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Full text of "The Royal North-west Mounted Police : a corps history"

The Late Right Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald, 
First Responsible Head of the Mounted Police Department. 




The Right Honourable Sir Wilfred Lalrier, 
The Present Responsible Head of the Department. 



THE FORCE LOSES A GOOD FRIEND IN SIR JOHN MACDONALD BUT GAINS ANOTHER IN 

SIR WILFRED LAURIER." 











The 






Royal North- West Mounted Police 






A CORPS HISTORY 






By 






Captain Ernest J. Chambers 






(Corps of Cuides) 






Author o( a Series o( Canadian Regimental Histories, etc., etc. 






Entered according to Act of _the Parliament of Canada in the year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Six 
by Ernett J . Chaml)ert at the Dejxirlmenl of Agriculture. 

THt MONTIMtR PRMS, MONTRCAL-OTTAWA 


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Osier, Hammond & Nanton 



Sfork Rrokers a^ ^^^^^' insurance, 



GENERAL FINANCIAL AGENTS 



Stocks bought and sold on New York, Toronto and Montreal Markets. 



Lands for Sale in the Provinces of Manitoba, 
Saslcatchewan and Alberta. 

Calgary and Edmonton Land Co., Alberta Railway and Irrigation Co., 
Ontario and Qu'Appelle Land Co., Winnipeg Western Land Corporation. 

Town sites on Edmonton & Calgary Railway 



Insurance, Fire and Marine. 

The Western Assurance Co., The Law Union and Crown Insurance Co. 



\ Loans, Money Lent at Lowest Current Rates. 

The North of Scotland Canadian Mortgage Co., The Law Union and 
Crown Insurance Co. (Investment Dept.) 



Fuel, Hard and Soft Coal. 

Gait Coal, American Hard Coal, Canadian Anthracite, etc. 
QUO TA TIONS A LL RAIL WA Y PO!N TS. 

OSLER, HAMMOND & NANTON, 

Comer Main and McDermott Streets WINNIPEG, MANITOBA 

♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦»♦»»»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE. 

PREFACE 4 

CHAPTER I. — A Big Problem for a Young Country. — The Necessity of Providing for the Pro- 
tection of Life and Property in the Great West during the Process of its Exploration and Settle- 
ment. — Some Notes on the Early History of Canada's Great North- West. — Colonel Robertson Ross' 
Reconnaissance of 1872 and his Report 5 

CHAPTER II. — Organization of the NorthWest Mounted Police. — How the Authority of the 
Dominion was Advanced Eight Hundred Miles Westward from Manitoba to the Foot Hills of 
the Rockies by the Big March of 1874 17 

CHAPTER III. — The First Winter in the Far West. — Hardships of the Pioneers of Fort Macleod. 
— The Illicit Whisky Trade Suppressed and Law and Order Established. — A Marvellous Change. — 
The First Detachment on the Saskatchewan. — Trouble with the St. Laurent Half-Breeds, — 
General Sir Selby Smyth's Inspection and Favourable Report 29 

CHAPTER IV. — Col. Macleod Commissioner. — The Development of the North-West Territories 
under Proper Protection. — Dealings with the Indians. — The Sun Dance. — The Big Treaty with 
the Blackfeet 38 

•CHAPTER V. — The Sitting Bull Incident. — Unwelcome Visitors from the United States Impose 

several years Hard Work and Grave Responsibilities. — Sitting Bull and the Custer Massacre .... 45 

CHAPTER VI. — Under Sir John Again. — The Mounted Police placed under the Department of the 
Interior. — Experimental Farming by the Force. — Lieut.-Col. A. G. Irvine succeeds Lieut.-Col. 
Macleod as Commissioner. — Difficulties with the Indians in the Southern Part of the Territories. — 
Tribes Induced to leave the Danger Zone near the International Frontier. — The Establishment 
of the Force Increased by Two Himdred Men 56 

CHAPTER VII. — Lord Lorne's Tour. — A Vice-Regal Escort which Travelled over Twelve Hundred 

Miles. — Some Notes of a Highly Significant Prairie Pilgrimage 67 

CHAPTER VIII. — Headquarters Removed to Regina. — The Usefulness of Fort Walsh Disappears, 
and the Post is Abandoned. — The Construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. — A Record in 
Track-Laying and an Equally Creditable Record in the Maintenance of Order. — p]xtra Duties 
Imposed upon the North-West Mounted Police 71 

CHAPTER IX.— The Rebellion of 1885.— The Uprising Predicted by Officers of the Force well 
in Advance of the Actual Appeal to Arms. — Irvine's Splendid March from Regina to Prince 
Albert. — The Fight at Duck Lake, and Abandonment of Fort Carlton. — Services of the Detach- 
ments at Prince Albert, Battleford and Fort Pitt and of those which Accompanied the Militia 
Columns throughout the Campaign 81 

CHAPTER X. — Increase of Strength and Duties. — The Establishment Raised to 1,000 Men. — 
L. W. Herchmer Commissioner, — More Vice-Regal Visits. — Extension of the Sphere of Opera- 
tions Northward to the Athabasca and Peace River Districts and into the Yukon. — The Fight 
to Suppress the Illicit Liquor Trade. — The Force Loses a Good Friend in Sir John Macdonald but 
gains another in Sir Wilfrid Laurier. — The "Almighty Voice" Tragedy. — Rapid Extension of 
the Yukon Duties 103 

CHAPTER XI. — Under the Present Commissioner. — Handsome and Useful Contributions of 
the North-West Mounted Police towards the Armies fighting the Battles of Empire in South 
Africa. — The Victoria Cross. — Great Extension of the Work of the Force in Yukon and the Far 
North. — The Memorable Visit of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, and the Con- 
ferring ujx)n the Force of the Distinction " Royal ". — The Earl of Minto Honorary Commissioner. — 
Vice-Regal Visits. — The Inauguration of the New Provinces. — The Hudson Bay Detachments. — 
Something about the Force as it is To-day and the Work it is Doing 124 

APPENDIX A 159 



-.^Kim'^.^^.m'^^. 



PREFACE 



ONE undertaking to write a history of such a redoubtable corps as the Royal 
North- West Mounted Police, a corps which .might be said to be constantly 
on strenuous active service, and consequently peculiarly prolific of stirring 
story, is tempted to dwell rather upon the dramatic and sensational incidents of the 
records of the force than upon the more matter of fact and historically valuable 
annals. 

I have tried to resist this temntation as far as possible, my desire being to pro- 
duce a volume of some sort of historical value — rather an authentic record of the 
origin, development and work of the force than a spicy collection of stirring adven- 
tures, more or less apocryphal in character. A few, comparatively a very few, 
thoroughly authenticated stirring incidents of the service of the force are related 
in the following pages, but no more than enough to intelligently illustrate the 
character of that service. 

The late Inspector Dickens upon one occasion informed me that he had for some 
time been collecting, with a view to their publication, a number of the well-authen- 
ticated stories of daring and adventure within the force, and it is greatly to be regretted 
that his intention was never put into execution, for what a stirring volume might 
have been added to Canadian literature. 

As to the present modest volume, the record of the Royal North- West Mounted 
Police is so largely the history of Western Canada that the preservation in some sort 
of an endurable form accessible to the reading and writing public, of the annals 
of the force seemed an actual necessity, particularly with the control of the force 
undergoing a change as at present. 

Every care has been taken to secure accuracy of fact, and I must especially 
express my thanks to Lieutenant-Colonel Fred. White, the Comptroller, for his 
courtesy in assisting me greatly, not only with personal information, but by placing 
documents and photographs in his possession at my disposition. I feel that grateful 
acknowledgements are also due to Assistant Commissioner J. H. McIUree, for assis- 
tance in securing many of the portraits used in the illustration of this work, and to 
Mr. D. A. McLaughlin, Chief Government Photographer, Ottawa, for a number of 
excellent illustrations procured from him. 

I have drawn to some extent, too, upon Dr. H. J. Morgan's volume, ''Canadian 
Men and Women of the Day," for some biographical information. It is rarely one 
produces a Canadian book of historical character without doing so. 

Having resided for some time in the North- West, having gone through the rebel- 
lion of 1885, including the chase after Big Bear, and having many friends among the 
officers and men of the Royal North- West Mounted Police, I have had the privilege of 
knowing something of the way the force does its work and of the excellent spirit per- 
vading all ranks, and I only hope this volume may do something towards perpetuating 
the record of the invaluable contribution towards Empire building in this Canada of 
ours, made by this truly admirable body of men. 



ERNEST J. CHAMBERS. 



The Senate, Ottawa. 
September 1, 1906. 




CHAPTER I 

A BIG PROBLEM FOR A YOUNG COUNTRY 



The Necessity of Providing Protection for Life and Property in the Great West during the 
Progress of the Country's Exploration and Settlement — Some Notes on the Early History 
OF Canada's Great North-West — Colonel Robertson-Ross' Reconnaissance of 1872 and his 
Report. 



IN 1872 the Dominion of Canada, as yet only five 
years old, was face to face with a momentous 
proposition. 
How was the infant country, weak in population and 
financial resources, to provide for the exploration, 
opening up and settlement of the vast region of 2,300.- 
000 srjuare miles — a continent in itself — acquired by 
the Dominion in virtue of "The Rupert's Land Act" 
passed by the Imperial Parliament in 1868? 

The United States had had to pour out, and was 
still pouring out, at that date, human life and money 
with a prodigal hand to open up the new territories to 
the South of the infant Dominion's recently acquired 
western Empire, and the end had not yet been accom- 
plished (1). With her infinitely more restricted imme- 
diate resources in men and money Canada could not 
face the same expenditures. 

The total revenue of the Dominion in 1872 was only 
$20,714,813. 



(1) In the U. H. CofiKremional Reconlx there ix a re|M>rt of onKasoinents 
with hoRtile IndiniiM within the military ilivimon of the Minaouri from 1K('>K to 
1882. In the recapitulation it ii* nhown that "more than 1 ,00<) officerH an<l 
•oliiiem were kille<l or wouncie<l" in the Indian fiithtinx of that |>cri(Kl. Four 
huniiretl battle* and nkirmivhe* were foUKht with Indiana in the fourteen 
yearn. 

Between 1862 and 1868 no le»w than 8<K) ncttlcrK were murdered in the 
MMlth-weat by the Cheyenne*. Arapahoe* and Comanrhe*. 

DurinK the tint week of the big .Sioux War which began in 1862 and 
which coMt the U. H. Government between $I5,000.(MH) and t20.000.000, 
over 700 white* ()eri*hRd throuKhout the western frontier of Minnennta and 
adjacent di*tricl» of Iowa and Dakota. an<i more than 200 were made cap- 
tive*, a condition often wone tliaii death. 



At that very time the United States was spending at 
the rate of $20,000,000 a year upon its western Indians 
alone, and naturally enough similar complications with 
the Indians in the Canadian west as those which had 
occurred in the United States, drenching the camps and 
trails of the pioneer settlers with blood, and necessita- 
ting the frequent despatch of costly military expeditions, 
were feared even by those not usually timid. There 
were powerful and ferocious tribes of Indians in the 
new region — the Crees and Blackfeet for instance — it 
was well known, but just how many was a matter of 
dispute, for the knowledge of the new country was very 
meagre, based upon the unverified tales of the half- 
breed trapper and the fur trader. There was even great 
uncertainty as to the actual extent and main physical 
features of the country. There were great rivers and 
lakes and considerable mountain ridges which had 
never even been heard of, and such great streams as the 



Mr. Donaldson, a United States fJovcrnmcnt census ancnf, has shown 
by actual records that l>etween July4, 1770 and .June. 30, INSOthc Inilians had 
co«t the Unite<l States (Jovernment S0i0,2.'i0. 284.02. It was further shown 
that only ime-third of this amount ($2.'V2,0(K).(HN!..'i4) had been spent on 
pacifj'imi anil civilizinK Indians, two-thirds (S(l9r)„'{.'i0, 277.68) had been 
nbsorlMMi in finhtinK them. In .March. 1882 the U.S. .Senate called on the 
.Secretary of War for the cost of the Indian wars for the perio'! I872--I882. 
The report showe<l that it amounte<l to no less a sum than S202.004,.50(l. 

It is not to l)e wondered at that one Unile<l States officer. General Har- 
vey, once *|>cakinit of the cost of the fre<|uenl Indian wars, remarked: — "It 
would l>c better a* a matter of economy, to board unil IihIkc the Indians at 
the Fifth Avenue Hotel, than to tight them." 



Saskatchewan, Bow, Qu'Appelle and Belly Rivers 
were incorrectly sketched upon the crude maps. (2) 

Among so much that was uncertain as to the new 
region there was this much known positively: — The 
Dominion had undertaken to govern the Great North- 
West, and by a solemn covenant entered into with the 
Province of British Columbia, had pledged itself to lay 
down across the vast unexplored stretches of forest, 
prairie, flood and mountain, a railroad connecting the 
old British colonies on the Pacific coast with the original 
provinces of Canada. 

Up to 1866 Vancouver Island and the mainland of 
British Columbia, formerly called New Caledonia, were 
separate colonies, but in the year named they were 
united under the name of British Columbia. July 20, 
1871 British Columbia became a province of the Do- 
minion of Canada on the specific understanding that 
within two years work would be begun upon a railway 
to connect the province with eastern Canada. The 
very day that British Columbia entered Confederation, 
parties of engineers entrusted with the preliminary 
surveys for the new railway, left Victoria to work east- 
ward, and others started from the Upper Ottawa to 
work westward. 

It was obvious that to ensure the safe construction 
and operation of this trans-continental railway, no less 
than to provide for the security of the settlers who 
were already beginning to filter into the wilderness, 
some powerful and efficient instrument would have to 
be provided for the assertion of the national authority 
and the enforcement of the law. 

Such an instrument was created in the North-West 

(2) It was less than twenty years since the first systematic attempt to 
explore the western part of the continent had been made. Itwas not until after 
1853 that the western half of what is now the United States was thoroughly 
explored, in the year named the United States Secretary of War being 
authorized by the President to employ engineers to ascertain the best route 
for a railway to connect the Mississippi with the Pacific coast. The first 
reports of these engineers were decidedly discouraging. 

The British Government in 1857 despatched an exploring expedition 
under Captain Palliser to explore the vast unknown territory of British 
North America west of Lake Superior, with special instructions to attempt 
to locate a practicable horse route on British Territory for connecting Eastern 
Canada with British Columbia. The explorations of this expedition ex- 
tended over four years, and although the quest for a trans-continental wag- 
gon trail, owing to the restrictive instructions issued, was unfruitful, the 
results were important, demonstrating that there was an immense land re- 
serve in the western part of British North America, capable of being put to 
the use of man. 

In 1859 the Edinburgh Review ridiculed the idea of forming the Red 
River and Saskatchewan country into a Crown Colony, denounced it in fact, 
as a wild and wicked notion, declaring that hailstones, Indians, frosts, early 
and late, want of wood and water, rocks, bogs, etc., made settlement im- 
possible. 

One has but to read Dr. Grant's interesting volume "Ocean to Ocean" 
to realize what absolute ignorance there was as to the Great North-West in 
1872, not in what is generally regarded as the East merely, but in Manitoba 
as well. Thus the learned annalist speaks ot meeting while at Fort Garry, 
and on the same day. Archbishop Tache. and Mr. Taylor, the United States 
Consul. He writes that to hear the Consul and the Archbishop speak about 
the fertile belt was almost like hearing counsel for and against it. "The 
Consul believes that the world without the Saskatchewan would be but a 
poor affair; the Archbishop that the fertile belt must have been so called 
because it is not fertile." 



Mounted Police, a body which has earned for itself 
during the thirty-three years of its existence an im- 
portant and highly honourable place in the annals of 
Canada. 

Before proceeding with the relation of the facts con- 
nected with the organization of this splendid force and 
with its services to the country and the Empire, it is 
probably better, for the purpose of indicating the exact 
conditions prevailing in the North-West in 1873, the 
year the force was organized, to briefly trace the history 
of the country up to that time. 

The original means of communication between the 
Great North-West and Europe was via Hudson Bay, and 
for a very long period that was the only trade route 
between our great west and Britain. The British flag, 
it might be remarked, was the first European ensign to 
fly over any part of that vast domain, and it held un- 
disputed sway over the shores of Hudson Bay and the 
region to the south and west of it for many years before 
the last of the lily-emblazoned flags of France in the 
valley of the St. Lawrence was replaced by the Union 
Jack. English trading posts had been established on 
Hudson Bay and Straits, and English trading influences 
felt throughout a considerable portion of region which 
now forms part of the Dominion's North-West and 
North-East territories within forty years of the founding 
of Ville Marie (now Montreal) by de Maisonneuve. A 
keen conflict was for a number of years maintained 
between the French and the English for the possession 
of these remote territories, and the trading forts suc- 
cessively changed hands as fortune happened to favour 
the one or the other. 

A British expedition, under Sebastian Cabot, in 1517 
discovered Hudson Strait. In 1576-1577 Martin 
Frobisher made his voyages of discovery to the Arctic 
regions of Canada. In 1585 John Davis discovered 
Davis Straits, and the two following years visited the 
seas to the north of Canada. In 1610 Henry Hudson, 
in command of another English expedition, discovered 
and explored Hudson Bay and James Bay, and win- 
tered on the shores of the latter. Hudson, being de- 
serted there by his mutinous crew, another English 
expedition under Captain Thomas Britton proceeded 
to James Bay in 1612 to effect his relief, but failed. In 
1613, two distinct English expeditions, one under 
Captain Fox, the other under Captain James, both, as 
had been the case with Hudson, despatched in quest of 
a north-west passage to the Far East, explored both 
Hudson Bay and James Bay. In 1670, King Charles 
II, of England, granted to Prince Rupert the charter 
to trade in and about Hudson Bay and Straits, in 
virtue of which the Hudson Bay Company was organ- 
ized. A governor and establishment were sent out 
from England, and two forts or trading posts estab- 



6 



lished. The main object of the company was to 
engage in the fur trade, but its charter authorized it to 
conduct explorations. 

In 1672 the French Jesuit priest, Father Albanel, 
inspired by that zeal for the spread of the Gospel of 
Christ among the heathen Indians, which led so many 
devoted French priests, in that brave era, throughout 
daring trips of explorations, and in many cases, alas! 
to glorious martyrdom, performed the feat of making 
the passage overland from Montreal to Hudson Bay, 
and took formal possession of the land in the name of 
the King of France, although the English had already 
established themselves there. 

If the officials of the Hudson Bay Company heard of 
the good priest's visit and patriotic act, it does not 
appear to have concerned them, for the year 1686 the 
company had no less than five trading posts in opera- 
tion round the shores of Hudson and James Bays. They 
were designated the Albany, the Moose, the Rupert, 
the Nelson and the Seven Factories. In the year last 
named one of these English posts was overwhelmed 
with disaster. The activity of the English traders in 
the then far north-west was interfering with the fur 
trade of the St. Lawrence, and an expedition under 
Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, was organized in 
New France to proceed to Hudson Bay and destroy 
Moose Factory. The commission was thoroughly 
executed, and, in subsequent expeditions, between 
1686 and 1697, d'Iberville captured five more posts of 
the company, and destroyed many of its vessels; but 
the Hudson Bay Company was not destroyed nor de- 
terred from its purpose. In 1696 d'Iberville returned 
to France, and under the treaty of Ryswick, passed 
that year, there was a mutual restoration of places 
taken during the war. By the treaty of Utrecht, 1713, 
Hudson Bay,, and adjacent territory was definitely 
and finally ceded to Britain, fifty-seven years before 
the Laurentian colony of New France. 

There was destined to be many years' dispute as to 
exactly what comprised the Hudson Bay territory, or 
Prince Rupert's Land. The original charter com- 
prised the country drained into Hudson Bay and Hud- 
son Straits, but the company's voyageurs and trappers 
travelled over great areas to the west and south of 
those limits, and established forts or trading posts 
therein. Rival English fur traders disputed the 
monopoly of the company, even to the coast irade of 
Hud.son and James Bays, but the Company generally 
succeeded in driving them out and destroying their 
establishments. 

The French, too, with their wonderful genius for 
inland discovery, penetrated from the distant St. Law- 
rence settlements to the great prairie region to the 
south and west of Hudson Bay. In 1732, two Montreal 



traders, de la Verandrye and du Luth (after whom the 
city of Duluth is named) , built a fort on the Lake of the 
Woods, and before the conquest of New France was 
completed, enterprising French pioneers had established 
trading posts on Lake Winnipeg. Lake Manitoba, Cedar 
Lake, and on the Saskatchewan. 

For a time after the conquest, the French fur traders 
appear to have practically withdrawn from the vast 
region west of the great lakes, and the Hudson Bay 
Company enjoyed full possession of the far western 
fur trade. Then rival concerns returned to the big 
company's sphere of operations. The most important 
of these was the North- West Company, organized on a 
co-operative system at Montreal, 1783. Its promoters 
were Scotch and Frc;nch, and as it was a Canadian 
company and operated over the same route as the 
former fur trade of New France, it attracted to its 
support the hardy voyageurs and " coureurs des bois " 
who had diverted so large a share of the western fur 
trade to the St. Lawrence route during the French 
regime. To them the Hudson Bay Company was an 
hereditary enemy, and they entered upon the work of 
opposition with great zeal. Rivalry of the keenest 
kind prevailed between the two companies, and pitched 
battles and bloodshed were the result. The Hudson 
Bay Company claimed the whole of the present north- 
west, including Manitoba, by reason of its charter and 
alleged prior occupation. The North-West Company, 
as a Canadian concern, on the other hand, claimed the 
right to trade in the prairie region on the ground that 
it had not only been discovered by parties sent out 
from Canada during the French regime, but had, up to 
the time of the conquest, been occupied by Canadian 
traders or their agents, and was consequently a part of 
the Canada of New France which was ceded to Britain 
by the Capitulation of Montreal, and not rightly a part 
of the Hudson Bay Territory. 

In 1811 and 1812 the Earl of Selkirk, having ac- 
quired a controlling interest in the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany, decided to form a settlement, and sent a number 
of settlers out from Scotland to locate upon lands on 
the Red River. This was the first serious attempt at 
settlement in what is now the great province of Mani- 
toba. The North-West Company, whose employees 
up to this time had practically monopolized the trade 
of the Red River Valley, soon came into violent conflict 
with this settlement, and determined and dastardly 
measures were resorted to to accomplish the destruction 
of the settlements. Attempts to starve the settlers 
out by seizing their supplies en route from Hudson 
Bay failed, and so did efforts to arouse the Indians to 
accomplish the destruction of the settlement, and other 
efforts to bribe the settlers from their allegiance to the 
Hudson Bay Company. At length a party of North- 



West Company men entered Fort Douglas, the head- 
quarters of the settlement, and carried off the guns 
and means of defence. This caused somewhat of a 
stampede among the settlers, and the raid upon the 
fort being in course of time succeeded by the arrest 
and transportation to Montreal of the Governor of the 
settlement, Miles Macdonell, the settlement was 
abandoned in June 1815, the year of Waterloo. Later 
in the same year, the main party of the Selkirk settlers, 
recruited by some new arrivals from Scotland, returned 
to the destroj^ed settlement and rebuilt their homes, 
fort and mill. The half-breed adherents of the North- 
West Company, who had been directly responsible for 
the previous disaster, again showing a disposition to 
create trouble, the Selkirk colonists suddenly fell upon 
their settlement and took their leader, Cameron, pris- 
oner, releasing him, however, on the promise of good 
behaviour. June 19, 1816, the colony was again sur- 
prised and raided by the North-West Company's half- 
breeds. Twenty-one of the Hudson Bay Company 
officials and adherents were killed and one wounded in 
this affair. Again the afflicted colonists were forced 
to take shelter in the Hudson Bay forts to the 
north. 

Meantime Lord Selkirk had arrived in Canada to 
endeavour to secure protection for his colony, but 
failed signally until he personally organized a mili- 
tary force. Upon the conclusion of the war of 1812- 
1814 with the United States, two Swiss auxiliary 
regiments in the British Service, the De Meuron and the 
Watteville regiments, were disbanded in Canada, and 
Selkirk engaged one hundred of their officers and men, 
clothed and armed them at his own expense, and with 
thirty canoe men started out via the great lakes for his 
settlement. It was June, 1817, before the expedition 
reached the site of the settlement, and the refugee 
settlers were recalled from Norway House on Lake 
Winnipeg. The Red River colony was re-established, 
but for many years longer had a painfully chequered 
existence. 

The troubles in the great North-West became a 
subject of discussion in the British House of Commons 
and of Parliamentary investigation, and finally, by 
Parliamentary mediation, an union of the interests of 
the Hudson Bay Company and the North-west Com- 
pany was accomplished, the united company taking 
the name of the Hudson Bay Company. The Govern- 
ment of the vast region now known as Manitoba and 
the North-West was vested in the company, whose 
officers were commissioned as justices of the peace. 
A special clause in the license granted to the recon- 
structed company, prohibited any interference with 
colonization. 

The troubles of the Selkirk settlers were not yet over. 



From ignorance of the country the settlement nearly 
suffered extermination from floods and famines. 

In 1835 the Hudson Bay Company purchased the 
rights of the Selkirk family to the Red River Colony^ 
and a sort of government was set up by the Company 
with a council (Council of Assiniboia) comprised of its 
servants. The colonists had no voice in the selection 
of the members, and the Company's governor and his 
council made the laws, interpreted them, and enforced 
them. Before many years the British genius for repre- 
sentative government asserted itself, and the British 
and Canadian parliaments were petitioned by the 
settlers to make them equal participators in the rights 
and liberties enjoyed by British subjects elsewhere. 

In 1857 this matter was discussed in the Canadian 
as well as the British Parliament, and the question 
of joining " Rupert's Land and the North -West 
Territory" to Canada made such progress that pro- 
vision was made in the British North America Act 
anticipating the admission of the territory into Con- 
federation. At the very first session of the Dominion 
Parliament the project took definite shape, and a series 
of resolutions were passed favouring the admission of the 
territories ruled by the Hudson Bay Company into 
Confederation. The Imperial Government having 
expressed its approval, negotiations were entered into 
with the Company, and in 1869, a formal deed of sur- 
render of the territories was executed, the Dominion 
Government agreeing to pay 300,000 pounds sterling 
to the Company for the relinquishment of its mono- 
poly and rights in the territory, the Company retaining 
its trading posts and one-twentieth of all the lands in 
the fertile belt. And so this vast territory, covering 
some 2,300,000 square miles became a part of the 
Dominion of Canada. 

The transfer of the country was marked by the 
Riel uprising of 1869, due chiefly to the objection of 
the French half-breeds, who were generally hunters, to 
the anticipated opening of the country to settlement, 
on a system foreign to their practice ; but due in some 
measure to intrigue by Fenian agitators and by citizens 
of the United States, who were desirous of seeing the 
Hudson Bay territory added to the Republic. 

The Red River expeditions under Col. (now Lord) 
Wolseley, in. 1870, effectively put a period to the upris- 
ing, and in 1870 the Red River settlement and ad- 
jacent territory was formed into the Province of Mani- 
toba, the first legislature being elected the following 
January. Shortly afterwards an Executive Council 
was named to assist the LieUt.-Governor of Manitoba 
in administering the affairs of the territories beyond 
the limits of the new province. 

The population of the Province of Manitoba in 1870 
according to the census was 1,565 whites, 578 Indians, 



5,757 French half-breeds and 4,083 English-speaking 
half-breeds. 

Immediately after taking possession of Fort Garry 
in 1870 Colonel Wolseley called upon Mr. Donald A. 
Smith, now Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, to act 
as the administrator of the provincial government 
pending the arrival of the Lieutenant-Governor. 
Things were in a very unsettled condition after the 
collapse of the inefficient Riel administration, and with 
many of the people of the settlement coming into the 
Fort, numerous acts of lawlessness were reported. 
To restore and maintain law and order, a mounted 
poHce force was organized under the command of 
Captain Villiers of the Quebec Battalion of Rifles. 
The organization of this force is historically interesting 
as it was the first police force to be organized in western 
Canada. 

The two provisional battalions of militia (rifles) which 
Wolseley took to Fort Garry in 1870 remained in the 
province for the winter, sufficient men being re-inlisted 
in the spring to form a small provisional battalion, 
which it was deemed wise to keep at Fort Garry as a 
Garrison after that. This battalion, in spite of the 
short terms of enlistment, was maintained in a very 
efficient state for several years, frequent drafts from 
Ontario and Quebec, and in 1873 from Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick, being sent to Manitoba to keep 
the ranks full. After the first year a battery of field 
artillery was incorporated in the battalion. This was 
the only military force maintained in the new west 
besides some companies of volunteer militia in Mani- 
toba. The calls for special duty were quite numerous, 
upon one occasion a detachment marching across the 
prairie to Lake Qu'Appelle upon the occasion of the 
negotiation of an Indian Treaty, upon another to the 
Lake of the Woods. This permanent force was in 
command of Major Acheson G. Irvine, who had gone 
out with Wolseley's expedition as second in command 
of the Quebec Rifles, and who subsequently rose to the 
command of the North-West Mounted Police. 

The necessity of maintaining this small force in the 
Red River settlement and the difficulty in forwarding 
drafts and supplies, had the result of hastening the 
work which the government undertook of improving 
the water and waggon route between Lake Superior 
and Fort Garry, and which from the name of the en- 
gineer placed in charge, is so well known historically 
as " The Dawson Route. " 

Colonel Wol.seley's force in 1870, in spite of the 
greatest efforts of officers and men, took nearly three 
months in coveriii<: tti( distance between Thunder Bay 
(I*rince Arthur's Landing) and Fort Garry, Thanks 
to the improvements effecte<l in the route, the trip in 
1872 (ould \)c done in three weeks. 



In effecting this improvement, roads had been cut 
and graded by the engineers, stream and lake channels 
roughly cleared of logs, stumps and boulders; por- 
tages improved, steamers placed upon some of the 
longer water stretches, stations in the charge of res- 
ponsible men established at the portages and other 
resting places, and so on. For the first forty-five miles 
from Lake Superior the route was entirely by land. 
Then succeeded a stretch of three hundred and eighty 
miles of lakes and rivers, and then another land stretch 
of one hundred and ten miles, or 530 miles in all. 

The co^npletion of this route resulted in an.,a;^feci- 
able influx of population. ' " 

In 1871 and 1872 attention was drawn in the Dom- 
inion parliament to evidences of restlessness among 
the Northwest Indians, and the advisability of taking 
effective means to deal with any possible uprising. The 
practice of the United States Indians, particularly the 
Sioux, of resorting for refuge to British territory, after 
their periodical uprisings and when hard pressed by 
the blue-coated armies sent against them, was con- 
sidered a most disquieting factor, and anxiety, niore- 
over, began to spread as a result of complaints made on 
behalf of various bands of Canadian Indians as to bad 
treatment by the officials of the government. 

In the House of Commons March 31st, 1873, Dr. 
John Schultz, M.P., in presenting a motion for copies 
of correspondence relating to the dissatisfaction pre- 
vailing among the Indians of Manitoba and the North- 
West in 1871 drew attention to the fact that the Im- 
perial Proclamation of July 15th, 1870, which added 
300,000 square miles to the area of the Dominion, 
pledged the country to the care and protection of 
68,000 Indians. He contrasted the state of peace pre- 
vailing in the new region with the state of war and 
bloodshed prevailing across the International frontier. 
But a spirit of restlessness was abroad among the 
Indians, and a more generous policy towards them 
on the part of the government was necessary. 

Mr. Cunningham, Member for Marquette, who 
followed Dr. Schultz, attributed the restlessness and 
discontent among the Indians to the then recent tran- 
sition in the government of the country. The Indian 
could not understand that Great Britain and Canada 
were identical. The Americans had a longing eye 
upon the North-West, and lost no opportunity of spread- 
ing discontent there. In fact, most of the trouble 
there was to be attributed to American highwines sold 
to the Indians by men calling themselves traders; and 
if Canada desired to retain possession of the country 
she would have to be prepared to spend money freely, 
and garrisons would have to be established and sus- 
tained throughout the Saskatchewan district. 

The Hon. Joseph Howe took exception to these 



9 



assertions. Did not the Hudson Bay Company, he 
asked, govern the country for years without the 
assistance of a single soldier, with the exception 
of one regiment for a short time when war with 
the United States was anticipated. (3) If Canada 
could not hold the North-West without garrisons scat- 
tered all over the country, she could not hold it at all. 




A Typical Group of North-West Indians in Gala Garb, 

(From a photogfraph by Mr. McLaughlin, Chief Photographer of the 
Public Works Department). 

They had 300 well-drilled men concentrated in the 
heart of the country ready to be dispatched to any 
part at any moment. It would be madness to divide 
them over the country until necessity required their 

(3) From 1846 to 1848 a wing of H. M. 6th Regiment of Foot was quar- 
tered at Red River; and for a number of years following, the colony was 
protected by a corps of enrolled pensioners. Lord Selkirk's detachment of 
disbanded Swiss did not remain in the colony, but emigrated to the more 
rapidly developing settlements on the Upper Mississippi. From 1857 to 
1861 a detachment of the Royal Canadian Rifles occupied Fort Garry during 
the excitement caused by the Sioux uprising across the Minnesota frontier. 
After the Sioux massacres in 1862 a number of the Sioux came across the 
line to Red River, but they were got rid of without serious trouble. 



presence at any particular point. There were 500 
men employed on the boundary survey, and they were 
strong enough to protect themselves and render assist- 
ance to persons settled in the neighbourhood. 

Sir John A. Macdonald, then Prime Minister of 
Canada remarked that it was the duty of the govern- 
ment to see that the frontier was protected, to see that 
there were no raids nor incursions or outrages by 
violent men from another country; and when settle- 
ment took place it would be their duty to see that a 
militia force was organized and that law was main- 
tained. That country had only been Canada's two 
years. There were at the moment 300 as fine men as 
could be found in any military force in the world up 
there, who were sufficient to prevent any Indian war. 

It was the intention of the government, however, dur- 
ing that very session, to ask the House for a moderate 
grant of money to organize a mounted police force, 
somewhat similar to the Irish mounted constabulary. 

They would have the advantage of military dis- 
cipline, would be armed in a simple bvit efficient way, 
would use the hardy horse of the country, and, by 
being police, would be a civil force, each member of 
which would be a police constable, and therefore a 
preventive officer. This force would be kept up to 
protect the frontier, to look after the customs and put 
down smuggling, and particularly the smuggling of 
ardent spirits, which tended to the utter demoraliza- 
tion of the Indian tribes. This force would also move 
in case of any threatened disturbance between Indian 
tribes or between Indian and white settlers. 

The difficulty of settling the territory was enhanced, 
he was afraid, by the insidious advice of single traders 
crossing the line. They were under no restraint, 
morally or otherwise. They considered they had a 
right to cross the line, and defraud the Indian of his 
furs in exchange for spirits, arms, ammunition, and 
other ware; and they often induced the Indians to 
make unreasonable demands on the government; but 
by firmness — by letting the Indians understand they 
would have fair compensation, and no more, he be- 
lieved these difficulties would be overcome. 

Numerous reports, some based upon truth, others 
without any foundation in fact found their way into 
the papers about fierce tribal fights among the western 
Indians. For instance April 9, 1871, the following 
appeared in the Ottawa "Free Press": — 

" Latest Saskatchewan advices bring intelligence of a 
fight between Cree and Blackfeet Indians, in which 
70 of the former were killed at long range by breech 
loading rifles, before they were able to come within 
fighting distance. The Crees were not aware that 
their hereditary foes had been furnished with so deadly 
a weapon. The rifles had been furnished by American 



10 



traders. A pity this trade cannot be stopped. No 
one knows how soon these rifles may be turned against 
our own people." 

About this time, all sorts of sensational stories began 
to gain currency in the United States as to the designs 
of American freebooters against the far western country. 
There were reports that imposing fortifications were 
being erected at strategical points, armed with artillery 
and manned with rapidly augmenting forces of western 
desperadoes of the worst class. These forts were re- 
presented as the centres of a large and prosperous 
traffic, particularly in bad whisky, and it was represented 
that the garrisons were not only fully determined, but 
quite prepared to resist, by force of arms, any attempt 
to assert the authority of the Canadian government in 
their neighbourhood. 

Although the most sensational of these stories which 
reached the east were much exaggerated, there is no 
doubt that the incursions of illicit traders from across 
the lines in the far west country were fraught with 
much danger. 

Dr. Grant (" Ocean to Ocean ") records the fact that 
a few hours before the arrival of Sanford Fleming's 
party at Fort Carlton in 1872, Mr. Clark, the Hudson 
Bay agent, had received information by the then most 
direct; but really very round-about route, namely via 
Edmonton, that Yankee "Free Traders" from Belly 
River had entered the country (now Southern Alberta) , 
and were selling rum to the Indians in exchange for 
their horses. The worst consequences were feared, 
as when the Indians have no horses they cannot hunt. 
When they cannot hunt they are not ashamed to steal 
horses, and horse stealing in these days led to wars. 
The Crees and Blackfeet had then been at peace for 
two or three years, (an unusually long period) but, if 
the peace was once broken, the old thirst for scalps 
would revive and the country be rendered insecure. 
Dr. Grant wrote that Mr. Clark spoke bitterly of the 
helplessness of the authorities, in consequence of having 
had no force from the outset to back up the proclama- 
tions that had been i.ssued. Both traders and Indians, 
he said, were learning the dangerous lesson that the 
Queen's orders could be disregarded with impunity. 

The members of Fleming's party comforted Mr. 
Clark with the assurance that Colonel Robertson-Ross, 
Adjutant General of the Canadian Militia was on his 
way up to repress all disorders and see what was neces- 
sary to be done for the future peace of the country. 

Dr. Grant (p. 141 Ocean to Ocean) commented as 
follows on the position: — "Making allowances for the 
fears of those who see no protection for life or property 
within five hundred or a thousand miles from them, 
and for the exaggerated size to which rumors swell in a 
country of such magnificent distances, where there are 



no newspapers and no means of communication except 
expresses, it is clear that if the government wishes to 
avoid worrying, expensive, murderous difficulties 
with the Indians, something must be done. There 
must be law and order all over our North-West from the 
first. Three or four companies of fifty men each, like 
those now in Manitoba, would be sufficient for the 
purpose, if judiciously stationed. Ten times the num- 
ber may be required if there is long delay. The country 
cannot afford repetitions of the Manitoba rebellion. " 

The government realizing that something had to be 
done in the direction indicated in the foregoing, the 
same year as this was written (1872) despatched 
Colonel P. Robertson-Ross, then occupying the dual 
position of Commanding Officer of the Militia of Canada 
and Adjutant General thereof, on what he described 
as "A Reconnaissance of the North-West Provinces 
and Indian Territories of the Dominion of Canada, " the 
object being to obtain an expert report on the country. 

As the report of Colonel Robertson-Ross describes 
the situation as it existed immediately before the 
organization of the North-West Mounted Police, and 
as it doubtless had an influence in determining the 
question of that organization there is no excuse needed 
for publishing the report fully. 

The Adjutant General wrote: — 

"On the termination of the annual training of the 
Militia in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, I pro- 
ceeded in the first instance, via Lake Superior and the 
" Dawson Route " to Manitoba, and in accordance with 
instructions, subsequently crossed the Continent 
through Canadian territory to the Pacific Coast and 
Vancouver Island, travelling nearly the whole distance 
from Fort Garry on horseback. 

" Leaving CoUingwpocJ on \,\\e 16th July, in the steam- 
boat for Thunder E|ay, (^^Ifp Superior), the vessel 
reached her destination early ^^ the morning of the 
22nd, stopping, en route, a|i the settlements of Owen 
Sound, Leith q,nd Killarney, on the shores of Lake 
Huron, and at Gargantua 3^y, Michipicoten Island 
and Neepigon, on Lake Sup.erior. 

" From most careful inquiries, it appears that the 
number of Indians occupying the country along the 
line of the "Dawson Route," and who belong to the 
Objibbeway tribe, does not exceed a total population 
of four thousand, of whom it is believed about eight 
hundred are men capable of bearing arms. Although 
among these Indians there may be some restless charac- 
ters, they are considered good Indians on the whole, 
and if kindly but firmly treated, they are not likely to 
cause any interruption along this route, or offer opposi- 
tion to the peaceful settlement of the country. 

" During the past summer, the Objibbeway tribe were 
apprehensive of an attack from the Sioux, their here- 



11 



ditary enemies, dwelling west of the Red River on the 
American side of the International boundary line. 
With a view, therefore, of preserving the peace of the 
country, and of supporting our Indian commissioner when 
engaged in making treaties and for the protection of 
settlers, I am of opinion that it would be advisable to 
encamp a detachment of about one hundred (100) 
soldiers during the summer months at Fort Francis. 
This force could be taken from the Militia now on duty 
at Fort Garry, returning to that station for the winter 
months. To send an Indian commissioner unaccom- 
panied by a military force to make a treaty with this 
tribe last summer proved a failure. 

"I would further suggest that the employees of the 
Department of Public Works stationed along the line 
of the " Dawson Route, " who will this summer number 
about 400 men, should be organized into a Naval Bri- 
gade, to be armed and equipped by the Militia Depart- 
ment; and that the offer to raise two Volunteer Com- 
panies of Militia at Prince Arthur's Landing, Thunder 
Bay, be accepted. 

"The existence of such a material power along the 
line, would, I feel sure, prove of the greatest importance. 
There is no doubt that the passage of troops for the 
last three years proceeding to and from Fort Garry in 
support of the civil power, on mission of peace, has 
already been attended with the best results. 

"I would further urge, if it be the intention of the 
government to retain any military force on duty in 
Manitoba, that one hundred men of the Provisional 
Battalion be supplied with horses and equipped as 
Mounted Riflemen, that an addition of one officer and 25 
gunners from the School of Gunnery at Kingston be 
made to the Artillery detachment, and the Artillery 
supplied with four of the Horse Artillery guns recently 
obtained from England.-/ Thus the force would form 
a small but effective Field Brigade, and its military 
power be greatly increased. 

"With regard to the necessity for maintaining any 
Military Force at Fort Garry, no doubt whatever exists 
in my mind as to the propriety of doing so, in view of 
the presence of many bands of Indians, considering 
the primitive state of society in the Province, the 
strong political party feeling which exists, and the fact 
that on both sides of the International Boundary Line 
restless and reckless characters among both white men 
and Indians abound. 

"It is undoubtedly very desirable to maintain a 
certain number of Police Constables in the Province 
under the civil power, some of whom should be mounted, 
but I feel satisfied that the great security for the pre- 
servation of good order, and the peace of the North- 
West Territories, under the changing state of affairs, 
will for some years, be found to lie in the existence and 



presence of a disciplined military body, under its own 
military rules, in addition to, but distinct from, any 
civil force which it may be thought proper to establish. 

" Whatever feeling may be entertained toward Police- 
men, animosity is rarely, if ever, felt towards disci- 
plined soldiers wearing Her Majesty's uniform, in any 
portion of the British Empire. 

" In the event of serious disturbance, a Police Force, 
acting alone, and unsupported by a disciplined military 
body, would probably be overpowered, in a Province of 
mixed races, where every man is armed, while to main- 
tain a military without any Civil Force is not desirable. 

" I believe that a small number of Constables will be 
sufficient to maintain order in the Province, provided 
the Military Force is maintained; but, that, in the 
event of serious disturbance, a large Police Force would 
be unable to do so, should the military be withdrawn, 
and I consider the presence of a Military Force in the 
North- West Territories for some years to come, as indis- 
pensable in the interests of peace and settlement. 




Soldiers and Policemen Too — A Full Dress Parade of the 
Royal North-West Mounted Police, 1901. 

"During my inspection in the North-West I ascer- 
tained that some prejudice existed amongst the In- 
dians against the colour of the uniform worn by the 
men of the Provisional Battalion — many of them had 
said "who are those soldiers at Red River wearing 
dark clothes? Our old brothers who formerly lived 
there (meaning H.M.S. 6th Regiment) wore red coats," 
adding, " we know that the soldiers of our great mother 
wear red coats and are our friends. " 

" Having concluded the inspection of the Militia 
in Manitoba, accompanied by my son, a youth of 16 
years of age, as travelling companion, 1 left Fort Garry 
on the 10th of August for the Rocky Mountains and 
British Columbia, with one guide only, and an Indian 
lad of the Saulteaux tribe, to cross the continent 
through Dominion territory to the Pacific coast. 

"At the time of departure from Fort Garry, some 
doubt was expressed as to the propriety of so small a 



12 



party travelling without a guard through Indian terri- 
tory, and especially through the country of the Black- 
feet tribe, if found necessary to do so; and I have to 
thank the Government very much for the authority 
conveyed by your telegram to Fort Garry, to take with 
me, if desired, a personal escort of six soldiers from the 
battalion on duty in Manitoba. 

"On full consideration, however, and with the ad- 
vice of those best able to judge, I did not think it ad- 
visable to do so. A military escort of only six men 
would be inadequate to afford protection in case of any 
real danger from the Prairie Indians, and might possibly 
invite attack. Considerable additional expense, more- 
over, would have been entailed for their transport and 
subsistence. 

"Proceeding from Fort Garry through the Swan 
River and Saskatchewan districts, via the Hudson's 
Bay Company's posts of Fort Ellice, Carlton, Pitt, 
Victoria, and Edmonton, I arrived at the Rocky Moun- 
tain House — about twelve hundred miles distance from 
Fort Garry — in 31 days, of which 25 days only were 
occupied in actual travel. 

"The Hudson's Bay Company's Forts along the line 
of the North Saskatchewan at Carlton, Pitt, Victoria 
and Edmonton consist of wooden houses surrounded 
by stockades; these stockades are about 20 feet high 
with small bastions at the angles to afford flanking 
defence. They are not formidable, but would be 
probably sufficient to afford protection from In- 
dians. 

" At Forts Carlton, Pitt and Victoria, accommodation 
for companies of soldiers, 50 strong, could be found in 
these Hudson's Bay Company's Forts, in addition to 
the present occupants, and at Fort Edmonton for about 
125 soldiers. 

"These Forts are conveniently enough situated for 
purposes of trade, but in a military point of view are 
badly placed, being in nearly every instance com- 
manded from the rear by higher ground. 

"On arrival at the "Rocky Mountain House," I 
learned that to cross the mountains into British Co- 
lumbia by the " Vermilion Pass" with horses was im- 
possible owing to the immense quantity of fallen timber 
caused by a great storm in the mountains last spring. 

"An attempt to cross by this pass had been made by 
a party of Assiniboine Indians early in the summer 
without success, 

" Under these circumstances it became necessary to 
undertake a journey of about 300 miles through the 
country of the Blackfeet Indians and to cross the 
mountains by the North Kootenay Pass. 

"Although the Blackfeet may number altogether 
about 2,350 men, many of these are old, and some of 
them mere boys. 



"It is not believed that they would bring into the 
field more than 1,000 or 1,100 men, if as many. They 
keep together by bands for mutual protection, in what 
is termed in military language standing camps; as 
many as 100 or 150 tents being pitched together, and 
their chiefs have control over the young men. Their 
war parties usually consist of only 50 or 60 men, and 
when on raiding expeditions against hostile tribes, 
they can make, with horses, extraordinary marches. 
With the Blackfeet, as with all the Indians in the West- 
ern Prairies, when at war, murder and assassination is 
considered honourable warfare. 

" There are many fine looking men among the Black- 
feet, Sioux, Plain Crees, and other tribes, and they 
have a bold and military bearing. Their active wiry 
figures, and keen glittering eyes, betoken high health 
and condition, and they can endure great hardships 
and fatigue; but on the whole, the Indians are not 
equal, in point of physical strength or appearance, to 
white men hardened by active exercise and inured to 
labour. 

"As a rule, the Prairie Indians are bold and skilful 
horsemen, but they are not very skilful with firearms. 
The Blackfeet and Plain Crees follow the Buffalo, sub- 
sisting entirely by the chase. They therefore require a 
great many horses and dogs for transport and hunting 
purposes. 

"In the present year, peace having existed for the 
past two summers between the Crees and Blackfeet, 
and accompanied as I was by a guide well known, and 
related to the latter tribe, I did not think there was 
much danger in travelling through their country. 

" There is always, however, great danger, if mistaken 
for an American citizen, and on approaching the Inter- 
national line, near the Porcupine Hills, of meeting with 
hostile bands of the Gros Ventres and Crow Indians, 
from the Territories of Dakota and Montana, U. S., 
who frecjuently cross into Dominion Territory on horse 
stealing expeditions, and who are not likely, if they 
fall in with travellers, to make distinctions. 

"Although there may not at present be much risk 
in travelling through the Saskatchewan territory along 
the well known track followed for so many years by the 
Hudson's Bay Company, especially when associated 
with an employee of the ('ompany, speaking the Indian 
language, it is a matter of doubt if such can long con- 
tinue under the changing state of affairs, without the 
introduction of some (lovernment, supported by ma- 
terial force. 

" Beyond the Province of Manitoba westward to the 
Rocky Mountains, there is no kind of Government at 
present whatever, and no security for life or property 
beyond what people can do for themselves. 

"The few white men there are in the Saskatchewan 



13 



country, and at the H.B.C. Forts, frequently expressed 
to me their conviction that unless a military force is 
established in the country, serious danger is to be ap- 
prehended. 

"The clergymen of all denominations whom I met 
with, expressed similar convictions; those at Forts 
Victoria and Edmonton, as representatives of the com- 
munity urged me in the most impressive manner to lay 
their claims for the protection of themselves, their 
wives and families, before His Excellency the Governor- 
General of the Dominion, and the Government of their 
country. 

"It appears that of late years no attempt has been 
made to assert the supremacy of the law, and the most 
serious crimes have been allowed to pass unpunished. 
Hardly a year has passed without several murders and 
other crimes of the most serious nature having been 
committed with impunity. 

"During the present year, about three weeks before 
my arrival at Edmonton, a man by name Charles 
Gaudin, a French speaking half-breed cruelly murdered 
his wife at no great distance from the gate of the H.B. 
Company's Post. I was informed that the criminal 
might have been arrested, but that there was no power 
to act. This same man had previously most wantonly 
and cruelly mutilated an old Indian woman by severing 
the sinews of her arm so as to incapacitate her for 
work. 

"At Edmonton there is a notorious murderer, a 
Cree Indian, called Ta-ha-kooch, who has committed 
several murders, and who should have been appre- 
hended long ago. This man is to be seen walking 
openly about the Post. Many instances can be ad- 
duced of a similar kind, and as a natural result there is 
a wide-spread feeling of apprehension. The gentlemen 
in charge of the H.B.C. Post at Fort Pitt, as well as 
others elsewhere, assured me that of late the Indians 
have been overbearing in manner, and threatening at 
times. Indeed, the white men dwelling in the Sas- 
katchewan are at this moment living by sufferance, as 
it were, entirely at the mercy of the Indians. They 
dare not venture to introduce cattle or stock into the 
country or cultivate the ground to any extent for fear 
of Indian spoliation. 

"When at Edmonton and the Rocky Mountain 
House I was informed that a party of American smug- 
glers and traders established a trading post at the 
junction of the Bow and the Belly Rivers, about 30 
miles due east from the Porcupine Hills, and about 60 
miles on the Dominion side of the boundary line. 
This trading post they have named Fort Hamilton, 
after the mercantile firm of Hamilton, Healy & Com- 
pany, of Fort Benton, Montana, U.S., from whom it is 
said they obtain supplies. It is believed that they 



number about 20 well armed men, under the command 
of a man called John Healy, a notorious character. 

" Here it appears they have for some time carried on 
an extensive trade with the Blackfeet Indians, supply- 
ing them with rifles, revolvers, goods of various kinds, 
whiskey and other ardent spirits, in direct opposition 
to the laws both of the United States and the Dominion 
of Canada, and without paying any custom duties for 
the goods introduced into the latter country. 

"The demoralization of the Indians, danger to the 
white inhabitants and injviry resulting to the country 
from this illicit traffic is very great. 

"It is stated upon good authority that during the 
year 1871 eighty-eight of the Blackfeet Indians were 
murdered in drunken brawls amongst themselves, 
produced by whiskey and other spirits supplied to 
them by those traders. 

" Year after year these unscrupulous traders continue 
to plunder our Indians of their Buffalo robes and 




Among- the Tepees. 

valuable furs by extortion and fraud, and the shameful 
traffic causes certain bloodshed amongst the Indian 
tribes. 

"At Fort Edmonton during the past summer whis- 
ky was openly sold to the Blackfeet and other Indians 
trading at the Post by some smugglers from the United 
States who derive large profits thereby, and on these 
traders being remonstrated with by the gentlemen in 
charge of the Hudson's Bay Post, they coolly replied 
that they knew very well that what they we're doing 
was contrary to the laws of both countries, but as there 
was no force there to prevent them, they would do just 
as they pleased. 

" It is indispensable for the peace of the country and 
welfare of the Indians that this smuggling and illicit 
trade in spirits and firearms be no longer permitted. 

"The establishment of a Custom House on the Belly 
River near the Porcupine Hill, with a military guard 



14 



of about 150 soldiers is all that would be required to 
effect the object. Not only would the establishment 
of a military post here put a stop to this traffic, but 
it would also before long be the means of stopping 
the horse stealing expeditions carried on by hostile 
Indians from south of the line into Dominion Territory, 
which is the real cause of all the danger in that part of 
the country, and the source of constant war among the 
Indian tribes. 

" Indeed it may now be said with truth, that to put a 
stop to horse-stealing and the sale of spirits to Indians 
is to put a stop altogether to Indian wars in the North- 
West. The importance of the Porcupine Hills as a 
strategical point of view is very great, commanding as 
it does the entrance on both the Kootenay Passes 
towards the west, and the route from Benton into the 
Saskatchewan territory on the south and east; the 
country can be seen from it for immense distances all 
round. Although hostile to citizens of the United 
States it is believed that the Blackfeet Indians would 
gladly welcome any Dominion Military Force sent to 
protect them from the incursions of other tribes, and 
to stop the horse stealing which has for so long been 
carried on. With excellent judgement they have 
pointed out the southern end of the Porcupine Hill as 
the proper place for a Military Post. 

" In order to satisfy myself on this point, I spent the 
greater portion of the 29th September in reconnoitring 
the ground recommended by them, and if it be the 
policy of Government to take steps to stop the illicit 
smuggling which is being carried on, at this part of the 
Dominion, there is every convenience for establishing 
a Custom House and Military Post. Timber of large 
size and good quality for building is close at hand, and 
the surrounding country is most fertile and favourable 
for settlement. 

"The distance from Fort Ekimonton to the Porcu- 
pine Hills is about six or seven days journey on horse- 
back, and from the Kootenay Valley on the western 
side of the Rocky Mountains, from whence supplies 
could be easily obtained, about fifty or sixty miles. 

" Frequent intercourse, and an active trade between 
the Kootenay District of British Columbia and the 
Saskatchewan country, would result from the settlement 
of a Custom House and Military Post at the Porcupine 
Hills. Many individuals are prepared to settle there, 
if any protection is afforded, and the Indian trade of the 
country at present tapped by United States smugglers, 
would remain with our own countrymen. There is a 
general belief prevalent, moreover, that valuable gold 
deposits are to be found near the Porcupine Hills. 
The unsettled state of the country hitherto has not 
admitted, however, of much prospecting. A party of 
four American miners, who crossed through the Koote- 



nay Pass two or three years ago, were all killed by the 
Blackfeet. near the Porcupine Hills, the moment they 
entered the plain on the eastern side; since which time 
no attempt at prospecting for gold has been made in 
that part of the country. 

"With regard to the measures which should be 
adopted for the settlement of the country, I feel satis- 
fied that the introduction of a civil police force unsup- 
ported by any military into the Saskatchewan Terri- 
tory would be a mistake, and that no time should be 
lost in establishing a chain of militarj- posts from 
Manitoba, to the Rocky Mountains. The appointment 
of a Stipendiary Magistrate for the Saskatchewan, to 
reside at Edmonton and act as the Indian Commissioner 
is also a matter of the first importance. The individual 
to fill this important post, should be one, if possible, 
already known to. and in whom the Indians have con- 
fidence. I consider that it is very necessary to invite 
the co-operation of the Hudson's Bay Company in the 
adoption of any steps towards establishing law and 
order in the Saskatchewan for the first few years, and 
no Indian Commissioner should proceed unaccom- 
panied by a military force. 

"A large military force is not required, but the pre- 
sence of a certain force, I believe, will be found to be 
indispensable for the security of the country, to pre- 
vent bloodshed and pressrve peace. 

" The number of the Indians dwelling in the extensive 
country which lies between the Red River and the 
Rocky Mountains on Dominion Territory, has been 
much exaggerated. It is very difficult to arrive at any 
accurate Indian census, but having made every enquiry 
during last summer on this point, whilst travelling 
through the country, from those most competent to 
judge, I doubt if there are more than four thousand 
Prairie Indians capable of bearing arms in the Do- 
minion territory between Fort Garry and the Rocky 
Mountains, south of the Sub-Artie Forest, and north 
of the International Boundary Line, — the total Prairie 
Indian population amounting, perhaps, to 14,000 or 
15,000. 

" These Indians arc scattered over such an immense 
extent of country, that anything like a formidable 
combination is impossible; most of the tribes, more- 
over, have been hostile to one another from time im- 
memorial. I£ is believed that the Blackfeet and the 
Plain Crees, the two strongest tribes of prairie Indians, 
may have respectively about one thousand fighting 
men, but it is doubtful if either tribe could ever con- 
centrate such a number, or if concentrated that they 
could long remain so from the difficulty of obtaining 
subsistence. Although many of the Blackfeet have 
breech-loa^ling rfles, the Indians generally are poorly 
armed and badly mounted. 



15 



" Under these circumstances, it will be readily under- 
stood that comparatively small bodies of well armed 
and disciplined men, judiciously posted throughout 
the country, could easily maintain military supremacy. 
A body of fifty riflemen, armed with breech-loading 
rifles, is a formidable power on the Prairies. 

"One regiment of mounted riflemen, 550 strong, 
including non-commissioned officers divided into com- 
panies of fifty would be a sufficient force to support 
the Government in establishing law and order in the 
Saskatchewan, preserving the peace of the North-West 
Territory, and affording protection to the Surveyors, 
Contractors, and Railway Laborers about to undertake 
the great work of constructing the Dominion Pacific 
Railway. 

" Although the proposed military strength, and con- 
sequent expense, may appear somewhat considerable, 
I have been guided by every consideration of economy 
in recommending the above number. It is wiser policy 
and better economy to have one hundred soldiers too 
many, than one man too few; the great extent of the 
country, and detached nature of the service, must also 
be taken into account, and it should be borne in mind 
that the only thing the Indians really respect, and will 
bow to, is actual power. 

" It should be borne in mind too, that in addition to 
the Indian element, there is a half-breed population of 
about 2,000 souls in the Saskatchewan, unaccustomed 
to the restraint of any government, mainly depending 
as yet upon the chase for subsistence, and requiring to 
be controlled nearly as much as the Indians. 

"If it be in harmony, therefore, with the policy of 
the Government to do so, I would recommend the 



establishment of Military Posts at the following places, 
strength as below: — 

"At Portage de la Prairie, 50 Mounted Riflemen; 
Fort EUice, 50 Mounted Riflemen; Fort Carlton, 50 
Mounted Riflemen; Fort Pitt, 50 Mounted Riflemen; 
Fort Victoria, 50 Mounted Riflemen; Fort Edmonton, 
100 Mounted Riflemen; Fort Porcupine Hills, 150 
Mounted Riflemen. With a proportion of officers and 
non-commissioned officers. 

" At the places indicated for Military Posts no great 
difficulty would be experienced, or expense incurred in 
hutting the men, they themselves performing the 
work, or an arrangement might be more easily made 
with the Hudson's Bay Company to provide barrack 
accommodation and rations at the different posts for 
the number of men reqviired. 

"I would further beg to suggest, if it be decided to 
establish any chain of military posts, that for the first 
year the soldiers be employed in laying down a tele- 
graphic wire from Manitoba towards British Columbia, 
if not required to hut themselves. 

"From my own knowledge and observation of the 
country, I think that if proper energy be used, the very 
desirable work of establishing telegraphic communica- 
tions might be accomplished, without exacting too 
much from the soldiers, in one or two seasons. I would 
further observe that no time should be lost in making 
the preliminary arrangements. The men and horses 
should, if possible, be concentrated at Fort Garry in 
the month of May or June, their equipment for- 
warded sooner, and the companies despatched without 
delay." 




N.W.M.P. crossing the Dirt Hills, August 1874. 
(From a sketch by H. Julien in the "Canadian Illustrated News.") 



16 




CHAPTER II 

ORGANISATION OF THE N.W.M.P. 



How THE Authority of the Dominion was Advanced Eight Hundred Miles Westward, from Manitoba 
TO THE Foot Hills of the Rockies, by the Big March of 1874. 



AS the late Sir John A. Macdonald had from the 
first manifested the greatest possible interest 
in the acquisition by Canada of the Hudson 
Bay Territory, and later, in the development of the 
country, it was only natural that he should have taken 
a leading part in the organization of the force designed 
to establish law and order in the North- West. In fact. 
Sir John has been, not inaptly called the father of the 
Royal North-west Mounted Police Force. 

The Adjutant General's reconnaissance was under- 
taken at the special request of the Prime Minister, and 
all of the preliminaries leading to the organization 
of the force were not only made in his department, 
but under his personal supervision. 

This was one of the most strenuous periods in the 
history of the Dominion's first great prime minister. 
The legislative and administrative machinery of the 
new Confederation was being got into perfect running 
order by the exercise of great skill and attention. 
There were new positions to fill, and new officials to 
shake down into the places they had been selected to 
occupy. There were provincial diflfercncies to be 
reconciled and various systems of colonial government 
to be brought into harmonious accord. The Inter- 
national frontier was being surveyed and marked, a 
new province, Manitoba, being organized, and a plan 
being evolved for the carrying out of that gigantic 
undertaking, a railway connecting the Atlantic with 
the Pacific. 

With work and responsibilities accumulating fast, 



Sir John never lost sight of the importance of pro- 
viding an effective instrument to enforce the law and 
provide for the protection of life and property in the 
then new North- West, but caution had to be exercised 
to prevent mistakes at the very inception of the pro- 
posed force, and time was naturally exhausted in 
making enquiries and arranging preliminaries. Mean- 
time all sorts of exaggerated stories as to trouble with 
the Indians and the far-western whisky traders reached 
eastern Canada. At one time thousands of refugee 
Indians from the United States were reported to be 
massacring settlers in Canadian territory. At another, 
desperate fights between United States and Canadian 
Indian tribes were reported to be in progress on Cana- 
dian territory. Still another circumstantial report 
would relate that the whisky traders from across the 
Line^ were erecting forts to assert the authority of 
the United States over the new region. 

As a result of the circulation of these sensational 
tales some uneasiness was created in the older pro- 
vinces, and numerous questions were from time to 
time put in parliament. 

April 28, 1873 Mr. H. H. Cook, M.P. asked in the 
House whether it was the intention of the Govern- 
ment to despatch a mounted force to Manitoba, or 
whether it was intended to send re-inforcements of 
any description to that territory, and if so, at what 
date would such expedition be organized and ready 
to proceed. 

Sir John Macdonald replied that it was the intention 



17 



of the Government to ask Parliament for an appropria- 
tion for the purpose of organizing a boundary police. 

April 30, 1873 a similar query was made in the 
Senate by the Hon. Mr. Letellier de St. Just. 

The Hon. Mr. Campbell said the government had 
nothing very definite on the subject. No precise 
information seemed to have reached Fort Garry. 
The acting Lieutenant Governor telegraphed that 
tidings had reached them that Indians from the 
United States and from Yellowstone River were 
coming into the Dominion territory. There was 
nothing beyond that. By way of precaution, certain 
steps had been taken, which, should anything occur, 
he thought would prove sufficient for the protection 
of our people and the country. 

April 29, 1873 Mr. Alexander Mackenzie enquired 
in the House of Commons whether there was any 
truth in the rumors of an Indian outbreak in the 
North-West. 

Sir John A. Macdonald, the Prime Minister, reported 



acres might be made to any constable or sub-constable 
who should have conducted himself satisfactorily 
during the three years of his service. The outfit 
of 300 men would cost about $50,000, but the force 
would have to be selected by degrees, and it was 
not probable that it would comprise 300 men at first, 
or for a long time yet. It was the intention of the 
government to reduce the military force in Manitoba by 
degrees 

The original intention, it will be observed, was to 
provide a force of comparatively modest proportions. 
It was Sir John Macdonald's idea, moreover, after 
thoroughly weighing the respective merits of purely 
military and purely police organizations, to have the 
new force combine as far as possible the advantages of 
both. It was to be a military police, in fact, organ- 
ized very much after the system of the famous Royal 
Irish Constabulary, but necessarily differing from that 
body in uniform and equipment. With regard to 
the former Sir John was very specific in his instructions. 




Twenty-eight Years After — Full Dress Parade of R.N.W.M.P. in Honour of H.R.H. the Duke of Cornwall and York, 1901. 



that the Government had no information on the sub- 
ject further than the rumors which had been current, 
but these had been so continuous that it was difficult 
to believe they could be without foundation. The 
Government had received no reports. 

May 3, Sir John Macdonald moved for leave to in- 
troduce a bill respecting the administration of justice 
and for the establishment of a police force in the 
North- West Territories. With reference to the proposed 
mounted police, the Premier explained, the Act pro- 
vided that the Governor might appoint a Police Com- 
missioner and one or more Superintendents, a pay- 
master, sergeants and veterinary surgeon, and the 
Commissioner would have power to appoint such a 
number of constables and sub-constables as he might 
think proper, not exceeding three hundred men, who 
should be mounted, as the Governor might from time 
to time direct. The Commissioner and Superintendents 
would be ex-officio justices of the peace. A free 
grant of land not exceeding one hundred and sixty 



He wanted as little gold lace and fuss and feathers as 
possible, not a crack cavalry regiment, but an efficient 
police force for the rough and ready — particularly 
ready — enforcement of law and justice. 

The bill introduced by Sir John, (36 Victoria, Chapter 
35), was concurred in May 20, 1873. 

Section 13 laid down the general standard for the 
rank and file as follows: — 

"No person shall be appointed to the Police Force 
unless he be of sound constitution, able to ride, active 
and able-bodied, of good character, and between the 
ages of eighteen and forty j'ears; nor unless he be 
able to read and write either the English or French 
language." 

At the time the bill was passed, there was so much 
uncertainty as to the new country that it was deemed 
best to leave the question of the headquarters in abey- 
ance, Section 18 reading as follows: — 

"The Governor-in-Council shall appoint the place 
at which the headquarters of the force shall from time 



18 



to time be kept; and the office of the Commissioner 
shall be kept there, and the same may be at arty place 
in the North-West Territories or the l^rovince of Man- 
itoba." 

Section 26 fixed the scale of pay as follows: — 
"Commissioner not exceeding $2,600 a year and not 
less than $2,000; superintendent not exceeding $1,400 
and not less than $1,000; paj'master not exceeding 
$900; quarter-master not exceeding $500; surgeon not 
exceeding $1,400 and not less than $1,000; veterinary 
surgeon not exceeding $600 and not less than $400; 
constable not exceeding $1.00 per day; sub-constable 
not exceeding 75c. per day." 

Sir John Macdonald, at this time, besides being 
President of the Council, held the portfolio of Minister 
of Justice, and section 33 of the Act provided that, 
for the time being at any rate, the new force should 
K main under the direction of that department. The 
.-section in question read as follows: — 



the east, most or all of them from the Active Militia. 
It was expected that some of the time-expired men 
of the force in Manitoba would enlist in the new force, 
as quite a number of them did, but most of the men 
had to be enlisted in the east and forwarded to Manitoba 
over the Dawson route. 

Each officer selected in the cast was recjuired to 
recruit and take with him to the west, fifteen, twenty 
or thirty men as the case may be, and as they were 
required to report with their quotas at (^ollingwood 
within three or four days after receiving orders, they 
had not much time to make as careful a selection as 
many of them would have desired. 

Pending final arrangements as to the command, 
these nuclei of the Royal North- West Mounted Police 
were ordered, on arrival at Fort Garry, to report to, 
and remain imder the temporary command of Lieut. - 
Col. W. Osborne Smith, the Deputy Adjutant General 
of Militia. ))ut there seems, it appears, never to have 




'As Little Gold Lace and Fuss and Feathers as Possible." — Detachment of the R.N.W.M.P. in Service Uniform, 

Calgary, 1905. 



"The Department of Justice shall have the control 
and management of the Police Force and of all matters 
< onnected therewith ; but the Governor-in-Council may, 
at any time, order that the same shall be transferred to 
any other Department of the Civil Service of Canada, 
and the same shall accordingly, by such order, be 
transferred to and be under the control and manage- 
ment of such other Department." 

The year 1873 was a very busy one for the govern- 
ment, and it was really September, 1873, before 
the plans for the organization of the force took 
shape. 

It was decided to organize at first three troops or 
divisions of fifty men each, the mobilization and 
organization to take place at Fort (Jarry or VV'innipeg. 
It was decided to take some officers from the militia 
force serving in Manitoba, others were selected in 



been any intention of continuing permanently the 
connection with the militia force. 

The permanent militia force on duty in Manitoba 
wa.s being kept up with .some difficulty and considerable 
expense, owing to the short term of service. Up to 
1873 the recruits for this force had been drawn exclu- 
sively from Ontario and Quebec, but in May, 1873 
two detachments of recruits of fifty men each were 
raised in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, respectively, 
and despatched to Manitoba to replace time expired 
men of the i)ermanent force on duty in that 
province. 

The permanent force in Manitoba imder the direct 
comnmnd of Lieut.-Col. A. G. Irvine in 1873 consisted 
of the following:— Battery of Artillery, 3 officers, 80 
non-commi.ssionrd officers and men; Provisioiuil Bat- 
talion of Infantry, 17 officers, including the regimental 



19 



staff, acting for both corps, 244 non-commissioned offi- 
cers and men. 

Lieut. -Colonel W. Osborne Smith, D.A.G. of Military 
District No. 10 (Manitoba) in his annual report, Jan. 2, 
1873, stated that during the year 1872 a considerable 
amount of extra duty had fallen on these corps in con- 
sequence of requisitions in aid of the civil power. For 
instance, on July 2 a detachment of 50 men had to be 
rapidly despatched by night to White Horse Plains to 
repress riots and to aid in effecting the capture of rioters, 
a duty which was satisfactorily accomplished. A com- 
pany of the Provisional Battalion of Infantry was de- 
tached to the Northwest Angle of the Lake of the Woods 
as an escort and guard for His Honor the Lieutenant 
Governor, during the negotiations for a treaty with the 
Objibway Indians. This duty, which occupied about 
three weeks, was satisfactorily performed; the party 
returning to headquarters on October 9. 

In October 1873 the officers and recruits destined to 
compose the first three divisions of the North- West 
Mounted Police, some 150 in all, were assembled in 
Manitoba and quartered at the Stone Fort or Lower 
Fort Garry. Organization and drill were at once pro- 
ceeded with, but under great difficulties owing to the 
non-arrival of the necessary equipment. As a matter of 
fact a considerable proportion of the uniform and 
equipment, including the winter clothing, was frozen 
in on the Dawson route, causing much inconvenience 
and discomfort to the officers and men of the new force. 

Shortly after the mobilization of the three first divis- 
ions, which were distinguished by the first three letters 
of the alphabet, the Government tendered the command 
of the force to liieutenant Colonel George A. French, of 
the Royal Artillery, who was just completing three 
years service as Inspector of Artillery and Warlike 
Stores in the Militia Service and as Commandant of A. 
Battery R.C.A. and the School of Gunnery at Kingston, 
Ontario. Colonel French promptly accepted the posi- 
tion of Commissioner and proceeded to Manitoba to 
take up his duties. 

After the arrival of the Commissioner, the organiza- 
tion of the three divisions made rapid progress, and 
they were in a condition to perform considerable ser- 
vice during the winter, in spite of the shortages of 
equipment. 

November 6, 1873, the keen political tension which 
had prevailed in parliament and throughout the coun- 
try over the so-called Pacific Railway scandal culmin- 
ated in the resignation of Sir John A. Macdonald and 
his ministry, and the following day the Hon. Alexander 
Mackenzie formed his administration. The Hon. A. A. 
Dorion (1), as minister of Justice in the new Govern- 



(1) Later Sir A. A. Dorion, Montreal, Chief Justice of the Court of 
Apjjeal of the Province of Quebec. 



ment, became the responsible head of the Mounted 
Police. 

Meantime, it became very evident to the Com- 
missioner, to the Government and to all concerned, that 
to open up the new region, to suppress lawlessness 
throughout its length and breadth, and to put a stop to 
the frequently recurring Indian scares, the force would 
have to be increased for the purpose of conducting an 
expedition across the country to the base of operations 
of the Yankee whisky traders near the Foot Hills of 
the Rockies. 

Having this end in view, the Commissioner, after his 
arrival in Manitoba, endeavoured to make himself as 
well acquainted as possible with the affairs of the North- 
West at large, as also with regard to the kind of trans- 
port usually employed, the best trails westward, the 
distances, nature of the country to be traversed, &c. 

The International boundary survey, then in progress, 
having been carried out to a point 420 miles west of 
Red River, he was fortunate enough to be able to ob- 
tain much reliable information concerning a portion of 
country of which so little was known, and for this 
he was indebted to Captain Cameron, R. A., (2) the 
Boundary Commissioner, as well as to Captain Ander- 
son, R.E., the Chief Astronomer. It being understood 
that an expedition westward would be undertaken in 
the spring, Colonel French went very thoroughly into 
the question of supplies and transport, the general con- 
clusions arrived at being: — 

1st. That the stores and provisions for the force 
should be transported westward by the force's own 
horses and oxen. 

2nd. The cattle for slaughter should be driven on 
foot, accompanying the force, instead of carrying pork 
or pemmican in large quantities. 

Returning to Ottawa in February, 1874, fuUy pre- 
pared to press on the consideration of the Government 
the propriety of increasing the strength of the force to 
the limit allowed by Act of Parliament (viz., 300) be- 
fore attempting to coerce the outlaws and whisky 
traders in the Far West, Colonel French was some- 
what surprised to find that the members of the Govern- 
ment were even more fully imbued with the gravity 
of the case than the Commissioner himself. 

Arrangements liad to be made for the supply of 
arms, ammunition, and stores of every description, a 
uniform had to be designed and supplied, men lo be 
enrolled, requisitions had to be made on the Imperial 
Government for field guns and stores, which could 
not be supplied in the country, horses purchased, &c. 
An enormous amount of work had to be done in a very 
short time. 

(2) Later Major General Cameron, who for some years commanded 
the Royal Military College, Kingston. 



20 



In April, 1874, the greater number of the men to be 
raised were brought together at the New Fort, Toronto, 
and every endeavour used by all ranks to pick up as 
much instruction as possible in the very limited time 
available for drill, riding, target practice, &c. 

A considerable number of the men enlisted had served 
either in Her Majesty's Regular Service in the Royal Irish 
Constabulary, or in the schools of gunnery at Kingston 
and Quebec; (3) and there were very few indeed who 
had not some military experience, either in the Regular 
Service or the Militia (4). From these circumstances, as 
well as from the fact of the intelligence and respecta- 
bility of the great bulk of the men enrolled, the pro- 
gress in drill was extraordinary, and the scores made 
at target practice would indeed have been astonishing 
to any one unacquainted with the natural aptitude of 
Canadians in this particular. 

In the matter of riding, the progress was much less 
satisfactor3\ According to the Act, all men should 
have been able to ride; but when put to the test, it 
was very evident that a good many rated their abilities 
in this line too highl)^ 

It was too much to expect that nmch advance could 
be made in riding in such a limited time and with un- 
trained horses; however, the Commissioner consoled 
himself with the reflection that, whereas little drill and 
no target practice could be carried out on the line of 
march to the West, there would be ample opportunity 
for the practice of equitation. 

The force mobilized at Toronto was organized into 
three new divisions, designated " D, " " E " and " F, " 
and Inspector J. F. McLeod, C.M.G., who was on duty 
with the three original Divisions in Manitoba, was 
promoted to be Assistant Commissioner. The following 
appeared in the Canada Gazette: — 

Department of Justice, 

Ottawa, June, 1st, 1874. 

North-West Mounted Police Force. 

His Excellency the Governor-General has been 
pleased to make the following promotions and ap- 
pointments: — 

Inspector James Fartjuharson McLeod, C.M.G. , to 
be Assistant Commissioner. 



(3) IJeut.-Col. French in his laat report as oommanrlant of A. Battery, 
KinffnUin. <lat«<l NoveniWr HO, 1873 mentioned that eixht non-commix- 
)iione<l (ifficefH and men had taken their dixohnrKe for the purpoHe of enKUKi"K 
in the Mounte<l Police. In the report of the ct)mmandant of the name 
battery for the followins year it wax Htated that fifteen non-eomniimiione<i 
ofRcera and men ha<l taken their dincharKe for the purpoM of ennacinK in 
the Mounted Police. Similarly many non-commitwioned ofiicerH and men 
took their diacharicex from H. Battery, Quebec, to join the t>olice. 

(4) The number of men in the nix divixiona who, previoux to enrol- 
ment in the North-Wext Mounted Police had performed military xervice. 
waa an followx: — Regular Hervice (Britixh). 41; Royal Irixh Conxtahtilary 
and Civil Police Forcex. 14; Canadian Artillery (A and H Hatteriex). .32; 
Cana<iian Militia. 87; total, 174. 



Sul>Inspector James Morrow Walsh to be Inspector 
vice McLeod promoted. 

Edwin Allan Gentleman, to be Sub-Inspector, vice 
Walsh promoted. 

In view of the difficulty which had been experienced 
with transportation over the Dawson route the pre- 
vious autumn, and having regard to the importance of 
despatching the expedition to the West without the 
least possible delay, negotiations were opened with the 
United States government with the object of despatch- 
ing the force at Toronto to the Manitoba frontier via 
Chicago, St. Paul and Fargo. The required permission 
was obtained, and on the 6th June the force left To- 
ronto, at 2 p.m., by two special trains, the marching- 
out state showing 16 officers, 201 men, 244 horses (5). 
On arrival at Sarnia, nine cars containing the waggons 
and agricultural implements, and, at Detroit, two cars, 
containing 34 horses, were attached to the trains. 

The force arrived at Chicago at 5 p.m. on the 7th. 
The horses, being taken out. were fed in the stockyards, 
and appeared little the worse of their trip. On the 
evening of the 8th the force left for St. Paul arriving 
there at 4 a.m. on the 10th. The horses had another 
day's rest here, and left on the 11th, arriving at Fargo 
(1300 miles from Toronto) on the morning of the 12th. 
The trains being shunted on a siding about noon, and 
the horses disembarked and attended to, the men began 
getting the waggons out and putting them together. 
This was a very tedious business, as the persons who 
furnished the waggons had bundled them into cars in 
detached parts; and instead of getting so many wag- 
gons complete in each car, the men had to hunt right 
through the trains to get all the parts re(iuired. Finally 
all the cars had to be emptied together, and the parts 
placed on the ground, and in this manner more rapid 
progress was made. The saddlery, im{)orted from 
England, was all in pieces, but each box was complete 
in itself, and consequently the saddlers, working under 
the saddler-major, got them together pretty quickly. 

When the Commissioner looked round, on tiiis even- 
ing, and saw acres of ground covered with waggons 
and stores of all sorts, it did look as if he could not get 
away under several days. Tiic Fargo people quite 
enjoyed the sight; they considered that it would at 
least be a week before the force could get off; but they 
had little idea of what could he done witli properly or- 
ganized reliefs of men. 

At 4 o'clock a.m. of the 13th the saddlers were at 
work at the harness and saddlery, the wheelers putting 
the waggons logetluT, and an offi( er and 30 men getting 
out stores and loading them. This party was relieved 

(ft) The marchinit-out xtate, dated Toronto, June 0. xhowed the fol- 
lowinK xtrength: Staff. .'>; inx|)ertorx, 2; xuh-iiiH|)oc'tc>rx, 9; roiixtaliipx, 7; 
acting ronxtablew. 20; xuh-cfinxlablcx, 174; total, 217; horxcx, 240. 



21 



at 8 o'clock a.m., again at noon, and again at 4 o'clock 
p.m. At 5 o'clock p.m. D Division drove out with 29 
loaded waggons, at 7 p.m. E Division followed; and 
by the afternoon of the 14th F Division cleared up 
everything (with the exception of heavy stores, going 
down by steamer), and came to where the other divi- 
sions were camped, about six miles from Fargo. The 
14th being on Sunday, the force remained in camp. 

On the 15th the force made its regular start, doing 
about 27 miles; and as the waggons were lightly loaded 
(11 cwt. being the maximum), some being empty, and 
having a number of spare horses, it kept up and ex- 
ceeded this rate to the 19th, and, without any particu- 
lar mishap or accident to speak of, arrived at Dufferin, 
(now Emmerson) in Manitoba on the evening of the 
19th June; and the Commissioner felt a great load of 
responsibility taken off his shoulders at again being on 
Canadian soil. The conduct of the men had been most 
exemplai^'. their general appearance and conduct in- 
variably attracting the favourable notice of the railway 
officials and others en route. 

At Dufferin the Commissioner's column met the 
Assistant Commissioner with " A, " " B " and " C " divi- 
sions from Winnipeg, and the whole force, now together 
for the first time, was encamped on the north side of 
the Boundary Commission ground. 

On the night after the arrival of the Commissioner's 
column one of the most dreadful thunderstorms ever 
witnessed in Manitoba burst over the camp. There 
was apparently one incessant sheet of lightning from 
10 p.m. to 6 a.m. About midnight 250 of the horses 
stampeded from the coral in which they were placed, 
breaking halters, picquet ropes, &c., &c., and even 
knocking over some of the waggons which encircled 
them. It was a fearful sight. Several of the men had 
the hardihood to attempt to stop some of the horses, 
but it only resulted in their being knocked over and 
trampled on, and in this manner six of the pluckiest 
men got hurt, one of them being seriously injured about 
the head. 

The police had the good fortune to recover most of 
the horses within a distance of 35 miles, probably in a 
great measure due to the freshness having been taken 
out of the animals by their 160 mile march from Fargo. 
Many days were lost in recovering the horses, and much 
injury done, riding in every direction looking for them. 
The loss eventually was reduced to one, and this one 
was supposed to have been drowned in the Pembina 
River. 

"A," "B," and "C" Divisions being much below 
their proper strength, 50 men were transferred from 
" D " and " E " Divisions to make them up. Uniforms, 
arms, ammunition and clothing, saddlery, harness and 
general stores, were served out, and parties kept busy 



loading waggons and ox-carts for the march. Parties 
from each division had to be detailed daily for herding 
the horses upon the prairie, and the disorganized state 
of the Quarter-Master's department added materially 
to the ordinary camp duties. Altogether there is no 
question but that the men were hard worked at this 
time. 

The work the little force under the command of 
Colonel French had undertaken to do was a most 
important one from a national point of view, the open- 
ing up of half a continent, almost, to Canadian rule 
and enterprise. And there was no doubt it would be 
accomplished with great hardship. It was reasonable 
to anticipate much danger too, but to men of the 
character of those who composed the original divisions 
of the North-West Mounted Police, it was the expecta- 
tion of danger that supplied the spice to their service. 

The special instructions to Colonel French were to 
make as direct as possible for the forks of the Belly 
and Bow Rivers, in which vicinity the worst of the 
much-discussed whisky forts were understood to be 
located. This illicit whisky trade with the Indians, 
and in fact all illicit trading, was to be suppressed, 
and the authority of the Dominion Government assert- 
ed. A post, or posts, were to be established, garrisoned 
and provisioned in this unknown region, the Indians, 
as far as possible were to be visited and impressed 
with the power and good intentions of the Government, 
notes taken of the main physical characteristics of 
the country travelled over, and the headquarters of 
the force temporarily established near Fort EUice, 
where arrangements were being made for the con- 
struction of barracks and other necessary accommo- 
dation. 

Colonel French had endeavoured before leaving 
Toronto to get rid of any of his recruits who were not 
willing " to rough it. " On two distinct occasions, 
he assembled all ranks on parade, plainly told them 
that they would have, and must expect, plenty of 
hardship; that they might be wet day after day, and 
have to lie in wet clothes; that they might be a day or 
two without food, and that he feared they would be 
often without water, and he called on any present 
who were not prepared to take their chances of these 
privations to fall out, and they would have their dis- 
charges, as there were plenty of good men ready to 
take their places. A few did thus accept their dis- 
charges, and one feels they acted properly in the 
matter. 

The marching out state dated Dufferin, July 8, 
1875, showed the following strength: — staff, 4; ins- 
pectors, 4; sub-inspectors, 11; surgeon, 1; veterinary 
surgeon, 11; constables, 30; acting constables, 20; 
sub-constables, 204; total 274. Horses, public, 308; 



22 



private, 2; guides and half-breeds, 20; field guns, 2; 
mortars, 2; working oxen, 142; cattle, 93; waggons, 
73; ox-carts, 114. 

On command, at Fort Ellice, sub-inspectors, 1 ; cons- 
tables, 1; acting constables, 1; sub-constables, 12; 
total, 15; horses, 17. At Dufferin, staff, 2; inspectors, 
2; constables, 5; sub-constables, 14; total 23. 

The revolvers for the force did not arrive from 
England until the first week in July, and on the 8th 
July the force drew out to a camp about two miles 
from Dufferin, more to see that all was right than 
with the idea of making a start. Next day Col. 
French sent back two waggon loads of articles, such 
as syrup, which, being rather luxuries than necessaries, 
he thought could be dispensed with. The force 
moved on to the river Marais. Next day, the 10th, 
having brought up two loads of oats, in lieu of articles 
sent back, and the half-breed ox-drivers being mostly 
sobered, the force made a march of ten miles, striking 
across the country, as the Boundary Commission 
road, (used for teaming the surveyors' supplies) in 
some parts passed south of the Boundary Line. 

The police train was probably the largest ever seen 
in these parts; when closed up to a proper interval it 
was a mile and a half long. But from advanced to 
rear guard, it was more usually from four to five miles, 
owing to the uneven rate of travel of horses and oxen, 
and the breaking of axles and wheels of that imposi- 
tion of the country, the " Red River cart. " 

" The column of route," according to the Commis- 
sioner's report, " presented a very fine appearance. 
First came " A " division with their splendid dark bays 
and thirteen waggons. Then " B " with their dark 
browns. Next "C" with bright chesnuts drawing 
the guns, and gun and small arm ammunition. Next 
" I) " with their greys, then " E " with their black 
horses, the rear being brought up by "F" with their 
light bays. Then a motley string of ox-carts, ox- 
waggons, cattle for slaughter, cows, calves, &c., 
mowing machines, &c., &c. 

" To a stranger it would have appeared an astonish- 
ing cavalcade; armed men and guns looked as if fight- 
ing was to be done. What could ploughs, harrows, 
mowing machines, cows, calves, etc., be for? 

" But that little force had a double duty to perform: 
to fight, if necessary, but in any case to establish jwsts 
in the far west. 

"However we were off at last, the only man in 
Winnipeg who knew anything about the portion of 
the country to which we were going encouraging me 
with the remark: 'Well, if you have luck you may 
get back by Christmas, wth forty per cent, of your 
horses.' " 

After being a few days on the march, every one 



and every thing settled down into their proper places. 
The cooks, by degrees, got into the way of cooking 
and baking in the open air, and loaves of bread no 
longer bore the appearance of lumps of dough. Being 
on The Boundary Commission Road, and having a 
good sketch of the route, the marches could be arranged 
with a certainty of finding wood, water and grass, at 
definite points. Although by marching early the 
column nearly always halted during the heat of the 
day, at noon, or thereabouts, yet the excessive heat 
of the weather told heavily on both horses and oxen. 
Many of the men had little skill as teamsters, and the 
bulk of the horses, having been purchased more for 
the saddle than draught, ran rapidly down in condi- 
tion when placed at such work; other riding horses 
being transferred to the waggons in their places, were 
frequently put to work in the harness of the horses 
they had replaced, and as the harness did not always 
fit them well, many sore shoulders were caused thereby, 
but these horses were made available for riding. 

From Dufferin to Roche Perc^e, a distance of 270 
miles, the force had a fair amount of grass and 
good water. It had also some oats for the first few 
days, but nevertheless many of the horses ran down 
rapidly in condition. It is an admitted fact that al- 
most all Canadian or American horses fail during the 
first season they are fed on prairie grass, and there- 
fore it is little to be wondered at that those of the 
police should have failed. 

Just before he left Dufferin, Colonel French's orders 
were changed to the effect that the arrangements for 
leaving men on the Bow or Belly Rivers were can- 
celled, and it was ordered that part of the Force was 
to go to Edmonton. The Commissioner therefore 
altered his arrangements accordingly and sent off 
from Roche Perc^e to Fort Ellice and Edmonton "A" 
Division under Inspector Jarvis, with a number of 
cattle, agricultural implements, general stores and a 
very large (juantity of provisions, (including over 
25,000 lbs. of flour.) 

On the 6th August the main force ascended the 
Coteau again, crossing the Dirt Hill, the highest part 
of the Coteau, estimated to be nearly 3,000 feet above 
the sea level. Here the force had to halt a day to 
rest the horses after such heavy work, (particularly 
on the gun horses) and making a big march next day, 
arrived at the easternmost of the Old Wives Lakes; 
but finding the feed very poor and the water rather 
saline, French felt that he had to push on, and camped 
on the Old Wives Creek on the 12th, and finding 
tolerably good feed, he determined to give the horses 
their well earned rest. While camped here the force 
was visited by a number of the Sioux of the Sipeton 
Tribe. 



23 



Hearing there was a probability of obtaining some 
oats from the Boundary Commission at Wood Moun- 
tain Depot about 40 miles south, Col. French des- 
patched the Assistant Commissioner thither with a 
party to obtain some. McLeod on his return, brought 
out with him some 15,000 lbs., and Col. French ar- 
ranged with the Commissary of the Boundary Com- 
mission for the delivery of 20,000 more at the Cripple 
Camp, or Depot, which he had decided to form at 
the site of the camp, and for the delivery from the 
Commission's trains coming east of 25,000 more (in 
all 60,000 lbs) but eventually the force was only able 
to receive 20,000 more from this latter source. 

On the 19th, the Commissioner established his De- 
pot of Cripple Camp at a point two miles west of 
where the force had been camped, as there was good 
grass, water and wood there. Here he left 14 waggons, 
28 of the poorest horses, 7 men, (five being sick) a 




A Typical Group of Indians and their Mounts. 

half-breed and some footsore cattle, also 20 days' 
provisions for the returning Force, and stores of all 
kinds that were not absolutely necessary to take on, 
pushing on the same afternoon 12 miles farther. For 
the next few days the force made good marches, 
sighting the Cypress Hills on the afternoon of the 
24th and camping close under them on the 25th to 
await the arrival of the Assistant Commissioner with 
the oats. During this period there was no particular 
incident to record except the stampeding of the horses 
of "D" troop on the night of the 20th, carrying away 
with them some of " B " troop. 

In addition to stampeding from ordinary causes, 
throughout this historical prairie march, the officers 
of the force had reason to fear stampeding by design, 
either on the part of Indians desirous of obtaining 
remounts, or on the part of whiskey traders, or their 



emissaries. From start to finish every endeavour was 
used to prevent stampeding. 

From Fargo to Dufferin the horses were after dark 
enclosed inside large corrals, formed by waggons and 
the picquet ropes. The grass being very good, the 
days long, and plenty of oats being available, this 
system did fairly. After leaving Dufferin, for many 
days the police were able to cut grass with the scythes 
and mowing machines taken along with the Force, 
tying up the horses at dark, and feeding them with 
grass as well as oats. Then the Commissioner had 
to risk leaving them out all night, and the freshness 
being taken out of them by this time, and their 
being, where possible, sent out by divisions (each 
division guarding their own) they got on fairly under 
ordinary circumstances, nearly all the horses being 
hoppled or " knee-haltered. " Hoppling or knee- 
haltered will not prevent the horses stampeding, but 
it checks the pace, and gives more time to those in 
charge to head the runaways. This system had to be 
pursued for the greatest portion of the trip, and with 
very strong guards and picquets, day and night, the 
force managed to keep the horses together. Still the 
fear of stampeding haunted all ranks. A clap of 
thunder at night was sufficient to banish sleep from 
the eyes of those who felt themselves more particularly 
interested in the success of the expedition; and if the 
storm grew nearer, although desirous of letting the 
horses have every mouthful possible from the scanty 
pasture, yet the commissioner felt compelled to order 
them in before it was perhaps too late. On the 4th 
August Col. French was nearly too late in giving the 
order as the following extract from his diary will shew, 
"Tuesday, 4th. Tremendous thunderstorms between 
12 and 1 a.m. Nearly all the tents blown down; in 
great anxiety lest the horses should stampede ; for- 
tunately had ordered in most of them before the storm 
broke over us ; two lots of horses broke away, but 
were stopped by the picquets. " 

The Force remained from the 24th to the 28th 
August at a small lake (where a large party of Plain 
Hunters and Indians had been camped) awaiting the 
arrival of the Assistant Commissioner with the oats. 
On the 29th the force moved about four miles further 
to get feed for the horses, and on the morning of the 
30th there was another stampede in broad daylight. 
This was in a very awkward place for such an event 
to occur, hills and hollows rendering it impossible to 
see a horse unless quite close to him. The Commissioner 
had begun to hope that he was done with stampedes, 
in fact that the horses were too poor both in flesh 
and spirit to attempt to run, but although the animals 
were in a very poor condition, and had marched just 
594 miles from Dufferin they were off in the same way 
24 



as usual, and, although hoppled, many of them ran 
several miles. All were however recovered. 

While waiting at this camp, the members of the 
force w'ere regaled with stories brought by half- 
breeds relative to the doings of the whisky traders, 
the toughest yarn being that 500 of them were working 
at their forts all the summer, that the Mounted Police 
guns would be little good, as the "free-traders" had 
constructed underground galleries into which to retire, 
etc. 

. On the 31st the Assistant Commissioner arrived 
with the oats, and having sent off letters, pay lists, 
etc., by the returning guide, Col. French pushed on 
nine miles the same afternoon. On the 2nd of Sep- 
tember the column sighted buffalo for the first time. 
This created great excitement as may naturally be 
supposed. Out of a band of six bulls the police 
killed five, one of these, killed by Col. French himself, 
making 953 lbs. of ration meat clear of all offal. 

The following appeared in the Commissioner's 
diary at this date: — 

"September, Wednesday, 2nd. — Started about 7 a.m. 
When out about two hours rode up to the advance guard , 
and observed some moving objects near the left 
flankers, rode out there. Flankers thought they were 
ponies. On going a little farther I felt certain they 
were buffaloes. Presently they began running, leaving 
no doubt in the matter. I took a carbine from one of 
the men, and made after them, headed them and 
turned them towards the train, fired at one which 
dropped back, and was despatched by some one else; 
three went across the creek, I went after them, and 
was joined by the Scout Morreau and Lavallee, we 
each shot one, I fired into the Scout's buffalo as he 
stood at bay, and dropped him. This was a very 
fine beast about ten years old; he made, when dressed, 
953 lbs. ration meat. 

"Thursday, 3rd, left at 7 a.m. — I find that although 
1720 lbs. of ration meat were issued yesterday, from 
the twobuffalos which had been cut up, there is nothing to 
show for three others which had been killed, the half- 
breeds merely cutting slices of the meat off, and 
carrying it along. Julien ran a buffalo, and killed 
him. I came in for the finish, had the beast cut up, 
and brought it on an ox-cart. The men having plenty 
of meat. I had this fellow cut up, placed in one of 
the water barrels and well salted. The salt we had 
carried so far now comes in useful. There being no 
grass had to make a stretch of 17^ miles without 
halting. Next stage, 20 miles, no water. " 

On the 4th September the force was visited by a 
party of Sioux, to whom Col. French gave .some pre- 
sents. The country the force had been travelling in 
had been very hard on horses and oxen; there being 



no trail for the last 150 miles, and the little swamps 
that the force used to depend on for feed and water had 
been destroyed by the buffalo. French's only reliable 
guide knew the country no farther. On the 6th the 
column struck the Saskatchewan, it being half a day's 
march nearer than had been supposed, and an American 
scout accompanying the force insisted that the force 
was at the Forks, but as there were no Forks in the 
vicinity he had to admit he was wrong, and added that 
the Forks were 12 miles more north. To his disgust 
Col. French told him he would steer south-west instead. 
In fact he had little doubt then as to the situation of 
the force, and on the 9th,camp was pitched within three 
miles of the Forks of the Bow and Belly Rivers without 
knowing it. On the 10th the column moved seven 
miles farther, finding water by watching the flight of 
some ducks, and camped there. Some sandhills the 
column passed denoted that they ought to be in the 
vicinity of the Forks, but not having seen a very pro- 
minent landmark mentioned by Palliser, French was 
very doubtful of the position. 

Sending back Inspector Walsh with a small party to 
near where the force camped on the 9th to examine the 
river there, he reported that another large river 
came in from the north, and he found also the land- 
mark French had been looking for, thus leaving no 
doubt in the matter. 

Three deserted log huts without roofs were the only 
forts visible. 

And so the force were at last at their journey's end, 
the Bow and Belly Rivers. 

The force had marched westward across the unknown 
prairie a distance of 781 miles from Red River, and 
after the first eighteen miles had not seen a single 
human habitation, except a few Indian tepees. 

It was now the middle of September, and the appalling 
fact was ever pressing upon the mind of the Com- 
missioner that on the 20th of September the previous 
year the whole country from the Cypress Hills to the 
Old Wives Lakes was covered with a foot of snow, 
several men and horses having been frozen to death. 

Starting on the return march at once Colonel French 
could not possibly reach that portion of the country 
till well into October. However the snow storm above 
mentioned had been exceptionally early, and he hoped 
for the best, while determined to prepare for the worst. 

From what the Commissioner had heard of the fer- 
tility of the soil on the Bow and Belly Rivers he had 
hoped that the horses and oxen would have been able 
to have pulled up greatly in condition by a week's 
rest in that vicinity, but in reality the force had to 
leave there as (juickly as possible to prevent their being 
actually starved to death. In fact several of the oxen 
did die of starvation, but the mistake is now readily 



25 



accounted for; those who travelled along the base of found telegrams awaiting his arrival, by one of which 

he learned that the Government approved of a strong 
force being left on the Belly River, and by another, 
that Swan River in the vicinity of Fort Pelly, and not 
Fort EUice had been selected as the site for the head- 
quarters of the force. 

At Fort Benton, Colonel French got at last some 
reliable information about the whisky traders and 
their doings, and arranged with the Assistant Com- 
missioner that he, with a portion of the force, should 
move to the vicinity of Fort " Whoop Up " on the Belly 
River, this being the whisky traders' headquarters 
and main scene of operations. 

The officers of the force at Benton also found to their 
satisfaction that the cost of getting in supplies via the 
United States would not be half as much as if the force 
had been stationed at Edmonton. Having purchased 
16 horses and ponies and a small quantity of supplies. 
Colonel French left Benton on the 26th to rejoin the 
force. 

The information obtained at Benton as to the whis- 
ky forts in the Bow River and Belly River country 
proved very reliable. 

With regard to the forts supposed to be at the Forks 
of the Bow and Belly Rivers which had been particu- 
larly mentioned in Col. French's instructions, the forts 
were really at the junction of the Saint Mary and Belly 
Rivers. Persons travelling along the Porcupine Hills, 
and across the head waters of the Bow and Belly Rivers 
on being told that Fort " Hamilton " Fort " Whoop 
Up" or Fort "Stand Off" was at or near the "Forks" 
had readily supposed that the Forks of the Bow and 
Belly Rivers were meant, when their Indian or half- 
breed guides did not mean those Forks. In this man- 
ner, no doubt, the Adjutant General of Militia, Colonel 
Robertson- Ross, fell into the error of locating Fort 
Hamilton at the Forks of the Bow and Belly Rivers. 

The word "Fort" as used in these regions was also 
explained. It is no wonder that people should have 
felt alarmed at hearing that there were eight or ten 
forts between the Belly River and Edmonton; but 
when it was explained that any log hut where a trader 
makes his headquarters is a Fort, the cause for alarm 
disappeared. These forts were usually named after 
the trader who built them, as Fort "Kipp", Fort 
"Hamilton," &c. Fort "Whoop Up," in its day, 
appears to have been a central depot for most of them, 
and this was by comparison a fortification. 

On October 5, Col. French, with his returning column 
arrived at the Hudson Bay post on the Qu'Appelle, 
the first human habitations (wigwams and tents ex- 
cepted) seen by the force since the 10th July. The 
force had marched 363 miles in the past 15J days, 
including some time lost at the Cripple Camp, being 



the Rocky Mountains, reporting on the fertihty of the 
soil on the head waters of the Bow and Belly Rivers, 
and somehow these reports got to be applied to the 
whole courses of these rivers. 

On the 11th the force moved up to the Belly River, 
but could not find a ford at first, the water being too 
deep and rapid. Pushing up along the river to a point 
about 16 or 18 miles above the Forks a ford was found. 
After reconnoitering up both rivers, the force 
proceeded to the Three Buttes or Sweet Grass Hills, 
half way between the Forks and Benton, where there 
was reported to be plenty of wood, water and grass. 

It was decided that as soon as a satisfactory place 
for a camp could be found, to move there, and after 
obtaining reliable information regarding the whisky 
trading posts, to open up communication with the 
Government at Ottawa. This latter could compara- 
tively easily be done via Fort Benton, across the In- 
ternational boundary line, in Montana. 

The choice of a camping ground, was not so easy as 
it might seem owing to the poor condition of the grass. 

On the 19th September the Force arrived at a Coulee 
close to the West Butte and halted, as the grass ap- 
peared a little better and the water was good. Colonel 
French now found that although the boundary line 
crossed the West Butte high up, yet all the best wood 
was south of the line. This did not look so very pro- 
mising. Notwithstanding, however, the Assistant Com- 
missioner was satisfied to build quarters there and re- 
main for the winter. 

Without any unnecessary delay the arrangements 
were completed for the selection and equipment of the 
force to remain in the Bow River district under tlie 
Assistant Commissioner, and also for the return of the 
rest of the force, which it was decided to march to 
Swan River via Cripple Camp depot. Fort Qu'Appelle 
and Fort Pelly. 

It was decided that " B, " " C " and " F " divisions 
should remain with the Assistant Commissioner, " D " 
and "E" divisions to return to the new headquarters 
with the Commissioner. On the 21st the Commissioner 
arranged for the departure of "D" and "E" divisions, 
selected all the best horses and oxen, left behind all 
stores not absolutely necessary, and moved on with 
them to the Boundary Commission Road, about 7 
miles south. 

On the morning of the 22nd Colonel French de- 
tached himself from the column and started for Benton 
with the Assistant Commissioner and a small party, 
(with empty carts) to communicate with the Govern- 
ment, receive instructions, and obtain some necessary 
supplies of oats, moccasins, socks, &c., &c. 

On arriving at Benton on the 24th the Commissioner 



26 



an average of over 24 miles per diem. At the Qu'Ap- 
pelle the police received much civility and kindness 
from Mr. Maclean, the officer in charge of the Hudson 
Bay Company's post. 

Having sent off despatches to Government via Fort 
Ellice, announcing the safe arrival of the force thus 
far, Col. French moved the main body across the River 
Qu'Appelle on the evening of the 16th, camping on 
the top of the bank, where the feed appeared pretty 
good. At Qu'Appelle, the force became aware of 
some extraordinary stories that had been going the 
rounds of the Eastern press relative to their safety, 
to the effect that not alone were the horses all dead, 
except four, but that the men were all starving, and 
by no possibility could they return. 

Leaving the north bank of the Qu'Appelle on the 
morning of the 17th, the force marched through a 
fine park-like country, good soil, grass abundant, and 
nice clumps of timber dotted over the surface. After 
the first few miles, however, the force found the country 
completely burned in every direction. 

On the 21st Col. French rode ahead of the force, 
passing Fort Pelly and then proceeding on ten miles 
to Swan River. Here he found the barracks in course 
of erection on the south bank of the Swan River; 
the fires had run up almost to the buildings, the woods 
a few hundred yards to the west were all on fire. No 
part of the barracks was finished, and some of the build- 
ings had not even been begun; the amount of work 
done in such a short time was marvellous nevertheless, 
and if the buildings were not ready for occupation, 
it was not for want of zeal and energy on the part of 
the gentleman superintending their construction, Mr. 
Hugh Sutherland. 

But there was worse news than this in store for the 
Commissioner, half the hay had been burned, and the 
Hudson Bay Company, from whom he might have 
bought some, lost 300 loads, and had not enough 
for their own stock. The total amount of hay the 
Company's chief officer supposed he had remaining 
was 60 tons, and that having been cut in October did 
not appear particularly nutritious. Some cattle that 
the Commissioner had sent to Fort Ellice on the west- 
ward march had been taken up to Swan River, thus 
making over 200 head of cattle to be wintered. It 
appeared to Col. French that it would be impossible 
to carry out the instructions of Government; but not 
wishing to depart therefrom solely on his own judg- 
ment of what was advisable, he assembled a Board of 
Officers to enquire into and report upon the situation 
of affairs. 

A few extracts from Colonel French's diary at this 
point are interesting: — 

"Wednesday, 2l8t Oct. — Rode on ahea<l of force to 



Pelly, and then on to Snake Creek, a distance of ten 
miles farther. To my horror found barracks in course 
of erection on top of a hill covered with large granite 
boulders, no trees to protect the buildings, and these 
latter strung out in a line a thousand feet long, exposing 
a full broadside to the north, the ground burnt up to 
within 20 feet of the barracks, where it was stopped by 
Mr. Sutherland's men. Shurtliff's news was still 
worse — that half the hay cut had been burnt, the 
Hudson Bay Company (from whom we might have 
purchased) losing 300 loads. 

"Thursday, 22nd. — It being evident that the whole 
force could not be wintered here, I sent a messenger 
last night and ordered the force to halt at any good 
grass near Fort Pelly, three of the senior officers and 
the doctor and veterinary surgeon to come on and 
form a board to enquire into and report on the present 
situation. Fire raging in woods close by. Sent some 
men to assist Mr. Sutherland's men in keeping the fire 
away from the saw mill. The Board report that 
there are only seventy-five tons of hay of a very inferior 
quality. 

"Friday, 23rd. — Arranged matters at Swan River, 
and rode up to Pelly where D and E troops were en- 
camped. Picked out the best horses and strongest 
oxen to take on with us, left all surplus stores, drew 
out across the Assiniboine and camped at the "first 
patch of grass we came to; delayed considerably by 
cattle breaking away through the bush. A horse of 
1) troop could not be found. One ox lost in the woods, 
but believe it went back to E troop camp. " 

Notwithstanding that the Board which reported 
against remaining at Swan River, recommended that 
not more than 80 head of stock should be left there, 
Col. French risked leaving over 100 head, and there 
he also left "E" division, with Inspector Carvell in 
command, and again picking over the strongest horses 
and oxen, on the evening of the 23rd he moved across 
the Assiniboine with " I) " division and the staff, en 
route to Fort p]llice. 

The weather now remained cold and foggy. On 
the 27th Col. French's now small column was met by 
a drove of 84 head of cattle, en route to Swan River, 
and he turned them back. On the 28th the Com- 
missioner arrived in the valley of the Assiniboine 
opposite Fort Ellice. On the 1st November he met 
Paymaster Clark and his small party en route for 
Fort Polly and turned them back. 

November 7. — I) division reached Winnipeg, and 
on orders from Ottawa, proceeded by easy stages to 
Dufferin to pass the winter. 

In his report, which has been drawn upon largely 
in this chapter, Lieut.-Colonel French embodied the 
following remarks on the objects of the expedition 



27 



and the spirit evinced by the officers and men com- 
posing it : 

"For the credit of the Dominion and of humanity, 
it was absolutely necessary that a stop should be put 
to the disgraceful scenes that were daily being enacted 
on the Bow and Belly Rivers and the Cypress Hills. 
The immense distance to this place, and the shortness 
of the season for operations, necessitated a mounted 
force being despatched. 

"The Mounted Police were being organized for the 
preservation of law and order in the North- West 
Territories, but consisted only of about 120 men and 
50 horses at the time this expedition was contemplated. 
Nevertheless it was decided, for very good reasons, 
that the work of establishing law and order where 
all was lawlessness and violence should be entrusted 
to the Mounted Police. 

" Tied down by no stringent rules or articles of war, 
but only by the silken cord of a civil contract, these 
men by their conduct gave little cause of complaint. 
Though naturally there were several officers and 
constables unaccustomed to command, and having 
little experience or tact, yet such an event as striking 
a superior was unknown, and disobedience of orders 
was very rare. Day after day on the march, night 
after night on picquet or guard, and working at high 
pressure during four months from daylight until dark, 
and too frequently after dark, with little rest, not 
even on the day sacred to rest, the force ever pushed 
onward, delighted when occasionally a pure spring 
was met with. There was still no complaint, when 
salt water or the refuse of a mud hole was the only 
liquid available. And 1 have seen this whole force 
obliged to drink liquid which when passed through a 
filter was still the color of ink. The fact of horses 
and oxen failing and dying for want of food never 
disheartened or stopped them, but pushing on, on 
foot, with dogged determination, they carried through 
the service required of them, under difficulties which 
can only be appreciated by those who witnessed 
them. 



"Where time was so valuable there would be no 
halting on account of the weather. The greatest 
heat of a July sun or the cold of November in this 
northern latitude made no difference; ever onward 
had to be the watchword, and an almost uninterrupted 
march was maintained from the time the force left 
Dufferin with the thermometer 95° to 100° in the 
shade, till the balance of the force returned therein 
November, the thermometer marking 20° to 30° below 
zero, having marched 1959 miles." 

The complete list of officers upon the occasion of the 
departure of the force from Dufferin in 1874 was as 
follows: 

Lieut.-Col. George A. French, Commissioner. 

Major James F. Macleod, C.M.G., Assistant Com- 
missioner. 

Staff: J. G. Kittson, M.D., Surgeon; Dr. R. B. 
Nevitt, Assistant Surgeon; W. G. Griffiths, Paymaster; 
G. D. Clark, Adjutant; John L. Poett, Veterinary Sur- 
geon; Charles NicoUe, Quartermaster. 

*'A" division — W. D. Jarvis, Inspector; Severe 
Gagnon, Sub-Inspector. 

"B" division — G. A. Brisebois, Inspector; J. B. 
Allan, Sul>Inspector. 

"C" division — Wm. Winder, Inspector; T. R. Jack- 
son, Sub-Inspector. 

"D" division (Staff division) — J. M. Walsh, Inspec- 
tor; James Walker and John French, Sub-Inspectors. 

"E" division — Jacob Carvell, Inspector; J. H. 
Mcllree and H. J. N. Lecaine, Sub-Inspectors. 

''F" division — L. N. F. Crozier, Inspector; Vernon 
Welsh and C. R. Denny, Sub-Inspectors. 

By special invitation of the Commissioner, Mr. Henri 
Julien, of Montreal, accompanied the expedition as 
artist and correspondent of the " Canadian Illustrated 
News." Mr. Julien, who still resides in Montreal, in 
the exercise of his art, and is conceded to be the most 
talented black and white artist in Canada, as he is one 
of the most skilful newspaper artists in America, was 
attached to the staff of the force during the expedition. 




28 




CHAPTER III. 



THE FIRST WINTER IN THE FAR WEST. 



Hardships of the Pioneers op Fort Macleod — The Illicit Whisky Trade Suppressed and Law 
AND Order Established — A Marvellous Change — The First Detachment on the Saskatche- 
wan — Trouble with the St. Laurent Half-Breeds — General Sir Selby Smyth's iNsPEcmoN 
and Favourable Report. 



WHFJN one considers the position of ('olonel 
Macleod and his little force of 150 men, left 
to face all the dangers of that first winter 
in the far west, he cannot fail being struck with its 
manifold perils. 

There was, first, the complete isolation of the force, 
nearly eight hundred miles from the nearest reinforce- 
ment, although fortunately within much nearer means 
of communication via Henton. Then there was the 
inexperience of officers and men and their lack of 
knowledge of the country in which they were located. 
The region in the immediate vicinity of the locality 
chosen as the site of post had only been imperfectly 
reconnoitred, owing to the neces.sity of husbanding 
the .strength of the already-fatigued horses, and the 
im|K>rtance of the Commissioner beginning his return 
march without a day's delay. All of the whisky 
trudiim iK)sts refMirted to exist in the country had not 
been located, and it was announced in Henton that 
many of the illicit traders and other dtwfx'radoes who 
infested the country before the advent of the police, 
and had withdrawn before French's advance, had ex- 
pressed their intention to niturn as soon as Colonel 
French and the heailcjuarters of the force had started 
for the east. So the whisky traders might be still 
considered as one element of trouble and <hinger. 
Then there were the Indians, whose numl)ers and <lis- 
[Mwition were largely an unknown quanttty. 



And for a time Colonel Macleod's hands must be 
necessarily tied owing to the necessity of providing 




Jhith'h I'arquharHon Maflood, C.M.Ci., CommiHNiuncT of the 
N.W M.P. from July io, 1876, to Ort. 30, 1880. 



29 



shelter for his men and Hve stock, and to the fact that 
his horses were in very poor condition, the best having 
been selected for the Commissioner's column, and only 
the weakest, including a large proportion of absolutely 
run-down animals, left with the Assistant Commissioner. 

The difficulty of obtaining forage, and the ignorance 
of the little force as to the peculiar climatic conditions 
prevailing in this part of the Dominion proved to be 
among the worst dangers which had to be faced and 
overcome. 

But all the dangers were faced manfully and without 
any signs of quailing. 

Immediately upon his return from Fort Benton, 
the Assistant Commissioner chose as the best site for 
his headquarters a level strip of land within one of 
the curves or loops of the Old Man's River, this situa- 
tion assuring him a supply of water and wood, and 
seemingly a good prospect of a natural hay crop. 
The high banks of the river afforded shelter from the 
north wind, and the position was an admirable one 
from a strategical point of view, commanding the 
route frequented by the United States traders. 

It having been decided to call the position Fort 
Macleod, in honour of the Assistant Commissioner, 
work was at once begun at preparing timber for the 
erection of barracks, including besides living quarters 
for the officers and men, stables, hospital, storehouses, 
magazine, etc. The post was built of cottonwood 
pickets, the spaces between the pickets being filled 
with mud, and the roofs covered with sods and sand. 
The preparation of the lumber was found to be of so 
laborious a character that a portable saw mill was 
purchased and forwarded to Fort Macleod during 
the season of 1875, but it was not in working order 
antil the autumn of 1876. It was then employed 
in cutting lumber for flooring and roofing purposes, 
the original roofs of turf and sand proving very 
unsatisfactory. No time was lost in attempting to 
secure a supply of forage for the horses and fresh meat 
for the men. The police had to do most of these things 
themselves, but some men were attracted to the spot 
from across the lines, and a little hired assistance was 
secured. 

But it was a strenuous autumn and a hard and 
trying winter for all ranks. 

The Assistant Commissioner, naturally had to bear 
in mind the special duty the Force under his imme- 
diate command had been assigned to perform, and as 
soon as the work on the new post had been fairly 
started, he proceeded to locate the various trading 
posts in the region, ascertain the nature of the business 
conducted by the various traders, and take steps to 
put a stop to illegal trading of all kinds. Fort Ha- 
milton, the principal trading post remaining in opera- 

30 



tion was entered by a force under the personal com- 
mand of the Assistant Commissioner, October 9, 1874. 
This fort was situated on the west side of and 300 feet 
from the Belly River, near the mouth of the St. Mary's 
River, near the site of the present thriving town of 
Lethbridge, the centre of the Alberta mining industry. 
The post was of the stockade type, almost square, 
and with two bastions, or " flankers " as they were 
generally called on the frontier. The walls were loop- 
holed, and there were two three-pounder guns in the 
position. Within the stockade, and opening on to 
the central square, were a blacksmith's shop, stables, 
fur store, trading store, store room, post kitchen, 
dwellings, etc. Outside the stockade were two de- 
tached corrals and a hay shed, and less than 300 yards 
away were the charred remains of the old "Fort 
Whoop-Up," which had been partly destroyed by 
fire. In close proximity to this fort in the autumn 
of 1870 occurred the last great fight between the Crees 
and Assiniboines and their hereditary enemies of the 
Blackfoot Confederacy, including Blackfeet, Bloods 
and Piegans. The smallpox had been ravaging the 
camps of the Blackfeet nations on the Belly and St. 
Mary Rivers around Forts Kipp and Whoop-Up, 
and the Crees and Assiniboines deemed it an oppor- 
tune time to exact revenge for past reverses, and put 
a Force of 700 braves upon the warpath. The attack- 
ers foiled in their attempt to take their enemies by 
surprise, retired down the bed of the Pelly River, 
where a fierce and bloody running fight took place, 
the Cree tribes losing some 300 killed and wounded, 
the Blackfeet a little less than 100. 

There is no better way to give an adequate idea of 
the work the force on duty in the far west had to per- 
form that first year, or the hardships they had to en- 
dure, than to quote, in extenso, some of Colonel Mac- 
leod's concise reports to the Commissioner. 

The Assistant Commissioner had hoped to be able 
to procure forage for all his horses in the immediate 
vicinity of Fort Macleod for the winter, but on October 
20th he wrote the Commissioner, via Benton, as 
follows : — 

"I am now forced to the conclusion, that it would 
be perfectly impossible to keep the whole of the horses 
here for the winter. There is hardly any hay to be 
cut at this late season of the year, and what there is 
lies in small patches at distances of eight and ten 
miles from here. I have engaged men to cut as much 
as can be got, and have to pay them $15 for doing so. 
From this source I will consider myself lucky if I get 
even 25 tons. I have been able to buy about 15 tons 
of rather good hay from different parties, and there is 
I believe about 20 tons cut out on the prairies, the 
owner of which I have at last found out, and expect in 



camp every day, as he is coming out with suppHes. 
I have had two racks made for our own waggons, 
and am now having two large ones made for Baker's 
waggons, which will hold 5 tons at a load, so altogether 
I shall be well off if I can secure 50 or 60 tons. 

" With regard to the supply of meat for the detach- 
ment, I was able to procure a plentiful supply of buffalo 
meat, shot by our people, which lasted for several days 
after we got here. But although we saw splendid 
herds, in much larger numbers than you saw near 
Benton, just before crossing the St. Marys, not one was 
to be seen on this side. I thought it impracticable to 
send men off long distances in search of them, so I 
bought as much as carried us along at different times, 
the price at first being five cents a pound and at last, 
two cents. The buffalo having now come nearer, 
three of our men with Mr. Lavallee killed enough for 
our detachment in one day to last for a week. As soon 
as the present press of work is over, I hope to commence 
killing enough for our winter suppl}' as well as to secure 
enough robes for the whole force. When the storm 
came on I issued out of the lot seized by Mr. Crozier, 
50 robes to the men, and bought 105 more at $4.25 
U.S. currency, which were also issued." 

In the continuation of this letter dated October 30th, 
Colonel Macleod wrote: — 

" I am happy to be enabled to inform you that al- 
though we have all been very busy in the construction 
of our winter quarters, we have been able to carry on 
some police work as well, and have struck a first blow 
at the liquor traffic in this country. 

"I found out from an Indian named 'Three Bulls' 
that a colored man of the name of William Bond, who 
has a trading post at a place called 'Pine Coule' 
about 50 miles from here, (I was told it was 40), had 
traded a couple of gallons of whisky for two horses of 
his. I saw that I had to be very careful in not raising 
the suspicion of a lot of men, who were continually 
riding into camp, so I told Jerry Potts, the interpreter, 
to get all the information he could and arrange to meet 
'Three Bulls' on the road next night about dark. Mr. 
Crozier was next morning to select ten of the best men 
and horses, out of the whole detachment, and hold 
himself in readiness to move at a moment's notice. 
Next afternoon, just l)efore dark, without letting any 
of them know where they were to go to, they left this 
camp, guided by Potts. I gave Mr, Crozier written 
instructions to guide him; amongst others, to seize 
all robes and furs of any kind which he suspected had 
been traded for li(|Uor, and in addition a sufficient 
amount of gcKKls and chattels, to .satisfy the fine which 
in each case might be imiM)s<*d. I was very glad to 
find by your instructions that you had directed me to 
seize the roljcs, &c., traded; and I .see no other way in 



this country to secure the fine except by seizing pro- 
perty enough at the time the seizure is made, and not 
to wait for a distress warrant after the fine is imposed. 
" Mr. Crozier executed his mission in a most satisfactory 
manner. Two days afterwards he appeared in camp 
with the colored man in custody and four others, all 
of whom he had captured about 45 miles from here. 
He found the five in possession of two waggons, each of 
them containing cases of alcohol, and brought the 
whole party with their waggons, 16 horses, 5 Henry 
rifles. 5 revolvers and 116 buffalo robes, into camp. I 
confiscated the robes, and tried each of the prisoners, 
for having intoxicating liquors in their possession. 

"All the inspectors sat with me to try the cases. 
I fined the two principals and Bond, who was their 
interpreter and guide, $200 each, and the other two 
$50 each. They were acting as hired men for the other 
two. Next day Mr. Weatherwax, a gentleman I dare- 
say you have heard spoken of in Benton as ' Wavey ', 
came to me and paid all the fines, except Bond's, and 
his I fancy he would not pay, as I detained him on the 
other charge of trading liquor to ' Three Bulls. ' Bond 
said he thought he would raise the amount, so he will 
undergo his imprisonment as per state enclosed. I 
wanted ' Three Bulls ' to get some more evidence about 
this matter, but the Indians have no idea of evidence, 
and think that if they tell you a witness to a trans- 
action is in a camp near by it is all that is required. 
He brought me a horse as a present,, and said that he 
had several men at the camp who saw the transaction. 
I of course refused to take the horse, telling him that 
it was not considered right for a judge to take any pre- 
sents from a party who had a case before him. He was 
in great distress at my refusal, but promised to bring 
the witness I wanted. They have moved off 12 miles 
from here for a buffalo hunt, but I expect them back 
again before long. 1 think it best, although I have a 
subpcena all ready for both 'Three Bulls' and his 
witness, to avoid using any compulsory process until 
they understand things better. " 

December 4, Colonel Macleod wrote to the Commis- 
sioner: 

"Since I last wrote you by Inspector Walsh, I have 
had no opportunity of sending this letter to I^enton. 
Indeed if 1 had it would have been almost impossible 
to write on account of the extreme cold weather we have 
had. Nearly the whole of hist month, the thermometer 
stood very low. one night going down to minus 30 and 
one week averaging only 2. The cold, too, was accom- 
panied by very heavy winds, and such a fall of snow as 
had not l)een known in the country by any of the 
.settlers. Fortunately in the valley of this river it has 
not fallen to such a depth, as in other places, even 
between this and the Belly River the difference is very 



31 



great, and I hear that between this and Benton it has 
fallen to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Last Saturday evening 
closed in with the thermometer at 20 below, and Sunday 
morning dawned with a most delicious warm sunshine 
with the atmosphere as calm and pleasant as on a day 
in spring, the thermometer standing at 44 above. I 
am happy to say that the same kind of weather has 
continued ever since, with now and then a very strong 
wind from the west. The snow about here has quite 
disappeared, and is only to be seen on the hill-tops. 
" The bad weather had a very serious effect in re- 
tarding operations on our quarters. I was able, how- 
ever, to place the men all under shelter of a roof, with 
chimneys half built, but sufficiently high to admit of a 
fire being put on, before the severest weather overtook 
us. The officers, with the exception of Winder, Jack- 
son and the Doctor, took possession of the kitchen, 
and have made themselves tolerably comfortable. I 
have taken advantage of Mr. Conrad's invitation, and 
am now staying with him in a house he has built close 
to the fort. Winder's tent, doubled, is pitched in the 
woods, and with a stove inside they are very com- 
fortable. Our quarters are now being pushed, and I 
hope to be in, in a week at the most from now. 

"The very cold weather had a very decided effect 
on the health of the men, the sick list one day having 
reached 45, mostly colds. I had eight of the men 
removed to a couple of forts near here; they have all 
but two now quite recovered, and the doctor reports 
that they are progressing very favourably, and will 
return in a day or two. The hospital is nearly ready, 
for any 'v\^ho may require to be sent there. I have 
left nothing undone that I could think of to make 
the barracks as comfortable as circumstances permit. 
The constables' mess is on one side, and the kitchen 
and wash-house at the other, with a latrine, connected 
with a covered passage, with the wash-house. The 
quarter-master's stores are now complete, and are 
now readily filled with the supplies, which have nearly 
all arrived. The trains bringing them here lost 33 
oxen during the severe weather. 

"I find that I cannot get any of the hay I spoke of 
in a former letter as being out on the prairies. Be- 
tween the snow and the buffalo, it has all disappeared. 
I had consequently almost made up my mind to send 
some more of the oxen by Baker's men into Benton 
for the winter, intending to send them to Fort Ha- 
milton for some days and feed them there on hay and 
oats before they started on their longer journey, but 
the state of the roads precluded the possibility of 
doing so, and I was dreadfully perplexed as to what 
to do. I have now been able to procure 18 tons of 
hay here, at the enormous expense of $50 per ton, 
and about the same quantity at Fort Kipp, at $27 per 



ton. There are also 10 tons more at Fort Kipp which 
no one here has a right to sell which I have taken 
possession of, and will pay the owner, when he turns 
up, a reasonable sum for. Instead of incurring the 
expense of getting this hay from Fort Kipp brought 
up here, I have sent Inspector Brisbois with a detach- 
ment of 14 men and 14 horses to remain at that place. 
Besides having the horses fed there I thought it ad- 
visable to have a small body of police at that point, 
as there is a large camp of Indians close by, and I am 
informed that there is good reason to believe that a 
large quantity of whisky is ' cached ' in the neigh- 
bourhood. When Inspector Walsh returns I shall 
send 8 or 9 horses more down there. Some of our 
horses have never recovered from their weak state 
consequent upon their long journey and bad feed. 
A few have succumbed, notwithstanding their being 
treated with the greatest care. I had a sling made, 
with a block and tackle, to raise them up and rest 
their legs. In some cases they have come round. 




A Glimpse of Old Fort iMaclend. 

but in one case, particularly, nothing appeared to give 
the poor animal strength, he became a mere suspended 
skeleton. So I had a Board upon him, and another. 
The Board recommended that the first be shot, which 
I had done, the latter they thought might be got 
round, but he died the same evening. The severe 
cold appeared to affect the thin ones very much. 

" I am happy to be able to report the complete 
stoppage of the whisky trade throughout the whole 
of this section of the country, and that the drunken 
riots, which in former years were almost of a daily 
occurrence, are now entirely at an end; in fact, a more 
peaceable community than this, with a very large 
number of Indians camped along the river, could not 
be found anywhere. Every one unites in saying 
how wonderful the change is. People never lock 
their doors at night, and have no fear of anything 
being stolen which is left lying about outside; whereas, 
just before our arrival gates and doors were all fastened 



32 



at night, and nothing could be left out of sight. So 
strong was the Indian's passion for whisky, they 
could not be kept out of the traders' houses by locks 
and bars. They have been known to climb up on 
the roofs, and endeavor to make their way through 
the earth with which the houses are covered, and in 
some instances they slid down through the chimneys. 

" The Rev. Mr. McDougall, (Methodist Missionary at 
Morley) has been paying us a visit. He is delighted 
at the change that has been effected. He tells me 
that he believes there are some traders still on Bow 
River. If Walsh brings back the horses I asked the 
Government to allow me, I shall pay them a visit 
before many weeks pass." 

December 15, Colonel Macleod wrote as follows: — 

"I received a letter from the Department, by Walsh, 
informing me that I had been appointed a Preventive 
Officer in H. M. Customs. I have already taken 
inventories of the stocks at several posts about here, 
and intend to-morrow to proceed to Forts Kipp and 
Hamilton to do the same there, and to enter a lot of 
goods which are arriving. I am happy to say that 
a large number of horses are now being imported. 
Immediately before our arrival, large bands of them 
were being continually sent the other way — proceeds 
of the whisky trade. Now a horse can't be got from 
an Indian, and they wish to buy more than the traders 
have to sell. 

"A number of traders are sedulously spreading 
reports amongst the Indians that we are to be here 
for the winter, and that we will be off in the spring. 
All that have come to see me invariably ask how long 
we are going to stay. Their delight is unbounded 
when I tell that I expect to remain with them always. " 

We will now leave the pioneer force of the Mounted 
Police in what is now Southern Alberta and find out 
how it fares with the first detachment on the North 
Saskatchewan. 

It will be recalled that on his march westward 
Lieutenant Colonel French detached from his force 
at La Roche Percee most of 'A' division under the 
command of Inspector W. D. Jarvis with instructions 
to proceed first to Fort Ellice, leave a detachment 
there and thence proceed via Batoche, Fort Carlton 
and Fort Pitt to Edmonton. 

From Inspector Jarvis' report dated FMmonton, 
November 2, 1874, it appears that he and his force 
arrived at Edmonton on October 27th, being on the 
way 88 days altogether, 60 of which were travelling 
days, averaging fifteen miles per diem. 

After leaving Fort Ellice, Jarvis found the pasture 
and water so bad that he had great difficulty in pro- 
curing enough to keep life in the horses and oxen. 

After crossing the South Sa.skatchcwan, near the pre- 



sent village of Batoche, the pasture improved, and 
Jarvis intended resting the animals for some days, but, 
as the little column was overtaken by a severe storm, 
he hurried on to Carlton in the hope of saving the 
horses. At the Fort he obtained from the H. B. offi- 
cials a large store-house in which he stabled them until 
the storm abated, or he would have lost the greater 
part, if not all of them. 

The Inspector also purchased 80 bushels of barley 
which was all he could obtain, and with great care and 
economy made it last to Victoria, where he got a few 
bushels more, also ten bags of barley bran. In spite of 
every precaution the detachment lost several horses 
through exhaustion and sickness, though all possible 
care was taken of them. The greatest loss occurred 
within the last 25 miles, the cold having stiffened the 
horses so much that they could not travel over the 
frozen ground. Several were carried for miles, as the 
men had to lift them every few yards. On the first of 
November there were some which for nearly a month 
had been lifted several times during the day, and had 
they been the Inspector's own property, he reported, 
he would have killed them, as they were mere skeletons. 

From reports Jarvis received from persons he met on 
the road between Carlton and Edmonton he understood 
that a very small quantity of hay had been cut on ac- 
count of the severe rains through the summer covering 
the marshes with water, and as it was late for the 
pohce to cut any, Jarvis deemed it advisable not to 
take the cows, calves or weak oxen beyond Victoria, 
but made a temporary agreement to have them win- 
tered there; oxen and cows at $15 per head and calves 
at $10 for six months, to be fed hay and stabled when 
required. 

Inspector Jarvis wound up his report as follows: — 

" In conclusion, I may state that on looking back over 
our journey I wonder how we ever accomplished it 
with weak horses, little or no pasture, and for the last 
500 miles with no grain, and the latter part over roads 
impassible until we made them. That is to say, I kept 
a party of men in advance with axes, and when practi- 
cable felled trees and made corduroy over mud 
holes, sometimes 100 yards long, and also made a num- 
ber of bridges, and repaired all the old ones. We must 
have laid down several miles of corduroy between Fort 
Pitt and here. Streams which last year, when I crossed 
them, were mere rivulets, are now rivers difficult to 
ford. And had it not been for the perfect conduct of 
the men, and real hard work, much of the property 
must have been destroyed. 

" I wish particularly to bring to your notice the 
names of Troop. Sergt. Major Steele and Constable 
Labelle. S. M. Steele has been undeviating in his 
efforts to assist me, and he has also done the manual 



33 



labour of at least two men. The attention paid by 
Constable Labelle to the horses has saved many of 
them. 

"On arriving here I received stabling and quarters 
for my party,, and can make them comfortable for the 
winter. 

" I should have stated that, on account of the weak 
state of the horses, I left about one waggon load at 
Carlton, also two waggons and a quantity of stores at 
Victoria, and even after thus lightening the loads I 
was obliged to hire 10 oxen and carts to go to Sturgeon 
River (25 miles) to assist some of our carts, as the oxen 
were quite worked out. 

" I also left 4 men in charge of 5 horses (unable at the 
time to walk) about 12 miles back. And after resting 
for two days, being put into a tent at night, they were 
able to bring in four which we are now recovering. " 

The Saskatchewan detachment had this advantage 
over the force which advanced into and remained in 
Southern Alberta. Their route, although rough and 
long, was fairly well known, being used by the Hudson 
Bay Company. The southern force had to find and 
make a trail for itself through a perfectly unknown 
country. Then Inspector Jarvis found the Hudson 
Bay posts at Forts EUice, Carlton and Victoria valuable 
rest and supply stations, and at Edmonton barrack 
accommodation for the winter was obtained, ready for 
occupation. 

It was the Commissioner's intention on reaching the 
forks of the Belly and Bow River to forward a rein- 
forcement northward to Jarvis under Inspector Walsh. 
As a matter of fact, Walsh and his detachment actually 
started, but was recalled by Col. French, as the 
route was declared to be impracticable. 

It will be observed that the disposition of the Force 
during the winter of 1874-75 was as follows: — 

Headquarters and " D " division, Dufferin, Man. 

"B." "C" and "F" divisions under Colonel Mac- 
leod at Fort Macleod. 

"A" division under Inspector Jarvis at Ellice and 
Edmonton. 

" E " division under Inspector Carvell, at Fort Pelly 
and Swan River. 

In the spring, headquarters and " U " division moved 
to Swan River and several outposts were established 
by detachments from all the winter depots. 

During the summer of 1875, Major-General E. Selby 
Smyth, then commanding the Canadian Militia, was 
commissioned by the Dominion Government to make 
a tour of mihtary inspection across the continent to 
the Pacific, to inspect and report upon the North-West 
Mounted Police and the posts occupied by them, and 
to visit the several outposts occupied by the United 
States Army in Montana, Washington and Oregon 



Territories, with the object of conferring with the 
general officers commanding, respecting the repression 
of crime, the capture of criminals on both sides of the 
International Boundary, and the obtaining of inter- 
national co-operation in this important matter. The 
General's official tour between the 24th of May and 
the 15th of November embraced a distance by the 
route travelled, ingoing and returning, of about 11,000 
miles, of which over 2,000 miles were performed on 
horseback, and 600 with pack animals. 

The General's report, particularly in its references 
to the North- West Mounted Police, as he found the 
force in its first year of service in the far west, is 
particularly interesting. 




Superintendent W. D. Jarvis. 

Specially referring to the Mounted Police, in his 
report, which was addressed to the Secretary of State, 
Major General Selby Smyth wrote: 

" I proceeded from Fort Macleod at the base of the 
Rocky Mountains to Fort Shaw in Montana, a distance 
of 250 miles, accompanied by Assistant Commissioner 
Macleod commanding the detachments of the Mounted 
Police in the western division of the North-West 
Territory, and from him I learnt the nature of the 
measures likely to conduce to a more settled state of 
affairs along the frontiers. 



34 



"In compliance with the instructions contained 
in your confidential letter to me, dated June 24th last, 
wherein I am directed in the progress of my tour 
through the North- West Territories to visit as many 
as possible of the Mounted Police Posts and to make 
special inquiry into certain points therein detailed, 
bearing upon the organization, equipment, distribution, 
and general efficiency of the force, I have now the 
honour to report to you that after my return in June 
from reorganizing the Militia in Prince Edward Island, 
and having proceeded westward, to inspect the 
various brigades of militia encamped in Ontario, I 
embarked at Samia on the 2nd July, and passing up 
Lakes Huron and Superior, I reached Fort Garry by 
way of Duluth, Moorhead and the Red River on the 
15th, and after making the necessary inspection 
there, I finally departed for the Prairies on the 19th 
of that month, travelling the first 200 miles in vehicles 
which had been provided for myself and staff as far 
as Shoal Lake, where I met with the first outpost of 
the Mounted Police. 

"From this point I travelled throughout the North- 
West Territories and across the Rocky Mountains, 
fully 1,500 miles, escorted by a party of the Mounted 
Police, until they were relieved at Joseph's Prairie in 
the Kootenay district under arrangements made 
by the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia for 
my further progress to Vancouver's Island. 

"The general opinions I have been able to form of 
the North- West Mounted Police, have been greatly 
influenced by the experience I acquired of them on 
my line of march through the countr} % I shall now 
therefore shortly allude to it. 

" From Shoal Lake post I proceeded direct to Swan 
River, about 140 miles, and on the morning of my 
arrival there I was overtaken by Lieut, Cotton, an 
officer of the Manitoba Artillery bearing despatches 
to me from the Lieutenant Governor of that pro- 
vince, 

"The nature of these despatches was such that 
after a conference with the commandant, Lieut. Col. 
French, I determined to take a force of 50 Mounted 
Police from Swan to Carlton, as a party of observa- 
tion. My reason for coming to this decision arose 
from the important nature of the information conveyed 
in the despatches, and though my impression was 
that the report was somewhat overdrawn, I had no 
possible means, .so far removed from telegraphic or 
postal communication, to test the facts of the case 
except by going to see my.self. 

"I accordingly marche<l the following afternoon 
accompanied by I^ieutenant-Colonel French and 50 
of his men. We crossed the south branch of the 
Saskatchewan and reached Carlton House on the 



eighth day, a distance of 270 miles from Swan 
River. (1)." 

" Leaving the troop of Mounted Police at Carlton, 
I cros.sed the north l)ranch of the Saskatchewan the 
following day, and proceeded by way of Forts Pitt 
and Victoria towards Edmonton, 400 miles; but being 
delayed a day at Sturgeon Creek, a deep and rapid 
stream, in order to construct rafts for its passage, I 
recrossed the Saskatchewan the same afternoon at 
the new post established by Inspector Jarvis. From 
thence Edmonton lies about 20 miles south. 

"Proceeding south, 120 miles, I crossed the Battle 
and Red Deer Rivers, and at the latter found another 
troop which had been with judgment moved to that 
point on learning the rumours afloat about the Carl- 
ton Dumont affair. 

" My staff on the expedition was composed of Cap- 
tain the Honourable M. Stapleton, Coldstream Guards, 
A.D.C., Captain Ward, A.D.C., to his Excellency 
the Governor General, and Lieut, the Honourable 
T. Fitzwilliam, A.D.C., Royal Horse Guards, and 
afterwards joined by the Honourable Evelyn Ellis, 
late Royal Navy. 

" Now as to the sufficiency of the force in respect 
of numbers, discipline, and equipment, including 
horses, arms, saddlery, means of transport, etc. 

" The force consists of 29 officers and 300 men and 
horses; the Commandant is termed Commissioner, 
and his second in command, Assistant Commissioner, 
the remaining officers are respectively inspectors 
and sub-inspectors, and the men designated constables 
and sub-constables, the former answering to the 
status of non-commissioned officers. 

"The force is divided into 6 Divisions of 50 men 
each; it may be considered fairly sufficient for the 
duties it is at present called upon to perform. The 

(1) The trouble, here referred to by General Sir Selliy Smyth was 
with the FVench Half-Bree<lK or Metis who had drifte<l weHtwani from 
Manitoba and had itettled alonK the banks of the South .Saskatchewan 
from Clark's Crossing <lown to the forks of the Saskatchewan. The Half- 
Breeds had always l)een more or less of a disturbinK element in the west 
from their restiveness and sansitiveness, and particularly since the Hed 
Kiver trouble of 18<i9-7() they had be<'n reKarded with more or less suspicion 
by the white settlers. ,\s Manitoba l>eKan to l)e opened up to white settle- 
ment, the Half-Breeds, not merely by families but by settlements, moved 
off towards the west, most of them findinic conxenial homes in the virgin 
prairie alonK the banks of the .Saskatchewan. Here they felt themselves 
free from Kovernment influences and the land surveyor, and were still able 
to pursue with success their favourite occupation of buffalo huntinit. In 
187.5 word reached the Dominion authorities that one of the leadiuK men 
of the Saskatchewan settlement, a niiKhty Ualf-Hreed hunter name<l CJa- 
briel Dumimt, had set up a sort of Provisional (iovernment, somewhat 
after the style of that created by Kiel in the lied River settlement in 1869- 
70. It was reporteil that Dumont and his Kovernment even set up pre- 
tensions to existence completely inde|>endent of the Dominion laws or 
Dominion authority. The (ieneral had a conference with Dumont and 
wime of the other lea<linK Half-Br«>pi|s near the site of the present villaKe 
of Baloche, and it was explainc<t that the only object of the Half-Breeds 
was to intrcxluce a rouKli tribal or municipal orKanization such as was 
customary in Half-Bree<l settlements and huntinK camps. A <lelicate 
warninit as to the futility of attemptinK anythinK further than that was 
given before the (jeneral and his escort move<t on. 



35 



normal effect of its presence has already produced a 
wholesome improvement in the condition of the 
wandering tribes of the prairies, and the nomadic 
inhabitants of the North- West generally, and caused 
a feeling of security throughout the settlements of 
the Territory. 

"For a newly raised force, hastily enrolled and 
equipped, it is in very fair order — its organization 
is based upon sound ^inciples, but there is room for 
improvement in several respects on which I pre- 
sent herewith a confidential report. It will be rea- 
dily understood that in the detached state of the 
force, so much time having been occupied in providing 
shelter for men and horses, it has hitherto been next 
to impossible to bestow proper attention on discipline, 
interior economy, equitation, the care of horses, sad- 
dlery, equipment, and the duties of constables — all 
of which are quite indispensable. 

" I consider that men should be recruited from the 
rural districts, a few only, for clerks, etc., to be taken 
from towns. The decayed gentleman is a failure. 
They should be active young men, sons of farmers, 
accustomed to face all kind of weather and rough 
work as well as to the use of horses; this element is 
badly wanted in the force. The horses are a very 
fair average lot and they have been generally pur- 
chased in Ontario. I should prefer selecting them 
from rural districts than from horse dealers and sale 
stables. A better, sounder and cheaper description 
of horse could thus be obtained. 

"At Carlton, a small party was left there on my 
passing through, I do not know whether they still 
remain, and I doubt the necessity for them, there 
being no inhabitants at Carlton House except the 
officials and clerks of the Hudson Bay Company. 
The nearest settlement is that of French half-breeds 
at St. Laurent, distant 18 miles, on the right bank of 
the South Saskatchewan, and the Prince Albert Mis- 
sion Station, distant 40 miles, at the forks of its two 
branches. From the latter settlement, supplies of 
every kind are sent to Carlton, which produces nothing. 

" From Carlton to Edmonton, 400 miles, police are 
not required. Forts Pitt and Victoria are little fre- 
quented Hudson's Bay posts, occupied by clerks and 
some retired officials. Along that entire distance of 
400 miles I met no living soul except one travelling 
half-breed and the monthly postman; but nature 
denotes it to be the future abode of a large population. 
It must be inhabited, its balmy climate is inviting, 
warm and genial in the summer, and though the 
winter's cold lasts long, the snow does not lie deep, 
and stock can pasture out all through the year. The 
land is rich and fertile, and would produce all cereal 
crops. It is covered with the most luxuriant herbage, 



and wild vetches, plenty of wood, abundance of 
water, grow, I believe, all the way north, till the 
verge of the great sub- Arctic forest is touched. The 
isothermal lines indicate that the climate is mild, and 
it is well known that the soil is suitable to maintain 
a dense population. 

" The Bow River post (now Calgary) was established 
on my march south by detaching the troop awaiting 
my orders at Red Deer River. Lieutenant - Colonel 
Macleod had, with good judgment, fixed on the spot, 
and made all arrangements. 

"The Hudson Bay Company, had, years ago, tried 
to maintain a post there, but their agents were in- 
timidated by the Blackfeet Indians and soon driven 
away. 

"Of the constables and sub-constables I can speak 
generally, that they are an able body of men, of excel- 
lent material, and conspicuous for willingness, en- 
durance, and, as far as I can learn, integrity of character. 

"They are fairly disciplined, but there has hardly 
been an opportunity yet for maturing discipline to 
the extent desirable in bodies of armed men, and, 
dispersed as they are, through the immensity of space 
without much communication with headquarters, a 
great deal must depend upon the individual intelligence, 
acquirements and steadiness of the Inspectors in per- 
fecting discipline, drill, interior economy, equitation, 
and care of horses, saddlery and equipment, together 
with police duties on which they might be occasionally 
required. 

"A searching inquiry is necessary into the nature 
of the hoof disease among horses at Edmonton. It 
has fallen with fearful effects on the police and other 
horses in that neighborhood. It is supposed to be an 
insect which eats into the hoof in a short time; it is 
very painful and when not attended properly the horse 
dies. 

"This summer a steamer ascended the North Sas- 
katchewan for the first time as far as Edmonton from 
Grand Rapids near Lake Winnipeg. Certainly the 
navigation of both branches of this mighty river, 
abounding with coal and other mineral wealth 
for many hundred miles, will open up the country for 
settlement, reduce the price of transport and provisions, 
and become one of the many causes tending to produce 
a new order of things and abolish monopoly. 

" While it may be considered that 300 men are 
enough to maintain order in the North- West, it is 
evident that this force would be insufficient to put 
down a serious outbreak, should such a very unlikely 
misfortune occur. It would be difficult to collect more 
than 100 effective men of the force at a given point in a 
reasonable time. 

" Militia are not availal:)le in the North- West Terri- 



36 



tory, nor do I consider a mixture of the military and 
civil element at all desirable. There is sufficient of 
the military character about the police, and they have 
the advantage that every man is a limb of the law, 
whereas military cannot act without a magistrate or 
constable. 

"Therefore it is suggested that volunteer police or 
bodies of special constables should be formed at such 
settlements as Prince Albert, St. Albert, St. Ann's and 
St. Laurent, these men to be subject while on duty to 
the same rules as the regular police. 

" Too much value cannot be attached to the North- 



West Police, too much attention cannot be paid to 
their efficiency. We read that not long ago these 
wild Indian tribes of the far west were accustomed 
to regard murder as honourable war, robbery and 
pillage as traits most ennobling to mankind; the 
Blackfeet, Crees, Salteaux, Assiniboines, the Peigans, 
among the most savage of the wild races of Western 
America, free from all restraint and any sort of con- 
trol, waged indiscriminate war with each other and 
with mankind. Law, order, and security for life and 
property were little observed; civil and legal institu- 
tions almost entirely unknown." 



^:^j;5j 




Jf'jtJtJ. 






Hunting Buffalo during the Long March of 1874. (From a sketch by A. Julien in the "Canadian Illustrated News.") 



37 




CHAPTER IV. 

COLONEL MACLEOD, COMMISSIONER 



The Development of the North-West Territories under Proper Protection — Dealings with the 
Indians — The Sun Dance — The Big Treaty with the Blackfeet. 



THE year 1876 brought two important changes 
for the North-West Mounted Pohce. By Order 
in Council of the 20th April, 1876, the control 
and management of the force was transferred from the 
Department of Justice, then presided over by the 
Hon. R. Laflamme, to the Department of the Secretary 
of State, the Hon. R. W. Scott. 

By Order in Council of 20th July, 1876, Lieut.-Col. 
James Farquharson Macleod, C.M.G., was appointed 
to succeed Lieut.-Col. French, as Commissioner. 

Lieut. -Colonel James Farquharson Macleod, C.M.G., 
was one of the first officers appointed to the Mounted 
Police. He had been for some years identified with 
the Ontario Militia, and at the time of taking up his 
first appointment in the Police, was major of the 45th 
Battalion, with the brevet rank of Lieutenant Colonel. 
He took part in Colonel Wolseley's expedition to the 
Red River in 1870 as Assistant Brigade Major of 
Militia, and in recognition of his meritorious services, 
was awarded the brevet rank of Lieutenant Colonel 
and the decoration of C.M.G. 

Lieutenant Colonel G. A. French, now Major General 
Sir George A. French, immediately after giving up the 
appointment of Commissioner, returned to service in 
the British Army and performed distinguished service 
in various parts of the world, being particularly identi- 
fied with the organization and development of the 
defen.sive forces of Australia. He visited Canada with 
Lady French in the summer of 1906, and visited, with 



much interest, the head-quarters of the R.N.W.M.P. 
at Regina, as well as some other posts. 

In July 1876, an escort of eighty-two men was detailed 
to accompany the Lieutenant Governor of the North- 
West Territories on his mission to Forts Carlton and 
Pitt, in connection with the making of a treaty with 
the Cree Indians. 

In consequence of the Indians in the adjoining Ter- 
ritory of Montana being engaged during the summer in 
conflict with the United States troops, it was considered 
necessary, as a precautionary measure, to increase the 
force at Fort Macleod, and also at Fort Walsh, a new 
post established in the Cypress Hills. A hundred men 
were accordingly ordered there from the northern posts. 
Four seven-pounder guns were also purchased from 
the Militia Department and forwarded, together with a 
supply of ammunition, to Fort Walsh. Two nine- 
pounder field guns had previously been supplied to 
Fort Macleod. 

The massing of the force at these posts near the 
frontier no doubt secured tranquility in that section of 
the Territory and prevented the United States Indians 
from using Canadian soil as a base of operations for 
prosecuting the war with the X,^nited States troops. 

On the 22nd of August the following report of Sub- 
Inspector Denny was received from the Assistant Com- 
missioner. 

" According to orders received on July 8th to proceed 
to the Blackfoot camp for the prisoner ' Nataya ', I 



38 



left Bow River on the above mentioned date and found 
the Blackfeet camped about 30 miles above the mouth 
of Red Deer River, that being about 200 miles north- 
east of Elbow River. 

"After having secured the prisoner I was detained 
in camp by a council called by the principal Blackfeet 
chiefs, who invited me to their meeting. 

"They told me that they were very glad we had 
arrived, as at that time they were in a very unsettled 
state, o\\ing to communications that had passed be- 
tween the Blackfoot nation, including Blood Indians 
and Piegans. and the Sioux from across the line. 

" About a month ago the Sioux sent a message to the 
Blackfoot Camp with a piece of tobacco, which the 
Blackfoot chief showed me. The messenger told the 
Blackfeet, from the Sioux, that the tobacco was sent 
them to smoke if they were willing to come across the 
line and join the Sioux in fighting the Crow Indians, 




I'ort Walsh in its Palmy P.-in^. 

and other tribes with whom they were at war, and also 
the Americans whom they were fighting at the same 
time. 

"They also told the Blackfeet that if they would 
come to help them against the Americans, that after 
they had killed all the whites they would come over 
and join the Blackfeet to exterminate the whites on 
t his side. 

"They also told him that the soldiers on this side 
were weak, and that it would take them but a short 
time to take any forts that they had built here, as they 
had taken many strong stone forts from the Americans, 
at small loan to themselves. 

" The Blackfeet had sent an answer to the Sioux a 
short time before I arrived, to the effect that they 
could not smoke their tobacco on such terms, and that 
they were not willing to make peace with the under- 



standing of helping them to fight the whites, as they 
were their friends and they would not fight against 
them. 

" They said as they would not come and help them 
against the Americans, that they would come over to 
this side and show the Blackfeet that white soldiers 
were nothing before them, and that after they had 
exterminated the soldiers and taken their forts they 
would come against the Blackfeet. 

" In consequence of this message the Blackfeet nation, 
when I reached their camp, were in a state of uncer- 
tainty, not knowing how to act, 'Crowfoot,' the 
head chief of the Blackfeet was authorized by the 
nation, all of whom were present, to ask me whether in 
case they were attacked by the Sioux without them- 
selves being the aggressors, and called upon ua, the 
Mounted Police, to help them, we would do so. I told 
them that in case the Sioux crossed the line and attack- 
ed the Blackfeet, without the Blackfeet giving them 
any cause to do so, that we were bound to help them, 
they being subjects of this country, and having the 
right of protection as well as any other sul)jects. 

" The Chief told me that the Blackfeet had told him 
to tell me that as we were willing to help them, in the 
event of the Sioux attacking them, that they would, in 
case of being attacked, send two thousand warriors 
against the Sioux. 

" I thanked them for their offer, and told them that I 
would inform you of all they had told me, and that as 
long as they were quiet and peaceable they would al- 
ways find us their friends and willing to do anything for 
their good. 

"They expressed great satisfaction at all I had told 
them, and promised to do nothing without letting us 
first know, and asking our advice. 

" I distributed some tol)acco among them, and told 
them to let us know of any movements of the Sioux to 
the north. 

"I left them on Friday last, camped together about 
80 miles above the mouth of the Red Deer River. I 
brought the prisoner with me without any trouble, and 
arrived here this day. " 

A copy of this report was forwarded by His Honour 
the Deputy (lovernor, to the Right Honourable the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, from whom a suit- 
able acknowledgment was received by His Excellency 
the (lovernor (leneral. 

During this same year, 1876, representations 
having been made that owing to the destruction o<" 
crops by hail-stones, the inhabitants of the j)arish of 
St. Albert, near Fximonton, were likely to suffer great 
distress during the winter, it became necessary, in 
order to avert the threatened famine, to consider 
what steps should be taken to afford relief, and also 



39 



to prevent the breaking up of the settlement and 
dispersion of the inhabitants. Instructions were 
accordingly given to the officer commanding the 
Police at Edmonton to invite the clergy of the several 
denominations to assist him as a committee for re- 
lieving distress, to such extent as the surplus supplies 
of the Mounted Police would permit, payment at 
cost price and expense of transport to be obtained 
where possible. Where payment not possible, the 
best available security was to be taken for ultimate 
payment in furs or money. 

The strength and distribution of the force at the 
end of the year 1876 was as follows: — Fort Macleod, 
1 Commissioner, 1 Assistant Commissioner, 1 Surgeon, 
1 Quartermaster, 1 Inspector, 5 Sub-Inspectors, 103 
Constables and Sub-Constables, and 105 horses; Fort 
Walsh (Cypress Hills), 1 Quartermaster, 1 Inspector, 
4 sub-inspectors, 95 constables and sub-constables, 
90 horses; Fort Calgary, (1) 1 Quartermaster, 

I Inspector, 33 Constables and Sub-Constables, 
37 horses; Fort Saskatchewan, 1 Inspector, 1 
Sub-Inspector, 20 Constables and Sub-Constables, 
18 horses; Battleford and Carlton, 1 Inspector, 

II Constables and Sub-Constables, 18 horses; 
Swan River, 1 Surgeon, 1 Veterinary Surgeon, 
1 Inspector, 1 Sub-Inspector, 29 Constables 
and Sub-Constables, 10 horses; Shoal Lake, 7 Cons- 
tables and Sub-Constables, 4 horses; Qu'Appelle 5 
Constables and Sub-Constables, 4 horses; Beautiful 
Plains, 4 Constables and Sub-Constables and 3 horses. 

The expenditure during the fiscal year ended 30th 
June 1876, for Mounted Pofice service was $369,518.39 
but that amount included $41,184.47 arrears of the 
years 1873-74 and 1874-75, also a charge of $19,762.95 
for miscellaneous stores taken over from Her Ma- 
jesty's North American Boundary Commission in 
1874-75. 

If the Mounted Police was costing the country 
money, it was rendering good value for the expend- 
iture. Prior to the arrival of the Police at Fort 



(1) The firm of I. G. Baker and Company of Fort Benton, Mont., a 
reputable firm, had a fur trading post at the junction of the Bow and Elbow 
Rivers, close to the site of Fort Calgary when the Mounted Police entered 
the country, and the year after the establishment of Fort Macleod, a de- 
tachment of the Police under Inspector Brisebois, was sent there. A 
contract was entered into by I. G. Baker and Company to erect the ne- 
cessary buildings or fort, very much after the style of the old Hudson 
Bay log huts and stockade. The first police fort was built on the site of 
the new barracks, and was the first permanent structure erected on the 
present town site. Calgary was at first known by a variety of names such 
as "The Mouth", "Elbow River" and "The Junction". When a detach- 
ment was first stationed there it was known in the force as Brisebois'; and 
when the fort was built Inspector Brisebois dated his reports from "Fort 
Brisebois". Finally Colonel Macleod, the Commissioner, was deputed 
by Sir John A. Macdonald to confer a name on the fort, and he called it 
by the name of his paternal home in Scotland, "Calgarry", which is the 
Gaelic for "Clear Running Water". The double "r" does not appear to 
have been popular and so we have the name with the single "r." In 1881 
the Hudson Bay Company established a post at Calgary. 



Macleod, that section of the Territories, as already 
stated, was in possession of outlaws and illicit traders. 

In his report for 1876, the Comptroller, Mr. Fred- 
erick White, was able to report: 

" The liquor traffic is now suppressed, and a number 
of Americans have crossed the border and engaged 
in stock raising and other pursuits in Canadian ter- 
ritory. A village has sprung up around Fort Macleod, 
and trade is rapidly increasing. The customs duties 
collected at this port by the officers of the Pofice 
during the two months ended 31st October last, 
amounted to $16,324.69, and over 20,000 robes were 
shipped from there during the past season. 

"At Cypress Hills, the scene of the massacre of 1873, 
there is also a settlement. The customs collections 
made there by the Mounted Police during the nine 
months ended 30th September last, amounted to 
$5,584.22." 

It will be recalled that in 1872 an Act was passed 
at Ottawa providing for the unorganized territory of 
the North- W^ est by the Lieutenant Governor of Ma- 
nitoba and a council appointed by the federal autho- 
rities. The members of this council, gazetted in 
January 1873 were the Honourables M. A. Girard, 
Donald A. Smith, Henry J. Clarke, Patrice Breland, 
Alfred Boyd, John Schultz, Joseph Dubuc, A. G. B. 
Bannatyne, William Fraser, Robert Hamilton and 
William Christie. There were afterwards added the 
Honourables James McKay. Joseph Royal, Pierre 
Delorme, W. R. Bown, W. N. Kennedy, John H. 
McTarvish and William Tait. 

This Act remained in force until 1875 when a bill 
providing for the further organization and govern- 
ment of the North-West Territories was introduced 
in parliament by the Honourable Alexander Mac- 
kenzie, being passed and coming into force in October 
1876 with the Hon. David Laird as Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. To assist the Governor there was a small 
council consisting of Col. Macleod and Messrs Mat- 
thew Ryan and Hugh Richardson, Stipendary Ma- 
gistrates. 

Immediately after the establishment of the Terri- 
tories, as a separate Government, the Honourable 
Mr. Laird, Lieut.-Governor, proceeded to Winnipeg 
en route for Livingstone, or Swan River Barracks, 
the headquarters of the Mounted Police, which had 
been selected as the Provisional Seat of Government. 
His Honour reached Livingstone on the 11th of Nov- 
ember, and took the oaths of office and entered upon 
his duties as Lieutenant Governor on the 27th of 
that month. 

Just at this time various problems of the vexed, 
and always very delicate, Indian problem pressed upon 
the police and territorial authorities for settlement. 



40 



The Sioux resident in Canada (not including, of 
course, "Sitting Bull" and his followers) occupied a 
somewhat exceptional and anomalous position in 
the country. They were a fragment of the large 
tribe of United States Indians of that name who took 
refuge in British Territory in 1862, immediately after 
the Indian massacre in Minnesota. The bulk of 
these refugees settled near Portage La Prairie, in the 
Province of Manitoba; but a small number of them 
took up their residence at Qu'Appelle, others in the 
neighborhood of Fort Ellice, and others near Turtle 
Mountain, close to the Boundary line, and about 100 
miles from the western limits of that Province. These 
refugees and their children in 1872 numbered alto- 
gether about 1,500 or 2,000. In 1875 two large 
Reserves on the Assiniboine River were assigned to 
the Manitoba Sioux, but it was difficult to induce them 
to settle there. 

Considerable diplomacy and great patience had to be 
exercised to induce even some of the better disposed 
Canadian tribes to abandon their savage habits, in- 
cluding tribal wars, horse and cattle stealing, self- 
torture, such as that practiced at the sun dance, etc. 




Outskirtfi of an Indian Encampment during- a Pow-Wow. 

The sun dance was a sort of religious ceremony in 
which the young braves, graduated from youth, as it 
were, testing their fortitude and stoicism in resisting 
pain and torture. For this ceremony a large lodge, 
built in the shape of an amphitheatre and decorated 
with bits of coloured stuff, was erected, an outer circle 
being divided off by a low barricade for the women, 
the medicine men and chiefs being admitted to the 
centre space. The sides and roof were covered with 
boughs. The performances began with low chants 
and weird incantatioas. The neophytes were then 
brought in and partially stripped, their mothers usually 
taking an active and keenly interested part in the 
ceremony. A spectator at one of these revolting cere- 
monies penned the following description: 

"Then the medicine man began his part by cutting 
slits in the flesh of the young men, taking up the mus- 
cles with pincers. The older squaws assisted in lascer- 
ating the flesh of the boys with sharp knives. The 
women would at the same time keep up a howling, 



accompanied with a backward and forward movement. 
When the muscles were lifted out on the breast by the 
pincers, one end of a lariat (a rope or thong of rawhide 
used for lasooing and picketing ponies) was tied to the 
bleeding flesh, while the other end was fastened to the 
top of the pole in the centre of the lodge. The first 
young man, when thus prepared, commenced dancing 
around the circle in a most frantic manner, pulling 
with all his might, so as to stretch out the rope, and by 
his jerking movements, loosening himself by tearing 
out the flesh. The young man's dance was accom- 
panied by a chant by those who were standing and 
sitting around, assisted by the thumping of a hideous 
drum, to keep time. The young brave who was under- 
going this self-torture finally succeeded in tearing him- 
self loose, and the lariat, relaxed from its tightness, 
fell back towards the centre pole with a piece of 
the flesh to which it was tied. The victim, who, up to 
this time, did not move a muscle of the face, fell down 
on the ground, exhausted from the pain, which human 
weakness could no longer conceal. A squaw, probably 
his mother, rushed in and bore the young brave away. 
He had undergone the terrible ordeal, and amid the 
congratulations of the old men, would be complimented 
as a warrior of undoubted pluck and acknowledged 
prowess. 

"Another of the young men was cut in two places 
under the shoulder blades; the flesh was raised with 
pincers, and thongs tied around the loops of flesh and 
muscle thus raised. The thongs reached down below 
the knees and were tied to buffalo skulls. With these 
heavy weights dangling at the ends of the thongs, the 
young man was required to dance around the circle 
to the sound of the bystanders' chants and the accom- 
panying drum until the thongs became detached by 
the tearing away of the flesh. The young brave con- 
tinued the performance until one of the thongs antl its 
attached skull broke loose, but the other remained. 
The mother of the young man, prompted by an impulse 
of savage affection or maternal pride, then rushed into 
the ring leading a pony with a lariat around his neck. 
Rapidly attaching the free end of the lariat on the 
pony to the skull, which was still attached to the (juiv- 
ering flesh of her son, she led the pony aroimd the ring, 
the young brave being dragged around after it, but 
still making a brave attempt to sustain the ciiant, and 
to break himself free from the skull. Finally, nearly 
exhausted, and unable to keep up with the pony, he 
fell forward on his face, the pony of course keeping on, 
and the thong holding the skull being torn out of the 
flesh. Still the suff'erer, his voice ghastly husky, 
tried to join in the chant as he grovelled on the ground 
in violent contortions for a few moments before being 
removed to the outside of the lodge. 



41 



" A third of the candidates was by the lariat hitched 
to the pony by raised loops of flesh and muscle in his 
back, and was dragged in this way several times round 
the ring; but the steady force not being sufficient to 
tear the noose free from the flesh, the pony was backed 
up, and a slack being thus taken on the lariat, the pony 
was urged swiftly forward, and the sudden jerk tore 
the lariat out of the flesh. " 

Naturally the Mounted Police were desirous of put- 
ting a stop to such debasing and cruel practices, but 
the traditions and susceptibilities of the savages had to 
be considered, and it has taken years of coaxing and 
example by the police, the missionaries and the officials 
of the Indian Department to secure the practical 
abolition of these scenes. 

The negotiating of the more recent Indian treaties 
with various tribes imposed considerable duty in the 
way of escorts, guards, etc., upon the Police. These 
treaties, it should be explained, were entered into for 
the purpose of obtaining the formal consent of the 
Indians to the settlement of the lands over which 
particular tribes were accustomed to roam and hunt, 
and which the Canadian Government honourably 
hesitated to regard as other than the property of the 
Indians until they had relinquished their natural rights 
to its possession by formal treaty. 

In the year 1871, Treaty No. 1 was negotiated at 
the Stone fort or Lower Fort Garry with the Objibbe- 
ways and Swampy Crees, the only two tribes in the 
original province of Manitoba, by Governor Archibald, 
and in the same year a treaty with the Indians farther 
north, as far as Lake Winnipegosis and Behren's 
River, and to the west as far as Fort Ellice. This 
second treaty comprises a tract of country two or 
three times the size of Manitoba. About four thou- 
sand Indians assembled on these occasions, the In- 
dians agreeing to the extinguishment of the Indian 
title to the land on conditions satisfactory to the 
Indians. These first two treaties in Canada's great 
west were negotiated on principles which • experience 
in the older provinces of Canada had proved to be 
mutually fair and just, and which principles have 
been observed in all subsequent treaties made by the 
Dominion with the Indians. In brief, the principles 
in question were that the Indians should have allot- 
ted to them reserves of land that no white men could 
invade and that they themselves could not dispose 
of. Schools were to be established and maintained 
among them, missionary effort encouraged, and re- 
gular rations of food> besides other necessaries 
supplied by the Government up to certain fixed 
values per capita. 

In October 1873, Treaty No. 3 was made at the 
north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods with the 



Salteaux tribe of the Objibb3ways, by which the 
country between Ontario and the limits of the old 
province of Manitoba was ceded. In September 
1874, Treaty No. 4 was made at Qu'Appelle Lakes 
with the Crees, Salteaux, and mixed breeds, by which 
75,000 square miles were ceded. In September 1875, 
Treaty No. 5 was made at Behren's River and at 
Norway House with the Salteaux and Swampy Crees, 
extinguishing their title to the territory all around. 
Lake Winnipeg. In 1876, treaty No. 6 was negotiated 
at Forts Carlton and Pitt, by which the Indian titles 
to the lands along the Saskatchewan and north 
thereof were extinguished. 

Lieut. -Governor Laird, in August 1877, received 
notification that he and Lieut.-Colonel Macleod had 
been appointed Commissioners to negotiate a treaty 
with the Blackfeet and other Indians of the unsur- 
rendered parts of the North- West Territories adjoining 
the International boundary. 

Previous to this time Battleford, on the North 
Saskatchewan, had been selected as the seat of gov- 
ernment for the North-West Territories, and as the 
new Government House, then being erected, was 
about completed, Governor Laird removed his fur- 
niture and other properties to Battleford before 
proceeding to Macleod for the negotiation of the 
treaty. 

Some extracts from the official report of Lieutenant 
Governor Laird are interesting, not only at giving an 
idea of the procedure at these treaty negotiations, 
but as indicating the various, and important duties 
in connection therewith devolving upon the Mounted 
Police. The Governor wrote, in part: 

"On our journey, while within the limits of Treaty 
No. 6, we met scarcely any Indians, but after we 
crossed Red Deer River we met a few Crees and Half- 
breeds, and several hunting parties of Blackfeet. 
The former generally use carts in travelling, but the 
Blackfeet and their associates are always on horse- 
back. 

"The Crees appeared friendly, but were not so 
demonstrative as the Blackfeet, who always rode up 
at once with a smile on their countenance and shook 
hands with us. They knew the uniform of the Mounted 
Police at a distance, and at once recognized and 
approached them as their friends. 

"We resumed our journey on Monday, and arrived 
at Fort Macleod on the Old Man's River, on Tuesday, 
the 4th of September. The distance between the 
Blackfoot Crossing of the Bow River and the Fort is 
about 79 miles, thus making the length of our journey 
from Battleford 365 miles, as measured by Major 
Irvine's odometer. 

" A few miles from Fort Macleod I was met by the 



42 



Commissioner of the Mounted Police and a large 
party of the force, who escorted me into the fort, 
while a salute was fired by the Artillery Company 
from one of the hills overlooking the line of march. 
The men, whose horses were in excellent condition, 
looked exceedingly well, and the officers performed 
their duties in a most efficient manner. 

" Lieut.-Col. Macleod having attended to forwarding 
the supplies to Bow River, which had been previously 
delivered at the fort, left for the Blackfoot Crossing 
with some eighty officers and men of the Police Force, 
on Wednesday, the 12th September. I followed on 
Friday and reached Bow River on Sunday morning. 
The police having arrived on Saturday, the Com- 
missioners were fully prepared for business on Monday, 
the 17th, the day which I had from the first appointed 
for the opening of the treaty negotiations. 

" The Commissioners were visited by ' Crowfoot ', 
the principal Chief of the Blackfeet, shortly after their 
arrival. He desired to know when he and his people 
might meet us. We ascertained that most of the 
Indians on the ground were Blackfeet and Assiniboines 
or Stonies, from the upper part of Bow River. 

During Tuesday several parties of Indians came in, 
but the principal Blood chiefs had not yet arrived. 
According to appointment, however, the Commission- 
ers met the Indians at two o'clock on Wednesday. 

"An outline was given of the terms proposed for 
their acceptance. We also informed them we did not 
expect an answer that day, but we hoped to hear from 
them to-morrow. That day we again intimated to the 
Indians that rations would be delivered to such as 
applied for them. We told them that the provisions 
were a present, and their acceptance would not be re- 
garded as committing the chiefs to the terms projwsed 
by the Commissioners. 

" We then invited the chiefs to express their opinions. 
One of the minor Blood chiefs made a long speech. 
He told us that the Mounted Police had been in the 
country for four years, and had been destroying a 
quantity of wood. For this wood he asked that the 
Commissioners should make the Indians a present pay- 
ment of $50 a head to each chief, and $30 a head to all 
others. He said the Blackfeet, lihxMls. Sarcees and 
Piegans were all one. The police made it safe for 
Indians to sleep at night, and he hoped the (Ireat 
Mother would not soon take these men away. 

" 'Crowfoot ' said he would not sfx'ak until tcnmorrow, 
'Old Sun,' another influential IMackfoot chief, said 
the same. ' Kagle Tail, ' the head chief of the Piegans, 
remarked that he had always followed the advice the 
officers of the .Mounted Police gave him. He hojx'd 
the promise which the Commissioners made would be 
securwl to them as long a« the sun shone and water ran. 



"The Stony chiefs unreservedly expressed their 
willingness to accept the terms offered. 

" Fearing that some of the Indians might regard the 
demands of the Blood Chief who had spoken, if not 
promptly refused, as agreed to, I told them that he had 
asked too much. He had admitted the great benefit 
the Police had been to the Indians, and yet he was so 
unreasonable as to ask that the Government should 
pay a large gratuity to each Indian for the little wood 
their benefactors had used. On the contrary, I said, 
if there should be any pay in the matter it ought to 
come from the Indians to the Queen for sending them 
the Police. 

"Hereupon, 'Crowfoot' and the other chiefs laughed 
heartily at the Blood orator of the day. 

" When the Commissioners (the following day) in- 
timated that they were ready to hear what the chiefs 
had to say, 'Crowfoot' was the first to speak. His 
remarks were few, but he expressed his gratitude for 
the Mounted Police being sent to them and signified 
his intention to accept the treaty. 

" The Blood chief who made the large demands on 
the previous day said he would agree with the other 
chiefs. ' Old Sun ' head chief of the North Blackfeet, 
said 'Crowfoot' spoke well. 'We are not going to 
disappoint the Commissioners. ' He was glad they 
were all agreed to the same terms. They wanted 
cattle, guns, ammunition, tobacco, axes and money. 

" 'Bull's Head,' the principal chief of the Sarcees.said 
' We are all going to take your advice. ' 

'"Kagle Head.' the Piegan head chief, remarked '1 
give you my hand. We all agree to what Crowfoot says. ' 

"'Rainy Chief,' head of the North Bloods, said he 
never went against the white man's advice. Some of 
the minor chiefs s{)oke to the .same effect. 

" The officers of the Police Force who conducted the 
payments, discharged this duty in a most efficient 
manner. Not in regard to the payments alone were the 
services of the officers most valuable. 

" With res|>ect to the whole arrangements, Lieut.- 
Col. Mcl^eod, my a.s.sociate Conunissioner, both in that 
capacity and as Commander of the Police, wjis inde- 
fatigal)le in his exertions to bring the negotiations to a 
successful termination. The same laudable efforts 
were put forth by .Major Irvine, (the A.ssistant Com- 
missioner) and the other officers of the force, and their 
kindness to me, fx^rsonally. I shall never fail to re- 
member. 

"The volunteer band of the force at Fort Machunl 
deserve more than a passing notice, an they did much 
to enliven the whole proceedings. " 

In concluding his refxirt, the Lieut4»nant Governor 
made the following highly flattering recommendation 
with regard to the Mounted Police: 



43 



" I would urge that the officers of the Mounted Police 
be entrusted to make the annual payments to the In- 
dians under this treaty. The Chiefs themselves re- 
el uested this, and I said I believed the Government 
would gladly consent to the arrangement. The In- 



dians have confidence in the Police, and it might be 
some time before they would acquire the same respect 
for strangers. " 

And it was only four years since the force had 
marched into this then unknown country. 




A Lancer of the N.W.M.P. 
A sketch by H. JuHen during- French's March in 1874. 



44 




CHAPTER V. 

THE SITTING BULL INCIDENT 



Unwelcome Visitors from the United States Impose Several Years Hard Work and Grave 
Responsibilities — The Great Sioux Leader and the Custer Massacre. 



FEW more critical positions were ever faced 
by a force entrusted with the preservation of 
law and order in a country than that which 
confronted the North-West Mounted Police when 
Sitting Hull, the Sioux leader, with his warlike and 
powerful nation, after the so-called Custer massacre 
in the United States, crossed the boundary line to seek 
shelter in Canadian territory. 

Sitting Bull and his warriors were flushed with a 
notable military success and liable to act rashly. 
They were warlike, powerful and hard to control, and 
their presence in Canada was a .source of anxiety both 
to the Government of Canada and that of the United 
States. These Indians harboured feelings of fierce 
hostility towards, and thorough distrust of the United 
States people and Government. These feelings could 
be traced to two principal causes, the dishonesty of 
Indian agents and the failure of the U.S. Federal 
authorities to protect the Indian reservations from 
being taken possession of by an adventurous and 
somewhat lawless white population. The officers 
of the North- West Mountetl Police force were promptly 
instructefl to urge upon Sitting Bull and his war- 
riors the necessity of keeping the peace towards the 
people of the United States, but it was felt to be not 
desirable to encourage them to remain on Canadian 
territory. Colonel Macleod was accordingly instnicted 
to impress them with their probable future hardships, 
after the failure of the buffalo, should they elect to 



remain in Canada; that the President of the United 
States and his Cabinet were upright men, willing and 
anxious to do justice to the Indians; and should they 
return peacefully, they would be properly cared for, and 
any treaty made with them would be honestly fulfilled. 
It was evidently desirable that as wards of the United 
States they should return to that country upon the 
Government of which morally devolved the burden 
and the responsibility of their civilization, but how- 
could that end be attained? 

Sitting Bull is commonly thought of jis a warrior. 
In point of fact he was not such. He was a medicine 
man, which means that he included within him.self 
the three professions of the priesthood, medicine 
and law. He inherited from his father the chieftain- 
ship of a part of the Sioux tribe; but his remarkable 
ascendancy over the whole tribe or nation was due 
to his miracle-working and to his talents as a poli- 
tician. He played upon the credulity of the Sioux 
with his "medicine", or pretended miracles, until 
they believed him to possess supernatural powers, 
and were ready to follow his lead in everything. Some 
other Sioux chiefs inherited wider authority, and 
some minor chiefs were inclined now and then to dis- 
pute his sway, but when Sitting Bull made an appeal 
to the religious fanaticism of the people there was 
no withstanding him. As a medicine man he had the 
.sfjuaws of the nation abjectly sul)servi(uit,and through 
them was assisted in maintaining control of the bucks. 



45 



It might, perhaps, be explained here that every 
Indian tribe in the old days had many medicine men, 
some of them chiefs and important personages. Some 
were young, others old, but they were all leaders in 
religious and social functions. No one could visit 
an Indian tribe at any festival time, or period of general 
excitement, without seeing the medicine men figuring 
very conspicuously in whatever was going on. Some- 
times they were merely beating drums or perhaps 
only crooning while a dance or feast was in progress. 
At other times they appeared in the most grotesque 




Sioux Leader "Sitting- Bull." (Ta-Ton-Ka-I-A-Ton-Ka. ) 

costumes, painted all over, hung with feathers and 
tails and claws, and carrying some wand or staff, 
gorgeous with colour and smothered with Indian 
finery. The medicine man was a conjurer, a magician, 
a dealer in magic, and an intermediary between the 
men of this world and the spirits of the other. He 
usually knew something, often a great deal, of the 
rude pharmacopoeia of his fellows, and occasionally, 
prescribed certain leaves or roots to allay a fever, to 
arrest a cold or to heal a wound. That was not his 
business, however, and such prescriptions were more 
apt to be offered by the squaws. The term " medicine 



man" is simply a white man's expression which the 
Indians have adopted. It was originally used by 
the w^hite explorers and missionaries because they 
found these tribal priests or magicians engaged in 
their incantations at the sides of the sick, the wounded, 
or dying. But instead of being engaged in the prac- 
tice of medicine the so-called "medicine men" were 
in reality exorcising the evil spirits of disease or death. 
• Sitting Bull was born about 1830 and was the son 
of Jumping Bull, a Sioux chief. His father was, for 
an Indian, a wealthy man. Sitting Bull, although 
not intended for a warrior, as a boy was a wonderfully 
successful hunter, and at fourteen years of age he 
fought and killed another Indian considerably older 
than himself, receiving a wound, which made him 
lame for life. He first became widely known to the white 
people of America in 1866, in that year leading a terrible 
raid against the settlers and U.S. military post at 
Fort Buford. His path was marked with blood and 
made memorable by ruthless savagery. As the 
marauders approached the fort, the commandant of 
the post shot and killed his own wife at her earnest 
request, to save her from the more cruel fate of falling 
into the hands of the Sioux. 

In the early '70's Sitting Bull set up a claim to all 
the land for forty rods on both sides of the Yellow- 
stone and all its tributaries. In the latter part of 

1875 a party of fifty white men from Montana invaded 
Sitting Bull's territory and built a fort. The Indians 
were determined that the party should evacuate, 
and during the months of December 1875 and January 

1876 there were daily attacks upon the fort. A 
strong force of United States regulars and Montana 
militia was sent to the relief of the place, the occu- 
pants of the forts were taken away, and Sitting Bull 
promptly fired the place. Sitting Bull reached the 
zenith of his fame and power the succeeding summer. 

Gold and silver had been discovered in the Black 
Hills, in the district which was not only regarded by the 
Indians as peculiarly their own, but in a certain sense 
as a "medicine" or sacred region. There was a great 
rush of miners and prospectors to the country imme- 
diately, and it was one of these parties that established 
the fort which Sitting Bull had caused the evacuation 
of. Several great Indian chiefs visited Washington to 
protest against the invasion of the prospectors, which 
they pointed out was a clear violation of existing 
treaties between the Indians and the United States 
Government. The Washington officials agreed to 
keep the prospectors out but failed to do so, and by the 
autumn of 1875 there were a thousand niiners at work 
in the Black Hills. Then the Indians demanded pay- 
ment for the land of which they were being deprived, 
and a Government commission was sent to the 



46 



spot to arrange matters. But the commission returned 
and reported that there was no use trying to arrange 
matters without force to enforce the terms. This con- 
vinced many of the Indians that the best thing they 
could do was to fight for their rights, and singly and by 
villages, they gradually deserted from Red Cloud, 
Spotted Tail and the other more peacefully disposed 
chiefs, and began flocking to Sitting Bull, who had all 
along been truculent and had opposed all suggestions 
to abandon the title of the Indians to the territory in 
question. At the time, he was roaming about in the 
northern part of Dakota, near the Canadian frontier. 
Anticipating serious trouble, the United States authori- 
ties during the autumn of 1875 sent word to Sitting 
Bull and the chiefs with him that they must report at 
the reservations allotted to them by the 1st of January 
1876, the alternative being war. The threat having 
no effect, and a winter campaign having been attempted 
and found unsatisfactory, a vigorous campaign was 
organized in the spring. Three columns under 
the command of Generals Gibbon, Terry and Crook 
were equipped and placed under marching orders, the 
objective point being Sitting Bull's camp in the Big 
Horn country. With General Terry's column, destined 
to march westward from Fort Lincoln, was the 7th 
United States Cavalry, under the dashing young 
General Custer, who had been such a picturesque figure 
in the final stages of the Civil war, and who had per- 
formed many daring things in Indian warfare during 
the years which succeeded the triumph of the Northern 
cause. 

June 22, Custer at the head of his fine regiment of 
twelve companies, left the divisional camp at the mouth 
of the Rosebud to follow a heavy trail leading up the 
river and westward in the direction of the Big Horn, 
the expectation being that the hostile force would be 
struck near the eastern branch of the last named river, 
and known as the Little Big Horn. General Terry 
with the rest of his force started to ascend the Yellow- 
stone by steamer, thence marching up the bank of the 
Big Horn. It was estimated that both cohimns would 
be within striking distance of the hostiles and able to 
co-operate by the 26th. But on the 25th Custer's 
force was involved in an awful disaster. 

Comparatively unexpectedly Custer struck Sitting 
Bull's camp in the valley of the Little Big Horn while 
three of his companies were detached two miles on his 
left flank, and one to his rear. Without taking any 
care to properly reconnoitre the hostile position, to 
ascertain its exact location and strength, he decided to 
attack at once, and with characteristic Anglo-Saxon 
disregard of Indians, recklessly divided his force, de- 
tailing Major Reno with three companies to attack the 
position from the direction of the original advance, 



while he himself, with five companies, made a detour of 
some three miles to take the hostiles in flank or rear. 
Reno's command found themselves so outnumbered 
that, after some heavy fighting and losing many men, 
they were forced to withdraw to a high bluff, where 
after entrenching themselves, they were able to hold 
their own until joined by the four companies wiiich iuid 
been detached. Custer and his immediate command 
literally plunged headlong and recklessly into the very 
strongest part of the Indian position and were literally 
annihilated, not one officer, non-commissioned officer 
or man of those five gallant companies surviving the 
massacre to tell the tale, although all sold their lives 
dearly, fighting to the very last. Reno and his force 
succeeded in holding their own in their entrenched 
position against the repeated and desperate attacks of 
the Indians until relieved on the 27th by General 
Terry. 

For some weeks the United States troops supposed 
that Sitting Bull had been killed in the figiit with 
Custer's force, but in course of time reports from the 
wild country in the north of the state near the Cana- 
dian frontier showed that he was alive, and military 
operations were resumed. In May, 1877, reports from 
Canada, through the North-West Mounted Police, 
announced that the old leader, with many of his 
warriors, had taken refuge across the International 
frontier. 

As early as May, 1876, the Mounted Police had been 
keeping a sharp lookout for bands of fugitive Indians 
from across the lines. The Assistant Commissioner, 
Lieut.-Col. Irvine, in temporary command of the 
Force during the Commissioner's absence in the cast, 
in the summer, instructed Inspector Crozier. in com- 
mand at Cypress Hills, to even gather all the infor- 
mation he could regarding the movements of the 
Sioux Indians on the United States side of the line. 

During December, 1876, United States Indians, 
under Black Moon, an Unapapa Sioux chief, number- 
ing about 500 men, 1,0(K) women, and 1,400 children, 
with about 3,500 horses and 30 United States govern- 
ment mules, cros.sed the line, and encamped at Wood 
Mountain, east of the Cypress Hills. Sub-Inspector 
Frechette having located this camp, Inspector Walsh 
proceeded thither, arriving at Wood Mountain on the 
21st December, making the trip from the end of the 
Cypress Mountain in three and one-half days. The 
hostiles had arrived only two days before the Inspect- 
or's arrival. Their camp was adjoining the Santee 
camp of about 150 lodges, of which White Eagle was 
the Chief, and was situated in the timber, four miles 
east of the Boundary Survey Buildings. White 
Eagle had occupied that section for many years past, 
and was ver>' observant of the Canatlian laws. He 



47 



expressed himself to be glad to see Inspector Walsh, 
as he was unable to tell the new arrivals the laws 
which they would have to observe if they remained 
in this country. The matter had given him much 
uneasiness as he did not wish other Indians coming 
in and joining his camp to be without a knowledge 
of the law which would govern them. About six 
o'clock on the evening of Walsh's arrival, White 
Eagle assembled all the hostile Chiefs; the principal 
ones amongst whom were " The Little Knife, " " Long 
Dog," "Black Moon," and "The Man who Crawls, " 
and explained to them who the Inspector was. 

Walsh opened the Council by telling them he would 
not say much to them aside from giving them the 
laws which governed the people in Canada, which 
they must obey as long as they remained, and to ask 
them a few questions to which answers would be 
required, which, he would transmit to the Queen's 
Great Chief in the country. 

He asked them the following questions: "Do you 
know that you are in the Queen's country"? They 
replied, that they had been driven from their homes 
by the Americans, and had come to look for peace. 
They had been told by their grandfathers that they 
would find peace in the land of the British. Their 
brothers, the Santees, had found it years ago and 
they had followed them. They had not slept sound 
for years, and were anxious to find a place where 
they could lie down and feel safe; they were tired of 
living in such a disturbed state. 

Walsh next asked them, "Do you intend to re- 
main here during the cold months of winter, have 
peace, and when spring opens, return to your country 
across the line and make war?" They answered, no, 
they wished to remain, and prayed that he would ask 
the Great Mother to have pity on them. 

Walsh then explained the laws of the country to 
them as had been the police custom in explaining 
them to other Indians, and further told them they 
would have to obey them as the Santees and other 
Indians did. 

The several chiefs then made speeches in which 
they implored the Queen to have pity on them, and 
they would obey her laws. Walsh replied that he 
would send what they had said to the Queen's Great 
Chief. In conclusion he told them there was one 
thing they must bear in mind, the Queen would never 
allow them to go from her country to make war on 
the Americans, and return for her protection, and 
that if such were their intentions they had better 
go back and remain. 

The following day the Chiefs waited upon Walsh, 
with White Eagle for spokesman, and prayed that 
he would allow them a small quantity of ammunition 



for hunting purposes as their women and children 
were starving. They were using knifes made into 
lances for hunting buffalo, and others were lassoing 
and killing them with their knives. Some were using 
bows and arrows, and killing this way was so severe 
on their horses that they were nearly used up, and 
if they did not have any ammunition they must 
starve. 

Walsh replied that the Great Mother did not wish 
any people in her country to starve, and if she was 
satisfied that they would make no other use of am- 
munition other than for hunting, she would not object 
to them having a small quantity, and that the Santees 
who had always obeyed the laws could be allowed a 
small quantity; but they, the Uncapapa's Agallallas 
and others were strangers, and might want ammuni- 
tion to send to the people whom they claimed as 
brothers on the other side of the line. This, they 
declared they did not wish to do. 

Walsh then told them he would meet Mr. Le Garre, 
a Wood Mountain trader, who was on his way with 
some powder and ball and 2,000 rounds of improved 
ammunition to trade to the Santees, and would allow 
him to trade to them a small quantity for hunting 
purposes only, and this appeared to relieve them 
greatly. 

Not the least cause of anxiety in connection with 
the incursion of these United States Indians was 
the fear of collision with the Canadian tribes. In 
his report at the end of the year 1876, the Comptroller, 
Mr. White, wrote : — " The country between the Cypress 
Hills and the Rocky Mountains, which has hitherto 
been claimed by the Blackfeet as their hunting ground, 
has this year been encroached upon by other Indians 
and Half-breeds, causing much irritation among the 
Blackfeet, who have called upon the Police to protect 
them in maintaining their rights to their territory, 
saying that if they were not restrained by the presence 
of the Police, they would make war upon the intruders." 

According to the Commissioner's report, for 1877, 
the state of affairs existing during the early part of 
that year in the southwesterly districts of the North- 
West Territories, was entirely different from any 
experienced since the arrival of the Force in the country. 
The winter was extremely mild, week following week 
with the same genial sunshine, the mild weather being 
interrupted only by an occasional cold day. There 
was little or no snow, so that the grass of the prairie 
from one end to the other, being dried up easily, took 
fire, and only required a spark to set it ablaze for 
miles in every direction. Unfortunately, nearly all 
the country out from the mountains, the favorite 
haunt of buffalo during the winter season, was burnt 
over, so that from this cause, and also on account of 



48 



the mild weather, the herds did not go into their 
usual winter feeding ground; but remained out in 
the plains to the north and south of the Saskatchewan. 
The Blackfeet Indians who had as usual moved up 
towards the mountains in the fall, and formed their 
camp along the river bottoms, which had for years 
back afforded them fuel and shelter, and easy access 
to a supply of meat, were forced to take long journeys 
of seventy and one hundred miles, to secure the neces- 
sary supply of food for themselves and families, and 
eventually moved their camps out to where buffalo 
were to be got, with the exception of few small camps, 
who were in an almost starving condition several times 
during the winter. 

The result of this condition of things was a large 
band of Blackfeet were gradually getting closer and 
closer to the Sioux, who were, by degrees, making their 
way up from the south-east in pursuit of buffalo, 
while other bands of Indians and half-breeds were 
pressing in both from the north and south. The most 
extravagant rumors were brought in from all directions. 
A grand confederation of all the Indians was to be 
formed hostile to the whites, every one of whom was 
to be massacred as the first act of confederation. 
" Big Bear," a non-treaty Cree Indian chief, was said 
to be fomenting trouble amongst the Indians on the 
Canadian side. An officer. Inspector Crozier, whom 
the Commissioner sent to inquire into the matter, 
was told that he would not get out of Big Bear's camp 
alive. 

The police officers felt quite confident the reported 
confederation was without foundation. And so far as 
the Blackfeet were concerned, their loyalty had been 
made firmer than ever by the treaty which had been 
very opportunely made the autumn before. The 
Commissioner, in fact, had often received assurances 
of their support in case the Force got into trouble with 
the Sioux, and he could never trace the reports of dis- 
affection amongst the Canadian Indians to any re- 
liable source. Even " Big Bear," who had a bad 
reputation, when visited by Inspector Crozier, re- 
pudiated any intention of behaving as had been 
reported. 

On account of the large gathering of Indians of 
different tribes, the Commissioner deemed it advisal)le 
to recommend the concentration of as large a Force 
as possible at Fort Walsh, the post nearest to where 
the Indians would be congregated. The Canadian 
Indians had frequently exprcsse<l a desire that some 
of the police .should be near them during the summer, 
when they were out on the plains. The Oimmissioner 
thought that the presence of a strong force at Fort 
Walsh might strengthen the hands of the Canadian 
Indians, who were very jealous of the intrusion of 



the Sioux, and might be the means of checking any 
disturbance which might occur. 

Happily the year passed over without any 
signs of the rumored alliance of the Indians against the 
whites, and there were no signs of any dis-affection on 
the part of the Canadian Indians. They had visited 
and mixed with the Sioux, and the Sioux with them, 
and there was no reason to think that those visits had 
meant anything more than a desire to make peace 
with one another, as they had been enemies for years 
before. "Crow Foot," the leading chief of the Black- 
feet, told the Commissioner that he had been visited 
by Sitting Bull who told him he wished for peace. 
Crowfoot had replied that he wanted peace; that he 
was glad to meet the Sioux leader on a friendly visit, 
but that he did not wish to camp near him, or that 
their people should mix much together in the hunt, 
and it was better for them to keep apart. 

Immediately after the first party of Sioux crossed 
the lines in December, 1876, communication between 
Fort Walsh and the Indian Camps was established 
by the erection of outposts convenient distances 
apart. The police took possession of all firearms 
and ammunition held by parties for the purpose of 
trade, and sales were only allowed in that region 
on permits granted by the officers of the Force. 

Early in March, Medicine Bear and his tribe of 
Yanktons (300 lodges) crossed into Canadian terri- 
tory, and also Four Horns, the head-chief of the 
Tetons, with 57 lodges direct from Powder River. 
Inspector Walsh held a council with the new arrivals 
on March 3rd, at their camp on the White Mud River, 
120 miles east of Fort Walsh. 

These chiefs set up the claim that all the Sioux 
tribes were British Indians. From child-hood they 
had been instructed by their fathers that properly 
they were children of the British, and in their tribes 
were many of the medals of their "White Father", 
(George III), given to their fathers for fighting the 
Americans. Sixty-five years previously, was the first 
their fathers knew of being under the Americans, 
but why the "White Father" gave them and their 
country to the Americans they could not tell. Their 
fathers were told at the time by a chief of their 
"White Father" that if they did not wish to live 
with the Americans they could move northward 
and they would again find British land there. 

Towards the end of May, Sitting Bull, with his 
immediate tribe, crossed the boundary and joined 
the other Unite<l States Indians in Canadian Terri- 
tory. 

Inspector Walsh promptly had an interview with 
Sitting Bull. Bear's Head and several other C'hiefs. 
They asked for ammunition, and Inspector Walsh 



49 



informed them that they would be permitted to have 
sufficient to kill meat for their families, but cautioned 
them against sending any across the line. They 
also made the claim that their grandfathers were 
British, and that they had been raised on the fruit 
of English soil. Inspector Walsh explained the law 
to them, and asked Sitting Bull if he would obey it. 
He replied that he had buried his arms on the Ameri- 
can side of the line before crossing to the country 
of the White Mother. When he wanted to do wrong, 
he would not commit it in the country of the White 
Mother, and if in future he did anything wrong 
on the United States side, he would not return to 
this country any more. He also said he had been 
fighting on the defensive; that he came to show us 
that he had not thrown this country away, and that 
his heart was always good, with the exception of such 
times as he saw an American. Inspector Walsh, 
from the interview, gathered that Sitting Bull was of 
a revengeful disposition, and that if he could get the 
necessary support he would recross the line and make 
war on the Americans. 

May 29, Lieut. -Colonel Irvine, the Assistant Com- 
missioner arrived at Fort Walsh, and shortly after 
his arrival, six young warriors arrived from Sitting 
Bull's camp to report that three Americans had 
arrived there. On the morning of the 31st, the Assistant 
Commissioner started for the camp, (140 miles due 
east) accompanied by Inspector Walsh and Sub-Ins- 
pectors Clark and Allen. Irvine was much impressed 
with Sitting Bull. He found the Indians very bitter 
towards the three men in their camp for following 
them, regarding them as spies. The three were 
Reverend Abbott Martin, a Roman Catholic mis- 
sionary, General Miles' head scout and an army 
interpreter. But for Sitting Bull's promise to Walsh, 
the two latter, who were known to the Indians, would 
have been shot. The object of the priest was simply 
to try and induce the Indians to return to their agen- 
cies. The army men claimed that they had accompanied 
the priest for protection, but that their object was to 
ascertain from the Mounted Police, if the Indians 
intended to return. 

The council between Irvine and Sitting Bull was 
conducted with impressive ceremony. The peace pipe 
was smoked, the ashes taken out and solemnly buried, 
and the pipe was then taken to pieces and placed over 
the spot. 

Sitting Bull had around him Pretty Bear, Bear's Cap, 
The Eagle Sitting Down, Spotted Eagle, Sweet Bird, 
Miracongae, &c., &c.; and in the Council Lodge there 
must have been some hundred men, women and 
children. 

Inspector Walsh informed Sitting Bull and the 



chiefs that Lieut.-Col. Irvine was the highest chief 
of the Great Mother at present in the country, and 
that he had now come to their camp to hear what they 
had to say to him, and to learn for what purpose the 
three Americans who at present were in the camp 
had come from United States to Canadian territory to 
their camp. 

Lieut.-Col. Irvine, addressing the Indians through 
an interpreter remarked: — "You are in the Queen's, 
the Great Mother's country. Major Walsh has ex- 
plained the law of the land which belongs to the Great 
White Mother. As long as you remain in the land of 
the Great White Mother, you must obey her laws. 
As long as you behave yourselves, you have nothing 
to fear. The Great White Mother, the Queen, takes 
care of everyone in her land in every part of the world. 

" Now that you are in the Queen's land you must 
not cross the line to fight the Americans and return 
to this country. We will allow you enough ammunition 
to hunt buffalo for food, but not one round of that 
ammunition is to be used against white men or Indians. 

"In the Queen's land we all live like one family. 
If a white man or Indian does wrong he is punished. 
The Queen's army is very strong, and if any of her 
children do wrong she will get them and punish them. 
If anyone comes into your camp like those Americans 
did, come to the Fort and tell Major Walsh. You are 
quite right, and I am glad you did send your young 
men to tell Major Walsh about these men. As soon 
as your young men arrived at the Fort, we started, 
and I came here to see you and shake hands. I will 
go to see those Americans and find out what they are 
doing here, and will take them out of the camp with 
me. I am glad you are looking for peace and behaving 
yourselves here. We will protect you against all harm, 
and you must not hurt anyone this side of the line. 
You were quite right not to hurt the Americans who 
came here and to send to Major Walsh. You need 
not be alarmed. The Americans cannot cross the line 
after you. You and your families can sleep sound and 
need not be afraid." 

Lieut.-Col. Irvine was somewhat surprised at re- 
ceiving a visit in his tent from Sitting Bull after eleven 
that night. He sat on the Assistant Commissioner's 
bed until an early hour in the morning, telling him in 
a subdued tone his many grievances against the 
" Long Knives." 

At first Sitting Bull's party in Canadian territory 
numbered 135 lodges, but it rapidly augmented. 

It was astounding with what rapidity the news of 
Sitting Bull's safe arrival in Canada was transmitted 
to other branches of Sioux who had, up to that time, 
remained in the United States. This news quickly 
had the effect of rendering the North-West Territories 



50 



attractive to the remainder of the hostile Indians who 
had taken part in the Custer fight, their numbers being 
augmented by large bands of Indians of the same tribes 
who previousl}' had been located in United States re- 
servations — in other words, a general stampede took 
place, and in an extremely short time Canada became 
the home of every Sioux Indian who considered him- 
self antagonistic to the United States Government. In 
all, they numbered some 700 lodges; these lodges being 
crowded, it may safely be estimated that they con- 
tained eight souls to a lodge; thus suddenly the North- 
West had its Indian population increased in a very un- 
desirable manner by some five thousand souls. In 
addition to Sitting Bull, the Mounted Police had such 
celebrated chiefs as "Spotted Eagle," "Broad Trail," 
"Bear's Head," "The Flying Bird," " The Iron Dog," 
" Little Knife, " and many others to deal with. 

Not only were the fears of actual and intending 
settlers aroused, but our own Indians and Half- 
breeds looked with marked, and not unnatural, dis- 
favour upon the presence of so powerful and savage 
a nation (for such it really was) in their midst. Cana- 
dians were assured on all sides that nothing short 
of an Indian war would be on our hands; to add to 
this, serious international complications at times 
seemed inclined to present themselves. Both the 
United States and Canadian press kept pointing out 
the possibility of such a state of affairs coming about. 

The press of Manitoba urged that a regiment of 
mounted troops, in addition to the police, should 
be sent to the North- West to avoid international com- 
plications and the interruption of trade. 

The matter was even referred to by Major General 
Selby Smith in his annual report on the Canadian 
Militia for the year 1877, he, writing: 

"The recent addition to the Indian population of 
the prairies, by the arrival of a large body of Sioux 
under the notorious Chief 'Sitting Bull', at Cypress 
Hills, calls for increased precautions and strength; 
and especially for the greatest possible efficiency of 
the North-West Mounted Police. From my per- 
sonal experience of this valuable body of men I can 
speak in high terms of approval. In my report 
8ub.sec|uent to my journey through the North-West 
Territories two years ago, I ventured to recommend 
a depot and training establishment in Ontario for 
officers, men and horses of the North-West Mounted 
Police, to be an obvious neces.sity; to spend six 
months for instructions before joining their troops 
so widely detached over the spacious r^ion of those 
pathless prairies. " 

As early as May 30, 1877, Lieut.-Col. Macleod, the 
Commi-ssioncr, then in Ottawa, in a report to the 
Prime Minister, the Hon. Alex, Mackenzie, and the 



Secretary of State, the Hon. R. W. Scott, expUiined 
that both Blackfeet and Crees were anxious about 
the invasion of their territory by the Sioux. The 
Blackfeet had remembered that before the police 
took possession of the country for Canada they had 
been always able to keep them out. The Commis- 
sioner strongly advised that an attempt be made to 
induce the Sioux to recross to the United States side. 
He recommended that the United States Government 
be corresponded with and their terms submitted to 
the Sioux, who would be told that they could not be 
recognized as British Indians, that no reserves could 
be set apart for them in Canada, and no provision 
made for their support by the Government; and 
moreover, that by remaining on the Canadian side 
they would forfeit any claim they had on the United 
States. 

August 15, 1877, the Hon. R. W. Scott, Secretary 
of State, telegraphed Lieut-Col. Macleod, then at Fort 
Benton, Mont., as follows: — 

"Important that Sitting Bull and other United 
States Indians should be induced to return to reser- 
vations. United States Government have sent Com- 
missioners to treat with them. Co-operate with Com- 
missioners, but do not unduly press Indians. 

"Our action should be persuasive, not compulsory. 

"Commissioners will probably reach Benton about 
25th inst. Arrange to meet them there." 

The commission referred to in the preceding, ai>- 
pointed by the President of the United States, consist- 
ing of Generals Terry and Lawrence, was sent to Fort 
Walsh, in which vicinity the Siou.x were, to endeavour 
to induce the refugees to return to the United States. 
The commissioners and their party arrived at the 
Canadian frontier on October 15th and we:o there 
met by an escort of the Mounted Police, who accom- 
panied them until their return to United States ter- 
ritory. The next day after cro.ssing the boundary 
the commission arrived at Fort Walsh, where Major 
Walsh of the I*olice, under instructions from head 
quarters, issued at the instance of the Commissioners, 
had induced Sitting Bull to come. The following day 
a conference was held between the connnissioners 
and Sitting Bull, who was accompanied by Spotted 
Tail and a number of his other chiefs. 

General Terry told Sitting Bull through his inter- 
preters that his was the only Indian band which 
had not sjirrendered to the United States. He pro- 
posed that the band should return and .settle at the 
agency, giving up their horses and arms, which would 
be sold and the tnoncy invested in cattle for them. 

Sitting Bull rcplii'd: 

" For sixty-four years you have kept me and my 
people and treated us bad. What have we done 



51 



that you should want us to stop? We have done 
nothing. It is all the people on your side that have 
started us to do all these depredations. We could 
not go anywhere else, and so we took refuge in this 
country. It was on this side of the country we learned 
to shoot, and that is the reason why I came back to it 
again. I would like to know why you came here. 
In the first place, I did not give you the country, 
but you followed me from one place to another, so 
I had to leave and come over to this country. I was 
born and raised in this country with the Red River 
half-breeds, and I intend to stop with them. I was 
laised hand-in-hand with the Red River half-breeds. 




Superintendent J 



Walsh. 



and we are going over to that part of the country, 
and that is the reason why I have come over here. 
(Shaking hands with Col. Macleod and Major Walsh.) 
That is the way I was raised, in the hands of these people 
here, and that is the way I intend to be with them. 
You have got ears, and you have got eyes to see with 
them, and you see how I live with these people. You 
see me? Here I am! If you think I am a fool, you 
are a bigger fool than I am. This house is a medicine 
house. You come here to tell us lies, but we 
don't want to hear them! I don't wish any such 
language used to me; that is, to tell me such lies, in my 
Great Mother's (the Queen's) house. Don't you say 



two more words. Go back home, where you came 
from. This country is mine, and I intend to stay 
here, and to raise this country full of grown people. 
See these people here? We were raised with them. 
(Again shaking hands with the police officers.) That 
is enough; so no more. You see me shaking hands 
with these people. The part of the country you gave 
me you ran me out of. I have now come here to stay 
with these people, and I intend to stay here. I wish 
to go back, and to 'take it easy' going back. [Taking 
a Santee Indian by the hand.] These Santees — I 
was born and raised with them. He is going to tell 
you something about them. " 

" The-one-that-runs-the-roe, " a Santee Indian, 
said: "Look at me! I was born and raised in this 
country. These people, awa}^ north here, I was raised 
with — my hands in their own. I have lived in peace 
with them. For the last sixty-four years we were 
over in your country, and you treated us badly. 
We have come over here now, and you want to try 
and get us back again. You didn't treat us well, 
and I don't like you at all." ^ 

A squaw with the peculiar appelation " The-one-that- 
speaks-once" then spoke, remarking: — "I was over in 
your country ; I wanted to raise my children over there, 
but you did not give me any time. I came over to this 
country to raise my children and have a little peace. 
(Shaking hands with the police officers.) That is all I 
have to say to you. I want you to go back where you 
came from. These are the people I am going to stay 
with, and raise my children with. " 

''The Flying Bird" then made a speech and said: 

" These people here, God Almighty raised us together. 
We have a little sense and we ought to love one another. 
Sitting Bull here says that whenever you found us out, 
wherever his country was, why, you wanted to have it. 
It is Sitting Bull's country, this is. These people sitting 
all around me: what they committed I had nothing to 
do with. I was not in it. The soldiers find out where 
we live, and they never think of anything good; it is 
always something bad. " (Again shaking hands with 
the police officers.) 

The Indians having risen, being apparently about to 
leave the room, the interpreter was then directed to 
ask the following questions : 

"Shall I say to the President that you refuse the 
offers that he has made to you? Are we to understand 
from what you have said that you refuse those offers?" 

Sitting Bull. — " I could tell you more, but that is all 
I have to tell you. If we told you more — why you 
would not pay any attention to it. That is all I have 
to say. This part of the country does not belong to 
your people. You belong to the other side; this side 
belongs to us. " 



52 



And so the commission returned to the United States 
without having accomphshed anything. 

After the interview of the United States Commis- 
sioners with the Indians, Col. Macleod had a "talk" 
with the latter. He endeavoured to impress upon them 
the importance of the answer they had just made; 
that although some of the speakers to the Commis- 
sioners had claimed to be British Indians, the British 
denied the claim, and that the Queen's Government 
looked upon them all as United States Indians who had 
taken refuge in Canada from their enemies. As long 
as they behaved themselves the Queen's Government 
would not drive them out, and they would be pro- 
tected from their enemies, but that was all they could 
expect. 

It is hard to realize the awkward position in which 
the PoHce Force was placed. From 1877 up to 1881 the 
force maintained a supervision and control of the refugee 
Siou.x. It would take chapters to give even a short sum- 
mary of the perpetual state of watchfulness and anxiety 
the force was kept in during these years, to say nothing 
of the hard service all ranks were constantly being 
called upon to perform. Ever)^ movement of the 
Sioux was carefully noted and reported upon. The 
severity of the North-West winter was never allowed to 
interfere in the slightest degree with the police duty 
it -was considered necessary to perform. 

.Many reports, official and semi-official, were for- 
warded through various channels on what was con- 
sidered the vexed " Sioux question. " 

At one time many people were of the opinion that 
Sitting Bull and his band of immediate followers 
would never be induced to surrender to the United 
States, the impression being that these undesirable 
settlers were permanently located in our territories. 

Through the officers of the force, however, negotiations 
were carefully carried on with the Sioux. Besides the 
basicdifficulties tobe overcome, the intricate and delicate 
manner with which the officers had to deal with even 
the smallest details relating to the ultimate surrender 
necessitating the exercise of great caution. Many 
complications arose, all of which delayed materially 
the surrender so much desired and eventually effected. 
Among other things a questionable and discreditable 
influence was brought to bear by small traders and 
others in anticipation of inducing the Sioux to remain 
in Cana<ia. 

While the (jualities of patience and diplomacy pos- 
8e»He<l by the Mounted Police were l)eing tried to the 
utmoHt with the refugee Indians from across the lines, 
they were encourage<l by several evidences of the 
confidence in and respect for them shown by the 
Canadian Indians. 

During the year 1877, one of the band of .Mecasto, 



head chief of the Bloods, confined in the I'olice Guanl 
Room at Macleod on a charge of theft, escaped across 
the lines. Some time afterwards he returned to 
Mecasto's camp, and the chief at once apprehended 
him, and with a large number of his warriors, de- 
livered him up at the fort gate to the officer in com- 
mand. 

An incident of trouble between Canadian Indians 
at this time is interesting as indicating the pluck 
shown by the police in dealing with the Indians. 

May 25, 1877, Little Child, a Sauteaux Treaty 
Chief, arrived at Fort Walsh and reported that the 
Sauteaux, numbering 15 lodges, and 250 lodges of 











A 


^^k 


M 




TTl^^^^M 




sr*^ A 


1^ V 





Superintendent L. .\. 1'. Crozier. 

Assiniboines, were cam{>ed together at the north- 
ea.st end of Wood Mountain. On the 24th, the Sau- 
teaux camp concluded to move away from the A.ssi- 
niboines, con.se<iuently they informed the Assiniboines 
of their intention. .An A.ssiniboine named Crow's 
Dance had formed a war lodge, and gathered about 
200 young men as soldiers under him. It appears 
Crow's Dance gave orders that no person was to move 
away from the camp without the permission of his 
soldiers. 

Little Chihl was informed that the Sauteaux could 



53 



not leave; that if they persisted in doing so the soldiers 
would kill their horses and dogs, and cut their lodges, 
etc. Little Child replied if they did him any harm 
or occasioned any damage to his people, he would 
report the matter to the Police. Crow's Dance re- 
plied, "We care as little for the Police as we do for 
you. " 

Little Child then had a Council with his head men, 
and addressed them as follows: "We made up our 
minds to move but are forbidden. When the children 
of the White Mother came to the country we thought 
they would protect us to move wherever we pleased, 
as long as we obeyed her law, and if any one did us 
any harm we were to report to them. This is the 
first time that any such an occurrence has happened 
since the arrival of the Police in the country; let us 
move; let the Assiniboines attack us, and we will 
report to the ' White Mother's Chief, ' and see if he 
will protect us." 

To this they all assented and the camp was ordered to 
move. The lodges were pulled down, and as they 
attempted to move off, between two and three hundred 
warriors came down on the camp and commenced 
firing with guns and bows in every direction, upsetting 
travois cutting lodges, etc., besides killing nineteen 
dogs (a train dog supplied the place of a horse to an 
Indian) knocking men down and threatening them 
with other punishment.' The women and children 
ran from the camp, screaming and crying. It seems 
only by a miracle that no serious damage was done 
with the fire-arms, as the warriors fired through the 
camp recklessly. When warned by Little Child that 
he would report the matter to the Police, Crow's 
Dance struck him and said: "We will do the same 
to the Police when they come". 

After the attack was over Little Child and camp 
moved northwards, and the Assiniboines toward 
the .east. At 11 a.m.. Inspector Walsh started 
with Inspector Kittson, fifteen men and a guide, to 
arrest Crow's Dance and his head men. At 10 p.m. 
the party arrived at the place where the disturbance 
occurred and camped. At 2 a.m., they were again 
on the road, a march of about 8 miles brought them 
in sight of the camp. The camp was formed in the 
shape of a war camp with a war lodge in the centre. 
In the " war lodge " Walsh expected to find the head 
soldier. Crow's Dance, with his leaders. 

Fearing they might offer resistance, as Little Child 
said they certainly would, Walsh halted and had the 
arms of his men inspected, and pistols loaded. Striking 
the camp so early, he thought he might take them 
by surprise. So he moved west, along a ravine, about 
half a mile; this bringing him within three-fourths of 
a mile of the camp. At a sharp trot the detachment 



soon entered camp and surrounded the war lodge, 
and found Crow's Dance and nineteen warriors in 
it. Walsh had them immediately moved out of 
camp to a small butte half a mile distant; found the 
lodges of the Blackfoot and Bear's Down; arrested 
and took them to the butte. It was now 5 a.m., 
and Walsh ordered breakfast and sent the interpreter 
to inform the chiefs of the camp that he would meet 
them in council in about an hour. The camp was 
taken by surprise, the arrests made and prisoners 
taken to the butte before a Chief in the camp knew 
anything about it. 




Inspector E. Dalrymple Clark, First Adjutant of the 
North-West Mounted Police. 



At the appointed time the following Chiefs assem- 
bled, viz., "Long Lodge," "Shell King" and "Little 
Chief". Walsh told them what he had done, and 
that he intended to take the prisoners to the fort 
and try them by the law of the White Mother for 
the crime they had committed; that they, as chiefs, 
should not have allowed such a crime to be committed. 
They replied, they tried to stop it but could not. 
Walsh then said he was informed there were parties 
in the camp at that moment who wished to leave, 
but were afraid to go; that these parties must not be 



54 



stopped; and for them (the chiefs) to warn their 
soldiers never in future to attempt to prevent any 
person leaving camp; that according to the law of 
the White Mother every person had the privilege of 
leaving camp when they chose. At 10 a.m., Walsh 
left the Council, and arrived at Fort Walsh at 8 p.m., 
a distance of 50 miles. 

Before entering the camp, Walsh explained to his 
men that there were two hundred warriors in the 
camp who had put the Police at defiance; that he 
intended to arrest the leaders; but to do so perhaps 
would put them in a dangerous position, but that 
they would have to pay strict attention to all orders 
iriven no matter how severe they might appear. 
Walsh afterwards reported that from the replies 
and the way his men acted during the whole time, 
he was of opinion that every man of this detachment 
would have boldly stood their ground if the Indians 
had made any resistance. 

Sitting Bull vainly strove to bring forward some pre- 
text by which he and his followers might remain on 
Canadian soil. Finally, recognizing that nothing be- 
yond right of asylum would be afforded him, this once 
mighty chief left the Wood Mountain Post for the pur- 



pose of surrendering to the United States authorities 
at Fort Bulford, U.S. The final surrender was made 
at Fort Bulford, U.S., on the 21st of July, 1881, in the 
presence of Inspector Macdonell, who had been sent on 
in advance of the Indians by the Commissioner to 
inform the United States authorities. 

In his annual report for 1881, Lieut.-Colonel Irvine, 
Commissioner of the Mounted Police wrote: 

" I cannot refrain from placing on record my appre- 
ciation of the services rendered by Superintendent 
Crozier, who was in command at Wood Mountain 
during the past winter. I also wish to bring to the 
favourable notice of the Dominion Government the 
loyal and good service rendered by Mr. Legarrie, 
trader, who at all times used his personal influence with 
the Sioux in a manner calculated to further the policy 
of the Government, his disinterested and honourable 
course being decidedly marked, more particularly 
when compared with that of other traders and indi- 
viduals. At the final surrender of the Sioux, Mr. 
Legarrie must have been put to considerable personal 
expen.se, judging from the amount of food and other 
aid supplied by him." 




5.3 




CHAPTER VI. 

UNDER SIR JOHN AGAIN 



The Mounted Police Placed under the Department of the Interior — Experimental Farming 
BY THE Force — Lieut.-Col. A. G. Irvine Succeeds Lieut.-Col. Macleod as Commissioner — 
Difficulties with the Indians in the Southern part of the Territories — Tribes Induced to 
Leave the Dancer Zone near the International Frontier — The Establishment of the Force 
Increased by Two Hundred Men. 



OCTOBER 16, 1878, the Mackenzie Government 
having sustained defeat at the general elections, 
- resigned, and the following day Sir John A. 
Macdonald formed a new cabinet, taking himself the 
portfolio of the Department of the Interior. That 
the great statesman still retained a keen personal in- 
terest in the North-West Mounted Police was soon 
shown, for no later than the month of November, 
the charge of the North- West Mounted Police was 
transferred to the Department of the Interior, from 
the Department of the Secretary of State. After this 
change the several branches through which the opera- 
tions of the Department of the Interior were conducted 
stood as follows: — North- West Territories, District of 
Keewatin, Indians and Indian Lands, Dominion Lands, 
Geological Survey and North-West Mounted Police. 

In his annual report for 1879, Lieut.-Col. Macleod, 
the Commissioner stated : 

"It will be learned with satisfaction that the con- 
siderable influx of population into the North-West 
Territories, to which I had the honour to direct attention 
in my last report, has very greatly increased during 
the past twelve months, and the coming season pro- 
mises results far beyond anything which has so far 
been experienced. The Pembina Mountain, Rock Lake, 
Little Saskatchewan and Prince Albert Districts, to 
which the greater proportion of the immigration of 



1878 was directed, are so rapidly becoming occupied 
that the stream of settlement is finding for itself new 
courses, notably in the Bird's Tail Creek district, and 
south-easterly of Fort EUice, westerly of the Little 
Saskatchewan, and in the country south of the Assini- 
boine, in and near the valley of the Souris River; also 
in the neighborhood of the Turtle Mountains, which 
extend along the International Boundary from 40 to 
60 miles beyond the Province of Manitoba. Attention 
is also being directed to the subject of stockraising, 
for which that section of the Territories lying along 
the easterly base and slopes of the Rocky Mountains is 
said to offer unusual facilities, in the way both of shelter 
and pasturage, cattle being able to subsist in the open 
air during the whole winter, and being found in good 
condition in the spring. A number of people are al- 
ready engaged in the pursuit of this industry, and with 
so much success that there is every probability of its 
further development by gentlemen of experience in 
stock-farming and possessed of large capital, both from 
Great Britain and the older Provinces." 

The officers in charge of posts at the end of the 
year 1879, were Superintendent W. D. Jarvis, Sas- 
katchewan; Supt. J. Walker, Battleford; Supt. W. H. 
Herchmer, Shoal Lake; Supt. J. M. Walsh, Wood 
Mountain; Supt. L. N. F. Crozier, Fort Walsh; and 
Supt. Wm. Winder, Fort Macleod. 



56 



Surgeons Kittson and Kennedy were in medical 
charge at Forts Walsh and Macleod respectively. 

The Commissioner recommended that as soon as 
practicable in the spring, there be a redistribution of 
the force as follows: — Fort Macleod, 2 divisions; Fort 
Walsh, 2 divisions; Fort Qu'Appelle, 1 division; Fort 
Saskatchewan and Battleford, 1 division, with such 
outposts as may be thought necessary. The Commis- 
sioner considered it advisable on account of the large 
number of Indians who would undoubtedly flock back 
in the spring to both the Cypress Hills and the Bow 
River country, that the force mentioned shoukl be 
kept at these posts. It was felt that it would be some 




Lieut. -Colonel A. Ci, Irvine, Commissioner of the Nt>rlh-VVest 
Mounted Police— 1880— 1886. 



time before these people could be settled down on their 
reserves, and there would be a great deal of trouble 
making them do so. 

At all the Indian payments in the North-West, in 
1879, the officers and men of the Police took over 
and attended to the distribution of the supplies, and 
at all places in Treaties Nos. 6 and 7, with the exception 
of Sounding Lake. Battleford and Port Pitt, they 
performed the duties of paymasters. In accordance 
with instructions received from the Department, an 
escort from Fort Walsh of two officers and 30 men 
proceede<i to and attende<l the payments at l^u'Ap- 



pelle under Superintendent Crozier, and another from 
the same post, consisting of one officer and fifteen 
men, under Inspector Dickens, attended the payments 
at Sounding Lake, supplementing another escort from 
Battleford under Inspector French ; and another escort, 
consisting of one officer and fifteen men, under the 
command of Inspector Cotton, accompanied the 
Right Reverend Abbott Martin to Wood Mountain 
on an unsuccessful mission to Sitting Bull and his 
Sioux on behalf of the United States Government. 

In addition to their other multitudinous duties, 
the Mounted Police in 1879 undertook farming opera- 
tions of an experimental and extended character in 
Southern Alberta. The Commissioner reported : — 

"Farming operations on the Police Farm about 30 
miles from Fort Macleod have l)een carried on with 
great success for a first year's trial. I am satisfied 
that next year they will yield as good returns as Ins- 
pector Shurtliff expects. The farm is beautifully 
situated, the soil is excellent, and it only requires the 
earnest attention of those who have to do with it to 
make it a success in every way. " 

Lieut.-Col. Macleod during the year held several 
civil courts, both at Fort Walsh and Macleod, claims 
for over eight thousand dollars having been entered 
and adjudicated upon. In order to visit the different 
posts, and carry out the duties he was instructed to 
perform, the Commissioner travelled in waggons and 
on horseback over two thousand three hundred miles. 

Owing to the complete failure of the buffalo hunt 
in 1879 there was a famine among the Southern Al- 
berta Indians, and the police at Fort Macleod and 
other posts were taxed to their utmost resources in 
affording relief. Messengers and deputations from 
Crowfoot were constantly arriving, asking assistance 
and reporting the dying condition, and even deaths, 
of many of the Blackfeet and allied tribes from starva- 
tion. Superintendent Winder, in command at Fort 
Macleod despatched Inspectors Mcllree and Frechette, 
at different intervals to the camp at the Blackfoot 
Crossing, with such provisions as he was able to get, 
to the relief of the Indians, and to the extent he was 
able to spare from his limited (juantity of stores; at 
one time the police stores at Macleod were reduce<l 
down to six bags of flour on hand. At this time 
(June) from 1.200 to 1,500 Indians (Bloods, Peigans 
and Surcees). encami)ed around the Fort, were being 
fed, and later on as many as 7,000 men, women and 
children, all in a destitute condition, applied for re- 
lief. Beef and flour were distributed every other 
day in small (juantifies to each family. The Super- 
intendent, himself always attended at this distribu- 
tion, in order that if any Indian complained of not 
receiving his portion he could settle the difficulty. 



57 



In this he was assisted by the officers, non-commis- 
sioned officers and men. This continued until after 
the payments were made, in October, when the ma- 
jority of the Indians left for the Milk River country, 
south of the boundary line, in quest of buffalo. 

At this time the officers of the various posts found 
the actual duties so exacting that they were unable 
to spare the time for the training of the men that 
they would have liked. For instance in his report 
dated Fort Walsh, December 29, 1879, Superinten- 
dent Crozier wrote: 

" I have the honor to inform you that the force at 
this fort, considering the great amount of detach- 
ment, escort and other duty during the summer, and 
continually being done, is, as regards their drill and 
knowledge of general duties, efficient. It will be 
understood that it is quite impossible to take raw 
recruits and in a few months, while, at the same time, 
doing all the various duties they may be called 
upon to do, bring them to a state of perfection. The 
recruits have not had the instruction in equitation 
that I should have wished, had their other duties not 
been so heavy. In my opinion, it would tend greatly 
to the efficiency of the force if a depot for the training 
and instruction of recruits was established where 
they would remain for a stated time, solely for that 
purpose, before being allowed to do general duty. 
Such an establishment would, I consider, now that 
the term of service is five years, be much more fea- 
sible than when three years was the term. " 

The distribution of the force this year (1879) was as 
follows : — 

"A" Division, Fort Saskatchewan; "B" Division, Fort 
Walsh and Outposts; "C" Division, Fort Macleod; "D" 
Division, Shoal Lake and Outpost; "E" Division, 
Forts Macleod and Calgary; "F" Division, Battleford. 
Several, now important outposts, were established 
this year and the preceding one. The Prince Albert 
post was established as an outpost of Battleford early 
in the winter of 1878, principally to look after the 
wandering bands of Minnesota Treaty Sioux Indians, 
who were said to be causing annoyance to the settlers 
by petty pilfering, etc., but after the arrival of the police 
not a single case of pilfering was charged against them. 

In February, 1879, Supt. Walker, in command at 
Battleford, received intelligence that Chief Beardy 
of Duck Lake and his band of Indians, had threatened 
several times to break into Stobart, Eden Co's store 
and help themselves to the Indian stores there. Com- 
plaints from the settlers of that neighbourhood were 
also sent to Lieutenant-Governor Laird. After con- 
sulting with His Honour, the police authorities decided 
that it would be expedient to station a few policemen 
at Duck Lake for a time. 



The barrack accommodation was generally bad. 
For instance Superintendent Walker reported as 
follows as to the Battleford barracks on December 19: 
— "The Battleford barracks are just as you saw them 
last summer, except that they were all mudded over 
when the cold weather set in. They are still very 
uncomfortable; we are now burning from four to five 
cords of wood per day, and it is only by keeping on 
fires night and day that the buildings are made habit- 
able. This morning, with the thermometer 37° below 
zero, water was frozen on the top of the stove in my 
bedroom, notwithstanding there was sufficient fire 
in the stove to start the morning fire." 




Superintendent James Walker, now a leading resident ot 
Calg'ary. 

Lieut.-Col. J. F. Macleod, C.M.G., Commissioner 
of the force, having been re-appointed a Stipendiary 
Magistrate for the North- West, on the 1st of November, 
1880, resumed the duties connected with that position, 
the district assigned to him being the southern and 
south-western section of the Territories, with residence 
at Fort Macleod. Lieut.-Col. A. G. Irvine, an officer 
of ability and experience, who had, since 1877, been 
Assistant Commissioner, was promoted to the com- 
command of the force. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Acheson Gosford Irvine was the 
youngest son of the late Lieut.-Col. Irvine of Quebec, 
Principal A.D.C. to the Governor-General of Canada, 



58 



and grandson of the Honourable James Irvine, for many 
years a member of the Executive and Legislative 
Councils of Lower Canada. He was an active member 
of the Militia of the Province of Quebec, and oljtained 
high certificates of qualification at the old Military 
School held in Montreal. He took part in Wolseley's 
expedition to the Red River in 1870 as Major of the 
2nd (or Quebec) Battalion of Rifles, with such dis- 
tinction, that he was selected for the command of the 
permanent force of a battalion of infantry and a 
battery of artillery selected for service in Manitoba, 
retaining that command with universal acceptance 
until the reduction of the force after the organization 
of the North-West Mounted Police, and being trans- 
ferred to that body as Assistant Commissioner. While 
in command of the permanent force in Manitoba. 
Lieut.-Colonel Irvine commanded the force of per- 
manent troops and Manitoba volunteers which pro- 
ceeded to the United States frontier on active service 
at the time of the Fenian incursion in 1871. 

The most amicable relations continue to exist be- 
tween the police and the Indians, and manifestations 
increased of growing confidence and good feeling on 
the part of the latter. Although at this period par- 
tially relieved of the responsibility of making treaty 
payments owing to the appointment of officials in the 
direct service of the Indian Department, service in 
the way of furnishing escorts to persons charged with 
the conveyance of the treaty money, and in assisting 
the agents during its disbursement, was frequent. 

Shortly after his appointment, the new Commissioner 
recommended that the pay of non-commi.ssioned 
officers and men be increased by length of service, in 
cases where such .service had been in all respects satis- 
factory. This, he felt, would take the place of good 
conduct pay in the British service, and would, he 
thought, prove a strong incentive towards inducing 
men to conduct themselves properly during their 
term of service, which under existing regulations was 
of considerable length, five years; more particularly as 
free grants of land had ceased to be any longer given 
in recognition of good service. 

The distribution of the force at the end of the 
year 1881 was as follows: — 

"A" Division — Fort Wal.sh — 1 Superintendent. 1 
Inspector, 3 Sergeants, 1 Corporal, 22 Constables. 

"B" Division — Fort Walsh — 1 Superintendent, 13 
Constables. Qu'Appelle — 1 Superintendent. 1 Ins- 
pector, 3 Staff Sergeants, 4 Sergeants, 1 Corporal. 37 
Constables. Shoal Lake — 3 Constables, 1 Sergeant. 
Swan River — 1 Inspector. 2 Constables. 

"C" Division — Fort Macieod— 1 Suiwrintendent, 2 
InspeHofB, 3 Sergeants, 2 (k)rporal8, 25 Constables. 
Blackfoot Crossing — 1 Inspector, 1 Sergeant, 1 Cor- 



poral. 12 Constables. Calgary — 1 Sergeant, 1 Cor- 
poral. 6 Constables. Macleod (Farm) — 1 Inspector, 

4 Constables. Blood Indian Reserve — 1 Corporal, 
1 Constable. 

"D" Division— Battleford—1 Staff Officer, 1 Super- 
intendent, 1 Inspector, 1 Staff Sergeant, 2 Sergeants, 

5 Corporals, 32 Constables. Saskatchewan — 1 Ins- 
pector, 2 Sergeants, 9 Constables. Prince Albert — 

1 Sergeant, 1 Constable. Fort Walsh — 1 Inspector, 

2 Sergeants, 2 Corporals, 29 Constables. 

" E " Division — Fort Walsh — 1 Inspector, 2 Sergeants, 
2 Corporals, 29 Constables. 

"F" Division— Fort Walsh— 2 Staff Officers, 5 Staff 
Sergeants, 1 Corporal, 12 Constables. Wood Moun- 
tain — 1 In.spector, 2 Staff Sergeants, 1 Sergeant, 1 
Corporal, 15 Constables. Total 293. 

In the reports of the officers commanding posts 
for 1880. several important facts were noted. Super- 
intendent W. D. Jarvis at Fort Macleod, reported that 
until the end of October he had not enough men to 
carry on the ordinary barrack duties. Nevertheless, 
the few he had worked most creditably, and did 
severe duty without complaint. He found the horses 
of "C" Division nearly worked out, and, with the 
customary ration of oats, it was impossible to get 
them into or keep them in condition. The stables 
were destro^'^ed by fire on the 5th December. A few 
horses were after that event billeted in the village, 
the remainder being herded on Willow Creek, about 
three miles from the post, and were doing as well as 
could'be expected for horses in low condition. Super- 
intendent Jarvis particularly called attention to the 
soldier-like behaviour of a detachment of thirty men 
under Inspector Denny, who were obliged to ride to 
Fort Calgary and back, a distance of 200 miles, in 
the depth of winter, without tents or any of the usual 
comforts of a soldier on the line of march. The total 
amount of customs duty collected at Macleod by 
the police for the year 1880 amounted to $15,433.38. 
There had been fifteen cases tried by police officers, 
besides those brought before the resident Stipendiary 
Magistrate. Sixty gallons of smuggled whiskey had 
been seized and destroyed. 

Superintendent W. H. Herchmer, who had taken 
over the Battleford command had made some changes 
in the disposition of his force. 

At Prince Albert, he found that the quarters occu- 
pied by the men were totally un.suited to recpiirements, 
several families occupying the .same l)uil(ling. which 
was horribly cold, and the stabling miserable. The 
Superintendent succeeded in renting desirable pre- 
mi.ses. thoroughly convenient as to situation and 
accommodation for men, horses and stores, and easily 
heated, and moved the detachment in. He also re- 



59 



moved the detachment from Duck Lake to Prince 
Albert for the reason that the quarters occupied were 
required by the owners, and no other building was 
attainable; also because the reason for which the de- 
tachment was sent there no longer existed, as the 
Indians of that neighbourhood were showing a desire 
to be peaceable, — this change being a result of the 
lesson taught them the previous summer. 

In the execution of duty during the year. Super- 
intendent Herchmer had travelled over 4,000 miles, 
and Inspector Antrobus, 2,000. 

In 1881, the police had considerable trouble, and 
only by the exercise of diplomac}^ firmness and great 
courage, avoided much more serious trouble, on ac- 
count of Canadian Indians stealing horses in the 
United States and bringing them across the lines. 
Superintendent Crozier at Wood Mountain was in- 
formed that a party of the Canadian Bloods had just 
returned to the reserve from a successful horse raid 
in Montana. 

Immediately he sent a party to the Blood Reserve, 
recovered sixteen head of horses and two colts, and 
arrested eight Indians who had been implicated in 
stealing the property in Montana and bringing it into 
Canadian territory. On the return of this party from 
the Blood Reserve, Crozier sent another one to the 
mouth of the Little Bow River; that succeeded in 
capturing another Indian and recovering two more 
head of horses. 

Another horse was also procured, making 19 in all, 
that had been feloniously stolen in the United States. 
The Court, taking into consideration that no Indians 
had heretofore been punished for this offence, 
and that what they had done was not considered by 
them a crime, deferred sentence, and, after a caution, 
allowed the prisoners their liberty. 

Major Crozier pointed out — "If the Legislature of 
Montana could be induced to pass a law similar to the 
one we have, not onl}^ would the bringing to justice 
of horse-thieves on both sides of the line be greatly 
facilitated, but the existence of such a law in both 
countries would doubtless have the effect of putting 
an end to horse-stealing to a very great extent. I 
would suggest that immediate steps be taken by our 
Government to bring to the notice of the proper 
authorities in Montana the existence of this law in 
Canada, and the advisability of the Legislature of that 
territory enacting a reciprocal measure." 

In order to afford further proof of the trouble taken 
by the police in the recovery of property, stolen by 
Canadian Indians south of the line, it might be men- 
tioned that, in June the same year the officer command- 
ing at Fort Macleod reported that several Montana 



ranchmen arrived at that place in search of horses, 
alleged to have been stolen in the United States by 
Blood Indians. In order to recover, as far as possible, 
the stolen property, an officer and party were sent to 
the Blood reservations. The account of the dut}^ 
performed is shown in the following extract of a letter 
from Inspector Dickens, who commanded the party. 
From this it will be observed, that a portion of the 
stolen property was recovered, but not without trouble 
and personal risk. 

" I have the honour to report that in obedience to orders 
I proceeded on the first instant to the Blood Reserva- 
tion to search for horses stolen from American citizens 
on the other side of the line. I was accompanied by 
Sergeant Spicer, Constable Callaghan and the American 
citizens. On arriving at the reservation, I had an in- 
terview with ' Red Crow, ' the chief, and explained to 
him that it would be better for his young men to give 
up the horses, so as to avoid further trouble, and he 
said he would do his best to have the horses returned; 
but he did not appear to have much control over the 
Indians, who were very loth to give up the stolen 
horses. Eventually, I recovered fourteen horses, 
which were identified by the Americans, and placed 
them in a corral. While we were waiting near the 
agency for another horse which an Indian had promised 
to bring in, a minor chief, ' Many Spotted Horses ' ap-: 
peared and commenced a violent speech, calling upon 
the Indians not to give up the horses, and abused the 
party generally. I refused to talk with him and he 
eventually retired. I went over to Rev. Mr. Trivett's 
house for a few minutes, and on returning was told that 
an Indian who goes by the name of 'Joe Healy' had 
said that one of the Americans had stolen all ' Bull 
Back Fats ' horses last winter and had set the camp on 
foot. This the American denied, but the Indians be- 
came violent and began to use threatening language. 
The American went up to the corral, and ' White Cap ' 
who had just come in, collected a body of Indians who 
commenced howling and yelling and started off to seize 
the Americans. It was impossible at the time to get a 
word in, so I started in front of the Indians towards the 
corral, and shouted to the party to mount their horses 
and to be ready to start in order to avoid disturbance. 
I mounted my horse and placed myself in the road be- 
tween the party and the Indians, who began to hesitate. 
Sergeant Spicer, who was behind the crowd, called out 
that he wished to speak to them for a few minutes, and 
seeing the party all mounted, I rode back and met the 
Sergeant coming out of the crowd of Indians, who be- 
came quieter but who were still very sulky. No more 
horses being forthcoming, we collected the band and 
rode out of the camp. I thought it best to get both 
men and horses as far away from the reservation as 



60 



ix)ssible that night ; and after supping at Fred Watch- 
er's ranch, we started for Fort Macleod, and although 
I heard a report that a war party had gone down the 
Kootenay River to intercept our passage, we forded 
the river safely and reached Fort Macleod without being 
molested. 

" I took care when I first went into the camp to ex- 
plain to the Indians from whom I took horses, that if 
they had any claim on the horses or any cause of com- 
plaint, they could come into the fort and lay their case 
before you. 

"I was well satisfied with Sergeant Spicer, who 
showed both coolness and tact. " 

In January. 1882, serious trouble occurred with the 
Blackfoot Indians on their reserve at the Blackfoot 
Crossing. This was in connection with the arrest of 
a prisoner, named "Bull Elk", a Blackfoot Indian, 
on the charge of shooting with intent to kill; the 
Indians endeavouring to offer resistance to the detach- 
ment first sent out to make the arrest. Prompt steps 
were, however, taken by the officer commanding at 
Macleod, Superintendent Crozier, who himself pro- 
ceeded with every available man at his command to 
reinforce the detachment at the Blackfoot Crossing. 
"Bull Elk" was arrested and committed for trial, and 
every precaution taken to meet any resistance that 
might have been offered by the Indians. It was 
pointed out to them in the plainest possible manner 
that law and order were to be carried out, that the 
police were in the country to do this and that any 
attempt at resistance on their part would be punished 
as it deserved. Seeing the determination on the 
part of the police to carry out the letter of the law, 
and finding that a determined force was at hand with 
which to enforce strict obedience and respect, even 
should it be found necessary to resort to the most 
extreme measures, the Indians submitted to the ar- 
rest of "Bull Elk", being forcibly reminded in so 
doing that resistance on their part would not be toler- 
at(Kl for a moment, or in any way allowed to interfere 
with the impartial administration of justice, in the 
case of Indians and white men alike. 

At this time the Commissioner deemed it advi.sable 
to reinforce the strength of Fort Macleod by thirty 
non-commi.ssioned officers and men. He therefore 
ordered a detachment of that number to proceed 
from Fort Walsh to Fort Macleod with all possible 
despatch. 

In his repf)rt of the original trouble, Inspector 
Dickens, in command of the detachment at the Black- 
ff)ot Crossing, stated that, when on January 2nd, at 
alK)Ut 3 i).m., Charles Daly of the ln<lian Department 
reported that "Bull Elk" had fired at him, he (Ins- 
pector Dickens) went over and arreited the man. 



and took him over to the post. A crowd of Indians 
followed, all very excited. While the Inspector 
was enquiring into the case, a large body of Indians 
gathered from various quarter and gradually hemmed 
in the men who were placed outside to keep them 
back, and others surrounded the stables, and were 
posted along the roads. The police were at once cut 
off from water and from the store-house, the number 
of Indians increasing as they began to arrive from 
the camps. Dickens sent for Crowfoot. He arrived 
with the other chiefs. He said that he knew " Bull 
Elk" was innocent, that some of the white men had 
treated the Indians like dogs. He begged that " Bull 
Elk" might not be sent into Macleod. After a long 
talk it was evident that the Indians were determined 
to prevent the prisoner being taken out. It was im- 
possible to get a horse saddled to make a road through 
the throng. Crowfoot said that he would hold him- 
self responsible for the appearance of the prisoner, if 
the Stipendiary Magistrate or some magistrate came 
to try the case. As it was utterly impossible to get 
the prisoner to Macleod owing to the roads being 
completely blockaded, Dickens told Crowfoot that 
he would let him take charge of the prisoner if he pro- 
mised to produce him when recjuired. This he said 
he would do, and the Inspector let him take the pri- 
soner. The agent said he never saw the Indians in 
such a .state before. 

Superintendent Crozier's official report shows how 
critical the situation at this time was. He arrived at 
the Blackfoot Crossing on the evening of January the 
6th, having travelled day and night. 

On the following morning he proceeded with the 
interpreter to that part of the camp in which the 
prisoner " Bull Fvlk " was, and l)r()ught him from the 
camp to the quarters occupied by the police, where 
the Superintendent, at once, as a magistrate, com- 
menced the preliminary examination of witnesses as 
to the matter of the shooting by the prisoner. The 
Superintendent found sufficient evidence to warrant 
him in committing the pri.soner for trial, and upon 
the evening of the second day, left the Blackfoot 
Crossing with the pri.soner and escort for Macleod, 
and arrived there on the evening of the 9th. 
The Indians had boen greatly excited. I'pon Cro- 
zier's arrival at the Blackfoot Cro.ssing, Insiwctor 
Dickens reporte<l to him that the Indians were then 
<|uiet; "but" said he, "they are only waiting for an 
attempt to be made to take the prisoner from them 
and they will certainly resist. " Crozier, therefore 
concluded to place the building in a state of defence, 
jis he had determined to arrest the ofTendcr, and, 
having done so, to hold him, even if it were necessary 
to re-sort to extreme measures. Bv eleven o'clock 



(il 



on the morning after his arrival, the place was so de- 
fended that it would scarcely have been possible for 
any number of Indians to take it, and, besides, the 
Superintendent had, in the same buildings, protected 
the horses and the supplies of the police and Indian 
Department, and had arranged to procure a supply 
of water for both men and horses within the same 
building. 

Before leaving Fort Macleod he left orders for all 
available horses to be sent from the farm, to have 
the guns in readiness, and upon the receipt of word 
to that effect from him, to proceed forthwith to the 
Crossing. Dickens, it should be stated, had diploma- 
tically allowed the prisoner his liberty temporarily, 
upon Crowfoot saying he would be responsible that 
he would be forthcoming when required. 

On the adjournment at the conclusion of the first 
(.lay of the preliminary examination. Crowfoot again 
asked that the prisoner be allowed to accompany him 
to his lodge. This request Crozier positively refused 
to accede to. After some considerable time, seeing 
the police officer was determined not to give in, Crow- 
foot and his people dispersed. Superintendent 
Crozier held the prisoner in custody at the Crossing 
for one night and a day, and upon the evening of the 
8th, left with him under escort for Fort Macleod. 
The prisoner was tried before the Stipendiary Ma- 
gistrate and underwent imprisonment for his offence 
in the guard room at Macleod. He was a minor chief 
of the Blackfeet. 

The immediate cause of the difficulty seems to have 
been an altercation between the prisoner and a white 
man employed on the reserve by the beef contractors. 

The Indians were evidently greatly impressed 
with the preparations Crozier had made. Crowfoot 
asked him if he intended to fight, and the Superin- 
tendent replied "Certainly not, unless you commence". 
He also explained to the chief, as had often been done 
before, that the police had gone into the country to 
maintain law and order, that if a man broke the law 
he must be arrested and punished. Crozier asked 
him then if he, as a chief of the Blackfoot nation, 
intended to assist him in doing his duty, or if he in- 
tended to encourage the people to resist. The Super- 
intendent further said: "If I find sufficient evidence 
against the prisoner to warrant me in so doing, I intend 
to take the prisoner to Fort Macleod, and when I an- 
nounce my intention of so doing I expect you to make 
a speech to your people, saying I have done right. " 

Crowfoot did not answer, beyond making excuses 
for the manner in which his people had acted a few 
days before. However, at the conclusion of the exa- 
mination of witnesses, Crozier told them all that the 
prisoner was going to be taken to Fort Macleod. 



Crowfoot did then speak to them in his usual vigorous 
manner, endorsing perfectly what the police had done, 
and had decided upon doing. He and the other 
Indians by this time saw that Crozier was determined 
to carry out any line of action that he saw fit to com- 
mence. 

The reinforcements that had arrived from Fort 
Macleod in so short a time had astonished and awed the 
Indians. For these reasons, the chiefs and people 
were willing to listen to reason, and did so. 

On the first of May, 1881, before the arrival of 
the recruits, Big Bear (then a non-treaty chief) reached 
Fort Walsh. He came in ahead of his followers, all 
of whom, numbering some 130 lodges, were, he in- 
formed Col. Irvine, en route. The Commissioner at 
once told this chief, that he did not wish his people 
to come in the vicinity of the fort, and also that he 
would receive no aid from the Government. The 
Commissioner directed him to a place known as the 
"Lake", where they could subsist by fishing. 

This Big Bear did, and for some time Col. Irvine 
heard nothing further from him. Later on, however, 
he received information that councils were being 
held daily in the Indian camp, and further that the 
result of these councils was that Big Bear and his 
followers had decided to visit Fort Walsh, make ex- 
orbitant demands for provisions, and in case of their 
being refused, to help themselves. Colonel Irvine 
considered it advisable, thereupon, to move all the 
Indian supplies inside the fort. These supplies had 
previously been stored inside a building in the village 
rented by the Indian Department. He also took over 
the ammunition of T. C. Power & Bros., the only 
traders at Fort Walsh, and placed it in the police 
magazine. The Commissioner confined all the men 
to barracks, had the 7 pounder mountain guns placed 
in position in the bastions, and made all arrangements 
to have the force at his command ready for any emer- 
gency. On the 14th, Big Bear with 150 bucks, all 
armed, arrived at the fort. By runners going to 
his camp. Big Bear was kept informed of the action 
that had been taken; the effect no doubt was salutary. 
Demands made for ammunition during the council 
with Col. Irvine were refused, and there is no doubt 
that Col. Irvine's treatment of Big Bear at this time 
had a most satisfactory effect, showing him, that he 
as a non-treaty Indian would not obtain assistance 
from the Government, and that any attempt of his to 
obtain such by force must prove entirely futile. 

On the 4th May, 1882, Inspector Macdonell, the 
oflficer commanding at Wood Mountain, received a 
report from Mr. Legarrie, trader, who had just re- 
turned from Fort Buford, U.S., in which Inspector 
Macdonell was informed that on the evening of the 



62 



28th April, while Legarrie was encamped en route to 
Wood Mountain, a war party of thirty-two Crees 
appeared and made demands for provisions. 

Mr. Legarrie had with him a half-breed and a Sioux 
Indian. He and these men gave the war party food. 
Shortly afterwards they took articles from the carts by 
force, and threatened the lives of his party. During 
the night Mr. Legarrie heard the Indians in council 
arranging to kill him and the Teton Sioux. Towards 
morning another council was held, when it was ascer- 
tained that the Indians were composed of two parties, 
one from Cypress Hills, the other from Wood Mountain. 
The Cypress Hills party wished that what had l)een 




Superintendent .\. R. .Macdonell. 

arranged .should I)e carrie<l into effect at once. But the 
arrangements were changed, and it was decided to 
allow Legarrie and his party, who had previously been 
disarmed, to "eat once more" before killing them. 
When daylight came, Legarrie commenced prepara- 
tions for a start. The scene following he describes as 
being a terrible one, the Indians having taken possession 
of the carts. Ix^garrie expected every moment to be 
killed, the noise was fearful, some crying for the scalps 
of the whole party, others only wishing to kill the Teton 
Indian. 

Two attempts at firing were made, but fortunately 
the guns mis.se<l fire in bf)th cases. All became so con- 



fused that the Indians were afraid of killing their own 
friends. Finally Legarrie succeeded in buying off the 
lives of his men, the war party being allowed to take 
what they liked and I^egarrie's party to go, after having 
had his carts pillaged, by the taking of blankets, rifles, 
ammunition, etc. 

Immediately on the receipt of the information, In- 
spector Macdonell despatched mes.se ngers to all the 
half-breeds and friendly Indians' camps within a radius 
of 20 miles of his post, instructing them to keep a watch 
for this war party, and to immediately inform him if 
any trace was seen, promising that unless they were 
captured, permanent quiet would not be establishetl 
in his district as the same party had given continual 
annoyance during the spring. He therefore deter- 
mined to make an arrest at any cost. Shortly after, a 
half-breed, who resided 15 miles east of the post, re- 
ported to Inspector Macdonell that on the previous 
evening he had, while herding horses, come suddenly 
upon a war party of eight Indians on foot, all having 
lariats (a sure sign that they were on a horse stealing 
expedition). This war party admitted they were going 
to steal horses, but promised to touch none belonging 
to the half-breed. From the description given of the 
Indians who had attacked Legarrie, the half-breed 
assumed that they belonged to the same war party. 

Inspector Macdonell immediately mounted every 
man of his command available, and in company with 
Legarrie, whom he had sent for to identify the Indians, 
he started to make the arrest. He travelled in the 
direction of a half-breed camp, 15 miles from the post 
in which direction the Indians had gone. On arriving 
within a quarter of a mile of the camp, a scout was sent 
in to gather information. The scout told the camp that 
he was in search of four horses stolen from Wood 
Mountain, but he was told that they were not there as 
eight Crees had just come in on foot. Inspector Mac- 
donell immediately pushed on to the camp, which was 
composed of about 45 lodges. On reaching the camp 
he found a large crowd collected, and all the doors of 
the lodges closed, and on asking for the Cree Indians, 
their presence in the camp was denied. 

The crowded camp appeared very sulky and averse 
to his searching the lodges, one half-breed in particular 
who spoke a little English, showed much opposition. 
This man Inspector .Macdonell covered with his re- 
volver. This had the effect of cowing the crowd, and 
lodges were pointed out where seven Crees were found. 
The.se were arrested and di.sarmed, and a denumd made 
for the renuiining Indian, who was at last given up. 
The prisoners were then conveyed to Wood Mountain 
Post. On the next day an examination was held by 
Inspector Macdonell who committe<l them for trial, 
and afterwards conveyed them to Qu'Appelle where 



63 



they were tried and found guilty by the Stipendiary 
Magistrate. 

All possible aid has been invariably given by the 
police towards the recovery and return to their legiti- 
mate owners of horses and mules stolen and brought into 
Canadian territory from the United States. The efforts 
in this respect in 1882 were accompanied by marked 
success. 

During the month of May, of that year, a United 
States citizen from the Maria's River, Montana, arrived 
at Fort Walsh. He gave a description of 11 horses 
which he believed had been stolen from him by our 
Indians. A party of police was sent out to the various 




Superintendent A. H. Griesbacli. 

camps and succeeded in recovering and handing over 
all the horses stolen, taking care that no expense was 
incurred by the man who had suffered the loss. 

At Qu'Appelle, 9 horses and 6 mules, which had been 
stolen from Fort Buford, U.S.A., were recovered by 
Inspector Griesbach- of " B " Division, and returned to 
Messrs. Leighton, Jordon & Co., their owners, 1st Jan., 
1883. 

The United States military authorities in all such 
cases aided the police as far as lay in their power, 
which was more limited than that of the police. 

General Sheridan, of the United States Army, in 



his annual report for 1882, mentioned the amicable 
relations which existed between the United States 
troops and the Mounted Police Force, which, he 
said, "goes far in ensuring quiet along the boundary 
line. " 

On the 29th of May, 1882, a party of some 200 Blood 
Indians arrived at Fort Walsh from their reservation 
near Fort Macleod. These 200 men were well mounted 
and fully equipped as a war party, all armed with 
Winchester repeating rifles and a large supply of 
ammunition. On arrival they went at once to the 
officer in command and reported that the Crees had 
stolen some forty head of horses from them, and had 
been stealing all winter. The object of their visit 
was to recover their stolen horses from the Crees, 
their intention being to go on to the Cree camp at 
"The Lake" east of Fort Walsh. Feeling assured 
that, if this was done, serious trouble would ensue, 
Supt. Crozier told the Bloods he would not allow this, 
promising that he would send an officer and party, 
with a small number of their representative men, 
to the Cree camp, and that if their horses were 
there they would be returned to them. To this the 
Indians agreed. Superintendent Crozier detailed 
Inspector Frechette for the duty; six Blood Indians 
accompanied him to the Cree camp. 

This officer returned on the following day with 
three horses belonging to the Bloods. Crozier was 
satisfied that, with the exception of two other horses, 
which were afterwards returned by the Crees, the 
horses the Bloods had lost were stolen by United 
States Indians. 

This same year efforts were made to induce several 
tribes to move from the dangerous vicinity of the 
I'. S. boundary to reserves selected for them in the 
north, where, the buffalo having disappeared from 
the plains, the hunting was better. 

Soon after Col. Irvine's arrival at Fort Walsh in 
April, 1882, he commenced holding daily councils 
with the Indians (Crees and Assiniboines) .with a view 
of persuading them to move northward to settle upon 
the new reservations. 

On the 23rd of June "Pie-a-pot", with some five 
hundred followers, left Fort Walsh for Qu'Appelle. 
A delay that arose from the time of " Pie-a-pot's " 
promise to go on his new reservation until the time 
of his departure from Fort Walsh, did not reflect dis- 
credit upon this chief, as regards any inclination on 
his part to act otherwise than in perfect good faith, 
but was purely owing to the lack of ability of the 
police to aid him in transport. Such aid was im- 
perative, as the Indians were wretchedly poor and 
without horses. Considerable influence from differ- 
ent surreptitious (]uarters was brought to l)ear with 



64 



the view of inducing the Indians to remain in the 
southern district, the object of course, being that 
they should receive their annuities at Fort Walsh, 
and thus secure the expenditure of the treaty money 
on that section of the countr}'. Even United States 
traders from Montana clandestinely visited the Indian 
camps with the same project in view. 

As far as practicable Col. Irvine transported them 
with police horses and waggons. In " Pie-a-pot's " 
case he sent four waggons, with a strong escort of 
police. A portion of the escort, with one waggon, 
went through to Qu'Appelle; the remainder of the 
escort and waggons returned from " Old Wives' Lake", 
where they were met by transport sent from Qu'Ap- 
pelle by the Indian Department. 

At the time of " Pie-a-pot's " departure from Fort 
Walsh, the Cree chief, "Big Bear" (non-treaty Indian), 
"Lucky Man", -and "Little Pine", with about 200 
lodges, finding that Col. Irvine would not assist them 
in any way unless the}' went north, started from Fort 
Walsh to the plains in a southerly direction. These 
chiefs informed Col. Irvine that their intention was 
to take "a turn" on the plains in quest of buffalo, 
and after their hunt to go north. They added that 
they did not intend crossing the international boundary 
line, — a statement which he considered questionable 
at the time. Colonel Irvine, therefore, at the request 
of the officer commanding the United States troops 
at Fort Assiniboine, informed the United States au- 
thorities of the departure of these chiefs. The Ameri- 
cans in expressing their thanks were much gratified 
with the information imparted. If but few did cross 
the line, they were deterred only by fear of punish- 
ment by United States troops, who had formed a 
large summer camp at the big bend of the Milk River. 

At the time of the departure of these chiefs from 
Fort Walsh, Col. Irvine told them that the United 
States Government was opposed to their crossing 
the line, and stated in a clear and positive manner 
that any punishment which might be inflicted upon 
them by the United States troops could only be regarded 
as the result of their own stubborn folly, in not acting 
upon the advice of the Canadian Government, given 
purely in the interest of the Indians themselves. 

On December 8th, "Big Bear" and his followers, 
who had not yet entered into a treaty, accompanied 
by several treaty chiefs and Indians, went formally 
to Colonel Irvine's (juarters, and after having spent 
the afternoon and evening in going over the details 
of previous interviews, he signed the treaty No. 6, 
which it will be recalled was made at Forts ('arlton 
and Pitt, which was the section of country to which 
Big Bear really belonged. His announced intention 
at the tinte of signing was to go to Fort Pitt with his 



entire followers in the spring and settle upon the 
reservation allotted him. 

Big Bear was the only remaining chief in the North- 
West Territory who had not made a friendly treaty 
with the Canadian Government, in the surrendering 
of his and his people's rights as Indians, by the accept- 
ance of annuities and reserves, the occurrence con- 
sequently being considered an opportune one, coiu'lud- 
ing as it did, the final treaty with the last of the many 
Indian tribes in the Territories. Several years were 
to elapse, however, before Big liear's band reiieemed 
the pledge and settled on the allotted reserve. 

By the departure of these chiefs, Fort Walsh was 
entirely rid of Indians. 

On account of the increased responsibilities devol- 
ving upon the force, owing to the construction of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway and the influx of settlers, 
authority was given in the early part of the year 1882 
for an increase of the force by two himdred men. 

In consequence of this increase of the force, re- 
cruiting was commenced in Toronto, by the late 
Superintendent McKenzie, at the New Fort. It was 
originally intended that these recruits should be sent up 
via Winnipeg, then out to the terminus of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, and across country to the various 
posts where they were recjuired. However, owing to 
the severe floods in Manitoba, which temporarily sus- 
pended the railway traffic, as well as the un.settled 
state of Indian afi'airs at Fort Walsh, the original 
intention was changed and the recruits were taken up 
via Lake Superior and the Northern Pacific Railway to 
Bismarck, Dakota, where they embarked on the 
steamer " Red Cloud," and proceeded up the River 
Missouri to Coal lianks, where they were met by 
Superintendent Mcllree with transport, and taken by 
him to Fort Walsh, distant al)out 120 niiles. They 
arrived on the 11th Juno. SuperiiUendont .McKenzie, 
who left Toronto in command of the recruits, was 
shortly after taken ill and left at Prince Arthur's 
Landing, where he tlied in a few days. The conunand 
was taken over by Inspector Dowling. In all, 187 
recruits arrived, as well as Surgeon Jukes and Inspector 
Prevost. 

A small number of recruits were also this year en- 
gaged at Winnipeg, 37 in all. These recruits were 
taken on to (iuWppelle and attached to "li" Division. 
Later on, 12 more were taken up by Inspector Steele. 
In all, 63 recruits arrived at Ciu'Appelle. 

The total number of recruits posted to the force 
in 1882 was 2o(). of whom 200 were the increa.se of the 
force, and the remainder to fill vacancies, discharged 
men, &c. 

The recniits who arrived at Fort Walsh were posted 
to "A." "C" and "10" Divisions. The larger pro- 



05 



portion of these recruits were excellent men, but some, 
according to the Commissioner's report, were mere 
lads, physically unfit to perform the services required. 
Colonel Irvine recommended most strongly that the 
minimum age at which a recruit be accepted for 
service be fixed at 21 years of age. 

In speaking on this same subject, Surgeon Jukes gave 
his experience in his annual report in the following words : 
— " The examination papers given me when I was exam- 



ining recruits for admission to the force in May last, 
left me no power to reject men otherwise eligible be- 
tween the ages of 18 and 40 years. This rule applies 
well to the regular army, where men enlist for a longer 
period, where the duties ordinarily required are far less 
severe; but for short periods of service, say 5 years, 
attended with much exposure, and demanding consider- 
able powers of endurance, the age of 18 is too young. " 




The Start from DufFerin, July 8, 1874. 
'From a sketch by H. Julien in the "Canadian lUustrated News.") 



60 




CHAPTER VII. 



THE MARQUIS OF LORNE'S TOUR 



A Vice-Regal Escort which Travelled over Two Thousand Miles — Some Notes of A Highly 

Significant Prairie Pilgrimage, 



THE year 1881 will always be memorable through- 
out the North- West by reason of the visit 
made to the region in that year by His 
Excellency the Marquis of Lome, Governor General 
of Canada. 

In 1877 the Earl of Dufferin, then Governor 
General, visited Manitoba, accompanied by the 
Countess of Dufferin, but their tour through the 
prairie region of the Dominion was confined to the 
limits of the Province of Manitoba. So that the 
Manjuis of Lome, in 1881, was the first Governor 
General to visit the North-West Territories. The 
visit was fraught with great practical benefit to the 
North-West and the whole Dominion, the newspaper 
reports of the Vice-Regal progress bringing the new 
r(^ion immediately, and in a favourable manner, to 
the attention of the people of the older Provinces in a 
way no other event could have done. 

This tour of Lord Lome not only brought the 
Mounted Police into wide notice at the time, but is 
still considered as one of the best proofs of the early 
efficiency and usefulness of the force, for the entire 
duties in connection with the long prairie journey, 
were taken over, and with complete success, by the 
force. 

By a letter from Mr. F. White, the Comptroller. 
Col. Irvine was informed a few weeks before the event, 
that His Excellency theGovernor-CJeneral had decidtnl 
to visit the North- West. He also learned that an es- 



cort of the North- West Mounted Police Force would 
be required to accompany His Excellency, together 
with a certain number of additional men to act as 
teamsters, etc. The Commissioner at once communicated 
with the Comptroller on the subject, pointing out the 
various details that required consideration and action. 
Similar letters were written to Superintendents Herch- 
mer and Crozier. The officers commanding at Battle- 
ford and Fort Macleod were informed as regards the 
supply of forage, etc., recjuired and the points at 
which such supplies should be delivered along the 
road. 

It was decided that the escort and additional men 
required should be furnislicd from head(|uarters, and 
that their equipment should be made as complete as 
possible. The necessary stores required were care- 
fully selected, and Superintendent William Herch- 
mer was appointed to command the escort. 

On the 8th of August, Superintendent Herchmer, 
who had pail of his escort with him, reported to His 
Excellency, for duty at the railhead of the (<anadian 
Pacific Ilailway, west of Portage la Prairie, and as- 
sumed charge of .some additional transport brought 
up by train for the \ ice-regal party. It having been 
arranged that His Excellency should proceed to Fort 
Ellice !)> river, the main escort was assemljled there, 
and the transport under Superintendent Herchmer 
was advanced there without delay. August 13, His 
Excellencv landed at Fort Ellice, was met by a mount- 



67 



ed escort of twenty men under Superintendent Herch- 
mer and escorted to the Hudson Bay Post. The ap- 
pearance of the escort and the general bearing of the 
men called forth universal admiration. 

About 3 p.m., on the 14th August, His Excellency 
and his escort started for Qu'Appelle, which was 
reached on the evening of the 17th, His Excellency 
being received by a smart guard of honour under Ins- 
pector Steele. 

On the 19th, the party started for Carlton with 46 
men and 84 horses. Of these 84, 36 were remounts 
and 46 horses belonging to the various divisions. 

The route was via Humbolt, Gabriel Dumont's 




Supt. William H. Herchmer, later Assistant Commissioner. 

Crossing, Fort Carlton, Battleford, l^lackfoot Cross- 
ing, Calgary, Macleod, to Fort Shaw, Montana, from 
which point His Excellency returned east through 
United States territory. 

A more exact idea of the route, and a correct state- 
ment of the distanccj? travelled by the Mounted Police 
escort is given in the following abstract diary: — 

Aug. 8, end of C. P. R. to camp, one-half day, 5 
miles; Aug. 9th, to Big Mud Creek, 32 miles; Aug. 10th, 
to Rapid City, 25 miles; Aug. Uth, to Shoal Lake, 38 
miles; Aug. 12th, to Birtle, 25 miles; Aug. 13th, to 
Ellice, one-half day, 4 miles; Aug. 14th, camp, one- 
half day, 6 miles; Aug. 15th, camp, 35 miles; Aug. 16th, 



to Qu'Appelle River, 40 miles; Aug. 17th, Qu'Appelle, 
34 miles; Aug. 18th, halt; Aug. 19 to camp, 38 miles; 
Aug. 20th, Edge of Salt Plain, 33 miles; Aug. 21st, 
halt; Aug. 22, to camp, 38 miles; Aug. 23, to camp, 

34 miles; Aug. 24, to Gabriel's Crossing, 36 miles; Aug. 
25th. to Carlton, one-half day, 20 miles; Aug. 26, 27, 
28, 29, to Battleford, 92 miles; Aug. 30th to Battleford; 
Aug. 31, to Battleford; Sept. 1, to camp, 33 miles; 
Sept. 2, to camp, 36 miles, Sept. 3, to Sounding Lake. 
37 miles; Sept. 4, to camp, 23 miles; Sept. 5, to camp, 

35 miles; Sept. 6, to camp, 30 miles; Sept. 7, to camp, 
23 miles; Sept. 8, to camp, one-half day, 10 miles; 
Sept. 9th, Blackfoot Crossing, 34 miles; Sept. 
10th, camp, one-half day, 14 miles; Sept. 11th, 
camp, one-half day, 18 miles; Sept. 18, Calgary, 28 
miles; Sept. 13, halt; Sept. 14, to halt; Sept. 15, 
to High River. 37 miles; Sept. 16th, to Willow Creek, 
40 miles; Sept. 17th, to Macleod, 25 miles; Sept. 18, 
Macleod; Sept. 19th, to Macleod; Sept. 20th, Colonel 
Macleod's house, 40 miles; Sept. 21, to halt; Sept. 
22nd. to camp, 28 miles; Sept. 23, to camp, 28 miles; 
Sept. 24, to Cutface Bank, 38 miles; Sept., Birch 
Creek, 31 miles; Sept. 26th, to Teton River, 68 miles; 
Sept. 27, to Fort Shaw, 28 miles. — Total number of 
miles: 1,229. 

In addition to this, the escort, or most of it, for 
Supt. Herchmer took some men with him from Battle- 
ford, travelled in the first place from Fort Walsh to 
Fort Ellice, a distance of 443 miles; then again from 
Fort Shaw to Fort Macleod, and from Fort Macleod 
to Fort Walsh, a distance of 400 miles, making an 
aggregate total of 2,072 miles. 

His Excellency held councils with Indians at Fort 
Ellice, Fort Qu'Appelle, Fort Carlton, Battleford, 
Blackfoot Crossing, and Fort Macleod. 

Owing to the hurried nature of the trip, it proved 
very trying on the horses. Between Ellice and 
Qu'Appelle, Superintendent Herchmer was obliged 
to leave three horses on the trail, while between 
Qu'Appelle and South Branch, he left four horses, 
two dropping dead. Of these two, one was the pro- 
perty of the Indian Department. Between Carlton 
and Battleford, three horses were left, between Battle- 
ford and Blackfoot Crossing, five were dropped along 
the trail. At Carlton, one horse was left, and at Cal- 
gary, seven. None of these horses were incapacitated 
from lack of care, for day and night the horses received 
the greatest attention, and throughout this long and 
trying march, not a horse was incapacitated for work 
by sore back or shoulders, truly a remarkable and 
probably an unprecedented record. 

The force crossed the South Saskatchewan at 
Gabriel Dumont's Crossing, on August 25th, the 
crossing being effected most successfully, 80 horses 



68 



and 19 waggons being crossed in five hours with one 
scow. The men of the lorce worked admirably, 
their handiness and cheerfulness under most trying 
circumstances, the wind being very high, being most 
favourably commented upon. At Carlton, it was 
determined that His Excellency and party shoukl 
visit Prince Albert, travelling by the steamer " North- 
cote". Superintendent Herchmer with the escort 
and transport, proceeded overland to Battleford, 
reaching there on the 29th. The following day, His 
Excellency arrived from Prince Albert by steamer 
"Lily". 

On the 31st, His P^xcellency visited the barracks 
and quarters at Battleford, expressing himself very 
nmch pleased. 

While the party was en route from Battleford to 
Calgary, on the morning of the 7th, they came upon a 
small herd of buffalo near Red Deer River. Three 
buffalo were killed by the party; the meat thus sup- 
plied being most acceptable, as they had been some- 
what longer on the road than was calculated on, the 
distance travelled being greater than expected. There 
being no road, the party did not steer as direct a 
course as if they had gone over a well-marked and 
direct trail. The guide originally intended to have 
taken the party to a crossing of the Red Deer River, 
immediately south of the Hand hills, but when about 
20 miles from the Hand hills, the guide assured Super- 
intendent Herchmer that the party would encounter 
serious difficulty in getting the waggons down to the 
river, and also stated that he could take him to a 
crossing still farther south, which had a better ap- 
proach. This being the case, Herchmer decided to 
accept the latter course and found a good crossing. 

At Red Deer River, the guide, John Longmore, 
informed the Superintendent that he could take the 
party no farther, as he was unacquainted with the 
country beyond. Herchmer, therefore, utilized the 
services of "Pound Maker", a Cree Indian chief from 
Battleford, who had accompanied the Indian Com- 
missioner (a). 

Between Battleford and Red Deer River, there 
was plenty of water; but the only wood was at Sound- 
ing Lake, about half way, so w^ood for cooking had to 
be carried. 

Soon after leaving Red Deer River, on the 8th, a 
cold and very severe rain storm set in, and after tra- 
velling some 8 miles, the party camped at the first 
water. Had Superintendent Herchmer not camped 
at this point, he would have had to make too long a 



(a) The Mme " Pound Maker" (genenUly written one word) who fimired 
rnn'piruouKly in HieVn rehpllion. who gave himiwlf up at Battleford. and 
khortly aftrrwardfi ilied in r«infinenM*nt. it in «up|M>«eil liy many, of a Wroken 
hrart, Mr wao a linndwinic. Iirnvf . tnlcnted iind irciwriilly n nnlili- Itidian. 



drive without watering the horses. The rain con- 
tinued for twelve hours, the weather remaining cold. 

At the Indian Council at Blackfoot Crossing the 
escort furnished a guard of honour under Superin- 
tendent Herchmer. In his report that officer stated: 
— "Notwithstanding the necessarily extremely short 
notice I received as to this guard being required, the 
men turned out in a manner that would have done 
credit to any troops stationed in permanent stations. 
His Excellency and party were loud in their expres- 
sion of admiration at the men's appearance. I men- 
tion this incident as I consider it goes far to prove the 
efficiency of a force which, notwithstanding the fact 
that it had travelled over 850 miles of prairie, was 
thus enabled to supply a guard of honour at a few 
minutes notice, fit to appear on a general inspection." 

On the 11th, about 3 p.m., some 25 miles from 
Calgary, Lt.-Col. Irvine, the Commissioner, accom- 
panied by Superintendent Cotton, Adjutant of the 
force, arrived at the Vice-Regal camp and were 
heartily welcomed. They brought a relay of horses 
and a good supply of oats. At 1.30 p.m. on the follow- 
ing day the party reached Calgary, making a successful 
ford at the Bow River at a point immediately in rear 
of Police Post, which ford Col. Irvine had previously 
formed and marked out. 

The 13th and 14th, the party remained in camp at 
Calgary, their rest being a particularly pleasant one. 
His Excellency and party had excellent fishing, and 
some shooting. 

On the 14th, the Commissioner, accompanied by 
Supt. Cotton, started for Fort Macleod to make ar- 
rangements for the reception of His Excellency. 

On the 15th, His Excellency and escort started for 
Fort Macleod w'th ninety-nine horses. On the morn- 
ing of the 17th, about seven or eight miles from that 
place, the Vice- Regal party were met by the Commis- 
sioner and Supt. Cotton. 

On reaching Willow Creek, about three miles from 
Fort Macleod, His Excellency was received by a salute 
fired from the two 9-pounder muzzle-loading rifle guns 
in possession of the force. These guns were placed 
in an approfjriate position on a high ridge conunanding 
Willow Creek. From the crossing of the Old Man's 
River to the fort the road was lined at inttTvals by 
a party of mounted men under command of Supt. 
('rozier. At the main gate of the fort His lOxcellency 
was received by a guard of honour under Inspector 
Dickens. The general appearance of this guard of 
honour was everything that could be desired. 

On the morning of the 19th. Superintendent Herch- 
mer handed over the command of the escort to Supt. 
Cro/ier, in accordance with the Commissioner's in- 
structions. Supt. Herchmer had previously applied 



69 



to be relieved from escort duty, in order that he might 
return to Battleford and reach that post before the 
winter set in. 

Before leaving Fort Macleod the following letter 
was received by Superintendent Herchmer: 

"Fort Macleod, 18th Sept., 1881. 
"Sir,— I am commanded by His Excellency the 
Governor General to desire you to express to Super- 
intendent Herchmer, his entire satisfaction with the ad- 
mirable manner in which that officer has performed his 
duty while in command of the force of Mounted Police 
which has escorted His Excellency from Winnipeg to 
Fort Macleod. I am further to request you to convey 
to the non-commissioned officers and men who formed 
the escort. His Excellency's thanks for the services 
rendered by them while on the march, and the 
pleasure it has afforded him to witness the discipline 
and efficiency of the corps. 

F. DeWinton, Lt.-Col., 

Milty-Secy." 

After leaving Fort Macleod, His Excellency's party 
was joined at the Blackfoot Agency in Montana by 
a detachment of United States troops, who accom- 
panied the party as far as Birch Creek. It had been 
the intention of the officer commanding the United 
States troops at this point. Colonel Kent, to escort 
His Excellency thence to Fort Shaw with a mounted 
detachment of ten men, in addition to the escort of 
Mounted Police under Superintendent Crozier, but 



owing to the United States troops having lost their 
horses from the encampment at Birch Creek, this 
design could not be carried out. Colonel Kent, 
himself, accompanied the party from the Blackfoot 
Agency, Montana, to Fort Shaw. His Excellency 
was escorted about two miles on the road towards 
Helena by the Mounted Police under Crozier, the 
duty then being transferred to a detachment of the 
3rd U.S. Infantry. 

Prior to His Excellency taking his departure from 
Fort Shaw, he commanded to be ordered a parade of 
the escort of North-West Mounted Police, whom he 
addressed in the most flattering terms. 

To quote some of his words, he said: "You have 
been subjected to the most severe criticism during the 
long march on which you have accompanied me, for I 
have on my personal staff experienced officers of the 
three branches of the service — cavalry, artillery, and 
infantry — and they one and all have expressed them- 
selves astonished and delighted at the manner in 
which you have performed your arduous duties, and 
at your great efficiency." 

From His Excellency's remarks, he fully appreciated 
the many different kinds of services performed by the 
Police of the North-West. 

"Your work," said he, "is not only that of military 
men, but you are called upon to perform the im- 
portant and responsible duties which devolve upon 
you in your civil capacities. Your officers in their 
capacity of magistrates, and other duties are called 
upon to perform even that of diplomacy." 




A Typical Four-Horse Mounted Felice Team. 
(From photograph loaned by the Comptroller, Lieut.-Col. F. White). 



70 




CHAPTER VIII. 

HEADQUARTERS REMOVED TO REGINA 



The Usefulness of Fort Walsh Disappears, and the Post is Abandoned — Several New Posts 
Established — Fort Macleod Moved — The Construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway — A 
Record in Track-laying and an Equally Creditable Record in the Maintenance of Order — 
Extra Duties Imposed Upon the North-West Mounted Police. 



EVER since the establishment of the Mounted 
Police there had been uncertainty as to the 
best place for the establishment of permanent 
headquarters. It has been related how, in 1874, 
Swan River near Fort Ellice was chosen as the site 
for headquarters and the erection of barrack and 
other accommodation begun. It has also been ex- 
plained that Lieut.-Colonel French, the first Com- 
missioner, on the return march from the Belly River, 
arrived at Swan River, but on account of the unpre- 
pared ness of the buildings, and the lack of winter 
forage, due to prairie fires, left only one division at 
and near Swan River, and proceeded with head- 




Wood and Anderson's Ranch, On site of Old Fort Wal.sh. 

photograph loaned h>' LSrtit.-Col. 
:!«»mptrollcr of the K.N.W.M.P.) 



(Prom a photograph loaned h>' LSrtit.-Col. White, 
Coi 



quarters and the remainder of his force to Winnipeg, 
and later to DufTerin, Man. 

The next spring the headquarters of the force were, 
under orders from the Government, and in spite of 
Lieut. -Col. French's opinion that the site was unsuit- 
able, established at Swan River, but in a few years, 
owing to the vital importance of preserving order 
among the numerous tribes of Indians in the vicinity 
of the International frontier, and the necessity of 
putting a stop to illicit trading across the lines, head- 
quarters were first removed to Fort Macleod, and in 
1879, to Fort Walsh. 

The Mounted Police Buildings in the North-West 

Territories in 1876 were as follows: — 

Swan River, accommodation for 150 men and horses 

Hattleford, " 50 

Fort Maclood " 100 

Kort Walsh " 100 

Fort CalRary " 25 

Fort Sasixatchewan " 25 " 

Shoal Lake " 7 

The buildings at Swan River and Battleford were 
erected by the Department of Public Works; tlio.se 
at the other posts by the Mounted Police. 

To the outside ol)sorver it began to look !is though 
the head(|uarters of the Mounted Police were destined 
to be a perambulatory institution, but as a 
matter of fact, within the force, and particularly 
on the part of tho.se responsible for its efliciency, the 
idea of establishing a satisfactory permanent head- 
quarters for the force was never lost sight of. 



71 



Ill his annual report for the year 1880, dated Jan- 
uary 1st, 1881, the Commissioner, referred to this 
subject as follows: 

"I am perfectly well aware of the many important 
considerations that require to be most carefully 
weighed before a point for the headquarters of the 
force can be finally settled upon. It is a matter that 
cannot be looked at merely from a military point of 
view. The future construction of public works 
throughout the North-West Territories, the rapid 
immigration that may safely be anticipated, and the 
settlement that will necessarily accompany it, must, 
I presume, also prove important factors as regards 
the permanent establishment of police headquarters. 
It would then be a most grievous mistake to arrive 
at any hastily formed conclusion which might, and 
the chances are would, be a source of never ending 
regret. 

" I propose that in future the headquarters of the 
force be a depot of instruction, to which place all 
officers and men joining the force will be sent, where 
they will remain until thoroughly drilled and in- 
structed in the various police duties. To carry out 
this plan successfully, it is indispensable that a com- 
petent staff of instructors be at my disposal. A 
portion of such a staff I can obtain by selection from 
officers and non-commissioned officers now serving 
in the force. In addition to this, however, I recom- 
mend that the services of three perfectly well qualified 
non-commissioned officers and men be obtained from 
an Imperial Cavalry Regiment. I am satisfied that 
the inducements we could hold out would be 
the means of obtaining the best class of non- 
commissioned officers to be had in England. I 
would not recommend that non-commissioned officers 
of more than five years service be applied for. Old 
men, who have already spent the best days of their 
life in the British service, would be quite vmfit for the 
work that in this country they would be called upon 
to perform, nor would they be likely to show that 
energy and pride in their corps which is desirable that, 
by example, they should inculcate into others. In- 
structors of the class I have described, in addition to 
the knowledge they would impart to others, would 
serve as models for recruits, as regards soldierlike 
conduct and general bearing. The importance of 
the benefits the force would thus derive cannot, in 
my opinion, be overrated. " 

In the same report the following reference was 
made to the unsatisfactory condition of the barracks 
at headquarters and elsewhere: — "Complaints con- 
tinue to be made regarding the condition of the police 
buildings, and the character of the accommodation 
they afford in their present state of repair. It is 



most desirable that the barracks should be as com- 
fortable as possible, but it is not deemed expedient 
to incur any considerable expenditure upon them at 
present, not until the line of the Pacific Railway haf 
been finally determined, as upon that determination 
will depend the situation of the permanent head- 
quarters; and it may then be found convenient to 
abandon a number of the existing posts and construct 
others elsewhere. There were obvious disadvantages 
attaching to the custom of permitting detachments 
to remain throughout the entire length of service at 
one post, and during spring the system was inaugurated 
of moving them to new stations at least once in two 
years. It is, of course, understood that the head- 
quarters staff do not come under the operation of this 
rule. " 

During 1881, the contract for the completion of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway was made by the Domi- 
nion Government with the Montreal syndicate at the head 
of which were Messrs. George Stephen and Donald A. 
Smith (now Lord Mount Stephen and Lord Strath cona). 
The work of pushing the gigantic work to completion was 
at once taken up energetically, and with the laying 
of the rails across the prairies a new era dawned for 
the North-West and the Mounted Police. It was 
realized that the exact location of the line would have 
much to do with the future distribution of the force 
and the location of the permanent headquarters. 
In his report at the end of the year 1881, the Com- 
missioner wrote: 

"The distribution of the force cannot well be 
satisfactoril}^ laid down imtil the exact location of the 
Canada Pacific Railway is known. In any case 
there is an immediate necessity for having a strong 
force in the Macleod district, which includes Fort 
Calgary. In the meantime the following will give 
a fairly approximate idea as to what I consider a 
judicious distribution, viz: — Qu'Appelle, 50 non- 
commissioned officers and men; Battleford, 50 non- 
commissioned officers and men; Edmonton, 25 non- 
commissioned officers and men; Blackfoot Country, 
200 non-commissioned officers and men; Headquarters, 
175 non-commissioned officers and men. Total 500. 
It will be observed that this distribution is based 
upon the assumption that my recommendation, as 
regards the increase of the force, will be acted on. 
I make no mention of Wood Mountain; for this section 
of the country I propose utilizing the fifty men shown 
as being stationed at Qu'Appelle. I understand 
the Canada Pacific Railway will run south of our 
present post known as 'Qu'Appelle.' The chances 
are therefore, I will hereafter have to recommend 
that the location of this post be moved south. Were 
this done we would then have control of the section 



72 



of country in which Wood Mountain post now stands. 
The location of the present post at Battleford may 
not require to be changed for some time at all events. 
Edmonton would be an outpost from Calgary. Our 
present post in the Edmonton district is Fort Sas- 
katchewan, which is situated some eighteen miles 
east of Edmonton proper. It is, I think, actually 
necessary that our post be moved to Edmonton. 

"There is, to my mind, no possible doubt but that 
the present headquarters. Fort Walsh, is altogether 
unsuitable, and I would respectfully urge upon the 
Government the necessity of abandoning this post 
with as little delay as possible. In making this re- 
commendation I am in a great measure prompted by 
the knowledge of the fact that the Indian Department 
do not consider that the farming operations at Maple 
Creek have been successful in the past, and that 
they are still less likely to prove so in the future." 

At the time this report was penned, Col. Irvine 
believed that the main line of the C.P.R. would pass 
considerably north of the Cypress Hills and of its 
actual location; as was first proposed, in fact. During 
1882, the Commissioner was notified by Mr. C. E. 
Perry, the engineer in charge of the work, that the 
southern route had been adopted, and that consi- 
derable supplies would have to pass through, or in 
the immediate vicinity of the Cypress Hills. In view 
of the change, the Commissioner received a letter 
from Mr. Perry, on the subject of the syndicate parties 
receiving protection from the police. He was at 
the same time informed that large quantities of sup- 
plies were to be shipped through Fort Walsh, and 
a considerable number of men were to be employed 
at once in and about Cypress Hills. This being the 
case, the situation of affairs was essentially changed, 
and Col. Irvine was compelled to somewhat modify 
his previous recommendations, in so far as they re- 
lated to the immediate abandonment of Fort Walsh, 
as he saw that it was actually necessary to maintain a 
force of police in that vicinity for the protection of the 
working parties from United States Indians as well as 
Canadian ones, and also to prevent smuggling and 
illicit whisky dealing being carried on from the United 
States territory. He therefore recommended that 
Fort Walsh be not abandoned until the authorities 
were positively informed as to the location of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway line, by which time a suit- 
able site for a new post could be selecte<l. possibly, 
he thought, near the crossing of the South Saskatch- 
ewan River, about 35 miles north-west of the head 
of the Cypress Hills. On a.scertaining the final location 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway line, the Commissioner 
communicated with the Minister of the Interior re- 
commending that the site for future headcjuarters be 



decided upon at once, and a suitable post be erected 
without delay. He based this recommendation upon 
the assumption that the site would be selected at or 
near the crossing of the South Saskatchewan River. 
He stated, however, that should the Government con- 
sider that point too far west for headquarters, it would 
nevertheless be necessary to erect a post in the vicinity 
of the Cypress Hills. 

By a telegram of the 20th July, 1882, Col. Irvine 
was informed of Sir John A. Macdonald's decision of 
the Pile of Bones Creek (now Regina) being the head- 
quarters of the force, also of the number and dimen- 
sions of the section buildings to be made in the Eastern 
Provinces and forwarded to Regina, for stables and 
quarters. This telegram reached Colonel Irvine at 
Fort Macleod. 

Soon after his return from that post to Fort Walsh, 
he proceeded to Qu'Appelle; and after having inspected 
" B " division, accompanied His Honour the Lieutenant 
Governor, the Hon. Edgar Dewdney, to the Pile of 
Bones Creek. The Commissioner, after looking over 
the ground, instructed Inspector Steele, who had 
accompanied him, where the buildings were to be 
situated, and immediately moved the headquarters 
of "B" division from Qu'Appelle to Regina. At the 
end of October the sectional buildings commenced to 
arrive, and building was proceeded with. 

The headquarters of the force was transferred from 
Fort Walsh to Regina on the 6th of December. 

A recruiting depot, with an establishment of one 
officer and ten men was, under authority of the 
Minister established in Winnipeg in the spring of 
1882. 

Building was carried on extensively during the year 
1883, not only at the new headcjuarters but at other 
posts. During the year in question the buildings at 
Pile of Bones Creek (or Regina) were completed. New 
l)arrack8 at Fort Macleod to replace those previously 
in use, were in course of erection. New posts were 
pushed forward towards completion at Medicine Hat 
and Mai)le Creek. 

There had been very special and particular rea.sons 
for l)uilding a new post at Fort Macleod, in fact a new 
site had to l)e .selected. January 18, 1881, the (Com- 
missioner reported that the coiirse of the "Old .Man's" 
River at Fort Macleod had changed. This river, 
at high water, at this date, deviated from its original 
course in two places, the stream, after this unexpected 
freak of nature, pa.ssing immediately in front and 
rear of the fort, the post thus being made an island. 
In rear the water flowed within a few feet of the west 
side of the fort. The deviations made from the original 
course of the river continued, becoming more and more 
formidable, and it was probable that in the coming 



73 



spring many of the post buildings would be carried 
away if left in their actual positions. 

Taking all these things into consideration it was 
felt to be absolutely necessary that Fort Macleod be 
removed from its original site. The Commissioner 
recommended that a new site be selected at the police 
farm, which was situated some 30 miles south-west 
from where the fort originally stood. 

It appears that the Old Man's River changed its 
course by breaking through a narrow neck of land 
that divided the main stream from a slough. In 
1880, the river reverted to its old bed, breaking through 
lower down, cutting off another large portion of the 
island on which the fort was built, and causing the 
demolition of several houses. The soil of the island 
was a loose mixture of sand and gravel, and to show 
the strength and velocity of the current, it might 
be mentioned that in one night one hundred and 
twenty yards of the bank was washed away. To 
save the saw-mill from being swept away it was ne- 
cessary to move it from its old site. The whole lower 
portion of the island, including a part of the farm, 
was inundated, and the water rose so high as to ap- 
proach within twenty yards of the fort itself. The 
level of the flood was not five feet from the floors in 
the fort. 

Nothing was done about the selection of a new site 
until March, 1883, when the Commissioner was informed 
that the latest site which had been selected for the 
erection of the new post at Fort Macleod had been 
approved, and that the erection of a new post was 
to be commenced during the following summer. The 
site chosen was about two and a half miles west of 
the old post, on the bench land overlooking the "Old 
Man's" River, and on the south side of it. Every 
care was taken in the selection of the site. The soil 
was dry and gravelly, good drainage was obtainable, 
plenty of fresh water was near at hand, there was 
good grazing ground in the immediate vicinity, and 
an uninterrupted view was afforded. 

Work on the post was at once begun and pushed 
to completion. The principal buildings were laid 
out in a rectangle, 484 ft. long by 254 ft. wide, with 
officers' quarters on west side, barrack rooms facing 
them on the opposite side, offices, guard room, re- 
creation room, sergeants' mess and quarters, on the 
north side, with stables, store rooms, harness room, 
opposite; the remaining buildings were outside the 
"square". 

The buildings were of the same general construction. 
All buildings rested on foundation blocks about 12 
inches square, and placed at intervals of 6 feet. These 
blocks had a firm bearing on the hard, gravelly soil, 
a thin layer of soil and mould being removed. All 



sills were 8 in. square, floor beams, 2 in. by 8 in., and 
were 2 ft. apart; framing 2 in. by 6 in. and were 18 
in. apart, with 6 in. square corner posts. Plates of 
two 2 in. by 6 in. scantling, firmly spiked joists, 
which were 2 in. by 8 in. by 6 in. strongly braced 
and firmly attached to ceiling joists, which were 2 in. 
by 8 in. 

Every precaution was taken to strongly brace the 
framing and roofs, to prevent any damage resulting 
from the high winds which prevail at Fort Macleod. 

All outside walls were of common 1 in. boarding 
covered with tar paper, and then sided up with 5-8 
in. siding, 6 in. wide and lap of 7-8 in. 

The floors throughout were of two thicknesses, 
with tarred paper between. Roofs were shingled, 
with felt paper between shingles and sheeting. The 
window casings and door frames were of neat appear- 
ance. The officers' quarters, barrack rooms, mess 
room, hospital, offices and recreation room, were all 
lathed and plastered in the interior; the guard room 
and store houses were lined with dressed lumber. 
All doors leading to the exterior were 3 ft. by 7 ft. 
and Ij in. thick inside doors, 2 ft. 6 in. by 6 ft. 8 in 
and 1 in. thick; with the exception of the barrack 
rooms all the doors were 3 ft. 7 in. The windows in 
all the buildings had twelve lights, 12 in. by 16 in. 
except in the kitchens of the officers' quarters and 
store and harness rooms, which were each of twelve 
lights, 10 in. by 12 in. 

All buildings were painted a light grey, and trimmed 
with a darker shade of the same colour. The wood 
work and casings in the interior were painted the 
same colour. Roofs were painted with fireproof 
paint. 

Chimneys were of zinc, 14 in. square with a circular 
flue, 7 in. in diameter, thus giving a large air space, 
which was utilized as a ventilator. They projected 
4 in. above the peak of the roof, and passed through 
the ceiling. 

Owing to the distance from the railway, 138 miles, 
it was impossible to construct the chimneys of brick. 
Where stovepipes were carried through partitions, 
they were surrounded by three inches of concrete. 

This new post was considered a masterpiece at 
the time it was built. 

On the 19th of May last, 1884, the new barracks 
were taken over from the North- West Coal and Navi- 
gation Company, and occupied shortly after by "C" 
division, a small party only being left as caretakers in 
the old buildings. 

Fort Calgary having been created a district post, 
and " E " division removed there, under the command 
of Superintendent Mcllree, the buildings were en- 
tirely inadequate to accommodate the Division, and 



74 



were so entirely useless and out of repair that Col. 
Irvine gave instructions to that officer to commence 
building at once on his arrival, and to retain for use 
during the winter such buildings as, with little, or no 
expense, could be made habitable for the winter. 
The buildings to be erected were to be laid out in a 
general plan for a new post. 



^ , ", ' ■' 


' r J.I 


^1 MiLn 


jj 


ih 




- .' ^ -^ 





Calvary Barracks, erected in 1888-89. 

Superintendent Mcllree immediately on his arrival 
commenced work. Several of the old buildings were 
pulled dawn to make way for the new ones, all the 
same logs being utilized. A contract was at once 
let for the erection of a new barrack room, 110 ft. 
long by 30 ft. wide, with dining room, 30 ft. square, 
and kitchen, 15 ft. square; attached, 1 guard room, 
30 ft. by 50 It., with 12 cells; 1 hospital, and 1 officers' 
quarters. These buildings were all completed during 
1882. The walls of the buildings throughout were 
9 ft. high and constructed of logs, with the exception 
of the officers' quarters, which were frame. The 
chinks were filled with mortar. The floors consisted 
of li inch planed lumber, tongued and grooved, 
while the roof was of shingle laid in mortar. The 
buildings erected were good and substantial ones, 
neat in appearance, well ventilated, and suited for 
the requirements to which they were to be put. Much 
more commodious barracks were erected at Calgary in 
1888 and 1889. 

For some considerable time it had been the inten- 
tion to abandon the old Fort Walsh post, which had 
figured 80 prominently in the early history of the 
force, and abandonment was desirable for -many 
reasons. In the first place, the site was, from a 
military point of view, a most objectionable one. 
The rude buildings, always considered but a tem- 
porary refuge, had become utterly dilapidated. The 
post, too, being some 30 miles south from the located 
line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, rendered a change 
of site imperative, in addition to the fact of its being 
a temptation to straggling bands of lazy Indians 
whose desire was to loiter about the post, and when in 
a destitute condition, make demands for assistance 
from the Government. 

The Commi-ssioner, therefore, acting under usual 
authority, had the post demolished; the work being 



performed by the police, commencing on the 23rd 
of May, and concluding on the 11th of June. The 
serviceable portion of the lumber of which the old 
buildings were composed, was freighted to the camp 
established at Maple Creek, a point on the main line 
of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, where the division 
previously stationed at Fort Walsh was encamped 
during the summer. 

Acting under the direction of his Honour the Lieut.- 
Governor. a detachment, consisting of one officer (Ins- 
pector Dickens) and twenty-five men, was, during the 
month of September, 1883, stationed at Fort Pitt, 
and a police post established there. This was done on 
account of reports which had reached His Honour, to the 
effect that the Indians on reserves in that vicinity 
were likely to give serious trouble. 

At the end of 1882, the Commissioner was able to 
report that the increase of the force, referred to in 
an earlier chapter, had proved most judicious. The 
effect on the Indians throughout the Territory had 
been to show them that the Government intended 
that law and order should be kept, by both white 
men and Indians alike, and that sufficient force was 
provided to accomplish this. The cases of " Big 
Bear" and of the trouble at the Blackfoot Crossing, 
early in the preceding January, were sufficient to 
show that a strong force was still necessary to enforce 
the law among the Indians. The Commissioner was, 
owing to the increase of force, enabled to move a 
sufficient force to Forts Macleod and Calgary, which 
was urgently required. At Fort Macleod there were 
the Blood and Piegan reservations, numbering about 
four thousand people. The Sarcee reservation of 
about five hundred was only ten miles from Calgary, 
and the Blackfoot reserve, 56 miles down the Bow 
River from that post. The fast growing settlements 
about these posts, together with the large cattle 
ranches, rendered it imperative that they should 
receive good police protection from such a large body 
of Indians, in all about 7,000, as well as that order 
should be kept among the Indians themselves. 

Great vigilance was recjuired to j)revent smuggling 
from Montana, U.S. 

The following is a return showing the amount of 
Customs duties collected by the North-West Mounted 
Police, during the year 1882:— Port of Fort Walsh, up 
to 8th December, $15,135.46; Port of Fort Mac- 
leod, up to 30th December, $35,525.76; Port of Wood 
Mountain up to 31.st December, $2,784.64; Port of 
(iu'Appelle up to Slst Deceml)cr, $1,076.50— Total 
$52,522.36. 

It can be readily understood how largely the police 
work of the force was added to during the construc- 
tion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. As the work 



neared the eastern boundary of the Territories, the 
troubles then feared may be classified as follows: — 

1st. Annoyance and possible attack on working 
parties by Indians. 

2nd. Difficulty of maintaining law and order among 
:he thousands of rough navvies employed; and the 
prevention of whisky being traded in their midst 
md at all points of importance along the line. 

Fortunately, the Indians were so kept in subjection 
hat no opposition of any moment was encountered 
rom them. 




rhe Old Order and the New — An Indian at a Celebration of 
Whites near a North-West Town. 



As originally expected, numerous and continued 
(Torts were made to smuggle in whisky, at almost 
11 points along the construction line. This taxed 
le resources and vigilance of the force to the utmost ; 
ut these labours were successful. 

In the construction of the railway during 1882, up- 
wards of 4,000 men were employed during the whole 
immer, some of them exceptionally bad characters. 
>wing, however, to there being no liquor obtainable, 
ery little trouble was given the police, the con- 



tractors, the settlers, or anybody else, by them. Where 
large amounts of money are being expended among 
such men as railway navvies it is to be expected that 
many attempts will be made to supply them with 
liquor, and such attempts were made in the west in 
1882. Had this not been effectually stopped, the 
historian of the period would have had to report a 
large number of depredations as having been com- 
mitted. It is probably unparalleled in the history 
of railway building in an unsettled, unorganized 
western country that not a single serious crime had 
been committed along the line of work during the 
first year of operations, and this fact certainly reflected 
great credit on those responsible for the enactment 
and carrying out of the laws. 

The following is a copy of a letter the Commissioner 
received from W. C. VanHorne, Esq., General Manager 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, just as he was pre- 
paring his annual report: — 

" Canadian Pacific Railway, 

Office of the General Mai ager, 

Winnipeg, 1st Jany., 1883. 

"Dear Sir, — Our work of construction for the year 
of 1882 has just closed, and I cannot permit the 
occasion to pass without acknowledging the obliga- 
tions of the Company to the North-West Mounted 
Police, whose zeal and industry in preventing traffic 
in liquor, and preserving order along the line under 
construction have contributed so much to the success- 
ful prosecution of the work. Indeed, without the 
assistance of the officers and men of the splendid 
force under your command, it would have been im- 
possible to have accomplished as much as we did. On 
no great work within my knowledge, where so many 
men have been employed, has such perfect order pre- 
vailed. 

"On behalf of the Company, and of all their officers, 
I wish to return thanks, and to acknowledge par- 
ticularly our obligations to yourself and Major Walsh. 

(Signed) W. C. VanHorne. 

Lieut. -Col. A. G. Irvine, 

Commissioner of North-West Mounted Police, 
Regina." 

The next year, 1883, the work of railroad construc- 
tion was accompanied by increased duties and troubles 
for the Mounted Police. 

Track-laying on the Canadian Pacific Railroad 
ceased in the month of January, at a point some 
twelve or thirteen miles eastward of the station now 
known as Maple Creek. Several parties of workmen 
employed by the railway company wintered in the 



76 



Cypress Hills, cutting and getting out timber. These 
men, ignorant of Indian habits, were on different 
occasions needlessly alarmed by nmioUrs that reached 
them of the hostile intentions of the Indians in the 
vicinity. On one occasion, a timid attempt was made 
by a few Indians to stop their work, such attempt 
at intimidation being prompted on the part of the 
Indians by a desire to procure presents of food from 
the contractors. On representation being made to 
the officer commanding at Fort Walsh, prompt and 
effectual steps were taken to secure quietude, and 
prevent any similar occurrence. On this subject 
Superintendent ShurtlifTe reported to Col. Irvine as 
follows: 

"On the 7th inst., Mr. LaFrance, a railway con- 
tractor, who was cutting ties in the neighbourhood of 
Maple Creek, came to me and complained that a body 
of Indians, under 'Front Man,' had visited his camp 
and forbidden them to cut any more timber, saying 
that it was the property of the Indians, and that they 
had also demanded provisions from them. Mr. La 
France and his men being thoroughly frightened, 
at once left the bush and repaired to the police out- 
post at Maple Creek and claimed protection. On 
hearing Mr. LaFrance's complaint, I sent for 'Front 
.Man,' and explained that it was a very serious matter 
to interfere with any men working in connection 
with the railway, and convinced him that it would 
not be well for him or any other Indian to do anything 
having a tendency to obstruct the progress of the 
road. On being assured that he would have no 
further trouble, Mr. LaFrance resumed work." 

The Pie-a-pot incident, is one of the traditions of the 
force, for have not gifted pens embalmed it. 

The work of construction was being rushed across 
the prairies west of Swift Current, and right in the line 
of the engineers, directly where the construction camps 
would soon be located with their thousands of passion- 
ate, unprincipled navvies — the flotsam and jetsam of 
humanity — Pie-a-pot and his numerous tribe had pitched 
their tents, and brusquely announced that they in- 
tended to remain there. 

Now Pie-a-pot and his band had not just then that 
wholesome respect for the law of "The Big White 
Woman" and the red-coated guardians thereof which 
a few months additional acquaintance were to confer. 
Moreover it is as true with the aborigines as with other 
people that "Evil communications corrupt good man- 
ners," and in spite of the eflforts of the police, Pie-a-pot's 
band, or individual meml)ers thereof, had l)een just 
enough in communication with the railway construction 
camps to be decidedly corrupted. The craze for the 
whiteman's money and whisky raged within the 
numerous teijees of Pie-a-|>ot 's camp. I n fact , just t hen 



Pie-a-pot's band fairly deserved the appellation of "Bad 
Indians," and even the possibility of the massacre of 
some of the advanced parties engaged in the railway 
work was darkly suggested. As the army of navvies 
advanced towards the Indian camp, and the latter re- 
mained sullen and defiant, the railway officials appealed 
to the Lieutenant-Governor for protection. His Honour 
promptly turned the appeal over to the Mounted Police, 
and, with just as much promptitude, means were taken 
to remove the difficulty. Pie-a-pot had hundreds of 
well-armed braves spoiling for a fight, with him, but 
it is not the custom in the North- West Mounted Police 
to count numbers when law and duty are on their side. 
Soon after the order from headquarters ticked over 
the wires, two smart, red-coated members of the force, 
their pill-box forage caps hanging jauntily on the tradi- 
tional three hairs, rode smartly into Pie-a-pot's camp, 
and did not draw rein until in front of the chief's tent. 

Two men entrusted with the task of bringing a camp 
of several hundred savages to reason ! It appeared 
like tempting Providence — the very height of rashness. 

Even the stolid Indians appeared impressed with 
the absurdity of the thing, and gathering near the 
representatives of the Dominion's authority, began 
jeering at them. One of the two wore on his arm the 
triple chevron of a sergeant, and without any prelimi- 
nary parley he produced a written order and proceeded 
to read and explain it to Pie-a-pot and those about him. 
The Indians were without delay to break camp and 
take the trail for the north, well out of the sphere of 
railway operations. Pie-a-pot simply denuirred and 
turned away. 

The young bucks laughed outright at first, and soon 
ventured upon threats. But it did not disconcert tlie 
two redcoats. They knew their duty, and that the 
written order in the sergeant's possession represented 
an authority which could not be defied by all the 
Indians in the North- West. The sergeant quietly gave 
Pie-a-pot warning that he would give him exactly a 
(juarter of an hour to comply with the order to move 
camp, and to show the Indian that he meant to be 
(piite exact with his count, he took out his watch. 

Again Pie-a-pot sullenly expressed his intention to 
defy the order, and again the young braves jeered. They 
entered their tepees, and when they returned they had 
rifles in their hands. The reports of discharged fire- 
arms .sounded through the camp, a sj)ecies of Indian 
bravado. Some turbulent characters of the tribe 
mounted their ponies and tried to jostle the mounts 
of the two redcoats as they calmly held their ix)sitions 
in front of Pie-a-pot's tepee, some young bucks firing off 
their rifles right under the noses of the police horses. 
Men, women, and even children, gathered about jeering 
and threatening the representatives of law and order. 



77 



They knew that the two men could not retaliate. 
Pie-a-pot even indulged in some coarse abuse at the ex- 
pense of his unwelcome visitors, but they sat their 
horses with apparent indifference, the sergeant taking 
an occasional glance at his watch. 

When the fifteen minutes was up he coolly dis- 
mounted, and throwing the reins to the constable, 
walked over to Pie-a-pot's tepee. The coverings of these 
Indian tents are spread over a number of poles tied 
together near the top, and these poles are so arranged 
that the removal of a particular one. called the " key- 
pole." brings the whole structure down. The sergeant 
did not say anything, but with impressive deliberation 
kicked out the foot of the key-pole of Pie-a-pot's tepee, 
bringing the grimy structure down without further 
ceremony. A howl of rage at once rose from the camp, 
and even the older and quieter Indians made a general 
rush for their arms. 

The least sign of weakness or even anxiety on the 
part of the two policemen, or a motion by Pie-a-pot. 
would have resulted in the speedy death of both men, 
but the latter were, apparently, as calm as ever, and 
Pie-a-pot was doing some deep thinking. 

The sergeant had his plan of operations mapped 
out, and with characteristic sang-froid proceeded to 
execute it. From the collapsed canvas of Pie-a-pot's 
tepee he proceeded to the nearest tent, kicked out the 
key-pole as before, and proceeded to methodically kick 
out the key-poles all through the camp. 

As W. A. Fraser, the brilliant Canadian novehst, 
writing of this remarkable incident, put it, Pie-a-pot 
■• had either got to kill the sergeant — stick his knife 
into the heart of the whole British nation by the 
murder of this unruffled soldier — or give in and move 
away. He chose the latter course, for Pie-a-pot had 
brains." / 

During the month of Deceinber, 1883, a very serious 
strike occurred on the Canadian Pacific Railway line, 
the engineers and firemen refusing to sign such articles 
of agreement as were proposed and submitted to them 
by the railway authorities; these workmen making 
demands for increased rate of pay, which, being re- 
fused by the Company, led to the cessation of work 
by engineers and firemen all along the line. It at once 
became apparent that the feeling between the Com- 
pany and their employees was a bitter one. This 
being the case, and the Company further finding that 
in addition to its being deprived of skilled mechanical 
labour, and also that secret and criminal attempts were 
being made to destroy most valuable property, the 
services of the N.W.M.P. were called into demand. 

A detachment of police, consisting of two officers 
and thirty-five men, was placed under orders to pro- 
ceed to Moose Jaw. On the evening of the 15th 



December, Mr. Murray of the C.P.R. reached Regina 
with an engine and car, and the detachment pro- 
ceeded forthwith to Moose Jaw, which was the end of a 
division, and 40 miles west of headquarters. On 
arrival at Moose Jaw, Superintendent Herchmer, 
commanding the detachment, placed a guard on the 
railway round house at that place. From the assist- 
ance rendered by the police the railway company was 
enabled to make up a train, which left for the east on 
the following morning with passengers and mails. By 
this train Supt. Herchmer, with nineteen men, pro- 
ceeded to Broadview, the eastern end of the same rail 
wav division. 




Colonel S. B. Steele, C.B., etc., formerly Inspector and later 
Superintendent in the North-West Mounted Police. 



During the year 1884, the progress of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway construction, then approaching the 
mountain section from across the prairie, was made 
as uninterruptedly as heretofore. The large influx 
of miners and others into the vicinity of the mines in 
the mountains on the resumption of the train service 
in the spring (the service was suspended during the 
winter), necessitated a material increase in the 
strength of the Calgary division, the headquarters 
strength of which it was advisable to diminish as little 
as possible. 

In March, Inspector Steele, who was commanding 
at Calgary, in the absence of Superintendent Mcllree, 



78 



on leave, reported that preparations were on foot for 
the illicit distillation of liquor in the mountains, and 
in June called attention to the difficulty of checking 
illegal importations into British Columbia under the 
narrow latitude imposed by the Peace Preservation 
Act applying to the vicinity of public works. This 
latitude was subsequently extended to twenty miles 
on each side of the railway track. On the 10th of 
May, in consequence of a message from the manager 
of construction, anticipating trouble at Holt City and 
its neighbourhood, Sergt. Fury and ten men were posted 
there for duty, two being retained at the 27th siding, 
and a corporal and four men at Silver City, and these 
men, for the time, maintained order amidst the rowdy 
element in a highly creditable manner. On the 5th 
June, Superintendent Herchmer assumed command of 
the Calgary district, being accompanied from head- 
quarters by a reinforcement for "E" division, of two 
non-commissioned officers and 22 men. On the 21st 
June, a detachment of mounted men was dispatched 
to the Columbia River, to protect the railway com- 
pany's property and interests at that point. 

A detachment of the force under Inspector Steele, 
was employed in the maintenance of law and order 
on that part of the Canadian Pacific Railway under 
construction in the mountains, during the early 
part of 1885. The distribution of this detach- 
ment was as follows: — Laggan, 3 men; 3rd Siding, 
2 men; Golden City, 8 men, 7 horses; 1st Crossing, 
4 men, 2 horses; Beaver Creek, 2 men, 1 horse; Sum- 
mit of Selkirks, 2 men, 1 horse; 2nd Crossing, 4 men, 
2 horses. A little later, as construction proceeded. 
Golden City was left with three men and one horse, 
the balance being moved on to Beaver Creek. In 
the absence of gaol accommodation for the district 
of Kootenay, cells were constructed at the 3rd Siding, 
Golden City, 1st Crossing, Beaver Creek, Summit 
or Selkirks and 2nd Crossing. A mounted escort of 
four constables was detailed to escort the Canadian 
Pacific Railway paymaster whenever he required it. 

Inspector Steele reported: 

"About the first day of April, owing to their wages 
being in arrears, 1,200 of the workmen employed on 
the line struck where the end of the track then was, 
and informed the manager of construction that unless 
paid up in full at once, and more regularly in future, 
they would do no more work. They also openly 
stated their intention of committing acts of violence 
upon the staff of the road, and to destroy property. 
I received a deputation of the ringleaders, and assured 
them that if they committed any act of violence, 
and were not orderly, in the strictest sense of the 
word, I would inflict upon the offenders the severest 
punishment the law would allow me. They saw the 



manager of construction, who promised to accede to 
their demands, as far as lay in his power, if they would 
return to their camps, their board not to cost them 
anything in the meantime. Some were satisfied 
with this, and several hundred returned to their 
camps. The remainder stayed at the Beaver (where 
there was a population of 700 loose characters), os- 
tensibly waiting for their money. They were appa- 
rently very quiet, but one morning word was brought 
to me that some of them were ordering the bricklayers 
to quit work, teamsters freighting supplies to leave 
their teams, and bridgemen to leave their work. I 
sent detachments of police to the points threatened, 
leaving only two men to take charge of the prisoners 
at my post. I instructed the men in charge of the 
detachments to use the very severest measures to 
prevent a cessation of the work of construction. 

" On the same afternoon, Constable Kerr, having 
occasion to go to the town, saw a contractor named 
Behan, a well known desperado (supposed to be in 
sympathy with the strike), drunk and disorderly, 
and attempted to arrest him. The constable was 
immediately attacked by a large crowd, of strikers 
and roughs, thrown down and ultimately driven off. 
He returned to barracks, and on the return of Ser- 
geant Fury, with a party of three men from the end 
of the track, that non-commissioned officer went 
with two men to arrest the offending contractor, 
whom they found in a saloon in the midst of a gang 
of drunken companions. The two constables took 
hold of him and brought him out, but a crowd of 
men, about 200 strong, and all armed, rescued him, 
in spite of the most resolute conduct on the part of 
the police. The congregated strikers aided in the 
rescue, and threatened the constables if they per- 
sisted in their efforts. 

"As the sergeant did not desire to use his pistol, 
except in the most dire necessity, he came to me, 
(I was on a sick-bed at the time) and asked for orders. 
I directed him to go and soi/o the offender, and shoot 
any of the crowd who would interfere. He returned, 
arrested the man, but had to shoot one of the rioters 
through the shoulders before the crowd would stand 
back. 1 then recjuested Mr. Johnston, J. P.. to ex- 
plain the Riot Act to the mob, and inform them 
that I would use the strongest measures to prevent 
any recurretice of the trouble. 1 IukI all the men 
who resisted the police, or aided Behan, arrested next 
morning, and fined them, together with him. $100 
each, or six months hard labour. 

"The strike collapsed next day. The roughs 
having had a severe lesson, were quiet. The con- 
duct of the police during this trying occasion was all 
that could be desired. There were only five at the 



79 



Beuvcr at the time, and they faced the powerful mob 
of armed men with as much resolution as if backed 
by hundreds. 

"While the strike was in progress I received a 
telegram from His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor 
of the North- West Territories, directing me to proceed 
to Calgary at once with all the men, but in the interests 
of the public service I was obliged to reply, stating 
that to obey was impossible until the strike was 
settled. 

" On the 10th day of April the labourers had been 
all paid, and I forthwith proceeded to Calgary, leaving 
the men in charge of Sergeant Fury until everything 
was perfectly satisfactory. " 

On the 7th of April, this year, a constable found 
in the Moose Jaw Creek the dead body of a man named 
Malaski, with a heavy chain attached. The same 
night Sergeant Fyffe arrested one John Connor on 
suspicion of being the murderer. An examination 
of Connor's house showed traces of blood on the 
walls and floor, an attempt having been made to 
chip the stains off the latter with an axe, and further 
examination revealed the track of the body, which 
had been dragged from the house to the creek. 

The murder had evidently been committed with 
an axe, while the murdered man was lying on the 
bed, probably asleep, there being three deep wounds 
on the side of the head. Connor was convicted of 
the murder before Colonel Richardson, Stipendiary 
Magistrate, and a jury, on the 2nd May, and was 
executed at Regina on the 17th July. The prisoner 
made no statement of any kind with respect to his 
guilt. 

During the construction of the prairie sections of 
the C.P.R. the duties of railway mail clerks in the 
North- West were performed by members of the force. 
During 1884, from Moose Jaw westward, all the mail 
via the Canadian Pacific Railway was conveyed to and 
fro in charge of members of the force, their number 
varying with the alteration in the train service. Three 
constables from headquarters performed this duty 
between Moose Jaw and Medicine Hat, two of the 
Maple Creek division from Medicine Hat to Calgary, 
and two of the Calgary division from that place to 
Laggan. 

These men were sworn as officials of the Postal 
Department, and in the absence of aught to the con- 
trary, carried out their duties to the satisfaction, no 
less of the Postal Department, than of their own 
officers. 

In his annual report for 1884 the Commissioner 
pointed out the need of a further increase in the 
number of non-commissioned officers and men in the 
force, to enable him to comply with the daily increa- 



sing requirements of advancing settlement and civil- 
ization. Colonel Irvine suggested that 300 addi- 
tional men should be obtained as soon as possible, 
these to be recruited in Eastern Canada, and to be 
men of undeniable physique and character, accustomed 
to horses, and able to ride. With such men, the 
Commissioner explained, the necessary training, in- 
cluding a course of instruction in police duties, could 
be more rapidly completed than if equitation, in 
addition to the rudiments of foot and arm drill, had 
to be taught. 

We obtain a good idea of the class of men composing 
the North- West Mounted Police at this time from a 
very readable and well written book published by 
Sampson Low & Co., London, 1889, entitled "Trooper 
and Redskin in the Far North- West; Recollections 
of Life in the North- West Mounted Police, Canada, 
from 1884 to 1888," by John G. Donkin, late Cor- 
poral N. W. M. P. The author, in a chapter directly 
concerning the personnel of the Mounted Police wrote: 

"After having been about two months in the corps, 
I was able to form some idea of the class of comrades 
among whom my lot was cast. I discovered that 
there were truly " all sorts and conditions of men. " 
Many I found, in various troops, were related to 
English families in good position. There were three 
men at Regina who held commissions in the British 
service. There was also an ex-officer of militia, and 
one of volunteers. There was an ex-midshipman, 
son of the Governor of one of our small Colonial de- 
pendencies. A son of a major-general, an ex-cadet 
of the Canadian Royal Military College at Kingston, 
a medical student from Dublin, two ex-troopers of 
the Scots Greys, a son of a captain in the line, an 
Oxford B. A., and several of the ubiquitous natives 
of Scotland, comprised the mixture. In addition, 
there were many Canadians belonging to families of 
influence, as well as several from the backwoods, 
who had never seen the light till their fathers had 
hewed a way through the bush to a concession road. 
They were none the worse fellows on that account, 
though. Several of our men sported medals won 
in South Africa, Egypt, and Afghanistan. There 
was one, brother of a Yorkshire baronet, formerly 
an officer of a certain regiment of foot, who as a con- 
tortionist and lion-comique was the best amateur I 
ever knew. There was only an ex-circus clown from 
Dublin who could beat him. These two would give 
gratuitous performances nightly, using the barrack- 
room furniture as acrobatic 'properties.'" 

This aggregation of "all sorts and conditions of 
men," already proved to be efficient in many a tight 
corner, was about to undergo the supreme test of 
service in actual warfare. 



80 




CHAPTER IX. 

THE REBELLION OF 1885 



The Uprising Predicted By Officers of the Force Well in Advance of the Actual Appeal To 
Arms — Irvine's Splendid March From Regina to Prince Albert — The Fight at Duck Lake 
and Abandonment of Fort Carlton — Services of the Detachments at Prince Albert, Battle- 
ford and Fort Pitt and of Those which Accompanied the Militia Columns Throughout the 
Campaign — Preventing a General Uprising Throughout the North-West. 



ON account of the North-West Rebellion, the 
year 1885 is one which will alwa3's be considered 
historical in Canada. The campaign which 
resulted in the suppression of the rising was the first 
conducted by Canadian troops alone, without any 
assistance from the British regular army. The re- 
bellion marked in a dramatic manner the complete 
unification of patriotic sentiment throughout all the 
provinces of the Dominion; Canadians from the 
various provinces fighting in the ranks, side l)v side, 
and shedding their V)lood, to assert the authority of 
the Federal Government, and thus demonstrating 
the .successful accomplishment of the fundamental 
project of the framers of Confederation, the creation 
of a Canadian nation. 

The rebellion, too, marks an era in the history of the 
Royal North-West Mounted Police, for the force 
naturally Iwre the brunt of the campaign, and ac- 
<|uitted itself well. Officers and men wherever em- 
ployed, whether on the march, scouting, on courier 
-crvice, in garri.son. or on the battlefield, acted in a 
manner creditable to the force and to the country. 
The services of the Mounted Police in connection 
with the uprising cover a considerable period pre- 
ceding its actual outbreak, for one of the best proofs 
of the efficiency of the force dtiring this stirring time, 
was aflforded by the prompt transmission to the author- 



ities at the seat of Government of reports describing 
the various stages of the development of the rebellion. 
July 8, 1884, the following telegram was received 
by the Comptroller in Ottawa and referred to the 
authorities concerned : — 

" Battleford, 8th July, 1884. 
"Fred. White, Ottawa. 

" Louis Riel arrived at Duck Lake, with family, 
brought in by half-brocds. They brought him, it 
is said, as their leader, agitating their rights. 

L. N. F. Crozier." 

In an official report on this subject, to the Com- 
missioner, l)earing date 13th July, 1884, rendered by 
Superintendent Crozier, who was in command at 
Battleford, that officer stated that the half-breeds 
claimed to have grievances of various kinds and that 
the Indians were becoming excite<l on account of 
the action of the half-breeds. 

August 2nd. the Commissioner forwarded to Ot- 
tawa from Regiiui the following report received by 
him from Superintendent Crozier: — 

" Battleford, 27th July, 1884. 
"Sir; — 

"I have the honour to inform you that Riel has held 
meetings at both Prince Albert and Duck Lake. I 



81 



am informed that his meeting at the first named 
place was an open one. Some httle difficulty took 
place, but was promptly put down. 

At Duck Lake, his audience was composed of French 
half-breeds and Indians. He is said, though I have 
no official information to that effect, to have told 
the Indians that they had 'rights' as well as the 
half-breeds, and that he wished to be the means of 
having them redressed. 

" I am also informed that he expressed a wish to 
confer with the Indian chiefs. I have already re- 
ported that I believe the Indians sympathize with 
the half-breeds, nor could anything else be expected, 
being close blood relations and speaking the same 
language. 



effect upon the country, and, among those effects, 
not the least, a sense of insecurity among settlers. 

"I believe now, that Big Bear and his followers would 
have been upon their reserve but for the emissaries of 
Riel, who, it is said, invited him to meet that person at 
Duck Lake. 

"Certain it is he has gone there, and that after having 
promised and received provisions to go to Fort Pitt. 
He had proceeded with the camp some distance on the 
road, but turned back after hearing from Riel. 

" There are very many rumours about as to what Riel 
has said to the Indians, that, if true, are intended to 
cause discontent among them as to their present con- 
dition. 

L. N. F. Crozier." 




Captain "Jack" French, formerly an Inspector of the N.W.M. P., 

who orjfanized and commanded " French's Scouts," and 

who gallantly fell at the head of his men in the 

advanced line at the capture of Batoche. 



" What may be the result of this half-breed agitation 
or what effect it inay have upon the Indians, of course 
I cannot foretell. I before said, and still think, pre- 
cautionary measures should be taken; such measures 
as will not only prevent turbulent spirits carrying 
their schemes to an extreme, but prevent both Indians 
and half-breeds even making an attempt to resist 
authority or organize for illegal purposes, for these 
constant 'excitements' must have a most injurious 



August 9th, Superintendent Crozier forwarded the 
following report received in cypher from Sergeant 
Brooks at Prince Albert, dated the 8th: 

"Returned from Duck Lake last night; Big Bear in 
council with ten other chiefs. Riel has held several 
private meetings at the South Branch, attended by 
leading half-breeds; he has not seen Big Bear. Big 
Bear's camp, with twelve lodges, is forty miles S.S.E. 
of Fort Pitt. His son is with the camp. It is re- 
ported to me that Big Bear will go to Prince Albert 
after he leaves Duck Lake." 

In forwarding this report, Superintendent Crozier 
wrote the Commissioner : 

" For several weeks I have had a man stationed at 
Duck Lake to report what transpires there, par- 
ticularly as to the half-breeds and Indians. The same 
point is visited frequently by the non-commissioned 
officers and men from Prince Albert also. I also 
receive from the non-commissioned officer at Prince 
Albert, despatches by letter or cypher telegram, of 
anything that he may become aware of that he deems 
of importance. I have this day sent a non-commis- 
sioned officer and three men to patrol in and about 
Duck Lake and the settlements thereabouts, with a 
view to detecting, if possible, the presence of horse 
thieves, as it is supposed there may be some in that 
vicinity." 

On the 5th of August a non-commission,ed officer, 
who had been instructed to ascertain the state of 
feeling at Prince Albert, reported: — "There is very 
little talk about Riel. The principal part of the 
people who seem to agree with him are people who 
are hard up and think they must do something to 
cause a little excitement. I have heard very few 
who are in any way well-to-do speak favourably of 
him. There is no doubt but that all the breeds swear 
by him, and whatever he says is law with them." 

On the 10th of August, Sergeant Brooks, at Prince 



82 



Albert, reported that Riel had held a meeting that day 
as the people were coming from church at Batoche. at 
which he said 'the Indian's rights should be protected 
as well as your own.' He reported also that Jackson. 
brother of the druggist, at Prince Albert, seemed to be 
*' a right-hand man of Kiel's. He has a great deal to 
say. and I believe he does more harm than any breed 
among them." 

On the 18th August, Superintendent Crozier re- 
ceived orders from the Commissioner to increase the 
Prince Albert detachment to an Inspector and twenty 
men, and did so accordingly. 

On the 17th of September. Sergeant H. Keenan, at 
Duck Lake, reported that a meeting of Kiel's sup- 
porters had been held at St. Laurent on the 1st, at 
which a number of half-breeds and white men from 
Prince Albert were present, "including Jackson, Scott 
and Isbister, three of Kiel's strongest supporters in 
that district. Speeches were made condemning the 
Government, and Mr. Jackson stated that the country 
belonged to the Indians and not to the Dominion of 
Canada." Sergeant Keenan concludes: "I met Kiel 
a few days ago, and during our conversation he told 
me that the Government, through Bishop Grandin, 
had offered him a seat in the Council or in the Do- 
minion Senate." 

In view of the increasing unrest on the North 
Saskatchewan, the Comptroller forwarded the fol- 
lowing : 

"Ottawa, 3rd Sept., 1884. 

"The undersigned has the honour to submit for the 
Minister's consideration, that in view of the possibility 
of additional Mounted Police being required in the 
North Saskatchewan District, it is desirable that steps 
l)e taken to secure accommodation for men and horses, 
l)eyond the capacity of the Mounted Police post at 
Battleford, and it is suggested that arrangement might 
be made with the Hudson Bay Company for the use, 
for police purposes, during the coming winter, of their 
buildings, or a portion thereof, at Fort Carlton, which 
is about fifteen miles northwest of Duck Lake, about 
fifty-five miles west of Prince Albert, and one hundred 
and twenty miles east of Battleford. 

Frkd Whitk, Comptroller." 

Under date, " Batoche, 25th Sept., 1884," Sergeant 
Keenan reported as follows: 

" I have the honour to state that since my last re- 
port all has been quiet here. There have, however, 
been frequent meetings of Kiel's committee held in 
different parts of the settlement. It is almost impos- 
sible for me to obtain any information as to what 
transpires at these meetings, as they are conducted 



with secrecy, and no person, except the members 
of the committee, is allowed to take part in them. 
At all the public meetings, Kiel and his supporters 
have been very moderate, or rather cautious, in their 
utterances; but I learn that they appear in disguise 
at these open gatherings, and advocate very different 
measures in their councils. The last meeting was 
held a week ago at the house of Batiste Boyer, one 
of the chief supporters of the movement. Charles 
Nolin, another member, and one of the most unrea- 
sonable, proposed that the half-breeds make certain 
demands on the Government, and if not complied 
with, they take up arms at once, and commence 




Superintendent S. Gaffnon. 

killing every white man they can find, and incite 
the Indians to do the same. I obtained this informa- 
tion from an Old Country Frenchman who belonged 
to the connnittee, and left it on account of the ex- 
treme and unre.'tsonable measures it advocated. 
This man Nolin is the most dangerous of the half- 
breeds for the rea.son that he is strongly in favour 
of tam|)ering with the Indians." 

The suggestion contained in the Comptroller's 
memorandum of the third of September having been 
acted u|x)n, and |K'rmission obtained from the Hudson 
Bay (V»mpany to ([uarter a detachment at their his- 
torical post at Fort Carlton, in October a police pt)st 



83 



was established there under command of Superin- 
tendent S. Gagnon. and the strength of the northern 
division increased to 200 of all ranks, this number 
being distributed between Battleford, Carlton, Prince 
Albert and Fort Pitt. 

The Indians about Fort Pitt appeared to be peace- 
ably enough disposed in November, for on the 9th, 
Inspector Dickens, commanding there, reported: 

"From the 1st to the 11th, I was absent on a tour 
around the reserves on the occasion of the annual 
treaty payments of the Indians. The payments 
passed off quietly, as I have already reported. On 
my return I found that Little Poplar had arrived 
at Pitt, to be present at the payment of Big Bear's 
band. Big Bear now talks of taking a reserve in 
the sj .ing. As long as they receive rations I do not 
think they will give trouble during the winter — that 
is, I do not think that they have at present any in- 
tention of so doing." 

From Fort Carlton, on December 23rd, Superin- 
tendent Gagnon reported as follows: 

" I have the honour to report that during the last 
month the half-breeds of St. Laurent and Batoche 
settlements held a public meeting, to adopt a petition 
drawn up by a committee, and that this petition, 
signed by the settlers of both settlements, had been 
forwarded to Ottawa. This meeting, from all re- 
ports, seems to have been very orderly. Several 
other smaller re-unions have taken place during the 
same period, but all had reference to school matters. 
The half-breeds are pressing Kiel to settle amongst 
them, and have given him, as a token of their grati- 
tude for services rendered, a house well furnished, 
and will further, on 2nd January next, present him 
with a purse. These testimonials are for the good 
will of the majority, and would go towards denying 
certain rumours, which say that several are lacking 
confidence in their leader, that his way of acting 
and speaking denote a very hot head, and that he 
does not agree Vvith their priests. There is no doubt 
that a great number are still led by him, and would 
act on his dictates. Some time ago I sent several 
men to the South Branch to have horses shod. The 
river being full of floating ice, they could not cross. 
Some way or other, the report was brought to the 
east side of the river that these men were sent to arrest 
Riel, who was then at the crossing. Within half an 
hour, over one hundred men had collected to protect 
him. There is a certain amount of suffering amongst 
the half-breeds, but not to the extent it was expected 
to reach. Large quantities of supplies are required 
for this part of the country, and all who have horses 
can make a living by freighting with them. As far 
as I can see, the chief grievance of the half-breeds 



is that they are afraid the Government will not sanc- 
tion the way they, amongst themselves, have agreed 
to take their homesteads — ten chains frontage on the 
river by two miles back. The Indians are quiet. 
The sub-agent here reports that one of the southern 
Indians, who makes it a business to run from band 
to band, trying to create mischief, is now in Beardy's 
band. The agent has a criminal charge to prefer 
against him, and as soon as the guard room is fitted 
up I will have him arrested." 

On the 14th January, 1885, Superintendent Crozier 
reported that invitations to a large gathering, in the 
spring, at Duck Lake, were being circulated amongst 
the Indians, and he was informed that an effort would 
be made to get the Qu'Appelle Valley Indians to 
attend. It appeared, too, that " Little Pine" had tried 
to induce a number of the Blackfeet to move north- 
wards in the spring, and "Poundmaker" said that 
"Little Pine" had told his young men not to dispose 
of their guns. Superintendent Crozier expected to 
hear later from " Poundmaker " the particulars of 
"Little Pine's" negotiations with the Blackfeet, as 
soon as he should have obtained them from " Little 
Pine." Superintendent Crozier expressed great faith 
in " Poundmakers' " reliability and fidelity. 

On the 12th of January, Inspector Dickens reported 
from Fort Pitt that " Big Bear's " band were at work 
drawing logs, cutting wood, &c., "all quiet." 

On the 26th of January, Superintendent Gagnon, 
commanding at Carlton, reported that nothing of im- 
portance had occurred during the month among the 
half-breeds in that district. "They had, after New 
Year a social meeting, at which they presented their 
chief, Riel, with $60 as a token of their good will. The 
meeting was very orderly and loyal, and no allusion 
was made to the actual troubles." 

Riel appears to have been in financial troubles 
just then, and to h^,ve obtained assistance from the 
Roman Catholic missionary at St. Laurent. Superin- 
tendent Gagnon was now informed that the pre- 
viously mentioned petition had not been sent to 
Ottawa, as stated, but was then in process of being 
signed, with a view to its being forwarded the following 
month. It appeared that a letter only, as a sort of 
avant courrier to the petition, had been sent on the 
before-mentioned occasion. 

There was now a period of about three weeks during 
which the former excitement appeared to have died 
a natural death, the next feature being a rumour, 
reported by telegram from Battleford on the 21st 
February, that Riel was talking of leaving the country 
soon, as he was not recognized by the Government as 
a British subject. Apparently, something of this sort 
was necessary to fan the dying embers into flame again. 



84 



It succeeded so far that on the 24th February a meet- 
ing got up by himself was held, to beg Riel to stay 
in the country, to which request he was pleased to 
consent. 

On the 10th of March, Superintendent Gagnon 
telegraphed that the half-breeds were excited, and 
were moving about more thaii usual. Further, that 
they pro|x)sed to prevent supplies going in after the 
16th . 

On the 11th, Superintendent Crozier, who had 
reached Fort Carlton from Battleford, reported by 
telegraph as follows: 

" Half-breeds greatly excited ; reported they threaten 
attack on Carlton before 16th. Half-breeds refuse to 
take freight or employment for Government; will stop 
all freight coming into country after 16th of this 
month; getting arms ready; leader will not allow 
people to leave home, as they may be required. 
Origin of trouble I think because letter received 
stating, Riel not recognized British subject; they 
expect arms from States. Have ordered 25 men from 
Battleford and one gun to come here at once." 

On the 14th, Crozier telegraphed from Carlton to 
Lieutenant Governor Dewdney, at Regina: — "Half- 
breed rebellion liable to break out any moment. 
Troops must be largely reinforced. If half-breeds 
rise Indians will join them." 

The same day Lieut.-Colonel Irvine, from Regina, 
wired the Comptroller at Ottawa as follows: — "Lieut.- 
Governor received telegram dated Carlton, to-day, 
from Crozier, saying half-breed rebellion may break 
out any moment and joined by Indians, and asking 
that his division be largely increased. Would re- 
commend that at least one hundred men be sent at 
once, l)efore roads break up. Please instruct." 

On the 15th, Col. Irvine telegraphed to Ottawa: — 
" Lieutenant-Governor thinks I had better go north 
with men at once; roads and rivers will soon break 
up." 

The same night the following telegraphic order was 
despatched by the Comptroller to the Commissiotier: — 
"Start for the north quickly as possible, with all 
available men up to one hundred. Telegraph march- 
ing out state and report when passing telegraph 
station," 

On the 17th, a telegram was received at Regina from 
Superintendent Crozier to the effect that: "Present 
movements and preparations have quieted matters. 
No cause for alarm now." 

There was no guarantee, however, that this ap- 
parent security would continue, and existing arrange- 
ments were carried out, fortunately, as it appeared, 
for on the 18th two urgent appeals for more men came 
over the wires from Superintendent Crozier, followed, 



on the 19th, by a report that the half-breeds had 
seized the stores at the South Branch, and made Mr, 
Lash, Indian agent, prisoner, besides committing 
other depredations. 

In anticipation of the order to proceed to the north, 
the Commissioner had withdrawn from Calgary to 
Regina twenty-five non-commissioned officers and 
men, and twenty horses, and at 6 a.m. on the 18th of 
March, Lieut.-Col. Irvine left the Regina barracks 
en route for Prince Albert, the marching out state 
showing four officers, 86 non-commissioned officers 
and men, and 66 horses. The little column pro- 
ceeded as far as Pie-a-Pot's reserve, 28 miles, and 
halted for dinner. It afterwards proceeded along the 
Qu'Appelle Valley, and camped for the night at 
Misquopetong's place. All the rivers were at this 
time frozen solid, and no water could be obtained for 
the horses. The distance travelled during the day 
was 43 miles. 

On the 19th, reveille sounded at 3.30 a.m. Broke 
camp and left Misquopetong's place at 5 a.m., and 
drove into Fort Qu'Appelle, which was reached at 
9.45 a.m. The Commissioner was here busily em- 
ployed for some time purchasing additional teams 
and sleighs required for transport. At 4 p.m. the 
detachment left Fort Qu'Appelle, and travelled on 
towards O'Brien's, which was situated eight miles north 
of Qu'Appelle. The Commissioner here camped for 
the night. The distance travelled during the day 
was twenty-seven miles. 

On the 21st reveille sounded at 3.30 a.m.; broke 
camp and started at 5 a.m., travelling through the 
Touchwood Hills, and camped for the night about a 
mile from the Hudson Bay Company's post. Distance 
travelled during the day was 40 miles. 

It was at this point that Col. Irvine received the 
following communication from Superintendent Crozier, 
dated Carlton, 19th March, 1885: 

" I have the honour to inform you that the half- 
breeds seized the stores at South Branch to-day, 
Mr. Lash, Indian agent, Walters, merchant, two tele- 
graph operators, and .Mr. Mitchell, of Duck Lake, are 
prisoners. Beardy's Indians joined the rebels this 
afternoon. The wire is cut. The rebels are assembled 
on south side of river. Prisoners are held in Roman 
Catholic church, about a (luarter of a mile up stream 
from crossing. All One Arrow's band of Crees joined 
them this afternoon. Many of Beardy's also joined 
them. The remainder of Beardy's will probably 
follow to-morrow. The number of rebels assembled 
this afternoon is estimated at from 200 to 4(M) men. 
They will rapidly increa.se in luimbers. My im- 
pression is that many of the Indian bands will rise. 
The plan at present is to seize any troops coming into 



85 



the country at the South Branch, then march on 
Carlton, then on Prince Albert. The instructor led 
One Arrow's band. He is a half-breed." 

The distance travelled during the day was 40 miles. 

On the 22nd, broke camp at 5 a.m., and proceeded 
across Salt Plain. The weather was bitterly cold. 
One man had his feet badly frozen. Halted for dinner 
after having crossed Salt Plain. In the afternoon 
reached Humboldt, and camped here. Mr. Hayter 
Reed, Assistant Indian Commissioner, joined Col. 
Irvine there, and remained with him throughout. 
Distance travelled 43 miles. 

It was at this point ihat Col. Irvine ascertained 
that some 400 half-breeds had congregated at Batoche, 
for the express purpose of preventing his command 
joining Superintendent Crozier. The Commissioner 
here sent the following telegram to the Comptroller: 

"Arrived here 4.30 this afternoon. Camp to-night 
at Stage Station, six miles farther on. About 400 
half-breeds and Indians at South Branch, "Batoche's," 
prepared to stop me crossing river. Have decided to 
go to Carlton by direct trail, east of Batoche via 
Prince Albert. Expect to reach Carlton 25th." 

On the 23rd, broke camp at 5.30 a.m. Weather 
continued bitterly cold. Soon after starting Col. 
Irvine received intelligence of the mail station at 
Hoodoo having been sacked by a party of rebels. 
On reaching Hoodoo he found that the intelligence 
received was perfectly true. All provisions and grain 
stored there had been carried off by the rebels, who 
had also taken the stage driver prisoner, and carried 
off the f tage horses. The Commissioner subse- 
quently overtook a freighter loaded with oats. The 
oats the rebels had ordered the freighter to carry 
on to Batoche. The train containing these oats Col. 
Irvine ordered to move on with his column, which 
was done at as rapid rate as the freighter was able 
to travel. The Commissioner afterwards used these 
oats in feeding his horses. Distance travelled, 33 
miles. 

On the 24th, broke camp at 6 a.m., and travelled 
along the trail leading to Batoche, a distance of six or 
seven miles. The detachment then left the trail and 
proceeded in a north-easterly direction towards 
Agnew's Crossing on the South Saskatchewan, which 
point was reached about 2 p.m. Having crossed the 
river. Col. Irvine halted for dinner. 

Before making the start for Prince Albert, news was 
received by Col. Irvine to the effect that the half- 
breeds were bitterly disappointed and furiously en- 
raged at his having succeeded in crossing the river, 
and in so doing completely outflanking and out- 
manceuvering them. The force reached Prince 
Albert at about 8 p.m., after a very rapid and successful 



march. The distance travelled was 291 miles, and 
this in seven days, the average daily travel thus being 
42 miles. The hardships experienced on such a march 
can only be understood and the nature of such service 
thoroughly appreciated by those who have resided 
in the northern portion of the Territories, and so 
become familiar with the severity of the North-West 
winter. It must be remembered that Col. Irvine's 
little command had, in reaching Prince Albert, gone 
right through a section of the country then in pos- 
session of the rebels. 

On finding himself in Prince Albert, Col. Irvine 
felt that the most difficult and arduous portion of the 
object then in view, viz.: — affecting a junction with 
Superintendent Crozier — had been effected, and this 
in a markedly successful manner, the avowed plans of 
the rebels being to prevent any augmentation of the 
force at Carlton, by offering a continued resistance 
at the crossing of the South Branch of the Saskat- 
chewan. 

Col. Irvine's original intention was to have reached 
Carlton on the 25th March. This might have been 
done had it appeared imperative, but upon the morning 
after his arrival, Col. Irvine had the assurance of Mr. 
Thomas McKay, who had just returned from Fort 
Carlton, that all was quiet there. To add to this, 
the travelling over ice and frozen roads had, as was to 
be expected, made it necessary to have the horses' 
shoeing carefully looked to. Taking into considera- 
tion that upon its arrival at Prince Albert (at 8 p.m. 
on the 24th) the force had completed a winter march 
of 291 miles, a thorough inspection of men, arms and 
horses was, of course advisable. Besides all this, the 
organization of a company of Prince Albert volunteers, 
deemed advisable to take on to Carlton, took up time, 
as did also the procuring of transport for these ad- 
ditional men. 

The Commissioner was naturally anxious to have 
both men and horses reach Carlton, the acknowledged 
scene of operations, in a thoroughly efficient and 
serviceable condition. 

Upon the following morning (26th) at 2.30 a.m., 
Irvine and his command were en route, so it will be 
seen with what exceptional promptitude the necessary 
preparations were carried out. Irvine took with him 
besides 83 of his own non-commissioned officers and 
men from Regina, 25 volunteers from Prince Albert. 

The services of these brave volunteers were offered 
with a perfect knowledge of the dangers they might 
be called upon to face. Like the loyal and gallant 
citizens they proved themselves to be, they were 
ready for any service — in fact, all were anxious to 
be employed. Col. Irvine accepted the services of 
these men with what he considered a most important 



86 



object in view, his desire being, on arrival at Carlton. 
to be in a position to increase to a maximum the 
number of police available for service outside the 
post. He hoped in this way, by a prompt and decided 
move, to quash the rebellion ere it had assumed more 
formidable proportions. But he never intended these 
volunteers to remain away from Prince Albert for 
any extended period. The importance attaching 
to the position of that place he was thoroughly alive 
to from the outset This he made publicly known 
before he started for Carlton. During the afternoon 
march, (on the 26th), and when within nine miles of 
Fort Carlton, the Commissioner received the following 
despatch from Superintendent Gagnon: — 

"Carlton, 26th March, 
"To the Commissioner 

North- West Mounted Police. 

"Superintendent Crozier, with 100 men, started 
out on Duck Lake road to help one of our sergeants 
and small party in difficulty at Mitchell's store. I 
have 70 men, and can hold the fort against odds. 
Do not expect Crozier to push on farther than Duck 
Lake. Everything quiet here. 

S. Gagnon, 

Superintendent. " 

Subsequently, when a short distance from the top 
of the hill which immediately overlooks Carlton, 
the Commissioner received a second despatch from 
Superintendent Gagnon. It read as follows: — 

Carlton, 26th March, 2.30 
To the Commissioner 

North-West Mounted Police. 

"Crozier exchanged shots with rebels at Duck 
Lake; six men reported shot. Crozier retreating on 
Carlton; everything quiet here, but ready for emer- 
gency. 

S. Gagnon, 

" Superintendent. " 

Col. Irvine reached Fort Carlton about 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon of the 26th. and found that Super- 
intendent Crozier had then just returned from Duck 
I^ke with a party of North-West Mounted Police 
and Prince Albert Vohmteers. 

The Commissioner learnt from Su{X'rintendent 
Crozier that he had, early that morning, sent a 
party consisting of Sergeant Stewart, N.W.M.P., 
and 17 constables, with eight sleighs, and accompanied 
by and under the direction of .Mr. Thos. McKay. .I.P., 
of Prince Albert, to secure a quantity of provisions 



and ammunition which was in the store of a trader 
named Mitchell, of Duck Lake. When within three 
miles of Duck Lake. Mr. McKay, who was riding in 
front, saw four of the North-West Mounted Police 
scouts who had been sent out in advance, riding 
towards him, closely followed by a large number of 
half-breeds and Indians. On perceiving this Mr. 
McKay turned and rode back to the sleighs, halted 
them, and told the men to load their rifles and get 
ready. He then went forward and met the rebels, 
who were all armed and mounted, in large numbers, 
which "were being rapidly increased from the rear. 

The rebels behaved in a very overbearing and 
excited manner, and demanded a surrender of the 
party or they would fire. There is no doubt that 
the rebels would have immediately fired upon Mr. 
McKay and party but for the fact that they (the 
rebels) were themselves on the open plain, where 
they could make no use of cover to protect them- 
selves from the fire which McKay would most cer- 
tainly have ordered. The rebels' demand of surrender 
was refused, and a reply given by Mr. McKay in their 
own language (Cree), that if firing was commenced 
by the rebels they would find that two could play 
that game. 

Gabriel Dumont. the erst-while buffalo hunter 
referred to in a previous chapter, and others, kept 
prodding loaded and cocked rifles into Mr. McKay's 
ribs, and declaring they would blow out his brains. 
Two of the rebels jumped into a sleigh belonging to 
Mr. McKay's party, and endeavoured to take pos- 
session of the team; but Mr. McKay told th^ driver 
not to give it up, but to hold on to it. which he did. 
The Indians kept jeering at Mr. McKay's small party, 
and calling out: "If you are men. now come on." 
The party then returned in the direction of Carlton, 
Mr. McKay cautioning the rebels not to follow, as 
he would not be responsible for what his men might 
do. During the parleying Dumont fired a rifle bet- 
tween Mr. McKay and the teamster before referred 
to, which it was feared was intended as a signal for 
the large number of Indians a.s.sembled in the rear. 

During the withdrawal towards (Wlton. a scout 
was ordered in advance to report the circumstance 
to Superintendent Crozier. and on Mr. McKay's 
arrival at the fort, another party, under command of 
Suix'rintendent Crozier. started for Duck Lake, for 
the purpose of securing the stores Mr. McKay's men 
failed in getting. 

Tiie command was of the following strength, viz:— 
Su|)erinten(lent Crozier. Ins|x>ctor Howe (with 7-pr. 
mountain gun). Surgeon Miller, and fifty-three non- 
conunissioned oHicers and men of the North-West 
Mounted Police, (all of 'D" division), and Captains 



87 



Moore and Morton, and forty-one men of the Prince 
Albert volunteers, making a total of 99. 

Crozier was met by the rebels at nearly the same 
point from which Mr. McKay's party was forced to 
retire. In this latter case, however, the rebels were 
able to make use of strong natural cover, being hidden 
in extended order behind a ridge, which flanked 
on either side by small brush, crossed the road much 
in the form of a distended horse-shoe. 

Before leaving Carlton, Crozier had been informed 
that there were only about 100 marauding rebels 
at Duck Lake, the head-quarters and main force, 
according to the latest information received from 




Superintendent Joseph Howe. 

scouts, being at Batoche's Crossing, on the south side 
of the Saskatchewan. He consequently considered 
that he had enough men with him to overcome any 
resistance he was likely to meet with, and from the 
numbers of meii' Superintendent Crozier saw on 
reaching the rebel position, he was justified in believing 
that the information he had received as to the nume- 
rical strength of the rebel force in front of him was 
correct. He was deceived however, for according 
to the sworn testimony of prisoners in the rebels' 
hands the strength of the half-breeds and Indians 
was 350 men. 



On being confronted by the rebels, Crozier im- 
mediately ordered his sleighs to extend at right angles 
across and to the left of the road, unhitched his horses 
and sent them to the rear. The rebels appeared to 
desire a parley, several of them advancing to the 
front with a white flag, which Crozier took to be one 
of truce. As the rebels appeared to be moving with 
a view of surrounding his force, Crozier threw a line 
of skirmishers to the right of the road under cover 
of a wood, the remainder of the force, excepting the 
men in charge of the horses, taking cover behind 
the sleighs. Crozier himself advanced towards the 
white flag, calling back for the interpreter Joseph 
McKay. Meantime a large party of rebels was 
noticed moving in the direction of Crozier's right 
flank, and he said several times to the man with the 
white flag: — "Call those people back", but the man 
paid not the slightest attention, the sending out of 
the flag apparently being merely a piece of treachery, 
to gain time while the operation of out-flanking the 
right of the police position was being conducted. 
Had that been accomplished, and it was only pre- 
vented by the line of skirmishers Crozier had extended 
towards his right, the force would doubtless have 
been annihilated. 

While Crozier and McKay were parleying with the 
man with the flag, fire was opened from the rebel 
position and returned, and in a few moments fighting 
became general, the seven-pounder being got into 
action and, although worked at great disadvantage, 
with good effect. The murderovis character of the 
rebel fire, particularly from the extreme left of their 
position, convinced Crozier that he was opposed by 
a much larger force than he had ever dreamt of meet- 
ing at Duck Lake. The ground was covered with 
a deep crusted snow, making it very difficult for a 
satisfactory disposition and movement of the force 
to be made, and giving the rebels in their chosen 
ambush a great advantage. Concealed from view, 
to the right of the trail along which the police had 
advanced, were two houses in which were posted a 
large number of rebels, who poured in a deadly fire 
and who were gradually working round towards the 
right rear of Crozier's position, although the left of 
the rebel line was being gradually driven back. Ac- 
cording to the Superintendent's report the police 
and volunteers composing his little force behaved 
superbly, their bravery and coolness under the mur- 
derous fire being simply astonishing. Not a man 
shirked or even faltered. 

When Crozier found that the enemy were far 
more numerous than his own force, that they were 
ambushed almost all around him, that they had 
every advantage of ground and cover on their side. 



88 



while he and his men had every disadvantage of posi- 
tion to contend against, he deemed it prudent to 
abandon his attempt to proceed further, and to withdraw 
his force from action, which was done in perfect order. 

As five of the horses had been killed or disabled 
by gun shot wounds, Crozier was obliged to abandon 
two of his sleighs and one jumper, in which there 
were a few rounds of ammunition for the 7-pounder 
gun, which fell into the hands of the rebels. 

The bodies of most of the killed were off to the 
extreme right, in situations most exposed to the am- 
bushed rebels, and could only have been collected 
by incurring the gravest risk of putting the entire 
command into the greatest possible jeopardy and 
Crozier decided not to assume the risk. The rest 
of the command, horses, sleighs and all the wounded 
were safely brought off the field. 

The casualties in "D" Division wese as follows: — 
Inspector Howe, flesh wound; corporal Gilchrist, 
broken thigh; constable G. P. Arnold, shot through 
the lungs and neck, died at 1.45 a.m., on the 27th; 
constable G. M. Garrett, shot in the lungs, died, 3 
p.m., on the 27th; constable S. F. Gordon, flesh 
wound; constable W. A. Manners-Smith, shot through 
lungs; constable A. Miller, slight scalp wound; cons- 
table W. Gibson, shot through the heart, died on the 
field; constable J. J. Wood, flesh wound of the arm. 

The casualty list of the Prince Albert volunteers (en- 
rolled as special officers and constables of the N. W. 
M. P.) was as follows: — 

Killed, Captain John Morton, Corporal William 
Napier, Constables Joseph Anderson, James Babie, 
Sheffington Connor Elliott, Alexander Fisher, Robert 
Middleton, Daniel McKenzie, Daniel McPhail. 

Wounded, Captain Henry Stewart Moore, Sergeant 
Alexander McNabb, Constables A. Markley, Scout, 
Alexander Stewart, C. Newett. 

Though Crozier's little force had been unsuccessful 
in getting the stores they had hoped to take in and in 
compelling the rebels to retire from Duck Lake, one 
consequence of the action was to force the rebels to 
give up for a time a contemplated attack on Fort 
Carlton, which was to have been made on the night of 
the 26th March, and which might easily have resulted 
disastrously, for the site of the Hudson Bay post at 
Carlton, being selected for trade purposes and not for 
defence, was in a most indefensible situation. 

It might, perhaps, be added that a few days before 
the fight near Duck Lake, a demand had been made 
for the unconditional surrender of Fort Carlton. 

The total strength «)f the force, police and volunteers, 
at Carlton after Crozier's retreat and Irvine's arrival, 
was 225 non-commi.ssioned officers and men. Of 
these eleven were wounded. At this stage of affairs 



it became incumbent on the Commissioner to decide 
whether Fort Carlton or Prince Albert was to be 
made the base of operations. He was perfectly well 
aware of the vital importance attaching to the result 
of his decision, embracing as it did the lives and pro- 
perty of the settlers, in addition to what, from a 
strategic point of view, he assumed would place him 
in the strongest possible position he might hope to 
occupy. Although his own opinion on this point was 
strongly in favour of evacuation, he nevertheless 
decided to hold a council, for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the views of the many leading men from Prince 
Albert, temporarily performing military duty at 
Carlton. The result of this council was the unani- 
mous opinion that the safety of the country lay in 
ensuring Prince Albert being placed in a tenable 
position. It was agreed that Prince Albert and the 
country immediately adjoining it represented what 
might be termed the whole white settlement, where 
the lives and interests of the loyal people lay. The 
section of the country to the southward, already ii\ 
the possession of the rebels, was composed of their 
own (half-breed) settlements and farms. 

Prior to the holding of the council, before it was 
known what the movements of the police force were 
to be, it was represented to Irvine by the Prince Albert 
volunteers, that they must at once return to Prince 
Albert to guard their houses, property and families. 
This they considered their sacred duty, in order to 
prevent an attack by the rebels, the success of wiiich 
could have had no other meaning than a pillage of 
the town and settlement, and doubtless a massacre 
ot some of the people. 

When it was determined to abandon Carlton it was 
decided to load up as much of the provisiojis in the 
post as possible and take them to Prince Albert, and 
to destroy the rest. In the afternoon of the 27th a 
solemn duty was performed, the bodies of Constables 
Gibson, Arnold and Garrett, being buried with military 
honours in one grave about 200 yards to the northwest 
of the gate of the fort. After this the work of pre- 
j)aring for the evacuation of the fort was proceeded 
with, mattresses being filled with hay to be laid in 
the sleighs for the accommodation of the wounded. 

About 2 a.m. while those detailed for the work 
of preparation for departure were still busy, the 
alarm of fire was given. Some of the loose hay being 
used to prepare litters for the wounded, had become 
ignited by a heated stove pipe. A strange ruddy 
light flamed from the sergeant major's (juarters, and 
a thick smoke arose that obscured the twinkling stars. 
This was al)ove the archway of the main gateway, 
and next the hospital. The buildings had taken 
fire, and a frightful scene ensued. Bugle-calls were 



80 



sounding, officers hurrying around with hoarse words 
of (ommand. and the men, half-asleep, were bewild- 
ered. ^'olunteers and red-coats were mixed up 
indiscriminately. The wounded were removed at 
once, down the narrow stairs, out of danger into the 
cold outside, suffering the most excruciating agony. 
Several of their comrades nearly suffered suffocation 
in effecting their rescue. The teams were hurriedly 
hitched up, and as the main doorway was blocked 
by the fire and smoke, other places of exit had to be 
made in the temporary stockade of cord-wood. 

No time was lost in taking the trail for Prince 
Albert, but it was two and a half hours before the 
last team got off. Prince Albert was reached about 
4 p.m. 

According to the author of "Trooper and Redskin": 
"As soon as the news of the Duck Lake catastrophe 
reached Prince Albert, measures of defence were 
immediately taken. There was no knowing how 
soon the exultant bands of the 'Dictator' might 
sweep down upon the unprotected town. The des- 
patch ordered our officer to warn all the surrounding 
settlers and summon them to a place of rendezvous. 
Steps were to be taken to fortify a central place of 
retreat. The Presbyterian church and manse were 
pitched upon as the most commodious and convenient for 
the purpose, and a stockade of cordwood, nine feet 
high, was erected around them. This was finished 
between 1 a.m. and daylight. The civilians worked 
splendidly. Many a house was in mourning, and many 
a tearful eye was seen upon the streets. It was a 
day of unparalleled brilliancy. The warm sun beat 
down from a cloudless sky ; the snow was giving way in 
places to frothy pools, and here and there a brown patch 
of earth showed through the ragged robe of winter. 

" We were engaged in taking cartridges, and rice, 
and necessary stores of all descriptions, into the 
improvised citadel in the centre of the town; and 
sleighs kept plying backward and forward between 
the church and barracks. Sleigh-loads of women 
and children came hurrying in from the Carrot River 
district; and from many a lonely homestead, hidden 
away among the bluffs. Every house in the town 
itself was very soon vacant, the inhabitants all taking 
sanctuary in the church precincts. We abandoned 
the barracks at noon; the sergeant and I being the 
last to leave. I carried the Union Jack under my 
regimental fur coat. We left everything else behind 
us as they were; locking all the doors. The scene 
inside the stockade was one of the most uncomfortable 
that can be imagined. The entrance was narrow, 
and blocked with curious members of the fair sex, 
straining their necks as though they expected to see 
the enemy walk calmly up and ring the bell." 



Immediately upon his arrival at Prince Albert, 
the Commissioner applied himself to completing as 
far as possible the defences of the place, and caused 
all the able-bodied men who offered their services 
to be enrolled as special constables. Some 309 were 
enrolled, but to arm them there were only 116 
Snider rifles available. All the shot-guns throughout 
the country were gathered in, and these were issued 
to the balance of the men, and handed from one to 
the other as occasion required. The volunteers 
were formed into four companies under Captains 
Young, Hoey, Craig and Brewster, the whole under 
the command of Lieut. -Col. Sproat. A company 
of scouts, forty-seven in all, was organized under 
the command of Mr. Thomas McKay. 

As reliable information was received that the rebels 
contemplated an attack upon Prince Albert, the 
Commissioner had a strong chain of patrols and pic- 
quets nightly surrounding the main part of the town. 
On April 19, Col. Irvine made a reconnaissance in 
force in the direction of the rebel headquarters at 
Batoche and ascertained that there was a strong 
force on the west side of the river and that there 
were also detached parties at commanding points 
and scattered through the woods on the trails be- 
tween Batoche and Prince Albert. 

During the first few weeks of Colonel Irvine's occu- 
pation of Prince Albert, his position was a very cri- 
tical one. The normal population of the town of 
Prince Albert was 700 people, but as the settlers 
flocked into the place for protection, the population 
was augmented to 1,800 exclusive of the police. Not 
only was there imposed upon Colonel Irvine the 
responsibility to protect this large number of people, 
but the necessity of feeding them for Prince Albert 
was absolutely cut off from its natural source of sup- 
ply, the trails to the railway running through the 
district in revolt. Several trains of supplies for the 
place were war-bound, thus reducing the normal 
stocks of the store keepers. And the adjacent settle- 
ments, many of them deserted by the panic-stricken 
inhabitants, had to be afforded protection, as far as 
possible, against marauders, necessitating unending 
patrol and scouting duty. Scouts were kept out 
well towards the rebel position, thus keeping the 
rebels on the alert and under the necessity of maintain- 
ing and watching two fronts, one facing the advancing 
militia column under General Middleton the other, 
in the direction of Irvine's alert police force at Prince 
Albert. (1). 



(1) The day after ths capture of Batoche, the writer, with the late 
Lieiit.-Col. Montizambert, R.C.A., conversing with some intelliKent half- 
breeds and the Roman Catholic priests in the St. Laurent Church, en- 
quired why the half-breeds had been so inactive during the lons! advance 
of Middleton's column from Qu'Appelle Station to Fish Creek, particularly 



90 



In his report, Lieut. -Colonel Irvine stated that per- 
haps the most important work done by his scouts was 
the driving back of the men employed on similar 
duty by Riel, who on various occasions tried to scout 
right into Princa Albert. Another important duty 
done by Irvine's scouts was the maintenance, after 
the battle of Fish Creek, of communication with 
General Middleton. 

It should have been already stated that on March 
24th, the Comptroller, Mr. F. White, sent the Com- 
missioner the following telegram: — "Major-General 
Commanding Militia proceeds forthwith to Red River. 
On his arrival, in military operations when acting with 
militia, take orders from him." At a somewhat later 
date Colonel Irvine received a message from \Major- 
General Middleton saying that the Commissioner was 
under his orders, and should report to him. At this 
time Colonel Irvine understood that Middleton had 
only 350 troops with him, being in ignorance of the 
despatch of a large force of militia from the eastern 
provinces, because all communication was cut off. 
Meantime he had suggested in a message to the General 
that their forces should combine, either by the police 
moving out from Prince Albert to join the militia, or 
the militia proceeding first to Prince Albert and thence 
moving with the police upon Batoche. 

From that time all in Prince Albert were kept 
in utter darkness as to the military operations which 
were transpiring on the other side of the revolted 
territory until April 16th, when messages arrived from 
General Middleton to state that he hoped to attack 
at Batoche on the 18th or 19th, and that the police 
were not to join in the attack, but watch for 
fleeing rebels. It was in consequence of this in- 
formation that the reconnaissance in force on the 
19th was undertaken. 

After several days delay, Irvine opened up com- 
munication with Middleton. then encamped at Fish 
Creek, and through a message dated April 26th, learned 
from the General of the action of Fish Creek, and that 
it was the expectation to reach the Hudson Hay 
crossing on the South Saskatchewan the following 
Thursday. On his own responsibility Colonel Irvine 
had already made scows and posted a guard at this 

ms the prairie supply deitots were so ex[K)tie<l, and the capture of one of 
them would have been a most xerioun matter for the troops. It wiin dii»- 
tinctly (■tate<l in reply that the half-breeds were afraid to move f.ir from 
Batoche, in cane the Police from Prince Albert should attack the rpl>el 
poMtion in their abnence, from the north-west side. The niicht l»efore Fish 
Creek (April 23nl-24th) some of the more imi)ctuoiis half-breeds an<l Indians 
wanted to attack Middleton's camp at Mcintosh's, but the more cautious 
men a4lvi8e<i axainst attackinx any further in advance of their main position 
than Fish Creek, or Tourond's (kjulec. as they called it, that lieinu within 
an easy march of Batoche, in ca«e Irvine's force shouhl apt>ear there in 
their absence. In an inter\-iew with Gabriel Dumont in Montreal, some 
years after the reliellion. Dumont confirmed this explanation. .S<i there 
is no question the presence and activity of Irvine's force nt Prince 
Albert had a marke<l and useful effect ut>on the campaign. 



crossing, and on receipt of this message the guard 
was increased to two officers and thirty men. Friday, 
May 1st, one of the three steamers which had wintered 
at Prince .\lbert was .sent round to the crossing. Xhis 
steamer, the " Marquis," with an escort of the Mounted 
Police, under Inspector White Fraser, reached Batoche 
just as the last shots of the action of that name were 
being fired, and the steamer and her escort rendered 
such assistance to the Northwest Field Force in the 
subsequent operations, particularly at the crossing of 
the South Saskatchewan, that General Middleton 
specially mentioned Inspector White Fraser in his 
report. 




Inspector White Fraser. 

Batoche was captured by the force under General 
Middleton on May 11th, and May 19th, the militia 
column reached Prince An)ert. the police, volunteer 
companies, and the whole population turning out to 
receive them. All with Middleton were much struck 
with the smart and soldierlike api)earance of the 
police, who paraded in their best for the occasion. 

There is no d<)ul)t that the presence of the police 
force saved Prince Albert from falling into the hands 
of the rel)els. Had such a catastrophe come about, 
the rebellion would have a.ssinned proportions of much 
greater magnitude. Prince Albert was the key of the 
whole iK)sition, and the falling of it into the hands of 



91 



the rebels would have been disastrous to the Dominion, 
and involved great loss, in lives and property. 

A large number of the nomadic bands of Sioux 
Indians, who for years had been living about the 
Sasketchewan district, did move, with the intention of 
making a raid on Prince Albert, and these hostile 
Indians only abandoned their raid when, in close 
proximity to Prince Albert, they saw Irvine's trail 
leading to that place. 

For some time it was generally believed that all the 
people, white, half-breed and Indian, about Prince 
Albert and surrounding country, were in all cases 
loyal, and were utterly without sympathy for the 
rebels. According to Col. Irvine, there was no ground 
for this belief. The loyalty of a large number was of 
a questionable nature, they had, therefore, to be care- 
h\\\y watched, and of course, every effort was made 
towards keeping doubtful Indians and half-breeds 
loyal. 

Upon the news being received of the delay which 
occurred after the action at Fish Creek, its effect was 
felt in and out of Prince Albert by the bearing of the 
rebel sympathizers, or, more correctly speaking, they 
should be described as rebels, who had so far not had 
the courage to espouse the cause they favoured. Out- 
side of Prince Albert a number of half-breeds and 
Indians, who had previously expressed loyalty, took 
part in the subsequent battle at Batoche. Among 
these were rebel Indians, and they commenced by 
plundering the other reserves. This was before 
taking part against the troops at Batoche. 

After the arrival of the General at Piirice Albert, 
Lieut. -Col. Irvine expected to be at once employed 
with his force in the contemplated operations against 
Poundmaker and Big Bear. Immediately upon the 
General's arrival the Commissioner reported to him 
that he could take the field at once with an efficient 
force of 175 mounted men, fully equipped, with their 
own transport in perfect working order, and carrying, 
travelling fast, seven day's rations and forage. Every 
member of the force was likewise anxious to secure 
active employment in the field, but the General de- 
cided to leave Irvine and his force at Prince Albert, 
proceeding to Battleford with the militia. The 
General, with most of his force proceeded direct from 
Prince Albert by steamer, the remainder under Lieut. - 
Col. B. Straubenzie, proceeding via Carlton. May 
24, the Commissioner, with thirty men proceeded to 
Carlton to guard the ferry at that place, at Colonel 
Straubenzie's request. While in camp at Carlton, 
Colonel Irvine took a small number of men with 
him and rode to the south side of Duck Lake, for 
the purpose of disarming a band of Indians encamp:d 
there, which task was quickly and successfully ac- 



complished. On the 27th, the Commissioner returned 
to Prince Albert, leaving Inspector Drayner in com- 
mand of the detachment. This officer afterwards 
patrolled the Duck Lake country, recovered a con- 
siderable amount of property stolen by the rebels, 
and arrested six Indians concerned in the uprising. 
About noon, June 8th, the Commissioner received 
telegraphic orders from General Middleton to send 
as many men as possible to Carlton, cross the river, 
and patrol towards Green Lake, as Big Bear and his 
band were reported to be making in that direction. 
At 6 a.m., the following day, Col. Irvine left Prince 
Albert with a party of the following strength: — 




Inspector F. Drayner. 

Assistant Commissioner Crozier, Inspector Howe, 
Assistant-Surgeon Millar, and 136 non-commissioned 
officers and men. At Fort Carlton a detachment 
of ten men in charge of Sergeant Smart was left, 
and the south end of Green Lake was reached June 
14. In this march, the party travelled over a rough 
country, repairing the bridges and corduroy roads 
as they went along. At the south end of the Lake 
the Commissioner was forced to leave his waggons. 
In doing this he established a small camp near the 
Hudson Bay Company's depot, which had been 
pillaged by Indians in a most wholesale manner. 



92 



The party then proceeded to the north end of the 
lake, a distance of sixteen miles, along a bridle path, 
constantly leading their horses over fallen timber 
and bad swamps, crossing a creek near the north 
end by swimming the horses, and crossing the men, 
saddles, etc., on a raft built for the purpose. From 
the north end of Green Lake, Col. Irvine sent out 
scouts to Loon Lake rnd on the 17th returned to the 
south end of the lake, where the waggons were. I'Yom 
this point the Commissioner went back southward 
on the Carlton trail to the forks of the road leading 
to Pelican Lake. From here he sent out scouts in 
all directions, moving about himself to watch the 
trails and pick up food for the horses, a at this 
time the party was without oats. Owing to the 
numerous muskegs the moving of waggons and 
even saddle horses, was very difficult. 

June 23, a "Wood" Cree who had been in Big Bear's 
camp came in and offered to take a scout to the point 
where he had left Big Bear in the direction of Loon 
Lake, whence the trail could be followed. Colonel 
Irvine at once sent Scout Leveille with the Indian, 
the point indicated was found, and the trail followed 
southward. The Commissioner then moved back 
towards Carlton, on the way coming across some 
of Big Bear's band, who explained that the chief was 
making for the Saskatchewan River. July 2nd, the 
Commissioner was met by Inspector Drayner, who 
had been sent back to Carlton with provisions, and 
who reported that Big Bear had been captured near 
Carlton by Sergeant Smart and his party. (2). July 
4, the commissioner reached Carlton, and finding 
some of Big Bear's band encamped there arrested 
them and took them in to Prince Albert, where he 
arrived on the night of July 5. July 11th, Colonel 

(2) The actual capture of Big Bear was eflfected in a most tame and 
unroniantic manner compared with the extensive operations his flight had 
occaiuone<i. Early on Thursday morning. July 2, the attention of the man on 
picquet at the Police camp on the north side of the Saskatchewan at Carlton 
was attracted to a man shouting over to him from the south side. The picquet 
ahoutmi back anri asketl what he wante<l, when the man replied that there 
were some of Big Bear's Indians hiding in the vicinity. The i)icquet im- 
me<liately re|>orte<I the matter to Sergeant .Smart, who crossed the river 
accom|>anied by Omstables Sullivan, Nicholls and Kerr. Arrived on the 
Kouth side, they had only proceeded a short distance along the Battleford 
trail when they came u|K>n a camp fire around which were lying thret; 
Indians. One of these, much to their astonishment and satisfaction, 
they ea»ily identified as Chief Big Bear, he lieing known i>ersonally to two 
of the party The other two of the party were one of the Chief's councillors 
and his youngest son. The Sergeant unceremoniously told Big Bear and 
his companions that they were under arrest, directed one of his men to 
collect the arms of the party, and told the Indians to carry their other 
■canty belontpngs and " cume along." Smart and his men lost no time in 
retracing their steps to the tioat at the crossing ami back Ui camp. .No 
later than eight o'clock the same morning Sergeant .Smart, accompanie^l 
by Constables Colin C. CVilebrofik, Sullivan and iNicholls, left with the 
prisoners for Prince AU>ert, reaching that i>lace at 11 the same night, and 
much to their relief safely hxlging their captives in the guard hnusi* nl 
the (ioschen |M>lice barracks. — (Statement of CVmi'lnblc (%ilfbr<Hik). 

In "Troo|ier and Redskin," we find the following reference to the 
■rrivai of Big Bear at Prince Albert: —"Big Bear after he ha<l been uburi- 
done«l by the Wood Creea, wandere<l off with a handful of his councillors 



Irvine left Prince Albert for Regina, reaching head- 
quarters on the 17th. 

Inspector W. S. Morris, formerly a major in the 
New Brunswick militia, and at one time Assistant 
Engineer of the City of Winnipeg, commanded at 
Battleford after the departure of Superintendent 
Crozier for Carlton, until the arrival of Superintendent 
Herchmer, who ordered Inspector Dickens, as the 
senior inspector in the post, to assume the command. 
In accordance with instructions from the Com- 
missioner, on March 26th Inspector Morris organized 
a volunteer company among the permanent residents, 
and another composed of settlers from the adjacent 
country. They were served out with the arms which 
had belonged to a disbanded militia company. The 
stockade being in a more or less dilapidated condition 
Inspector Morris' first care was to make it as strong 
as possible. A loop-holed embankment was con- 
structed on the inside, and at the southeast and north- 
west corners flanking bastions were built for the 
accommodation of the one seven-pounder at the post. 
The place was surrounded by a vigilant and numerous 
enemy, and in the fort, where nearly 400 women and 
children had sought protection, were those of whose 
loyalty Inspector Morris had the gravest suspicion. 
In order to prevent surprise by night a guard of 
sixty men and six mounted patrols were kept on duty. 
The only means of communication was via couriers, 
and in one case Constable Shores, who pluckily volun- 
teered to carry a message to Swift Current, was chased 
nearly sixty miles by the enemy. 

Inspector Francis J. Dickens (who was a son of the 
famous English novelist), commanded at Fort Pitt, 
another important centre of disturbance. Inspector 
Dickens was, in 1885, 36 or 38 years of age, and had 



and his youngest son. He crept, by Indian paths, between the forces of 
Colonels Otter and Irvine, an<l was Knully captured, near Fort Carlton, 
by .Sergeant Smart an<l three men of the Mounted Police, who had been 
detailed to watch the crossing at this jxiint. His <ion, a copper-hued boy 
with small, black, bea<l-like eyes, and one councillor, who rejoiced in the 
modest title of "All-and-a-half." accompanied him. They were brought 
to Prince All)ert an<l entered the town in the early morning of ,luly ,3rd. 
A non-commissioned officer reported the fact to (.'aptaiti (lagnon, who 
was in beil, aii<l very much surprised at this unexpected inlelligenco. Big 
Bear was in a pitublc condilion of tilth and luinKcr. lie w:is given a goo<l 
mTubbing in a tub nt the burrncks, though this was anything but pleasing 
to him. A new blanket and a pair of trousers were procured him from 
the Hudson Bny store. His arms consisted of a Winchester, and he stated 
that his only fisid, for eleven days, ha<l been what he was enabled to secure 
in the wood'i. A roll was placed at the disposal of himself ami staff in the 
guard-room, and his skinny ankles were adorned with shackles. A little 
hlirivelled up lisiking pii^ce of humanity he was, his cunning face seamed 
and wrinkled like crumpled p.jrchinent. Kver since the a<lvent of the 
.Mounte<l Police he had l>eeii in trouble, and when he finally agreed to take 
treaty he wished to have the extraordinary proviso inserted that none 
of his banil were ever to lie hanged. The Indians of his trilx- were all 
<lisafTecteil. I.itlle Poplar, one of his sons, eM'ape<l to Mniitariu with some 
of the worst of the gang., leaving a trail marked witli blood, and was 
finally shot by a hulf-breecl at l'"iirt Helknai) in the summer of I>iK(l. ('aptain 
(lagnon could imw send a despatch to the (leneral, announcing thiy wel- 
come news, and the campaign of the reltellioii was ended," 



93 



had an active career. When a mere lad he left Eng- 
land, and afterwards joined the Indian police, and 
was on duty on the Punjaub. A sunstroke there 
made it necessary for him to try some other climate, 
and on returning to England in 1876 he secured a 
position in the North-West Mounted Police. 

March 30, Dickens learned through Mr. Rae, the 
Indian agent at Battleford, that the country was in 
a state of rebellion. In the immediate vicinity of 
Fort Pitt all was quiet, but the Inspector was anxious 
about the whites at Frog Lake, which was the centre 
of a large Indian population, and where there was a 
detachment of police under Corporal Sleigh. Dickens 




Inspector W. S, Morris. 

communicated with the sub-Indian agent, Mr. Quinn, 
and offered to either reinforce him or escort him in to 
Pitt. Mr. Quinn was however confident that he could 
keep the Indians quiet if the police detachment was 
withdrawn, as he feared their presence exasperated the 
Indians. At Mr. Rae's special request Corporal 
Sleigh and his detachment returned to Fort Pitt, and 
April 2nd, the Frog Lake massacre occurred. Immedi- 
ately steps were taken to put the little fort, which 
was situated in an absolutely indefensible position, in 
some sort of a defensive state. The windows and doors 
of the dwelling houses and storehouses were barricaded 
with flour bags, and loop-holes were cut in the walls. 



All the men worked hard and most cheerfully. By 
the capture of the Hudson Bay waggons at Frog Lake 
there was no means of transport available, and con- 
sequently a withdrawal was out of the question, al- 
though it seemed the most sensible thing to do, if the 
women and children of the Hudson Bay Company's 
officials' households could be got safely away. In anti- 
cipation of the breaking up of the ice, the Hudson Bay 
Company's carpenters began to construct a scow to take 
the women and children down to Battleford. Little Pine, 
one of the chiefs in revolt, and his band arrived on 
the other side of the river on the 7th, and was ordered 
not to cross or he would be fired upon. After a few 
days. Big Bear and a large number of Indians appeared 
behind the post with several white prisoners. A flag 
of truce was sent down to the fort by BigBear demanding 
the surrender of the arms and ammunition. Mr. 
Maclean, the Hudson Bay agent, held several parleys 
with Big Bear, and was eventually taken prisoner. 

Shortly afterwards Constables Cowan and Loasby 
and Special Constable H. Quinn, who had been out 
scouting, came back and rode right on to the scouts 
thrown out round the Indian camp, who fired. Con- 
stable Loasby 's horse was shot under him; constable 
Cowan was killed. Loasby ran down the hill pursued 
by a party of Indians, who fired at and wounded him. 
He ran some 500 yards, badly wounded in the back. 
The men at the windows nearest to the Indians opened 
fire. Four Indians dropped as if killed, and two or 
three others were evidently hit. The Indians retired 
into the brush, and Loasby was helped into the fort. 

At Mr. Maclean's own advice and special instruc- 
tions, his family and all the Hudson Bay Company's 
servants and other civilians in the fort, joined him in 
Big Bear's Camp, where they remained as prisoners 
until the breaking up of the band. 

Dickens found himself after this in an awkward 
position. He and his detachment had been des- 
patched to Fort Pitt to afford protection to those 
who had voluntarily surrendered themselves as prison- 
ers in the hostiles' camp. There was consequently 
no object to remain in a very indefensible position, 
to be made the object of attack by an overwhelming 
force of hostiles. The force in hand was too small 
to do anything of itself, but joined to that at Battle- 
ford, might help to make that post secure. The 
ice in the river was breaking up, the scow constructed 
by the Hudson Bay men for a different service was 
nearly complete, and could carry the detachment, 
if sound, and Dickens decided to avail himself of the 
road of retreat which appeared to lay open to him. 

Some arms which could not be taken away were 
destroyed, ammunition and some supplies were col- 
lected, and the scow was put in the water. She at 



94 



once filled, and appeared to be useless. Constable R. 
Rutledge, however, said he was sure she would carry 
the detachment across the river, and volunteered 
to pilot her across among the cakes of floating ice. 
The position was so critical that it was deemed wise 
at all risks to place the river between the detach- 
ment and the main band of Indians, and at night, 
during a heavy snow storm, the attempt was made 
and with success, thanks to skilful management and 
hard baling. Owing to the unsafe condition of the 
scow it was decided to encamp about a mile down 
the river on the opposite bank. The river was so 
fiill of ice that the Indians could not have followed 
had they wanted to. The night was bitterly cold, 
the blankets were wet through, and some had been 
lost in crossing. At dawn the detachment once more 
took their places in the scow and the voyage was 
resumed, Battleford being safely reached on the 
21st. 

Fort Saskatchewan during the rebellion was com- 
manded by Inspector A. H. Griesbach, and there is 
no doubt that his good and useful work, and the 
bold front shown by him and his detachment of 
nineteen, all told, prevented a general rising of the 
Indians and half-breeds in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. 

Immediately, news of the uprising was received, 
Griesbach took steps to put Fort Saskatchewan in 
a state of defence, having four bastions built and a 
well dug. He collected all the available men to work 
on the defences and assist in defending the post if 
necessary. He also made arrangements to obtain 
provisions to sustain a large number of people, pur- 
chased ammunition, and had cartridges prepared 
for the various kinds of arms in possession of the 
settlers. As the news brought in by scouts and 
others became more alarming, the settlers and 
their families, from long distances, fled to the fort 
and received protection and food. April 12, there 
were gathered in the fort, seventy-nine women and 
children, and alx)ut 30 men armed with guns of various 
descriptions. 

After making the preliminary arrangements at Fort 
Saskatchewan, Griesbach proceeded to Kdmonton, 
where he found the citizens, naturally, much ex- 
cited. He accepted the services of a company of 
volunteers, and on his own responsibility armed 
them with 35 F^nfield rifles loaned by the oflicor in 
charge of the Hud.son Hay post, and (juartercd them 
in the Hudson Hay fort. The officer placed in com- 
niaml of the volunteer company wa.s ordered to re- 
pair and rebuild part of the stockade of the fort, to 
collect all of the ammunition of all description in 
the stores, giving receipts for it, and to place the 



same under guard in the magazine. There were in 
the fort two brass 4-pr. guns. Griesbach had these 
remounted on strong trucks, and cartridges made; 
also case-shot, which he improvised by having tin 
cases made to fit the bore, and then filled them with 
about ninety trade balls. These, on trying, he found 
to work very well. Having despatched a courrier to 
Calgary asking for troops and arms to be sent forward 
as soon as possible, Griesbach returned to Fort Sas- 
katchewan. 

Having done all in his power for the defence of 
Fort Saskatchewan and Edmonton, the Inspector 
scoured the country for many miles around with 
scouts and patrols, succeeding in keeping everything 
quiet until the arrival of the militia under General 
Strange. 

Three detachments of the Mounted Polico, namely, 
those commanded by Superintendents W. H. Herch- 
mer and Neale, Inspector S. B. Steele and Inspector 
A. Bowen Perry, actively participated with the militia 
columns in the operations of the campaign, and in 
every case acquitted themselves with distinction. 

Superintendent Herchmer, was, before the out- 
break, in command of "E" Division at Calgary — 
March 24, in response to a telegraphic order he left 
for Regina with 30 non-commissioned officers and 
men, twenty-four horses, and four waggons, on his 
way down his command being joined by four 
constables and one horse of "A" Division, and 
two constables of "D" division. On arrival 
at Regina he received orders to proceed with 
Superintendent Neale, seven men of "B" Division and 
one 7-pr. gun, to Fort Qu'Appelle. Arriving at 
Qu'Appelle Station he was directed l)y His Honour 
Lieut. -Governor Dewdney to return to Regina, pond- 
ing the arrival of Major General Middleton. March 
27th. Supt. Herchmer returned to Qu'Appelle with 
the Lieut. -Governor, to meet the General, who ordered 
him to join him with all available men and 
two 7-pr. guns at Fort Qu'ApiX'lle. March 29, 
Supt. Herchmer received new orders to proceed at 
once to Battleford via Swift Current, and arrived 
by rail at the last-mentioned place at 10 p.m. on the 
30th. The River Saskatchewan, just north of Swift 
Current was. however, impa.ssible. the ice having gone 
from the sides, but a high ridge remaining in the 
middle. At this time the steamer "Northcotte" 
was being prepared at Medicine Hat to convey troops 
to the north, and a party of Crees in the vicinity 
threatening the safety of the vessel, Supt. Herchmer's 
conunand was onlere*! to Mediciiie Hat. where it arrived 
on .March 31st, ramping near the steamer. Tlie 
Indians speedily decamjjed. The police detachment 
proved very useful in getting the steamer into the 



95 



water, all the teams, and 35 men being employed. 
A lot of armed Indians having arrived at Swift Current, 
Supt. Herchmer and his force were ordered back 
there, arriving at 5.40 a.m. on April 5th. The trail 
between the station and the river was kept patrolled 
and a party established at the river to protect the 
ferry. 

May 12, Lieut.-Col. W. D. Otter, at the time D.O.C. 
at Toronto, and just appointed to the command of 
a light column detailed for the relief of Battleford, 
arrived at Swift Current and informed Superintendent 
Herchmer that he and his command were to join the 
column, and that as it was General Middleton's wish 




Superintendent P. R. Neale. 

that he should be consulted on all points, he would 
be appointed Chief of Staff. This was done, the 
command of the police detachment being handed 
over to Superintendent Neale, who at 1 p.m. the same 
day received orders to move to the South Saskat- 
chewan and remain there, patrolling both sides ot 
the river until the arrival of the troops. The column 
arrived at the river on the 14th, crossed on the 16th, 
and took up the trail for Battleford on the 18th, a 
point three miles south of that place being reached 
by the main force on the 23rd. Some scouts under 
Constable Charles Ro.ss advanced as far as the houses 
on the south side of the Battle River, exchanging 



shots with some hostiles. Superintendent Herchmer 
obtained permission to go on with Superintendent 
Neale and thirty of the police. On the 24th, the 
force encamped in front of the old Government 
House, remaining there until the 29th, the police 
and scouts attached thereto patrolling the country 
in every direction. April 27, Supt. Herchmer re- 
inforced his command by thirty-one non-com- 
missioned officers and men and twenty horses from 
"D" division in garrison at Battleford, the object 
being to obtain a troop of fifty mounted men. Thirteen 
horses were purchased in Battleford. 

Upon the occasion of the movement to Pound- 
maker's Reserve and action at Cut Knife Hill (May 
2), the flying column included 75 of the Mounted 
Police, as follows: — "E" division, Superintendent 
P. R. Neale, Sergeant-Ma j or Wattman, 28 non-com- 
missioned officers and men; "A" division, 5 non- 
commissioned officers and men; "B"' division, 7 con- 
stables; "D" division, 31 non-commissioned officers 
and men. Superintendent Herchmer, as Chief of 
Staff was second in command of the whole column. 
Under orders from Lieut.-Col. Otter, "B" Battery 
took two of the police 7-pounders in preference to 
their own nine-pounders. As throughout the march 
to Battleford, the police acted as the advance guard, 
and worked so admirably that they were universally 
praised. As the advanced guard, the police were 
the first to draw the fire of the Indians, and for a 
time they had to sustain it unsupported, for their 
supports had to advance across a rough creek and 
scramble up a steep hill to reach them. The first 
force from the rear to reach the advanced firing line 
was the dismounted party of police, who went forward 
at the double. It is unnecessary here to enter into 
a description of this much-described fight. Super- 
intendent Herchmer in his report wrote: — " Throughout 
the action, which lasted seven hours, our men behaved 
admirably. The sense of duty shown by them in 
always keeping themselves so well to the front, and 
occupying the most forward positions, explains our 
loss." He specially mentioned as deserving of recog- 
nition for their bravery and dash, Sergeant-Ma j or 
T. Wattam, Sergeant J. H. Ward, who was wounded 
early in the engagement, Sergeant G. Macleod, Sergeant 
I. Richards, Corporal S. M. Blake, Constable W. H. 
Routledge, Constable Taylor, Constable T. McLeod 
of "E" division; Constable I. C. Harstone of "A" 
division; Constable E. Rally, Constable W. Gilpin 
of "B" division; Constables C. Ross, W. C. Swinton, 
H. Storer, R. Rutledge, C. Phillips, M. I. Spencer 
and G. Harper of "D" division. 

Early in the engagement Corporal R. B. Sleigh of 
" D " Division was shot through the mouth and killed, 



96 



being the first man to fall. Shortly afterwards Cor- 
poral W. H. P. Lowry of "E" division was mortally 
wounded, and also Trumpeter P. Burke of " D " division. 
The two latter died the day after the action. Sergeant 
J. H. Ward of " E " division, was also seriously wound- 
ed, but recovered. 

From the date of the action until the arrival of Gener- 
al Middleton's force at Battleford, twenty to thirty 
of the police were constantly patrolling the country. 
May 14th, a patrol commanded by Sergeant Gordon 
was suddenly attacked by a party of Half-Breeds and 
Indians when about seven miles from Battleford and 
constable F. O. Elliot of "A" division was killed and 
constable W. J. Spencer of "D" division wounded. 

May 26th, the Comptroller having requested that 
Superintendent Neale be returned to Regina as soon 
as possible, that officer, who had rendered conspicuous 
service all through the campaign, left Battleford for 
headquarters, carrying despatches. On the 30th, Supt. 
Herchmer w^ith 50 mounted men of the Police left 
Battleford for Fort Pitt. He also had under his com- 
mand Boulton's Horse and the Intelligence Corps, 
a squadron of scouts recruited from among the Domin- 
ion Land Surveyors and their assistants commanded 
by Captain Jack Dennis, formerly a member of the 
Mounted Police. From Fort Pitt this force served 
with General Middleton throughout the hunt after 
Big Bear including the advances to Loon Lake and 
the Beaver River. These marches were particularly 
trying to men and horses, as there were no changes of 
clothing, no tents and no provisions but such as could 
be carried on the saddles. But there were no com- 
plaints. June 28, Superintendent Herchmer received 
orders to return to Battleford and reached there on 
the 1st. On the 4th he started for Swift Current, having 
a number of prisoners from Battleford in charge, who 
were safely delivered at Regina on the 10th. 

The following extracts from Lieut.-Colonel Otter's 
report of his column's services are apropos: — 

"In Lieut.-Col. Herchmer, N.W.M. Police, I had a 
most valuable assistant, and not only in the action 
of Saturday (Cut Knife) but throughout our march 
from Swift Current to Battleford, he displayed the 
most sterling qualities of a soldier; while the men of 
his command have time and again proved themselves 
as invaluable to my force." 

"Sergeant-Major Wuttam, N.W.M. Police, was an- 
other whose brilliant example and dogged courage 
(at Cut Knife) gave confidence and steadiness to those 
within the sound of his voice. Constable Ross, N.W. 
M, Police, our chief scout, was always ready to lead a 
dash or take his place in the .skirmish line, in fact, 
he seemed everj'wherc and at the proper time." 

" I also wish to bring to your notice the efficient 



services rendered by the mounted detachment of the 
N.W.M. Police under Captain Neale." 

The commands of Inspector Steele and Inspector 
Perry did their service in connection with the Alberta 
Field Force under the command of Major-General 
T. Bland Strange of the Royal Artillery, who com- 
manded " B " Battery, R.C.A., at the time " A " Battery 
was commanded by Lieut.-Col. French, first Commis- 
sioner of the Mounted Police. Major-General Strange, 
at the time of the uprising was ranching south of 
Calgary and was entrusted first with the organization 
of a local force for the protection of that district, after 
it was denuded of police for service in the north, and 
later with the organization and command of an inde- 
pendent column to operate against the insurgent 
tribes of Indians in the western sections of the North 
Saskatchewan district. Calgary was selected as his 
base, and there his force was organized. 

Inspector Steele was on duty with his command 
in connection with the railway construction in the 
Rocky Mountains,wh(Mi on April 10, he left for Calgary 
under orders from the Lieutenant-Governor. On the 
13th, Strange obtained permission for Inspector Steele 
with his command of 25 police who had been on duty 
in the mountains to accompany him and placed all of his 
original mounted force, consisting of a troop of scouts, 
raised by Steele himself, and 60 of the Alberta Mounted 
Rifles under Major George Hatton, besides the police, 
under his command. The organization of the provisional 
mounted corps was a difficult matter. Strange was 
surprised to find that not only were the settlers 
in the District absolutely without arms, but that the 
cow-boys and ranchmen, a class usually well armed, 
had, though surrounded by reserves of well-armed 
Indians, relied on the protection of the police and 
were without arms, certainly an eloquent testimonial 
to the efficiency of the force. 

The supply of arms, ammunition and saddlery 
was a great difficulty and cause of delay. The de- 
mands on the Militia Department from many quarters 
simultaneously were, no doubt, difficult to meet ; 
Winchesters re(|uired for cavalry were not in stock, 
and could not at first be secured. On the 10th April, 
Strange received a telegram from the C.P.R. Agent 
at Gleichen that the employees were leaving their 
posts, and refused to remain unless protected by 
troops. The men on the C.P.R. construction in the 
mountains had also struck work, and Major Steele 
and his detachment were detained to protect C.P.R. 
stores. The same day a detachment of as many 
of the Allx;rta Mounted Rifles as could be armed and 
oquipi)e(l were sent to guard the railway and watch 
the Blackfoot Reserve at (ileichen. 

Steele and his men were actively employed with 



97 



Strange's column throughout the long campaign, 
participating in the battle of Frenchman's Butte, 
and alone, in the northern wilderness, fought at Loon 
Lake the last and most dashing action of the whole 
campaign. About Fort Pitt, Steele and his men had 
several skirmishes with Big Bear's band, and at 
Frenchman's Butte led the attack and attempted a 
wide turning movement. Constable McRae was 
seriously wounded at Frenchman's Butte and Sergeant 
Fury at Loon Lake. In his report at the end of the 
campaign, Inspector Steele specially mentioned Ser- 
geant Fury, Constable McDonnell, Constable McRae, 
Constable Davidson, Constable Bell, Constable McMinn, 
and Constable P. Kerr. All but the last-mentioned 
constables performed the duties of non-commissioned 
officers to the scouts. Steele added: — "I have no 
hesitation in saying they are collectively the best 
body of men I have ever had anything to do with." 

Shortly after receiving the telegraphic order from 
Major-General Middleton to assume command of the 
Alberta District, General Strange communicated with 
Superintendent Cotton, N.W.M.P., commanding at 
Fort Macleod, and Captain Stewart (w^ho acted ener- 
getically in raising ranch cavalry) to patrol to 
Medicine Hat and the frontier. 

Captain Cotton placed Fort Macleod in a state of 
defence as a refuge for families from the neighbourhood, 
stationed couriers between Macleod and Calgary, 
and assisted General Strange by every means in his 
power, sending at his request, a nine-pounder field gun 
with a picked detachment of N.W.M.P. under In- 
spector Perry to join the column. Just at this time 
Strange was preparing, by Major-General Middleton's 
orders, to march on Edmonton, where the settlers 
had flocked, abandoning farms in the neighbourhood 
as far as Victoria and Beaver Lake. From these 
districts Strange Avas receiving messages imploring 
assistance, the Indians having risen, destroying farms, 
and plundering all food supplies from the Red Deer, 
Battle River, Peace Hills, Beaver Lake, Saddle Lake 
and Fog Lake, where they had committed atrocious 
murders. 

It was urgent that the adA^ance should not be de- 
layed, and Strange was on his way from Calgary to 
E«imonton when Inspector Perry arrived at the formei- 
place. 

Inspector A. Bowen Perry (now Commissioner of 
the force) had been on duty with "C" Division at 
Fort Macleod, and received his orders on the morning 
of April 19. His detachment consisted of 20 non- 
commissioned oflficers and constables, 3 civil teamsters, 
a 9-pounder M.L.R. gun, and 43 horses. Baggage 
and camp ecjuipment were limited to 75 pounds per 
jnan. The detachment marched, April IS, and reached 



Calgary on the 21st, the distance of 105 miles being 
covered in three and a half days. Written orders 
awaiting Inspector Perry, directed him to assume 
command of an independent column under orders to 
follow the General in a few days. This column was 
to include besides the detachment of "C" Division, 
one wing of the 65th Mount Royal Rifles of Montreal, 
150 officers and men, and a transport train of 68 men 
and 175 horses. By general orders of the Alberta Field 
Force issued by General Strange, Inspector Perry 
had been created a Major in the Active Militia (3). The 
column left Calgary on the 23rd, the Red Deer River, 




Superintendent F. Norman. 

103 miles distant, being reached on the 28th. Severe 
storms of snow and rain had delayed the march. The 
Red Deer River, which General Strange's column had 
forded twenty-four hours before with ease, was im- 
passable, the heavy rains having caused it to rise 
rapidly. It was, when Perry's column reached it, a 
surging stream 250 yards wide, with a current of five 
and a half miles an hour. The only means of crossing 
was a small skiff carrying about six persons. A ferry 
scow which was in use the previous year had been 
carried away and broken up by the ice. Perry de- 
termined to effect the crossing by a swinging raft, 

(.3) By what appears to have been an inexcusable omission, no record 
of this promotion appeared in the "Official Gazette." 



98 



first throwing across by means of the skiff a strong 
advance guard and a working party. While fatigue 
parties were set to work to construct a raft out of 
some heavy square timbers which were to hand, 
teams were despatched to a point some eight miles 
away to draw timber to be used to build a new scow, 
Perry knowing the uncertainty of raft navigation. 
In two hours the raft was completed and a rope some 
1,200 feet in length, formed of the horses' picketing 
ropes, carried across. The gun, gun-carriage, am- 
munition and harness were placed on board, and the 
raft was rapidly approaching the distant shore when 
the rope broke by binding round the tree from which 
it was being paid off. Inspector Perry subsequently 
wrote in his report: — "We rapidly drifted down the 
stream, running away from the shore to the south 
bank. Aided by Constable Diamond, N.W.M.P., I 
succeeded in landing a rope and attaching it to a 
tree. But the raft was going too quickly to be checked, 
and the rope broke. About three miles down it was 
driven into the bank by the current, and striking an 
eddy, opportunity was afforded for landing a strong 
2-inch rope, which firmly secured it. The landing 
was under a 'cut bank" 30 feet high. Up this, gun, 
carriage and ammunition were hauled, with great 
labour, by the men of the detachment on board. To 
bring them back to the 'crossing,' a detour of about 
six miles had to -be made, around a large swamp, and 
a new road over a mile in length was cut through a 
heavy wood. Waggons and carts were taken to pieces 
and ferried over in parts to carry ammunition back. 
The hoi*ses were crossed by swimming." 

In his report, it will be noticed, Inspector Perry 
modestly abstained from explaining that he and 
Constable Diamond succeeded in landing the rope 
which finally checked the headlong course of the run- 
away raft at the risk of their lives. Yet such is the case. 

The construction of the ferry-boat was proceeded 
with as soon as the timljer could be procured, work 
was prosecuted night and day, and twenty-four 
hours after it was begun, a trial trip was made. In 
the meantime, the regular ferry cable, which had been 
lying along the north shore, was stretched acro.ss the 
stream and anchored. The construction of this 
ferry was of the utmost importance, as it completed 
the line of communication between Calgary and 
Edmonton, and obviated any delay to the column 
following. After crossing the Red Deer, Inspector 
Perry '.s column made a rapid march to Edmonton, 
covering the distance of 105 miles in three days and 
a half. The police with this column had all the scout- 
ing and courier duties to perform as well as the pro- 
vision of night guards to the herd of transport horses. 
When Inspector Perry handed over his colunm at 



Edmonton he was highly complimented on the con- 
duct of his march. 

At Edmonton, Strange reorganized his force for 
the advance down the North Saskatchewan. Major 
Perry's detachment of North-West Mounted Police 
was posted to take up the duties of horse artillery 
with their nine-pounder, the mounted men forming 
the cavalry escort. Six men from the Winnipeg Light 
Infantry, a provisional battalion raised in Winnipeg 
by Lieutenant-Colonel W. Osborne Smith, were 
attached as part of the gun detachment, and their 
trair-ing was proceeded with during the halt at Ed- 
monton. At the same time the gun ammunition. 




lnspi'c-toi- W. 1). .Aiitrobus. 

which was some of that brought up with the expedi- 
tion of 1874, was tested and found to be in excellent 
condition. On leaving Edmonton, part of Straiige's 
force advanced on a flotilla of scows and barges, 
steered, and to .some extent propelled, by sweeps, 
and part marched o\erlan(l. Inspector Perry's com- 
mand was broken up — Sergeant Irwin and eleven 
men in charge of the troop and headcjuarters' staff 
horses, jjroceeded by trail, the remainder of the de- 
tachment, with the gun, being placed on a scow. At 
Fort Saskatchewan an old ferry scow was obtained, 
on which the six gun horses were f>laced. When 
twenty miles from Victoria this scow sank owing to 



99 



leaks, and the horses, which were saved, were ridden 
in to Victoria. From this point the whole detach- 
ment proceeded by land to Fort Pitt, part of the 
infantry, and some stores, only, proceeding by river. 
Between this point and Fort Pitt there was consider- 
able forced marching, the distance from Frog Lake 
to Fort Pitt, thirty-five miles, being made in one 
day. 

Tuesday, May 26th, General Strange, whose ad- 
vanced column had reached Fort Pitt, determined 
to discover the whereabouts of Big Bear by recon- 
naissance in force. Inspector Steele and his mounted 
men were despatched to search the north side of the 
river, Inspector Perry being detailed for similar duty 
on the south side. His instructions were to travel 
directly south as far as Battle River, then to circle 
round to the east and return to Fort Pitt. If he 
found it possible, he was also to establish communica- 
tion with Battleford; but it was considered as very 
unlikely that he would be able to do this, as it was 
supposed that Poundmaker and Big Bear were then 
actually effecting or had already formed a junction 
of their forces in the district between Fort Pitt and 
Battleford. It must be remembered, that Strange's 
force had penetrated so far into the wilderness that 
they had for days been without information from 
either the Battleford or General Middleton's columns. 
Perry, with seventeen of his own men, five scouts, 
and the Rev. W. P. McKenzie, acting chaplain, 
crossed the river at dark on barges. ■ Nothing was 
carried on the horses except four day's light rations, 
100 rounds of Winchester ammunition, and great- 
coats. A heavy rain fell the whole night, but no 
halt was made until near daylight. Battle River 
was reached about noon without any trace of the 
enemy being seen, and after that an eastward course 
was struck. Only short halts were made that day 
and the following night, and the little force advanced 
with great caution as Perry expected at any moment 
to fall in with the enemy. After a trying and severe 
night's ride, a point twenty miles from Battleford 
was reached Thursday at daybreak, and here a halt 
was made to rest the horses. Shortly afterwards 
an Indian appeared who proved to be the bearer of 
a message from General Middleton to Big Bear, in- 
forming him that both Riel and Poundmaker had 
surrendered. Inspector Perry at once proceeded to 
Battleford and reported his arrival and the result of 
his reconnaissance to General Middleton. The ride 
from Fort Pitt to Battleford, a distance of 130 miles, 
was accomplished in thirty-six hours, and without 
a single horse giving out. 

On Inspector Perry's representations, supplies for 
General Strange's column were forwarded the next 



day by steamer "Northwest," the Inspector and his 
command embarking on the vessel to return to Fort 
Pitt. When about fifty miles from the last named 
place, a couple of scouts were met, in a canoe, with 
information of Strange's action at Frenchman's Butte, 
May 28th. It being determined that the steamer 
should return to Battleford for re-inforcements and 
ammunition, (the latter specially required by Strange) 
Perry at once landed his force on the south bank to 
proceed to Fort Pitt by land. This was at 4.30 
in the afternoon, and at 5 the next morning Fort Pitt 
was reached. This ride was a trying one, the men and 
horses being thoroughly fatigued from the heavy 
ride from Fort Pitt to Battleford. A heavy cold rain 
fell all the night, and the little force had to pass a 
swampy lake, over 200 yards wide, through which the 
men had to wade waist deep, leading their horses. 

After a halt of several hours at Fort Pitt, Inspector 
Perry marched on and joined General Strange at his 
camp six miles down the river. The Inspector was 
thanked by the General for the success of his re- 
connaissance, and was delighted to hear that the 9- 
pounder had been of the greatest service at the en- 
gagement of the 28th, the gun detachment under Ser- 
geant O'Connor having behaved splendidly. 

Monday, June 3rd, Strange's force moved forward to 
Frenchman's Butte, and thence advanced northward 
to the Beaver River. Steele and his men having gone 
north via the Loon Lake trail, the duties of advance 
guard and scouting fell upon Inspector Perry's com- 
mand. The march from Frenchman's Butte to Beaver 
River, 80 miles, took three days and a half, quick 
travelling considering the difficult nature of the trail, 
which led over miles of morass, in which the gun 
frequently sank to the axles and was only extricated 
by the united exertions of horses and men. In one 
case the gun had to be unlimbered and dismounted, 
and the gun, waggon and ammunition hauled over in 
parts, in waggons. The return march from Beaver 
River to Fort Pitt via Saskatchewan Landing, a 
distance of ninety-two miles, occupied only three 
days. 

June 29, the detachment received orders to return 
to Fort Macleod, and was struck off the strength of the 
Alberta Field Force, which was about to be broken 
up. The divisional orders, dated Fort Pitt, June 28, 
1885, contained the following flattering reference to 
Major Perry and his command: — 

"The detachment of North- West Mounted Police, 
under the command of Major Perry, with the 9- 
pounder gun, will join Colonel Herchmer's force to- 
morrow morning and proceed by route march to 
Battleford. 

" Major-General Strange, in relinquishing the com- 



100 



mand of the detachment of 'C Division, North-West 
Mounted Police, under command of Major Perry, has 
to thank them for their vahiable services and in- 
variably excellent conduct. He has never com- 
manded better soldiers. Their double duties as horse 
artillery, and when required, scout cavalry, have been 
performed to his entire satisfaction. In bringing a 
9-pounder gun from Fort Macleod to Beaver River, 
through most difficult country, including the passage 
of the Red Deer River, the march of some 800 miles, 
with every horse and man in his place, reflects great 
credit, not only on Major Perry, but on every non- 
commissioned officer and man. That gun was mainly 
instrumental in demoralizing the band of Big Bear 
on 28th May, at Frenchman's Butte. The opening of 
communication from Fort Pitt to Battleford by this 
small detachment entailed hardships cheerfully endured. 

"Major-General Strange especially recognized the 
ably conducted march of the left wing of the 65th 
Regiment under Major Perry's command, which he 
has brought to the notice of the Comptroller of Police; 
as also the names of Sergeant-Ma j or Irwin, Staff- 
Sergeant Horner, and Sergeant O'Connor. 

" Major-General Strange wishes his thanks to be 
conveyed to Major Cotton, N.W.M.P., for the selection 
he made of an officer and nien of whom he may feel 
proud. In parting with this detachment of North- 
West Mounted Police, he wishes them every success 
and happiness." 

The total distance marched from Fort Macleod to 
Edmonton, Fort Pitt to Battleford, from landing 
place on the Saskatchewan back to Fort Pitt, to 
Beaver River and back to Fort Macleod was 1,308 
miles. The distance marched, until dismissed from 
the Alberta Field Force, June 28, was 928 miles in 
38 marching days, an average per day of 24 miles. 
And this does not take into consideration the con- 
stant duties of guards, picquets, patrols, etc. 

Distinguished and important as were the services 
rendered to the country by the various bodies of the 
.Mounted Police which came into actual contact with 
the hostile Indians and half-breeds during the rebel- 
lion, they were probably really less useful than the 
.services of the divisions which remained at their ordin- 
ary headquarters and which, by their brave front and 
constant alertness, saved the country from the ap- 
palling tragedy of a general Indian uprising. From 
one end of the country to the other, the Indians were 
restless during the rebellion, and runners from the 
hostiles were constantly striving to induce the more 
loyal trilxis to take the warpath. At all the |X)sts 
utuisual precautions were taken. 

At Fort Macleod, for instance, early in the rel)el- 
lion, finding that all sorts of exciting stories were 



constantly in circulation, Superintendent CottoU 
established a line of couriers with Calgary, for there 
was no telegraphic communication at the time, ana 
only a weekly mail. This line of couriers kept the 
population aware of the actual course of events and 
of the untruthfulness of exaggerated reports put 
into circulation. Superintendent Cotton held numerous 
interviews with the Blood and Piegan Indians, and 
kept the country in the vicinity well patrolled. One 
company of militia, and later two (of the 9th Bat- 
talion) were sent to Macleod as an auxiliary garrison, 
and placed under Superintendent Cotton's orders, 




Sui>eriiitendent R. B. Deane 

as wa.s also a mounted corps raised at Macleod by 
Major John Stewart. Special provision was made 
to furnish protection to working parties of tele- 
graph and railway construction lines. U{)on one 
occasion, shots were exchanged between Stewart's 
scouts and some Indians, supposed to be Assini- 
boine or Gros Ventres war parties from United 
States territory, at a point thirty miles west of 
Medicine Hat. As a result, Superintendent Cotton 
jnade a prompt reconnaissance in force, but although 
there was a great deal of night signalling by the Indians, 
no Indian raids were made. The management of 
the railways thanked Superintendent Cotton for the 



101 



protection afiforded their parties during these critical 
months, and at the annual meeting of the South 
Western Stock Association, held at Fort Macleod, 
April 29, 1885, the following resolution was unani- 
mously passed: — "That this association desires to 
express their high appreciation of the efficient manner 
in which Major Cotton and his command have per- 
formed their duty in helping the cattle ranches, and 
the prompt steps taken during the present troubles 
to keep the Indians quiet, meet our fullest confidence 
and approval." 

The departure of Lieut.-Col. Irvine from Regina 
for Prince Albert with his detachment left the post 
at headquarters denuded of all but a small staff of 
non-commissioned officers and a few necessarily 
employed and sick men. Superintendent R. Burton 
Deane, Adjutant, who previous to joining the force had 
served in the Royal Marines, was left in command. In 
consequence of information from the north that arms 
and ammunition were expected by the half-breeds 
from the railway, that officer issued orders to seize 
and hold all such articles consigned to traders in the 
south, 1,435 pounds of arms and ammunition being 
thus seized. The demand for men became so great 
that Superintendent Deane sought and obtained 
leave from Ottawa to engage special constables, but 
practically none could be got. Early in April, he 
secured the services of five Sioux Indians to act as 
scouts and who proved useful in giving information 
as to the movements of the half-breed runners, who 
were constantly on the move between the different 
Indian camps, inciting their occupants to join the 
rebels. About the middle of the month, with the 
assistance of Mr. Legarrie of Wood Mountain, an ir- 
regular corps of half-breeds was formed at Wood 
Mountain to patrol the international frontier, Ins- 
pector Macdonell, with four men, being sent from 
Medicine Hat to command and organize the corps. 
April 21st, nineteen recruits, and eighty-two horses 
arrived at Regina from the East. On May 3rd, 130 



more recruits arrived and were accommodated in tents, 
and on May 18, 31 more recruits arrived. It may 
be supposed that the energies of the small staff of 
non-commissioned officers at Superintendent Deane's 
disposal were taxed to the utmost, but they were 
equal to the occasion, and particularly Sergeant 
Major Belcher, and Quartermaster Sergeant Simpson, 
performed valuable service at this time. The recruits 
themselves subsequently furnished a number of 
valuable non-commissioned officers. May 13, Super- 
intendent Deane was able to detach 15 men to Maple 
Creek, and on the 16th, 20 mounted men to Inspector 
Macdonell at Wood Mountain. July 8th, a non- 
commissioned officer and 15 additional men with 16 
horses were sent to Inspector Macdonell. May 9th, 
at Pie-a-pot's request. Superintendent Deane held 
a powwow with that chief, who reported he was 
having trouble with some of his young braves as a 
result of exaggerated stories from the scene of re- 
bellion in' the north. Inspector Macdonell assured 
him that he and his tribe would be safe from molesta- 
tion so long as they remained on their reserve. (4). 
May 23rd, Louis Riel arrived a prisoner at Regina, 
and so many other half-breed and Indian prisoners 
followed, that several additions had to be made to 
the prison accommodation at headquarters. Until 
the conclusion of the numerous trials and executions 
for high treason and murder which were among the 
sad results of the rebellion, the duties at Regina 
were very heavy. 



(4) Chief Pie-a-Pot was in the old warring days one of the most re- 
nowned warriors of the Southern Crees. As a matter of fact he was a 
member of the Sioux tribe, the hereditary enemies of the Southern Crees. 
As an infant he became very expert with the bow and arrow, so the story 
goes, being able to sever the prairie flowers from their stems with his 
arrows, with unerring accuracy. Owing to his abnormal skill and pre- 
cocity, his proud mother was enabled to induce the Sioux chiefs to allow 
the lad, at the tender age of twelve, to accompany one of their big war 
parties on a foray into British territory. Meeting disaster at the hands 
of the Crees, the Sioux retreated, and the lad was taken prisoner and 
adopted, his prowess securing for him in time the chieftainship of the 
tribe. 




102 




CHAPTER X. 

INCREASE OF STRENGTH AND DUTIES. 



The Establishment Raised to 1000 Men. — L. W. Herchmer, Commissioner. — More Vice-Regal 
Visits. — Extension of the Sphere op Operations Northward to the Athabaska and Peace 
River Districts and into the Yukon. — The Fight to Suppress the Illicit Liquor Trade. 
— The Force Loses a Good Friend in Sir John Macdonald but Gains Anothi:r in Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier. — The "Almighty Voice" Tragedy. — Rapid Extension of the Yukon Duties. 



THE end of the rebellion left the Mounted Police 
with greatly increased responsibilities. First, 
there was the pacification of the half-breed 
settlements and the Indian tribes which had been in 
revolt. Secondly, the sense of security hitherto 
enjoyed throughout the white settlements had to be 
restored and its uninterrupted continuance provided 
for, and in accomplishing this, a decided spirit of 
disaffection and defiance manifested by some of the 
most powerful tribes, which had not participated in 
the Rebellion had to be coped with. Thirdly, pro- 
vision had to be made for the rigid enforcement of 
the law in new settlements and mushroom frontier 
villages, which sprang into existence as if by magic 
as a result of the completion of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. 

It was realized that a very considerable increase 
of the strength of the Mounted Police was necessary, 
and without delay steps were taken to recruit addi- 
tional men and to rearrange the distribution of the 
force. Officers and men were in the very midst of 
much strenuous work when the North-West was 
visited by the then Governor General, Lord Lansdowne, 
the visit doing much to allay excitement and to em- 
phasize the fact that law and order hml been re- 
established throughout the Territories. 

On the arrival of His Excellency at Indian Head, 
on the 2l8t September, he was received by a strong 



escort of 100 men. A small mounted escort, by His 
Excellency's desire, accompanied him from Indian 
Head via Katepwa to Fort Qu'Appelle. thence to 
Qu'Appelle station, where he embarked for Regina, 
a train escort of one officer and twenty-four men 
accompanying him thither. The usual guard of 
honour received him at the Territorial Capital. On 
the evening of the 23rd September, with the same 
escort. His Excellency left Regina for Dunmore, 
thence proceeding to Lethbridge, where he arrived 
on the afternoon of the 24th. and was received by a 
guard of honour from Fort Madeod. On the 25th, 
a mounted escort accompanied His Excellency from 
Lethbridge via Fort Kipp to the Hlood Reserve, about 
eight miles from which place he was met l)y the Indian 
agent, and a party of Indians on horseback. His 
Excellency had a long interview with the Bloods, 
and camped for the night on the opposite side of the 
Belly River. On the 26th, his Excellency visited 
the Cochrane ranche, and Fort Macleod on the follow- 
ing day, remaining for the night in the police barracks. 
On the 28th, His lOxcellency started for Calgary, 
camping for the night at Mos<|uito Creek, 50 miles 
north of Fort Macleod, and reaching Calgary about 
6 p.m. next day. A guard of honour at the railway 
station was there furnished from "E" Division, and 
the 29th was spent in visiting the Indians at the 
Blackfoot crossing, the Vice-Regal party and escort 



103 



taking train from Calgary to Cluny, where His Honor 
the Lieutenant Governor was in waiting. Arrived at 
the agency at the Blackfoot crossing, His Excellency 
had a long interview with the Blackfeet, and subse- 
quently returned to Calgary, whence a small train 
escort accompanied him to Donald, B.C. 

His Excellency was pleased to express his approba- 
tion of the smartness of the men and horses composing 
the various escorts, and of the state of their barracks. 

In October and November, in consequence of the 
accession of strength to 1,000 rank and file, five new 
divisions were created, making ten in all, each having 
an establishment of 100 non-commissioned officers 




Lieut. -Col. Lawrence W. Herchmer, Fourth Commissioner. 

and men, the former numbering fifteen. These 
divisions were numbered A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, 
and the Depot Division. This last was designed to 
be permanently stationed at headquarters, and to it 
all recruits on joining were to be attached, being 
drafted therefrom as vacancies occurred in the other 
divisions. The headquarters staff were deducted 
from the Depot Division. 

Between the 1st January, and 31st December, 1885, 
608 recruits joined the force, and underwent such 
training as circumstances permitted from time to time. 
The physicjue of the new men, enrolled at the time 
of this big increase of the establishment, as a rule. 



was much above the average. Too large a proportion, 
however, were unable to ride, and unaccustomed to 
horses. 

The distribution state at the end of the year gave 
the strength and stations of the various divisions 
as follows : — 

Depot Division, Regina, total strength, 121. 

" A '' — Maple Creek, with detachments at Medicine 
Hat, and Swift Current, 102. 

"B" — Regina, with detachments at Fort Qu'Appelle, 
Broadview, Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Moose Moimtain, 
Shoal Lake, Whitewood, and on the mail service, 103. 

"C" — Fort Macleod, with detachments at Stand Off, 
St. Mary's, Pincher Creek, Lethbridge, the Piegan 
Reserve, 112. 

"D"— Battleford, 94. 

"E"— Calgary, 101. 

"F"— Prince Albert, 96. 

''G" — Edmonton, with a detachment at Fort Sas- 
katchewan, 99. 

"H" — Fort Macleod, with detachments at Chief 
Mountain, Lethbridge, Old Fort Macleod, 104. 

"K"— Battleford, 107. 

Total, 1 Commissioner, 1 Assistant Commissioner, 
10 Superintendents, 24 Inspectors, 1 Surgeon, 4 
Assistant Surgeons, 32 Staff-Sergeants, 48 Sergeants, 
51 Corporals, 867 Constables. Grand total, 1,039. 

Notwithstanding the accession of 500 additional 
men to the strength of the force, up to the end of the 
year, no provision had been made for their accom- 
modation, with the exception of one large room built 
at Regina for prison purposes, which, after the delivery 
of sentenced prisoners, was subsequently converted into 
a barrack room. 

At Regina the barrack rooms were over-crowded 
so much so as to effect the men's health, and it had 
been necessary to send recruits away to outposts 
before they were properly trained. Half of the 
Quartermaster's store was at the end of the year full 
of men, to the great inconvenience and prejudice of 
the Quartermaster's department. 

Great care was shown by the officers and men of 
the force at this time in their dealings with the half- 
breeds and Indians, and with marked success, the 
rapid healing of the scars of the rebellion speaking 
volumes for the successful diplomacy of the police. 
Writing at the end of 1885 from Prince Albert, which 
had been the centre of the disaffected district, and 
where, since his promotion, he commanded. Super- 
intendent A. Bo wen Perry reported: — 

" The half-breed population is quiet, and the feeling 
amongst them, to a great extent, appears to be one 
of regret for the past troubles. Very few will ac- 
knowledge that they took up arms of their own free 



104 



will, claiming that they were persuaded and forced 
into the trouble. 

"They are now entirely dependent on freighting 
and government assistance. 

" I have seen the priests of the different half-lireed 
missions, and they all tell a piteous tale of starvation 
and want among their people. 

"Inspector Cuthbert. who recently visited the half- 
breed settlements, reports that the half-breeds are in 
want, and will require a great deal of assistance. 
Xo trouble need be feared from them. 

" The Indians are very quiet and peaceable. Some 
danger has been apprehended from the Indians at 
Duck Lake, who were engaged in the recent outbreak. 
These Indians were not paid their treaty money and, 
I believe, are not receiving much assistance, as will 
be seen in Inspector Cuthbert's report. This officer 
says, under date the 18th November: — 'From the 
Indians of Beardy's reserve, who were rebels, and 
whom I saw, I learned that they were having very 
hard times. I could learn nothing from the Indians 
themselves or from settlers in the vicinity in confirma- 
tion of current reports of brewing trouble. No alarm 
is felt as to their raiding on freighters or settlers, and 
no communication is held by them with Indians in 
the Battleford district.'" 

While this encouraging improvement was being 
reported in the district which had been the scene of 
the revolt, keen anxiety was developing as to the 
attitude of the Indian tribes in the south. 

In a report of the 26th of October, Superintendent 
Cotton drew attention to the objectionable changes 
that had come about in the general bearing and feeling 
of the Indians in the southern section of the Territo- 
ries. "I now express it as my positive opinion", he 
wrote, "that the feeling of the Blood Indians towards 
the Government and white men generally is at this 
present moment very far from one of a friendly cha- 
racter. In this respect the past year has brought a 
marked change, particularly among the young men, 
who plainly show that a spirit of unrest and disquiet 
is not dormant within them". 

Alluding to the Rebellion and its suppression, Supt. 
Cotton wrote: — "It must be remembered that the 
accounts of the various scenes enacted in the north 
are received by the Indians more from an Indian 
point of view than from fact«. The loss of the troops 
was magnified and that of the Indians minimized. 
This is what they still believe antl 1 think it shows 
that an Indian can be influence<l and his sympathy 
aroused by another Indian much more thoroughly 
ami forcibly than by any white man. The chiefs 
and old men, having greater and more varied exixrience, 
are much more prone to form correct and logical con- 



clusions; and they, though certainly not without 
their aboriginal prejudices, are, for the most part, 
aware of and ready to admit the universally honor- 
able, humane, and even markedly generous treatment 
they have at all times had at the hands of the Govern- 
ment. Still, their influence does not appear strong 
enough to successfully inoculate the younger men 
with such a train of thought, and it must not be forgot- 
ten that the younger men played the most important 
part in this rebellion. 

" It should, I think, be borne in mind that our 
experience during the past summer has furnished us 
with what I may term data, from which we may with 
safety assume that had any serious reverse happened 
to the troops serving in the north, an almost simul- 
taneous outbreak would have occurred in the south. 
Even as I write, I cannot but call to mind the far 
from peaceaWe effect produced here when the news 
of the fight at Fish Creek became known. " 

After adverting to the hereditary enmity between 
the Blackfect and Crees, and expressing his belief 
that these tribes would, notwithstanding this, make 
common cause against the white men. Superintendent 
Cotton continued with reference to the despatch of 
some war parties on horse stealing expeditions: — 
"This horse stealing on the part of the younger men 
is doing an incalculable amovmt of harm throughout 
the camps. Setting aside the complications it may 
at any time give rise to with the United States Gov- 
ernment, it unsettles them greatly. If one man 
succeeds in evading arrest, the others are thus prompted 
to copy him and their so doing is considered a signal of 
personal bravery that invariably meets with universal 
approbation. Thus, a large number of our Blood 
Indians are becoming professional horse-thieves, and 
though their operations are carried on, f(»r the greater 
part, south of the international boundary line, it 
cannot be said to be luiiversally the case, and war 
parties often visit distant portions of our Territories, 
solely for the purpose of horse stealing. That our 
Indians can, with the utmost ease, procure strong 
alcoholic drink in the United States, is unquestionably 
the fact. This proves a powerful incentive towards 
the continuance of these southern migrations, as 
does also the fact that they receive aid, most willingly 
proffered, in their criminal practises from their blood 
relations, the South Piegans (also of the Blackfoot 
Nation). The lost mentioned Indians dare not them- 
selves steal American horses, but they gladly accept 
horses from our Indians in payment for help and 
information afforded." 

While the Indians in the Southern part of the Ter- 
ritories were thus caiising anxiety, the Mounted 
Police were called upon to extend their sphere of 



105 



operations eastward into Manitoba. On the 28th of 
July, 1885. Inspector Sanders, one non-commissioned 
officer and twenty-four constables, with twenty-six 
horses, proceeded to Southern Manitoba for the pre- 
vention of horse stealing in a district stretching along 
the frontier from the eastern boundary of the muni- 
cipality of Louise to the western boundary of the 
Province. A request for this protection had been 
made, on behalf of the settlers, by the Attorney- 
General, at Winnipeg, and the Right Honorable the 
President of the Privy Council, in sanctioning "for 
the present and until a local force is formed" the 
employment of a small detachment of police, reminded 




Superintendent G. E. Sanders, D.S.O. 

the Attorney-General "that it is not the duty of the 
Mounted Police to enforce the laws in Manitoba." 
April 1st, 1886, a change took place in the command 
of the force, the Commissioner, Lieut-Colonel A. G. 
Irvine retiring with a gratuity and being succeeded 
by Lawrence W. Herchmer, Esq., at the time holding 
a responsible position in the North- West under the 
Indian Department. The new Commissioner, who 
was a brother of Superintendent Wm. Herchmer, 
had served as a subaltern in the British Army and 
had acquired considerable experience of field service 
in the North- West as a Commissariat Officer on the 
staff of the International Boundarv Commission. 



As a matter of record, it is interesting to know that 
at this period the government entered into negotiations 
with Major Hutton, whose name was at the time 
identified with the mounted infantry movement in 
the regular service, with the object of securing his 
services as commissioner of the Mounted Police. 
Major Hutton agreed to accept the proffered appoint- 
ment on certain conditions, and his advice was even 
asked on matters affecting the arming, equipment and 
training of the force, but it was later decided to select 
an officer of Canadian experience. Some years later, 
as Major General, Major Hutton commanded the 
Canadian Militia, and, still later, as a brigade com- 
mander in South Africa, he had a battalion composed 
largely of officers and men of the N.W.M.P. under his 
command. 

Superintendent L. W. F. Crozier, Assistant Com- 
missioner, retired with gratuity June 30, 1886, Super- 
intendent W. M. Herchmer, with the title of " Ins- 
pecting Superintendent," taking over most of his 
duties. Supt. Antrobus took over the command of " E" 
Division at Calgary from Supt. Herchmer on April 7. 

During the summer, "E" Division and the head- 
quarters of "G" Division, consisting of one officer 
and 50 men, were camped on the Bow River, at Cal- 
gary, and remained there for about six weeks. This 
had an excellent effect, and gave a good opportunity 
of perfecting the men and horses in drill and camp 
work. Supt. Herchmer suggested that the following 
summer a larger camp be formed there, it being a 
very central place for the western divisions to meet, 
and he thought 200 men could easily be massed from 
"E", "G", "H", and "D" Divisions. 

From the new Commissioner's report for the year 
1886 it appears that target practice had been carried 
on in all the Divisions, but while many of the men 
had made excellent shooting, a considerable number 
did poorly. This, it was hoped to remedy the fol- 
lowing season by careful overhauling of the car- 
bines, and by more instruction in preliminary drill. 

Revised Standing Orders for the force were prepared 
during the year, and in December, were ready for 
the printer, and a short and concise drill book was 
being prepared, to which instructions in Police duties 
and simple rules of Veterinary practice were to be 
attached, which it was thought would place in each 
Constable's possession a complete explanation of all 
his various duties. 

The physique of the force was very fine, and im- 
proving all the time, the trouble being to get clothing 
large enough; but as it had been arranged, in future 
to have the clothing generally made in Canada (1), with 



(1) For S3veral years, as was the practice also in the Active Militia, the 
uniforms had been imported from England. 



106 



proper size rolls, it was hoped there would be no 
difficulty in guarding against this mistake. 

Up to this year the police had erected most of their 
barracks and other buildings themselves, and even in the 
case of some of the larger barracks built by contract, 
the work had been supervised by the officers of the 
force. In 1886 the work in connection with the 
erection and repairs of barracks was handed over to 
the Department of Public Works. 

The most serious crimes of the year were the rob- 
beries of the Royal Mail stages between Qu'Appelle 
and Prince Albert, and between Calgary and Ed- 
monton. The former of these, in July, near Humboldt, 
was the first attempt at highway robbery in the 
territories since the advent of the police, although 
such events, with various ghastly settings, were of 
almost weekly occurrence in the adjoining territories 
of the United States. The news of the Humboldt 
robbery caused great excitement, it being assumed 
that desperadoes from Missouri and other western 
states were seeking fresh fields in Canada. If they 
succeeded in getting away free it was felt that this 
would .be the fore-runner of a series of stage and 
train robberies such £is had made the western States 
notorious. Throughout all ranks of the Mounted 
Police it was felt to be imperative that the perpetra- 
tors of the robberies be discovered. The capture of 
the robbers (there were first supposed to be six masked 
men engaged in the robbery, although investigations 
on the spot showed it to have been the work of a single 
highwayman) was entrusted to"F" Division, then at 
Regina, commanded by Supt. A. Bowen Perry. A 
detachment of eight proceeded east by rail to Broad- 
view, a similar one under Inspector Begin, westward 
to Moosejaw. The remainder of the division under 
Supt. Perry, proceeded north, direct from Regina, 
the detachments at Broadview and Moosejaw moving 
in the same direction at the same time. In this way 
the whole country through which the robbers were 
considered likely to attempt to escape was carefully 
covered. Had the robbery been the work of a gang 
of United States highwaymen, they would doubt- 
less have been headed off, but it transpired that the 
robber was a resident of the north, and he was arrested 
by the Mounte<l Police in Prince Albert in August, 
tried in Regina in October, and sentenced to fourteen 
years imprisonment in the penitentiary. 

The robbers of the Exlmonton stage were not caught, 
although the country was scoured by the police in 
all directions. The mails on the route between Cal- 
gary and Edmonton, Swift Current and Battleford, 
and Qu'Appelle and Prince Albert were constantly 
escorted by Police after the first robbery until the 
cold weather removed the necessity, and after that, 



outposts were established at points along the roads 
for the winter, but patrolling was resumed as soon as 
it was considered advisable in the spring. 

During the years immediately succeeding the re- 
bellion, there was a marked development of the patrol 
system of the Mounted Police. During 1S87, log 
buildings with stables and corrals were built at con- 
venient places along the frontier, particularly along 
the base of the Cypress Hills; to afford shelter to the 
men in bad weather, and enable the patrols to go out 
earlier and stay later in the season than they other- 
wise could. The following season other shelters 
were built at convenient situations all along the 
frontier, the labor being done by the Police, and by 
putting up hay at these posts, a great saving of horse- 
flesh resulted. 

A new element in the police patrols in 1887 was 
introduced in the engagement of some fuU-blooded 
Indians as scouts, who were attached to the patrols, 
and did very good service, being invaluable as 
trailers, and able and willing to travel excessive 
distances in an almost incredible space of time. On 
several occasions during the summer of 1887, these 
scouts arrested members of their own tribes. Their 
tendency at first was to serve a short time and then 
return home, which was not always convenient. 
Their pay was $25 per month and rations, and they 
horsed themselves, the Police furnishing arms and 
saddles. 

All the main trails in the Territories were at this 
period watched by police patrols, and at convenient 
places along them, parties were stationed. The out- 
posts along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
were increased during 1889, and it was found necessary 
as soon as the Manitoba and North- Western Railway 
entered the Territories, to establish a post at Lan- 
genburg on that road. This party patrolled the 
Fort Pelly and the York Colony districts, which were 
remote from the head(juarters of police Divisions. 

Early in the spring of 1887, the Bloods caused a 
good deal of trouble. A number of their young men, 
tired of the reserve, and anxious to di.stinguish them- 
selves, made a dash on Medicine Hat and vicinity and 
on U. S. Territory, stealing a number of horses. 
During the summer too, the [Kjlice had occasional 
trouble with them. Occasionally, cattle were killed 
in the neighborhood of their reserves, but the arrest, 
speedy trial and punishment of "Good Rider", a 
Blood, stopped this practice. 

November 27, having been informed that several 
Blood Indians, camped at the Lower Agency, had 
whisky in their po.'w^o.ssion, and that one of their 
minor chiefs. "Calf Shirt", had brought it in from 
Montana, and had stated to his band that if the 



107 



ar -^*» «?K^ 'i««** -w!3i^ ja &wm^ ^har .>.,. .^^^^ai. 




Mrf If «l^r 

MMf «dbir neMor 



.^lSll|lt^HA edbyni 10461 

flMfai^ bf iiartcir^ ^jk,, «.iMi m^sr:- uv^iand. 3jG20; cm 
Un4.f t m tmi hoi M , 200 maei^ Total, 15,181 miks. 

tfrnfimii iSke mmtt rear the Comaaammar, in Iw 
mmmhI fiefwit ndiesmd to a eorioas aereanon to tiie 
ptjfuiaiitm of tiie Nortli-West Tenitories, nmaj dt- 
nettem fwma ihe Umted States Army cmnh^ orer ifyt 
1mm intli their hones and arms. The latto- woe 
inken irfftn them by the Mounted Pdice and returned 
to the U- H- Authorities, who declined to prosecute 
the thfeire«^ thtnkmg they were well rid of than. 

In May, IWJ7, Superintendent Steele with "D" Divi- 
i^rtt, iifeti stationed at Lethbridge. was. on accoimt erf 
i*ervjvm trouble among the local Indians, ordered to the 
K/x/tenay distriet of British Columbia where they 
remained until the summer of 1888 performing much 
goorl work. 



t. - tlWttir 

Sapt. Slede, in Us vtpon. mikli paotvi 
pointed out tliat tbe nndbns «ff '^D^ 
regards phy»q^ irese a vht Iuk bud; . 
great many being coi^ifenJb)r ovh* 6 f««t lo^. axi^i 
measurii^ as omkIi as 44 inrlkes arovodl ^ke <Ak^^ 
Taking the dixisiQn aD through^ the avcnc^liHsbt 
was 5 feet ^ inches, and dhest nmsiNreafeHil 3S^ 
inches. 

During the year 1S88, the Mwmted IVIice ptttnt^. 



108 



in accordance with applications from the Customs 
and Interior Departments, were extended into Msuii- 
toba, and the detachment under Inspector McGibboiu 
the first year, was able to render valuable ser\ ice in 
the suppression of smugglers and timber thieves in 
the Pembina Mountain country. 

In all quarters of the Territories, except in the 
south- west, the Indians. acconiing to the Conunissit>nerV 
report, were making rapid strides towanls self-supiKMt. 
All they required were more cattle, and a cash market 
for their produce, to encourage them. 

During the year 18SS, 55 men, whose terms of 
service had expired, immediately n^engagiHi. 10 
who took their dischai^e, afterwards ii-oimajitHl. 
among them a sergeant who re-engaged as lonsiablo; 
two who purchased their discharge enlisted in the 
ranks again, and several othei"^ offered to re-join. 
In his report for the year, the Commissioner remarked :- 
'* With your j^ermission, I hope to make this force 
very hard 1 o enter and very easy to get out of, both 
by purchase and dismissal". That has continued to 
be the principle governing enlistment and discharge. 

A drill book for the force was printed on the police 
press at Regina, during the year ISSK. The drill was 
of the simplest kind, and conflicted in no way with 
the Mounted Infantry Regulations, but contained much 
information respecting details and movements ab- 
solutely required in the force which were not laid 
down in the Mounted Infantry Manual. 

During the year 1889, there were several events of 
special interest to the Mounted Police. Lord Stanley 
of Preston (now the Earl of Derby) then Governor 
General, visited the North- West, making an extended 
tour. In addition to the usual duty patrols, escorts 
accompanied His Excellency in his visits to the various 
parts of the Territories, and all the transport required 
was necessarily thrown on the regular patrols who 
were required to do more mileage, owing to the tem- 
porary absence of their comrades. 

His Excellency was pleased to express his gratifica- 
tion at the appearance and efficiency of the different 
detachments that came under his immediate observa- 
tion. 

During September, the Honourable t^Mackenzie 
Bowell, the Minister of Customs, was driven, in Police 
transport, along the line of patrols on the frontier. 
These patrols extended from Gretna, 28 miles east of 
the Red River, to the Rocky Mountains, a distance of 
about 800 miles, and most of the Customs Depart- 
ment work on this immense line was done by the 
Mounted Police. 

The force sent into Manitoba in 1888 for frontier 
duty, in connection with the Department of Customs 
and the Interior, was considerably augmented in 1889 



and remaimnl under the command of liis^XH^tor Me- 
tiibbon. The i.^^ue of wihhI jH^nnits was alnu>st 
entiivly in the hands of the |H>litH\ autl betwe<M\ their 
various vocations they certainly had plenty to do. 

With the exception of the service during the re- 
bellion, and a few exwptioj\al casc^. the servict^s of 
the Mounttnl Police had up to this time Iwhmi pivtty 
well coidined \o the tH>rtion of the territt>ries south of 
the line of the North Saskatchewan, But the ex- 
tension of railway systems and the expansion of settle- 
ment began to attract attention to the north. .\»ul, 
as was the case with the iinn\igration westward, so with 
the movement northwan;!, the Mounted l\>lice have 




Inspoi'lor Hojfin. 

been the pioneers. The Canadian policy has been to 
provide protection for life ami property and the means 
of enforcing the law, ahead of settlement, and 
therein, not forgetting the traditional respeetof British 
peoples for eijuitable laws, lies (he s««eret of tlu> peace- 
ful settlement of the Canadian West. 

Dm-ing 18S9. for the first time, police were sent into 
Keewatin at the nniuest of th(> bi«>ut(>nanl Governors 
of Manitoba, and the North-West Territories. A 
party under Inspector Begin, proceeded to Grand 
Rapids on the first boat, and remained in the vicinity 
part of the sununer with the view of preventing (he 
importation of licpior into the northern portions of 



109 



the North- West Territories, via the Saskatchewan, 
without permits. The low state of the water in the 
river, however, prevented the steamers from running, 
and the party was withdrawn. While in the north, 
Inspector Begin collected a great deal of information 
which the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba acknow- 
ledged. 

During the summer of 1889, 40 men of "F" Division 
from Prince Albert and the same number of "C" Divi- 
sion from Battleford patrolled to Regina and back, 
remaining during the greater part of the month of 
September under canvas at Regina. The two parties, 
on the way south, effected a junction at Saskatoon. 

An extraordinary drought all over the country was 
excessively hard on the horses, and the "C" and "F" 
patrols, under Supt. Perry, had to travel on one 
day, 40 miles, and on the next, 42 miles, without water. 
This was bad enough for picked horses and a flying 
patrol, but when it is considered that there were 
eighty men mounted, without spare horses, and twelve 
heavily loaded teams, the distances are enormous. 
Great credit was considered by the Commissioner to be 
due Superintendent Perry and all ranks, for the 
splendid condition of the horses on arrival at Regina, 
every horse in work had an entire absence of sore 
backs and shoulders. The patrol proceeded south, 
via Saskatoon and Moose jaw, a distance of 300 miles 
in twelve days, and returned via the route of the Long 
Lake Railway and Saskatoon, 350 miles, in ten days. 

During 1889, great interest was taken in rifle shooting, 
and the Commissioner suggested the sending a team 
to Ottawa for the Dominion matches the following 
year. He also recommended that the best shot in 
each division, and the best in the force, should receive 
extra pay. 

In June, a rifle competition took place at Saskatoon, 
between teams of 16 non-commissioned officers and 
men of "C" and "F" Divisions for "The Hudson Bay 
Cup", "F" Division proving the winners. The cup 
was presented by the officials of the Hudson Bay 
Company, and was to be won two years in succession. 

During the year 1890, in addition to the regular 
patrols, small patrols, under the command of an officer, 
frequently travelled through the various districts and 
proved in a most conclusive manner that the regular 
patrols had done their duty entirely to the satisfaction 
of the law-abiding settlers. 

The police outposts were becoming more numerous 
every year, and the detachments were rapidly im- 
proving the buildings, thereby better ensuring the 
comfort of the men, who had to undergo very severe 
hardships at times on patrol.. 

During the summer of 1890, the energetic Minister 
of Customs, the Hon. Mackenzie Bowell, with a party 



of police under Sergeant Waite, went through the 
Crow's Nest Pass with pack-horses, on a tour of ins- 
pection, and visited the Kootenay country. 

The patrol party was again, on the opening of 
navigation, sent north to the Lake Winnipeg district, 
and was considerably increased in size; a great deal 
of efficient work being done by Inspector Begin and 
his command. This officer, in 1890, went as far north 
as York Factory. 

During the early summer, H.R.H. the Duke of 
Connaught passed through the country, on his way 
home to England on completion of a command in 
India, and wherever he stopped in the North-West, 
escorts were provided, and transport was ready, if 
required. 

Assistant Commissioner Herchmer reported to His 
Royal Highness at Banff, and accompanied him 
beyond the eastern limits of the Territories. His 
Royal Highness expressed himself as much pleased 
with the Mounted Police and the services performed 
for him by them. 

The Assistant Commissioner also accompanied 
Colonel Fane of the British Army in a tour of the 
ranching country to ascertain its capabilities in the 
way of supplying remounts for the army. 

The same year (1890) the officers of the force gave 
even more than the usual attention to the suppression 
of prairie fires, and parties were specially sent out in 
some of the districts which had suffered in former 
years, with instructions to look sharp after all parties 
starting fires, and in all districts the outposts were 
particularly instructed in this direction. The result 
was most satisfactory. 

Perhaps the most important event in the history 
of the Mounted Police, as in that of the Dominion, 
during the year 1891, was the death of Sir John A. 
Macdonald on June 6th. Sir John had always mani- 
fested the keenest personal interest in the force, and 
never allowed anything to interfere with his ambition 
to have it maintained as a sensible, practical police 
force and at the same time to have it kept up to a 
high state of smartness and military efficiency as a 
veritable corps d'elite. Whatever portfolios the 
veteran premier held, he retained the administra- 
tion of the Mounted Police in his own hands 
up to the very last. In the new government formed 
after Sir John's death, the premier, Hon. Sir J. J. C. 
Abbott, as President of the Council, retained control 
of the Mounted Police. 

As to the personal of the force in 1891 the Com- 
missioner reported the average height as about 5 feet, 
9^ inches and chest measurement about 38} inches. 
There was some difficulty in securing enough suitable 
horses, as not a single eastern horse had been bought 



110 



for several years. The western horses were reported 
to be improving every year, and with the progeny of 
imported horses coming into the market the following 
spring, a further marked improvement was expected. 

The Commissioner in his annual report for 1891 
appeared gratified to state: — "Canteens are now 
working at Regina, Macleod, Lethbridge and Calgary, 
and are found to be a great convenience and saving to 
the men. The profits reduce the cost of messing, and 
afford the men recreation which they could not other- 
wise enjoy. 1 find that there has been a sensible 
decrease of crime and in the number of breaches of 
discipline at those posts where canteens have been 
established; and that these posts compare favourably 
in this respect with those where no canteens exist". 

The construction of the Calgary and Edmonton 
and the Calgary and Macleod railways was closely 
watched during 1891 by the police, and every assist- 
ance was given the contractors in enforcing the ab- 
sence of liquor from the camps. Several arrests were 
made for illegally leaving employment, but, on the 
whole, the best of order was maintained all through. 
One officer was in charge of constables on railway 
construction all the time. 

During this year a strict liquor license law was 
introduced, which has tended to greatly reduce the 
very objectionable duties the Mounted Police had 
hitherto been called upon to discharge in enforcing 
the laws respecting liquor. Up to this date a pro- 
hibitory law was in force, it being an offence to have 
even lager beer in possession except covered by a 
permit obtained personally, and only on payment of 
a heavy fee, from the Lieutenant Governor. When 
one remembers the large Indian population and the 
crude state of society in the pioneer days, the object 
is easily understood. But, as the country opened up, 
and towns, villages and settlements multiplied, it be- 
came impossible to enforce the law, for public opinion 
was against it. If people could not get licjuor honestly, 
why, they would simply get it dishonestly. Where 
wholesome liquors could not be obtained, the poison- 
ous product of the illicit still found its way in. The 
Mounted Police seized liquor by the waggon load 
and destroyed it only to have to go through the same 
operation the following day. The smugglers and 
holders of illicit liquor were arrested and re-arrested, 
only to bring down upon the police the enmity of the 
prisoners and their friends. All kinds of subterfuges 
were resorted to to smuggle beer and li<|Uor into the 
territories. Piano ca.ses were line<l with tin and filled 
with liquor. Metal receptacles containing spirits were 
concealed within the covers of bogus Bibles and 
hymn-bw)k8. Brandy and whisky were imjxirted in 
medicine bottles labelled as containing acid, per- 



fumery, etc. — Barrels of coal oil would have a keg of 
whisky floating in the oil. Some genius invented a 
celluloid egg shell which was filled with whisky, and 
for a time it proved a safe receptacle. But, eventually, 
the Mounted Police discovered the hoax, as they did 
the others. The preventive service in connection 
with this liquor trade was simply detested by the 
Mounted Police for it was continually embroiling 
them in trouble, and without any thanks, for the mis- 
called prohibitory liquor law soon became very un- 
popular v.ith everybody, including the clergy. 

Commissioner after Commissioner of the force 
complained of the difficulty of enforcing the act. For 
instance, in his report for 1885, Lieut.-Col. Irvine 
wrote : — 

"The traffic in illicit liquor cannot, I regret to say, 
be said to be on the decline. The ingenuity which 
is devoted to encompass the transgression of the pro- 
hibitory law is worthy of a better cause. Books 
(that is, zinc cases made up in the shape of books), 
sardine tins, oyster cans, coal oil cans and barrels, 
and many other receptacles, including trunks, are 
used to import liquor. The last mentioned, checked 
through as passenger's baggage, were much in vogue 
during the early part of the year, and in connection 
therewith a very plausible complaint was made to 
Ottawa of the high handed action of the police, which, 
however, the complainants, did not substantiate by 
avowing themselves the owners of the checks in 
question. Details of the several seizures made have 
been already reported periodically. I may safely 
say that the majority of the people living in the North- 
West do not respect and do not hesitate to break the 
prohibitory liquor law. It is the unceasing and 
faithful endeavour to enforce the provisions of this 
law, in the face of a rapidly increasing population, 
and much greater facilities for evading it, to which 
the police owe most of the adverse criticism to which 
they have been subjected. Men who were law- 
abiding citizens in the old provinces think it no crime 
to evade the liquor law, and do so on every opportunity. 
If such men are not caught, then the police come in 
for abuse from temperance quarters. If on the other 
hand, arrests are made, conviction becomes a con- 
ception, which eventually gives birth to most uns- 
paring abuse, not of the law, but of those whoso duty 
it is to enforce it." 

In his report at the end of 1.SS7, Commissioner 
Herchnier wrote: — "The enforcement of the North- 
West prohibitory law is more difficult than ever, the 
sympathy of many of the settlers being generally 
against us in this matter. Large <iuantities of licpior 
have been seized and spilt, but a great deal more 
illicit liquor has undoubtedly beyn used under the 



111 



cloak of the permit system. Liquor is run into the 
country in every conceivable manner, in -barrels of 
sugar, salt, and as ginger ale, and even in neatly cons- 
tructed imitation eggs, and respectable people, who 
otherwise are honest, will resort to every device to 
evade the liquor laws, and when caught they have 
generally the quantity covered by their permits. It 
is really curious the extraordinary length of time 
some holders of permits can keep their liquor. The 
permit system should be done away with in the first 
place if the law is to be enforced, and the law itself 
should be cleared of the technicalities that have 



end of that year, the Commissioner wrote: — "The 
liquor question is still in a very unsatisfactory con- 
dition, and while the importation of beer has, I think, 
lowered the demand for stronger liquor, the ruling 
of the court that liquor once admitted under permit 
can be held by anyone, and the fact that counterfoils 
of permits belonging to other people can protect 
liquor, almost completely kills the enforcement of 
the North-West Act, in spite of the efforts of the 
Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Territories 
to prevent the transfer of permits, and places the 
police in a most unfortunate position. In fact, as at 




" No COMPL.\lNTS." A Settler sigriing- a Policeman's Patrol Sheet. 
(From one oi a series of Pictures painted for the Dominion Department of Agriculture by Paul Wickson), 



enabled so many to escape punishment this last year. 
The importation and manufacture of a good article 
of lager beer, under stringent Inland Revenue regula- 
tions would, in my opinion greatly assist the satis- 
factory settlement of this vexed question. Nearly 
all the opprobrium that has been cast upon the Police 
generally, and my management in particular, can be 
directly traced to public sentiment on the attempt to 
enforce this law. " 

In 1889, the law was amended to permit of the 
importation of beer, and this relieved the situation^ 
somewhat, but not altogether. In his report at the 



present interpreted, it is impossible to enforce the Act. " 
It is not to be wondered at that the introduction of 
a license system was hailed with satisfaction in the 
Mounted Police, but there was a direct disadvantage 
therefrom too, for in his annual report at the end of 1892 
the Commissioner ascribed an increase of drunkenness 
in the force to the introduction of the License Act (2). 



(2) The crusade against illicit liquor in theold mis-called prohibition days 
was productive of drinking in some cases, the men occasionally obtaining 
possession of seized liquor. In one or more cases, bibilous policem ni 
made a practice of burying under the turf where the seized liquor was 
accustomed to be spilled, convenient recepticles, which were unearthed as 
soon as the officers' backs were turned after each spilling. 



112 



December 5, 1892, the Mounted Police again lost 
it« administrative head, Sir John J.J.C. Abbott re- 
signing and being succeeded as Premier by the Hon. 
Sir John Thompson. In the Thompson Cabinet, 
December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894, the Hon. 
W. B. Ives, as President of the Council, had the 
Mounted Police department under his charge. 

During the year 1892 a great increase in the settle- 
ment of the North-West was reported, particularly in 
the Edmonton district, which was filling up very 
rapidly, and as the crops had been good, a very large 
influx was expected the following year. Large 
numbers of settlers came in from the United States, 
particularly from Washington and Dakota, and all 
appeared quite satisfied with their prospects. 

The Mormons, who had established a settlement 
in Alberta, were increasing in numbers and importing 
a number of sheep. They were also preparing to 
irrigate their land in the near future. They, in 1892, 
supplied most of the butter and eggs used at Macleod 
and Lethbridge, and were, so far as the police could 
judge, good, law-abiding settlers. 

Every possible assistance was at this period rendered 
incoming settlers by the force, even as far as driving 
them over the most desirable districts for settlement, 
and they repeatedly expressed their appreciation of 
the services so freely rendered. All the new settle- 
ments were regularly visited by patrols, and each 
settler specifically asked to report in writing if he had 
any complaints or not. 

The steady extension of the active sphere of opera- 
tions of the Mounted Police northward took a marked 
-top forward in 1892. 

Early in the .season the advisability of establishing 
a permanent outpost at Cumberland House (wliich 
is situated about 220 miles below Prince Albert, on 
the Saskatchewan River") was considered. Supt. 
Cotton, commanding at Prince Albert, furnished the 
CommLs,sioner with a detailed rep>rt on the subject, 
the result being that a small detachment con.sisting 
of one non-commissioned officer and one constable, 
was stationed there in July. The establishment of 
this detachment embraced an imjx)rr.ant section of 
country not previously under police surveillance. 
One of the nio.st important duties devolving upon 
this detachment was the prevention of illicit licjuor 
being supplied to Indians. In Aiigust, the Com- 
missioner received a communication from R. Macfar- 
lane, Esq., chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, 

Cumberland district, in which he wrote: "During 

the past month, the party ({Kilice detachment) has 
been travelling witli .Mr. Agent Rearler on liis yearly 
annuity payment tour to the diflFerent Indian reserves 
of the Pas, Agency, Treaty No. 5. It is very satis- 



factory to be able to state that their presence had a 
most tranquilizing effect on the Indians, some of whom 
had on previous occasions made themselves anything 
but agreeable to their agent, and they certainly in- 
tended giving trouble this season, while it should be 
borne in mind that if the police had been absent, 
petty traders would probably have introduced liquor 
among the natives." 

A limited number of settlers moved into the Prince 
Albert district in 1892 and many delegates from the 
United States and the eastern provinces visited Prince 
Albert and the surrounding country with a view of 
making reports as to the quality of the land and the 
general prospects of intending settlers. In many 
cases the Dominion Immigration Department and 
the local Boards of Trade requested police assistance in 
driving such delegates from point to point. Whenever 
practicable, assistance was rendered. 

During the year 1893 the force lost by death 
three officers and four men, the heaviest death rate for 
many years. 

Assistant Surgeon Dodd, an officer of great medical 
experience, died very suddenly on the 1st of January, 
while in medical charge of Maple Creek. He was 
buried in the police cemetery at Regina. Inspector 
Piercy, an officer who served in the force for many 
years, both in the ranks, and afterwards as a com- 
missioned officer, died at Edmonton on the 13th of 
March, and was buried there. Inspector Huot, who 
had been in command at Duck Lake for several years, 
and who had been suffering for some time, died at 
Duck Lake on the 23rd of March. He was a great 
favourite with his comrades and very popular in his 
district, having always displayed great tact in dealing 
with the natives. He was buried at Prince Albert. 

On numerous occasions transport was placed at 
the disposal of agricultural delegates, who visited 
various sections of the territories this year. Upon one 
of these occasions the visitors were a party of Germans, 
■who arrived in Macleod in April, and who represented 
several hundred families, who had commissioned 
them to examine and report upon the North-West, 
with a view to settlement therein. These gentlemen 
visited Kootenay, Big Bend, Pincher Creek, and Stand 
Off. 

During 1894, the system of patrols carried out 
during the preceding few years was continued; the 
new settlements, particularly in the F'dmonton dis- 
trict, Ix'ing well looked after. The total withdrawal 
of all the detachments in Manitoba, early in the spring, 
place*! sufficient men and horses at the (\)mmission(>r's 
dis|M)sal to meet new responsibilities. The vigilance 
of these patrols continued to have a good effect, as 
very little serious crime had occurred in the Terri- 



113 



tories without detection. As usual, there was a total 
absence of train and highway robberies, so very pre- 
valent during this particular year on the other side 
of the boundary line. The deterrent effect of the 
Force in this direction was repeatedly noticed in the 
public press of Canada and the United States during 
the year. 

The most important capture made by the Mounted 
Police patrols in 1894 was that of three half-breeds, 
near Writing-on-Stone detachment, in the Lethbridge 



police into Canada under arrest, and consequently 
were not fugitives from justice under the Act. 

A reduction of the force having been determined 
upon, no recruits were engaged after the early part of 
the year, and only the very best of the time-expired 
men were re-engaged. Every opportunity was taken 
to keep the men up to the mark and the whole force 
was well drilled. 

His Excellency the Governor General, the Earl of 
Aberdeen, visited the Territories during the summer. 



Ins. Scarth Ins. G. Brown Supt. Belcher 

Ins. J. Constantine Supt. A. B. Perry 



Vet. -Surg. Burnett 
Ins. Strickland 




Officers of the N. W. M. P. on Duty at Regina 



Ins. Baker 



Commissioner Herchmer 



Ins. Irwin 



Asst.-Com. Mcllree 



Ins. C. Starnes 



Surgeon Bell 



district. These breeds were more or less implicated 
in the 1885 rebellion, and fled to the United States, 
taking up their residence, with some 40 others, in the 
Sweet Grass Hills, where they lived without work, 
killing, it is believed, a great many cattle. They 
were surprised in the act by Corporal Dickson, ar- 
rested and tried, but got off, as it was found by survey 
that the actual killing took place just over the line, 
in United States territory, and it was held that they 
could not be extradited, as they were brought by 



entailing the usual amount of additional escort and 
guard duties upon the force. His Excellency was 
pleased to express his satisfaction at the smartness 
and high state of discipline evinced by all ranks. 

In his annual report, this year, Supt. Steele, com- 
manding the Macleod district, commenting on the 
success of the Mounted Police in enforcing respect 
for the law, compared with the very generally ex- 
tended epidemic of lawlessness in some of the 
western States, wrote : — "To properly appreciate 



114 



this, one should take into consideration all the 
influences that usually bear against law and order 
and which are found in their most developed state in 
the western frontier settlements. In spite ot these 
drawbacks, it is a fact that there is no place in the 
Dominion where life and property are more respected 
than in the North-West Territories. The policy of 
establishing the means of obtaining law and order, 
l^efore settlement, has been most beneficial to the 
country at large, and makes 'vigilant committees,' 
'white cai)s' and 'lynching gangs' impossible. By 
such committees, gross injustices have, and always 
will l>e perpetrated, and many innocent i)ersons 
shot and hanged." 

During the summer, a detachment of the Mounted 
Police was sent north to the Athabasca River Country. 

December 12, 1894, the Thompson Ministry was 
dissolved by the sudden death of the Premier, the 
Hon. Sir John S.D. Thompson, at Windsor Castle. 
December 21, the Hon. Sir Mackenzie Bowell, formed 
his cabinet, and as Premier and President of the 
Council, was the administrative head of the Mounted 
Police Department until April 27, 1896, when he re- 
signed. During the short time he was at the head of 
the Department Sir Mackenzie showed a markedly 
intelligent and useful interest in the corps. 

The continued reduction of the force in the spring 
of 1895 necessitated the amalgamation of "D" antl 
"H" Divisions at Macleod, and "B" and the Deix)t 
Divisions at Regina, and the superannuation of two 
suf»erintendents and two inspectors. While this 
entailed considerable extra work on the officers re- 
maining, the work was performed satisfactorily. 

But very few men were recruited during the year. 
and a new system, of trying all recruits for two months 
Ijefore permanent enlistment, was instituted. 

Notwithstanding the very consirlerably reduced 
strength of the force, the patrols during 1895 were 
increased, and all the territory rec|uiring it was visited 
by them. Patrols this year called on all settlers on 
their route, taking particulars of any complaints they 
may have had, and making inquiries concerning sus- 
picious characters seen in the vicinity, whether any stray 
animals had been seen, and whether any animals 
were diseased. All along their route they rode through 
any herds of cattle, or bands of horses, and looked 
them over. They made inquiries re any breach of 
the fishery and game regulations, and any iWNsible 
evasions of the customs. All cami# of Indians were 
vi.«iteti, and inquiries made, and the Indian pas.ses 
examined, and, in the season, a sharp lookout was 
kept for prairie fires. This routine continues to Im« 
followed. 

The taking of the census in April, 1895, wa.-* en- 



trusted to the Mounted Police, and occasioned a house- 
to-house visit, which was very advantageous, as it 
brought all the settlers under the innnediate observa- 
tion of the police. The following was the result of 
the census as taken by the police, exclusive of Indians:- 

Assiniboia, 33,925 white, 867 half-breed. 34,843 
horses, 99.575 cattle, 76,864 sheep; Alln^rta, 26,185 
white people. 2,598 half-breed. 42.257 hoi-ses, 168,598 
cattle, 45,816 sheep; Sa.skatchewan, 5,763 white 
people, 4,168 half-breeds, 6,541 horses, 20,614 cattle, 
6.422 sheep. 

The Hon. Sir Mackenzie Bowell, Prime Minister, 
and responsible head of the Mounted Police Depart- 
ment, made an extended tour of the North-West 
during the summer, inspecting many of the chief 
jx)sts and detachments, and announceil himself well 
pleased with the efficiency and zeal of the force. 




Typical I'olii-f lamp on ihf Trail. 
(Sir Mackenzie Bowells parly cmampfU «l Onion I-«kc, 1895.) 

A detachment was jigain sent this summer, (1895) 
for duty on the Athabasca River to prevent li(Hior 
going in, withoiit fx'rmit, but an officer d'u\ not accom- 
pany it, the detachment InMug place<l under commnnd 
of StafT-Sergeant iletheringon who hati h«<l two years 
experience in the district. 

The advance rush of miners and prospcct<ir» to the 
Yukon gold mines attainjMl stich pro|.ortions thi« 
year that the government felt it whs time to provide 
for the :i.Hsertion of the Dominion authority there, 
and ihv establishment <»f law and order. In the 
North-West Moimtnl P«.lice then' was an instnunent 
ready to hand for the piir|K.se. and within a few wwks 
of the is.Huing of flie necesj«ary instruct ioiw, the o<lvance 
of the "Riilers of the Plains" mirthwnnl had U-en 
pushed well u|» towards the extreme n«.rth-w«-sf corner 
of the Domini«»nV great. ufiexplorc<l western reserve. 



115 



The Commissioner's instructions from the Comp- 
troller were to the effect that a party of twenty, in- 
cluding officers, was to be despatched to the Upper 
Yukon for duty there. Inspector Constantine, an 
officer of great determination and ability, who had 
been in the far north country the previous year, was 
selected to command, the other officers being Ins- 
pector Strickland and Assistant Surgeon Wills. All 
ranks were carefully selected for physique and fitness 
for the work. They left Seattle, Wash, by steamer, on 
the 5th of June, and arrived at their destination, Fort 
Cudahy, on the 24th July, some 4,800 miles, where, 
they lost no time in completing barracks. They got 
out all the timber some 60 miles up the river, ran it 
down, and conveyed it to the local saw mill, where they 
squared the timber to a convenient size; the slabs and 
boards thus obtained saving the necessity of purchasing 
very expensive lumber. The ground selected as the 
site had to be striped of moss before building on it, 
which involved a great deal of hard work as this 
accumulation of northern vegetation was about two 
feet thick and had to be thrown into the river. The 
buildings were of logs, squared, each log being 
dropped on a layer of moss, which being thus 
compressed as the building went up, became quite 
air-tight, the roofs being slabs, moss and earth. 

Great progress was reported as being made by the 
Indians during the year 1895. Although in some 
districts their crops were a failure, the means of earning 
money placed the industrious ones above want, even 
when there had been little hunting. With the ex- 
ception of the Bloods, Peigans, Sarcees and Blackfeet 
(and even these were then acquiring cattle) all re- 
serves in the territories had large bands of excellent 
cattle, the quality of which would compare more than 
favourably with those of their white neighbours. All 
the beef required in these bands for the sick and 
destitute, etc., had been purchased direct from the 
Indians themselves, and particularly in the north, a 
considerable number of steers had been sold to drovers, 
many of them for English markets. 

During the year, on two occasions, Indians fired 
at the police when attempting their arrest. In one 
case, "Night Gun," a Blood, who had been followed 
for several days by Corporal Carter, fired once, and 
attempted to fire a second time, rather than be arrested 
for horse stealing, and later in the year, " Almighty 
Voice, " a Cree, deliberately shot dead Sergeant Cole- 
brook near Kinistino, while attempting his arrest for 
cattle killing and breaking jail. These were the only 
two occasions on which Indians fired at the police at 
close quarters, but while attempting to arrest " Scraping 
High," a Blackfoot, for the murder of Mr. Skynner, 
ration issuer, to the reserve, the Indian fired frequently 



at both police and Indians before he was shot by a 
constable. It appears that this Indian had a child 
sick in the school conducted by the Rev. Mr. Tims, 
on the reserve, and on the child dying, after being 
taken home, he became more or less crazy, and after 
threatening several officials, finally shot Mr. Skynner, 
with whom he had some difficulty about obtaining 
beef for his sick child. 

July 13, 1890, the Hon. Sir Charles Tupper's govern- 
ment (formed May 1st, the same year) having been 
defeated at the polls, the Honourable Wilfrid Laurier 
formed his first cabinet, as President of the Council, 
taking under his personal charge the administration 
of the Mounted Police Department, which he still 
retains. Sir Wilfrid Laurier has always shown the 
same personal interest in and keen regard for the 
welfare of the North-West Mounted Police as were 
manifested by Sir John A. Macdonald, and the result 
has been most beneficial for the force as a whole and 
for the officers and men individually. 

During 1896 the force began to feel the crippling 
effects of the recent reduction in the establishment. 
At the end of the year there were 750 men on the 
pay roll, but 70 of these were Indians, half-breeds 
and white men who had been taken on as "^ specials". 

The reduction in numerical strength alone did not 
altogether represent the total reduced efficiency of 
the force, for in his report for the year the Commis- 
sioner wrote: — "The Force, generally, is not as well 
drilled as formerly, and while every opportunity has 
been taken, the police and other duties have been so 
arduous that it was impossible to find time to drill, 
and in many cases the detachments have only had 
arm drill and target practice, as we had no men avail- 
able to relieve them while they came to headquarters. 
This has had a bad eft'ect, and I have no hesitation in 
reporting that a lowering of our standard from a 
disciplinary point is imminent, and is impossible to 
avert, unless the men are well drilled, as continual 
detachment work is very trying to the best men." 

Inspector Constantine and his little garrison of 20 
men were reported to be doing good work in the Yukon. 
Some miners, in a camp of about 300, about eighty 
miles from the North-West Mounted Police post, 
undertook to run the settlement according to the 
miners' code, and when remonstrated with, declined 
to alter their proceedings. But immediately on the 
arrival of Inspector Strikland and ten Constables, 
they desisted from their high handed actions, and 
afterwards behaved remarkably well. 

On the 14th July, 1896, Interpreter Jerry Potts, died 
of consumption after 22 years of faithful service. He 
had joined the force at Fort Benton, in 1874, and 
guided the late Colonel Macleod's command from the 



116 



Sweet Grass Hills to where the first police post in the 
North-West was established, old Fort Macleod. From 
that time, for many years, there were few trips or 
expeditions that were not guided over the vast western 
plains by Jerry Potts, who, as a guide, had no equal 
in the North-West or Montana. Whether in the heat 
of summer or in the depth of winter, with him as 
guide all concerned were perfectly safe and quite 
certain that they would arrive safely at their destina- 
tion. His influence with the Indians was such that 
his presence on many occasions prevented bloodshed, 
and he could always be depended upon in cases of 
difficulty, danger, or emergency. 

The force also lost this year a splendid non-com- 
missioned officer in Reg. No. 857, Sergeant Wilde, 
who was shot dead in effecting the arrest of an Indian 
murderer named "Charcoal". Sergeant Wilde was 
in every respect one of the finest men who ever served 
in the force, brave to a degree, and most useful in 
every capacity. The citizens of Pincher Creek section, 
where he had been statioaed for several years, have 
erected a monument to his memory. Although in 
the prime of life. Sergeant Wilde had served seven 
years in the Royal Irish Dragoon Guards, three years 
in the 2nd Life Guards, and 14 years in the North- 
Wqst Mounted Police. 

With characteristic doggedness the Mounted Police 
kept on the trail of Sergeant Wilde's murderer until 
he was hunted down, and after a fair trial, "Charcoal" 
paid the penalty of his crime with his life, in the pre- 
sence of the chief of his tribe, in the precincts of Fort 
Macleod, March 16, 1897. 

1897 will always be memorable throughout the 
British Empire as "Jubilee Year," famous for the 
celebration of the sixtieth anniversary of the accession 
of Victoria the Good to the throne of Britain. In 
Ivondon, the Capital of the Empire, the main pageant 
— a magnificently regal affair — partook altogether 
of an Imperial character. It was a tremendous tri- 
bute rendered to the person of a dearly beloved sove- 
reign by the peoples of a proud, world-wide Empire 
whose unification, prosperity and Imperial pride had 
l)een largely the product of her beneficent reign. 
All of the widely scattered countries of the world 
which together form that wonderful fabric which we 
know BA the British Empire — the greatest empire the 
world has ever seen — were represented in the splendid 
pageants in London, by their leading statesmen and 
by representative detachments of their armed force, 
and, in fitting recognition of the distingui.shed services 
rendered by the force in extending and upholding 
the authority of the British law in the north-western 
fjuarter of North America, it was decided U) send a 
representative detachment of the North-West Mounted 



Police to London for the occasion, along with a strong 
contingent picked from the active Militia. The 
detachment consisted of one Superintendent, one 
Inspector, thirty non-commissioned officers and men 
and 27 horses. Sui:)erintendent Perry and Inspector 
Belcher were the officers selected, and the force and 
the Dominion had every reason to be proud of the 
detachment, their physique, appearance, discipline 
and drill being very generally admired, and they being 
considered by prominent officers quite equal to the 
best troops present. The horses, which suffered 
greatly on the passage over, were in very good con- 
dition on the day of the great procession. They were 
afterwards presented to the Imperial Government. 




Serjfeants of "C" Division, 1896. 
A Typicial Secton of " The Backbone of the Force." 

All the horses sent over were bred in the west and, 
with one exception, ranged the prairie until four years 
old. 

Shortly before the embarkation of this i)arty for 
England occurred the final stirring act of the "Al- 
mighty Voice" tragedy. 

Mention has been already made of the esca|x», late 
in the autumn of 1895. of a Cree Indian named "Al- 
mighty Voice" from the custody of the Mounted 
Police at Duck Lake. He was pursued and tracked 
for three days by Sergeant Colebrook, who had ar- 
rested him in the first place for cattle killing. On the 
morning of the fourth day the Sergeant and a half- 
breed scout named Dumont came upon him suddenly, 
he being acc()m|)anied by a 13-year old scpiaw with 
whom he had ('loped, and, rather than be captured, 
he deliberately shot S(Tgeani Colebrook dead. 

The death of Colebrook was as clearly a case of 
self-sacrifice on the altar of stern, manly duty as any 



117 



recorded in the pages of history. A bold bearing, 
amounting even to rashness, was, and is, always 
shown by the Mounted Police in their dealings with 
the Indians. The very rashness of their daring in 
the execution of duty has brought them, as if by 
miraculous intervention, safely out of many and many 
a tight hole. There was no such intervention in 
poor Colebrook's case, and he paid the penalty. 

Colebrook and the scout, riding hard on a hot 
trail, heard a gun shot nearby, and proceeded 
in the direction from which the shot came. A 
short distance brought the sergeant and his com- 
panion face to face with the outlaw, who had just 
shot a prairie chicken. "Almighty Voice" making 
some threats, Colebrook instructed his companion to 
tell the Cree that they had come to arrest him and 
that he must return at once to Duck Lake. 

Without hesitation came the Cree's reply: — "Tell 
him if he advances I will kill him." 

At once the half-breed brought his carbine to his 
shoulder and covered the Indian, but Colebrook 
promptly ordered him to desist. Their duty was to 
arrest the Indian, not to kill him. "Tell him to lay 
down his rifle," commanded the sergeant, as, without 
as much as undoing the holster of his revolver, 
he rode deUberately forward, right upon the muzzle of 
the Cree's aimed rifle. No Mounted Policeman 
had ever j-et desisted from the execution of his 
duty at the bidding of an armed Indian or any other 
man, and Colebrook had no intention of breaking that 
splendid tradition of the force. Really bad Indian 
as he was, "Almighty Voice" hesitated about taking 
the life of so chivalrous a man, and again warned him 
against advancing. But warning or no warning, life 
or death, the sergeant's duty was to advance, and a 
man does not serve long enough in the Mounted 
Police to win the three-barred chevron without ac- 
quiring a sense of duty fairly idolatrous in its intensity. 
It was not one of the days of miraculous interventions, 
the Indian pulled his trigger, and the bullet, true to 
its mark, pierced the Sergeant's heart. 

On poor Colebrook falling dead off his horse, the 
half-breed, who was of course not a member of the 
force, went off for assistance, and although Colebrook's 
comrades, disregarding sleepless nights and inclement 
weather, thoroughly patrolled the country for several 
weeks, it was impossible to recapture the Indian. 
The affair happened at a very bad season, as the 
Indians on the various reserves in the vicinity had 
just scattered out for their autumn hunt over a very 
large extent of broken country, and as all were more 
or less related to the murderer, it was very difficult to 
locate him. Two detachments, thoroughly outfitted 
for the winter, were placed out on either side of the 

1 



hunting grounds; and throughout the length and 
breadth of the great North-West, the red-coated 
comrades of Sergeant Colebrook, rode and drove and 
watched, in their untiring efforts to capture the murderer. 
Officers, non-commissioned officers and men were 
determined that they would not be baulked, but 
weeks lengthened into months, and still "Almighty 
Voice" retained his liberty. But the hunt was not 
abandoned. Not only had the law been flagrantly 
outraged, but the prestige of the force was at stake. 
Throughout the whole year 1896 frequent patrols 
were kept moving all over the country in which "Al- 
mighty Voice" was supposed to be in hiding, but 
although every effort was made to get information of 
the fugitive, nothing was heard of him, and neither 
Indians or half-breeds appeared to know anything 
about him. But still the work of scouring the coun- 
try in all directions was never for one moment relaxed. 
At length. May 27, 1897, word reached the Prince 
Albert Barracks, over the wire, that "Almighty 
Voice" had shot and wounded a half-breed named 
Napoleon Venne, while trying to recover a stolen horse. 
The bugler of "F" Division was soon sounding 
"boots and saddle, "and in an incredibly short 
time a small detachment under Inspector Allen 
was on the trail for the Miiniichinas Hills, seven- 
teen miles from Duck liake, where "Almighty 
Voice" had been located. All that evening and 
all the night the wiry troop horses were urged for- 
ward, time, even for the despatch of a hasty "snack" 
of supper, being begrudged. Early in the morning, 
from a little hill, three Indians were observed by the 
keen eyes of the police scampering into a small bluff. 
Clearly here was their quarry, and with some conn-ades. 
The detachment was hastily disposed to prevent 
escape from the bluff, and Allen proceeded towards 
the clump of poplars to reconnoitre, only to be dropped 
from his horse by a bullet through his right shoulder. 
As he lay in the long grass, still half-stunned by the 
shock of his wound, "Almighty Voice", kneeling 
at the edge of the bluff and covering him with his 
rifle, commanded him to throw him his cartridge belt. 
"If you don't," he added in Cree, "I will kill you". 
"Never" was the officer's prompt reply, for he realized 
that the Indian dare not rush out in the open to possess 
himself of the co vetted ammnunition. At that very 
moment, the watching policemen sighted "Almighty 
Voice" and opened fire on him, with such effect that 
he hurriedly sought cover in the foliage of the bluff. 
Friendly arms soon bore the wounded officer and 
Sergeant Raven, who had also been wounded, to 
safety, and an attempt was made to fire the bluff, but 
unsuccessfully. It was felt that there was no use 
risking life unnecessarily, but the outlaw and the 
18 



desperadoes with him, who tauntingly kept up a chorus 
of "eoyottes", had to }ye captured, or killed. It was 
"Blood for Blood'' now, for the slaying of Colebrook 
and the morning's events warranted the shooting of 
"Almighty Voice" and those leagued with him. After 
some desultory fighting, Corporal Hockin with a few 
constables and a couple of civilians, who had been 
attracted to the spot, made a gallant attempt to rush 
the bluff, with disastrous results, Corporal Hockin, 
Constable Kerr, and one of the civilians, Mr. Grundy, 
postmaster of Duck Lake, being killed. A party to 
recover the bodies was at once organized but only 
that of Hockin was taken back, the others being 
covered by the outlaws from a pit they had excavated 
in the ground. Shortly after this unfortunate rush 
Su|ierintendent Gagnon 'arrived from Prince Albert 




Assistant Commissioner J. H. Mcllree. 

with a small re-inforcement and a seven-pounder gun. 
A few rounds from the gun were fired at the esti- 
mated site of the rifle pit, after which Gagnon disposed 
his force so as to effectively prevent the escape of 
the Indians. During the night, which wa« very dark 
and cold, considerable desultory firing took place, 
the Indians firing out of the bluff and the sentries 
returning the fire. 

Karly on the morning of the 29th, a party of two 
officers, 24 non-commissioned officers and men, 13 
horses and one 9-poimder field gtin left Rcgina by 
8i)ecial train for the scene of operations. A.ssistant 
C«mmi.ssioncr Mcllree commanded, the other officer 
being iTispector Macdonell. Duck I^ke, now a railroad 
station, but which seemed so far away in 1885, was 
reached at 4.5() P.M. and the scene of action at 10 P.M. 

1 



"Almighty Voice" was still defiant, and about mid- 
night called out in Cree:" Brothers, we've had a good 
fight to-day. We've worked hard and are lunigry. 
You've plenty of grub; send us in some. To-morrow 
we'll finish the fight". 

When morning broke, there were many spectators, 
including numerous half-breeds and Indians. Among 
the latter was the old mother of "Almighty Voice", 
who intoned a weird death song, recounting her son's 
deeds and predicting that he would die like an Indian 
brave, killing many more of the police before he fell. 
But he didn't. 

Early in the morning the men surrounding the bluff 
at close range were withdrawn and a wider circle of 
mounted men established. Then the two guns sys- 
tematically shelled the bluff, and the Assistant 
Commissioner led a rush through it. "Almighty 
Voice" and one of his companions "Little Salteaux" 
had been killed by shell splinters in their rifle pit, the 
third Indian, "Doubling," having met death from a 
rifle bullet through his brain. 

And so, after many days. Sergeant Colebrook 's death 
had been avenged and the supremacy of the law in 
the North- West once more asserted. And probably 
serious trouble with the Indians was averted by the 
termination of the incident, for the trouble with 
"Almighty Voice" was much talked over among all 
the Indians, treaty and non-treaty. The result was 
not apparent in any overt act on the part of the 
Indians, but had the swaggering outlaw remained 
much longer at liberty, it would undoubtedly have 
unsettled all the Indians in the country. 

Meantime the rush to the Yukon had attained such 
proportions that (he force there was gradually aug- 
mented, and at the end of 1897 consisted of eight 
officers and eighty-eight men, including dog drivers, 
all of whom were under the direct command of the 
Administrator of the district, the responsibility of 
the Commissioner ending as soon as the officers and 
men drafted from the force in the North-Wc»t landed at 
Skagway. The best men were invariably .selected 
for this duty, and great care wius taken in .seeing that 
all were carefully examined by the doctors Ix'fore 
starting. In addition to their [x)ssessing physical 
strength and endurance, it was required that they 
should have good characters and be good travellers 
and handy men. 

At the date mentioned there were only 670 of all 
ranks on the pay roll of the force altogether, including 
ninety specials employed as dog drivers, cooks, 
artisans, etc. 

Besides the service in the Yukon there were parties 
out this year oji duty in the hitherto unknown regions 
north of the S!iskatchcwan,and in view of the immc- 
19 



diate necessity for police in the Peace River and 
Athabasca countries, the Commissioner requested an 
increase of strength of 100 men, which was acceded 
to. 

The far northern service of the force had come to 
be so important and was so rapidh' extended that 
the supply of dog teams became a matter of anxiety 
and negotiation, and in his report for the year 1897, 
after referring as usual to the supply of horse flesh 
for the force, the Commissioner wrote — 

"Great difficulty was experienced in getting suitable 
dogs for the Yukon and northern patrols, and to 
enable us to get 130 good dogs we had to buy some 




Assistant Commissioner Z. T. Wood, Commanding R.N.W.M.P. 
in the Yukon. 



15 inferior ones. Seventy-eight dogs have already 
gone to Skagway, about 35 will follow at once, and 
the remainder are being used on the northern patrols. 
Inspector Moodie purchased 33 dogs at Lesser Slave 
Lake Ts-aid to be very good ones) for his trip t(» Pellv 
Banks". 

The following year the department purchased 150 
team dogs in Labrador, for use in the Yukon service 
and the northern patrols. 

The extent and importance of the duties of the 
Mounted Police in the Yukon increased so rapidly 
that at the end of 1898 there were 2 superintendents, 



8 inspectors, 2 assistant surgeons, and 254 non- 
commissioned officers and men doing duty in that 
district. The officers were as follows: — 

Superintendent S. B. Steele, in command; Super- 
intendent Z. T. Wood, commanding Tagish district; 
Inspector Primose at Bennett; Inspector Starnes at 
Dawson, acting quarter-master and paymaster; In- 
spector Harper at Dawson, sheriff; Inspector Scarth, 
at Dawson; Inspector Strickland at Tagish; In- 
spector Jarvis at Tagish; Inspector Belcher at 
Dawson, in charge of the Town Station; Inspector 
Cartwright at White Pass Post; Assistant Surgeon 
Fraser at the Dalton Trail Post; Assistant Surgeon 
Thompson, at Dawson. 

Superintendent Steele reporting on these officers, 
wrote : — 

"I have had their cordial support and they are 
hardworking, capable and highly respected throughout 
the country. Superintendent Wood, was, on 1st of 
July, 1898, promoted to his present rank, and given 
command of the Tagish district, which is very im- 
portant". 

Superintendent Steele was in command of the Mac 
leod district, North-West Territories, until 30th 
January, 1898. On that date he received a telegram 
from the Commissioner, directing him to leave by the 
first train to Vancouver for Yukon duty, written 
instructions to be received at that place from the 
Honourable the Minister of the Interior. He left 
Macleod on the 30th January and arrived at Van- 
couver about 1 p.m. on the 31st. On his arrival he 
received a mail from Victoria by Superintendent 
Perry, which contained his instructions from the 
Minister. 

He arrived at Skagway on the 14th February, and 
found that Inspector Wood, who was in charge of 
the office of the Commissioner of the Y^ukon at that 
place, had left for Little Salmon River, to place 
accounts before the Commissioner for certification. 

Supt. Perry, who was in the Yukon on temporary 
duty, had left on the 10th for Bennett, via the White 
Pass, had sent Inspector Belcher and party to the 
Chilcoot summit by Dyea to establish and take com- 
mand of a customs' post at that place. Superintendent 
Perr}^ returned to Skagway on the 16th from Bennett 
by the Chilcoot and Dyea, and informed Supt. Steele 
that the posts on the White and Chilcoot Passes had 
been established. Inspector Strickland in charge 
of the White, and Inspector Belcher of the Chilcoot, 
had been provisioned for six months. 

At this time there were many thousands of people 
living at a place called "Sheep Camp" some distance 
from the summit, in United States Territory. Most 
were engaged in packing their supplies to the summit, 



120 



all were apparently anxious to get through. Chiefly 
owing to the fact that neither law nor order prevailed 
in that section, murder, robbery and petty theft were 
of common occurrence, the "shell game" coidd be 
Seen at every turn of the trail, oj)eratioi>.s being pushed 
with the utmost vigour, so as not to lose the golden 
opportunity which they would be unable to find to 
take advantage of on the other side of the line, in 
British Territory. 

Many important events took place in the Yukon 
during the year. The officers in charge of the sum- 
mits displayed great ability, using great firmness 
and tact, and were loyally supported by the non- 
commissioned officers and constables under their 
command, who, under circumstances of the most 
trying character, displayed the greatest fortitude and 
endurance, amidst the terrific snow storms which 
raged round their respective camps. 

Large numbers of people were packing and hauling 
their supplies over the passes at this time, the rush 
of the Yukon being at its height, and the police office 
at Skagway, maintained in the United States town 
for the purpose of assisting in forwarding supplies 
through to Canadian territory, and to afford informa- 
tion to prospectors and others passing that way, was 
besieged at all hours of the day and night by people 
seeking information. 

The town of Skagway at this time, and for some 
months later, was little better than a hell upon earth. 
The desperado commonly called "Soapy Smith" and 
a numerous gang of ruffians ran the tow-n. Murder 
and robber}' were of daily occurrence, hundreds came 
there with plenty of money, and the next morning 
had not sufficient to buy a meal, having been robbed 
or cheated out of their money. Men were seen 
frequently exchanging shots in the streets. On one 
occasion, half a dozen in the vicinity and around the 
\orth-West Mounted Police offices, were firing upon 
one another, bullets passing through the buildings. 
There was a United States deputy marshall at Skag- 
way at this time for the purpose of maintaining law 
and order, but no protection was expected from him. 

In his first rcix)rt from Dawson, Superintendent 
Steele wrote: — "Prior to my taking command at 
Dav.s<jn, Stiperintendent Const antine was .several 
years in charge of the Ncrth-West Mounted Police 
at Forty Mile and here. The work done and the 
reputation of the force gained during that time must 
l)e considered most satisfactory to him jmrticularly 
and to the force in general. 

" Inspector Starnes. who is now performing the 
duties of quarter master and paymaster, commamled 
the district from the time SiUMTintendent Cons- 
tantinc left, tuitil my arrival in September. 



"The great rush to this place through the passes, 
filling the town and vicinity with large numbers of 
men of many nationalities, many difficult matters had 
to be settled, disputes adjusted, law and order main- 
tained. In my opinion the work was done well." 

Inspector Moodie, who left Edmonton in August, 
1897, to reach the Yukon by the Pelly Banks, his 
instructions being to explore the Edmonton-Yukon 
route, arrived with his party at Selkirk on the 24th 
of October, 1898, after a great many hardships. 

Consequent upon the discovery of gold in the Yukon 
district, the judicial district of Yukon was established 




Inspector Robert Belcher, C.M.G. 

by Governor General's proclamation in 1897. The 
district was separated from the other provisional 
districts of the North-West, and constituted a separate 
territory by Act of the Canadian Parliament in 1898, 
l^eing supplied with all the machinery required to 
enable their own local affairs, through a Commissioner 
and Council of six apiminted by the Governor General 
in Coimcil. In 1899, provision was made for tlu; 
election of two representatives on the Council by the 
fjeople. 

In 1898, owing to the large number of prospectors 
endeavouring to reach the Yukon by the Mackenzie 



121 



River, the northern patrol which started in De- 
cember '97, went as far as Fort Simpson, carrying 
mail, and interviewing all the travellers en route. 
The consideration of the Government in sending this 




Fort Graham, B.C. H. B. Co. Post. 

N.W.M.P. Pack Train preparing: to start for Sylvester's 

Landing on Dease River, July, 1898. 

(From a photograph loaned by the Comptroller). 

patrol was very much appreciated, as it enabled the 
prospectors, not only to receive long expected letters 
from their friends, but also afforded means, on the 
return trip of Inspector Routledge, of acquainting 
the friends of the men met on the trail of their progress 
and welfare. 

While the patrol was in the vicinity of Fort Smith, 
two hunters were arrested and punished for killing 
wood Vniffalo, and the example made was the means 
of preserving these animals, as hunters were all 
thereby made aware of their being preserved. 

A number of the parties, who started overland for 
the Yukon, quarrelled among themselves on arrival at 
Peace River, and by mutual consent, the police were 
requested to act as arbitrators, which they did, in all 
cases to the satisfaction of all parties, and this prevented 
bad blood, and possibly outrage. 

On account of the increased establishment, 191 
probationers were taken on the force during 1898, 
out of which number 138 were finally accepted as 
members of the Force. 

At the end of the year there were 830 of all ranks 
on the strength, including the Yukon. 

During 1898, large numbers of settlers took up land 
in comparatively unexploited districts. The new set- 
tlers were chiefly Galicians, although a number of 
Americans and repatriated Canadians also settled in the 
west. The Galicians located about Egg Lake, near Fort 
Saskatchewan, Fish ('reek, nearRosthern, and South of 



Yorkton, all in good country. These settlers generally 
did well, considering the very small means some of 
them had on arrival. 

Many of the best men, at this time, were being sent 
out to the Yukon and the northern patrols, and the 
standard of the force seemed to deteriorate for a time. 

During several years, very little training beyond 
spring setting up and recruit drill could be done, all 
ranks being so fully employed in police duties, l^ut 
a good class of recruits offered, and at the end of 1899, 
Commissioner Herchmer reported that the standard 
of physique was much better. As to discipline, he 
reported that it, during the year, had been of a very 
high order, and the men could be trusted anywhere 
without supervision. The large number of men sent 
to the Yukon left the officers with many very young 
and inexperienced constables to police the country, 
but the Commissioner was proud to report that, 
although in many instances the men were far away 
from immediate control, the duties were well done 
and the prestige of the force fully maintained. 

The annual winter patrol to the north in 1899, only 
went as far as Fort Resolution, returning by Peace 
River and Lesser Slave Lake. 

Superintendent A. Bowen Perry assumed command 
of the North-West Mounted Police in Yukon Territory, 
on September 26, 1899, relieving Superintendent S. 
B. Steele, who vacated the command on that date. 
The following officers were serving in the Yukon 
Territory at the end of the year 1899: — 

Supt. A. B. Perry, commanding Territory. 

"H" Division, Tagish. — Superintendent Z. T. Wood, 
commanding division. Inspector D'Arcy Strickland, 
Inspector W. H. Routledge, Insjjector A. M. Jarvis, 
Assistant Surgeon S. M. Fraser. Assistant Surgeon L. 
A. Pare, Assistant Surgeon J. Madore. 



ToU 



— "^ r 



..>v' •/>.;». ^m 



'^W^i:-:.., 




N.W.M.P. Detachment, Farwell, 1899. 



122 



•'B" Division, Dawson. — Supt. P. C. H. Primose, 
commanding division, Inspector C. Starnes, Inspector 
W. H. Scarth, Inspector P. I. Cartwright, Assistant 
Surgeon W. E. Thompson.- -Total number of officers, 
13. 

Inspector Harper and Belcher returned from the 
Yukon to the North-West Territories for duty during 
the year. 

The completion of the railway over the White Pass 
to Lake Bennett, the headquarters of navigation of 
the Yukon River, solved the problem of sure and 
speedy communication to the gold fields during the 
season of navigation. The earliest date on which 
a boat which had connected with ocean steamers 
from Sound ports ever arrived at Dawson from St. 
Michaels', was the middle of July. During the season 
of 1899, boats arrived at Dawson from Lower La Barge, 
in the middle of May, and navigation of the upper 
river continued until the middle of October. 

A conservative estimate of the population of the 
Yukon Territory, in 1899, placed it at 20,000. Nearly 
all were men, there being very few women and children 
in comparison. However, this was then changing 
rapidly, and many men were taking in their wives 
and families, finding that the social conditions and a 
climate though vigorous, still very healthy, were not 
inimical to their comfort and health. 

At the request of the postma.ster general, the duty 
of carrying the mail during the winter of 1898-99, was 



undertaken by the police, and a very satisfactory 
service was given. In performing this service, the 
men employed travelled 64.012 miles with dog teams. 
Superintendent Perry recommended that the sum of 
S9,601.80 be distributed among the men as extra pay 
for this service; the distribution to be made according 
to the number of miles travelled by each man. 

The force in the Yukon at the end of 1899, was 
distributed at two division headquarter posts and 
thirty detachments, from the Strickine River to Forty 
Mile, a distance of 800 miles. 

The record of the Mounted Police in the Yukon 
had, up to this date, been as remarkable as that of the 
force in the old North- West Territories. Lawlessness 
had been suppressed with a firm hand, and law and 
order established. Life and property were as safe 
in the Yukon as in the City of Ottawa. 

Truly the usefulness of the Mounted Police 
to the Dominion of Canada had been abundantly 
demonstrated in a steadily widening theatre of o|x?ra- 
tions between the date of the organization of the 
force, and the year 1900. And officers and men of the 
force were about to prove, by gallant service on the 
veldts and kopjes of South Africa, that they were 
capable and ready to {x^rform as useful work for the 
P^mpire as they had, for a ([uarter of a century, hvon 
doing for that Empire's premier colony over the 
prairies and mountains of Canada's far west. 




Commanding Officers' Quarters and Offiier»' Mess 
TaKi!s»i (Yukon) Post, R.N.W.M.P. 



123 




CHAPTER XI 

UNDER THE PRESENT COMMISSIONER 



Handsome and Useful Contributions of the N.W.M.F. Towards the Armies Fighting the Battles 
OF THE Empire in South Africa. — The Victoria Cross. — Great Extension of the Work of the 
Force in The Yukon and the Far North. — The Memorable Visit of the Duke and Duchess of 
Cornwall and York, and the Conferring upon the Force of the Distinction "Roial". — The 
Earl of Mtnto Honorary Commissioner. — Vice-Regal Vsits. — The Inauguration of The New 
Provinces. — The Hudson Bay Detachments. — Something About the Force as it is To-day, and 
THE Work it is Doing. 



THE transfer of the Commissiouership from Lieut. 
Col. Lawrence W. Herchmer to Superintendent 
A. Bo wen Perry, and the large contributions 
made by the force to the Canadian Contingents in 
South Africa combine to make the year 1900 a 
memorable one in the annals of the Royal North- West 
Mounted Police. 

Superintendent Perrj^ was promoted Commissioner 
vice Lieut. -Col. Herchmer retired, August 1st, and 
assumed the command on August 18. 

The new Commissioner is a graduate of the Royal 
Military College, Kingston, (1) a member of the first- 
class, that graduating in 1880, in fact. After gradua- 
ting from the R.M.C., and before being appointed to the 
N.W.M.P., the Commissioner served for several years 
with distinction in the Royal Engineers, he having won 
a commission in that corps upon graduation from the 
Royal Military College. 

(1) The Royal Military O-llege, established by Act of the Parliament of 
Canada, was opened in 1876, with the special object of providing the def en- 
five forces of the Dominion with a staff of thoroughly trained and educated 
officers and has been an unqualified success from the start, its classes having 
been always well attended. The success of the system of education adopted 
is attested by the large number of brilliant officers the college has contributed 
to the British regular Army, to the Canadian Active Militia, and the Royal 
North-West Mounted Police, not U> speak of the hundreds of eminent en- 
gineers and others engaged in civil occupations, who claim the "R.M.C." as 
their alma mater. As a general practice, although there is no hard and fast 



At the time Commissioner Peny assumed command, 
affairs within the Mounted Police were in a decidedly 
unsettled state owing to the then recent heavy drafts 
therefrom of officers, men and horses for service with 
the Canadian Contingents for South Africa. 

The first contingent despatched by Canada to South 
Africa, which sailed from Quebec, October 30, 1899, at 
the special request of the British Government con- 
sisted wholly of infantry, and thereto the North-West 
Mounted Police made no contributions of officers or 
men directly, although several former non-commissioned 
officers and constables of the force enlisted. 

The units to which the N.W.M.P. contributed 
directly were the 2nd Battalion Canadian Mounted 
Rifles, which sailed from Halifax for Cape Town on the 
"Pomeranian," January 27, 1900; Lord Strathcona's 
Corps, which embarked at Halifax on the SS. "Mon- 
terey," March 16, 1900; Canadian contingent to the 

rule to that effect, about one-third the commissions in the R.N.W.M.P. are 
awarded to graduates of the R.M.C, the others in succession being allotted 
in about equal proportions to exceptionally qualified officers of the Active 
Militia and to non-commissioned officers, who have performed distinguished 
and meritorious service in the force. The officers the Royal Military 
College has contributed to the R.N.W.M.P., have always been distinguished 
not merely by their exceptional technical knowledge of the military branches 
of the work in the force, but by great zeal in the discharge of their mis- 
cellaneous duties, and exceptional success in the handling of the men en- 
trusted to their charge. 



124 



South African Constabulary, sailed during the spring 
of 1901; the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th "Regiments" of 
Canadian Mounted Rifles (generally known as the 
Third Contingent) which sailed from Canada in May, 
1902, and returned in July the same year, hostilities 
having in the meantime been brought to a conclusion. 
The N.W.M.P, had the honor of supplying for the 
Boer war, no less than 18 officers, and 160 non-com- 
missioned officers and men, distributed as follows: — 
2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, 11 officers and 134 men: 
Strathcona Horse, 7 officers and 26 men. A consider- 
able number of e\-officers and men were in both corps. 




A. Bowen Perry, Fifth, and Present, Commissioner. 

All of the chief non-commissioned officers of Ijoth units 
were active or former meml>ers of the force, and in fact 
the influence of the Mounted Police was so dominant 
in Ixith corps that they may almost be regarded as 
the special contributions of the force to the armies 
carr\'ing on the fight for Empire in South Africa. 

Officers and men, upon being allowed to accejjt serx'ice 
in the various iniit«, were granted leave of ab.sonce from 
the .Mounted Police, the time serving in Soutli Africa 
being counted as service with the force. 

For the "Third Contingent" five officers and men 
were grantJ'fl twelve months leave for the puriK)se of 



joining it and the following commissions were granted 
to members of the force, who, with one exception, had 
already served in South Africa:— Insp. Moodie, Captain; 
Insp. Demers. Lieutenant; Sergt. Maj. Richards, 
Lieutenant; Sergt. Maj. Church, Adjutant. Sergt. 
Hynes, was appointed Regtl. Sergeant Major. 

There were a great number of volunteers, and had the 
Government thought it wise to organize a battalion of 
N.W.M. Police, the Cimnnissioner did not doubt but 
that the force could have been easily increased to 1,000 
men by ex-members rejoining for the campaign. 

The recruiting in the Territories for the last con- 
tingent was done by the commanding officers of the 
different posts, 

The force contributed to the South African Con- 
stabulary four officers and thirty-eight N.C.O's. and 
constables. Supt. Steele, C.B., M.\'.0.. was apix)inteti 
a Colonel in the S.A.C. and was allowed twelve months 
leave in order to take up the appointment. Inspector 
Scarth was appointed captain in the S.A.C. and granted 
six months leave. Constables Ermatinger and French 
were given commissions as lieutenants. The N.C.O's. 
and constables transferring from the N.W.M.P. to the 
S.A. Constabulary were granted free discharge. 

The total contribution to the South ,\frican war by 
the N.W.M.P. was 245, all ranks. No other permanent 
corps in the Empire was called upon to make such 
proportionate sacrifices, but as a corps, more's the 
pity, it reaped no reward. 

The Second Battalion of the Canadian Mounted 
Rifles, raised under authority of a Militia Order of 
December, 1899, was recruited under the special direc- 
tion of the Commissioner of the North-West Mounted 
Police. As about one-third of the 750 men of the 
North-West Mounted Police were on s|x;cial duty in 
the Yukon distriet. it was impossil)le to think of re- 
cruiting the whole battalion from the active list of the 
force, so the Commissioner was authorized to accept as 
many of the non-coinmi.«sioned officers and constables 
as could be s|)ared, and to fill up to the auth()rized 
establishment with ex-policcmen and others when he 
and his recruiting officers considered (puilified to serve 
in the battalion. Pay was fixed at the rates prevailing 
in the Mounted Police. All the posts of the North- 
West Mounted Police were constituted recruiting 
stations. The officers of the battalion, who were given 
rank in the Active Militia, '"Nvere as follows : — 

Commatuling Ofliccr, Herchmer. Lieut.-Col. L. W. 



(a) n will linvr lirni ciI)mtvc<I thni on nrcciiinl nf ihp ilrairn to inninlnin 
the ilintinrtiiiii Im-Iwih-ii the rivil kIiiIuk nf tin- N. W.M. I*, and tlif niililnry 
ttljifiiK of the Mililin urunnixnlionn. tlii* <ifljc«Tj< of tlio furrc litivo not Immmi 
KJvcn niilitnry rmnk a«i rolondx, innjorx, rniilninw. rti-., nml tlin niililnry 
fill«'<« lifM by ninny offirrrtt hnvr limMi K'linnl l>y lliein on niilitnry "MTvirr 
|in'vi<uiJ< to npiiointnipnt to flu- Moiin(i'<l rolicc or conft-rn'fl upon llioiii 
while wrvinK with the Active Militia or regular army. 



125 



(Commissioner N.W.M.P.); "C" Squadron,— Com- 
manding Squadron, Howe, Major J. (Superintendent 
N.W.M.P.) ; Captain, Macdonell, A.C. (Inspector N.W. 
M.P.); Lieutenants, 1st Troop: Moodie, J. D. (In- 
spector N.W.M.P.); 2nd Troop: Begin, J. V. (In- 
spector X.W.M.P.); 3rd Troop: Wroughton, T. A. 
(Inspector N.W.M.P.); 4th Troop: Inglis, W.M. (late 
Capt. Berkshire Regt.) ; " D " Squadron — Commanding 
Squadron, Sanders, Major G. E. (Superintendent N.W. 
M.P.)„ Graduate R.M.C.; Captain, Cuthbert, A. E. R. 
(Inspector N.W.M.P.) ; Lieutenants, 1st Troop: David- 
son, H. J. A. (Inspector N.W.M.P.) ; 2nd Troop: 
Chalmers, T. W. (formerly Lieut. M.G.A., later Inspec- 
tor N.W.M.P.), Graduate R.M.C.; 3rd Troop: 




Superintendent J. D. Moodie. 

Taylor, J. (Lieutenant Manitoba Dragoons); 4th 
Troop: Cosby, F. L. (Inspector N.W.M.P.); Ma- 
chine Gun Section, Bliss, D. C. F. (Major Reserve of 
Officers); Howard, A. L. (Lieut. Unattached List); 
Adjutant, Baker, Capt. M. (Inspector N.W.M.P.) ; 
Quartermaster, Allan, Capt. J. B. (Inspector N.W.M.P.) ; 
Medical Officer, Devine, J. A. (Surgeon-Lieut. 90th 
Battalion) ; Transport Officer, Eustace, Lieut. R. W. B. ; 
Veterinary Officer, Riddell, Vet.-Lieut. R. 

It will be observed that with very few exceptions 
all the officers were active or retired officers of the 
North- Wast Mounted Police. 



For a time, at the front, the battalion chanced to 
serve under Major General Hutton, who had been some 
years previously communicated with, with the object of 
securing his services as Commissioner of the N.W.M.P. 

Here is a sample incident which gives some sort of 
an idea of the service performed by the 2nd Battalion 
of the Canadian Mounted Rifles and which also shows 
that the officers and men of the Mounted Police dis- 
played in South Africa the same cool courage and de- 
votion which have crowded the annals of the service 
of the force on the North- West prairies with so much 
that is honorable and glorious : — 

November 1st, 1900, a column, under General Smith 
Dorion, moved south from Belfast toward the Komati 
River. Sixty men of the 2nd C.M.R., the second day 
of the march formed the advanced guard under Major 
Sanders. The guide took a wrong direction, and 
when they came in touch with the enemy the main 
column had branched off to the right and was nearly 
two miles away. Expecting early assistance, the small 
force, although in a most critical and dangerous posi- 
tion, held its groimd under severe rifle fire. After some 
time, orders were received from the G.O.C., who had 
received news of the situation, for a retirement. The 
small party in the extreme advance was commanded 
by Lieutenant Chalmers, and he skillfully fell back 
upon his supports, the retirement subsequently being 
steadily parried out by successive groups. Meantime, 
the whole party was being subjected to a galling rifle 
fire. Corporal Schell's horse was killed, and the animal 
falling on his rider, seriously injured him, whereupon 
Sergeant Tryon dismounted and helped the injured 
man on to the back of his own mount, continuing him- 
self on foot. Noticing this. Major Sanders rode to 
the assistance of Tryon, and was in the act of taking 
him up in front of him, when the saddle turned, and 
both were thrown. Major Sanders, partially stunned 
by the fall, was making for cover when stricken to the 
ground by a bullet. Ijieutenant Chalmers immediately 
preceeded to the assistance of his superior officer, and 
being unable to remove him, was riding to the firing 
line for assistance when shot through the body, dying a 
few minutes later. 

On September 5, a detachment of 125 men of the 
Second Battalion which was guarding the raihvay 
between Pan and Wonderfontein, east of Middlcburg, 
was attacked by a force of Boers with two field pieces 
and one pom-pom. Colonel Mahon was sent to their 
assistance, but before he arrived the Canadians had 
beaten the Boers off after a sharp fight in which Major 
Sanders, Lieutenant Moodie and two men were 
wounded and six men captured. Lord Roberts charac- 
terized this exploit as "a very creditable perform- 
ance. " 



126 



January 13, 1900, the »Secrctary of State for War, 
accepted the offer made by Lord Strathcona and Mount 
Royal, two days previously, to equip and land at Cape 
Town, at his own expense, 500 rough riders from the 
Canadian Xorth-West as a special service corps of 
mounted rifles. The Dominion GovernmMit undertook 
the work of organizing and equipping this regiment, 
and on February 1st, authority for the enlistment was 
granted. The force was enrolled at twenty-three 
points between Winnipeg and Victoria. Any man 
experienced in horsemanship and rifle shooting was 
eligible, but the preference was given to former mem- 
bers of the North- West Mounted Police and the mounted 



(Major SthRoyal Scots) ;Cartwright, F. L., (N.W.M.P.); 
Lieutenants, Magee, R. H. B., Graduate R.M.C.; 
Harper, F., (N.W.M.P.); Benyon, J. A., (Captain 
Royal Canadian Artillery); Mackie, E. F., (Captain 
90th Winnipeg Rifles); Fall, P., (2nd Lieut. Manitoba 
Dragoons); White-Fraser, M. H., (Ex-Inspector N.W. 
M.P.); Ketchen, H. D. B.. (N.W.M.P.); Macdonald, 
J. F., (Captain 37th Haldimand Rifles); Leckie, J. E., 
(Graduate R.M.C.) ; Courtney, R. M.. (Captain 1st 
P.W.R.F., Graduate R.M.C); Poolcy, T. E., (Captain 
5th Reg't., C.A.); Christie. A. E.; Strange, A. W.; 
Laidlaw, G. E., (Graduate R.M.C.) ; Kirkpatrick. G. H.. 
(Graduate R.M.C); Tobin. S. H.. (Graduate R.M.C); 




THt OfFREKS ANU tltlUON.S OF Strathcona's Hoksf.. 

standing— 1.1. Magee, Lt. Laidlaw, Lt. Christie, Capt. McDonalU. Capt. Harper, Lt. Tokin, Lt. Snider, Or. Kocnan, Lt. Parker, 
Lt. Courtney, Lt. Strange, Lt. Ketchen, Lt. Poolcy. Lt. Tcallc, Adj. Mackie. 

Sitting— CApt. Howard, Capt. Cartright, Maj. Snyder, Lt.-Col. Steele, Maj. Belcher. Maj. Jart-is, Miy. Laurie, Capt, Cameron. 

iwrmanent corps of Militia. Pay of officers and men Quartermaster, Parker, W.; TransiK)rt Officer, Snider, 



was again fixed at the rates prevailing in the North 
West Mounted Police. The command was given to 
Superintendent Steele, and eight of the other most im- 
portant commi.ssions were given to officers of the 
force. The complete list of officers of Strathcona's 
Horse, who were commi-ssioned as officers of the British 
Army, was as follows: — 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Steele, Lieut.-Col. S. B., (N.W. 
M.P.); Second in Command, Belcher, Major R. (N.W. 
M.P.): Majors, Snyder, A. E., (N.W.M.P.); Jarvis, 
A. M., (X.W.M.P.); Laurie, R. C, (Graduate R.M.C); 
Captains. Howard. I). .M., (N.W.M.P.); Cameron, G.W. 



I. B., (2nd Lieut. Manitoba Dragoons); .Medical Officer, 
Keenan, C B., (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal); 
Veterinary Officer, Stevenson, G. P. 

The rank and file numbered 512 and were recruited 
over a territory of over 1,(KH),(KK) .square miles in ex- 
tent. Some men had actually to travel 6(K) miles on 
the ice of the Yukon River to enlist, and others came 
for the purfiose from the Peace River district. 

Strathcona's Horse was the hist body of Canadian 
troops, which was luider fire, to leave Africa. Und(?r 
General HuMer they took part in the brilliant cam- 
paign in the north of and Iwyond Natal, taking part in 



127 



the capture of Ameispoort, Erniele, Carolina, Macha- 
dadorp, Lvdenburg, Spitz Hop, and Pilgrim's Rest. 
Returning to Machadadorp on October 7th, they re- 
ceived instructions to turn their horses over to the 
Imperial cavalry and entrain for Pretoria. It was 
supposed to be the intention to send them home then, 
but on October 20th, they were rehorsed at Pretoria 
and sent to assist in the movement destined to open the 
railway to Potchefstroom. In these operations they 
greatly distinguished themselves, particularly while 
acting as advance guard November 10. The Strath- 




Major A. E. Snyder, Strathcona's Horse. 

conas afterwards joined the force under General Knox 
in his strenuous pursuit of DeWet. 

Several retired members of the force served through- 
out the campaign in South Africa with distinction in 
other than the distinctively Canadian corps, notably 
Constable Charles Ross, who had distinguished himself 
as chief scout under Superintendent Herchmer during 
the operations of the Battleford Column in the Rebel- 
lion of 1885. Ross enrolled in an irregular troop and was 
given a lieutenancy in Roberts' Horse, securing pro- 
motion and being eventually accorded an independent 
command of a Corps of Scouts. 



The campaign brought to the Mounted Police, 
through its officers and men serving in the several 
contingents in South Africa, numerous distinguished 
honours, including even the prize covetted by all 
British soldiers, the reward " For Valor, " the Victoria 
Cross. 

The Cross was won at Wolvesprint, July 5, 1900, 
by Sergeant A. H. Richardson of "C" Division, Battle- 
ford, serving in Strathcona's Horse. Sergeant Richard- 
son's act of valor consisted in gallantly riding back, 
under a very heavy fire, to within 300 yards of the 
enemy's position, to the rescue of a comrade who had 
been twice wounded, and whose horse had been 
shot. 

The following honours were also gained by members 
of the Mounted Police while on service in South 
Africa: — 

To be a Companion of the Order of the Bath— Supt. 
S. B. Steele, Lt.-Col. Commanding Lord Strathcona's 
Horse. 

To be Companions of the Order of St. Michael and St. 
George — Inspector R. Belcher, Major 2nd in Command, 
Lord Strathcona's Horse; Inspector A. M. Jarvis, 
Major, Lord Strathcona's Horse. 

To be Companions of the Distinguished Service 
Order — Superintendent G. E. Sanders, Major, 2nd in 
Command, Canadian Mounted Rifles; Inspector A. C. 
Macdonell, Captain Canadian Mounted Rifles; In- 
spector F. L. Cartwright, Captain Lord Strathcona's 
Corps. 

To be a member of the Victorian Order (4th Class) — 
Superintendent S. B. Steele, Lt.-Col., Commanding 
Lord Strathcona's Corps. 

Awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal — Reg. 
No. 995. Sergt. J. Hynes, Regt. Sergt.-Major, Lord 
Strathcona's Horse; Reg. No. 895 Sergt. Major Rich- 
ards, Sqd. Sergt.-Major, Lord Strathcona's Horse; 
Reg. No. 3263 Constable A. S. Waite, private, Canadian 
Mounted Rifles. 

Lieut. -Col. L. W. Herchmer, was granted the rank 
of Honorary Colonel on the retired list of the Active 
Militia from May 17, 1901, Superintendents G. G. 
Sanders and A. C. Macdonall, the rank of Lieutenant 
Colonels, and Superintendent J. Howe and Inspectors 
Cuthbert and Moodie, Majors. Several of the junior 
officers received promotion in the Militia, superior to 
the rank at which they joined the contingents. The 
N.W.M.P. officers in Strathcona's Horse all received 
honorary rank in the British Army. 

The following members of the force were rewarded 
for their services in South Africa by being granted 
commissions in the British Army and the Colonial 
Forces : — 



128 



Regtl. Rank. Name. 

No. 

3188 Sergeant Skirving, H. R. . . 

3420 Constable Bredin, A. N 

3228 Constable Ballantine, J. A. . 

3031 Corporal French, J. G 

3290 Constable Ermatinger, C. P . 

2983 Sergeant Hilliam, E 

3191 Sergeant-Major . . . .Church, F 

899 " Richards, J 

.3002 Staff-Sergeant Ketchen, H. D. B 



Commission. 

. .Colonial Forces. 
. Imperial Army. 

.S. A. Constabulary. 

. Howard's Scouts. 
.Canadian Yeomanry. 



.C.M.R., Winnipeg. 



And the Mounted Police, for the glory gained in the 
campaign, paid the usual toll, the death roll of the 
campaign being as follows: — 



Res. N... 

:;:«7. . 
2431. . 
3188. . 
.30.51. . 

:«n9. . 
3:«o. . 



Rank. 

Const. 



Name. 
. Lewi.s, Z. R. E. 



Cause. 



Corps. 

. R.C.R Killed in action 

Davidson, F Howards Scouts " 

CorpI Taylor, J. R C.M.R 

Sergt Skirving, H. R. . . Imperial Army. " 

Corpl O'Kelly, G. M. .. C.M.R Enteric fever. 

Const I^tt. R 

Clements, H. H . " 



(Commissioner Perry took over the command of the 
Mounted Police from Assistant Commissioner Mcllree, 
who had been in command after the departure of 
Lieut.-Col. L. W. Herchmer and the 2nd C.M.R. for 
South Africa, on August 18, 1900. 

A- soon us piacticable he inspected the posts at Cal- 
gary. Fort Saskatchewan, Macleod, Lethbridge, Maple 
Creek and Prince Albert, in order to obtain touch of 
the force in the Territories, from which he had been 
absent for some time on duty in the Yukon Territory. 
He. naturally, found the divisions short-handed and 
somewhat disorganized owing to the numl>er of officers, 
non-commissioned officers and men, who had been per- 
mitted to proceed on active service in South .\frica. 
A large percentage of each division consisted of re- 
cruits from whom the same work could not be ex- 
pected as from trained and experienced men. He, 
however, found all ranks anxious to do the best under 
the circumstances and proud to have their corps re- 
presented on the South African veldt. 

The condition of the horses was not satisfactory, 
and for the same reason, 155 picked animals had been 
sold to the Militia Department for South African 
service. This lo.ss, out of a total strength of 568, could 
not but cripple the force somewhat. The new Com- 
missioner found a considerable fx^rcentage of horses 
were unfit for further service, and they were cast and 
sold as fast as suitable remounts could be purchased. 

About 84 special constables were carried on the 
strength of the force in the Territories as interpreters, 
scouts, artizans, teamsters, &c,, and were not trained, 
therefore weakening the effective strength of the force. 

On Xoveml^er, 30, 1900, the strength was:— North- 
W ' ~t I . iritories, 24 officers, 79 non-com. officers, 417 
con.stables, 418 horses; Yukon Territory. 10 officers, 
37 non-commissioned officers, 207 constables, 34 



horses; South Africa. 17 officers, 43 non-com. officers, 
102 constables. It was estimated that on the return of 
the contingents in South Africa and the discharge of all 
special constables, the. strength would stand, on Feb- 
ruary 1 at 850. 

The North-West Territories was divided into dis- 
tricts as follows: — 

Regina. — Moosomin, Estevan. Saltcoats, Wood Moun- 
tain, Moosejaw, Oxbow, Qu'Appelle, Wolsely, 
Whitewood, Kutawa, Fort Pelly, Yorktown, 
North Portal, Town Station, Willow Bunch, Nut 
Lake, Emerson. — 18. 




Lieut. H. 1). M. Kotclion, Siralhcona's Horse. 
Promoted from the ranks of the N.W.M.P, 

Maple Oeek. — Farewell, Ten .Mile, .Medicine liodge, 
Medicine Hat, Town Station, Swift Current, 
East Ebb.— 7. 

Battleford.— Onion Lake. .lackfish. Macfarlanc, Hen- 
rietta, Sa-skatchewan. — 5. 

Macleod.— Pincher ('reek, Big Bend, Kootenay, Stand 
Off. St. Mary's Kipp, Ix*avings, Moscjuito Oeek, 
Porcupine. Piegan. Town Patrol, Fx^es ('reek, 
Herd Camp.— 13. 



129 



Calgary.— Red Deer, Gleiehen, High River, Olds, 
Banff. Canmore, Millarville, Rosebud, Morley, 
Innisfail, Sarcee Reserve, Okotoks. — 12. 

Prince Albert.— Duck Lake, Batoche, Rosthern, Fletts 
Springs. — 4. 

Edmonton District, (Fort Saskatchewan is the head- 
quarters.) — Edmonton, St. Albert, Wetaskiwin, 
Lacombe, Peace River Landing, Lesser Slave 
Lake, Fort Chippewyan. — 7. 

Lethbridge.— Coutts, Milk River Ridge, St. Mary's, 
Writing on Stone, Pendant d'Oreille. — 5. 
Total Districts, 8. Total Detachment, 7L 

Three detachments had been temporarily esta- 
blished in Manitoba for the winter to protect Crown 
timber. From Roseau River in south-east Manitoba 
to Fort Chippewyan, in the far north, 2,000 miles apart, 
the men of the force were to be found. 

In his annual report for 1900, Commissioner Perry 
remarked: — "The great countries of the Peace, Atha- 
bascka and Mackenzie rivers are constantly requiring 
more men. An officer is about leaving Fort Saskatche- 
wan to take command of that portion of the territory. 
The operations of the American whalers at the mouth 
of the Mackenzie will ere long require a detachment to 
control their improper dealings with the Indians, and 
to protect the revenue." 

It was perhaps a happy co-incidence that in 1900, 
while so many officers and men of the force were up- 
holding the authority of the Empire in South Africa, 
a great injustice, sustained by members of the force for 
many years, was righted. Contrary to the practice in 
dealing with the militia corps, the officers and men of 
the N.W.M.P., who served through the North-West 
Rebellion of 1885, but did not happen to be under fire, 
did not receive the medal awarded by Her Majesty's 
Government for the campaign, and it was not until 
1900 that this invidious distinction was wiped out. 

His Excellency, the Governor General, accompanied 
by Her Excellency the Countess of Minto, their family 
and suite, made an extended official visit through the 
Territories lasting over three weeks during 1900, and 
visited Lethbridge, Macleod, Calgary, Edmonton, 
Regina, Prince Albert, Duck Lake, Batoche and Fort 
Qu'Appelle, 

Escorts, orderlies and transport were furnished at 
the different points, His Excellency expressing himself 
pleased with the arrangements. 

An escort of one officer and 24 men proceeded from 
Regina to Prince Albert to take the party over land 
from that place to Qu'Appelle. The weather was 
wretched just before starting, and the trip was aban- 
doned by Her Excellency and family. His Excellency, 



accompanied by a small staff and the escort, left Batoche 
one Sunday and reached Fort Qu'Appelle on Saturday 
night, having travelled 200 miles. It snowed and 
rained alternately, rendering the trails very bad, and 
increasing tremendously the work of the horses. 

On arrival at Qu'Appelle, His Excellency thanked his 
escort, and October 10, directed the following Order to 
be published: — 

"His Excellency, the Governor General, wishes to 
express his great satisfaction with the escort supplied 
to him from the Depot Division. The escort accom- 
panied him through a very trying march, during which 
His Excellency was impressed by their smartness and 
efficiency, and he also wishes to thank all ranks for the 
trouble they took to secure his comfort. " 

On His Excellency's return to Ottawa, he forwarded, 
through the Commissioner, a gold pin to each member 
ot his escort, who keenly appreciated the high honor 
conferred on them. 

The following transfers of officers from the force 
serving in the Yukon took place during 1900: — 

Supt. A. B. Perry to depot, Insp. D. A. E. Strickland 
to depot, Insp. F. L. Cartwright to depot for service in 
South Africa, Insp. A. M. Jarvis to depot for service in 
South Africa. 

Superintendent Z. T. Wood took over command of 
the North-West Police, Yukon Territory, on April 18, 
relieving Supt. A. B. Perry, who vacated the command 
on that date. 

At the end of the year the officers serving in the 
Yukon under Supt. Wood were; — 

"H" Division — Supt. D. C. H. Primose, command- 
ing division, Insp. J. A. McGibbon, attached from 
depot, Asst. Surg. L. A. Pare, Asst. Surg. A. M. Eraser, 
Dalton Trail. 

"B" Division — Insp. C. Starnes, commanding 
division, Insp. W. H. Routlcdge, Insp. W. H. Scrath, 
Insp. A. E. C. McDonell, Asst. Surg. W, E. Thompson, 
on leave, Asst. Surg. G. Madore, Selkirk, Act. Asst, 
Surg. W. H. Hurdman. 




The Royal Escort at Regina, September 27tli, 1902. 



130 



The census of the Yukon Territory was taken by the 
police in April, 1900, and a school census was taken in 
the month of August. The order for the first, coming 
as it did at the season of the year when travelling was 
most difficult, was carried out in a most satisfactory 
manner. On account of the people being scattered 
over the country, it meant considerable travelling. 

The total population of the district, including In- 
dians, at the time of census taking, was 16,463. Whites, 
16,107; Indians, 356. The school census, taken in 
the Dawson district only, totalled 175 children. Two 



at noon. A captain's escort, strength 33, commanded 
by Supt. Morris, with Inspector Demers as subaltern, 
escorted Their Royal Highness to Government House. 
Eleven carriages were provided for the Royal party. 
A guard of 14 N.C.O's and men was stationed at 
Government House. In addition to these there were 
two staff officers and four staff orderlies. Insp. Cuthbert 
was detailed as orderly officer to H.R.H. and Sergt.- 
Major Church as orderly N.C.O., and accompanied 
Their Royal Highnesses while in the Territories. 

The strength at Regina was 73, all ranks, and 60 




Presentation of Decorations and Medals at Calvary, Sept. 28th, 1901. Officers 01 the N.W.M.I'. about to be 

decorated by His Royal Highness. 



con.stables at Dalton House travelled 600 miles to take 
the census of a few Indians. 

The strength of the force in the Yukon territory on 
Novcml>er 30, 1900, was two hundred and fifty-four, 
di.stributed at the two headquarters of divisions and 
29 detachments. 

The eventof chief importance to the force in 1901 was 
the visit to the North-West Territorit»s, in connection 
with their round-the-world trip, of Their Royal High- 
nesses the Duke and Duchess of (.'ornwall and York. 

The Royal party arrived at R^ina on September 27, 



horses. "C" and "F" Divisions furnished the escort. 
The Royal train loft Regina at 3 p.m. on the 27(h. 
and arrived at Calgary at 10.30 on the 28th. After 
tlio reception by the corporation officials at Calgary, 
H.R.H. rode to Victoria Park, accompanied I )y his staff, 
in full uniform. The Police supplied the horses and 
saddlery. The Duchess of Cornwall and York, accom- 
panied by Her Excrllency the Countess of Minto, 
drove, escorted by a travelling escort of 14 from "A" 
Division, under Inspector Baker. Ten carriage* were 
provided for the suite. 



131 



At Calgary a provisional battalion had been mobilized 
composed of troops from Depot "E", "D", "K", and 
"G" Divisions. It included 173 men mounted, and 
band. 15, dismounted. The battalion having heen 
inspected by His Royal Highness, walked, trotted, 
galloped and ranked past by section, and then ad- 
vanced in review order. 

On the completion of the review. His Royal Highness 
was graciously pleased to express to Commissioner 
Perry how glad he was to have inspected a portion of 
the force, and his great satisfaction with the appear- 
ance of men and horses and their steadiness on parade. 

On completion of the inspection, the decorations and 
medals for service in South Africa were presented. 
Insp. Belcher had the honour of receiving from His 
Royal Highness the insignia of the Companionship of 
the Order of St. Michael and St. George. . A large pro- 
portion of those who received medals at Calgary were 
members of the force. 

On completion of the presentations, the Duke, ac- 
companied by his staff and escorted by a full Royal 
escort of 117, under Commissioner Perry's command, 
rode to Shaganappi Point, where a big Indian camp 
were pitched, and where an interesting presentation of 
a number of Indian chiefs was made to His Royal 
Highness. 

At 2 p.m. Their Royal Highnesses took luncheon with 
the officers of the force at the barracks, 60 covers being 
laid. After luncheon, the Royal Party proceeded with 
a travelling escort to the sports at Victoria Park, and 
thence to the train, which left Calgary about 4.30 p.m. 

From the North- West the Royal party proceeded to 
British Columbia, and, on account of the absence of 
nlounted military corps in the Pacific provinces, the 
N. W. M. P. were required to furnish an escort. This 
included 68 of all ranks and . 65 horses, under the 
Commissioner's command, with Supt. Sanders, D.S.O.. 



as squadron commander. It left Calgary by special 
train at 6 p.m. the 28th, and, arriving at Vancouver on 
the 30th, a travelling escort was furnished for a drive 
by Their Royal Highnesses around the city. At 5 p.m. 
the horses were embarked on the steamer "Charmer" 
and at 9 30 the boat left for Victoria, arriving there at 
5 a.m. on October 1. 

The full strength of the force attended on Their 
Royal Highness from the outer wharf to the Legislative 
Buildings and thence to Esquimalt. From Esquimalt 
a travelling escort under the command of Inspector 
Macdonell, D.S.O. escorted the Royal Party to the 
Exhibition Grounds and thence to Mount Baker Hotel 
to the Empress of India, on which they embarked for 
Vancouver. 

The following letter was received by Commissioner 
Perry from Sir Arthur Bigge, Private Secretary to 
H.R.H.:— 

October 9, 1901. 

Dear Col. Perry, — The Duke of Cornwall and 
York directs me to express to you his gratification at 
the very smart appearance of that portion of your force 
which he had the pleasure to inspect at Calgary. 

His Royal Highness also wishes to thank you, and all 
under your command, for the admirable manner in 
which the escort and other duties were performed 
during his stay in western Canada, 

(Sgd.) Arthur Bigge. 

On November the 30th, the strength was: — North- 
West Territories, 37 officers, 103 non-com. officers, 353 
constables, 467 horses; Yukon Territory, 15 officers, 
43 non-comm. officers, 44 horses, 220 dogs; South 
Africa, 2 officers. Eight new detachments had been 
established, the strength had been increased in the 
Athabaska district and an officer stationed at Lesser 
Slave Lake, in command. 




The Royal Equipage (furnished by N.W.M.P.) at the Calgary Review. H.R.H. The Duchess of Cornwall and York 
and Her Excellency The Countess of Minto in the carriage. 

132 



In the following terms, in his annual report at the 
end of the year, Commissioner Perry drew attention to 
the increased duties devolving upon the force, and to 
the need of increasing the strength: — 

"There has been a large influx of very desirable 
settlers, and land has risen very rapidly in value con- 
sequent upon the current of immigration which has set 
steadily this way. 

"The rapid increase of population has caused an 
expansion of our duties which, with our fixed strength, 
we find great difficulty in meeting. 

"When the force was organized in 1873, with a 
strength of 300 men, the Territories were unsettled, 
and the control given over to lawless bands who preyed 
upon the Indians, with whom no treaties had then been 
made. 




H.R.H. The Duke of Cornwall and York and StaflF at the 
Calg'ary Review. 



•' In 1885, complications with the half-breeds culmina- 
ted in rebellion, which was successfully quelled. The 
-trength of the force was then raised to 1,000 where it 
-tood for about 10 years, when, owing to the jjeaceful 
state of the Territories, the settled condition of the 
Indians, and the rapid means of communication by 
railway into the different portions, it was gradually 
reduced to 750. In 1898, the gold discoveries in the 
^'ukon, and the con.sequent rush of gold .seekers caused 
t he sudden increa.se of the force on duty in that territory 
to 250 men, thus reducing the strength in the North- 
West Territories to 500. 

" A further decrease has now taken place by an addi- 
tion to the Yukon strength, charged with the main- 
tenance of order in the Yukoti, but the services of the 
jwlice have been required in the Athabaska District, a 
ffumtrj' of enormous extent with no facilities for travel, 
but where police work is ever on the increase. 

"It may Ije thought that the settled portions of 
the Territories ought now to provide for their own police 
protection, or at any rate that the incorixirated towns 
and villages should do so. Some of the larger towns 



have their own police forces, but the smaller towns 
seem desirous of retaining the N.W.M.P. constables, 
claiming that they obtain better service, but doubtless 
they are largely influenced by economical considera- 
tions. 

"The population of the Territories has doubled in 
ten years, and the strength of the force has been re- 
duced by one-half. Our detachments have increased 
from 49 to 79. Although we have only half of the 
strength of ten years ago, still we have the same number 
of division head-quarter posts, carrying in their train 
the staff organization and maintenance of barracks as 
though the divisions were of their former strength. 
The distinguished services rendered to the Empire in 
the South African war, by members of the force, em- 
phasize the fact that it has a very deci4ed military 
value and that in future nothing ought to be done to 
impart its efficiency. " 

In his annual report for the following year Superin- 
tendent Perry reverting to the same subject, wrote: — 

" In my last annual report I called your attention to 
the largely increased demands on the force, and the 
difficulty I found in meeting them. This year these 
difficulties have been emphasized. The continued de- 
velopment of the country, the increase of population, 
the settlement of remote districts, many new towns 
that have spnuig up, and the construction of new rail- 
ways have greatly added to our work. In the train of the 
immigration has come a number of the criminal class, 
which though not large, will probably increase. 

" The new settlers are principally from foreign coun- 
tries, a great number being from the United States. 
The American settler is much imi)res.sed by the fair 
and impartial administration of justice. He finds a 
constabulary force such as he has not been accustomed 
to, but the advantages of which he is (juick to acknow- 
ledge, and a country free from all lawlessness and enjoy- 
ing freedom without licen.se. 

"The pro|)osal of the Grand Trunk Railway to build 
through the Peace River coiuitry, is sure to attract to 
that district in the immediate future a lot of i)eoplc 
seeking for the best locations. The police work is 
steadily increjising. We ought to increase our strength 
there, and establish a new iK)lice district, with head- 
quarters for the present, at Fort Chipewyan. Two of 
the districts in the organized territories could be com- 
l)ined into one, thus releasing the staff for the new dis- 
trict in the north. The northern trade is steadily in- 
creasing. Detachment.s ought to Iw stationed on Mac- 
kenzie River. " 

A Pension Hill providing for th«! pensions of officers 
of the North-West MounU'd Police was piuwed during 
the .session of 1902, the generous provisions of which 
were much appreciated. The officers, promoted from 



133 



the ranks, profit largely by it, in that service in the 
ranks is reckoned as service for pension. 

The strength in the Territories in 1903 was 490; 10 
under that authorized, but 28 more than at the date of 
the previous annual report. The force was at the end 
of 1903 distributed from the international boundary 



than in any previous year in the history of the Terri- 
tories. I think- 350,000 a very conservative estimate 
of the present population. This rapid development has 
greatly increased the work of the force, and I have had 
difficlulty in meeting fully the requirements. The 
rapid settlement of a new country always attracts a 



1 
















iiiwiB ifflinT^'^ ^ 


g 


1 


■K 








-».. 


■rv!ir~ ' ■ 








m^OQ^ 




« -. L 


i 


1 -' ^HHpiPipi 


1 


iP 







General View of the Royal Review at Calgfaiy, September, 1901 (6). 



to the Arctic ocean, and from Hudson Bay to the 
Alaska boundary. There were 8 divisions in the Terri- 
tories, each with a headquarter post, and there were 84 
detachments, with 182 officers and men constantly 
employed on detached duty. 

It is instructive to compare this year's (1903) record 
of crime with 1893, ten years previous. The estimated 
population at the latter date was 113,000, and total 
convictions 614. The estimated population in 1903 
was 350,000, and the number of convictions 2,613. 
. On November 30, 1903, Supt. A. H. Griesbach, 
having completed thirty years' honourable service, 
retired on pension. He was the first man to join the 
force on organization in 1873, and was shortly after 
promoted Regimental Sergeant-Major. His commis- 
sion soon followed. Before joining the force, he had 
seen service with the 15th Hussars, with the Cape 
Mounted Rifles in South Africa, and with the 1st On- 
tario Rifles in the Red River Rebellion. He was given 
the rank of Major during the North-West rebellion. 
He had the honour of being appointed an extra A.D.C. 
to His Excellency the Governor-General during Lord 
Aberdeen's tenure of office. Superintendent Griesbach 
took with him on retirement the best wishes of all ranks. 

In his annual report for 1903 Commissioner Perry 
referred as follows to the extension of the responsibili- 
ties and duties of the force under his command: — 

" The increase of population this year has been greater 



certain lawless and undesirable element, and it is evi- 
dent, from the year's crime reports, that the North- 
West Territories are not an exception. The new towns 
and extending settlements call for police patrols and 
supervision, and it is quite clear that the point will soon 
be reached, if it has not already been reached, when 
this force, with its fixed strength, cannot satisfactorily 
perform the duties expected by the people of the Terri- 
tories. 

" Our field of operations this year has been tremend- 
ously widened. A detachment of five men, under the 
command of Superintendent Moodie, was selected to 




D.G.S. "Neptune," with Supt. Moodie and Hudson Bay Patrol 
R.N.W.M.P., amongf the Arctic Ice. 



{i) Thi.s and the other illustrations of the royal visit to Calgary are from photographs by Mr. D. A. McLaughlin, Chief Government Photographer, 
placed at the disposal of the author by the courtesy of the Hon. Charles Hyman, Minister of Public Works. 

134 



accompany the Hudson's Bay expedition in that far 
distant region. 

"Another expedition was despatched in May to the 
Arctic Ocean, consisting of five men, under the command 
of Superintendent Constantine. This detachment 
reached Fort Macpherson, on the Pelly River, early in 
July. Superintendent Constantine having arranged for 
quarters, returned to Fort Saskatchewan, leaving Ser- 
geant Fitzgerald in charge. This non-commissioned 
officer visited Herschell Island in August, and had the 
honour of establishing a detachment, the most northerly 
in the world, at this point. 

"Herschell Island is in the Arctic ocean, 80 miles 
north-west of the mouth of the Mackenzie river. It 
has been for many years the winter quartere of the 
American whaling fleet, and has been the scene of con- 
siderable lawlessness and violence. The reports of 
Superintendent Constantine and Sergeant Fitzgerald 
will be found in the appendix. Superintendent Moodie 
has not been heard from. 

"The establishement of these outposts is of far- 
reaching importance. They stand for law and good 
order, and show that, no matter what the cost, nor how 
remote the region, the laws of Canada will be enforced, 
and the native population protected. 

" I venture again to call your attention to the valu- 
able work of the force among the immigrants, who are 
largely foreign-born. It is of the utmost importance 
to the future of the country, that they should be started 
in the right way; that from the first they should be im- 
pressed with the fair, just and certain enforcement of 
the laws, and that they should be educated to their 
observance In 1901, 30 per cent, of our population 
was foreign-born, and I think I am fairly stating the 
position now, in saying that the foreign-born equal 
those of British birth (using the term British in its 
widest sense). 

" It is claimed, and rightly, that we are a law-abid- 
ing people, that no new country was ever settled up 
with such an entire absence of lawlessness. Why? 
Because of the policy of Canada in maintaining a 
jwwerfuJ constabulary, which has for thirty years en- 
forced the laws in an impartial manner. 

"The North- West Mounted Police were the pioneers 
of settlement. They carried into these Territories the 
world-wide maxim, that where the British flag flies, 
I)eace and order prevail. I refer to this, because it 
has }x:en stated that the time has now arrived when 
their ser\ice8 are no longer required. With this view 
I <l<) not agree, but, on the contrary, I believe that their 
services were never .so necessary. I have referred to 
the large immigration, but the country is so vast, that 
it scarcely makes an impression. There are huge 
stretches without a single habitation, and a boundary 



line of 800 miles, along which for 200 miles, not a settler 
is to be found. " 

" The force is now distributed from the international 
boundary to the Arctic ocean, and from the Hudson's 
Bay to the Alaska boundary. 

" There are 8 divisions in the Territoriet<, each with a 
headquarter post, and there are M detachments, with 
182 officers and men constantly employed oh detached 
duty. Of these, 55 are distributed among 21 detach- 
ments along the international boundary. " 

For many years it had been a source of complaint on 
the part of the North- West ranchers, that United States 




Inspector Cortlandt Stames, for many years on duty in 
the Yukon. 



cattle were allowed to graze in Canada without restric- 
tion, that the ownei-s often deliberately drove their 
cattle to the boundary, so that they would drift into 
Canada, where grass and water were more plenti- 
ful; that United States round-ups came into Can- 
ada gathered and branded their young stock and 
turned them loose again, and that their 'beef round- 
u|)s,' in taking up their own fat stock, were not too 
particular. The complaints came from points all along 
the boundary, from Willow Bunch to Cardston, some 
500 miles, but they were particularly loud and in- 
sistent from the ranchers on Milk River, who suffered 
most. 



135 



In 1903 the Customs Department took action, and 
notified United States cattle owners that the privileges 
which they had hitherto enjoyed, could not be con- 
tinued. They were given until July 1 to gather and 
take out their cattle. 

The effect of this action has been satisfactory. A 
special officer of the Customs Department was stationed 
at Coutts to look after this work. The police were in- 
structed to strictly enforce the regulations. Their 
good work was acknowledged by the special Customs 
officer. 

The police patrols seized several bands of ponies 
which were being run in by Indians without any regard 
to Customs or quarantine laws. 

"E" Division, Calgary, during 1902-03 distinguished 
itself by the long pursuit and capture of the young 
Wyoming desperado Ernest Cashel. This criminal 
was arrested for forgery, and escaped from the chief of 
the Calgary City Police on October 14, 1902. The 
Mounted Police were then notified and commenced 
the pursuit. On October 22, Cashel stole a bay pony 
near Lacombe in his efforts to escape. After this, no 
word of him was received until November 19, when one 
I). A. Thomas, of Pleasant Valley, north of Red Deer 
river, reported the mysterious disappearance of his 
brother-in-law, J. R. Belt, from his ranch, 38 miles east 
of Lacombe. Constable McLeod, of "G" Division, 
investigated, and found that when Belt was last seen, 
about November 1, a young man calling himself Bert 
Elseworth was staying with him. The description of 
Elseworth proved him to be Cashel. Belt's horse, his 
saddle, with name J. R. Belt on, shotgun, clothes, 
money, including a $50 gold certificate, were missing. 
As there were grave suspicious of Belt having been 
murdered by Cashel, Supt. Sanders put Constable 
Pennycuick on the case. A lookout was kept in every 
direction to prevent the fugitive going south, and every 
detachment warned. On January 17, 1903, Mr. Glen 
Healy, of Jumping Pond, lent a horse to a man answer- 
ing Cashel's description and giving the name of Else- 
worth; the horse was not returned. The Mounted 
Police next heard of the man near Morley, then at 
Kananaskis, where he stole a diamond ring, and aban- 
doned his horse. The search became now confined to 
the railway. Trainmen and others were warned, and 
constables sent along the line. In spite of this, Cashel 
managed one evening to steal the clothes of the train- 
men from a caboose at Canmore. Finally, on January 
24, Cashel was arrested by Constable Blyth, at An- 
thracite. On him was found a pair of brown corduroj' 
trousers similar to those in the possession of J. R. Belt, 
and the diamond ring stolen at Kananaskis. The 
police found that Cashel had been living with the half- 
breeds near Calgary for some time, and that he had ar- 



rived there early in November, shortly after he was 
seen at Belt's. Constable Pennycuick visited the 
breeds and got clothing and other articles Cashel 
had left there, amongst them was the balance 
of the corduroy suit owned by J. R. Belt. He 
also got evidence of a $50 bill the prisoner had. As 
the body of Belt could not be produced or accounted 
for, the prisoner was charged simply with stealing a 
horse from Glen Healy and a diamond ring from the 
section foreman at Kananaskis. Meantime Constable 
Pennycuick and others commenced to trace the move- 
ments of the accused from the time he had left Belt's 
to the date of his arrival at the half-breed camp. 

On May 14, 1903, Ernest Cashel was sentenced by the 
Chief Justice to three year's imprisonment in Stony 
Mountain Penitentiary. 

When the ice went out of the river in the spring, 
careful search was made for Belt's body in the Red Deer 
and Constables Rogers and Pennycuick searched 
the stream in a canoe for several hundred miles, but 
without success. Supt. Sanders offered a reward of 
$50 as well. Constable Pennycuick traced Cashel from 
Belt's place with Belt's clothes, horse, saddle and $50 
gold certificate to a point near Calgary. The chain of 
evidence connecting Cashel with the disappearance of 
Belt was complete with the exception of sure informa- 
tion as to where Belt was. On July 20, John Watson a 
farmer living some 25 or 30 miles down the Red Deer 
river from Belt's place, discovered, while hunting for 
cattle, the body of a man floating in the river. He se- 
cured it and told the police. The coroner was notified 
and an inquest held. The body, although much de- 
composed, was fully identified as that of J. R. Belt, 
mainly by a deformed toe on the left foot, and an iron 
clamp which the deceased wore on the heel of his left 
boot. A bullet hole was found in the left breast, and 
at the end of the hole near the shoulder blade a "44 
bullet of the same calibre as the revolver and rifle 
carried by Cashel. 

An information was now laid against Ernest Cashel 
for murder. The jury brought in a verdict of 'guilty ' 
and the prisoner was immediately sentenced to be 
hanged on December 15, at Calgary. 

Unfortunately, through a combination of circum- 
stances, Cashel, having been supplied with t \o revolvers 
by a brother permitted to visit him in his cell under 
judicial authority, effected his escape December 10, 
five days before the date fixed for his execution. It is 
the proud boast of the force that within its far-reaching 
jurisdiction no man has ever been lynched, nor has a 
known murderer or other criminal ever found safety, 
and it may be well supposed that great efforts were 
made to recapture Cashel. 

The pursuit was commenced at once, but the Mounted 



136 



Police were handicapped by the weather, the night 
being particularly dark and snowing hard. Every 
available man was turned out, mounted patrols covered 
all the roads, and a thorough search was made of the 
neighbourhood. Constable Coulter, one of the mounted 
patrols, shortly after the escape, arrested Cashel's 
brother on the street; he was evidently expecting to 
meet his brother and had a parcel of footwear, ob- 
viously for the fugitive's use, and a pocketful of re- 
volver cartridges. Supt. Sanders commanding at 
Calgary notified the Commissioner by wire, also all 
police divisions and detachments south, east and west. 
Next day, not having picked up any trace, and being 
satisfied that the trains were being too carefully 
watched for him to have got away by that means, Supt. 
Sanders decided there was nothing to be done but to 
send parties out and warn the whole country. 

On December 12, Commissioner Perry arrived from 
Regina, accompanied by Inspector Knight, and assumed 
charge of the operations. Superintendents Primrose 
and Begin were ordered to place patrols to the south, 
extending from the mountains and along the Little 
Bow. Reinforcements were ordered from Regina to 
Macleod; ten N.C.O.'s and men from Regina, six from 
Maple Creek and one from Edmonton were ordered to 
Calgary. A reward of $1,000 was offered for the cap- 
ture or information leading to the capture of the fugi- 
tive. On December 13, the police had reports of a man 
answering the description of Cashel being seen at Coch- 
rane, 20 miles west, and on the Elbow river south of 
there. Inspector Worsley and party left for the former 
and Inspector Knight and party for the latter. In- 
spector Knight found that Constable Spurr with an In- 
dian tracker, whom Sanders started out on the 11 th from 
Morley, had been on the tracks of a man in the snow, 
and had tracked him to a ranche, where the description 
given left no doubt it was Cashel. Spurr followed 
him up and found he was making for Calgary. He 
actually went to a house that Cashel was in, but the old 
woman and her son who lived there, denied the pre- 
sence of any stranger. The son was afterwards sen- 
tenced to three month's imprisonment for assisting 
Cashel on this occasion. Inspector Knight searched 
all hou.ses in that vicinity during the night, and found 
a pony had been stolen from one place. Next morning 
the police found this pony near Calgary, and foot-marks 
leading from the place where it was found into the town. 
Later the police found that Cashel had stopped during 
the night at a rancher's named Rigby, six miles west 
of Calgary, Rigby and all his family being away. 
Whilst there he changed the clothes he had escaped in 
and selected a new outfit from Mr. Rigby's wardrolx;. 
A note was left with the old clothes and easily recog- 
nized as Cashel's handwriting, which read, 'Ernest 



Cashel, $1,000, return in six months ' On the 15th, 
the police heard of a man answering the description at 
the place of a man called Thomas Armstrong six miles 
east of Calgary. Cashel had left there in the morning 
and walked along the track east. Inspector Knight 
and party scoured the whole district night and day, 
and police from Gleichen with Indian scouts worked 
west along the railway, but without success. During 
the 16th, 17th and 18th, the country north, south and east 
of Armstrong's was continually patrolled and the police 
had apparently reliable information at the same time 
of the fugitive being at six other points. On the eve- 
ning of the 18th it would appear Cashel was in the out- 
skirts of the town and was seen by a citizen who re- 
ported it too late to be of service. At 4 a.m. of Decem- 
ber 18 Supt. Sanders took a party and searched the 
half-breed camps and wooded coulees west of Calgary. 
In Macleod and Lethbridge districts to the south much 
the same work had been going on, and numerous alleged 
Cashels were being run down and found to be innocent 
parties. Commissioner Perry left for Regina on the 
night of the 23rd. The usual crop of rumors kept 
coming in each day and the patrols through the out- 
lying districts were kept up without intermission and 
without anything much transpiring, except that the 
police were pretty certain from a citizen's reix)rt that 
Cashel had been again in the outskirts of the town on 
December 20. This condition of affairs continued to 
the end of December, and the police were still fairly 
convinced the man was in hiding and receiving assist- 
ance from sympathizers. 

Owing to persistent reports from Montana of Cjishel 
being seen there, Sergeant Hetherington wa.s detailed to 
go to the States and work in conjunction with the United 
States authorities, who were keenly on the alert. In- 
dications were strong yet, however, that he was in 
the country to the east of Calgary, and although the 
police had covered every |X)int as far as the number of 
men and horses would permit, they watched tlie district 
around Langdon and Shepard closely. Supt. Sanders 
also got the local pajxjrs not to mention the affair at all, 
for he knew from former exjXTience of this criminal, 
that he had a great love of notoriety and would risk 
anything to obtain it. On January 11, Mr. Crossar, a 
rancher, four miles east of Calgary, reported that at 
10.30 p.m., of .laiuiary 9, a man had come into his 
brother's house with a revolver in his hand and jusked 
for a horse, he then said: 'I guess you know who I am. 
I am Cashel. I am not after a horse, but I am desi)erate 
and must have money. I have plenty of friends l)ut 
still I want money.' (Vxssar gave him all he had, $12, 
then Cashel a.sked for his bank book and asked for the 
newspajjcrs; after reading these he wrote a letter and 
spoke of men whom he had heard had heli)ed the police 



137 



and said he would get even with them. He left the 
hoiise at 12.30 and threatened Cossar with the ven- 
geance of his mythical friends should he (Cossar) in- 
form. The same night he must have visited Arm- 
strong's house (the place he slept in on December 14), 
because next day Armstrong on his return home found 
the place had been ransacked. As a result of this in- 
formation several constables in plain clothes were placed 
the capacity of hired men at different farms in the 
neighbourhood. That Cashel had some fixed point 
from which he made excursions at night appeared 
certain, and Supt. Sanders suspected he visited many 
farms and extorted money without it being reported. 
As he was on foot, it was not likely he walked more than 
ten miles away from his hiding place during the night, 
so that should the police obtain one or two more points 
where he had visited it would be possible to define a 
certain area of country within which he could be found. 
Another point was supplied on January 21, when Mr. 
S. Wigmore, who lives near Shepard, reported Cashel 
had been at his place on the night of the 19th and be- 
haved in much the same way as he had at Cossar 's. 
Not getting any more clues, Supt. Sanders marked off 
an area on the map, based on the visits Cashel had 
made in the Shepard district, and decided that if a 
thorough search were made of the country embraced 
therein in one day success would be met with. It 
required about forty mounted men to do this and 
Supt. Sanders had not got them unless he drew in all 
his detachments and received men from other posts. 
This would take too long and was not safe. He conse- 
quently wired the Commissioner on the 22nd January 
asking if he objected to his using volunteers; doing 
this on the strength of several offers from the Canadian 
Mounted Rifles. Mr. Wooley-Dod, a rancher, and 
others, to lend a hand. On January 23, Superinten- 
dent Sanders received a reply authorizing him 
to do so, and telling him to swear his volunteers 
in as special constables. Accordingly he ar- 
ranged with Mr. Wooley-Dod, Mr. Heald and 
Major Barwis to get 20 volunteers together, and be at 
the barracks, mounted and ready to start, at 8 a.m. 
the following day. Sunday, January 24. Every one 
turned up on time, and with the police, numbered 40 
all told. These Supt. Sanders divided up into five 
parties under Major Barwis, Inspector Knight, Inspec- 
tor Duffus, Sergeant-Major Belcher and himself. Each 
party consisted of police and citizens equally divided. 
The leader of each detachment was given a certain 
district, comprising so many townships, within which 
he was to search every building, cellar, root-house and 
haystack. The Superintendent also ordered that 
should they discover the fugitive, and by burning the 
house or stack where he was found, prevent loss of life, 



they were not to hesitate in doing so. At 11.30 a por- 
tion of Inspector Duffus' party consisting of Constables 
Rogers, Peters, Biggs, Stark, and Mr. McConnell, while 
searching Mr. Pitman's ranch, at a point just on the 
edge of the district being scoured, six miles from Cal- 
garj', came across Cashel in the cellar. Constable Biggs 
found him, and was fired at by Cashel out of the dark- 
ness; Biggs returned the shot and ran up the steps, 
being fired at again. Constable Rogers, the senior 
constable, ordered the men to come out of the house 
and surround it ; he then sent word to Inspector Duffus, 
who was searching another place nearby with the 
balance of the party. Inspector Duffus, after speaking 
to Cashel and advising him to surrender,without success, 
decided to set fire to the building, which was a mere 
shack. This was done. When the smoke began to 
enter the cellar Cashel agreed to come out, and was im- 
mediately arrested. Efforts were then made to put 
out the fire, but it had gained too much headway. 
Everything went to show that Cashel had been living 
in a haystack alongside of the house for some time; a 
cow robe and spring mattress were found in a large 
hole burrowed under the stack, together with several 
indications of its occupancy for a lengthy period. 
The two men living at the ranch were afterwards 
arrested, and one of them, Brown, received si.x; months' 
imprisonment. 

Thus ended perhaps one of the most arduous pursuits 
after a criminal in the annals of the force. Each man 
felt keenly the circumstances surrounding the escape, 
and no one spared himself in any way. Night and day, 
with very little rest, they stuck to their work without 
a murmur. 

During the pursuit the date of the execution was put 
off from time to time by the Chief Justice, and on the 
day after his capture the prisoner was brought before 
His Lordship and finally sentenced to be hanged on 
February 2. Cashel was hanged in the guard-room 
yard on that date, and confessed his guilt to the Rev. 
Mr. Kerby just previous to leaving his cell for the 
scaffold. 

Again, in his annual report for 1904, Commissioner 
drew attention to the increased responsibilities of the 
police due to the rapid settlement and development 
of the country, writing as follows: — 

"The Royal North- West Mounted Police has gained 
a reputation, both at home and abroad, as an effective 
organization, which has materially forwarded the pro- 
gress of the Territories. It is to-day dealing with all 
classes of men — the lawless element on the border, the 
cowboys and Indians on the plains, the coal miners in 
the mountains, the gold miners in the Yukon, and the 
American whalers and the Esquimaux in Hudson Bay 
and the far distant Arctic Sea. It is an asset of Canada, 



138 



and the time ha? not arrived in the development of the 
country when it can be written off. 

" No case of crime is too remote to be investigated. 
There have been many instances during the past year. 
The following are worthy of being brought to your 
notice. 

"Extract from Sergt. Field's report dated Fort 
Chipewyan, December 8, 1903: 

'A half-breed arrived here from Fond-du-Lac. on 
Lake Athabasca, and reported that an Indian, Paul Izo 
Azie, living at Black Lake, near Fond-du-Lac, had 
deserted his adopted children in the bush some time 
during last September. 

'The particulars of the case are: This Indian Paul 
Izo Azie, was camped on an island in Black Lake, where 
he intended fishing and hunting during the fall and 
winter One day he sighted four or five canoes, 
with a number of men on board, coming towards his 
camp. He fired two shots in the air, as is customary 
amongst Indians as a sign of friendliness. They did 
not reply or take any notice of his shooting, but paddled 
off in another direction, and landed on the main shore 
of the lake. This man being very superstitious, as 
most Indians are, concluded that these were bad 
people and intended killing him and all his family. 
He got very frightened, so he got his wife, sister and the 
two little children and himself into his canoe and 
paddled ashore, leaving his camping outfit and all his 
belongings behind him. When he landed on shore he 
started off on foot for Fond-du-Lac, followed by his 
wife and sister, leaving these two little children behind 
without food or protection, one a little boy and the other 
a little girl, aged two and three years respectively. It 
being an eight days' trip, or about 130 or 140 miles 
from his camp to Fond-du-Lac, his sister, a young girl 
alx)ut fifteen years old, got fatigued after the first or 
second day's travel He left her behind on the road 
also, without food or protection. This poor girl wan- 
dered about the woods for several days in a dreadful 
state of starvation until she was picked up by some 
Indians that were camped in that direction She told 
them her story, how her brother had deserted these two 
little children on the lake shore. Some of these In- 
dians started back to search for the children. When 
they got there they found the camp just as the Indian 
had left it, nothing taken or stolen. They tracked the 
little children along the shore and where they went into 
the bush. They followed their tracks up into the 
wocxls and then fired two or three shots and then called 
out as loud as they could, but got no reply. Then they 
went on a little further, and there they found a little 
dress, all blood-stained and torn, and wolf tracks all 
around where the little girl had evidently Ijeen eaten 
by solves. They could find no trace or sign of the 



other child anywhere. There is no doubt that the little 
boy has been devoured by wolves also. 

'These Indians, who found the little dress, and also 
this man's sister, being the principal witnesses in the 
case, were not at Fond-du-Lac at the time Constable 
Pedley was out there, so he did not arrest this Paul 
Izo Azie, as he could not get the witnesses. 

'They will all be at Fond-du-Lac next summer for 
treaty payments. I will then go myself and arrest this 
Indian and get the witnesses and all neces.sary evidence 
on the case and take them out for trial.' 

" Black Lake is about 250 miles east of Fort Chi|)e- 
w\'an. The accused was arrested at Fond-du-Lac on 
June 28, and committed for trial at Edmonton by In- 
spector West. He was escorted there by Sergeant 
Field, accompanied by the witnesses. On July 25 he 
was tried at Edmonton by Mr. Justice Scott, convicted 
and sentenced to two years' imprisonment at Stony 
Mountain Penitentiary. 

"In carrying out this duty, Sergt. Field travelled 
with his prisoner, by boat 667 miles, by trail 90 miles 
and by train 1,031 miles, a total distance of 1,788 
miles. " 

In his report. Commissioner Perry drew attention 
to the heroic work of CorfX)ral I). B. Smith, stationed 
at Norway House, Lake Winnipeg. A severe epidemic 
of diphtheria and scarlet fever occurred there in the 
previous November. Corporal Smith was untiring in 
his efforts to aid the unfortunate people. He supplied 
them with food, disinfected tlieir houses, helped care 
for their sick and buried the dead. He was promoted 
to the rank of sergeant in recognition of his services. 

For some years back the constantly increasing con- 
sumption of extracts, essences and patent medicines in 
the unorganized territories had shown that these rujuors 
were not being used for legitimate pur|)*)sos, but were 
being traded and sold to the Indians and half-breods 
for use as intoxicants. As an instance of the extent to 
which the trade had reached, a trader's stock was ex- 
amined by the police at Ix»s.ser Slave Lake and they 
found 107 dozen 2 oz. bottles of ginger, |)epi)<'rnutit, 
&c., equal to about 16 gallons. This trade was de- 
moralizing the native iH)pulation. and, on the facts 
being brought to the notice of the Prime Minister, he 
directed that the sections of the North-West Territories 
Act dealing with the use of intoxicants in those por- 
tions of the Territories where the liquor license ordin- 
ance was not in force, were to be rigidly enforced. 

The Commissioner issued orders in accordance with 
these instructions on Fcbrnary 22, HM)4. The rei)orts 
from the detachments in 1001 stated that the preven- 
tion of the im|)ortation and sale of extracts and essences 
had been most beneficial, and that drunkenness among 
the Indians and half-breeds had greatly decreased. 



139 



The strength in the Territories on November 30, 
1904, was 39 officers, 475 non-commissioned officers 
and constables and 459 horses. 

There were 9 divisions, each with a headquarters post 
and 93 permanent outposts. There should havebeen more 
outposts, but the Commissioner was unable to establish 
them. An increase of the strength by 100 men was 
authorized on July 1, but the Commissioner at the end 
of the year had not yet been able to recruit them. He 
did not anticipate being able to do so satisfactorily 
until a substantial increase was made in the pay. 

The force required sober, intelligent, active young 
men of good character, and such men were in great 
demand in the country. To obtain them the rate of 
pay would have to be raised so as to be in reasonable 
proportion to what was paid in civil life. 

Their Excellencies the Governor-General and Lady 
Minto paid a farewell visit to the Territories in Septem- 
ber, 1904. Ceremonial escorts were furnished at Cal- 
gary and Regina and an escort of 1 officer, 25 non-com- 
missioned officers and men and 42 horses accompanied 
His Excellency on his ride from Edmonton to Saska- 
toon. Saddle horses were supplied for His Excellency, 
and party, also cam^p equipment and transport. The 
force also established a permanent camp for Her 
Excellency and party at Qu'Appelle Lakes and fur- 
nished saddle horses, carriages and heavy transport. 

His Excellency was pleased to express his approval 
in the following letter to the Comptroller from the 
Military Secretary: ~ 

Government House. 

Ottawa, October 1, 1904. 

Sir, — I am commanded by the Governor General to 
express to you His Excellency's warm appreciation of 
the admirable arrangements made for him on the occa- 
sion of his recent ride from Edmonton to Saskatoon and 
also for Lady Minto in the camp lately occupied by 
Her Excellency at the Qu'Appelle Lakes. 

In both cases everything that was possible was done 
to ensure the comfort of Their Excellencies, and 1 am 
to ask that you will accept for yourself and kindly con- 
vey to the Commissioner and the officers, N.C. officers 
and men of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, the 
grateful thanks of Their Excellencies. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) F. S. MAUDE, Major. 

Military Secretary. 
The event of the year, however, in the annals of the 
Mounted Police was His Majesty's personal recognition 
of the splendid services rendered for so many years to 
the Dominion and the Empire, by the force, by con- 
ferring upon it the title of Royal. The first intimation 



of this honour was conveyed by an announcement in 
the Canada Gazette of June 24, 1904, reading as follows: 

"His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased 
to confer the title of "Royal" upon the North-West 
Mounted Police. " 

The authority for this announcement was the follow- 
ing communication from the Colonial Office. : — 

From Mr. LYTTELTON to Lord MINTO. 



Canada. 
No. 375. 



Downing Street, 
19th November, 1903. 



My Lord, 

It gives me great pleasure to inform Your Excellency 
that His Majesty the Kmg has been graciously pleased 
to confer the title of "Royal" upon the North-West 
Mounted Police, in accordance with your recent re- 
commendation. 

I have, etc., 

(Sgd.) Alfred LYTTELTON. 

The Governor-General, 

The Right Honorable, 

The Earl of Minto, G.C.M.G. 

Referring to the conferring of this honour upon the 
force, in his report for the year, Commissioner Perry 
wrote: — 

"The force is deeply sensible of the high honour 
which has been conferred upon it, and 1 trust it will 
continue by loyalty, integrity and devotion to duty, to 
merit the great distinction which His Majesty has 
been so graciously pleased to bestow upon it. " 

The undermentioned officers were serving in the 
Yukon Territory at the end of 1904: — Commanding, 
Asst. Commsr. Z. P. Wood. 

'H' Division — Superintendent A. E. Snyder, Com- 
manding Division. — Inspectors, F. J. A. Demers, F. P. 
Horrigan, A. E. C. McDonell, P. W. Pennefather, Sur- 
geon L. A. Pare, Asst. -Surgeon, S. M. Eraser. 

'B' Division — Superintendent A. R. Cuthbert, Com- 
manding Division — Inspectors, W. H. Routledge, T. A. 
Wroughton, J. Taylor, R. Y. Douglas, R. E. Tucker, 
Asst. -Surgeons, W. E. Thompson, G. Madore. 

The general state of affairs in the Yukon Territory at 
the same date was reported in a most satisfactory and, 
on the whole, prosperous condition, and from a police 
point of view left but little to be desired. Like all 
mining camps, the Yukon had attracted to its environ- 
ments a large number of the criminal class, but, not- 
withstanding their presence, crime had been confined 
to the smaller and more trivial offences. 

As a matter of fact, the criminal element, the in- 
dividuals of which were nearly all known to the police. 



140 



were subjected to so close a sun'eillance that few op- 
portunities were allowed them to stray from the paths 
of virtue and rectitude, and they were perforce obliged 
to confine themselves to avocations strictly honest or 
seek pastures new. The great majoritj'^ of them found 
their enforced probity too irksome and left the territory 
for its and their own good. 

Attention was called several times during the year 
to the great expense involved in keeping a force of 300 
men in the Yukon, and a claim had been made that one- 
third of that number would be sufficient to police the 
Territory. 

Assistant Commissioner- Wood, in his annual report 
speaking of this claim, wrote:— "I quite agree with this 
provided we could confine ourselves to the preservation 
of law and order as we are primarily intended to do. 
The fact of the matter is, however, that we are acting 
more or less for every department of the government 
and performing work, such as mail carriers, &c., which 
is quite foreign to a police force proper; in fact al- 
though we are, as I have stated, getting rid of some of 
our extraneous work, we are still called upon to perform 
some duties which other officials and civilians refuse to 
undertake because they are not remunerative enough; 
for instance, acting as postmasters. Appointments as 
such were offered to officials and civilians throughout 
the Territory, who, however, invariably refused be- 
cause of the fact of there being either no emolument in 
connection with the work or if there were, on account 
of its smallness. Many of the offices are still filled by 
members of the force. " 

During the municipal elections in Dawson in January, 
1904, one of the questions before the public was whether 
they should not have their own city police instead of 
availing themselves of the services of the force. A 
stafT-sergeant and 1 1 men were on the town detachment 
and received the aggregate sum of $350 per month, the 
main expeases of their maintenance fallingon the Federal 
government. It was held by some of the applicants for 
office that one or two men would be sufficient to police 
the city, but it was found that the public generally 
were in favour of the retention of the R.N.W.M. Police 
for, as in previous years, the candidates for mayor and 
council who advocated keeping the force in charge of 
the city easily defeated those who were opposed to 
them. 

Among other duties the R.N.W.M. P. in the Yukon 
ciischarges is that of regulating the time. In his an- 
nual report for this year (1904) discussing armament, 
.\sst .-Commissioner Wood wrote: — "The Maxim and 
Maxim-Nordenfeldt gims are also in a serviceable con- 
dition. With regard to guns of heavier calibre, we 
IK)s.sesH one 7-fKlr. brass muz/Ie-loading gun at Dawson. 
The firing of the gun at noon is an important matter, 



as in all mining disputes, such as the staking of claims, 
&c., and in fact in all legal matters in which official time 
is required, the courts in Dawson have held that the 
standard time in the Territory, and more particularly 
that portion embracing Dawson, and the creeks in the 
vicinity of and contiguous thereto, is the time of and 
at the 135th meridian of longitude, as anno\mced by the 
noon-day gun. Should this old 7-pdr. burst, as the 
other did some three years ago, we would be left with- 
out any means of regulating Dawson time-pieces. For 
this and other reasons I would recommend that we be 
supplied with two of the latest pattern 12 pdrs. They 
are also required for saluting purposes and to enable 
the men to obtain some knowledge of gun-drill," 

In addition to his other duties the Assistant Com- 
missioner was, and still is, acting as Inspecting Officer 
of the Dawson Rifle Company, the only Militia Corps 
in the Yukon, and represents the Officer Commanding 
Military District No. 11 in matters appertaining to that 
body and to the Dawson unit of the Dominion Rifle As- 
sociation. 

It will be recalled how, in the earlier days of the 
Mounted Police occupation of the Yukon, the officers 
were often hard put to it to secure the necessary dog 
teams. This difficulty has been overcome by breeding 
dogs for the service. A.sst. -Commissioner Wood re- 
ports : — 

"We are now fairly well supplied with dogs of a 
size and strength suitable to our needs; nearly all have 
been bred at the various detachments, and I hojK> in 
future to have a sufficient number raised to replace 
those destroyed on account of old age, &c., and to meet 
any special demands that may be made for extra 
patrols. " 

Four events stand out prominently in the liistory of 
the R.N.W.M.P. for the year 1905 — the acceptance by 
the Earl of Minto of the appointment of Honorary 
Commissioner of the force, the visit of Their Excellen- 
cies Ix)rd and Lady Grey to the North-West, the 
establishment and inauguration of the new Provinces 
of Alberta and Saskatchewan, embracing practically 
all the territory comprised within the original sphere 
of ofwrations of the R.N.W.M.P., and the long de- 
manded and necessary increase of pay. 

The appointment of an Honorary Commissioner was 
in line with a practice long followed in the Bri ah 
Army but only of late years introduced into Canada. 
The acceptance of the honor by the Earl of Minto, 
now Viceroy of India, was notified by the following 
communication : — 

MiNTO HousK. 

Hawick, January 11, 1905. 

'My Lokd, — I have the honour to acknowledge the 
receipt of Your Ixjrdship's despatch of December 29, 



141 



1904, inclosing an extract from a report of a committee 
of the Privy Council, informing me that I have been 
appointed, on the recommendation of the President of 
the Council, honorary commissioner of the Royal 
North-West Mounted Police. 

'I would be much obliged if you would express to Sir 
Wilfrid Laurier my sincere appreciation of the honor 
that has been conferred upon me. 

'I have the honour to be, my Lord, 
'Your obedient servant, 

'(Sgd.) MINTO. 
•His Excellency 

'The Earl Grey, G.C.M.G., &c., &c.' 

Their Excellencies the Governor General and Lady 
Grey visited the new provinces in September. Escorts 
were furnished at Edmonton, Macleod, Cardston, Leth- 
bridge and Regina. 

A permanent camp was established at Qu'Appelle 
lakes for their use, and orderlies, horses and transport 
supplied. 

His Excellency was pleased to express his approval 
in the following letter: — 

'My Dear Commissioner Perry, — I am com- 
manded by His Excellency to express to you his appre- 
ciation of the work carried out by the Royal North-West 
Mounted Police during the Governor General's visit. 

'Lord Grey has always heard of the good record 
borne by the force under your command, and it gave 
him great pleasure to see such a fine body of men. 

'He hopes that you will convey to the officers, non- 
commissioned officers and men, and especially to those 
who were with the camp on special duty, his high 
opinion of their smartness and work. 

'I am, yours. 
'(Signed) J. HANBURY-WILLIAMS, Col., 

'Military Secretary.' 

The Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan began 
their career as autonomous provinces with imposing 
celebrations at Edmonton and Regina, the temporary 
capitals, with which were attended by Their 
Excellencies the Governor General and Lady Grey, 
the Prime Minister, the Right Honourable Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier, and other eminent public men. Thanks to so 
many years of constant and loyal work by the Royal 
North-West Mounted Police, the new provinces- 
foster children of the force they may be almost con- 
sidered — began their career as such with the same 
respect tor and observance of law and order as prevails 
in the oldest provinces of the Dominion, and this not- 
withstanding the great influx of population, particu- 
larly during recent years, drawn from many foreign 
countries. As a fitting recognition of the pre-eminent 



services of the R.N.W.M.P, in fostering and protecting 
the new country in its pioneer days, the force was 
given a conspicuous part in the inauguration cere- 
monies. 

By instructions from Sir Wilfrid Laurier a portion 
of the force, consisting of 15 officers, 189 non-commis- 
sioned officers and constables, 200 horses and 4 guns, 
attended at both Edmonton and Regina. 

This force had the honour of being reviewed by His 
Excellency the Governor General, accompanied by 
Sir Wilfrid. The men composing the force were drawn 
from all parts of the Territories, and were together for 
four days only before the review. The assembling of 
this strength at Edmonton, the transfer to Regina, a 
distance of 700 miles, and the distribution to their 
respective posts, was carried out without any delay or 
accident. The conduct of all ranks was excellent, and 
all vied in a desire to do credit to the force to which 
they belonged. 

The increase of pay to all ranks was voted by Par- 
liament during the session of 1905, on resolutions in- 
troduced by the Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier. In 
presenting the measure the Prime Minister explained 
its object and scope as follows: — 

"This resolution was introduced in consequence ot 
the representations which have been made to the gov- 
ernment on the floor of this House on both sides, from 
lime to time, advising that the pay of the North-West 
Mounted Police should be increased. This matter has 
been under consideration, and 1 think we are meeting 
the public demand and the exigencies of the case in 
providing for the salaries nov/ set forth in this resolution. 
The increases are as follows: — 



Officers. 


Present Pay. 


Prop. Pay 




2,600 
1,600 
1,400 
1,400 
1,000 


3,000 




2,000 




1,800 




1,800 




1,400 







"We have four staff-sergeants to whom we give $2 
a day. Other staff-sergeants receive $1.50 a day, and 
we propose to give them $1.75 a day, an increase of 25 
cents a day. Non-commissioned officers receive $1 a 
day, and we propose to give them $1.25 a day. Con- 
stables receive 75 cents a day, and we propose to give 
them $1 a day. Special constables and scouts we 
have no right to pay for particularly, but we have paid 
them from 75 cents to $1.25 a day. We propose to 
give them $1.50 a day. Buglers under 18 years of age 
receive 40 cents a day and we propose to give them 
50 cents a day. Working artisans receive 50 cents a 



142 



day. and we propose to give them 75 cents a day. Tt is 
calculated that this will increase the pay of the force by 
$50,000. " 

The strength on November 30, 1905, was 54 officers, 
650 N.C. officers and constables, 109 interpreters, 
guides, scouts, artisans and special constables, total, 
813, and 606 horses. 

The strength in the i-rovinces of Alberta and Sas- 
katchewan and the North-Wost Territories was 38 
officers, 478 N.C. officers and constables, 69 interpreters, 
&c., total, 585, and 513 horses. 

The strength in the Yukon Territory was 16 officers, 
172 N.C. officers and constables, 40 interpreters, &c., 
total, 228, and 93 horses. 

In the North-West Territories and new provinces 
there were ten divisions, each with a headquarters post, 
and 104 j^ermanent outposts, an increase of 1 head- 
quarters post and 11 outposts as compared with the 
previous year. 

The strength was only 15 under that authorized. 
No special effort had been made to recruit. There had 
been many applications to engage, and not more than 
one in three had been accepted. 

The work of the year 1905 was very heavy and varied. 
The increase of population and the extending settle- 
ments added greath^ to the ordinary duties, and further 
demands were made this year in opening up the 
Peace River Yukon trail, a difficult task. In his 
annual report, the Commissioner brought to notice 
several cases he qualified as strenuous duties well per- 
formed. 

Corpl. Mapley, of 'B' Division, with a party of police 
left Dawson with dog teams on December 27, 1904 for 
Fort Mcpherson, on the Peel river, 500 miles distant, 
canning despatches to that distant outpost. The 
route taken was practically unknown, across mountain 
ranges. The party arrived back on March 9, having 
made a successful journey without a mishap, and hav- 
ing travelled upwards of 1,000 miles. 

On January 7, 1905, Insf>ector Genereux, of Prince 
All)ert, returned from a patrol to the far north to in- 
quire into a case of alleged murder. He was absent 132 
days, and travelled 1,750 miles by canoe and dog train. 
As a coroner he held an inquest and established that 
the death was accidental. This trip was very expen- 
sive, but it is an illustration of the principle which has 
hitherto prevailed, that crime will be dealt with no 
matter how remote the place, how dangerous the jour- 
ney, nor how great the cost. A marked instance of the 
administration of justice by the government of Canada 
through the Mounted Police has been the free expendi- 
ture of money in bringing criminals to justice. The 
government has never tied the hands of the police by 
refusing to authorise any expenditure of money where 



there was a reasonable hope of success. Many cases 
have cost tens of thousands, and in one celebrated 
case upwards of one hundred thousand dollars was 
expended. 

Another instance was the investigation made l\v 
Inspector McGinnis and Sergt. Egan into an alleged 
murder north of Cat lake in Keewatin some 200 miles 
north of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a point to 
which no white man had before penetrated. The ac- 
cused was arrested. 

Constable A. Pedley, stationed at Fort Chipewyan, 
was detailed to escort an unfortunate lunatic from that 
place to Fort Saskatchewan He reports as follows: — 

'I left Chipewyan in charge of the lunatic on De- 
cember 17, 1904, with the interpreter and two dog 
trains. After travelling for five days through slush 
and water up to our knees, we arrived at Fort McKay 
on December 22.' 

'Owing to the extreme cold, the prisoner's feet were 
frost bitten. I did all I could to relieve him, and [uir- 
chased some large moccasins to allow more wrappings 
for his feet. I travelled without accident until the 
27th, reaching Big Weechume lake. Here I had to 
lay off a day to procure a guide, as there was no trail. 
I arrived at Lac La Biche on the 31st, and secured a 
team of horses to carry me to Fort Haskatchewan. 1 
arrived on January 7, 1905, and handed over my 
prisoner. During the earlier part of the trip the pri- 
soner was very weak and refused to eat, but during the 
latter part of the trip he develo|)ed a good ap|K'tite 
and got stronger.' 

'The unfortunate man was transferred to Calgary 
guard room. Assistant Surgeon Rouleau re|x)rt8 tiiat 
it was a remarkable case. He was badly frozen about 
his feet, and the exposure to the cold had caused para- 
lysis of the tongue for several days Every care and 
attention was given him at the hospital (to which he 
was transferred), with the result that he was discharged 
on February 23 with the loss only of the first joint of 
a big toe. His mind and si>eech were as good as ever. 
His life was saved.' 

Constable Pedley commenced his return trip to Fort 
Chi|)ewyan. When he left Fort Sa-skatchowan he was 
api)arently in good health, but at Lac La Hiche he 
went violently insane as a result of the hardships of 
his trip, and his anxiety for the safety of his charge. 
He was brought back to Fort Saskatchewan and then 
transferreil to Brandon Asylum. After s))cnding six 
months there he recovered his mind and returned to 
headquarters. He was granted three months' leave, 
and is now at duty as well as ever. In spite of all, he 
re-engaged for a further term of service. 

One more instance of devotion to duty. Constable 
(now corporal) Conradi was on patrol, when a tremen- 



143 



dous prairie fire was seen sweeping across the country. 
He asked the rancher, at whose house he was 
having dinner, if any settlers were in danger, and 
was told that a settler with ten children was 
in danger, but his place could not be reached. 
Conradi felt that he must try, and galloped off. 
Mr. Young, the settler, writing to Conrad i's com- 
manding officer, said in part :— ' His (Conradi's) 
pluck and endurance I cannot praise too highly; fight- 
ing till he was nearly sufi"ocated, his hat burned of 
his head, hair singed, and vest on fire.' 'My wife and 
family owe their lives to Mr. Conradi, and I feel with 
them, we shall never be able to repay him for his brave 
conduct.' 

On March 1 a new police district was created, to be 
known as 'Athabasca,' and a division, designated ' N,' 
organized for duty in that district, with temporary 
headquarters at Lesser Slave Lake. The members of 
'G' Division stationed in Athabasca, were transferred 
to 'N' Division. Superintendent Constantine was ap- 
|X)inted to the command. To this division was assign- 
ed the duty of oi^ening up a pack trail from Fort St. 
John, B.C., to Teslin Lake, Yukon Territory, across 
the mountains of British Columbia. The estimated 
distance is 750 miles. A detachment of two officers, 
thirty non-commissioned officers and constables and 
sixty horses left Fort Saskatchewan on March 17 for 
this work. Owing to the breaking up of the winter 
roads, the journey was very trying, but they reached 
Peace River Crossing, 350 miles from Fort Saskatche- 
wan, on April 9, without any serious mishap. Here 
they were delayed awaiting supplies, which had been 
contracted for, until May 21, when the party left for 
Fort St. John, 570 miles from Fort Saskatchewan, 
arriving there June L .^ 

Work was immediately commenced on the construc- 
tion of winter quarters, and cutting hay. Work com- 
menced on the trail on June 15, and was suspended on 
September 25, owing to heavy snow in the mountaina. 
94 miles of trail were completed. 

During the year 1906 exceptionally good progress 
has been made. 

Owing to the demoralization, by the liquor traffic, 
of the Indians living on the shores of Lake Winnipeg, 
it was decided in 1905 to establish a police patrol. 
Arrangements were made with the Department of 
Indian Affairs to share the expense of purchasing and 
maintaining a small steamer for this work. The Red- 
wing was secured and placed in commission in June, 
and laid up on September 25, owing to the dangerous 
storms on the lakes in the autumn making navigation 
for such a small boat unsafe. 

The effects of this patrol were most beneficial. 
Missionaries and Indian officials agree that they never 



saw such an absence of intoxication among the 
Indians. 

It is worthy of remark that for some years the 
Mounted Police have been discharging duties afloat, 
so that besides acting as policemen, soldiers, inspectors, 
explorers, surveyors, teamsters, etc., etc., members of 
the force have been acting as marines and actually 
sailors. The f<^rce in the Yukon has in charge three 
launches, one at Cacross, the other two at White 
Horse, and a steamer the "Vidette. " This steamer 
was purchased in September, 1902, and has been in 
commission during the five months of navigation each 
year since. 




R.N.W.M.P. Patrol Steamer "Vidette." 
(From a photograph kindly loaned by Lieut.-Col. F. White, the Comptroller). 

The boat was purchased at auction for some $3,000, 
and has proved herself of valuable assistance. She 
carries a vast amount of freight to different points on 
the Yukon river, both from Dawson and White Horse, 
and, furthermore, carried supplies up the Hootalinqua, 
Stewart and Takheena rivers to the several detach- 
ments at those points. A patrol is also made 250 miles 
up the Pelly river. 

.\t the time the Vidette was purchased it cost more to 
ship freight from eastern points to Dawson than to 
White Horse. It was the intention to have all the 
police supplies consigned to the last named place and 
have the steamer bring on what was required for 
Dawson, thus saving a considerable sum. The White 
Pass and Yukon route, however, in order to drive op- 
position off the river, reduced the through rate to 
Dawson to the same figure as was charged on White 
Horse consignments. For this reason the police boat 
did not effect the saving that was expected of her. 

A detachment of two officers, 13 N.C. officers and 
constables, Supt. J. D. Moodie commanding, were 
stationed in Hudson's Bay during the seasons 1904-05. 
They wintered at Cape Fullerton. The summer was 
spent in patrolling the Bay in the ss. Artie. 



144 



It will be recalled that Supt. Moodie with a detach- 
ment of N.W.M.P. left Halifax in August 1903 for 
Hudson Bay on the ss. Neptune for the purpose of 
asserting the authority of the Dominion Government, 
and enforcing the laws in those distant regions. 

As to the location of a permanent Mounted Police 
post in the region, one of the objects in view, when in 
Cumberland Sound, in September, 1903, Supt. Moodie 
heard that United States whalers were somewhere 
about the north of Southampton Island. On the 
way to Fullerton,the matter of locations for detachments 
was frequently discussed by Mr. Low, commanding 
the expedition. Captain Bartlett and Supt. Moodie, al- 
though no formal council was called, and it was taken 
for granted that the police would build where the 
whalers wintered. On arrival at Winchester inlet, 
about 40 miles south of Fullerton, in September, the 
officers heard from natives that there was a whaling 
station at Fullerton and a Scotch station at Repulse 
Bay. It was decided to winter at Fullerton, where 
there was said to be good water and a good harbour. 
Deer, fish and birds were to be had in abundance. 
The Neptune arrived there on September 23, and build- 
ing was at once commenced. 

Supt. Moodie had been informed by the Comptroller 
t hat most probably a detachment would be placed at 
("luirchill in the spring This confirmed his opinion 
that a post was to be placed on the west side of the bay, 
where whalers wintered; also, that it was intended 
the police should have jurisdiction in this district, al- 
though it is actually part of Keewatin. With natives 
and good dogs, it would be possible to make a patrol 
from Fullerton to Churchill in the winter along the sea 
ice, even without an intermediate post; with one there 
should be but little trouble. Supplies for the return 
journey could be procured from the Hudson's Bay 
Company. 

Fullcrtx)n was the best winter harbour seen on the 
west side, and is on that account a good place for a 
po.st. 

Supt. Moodie chose the site for barracks on the 
island, as this forms one side of the harbour, and the 
inlet between it and the main land is only navigable 
for small boats. The building which is intended for 
officers' quarters is 15 by 24 feet, divided into large 
and two small rooms; a store house for provisions, &c., 
a coal shed, and a lean-to kitchen 12 by 16 with large 
porch have also been erected. There is a good fresh 
water pond in the rocks, about 75 yards from the house. 

Supt. Moodie left Staff-Sergeant Dee and Constables 
Conway and Tremaine with a native at Fullerton when 
the Neptune sailed on July 18th, 1904. Moodie in- 
structed the Staff-Sergeant, if possible, to purchase one 
or two teams, of ten good dogs each, and to purchase 



from natives and store ample supplies of dog feed, viz: 
fish, deer meat, seal, walrus, &c. He had field rations 
for five men for 400 days, but his supply of coal was 
limited, a little over 14 tons. 

He was instructed to endeavour to make a patrol to 
Repulse Bay during the summer of 1905 by boat. He 
was also to make short patrols inland and along the 
coast during the winter, as weather, &c., permits, 
should the Neptune not be able to return to Fullerton. 

Under the existing circumstances and strength of 
the police in Hudson Bay, patrolling to any extent is 
next to impossible. In the winter the distances and 
the absence of any posts at which the supplies for men 
and dogs can be obtained, make the risk too great. In 
the summer, the time is so limited, that if the officer com- 
manding has to visit the trading stations in Cumberland 
Sound and north thereof he will be unable to do any 
work in the bay. The winter is the time when patrols 
inland will be made; in fact, it is the only time 
when they can be made away from rivers. 

To patrol and become acquainted with this country 
would require a considerable force and an expenditure 
in proportion. The difficulties are much greater than 
even in the Yukon. The season when travelling by 
water can be done is shorter, and, there being no fuel 
or shelter of any description, in the winter everything 
for men and dogs has to be carried. 

On September 17, 1904, Superintendent Moodie 
sailed from Quebec in command of the D.G.S. Arctic 
She had on board in addition to Capt. Bernier, sailing 
master, officers and ship's company, Insp. Pelletier, 
S.-Sergt. Hayne, 2 corix)rals and 6 constables of the 
Royal North-West Mounted Police, Mr. Vanasse, 
historian, Mr. Mackean, photographer, and Mr. A. 1). 
Moodie, secretary. Tne Arctic arrived at Port Bur- 
well, Ungava bay, on the afternoon of October 1. 
The "Arctic" left Burwell the same evening for 
Fullerton and arrived there on the morning of Octo- 
ber IG. No ice was encountered on the voyage until 
the ship got within a few miles of Fullerton, when 
she ran through some slob ice floating in and out with 
the tide. The inner harbour, where the " Arctic " an- 
chored, was frozen over to a thickness of about 4 
inches. 

Materials for additional buildings at Fullerton were 
carried by the "Arctic." It was intended that the 
headquarters of 'M' Division, newly created for service 
in the Hudson's Bay district, should l>e built at or near 
Cape Wolstenholme. This cape forms the north-west 
corner of Ungava on Hudson's straits. There was not, 
however, sufficient room on the Arctic, and it was 
finally decided that the ship should winter at Fullerton, 
complete the necessary buildings there, and that the 
material for headciuarters and a detachment at Cumber- 



145 



land Sound should be forwarded by the supply steamer 
going north in 1905. Owing to the entire absence of 
timber in the north the detachment are dependent 
altogether upon the supplies of lumber sent up from 
the south. 

A good frame barrack room, 30 feet 3 inches by 15 
feet 3 inches inside measurement, was erected in the 
fall of 1904 at Fullerton, by the police, assisted by a 
carpenter hired from the whaler Era. A non-commis- 
sioned officer's room was partitioned off from the 
barrack-room, but later had to be used as a trade and 
quartermaster's store, though much too small for the 
purpose. 




Native Hut near the Fullerton Post of the R.N.W.M.P. 

The officers' quarters erected the previous winter 
and used, until the new building was completed, as a 
barrack-room, was floored with matched lumber, and 
the walls covered with asbestos paper and oiled canvas. 
The new building was finished in the same way. Both 
were reported warm and comfortable but within certain 
limits. Nothing appeared sufficient to keep the frost 
out. The curtains in the bedroom were frozen to the 
floor, and there was thick ice all round the skirting 
boards. 

July 5, 1905, the Arctic sailed from Fullerton with 
Supt. Moodie on board and proceeded to Cape Wols- 
tenholme, in which vicinity a site on a large bay 
named Prefontaine Harbour, in honour of the then 
Minister of Marine and Fisheries, was selected for 
Divisional headquarters. Shortly afterwards, owing 
to accidents to her machinery, the Arctic had to return 
to the St. Lawrence, Supt. Moodie, and the men with 
him transferring to the chartered steamer Neptune. 
In Hudson Bay very heavy weather was encountered. 
" On October 6th the sun was only visible for about 5 
minutes and no sights were obtained. At 4.15 a.m., on 
the 7th, position by dead reckoning being lat. 60.20 N., 



long. 86.50 W. (almost in the centre of Hudson's Bay), 
we struck heavily on reefs, pounding over them for 15 
minutes. The morning was pitch dark with snow 
squalls. After apparently getting inside the reef, 
vessel again struck three times. The captain kept her 
as nearly as possible in position until dawn, when the 
seas could be seen breaking on the reefs all round. He 
then took her through the only visible channel with 
barely water to take us through. Wind increased to 
strong from S.E. by E. true, with heavy short seas. 
Weather thick with frequent squalls of snow and sleet. 
Vessel's head was kept to wind, engines going slow. 
Morning of 8th was fairly clear, course S.W. by S., 
engines going slow. Just before noon the sun appeared 
for a short time and a sight was olitained giving us the 
latitude of Marble Island, which was sighted at 5.30 
p.m. After consulting with Capt. Bartlett I decided 
to go to Fullerton, from which we were distant only 
about 90 miles, before proceeding to Churchill. By doing 
so time would be saved. The vessel was making water, 
our compasses were totally unreliable, and it was not 
considered advisable to get out of sight of land until 
they could be adjusted. The 9th was comparatively 
fine and clear. Ran along coast until evening, but on 
account of mirage no land marks could be made out — 
the whole coast ap})eared to be lifted up like high 
perpendicular cliffs. Towards night it came on to 
blow a gale with very heavy sea. Soundings were 
taken every 15 minutes during the night, the police 
on board being told off into watches for this purpose, 
one seaman and two of the police being in each watch 
of two hours. Lay-to going slow and half speed as 
required to keep the vessel head on; frequent heavy 
squalls of snow and sleet. The 10th was a repetition 
of the previous night, gale veering from N.N. PI to 
N.N.W. with tremendous sea." Pumps going all the 
time. This continued, with wind and sea getting 
worse, all the 11th. At 4 p.m. on this day a heavy sea 
struck forward end of bridge on port side. It curled 
over chart room, and falling on main deck, smashed to 
splinters the two whale boats swinging inboard from 
davits. The stern of starboard boat was cut off and 
left hanging from davit Main boom broken from 
gooseneck, both poop ladders torn from the bolts and 
with two harness casks, lashed on deck, swept over- 
board. The lumber, &c., on port side of poop was torn 
from its lashings and washing about, and the rest 
loosened up The cattle pens forward were smashed 
and one sheep had two legs and some ribs broken. 
Sea and wind increasing, it was decided to jettison the 
rest of the deck load and so relieve the vessel somewhat 
from the heavy straining. The danger was that if the 
deck load broke loose it would carry away the cabin 
skylight and flood the vessel The morning of the 12th 



146 



the wind began to moderate and the sea quickly went 
down." (Supt. Moodie's report.) 

The same day the Neptune arrived at Fullerton and 
Staff-Sergeant Hayne, going on board, reported the 
sad death, by drowning, of Constable Russell, on the 
evening of the 5th July, the very day theArctic left her 
winter quarters. On the 17th, the Neptune sailed for 
Churchill, Corpl. Rowley, Constables Vitrey and Heap, 
and Interpreter Ford being left at Fullerton to strength- 
en the detachment. 

Superintendent Moodie again returned to Hudson 
Bay with re-inforcements and supplies during the pre- 
sent summer, 1906. 

In September, 1905. the force was re-armed through- 
out with Ross rifles and Colt revolvers, which replaced 
the Winchester carbines and Enfield revolvers. 




A Lonely Grave in the Far North near the R.N.W.M.F. Post 
at Fullerton. 



On the organization of the force it was armed with 
the Snider carbine and the Adams revolver, both wea- 
pons, so far as durability was concerned, standing the 
rough work to which they were put very well. 

About 1880, 100 Winchester rifles, improved pattern, 
were purchased . and "A" and "F" Divisions armed 
with them. This rifle, which was a repeating one, and 
capable of receiving eight cartridges in the magazine, 
had many good points, and was a favorite arm with 
the western prairie men. It was not, however, alto- 
gether a good military weapon. The system of rifling 
waa good, but the rifle was altogether too weak in con- 
struction to meet the rough handling that at times it 
was impossible to prevent its receiving. 

In his annual refxjrt of 1881, Lieut.-Col. Irvine, 
referring to the armament of the force, wrote in part: — 
"The Snider carbine is now considered in many res- 
pects an ol)solcte military arm, and is somewhat un- 
suited to the wants of a force in this country, where a 
large portion of the Indian population is armed with 



an accurate shooting weapon. Still, however, bearing 
in mind the expense that a change of arms would ne- 
cessitate, I think the Snider carbine may be utilized for 
us for some further time, at all events. The amount 
of Snider ammunition on hand is large. 

"The revolver with which the force is armed is of 
the "Adams" pattern. This revolver is not such as I 
should recommend were a new purchase being made; 
they can, however, be made to answer all practicable 
purposes. 

"The question of further arming the North- West 
Mounted Police with sword is one to which I have given 
considerable attention. There are times when a sword 
would prove an encumbrance to a Mounted Policeman; 
time.'!, therefore, when it would be undesirable. It is, 
of course, requisite that in the question of arms, the 
number and weight carried by each man should be 
reduced to a minimum consistent with efficiency. 

" In making ordinary prairie trips where no serious 
danger of attack is to be anticipated, I should be sorry 
to see our men's endurance further taxed by their being 
forced to add a sword to the arms they already carry. 

"If I mistake not, the late General Custer. U.S.A., 
objected to the sword being employed in Indian war- 
fare, on account of the noise made in carrying it. 1 
presume General Custer, in condemning the sword, 
must have meant his remarks to apply to one carried 
in a steel scabbard such as the British cavalry now use. 

"Similar and other objections have been advanced 
by officers of much experience in England. 

" It will be remembered that the 7th United States 
Cavalry, who fought under the late General Custer, at 
the battle of the "Big Horn" (known as the Custer 
Massacre), were not armed with swords. From various 
accounts of this fight given me by the Sioux Indians 
who took part in it, I am led to believe that had this 
arm Iwen in use the result.s would not, in all probability, 
have been so terribly disastrous (w). 

" The artillery armament of the force consists of four 
7-pr. mountain gtnis (bronze), at Fort Walsh. Two 
9 pr. M.L.R. guns, and two small mortars, at Fori 
Macleod. " 

In his rejwrt at the end of 1882 the Commissioner 
wrote: — "You are aware that we are still obliged to 
retain in use at Regina and Battleford a numl)er of 
Snider carbines. These carbines, owing to long and 
hard service, are fast l)econung tniserviceable. in addi- 
tion to the arm it.self being ati obsolete one. and in- 
ferior to that which must of the Indians (all of those 



(w) Ak th« lanp(> in a w«a|H>n which in MippoMd to Htrike terror into the 
niiixlH of KAvaxPM. a nniall Iokup of lannea WM made to I he forrr lieforf! it 
ntartt*)! on ilo long march unilcr (>«n«ral French, and Ihcrc hnvo J)een 
lancrx nn<l men cx|>cri in their »m> in the force ever oince. For many 
yean* these lancen have b«en u<ie<l nterely for exeroiiw, and e)i|)ecially by 
the picked " muaical ride " aqusda. 



147 



in the southern district) are armed. Two years ago I 
alhided to certain defects existing in the first pattern 
of Winchester carbine supplied to the force. In the 
new carbine, manufactured expressly for the force by 
the Winchester Arms Company, (a number of which 
had been recently issued) all the old defects have been 
obviated. I beg to recommend that the whole force 
be at once supplied with Winchester carbines of the 
same pattern (model 1876) as those purchased from 
the Winchester Arms Company. 

" I would remind you that the carriages and limbers 
of the 7-pr. mountain guns are fast becoming unser- 
viceable. I recommend that new ones be purchased 
of the pattern lately approved by the Imperial authori- 
ties." 

During 1883, more of the new special pattern Win- 
chester rifles, and some Enfield revolvers were issued 
to the force. At the end of the year the Commissioner 
reported: — "The new pattern Winchester rifle supplied 
is a most excellent arm, and of very superior manu- 
facture. It is, in every respect, well adapted to our 
use. The same remarks apply, with equal force, to 
the new revolvers." 

As to the artillery armament of the force, in the same 
report Commissioner Irvine wrote: — "The artillery 
armament of the force is as follows, viz.: — Two 9-pr. 
R.M.L. guns, four 7-pr. mountain guns (bronze), and 
two small mortars. The two 9-pr. guns and two small 
mortars are at Fort Macleod. Two ot the 7-pr. guns being 
at Calgary and two at headquarters, the various pro- 
jectiles and stores appertaining to the mountain guns 
are proportionately divided between the last two places 
mentioned. I have previously reported that the 
carriages and limbers of the 7-pr. guns are virtually 
unserviceable, and last year I recommended that car- 
riages and limbers of the Imperial pattern be pur- 
chased. On close inquiry, however, it was ascertained 
that such purchase would have entailed a very con- 
siderable expenditure. Carriages and limbers suitable 
for our purposes can be manufactured in this country 
at a much smaller cost than would ensue were a pur- 
chase made from England. " 

Gradually all the Snider carbines and Adams revol- 
vers were replaced by Winchesters and Enfield revolvers. 

In his report at the end of the year 1887, Commissioner 
Herchmer wTote : — 

"The whole force is now supplied with Enfield re- 
volvers which are well adapted for our work. I pro- 
pose to arm the railway police with a smaller weapon 
which can be carried in a less conspicuous manner. 

" The Winchester carbine, so long the favourite arm 
with western prairie-men, is not giving good satisfaction 
in the force. The ease with which it gets out of order 
and its liability to break off at the stock, are serious 



drawbacks to its efficiency. The advantages of the 
magazine in this carbine are quite neutralized by the 
difficulty experienced in keeping it in order, and the 
great temptation it offers, especially to young recruits, 
to waste their fire. For a military weapon the tra- 
jectory is very much too high. A good many of the 
first issues are gradually wearing out, and I would 
suggest that as soon as it can be settled which is the 
best carbine now made, one division be supplied with 
it, when, if satisfactory, it can be issued to the rest of 
the force." 

In the annual report of the Commissioner for 1890 
appeared the following reference to the small arms of 
the force: — 

"Our Enfield revolvers are in excellent order, and 
answer the purpose very well, but the ammunition is 
too strong, and they shoot rather high, at short dis- 
tances particularly. The small revolvers in use at 
railroad stations are also very good, and I have asked 
for some more. 

"The Winchester carbines are still in use, and are 
still complained of. They, however, answer our pur- 
pose very well, and with close supervision and a con- 
siderable number of new barrels, which are being put in, 
will last for sometime longer. 

" Last winter, Morris tubes were sent to Regina, and 
during the winter months the recruits derived great 
benefit from using them, and many of them in the 
spring proved excellent shots with the Winchester. " 

The artillery attached to the force in 1895 consisted 
of one brass 7-pounder at Prince Albert in good order; 
two brass 7-pounders at Battleford, and one M.L. 
9-pounder all in good order. One M.L. 9-pounder at 
Regina in good order, used for drill purposes and one 
brass 7-pounder for salutes. Two M.L. 9-pounders at 
Macleod in good order and two brass mortars. Two 
7-pounders at Calgary. At all posts, gun detachments 
were regularly drilled. 

In 1895 there was a small experimental issue of Lee- 
Metford rifles. 

At the end of 1896, Commissioner Herchmer reported: 
— "Our Winchester carbines are in about the same 
condition as last year. By providing new barrels and 
parts worn out, they will last for some time, and for 
short ranges, up to 400 yards, they are well adapted 
for our work. Beyond this range, the Lee-Metfords 
are very much more accurate, in fact, beyond 500 
yards, the Winchesters are of little use. The sighting 
of the Winchester carbines is most defective, they 
nearly all shoot too low, and paper, or some other sub- 
stance has to be placed under the back-sight to ensure 
any accuracy at target practice. We used American 
Winchester ammunition entirely, and it was of good 
quality. " 



148 



During the last year he was in command in the 
Yukon, Supt. A. B. Perry reported: — "There are in 
the Yukon Territorj^ two Maxim guns, one at Tagish, 
one at Dawson; and one Nordenfelt gun, at Tagish. 
The small arms are as follows: — Winchester carbines 
56, Dawson district; 156, Tagish district; Lee-Metford 
carbines 39, Dawson district; 5, Tagish district; 
Enfield revolvers 71, Dawson district; 154, Tagish 
district; Smith & Wesson revolvers, 2, Tagish district. 
Some small repairs are needed and some of the 
Winchester carbines are badly honey-combed. Re- 
mainder are in good order. A Mauser pistol, which 
by means of a stock which forms its case, can be trans- 
formed into a carbine at a moment's notice, has been 
tried and proved satisfactory. I would recommend 
that it be adopted for the use of the force. This 
arm being well known, needs no further commenda- 
tion. " 

In his first annual report as commanding officer 
(1901) Commissioner Perry drew attention to the 
necessity of re-arming the force in the following 
terms: — 

"The force should be entirely re-armed. "D" 
Division alone has the Lee-Metford carbine, all others 
are armed with the obsolete Winchester carbine and 
Enfield revolver. Carbines and revolvers have been 
in use a long time and the rifling is worn out. If the 
corp)s is to be armed, it ought to be well armed. 
Without accurate arms there cannot be good shooting, 
without good shooting, carrying arms is an anomaly. 
A change of the arms will call for a change in equip- 
ment. At present when the revolver is worn, am- 
munition for the carbine must be taken whether the 
carbine is carried or not. " 

In his report for the following year the Commi.ssioner 
was able to report: — "The re-arming of the force has 
been sanctioned and is now only delayed, to take ad- 
vantage of any improvements in small arms resulting 
from the South African war. New equipment will ne- 
cessarily follow the re-arming. " 

In the report for 1903, progress in the matter of re- 
armament was reported by the Commissioner as 
follows: — 

"The force is now armed with the Winchester car- 
bine, with the exception of "D" and "K" Divisions, 
which are armed with the Lee-Metford carbine, and 
with the Enfield revolver. Both carbines and revolvers 
arc worn out. and I am glad to be able to report that 
the department has decided to re-arm the whole force 
with modem weapons. 

"Sir Charles Ross submitted for trial two rifles. 
one with 28 inch barrel, and one with 25 inch 
barrel, the action being the same in both. The 
essential difference between the Ross rifle and the 



Lee-Metford, used in the Imperial service, is in the 
bolt action. In the Ross the bolt is withdrawn, 
and closed by a straight pull, whereas in the Lee-Met- 
ford the bolt is revolved through a quarter circle, 
either in opening or closing. Both have the same 
barrel and use the same ammunition. 

" Comparisons were made with the Winchester car- 
bine, and Lee-Metford and Mauser rifles. 

"The Board recommended that the Ross rifle, of 
which the following is a description should be adopted, 
but that certain minor alterations should be made in 
the sealed pattern: — Lengthfromheelof butt to muzzle, 
3 ft. 9] inches, length of barrel, 25 inches, distance 
between fore and back sights, 20 3-16 inches, length of 
stock, 14 1-5 inches, weight, 7 lbs. 8 oz. " 

The perfected rifle of to-day, if it is to be effective, 
must shoot accurately; its mechanism must be simple 
and safe; its trigger must pull smoothly and easily; its 
sights must be rigidly secured and finely adjusted; 
and the stock must be strong and firmly balanced. 
The gun must be as light as it can be safely made, and 
must shoot with such precision that the man behind 
it knows that a miss is his own fault. 

The Ross rifle, which is manufactured in Canada, 
meets all these requirements as does no other in exist- 
ence. Furthermore, it excels in rapidity of fire, in 
lightness and balance, in quality and strength of metal, 
in the accuracy of its sights, and in the maintenance of 
its alignment. It secures its rapidity of fire by the 
mechanism of a bolt that requires but two movements, 
while most military rifles in use require at least three 
and some even four. Its weight (7 pounds and 13 
ounces), nearly two pounds less than the present arm 
in use in the United States, is gained by the high quality 
of metal used. 

Both sights of the gun have improvements worth 
noting. 

The rear sight is a marvel of compactness. The leaf 
is hinged at the forward end and is adjusted up or down, 
either by means of .sliding clanifw engaging a moveable 
rack held by a plate, upim which the distances by 
himdred yards are inscribed, or by a micrometer 
thimble showing fractional parts of these distances. 
The .sliding clamjw provide the coarse adjustments; 
and the micrometer thimble the very fine adjustments. 
The sight leaf can l)e carried to elevations corre- 
sponding with ranges from 1(X) to 22(X) yards. 
A wind guage is also provided with the rear 
sight. 

Much interest has always been taken in the target 
practice of the force, never as much as under the pre- 
.sent Commissioner, who is himself a crack shot. In 
1903, Commissioner Perry, in General Orders drew 
particular attention to the imiwrtance of rifle shooting. 



149 



The Commissioner practices what he preaches, and 
in the annual target practice of the Depot Division, 
the same 5'ear, he took first place with the car- 
bine. During the month of August the Depot Divi- 
sion had a number of interesting matches, the 
principal ones being "B" Division (Dawson) versus 
Depot Division, results wired; certified scores by mail; 
10 a side; 200 and 400 yards. "B" Division won by 32 
points. 

For the first time in the history of the force, regi- 
mental matches were held at Calgary in September 
this same year. Teams of 8 men from each division 
competed in rifle and revolver matches. The scores 
were excellent and the competition very keen. A sub- 
stantial grant was authorized from the fine fund for 
prizes. The Slater Shoe Co., Montreal; E. L. Drewry, 
Esq., of Winnipeg, and Superintendent Constantine 
gave very handsome sterling silver cups for competition. 
The canteens subscribed generously, and the officers 
gave a large cash prize. The Canadian Pacific Railway 
gave a very low rate for transportation, so that the 
charge against the public was much reduced. The 
team matches were won as follows :— Slater trophy, 
"A" Division; Drewry trophy, Depot Division,; Con- 
stantine trophy, "E" Division. 

Reg. No. 1206, Corporal Banham, won the individual 
rifle match, and Reg. No. 1126, Sergeant-Major Raven, 
the individual revolver match. 

The bringing together of men from every divi- 
sion was most beneficial, and the Commissioner 
hoped that these matches would be made an annual 
event. 

In 1904 a rifle range with eight targets was built 
on the police reserve at Medicine Hat. It is an ex- 
cellent range, and it is proposed that annual regimental 
matches be held there. These matches were to 
have taken place in 1904, in September, and all 
arrangements were made. Owing to unexpected de- 
mands made at that time the matches had to be 
postponed. 

Owing to the fact that the new rifles were not received 
until September, the annual target practice for 1905 
was not carried out. 

His Excellency the Earl of Minto, Honorary Commis- 
sioner of the force, has sent the Commissioner a very 
handsome silver cup to be competed for at these 
matches. 

His Excellency the Governor General has also in- 
formed the Commissioner that he intends presenting 
a trophy for competition. 

As there have been several changes in the armament 
since the organization of the force so there has been 
a steady but often slow process of evolution going on 
with regard to uniform and equipment. 



The uniform of the Royal North-West Mounted 
Police at present consists of scarlet serge (tunic of 
dragoon pattern for officers) blue back overalls or 
riding breeches with broad yellow stripes, broad- 
rimmed brown felt hat of cow-boy pattern, brown 
leather belts, gauntlets, etc. A suit of khaki drill 
is worn on prairie service, fatigues, etc. 

The full-dress uniform, while comparatively plain 
and free from detail, is in general effect very smart, 
particularly when the clothing is well-fitted and 
worn on a good figure, which is invariably the 
case in the Royal North-West Mounted Police. 
The smartest cavalry regiments in His Majesty's 
service cannot turn out a smarter lot of troopers 
than the stalwart red-coats that swagger about 
the streets of the towns and villages of the Canadian 
North-West. 

The red-coat has always been a characteristic feature 
of the uniform of the force. The adoption of this 
striking detail of uniform was not merely due to the 
strong British sentiment which prevails in Canada. 
It was not a piece of empty colonial swagger; but 
rather a case of subtle diplomacy. Among the Indians 
of North America the red coat was a tradition, and a 
dearly cherished one. It recalled to their minds 
stories related about the camp fires by their fathers 
and grand-fathers, of staunch red-coated warriors who 
had fought side by side with them. Who had not only 
fought well, but had acted the brave, honourable and 
manly part towards their dusky allies. It was a sub- 
ject of comment among the redmen that however other 
white men might lie to them and cheat them, these 
wearing the red coat could be trusted with implicit 
confidence ; that although among a certain class of white 
men, the inhuman doctrine had been enunciated and 
acted upon with barbarous perseverance that "The 
only good Indian is a dead Indian," the authority 
which the red coat represented held the life of an In- 
dian as sacred as that of any white. It will be remem- 
bered that, as a crafty concession to this sentiment 
among the Manitoba Indians, the foot soldiers of 
the permanent militia force maintained in that prov- 
ince for some years after the suppression of the Red 
River troubles, were transformed from " rifles " into red 
coated " infantry. " 

The original red coat of the Mounted Police, as 
worn by the force under Colonel French, was of the 
loose frock or Norfolk jacket pattern in vogue in the 
army for some years after the Crimean War, with cloth 
belts. The broad-striped breeches, as at present, were 
worn, while the head-dress for full dress was the white 
helmet, for undress the small, round " pill-box " forage 
cap once universal in the mounted branches of the 
British service. The original issue of uniform also 



150 



included long brown boots and a brown cotton fatigue 
suit. 

The officers' uniforms differed only from those of the 
non-commissioned ranks in the addition of a light 
edging of gold lace to the " frocks " and the wearing of 
military rank badges. 

In his confidential report on the force in 1875, Sir 
Selby Smith made the following reference to the uni- 
form of the force : — 

" I like the dress of the Mounted Police, scarlet frock, 
cord breeches, long brown boots and a brown cotton 
fatigue suit, (better cotton than linen) — the latter when 
wet causes chills and fevers; white helmet; the forage 
cap can be improved, and also I prefer the tunic shape 
to the frock, it is more 'dressy' and the men take 
some pride in looking smart. At present there is a 
want of uniformity in the dress. I am told the uniform 
lately sent is excellent, but I hardly concur in the 

-tem of allowing officers to wear the same as the men 
with the addition of gold lace — it may do for service 
but I think a neat full-dress should be adopted, not 
costly but such as they could feel becoming their 
position in society. I believe the officers desire this 
improvement. I think the simpler the adornment of 
lace the better. 

" It is suggested that the officers should wear swords (4) 
which have a great effect upon the Indian mind and a 
shoulder belt with a pouch for field glasses. Indeed 
I think constables should have a field glass, they are 
absolutely necessary on the prairie ; a great number of 
Indians and others now wear them, and the police are 
tlierefore at a disadvantage without this aid." 

Shortly after this, while the Hon. R. W. Scott was 
the ministerial head of the department, at the request 
of the officers, the tunic pattern of "coat" was adopted 
for the non-commissioned officers and men, a most 
elaborate officers' uniform being sanctioned at the 
same time. This included a very handsome tunic of 
the hussar pattern, but of course of scarlet cloth, and 
with the rich trimmings of gold lace and braid bestowed 
upon the familiar hussar officer's blue garment. Other 
triking features of this uniform were long drooping 
plumes of horse hair worn in the officers' helmets, 
and a sabretache literally covered with gold lace, the 
main ornament being the corp's badge, as at present, 
consisting of a buffal<j head surrounded by maple 
leaves, with a garter underneath inscribed with the 
corp's motto " Maintiens le Droit." Of course 
gold lace belts were also worn At the time this 
uniform was adopted comment was made upon 
its exceptionally elalx)rate and expensive character, 
but it was represented by the officers that smartness 



(4) 8words were abortly after the (late of this retxirt adopted by the 
nffioera, and have been worn ever ainee. 



is especially required in the early years of any corps to 
assist in the development of a proper feeling of corps 
pride, and furthermore, that in this case there was a 
special object to be considered in connection with the 
uniform of the Mounted Police, namely the import- 
ance of creating a marked impression of the import- 
ance and authority of the officers of the force upon the 
receptive minds of the Indians. Owing to these argu- 
ments, and to the fact that the officers themselves, 
who would have to pay for the gold lace and plumes, 
had asked for them, the minister gave his sanction to 
the elaborate uniform which was so long worn by the 
officers. 

For some years now the officers have worn plainer 
and less expensive tunics of dragoon officers' pattern 
in full dress. 

The dressy blue undress patrol jacket with braided 
breast and hanging tabs, still worn by the officers, was 
adopted at the same time as the original elaborate full 
dress. 

The helmet was never regarded with favour in the 
Mounted Police, nor apparently in any other Canadian 
organization of a military character. The relegation 
of that head-dress to the rubbish heap was repeatedly 
and urgently asked for before the wishes of all ranks 
were concurred in a few years ago. 

In his annual report for 1880 the Commissioner 
under the heading of uniform wrote as follows: — 

"The uniform, clothing and boots supplied to the 
force last year were very good ; the underclothing par- 
ticularly so. I think that a light grey felt hat would 
be preferable to the helmet. Very few wear the latter 
unless obliged to. On trips they are almost invariably 
carried in the waggons, and get greatly damaged by the 
knocking about. The men always wear felt hats 
when they can. With the present kit the men are well 
clothed, and are in a position to turn out at any time of 
the year." 

In his annual report for 1885 Commissioner Irvine 
wrote: — ' 

"The suitability of the present dress of the police 
has long been a moot point. On the one hand, the red 
coat, from long association, has the confidence of the 
Indians, and conduces to the smartness and soldierly 
appearance of the men. On the other hand, a red coat 
soon loses its color amid the dust and dirt of prairie 
travel. I see no necessity for an alteration in the 
tunic, which is used on full dress parades, &c., but 
consider that a working suit of some stout material is 
very desirable. There could hardly l>e a better pattern 
lK)th as regards material and cut, than the suit worn 
recently by .Methuen's horse in South Africa. I for- 
warded, in July 1884, a pattern of a cap which I con- 
sidered suitable for prairie work, in that it shades the 



151 



eyes and l^ack of the neck, is light to wear, serviceable 
in colour, easy to carry when not in wear, and of little 

cost. 

"It is an object to do away with pipeclay as much as 
possible. It was for this reason that I recommended, 
last year, the adoption of brown leather gauntlets, 
such as are worn by the mounted infantry of the Im- 
perial service, in place of the white ones with which 
we are now equipped. 

"The same remark applies to the helmet, future 
issues of which should be of buff or brown leather. It 
would be better, also, if they were not so tall as the 
present pattern, which presents an unnecessary surface 
to the wind on the prairie, and is thereby rendered very 
uncomfortable to the wearer. " 

Divisional officers, time and time again, in their 
reports, drew attention to desirable changes in the uni- 
form, all condemning the helmet as unsuitable for 
prairie work. 

In his annual report for 1886 Supt. E. W. Jarvis, at 
the time commanding "B" Division, pointed out that 
the police uniform fitted too well for a man actively 
engaged in rough prairie work, and was soon spoiled 
by duties required round a camp fire. He suggested 
the issue of a " prairie dress " which would consist of 
dark brown cord or velveteen breeches, long boots and 
spurs, a heavy flannel shirt, over which the stable 
jacket could be worn when required, and a broad- 
rimmed hat of soft felt to complete the outfit. The 
regular uniform would be saved for parade and duty 
in settled districts. 

About the same time other officers made similar 
recommendations and a brown duck service suit was 
a short time afterwards issued for wear about barracks, 
stable duties, etc. In his report at the end of the year 
1899, the Commissioner wrote: — "The duck suit is 
still very satisfactory, but the cap is found, outside 
fatigue work about barracks, to be of little use, 
and in wet weather it is no protection against rain, and 
also loses all shape. I am more than ever of opinion 
that a heavy felt hat, of a uniform pattern should be 
adopted for patrol work, and that they be kept on re- 
payment. " 

This duck suit was of course of little or no use for 
prairie' work except perhaps for very short trips in 
summer, and there was a general demand for a service- 
able prairie uniform. In his report at the end of 1899, 
Inspecting Superintendent Cotton, wrote: — "I would 
again renew my previously made recommendation 
in favour of a prairie suit of some neutral colour. 
A loose Norfolk jacket (lots of pockets) made 
of light, soft cord, with riding breeches of the 
same material, would, I think, answer our purpose 
admirably. " 



The recruit upon being regularly enlisted in the 
force receives as a free issue a complete and most ex- 
cellent kit, which includes in addition to the entire kit 
issued to the cavalry soldier, warm underclothing, fur 
cap, fur coat, buckskin mittens, etc., etc. Of course 
men serving in the Arctic regions receive a special kit 
which is made as complete as possible. 

In 1894 the various acts passed regarding the North- 
West Mounted Police were revised and consolidated 
and embodied in a new statute "The Mounted Police 
Act of 1894" (57-58 Victoria, c. 27.) 

This is the legislation under which the force is at 
present maintained. 

Although the Mounted Police is popularly regarded 
as a military body, which is not surprising considering 
the uniforms and style of the officers and men, the 
strict discipline, and the military character of much of 
the work done, the force, like its famous prototype, 
the Royal Irish Constabulary, is actually a purely 
civil body, although at a moment's notice, liable and 
ready to be transformed into a formidable military 
unit. 

The department of North-West Mounted Police is a 
separate branch of the civil government at Ottawa, 
under the control of the Premier and President of the 
Privy Council, the Right Honourable Sir Wilfrid Laurier, 
the permanent head of the department being the 
Comptroller. 

Lieut.-Colonel Frederick White, C.M.G., Comptroller 
of the Royal North- West Mounted Police, was born in 
Birmingham, England, February 16, 1847. Educated 
there, he came to Canada as a young man, and was 
trained to official life under the late Lieut.-Col. Bernard, 
C.M.G., one of the ablest public officers of the old 
regime at Ottawa. He entered the Department of 
Justice as a third class clerk, March 1, 1869, being ap- 
pointed chief clerk, August, 1876. Upon the organiza- 
tion of the N.W.M.P. (in connection it will be remem- 
bered, with the Department of Justice of which Sir 
John A. Macdonald, the Premier, was minister) Sir 
John specially selected him to take charge under him 
of the administration of the Mounted Police Branch of 
the Justice Department, the title of Comptroller of the 
N.W.M.P. being conferred upon him. Sir John at this 
time explained his ideas as to the organization and 
equipment of the force to Mr. White and entrusted 
him with their execution. In all the changes which 
have taken place in the administrative head of the 
force, succeeding Ministers have retained the Comp- 
troller in his position and given him their confidence. 
In July, 1883, he was accorded the rank and status of a 
deputy head of department. No man in the Canadian 
public service has had as extended an experience of 
North- West affairs or has individually contributed as 



152 



much to its satisfactory development. From 1880 to 
1882, he served as private secretary to Sir John A. 
Macdonald, in addition to his other duties. While a 
resident of Montreal, after first coming to Canada, he 
served for a time in the ranks of the 3rd Victoria Rifles, 
after moving to Ottawa accepting a commission in the 
Governor General's Foot Guards and attaining the 
rank of Captain. May 17, 1901, as a special case, he 
received the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Active 
Militia, in recognition of long and honourable service 
largely of a military character, and especially as a mark 
of appreciation of the value of his co-operation with the 
militia authorities in the work of raising and equipping 
the several Canadian contingents for South Africa. 
He received the appointment of Companion of the 
Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George in 
1902. 

The officers of the Royal North- West Mounted Police 
(apart from the inside service) at the beginning of the 
present year, 1906, were as follows: — 



Name. 









Date of 


Name. 


Present Rank. 


Date. 


First ap- 


- 




^pointment. 


Perry, Aylesworth Bowen. . . . 


Commissioner 


1 Aug. '00 24 Jan. '82 


.Mclllree, John Henry 


Asst. Commissioner. 


1 Nov. '92 14 Nov. '70 


Wood, Zachary Taylor 


do 


1 July '02 1 Aug. '85 


Deane, Richard Burton 


Superintendent .... 


1 Apr. '84 1 July '83 


Constantine, Charles 


do 


1 Sept. '97 


20 Oct '86 


Sanders, Gilbert Edward. 






D-S.O 


do 


1 July '99 


1 Sept. '84 


Primrose. Philip Carteret Hill, 


do 


14 Oct. '99 


1 Aug. '85 


Snyder, Arthur Edward 


do 


1 July '01 


1 Aug. '85 


Cuthbert. Albert Edw. Ross .. 


do 


1 Sept. '02 


1 Aug. '85 


Wilson, James Osgood 


do 


1 Mar. '03 


15 Sept. '85 


B«5gin, Joseph Victor 


do ... 


1 Mar. '03 


22 Oct. '85 


.Macdonell, Archibald Cameron 








D.S.O 


do 


1 Mar. '03 


22 Sept. '89 


Moodie, John Douglas 


do 


1 Dec. '03 


15 Sept. '85 


.McGibbon. John Alexander. . 


Inspector 


15 Sept '85 15 Sept. '85 


Starnes, Cortlandt 


do 

do 


1 Mar. '86 
1 May '87 


1 Mar. '86 


Routledge. Walton H 


1 May '87 


Davidson, Hugh Jas. Alexr. . . 


do 


1 Feb. '89 


1 Feb. '89 


Howard, Donald Macdonald. . 


do 


1 Nov. '90 


1 Nov. '90 


.Strickland, D'Arcy Edward . . 


do 


1 Nov. '91 


15 Nov. '91 


Belcher, Rob<H^, C.M.G 


do 


1 Feb. '93 


1 Feb. '93 


Irwin, William H 


do 


4 May '93 
16 May '93 


4 May '93 
16 May '93 


Jarvin. Arthur Murray, C.M.G. 


do 


Demers, Francois Joseph A. . 


do 


3 June '98 


3 June '98 


Horriican. Fitxpatrick Jos. . . . 


do 


4 Nov. '99 


4 Nov. '99 


.McDonell, Albert Edward 








Crosby 


do 


1 Aug. '00 


1 Aug. '00 


Went, Christopher Harfield . . 


do 


1 Aug. '00 


1 Aug. '00 


.McGinnis. Thomas 


do 


1 Sept. '00 


1 Sept. '00 


Walke. William Mackenzie. . . 


do 


1 Oct. '00 


1 Oct. '00 


Pelletier, Ephrem Albert 


do 


1 Jan. '01 


1 Jan. '01 


Worsley, George .Stanley 


do 


1 Apr. 'Oil 


1 Apr. '01 


Heffernan. John Herbert 


do 


IS May '01 


16 May '01 


Taylor, John 


do 


1 July '01 


1 July '01 


Douglas, Richard Young 


do 


20 May '02 ! 


20 May '02 


Knight. Reginald 8pencer.*. . . 


do 


1 Mar. '03. 


1 Mar. '03 


Richards, John 


do 
do 
do 


IMsr. '03 
1 Mar. "OS 
1 Mar. '03 


1 Mar. '03 


Parker, William 


1 Mar. '03 


Duffus, Arthur William 


1 Mar. '03 


Stevens, (ieorge 


do 

do 


31 Oct. '03 

I Apr. '041 


31 Oct. 'm 


Tucker, Robert Edward 


1 Apr. '04 


Church, Frank 


do .... 


1 Apr, '041 


1 Apr, '04 



Ritchie, James. . .' 

Genereux, John Horace. . . . 
Pennefather, Percival Wm. . 

Shaw, .\lfred Ernest 

Allard, Alphonse B 

Grant. John William S 

Par^, Louis .-Vlphonse, M.D. 
Bell, George Pearson, M.D. . 
Fraser, Samuel Martin, M.D 
Thompson, W. E., M.D. . . . 
*Madore, Godefroy, M.D. . . 
Burnett, John. V'. S 

Wroughton. Theodore Am- 
brose. V.S 



Present Rank. 



Inspector , 

do 

do 

do 

do 

<lo 

Surgeon 

do 

Assistant Surgeon. . 
do 
do 
Inspector and Veter- 
inary Surgeon. . . 
do do 



Date. 



1 Apr. 

1 Apr. 
29 June 
29 June 

1 July 
27 July 

1 Jan. 

1 July 

May 

12 July 

15 Aug. 



Date of 

First Ap- 
pointment. 



04 1 
04 1 

'04 29 
04 29 



Apr. '04 
Apr. '04 
June '04 
June '04 
July '04 
July '04 
July '87 
Feb. '94 
May '89 
July '98 
Aug. '98 



1 July '90 1 July '87 
1 Mar. '98 1 Jan. '88 



♦Temporarily for service in the Yukon 

The Superintendents were originally designated 
"Inspectors" and the Inspectors "Sub-Inspectors," 
but after a few years, as the establishment increased 
these titles were found to be cumbersome and the 
system adopted of designating the commanding 
officers of divisions "Superintendents," and their 
subalterns " Inspectors." 

It will be remembered that when originally des- 
patched to the North- West, the Mounted Police had 
the usual compliment of regimental staff officers. 

Owing to the great distances which separated the 
several Mounted Police Posts it was found impossible 
for the paymaster, the quartermaster and the veterin- 
ary surgeon to perform the duties which at the or- 
ganization of the force, it was intended they should 
discharge, and those offices were therefore abolished 
under authority of Order-in-Council of August 16,1876, 
and June 25, 1877. Since those dates the officers 
commanding divisions have |x>rformed the duties of 
Paymaster and Quartermast<?r of their respective 
commands. At the time of the change competent 
sub-constables were appointed veterinary constables 
at the principal posts. In course of time promotion as 
veterinary staff sergeants came to some of the most 
efficient of these men, and for some time now there has 
again been a staff of veterinary surgeons at headquar- 
ters, and several posts, rendered necessary by the 
quarantine duties which for long have comprised a 
very im{X)rtant part of the duties of the force. 

The officers of the force are obtained from three 
.sources — from among the graduates of the Royal 
Military College. Kingston; from the Active Militia, 
and from the rank and file of the force. The latter 
.source of supply is very prolific on account of the very 
high standard of manhood which ha.s always prevailed 
in the force. Socially a considerable proportion of the 



153 



constables of the various divisions would be a credit to 
any regimental mess in the world. 

Every member, on joining the forcfe, is required to 
take the oath of allegiance, and in addition an oath 
of office in the following form:— 

"I, A. B., solemnly swear that I will faithfully, 
diligently, and impartially execute and perform the 
duties required of me as a member of the North-West 
Mounted Police Force, and will well and truly obey and 
perform all lawful orders and instructions which I shall 
receive as such, without fear, favour, or affection of or 
toward any person. So help me, God. " 

Every constable, upon his appointment to the force, 
signs articles of engagement for a term of service not 
exceeding five years; but he is liable to be discharged 
at any time by the Commissioner for cause. 

The duties of the force are enumerated in the Act as 
follows: — 

(a) The preservation of the peace and the pre- 
vention of crime. 

(b) The arrest of criminals and others who may be 

lawfully taken into custody. 

(c) Attendance on magistrates and execution of 

process. 

(d) The escort and conveyance of prisoners to and 

from courts and prisons. 

(e) To search for, seize, and destroy intoxicating 

liquors where their sale is prohibited. 

Although the members of the force are not subject 
to the Army Act and Militia Act, except when 
serving with the Active Militia in the field, the disci- 
pline is wholesomely rigid. 

Non-commissioned officers and men accused of any 
of the following offences are liable to arrest and trial: — 

(a) Disobeying or refusing to obey the lawful 
command of, or striking his superior, 

(b) Oppressive or tyrannical conduct toward his 

inferior. 

(c) Intoxication, however slight. 

(d) Having intoxicating liquor illegally in his 

possession, or concealed. 

(e) Directly or indirectly receiving any gratuity, 

without the Commissioner's sanction, or any 

bribe. 
(/) Wearing any party emblem. 
(g) Otherwise manifesting political partisanship. 
(h) Overholding any complaint, 
(i) Mutinous or insubordinate conduct. 
(;') Unduly overholding any allowance or any of 

the public money entrusted to him. 
(fc) Misapplying or improperly withholding smy 

money or goods levied under any warrant or 

taken from any prisoner. 



(I) Divulging any matter or thing which it is his 

duty to keep secret, 
(m) Making any anonymous complaint to the 

Government or the Commissioner, 
(n) Communicating, without the Commissioner's 
authority, either directly or indirectly, to the 
public press, any matter or thing touching the 
force. 
(o) Willfully, or through negligence or connivance, 

allowing an}^ prisoner to escape. 
(p) Using any cruel, harsh, or unnecessary violence 

towards any prisoner or other person. 
(q) Leaving any post on which he has been placed 

as sentry or on other duty, 
(r) Deserting or absenting himself from his duties 

or quarters without leave, 
(s) Scandalous or infamous behaviour. 
(t) Disgraceful, profane, or grossly immoral con- 
duct. 
(u) Violating any standing order, rule, or regula- 
tion, or any order, rule, or regulation hereafter 
made. 
(v) Any disorder or neglect to the prejudice of 
morality or discipline, although not specified 
in this Act, or in any rule or regulation. 
All pecuniary penalties form a fund which is applied 
to the payment of rewards for good conduct or meri- 
torious service, to the establishment of libraries and 
recreation rooms, and to such other objects for the 
benefit of the force as may be approved of. 

Offences by the commissioned officers are tried in a 
summary way by the Commissioner, who is clothed 
with the necessary authority to compel the attendance 
of witnesses. 




New Riding- School of the R.N.W.M.P. at Regina. 

All recruits join the depot, where an efficient instruc- 
tional staff is maintained, and where they are supposed 
to receive the ground work in their education as mem- 
bers of the force which experience will ripen into effi- 
ciency. The present Commissioner, feels that it is 



154 



more than ever necessary for a thorough grounding at 
the depot, for, once transferred, there is neither time 
nor opportunity to supply the want. 

H. Christie Thomson, an ex-member of the force, 
describing life in the force in an article published in the 
" Boy's Own Paper, " February 1897, made a special 
reference to the life of the recruit at the depot: — 

"The first few months of a recruit's service are spent 
in Regina, the headiiuarters of the force, where he is 
put through a regular course of instruction. He rides 
and drills, drills and rides — particularly rides, until ho 
is heartily sick of the sight of a drill sergeant or a riding 
master. Throughout the extremely painful period 
spent in acquiring a military seat, he is upheld by the 
thought that it is only for a very few months. As he 
works upward from the awkward to No. 1 squad, and 
from No. 4 to No. 1 Ride, he is always looking forward 
to the time when he shall be dismissed from rides and 
drills, and transferred far from Regina, with its " rook- 
ies" (recruits), its riding school and its parade ground. 

"In addition to the training of the soldier, he re- 
ceives instruction in many subjects bearing upon his 
future work. Police duties, a smattering of law, 
veterinary science, care of transport and saddlery, all 
receive due attention. He is taught to shoe a horse, 
to drive two horses or four, and by actual experience is 
initiated into the many mysteries and secrets of camp- 
ing out. 

"During the day his time is fully occupied. The 
horses have to be attended to at least three times each 
day, he has his parades, his lectures and an occasional 
fatigue. In the intervals of duty he must be cleaning 
his kit, polishing, burnishing and brushing, for cleanli- 
ness is the first requisite of a soldier. With the excep- 
tion of doing his turn on guard, which comes around 
every week or so, his evenings are altogether his own, 
and he can choose between a dozen different amuse- 
ments. 

"Once through his course of training, and transferred 
from Regina, a new phase of life begins, and a nmch 
plea.santer one. He has now much more time to him- 
self, and discipline is not so strict. There are not nearly 
so many parades, and better than all, a considerable 
ixirtion of his time is now spent patrolling the prairie, 
far from barracks and civilization. And here he is 
absolutely free and masterless as though he did not 
wear the Queen's uniform. Prairie fires have to be 
fought, horse thieves and desperadoes caught, Indian 
reserves patrolled, the observance of the game and 
fishery laws enforced, .settlers looked after, lost horses 
hunted, and a thousand other duties t<» l)e i)erformed 
that necessitate a constant life in the sa<ldle. " 

It willlx? realized from the foregoing that although 
a civil force, the R.N.W.M.P. is drilled a** a military or- 



ganization, and it is so thoroughly drilled too, that 
officers and men can at a moment's notice act either as 
cavalry, artillery or infantry. 

And, be it remembered by good intentioned but 
ignorant people who read both history and pjissing 
events with one eye shut and consequently imagine 
that military drill and discipline have no practical 
value since the invention of arms of precision, the 
training imparted to the recruit at the depot of this 
unsurpassed corps of "soldiers-of-all-work" is not con- 
fined to instruction in marksmanship and equitation, 
although great stress is laid upon those branches; but 
includes complete courses in setting-up drill, infantry 
drill, cavalry drill, etc. Even the intricacies of the 
musical ride — a j^hase of military work which so-called 
reformers are so fond of railing at, is mastered by 
picked squads. This art is acquired at voluntary 
drills, and the immense amount of work recpiired to 
secure the absolute perfection attained in the training 
of men and horses but illustrates the devotion of all 
ranks to their s{>ecial work and their ambition to be 
excelled in smartness by none. The performance of 
the musical ride by a picked squad of the Mounted 
Police would make the most showy cavalry regiment in 
His Majesty's service anxious about its laurels. 




A Musical Ride Squad of tho R.N. W.M.I', at Retina. 

At times several of the Divisions have had fine brji.ss 
bands, in some cases the officers and men providing 
the instruments them.selves, in others the department 
affording a little a,ssi.^tance. In 1SS6 "D", "E" and 
"H" Divisions had very good bands, and the following 
year one was started at the defwt, the instruments 
being provided by the department. The frequent 
changesof station, the extension of the outjmst system 
as the country was s<'ttled, and the other exactions of 
service have made it very didiciilt to maintain bands. 
\ new voluntary band was formed at the depot under 
Sergeant Walker in 1904. 



155 



As the depot is the nerve centre of the whole force, so 
is the "post" of each Division. Each divisional post, 
they are all posted at carefully selected points, is the 
hub of a system of patrols and outposts. Some of the 
latter are maintained only at certain seasons, generally 
the summer. The detachments occupying them vary 
from an officer's command to a single constable, but 
most of them consist of a squad under a sergeant or a 
constable. The larger outposts are houses in govern- 
ment buildings erected for the purpose. At first these 
were mere "shacks" or huts put together hurriedly by 
the various detachments, but latterly a great improve- 
ment has been effected and there are now numerous 
cozy, and in some cases, almost pretentious quarters 
for the chief detachments commanding the principal 
trails. Some isolated detachments are housed in farm 
houses, while others are accommodated in private 
houses in villages and hamlets along the various lines 
of railway. 

The whole vast country is covered like a network by a 
most efficient system of patrolling. A map of the 
North- West indicating the posts, outposts and patrols 
of the North- West Mounted Police, looks as if the 
country were covered with a series of large and small 
cobwebs, the larger representing the divisional posts 
and their patrols, the smaller the outposts or detach- 
ments and theirs. 

The men on outpost duty patrol the international 
frontier for the suppression of smuggling and horse 
stealing, and the whole country in the vicinity of their 
detachments for the enforcement of the law and de- 
partmental regulations. An important duty which 
particularly falls upon the patrols is the guarding 
against and suppressing of prairie fires, and frequently 
this duty is extremely hazardous. 

Of recent years, since the present great influx of 
population began, the duties of the police in connection 
with the settlers and settlement have greatly increased. 
Every new settler is interviewed and thoroughly in- 
formed as to the laws and departmental regulations, 
the maxim being applied to the new citizens of Canada 
as it was years ago in dealing with the Indians, that 
preventive measures are far superior to repressive ones. 
When a constable rides out on his patrol he carries a 
patrol sheet which is handed in succession to each 
settler, who is required to sign the paper, stating 
whether he has any complaints or not, and if he has, 
indicating their nature. On his return to his post, out- 
post, or detachment, the patrol hands in his patrol sheet. 
All new settlers, especially foreigners, look to the poiice 
for advice, for they are not slow to realize that these 
dashing "warriors of justice" hold them strictly to 
account as subjects and occupants of the land, but at 
the same time afford them full and complete protection, 



if need be, at the risk of their lives. Any momentary 
unruliness on the part of recently settled communities 
is soon repressed, for the fearless way, yet with scrupu- 
lous avoidance of bloodshed, with which the arrest of 
delinquents is promptly effected never fails to make 
the desired impression. The advice of the red-coats 
is constantly being asked by new settlers, and they 
have settled amicably many disputes which might 
easily have resulted in costly litigation. 

Many a settler could tell of valuable assistance re- 
ceived from the men of this ubiquitous military-con- 
stabulary outside altogether of the discharge of their 
ordinary duties. They have been helped by the men 
charged with their security and protection, to pitch 
their camps the first night on the prairie, to erect their 
first modest huts, to herd their live stock, to repair 
their harness and vehicles, to even cook their meals 
and nurse their sick and children. And your bravest 
man is always your gentlest nurse. 

In the large number of time-expired men who have 
remained in the far west, men accustomed by dis- 
cipline to practice the useful virtues of respect for 
authority and self restraint, the force has contributed 
to the North- West some of its very best settlers and 
citizens. 

Among the most important duties discharged by 
the officers of the force are those appertaining to their 
magisterial functions, and in the interpretation and ap- 
plication of the law they have never left anything to 
be desired. 

It is related that the great Blackfoot chief "Crow- 
foot, " in a spirit of some hostility, soon after the police 
took possession of the country, attended the trial of a 
couple of the braves of his tribe before an officer of the 
force. -He followed the proceedings closely, and was so 
impressed with their absolutely impartial character 
that he remarked: — "This is a place where the forked 
tongue is made straight. When my people do wrong 
they shall come here. " And the wise and just old 
chieftain, statesman, orator a.id warrior, in every way 
a credit to his race, kept his word and never had 
occasion to regret it. 

Within the present year (1906) an important change 
in the control of the Royal North-West Mounted 
Police has taken place. Most of the territory com- 
prised within the region which the force originally opened 
up, having been erected into the Provinces of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan, the administration of justice therein 
falls within the scope of the provincial governments, 
instead of continuing under the Dominion Government, 
as heretofore. So, although the federal control and 
direction of the whole force is maintained^ the posts 
and detachments thereof stationed in the new pro- 
vinces will act under the direct instructions of the 



156 



provincial Attorney General although maintained by 
the Dominion Government under a special financial 
arrangement. 

There continues to be abundance of work for this 
incomparable body of men to do, not alone in the 
Yukon, Mackenzie, Peace River and Hudson Bay 
districts but in the new provinces as well. The en- 
forcement of law and order in the construction camps 




St, Marys Detachment, R.N.W.M.P. 
A Typical Modern Detachment. 

of the great railways now being rushed westward and 
northward is no small matter, for railway construction 
in connection with both the Grand Trunk Pacific and 
the Canadian Northern, is being rapidly pushed for- 
ward just now, the railway activity in the North- West 
being unequalled in the history of the world. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company, which 
was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1903, is 
under agreements with the Canadian Government for 
the construction and operation of a line of railway 
across Canada, from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, 
wholly within Canadian territory, of an estimated 
mileage of main line of 3,600 miles; in addition to 
which there will be constructed several branch lines of 
considerable length and importance, including a line 
from the main line southerly 199 miles to Fort 
William and Port Arthur, on Lake Superior, for the 
purpose of reaching navigation on the Great Lakes; also 
from the main line southerly about 229 miles to North 
Bay or Gravenhurst, in the Province of Ontario, to 
make connection with the lines of the Grand Trunk 
Railway Company of Canada, and another line from the 
main line southerly to Montreal. Branch lines are pro- 
posed as well, to Brandon, Regina, Prince Albert and 
Calgary, and to Dax^son in the Yukon Territory. 

This great undertaking. which surpasses in magnitude 
and importance, any plan of railway construction 



Hitherto conceived as a whole, has been projected to 
meet the pressing demand for transportation facilities 
in British North America, caused by the large tide of 
immigration which is now flowing into that country' 
from Great Britain, Northern Europe, and still more 
extensively from the Western States of the United 
States, seeking the rich lands which lie so abundantly 
in the Province of Manitoba, and the territories of 
Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Athabaska, 
comprising the North-West Territories (the latter, 
however, having been absorbed in the two new pro- 
vinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta), the lands 
originally opened up to settlement by the Mounted 
Police, and now covered by their patrols. 

The country through which the Prairie Section of the 
railway will pass, contains land now known to be well 
adapted for the growing of wheat, which in extent is 
four times the wheat growing area of the United States, 
and is the great agricultural belt of the North-West. 

Mr. Frank W. Morse, Vice-President and General 
Mauager of the Grand Trunk Pacific is a warm admirer 
of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, having been 
able to form an idea of the efficiency and splendid 
work of the force from his visits to the North-West and 
over the projected line of his company's railway. 
Upon one occasion Mr. Morse rode 500 miles on horse- 
back across country from Portage la Prairie to Saska- 
toon, and there was not a moment that he did not feel 
just as safe as if he had been in his office in the city of 
Montreal. 




Mr. Frank W. Morse (on the left), Vice-President and General 

Manager Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, and party ffoing 

over the Surveyed Line of the G.T. P. through the 

Prairie Region of the West. 

The rotigh service of a pioneer nature now dis- 
charged by the memlwrs of the force lies largely in the 
Yukon and the vast and only partially explored terri- 
tories to the north of .\ll)erta, Saskatchewan and 
Manitoba, but even there the rough bf>rder element is 
being eliminated, and law and order established. 



167 



Bishop Stringer, who succeeded that great Church of 
England hero. Bishop Bompas, in mission work in the 
far north, was a visitor in Winnipeg this summer (1906) 
en route to the Mackenzie River, where he has minis- 
tered to the Indians since 1892. Speaking of one 
phase of his work in the far north, he highly compli- 
ments the Mounted Police in this language: 

"Formerly the country was overrun by Americans. 
Now this is all changed, and the new-comers to the 
north are Canadian born. Perhaps it is that the 
Americans are becoming Canadianized; but travelling 
through the country now-a-days, the fact is borne in 
mind that the Canadians are greatly in the majority. 
We are getting more particular as to whom we 
welcome to the great north now. The tough finds 
his row a hard one to hoe, and this in a great 
measure is. owing to the excellent management of the 
members of the R.N.W.M.P., whose work in the wild 
sections of the northland cannot be over-estimated. 
It isn't the numbers of them, nor is it the force of their 
authority; it is a subtle something which enters the 
mind of the wrong-doer whenever he meets the eye of 
the man wearing the red jacket. Why, an ordinary 
constable wearing no badge of office beyond his small 
badge and red coat, strikes terror to the heart of the 
roughest. It is the dignity and the determination of 



the police, and the splendid esprit de corps of the force. 
The mounted police, it may be asserted, have been the 
safety and pride of the whole north country. " 

Some years ago despatches had to be sent to a distant 
post during extremely severe weather. A young con- 
stable of good family, a university graduate, in fact, 
was selected. A stinging blizzard set in . soon after 
he started, and days slid into weeks with no tidings of 
him. The following spring a patrol entering a secluded 
coulee found a storm-worn uniform of the force still 
clothing the bones of the lost courier. His mind in the 
last solemn moments appears to have been more haunted 
with the fear that he would not be able to discharge the 
duty entrusted to him than with any concern as to his 
personal safety. On his orders were scrawled a few 
brief sentences: — "Lost, horse dead. Am trying to 
push ahead. Have done my best. " Truly a pathetic 
vindication of the honour and sense of duty of a gallant 
member of this remarkable force of soldier-police. 

That ^as always been the spirit of the Royal North- 
West Mounted Police, and wherever the duty of the 
force is to lie in the future, these capable officers and 
dashing, daring men may be depended upon to do 
their best, and to add many chapters just as honour- 
able as those preceding them to the chivalrous, roman- 
tic and patriotic record of the force. 



The End. 




158 



APPENDIX 



SiATiatENT OF Officers of the N.W.M.P. who left the Force Between 
ITS Organization in 1873 and August 9, 1906. 

RESIGNED. 



APPOINTED STIPENDIARY MAGISTRATE. 

MacLeod, Jas. F., C.M.G 1- 1-76 Commissioner 



Name. 




Remarks. 



Breden, John 

McLennan, D. B 

Carvell, Jacob 

French, Lt.-Col., G. A 

Brisebois, E. A 

Welsh, Vernon 

Nevitt. R. B., M.B 

Allen, Eklwin 

Fortescue, L 

Denny, C. R 

Kittson, John, M.D 

Dowling, Thos 

Kennedy, G. A 

Riddell, R., V.S 

Mills, S.G 

Baldwin, H. Y 

Powell, F. H 

Williams, V. A. S 

Drayner, Fredk 

Chalmers, T. W 

Matthews. W. G 

Wills, A. E.. M.D 

Bonnar, Dr. H. A 

deCou, D. McG 

Scarth, W. H 

Baker, Montague 

Cosby. F. L 

Crosthwait, S 

Cartwright, F. L 

Wickham. W. C 

LaRocque, H. C. P.MJ.A. 
Brunton, H. G 



. 11— 5-74'Sub-Inspector. . 

74| do 

, 28-10-75 Sup)erintendent. 

22- 7-76 Commissioner. . 

1- 8-76 Superintendent. 

1-10-78 Sub.-Inspector. . 

1-10-78 Surgeon 

10- 9-78.Sub.-Inspector. . 

28- 2-79| do 

6- 6-81 1 Inspector 

24- 1-82 Surgeon 

31- 3-86 Inspector 

30- 6-87 Surgeon 

31-12-87iVet.-Surgeon. .. 

29- 2-88 Inspector 

30- 9-88;Surgeon 

31- 5-89J do 

28- 9-89, Inspector 

15- 7-92 do 

30- 4-93 

31-10-93 

15- 2-98 

12- 7-98 

30- 6-99 



do 
do 
Surgeon . . 
do 
do 
15- 4-02.Inspector. 



31-10-02 
27- 8-03 
31-12-03 

9- 3-04 
26- 3-04 

1- 4-04 
114- 7^-06 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



RETIRED WITH GRATUITY. 



Pf>ett, J. L.. V.8. . , 

Walker. Jas 

Winder, Wm 

Frechette, Edmund, 

French, John 

Walsh, Jas. M 

Shurtliffe, A 

Dickena, F. J 

Irvine. A. G 

Croiier, L. N. F 

Brooks, W. A 

Likely, H. D 

N'eale. P. R 

Wattam. Thoa 

Hopkins. E. G. O. . 
Olivier. Hercule. . . . 
Aylen, Peter. M.D. . 
MacPherson, D. H.. 



1- 8-77 

1- 2-81 

1- 4-81 

1-11-82 

1- 7-83 

1- »-83i 

31-12-84 

1- 4-86 

1- 4-86 

30- 6-86 

.30-11-88 

30- 9-89 

31- 7-90 
30- »-«l 

1- «-95 

1- 6-W 

1- 7-95 

30- 9-97 




Sub.-Inspector 

Superintendent 

do 

Inspector 

do 

Superintendent 

do 

Ins|>ector 

Commissioner 

Asst.-Commissioner. . 
Inspector 

do 

Sur)erintendent 

Inspector 

do 

do 

AfMt.-Surgeon 

Inspector 



S 333.32 

583.30 

700.00 

666.64 

797.97 

1.166.66 

700.00 

1.000.00 

3.466.66 

1.733.33 

260.00 

333.33 

1.760.00 

437.49 

298.60 

216.27 

760.00 

760.00 



SUPERANNUATED UNDER CIVIL SERVICE ACT. 




Jukes, A., M.D J31- 7-93;Surgeon 

Macdonell, .\. R j 1- 5-95 Superintendent. 

Norman, Frank i 1- 5-95 do 

White-Fraser, M. H 30- fr-97 Inspector 

.\llan, J. B |31-12-99 do 

Herchmer, L. W | 1- 8-00 Commissioner. . 

Gagnon, Severe 131- 3-01 iSuperintendent. 



PENSIONED UNDER PENSION ACT. 



DIED. 



Clark, E. D 2-10-80j8uperintendent 

McKensie. Alex I»- 6-82} do 

Gautier, Arthur ! 29-1 2-86 i Inspector , 

Miller, Robt | 6- »-87|8urgeon , 

Bradley, Ernest. i 16- 7-91 Inspector 

Herchmer, W. M j 1- 1-92 Asst.-Commissioner. . 

Dodd, Henry ! 1- 1-9.'! Surgeon 



308.00 
476.00 
320.30 
260.00 
280.00 
1.144.00 
766.00 



Name. 


Date 

D. M.T 


Rank. 


Remarks. 


Steele, S. B 

Moffatt. G. B 

Griesbach, A. H 

Irwin, W. H 


1- 3-03 
1- 3-03 
1-12-03 
1- 7-06 


Superintendent 

do 

do 


1.080.00 

880.00 

1.200.00 

1,026 00 












Piercy, Wm. 

Huot. C. F. A 

Jarvis. E. W 

Cotton. John 

Howe. Joseph 

Haultain. C. 8.. M.D. ... 

Casey. H. S i26- 3-04 Insiiector 

Gilpin. Brown E !20-12-04 do 

Morris. W. S j 4- 4-06 Superintendent 



!.■}- 3-93 Inspector 

23- 3-93 do 
26-11-04 Superintendent. .. 
7- 6-99 do 
17- »-02 do 
20- 6-aj Surgeon 



OFFICE ABOLISHED. 
Griffiths, W. 31-10-76 Paymaster, 



159 



APPENDIX— continued 



TEMPORARY APPOINTMENT. 
Smith, W. Osbome 16-10-73 Commissioner . 



LEFT UNDER VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES. 



Name. 



Date. 

D. M. T. 



Rank. 



Remarks. 



Jackson. Thoe. R 5-10-78 

Forget, Joseph 20- 6-74 

Young, Chas. F '28- 7-74 

Richer, Theodore H- 9-74 

LeCain, H. J. N 20- 5-75 

Nicolle, Chas 15- 7-7£ 

Jarvis, W. D 13- 8-81 

Prevost, H. R 23- 1-84 

Antrobus, W. D 1-11-92 

Harper, Frank 31- 5-01 

Paradis, E. C 9-10-01 

Williams, W. MdeR" 30- 5-04 

Rolph, J. W i 2- 7-87 



Sub.-Inspector. 
Quarter-Master. 
Superintendent, 

do 
Sub.-Inspector. 
Quarter-Master. 
Superintendent, 
Inspector 

do 

do 

do 

do 
Surgeon 



Recapitulation of Officers who have left the Force Between 
ITS Organization 1873, and August, 1906. 



Resigned 32 

Retired with gratuity 18 

Appointed Stipendiary Magistrate 1 

Superanuated under Civil Service Act 7 

Pensioned under Pension Act 4 

Died 16 

Office Abolished 1 

Temporary Appointment 1 

Left under various circumstances 13 

93 



160 



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WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 



P. O. Box 684 



ORNAMENTAL 
GLASS 

We Carry in Stock 

Beveled Plate Designs set in cop- 
per for Doors and! ransoms, also 
Fancy and Colored Glass in- 
cluding Enameled, Ground, Ve- 
netian, Embossed. Sand Blast 
and Wheel Cut. Suitable for 
Front Doors. 

Prices anc Designs Furnished 

on Application 



Yard: 1151 Noire Dame West. Phone 2735 

CANADA 



cifie<xxx»XH»«e««<iKX)«c}<x:x;^ 



m B 



Plows, Wagons and Carriages 



The Three Great Leading Lines of 

B/?e FAIRCHILD CO. 



Limited 



ALSO ALL OTHER 



FARM IMPLEMENTS AND SLEIGHS 



Agents for DEERE & CO. 



MOLINE, 111. 



The largest consigfnment of Plows ever sent into Canada was a Trainload of Fifty- 
Eight Cars sent to the Fairchild Co. by Deere & Co. of Moline. This is probably 
the largest single shipment made by any plow manufacturers in the world : : : 

Send for printed descriptive and illustrated matter. 



The Fairchild Co. Ltd. - Winnipeg 



^ 






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THE SOMERVILLE STEAM MARBLE 
& GRANITE WORKS 

ROSSER AVE. - BRANDON, Man. 



Vi 



STATUARY 

We import direct from the famous old world Studios in Italy. We handle 
Carrara marble by the carload. 

MONUMENTS 

When desirous ot purchasing a Memorial Stone, drop us a post card, or 
better still, come and see us. We can save you many times your railway 
fare. 

HEADSTONES 

Are somewhat out of date, but if you wish to get one, remember that we 
are here to please our Customers. 

THE LARGEST MONUMENTAL BUSINESS WEST OF TORONTO 

SOMERVILLE & CO. 

PROPRIETORS. 



W'X»X'X'X«X«X»X»X«X«X»X«><*X>X>>0>0X»><»XfX>X)X>X>X»X>XtX'X*X>X»X*X'X»X>X'X«X'X>X>X'X>X>XtXiXtXVX»K»X»X>>0X)>0X»>OX>XJXt^>4x<X 



• J. A, S. MacMiulan. a. CoLQUHOi'N. Isaac Beattik, J 

I MacMillan, Colquhoun & Beattie | 

• * 

? Importers and Breeders of T 

• * 

i CLYDESDALES. PERCHERONS t 

i 8n\d HACKNEY STALLIONS | 

I - I 

• PRICES RIC5HX. 1'RUM& EASY. * 



We have established an exceptional record as sellers of prize winners. I^st year at 
Brandon Fair our Horses won ist. 2nd and 4th Prizes in the a^fed Clydesdale Class, besides 
other honors. Our importations are always the best, and NOTMINCi BUI THE BKST. 
This is our motto. Every guarantee we jifive is made good. Our aim is to add to the 
reputation of the Stock of the North- West. 

Vlrft tw and See Our StocK. or Write and Let I/.* Knotu What you Want. 

CLUB STABLES. I2th Street (Box 485) BRANDON. Man. 





Ma.rsha.ll -Wells 
Compai.rvy 



^Gifholesale Jobbers and 'Disiribuiors of 




Fine B\jilders* Ha-rdwaLre 
Shelf and Heavy Hardware 
Iron a^nd Steel 
PoLint, Brushes, Vatrnish 
House Furnishing Goods 



Stoves a^nd R-ak.nges 
Mining 61 Rail>vay Supplies 
Mill and Logging Supplies 
Cutlery, Novelties, Etc. 
Sporting and Bicycle Goods 



Exclusive Agents for 

HENDERSON 6. POTTS PAINT AND VARNISH 
BRANDRUM BROS. WHITE LEAD 



Winnipeg 



ManitobsL 






*««»«*»»«««*»»*»»»«»»j>j,H»»»»*»*»» 



W. F. LEE 

Manitoba Builders' Supply Co. 



^uilder^ Supplier' of all de^^cription 



STONE 

SAND 

LIME 

PLASTER 

BRICK 

LATH 

METAL 

AND 

WOOD 



I CORRESPONOEIICE | 

S Solicited J 



HAIR. 
CEMENT 

(Portlcvnd S. Keene's) 

EXPANDED 

METAL 

MORTAR COLOR 

FIRE BRICK 

FIR.E CLAY 

of all descriptions 

RUBEROID 

ROOFING 



Best SdLlt Glazed Vitrified Sew^er Pipe 

For Draining Low Lands— Road Culverts and Small Bridges 

Well Curbing 



Office: 136 PORTAGE AVE. EAST. 



Ytirdsx FT. DOUGLAS AVE. & ARGYLE. \\ 



WINNIPEG. 



•ttiimm^Hkm^mmmm^mm^kmmm^mmmmmmmmmmmmmi^ 



"Everything for a B\iilding** 



Lumber 

Sa.sh 

Doors 

Mouldings 

Mill Work 

Office, Batnk a-nd 
Bar Fixtures 

Interior Finish 

Building Papers 

Portlatnd Cement 

Hardwall Plaster 

Wood Fibre Plaster 

P. 6v B. Standard, and 
Malthoid Roofing 

Paints, Oils, Varnishes 

Plate, Window^, Fancy- 
Glass 




Offices and Wa.rehouse: 

179-181 Notre Da^me Ave. Ea^st. 
WINNIPEG. 



We sell Martin-Senours* 100% Pure Paint 



We Make a Specialty of 

OrnaLmenxaLl GIqlss Work 



THE WINNIPEe PAINT AND GLASS CO. 


Ltd. 


NA/INNIPEO - CANADA 




Wacrehouses: CALGARY, EDMONTON. 





^^^^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦4^ 



I 




Ryhn & Fares 



HOR^SES 
BOUGHT 



hor.se exchange "s°o\r 



Largest Wholesale and R.etail Dealers in Western Canada. 

HEAVY DRAFT HORSES 
FARM HORSES 

GENERAL PURPOSE HORSES 
SADDLERS 

DRIVERS AND 

RANGE HORSES 

ALWAYS ON HANn 

^ ^ Wholesaling a specialty ^ ^ 
179 to 185 James St. EcLSt 









THE WINNIPEG STORE 



OF 






T. EATON C 



O. 



LIMITED 





« s ! ' ' ■ . 



I III fll i<' 



111 iiri'11 




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1 !^yi"n" 



'VTTH'STH-tm. 



IMPORTERS and 
MANUFACTURERS 

T. EATON C° 

(See opposite page) 

TORONTO & WINNIPEG 



LIMITED 



J- 



T. EATON CO 



LIMITED 



TORONTO & WINNIPEG 



To sell goods for the lowest possible price, to bring the city store to the doors of residents in every 
part of Canada is the aim of the T. Eaton Co. Limited. To accomplish this two-fold object to the fullest 
extent required the intelligence and energy, the experiments and experience of nearly forty years. 

It first of all required that the business should be commenced on the proper basis. Mr. Eaton, the 
founder of the Company, and still its guiding star, was strongly of the opinion that the only fair and 
economical principle was to sell for cash and buy for cash. By buying for cash, goods could be bought at 
the lowest possible prices and by selling for cash the losses bound to occur in credit business were avoided. 

Buying for cash and selling for cash obviously resulted in great saving, and every dollar saved was 
reflected in Eaton prices, for the Company has always done business on narrow margins, preferring small 
profits and quick turn-overs to large profits and a comparatively small volume of trade. 

The business rapidly grew and money saving opportunities presented themselves. First of all there 
were the middlemen's or jobbers' profits to be reckoned with. Goods had formerly to pass thro many hands 
and each had to make a profit. The only way to eliminate these profits was to go direct to the makers and 
that was the course pursued. Buyers were sent to the European and American manufacturing centres and 
when the business warranted, permanent purchasing offices were established in London and Paris. These 
offices serve a three-fold purpose. By keeping in close touch with the markets many opportunities are 
found for saving money. Situated permanently in the world's leading fashion centres every new style creation 
is sent to the Canadian stores as soon as it makes its appearance in Paris and then when the buyers visit the 
foreign market they have the assistance and counsel of the men on the ground. 

The next step towards eliminating middlemen's profits was the erecting of factories. Until that was 
done the Company was dependent on manufacturers for all the ready-to-wear garments it sold and when 
the business assumed large proportions it was some times difficult to get goods in sufficient quantities and 
always difficult to get them of the quality desired. 

These difficulties were overcome by building and equipping factories capable of producing the high- 
est grade goods for the lowest possible cost. Every labor-saving mechanism that money could produce 
was procured and the factories with their costly machinery were placed under the control of the most skill- 
ed workmen to be found. Not only were all middlemen's profits eliminated but the cost of production was 
also reduced far below that of factories with less modern equipment. 

But at the same time that great eff"ort was being expended in reducing the cost of goods, develop- 
ment was going on in another direction, in the direction of making the influence of the Company felt in 
every part of Canada. A mail order department was established and thro its medium the service of the city 
store was brought to the doors of dwellers in the remotest parts of the Dominion. 

The patrons of The T. Eaton Co. Limited extend over a wide territory from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, from the International boundary far into the Arctic circles; and the only selling agent employed is the 
catalogue. It contains a list of the goods sold and of the prices charged. It also illustrates the newest 
styles in men's and women's garments; it is in fact a reference book in style and prices and it is sent free 
on request. 

Of course, people must have the assurance of fair treatment before they will assign to others the 
selection of their goods. They must not only be satisfied that the goods to be sent them will be as good 
as represented but they must also have some redress in the event of the selection being unsatisfactory; and 
the T. Eaton Co's guarantee covers this; every dollar's worth that every customer receives goes out on the 
understanding that if not satisfactory the goods can be returned and other goods or the cash, just as the 
customer may desire, will be sent in exchange. 

It is more than likely that many who chance to read this will visit Winnipeg at some time. To all 
such a hearty invitation is extended to visit the store. It has many conveniences for the use of all who 
wish to use them — a checking office where parcels and wraps can be checked free of charge; a resting room 
that has become popular as a meeting place for friends; toilet rooms for men and women, and a lunch room 
where dainty luncheons or substantial meals can be had at moderate cost. And the store itself is well 
worth seeing. It is the largest and most complete department store west of Chicago. It contains every 
appliance that makes for convenience and economy in handling merchandise and it is largely on account of 
these conveniences that Eaton prices are possible. 

It is in brief one of the popular institutions of the Western metropolis; these who miss seeing it miss 
seeing one of the sights of Winnipeg and those who neglect to make u.se of its comfort-giving conveniences 
lose much of the pleasure incidental to a trip to the city. 



aiii 



ROYAL SHIELD BRAND 



GOODS \A/E: RACK: 



Royal Shield Arrowroot 

Royal Shield Borax 

Royal Shield Blackingf 

Royal Shield Blanc Mange Powder 

Shield Baking Powder 

York Baking Powder 

Royal Shield Coffee 

Royal Shield Cream Tartar 

Royal Shield Cleaned Currants 

Royal Shield Custard Powder 

Royal Shield Dates 

Royal Shield Egg Powder 

British Extract 

Royal Shield Extracts 

Royal Shield Gelatine 

Royal Shield Herbs 




THE BEST OIM Tl 



Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Roval Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 
Royal Sh 

rVIARKET 



eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 
eld 



Insect Powder 

Icing 

Jelly Powder 

Lime Juice 

Mustard 

Maple Syrup 

Molasses 

Pepper 

Sultana Raisins 

Soda 

Sulphur 

Epsom Salts 

Salmon 

Spices 

Shoe Polish 

Teas 



CAMPBELL BROS. & NA/ILSON 

IMPORTERS and NA/HOLESALE". GROCERS 
\A/INNIPE:G, CANADA. 



Telephone 1618. 



P.O. Box 309. 



^^^^^«■^yf»e^^ 



IMPORTERS OF 



^O 



f 

Windmills, Well Machinery, Etc. 

The Chicago Aermotor 

"The Mill of many Merits" 
Austin Well Drilling^ Machines 
Howell Well Augers 
Howell Saw Mills 
French Buhr Stone Mills 
Oreen Bone Cutters 
Sauerkraut Cutters 
Grain Grinders 
Hay Presses 
Pumps and Tanks 
Wood saws 
Gasoline Engines 

140 Princess St. IMarket Square, 

Winnipeg, Man. 



THE WINNIPEG RUBBER GO. 



LIIVII-rED 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Interlocking Rubber Tiling, Re- 
volving Hose Reels, Hose Noz- 
zles, Hose Valves, Fire Hose 
Matting, Mats 



A. A. Andrews 
Manager 



'Phone 271 




Princess St. 

WINNIPEG 



Branch 
CALGARY 



Sole Agents for Manitoba and North-West 
Territories for the Gutta Percha and Rubber 
Manufacturing Co. of Toronto, Ltd. 



"EVERYTHING IN RUBBER. 



►♦♦♦♦♦♦ ^♦♦♦♦♦^ 



Established 30 Years 
E. BROMLEY. Pres. C. C. HAGUE. Man. Dir. 



BROMLEY & HAGUE 

LIMITED 

Manufacturers of 

Tents, Awnings^ Camp Ovitfits 

MACHINE, WAGON AND CART COVERS ^ ^ 
BOAT SAILS. FLAGS. HORSE BLANKETS 



n 



I 



WINNIPEG 



MANITOBA 



♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦»»»♦»»♦♦♦ ♦ ♦♦♦ » ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦< 




PLATE 

MIRROR 

WINDOW GLASS 

and every kind of glass 
required for buildings 



The CONSOLIDATED PLATE GLASS GO. ! 
OF CANADA, Limited ^ 



i 



271-273 Fort St. 

TORONTO MONTREAL 
AND OTTAWA 



WINNIPEG 

LONDON « 

I 



C. H. ENDERTON 

a, CO. 



^ 



Real Estate Investments 



Money to Loan 
Insurance 



Mortgages for sale 
Rentals 



Owners and Managers 



o/ 



•« 



Crescentwood 

Winnipeg's Residential District 



ff 



AGENTS 

London Assurance Corporation 



224 FOR.TAGE AVE. 



opp, 
Notre Dame 



Ave. Winnipeg 



J 



HON. ROBERT ROGERS, 

President 



A. D. CHISHOLM, 
Treasurer 



I. D. BALFOUR, 

Sec'y & Man. Director 



The Balfour Implement Co, Ltd 




QUALITY IS THE ONLY THING THAT COUNTS 

Two costs are to be considered in buying- a machine — first cost and cost of operation. The second, thoug:h 
often overlooked, is much the more important. The first cost or selling price ot the best-known machines varies but 
little, not more than two or three dollars. But the difference in the cost of operating two machines of different makes 
for a single season often equals many times this amount. This is the point to watch. Cost of repairs, value of time 
lost through breakages, wear and tear on horseflesh and operator, and thoroug-hness of the work done — all these 
items enter into the cost of operating. Nobody knows better than the farmer the possible cost of a breakdown in 
the midst of harvest or haying, or the loss possible through the lack of capacity in a machine to do satisfactorily the 
work that it is intended to do. Walter A. Wood machines cost less to operate than any others. They have fewer 
breakages, wear longer, are easier to handle, and do cleaner work. They cost more to build, it is true, but our plan 
of marketing them brings them to you at about the same selling price as other makes. The first cost the same, but 
the second cost — so different. For economy, buy a Walter A. Wood. Remember this: Quality is the only thing that counts. 

Plows, Wagons, Drills, Mowers, Rakes, Harrows, 

Buggies 



The BALFOUR IMPLEMENT CO. Ltd. 

General Ag^cnts — J 50 Princess St., Market Square 
NA/ I IN rsi I REG - - MAISIIXOBA 



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S5 
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as 
as 
as 
as 

IS 

as 
as 
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as 
as 
as 
aj 

as 

as 



BUILDERS' SUPPLIES 



STONE 

Rubble 
Footing- 
Crushed 
Dimension 

LIME 

White and 
Grey 



HYDRATED LIME 

The only process of its 
kind in Canada 



CEMENT 

SAND 

BRICK 

HARDWALL 
PLASTER 
LATH 

Etc. 



JOHN GUNN & SONS 



Office: 

402 MclNTYRE BLOCK 

Phone 1277 



Yard and Factory: 

268 JARVIS AVENUE 

Phone 3606 



VS/IISIINIIREG 



MANITOBA 



s& 
a 



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SAWYER & M 

ENGINES 



CO., Ltd. 

THRESHERS 



Our 1906 Catalojfiio is lull 
of Interest— Write for it. 



ROADMAKING 
MACHINERY 

Western Branch: WINNIPEG, MAN. SEO. KIRKLMD. Mir 



A (Juarlor Century's Kx|>er- 
ieiice in Supplying the needs 
of the North-West. 



Factory HAMILTON 



i 

i 
i 

I 

mi 






The Waterous Engine Works Co. 

I.IMITKn 

Head Office BRANTFORD, CANADA 

Engines, Boilers. Saw Mill Machinery. Brick Machinery, Woodworking Machinery, 
Pulp Machinery, Fire Apparatus, Threshing Machinery 

Manitoba and \orih-West AKemy, tiKO. W. Kkh. ManaKer, Winni|V»f, Man. 
AJdri-»(. nil U-tUr-. lo TtiK WATi-Kori K»«.i«F. WoKKx Co.. I.I J. 



Branch Wiwks: St. Paul. Minn. 



AgencUm: Vancouver. B. C SyUiM)-, N. S. W., !Mint<«||«, Chile. 



afW9I3 {32313^^19 {^^tS^t^t^C^ 24 &I i>> if' (f^irUti'^'' (>3 4.1 v^ m >' ir ■ (>: (m >> i»> i» ji'vS^Jii&&fft^-:' 



v!?232^IifS3!i'{?ei923'tarC7t?t3S}!»S?S?!39ti7B7i 



ESTABLSHED 18 YEARS 



HAGUE, ARMINGTON & Co. 



LIMITED 



COVERS 

FOR 

Wagons, Stacks, Separators 
^ and Binders '^ 

HORSE BLANKETS 



TENTS,A\A/NINGS,TARRAUUNS 



F-L-A-G-S 

Shirts, Overalls, Smocks 
Sheep-lined Coats,&c,&c 



Hague, Armington & Co., Ltd. 

WINNIPEG - - - MANITOBA 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCOOOOOOOOOOOo 
O O 



CHAS. GOODYEAR 



Dealer in 



Electric Machinery 
and Supplies 



Arc Lamps 
Telephones 
Sockets 
Batteries 
Aluminum Shades 



Switches 

Switch-boards 
Marble Panels 
Instruments 

Iron Conduits 



Sunbeam Lamps 

Hill Electric Switch Co., Montreal 
(Switches and Switch-boards) 
Adams Bag^nall, Arc Lamps 
American Circular Loom, Flexible Conduit 
Cutter-Hammer, Milwaukee, Wis. 
(Controlling Devices of all kinds) 
"Shawmutt" Standard Enclosed Fuses (New 
Code) 



"Faries" Portable 
Brackets and 

Stand Lamps 
and General 

Supplies 



Diamond 




327 Garry St. 



Distributor for the Nungesser 
Electric Battery Co. of Cleveland, O. 
(The 1900 and No. 16 Acme Dry Batteries) 
Electric Porcelain Goods of all kinds 
Harvey Hubbell Goods 
Pull Sockets Attachment Plugs 
"STANDARD" Dynamos and Motors 
A Specialty — Printing Press Motors 



Switches 



WINNIPEG, Manitoba. 



6 *-> 

coooooooooooocoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 



uuts 



unit 



H. G. MIDDLETON & CO. 

WHOLESALE JOBBERS IN 

Boots and Shoes, Felt Goods, Gloves, Mitts, Moccasins, 
Trunks and \'alises :::::; 



O 
O 
O 

O 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
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o 
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oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooc 



SOLE AGENTS FOR 




•*=^ 



XlXt^ 



The Celebrated Berlin Rubbers •' Daisy," 
Break" and "America" Brands : 



Duck Never 



154 Princess St. 



WINNIPEG, an. 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
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oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooocooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 
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000 000 
P o 



NOR.THER.N IRON WORKS 



00'.: 

o 

CRESTING and 

IRON-WORK 

O OF ALL KINDS 

o ^_______.^ 

S — Point DouKlas and . WINNIPFfl Hnn .. . . . ~ O 

8 Send for Lists Gladstone Ave. " W II^IIX I fCU, 1 IflR. Send (or Lists § 

o o 

00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 J 



STRUCTURAL and ORNAMENTAL IRON WORKERS 

FOUNDERS, MACHINISTS. BLACKSMITHS 
COLUMNS. I BEAMS FENCES. 

""rdrnl'";"" - WINNIPEG, nan. 



O 

00 > 
O 

BUILDERS' 
IRON-WORK § 

A SPECIALTY g 

o 



Gold 

StOLndard 

Tea.s 



Gold 

Sta^ndard 
Flavoring 
Extracts 




A Delicious Tea 

Need not necessarily be an exorbi- 
tantly high priced tea. Our immense 
Western trade demands the best. We 
have it in 

Gold Standard Tea 

"Guaranteed-the-Best" 

It embodies all the good qualities of rich, 
fragrant Ceylon and the stronger and more pun- 
gent flavor of carefully cultivated Assam teas. 
Blended to 

EXPRESSLY SUIT WESTERN CANADIAN 
WATERS 

A trial pound will make you a permanent friend 
of this delightful tea. Try it. 




Sold by Grocers 

1 lb. S. 14 lb. packets 
35, 40 & 50c. lb. 




Gold 

Standard 

Java 

and 

Mocha. 



Gold 

Standard 
Cake 
Icings 



Gold 

Standard 

Spices 



We Ma.nufacture a-nd Guarantee the Following Goods: 
GOLD STANDARD TEAS GOLD STANDARD FLAVORING 



GOLD STANDARD JELLY POWDER. 
"THE-TEN MINUTE-DESSEKT" 



EXTRACTS 
GOLD STANDARD JAVA & MOCHA 
••THE-CHAFFLESS-COFFEE" 
GOLD STANDARD SPICES 



GOLD STANDARD CAKE ICINGS 

Our Goods a.re "Guaranteed-the-Best" 

Patronize Western Enterprise and Western Manufactured Goods 



The Codville-Georgeson Co. Ltd. The Codville-Smith Co. Ltd. 



WINNIPEG 6; BRANDON. Man. 



CALGARY - ALBERTA 



You Need Protection Ag^ainst Loss! 



WE INSURE 

Buildinjjs and Contents 

Ag^ainst Accident 

Ajfainst Sickness 

Employers Against Accident to Employees 

Plate Glass Against Breakage 

\'essels and Cargoes 

Rent 

Against Tornado and Wind Storm 

WE REPRESENT 

The Following Leading Companies: 

British America, Toronto 

Queen of America 

Phoenix, Brooklyn 

American Surety Co. of New York 

Ontario Accident Insurance Co. 

Colonial Investment and Loan Co. 



WE INVEST MONEY 

On I'irst Mortgage Security 
On Farm and City Properties 

WE PLACE LOANS 

Without Cost to Borrowers at low rate 
of interest 

WE MANAGE ESTATES 

.\S \'ears ExperiiMu-c as Rental Agents 

WE SELL 

Fireproof Safe and X'aults 
Real Estate 



CARRUTHERS, JOHNSTON & BRADLEY 

471 Main Street = . . WINNIPEG 




The CANADIAN FAIRBANKS Co. 

Limited 

Power for Machinery of All Kinds 



JACKOfailTRADES 

H*oc ar 

FAIRBANKS MORSE iCO 



^ 



GASOLINE ENGINES have worked themselves into popular favor for 
power purposes. Of the many gasoline engines, Hrsi and foremost stands the 

] RsirkDanka-Morse 

It is built along the most scientifu- lines. It protluces results with the greatest 
economy. It is reliable and up to dale in every detail. See our agents or 
write to us for Catalogue nnil particulars. 

Montreal Toronto Vancouver Winnipeg 

rhe Canadian Fairbanks Co. WINNIPEG, Man. 



-"'^g'fwBirfe dxir" 



tm. 



COCKSHUTT PLONA/ CO. 

Mam KAITIRKRS OK 

LJp-to--ci3te Implements 

Including Riding and Walking Plows, Disc and Iron Harrows, Cultivators, .Seeding MachineH, Etc. 

Western Agents for Ideal Wind Mills, Adams WagonN, AiuiMrong Carriages, Maxwell Hay Loadorn, Noxon Mowers 

and Cultivators, ANpinwall Potato Planters 

Our new JEWEL GANG PLOW is the ideal of perfeclion, combining strength, durability, simplicity and ease of operation 



COCKSHUTT PLOW CO. Ltd. 



WINNIPEQ, MAN. 



JOHN' McCLARY. 

President. 



W. M. GARTSHORE, 

V^ice- President. 



GEORGE O. McCLARY, J. K. H. POPE, 

Treasurer. Secretary. 



THE McCLARY MANUFACTURING CO. 



« 




9 


Head Office: 
LONDON. 




Ont. 


•9 






Warehouses : 




TORONTO, 




A. D. Kennelly, Mgr. 


•B 


MONTREAL, Que. 
A. A. Brown, Mgr. 

VANCOUVER, B.C. 


W. E. Drake. Mgr. 


Q 
« 


ST. JOHN, N. B. 


^ 
« 


J. J. Foot, Mgr. 


Q 
« 
« 
^ 


WINNIPEG, Man. 



—MANUFACTURERS OF— 

STOVES 

RANGES 

FURNACES 



Enamelled and Tinwares of all kinds 



Millers* and Tinners* Supplies 



Winnipeg Office 
and Warehouse: 

183-185-187 
Bannatyne Ave. 

J. W. DRISCOLL, 
Manager. 



Cable Address : "McClary" London. Codes: "Western Union and 4th Edition" 



A. CARRUTHERS GO. Ltd, 

DEALERS IN 

Hides, Wool, Tallow, Senega 
Root and Furs 



EXPORTERS OF FINE NORTHERN 
FURS 



Agents for Retsof Rock Salt 



Branches: 
BRANDON. Man. and EDMONTON. Alta. 



I WINNIPEG 



MAN. 



Threshers' Supply Co. 



<& 



« 



LIMITED. 



Tools and Fittings, Belting of all kinds, 
(Special Agents for D. K. McLaren Oak 
Tanned, Extra Leather Belting) Anvils, 
Vises, Forges, Gasoline Engines, Feed 
Mills and Grinders, Babbit and Box Metals, 
Packing (Eclipse, Asbestos, Steel, Rubber, 
Hemp, Flax, Lead, Copper) Hard Rubber 
Hose, Wire-lined Hose, Water Tanks, Oils 
and Oil Cups (all kinds) Endless Drive 
Belts (Rubber and Canvas) Oriental Buck 
Boards, Engine and Mill Supplies, Plum- 
bers' Torches :::::: 

EVERYTHING FOR THE THRESHER 

Write for Catalogue and Prices 
P. O. BOX 703 



120 Lombard St. 



WINNIPEG 






KENNETH MACKENZIE CO. 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE GROCERS 



. .Sole Agents in the West for... 

MAZAWATTEE 
-^ -TEA 



■7S RRirSICESS STREEX 



\A/irsJIVJIREG! 



MANITOBA 



inch— EDIN/IOINITOrM, AI_BERXA 




The PAULIN-CHAMBERS COMPANY 

Manufacturers of the Celebrated Brand of 

Peerless Biscuits and Confectionery 



WINNIPEG 



MANITOBA ^ 






The RICHARD BELIVEAU CO'Y Ltd. 

Importers of 

WINES, LIQUORS and CIGARS 



330 Main Street 



WINNIPEG, MAN 



t^t'**t**^t'**PP*PP^*1^PPP*'*'^P9'*-$-P$'PPt'Pt'*-^1^PPP*t^t*t**$'*'*t$'****t*tt**$'t^t**i^*^4'*4J^ 



Electrical Construction Work 
of all Descriptions 



Complete Electric Plants 
Installed 



The JAMES STUART 
ELECTRIC CO. Ltd. 

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL 

ENGINEERS 



Wholesale Dealers in 

Electrical Machinery 

:^= AND ^ 

Supplies 



<i 



Largest stock of ELECTRICAL FIXTURES in Western Canada 
The most Expert Electricians in charge of our Contract Work 
Estimates furnished and plans submitted. :: Specially equipped to do 
Municipal a nd C orporation work in any part of Western Canada. 



Warehouse and Show Rooms 



88 Princess St. 



WINNIPEG, MAN. 



T. R. DEACON, HUGH B. LYALL, 

C. E.— M £., President and General Manager- Secretary-Treasurer. 



The MANITOBA IRON WORKS 



LIMITED 



ENGINEERS, FOUNDERS and MACHINISTS 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Engines, Boilers, Pumps and Elevator Machinery 

GENERAL DEALERS IN MACHINERY 
RAILWAY SUPPLIES 

MINING MACHINERY 

WATER WORKS EQUIPMENT 
SAW MILL MACHINERY 

FLOUR MILL MACHINERY 

POWER TRANSMISSION SUPPLIES 

ARCHITECTURAL IRON AND STEEL 
GASOLINE ENGINES 

GRINDING MACHINERY 

jfk J. ji, j> 

THE MANITOBA IRON WORKS, Limited 

WINNIPEG, MAN. 




SSS^1^«5m'S«^Hai^^^'{^«5^?J5S:SSS^'Sll^SsS!a»i8iSI«^IS5^S58^^^ 



WINCH 15 riK 




RIFLES FOR ALL KINDS OF HUNTING. 

Winchester Repeating Rifles shoot as accurately and work as surely in the 
arctic and tropical regions as they do in the temperate zone. The severest 
climatic conditions do not impair their reliability. For this reason, well- 
posted sportsmen, when leaving the beaten trails in search of rare 
game, always carry a Winchester in preference to any other rifle. 
Winchester Rifles and Winchester Cartridges are made one for the other. 

FREE: Send name and address on a posted card /or our large illustrated catalogue. 

WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO., - - - NEW HAVEN, CONN. 






Ammunition 



DOMINION CARTRIDGE CO. I 



LIMITED 



AMMUNITION MANUFACTURERS 

RIFLE AND PISTOL CARTRIDGES 
FOR MILITARY OR SPORTING ARMS 

LOADED AND EMPTY 
PAPER SHOT SHELLS 



BRASS SHOT SHELLS, 
PRIMERS : 



DOMINION CARTRIDGE CO. Ltd. 



MONTREAL. 



xxvi 



B C MASON, President HUGH SUTHERLAND, Sec'y-Treis. WM MARTIN, Vice Pres. L Gen Man 

The Manitoba Gypsum Co. Limited 

office: Union Bank Building 

WINNIPEG 

Manufacturers of: Hardwall piaster, wood Fibre Plaster. Plaster of Paris, Alabaster. Stucco, Etc. 

Some of the uses for Gypsum: 

THE Manitoba Gypsum Co. is the only company in Western Canada manufaciurin};^ Hardwall Plasters. This 
class of Plaster is much superior to that made from lime. It has been manufactured very extensively of 
late years in the United States, and it was the larjje importations of American Plaster into Canada which 
first drew attention to the larjje Gypsum deposits in Northern .Manitoba, between Lake \Vinnii>ejf and Lake 
Manitoba. The Manitoba Gypsum Co. have there a very valuable Gypsum deposit and from the fact that 
Gypsum is very scarce in all parts of the world, it is probable that this deposit is the only one in the Canadian 
West. In the United States the larg-est Gypsum deposits are found in Texas, Kansas, Iowa and Michijjan, also 
to some extent in Virginia, but the Kansas, Texas, Iowa and Michig'an deposits are the ones most extensively 
developed. The first use made of Gypsum was as a land fertilizer ; it was sold under the name of I^nd Plaster, 
but the manufacture into Wall Plaster has thrown all other lines of its use into the shade. 

The large plaster manufacturers in the State of New York draw nearly all their supply of Gypsum rock from 
Nova Scotia where there are very extensive deposits, the exports of rock trom Nova Scotia amounting to some 
400,000 tons a year, according to the Government reports, and are increasing annually. 

In Germany Gypsum is used very largely in the manufacture of building materials in the form of hollow tiles 
used for partition walls, also in the manufacture of the finer grades of patent cements similar to what are on sale 
under the name of " Keene " and "Parian" cement; these are used largely in the manufacture of imitation 
marble known as Scagliola. The Plaster of Paris made from Gypsum is very extensively used in the manufacture 
of ornamental statuettes, and for friezes for the ornamentation of large buildings. It is also used as a basis in the 
manufacture of paint and asbestos coverings for boilers and steam pipes. There is a very large sale in this 
coiintry for the various manufactured products of Gypsum and while The Manitoba Gypsum Company is only 
manufacturing Hardwall Plasters at present they expect in the future to develop several other lines of manufacture. 



J***********->c*****************************************-^****************^ 



THE PRIDE OF THE WEST I 

The North West Mounted Police have been J 

the guardians of the people for many years. J 

Their canteens have always been supplied J 

with the high grade products of the "Red- J 

wood Factories." m. 




Rp.owooD Factoriks. Wisnipf.o. 1877. 



Refined Ale— Redwood Lager- Extra Stout 



all pure malt beverages, scien- 
tifically brewed and matured. 
They preserve the health of the 
strong and help to restore the 
health of the sick and delicate. 



Sold by all Dealers or Direct From 

=:. L. DREIWRY 

>A/irMrMiRE<2 




•*«*i*»*i*i) 



• «•*•;( 



% 



THE CANADIAN FARMER 



% 



% 



who desires g'ood larm machines and implements selects them from the 

PEERING & Mccormick 

Lines of HARVESTING MACHINES 

TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS AND SEEDING MACHINES 

The line of harvestinjf machines for Western Canada consists of Binders, Reapers, Mowers, 
Tedders, Hay Rakes and Stackers. 

THE DEERING &, MCCORMICK LINES OF Tillage Implements and Seeding Ma- 
chines include Disc Harrows. Smoothing Harrows, Spring Tooth Harrows, Cultivators, Hoe 
Drills, Disc Drills, Seeders, Etc. 

|_ l-if ^ Q^ GASOLINE ENGINES, MANURE SPREADERS, HAY PRESSES 

make and save money for the farmer. 

When in need of any farm machines or implements call on local agent and investigate tfie merits 
of these machines, or write nearest branch house for catalogue. 

Canadian Branches: Calgary, Alb. Regina, Sask. Winnipeg, Man. 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OF AMERICA 

(Incorporated) 

GENERAL Offices: CHICAGO, U.S.A. 



% 



CANADIAN MOLINE PLOW GO. 



¥!^¥¥Jfei¥^ssi)^;^^¥¥^^ 



G. A. STEPHENS, C. R. STEPHENS, ^ 

President. Secy and Supt. 

F. G. ALLEN, C. H. LIPPINCOTT, 
Vice-Pres. T 



reasurer. 






Manufacturers of Agricultural Implements 

O. p. ROBB, Resident Manager 

MOLINE PLOWS. CULTIVATORS, PLANTERS, HARROWS, DRILLS, ETC. 



WAGONS, BUGGIES, ETC. 

WINNIPEG, Manitoba. 







McKenzie 

Carria^ge 

Works 



Carriages, Drays and Delivery Wagons 



Sixth Street. BRANDON, Macnitoba. 






.4? 






Hi 



i^^g-ii^^^g^i^gi^i^^^g^ 




EMPIRE BREWING CD.;BRANDON.MAN 






THE EMPIRE 

l-ir 
BRANC 


B 

-nit« 


IREWJNG CO. 

, MAN. 


BREWERS AND BOTTLERS: 




MANlfACTlRERS: 


Ale, 




Table Sauces, 


Porter, 




Old English Ginger Beer, 


Stout, 




Ciders, 


and 




and all 


Lager Beer 




Still and Carbonated Beverages 



'^j^'^m^'^mm^mm'^^^^'^'^ 



Hi) 

Hi 
Hi 

P 



WINNIPEG, 



Centrally 
Located to 
Business 
District 



Th 



00 



OIEEE 



99 



The Hub Hotel of the Hub City of Canada" 

MONTGOMERY BROS. Proprietors 




Cuisine 
Unexcelled 
French 
Chef 



Everything new. Finest appointed and most up-to-date Hostelry in the great North-west. 









i 


CUMMINGS BRASS CO. 






- 


ARTISTIC METAL GRILL WORK 








For Banks, Offices, Elevators, &c. 






WINDOW AND DISPLAY FIXTURES 






For Retail Dealers in Gentlemen's Furnishing^s, Millinery, Boots and Shoes, 
Hats and Caps, &c., &c. 






BRASS AND BRONZE SIGNS 






For Banks, Commercial Houses, Financial and Insurance Companies, &c., &c. 






MEMORIAL TABLETS 






ARTISTIC BUILDERS' HARDWARE WINDOW BARS 








ELECTR.O PLATING 








CUMMINGS BR.ASS CO. 






330 SMITH ST. - - - - WINNIPEG 






, . — — - — ^ 


— 



A. FERGUSON 



F. H. MALEY I 



The BRANDON BREWING CO. 

BREWERS and BOTTLERS 
of 



THE 

BEST BEER 



THE HIGHEST GRADE OF 

AERATED WATERS 



BRANDON, MAN. 



^^<S>®«>«>^<^^<^®^<S>«> «>«>«! 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦< 



p. 0. Box 165. Telephone 210. 4^ 



I HUGHES & CO. I 

Wholesale and Retail 

LUMBER DEALERS | 



— A Fi'LL Assortment of — 
LUMBER, LATH. SHINGLES. 
DOORS AND SASH always 
on hand 



BRANDON, - Man. 
^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦^ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦4 

REAL ESTATE 

i Choice Brandon Lots for sale 
These lots are well located 
and growing in value daily 

Improved Farms in most desir- 
able locations and con- 
venient to Railroads : : : 

We had special advantages in the selection of 
these lots and fanns. They were secured on 
such terms that we can make the most in- 
viting proposition to buyers. 



TULLY and TULLY 

Office: Fint Door Wmi of Empire Building 

BRANDON 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 




^^^:: 



I.IMIIHI) 



Western Canada Flour Mills Co, 



r^^ 

L 

^ 



Limited 
Si-Jccessors to 

A. Kelly Milling Co. L'td. 
Lake Huron & Manitoba Milling Co. L'td. 

CAPACITY 6,600 BBLS. PER DAY 



mills: 
7j> brandon 

y- WINNIPEG 
A ^ GODERICH, Ont . 



A. KELLY, 

President 

S. A. MCGAW, 

t'irr. I'veit. X- Gen. Man. 




FLOUR, FEED, 

ROLLED OATS, 

CORN. GRAIN, 

SEED GRAIN 



^i.^.^ki^>&^.^^^^^^^^^^r^-^kr^."^<LLri^.:^r'rr^^^c^ 



E. A. McCALLUM. 

Manager. 



W. H. A. HILL. 

President. 



E. D. McCALLUM. 

Secy-Treas. 



McCALLUM. HILL 6^ CO. 

Real E^state Dealers 



50,000 Acres of rich, open Prairie Land in the famous Saskatchewan Valley 
to select from, in large or small tracts, Homesteads adjoining-. Improved 
Farms in Regina and Balgonie Districts. Largest owners of Regina City 
Property, in Lots and Blocks. 

Write or Call on us before you buy. 

^^^^^^^.^^^ f UNION BANK. Regina.. 
REFERENCES: -\ 

(imperial bank. Regina.. 

General Agents for Leading Fire Insurance Go's in Province. 



OFFICES : SCARTH ST.. Opposite City Hall 



REGINA. Sask 



JOHN R. PEVERETT, General Agent 



Leader Block, REGINA, Sask. 



Real Estate, Insurance, Loans, Fidelity Bonds, 

Collections 

REPRESENTING: 
The London Assurance Corporation of England The Sun & Hastingfs, Savings & Loan Co. 

The London Guarantee & Accident Company, Ltd. The Henderson Land Co. Ltd. 

The Dominion Assurance Company The Royal Trust Company 

references: the Canadian bank of commerce & union bank of Canada 




i 



W. O. LOTT J 

Sac'y-Traas. *R 

* Mgr. J 



I Ihe SMITH 6; FERGUSSON Co. 



f LIMITED 

Jobbers and MoLnufaLcturers' Agents 

5^9 HANDLING 9^9 

McClary's Ranges and Furnaces. Pease Economy Furnaces and 

Furnace Boilers. The Metallic Roofing Go's Lines of Metallic Shingles, 

Sidings, Ceilings. Rathbun Star Portland Cement. Cole's Hot Blast 

Stoves. Wenzel's American Tents. Standard Sanitary Manufactur- 

j, ing Co's Baths, Lavatories, Etc. Artistic Fire-Proof Wall Plaster. 

f Berry Bros.' Varnishes and Sherwin-William's Paints. 

^ Remington Arms Co's Guns and Rifles 

Also Many Special Lines of Tools. Cutlery. Shelf and HeeLvy Hardware 



GALT COAL PENNSYLVANIA COAL SMITHING COAL 

Tlumbin^, Steam and Hot tOater Heating 

Office and Show Rooms 

Cor. South Railway and Rose Sts. REGINA. SASK. 



J 
i 



^ 



COAL WHITMORE BROS. 



WOOD 



Shippers and Dealers in 



COAL AND NA/OOD 

GENERAL AGENTS 

BANFF HARD COAL 

For the Province of Saskatchewan 



Office—South Railway Street 



REGINA, SASK. 



C. W. BLACKSTOCK & CO. 



Large and Small 
Tracts of the Finest 
WHEAT LANDS 
in the World 



Real Estate 
Financial 



AND 



Loan Agents 



For Quicic Results 
LIST YOUR PROPERTY 
WITH US- 
Correspondence 
Invited 



P. O. Box 31 



CITY PROPERTY 

FARM LANDS Improved and Unimproved 
HORSE and CATTLE RANGES 

OFFICE ROSE ST. (Next to Standard Printing House) 



Plione 272 



REQINA 



Sask. 



Member Amer. Assoc. Civil Eng. Society. 



»••••••••«•#•< 



\A/. \A/. LA CHANCE, architect 



references: 



Garlock Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio. 

H. W. Kitchen Block. Cleveland, Ohio. 

Cleveland Steel Range Co. 

Forest City Steel Rang^e Co. 

Parsons Block. 

Glenville Memorial Church. 

Municipal Buildingf, Mt, Pleasant, VV. Va. 

Municipal Building^, Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Municipal Building, Moundsville, VV. Va. 

School Building Stoney Creek, Ont. 

OFFICES IN CANADA: REGINA 



School Building, WVxxlburn, Ont. 

School Building, Bartonville, Ont. 

Hosoital Building. Hamilton. Ont. 

H. \V. Laird Co. Building, Regina, Sask. 

Mackenzie & Brown Building, Regina, Sa.sk. 

J. F. Cairns Building, Saskatiwn. 

A. E. Young Building. Saskatot>n. 

W. H. McBeth Building, Saskatoon. 

The Phoenix Building, Saskatixin. 



SASKATOON 



PRINCE ALBERT 



CABLE ADDRESS"C0MP0" REGINA. | | % 



INCOMBUSTIBLE 

and 
INOESTRUCTIBLE 



COMPOSITE BRICK CO. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Cast Stone and Brick 






R. B. FERGUSSON, 



Manager 



REGINA, Sask. 



FOR ALL KINDS 

of 

CONSTRUCTION WORK 



MANLEY &: SMITH * 



REAL ESTATE 

INSURANCE and 

CONTRACTING 



The Choicest Business and Residential 
Locations in the City. 



IMPROVED FARMS AND 40,000 ACRES OF 
WILD LANDS FOR SALE. 



MooM Jaw Real EsUtc is the Safest lavestmeat in the 
West to-day. 



MANLEY & SMITH 
Bo«56 MOOSE JAW SASK. 



••••••••••••4 



John H. Boyle 



S. K. Duff 



S. K. Duff, Jr. • 



JOHN H. BOYLE & CO. I 



REAL ESTATE 



Choice town lots for sale. Improved 
and unimproved farm lands in choice 
localities. Grazing lands 



Correspondence and interviews invited 
REIGINA 



t 



Sask. • 



J. \A/. CADNA/ELL 8e CO. I 

m 

SASKATOON, Sask. I 

w^ 

FARM LANDS CITY PROPERTY | 

We were here first — Benefit by our Experience 1^ 

i "Invest Now" ^. . ■ .^ . il 

1 Fire and Life Insurance i 

i i 

i Correspondence Solicited REFERENCE: NORTHERN BANK | 







I 



W. B. BARWIS 

REAL ESTATE, INSURANCE, LOANS, &c. 



m 
m 
m 

m 
m 

M 
M 
M 

i ' ' ' m 

i m 

I REPRESENTING I 



U Manufacturers Life Insurance Co. 



n 



m Railway Passengers Association Co. of London, Eng. m 

H Liverpool and London and Globe Fire Insurance Co. | 

% Phoenix Insurance Co. of Hartford, Conn. | 

i Canadian Casualty and Boiler Insurance Co. m 

§ Royal Fire Insurance Co. of Liverpool, Eng. i 

I Commercial Union Fire Insurance Co. | 

Canadian Birkbeck Investment and Savings Co. m 

m 

CALGARY .... ALBERTA I 

ROSEWELL, CARSON & FISHER | 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL M 

Manufacturers of Genuine Stock Saddles, Concord Harness, Double and Single || 

Light Harness and all kinds of Hand-Stamped Leather Goods tl| 

H 

Dealers in Saddlery, Hardware, Leather, Trunks, Valises, Suit Cases, M 

Bits, Spurs, Blankets, Whips and all kinds ot Horse Goods. All orders W. 

attended to promptly. Full line of all Leather Goods. Importers of m 

English Saddlery and Travelling Rugs. Carriage Trimming a Specialty. S| 

Repairs Done Promptly and Well. W 

m 

Phone 174 174 Eighth Ave. East P. o. Box 841 W: 

CALGARY I 

Four doors East of Post Office K 




9- 



p. BURNS & CO. 

Meat Merchants, Pork Packers 
Dealers in Live Stock 



Head Office and Packing House : 



CALGARY, Alberta 




•e 

-e 

-8 
•3 
-8 
-6 
-8 

-e 

-6 

•§ 

-8 
-8 
-8 
-8 
-8 
•8 
-8 
-8 
•8 
-8 
-8 
-8 
•8 
-8 
-8 



COLD SXORAGE PLANTS AX: 



CALGARY, Alta. 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 



NELSON, B.C. 
REVELSTOKE, B.C. 



FERNIE, B.C. 
WHITE HORSE, Y.T. 



Markets in all the principal cities and towns in Alberta, British Columbia and the Yukon. 



P. BURNS & CO., 



CALGARY, Alberta. 



^Ycp<j><|><J,,j,<j>^cpcf<|><|><^>^«|><^cp<p,|,.|l<p«|Ht>cp<|><|><p<pcJ>cp<f^«p'f>cpcp<J>'p'|><p<p<f)^ 











Alberta Building Co. 

LIMITED 

CALGARY 

ROOMS: PHONES: 
*" 309 STEPHEN AVE. ^^ '- 5l5 


BUILDERS 

and 

GENERAL 
CONTRACTO R5 




BUILDERS OF 

James Turner & Co., Warehouse and Office, Wholesale Grocers 
Central Schools 

English Church of the Redeemer 
Tees and Persse Building 
Lareest Plant McPherson Fruit Co., Warehouse and Office 
in the City-Facilities Hodder Block 
for Carrying Tiirough McDougall Block 
tlie Largest Undertalcings Government Post Office 

JAS ADDISON, President GEO. W. PFEIFFER, Vice President W. B. DAVEY. Secy. «. Treas. 




Riley &McCormick 



i-iiviinrEiD 



Manufacturers of and Wholesale Dealers In 

HARNESS, SADDLES, LEATHER, 
SADDLERY HARDWARE "^ ^ 

Fancy Leather Goods, Trunks and 
Valises, Tents and Canvas Goods, Gloves, 
Mitts, Purses, Mexican Carved Leather 
Goods ::::::: 



PHONE 207 

111 8th Ave. W. - CALGARY, Alta. 








^;^^;^^0m^^^^^^i^~;^^^*wi;^^ii^i^mfmw0!^*^ 



i 



E. D. Benson. 



S. HOULTON 



The Benson & Houlton Company, 



Limited. 



REAL ESTATE AGENTS 







Incorporated under the laws of 

the Province of 

Alberta 



Authorized Capital - $100,000.00 



BUILDERS 

AND 

CONTRACTORS 



Fire and Life Insurance 



PROVINCIAL AGENTS FCR 

FLEXO" ROOFING 




OFFICE Tel. 366. 
Shop " 754. 



P. O. BOX 399. 
HERALD BLOCK 



CAL-GARV, 

CANADA 



+ 



% 
% 



I 



i 
% 






»;^i?.li^m^^l^i^i^il^^i*^*^^^*'^^^^^**^^^^ 




CALGARY BREWING 
AND MALTING GO. 



LIMITED 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Ales, Porter and Lager Beer 



" BUFFALO BRAND " AERATED WATERS 




CALGARY BREWING AND MALTING CD'S PREMISES, CALGARY, ALTA. 

To produce good beer requires the highest grade ot malt, the finest hops, the purest water and the clearest air. 
These are the substances that produce Calgary Beer. 



Alberta malt, British Columbia and imported hops, Rocky Mountain glacial water. These make Calgary Beer. 

xl 



il/ 

\l/ 
\^/ 

\^/ 

a/ 

\^/ 
«\ 









Ho 




^ 



Dealer in 



TTLE aimd MaM 

Heavy TeaLms a-nd Stock Cattle always on Hand 



Farms, Ranches and Town Property for Sale 



CATTLE BRANDED 



SsLme Bls cut on left ribs 



T. O. "Bojc ISO 



HORSES BRANDED 



Sa>.m« OlS out on left shovildor 



Office Phone 203 



CALGAR.Y, Aha. 



Res. Phone 19 



^^^^^^^ 




% 

m 

* 
m 

m 
m 
m 

* 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 



sK 



WILLIAM M. DODD 



ATtCHITECT 



HEAD OFFICE: 

Pooms 6, 7 and 8 

New AlbertaL Block 

CALGARY 



TELEPHONE NO. 162. 



P.O. BOX 275. 



Bxisiness Blocks 

New Alberta Block for W. R. Hull 

" Clarence Block for Senator Lougheed 

" Norman Block for " " 

" Cameron Block for A. L. Cameron 

" Sharpies Block for John Sharpies 

•' Allan Block for A. Allan 

'• Armstrong Block 

" Hutchings Block for R. J. Hutchings 

" Calgary Cattle Co. Block 

" Calgary Milling Co. Block 

" Burns Block for P. Burns & Co. 

" Smith & Gaetz Block, Red Deer • 

" C. B. Hume & Co. Block, Revelstoke 

■• Trites & Wood Block, Fernie, B.C. 

" Johnston Block, Eernie, B.C. 

" Lane & Emerson Block, High River 

Churches 

Knox Church, Regina 
Baptist Church, Calgary 



REFERENCES 

Residences 



Residence, Calgary 



W. R. Hull, 

W. H. Butcher, 

W. M. Robertson's 

F. F. Higgs, 

Theo. Strom 

W. H. Lee, 

Rectory English Church 

Terrace, Frank Fairey, 



Hotels. Etc. 

New Lyric Theatre, Calgary 

" Auditorium Skating Rink, Calgary 

" Sanitarium Hotel, Banff 

" Fernie Hotel, Fernie, B.C. 

" Grand Union Hotel, Calgary 

■' Dominion Hotel, Calgary 

" Delias Hotel, Lethbridge 

" Cayley Hotel, Cay ley 

" Dining Hall, Alberta Hotel, Calgary 



BRANCH OFFICE 
REGINA. 

Sftsk. 



Public Buildings 

New Central School, Calgary 
" Victoria " 
" Fast Ward School, Calgary 
" School, MacLeod, Alta. 
" " High River, Alta. 

" " Red Deer, Alta. 

Olds, Alta. 
" " Gainsborough, Sask. 

" " Qu'Appelle, Sask. 
" Town Hall, Qu'Appelle, Sask. 
" Bank of Nova Scotia, Calgary 
" Union Bank, High River 
" Bank of Montreal, Regina and Indian 

Head (Associate Architect) 
" City Hall, Regina 



Wholesale Buildings 

James Turner & Co., Calgary 
Great West Saddlery Co., Calgary 
Massey Harris Co,. Calgary 
I. Y. Griffin & Co.. Calgary 
W. M. Parslow's Warehouse, Calgary 
G. F. Stephens & Co., Calgary 



ALBERTA INVESTMENT GO. Limited 



FINtNCItl AGENTS, REAL ESTATE, lOANS m INSURANCE 



agencies; 

The Home Insurance Company, 

The Guardian Assurance Company, 

The New York Underwriters' Agency, 

New Yorl( Plate Glass Insurance Company. 



representing: 

The Standard Loan Company, 



The Dominion ot Canada Guarantee and 
Accident Insurance Company. 



T j.ssKiNNER CALGARY, ALBERTA 



H. M. CHERRY, 



AssT.- Manager 



I ffii ALBERTA HOTEL 1 



NORMAN D. JACKSON. Proprietor 



3 

:3 




The Leading Commercial Hotel 
=== in Alberta ==== 

RATES 

$2,50 to $3.00 per Day 



JC ^ ?c 



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E 



3 

3 



3 



3 



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xliii 



i W. A. DENBY, Manager 



'*U«Ci»U*CM£*C9*U*U*CJ*i 



E. H. CRANDELL 



THE WESTERN TENT AND MATTRESS CO. 




Telephone 173 
P. 0. Box 57 



DEALERS IN AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

Tents, Awnings, Mattresses 
Camping Supplies and all 
kinds of Canvas Goods. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 



133 TENTH AVENUE EAST 



CALGARY, Alta. 







PHYSICAL MORALITY 

is fundamental 

To Preserve Beauty 

Cleanse the Skin 

Stimulate Circulation 

and Tone up External Tissue 



GOLDEN WEST 
..TOILET.. 



-IS AN- 



Exquisite Soap 



AT A POPULAR PRICE 



ASkC F^OR \T 



Standard Soap Go. Ltd. 



r-\ 



Head Office and Works! 



CALGARY 



A. JUDSON SAYRE WESLEY HOOPLE EUGENE D. CASE 

President treas. Secy «. manaoer 



CALGARY 

COLONIZATION 

COMPANY 



250,000 ACRES 

in the heart of the great wheat belt of Alberta, embracing 
lands at Calgary, Airdrie, Crossfields, High River, Shep- 
ard, Langdon and other points 



WRITE FOR MAPS AND FULL INFORMATION TO 

Calgary Colonization Co. 



LIMITED 

CALGARY - - Canada 



sW 



$ss3aaa33ss3iS33ssi[isssii3iS!iaaffiaffi9assffliaffiiiffiiisiiiifflSiisii!i£iiiaiisiiisi3i9SSiffli]S9aiiii!i3!Ssfflgi[siiiiiis 

m 



W. H. GUSHING, President. A. B. GUSHING. Vice-President. A. T. GUSHING, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Gushing Bros. Co., Ltd. 

WINDOW AND DOOR MANUFACTURERS 
Alberta's Leading Industry 

Windows, Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, Turnings, Brackets, Etc. 
Store and Church Fittings, Stairs, Store Fronts, Etc. : : 



Factories and Yards at 

CALGARY, EDMONTON and REGINA. 



Branches at 

STRATHCONA, FORT SASKATCHEWAN 
and RED DEER. 



. . . Dealers in . . . 

LUMBER, SHINGLES AND BUILDERS' SUPPLIES 



i CALGARY, 



ALBERTA 



sffissaisfflsiiissiiisisBiiffliiinisnisiinsiiiiaaffliiiiiiiiaiiisniiinsiiisiiaffiiisniiiisiiiiiiiiiiiiissiinsisiisniisiiiiiiiiiiiiissiis 



W. S. LAZIER & CO. 



Real Estate 
Loans 
Insurance 
General Brokers 
Live Stock 
Business Chances 
Farm Lands 
Ranches 



The Great West Land Co. 

There is no more inviting proposition to the investor 
or settler than the lands we have to offer in the prov- 
inces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. These include 
large tracts of both Agricultural and Grazing lands 
in the choicest localities in these two provinces. The 
lands were chosen because of their fertility and location. 
As an investment no other lands in the Great'North- 
West have a better present value and promise a greater 
certainty of greatly increased value in the near future. 
Full particulars will be sent upon request. 

W. S. Lazier & Co. 



CALGARY 



centre street 



ALBERTA 



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A. McBRIDE & CO. I 



Shelf and Heavy Hardware 

In our large stock we have made ample provision 



:i For the BUILDER 



-6 

♦e 

-6 

t For the FARMER 

-6 

t For the CARPENTER 

-8 



Whom we can supply with anything he requires in any quantity— nails, glass, f. 
putty, Sic. 9- 



For farm or garden, house or barn, stable or fence 



The best tools in the greatest variety by the world's best makers 

I For the HOME 

Stoves, Ranges, Refrigeators, Screens, Carpet Sweepers and the thousand and 9* 
one house necessities n* 



A. McBRIDE & CO. 



CALGARY, Alta. t 






a>s>9>'S>s>i>s>s>it>s>s>s>^^s>s>^^^s>^^^^^^^^^^^s>ss>^^s> 



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Alberta Pacific Elevator Co. 



UMITED 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN GRAIN 
HAY. FEED 



1 3 Elevaton from Edmonton South to Cardtton. 
30.000 Bushels Capacity each. : : : : 



WETASKIWIN 

MILLET 

LEI>L'C 

DIDSBLRY 

CARSTAIRS 

HIGH RIVER 

NANTON 

OLDS 



STAVELY 

SPRING COULEE 

CLARESHOLM 

PINCHER 

MAGRATH 

RALEY 

CARDSTON 



Head Office: 

CALGARY, Alberta 



T. L. BEJSEKER. 

Proideal 



C H. 



DAVIDSON. 

Vioe-PfwidMM 



L. P. STRONG. Seortwy-T. 



C. S. LOTT 

REAL ESTATE and FINANCIAL 
AGENT 

Dealer in 
CROWS NEST PASS COAL 
BANFF HARD COAL 



Rrpre.srntinc: 
Onlcr, Hammond & N'aiiton 
Norwich I'nion Fire Insuranoo Society 
I^w Union & Crown Insurance Co. 
Western AsHurance Co. 
(A>ndon Guarantee and Accident Co. 
Hudiion Bay Co'a Lmnds 



Pacific Cartage G)., Ltd. 

A. M. NANTON. Ptas. C S. LOTT. ViefPlM. 

E. D. ADAMS. SmtTim*. 



CALGARY 



Alberu 



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* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
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* 

* 
* 



Residence Phone 43 



OfiEice Phone 29 



THE OLDEST ESTABLISHED OFFICE 
IN TOWN 



H. R SANDEMAN 

REAL ESTATE AND 
INSURANCE 



C. & E. Townsite Representative 



MONEY TO LOAN 



STRATHCONA 



ALBERTA 



* id 



Ross Brothers 

Limited 
^VHOLESALE and RETAIL 

Traders' and Trappers' Supplies, 

Shelf and Heavy Hardware, 

Stoves, &c. 



Manufacturers of 

TIN, SHEET IRON and COPPER- 
WARE 



EDMONTON 



ALBERTA 



* 



7UST MALT AND HOPS, THATS ALL 



© 



§ 



"EDMONTON BEER" 

"PEERLESS ALE" 

"IMPERIAL STOUT" 



Edmonton Brewing and Malting Co, 



LIMITED 



The most expert knowledg-e of Malting- and Brewing; the most extreme care 
in manufacturing; the best hops, the finest malt and the purest water com- 
bine to make the product of our works so popular in Edmouton and through- 
out the North-West. . ......... 



Edmonton 



Alberta f 



s n 



NORTH-\A/EST ELECTRIC CO. g 

I 

Construction, Electric Fixtures and Supplies 



l-lmit«cl ^ 



ESTIMATES FURNISHED ON DYNAMOS, MOTORS, AND COMPLETE INSTALLATIONS i 



CALGARY and EDMONTON, Alta. 



C. G. CUNNINGHAM. Man. Dir. 
E. A. THOMPSON. Sec. Treas. 



H. R. THOMPSON. Director * 

G. M. COWDEROY. Director M 



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I Strathcona Brewing and Malting Co. I 



B Brewers' Supplies : — mamfactirers ok — IRISH moss, 

I HOPS, FINE ALE, EXTRA PORTER, ^^^^^' 

I MALTING, AND PITCH, 

PREMIUM LAGER BEER etc. 



ISINGLASS 



ROBERT OCHSNER, Proprietor. STRATHCONA, Alberta, a 

a 
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% Established 
f 1878 



THE 6RACKMAN-KER MILLING GO. 



inoorporatad 
1899 



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BRANCHES: 

VANCOUVER. B.C. 

NEW WESTMINSTER. 
B.C. 

NELSON, B.C. 

ROSSLAND, B.C. 

STRATHCONA. Alta. 



L.IIVIIXED 



PAID UP CAPITAL - - $340.000 00 



Manufacturers of and Dealers 
in 

ROLLED OATS. 

OATMEAL, 

GRAHAM FLOUR, 

WHEAT FLAKES 

GRAIN, GRASS SEEDS, ETC. 



CABLE ADDRESS I 
"BRACKMAN" 

A.8.C CODE 
4th and 5th EDITION 

►♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



Head Office, - VICTORIA, B.C. 
MILLS at: 

Oc««ri Docl<, Victoria, a C. 
»X«ATMCOfMA, Alt*. 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ^ 



Elavators at all princi- 
pal points on Calgary 
and Edmonton 
R.R. 



RED DEER 
WETASKIWIN 

LACOINBE 

LCDUG 

STRATHCONA 



P.O DRAWER 779 
TELEPHONE 366 







# 



# 

« 
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Revillon BrotKers 



Limited 



EDMONTON BRANCH 



PIONEER GENER.AL WHOLESALERS 
of WESTERN CANADA 



** Ei'Very thing J^rom a. J^eedle to cin Anchor*' 



R^evillon Brothers, Limited 

EDMONTON - - ALBER.TA 



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Revillon Brothers 



Limited. 



W holesale 
Merchants 







Dry Goods, Boots and Shoes, 
Groceries, Hardware, etc., etc. 



^^^ 




Revillon Brothers* Limited 

EDMONTON, . . Alberta. 



^^* 



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Edmonton Tent and Mattress Co. 



Established 1895. 



R. Kenneth, Prop. 



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IN/IAKERS OR 

Tents, Awnings, Mattresses, Pillows, Flags, Wagon, Boat and Horse 
Covers ::::::: : 

Survey Camp Supplies and Hammocks, Folding Camp Beds, Tables and 
Chairs kept in stock :::::;: 




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CRAFTS 8c LEIE 

Land and Business Exchange 

EDMONTON, Alberta, Canada 



Land improved and unimproved for sale in 
the Edmonton District and the famous Sas- 
katchewan Valley, the garden of Alberta. 
Also property in Edmonton, the Capital of 
Alberta and the leading- city between Win- 
nipeg and Vancouver, 

For Maps, price lists. &c, write us. Corre- 
spondence solicited. 



W. I. CRAFTS 



CRARxs St l.e:e: 

Reference: Merchants Bank of Canada, Edmonton Jg 




ROBERT LEE 



1 The Bentley Compdny, 

I LIMITED 

^ Importers and Dealers in 

i General Merchandise 

i WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 



We Carry the Largest and Best Assorted 
Stock in Southern Alberta 

Hieh Grade Goods at Right Prices 



Ladies' Wear Department Ip-Stairs 

A Lady in Chargfe 



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AGENTS rOR THE CANADIAN OIL COMPANY, Limited 



Mail Orders Receive Prompt and Careful 
Attention 



LETHBRIDGE 



Alberta 



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BRODIE& STAFFORD 

— Dealers in — 

Hardware and Furniture 



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SHOTGUNS, RIFLES, 
AND REVOLVERS 

Ammunition of all kinds 



LETHBRIDGE, Alta., N.W.T. 



B. C DEASUM 



C. MOUNT 



I 

I d,EASUM & MOUNT I 



% REAL ESTATE 

♦ AND 

J INSURANCE AGENTS 
} 

^ Local agens 

I WESTERN CANADA LAND COMPANY, Ltd. | 



i Auction Sales Conducted {; 



J IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED FARMS 

X CORRESPONDENCE INVITED 



###*#*######## #####,(t#,)t,^,^,^,^^^^^^,^^^^^^ 



# 



Masonic Hall Building, I 

t Fort Saskatchewan, Alta. t 



# 



Office Tel. 864. 



Residence Tel. BI507. 



A. M. BEATTIE 



AUCTIONEER AND 
NOTARY PUBLIC 






TIMBER LIMITS 

^ ^< FOR SALE v< ^< 



167 Cordova Street 



VANCOIVER, 



B.C. 



##########i(mmnimnimmmt####,^,immn,mn,mn,n„i^„t,n; 




I SHERA & CO. I 

* t 

I Millers and General Merchants I 



MEAT MARKET IN CONNECTION 



Fort Saskatchiev^an, Alta. 



«*«:#«««4t*«*««**«««**##«««#*««#*««*««**««##*#«««# 



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IMPORTER 
AND JOBBER OF 






VANCOUVKIR. B.C. 



liii 



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♦ ®^ 

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Kelly, Douglas & Co. Ltd. | 

WHOLESALE GROCERS | 




T 



eas, 



DIRECT IMPORTERS 

Coffees, Tobaccos, 



Cigars, 



''Absolutely the best"— NABOB Tea, Coffee, Spices & Extracts 



Cable Address! "KELLY 



Codes used A-B.C. 5th Edition, "WESTERN UNION' 

VANCOUVER, B.C. 



♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-♦-♦-♦■♦♦♦■♦♦♦♦♦♦♦^ ♦♦♦♦♦.♦♦♦♦■♦■♦♦♦♦♦♦♦•♦-♦■♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

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VM. VALLANCE, 

PrcsidaU 



W. G. MACKENZIE, 

Vice-Preadent t Maoagins Director 



M. H. LBGGAT, 

Sec'v-Tre«t 



WOOD, VALLANCE & LEGGAT 

LIMITED 

Shelf and Heavy Hardware 

GUNS, RIFLES and AMMUNITION 

Bar Iron and Steel; Coil Chain, Cordage and Glass; Mill, Foundry and Contractors* 
Supplies; British and Foreign Cutlery; Ship Chandler . 



WOOD, VALLANCE & LEGGAT, Limited 
Vancouver, B. C, 



WOOD, VALLANCE St CO., Hamilton 
TORONTO OFFICE. Bay St, 



GEO. WOOD & CO., WOOD. VALLANCE HARDWARE CO., 
Winnipeg Nelson, B. C. 



I McLENNAN, McFEELY & CO., 

g^ LIMITED 

B HARDWARE MERCHANTS 



JJ^ Reffistered Trade 

m^ Mark 



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B 



>UN3 



We Invite 
Correspondence 



Retail Sales and Sample Rooms: 
122 CORDOVA ST. 



SOLE AGENTS FOR 


BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR 


Spooner's Cop|HTiiu' 


Suiisi't Brand Cutlery 


Klfctric Rubber Bellinjf 


No-Tar l'a|H«r 


Beardmore Leather Beltinjf 


Canton Steel 


Sunset Machine Oil 


Giant Powder Co. 


Cochee Lace Leather 


Bennett's Kn^lish Fust* 


Majestic Steel Ran>fes 


Dawson Bros." (irates 


Acorn Stoves and Ranjfes 


and Mantels 


Sanford LoK^jjinj; Tools 


Valentine's Varnishes 


Sunset X Cut Saws 


and Colors 



3 

Our Mail Order --• 

Business is Care- "^ 
fully Supervised ^5 



Wholesale Warehouses: 
29 to 44 PCNOCR ST. 



X^dricrodv^^r', £3. C 



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cooes: a. B.C. 5TH Edition, western union, ai. 



E. G PRIOR, President 

G. F. MATHEWS, Vice-President 

G W. WYNNE, Man. Director 

C p. W. SCHWENGERS, Secretary 



ESTABLISHED 1859 
INCORPORATED 1891 
CAPITAL STOCK, $250,000 



E. 6. PRIOR & CO. 

LIMITED LIABILITY 
Wholesale importers of 



Branch Houses: 

VANCOUVER, B. C. 
KAMLOOPS, B. C. 
'^'CJ'^^ ^T^^t^t^i^'.^ -• VERNON, B.C. 

N.E.Coi?. Government and Johnson Streets. 

SOL.E AGEIMTS IIM BRITISH COL-UIVIBIA 

Whitman Agricultural Cos Melotte Cream Separators 

Maw Hancock Disc Plows 
Petaluma Incubators 



BAR AND PLATE IRON, STEEL, RAILS. PIPE, FITTINGS, NAILS 
Shelf AND Heavy hardware 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS 

LONDON OFFICE: 
13-15 Wilson St , Finsbury, 



Massry Harris Co's 

Binders, Mowers, Sulky Rakes 

Seed Drills, Cultivators 

Harrows, Feed and Root Cutters 

Ensilage Cutters 
Sawyer & Massey's 

Farm and Traction Engines 

Peerless Separators 
Jas. Leffel & Co's 

Steam Engines and Boilers 
St. Alaban's Foumirv Co's 

Threshers and Separators 



Hand, Horse & Steam Power 
Hay Presses 



F. E. Myers & Bro's 

Well and Spray Pumps Chas. A Stickney Co's 
Hay Carriers. Forks, Pulleys, &c. Gasoline Engines 

Aekmotor Co's Winhmills 

c T A s n ■ J- L. Owen's 

S. L. Allen & Co s Fanning Mills 

1 lanet Jr. Garden & rarm lools 

W. Cooke & Co's Oliver's 

Miningand Logging Wire Ropes Chilled and Steel Plows 



E.C, 

NEW YORK OFFICE: 
127 Duane St. 

F-OR 

Frost & Wood's 
Steel Plows 

(American) Bain Wagon Co's 
Steel Skein Farm and Freight 
Wagons 

(Canadian) Bain Wagon Co's 
Farm Wagons, Trucks and 
Dump Carts 

Brantford Carriage Co's 

Carriages, Buggies and Carts 



PITHER & LEISER 



WHOLESALE WINES 
LIQIORS & CIGARS 




VANCOIVER and VICTORIA, B.C. 



^S5s5£QS2£2^g;£SSJ£2£2.s2£2a}.s2£2S?a£2S;fi2£2£2^£2g3S2fi3g2s2S2£2S2g3SJ& 



■a 

S3 

?3 C. J. LOEWEN, Notary Public 

•55 
?3 



R. G. HARVEY 



LOEWEN & HARVEY 

REAL ESTATE, INSURANCE 
AND LOANS 



g Phone 987. 



P. 0. Box 828. 



310 Hastings Street West, 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 



AGENTS 



The Canadian Birkbeck investment and Savings Co. 

The Queen Insurance Co. 

The Guarantee Company of North America. 



Codes: A. B.C., 5th Edition. 



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Ivi 



I J.E. LAIDLAW- R.A.LAIDLAW 

B. C. Electrical Construction Co. 

- LAIDLAW BROS. 




X 



Estimates for Wiring Furnished. Fittings and Fixtures. 
No. 2 Arcade Phone A- 122 5 

ANGLO-AMERICAN fire insurance company I 

AUTHORIZED CAPITAL - - $1,000,000 

SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL - - - $480,100 

Deposited with the Dominion Government for the Protection of Policyholders - $54,634.69 

S. F. McKINNON, Esq., Pres. JOHN R. BARBER. M. P. P. 

of S. F. McKinnon & Co., Toronto JOHN FLETT 

H. H. BECK, Manager 



V Head Office— McKinnon Building - _ _ _ . 



TORONTO I 
xxxx3 



American-Abell Engine & Thresher Co. 



LIMITED 



Portable and Traction ENGINES 

SEPARATORS WINDSTACKERS BAGGERS FEEDERS 
WEIGHERS, and all kinds of extras 

Special Plowing Engines 



Representing 



Advance Thresher Co. 

BATTLE CREEK, 

Mich. 



TORONTO, Ont. 
WINNIPEG, Man, 
REGINA, Sask. 



RCPRCSKNIINO 



Minneapolis 
Threshing Machine Co. 

WEST MINNEAPOLIS, 

Minn 




^^.^•^m^.^.^.m'^mm-^^m'mmm'^mmmmm 



The World's Famous 

''Safford'' Radiators 

AND 

^^Safford'' Boilers 









^. 



HAVE become world-renovvned by actual merit. They have stood the 
test of the world's most expert critics. They have no equal in the 
world. This is why they are used in 

His Majesty's Theatre, London. His Majesty's Office and Works, 
Birmingfham. The Emperor of Germany's Royal Palace, Berlin. 
Royal Infirmary, Dresden, Germany. Institute of Mechanical 
Eng^ineers, Westminister. Metropolitan Police Headquarters, 
London. Palace Hotel, Cairo, Egypt. City Hall, Antwerp, Bel- 
gium. City Hall, Pietermaritzburg-, S.A. Exploration Buildings, 
Johannesburg, S.A. City Hall, Toronto. King Edward Hotel, 
Toronto. 

Dominion Radiator Co. 

Limited. 
Head Office: TORONTO. 

Prices no higher than others. Booklet Free. branches : Montreal, Quebec, St. John, Winnipeg, Vancouver. 






W 













Canada Permanent Mortgage Corporation 



Mead Office: 

Toronto Street, TORONTO, Ont. 



^i and upwards received on de- 
posit. Interest paid or compounded 
half yearly at 

3i% 



Money to 
Loan 

Rates Low 
Terms Easy 
No Delays 
Expenses Light 



$1 00 '^^^ upwards received, for 
which debentures are issued with 
coupons attached for half yearly 
interest at 



Paid up Capital $6,000,000.00. 



Ontario Branch— TORONTO. 

Jno. Massey, Manager. 

W. Cecil Lee, Treasurer. 
British Columbia Branch-VANCOUVER 

George L. Smellie, Manager. 



Reserve Fund $2, 200,000. 00. 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Alberta Branch -EDMONTON. 
C. W. Strathy, Manager. 

Manitoba Branch— WINNIPEG. 

Geo. F. R. Harris, Manager. 



inve:>tbd Funds $25, 200, 000. 00. 



Maritime Provinces Branch— ST. JOHN, 
N.B. 

Edmund B. LeRoy, Manager. 

Saskatchewan Branch— REGINA. 
W. E. Mason, Manager. 



^ 



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asse\^=^varr4S 



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i«iin«iecl 



The Larg-est Makers of 
. . Farm Implements . . 
Under the British Flag 

MAKERS OF CANADIAN MACHINES FOR CANADIAN PEOPLE 






li« 



m 



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'u~3 


IT'S THE BEST 


THERE IS -« ^ 





m 






U/>e MITCHELL RIFLE SIGHT 



gives full satisfaction because it is true and easily set. This SIGHT enjoys world-wide endorsation. 



j\ "Bookjel i-t yours _for the asKJng 



MITCHELL RIFLE SIGHT CO.. Ltd 




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The Ontario Sewer Pipe Company, Ltd. 



MANUFACTURERS OF- 



( c 



The Famous MIMICC Brand of 

Vitrified Salt Glazed Sewer and Pipe and Fittings, 

Extra Heavy Culvert Pipe, Flue Linings, Chiinney Tops, 

and other Clay Products. 



OFFICE : Home Life Building. 



TORONTO, 



PHONE, Main 4537. 

Canada. 



Factory at MIMICO, ONT. 



Phone, Park 422. 



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THE 

SUB-TARGET 

GUN 

has had the endorsation of every mili- 
tary officer of standing in the Domin- 
ion, and is beinjj provided by the De- 
partment of Militia and Defence for 
the instruction of the Canadian forces. 
Adopted by the Ontario Government 
for use in the Public Schools. 
Write for "Facts for Marksmen," a 
twenty-pag'e illustrated booklet. 

The Sub-Target Gun Company 

LIMITED 
206 MANNING CHAMBERS 

TORONTO 



The Wilkinson Plough Co. Limited 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Ploughs 

Mouldboard and Disc 

Rollers 

Steel, Land and I^wn 

Harrows 

Drag and Disc 

Scrapers 

Steel, Wheel and Drag 

Straw Cutters 

Pneumatic 
Writt' for full lino-* of Ajfricullural ImplomcntM M«nuf«clurcd by uh 

THE WILKINSON PLOUGH CO. 

TORONTO - - - Canada 



i«i 



^ISSSS^Sli 



Union Drawn Steel Co. Limited 

Cold Die-Rolled Steel and Iron 

FOR 

SHAFTING 

PISTON RODS. SCREW STEEL & ROLLER BEARING RODS 



True to Size 

and Highly 

Polished 




R.ounds 
Squa^res 
Flats and 
Hexa-gons 



Office and Works 



HAMILTON 



CaLi\aLda 



The FEDERAL LIFE 

Assurance Company 



CAPITAL AND ASSETS 
PAID POLICY HOLDERS 

IN 1905 

ASSURANCE WRITTEN 

IN 1905 



$3,293,913.93 
236.425.35 

3.329.537.08 



Mo^t 7}esirable 'Policy Contractj: 
Security Absolute Nonforfeitable 'Policies: 



DAVID DEXTER. President and Managing Director 



HeLmilton 



Head Office; 



Canada 



Ixii 




QUALITY— QUALITY 



That is 

UPTON'S 

first consideration in the manu- 
facture of his 

JAMS, JELLIES AND 

ORANGE MARMALADE 






W. E. Sanford Mfg. Co. Ltd. 

WHOLESALE 
CLOTHIERS 

= Manufacturers of ~ 



'She C e I e brat e d 
^o^ereign 'Brand 



Hamilton* Ont* 



Winnipeg, Man. 



* 



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THE DO\A/D MILLING CO., Ltd 

IVIILLERS AND GRAIIM DEALERS 



Ask for Patent H 


ungarian, Cosmos Patent, Strong Bakers'. High Loaf, and Lily Flour, 
Royal Seal Rolled Oats and Oatmeal. 


offices: 241 WCLLINGTON ST. 
OTTAWA. ONT. 

AND WINNIPEG, MAN. 

PAKENHAM, ONT. 

OUYON, OUE. 




Capacity : 

700 Barrels Flour 

100 Bushels Rolled Oats 

100 Tons Provender 


PHONE 1563 





ipif.j(.i](,if.3(.i(.i(.i(.i(^!3(^^^i(.3s.3(.^^3i.3(,is.i(.i(.3(,3(.S(.3(.S(.^^^:3(.^:^^^ 




SAMUEL MAY 6; CO. 

Manufacturers of English and American 

'Billiard Table4: 

With the latest improved Quick "Club" Cushions — Registered 

Importers of Simonis and West of England Billiard Cloth; Turners 
of Ivory and Composition Billiard and Pool Balls. Old Balls Turned 
and Colored; Makers of Plain and Fancy Cues; Superior French 
Cue Tips, Chalk, etc. 



Office aLnd SKo^v Rooms: 



102-104 ADELAIDE ST. W. 



TORONTO 



****4i*4^4c************************4^******************J^*****^ 



Ixiv 



*******♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦< 



♦ 
♦ 



♦ 
♦ 



♦ 

t 

♦ 
♦ 

i 



Mk Western Canada 1^^ 



is Attractingz 



The Attention of the World 

T^HE magnificent harvest of .905 has drawn the attention of the farming communitv, the world over, to the irreat 
„\u *-*'^^'^'^" Y^^^' ,*"d 'he mflux of settlers this year promises to be far larger than ever before • ^ 

• 7h f'f'"^^'" "^^ ^*^ development has given another incentive to action to the progressive farmer, and the prolific 
clime" ^° '*° bushels to the acre has caught the attention of the husbandman of every country and of ^ery 

q The opening up of new territory by the increased railway consiruction throw^ a wider area\han ever before open 
Uj settlement, w.thm easy reach of markets and elevators, and thousands are flocking to the newly-opened distril^s 
There is room, however, for thousands more, and 160 acres are offered free to every man who isabirand willinir to 
comply with the requirements of settlement : ; ; ; . . . . . . 



The Markets 

'TpHERE is a good market for 
-■- everything the farmer can 
raise — Wheat, Butter, Eggs, 
Poultry and other staples of the 
farm, and prices do not mater- 
ially differ from those in the 
eastern communities. Groceries, 
Dry Goods, Clothing, Etc. cost 
about the same. 



Fuel Easy to Obtain 



B 



OTH Wood and Coal can be 
had at reasonable prices. 
Timber belts skirt the river banks 
and the shores of the lakes, and 
coal is found in many parts of 
the country. Rights to mine 
coal on public lands, for private 
use, may be had from the Gov- 
ernment for a few cents a ton, 
and timber may also be cut for 
private use. 



Rules for Homestead Entry 
or Inspection 

1. An application for homciiteaJ entry or inspec- 
tion will only be accepted if made in person by the 
applicant at the office of the local a^ent or sub- 
ag^ent. 

2. An application for homestead entry or for in 
spcction, made personally at any sub-aifcnt's office, 
may be wired to the local a^ent by the sub-atrent. at 
the expense of the applicant, and.' if the land applied 
for is vacant on receipt of the telejfram, such appli- 
cation is to have priority and the land will be held 
until the necessary papers to complete the transac- 
tion have been received by mail. 

.S. Should it be found that a homestead entry has 
been secured through "personation," or an applica- 
tion tor inspeclii>n filed by .1 person who has repre- 
sented himself as some one else, the entry will be 
summarily cancelled and such applicant will forfeit 
all priority of claim. 

4. An applicant for inspection must be eligible 
for homestead entry. 

5. Only one application for inspection may be 
received from an individual until that application has 
been disposed of. 



Traffic Facilities % 

'T*H REE different railway sys- 



1 



terns are already in the 



'TpHE seasons are milder than 
*■ in most portions of Quebec 
and other Eastern Sections. It 
is pleasant in summer, with more 
hours of sunshine to mature 
crops, and there are no hot 
winds to burn crops; while the 
winters ar«« no colder than in 
many parts of the East. Snow- 
fall is light. 



6. The Department may carry on to completion 
any cancellation proceedings instituted, although the 
applic.int should subsequently withdraw or become 
ineligible for entry. 

7. When a homestead entr\ is cancelled for any 
cause (except when an applicant for cancellation bcs 
comes entitled to entry) notice therei>f is to be at 
once posted in the Uval agent's office and sub-agent's 
office within which the land is situated, with day and 
hour of posting, and will be open for entry by the 
first eligible applicant at counter after the posting of 
said notice. 

8. A homesteader whi>se entry is in goixl stand- 
ing may relinquish the same in favor of a father, 
mother! son. daughter, brother or sister, if eligible, 
on filing the usual dtvlaration of abandonment, sub- 
jcx:t to the approval of the depjirtment. (If the entrv 
is liable to cancellation no privilege uf transfer will 
he entertained, and in no case will a transfer to other* 
than relatives above mentioned he permitted.) 

9 If an entry be summarily cancelled or volun- 
tarily abandoned by the homesteader. subs<-quent to the institution of cancellation prtvecdings, the applicant for inspection will he entitled to pri«>r 
right of entry. 

10. Applicants for inspection must state in what particulars the homesteader is in default, and if. subsequently, the statrmrni is fotind to he 
incorrect in material particulars, the applicant will lose any prior right of ^€^-entry he might otherwise have nad. sht>uld the land hivomr vacant, 
or, if an <mtry has bi-cn granted, it may be summarily cancelled. 

11. The homi-stcader is required to perform the conditii>ns connected therewith under one of the following plans : 
(1) At least six months' residence upon and cultivation of the land in each year for three years. 

(j) If the father (or mother, if the father isdei-eased) of the homesteader resides up»>n a farm in the vicinity of the land entered for, the rr- 
quirctnents as to residence may be satisfied bv such person residing with the lather or mother. 

(3) If the settler has his permanent residence upon farming land owned by him in the vicinity of his hi>me*lead, the roquiremctils as lo resi- 
dence may be satisfied by residence upon the same land. 

Six months' notice in writing should be given to the Commissioner of Dominion l^nds, at Ottawa, ol intention to apply for patent. 

W. W. COR.Y. lyrfiuty ollhr \fiHi»ler of Ih* Interior. 

"THE TWENTIETH CENTURY BELONGS TO CANADA'* 



West, with both main lines and 
branches, and new lines are pro- 
jected. Three transcontinental 
railways will run through the 
country in the course of a very 
few years. 



Climate -None Better 



1906 



Information and Advice. 

Can be freely obtained from the following : 

W. I). .SCOTT, Superintendent of Immigration. Ottawa. Canada. 

THE COMMISSIONER OF EMIGRATION. 11 and 1* Charing Crivw. Utndon. England. 



1906 



Isv 



Contractors to the Government of Canada. 

M, J, WILSON & SONS 



302 Wellington St. 



OTTAWA, Canada. 




— Manufacturers of — 

MILITARY EQUIPMENT 

Special Attention given to Officer's Requirements. 

Waist and Cross Belts, 

Swords and Badges, 

Leggings, Spurs. 

Particulars and Prices on our SAM BROWN OUTFIT, illustrated 
on this page furnished on application. Sample sent on approval 
anywhere. :::::::: 



General factory turns out harness in all styles for private 
stable, road, farm or railway work : : : : 

Full lines of all Turf Goods, Carriage and Stable Requisites. 



Ixvi 



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"^he R^oyal Military College 



Of all the noble educational institutions of which 
Canada can boast there are none, which by reason of the 
educational work it has done and is doine. the number 
of skilful, capable men it has graduated, and the high 
standard of Canadian manhood it has produced, has 
greater claims upon the pride and gratitude of the Cana- 
dian people than the Royal Military College, Kingston. 

It is but necessary to recall the brilliant successes 
attained in the British Army by such representative 
graduates as Major Mackay, D.S.O., Captain Stairs, 
Lieut.-Col. Sir E. P. C. Girouard, K.C.M.G., D.S.O., 
Major R. K. Scott, D.S.O., Major H. Joly de I^tbiniere, 
D.S.O., Lieut.-Col. Lang-Hyde, D.S.O., Capt. D. S. Mac- 
Innes, D.S.O. ; Major Dobell, D.S.O. ; and Major Henneker. 
D.S.O., not to speak of considerably over a hundred 
more who are still serving with marked distinction in 
His Majesty's service, to form some idea of the practical 
character and thoroughness of the instruction in the 
various branches of military science imparted at the 
Royal Military Collie. 

In the Canadian Permanent Force, too, graduates 
of the Collie have gained and are still gaining marked 
distinction. 

Among the officers of the Royal North-west Mounted 
Police, since the earliest days of the Royal Military 
College there has been a proportion of its graduates, and 
with great advantage to the force, for in no particular 
sphere, perhaps, has the seasoning influence of the 
scientific training and sterling manhood of the 
institution ,been more satisfactorily felt. At the 
Apresent time the Commissioner of the force, Ayles- 
worth Bowen Perry, is a graduate, a member of the 
first class in fact, while among the other senior members 
of the force who are graduates are Assistant Commissioner 
Wood, Commanding in the Yukon, and Superintendents 
G. E. Sanders, D.S.O., P. C. H. Primrose and A. C. Mac- 
donell, D.S.O. 

In civil life, graduates of the College are to be found 
throughout the world, but more particularly in Canada, 
occupying prominent places in all the leamc<l profe«tiion«, 
especially those of civil, mining, railroad and mechanical 
engineering. 

The College is a Dominion Government institution, 
designed primarily for the purpose of giving the highest 
technical instruction in all branches of militar>' science 
to cadets and officers of the ('anadian Militia. In fact it is 



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Woolwich and Sandhurst and the United States West 
Point. 

The Commandant, militarj' professors and some of 
the instnictors are officers on the active list of the Im- 
perial army, lent for the purpose, and in addition there 
is a complete staff of professors for the civil subjects, 
which form such a large proportion of the College course. 

Whilst the College is organized on a strictly nulitary 
basis, the cadets receive, in addition to their military 
studies, a thoroughly practical, scientific and sound train- 
ing in all subjects that are essential to a high and general 
modem education. 

The course in mathematics is very complete, and a 
thorough grounding is given in the subjects of Civil En- 
gineering, Civil and Hydrographic Surveying, Physics, 
Chemistry, Engli.sh and French. 

The object of the College course is thus to give the 
cadets a training which shall thoroughly equip them for 
either a military or civil career. 

The strict dLscipline maintAined at the College is one _ 
of the most valuable features of the system. .\s a result o 
of it young men acquire habits of obedience and self- q 
control, and consecjuently of self-reliance and command, O 
as well as experience in controlling and handling their O 
fellows. 

In addition the constant practice of gymnastics, 
equitation, drills and outdoor exercises of all kinds, 
ensures good health and fine physical condition. 

An experienced medical officer is in attendance at 
the College daily. 

Seven conunissions in the Imperial regular anny are 
annually awardr<i as prizes to the cadets; aim* three in the 
Permanent F'orc", as well as three ap|M>intments in the 
techinical departments of the Dominion ('ivil Service. 

The length the of course i-t three years, in three 
tenns of 9J months' residence each. 

The total cost of the thre<' years' course, including $ 
board, uniforms, instructional material, and all extras, Q 
is from $7.5() to $«(K). O 

The annual com|H»litive examination for admission q 
to the College is held at the hrad<|iinrt4>n4 of the Mcveml 
military' districts in which candidates reside, in May of 
each yt«r. 

For full particulars of this examination, or for any 
other information, application should be mA<le to the 
Secretary of the Militia Council, Ottawa, Ont. 



8 



intended to take the place in Canada of the Knglisb 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooopoooooooooooooooooooooooo< 

fanii 



«**t 




THE MORTIMER CO. 

Limited 



ILLUSTRATORS 



Photo-Engravers 



Printers 



Lithographers 



Bookbinders 



Montreal 



Ottaaa^a 



Ixviii 



''Makes Every Day a Bright Day*' 
veseent ^9Cl 1 V 

Is nature's remedy for tired out, run down man or woman. A wonderful Tonic Laxative that 
keeps the stomach clean and sweet and quickens the liver's action. It's effects in chronic rheu- 
matism are simply marvellous. No better remedy for all troubles caused by overeating; or drinking. 

The "Canada Lancet" says: "Abbey's deserves every good word that is said of it." 



FOR SALE BY ALL DRIGCISTS. 



Depots LONDON, ENG., 144 Queen Street; NEW YORK, 89 Fulton Street; 
MONTREAL, 4 St. Antoinc Street. 



ei£><S><X><S>(^<!^(S><S><S><$><$><!2>4b<$><^(£><£><!i!>(^<S><S><^<X><S><X><S>&<^<!^<ib<^(y>(^<S6<S6t3 

I S. H. BORBRIDGE I 

<8 * 



Manufacturer of 

Trunks, Traveling Bags 
Harness, Riding Saddles 
Blankets, Robes, Moc- 
casins, &c. > .^ 



<9 e> 



SaUi Rooms: 88 & 90 Rid«au St. 
Factory: 14 to 23 Motgrove St. 

OTTAWA, Ont 

Also 9th Street, Brandon, Man. 



JAEGER 

PIIRFWOOL 

PREVENTS 
CHILL IN 

ALLWEATHERS 
ALL CLIMES 
ALL SEASONS 
ALL TIMES 



Writ* for Cataloffu* A. 



Dr. Jaeser's ^r^';: System rAV; 



Sl« St. Catherine St. W. 
MONTREAL. 



WINNIFCO. 



Uix 



Revillon Brothers 




PARIS 
MOSCOW 
LONDON 

NIJNY 

NEW YORK 

NICOLAIV 

See also Opposite 
Page 



Interior View of Montreal Office. 



IMPORTERS OF 



FANCY NOVELTIES 



GENERAL WHOLESALERS 



REVILLON BROTHERS, Ltd 

MONTREAL 



Revillon Brothers 




View of a Section of Storeroom containing; l•■u^^. 



DEALERS IN 



A IM D 



EXPORTERS OF 



FURS 



REVILLON BROTHERS, Ltd 

IVIONTREAL 



LEIPZIG 

KHABAROSK 

SHANGHAI 

BOKHARA 

EDMONTON 

PRINCE 

ALBERT 

Sec rIko Oppoaite 
Puife 



lixi 



Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Company 



HARTFORD, CONN., U.S.A. 



Incorporated 1855 



COLT NEW SERVICE 

Caliber .455 
THE MOST POWERFUL REVOLVER lEVER IPRODUCED 

The Official Revolver of the Canadian 
Government 




Trade Mark 





THENEWP§k'i?fvEREVOLVER 

Calibers, .32 and .38 
Adopted by the Police Departments in the Principal Cities 




TraDK AiAKK 



AGENTS 

LEWIS BROTHERS, Ltd 

Montreal, Canada 




Positively 



THE 




Largest Manufacturers 

OF 

Military Equipment 

AND THE MOST UP-TO-DATE 

Harness, Saddle, Trunk and Bag Factory 

IN CANADA 



WRITE FOR HARNESS. TRUNK AND BAG CATALOGUES 




This trad* mark Is a guaran- 
t— of satlsfaetlon. 



-:=^ BALMORAL BLOCK ^si-- 

Notre Dame St. West. Montreal. can. 



Branches: Ottawa, Ont. Winnipeg, Man. 

Vancouver, B. C. 



Brandon, Man. 






Ixxiii 



Wardrobes in 
the West 



IVifinipeg - 
Brandon - 
Souris - 
Edmonlon 
Calgary 
Indian Head 
Moosejaw - 
Saskatoon 
Nelson 
Fernie 

Revelsioke - 
Cranbrook 
Kamloops - 
Victoria - 
Vancouver - 



Man. 



NW. T. 



Sask. 
B. C. 



FIT- REFORM 

Suits and Ovcrcoats 

The Perfection of Tailor-made Garments, 
ready for service. 



l4^orn by Canadian Gentlemen in 
every Section of the Dominion. 

Wardrobes in the leading Cities from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 






If 

* 



BELDING'S 

SPOOL SILKS 



The Culmination of Progressive and up-to-date Machinery and 

High Class Silk Used 

Makes this Brand the most Popular and the only 

Reliable Sewing Silk 

For Dressmakers and Tailors to Use 

SHADE NUMBERS ON EACH SPOOL 



FROM THE ATLAINTIC TO Tl 



PACIFIC 



Tit 

Ttr 

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Ttr 
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^lr^^M■>^^MM¥¥¥¥^^¥'f^¥¥^¥¥^M^^>i^|i¥MM^¥¥^^MYY¥^^■>>^^li¥M^¥^^MMM^MMMMM^¥^ 







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^/?e Ca^nocdianL R.\ibber Co. 
q/ Mon.treacl Limited. 







Established 
1854 




Major G. W. Stephens, President 



Mr. D. Lome McGibbon, Vice-Prcs. 
and Man. Director 



Everything in General Rubber Goods. 
Rubber Footwear. 

"Y^E place our "Mark of Quality" on the best Rubber Footwear it is possible to 
make. "Canadian" Rubbers are nationally known for endurance and stylish 
appearance. When buying Rubber Goods, look for our registered Trade Mark. It's 
Our Reputation— Your Protection. 

Factories (with 24 acres of floor speh.ce) 
MONTREAL. QUEBEC 




Sales Branches and Warehouses: 

155 Granville St. - - Halifax, N.S. 
Imperial Bank Building, St. James St. - Montreal, P.Q. 

Front & Yonge Sts. - - Toronto, Ont. 

89 Princess St. - - - Winnipeg, Man. 

403 Cordova St. - - Vancouver, B.C. 

Wharf Street, - - - Victoria, B.C. 



and at 



Calgary (Alberta) 



T 



§ 




ls«v 




aa^^^ 



E. F. DARTNELL 



Montreal 



Builders' and Contractors' Supplies 



Concrete flixers and Concrete flixing flachinery 

14 Distinct Types of Mixers in many sizes. Prices from $120.00 upwards. 



Derricks 

Fine Pressed Brick 

Terra Gotta 



Stone Crushers and Screens 

Cableways 



Enamelled Brick 
Glass Wall Tiles 



Etc. 



Etc. Etc. 



Telegraph Address «• DARTNELL," Montreal. 



li^t^^^^^j^^^^^^^^^^^j^^^^^^^^l^^^^^^^r^l^^^^t^^t^^^^^^^^^^i^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^t^t^^^^^f^^^i^i^^i^i^^t^i^t^ 



Dominion Bridge Go. Ltd. 

Bridges and Structural Metal Work 
for Buildings 

General Office and Works at - LACHINE LOCKS, P.Q. 

CAPACITY 36.000 TONS PER YEAR. 
Branch Works at : - TORONTO. Ont. and WINNIPEG. Mcin. 



-.-\ Large Stock of- 



B 



earns, 



Channels, 



Angles, 



and other Structural Material always on hand at each works. 








Bridge over the Fra«er River at New WeMmin»ter, B.C., built by the DOMINION BRIDGE CO.. LTD. 

for the British Columbia Government. 




Armstrong, Morrison and Balfour, Vancouver, B.C., Contractors for Substructure. 



Ux«ii 



PROVINCE OF QUEBEC 

The Province of Quebec is, above all, an agricultural country, a country for colonization, 
and is particularly well favored with forests, mountains, lakes, rivers, splendid 
waterfalls, innumerable water-powers, fertile islands and rich pastures. The soil of the 
Province, and, in particular, that of the great colonization centres which have yet to be 
opened up and peopled with hardy settlers, is of superior quality and eminently adapted 
for cultivation of all kinds. The forests, which stretch endlessly in all directions, and 
contain the most valuable woods, have been for years the object of constant and active 
operations. The rivers and lakes, which have long- remained unknown, now attract 
hundreds of sportsmen from all parts of America, who find both pleasure and profit in 
fishing for salmon, ouananiche, trout, pike, etc. 



Timber Lands 

Of the Province cover over 225,000 square 
miles. Location and areas of Limits to 
be offered at auction to be had on 
application. The attention of Paper Manu- 
facturers and Wood Workers is called to 
the facilities for manufacturing to be had 
in the province. 

Water Powers 

FOR SALE 
Forty-three powers have been surveyed 
during the last two years. Power avail- 
able ranges from 500 to 100,000 horse- 
power. Send for maps and other partic- 
ulars. 

Fish and Game 

Salmon, Trout, Ouananiche, Maskinonge, 
Moose, Caribou, Deer, etc. Hunting ter- 
ritories (not over 400 square miles to one 
person) can be secured at from $1.00 per 
square mile a year. For location of hunt- 
ing and fishing districts apply to this de- 
partment. 



Crown Lands 

FOR SETTLEMENT 

Over 7,000,000 acres have been surveyed 
and divided into farms, price from 20 
cents to 40 cents per acre, according to 
district. For further information apply 
to this Department. 



Minerals 



The attention of Miners and Capitalists 
in the United States and Europe is invited 
to the mineral territory open for invest- 
ment in the province. 

Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Asbestos, Mica, 
Plumbago, Chromic Iron, Galena, etc. 

Ornamental and structural materials in 
abundant variety. The Mining Law gives 
absolute security of title, and has been 
specially framed for the encouragement 
of mining. 



For Further Information Apply to 

HON. A. TURGEON 



MINISTER OF LANDS, MINES AND FISHERIES 

Parliament Buildings, QUEBEC, Can. 



Ixxviii 



Richelieu & Ontario 

Navigation Co. 




NIAGARA TO THE SEA. 

The grandest trip in America for health 
and pleasure. The Thousand Islands, Rapids, 
Montreal, Quebec and the famed SaKuenay 
River, with its stupendous Capes " Trinity" 
and ' ' Kternity. •' 

S*nd()C . petiagt for iUuttrattd guide to 
ThoS. Henry, TrafTic Maiucer, Montraal, Canada. 






CAPE TRINITY. SAGUK.VAY.RIVKk 
The Scenery of this River for wild grandeur and variety is unequalled on this continent 



Steamers leave Montreal for Quebec, Murray Bay and Tadousac and points on the far- 
famed Saguenay River. Summer Hotels charmingly situated on banks of Lower St 
Lawrence: Manoir Richelieu, Murray Bay, P. Q.; Tadousac, Tadousac, P. Q. j* J^ «|ft 

Palatial Steamers also leave Montreal for Toronto and Hamilton, pasting through the 1000 Islands and Ruooiog 

the Rapids Eastbound 
QUICK DESPATCH AND LOWEST RATES ON FREIGHT 



H. FOSTER CHAFFEE 

W. P. A. 2 King St. East, Toronto 

THOS. HENRY, Traffic Manager, Montreal 



JOS. F. DOLAN 

128 St. James St., Mootrcal 



iisix 



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Buy "RED FEATHER" Goods 

CANNED GOODS, 

SPICES, 

TEAS, 

COFFEES, ETC. 

THEY ARE THE BEST". 

If your dealer does not keep them, write your wholesale house for them or 

The RED FEATHER CO., Hamilton, ont. 



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Triangle Canned Goods 

Last year we introduced our Triangula Brand of Canned Fruits and 

Vegetables to the trade. The quality of the g-oods, the extent of the 

range, the artistic attractiveness of the label, all combined to make a 

place for this brand with all discriminating buj'ers. 

Our range will be the same as last year; the quality of goods the very 

best procurable. 

Our men have full particulars, samples of labels, etc. 

Let us have your requirements early. 

JAHES TURNER & CO. 

Haitiiltoii, Ont. 



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Ixxx 



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Established 1879. 



W. H. GILLARD & CO. 

Wholesale Grocers, Importers and flanufacturers 

Have exceptional facilities for handling- carload business. 
Prompt Service, Highest Grade Goods, and Lowest Prices Guaranteed. 
Head Office: Branch Office: 

HAMILTON, Ont. sault ste. marie, ont. 



LIST OF ADVANCE SUBSCRIBERS. 



The publishers have pleasure in acknowledgine; the receipt of orders from the followiiiR advance 8ul>scril>ers who have 
ordered in quantities of from one to one hundred books each. Many of the larger manufacturing concerns, banks and other 
financial institutioas have ordered in quantities for their branches and principal customers throughout the Dominion. The 
Public Library Boards who have ordered are not included in this list nor are the complimentary copies sent by the publishers 
to the officei-s and non-commissioned officers of the force, and to others. 

/^ Cox, Toronto; Lieut.-Col. John Carson, Montreal; Col. J.D.Craw- 

ford, Lachine; S. Carsley, Montreal; D. W. Campbell, Montreal; 
Canada Jute, Co. Montreal; W. A. Cooper, C.P.K. Dining Cars, 
Montreal; F. J. Cockbum, Manager Bank of Montreal, Quebec; 
Chase & Sanborn, Montreal; Jas. Coristine & Co., Limited, 
Montreal; Corticelli Silk Co., Montreal; H. Cronyn, Ijondon; 
Canadian Bank of Commerce, Port .\rthur; B. Clementj Brandon; 
S. Cunard A- Co., Halifax: Henry Clark. Brandon; F. L. Crawford, 
Medicine Hat; F. Colpman, I/ethbridge; (^anadian Bank of 
Commerce, Toronto; J. F. Cairns, Saskatoon; W. A. Coulthard, 
Saskatoon; Canadian Rubber Co., D. Lome McGibbon, Montreal; 
Hon. Cieo. A. Cox, Toronto; Basil B. Carter, Union Bank of 
Canada, Moose Jaw; Canadian Pacific Railway, Hotel Depart- 
ment, Montreal; C. Robin C'allasCompanv, Limited, A. Hancifield 
Whitman, Man. Dir., Halifax; D. h). Cameron, Montreal; 
J. W. Cadwell <fe Co., Saskatoon; Calgary Brewing & Malting 
Co., Calgary; Calgary Colonization Co., Limited, Calgary; 
Campbell Bros. & Wilson, Winnipeg; Canada Permanent Mort- 
gage Corporation, Toronto; Canadian Casualty & Boiler Insurance 
Co., Winnipeg; Canadian Fairbanks Co., Limited, Winnipeg; 
Canadian Moline Plow Co., Winnipeg; Canadian Northern 
Railway, Toronto; Canadian Rubljor Co., of Montri'al, Montreal; 
A. Carruthers & ('o., Limited, Winnipeg; Carruthcrs, Johnson 
& Bradley, Winnipeg; Cockshutt Plow Co., Brantfonl and Winni- 
peg; Codville-Georgeson Co., Limited, Winnip«*g and Bnindon; 
Codville-Smith Co., Calgarj'; Colts Patent Firearms .Manufactur- 
ing Co., Hartford, Conn.; Composite Brick Co., Winnipeg; 



Alloway and Champion, Winnipeg; J. C. G. Armytage, 
Winnipeg; American Abell Enrine and Thresher Co., Limited, 
Winnipeg; D. Ackland & Son. Winnipeg; H. & A. Allan, Mon- 
treal; C. A. Armstrong, Montreal; W. J. Anderson, Ottawa; 
Robert Archer, Montreal; F. W. Ashe, Manager Union Bank of 
Canada. Montreal; Acadia Powder Co., Limited, Halifax; H. A. 
Allison, Calgarj'; .\lberta Stock Yards Co.. Limited, Calgary; 
H. Acheson, Saskatoon; J. S. Aikens. Winnipeg; Alberta .Agen- 
cies, Limited; A. A. .\llan & Co., Toronto; Abbey's Effer\-esccnt 
Salt Co., Limited, Montreal; Alberta Building Co.. Limited, 
Calgary; Alberta Investment Co., Limited, Calgarj-; .Alberta 
Pacific Elevator Co., Limited, Calgarj'; Anglo-American Fire 
Insurance Co., Toronto; G. H. Allen, Montreal ; The Andrew H. 
McDowell Co.; R. B. Angus; The American Tobacco Company 
of Canada, Limited, Montreal; James Allardice, Montreal. 

B 

R. S. Barrow, W'innipeg; Banque d'Hochelaga, Winnipeg; 
Bank of British North America, W. A. McHaffie, Manager, 
Winnipeg; Bank of Hamilton, H. H. O'Reilly, Agent. Winnipeg; 
Bank of Hamilton Grain Exchange Branch, Winnipeg; F/dwin 
S. Baker, Winnipeg; Buchanan & Gordon, Winnipeg; Bole 
Drug Co., Limited; British Columbia Mills Timber and Trading 
Co., Winnipeg Branch, Winnipeg; A. T. Banfield, Winnipeg; 
Thomas Black, Winnipeg; Bank of British North America, 
\. D. Severs, Manager, Winnipeg; H. N. Bate «fe Sons, Limited, 
Ottawa; Bank of Hamilton, Hamilton; John A. Bnicc A Co., 
Hamilton; The W. R. Brock Co., Toronto; Bank of British North 
America.Montreal; E. A. Baynes (late Major 2nd. Re^. C.A.) 
Montreal; Bank of Nova Scotia, H. A. Richardson, Mgr., Toronto; 
Robert Bickerdike, Montreal; Bovril, Limited, Montreal; B Hal 
Brown, Manager Ix)ndon & I.Ancashire Assurance Co., Montreal; 
Hon. L. Beaubien, Montreal ; Vesey Boswell, Quebec; Bicknell 
& Bain. Toronto; Boulter, Waugh & Co., Montreal; Thomas 
Bruce, Winnipeg; Bank of Toronto, Winnipeg; Bank of (Htawa, 
Winnipeg; Jas. Balfour, Regina; H. Brodie, Moose Jaw ; W. M. 
Borbridge, Brandon; J. H. Brook, Great West Life Assur- 
ance Co., Winnipeg; Bank of Hamilton, Edmonton; Bank of 
Montreal, Kenneth Ashworth, Manager, Saskatoon; E. A. 
Braithwaite, Edmonton; A. Butchart, fximonton; W. M. Bots- 
ford. Manager Royal Bank of Canada, Montreal; R. L. Batley, 
Montreal; Francis Braidwood, Canada Jute Co., Montreal; 
Hon. - - . 

Winn 
Co., 

Montreal; The Richard Beliveau Co., Ltd., Winnipeg: The Benson 
& Houlton Co., Limited. Calgary; The Bentjpy Co., Limited, 
I.ethbridge; Alex. Black Lumber, Co., Winnipeg; C. W. Black- 
stock & Co., Regina; S. & H. Borbridge. Ottawa; John H. Boyle 
& Co., Regina; Brackman-Ker Milling Co., Limited, Strathcona; 
Brandon Brewing Co., Bmndon; Bnalie <t StiifTonl. I>rthbridge; 
Bromlev & Hague. Limited. Winni[M'g; P. Bums & Co.. ( algarj'; 
E. W. lieattv, Montreal; J. Ik)urdeau & Son, .Montreal; Bank of 
Montreal. Fort William; Hanbury A. Biidden, Montreal; Brodie 
and Har>ie, Montreal; J. R. B<x)th, Ottawa. 



Canadian Bank of Commerce. Winni|)eg; Camplx*!!, Pitblatlo, 
Hoskin & Grundy, Winnipeg; Canadian Bank of Commerce 
North Branch. Winnipeg; Canadian Bank of Commerce^ Portage 
Avenue Branch, Winnipeg; Jas. Cnmithers A Co., Montreal; 
Canadian Drawn Steel Co, Limited, Jno. rjartshore. Secy. Tmu.. 
Hamilton; Copeland, Chctten»on Co., Limit*^! Toronto and 
Winnipeg; L. J. Co(Bgravc, Toronto; H. G. Cox, Toronto; E. W. 



)ntreal; Francis Braidwood, t'anada Jute ka)., .Monireai; 
Ml. Arthur lioyer, Montreal; Balfour Implement Ck)., Limited, 
innipeg; W. B. Barwi.s, Calgarv; B. C. FJectrical Constmction 
., Vancouver; A. M. Beattic, Vancouver; lirlding Paul «t Co., 



Consolidated Plate Glass Co., Winnipeg; Continental Life Insui^ 
ance Co., Toronto; Crafts & Lee, Mmonton; Crosse tt Black- 
well, Montreal; Cummings Brass Co., Winnipeg; Gushing Bros. 
Co., Ltd., Calgary; Henry J. Chard, Montreal; Major Geo. 8. 
Cantlie, Montreal; L. Ch'aput, Fils & Co., Montreal; John L. 
('assidy & Co., Limited, Montreal. 

D 

De I>aval Separator Co., Winnipeg; Dodge Manufacturing 
Co., Limited, F. C. Wheaton, Manager, Toronto; IX)W8weII 
Manufacturing Company, Hamilton; Dominion Line Steamship 
Co., Montreal; liandaH' Davidson, Montreal; T. J. Drumraond, 
Montn»al; Geo. E. Dninunond, Montreal; J. M. Douglas & Co.. 
Montreal; .\. I). Dumford. Montreal; H. P. Dawson, Port Arthur; 
Geo. Dearing, Pklmonton: C. H. Davidson, Jr., Carrington, N.D., 
U.S.A.; A. I)ri8coll, Edmonton; H. J. Dawaon, l*klinonton; 
W. E. Dionne, Queliec; P. D. Dods A Co, Montreal; A. C. 
Dobell, Quel)ec; Dominion Wire Manufacturing C^., Montreal; 
E. F. Dartnell, Montreal; D'Fjisum A Mount, Fort Sjiskntche- 
wan; Department of Militia, Ottawa; iV'partinent of the In- 
terior, Ottawa; I)evlin-Tyrn»ll Co., Winni|)eg; Wm. M. Dt)dd. 
Calgar\' and Regina; Dominion Bridge C-o., Limited. Montreal; 
Dominion Cartridge Co.. Montwal; Dominion Radiator Co., 
Toronto; Dowd Milling Co., Ottawa; E. L. Drewrv. Winnipeg; 
Dorkin Bros. & Co.. Montn?al; Robert J. Dale. Mont n-al; G. 
Durnford, Montn«I; Hon. L. O. I)avi«l, .Mnntn-al; H. P. 
I)ouglas, .M<»ntreai; Di'nartment of Public Works and Lat)or, 
P.Q., Quebec; Hon. Sir Gcorgi? A. Dmminond. 



The T. Fjiton Company. Limited, T««n)nto; The T. Kjiton 
ComiMinv. Limited, Winnip«'g; The Vam\c Knitting Co., Limited, 
Hamilton; Co\. L. Edye Montreal; Fklwanlsburg Starch Co, 
Limite<i, Montreal; J. T. L. Embury, Regina; I/oreiuto Evans, 
QueixH';The Elder-Deiniwter Steamship Co.. Montreal; Fximonton 
IJn-wing A Malting Co., Limited. Ivlmonton; I'>lnionton Tent 
A Mattn-ss Co., Edmonton; Empire Bn«wing ('o., Brandon; 
C. H. Knderton A Co.. Winnifx-g; W'ni. Ewing A Co., Montreal; 



8. H. Ewing, Montreal; E. Ma<kay I'xigar, Montreal. 



Ixixi 



PRESGOTT EMERY WHEEL GO., Limited 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

EMERY WHEELS 

Grinding ar)d Polishing 
- - Machinery - - 

Emery Coruqclum 

Emery Wl\eels 

Centre Grinders 

Grinding Machinery 

TWIST DRILL GRINDERS 
WATER TOOL GRINDERS 
CORUNDUM WHEELS 

AND ALL OTHER 

GRINDING REQUISITES 

PRESCOTT, Ont. 





HIGH CLASS 

FOR 



VWARIVIIMCS and 
VEIMTI LAX I IM G 

THE HOME, CHURCH, SCHOOL 

The "KELSEY SYSTEM" Assures:— 
Most Comfort with least fuel Consumption. Warming of all rooms at all times. 

Fresh, properly warmed air. Proper warming with good ventilatio n 

No noticeable heat in the cellar. No heat wasted through smoke flue. 

MOST SANITARY AND SATISFACTORY RESULTS. 

OVER 30,000 RL-EASED USERS 

"THERE'S ONLY ONE WARM AIR GENERATOR" 

^^Full Particulars with Plans and Estimates Promptly Furnished. 
Exclusive Canadian Makers 



THE JAMES SMART MFG. GO. Ltd., Brockvill, Ont. 

\A/estern Branch - \A/IIM INI I F=>E:G, IVIAIM. 

A Canadian Home Properly and Economically Warmed and Ventilated by the "KELSEY 
SYSTEM" using our "Kelsey Warm Air Generator" with 24 in. diam. fire pot. 



The John McDougall Caledonian Iron Works Go. Limited 

MONTREAL, QUE. 




-Manufacturers of- 



Boilers for all Services, Pumps and 
Condensers, Mill Machinery, etc. 

Builders in Canada of WORTHINGTON TURBINE PUMPS for Leads up to 2,000 feet 



Ixxx 



List of Advance Subscribers — GDntinued. 



W. G. Fonseca & Co., Winnipeg; Hon. Geo. E. Foster, 
Toronto; Fyfe Scale Co., R. E. W. F^-fe, Manager, Montreal; 
L. J. Forget & Co., Montreal; Major H. Flowers, Halifax; H. F. 
Forrest, Manager Northern Bank, Winnipeg; E. J. Fewings, 
Medicine Hat; J. D. Ferguson, Saskatoon; Folev Bros., St. Paul, 
Minn., U.S.A.; Fumess-Withy S.S. Co., Ltd.* Montreal; First 
Regiment Canadian Artilleiy, Halifax; J A. Finlayson, Montreal; 
The Fairchild Co., Limited, Winnipeg; The Federal Life Assurance 
Co., Hamilton; Fit-Reform, Montreal; Foley, Ix>ck & Larson, 
Winnipeg; Geo. G. Foster, Montreal; John Fair, Montreal; 
Fitzgibbon, Schafheitlin & Co., Montreal; Frothingham and 
Workman, Limited, Montreal. 



Bank, Edmonton; P. E. Joubert, Brandon; J. A. Jacobs, Montreal; 
Norman D. Jackson, Calgary; Dr. Jaegers' Sanitary Woollen 
Svstem Co., Limited. Montreal; Jones & Moore Electric Co. of 
Manitoba, Limit«d, Winnipeg; Waiter J. Joseph, Montreal. 

K 

J. J. Kenny, We8t«m Assurance Co., Toronto; H. H. Vachelle 
Koelle, Montreal; Geo. A. Knowlton, Fort William; O. W. Kealy, 
Medicine Hat; J. K. Kennedy, Saskatoon; W. P. Kirkpatrick, 
Canadian Bank of Commerce, Saskatoon; Kelly, I3ouglas & Co., 
Limited, Vancouver; Jas. R. Kinghorn, Montreal; Warden King 
and Son, Limited, Montreal. 



W. T. Gwyn, Dominion Bank, Toronto; J. C. Graham & Co., 
Winnip^; Geo. F. Gait, Winnipeg; John M. Garland, Son & Co., 
Ottawa; W. G. Gooderham, Toronto; Greenshields Limited, 
Montreal; Guardian Assurance Co., H. M. Ijambert, Manager, 
Montreal; Grand Trunk R.R. Co., Montreal; Lieut.-Col. W. M. 
Gartshore, London; Alex. Galbraith & Son, Brandon; Wm. Gray- 
son, Moose Jaw; Great West Life Assurance Co., Calgarj-; Geo. 
E. Stuart, Moose Jaw; J. R. Green, Moose Jaw; J. H. Grayson, 
Moose Jaw; Great West Life Assurance Co., W. Nelson, Manager, 
Saskatoon; J. H. Gariepy, Edmonton; W. Scott Garrioch, Portage 
la Prairie; W. H. Gilfard & Co., Hamilton; Chas. Goodyear, 
Winnipeg; Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, Montreal; Great West 
liand Co., Calgary; John Gunn & Sons,' Winnipeg; L. Gnaedin- 
ger, Sons & Co., Montreal; Chas. Gurd & Co., Montreal; Robt. 
Gill, Manager Canadian Bank of Commerce, Ottawa. 

H 

W. R. Hall, Calgary; Hastings Shingle Manufacturing Co., 
Vancouver; A. M. HoblJerlin, Toronto; Hamilton Bridge Works 
Co., Limited, John S. Hendrie, Vice-President, Hamilton; 
A. Rives Hall, Montreal; H. B. Herrick, Montreal; Angus Hooper, 
Montreal; Holt, Renfrew & Co., Quebec; Geo. W. Hensley, 
Halifax; Hamilton Powder Co., Montreal; Hon. F. W. G. Haul- 
tain, Regina; Walter Huckvale, Medicine Hat; F. C. Harwood, 
D.D.S., Moose Jaw; A. H. Hanson, Saskatoon; Hudson Bay 
Co., Winnipeg; A. L. Hamilton, Bank of Commerce, Portage la 
Prairie; Geo. Harcourt, Edmonton; A. C. Hardj', Brockville; 
Hamburg-American Steamship Co., Montreal; C. E. Hanna, 
Montreal; Stanley Henderson, Montreal; A. R. B. Heam, Mana- 

fer Imperial Bank of Canada, Brandon; Hague, Armington & Co., 
.imited, Winnipeg; Hamilton Bridge Works Co., Ltd., Hamilton; 
Hughes & Co., Brandon; Lt.-('ol. V. W. Hibbard, Montreal; 
Hudon, Hebert &Cie., Limited, Montreal; H. Douglas Hamilton, 
M.D., Montreal; R. T. Hopper, J. H. Hunsicker, .Montreal, 



Imperial Elevator Co., Winnipeg; Imperial Bank of Canada, 
Brandon; Imperial Bank of Canada, Strathcona; J. D. Ir\"ine, 
Bank of Montreal, Portage la Prairie; R. Ironsides, Montreal; 
International Harvester Co. of America, Chicago; Imperial Oil 
Co.,Montreal. 

J 

Capt. J. Caverhill Jones, St. John, N.B; C. W. Jarvis, Fort 
William; Clifford T. Jones, Calgary; T. F. S. Jack.Hon, Traders 



John Love, Winnipeg; N. G. I>eslie, Manager Imperial Bank, 
Winnipeg; Lake of the Woocls Milling Co., Limited, Montreal; 
Library Bureau of Canada, Ottawa; I^gi.slative Library, Parlia- 
ment Buildings, Toronto; I^porte, Martin&Co., Limited) Montreal 
D. Law, Montreal ;Linde British Refrigeration Co., C.W. VoUman, 
Mgr., Montreal; J. H. Lalil)erte, Quel)ec; Lieut.-Col. A. E. I^a- 
belle, Montreal; J. W. Little, Ix)ndon; James Little. Port Arthur; 

C. N. I^urie, M.D., Port Arthur; S. V. Ix)ree, Moose Jaw; Rol)ert 
Lee, Edmonton; Peter liarsen, Helena, Montana, U.S.A.; Major 

D. W. Lockerby, Montreal; La Patrie Publishing Co., Montreal; 
laming. Miles Co., Limited, Montreal; W. W. I..aChance, Regina; 
Laidlaw Bros., Vancouver; Lamontagne Limited, Montreal; 
W. S. I^azier & Co., Calgary; W. F. l^ee (Manitoba Builder's 
Supply Co.), Winnipeg; I.«wid Bros., Limited, Montreal; Ix>ewen 
& Harvey, Vancouver; C. S. I.rf>tt, Calgarj-; I/owndes Co., litd., 
Toronto; Jno. R. Lovell, Montreal; Henry H. Lyman, Montreal. 

M 

Manitoba Fanners Mutual Hail Insurance Co., Winnipeg; 
D. Morton, Winnipeg; Merrick, Andei-son & Co., Winnipeg; 
MerchantsS Bank of (Canada, R. V. Taylor, Manager, Calgary; 
H. D. Metcalfe, Montreal; James P. Jilurray, Toronto; W. A. 
Murray * Co., Limited, Toronto; Merchant^ I^nk of Canada, 
Montreal; J. Mason, Home Bank of Canada, Toronto; F. H. Mat- 
hewson, Montreal; F. D. Monk, M.P., Montreal; (i««o. W. Mer- 
sereau, Winnipeg; Merchants Bank of Canada, Fort William; 
A. Maybee, Manager Canadian liank of Conuneree, Brandon; 
Medicine Hat Printing &. Publishing Co , Minlicine Hat; Mer- 
chants Bank of ('anada. Brandon; R. R Morgan. Saskatoon; 
A. Michaud, Edmonton; (J. W. Marriott, Manager Bank of ('om- 
meree. Strathcona; J. W. Matte. Quel>ec; J. CJ. Montgomery, 
Edmonton; Mitchell Rifle Sight Co., Toronto; Major Frank 
Meighen. Montreal; N. W. Murray, Montn-al; C. F. I<eth- 
bridge Money, Salisbur>', Rhodesia, S. A.; I). li MacKenxic, 
Dept. Min. iMlucation, Edmonton, Alta.; Montreal Warehousing 
Co., Montreal; Manitoba Gypsum Co.. Ltd.. Winnipeg; Manitolui 
Iron Works Limited, Wiiinip<'g; Manley ^ Sniitli, Moose Jaw; 
Marshall Wells (^o., Winni|M'g; Mas.>««y-narris Co.. Limited, 
Toronto and Winniiieg; Sanuiel .May X' Co., Toronto; H. (!. 
Middleton A Co., Winnipeg; .Montgonier>' Bros., Winni|M>g; 
Mortimer Co., Limite<l, Ottawa; Robert Mi'tchell Co., Montreal. 
D. Morrice & Sons, Montn>al; The Montreal LuuiImt Co., 
Limited, Montreal; Robt. Munro, Montreid; John H. R. Molson 
and Bros., Montreal; Ernest Mareeau, Montreal; F. E. Meredith, 
K.C., Montreal. 



P. O. BoK 223 

Phone 137 
OTTice 813 Centre St 






W.S. LAZIER SCX). 

Managers 




i^lMITBU 



CALGARY 

Alberta 

Uskiii 



SPECIALLY SELECTED LANDS 

IN 

ALBERTA and SASKATCHEWAN 

FOR 

AGRICULTURE and GRAZING 



QioiceM LooUion*. Eicqxioiul Op|>ortunitie«. 

Write at ooce. 



List of Advance Subscribers — Continued. 



Mc-Mac 

Hon. Hugh J. Macdonald, Winnipeg; W. G. McMahon, 
Winnipeg; McLaughlin Carriage Co., Limited, Winnipeg; The 
Geo. McLagan Furniture Co., Limited, Stratford; Alfred McKay, 
Montreal; R. D. McGibbon (McGibbon, Casgrain, Mitchell & 
Surveyer), Montreal; D. McEachren, Montreal; I. McMichael, 
Foronto; R. McKnight, Port Arthur; S. W. Mclnnis, Brandon; 
J. M. Mcintosh, Dominion Bank, Winnipeg; W. T. MacBean, 
Moose Jaw; McDougall & Secord, Edmonton; H. McBeth, Leth- 
bridge; W. J. McKay, Saskatoon; R. Mcintosh, Edmonton; 
::;. de W. MacDonald, Edmonton; Wm. M. MacPherson, Quebec; 
J. O. McCarthy, Manager Great West Life Insurance Co., Toronto; 
ilex. McFee, Montreal; , Lieut.-Col. F. S. Mackay, Montreal; 
John Mackie, Rottingdean, England; Kenneth MacKenzie & Co., 
Winnipeg and Edmonton ; MacMillan, Colquhoun & Beattie, 
Brandon; A. McBride & Co., Calgary; McCallum, Hill & Co., 
Regina; McClary Manufacturing Co., London and Winnipeg; 
John McDougall Caledonian Iron Works Co., Ltd., Montreal; 
McKenzie Carriage Works, Brandon; McLennan, KcFeely & Co., 
Ltd., Vancouver; P. McKenzie, Montreal; Colin Mc Arthur, Mont- 
real; McCaskill, Dougall & Co., Montreal; McClaiy Mfg. Co., 
Montreal; C. H. McFarlane, Montreal; Brenton A IVlacnab. 

N 

James S. Norris, Montreal; W. H. Nelson, Port Arthur; 
N'orthem Bank of Canada, F. B. Helm, Manager, Calgary; 
N'ational Trust Co.. Limited, J. D. Gunn, Manager, Saskatoon; 
N^orthem Iron Works, Winnipeg; North-West Electric Co., 
Limited, Calgary; 

o 

A. O'Reilly, Winnipeg; Oldfield, Kirby & Gardner, Winnipeg; 
J. W. de C. O'Grady, Manager Northern Bank, Winnipeg; Ogilvie 
Flour MillsCo., Limited Montreal; Otis-Fensom Elevator Company 
Lmited, Toronto; Office Specialty Manufacturing Co., Limited, 
J.F. Wildman, Gen. Manager, Toronto; Hon. W. Owens, Montreal; 
P. H. Oakes. Montreal; Robert Ochsner, Strathcona; Ontario 
Sewer Pipe Co., I^td.. Toronto; Osier, Hammond & Nanton, 
Winnipeg; A. E. Ogilvie, Montreal. 



F. L. Patton, Manager Dominion Bank, Winnipeg; E. A. 
Paterson, Manager Brandon [Electric Light Co., Brandon; 
Seo. C. Parker, Toronto; A. Peers, Montreal; Parry Sound Lum- 
ber Co., Toronto; Wm. Pocklington, Regina; E. L. Phillips, 
N'orthem Bank, Brandon; D. G. Proley, Medicine JHat; Chas. S. 
Pingle, Medicine Hat; Fred. S. Pingle, Medicine Hat; H. David- 
son Pickett, Moose Jaw; G. P. Paysant, Calgary; Geo. R. Peter- 
son, Saskatoon; F. W. Pugh, Winnipeg; Provincial Treasurer's 
Department, Edmonton; E. C. Pardee, Manager Bank of Mont- 
real, Edmonton; Provincial Secretary's Department, Edmonton; 
Provincial Department of Education, Edmonton; Major A, G. 
Peuchen, Toronto; Pacific Cartage Co., Limited, Calgary; Paulin- 
[!hambers Company, Winnipeg; John R. Peverett, Regina; 
Pither & Leiser, Victoria, B.C.; E. G. Prior & Co., Limited, 
Vancouver; Prescott Emery Wheel Co., Limited, Prescott; 
Province of Quebec, Quebec; R. E. Pringle, Montreal; Alfred 
Pollack, Montreal; Jas. W. Pike, Montreal; J. G. Purvis, Mont- 
real; W. S. Paterson, Montreal; W. B. Powell, Montreal. 



Queens Hotel, Winnipeg. 



R 



J. E. Ruby, Manager Frost & Wood Co., Winnipeg; Revillon 
Bros., Limited, Montreal; Revillon Bros., Limited, Edmonton; 
Gustave Richard, Montreal; Royal Trust Co., Montreal; Hayter 
Reid, C.P.R. Hotels, Montreal; David Russell, Montreal; Rhodes 
::;urry & Co.. Limited, .\mherst; S. W. Ray, Port Arthur; P. B. 
H. Ramsay, Brandon; W. J. Reid, (Lieut. C.M.R.^ Medicine Hat; 
Ross Rifle Co., Quebec; James Ross, Montreal; Royal Bank of 
Canada, Montreal; Riley & Co., Montreal; Harold W. Riley, 
Deputy Provincial Secretary, Edmonton, Alta.; Rat Portage 
Lumber Co., Winnipeg; Red Feather Tea Co., Hamilton; Richel- 
ieu & Ontario Navigation Co., Montreal; Riley & McCormick, 
Calgary; Rosewell, Carson & Fisher, Calgary; Ross Brothers, 



Limited, Edmonton; Royal Lumber & Fuel Co., Winnipeg; 
Ryan & Fares Co., Winnipeg; Wra. Rutherford, Montreal ; Aid. 
Farquhar Robertson, Montreal; Jas. G. Ross, Montreal; David 
Russel, Montreal; Robbins, Appleton & Co., Montreal; W. M. 
Ramsay, Montreal. 



G. F. Stephens & Co., Limited, Winnipeg; The Saskatchewan 
Valley & Manitoba Ijand Co., Winnipeg; Standard Silver Co., 
Limited, W. K. George, Pres., Toronto; W. W. Scrimes, Winni- 
peg; The Robert Simpson Co., liimited, Toronto; J. E. Seagram, 
Waterloo; Standard Chemical Co. of Toronto, Toronto; R. R. 
Stcven.son, Montreal; I;. P. Snyder, Montreal; Sovereign Bank 
of Canada, Montreal; W. J. Stewart, Montreal; John M. Smith, 
Montreal; St. I^awrence Sugar Refining Co., Montreal; A. M. 
Smith, London; I-. M. Smith, Halifax; P. Shea, Winnipeg; 
Henry Y. Smith, Moose Jaw; George Smith, Brandon; C. E, 
Seaborn,Moose Jaw; Dr. Euston Sisley, Calgary; E. W. Saunders,. 
Manager Canadian Bank of Commerce, Moose Jaw; D. Sherriff. 
Brandon; A.C. Skelton, Bank of British North America, Brandon; 
A. M. Stewart, Edmonton; J. Straton, Saskatoon; Geo. Sellers, 
Saskatoon; S. H. Smith, Edmonton; John Sharpies, Quebec; 
Major Geo. W. Stephens, Montreal; Standard Explosives, Mont- 
real; H. F. Sandeman, Strathcona; W. E. Sanford, Mfg. Co., 
Hamilton; Sa-wyer <fe Massoy Co., Ltd., Hamilton; Shera & Co., 
Fort Saskatchewan; Jas. Smart Mfg. Co., Brockville; Smith & 
Ferguson Co., Regina; Howard Smith Paper Co., Montreal; 
Somerville Steam Marble & Granite Works, Brandon; A. C. 
Sparrow, Calgary; Standard Soap Co., Limited, Calgary; Strath- 
cona Brewing & Malting Co., Strathcona; The Jas. Stuart Electric 
Co., Winnipeg; W. Stuart & Co., Calgary: Sub-Target Gun Co., 
Limited, Toronto; Henry F. Stearns, Montreal; Sadler and 
Haworth, Montreal; A. H. Shorey, Montreal; The Star, Mont- 
real; Chas. A. Smart, Montreal; J. Cradock Simpson, Montreal. 

T 

Trust (fe Loan Co. of Canada, Winnipeg; J. Stewart Tupper, 
Winnipeg; James Tees (Tees & Persee, Limited) Winnipeg; 
Noel H. Torrop, Montreal; AV. H. Thome & Co., Limited, St. 
John, N.B.; Traders Bank of Canada, Calgary; T. M. TurnbuU, 
Manager Canadian Bank of Commerce, Edmonton; P. T. Tofft, 
Saskatoon; W. O. Tassie, Winnipeg; W. H. Thompson, Imperial 
Bank, Portage la Prairie; John A. Tate, Bank of Toronto, Portage 
la Prairie; B. & S. H. Thompson Co., Limited, Montreal; H. W. 
Trenholme, Canadian Bank of Commerce, North Winnipeg, 
Winnipeg; Arthur P. Tippet & Co., Montreal; Threshers Supply 
Co., Limited, Winnipeg; Chas. E. Tisdall, Vancouver; Tuckett 
Cigar Co., Hamilton; TuUy & TuUy, Brandon; Jas. Turner & 
Co., Limited, Hamilton; S. B. Townsend, Montreal; Homer 
Taylor, Montreal. 

u 

ITnion Bank of Canada, C. E. Watson, Manager, Calgary; 
Union Lumber Co., Limited, Vancouver; Union Bank of Canada, 
Quebec; Union Bank of Canada, Moose Jaw; Union Drawn 
Steel Co., Limited, Hamilton; T. Upton Co., liimited, Hamilton. 

V 

Geo. Vallance, Hamilton; G. A. Vandry, Quebec. 

w 

A. Wickson, Manager Merchants Bank, Winnipeg; Western 
Canada Flour Mills Co., Limited, Montreal; Henry K. Wampole 
& Co., Limited. Toronto; Hiram Walker & Sons, Walkerville; 
Walter R. Wonham & Sons, Montreal; G. E. Wells, Montreal; 
Louis Walsh, Port Arthur; W. G. Weatherston, Bank of Hamilton 
Brandon; J. B. Whitehead, Brandon; J. W. G. Watson, Brandon; 
J. B. Walker, Edmonton; S. P. Woods, Deputy Attorney General, 
Edmonton; J. P. Wiser & Co., Prescott; Wright & Emsdale, 
Montreal; Herman H. Wolff, Montreal; Waterous Engine Works 
Co., Limited, Brantford and Winnipeg; Western Tent & Mattress 
Co., Calgary; Whitmore Bros., Regina; Wilkinson Plough Co., 
Limited, Toronto; M. J. Wilson & Sons, Ottawa; Winchester 
Repeating Arms Co., New Haven, Conn.; Winnipeg Paint & Glass 
Co., Winnipeg; Wood, Vallance & Leggat, Limited, Vancouver. 
Wilks & Michaud, Montreal; Winn & Holland, Montreal; Wil- 
kinson, Hey wood & Clark, Montreal; W. J. White, Montreal. 



Index to Advertisers. 



Page 

Abbey's Effervescent Salt Ck)., Ltd Ixix. 

Alberta Building Co., Limited xxxviii. 

Alberta Hotel, Calgary xliii. 

Alberta Investment Co., Limited xlii. 

Alberta Pacific Elevator Co., Limit«d xlvii. 

American-Abell Engine & Thresher Co., Limited Ivii. 

Anglo-American Fire Insurance Company Ivii. 

Balfour Implement Co., The, Limited xvi. 

Barwis, W. B xxxvi. 

B.C. Electrical Construction Co Ivii. 

Beattie, A. M liii. 

Belding, Paul <fe Co., Limited Lxxiv. 

Beliveau Richard Co., The, Limited xxiii. 

Benson & Houlton Company, The, Limited xxxix. 

Bentlej' Company, The, Limited lii. 

Black, Alex., Lumber Co., The, Limited ii. 

Blackstock, C. W. & Co xxxiv . 

Borbridge, S. H Ixix. 

Boyle, John H. & Co xxxv. 

Brackman-Ker Milling Co., The, Limited xlix. 

Brandon Brewing Co xxxi. 

Brodie & Stafford Hi. 

Bromlev & Hague, Limited xv. 

Bums, P. & Co xxxvii. 

Cadwell, J. W. & Co xxxvi . 

Calgary Brewing & Malting Co., Limited xl. 

Calgan,' Colonization Company, Limited xlv. 

Campbell Bros. & Wilson . . . " ?civ. 

Canada Permanent Mortgage Corporation Iviii. 

Canadian Casualty & Boiler Insurance Co., The iv. 

Canadian Fairbanks Co., The, Limited xxi. 

Canadian Moline Plow Co xxviii. 

Canadian Northern Railway Inside Front Cover. 

Canadian Rubber Co. of Montreal, The, Limited Ixxv. 

Carruthers, A.. Co., Limited xxii. 

Carruthers, Johnston & Bradley xxi. 

Cockshutt Plow Co., Limited xxi. 

Codvilie-George«ion Co., The, Limited xx. 

Codville-Smith Co., The, Limited xx. 

Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Company. . . Ixxii. 

Composite Brick Co xxxv. 

( onsolidated Plate Glass Co. of Canada, The, Limited . xv. 

Continental Life Insurance Company, The iv. 

Crafts &. I..ee l''- 

Cross «fe Blackweli, Limited Ixxvi. 

Cummings Brass Co xxx. 

Gushing Bros. Co., Ltd x'vi. 

Dartnell, E. F jxxvi. 

D'F2astim & Mount '"•„ 

Department of Militia Ixvn. 

I)f partment of the Interior Ixv. 

Devlin-Tyrell Co xiv. 

I)odd, William .M Jf'"- .. 

Dominion Bri<ige Co., Limited Ixxyii. 

Dominion Cartridge (>)., Ltd J"^X'- 

Dominion Radiator Co., Limited jvin. 

DowdMiilingCo., The, Limited. Ixiv.. 

Dr..wry, E. L '«vii. 

Eaton, T., Co., The, Limited • "ii & xiii. 

I'klmonton Brewing* MaitingCc, Limited 
Ixlmonton Tent and Mattress Co. 
Empire Brewing C/O., The, Limitr<l 
Enderton, C. H. & ('o. . . 

Fairchi!dCo.,The, Limite<l 

Fi'ileral Life Assurance (.'ompany, Th*- 

P'it-Rcform 

Foley, IxK-k & Larson 

Gillard, W. H.&Co 

(l(KMlyear, ('has 

Grand Tnmk Parific RaiiwaV . 
Great Went I^and C >. 



xlviii. 

lii. 

xxix. 

XV. 

vi. 

Ixii. 

lxxiv. 



xix. 

Hark Cover 

\lvi A Ixxxiii. 



Page 

Gunn, John, & Sons xvii. 

Hague, Annington & Co., Limited xviii. 

Hamilton Bridge Works Co., The, Limited ii. 

Hughes & Co xxxi. 

International HarvesterCo. of America (Incorporated) xxviii . 

Jackson, Nonnan D xliii. 

Jaeger's, Dr., Sanitarj' Woollen System Co., Limited . Ixix. 

Jones & Moore Elect nc Co. of Manitoba^ Limited Ixxxvi. 

Kelly, Douglas & Co., Limited liv. 

LaChance, W. W xxxv. 

Laidlaw Bros Ivii. 

Lamontagne Limited Ixxiii. 

Lazier, W. S. & Co xlvi & Ixxxiii. 

Lee, W. F., Manitoba Builders' Supply Co ix. 

Lewis Brothers, Limited Ixxii. 

Loewen & Harvey Ivi. 

Lott, C. S xlvii. 

Ix)wndes Company, The, Limited iii. 

Mackenzie Kenneth Co xxiii. 

MacMillan, Colquhoun & Beattie vii. 

McBride, A. & Co xlvii. 

McCallum, Hill «t Co xxxii. 

McClark- Manufacturing Co., The xxii. 

McDou'gall, John, Caledonian Iron Works Co., Ltd.. . . Ixxxii . 

McKenzie Carriage Works , xxviii. 

Mcl.*nnan, .McFeely & Co., Limited Iv. 

Manitoba Gyp.sumCo., The, Limited xxvii. 

Manitoba Iron Works, The, Limited xxv. 

Manley & Smith 

Marshall- Wells Company . 

Mas.sey-HarrisCo., Limited 

Mav, Samuel, & Co 

Middleton, H.CJ.&Co 

.Mitchell Rifle Sight Co., Limited . 

.Montgomerj' Bros 

Mortinier Co. .Limited 



xxxv. 

viii. 

lix. 

Ixiv. 

xix. 

Ix. 

XXX. 

Ixxiii. 



•Northern Iron Works 

•North-West Electric Co., Limited 

( )ch.sner, Rol)ert 

Ontario Sewer PijH' Company, The, Limite<i. 
Osier, Hanunond & .Nanton 

Pacific C'artage Co., Limited 

I'aulin-ChamlHTs Company, The 

Peverett, John R 

I»ither & Ix'iser 

Prior, E. (i. & Co.. Limitt'd Liability 

Prescott Enjer>' Wheel C«i.. Linut<Hl 
Province of Quebec . . 

Queens, The. Winnip«'g 

Rat Portage Luml»er Co., The, Limited 

I{e<l Feather Co 

Revilloii Brothers, Limited. Edmonton 
Rcvillon Brothers. LimitiHi. Montrc«nl 
Richelieu A Ontario Navigation Co.. 
i{iley* McComiick. Limite<l 
Ros4'well, ( 'arson & Fisher. 
Ross Bmthers. LimittMl. 
R«)ss Rifle Company. . 



XIX. 

xlix. 



Royal LiunlHT* Fuel Co., Limited 
Ryan A Fan's 

Han<leinan. H. F 

Sanf«.nl. W. E.. Mfg. Co.. Limited 
Sawyer* Mass«'yCo.. Limited. 
HheraACo. 



xlix. 

Ix. 

2. 

xlvii. 

xxiii. 

xxxii. 

Ivi. 

Ivi. 

Ixxxii. 

Ixxviii. 

xxx. 



Ixxx. 

I * Ii. 
Ixx* Ixxi. 

Ixxix. 

xxxviii. 

xxxvi . 

xlviil. 

Ixxxvii. 

Ixxxviii 

.Inside Back Cover 

vi. 

xl. 



xlviii. 
Ixiv. 
xvii. 
liii. 



Issav 



Index to Advertisers — continued. 



Page. 

Smart, Jas., Mfg. Co., The, Limited Ixxxii . 

Smith & Ferguson Co., The, Limited xxxiii . 

Smith Howard, Paper Co Ixxxvi. 

SomerA'ille Steam Marble and Granite Works, The .... vii. 

Sparrow, A. C xli. 

Standard Soap Co., Limited xliv. 

Strathcona Brewing & Malting Co xlix. 

Stuart, The James, Electric Co., Limited xxiv. 

Stuart, W., & Co xliv. 

Sub-Target Gun Company, The, Limited Ixi. 

Threshers' Supply Co., Limited xxii. 

Tisdall, Charles E 'liii. 

Tuckett Cigar Co., Limited Ixiii. 

Tully & Tully xxxi. 

Turner, James, & Co., Limited Ixxx. 



Page. 

Union Drawn Steel Co., Limited Ixii. 

Upton, T., Co., Limited Ixiii. 



Waterous Engine Works Co., The, Limited xvii. 

Western Canada Flour Mills Co., Limited xxxii. 

Western Tent & Mattress Co., The xliv. 

Whitmore Bros xxxiv. 

Wilkinson Plough Co., The, Limited Ixi. 

Wilson, M. J., & Sons Ixvi. 

Winchester Repeating Arms Co xxvi. 

Winnipeg Paint & Glass Co., The, Limited x. 

Winnipeg Rubber Co., The, Limited xiv. 

Wood, Vallance & Leggat, Limited Iv. 



Jones St Moore Electric So. 

LIMITED, or MANITOBA 

Manufacturers and Contractors 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY 

ALTERNATING and DIRECT CURRENT 

ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION WORK 

OF ALL KINDS 

ELECTRIC WIRING 
ELECTRIC FIXTURES 
ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES 
TELEPHONES 

We Have Over 2,000 Machines in Daily Operation 

Electrical Repairs a Specialty 

3.6-320 SMITH ST. WINNIPEG, MAN. 




HOWARD SMITH PAPER CO., Ltd 

WHOLESALE PAPER DEALERS 



4, 6, 8 COTE STREET 

MONTREAL, P.O. 



84 WELLINGTON ST. WEST 

TORONTO, Ont. 



This book is printed on "Red Seal" Coated Book. 



DON'T BE SATISFIED WITH A BACK NUMBER 

GET THE BEST - 

Get the Ross 503 Sporting Rifle 



CATALOGUE ON APPLICATION 



ROSS RIFLE CO.. Quebec, Q\ie. 




UjuvU 



'She R.OSS Mark II MilitaLry Rifle 

is Without Equal for Speed. 




(See Preceding Page) 



Ross Rifle 60., Quebec. Que. 



Vu 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY 
FORM NO. DD6, 60m, 1 1 /78 BERKELEY, CA 94720 

®s 



YE 00553