. Tuesday, 
6th Magabit, Dajazmach Wasan came into the presence of the 
Negus. A fire broke out in the camp and burnt the habitations of 
many. When it reached the spot of the picture of the Kuer'ata 
Re'su, the fire subsided. Wednesday, 7th Magabit, Ras Ayadar 
456 b came before the King. Thursday, 8th Magabit, the King pro- 
claimed by herald, " We have given to the men of Yaju the 
country they had formerly." Friday, 9th Magabit, in early 
morning, Gadlu descended the amba with five servants and fled 
towards Baqata. The Sabbath, 10th Magabit, the men of 
Madabay, Genyabet and Kanisa, had a fight with the retainers 
of Gadlu, and laid the trophies before the King. The same 
day Dajazmach Wasan brought as plunder to the King seven 
youths of courage who bore arms. Then the rumour was spread 
abroad that Gadlu had fled to Bergutta. The llth Magabit, 
the Negus sent thus to speak to the men of the amba, " Come 
to us, for I have pardoned you." But they refused to come 
before the King. Monday, the 12th Magabit, the ministers 
assembled in the King's house and took good counsel. Warqe 
was sent to Begameder. Tuesday, 13th Magabit, Dajazmach 
Wasan marched towards Bergutta. Wednesday, 14th Magabit, 
the monks of Waldebba came and Washa entered before the 
King. Thursday, 15th Magabit, the guards of Gadlu who 
were in Mayega came and laid the trophies of many wild 
beasts before the King. The King proclaimed by herald 
their pardon. Friday, 16th Magabit, Dajazmach Wasan came 
and laid down trophies: with him came Ab Selus. The monks 
of Washa went towards Bergutta to bring about peace. The 
Sabbath, the 17th Magabit, Afta Negus Wase went towards 
Salawa and made a raid. Sunday, 18th Magabit, the inhabi- 
tants of Adargay came and the Affa Negus Wase returned. 



[249] 

On the 19th Magabit the Negus gave to Ab Sellus, son of 
Dajazmach Ebaya Dengel, the government of Walqayt as well 
as the grade of Dajazmach. The 20th Magabit, the monks 
of Waldebba and Washa came, having negotiated peace. 457 a 
Dajazmach Sellus went to the amba Falasa ; the King gave to 
Walda Qararat Keflu the government of Awara and Aqa Warq. 
Wednesday, 21st Magabit, messengers from the Patriarch came, 
of the Echege, and the Queen and Kenfu Adam came, openly 
messengers of peace, but secretly for a quarrel. After that 
Kenfu Adam came to the city and stayed in Walaqa, and the 
Queen went for refuge to the house of the Patriarch. Then 
the King prayed, reciting the Psalm (Ps. lii.), " Why does the 
mighty boast of his mischief and commit unrighteousness every 
day?" and continued to the end (of the Psalm). The 22nd Magabit, 
the Negus sent the men of Waldebba over to Gadlu at Berkutta 
and three messengers whom we have mentioned above to Gondar 
with the answer that was proper. Friday, 23rd Magabit, the 
King issued this proclamation by herald, " We have given the 
frontiers of Adyama to Adris and we have pardoned lyasu." 
The same day a fire broke out in the camp and burnt a few 
houses. The Sabbath, 24th Magabit, the King departed from 
Adana and returned because he had given Gadlu a pardon; he 
heard that Kenfu Adam had come and had settled to render 
up the war drum after he had arrived at And Kokab. But the 
Negus fulfilled the words of God which say, " Blessed are the 
merciful for they shall obtain mercy " (Matt. v. 7). Then Gadlu 
acted perfidiously towards the King, as was his wont, and did 
not send the war drum, for he was puffed up, on hearing the 
arrival of Kenfti. The same day the King halted at Salawa. 
The 25th Magabit, he took repose at Salawa. That night a fire 
broke out in the house of the King and burnt the royal tent. 
This made manifest the power that issues from the King, for 
destroying the King's enemies, who had compassed him round 
on the frontiers. Monday, 26th Magabit, the King departed 457 b 
and halted at Bil Amba. Those who formed the rearguard, 
Blattengeta Kalu, Dajazmach Gabra lyasus, the Azaj Yabbo 

w. B. 32 



[2 5 0] 

Barya, Dajazmach Gobrye, fought with the natives of the 
country who fled in disgrace without killing anyone except 
one guard of Azaj Ikonyan. The 27th Magabit, a* rest was 
made because it was the commencement of the Crucifixion 
of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Glory be to him! The Negus 
ordered the herald to make this proclamation, " Whoever goes 
over to Dajazmach Wasan his goods will be confiscated." The 
28th Magabit, the King departed from there, Wednesday, and 
halted at Ad Azenach: the following day, 29th Magabit, he 
took a rest, because it was the feast of the Incarnation (An- 
nunciation, as it is called in the West). The day after, Friday, 
30th Magabit, mounted the hill to see what had happened, for 
the "Zerrafi" (soldiers?) had been fighting with the people of 
the country. 

The Sabbath, 1st Miyazya, Dajazmach Ab Sellus came from 
Amba Falasa, and came in before the King, in the evening. The 
Sunday, 2nd Miyazya, Ras Ayadar and the ministers came to 
the King and spent the day eating and drinking because it was 
Palm Sunday. Yabbo Barya was sent to Begameder. The day 
after, Monday, the King began the prescribed devotions, for it 
was the week of the Passion. Tuesday, 4th Miyazya, the King 
passed similarly in devotions; Wednesday, 5th Miyazya, re- 
mainder in prayer and mourning, mindful that on this day the 
sentence of death was passed upon Our Lord, Glory be to 
him ! The 6th Miyazya, Thursday, the Azaj Ikonyan came to 
the Negus to a banquet; also Alaqa Gabru and Azmach Walda 
Dawit. No others came. Friday, 7th Miyazya, the King passed 
in worship and prayer, for it was the day of the Crucifixion. 
Saturday, 8th Miyazya, the clergy of "Kuer'ata Re'su" entered 
before the King saying, "Peace has come through this Cross." 
458 a The same day a messenger of the Queen came, by name Abba 
Qerillos (Cyril), and reported to the King that Kenfu Adam 
had sent a number of men and chiefs towards Waklme to 
bring down another King, and that Abeto Demetros had 
fought a battle and burnt down houses. The Negus, on 
hearing this, prayed, reciting the 2nd Psalm of David, "Why do 



[251] 

the people tumultuously assemble and the people imagine a 
vain thing ? The Kings of the earth set themselves up and the 
rulers have united together with them against God and his 
anointed. Let us break our bands asunder, let us cast away 
their yoke from us. He who sitteth in the heavens shall laugh. 
God shall have them in derision. When he shall speak to them 
in his wrath and shall vex them in his displeasure. Since I have 
been appointed over them," to the end (of the Psalm). The same 
day a violent rain fell with hail ; so great that many houses 
were ruined. Sunday, 9th of Miyazya, the feast of the glorious 
Resurrection, the Negus refused to eat nor would he slaughter 
bullocks on account of the great affliction : notwithstanding for 
the sake of the people he had an ox slaughtered. Of the Officers 
and the people no one tasted salt and butter because Kenfu 
Adam committing a great crime that had never before been 
done, he put guards to prevent the supplies of the King and the 
Officers of State arriving. The people and the messengers of 
the King went forth by night; also the Queen with the princess 
Yankoy Lul, wept and wailed day and night. This week of the 
Resurrection the King did not depart thence. He completed 
the week of the Resurrection with his Officers of State, eating 
and drinking in honour of the Resurrection, while his heart was 
full of sorrow. The 17th Miyazya, the King remained there to 
get information about everything. The 18th Miyazya, the King- 
stayed to learn (about events) and learnt for certain that Kenfu 
Adam had brought down another King from Wakhne, namely 
Atse Salomon who had previously been deposed by his hand 
and Avas dwelling at Takya. The 19th Miyazya, the captains 458 b 
and the troops and sons of the "Chawa" assembled round 
the Negus and took an oath in the name of Our Lord, as well as 
the "Kuer'ata Re'su" and by the Glorious Cross and under pain 
of excommunication of the King's priest, the Qasisa Negus, that 
they would do no treachery to the King of Kings, Adyam Sagad. 
Thursday, 20th of Miyazya, the messenger of Dajazmach Baqatu 
came before the King. The same .day the " Zerrafi " (picked 
troops) went towards Adiqabay and fought with the people of 



[252] 

the country. Many " Zerrafi " were taken prisoner. On the 21st 
Miyazya, Friday, the King mounted his horse and went to the 
church of the Holy Virgin for it was her feast day and then soon 
after returned. The Saturday, 22nd Miya/ya, Dajazmach Wasan 
went towards Adiqabay with Wadbabo Gabru Taher, the Bajrond 
Kebte and Gabra Abib made an incursion ; they killed many and 
made prisoners with their guns and horses and set fire to their 
houses. The same day Batsalotu and his brother were put in 
chains as was proper; on Saturday evening, and dawn of Sunday, 
they forgot their oath and went over to Kenfu Adam, (namely) 
Ambaye Kenfu, Berqe, Wasan, Golam and Yelma. Monday, 
24th Miyazya, Dajazmach Wasan came from Adiqabay and laid 
before the King the trophies of their enemies and much booty. 
The 25th Miyazya, messengers of Dajazmach Bagatu came: 
Wednesday, 26th Miyazya, he took a rest there. Thursday, 
27th Miyazya, the King departed and halted at Sa'ela, where 
the next day he rested. Saturday, 29th Miyazya, the Bajrond 
Gabra lyasus stormed a strong amba. From this day till the 
6th Genbot the King did not depart from thence in order to 
459 a learn of the coming of Dajazmach Baqatu. Saturday, 6th 
Genbot, the Affa Negus Wase went towards Quaquala and 
made a raid with Wadbabo Gabru: the same day a severe 
battle took place and the brother of Wase was killed. Khaylu 
son of Wase's son fought bravely and Wase himself was 
wounded by the spear in the face, because as was his wont 
he did not turn his face when he saw a foe coming. On 7th 
Genbot, Gebr Asnash Warqe came and announced to the 
King, with reliable words, the coming of Dajazmach Baqatu. 
From this day to the 10th Genbot the King did not move 
from there, in order to settle the affairs of Walqayt and 
Tsagade. Wednesday, the 10th Genbot, the King sent out 
a herald with the following proclamation, "The Madabay, the 
monks of Tsagade and Melqol Kabte are in possession of what 
they formerly held ; and whoever passes over to Dajazmach 
Wasan his goods shall be aontiscated." Thursday, llth Genbot, 
the King departed thence and halted at Adiqabay : the same 



[253] 

day Lata Sahlu son of Aragay Na'od Aklog turned back and 
went over to Gadlu's side. Friday, the 12th Genbot, the King 
and the army marched and halted at Feqra. They made the 
descent of Adiqabay on foot and during the descent one of the 
soldiers of the King quarrelled with one of his comrades and 
drew his sword. The King seeing this was enraged and 
castigated him with a stick. For the Book says, "The rod 
strengthens the Kingdom." The same day Sadaka'el died. 
Saturday, 13th Genbot, the King marched and halted at Amba 
Abreham : Dajazmach Wasan killed some elephants : Yabbo 
Barya joined them and reported that Dajazmach Baqatu was 
approaching. The 14th Genbot many elephants were discovered; 
Dajazmach Wasan the Balambaras, Gualja, Mammo and Halib 
killed some of them. The same day Gebra Asnash Warqe was 
sent to Dajazmach Baqatu. News of the death of Daru Kabte 459 b 
spread abroad : while ill he had gone towards Waldebba. The 
King halted at Dequtu. Monday, the 15th Genbot, the King 
marched and halted at Fetqa. The Bajrond Gabra lyasus, 
Gabrye and many others stayed behind to kill elephants. The 
same day many soldiers stayed alone with the Kuer'ata Re'su 
on account of the lengthiness of the road. Tuesday, 10th, he 
halted in Zarema, the King sent spies over to Kenfu Adam. 
The Wednesday, 17th Genbot, Bajrond Gabra lyasus came and 
Gabrye, having killed some elephants. At this time the King 
halted at Deba Bahr and the proprietors of the country brought 
him food and drink. Dajazmach Wasan and Bajrond Gabra 
lyasus stayed on the bank of Dabareq. Messengers of the Queen 
joined them, and Gerazmach Walda Abibe, and Balambaras 
Adegoaychaw. Thursday, 18th Genbot, feast of the Glorious 
Ascension, the King rose and ascended the cliff of Lamalmo on 
foot. A horse was killed over the precipice. The news was spread 
that Kenfu Adam had left Wagara and was advancing towards 
Maryam Weha, having had intimation of the approach of the 
King. The same day the Negus halted at Dabareq. The 'Aqabe 
Sa'at Takla Haymanot joined him. The day after, Friday, 19th 
Genbot, he took rest until the arrival of the army train 1 . At the 

1 Guaz 7-Tii included transport animals, provisions, baggage, etc. 



[254] 

6th hour there was a great tumult because the men of Lastii 
had a quarrel with the men of Azaj Kabte. A youthful warrior 
was killed and many were wounded. During the hours of sleep 
a fugitive arrived who had deserted from the battle. He entered 
before the King and announced to him the great news, saying, 
"Good tidings to thee, Oh King. Glad tidings because yesterday 
there was a great battle at MaryamWeha,and Dajazmach Bagatu 
has defeated Kenfu Adam and Efrem, as David said, 'The sons 
of Ephrem have drawn the bow and boasted, and they were 
460 a crushed on the day of battle' (Ps. Ixxviii. 9). They were caught 
prisoners and those were captured who appointed themselves 
King and Queen among their children." Hearing this the 
Negus said, " Know'st thou Oh man that if thou hast not told 
the truth thou shalt be punished grievously?" And he answered 
and said, " Be it upon me Oh King if I lie." Then the Negus 
sent messengers of gladness to the Officers of State who came 
in before the King; the same day there was great rejoicings 
and festival as was fitting: as David said, "Sing aloud unto God 
who has helped us, and make a joyful noise unto the God of 
Jacob " (Ps. Ixxxi. 1). Saturday, 20th Genbot, he departed from 
Dabareq. Many heralds of glad tidings came by road sent by 
the Queen and Dajazmach Baqatu and announced that Kenfu 
Adam had been taken, that Gomaden was dead and all the 
rebel officers of the people of Media Damot and Jawi had been 
killed or captured. Hearing that, the Negus went into the 
church of the Holy Virgin of Ohambelge and prayed, reciting 
the Psalm of David, which runs, " I will extol thee Oh Lord 
because thou hast lifted me up, and hast not made me a 
laughing stock to my enemies. Oh Lord my God, I cried unto 
thee and thou didst have pity on me " (Ps. xxx. 1 ), continuing 
to the end. The King having inarched out halted there. Sunday, 
the 21st Genbot, the King departed and marched. The reason 
of his going on Sunday morning, the feast of Our Lady, and 
not observing the Sabbath was that he might join quickly his 
servant and fight Dajazmach Baqatu. For Baqatu was coming 
with few troops for it is established (laid down) that a law 



[255] 

may be put aside for the sake of a law (i.e. one law may give 
way to a more cogent law). Dajazmach Baqatu came with a 
small force, and at Kosoge met the King. Then Dajazmach 
Baqatu went to his camp at Tahya and the King stayed at 
Kosoge. Monday, 22nd Genbot, the "Liq" arrived from Gondar 
and the chief Judges (Wombars) much pleased because Kenfu 
Adam had occupied their (rebels) houses, and seized their goods, 
and those came also who had not taken part in his rebellion. 
Then Dajazmach Baqatu arrived bearing many trophies and 
booty beyond count. First of all his Fitawrari Ayadan Iaid460b 
down the trophies, after him Gerazmach Adyamo, the Shalaqa 
Sandaqe and all the men of Lasta, each one according to his 
grade and order, as many as they were. After all these the 
faithful servant came to his Lord, wonderful in his strength and 
power, Dajazmach Baqatu saying, "I am Oh my Lord thy servant 
and brother of thy handmaid." Thus saying, he laid the trophies 
down and cast down Kenfu Adam and Sahlu and Ephrem whilst 
they were bearing the stone (on their shoulders in token of 
submission). As the prophet says, " Ephraim was as a humble 
vessel" (Hosea viii. 8). All the rebel officers were caught, 
Tsadalu was captured at Gondar. When the King saw that he 
marvelled and blessed the Lord, saying, "What shall I repay the 
Lord for all he has done to me ? For the enemy who afflicted me 
are weakened and fallen." After that Dajazmach Baqatu went 
to his camp and the King stayed there. Tuesday, 23rd Genbot, 
the King departed thence. Dajazmach Baqatu came and the 
people of the country gave him a solemn reception, the clergy 
and the people with jubilation and canticles. The Negus made 
entry into the Royal Palace chanting to God the Psalm of 
David which runs, "It is better to trust in the Lord than to put 
confidence in man, it is better to trust in the Lord than to put 
confidence in princes. All nations compassed me about, but in 
the name of the Lord I will destroy them. I staggered and 
came near falling, but the Lord has raised me up," and so on to 
the end (Ps. cxviii. 8). 

Here is finished the Book of the History and account of the 



expedition of Walqfiyt, of the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, 
treasure-house of clemency, and patience. Praise be to the 
Lord who has delivered us from the hands of the enemy for 
ever and ever. Amen. 



46i a And now we will tell the story of the raiding expedition of 
the King of Kings, Takla Giyorgis, treasure of mercy and 
patience, to the land Mecha, and the reason of his expedition, (it 
was) because Kenfu Adam escaped from the place where he had 
been imprisoned on the 14th Teqemt, in the third year of the 
(King's) reign, the year of the Evangelist Marqos ; and he (the 
King) marched towards Mecha, where he saw with an eye of 
mercy, and returned good for evil deeds ; if we were to recite 
every good deed that the King performed these leaves would 
not contain them. And on that day he cut off the hand and the 
foot of Basha Wasan, and they (cut off) the hand of Sakelu, 
having driven out Kenfu, whom they put in chains as a 
rebel. And on the 24th of Teqemt, three days after, at night 
fall the King of Kings, Takla Giyorgis, whose throne name was 
Feqr Sagad, issued forth : and he was blessed by the Abun and 
the Echage, and he halted at Adareha. And with him there 
halted the Azaj Teku, the Kantiba Kenwat, Balambaras Gualja, 
Basha lyasu, Liqe Khaylu, Liqe Gabru, Liqe lyo'aks, Azaj 
Ya'eqob, Yashalaqa Sutu'il, Azaj Walda Giyorgis. The " Liq " 
(judiciary) went forth with great rejoicing, because that the 
Negus had pronounced righteous judgment on Liqe Khaylu. 
They did not prepare food supplies, but went forth with the 
Negus on that day. Has Ayadar remained as guard for the 
town. And on the 25th of Teqemt, the Friday, the Negus went 
out from thence and stayed at Baclia, and he sent Azaj Mecha 
and there came Liqa Maquas Kenfu and Affa Negus Wase and 
Alaqa Gabru Za Ledata came, since it is not proper to raid 
on the friends of the Lord after abandoning the office of Se'el 
Bet for the law must be waived for the sake of the law ; and 



[257] 

with him "the Kuer'ata Re'su," and the notables and chiefs 
Azaj Zawada, Negadras Asawel, Balambaras Adegoaychaw 
and the judges and the children of "Chawa." And on 20th 
he rested at that place and the Affa Negus Wase towards 
Gondar by order of the Negus, when the army of the Negus 46i b 
marched. On the 27th he rested and Azaj Khaylu came, 
and there came a messenger from Fitawrari Ikonyan who 
brought news to the Negus that the enemy had been dispersed, 
namely, Kenfu Adam and Adera Khaylu, one towards the east, 
the other towards the west. On the 28th, Fitawrari Yasellase 
Barya (slave of the Trinity) and Azaj Danfu came and Alaqa 
Zena of Abuna Ewosttatewos since a raid was not fitting for 
him. He remembered the kindness that had been done him 
by the Negus. What eye hath not seen nor ear heard, nor 
hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive. And on that 
day the Negus stayed at Guarehe, and Affa Negus Wase 
returned. On the 29th day the Negus started out from 
Guarehe and stayed at Chaqeren. And many soldiers came, 
Bajrond Fanu'el and Nagadras Yalemtu. On the 30th the 
Negus rose from Chaqeren and stayed at Goy. There came 
many soldiers and on the 1st of Khedar the 5th day of the 
week, the King rose from Goy and Sagaba came and mes- 
sengers sent by Fitawrari Ikonyan, and news arrived that 
Adera Khaylu had been captured and the King was rejoiced 
on hearing it. And he sang the Psalm of David the 96th, " Sing 
unto the Lord a new song, the Lord hath worked wonders," to 
the end; and then he prayed saying, "He wisheth not the 
strength of a horse, he hath not pleasure in the limbs of a man, 
he the Lord hath pleasure in those that revere him, and in those 
that trust in his mercifulness." And the Negus sent a mes- 
senger of good tidings to Dajazmach Baqatu for Dajazmach 
Baqatu did not go on the expedition, but had come to the 
town, before the King went out on his. He went towards his 
province by order of the King. And then the King sent 
messengers into his province and stayed over against Wambarya. 
And many officers Sura Haba and Walda Sellase came from 



W. B. 



33 



Gajage Kanazmach but Yasellase Barya remained at Alia. 
And on the second (day), Wednesday (4th), they rose from 
there and stayed at Qongara. And Azaj Media came with 

462 a many soldiers and on the 3rd he reposed there. And Gara 
Walda Aragay came and Halib with many soldiers and Baroriga 
Kabte. On the 4th he and Azaj Zakeru Liqe Khaylu and 
many officers and troops rested because it was (Saturday) the 
Sabbath, and on the 5th the Negus rose from Qongara and 
stayed at Amra. And Blattengeta Wati and Asalafi Khaylu 
and Azaj Kabtu and Qanazmach Yasellase Barya and Alaqa 
Sahelu and many troops of Mecha and Agaw arrived with 
many gifts. On the 6th Dajazmach Adegahe came with a 
few men and left troops at Guta. On the 7th the Negus 
reposed while he dispensed justice to the poor and needy. As 
David said, "Render justice to the poor and the orphan." And 
on the 8th Fitawrari Ikonyan came and appeared before the 
Negus; a man of Djawis and a man of Media stayed at Godakha; 
and on the 9th the Negus reposed in dispensing justice and 
alms to the blind and the infirm, as the Psalms say "The 
justice of the great King makes him beloved in return." And 
Basha lyasu was set free and Liqa Maqwas Kenfu at Danenat, 
Daiienat however belonged to Basha lyasu. On the 10th 
Fitawrari Ikonyan came and met the Negus and the cur- 
tain was withdrawn, and the chiefs arrived, and the horn 
was sounded, and the judges took their seats. The servants of 
the Negus stood up in great reverence on the right hand and 
on the left, some came bearing a sword and others bearing guns 
without number, so that no one could say it was such a one, or 
such a one, officers also covered up their faces and feet in the 
likeness of the Cherubim and Seraphim that they might be 
saved from the fire that flew from the hands of the riflemen. 
And then the men of Mecha came and Fanta Gabra Mika'el 
came first and after him all the men of Mecha alongside of him, 
and after everyone Fitawrari Ikonyan came and brought Aden! 

462 b Khaylu before the face of the Negus and proclaimed the benefits 
the Negus had conferred upon him. 



[259] 

He prostrated himself before the Negus saying, "Have 
mercy on me." And when the Negus saw that, the spirit of 
patience came into his heart and he bid Adera Khaylu to rise, 
and the judges went to their places ; and then he sang the 
Psalm of David, saying " Oh Lord, the King shall joy in thy 
strength, and in thy salvation he shall greatly rejoice, and thou 
hast given him his heart's desire and hath not withholden the 
request of his lips 1 " unto the end. And on the llth the Negus 
retired and reposed in solitude. And on the 12th they 
slaughtered many bullocks and they made a feast for Alaqa 
Gabru and Alaqa Zena and he gave them meat so that the 
monastery was satisfied. For that was the feast of the Arch- 
angel Michael. And to the chief judges he gave them bullocks 
for each of them. And on the 13th at the 9th hour there 
was a great tumult and disturbance in the camp because of 
some petty dispute between the men of Balambaras Gualej 
and the men of Dajazmach Hezeqeyas. And three men were 
killed and many wounded, the Negus himself not prevailing to 
make the men relinquish (the fighting). And even after the 
torpor of the cold overcame them, the Negus having returned 
home, their meal (rations) did not pacify them, so that on 
the next day, Wednesday, the Negus did not show himself on 
account of his great grief till the 9th hour. And on the 15th 
the Negus arose and returned and Walcla Sellase from Amri. 
And he went to the frontier of Ashara and punished with the 
rod many of those who were guilty of plundering the cattle of 
the district. And on the same day a ruffian Arushe (Galla Tribe 
of) killed a man in front and by order of a royal servant of the 
King, the Negus however was much annoyed that the murderer 
escaped. And on the next day the Negus arose from that place 
and stayed at Dubani. The next day, Sunday, he rested there 
and left Fitawrari Ikonyan at Amri. And on the 18th the King 
retired and rested alone. And on the 19th the Negus rested 
when he did what was just for the widows and children, and he 
punished by flogging two men who had slaughtered bullocks of 

1 Ps. xxi. 1, 2. 



[260] 

463 a the poor. And Azaj Yabo Barya came, and Gabryo and the 
Balasa men. And on the same day news was heard of the death 
of Azaj Abeselom of Hanqo. And on the 20th Fitawrari Ikonyan 
came and sent out a herald to Azaj Abeselom and Nagadras 
Asahel saying "enough of beginning 1 ." And on the 21st the 
Negus commanded men of Agaw to go to their own country 
and bring him tribute at once. And on the 21st the Negus 
went to the Church of our Lady Mary and returned in an 
hour. And on the 23rd the Negus was accessible at the 
9th hour for a short time. On the 24th Wadbabo Gabru 
came, who was Tsagade Dajazmach Kantiba Yawesta and 
Gerazmach Walda Sellase and Gerazmach Tsewa, for he 
had (pardoned) compassion on them. And on the 25th the 
Negus rose and made a feast for the judges and the nobles 
and for those whom he had pardoned. In the evening there 
was much firing of guns and many wounded. On the 20th the 
Negus reposed dispensing justice. 

And on the 27th the Negus reposed while the horses and 
cattle were received from the people of Jawi. And on the 
28th the Negus spent the time dispensing justice. 

The judges gave sentence on Miko Gabre'el, viz., that his 
leg be cut off as a penalty for cutting off a leg of his poor 
attendant, as the Book says, " an eye for an eye, and a leg for 
a ler." And on the 30th the herald went round and said to the 

^j 

Priests of Sion whom he had assembled, " There is enough of 
beginning." As for Basha Kenfu he gave him the country of 
Lomame, that he had previously consecrated. 

And Sion assembled from Amiru in the (month of) Takhsas 
on the day before and the Negus reposed by himself and was 
463 b not accessible. On the 2nd it was heard that Asalafi Walda 
Aragay had come out from Begameder. On the 3rd Asalafi 
Walda Aragay came, and he took the two hands of a child and 
a youth that KanfU Adam sent them so that they might see the 
Negus privately; the Negus was inaccessible because he was 
taking medicine, and on the 9th Harare went out towards Guta, 

--- Ainlwric, lit. enough of beginning, i.e. now let us get to work. 



[261] 

and many were killed, but the King was absent; and on the 5th 
the King withdrew until the 16th except from his ministers and 
children of the house, for he was suffering a little. And on the 
1 7th the Negus gave audience to the minister that came from 
Gondar and Tigre, and on the 18th Ras Khaylu came with many 
gifts. And on the 19th there was a meeting of Gojamese and 
on the 20th there came a verdict from the judges that Adera 
Khaylu be sentenced to death as the Book says, "Everyone who 
conspires, even if without harm done, against Patriarch and 
King, for their death, or dishonour, he shall die the death." And 
on the same day Dena Kabte returned for he had during that 
time been taken by the men of Gomar. And on the 21st there 
was council taken with Ras Khaylu, he robed Ras Khaylu with a 
purple linen robe 1 and reconciled him with the men of Gojam: 
and Roge died suffering from Epi (sic) 2 and with blessings left a 
legacy to Ras Khaylu that it might be called the " Glory of the 
House" by law, and Ras Khaylu was pleased. 

On the 22nd the Negus rose from Dubani and stayed 
at Ashra, but Ras Khaylu and Dajazmach Adgah left their 
positions. And on the 23rd the Negus rose from there and 
stayed at Kelti, the excuse he gave for his starting on the 
Sabbath being that the country might not be destroyed nor the 
people disturbed, as is written in the Gospel: The Sabbath 
was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. And on the 29th 
the Negus rose from that place and stayed at Chaqa River. 
And he heard that Echage Henoch was dead and Fanta his 
servant was put in chains as was proper. On the 25th the 
Negus arose from there and stayed at Achara, and Azaj Kabte 
returned among the judges and the people of the country 
and the priests received the Negus with jubilation. On the 464 a 
26th the Negus arose from thence and stayed at Sarweha, 
and Yashalaqe Walda Sellase came from Gajge. On the 29th 
the Negus rose from there and stayed at Barcha and men 
who came from Gondar met him. And there was no food to 
be got nor head of corn on the whole journey for the Negus 



= purple. 2 Epi >tA." error for Epilepsis or perhaps WftTA* Enpaupe, 

elephantiasis, a not uncommon complaint in Abyssinia. 



[262] 

was punishing his troops. And on the 28th the Negus rose 
from there and stayed at Robit over against Gondar and the 
'Aqabe Sa'at Abeselom and the commanders and the priests 
came out to meet him on the road and there was great 
rejoicing. And the Negus came into the reception hall and he 
relieved the Dajazmach Wasan of his term of imprisonment 
and the Queen also coming they stayed among them with great 
rejoicings. And guns were received that Dajazmach Gadalu 
sent him. This concludes the history of the expedition into 
the land of Mecha, praise be to God for ever and ever. Amen. 
The Negus arriving at the city spent the summer season 
in safety only doing works of penitence : for he was freed with 
Dajazmach Bakatu in the matter of Balambaras Gualej. But 
Balambaras Gualej had taken refuge at Waldebba, the Negus 
having dismissed him so as to rejoice the heart of Dajaz- 
mach Baqatu. That spring an Arab 1 came from the town of 
Senaar and he presented the Negus with gifts of many asses 
and horses. Another Arab came and made gifts to the King 
and the King gave him decorations in return. Dajazmach 
Gadelu came this spring for the Negus was kind to him and 
gave him in addition to his command of Dajazmach that dignity 
over Walqayt, presenting him with a robe of honour and 
sending him to his territory. And the Negus received visits 
of the priests. In the month of Genbot, news came how 
Dajazmach Kabte was ill and the Negus was not only much 
distressed but he summoned the 'Aqabayan (guardians) of 
medicine (the head physicians) and sent them to him. And 
after guns had been fired 2 they heard that Dajazmach Baqatu 
had died and it caused great sorrow not only to the Negus but 
464 b to the Negus's household. And they shaved his head and dressed 
him in cloth of goat hair, and they mourned as King David 
mourned for his beloved Jonathan. At that time there came 
to the Negus a rumour saying that Kenfu Adam was coming 
from Setya and Andayl Lanacho the Fitfuvrfiri of Dajazmach 
Adagah seized him. And hearing this on the 6th of Sane ( = 7th 

1 Vidt> Appendix. 2 It is customary to fire guns \\licu :i num dies. 



[26 3 ] 

June) on Tuesday after the 6th hour Negus Takla Giy orgis started 
from Gondar and went out followed by the chiefs and officers. 
These were they the chiefs Liqe Khaylu, his brother and Liqe 
lyo'ekes, of the left wing, and Fitawrari Yasellase Barya friend 
of the King, Dajazmach Gabra lyasus, Qaiiyazmach Bakaffa, 
Garasmach Walda Abib, Balambaras Gualej, Nagadras Ya- 
lemtu, Basha lyasu, Affa Negus Wase, Azaj Kabte, Ligaba 
Walda Giyorgis, Asalafi Khaylu, Azmach Walda Dawit, Yasha- 
laqa Mitar, Yashalaqa Butuel, Yashalaqa Waldu, Yashalaqa 
Kabte, Yashalaqa Yabo Barya, Yashalaqa Guragul, Yashalaqa 
Aderu, Ras Ayadar also, and Kantiba Adegoaychaw, he left in 
the city, and the prisoners that had been taken when they were 
shut up, were not allowed out. The Negus brought with him 
Aderu Khaylu, and on the same day he stayed at Fantar. But 
Qis Atse Kabte, and Alaqa Zafaru and Malek Tsahay Robe'am 
stayed with the Negus to bid farewell, and on the same day 
Bajrond Fanu'el was kicked by his horse. He returned to- 
wards Gondar and Gera came from Mecha. Then there came 
the officers that had not gone out with the Negus for among 
them there is no sedition, when the Negus sent a herald pro- 
claiming "Assemble on Thursday." And when he heard of the 
great perfidy (rebellion) of Kanfu, he started forth on (the 3rd 
day) Tuesday, for indeed there is no remissness in the Negus. 

For God when he saw a just king he called him just, when 
he saw the great sins of the people, he caused a deluge of 
water for 100 years after. He spoke saying, "Let a deluge 465 a 
come for 120 years." We will now return to what we said at 
the beginning. On the 7th the Negus rose from Fantar and 
stayed at Wayn Arab ; Mel'aka Tsahay Roba'am and Qis 
Atse Kabte and Alaqa Zafaru returned, and Liqe lyo'ekes 
went to Balasa. Blattengeta Kalu and Azaj Danfa came 
while both were very ill. And on the 8th Sane the Negus 
rose from Wayn Arab and rested at Ferqa. Alaqa Gabru 
came the 3rd hour, since he was much grieved at being 
separated from his Lord two hours, for he was much loved 
of his Lord, as John the Evangelist was, and at the 6th hour 



[26 4 ] 

Liqe Maqwasa Kaui'u and Garannacfa Walda Selasse and 
Kantiba Yawestu, and Nagfulras Asahel and Azaj Zawedu. 
And on the 9th the Negus rose from Ferqa and when he 
arrived at Amge, Dajazmach Hezeqeyas came, and he heard 
from a merchant saying that Dajazmach Adegeh and Fitawrari 
Ikonyan had defeated Kenfu Adam and Andayl who had got 
away out of prison was taken, and he brought him to Nacho; 
and many were put to death. And again the attendant 
of Aslafe Khaylu came bringing the truthful account of the 
victory. And he reported it to the Negus, and the Negus was 
much pleased and gave thanks to God saying " The image of 
God hath been always before me, for he is on my right hand, 
so that it be not shaken. For this is my heart rejoiced and 
my tongue is loosened " ; and after this Khaylu son of the Affa 
Negus Wase came from Begameder, for he was travelling by 
order of the Negus. And Zalan came at the same hour, 
skipping like a goat. And presents of bullocks were made 
to the Negus. And when each youth had received a little 
grass from the master of the country for his house, the Negus 
made a present of clothes to the youth for the master of 
the house. On the same day the Negus stayed at Awara 
465bMasarya. And Azaj Teku came and Bajrond Zena Gabre'el 
and Bajrond Nablis and many soldiers. And on the 10th day 
he rested there. And many officers of state came and soldiers 
and warriors, the owner of the village bringing a great 
quantity of food. And on the llth he reposed there and 
Alaqa Zena came, and Alaqa Sahelu of Walda Neguadguad. 
And the reason of their retiring was because they utterly 
refused them (to go) saying, " What is the use of being guards 
of priests, if we have to go on raiding expeditions, like the 
guards of the army twice in one year." And on account of 
this they came and gathered together, many of their guards 
remaining behind. The same day many soldiers came. On 
the 12th he rested there because it was the feast (?) of the 
Archangel Mikael. And on that day came many officers 
but the Negus spent the time hearing speech and examining 



[ 2 6 5 ] 

disputes among the priests of the island. And on the 13th the 
Negus rose from there, and filled up his supply of water and 
stopped at Gugebe. And on the 14th the Negus rose from 
there and stopped at Galda. Then Azaj Y'akob came and 
afterwards blood-letters 1 (surgeons) came, and that there 
might be witnesses (?) Dajazmach Hezeqeyas stayed, for the 
operation 2 as he was suffering from illness. On the 15th they 
went from there and stayed on the Abay and Adgeh, and 
Fitawrari Ikonyan and Garazmach Adyam and Agaz Yabis 
Hunafia came. And the Picture from Debra Maryam arrived 
and on the 16th he left Kantiba Kaiifu and the Negus rose 
from there. And Kafiazmach Sahelu came and Azaj Khaylu 
and on the same day the Negus started from Achabar. And 
on the 17th the Negus left there and he pulled down the 
houses of Kenfu (?) that had been built with the fifth 3 that they 
might serve for timber for the Church. What was left, he 
burnt; he camped there, and on the 18th he marched thence 
and arrived at the River Abay, and found it in flood (full) 
and many animals were drowned. On the same day they 
killed many Galla peasants, capturing much booty, men and 466 a 
animals. But the Negus was much grieved and he sent a herald 
to proclaim that the plunder should be restored. Evening 
coming on Balambaras Ramekha came and Teha his son and 
Bajrond Adera Gabre'el and Logo his son, and Gajan his 
daughter, but the Negus camped on the bank of the Abay that 
the people might not be harmed. And on the 19th the Negus 
marched out from there and crossed the River Abay, by the 
good advice of another, on wheels. On the same day Maleaka 
Tsahay Robe'am, Alaqa Feqru Wagurati, and his friend Wago- 
shye, Nagadras Walda Busa, Azaj Zekru, Azaj Wadaju and 
many troops arrived, and the Negus flogged many who 
brought bullocks. On the 28th the Negus started out and 



Amharic from pmi Ge'ez fe<;x. Guidi, loc. cit,, gives f<jm and fefii, 263, 4. 

2 Operation of blood-letting. 

3 W ^?* Ammiste'yya the fifth part of the produce of a property which goes to the 
proprietor, four-fifths going to the cultivator. 

w. B. 34 



[266] 

camped at Dangela and on the following day the Wednesday 
he reposed there, and a messenger came there from Balya 
who reported that Kanfu Adam had been captured. The 
same day Gaberye came and many people of Lasta. And 
evening coming on Gerazmach Walda Abeh went out towards 
Gondar, and Azaj Dancfu Balya: and the day following the 
Negus marched out and camped at Adabe. And he sent 
messengers into his territory and Balambaras Ramekha 
returned. On the 23rd the Negus rose and camped at 
Ambasa Gama, and Gerazmach Sandaqe came and people 
of Waransha, and Lasta and Kanesa and Waraq Saqala 
(Golden Cross) and Liqe lyo'akes and many troops. On the 
25th he reposed there and Gabra Sellase came and Gabra 
Hywat from the servants of the King's household and they laid 
down the trophies. The next day Kenfu came and Wand 
Afrash having killed some Shankala they cast down the 
trophies again, Priests came of Narga Selasse and he sent 
them a herald. And on the 26th Priests of Daga came 
bringing with them the bones of Zar'a Ya'ekob the just king, 
that was called Constantinos and so they came after 330 years, 
and it seemed the will of God that this blessing should be 
upon the King of Kings, Takla Giyorgis. But the Negus sent 
466 b a herald to them, saying "All those who take sanctuary with 
the bones of the Great Zar'a Ya'ekob the just king, and 
Stephen the Martyr, we will have mercy on all evil doers and 
rebels. And let Daga be for the abode of the Abun and 
Echage and ' Quoratsa ' (Surgeon ?), and let the whole number 
of those (bones?) that had been taken away be restored to 
them." 

On the 28th came Kanfu Adam, Ba'eda Nana of Basya, 
and many powerful men of Mecha, whom he had made prisoners, 
came with him, then they bore stones 1 and they fell down 
before the Negus. And when he saw that he marvelled and 
gave praise to God, saying "Praise God with a new song, 
praised be he in the congregation of his just ones. Let Israel 

1 I.e. carried stones on their shoulders as mark of submission. 



[26;] 

rejoice in him who made them, and the children of Sion be 
joyful in their King" (Ps. cxlix to the end.) And after that 
Liqe Khaylu of the left (wing) stood up to be punished in 
the Negus's presence, for the Azaj that was present among 
them punished them on account of their crimes; while they 
proclaimed aloud, saying "We deserve to die, for we have 
committed (the crime of) rebellion." So the judges and 
the Negus gave judgment in these words, "They are worthy 
of death." And since they committed crime of rebellion, he 
proclaimed that it was useless for them to cry out. They 
groaned but groans were of no avail. And when the Negus saw 
that, his heart softened as was his wont and he was touched 
with pity at their being put to death so he gave orders, saying, 
"Let Kassa Kenfu and Eleyas Amaljen, and Ohole Kiros, 
and Khaylu Waraiia, repent by having their feet cut off that 
it may be a warning to their posterity that may come (after 
them)." As for Kenfu Adam and Andayl, he commanded 
that they should remain in chains with Adera Khaylu, but 
on Wasan Sagad and Chalema, as they were staying with 
Kenfu, he had mercy and pardoned them. And on the 29th 
the Negus marched out from there and camped at Sankera. 
But Dajazmach Adegah and Fitawrari Ikonyan and their 
officers, returned and went to Gondar, and Azaj Teku and 
Bajrond Zena Gabre'el made preparations, and at evening the 
Negus had the bones of Zar'a Ya'eqob the Negus brought to 
his tent, and looked upon them in admiration and wrapped 
them in purple and fine drapery 1 . On the 30th of Sane, the 467 a 
Negus went out from thence and camped at Bomba, for the 
(bones of) Zar'a Ya'eqob were restored to Daga. On the 
1st of Hamle the Negus rose from that place and many 
men and women of the place seized his hand with jubila- 
tion saying, " What sedition ! Kenfu has gone off and fled," 
they shouted "What a crime 2 ! Down with rebellion!" On 



1 ft'Vi*T r < fr. rt.tf'X'V 1 Synnada, town in Phrygia, Dill. Lex. 

2 Amharic, except the Ge'ez word ^009 \ which is from an old form of verb h<nm > 
to rebel. 



[268] 

the same day the Negus camped at Galemata Warqa, and 
there came from Gondar the princess Walata Abo, the 
sister of the Negus, as he was going towards Meta Dajaz- 
mach Adegah and with him came Garazmach Walda Abeb 
and princess Waleta Fekr, and many who were sent from 
the principal towns. The next day, the Sunday, he re- 
posed there, and the Priests of Quesquam, of Tomara 
came and had rejoicings in the presence of the Negus. On 
the 3rd the Negus rose from there and camped at Babakha. 
and a great crowd of men and priests from the country 
round came at that time of festivity and song 1 , to give 
him a reception, and that day the Negus camped at 
Barcha ; and when they went out on the journey there was no 
grass received or wood from the peasants, so that the Negus 
punished them. And on the 5th the Negus went out from 
thence and was received by the youths and priests and he 
camped at Kobit: and on the 6th, Thursday, the Negus 
started thence and came into the Royal audience hall with 
rejoicing and great festivity, singing the Psalms of David, and 
he said, " When they go they went into the country weeping, 
and bearing seed, but when they returned home they came 
rejoicing, and carrying their sheaves with them " (Ps. cxxvi. 0). 
Then the Negus commanded them to cut off the right 
hand and the left foot of Andayl and they were so cut off. 
And the Negus coming sent to Kenfu Adam, and Adera 
Khaylu saying " You deserve it. Finish with your penitence, 
for you shall have a severe sentence," and after a little while 
the Negus meted out punishment to Kenfu Adam and Adera 
Khaylu, and he put out their eyes having mercifully remitted 
their death sentence. For he was a merciful and kind-hearted 
H;TI. man. And after the rains the Negus continued in good health. 
And on the 10th Nahase the Negus ordered the Abun to bring' 
the Tabot of Fasiladas into the house of Este Galawdewos and 
joined with it the Tabot of Dabra Tabor and the Tabot of 
Hanna and Eyaqlm, and the Tabot of Abraham and Yshaq 

chant, canticle, also instrument of music. 



[26 9 ] 

and Ya'eqob. And on the same day he sent a herald out to 
proclaim " From this time forward let all fees from the priests 
cease that were received by the Chiefs and Bishops, and let 
the Tabots be consecrated without fees." Then he said, " We 
have given our provinces (districts) which are called Daqua, 
and Quabeta, and Guinter to be the property of the priests of 
Debra Tabor." This pronouncement the Negus established 
under pain of excommunication, by the mouth of the Abuna 
Yusab, and Echage Tesfa, and during that winter at Agata, 
e Ali came to Begameder, and the Negus hearing of this sent 
to 'Ali saying, " Unless you come before us, know that I will 
wreak a severe vengeance on you." Hearing this message 
of the Negus, C AH sent to the Negus saying " If indeed it is 
your will, I will come before you." And on the 17th he laid 
hands on Azaj Gabru when he was about to play the traitor 
upon him. And on that day Dajazmach Gadeta came be- 
fore the Negus from Walqayt. A short while after, 'Ali came 
before the Negus and he was invested with the office of 
Balambaras, and decorated by the hand of the Negus. On 
the 6th of Khedar, the Negus had the Tabot of Debra Metmaq 
(Baptist) brought to his tent at Chafera Meda, because the 

building was not completed. 

*%***#** 

And after this we will relate the history of the campaign in 
Wallo and Wechale of the King of Kings, Takla Giyorgis, the 
new Alexander, who showed his prowess by land and sea, whom 
the Holy Ghost has blest, like Jeremias in the womb, Priest as 
well as King. Amen. 

In the year 7500 1 of the world 1777 year of mercy, the 4th 
year of his reign, of Luke the Evangelist on the 7th of Khedar, 
on the night of Thursday, after the 6th hour, the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis, whose throne name was Feqr Sagad, 
went out from Gondar, and camped at Tsada; Ras Ayadars he 468 a 
left at Gondar so that he might build the Church of our Lady 

1 Error for 7275. The year of mercy given (1777) makes 1777 + 7 = 1784. This, however, 
is at variance with the date on p. 342, and being the year of Luke is probably 1782. 



[2/0] 

the Holy Virgin, Mary the Mother of God, which was called 
Debra Metmaq. Semen Aderu however was invested with the 
office of Kantiba and returned ; on that day there remained 
with the Negus, Blattengeta Gualej and Garazmach Adyam, 
Balambaras Ali, Dajazmach Gadelu, Azaj Zena Gabre'el, Alaja 
Gabru, the writer of this history, Affa Negus Wase, Azmach 
Walda Dawit, Ligaba Walda Giyorgis, Yashalaqa Kabte, Yas- 
halaqa Asagad, who was himself Gashajagre (a shield-bearer) \ 
Yashalaqa Wadena Kabte, Sega Malekafia, and many attendants 
of the Negus whom he had invested and decorated. 

And of the judges, Liqe Gabru of the right (wing) and Liqe 
lyo'akes, and Azaj Wadaj, and on the following day the 8th 
Khedar, Qis Atse Kabte came from Gondar, to bid him adieu. 
And the Negus marched out from Tsada and camped at Guaraba, 
and Qis Atse Kabte returned, Mel'ek Berhanat Zafaru and 
Alaqa Zena Zaba'ata and Alaqa Fequr Egzi'e, and Alaqa Gabra 
Kedan, and Alaqa Libaryos, for they came to bid farewell, and 
Mel'ek Tsahay Robe'am, but Mel'ek Berhanat Kherut and 
many judges he turned back at Fantur and Azaj Danefu 
came, for he had remained to take physic, as he was suffering 
much, by reason that he was parted from his master, for he 
loved him as a son. Afterwards Mel'ek Tsahay Nahud came 
to bid him farewell, and on the following day the 9th the 
Negus marched from Goraba and camped at Enferaz and 
Mel'ek Tsahay Nahud the attendant on the King, and Alaqa 
Sahelu, having been received were sent back. And on that 
day Azaj Ya'eqob came and on the following day the 10th 
468 b he reposed there. Many officers came and priests with the 
Kuer'ata Re'su. Afterwards Dajazmach lyasu came and Nega- 
dras Yalimtu, and Azaj Kedan, Yashalaqa Mitar and on the 
following day the llth he reposed there, and the Negus went 
out to Amba Maryam and returned at the 3rd hour with 
banners and kettle drums and a large force. The next day 
the 12th of Khedar he rested and Azaj Kenfu of Tarasamba 
and Azaj Kenfu Elfana came, and next day the Kith the 

1 Amharic. 



[271] 

Negus inarched from Emferaz and camped at Qaroda on 
a hill. Here he sent out a herald to say, " Everyone who has 
taken refuge (taken sanctuary) at Debra Metsrakha shall be 
pardoned, for the Negus seeks cause for pardon, as he was 
its founder." Afterwards it was proclaimed " We have given the 
country to Liqe Gabru which our brother the Negus gave." 
And a second proclamation was made, " Whosoever shall take 
food, or pluck an ear of corn (f* t( fr} I shall visit with severe 
punishment." There were many priests at that moment, who 
gave him a reception with songs and sweet music. On the 15th 
the Negus marched from Amad Bor and camped at Tsaguer. 
And Liqe Khaylu came, of the left wing, and Yashalaqa 
Yabisahunana who was a Dajazmach and many people ; on the 
16th the Negus brought Alaqa Gabru to his tent and he rested 
there and returned in the evening ; and on the 17th on Sunday 
he reposed there. Nagadras Yamaryambarya came and after 
came Azaj Walda Abib and Liqa Guba'e Zena, for he was 
delayed at Guenter suffering on account of his fasting. 

On the 18th news was brought from Eas Khaylu, and on 
the 19th Ras Khaylu and with him Fitawrari Ikonyan came 
and chiefs and the Negus stayed for food and on the same 
day Azaj Khaylu came. On the 20th the Negus stayed and 
held a court of justice, and restored territory and goods that 
had been taken away, and gave a flogging to those who had 
taken them away. He struck one of his servants because he 469 a 
altered his orders. On the same day Dajazmach Adegah 
came, and with him Eshete Khaylu; on the 21st Dajazmach 
Adegah and Fitawrari Ikonyan went on in advance, but 
the Negus stayed with his sister Princess Waleta Abo and 
Waleta Fequr. The Negus inflicted punishment on all who 
had taken food and ears of corn from the peasants even 
to the grass (thatch) of the houses and seizing Aslafe Yaba 
Barya had him up before him. When however (he found) that 
they who took the things were very badly in want of food, 
he repented, and gave secret orders that they should not be 
punished severely but lightly, that the men might be warned. 



[2/2] 

On the 22nd Yashalaqa Eshati came, Yashalaqa of Lasta, and 
Asalafe Walda Aragawi the Negus receiving them in his tent. 

A great number of troops came in. On the 23rd the Negus 
marched from Tseguer and camped at Waher and Dajazmach 
lyasu made a present of show bread 1 . And the Negus put up 
his tent of scarlet cloth, having a silver mast 2 that gave light 
like a morning star. And he had a wonderful cross in the 
likeness of the Holy Trinity, as on that day every work done 
was with the sign of the cross, and they made on their shields 
of iron a sign of the cross as was done in the time of the just 
King of Constantinople, and that shows how near allied is the 
destruction of the pagans and the salvation of the faithful. 
And on that day Ras Khaylu presented the Negus with many 
mules. On the 24th the Negus issued an admonition and 
called together the people of Gojam and the people of Damot, 
but some wrangled, some saying: " I am first," and others, " I am 
first." And the Negus hearing this said to them, " Go away, eat 
your food, and some other day demand of me your rights once 
again." And he said this to the Chiefs and the sons of Chawa 
469 band the picked troops 3 . And on the 25th of Sane, the Negus 
marched from Qaher and camped at Kemer Dangya and on the 
26th the Negus marched out from Kemer Dangya and camped 
at Mashalamya, where the priests of Zur Amba gave him a recep- 
tion, and the Negus invited one of the priests. On the 27th the 
Negus left Mashalamya and camped at Wecha by himself; and 
Liqe Khaylu of the left wing came, and Yashalaqa Guangul who 
was Yashalaqa of Tigre, and on the 28th the Negus left and 
descended below on foot, and stayed at Bet Meda, and men 
were killed and animals by (falling down) the precipice. On 
the 29th the Negus left Bet Meda and camped at Chet Weha. 
There he heard of the death of Qis Atse Keflu, and Dajazmach 
Kassa. On the 30th the Negus went from Chat Weha and 

1 f nxTr i Wg> a small cakes of bread used in presentations. 

'"' rtV54>! a mast surmounted by a cross and bearing the royal banner. Turkish and 
Arabic (from the Persian) JfjUw. 
3 (chcfra), name of a corps. 



[273] 

camped at Ancham. This was the end of the month of Khedar; 
the first day of (month of) Takhsas was Tuesday and he rested 
there. Then he sent Warare towards Wadela, for the men of 
Wadela that winter had conspired together with rebels. And 
on the same day the Princess Mentewadad, mother of Dajazmach 
Baqatu, and Princess Yaweb Dar also came. On the 2nd, 
Dajazmach Kassa sent many bullocks to the Negus and he 
brought in bread and tribute of mes 1 and wood. 

On the same day came Azaj Zakeru with many men of 
Gondar and so the Negus showed his favour to Dajazmach 
Kassa with a gold head-piece, with a caftan, and a robe of 
honour. And he sent a herald to announce "that he had 
bestowed on Kassa the governorship of Begameder and Lasta," 
he remembered the benefits he had received from the son of 
Dajazmach Baqatu, being one not to forget a benefit, nor to 
remember an injury. And on the 4th the Negus rested there. 
And on the 5th the Negus left Anchem and camped at Yanaja, 
and on the (5th the Negus left Yanaja and camped at Beta Hor, 
and on the 7th he rested again, and he founded a town there. 
On the 9th the Negus sent to Dajazmach Adegah, that he would 470 a 
receive the Dajazmach Bato, for the (latter) sent word that " He 
had sent everything due to the Negus." On the same day the 
Negus invested Asalafe Bertu Saw, Intelligence messenger; and 
Dajazmach Bato came, and on the llth the Daraba Bet from 
Gondar. On the 12th the Negus sent a herald to announce 
that every man of Wechale and Wollo should follow Dajazmach 
Bato, Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el, and everyone who followed 
him should be trained, and ask no questions. And on the 13th 
the Negus decorated Dajazmach Bato on account of his exploits. 
And on the 14th the Negus sent Dajazmach Bato to his pro- 
vince. On the 15th Dajazmach Kassa came and camped at 
Beta town. On the 16th Dajazmach Kassa came to the council 
and on the 17th Dajazmach Dori came there, many being 
present there. Asalafe Warqe and Khaylu came to receive 
them for they had fled from a fight with Galla. And on the 

1 TLft an unfermented grape juice, must. 



w. B. 



35 



[274] 

18th, Jan Tserar Birali Wagelmo came with many men from 
Yaju and Basal. And they cast down Walda Sellase the rebel 
before the Negus along with many other rebels. And Azaj 
Ya'eqob rose and argued before the Negus and judgement was 
given and the sentence was death. But the Negus showed 
more tolerance and put them in chains, for he did not favour 
death as punishment for rebels, but rather their conversion 
and turning away with repentance. And on that day the Negus 
gave a feast to Dajazmach Dori and his men. And on the 
20th Dori Tale gave the Negus a goat with three legs, which 
shows how pagan sinners lessen and lower authority, for that 
goat was a type (symbol) of the sinner. And on the 21st the 
Negus sent forth a herald to proclaim that no detachment of 
troops should go towards Inaja. And on the 22nd, in the evening, 
the Negus called to Liqa Guba'e Zena and Alaqa Gabru, to 
confer with him on spiritual matters, for they were much beloved 
470 b by him. And drawing near to him they said to him, "O King, 
if we have found favour in thy sight, we have a word to address 
thee, some information to give." And the Negus answered, 
"Speak w r hat you have to tell me." Then said Liqa Guba'e 
Zena and Alaqa Gabru, " The men do not speak well to us, and 
they are unwilling to cross the river Jata and refuse to follow 
us to another country." The King on hearing this was much 
angered, but rebuked them tenderly, even as our Lord reproved 
Peter when he said, " Oh thou of little faith, what maketh thee 
afraid," when he saw him doubting and afraid when they went 
with him upon the sea. He (the King) said to them, "Why do you 
(who are) priests speak thus ? Does (the ordinary) man know 
what is good and evil ? If he does know, he knows it of himself 
(by his own gifts) and, if he lies, it is by reason of this that he 
is himself a liar." David indeed said, "I said in my foolishness, 
all men are liars," and in his mouth we shall hear the destruc- 
tion of the Christian fathers and dispersal of the sheep of 
Christ. Did you not hear what our Lord said to those faithful 
ones? "On him be praise in the Holy Gospel, the Good Shepherd 
goes back to seek his sheep. He shall give us power to bear 



[275] 

the cold of night and the heat of the day, to bear the blows 
upon our backs, and smitings on our cheeks, until there is no 
more sin." And hearing this, Liqa Guba'e Zena and Alaqa 
Gabru went off to their lands, saying, " May the will of God be 
done." And on the 23rd the Negus ordered a feast for Jantseray 
Birale with his people. On the 24th the Negus reconciled 
Dajazmach Dori with Dajazmach Adegah ; for an enmity existed 
between them formerly. The Negus sent a herald to proclaim, 
"We have given to Balambaras AH all his province that he 
previously held. On the 25th men came, sent by the Abuna 471 a 
Yosab, bringing Holy Unction. And on the 26th Tarbenos 
Khaylu went away to his country because he was ill, and 
on the way he was murdered by attendants of Dajazmach 
Gadelu on account of a trifling dispute. On the same day a 
second fight took place at the Negus's city: and the Negus 
punished those who stirred up the conflict ; some of them were 
flogged and some put in chains. On the 27th came men, sent 
by the Echage. And on the 28th Blattengeta Kalu came, 
bringing bullocks and honey and presented them to the Negus. 
On the 29th, this being the Great Feast of the Nativity, the 
Negus gave the bullocks to the chiefs and judges and princesses, 
and to all the people. And on the 30th the Negus reposed by 
himself. This is the end of the month Takhsas. And on the 
1st of Ter, Aslafe Tekla came from Tigre and with him and his 
attendant, of a favourable reputation, a man of good works, 
and an intelligent counsellor, and an honoured friend of the 
Negus, Kanasmach Yasellase Barya. And they reported the 
arrival of Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el to the Negus. On the 
2nd the Negus spent the time with his chiefs in council, and on 
the 3rd messengers came from the Etege Waras Ayadadar. 
And on the 4th the Negus took repose and heard what the 
messengers had to report. And on the 5th the Negus sent 
a herald to announce to the son of Ras Goshu, " Let judgement 
be confirmed 1 ." 

On the 6th the Negus reposed alone, and on the 7th the 

1 Amharic, lit. the judgement or sentence is enough. 



[276] 

Negus put himself under medical treatment. And on the 8th 
an attendant of the Negus came who had gone out and brought 
a mule of Dajazmach Walda Gabra'el. On the 9th the Negus 
rested to hear the report of Jantsaray Birale and Balambaras 
Ali ancl on the 10th the Negus went early to the Church with 
some men. And he returned thence at the Oth hour. On the 
llth which was the great feast of the Baptism (Epiphany) the 
Negus rested with his chiefs. And on the 12th the Negus 
slaughtered the bullocks which Ras Khaylu had given him and 
stayed with him and Dajazmach Adegah and Fitawrari Ikonyan. 
471 b And on the same day the Negus decorated with a golden head- 
piece Fitawrari Ay dan, Shum of Dakhna. And on the 13th the 
Negus stayed alone. On the 14th the Negus was not acces- 
sible, and on the 15th no one came except the children of 
the household. On the 16th the Negus commanded the judges 
and the Affa Negus Wase to hear the plaints of the litigants 
at the door of the Negus's tent. On the 17th Yalaw Aygar, 
one whom the Negus had ordered to Gondar, brought a 
saddle 1 for the Negus of gold, that shone like lightning, such 
as has never been made before for other kings. And with 
him came Priests that had been sent by Mal'aka Berhanat 
Zafaru bearing the Tabot of the Holy Trinity and the Tabot of 
the Abuna Takla Haymanot, and with him came those sent by 
Qls Atse Kabte bringing the martyrdom of Abuna Takla Hay- 
manot, and the picture of Our Lady with the picture of Abuna 
Takla Haymanot painted on a silver tablet, and gave it to the 
Negus. Afterwards came men sent by Ras Ayadar. And on 
the 18th there was mourning in the town because of the death 
from illness of Adera Wald Alu Fasil and Abran Gadam 
attendant of Ras Khaylu. On the 19th the Negus was in 
retirement. On the 20th Abba Walda Hawaryat came and 
Abdalla. And they reported to the Negus that Dajazmach 
Walda Gabra'el was near and on the 21st the latter camped 
at the Negus's town of Tega and the Negus sent him to Aslafe 
Mudekhen. And on the evening coming on, the noise of shots 

Ainliiiric, modern spelling is a 



[277] 

was heard, but his coming was not (inspired by) good intentions 
or affection. If indeed the will of God had not brought him 
and the work of Qaiiasmach Yasellase Barya the favourite 
of the Negus, he would not have come before. He did not 
give tribute as he was bound to the Negus. But the Negus 
redoubled his favours in accordance with what the Book 
teaches "Return not evil for evil, but evil with good." On 
the 22nd Dajazmach Walda Gabra'el came with Qanasmach 472 a 
Yasellase Barya a friend of the Negus. And Dajazmach Walda 
Gabra'el on his arrival presented to the Negus the son of his 
brother saying, "Behold the brother of thy Son the King of 
Kings, Tebab Sagad, Takla Haymanot whom Ras Mika'el gave 
in charge to my father when he refused to reign over the 
country." The Negus was grieved at the recollection of the 
death of his brother, but he was delighted to look upon 
the face of the son of Abeto Gabra Mudekhen, and after that 
he ordered a table to be set and a banquet for Dajazmach 
Walda Gabre'el with the Negus. And he made him many gifts 
of guns and shields of silver, and cups of gold besides. And he 
gave a bird that came and spoke (like a man) with a human 
voice, that bird too was endowed with reason to come to the 
King to help him, the Dove of Noah and of our Blessed Lady 
the Virgin Mary, Mary the Mother of God. On the 24th 
the Negus sent Ras Khaylu and Fitawrari Ikonyan in the 
vanguard. And on the 25th the Negus sent away Dajaz- 
mach Adegah to Ras Khaylu and Fitawrari Ikonyan, and 
he sent Abeto Gabra Madekhen to Wakhni with Bajrond 
Hezeqeyas and Qanasmach Ya Maryam Barya and sent away all 
those that had been sent from Gondar. He sent a herald round 
to the Neguses and Abuna Yosab and the Echage Tasfa, and 
'Aqabe Sa'at Abeselem and Ras Ayadar, and all the priests and 
chief priests he sent a royal rescript " Behold, when we heard 
of the destruction of the Churches and the captivity of the 
faithful and all that great breaking up of our Tabots in Makhtse 
and Mafatsch by the hands of pagans, I was fired with spiritual 
indignation. Even as David said ' The zeal of thy house con- 



[2 7 8] 

sumes me,' and we went out to make war upon the heathens. 
But in our going forth we trust not in the number of soldiers, 
or strength of our horses, for a King is not saved by numbers 
of soldiers, and horses are a snare they will not deliver him." 
472 b But we trust in your prayers. Now therefore pray for us, as the 
men of Jerusalem prayed for King Herqal. And our Abuna 
Pantaleon for Kaleb the Negus of Ethiopia, when Finehas 
the traitor abandoned the Christian King 1 . Ye know what the 
Book says of Nabukadratsar 2 , before he became a prisoner, but 
his followers said "Pray for the King 3 ." " Mourn for me among 
Kings, for Rebeqii mourned for Ya'eqob and Ya'eqob mourned 
for Ye'osef and Our Lady mourned for her only son," and this 
letter he sent afterwards. The Negus has not been given sleep 
to his eyes nor slumber to his eyelids, nor rest to his cheeks, 
but he stays all the night praying like his father David, and 
saying "Why hast thou oh Lord abandoned us for ever?" "Why 
doth thy anger smoke against the sheep of thy pasture ? Re- 
member thy congregation that thou hast made (purchased) of 
old. For like the tree of the plain they have cut down with an 
axe the gate posts and they have burned thy sanctuary with 
fire 4 . But from now vengeance shall be taken for the blood of 
thy servants that has been shed. The cries of these prisoners 
shall rise before thee, and as thy arms shall be strong thou 
shalt have pity on these murdered children, but before they 
harvested the vintage thou didst bring them out of Egypt, thou 
didst place thy people and established them." And repeating 
many other prayers, the Negus camped that night. And on the 
20th before the setting of the Sun, the Negus rose from his 
house ardent as a fire, and he shone like a lamp, and the crown 
on his head was like the moon, and Bajrond Aytldar followed 
behind him at hand. His shield besides was of silver that 
glittered like the sun. His swift horses moving (like animals 
flying) as if beasts with wings followed behind. There was too 

1 Vide, Appendix : Kaleb. 2 Nebukadrezzar. 

3 "Say prayers for the life uf King Nelmkadnezzar, etc." (Baruch i. 11). 

4 Ps. Ixxiv. 1, -J. 



[2/9] 

a lamb with a heavy horn that followed him, and the lamb 
following, let it be known that a lamb of redemption and sacri- 
fiee followed the Negus. Above was the power of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ to help him, and in front marehed 473 a 
Liqa Guba'e Zena, and Alaqa Gabru with the Tabot of the 
Holy Trinity, and the Tabot of Abuna Takla Haynianot and 
the picture of our Lord, glory be to him, viz. the "Kuer'ata 
Re'su" (picture represented the striking on the head of Christ). 
Alaqa Maryam Barya was there, as we have said, all the soldiers 
and weapons of the Negus, and all the collection of papers. 
Having completed the courtyard of the house of the Hor 1 , the 
Negus descended below to Jita on foot as was fitting saying, 
" Behold thy law is a lamp to my feet and a light to my way " (Ps. 
cxix. 105). After that he said "Arise and receive me and show 
thou art the Lord God of the mighty ones, the King of Israel," 
and on the same day the Negus camped in the land of Shagua of 
Dawnt, and many men and animals were killed over a precipice. 
Dagena was in Tigre (?), but Dajazmach Kassa he left at Bega- 
medr. And when the men of Chale and Wollo and Wataloma 
heard that the King had left his house and was on the march, 
a great panic fell upon them and they were seized with fear 
and terror. And they suffered there as those that are in the 
pangs of labour. The men of Wollo went, out of their great 
terror, unto the better educated and more experienced among 
them, and clamoured aloud, saying, " Woe to us ! alas for us ! 
for the terrible Negus has come upon us with a double edged 
sword in his hand to execute vengeance among the people. 
Woe is ours ! Alas for us ! For the Negus has come upon us. 
Blessed is he who will take our children and hide them among 
the rocks. Woe is ours ! Alas for us ! for the mighty lion of 
the line of Judah and the seed of David has come to us, he will 
break our bones and burn our marrow " ; and hearing this the 
men of leading and experience answered, "Why are ye troubled 
in your hearts, children, do ye seem to be as those who can rise 
and stand up against a powerful King. Can a reed stand up 

1 /MIi Hor (Bazen ?) was one of the officials of the law. T. Guidi, loc. cit., 682. 



[280] 

against fire ? or a goat against a leopard ? or a bullock against 
a lion ? We shall hear from our young ones how the King of 
the Christians conies, and there dispenses justice to the earth, 
473 b and judges the world and the peoples with justice. If you seek 
your safety, take your bullocks and go to his tent, fall down 
before the Negus beneath his feet." And the men of Wollo 
hearing this said : " This is good counsel. Behold we will go 
before the mighty Negus and come before his face in confidence, 
and in the language of the Galla we will acclaim him, and we 
will weep before Takla Giyorgis our King, for he is our Lord." 
They approved their speech 1 and ratified this counsel of the 
men of Wollo. We will now return to what we said above. On 
the 27th he rested there and deprived Walda Gabra'el of a 
strong amba (fortress) because the men of the amba had not 
sent presents to the Negus, if indeed he had not refused the 
pardon of the King for not leaving any firewood 2 . And on the 
28th the Negus marched from Shagua and descended below to 
Shelu on foot, both men and animals lost their lives and the Negus 
was much grieved here seeing the loss of Christians through 
the heathens, and then of the destruction of his people down 
the precipice, that he had not abandoned the campaign. And 
on the same day the Negus camped on the (river) Bashelo and 
on the 29th he rested there because it was the feast of our Lord. 
And on the 30th the Negus marched from the Bashelo and 
camped at Shagua in Amhara. Here ends the month of Ter. 

And on the 1st of Yakatit on Thursday the Negus went 
from Shagua and camped at Sadi Ambasa, and some soldiers 
were killed by the people of the country. And Dajazmach 
Bato sent bullocks and bread and much wine (" must," vinum 
facticium, Dill.) to the Negus. On the 2nd the Negus marched 
from Sadi Ambasa and camped in the Quolla 3 . And there came 
to the city Walda Abaychafu of Wollo who knelt down before 
the Negus, but the Negus sent out a herald proclaiming "Every 



for h**"*- 1 (Hirm* ? corrupt text 
3 Requisition for the King's service. 
3 fci Amharic = the hot lowlands. 



[281] 

man of Amhara and Wollo and Wechale shall place himself at 
the disposal of (deliver himself up to) Dajazmach Adegah." 
On the same day Dawit, one of the children of the Royal house, 
came since he lived there in command of the land of Wollo. 
And then the Negus gave orders again there, and they made 474 a 
prisoners on the road of the men of Wechale. The 3rd he 
spent there. And on the 4th he stayed again there. On the 
5th the Negus left Kollo and camped at Querquer and 
on the same day they laid trophies before the Negus of the 
slain enemies of Amhara. Ras Khaylu made an oration over 
it. And on the 6th the Negus went from Querquer and men 
of Lasta were in the rearguard, and he camped at Guadalas 
in the province of Wollo. And on the 7th Manasho one of the 
chiefs of the Wollo came and delivered himself up to Dajazmach 
Adegah and with him came men of Amhara who were invited and 
reported to the Negus saying, "Among the Rivers of the Galla 
there we have dwelt and we have wept when we have remem- 
bered the roof (building) of our blessed Mary, and they have 
made us captives and sold us like cattle and like sheep they 
slaughter us. But now may the Lord God of Israel be praised 
who has raised for us from the house of Yasu (Joshua) his 
servant the horn of our salvation." And hearing this the Negus 
was astonished and repeated the 84th Psalm of David 1 , "Lord, 
thou hast been favourable unto thy land : thou hast brought 
back the captivity of Jacob " and so on to the end. And after 
that he had finished he said to Manasho, "Do you wish to become 
a Christian? " And Manasho replied thus : " I do not wish to 
become a Christian, Oh King, but I will stay like my Father," but 
there were those that came to him and said, "We indeed desire 
to be Christians, for we began as Christians." And hearing this 
the Negus said, "Whoso desires, let him be a Christian. Whoso 
desires not, let him remain as his Father was." The Negus 
spoke thus because he knew that Scripture says that the 
heathens may not be baptized by force ; if they are not wholly 
converted that they might not deride it, let them go. Then 

1 Ps. xxxv. 1, in western version, 
w. B. 36 



[282] 

Manasho knelt before the Negus, "Since thou hast been so 
perfectly merciful, give us a place where I may have a dwelling 
with my people and my animals." And the Negus said, "Go 
and dwell where we cannot find you." And Manasho answered, 
474 b "Since thou wilt not protect me, my Lord, where shall I go out 
of thy Kingdom and whither shall I fly from thy jurisdiction, 
whether I climb the distant mountains, thy guns will reach me, 
or I descend to the hungry plains thy horses will overtake me 
there." Aiid the Negus hearing this softened and gave him 
a territory called Daraq Amba. At the same time the Negus 
sent out a herald to announce that if anyone killed a Galla, 
without a lawful sentence, he would execute severe vengeance 
on him. On the 8th the Negus marched from Gadalas, and 
detached his baggage 1 , appointed Gerazmach Adyamo with 
Lantebye Nablisa as rearguard. And he protected one woman 
until she gave birth. And on the same day men came who were 
sent by Dajazmach Lubo, and were pardoned without pleading 
defence. And the Negus sent a herald to proclaim that every 
follower of Dajazmach Lubo was pardoned without pleading 
defence. Then the Negus camped at Warq Masecha. On the 
9th he spent the day with Dajazmach Walda Gabra'el and on 
the following day Manasho came to the council the evening of 
the Sabbath. And on the 10th the Negus spent the day with 
Dajazmach Walda Gabra'el in festivity, and the latter gave the 
Negus a musical entertainment. The same day the Negus 
sent on the road word to Shawa (Shoa). And evening coming 
on, a great "Chaffa 2 " and Gurati with many men of Wollo 
came bringing presents, requisites 8 and many bullocks, and they 
knelt down before the Negus besides many men of Shawa, called 
Malej, who presented petitions 4 , and they knelt before the King. 
On the 12th the Negus received the men of Wollo whom we 
have mentioned before. On the 13th at Zalay the Negus 
pitched his tent of royal crimson, and he was received with great 

1 Amharic ^"H i baggage. 2 A gold decorative bracelet worn as an ornament 

3 oo^TW i = n^if i(?) Amharic for requisites for the march. 

4 n>AX = 7 A3? i I. Guidi, loc. cit., 57. 



honour to his throne with the (Hymn?) of "Ayudawit Masih." 
And afterwards Dajazmach Bato came with men of Wechale, 
and they laid trophies before the Negus besides and gave him 
presents. And after that Dajazmach Lubo arrived bringing two 
pearls, one that was placed on the crowns of the Negus's in former 475 a 
times ; then there was another, and he made reverence before 
the Negus and presented those pearls, and the Negus was very 
pleased and gave thanks to God, saying, "Henceforward, let 
all generations call me blessed because he hath shown me his 
great power, blessed be his name." And after that he went to 
his province, and on the 14th the Negus punished Dajazmach 
Bato saying, " Unless you convert the Christians that are sold 
in your country, you are acting wrongly." And on the 15th 
priests of Gell came bringing a Tabot of Giyorgis. On the 16th 
the soldiers of the Negus laid an ambush for Dajazmach Bato 
on the journey, because his people of Wechale fled like traitors, 
and Adam his brother left him by night with them, but the 
Negus punished those who laid an ambush on the road for 
Dajazmach Bato. And he sent out a herald to say " We have 
given to Bato the province called Adada." On the 18th there 
were some of the men of Wollo who wished to become Christians, 
so that they should not be heathens any more. On the 19th 
priests of the house of Mary and on the same day a Galla 
killed one of the Gojam men who was going to Warare. 
Then the Negus sent out a herald saying, "We have given 
Amara as a province of a Dajazmach to Darso, and let every 
man of Amhara come into his province. We have given to 
Kantiba Kabte the country he had formerly, that is called 
Maqdala." On the 20th Dajazmach Darso went towards Jefu, 
and imprisoned Dajazmach Bato because he refused to convert 
to Christians those who had been sold. On the 21st he 
baptized with Christian baptism the progeny (or dependants) 
of the great Chufu of Wollo and Dara Galawdewos of Teloma 
and their people and Dajazmach Lubo, with his people. He 
baptized Keder, and three of the women were also baptized. 
And the Negus put on them a robe of honour, but on the son 



[28 4 ] 

of the great Chufii whose name was Katame he gave other 
proofs of his favour. To others he gave each an office and 
admitted them to the sacred mysteries. And on the same day 
475 b the chief of Malza 1 , whose name was Wabasho, came, and he 
gave the Negus a banquet and wine; being there he arranged a 
table for the Negus and gave food to the Gallas who had been 
baptized, and the priests who had baptized them and Dajazmach 
Walda Gabre'el, and Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el gave them a 
divine chant, saying, " He hath extinguished the torch of him 
who dares to speak (evil)." Afterwards Takla Giyorgis found that 
for his honour, he (W. Gabre'el) was as a fire devouring the stalk 
of noxious grass. And then Alaqa Gabru gave a (rhyming) song 
of three couplets 2 , which ran, "The priests hid the jewel of thy 
name Tewodoros (Theodore) in the treasury of the outward name, 
Takla Giyorgis 3 , for which the people of the earth blessed thee 
that day. For that is an enduring word, in which there is no 
falsehood. Man shall utter no word of slander against it David 
hid the name of his Creator from his people within his house." 
On the 22nd the Negus gave bullocks to his chiefs and 
nobles, and judges. And on the 23rd the Negus baptized 
the head man of Wollo who came with Wabasho, and admitted 
him to the Eucharist. And many of the faithful came who 
dwelt under the dominion of the heathen, with many Tabots. 
On the 24th the Negus sent out a herald to proclaim "We 
have given the jurisdiction of Malza to Wabasho," and on the 
25th, on Sunday, the Negus gave food to Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el with some chiefs. And Liqa Guba'e Zemi gave (com- 
posed) to the Negus a song of three couplets, saying, "Our 
Lord when he revealed the name of the Kings, when he would 
write the first letter of Takla Giyorgis, went on to write 
Tewodoros." And the Negus when he heard this was astounded. 
Then he wrote it (the name) down wrong, and remained (for- 

1 <ii>fl'i:-'/.-<iiAl > Amharic. 

* 4*k /"Vt 4"i is a sacred hymn in Ge'ez. This /"Vt'Jfri' is so called from having 
six verses terminating with the same rhyme. Ill the Qe'ez the rhymes are /i.<j i Wft 
Mf\ i \.ft\ai. "W i-e- hora ankara sakara akhbara emara dekhara. 
8 Vide Appendix : Fakkilre lyamis. 



[28 5 ] 

getful) as one who is drunk with stupefying wine. He put 
together the beginning (the first letter) of the two names 
(the letter T) and after writing the second (Tewodoros) in 
place of the first (Takla Giyorgis) without knowing, he did not 
write the first again 1 . And on the same day men of Taloma 
came. And on the 26th the Negus spent the time with the 
chiefs in council, for Satan was envious at the baptism of the 476 a 
heathens and their turning Christians from captivity, sowing 
the evil (JflC*5&: = Lolium) weed in the fields of the hearts of the 
men of Tigre, so that they said when the Negus did not march 
away, "We will go off to our own country for we are much 
afraid," and being midday the Negus sent a proclamation for 
the house of Mary both for the dependants of Ras Goshu and 
the people of Taloma saying " Enough of beginning 2 ." On the 
same day the Great Fast began ; and on the 27th the Negus 
invited Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el with the head men of his 
people and addressed them. "Children wait patiently for the 
arrival of what is sent them. Behold the land of Shawa, let 
everyone of the Christian people who were made captives (wait) 
till they reach their country, and have no fear, for we shall 
not die without confessing (our sins). And hearing this, the 
people of Tigre returned home to their province, all of them 
saying, "When we have deliberated we will report to you." 
And the same day the Negus sent to Shalaqa Mitar the 
Yashalaqa of that church with his people, to help Dajazmach 
Darso. And on his coming the people of Tigre consulted 
together how they should leave the Negus and return to their 
own country because wherever he encouraged the crime of 
the people of Tigre, he went away. And they lit up their 
road (lit. burned, and made bonfires to show the road) with 
fires, and the same day the guards of Ras Ikonyan blazed 
their road with fires. And of the people Jawis and the 

1 This performance was for the purpose of enlisting the credulity of the people that 
King Takla Giyorgis was to be the King Theodore who, according to an old prophecy 
contained in an apocryphal revelation called the Fakkare, was to rise and become a world 
conqueror. Vide Appendix : Fakkare lyasus. 

2 Amharic, i.e. " let us get ahead," " make some progress." 



[286] 

people of Gojain and the people of Dajazmach Khaylu not one 
took thought to go and leave the Negus ; in that Ras Khaylu 
was like the mighty lyoab (Joab) the mighty Captain of the 
power of David the King, and encouraged the people saying, 
"Does it seem good to you to- leave the King, because that will 
not seem good in days to come. And if you go to your own 
country, that also is the land of the Negus, but the Negus 
chastised the men of Mecha, when they spoke like that." And 
476 b speaking thus, Ras Khaylu went to see the Negus and when 
the Negus saw him arriving, he was much pleased and said, "AVill 
not your people disperse now that you have come here ? " And 
Ras Khaylu answered " Be of good heart, my lord King. No 
man of my people shall depart and leave the Negus. I will die 
first." And as he said this, a Galla came, when he saw the 
smoke. And Ras Khaylu went out to slay the Galla and then 
the Galla fled and two men of Mecha killed him. And on the 
same day Fitawrari Yasellase Barya put many in prison, to 
cool down matters. But the Negus saw the unrest of the 
soldiers, and sent out a herald to say, "To-morrow we shall 
march and go to our country." And then he sent Dajazmach 
Lubo, and presented him with some guns and practised them 
that they might make war upon Wechale. On the 29th, 
Thursday, the Negus marched from Warq Masacha, roaring 
like a lion when he is driven from his dead prey, for he had 
carried out the desire of the new Christian fathers, who had 
been persecuted by the hand of the heathen, and he received 
the thanks of Dajazmach Alfa Wasan. And on the same day 
there were Dagen 1 Ras Khaylu and Dajazmach Adegah and 
Fitawrari Ikonyan, on account of Fitawrari there was Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu and Dajazmach Kabte and Dajazmach Ab Sellus. 
And when they were on march a Galla fell upon the chiefs 
that were in the rearguard and on the same day Ras Khaylu 
was then again a tower of strength before the face of the enemy, 
and he destroyed thousands of the foe and put the warriors of 
the Galla of Wollo to shame; but the head men of Wollo, 

1 Fur j/Vi mtrgiuml. 



[28 7 ] 

retired saying, "We have made no enemy like our Lord the 
Negus," and they killed many servants of Ras Khaylu, and the 477 a 
escort of Dajazmach Adegah and Fitawrari Ikonyan, and the 
trophies were laid before the Negus camped at Awsa town. And 
Abba Kerlos, who had been sent by the Echage, arrived and 
others came sent by Ras Ayadar, bringing a Tabot, and others 
sent by Princess Enkoylul again sending letters of a messenger 
Tserag Masare 1 Pantaleon and Mel'ak Berhanat Khirut (the 
angel of true lights). On the 30th the Negus marched from 
Awsa town and camped at Mera Wechale called Sanguola. 
And Seru Warqe made prisoner a Galla from Wechale and 
left the Negus. That same day some dependants of Dajaz- 
mach Dulo came from Gondar, and Fitawrari Ikonyan on the 
same day passed away. It was towards the end of that day he 
was in command of rearguard of the Tigrines. Here the month 
of Yakatit ended. 

On the 1st Magabit, on Sunday, the Negus left Sanguola 
and there the followers of Ras Goshu were the rearguard. The 
Negus camped at Charaqa of Adela. And on the same day 
Galla came upon them at Quaz and killed many of the escort 
of the Negus and officers besides, and took many prisoners and 
booty, and the tent of the Negus that was there. Then the 
Tigrines pursued him and engaging with him made him 
abandon many men and tents of the Negus which had been 
captured ; then they left the Negus when he had got a little 
distance away towards the frontier, and this shows how the 
frontier of Shawa was opened to the Negus. 

The escort of the Negus left the trophies of victory 
there of the slaughter of the Wechale men. And it being 
evening Dajazmach Darso came from Jifu with Kantiba Kabte 
and Shalaqa Mitar. On the 2nd the Negus rested to consult 
with his officers, the Tigrines on the other hand left many 
trophies. And on the 3rd the troops of the Negus spent the 
day on a hill of the Wechale while the latter were fighting with 

1 - ^ ?i7rt^.i Amharic, title of an official who puts the crown on the King, vide Guidi, 
loc. cit., 862. 



[288] 

one another, and when a powerful Galla killed another Galla, 
a giant attendant of lias Khaylu, and after that when the Galla 

47? b was disgraced before them all, Yashalaqa Guangul marched up 
and slaughtered a great many. The same day they crossed 
a precipitous place and many wounded men died. 

On the 4th the Negus went from Characha and camped 
at foot of a mountain of the Wechale, called Laguat. And 
Ras Khaylu commanded the rearguard and Dajazmach Adegah, 
and on the same day Losa his son who was the rearguard killed 
a Galla armed, and his horse, a hereditary leader 1 , and he laid 
the trophy down before the Negus. Then the Tigrine began 
to ascend the hill and the Negus turned them back, saying, 
" Wait till to-morrow, because the sun is scorching," and that 
day went out and killed a giant of Wechale, with many men of 
Wechale. And they laid the trophies before the King, but 
Ras Khaylu when the women were taken with the pains of 
labour, he guarded them until they were delivered, and brought 
them along on the march. On the 5th, the Wednesday, it being 
the feast of the great Saint Gabra Manfus Kaddus Alilayu, the 
Negus started his troops early towards the hill, in three divisions, 
on his right the people of Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el and on 
his left Chefara of the Yashalaqa and the guards of the King's 
house, and of the Generals Fitawrari Ikonyan and Dajazmach 
Adeyamo, and in the centre Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el as- 
cended without any desire to make a feint. And the other 
Generals remained with the Negus to cover the town. And at 
the third hour with many prayers and strong faith of the Negus, 
they left the hill that the Wechale men had put so much trust 
in and there was fulfilled what Our Lord, Glory be to him, said 
in the holy Gospel, regarding how Faith was likened to a grain 
of mustard seed. And they called that hill " Feles " (Retreat) 
and they did retreat. Paulos also says "Everything is possible 
to those who have faith." The smoke of victory rose, and 
fire burned before the face of the King, for it increased his 

478 a good luck (blessing). And Mamad Ali who is called Abba Juba, 

by inheritance, hereditary (Amharic). 



[28 9 ] 

roused his people, and on that day no man of the people of the 
Negus was there that did not kill and take prisoners, so that 
we could not estimate the numbers that were killed of the 
pagans, they were as many as the stars of the heavens, and 
sands of the sea. And then Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el sent 
a messenger saying " Good news for you, Oh King. Good news 
for you, the pagans have retreated from the hill and have been 
destroyed." And hearing this the Negus was greeted with 
rejoicings in his spacious tent, and they blew horns and drew 
back the curtain. And in presence of everyone the escort 
of the Negus laid down their trophies, whose names were Wedi, 
and Beshu and Sarulab and Abran and Yashalaqa Mitar, and 
many other attendants of the Negus and Ras Khaylu, and 
Dajazmach Adegah and Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el. And after 
that his men came mourning for his death and bearing the 
head of Adam the giant son of Mamad Ali, for he was 
treacherous and was the first to go, after the Negus had said, 
" I will baptize him, and I will bring him up as a son to me," 
although men said, " Let him be chained, before he deserts for 
he is a traitor." But the Negus had answered "He who exacts 
a punishment before the trespass, commits a crime, and if God 
sees a crime in my heart he will not hear me. And on account 
of that God heard me and delivered that wicked and treacherous 
heathen into the hands of the Negus." 

And he died an evil death and they cut off his head as 
David said, "He made a pit and digged it and is fallen in 
the ditch he had dug" (Ps. vii. 15). And so his crime re- 
coiled upon his head, and fell upon top of him. 

And he died even as Akitofel died, among the pagans, and 
sellers of the faithful and murderers of Christians. That was 
a wonder and great blessing for seven years to this day ; since 
the chiefs of the Kings have reigned nothing has happened 
like this. And they thought not of crossing the Bashalo 478 b 
alone, the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis hardening his heart 
destroyed the gates of the monasteries and broke the spears 
and their swords 1 and marched to the frontiers of Shawa. 



= ferrum, gladius. 
W.B. 37 



[290] 

And he received the faithful on the road, but those their 
enemies recognised the work of God, and his wonders in 
the habitations. And they rejoiced, for their bondage to the 
Wechale had ceased. But the King gave thanks to God in the 
Psalms of David saying, " Thou alone oh Lord art great that 
worketh wonders. Thou hast declared thy strength among 
the people. Thou hast with thine arm redeemed thy people 1 ." 
And speaking thus, the Negus camped for that night. And 
on the 6th day, Thursday, the Negus sent to Dajazmach 
Birale ordering him to march towards his country. And on 
the 7th, on the Friday, the Negus spent the time in council 
with his generals. On the 8th, the Saturday, Has Khaylu 
came and joined the Council of the Generals, and on the 9th, 
Sunday, it was finished in presence of the Negus, when lias 
Khaylu gave to Dajazmach Darso his shield. And evening 
coming on, Dajazmach Birale came with many men of Wechale 
that are called Warataye and on the same day the Negus recon- 
ciled Dajazmach Darso with the son of Ras Goshu. On the 
10th, Monday, the Negus left Leguat and camped at Qasat 
Ambula and a herald proclaimed that " We have given Gultha 
to Dagalas, and a robe of purple." On the same day Ras 
Khaylu and Dajazmach Adegah commanded the rearguard. 
On the llth, Tuesday, the Negus left Qasat Ambula and camped 
on the Bashelo, and Ras Khaylu and Dajazmach Adegah were 
rearguard, and he left Jantserar Birale at Ambasal. On the 
same day the troops laid trophies before the Negus of the 
slaughter of the Wechale, and many prisoners taken from the 
rearguard in Tigre; on the same night the moon was the colour 
of blood. Now that (portent) signified the submission of rebel 
and powerful chiefs. 

479 a That was on the nightfall of the 12th. On the 12th, 
Wednesday, the Negus marched from Bashalo, Dajazmach 
Kabte and Dajazmach Abselus being rearguard, and the 
troops laid trophies before the King, after their fight with 
the rearguard of the Wechale. That day came Aledma, 
for they sent men of the Wollo (Galla tribe) to the Negus 

1 Pa Ixxvii. 14, 15. 



to say "We beseech thee, oh King, to retire from our land, 
we have not gone beyond the frontier you have marked out 
for us." This the men of the Wollo said for they were sore 
afraid when they saw him destroy Debra Legot with fire, 
and they cried out "Who is he, King though he be, has 
overthrown the men of Wechale? Who is he who with the 
power of the flame of fire has fought with the Wechale ? Who 
is he who with his mighty strength has burst and broken 
through the gate the pass of Legot? This is in sooth the 
Mighty King of Israel (the Abyssinian King of the Line of 
Solomon) foretold of yore." And it was not only the pagans 
who said this, we also, sons of Christians, say so to our King. 
He was anointed King when he was a child, secretly, by the 
hand of an angel, as the angel announced to the Abuna Takla 
Haymanot 1 in these words, "In the year of the world 7260 
(1768-9) there shall reign one who shall be anointed with the 
holy oil of royalty." Although one should say, " How long did 
he wait before he reigned after he had been anointed King ? " 

We will return to what we were saying at the beginning. 
On that day the Negus camped at Yawatot and the troops 
brought trophies to the Negus of the slaughter of the Wechale. 
On the 13th, Thursday, the Negus moved from Yawatot. And 
on the same day then Yashalaqa Mitar and Fitawrari Dangazi 
were rearguard, and the troops slew many Wechale, and the 
men burnt Zaquaya with fire that day, and Dajazmach Darso 
and the men of Ras Goshu returned to their country, and the 
Negus camped at Shague in Dawnot. On the 1 4th (Wednesday) 479 b 
the Negus moved from Shague and camped at Waga, the house 

1 Takla Haymanot was the greatest of the Abyssinian National Saints and flourished in 
the latter part of the 13th century. It was through his influence that the Salamonian Line 
(according to its own pretended and spurious genealogy) was restored, after the usurpation 
of the Zague dynasty, in the person of Yekuno Amlak ( = Let him be King) about 1270. 
The saint is supposed to have chosen this King and solemnly anointed him. 

The prediction in the text is found in a work called the Ba'ala Nagastat or Wealth of the 
Kings (ed. W. Budge), f. 231 b, col. 3, Eth. MSS. Br. Mus. 503. It declares that with the 
holy oil with which he had anointed Yekuno Amlak another King will arise after Zara 
Ya'eqob (1434-1468) and be anointed in the year 7260 who would be a world conqueror. 
The value of the prophecy is rather discounted by the fact that there is reason to believe 
that this work, or at least this passage is contemporary with the subject of the prophecy 
a not unknown phenomenon. 



[292] 

of Johannes. Abagaz Gugsa was in command of rearguard, and 
many men and animals were suffocated in the morass. And on 
the 15th (Sunday) the Negus first put in chains Dajazmach 
Walda Gabre'el on account of his rebellion; we have mentioned 
this above. And with him he put in chains Ganbela Fisha 
and Abdalla, and he took away all their arms and guns and 
animals. But on the people of Tigre he had mercy and sent 
them a herald. And the same day Dajazmach Kassa came 
from Garagara. On the 16th (Sunday) the Negus created the 
Shumate of Sherat and invested Dajazmach Adegah with 
the Dajazmach-ship of Begameder and the Yashalaqa-ship of 
Gadesha, and on Fitawrari Ikonyan the Dajazmach-ship of 
Damot, and Ras Khaylu he invested with former office and 
bestowed on him what had belonged to Walda Gabre'el, 
decorations of silver and gold. On Dajazmach Kassa he 
bestowed the province of Emkina, and raised Blattengeta Golej 
to the chief priesthood of Warawar and on Princess Enkoylul 
and on Princess Mentewadad, villages and huts. And to Asia 
Wasan he gave the Shumate of Wag. On the 12th (17th ?) (the 
2nd day) the Negus spent the time receiving the arms that 
remained of Walda Gabre'el. And he sent messengers and 
heralds to Gondar. On the 18th (Tuesday) the Negus marched 
from there and camped at Garagara. And he sent a herald to 
proclaim " Let no man from now take food or arms from the 
proprietor of this country." On the 19th, Wednesday, the Negus 
sent a herald saying, " We have given the Shumate of Dakhna 
to Fitawrari Aydan." And he left Garagara and camped at 
Mawqarya, and left Dajazmach Adegah at Garagara and with 
480 a him Ali. And on the 20th, 5th day, the Negus moved from 
Mawqarya and camped at Afragamach. And on the 21st on the 
Friday the Negus started from Afragamach and camped at 
Kemer Dangya (stony) and he was received there by the priests 
of the house of Leham and Zur'amba with songs and rejoicings. 
And on the same day the Negus expelled Shete Khaylu and Sehin 
Khaylu and Nahrm, and Mentasenot and the prisoners of Kam 
Kam towards the plains, and he took their villages, for they were 
in rebellion. But the people of Tigre he sent to their 



[293] 

country, by a herald. And the 22nd (Saturday) he spent there 
and on the 23rd, Sunday, he spent the time eating and drinking 
with his generals, for that day was the feast of Mount Olivet 1 
and on the 24th, Monday, the Negus moved from Kemer 
Dangya and came to Aringo. There he established a town 
and built a house very spacious and fine. And on the 25th 
(Tuesday) the men of Gojam with Has Khaylu and the men of 
Damot with Dajazmach Ikonyan and all the men of Mecha 
went to their country by wish of the Negus. Dajazmach Gadelu 
the Negus decorated with a robe of cotton, and sent him to his 
country. And he gave Ras Khaylu guns. On 26th (Wednesday) 
some generals and sons of Chawa returned to their country 
by desire of the Negus. And priests came on his feast with 
Psalms and Canticles before the Negus. The same day there 
came men who had been sent by Ras Aydar and Mele'k Ber- 
hanat Zafaru and Kharya Negus and children of the priests 
of the establishment of Mary, who gave good example and 
many were well instructed. On the 27th (Thursday) the Negus 
sent many of the soldiers to his country giving them food 
for their sustenance, and gave also a veil (curtain) for the 
Church ; on the 28th (Friday) the Negus, to those who had the 
children whom we mentioned above, he gave food and drink 480b 
but the children themselves gave a concert to the Negus. On 
the 29th, on the Saturday, the Negus went to Church and pre- 
sented the Church with sacerdotal vestments and, returning, 
stayed with his generals eating and drinking 2 , for it was the 
feast of the Incarnation. And men came who had been sent 
by Qis Atse Kabte and the Aqabe Sa'at Takla Haymanot. On 
the 30th (Sunday) the Negus selected children of the priests. 
On the same day the children of the priests of Ba'ata, that 
were sent for, arrived. The 4th of Miyazya (Monday) the 
Negus spent in hearing charges of oppression. And Abelik 
had an altercation (legal disputation) with Amesyas of Guna. 

1 Feast of Mid-lent, pea-ovyvrfia. 

2 At these feasts sides of sheep and oxen are brought round to the guests who cut off 
pieces and eat them raw (raw meat = Brindo in Amharic). Makrizy (14th century) says 
flesh meat was brought " ut ventriculum bovis semicoctum comedisset ; quod autem in 
eo stercore reliquum erat fluebat ad palatum." The same witness saw a man eating a cock 
while it was still crowing ! 



[294] 

And Abelik vanquished Amesyas. And many witnesses stood 
up (proving that) he had acted the coward 1 (lit. shirked an 
act of bravery?) and (proved) from the mouth of Amesyfis 
the charge was an old one. On the same day the Negus 
selected children of the priests, and on the 2nd, 3rd day of 
week, spent the time hearing charges of oppression and about 
his servants (officials), and he flogged one man who had lied 
after swearing by "The Death of the Negus 2 ." On the 4th, 
Friday, the Negus again spent the day hearing charges of 
oppression. And when a witness stood up he swears by the Cross 
so that he may not declare a falsehood. On the same day David, 
one of the domestics of the Royal household whom the men of 
Wechale had taken prisoner, was reported dead. And when 
the Negus saw him he was much rejoiced, as when Ya'eqob 
rejoiced when he saw Yosef his son, after they had said he was 
dead. And Aqabe Sa'at Abeselom came. And on the same day 
they pronounced sentence of death on one who had sworn by 
the death of the Negus and had lied. On the 6th, Saturday 
week, the Negus stayed in the house of Johannis, and he 
dismissed Waha his son, because of the cold house he had 
built. And on account of this he promoted in front of him 
Abimelek to his office of Shum. On the same day the Negus 
again selected children of the priests. And on the 7th, 
48i a Sunday, the Negus gave no audience, and on the 7th, Sunday, 
the Negus sent to A/aj Zena Gabre'el, and Yashalaqa Kabte 
that they were to select bullocks that would suit the Negus. 
The 8th (Monday) the Negus spent in hearing charges 
of oppression. And a messenger came who had been sent 
from Shawa. And Danigazi and He/eqeyas went to their 
country by stealth. On the 9th, Tuesday, the Negus was 
inaccessible and the 10th, the Wednesday, the Negus spent 
in looking at the foundations being laid of his house. On the 
llth, Thursday, the Negus spent the time in giving decisions 
and he flogged one priest who had had a sentence of death 
passed on him, as we mentioned above, letting him go 

1 An Abyssinian custom. If one officer accusing another of cowardice can prove his 
he takes the letter's rank. - Strongest form of oath, Hy death of the Xegns. 



[295] 

safe and sound. And on the same day Abeto Gabra Masqal 
came who was called Sabrah Dan. And on the 12th, on the 
Friday, the Negus moved from Arango and went to the Kiver 
Reb, and they netted many great fish which he sent to the 
people of Gondar and Wakhne and afterwards camped there. 
On the 13th,' on the Saturday, the Negus left the Reb and 
went to the Makhdara Maryam and when the troops were 
suffering from want of food on the road ; that shows how he 
held to the injunctions of the Apostles. He camped at the 
house of Weyzaro Wabeto Sellase. And on the 14th, on the 
Sunday, he got up early in the night for the Church and 
Alaqa Gabru Mowades served (acted as acolyte) and then 
returning to the house of Weyzaro Wabeto Sellase, the Negus 
remained eating and drinking among his generals. And he 
stayed there, and on the 15th, on Monday, the Negus left 
Makhdar Maryam and returned to Aringo, and on the same 
day Baru Fayatawe came and Asalafe Yabo Barya bringing 
by the hand a murderer. And on the 16th, the Tuesday, 
the Negus was not visible, and did penitence (i.e. confessed 
his sins) for it was the octave of the Passion that day. On 
the next day the Negus was in retirement. On the 18th, 
Thursday, the building of the Negus's house was completed, 
and Balambaras Ramkha came and sent bullocks and sheep. 
And on the 19th, Friday, and this was the day of the crucifixion 48i v. 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, on Him be praise. The Negus spent 
the time in Church in prayer. And on the 20th, Saturday, the 
Negus gave no audience. On the 21st, on the Sunday, that 
being the day of the feast of the Glorious Resurrection, the 
Negus went out to the Church fasting, and performed the 
service of Easter with his servants, and Alaqa Zena, and gave 
bullocks to his troops. And on the next day he gave a banquet 
to his generals, and on the day after a banquet to his Princesses 1 . 
And on the 24th, Wednesday, the Negus left Aringo and 
camped at Qaroda. On the 25th, Thursday, the Negus left 
Qaroda and camped at Emfraz and the following day leaving 
Emfraz camped at Semba. On the 26th, Friday, leaving Semba 

Amharic, Royal Princesses, now used for 'ladies' generally, Guidi, loc. tit., 588. 



[ 29 6] 

he camped at Atse Sa'er. The following day the Negus decorated 
Alaqa Gabru and Alaqa Zena with a robe of gold and robe of 
cotton. And the people and priests received him with psalms 
and music. And the Negus came into his hall with pleasure, 
and stayed with his mother the Queen. On the Oth of 
Genbot the Negus received and confirmed the appointment 
to office of Ras Aydar. And he bestow r ed upon him all 
the villages of Mache and Denser and Dara. Then the Negus 
reflected in his mind, saying, " Whom shall we promote in 
the grade of office of Chief priests of Debra Mowamaq ? " 
And he obtained the office of Aqabe Sa'at which had been raised 
above all the official grades. And everyone from the Generals 
down to the quartermasters 1 did reverence to him. And after 
this he selected a man among the priests of Debra Libanos 2 , and 
when this man expounded the old and the new (testaments), 
and the masters and the statutes of the Church every man was 
astonished. The sweetness of his voice, the fluency of his speech, 
the modesty of his conduct and the wisdom of his counsel, and 
482 a justice of his judgment of that man Qis Atse Kabte (was such 
that) his fame went from frontier to frontier. On the 14th of 
that month the Negus sent a herald out on the Saturday in 
the evening to proclaim, "We have given to the Chief priest 
Debra Metemat our convent. And he has received the Office 
of Aqabe Sa'at and for the priests the places as tributary of 
Bursa and Qasar. On his account we have given to Deputy 3 
Blattengeta Gulta the Aqabe Sa'at who is in Tigre, and all 
dues are abolished which are exacted from the merchants 
by hand of the Negadras (or chief of the merchants) and by 
hand of all the officials. And on the same day Qis Atse Kabte 
was nominated Aqabe Sa'at and he joined the appellation 
(title) of his office with the name of his work, for he was 
the man who kept watch on the march of the hours, and he 
mingled with the workmen so that they might not slacken or 
leave off in their work, for this reason we have said he combined 



Amharic, the alaqa's of the camp. 
2 Vid- Appendix : Abyssinian Church. 
i -v .>"/' Amharic (from mfr5ri to cut in pieces), i.e. (1) small ; hence (2) sub- ; deputy. 



[297] 

the name of his office and his work l . And on the same day he 
heard how he had gained a victory over Ali Labirale. On the 
12th, Sunday, the Negus held a meeting for the purpose of 
appointments and dismissals, the office of Blatteugeta being 
conferred on Kaiiazmach Yasellase Barya Teqaqen, and the 
dignity of Dajazmach on Blattengeta Gualej. And Gerazmach 
Walda Abib was promoted to be Kanazmach. And Affa Negus 482 b 
(mouth of the King = Chief Judge) Wase Zufan Bet to be 
Bajrond. Kantiba Adago Ayecho became Aqabe Bajrond 
and Basha lyasu General in Chief, and Nabared Arm was made 
Basha with Warq Saqala as Alaqa. And Azaj Yaba Barya was 
created Balambaras, with the office with Yaju, of Yashalaqa. 
And Fanta Gabru was made Fitawrari and Lules Debasor 
Quorra (was made) Dajazmach; Walatta Gosha Mach Adyamo 
Tsagade was made Dajazmach ; Walatta Gosha Yababa was 
made Azaj. Wati Sanbato Mar was made Azaj and Balambaras 
of Anorewos Wakhne, Azaj ; and Bajrond Fanu'el Qaha was 
made Azaj ; Fasil Saif was made Aslafe of Agameya. And on 
Yabis Hunan Gasha Jagre was bestowed the office of Yashalaqa, 
and Walda Hawaryat to be Bag Malektena and Kedana his son 
to be Mezikker 2 of Begameder, and Warqe to be Mezikker 
of Amara. Others he confirmed in their former offices. 
Shalaqa Guangul to be Shalaqa of riflemen, of Jan Arwa, 
and Shalaqa, his son, to be Shalaqa of riflemen, of Gajge. And 
Asalafe Wand Afrash to be Mezikker of Damot. Of the Tigrines 
that were invested with office on that day Sabareh Dan, 
Gabra Masqal to be a general of Tigre, and Selawa Gabra 
Masqal his country, and Hezeqeyas to be Dajazmach of Sire, 
Walda Sellase to Belgad. But of the priests that were given 
office, Alaqa Gabru over his country, as written above to be 
Azaj of Qan, that had been in the hands of Liqa Mazmeran 
Kenfu. And whoever the Negus elected to office it was not by 
favour but according to strict justice, for he 3 worked at the 

1 Aqabe Sa'at means watcher of the hour, or guardian of the watch. 
3 Amharic, "Remembrancer," or "Court Chronicler" from HH<: to remember. 
3 He, viz. Alaqa Gabru the writer of this Chronicle. 
\v. B. 38 



[298] 

writing of this history before he was appointed on the expedi- 
tion, that he might not lose (omit anything) of the fame of the 
Lord King. Consequently Liqa Mazmeran Kenfu was not made 
to go on expeditions by reason of his dignity (seniority) and 
on account of that the wise King said, " The work is worthy of 
the workman." And Liqa Guba'e Zena was appointed Mezikker 
of Quarra above the office he had before, and 'Aqabe Sa'at 
Abeselom was appointed Male'ak Gennat ( = messenger of the 
Garden). The priests that were left over, he did not elect on 
that day. On the 19th the Negus was occupied with giving 
decisions, for there came men sent by Marda Asmach Asfa Wasan, 
bringing a purple robe and a dress of gold according to custom 
and spears and swords. He also sent Warena with two others 
and with them came Fanot Qal (Word of the Road) who before 
governed Shawa. Then the judges examined Warena in these 
words, "Who are you? And whose son are you? And how 
are you King?" And Warena answered "I am the son of a 
workman and I am not son of a King. Only when' Awsabe 
came with Mardasmach Asfa, Wasan, he brought me from the 
plains and made me King by force." And the Negus hearing 
483 a this said, " This is certainly not a matter for death (sentence), 
but only let him be put in chains, until we investigate what he 
did." On that day the Negus gave to his servants a large quan- 
tity of gold, beyond count, and then he was somewhat unwell 
from drinking a potion (medicine). On the 20th he descended 
in secret to Debra Metmaq and returned in the same manner. 
On the same day Magabe Amkha Walda Gabre'el performed the 
first chant, Meherka performed the second, and Walda Ab 
the third. And the Chief Priest (archbishop) Amkha chanted 
a hymn of the Trinity, and on 21st, on Tuesday, went down in 
public according to the statutes of the Kingdom Uebra 
Metmat bearing many gifts, crosses and crowns, and thuribles 
and chalices of silver, and vestments of gold (work), that caught 
the eye, which Mardazmach Asfil Wasan had sent to him. And 
coining to the Holy House he pronounced judgement on many 
prisoners that were in the Royal house in chains for their 
crimes, for love of our Lady Mary Mother of God. On the 



[299] 

same day Sellase Tserag Masara Pantalewon improvised the 
hymn of the Trinity, and Liqa (Chief) of the teachers Yohannis 
and Azaj Gabru, and Alaqa Zena. And after the prayers were 
concluded of the Qedase, the Negus returned to his room, and 
the Negus coming, arranged a banquet in his hall; he seated 
the priests in the hall and the chiefs in the hall of his palace, the 
Negus remaining in the midst of them in the place of honour 1 , 
And he did not check them doing as they pleased, in fact after 
coming to high words, he made two monks Washa and Masquar 
who were bad friends (who had quarrelled) eat and sit down 
together. And there was singing at Debra Metmaq for three 
whole days. And Aqabe Sa'at Kabte and Azaj Gabru stayed 
together there in tents. On the 23rd the Negus decorated Ras 
Warq and Dajazmach Gabra Masqal and Kanazmach Walda 
Ablb and Bajrond (Colonel) Washe, and many officials and on 
the same day Dajazmach Gualej went to Samen. On the 28th, 483 b 
Tuesday, Dajazmach Gabra Masqal went to his province with all 
the other officials. And during the month of Sane came men from 
Amasen and Serayo bringing gifts for the Negus and the Queen 
and Ras Ayadar. On the 1 Oth Sane, Sunday, Abba Isederos in 
the house of the Echage declared " His flesh (body) was glorified 
by the union with the word of God and it was anointed as one 
of the saints, and received its glorious birth in very truth"; 
for before that Abba Isederos said, " The Holy Ghost at the 
moment of Union, was to Him the unction of His Jbody 2 ." 
And on that day Blattengeta Yasellase Barya was decorated 
with a gold headpiece. On the 25th, Friday, the Negus went 
to the house of the Abun, with eight dignitaries of the Church. 
They were the following : Aqabe Sa'at Kabte, and Azaj Gabru, 
and Male'ak Tsahay Robe'am, Male'ak Berhanat Kherut and 
Liqa Guba'e Zena, Alaqa Zaferu and Alaqa Takla Haymanot : 
for the address of Balambaras Ramekha. And there was 
evidence against Balambaras Ramekha, that he had married a 



1 In the ^iil* rasge is the head of a couch, where the head (re'es) is laid, i.e. the place 
of honour. 

2 This is the controversy in Christology that crops up at intervals, starting about the 
middle of the 15th century. Fide Appendix : Theological Controversies of the Abyssinian 
Church. 



[300] 

woman and had left the woman he had previously married, for 
he had committed adultery with her mother, and it was decided 
secondly that a husband should not cohabit except with his 
wife, nor a wife except with her lawful husband. And that they 
should repeat the prayers of the marriage ceremony, that were 
(prescribed) for his nuptials and any monk who kept a concubine 
in the house, should be excluded from the Church. Also it was 
ordained that no bullocks should be killed for sale during the 
fast of the Apostles or during the fast of the Nativity of our 
Lord Jesus Christ (Advent). After this the Negus went to his 
chamber and on the 27th, Sunday, the Negus sent a herald 
round concerning the ordinance we mentioned above. On the 
same day he decorated with a gold head Azaj Gabru and 
Male'ak Tsahay Robe'am, and when the judges and Jan- 
Takal 1 officials pronounced that the presents 2 be restored, the 
484 a Negus punished them as was befitting. And he said to them, 
"Have you not heard how we have extirpated bribery among the 
priests?" And after this he decorated Bahrnagash Tasfa Tseyon 
(Zion) along with many men of Tigre. And on the same 
occasion he invested with a robe of honour Bahrnagash Tasfa 
Tseyon and his minister Maradasmach Asfa Wasan. And Dajaz- 
mach Adyamo sent news of the killing of some elephants and 
news came that Dajazmach Gabru Masqal and Ba'algada Walda 
Sellase and all the officials had arrived safely at their respective 
provinces. A herald of the Queen was sent round to proclaim 
" What she has got from Bursa, let it be confirmed to her." 
It was also heard how they had fought and vanquished the 
people of Batrya, and there was mourning in Waldebba. And 
Dajazmach Gadelu sent his son before the Negus with many 
servants and gave them to the Negus and Alga Zeferu went 
towards Dasit by orders of the Negus and on the 26th, the 
Friday, the Negus went down towards St Johannes because 
the wood of the house of Ras Walda Lelml was being sold, 

1 Jan Takal, the Royal Palace at Gondar. 

'-' ' : iin>f\:<- . from "YA.R (Ainharic) to supplicate, i.e. gifts for soliciting the favour of 
King or Judges. A (Mijilicinisin for .1 hribr. 



that it might be put up at Debra Metmaq, and he made all his 
generals carry, and the Negus himself carried wood, and thus they 
went to Debra Metmaq. And that day Dajazmach Kassa came 
and Blattengeta Kolu for they moved camp with Dajazmach 
Adegah. On the 4th of the month of Hamle, Wednesday, 
the Negus decorated Balambaras Ramkha, and gave him the 
daughter of his sister to be his wife. He also decorated the 
sons of Dajazmach Gadelu and Kefla Adonai. And on the 6th, 
Friday, the Negus sent round a herald to say, " Let there be 
held a market on the Saturday as in the beginning, for they 
preach Eastern doctrine when they say there should be no 
market held on Saturday." On the 21st, Saturday, the Negus 
received in the Royal house of Shaskana the priests of Debra 
Metmaq and he opened a meeting for drinking with his generals ; 
and on the 25th, Wednesday, there came a messenger from 484 b 
Tigre who reported to the Negus that Sura Khab'a Walda 
Sellase had defeated and taken prisoner Dajazmach Gabra 
Masqal and killed Aram his servant. On the 28th, Saturday, 
Male'ek Berhanat Kherut died of an illness on the 7th day 
(after illness of seven days) and he was buried at Hamar Nokh. 
And there was great grief in the town for he was a good man 
and very learned in books. And on the llth of (month of) 
Nahase the Negus sent a herald round to say that he had 
given all the country of Ejagera between Bursa and Qasar 
to Debra Metmaq and on the 15th the Negus bestowed a glebe 1 
on the priests of Metmaq. On the 1 7th a servant of the Negus 
was killed by some people of Lasta in consequence of some 
trifling matter, and on the 18th, Friday, the Negus gave what 
was left of the glebe to the people of Debra Libanos and the 
people of Debra Ewostatewos 2 . The next day there rose a 
great tumult for the priests of Debra Metmaq refused to take 
food at the table, at the house of 'Aqabe Sa'at Kabte, on the 

1 $4.5* is a plot of land near a church given by a founder for the maintenance of the 
Church and the attendants (Dabtara). 

2 The Christological controversy arose between the theologians of these two monasteries, 
Debra Libanos championing the more orthodox or High Church definition, and Ewostatewos 
that of the Low Church. Vide Appendix : Theological Controversies of the Abyssinian 
Church. 



[302] 

question of how the men of the house of Ewostatewos had been 
placed among them, and with many petitions to the Negus they 
took their meal later; and on the 21st again a tumult broke 
out among them at Debra Metmaq, on account of the question 
mentioned above, so there was a council at the house of the 
Negus and on the 23rd the Negus convoked those who had 
started the quarrel among the priests of Debra Metmaq, and 
he was urgent with them to have a meeting for a recon- 
ciliation, but they were obdurate (refused). So on the 25th the 
Negus spent the day with the men of Ewostatewos to make 
peace, and among those who were present was Blattengeta 
Yasellase, Bara Azaj Gabru, Azaj Kenfa of Tarasamba, Bajrond 
Wase. And on the 30th the Negus took the glebe from those 
485 a that had stirred up strife. On next day the Negus reconciled 
the men of the house of Ewostatewos with 'Aqabe Sa'at Kabte, 
and made them eat together, but there was no reconciliation 
in their hearts. On the 1st Maskaram when it was (the year 
of) John the Evangelist, the 5th year of the reign, the Negus 
stayed at the Church of John of Metmaq. On the 7th the 
Negus stayed in the house of the Queen Mother, in order to 
keep the anniversary of the King of Kings, Takla Haymanot. 
On the same day Agafare Ramkha came, a guard of the Negus 
with a retainer of Ba'algada Walda Sellase bringing presents 
for the Negus. On the 10th there were great rejoicings in the 
town of the Negus, because Azaj Gabru and Tserag Masare 
Fequr Egzie (Beloved of God) had reconciled, by order of the 
Negus, the men of the House of Ewostatewos with the 'Aqabe 
Sa'at Kabte from their hearts (wholeheartedly) and on oath, 
as the Book says, " And they came to the place of contention, 
and settled it by taking oaths." On the llth the men of Debra 
Lilwinos stayed with the men of the house of Ewostatewos 
singing hymns of love in the Church of the Holy Fasiladas, 
for previously they sang the music of discord. And they came 
out of there and spent the time in festivity at the Royal palace, 
eating and drinking, and the next day the Negus again feasted 
the priests mentioned above. And the 'Aqabe Sa'fit Kabte also 



[303] 

serenaded the Negus with songs of peace making, at the hour 
that Azaj Kabte was reposing. And on the 13th the Negus 
received his generals at a banquet and the 14th, Tuesday, the 
Negus sent a herald round to say that he had pardoned the 
Ba'algada Walda Sellase and the retainers of Shum Dara. On 
the 16th Dajazmach Adyamo came and there was a mingling 
(of society) according to law, and on the 1 7th the Negus spent 
the time looking at the concourse for it was the feast of the 
cross 1 . And the next day the Negus went to the Church 
of the Abuna Ewostatewos and he made them a gift of a 
Canopy 2 , and he sent round a herald to give notice of it. On 
the 21st he was engaged at a Council and on 22nd the Negus 
stayed at the house of Abuna Yosab for a banquet with his 
generals. On the 26th the Negus began (making) a number 435 b 
of guns, and he bestowed many lands on the riflemen. On 
the 2nd of (the month of) Teqemt, the Negus proclaimed 
by herald that he had given Samen to Dajazmach Yasellase 
Barya and the office of Blattengeta to Gualej Taqaqen. 

* * * =K= * * 

In the name of the Father, etc. Behold we are beginning 
an admirable and wonderful history, that will astound men of 
intelligence and learning; and the story of his marvellous birth, 
sweet as honey and sugar, from his great parents, the like of 
which the world will never see again for greatness and extent. 
The history is of the man grown old in wisdom, and of his chas- 
tisement, that well beloved and renowned Khaylu Mika'el of the 
beaming countenance and glorious fame ; by the help of God 
living and giving life, as the Book says, " All things excellent 
that are wrought by man thou shalt accomplish by the help of 
the Almighty," and our Lord said, " Without me what art thou 
able to accomplish ? " 

1 On this feast, 27th of September, the whole populace turn out and with the Negus, 
his chief ministers and officials go out in procession and walk round a high pyramid of 
logs and canes three times, the men carry wands and throw them into the erection of sticks 
which is finally set on fire. 

2 JtO-fl' an umbrella or canopy (Amharic, from Ge'ez flfl %.fi* prep, above, over), 
held over the King, a Tabot, etc. 



[304] 

In the 2;ird year of the reign of the King of Kings, Iya.su, 
son of the King of Kings, Bakaffa, and the epoch was that of 
.Matewos (Matthew). The month was the month of Ter, the 12th 
of the month of Ter, and the day was the feast of the Archangel 
Mika'el. He was the offspring of a great and lawful marriage, 
as the Book says, "He married honourably in every way." And 
there was no defilement of the marriage bed of that offspring, 
honoured and beloved of his good and pious parents, beloved 
of God, his kindnesses and favours were famous everywhere. 
And the names of his forefathers were: of his father the name 
was Dajazmach Eshate, the son of Abeto Fiqtor, the son of Atse 
Nebla Dengel, and his mother was Wayzero (Princess) Amayo, 
the daughter of Abeto La'eka Maryam, and the name of his 
mother was Princess Walatta Rufa'el, the daughter of Abeto 
486 a Walda Giyorgis, the son of Abeto Galawdewos, the son of Ras 
Walda Giyorgis ; his father was Abeto Selasse, son of Wayzero 
Fanaye; and the mother of Ras Walda Giyorgis was Wayzero 
Elene, and her father was Dajazmach Talaya Christos and her 
mother's father was Azaj Elateros of Sheme and Fatagar, and 
the name of the mother of Nagala Walda Giyorgis was Wayzero 
Walatta Tseyon. And the father of this particular Walda 
Giyorgis was the son of Abeto Doni of Nagala. And the 
father of Abeto Doni was Askarajan of Wag. 

His mother was Beseldeya Ambarasa and governed Tigrc. 
The mother of this particular Walda Giyorgis was Princess 
'Atsaqa Dengel, the daughter of Amata lyasus, daughter of Wa- 
lata Giyorgis, the daughter of Awsiibeyos, the son of Tewoderos, 
son of Marta, daughter of King Eskander (Alexander). The 
daughter of Fitawrari Rufa'el of Geraroya and Abeto Lebay of 
Wadela, the mother of Princess Walatta Tseyon (Sion) was Prin- 
cess Walatta Rufa'el, the daughter of Ada Adeyam Sagad lyasu 
who was born of a daughter of the Negus Baqela as he was called, 
of the house of Walatta Tseyon. We will also give the name of 
the mother of that child's mother, Princess Bechash, daughter 
of Ras Wadaje, son of Yamana Krestos, and son of Walatta 
Negash Abrako. And the name of the mother of Princess 



[305] 

Bechash was Wayzaro Suranteya of Ambasal, daughter of Atse 
Na'od and Tsege Roman (Rose of Rome), and Abeto Baraq. 
These now we have mentioned to the best of our ability but 
when we say we give an accurate account, the mind is feeble 
(liable to error), the tongue is mute, and the hearing becomes 
confused (lit. buzzes). 

And by request he brought up the child in the Church, so 
that he was baptized, and so was renewed by the Holy Ghost ; 
and he received baptism at the hand of a priest and he was 
christened by the name of Khayla Mika'el which was his name 
as a Christian, and this was given him by his father, Dajazmach 
Benyam, and he also brought him up in sound discipline. And 
when he came to be instructed he gave him a teacher and he 486 b 
was taught the sacred books. And he became a learned man, 
and intelligent in all his actions, handsome in appearance and 
liberal. And when he reached the age of 13 he longed to hunt 
wild beasts, before he had ever gone out hunting, while his 
elder brother, whose name was Eshti Engada had killed an 
elephant, Nage 1 , that is to say a Zahon 2 . And when he saw 
that and heard the chorus of dancing he was seized with anger 
in his heart. Even as the Book relates, Saul the Israelite 
was enraged, when he heard what Naos (Nahash) the Ammonite 
said to the people of Israel, "Pay tribute with your right 
eyes" (1 Sam. xi. 2) and then Saul was much enraged and he 
took two bullocks and cut them in pieces and sent them to 
all the people of Israel, and said, " Whoever has not followed 
Saul and Samuel and Abner let his arms be taken away and his 
house plundered." And when they killed, Khayla Mika'el was 
as Saul, who had learnt warfare from a child, and the Nage was 
as Naos the Ammonite, that is to say the Elephant. And 
Qundi the retainer who was beloved was as Abner and the 
official that sent him was Samuel, and again his father that had 
begot him of his body was as David, for David was enraged in his 

1 >&! Nage ; from a name, Nagaja, Sanscrit for elephant. For relations between India 
and Abyssinia, vide Cosmos Indicopleustes. 

2 HifTri the Amharic modern name for elephant. Variants, nfT/t Wlr* H-VTn Bilin. 
jana, Quara, gana. 

w. B. 39 



[306] 

soul when he heard the insult of Golyad (Goliath), saying, "Send me 
a man who can kill me and we will become your servants, but if I 
can kill him then you shall be our servants." And he killed the 
giant Goliath and took his sword from his thigh. Khayla Mika'el 
indeed was not comparable with David for he was but a child. 
And Goliath was another Elephant and Goliath's sword was the 
nose of the Elephant, that is to say, his trunk l . 

We will return to the beginning of the narration. And as 
soon as he left the house he began a journey towards Wagara 
on the 17th Miyazya, and none of the soldiers of his father knew 
him, though they knew that he might be captured and fettered, 
487 a and being much loved by his father and still more because he 
was a child who could not go out and descend (from the house) 
so his attendants followed him slowly, saying, " Follow, he would 
make 1000 soldiers follow war, for his father is a great prince 
and who is equal to him ? " And he stayed at Batirko and then 
left Batirko and stayed at Adiquorra, and from there he went 
away and stayed at Darqay which was a town of Abeto Gabru 
and then he met Abeto Gabru (in early daylight) at Bera. And 
when Abeto Gabru saw him he was much grieved and vexed, 
and said, "Whoever has taken you shall be sorry for it and 
whoever brings you to the desert haunts of the Elephants shall 
die, and saying that, he was enraged, for Khayla Mika'el was a 
headstrong child, who was thirsty as a wolf, hungry as a lion, 
and savage as a leopard, for he said, " Bring me to all the Ele- 
phants ; if you will not bring me, then I have no kinship with 
you," and when Adarqay Gabru laughed at him, " What have 
they put into his head ? This child should be thinking of eating 
and drinking but this is not business that children but what 
young men, conquerors and those versed in warfare attempt." 
And his father Dajazmach Khaylu, Chief of the Captains and 
leaders was not residing at Gondar but had gone to the country 
of his governorship, Damot. And when he heard the story of 
his son, how he hunted wild beasts, he was much annoyed and 
distressed at heart, like a woman taken with pains of travail, 
and he said, " How could he endure the heat of the sun and the 

Amharic word for elephant's trunk. 



[307] 

want of water, for he is a child who is not accustomed to any 
such thing-. What will become of him and what shall I do to 
keep him off distant countries ? " He would go to his son for 
he loved him, and his father's love forgave the son, for who 
would not love him of all who saw him ? And after that Adarqay 
Gabru brought him and collecting many men of the army of his 
house round the child, victor over the mighty, went to see where 487 b 
was a herd of mighty elephants, and (the boy) saying, "Tell 
me where is a herd of elephants to be seen," he told him "There 
is a herd of elephants in the heart of the forest 1 that belongs to 
Adyam Waldebba," and then Adarqay Gabru went with the child 
conqueror of the strong, and many soldiers with him ; and they 
came to where the herd of Elephants was. And when the 
child Khayla Mika'el saw the herd of Elephants, he was like a 
lion's cub that sees a bullock and has not tasted blood. His 
heart stiffened like curds, and his hand was steady like a brazen 
bow. And he went into the midst of the herd of Elephants 
and let fly his spear at one and killed one. Then the herd of 
Elephants dispersed like sheep that a wolf comes amongst, and 
leaving that place he shot at another Elephant, and killed 
him, making a bag of two (lit. accomplished a second). And 
then he returned to Waldebba, and he was received by many 
monks by whom he was blessed, and visited his son Tasfa 
Giyorgis like a second Takla Haymanot who ate no food but 
leaves 2 , that is to say tsagayto (?) ; he was received by him and 
was blessed by him. Then he returned from Waldebba and 
came to Aderqay and joined his teacher Walda Mika'el who 
loved him dearly, like his own mother, and felt for him as for 
himself, and with Azaj Bantahun. Here there were great 
rejoicings and delight, first on account of his return alive and 

1 /h'VUC^ 1 ' Ge'ez, Navel. Amh. hVflC^ * the central boss of a shield, here, the centre 
of the Forest. 

2 The reference is to the great Abyssinian saint Takla Haymanot (died about 1313) who 
is described in the Ethiopic Senkessar (Synaxarium) as living in Waldebba like King Takla 
Giyorgis. " He went thence to the land of Gariiriya ; and he ate nothing but leaves and 
drank nothing but water," &c. (Sinaxaire Ethiopien, ed. Ig. Guidi in Patrologia Orientalis, 
torn. ix). His feast was kept on the 24th Nahase (31 August), teagayto is some fruit or 
plant not, so far as I know, identified. 



[308] 

second on account of his bag (lit. killing). After that he left 
Darqay and went toward Wagara, and had a reception by the 
men of Wagara with salutes of guns (feux de joie) according 
to the custom of this country 1 . Then he went to Gondar and 
had a reception by the men with crowds on foot and on horse- 
back, so that they were astonished and dumbfounded by two 
things, first by the youthfulness of his appearance and, secondly, 
the force of his strength. And Ashawa came and laid trophies 
before the King of Kings lyo'as, son of King lyasu, and they 
had great rejoicing when they saw him leaving the trophies 
488 a with his collar 2 . And then he went to the house of the Ytege 
Mentwab, the Queen of Etyopiya and laid trophies before her, 
and she was much gratified and she said, " When did he grow 
up? When did he kill them, that child that was born only 
yesterday ? " And after that he w r ent to his house. And when 
he went to the house of his father who heard what was said 
on the stoop 3 , he blessed God who had given such a son to 
Dajazmach Eshate and blessed God that he had seen eye to 
eye with him. And after that he entered his father's house 
and there was joy and festivity, and after that his father 
Dajazmach Eshate came from the country of his command, 
Damot, his son Khayla Mika'el went out to meet him on the 
road of Isada; and when he laid trophies before him, he (the 
father) smiled gently to himself, but it was a smile of pleasure 
and gratification; his pleasure at the sight was like that of Jacob 
when he saw Yosef his son ruling over Egypt, after it had been 
said that Yosef was dead, and a wild beast had devoured him. 
As he rejoiced exceedingly, so in like manner Dajazmach Eshate 
rejoiced at the sight of his son, and he blessed God for what 
his son had shown him. Then he went to Gondar and spent 

1 The elephant hunter's " bag " or number was called Gaddai. The insignia of his exploit 
a ear-ring or necklet called Denfata (jfV4..* from jr i dannafa, to make a show, "swagger"), 
the man who can show a number of lance marks or dents is a Zerrafi n<-X. i from H<J i 
zarrafa, to charge on, and plunder. The betawa gives the hero the right to plait his hair in 
a special way. The scale of valour is calculated thus killing an elephant is the equivalent 
of killing 40 men; a buffalo, five men; a lion, four. In Tigre killing a lion or a Galla con- 
ferred the highest honour. 

2 1C.% is a chain or collar worn by boys mostly. 

3 >i.P.fl1jei Amharic piazza or verandali <>f :l Imuxe, the stoop, i.e. publicly. 



[309] 

the winter there, for he did not wander about 1 . After this 
a messenger came from Dajazmach Eshate to Ras Mika'el, 
saying, " Come quickly, the King and Queen behold have given 
you the title of Has." Then he rose and went. But this 
matter will not be concluded at this point, as it will be found 
in the history of the Negus lyo'as. 

^ -K" T? ^ ^ ^ 

We will go back to the beginning of our story. And after 
that Dajazmach Eshate sent his son Abeto Khaylu to the land 
of Begameder with Azaj Mensabo and Shamat Keiifu and with 
the teacher of Walda Mika'el to look after him and protect him ; 
and he gave him many arms, guns according to the use of 
Generals, for he was a great General. The reason for sending 488 b 
him was that he said he knew that the people of the Quorra 
(or hot low lands) were restless, and this should be stopped, and 
because he said (his son) should know the land of his mother 
Bigamer and know how to govern men, " While I am alive," as 
he said. And then he went about the business and lived there, 
and when he heard of the arrival of Ras Mika'el to make war, 
he sent over to his father Dajazmach Eshate " Shall I come to 
help you with a large force of troops and horsemen?" And his 
messenger Abeto Gabreye, started off and Dajazmach Eshate 
replied "Did I send for you to come and help me? Have you 
no place to live in your country ? " And then Ras Mika'el came 
to Gondar to lord it over them with great arrogance and 
there was great disturbance and work of dismissal of officials 2 . 
And they appointed Dajazmach Eshate to the Dajazmach-ship 
of Da mot by a cunning fraud. They sent Ras Fasil after 
him saying "We have given you his office and as for him 
let him not snatch it from you." And afterwards Dajazmach 
Eshate went to Damot. But Fasil followed after him, and he 
heard of his arrival while at Dalma near Machakel. Fasil 
sent all over Jawe and Mecha and assembled everyone and 
marshalled them for war. And there was a great slaughter 

1 Lit. did not say " Hither and thither," i.e. remained quiet, Amharic idiom. 

2 sacking, dismissal ; Tf^JM Amharic. Guidi, Inc. rif., 209. 



[3io] 

and Dajazmach Eshate was killed with a great number of 
soldiers and important men of his house. And Dajazmach 
Eshate died lowly in spirit and humble to all the great ones, 
as the Bible says, " Blessed are the poor in spirit for theirs is 
the Kingdom of Heaven." He died and they shall weep and 
mourn for ever for a just man, as the Bible says, "Blessed are 
they that mourn here for they shall be comforted," and Dajaz- 
mach Eshate died gentle and meek of heart, as the Bible says. 
" Blessed are the meek for they shall inherit the earth." He 
truly had the inheritance of the Kingdom of heaven. Dajaz- 
mach Eshate too died in hunger and thirst for the love of man, 
as the Bible says, "Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after 
489 a righteousness." And Dajazmach Eshate died compassionate 
and merciful, as the Bible says, " Blessed are the merciful for 
they shall obtain mercy." He was truly a man who had com- 
passion on the needy and lowly and he spared not the goods of 
his house. Dajazmach Eshate died purified of all revenge or 
rancour as the Bible says, " Blessed are the pure of heart for 
they shall see God." Dajazmach Eshate, a lover of love and 
peace as the Bible says, "Blessed are the peacemakers for they 
shall be called the children of God." He truly made peace for 
many men with God, by giving away his property. He truly 
indeed was worthy of all blessings for he was a great man and 
loved God. And Dajazmach Eshate died as all men have 
died by tyranny, and I grieve over his history, it makes my 
heart bleed. I am heart broken, heart broken that I did 
not know him, heart broken, heart broken that I did not 
see him. And when the news of his death was heard and he 
came to Gondar, great grief and lamentation and great bewail- 
ing burst forth as the Bible says, "Rahel weepeth over her 
children, a great lamentation has broken forth." We will return 
to what has been said above. And when he heard of the death of 
his brother Dajazmach Eshate, Dajazmach Awsabyos returned 
and Abeto Enged, for they were in his rear, Abeto Engad at 
that time was a young man. They crossed the bank of the Abfiy 
(Blue Nile) with a handful of soldiers. And there was great 



[3*1] 

lamentation, and he sent messengers from the guards of his 
father to the son of Abeto Khaylu. And when he heard it, he 
grieved saying, "Alas, alas, woe is me. I am grieved that he did 
not know of my coming. He was truly worthy of regrets and 
mourning. For he was a great father, who was pleasing to 
heaven and earth." And then he made preparations to make 489 b 
a memorial of his father and worthy preparations and works 
of remembrance and he numbered out bullocks of which he 
slaughtered 400 and what were left he used for farming at 
Este. And he spent the summer in his province in sorrow 
and mourning. For there were people who related what was 
said of his father when he was alive, and people came at 
the time of his death and weeping recounted things of him. 
And his teachings they repeated mournfully, and as a lesson 
of his. Were there not two spears that they hurled upon 
thee Eshate, like Saul, and violence like Nabute. But alas 
for Eshate it afflicts my vitals 1 ! and he said, "Ah, me, for my 
father it afflicts my vitals." And at that time Dajazmach 
Yamaryam Barya started on a crime and conspired against the 
Negus. He sent to him (his brother) to say " I am your servant 
and friend, I am your brother and kinsman. Come to me and 
we shall be one, and if we are one there is no one that will avail 
against us, there will be no one who can stand up before our 
face, for I am a great general, and you are a great (ally) as- 
sistance." And when Abeto Khaylu heard this talk he was 
much enraged and said this rebellion and conspiracy against 
the King should not be, for the Bible says in the Psalms, "Touch 
not mine anointed " (Ps. cv. 15) and in another place it says, 
" Stretch not forth thy hand against the Lord's anointed, for he 
who layeth his hand on the Lord's anointed shall not be purified 
from his stain " (1 Sam. xxvi. 9). But who shall attain to this 
knowledge ? Oh my Lord and friend, between whose love and 
mine there is no defect or deception, from this you have 
received wisdom and knowledge which Dajazmach Maryam 
Barya never received, and his brothers and friends, who were 

Amharic. 



[312] 

sorely tried. Then after he had heard of the crime of Dajaz- 
inficli Maryam Barya the Negus appointed Dajazmach Birale 
and after he had appointed him he went to Begamedr, and 
Dajazmach Maryam Barya caught him (Birale) when replete 
with food 1 and there was a great slaughter and he conquered 
490 a and slew. Many were killed that day and they took prisoner 
Ras Ayadar and Echage Yamaryam Barya. And at that Dajaz- 
mach Yamaryam Barya rejoiced greatly at the victory, and 
there was no end to his rejoicing, for he did not know what 
the Bible says, "He who kills with the sword shall perish 
by the sword." On this there was great mourning in Gondar 
because Birale the brother of the Negus was dead. We will 
go back to what we said at the beginning. And after that 
his kinsmen wished to make war and take his country but 
they were not able to carry on the war. For God was on 
his side as he was on the side of Moses in the land of Egypt, 
and the hand of the Lord has not failed, when, oh when (has 
it failed)? Thence he went to Nagala and spent the winter 
there with many retainers, for there was no one to harm him. 
After this there was an expedition 2 against Dajazmach Yamar- 
yam Barya. After this the Negus lyo'as went on an expedition - 
with Ras Mika'el and large force of soldiers, and then the Negus 
sent Shalaqa Tezkaro and Fitawrari Gabena to bring Abeto 
Khaylu; and Abeto Khaylu came quickly, and was received 
by the King and Ras Mika'el at Mushalamiya Abo. And the 
Negus started forth and camped at Nafasa Mawcha, and they 
fought a battle at Checheho, and the Negus gained a victory 
and Yamaryam Barya took to flight. But the rest of the story 
will not be concluded here. After this the Negus returned 
and on the Negus's return Abeto Khaylu fell ill at Garagara 
of the small-pox 3 and they carried him on a bed to the town of 
Nagala. And God gave him life and had pity on his illness, 
as a father has pity on his son, just so God has mercy on those 

1 Amhuric, *>m>i lit. to have indigestion. 

2 \loo-fi* Amlisiric, sin expedition, from Ht to raid. Azm&ch (>H*7^), ;i niilit;uv 
title, is a derivative. 3 Amharic, 



' [313] 

that fear him. Glory be to him ! And Mika'el the Archangel 
was not parted (from him in) his illness, for he was his own 
guardian angel. And after he recovered from his illness Ras 
Mika'el sent over to him a message, " Come ! come to Gondar 
and I will give you my daughter." Then he went from Nagala 
to Este and heard there the news of the death of the Negus 
lyo'as his kinsman and he wept there. 

REIGN OF YOHANNES 

And then he heard of the news of the accession of Yohannes, 190 b 
and arrived at Gerariya. Thence he went to Gondar and was 
received by the Negus, bringing the tribute that was fitting 1 . 
And he was received by Ras Mika'el and Ras Mika'el looked 
after 2 Abeto Khaylu. And he gave 'him his daughter whose 
name was Princess Walatta Takla Haymanot, and counted out 
for him much property which was dowry. And as for Abeto 
Khaylu he enumerated his lands (villages), saying, "Behold! 
These are the dowry that are mine," And when Ras Mika'el 
heard the number of his villages, he was astonished and 
dumbfounded, and how should he not be astonished? For 
there was no one who had the like extent of villages (country). 
And after that he brought him to the pastures and made him 
come to his house and spend the winter (rains) in his tents. 
And at that moment there was an expedition to Damot of Ras 
Mika'el with the Negus Takla Haymanot and many Generals 
with him, and Abeto Khaylu himself, son-in-law of Ras Mika'el, 
went on an expedition with him. When Fitawrari Ras Mika'el 
came to Fagta, there was a great slaughter that day, and Ras 
Mika'el was victorious, and Abeto Khaylu killed six uncircum- 
cised 3 , and five with spears and one with his sword, a Guarade 4 ; 
he was a noble youth, so young that it is difficult to listen 
and to speak of it, he being a boy of seventeen winters, worthy 
of admiration, and his prowess was such as to be hard to believe. 

Amharic. 2 t/hc}Pi = >,flt/h to tend, nurse. 

Amharic from *A<C> to lock with a key. Arabic oUJ. Ouidi, loc. cit. 245. 
= a straight sword ; 7/S.jP i the curved scimitar of the Abyssinians. 



w. B. 



[314] 

For he then performed a deed of great strength, even as did 
Gidewon with Midyam (Midianites) when he said, "The war is 
Gidewon's but the strength is the Lord's 1 ." And he slew Heb 
and Zeb and Zebehel and Salmanna (Oreb, and Zeeb and 
Zebah and Zalmunna) and all their followers, who killed his 
brother, and so he wiped out (expiated) his brother's blood by 
the shedding of the blood of the people. In the same manner 
he (Abeto Khaylu) acted at Fagta and avenged the blood of 
491 a his father, who had left no other son, and then he acted as 
David the Israelite did in the face of Saul his father-in-law, and 
laid trophies before him. In such manner he (Abeto Khaylu) 
acted, and laid 200 trophies with his retainers before his father- 
in-law, Ras Mika'el, who rejoiced over the youth of Abeto 
Khaylu. And when thin was done he afterwards returned to 
Damot, to his tents. And when Abeto Khaylu had returned, 
he was minded of what his father said when he was alive, " If 
now I die in a foreign land leave not my bones in a foreign 
land as long as you are alive, but bring my bones to Waldebba." 
And he answered Ras Mika'el, " Is it permitted to me to take 
my father out of a grave when you are present?" And Ras 
Mika'el replied, "Do as you will for you are my son and 
beloved of me." And so he sent a large force of troops to 
bring his father away ; and they bore him away, for they would 
make no separation of his limbs, and they would not disturb 
the fillet on his head, that he bound round it in life, but brought 
it along. And then there rose great mourning and lamentation 
when they saw the corpse of Dajazmach Eshate their friend 
and tribesman. And the whole world said, "O Dajazmach 
Eshate, thou art a second Zakaryas who died through tyranny, 
for Herodes went out and killed Zakaryas in the Holy House, 
and his blood was flowing for thirty years, and after that the 
King came and asked saying, " For what reason is this blood 
flowing?" and they told all that took place. Then he com- 
manded them to bring a man of the house of those that killed 
him and they made his blood flow upon the blood. And when 

1 Judges vii. -J;>; viii. 21. 



[3iS] 

they had done this, the blood at the instant ceased to flow 
(dried up). Just so the son of Dajazmach Eshate acted; he 
mingled the blood of the people with the blood of his father. 
And then he was minded of Abel whom his brother slew, and 
the children of Qayal (Cain) who perished in the deluge (Maya 
Ayekh). Dajazmach Eshate was Abel, whom by a previous 
decree died by the point of a spear. The children of Qayal 
were Jawi and Mecha, men of Damot. And the deluge was the 
sword in the hand of his son, Olzabel that was burned with fire, 
was the land of Damot. Blessed is he, Abeto (Khaylu) that made 491 b 
flow the blood of thy sons at Fagta, for Eleyas will help Ras 
Mika'el. Oh Babylon, land of Damot, blessed is he Zerubabel, 
Abeto Khaylu, that exacted a great vengeance. Hose'e Ras 
Mika'el will give thee help and make thee worthy of being 
blessed. Oh Second Yosef Dajazmach Khaylu, as Yosef took 
Ya'qob his father from Egypt to the land of his people and 
brought him to the land of Cana'an, so thou didst take out thy 
father and bear him quickly to the land of Waldebba that 
formerly in life he yearned for. For this thou deservest to be 
blessed. Oh Second Jacob Dajazmach Khaylu who took the 
blessing of Ishaq thy father, Dajazmach Eshate, that was sacri- 
ficed at Bifata. And now we will return to what we were saying 
before. And after that Azaj Teku Eqa brought him to the house 
of Walda Mika'el. And Abba Ma'aza and those who brought 
him to Waldebba to a consecrated spot, as he had before desired. 
We will go back to what was said before. Bringing him the 
Negus Takla Haymanot returned and Ras Mika'el and all the 
captains and Abeto Khaylu returned. And there was great 
shouting and war cries on their return and rejoicings and singing. 
Then Dajazmach Khaylu bethought him of a beautiful song, 
and his song was like this : 

As for the sword, I know how it 

Always strikes, I glorify Khaylu. 

And after this he went to Gondar and stayed a short time there. 
After this he heard that Ras Fasil was at Nagala in Begameder ; 
on hearing this Ras Mika'el marched out from Gondar quickly 



and went against Ras Fasil to make war upon him, and there 
he fought a great fight while there also fought the youth Abeto 
Khaylu, so that the Negus Takla Haymanot and Ras Mika'el got to 
know of his youth (what his youth was worth). Then Ras Mika'el 
went to Gondar and wanted to go to his country with the Negus 
492 a Takla Haymanot and his troops, and Abeto Khaylu said to 
him, " I will go with you, and there shall be no separation between 
us, for I am strong for marching whether for death or life." 
And then he blessed him with a great benediction, as Ishaq did 
Ya'eqob his son, saying, " Be lord over thy brother. Whether 
the heavens are moist or the earth stricken (the dew of heaven 
and the fatness of the earth) it shall be thy blessing 1 ." The 
Blessing with which he blest Abeto Khaylu was for two reasons : 
first because of his saying that he would go with him, second 
because he did not deceive him, as two generals, viz. Dajazmach 
Wand Bawasan and Ras Goshu deceived him. And for that he 
gave him a great blessing upon (lit. taking) his head. After this 
Ras Mika'el went to his province Tigre and passed the winter at 
Adewa. And Abeto Khaylu went to his province of Begameder. 
And when he reached Dangure he was received by Dajazmach 
Wand Bawasan and Ras Goshu and he went in their company 
to Gondar. But they quickly returned and went to their country. 
And he (Abeto Khaylu) followed after them, to his place (village) 
of Nagala and wintered there. Then Dajazmach Wand Bawasan 
said, " Give me your sister that is called Wayzaro Weshen Azal 
for my wife." But he refused and answered, " It is not fitting 
for me to give you my sister, because you have married her 
sister called Yaweb Dar, and the Bible forbids marriage with 
two at a time." And again he said, " Supposing I give her to 
you, which will you put in the position of wife ? Of the two will 
you make a concubine of the sister I give you and how much 
of a /wife ? " That was his haughty answer. And on account of 
this Dajazmach Wand Bawasan hated him and wanted to seize 
him and take his lands. The other however was not frightened 
of him because he was a giant and versed in war from his child- 

1 Gen. xxvii. 39. 



hood. Then there was a great battle with Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan and they fought with one another; and Dajazmach 
Wand Bawasan pursued him. Now behold the commencement 
of the trial of Abeto Khaylu. He fled, leaving his country, and 492 b 
while trying to get to Gondar, he had a messenger from Ras 
Fasil saying, " Come to me and we will be one (united). And 
Fasil (pretended) to hold all the other's possessions as of no 
account, for he was a serpent. And he spoke like this several 
times and showed his face (nature) to (Abeto Khaylu) the son 
of Eshate, and he threw a net around him, making him gifts of 
arms and titles. Just as the Bible says in the Psalms, "The 
proud ones hid a snare from me, and concealed the deceit of 
their nets for my feet" (Ps. cxl. 5). But Abeto Khaylu was 
cunning as a serpent and simple as a dove. As the Bible says in 
the Gospels, "Be cunning as the serpent and simple as the dove." 
And he being simple as a dove severed himself from the other, 
in his wisdom. And he left Gondar and on coming to Abba 
Samuel as he had commanded Fitawrari Abro'ay came to his 
death. And he marched forth from Gobaden and joined battle 
with him and gained a victory and brought him to his camp. 
On that Dajazmach Wand Bawasan marched out in a rage and 
followed him to Gobaden. And Dajazmach Wand Bawasan 
arrived at where Abeto Khaylu was and there was a great 
battle and Abeto Khaylu took to flight, but while he was flying 
he performed deeds of valour, and he slaughtered as the fleet- 
footed Osahel with his bow killed Abner when he was fleeing 1 . 
And when he came to Kaylameda, there fell upon him a power- 
ful body of men mounted on horses. And on this he wheeled 
round on them and said, " Come on upon me, for I am the man 
you are looking for." That moment they hesitated with fear at 
what might be in store for them, and they were afraid of coming 
near him. And then he arrived at the house of the Abun. 
And Dajazmach Wand Bawasan came to Gondar, and that 
was the day that Susneyos, the Negus, quitted Gondar and 
Dajazmach Wand Bawasan went to the House of the Abun 

1 2 Sam. ii. 18, 19. 



[318] 

and was received and made peace. And he made a covenant 
with him and after that Dajazmach Wand Bawasan went to 

493 a Begameder. And Abeto Khaylu remained at Gondar. While 
things were in this situation Ras Mika'el came with the Negus 
Takla Haymanot, and there was great panic and threats of 
danger and they came to Gondar. At that time they crucified 
Abba Salama as Artekersas (Ahasuerus) crucified Hama (Ha- 
man). Abba Salama had subverted the Faith and a great 
infidelity had broken forth, that had disturbed every man in 
his tents. For he had thrilled the hearts of all the men without 
knowledge of the Scriptures. As is said in the remains of 
Qerlos (Cyril), "Thou didst move the whole world in a little 
space." He also destroyed the house of the Echage Henok, 
a righteous man and orthodox. And Ras Mika'el at that time 
was very active, he appointed Abeto Khaylu to be Dajazmach 
of Begameder, besides whom no one could be found (better) 
for the position in Begameder unless Dajazmach Khaylu were 
selected. After this Dajazmach Wand Bawasan and Ras Goshu 
were guilty of rebellion, and Ras Mika'el hearing of it, sent that 
very day Dajazmach Khaylu with a large force to set on fire 
and burn the convents of Tsagyat in Gebaden and Reza Habt 
towards the road of Farqa Bar, which was a hiding-place for 
robbers. And there the soldiers of Dajazmach Khaylu fought 
a battle wherein Dajazmach Khaylu showed himself worthy 
of his title, for on that day there was fought a great battle 
between Ras Aydar Wadaj Asahel and the people of Yaju 
and victory lay with the soldiers of Dajazmach Khaylu. And 
after that he returned and told him all that took place. 
Then Ras Mika'el marched out and went on the road in the 
rear, and reached Dagola and he camped there and Dajazmach 
Wand Bawasan and Ras Goshu advanced with a large force 
and they joined battle that lasted forty-five days in which there 
was a great slaughter. And at that time Dajazmach Khaylu 

493 b fought, and the prowess of the young man was wonderful such 
as is impossible for the ear to hear or the tongue to relate. 
While Ras Mika'el was at Dagola he saw the tents at Semen of 



Tesfu. And his heart was fired at that and he exclaimed, 
"Can a fox stand up in the face of a lion? Or a Karmel 
that is a Chefreg 1 that is like Tsad 2 contend with the wood 
of Pawqina (pine)?" And so saying, Ras Mika'el summoned 
Dajazmach Khaylu and Dajazmach Kefla lyasus that they 
should act after his own heart. As it is said in the Bible, 
"I have found my servant David a trusty man that worketh 
after my heart 3 ." And then he marched by night and made 
war on him, and fought a great battle and made great booty. 
Dajazmach Khaylu fought and made prisoners of eight powerful 
men, many goods, both guns and arms, round shields 4 of 
war and mules and horses, and the troops of his house made 
prisoners as well as he. And .after this he left the men 
he had made prisoners before the face of Ras Mika'el. And 
Ras Mika'el was rejoiced at the strength of Dajazmach Khaylu. 
"Oh my Lord and loved one, what place is there that you 
have not fought in (lit. killed). Oh my Lord and loved one, 
who hast bound my soul with your soul. As the soul of David 
was bound up with the soul of Yonatan (Jonathan). What place 
have you not done valiantly in? And how shall we measure 
your manhood, for there is no measuring it ; at Dagala what 
you performed was equal to ten young men or twenty or thirty 
and the great ones talk of it in Begameder, who saw you moving 
about among them. And you range about everywhere (lit. you 
say, 'Here and there and everywhere') when mounted on a 
horse (lit. on the foot of a horse). Woe, Oh conquering, con- 
quering youth, to the enemy, whom we saw to-day at noon, woe 
to those Oh conquering child, whom we saw to-day at the moment 
of the struggle. Oh my Lord and loved one, I grieve you did 
not find an upright King, for the Bible says, " Thou shalt not 
dwell in country where there is not an upright King," and of 
how many didst thou wipe off' all the ointment of valour instead 

1 YlC"%A Karmel ffi&C."! chefreg, kind of plant, a small shrub, used for making brooms. 

2 KK * or K j i Tsad or Tsaddo, shrub, Rhamnus Tsaddo (Schweinfurth), whose root is 
used for flavouring Hydromel (Taj). The more usual flavouring is by the plant Giesho, 
Rhamnus Paiiciflorus. 

3 1 Sam. xxix. 3. 4 Gasha, round shields, Amharic. 



[320] 

494 a of selling it to many warriors?" (Matt. xxvi. 9). We will go 
back to what was being said before. And after forty-five days 
Ras Mika'el was defeated though he did not show he was beaten, 
as the Book of Kings says, " Let not that matter displease thee 
sometimes it is like that, sometimes it is like this (whether it is 
thus or thus) wilt thou always be delivered from the sword V 
And after he was defeated, he came to Gondar and there came 
with him two chiefs, viz. Dajazmach Wand Bawasan and Ras 
Goshu and they brought him. At that time Dajazmach Klwylu 
and Dajazmach Wand Bawasan became reconciled and also 
with Dajazmach Goshu. And he gave him his sister named 
Princess Weshen. Before they made war from necessity, contrary 
to their desires. And he went with him to his country, Begameder, 
and spent the rains there. And during this time while Dajazmach 
Khaylu was at Gerariya, the King of Kings, Takla Haymanot, 
went out and came to Qaroda, and when Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan heard of this he sallied forth from Ashma and camped 
at Reb and caught the Negus while eating and drinking, and 
all his generals eating and drinking too, as they were not aware 
of his coming. He came on Easter day. And he stopped 
when they were at Adaga, and took them prisoners, and then 
returned having taken the Negus, and the crown of the kingdom, 
and the fillet of his head and all his generals and there was not 
one of the soldiers of the Negus that was not captured. And 
at the same time Ras Goshu came and Ras Fasil to help the 
Negus on the Dara road. And they attacked Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan and Dajazmach Khaylu joined with him, and fought 
with them to help the Negus. And they fought a battle at 
Chachaho and Dajazmach Wand Bawasan was defeated and 
retired to his country Lasta. Whereupon they sent the King of 
Kings Takla Haymanot to his tents at Gondar. And he and 
Ras Mika'el made friends and have so continued to this dav. 



After the fight at Dagola he sent him to his province Tigre. 

After this Ras Goshu and Ras Fasil returned having become 

494 b reconciled, and becoming intimate they concerted a plot against 

1 2 8am. xi. 25. 



[321] 

Dajazmach Khaylu, saying to Dajazmach Wand Bawasan, "We 
have come to you, you will not be silent about the province 
of Dajazmach Khaylu." That was what Ras Fasil said because 
he was his enemy from of old, and the other had done him 
favours when he came to Begameder. He returned evil for 
good that had been done him. As the Bible says, " They returned 
me evil for good, they hated me because that I loved them " 
(Ps. cix. 5). And after that Dajazmach Khaylu was expelled 
(from his province) and gave over his province to Dajazmach 
Wand Bawasan : and he came to Gondar and spent the winter 
there. And about that time there was a famine 1 that is called 
" My thinness " (Qachne). 

At this time the King of Kings, Takla Haymanot made 
changes among the offices, and confirmed Ras Ayadar in his 
office, as Ras Behtwaddad 2 . And Dajazmach Berkeyanos was 
appointed to be Teqaqen, and Dajazmach Aklog to be Balam- 
baras, and Dajazmach Khaylu to be Qanasmach. He went to 
Ahobalekhua, his village on the road to Anguaj on account of 
the famine, and then he went to Begameder. And about that 
time the Negus left Gondar to make war on Ras Fasil, and he 
came to Lebbo, and from Lebbo he went to Affarawanat and 
when at Affarawanat Dajazmach Khaylu gave a horse which they 
call Magen to the Negus Takla Haymanot, and then the Negus 
presented to him the revenue that belonged to Nagala, which 
did not exist till instituted by the Negus Bakaffa. On this a 
herald proclaimed, "I have given him all the revenues that come 
from Nagala. Let them be for his son and his son's son." And 
for this declaration there were many witnesses, viz. officers of 
state and judges. And their names were Ras Ayadar, Dajazmach 
Adegah, Wand Bawasan, and of the judges were Liqa Khaylu, 
Azaj Ya'eqob, Azaj lyo'akes, Azaj Abeselomof Sango, LiqaGebru, 495 

1 J'rtiT (Qatana), Aniharic (from verb Qatana, to get thin), was corrupted in popular 
language into |'Pfc! (Qachne) = my thinness, with a secondary meaning of (1) a thin pole 
or wand ; (2) narrow shoes. 

2 -tt^atfjl:* or -n;h-Vfl>jt Betwaddad or Beht-, the highest title in the kingdom, 
derived from nA-J-i < only or specially united to, i.e. beloved ; prime favourite. The 
number in former days was limited to two. 

w. B. 41 



[322] 

Azaj Abeselom, the son of Azaj Tadaseyos, Liqa Gabru, son of 
Liqa Takla Haymaiiot. And in presence of those the Negus 
gave him his villages. Dajazmach Khiiylu returned (to the 
Negus) the revenues of the villages that the Negus had granted 
him, in order to strengthen himself with the Negus Takla 
Haymanot, as Zerubabbel strengthened himself with Daryos the 
King by returning his prisoner, Ya'eqob, and as lyasu (Joshua) 
restored the land of Shem that was called lyarako (Jericho), that 
the children of Kam had taken away 1 . We will now go back to 
what we were saying before. Now while the Negus was making 
war on Dajazmach Goshu and Dajazmach Wand Bawasan, on 
account of the people of Lasta, and on account of that he 
abandoned the expedition against Fasil, the Negus came to 
Gondar and spent the dry season there, and Dajazmach Khaylu 
came with him. And after that he returned to Begameder, 
and while he was at Begameder, Fasil came to Gondar. Fasil 
was an enemy and a tyrant, for he had plundered the house of 
Dajazmach Khaylu of all its goods and left nothing that was in 
the house, though the goods that had been given him were without 
number. As soon as Dajazmach Khaylu heard that he had 
been robbed of his property his elder brother died whose name 
was Abeto Anged when Eshate was there. And he was filled 
with great grief when he heard the two reports at one moment, 
first of the robbery of his house and secondly of the death of 
his brother. And after that he heard of the death of Ytege 
(Queen) Mentwab who gave food to the hungry and was the 
hope of the people and of those who lived around far and near. 
And when the sun, the Ytege Mentwab, set, there was darkness 
and great lamentation over the whole world. For Ytege Ment- 
wab was in truth a sun. She gave joy to the poor and needy, she 
clothed the naked and starving. Who is there that would not 
regret such a woman, and be sorrowful for thee, Oh Jerusalem, 
Ytege Mentwab, the land of prophets, priests of Quesquam 2 . 
495 b For there was no man who did not bewail her in sorrow. 
And who is there who would not be submerged in a flood 

1 This story is taken from Apocryphal sources followed by Josephus (Anti<j. xi. s). Op. 
also Haggui i. 1. 2 Qusqfuu, a town of I'pper ilgypt. 



[323] 

of tears at the tokens of grief when they saw Ytege Mente- 
wab being lowered into the grave, the sun of peace and 
love, for there was no man that her light had not cheered, 
or her hand had bestowed gifts, so that there was bitter 
lamentation, for hers was a great race that loved and inspired 
love. And thus mourning and grieving he spent the summer 
(dry season) at Gerariya. At the same time Ras Fasil handed 
over to the Negus Takla Haymanot his land in Damot and 
wintered there and joined with Ras Goshu. Then Ras Fasil 
and Ras Goshu came to the Negus Takla Haymanot, and they 
made an expedition against Dajazmach Wand Bawasan. But 
the Negus had no desire for that expedition (raid). And he 
joined with Dajazmach Wand Bawasan and Dajazmach Eraqles 
(Heracles) who had helped Dajazmach Wand Bawasan. Then 
before the arrival of Dajazmach Fasil, Dajazmach Khaylu went 
away to Agats for he was ashamed to be connected with Dajaz- 
mach Fasil for he had been his former enemy. So on that account 
he went to Agats and did not go on the raid with the Negus, and 
only his retainers went. Then after that Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan and Dajazmach Eraqles were defeated at Enjarut, 
and Ras Goshu pursued them as far as Wag. And Dajazmach 
Fasil turned back and in returning appointed over the lands of 
Dajazmach Khaylu two chiefs; then he took them and put them 
in chains, for they had done what they ought not to have done. 
And Dajazmach Fasil went off to his territory, as was his 
custom, sneaking like an animal, a civet cat 1 . And during 
this time Dajazmach Khaylu and Ras Goshu and Dajazmach 
Wand Bawasan had come together at Bashelo and made 
friends there, and with the Negus Takla Haymanot. And when 
Dajazmach Wand Bawasan and Ras Goshu returned Dajazmach 496 
Khaylu returned with them, but only he did not camp with 
them, he said, "It is not fitting for me to have my camp with 

1 TC^' Tern = civet (Amharic); the usual word is Hfl- Zebad, heiice our word civet, 
Arabic j*)j. The old Ge'ez name was K)\iin Ankaso, or h"yi>fli Ankos= Greek oi/v. The 
civet substance is found sticking to branches, bamboos, etc., where the animal has been 
moving and rubbing itself, and is still obtained in S. Abyssinia and Kaffa. It may have been 
what was called Kan-Tovpi by Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th cent.). 



[324] 

the Dajazmach of Begameder," so he camped by himself, and 
saved the bullocks of the country of Fogara from being plundered, 
for he was a friend of the pasturers l . After this Has Goshu went 
to his territory, Ainara, and Dajazmach Wand Bawasan went to 
his, Garagara, and as Has Goshu was going he received Dajazmach 
Khaylu with joy and festivity, and sent him away in peace. But 
Dajazmach Khaylu went away to Wakhne to where the Negus 
was and joined him there and they consulted together about all 
that was taking place. After that he turned back and came to 
Gerariya. And when Has Fasil heard all that was going on, on 
that he sent his son whose name was Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el 
and with him a large force of troops, and gave him orders to 
set fire to the house of Dajazmach Khaylu and he did so, on the 
2nd of Hamle (15 November). And he ordered the burning 
down of the house for (the reason of two affairs) two reasons, 
1st because he 2 had reconciled Ras Goshu and Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan and made peace between them, and 2nd because he 
had received Dajazmach Kenfu; for when the latter had been 
making war upon Ras Fasil, and had been driven out to Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu, the latter then had received him with delight and 
rejoicings, and had told him, " My house shall be thy house and 
my land shall be thine, and think not of what thou shalt eat or 
clothe thyself, or for thy sojourning, for there shall be nothing 
wanting of anything that thou mayst ask for from me." And 
what he did for Dajazmach Kenfu were things too numerous to 
relate. For that then Ras Fasil ordered the burning of his 
house. And on the same day Asalafe Qunde and Asalafe Walda 
lyasus did valiantly, while their lord was not present. And 
496 b after that Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el returned and his retainers. 
And while he was at Gerariya Dajazmach Khaylu heard how 
they had burnt down his house, came away in haste but did not 
catch them, and afterwards he wintered at Este, but Fasil made 
war on the Negus and Dajazmach Wand Bawasan and he 
(Fasil) came in Maskaram (September) and he burnt down 



Amharic, pastoral nomads. 
2 D. Khaylu. 



[325] 

his (Dajazmach Khaylu's) house a second time and after went 
to Kemer Dangaya and camped there. Dajazmach Khaylu 
went to Nagala and Dajazmach Wand Bawasan to Masqaneh, 
and then Ras Fasil rose to go to Wakhne to where the Negus 
was with Ras Goshu and then Dajazmach Khaylu followed in 
his tracks and said to the men of his house, " Follow me and we 
will make an attack on Fasil for there shall be no hope of life 
for either great or small, and thereby resembling Jonathan 
the son of Saul who fought valiantly at Mikewos (Michmash) as 
it is related in the Book of Kings. And a great slaughter took 
place, and God gave great strength, for as the Book of Psalms 
says, " They have the strength of the Lord, who fear him, and 
who call upon his name." And they took prisoners a great 
many men and horses and mules without number and the 
number of tents was 450 there being many men who were 
making festival that day, so that there was not a man who had not 
captured horses and mules. The number of horses that were in 
the train of Dajazmach Khaylu was 220 and those (in the train) 
of Ras Fasil were 3550 so they saw the stoutness of heart of 
Dajazmach Khaylu who confronted Ras Fasil though he had such 
a number of horses and troops. And the day was Wednesday 
and the spot was the Amus river. And on that day they re- 
sembled the father of David. For when David was away the 
people came to the land of David and captured two of his 
women, Abigaya and Akinahon (Abigail and Ahinoam) and 497 a 
plundered his house (1 Sam. xxx. 3 5). And then David came 
and mourned because of it and at the same time he pursued 
and caught them when they were spread abroad (1 Sam. xxx. 16) 
and smote them there. And Dajazmach Khaylu was David 
and the people were the soldiers of Fasil whom they killed at 
the Amus river and the two women of his houses that did not 
leave as they were burning them. From thence he returned 
from the field of battle and joined Dajazmach Wand Bawasan 
and sent over a messenger to the Negus, saying, " Good news 
for thee, oh King, good news," and the Negus was rejoiced at it; 
and Dajazmach Wand Bawasan and Dajazmach Khaylu met 



[326] 

the Negus together on the Saturday the seventh day. And 
then they encountered Fasil and defeated him and many there 
were that were killed and taken prisoner, Dajazmach Khfiylu 
doing valiantly that day as is the wont of warriors, capturing 
a great number of men, 165 in number. He went to the 
Negus and presented the trophies and said, " On the Thursday 
I did it, I did it, thus," and like that he boasted and vaunted l 
himself. After this the Negus turned back and went to Gondar 
from the place of the raid and Dajazmach Khaylu went to 
Gerariya in triumph, and they composed a chorus which ran 
like this, "On Thursday Ras Fasil got Khaylu excommunicated: 
he got leave and went off to be absolved on Saturday. When 
a shield glittered at him and the spear pursued him, off went 
Fasil quick." And he lived there a short while and then went 
to Gondar and made gifts to the Negus including a horse 
that they call a mudslinger 2 ; and the horse was estimated to 
be worth 35 dinars of gold. And the Negus gave him lands, 
which had been assessed with the providing of a troop 3 and 
shields and shieldbearers, saying, "Build a Church for they are 
lands you possessed before." But the gifts are for two reasons, 
1st because of the fight with Fasil, 2nd for the gift of the horse, 
and that has been inscribed in the book of the Judges and it 
497 b will be found there. And after this he returned to the country 
Gerariya and stayed the summer there. He was taken ill for 
a short while, but God cured him of his disease, on Him be 
praise. And while he was at Gerariya Ras Goshu sent a message 
to him, saying, " Help me." On this he descended towards the 
Abay with Ras Ayadar and they met him there. After this 
they went to Gondar. At that time there were changes 
made among the officials and the Negus Takla Haymanot 
appointed Ras Ayadar as Dajazmach of Semen and Azaj of 
Qaha, and spent the rainy season there. The Negus Takla 
Haymanot said, " As a matter of friendship show me a great 

1 Recounting deeds of valour called fakkera is a permissible and customary pertnnnanco 
among Abyssinians. Cp. similar ceremony in Spain on creation of a Grandee. 

from tlt-fil to throw mud, i.e. mud throwers, gallopers. Amharic. 
Guidi, loc. clt. 626. 



[327] 

number of your soldiers," but it was Dajazmach Khaylu who 
answered, " Yes, and I will do for thee what thou biddest me," 
and in the middle of this business he summoned Ras Goshu 
though no one knew his crime (what he had committed). Then 
the Negus called up Dajazmach Khaylu and said to him, " Put 
Fasil and his son to death." And (the other) replied, " Assemble 
the judges, and let them give sentence and I will kill them 
according to the sentence (legally), and if not, how should 
I secretly put to death men who have been in chains for 
a long time ? " And by saying that he made the Negus desist 
from his order to kill them. We will go back to what we 
were saying before. And on that he sent him (Dajaz. Khaylu) 
a horse and a gilt sword and all the equipment of a warrior, 
and he was set up with all this splendour. He came to Ashawa 
and showed the revenue return 1 which gave the Negus great 
satisfaction, and with this there began all kinds of decorations 
and honours. And a short while after there came to the Negus 
a report to the effect that Wand Bawasan had come. And he sent 
down Abeto Takla Giyorgis from Wakhni and Wand Bawasan 
did not halt except for the impropriety of one day. Thereupon 
the Negus rose up in anger and issued out from Gondar and 
marched towards Begameder. Then the Negus met Wand 
Bawasan and they fought there, and there was a great slaughter 
and some of the soldiers of the Negus fled, and got as far as 498 a 
Gondar; and while the Negus himself was in the midst of the 
enemy, others again fled and reached Gojam, while the Negus 
was in the midst of a terrible battle; and there were some who 
fled, but many a man did valiantly; on that day Dajazmach 
Khaylu also was valiant and captured many prisoners. And in 
the middle of the battle he met Dajazmach Bakaha, threw 
his spear and struck his shield, but he could not stand up 
before the face of Dajazmach Khaylu, no more than a flying 
thread can face the wind or a bullock stand up against a lion, 
and Dajazmach Khaylu did not desist from pursuing him and 
smiting him till he came to Kemer Dangaya, And then Dajaz- 

1 Modern Aniharic, "/fl^i royal revenues. 



[328] 

mach Khaylu wheeled round and halted there, and Dajazmfich 
Wand Bawasan fled and came to Gerariya with Abeto Takla 
Giyorgis, but Dajazmach Khaylu returned with Dajazmach 
Adegah and Sela Gabru and laid the trophies before the Negus. 
The Negus rejoiced at the manhood of Dajazmach Khaylu, for 
there were many generals and young men that were afraid and 
fled that day. O my Lord and friend ! There is no one who 
knows thy worth except only God that guards thee in every 
day's trials, I am sorry for him who does not know thy 
goodness. What land of the Negus is there where thou hast not 
fought or laid trophies before him ? And what spot that thou 
hast not marked with the footsteps of thy valour ? The prowess 
that thou showed at Amad Bar, that was wonderful and admirable, 
it was worthy of admiration from all creatures, as is said of the 
three mighty men who were Adinon (Adino) and lyabuste 
(Abishai) and Elianan (Eliazar) who were famous in the house 
of David. 

We will turn back to the beginning of the story. Then the 
Negus left Wadegano for Dajazmach Wand Bawasan and 
498 b marched as far as Emakina and pitched his camp at the 
bottom of Emakina and Wand Bawasan pitched his camp on 
the top of it. And then there was a battle, warriors advancing 
from one side and warriors sallying forth from the other, 
and they smote one another, and Dajazmach Khaylu started 
slaying, seeming as if his heart was ever on fire so that he 
slackened not in his slaying. As the Bible says, " I have no 
thought for those in front of me, and those behind I hasten," 
and he fell upon Dajazmach Wand Bawasan when they were 
carrying' water. After this he made friends with the Negus 
and delivered to him a rebel (pretender, rebel, Amharic), who 
was Abeto Takla Giyorgis. And the Negus returned and on 
arriving at Reiner Dangeya he appointed 1 )ajazmfich Khfiylu 
Yashalaqa of the Kanisa l . And there was joy and festivity, and 
a chorus and singing and it ran like this 

1 Auiliaric. Yasliiilaqft is commander of 1000. Alaiii = commander; ya-slieh=of 1000. 
Kauistt is the name of a corps. 



[329] 

"Let them roast, Let them roast (thrash, lit. set fire to) the 
coward 

Quickly off went his armlet 

Quickly off went his mule and his servant 

They are roasting the coward 1 ." 

And again it was said, " Why did they say a man ? a worm in 
my garden grain has his (as much) strength, why did they say a 
man ? " And after that the Negus came to Gondar and wintered 
there, and Dajazmach Khaylu became friends with the Negus. 
And then he produced the tribute which gave him great pleasure. 
And every eye that saw that said, "What mother has given him 
birth? What breast has given him suck?" Then about that 
time Dajazmach Wand Bawasan rebelled, and the Negus and 
Dajazmach Khaylu made an expedition against him, and Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu did not sever himself from the Negus; he raided 
continually in the raids of the Negus and the latter went from 
Emakina and made war there against Wand Bawasan. During 
these events Sela Gabru died. At that time all the governors 
joined with Wand Bawasan in a conspiracy against the Negus, 
so on this account he turned back quickly from his raid and 
came to Gondar. He then appointed Dajazmach Khaylu 
to be Mezikker (Inspector or Reporter) of the Agaw so he 
went off to his province of Agaw, and when he was there he 499 a 
was accused of rebellion by slanderers. As the Book of Job 
tells of " And the angel that was Satan went and stood up be- 
fore God and slandered Job before the Lord," and just so they 
slandered Dajazmach Khaylu before his friend the Negus Takla 
Haymanot and then there came a messenger to him saying, 
"The Negus has told the men of Agaw to seize Dajazmach 
Khaylu and if not to kill him." And when Dajazmach Khaylu 
heard that he was grieved and troubled about this quarrel with 
the Negus and he said, " Ah Satan has come between me and 
him." On that the men of Agaw came and said to him, " The 

1 The Zafan or dance-song was to celebrate Daj. Khaylu for his victory over Wand 
Bawasan who fought for Takla Giyorgis, while Khaylu championed Takla Haymanot II. 
Let some one roast or beat the cowarrd, i.e. Wand Bawasan, who threw away his chufa or 
decorations, etc. 

w. B. 42 



[330] 

Negus tells us thus, but we will not do thus to thee because 
thou art the son of our beloved Dajazmach Eshate. Thou art 
our friend." And saying thus they sent him away in peace. 
And he went over to the land of Begameder and when he went 
he sent over to the Negus saying, " Since they tell me that the 
Negus says 'Seize him,' I have passed over to my own territory." 
Then he had a meeting with three chiefs, viz., Ras Khaylu, 
Dajazmach Wand Bawasan and Dajazmach Kanfu and they 
took counsel about coming to Gondar. Thereupon they came to 
Gondar but the King Takla Haymanot went to Waldebba ; he 
preferred the kingdom of heaven, for he hated the kingdom of 
earth. And for this reason he preferred to go to Waldebba ; 
so he went there. On this they brought down Abeto Salomon 
from Wakhni. 

After this there were changes made among the officials. 
(They made Negus) the King of Kings Salomon. And he ap- 
pointed to be Ras Behtwadded, Ras Ayadar, and he appointed 
Kanfu Adam to the province of Damot, and Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan to Begameder, and Dajazmach Khaylu to Gojam, and 
499 b Eshete Khaylu to be Dajazmach of Semen, and Basha Mebaras 
Boqatu he appointed Teqaqen 1 . And Dajazmach Khaylu 
wintered at Gondar with the King of Kings Salomon. On the 
16th of Maskaram Dajazmach Wand Bawasan came to Gondar, 
and at the same time Dajazmach Khaylu was confirmed in his 
office at Semen. Before that however the Negus Takla Hay- 
manot rested from the troubles of this world and fighting with 
governors in the region (world) where nothing is profitable or 
pleasant. Afterwards it was called abdication (repudiation) 
and as an anchorite in the desert as this Negus Takla Hayma- 
not was, no Negus had reigned before or will reign again that 
will see the world with his eye. He left it to go to the desert, and 
was buried at Waldebba, whereupon his name was changed and 
he received the name of Abba Takla Haymanot of Waldebba. 
Then the news of his death spread abroad and the Negus Salomon 
was received at Ashawa. And there was great grief and lamen- 

1 Ainlmric : Lieutenant or Deputy of the BlfittengCtii, (Junli, for. eft., 814. 



[33i] 

tation, and the priests whom he had ordained wept and chanted, 
and there was no man that did not grieve and weep. For he 
was a great Negus and Dajazmach Khaylu mourned him sorely 
and wept, for he was his friend from of old. And on the 2nd 
of Takhsas (begins 9th December) Dajazmach Wand Bawasan 
fell from his horse and received fractures (lit. was broken) 
at Ashawa and died and was buried in accordance with his 
orders. Then his brother Dajazmach Baqatu was appointed 
to his command and he went to Begameder and stayed 
the summer at Este, when the governors were in their pro- 
vinces. And Azaj Yasellase Barya brought Abeto Takla 
Giyorgis and men of Wagara ; when the Negus Salomon heard 
of this he was frightened and marched out from Gondar, and 
for that reason the generals came to Gondar to help the Negus 
and Dajazmach Khaylu came along with them, being one 
of the generals. Abeto Takla Giyorgis was dismissed and 500 a 
went to Tigre. Then this Dajazmach Khaylu was promoted 
to be Ras Behtwadded, and he resided at Gondar with the 
Negus. And all the generals went to their provinces. After 
that, the month of Sane, Abeto Takla Giyorgis came from Tigre, 
it was said with a large force; and many soldiers went from 
Gondar traitors to the Negus Salomon. At that moment the 
Negus marched out from his tents and Abeto Takla Giyorgis 
advanced to Gondar. For this reason the captains assembled 
to stand by the Negus and to fight against Abeto Takla 
Giyorgis. A great battle took place and Dajazmach Khaylu did 
valiantly, and helped the Negus with a powerful assistance, for 
thus it was always his custom to help the Negus in his coming 
and going. On that occasion Abeto Takla Giyorgis was defeated 
and seized, but Gondar was destroyed and plundered. Then 
Dajazmach Khaylu laid the trophies before the Negus, but the 
generals did not lay trophies. And the reason of their (not ?) 
leaving them, I do not know, unless it was to deceive him. Then 
Baqatu went out and went to Begameder when he heard reports 
of the battle, and Dajazmach Khaylu went with him to support 
him, and afterwards wintered in his country. After that he came 



[332J 

to Gondar and bad a petty quarrel with DajaznuLch Khaylu, but 
the Abun and the Echage reconciled them, for the quarrels of 
kinsmen are of small importance. After that he went from his 
country to his province Semen. And when he arrived he was 
received by the people of Semen with festivity and rejoicings. 
And to Abeto Dametsu, son of Abeto Eraqeles son of Dajaz- 
mach Tesfu of Tslalamet, he gave his daughter whose name was 
Princess Martset daughter of Princess Nachet ; his father was 
Atse Sartsa Dengel: it has been said how he fought with Walda 
500 b Sellase of Salatsaba. Walda Sellase refused to hand over the 
tribute while everybody at Semen was jubilant. Then Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu went out against one who was always a rebel, and 
seized by force and courage his house. These were Mecha 
Walda Gabre'el, Asalafi Qundi Gaberyo, Engeda Habta Kyros, 
son of Argay. There they bore themselves bravely and fought, 
their valour was sure, a valour that did not belie them. Then he 
seized and bound Walda Sellase, and he discharged the tribute. 
After this Dajazmach Khaylu was reconciled after he had made 
sure. Then he returned from the land of Semen and came to 
Gondar. About that time he was engaged on a campaign, and 
Dajazmach Kanfu sent to him a message saying, " Come, join 
with me and we will raid Ras Khaylu, as he has treated you 
thus and thus," but he replied saying, " It is not so, as far as 
I am concerned, and there shall be no fighting with my kins- 
man Ras Khaylu. If I say I fight, what will people say that 
hear that ? For he is the son of the Itage Mentwab, and I 
am the son of Dajazmach Eshate" ; and saying that he refused 
and quitted associating with him; those that advised him to do 
this were Walda Mika'el, his tutor, and Abeto Walda Zagajen, 
who said to him " Spare him ! My lord, Spare him, it is not for 
you to make war upon Ras Khaylu," and hearing this he went 
over to Ras Khaylu and was received at Rebb and they pitched 
their camp at Qaroda. And there they performed Easter; and 
the Negus Salomon was with them. On this Kanfu Adam came 
to make war on Ras Khaylu and Negus Salomon alone, and 
some said he had come by the Negus Salomon's invitation. 



[333] 

Then Ras Khaylu and Kanfu Adam met in battle, and the 
place where they fought was at Sabisa Ber ; there Ras Khaylu 
was defeated and Negus Salomon was captured, and the 
crown of the kingdom with the fillet of his head, and all 
the regalia of the crown, and he himself was made prisoner 
and his soldiers taken. And on that day Dajazmach Khaylu 501 a 
did valiantly, for that was his wonted courage that they 
feared in him; the mighty men, when he had his war skin 1 
on him, alone could stand up against him. What sort of a 
valour was that? It was worthy of admiration. And on that 
day mighty men of the house were killed, viz., Bare Kefale and 
Abeto Khaylu, son of Abeto Yara Tseyon, and the goods of 
the house and the royal drums were abandoned there. He, 
Dajazmach Khaylu, went with a small force of men on horse- 
back, and he came to his land of Garazaya. But Ras Khaylu 
went to Dembaya and joined up with Melkol Kabte. Melkol 
Kabte had navigated the ways of the whole sea and lofty 
mountains, so that to flee from him it would be no disgrace ; 
he sent to Ras Khaylu near Quaratsa and a quantity of iron 
which is found in the bosom of the land 2 came to Quaratsa. 
And he dwelt there: Qafiasmach Tsadalu and Basha Waleta 
fled to Abeto Ramkha at Begameder. Then Negus Salomon 
sent over to Dajazmach Khaylu to say, "Come, and Asdhel 
will be the servant of Mennasse," and Dajazmach Khaylu 
answered, " Coming, I am coming, for I have no quarrel with 
the Negus, only how can I come, for there is a feud between 
me and Kanfu Adam." And thus saying he sent Blattengeta 
Teku Haguna with a priest and a sacred picture, and then 
Kanfu Adam swore upon the picture and by the priest on 
penalty of excommunication. Then Dajazmach Khaylu went 
and was received by the Negus, and Dajazmach Kanfu, Dajaz- 
mach Gadelu came on the same day. And then all went on 
a raid together and came to Garagara and Dajazmach Baqatu 
fled, leaving his hall 3 . Maqet Lagasa came to the Negus 

1 >frs (Nat) Amharic, a tanned bullock hide, used as a cloak. 

2 0/hC error for 'fU,t: 3 l^C^k = circulus, aula, Dill. 



t334] 

with the people of Maqet. Thus the Negus returned with his 

501 b generals and troops. And on his return Dajazmach Baqatu 

followed, and there was a battle with the troops of the Negus in 
which they pursued these troops as far as Ohachaho ; the Negus 
reached Agala and camped there. And then he sent to Wasan 
Walata Tseyon and Fitawrari Ikonyan to bring him Abeto 
Takla Giyorgis from Wakhni, and they brought him to Agala 
in bonds; Kanfu Adam and Khaylu Adera made a secret 
conspiracy with Abeto Takla Giyorgis, without the knowledge 
of the King of Kings Salomon. Then Dajazmach Kanfu rose 
and went to Dam, and camped there contrary to the desire 
of the Negus: and coming to Quaratsa he wanted him to seize 
Has Khaylu: but God delivered him by help of the prayer of 
Waleta Petros, holy among the holy persons; monks and nuns 
had prayed much. Then Dajazmach Kanfu left Kas Khaylu 
after taking an oath under (penalty of) excommunication. 
Then Dajazmach Kanfu went to the country of his command, 
Damot, with the King of Kings Salomon and Abeto Takla 
Giyorgis and Dajazmach Khaylu as he was going to Gondar 
to take up his office at Lasa, viz., as Deputy Blattengeta. At 
that time there came a man, a Falasi, of Shewa, who was called 
Abeto Abagaz and was received by Dajazmach Khaylu who 
showed him much kindness, and the other always blessed him 
as Paulos blessed the house of Henesephoros w 7 hen he said, 
"May God give mercy to the house of Heneseforos" (2 Tim. i. 1G). 
Then he came to Gondar, and while Dajazmach Khaylu was 
at Gondar, Dajazmach Kanfu made Takla Giyorgis Negus with 
celebrations on the 12th Hamle; then Dajazmach Kanfu sent 
out a proclamation by herald which ran thus, "Takla Giyorgis 
has been made Negus and Negus Salomon a monk. On account 
of this crime he has been made Negus over the Negus." And on 

502 a the 15th of Hamle it was heard at Gondar and pronounced by the 

herald and then there was rejoicing and jubilation, and great 
chorus of joy. And then the Negus Takla Giyorgis and Dajaz- 
infich Kanfu sent to Dajazmach Khaylu saying, "Come quickly," 
and on that Dajazmach Khaylu went at once and was received 



[335] 

by them, and then lying men rose up against him, and they 
harassed him with evil deeds. As the Book of Psalms says, "I 
am afflicted by my sins." And they brought accusations against 
him before the Negus Takla Giyorgis and Dajazmach Kanfu 
even as Paskor (Pashur) accused Ermeyas ( Jeremias) the Pro- 
phet (Jerem. xx. 1) and Hananaya (Jerem. xxviii. 15), before 
the King of Israel, Sediqyas (Zedekiah) and Simon and lyason 
(Joshua) his kinsman slandered David before Saul the King of 
Israel. And in like manner the accusers brought charges 
against Dajazmach Khaylu. At the same time Qanasmach 
Adaya Khaylu engaged in war against the will of the Negus, 
and he defeated Qanazmach Tsedalu and came to the house of 
his wife (named) Princess Sahelu, the sister of Dajazmach 
Khaylu. On this Balambaras Yalentu came and said to Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu, " Let us take him and make war on him, for he 
is a rebel." The other refused, for he was his father-in-law and 
his friend, and he replied, "Did perchance the Negus order 
me (to do it) ? Why should I seize Dajazmach Tsedalu, and do 
an evil thing to Dajazmach Tsedalu?" Now he hated doing 
wrong to anyone. 

We will go back to the previous matter. And after that 
they brought him away under close guard (lit. in custody of the 
eye), and handed him over to a watchful eye, and guarded him 
day and night, while he spent the winter with them. The Negus 
also wintered there, and one Sunday Dajazmach Khaylu with- 
drew from Bura alone, there being no one to follow or lead him 
on the road. And going away that day he encountered many 
trials, for his troops had been scattered abroad like dust, having 502 b 
no shepherd and no man with them of the men of his household, 
and the shepherds that went did not know him. Then Dajaz- 
mach Kanfu was enraged and sent a large force and pursued him; 
following after him on foot and on horse. They caught him 
up at Achaffar, and forced him to come, and took him quickly 
to Dajazmach Kanfu: then they bound him with iron chains 
and increased (the severity of) his imprisonment. At that 
time he was suffering from severe illness, so on account of his 



[336] 

grievous sickness they relieved him of his fetters. Then monks 
came of Waldebba and made peace, and Dajazmach Kanfii swore 
an oath that he would not betray him again, and after he had 
taken his oath he played the traitor a second time, for his weapons 
deceived Dajazmach Khaylu; and he (Dajazmach Kanfu) bound 
him in chains of iron. Then the Negus Takla Giyorgis came to 
Gondar, with Dajazmach Kanfu, and Dajazmach Khaylu came 
chained with chains of iron. Thereupon there was grief among 
all the people of Gondar, every kinsman and friend, because he 
had been tyrannically chained. And the monks of Waldebba 
had pity on him and prayed God ; and they said to the Negus, 
"Let him go, for God's sake, for he has not sinned against thee," 
and the Negus replied, "Yea, I will release him," but he had no 
intention of doing so, saying, "To-morrow, to-morrow I will 
release him." God released him and delivered him out of his 
chains, even as he liberated Menasse from the hand of Hond- 
hard ; and God delivered him from all the suffering that the 
Negus and Dajazmach Kanfu had intended for him. As the 
Book of Psalms says, " Many are the sorrows of the righteous 
and the Lord will deliver them from them all" (Ps. xxxiv. 17). 
He went forth by night and having gone to his land Bega- 
meder, he started by night and reached Warota at noon, 
riding a horse called Baligtiagtier. Then he sent over to 
Dajazmach Kanfu and the Negus Takla Giyorgis to say, 
503 a "You have not freed me, but God has freed me who 
knoweth all things; but you were saying, 'We will tie him 
up for a long time.' But God has freed me as he freed Adam 
from the fiery dungeon and brought him away ft'om the .power 
of the Devil, so has God delivered me out of your hands, as he 
brought Yosef out of the hands of Pis Fara, the Ruler of Egypt, 
so has God delivered me out of your hands." And so saying 
he went to the Convent of Mary 1 and he sent monks of the 
Convent of Mary to Dajazmach Baqatu saying, " Behold I have 
come among you, and you take pity on me, for there is no 
quarrel between you and me." And when Dajazmfich Baqatu 

1 =Muklulftrn Marvfuu 



[337] 

heard that he relented over him and said, "Come ! Come ! As you 
have come to me, therefore you and I shall be one." And they 
who reconciled him were Princess Walatta Sellase, Princess 
Walatta Kedan and Princess Yamserach, and it was so pro- 
claimed by a herald. And peace and friendship reigned, and 
he spent the winter in his country. And he came to the 
Convent of Mary and made a feast for the priests of the 
Convent, everyone being assembled by a herald from great to 
small, and they made high festival with eating and drinking. 
At the same time Baqatu came to the King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis, they meeting at Dembya, and Dajazmach Khaylu went 
with him, and they met with the Negus, and he made friends 
there and the Negus gave him a robe of a governor as was 
fitting, and nothing was neglected that made it resemble a deed 
of friendship, but only there was treachery in his heart; after- 
wards Dajazmach Baqatu returned, with Dajazmach Khaylu, and 
they arrived at Labat. There he chained Dajazmach Khaylu, 
though it was unworthy of him to fetter him ; for he was bound 
by covenant and a strong oath ; he chained him treacherously 
on account of love of a woman called Princess Sanayt, sister 503 b 
of Dajazmach Khaylu, who hated him, for she was pursued 
by him everywhere. As the Bible says in the Book of Psalms, 
"And my kinsmen persecute and compass me round," but 
Sanayt she was not righteous but wicked, as in Hewan (Eve) there 
was no life, though that name signifies life 1 , for she bringeth 
death, and that is misery. Then Dajazmach Baqatu sent him 
to his country Lasta, after he put him in chains, and he kept 
him bound for seventy days ; and after seventy days he released 
him ; and some said that it was after monks of Waldebba sent 
messages to him, and others that (it was) on the death of his 
wife, he delivered him from chains, for he had chained him un- 
justly, and innocent of offence. Only God however let him out 
after seventy days, as he led forth Israel after seventy years, 
bringing them out of captivity. Then Akada Christos met 

1 I.e. Sanayt (uVj6l') meaning "goodness," and Hawaii (Eve) (/h.'PTrt) meaning "life," 
both had names that were belied by the nature of the first, and the work of the second in 
bringing death into the world. 

w. B. 43 



[338] 

Dajazmach Baqatu in the desert, and he made friends there 
and came to his land of Begameder. He came to Gerareya, 
and there he heard news of the death of Princess Sahelu, and 
he dwelt in the Convent of Mary for one year and three months, 
Dajazmach Baqatu having taken away all his lands and 
command and decorations, which was an injustice. But Dajaz- 
mach Baqatu continually persecuted him, as the Devil perse- 
cuted Adam, for the Devil took Adam first from the Garden 
and instigated him against God through envy. Then he brought 
it about that he was not reconciled to God and never returned to 
Paradise. So Dajazmach Baqatu first bound him without cause 
of offence, and afterwards took away all his lands. And in the 
midst of his persecution he took away his wife Princess Angedet. 
And he made her his concubine, which all was tyranny that 
Dajazmach Khaylu endured. While Dajazmach Khaylu was 
at the Convent of Mary Dajazmach Baqatu died on the 
6th of Genbot (begins 8th May). Then Dajazmach Khaylu 
issued forth and went to Este, and at that time the troops of 
504 a Baqatu came by order of the Negus to search him out, seeking 
to make an attack upon him ; they did not catch him however, 
for that time he had gone to Nagala where Princess Sanayt 
climbed up the mountain and wanted to kill herself from the top 
of the mountain. And they brought her down from the mountain 
and seized her. Then he acted kindly towards her, who knew 
no tenderness (towards herself), and then returned to Nagala. 
Then he heard report to the effect that the Negus had 
ordered him to be seized. So he turned back quickly; he 
was not afraid of making war with the Lasta people, but he 
feared the order of the King, lest there be a charge of rebellion 
against him ; and he went away, leaving his country, and betook 
himself to Gojam where Ras Khaylu was. He however received 
him with joy and rejoicing. Then he went to Dajazmach Adegah 
with confidence and Dajazmach Adegah received him with joy, 
and did him many kindnesses, so he wintered there with Dajaz- 
mach Adegah. After that the Negus was desirous of leaving 
his tents and going on a raid. And Negus Takla Giyorgis went 



[339] 

on the raid, and Dajazmach Adegah came from his territory 
of Damot, and met the Negus and made friends between 
Dajazmach Khaylu and the Negus. He went on the expedition 
with them and came as far as Bet Hor, and there many enemies 
rose against him, actions being brought against him for matters 
that had no existence, but they could not stand up before his 
face, for everything he said was trustworthy. And Princess 
Sanayt rose against him, but she could not stand up before his 
face. There were assembled many dignitaries and chiefs, and 
among them Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el, a great chief among 
chiefs, and Dajazmach Dore and Jantserar Birale, and there 
were none of the dignitaries that did not come. Then the 
Negus went on an expedition towards Amhara, and came to 
Sako, and there he camped several days. And when he 
wanted to go to the land of Shawa 1 his soldiers refused and 
he turned back sorrowful and depressed. So the Negus 504b 
returning came to Qurlaf, that is, Wollo. Then the soldiers of 
the Negus turned sulky, for they were much afraid, for the 
Pagans of Wollo, that were following, were in great numbers. 
Then Dajazmach Khaylu rose and mounted his horse, and 
seizing two spears charged upon (the enemy), and fought with 
great valour, till all the soldiers of the Negus pointed him out. 
But the Negus, till he heard of his prowess, did not fight that 
day, only if he did not kill many of the troops, it was only that 
(fact) that saved them from being killed, and from the point (lit. 
mouth) of his spear. When the Negus found him, even as Saul 
when he gave his daughter whose name was Melkol (Michal) 
to David on account of his valour, in like manner he gave his 
daughter on account of his (Dajazmach Khaylu's) manhood, 
and he did this at Bakya Meda. And he added territories to 
his territories and offices to offices, for the Negus Takla 
Giyorgis always watched him as he fought. As the Book of 
Psalms says, "He plotteth evil against the righteous and 
gnasheth with his teeth upon him, and the Lord shall laugh 
at him for he foreseeth that his day is coming" (Ps. xxxvii. 12, 

1 Shoa as it is now generally called. 



[340] 

13). And then he found as David did who raised up Abisa on 
account of his valour in one day, in like manner he (Negus) 
promoted him (Khaylu) over his captains. 

We will return to the previous matter. And after the King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis turned back he took Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el and put him in chains at Bet Hor, and he found much 
property, beyond count. He rose from Bet Hor and went on 
to Garagara. He told Dajazmach Khaylu to leave with Dajaz- 
mach Adegah, but he did not depart from him. And saying that 
the Negus Takla Giyorgis marched till he came to Arango, and 
he camped there. Then he sent over to Dajazmach Khaylu to 
say, "Go out into the desert. Do not stay in your lands," 
because there were some who said he would become reconciled 
505 a with Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el, though it was impossible that 
he should be. It was also because this man was father-in-law 
of the Negus. And there were others who said his sister, 
Princess Sanayt, falsely accused him slandering him to Dajaz- 
mach Qabatu, by whom he was persecuted when he came 
back from a raid. He said, " Go, do not stay in your lands," 
and when he said, "I am going to my house," he told him, 
"Go away and don't come to your house." And on that he 
left Garagara. There were then no men following him (in 
his train) for all the soldiers were dispersed by means of a 
proclamation. Then he sent to the monks of the Convent of 
Mary saying, " Let me live in the Convent of Mary till 
you have found out the whole matter, for I have not done any- 
thing of what you have heard concerning me." And the monks 
went and told the Negus all this, that he had sent in a message 
to them. And those monks informed him that they would allow 
him to stay at the Convent of Mary ; but he refused saying 
he would go to Quaratsa. Then he rose and went to Quaratsa 
arid dwelt there ten months ; and while he was at Quaratsa men 
lived with him for a short time ; there were not many of them, 
Abeto Abagaz, Azaj Walda Keros, Asalafe Qundi, and with 
those that were there, they spent the time and took up their 
abode, and did not part from him for a moment, whether at the 



time of eating or of drinking, nor during the night time, did 
they separate from him ; and they all lived there at Quaratsa 
together, and at work, they spent the time listening to the 
voice of the books (reading aloud) and conversing with the 
monks, and the nights they passed in the Church which was a 
house of prayer, and always said their prayers on behalf of the 
Negus that there might not be trouble in his time. 

In this they resembled Eremeyas the prophet of old, who 
said, " Pray on account of Nabukadatsar, that in our dwelling 
may be fasting and tranquillity 1 " ; then they went to an island 
that they might receive the blessing of the monks, and might 505 b 
not rouse one day the malediction of the Negus 4 But he said, 
" All that trial has proved me that mine is the transgression." 
And he performed everything that the Gospel of the Kingdom 
ordains, "All (your actions)," they said, "making us purified 
servants." And then he went out upon the deeps (water) and 
fished for all kinds of fish. In that he was like Petros and 
Andreyas and Yohannes and Ya'ekob the disciples : and he 
prayed always for Walatta Petros, for the monks, the refuge 
from oppression and oppressors. And what other works did 
he not perform of the acts (of the Apostles) ? And while 
he was at Quaratsa, no one knew anything of him, of his 
friends or his relations. And there was no one who said, "Those 
goods shall be a trouble to you, but God shall not spoil you of 
aught of the provision for the body." As the Book of Psalms 
says, " He hath not let them want aught of what they desired." 
It is said that Dajazmach Khaylu came out from Quaratsa 
when the Negus Takla Giyorgis started to make war on Dajaz- 
mach Ali and Has Khaylu. And then he came out from his 
tents and marched as far as Amadebar and pitched camp 
there ; then he went to Gojam to where Ras Khaylu was, and 
Ras Khaylu passed over to Begameder and met Balambaras Ali 
and they two joined; then there were certain men who sent a 
message saying, "Come over to us, and we will make war on 
the Negus, for he does not love you or us." That message was 

1 See footnote on p. 278. 



[342] 

worthy of them, for it shows that they were making war un- 
justly, when he was returning from an expedition. But the 
other refused and replied, " If you conquer I will go back to 
my land, and nothing shall stop me, and if the Negus conquers 
I will go to Waldebba. For there is no matter (for dispute) 
in what he has demanded, for there is nothing I can find 
against him." And so saying he sent over to them, and then 
the Negus retired from Gojam, and they came on and found 
him at Afarwanat. And a battle took place there, the Negus 
was defeated and fled, and went to Ambasal. On that they 
summoned Dajazmach Khaylu and brought him from Quaratsa, 
where he was received among them. 

soe a Then they came to Gondar, and they made Abeto lyasu Negus 
on the 12th of the month of Yakatit (begins 7th February) in 
the 7276 year of the creation of the world (1784 A.D.) the era 
was the era of Yohannes. And the King of Kings lyasu, son of 
Abeto Atsequ son of the King of Kings lyasu, came to the house 
of his father lyasu, and sat upon the royal throne. The Abun 
and the Echage arrived with him, and all the generals took 
the oath to him (lit. bound by covenant with him) in presence 
of the Abun and Echage, under pain of excommunication if 
they betrayed the Negus. Then the King of Kings lyasu 
made changes in the offices. He appointed Kanazmach Tsadalu 
to be Betwaddad and Ras Khaylu to be Dajazmach of Gojam 
among the Agaw, Balambaras Ali to be Dajazmach of Bega- 
meder, Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el to be freed from his chains 
and made Dajazmach of Tigre, and all the generals he appointed 
to their commands, and all of them went to the provinces of 
their commands. Then Dajazmach Khaylu came forth from 
the land of Semen without tents of the larger sort 1 and without 
horns or drums and without many troops ; it was said he had 
come from Gondar without drums, tent or soldiers. And there 
was a man of Semen whose name was Semen Aderu, who when 
he heard of the death of Abeto Eraqles retired and went 

1 /hjumfr i Ar. <L+g^ a small tent, -TtoTr i Turk. ^J\)&* a large tent for officers and 
officials. 



[343] 

out by night from Gondar without Dajazmach Khaylu knowing 
that he was making war upon the sons of Dajazmach Tasfu, 
who were Abeto Gabre and Abeto Demtsu the father-in-law of 
Dajazmach Khaylu; and when Dajazmach Khaylu heard of this 
he went out quickly and followed on behind him. And Dajaz- 
mach Walda Gabre'el then got away from Gondar and camped 
at Wagara, and Dajazmach Khaylu came up and met him atsoeu 
Dara, and from thence sent him on to Lamalamo. He turned 
back from Lamalamo, marched, and came to Shawada, and 
all the men of Shawada received him, (Bal)ambaras Afsaqu, 
Abeto Awkendyos of Semen, Agafure Betsu' Be'ese, and from 
Shawada marched to Danqolako. There Abeto Gabre and 
Abeto Demtsu came to meet him, but Semen Tesfu fled and 
was dismissed to another country, that was called Terawata. 
Then Dajazmach Khaylu left for Jan Amorra, and camped 
at Rebu'e Gabaya. Abeto Gabre and Abeto Demtsu camped 
at Bateqa his camp. And then came men of Semen and 
men of Tsalamt all of them, and they brought presents 
and settled there. * * A story is that a war broke out 
and there was one man named Walda Sellase of Sahela, 
and the name of his brother was Khaylu. But there were 
rebels whose crimes we mentioned before, men who would 
not hand over the tribute that was due on their lands, and 
did not serve the chiefs appointed by the Negus. And when 
they heard of the coming of Dajazmach Khaylu without 
a large body of troops, and when they saw the fewness of his 
soldiers, these rebels said to one another, "Why should we 
serve and give up tribute to a Dajazmach like that, who has no 
soldiers, and no drums, and no men, and no horses, and they 
remembered not, rebels and rascals as they were, what the 
Book says, "The Lord delivereth not by many or by few 
soldiers" (Ps. xxxiii. 16) neither were they mindful of what 
David said, " Their strength is the Lord for those that fear 
Him, and those who call upon His name," and in another 
aspect of ground where he said he did not require strength in 
horsemen, and the Lord delights not in the legs of men but 



[344] 

delights in him that fears Him (Ps. cxlvii. 1 0). And when only 
a few came, he knew that they were full of pride and wicked- 
ness (coming as they did) with many soldiers and big guns 1 and 
507 a they were received by Dajazmach Khaylu, and when they were 
received they did not give him presents as were his due, they 
came before with great arrogance and self-importance, and 
camped with Abeto Gabre, for they were in a plot. The next 
day Dajazmach Khaylu invited them, plotting rebellion with 
Abeto Gabre : and they came and entered the tent. And when 
Dajazmach Khaylu wanted to talk to them in words of peace 
and friendship, Walda Sellase went out of the tent, for he knew 
the plot, and went to his own camp. Now it would have been 
better for him (Dajazmach Khaylu) to have assembled his 
troops and seized that rebel to his country than be chained 
hand and foot; it would have been better to have gone into 
the compound of that traitor before he could fight, than be 
chained up with his people. It had been better if that man 
of blood and craft had been cherished by Dajazmach Khaylu 
than that he (the latter) should be bound by chains of iron 
with his followers. We will go back to what we were saying 
before. At the time he (Khaylu) sent over to him saying, 
"What were you about, and how did you manage to slip 
out of the tent and go away suddenly without our noticing 
it or seeing ? " And when Walda Sellase returned, they were 
drawn up with a strong force of soldiers and armed weapons : 
then he came over to where Dajazmach Khaylu was, and 
while they conversed Dajazmach Khaylu saw his arrogance 
and that he had been betrayed. Then the heart of Dajazmach 
Khaylu was enraged, and he said, " Seize that mad dog." On 
that one of his warriors from the fighters of his house named 
Yashalaqa Aderu of Afarawanat fell upon him (Walda Sellase) 
like a young lion upon a bullock. And he seized him and 
rolled him on the ground and Aderu was like a father 
seizing his son. Then there was a great battle, and the men 
of Semen were stronger, and they surrounded the tent like the 

probably for o7rVt.3 > = JI^A^ big guns, cannon. 



[345] 

sea encompasses an island and rushed into the tent, and there 
were many soldiers of the house of Dajazmach Khaylu. Then 
Dajazmach Khaylu rose up and ran out in haste from the tent, 507 b 
taking a spear, and when those that were at the entrance of 
the tent saw him, they scattered hither and thither ; whereat 
he got hold of a horse from one of the followers, his own horse 
not being there, mounted it, galloped up the mountain, and 
charged down upon them like hail or like a thunderbolt; 
then he was like David his ancestor, as the Book of Kings says, 
" When the people came, he ascended up the side of Qalaw- 
manos " (Keilah, 1 Sam. xxiii. 5), and he fell upon them, as he 
did (upon the Philistines). Then he resembled 'Amda Tseyon 
his ancestor, as the book of the history of 'Amda Tseyon says, he 
mounted his horse, and God sent his spirit on him, and like 
him he seized his spear, and God gave him His help, and all 
the soldiers were scattered in battle. And they were as if they 
did not exist, for there were left but few troops of his camp 
that returned to it. Then the soldiers of his house did valiantly, 
and one among them Lagas Sayfu, a great man, who had no 
equal, not once did he draw back his spear without the blood 
of a disarmed warrior ; he fought like a hero and slaughtered 
that day, and there were many who fought like heroes and 
killed that day and took prisoners. And of the mighty men 
who perished Sahelu, son of Wayzero Teweras, and Agaiare 
Walda Johannes and Asalafe Walda Dengel and Asalafe 
Sahelu, Abagaz Darso Ayechaw and Shalaqa Darsis, and 
those who were wounded by gunshots were Abeto Walda Ner, 
Azzaj Yared, Asalafe Siewadu Ashkar, his son. And there 
w r as no one that did not fight valiantly that day. Abeto 
Abagaz had his teeth broken. And when Dajazmach Khaylu 
came to the camp of Abeto Gabre, while he was pursuing the 
army that was in flight, his strength was in force, but his horse 
had tired that he was riding. Then he said, " Give me a horse," 
and one of his warriors named Abeto Saifu, son of Abeto Lagas, 
dismounted from his horse and gave it to him, and again he 508 a 
resembled 'Amda Tseyon, the Negus his ancestor. As the book 

w. B. 44 



[346] 

(called) the history of 'Amda Tseyon the Negus, a great army 
of soldiers fell upon him, and they said to him, " Look ! An 
army is upon us, come on quick." And 'Amda Tseyon the Negus 
said to them, " Are you running to me, and quitting the battle 
charge ? And why do you call to me, when you are sending 
me into the battle ? " and saying that he sallied forth. And he 
put to flight the infidels, and they were broken. And just so 
Dajazmach Khaylu said to his soldiers that followed him, " Do 
I not go in front of you, and how should you go in front of 
me ? " And on that those behind him hesitated in fear, and 
that hesitation was natural in them, for there was a rain of 
bullets like hail in front and behind, and he led them by a 
distance of twenty paces. Then he hurled his spear, and the 
army scattered like dust before the face of the wind, and they 
melted like wax before the face of fire. Then there were some 
that threw away their weapons and their guns, and there were 
others became trophies 1 through the thunder of his horse and 
teiTor of his looks. But Walda Sellase was taken that hour, 
and Walda Sellase would have preferred to part with his 
hand than part with gold and silver. 

Then there was a great victory 2 , and many were made 
prisoners, and the followers of Walda Sellase were captured. 
For the strength of the Lord was the help of Dajazmach 
Khaylu on account of his goodness and clemency of heart. As 
the Bible says, " God sees the face of a man, God sees his heart " 
(l Sam. xvi. 7), and again, the Book of Psalms says, "God trieth 
the heart and reins " (Ps. vii. 9). He truly helped Dajazmach 
Khaylu on that day, for all his friends blessed him, saying, " In 
the evil day God will deliver him and give him power, oh my 
508 b lord and friend, from all who will betray thee, and thou who 
knoweth not treachery may God deliver thee, to Him be praise, 
from the hand of thy enemy. They did not spare thee for 
they pierced the shield that was in thy hand and God has 
delivered thy people from the hand of the enemy, while they 
dwelt about thee. Oh they oppressed thee ever in vain, yet 

1 I.e. had to submit to mutilation. This revolting custom, described in the text as "laying 
down trophies before the King," etc., is still continued in Abyssinia. 
9 jtAi victory, Amharic. 



[347] 

thou didst not oppress in aught any created thing. The 
lord made manifest upon thee the power of His help this day, 
in accordance with His mercy. Oh they that raised thee to the 
first place above all warriors and captains of the earth, in the days 
of manhood, and the time of good counsel, God hath revealed 
upon thee His power before His enemies, so that He might make 
it manifest. Oh they hated thee for thy great power and on 
account of thy many lands, and not on account of any other 
deed of thine, as the Jews said to our Lord Jesus, * It is not for 
any other of thy deeds we cast thee forth, but for thy blasphemy.'" 
I saw thy prowess on that day, standing afar off from the road. 
And not I alone saw but there were many witnesses; there 
were enemies of thy lands as there were enemies of our Lord 
Jesus, and they led him to death on account of his raising of 
the dead from the dust, and healing of the sick man in his bed. 

There is no one who will not be astonished and wonder at 
his prowess on that day, for great was the power thou wroughtest 
in their halls at Jan Amorra, on those troops that were in Semen, 
even as Samson wrought in the land of Ilifele 1 , the land of 
trial. Oh how thy strength was thy enemy, as Samson's strength 
was to him, when he killed himself. It had been better for 
thee to have relinquished thy prowess than that the whole 
world should have hated thee ; oh everyone thou knewest, were 
shown as liars. And I quitting every other path followed the 
track of thy affection, that I might prove thee. As the Bible 
says, " Prove all things, hold fast that which is good." Oh the 
man that knew thee was a man that would not be separated 
from thee, whether in times of joy or of sorrow, and would not 509 a 
abandon thee ; as Paul said, " Who shall separate us from the 
love of Christ ? Shall famine or thirst or distress ? " (Rom. viii. 
35). Thou wroughtest wonders in Semen such as no other 
prince has wrought. 

Now we will return to the beginning of the story. And 
on that Dajazmach Khaylu said to Abeto Gabre and Abeto 
Demtsu, " Collect your soldiers that have scattered, and carry 
away your dead that have fallen, and go to your lands." This, 



[348] 

what he said, was not in enmity or anger, but in friendship 
and peace. But they were afraid and did not leave their 
camps. They marched in haste to their land and crossed it 
to Mashaha the same day. And that day Sainen Aderu came 
and said to Dajazmach Khaylu, " Let us attack them now and 
not leave one of them (alive)." And Dajazmach Khaylu replied, 
" Avaunt ! This would be a disgrace to me, let not evil be done 
to my kinsman." And when Samen Aderu saw that his advice 
would not do, he went and returned to his country. And on 
the same day Dajazmach Wasan, son of Princess Waleta Tseyon, 
came with many troops and met him returning. And Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu stayed eight days at Rebu'e Gabaya, and then he 
left and came so far as Wagarii from there and camped at 
Shawada. And there he received all the tribute, and then he 
left and came to Wagara, and from Wagara he went to Gondar, 
and there he joined the King of Kings lyasu, and handed over 
all the tribute that the chiefs of Semen had given him to the 
Negus, and he made great friends with the King of Kings 
lyasu; and he spent the winter at Gondar, going out and 
coming in in company with the King of Kings lyasu, eating 
and drinking. They sallied forth to hunt wild animals and 
went out on the road together, and in such work as this he 
wintered at Gondar. * . * : Story of how he went out from 
Gondar. He heard the report that gave out that Ras Khaylu 
had told the Generals that were in Gondar to seize Dajazmach 
r>09 b Khaylu, and abolish his office, because he had joined his 
enemies. But they were ashamed to seize thee because of 
two reasons, partly because they were on friendly terms with 
thee and partly because if they were not friends they were 
afraid of thee, and because they were ashamed to seize thee. 
And when he came to know of all this rumour he left Gondar, 
for he feared not the Generals themselves except at Gondar, 
and there would be no question of laying hands on him except 
by those who feared a quarrel with Has Khaylu, for he was of 
a powerful tribe. That message Ras Khaylu sent to say, 
"Seize him," was not in enmity (personal hostility) but on 
account of what they had told him, viz. that he had associated 



[349] 

with (his enemy) Dajazmach Wasan. But the King of Kings 
lyasu stood out against him and said, " I know he has done 
nothing of what they tell me." And he would not have him 
seized on account of that matter for he was an honourable and 
upright King. But the other, Dajazmach Khaylu, when he 
heard of all this, went oft* to his country Begameder having 
been given permission by the King of Kings lyasu, on the 
pretext of having powers to make a raid with Dajazmach Ali. 
And thereupon he went to his country Begameder. And at 
that time Dajazmach Gadelu went on a raid, and Dajazmach 
Khaylu received him at Amad Bar with food and drink. 
While things were thus at Begameder he sent to Dajazmach 
Ali to say, " Guard the land which lies below Chachaho," and 
afterwards he sent over to him telling him to come over to 
him. Thereupon he started to go, and on the march his 
kinsmen Abeto Khaylu and Abeto Susenyos fought, and 
Abeto Khaylu was killed, and Dajazmach Khaylu was grieved 
and wept, and then marched to Dajazmach Ali, and met him 
at Dawent and stayed there guarding the land of Dawent with 
the troops of Dajazmach Ali. And Dajazmach Ali went to 51() 
Yaju, and having finished off all that he intended returned to 
Dawent and joined Dajazmach Khaylu, and afterwards Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu returned from his expedition, taking his leave 
and making, peace (or compact), and went over to his land 
Begameder, taking what had been prepared in provisions of 
food and drink. For he said, " I will give thee the daughter 
of my brother whose name is Abeto Ymar." And when he 
had made preparation thus, he sent over to him saying, u Do 
not stay in your land, but go where you like, for Has Khaylu 
told me not to give the daughter of my brother. Trust me, 
and thou conceal her, and do not say, I have forsworn my 
oath. I therefore will not quarrel with Ras Khaylu, for I 
have already taken an oath, and I will not forswear my oath." 
And saying thus he sent over to him to say, " Do not stay in 
your land, but go where you like." That matter of the oath 
may be viewed as the oath of Herodes, as is related in the 



[350] 

Gospel of Matewos (Matthew), and H erodes grieved over his 
oath and over those who were sitting with him at table. And 
after this he went to the Convent of Mary while they were 
giving food to the needy and starving of the priests and monks, 
all that had been prepared for the nuptial ceremony, and 
after this he dwelt at the Convent of Mary, alone without his 
soldiers, grieving and sorrowing over that tyranny, for that 
was great tyranny (act of oppression), such that had never 
been before, and will never be hereafter. Now! we have 
brought things to this point, and we have related the story 
of his prowess and the oppression that fell upon him, 
according as we were able. Since all men will say, "I will 
relate everything that Dajazmach Khaylu did and what trials 
happened to him." It is not possible to relate them fully, for 
they were many as the sands of the sea and the stars of heaven. 
Only I raise the tongue of my mouth for Dajazmach Khaylu, 
and it has worked on account of the love that no man or lord 
510 b else has shown except him. I have related somewhat and have 
given account of the fathers of my lord and friend Dajazmach 
Khaylu, a high and mighty man, may God help me who helped 
him, in his mercy and compassion and his great exaltedness, 
for ever and ever, Amen. 



HISTORY CONTINUED BY ABAGAZ SA'UNA 

In the 7344 (1852) year of Creation of the world, beginning 
of Maskaram, and (year of) John the Evangelist, the Thursday 
when Epact of the moon was 9 and Matq'e 1 21. On the 
7th Genbot (2nd April) this book, which was a history from 
the time it was begun on the Itith of Yakatit (month begins 

1 Matq'e is the New Moon fulling six months before the Paschal New Moon. The 
Abyssinian Clironographcrs adopted the theory of the Jewish Calendar by which the sixth 
month before Nisan is always Tishri ; Matq'e therefore, which signifies Trumpet in Ge'ez, 
is Tishri 1, the Feast of Trumpets, the Jewish New Year. Vide Appendix: Abyssinian 
Chronography and Chronology. 



[35i] 

7th February), was finished. And the writing was done while 
Dajazmach Goshu 1 , the high and renowned, was at Dai not, wise 
and learned, who dwelt all his youth with the Secret Word, and 
whose name reached from one end of the earth to the other 
and from sea to sea. And he dwelt there when he was invested 
with the office of Dajazmach of Damot in the Jubilee 2 of his 
judgeship. 

And on the 1st of Maskaram and on Friday which is the 
harbinger of the year (lit. head herald of the year) Dajazmach 
Khaylu went down to the river that they call Mataray, that he 
might be bathed in the water of Jordan that Abba Walda 
Christos Naday sent to him, on the arrival of the Patriarch 
Yosab the elect, high and great, which he kept (the water) 
to this day, the great day of the consecration of the Convent 
of Mary, a goodly sight, that no edifice equals. And then 
Dajazmach Khaylu was bathed in it, the well-beloved and 
chosen one of God, begging forgiveness even as Job, was 
bathed, a great and good remembrance. And he was cured 
by it of his sickness. And on that day I too stood with him, 
and was bathed like him in that water of Jordan. But this 
book which is a history that contains many stories contains no 
lies in the narration. I wrote it I Abagaz Sa'una, the narrator, 511 
and the matter (is) of my country, the land of Shawa, a remote 
land where I was born of the noble ones (chiefs) of the district. 
And to-day, in it, I working at it put " Finis," and God who 
judgeth the living and the dead knoweth how I have added 
nothing but have related only a portion (little of what I have 
heard), and have brought it to this point. And after that while 
Dajazmach Khaylu was in the Convent of Mary he considered 
in his mind (heart) on his expulsion from his land, and pondered 
on many counsels, and on his many sorrows, how he should 
retire to Waldebba to receive a blessing and consolation from 
the monks of Waldebba. And then he rose from there in the 

1 According to G. Sapeto (a contemporary in Abyssinia) Goshu's province was Dambaya. 
He was killed at the battle of Gur-Amba against Kassa (K. Theodore) 13th November 1852 
at the age of nearly 80. (Etiopia, p. 310.) The Secret Word may refer to some book not 
known to the common people. 

2 jftflfl i =0fli (?) Dillmann, Ltx. 



[352] 

month of Teqemt, and the epoch was the epoch of Markos, 
and stayed at Tembfihoch. And those that followed him were 
a few men, viz. Abeto Angeda and Abe to Atsequ of Afarawanfit. 
And sli.-iliKja Tsamiiye and Asalafe Maqas and other retainers 
clamoured to follow him : when he started on his journey 
in the month of Easter many would have followed him, and 
then his going had not been exile. Many soldiers would 
have followed him for Dajazmach Khaylu was a great lord and 
a great commander the like of which no leaders or commanders 
are. And from Tembahoch he started out and stayed at 
Sarbakusa, and from thence he started forth and stayed at 
Ensosa. The stoutness of heart of Dajazinach Khiiylu was 
wonderful, for he crossed (the country) alone in the midst of 
enemies. When Balambaras Ramkha was at Gondar and Losa 
his son was on the road that he was marching, passing through 
their midst, the stout heart of Dajazmach Khaylu quailed not 
at all at the multitude of their soldiers, a hundred difficulties, 
and a hundred strange things. No one could have done what 
he did, or have thought in his mind of deeds like that. O my 
r>n b Lord Dajazmach Khaylu. Nay! from the day thou wast born 
thou hast not feared the threats of thy enemies. And oh what 
a heart thou didst keep that said not, " My enemies will find 
me and seize me." O my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu I grieve for 
thy having to go without provisions and without many troops ; 
thy departure indeed was like to the going of David towards Get. 
For David when he warred upon Saul the Benjamite, King of 
Israel, went over to Abimelek the priest of the Testament, and 
declared to him that he was famished and that he had no 
victuals, nor arms that he could take. Like him Dajazmach 
Khaylu marched towards Waldebbi! without victuals and 
weapons of war according to the customs of the Chiefs. And 
the exile of Dajazmach Khaylu was like to the expulsion 
of Jesus Christ, for as Christ was cast forth and hidden 
from the face of Herodes, so he Dajazmach Khaylu was 
driven forth and hid from his enemies who warred against 
him in vain. 



[353] 

We will now go back to the previous matter. And from 
Ensesa he started forth and halted at the Lake Deb, and from 
there he went out and halted at Saquar which is the head of 
Waldebba, and thence he went and halted at Aytsayaf. And 
he was met there by Abba Na'aquito La'ab and other monks, 
his friends, and thence he went and came to Washa, a place of 
his fathers that he loved, and had longed for from his child- 
hood. O my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu, I give thanks to God 
that he brought thee to Waldebba the place of saints, and 
vouchsafed that thou didst reap blessings from it. And after 
this he was received among his fathers, the monks, who were 
Abba Asrat and Abba Sartsa Aragawi and Abba Ma'aza and 
other great monks that dwelt in Waldebba. And from thence 
he started and descended to Abrantanti, and was blessed by 
all those holy men in the 8th of the month of Hedar, which 512 a 
was the feast of Ensesa and the feast of the monks of Waldebba. 
And then he was received by all the monks who were Abba 
Johannes and Mana a confessor and Abba Walda Takle a 
confessor and Abba Marqorewos and Abba Tsewa, and with 
all the monks that dwelt in its light, and he was blessed by 
them. And when the monks his fathers saw him they were 
overjoyed at the sight of his countenance, for he was their 
friend and son of their friend Dajazmach Eshate. And there 
were those that mourned over his trials, for his trials were great, 
and there were others of the monks his friends who wept, 
saying, "They have condemned you to this, oh son of Dajaz- 
mach Eshate," and he was exiled from his country ; and that 
shedding of tears was not wrong, for the Bible says, "They wept 
with those that weep and rejoiced with those that rejoice." And 
the Gospel says, " The Lord Jesus groaned in spirit and raised 
Lazarus from the grave." Like him those monks his fathers 
wept over his exile, and solaced him for the grief of his heart 
with their tears. O my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu, thou wert 
exiled undeservedly. For they found no crime in thee, but 
only gentleness and goodness. Thy exile was through per- 
secution without evil (done). For the Bible says, "Blessed 



W. B. 



45 



[354] 

are they that suffer persecution for justice's sake for theirs is 
the Kingdom of heaven." O my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu, 
I indeed prefer thy persecution, for the Bible says, "It is 
more fitting that men should persecute thee than thou should 
persecute men." For persecution does not remain upon one. 
But he Dajazmach Khaylu rejoiced in that he found himself 
among the monks who were at Waldebba, for all of them 
desired to receive thee amongst themselves, and comfort thee 
with their prayers. For the Bible says, "The Prayer of the 
righteous is a plant and a power, a consolation in sorrow of 
512 b heart." And all watched to see how he would look upon the 
rules of Waldebba. And after that he returned from Abran 
Tante with the monks. And he entered Washa, and they 
who worked in the light bid adieu to him in joy and peace. 
And they said to him, "May God watch over thee in all 
thy days, nor withdraw from thee." And then they said, 
" O son of Dajazmach Eshate, may the God of Israel be with 
thee, even as he was with Moses in the land of Egypt and 
lyasu (Joshua) with the Phileste'im." And they who were in 
Washa received him as a guest is received or a son, and there 
were some among them who brought to him food and drink, and 
others who comforted him with their prayers. For the Bible 
says, " Comfort the sorrowful to the best of thy power." And 
all those men were a help in his gloom with food and drink. 
And Abeto Habta Wasan did him many services, because he 
had before been shown kindness by him, and had brought him 
away from the lake, where he was in chains. When there was a 
fire in the land of Awaza, he took him joyfully, and rendered 
him kindness, for that was an act of kindness at his hands. Of 
a truth kindness followed Dajazmach Khaylu on his march. 
As Paul says in his Epistle to Timotewos, " A man's good and 
evil deeds follow after him " (1 Tim. v. 24, 25). And even in that 
manner while he was at Waldebba he suffered, and was sick of 
a grievous illness, and his illness was separation from the holy 
men. And then all the monks of Waldebba mourned on 
account of that suffering, for it was a great trial. But he did 



[355] 

not take hardly that suffering, though it was a grievous one, 
for he knew the words of the Bible, " If they do not chastise 
you are bastards" (Hebrews xii. 8). And then what it says, 
"Whom he loveth the Lord chastiseth," and verily the Lord 
chastised Dajazmach Khaylu in his exile as he chastised his 
beloved David and in the sickness of Isayas his servant. And 
there was no man who was not grieved at his suffering, if he 
was his friend, and even if he was an enemy. O my Lordsisa 
Dajazmach Khaylu, thy sufferings became the sufferings of all 
who loved thee. For the Bible says, " Every member (of the 
body) suffers if one member suffers," and all were made com- 
panions in thy suffering, O my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu, thy 
trial was the trial of everyone. For those that loved thee 
were sharers (partners) in thy trial even as the Apostles 
shared in the sufferings of their Lord and their beloved Jesus 
Christ. And after that he little by little grew better, and was 
cured of his illness. And all the monks of Waldebba said to 
him, " Rise up and depart, for there is nothing that ails thee," 
and then he rose, understanding their words. And he com- 
pleted his journey towards Aytsayaf, and as he was descending 
a declivity in that country he suffered a grievous pain, and 
called to God in his great affliction, and he said, " Behold my 
affliction and my trial," even as David his father said, "Behold 
my suffering and my affliction, and forgive me all my sins. 
And behold how many are my enemies; they hate me with 
a wicked hatred. Help me and deliver me. Let them not 
shame me, O Lord, for I put my trust in thee 1 ." And again 
he said, "Behold, O Lord, my pain as thou beheldst the 
pains of Hezeqeyas," and even as that his trials became severer 
and torments came upon him at Saquar. And when Alaqa 
Abagaz his friend heard of the sufferings of Dajazmach Khaylu 
and his trials, he descended to Waldebba, with no one to show 
him the road ; but he loved that trouble, and he found him when 
making the descent of Saquar. And Dajazmach Khaylu said 
to him, " Why didst thou come to me ? " and that is what he 

1 Ps. xxv. 



[356] 

said, because he loved him even as himself. And there Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu stayed. And the next day he departed from 
Saquar with all the monks of the land of Waldebba. And 
when he arrived at Zarima a monk came whose name was 
Abba Gabra Le'ul, who had been sent by Ras Khaylu with his 
attendant, and brought word from Ras Khaylu to sympathise 
513 b with him over his sufferings, and on that day he halted hard 
by the Lake Debb and the next day at Lake Debb. And from 
thence he departed and halted at Ensesa, and there he kept 
the feast of the Epiphany. Then he started and halted at the 
land of Princess Waleta Kedan, after this he departed and 
halted at Maylko at the house of Abeto Sargu, and Abeto 
Sargu took him in with great joy. Then he started and came 
to Gondar with all the monks of Waldebba. And he came to 
the house of the Echage, and then he sent all the monks over to 
Ras Khaylu for the cause of his exile lay with Ras Khaylu ; 
and the monks went to Gojam and came to Ras Khaylu and 
recounted to him all the sufferings of Dajazmach Khaylu, and 
they said to him, " Have mercy on us, for he is thy brother," 
and then they said, " He has no kinsman but thee and thou 
hast no kinsman but him." And then when Ras Khaylu heard 
that his heart softened, and he said, "Let it be as you tell me and 
everything you tell me that I will do," and Balambaras Ramkha 
said the same. And in accordance with that act they reconciled 
him with those two Ras Khaylu and Balambaras Ramkha with 
an oath under pain of excommunication, and they said to the 
monks " Since there is reconciliation from the heart, send over 
to Ras Ali and say to him Have mercy on us and let him 
come to his country " and they answered "Aye, we will do 
all that you bid us." O my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu, what 
persecution did not come upon thee and what trials didst 
thou not see ; but Ras Khaylu warred against thee in vain and 
Balambaras Ramkha and other chiefs when they warred against 
thee for the sake of thy territories, but they warred in vain. 
Then the monks turned back and came to Gondar, and they 
related to him all that Ras Khaylu had said to them and 



[357] 

Balambaras Ramkha, and from the house of the Echage they 
went to the house of the Abuna Yosab, and while there he 
then sent the monks of Waldebba to Ras 'All to make friends 514 a 
with him, and they went off. And they reconciled him with 
Ras 'Ali and Ras 'AH said, " Let him come back to his lands, 
for there is no enmity in me but on account of Ras Khaylu." 
Then the monks entered Gondar and related to him all that 
Ras Ali had said. Thereupon he rose from Gondar and 
went back to his territory Begameder. And when he arrived 
at Gerariya his country and came to his house, those 
established in his land refused to let him come into, his house 
and his lands. Just so the blind and lame prevented his 
father David from coming into Tseyon the city of his fathers 1 , 
so like them, they prevented him from coming into his house 
and land. And then he departed from Gerariya to Garagara, 
and he was received by Ras 'Ali and he made friends with him 
heartily and gave up all his lands to him. And he turned out 
those who were established in his land. Then he turned back 
from Garagara and came to them. And after all that had 
passed Ras 'Ali gave him the sister of his brother Abeto 
Yemar, whose name was Princess Anqualit, who was chosen 
out of all the daughters of his kinsman Guangul, that she might 
be his wife. And Dajazmach Khaylu accepted her with joy 
and peace, and brought her to the land of Nagala. And after 
that war broke out between Ras 'Ali and Ras Khaylu. But 
what remains of this matter belongs to the history of Ras 'Ali 
and Negusa Nagast Takla Giyorgis. 

In the name of God in the beginning that has no beginning 
and no end, that was before all things, and will be after all 
things, may his assistance be with his beloved Sahela lyasus. 
Amen. And as to what has been said about him except for me, 
there is no one who has set down what he did, and again it shall 
be repeated fully what the man did, and it shall be finished by the 

1 2 Sam. v. 8, and 1 Chr. xi. 5. 



[358] 

help of God. Amen. Behold we will commence to write a pleasant 
account of him, which will be a history of a new Constantinos, 

51 4 b Ras 'Ali, chief of the commanders and leaders, who was after 

the likeness of the 1st Constantinos King of Kings of Constan- 
tenya. And the likeness of God is an exalted likeness, as the 
Bible says ; and we will follow the perfect leader, that is to say 
we compare his sayings and society to Paul the Apostle. And 
his likeness to Constantinos that we spoke of, is because he was 
first a pagan, and afterwards became a Christian, and walked in 
the way of the Lord. And he was one fearing God, and first 
was a pagan and afterwards a Christian, and walked in the true 
Faith and in spiritual works. And he went not outside the 
Canons of our fathers the Kings, at moments when he dealt 
out life or dealt out death. As the Bible says, " The just man 
is not put to death, and the sinner is not given life." And 
the likeness of God which we spoke of is because God is merci- 
ful and compassionate. As it is said in the Bible, " And as a 
father has compassion on his son, so does God have compassion 
on those that fear him" (Ps. xxxiii. 11, 13). And he Ras 'Ali, 
chief of the mighty ones, is merciful and divines everything so 
that he heard and understood l . As the Bible says, " Blessed 
are the merciful for they shall obtain mercy." And then it says, 
" For if ye forgive trespasses against you, your father who is in 
heaven will forgive your trespasses." Of a truth he is one who 
relinquishes revenge and knows not lying once with his word. 
And the companionship of Pawlos that we said because as 
Pawlos made all the people believe him and brought the Faith 
of Christ to the ends of the earth so like him Ras 'Ali made 
many people trust him, and he taught the law of the Faith and 
built Churches in his territories. Truly Ras 'Ali was a steadfast 
apostle conqueror of the mighty ones and stout Christian, that 

515 a flattered not in the Faith, Truly an Israelite was Ras 'Ali that 

had no guile in his heart, full of wisdom ; and many are the 
Churches that were built by his hand. And the people who 
believed (embraced the faith) and were baptized were hundreds 

1 To hoar was to understand. Cp. Ar. to hear is to obey i 



[359] 

of thousands, it would be impossible to number them. Truly 
Ras 'Ali was a son of Abraham the Kaldawi of the true Faith 
to whom God said, "I will raise thee up the father of many 
people," for as Abraham left his father Tara and followed the 
Lord, so he left the laws of his father Guangul, Chief of the 
Galla, and followed the Lord and loved him heartily, and he 
will know him for all eternity. Furthermore we will write the 
account of the return of King of Kings Takla Giyorgis to his 
kingdom and his reconciliation with Ras 'Ali, chief of the mighty 
ones. Afterwards troubles arose, through many provocations 
as all troubles do, and war broke out between Ras 'Ali and 
Ras Khaylu, for it is the habit of men to make friends and fall 
out (lit. love and make war). And then Ras 'Ali made friends, 
being a lover of peace, with the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, 
who had been driven out from his kingdom, and they brought 
him back from the country of Basal. And his exile from the time 
he was dethroned (expelled) was two years and seven months. 
He received him with great humility and much sorrow. 
And on the 4th Maskaram he came to the house of the King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis who had been expelled from his king- 
dom and went and remained there for three clays. Afterwards 
he went to Garagara, and that day Ras Khaylu received the King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis with lowly heart and great humility. 
As the Bible says, "Blessed are the poor in spirit for they shall 
inherit the kingdom of heaven." And he gave to Dajazmach 
Khaylu, the great commander, the daughter of his brother 
Abeto Damar whose name was Princess Anqualit. And the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis stayed many days with Ras 'Ali, 
chief of the generals in peace and friendship. And there King 515 b 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis of the revered name said to Ras 'Ali, 
"Set free Dajazmach Adegah and Dajazmach Gualej for on my 
account are they chained." And he replied, " Yea, I will do as 
you command me." And then he set free Dajazmach Adegah 
and Dajazmach Gualej, and brought them to Garagara, and 
from Garagara he sent him to the land of Amhara under an oath 
and pain of excommunication to set free Dajazmach Dare, who 



[36o] 

was chained in his territory and in his house. And he brought 
Dajazmach Darso, and at Garagara he made great parade such 
as other generals had not made for the queens, and he gave 
up his house, that (was furnished) within with many carpets, 
did him great honour in reverence, and he rejoiced him greatly 
with all kinds of acts. Birale, however, was like to Esau that 
sold his birthright and lost a blessing, for Ras 'AH did not 
arrive at happiness till the summit of his power ; he was like 
Ya'ekob who took the blessing of Esau and his birthright. 
Again Jantserar Birale resembled the traveller (stranger) that 
was going towards the sea, and the waves overwhelmed him 
when he came to the shore and all his goods were lost, like him. 
He, when he came to the end, betrayed the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis. And then when he was dwelling at Garagara 
he commanded Dajazmach Khaylu and Abagaz Abuna and 
Abeto Lencha, Mehur Tsabe the son of Ras Goshu, Abagaz 
Neguse of Begameder, Azmach Gulmase, Barentu Aligaz and 
the sons of Abba Bona Galmo, and all their soldiers that were 
below Chachaho to surround Qoma. And they surrounded for 
two months that place. That day he heard of the death of 
Garazmach Adame his brother whom he loved. And he was 
grieved greatly on account of him, his death occurring atSarweha. 
And while King of Kings Takla Giyorgis was at Garagara the 
high commanders came over to him, viz. Dajazmach Ikonyan, 
516 a Dajazmach Yasellase Barya, Dajazmach lyasu, Balambfirfis 
Adego Ligaba Mecha, Azaj Kabte, Gerazmach Walda Abib 
and all their soldiers of the Negus came to him with rejoicing, 
and he gave them a camping ground to each one to please them. 
But Negus lyasu departed from Gondar and withdrew to Gojam. 
And then there was an expedition, and on the 2nd Hedar the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and the chief of the generals 
Ras C AH marched out from thence and halted at Chat Weha. 
And from Weha they halted at Awrajet and from thence they 
marched forth and halted at Afarenmaii. And from there they 
halted at Zuramba, and they were received by the priests of 
Zuramba with much chanting. And King of Kings Takla 



Giyorgis remained there seven days in prayer, for he under- 
stood what Paul had said, " I beseech thee before all things 
to offer up prayer." And from Zuramba they departed and 
halted at Walala lake, and from there they halted at Mekra, and 
from Mekra they halted at Yasha, and then the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis commanded them to lay waste the land of Abeto 
Goh and destroy his house, and they laid waste everything that 
there was; and on the same day Ras 'Ali sent counsel of prudence 
to his brother the Shum of Wag, Aligaz, as Dajazmach Khaylu 
had a strong fortress and a position that could not be shaken, 
and Balambaras Sadiq and Maqet Azmach Walda Mika'el 
and Nagadras Jale he sent towards Nadabet that Balambaras 
Ramkha might not find out the place of their exit. And when 
he was at Yasha he sent a man of his army over to Qoma and 
left him at Qoma for Balambaras Ramkha, for he issued forth 
by night and withdrew, so that there should be no sight of him. 
Then he gave orders to destroy Bar Adage and burn it with 
fire. And he wiped out everything that was there. But Ras 
'Ali was like lyasu (Joshua) the leader of Israel, and Zuramba 
was like Jericho at the sounding of the trumpet. Like him he 
destroyed the rebels of the land of Laqo. And from thence 
they departed and arrived at Qoma, and commanded them to 
destroy everything that was at Qoma, men and animals and 
crops and all habitations, and Qoma was as though it had not 
been, and it was like to the walls of Sena'or that fools and mad 
men built. As the Bible says, " As the servants built so was 
their chastisement." And their tongues failed upon them, and 
they were all terrified who saw them, and all men were afraid 
like him. But Qoma was the building of the children, and there 
was no profit in their building and they ordered that no one 
was to enter the Church of the Pious Fasiladas. They saved 
all those who had taken refuge in it, and at Qoma, the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis decorated Ras 'Ali conqueror of his enemies. 
On the 4th Takhsas Ras 'Ali went to Limon, and he surrounded 
it with a large force, and Limon was destroyed and all the great 
men were vanquished who were inside. And all the labour of 



W. B. 



[ 3.62 ] 

Balambaras Ramkha was in vain. As Solomon said, "All is 
vanity, vanity in this world that passeth away." He was taken 
at that time, and he came terrified before the awful Ras 'Ali, 
trembling in every limb (lit in the whole of him). And Ramkha 
died by the hand of Ras 'Ali and was like Agag the. King of the 
Amaleq, who said, " Is death bitter as this ? " And the land of 
Qoma became as a desert, as the Bible says, " Their lands shall 
be as a desert." There was no one who dwelt in their houses. 
And the high Ras 'Ali was like Samuel the Prophet, the High- 
ness that slew Agag with his own hand. And again Balambaras 
Ramkha was like him whose strength was in vain against the 
Philistinawi (Philistine) for he despised the soldiers of the Negus 
and vilified Ras 'Ali and Dajazmach Khaylu, but his abuse 
was of no avail, but for his destruction and bringing him unto 
517 a death. And the same day Dajazmach Khaylu accomplished 
great exploits that it would be difficult to relate, he who 
marched in front at the strongholds and their destruction, and 
whose custom ever was to go first and leave those behind, and 
he knew not from his youth one day when he was afraid, and 
thereafter all knew his bravery. To-day saw Ras 'Ali the chief 
of the braves, but to Ramkha came what is spoken of by the 
Prophet, " For this God shall crush thee for ever and uproot 
thee and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place and root thee out 
of the land of the living " (Ps. lii. 5). Then Ras 'Ali sent over to 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis the head of Balambaras Ramkha. 
And the Negus saw it and wondered and marvelled, and he sent 
the head over to Gondar, and it was impaled at Adababay; Ras 
'Ali stayed at Limon two days, and gave orders for the destruc- 
tion of Limon, a place of wickedness, and he demolished all the 
walls. Then Ras 'Ali rose and arrived at Mecha, while the 
Negus Takla Giyorgis started from Qoma and came to Mecha : 
so they met there. And from Mecha he departed and stayed 
at 'Este, and there Dajazmach Khaylu laid the trophies before 
the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and recounted his wonderful 
bravery, that all the world saw ; that is the wont of a warrior. 
And Takla the brother of Ras 'Ali said, " I am he who is his 



right hand that fails not, I am he who is his son of whom it is 
not said that he betrays him, since he knows not guile. Truly 
a good brave man, without stain, and will not be put to shame 
by any man who comes before him. When he meets his Lord 
and stands up before his Lord he will not be put to the blush 
as he stands up. When they lay him in the grave in the end, 
there will be a great following, and his great family will not 
fail him." And after that Dajazmach Khaylu brought them 
near to the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, and in honour of Ras 
e Ali they drank wine and ate bread, mutton and beef, and 517 b 
this clinched the business. And then the Herald announced 
to him about the Church which he had built. And from 'Este 
he departed and halted at Tenjana, and from Tenjana he started 
and halted at Aringo, and from Aringo the priests from the 
Convent of Our Lady Mary received the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis with wonderful chants, and he stayed there two 
days, and thence he started and halted at Erb, and the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis starting thence stayed at Yefug Sellase. 
And the high Gift, Ras 'Ali, marched so that he could meet 
Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el, a learned friend, and he received 
him with great joy and festivity. And Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el came with great reverence and met the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis, and there was great rejoicing and festival at 
the arrival of Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el the chief of the wise 
men. And he came to the tent of Ras 'Ali who was his friend, 
and he went with him as far as Gojam. A report arose that was 
not contradicted by the word of Ras 'Ali that he gave him food 
with the soldiers. But he (Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el) invited 
Ras 'Ali to his tent, and gave him food with his soldiers. On 
the same day he gave him many articles, such as guns and 
beds and other things. But the coming of Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el was accompanied with many wonderful articles, terrible 
cannon that it would be hard to describe. For there was no 
man who understood it; and with many men horse and foot 
and shields without number. And Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el 
declared he was determined to go to Gojam, dead or alive. And 
when his heart was inflamed he swore an oath and said, " By 518 a 



[364] 

God's life that he would not turn back without getting to Gojam," 
" and I will plant my footsteps upon Edomeyas on the frontier 
of the land of Damot." And when Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el 
came he knew the difficulty, and the terror of the land, and 
crossed Atselaqelaqat, and he shook the foundations of Gojam, 
for the craft of foreigners brought weapons of war, and these were 
guns, that before that time had not been done. And it had not 
been done to this day since munitions of war, guns that is to 
say, came for the Negus of Etyopiya, who was Atse Galawdewos, 
son of Atse Lebna Dengel, who destroyed the power of the 
Khalifa 1 Gran, who destroyed Debra Libanos, no warlike 
weapons came to him that were like these. No kingdoms 
had had such, that had existed before that. Dajazmach 
Walda Gabre'el was a dove, making himself like a dove. And 
he was like Iskander (Alexander) chief of the wise men who 
came to the help of the Negus of Hind (King of India) with 
munitions of war, that like these were guns that he might wage 
war upon Dara (Darius) chief of the mighty ones. And the 
people saw how much Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el loved the 
steadfast heart of Ras 'Ali, for he delayed not the moment 
he called to him ; what a gift and what high position was offered 
to Ras C AH the chief of the generals ! And in a similar matter 
Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el aided with a powerful help both 
the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and the great work of Ras 
'Ali. And after that they departed from Qaroda and halted 
at Enfraz. And thence they left and stayed at Bula, and to 
this place came all the generals and judges and princesses that 
were at Gondar. And when Gondar knew the indubitable 
dignity of the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis it rejoiced and 
made reverence, and Gondar cried, " My soul thirsts after my 
King," as the People of Babilon cried, "My soul thirsts after my 
sis b God." For King of Kings Takla Giyorgis ever brought every 
man to repentance in his heart, if he was not as is spoken of in 
the Bible, "Who knoweth the heart of man except his spirit 



King Claudius reigned from 1540 to 1559. Assisted by 450 
Portuguese he fought and defeated Grail, the General of the Adelan Muslims, who was killed 
1542. (Couzelman, Galdwdeicos,c\i. xvi. Castanhoso in Esteves Pereira. DosFeitosetc.,i>.(>l. 



[365] 

within him ? " Such a king as he will never be found, whether 
they ascend upon high or descend below. And at Bula lias C AH 
was released from his excommunication, a terrible punishment, 
and then he put to death a man who was caught in a crime, 
there was punishment for all (evil-doers); and he kept the feast 
of Saint Gabre'el the archangel there, and he gave alms to the 
needy and poor. For he did everything as a great man as he 
was, does, arid Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el kept the feast of 
Saint Gabre'el the archangel. And then King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis received his generals at a feast of eating and drinking, 
and then he departed and halted at Achera. After this King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis ordained the priests that were with him 
at Tasay: they were Alaqa Walda Ab Mala'k Berhanat, Qis 
Atse Walda Maryam and others. And from Achera he de- 
parted and halted at Boch and leaving that place he halted at 
Dalge. And leaving Dalge he stayed at Achara, and thence 
he went and stayed at Quenzela, and then he promoted Ras 
'Ali to be Betwadded with the title of Dajazmach of Begameder. 
And Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el he made Dajazmach of Damot, 
Mezikker of Agaw and Dajazmach of Tigre. And after this the 
governors and judges came from Gondar, and leaving Quenzela, 
they halted at Cheqa Wanz (river Cheqa), and from Cheqa Wanz 
they halted at Amra. And then he appointed Azzaj Walda Ab 
a Fitawrari, and Fitawrari Sadiq he made a Balambaras, and 
Jalo Lome he created a Nagadras, and Abeto Aligaz he made 
a shum of Wag. But Ras 'Ali, with his great gift (promotion), 519 a 
was like the King of Kings Atse Susneyos, who appointed his 
brothers who were Abba Bona Galmo, Wag-Shum Aligaz, 
Fitawrari Sadiq, raising them to high offices. 

How it will rejoice and ennoble! For great gifts are bestowed 
by God, the giver of gifts. As it is said, " There be no gifts for 
either him who hastens or him who runs, but only the know- 
ledge of God." For thus the gift is worthy of admiration and 
respect. And again, pray for him that his days may be pro- 
longed, as it is said, " Rather than one man die who has given 
shelter to a thousand, better is it for many men to die." And 



[366] 

John Chrysostom said, " Better is one righteous man than a 
thousand sinners." And further let us quote a parable, and 
the parable is this. If a man collects much grass for the roof, 
and if there are no long wooden planks for a main beam you 
cannot build a house, for it stops halfway (in the middle), so he 
Ras 'Ali was equal to every emergency, if it were not actually 
impossible. And afterwards they departed and halted at 
Kelte, and from Kelte they left and halted at Quaquara, and 
from there they started and stayed at Duban. And leaving 
Duban they stayed at Sakela, and thence they went and stayed 
at Taliya and from Taliya they went and stayed at Bahr Meda, 
and leaving there they stayed at Bot, and from Bot they went 
and stayed at Den and while there, then came messengers to 
Ras 'Ali from Gojam, and they informed them the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis and Ras 'Ali lover of peace, who sent 
them had spoken, and what he had said was this, " Return to 
me, and what you order me I will do, if you say come, I will 
come." And then they (gave up) going to war. And they were 
reconciled there, and he sent his daughter whose name was 
Wayzero Altash. And on her arriving before her father there 
was joy and festivity and a tremendous commotion among all 
the tents. And then Ras 'Ali showed to Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el a joyful countenance and a tender heart, that showed 
519 b nothing of an evil intent ; ten camels, thirty-five laden horses, 
how it rejoiced him ! a pledge of their mutual affection, for 
they being as one (man), whoso Ras 'AH loved, Dajazmach 
Walda Gabre'el loved, and whoso Ras 'Ali hated, Dajazmach 
Walda Gabre'el hated, and their every counsel was one. And 
at that place Dajazmach Gabru came, his friend from of old, 
and thence they departed and halted at Butala. Leaving that 
place they halted at A rag, and from there they halted at 
Amdamit, and from there they stayed at Shawa, and leaving 
that they halted at Qelala, where they stayed four days. 
The King of Kings Takla Giyorgis Went to the Church and 
prayed there alone, and all his heart was raised to God, for he 
knew what the Bible says, " Cast thy heart up to God and he 



[367] 

will sustain thee 1 " (lit. nourish). And all his desire was for the 
praise of God, for he hearkened to what the Book 2 says, " Why 
do we place all our desires on this life that we leave to-morrow ? " 
And again he knew what has been said, "He is a fool who 
thinks of a dwelling in this world except the grave, which 
he inherits for a dwelling place." And in another place it 
says, " They who possess shall be as though they possessed not, 
and those who ate shall be as though they had not eaten," and 
further the Book 2 says, "The world, ye abide but for one hour 
in the midst of it (in what concerns it)." And while he was 
minded of all this, he was lingering and remained in the Church, 
and was praying there. And thence they departed and halted 
at Yenach. And afterwards while he was at Yenach Ras 
Khaylu came and pitched his camp at Debra Tsot, and those 
high dignitaries, viz. Ras 'Ali and Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el 
and Dajazmach Gadelu. And Ras 'Ali and Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el went away by command of the Negus as far as Abaya 
to inspire confidence. That indeed was a great thing, to be 
faithful, for there was not one of the men that could be faithful 
for eight days, as the saying is, and the one Faith of mankind. 
In vain one man conferred with another and then said, " There 520 a 
is no one who does what is right, no not one." Being honest, 
that is being faithful. And they met there and everything that 
took place was reported. And they spoke out to each one 
what was in their hearts, but he Ras Khaylu was full of 
affection. "Yea, even as you command me, I will do, and I 
will not depart from that which is your pleasure. If indeed the 
Negus tells me ' Come ' I will come, and I will do everything 
you command me." With such action they departed and 
in friendliness; Ras Khaylu entered his own country; those 
commanders also entered their tents, and they related to the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis all that had been said. And 
some said, "What was the good of a meeting of Ras ('Ali?) 

1 The quotation is the translation of the Latin Vulgate of Ps. liv. 23, "Jacta super 
Dominum curam tuam et ipse te nutriet." 

2 This refers to some book of proverbs or sayings. 



[368] 

with the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis without trusting him, 
we say, until they meet together heart to heart, and they are 
completely reconciled." And when it was known in the camp 
(tents) that confidence was restored in the kingdom of the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, there was great rejoicing, and 
the whole world said, "Verily, verily, it is what God said- 
Knock and it shall be opened unto you. Ask and ye shall 
receive. Seek and ye shall find." And further it is said, 
" Every one of you that ask, if there is faith ye shall be raised 
up" as Hannah said. God grants the prayer to him who 
prays, for it has been what concerns the world that you ever 
ask God for. And there was good will in the kingdom of the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, as much as in the kingdom of 
David and Solomon, and he grieved over his exile, for the land 
was other than his kingdom, and the King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis yearned after his own kingdom ; in this being like to 
Abraham his father that dwelt in Kana'an a stranger and 
an immigrant ; like him he dwelt, he too a stranger and an 
520 b immigrant in his land of Ambasal, and he was like as though 
he were not king above all. And he fulfilled what the Bible 
says, " They were as strangers and wanderers." And as he was 
worn out he resembled Ya'eqob who was exiled and went to 
Sorya (Syria), and afterwards returned to his country of Kana'an, 
and like him he returned from his exile to his kingdom. And 
again he was like Zerubabbel the King of Isra'el after he grew 
up and came to rule over Jerusalem thirty-nine years, and like 
him he returned from Ambasal and sat upon the golden throne. 
And Ambasal was like Babilon the city of temptation, but 
Gondar the city of his kingdom was like lyarusalem. And it 
was said by many friends of Debra Libanos, " Long live, long 
live our Negus Takla Giyorgis for many days, for he is the 
father of the bereaved and dispenser to the widows." The 
noble godsend Ras 'Ali was like Samson the Nazarawi that found 
honey in the mouth of a lion and like him the bee came to his 
tent and settled in the store room of his robes. That was a 
weighty matter, and he showed his great judgement. And again, 



[369] 

he was like Gideon, for as Gideon explored the land and made 
proof of it with spears, so he too like him explored Zobel the 
city of his people, and proved it with spears ; broke down the 
mighty ones, and established the city that was his. And further 
we will liken him to David prince of the mighty ones who said, 
" I am the youngest of my brothers and the brave man of the 
house of my father." And again he said, " My brothers are 
good and are chiefs, and were not pleasing to God " ; for like 
him he too was the youngest of his brothers and great in his 
gifts, and he filled all the ends of the world. And we will liken 
him to lyoseyas (Isaias) that raised his voice against Samaria 
and destroyed the temples of the Idols. Like him he too 521 a 
raised his voice against Ona, land of the pagans, and cast down 
the temples of their speakers. And again we will liken him 
to Dane'el in his wise judgement (when he convicted the 
Elders and saved Susannah) when he said, " I have been wiser 
than the Elders 1 ," for as Dane'el saved by his judgment the 
daughter of Isra'el from the hand of the false Elders, like him 
he too saved the world from the hands of the wicked, who were 
rebels 2 and from the hands of the Tagalyan, who were robbers 3 . 
And from the many good services he did for the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis, the latter said, " I will love 'Ali and I have 
hated Birale," as the Bible says, " I have loved Ya'eqob and I 
will hate Esau." From Yenach they moved on and halted at 
Ganat. From Ganat they went and halted at Yegaba, and 
there they remained seven days while they took counsel on 
everything that occurred. At that place he appointed Dajaz- 
mach Gadelu to be Dajazmach of Tsagade and Walqayt with 
the office Azaj of Tarasamba. And then he commanded and 
gave permission to Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el and Dajazmach 
Gadelu to go to their places, and they went towards Dengel 
Bar. And those, the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis in his 
upright rule, and Ras C AH in his love as a ruler resembled 

1 This is probably a quotation from an Ethiopic version of the Book of Daniel. 

2 Tf^P^-i pi. TfaJ-^f i Amharic, rebels. 

3 atyn&t or onrflJt 1 pl ur - atVnp&t Amharic, robbers. 

w. B. 47 



[370] 

Solomon, for as Solomon ruled the land from Dan to Bersabeh 
and from Tigros (the Tigris) as far as Efrates (Euphrates) 
so like him, he too ruled the land from east to west, that is to 
say, Adel and Gojam. And they made their way from Nagala 
on the side of Deldey, and stayed at Deldey; then departing, 
crossed the road of the Abay 1 by night with many troops, so 
the multitude of their host was beyond count. They halted 
521 b at Adayam Dara, that is to say, Dawal. And while they were 
having festivities Ras 'Ali gained honour by the many acts of 
generosity that he performed to the people of Media, for he 
remitted them the tribute that was due from their territory, 
which was a thousand ounces (gold). In this he resembled 
God his creator, exalted name and exalted similitude, who said 
to the man with the palsy, " My son, thy faith has made thee 
whole (lit. has given thee life) and thy sins are forgiven thee." 
And again he was honoured in his parting from Dajazmach 
Walda Gabre'el and Dajazmach Gadelu, and all the dignitaries 
gathered together in friendship and peace. And they left 
Dawal and halted at Tatsabara, and thence they went and 
halted at Labat: and from Labat they moved and stayed at 
Shotal Meda. And from there went on and halted at Aringo 
in the peace of God ; and King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and 
" threaten-his-strength " Ras 'Ali pitched their tents. Then 
there was a change in officials, Dajazmach Galmo was appointed 
Deputy Blattengeta of Balasa, Adara Gabre'el Gara/mach of 
Rentogualej (was made) Qafiazmach ; Abagaz Neguse, General 
in chief, was made Keyaj Yashalaqa ; Gara Karawaba was made 
Bajrond in Laste ; Kantiba Ayadar was made Yaras Meqemmat 
(Ras' lieutenant) and Kantiba. And at the royal house Legaba 
Tashashego wasmade Kanisa Yashalaqa. Wand Afrash was made 
Yashalaqa of the golden Tabernacle. And Khanit Kanfu was 
made Azaj Aderash (secretary of the household). And all these 
officials were appointed in their provinces. And Dajazmach 
Khaylu was promoted to high appointment and the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis did him many (honours), and Has 'Ali of 

1 Blue Nile. Abay = great, i,e, the Great river, or A bawi= Ancestral (Father of Waters). 



C37I] 

good counsel, full of reverence, for they knew what labour he had 
gone through in that land of Qoma. And he who had destroyed 
cities and had not been separated in all their expeditions, 
refused and would not be made a shum (governor); he said, "I 
will repose a little while within my house," and that he said by 522 a 
reason of his great labours, for he had laboured (striven) 
exceedingly, starting from the month of Nahase to the month 
of M iyazya, three months he rested alone in the land of Qoma. 
And of the months that remained he was not separated from his 
fellow campaigners, that is to say the King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis and grimly awful Ras 'Ali, and all the while he yearned 
for repose from office, for he never rested for a single day in 
his home. We will return to the beginning of the affair. And 
after there had been changes made in the officials, the King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis remained in the house of his children 
at Arengo, the city of his fathers 1 . And Ras 'Ali went to 
Garagara, his city. And he started from Garagara and de- 
scended to the land of Waldaya. And while Ras 'Ali was 
at Waldaya Dajazmach Khaylu went out from his territory 
of Begameder, 'Este that is to say, to his friend Ras 'Ali, and 
with him there descended to Waldaya, Azaj Khaylu and Elqa 
Kedan Maryam Zaledata (the Birth), and other friends of 
Dajazmach Khaylu. Ras c Ali received a handsome reception, 
after the manner of a father receiving his son, and a friend, 
and there was great festivity at his board. For he was a 
great ruler, and it was not that he rejoiced merely at his 
coming, but because he knew to what a position he had raised 
his kin and dependants, and he opened out all his heart to 
him. And meanwhile he rejoiced exceedingly and invested 
him with robes to startle the eye, and gave him a girdle for his 
mantle 2 of gold, as is the custom of commanders that had 
gone before him. And Dajazmach Khaylu lived in great pomp 
and festivity for ten days and the day after. But to Ras 'Ali 
it did not seem like one day on account of his affection. 522 b 
After this the treachery of Ras Khaylu and Dajazmach Walda 

arab. = city. 2 ooTA^-i = Wii/hlM a sort of flowing cope or cape. 



[372] 

Gabre'el was heard of, when they entered into a covenant (of 
alliance) and confirmed the alliance by a firm covenant and a 
great oath ; and they broke through the terms of their oath, that 
ought not to have been forsworn, even as the infidels of the 
Qayal (Chaldees) broke the terms of their oath before the Lord 
at Armon. 

Meanwhile they offended the Lord and angered him, inas- 
much that in the month of Genbot, while Ras 'Ali, the just 
and upright commander, was in his territory of Waldaya, Ras 
Khaylu came from his land of Gojam over to Gondar with 
the purpose of making king the Negus that was with him, 
abandoning all his oath of fealty, and raising every grievance 
that could annoy him. Then a man who was bidden by the King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis patient of counsel and calm of heart, 
went as he was bidden, and said, " Lo, Ras Khaylu betraying 
his oath of fealty has come to put a king over me." And when 
Ras 'Ali heard that message he laughed and said, "Has not 
Ras Khaylu heard what the Bible says, " Beware ! Sin not 
twice, and then thy evildoing will not find thee out " (Numbers 
xxxii. 23). And then he was wroth in spirit even as Saul the 
King of Israel was wroth at the coming up of the children of 
Ammon to Yabis Gala'ad (1 Samuel xi. 1 6). And as Samuel 
the Israelite was wroth when Saul the King of Israel rent his 
garment (1 Samuel xv. 27), so his wrath too was kindled when 
he rent his garments at their oath by which they bound them- 
selves. And when Ras Khaylu came over to Gondar to seize 
the Negus, Dajazmach Gabre came and camped with Ras 
Khaylu, as the Bible says, " Assur also is joined with them " 
(Ps. Ixxxiii. 8). And Adera Gabre'el was betraying both the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and Ras 'Ali, prince of power, 
only it profited him nothing as he only deceived himself, and 
523 a his hatred failed to strike ; and then the chiefs took to flight, 
viz. Qaiiazmach Qualej and Kantiba Ayadar, Liqa Makuas 
Neguse and Bajrond Kowa, Yashalaqa Tashashgo, Yashalaqa 
Wand Afrasha shield bearer, Yashalaqa Gegar and Balambaras 
Atsequ. And they came to their King Takla Giyorgis and 



[373] 

camped at Amadebar, and the Negus Takla Giyorgis was an 
asylum and a refuge and repose for his retainers (escort), 
as the shore of a sea, and as a door that they put up of 
tamarind wood. The King of Kings said to his attendants, 
"Do not stir from here; if they come down upon us, we 
will engage them, and if they do not come on upon us we 
will go out upon them." And with that act he hardened 
the hearts of his soldiers, and gave them coolness. And 
thereupon Ras 'Ali issued forth upon Garagara when he 
knew that Ras Khaylu was advancing on Gondar. But 
Ras Khaylu, when he heard that Ras C AH was advancing 
on Garagara, left Gondar by night with his army, and did 
nothing at Gondar, and abandoned all the business he had 
come about. His retreat from the advance seemed like 
abandoning the Negus with Qanazmach Kabte and Dajazmach 
Gabre, a lover of villany with the other commanders. And 
when Ras Ali heard how Ras Khaylu had fled leaving the 
Negus, he laughed and said, "What was the reason of his 
coming, and what was the reason of his going ? " and added, 
" It is like the nonsense of children." Then while he was at 
Garagara he sent his principal generals, viz. Dajazmach Khaylu 
of the royal household and Fitawrari Sadiq and Dajazmach 
Gugsa, son of his sister, and Qanazmach Gualej and Garazmach 
Aligaz and Dajazmach Galmo and Dajazmach C AH Borshe and 
Abeto Saju, and all the men of Gabawaho, viz. Abeto Gulamase, 
Abeto Bayqamafl, and all the men of Begameder, viz. Dajazmach 
Fanta and Abeto Teku of Guna ; and Abeto Amesyas, and all 523 b 
the troops that were below Chachaho, and those generals whom 
we have mentioned above marched together towards Gondar. 
And then all the commanders who were at Gondar dispersed, 
and Qanazmach Kabte went towards Dambaya, and arrived 
at Quallat 1 Balasa. As the Bible says, "The terrors of the 
deep (valleys) for the accursed." Negus lyasu completed his 
journey towards Wagara with Dajazmach Gabre and his other 
generals, and as they were numerous they had no right (ought 

1 Qualla -M i " hot " lowland as opposed to Daga (high) cool highland. 



[374] 

not) to have retreated, for there was no end to the number of 
their troops, and it only showed that they retired from fear of 
their defeats of the past year. As the Bible says, " You come 
to our land and you vanquish our kings, for God hath cast 
fear upon our hearts." And for that reason they were afraid 
and were vanquished and were driven to their lands. But 
those who were the generals of the King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis accomplished their journey towards Dambaya and 
reached Saqalet. And many men there were that perished 
by the sword; and the bullocks and sheep were not left 
behind, and the houses and churches were destroyed. And 
Qaiiazmach Kabte fled, and hid (not?) himself and was not 
recognised from those who were there. And then they turned 
back to Gondar. Then they heard of the arrival of Dajazmach 
Gabre that they might help Qanazmach Kabte. And Avhen he 
heard of their coming to him, he turned back and came to his 
land of Semen. There were some who asked saying, " Are not 
you that came to fight and put the Negus on the throne, and are 
524 a you the rulers over the whole land?" What could Ras 'Ali 
and Dajazmach Gabre and Qanazmach Kabte reply? So 
they said, " We do not see the face of the enemy, they come 
on when we retire far, and they take to flight when we approach 
near." And the generals of the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, 
viz. Dajazmach Khaylu and Fitawrari Sadiq and Dajazmach 
Gugsa and Kantiba Ayadar, and all the commanders whom 
we mentioned above followed in pursuit of Dajazmach Gabre 
and Negus lyasu, and reached Dara and spent the winter 
there ; but Dajazmach Gabre was crucified on the top of the 
Mountain Saganat. That is what the generals did to him, a 
strong measure, for they wielded great power when the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis was at Aringo, and the powerful Prince 
Ras 'Ali when he was at Garagara, and prevented Dajazmach 
Gabre and Qanazmach Kabte from meeting. The messenger 
giving uj) trying to find them stopped them just as a chasm 
in mountains stops a hippopotamus from crossing from one 
side to the other, so they prevented them from stretching out 
the hand of their messenger one to another. But those steadfast, 



[375] 

immoveable mountains, these were Dajazmach Khaylu and 
Fitawrari Sadiq that stopped Dajazmach Gabre from passing 
over to Gondar, and they crucified him on the top of a 
precipice, like a deer, and made war upon his land as far as 
Shawada. And we will draw for a moment an example from 
the deeds of Eskander the Macedonian, as far as we are 
able. For Eskander the Macedonian found work of the wisdom 
of the children of Yafet (Japhet) which was an image of 
(bronze?) brass 1 . And he took it from where they had placed 
it, and he put it between two mounds which he had brought 
together as his votive offering, and he set it up to guard the 
children of Yafet. Now the wisdom of Eskander the King 524 b 
that was King of Kings Takla Giyorgis ; the brazen image that 
was Ras 'Ali whom he placed and appointed between the hills, 
and established to guard against his enemies, and with loud 
noise filled everyone with joy. But the two mountains between 
which was the brazen image, those were Dajazmach Khaylu 
and Fitawrari Sadiq, that scattered Dajazmach Gabre and 
Qanazmach Kabte ; and the children of Yafet, they were the 
men of Gojam, and the men of Damot and men of Mecha and 
Agaw who fled clamouring. The image of brass that was Has 
'Ali, chief of the commanders, whose numbers were like the 
sands of the sea and the stars whose awfulness is beyond 
measure. We will now go back to the beginning of the story. 
Wagara became a desert, and churches were destroyed that 
had been built in it, until wherever there was a country 
Bartyo Dajazmach Gabre devastated it. For if that man 
had not rebelled against the Negus Ras 'Ali would not have 
sent his officers, and the houses of Wagara would not have 
been laid in ruins, or Balasa that was devastated through the 
action of Walda Sellase, and Dambaya through Qanazmach 
Kabte. And there was no thing among the lands that was 
not laid waste and destroyed. And there were no churches 
that were not plundered. Here is a man who will relate and 
write down the wrongdoings of the soldiers of the King of 

1 Vide Appendix : Eskander the Macedonian. 



[376] 

Kings Takla Giyorgis and the soldiers of Ras 'Ali. And we 
will not absolve (omit) their devastation of countries, while 
we are recounting their exploits and good deeds. For thus is 
the rule for each man that the angel of life records his just 
deeds and the angel of death records his sins. And matters 
being so, they spent the winter in Wagara, in accordance with 
the orders of the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis. The King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis went out from Aringo in the direction 
of Zuramba in order to perform the fast of the Assumption 1 
there, and he recited his prayers, the acts of the saints and 
elders : as the Bible says, " I beseech of thee before all things, 
525 a perform thy prayers" (1 Tim. ii. 8). Further the Bible says, 
"Woe to thee, oh land, whose King is young" (Eccl. x. 16, 
Woe to thee, oh land, when thy king is a child). And with the 
knowledge of what was written he performed the fast with 
greater severity as the days of the fast drew to a close. He 
entered thus his city of Aringo and did so in the year of 
Lukas; this we have narrated according to our ability and 
have recorded it; there is much that has been omitted for 
there is no limit to the matter. Behold we have begun to 
write about what occurred in the period of Johannes the 
Evangelist and all that the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis did 
and the powerful Prince Ras 'Ali did at Am basal, for it behoves 
us to write about and describe with the tongue every creature. 
Maskaram opened the next day, and in that month Maskaram 
the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis gave his daughter to Ras 
'Ali ; her name was Princess Altash, and he brought her into 
his house; and he made her his wife. While Ras ('Ali) was 
thinking of leaving Garagara to go on an expedition he heard 
of the treachery of Dajazmach Yasufe. Now Yasufe made it 
his business to betray him. When he had been received like 
that he ought to have guarded his kinsman, that is to say, 
Ras 'Ali like a glass and a beryl, and looked upon him as a 
gem of the sea ; since he had found a friend like him he ought 

1 Feast of the Felsata or Assumption of the B. Virgin, 16th of the month Xahase 
(22nd August), and continues to the 21st No work is done during these days. 



[377] 

to have protected him like the pupil of his eye. When he had 
found a brother like him who comes to the help if he is afraid, 
and who rules over the east and west of Semen he ought to 
have gone over to Has 'Ali, when they took up arms. And 
Dajazmach Yasufe did not remember all this and all the 
kindnesses that Ras 'Ali had done him, and how often had 
Ras e Ali yearned after Yasufe, as if he were Ras 'Ali's brother. 
And he wanted Yasufe to be another 'Ali to him. Could ever 
such a fool as (Dajazmach Yasufe) be found, could ever such 
a kinsman as (Ras f Ali) be found? Again would a brother 525 b 
like that be found, again would a master be found like that, 
who marches forth at one time with 10,000 horsemen, and who 
does not take to himself the first-comer ? 

We will go back to the beginning of the matter. Now 
when Ras 'AH heard of the treachery of Dajazmach Yasufe 
and his enmity, biding his time, he sent the Shum of Wag 
Aligaz and Negadras Jale, great warriors whose prowess 
pagans and Christians knew, that they might attack Dajazmach 
Yasufe. That indeed was a big affair, and for whom should 
such a thing be ? For he while he was at Garagara sent half 
of his troops towards Gondar and half towards Ambasal, 
and then there was a great battle between Nagadras Jale 
and Dajazmach Yasufe, and when the battle was raging 
Ras 'Ali issued from Garagara accomplishing the journey 
towards Ambasal. And the Negus Takla Giyorgis, when 
he heard of the exit of Ras 'Ali from Garagara towards 
Ambasal, was not daunted in heart or terrified, and those 
generals, viz. Dajazmach Khaylu and Fitawrari Sadiq, were 
undaunted, and their hearts were not dissolved, for the heart 
of the servant is as the heart of the master. As the servant 
Yonatan (Jonathan) said, " As thy heart so is my heart." And 
they fortified the hearts of the troops, and they .that were there 
were unshaken. And they blenched not at the retreat of 
Ras 'Ali nor at the advance of Ras Khaylu and Qanazmach 
Kabte. And they left Dara and camped at Bera, and from 

Bera they went and camped at Kosoge, and from there they 

w. B. 48 



[378] 

went and halted at Ambazo. And while there Dajazmach 
Gadelu arrived from Walqayt, and he came as far as Maraba, 
and they descended to him and joined him. And after he 

526 a joined them they returned to their camp. And the next day 
they left and camped at Dabo Gerar. And while they were 
there Dajazmach Gadelu sent over to them to say, " It is not 
proper for me to come over to you." And he added, " Why 
should I come over to you ? Because the Negus is not there 
nor a powerful chief." And meanwhile Dajazmach Gadelu and 
Fitawrari Sadiq were anxious to turn back towards Maryam 
Weha. And all the generals, as Dajazmach Gadelu and 
Dajazmach Khaylu seemed to them to be betraying them, 
refused to turn back to Maryam Weha. For this time was not 
the time to turn back. And they said, " We will remain here 
and we will not turn back, for if we turn back and go towards 
Maryam Weha, our enemies will rejoice and our friends will 
blush." And they said, " He is afraid of Dajazmach Kabte, but 
we are not afraid of him." So they refused and would not 
listen to his voice, not with hostility but in a friendly way, for 
they looked upon him as their father and as their master. But 
Dajazmach Khaylu they put him down for a bitter foe and an 
oppressor of all the men of Gojam and Damot and all the 
associates of Ras Khaylu, for all that seemed to them as a trial 
of them on the part of Dajazmach Khaylu. The Gallas indeed 
who wanted to go to their country hated Dajazmach Khaylu 
before Tegetel ; but afterwards they loved him much, for he 
exercised powerful influence over them. After that they turned 
back from Dambaya and camped at Maryam Weha, and while 
they were there they engaged with Balambaras Walda Sellase. 
On the same day Galmo Fanil and Abeto Goge showed bravery, 
and among the attendants of Dajazmach Khaylu, Gabaryo a 
foreigner, and Abeto Seyf Yashalaqa Aderu. 

We will go back to the beginning of the history. And on the 

526 b next day in the month of Teqemt Ras Ali marched out from 
Garagara, went and halted at Yanaja in order to attack Dajaz- 
mach Yasufe, who had been disloyal to him. Now the reason 



[379] 

of the treachery of Dajazmach Yasufe was that Has Khaylu 
and Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el and Dajazmach Gabre had 
sent over to him saying, " Steady ! Steady ! and courage I (lit. 
Be firm and strong) ; fall upon him, and we will help you 
and will give you his command" (office). And during this 
Yasufe was deceiving Ras 'Ali in the words of the Book which 
say, " From him who rises betimes for those honours, they will 
vanish To him who flies from these honours they will come." 
And when he came to Yanaja, Kaleb Saifu was treacherous to 
him, for he sent his troops, i.e. Dajazmach Galmo and Fitawrari 
Sadiq and Dajazmach Gugsa and all the troops towards Semen, 
and Dajazmach Walda Mika'el to Miqet, and the men of Miqet 
towards Eyna. For Yelaw'ayqar Eshate had risen with the 
men of Lasta and Dagalas ; and Letarbenos Khaylu with all 
the men of Samada and Andabet towards Deldey. And during 
this Kaleb Saifu was betraying him (Ras 'Ali) in not stamping 
out the rebellion. And from Yanaja they left for Wagadat 
and from Wagadat they left for Nubet and from Nubet they 
left for Koso Amba. And from Koso Amba they left for Kesat, 
and Dajazmach Alula came with many troops, and men of 
Yaju and Gura and NeAvara and Emsequa came, and the Shum 
Aligaz with many troops. And from there he left for Terterya, 
and there he halted and spent the time, and they laid waste 
the frontier of Terterya. And from there he departed and 
halted at Daget. And when he was at Daget he ordered them* 
to make good the road that leads up the ascent of Maqdala. 
And Dajazmach Yasufe came and his (Dajazmach Alula) 
soldiers joined battle and killed many of his men. And of 527 a 
the men of Ras 'Ali one man was killed whose name was 
Bayan. And from there he left and camped below Egra 
Daber, and from there left for Wadade, and there Dajazmach 
Bato came and Ali Abaqawi and all the men of Wechale and 
'Ayar, and then Gobaze came from Legot. And there they 
opened Chacha a great monastery, and many other monasteries, 
and the prisoners came out rejoicing. And in that they were 
like our Lord Jesus Christ who said, " When he descended into 



[38o] 

the midst of Sheol 1 they came forth who were in prison, and 
those that were in Sheol were made manifest." And from there 
they left and halted between two mountains that were Layjefa 
and Tachjefn 2 , and then they came to Katame. And all the men 
rested there without number, and thence they went and halted 
at Maqdala. There a rifleman killed a man that was on the top 
of the mountain, so that the men of Maqdala were terror- 
stricken and Salamge destroyed. Ras 'Ali remained one month 
at Maqdala after he had ascended. Then the wife of Dajaz- 
mach Yasufe was imprisoned, and he allowed her to come to 
him, for he controlled her coming and going. And then he sent 
Nagadras Jale and Wag Shum Aligaz to the Gabo Daber 
called Sangolat. And then they had a great battle. And 
when the soldiers said, " Back ! " two of them stood up drawing 
their swords, and drove the enemy back, and they showed their 
strength in taking the fence ; and then Ras 'Ali stood up, his face 
holding them up like unto a great wall. They fought a 
hard fight, and many men were killed on that day. Then his 
wife sent and said, " What have I done and what crime have 1 
committed ? " And she said, " Have mercy on me, O Lord have 
mercy," and the wife said, " You are killing one who has no 
527 b strength, in taking away (leave) to come or to go. As 
Abelemelek the King of the people said when he recognised 
the angel of the Lord, "Wilt thou kill a people that are 
ignorant?" (Gen. xx. 4). And she said, "Lo my children 
and my goods, arms, that is to say guns, and spades 3 and 
carpets (that is to say 'mentsaf' 4 ), all is in your hands, 
but only save me, and let me go alone." And Ras 'Ali 
replied, " He seeks not your goods nor your children." 
Like Abraham his father, the Chaldean, when Kolodagomor 
(Chedorlaomer, Gen. xiv. 21, 24) the King of the people 
said, " They have left thee the horses and mules, give 

1 Ascens. Isaias. 4, 21. Cod. Br. Mus. LIV. 7. 

2 i.e. upper Jeffi and lower Jefa. 

3 F-f-A" Amharic, a curved spade. 

4 HCfl>^ zarbet is Ge'ez ; y ")*^ (modern spelling, ^"Vm^i) is Amharic (Guidi, 
Diet. 405). 



[38i] 

me the man, they will take nothing from thee, except only 
what Eskol and Mamre have taken of thee to eat." And he 
Ras 'AH, as though son of Abraham, took nothing from her. 
And he said to her, " Go, and take all thy property." And 
then she went out from Maqdala taking all her property. 
And the Wag Shum Aligaz came to Maqdala and afterwards 
Ras 'AH came and saw it and liked it exceedingly. And 
meanwhile he made changes in the commands, appointing 
Basha Alula a Dajazmach of Amhara, and giving him a hundred 
guns. And then he went out from Maqdala and went to 
Bashelo, and from Bashelo he departed and camped at Debel. 
And Dajazmach Yasufe came there with a large force and 
instruments, viz. drums of war. And when Yasufe presented 
himself and was spied by Ras 'AH, his amba which was 
Wagel Amba (fortress) was destroyed. Dajazmach Yasufe fled 
and his amba Qaratemcheg was laid in ruins. And Ras 'AH 
marched away and halted at Laga, and there he took possession 
of a great deal of property, as they found there bullocks and 
sheep, and, I have heard, many men. Dajazmach Birale came 
there, having broken out (his chains) from his prisons with one 
of his attendants, and Nagadras Jale, Wag Shum Aligaz with 
many troops received him. And there was great rejoicing in 
the house of Ras C AH at the arrival of Dajazmach Birale. While 528 a 
he was there he sent Dajazmach Birale with a large force, and 
they destroyed Tenkobar and Ahelmat And then Dajazmach 
Lubo came, and after that he left and halted at Mahawa and 
remained there three days. On the fourth day Ras Ali issued 
forth to the battle, and when he was on his couch warriors were 
sentenced before his face. Ras 'Ali was like Muse (Moses) the 
chief of Isra'el. For Muse (Moses) when he stretched out his 
hand, his enemies were vanquished, and like him he (Ras e Ali) 
when he spread out his couch his enemies were defeated. But 
Yasufe had no mountain left to him of his mountains and no 
land of his lands, and he did not think of that, but he said, 
" I rule over Waldeya and Begameder." And meanwhile there 
came to him what the Book says, " His sin recoiled upon his 



[382] 

head." And then he sent to one of the priests and clergymen, 
and said, " Have pity on me, pity on me," and they replied, " I 
had pity on thee, only thou hast not quitted thy sin." And then 
he was excommunicated by one of the priests, as he was leaving 
his village and was going to Geshan. He then sent over 
to the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis all the generals who were 
at Maryam Weha, and all who were at Ambasal. And after 
that he started and completed his journey towards Waldeya, 
leaving a man called Nagadras Jale to bring about peace 
between Dajazmach Yasufe and Dajazmach Birale. He 
left a hundred guns with Dajazmach Birale, and when he arrived 
at Gudeba he set free all the men of Begameder and Blatten- 
geta Walda Sellase, telling them to wait for him at Mawecha. 
And then he descended to Waldeya finishing what he had to 
do, and came to his house on the llth of Ter (begins 8th 
528 b January) and assembling all the troops that were at Yaju 
started from Waldeya and came the 21st of the month of Ter, 
which was the feast of our lady Maryam, but of the men that had 
been beaten at Ambasal as far as Amhara, thirty-Tour Ras 'Ali 
gave to Dajazmach Birale, and two hundred besides. And 
then Ras Khaylu arrived from Gojam at Gondar in the month 
of Ter with a large force and horsemen and many commanders 
from the land of Damot and Mecha and Agaw, Dajazmach 
Aklog of Damot and Fitawrari Faqadu and Fitawrari Bifetu, 
Zamo the son of Yoiia Ligas Hage, and other generals who 
. were in the same way, and Qanazmach Kabte, and they came 
to the habitations that were at Gondar. But the councillors 
of Ras Khaylu understood neither matters of prudence 
nor matters of war. If they had understood the question 
of prudence they would have come in the month of Teqemt ; 
(even) in the month of Khedar 1 , it might or might not 
have gone well with them ; and if they had understood 
the question of war they would not have gone up to 

1 feqemt begins 10th October, Khedar begins 9th November, the two driest months of 
the year, i.e. if they had taken advantage of the dry month of ^eqemt they would have suc- 
ceeded, putting off till Khedar made the issue uncertain, but putting off till fer (begins 
8th January) courted disaster 



[383] 

Wagara. But these highly placed men Dajazmach Khaylu 
and Fitawrari Sadiq and all who were with them were on 
the road of Wakhni towards Lebo and pitched their camp 
there. The King of Kings Takla Giyorgis also a lion of the 
lion race, as Judah was said to be of the lion race " Rise out 
from thy lair," issued from his " lair " at Aringo on Thursday 
much in wrath, as the Book says " In just indignation," and 
camped at Kamkam. He joined his retainers the officers 
to wit, Dajazmach Khaylu and Fitawrari Sadiq and Dajaz- 
mach Galmo and Dajazmach Gugsa and Abeto Goje and 
Kantiba Ayadar and Balambaras Adequ and Ligaba Tas- 
hashgo and Shalaqa Wand Afrash and all the officers that 
remained, and they had great rejoicings among them, for 
the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis was a power and a strength 529 a 
to them. Those officers also who came with him were Azaj 
Kenfu, Dajazmach Gualej, Fitawrari Ay dan Kantiba Adego 
Aycho, Ligaba of Mecha. And all the troops of the Negus 
came to Lebo. Ras Khaylu too ended his march at Wagara 
with the officers and troops that were with him, as there were 
enemies at Lebo, whom he searched out. And then Ras Ali 
went out from Waldeya and came to Garagara, and from 
Garagara to Lebo and there he joined the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis who wanted him, and all the officers that were 
wintering at Wagara, and he gave the King of Kings a new 
tent after they had met. And Ras 'Ali, Prince of power, stayed 
four days at Lebo while they were deliberating, and from Lebo 
they departed and camped the other side of Wakhni. And 
from there they left for Amba Chera and thence they 
stayed at Maryam Weha, and leaving there on Saturday they 
halted at Yshaq monastery. There Dajazmach Gadelu 
came with a large force, and leaving they camped at 
Cheqawanz (river), where Ras 'Ali had a banquet for Dajaz- 
mach Gadelu. Leaving there they halted at Dara and 
from there they went and camped at Tach, and leaving that 
place they halted at Maqara; and there they cast an eye (of 
suspicion) on one another, the men of Ras 'Ali and the men of 



[384] 

Ras Khaylu, and one tent kept its eye on the other tent. And 
on that day a fear and terror fell upon their hearts, of Ras 
Khaylu and Qanazmach Kabte and Dajazmach Gabre, and they 
withdrew leaving their houses. They built houses for children 
first, houses as for the adults, then they withdrew leaving the 
buildings and left at night, and their coming was as the words 
529 b of the Book which say, " They labour in vain who build 
(houses)." And the same day an attendant of Dajazmach 
Khaylu came and reported to Ras 'Ali and the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis saying, " Your enemies have retired," and when 
they heard this they did not say, " We will pursue them and 
destroy them," for the men of the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis 
did not like to do a treacherous thing. Ras 'Ali, Prince of 
power, alone with a few men followed in pursuit when it was 
dawn and made them give up all musical instruments (war 
drums), horses, mules, and asses and tents, and one brave 
whose name was Liqa Maquas Mitar, noted for his valour, 
pursued them and made them hand over many tents. With 
difficulty they crossed over to Balagaz and camped at Quan- 
tata. And Dajazmach Kabte camped at Gonqabar. And they 
saw the power of God, for the men of Gojarn had retired 
towards Semen, they prefer (fighting in) mountains, for do 
horsemen like mountains ? and do not leaders of infantry like 
plains? Then the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and Prince 
of power, Ras 'Ali, departed and came to Bandi Gabsa, and 
pitched their tents there for several days, and letting loose 
detachments 1 of troops, devastated Shawada up to its frontiers 
to the foot of Guantata. And on the same day they had a fight 
with the men of Begameder and Blattengeta Walda Sellase 
fought hard. And of the men of Azaj Khaylu many were killed 
that day. Then it was heard that Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el 
had come with a large force and many guns and cannon bringing 
a Negus who was called Ba'eda Maryam. Afterwards many 
took the oath of fealty under pain of excommunication. What 
Walda Gabre'el did was like a certain saying that runs thus, 

1 /../, i ;i detachment, Aniharic. Guidi, 563. 



[ 385 ] 

"To him who gave rain, he stopped the water; to him who 
made gifts of gold and silver he returned a stone." For such 530 a 
an action there was no justification for him. But to Ras c Ali 
had come a prophecy which said, " They returned evil for good, 
and hated me in return for my love of them," and again as the 
Bible says, " They hated me in vain." After that the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis and Prince of power Ras 'Ali rose from 
where they were camped saying, "When Walda Gabre'el 
advances we will fight him at Maryam Weha." And they halted 
at Waqen and then Dajazmach Gadelu went to his country in 
friendship and peace, he was afraid they would surround 
(invest) his country. And from there they departed and halted 
at Mayleko, and from there they went and halted below Mount 
Yshaq, and from there they went and halted at Maryam Weha, 
and there they pitched their camp till Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el arrived and Ras Khaylu and Dajazmach Gabre, and 
when they were at Maryam Weha Ras e Ali said to the delegates 
" Why do you make festival, and why do you dance as a pre- 
tence of prayer, since I am a great Christian, and the Negus 
is over us all ? " And the same day he converted a man who 
was a fluteplayer whose name was Galmo to the great Christian 
religion, to the point of being a zealot for his God ; also he put 
to death many on account of the murders they had committed. 
And then was heard the death of Dajazmach Kabte while he 
was at Wagara. After that there was a meeting of Dajaz- 
mach (Walda Gabre'el) and Ras Khaylu and Dajazmach Gabre 
and all the officers, and their number was as the stars of heaven 
and sands of the sea. A great number said, "Let him 
protect us" 1 and again "Let him protect us." And then 
they sent over to Ras 'Ali to say, " Hand us over the Negus 530 b 
who is with you, and we will make Negus, the Negus who is 
here with us, and we will make peace." But that message was 
an improper message, for it is not right to make a Negus rule 
over a Negus. And he Ras 'Ali made speech and said to them, 
" Am I like you and break my oath, and lie to my King Takla 

1 lit. stand up for. 
w. B. 49 



[386] 

Giyorgis that is above the Kings?" and saying thus he was 
wroth with the men who had sent to him and he said to them, 
" Tell them do what you like " (lit. do what you will do). And 
after that the Negus whom they had elected Negus by unanimous 
vote whose name was Yasu came and ruled them, and came to 
Mount Yshaq. And they took counsel and went down towards 
Gondar for they were afraid of Maryam Weha, for the men of 
Gojam understood the scheme that had trapped them at Maryam 
Weha. But for the Gqjam men it justified them retiring, for 
terror reigned among their troops. And after that they camped 
at Angarab, and from there they went and camped at Dambaya, 
and from there they went and camped at Bola. And that day 
Eshete Baso came for treason. And from there the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis rose from Maryam Weha with the Prince 
of power Ras 'Ali and all the generals and camped at Weyna 
Daga and from there they went and halted at Bera, and that 
day (they had) a Hosanna as they marched on the road 
towards Amad Bar. Ras Khaylu came and Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el and Dajazmach Gabre with a large army and with 
many horsemen and guns. And their appearance was like 
to a cloud holding rain, afterwards they were like a cloud in 
(month of) Genbot that the wind scatters 1 . And he sent some 
of them towards the rear, looking as if they were going to 
attack ; the others the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and 
Prince of power Ras 'Ali continued on their road silently and 
531 a quietly, for they knew the art of war and they did not want to 
attack although they were able to do so. He despatched horse- 
men, some to the left, some to the right, and a large force of 
warriors he left behind of the Gojam and Damot horsemen, 
and one warrior by name Liqa Maquas Mitar took prisoner 
a man advancing in the middle of a body of horsemen, leaving 
his leader Ras 'Ali and the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis. And 
the same day they camped at Watemb ; the others camped at 
Reb. From Watemb they went and camped at Amadbar : the 
others made a halt at Reb. The former made a halt at Amadbar. 

1 Begins 8th May, when the thunderstorms and broken weather begin. 



[387] 

And on the fourth day they started, those over above Reb that 
is below Madat, and quitted the road of Amadbar. As Luke 
the Evangelist says, "And we left Qopuros (Cyprus) on our left 
hand because Apullos was there 1 ." And Ras 'Ali was Apullos 
who kept the faith of the Almighty and was a friend to the King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis. And from Amadbar they went and 
camped at Qantona. That day the King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis went down and Prince of power Ras 'Ali and Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu and Nagadras Jali towards Madab to see the 
spot where the battle took place, and having showed them fhe 
place where their enemies had been they turned back and 
returned to their camp. And the next day Ras Khaylu and 
Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el and Dajazmach Gabre escorted by 
a large force and many horsemen and many guns and terrible 
cannon and they put them in. position, as the Bible says, "In 
vain they put their trust in men," and further it says, " The 
horse is a vain thing, neither shall he deliver anyone by his 
great strength" (Ps. xxxiii. 17). But the King of Kings Takla 531 b 
Giyorgis and Prince of power Ras 'AH went down from their 
camp trusting in God, as the Book says, " Trust in God and do 
right and He shall make thee dwell in the land and they will 
see thee in the midst of abundance of its wealth." And its 
wealth that means Gojam and Tigre. "Delight in the Lord 
and He shall give thee thy heart's desire. Commit thy way to 
the Lord and He shall bring it to pass for thee " (Ps. xxxvii). In 
truth indeed they did for them just as they desired. Then the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and Prince of power Ras 'Ali 
gave orders that there should be posted on the right Dajazmach 
Khaylu and Fitawrari Sadiq and Tarbenos Khaylu and all 
their troops, and on the left were Wag Shum Aligaz and 
Negatlras Jali and Dajazmach Gugsa and Dajazmach Ali Boshe 
and Qanazmach Gualej and Garazmach Aligaz, and all the 
men of Begameder with their Abagaz 2 Walda Sellase were 

1 Acts xxi. 3. The Abyssinians attributed the Acts to S. Luke. The author seems to 
have confused this verse with xix. 1. 

2 Title of governor of the province on confines of the Galla, corresponding to Fitawrari, 
i.e. chief of the vanguard if the King is present (Guidi, 457). 



[388] 

in the centre, and the men of Gabawa, viz. Golmase Dagalas 
Bayqaman. And the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis with 
Dajazmach Galmo and Daqa Tserkh were posted in the 
rear. And Ras 'Ali stout of heart and cool commanded the 
horse in the rear. But the others, Ras Khaylu and Dajazmach 
Walda Gabre'el advanced, forming them up in their lines ; and 
then they joined battle and fought. And then appeared the 
power of the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and Prince of power 
Ras 'Ali, for they vanquished their enemies; and when Ras 'Ali 
saw their great army, he shouted out saying, " I am a Jawi I am 
a Jawi 1 . Look at me, my boys." At the same time he strengthened 
the hearts of his men, and he came on like that even as he said. 
532 a And Dajazmach Khaylu marched into their midst like a lion 
among bullocks, like a wolf among sheep, like a leopard among 
goats, scattered them and treated them as if they were grains of 
salt. And Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el was killed, Basha Elufa 
killing him, and Dajazmach of Tigre fell, the son of Ras Mika'el. 
Afterwards there came to Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el what the 
Book says, "They who possessed were as they who possessed 
not." Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el came from Tigre with a large 
army. And he lay fallen alone in the dust. Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el came with many carpets and with many robes of 
purple (Byssus) and with great pomp: he was discovered by 
his dress. Among his servants it was not said, " He shall only 
be buried in a coffin," but he was levelled with the servants' 
servants at the moment of his death. See how death levels the 
great with the humble, the lord with his servant. Of a truth 
death came to Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el in the words of the 
Book, " I have created mankind in vain " (Gen. vi. 7). And his 
coming before was in vain, and his death also was in vain. And 
many were killed that day of the men of Tigre, of the men of 
Gojam and Damot and Semen. And a great number were 
taken prisoner, as I learnt. And Ras Khaylu fled and escaped 
alone. The King of Kings Takla Giyorgis pursued him as far 

1 Name of a Galla tribe : after wards it was the name of the Has Ubie's horse and then 
transferred to himself. 



[389] 

as Amhara Gadel, so that he barely escaped, and Mitar pursued 
as far as Warota. And the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis 
turned back and camped at Arengo. There were captured 
Dajazmach Gabre and Dajazmach Gabra Abib and Atse Ba'eda 
Maryam was taken by Agafare Walda Takle of Balasa. And 
those that came escaped panic-stricken and were not captured. 
And Basha Mekular caught Atse lyasu and there were a 532 b 
number of officers that were taken on that day. Gerasmach 
Aligaz, a great general, was killed by a gunshot, who was of the 
tribe of Ras 'Ali, and he mourned deeply for his death, and 
the son of Gerasmach Adame was also killed that day, and 
many warriors also, numbers that cannot be counted, so 
many were they. And Dajazmach Khaylu captured Fitawrari 
Waldu, first of all warriors. And when Ras 'Ali returned 
from the battle, he ordered Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el to 
be buried. The trials of the Gojam men began on the 
Thursday and finished that day. On that Thursday the hopes 
of all men were raised, for on Holy Thursday the new dis- 
pensation began, that was the law of the Gospel. And the 
law of the Old Testament (law of Moses) was dissolved, and 
in the same manner the priests of Levi passed away on that 
day. And on that (Thursday) the reign was renewed of the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis who came into his kingdom of 
the other kings. As the law of Moses is received into the true 
Gospels, and the priests were dismissed whom we spoke of, 
who were called robbers and traitors 1 leaders who seized the 
Kingdom of Gobelya 2 . Behold that has come to pass and been 
fulfilled which was predicted. " Three kings shall reign and they 
shall fight on account of them, and after that there shall be a time 
of peace and friendliness, a time of happiness and rejoicing." 
One Negus who conquered was the King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis and those who were defeated were Atse lyasu and 
Atse Ba'eda Maryam who came out of Tigre and from Gojam. 

1 The Council of Chalcedon A.D. 451, the council at which were pronounced definitions 
which the Monophysites rejected, and separated from the Church. 

2 Gabela, see of Syria. 



[390] 

And then they came to Aringo on Holy Saturday (before 
Easter) and there kept Easter ; and on that day of victory all 
the officers and warriors showed the tribute 1 , and presented 

533 a the trophies to the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and the 
Prince of power Ras C AH. And the King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis presented to Prince of power Ras 'Ali a Khenbal 
that is to say a saddle 2 studded with gold. He, Ras 'Ali (gave) 150 
guns. And on the octave, Gabra Maryam brought a paschal 
lamb (?) 3 to his elder brother with two of his kinsmen and gave 
the blood to the father and killed them. And after this there 
were changes made among the officers. Balambaras Gugsa was 
made Dajazmach, Tarbenos Khaylu Dajazmach of Gojam, 
Dajazmach Ikonyan Dajazmach of Damot, Qanazmach Gualej 
was made Qanazmach and also Fitawrari, and all the officers 
were appointed to each of their provinces. But Dajazmach 
Khaylu when they said to him, " Choose your title (command) 
and take what you choose," he refused and replied, " I do not 
care for office, I will stay in my province for a little while and 
take a rest at home." All this took place in the year of 
Johannes the date of the time was 7280 (1788 A.D.) and the 
month was the month of Miyazya (begins 8th April). 
History of Ras Ali lover of peace and friendship. 
And after all question of war and fighting had been 
concluded Ras 'Ali said a noted thing to the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis. "Go then to your city and appoint whom 
you like, and whom you don't like, dismiss." But he refused, 
for his trial was to come. And then Ras 'Ali finished his 
journey towards Gono, for he was suffering and ill ; he left and 
halted at Tsaguer and there he handed over to Dajazmach 
Khaylu all the territory of Afarawanat with Dara and all 
the land of Qoma, for he blessed him in his expedition and 

533 b took delight in his prowess, and then Ras 'Ali arrived at 
'Este, and Dajazmach Khaylu received him with food and 



royal dues. 

8 A Khenbal ( ,VvIA i in Ge'ez = Kworcha (h-C-^i) in Ambaric botb meaning "saddle.'' 
for yhi a paschal lamb (Amharic). Ge'ez, Fesseh, the Pasch. V/^/hi. HDB ; 
The Christian Easter is Fasika (4.ft.>n), (fxurtK. 



[39i] 

drink, and made great provision for his journey. And he went 
down to Gono slowly, for he was ill, and he bathed in the water 
of life ; but he did not live, for he was not cured because his 
disease was his cup. (He was a drunkard.) Jan Tserar Barile 
came to Gono, and then Ras 'AH started from Gono and made 
the journey to Garagara, and when he arrived as far as Garagara 
towards his country his disease went on and on getting worse. 
And Ras 'AH died at Garagara, a great general, such as there 
was none like. And Ras 'Ali died like all men of whom the 
Book speaks, " Ye shall die like men and fall like angels." 
Further it says, " What man is there that lives, that shall not 
see death ? And who shall deliver himself from the power of 
Sheol?" (Ps. Ixxxix. 48) and Solomon said, " As it happens to the 
fool so it shall happen to me." In truth, it happened to him 
to die by an accident, calling to mind the hour, both to the 
strong and to the weak, and to the wise man and the fool. For 
Ras 'Ali died, since death is the inheritance of man, Ras 'Ali 
died, the performer of exploits at Afarawanat. How can I 
describe his prowess in the land of Qoma ? How of Ambasal ? 
Of what he performed at Madeb, that would be difficult to 
describe, for alone he defeated a number of commanders who 
collected from Gojam and Damot, from Gara, from Tsalamat, 
Tigre, Wagara and Semen. And the feats of bravery he per- 
formed in the land of Yaju were very many, beyond number. 
Ras 'Ali died who settled the whole world. Alas ! for his 
being a man, for a man is to-day a speaking man and to-morrow 
is speechless dust. Ras 'Ali was a man who ordered the whole 534 a 
world, from one day to another, but to-day is dust that is 
driven hither and thither, so that perhaps no commander was 
trusted as Ras 'Ali inspired trust. What price could be put 
on (his having) such trustfulness ? For he was trusted by men 
and he forswore not his oath, all approached and believed in 
him. And God will preserve him from all his judgements, if he 
has kept His word which says, " Swear not at all, neither by 
heaven nor by earth. And if ye swear, do not swear falsely, 
for a false oath brings judgement upon the body and soul." 



[392] 

In truth Ras 'Ali kept his oath, and it was by that he ruled the 
whole world. And no courage will be found like Ras e Ali, who 
ruled from one end of the world to the other. And he died on 
the llth day of the month of Sane (18th June), and he was 
buried at Lalibala ; and it was not a man that was buried, it 
was Truth, for every deed of his was Truth. And there was 
great weeping and lamentation through all the ends of the 
earth, for he was the father of the fatherless, and a dispenser 
of justice to widows (Ps. Ixviii. 5). 
History of Has Aligaz. 

And after that Ras Aligaz the brother of Ras 'Ali was ap- 
pointed, and governed the whole world in his place, for he was 
appointed by the voice of God, as the Bible says, " They shall 
not appoint a ruler except by the will of God. When there is 
an appointment of rulers before the Lord, it is not right that 
they should be disloyal to him, for that is to strive against God." 
Then Dajazmach Khaylu finished at Gondar, and when he heard 
of the death of Ras 'Ali he wept and mourned greatly, for he 
loved him and trusted him. For the death of Ras 'Ali was to 
Dajazmach Khaylu like cutting off his hand, or knocking out 
534 b his eye. And after this Dajazmach Khaylu turned back from 
Garagara towards his country of 'Este, and put up a great 
memorial on account of his affection for Ras 'Ali. And Ras 
Aligaz also, Chief of the captains, put up a great memorial at 
Garagara for his brother, Ras 'Ali. And at that time Ras Aliga/ 
set free the officers from their chains. They were Abeto Walda 
Gabre'el, Dajazmach Gabre, Dajazmach Gabra Abey. He sent 
Dajazmach Gabre to Semen, Dajazmach Gabra Abib towards 
his land of Armachaho. Then Negusa Nagast Hezeqeyas came 
down from Wakhni and Azaj Dagale and Kantiba Ayadar made 
him King, while Negus Takla Giyorgis was at Aringo. And a 
herald proclaimed that the King of Kings Hezeqeyas was Negus, 
and he repudiated the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis. And 
when the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis heard they had pro- 
claimed Atse Hezeqeyas Negus, he was very much vexed, and 
came out from his city Aringo and pitched his camp at the 



[393] 

village of Salam, and there Gerazmach Amade and Dajazmach 
Ali Borshe surrounded him. And they saw that he could not 
retire in the night and go along the road to Afarawanat, so 
Dajazmach Ali Borshe and Dajazmach Amade followed in 
pursuit of him, and they arrived at Delday. But the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis escaped and crossed over to the Abay. 
At the same time Jan Tserar Barile and Fitawrari Sadiq turned 
traitors to Ras Aligaz their brother, who had been appointed 
by the will of God: these latter Dajazmach Yasufe betrayed. 
And they saw the work of God when they betrayed Ras Aligaz, 
God had requited them through Yasufe who had betrayed 
him. As the Book says, " And he shall requite everyone ac- 
cording to his deeds " (Matt. xvi. 27). And then Dajazmach 535 a 
Alula and Nagadras Jali and Blattengeta Walda Sellase turned 
traitors. But when they betrayed them, they were betraying 
Ras Aligaz the brother of Ras 'Ali. And they rose early from 
Dawenta and came to Garagara while they were paying the 
tribute, and they let loose a detachment. Then there was a 
great clamour over Garagara, and there was not one that gird 
up his loins; the chiefs ran out of their houses, and stood up at 
their doors ; the Daqa Tserekh of Ras Aligaz stood at the door 
of the hall and prevented them from entering into the house. 
And then there was a great exploit of Ras Aligaz when they 
vanquished the enemy. That day many warriors performed 
feats of valour, and one among them Muqit Azmach Walda 
Mika'el and another, Abeto Khaylu, the son of Dajazmach Wand 
Bawasan, and Mura killed Giyorgis Kenfu, and many whose 
name we do not know performed feats that day. Those that 
fought bravely that day ought to be proclaimed like the thirty- 
six mighty ones of David (2 Sam. xxiii. 8 39) and for their 
Lord Ras Ali, they ought to declare his name, even as lyob 
(Joab) prince of the power of David. And that day the strength 
of Ras Aligaz accomplished what had not been done to this 
day. And God preserved him from danger, for God preserves 
the rulers that are appointed according to his will, if he sends 
them forth through his will, And He defended Ras Aligaz 

w. B. 50 



[394] 

and protected him from danger of an enemy he recked not of. 
As the Bible says, " God will preserve thee in thy going forth 
and coming home" (Ps. xxi. 8). And further it says, "God 
shall hear thee in the day of thy affliction, and the name of the 
God of Jacob shall defend thee " (Ps. xx. 1). In truth it was for 
535 b Ras Aligaz the prophecy that says, "The Lord will assemble 
angels around those that fear Him, and He will deliver them." 
And further what David says, " O Lord, see to my help. O Lord, 
help me and save me. Let them blush for shame that seek my 
soul, let them be driven backward and put to shame that plot 
evil against me. Let them be driven back at the moment of 
their shame that say to me, Aha, Aha" (Ps. xl. 13, 14, 15). Of 
a truth He helped Ras Aligaz as He helped David the King of 
Israel. Of a truth God helped Ras Aligaz as He helped Elsa'e 
(Elishah) the prophet of Galgala (Gilgal) from the men of Surya 
(Syria) who encompassed him by night (2 Kings vi. and vii.), so 
it was with him, for He brought him out of the hands of his 
enemies that abandoned him in the night, and as He blinded 
the eyes of the men of Surya (Syria) at the prayer of Elsa'e so 
the strength of Ras Aligaz made powerless the strength of 
those that hated him, and he turned them back, able to do 
nothing. And in the deeds that he did Ras Aligaz resembled 
David the King of Israel. For when Nabal the man of Carmel 
vilified David the King of the Israelites he was smitten with 
death by the Holy Spirit (1 Sam. xxv. 38). Saul also the Benya- 
mawi (Benjamite), when he went to war, was killed by the hand 
of the archers l . And Sabuhe (Sheba) when he was betrayed died 
by the hand of the woman of Abel when he took refuge there 
(2 Sam. xx. 22). It was thus with him when Dajazmach Yasufe 
played the traitor to Dajazmach Sadiq and Negus Takla Giyorgis, 
if he had been his enemy, he would have been taken by the hand 
of Dajazmach Ikonyan; and Dajazmach Yasufe treacherously 
laid hands on Alula, the son of his sister. See, O men, how 
God loved this man, because he was just in his hatred, by the 

1 <l:"/fiiAfii.i ? Amharic from *TrrtiAi to cut ? The word does not occur elsewhere and may 
be a corrupt text, 



hand of others. That was a specimen of his rule from one 536 & 
frontier to the other. And in that month on the day Ras 
Aligaz was at Garagara, a man, who was his enemy, brought a 
false report of Dajazmach Khaylu. And he said, " Eshete Khaylu 
was a traitor, that should not be trusted, he was a traitor." 
This was done by those who wanted to get hold of the govern- 
ment of his land. And when Dajazmach Khaylu heard of this 
story, which was not what was in his mind, he sent messengers 
from the leading men of his household to say, " Is it true that 
you suspect that I am a traitor ? If you do not suspect me, is 
it not from the blood of Gojam that I am descended, and of the 
blood of Tigre and Semen, and I quarrelled with my kinsmen and 
others. Forsooth how could I have been a traitor to Aligaz, the 
brother of Has 'Ali, for I say that he was my refuge and my tower 
of strength." And when Ras Aligaz heard that and his friends 
Maqet Azmach Walda Mika'el and So Aba Muras Wareho, they 
said, " What is the meaning of this ? (What is this business ?) 
For this was not in our mind nor in his." Then they swore 
a mighty oath saying, "We are not the men to suspect thee, 
and we would not put chains upon thee, for thou art our kins- 
man." And this matter they made known to him, and they 
sent messengers Abeto Anqad and Agafare Qunde and declared 
to him that there was not any tittle of hostility in their hearts. 
And Dajazmach Khaylu hearing this was rejoiced, for he sought 
to be united with his kinsmen, and to be one with them. And 
after this Ras Aligaz started out from Garagara and his captains, 
viz. Maqet Asmach Walda Mika'el and Dajazmach Ali Borshe 
and Gerazmach Amade and Gerazmach Adera Gabre'el and 
Abeto Walda Gabre'el and Abeto Walda Ner and Asmach of 536 b 
Begameder Fanta and many others whose names we do not 
know, and they came to 'Este and met Dajazmach Khaylu who 
received them with rej oicing and hospitalities. And then Abagaz 
Neguse came, and then they went down to Afarawanat and 
were joined by Dajazmach Khaylu, the son of Abeto Tarbenos. 
Then Dajazmach Ikonyan started from the country of Damot, 
and while on the march the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis fell 



[396] 

upon him and fought a battle with him. And the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis was victorious, for he hung on to the rear (of the 
enemy) leaving behind many of his soldiers; that was a wonderful 
and difficult feat, for nothing of the sort had been done before 
this day, and there had been no king who had fought a battle 
like him, after he had been in chains. And Dajazmach Ikonyan^ 
arrived, having taken the wife of the Negus and his belongings. 
And there was a meeting between Ras Aligaz and his captains, 
and afterwards Ras Khaylu came from Gojam, and as he was 
coming on the road he met the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis 
and came with him as far as Delday. And there Ras Aligaz 
and Dajazmach Khaylu, Chief of the captains, met, and they 
told one another of the oath they had in their minds. See now 
the generosity of Ras Aligaz, for he ordered everything, one 
man ruling the world without trouble or fatigue. Ras Aligaz 
with a large force met Ras Khaylu, the latter being with a small 
force. Ras C AH had sent back his daughter, Mayzero Altash 
from Gojam in great grief, he, however, had no compunction or 
537 a regret. Now all the men were afraid who had spread the 
false report, for all the captains were at one with Ras Aligaz, 
but enemies of Dajazmach Khaylu would be utterly put to 
shame, who had spread about him the false report. And they 
said once with Ras Khaylu and once with Ikonyan, " What will 
they talk of and what will they say, for Dajazmach Khaylu was 
found alive by those that were traitors to him." Then Ras 
Aligaz turned back and proceeded on the road to wards Garagara. 
But before that a herald had proclaimed in the tents of Ras 
Aligaz a notice that Atse Hezeqeyas may act as he thinks fit. 
And the retainers of the Negus, viz. Qanazmach Ya Maryam 
Barya and Azaj Wadaju and Azaj Walta said that they spoke 
by the mouth of the Negus. "I have given," said the King 
of Kings Hezeqeyas, " to Ras Khaylu the office of Dajazmach of 
Gojam with the office of Mazikker of Agaw, the office of Azaj of 
Gara Yababa with the title of Fitawrari, and to Dajazmach 
Ikonyan the title of Dajazmach of Damot." And at Gondar 
this day of the month matters were in this position. 



[397] 

In the year 7281 of the world (1789 A.D.) the year of 
Matewos the Evangelist the 24th of the month of Takhsas, 
the day being the feast of Abuna Takla Haymanot, the Negusa 
Nagast Hezeqeyas came forth from Adababay with all the 
captains and soldiers and men of the city, the Abuna Yoseb 
came forth Patriarch of Etyopiya and the Echage Tasfu, 
Superior of Debra Libanos, and all the elders of the Church 
and Chief Judge of Appeal 1 and judges. And the herald pro- 
claimed at Adababay to wit, " That devastated land at Eshte 
at Aratu Cheqqa belonging to him, Dajazmach Khaylu who 
makes this decree, has bestowed upon the Makan lyasus (Place 
of Jesus) and what former Kings have given, and Dajazmach 
Khaylu has bestowed a gub (a plot of grass?) as a pious 
donation on the people of Demba Gabre'el by desire of 
the Atse and he declares it a monastery to be a place of 537 b 
sanctuary even as Waldebba, Quarata and Makhdara Maryam," 
and they said, "Whoso disturbs the peace of our declara- 
tion, whether Negus, or captains, or soldiers, or priests, we 
Negusa Nagast Hezeqeyas excommunicate, and the Abuna 
Yosab and Echage Tasfu and all the elders of the Church, 
let him be anathema by the mouth of the twelve apostles, by 
the mouth of the seventy-two disciples, and by the mouth of 
the three hundred and eighteen orthodox Bishops who as- 
sembled at Nikeya, one hundred and fifty in the city of 
Quostantinya (Council Nicaea at Constantinople) and the two 
hundred at Ephesus, and by the mouth of our Lady Maryam 
the Mother of God and the mouth of the Holy Trinity, Father 
and Son and Holy Ghost, let them be accursed. By the 
Echage, by the Acts of Faith it has been written, by the Liqa 
Khaylu, by the sea the document has been written. By the 
Liqa Yoak, by David, it has been written, by the Liqa Takla 
Haymanot, by David, it has been written, by Liqa Gabru, by 
David, it has been written." 

And after all this Kas Aligaz turned back from Deldey and 
went up in the direction of Wagara, and Dajazmach Khaylu 

Guidi, loc. cit. 115, 



[398] 

remained at Dara, and Dajazmach Ikonyan and Dajazmach 
(hiatus in MSS.) went towards Fogara. Ras (hiatus) went towards 
Yebaba that he might hand over the Negus, that is the King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis. 

The Book giving the account of Ras Aligaz. 

And after he joined Ras Khaylu in a sworn covenant, and 
under pain of excommunication, Ras Aligaz turned back from 
the Abay in the direction of Garagara, and he made an expe- 
dition towards Dawent, and Dajazmach Khaylu remained near 
Dara in order to carry out the wish of Ras Aligaz, for he 
538 a was obedient wherever he knew. And he desired as the 
Bible says not to appoint captains except with the will of 
God; again as the Bible says, " Command your captains." Now 
see all ye men, the humility and gentleness of heart of Daja/- 
mach Khaylu, for he was commanded by all who came across 
him, that which ruled him was wisdom and knowledge. What 
you were found was from God. O my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu, 
who taught you that wisdom that Abraham the Chaldaean was 
taught ? As the Book of the tradition of our Fathers teaches 
us Abraham was bidden to be ruler of the land of Cana'an, and 
he bought his burying place when he migrated to that land. 
(Gen. xxiii.) 

We will now return to the previous matter. Ras Khaylu 
forswore his oath and declared "They shall not give up the 
Negus Takla Giyorgis who has taken refuge with me," adding, 
" For the Book says, ' They put aside the law for the sake of 
the law/ " Then when Ras Khaylu was at Media Takla Giyorgis 
hastened along his route to Gondar with Ras Odalu and the 
captains that were with him. And on the road Abeto Mamo 
Sahelu and Qanazmach Gualej and other captains met him with 
rejoicing and festivity. Gondar too received him with chorus, 
for that was both a joy and a trial. The Negus Hezeqeyas too 
inarched out of Gondar with his captains, viz. Kantiba Ayadfir 
and Azaj Teku and Azaj Dagele and other officers. And he 
hastened on his journey to Begameder and arrived at Kamkam 



[399] 

and pitched his tent there. And then while the King of Kings 
Hezeqeyas was there, Dajazmach Khaylu came out from Dara 
and he joined the Negusa Nagast and recounted to him every- 
thing that had passed and had not. For he Dajazmach Khaylu 538 b 
was versed in affairs as he was versed in warfare, as the Bible 
says, "Bless the Lord my God that hath taught me to war against 
my enemy and kill those that make war against me 1 ." Since 
he gave counsel to Dajazmach Khaylu as to what should be 
and what not it seems as if nothing was impossible for him ; 
whether his counsel was war and battle or whether his counsel 
was other, it was wisdom. For it was given to him, every 
matter of war, and every counsel of wisdom. As the Book 
says, "What hast thou that has not been given to thee?" 
And after that all the captains were assembled before the 
King of Kings Hezeqeyas, and his captains were Dajazmach 
Khaylu, Dajazmach Ikonyan, Dajazmach Tarbenos Khaylu, 
Basha Gugsa and all the other captains. Then they departed 
and proceeded on the route towards Gondar in order to give 
battle to the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis. The King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis too marched out from Gondar and 
camped at Tsada with his captains, and the Negus Hezeqeyas 
advanced with his captains to give battle, and he came on as 
far as below Tsada. Negus Takla Giyorgis took to flight 
and quitted Tsada and continued his march and came to Sar 
Weha, and the others followed and reached Saqalt. He 
continued his flight and reached Dengal Bar. Then the 
captains of Has Khaylu came to him from Gojam to help 
him and turned back towards Gondar to give battle to the 
Kingi> of Kings Hezeqeyas and his captains, viz. Dajazmach 
Khaylu and Dajazmach Ikonyan and Dajazmach Tarbenos 
Khaylu. But they (Takla Giyorgis and Co.) fled and marched 
on by the road towards Wakhni. And he the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis hastened on the road to Qaroda and reached 539 a 
Fartsa and burnt down the house of Abeto Walda Ner. After 
that the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis turned back and 

1 Ps. cxliv. 1. 2 Sam. xxii. 35. 



[400] 

marched on along the road to Delday, and there were the 
generals who were with him camped, who had scattered to 
their tents. And some people asked of the captains saying, 
" What have you done and why have you come to Begameder?" 
What had they to say, for they had done nothing ? They were 
indeed like a tree that came up in a valley by night and 
perished in a night. Again they were like that other tree 
that grew in the land of Fars (Persia) and quickly was dried 
up when it heard the voice of a man saying, "Oh. tree, an 
axe 1 has come to cut thee down 2 ." In truth that similitude 
is applicable to those captains, for they did nothing at all 
at Begameder except burn down the house of Abeto Walda 
Ner. 

An axe sharp-edged and terrible was Ras Aligaz, and the 
tree that was cut down were those captains of Gojam, who 
trembled and were panic-stricken when they heard the roar 
of Ras Aligaz, and the Negus Hezeqeyas and his captains, 
Dajazmach Khaylu, Dajazmach Ikonyan, and Kantiba Ayadar, 
Azaj Dagele, Azaj Teku, Dajazmach Galmo and Basha Gugsa 
came to Qantona. But Dajazmach Khaylu pursued Negusa 
Nagast Takla Giyorgis, and Dajazmach Khaylu's soldiers made 
the captains of Negus Takla Giyorgis give up their cattle, and 
then when Ras Aligaz turned back from Ambasal, he came to 
Garagara and sent Maqet Azmach Walda Mika'el over to the 
King of Kings Hezeqeyas. And the King of Kings Hezeqeyas 
made changes in the commands at Aringo. But before this 
matter took place, Ras Aligaz had a quarrel with Jan Tserar 
Yasufe, and they fought a battle at Dawent, and victory 
539 b remained with Ras Aligaz chief of the princes and captains, 
because he who wars against one appointed by the Lord, 
wars against the Lord. For as the wise man said, when 
the elders of the old law laid hands on the disciples, 
"Be not as those who fight against God, when that was 
their counsel, if this counsel or work be of men it will 

1 (Juidi 876, Anilmric. 

8 ?b Tigriue, Guidi 735-6. 



[401] 

perish and come to nought but if it be of God nothing 
that he hath established shall pass away" (Acts v. 38, 39). 
Truly was the appointment of Ras Aligaz from the Lord, for 
everyone bowed themselves under his foot. And when he 
went forth to war there was no one could stand up before him. 
And then Blattengeta Walda Sellase died, being killed by 
Maqet Azmach Walda Mika'el. Jan Tserar Yasufe took to 
flight and he escaped in suffering and pain. And Ras Aligaz 
pursued him as far as Ambasal, and then Barile came to Ras 
Aligaz, having broken his fetters. Then Yasufe and Ras Aligaz 
became reconciled and they sent away Dajazmach Alula, after 
putting fetters on his hands. Ras Aligaz, however, full of 
gentleness, released him that day, and made him ruler over 
two provinces, viz. Waro and the land of Dawuat, re- 
membering not his offence for he was the son of his sister, 
and besides because he knew that they had compelled him to 
act as he did, like the others, and on this account he forgot 
his offence. Then Ras Aligaz returned and came to Garagara 
and after sent Maqet Azmach Walda Mika'el over to the King 
of Kings Hezeqeyas to say, " Oh. our Negus, come to your city 
of Gondar, and of the captains that are with thee those that 
wish to come with thee let them come, and those that wish to 
go with thee let them go." Then Negusa Nagast Hezeqeyas 
made some changes in the appointments at Aringo, and he 
appointed Maqet Azmach Walda Mika'el Azaj of Geresamba, 540 a 
and Abe to Yobaze, Basha, and Sone Abba Muras, Qaftazmaeh 
Abay Demana, Negadras, and Abeto Khaylu, son of Princess 
Yawareq Wehamar, to be Azaj, and Dajazmach Galmo he 
confirmed in the governorship of Balasa, and all the captains 
he appointed according to their ranks. And Negus Tajtla 
Giyorgis also made fresh appointment at Mecha, he appointed 
everyone he liked and dismissed everyone he disliked. See, 
oh men, that time was as no time had been, for the Kingdom 
was split in two. And after that Dajazmach Ikonyan came to 
Garagara and met Ras Aligaz and gave him the land of Guna. 
Dajazmach Khaylu also came to Garagara from his land 

W.B. 51 



[ 4 02] 

of Este and joined Ras Aligaz and related everything that 
passed in the summer, for he had spent it in expeditions 
(raids). Then Ras Aligaz said to Dajazmach Khaylu, " Go to 
your lands and repose for a short while, for your labours have 
been great"; then he returned to his land of Este. Then 
Negus Hezeqeyas rose with his captains, Kantiba Ayadar, Azaj 
Dagele, and Azaj Teku, and Liqa Maquas Yabo Barya, Affa 
Negus La'eka Maryam and all the captains who were with him, 
and they started to go towards Gondar. And when they 
arrived at Isada, Qanazmach Gualej came from the land of 
Mecha and drove out Qanazmach Sone ; so Qanazmach Sone 
went over to the King of Kings Hezeqeyas and pitched his 
tent at Tsada, and Qanazmach Gualej came on to fight them, 
and when there was no battle Gualej returned and pitched 
his camp at Darasge. And on Thursday Gualej went over to 
540 b the King of Kings Hezeqeyas in order to give battle, and to 
show his wisdom sent his brother Abe to Yamar above the 
camp, and he drew near below it; and when Negusa Nagast 
Hezeqeyas heard of the coming of Qanazmach Gualej by 
another road, he ordered Abeto Khaylu, son of Maqet Azmach 
Walda Mika'el, and the Affa Negus La'eka Maryam, saying to 
them, "You guard the road above the camp." And he the 
King of Bangs Hezeqeyas started out from his sleeping place, 
girded his loins with strength, as the Bible says, " Buckle thy 
sword, oh strong one, upon thy thigh in thy judgement and 
thy splendour, make straight, prosper and rule, because of 
justice, truth and clemency, and thy right hand shall teach 
thee glory. Thine arrows are sharp and strong. Peoples shall 
fall beneath thee " (Ps. xlv. 3, 4, 5). And he said to the captains 
who were Qanazmach Sone and Kantiba Ayadar and Azaj 
Dagele and Azaj Teku and Liqa Maquas Gaba Barya and all 
the captains, " Be strong and brave, for (otherwise) there is no 
hope of life either in many or few, and there is no power in 
big battalions, but what God gives. It shall be to him as 
God's Word says, 'He giveth great strength to those that 
proclaim his word,"' and by speaking thus the King of 



Kings Hezeqeyas encouraged his soldiers* for he was a master 
of power and versed in war. Then they closed and joined 
battle. And victory rested with the King of Kings Hezeqeyas, 
for the mind of God is one thing and the mind of man is 
another. As the Lord says by the mouth of Isayas (Isaias) 
the prophet, " For my thoughts (mind) are not your thoughts, 
nor my counsels your counsels" (Is. Iv. 8). "Even if you multiply 
your vows I will not hear you, for your hands are full of blood " 
(Is. i. 15). Then the King of Kings Hezeqeyas scattered the 541 a 
captains that encompassed him by the two roads, as the 
Bible says, "Scatter thou the people that delight in war" 
(Ps. Ixviii. 30). And that day he prayed to God full of mercy, 
saying in the words of David, " It is better to trust in God 
than to put confidence in man (Ps. cxviii. 8) or put confidence 
in princes" (Ps. cxviii. 9). "All the peoples compassed me 
about but in the name of the Lord I have vanquished them " 
(Ps. cxviii. 11). "I have been thrust at that I might have 
fallen, but the Lord raised me up" (Ps. cxviii. 13). "My 
strength and good name is the Lord, and he has become my 
salvation" (Ps. cxviii. 14). "The voice of rejoicing is in the 
houses of the righteous, the right hand of the Lord doeth 
valiantly. The right hand of the Lord is exalted, the right 
hand of the Lord doeth valiantly. I shall not die, but live and 
declare the works of the Lord " (Ps. cxviii. 1 5 17). In very truth 
fitting for Negusa Nagast Hezeqeyas to declare the works of 
the Lord, for he did very valiantly, as he did for Hezeqeyas 
King of the Jews, when the King of Persia came to him, so 
again spoke Hezeqeyas King of Etyopiya, "Now I know that 
the Lord hath saved his anointed, and has heard from holy 
heaven with the saving strength of his right hand. Those 
others trusted in horses and chariots, but we were great in the 
name of the Lord our God. Those others were ensnared and 
fell, but us the Lord raised upright and sustained. Deliver 
the Negus and hearken to him in the day we call upon thee " 
(Ps. xx. 6 9). And with all these prayers and supplications he 
attributed his strength as from the Lord of the mighty who 



[404] 

conquered the Asoraweyan (the Assyrians). Qanazmach Gualej 
and the soldiers who followed him and the captains of King of 
Kings Hezeqeyas, viz. Qanazmach Hone and Azaj Teku and 
Kantiba Ayadar and Abay Damana and Liqa Maquas Yabo 
Barya did feats that day of great valour, and there was not 

541 bone who did not perform feats that day. And Abeto Gualu, 

the son of Atse Hezeqeyas, fought valiantly and took prisoners 
men who had captured him. And Qanazmach Gualej fled as 
far as Sar Weha, and the Negus Hezeqeyas came to Gondar, 
and the priests received him with chants and songs, and 
Gondar gave him an ovation with choral dancing. And the 
Negus Hezeqeyas in his great joy said, " The stone that the 
builders refused is become the headstone of the corner" 
(Ps. cxviii. 22). " This is the Lord's doing " (Ps. cxviii. 23). And 
further he said, "This is the day which the Lord hath made, 
we will rejoice and be glad in it " (Ps. cxviii. 24). And further he 
cried, "Behold, henceforth all nations shall call me blessed, 
because he hath done for me a great deal of strength/ 1 And 
with all these prayers he came to Gondar, and ruled by the 
will of God only. Yet Gondar was destroyed and nothing at all 
was left of it. And in the month of Genbot, Ras Aligaz went 
from Garagara towards Ambasal. When he heard of the crime 
of Dajazmach Yasufe thereupon he laid waste and plundered all 
the land of Dalanta and Ambasal, and he devastated Tartarya 
and Mahawa and Khuayt, high mountains, and all the villages 
he burnt down with fire on account of the rebellion of Dajaz- 
mach Yasufe. And Dajazmach Barile said to Has Aliga/, 
"Ascend all the mountains and they will come under your 
control, and place there the men you want." And Raz Aligaz 
replied to Dajazmach Barile, "I have given you your lands 
and they shall be in your hands." And when he had done that 
they all returned from Ambasal and came to Garagara. That 
month Aii Borshe came to Gondar to render assistance to the 
King of Kinjjs Hezeqeyas and Qanazmach Hone, for Qanazmach 
Gualej had driven them out from Gondar. And all this took 

542 a place the year of MateAvos from the creation of the world 



[405] 

5500 year of the world: in 1781 1 of the year of grace, and 
nothing (of what is related) but what happened in that period. 
And at that time they released the princes out of Wakhni the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and gave them pel-mission to go 
where they liked. See now, Oh men, how times had changed. 
There was nothing like it had ever happened before that 
time. In the days of the Old Testament on account of the 
grievous sins of the people of Isra'el the Kingdom was divided 
among two tribes of Isra'el, that is to say one tribe of Jews of 
Benjamin followed Robe'am the son of David, and the other 
tribe Isra'el followed Jerobe'am son of Nabat and made him 
King of Samarya. But God had commanded that the kingdom 
should not go out of the house of David, or the priests made 
out of the house of Levi,and only on account of that sin of Isra'el 
the kingdom was split up. And the kingdom was given over to 
others that had no right, and whoever wished to become a priest 
of Idols became a priest of Idols in Samarya. To-day since 
God has kept His help aloof from us and taken away one Lord 
to whom had been given the unction of the Kingship (who had 
been anointed King) there had been many rulers over Etyopiya. 
As the Bible of the Jews says, " Many are thy princes in the 
numbers of thy cities." And Ermeyas ( Jeremias) first brought 
back by his prayers the kingdom to the house of David, and 
afterwards the Abuna Takla Haymanot the Father of Light 
restored the throne, so that the King might be the descendant 
of David. To-day in our time, there is no one to set in order 
for us the kingdom, for we have turned God far away from us 
by our sins. As David said, " The voice of my sins has turned 
away my salvation " ; further, there is no man in our time to 
say to God, Is thy word false that declares, No servant can 
serve two masters ; that has not spared thy creature ; but as a 
man may not speak thus out of the multitude of his trials and 
his sorrows, Abba Gabre'el Aragawi (the old man) spoke thus, 542 1> 
" Oh Lord, my hope and my refuge, according to Thy good 

1 1781 = 1789. 8 years have to be added to adjust the Abyssinian chronology. If this is 
correct the A.M. should be 7281 instead of 5500. 



[ 4 o6] 

pleasure, afflict my life with sweet or bitter ; what thou wiliest, 
even that I desire as liquid honey; and that is the voice of 
wisdom, the bridle for heart and mind." 

The story is related how the wife of Dajazmach Khaylu was 
captured and how she returned, through the power of God, to 
Gojain. 

When Dajazmach (Khaylu) returned from Garagara towards 
the land of 'Este he heard that his wife Princess Anqualit had 
been made prisoner; but she had only been made prisoner, there 
was no stain upon her (character). And he was not remiss, but 
sent over to her to say, " Return to your village, and come back 
to your house"; but she recked little about returning, but 
meantime there was no blame or weakness on the part of Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu, just as there was no blame or weakness on the part 
of God in the death of living beings. And the (woman) was 
expelled from the Garden (of Eden), for God declared to her 
these words, " If you eat of that tree, you will die the death." 
And her heedlessness of that voice was the cause of her death 
and her expulsion from the Garden. Then Dajazmach Khaylu 
started from his land of Este and went on the road to the 
Abay and pursued Petros who had captured his wife, as far as 
the river Abay, and he, Petros, crossed the river Abay and 
escaped painfully and with difficulty, and he made Wayzaro 
Anqualit cross the river Abay and so they came to the land of 
Gojam ; and when the men of Gojam saw the arrival of Anqualit 
and Dajazmach Khaylu in pursuit after her, they trembled and 
were afraid, and the pains like those of labour seized those who 
dwelt in the Mountain of Isot. And then they sent over to 
Dajazmach Khaylu to say, " Turn back to your lands and we 
will send you your wife." He replied, " Yes, I will return to my 
land if you will give me back my wife." And then they gave 
543 n him back his wife in fear and trembling, for if they had not 
given her to him, he would not have returned in the end, but 
he would have gone on to the land of Gojam whether for death 
or life, for his mind was aflame as with fire. Only the merciful 



[407] 

and compassionate God made the men of Gojam give him back 
his wife. And after this Wayzaro Anqualit crossed the river 
Abay and rejoined her husband Dajazmach Khaylu ; and 
when she saw him she wept and embraced his neck, and he 
was much delighted and gave thanks to God that had done 
valiantly for him, saying, "Ask and thou shalt receive and 
thou hast not scorned my prayer, Oh Lord my God I have 
called unto thee and thou hast had pity. Oh Lord, thou hast 
brought out my soul from She'ol and She'ol that is Gojam, 
and his soul that is his wife, Wayzaro Anqualit. As the Bible 
says, Wife and Husband they are one, for what God has joined 
together let no man put asunder," and then he said out of his 
great joy, "Come, listen to me, and I will tell you all you who 
fear the Lord how much He has done for me myself when I 
called out to Him with my voice and proclaimed with my 
tongue; if He saw wickedness in my heart the Lord would 
not have hearkened to me, and by reason of that the Lord 
hearkened to me and was not deaf to the voice of my sup- 
plication. Blessed be the Lord who hath not refused my 
prayer and hath not removed His mercy from me." Thou 
wilt not relinquish the love of the Lord thy God, Oh my lord 
Dajazmach Khaylu, in truth the Lord did not refuse thy prayer, 
nor withdrew His mercy far from thee and thou didst not 
abandon thy love of the Lord thy God. As the Bible says, 
" Love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart and with all thy 
strength, and He will not withdraw His mercy from thee, and 
will not put thy face to shame " (Mark xii. 30, Luke x. 27). As 
David said, " Draw nigh to Him and He will shine upon you and 543 b 
shall not put your countenance to shame." Again Dajazmach 
Khaylu said in his great joy that was in his heart "What return 
shall I make the Lord for all He has done for me, calling for 
life, I have had it given back, and I will call upon the name of 
the Lord." For his wife was his life, who was given back from 
Gojam, for indeed that wife was his life. As the Angel said to 
Adam, " Why hast thou put far away thy wife ? " and for thy life 
Oh my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu thou hast gratefully returned 
thanks to God, for Johannes Chrysostom says " We ought not 



[ 4 o8] 

to speak evil of the Lord whether He has helped us or not." 
Oh my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu, of a truth the Lord helped 
thee as it was seen by all. And then he returned from the 
Abfty with his wife towards the land of Este. And then there 
were great rejoicings among those who were his friends and 
grief among those that were his enemies. For those were many 
that said "Who would bring back Way/aro Anqualit from the 
land of Gqjam, without pain and trouble?" As David says, " Who 
shall give deliverance to Israel out of Sion ? " (Pa. liii. 6). When 
the Lord restoreth his people from captivity, Ya'eqob re- 
joiceth and Israel is glad. But we will reckon that wonderful 
thing with the wonderful thing that was done for Hezeqeyas 
in his trial, and with the wonderful thing done to David when 
his women were captured ; for there was done for Dajazmach 
Khaylu a great deed such as had not been done unto this day. 

The history which sets forth and relates how Dajazmach 
Khaylu chief of the wise men built a church and how he 
finished it by the help of God. 

As the Bible says, " Ye shall finish it more excellently 
544 a by the help of God." Amen." In the year of the world 7279 
from the creation of the world (1787 A.D.) the year of Lucas 
(Luke) the evangelist, Dajazmach Khaylu pondered on and 
was anxious to build a church in the name of Jesus Christ, 
and before any building he threw a fence round. And he built 
inside it a church, small and in the vicinity. And he brought 
a Tabot of Jesus from Geshana and brought it inside. And 
the priests that fixed it performed chants with cymbals and 
tambours. And thus the Tabot of Jesus was left during 
the winter in the vicinity, and Dajazmach Khaylu spent the 
winter in raids. Maskaram opened in the 7280 year from 
the creation of the world (1787 A.D.) in the year of Johannes 
(the evangelist), Dajazmach Khaylu assembled together the 
experts (architects) whose custom was to build churches, and 
he gave them first a remuneration, because he knew and 
respected the word of the Bible. Let him not pass the night 



[409] 

in thy house, pay the labourer his hire. And the Gospel says, 
the labourer is worthy of his hire. And on account of this he 
first gave them their hire for he was a man of knowledge. 
And he commanded his attendant who was Yashalaqa Wdlda 
Gabre'el that he should not absent himself (that he should always 
be present) from the building. After that he began the building 
the church. He fashioned the wood of good quality, and gathered 
together the stones that would make good the construction. 
Then he laid down the foundations of the church and dug the 
earth deep and according to his instructions ; and when those 
who were craftsmen laid down the foundations of the church 
one of the craftsmen took canes (measuring rods) the length of 
a cubit and fixed them between the foundation (stones) while 
the craftsmen passed ropes round from one side to the other 
and measured the ground for building the sanctuary 1 ; the 
rope, falling on the canes, was prevented (lit. refused) from 
passing beyond to another point (i.e. from being deflected), as 
they laid one upon the other, until we were full of wonder and 
admiration at the builders, for it was a great marvel ; such 544 b 
a building as would be pleasing to God, a dwelling-place of 
Jesus ; and the size of the sanctuary was 1 cubits. And they 
began building what was the roof and left the wood (planks) 
for what was to be the vestibule and laid down inside wood of 
a good quality of the tree called Pawkina (uevKiva ?) and cedar, 
and they call these planks the passage (?). And they erected in 
this vestibule (verandah) two fine pillars and they erected three 
others in close proximity to each. And similarly they wrought 
the three doors of the sacred edifice, and for each door there 
were two folds (i.e. double doors) very fair to see and two hinges 
and similarly for the two doors of the sanctuary with their two 

1 The sanctuary mentioned above of 10 cubits aty.tl (Maqdas) or Holy of Holies was 
the enclosure where the Tabot was deposited, and the celebrants (and the Emperor) 



communicated. The outer sanctuary, ^-fi^ s (qeddest), was the space where communion was 
given to the people and was divided into four parts ; (1) the principal entrance where the 
men communicated, (2) the right side of the entrance where the women communicated, 
(3) the left side where the sacred elements were brought in, (4) the space opposite the 
entrance used as a sacristy. 

w. B. 52 



[ 4 io] 

folds and two hinges. And the breadth of the outer sanctuary 
was 7 cubits, and the stand of the priests was 6 cubits. And all 
the measurements of that church were pleasing and very fine ; 
and* the doors 1 and the windows were all also very fine, and the 
rafters 2 that were fashioned were very beautiful. Thus the 
church of Dajazmach Khaylu was built of fine construction 
and was finished by the help of God in one year and six months 
from the time it was begun, on the 5th of Hamle; and on 
the day of the feast of Peter and Paul, the year of Matewos 
Dajazmach Khaylu brought the Tabot of Jesus into the church, 
with great rejoicing and festival ; and the priests who were 
trained, sang the Psalms Chants, saying, " It has been done 
according to the will of God, All this has been done," and with 
every kind of melody. And with ceremonies such as these 
they erected that church beautiful above the churches, and 
high over all the hills, destroying the foundations of his own 
houses for he knows how a house (an earthly house) in this 
world is ruined and destroyed. As the Bible says, "How 
many houses are destroyed and how many men leave their 
houses unwillingly ? " But he Dajazmach Khaylu pulled down 
his earthly houses willingly and built up a heavenly one 
545 a (2 Cor. v. 1). He was mindful of the words of the Bible that 
say, " Seek those things which are above, Christ sitteth on 
the right hand of God" (Coloss. iii. 1) and they do not say 
" things of the earth." Truly all the seeking of Dajazmach 
Khaylu was after the Lord. For he knew how all things are 
brought to perfection in the Lord whether the habitation of 
the body or the habitation of the soul. And he called that 
church by the name of the Place of Jesus. Oh my Lord 
Dajazmach Khaylu, whence didst thou find such a name for 
thy church. Did an angel teach thee, or was it the Almighty if 
Yea the Bible says, " For the Lord knoweth the heart as the 
heart of an angel." Oh my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu blessed 
be God that gave thee to finish what thou didst begin and put 

more correctly "7dK.fr i doors. 

error for "%1'VfrC'V i (roelanthron)=/'Xa0po, centre beam of a roof. 



[4H] 

thee not to shame. Oh my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu, thou 
deservest to be blessed by the voice of every creature, by 
reason that God accomplished for thee thy desire. For the 
Bible says, " Blessed is the man who accomplishes his desire 
and is not brought to shame when he sayeth his prayers at his 
gates." And while he was building the church, no one gave 
him any help, no king nor commander, and no kinsmen, nor 
anyone else, but those that would not help him refused help 
because that time was the season for raids. Solomon, indeed, 
the King of Israel, when he was building the Temple was 
assisted by many, as it is said in the Bible, Kings and Keram 
(Hiram) supplied (helped) him with wood of Cedar and Pawkina, 
besides there were many ships that brought him gold from the 
sea, and that time too was a time of affluence and repose, but 
Dajazmach Khaylu had none of these things, but indeed only 
the help of God that sufficed for all things and nothing is 
impossible to him. And after that the good and learned 545 b 
arranged a melody and learned discourses, and learned books 
which they showed to be excellent, and others fortified their 
works with faith. For the books that teach and speak as a 
body without a spirit are as dead. So faith without good works 
that too is dead. And he gave them lands that are called 
Meder Faras (Horse land) that the kings gave him, called 
Atse Takla Haymanot and Atse Takla Giyorgis, also Dajazmach 
Khaylu added villages that are called Dembach and Gub and 
besides built a church in land of Yaju called the " Saviour of 
the World" and he called it " Debra Madakhnit" Mount 
of Redemption. And Dajazmach Khaylu did many kind- 
nesses at that time. And at one time which was the year of 
Matewos when there was a famine over all the provinces, there 
came over to him many needy people in their great distress, 
whom he settled in his villages as guards. And hearing of this 
report about Dajazmach Khaylu, many commanders who acted 
as he did adopted his example for themselves. And further, 
Ras Aligaz presented to the House of Jesus a village called 
the Hagar Densar, that is Zeguara. 



[412] 

History relating and describing everything that took place 
in the year of Marqos the Evangelist, in the peace of God the 
Father, Amen. The year 7283 (1790-1 A.D.). 

After that event Ras Aligaz spent the rains at Garagara and 
Jan Tserar Birale came from Ambasal, and he was put in chains 
at Garagara ; then there was a raid on his land and Ras Aligaz 
raided and ruled over the whole of the land of Ambasal except 
Geshen,and made his son Abeto Gobaze come to Mahwa. There- 
after he returned from Ambasal, and on his return from there he 
joined Dajazmach Khaylu in the land of Wadela and came home 
546 a to Hor and there pitched his camp. Dajazmach Khaylu returned 
to his land Begameder in peace and amity. And in this year 
of Markos war broke out between Negusa Nagast Takla Giyorgis 
and Ras Khaylu and the strength of Negusa Nagast Takla 
Giyorgis prevailed for God was with him, and he escaped by 
great strength and courage and passed on towards Dambaya ; 
and he had a mind to go to Dajazmach Gadelu, but he Dajaz- 
mach Gadelu refused to receive him. Thereupon he sent over 
to Ras Aligaz saying, " Receive me, for I am coming over to 
you," and Ras Aligaz answered, "Come over to me and I will 
receive you." Then he hastened along the road towards Bega- 
meder and came to Zuraamba ; and then joined Dajazmach 
Khaylu for Ras Aligaz sent him over to Dajazmach Khaylu. 
Then King of Kings Takla Giyorgis rose and marched towards 
Garagara and as he was arriving at Chat Weha he was 
received by Ras Aligaz with a large army with rejoicing and 
festivity. And he brought to the house one of the Captains ; 
then as it seemed good to the men who had made him Negus, 
they sent him to Emkina, on the plea that none should know 
his affairs. Now Ras Aligaz gave Ras Khaylu a wife called 
Wayzaro Attash, daughter of his brother Ras 'Ali. Ras Khaylu 
also gave the other a wife named Wayzaro Qatsaro, daughter of 
his sister, Wayzaro Kherut* And all this came about through the 
advice of Wariho, for it was he who brought about peace between 
them. And about that time Dajazmach Ikonyan was exiled to 



[413] 

Waldebba, and the same month died Dajazmach Dore, son of 
Ras Goshu. Then Ras Aligaz started from Garagara and made 
a raiding expedition towards Ambasal with all the men of 
Begameder and Yaju. Then he sent over to Dajazmach Khaylu 546 b 
saying, " Come for a raid, for you will be a great help to me." 
But he Dajazmach Khaylu sent over to him to say, " Leave me 
alone and do not drive me to a raid because there was no 
raiding amongst my fathers with the captains of Begameder." 
But he Ras Aligaz scorned him for he was well versed in the 
business of war and fighting. Then Dajazmach Khaylu went 
out of his land Esate with his army and followed behind him 
and those who were hostile to Dajazmach Khaylu said to Ras 
Aligaz "Dajazmach Khaylu will not go on that expedition, for his 
heart is not with you, if he says ' I will come ' do not trust him." 
And while they were slandering him in this way he went over to 
his friend Ras Aligaz and joined him. And Ras Aligaz was 
glad at the coming of my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu. They threw 
suspicion on him but nothing could be found for which they 
could cast aspersions on him : they slandered him, though no 
cause of slander could be found ; they bullied him but he 
bullied no man ; they hated him but he hated no man. Oh my 
Lord Dajazmach Khaylu who was it taught thee to obey, for to 
obey a man makes man obedient. That is as you know full surely, 
[like the story in which] there dwelt two monks in a certain desert, 
one in fetters in a prison, that is to say he was an anchorite, and 
the other was a disciple who was obedient to him, and his name 
was Oho Bahale ; and one day they went down to a river and 
the disciple Oho Bahale went into the water and came up among 
crocodiles. And those crocodiles laid themselves prone before 
him. Now the anchorite stood on the bank of the river and 
was afraid to come into the water, and the disciple Oho Bahale 
cried " Come in, Oh my brother," but the anchorite replied, " I 
have not risen to your degree (height) of faith." Oh my Lord 547 a 
Dajazmach Khaylu see what happened to that disciple for his 
obedience brought about the obedience of the crocodiles to 
him. Oh my Lord, thou wert wise without being taught, as the 



Bible says, " Wise men are indeed as children before the Lord." 
Thou wert wise without being taught, as the Bible says, " Thou 
shalt fill the earth with the knowledge of God, As waters that 
irrigate the ground " (Hab. ii). And thou art likened to our 
Lord Jesus Christ in that thou wast obedient, for the Bible 
declares this obedience to man, when it says " He heard and 
was obedient unto death." Oh my Lord Dajazmach Khaylu 
in what place have you not been obedient, did you not spend 
the rains in Wagara in obedience to Ras 'Ali, and did you 
not toil in the land of Qoma ? And what King of Kings has 
not gloried in thy prowess and what captain among captains 
that has not rejoiced at your obedience ? 

We will now return to the previous matter. And when 
Ras Aligaz and Dajazmach Khaylu met, Ras Aligaz was glad, 
for there were many who declared that Dajazmach Khaylu 
would not come ; and there were others who were annoyed at 
his joining Ras Aligaz, they thought they could strike a blow 
at him ; as the Bible says, " The envious man is like to one who 
strikes at another," but such a man first gathers bitter fruit of 
their envy, pains and condemnation. And Ras Aligaz made a 
friend of Kollase and gave him for a wife the daughter of his 
sister. And then they returned from the expedition and on 
their return Dajazmach Khaylu went to Hayq and joined 
several monks and was blessed by them. And the monks of 
Hayq said to Dajazmach Khaylu, " We have not seen such a 
man, either Negus or Commander or anyone except Galla 
since the days of Gran " (1530-40 A.D.). And then he departed 
547 b from Hayq. And Ras Aligaz hurried on their road and all his 
generals, towards Yaju, and the men of Begameder towards 
Begameder,and when they came to parting, a herald made a pro- 
clamation in these words, " Henceforth Dajazmach Khaylu will 
not go out on raiding expeditions with the men of Begameder, 
for raiding is not right." Then when the parting had taken 
place Dajazmach Khaylu was seized with a severe illness and 
the cause of his illness was from going out fishing (chill ?). And 
they laid him on a bed and with difficulty carried him to 



[415] 

Dabko, and from Dabko they bore him to his land Nagala. 
And many there were that grieved at his illness, for he was the 
hope of all and the tribesman to all ; and besides he was the 
only man left of whom the Book 1 speaks, " Thou hast left us but 
one grape upon the vine." A writer, his friend on account of 
his great love for him, wrote thus, " If David and Bersabeh 
(Bathsheba) laid aside their mourning, etc., for the illness and 
death of their child (II Sam. xii. 19) it was because they were 
bereft for a brief time, by the illness of their only son, and 
seeing that another (Solomon) would be born ; but we will not 
cease to mourn for Khaylu Mika'el, for if we sail the seas, or 
raise our eyes beyond to the skies, he is our one relation." And 
afterwards he was cured of his illness and God (on Him be 
praise) had pity on him. As the Bible says, " The Lord is merci- 
ful and compassionate, far removed is His anger, plenteous His 
mercy and justice," and again the Bible says, "As a father 
has pity on his son so the Lord has pity on those that fear 
Him. For He knows that we are His creatures and re- 
members that we are dust" (Ps. ciii. 8 14). (But as for) 
man his days are as grass as a flower of the field so he 
bears fruit. For the wind passeth over it and it shall be no 
more. For the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to ever- 
lasting upon them that fear Him. Truly we know how Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu feared God and loved Him from his heart for His 
mercy was upon him. And after that Has Aligaz left Waldaya 548 a 
and came to Garagara and he came home to his house. There- 
upon he seized Maqet Asmach Walda Mika'el with his two 
sons, and Gerazmach Adera Gabre'el and Gerazmaeh A made, 
Qaiiazmach Gualej and put them in chains, for he knew their 
misdeeds. And that month Liqa Maquas Neguse died and 
thus spent the rains at Garagara, and Negus Hezeqeyas also 
spent the rains there, while building his royal residence (palace). 
And he repaired what had fallen down and had been knocked 
down when he found some one able to put things right. For he 
was a restorer of what was right and just, because great men 
are those who govern men as they ought in righteousness. 

1 Cp. Jerem. xlix. 9, Obad. 5. " If David " to " relation " is a song or Qcne of six verses 
with the rhyme -adu. Vide Appendix : Hymns and Chants. 



And Qanazmach Sone devastated the land of Dambaya, 
which belonged to the Negus and the governors and royal 
princesses ; but no man confiscates land of the Negus or land 
of the governors or of the priests or of the princesses or of the 
Echage or of the Abun. And a great wonder was worked in 
the land of Gojam. Ras Khaylu came to Jebala and pitched 
his camp. And in Damot a very wonderful thing was performed. 
First of all a woman was crucified on a tree, and her crime 
[written] below, and behind her were crucified seven enemies 
like her, who also perished for their crimes. That is what Liqa 
Male'kt Maka'el did to show his power and as a warning; he 
showed himself a Negus, were the actual (lit. earthly) Negus 
to disappear. As for Dajazmach Walda Sellase the men of 
Tigre laid a trap to kill him with a cannon. As the Bible 
says, " The proud have hid a snare for me and cords about my 
feet and have set stumbling blocks on my road" (Ps. cxl. 5). 
But may God the merciful and compassionate preserve him 
from that grievous trial. 

We will now go back to the other matter. The angel of 
548 b light gave a son to the father Dajazmach Khaylu. If my heart 
were searched I account you superior to Betwaddad, Ras and 
all the generals. The King is greater for us, but thou for us 
(art) greater than a prince. A friend to all Eshete Khaylu, 
but what is better than this thy heart is pure. If men came to 
thee from the four quarters (of the earth) thine eye would look 
kindly on every man, for thou couldst never be sated (with 
generosity). It seems to me in thy noble building, that if the 
world perishes by (Divine) chastisement, thou wilt save it, with 
thy people, for thou art the very seed of men. And if any man 
ask me, what proof I have of this, (I would answer) Noah in his 
ark saved himself with his people, while (the rest of) men 
perished in the Flood 1 . 

In the year 7283 (A.D. 1790) Maskaram opened on Thursday 
when the Epact of the Moon was 25, the Matq'e was 5 and 
Tentyon 5 * 2. An incident began that took place in this year 



1 This harangue from " If my heart" is written in Amharic. 

2 Tentyon, a corruption of the Greek TrAti/fltW, may be translated by Solar Epact From 
it is deduced the Year Letter. Vide Appendix : Abyssinian Chronograph)' and Chronology. 



[417] 

of Lukas. Ras Aligaz, Chief of the captains, marched towards 
Ambasal, and reduced the land of Ambasal to submission. 
And he surrounded Geshen many months, and cut off Dajaz- 
mach Yasufe from coining in or getting out. And all the 
warriors that were on the mountain came down to him and 
all the men of Wechale submitted to him and laid them- 
selves beneath his feet. After this he turned back from 
Ambasal and left there Dajazmach Alula to stand guard over 
Dajazmach Yasufe, coming from out his amba (stronghold) 
that he might not lay waste the villages. And he went to his 
village Yaju and inflicted punishment on the Gallas who were 
in revolt on the frontier of the country. Thereupon he spent the 
summer at Ambasal and Yaju. And the whole country that was 
troubled was made safe by the great work of Ras Aligaz and the 
times made straight. A miracle this, since if a ruler is good the 
times are good, and if a ruler is a bad one the times are bad. 
We will quote a similitude from the Book of Wisdom which 549 
says, "A King among Kings said to a wise man among wise 
men, ' How is the goodness of a time (to be reckoned) ? ' and 
the wise man replied 'The times are indeed as art thou, If 
thou art evil the times are evil, and if thou art good the times 
are good.'" God said to Johannes of Ephesus by the mouth 
of John the Evangelist "If thou dost not repent and act 
according to thy former acts, I will come quickly and shiver 
thy lights at Emkina," And again the Bible says, " As is the 
ruler so is the land," and in another part it speaks thus, " Woe 
is thee Oh city whose King is young and thy rulers eat in early 
morning" (Eccles. x. 16). It has been made manifest how the des- 
truction of a city is by the wickedness of her ruler and the life 
(prosperity) of a city is in the goodness of her ruler. And at that 
time Ras Aligaz put down rebellion in all the villages. For 
God justified in him his gifts beyond the gifts of all rulers. We 
will now return to the beginning of our story. He departed from 
Yaju and came to Garagara in the month of Genbot and spent 
the winter there. And in the month of Sane Dajazmach Khaylu 
left Makana lyasus (Place of Jesus) and went to Garagara and 

w. B. 53 



[ 4 i8] 

joined Ras Aligaz and remained there. And on the 5th Hamle 
on the Feast of St Peter and Paul, Ras Aligaz stayed in his 
residence (hall) eating and drinking. And he spent the time 
with his captains and warriors in festivities, and at the same 
time he invested Dajazmach Khaylu with the robe of Office of 
Governor. And he left that place for his residence and the 
retainers of Ras Aligaz and those of Dajazmach Khaylu came, 
with guns and horses so that there was a commotion, and coming 
into his house in great reverence they took their leave of him. 
And the King of Kings Hezeqeyas sent Ras Aligaz a general's 
549 b robe of a silk 1 shirt and a silk breeches 2 and a light refection 3 
and a girdle 4 , and the Negus spent the winter at Gondar. 

The history that begins 7284 from the year of the creation 
of the world (1791) the year was the year of Johannes. Mas- 
karam began on Saturday when Negusa Nagast Hezeqeyas was 
at Gondar and while Takla Giyorgis was kept prisoner under 
surveillance 5 at Emkina and when his guard AH arrived, Ras 
Khaylu and Dajazmach Walda Sellase and Dajazmach Gabre 
wintered in their lands in friendliness and peace. And while Ras 
Aligaz was at Garagara he put to death Jan Tserar Berale and 
Moqet Azmach and Gerazmach Adera Gabre'el, after they had 
been kept in chains for several days in the year of Lukas, in the 
month of Maskaram. Some say in the month of Sane. Now 
as to their crimes, who knows ? We know nothing, but God did 
not call to account oppression when He saw the oppression of 
King Takla Giyorgis. God was angered by Ras Aligaz, as 
He was angered by Senakerem (Sennacherib) and made war 
against his descendants, so he (Ras Aligaz) made war against 
the sons of his sister, Alula and Gugsa, and as He brought to 
destruction the soldiers of Senakerem so He brought to des- 
truction the soldiers of Ras Aligaz, as David says " Touch not 
mine anointed and do my prophets no harm" (1 Chron. xvi. 

i /./!.., Diction. Amarico, Guidi, 719. - ^VX.A Diccim. A marico, Guidi, 184. 

t Dlccion. Amarico, Guidi, 764. 

Diction. Amarico, Guidi, 608. All these words are Ainli:nii . 
Ht. " by the eye," i.e. not chained by a ring to the Quraiiiia (or Guard) All, who 
was away. 



22), and He sent mourning into the house and annihilated all 
the power of the soldiers, and all the retainers of Ras Aligaz 
were sold (in slavery). 

Now we will return to the beginning of the story. Gugsa 
came out of Lasta and descended towards Yaju and Alula was 
at Mahawa, and a battle was evident, and after that a war (was 
declared) by Dajazmach Khaylu from his land of Nagala for the 
reason that he was his ally. Though he proposed the matter of 
an expedition he answered " There shall be no expedition. You 
stay here, and I am going with your Eunuchs, Wareho and 
Barento, and we will raise the question of reconciliation, as 550 a 
Joab and the woman of Takoah (2 Sam. xiv.) brought about 
the reconciliation of Absalom with David his father, so let us 
make friends, if they refuse let it be as with Absalom." And 
Ras Aligaz answered thus, " A raid is better, for men of my 
land of Yaju are joined with me," and so saying he refused (peace). 
And Dajazmach Khaylu replied, " Do not do this thing, it is 
fighting with thy kinsman Oh my friend : I will not conceal 
from thee what I have heard from the learned monks, the 
story of the events that are to come, saying, ' If there is 
war between them, their rule will be destroyed,' " and hearing 
that Ras Aligaz refused, and replied, "Dajazmach Khaylu, 
since you have refused I go to my land," and he answered 
"Go to your country, for it is wrong for you to go on the 
expedition against the Dajazmach of Begameder"; and he 
came to his place Nagala and spent the summer there building 
the house of the 24 priests of heaven. Story. Ras Aligaz took 
up the raid from Garagara to Yaju and afterwards at Yanaja. 
Now ! begins his trial. He departed and halted at Bet 
Hor and left Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el to protect the land of 
Wadela that it might not be laid waste by any one coming out 
of Wechale, that is to say Abelom. And from Bet Hor he 
departed and halted at Owdeqom. And then he went on, 
leaving the road to Yaju, and took the road to Ambasal, followed 
by his (?) retainers Qanazmach Gafi and Gerazmach Gobaze 
taking men who dwelt in their respective governments ; and 



[420] 

after that he sent Fitawrari Sadiq and Gerazmach Gobaze to 
Yaju to make war upon Dajazmach Gugsa. But Ras Aligaz 
came to Ambasal and surrounded Mahwa, as lyasu (Joshua) 
surrounded lyariko (Jericho) so Has Aligaz encompassed 
550 b Mahwa. And the retainers of Has Aligaz fought with the 
retainers of Jan Tserar Alula and a few men were killed, and 
they with unbroken front, the hills could no more stand up 
before his face, than grass in the face of fire. But now was 
not the moment of his trial. And he remained four months 
in his entrenchment and they saw that there was no means 
for him to get out of it. He went to the land of Wechale to 
fight against the Gallas, called Warat'ae. Ali Gor was taken 
prisoner and consternation reigned in the camp of Ras Aligaz 
for eight days, and after eight days he explored Tomet with his 
retainers so that his enemies the Wechale men should not hear. 
Then a few of the enemy got up and followed him. And there 
was a fog so that men could not be distinguished from men, 
master from servant, friend from friend. At that time Ras 
Aligaz was defeated and all his men perished, and many 
Christians were killed; that day died many commanders, 
viz. Blattengeta Tewodoros (Theodore) and his son and Blatten- 
geta Nabete, Abeto Abisa, with his son, and Abeto Engada. 
And the men and animals with their loads and long (Galla) 
spears 1 filled the chasms. It was like a bank (of dead) and 
all were taken prisoner by the hand of the Galla, and some 
were sold and others returned after many days. And being 
left with a handful of men he came to his land Yaju that is 
called Qoqoro, and men came from his land to receive him 
saying to him, " Why did you act as you did, in a way such 
as we have never heard before from our Fathers." And Ras 
Aligaz replied, " Are spears always pointed ? " And they were 
silent. They saw then the power of God who rules the 
whole land of Etyopiya, and by having a small force of men, 
651 a and by a fog those soldiers perished. As the Bible says, 
" A king is not saved by a multitude of his host, a mighty man 

1 a>"1t\ i - 0*4 Guidi, loc. cit. 561. 



[421] 

is not delivered by his great strength, and a horse is a vain 
thing (for safety): it will not deliver and he will not escape by 
great endurance" (Ps. xxxiii. 16, 17). We will now go back to 
the beginning of the story. And while he was at Qoqoro he 
made friends with Gugsa and Alula, on pain of a curse, and 
an oath, with Chat 1 like Galla; there was great rejoicing in the 
land Yaju at their reconciliation. And after that Ras Aligaz 
went out of Yaju and came to Bet Hor, and he joined Geraz- 
mach Walda Gabre'el. And then he departed and came to 
Garagara and Dajazmach Khaylu came, the son of Tarbenos, 
and they joined Ras Aligaz and there was a fresh appointment 
of offices. Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el was made Yashalaqa of 
Gadisa, and Abagaz of Semada, and they confirmed all the 
officials in their posts. And Qanazmach Gafi went to Gondar 
and did not come. After this there was a tumult at Gondar at 
the arrival of Qanazmach Gafi. And King of Kings Hezeqeyas 
held a council and the Abuna Yosab and the Echage Walda 
lyasus, with four chiefs and four judges of appeal, and they 
declared, "We will not submit to (serve) the Galla." And the 
Abun and the Echage went forth and excommunicated the 
whole world, and they separated the Christians from the Galla, 
and they were like our Fathers Muse (Moses) and Aaron who 
led Israel out of the bondage of Pharon, so like them, they 
brought the people of Etyopiya out of the bondage of the 
Galla, by the will of God. And a rescript issued forth from 
Gojam and Amhara to Walqait and Quarra to Semen and 
Wagara to Lasta and Tigre to Dambaya and Begameder saying 
" Do not serve or mingle with the Galla for we have no part or 
lot (with them) (otherwise) we curse you by the power of Peter 
and Paul, by the power of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." 551 b 

1 Chat Ol5 a tree, the leaves of which are used for chewing by Sonialis and other 
Muslims it taking the place of tea. Catha Forskalii (Hibiscus csculentus1\ vide Guidi, 
loc. cit. 849. The chewing of this plant like smoking the pipe of peace among red Irdians 
is part of any important ceremony. The leaves and buds have the slightly intoxicating 
effect of the " Coca " of Peru. Makrizy (14 cent.) speaks of it as jat and says it was in use in 
Ifat (S. of Abyssinia), where it is now called Shat. It was introduced into Yamen by Sheikh 
Ibrahim Abu Zarbay in 1430, the same time that Omar esh Shad'ely introduced Coffee. 



[422] 

And after they had cursed them there Was a fight between 
Fanja Kabte and Qafiazmach Gafi, his former retainer, but 
strength was on the side of Fanja Kabte and he defeated his 
master Qanaxmach Gafi who fled towards Ferqa; and his 
brother Dajazmach Gobaze came to the rescue of his brother 
Dajazmaeh Gafi, so they came to Qaha and pitched camp 
there. And King of Kings Hezeqeyas came forth and sent 
out a herald to proclaim in these words, " Whoever does not 
come out with me will have his house plundered and his goods 
confiscated." And the Abun and the Echage and the judges 
came forth, and all the men of Gondar and there was a great 
fight. And they stayed there, and the same night the men of 
Gondar fled towards Wagara, with the judges and Fanja Kabte. 
Now the judges went off to Waldebba and the King of Kings 
Hezeqeyas, Abun and Echage to their houses, and wooden 
doors, and there was a reconciliation with the Gallas, for there 
was no help for it, and men came to Gondar to their houses. 
That was done through treachery by the vote of the Liqe 1 , for 
it is his custom to deceive. HOW T often must I tell you what 
deception they practise on many kings and governors by 
sending a runner to say, " I will help you, while I remain among 
them." And on the coming of the Galla all that w r as what 
was done. 

We will now return to the beginning of our history. And 
when he w r as at Garagara, retainers of Dajazmach Khaylu came, 
sons of Dajazmach Eshete bringing their mules (?). " What have 
I done," said (their) lord, (saying) " I have heard that there are 
Gallas from below Chachaho, that there are above and below you, 
who are coining upon you, to attack you while you are ill, and 
all the men report that I have no enemies, only friends." And 
they reported to lias Aligaz who said, " Indeed I have not done 
this thing for it were a crime." As the prophet says, " With 
their mouths they bless, they curse in their hearts " (Ps. Ixii. 4). 
552 a Then he went out from his land and came to Qoratsa, being 

1 Llq6 A,4> or A.fe (1) one of the supreme Judges of the Royul Court and (2) doctor of 
the Church. 



[423] 

carried on a bed for he was sick. Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el 
and Tartenos Khaylu pursued the Galla that were below 
Chachaho as far as Zando Guidguad and they camped 
there. And they brought out a woman from Makhdara 
Maryam by her own consent. She was like Samson's wife 
like Tawanayat 1 woman with the Illofele 2 and that Tawanayat 
woman got him into the power of his enemies: as the wise 
man said to a certain man, "Bring me thy friend," and he 
brought his dog, and when he said "Bring me thy enemy" 
he brought his wife; and he says in another part, "What 
worse thing is there than a wife?" We will now turn to 
the previous matter. From Zando Guidguad they started 
and went to their lands, Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el going to 
his place Denqus and making peace with all the Galla ; some 
heard of, and some had not, the plan of attacking Gerazmach 
Gobaze, so he came away from his house at Denqus ; and he 
came one night to Arbamba and he seized Gerazmach Gobaze 
and also many Gallas and many men perished ; and from 
Arbamba he started and halted at Tsanjena and departing from 
there stayed himself at Mawcha ; and starting thence he 
found it necessary to attack and came to Chat Weha. On this 
Has Aligaz heard of the arrival of Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el, 
so marching out from his house at Garagara he retired upon 
Wadela and Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el came to Garagara and 
remained on his bed. He was the servant of his Lord as the 
Book says, " For there is nothing impossible to the Lord." As 
the prophetess said, " He has made weak the bow of the 
mighty, and he has girdled the weak with power " (1 Sam. ii. 4). 
Those filled with food were famished and the famished shall be 
filled. The Lord maketh poor and maketh rich, he humbleth 
and he exalteth, whom he taketh from the land of the needy, 
and lifteth the lowly out of the dust that he may set them up 
among the mighty of his people, and that they may inherit 
the throne of Glory (1 Sam. ii. 7, 8). To continue. And after 552 
that he came out of Garagara and followed Ras Aligaz and 

1 1"P>? * for -l-ao)f!f 2 Philistines dXXo^vXot, vide supra. 



1 424 ] 

camped at Dafte, and Ras Aligaz went to his village of Yaju. 
Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el sent out a herald to proclaim in 
these words, " I have given the government of Lasta to Wand 
Bawasan Khaylu." And Wand Bawasan Khaylu went to send 
down King of Kings Takla Giyorgis from Emkina so that he 
might be set free after two years and eight months, and Agabe 
AH Bedaras refused deceiving him with many stories, telling 
him " Yes, he has descended from the Amba." And Dajazmach 
Gualja the friend of the Negus received him, and the men of 
Lasta. That indeed was like our Lord when he came down 
from the Mount, and his disciples and many people came out 
to meet Him. We now return to the beginning of the story. 
The King of Kings Takla Giyorgis came to Lalibala that is 
called Warawar and remained there. Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el came to Garagara being annoyed ; and he arranged 
all this that was done in the month of Nahase 7285 year of the 
creation of the world (1793 A.D.)the year being that of Mathewos. 
Maskaram began on the Sunday. On the 10th of Maskaram 
men went to their tents, that they might announce the coming 
of Ras Aligaz and after that he let loose the soldiery in the 
land of Wadela and set fire to Dafte and there was a great 
commotion in Garagara. Ras Aligaz advanced to Garagara 
and Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el retired from there as far as 
Mafatana and pitched his tents there, while Ras Aligaz 
followed and camped at Zabit ; there was a muster of troops 
below Chachaho, and Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el turning back 
camped at Chachaho. On the 22nd of the month of Maskaram 
on Sunday there was a great battle and Gerazmach Walda 
Gabre'el was defeated and the cause of his defeat was that 
553 a Wale who was on his rear deserted him 1 . And all the soldiers 
perished, and Abeto Gabra Masqal of Debra Wagara Azmach 
Tsewa of Kamkam was killed. And he let loose the soldiers 
of the Galla as far as Guna; Tarbenos Khaylu was taken 
prisoner by the hands of the Galla, and Gerazmach Walda 
Gabre'el escaped very narrowly ; and he came to his village of 

1 n^i Aiulmric. Guidi, loc. cit. 545-. 



[425] 

Danqusa, and while on the road marching towards the land 
of Dajazmach Khaylu he came upon a band of Galla ; that 
time there was a fight and 14 Galla taken prisoner, after which he 
went on to his village of Este. That month Dajazmach Gabre 
was appointed a Ras, while he was in his country, and King of 
King-s Hezeqeyas was at Gondar, he said "formerly thy 
son-in-law was seated on the throne, thou however be seated 
on the throne of thy father." Aligaz saying thus, sent out a 
herald proclaiming this and in the month of Takhsas he came 
to Gondar and grasped the hand of the Negus. We now return 
to the beginning of the story. King of Kings Takla Giyorgis 
remained at Lalibala till the month of Ter, in which month 
he went to Wadela and joined Yasufe and Amade, thence 
to Ambasal, created Yasufe Dajazmach of Begameder, and 
settled at Geshen. Dajazmach Yasufe died in the land of 
Yajum in battle with Alula and Dagalas. King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis came to Wadela and joined Gerazmach Walda 
Gabre'el and stayed at Bet Hor, after which he came to Garagara 
and created Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el a Dajazmach of Bega- 
meder, and appointed the retainers of Walda Gabre'el to 
what offices they chose. After that he rose from Garagara 
and went to Lasta and met Blattengeta Kalu with great joy, 
and they bade farewell at Lasta, while King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis came to Balasa. We now go back to the beginning 
of the story. The Gallas returned back to their own lands, and 
then Blattengeta Galmo and Fitawrari Sadiq came, from the 553 b 
land of Balasa to Begameder and camped at Jerabat. He 
put in fetters Qanazmach Gafi and Gerazmach Amade and left 
Garagara. Then they marched and camped at Afaro and they 
had a fight with Wand Bawasan Khaylu the latter re- 
treating for it was his habit to retreat, and many men perished. 
Then the Gallas marched out and descended to Yaju and 
fought with Ras Aligaz. And then took place a great battle 
and they confiscated from the men their lands that are called 
Wadaja. But previous to this Dajazmach Khaylu had gone to 
Gojam to attack Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el, the reason of his 

w. B. 54 



[ 4 26] 

attack being that he had said, " Come follow me," and Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu had replied, "It is not fitting for me to follow 
a general, but only a Negus." On account of this they fought. 
And he went to Gojam to seek help from his brother Ras 
Khaylu, for he was a powerful ally in everything. So he sent 
his retainers to help him, for he himself was ill so that he could 
not come over to him. So Dajazmach Khaylu returned to 
Begameder with his retainers and camped at Acheqan. Geraz- 
mach Walda Gabre'el camped at Mezegzeg. And they kept 
fighting a whole day Khaylu staying with the men of Gojam, 
but after that there was a secret reconciliation ; and they went 
to their provinces Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el going into his 
camp at Nafas Mawcha, joining Dajazmach Khaylu at Makhdara 
Maryam. And while they were at Nafas Mawcha Ras Aligaz 
came setting the country in a commotion as the prophet says, 
" He hath made the mountains shake with his power " (Ezek. 
xxxviii. 20). And he camped at Afar Gaman, and Gerazmach 
Walda Gabre'el went to Gaynt, and crossed the Takazze Shodat 
and came to Garagara and Ras Aligaz left Afar Gamaii and 
554 a camped at the Cliff of Zenjaro. And they set fire to villages of 
Denqusa and Guasat. He sent a runner to Ras Khaylu saying, 
" You are my father-in-law and I am thy son-in-law, thou art my 
friend and I am thy friend, if you are safe and sound (lit. alive) 
help me, and if you are not safe and sound send your son with 
your army." Ras Khaylu replied, " Be it so," and sent his son 
Abeto Mardha with a large force. And setting off he joined 
Ras Aligaz at Guna. After that, hearing of the arrival of 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, King of Kings Hezeqeyas issued 
forth from Gondar and marched to Tsenjana, and departing 
thence he came to Dedem to the house of Dajazmach Khaylu. 
Ras Aligaz came from his tents and joined Negus Hezeqeyas 
and they took counsel together, and Abeto Mardha, Dajaz- 
mach Gugsa, and Gerazmach Walle came to the assistance 
of Negus Hezeqeyas with a large army to bring him to his 
tents. At this time Abeto Mardha was created Qariazmiich. 
Then King of Kings Hezeqeyas departed and halted at Fartsa 



[427] 

and coining to Gondar appointed Wagris Tasfu Tarsamba 
an Azaj (Judge of Appeal) and Aligaz Age a Basha. Then 
Negus Hezeqeyas went towards Wagara and engaged with the 
troops of Azarya Gabru of Wagara, and pitched his camp at 
Enqash. We return now to the beginning of the story. King 
of Kings Hezeqeyas came out of Balasa to Wagara and received 
Ras Gabre and camped at Waqen and then left and camped 
at Shamlako. King of Kings Hezeqeyas turned back and 
camped at Encheduba and followed him to Kosoge. And from 
Kosoge he went and camped at Maryam Weha, and while King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis was there, and King of Kings Hezeqeyas 
was at Encheduba, in that month Ras Aligaz started from Guna, 554 b 
and camped at Naius Mawcha ; he then sent Kef aw and Waleq- 
archam with a large force to Garagara and camped at Garshena. 
They fought a battle with Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el and 
defeated him leaving not a single man ; and when Ras Aligaz 
heard how all the army had been destroyed, he started from 
his camp by forced march while (the other was) at Dororaya 
and left his ambush ; he destroyed the whole army and Blatten- 
geta Teku was taken prisoner. But Gerazmach Walda Gabre'el 
escaped and came to Guna ; and from there he started and 
burnt the houses, that might have been useful to the fugitives 
of Dajazmach Khaylu of Este, and captured all the cattle 
and horses and asses without number. And Ras Aligaz 
pursued him as far as Amad Bar, and Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el fled towards Lebo and joined King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis and presented his trophies. Then King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis started out to attack Atse Hezeqeyas, but 
the latter fled towards Dengel Bar, to seek assistance, while 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis pursued him to Saqelat, but 
failing to catch him up, returned to his camp. And from 
there he departed and camped at Lebo, and while he was at 
Lebo Tarbenos Khaylu turned traitor to him and went over 
to Aligaz; on account of that there was a council held at 
the house of King of Kings Takla Giyorgis. And some said 
" Let us go out and fight Ras Aligaz and others said Let us go 



[ 4 28] 

towards Wagara," and so as their opinions did not agree, they 
separated, but the Negus went to Wagara and Dajazmach 
Gabre'el to Begameder. All this affair took place in the year 
of Matewos. 

In the year 7286 from the creation of the world (A.D. 1793) 
555 a the year being that of Markos, Maskaram began on the 
Monday when the Epact was 28 and Matq'e was 2, on the 
12th of Maskaram, Ras Aligaz marched out of Amad Bar 
on Friday and camped at Kamkam. And thence he went 
and camped at 'Ebnat, and while Ras Aligaz was there at 
'Ebnat, King of Kings Hezeqeyas came with Qanazmach 
Mar'ed and Dajazmach Gugsa and Dajazmach Aklog to de- 
liberate with Ras Aligaz. And his plan was in these terms, 
"You go to Gondar, taking with you Hezeqeyas the Negus 
and protect him from attack by King of Kings Takla Giyorgis 
coming from Semen, while I will march towards Begameder 
and search for Walda Gabre'el." And they bade farewell 
on that plan. Then Raz Aligaz marched out and halted at 
Madab, and King of Kings Hezeqeyas left Lebo and came 
to Gondar ; and in the month of Khedar he left Gondar and 
came over to Ras Aligaz, and descended to the land of Yaju; 
Qanazmach Mar'ed and Dajazmach Aklog remained at Gondar 
for a month ; and then left for their provinces. Ras Aligaz 
however left Dab and halted at Waher. Then he heard how 
they had burnt down the house belonging to Dajazmach Khaylu 
at Nagala and how the latter had camped at Mawqarya. Now 
Ras Aligaz went down to attack Tara Muja, but men of Muja 
came to him with the penalty of excommunication. Then he 
started and camped at Nafiis Mawchii and Dajazmach Khaylu 
took his leave and returned to his village ; and Ras Aligaz left 
for Wadela and fought with the Lasta people. And it was not 
his time to bear himself valiantly (for showing his prowess) as 
the Book says, " There is no strength but from the Lord " and 
the Lord avenged Ras Aligaz for the shedding of the blood of 
the men of Begameder and the death of all the Christians. 
As the prophet says, " He will avenge the blood of his servants, 



[429] 

he will avenge and exact vengeance on his enemy. And he 555 b 
will render vengeance on his adversaries" (Deut. xxxii. 43). 
And further another prophet says, "God has numbered 
(measured) thy kingdom, and given it to others " (Dan. v. 26) 
and thus he gave it to others. And then he started and went 
down to the Gand Yaju, and fought with his retainers and 
kinsmen, and he is a foe to this day. We will now return 
to the beginning of the story. While Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el was at Lasta he stirred up war against Wand Bawasan 
Khaylu in secret, and came to Begameder to attack the 
Dajazmach and Dajazmach Khaylu hearing of the coming of 
Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el, rose from his village and engaged 
in battle with the Sala men. And force was on the side of 
Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el and Abe to Walda Ner was killed, 
and Asalafe Sewodu with many men, and Dajazmach Khaylu 
was taken, and Tarbenos Khaylu escaped. Then he left and 
halted at Este and deliberated how he could make a raid on 
Gojam ; then he went from there and camped at Daber. And 
a retainer of Ras Khaylu came and practised a deception on 
him, saying, "Have pity on Walda Keros"; then he went and 
halted at Ganj, and leaving that place camped at Amadamet. 
Then Dajazmach Aklog came with an impudent piece of 
treachery. And Ras Khaylu when he heard of his treachery 
issued out by night from home alone 1 being afraid of the sun's 
burning heat, for he was ill ; and he camped at Talba Weha, 
where Aklog formerly dwelt in poverty, though later he was 
promoted, and raised to the grade of Dajazmach of Damot. 
But the cause of the quarrel was that he had been intimate 
with King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, that was like Same (Shimei) 
the son of Gera, when he assembled Juda to get his lord into the 
hands of the Jews 2 . (To return.) And from Amadamet he de- 556 a 
parted towards Gojam. And Ras Khaylu rose from his village 
and marched towards Amhara ; that month King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis came to his tents at Gondar and Dajazmach Walda 
Gabre'el sent a runner with Dajazmach Darso to King of 

Amharic. Guidi, 340. 2 2 Sam. xix. 16 et seqq. 



[430] 

Kings Takla Giyorgis saying, " Oh, King, come over to me that 
I may appoint officers and dismiss others in my house." This 
proposal he refused, and he (Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el) spent 
the rains at Gondar and made appointments and dismissals 
without leave of the Negus. Ras Gabre was with him. Then 
Dajazinach Walda Gabre'el after that returned to his province 
of Begameder and came to Garagara and spent the rains there, 
but Dajazinach Aklog tarried in Anbale. And Ras Khaylu 
returned from Amhara and had a fight with Dajazinach Aklog 
and the latter was captured by the hand of Dajazmach Mar'ed. 
That young man was like Solomon who did the behest of his 
father and took vengeance on Same (Shimei) the son of Gera 
(1 Kings ii. 46) for like him he (Qaiiazmach Mar'ed) took 
vengeance on Aklog and seized him and put him in chains. 
All this occurred in the year of Markos. 

In the year of the Creation of the world 7287 (A.D. 1794) 
the year being that of Lukas, Maskaram began on Tuesday, 
the Epact of the moon was 9, Matq'e 21, and Tentyon 1 
(Solar Epact) 7. Dajazmach Gabre'el started out on a raiding 
expedition from Seqanch, towards Lasta, without permission 
of the Negus, and was met on the road by Waldebba men, 
who came on account of Dajazmach Khaylu having been 
put in chains. And thus they said, "What have you done? 
first you persecuted him and burnt his house and the house 
of his father, and destroyed the whole of his village, after- 
wards you imprisoned him ; let him go for the sake of our 
fathers who have sent us, and for our sake who are weaklings," 
and he replied, "Yes, after I have returned from my raid, 
556 b I will set him free," and he swore to them, so they gave it 
up ; he however departed and went to Garagara. And from 
Garagara he marched and departing thence camped at 
Dankana. And while he was there Dajazmach Adgah came 
having been sent by the King of Kings. His business however 
we know not. But at the time he turned back to his village 
Ansata. Then Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el left and camped at 

1 1"Vi frf"V (T in error for "r)*=n\iv0iov, Dillmanu, Lex., 1392. Vide Appendix : 
" Chrouography, etc." 



[431] 

the frontier of Wadela, and there Dajazmach Gobaze came 
from Yaju, bringing a pearl (gem of the sea) called Sharafifc 
that had been in the hands of his father Aligaz. And there 
were great rejoicing and festivity, and he gave him a horse 
and took leave of him in peace. And after this he returned 
and raided Lasta, and Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el had the 
best of it. Afterwards they made friends and he promoted 
Wand Bawasan with a large present of gold and there was 
peace between them. Then he turned back and came to Gara- 
gara, and sent his retainers to his provinces; his brother 
Aserat he sent towards Ebenat. And he advanced against 
Sadaf Gabru, but could not find him, as he had escaped and 
gone to Gondar. The other however pursued him, and pitched 
his tents at Maryam Weha. Then he got up by night, that no 
one might know of this affair and went to Angarab and 
prepared for a battle. And when the Negus Takla Giyorgis 
heard that he was coming to attack him, he did not trust 
himself to the encounter (he did not wait to receive him) that 
day, since he had not had rations, and nothing to drink, so 
he let out his troops in Gondar. And the retainers of the 
Negus came to his palace, and found the door open. When 
they got there, an attendant of the Negus shut Ithe door 
against them, and they seized them, and the servant of the 
Negus was killed, named Berkabu. The others we do not 
know; on this Balambaras Aserat came up with a force to 
drive out the men from the King's walls, and he set fire to the 557 a 
Royal Takal (hut) and broke down the Negus' wall, but he was 
unable to stop the rush of the violent attack of the Negus' 
retainers with guns and spears ; and all joined in the battle at 
the gates and on the road. And at that moment the Abun 
and the Echage came out of their houses, and put them apart, 
and Aserat came out from Gondar, and camped at Angarab. 
Afterwards, the Abuna Yosab brought about peace; the Echage 
lyasus, and Labisa came over to the Negus, but his heart was 
heavy, and that reconciliation was a pretence, only for the 
purpose of getting the men out that had been seized in the 



[432] 

Royal Palace. Then he started from Angarab towards Waklme. 
But Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el while at Garagara, heard of 
the fight of his brother with the Negus ; then in order to 
confirm the peace with Ras Khaylu, he sent followers each 
day and thereupon he started from Garagara and camped at 
Tsanjena. And while there Qanasmach Sahelu came, the son 
of Dajazmach Goshu, followed by a large force. And from 
there he started and came down to Deldey to join Ras Khaylu, 
and the latter came down and camped at Ganj. And he refused 
to join Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el saying, " You make friends 
with King of Kings Takla Giyorgis since I have made friends with 
my Lord and unless you make peace we will not meet." Then he 
(Ras Khaylu) sent out a herald to proclaim, " I am reconciled 
with the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, my friends will rejoice 
and my enemies will grieve." At the same time they had great 
rejoicings on account of the alliance. That now was like Petros 
557 b who denied his Lord three times and repented, and so like him 
Ras Khaylu repented. And he was given promotion in Gojam, 
Damot, from Dengel Bar as far as Enbese a district of Ekit, by 
Takla Giyorgis King of Kings. We will now return to the 
beginning of the affair. Then he turned from the Abay and 
camped at Reb and sent a runner to King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis saying, " Have mercy on me," and King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis replied "Yea, return to your province, and stay at 
Aringo." But the other refused, and started out from Reb on 
the Thursday towards Gondar. But the Negus left the same 
day from Gondar and went towards Wagara with Ras Gabre 
and camped at Waqn. And Dajazmach Walda ( Jabre'el camped 
at Maryam Weha. Easter fell on the 6th Miyazya. On the 
same day he released Dajazmach Khaylu. On the 7th Miyaxya 
he started out of Maryam Weha and camped at Kosage. On 
the 9th of that month he came to Gondar and camped at 
Angarab. On the same day Abeto Gabra Abib, the son of 
Dajazmach Nacho Chelqin was killed by a spear on the house 
of the Abun, about an affair of a woman. And while he was 
at Angarab he laid waste the land of Bajiua and Balasa, and 



[433] 

many of his retainers perished. On the 10th Miyazya he came 
into the house of the Abun and the Echage and joined the 
chiefs, and he said to them, " I have put another Negus on the 
Throne." And they replied, " You shall not do that. We will 
go and fetch the Negus," and he replied only, " Be it so." 
Then they went off, Dajazmacb Adgah, Liqe Khaylu, Liqe Gabru 
and Mamher (doctor) Baferu of Tsana not aware of the fact 
that the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis was in the country of 
Sawre. And when those chiefs returned they made Negus 
Ba'eda Maryam King on the 12th of Genbot on the day of the 
feast of St Michael the Archangel. And the Abun and the 558 a 
Echage came to the centre of the Royal Castle 1 , and placed 
the crown which was of fine gems on his head, and there was 
dancing at Gondar and pedlars 2 , and dancing girls 3 . And the 
same month Qanazmach Sahelu fell grievously sick and was 
left at Gondar. Dajazmach Walda Gabre'el was created a 
Ras and also Betwaddad. And in the month of Sane he started 
out from Gondar and went on a raiding expedition towards 
Wagara and camped at Tamame. And while he was there men 
of Wagara came over to him with Balambaras Atsequ. Then 
Atse Ba'eda Maryam departed and camped at Daqua, and the 
same day King of Kings Takla Giyorgis started from Sawre 
and camped at Quantata, Atse Ba'eda Maryam started out 
from Daqua and camped at Bandi Gabsa; the same week 
the retainers of Ras Gabre at Shawada and Mosabit had a fight 
with the retainers of Walda Gabre'el. Ras Gabre prevailed 
and after that the coming of Ras Khaylu from Gojam to Bega- 
meder became known and his meeting with Wand Bawasan 
Khaylu in the province of Agatsa, to give assistance to the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis. And hearing that, he made a 
secret plan to return to his province : and then he started and 
camped at Lama. And at that time a servant of Dajazmach 
Walda Sellase came to say, "Say nothing neither here nor there. 



Amharic is the fort or stronghold of the Royal Residence. 
3 h<n* from hm<5i (1) to peddle goods, (2) to cheat. Amharic. Guidi, loc. cit., 507. 
3 ty& Amharic. Guidi, loc. cit., 253. 
w. B. 55 



[434] 

I, however, have come to help you and I will show you my power 
and the power of God." And then Dajazmach Walda Sellase 
(went) from Tigre and camped at Aquina. Meanwhile Abeto 
Walda Heywat, the brother of Ras Gabre came and attacked a 
retainer of Dajazmach Walda Sellase : and on seeing that he 
marched forth burning with rage, for that man was a chief 
558 b powerful as a lion and savage as a leopard. As the Bible says, 
" He had the indignation that is of righteousness," and he split 
the darkness of the mountains (convents) with a multitude of 
guns whose roar was heard like lightning bolts and thunder, and 
they covered with smoke like a fog the monasteries, that are 
called Hay and Tazan, Saganat and Batal, that had not been 
destroyed since the days of the Negus Ishaq to the present time. 
What was achieved by him was through his strong faith. As the 
Bible says, "If you have faith as big as a grain of mustard seed, 
then if you say to that mountain, ' move,' it will move" (Matt, 
xvii. 20). And they found people chained in those convents, so 
they set them free, and also concubines were found, and these 
they sent to their respective countries. Then he got up and 
camped at Meshha. The Negus Ba'eda Maryam also started 
from Karar and camped at Shawada. After that when the 
Negus Takla Giyorgis and Ras Gabre heard everything, they 
started from Quantata. There was a reconciliation between the 
chiefs and the retainers and Dajazmach Adegah. When they 
started there was great sorrow in the Plain of Saquar. 

We will now return to the beginning of the matter. From 
Shawada the Negus started out and camped at Anchat Kab, 
and came to the house of Ras Gabre and Dajazmach Walda 
Sellase came with a few troops and joined the Negus and pre- 
sented him with gifts. Yafu Mansha gave him what was fitting, 
and was appointed Governor over the frontier of Angarab as 
far as Matswa, and he spent the winter at Semen. Afterwards 
our Negus Ba'eda Maryam marched to Baguzo and came to 
Gondar, and there were changes made in the appointments. 
And the same month of Sane, Ras Khaylu returned from Bega- 
meder to his land of Gojam, and he came on to NazarSt, and 



[435] 

while at Nazaret Ras Khaylu died suddenly on the 30th of 
Sane, the nourisher of the whole world. And the Negus hearing 
of this wept with his army, and caused an effigy to be made 
(to be borne) with banner and drums 1 . Ras Khaylu died a man 559 a 
of modesty towards both great and small (to the great and the 
Jowly) as the Bible says, "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for 
theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven." 

And after that Qanazmach Mara'ed succeeded to the office 
of his father, and in the same month of Sane on the 27th, there 
passed to her rest Princess Walatta Kedan, the daughter of 
Atse lyasu, and she was buried at Makhdara Maryam, and after 
that on the 25th of Hamle, Ras Walda Gabre'el started from 
Gondar and came to Makhdara Maryam, and became reconciled 
with his sister Wayzaro Yawareq Weha, and then started and 
went to Masqanch ; the Negus however spent the rains at 
Gondar, while Negus Takla Giyorgis did the same at Waldebba. 
Princess Atsuga passed to her rest at Nagala on the 9th of 
Nahase. 

The 7288 year of the creation of the world (1795 A.D.) the 
year being that of Johannes, Maskaram began on Thursday. 
Epact of moon being 20, Matq'e was 10, Tentyon was 2, 
and on Thursday of the year of Johannes, the 12th Maskaram, 
Ras Walda Gabre'el started from Seqanch and came to 
Garagara. Thence he departed and camped at Malay and 
then heard of the advance of the men of Lasta and Amade 
that are called Kualasi. Then he turned back and camped 
at Felaqit and pitched his tents there. The Lasta men ad- 
vanced with Gallas in company with them, and a battle took 
place on the 8th of the month Teqemt on Saturday. In the 
fight Ras Walda Gabre'el was beaten and victory declared 
for the Lasta men and the Gallas. And Ras Walda Gabre'el 
made his escape with great difficulty, with a handful of 



*h% > or /hft. i old orthography for t\m, t cf. Praetorius, Beitraye zur athiop. 
Grammatik, 35 ; Massaia, Lectiones Grammaticales etc., 254. In great state funerals an 
effigy (7*flA) of the defunct was constructed and borne in procession. ( Vide I. Guidi, loc. cit. 
171.) 



[436] 

troops, and all the men from Begameder were taken prisoner 
by the men of Lasta and the Gallas. And then he descended 
to land of Wechale, some were sold (as slaves) others were 
killed, others were fettered, and others made good their 
escape. And the Amade turned back to their country, but the 
559 b Lasta men pursued him (Ras Walda Gabre'el) towards Cha- 
chaho. He went to Maryam Weha and the Lasta men camped 
at Agala. While the Lasta men were there, Ras Walda Gabre'el 
retired towards Begameder on the road to Sabisa Bar. The 
Lasta men, hearing of this movement of Ras Walda Gabre'el 
started in pursuit and joined battle with him at Tsanfa Gumara. 
Then Ras Walda Gabre'el withdrew and came to Quaratsa, 
his brother having gone to Begameder. The monks of the 
plain of Quaratsa effected a reconciliation between Ras Walda 
Gabre'el and Wand Bawasan Khaylu, and Ras Walda Gabre'el 
came to Makhdara Maryam and stayed there. Then Wand 
Bawasan Khaylu left Makhdara Maryam for Gondar, and camped 
at Reb. After this he tyrannically put Dajazmach Khaylu in 
chains and sent him to Emkina with a strong force, since he 
coveted his goods and his province. That oppression was like 
the persecution of Nabute (Naboth) whom the Queen perse- 
cuted about his vineyard (1 Kings xxi. 14). The story is that he 
went to Guzohu and came on to Gondar. But after his arrival 
Negus Takla Giyorgis came to Wand Bawasan Khaylu. Before, 
when he was atDara, he (the latter) had sent Gerazmach Adiyamo 
to Waldebba to fetch away the Negus Takla Giyorgis, but the 
Negus had refused and said, " If I come back, shall I be an 
image and a puppet ? " and the messengers returned. And 
Wand Bawasan Khaylu took the oath (swore) to them saying, 
"Whoever he appoints, let him hold office, and whoever he 
dismisseth, let him be dismissed. I however by permission of 
the Negus will go away." 

After that the King of Kings (Takla Giyorgis) came away from 
Waldebba with Ras Gabre and came to Gondar. On the 19th of 
the month of Ter, Dajazmach Khaylu built a church in the land 
of Askuma by leave of the Negus and brought a Tabot of the 



[437] 

Holy Trinity and a Tabot of the Testament of Mercy on the 7th 560 a 
of Khedar; he gave the name of Tsereh Tseyon (Sion) to that 
monastery. (To return.) And the Negus and Ras Gabre fore- 
gathered with Wand Bawasan Khaylu and the Negus Takla 
Giyorgis gave a banquet and regaled them. And after that there 
were appointments made and dismissals. We do not know what 
appointments were made, because not a single appointment was 
permanent ; he (Wand Bawasan Khaylu) did make permanent 
one official, but that one was without permission of the Negus, 
and he foreswore his oath of allegiance to the Negus, it being his 
habit to lie. And then Tarbenos Khaylu came from Gondar with 
treacherous intent. At that time advice was given to the Negus 
as to going together to the healing (medicinal) waters they call 
Labat 1 . And after that they practised a fraud on him, saying, 
"A runner has come to say that Ras Walda Gabre'el has gone 
away in great haste towards Begameder." The Negus however 
knew that it was a falsehood, and he remained at Gondar, and 
Wand Bawasan came to Makhdara Maryam with Tarbenos 
Khaylu, and joined Ras Walda Gabre'el, on what business we do 
not know. Then he started out and came to Masqanch, and while 
there Ras Walda Gabre'el and Dajazmach Mare'ed came to an 
agreement (an alliance) and Balambaras Aserat went off to bring 
Dajazmach Mare'ed and then, first Balambaras Aserat came 
with Abeto Walda Takle, Dajazmach Khaylu's son, and a large 
force, afterwards Dajazmach Mare'ed followed by forced 
marches him to Begameder and Ras Walda Gabre'el came to 
Makhdara Maryam, breaking his oath, saying, " Better fall into 
the hands of the Almighty than fall into the hands of my 
sister's son." And he passed on towards Este and joined 
Dajazmach Mare'ed and there was a commotion at Masqanch. 
And hearing of their coming, Wand Bawasan fled towards 
'Ebnat, but the others came to Kemar Dangaya and camped 
there. Wand Bawasan Khaylu camped at Libo ; then he sent 
over to Negus Takla Giyorgis to say, " Come and help me," and 

1 Labat (Ani*) means, in Tigrine, hot, hot water; several places were given this name 
from hot springs in the locality. 



[438] 

he replied, "Yes," and the Negus started out from Gondar, and 
he joined Walda Bawasan Khaylu at Zena Maryam ; and when 
he joined he said, " We will stay behind, but you go and burn 
down the villages of our enemies so as to disperse the men 
of Gojam." And he (Wand Bawasan Khaylu) rose and said, 
" Agreed " with the voice of a deceiver ; it has been related 
above how he had deceived him (the king) three times before, 
" for the Israelite forgets not his revenge." Then the King of 
Kings rose and camped at Geran, and nearing there he made a 
forced march with a few soldiers towards Wagara. The other 
soldiers however returned to Wand Bawasan Khaylu, while the 
Negus went on to Waldebba. Then Wand Bawasau Khaylu 
rose from his camp and halted at 'Ebnai Easter fell on 
the 25th of Miyazya. Genbot began on Saturday. On the oth 
Genbot, Ras Walda Gabre'el started from Kemer Dangaya and 
Dajazmach Mare'ed to go towards Gondar and camped at Ena- 
tena. The son of Wand Bawasan followed them and on the 
6th Genbot they fought a battle, and the power of Dajazmach 
Mare'ed prevailed, Dajazmach Khaylu was killed, the son 
of Tarbenos and Dajazmach Khaylu were taken prisoner, as well 
as Balambaras Walda Takle, Fitawrari Aydan, and were put in 
chains. Of those that remained we do not know their names 
but many men perished. Then Dajazmach Mare'ed sent for 
Dajazmach Khaylu to be brought from Emkina, where he was 
chained, and thereupon released him on the 13th of Genbot. 
His counsel, it seemed to me, was that of Wand Bawasan on 
account of his persecution of Dajazmach Khaylu. When he 
was released he prayed saying, " Thou has delivered my soul " 
(Ps. Ivi. 13) and again, " My tongue shall declare thy justice all 
the day long (Ps. xxxv. 28) when they (the Lasta men) were put 
56i a to shame and punished that devise my hurt " (Ps. xxxv. 1, Ixx. 
2). After this he went to his village. We will now return to 
the previous matter. On the 1 7th of that month, Balambaras 
Aserat was put in fetters and on the 18th Dajazmach Mare'ed 
got out from his camp and went towards Gondar ; Ras Walda 
Gabre'el stayed behind at Begameder. On the 25th Genbot, it 



[439] 

rained dust (ashes) such as had not been heard or seen in the 
land of Etyopiya, and as for other countries we do not know if it 
rains so, or if it rains not, only it was found in the Fakkare lyasus l 
(Prophecy of Jesus) words (which foretell) " Thirty angels cast 
ashes (dust) down with their wings." To continue. Dajazmach 
Mare'ed came to Gondar and camped at Abora, and he 
sent over to the Negus Takla Giyorgis, " Now ! come to your 
house and sit on your throne." And his followers said, "We will 
not go on unless you take the oath, and the men of your house 
take the oath, for there are men who dislike his ruling," and he 
replied, " Agreed." And the Abun came to the house with the 
retainers of his father, and the governors that were with him, 
and all of them took the oath together. And at the same time, 
a herald made proclamation, " Anyone who will not accept our 
Negus shall have his house plundered and his goods confis- 
cated." And then on the 14th of Sane Dajazmach Mare'ed 
started from Gondar and camped at Magach to receive the 
Negus Takla Giyorgis and waited while he deliberated how 
he should arrange the reception of the Negus, some said, 
"According to the plan of Ras Gabre and Liqe with prayer" and 
others said, "According to the plan of the Gojamese," but we 
know not what this was, God alone knows. And on the 14th of 
that month he returned taking Abeto Gabra Madakhan, who was 
called Solomon; son of Atse Takla Haymanot Makual Gem 
came, and the Abun and Echage and the chiefs arrived and 
elected him Negus. And there was great grief at the abandon- 56i b 
ment (deposing) of Negus Takla Giyorgis. 

After this Dajazmach Mare'ed was created a Ras and 
Betwaddad, and on the 20th of Sane appointments and dis- 
missals took place, but the names of the officials we do not 
know, as for each office they appointed three or four each day. 
Then Ras Mare'ed went to Gojam on the road to Begameder, 
and Dajazmach Aklog remained at Gondar, to protect Negus 
Solomon and the Negus spent the rains at Gondar and in that 
month Hamle, Dajazmach Khaylu came to Quaratsa as that 
was his village. Nahase began on Friday and on the 7th of 

1 Vide Appendix : Fakkare lyasus. 



[440] 

Nahase he started from Quaratsa to be blessed by the monks 
that were at the island of Narga and Daga. Some said, " Fly 
from the Ras Walda Gabre'el." And then they were put with 
two sailors Abba Gabra Le'ul and a child on board a 
tanqua (bamboo boat) and when they were out on the lake, 
one sailor got sick, and a strong wind arose which made the 
sea rough, and at that moment the tanqua was upset and Abba 
Gabra Le'ul of Waldebba was drowned. Thereupon Dajazmach 
Khaylu got on to the tanqua with them, but by the wonderful 
power of God when they were upset he clung on to its keel 
for two days and a night, naked, while the waves of the lake 
dashed over him, as the prophet says, " All thy rivers (floods) 
compassed me about, thy billows passed over me " (Jonah ii. 3). 
He took Abba Gabra Le'ul after he was dead and bound 
him on to a tanqua and after three days by the force of the 
wind he came to the shore of an island of Tsana (lake) ; and 
the monks his friends received him. And Abba Gabra Le'ul 
was buried on that spot, but Dajazmach Khaylu resembled 
Jonah the prophet who came out of the belly of a whale after 
three days, praise be to God who showed His power to His 
servant Dajazmach Khaylu. Amen. 

562 a In the 7289 year of the creation of the world (1796 A.D.). 
The year being that of Matewos Maskaram began on Friday, 
the Epact of the moon 1, the Matq'e 29 and the Tentyon 
was 3. We have been brought to this hour by his mercy for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

And when King of Kings Solomon was at Gondar, locusts 
came and destroyed many districts. Has Mare'ed started 
from Zawa, came to Machakel and put Dajazmach Zawede in 
chains and in that month Ras Walda Gabre'el put his brother 
Abagaz Khaylu in chains, on the 18th of Maskaram, sending 
to him spearmen while he was in his house and fetching him 
to Garagara, and then on the 12th of Teqemt Ras Walda 
Gabre'el released his brother Abagaz Khaylu hearing that the 
Lasta men were advancing to attack him, putting him in 
chains, so that he might not be killed And on the following 



[44i] 

day the Lasta men came, with a few spearmen, and he went 
with the spies to see them. Then they killed a rifleman in the 
midst of a number of men and the retainers of Ras Walda 
Gabre'el fled and came to his camp. On this Ras Walda 
Gabre'el took to flight towards Nafiis Mawcha and camped 
there. Is not the work of God who worketh wonders in the 
earth visible in this? When Ras Walda Gabre'el released 
Abagaz Khaylu that he might not be killed, God avenged 
Abagaz Khaylu. As the Book says, the judgement of God is 
otherwise than the judgement of man. And in that month, 
the Agaw came with Walda Ab and killed Gabre Haywat, 
a retainer of Ras Mare'ed. We will now go back to the 
previous matter. And while King of Kings Solomon was at 
Gondar, Dajazmach Tshaya Leda came and camped at Ayra, 
and the Negus came out from his tents and went to Ayra, and 
had an interview with him, but the reason of the meeting 
we do not know. The King of Kings Solomon turned and 
came to his tents. Khedar began on the Tuesday. On the 
14th of that month Ras Gabre started from Semen and went 562 b 
towards Aksum to join Dajazmach Walda Sellase and the two 
of them met on the feast of Tseyon (Zion) and there was great 
rejoicing, and Dajazmach Walda Sellase gave Ras Gabre many 
articles, and he took his leave and returned to his country. 
Takhsas began on Thursday, while Ras Mare'ed was at Dab- 
gasha, to build a church; Ras Walda Gabre'el sent over to 
him, "We will meet on the bank of the Abay, for there is 
a matter that I must consult you about." So on the 27th of 
Takhsas Ras Mare'ed went out of his camp and Ras Walda 
Gabre'el started and went off and they two met on the 
bank of the Abay. Ter began on Saturday. And they took 
Balambaras Aserat who had been brutally put in chains. First 
he had tyrannically chained him and then afterwards saying, 
" I will release you," he had chained him again. That Balam- 
baras Aserat was like Samson who was fettered with brutal 
duress. And after that he went to. Garagara and camped 
at Chat Weha, and tarried a short while. And his retainers 

w. B. 56 



L 44*] 

had a fight with the Lasta men and many men were captured. 
Yakatit began on Tuesday. Ras Mare'ed started on a scheme 
of raiding to attack the Agaw and Ras Walda Gabre'el started 
from Chat Weha to attack the Lasta men, and camped at 
Qachen Amba; Blattengeta Kalu came and while he was there 
spies came to him, and told him, " Ras Aligaz has arrived with a 
large army," whereupon he consulted with the men of his 
household and Blattengeta (Kalu) rose from there and camped 
at Chabar Tsay. Then Ras Aligaz advanced and camped at 
Dagamu and pitched his tents. Magabit began on Wednesday ; 
Ras Gabre'el took to flight towards Yemreha and came to 
563 a Maqet travelling by night and day in haste. And from Maqet 
he departed and camped at Agrit and from Agrit he departed 
and camped at Zugara. And while there he heard of the 
approach of Ras Aligaz through a spy and Avent off by 
night and reached Nafes Mawcha. Ras Aligaz pursued him 
as far as Ayna, and laid waste Ayna and from there he 
went and reached Garagara and from Garagara he went and 
camped at Mawqarya. And departing from Mawqarya he 
camped at Abrajet. And Walda Gabre'el was at Nafas 
Mawcha the 28th of the month of Magabit. Then Ras Aligaz 
attacked Ras Walda Gabre'el, and the latter beat a retreat 
victory remaining with Ras Aligaz. And that day he released 
Wand Bawasan Khaylu and marched to the province of 
Lasta, and chained Blattengeta Kalu, breaking his oath. 
Ras Walda Gabre'el proceeded towards Semada and set free 
without his leave Blattengeta Aserat, saying, " He will be a 
help to me," and from Semada he rose and marched to Muja, 
hearing of the approach of Amade whose name was Yemam. 
And they met at Nafas Mawcha and both of them camped 
at Saloch while Ras Aligaz was at Zenjero cliff. Easter fell 
on the 10th Miyazya 1 . While there he heard of the approach 
of Amade, so he left and camped at Yetba. On the 18th of 
Miyazya a great battle was fought, such as had never been 
heard or seen. And victory lay with Amade and Ras Aligaz 

1 =10th April 1797 A.D. 



[443] 

fled towards Este and came to Makhdara Maryam, and took 
refuge there with many of his troops; of the remainder 
Dajazmach Gugsa and Qanazmach Gafi with their troops fled 
in the direction of Semen on the road to Amad Bar. At that 
time there was great straits at Makhdara Maryam from the 
terror of Amade the (Muhammedan) preacher 1 , but our Lady 
Maryam, as she had delivered it before from the hand of the 
Kalifa destroying her house, so she preserved the Makhdar 
(convent) from the hand of the Muslim; and he was driven back 563 b 
to his land by the power of Christ our Lord, and the powerful 
aid of our Lady Maryam Mother of God. And after that Ras 
Walda Gabre'el came to Makhdara Maryam, while they were 
seeking for him in order to destroy Makhdara Maryam a thing 
that had not occurred since the (days of) Negusa Nagast Sartsa 
Dengel to this day. And he reached Makhdara Maryam on 
the 24th of the month of Miyazya on Sunday. He said to the 
priests, "Fetch out Ras Aligaz my enemy, that I may put him in 
chains," and the monks of Makhdara Maryam answered, " There 
has been no man chained in our land since King of Kings 
Sartsa Dengel to this day ; wilt thou break through the 
(customs) decrees of our fathers and our Kings and violate 
what the Bible speaks of, 'Violate not the decrees of your 
fathers.' " But he refused for his heart was hard and he was an 
obdurate infidel. And that moment the priests swore an oath 
before the image of our Lady Maryam, but he was inflamed 
with a great rage and he cast into irons Ras Aligaz and Garaz- 
mach Gubaze against the will of the priests ; the priests be- 
wailed as did the men of Begameder who had taken sanctuary 
there to see such desecration in that monastery. As Ermeyas 
( Jeremias) says, " Let us not see the desecration of Jerusalem." 
Then they wept as Ezra wept over the destruction of Jeru- 
salem, and as the Gospel says, " He looked upon the city and 
wept" (Lukexix. 41). And while he was going to fight with his 
brother Balambaras Aserat, he left the guards at the door to sur- 



from fynAi (taneballa) i.e. to cry S-N)| -J ( = prophet of God) to pray, 
preach, etc. Dillmann, Lexifcon, 562. 



[444] 

round those who were in Makhdara Maryam that he might break 
into it, as was said by David, " They encompassed me about like 
honey bees" (Ps. cxviii. 12), or as Sanacherem said, "Walk 
about Zion and go round about her, tell her towers; set 
your heart in her strength, and divide the burden of her 1 ." 
And then he departed and camped at Tsenjana. Genbot 
564 a began on Sunday. From Tsenjana he departed and camped 
at Marabet, and while there the Gallas came to a consulta- 
tion and entered into a covenant as the Bible says, "They 
have consulted together against thee and they have shown 
to thee they have united and confederated, the tabernacles 
of the Idomeyas and the Ishmaelaweya (Edomites and Ish- 
maelites, Ps. Ixxxiii. 5, 6) Mo'ab and the Agaraweya (Haga- 
renes, ibid.) Gebal and Amon and Amalig (Gebal and Hammon, 
ibid.), and Amaleq and Ilofelli with the men of Tiros" (Philistines 
and the inhabitants of Tyre, ibid.). And it is said in another 
part, " Counsel good for all who do good " that he might make 
war on Ras Walda Gabre'el and might make common cause 
with Abigaz (and) Aserat, as the prophet says, "And Assur also 
is joined with them" (Ps. Ixxxiii. 8). The cause of making war 
was, because Ras Aligaz had been chained by the hand of Ras 
Walda Gabre'el. And he sent two warriors over to him, to 
fetch Balambaras Aserat, just as Kaleb and lyasu were sent 
(Numbers xiii.). And Balambaras Aserat came being pre- 
pared for battle and while the other did not advance the 
battle began with Ras Walda Gabre'eTs Gallas who were in 
his house. Then Balambaras Aserat arrived and a fight took 
place and he got the best of it, and Walda Gabre'el retreated 
for it was his habit to retreat. And all this that took place 
was what the words of the Bible describe and men of the 
house fought with men and as David said, "He who has 
nourished with my Lord has raised his heel against me " (Ps. 
xli. 9). And to us it seems this might be likened to the dese- 
cration of Makhdara Maryam, and the mourning of the monks 



1 Ps. xlviii. 12, 13. This is the Greek version, 6i<r6t ras KapSias vpS>v tis rt)v 

Kai KaTadit\Kr6f ras ftdptis avrrjs. The Abyssiuians referred this Psalm to Hezekiah. 



I 445] 

that was heard by God, in the words of the Bible saying, 
" The voice was heard in Rama of weeping and lamentation and 
Availing for Rachel was weeping for her children " (Jer. xxxi. 15), 
and elsewhere it says, "Because of the prayer of the just man 
thou shalt prevail," and as he heard the prayer of Isaiyas so 
he hearkened to the monks of Makhdara Mary am on the 14th 
day and after that the monks of Makhdara Maryam released 564 b 
Ras Aligaz having heard of the retreat of Ras Walda Gabre'el: 
and Balambaras Aserat sent over to him to say, " Oh my Lord 
Ras Aligaz, be not afraid on account of your being chained, for 
I am going to send you back to your own country in peace," 
and Ras Aligaz replied, " It is well," and Balambaras Aserat 
came over and joined Ras Aligaz and made a firm covenant of 
alliance with him by oath and anathema. On the 19th of 
Genbot they issued forth from Makhdara Maryam, Balambaras 
Aserat and Ras Aligaz. Then Ras Aligaz resembled Zerub- 
babel who brought out Israel by the permission of Daryos 
(Cyrus ?) (Ezra ii. 2) bringing forth the Gallas by permission of 
Aserat. Then they halted at Tsenjana and afterwards departed 
and camped at Gaza and met Princess Yawarq Weha There 
they halted. Then they departed and camped at Afar Gaman, 
where they sent out a herald to proclaim, "Balambaras Aserat 
who is of the race of the Galla shall not remain in Begameder 
but shall follow Ras Aligaz," and Ras Aligaz went to his province 
Yaju and Balambaras Aserat was left behind. And this is as 
we relate it, for those were the days not of the kings but of the 
servants (the supremacy of servants, not of rulers). As the 
Book says, "Gold shall be despised, and silver held in esteem 1 ." 
On account of this we have narrated what we saw and heard. 
The King of Kings having espoused a woman, daughter of his 
brother, Ras Ali, by name Princess Altash who had lived before 
in concubinage with the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, re- 
sembled Oreyo (Uriah) who was illtreated through his wife 
(2 Sam. xii.), Oh, my Lord Takla Giyorgis, how much were 

1 Quotation from the Fakkare lyasus, the " Revelation of Jesus." MSS. d'Abbadie, Bib. 
Nat. Paris. Vide Appendix. 



[446] 

you illtreated through your wife, but your judgment was just; 
only God has not so far delivered you. 

We will now return to the beginning of the matter. And 
he started from Afar Gainafi and camped at Adis Amba, and 
made appointments and decrees without the Negus or the chiefs 
on the 29th Genbot. Sane began on Tuesday. (To return.) 
565 a While he was there the G alias advanced that had before fled 
towards Semen, Dajazmach Gugsa, Qaiia/mach Gafi with their 
brothers, and joined Balambaras Aserat, and he took leave of 
them in peace, in their province Yaju on the road to Lasta. 
That month Ras Mare'ed returned from Agaw to Gojam, and 
Dajazmach Aklog remained in Damot, and was created Dajaz- 
mach of Damot, and Liqe Batsalotu was cast into chains. 
Hainle began on Thursday, and on the 10th Hamle Balambaras 
Aserat started hurriedly from Seqanch in the direction of 
Gondar, to attack our Negus Solomon with the Fanja troops 
and approached Tsada; but the Negus took to flight in the 
direction of Dengel Bar to seek assistance. Ras Mare'ed and 
Balambaras Aserat then pursued him as far as Dambaya, and 
he turned back towards Gondar. That Aserat was like Ras 
Zasellase of the Gurage 1 that oppressed the Kings Atse Za 
Dengel and Atse Ya'eqob, so he surrounded Gondar. And he 
knocked down the walls of the house and burnt the property 
of the Negus Takla Giyorgis and only did not enter (break 
through) owing to want of strength, and the defence of the 
King's retainers. As the Bible says, " I will make powerless 
the bows of the mighty, and I will gird the weak ones with 
strength 2 ." And again he put Negus Solomon to flight, and 
sacked Gondar. In that month Dajazmach Aklog died and 
Ardu Yaba Barya, by the hands of the Agaw, while they were 
at Bura. Nahase began, and on 14th Abeto Jonas, son of 
Abeto Latsun, son of Atse Fasil ruled and there were appoint- 

1 Gurage., a tribe of Gallas, S.W. of Shoa, referring to early wars of the 16th century 
between the Abyssinians and Gallas. 

3 " The bows of the mighty men are broken, and they that stumbled are girded with 
strength " (1 Sam. ii. 4). 



ments and dismissals (of the officers). Who were appointed 
we know not, for we were not in the habitations. Dajaz- 
maoh Aserat returned to Begameder, and at that time there was 
a famine, and more men perished than could be numbered. At 
that time he came to Masqanch, and while at Masqanch he sent 565 h 
a runner to Dajazmach Khaylu to say, "Do not remain at 
Makhdara Maryam with a lot of men, but stay by yourself, and 
send me your daughter and your horse." Dajazmach Khaylu 
replied, " Agreed." That however was a trick, for he hurried 
towards Afarawanat, on the 3rd of Parguemen (Intercalary 
month) and pitched camp there. His retainers and his father- 
in-law came, and attacked Gerazmach Wand Yera'ad violently 
while he was at Dara, and victory declared for Dajazmach 
Khaylu ; and Dajazmach Aserat hearing news of the battle, 
rose from Saqanch and came to Afarawanat, but Dajazmach 
Khaylu crossed the river Abay and camped at Ganj, to seek 
the aid of Ras Mardha; and Ras Mare'ed sent over to Dajazmach 
Khaylu to say "Come, we will consult together as to what we 
shall do." So Dajazmach Khaylu started and came to Gojam. 
Teqemt began on Monday. Ras Mare'ed and Dajazmach Khaylu 
sent over to King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, while he was at 
Waldebba, to say, "Come to your palace, and we will serve 
you, for without thee the whole world perished by famine 
(hunger) and spears." Dajazmach Walda Sellase sent the same 
message and Ras Gabre joined and said, " Negusa Nagast of 
all the world if that declaration pleases." " Agreed." As the 
Bible says, " Give us a king who shall rule over us." But the 
men of Etyopiya cried, " Let Takla Giyorgis be King to rule 
over us, and save us from famine and turmoil." All were 
satisfied with this arrangement. We will now return to the 
beginning of the affair. On the 30th of Teqemt, Mafu son of 
the Ytege Esther died. Khedar began on the Wednesday. On 
the loth of Khedar Ras Mare'ed joined Kualasi. Dajazmach 
Sahela was expelled from his province Amhara and came to 
Begameder and he was attacked by the men of Muj and seized ; 
on the 19th Khedar the Ytege (Queen Consort) Esther died 566 a 
who had been Queen for three months. There was great 



[448] 

mourning in the tabernacles, the Abun and Ytege issued 
forth ; and she was buried at Quesquam in the royal tomb of 
Mentwab ; and there was a commotion at Gondar and Dam- 
baya caused by the only son, for there was not a king or a 
queen to deliver us. Takhsas began on Friday and on it Ras 
Gabre descended to Waldebba to fetch out King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis, and when he joined him he said to the Negus, 
" Come and enter your palace," but that proposal was a trick, 
and the Negus replied, " Yes, come over to me and bring me 
to my habitation, but Ras Gabre refused and the Negus de- 
clined also, but the object (pretext) of their cajolery we 
know not. As the Book says, " Tie up a boat in the sea and 
a beast in the grass " just that was in the mind of the Negus. 
We will now go back to the commencement of the affair. 
Ras Gabre was torn between the two questions, " If I go back 
to my tents I shall be afraid of the Negus, and if I remain 
Dajazmach Walda Sellase will attack me." And he made 
the Negus swear that (called the Negus to witness) he would 
not seek revenge and Ras Gabre gave the Negus his brother 
Walda Heywst to fetch him to his tents, then left him and 
went to the country of Bera. But the Negus came out quietly 
and camped, and going a day's march l halted at Angarab ; and 
that day the Abun Atse Jonas came to the palace and took 
refuge, and on the 29th Takhsas on the day of the Feast of our 
Lord Jesus, he came to his dwelling. On the 30th Takhsas, 
a herald went out to proclaim these words, "Come, the (Feast 
of the) Nativity has come," and men of the city, pedlars and 
566 b singing girls of Islam and Gondar issued forth to his reception, 
dancing, and all the priests made festival with canticles and 
psalms. And there were great rejoicings, but for the habita- 
tions searching of heart and joy that troubles had passed away 
and they had found cause to rejoice. On that day when he 
came to Qob'astel, he appointed Aqabe Ha'at Kabte Bo'ata an 
Alaqa, and the other Kabte Ledata, an Alaqa. Ter began on 
the Sunday, and in that month Dajazmach Aserat came bearing 
a stone (i.e. carrying a stone on his shoulder, a token of giving 

.' "hn "Ml" Amharic = Ge'ez T^iHi ride Guidi, lor. cit. 769 (1) road, (2) day's march. 



[449] 

his submission). And he took the oath to Takla Giyorgis and 
the King took an oath to him, and he made many appointments 
among the Dajazmachs of Begameder, and went away in peace. 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis sent a messenger, Khaylu, 
over to Ras Mare'ed, "Make peace for us, I too will give him 
what he likes, and let him dwell with me, there is no man 
among the great ones of those who dwelt before with me, 
except him," and Ras Mare'ed replied, " Agreed," and he took 
the oath to his Lord to serve the Negus King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis. Then lie sent Dajazmach Khaylu for King of Kings 
Solomon, the son of Atse Takla Haymaiiot, after he had been 
expelled for eight months by the hand of Dajazmach Aserat. 
That man was like Zaso of Gurage. Qafiazmach Kabte of 
Fanja came who had lived in the exile with King of Kings 
Solomon, sending to Azaj Sahelu to return to Andasa, and 
King of Kings Solomon came to Baguzo. (Yakatit began on 
Tuesday.) He arrived at Gondar on the 3rd Yakatit, and 
the chiefs and retainers of the Negus came out to receive him, 
according as Negus King of Kings Takla Giyorgis had ordered. 
He received him in the centre of the Royal Castle, with a 
banquet of food and drink, and seated him King of Kings 
Solomon on the throne beside himself, and there were great 
rejoicings ; that month on the llth, the Negus had a reception 1 , 
and the Abun and Echage came, and the Negus took an oath 
with Ras Mare'ed. And at the same time the Negus came forth 567 a 
from Adababay with the Abun and Echage and ordered the 
herald to proclaim " Let Debra Metmaq be sanctuary like the 
house of the Abun and the Echage, like Makhdara Maryam 
and Qurada," and he brought the Tabot to where it had been 
placed before, and men of Makhdara Maryam came bringing 
their sacred utensils with the Tabot which the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis had deposited, from where it had been for 
eleven years ; the Negus receiving it with joy and high festival. 
He gave to Makhdara Maryam the land of Gura Amba to be 
the property of the priests and Dajazmach Khaylu, and made 

1 Mt-Ti Amharic, the reception hall for h4 1 Ge'ez ><; i to pass the night, to inhabit, 
w. B. 57 



[450] 

a grant of glebe 1 , so that they might take the tithes. We will 
now go back to the beginning of the account. He provided 
Debra Metmaq with tents and instituted the priests and the 
guardians and started building the church. While at this, 
the retainers of Dajazmach Walda Sellase came, bearing the 
vessels of gold and silver and carpets of woven work, and 
canopies of silk and silver (worked cushions) and the Negus 
received donations and presented appointments of Ras and 
Betwaddad. And he ordered them to speak to the herald, and 
the herald to inform Ras Walda Sellase. No one of the Com- 
manders of this world was ever like him, either in power or in 
modesty, he deposed no king, he made no king, he revered the 
commandments of God, and as our Lord says by the mouth of 
David, " Lift not thine hand against my anointed, or illtreat my 
prophets." And he did no evil to this day. We will now return 
to the beginning of the story. Magabit began on Thursday. 
The retainers of Aserat arrived being sent over to the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis to say, " I take my leave, I am going on 
a raiding expedition to Gojam, to make war on Ras Mare'ed." 
567 b But the Negus refused and replied, "Mare'ed is at my 
orders. For what reason do you make war, return to your 
province." Saying this, he sent the servants of Liqe Kherut 
and the retainers of both the Abun and the Echage. But 
Daja/mach Aserat refused, for treachery was a habit of his 
and Liqe Kherut returned, and reported the matter to the 
Negus. On the 22nd of Magabit, the daughter of Ras Gabre 
returned. She had been concubine of the Negus, and the men 
of the city and the retainers of the Negus gave her a reception 
when she came to the hall of the palace, and the following day 
he decorated the retainers of Gabre and bid them farewell. 
Miyazya began on Saturday. On the 2nd Miya'/ya was kept 
Easter and that month he created Gabre Amlak a Bfilambaras, 
a retainer of Ras Walda Sellase, and bid him farewell. And 
Aserat returned to the alliance of Ras Mare'ed. Genbot began 
on Monday ; the men of Azazo had a quarrel with the Echage 

AmhariV from !<(. (1) to cut round, (2) to portion off. 



[45i] 

Walda lyasus ; and on the 10th Genbot, Echage Walda lyasus 
was deposed and the Negus sent to consult the men of Debra 
Libanos about bringing the Abba Walda Yona from Amhara 
on to Tadbaba Maryain 1 . Sane began on Wednesday, and the 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis was not accessible, he was living 
in mourning and penitence. The cause of his grief we know 
not. This month retainers of Ras Mare'ed came and Dajaz- 
mach Aserat and Qis Atse Gabru, offering peace, and the Negus 
received them in the centre of the palace and then declared 
to them all the proposals of peace that had passed. They 
said, "Agreed," and he decorated them. Then the daughter 
of Daja/mach Tsahay Leda came in order to become the wife 
of the Negus' son lyo'as, that she might grow up with him, 
but they were designers of evil. And the Negus added for 
Dajazmach Tsahay Leda, the office of Bajrond of the Reception 
Hall. Hamle began on Friday. On the 3rd Hamle on Sunday 568 a 
they appointed the Echage Walda Yona; and the Negus 
followed him as far as his gates, and then returned to his house ; 
that month Mardu Zaquala disappeared by night in the direction 
of Balasa. The Negus sent a herald to command his pursuit 
and the retainers of the Negus did so ; they made friends with- 
out the consent of the Negus> who was enraged and put them 
in chains. N abase began on Sunday, and on the 8th de- 
positions on oath were taken at Gondar on the matter of the 
wrecking of Dambaya. And he who had plundered was (the 
culprit was) Wahedu, by consent of his brother Aserat. On 
this account there was great concern, and that grief was like 
that of the Nanawe (Nineveh) of the prophet Yonah (Jonah), 
"Until the 3rd day Nanawe ye will be overthrown " (Jonah iii. 4). 
And when the Nanawe men heard that they grieved with a 
great grief and the anger of the Lord was averted, so the men 
of Gondar grieved. And they took an oath at Adababay, 
and the judges and the Abun and the Echage on the 10th of 
Nahase on the (feast of the) Assumption of the Lady Maryam, 
they slaughtered no bullock and no sheep, or any similar thing, 

1 The name of a famous monastery in Shoa. 



[452] 

except what is eaten on a great fast day. And on the llth 
Nahase, the son of Dajazmach Khaylu's sister, fought Dajaz- 
mach Aserat, and a great victory lay with Dajazmach Khaylu ; 
Dajazmach Aserat fled. And when the men of Gondar got the 
news they rejoiced heartily, as the Bible says, " Blessed is the 
man who sees the fall of his enemy. Since I will tell the 
teacher my lips shall be joyful when I proclaim thee aloud. 
Thou hast delivered my soul, and again my tongue shall declare 
thy justice all the day long (Ps. xxxv. 28) when they shall 
blush for shame and misery that devise evil against me." We 
will now return to the beginning of the story. On the 12th 
Nahase, on Friday, he took the property that was looted at 
568 b Dambaya and camped at Menzero. And the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis sent to say, " I have not given it to you, why 
have you looted Dambaya, send back all the booty to Dambaya, 
and return to your province of your government. And if you 
refuse, go to your brother." And hearing this order, he refused 
(to go) and cursed the Negus. Then he rose and camped at 
Tsada, and let loose the troops as far as Angarab, and they 
massacred the men of the city. On the 28th of Nahase, on 
Saturday, the Qolanians came to the assistance of the Negus, 
and he gave appointments to Lahoy of Gaba, Ledat of Arma- 
chuho, Andarsa of Maraba, Abeto Khaylu, Abeto Walda Sellase, 
Abeto Lawte son of Akfde and Abeto Gabra Kedan, and others 
whose names we know not. They came to the royal palace 
and camped at Ashawa, that they might protect the Negus, 
and King of Kings Takla Giyorgis hearing of this summoned 
the Abun and the Echage to the royal residence that they 
might have a council ; so they came, and the King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis said to the Abun and the Echage, " What is the 
use of this business ? " and they replied to the King, " Send out 
a herald and proclaim that, and we will issue an excommunica- 
tion"; and the Abun and Echage went their way. And the 
herald gave forth these words, " Whoever follows Wahedu will 
have his house demolished and his goods confiscated." And 
on the 1st of Paguemen, he (Wahedu) went to prepare for 



[453] 

battle, and let loose the soldiery in Qaha and many men of 
Islam and pedlars were killed, as well as of the King's retainers : 
that day Aslafe Gedi died, and the king mourned, for he too 
had formerly been in exile. He returned and camped at 
Samona Bar, burning down the city of the Negus, just as his 
brother Ras Aserat had burnt the Gates of the Negus, just so 
he burnt his city. And on the 3rd Paguemen he rose and 
camped at Atenaqer to fetch out the Atse Yonas from the 
house of the Abun. But the Negus getting wind of this 
brought Atse Yonas with his brother Goshu and made them 
dwell with him in friendship, and that villain was put to shame. 
Maskaram began on a Sunday. The Epact of the moon 569 a 
was 23, the Matq'e was 7, the Tentyon 5. (1798.) That day 
the retainers of the Negus had a fight and the Negus pre- 
vailed. The same day Liqa Masamer Kenfu of Debra Berhan 
met his death, a teacher of the Scriptures and the pure gospel 
such as these times have not seen the like. On the 3rd 
Maskaram he started from Atenaqer and camped at Nach 
Debba ; that villain resembled Adam, God gave him the whole 
land of Paradise and seven gifts except one, the power of God 1 . 
But Adam sought the power of God and let slip everything 
what was within his grasp, and his curse passed on to his 
posterity even to our day. King of Kings Takla Giyorgis gave 
seven offices to Wahedu, and brought him up from his child- 
hood, but from what he gave him he reserved his kingdom, so he 
did not obtain the kingdom, just as Adam did not obtain the 
kingdom of God, but that was his own fault. We will return 
to the beginning of the story. And he stayed eight days and 
then he started and went to Dambaya and halted six days 
there, and returned from Dambaya on the 16th of Maskaram, 
on a Tuesday, and camped at Samona. And retainers of La'eka 
Maryam of Walj were captured, while they were coming into 
the tents as they were living with Wahedu ; they came before 
the Negus and he examined the messengers saying, " Why did 
you go over to that villain ? " and they answered the Negus, 

1 Lit. Kingdom of God, by aiming at omniscience through the tree of knowledge. 



[454] 

" When our lord sent us we went to fetch him that he might 
attack thee, oh Negus." And the Negus ordered them to be 
kept that they might be flogged and he put in chains La'eka 
Maryam; on the 17th Maskaram on the Feast of the Cross he 
569 b spent the time in camp. And on the 1 8th Wednesday he came 
and prepared for battle and he set fire to the Negus' city in 
four cornel's, but the Negus restrained himself, the retainers of 
the Negus however made ready to fight, though against his 
wish. So they fought and on the evening of Thursday he 
crushed Atse Yonas and his brother Abeto Goshu, son of Atse 
Solomon, but he did not remember it against them for he had a 
tender heart ; and many men were killed. He returned to his 
camp. On the 19th Thursday, he (Wahedu) came prepared 
for battle, and they fought and he halted at Kayla Meda! And 
he sent to the tent of the Abun a message, " If he will give me 
the Governorship of Adeya I will make friends with the Echage 
and if he refuses let him leave the tents and we will attack, 
and he shall go to another land, and if this proposal is not 
accepted I will burn the houses of both the Abun and the 
Echage." And when Negus Takla Giyorgis heard this proposal 
he was inflamed with great anger, like a roaring lion or with the 
violence that is given to a man drunk with wine. As the Book 
says, " With righteous indignation." On the 20th Maskaram on 
Friday he harnessed himself for battle against the Abun and 
the Echage and against the Negus. And a battle raged for 
three hours to the setting of the sun, and that day Wale Khaylu 
performed valiantly at Kayla Meda. Oh men of Etyopiya 
behold that persecution such that had never been done from 
the Negusa Nagast Fasil to this day ! That persecution was like 
that of He/eqeyas done to him at Jerusalem. And his de- 
liverance from the hand of his enemy was like what happened 
to King of Kings Takla Giyorgis of great power ; that rebel 
was turned back in shame ; many were killed and Goshu, son 
of Daja/mach lyasu was killed by a gunshot ; and on the 23rd 
of Maskaram he rose and hastened towards Dambaya and 
camped at Meneycher. And he heard of the advance of 



[455] 

Balambaras Takle to give aid to the Negus, and those that 
accompanied him were Mardu Golej of Waro, Walda Mika'el 
of Gaden, Wag 81mm, Gerazmach Wand Yer'ad of Yaju, Abeto 570 a 
Darso, and Abeto Gabra Sellase, and three sons of Abeto 
Menywab, and others whose names we do not know. And 
when he heard of their advance Wahedu was terrified, and 
he trembled as a bullock trembles at the roar of a lion. So 
Wahedu trembled and rose out from his camp and hurried 
towards Ferqa. And Balambaras Walda Takle came along the 
road to Maryam Weha to Gondar on the 25th, the Wednesday, 
and camped at Ohafre Meda. On the 26th, Thursday, he came 
to the house of the Negus that he might see the tribute. And 
the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis received him in the saddle 
in the fort] 1 and Balambaras Walda Takle presented the 
trophies of former fights, with his retainers. And the Negus 
gave them a reception in the centre of the stronghold with a 
banquet of food and drink. And on the 29th, Sunday, dis- 
missals and appointments took place. And those that were 
appointed were Balambaras Walda Takle a Gerazmach, 
and Eshete Khaylu a Dajazmach, Zaquarra Adarash an Azaj 
(judge of appeal), Abeto Enquo Sellase a Kantiba, Ambasale 
a Yashalaqa and Abeto Sedat Tarsamba an Azzaj, Okale 
Lawete a Basha and Wale Khaylu a Liqa Maquas, Yamaryam 
Barya Elfin an Azzaj, and Tsay Mar an Azzaj, Mardu Golej a 
Bajrond, Bishu a Balambaras, Engoday Atsequ a Bajrond of 
Iqabet; and others were appointed whose names we do not 
know. 

We will now return to the beginning of the matter. Teqemt 
began on Tuesday. On the 8th Teqemt spies came from Gondar, 
and reported to the Negus the arrival of those rebels Aserat 
and Wahedu, those villains camped at Wantafet Mankariya ; 
and on the 13th, Sunday, King of Kings Takla Giyorgis left his 
habitations, and while he was on the inarch, he despatched the 
Lasta troops towards Begameder on the road to Maryam Weha 570 b 
that they might take the rebels in the rear ; the captains who 

1 Amharic, Guidi, loc. cit. 526. ji<j-jJ Amharic : saddle, probably here a seat. 



[456] 

were on the Negus' side held their shields behind him and in 
front of him I )iija/m;ich Khaylu, son of Dajazmach Eshete, 
Qanazmach Kabte, Kantiba Newaya Sellase, Negadras Kenfu 
Rufa'el, Balambaras Adego Aychan, Bajrond Ala, Qanazmach 
Gabru, Belat. Gabra Sellase, Gerazmach Walda Abib, Azaj 
Saquay, Bajrond Hezeqeyas, Dajazmach Halib, Dajazmach 
Gualej, and of the Heads of the Adbarat (monasteries) Qis 
Atse 1 Gabru, Archpriest Kenfu, Mele'ek Ganat Yared, Qis 
Atse Walda Maryam, Alaqa Kabte, and others retainers 
of the Negus who were in great numbers. We cannot com- 
plete the list, as the angel said to Ezra. And as they were 
passing he came to his camp. And King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis was like our Lord in the land of Egypt (was 
victorious over) the devil, and so he (King of Kings) was 
victorious over his enemies, through his exile. How shall I 
recount the story of thy trial, and thy sorrows, and the history 
of thy outrage, and thy exile, Oh my Lord, be not cast down, 
what has become of those that persecuted thee? and yet 
thou art still here now. We will now return to the beginning. 
On the 14th he reposed and then he departed thence and 
camped at Talaq Meda, then he left and camped at Anjeba, 
and from Anjeba he went and camped at Qebala Qancha, 
and that day those rebels came from Gondar by night and 
reached Enqash. But they gained nothing except fatigue 
and they returned ashamed of themselves towards Gondar. 
And from Qebala Qancha they went and camped at Sabantara 
571 a and on the 21st the Feast of Our Lady Maryam he and Fitaw- 
rari Genne entered the camp of these rebels while they were 
at Angarab and killed the rebel Wahedu at the opening of his 
tent, and let him hear the sound (of his voice) even as David 
let Saul hear the sound (of his voice) (1 Sam. xxvi. 13, 14). And 
he (Fitawrari Germe) laid the trophies before the Negus. That 
warrior was like Asahel light of foot (2 Sam. ii. 18). AVe will 
now return to the beginning of the affair. And on the 22nd 
Teqemt, Aserat rose from Angarab and marched towards 

1 Quidi 269, olliri:il \vlm thumpi-il on the tlU when the Negus had drunk enough. 



[457] 

Begameder, and while King of Kings Takla Giyorgis was at 
Sabantara he sent Kantiba Newaya Sellase over to Daja/mach 
Tsahay Leda to say, " Come and help me, I have been fighting 
on your account with the rebels " and Newaya Sellase went to 
Tsahay Leda and made him swear that he would aid the King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis and retainers of Tsahay Leda came to 
join with him ; the Negus started and there was rejoicing at 
Sabantara at his joining and he camped at Maraba. Khedar 
began on a Thursday and on the 4th Khedar, on Sunday, 
Kantiba Newaya Sellase came leaving Tsahay Leda behind as 
he refused (to come) and returned to his province, burning 
his camp and breaking his oath. The Negus grieved with 
his troops, and visited his grief on Tsahay Leda by the hand 
of his retainers. 

We will now go back to where the story begins. He (King 
of Kings) departed from Raba and camped at Enqash and 
while there retainers of Walda Gabre'el came saying, " I have 
come to aid you, come to your house," and the Negus replied, 
"Agreed," and went from there and camped at Gonko; and 
while there retainers of Ras Walda Sellase came and said, 
" Make friends with Ras Gabre and he will help you." The 
Negus answered, " I will," and moved his camp and returned 
to join Ras Gabre, on the 12th of Khedar the Feast of the 
Archangel Mika'el, and camped at Mahortach. On the 15th, 
Thursday, he left this camp and marched towards Semen to 
join Ras Gabre; he arrived at Enchat Kab and met him with a 
banquet of food and drink. And the city mourned over the 57i b 
Negus just as Jerusalem mourned over the illness of Hezeqeyas 
the King, the pain 1 of a Ml cured him of his sickness, so the 
grief of retainers of the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis 
delivered him from his sickness. (To return to our narrative.) 
And he returned from his camp on the 20th Khedar, then 
rose in haste from Hartach and marched towards Same, and 
demolished it and set fire to Lambo, destroying the walls ; 
while there, Takhsas began on Saturday, and on the 5th 

1 Vide 2 Kings xx. 7. 
w. B. 58 



[458] 

Takhsas, he sent Dajazmach Khaylu to Qaroda to Ras Wai da 
Gabre'el, and on going he found Ras Walda Gabre'el at 
Sarbaquisa, and with him Dajazmach Gugsa and Dajazmach 
Alula, and they camped at Tsada. And King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis went from Same by forced marches and camped at 
Meldebba. Those miscreants Aserat and Wahedu camped at 
Meneycher. On the 17th Takhsas, on Friday, Ras Walda 
Gabre'el at Meldebba joined King of Kings Takla Giyorgis and 
there was great rejoicing. Then they started on a sudden and 
camped at Fantar, and on the 8th, on Saturday, King of Kings 
Takla Giyorgis came to the house of the Echage, and Ras 
Walda Gabre'el and they took an oath to be united (of alliance) 
and then they started out of Fantar and camped at Gaman- 
debba, and while there, a friendship was (proposed) struck up 
and the Abun and the Echage came, and they went to Meney- 
cher, and those miscreants Aserat and Wahedu refused, so the 
Abun and Echage turned back with the army, and came to 
Gondar, mourning and weeping. On the 17th of that month, 
Monday, King of Kings Takla Giyorgis rose from his camp 
and prepared for battle, and advanced over to where the 
miscreants were, and there was a great battle for a space of 
572 a three hours to the time of evening ; on that occasion Dajazmach 
Walda Heywat came to assist the rebels, by desire of his 
brother Ras Gabre. And victory was on the side of King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis, and many were killed, and Aserat and 
Wahedu beat a retreat towards Gojam, where his father-in-law 
Ras Mare'ed received them. Then King of Kings Takla 
Giyorgis rose from his camp and came to Qaha and camped, 
and they laid down trophies for two days. He came to his habita- 
tions and gave a send-off to Ras Walda Gabre'el to his province, 
in peace. Yakatit began. On the 14th Yakatit, on a Tuesday, 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis rose from Gondar and went to 
Wagara to a meeting with Ras Walda Sellase, then marched 
a day's journey and came to Ambaris where retainers of Ras 
Walda Sellase came to say "We will fight first, then we will 
make friends," meaning with Ras Gabre, but the Negus was 



grieved and not at all pleased at their reconciliation without 
his consent. Then he departed and camped at Amiwalek and 
Ras Walda Selasse came making the earth quake with guns 
and spurs and met the Negus and Ras Gabre and Dajazmach 
Walda Heywat also came, carrying stones (as mark of sub- 
mission) and threw themselves before the Negus, and the Negus 
had pity on them, for mercy was his habit, as the Bible says, 
" It is meet for the Lord that he should be merciful," and again 
the prophet says, " I have preserved the straight way, keep 
aloof from evil and do good." We will now return to the 
beginning. Then he departed and camped at Atsgaba, and 
while at Atsgaba Ras Walda Sellase brought his donation 
(tribute) to the King of Kings Takla Giyorgis 100 catapults 1 
and many precious robes, that caught the eye, 200 dinars of 
gold, and many carpets. And the Negus accepted them and 
was much pleased with them. And he sent out a herald to 572 b 
proclaim, " I have given to Walda Sellase the revenue of Tigre 
for four years because he came to my assistance, and I con- 
gratulate him, because, as the Bible says, " The servant is worthy 
of his hire." And then followed appointments and dismissals. 
Magabit began on the 17th Sunday. Ras Walda Sellase was 
appointed and created Betwaddad of Tigre and on another 
day as an (additional) honour a Wag Shum, and besides this a 
Qanazmach ; Walda Samu'el was made Gerazmach ; Gabra 
Mika'el a Balambaras, and many others more appointed whose 
names we do not know. Ras Gabre (jurisdiction) went from 
Shaha to Takazze and from Ataba to Balagaz, and other officers 
were appointed to their respective provinces. To continue. On 
Magabit 20th, he despatched Ras Walda Sellase to his province, 
and the King of Kings started out of Atsgaba and camped at 
Baquet. Thence he departed and came to Enchat Kab ; thence 
he got up and camped at Waqen, and while there he despatched 
in disgust the Tanj men to Tigre ; from Waqen he rose and went 
by a day's march to Gondar on the 14th Miyazya on Saturday. 
Easter Day fell on the 22nd, Sunday, and the Negus had 

= catapults. 



t46o] 

a reception with eating and drinking for three days; they 
slaughtered 200 bullocks in Adababay and he gave every man 
in the city to eat, even as his father lyasu, whose throne name 
was Adeyam Sagad Zaqadis, gave to eat, so he gave to eat, as 
the Bible says, " The son shall not relinquish the work of his 
father." While there spies came from Begameder to report 
the approach of Ras Mare'ed by forced marches in search of Ras 
Walda Gabre'el. Ras Walda Gabre'el took to flight in the 
direction of Gayent and Ras Mare'ed camped at Mogesh and 
with him were Ras Aserat and Qana/mach Wahedu. Genbot 
573 a began on Tuesday. Ras Mare'ed advanced quickly to attack 
the Gallas of Alula, and they joined battle in the country of 
Daguila till the evening ; then they separated and went to their 
camps, and that night they arrived at Gondar. On the 14th 
of Genbot, Monday, King of Kings Takla Giyorgis went out 
suddenly 1 towards Wagara; the others however, followed him, 
Alula and Gugsa, and camped on the hill, while the King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis camped at Qazqazet. The Galla (chiefs) 
withdrew and went in the direction of Wakhni on the road to 
Begameder, and the Negus took the road to Jan Taqara, as far as 
Adet. While there a retainer of Kenfes, the Shum of Tsagade 
came to say, " Hand me over Dajazmach Tsahay Leda, whom 
I delivered you before." The Negus was distressed but was 
not able to save him, and gave up his brother. Then the Negus 
rose from Adet and camped at 'Ajre, and while there Atse 
Salomon (disappeared) went into Gondar over to Ras Mare'ed. 
Ras Mare'ed however, while he was at Qaha cast Ras Aserat 
and Wahedu into prison. Now their imprisonment was by (the 
power of) the Lord. He said to them, " Quit Gondar, that it may 
not become a desert ; once before it was demolished by your 
hands." They declined, " If you have given those people our 
province, we will go away with you," they said. The Abun and the 
Echage and the men of the city were cast into irons, on account 
of that, and the people of the city were delighted and the 
country jubilant. And after this Ras Gabre* came, taking oath 

Amharic form for Ge'ez jtTrH" from v. 



[ 4 6i] 

and invoking (the penalty of) anathema, and the two of them 
made peace. And they made Atse Salomon Negus, on the 
10th Sane, on Saturday; and Ras Gabre said, "We shall be 
well advised to go to Wagara and attack the Negus Takla 
Giyorgis, while he is at Chardequwa," and Ras Mare'ed answered, 
"Agreed," and both of them marched with the Negus (Salomon) 
to Wagara. Now the Negus Takla Giyorgis left Chardequwa and 
went to Tigre, and with him a great number of Chief A/aj's 
banded together, Liqe Walda Dengel and Liqe Gabru and A/aj 573 b 
Kenfu and Liqe Khaylu his ministers, Kantiba Nawaya Sellase, 
Nagadras Kenfe Rufa'el, Ligaba Mecha, Ali Bidars, and many 
others whose names we do not know. On arriving at Axum 
Ras Walda Sellase received the King of Kings with rejoicing 
and festivities. He left Chardequwa and reached Antalo on the 
28th and spent the rains at Antalo. As for Ras Walda Sellase, 
there was no one like him for doing good deeds to great and 
small. 

We will now return to the beginning of the affair. And 
while Ras Gabre and Ras Mare'ed were at Wagara, spies came, 
and reported to them the approach of Ras Walda Gabre'el and 
the Gallas. These struck up an alliance to agree not to serve 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, and it seems to me what made 
that agreement void was that it was a great act of disloyalty to 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis; and they took an oath, and 
they met together three days, but it was not for peace, but 
for war; but the Bible says, "The judgment of God is not 
as the judgment of men," and it likewise says in another place, 
" The word of God is greater than the word of a man." There 
was a great slaughter on the 15th Hamle, on Saturday, for a 
space of three hours, Ras Walda Gabre'el was killed the first 
of all by a gunshot and spears ; then Ras Mare'ed was killed by 
a spear wound while fighting most valiantly. Now Ras Mare'ed 
died young and poor in spirit (modest), as the Bible says 
(Matt. v. 3), "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the 
kingdom of Heaven." Ras Mare'ed died a man of mercy, 
and a pillar (foundation) of the Christian fathers, as the 



[462] 

Bible says, "Blessed are the merciful for theirs is the 
kingdom of heaven." Ras Mare'ed died too when his days 
numbered 27 (years) and he had accomplished the work of old 
men. As the Bible says, " It is not only in grey hairs that there 
574 a is wisdom." We will now return to the beginning of the story. 
The men of Gojam fled, though mighty and versed in war, they 
were vanquished. As the Bible says, " There is a day for thee 
and a day for another," and again the reason is evident, 
" forasmuch there is no power in men " as Gedewon said when 
he attacked Midian, " Strength is the Lord's, the battle is 
Gideon's (?) " And Ras Gabre escaped, and Dajazmaeh Khaylu 
did so with great difficulty. And at the same time they put 
them on two beds and bore them into the camp on the 
10th of Hamle, the feast day of Our Lady Maryam. And 
Dajazmach Alula and Dajazmach Gugsa came bringing with 
them the treasury (strong boxes) to Gondar. And that day 
Abeto Takla lyo'as died, son of King of Kings Takla Giyorgis, 
and Ras Mare'ed was buried in the tomb of his mother at 
Quisquam. And Ras Walda Gabre'el was buried at Atsatsame 
of St Mika'el, and Abeto lyo'as was buried at Ba'ata, the grave 
of his father. Now this arrangement of their burial was in 
accordance with that of Israel, i.e. in the burial place of their 
fathers. Kings in the burial place of the Kings, Prophets in 
the burial place of the Prophets. King of Kings Salomon was 
put in irons, and they deposed Atse Salomon, and Dajazmach 
Gugsa, and Dajazmach Alula made Atse Demetros Negus, son 
of Abeto Arqadewos (Arcadius), son of Abeto Afnin, son of 
Atse Fasil, on the 20th Hamle. On the 24th Hamle, Sunday, 
there were appointments and dismissals made, Gugsa was 
created Dajazmach of Begameder, and on the 20th (29th?) 
Hamle, Alula was made a Qanazmach, and Quasa Dajazmach, 
with many offices, and Dajazmach Gualej was appointed over 
the storehouse of the dried grain 1 . And Sadaf Gabra was 

1 (Amharic) *'V 1 fl.}-"p t V,j- to be superintendent of the storehouse of the 5th portion 
(of the grain :m<l harvest that belongs to the owner of the land), fide T. Guidi, loc. cit. 422 
and 857. 



[463] 

appointed a Bajrond and others were appointed whose names 
we know not. Nahase began on Monday, and this month Ras 574 b 
Gabre released Aserat and Wakhedu, that there might be 
a tumult (rebellion). On the 13th of Nahase, on Saturday, at 
cock crow, there was an earthquake. (To return.) Ras Aserat 
went to Begameder and was taken by the hand of Gugsa 
on the 23rd Nahase on a Thursday. The blessed month of 
Nahase ended in the peace of God. Amen. 

The 7292 year of the Creation of the World and 1792 year 
of Mercy 1 , blessed Maskaram began when the Epact of the 
moon was 4, the Matq'e was 20, Tent ey on was 7. May it bring 
us to perfection. Amen. 

In the name of the Father, the Son and Holy Ghost, our 
God. 

We are about to write the story of the sorrows of the 
world. We did not obtain it from the narrations of learned 
monks, the sources whence our fathers drew (their knowledge). 
We found no friends to tell us, 011 account of that we mourned 
and grieved, God alone knows. Maskaram began on Tuesday 
of the Evangelist Johannes. Teqemt began on Thursday, and 
while King of Kings Demetros was at Gondar, runners of King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis arrived from Tigre, and they came into 
the habitations, and sent forth a herald to proclaim, "Every 
man must (come out) and receive me on the Wagara Road, 
with Alula." Men of the city rejoiced that the Lord should 
guard those habitations when he came. And when he was 
expected, it was in a state of disturbance. (To continue.) 
And while he was at Dambaya Ras Alula had compassion on 
(i.e. amnestied) the men of the city and the men of Dambaya. 
And after that Alula was taken ill and died on the 27th of 
Teqemt, a Monday, and was interred at Medrakha. 

Khedar began on Saturday. On the 18th of that month 
our Negus Takla Giyorgis and Dajazmach Gugsa started from 
his camp to receive the Negus on the 12th. After this Amade, 575 a 
named Kolasi, joined the Lasta men at Garagara on the road 

1 10 September 1799. Vide Appendix: Chronography and Chronology. 



[464] 

to Chachaho, and camped at Tere Aybala, and harassed Bega- 
meder. From there he marched and camped at Aringo. And 
men of Makhdara Maryam went to meet him and give him a 
reception, but they were deceiving him, and he bid farewell to 
them in peace and then started and went a day's march and 
came to Gondar, camping at the outskirts of the city. And he 
entered the royal house of King of Kings Demetros, and the 
Abun and the Echage also came; and they met, had much use- 
less debate, then the Pappas Abba (Patriarch) Yosab turned to 
him, and said, " Wherefore hast thou come here, thou who art 
nothing but a heathen, it would be better for thee that the Lord 
should destroy, through thee, the Governors of Begameder and 
Amhara," and he castigated him severely. But the heathen 
behaved in a friendly manner, and he was not irritated on 
account of it, his discourse was gentle and his tongue eloquent, 
remembering the words of the Bible, " Bow not the head to the 
foolish man, Fear not the man when he puffs himself up, and 
when he exalts the honour of his house." And no man came 
to the house of the Abun. The Gallas, However, came to that 
of the Echage, and demolished two houses, and then there 
were some appointments made and dismissals; he created 
Wand Bawasan Khaylu a Ras, and others were given offices 
whose names we do not know. And after that he got out 
of Gondar on the 22nd Takhsas and came a day's march, and 
when he arrived at Keb he let loose the soldiery, and many 
people were killed ; then he marched and camped at Danguira 
Gabaya, and on the 4th of Ter, he came to Makhdara Maryam 
and made booty of all the property that had not been looted 
up to that moment. 

We will now go back to the beginning of the affair. While 
Has Walda Sellase was in his tents, he made a herald proclaim, 
"That all the men of Tigre must follow Negusa Nagast Takla 
Giyorgis, and whoever remained behind would have their houses 
plundered and their goods confiscated. Has Walda Sellase 
576 b started with King of Kings Takla Giyorgis with a thunder (rattle) 
of guns and horses, as David said, "He shook the earth and made 



[465] 

it tremble 1 ." And that is what Walda Sellase did, like Iskander 
(Alexander). As the Book says, " A wild beast eats and what 
he leaves he spurns with his foot." Oh, Ras Walda Gabre'el, 
how can I describe the fame of thy prowess, and thy goodness? 
and in good sooth, thou art like to Iskander, as he closed the 
brazen gates 2 of Gog and Magog, so thou didst shut out men 
of Teltal and Azabo with the fame of thy valour, while thy acts 
of kindness to the Negus and his army are without number. 
To return. And then he marched from Antalo towards Aber- 
galle, and crossed the river Takazze and came to Semen, that 
is called Laware, and was attacked by Ras Gabre, Basha 
Haram and Balambaras Gabra Amlak, before the Negus 
heard of it or Ras Walda Sellase; that night Ras Gabre 
withdrew, and took refuge in his Amba (stronghold) called 
Hay, for it was his habit to retire to mountains with caves 
and lie hid. Then they marched away and camped at 
Laware, and from Laware they marched and camped at 
Sabera, and surrounded and besieged Ras Walda Sellase in his 
Amba, just as Tyo'ab surrounded and besieged Abel, and cut 
off the head of Sabuhe (Sheba) the son of Bekori (Bichri) and 
returned (2 Sam. xx. 22). After this Dajazmach Gugsa joined 
the Negus and Ras Walda Sellase, and they presented the trophy 
of Ras Aserat his prisoner. And on the 9th Ter, the Negus 
decorated Gugsa, giving him the governorship of Begameder. 
And he travelled a day's march and camped at Gadabege, and 
the Negus stayed at Sabera for four months, making appoint- 
ments and dismissals that were no use, and the officials 
appointed got nothing except empty titles (lit. fame) and 
gold bands (diadems). Magabit began on Sunday and on the 
9th of the month, on Monday, King of Kings Takla Giyorgis 576 a 
started from Sabera, and left Ras Walda Sellase to invest his 
Amba, so that Ras Gabre should not come down. But the 
Negus, going a day's march came out and reached Gadabege, 

1 Ps. Ix. 2. 

2 *Mh..pti read ^A-tfi 1 as in f. 97 a . Hist, of Alexander, p. 135 (W. Budge), the hole or 
gap in the mountains, the Pass of Derbend, which Alexander closed to keep out hostile nations. 
Vide Appendix : Iskander the Macedonian (Hist, of Alexander as a Christian Romance). 

w. B. 59 



[466] 

where Dajazmach Gugsa was, and Dajazmach Kenfe handed over 
Tsahaya Ledda in chains; and the Negus received him, and then 
he (Gugsa) marched and came to Gondar on the 1 7th Magabit, 
and joined his brother Negusa Nagast Demetros, but he did not 
stay in the king's house (palace), but stopped at the door of the 
church that he had built at the outskirts of the habitations, 
that was called Debra Metmaq ; and the day after the people 
assembled in the city and announced the death of Abeto lyo'as, 
and thereat was great grief; but the A bun and the Echage put 
an end to the mourning and brought him into the house, and 
he (the Negus) did not cease from going and coming back 
on account of the building of the church. And while there 
Gugsa insulted the Negus and that insult distressed him, and 
this was, we knew, because they did not mourn the death of his 
son as they entered the habitations. And again, he refused 
(when the King said) " We will go to Gojam." A third insult he 
committed, by making appointments and dismissing officials 
without consent (of the Negus), and that Dajazmach Gugsa 
fulfilled the words of David when he said, "As a sharp 
(sharpened) razor working deceit, thou hast put evil before 
good " (Ps. lii. 2). Miyazya began on Monday, and on the 2nd 
Has Walda Sellase went to his country Tigre. There was an 
eclipse of the moon, and that month Dajazmach Zawede sent 
presents of horses, and a herald announced his appointment 
as governor of Gojam, and he (the King) stayed to build 
Debra Metmaq. But Gugsa stayed to demolish the villages 
of Dambaya and Gaba. And Easter fell at the time, on the 
13th of Miyazya, On the 14th, Wayzaro Amatu, daughter of 
Atse Adeyam Sagad died. Genbot began on Thursday. 
That month Gugsa returned to Begameder and camped at 
576 b Qaroda, and Liban, the son of Amade started on the 22nd of 
Genbot, laying waste three sanctuaries; their names were Saga, 
Zuraamba, and Goraf, and after massacring a great number of 
monks, and finally leaving 1 Gayent in Begameder, entered his 
province. Sane began on Saturday, and a herald proclaimed, 

1 There seems to be words missing or the text is corrupt, the translation is a conjecture. 



[467] 

"Every man who always comes up with the Negus must 
follow me." On Wednesday he started on a raid in the 
direction of Wagara; and he brought his brother Atse 
Demetros to the courtyard of the Palace. And then Negus 
Takla Giyorgis was camped at Wagara, so he marched from 
there and camped at Janoda, that is called Sabantera. And 
while there Wayzaro Aqlekaya, daughter of Ras Mika'el, 
passed to her rest and was buried at Aksum. On the 27th 
of this month, Gugsa ravaged Dambaya, and Fanja Kabte 
committed an outrage on Ledata that the Negus Yostos built, 
and desecrated the image (picture) of Our Lady Maryam by a 
spear of an attendant of Gugsa, just as the Jews did violence 
to her of old 1 . 

We will now return to the beginning of the story. Hamle 
began on the Monday, and on the 7th Hamle a herald made 
proclamation in these words : " We have given the government 
from Dangal Bar to Amhara to Dajazmach Zawade." The 
Negus started from his camp Sabantera, marched along the 
road to Angarab, when there were violent rains and many men 
perished a! well as bullocks. (To continue.) He crossed the river 
Angarab and then marched off and camped at Adet, thence he 
marched and camped at Egera Daber, marching from there 
King of Kings Takla Giyorgis made ready for battle, and then 
there was a .fight, but he did not gain the victory, so he 
returned to his camp. As the prophet says, "I will make 
powerless the spear of the mighty ones, and I will gird the 
feeble with strength"; but He did not give strength to the 
Kings but he gave it to the feeble. We will return to the 
beginning of the affair. He marched and camped at Tselalo ; 577 a 
and while on the road the men of the district engaged 
with the troops of the Negus and victory was on the side 
of the peasants, and Ligaba Mecha and Qanazmach Walda 
Galawdewos (Claudius) and many soldiers were taken prisoners 

1 The allusion is to a story recounted in the Ta'amra Maryam (Miracles of Mary), Eth. 
MSS. No. 43, f. 94 a -95 b , Bib. Nat. Paris. Also, in Makhleta tsuge, a collection of strophes 
or verses on the B. Virgin, No. cxxx, Aethiop. Marienhymnen, ed. Grohmann. 



[ 4 68] 

and much property of the Negus captured. And there was 
grief in the tents of the Negus that day, and they tarried 
several days in that place, where there was a great famine, so 
that many men of the Negus' troops perished. Then he 
started and hastened to Waldebba and camped at Dawe, and 
then went a day's march and reached (a part of) Waldebba, 
called Saquar. That month a great number of 'horses died; 
and while King of Kings Takla Giyorgis was there, Dajazmach 
Zawede had a fight with the Agaw. He showed great valour 
on the 27th of Teqemt, but his retainers fled in fear of the 
spears of the Agaw, he (Dajazmach Zawede) alone distin- 
guishing himself, and a great number of Agaw were slain. And 
after that he returned to Gojam, and while at Zawa the 
retainers of Ras Khaylu betrayed Dajazmach Zawede for the 
sake of their master, so as to assist the son of Balambaras Fasil. 
And Dajazmach Zawede went in haste towards Gubeya, all his 
enemies scattered; he spent the dry season at Bechana, 
watching Balambaras Fasil, sallying forth, so that he should 
not ravage the country. Magabit began on a Monday, and on 
the 6th Magabit on Monday, during the hours oT slumber, 
riflemen played traitors to Dajazmach Zawede, all unconscious, 
since he was in his house ; but he bore himself valiantly ; 
and that evening, there was no one like him in that 
fight ; and he snatched away the guns and spears from 
their hands, and came in triumph and joy back to his house. 
577 b Miyazya began on a Wednesday, and on the 6th Miyazya 
Dajazmach Khaylu crossed the river Geyon, in exile with his 
father-in-law Dajazmach Zawede, and settled him at Mota. 
On the 30th Miyazya Balambaras Fasil came out in a "Busht 1 ," 
and Dajazmach Zawede getting to hear of this pursued him, 
and both of them reached his camp at Hawarya Tseyon (Zion). 
On the 1st of Genbot a battle ensued that lasted three hours, 
and Dajazmach Zawede had the best of it, many men being 
killed, and Balambaras Fasil was taken with his retainers. 
And that month he put in chains Azaj Sahelu. On the 12th 

fin Auiliaric word, a thick cotton cloak. 



[469] 

Genbot Abba Zawalda Maryam of Shawa went to his rest, a 
wise man, conquering his love of the world; he was buried 
at Gondar, in the monastery of the "Saviour of the World." 
We will now return to the beginning of the story. King of 
Kings Takla Giyorgis having made a secret plan left his army and 
went away by forced marches, and then started on his plan. 
He crossed the river Takazze on the 8th Khedar on the day of 
the feast of the 4 Beasts (Rev. iv. 0) and came to Debra Abay, 
and then he marched to Aksum and went towards Adwa; 
and while marching on the road, Ras Walda Sellase received 
him with a large army with rejoicings and festivity, for it was 
his custom to give a reception to his master and chiefs. He 
introduced him with honour into the habitations, and brought 
food and drink without measure. We will now return to the 
beginning of the story. He spent the dry season at Adwa with 
Ras Walda Sellase. Easter fell on the 28th Magabit, the Negus 
started from there and came to Antalo. But Ras Walda 
Sellase made a muster 1 in order to make a raid and war 
against Saraye and Hamasen. He started out of his habita- 
tions, making the earth shake, as the prophet says, " He made 
the earth shake and tremble, and thou hast healed its 
wounds 2 ." The wounds however that are spoken of was that 
piece of villainy. Then the men of Hamasen and Saraye came 578 a 
bearing tribute beyond count previous to his attack (before he 
fought them) and he bid them farewell in peace. He himself 
turned back and came to his province, while the King of 
Kings was at Antalo. Before Ras Walda Sellase arrived, King 
of Kings Takla Giyorgis sent a message over to Dajazmach 
Gugsa to say, " I will make friends, I am coming, receive me." 
And Dajazmach Gugsa replied, "Agreed," and the envoys of 
the Negus entered into a binding covenant with the mother, 
but he (Gugsa) was lying. He took his oath after a few days 
to, and made king Abeto Gualu, son of Atse Hezeqeyas, by the 
hand of his underling ; and there was no one to say, " How is 



Amharic from YI-MM Guidi, loc. cit. 540; Basset, Etudes sur Vhistoire 
d' Ethiopia, 66, 12. 2 Ps. Ix. 2; Is. xiv. 16. 



[470] 

it that the kingdom has become contemptible to striplings 
and slaves? How is it that the kingdom is a laughing stock to 
the uncircumcized from the very beginning? How is it that 
the kingdom is the image of a worthless flower that children 
pluck in the autumn rains?" I indeed lament as I ponder over 
the kingdom, for I was present in that day, in its trial and 
tribulation. And I weep always without ceasing, as Rachel 
wept because of her children, and as Israel were in bondage 
of old in the hands of Phare'on (Pharaoh) ; it is afflicted, for 
the children of Israel in these days submit to slaves, while I 
weep without ceasing. 

May the Lord have mercy on the great Kings even as he 
had mercy on the kings of old, when he restored to them the 
throne by the hand of Abuna Takla Haymanot from the hands 
of the Zague, who held it not in the beginning, and was the 
gift of our fathers David and Salomon^ and Meneylek. May 
he give us and manifest to us a repetition (lit. extension) of 
this by his grace and power. Amen. 

We are now going to commence the story of the outrage 
upon the Negusa Nagast Demetros. First they brought him 
to the Royal Palace without his consent. After - that they 
turned him out and bringing in Takla Haymanot King of 
Kiags made him King over the other and even yet a third time 
578 b drove him out of the Royal Palace when he had done nothing 
wrong. I indeed am sad and stricken on account of this perse- 
cution of those revered kings. Who shall restore the dominion 
of the kingdom to you as of old he restored the kingdom from 
the Zagu6 to the house of David, through the prayer of 
lyasus, the conqueror, and the covenant of Abuua Takla 
Haymanot, may he grant us this day that he restore the 
Kingdom. Amen. 

The month of Nahase began on a Thursday, while I was 
in captivity and rendered useless in another province, and 
so I was not in the habitations of the Negus, so if I have 
been deficient (have failed) in what they instructed me as to 
the doings (events) in the habitations of the Negus, and over 






[471] 

the whole country, my masters, and fathers and brothers, will 
not be angered, because of my ignorance. I have written in 
order that the memory of the Kings may not perish : if I lament 
over that oppression of the Kings, it is because masters have 
become servants, and servants masters ; only they do not grieve. 
I however have heard aforetime from the Holy books, " Gold 
shall be as dross, and brass be esteemed of higher worth (Fak- 
kare Fyasus)" ; the gold signifies the Kings, and the brass their 
subjects. In the 7294th year of the creation of the world 
(1801 A.D.), 1704th year of Grace 1 , the month of Maskaram 
began on a Thursday, when the Epact of the moon was 26, 
the Matq'e was 4, and the Tentyon was 2. The year was the 
year of Markos, and when Negusa Nagast Gualu was at Gondar 
Teqemt began on a Saturday. In that month Aqabe Sa'at 
Kabte a man of the tribe of Azal died. And while the Negus 
was in his habitation, Has Aserat came out of the slavery he 
had been sold into by his captors and camped at Wagara, with 
his brother Qanazmach Wahedu, and there was a great panic 
and vexation at Gondar ; Has Aserat with a secret plan went 
towards Lasta, and Qanazmach Wahedu went towards Dambaya. 
The Negus followed him with a large army of Galla; and 
a few fled in the direction of Mecha ; so he crossed the river 579 a 
Gayon with a view to being received by Dajazmach Zawede, but 
Dajazmach Zawede refused to receive him on account of his 
Galla friendship. We will now return to the beginning of the 
business. Now the Negus returned to his city and spent the 
summer (dry season) in his habitation. Dajazmach Zawede 
spent it in Gojam and Damot moving about hither and thither 
(i.e. aimlessly) ; and Has Walda Sellase spent the dry season 
at Adet. All the captains spent the dry season in their re- 
spective provinces. King of Kings Takla Giyorgis was in exile 
in the hermitage of Waldebba, that is called Saquar ; and the 
kings moreover that were bound in fetters were Atse Yonas in 
the land of Lasta and Atse Salomon in Tigre, and Atse Ba'eda 
Maryam in the land of Semen, all sons of kings that had been 

1 Error for 1794 if A.M. 7294 is correct. = 10 September 1801. 



[472] 

scattered like dust before a wind. Alas ! and woe is me ! My 
inwards are wrung, and my bowels are torn on account of those 
atrocious deeds (upon you) my masters. What avails that 
kingdom that was snatched away by the hands of underlings ? 
Who will bring a Takla Haymanot that he may restore the king- 
dom? (To return.) Takhsas began on a Wednesday. Wahedu 
returned towards Lasta. Sane began on Monday. In that 
month, on the 24th of the month, there was an earthquake. 
Hamle began on a Wednesday. On the 27th, the feast of the 
Saviour of the World, Dajazmach Zawede had a fight with the 
Agaw, and all his followers and his officers beat a retreat as 
well as his kinsmen and friends. All of them took to flight, 
and Dajazmach Zawede was left by himself with Dajazmach 
Ikona'el and Sande his chief officer, Yamaloge, the son of 
Gabru were those who were left with him, and others whose 
names we do not know ; and all the men were made prisoners 
of war ; and men without number lost their lives. Among the 
killed were Kantiba Walda Yared Kanfu Baqatu, Walatu 
Gabru Tawqe, his son, Yamazoke Tadla Jarso ; and there were 
cut down, Dajazmach Sahelu, brother of Ras Khaylu, Liqa 
579 b Maquas Gedewon of Begameder, and others whose names we 
do not know. After that Dajazmach Zawede reached Debut 
and came among the Agaw, while all his army were their 
captives, but when the Agaw men saw Dajazmach Zawede, 
they exclaimed "Zawede Yentegua 1 " openly. They fled from 
before his face. " Yentegua " is an expression in the language 
of the Agaw meaning, "He came"; and he ordered the pardon 
(release) of all the captives. That prince now was like our 
Lord Jesus who rescued the captives of the Devil, just so he 
rescued the prisoners of the Agaw, and as the prophet said, 
"Thou hast freed Ya'eqob from captivity and relented from 
all thy wrath, and turned away the chastisement of thy anger 2 ." 



1 Modern Bilin ; X'VtTK" (entakhul). Khamir ; Wl-lfi (Entakul) both from verb 
(ent\ "come." These are Agaw dialects, the former in the North on the Ansaba river, the 
latter in the region of Lasta and Wag. The Agaw are the ground race of Abyssinia, 
and probably forerunners of the Ge'ez-speaking immigrants from S.W. Arabia, the original 
Habashat. Vide Appendix : Names of Tribes, etc. * Ps. Ixxxv. 3. 



[473] 

And after that he tarried in his camp; that prince feared no 
man, for there was no one like him except his father Dajaz- 
mach Tulu, of whom it was said before in the time of our 
Negus Adeyam Sagad, "Yelu Aylu Yatal Tulu 1 ." Burying 
those that Avere killed and carrying those that were wounded he 
marched towards Gesh, the head of the Geyon (river). Nahase 
began on a Friday ; that month Dajazmach Gugsa fought with 
the Lasta men; and victory declared for Gugsa, and no one 
escaped except Wand Bawasan Khaylu and Aserat, and Dajaz- 
mach Darso was killed, the son, Shalaqa Chakaii of Lasta, and 
others whose names we do not know. Maskaram (10 September 
J802) began on a Friday; the Epact of the moon was 6, and 
Golden Number (Matq'e) was 24 2 (?). (To return.) JTeqemt began 
on a Sunday. That month Abba Yosab, Patriarch of Ethiopia, 
excommunicated all Christians, so that they could not celebrate 
the Eucharist, or pray in the churches. The reason of the ex- 
communication was that he said, " Serve (i.e. be loyal to) the 
Kings and do justice to the widows and the children, and come 
into the Hall of the King." But they did none of these things 530 a 
during two months, and they (his enemies) forbade entrance 
into Gondar and doing good works ; seeing that nothing was 
done, he removed the interdict. After this Atse Demetros died 
in his habitation and was buried at Ba'ata. King of Kings Gualu 
went towards Wagara with the Gallas to attack Ras Gabre, but 
not being able to (successful) he turned back after a few days 
and came to Gondar ; and while on the road coming, he met 
his father Atse Hezeqeyas as he was coming from Zage towards 
Gondar ; he went to meet him and conducted him to the house 
of the Echage. Dajazmach Gugsa came too to Gondar and 
killed Kuara Mardu, cutting off his hands and feet, as well as 
his brother's, from sheer cruelty. But there was tranquillity with 
Dajazmach Zawede in Gojam, Damot and Mecha, for the Agaw 

1 A cryptic epigram that may be translated " They say, they say not where is Tulu ? " 
Aylu (they say not) is perhaps a pun on Khaylu, a rival chief. Puns of this sort are a favourite 
form of wit in Abyssinian lampoons. 

2 Another MS. Abbadie, No. 1 18, Bib. Nat. gives Epact 20, and Ruppell, la, Frankfort MS. 
gives 77 ! Vide Appendix : Abyssinian Chronography and Chronology. 

w. B. 60 



[474] 

his enemies had been defeated. Sane began on a Tuesday; 
that month Wayzaro Galabu died. 

We will now go back to the beginning of the history. Now 
the Negus did not leave his city. Hainle began on a Thursday ; 
that month Ras Aligaz died at Yaju. Nahase began on 
Saturday. On the 20th of this month there was an eclipse 
of the moon. The 7290th year of the creation of the world 
(A.D. 1803) Maskaram began on a Sunday, the Epact of the 
moon was 18, the Golden Number was 12. The year was the 
year of Johannes. On that day Abuna Yosab passed to his 
rest, and was buried at St Gabre'el. On the 5th of this month 
a light descended in the middle of the night on his grave, 
I indeed was not in the habitations but those who were there 
in them related it to me, as they saw and heard it. And there 
was mourning in the land, first our Negus vanished from us 
and now our Patriarch. "Who will protect us, body and soul," 
is what all the world said weeping. Khedar began on a 
Thursday. On the 12th, the feast of St Mika'el, Amde whom 
they called Kolasi 1 was overthrown by the hand of the 
Wollo. He demolished the churches and made a laughing 

o o 

stock of Christian people : and the Archangel was avenged for 

580 b that and made them pay the penalty by their trophies in 

Jerusalem, and as vengeance was taken on the Badalay by the 

hand of Zar'a Ya'eqob the great man of .the Kingdom We 

will now return to our previous matter. And after our Patriarch 
Yosab was dead the retainers of Gugsii came to the house on 
the 4th day and took away the property of the Patriarch and 
from the Atse Fasil (that had been theirs) to the present time. 
Dajazmach Kenfti who was there they bound with a strong 
rope. That indeed was the custom of their fathers, formerly 
they robbed the churches. Then he did what has never been 
done by any men in Ethiopia, rulers and Kings. (He said), "No 
one shall dwell in my country who professes the double Birth-." 
And Atse Walda Yona joined with them, a teacher of Debra 

1 Tribe of Gallas, N.E. of Shoa. 

- Viile Appendix : Theological Controversies," etc. 



[475] 

Libanos; the men of Waldebba had formerly expelled him. 
On account of that crime he (?) migrated, and he was expelled 
to Amhara (to a place called) the Convent of Maryam ; the men 
of Gondar brought him that they might seek peace, and they 
made him Negus without the consent of the Negus and the 
chiefs. But first Abba Yosab pronounced excommunication 
on those that declared for the "triple Birth 1 ." After Abba 
Yosab was dead, in a few days, the Echage Walda Yona pro- 
nounced an excommunication in these terms : " For those that 
serve Dajazmach Gugsa no one may remain who professes the 
double Birth, only those that profess the triple Birth may 
remain in the land of Gugsa." Hence the men of Debra Libanos 
were expelled from Tigre and Gojam, on account of their faith, 
as the Echage Filippos was expelled from Shewa to Anqo and 
Geshana. (To return.) 

Dajazmach Zawede was seized with a spiritual zeal for 
the property of the Patriarch; he sent a messenger over to 
Dajazmach Gugsa, who was in company with Has Walda 
Sellase, to say, "Restore to us the property of the Patriarch." 
Gugsa was afraid of this alliance of the two commanders, 
so he said, "I agree, (come) to the Bridge." They met on 
the road of the Bridge that is called Ganj, with Dajazmach 
Zawede ; and he fetched the gold that he had taken from the 
house of the Abun, but the other property belonging to the 531 a 
Patriarchate that had been abstracted with the gold, he did 
not bring. So Dajazmach Zawede brought 100 (pieces) of 
gold for the sake of his friend the Patriarch and gave it to 
Abba Robe'am whom the monks of the convent of Ewostatewos 
(Eustathios) had chosen, that he might go back to Egypt to 
bring back a Patriarch, and after that, bidding farewell, Gugsa 
went to his land of his government Begameder ; Dajazmach 
Zawede hastened along the road to Mecha to attack the 
Agaw. That month Easter fell on 29th Miyazya. And after 
that he fought with the Agaw, and no one escaped but a few 
horsemen. A jester made this verse : 

1 Vide Appendix : Theological Controversies, etc. 



L476] 

"From afar from Akako he came at speed 
Like Fasil he laid waste to the edge of the precipice 1 ." 

They tell that story about Dajamiach Zawede. The King of 
Kings 'EgualaTseyon (Son of Zion) spent the summer at Gondar, 
doing nothing, his authority as Negus maintained only by the 
arms of the Galla. And King of Kings Takla Giyorgis remained 
in exile at Waldebba in Begameder at a place called Washa, and 
his attendants having perished and his friends, his concubine, 
daughter of Ras Gabre having died, he had been in mourning 
to the present time. We will now return to the beginning of 
the affair. Dajazmach Sahelu had been expelled from his 
land to Tigre. He was received by Ras Walda Sellase and he 
was received kindly because it was Ras Walda Sellase's custom 
to receive strangers like him. The commanders spent the 
rains within their respective commands in peace. Those that 
had been selected by the converts of Takla Haymanot and 
Ewostatewos proceeded to the land of Egypt, with some 
Mahommedans. They spent the rains at Matswa (Massawa). 
They had a quarrel over some small matter with the Nahib 
(Turkish Governor). The 7297 year (A.D. 1804) of the creation 
of the world. Maskaram began on a Monday, the year was 
the year of Matewos. There was war in the land. Ras Walda 
Sellase went on a raid in the direction of Sarwe. They fought 
58i b and killed Walda Sellase, called Adayam ; and Daja/mach 
Gugsa raided towards Armachaho, and the Lasta men raided 
in the direction of Begameder, and Daja/mach Zawede raided 
in the direction of Basso, and Enbesse spent the dry season 
moving about here and there. And in the month of Miya/ya, 
there was tranquillity in Gojam and Damot, and the Agaw, 
keeping the country quiet by force. (To continue.) I however 
was not in the city, but those that were related it to me. 
There was a rebel by name Za Maryam Barya of Tanja, and 
there was an attendant whose name is not known. The Negus 
came out to the edge of his habitation suddenly, as anyone 

1 C. Rossini, p. 99 (MS. UK, Ahhailic) suggests that Katafa Darso is proKaMy a pun 
with KaFafa dcrsaw "up to Fata' u place in Agawmeder. 



[477] 

might, he met (came up against) some fool who drew a weapon 
upon the Negus 'Eguala Tseyon who sent him disarmed to 
his house though coming by night; and Dajazmach Tsahay 
Leda was with the king and came to the house of the Echage. 
How is it that the kingdom is a laughing stock to the Galla 
and the uncircumcized, how is it that the kingdom is a 
derision to the children and servants ? Why was the kingdom 
snatched away to other families, of whom it cannot be said, 
"They are of such and such a race." We however do not 
know the reason of this usurpation of the kingdom, but of 
yore the usurpation of the kingdom from the hand of Na'od 
in favour of the Zague we have heard the reason of that matter. 
Everyone said that when any man laid down trophies, he 
first of all said, "I have done this by the power of God" (by 
reason of this Del Na'od the Negus was conquered), (they said) 
" why speak you thus ? Why do you not say, ' By the power of 
the Negus Del Na'od.' " For this God was wroth and God gave 
the kingdom to the Zague. But that kingdom remained in the 
hands of the children of David to this day. This history I 
found in the Gadla Yemersh, that he restored the kingdom 
from the Zague to the children of David by the prayers of 
Abuna Takla Haymanot. Who is there has restored the 
kingdom to you, my masters, the Kings ? I mourn and weep 
without ceasing. 

We will now turn back to the previous matter. The month 582 a 
of Magabit began. The Wollo and the Wechale and Toloma 
uniting together made war upon Abeto Tsamru in Amhara, 
the son of Dajazmach Dori, son of Ras Goshu. Tsamru 
retired, so the Gallas were victorious. Tsamru was taken by 
the hand of the Galla, and they sent him away in peace. And 
after that Darso, son of Balambaras Dori, governed Amhara. 
Abeto Tsamru came to Gojam to his father-in-law Dajazmach 
Zawede, and was received in peace. The Negus likewise and 
the captains were in their respective provinces. Sane began 
on a Friday. That month the Liban and Wechale made a raid 
on Maqet, called Debra Abuna A'aron (Mount of our Father 



[478] 

Aaron). They surrounded it suddenly, some say through the 
advice of Aserat. They had a fight with him and a few men 
were killed, and afterwards they were reconciled with Aserat and 
returned to their provinces. Aserat, however, went to Bega- 
meder with Gugsa and the chiefs to their provinces. But the 
King of Kings 'Eguala Tseyon spent the rainy season at Gondar, 
Dajazmach Zawede did the same at Damot at a place called 
Bure. He put two officers in chains, but the reason of their 
imprisonment we do not know.... 

The history of the Kings is defective (now) and the reason 
of this deficiency is that there was no Negus who had power to 
loose or to bind to appoint or dismiss; on this account there is 
a deficiency. Men must not be angered with me about this 
history ; there was no one to give me information as to what 
occurred in the habitations in other lands. In fact I was 
in another part of the country. In the 7298 year of the creation 
of the world 1 Maskarain began on a Friday ; the year was 
the year of Markos and brings us to a new epoch. We are 
now beginning with the help of God the book of the history of 
our Negus 'Eguala Tseyon. Nothing took place in the habita- 
582btions, since nothing was done good or bad, no appointments 
and no dismissals ; for there was an authority over the Negus 
in the hands of a Galla, who was called Dajazmach Gugsa. 
We will now return to the beginning of the affair. While 
Daja/mach Zawede was at Bure, he put out the eyes of 
Fitawrari Gabra Kedan and his brother Zaro, on the advice of 
Jawe and Yamalog. Then he marched and camped at Kob 
Mika'el and took a rest, then he removed and camped at 
Ybaba ; Mabaja was there and a scheme of Dajazmach Zawede 
was begun. He spent the dry season at Yababa and while 
there he made a covenant with his army with an oath and 
under pain of anathema. After that he sent in the direction 
of Deldey (the Bridge) Daja/mach Khaylu with A/./uj Sande 
and Basha Faqadu and Fitawrari Cham and Galla Wadaje, 
who camped at the edge of Deldey. And Dajazmach Zawede 

1 10 September, 1805. 



[479] 

came over from his camp at Yababa and crossed the river 
Abay. He made war in Begameder and made booty of 
both men and cattle, in Afrawanat and Wayra, and went back to 
his camp. And while there Antsoiia Habtu seized the son of 
Fasil, a rebel, and sent him to Dajazmach Zawede, who put him 
in chains. News came from Begameder to say that Dajazmach 
Gugsa had gone from his camp at Lebo. 80 Daja/mach Zawede 
gave up his dry season quarters at Yababa and passed on towards 
Wadata on the borders of Andasa and camped there. And 
Dajazmach Gugsa arrived at his camp and camped at Robit,both 
of them pitching their tents. Then the monks of the plain of 
Quararta came to make peace between the two captains. They 
made a treaty with a binding oath. While they were in this 
position, retainers of Ras Walda Sellase came to bring about 
peace. " I was in my province, so you stay in your provinces in 583 a 
friendship and peace." Said the captains, "Agreed." That 
month spies came from the Agaw saying, " Azaj Eleyas, Shum of 
Agaw, has played the traitor to you." When he heard that 
report, he took secret counsel with his friends, and rose from 
his camp and came to Sankua Giyorgis and camped in that 
place, and despatched Dajazmach Khaylu to the country of 
Gojam, and Dajazmach Ikonyan to Yababa. He bid adieu 
to them and Dajazmach Khaylu came to Debra Tsot, and 
he marched from Sankua Giyorgis and camped at Qachen 
Bar, thence marching he camped at Daguta ; marching thence 
he camped at Sakala. And Easter and Saturday fell on the 
same day. Then he marched and camped at Kossa, and then 
he proceeded to the house of Azzaj Ileyas, that is called Fafa. 
He found in his house much food and wine and beer beyond 
count, and he camped at his door (verandah), harassed the 
whole of the Agaw, in every direction, and he captured many 
men and cattle. After this he marched towards Gojam, and 
came to Zawa by advice of the Gojamese, but after a few days 
they deceived him all except Balanibaras Walda Kher. That 
month Ras Aserat died at Quaratsa of a grievous illness, and 
there was great lamentation in the house of Dajazmach 



[48o] 

Khaylu. We 'will now go back to the beginning of our story. 
Then he (Dajazmach Zawede) rose from Zawa but his house 
had been demolished. Some went seizing prisoners, others 
went and seized the guns and others cattle, and others breast- 
plates 1 . In great distress he hastened on his road to his 
province and going a day's march he reached Damot (a place) 
called Dambacha. How can I relate what was done at this 
time ? Dajazmach Zawede came and fortified in that hill. It 
583 b was fortified by order of Abuna Yosab, so that the rebels 
should not reach him. And Abeto Gualu son of Has Mare'ed 
came with a large army of the province of Gojam and with 
him was Kuelalit (Kidney) as he was named. (To continue.) 
Abeto Guala camped at the edge of the hill and sent a messenger 
to say, "Send me your wife, Princess Denqenash, daughter of Has 
Khaylu." Dajazmach Zawede sent back in reply, "Before, I sent 
her out, and you threw down my wall of the retreat where I had 
placed her." After that you tell me, "Fetch your wife." So saying 
his eyes shed tears like water in the rain. Through that shed- 
ding of tears all his enemies were dispersed. We will return 
to the beginning of our story. God sent help from his enemies 
seeing the sorrows that had overtaken him, so that he might 
contend with them. Azzaje Eleyas was his helper in this manner. 
He said, " Give up the wife of our Lord, Dajazmach Zawede, 
whom you took out of his house against his will, whom he had 
settled there in the convent." And there was a debate in 
the houses of the Gojamese. And they replied, "We will 
not attack Dajazmach Eleyas before we have elected him 
(governor); shall we attack him afterwards?" So they took 
this counsel, and they answered, " It is well " ; i.e. they gave up 
Dajazmach Zawede's wife. And after that Princess Denqenash 
returned and went to the land of her father, and all of them 
returned to their provinces. After this Dajazmach Zawede 
started out from Dambacha suddenly to attack Dajazmach 
Eleyas. He did not find him, so he returned and camped 
at Yamalog. Then first he attacked Dajazmach Goshu and 

(Amhaiic). 



[ 4 8i] 

then fell upon Dajazmach Eleyas. And victory after two 
days declared for Dajazmach Zawede. We will go back. 
Dajazmach Zawede pressed forward along the road towards 
Gojam to attack the men of Gqjam, and he came up with them 
at Dambal, and won a victory ; then he returned in triumph to 584 a 
his camp at Lamchan. And while there, there came a runner 
of Wadaje Sabaro saying, "We have taken Nathan Walda 
Amlak, send over to me (some one) that I may give up 
(exchange) Walda Amlak Baru. He sent Blattengeta Biftu 
and Abeto Azanach to meet him and they went out quickly to 
meet him and put him in chains. (To continue. ) He (Dajazmach 
Zawede) started from Lamchan and camped at Want, and 
while there spies came to report "Dajazmach Gugsa has 
crossed the river Abay and has camped at Koso Bar in the 
guidance of Azzaje Sahelu." And from Want he rose and 
camped at Bade, and marching from Sade he crossed the 
Abay and passed on towards Mecha'. And there he passed 
the dry season, moving hither and thither. Dajazmach Gugsa 
surrounded the land of Gafat and devastated it, and all the 
men of Gafat perished. And while there his mother, Em- 
mabet Kafay, sent word, "There is in possession of your 
land a man called Endris Adam." That was while Dajaz- 
mach Zawede was in the land of Mecha. Dajazmach Gugsa 
started quickly towards Begameder, to attack Endris Adam. 
He was a rebel who had risen in Begameder, and when 
pursuing Dajazmach Gugsa, Dajazmach Zawede came upon 
Khaylu Kenfn on the banks of the Abay. And he bore 
himself valiantly, and his (Khaylu Kenfu's) relatives and 
retainers were captured, and he himself turning back towards 
Adaware camped, and put in chains Khaylu Walda Rafa'el. 
Then he marched and camped at Tababit and from Tababit 
he marched and camped at Yaraz ; both of them pitched 
their tents there. Then Dajazmach Zawede prepared for 
battle. They met at Ayshal Meda. Dajazmach Zawede de- 
feated them and the men of Gojam retreated, and while they 
retreated he advanced to Baso, that is called Yawesh. He 

W. B. 61 



[482] 

584 b turned back from Yawesh and came to Nazre"th. And various 
appointments and dismissals were made. And Abeto Yamaryam 
Fanta, son of Samu'el Nacho died this month and was buried 
at Nazre"th lyasus. After this Abeto Goshu son of Dajazmach 
Zawede came back from exile, but his mother (Zawede's wife) 
Princess Denqenash went away to Begameder with Princess 
Qatsaro in exile, and they came to Makhdara (convent) 
Maryam. And after that he (Zawede) rose from Nazreth and 
came to Bechna. While at Beclma he put in chains to die 
Adara Bori who was of Baranta and spent the rains there. 
Maskaram 1 began on a Friday when the Epact of the moon 
was 10, the Matq'e 14. The King of Kings 'Eguala Tseyon 
started from Gondar in the direction of Fogara that he might 
take the medicinal waters called "Labat" on account of his 
disease.... 

We will now go back to the beginning of the story. And 
while Dajazmach Zawede was at Bechna the two chiefs sent 
to say, " Let us be reconciled." Dajazmach Gugsa said " I will 
give back your wife and you give me goods to the value of 
300 dinars of gold." Dajazmach Zawede replied, " Agreed," 
and gave an oath and (engagement) under penalty of anathema. 
He sent the gold that they asked for, and the gold arrived at 
the habitations of Dajazmach Gugsa, which are called Lebo ; 
but he (Gugsa) was a traitor to his oath, and kept back Princess 
Denqenash, Zawede's wife, forswearing himself. After this 
Dajazmach Zawede came and passed over to Sade and while 
he was marching, retainers of Ras Walda Sellase came to say, 
"Our master is approaching, having put Abeto Gualej to flight, 
to his land of Yaju." They met in battle, and victory was on 
the side of Ras Walda Sellase and all the men of Yaj perished. 
He returned to his land of Tigre, and Dajazmach Zawede spent 
the dry season at Sade to watch Dajazmach Gugsa, and in the 
month of Nahase he rose from his camp at Sade and hastened 
towards Hadis Amba, and from Hadis Amba he started and 
camped at Akerma. And while there a reconciliation was 

1 This is still the year 7298, j>. 478, according to the Epact given, 10. 



[483] 

started with Blattengeta Kuelalit and Abeto Azanach and 
Azaje Asego. They came to the camp of Dajazmach Zawede 
with oaths and penalty of anathema, and Blattengeta Kuelalit 
came to Debra Dema and dwelt there in sanctuary. 

In the 7301 (1808) year of the creation of the world Maskaram 
began on a Saturday ; that was the (year) of the evangelist 
Matewos, the (New Moon) (?) rose the night of the 16th, the 
Tenteyon was 4, when the Epact of the moon was 14 and 585 a 
the Matq'e 16. Yakatit began on a Tuesday. Dajazmach 
Zawede started from his village of Haware in Begameder 
to make a sudden attack on Dajazmach Gugsa, and he 
camped at Mount Maryam and came to the habitations of 
Gondar. And he sent out a herald to proclaim, "Come! Come 
forth to meet King of Kings Takla Giyorgis at Waldebba." 
And he turned out Atse 'Eguala Tseyon and returned to his 
camp at Mount Maryam, it being Saturday, and then he moved 
out of his camp and camped at Abba Samu'el. Here begins 
the trial of Dajazmach Zawede. On the 18th of the month 
Yakatit, on Friday, the battle began and in the evening of 
Friday, a retainer of his, a Galla, a pretended ally deserted 
and played the traitor to his master Dajazmach Zawede. Now 
that Galla was like the Jew that sold his Lord; he (Dajazmach 
Zawede) waited through the Saturday considering over it, and 
in the evening of Saturday the Gojamese betrayed him, and 
went over to the Galla, for it is their habit to be traitors. And 
first they put Ras Mare'ed to death at Wagara, and the same 
day deserted from Dajazmach Zawede, according to their 
custom. On the 20th of Yakatit, on Sunday, a battle took 585 b 
place and the Galla advanced against him, but they (Zawede's 
force) retreated without engaging, they were beaten, and 
victory remained with the Galla. But God delivered Dajaz- 
mach Zawede according to his mercy, and the prophecy of his 
father David was fulfilled in him, as it said in the Bible, " A 
Prince is not saved by many men, and a horse is a vain 
thing for safety, and he will not escape by great strength 1 ." 

1 Ps. xxxiii. 17. 



[44] 

Dajazmach Zawede escaped on foot to his village and came to 
the house of Demetros Khaylu and he sent him by boat to 
Mecha and he came to the house of Engulal Khaylu, and while 
there he released those in chains that were dwelling at Daq 
(island in Tsana) who were Azaj Eleyas of Agaw, Delu Nacho 
and Delu Amaro, taking an oath and (binding himself) under 
penalty of anathema. Then he started out and camped at 
Jamma, and met those of his soldiers that had escaped from 
the defeat, Fitawrari Sande and Fitawrari Biftu. And of those 
that Dajazmach Gugsa put in chains were Balambaras Walda 
Kher and Kantiba lyoram, and Liqa Maquas Tesfuyo and 
Walda Ab, and Walda Abib and Walda Gabre'el, Walda 
sse a Sellase. How should I enumerate those that were left in the 
hands of the Galla ? And Ras Gugsa returned to his province 
in the year ,of the Evangelist Matewos. The 5th year Atse 
Hezeqeyas died and Dajazmach Adegah and this (A.D. 1813) 
was the year of Matewos the Evangelist, and the third year 
(three years after (1816)) Ras Gabre died the year of the 
Evangelist Lukas. The second year Ras Walda Sellase died 
(1817) the year of Evangelist Johannes, and before his death 
at that time Abuna Qerlos came, and the third year (1818) the 
Evangelist Markos, died Atse Takla Giyorgis in (the month of) 
Takhsas and in Genbot Atse Guala died 1 . On the 15th of Sane, 
Atse lyo'as his brother came to the throne, and in the third 
year Abuna Qerlos was expelled ; he was vanquished in a matter 
of Faith, when he professed, "His Son by Unction 2 ,' 1 and he 
went away to Tigre and that was the year of the Evangelist 
Johannes. And the third (1821) year (after), that of Evangelist 
Markos, Atse lyo'as died, and the Echage Walda Yona. And 
Atse Gigar was King and Johannes was created Echage. 
And in a year the righteous Echage Johannes retired and 
abandoned his office and went to his province (1823). And 
Filipos was created Echage and the third year that of the 
Evangelist Matewos after he had ruled over the whole world 

1 3 June 1818. 

* Vide Appendix : Theological Controversies in Abyssinian Church. 



[485] 

except Shoa and Tigre, Ras Gugsa died at Debra Tabor and 
was buried 16th of Genbot 1 on a Monday, and the period 
of his dominion was 27 years. And after that Walda Yanain 
was appointed and the next year (1826) that of Markos, there 
was a great migration from Semien and Dajazmach Khaylu 
Maryam came to make war. He reached Mount Manta to 
put Atse Ba'eda Maryam on the throne, and he stayed at 
Mount Manta fifteen days, for Ras Yman was not in Begameder 
but had gone to Gojam to do battle against Dajazmach Goshu ; 
Dajazmach Khaylu Maryam seized the ford of the Geyon (river) 
so that he might not cross it, and when they failed at the ford 
they crossed by the bridge at Dangal Bar, and they came as 
far as Azazo and pitched camp at Samona Bar. Dajazmach 586 b 
Khaylu Maryam retreated in panic and pitched camp at 
Waldebba, and the battle began. And they fought for three 
days and a great number were killed. And they shut him 
out from the water of the (river) Angareb, as it is written, 
" Shutting out water is the beginning of strife." And on the 
29th Takhsas on the Day of the Nativity of Our Lord, Dajaz- 
mach Khaylu took to flight in fear and trembling, and Ras 
Yemam and Dajazmach Maru pursued him as far as Wagara, 
but did not catch him up; many were killed on the road, and 
the Tabot of Dafacha was destroyed. He tarried at Gondar 
for the day of the fast of the Nativity, and in the evening 
he returned and came over to the Echage, Filippos, and 
received his blessing and broke bread with him. Dajazmach 
Khaylu Maryam came to his village, sick from poison ; he died 
and was buried at Waldebba in Genbot of that year. Dajaz- 
mach Oubie was appointed. Dajazmach Maru had a battle 
with Ras Yemam and they fought at Amdamit, and Dajazmach 
Maru was killed by a gunshot and Ras Yemam came to his 
village and died by violence. Ras Maryo was appointed, and 
Semien was devastated by the soldiery of Maru. And the 
third year Maru came out of his village of Debra Tabor and 
went to Tigre while Dajazmach Oubie was chief, and fought 

1 25 May 1825. 



[486] 

with Sabe Gadis, Dajazmach of Tigre, and Ras Maru was 
killed 1 by a gunshot and was buried at Mount Abay, and 
Dajazmach Sabe Gadis was taken and remained one day and 
was put to death with spears before sentence (had been given). 
And after that his brother was appointed, Ras Dori. And 
587 a Atse lyasu was made King. Dori died and lyasu was deposed. 
Atse Gabra Krestos was made Negus and died. All this 
occurred in one year. 

In the year 7322 (1830) of the creation of the world Ras Ali 
was created chief of the Generals, and Atse Sahelu was made 
Negus. 

Here the MS. ends abruptly and the following summary of events may 
be added from other sources. 

Dajazmach Zawede, after his defeat, fled and was captured by Walda 
Rufa'el and handed over to Ras Gugsa, who threw him into a prison at 
Balamba, where he died. Gugsa made his son Ras Alula Governor of Damot 
and gave him as a wife Wayzaro Menin, who became the mother of Ras 
Ali, destined in manhood to be one of the most powerful chiefs in North 
Abyssinia. War continued between Ras Gugsa and Walda Sellase, the latter 
having the King, Takla Giyorgis, in his protection rather than in alliance. 
Walda Sellase died in 1816. Hezeqeyas died 17th Magabit (2Gth March) 
the same year. Atse 'Eguala Tseyon died 27th Genbot (3rd June) 1818, 
Takla Giyorgis having preceded him on the 12th Takhsas. The latter was 
buried at Axum. 

After Atse lyo'as died 3rd June 1821, Atse Gigar may be said to have 
had a little more than the empty title of King of Kings ; but though greater 
power was exercised by various contending governors, such as Dajazmach 
Sabagadis in Tigre, Ras Gugsa in Begameder and Dajazmach Khaylu in 
Semen, he had at least survived the other puppet kings and pretenders. 
He enjoyed this precarious position for nine years. Ras Gugsa died 23rd 
May 1825, and his son, bearing the Muslim name of Ras Imam, was elected 
his successor. After the death of Dajazmach Khaylu, his son Dajazmach 
Ube (pronounced Ubye or Ubie) succeeded to the governorship or dictator- 
ship of Semen. 

The writer in f. 585 b to the end summarizes the history of the country 
to 1830. A fuller version of this i>ortion is given in a MS. lately found 
among the d'Abbadie Collection in the Biblioth^que Nationale, No. 118. 

1 The date given by MS. 118 Abbadie of the death of these two chiefs is 1829. It gives 
the account of their battle and their death. VicU- the continuation of the history taken from 

the above MS. 



From 1830, where our MS. terminates, the d'Abbadie MS. (ed. and trans, 
by C. Conti Rossini) brings the history up to 1840, as follows (f. 246 b, col. a). 

Both (of these Chiefs, Marye and Sabagadis) were buried 
at Debra A bay. Whilst their battle was raging there, the 
heat was terrific and many men perished of thirst. The Lord 
had pity on them and caused an abundant rain to fall ; a 
great stream of water burst forth and mingled with the 
blood. The thirsting men drank of this water and fell ill 
of the disease called fatsant (AftVh*); some died and some 
survived. 

After the death of Ras Marye, Dori rose to the position of 
his brother. (Dori) departed to return to his country, while 
Daja/mach Ubie remained in Tigre. During this march of 
Dori, some of his troops died of fatigue and hunger; there 
were some who sold their horses for bread, others for a bowl of 
milk. Yet for all that they were in such misery there was not 
one who did violence to the poor or seized any (of their) goods, 
for Ras Dori was a just judge and loved not ill-usage. In his 
great love of justice he thought to show obedience to the King, 
but the Lord would not permit him. Of his hatred of ill-treat- 
ment he gave a proof when a soldier seized a piece of bread or 
a bowl of milk ; he gave the man who had been despoiled the 
offender's horse. While he was acting thus, the Almighty cut 
short his life for the sins of the people. On his return to camp, 
he fell grievously ill. He put in prison Dajazmach Kenfu and 
Amade, in order that they might not create disturbance and 
remained thus for three months ; then he died and was buried 
in the tomb of his father. The month in which he died was 
Sane (June), 1831. 

Ras Ali was elected. He let out Dajazmach Kenfu and 
Amade from the prison where Ras Dori had thrown them and 
bestowed on Dajazmach Kenfu the government of the country 
formerly ruled by Daja/mach Maru. He then sent Amade back 
to his country to govern his own district. In his province there 
was a village called Baba, where there was a church. Amade 
entered the church, defiled it, had food and drink brought to 



[488] 

it and invited to it all the Muhammedaus. While they were 
there eating and drinking, a thunderbolt fell and terrified 
them, even as it had terrified Paul. However, he was not con- 
verted like Paul, but hardened his heart, like Fare'on (Pharaoh), 
for he belonged to the race of Gran. Before that he had set 
fire to many churches ; and some of these he had turned into 
mosques for the Musselmans. Then he set forth to wage war 
on Ali Faris. But Ali Faris defeated him and put him in chains 
because he had not shown the justice of the Lord. After 
(Amade) had been imprisoned, Has Ali sent messengers and 
made peace, in order that (Ali Faris) might set him at liberty. 
The latter did so. Ras Ali did not remember that he (Amade) 
had destroyed Christianity ; but the Lord, who measures not 
this practice, willed him to be a prisoner that he might perish 
at the hand of Ras Ali ; thus he acted not friendly to Christ, 
though he acted friendly towards men. After that, the sixth 
month after the election of Ras Ali, Ali Faris came to wage 
war on Ras Ali. With him was a Christian who had taken the 
name of Eguala Anbasa, although he was not of the royal line. 
Ali Faris wanted to make him Negus, but was defeated and 
had great trouble to escape and get to his country, Raya, where 
Ras Ali was unable to find him. When Ras Ali returned to his 
country, (Ali Faris) returned to his. For a long time affair* 
remained in this state. After a time, Amade came bearing the 
books of the Muslims and all their laws, to convert the Christians 
to Islam and deny Christ. While he was on the road and was 
trying to join the son of his sister, he died on the march. They 
brought back the corpse and buried it in his own country. In 
this manner our Lord wrought, for he loves Christians for 
whom he died and gave himself. 

Ras Dori, when he was alive, elected to be King of Kings 
lyasu, son of Solomon King, son of Takla Haymanot, the king 
who renounced the world and retired to Waldebba. The reign 
of lyasu began on the Feast of Pentecost in the month of Sane. 
After he had begun to reign, he betook him to riding on horse- 
back and to go on campaigns. Ras Ali heard that he did all 



[489] 

these things while he was beginning the war against Ali Faris. 
When he had defeated Ali Faris, he drove lyasu out of the 
kingdom and nominated King of Kings Sahela Dengel in his 
stead. When Sahela Dengel was called to be King, the Clergy 
of Azazo were hostile to him, on account of the Faith. While 
Ras Ali was passing through the land of Dambeya to carry on 
war against the Agaw, the Clergy of Azazo said to him, " Send 
him away ! " And he sent away the King and made him stay in 
the Country of Zengaj. All this took place about the time of 
the Epiphany. After him King Gabia Krestos, who was living 
in Mesraha, ascended the throne on Sunday of mid Lent, in 
the month of Magabit. He remained for three months, then 
he died, 27th of Sane, and was buried in the convent of Our 
Father Takla Haymanot, which is in Adababay. After this, on 
the return of Ras Ali from his expedition, King Sahela Dengel 
started from Zengaj and met Ras Ali in a village called Tsagur, 
and discussed with him the question of the kingdom, and said 
to him " Bring me back to my kingdom." He (Ali) ordered that 
he be allowed to return, so he came back and reigned. When 
he was reinstated, there came the rebel who had appeared 
before with Ali Faris, who had taken the name of Eguala An- 
basa. After having wandered from place to place and from 
country to country, he came and entered the convent built in 
the name of Our Lord Jesus Christ, on the bank of the river 
called Qaha, in company with a few men. He took the horn 
outside the church, and, sounding it, cried, "I am the King 
whose name is Theodore." Hearing of this, King Sahela Dengel 
was disturbed in his heart ; in the evening he started out with 
his attendants, killed him with blows of his sabre, cut off his 
head and stuck it on a tree in Adababay. With the dead man 
was a eunuch ; Sahela Dengel made him a slave and kept him 
with him, and to this day this man lives with the King. As for 
the cross and monk's habit which belonged to the pretender, 
(Sahela Dengel) took them away and placed them in the palace, 
where they can be seen by those who come to pay respects to 
the King. 

w. B. 62 



[490], 

After Ras Ali had appointed Dajazmach Kenfu to be 
governor of the province to which Dajazmach Maru had been 
nominated, he (Kenfu) preserved the country in peace against 
oppressors and robbers. He cut off the hands and feet of 
brigands and thieves. So the country he ruled could rest quiet 
from the violences of the soldiery ; rich and poor rejoiced in 
his rule. In his day was abundance, and famine ceased. In his 
time it was heard that the Turks had come and had camped 
at Matemma. When he heard of this, the whole country was 
alarmed and grieved and all made supplication (for help) with 
loud lamentation. Said Dajazmach Kenfu "Have no fear; be 
not afraid. So long as I am not dead, you shall not die ! " 
This said, he departed and betook him to Matemma to make 
war on the Turks, who had come to take tribute from the 
Arab tribes (lit. sons of Arabs) who inhabited Matemma. 
The numbers of the Turks were 400. He gave battle to them 
and he slaughtered them and the inhabitants of Matemma. 
Their Commander, however, was not there ; he was at Sennar. 
Dajazmach Kenfu returned in peace to his province. Having 
heard of this, the Franks said to Muhammed Ali, "If the 
Christians are molested, we shall no longer be friends with 
you." With such language they forced the Turks to abandon 
war against the city of Gondar. Before Dajazmach Kenfu died, 
his two brothers, Dajazmach Yabru and Andawa Khaylu, died ; 
their mother was Wayzero Walatta Takle. 

In the days of Ras Ali, retainers came, relations of Ras Ali, 
and raised trouble in the city of Gondar. On account of such 
disorders, the King and the Echage went away and spent the 
night at Tsadda. Seeing this, the retainers had no fear, for the 
Lord willed that, though servants, they should hold them in 
contempt. Before this, a like outrage was committed in the 
reign of King Gigar. Soldiers came who penetrated into the 
city and camped in the market-place. The King and the Echage 
came out and remained in the market-place, but the soldiers 
had no respect for their authority and plundered Dengeyage. 
And on his flight the Echage fell ill and died. Dajazmach 



[49i] 

Kenfu also lay ill for many days and died. When he died 
none of his followers showed any grief, although they divided 
amongst them his riches. A few men bore his body and brought 
it to Fanja and buried it. 

After the death of Dajazmach Kenfu, Goshu Berru was 
elected. Before the election of Goshu Berru, Ras Ali said to 
the sons of Dajazmach Kenfu, " We have bestowed on you the 
country of your fathers." 

In these days, Lejj Walda Takle arose and stirred up the 
villages, and while the country was in such a state of unrest 
Dajazmach Berru came with his father, Dajazmach Goshu, by 
Dengel Bar. They gave battle to Lejj Elma and Makunnen, sons 
of Dajazmach Kenfu, defeated them and took them prisoner and 
put them in chains. But these things were done by Dajazmach 
Berru when Has Ali had said " I have given you (this country)." 
Thence he advanced to Dambeya. The clergy of the capital 
came and gave him a reception; he received them, offering 
food and drink and made no difference between right and left. 
Then, as they did not bring in their tribute (requisitions) he 
bought up the crops and forbad the introduction of cereals 
into the city. On account of this, the clergy assembled, united 
in the intention of betaking themselves to Debra Tabor to Ras 
Ali to bring an accusation against Berru, saying, " This man 
has seized the fruits of the earth which the Kings have be- 
stowed." Thus they came with an accusation. Ras Ali replied 
"Be reconciled." They answered "We will not be reconciled, 
for we are afraid of him ; it is impossible for us to go back to 
our country; nay, we will go as exiles to another country." 
Then (Ali) said to Berru, " We have given you the province of 
Gojam ; return to it." And so the priests went back in peace. 

After Dajazmach Berru went away, war broke out, and he 
lost the friendship of Ras Ali. The latter gave to his mother 
the province of Dajazmach Maru. Dajazmach Berru went away 
and set at liberty the sons of Dajazmach Kenfu. These entered 
Quoratsa. The son whose name was Elma, while disporting 
for -HVjZ,) himself on a horse, fell and was killed 



[492] 

Then Ras All and the Itege Manan sallied forth to make war 
on Gojam. The Itege went to the country of the Agaw, and 
while she was there Lejj Makuannen came to the province of 
Dambeya and engaged Lejj Walda Takle in battle. Lejj Walda 
Takle was the victor, captured him and put him in chains at 
Saramba. After this, Wayzaro Manan came to Ferga Bar and 
reached Dambeya. The country was much disturbed by her 
and by Walda Takle. She pursued Walda Takle. The latter 
248 b marched to the top of an amba, the amba was taken by storm 
and she (Manan) captured Walda Takle. Keeping him prisoner, 
she entered the city the 23rd of the month Nahase. Previously 
to this, she had driven Sahela Dengel out of the kingdom 
(2 ( .)th August, 1840). On the 24th of this month, Johannes was 
made King of Kings, son of Takla Giyorgis. Then she really 
became the wife of King Johannes. The royal ceremonial was 
carried out for them. In these days the city underwent grave 
disturbances ; the soldiers broke into all the houses and ate up 
all that the inhabitants of the city had to eat. There was a 
great famine and many people perished of hunger. 



APPENDIX A. 

CHRONOLOGY AND CHRONOGRAPHY OF ABYSSINIANS. 

The chronography of the Abyssinians is that of the Mother (Coptic) 
Church of Alexandria. It would appear from Georgius Syncellus that it 
was initiated by the Alexandrian monk Panodorus 1 , who flourished under 
the Emperor Arcadius (395-408 A.D.) and founded a system of chronology 
based on Egyptian and biblical sources. He fixed the incarnation of Christ 
in the year 5493 of the world and made the year 1 A.M. begin on the 
29th August, 5493 B.C. in accordance with Alexandrian reckoning, which 
begins the year with the 29th of August (Julian) or 9th of September 2 
(Gregorian), = the 1st of Tut (Coptic), = the 1st of Maskaram (Abyssinian). 
In this way he anticipated the date assigned to the incarnation by Dionysius 
Exiguus (who died circ. 540-560 A.D.), the founder of the Dionysian era. 
His contemporary, Annianus, an Egyptian monk, also mentioned by Syn- 
cellus 3 , made a step forward in the system of Easter reckoning ; he began 
his Era on 25th March, 5492 B.C., this date (25th March) being held by 
many early chronographists as the fateful day of the incarnation of Christ, 
the creation of the world, and the Day of Resurrection. He combined 28 
nineteen-year cycles of the Moon into a 532 year period, which he took as 
the basis of his Easter reckoning, at the close of which Easter Day would 
fall on the same day and the Golden Number would revert to 1. 

Annianus placed the birth of Christ in the year A.M. 5501, and this is 
the date adopted by the Abyssinians according to the MSS. extant, though 
they do not ascribe to this writer the determination of this date. The 
Alexandrian and Abyssinian era, beginning on the 29th of August, is seven 
months earlier than the era of Annianus. In order, therefore, to convert 
the Alexandrian and Abyssinian date to dates A.D., or Christian era, sub- 
tract 5492 from the given year of the world and there remains the year A.D., 
which from 1st January to the 29th August agrees with the Abyssinian. 
From the month of September to the end of December, 5493 subtracted 
from the given date gives the correspondence with the Abyssinian date. 

1 6uXaj3eoTaT< ^lova^w (rvyypaC^el 'A.vviav<o KOI Havo8<apa>, Syncellus, ed. Dindorf, V. 27, 
p. 61, and v. 32, p. 75. 

2 Julian dates are in this appendix converted into Gregorian by the addition of eleven 
days, the proper correction for the eighteenth century of our era. 

3 Annianus, according to Syncellus, was the contemporary of Theophilus, the 22nd Arch- 
bishop of Alexandria, A.D. 385-412. He was the first to conceive the 532 years cycle. 
(Syncellus, ed. Dindorf (1829), I. 62-65, 597, and Dr Fotheringham in Journal Theolog. 
Studies, Oct. 1921, p. 53.) 



[494] 

Although we have the authority of Georgius Syncellus for crediting 
A in liamis and Panodorus with the elaboration of what is called the Alex- 
andrian era on which the Coptic and Abyssinian computations were founded, 
no mention of these names is found in the existing Abyssinian MSS. 
relating to these computations. Chronographical computations (called 
Hasab) are found in the following MSS. in the British Museum: Or. 815 ; 
Or. 816 ; Add. 16,217 ; the latter is the source drawn upon by Scaliger 
for his exposition of the Abyssinian system in his work De Emendatione 
Temporum ; and Add. 16,252 a voluminous work brought by the missionary 
Krapf and founded on the work of Abu-1-Shaker (ca. 1257 A.D.) 1 . 

The MS., Or. 815, ascribes the Abyssinian chronography to Demeteros 2 , 
Patriarch of Alexandria from 190 A.D. to 232 A.D. According to Eusebius 
there were discussions on the date of Easter at this period, but no hint is 
given that Demetrius played any part in it. According to this MS. the 
reform and corrections of the calendar were the work of "Giyorgis, the 
son of 'Amid," better known as Al-Makin or Elmacinus, a Katib or 
clerk of Egypt who was born in A.D. 1223 and died 1273 at Damascus. 
No chronographical work survives of this writer, who is known only 
by his Historia Saracenica, a history from Muhammed to the beginning of 
the reign of Atabak, and a history from the Creation to the fourth Sultan of 
Egypt, Malek Addaher Bibars (Schnurrur, BibliotJieca Arabica, p. 115) 3 . 

1 In the Colophon of this Ethiopic MS. we read "This blessed book composed by the 
illustrious lord, and exalted doctor of Scripture, Abushaker, son of Abielkiram Petros, 
monk, ebna Elmmahaddab, which signifies son of an educated, or rather, son of a learned 
man, who was known by name Barish, who was ordained deacon of the Church of Ma'ellaqa ; and 
he treats of the computation of the world in this book from the Creation of Adam, on him be 
peace, up to the year 6750 according to the Egyptian reckoning, which agrees with the year 
1569 of Alexander and also with the year of the Tanballat (Muhammedans) 655" (A.D. 1257). 

There are the two following works of Abu-1-Shaker in the Vatican Library : 

(1) Petri abusciori Abicarami, Monachi, Quaestiones de Trinitate et Incarnations, 
etc., in Codice scripto propria auctoris manu, anno Martyrum 998, Christi 1282. 

(2) Petri abuscMacherii, Eborarrahebi Abilcarami, e gente Coptorum, Diacaiii 
Ecclesiae S. Marine in Moallaca, in Cairo Vetere, liber inscriptus ; Demonstratio, compo- 
situs anno Martyrum 987, Hegirae 669, in 50 capita divisus. A, Dillmann, Catalog. MSS. 
Orientalium, p. 146. 

f. 25, col. 2 2 In the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, one God, we are writing down the 
computation that the Patriarch Demeteros, Archbishop of Alexandria, instituted, who was 
consecrated in the 180th year after the Ascension of Christ ; in the 27th year of his office. 
The Holy Spirit, praise be to him for ever, revealed to the Holy man the computation, 
because the Christian people from the time of the Apostles to his day fasted always cudi 
year the fast of our Lord, taking 40 days from the 2nd of Teqemt to the 21st of Yakatit, and 
thereafter they paused (interrupted the fast for) a period, and observed the week of his pussion 
and resurrection, and celebrated them thus, taking the beginning of the Fasts and the Feasts, 
that first started in the time of Christ, by a certain number of days from among the months. 

3 The authorities quoted by Abu-1-Shaker are: Carmen Arablcimi \ Joannes Pamascvnus 
(cap. 4, 39) ; Mahbul, son of Constantino, Bishop of Mabug ; Ba'ala Zaidg el Hakmi ; Basilins, 



[495] 

According to the Abyssinian MSS. the date of creation of the world is 
5493 B.C. They used the 532 year cycle, beginning with A.M. J. The date 
of the birth of Christ is A.M. 5501, the 181st year of the Cycle, Golden 
Number 1 1, Epact 9, Tentyon 1, which would give Wednesday the first day 
of the Abyssinian year, or E for their year letter, corresponding to year 
letter G of the Julian or Gregorian era. The correspondence, therefore, of 
the Abyssinian to the Coptic, Julian and Gregorian eras would be as 
follows, e.g. A.M. 7283, 29th Takhsas = 7283, 29th Kiyhak (Coptic) = 1790, 
26th December (Julian) = 6th January, 1791 (Gregorian). Another era used 
is one called the Year of the Martyrs ( t ^0o r t':ft a ld^ m: t'f) which is given in 
the MSS. as 276 years after the birth of Christ (= 28,4 A.D.), being reckoned 
from the persecution 1 of Diocletian in the year of his reign. The term 
"Year of Mercy" ( t }ao : ts t l fh't's) is applied both to the years of our 
Lord and to the years of the Cycle of 532 years to which they correspond. 
Until the introduction by Dionysius Exiguus of his reckoning of the 
Christian era, in the year 532 A.D., this Era of the Martyrs, or as it was 
also called, the Era of Diocletian, was in general use by Christian writers. 

The days of the week in Ethiopic are : 

1. Ehud (h/h-j^ :), i.e. Sabbath of the first (Ehud) day = Sunday, or 
Sambata Kresteyan (Sabbath of the Christians). 

2. Sanuy (flfy&:), 2nd day = Monday. 

3. Salus (IP A- AS), 3rd day = Tuesday. 

4. Rabue (^fl-d :), 4th day = Wednesday. 

5. Khamus ("^<n>-f| ), 5th day = Thursday. 

6. Arb (dC"fl:) (evening) = Friday. 

7. Sambata Ay hud, Sabbath of the Jews, or qadamit sambat (= Early 
Sabbath) = Saturday (4>%*9 s ). 

The Abyssinian year, beginning on the 29th August (Julian, =9th 
September, Gregorian) has the following months : 

Abvsstoiau Coptic j^ ^ Ycar 

Maskaram = Tut, Oy ' begins 29 Aug. = 9 Sept. ; 10 Sept. 

Teqemt = Babeh, <ub 28 Sept. = 9 Oct. ; 10 Oct. 

Khedar = Hatur,j^* 28 Oct. =8 Nov.; 10 Nov. 

Takhsas = Kiyhak, ^^ 27 Nov. = 8 Dec. ; 9 Dec. 

Ter = Tubeh, AJ$J 27 Dec. = 7 Jan. ; 8 Jan. 



Bishop of Cacsarea, in the Hexaemeron (cap. 16) ; Joannes, son of Saad, son of Joannis, son 
of Kulzem ; Mar Jacobus Sarugensis (cap. 14) ; Josephus, son of Gorion ; Said, son of 
Batrik, Patriarch of Alexandria (cap. 14, 23, 30, 46, 50). 

Another important work on this subject is no. 160 in Zotenberg's Catalogue des MSS. 
Ethiopiem, Biblioth&quc Nationale, Paris. 



[496] 

4i ni- Julian Gregorian 

C P tl o o 



ordinary ordinary Leap Year 

Yakatit - Amshir, /-JUI begins 26 Jan. = 6 Feb. ; 7 Feb. 

Magabit = Barmahat, Ol^ 25 Feb. = 8 Mar. ; 8 Mar. 

Miya/ya = Bannudeh, *>j*jj 27 Mar. = 7 April ; 7 April 

Genbot = Beshnes, v~L> 26 April = 7 May ; 7 May 

Sane = Bawneh, AJ^J 26 May = 6 June ; 6 June 

Hamle = Ebib, <*r~:J\ 25 June = 6 July ; 6 July 

Nahase = Misry, jjy- * 25 July = 5 Aug. ; 5 Aug. 

Paguemen = Epagomenai 24 Aug. = 4 Sept. ; 4 Sept 

After the Abyssinian leap year (i.e. when the Abyssinian year divided by 4 
gives remainder = 0) IstMaskaram will fall on 30 Aug. (=10 Sept. Gregorian) 
and 1 must be added to the Julian month till 28 Feb. inclusive. 

Each Abyssinian year is named after one of the Evangelists in the 
following order: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; the leap year, with 6 days of 
Paguemen, is called the year of Luke, the other three are ordinary years. 
Thus, 7327 A.M. was a Luke year, and the next year begins with the 1st 
Maskaram = 30th August, Julian. So all next below the multiple of 4 are 
years of Luke, e.g. 7223, 7139, etc. The years divided by 4, leaving no 
remainder, are years of John ; having a remainder 1, years of Matthew ; a 
remainder of 2, years of Mark. ( Vide Ginzel, Handbuch d. mathematiscJien 
und technischen Chronologie, Bd. in. p. 321.) 

Extracts from an Abyssinian MS. on Chronography and Chronology 
are adjoined. 

MS. OR. 815, BRITISH MUSEUM. 

Book of Years. Calendar. 

f. 17, col. i In the name of God the merciful and compassionate, we will begin the 
writing of the book which speaks of the years of the world which were 
collected by the revered and exalted father Giyorgis the son of 'Amid of 
the Land of Egypt, prayers and blessings be upon the friend of God for 
ever and ever, Amen. For our teacher said, and he laid down the law that 
the number of the years from the beginning until the end was 7000 a years ; 

1 The germ of this idea seems traceable to the Book of Enoch, which seems to have had 
such a widespread influence upon patristic and religious writing during the ages succeeding 
the 2nd century B.C. In the Ethiopic Enoch we are shown a system of ten weeks, which last 
from the creation of the existing universe to the revelation of a new heaven. The eighth 
week is the Week of Righteousness. The duration of each week is not stated, but it may 
1x5 observed that the word Suba'e, plur. Suba'eyat, rt-fl^i plur. rt-O'Vf^' though generally 
applied to the period of seven days, i.e. a week, may also be translated by " periods of seven." 
In the Revelation of St John, chap. xx. 4-7, there is a period of a thousand years, during 
which those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus reigned with Christ. Thru 
comes a deceiving of the nations, and a judgment. This may IK> compared with the eighth, 



% [497] 

there was no one who knew this from their writings ; but the learned were 
anxious to correct their histories that is to say their reckoning. And what 
was known to them was that there had been from the Creation of Adam 
until the appearance of Christ our Lord in the flesh, 5500 years. And the 
interval is given by the revelation, from Adam to the birth of Noah, 1657 
years ; from the birth of Noah to the cessation of the Flood, 2256 years, col. 2 
In the 128 year of Mercy in the 5th Cycle, from the cessation of the Flood 
to the building of Babel, 571 years and their sum is 2827 years. In 167 year 
of Mercy, in the 6th Cycle, from the Building of Babel to Abraham 501 
years. On that year of Mercy 136, the 7th Cycle, and their sum is 3328 
years. From Abraham to Moses 425 years and in the year of Mercy 29 in 
the 8th Cycle, and their sum is 3753 years. From the birth of Moses to 
Dawit (David) 694 years and years of Mercy 191 in the 9th Cycle, and their 
sum is 4447 years. From Dawit to Nabukadnatsar 469 and their sum is 
4916 years. Year of Mercy 128, the 10th Cycle from Nabukadnatsar to 
Iskender 265 years, and their sum is 5181. From Iskender the Macedonian f. I7b, 
to the birth of our Lord 319 years and their sum is 5500 years; and the l 
year of Mercy 180 in the llth Cycle. He was conceived on the 19 Magabit 
(26 March N.S.), on a Sunday, and he was born 29 Takhsas (5 January), 
on a Tuesday, in the reign of Awgestos Qesar, the King of Rome, and at 
that time, Epact of the Sun was 1 and Epact of the Moon 9, and He 
was baptized the 11 Ter, on a Tuesday (17 January), in the year 5531 in the 
16th year of the reign of Tibaryos when Epact of the Sun was 3 and Epact 
of the Moon 11 ; and was crucified in 5534 on the 27 of Magabit (3 April), 
Epact 14, and Matq'e 16, and He rose on the day of the Feast of the Incar- 
nation, that is the 29 Magabit (5 April), and He ascended into heaven on the 
8 of Genbot (14 May). And after Christ was born Awgestos lived 14 years, 
Tibaryos reigned 23 years. Gabeyos reigned 4 years. Qalawdewos reigned col. 2 

ninth, and tenth weeks of Enoch. The combination of the two ideas of weeks and a definite 
period of a thousand years appears for the first time in the Epistle of Barnabas, chap, xv, 
where the six days of creation are interpreted to mean six periods of a thousand years each, 
in support of which Psalm xc. 4 is cited. These are followed by the sabbath rest of a 
thousand years when the Son shall have come and destroyed time and judged the ungodly 
and changed the Sun, Stars, and Moon. With the eighth day God will make a beginning 
of another world. 

There is no evidence that the author of the Epistle of Barnabas originated the idea of 
the term of 7000 years, but he is the first extant author who used it. The idea acquired 
a wide popularity and is found in Jewish as well as in Christian literature. It would be very 
easy to interpret Enoch's weeks in the light of this chronology. But it will be observed that 
while Enoch recognises ten weeks, Barnabas has only one week. 

If Enoch's ten weeks are to be fitted into Barnabas's 7000 years, then each week must 
contain 700 years or seven centuries. The century should be a day of Enoch, seven centuries 
his week, 70 centuries his ten weeks. 

w. B. 63 



[498] 

I 

14 years. And in the first year of his reign Matewos wrote his gospel the 
20th year after the ascension of our Lord. In the 4th year of his reign Markos 
wrote his gospel 14 years after the Ascension of our Lord and the last year 
of his reign Lukas wrote 22 years after the ascension of our Lord. Neron 
* reigned 13 years and in the 8th year of his reign Yohannes wrote (his gospel) 
and in the end of his reign they put Petros and Pawlos to death on a Sunday. 
Asbasyanos (Vespasian) reigned 9 years, and in the 6th year of his reign, 
the Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed, 40 years after the Ascension of 
our Lord, and 5574th year of the world, from the birth of Christ to the 
conversion of Etyopya 245 years, and from the conversion of Etyopya to 
Diyoqletyanos (Diocletian) 31 years and their total is 5776 years. And from 
f. 18, col. l the birth of Christ our Lord there were 276 years. And Christians kept 
the true faith, till Diyoqletyauos ruled. And from Diyoqletyanos till the 
council of Niqya (Nicaea), 59 years, of the 318 Fathers of the Orthodox 
Faith, that were assembled, in the 12th year of the reign of Costantinos, on 
account of Aryos (Arius), who declared the Son (to have been) created. 
And then their Chief Bishop was Iskanderos Patriarch of Iskanderya 
(Alexandria), and he was one of the 19 Archbishops. And from the birth 
of Our Lord there were 335 years ; and their total was 5835 years. And 
from the Council of Nikya to the Council of Questentenya where 150 were 
assembled and their Chief was Timotewos, Patriarch of Iskanderya, and he 
was of the number of 22 Archbishops in the time of Tewodosyos who was 
col. 2 in power 58 years. And from the birth of our Lord (there were) 393 years 
and their total is 5893 years, and the year of Mercy 41, in the 12th Cycle. 
Now the reason of their being assembled was on account of Maqedonyos, 
who declared that the Holy Ghost was Himself created, and on account of 
Sabalyos, who said the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost was one person 
(lit. one " face " &*IK :). And again on account of Abulimaryos (Apolli- 
narius) who said there was no soul in our Lord, in the days of Tewodosyos 
who was a child. And from the Council of Questentenya (Constantinople) 
to the Council of 'Efeson (Ephesus) where 200 were assembled, on account 
of Nestor (Nestorius) who declared, the Son (was) in the Flesh. And their 
Chief was Qerillos and he was one of the number of 24 Archbishops 55 
years. And from the Council of 'Efeson to the Council of Kelqedon 
(Chalcedon) where 636 were assembled in the time of Marqeyon (Marcian) 
who said there were two natures ( n/MJt',:). and they all agreed through 
being terrorized ; and none remained except only 6 who were Diyosqoros 
f. 1 8 b, patriarch of Iskanderya, he being one of the 25 Bishops, and Tewoderos 
] Bishop of Warabya, and Maqaros of Qaw, and Ya'eqob of Rad'e, and Alesetas 
of Furs, and Sem'on Soryawi, 1 1th [11 7th] year (of the Cycle). From the birth 



[499] 

of our Lord was 469 years, and their total was 5960 [5969] years. From 
Kelqedon to the mission of Muhammad (tenbalat) 170 years, from the birth of 
our Lord to the Mission were 639 years and their total was 6139 years. From 
the Mission to Yekuno Amlak 622 years from the birth of our Lord 1262 
years and the total is 6762 years. And in the year of Mercy 378 in the 
13th Cycle, Yekuno Amlak reigned 15 years, Yageba Tseyon reigned 9, 
and his 5 sons viz. Bahr Asgad, Tsenef Sagad, Jan Sagad, Hazb Ar'ad, and 
Yom Sagad reigned 5 years ; Wedem Ar'ad reigned 15 years : 'Amda 
Tseyon, his son, reigned 30 years ; Sayf Ar'ad, his son, reigned 28 years ; col. 2 
Wedem Asfarem, his son, reigned 10 years. Dawit, his son, reigned 29 years ; 
Tewoderos reigned 3 years ; Yshaq with Endryas reigned 17 years, in the 
10th year of his reign the 13th Cycle ended. From Yekuno Amlak to that 
time 151 [154] years (elapsed). The total is 6916. Hazb Nan with 2 sons, 
viz. 'Amda lyasus and Badel Nan reigned 5 years ; Zara Ya'eqob reigned 
34 years ; Ba'eda Maryam, his son, reigned 10 years ; Iskander, his son, 
reigned 16 years ; Na'ad, his brother, reigned 13 years ; from the llth year 
of the reign of Yshaq to the death of Na'ad 84 years ; and the total is 
7000 years. Lebna Dengel, his son, reigned 32 years ; Qaladewos, his son, 
reigned 19 years ; Menas, his brother, reigned 4 years ; Sartsa Dengel, his f.i9,col.i 
son, reigned 34 years ; Ya'eqob, his son, 7 years ; Zadengel, his son, reigned 
one year ; the land was destitute of a king one year ; again Ya'eqob 
reigned one year ; Susneyos, whose throne name was Seltan Sagad, reigned 
25 years and 6 mouths and 9 days ; Fasiladas reigned, whose throne name 
was 'Alam Sagad, 35 years, one month ; Yohannes, his son, whose throne 
name was 'A'elaf Sagad, reigned 14 years and 9 months and 7 days; lyasu, 
his son, whose throne name was Adyam Sagad, reigned 24 years. (The 
last two words, 24 years, added in another hand.) 

The rules given in the MS. (Or. 815) for finding the Epact do not call 
for comment. Ludolf (Commentarius, p. 386), translates *!*: by 
"subtract" 19 instead of "divide," which naturally would not give the 
year of the lunar cycle or Golden Number. 

Matq'e is the new moon falling six months before the Paschal New 
Moon. The Chronographer adopts a theory of the Jewish Calendar by 
which the sixth moon before Nisan is always Tishri, so that Matq'e is 
Tishri 1, the " Feast of Trumpets," the Jewish New Year. Matq'e (<w>T4d :) 
means a bugle or trumpet. 

Matq'e has often been translated from the days of Ludolf by Golden 
Number, which it cannot possibly be. In accordance with the above data, 
pointed out to me by Dr Fotheringham, the best translation would be 
" Feast of Trumpets." It will be seen that it works out at 30 minus Epact, 



[500] 

because 30 days is always a sign of the Lunar Month, beginning with the 
1st new moon in the calendar year the same duration as the first calendar 
month. The day of the month, therefore, on which Matq'e falls, is not affected 
by the question whether it is the first or second new moon of the year. 

Matq'e (extract from the MS.). 

f. 20 a, "And again, if you want to find how the Matq'e is arrived at (lit from 
col. l wnence the Matq'e issues), after you have divided all the years of the world 
by 1 9 and multiplied everything and the number is known, divide by 30 as 
before and what remains from 30 that is the Matq'e. And for the interpreta- 
tion of the name, Matq'e means the summoner (or assembler), because just 
as the Matq'e (= a horn or trumpet) of brass and stone summons (or as- 
sembles) men, so this summons the fasts of the days of the whole year. 

" In the first year (cycle of 532 years) when there is no Epact, Matq'e 
will be the 30th Maskaram (27th September O.S.) (1st Maskaram = 29th 
August O.S.). When Epact is 11 Matq'e will be 19 Maskaram (16th Sep- 
tember O.S.). 

f. 20 a, " Epact = 22, Matq'e is 8 Teqemt (begins 28 September O.S.). Epact = 3, 

co1 - 2 Matq'e 27 Maskaram. Epact =14, Matq'e 16 Maskaram. Epact =25, Matq'e 5 

Teqemt. Epact = 6, Matq'e . 24 Maskaram. Epact =17, Matq'e 13 Teqemt. 

Epact = 28, Matq'e 2 Teqemt (=30 September). Epact = 9, Matq'e 21 

Maskaram. Epact = 20, Matq'e 10 Teqemt. Epact = 1, Matq'e 29 Maskaram. 

Epact = 12, Matq'e 18 Maskaram. Epact =23, Matq'e 7 Teqemt. Epact =4, 

Matq'e 26 Maskaram. Epact =15, Matq'e 15 Maskaram. Epact = 26, Matq'e 

4 Teqemt. Epact =7, Matq'e 23 Maskaram. Epact =18, Matq'e 12 Teqemt. 

And again it returns and comes round again, and does not differ from that 

for ever and ever. The Matq'e at the beginning of the day cannot be earlier 

f. 20 b, than the 15th of Maskaram and cannot be later than the 13th of Teqemt. 

col. l ^ n( j jj. ^yiu always be the 1st of nightfall (lit. rise of night) 1 and may fall 

on 19 days, 11 days of Maskaram and 8 of Teqemt, and these 19 days fix 

the increment to the issue (i.e. the limits of the incidence) of Matq'e. 

f. 20 b, "Add 9 to Matq'e and you will have the Jewish fast, add 14 and you 

col. 2 w jn g et the Feast of Tabernacles 2 , the ensuing Matq'e to the Jewish fast 

9 days, and that being added, (is) the Jewish fast. 

"Further, from the next Matq'e to the Feast of Tabernacles is 14 days; 
the Jewish fast on dawn of day is not earlier than Maskaram, and cannot 
be later than the 22nd of Teqemt, and it will always be on the 10th nightfall 
(lit. rise of night). The Feast of Tabernacles is not earlier than the dawn of 
1 uC|> A.A.Y-1 = flv - &$ = ] *^ n * The Abyssinians like the Jews began their day at 
nightfall. uT.-t' i "iAfr > wsis the dawn of day, the two together making the day of 24 hours 

- <n>XA* i from ^/XAA i purify 7?y. 



[Soi] 

day of the 29th Maskaram but is not later than the 27th of Teqemt, and it 
will always be 15th nightfall. If the Matq'e is on a Saturday add 8 and 
you will get Nanawe (Monday before Septuagesima Sunday (rpia>8iov) 1 ), 
if on a Sunday (add) 7, if on a Monday 6, if on a Tuesday 5, if on a Wednes- 
day 4, if on a Thursday 3, if on a Friday 2. And if further you wish to 
know the addition of Nanawe when Matq'e falls on a Saturday, from the f. 21 a, 
next Matq'e to Nanawe (there will be) 128 days, so divide by 30 and there co ' 
will remain 8 ; that then is the addition to Saturday. And if it falls on a 
Sunday (add) 127 and if on a Monday 126, and if on a Tuesday 125, Wed- 
nesday 124, Thursday 123, Friday 122. Further to the Matq'e found add 
10 and you will find Jewish Pasch, from next Matq'e to Jewish Pasch there 
will be 190 days, divide by 30 and there remain 10 days ; that, then, is the 
addition for Jewish Pasch. If Matq'e falls on a Saturday Easter will be the 
(next) Sunday, if on a Sunday Easter will be on the succeeding (Sunday). 
Again, the Pasch cannot (be earlier than) the 25th of Magabit (=21 March 
O.S.) nor be later than the 23rd of Miyazya (18 April O.S.), and it will be 
the 14th (day of New Moon). 

" When you have found Nanawe, add 14 and you will have the beginning col. 2 
of the Fast; 11 and you will get the Feast of Mount Olivet ; add 2 and you 
will get Hosanna (Palm Sunday) ; add 9 and you will find Easter ; add 3 
and you will find Rekeb (aTravrtjcriv : mid-interval between Easter and 
Trinity) ; 18 and you will find the Ascension ; add 28 to find the Feast of 
Pentecost ; add 1 to find Mehla Dakhnat 2 , 6 to find the Fast of the Apostles 
(also called Judith, fast of Trinity Monday). On next Nanawe to the 
beginning of the Fast there are 14 days that you add for the beginning of 
the Fast. Also from the next Nanawe to the Feast of Mount Olivet there 
are 41 days, then subtract 30 and 11 days remain, and that is the addition 
for the Feast of Mount Olivet. And to Palm Sunday there are 62 days and 
to Easter 69, and to Rakeb 93 and to the Ascension 108, and to the Feast 
of Pentecost 118 and to Mehla Dakhnat 121, and to the Fast of the 
Apostles 126. All this will be from the succeeding Nanawe to these feasts 
30 and what remains from dividing by 30 is the increment for each year. 

" Nanawe when it falls on the 17th of Ter (=12 Jan. O.S.) cannot be earlier f. 21 b, 
than this, and cannot be later than 21st of Yakatit (15th February O.S.). C( 
The beginning of the Fast (Lent) cannot be earlier than the 1st Yakatit 
(26 Jan. O.S.) or later than the 5th Magabit (1 March O.S.). Easter cannot 



1 So-called from the 3 chants. Syrians and Copts also call it Nanawe ( = Mniveh) 
NtviviriKiy, associated with the punishment of Niniveh. Fr. Alvarez speaks of Lent, the 
period of penitence, as Niuiveh. 

2 The interval between Easter and Pentecost when no fasts were observed (Jerome and 
Tertullian). 



[502] 



CO 



1 

* M 



UOOJfJ JO 



jo SuiuuiSog 



UOO W J 



UOOJIJ JO 



qSIM9f 



COOif5O5i ii-HCOOCO CO 

I-H (M 04 ,04 <"> Ol 



T^ *^ ^* "^ ^* ^* ^* ^t* **^* ^^ ^* "*& 



O C5 X 
^H <N I-H 







CO" 



co" 



CO 
CM 

CO" 



O OS 



X O O -<f CO CO i I 

< I I CO i-H CM f-H 



(M 
(N 



(M 



(M 



O <M 
CO <N 



CO X 



x y, 







COdi-HOOSXt-^CO 
(N I-H CO I-H (N I-H 



CO 



CO 



ooooooooo o oo 



CO 
CNJ 



CO 5 -^ CO <N 
(M ^H (N 



^H C5 X 
<M (N 



OOOOOOOOO O OO 



O 05 



CO 



CO 



-Sny 65 
uqop jo 



f jo 



3 2 <* 



CM O C5 

^H CO ^H 

CO t^ ^ 



O ^H (M CO 

^H (M 



CO 



X 



X O *-* 



^H (M 



CO 



CN CO 



^H CO 



0) 

H, 

CO 



a ^ ij 

3 ,2 s 

s S t^ 

I-H (N CO 



A 

H 



CO 





CO 



i QJ *-" 

s- Jjd O "S 

3 = ^ ll 

*: I-J ^ ^ 



'S 



03 3 
02 CO 



Sr ^ ^rf 

O 



I 



o 



Si 



CO 



ugraonS-nj 



CO 



co irj 



co 10 



Tf< CO (N r-t 
^H M ^H 



C5 X 



X 



CO 



CO 



X 05 



O5 i i (N 



- 


i 



CO 



CO 



X 05 



05 

l-H 

* 



o 

<N 



^H 



[503] 




O 

te 
O 

ft 

O 



2 



^ 



ot* 



5T 



n 



sr 
< 



i4 



H 



as 














fio 



H 



is 



60 

fc 



co 



f^ 



5 



k 



H 



H 



a 



a 

<J 



S 



c 



D 




* 



a- 



t* 



i 






si 









c;^ 
x<^ 



7 



J 



OP 



[504] 

be earlier than 16th (rather 26th) Magabit (12 (22) March O.S.) or later 
than the 30th of Miyazya (25 April O.S.), etc., for other feasts." 

Tentyon 1 (extract from the MS. 815). 

f.22,coLl "And if you want to find the Tentyon, which is the starting point 
(tent) of the sun, take the year of the world up to the date required (com- 
pleted years), and divide it into four parts (divide by 4). If the parts are 
equal and there is no remainder, add the one part to the others to the 
amount of a fourth (divide by 4 and add ) and if what remains is one year 
or two or three, set it by itself (i.e. reject fractions), and divide by 7, which 
is the cycle of the days (week), until you finish all the 5 parts, and to what 
remains after dividing by 7, add the remainder that you have put down, 
subtract one and what remains after dividing by 7 is the Tentyon. (Day of) 
Johannes 2 is the Wednesday if the Tentyon is 1, because on that day there 
was the (tent) beginning of creation of the sun on the evening of the 
Tuesday (third day) on the morning of the 4th day (Wednesday) until 
afternoon 3 . Johannes is on Thursday when the Tentyon is 2 ; Friday, 3 ; 
Saturday, 4 ; Sunday, 5 ; Monday, 6 ; Tuesday, 7 ; and the cycle is complete 
col. 2 and the course reverts to the beginning, for this is the (result of the) 
division by 7." 

The Day of Johannes, i.e. The First Day of the Abyssinian Year = 
29th August O.S., ordinary years, 30th August following leap year. 

col. 2 " And if you want to find the day of Johannes, which is the tent (start- 
ing point) of the day, this same being called its rising (i.e. the 1st day of 
the year), take the year you are in and divide by 4. In respect of the 4 
parts, add one part (i.e. a quarter), and divide the whole by 7 and to what 
remains (after dividing by 7), add 2, and that will be the day of Johannes. 
If it is 1, Sunday ; 2, Monday, and so on to Saturday." 

Explanation of the Table. 

The beginning of the first of the Tables of the cycle of 532 years is here 
given. The first vertical column gives the number of the years of the 532 
cycle ; the second the Golden Number or year of the lunar cycle. 

1 Tentyon (T'VfrP"^ ') is a curious corruption of ir\iv6iov apparently due to the confusion 
between TI and T. According to Cedrenus, fj irap' v E\\rja-n> OTTTTJ ir\iv6os \aTtpKov\ovfj. 
napa 'Pw/iatW Xeycrat. Laterculum is taken from a military term, a fixed number or pre- 
scribed position. Tentyon begins with the second year of the era of Panodorus. 

2 The day of John, i.e. 29th of August O.S., so called because on that day was observed 
the Feast of Decollatio Johannis, airoKt>aXi<rp.t>s rov 'ludwov /San-rio-roC. In Coptic Church, 



3 Et factum est respere et mane dies quartus. Gen. i. 19. N.B. The Abyssinians like 
the Jews Ixjgin the day of 24 hours at nightfall of our day before. 



[505] 

The month corresponding to the figures, upon which Matq'e and the 
various feasts occur, can be found through the limits given in the text, 
between which each of them must fall. Thus, if we take the Golden 
Number 2 in the second column, Matq'e is marked 1/19. Here 1 = Sunday, 
and 19= 19th Maskaram, as Matq'e cannot fall earlier than the 15th of 
Maskaram, or later than the 13th of Teqemt 

For Nanawe ; from Nanawe to Matq'e there is an interval of 127 days, 
divide by 30 and there is a remainder 7 ; hence the rule, when Matq'e falls 
on a Sunday, add 7 ; we have accordingly 19 + 7 = 26, but as Nanawe 
cannot be earlier than the 17th of Ter, or later than the 21st of Yakatit, 
this must be the 26th of Ter. For the Jewish Pasch, the rule is : add 10 
to Matq'e and we have 19 + 10 = 29 in the column headed Jewish Pasch; 
and this must be the 29th of Magabit, because Pasch cannot be earlier 
than the 25th of Magabit or later than the 23rd of Miyazya. In the same 
way the Paschal term, being between the limits of the 26th of Magabit and 
the 30th of Miyazya, the 5 in the Easter column must be the 5th of 
Miyazya, and is found by adding 9 to Nanawe. 

The column headed Birth of Epact, is the Epact " born " or starting at 
the last new moon of the old year, the Epact being the moon's age on New 
Year's day. Hence the birth of the Epact falling in one year corresponds 
to the Epact of the next year. 

APPENDIX B. 

ESKANDER THE MACEDONIAN 1 . 

There are six so-called Histories of Alexander in Ge'ez, viz. : 

1. Ethiopic version of Pseudo-Callisthenes. 

2. History of Alexander by Al Makin. 

3. History of Alexander by Abu Shakir. 

4. History of Alexander by Joseph Ben Gorion. 

5. Death of Alexander. Anon. 

0. A Christian Romance, "History of the Holy Alexander Saviour 

of the World from which the story in the text is taken." It 

is called in Ge'ez . H.? * fcMng-C : H*3-fl ' ao?>b ^9 

(Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 827, and Bib. Nat. MS. Eth. No. 146). 

These Histories have been collected, published and translated by Sir 

Wallis Budge, and the following extract is taken from his "Life and 

Exploits of Alexander the Great," Chap. v. f. 281, p. 466 of the Christian 

Romance : " Alexander journeyed on towards the coasts of Paqanuse to 

1 f. 524 a, p. 375. 
w. B. 64 



[ 5 o6] 

the right of the East and Permelenot among the Nations whose Kings 
were Gog and Magog." 

Then follows a curious rigmarole describing how Alexander assumed 
the remarkable role of bringing about the salvation of the people who 
were given up to dancing, wickedness, and ritual worship of a mechanical 
contrivance which was a brass figure in the shape of a man : " And 
Alexander bowed low and cried out before God Almighty with groaning 
and with tears, which were mingled with awe of Him. And the Spirit 
of God Almighty came upon him even as when he prayed at first, and 
told him of all that had been and of all that should come to pass and of 
the hidden things of God Almighty which appertained to the beginning 
and the end : and he brought the two mountains which were called Madigeen 
and Qeraftaran close together until there remained but a distance of 23 
cubits between them. 

" Then Alexander set up between them images of brass according to 
those which he had seen in the land of Japhet, and the organ, and the 
drum, and the cymbals, and the pipes, and the trumpets and all the con- 
trivances for dancing which skilful workmen had made with cunning, and 
the works of brass which he had brought out from the land of Japhet ; 
and he made in the ground there a hollow for them (f. 282) and for the 
fixture and the wheels and the fittings and the works even as he had seen 
them originally. He sealed the brazen gate with three seals and he laid 
three enchantments upon it so that no man, whosoever he might be, should 
be able to work against it successfully etc., and finally destroyed the 
idolatry and abolished the wickedness of those heathen nations." 

At p. 465 (f. 575 b) we have an allusion to another feat of Alexander 
recounted in the above Romance. "Alexander said to them I will place 
here a gate of brass and iron, which shall serve as a wall and a fortress 
against the nations who are in the country which is behind this high 
mountain." Now by his understanding he set a seal upon the peoples of 
Yagug (Ibid. p. 236). This Pass of Derbend, along the ridges of the 
Caucasus, was called by the Persians Sadd-i-Iskander, "Rampart of Alex- 
ander" ; the arabs called it ->l>^' r>^ ' " Gate of Gates." Yakut, torn. I. 
p. rv (Ibid, footnote). 

APPENDIX C. 

I. ECCLESIASTICAL TITLES. 

The Hierarchy. The Head of the Abyssinian Church is the Abun (h fl**> : ) 
or Pappas (6 Tra-Tr-jra?), the Metropolitan who is chosen from the monks of 
St Anthony and consecrated by the Coptic Patriarch in Egypt This right, 



[507] 

which constitutes the Abyssinian Church as a dependent and daughter 
Church of Alexander, has existed since the introduction of Christianity 
into the country and was defined by the Pseudo-Canon of Nicaea (Canones 
Arabici 42, 36), which in respect of its basic principle had already appeared 
in the ancient collection of Marutha (cp. Braun, De Sancta Niciena 
Synodo. Minister 1898, p. 66). 

The Abuna confers orders, dispenses vows and anoints and crowns the 
King. On the death of an Abuna an embassy is despatched to Cairo to 
request the nomination and consecration of a new Abuna at the hands of the 
Patriarch. He is accompanied by his confessor, Abun Qasis ( hfKJ : fA.fl s ). 

The second principal dignitary is the Echage, the Head and Superior of 
all the monks of Debra Libanos and their monasteries. His residence has 
been at Gondar since the seventeenth century. The Echage appoints the 
high priests, Liqa Kahenat (A^^shOV^hO? f Gojam, Semen, Tigre, etc. 
who are his coadjutors or provincials. The general name for priest ecclesi- 
astic is Kahen (hU'J* 1^ O-*^ 3 )? who celebrates Mass with the deacon 
(*}.?&} ) and subdeacon (W* : Xyp} : ). The Dabtara ('fl'l*<5- : probably 
from Greek Sufidepa) is a clerk, who chants the offices in the Church. The 
word is applied also to a literary man, literatus. Two other high ecclesi- 
astical dignitaries are attached to the court, the Qes Atse or Grand Almoner 
and the 'Aqabe Sa'at or Keeper of the Watch, hour. There are two great 
orders of monks ; one that of Takla Haymanot, of which the head is the 
Echage, and that of Ewostatewos (S. Eustathius). Takla Haymanot (Plant 
of the Faith) was the greatest of the Abyssinian Saints, flourishing towards 
the end of the thirteenth century. 

Liqa Pappasat (A/f> : hktl't's ), a Patriarch, applied to foreign dignitaries. 

The monks (m>VthA>: Ge'ez, <7D'j)ift: are very numerous and distributed 
among various monasteries, called Daber (mountain) from their generally 
being placed on an elevated piece of ground. 

Originated by St Pachomius and St Anthony of the Egyptian desert 
monasticism attained to a high degree of development towards the end of 
the thirteenth century during the renaissance of literary and religious 
activity, the outcome of a similar movement in the Coptic Church in Egypt. 

Some stone edifices were built by the Portuguese Jesuits during the 
latter part of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries at Garagara, Azazo 
and Fremma, etc. Pictures in the Byzantine style are generally found in 
the more important churches but no statues. Crosses are also everywhere 
common but never sculptured or in relief. 

Debra Libanos, situated in the centre of Shoa, for a long time has been 
the premier monastery in the country. It was founded by King Hezekeyas 



[ 5 o8] 

57 years after the deatli of Takla Haymanot (according to the Croiuwa 
Abbrcmata, ed. Beguiuot, 1313 A.D.). It was originally called Debra Asbo, 
its name being changed in the reign of Zara Ya'eqob (1434-1468). The 
position of being the most revered foundation was formerly held by another 
Debra Libanos in Tigre, S.K. of the province of Sera we. It was founded 
by a holy man called Libanos or Mata' who came over from Constantinople 
in the reign of King Gabra Masqal in the sixth century. It fell into decay 
towards the fourteenth century and its name and prestige transferred to 
the other foundation. 

II. TITLES, CIVIL AND MILITARY, AND GLOSSARY. 
Abagaz, Governor of the frontier, sc. Galla Country. In general nearly 

equivalent to Fitawrari. 
Abeto, formerly " Highness " ; title given to princes of royal blood ; later 

a title of distinction. Now corrupted to "Atto," and the equivalent of 

Esquire, Chevalier. 
Alaqa, Chief; commander in general. 
Amba, a precipitous mountain with a flat top, such as are numerous in 

Abyssinia owing to the denudation of basaltic plateau leaving isolated 

masses forming natural fortresses. 
Azmach, General. 
A zzaj, Commander ; specially the four judges of the Supreme Court or Royal 

Court and descent ; later, Superintendent, Treasurer. 
Bajrond, in former days, Treasurer, Procurator ; later, an honorary civilian title. 
Balambaras [= Ba'ala-ambal-ras], lit. chief Bala-ambal or owner of captain's 

uniform, i.e. a Colonel. 
Basha, borrowed from the Turks. After the wars with the Turks, rifle 

corps were formed and the commanders of these were called Basha. 
Behtwaddad was the title given at first to only two subjects who were in 

the highest position and honour after the King, and bestowed only 

on special favourites who enjoyed his confidence. 
Belattena (shortened into Belatta), "Page" of the Royal Household. 

Blattengeta, Chief of the Royal Pages. Later the title became less 

specific and was merely honorary. 
Chawa, corps of troops attached to the King, " Praetorian or Royal 

Guards," " Household Brigade." With these the King formed military 

colonies in conquered territories. From this it later became almost 

the equivalent of " nobles." 

Dabana, great round tent, put up for the King when travelling. 
Dajazmach, lit. Daj-Azmach, Keeper of the Gate. It became the title of 

generals of the army and governors of provinces. 



[509] 

Fitawrari (Fit = horn, awrari = rhinoceros), General commanding the van- 
guard. 

Gemjabet, Treasure house, or storehouse, of precious stuff's. 

Gerazmach, General of left wing (Gera = left). 

Hatse, Ge'ez, = Amharic, Ate, or Atse, His Majesty. 

Ite, Itege, also Ytege, Her Majesty. 

Kantiba,also Kan tiba, title formerly given specially to the Chief or Hamasen ; 
then to the Mayor or Governor of Gondar. Later an honorary civil title. 

Liq (A/) was at first senior or superior in dignity, chief, arch- in any 
class, civil or military. In modern days generally of Chief Judges, 
liqa male'ak = an archangel. 

Liqa Makuas, primarily Master of the Horse. Also Chief Magistrate of 
Mocha in Gojam. 

Lote, Servant. 

Mangest bet, House of the Kingdom ; room in the royal house where the 
prisoners were confined. The Quarafma was the officer in charge of them. 
A very old title, perhaps the title Qeren, of the meroitic inscriptions. 

Nagarit, a large kettledrum. One of the insignia and perhaps most im- 
portant of royalty and highest dignitaries rulers of provinces, the 
number being apportioned to the status of the personage like guns 
in honour of Indian princes. 

Qanazmach, General of the right wing (Qan = right). 

Ras is the highest title given to Governors of provinces and Generals. 

Reception Hall of Palace is the Aderash ( fij^-Ti : ). The King's habitation 
is in a stockade which contains several separate buildings. One is 
called the Lion House (Jv">flfl:fl ; ]hO> another the house of the Crown 
(TM-7(Wh), and the house of (Clothing) Stuffs (W : 0.^ *) 

Shum, Headman, Chief, governor in general, whether df a province or a 
village. 

Tserag, ma'asare or masare, Master of Ceremonies. Introducer of strangers 
to the King. 

Wayzaro, Wezaro, Her Highness; title given to princesses of the royal 
family ; later to women of exalted birth. 

APPENDIX I). 

LIST OF KINGS FROM 1769. 

Forty-one Kings reigned in Abyssinia up to 1769. 

42 nd . Takla Haymanot II, 'Admas Sagad II, Khayla Sadag, Tebab Sagad, 
son of Johannes, ascended the throne 1769, deposed 7 th Miyazya 
7269 (2/13 April 1777); died 4/15 September in the same year. 



[5io] 

43 rd . Salomon (or Solomon) II, till 15 th Hamle 7271 (9/20 July 1779). 
44 b . Takla Giyorgis, Feqr Sagad, till 12 th Yakatit 7276 (28 Jan./8 Feb. 

1784). 
45 th . lyasu (Joshua?) Ill, Ba'ala Segab, deposed 11 th Miyazya 7280 (13/24 

April 1788). 
Rival king : 

Ba'eda Maryam in 1787 and 1788. 

Takla Giyorgis restored, till 21 st Hamle 7281 (15/26 July 1789). 
46 th . Hezekeyas (or Hezekiah), till Ter 7286 (January 1794). 

Takla Giyorgis restored, till 9 th Miyazya 7287 (4/15 April 1/95). 
47 th . Ba'eda Maryam II, till Takhsas 7288 (December 1795). 

Takla Giyorgis restored, till 14 th Genbot 7288 (9/20 May 1796). 
48 th . Salomon (or Solomon) III, from 14 th Sane 7288 (8/19 June 1/96) till 

10 th Hamle 7289 (15 July 1797). 
49 th . Yonas (or Jonah), from 14 th Nahase 7289 (7/18 August 1797) till 28 th 

Takhsas 7290 (24 Dec. 1797/4 Jan. 1798). 
Takla Giyorgis restored, till 14 th Genbot 7291 (9/20 May 1799). 
Salomon III, restored for a brief period. 

50 th . Demetros (or Demetrius), till 16 th Magabit 7292 (12/24 March 1800). 
Takla Giyorgis restored, till Sane 7292 (June 1800). 
Demetros restored, till Sane 7293 (June 1801). 
51 st . Eguala Tseyon or Gualu, Neway Sagad, died 27 th Genbot 7310 

(22 May/ 3 June 1818). 
52 nd . 'lyo'as (or Joas) II, died Genbot 7313 (22 May/3 June 1821). 

Anarchy for some months. 
53 rd . Gigar, till Miyazya 7318 (April 1826). 
54 th . Ba'eda Maryam III, in April 1826. 

Gigar restofed, till 12 th Sane 7322 (6/18 June 1830). 
55 th . lycOsu (Joshua?) IV, till 10 th Magabit 7324 (6/18 March 1832). 
56 th . Gabra Krestos, died 2 nd Sane 7324 (27 May/ 8 June 1832). 

Anarchy for some months. 

57 th . Sahela Dengel (or Sahelu), till 7332 (A.D. 1840). 
58 th . Yohannes (or John) III, from 25 Nahase 7332 (18/30 August 1840) 

to Teqemt 7334 (October 1841). 
Sahela Dengel restored, till 7347 (A.D. 1855). 
59 th . Tewoderos (Theodore) II, from beginning of 1855 to Miyazya 7360 

(13/23 April 1868). 
60 th . Johannes (John) IV, from 1868. 



APPENDIX E. 

NAMES OF TRIBES, ETC. 

The Wollo tribe of Galla inhabit the N.E. corner of Shoa on the 
plateau. Under Ras Gugsa about 1800 they had spread over Begameder 
up to Lake Tsana and the river Wanchet, and the Abay or Blue Nile. They 
were converted to Islam by an Arab called Debelo. They consist of seven 
tribes under a chief who is called "Haiow," and is changed every seven to 
eight years ; this eight-year period being the Galla system of recording 
time, age, events, etc. The festival celebrating the commencement of each 
new lustrum of eight years is called the Butta, when another chief is 
elected from one of the tribes. The supreme chief of the Galla tribes is 
called the Luba, elected in the same way at eight years interval (vide 
Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nord-Ost Afrika, pp. 19, 65 etc.). According to 
Krapf, writing about 1838-9, "They murder and rob any one not a 'mogasa' 
or protege of their Chief, Every Wednesday and Friday early there is a 
meeting of the tribe for a confabulation, where they smoke and drink coffee 
and 'Shat' (Ol5) which they call modaska" (Krapf, Reisen, etc. Vol. I. p. 106). 
According to the Zena Za Galla (Eth. MSS. Bodley's, Oxford, No. xxix, 
written 1592-3) the Wollo were descendants of the Baraytuma, one of the 
two great septs of the Galla, the other being the Boran. The Galla ap- 
peared in S. Abyssinia in the reign of King Lebna Dengel (1508-40), and 
till late years when organization and modern weapons accomplished their 
subjugation they were the menace of the Abyssinian kingdom where they 
established themselves as the "hereditary enemy." Being more prolific 
than the Abyssinians, these Galla tribes have settled all over Shoa and the 
Western portion as well as the Eastern fringe of the country, and in these 
parts form the greater portion of the agricultural population. 

They worship a supreme being, Waq, Waqayo, as creator of all things 
and highest principle of good, under whom they place 44 good and evil 
genii (ajana, cp. A^.). Chief among these are Attete ( = Astarte, attarte ?), 
associated with fertility and fecundity and propitiated with the sacrifice of 
a goat; Ogle (='igl, J.l, calf?), to whom sacrifice of a white heifer or 
cow is made in seasons of severe drought ; Sambata, the Sanbat of the 
Falasha, the Abyssinian Jews, worshipped as the Goddess of the 7th day, 
the cult of the moon-phases, the primitive Sabbath. They have a developed 
system of divination conducted by sacrificing soothsayers, qallo (cp. 
Assyrian Kalu), not only by flights of birds, but by chickens picking up 



food, and especially by examination of the veins in the stomach of a 
slaughtered cow. "At ille fibras tractat ac fata inspirit, et adhuc ca- 
lentes viscerum venas notat" (Seneca, Thyestes, Act iv, Sc. 1). 

Some Gallas explained to Bishop Massaja that the origin of this custom 
was that a sacred Book was once bestowed by God on Jews, Christians and 
Galla, but the latter being a careless people let their book be eaten by a 
cow, and in consequence have had to look to the entrails of that animal 
for knowledge of the future. 

They pay especial reverence to serpents and two serpents attend the 
Chief Soothsayer, the Abba Muda (Father anointed), who used to dwell in 
a cave on the mountain Saquala, forty miles south of Adis Ababa, and is 
the object of pious pilgrimages. Some trees, especially a sort of sycamore, 
Wanz, are also held in reverence, and important meetings and consultations 
are held under them. 

Falasha (Aff ), the name given to the Jewish section of the population 
by the Abyssinians; they call themselves ll,'/'.-?ift/-Ji.A: the people of 
Israel. They inhabit the province of Sire in Tigre, Walqay t in Amhara, along 
the mountain range on the border of R. Takazze between Samen and Lasta 
and in the districts of Dambaya, Chalga and Quara. They speak a dialect 
of the Agaw, and have their religious books and prayers in this language. 
They are described as darker and more full bodied than the other 
Abyssinians, with shorter and more curly hair. Judaism was probably 
introduced from the South of Arabia when in the early centuries of our 
era a considerable number of Jews spread to Yaman so that we find in the 
early part of the 6th century a Jewish King, Du Nawas of the Himyarites. 
The conquest of Yaman after the defeat of this chiefs army in 527 by 
Kaleb the Negus was followed probably by captives and refugees settling 
in Abyssinia at intervals from this time to the conquest of Yaman by 
Muhammedanism. Their own tradition is that their forefathers fled into 
Egypt at the time of the Babylonian Captivity, came up the Nile and 
established themselves at Quara. "They do not observe Purim or the 
Dedication of the Temple and know nothing of the Babylonian or Jeru- 
salem Talmud, which were composed during and after the Captivity. They 
know nothing of Tephelin so they probably came away sometime between 
the reign of Solomon and departure of the Jewish remnant under Johanan 
(Falaxlia of Ahyiwinia, Rev. J. W. Flad). They worship the Sabbath in 
the person of a Goddess, San bat ; " they offer her drink offerings, make 
cakes for her, and burn incense believing that she controls the heavens 
and thus implore her blessing. She was worshipped at Tyre, Sidon, Byblos. 
Babylon anH Askelon " (Th. Waldmeier, A*toibiogrtyik& t p. 25). 



THE AGAW AND RELATED TRIBES. 

The Agaw may be taken as a general name for the tribes forming the 
early Hamito-Semitic inhabitants of the region now known as Abyssinia, 
previous to the S. Arabian invasion of the Habashat and Ge'ez speaking 
Semites. They are the 'AOayaioi of the Adulis inscriptions, Asachae of 
Pliny. The element 'A0-, and as- being the 'Ad-, az-, of Bilin ; 'ad (#, : 
and &.*) f Tigre ; 'adi (0-S.:) of Tigrine, enda of Beja, Galla, Somali 
ganda, all meaning tribe = Arab. ^ (cp. Egyptian 'ad, 'az, land, and 'adz, 
child, scion). Cosmas Indicopleustes refers to them as the Agaioi, into 
whose country the King of Axum sent men to seek for gold, probably in 
the rivers Didesa and Dabus, running into the Blue Nile (or Abay, as it is 
called in Abyssinia). They formed the bulk of the population of Lasta and 
Agawmeder (meder = land, country) in the province of Gojam. Different 
fractions of this race scattered in earty times, and, differing dialectically in 
language, were called Bilin, or Bogos, who migrated north about the 10th 
century and settled, after various movements and displacements, on the 
plateau of Magareh and on the right bank of the Ansaba. The Khamir, 
the Falasha, the Quara, the Dambaya and Characha Agaw, etc. These 
form with Amharic one group of North-East African languages, of which 
the others are Saho and Afar, to the East, on the borders of the Red 
Sea, the Beja, or Bedawye, of the desert to the North-West of Abyssinia 
and West of Port Sudan, while the Somali and Galla form another and 
more distantly related group. D' Almeida describes the Agaw as follows : 
" They are generally of the small stature, with good features and of dusky 
colour. They don't dress in cotton, but cover their shoulders with soft 
leather hides, stained red. They are courageous in battle and use in 
warfare a short spear, to which they give the name of Kafeta, and a 
large shield made of buffalo skin. The Agaws of Gojarn are pagans and 
much given to Fetishism. They adore a single Creator of Heaven, whom 
they call Doban, but have no idols. They also worship river springs, also 
some species of trees and groves, sacrificing to them and offering cows, 
milk and butter. They bury their bodies in woods, making chambers for 
them and placing near their heads hydromel and the cups which they were 
accustomed to use in drinking when alive " (Historic* de Ethiopia a alta, 

1, fol. 301 v. et seqq.; Lettere annue of the year 1620 to 1624, p. 232 

et seqq., also Beke, Routes in Abyssinia, Journ. R.G.S., 1844, p. 10, and 
Bruce, Travels etc., vol. n. p. 325 et seqq., ed. 1805). Late researches 
point to this group of people and languages as most likely to furnish the 
nearest affinities to those of Upper Egypt and the Meroitic Kingdoms 
w. B. 65 



[514] 

(vide L. Reinisch, Dax persvnliclie Filrwort etc. in den Channto-Se- 
mitischen Sjrrachen). 

The Christian fervour of the Abyssinians seemed in early days to break 
out at intervals and inspired them to carry out their conversions with 
quite Mohammedan ruthlessness. We read in the history of Alphonso 
Mendez, the head of the Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in Abyssinia, how 
one of their converts, a certain Ras Sela Krestos, carried fire and sword 
into their country and made a holocaust of their idols. At another time, 
Abba lacobus baptized eighteen thousand of them. A little later, in 1628, 
ten thousand of them were baptized. (Historia Expeditionis Aethiopicae, 
Vol. i, Chap. 14. Ed. C. Beccari, S.J.) This missionary gives the following 
description of them and their habitat in the mountainous part of Gojam, 
near and around the sources of the Nile or Abai, as it is called in Abyssinia. 
" These mountains are rich in fertility and covered with shrubs and forest, 
especially bamboos, so dense and thick that they serve as strongholds and 
walls against assaults of the enemy ; for among these bamboos they make 
narrow paths with many turnings, after the manner of a labyrinth, and 
collecting in the middle remain entrenched in these bamboos for the space 
of a third of a league, and in places a circuit of more than a league, so 
that it is impossible to break through, or cut through a jungle so tough 
and intricate ; and in case of war they construct roads, by cutting down 
the large trees which stand in the way, and they get into this jungle like 
robbers into a house, with bows and arrows firing without danger to 
themselves at any who would attack them : these grounds they call 
Secutes. They have also in many parts great caves (dens) underground, 
formed by nature in rocks, having a narrow entrance and enlarging within 
so as to be capable of containing many people. They call them Partatas 
(cp. Saho, Afar, furdad, a harbour ; Tigrine, mefertat, flight) ; some have 
water within, and in these they take refuge when pressed by a hostile army. 
These Agaws of Gojam are much given to Fetishism. As the land is fertile, 
they have ample supplies, especially millet and much honey, which has a 
large market in Ethiopia to make the beverage which they drink (hydromel, 
or tej); they have great herds of cattle, and these very fine ; the men of 
the forests wear no garment but hides of cattle which they kill and eat raw 
like the Abyssinians ; these they beat well and make them soft, like 
prepared leather, and tint them red, each man and woman covering their 
shoulders, or twisting them round their waists without anything else to 
cover them, yet go about as pleased with themselves as those with the 
most precious and splendid gala dresses in the world. 

" They have no king, nor any lord to govern them ; each district stands 



on its own, and is ruled by those who are most powerful and worthy. They 
are of a dusky colour, less black, however, than the Abyssinians, of good 
features, valiant in warfare so long as they have not to seek out their 
enemy far from their own land and contenting themselves with defence. 
So they have defended themselves for hundreds of years against their 
neighbours on the West, and even against the power of the Emperor, 
never up to now having paid any tribute. The truth is that the Imperial 
Captains and troops have often invaded their country, killed and captured 
many, and taken great booty of cattle, horses and mares, but have also often 
retired with forces decimated and great losses of many and good men" 
(vide C. Rossini, Studi su Popolazioni dell' Etiopia, and Popoli dell' E- 
tiopia Occidentale in R. Accad. dei Lincei. Ferie accademiche 1919). 

APPENDIX F 

(p. 284 ; f. 561 a, p. 439 ; and f. 564 b, p. 445). 
FAKKARE IYASUS. 

It had always been a cherished prophecy among Abyssinians that one 
day a King called Theodore would rise who would be a world conqueror 
(Fakkare lyasus, Bib. Nat. MSS. 113). The hymn above (p. 284) was designed 
to flatter King Takla Giyorgis, and to pretend he had been inspired to write 
his name as the King who was destined to be the Abyssinian Alexander. 
The King Theodore whom we fought in 1868 had started life with the 
name of Lijj Kassa, but assumed this prophetic name to fit himself and 
prepare the minds of his people for what he thought was to be his destiny. 

This Fakkare lyasus is one of the indigenous compositions and does 
not belong to the group of foreign translations and importation. It has 
played an important part at various epochs inasmuch as it cpnsists of 
a revelation of future events, which have been made use of to suit the 
convenience of ambitious leaders, or to illustrate contemporary events by 
historians and observers. This is especially the case in the matter of one 
curious prediction the Fakkare contains. It is that a certain king, by 
name Theodore, would some day arise in the East, who would be a world 
conqueror and bring about an era of unexampled peace and prosperity 
before the final catastrophe that would engulf the world. 

An analogous prophecy is recorded in Roman History 1 . There was an 
oracle known in Greece or, according to some, seance of Magic, which 

1 Ammianus Marcellinus, Hist. i. xxix. Aurelius Victor, Epitome, Chap. XLVIII. 
Jornandes, De Successione temporum, Chap. xiv. Socrates, Hist. Eccl. i. iv. Chap. xix. 
ap. Migne, Pair, Gr. LXVII. Sozomenes, Hist. Eccles. i. vi. Chap. xxxv. 



announced that a man whose name began with the Greek letters 8. E. O. A. 
would be the successor to the Emperor Valens. A pretender, whose name 
was Theodosius, was soon found, but he failed and was put to death. 
A crop of other aspirants, of the name of Theodosius, Theodotos, Theodulos, 
sprang up, who were all executed in like manner, to allay the Emperor's 
suspicions. 

The missionary Gobat says that the same belief exists among the Falasha 
(Gobat, Journal etc., trans., p. 261). We have the instance recorded in 
the text, but later in the middle of the 19th century Krapf relates that 
during the troubles following on the death of Has Sabagadis in Tigre, he 
was asked by a monk of Mawoini about the appearance of Theodotos 
(i.e. Theodores) l . 

Kassa, son of a Kosso merchant, gave himself this name' 2 . According 
to other accounts, the Abba Salama gave him this designation at the time 
of his anointing the King Theodore 3 . The Amharic Chronicle says that 
Kassa assumed the name after his coronation, but makes no allusion to 
the legend 4 . 

A prophecy, however, dies hard. After Theodore committed suicide at 
Maqdala, there arose in 1877-8 another claimant to the glory of being the 
predicted conqueror in the shape of a foreign adventurer with long hair 
and an immense yellow beard. He spoke both Amharic and Oromo (Galla 
language). Credulous people, as usual ready to accept a pretender of curious 
appearance and boldly asserted claims, began to create a following and do 
honour to him with presents and pilgrimages. At last a Ras Gobana, the 
Governor of the district, in Shoa, found it necessary to take steps, and 
accordingly brought him to King Menelek. On being interrogated by some 
Europeans, it was found he could converse in French, Italian, English and 
German, but would give no hint as to who he was or where he came from. 
The general opinion, however, was that he was a Russian. The Emperor 
Menelek treated him with much forbearance, for though he sent him out 
of the country he supplied him with food and transport for the journey. 

On turning to actual history of Ethiopia for an explanation of this curi- 
ous prophecy, we find only one king who bore his name, viz. Tewodros I, 
eldest son of Dawit I, "who reigned three years, from 1409 to 1412, and 



1 Vide Isenl>erg and Krapf, Journals, 1S47, pp. 496-7. 

a Stern, Captive Missionary, pp. 5, 0. Lejean, Thcwlwe If, Noucel empire d 1 A bi/tsinit; 
p. 51. Dufton, Narrative of a journey, etc., pp. 114-15. An. d'Abbadie, Abyssinie, it /, 
roi Theodoros, p. 26. 

3 Dimotheoa, Deux Am, etc., trad IV., t. 11. 97-98. 

4 Mondcm-Vidaillet, C/trunique de T/ieodore II, 1'ariu, t. I. p. 6 ; t. n. pp. 8-9. 



[5i7] 

died 29 Sane. His tomb is at Tadbaba Maryain." The Chronicle adds that 
nothing more is known of him 1 . 

Bruce gives the earliest mention of the prophecy in Abyssinian annals, 
in relation to Theodores : " It is even confidently believed that he is to 
rise again and reign in Abyssinia for a thousand years" (Travels to dis- 
cover etc., Vol. in. p. 94, ed. 1805). 

Rossini (Note por la storia letter aria Abissina, p. 20) and E. Littmann 
("Gesch. der Aeth. Litteratur," p. 207, in Gesch. der Christ. Litt. des 
Orients) think this apocrypha is to be referred to the advent to power of 
Theodore (?). R. Basset (p. 10, Les Apoc. Eth.) thinks that these must be 
rejected and that the explanation of the prophecy may be looked for in 
the Synaxar of the Commemoration of Tewodros, son of Dawit, the 29th 
Sane. P. 1, fasc. v of Patrolog. Orientalis. 

The Synaxar recounts a miracle that took place at the transport of his 
body for burial. The waters of the river the cortege had to pass, divided, 
as the River of Jordan divided for Joshua (as another version of the 
Synaxar at Bizan adds). The text and translation is in an appendix of 
Sapeto, Viaggio etc., pp. 437-38. 



APPENDIX G. 



Christianity was first brought to Abyssinia about 350 A.D. by Frumentius. 
The story as handed down by Rufinus (Hist. EccL, I. 9) was briefly this. 
A philosopher of Tyre, one Meropius, returning from India, accompanied 
by his two kinsmen, Frumentius and Aedesius, were cast upon the Abyssinian 
shores, probably Adulis. The crew and passengers of the ship were all 
massacred, Frumentius and Aedesius alone escaping. They were taken 
before the King, who, after further acquaintance, was so impressed with 
their characters that he induced them to remain, and finally made the first 
his treasurer and the second his cup-bearer. On the death of the King, the 
Queen retained them till her infant son, the future King, reached the age 
of maturity. Frumentius improved the opportunity to secure liberty for 
the Greek travelling merchants in the exercise of their religion. When 
the prince had grown up, Frumentius journeyed to Alexandria, visited 
St Athanasius, and on his request to have a bishop sent to Abyssinia was 
himself chosen and consecrated to be the first metropolitan of the new- 

1 R. Basset, Etudes sur PHistoire tfEthiopie (1882, Paris), p. 11 text, p. 101 of trans., 
notes 94-5, pp. 240-1. Beguinot, La Cronica abbreviate Rome, 1901, p. 11. R. Basset, 
Fakkare lyasus. 



born Faitli in that country. His first experience was a summons to appear 
Ijefore the Arian Bishop George of Alexandria, by a letter dated 356 of the 
Emperor Constantine, addressed to Ai'zanas and Sazanos, Kings of Aksum, 
with commands to that effect. The letter is preserved by St Athanasius in 
his Apologia ad Constantium (Pat. Gr. t xxv. 636). There is nothing 
known of the early development of Christianity till we come to inscriptions 
at Aksum still preserved, which indicate the change of worship from pagan 
deities Mahrem ("A/a?;?) and Aster (Attar, Ishter) to the Christian God, 
Eg/id Beher, in the second half of the 5th century and set up by a king 
whose name, mutilated in some inscriptions, appears to have been 'Ozana, 
and seems to have survived in literature as Tazena, and on coins in Greek 
as ddfrva. The next event of importance was the arrival of those known 
to Abyssinians as the "Nine saints or holy men," who came from "Rum," 
i.e. from the Byzantine Empire, and from the resemblance of their names to 
those of well-known monasteries in Syria have been proved to be members 
of that Church and natives of that country. Probably it was to these saints 
and their disciples that the Ge'ez translation of the New Testament, recalling 
as it does the Greek of Syria rather than the Egyptian text, may be ascribed. 
Their provenance, as well as the Abyssinian tradition of one of them de- 
stroying a dragon, Zando, typifying the refutation of a false doctrine (of 
orthodox Christianity) points to the conclusion that they were Monophysites. 
In Egypt in the 13th century, the great renaissance of theological study 
and literature headed by Ibn al-'Assal, brought to Abyssinia by the Abuna, 
especially Abba Salama (about 1399), produced a corresponding effect in 
the latter country. This was enhanced by the translation of numerous 
Arab works into Ge'ez, especially by the recension of the Gospel and New 
Testament texts, and it was followed by a general revival of sacred literature 
in Ge'ez. It inspired, too, a new fervour in evangelization of the still pagan 
portions of the country, especially in the north. In this the famous monk 
Ewostatewos (Eustathius, died circ. 1332), hereafter the patron saint of what 
has been called the Low Church party, signalized himself as a destroyer of 
delubra sylvestria, or sacred groves of the Agaw and other pagan tribes. 
Another revival was initiated by the great church reformer Ziir'a Ya'eqob 
(1434-1468). This king regulated the ordinances of the Church, the ob- 
servance of the Saturday as a Sabbath, the Eucharistic service, Extreme 
Unction, etc. He reformed abuses, reconciled schisms and combatted 
various pagan superstitions which survived and still survive to this day. 
He is credited with the actual composition of theological works, and at 
any rate it was through his influence that the theological literature of his 
kingdom was considerably enriched. 



[519] 

King Dawit, whose throne name was Lebna Dengel (1508-1540) sent a 
letter of submission to the Pope, and later King Claudius (1540-1558) 
under stress of the Muhammadan threats of invasion did the same, coupling 
the act with entreaties for assistance with arms and men. Relieved of his 
fear by the death of the redoubtable Gran, whom he defeated with the 
help of the heroic band of Portuguese under Cristovam da Gama, he turned 
hostile to the Catholics. About this time, 1546, a mission of Jesuits was 
decided upon by their Founder, and a bishop Oviedo reached Abyssinia 
in 1580. A successor, Pero Paez, had great success, King Za-Dengel 
(1603-04) being converted, and when Susneyos (1607-1632) came to the 
throne Catholicism spread over the whole country. Pero Paez died in 1622, 
and while the Jesuit P. Mendez was Patriarch the King made full sub- 
mission to the Roman See in 1626. The constantly growing opposition of 
the native clergy, however, came to a head in open rebellion, and so dis- 
couraged the King that he abdicated in favour of his son Easiladas. This 
king immediately restored the Abyssinian doctrines, and hunted out the 
Jesuit missionaries. 

The Chief Corpus of civil and canon law in use is called the Fatha 
Nagast or the Law of the Kings, a compilation however which does not 
date further back than the latter half of the 17th century. 

The Canon of the sacred books is that of the Coptic Church and corre- 
sponds to the last Canon of the Apostles. It comprises, with the New 
Testament, the two letters and eight books of Clement (Constitutiones 
Apostol.) and with the Old Testament the Kufale or Parva Genesis (XeTrr?) 
yeveais). Two lists or types of canonical works passed from Egypt to 
Abyssinia and were translated from the Arabic into Ge'ez, under the title 
of Abtelisat or Abustulisat, corrupted into " Pitlusat," through the Arabic 
transcription of the Greek. Coming late comparatively, and from a foreign 
source, it did not destroy the veneration for other books that had previously 
been held sacred e.g. Book of Enoch, the Tloifjitjv of Hernias, Ascension of 
Isaias, III and IV of Esdras and the Book of Baruch. The Book of Macca- 
bees of the Ethiopic Bible has no connection with the Western version 
(vide " II Canone Bibl. della Chiesa Copta," I. Guidi, Rev. Belgique, April, 
1901). 

THE CHURCHES AND SACRED BUILDINGS. 

The ordinary church edifice, apart from the oldest in Aksum and Adulis 
whose ruins betray the plan of the ancient Basilica, are circular buildings, 
the walls being often of stone, with thatched roofs. They are built in three 
divisions: (1) the Qene mahlet for the clerks 'dabtara, (2) the Qeddest for 
"those communicating, (3) the Maqdas where the priests and the king com- 



[520] 

municate. In the large churches in the principal towns there is a daily 
service preceded by psalms. The plain chant is called Zema and is of three 
orders or modes: 'Ezel (0tfti), araray (t\6'/..p,: ). and ge'ez (*70Tf ), the 
first used for days of fasts and Lent, the second for the principal feasts, 
and the third for feriae. The notation employed does not indicate the 
note, but the first word or letter of a known verse which is accompanied 
by a known musical phrase. 

The architectural terms used for church construction are : 
: pi. aohlt'}: exterior part or extremity of the angle, 
breadth, 
height, 
content or extension. 

foundation, lower course of the wall, 
wall, 
pi. T<P'Va>-s door. 

door of light, i.e. principal entrance door. 

pi. r/i>^V)</>- : Window. 

' f^0D*ts lit. " rainbow," i.e. arch. 

:<n>*)A ; h In the usual round church of the country, the external 
passage or corridor between the first and second circle. (Guidi, // 
Gadla Aragawi, pp. 42, 43.) 

"V^A**!" the space near the western door of a round church where 
the choir stands to sing the J*fc* or religious chants and psalms. 
fjhi sanctuary, the third or interior chamber, Holy of Holies square 
in shape, in which is the manbar (<H>">flCO or throne on which is 
placed the Tabot (jf-fl^ i ) or altar stone. 

the sacristy or robing room where the sacred vessels and 
church ornaments were kept. 
fl*l*sAdA* lit. "house above," "upper house": the choir above the 

entrance door. 

<nC*P'Th* bells. In 1691, the Governor General of the Dutch Indies sent 
as a gift to the King Adyam Sagad (lyasu I) two metal bells which 
were placed in the Church of Dabra Berhan ; they are designated in 
the letter of this Governor by the Arabic ^>>l3 which means properly 
a plate or cymbal of iron used for calling to prayer. In Basset's 
Chronique Ethiojriqite (p. 42) it is called ao^^t Vide Ludolf, 
Relatio Nova de Hodierno Habexsiniae Stotn, p. 21 ; Iliippell, 7ft /'. 
etc., Bd. n. p. 120 ; Dillmann, Lexicon, c. 306. For church architecture 
udolf, Commentarius, p. 371, and Chron.SmneyoB,Pere\rii, p.f>36.' 



[521] 

The tabot (^fl'lh is a small table of stone or hard wood on which the 
Mass is celebrated. It bears always on one side a cross, or a picture of a 
Virgin and Child. It is placed on the altar. The tabot of the Royal Palace 
accompanies the king, when he travels. The original tabot was the Ark of 
the Covenant supposed to have been taken from Jerusalem by the son of 
Solomon and Queen of Ethiopia (Meneylek I) and brought to Aksum, ac- 
cording to a tradition embodied in the Kabra Nagast (Glory of the Kings) 
(vide Kabra Nagast, ed. C. Bezold, p. 43). 

No sculptured figures are permitted in Abyssinian churches, only paint- 
ings and pictures of sacred subjects, such as the Crucifixion, the Virgin 
and Child, etc. They generally preserve the Byzantine tradition similar to 
those well known in the Abyssinian MSS. One of the most revered of these 
was known as the Quer'ata Re'su, mentioned on pp. 248, 250 and 251. The 
earliest known European visitor to Abyssinia, a Venetian painter called 
Francisco de Branca Leone, was supposed to have painted pictures of Jesus 
and Mary some time in the reign of Ba'eda Maryam (1468-1478). The 
MS. 129 of the Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele (Cronaca Abbreviata} tells 
us that this King had a picture painted of this subject by " a Frank, but 
the people of Ethiopia were indignant." It was in a church called Atronsa 
Maryam till it was plundered and destroyed by the Galla in the reign of 
Tewoflos (1708-1711). It is more probable the painter was a Brancaleone 
da Genazzano in the Roman province (vide Cronaca etc., footnote, p. 13). 

In the Chronicles of Ba'eda Maryam (Jules Perruchon) there is no 
mention of this painting, though it describes its foundation and embellish- 
ment, p. 173. 



APPENDIX H. 

THEOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES IN THE ABYSSINIAN CHURCH. 

The first theological dispute that disturbed the Church of Ethiopia so 
far as we have record, arose about the middle of the loth century during 
the early part of the reign of Zar'a Ya'eqob (1434 to 1468). This king was 
a great religious reformer, and to him may be ascribed the distinctive form 
of the Abyssinian liturgy and ceremonial as well as the strongly Jewish 
character which it has always preserved. The discussion that arose in his 
reign centred in the question of the Persons of the Trinity or as the 
Abyssinian theologians expressed it more nearly following the Greek con- 
cept the "faces" (G. Wg: Tr/joo-w-n-a) of the Trinity. A theologian Za 
Mika'el by name raised the point by opposing the idea that Christ was 
w. B. 66 



[522] 

made in the likeness of man, by the argument, " If this anthropomorphic 
definition be true, can the God with the three persons be one in Substance" 
(Substantia fl/hC' vTroo-raa-is. Dillmanii, Ueber die Regierung, etc. des 
Konigs Zara Ya'eqob, from the "Matsafa Berhan," Book of Lights, by 
this monarch). The definition given by a Synod called by the king in 1439 
which condemned Za Mika'el, in refusing to recognize distribution in the 
one Substance of Christ seemed to indicate that the Abyssinian Church 
had chosen the path of extreme Monophysitism, and in the next reign, of 
Ba'ela Maryain son of Zara Ya'eqob, some preachers from Syria and Egypt 
brought to Abyssinia the doctrine of Extreme Eutychianism which denied 
the consubstantiality of Christ's body with ours. Thus the elements of a 
controversy were introduced which were destined to distract the Abyssinian 
Church to this day. 

It was, however, probably due to the awakening of the spirit of investi- 
gation and criticism in consequence of the discussions with the Portuguese 
Jesuits Pero Paez, 1604 and Alfonso Mendez in 1604, that the original 
formulas became the subject of further and closer examination. The result 
was a cleavage between two schools of thought which ended in the great 
division of the Church known as the Party of Debra Libauos (the monastery 
of that name), founded by Takla Haymanot in 1312, and the Party of 
Ewostatewos (Eustathius), i.e. those that revered St Eustathius as their 
founder (in 1333) and stood for the extreme views of what might be termed 
the Low Church. 

As soon, in fact, as Pero Paez arrived he was engaged in disputation 
with the learned men and dabteras (clerics and students) on this crucial 
point of their religion. In 1604 the then Emperor Za Dengel called him to 
his Court or Camp at Waynadega, near Lake Tsana, and " made me sit near 
him, and said he would be glad to hear something about the Controversy 
between the people of Ethiopia and Portugal, to see if it was certain that 
there was so great a difference between them as was stated " (Pero Paez, 
Relacao etc. in " Rerum Ethiopm. Inedita," Vol. n. p. 366, ed. P. Beccari ; 
and Squarcio di Historia Ecclesiastica di Abissinia. Ignazio Guidi, 
Riinsta di Studi orientedi, Anno V. Vol. vin.). On the Jesuit declaring 
himself ready to be interrogated he was engaged in controversy by some 
monks. One of them said, "'In many things there is a great difference 
l>etween us, in particular in what they say that in Christ there are two 
natures and that the human nature is not equal to the Divine.' I answered 
that we do say so, and that this is the Catholic Faith for leaving aside 
what St Paul says in many places that God shed his blood for the Church, 
which he received with his precious blood, proving clearly that in Christ 



[ 5.23 ] 

there are two natures, for God as God has no blood, being a spirit ; and so 
that which is God and sheds blood must necessarily have two natures. 
To these and similar arguments the monk replied, 'After the Resurrection, 
there remained no more than one nature.' ' Which of them ? ' I replied, ' if 
he had lost one it must have been the human nature,' and I showed him 
that Christ when he appeared on the eighth day, must have been clothed 
in a human body to have been seen and touched by Thomas." Finally, 
having extorted from his opponents the admission that Christ was perfect 
God and perfect man, they could only escape the conclusion, by saying that 
after the Union there was one and not two natures. The Jesuit replied, 
" If you wish to say Christ our Lord cannot be said to be two but one, this 
is certain truth for he was not two but only one Person " (Ibid., loc. tit., 
p. 369). It looks as if at this stage the native theologians were at a dis- 
advantage from the Abyssinian formula not making use of the concept 
Person as distinguished from Nature (JthA* or s/nAVih: as distinguished 
from flrh:). Pero Paez then cited St Athanasius, whose definitions 
Abyssinians accept, where that authority expressly states that Christ is 
equal to the Father according to his Divinity, but less than the Father 
according to his humanity. The result of the discussion was that the 
Emperor expressed himself satisfied and convinced. His death followed 
soon after and his son Susneyos (throne name Seltan Segad) came to the 
throne (1607 A.D.) and after some further disputations and explanations 
accepted the Western Orthodox Doctrine. 

The discussions, however, had sharpened the wits of the native theo- 
logians and in the sixteenth year of this monarch fresh formulas were 
evolved as described in the Chronicles of Susneyos (ed. F. E. Pereira, 
Cronica d. Suseneyos, Chap. LIX.). 

" In the same month of Som (i.e. the Fast which this year was from 
26th Yakatit or 10th February to the 22nd Magabit, 18th March) there 
came many monks and anchorites from the Lake (Tsana) and the continent 
and all the countries of the king's dominions and then called a synod before 
the king and all the great ones of the kingdom : and they discussed among 
themselves the question they had raised before the king had returned from 
his expedition (the year before). Some like the Azzaj Za Dengel and Abba 
Kefla Krestos spoke thus according to the words they had used before, 
* The Union of the Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was for 
him in place of the Unction of his body,' and others like the Abba Kefla 
Sellase and Abba Askal of Alkana and Abba Lebso of Gwanj and Abba 
Batro and Abba Estefanos and many other monks of the lake and the 
continent said, 'the Father was the anointer, the Son was the anointed 



[5241 

the Holy Ghost was the Unction 1 .' And there was a. great altercation 
amongst them, and the king said, ' If you have the testimonies of the Holy 
Scriptures both of you bring them for us to see and to judge the truth.' 
And they brought the Gospels and the Epistles of Paul, and the Acts of 
the Apostles, and the Faith of the Fathers (Haymanot Abaw) and the 
Psalms of David ; and the books that served them for proofs. And having 
heard them, the king, pure of heart and weighty of speech said to them, 
' In truth the Unction of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was the grace 
df the Holy Spirit which was given with his human nature at the moment 
of the Union of His Humanity with His Divinity. When in His Divinity 
and His equality with the Father and the Holy Ghost he gave Grace to all, 
He took the Grace in His humanity to give it to the son of Adam, his 
brothers. But the Grace which He took from the Holy Ghost was not in 
measure, as after the manner given to the prophets and the Apostles, but 
was without measure, as it is said in the Gospel of St John, HI. 34, 35. 
For God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto Him, but the Father loveth 
the Son and hath given all things into his hand.' With several other 
citations from the Gospels, King Susneyos ' pronounced and gave judge- 
ment of truth against those that erred.' For God gave him speech and 
wisdom ; and the monk who was called Kefla Krestos, as he did not submit, 
was flogged with rods and then he (the king) expelled and excommunicated 
Za Dengel that he might not teach this creed to the people " (ibid.). 

According to the same Chronicle this King Susneyos who had been con- 
verted and " induced to embrace their (the Portuguese missionaries) impure 
faith," seeing the commotion and unrest among the people due to the harsh 
measures enforced for their conversion, finally returned to the Abyssinian 
Creed in the twenty-fifth year of his reign (1631-32). The reign of his son 
and successor Fasilados was marked by a general denunciation and ex- 
termination of the Portuguese missionaries and their adherents. 

In this reign the dissenters, called Gebatoch (" Unctionists "), evolved 
a formula which practically became with some later modifications the 
watch- word of the Eustathians or Party of Gojam, so called from the place 
where the heresy had the most numerous adherents. This formula was, 
"Through Unction Christ was Son consubstantial with the Father 2 ." It 
was countered by the Debra Libanos by the formula, "By Union He 
was made consubstantial with the Father" (Ge'ez, fl'f'PjZ.^ : DA* 
fl/hCs), i.e. the Unction produced the union or absorption of the 

1 xpioTT/r, xpttrror, ^pur/to, Petav. de The<>Ig. Dogmat. XL viii. 
'Mil Go'cz ri'l-n^-l-r'i'A.c.i iMiC.r, -: where M/dc.c.: ^A^*. substantia imtui-a, 
n/ThCjr.'-wsubstautial, opoovvios. (Vide I. (iuidi, /oc. cit., p. 17, footn. 8.) 



[525] 

.humanity by the diviuity. They were excommunicated by the Echage, 
Batra Giyorgis. 

In the next reign, that of Johannes, a synod was called together by the 
king, in 1681, at which the spokesman of the Gojamese party Akala 
Krestos propounded that, " By Unction Christ was made Son substantial 
with God/' and the Debra Libanos answered by declaring, " By Union he 
was made Son consubstantial, and by Unction he was firstborn of all 
creatures" (Coloss. i. 15). Akala Krestos was condemned. It is easy to 
trace through all the stages of the dispute the efforts of the Monophysites 
to struggle against the ever-present danger of being entangled in the 
logical necessity of the orthodox Western doctrine of the two natures of 
Christ. 

This latter held that in giving the name Christ to the God-man it was 
the humanity not the divinity that was anointed (J. Chrysostom, Ep. ad 
Hebr., Horn. 1 and 13). In the Incarnation the Word became Flesh, 
the human nature was endowed with existence and the God became God- 
man. The result of the Incarnation was the glorification of the Humanity 
and the God-man was anointed as High Priest and Messiah for the mission 
of the Redemption of the world (J. Damasc., dejide ortho. 4. 18. 3, 7 contra 
Jacobitas, n. 52). The human nature became by union a nature of the Son 
of God, so that Christ is the only begotten Son even in his Human Nature, 
but this Human Nature did not become Divine, as the Monophysites held, 
or it would cease to be Human. 

Unction being the result of Union, the flowing of grace from the Divine 
Nature to the Human, through their Union in one Person and thereby 
giving the Messianic mission, it became the essential object of the Mono- 
physites to neglect as much as possible laying any stress on the Unction 
after the act of Union, because it was evident that for the purpose of 
rejecting a human nature as well as a Divine, no recognition of this 
humanity receiving this mission by Unction later in time would be allowed; 
such act of unction being admittedly only applicable to a full perfect idea 
of humanity, which would thus be constituted as separate from the Divinity 
in the sense required by the Dyophysites. At first the High Church of 
Abyssinia as it may be called were in practical accordance with the Western 
doctrine in their formula, only refusing to acknowledge the distinction of 
the two natures of Christ after the Union. 

In the orthodox formula, ^pto-TT/9, %/3io-ro9, xpia-^a, they took advan- 
tage of the difficulty of the explanation of the word Unction to endeavour 
to cling to Scripture, and at the same time avoid the logical necessity of 
acknowledging the Tomes of Leo, while the extreme or Low Church Party, 



[5*6] 

who held the Council of (Jhalcedon in abomination, were concerned above 
all in keeping its definitions as far from the Western doctrine as theological 
ingenuity could devise. These Extremists or Eustathians took the line, 
therefore, of denying or at any rate minimising the act of Unction. When 
they were refuted on this point they shifted their ground and, as mentioned 
above, produced the definition, " By Unction Christ was Son consubstantial 
with the Father," met by the party of Debra Libanos with, " By Union He 
was Son substantial with the Father," Unction and Union became hence- 
forth the theological battle cries of the two sects. The Eustathians enjoyed 
a brief period of ascendancy during the reign of David (1711-15) who pro- 
nounced in their favour while the Debra Libanos adherents suffered eclipse 
and severe persecution. 

A new Abuna arrived from Egypt and, on being appealed to, endeavoured 
to reconcile the hostile parties by pronouncing, " By Union the Son is only 
begotten Son and by Unction He became Christ." Which was considered 
by the Debra Libanos sect as a victory for their side. 

Peace seems to have reigned till the 20th year of King lyasu II on 
the occasion of a visit of a "Frank" called George "a Syrian" who was 
supported by a "Restless Monk" Abba Eshate. They were combined 
against by both the Eustathian and Debra Libanos parties, excommuni- 
cated and expelled. The Eustathian Heresy threw out an extreme offshoot 
among the Tigrines, who to avoid the necessity of acknowledging the Unction 
of the Son of God by the Holy Spirit explained that the Holy Spirit in 
this sense signified no other than the second Person of the Trinity himself, in 
other words self-anointed (rov iSiov vaov, Cyril of Alex, in Joh.\ and was 
in His own Person ^pLa-r^, ^pio-ros, ^pLa^a. This was embodied in the 
Tigrine Formula, Krestos walda qiba'e (hCfl-ffl (D A&!4flh::) = " Christ 
the Son Anointing," thus omitting all consideration of the Humanity and 
forcing the deduction that Christ accomplished his Messianic Mission in 
the mere appearance of a Man. 

The Sost Ledat (Ofl^* A&^i ) or triple Birth mentioned f. 580 b, p. 475, 
was a doctrine that rose in the High Church Sect. It was the name applied 
to this definition. The God- Word was born, 1st of the Father from all 
eternity, d^rmp, 2nd of His Mother, the Virgin Mary, in Time, airdrtop, 
and 3rd of the Holy Ghost, dfirfrwp. The 2nd and 3rd was by the Tigrines 
cut down to one and earned for its adherents the nickname of the up- 
holders of the " Knife Faith " (Karra Haymanot). It was embodied in a 
proverb, " The faith we once had was Union and Unction, then when they 
brought in the doctrine of the Knife there was no flesh left" (I. Guidi, 
Provcrbi Abcssim, p. 51). When Bruce came to Abyssinia he found at 



[ 527 I 

Gondar (Feb. 15, 1770) that these Tigrine doctrines had gained considerable 
predominance owing probably to the prestige and influence of Mika'el 
Sehul the Governor of Tigre who was then at the height of his power. 
Later on in 1804 the "Sost Ledat" controversy gave rise to great excite- 
ment which ended in the Echage Walda Yonas expelling those that denied 
it from the capital and forcing them to take refuge in Tigre. It was not 
till 1817 when the Metropolitan Kerillos (Cyril) and the Tigre ecclesiastics 
were called together by Dajazmach Sabagadis in the last year of N. N. Takla 
Giyorgis that the "Twice Born," the Tigrine doctrine, received official 
sanction of an Abuna (MS. 118 Abbadie, trans, by Conti Rossini, p. 114- 
15 in R. Accad. Lincei, Vol. xxvi. fasc. 7. 18, Oct. 1916) and Kerillos 
pronounced in favour of the Karra Haymanot (the Knife creed) or the 
Twice Born. 

His triumph however only endured while backed by the Tigrine clergy 
during his stay in Tigre from 1816 to 1819. When summoned to Gondar 
to meet his opponents he found them too strong for him and through the 
influence of Ras Gugsa (a Galla) with the concurrence of King lyo'as (who 
had succeeded his brother Eguala Tseyon in 1818) he was compelled to 
return to live in Tigre. He retaliated however by being backed by Saba- 
gadis in forcing all dissenters in Tigre to adopt his doctrine and subjected 
one of the leaders of the High Church party, Abuna Gabra Masih, to 
great hardship in prison. He went on a successful hunger strike how- 
ever, for though they tried to force him to eat food and drink water, he 
remained for 13 days without tasting anything whatsoever (MS. 118 
Abbadie, ibid., p. 121). Shoa, which had become a powerful state and 
practically thrown off its allegiance to the feeble Negus at Gondar had 
been converted by a Gondar priest called Bassana towards the end of the 
18th century to the doctrine of Sost Ledat. It was not however till 1840 
that this Faith was made compulsory. The suppressed party revenged 
themselves by accusing two unpopular leading clerics, Alaqa Walda Giyorgis 
and Videna Wald Alaqe of Debra Libanos, of heresy. Ras Ali, who was 
the most powerful ruler in Abyssinia except Sahla Sellase of Shoa 
(grandfather of the Emperor Menelek), called the latter to account for 
appointing such prelates. This roused Sahla Sellase to great indignation. 
The accused were tried for heresy (on the subject of capacity of sinning of 
an embryo in the womb) and condemned. The vanquished anti-Sost Ledat 
party however found an unexpected champion in a new Abuna, Abba 
Salama IV, who like Kerillos stood for the " Garra Haymanot." This Abuna 
menaced Sahela Sellase with excommunication. This not only produced 
no effect but he himself was obliged to take refuge in Tigre (1842). Kassa, 



[528] 

who afterwards took the name of King Theodore, then Dajazmach of 
I >a i ii 1 a \ a. luii i n I it suited his ambitious designs to champion the Abuna by 
embracing his tenets and got for his reward the honour of being crowned, 
by the latter, King of Kings of Ethiopia in 1855. To give colour to his 
ambitions he proclaimed a religious war and on the death of Khaylu 
Malakot (Sahela Sellase's son) at the cost of one battle Theodore made 
himself master of SI ma. He called a Synod under the specious pretext of 
reconciling the contending parties at Azazo, which seemed to be a theo- 
logical centre. 

The theologians of Debra Libanos had. all the logic, but Theodore like 
Henry VIII prided himself on his theology and had the unanswerable 
argument of despotic power, he played the card of Alexandria in supremacy 
and demanded " if they recognised Abuna Salama for their Lawful Patri- 
arch." They were fain to answer in the affirmative. " Then my children/' 
replied the king, " You are heretics from the very moment you differ in 
opinion from the Abuna and me, the defender and upholder of the Church. 
Abjure your errors or the executioner will take off your heads " (Bolotoff, 
trans, p. 41, Lejean, p. 621). The High Church party who took time to 
consider this answer were kept without bread and water in confinement 
till, not being of the stuff of martyrs, they succumbed and abjured their 
doctrinea Menelek who had been imprisoned by Theodore, when he 
escaped in 1866, took the side of the suppressed High Church, but King 
John was raised to the throne on the death of Theodore at Magdala and 
Menelek when he succeeded to the Kingdom of Shoa in 1878 acknowledged 
him as his liege lord. On being severely admonished for encouraging the 
Italian missionary Massaja and being ordered to expel him, Menelek 
carried out his commands. King John then began a reform persecution 
of the Debra Libanos party, even submission as in the case of the Superior 
of Debra Libanos not being sufficient to save him from deprivation, all the 
adherents of the Sost Ledat party were replaced by their opponents and 
the monks dispersed over the whole country. A Synod was called but the 
discussion was a farce. The King concocted his own list of orthodoxy 
which was clear Eutychianism, "confess with us one only nature in that 
the Humanity of Christ was absorbed by the Divinity, or confess with the 
Romans two natures in Christ from the moment that according to you 
Jesus Christ is true God and true Man." The Synod was a repetition of 
the famous Council of Ephesus in its behaviour towards the High Church 
theologians, but the latter, giving vent to their sarcasms on their treatment, 
were retaliated upon by the Negus and had their tongues cut out. The 
final result was a general submission to an oath of Uniformity, the few 



[529] 

recusants being generally exterminated by ruthless cruelty such as being 
exposed naked to the burning sun etc. and other atrocities. Vide Bolotov, 
N'ieskolko Stranitz iz tzerkovnoi historii Ethiopi (some pages of the eccle- 
siastical history of Ethiopia in French translation) ; I. Guidi, Squarcio di 
Storia Ecclesiastiva di Abissinia, Rivista di Studi Orientali, Anno V. 
Vol. vni. fasc. 49-50 ; D'Almeida (Beccari), Historia, Vol. vi. Ch. 4 ; Ludolf, 
Commentarius, p. 451 ; Gobat, Journal etc., Ch. 3 ; I. Guidi, art. in 
Dictionnaire d'Histoire et Geographic EccMsiastiques, p. 210; A.Dillmann, 
Ueber die Regierung, imb. die Kirchenordnung des Konigs Zar'a Ydkob ; 
Annales Regum Johannis I, lyasu I, Bakaffa, Sect. II. t. v. in Corpus 
Scriptor. Christian. Oriental, Seriptores Aethiopici ; Annales Regum 
lyasu II, Foas, ibid. ; Acta SS. Batsalota Mika'el et Anorewos, ibid. t. xx. etc. 

APPENDIX I. 

KALEB. 

Kaleti, otherwise known as Ela Atsbeha (hfa hK'M/ * =the Blessed 
One, a transcription of Arab. i*-^l), the 'EXe<raa<? of Procopius, the son 
of Tazena (;HtY: according to the Ge'ez MSS, Geneva on Greek coins) 1 , was 
king of Ethiopia, i.e. a king of Aksum, in the first quarter of the sixth cen- 
tury. He took vengeance on the Jewish king of the Himyarites, Du Nawas, 
for his massacre of the Christians of Negran, in the year 524-5 A.D. A graphic 
account is given of the " Martyrs of Negran " (whose commemoration was 
kept by the Abyssinian Church on the 22nd November O.S.) by Simeon, 
Bishop of Bet-Arsam, written during the reign of Justinian (527-565). The 
commemoration of King Kaleb was on 15th May O.S. and is thus given in 
the Senkessar (Synaxarium) : " On this day is held the Commemoration of 
Kaleb, King of Ethiopia, son of Tazena, lover of God. On account of the 
greatness of his faith God opened for him the earth, and the king marched 
secretly from the land of Aksum to the land of Matara, and destroyed the 
rebels, who were called the people of Gamorra; and after this he built 
churches. He also made war on the land of Saba and made an expedition 
by land and sea; and he destroyed the Jews (Du Nawas) and built an 
altar to God, and set on the throne his eldest son whose name was Israel.... 
And after this he contemned this world, and left his kingdom and came to 
a monastery of St Pantaleon that stood on the summit of a mountain, in 
which dwelt holy monks, and he entered this monastery and died in a 
cell.... After he entered the cell he spoke to no one, and was pleasing to 
God by reason of the beauty of his works, and reposed in peace." Vide 

1 Vide Gadla Aragawi, Life of Za Mika'el Aragawi, one of the nine holy men who came 
to Abyssinia in the 5th and 6th centuries. The Greek coins are figured in E. Littmann, 
op. cit. Bd. I. p. 53. 

w. B. 67 



[530] 

Historia don Martyres de Nagran (F. E. Pereira) in Acta Sanctorum 
Oct., x. p. 721 et seqq.; Fell, Die Christenverfolyuncf in Sudarabien nnd 
die himjarisch-athiopischen Krieye etc. in Z. D. Morgenlwndischen Gesell, 
Bd xxxv. pp. 8, 9 ; Eth. MSS. Br. Mus. Or. 639 ; John Bishop of Ephesus 
(ed. Land); Halevy, Examen Critique etc. in Revue des Etudes juivex, 
t xvm. pp. 26-38 ; Synaxar. Ethiop., 20th month of Genbot 

APPENDIX K. 

ABYSSINIA AND THE SUDAN (p. 216). 

Without going into the early history of the relations and intercourse 
between Abyssinia and the Sudan which begins with the raids and conquests 
of 'Azana in the middle of the 4th century, and 'Azana or Tazana, son of Ela 
Amida towards the end of the 5th, as related in the famous Greek and 
Ge'ez inscriptions at Aksum, it may be noted that the Fungs of Sennfir and 
Halqayt on the Atbara (the tribe of which Badi, p. 216, was chief), are 
frequently mentioned in Abyssinian Chronicles. In the reign of Susneyos 
(1607-1632) a king of the Fungs or Balaw, Ribat (1614-1642), called Erubat 
in the Chronicle, was defeated in 1618 by Susneyos after apparently a 
peaceful period marked by interchange of presents between the Sovereigns ; 
from Adelan (1604-1611) in the shape of fine horses, and from Susneyos to 
King Bady Sayd el Kawam (1611-1614) of bracelets of gold and a gold- 
mounted saddle (Chron. Susneyos, Pereira, pp. 96, 124, 155 trans.). Later 
King lyasu II suffered severe defeat by Bady Abu Shilluk (1722-1761) in 
1744. This victory "over 100,000 Habesh" is described in the History of 
Nuba (Arab. MSS. No. 2345 British Museum, ff. 9 r.-9 v.), but appears also 
as a brilliant success for the Abyssinian king in the Ge'ez Chronicles of 
lyasu (Eth. MSS. Bodley's, No. 82, f. 112r.). The Badi and Adrys of the 
text were probably the Bady and Sheikh Idrys who during an anarchic 
period at Sennar were among the " four kings at one and the same time " 
as described by the History of Nuba (f. 16 v.) contending in 1788-89 for 
supreme power during the intermittent reign of Adelau II (1768-1788). It 
is impossible to give a coherent story of the origin of the Fungs out of the 
contradictory legends due to attempts, common to people who have risen 
in the world, to concoct illustrious pedigrees, a tendency specially charac- 
teristic of Arab adventurers and their descendants. These adventurers 
from various immigrant south Arabian tribes had been entering the Sudan 
from time immemorial, from the days of the Minaeo Sabaeans and Habashat 
who settled in Abyssinia from about 800 B.C. to about the beginning of the 
Christian era down to the appearance of the Benu Hilal, Benu A'amner, 
Rabiah, Kenanah, Hubhaynah, etc., who, after the conquest of Egypt, 



[53i] 

spread over the east coast of the Sudan. Enterprising spirits abandoning 
their tribes settled among the native blacks, trained them to arms, then 
leading their adopted people to conquest of neighbouring tribes founded 
small kingdoms of which their descendants formed a kind of aristocracy. 
The Fungs may very probably have come from the Shilluk country and 
been a Shilluk tribe as Bruce states. According to their own traditions, 
about 1 504, as the result of a movement of population towards the East, a 
certain Amara Dunqas (also written Amru Du Nqas), came from the west 
of the White Nile, conquered the country round Sennar by defeating Wad 
Ajib, the king of Sennar, and established the Fung domination over the 
surrounding country. The story seems to be embodied in the tradition of 
the Nyikang, the demi-god of the Shilluks (Westermaun, Shilluk People, 
p. 11). There have been many attempts to explain the word Fung. There 
is a word Buong pronounced in some dialects Fuong, Fung, which at 
Sennar means " Arab " and among the Shilluks " stranger " ; the word for 
Arab being made synonymous with " stranger " may be compared with the 
word Frank, "Feringhi, farangi" in Persia, Arab. ?H>*; feranj in Ge'ez 
(denoting Portuguese), becoming the general Avord to express " foreigner " 
over a large area of the East. They appear as "Fund" in D' Almeida's 
Map (1662) transcribed from P. Paez (ca. 1620) and they are called 
" Funchos " and " Funye " (this latter is the Shilluk pronunciation) in his 
history. In the above map they are placed on the Atbara along with the 
"Balloos," i.e. Balaw. In another contemporary map they are placed 
together in the kingdom of Sennar. These Balaw or Balloos, Balloes as 
they are called by the Portuguese writers, are distinctly stated to be 
identical with the Fungs, "not only the island of Meroe but all lower 
Ethiopia which is a frying-pan stretching from Suaquem to Egypt is 
possessed by Moors whom we call Funchos and the Abyssinians, Balloos " 
(D' Almeida, Historia de Ethiopia, ed. Beccari, I. i. p. 10). The Chronicles 
of Susneyos also treat them as identical but much oftener use the name 
Funj (4-">j^O- Their habitat is described both by D' Almeida and indi- 
cated by the Chronicles as being not only around Sennar but also in 
the north in the province of Holcait (Halqayt), the former calling them 
" Cafres muito baixas e quents," and says they are called Ballous inland 
and Funchos on the coast of Suakim. These Balaw can be traced back 
some 600 years as the chief tribe of the Beni Amer. According to Makrizi, 
who calls them Baly, they belong to the Beni Hilal tribe, who were immi- 
grants into Africa, having been driven out of Nejd on account of their 
brigandage and depredations. They, however, gave themselves Abbas as 
their ancestor, and so long and unchallenged was their position that their 



[532] 

name Belawi became synonymous with "Lord " or " Chief." It is probable 
that members of this tribe settled among the Fungs constituted themselves 
rulers, and their relations the aristocracy of the population. This over- 
lordship of the Balaw in the Sennar region, to which the later dynasty 
coming in at the head of the Shilluk succeeded, was recognised as late as 
1853 by the investment of a symbol in the shape of a three-cornered brown 
silk hat presented by the Fung king to the "DegleF' (Tigre word for chief) 
of the Habab, Beni Amer, and Balaw Nebtah. 

The following is the list of kings of Sennar according to the MSS. 
History of Nuba (Arab. MSS. British Museum No. 2345) : 

Omarah Downqas 1504-1533. 

Abd el Qadir 1533-1543. 

Nayl 1543-1554. 

Omarah abu Sakikim 1554-1562. 

Dukyn son of Nayl 1562-1577. 

Tabl 1577-1588. 

Awnsah 1588-1604. 

Adalan son of Ayat 1604-1611. 

Bady Sayd el Kawan 1611-1614. 

Ribat 1614-1642. 

Bady abu Dakan 1642-1677. 

Awnas son of Nasir 1677-1688. 

Bady el Ahmar 1688-1715. A pretender to the throne called Awkal. 
is set up in opposition and defeated. 

Awnsah 1715-1717. End of Fung dynasty. 

Nawl 1717-1722. Put on the throne by a revolutionary movement in 
place of former king " Related to the Royal Line on the Female side " 
(History of Nuba, f. 9r.). 

Bady abu Shilluk 1722-1761. Defeated the 100,000 troops of King 
lyasu of Abyssinia 1744. Deposed and replaced by 

Nawl 1761-1768. Deposed, and there was elected Isma'el son of King 
Bady 1768-1775, deposed. 

Adalan II 1768-1788. Anarchy succeeded "and no one of their kings 
was able to enforce his authority " (Ibid., f. 15 v.). 

Awkal ' 

Tabl 

Bady 1*88-1789. 

Rabat 

Nawar 1789, put to death by Sheikh Nasir. 

Bady -son of Tabl 1789. A youth too young to control the brothers 



[533] 

Sheikh Adeliin and Sheikh Idrys who held the country in their power 
1799-1822. "There were four kings at one and the same time" (History of 
Nuba, f. 16 v.). King Ranfy and Sheikh Kamtur elect Mohammad, son of 
Rajab, Sheikh. Then ensued a general struggle ending in Bady being 
restored (he had been deposed by Sheikh Idrys) in 1803. Bady finally made 
his submission to Isma'el Pasha in 1820. 

The fighting between King Bady abu Shilluk and the Abyssinian King 
lyasu II, dated 1744 and described in the History of Nuba as an over- 
whelming victory for the Muhammedans over an army of 100,000 Habish, 
is thus presented in the Ge'ez Chronicle of lyasu (Ethiopic MSS. Bodley's 
No. 32, f. 112 r.): "The Negus held a council of war with his generals, 
having first forbidden horns to be blown or fires lit to avoid giving the 
alarm to the enemy, and arrayed his army, according to the tactics of his 
fathers; and that wisdom in plan, strengthened his power and fired his 
courage so that it would destroy the enemy as the face of fire destroys 
straw or wind sweeps away the dust. On the feast of our Lady Mary they 
came across six of the Balaw in search of honey, and they killed three ; and 
the next day they came to the land of Asib (south), and then he sent to 
the troops in their lines, and numbers to engage with the enemies of the 
Negus. They fought for four days and there was no numbering the fallen." 
Then a list of exploits by individual warriors is given and finally the human 
trophies are laid before the king, who rejoices with chants and music over 
the victory. This is the other side of the glorious victory claimed by the Mu- 
hammedans. The date as given by the Abyssinian account is February 1743. 
( Vide Bruce, Vol. vi. Ch. 8 and 9. Caillaud, Voyage a Meroe, n. p. 259 et seqq., 
273 et seqq. Tremaux, Le Soudan, p. 190. H. C. Jackson, Tooth of Fire.) 

APPENDIX L. 

HYMNS AND CHANTS (Qene, 4i)> p. 284, f. 475 b. 

The Abyssinian Church, like the other Oriental churches, possesses a 
large number of different kinds of sacred hymns and chants ; some (malke) 
are recited regularly on the feasts of saints, others (Tabiba) do not form 
part of the regular divine office but are only recited by the monks ; others 
again (Mahbara Memanan) are recited during the Mass at the moment of 
Communion in the provincial churches where they do not read the Matshafa 
Kidan (the scriptures). The system of versification does not consist of a 
fixed number of syllables but a certain amount of uniformity is obtained 
by singing the long verses faster and the short ones more slowly, a pause 
in the middle divides each verse. 



[534] 

These hymns (Qene) are classified according to their various lengths as 
follows : 

1. The 1f\h,t2"t*, Geba'e Qana, has two verses. 

2. The H Jt94tl.f ' Amlakiya, so-called because it accompanies psalm 63 
(M4tl.P " O God, thou art my God "), has three verses. 

3. The "IflTPV-t Mibazkhu, so-called because it accompanies psalm 3 
(" Lord how are they increased that trouble me "), has three verses. 

4. The 'PH. ? : Wazema, has five verses. It is so-called because these 
are the words <PH.V: ( = *P!lt <I 7:)> with which a certain strophe of the 
collection of hymns called the Deggua begins, and serve for a model for 
the singing of the other strophes. 

5. The /**Aft : Sellase, has six verses. This was the species of Qene of 
which we have an example on p. 284, f. 475 b. 

6. The HCjTilf, : Zay'eze, so-called because it accompanies the verse 
I'.hll. ^tldC* " Now lettest thou thy servant depart," etc. (Luke ii. 29), has 
five verses. 

7. The fwti)ff'[\ : Ma wades, has eight verses. A division of this class 
called r/nfi) ft : Htf" Ah<fl>- which accompanies psalm 49, " Hear this all ye 
people," etc. has nine verses. Another called ^T*CsW"Aho-: has two 
verses. 

8. The &*P*C*'PH.' I 7 ! Acher wazema, has two verses. 

9. The tHlC* J&ft'fc! Keber y'eti, so-called because it accompanies the 
second half of verse 9, psalm 149. 

10. The d"llsT > 'lC 'Etana Mogar, of which there are three divisions, 
() ibJft*Vt which has two verses; (b) In Ge'ez mode, which has seven 
verses ; (c) In 'Ezl mode, which has eleven verses. 

The order of the Divine Office and the psalms and hymns of the days of 
the year are embodied in a collection called the Deggua, which is in course 
of publication. Vide I. Guidi, Rendiconti della R. Accademia del Lined, 
Classe di scienze morali, etc., August 1900. 

P. 415, f. 547 b. This song or Qene may be thus transcribed to show 
the system of rhyming : 

Laha 'ema nagafu Da wit negus wa Bersabeh email i khedilta 'emuntu 

bahemama waldomu wekhedw, 
Ksnm hallawomu kale'a yelodw ; 
Nehnasa 'inengel lahewo la-Kliayla Miksi'el 
Zeya Bahra ema na 'adu 
Wasamaya kaha ema nanqa 'adn 
Zamadna buhtitu ;\\\mln. 



[535] 

APPENDIX M. 

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

Abay, Abawi (derived by Abyssinians from ab, father, abawi, ancestral ; cp. 
Mississippi, the father of waters), or Abyssinian portion of the Blue Nile, 
rises in the Mountains (Daguja) of Gojam and flowing north through 
L. Tsana by a wide sweep, embracing the province of Gojam, flows 
west into the Sudan. It is first mentioned in the History of Ba'eda 
Maryam( 1468-1 478). Perruchon, p. 158. 

Addababay, an affluent of the Abay in Shoa, from the east. 

Adwa or 'adwa, capital of Tigre, ad (tribe) -avd = Ave of Nonnosus = au m 
of the Sabaean inscription (vide Bent, Sacred City of the Ethiopians, 
p. 134; Glaser, Abessinier in Arabien u. Afrika, p. 11). 

Afarawanat, district in Amhara, south-east of Tsana. 

Amadbar. Basset, Etudes sur I'Histoire, etc., p. 37. 

Amba Mary am, village of Begameder, east of Tsana. 

Ambasa gama, a district in Achafar. The name means lion's mane 
(C. Rossini, Nuovo codice, etc., pp. 20, 25; Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), 
ch. 33, p. 80). 

Ambasal, Ambasal, and Amba Sa'al, in the province of Amhara near R. 
Mille, a flat-topped mountain with several jagged peaks. This with 
Legot, Geshen, Gosha Magdala, etc., is one of the very strong natural 
fortresses of the country. They are described by d' Almeida (Historia, 
etc., ed. Beccari, 1. ix. p. 92) : "Fortalezas feitas pelo autor da natureza, 
e como obras de tal mestre muito avantajadas as mais fortes que a arte 
huniana soube e pode fabricar." 

Antalo, district and town in Enderta in province of Tigre. 

Aringo. Basset, Hist. d'Ethiopie, pp. 32-35, etc. 

Ashawa. Basset, loc. cit., p. 70. 

Axum (Mlfa9: Aksum). The oldest city of the Habashat or Ge'ez 
immigrants into Abyssinia, called in the Periplus Maris Erythraeae 
(written ca. 60-67 A.D.) ^rpoTroXt? rwv Avgov/jurwv, 'A^cofjuj by Ptolemy, 
'A</Af<? by Cosmas (6th century), is situated in Tigre, lat. 14 7', long. 
38 40' E. It is the sacred city of the Abyssinians, where the kings for 
centuries have been solemnly crowned, and contains the famous 
inscriptions in Minaeo-Sabaean and Ge'ez script of the 4th and 5th 
centuries, as well as the oldest church in which, according to tradition 
of the Kebra Nagast, the Tabot or altar stone was deposited when 
brought from Jerusalem by the son of the Queen of Sheba by Solomon, 



[536] 

variously known as Bayna Lehkem, Ibna elhakem, Meneylek. Tlie old 
church was destroyed by Gran about 1540 and a new church was built 
on the foundation by the Portuguese soon after (Bent, Sacred City 
of the Ethiopians, pp. 163-165; Alvarez, Verdadeira information das 
terras do Preste Joam, cap. 36; d' Almeida, Historia de Ethiopia., 
1. 1 ; D. H. Miiller, Epigraphische Denkmitter am Abessinien, p. 19). 

The native legend of Aksum is contained in the Book of Aksum. 
(Liber Axumae, by C. C. Rossini, Cod. Eryth. A. 97, in the Cm-pus 
Script. Christ. Orient., Scriptures Aethiopici, t. vni.) F. 90 a. "The 
town was built at Mazeber, where the tomb was found of Ityopis, son 
of Kuesa, son of Kam. It remained there long ; Makeda (the Queen 
who visited Solomon and whose son was the ancestor of the Abyssinian 
line of Solomon) made changes and built the city in the territory of 
'Aseba (var. Asia) ; by reason of this the Book calls her Queen of Sabfi, 
and calls her still Queen of 'Azeb (= of the South). For the third time 
the city was built by Abreha and Atsbeha, where is to be seen this 
sanctuary, the cathedral of Aksum." (Other MSS. are no. 225 ColL 
d'Abbadie, and no. 26 Bodley's, Oxford.) 

For inscriptions and early history, vide Sabaische Derikmaler by 
Dr J. H. Mordtmann and Dr D. H. Miiller ; Abessinier, by Glaser ; 
and the works of A. Dillmann, especially Zur Geschichte des Axumiti- 
schen Reiches in Zeitschrift d. Deutsch. Morgenldnd. GeseJlschaft, 
Bd. vn. p. 341 ; History of Pero Paez, lib. 1, cap. v. p. 62 in Corpus 
Scfriptorum Orient., ed. Beccari ; Bent's Sacred City of the Ethiopians : 
E. Littmann's D. Deutsche Aksum Expedition, and the older researches 
of Valentia and Salt (Voyages and Travels, Vol. in. p. 182, 1809 ; and 
Henry Salt's Voyages to Abyssinia, p. 411, 1814) ; Riippell, Reisen in 
Abessinien, etc. 

A /a/o, a village in the province of Dambaya, on the right bank of the R. 
Qaha, two hours' march from Gondar (Chron. Susneyos, Pereira, 
pp. 199, 534). In the time of d'Abbadie's expedition, 1845, the popula- 
tion was about 5000 (A. d'Abbadie, Gfodtsie d"Ethiopie, p. 273). 

Balasa, province of Amhara west of the Takazze, north of Begameder, 
south of Semen, bounded on west by mountains of Belesen. 

Barcha, a plain in the middle of Dambaya where King Za Dengel was 
defeated by his rebel subjects and slain, A.D. 1607 (Conti Rossini, Di 
un nuovo Codice della Cronaca etiopiva, p. 20). "His troops escaped 
on horseback but King Za Dengel fell off, because he did not know 
how to ride but only to sing hymns" (La Cronaca Abbreviata, Begui- 
not, p. 42). 



[537] 

Bashelo, an important river rising in the east of the central plateau, flows 
west and then south, joining the Abily about lat. 10 55'. 

Bechana, spelt Bejanii in Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), pp. 202 and 628, district 
in Amhara. 

Begameder, variously spelt Begameder (Chron. of Zara Ya'eqob), Bega- 
meder, Begemeder, Bagemder (Chron. of Susneyos). Land of the 
Bega = Be7 of the Adulis inscriptions, the Eovyelrat of the Greek 
inscription of Axum and the 'dpi (Bega), Arab, ^j and 3la*o 
(Makrizi, Hist. Egypt; Ibn Batutah, torn. I. pp. 110-11, ed. C. Defre- 
mery et Sanguinetti). This is more probable than P. Jeronymo Lobo's 
derivation from fl*7: bag sheep, i.e. "sheep country." Begameder is 
divided from Amhara by the river Bashilo, it lies north-east of Gojam 
and north of Shoa. 

Ber Amba, a hill-fort in Gojam. Ber river flows into Abay. 

Bera or Bra, a day's march from Darisa which is again a day's march from 
Wayna Daga, q.v. (Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 167). 

Bure, district of Agaw in Damot. 

Chachaho, district of Begameder. 

Chardequa, district of Amhara. 

Chat Weha, district distant a day's march from Chachaho (a village in 
Begameder), Chron. Susneyos, ch. 62, p. 63 (Pereira). It means the 
river Chat, Ar. Ol5, the plant used as a stimulant by chewing the leaves, 
Celastrus edulis (Paulitschke, Harar, p. 247 ' " Nach dem Geschmack 
und der Feinheit der Blatter unterscheidet man verschiedene Sorten 
Arus," Gambat, Taglcj und Walej, p. 247 ; Schweinfurt, Abyssinische 
Pflanzennamen, p. 58). 

Dabra Berhan, "Convent of Light," city and monastery in east Shoa, about 
20 miles from Ankober. 

Dabra Libanos. This famous monastery, formerly known as Dabra Asbo, 
is situated in the middle of Shoa, near the river Siga Wadiab, in a 
district of considerable fertility, and is the most venerated institution 
of its kind in the country. Its precincts have always been held inviolate 
as sanctuary. It has a round church founded by King Yeshaq (1414- 
1428) of the usual type and is surrounded by clusters of tokuls or 
cottages inhabited by monks. The tradition that the bones of the 
great Saint Takla Haymanot lie buried here enhanced its prestige 
and importance, and large grants of land were made to it by various 
rulers (Tellez, Historia Geral de Ethiopia, a Alta, liv. 1, ch. 35). In 
a wood to the south is a sacred spring of water supposed by tradition 
to have been brought underground by St Michael from Jordan. Its 
w. B. 68 



name was changed to Dabra Libanos by King Zara Ya'eqob who 
established a feast on the 29th of each month to celebrate his victory in 
1 1 1~> over the King of Adal, Sahab ad Din Ahmed Badlay (Chronique 
de Zara Ya'eqob, Perruchon, p. 90). 

Dagolil, near Semen, p. 318. 

Dambaya, district "bounded on East by Begameder, on South by Gojam, on 
West by Agaws of Achafer and Tangha. Lake Tsana, formerly called 
Dambaya, is in this region " (d' Almeida, Hist, de Ethiopia a alta, ed. 
Beccari, 1. 1, cap. HI. p. 13). 

Dfimot, a province lying within the southern bend of the Abay in the 
south of Gojam. It was one of the fields of the missionary activity of 
S. Takla Haymanot and the campaigns of that scourge of Abyssinia 
Ahmed ben Ibrahim, surnamed Gran or the "left-handed," who at the 
head of the Muslim armies of the king of Adal overran the country in 
1535-42, as described in the Futuh el Habesh and the Narrative of 
Castanhoso, commander of the Portuguese forces sent to assist the 
Abyssinians. In 1579 it was devastated by Galla tribes under Birmaje 
and again in 1586 by the Boran, who were defeated by Sartsa Dengel 
in 1595 (History of the Galla, trans. I. Guidi, ch. xiv. and Due fram- 
menti rclativi alia storia di Abissinia, I. Guidi, p. 15). 

Dara, district in province of Walaqa, east of Abay, and north of R. Jaminfu 

Darasge, small village south-west of Gondar. 

Dawent, village of Amhara. 

Deldey, the ancient bridge over the Abay at Alata, as it flows through a 
narrow gorge about 20 miles south of Lake Tsana. It consists of 
eight arches of irregular size, and is about 90 paces long and 15 feet 
in breadth. It is built at an angle, the three northern arches being 
inclined west (Rlippell, Reise, etc., vol. 11. p. 213), the earliest bridge 
of one arch under direction of the Portuguese Jesuits 1626. It was 
still described as of one arch by Bruce, Travels, vol. v. p. 104, ed. 1805. 

Dengel Bar, Dangelbar, village in Achafar (Basset, Histoire, etc., pp. 40, 55, 
57, etc.). 

Emkina or Makkina, mountain in Lasta near the sources of the Takazze. 

Enferaz, district in Begameder north-east of Lake Tsana. 

Este, a village of the Agaw of Anda Bet, on left bank of the Abay (Pereira, 
Chron. Swmyos, pp. 121, 446). 

Ffigta, village in Agawmeder near the Abay. 

Ferqa Bar. Ferqa is a mountain north-east of Tsana. There is a convent 
here founded by King Aruda Tseyon (1314-1344). 

<;;ifat. This is a tribe speaking one of the ground race languages of the 



[539] 

country, which gave their name to the mountainous district on the 
left bank of the southern sweep of the Abay. After the 16th century 
they were dispossessed by invading Galla and driven north into Gojam 
(d' Almeida, Historia, etc., vol. 1 ; Chron. Susneyos, ed. Pereira, 
p. 24). 

Gajge, a district of Sababa, on east of Lake Tsana. 

Galda, river between R. Gumara and the Abay (Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), 
ch. 58), flows into Lake Tsana. 

Ganat, "a river in the country of Wanaba" (Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), 
p. 174). 

Ganj (= Gonj and Guanj), Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 102, district of 
Gojam between R. Abay and Abya. 

Garagarii, district in Begameder. 

Gerarya, a district, centre of Shoa, mentioned in Hist, des guerres d'Amda 
Set/on, ed. Perruchon, p. 10. An account of Takla Haymanot, the great 
saint of Abyssinia, his life and death in a grotto called Asbo at Gerarya 
is given in the Life of Takla Haymanot in the Dabra Libanos docu- 
ment, chap. 102. It was at Asbo that the famous monastery Dabra 
Libanos was founded. 

Geshan, an amba or natural stronghold on right bank of R. Bashelo in 
Amhara. A description of this fort is given by Alvarez, Verdadeira 
information das terras do Preste Joam, chap. 58; and d' Almeida, 
Historia de Ethiopia, 1. 1, ch. vin. p. 30. Abyssinian tradition has it 
that as far back as the reign of Abram, a predecessor of Lalibala (i.e. in 
the beginning of llth century), this amba was used for interning the 
king's near relations, except the heir to the throne, generally as a 
precaution against rebellious ambitions and faction. See also Bruce, 
Travels, vol. in. p. 42, ed. 1805. 

Gugebe (= Gugeben = Guguben ?), mountain on east border of Lake Tsana 
(Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), ch. 58). 

Guna, an amba situated in Amhara, south of Dabra Tabor, lat. 11 43' 
(Rassam, Mission to Abyssinia, n. p. 159). 

Hamasen, large province in north of Tigre. 

Hayq, lake in province of Amhara, lat. 11 25', at an altitude of 1951 m. 
above the sea on the extreme east and below the plateau. It is 
calculated to be about 83 kilom. in circumference. In the north-east 
extremity and about 700 feet from the shore there is an island known 
by the name of Dabra Naguadguad, where there is a monastery dedi- 
cated to St Stephen. It was here that according to tradition the great 
Abyssinian Saint Abba Takla Haymanot took the monastic habit at 



[540] 

tin- hands of Abba lyasus Mo'a and resided there at frequent intervals. 
A village near by, principally populated by wives of the clergy, is called 
Dabra Maryam, no female thing, not even a hen, being by ancient law 
allowed to enter the precincts of the island. The church was destroyed 
by the redoubtable Gran in 1531 (A.H. 7024). (Futuh el Habesh, 
trans. d'Abbadie, p. 264 ; d' Almeida, Historia, etc., ed. Beccari, 1. iii. 
p. 264.) 

.Ian Meda, village in Faggera south-east of Dabra Tabar, about 25 miles 
east of Tsana. 

Jata, river in Amhara, affluent of River Bashilo the latter flows from 
north and joins (Blue Nile) Abay about lat. 10 50'. 

Jawi, district on right bank of River Didesa, which gave the name to a 
Galla tribe of Yahabata sept (Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 200). 

Kosoge, village north of Gondar and district of Dambaya, near River Argef. 
Name derived from Kosso (Kosso-ge, abounding in Kosso), the usual 
medicament for the prevalent internal worm is decocted from its leaves 
(Bray era ant/ielmintica). (Lejean, Voyage, etc., p. 37 ; Basset, Etudes 
sur Fhistoire d'fithiopie, note 98 ; E. Pereira, Susneyos, p. 275.) 

Lamelmo, a pass over the Semen mountain, 176 kilom. from Adawa and 
94 from Gondar. The mountain is 2988 m. The caravans between 
Tigre and Dambaya use this pass. 

Lastu, a mountainous region of Amhara west of Angot and east of Bega- 
ineder. 

Leguat = Legot, an ainbii in Amhara (Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), pp. 239 
and 582). 

Makhdara Maryam, a hamlet in Begameder, populated by a great many 
clergy. It has an old and venerated church, and the whole village was 
made a sanctuary (Combes et Tamisier, Voyage en Abyssinie, n. pp. 
90-95 ; Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 400). 

M a 1 1 < la 1; i . a precipitous mountain or natural fortress in Amhara on the east, 
where King Theodore committed suicide to avoid falling into the hands 
of the English army 1868. 

Maraba, district in Wagara. 

Mechti, province south of Abay, west of Shoa, inhabited by Gallas of 
Mecha. 

Meneycher, district in Amhara, 

Nafas Mawcha, village in Begameder, lat. 11 42'. 

Nagala. Basset, Hist. pp. 76, 92 ; Chron. Abbreviata, Beguinot, pp. 104, 120. 

(,)alia, seasonal river in Amhara near Gondar. 

Qaroda, mountainous district in Begaincder. 



[ 54i ] 

Qasat Ambala, place in Amhara (Chron. Stis. (Pereira), p. 203). 

Qoma, district in Begameder. 

Qualala, district in Gojam. In 1612 the Portuguese Jesuits made it their 

first residence and built a church there (d' Almeida, Hist, de Ethiopia 

a alta, trans. Beccari, 1. VI. pp. 237, 247, etc.). 

Quesquam, ^fl^lf : is the Ethiopic version of the Coptic KOCR*M, Arab. 
j>\**o. Kwc in Coptic signifies to embalm for burial, K^M, cane; 

according to Abu Salih, Kuskam means one who makes a coffin of cane 

for the poor. Koskam is the name of the site of an ancient church 

near the monastery of Al-Muharraka in the region of Monfalut in the 

province of Asyut in Egypt. There was a tradition among the Copts 

that Christ with Mary and S. Joseph took refuge here from Herod ; 

the first church built in Egypt was said to have been here. The Sin- 

kessar (Synaxarium Ethiopicum) commemorates the Flight into Egypt 

on the 2nd November (vide Church and Monasteries of Egypt, ed. 

Evets, p. 224, etc.; Quatremere, Memoires geographiques, etc., I. 

p. 189; Amelineau, Geographic de I'Egypte, 398; Ludolf, Comment. 

ad suam Hist. Aethiop., p. 397 ; Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 550). 
River Reh, rising near Mount Guna, traversing Begameder from east to 

west, flows into Lake Tsana about lat. 11 59' (Chron. Susneyos 

(Pereira), pp. 90 and 398). 
Sadda, village in province of Dambeya. 
Saga, in Hadeya. 
Saganat, an amba, a mountain stronghold in the mountainous region of 

Semen. 
Salawa, district of Tigre, bounded on north by River Arequa, on east by 

Abargele district and on south by River Samra. 
Samen, Semen, Se/^at, a mountainous region of Amhara east of Dambaya 

and Waldebba, and west of River Takazze. Inhabited by Gallas and 

Falasha (Jews) temp. d'Almeida (Historia, etc., ed. Beccari, 1. vn. ch. x. 

p. 413 ; Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 331 ; Bruce, Travels, etc., vol. in. 

p. 5). 

Sangolat = Sangola (Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 212), district in Shoa. 
Sankera, district of Sagaba on east of Lake Tsana. 
Sarbakusa, Sarbakuesa, village in Dambaya south-east of Sada (Chron. 

Sus. (Pereira), p. 137). 
Shawada, district of Semen bounded on south by River Shera and on east 

by River Ambekayna. 
Takazze, an important river rising in province of Augot in a place called 

ain Takazze (spring of the Takazze) at an altitude of 3200 in. It is 



[542] 

the 'Milt. or "HlH. of the Ge'ez inscription at Axum (RUppell, n.; 
Bent, Sacred Cities, etc., iv.). Takazze in Ge'ez means "river." 

Tarasamba. Basset, Histoire etc., pp. 69, 76. 

Toloma (Tulama in Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), pp. 31 and 629), a tribe of 
the Galla, 

Tsada, district a day's march from Gondar, in province of Dambaya. 

Tsagade, a mountainous province of Tigre bounded on north-east by 
Waldebba, north-west by Walqayt (RUppell, Reise, etc., n. p. 151; 
Lefebvre, Voyage en Abyssinie, in. p. 61 ; Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), 
p. 128). 

Tsana, or Tana, The famous lake in Abyssinia through which the Abay or 
Blue Nile passes before it turns west to the Sudan. It is 1860 m. above 
sea-level and covers 2980 sq. kilometres ; and according to Stecker the 
greatest depth is in the south, 72 m. (Dupuis). It was called in Ge'ez 
t\th6'- V* in Amharic COJid: rnV-' Barcena by Joao de Barros (Dos 
feitos quefizeram os Portugueses, Dec. in. liv. iv. cap. i.), who identifies 
it with Ko\6r) \ifjivr) of Ptolemy. It was also called, formerly, sea of 
Dambaya (Tellez, Historia geral, etc., liv. I. cap. vi.). It is said to 
have 45 inhabited islands, Daq being the most famous (d'Almeida, 
Historia de Ethiopia a alta, ed. Beccari, 1. 1.). 

Tsenjana, district in Begameder, famous for its pasture and horses. 

Wadela, district of Begameder bounded on north by the Takazze, on south 
by River Chachaho (Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 189). 

Wag, district of Tigre bounded on south by mountains of Lasta, on east 
and north by River Tallare, on west by River Takazze. 

Wagara, district south-east of Walqayt and Segade south of Tigre, south- 
west of Semen. 

Wakhni. Basset, Hist. p. 33, etc. Mountain and district in Begameder. 
(Bruce calls it Wakhne, vol. vn. p. 62, ed. 1805.) 

Walaqa, district in Amhara. Walaqa is also a province west of the Didesa 
on the borders of the Sudan. 

Waldebba, district of Tigre near River Zarema, in an unhealthy and 
feverish country. There are numerous monasteries and monks, who 
retire there for a life of penitence and prayer. It is a resort of the 
great ones, and, as in the case of Takla Giyorgis, even of kings, when 
they fell from power, or wished to retire into private life. Owing to 
their great prestige and the reputation for working miracles they 
acted as a powerful force in any political disturbances (Bruce, Voyage 
to discover, etc., Vol. iv. p. 367, ed. 1805 ; Chron. Susnei/os (Pereira), 
p. 405). It is not mentioned by d' Almeida. 



[ 543 ] 

Walqayt, district in Amhara north-east of Waldebba, south-east of Kunama 
river running into the Setit. 

Warnbarya, a district on extreme west of Gojam, bounded on west by Blue 
Nile and the present Sudan frontier at Fazokl. 

Wanaba, district in Gojam near River Gaunat. 

Warata'e, tribe of Galla of the Karayu sept (cp. Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), 
p. 210). 

Warq Weha and Debra Warq, river flowing into Abay, and mountain in 
eastern part of Gojam. 

Wayna Daga, also Wayna Dag'a, district between Lake Tsana and district 
of Balasa; it means the intermediate altitude of land between the hot 
Qualla and high plateau, Daga. 

Wechale, a tribe of Galla. This name does not occur in the Zena Za 
Galla (Hist, of Galla written towards end of 1500). They were men- 
tioned in the Chronica Ethiopica (ed. Basset) as having murdered 
Dajazmach Walda Hawaryat, husband of Princess Wangdawit in the 
14th year of the Emperor Susneyos and two years after as suffering 
severe defeat at his hands (Chron. Susneyos (Pereira), p. 179 relates 
murder of D. Hawaryat as by Tuluma Galla). The Wechale may there- 
fore be an offshoot of this tribe who, according to Zena Za Galla, 
belonged to the Boran Galla which with the Baraytuma formed the 
two main divisions of the tribe at their first appearance in South 
Abyssinia. 

Yamalogue, river and district inhabited by Gafat (Chron. Susneyos 
(Pereira), p. 569). 

Yanaja, village in south-east Begameder in district of Wadla, north of 
River Jidda. 

Zhan Fagara, district west of Wagara and bounded by River Kolba 
and River Mana. Kola is its principal village (Riippell, Reise, n. 
p. 151). 

Zuramba, district in Amhara. 



CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED I1Y 

J. B. PEACE, M.A., 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



00: 05 

CO : HI 

00! I 

I 3 

IS 

\ rH 



H 

.9 

CO 

i 

cd > 

H 



.S 



H 
O 
H 

O- 










3 
^ 



q 

Q 

<ci 



University of Toronto 
Library 



DO NOT 

REMOVE 

THE 

CARD 

FROM 

THIS 

POCKET 




Acme Library Card Pocket 

Under Pat "Ref. Index FU" 
Made by LIBRARY BUREAU