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Full text of "Maiolica : a historical treatise on the glazed and enamelled earthenwares of Italy, with marks and monograms, also some notice of the Persian, Damascus, Rhodian, and Hispano-Moresque wares"

Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 

Mr. Alan Hephburn Jarvis 



M A I O L I C A 




JSoniott 

H E N II Y F R O W D E 

Oxford Umveusity Press Wakehousf. 

Amen Corner. EC. 




(Uew ©orft 

MACMII.LAN X- CO , 66 FIFTH AVENUE 



GUBBIO : M. GIORGIO AND NICOLO DA URBINO 



MAIOLICA 

A HISTORICAL TREATISE ON THE 

GLAZED AND ENAMELLED EARTHENWARES OF 

ITALY, WITH MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 

ALSO SOME NOTICE OF THE PERSIAN 

DAMASCUS, RHODIAN, AND 

HISPANO-MORESQUE WARES 



BY 



C. DRURY E. FORTNUM 

HON. D.C.L. ; HON. FELLOW OF QOEEX'S COLLEGE, OXOH 

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

HON. VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, ETC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1896 




O;cfotli 

rRIXTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

KY HORACE HART 

PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 






TO 
HIS OLD AND MUCH HONOURED FRIEND 

SIR AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON FRANKS 

K.CB., LITT. D., F.R.S. ; PKESIDEXT OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, ETC., ETC. 

WHOSE KNOWLEDGE IN EVERY BRANCH OF ANCIENT CERAMIC AND OTHER ARTS 

IS AS EXTENSIVE AS IT IS PROFOUND, AND TO WHOSE BOUNDLESS 

LIBERALITY OUR NATIONAL MUSEUM IS SO DEEPLY INDEBTED 

THIS VOLUME IS OFFERED IN DEDICATION AND WITH 

AFFECTIONATE REGARD BY ITS AUTHOR 



PREFATORY 



" I "HE objects critically and historically considered in the 
present work are the glazed and enamelled pottery pro- 
duced in Italy during the later decades of the fifteenth and the 
course of the sixteenth centuries ; some account has also been 
given of those earlier wares of Oriental origin from which 
the Italian potters may have acquired improved methods of 
production or enrichment 

By the courtesy of the Lords of the Committee of Council 
on Education I have been permitted to make free use of the 
Descriptive Catalogue of Maiolica and kindred wares in the 
South Kensington Museum, prepared by me at the request of 
their predecessors in office, and published in 1872; and in 
availing myself of this permission I have endeavoured to graft 
on the old stock all important newer matter bearing on the 
subject, at the same time pruning away whatever might be 
deemed superfluous or erroneous. 

I am also indebted to their Lordships for the use of the 
facsimile blocks of marks and monograms prepared for that 
earlier work ; to these several others not then known to me 
have been added. 



vlii PREFATORY 



During the quarter of a century that has elapsed since the 
compilation of the historical introductions and special notices 
of potteries for the Catalogue of 1872, important additions have 
been made to our knowledge by the researches of assiduous 
investigators in Italy and elsewhere, followed by the publication 
of documents and treatises relating to the various local potteries, 
and to the history of the master potters and artists to whom 
we owe so many beautiful examples of ceramic skill. 

The later publications of Jacquemart, of Garnier and De Mely, 
of Young and Beckwith, Ris-Paquot and Jaennicke, have been 
examined ; those of Malagola, Corona, and Argnani carefully 
analyzed, as also Genolini's quarto on the general history of 
Italian wares. The several special w^orks on local Italian 
ceramic history, the valuable contributions of the Marchese 
Campori, of Signor Urbani de Gheltof, of Dr. Frati, Umberto 
Rossi, and other erudite Italian investigators ; of MM. Piot, 
Darcel, and Molinier among the French, and Mr. Wallis's finely 
illustrated volumes on the history of early Persian pottery, 
have all yielded important detail. Many minor contributions 
to the literature of the subject have not been overlooked ; and, 
while reprinting the older list of works of reference, I have added 
a second, accompanied by critical remarks upon some of the 
leading works comprised therein. 

In the course of the intervening quarter of a century we 
have had to record the loss of many of the older authorities 
on the ceramic arts. Birch, Riocreux, Delange, Davillier, Jacque- 
mart, De Jouy, Marryat, Lazari, Darcel, Piot, D'Azeglio, have 
passed away, and comparatively few new hands have taken up, 



PREFATORY ix 



with equal enthusiasm, the subject once so fresh and interesting 
in discover}^ 

The older collectors — the pioneers — Sauvageot, Soulages, De 
Bruge Dumenil, Walpole, Bernal, had long since left the scene, 
followed by many ardent amateurs of our own time, whose 
collected specimens, for the most part dispersed, were gathered 
in by others and dispersed again. 

Not so with the National Museums; those dispersions of 
private gatherings have been the opportunities for their enrich- 
ment, and the increasing interest felt in, and the historical 
importance of late years attached to, the minor productions 
of Renaissance art, have led to the acquisition of examples for 
our own central and local Museums, as for those of other 
countries. 

Many also have been acquired by generous gift or bequest: 
the fine specimens presented by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, and 
those bequeathed by the late Mr. John Henderson, and by 
Mr. Felix Slade to the British Museum, may be specially referred 
to ; as may those of M. Sauvageot and the Baron Charles 
Davillier to the Louvre. 

I have made only casual note of some of the many more 
or less successful reproductions of the ancient wares, by modern 
potters working their own private ovens, or by producers on 
a larger scale. Of these last the Ginori at La Doccia were 
early in the field, and some of their most successful pieces 
were ' cooked ' by nefarious dealers to look old, and sold to the 
unwary as originals. Of reproductions of the Urbino wares 
decorated with grotesques, and some copies of Faenza plates, 



PREFATORY 



we have seen none more excellent than those made by Sig. 
Cantagalli at Florence, and painted by his best artists. 

The illustrations of the present volume exhibit specimens 
of the writer's own collection, now, for the most part, in the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. 

To many friends he is indebted for valuable information and 
kindly aid. To each and all of these he would offer his sincere 
thanks. He cannot, however, refrain from special mention of the 
trouble taken by one of them, Mr. A. C. King, F.S.A., late of the 
South Kensington Museum, in facilitating arrangements with 
the authorities of that Institution for the use of the materials 
under their control. 



CLASSIFIED CONTENTS 
PART I 

INTRODUCTION 



PACK 



Chap. I. Historical Notice i-45 

II. Modes of Production, &c. 46-68 

III. Collections 69-77 

I. WARES OF ORIENTAL ORIGIN 

A. Siliceous Glazed. .......... 79-94 

Persian, Damascus, and Rhodian Wares .... 80-85 
Persian, 85 : Siculo-Arabian, 89 : Damascus, 91 : Anato- 
lian, 92 : Rhodian, 93. 

B. Stanniferous Glazed. 

Hispano-Moresque . . . . . . . . . 95-115 

Malaga, 99 : Majorca, loi : Valencia, 103 : Manises, 106 : 
Various, 108, et seq. : Siculo- Moresque, 114. 

II. EUROPEAN WARES 

A. Plumbeous or Lead Glazed^. 

B. Stanniferous or Enamelled Wares. 

ITALIAN WARES 

SgRAFFIATI, &C H6-I20 

Painted Wares : — 

Chap. I. Tuscany 121-139 

Florence, 121 : Delia Robbia, 123 : Caffaggiolo, 124 : Siena, 
133 : Pisa, 138 : Asciano, 139 : Monte Lupo, 139. 

' Mezza-maiolica is classed in sequence of local production with the tin-glazed >\'ares. 



xii CLASSIFIED CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Chap. II. Duchy of Urbino 140-225 

Pesaro, 140: Gubbio, 156: S. Natoia, 170: Gualdo, 172 
Castel Durante, 173 : Urbino, 188 : Citta di Castello, 224 : 
Borgo San Sepolcro, 224 : San Quirico d'Orcia, 224. 

III. States of thk Church 226-244 

Diruta, 226 : Bagnorea, 235 : P^abriano, 236 : Foligno, 237 : 
Spello, 237 : La Fratta, 237 : Viterbo, 238 : Loreto, 238 : 
Rome, 239. 

IV. The Marches 245-283 

Faenza, 245 : Forli, 270 : Rimini, 280 : Ravenna, 281 : 
Bologna, 282: Imola, 283. 

V. Northern Duchies 284-294 

Ferrara, 284 : Este, 291 : Modena, 292 ; Sassuolo, 292 ; 
- Reggio, 293 ; Scandiano, 293 ; S. Possidonio, 293 : 
Mantua, 294. 

VI. Venetian States 295-313 

Venice, 295 : Treviso, 305 : Bassano, 306 : Nove, 308 : 
Padua, 309: Candiana, 311 : Verona, 312. 

VII. LoMBARDY, Piedmont, and States of Genoa . . . 314-331 
Milan, 314 : Lodi, 316 : Pavia, 317 : Turin, 322 : Albissola, 
323 : Vinova, 325 : Vische, 325 : Mondovi, 326 : Pollenzo, 
326 : Genoa, 327 : Savona, 328. 

VIII. Neapolitan States 332-344 

Naples, 332 : CastelH, 336 : Palermo, 341 : Caltagirone, 341 : 
Saracenic Potters in Southern Italy, 342 : Minor 
Fabriques, 343. 

IX. Local Italian Potteries of Minor Importance . . 345-349 

X. Literature ......... 350-357 



CLASSIFIED CONTENTS xui 

PART II 
MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 

PAOE 

Sgraffiati 12 

Tuscany 2-20 

Caffaggiolo, 2 : Monte, 16 : Siena, 16 : Pisa, 18 : Montelupo, 18 : 
Asciano, 20. 

Duchy of Urbino 20-76 

Pesaro, 20 : Gubbio, 26: Castel Durante, 49 : Urbino, 54 : Borgo 
San Sepolcro, 76 : San Quirico, 76. 

States of the Church 77-87 

Diruta, 77 : Bagnorea, 84 : Fabriano, 84 : Viterbo, 85 : Rome, 86. 

The Marches 88-122 

Faenza, 88: Forli, 116 : Ravenna, 121 : Ferrara, 121 : Rimini, 122. 

Venetian States 123-136 

Venice, 123 : Treviso, 130 : Bassano, 130 : Nove, 131 : Padua, 
132 : Candiana, 135 : Verona, 136. 

Lombardy 136-138 

Milan, 136 : Pavia, 137 : Lodi, 138. 

Piedmont ...... 138-140 

Turin, 138: Vinovo, 139: Mondovi, 140. 

States of Genoa 140-144 

Savona, 140. 

Neapolitan States 144-148 

Naples, 144 : Palermo, 146 : Castelli, 146. 

Uncertain Marks and Monograms on Pieces unknown or insuf- 
ficiently described 149-154 

Works consulted . 155-161 

Additional Works consulted or referred to .... 162-167 
General Index 169-189 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



TO FACE PAGE 



GuBBio, M. Giorgio, and Nicolo da Urbino. (Catalogue 

No. C. 431) . . . . . . . . Frontispiece 

I. Ewer of Medici Porcelain. Circa 1582. (No. 298) . . 45. 

II. Flask. Persian Lustred Ware. Late sixteenth or early 

seventeenth century. (No. 30T) ...... 85 

Plate. Persian Lustred Ware. Late sixteenth or early 

seventeenth century. (No. 302) ...... 85 

III. Basin. Persian Translucent (' Gombron' ?) Ware. Seven- 
teenth century. (No. 310) 91 

Tazza. Damascus Ware. Sixteenth century. (No. 314) 

IV. Jug. Damascus Ware. Sixteenth century, (No. 315) . . 93 
Plate. Kutaya Ware. Sixteenth century. (No. 319) . . 93 

V. Candlestick. Rhodian. Sixteenth century. (No. 326) . . 95 
Circular Dish. Rhodian. Sixteenth century. (No. 320) . 95 

VI. Circular Dish. Hispano-Moresque. Fifteenth or early six- 
teenth century. (No. 331) ....... 103 

Ewer. Hispano-Moresque. Fifteenth or early sixteenth century. 

(No. 336) 103 

VII. Plateau. Sgraffiato Ware. Fifteenth or early sixteenth 

century. (No. 401) . . . . . . . . .119 

Plateau with raised Central Flower. Fifteenth or early six- 
teenth century. (No. 402) 119 

VIII. Plate. Caflfaggiolo or Faenza. Sixteenth century. (No. 409) . 124 
Plateau. Caflfaggiolo. Early sixteenth century. (No. 407) . 124 

IX. Bust of St. John. Caflfaggiolo. Sixteenth century. (No. 408) . 129 
Jug with Arms of the Alessandro degli Alessandri Family. 

Caflfaggiolo. Sixteenth century. (No. 405) .... 129 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv 



PIRATE TO FACE PAGE 

X. Plateau. Mutius Scaevola, '/>/ Ga//'rt«o iV^//rt«o, 1547.' (No. 410) 131 
Plate. The Creation of Eve. By Ferd. Maria Campani. 

Circa 1730. (No. 417) . . 131 

XI. Tazza. The Creation of Animals. Lanfranco. Pesaro, 1540. 

(No. 418) 148 

Circular Dish. Lanfranco of Pesaro. Circa 1544. (No. 420) . 148 

XII. Plateau. Gubbio. Early sixteenth century. (No. 426) . . 162 
Tazza. Hercules and the Hydra. By M. Giorgio. Circa 1515. 

(No. 429) 162 

XIII. Tazza. Head of a Saint. M. Giorgio. Gubbio, dated 1520. 

(No. 430) 166 

Tazza. The Young St. John. Gubbio. Circa 1536. (No. 435) 166 

XIV. Plate. The Calumny of Apelles. Ascribed to Nicolo Pelli- 

pario. Circa 1515. (No. 474) . . . . . .178 

Tazza. Tiberius receiving Tribute. By Nicolo da Urbino. 

Circa 1525. (No. 442) 178 

XV. Tazza. The Flight into Egypt. Inscribed */'« Castel Durante, 

1526.' (No. 507) 184 

Plate. Hercules and the Hydra. Signed ' /// botega di M. Guido 

Durantino in Urbino, 1535.' (No. 508) ..... 184 

XVI. Plate. The Bull of Perillus. Ascribed to Orazio Fontana. 

Circa 1540. (No. 445) 214 

F X 

Circular Dish. The Flight of Xerxes. Signed Vj ' 1537. 

By Fr. Xanto. (No. 448) 214 

XVII. Plate. St. John at Patmos. Urbino. Circa 1550. (No. 455) 220 

Basin. By Alfonzo Patanazzi. Urbino. Circa 1590. (No. 460 220 

XVIII. Vase. Casa Pirota. Faenza. Circa 1520. (No. 476) . . 259 
Plate. Shield of Arms of (?) Altoviti and Soderini. Casa 

Pirota. Faenza. Circa 1520. (No. 475) .... 259 

XIX. Cupid riding a Hobby-horse. Faenza. Circa 1520. (No. 515) 264 
Tazza. The Triumph of Time. Signed ' Baldasara Manara 

fan,' Faenza. Circa 1530. (No. 482) 264 

XX. Tazza. Dance of Cupids. After the print by Marc Antonio 
(Bartsch, 217), but altered in the background. Faenza or 
Castel Durante. Circa 1525. (No. 486) 267 

XXI. Vase. Grotesques. By * M. Diomede Durante in Roma M DC.' 

(No. 465) 301 

Circular Dish. A Mermaid. Venice, dated 16 Oct. 1540. 

(No. 492^ 301 



ERRATA AND CORRIGENDA 



PART I. 

P. 35, 1. 4 from bottom : for Palimpario read Pellipario. 

P. 48, 1. 2 from bottom : for Pietro Gay read Pietro Gai, 

P, 71. At Pesaro the Mazza Collection is now the property of the Municipio, by whom 
it was purchased from the Hospital. 

P. 183, 1. II from bottom : for is of read may be. 

Monte Lupo. In a inventory of objects belonging to Lorenzo de' Medici at his death in 
1492 we find '■ Quattro infrescatoi' ^ Due alberelli grandi,' ^ pin piattelli, scodelle, 
scodelUni, et altri vasetti, tittte le dette stoviglie sono di terra, lavorate a Montelupo, 
bellaj. 4.' 

PART II. MARKS. 

Urbino. On a tazza in Mr. Salting's Collection, ' 1543 la morte di Pelio ■ in Urbino • P.' 

The capital letter • F • is on a plate ; architecture and a coat of arms ; in the collection 

of Mr. H. A. Neck. Is ascribed by Chaffers. 

Faenza. The wing of a bird (?) on a tazza, inscribed ' Nero die fa barrare la madre' 
Ascribed by Chaffers to Faenza, by Mrs. Palliser to Urbino. 

A man's bust in profile, beneath which is a label inscribed but illegible, and above 

Mcccccxxxv. Christ rising from the tomb. Soltykoff Collection. Chaffers. 

The capital letters N R are on a fine plate in the Campana Collection, Neptune. 

Chaffers. 
We do not know these pieces. -: 

Venice. On a plate in the Davillier Collection the Mark No. 422 is developed into a garofalo 
flower, the letters A and F being formed by the leaflets. 



A TREATISE ON 

M A I O L I C A 



INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER I 

Historical Notice^ 

"PROM a very remote period of human existence, anterior to all record, 
-'■ except that afforded by the stone implement, the primitive ornaments 
of teeth and shells, and the rudely formed and ill-baked crocks that 
accompany the buried bones of the dead, the potter's art declares itself 
as one of the earliest and most required by prehistoric man. At first 
but rude and sun-dried or ill-baked vessels of coarse clay, occasionally 
ornamented with concentric and transverse scratches, they gradually 
developed to the exquisite forms and decoration of the Greek vases ; 
but it would seem probable that, however universal the production of 
vessels of baked clay, the art of applying a vitreous covering or glaze 
was an invention which emanated from the East, from Egypt or from 
India, Babylon, or Assyria. 

It is true that on the Greek, Etruscan, and some Roman pottery 
a subdued and hardly apparent glazing was applied to the surface of the 

' This notice is in great part a reprint of South Kensington Museum, but with correc- 
that in our Catalogue of the MaioHca in the tions and additions derived from new Hghts. 

B 



MAIOLICA 



pieces, but it is so slight as to leave a barely appreciable effect upon 
the eye, beyond that which might be produced by a mechanical polish, 
and so thinly laid on as almost to defy attempts at proving its nature 
by chemical investigation ; it is, however, supposed to have been pro- 
duced by a dilute aluminous soda glass \ without any trace of lead in its 
composition, the greater portion of which was absorbed into the substance 
of the piece, thereby increasing its hardness and leaving only a faint 
polish on the surface of the ware. 

Of such is that numerous class of potteries, among which will be 
found the elegant productions of Greece and of Italy in Etruscan and 
Roman times; but with these we are not now occupied ^ 

In Egypt and the East the use of a distinct glaze [invetriatura of the 
Italians), covering the otherwise more porous substance of the vessel, 
appears to have been known, and to have arrived at great perfection at 
a very remote period. It was, in fact, a superior ware, equivalent to the 
porcelain of our days, and from the technical excellence of some of the 
smaller pieces has been frequently, but wrongly, so called. 

It will, perhaps, be as well, before entering further into the considera- 
tion of the subject, to define and arrange the objects of our attention 
under general heads. 

Pottery {Fayence. Tep-aglia), as distinct from porcelain, is formed of 
potter's clay mixed with marl of argillaceous and calcareous nature 
{argtle-sableuse ou calcarifere) and sand variously proportioned, and may 
be classed under two divisions : Soft {Fayence a pate tendre), and Hard 
{Fayence a pate dure) according to the nature of the composition, or the 
degree of heat under which it has been fired in the kiln. 

What is known generally in England as earthenware is soft, whilst 
stone ware, queen's ware, &c. are hard. 

The characteristics of the soft wares are a paste or body which may 
be scratched with a knife or file, and fusibility, generally, at the heat of 
a porcelain furnace. 

' History of Ancient Pottery, by Samuel Catalogue of the Greek Vases in the 
Birch, F.S.A., London, 1858, i. p. 24; ii. Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, by Pro- 
Appendix, p. 402. fessor Percy Gardner, Litt. D. fol. Oxon. 

« We may here refer to the valuable 1893. 



INTRODUCTION 



These soft wares may be again classified under four subdivisions : — 

1. Unglazed {mattes). 

2. Lustrous {lustrees). 

3. Glazed {veniissees). 

4. Enamelled {e'maille'es). 

Among the first three of these subdivisions may be arranged all the 
ancient pottery of Egypt, Greece, Etruria, and Rome; as also the larger 
portion of that in general use among all nations during mediaeval and 
modern times. We have already alluded to the first two, but it is 
with the glazed and the enamelled wares that we shall be occupied, 
namely, with subdivisions 

3. Glazed {veniissees), which ma}' be again divided into — 

Section A. Vitreous, or Glass Glazed {siliceuses). 
„ B. Plumbeous, or Lead Glazed {plonibifcres). 

4. Enamelled (emaille'es\ or Tin Glazed {stanniferes). 

Although this may be accepted as a fundamental classification of the 
wares, we shall find that modifications occasionally occur, where a certain 
amount of the tin oxide is used, both with the siliceous and the 
plumbeous glazing. 

In these subdivisions the foundation is in all cases the same, the mixed 
clay or * paste,' or ' body,' varied in composition according to the nature 
of the glaze to be superimposed, is formed by the hand, or on the wheel, 
or impressed into moulds, then slowly dried and baked in a furnace or 
stove, after which, on cooling, it is in a state to receive the glaze. This 
is prepared by fusing sand or other siliceous material with potash or 
soda, to form a translucent glass, the composition, in the main, of the 
glaze upon the wares under Section A. The addition of a varying but 
considerable quantity of the oxide of lead, by which it is rendered more 
easily fusible, but still translucent, constitutes the glaze of Section B, 
whereas the further addition of the oxide of tin produces an enamel 
of an opaque white of great purity, and is the characteristic glazing 
of the wares under subdivision 4. In either case the vitreous substance 

B 2 



MA 10 Lie A 



is reduced to the finest powder by mechanical and other means, being 
milled with water to the consistency of a cream; into this the dry and 
absorbent baked piece is dipped and withdrawn, leaving a coating of 
the material of the bath adhering to its surface. A second firing, when 
quite dry, fuses this coating into a glazed surface on the piece, rendering 
it lustrous and impermeable to liquids. The two former of these glazes 
may be variously coloured by the admixture of metallic oxides, as copper 
for green, iron for yellow, &c.; but it is nevertheless translucent, and shows 
the natural colour of the baked clay beneath. 

Vitreous or Glass-Glazed Wares. 

Of the first (Section A), the vitreous, silico-alkaline, or glass-glazed 

wares, we have stated that they were of very ancient date, and in all 

probability had their origin in the East, in Egypt, Babylonia, or Phoenicia ; 

indeed the discovery of glass, which has always been attributed to the 

latter country, would soon direct the potter's attention to a mode of 

covering his porous vessel of baked earth with a coating of the new 

material ; but the ordinary baked clay would not take or hold the glaze, 

which rose in bubbles, and scaled off, refusing to adhere to the surface, 

and it became necessary to form the pieces of a mixed material, consisting 

of much siliceous sand, some aluminous earth, and probably a small 

portion of alkali, thus rendering it of a nature approximating to that 

of the glaze, and to which the latter firmly adhered. In some instances, 

in the finer examples, which may probably have been exposed to a higher 

temperature in the oven, the glaze and the body of the piece have become 

so incorporated as to produce a semi-translucent substance, analogous to 

some artificial porcelains. It has been suggested that occasionally the 

glaze may have been rendered more fusible by the admixture of a small 

portion of oxide of lead, but we have the authority of M. Brongniart, 

and of Dr. Birch, for stating that in Egypt, when this ware was being made 

in its greatest perfection, the use of lead in glazing seems to have been 

unknown ^ 

» Brongniart, Traite des Arts Ceramiques, 2nd ed., Paris, 1854, i, p. 505. Birch, 
Ancient Pottery, p. 67. 



INTRODUCTION 



In its nature this glaze is translucent, and accordingly we find that 
where ornament is used, the design is executed directly on the 'biscuit' 
or unglazed surface of the piece, which then receives the vitreous covering, 
through which it is apparent. By means of an oxide of copper the 
exquisite turquoise blue, ' scarcely rivalled after thirty centuries of human 
experience,' was produced ^ The green colour was, perhaps, produced 
by another oxide of the same metal ; violet by manganese or gold, yellow 
by silver, or perhaps by iron, and the rarer red by the protoxide of copper. 
It was brought to its greatest perfection in Egypt, but we also find that 
bricks and vases similarly glazed were made by the Babylonians, the 
Assyrians, and Persians. Sir Henry Layard figured examples of moulding 
for room decorations, and patterns and designs of large size, executed 
upon glazed bricks or tiles, from the palace at Nimrud, each having 
its appropriate portion of the figure-, and others bearing inscriptions 
denoting that * This is the great palace of " Asaraden-pal ^." ' The magni- 
ficent frieze, representing a procession of the royal guards, now preserved 
in the Lou\Te, for which Museum it was obtained during his excavation 
of the great palace at Susa by M. Dieulafoy, is another important example. 

Throughout Babylonia the sites of ancient buildings afford fragments 
of a similarly glazed potter}'. Those brought from Borsippa by the 
Abbe Beauchamp, in 1790, were analysed by MM. Brongniart and Sal- 
vetat, by whom the glaze was found to contain neither the oxides of lead 
nor tin, but to be an alkaline silicate with alumina, coloured by 
metallic oxides*; while a more recent analysis of Assyrian examples, 
by the late Dr. Percy, shows that with a base of silicate of soda, or soda 
glass, and oxide of tin, the opaque white has been produced^, being the 
earliest recorded example of 'enamelled' ware, and one which would be 
properly classified under the fourth subdivision. It would seem, however, 
that it was thus used as a means of producing a white colour more than 
as an habitual glazing. The same method was seemingly used at Susa 

^ Boudet, Notice Hist, de I'Art de la ' Layard, ii. p. 180. 
Verrerie ne en Eg^-pte. Descr. de I'Egj'pte * Brongniart, Traite, ii. pp. 89, 90- 

Antiq. Mem. torn. ii. p. 17. ^ Cat. Mus. Prac. Geolog3\ 8vo. London. 



* Laj-ard, Monuments of Nineveh, fol., 1855. 
Lond., 1849, pis. 84, 86, 87. 



MAIOLICA 



on the guards' frieze above referred to. A small quantity of oxide 
of lead was also found in the blue glaze on tiles from Babylonia. 

The three circular walls of the palace at Babylon were, according 
to Ctesias, covered with richly coloured representations of the hunting 
expeditions and battles of Semiramis and Ninuas; and Herodotus tells 
us that the walls of Ecbatana in Media were painted of seven colours, 
statements confirmed by the discoveries at Nineveh, and by that of 
M. Place at Khorsabad, where a wall some five feet in height and 
twenty long was still standing, faced with glazed bricks representing 
men, trees, animals, &c. in colour. 

At Warka, supposed to be the ancient Ur of the Chaldees \ Mr. Loftus 
discovered numerous coffins or sarcophagi, piled one upon another 
to the height of forty-five feet, of peculiar form, and made of terra-cotta 
glaze.d with a siliceous glaze of bluish-green colour. Formed somewhat 
like a shoe, an opening is left at the upper and wider end for the 
insertion of the body, and closed by an oval lid, which, as well as the 
upper part of the coffin, is ornamented with figures and plants in relief. 
They are supposed to be of the Sassanian period. 

The metallic lustre in decoration was applied apparently at an early 
period upon pottery glazed with siliceous coating, and appears to have 
established itself, if it were not invented, as some suppose, in Persia. 
From fragments found by Mr. Wallis at Fostat, the site of ancient 
Cairo, where a fabrique seems to have existed of very early time, 
we are led to believe that this mode of enrichment may have been 
originally of Egypto-Arabian rather than of Persian origin 2. On speci- 
mens from Arabia it is also found, and. its use in combination with this 
glaze seems to have preceded its use on wares coated with the stanni- 
ferous enamel, by the potters who accompanied the conquering Arabs 
into the Balearic Islands, Spain, and Sicily. 

In Northern India, at Sind, and in Persia, wares are made at the 
present day of precisely the same character as the ancient pottery under 
consideration. Pieces from the former locality are composed of a sandy 

» The mounds of Mugheir are now The Dawn of Civilization, 1894. 
beheved to be the site of Ur; Warkh of 2 h. Wallis. Notes on Early Persian 
Uruk. For references &c. see Maspero, Lustred Wares. 



INTRODUCTION 



argillaceous frit, ornamented with pattern in cobalt blue, beneath a sili- 
ceous glaze. Indeed their agreement in technical character with some 
of the pottery of the ancient Egyptians and Assyrians, and with that 
produced in Syria and Persia during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and 
sixteenth centuries, is most remarkable. Persia also produces inferior 
wares of the same class, which, as well as those from India, are now 
articles of import into Europe. 

This, probably the most ancient mode of glazing, was the parent of 
all those wares now known as Persian, Damascus, Rhodian, Lindus, &c. ; 
we shall further follow their history in the introductory notice to those 
classes of pottery'. 

Plumbeous or Lead-Glazed Wares. 

Of the second section (B) are the sihco-plumbeous or lead-glazed 
wares, the most common, and at the same time, the most widely spread 
branch of the family in Europe ; indeed throughout the northern and 
western countries lead, in combination with glass, seems to have been 
the earHest and perhaps, until the fourteenth centur}^, the only means 
known of glazing soft pottery. 

We have seen that Dr. Percy discovered a certain amount of lead 
in some of the blue coloured glazes of Babylonia, which he suggests 
as having 'probably been employed as a flux'; if so, this might have 
been the germ of its general adoption for the purpose of producing 
a more easily fusible, and therefore a more ready and more manageable 
coating; but in the East it does not seem to have supplanted the more 
elegant and purer siliceous glaze. 

Fragments of Graeco-Roman pottery from Tarsus, lamps and vessels 
from the neighbourhood of Naples, and other examples of a highly glazed 
pottery from various antique sites, which has all the appearance of 
a plumbeous composition, are preser\'ed in collections; some of these 
attest a very high degree of excellence in modelling, and in the artistic 
application of the vitreous coat, which is translucent, of green, brown, 
yellow, and occasionally of a dull red colour. Of such Nos. 155-156 and 
198 of the Fortnum Collection in the Ashmolean Museum are specimens. 



MAIOLICA 



The paste of which these examples are formed is to all appearance 
an ordinary potter's clay, generally of a buff colour, and in no way similar 
in character to that of the Egyptian or Assyrian wares, glazed with 
a true glass; and in these instances the adhesion to the surface, and 
perfect adaptability of the vitreous coating to the irregularities of the 
shaped and moulded pieces, prove its affinity for the paste of which 
they are made, and indirectly, that its composition is not the same as 
that of the Egyptian or Persian glaze. This inference is corroborated 
by analysis, which proves that lead oxide was used in its composition. 

It is not unlikely that it may have been introduced by Greek potters 
into Southern Italy. We learn from the monk Theophilus that the art 
of decorating fictile vessels with vitreous colours was practised by the 
Byzantine Greeks, who probably carried it into Italy ^. This statement 
in all probability refers to the lead-glazed wares, and not to the tin 
enamel, the former of which, as we have seen, was known earlier than 
his time to the potters of Tarsus, Pompeii, &c. ; and it is reasonable to 
believe that the art was never lost in Italy, where, from the eighth and 
ninth centuries, it would appear to have been the only glaze known 
and in use, until the introduction or discovery of the stanniferous enamel. 
We find accordingly that the earliest glazed Italian wares, the sgraffiati, 
the painted, and the mezza-maiolka, are covered with this description 
of vitreous surface. 

That it had become established in the north of the Peninsula is 
proved by the fact that a plate dug up at Cividale del Friuli, and now 
preserved there, is inscribed with Lombard characters scratched upon 
the glaze ^grafiti sulla vetrina'), and believed by Lazari to be of the 
eighth century 2. 

The researches of the Abbe Cochet at Bouteilles near Dieppe ^ 
have revealed the fact that glazed pottery was in use in the north of 
France in the Anglo-Norman period of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. But on the other hand. Professor Argnani is of opinion that 
there is no evidence of the use of the lead glaze anterior to the twelfth 

' Arts of the Middle Ages, ii. eh. i6. ^ Vin. Lazari,. Not. della raccolta Correr. 
Translated by Robert Hendrie. 8vo. Venice, 1859. 
London, 1847. ■' Archaeologia, xxxvi. p. 266,xxxvii.p.4i7. 



INTRODUCTION 



century in northern Ital}^, when these ' scodelletti' were produced. Early 
in 1300 the wares improved, and the use of an engohe of white earth 
became general. The two colours, yellow from iron, and green from 
copper, were in use ^ 

As before stated, this glaze is composed of silica, with varying 
proportions of potash or soda and of oxide of lead, by which addition it 
is rendered more easily fusible, but remains transparent. 

To obtain a white surface was, however, desirable, the colour of the 
paste beneath the glaze being generally of a dull red or buff, and ill 
adapted as a ground for the display of coloured ornamentation. To 
supply this want, before the invention of the tin enamel, an intervening 
process was adopted. A white argillaceous earth of the nature of pipe- 
clay was purified and milled with water, and thus applied over the 
coarser surface of the piece in the same manner as the glaze ; again 
dried, or slightly fixed by fire, it was ready to receive the translucent 
coat, through which the white * slip ' or ' engobe ' became apparent. It 
is easy to conceive that by scratching a design or pattern through this 
white applied surface to the darker clay beneath, before fixing in the 
fire, a ready mode of decoration presented itself, without the use of 
colour, to be covered by but visible through the glaze ; hence the early 
incised or ^sgraffiato' ware, one of the primitive modes of decorating 
glazed pottery. 

Churches built at various places in Italy during the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries were decorated with discs and ' ciofole ' of glazed and painted 
terra-cotta, some of which are ornamented by the ' sgraffiato ' process. 

Passeri states^ that pottery works existed from the earliest periods 
in the neighbourhood of Pesaro, as proved by remains of furnaces and 
fragments of Roman time, and tiles with the stamp of Theodoric ; that 
during the dark ages the manufacture was neglected, but that it revived 
after 1300, and that it then became the fashion in that city to adorn the 
church towers and facades with discs and 'bacini' of coloured and 
glazed earthenware ; a practice which had been in use at Pisa and other 
cities as early as the eleventh or twelfth century. The mythical state- 

* F. Argnani, Ceramiche e Maioliche - G. Passeri, Istoria delle pitture in Ma- 

Faentine, 410, Faenza, 1889, p. 13. jolica fatte in Pesaro. 8vo. Pesaro, 1857. 



lo MAIOLICA 



ment that this custom arose from the conquest of the Balearic Islands 
by the Pisan fleet in 1115, and the use by the Pisans of the prize of 
Majorcan pottery to adorn their churches in grateful commemoration 
of the victory, has been proved in the main to be questionable \ no 
examples of what we know as Moresque ware being traceable in any 
of the churches of Pisa, Bologna, Rome, or elsewhere. One piece of 
sihceous glazed Oriental ware was found in situ on a church built in T107, 
but all the rest are of coarse native manufacture, ornamented with rude 
painting in colour or 'sgraffiato' work, and covered with a lead glaze; 
thus confirming the belief that this kind of ware was produced and in use 
in various parts of northern and central Italy, perhaps from the eleventh or 
the twelfth century, and it is fairly presumable that it had never been 
entirely lost, but, perhaps locally, known from Roman times, and so con- 
tinuously to the eighth century, the presumed date of the plate found at 
Friuli. It is needless to say that it has never since been lost. 

Of these discs or ' scodelletti or bacini' with which the fa9ades and 
machicolated cornices, as well as the ' campanili,' of many churches in 
various parts of Italy are decorated, much has been written, and romantic 
statements have been handed down to account for their origin, more 
particularly with respect to those on the churches of Pisa, where they are 
more abundant than in any other city. 

It has been supposed by recent writers, that some of these discs at 
Pavia, and one in the church of Sta Francesca Romana in Rome, are of 
lustred ware. These were known to and carefully examined by the writer 
many years since, the conviction on his mind being that the seeming 
metaUic 'reflet' was only the effect of decomposition of the glaze, pro- 
ducing that iridescent effect so often seen on pieces of antique glass. 

Sismondi's story of the attack upon Majorca by the Pisan fleet, and its 
return triumphant about Easter, 11 15, bringing its captive king and 
a rich booty, among which were dishes of the celebrated Moorish pottery 
there made, which in pious gratitude the Pisans built into the towers 
and fagades of their churches, is a pretty myth ; but, on a careful exami- 
nation, the writer could find no trace of Moorish pottery, nor, with one 

' See a paper on this subject by the xlii., in which are designs copied from 
writer, published in the Archaeologia, vol. some of the Pisan roundels. 



INTRODUCTION ii 



exception, other than a coarsely painted and incised lead-glazed ware*, 
apparently of native Italian origin. Moreover, it now seems doubtful 
whether such wares were then produced in the Balearic Islands. 

Passeri, writing in the last century, states that the Duomo and the 
churches of S. Agostino and S. Francesco at Pesaro are so ornamented, 
and at the Badia di Pomposa. Specimens occur also at Sta Maria in 
Ancona, in Pavia at S. Michele, and also at S. Pietro in Ciel d'oro, 
at S. Primo, S. Teodoro, and S. Lazzaro, S. Lanfranco and Sta Maria 
di Betlemme in Borgo Ticino, all churches of the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. They are mostly of white ground with arabesques of brownish 
yellow {iionato bttjo), birds, crosses, knots, stars, &c., some having a blue 
ground, and many such are without ornament (v. Lazari, op. cit.). 

At Pisa they are found on several churches, and are also to be seen 
at Rome, Bologna, and many other places. In the museum of the Brera 
at Milan are two from the church of S. Simpliciano in that city. 

Occasionally, and indeed frequently, circular and square slabs of 
porphyry and serpentine were used on the same building, concurrently'^ 
with the glazed earthenware, as on the tower of Sta Maria Maggiore 
at Rome, and on that of Sta Francesca Romana. This mode of en- 
richment to the architecture of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth 
centuries is in accordance with that produced by the enamelled discs 
and inlaid stones on reliquaries and other church plate of the same 
period. 

The only instance observ^ed by the writer of the occurrence of these 
' bacini ' of glazed ware in domestic architecture is seen over the windows 
of the Palazzo Fava and of another palace in Bologna. This mode of 
decoration ceased entirely during the course of the fourteenth century, 
but restorations of lost pieces have been executed in more recent times. 

Passeri instances the use of glaze on tiles upon a tomb in Bologna, 
opposite the church of S. Domenico, dated about iioo; and he further 
states — but we know not upon what authority — that it was about the year 
1300 that the method of covering the clay with a 'slip' or 'engobe* 
of white earth {terra di San Giovanni in Siena), or the coarser earth of 



' Archaeologia, vol. xlii. 



12 



MAIOLICA 



Verona, was first adopted. Slightly baked, it was glazed with ' marzacotto ' 
(oxide of lead and glass) ^ applied wet and again fired ; and this glaze was 
variously coloured yellow, green, black, and blue, by iron, copper, man- 
ganese, and cobalt. 

A similar method of coating the rough and porous baked clay seems 
to have been known also at a very early period in the north of Europe, 
and to have been in use throughout France,, Germany, and England. 

Enamelled or Stanniferous-Glazed Wares. 

It was found that by the addition of a certain portion of the oxide of 
tin to the composition of glass and oxide of le^id the character of the 
glaze entirely alters. Instead of being translucent, it becomes, on fusion, 
aiv tJpaque and beautifully white enamel, the intervening process of 
covering the surface of the clay with a stratum of white earth before 
glazing being unnecessary. It, moreover, was found to afford a better 
ground for the application of colour as ornament. The process of 
application was the same as for the ' slip ' ; after immersion in the 
enamel bath, and subsequent drying, the painting is applied upon the 
absorbent surface, the piece being then subjected to the fire, which, at 
one application, fixes the colours and liquefies the glaze. 

This is the ' enamelled ' pottery {emaillees) of subdivision 4, by far the 
most important group of the glazed wares, being susceptible of decoration 
by the lustre pigments, as well as by painting in colours of great delicacy, 
and comprising the Hispano-Moresque, the true Maiolica, and the per- 
fected earthenware of Italy, &c. 

We have seen that the first trace of the application of oxide of tin 
to produce a white opaque glazed surface is to be met with upon 
Babylonian or Assyrian bricks ; but we may be disposed to think that it 
was then used merely as a pigment to produce a white colour, and was 
not adopted as an application to pottery for the production of a white 

^ There seems to be some confusion in common salt; the other states that it 

the composition of the marzacotto as stated contained calcina di piombo, in fact a coperta. 

by Piccolpasso and Passeri. From one We suspect that their names were fre- 

we learn that it consisted of sand and feccia quently synonymous, 
potash), with the occasional addition of 



INTRODUCTION 13 



opaque ground capable of receiving coloured enrichment by painting in 
other pigments. A corroboration of this idea would seem to exist in the 
fact that throughout Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, and Egypt, a purely 
stanniferous-glazed pottery has never been generally adopted, or taken 
the place of that simple and beautiful siliceous coating, so dexterously 
applied, and with such richness of effect, upon the Persian and Damascus 
wares. Perhaps, absorbed and 13'ing dormant in remote localities for 
centuries, it may have been learned or rediscovered by the Arabs. 

How it travelled, when and where it was first used, and to what 
extent it was applied, is still doubtful. We meet with an occasional 
fragment, generally upon mural decoration and of uncertain date, till 
at last it becomes palpably appreciable in the Moorish potteries of Spain 
and probably of the Balearic Islands. 

The late Baron J. Ch. Davillier, in his excellent work on the Hispano- 
Moresque pottery \ states that he has not been able to discover any 
piece, which could reasonably be ascribed to a date anterior to the four- 
teenth century. In this he differs from the opinion of the late M. Demmin, 
whose dictum was perhaps not always based upon the soundest authority. 

In Valencia, however, anterior to its conquest by Jayme I of Arragon, 
in 1239, potteries had long been established, and were of such importance 
that that monarch felt himself bound to protect the Moorish potters of 
Xativa (San Filippo) by a special edict. We must bear in mind the fact 
that there were two periods of Mahommedan sway in Spain, the first 
on the expulsion of the Gothic monarchy by the Arabs, and the estab- 
lishment of the Caliphate at Cordova, in the eighth century (a. d. 711). 
Of the ceramic productions of this early period we have no accu- 
rate knowledge, but we should expect to find them of similar character to 
the siliceous glazed wares prevalent in Egypt and the East. Seiior Riano 
tells us of fragments and pieces found. at Cordova bearing arabesques in 
green and black on whitish ground; and at Granada a fragment of the 
eleventh century with inscription, &c., one of Persian character, but probably 
Spanish -. 

The second period is after an interval of five centuries, in 1235, 

^ Histoire des Faiences Hispano-Mo- - J. F. Riano, The Industrial Arts in 
resques a reflets metalliques. Paris, 1861. Spain. 8vo. London, 1879. 



H 



MAIOLICA 



when the Moors founded the kingdom of Granada, having driven out 
the Arabs. Then first appear the wares usuall}^ known as Hispano- 
Moresque, for we find the tiles of the Alhambra dating about 1300, the 
Alhambra vase about 1320, and abundant continuous examples of tin- 
glazed wares of Moorish origin, until the period of the conquest of the 
country by Ferdinand and Isabella, after which the pottery becomes more 
purely Spanish and speedily falls into decadence. 

We shall renew the consideration of these wares under the head of 
Hispano-Moresque pottery. 

The existence of tin ores in considerable abundance in Spain may 
have led to the rediscovery or to the adoption of the stanniferous enamel. 
We have no positive proof of its use on pottery at an earlier date in 
any other country since the period of the Babylonian bricks. It seems 
probable that the wares produced during the early Arabian occupation 
in Spain were sihceous glazed, but that the use of the tin enamel 
became adopted by them, or by the Moorish potters who took their 
place, after their expulsion in the thirteenth century. Can it be that the 
so-called Siculo-Arabian or Siculo-Persian wares are really the production 
of the Arabian potters, in Egypt and afterwards in Sicily, in Spain or 
in Majorca, before the use of the tin enamel was adopted by them 
or by their Moorish successors ? And may there not also be some 
foundation for the story of the Majorcan dishes being built into the 
Pisan towers? and may not the single specimen of siliceous ware found 
by the writer in the church of Sta Cecilia in that city, which certainly 
was placed there early in the twelfth century, be one of those dishes 
brought from Majorca by the Pisans at. a time anterior to the use of the 
tin enamel in that island ? (See woodcut, p. 15.) 

This fragment is part of a shallow basin which had been inserted 
above the Moresque arch of a lateral door; the basin had been broken, 
only about one-third remaining fixed ; the fragment was already detached, 
and was resting on the lower part of its plaster setting. It is of a siliceous 
frit of stony colour : the design, in black, is painted on the smoothed 
surface of the unglazed body ; the whole is then covered by a rich, thick, 
and hard siliceous translucent glaze of sapphire-blue colour. For more 
full particulars see the writer's paper in vol. xlii. of Archaeologia. 



IXTRODUCTIOX 



15 



With the earliest use of stanniferous enamel glaze in Europe, is 
generally associated a decoration by metallic lustre, produced by the 
reduction of certain metallic salts in the reverberatory furnace, leaving 
a thin film of metal on the surface, which gives that beautiful and rich 
effect known as reflet metalliqiie, nacre, cangiante, rubmo, reverberato, 
&c., and in England as lustred ware. 

We have seen that on the siliceous or glass glazed pottery of the 
East, the origin of which is assuredly anterior to, and its use more 
general than, that of the enamelled wares under consideration, this metallic 




decoration was practised in Egypt and in Persia, as also on specimens 
supposed to have been produced by Oriental potters in Sicil3^ From 
fragments discovered among the ruins of Eastern towns long since 
destroyed, it is pro\ed to have been known at a very early period, 
probably anterior to the use of the tin enamel except as a pigment. 

In Italy the use of the metallic lustre colours was apparentl}^ known 
and practised previously to the extended use of the tin enamel, for we have 
abundant examples of early * mezza-maiolica ' from the potteries of Pesaro 
or Diruta, glazed only with the oxide of lead and glass, which are bril- 
liantly lustred with the metallic colours. None of these can, however, be 
referred to an earlier date than the latter half of the fifteenth century. 

Of whom, then, did the Italian potters learn this art? No historical 
record is known to answer this question, and we are forced to suppose 



i6 MAIOLICA 



that the name by which this lustred ware was known at the time, and 
in the country of its production, reflected that of the place from which 
it or its makers were derived. Accordingly we find that the coarser lead- 
glazed and lustred ware was known as ' mezza-maiolica,' while that more 
nearly resembling its original, by the use of the tin enamel, was known 
as * Maiolica.' That the Moorish potters conveyed this knowledge, and 
that the Italians named their ware after that from the island of Majorca, 
whence it may have been first introduced, would seem to be a reason- 
able conclusion. 

A very early, perhaps the earliest, use of this term occurs in the 
Extraits des Comptes et Memoriaux du Roi Rene, published by Lecoy 
de la Marche, Meubles du Chateau d'Angers, 1471 — ^ item 11 Dec. 1447, 
pour trots platz de terre de Mailloreque i florin six gros.' 

M. Jacquemart, however, thought it equally probable that, although 
the Majorcan wares were well known in Italy, this art may really have 
been communicated by Persian potters, or their pupils coming to the 
eastern ports of Ital}^, and that the style of decoration on the early 
Italian lustred wares is more Persian than Moresque. 

M. Darcel suggested that, after the conquest of the island of Majorca 
and of the province of Valencia at the end of the thirteenth century, it is 
reasonable to suppose that Moorish potters may have passed into Sicily and 
Italy, and thus have introduced the metallic lustre and the tin glaze. 

Knowing as we now do, from the researches of Mr. Wallis and others, 
that wares lustred on the siliceous glaze were made at Old Cairo, 
probably as early as the eighth or ninth century, and believing that such 
potters accompanied or followed the Saracenic conquerors of Sicily, 
producing similar works in that island, it is equally probable that on their 
advance into southern Italy the art may have accompanied them, and 
through them have been communicated to the central Italian potteries. 

We incline, however, to M. Darcel's suggestion, that Moorish potters 
introduced their art into the potteries of central Italy. 

In confirmation of this opinion it is a remarkable fact that, during 
his examination of the refuse-heaps from the ancient potteries of Diruta, 
M. Emile Molinier, among other fragments of lustred wares identical 
in " make and decoration with the well-known ' bacili ' attributed to 



INTRODUCTION 17 



Pesaro and Diruta, discovered one or more pieces, in decoration, glazing, 
and make, equally identical with the Hispano-Moresque wares. Either 
this fragment was part of an imported piece, a specimen at the fabrique, 
or it was actually made there by a Moorish artist ; and if so, some others 
of hke kind may have been produced at Diruta, and passed current 
as Valencian ware, from which it would be difficult to distinguish them. 

The general term 'Maiolica' or 'Majolica' has long been and as still 
erroneously applied to all varieties of enamelled earthenware of Italian 
origin. We have seen that it was not so originally, but that the term 
was restricted to the lustred wares which resembled, in that respect, those 
of the island from which they had long been imported. It is a curious 
fact, proving their estimation in Italy, that nearly all the specimens 
of Hispano-Moresque wares which adorn our cabinets and enrich our 
museums have been procured in that country, comparatively few pieces 
having been found in Spain. 

Scaliger ^ states, in reference to the Italian pottery as comparable with 
the porcelain of China, that the former derived its name from Majorca, 
the wares from whence are most excellent. 

Fabio Ferrari also, in his work upon the origin of the Itahan 
language, states his belief * that the use of majolica, as well as the name, 
came from Majorca, which the ancient Tuscan writers called Maiolica.* 

Thus, Dante writes ^ — 

' Tra r isola di Cipri e Maiolica,' 

showing the then mode of spelling the name of the island, and it would 
seem but natural to call an imitation of its produce 'a la Maiolica.' 
Moreover, we know that Moorish artisans, persecuted by the King 
of Leon and Seville, emigrated to the Papal States and elsewhere, and 
that among them were potters who would carry their art with them, 
introducing it to the countries which offered them a home. 

As before stated, the terms 'maiolica' and * mezza-maiolica ' were 
originally restricted to the lustred wares, but towards the middle of the 

* Julius Caesar Scaliger, lib. 15. Exotericarum Exercitationum ex. 92. Quoted by 
Passeri, as also by Marryat, who gives the extract in full at p. 18. 
^ Inf. xxviii. 1. 82. 



i8 MAIOLICA 



sixteenth century they seem to have been generally appHed to the enamelled 
earthenware of Italy. 

The Germans ascribed the discovery of the tin enamel glazing, after 
the night of the dark ages, to a potter of Schelestadt, in Alsace, whose 
name is unknown, but who died in the year 1283 ^ In the convent of 
St. Paul at Leipzig is a frieze of large glazed tiles, with heads in relief, 
the date of which is stated to be 1207. 

The potter's art is said to have developed in that country at an earlier 
period than in Italy ; but the rilievo architectural decorations, monuments 
with figures in high relief, and other works executed at Breslau in 1230 
and believed to be of terra-cotta, are not so, as we were informed by 
the late Mr. Alexander Nesbitt; and the monument to Henry IV of 
Silesia, who died in 1290, said to be in that material, is really of painted 
stone. 

We do not know whether the potter of Schelestadt was acquainted 
with the stanniferous enamel ; but M. Piot^, as evidence that it was in use 
in the fourteenth century, refers to a work, the Margarita Preciosa, 
written in 1330, in which a recipe is given for the composition of potter's 
glaze, ostensibly in use at that time, ' videmns cum plumbum et stannum 
fuerunt calcinata et combusta, quod post ad ignem congruunt convertuntur in 
vitrum, sicut faciunt qui vitrificant vasa figuli! 

We must not, however, forget the admirable mouldings and other 
architectural ornaments executed in rilievo of terra-cotta, of a durability 
that has stood the test of time, which were produced in various parts 
of Italy, particularly Lombardy, at that period ; nor that the necessity for 
a glaze in that country was less urgent than in the more humid climate 
of the north, and was met by the compactness of the material and the 
sharpness of the rilievo. 

Later, at Nuremberg, the elder Veit Hirschvogel was born in 1441, 
living till 1525, and to him the use of the tin glaze was known. Speci- 
mens ascribed to his hand, and dating from 1470, are preserved in 
museums. 

At Strehla there is a pulpit of glazed terra-cotta of the date 1565, and at 

' Annales Dominicanorum Colmariens. (1283), Urstis. Script, rerum Germ., vol. ii. p. 10. 

* Cabinet de I'Amateur. 



INTRODUCTION 19 



Saltzburg is the wonderful chimney-piece of the fifteenth centur}'^, still in 
its original position in the Schloss. At that time, also, Hans Kraut, of 
Villengen, in Swabia, produced good works, but it is probable that many 
of these larger examples are covered with an admirably manipulated green 
or brown glaze, which is produced without the admixture of tin. 

That the composition was known at an early period in Germany is 
proved by the foregoing extracts, and confirmed by recent research, but 
hardly justifies M. Aug. Demmin's statement, that whereas it was in use 
in the fifteenth century in numerous cities of Germany, it was not intro- 
duced into Italy until the sixteenth century ! ^ forgetting Luca della Robbia's 
first great and admirable work executed in 1438, three 3'^ears before the 
birth of Veit Hirschvogel. 

In Italy, history has always awarded the honour of its discovery to 
Luca della Robbia, and however recent observation may have proved 
that its use was known in some of the Italian potteries before his 
time, there can be no doubt that his was not merely an application of 
a well-known process to a new purpose, but that he really did compound 
an enamel of peculiar solidity and whiteness, specially adapted to his 
purpose, and somewhat different from that in use at any of the potteries 
of his time. 

Proceeding with the general history of the manufacture in Italy, we 
have seen that in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries native ware was 
produced in various places, examples of which are occasionally disinterred, 
or still exist in the towers and facades of churches. These are lead- 
glazed, rudely painted, or coloured with yellow and green, and in some 
instances sgraffmto (specimens of which are in the South Kensington 
Museum) 2, proving that the use of a white 'slip,' or 'engobe,' was 
known in Ital}'- at that period, as affirmed by Passeri and corroborated 
by Argnani. The former further asserts that in 1300 the art assumed 
a more decorative character, under the then Lords of Pesaro, the 
Malatestas. Having thus attained an even opaque white surface, the 
development of its artistic decoration steadily advanced. The colours used 
were 3'ellow, green, blue, and black, to which we may add a dull brownish 

' Guide de 1" Amateur de Faiences et Porcelaines. Paris, 1867. 
^ Catalogue, p. 72, Nos. 14, 71. 

C 2 



20 MA 10 Lie A 



red, noticed on some of the Pisan ' bacini.' Passeri states that the 
reflection of the sun's rays from the concave surfaces of these ' bacini ' 
at Pesaro was most briUiant, and hence it has been wrongly inferred that 
they were enriched with metalHc lustre. We have already stated our 
belief that this effect may arise from an iridescence of the surface of the 
soft lead glaze partially decomposed b}^ the action of the atmosphere. 

The difficulty of distinguishing the finer examples surfaced by means 
of a slip, from the enamelled wares, by the eye alone, adds to the per- 
plexity in endeavouring to ascertain the approximate relative age of undated 
pieces of the mezza and of the tin glazed pottery. 

In the refectory of the ci-devant convent of Santa Maria in Pomposa, 
near Commacchio, is a fresco by Giotto (a. d. 1276-1336) representing 
a banquet; on the table stands a jug of Italian form decorated with 
a branch of leafage or flowers, probably in blue, on the front, and with 
chevron ornament, &c., behind. It declares a well advanced art, and 
would seem to be rather an enamelled than a mezza ware. Again, in 
the picture by Pietro Laurati (1282-1340), Monks in the desert — Uffizi 
gallery. No. 12 — a jug is represented of almost indentical form and 
decoration with that just described. 

In the Gazzetta del popolo di Firenze of Sept. 24, 1874, a broken jug 
is described, as seemingly of stanniferous glaze, decorated with a shield of 
arms in relief, left unglazed, bearing a lion rampant, and stems bearing 
pine cones, also in relief but glazed. It is oviform, with projecting spout 
(the handle lost) and inverted trumpet-mouth foot. This vase, which 
belonged to the Duke of Verdura, was found in an underground prison, 
in which Ghinozzo di Sassoforte was starved to death by Aldobrandini, 
under the tower of the Castle of Sta Fiora at Amicata in the district 
of Siena; this vault had not been disturbed since the early years of the 
fifteenth century. At Faenza were found by Professor Argnani those 
boccali bearing the arms of Astorgio I, Manfredi, with the special impresa 
the liocorno crest adopted by him in 1393, and not used by any other 
of that family: Astorgio died in 1405. These jugs, some surfaced with the 
terra bianca, some with the tin enamel, but both bearing the same 
impresa^ would indicate a period of transition in the potter's art. They 
must have been made between 1393 and 1405. Other early pieces exist, 



IXTRODUCTION 21 



of inconsiderable merit, but perhaps of earlier date than any inscribed 
with the period of their production. 

The extremely interesting but coarsely executed pavement in the 
Carracciolo chapel of San Giovanni Carbonari at Naples, seemingly 
of stanniferous glaze, is considered by M. E. Molinier to have been 
executed about 1440. 

We trust that the plaque which formerly existed in situ over the 
door of the post-house at Urbania (Castel Durante), built by Cecco Gatti 
in 1440, is still there. It represented the arms of the Feltre, and was 
inscribed ' Ospes Ciccits "Gattits Salvere te jiihet' 

Next in sequence of date would probably come the plate in the 
Sevres Museum, representing Cavaliers, and marked ++++ • 1 1 M • 1 1 1 1- 
which is presumed to signify 1448. 

Signor Urbani de Gheltof has figured and described a fragment of 
the tile pavement, formerly in the church of St. Elena at Venice, executed 
for the Giustianini family about 1440-1450. 

The earliest distinctly dated piece known to the writer is the plaque 
now in the Hotel Cluny, from the Castellani collection, on which a shield 
is depicted bearing a cock, of black colour, holding a fleur-de-lis in its 
beak, and dated 1466. It may perhaps be of Faenza, as certainly is that 
in the same museum, the well-known votive plaque on which the sacred 
monogram is surrounded by the legend j|5lCOlaU2(-Ue-Ka8:noli5*all» 
^onoremliei»et-^ancti«98icl)aeli0*fecit-fieri-ano- 1475. We have 
always considered this plaque as of Faenza^. Mm. Jacquemart and Darcel 
were disposed to attribute it to CafTaggiolo, but Professor Argnani and 
Dr. Malagola have conclusively established its Faentine origin and history. 

In the Sevres Museum is a coarsely executed plaque bearing the arms 
oftheOrsini family, and inscribed NICOLAUS • ORSINI •+-f-f+ -77. 

' M. Emile Molinier, in his small but passage in that work) of agreeing with 

interesting and valuable volume, La Messrs. Jacquemart and Darcel in 

Ceramique Italienne au XV. siecle, has attributing this plaque to Caffaggiolo: at 

so highly complimented the present writer p. 473, line 9, it is stated that he was ^not 

on his Catalogue of the South Kensington convinced'' that it is rightly so attributed 

Collection, that he regrets the more by those learned writers, 'instead of 

having been accused by M. Molinier to Faenza, to which it has hitherto been 

(doubtless from erroneously reading the allotted.' 



22 MAJOLICA 



We next have, in sequence of date, the well-known and much discussed 
pavement in S. Petronio at Bologna, the admirable work of the Faentine 
artists Betini, in 1487. As also that in the Bentivoglio chapel of S. Giacomo 
Maggiore, of 1490. 

But the beautiful tiles now preserved in the museum at Parma, which 
formerly were a pavement in the convent of San Paolo, and are so 
accurately described and illustrated in M. Emile Molinier's La Ceramique 
Italienne au XV. siecle, may even be of rather earlier time ; he would assign 
them to about 1482. 

About that date also is the curious plaque in the Louvre, representing 
the patron saints of the shoemakers. Saints Crepin and Crepinien, which 
we considered as perhaps of the character of the earlier works of Forli. 

The ' Don Giorgio ' plate at Sevres, about which strange surmises have 
been brought forward, is dated 1485. 

In the South Kensington Museum is the singularly beautiful plaque, 
which we unhesitatingly ascribe to one of the most able of the ceramic 
painters of his time, M. Jero of Forli, representing the Virgin and Child, 
and dated 1489. 

Again, we have a coarsely painted plaque, with coat of arms of the 
Quirini family, sustained by angels and inscribed THE OB ALDUS- QJJIRINUS 
RECTOR MCCCCLXXXX. It is in the museum at Sevres. 

The South Kensington Museum possesses a circular disc, probably 
of Tuscan fabrique, bearing the arms and inscription, with date {sic) 
MCCCC9I • ANDREA • Dl • BONO. 

The same Museum possesses another disc, probably Faentine, of the 
Casa Pirota ; the sacred monogram occupies the centre, and on the border 
fJl-1491 • G • A. 

The late Monsignore Cajani had a plaque, which we well recollect 
examining when in his possession ; it represented the Virgin and Child, 
behind whom is a drapery and two cherubs. It is figured in Delange 
and Darcel's Recueil on plate 14, and is dated 1492, SANCTA • MARIA • 
ORA -PRO . NOBIS . It is a poor production. 

M. Molinier refers to a fragment in the possession of Dr. Bode ; it is a 
portion of a jug of similar form to several which have been attributed to 
Caffaggiolo or other Tuscan source, and is dated 1493. A piece, dated 1498, 



INTRODUCTION 23 



part of a plate, belonging to the late Baron Ch. Davilier and bequeathed 
by him, is now in the Sevres Museum. It represents a group of persons 
in costume of the fifteenth century, &c., within a border. 

To complete this list of works of the fifteenth century we may mention 
some sepulchral inscriptions and subjects painted on tiles, referred to by 
Malagola. They are at Faenza: one is to Antonio Porcari in the cloister 
of the convent of S. Domenico, with the family arms and date 1498; the 
other represents Christ, with the instruments of the passion, and is inscribed 
HOC EST • SEPVLCRVM • MAG ISTRI-ANDREE -DE -BARBER IS. 1499. 

An angle tile, purchased at the Castellani sale for the South Kensington 
Museum, bears a shield of arms, the letters S. R., and the date 149-, the 
last figure having been broken away. 

M. Molinier, in his valuable work above quoted, carefully describes 
all these examples, in sequence of date, several of which were previously 
little known to students of Italian ceramics. We quite agree with him 
in his estimate of the interest and value of these early pieces. He also 
reminds us of the pavement in the Delia Rovere Chapel in Santa Maria 
del Popolo, at Rome, on some of the tiles of which the peacock feather 
and double scroll decoration occurs, which we used to consider as probably 
of early Tuscan origin, but which Professor Argnani shows us was in 
use on equally early pieces found at Faenza, and which he so well figures 
on plate XI of his admirably illustrated work ^ 

But, notwithstanding the early date of some of these pieces, particularly 
those found at Faenza, which were assuredly made between 1393 and 
1405, the advanced state of the art in Tuscany is proved by the perfect 
adaptation of the stanniferous enamel both to rilievo and plain surfaces, 
and the masterly use of colours thereon by Luca della Robbia as early 
as 1438. 

Sir, then Mr. J. C. Robinson, in his catalogue of the Italian Sculpture at 
South Kensington, has given a sketch of the life and works of Luca della 
Robbia and his family, and a description of the specimens ascribed to them 
and then possessed by that Museum ; the majority of these are works of 
sculpture, but among the rest are the tondij circular plaques of enamelled 



' Argnani, op. cit. 



24 MAJOLICA 



pottery, painted on the plain surface, with allegorical representations of the 
months, as he believed by the hand of Luca della Robbia himself. We 
quote his description of them from page 59 of that catalogue : — 

' Nos. 7632-7643. Luca della Robbia. A series of twelve circular 
medallions, in enamelled terra-cotta, painted in chmr'osciiro, with imper- 
sonations of the twelve months. Diameter of each, i foot 105 inches. 

' In Vasari's Life of Luca (ed. Le Monnier, p. 67) will be found the 
following passage (translated) : — 

* " Luca sought to invent a method of painting figures and historical 
representations on flat surfaces of terra-cotta, which, being executed in 
vitrified enamels, would secure them an endless duration ; of this he made 
an experiment on a medallion, which is above the tabernacle of the four 
saints on the exterior of Or San Michele, on the plane surface of which 
he delineated the instruments and emblems of the builder's arts, accom- 
panied with beautiful ornaments. For Messer Benozzo Federighi, Bishop 
of Fiesole, in the church of San Brancazio ^, he also made a marble tomb, 
on which is the recumbent effigy of the bishop and three other half-length 
figures besides, and in the pilasters of that work he painted, on the flat, 
certain festoons and clusters of fruit and foliage so skilfully and naturally, 
that, were they even painted in oil on panel, they could not be more 
beautifully or forcibly rendered. This work indeed is truly wonderful ; 
Luca having so admirably executed the lights and shades, or modelling 
of the objects, that it seems almost incredible a work of such perfection 
could have been produced in vitrified enamels." 

* Note. — " One of these pictures may be seen in a room of the building- 
belonging to the superintendents of the Duomo. It is over a door 
on the left of the entrance, and is a lunette composed of three pieces, 
representing the Eternal Father in the centre, with an angel on each 
side, in an attitude of profound adoration." Mr. Robinson observes : 

'We have here a record of the fact of Luca having, simultaneously 
with his enamelled terra-cotta sculptures, also practised painting in the 
same vehicle on the flat, or, in other words, the art of majolica painting. 
The monumental works before mentioned are now extant to attest the truth 
of this account. 

' Now S. Francesco de Paolo, below Bellosguardo. 



INTRODUCTION 



* From a careful and repeated study of the above-named works on 
the spot, and hkevvise from the internal evidence of the technical qualities 
of the vehicle, terra-cotta, enamel pigments, &c., the writer has now to 
add to the list of Luca's productions, in this especially interesting branch, 
the series of medallions, doubtless united originally in a grand decorative 
work. Each roundel is a massive disc of terra-cotta, of a single piece, 
evidently prepared to be built into a wall (or vaulted ceiling) of some 
edifice. Round the margin of each is a decorated moulding, in relief, 
of a characteristic Delia Robbia t3'pe. The surface within the narrow 
border is flat or plane, and the designs are painted in two or three 
grisaille tints on a blue ground, of the usual quiet sober tint affected 
in all the backgrounds and plane surfaces of the rilievo subjects. 

' The subjects consist of single figures of contaditii or husbandmen, 
impersonating the agricultural operations of the Florentine country, char- 
acteristic of each month of the year ; and although invested with a certain 
artistic charm of expression, the various figures, each of which exhibits 
a different individual character, may be taken as life portraits of the 
sturdy Tuscan peasants of the day. A band or fascia forming an inner 
border round each subject, is ingeniously and fancifully divided into two 
unequal halves, one being of a lighter tint than the general ground of 
the composition, and the other half darker, thus indicating the night 
and the day ; the mean duration of each for every month, being accurately 
computed, set off on the band accordingly, and noted in written characters 
on the upper or da3'light part, whilst the name of the month is written 
in large capital letters at the bottom in white, on the dark ground of 
the nocturnal portion. The sun pouring down a cone of j-ellow rays, 
accompanied by the sign of the zodiac proper to each month, is also 
seen on the left of the upper part of each margin, and the moon on the 
lower half opposite to it. 

' The execution of these designs exactly resembles that of the admirable 
bistre or chiar'oscuro drawings of the great Italian masters of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, two tints of blue being used for the outlines and 
shadows, while the lights or heightenings are put in with pure white 
in the same large and facile style. In the somewhat lengthy proportions 
of the figures and other characteristics these compositions display a direct 



26 



MAIOLICA 



analogy with the style of design of the earlier works of the master in 
Florence ; a certain resemblance to the manner of Jacopo della Querela 
is perhaps to be traced, especially in the draperies. 

'Vasari further tells us that one of the principal works of Luca was 
the decoration, in enamelled terra-cotta, of a writing cabinet for Piero 
di Cosimo Medici, the ceiling of which was coved {mezzo tondo), and 
together with the pavement, was entirely in glazed terra-cotta, so perfectly 




put together that it appeared to be one piece. This cabinet no longer 
exists, but there is another allusion to it in a manuscript preserved in 
the Magliabecchian library (MS. Trattato d' Architettura del Filarete, nel 
libro 25 ^), written by a contemporary of Luca, who says, " his (Cosmo's) 
cabinet {istudietto) was most ornamental, the pavement and the sky {cielo) 
of enamelled terra-cotta, ornamented with beautiful figure subjects, so that 
whoever enters it is struck with admiration." 



See notes to Vasari, ed. Le Monnler, pp. 65 and 291. 



INTRODUCTION 27 



'It is suggested, therefore, that these medaUions originally formed 
part of the system of decoration of this celebrated cabinet. In any case, 
that these roundels are actually the work of Luca della Robbia appears 
as certain as an3'thing not absolutely- authenticated can be. 

' Piero de' Medici, who, according to Vasari, commissioned Luca to 
construct the writing cabinet in the palace built by his father, the great 
Cosmo, died in 1469, having succeeded his father in 1464, so that the 
execution of the work would be somewhere betwixt these dates. Antonio 
Filarete (MS. already quoted, p. 65), however, seems almost to indicate 
that it was Cosmo, and not his son, for whom the cabinet was constructed ; 
and if so, it might have been executed at a much earlier period of Luca's 
career. Our medallions, indeed, if we regard the style of the written 
characters of the inscriptions, have rather the aspect of works of the 
first than of the second half of the fifteenth century ^' 

Vasari states that Luca, b}^ the application of this invention to plain 
surfaces, as well as to his admirably modelled rilievos in terra-cotta, 
faceva P opere di terra quasi eterne. 

Luca della Robbia was born in the year 1400 (Vasari says 1388). 
His works in marble, in terra-cotta, and bronze are remarkable for their 
classic purity of sentiment. 

The well-known frieze of the singing boys in the museum of Uffizii, 
at Florence, executed about 1435-45, ^"^ ^^e tomb below Bellosguardo 
(1456), are fine examples in the former material ; and the bronze gates 
of the sacristy of the Duomo in that cit}-, commissioned in 1464, are his 
only known and admirable work in metal. His merits as a sculptor were 

^ ' It will not have escaped notice, never- anterior to them, and that in fact the latter 

theless, that Vasari says it was only towards application was the result of early essaj'S 

the end of Luca's career, that he turned his as a goldsmith-enameller on metals, and as 

attention to painting on terra-cotta. The a Majolica painter.' 

notorious inaccuracy, however, of the famous (In reference to this footnote the present 

chronicler in respect to similar statements, writer would remark that Vasari's inaccu- 

deprives the objection of any weight ; racy in the above-quoted statement is 

besides, in other parts of the life of Luca, confirmed by the date of the Bellosguardo 

he alludes to some facts at variance \\ith the tomb, erected about 1456, some eighteen 

assumption. It is in every respect more years after Luca's first recorded work in 

probable that the practice of painting in this enamelled sculpture, and twenty-five years 

vehicle was coeval with Luca's earliest before his death.) 



essays in enamelled sculpture, if not indeed 



28 MAIOLICA 



of the highest order, but he does not appear to have had that inventive 
faculty in composition for which his great rival Ghiberti was remarkable, 
almost to excess. Hence, perhaps, he was less esteemed and patronized ; 
but his force of character is shown in the originality of his adaptation on 
a large scale to modelled surfaces, and the improvement in the composition 
of the stanniferous enamel, with which his name must ever be associated. 
That the nature of the Delia Robbia enamel is different from that used 
upon the pottery produced at various fabriques may be seen by a comparison 
of the two surfaces. The greater degree of opacity and solidity in the 
former is a marked variation from that in general use; so also with the 
surface of his painted tiles. Perhaps the nearest approach is that on the 
earlier productions of the Caffaggiolo furnaces. 

Andrea della Robbia, to whom his uncle's mantle descended, also 
painted occasionally on plane surfaces, as may be seen on tiles which 
cover the flat surface of a ^ lavabo' in the sacristy of the church of Sta 
Maria Novella in Florence ; this was before ascribed by Mr. Robinson to 
Luca, but subsequently proved to have been erected by Giovanni, although 
probably a work of Andrea's best time. 

But the works of the Della Robbia family are not a subject whereon 
to dwell in this volume ^ We would merely note the fact that in 1520 
their art was in decadence, under the hand of Giovanni, the son of Andrea, 
Luca's nephew, and that during the first quarter of that century various 
original artists and imitators produced works in the same manner, derived 
from the earlier models of the Della Robbia, and the works of some 
other contemporary sculptors. 

By Giovanni's brother Girolamo it- was introduced into France, where 
the Chateau de Madrid was decorated by him under the patronage of 
Francis I. 

One * Niculoso Franciso ' took the art to Spain, and adorned the 
church of Santa Paolo at Seville with bas-reliefs in the manner of the 

' For further information on the Della II. i. 127, and other works ; and recent 

Robbia the reader is referred to Barbet de papers by Professor Allan Macquard, and 

Jouy, Les Della Robbia, post 8vo, Paris, published by him in the American Jour- 

1853, and to Cavallucci, I. and MoHnier, Les nal of Archaeology, January to March 



Della Robbia, fol. Paris, 1884 ; also to 1894, et ante. 
Dr. Bode, in Archivio storico dell' Arte, 



INTRODUCTION 29 



Delia Robbia, from the style of which the late Baron Ch. Davillier and 
the writer suggest that he was, possibly, a disciple of that school ^. 

In Italy, Agostino di Antonio di Duccio worked at Perugia in 1459-61, 
where he executed enamelled bas-reliefs on the facade of the church of 
S. Bernardino, and in S. Domenico. Pier Paolo di Agapito da Sassoferrato 
is said to have erected an altar in this manner in the church of the 
Cappucini at Arcevia, in the diocese of Sinigaglia, in the year 1513. 

An able modeller, as well as artist potter. Maestro Giorgio Andreoli, 
of Gubbio, of whom we shall speak more in detail under the heading 
of that fabrique, also executed works in the manner of the Delia Robbia. 
The practice of enamelling large works, modelled in terra-cotta, would 
seem to have gone out of repute, fallen into decadence, and ceased in 
production before the end of the first half of the sixteenth century; not 
perhaps so much from the secret of the glaze being known only, as we 
are told, to the descendants of the Delia Robbia famil}', as from the want 
of demand for works in that material ; the fashion had passed away. 

From the increased encouragement afforded to the production of artistic 
potter}', furnaces and boteghe had been established in various parts of 
northern and central Italy, particularly in Romagna, in Tuscan}^, and in 
the lordship of Urbino, where the manufacture was patronized at an early 
time by the ruling family, as also by the Sforza at Pesaro. Here, if we may 
believe Passeri, the use of the metallic lustre would appear to have been 
developed ; but we have as little historical evidence of the date of its earliest 
use as of the tin enamel. Before that great improvement was generally 
adopted b}- the numerous potteries of Italy, the pearl}', the golden, and the 
ruby lustre colours would seem to have been produced at Pesaro, at Diruta, 
and perhaps at Gubbio, where, if not earliest introduced, it attained its 
greatest perfection. Pesaro being a coast town of the Adriatic, and one 
where furnaces had long existed, would form a ready asylum for oriental 
emigrants fleeing from persecution in their own country, and it is reason- 
able to suppose that from them the use of these metallic pigments may 
have been acquired; accordingly we find that the decoration on the 

* The execution of bas-reliefs, figures, been habitual anterior to the use of the 
and groups at various fabriques, painted stanniferous enamel at those potteries, 
and coated with lead glaze, appears to have 



30 MAIOLICA 



early pieces is oriental to a marked degree. Painted wares had been 
produced anterior to the use of those metallic pigments, and among them 
specimens are occasionally found showing Persian influence in their design. 

We are told by Passeri that the Princes of the house of Sforza, who 
had purchased the lordship of Pesaro from the Malatesta famil}^, encouraged 
the development of the art, and that the 'mezza-majolica' continued to 
improve from 1450. Special privileges were granted in i486 and 1508 to 
manufacturers of Pesaro, whose wares were then famous, as well as those 
of other chief cities of the lordship of Urbino. 

The pieces of that period, produced at various places, have a certain 
general resemblance in the clumsy fashion, the dry archaic style of drawing, 
and the outlines traced in manganese black or zaffre blue, with which last 
the shadings are also indicated ; the flesh is left white. A certain rigidity 
but truthfulness is observable in the design, crude and wanting in rehef, but 
precise and free from timidity. A moresque border frequently surrounds 
a coat-of-arms, portrait busts in profile of contemporary princes, or that 
of a saint or heathen goddess, the sacred monogram, &c., and amatory 
portraits of ladies, with a ribbon or banderole, on which the fair one's 
name is inscribed, with a complimentary adjective, as ' Bella,' ' Diva,' &c. ; 
such are the principal subjects of these early bactli, the correct attribution 
of which to any particular fabrique is a matter of extreme difficulty. 

The admirable ' madre perla ' lustre of the pieces so enriched, changing 
in colour and effect with every angle at which the light is reflected from 
their brilliant surface, is the leading characteristic and special beauty of 
this class of wares, which must have been in great request and produced 
in considerable quantity. Pesaro and -Diruta lay claim to their production, 
and each fabrique has its champions. Messrs. Piot and Emile Mohnier 
wholly discredit the statement of Passeri. Having found fragments of 
lustred ware at Diruta, which is acknowledged to have been a great 
producer of it, they conclude that Pesaro had no such claim. We 
prefer waiting until a thorough examination of the sites of the old potteries 
at Le Gabice, some miles from Pesaro, has given such strong negative 
evidence as would render a more conclusive answer to this question. 
These bacili are nearly all of the same size and form ; large heavy dishes 
of flesh-coloured clay, with deep sunk centres and a projecting circular 



INTRODUCTION 31 



'giretto' rim behind, forming a foot or base; this is invariably pierced 
with two lateral holes, for the purpose of introducing a cord by which to 
suspend them, proving that the}^ were valued more as decorative pieces 
{piatti da pompa) than for use upon the table ; the back is covered by 
a coarse 3'ellow glaze, the front having a surface whitened by slip and 
painted as above described. The rim is sometimes ornamented in com- 
partments [a quartiere), or with chequered * chevTone ' or imbricated 
patterns, or conventional flowers, &c. The}^ are accurately described by 
Passeri in his seventh chapter, who concludes somewhat hastily, from their 
uniform size, shape, style of decoration, and the character of the metallic 
lustre, that they were by the same artist, unknown by name, but who 
worked at Pesaro about the end of the fifteenth century', probably not 
knowing that similar wares were then produced b}' the rival potteries of 
Diruta. We shall consider these more in detail when treating of the 
wares of Pesaro, Diruta, and Gubbio. 

Dennistoun, in his Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino, states that in 
1478 Sixtus IV wrote to Costanzo Sforza, in acknowledgement of 
a present of ' Vasa Fictilia,' which he saj'S for the donor's sake he prizes 
as much as if made of gold or silver, instead of earthenware most elegantly 
wrought. Gaye, Carteggio, i. 304, records a letter from Lorenzo the Mag- 
nificent to Roberto Malatesta, thanking him for a similar present, and 
saying, 'they please me by their perfections and rarity, being quite novelties 
in these parts, and are valued more than if of silver, the donor's arms serving 
daily to recall their origin.' This probably refers to the metallic lustered 
ware then seemingl}' unknown in Tuscany. 

Careful investigations of the records of Italian families, and the archives 
of the many towns at which potteries formerly existed, have already thrown 
considerable light on the establishment of the various fabriques, and the 
marks and characteristics of their productions ; but at present we can 
only form an approximate opinion, from the comparison of the various 
pieces existing in public and private collections with signed examples 
by the same hand. From Passeri, the earliest writer on the history and 
development of the manufacture, we are forced to draw largel}^, accepting 
his statements unless controverted by tangible evidence or reliable docu- 
mentary matter, and making allowance for a considerable amount of local 



32 



MAIOLICA 



bias, the Carita del nativo loco of which we find too much in ItaHan local 
history. His information, in that direction, is perhaps more valuable than 
that conveyed by the interesting MS. of Piccolpasso, the latter work being 
almost exclusively confined to the details of the manufacture, giving us 
but small instruction as to the relative dates and productions of the many 
potteries at which artistic works were executed at the time he wrote. He 
was, for his lights, a scientific potter, but not an historian, or collector and 
student of the ceramic productions of other times and other 'boteghe.' 
We agree in believing with Passeri that the potteries of Pesaro were of 
very early date, probably anterior to Gubbio, and think that some weight 
may be given to his statement, that the use of the lustre pigments was 
introduced from the former to the latter fabrique, where it attained to 
unsurpassed excellence under the able management and improvement 
of M" Giorgio, but whether the furnaces of Faenza and Forli were of 
earlier or subsequent establishment to that of Pesaro is still matter for 
conjecture. That works existed at Faenza at a very early date, and that 
they developed to an important degree, both as to the quantity and quality 
of their produce and their influence abroad, is unquestionable. But 
although producing at the latter end of the fifteenth and early in the 
sixteenth centuries some of the most exquisite examples of artistic decora- 
tion, and of the perfection of manufacture in this class of ceramics, we 
are unable to find a record of its use, or examples of pottery decorated 
with the lustrous metallic tints which can, with probability, be ascribed 
to the Faenza furnaces. The same remark applies to all the products 
of the numerous potteries on the northern side of the Apennines, and 
indeed, speaking generally, its use appears to have been almost confined 
to Pesaro, Gubbio, and Diruta, for although some rare examples exist 
which may have been produced at Caffaggiolo, and perhaps elsewhere, 
they are quite exceptional, and may be experimental pieces. 

The Piedmontese and Lombard cities do not appear to have encour- 
aged the potter's art to an equal extent in the fifteenth and early sixteenth 
centuries ; neither can we learn of equal excellence attained in Venice till 
the establishment of Durantine and Pesarese artists at that city in the 
middle of the latter period. Perhaps commerce did for the Queen of 
the Adriatic, by the importation of Rhodian, Damascus, and other Eastern 



INTRODUCTION 33 



wares, what native industry supplied to the pomp and luxury of the 
hill cities of Umbria ; for it must be borne in mind that the finer sorts 
of enamelled or glazed potter}^, decorated by artistic hands, were only attain- 
able by the richer class of purchasers ; more modest wares, or wooden 
trenchers, and ancestral copper vessels, contenting the middle class. The 
Northern Duchies, as Ferrara, Rimini, Ravenna, &c., also encouraged 
the art, but to a smaller extent than that of Urbino. 

The history of the development, perfection, and decline of the ceramic art 
of the Renaissance in Italy, is so intimately connected with and centred by 
that of the Dukedom of Urbino, that in tracing its progress we should also 
briefly call to memory the fortunes and the failures of that noble house. 

In 1443 what had been but an unimportant mountain fief was erected 
into a duchy, and the house of Montefeltro ruled a fair territory in the 
person of the infamous Oddantonio, the first Duke of Urbino. On his 
violent death, in 1444, Federigo, his illegitimate brother, succeeded to the 
dukedom. Of enlightened mind, as well as of martial capacity, he developed 
the native capabilities of the country, and gathered about him at the court 
of Urbino the science and learning of the period. He married in J460 
Battista Sforza, and built a noble castellated palace at Urbino, celebrated 
by Vasari, for the embelHshment of which he invited the leading artists 
of the day. The beautiful stonework tracery of the staircase, of arabesque 
or more properly 'grotesque' design, with dancing cupids, trophies, and 
heraldic fancies — among others the English Order of the Garter, with which 
he was invested in 1474 — is remarkable ; the * intarsiatura ' of the doors, and 
other sadly injured but still beautiful remains of the decoration of this 
picturesque building, attest the admirable taste and magnificence of its 
first owner. A patron of all art, and a great collector \ he encouraged 
the manufacture of the maiolica wares, which flourished under his reign. 
On his death, in 1482, his son Guidobaldo I, who married in 1488 
Elizabetta Gonzaga of Mantua, continued his father's patronage to the 
ceramic artists of the Duchy, although much occupied in the Italian 

' It is recorded as characteristic of this in., and contains 979 leaves of parchment, 

prince, that the only share of the spoil he forming together a thickness of nearly 

would receive on taking the city of Volterra a foot, and requiring two men to carry it. 

was an illuminated Hebrew Bible, now in (Dennistoun's Memoirs of the Dukes of 

the Vatican ; it is of large size, 23 in. by 16 Urbino.) 



34 



MAIOLICA 



wars consequent on the French invasion by Charles VIII, He lost Pesaro 
and Faenza to Cesar Borgia in 1502, who in the following year surprised 
Urbino, plundering the palace of valuables to a large amount. In 1503 
Guidobaldo was restored, and resided there till his death in 1508. He also 
was a Knight of the Garter of England, invested in 1504. Passeri states 
that fine maiolica (by which he means that covered with the tin enamel) 
was introduced into Pesaro about 1500 ; and that there is some reason for 
believing that the new process came from Tuscany, It differed materially 
in composition and manufacture from the 'mezza-majolica' wares ^, to 
which it was very superior, and was known as ' Porcellana,' a name applied 
at that period in Italy to the choicer description of enamelled earthen- 
ware ^, Passeri also states that in the inventory of the ducal palaces a 
large quantity of painted ' maiolica ' vases were included under this name. 
The superior whiteness of the enamel, more nearly approaching to that 
of Oriental porcelain, was probably the reason for its adoption ; but 
we must not confound the term, as used in this sense, with its technical 
meaning in reference to a decorative design known as ' a porcellana.' 

The introduction of the new enamel, which afforded a better ground 
for painting, did not cause the use of the bright metallic colours and 
prismatic glaze to be relinquished at those potteries where it had 
become established, but it appears to have stimulated a development 
in the artistic productions of other places. The * botega ' of Maestro 
Giorgio at Gubbio seems to have been about this time a great centre 
of the process of embelhshment with the golden and ruby metallic 
lustres ; and, indeed, we have little knowledge of artistic pottery produced 
at that fabrique which is not so ehriched. From some technicality in 
the process of the manufacture, some local advantage, or some secret 
in the composition, almost a monopoly of its use was there established, 
for we have the evidence of well-known examples, that from the end 

' We think there must be some error in quality of the same kind, instead of being 

Passeri's statement that the glaze of the restricted to its earlier signification, viz., 

* mezza-majolica' consisted of forty parts the lustred, painted, and incised wares, 

of oxide of tin, and that of the finer ware, coated with a ' slip ' or ' engobe,' instead 

or 'porcellana,' of sixty; or that, after the of a stanniferous enamel, 

general use of the tin enamel, the term ^ Campori, Notizie della Maiolica e della 

•mezza-majolica' was applied to an inferior Porcellana di Ferrara. Modena, 1871, p. 39, 



INTRODUCTION 35 



of the first to the commencement of the last quarter of the sixteenth 
century, many pieces painted by the artists of Pesaro, Urbino, and Castel 
Durante, were sent to Gubbio, there to receive the additional enrichment 
of the lustre colours. Pieces, referred to more particularly in the notice 
of their respective fabriques, signed in blue by the artist Francesco 
Xanto and others, have been subsequently lustred at Gubbio, and again 
signed in the metallic pigment by the * Maestro ' of that ' botega.' 

At Diruta also its early use appears to have been extensive, though 
later, not to so exclusive a degree, nor on wares of such high character, 
as at Gubbio ; neither are we enabled, by the possession of examples, to 
conclude that the works of other fabriques were sent to Diruta for 
that additional embellishment. 

The crude drawing of the earlier ware was slowly improved ; in 1502 
tiles executed for the Palace at Pesaro were but of sorry design ; but it 
developed by the introduction of half tints, the colouring of the drapery, 
and in the composition of the groups of figures, inspired by the works 
of Timoteo della Vite and other artists of the Umbrian school. At Pesaro 
the art appears to have attained its highest perfection at the botega of the 
Lanfranco family, about 1540-45. 

The establishment of the Ducal Court at Urbino naturally drew more 
favour to the potteries of that city, and of its near neighbour Castel 
Durante. The latter of these appears to have been a seat of this industry 
from the end of the thirteenth century, and subsequently to have furnished 
not only large quantities of glazed earthenware, but also works of the 
highest artistic merit. On this subject we learn much from the work 
of Signor Giuseppe Raffaelli\ who gives important historical information, 
derived from local documents and registers, and an extensive list of artists 
and potters engaged at various periods in the work. 

Castel Durante not only produced fine wares at home, but artists of great 
ability emigrated from her, establishing themselves at various places. 
Hence originally came Nicolo Palimpario, one of the most able artists 
of his day, who took the name of Nicolo da Urbino on his establishment 
in that city ; the father and the head of the ' Fontana ' family, the most 
important producers of the higher class of decorative pottery at Urbino. 
' Memorie delle Majoliche lavorate in Castel Durante. Fermo, 1846. 

D 2 



36 MAIOLICA 



At Venice Francesco Pieragnolo in 1545, accompanied by his father, 
Gian-Antonio da Pesaro, formed a ' botega,' but his wares are not among 
the eariiest dated pieces made in that city, where we know that M°. Ludo- 
vico was producing admirable works five years previously, as also did 
M°. Jacomo da Pesaro in 1542. 

A member of the Fontana family, Camillo, younger brother of the 
celebrated Orazio, went to Florence, and another M", Camillo to Ferrara 
in 1567 by the request of the then reigning Duke, Alfonso II. In 1600 
we find * Maestro Diomede Durante ' had a pottery at Rome, producing 
pieces painted by Gio, Pavlo Savino, in the style of the Urbino grotesques 
on white ground, which had been brought to such perfection by the 
Fontana family. Another artist of this family, Guido da Savino, is stated 
to have previously established himself at Antwerp. 

At Urbino the shaped pieces, the vases, cisterns, &c., were of large 
size, admirably modelled, and richly * istoriata ' with subjects from sacred 
and profane history, poetry, &c., the produce of the celebrated Fontana 
'botega' being perhaps the most important. Here also worked the able 
artist Francesco Xanto, from 1530 to 1541 (latterly in the pottery of 
Francesco Silvano), so many of whose painted pieces were subsequently 
decorated with ruby and gold lustre at Gubbio. 

From 1520 to 1540 the art continued to flourish in this Duchy, and 
retained great excellence till 1560. At Castel Durante, which was raised 
to the rank of a city in 1635 by Pope Urban VIII, taking the name 
of Urbania, several 'boteghe' existed, one of which was under the 
direction of the Cavaliere Cipriano Piccolpasso, who, himself an artist 
and a Professor of Medicine, was doubtless well advanced in the chemical 
knowledge of his day. He worked about 1550, and has left the important 
and interesting MS., entitled Li tre Libri dell' Arte del Vasajo ^ before 
referred to, now in the Library of the South Kensington Museum. 
It is to be regretted that this work, so valuable and instructive on the 
subject of the processes of production and decoration, and containing 
so many illustrative designs by the hand of its author, gives us so little 
historical information of the development of the art in the Duchy of 

^ This MS. was printed and published at at Paris in i84i,both editions with engraved 
Rome in 1857, and a translation in French copies of the numerous designs. 



INTRODUCTION 37 



Urbino, and still less in other localities of Italy, many important potteries 
being entirely ignored. Passeri draws largely from this MS. 

Guidobaldo I was succeeded in the dukedom by his nephew, Francesco 
Maria Delia Rovere in 1508, who, incurring the resentment of Pope 
Leo X, was obliged by Lorenzo de' Medici to retire from his duchy into 
Lombardy, but was reinstated in 15 17. Rome was sacked in 1527, and 
history accuses that Duke of having connived at rather than interfering 
to prevent that horrible act. He died from poison in 1538 at Pesaro, 
whither he had retired after a reverseful life and reign. His Duchess 
was the talented Leonora Gonzaga, daughter of Francesco Marquis of 
Mantua. She built a palace near Pesaro, known as the * Imperiale,' richly 
decorated by able artists, among whom was Raffaelle dal Colle, whose 
designs were also adopted for the maiolica ware. The frequently repeated 
error of ascribing the actual painting, as also the making designs for this 
ware, to the great Raffaelle Sanzio, may probably have arisen from 
similarity in the Christian names of these artists. 

The development of the manufacture in the Duchy of Urbino may be 
considered to have attained its culminating point about 1540, after which, 
for some twenty years, it continued in great excellence both as regards 
the * istoriati,' and more particularly the shaped pieces decorated with the 
so-called * Urbino arabesques ' on a clear white ground ; subjects painted 
in medalHons, surrounded by grotesques of admirable invention and 
execution, after the style known as ' Raffaellesque.' But excellent and 
highly decorative as are the finer products of this period from the furnaces 
of the Fontana of Urbino, or of the Lanfranchi of Pesaro, to the true 
connoisseur they want the refinement, the expressive drawing, the exquisite 
finish and delicacy, the rich colour, and the admirable design of the earlier 
w^orks produced at the Casa Pirota in Faenza, at Forli, and Castel Durante, 
at Caffaggiolo and Siena, and by M°. Giorgio at Gubbio, in the latter 
years of the fifteenth and the first quarter of the sixteenth centuries, many 
of which rival in beauty the exquisite miniature illuminations of that palmy 
period of Italian art. The service of the Correr Museum in Venice, 
formerly supposed to have been painted by an unknown artist of Faenza, 
and dated 1482, but now believed to be an early work by Nicolo da Urbino, 
at Castel Durante, is of this high quality. In the South Kensington 



38 MAJOLICA 



Museum are works seemingly of this botega, particularly a plaque or tile, 
on which is represented the Resurrection of our Lord (No. 69, '65), 
which is worthy of being ranked with the highest productions of pictorial 
art. The borders of grotesques on the plates of this earlier period differ 
greatly from those of the Urbino factories of the middle time, being 
generally grounded on dark blue or yellow, and executed with great 
delicacy of touch and power of colouring ; the centres of the smaller pieces 
usually occupied by single figures, small medallion subjects, portrait 
heads, amorini, shields-of-arms, &c. ; frequently they were intended for 
* amatorii ' or love tokens. Some of the most careful and highly finished 
productions of M". Giorgio are of this early time, before he was in the 
habit of signing with the well-known initials M° G° ; the earliest so signed 
being the admirable St. Francis tazza in that Museum, dated 1517. 

We may therefore affirm that the choicest works in Italian pottery 
were produced during a period which extended from 1480-90 to 1520 or 
1530; thence till 1550 was its meridian, although some fine works were 
produced at Urbino by the Fontana till 1570 ; before which time we find 
that the ruby lustre had been lost, and rapid decadence of design and 
execution reduces all to painful inferiority, 

Guidobaldo II, who had succeeded to Francesco Maria in 1538, wanted 
the force of character and the nice appreciation of the higher literature 
and art which had distinguished his father ; but he was a great patron of 
the ceramic productions of his Duchy, and sought to improve the designs 
used by painters on pottery by the introduction of subjects of higher 
character and composition. With_ this view, lavish of expense, he bought 
original drawings by Raffaelle and the engravings of Marc Antonio from 
that master's designs. He also invited Battista Franco, a Venetian painter, 
highly lauded by Vasari for his knowledge of antiquity, and who says of 
his drawings, 'nel vero per fare un bel disegno Battista non avea pari,' 
that he was unequalled. 

The Duke used to make presents of services of maiolica to contem- 
porary princes and friends. One, given to the Emperor Charles V, 
a double service, is mentioned by Vasari, the vases of which had been 
painted from the designs of Battista Franco; another, from the Duchess 
to Cardinal Farnese. Franco is stated to have remained, and died in the 



INTRODUCTION 39 



Duke's service. Raffaelle dal Colle prepared designs, and cartoons were 
ordered from the great artists of Rome, as recorded in letters addressed 
by Annibal Caro^ to the Duchess Vittoria in 1563, and by II Casa as 
mentioned by Passeri. 

A service was also sent to Philip II of Spain, which, it is said, was 
painted by Raffaelle Ciarla and Orazio Fontana after the designs of 
Taddeo Zuccaro. 

Another service, of which pieces are extant, was given by the Duke 
to the Frate Andrea da Volterra, his confessor. 

For the Spezieria, or medical dispensary, attached to his own palace, 
he ordered a complete set of vases and drug pots; and for these, designs 
were prepared by B. Franco and Raffaelle dal Colle, and executed at the 
botega of Orazio Fontana, by whom some of the pieces were painted. 
They were subsequently presented by Duke Francesco Maria II to the 
Santa Casa at Loreto, where the greater part of them are still preserved. 
The stor}^ tells us that they were so highly esteemed by Christina of 
Sweden that she offered to buy them for their weight in gold, after a Grand 
Duke of Florence had more prudently proposed an equal number of silver 
vessels of like weight. 

They are described by D. Luigio Granuzzi^, and some of them were 
engraved by Bartoli. 

Orazio Fontana, the great artist potter and painter of Urbino, worked 
for the Duke from 1540 to 1560, and carried the art to high perfection ; 
for a more detailed account of his family the reader is referred to the 
notices on Castel Durante and Urbino. 

The extravagant expenditure of the Duke rendered it necessary 
for him to contract his estabhshment, and RafTaelle dal Colle left his 
service. 

Orazio Fontana and Battista Franco were dead, and works of an inferior 
class only were produced from the designs of the Flemish engravers. From 
1580 the decline of the art was rapid. It met with small encouragement 
from Duke Francesco Maria II, who succeeded in 1574, except during 
his residence at Castel Durante, where it still, though feebly, survived. 

' Vide Annibal Caro, Lettere, vol. iii. Loreto, dall' Arciprete D. Luigio GranuzzL 

- Relazione istorica della Santa Casa in Loreto, 1838. 



40 MAIOLICA 



He abdicated in favour of the Holy See, and died in 1631. The rich 
collections of art still remaining at Urbino became the property of Ferdi- 
nand de' Medici, who had married the Duke's granddaughter, Vittoria, 
and were removed to Florence. 

Artistic manufactories had, in addition to those of the Umbrian Duchy, 
greatly increased in various parts of Italy under the encouragement of 
powerful local families ; but none appear to have attained to higher 
excellence than those of Tuscany. Passed ^ states that ' Majolica fina ' 
was known in Florence long before it was manufactured at the Umbrian 
potteries. Of the older potteries at Faenza he takes little note. 

At Caffaggiolo, under the powerful patronage of the Medici, and at 
Siena, some of the most excellent pieces of this beautiful pottery were 
produced, rivalling, but not surpassing, the finer works of Faenza, from 
whence originally Caffaggiolo was probably supplied with artists. 

The Tuscan pieces are remarkable for their rich enamel, for the force 
and brilliancy of the colours, and for the execution and design of the 
grotesque borders and other decoration ; a deep rich blue, a peculiar 
opaque but bright red, and a brilliant yellow, are characteristic pigments 
on these pieces. The existence of Caffaggiolo has been made known to 
us only by inscription of the name on some few pieces preserved in the 
cabinets of the curious. From their style, and the mark accompanying 
the inscription, we are enabled to detect many examples, some of which 
bear concurrent testimony in the subjects connected with the history 
of the Medici family, with which they are painted. The well-known plate 
on which a painter is represented executing the portraits of a noble 
personage and his lady, who are seated near, and which were supposed 
to be intended for Raffaelle and the Fornarina — this beautiful example is 
now in the South Kensington Museum, acquired from the Bernal 
Collection — is a fine specimen of the work of perhaps the most able artist 
engaged at this pottery. 

At Siena also admirable works were produced, but we are disposed 
to think that their inspiration was derived from Caffaggiolo or Faenza. 
Some pieces of the latter end of the fifteenth century are with probability 



^ Istoria, p. 27, ed. Pesaro, 1857. 



INTRODUCTION 41 



ascribed to Siena, and dated pieces as early as 1501. Tiles also from 
the same fabrique are remarkable for the excellence of their grotesque 
borders, on an orange yellow ground, having centres painted with great 
delicacy, some unusual examples having a black ground to their decorative 
borders. 

Rome and the South of Italy do not appear to have produced works 
of high merit in this field, during the period of its greatest excellence in 
the Northern and Tuscan states; and although we have record of earlier 
establishments, it is not till the dispersion of the artists, consequent upon 
the absorption of the Umbrian Duchy into the Pontifical States, that we 
find signed and dated pieces, the work of a Durantine established at Rome, 
and producing in 1600 an inferior repetition of the grotesque style so 
admirable in the hands of the Fontana, half a century earlier at Urbino. 
The decadence was rapid ; an increased number of inferior potteries 
produced wares of a lower price and quality ; and the fall of the Ducal 
houses which had so greatly encouraged its higher excellence as a branch 
of fine art, together with the general deterioration in artistic taste, alike 
tended to its decline. Passeri laments the taste which denounced maiolica 
as vulgar, and supplanted it by Oriental porcelain, then becoming more 
attainable. But we must bear in mind that the wares of Italy had really 
become inferior and coarse, from the causes above narrated ; and although 
he naively and strongly expresses himself against the preference given 
to the Chinese wares decorated with paintings 'no better in design 
than those on playing cards,' and thus showing * the degeneracy of an 
age when the brutal predominates over the intellectual faculty of man ^,' 
he perhaps did not make allowance for the fact that specimens of the 
good period of the art, alone really admirable, were only in the hands 
of the great, and that the designs of the immortal Raffaelle, as copied by 
the later maiolica painters, were but poorly representative. Moreover, 
the superior hardness and excellence of Oriental porcelain over glazed 
earthenware could not but be apparent ; and the worthy Abbe was perhaps 
too much biassed in favour of his beloved pottery, then only collected by 
virtuosi, and preserved in museums. 



* Passeri, ch. xx. 



42 



MAJOLICA 



Passeri's influence, and that of others, prompted a revival in the produc- 
tion of native decorative earthenware in various parts of Italy, as in the 
rest of Europe. The efforts made to imitate true porcelain were reflected 
by improvements in the quality and decoration of enamelled earthenware ; 
and in the last century we find potteries in various parts of Piedmont 
and Lombardy, Venice, Genoa and Savona, Urbino and Pesaro, Siena, 
Castelli, Florence and Rome, producing wares of greater or less artistic 
excellence. But although careful drawing is occasionally found, as on 
some of the pieces painted by Ferdinando Maria Campana, at Siena, after 
the prints of Marc Antonio, and in some charming designs with borders 
of amorini among foliage, and subject pieces of great excellence from 
Castelli, Naples, Venice and Savona; and although there is great excellence 
also in the 'technique' of the manufacture, the ornamentation wants that 
mascuhne power of colouring and vigour of the Renaissance, so strikingly 
apparent upon the better productions of the older furnaces, and the 
admirable delicacy and richness of effect which is to be seen upon the 
earlier works of Faenza, Castel Durante, Cafiaggiolo and Siena. 

The endeavours made throughout Europe to discover a method of 
making porcelain, similar in its qualities or approaching to that imported 
from China, had commenced in the fifteenth century. In this direction 
royal encouragement was of the greatest value ; and we find that early in 
the field of successful discovery was that country in which the enamelled 
earthenware had previously reached such high perfection. Under the 
patronage of the Grand Duke Francis I, about 1580, experiments were 
made which at length resulted in the production of an artificial porcelain 
of close body and of even glaze. The existence of such a production, 
and the history of its origin, have only been revealed to us within the 
last fifty years ; and we are indebted to Dr. Foresi, of Florence, for having 
made this discovery, so interesting in the history of the ceramic arts. 
He had noticed and collected some pieces of a porcelain of heavy nature 
and indifferent whiteness, decorated in blue, with flower and leafage 
pattern of somewhat Oriental style, but at the same time unmistakably 
European ; on some of which pieces a mark occurs, consisting of the 
capital letter F, surmounted by a dome. The earliest recorded European 
porcelain had heretofore been that produced by Dr. Dwight, at Fulham, 



INTRODUCTION 43 



in 1671 \ and that of St. Cloud in France, about 1695 ; but the specimens 
found by Dr. Foresi were manifestly not attributable to either of these, or 
to any other known sources. Further researches brought to light a piece of 
the same ware, on which the pellets of the Medici coat were substituted 
for the more usual mark ; and led to a search among the records of that 
house. Dr. Foresi was rewarded for his trouble by the discovery that 
the above-named duke had actually caused experiments to be made, and 
had established a private fabrique in connexion with his laboratorj"^ in 
the Boboli Gardens. The Magliabecchian Library yielded an important 
manuscript compilation, by some person emplo^-ed b}' the Duke, giving 
the nature of the composition, and details of the production of this ware. 
The marks on the pieces explained the rest. The Medici arms and the 
initials F.M.M.E.D.I.I., reading ' Franciscus Medici Magnus Etruriae 
Dux Secundus,' on one important piece, now in the collection of the Baron 
Gustave de Rothschild, of Paris, clearly attached it to his reign ; while 
the letter F, the initial of the city, and the dome of her cathedral, of which 
she was so proud, equall}' pointed to the place of its production. 

Another exceptionall}' fine and interesting piece, acquired in Italy by 
Signor Alessandro Castellani, is a shallow basin, in the centre of which 
the figure of St. Mark, with the lion, is painted in the usual blue pigment, 
and in a manner which stamps it as the work of a master's pencil. What 
makes this specimen particularly interesting is the existence of a monogram, 
composed of the letters G. and P., painted on the volume held beneath 
the lion's paw ; while on the reverse of the piece the usual mark occurs, 

' In the patent granted to John Dwight extant specimens carefully mounted in 

on April 23, 1671, occurs the passage: silver; these were then known as'Damas' 

' The mystery of transparent earthenware, or 'Damascus' ware, under which term 

commonly known by the name of porcelaine we believe that the Rhodian as w^ell as the 

or China and Persian ware, as also the Syrian varieties were included. In the 

misterie of the stone ware vulgarly called notice upon that section of the Catalogue it 

Cologne ware,' iSic. It is a question will be seen that we propose to restore this 

whether the 'Persian ware' here spoken appellative to those wares generallj-, in lieu 

of is the ' Gombron ' ware, or a true of the less correct one, ' Persian,' by 

Kaolinic porcelain made in, or imported which they are now known. The pieces 

from, Persia. The beautiful coloured in silver mounts, of the date of 1596, 

earthenware now usually known as Persian though apparently of the Rhodian variety, 

and Rhodian, was highly prized at that and were doubtless then known as ' Damas ' 

an earlier period in England, as is proved by ware. 



44 



MAIOLICA 



as given in the accompanying facsimile. It has been suggested that 
this monogram was that of Raffaelle's great pupil, Giulio Pippi detto 
Romano ; but Giulio died in 1546, whereas this porcelain was not perfected 
before 1580. The figure of St. Mark is after a design by Geo. Penz, 
one of a series of the four evangelists which H. Aldegrever engraved 

in 1539- 

Further researches, recorded by M. Jacquemart^, have brought to 
light from the laboratory book of the Duke Francis, the details of the 





experiments, which continued from 1575 to 1587. It is there stated that, 
about 1581, they succeeded in making a paste, containing a small quantity 
of kaolin from Vicenza. 

Although we possess specimens as well as historical data of this 
Florentine porcelain, it would seem from investigations by the Marquis 
Giuseppe Campori^, and since by Signor Urbani de Gheltof"^, that Venice 
and Ferrara may claim an even earlier discovery of this art, which is 



' Gazette des Beaux-Arts, i Dec. 1859, 
Merveilles, 2® p^ie^ p. 13^^ et seq. 

"^ Campori, Delia Maiolica e della porcel- 
lana di Ferrara ; R. Acad. Modena Me- 
morie, t. v. 



" Urbani de Gheltof, Una Fabbrica di 
Porcellana in Venezia nel 1470 ; Venezia 
1878. Studii intorno alia Ceramica Venezi- 
ana, 8vo, Venice, 1876. La manifattura di 
Maiolica e di Porcellana in Este. 



I 
I 



PLATE I 




EWER OF MEDICI PORCELAIN 
Circa 1582 



INTRODUCTIOX 45 



believed to have been known in the former city as early as 1470 (or previous 
to 1519), and in the latter, under Duke Alfonso IT, in 1561. For further 
remarks on this subject the reader is referred to the introductory notice 
on the Ferrara fabrique, and on those of Venice and Este^ Of such 
productions we only have uncertain record, no existing pieces being 
known which can be assigned, with any probability^, to either of those 
early makers. 

We allude to this Medician porcelain ^ alhtough it is not among the classes 
of wares to which this volume is confined, because it is so important an 
episode in the narrative of the rise and progress of ceramic industry in 
Italy, and from its exceptional nature, one at least of the specimens being 
absolutely decorated by an artist whose handiwork is to be recognised 
upon pieces of the Urbino enamelled earthenware. The fine ' Brocca,' 
15 inches high ^, belonging to the Baron Gustave Rothschild, is surmounted 
by an elegantly formed handle, springing from grotesque winged masks, 
modelled in relief. The body is decorated with two belts of grotesques, 
divided by a narrower one, on which are masks and scroll ornaments; 
beneath these is a band, divided into arched panels or compartments, 
in each of which is a flower in somewhat Persian taste. These grotesques 
are executed with great freedom and force, and, at the same time, with 
a careful finish and delicacy, much in the manner of an unknown painter 
who worked at the botega of Camillo Fontana. 

* For further information refer to Davillier, ' This fine piece is admirably illustrated 

Baron Ch., Les Origines de la Porcelaine by an etching accompanj'ingM.Jacquemart's 

en Europe. 410, Paris, 1882. paper in the Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 1859, 

^ Of this rare porcelain three examples vol. iv, p. 286, and in his larger work on 

are in the South Kensington Museum ; porcelain. Another fine brocca belongs to 

two in the British Museum ; and one in Mr. J. E. Taylor. Other examples from the 

the Ashmolean (Fortnum Collection, see DaxdUier Collection are in the Louvre and 

plate i). at Sevres. 



CHAPTER II 

Manner and Materials of Production, Forms, 
Decora'i'ion, Uses, etc. 

Abstract from the MS. of Piccolpasso. 

WE are fortunate in possessing a manual of the Italian potter's art 
of the sixteenth century, in the manuscript by the * Cavaliere 
Cipriano Piccolpasso Durantino,' as he signs his name on the title-page 
of his work. Nearly all the information on this branch of the subject, 
conveyed to us by Passeri, and subsequently by Sig. Giuseppe Raffaelle 
and other writers, has been gathered from that MS., written 1548. We 
cannot do better than go at once to this fountain head, and epitomize 
the information it conveys. 

After a * prologo,' in which our worthy author defends himself from the 
invidious remarks of others, he tells us how the earth or clay, brought 
down by the river Metauro, was gathered from its bed during the summer 
when the stream was low, and by some was made into large balls, which 
were stowed in holes {terrai) purposely dug in the ground ; by others 
it was previously dried in the sun ; here it remained to mellow and 
purge itself from impurities, which otherwise would be injurious. This 
same method of gathering the material for the foundation of the wares 
was adopted in the March of Ancona, the Romagna at Faenza (noted for 
its vases), Forli, Ravenna, Rimini, and also, as he is informed, at Bologna, 
Modena, Ferrara, and in Lombardy and other places. At Venice the 
earth of Ravenna and Rimini is worked, although they frequently use 
that dug at Battaglia, near Padua, but for the better sort that of Pesaro. 



INTRODUCTION 47 



He also tells us that in Corfu the brothers Giovanni and Luzio Tiseo, 
of Castel Durante, made use of a clay gathered from the sides of a mountain 
after rain. 

In the March of Ancona and at Genoa, the clay was sometimes dug 
[di cava). This was also the case in Flanders, that is to say at Antwerp, 
where the art had been introduced by one Guido di Savino, Durantino, 
and was still kept up by his sons ; whilst at Lyons it was furnished by the 
Rhone. At Spello, in Umbria, a white earth called ferra creta is gathered 
by digging parallel ditches. In Italy the earth of a light colour is better 
adapted for making vases and finer sorts, bemg less heavy; whereas 
the more solid red clay is used for coarser wares, tiles, &c. The (natural) 
* bianco allattato ' is procured by mixing the earth (of Spello ?) with water, 
and passing it in a liquid state through sieves, &c. ; this is used as a coating 
over certain vases once baked (an engobe or slip). 

Our author enters into further details of the method of gathering the 
potter's clay where there are no rivers, by digging a succession of square 
pits connected by a channel, in the depressions between hills, into which 
the earth, washed by showers of rain, is collected and refined in its passage 
from pit to pit. 

The earth for inferior wares is collected on a table and well beaten 
with an iron instrument weighing twelve pounds, three or four times, 
the workman kneading with the fingers as a woman would do in making 
bread, and carefully removing all impurities ; it is then formed into masses, 
from which a piece is taken to work upon the wheel or press into moulds. 

If the earth is too ' morbida,' it is placed upon the wall or house top, 
on sieves, through which it is washed b}'- the rain, and gathered in old 
broken vases, &c., placed beneath. 

For making wares ' all ' urbinate ' (meaning probably with a white 
ground) the dug clay ought to be white, for if of a blue colour it 
will not take the tin glaze; this, however, is not objectionable if it is 
to be covered with a slip of 'terra di Vicenza' (a white clay), a method 
which he terms ' alia castellana.' But it is the reverse with the clay 
gathered from the beds of rivers, the blue in this case being of the better 
quality. 

We are told that nearly all kinds of work can be executed upon 



48 



MAIOLICA 



the potter's wheel {iorno)^ excepting pieces of angular or oblong shape ; 
and a list is given of the forms which can be made, namely : — 



Scudelle \ , 

.\ con orlo e senza 
Scudelum) 

Boccali ) , 

_ , . \ con bocca e senza 

Fogliette) 

\ cavati daW argento 
Bronzo) 

Fiole da tener olio, aceto, ed acqua . 

Fiaschi da vino, aceto, ed acqua 
Albarelli da spezierie e da confezioni . 
Letto vari ed iingiienti 
Tazzoni o vogliam Confettiere . 
Ongaresche dette in Vinegia Piadene 

Piatti strati o vogliam piani 
PiatticonfondOy piede e senza . 

Tondi con ilfondo e senza 

Saliere afongo . . . . . 
Tazzine o vogliam ciotolette- 
Diversi vasi cavati daW antico . 
Vasi a pera ed a palla 
Vasi da due corpi .... 
Vasi a torre 



(Large and small shallow bowls on 

\ low feet, with or without rims. 

(Large and small jugs, with or with- 

[ out spouts. 

I Large dishes and vases, formed 

( after pieces in silver. 
Bottles or cruets for oil, vinegar, and 

water. 
Flasks for wine, vinegar, and water. 
Drug pots, and jars for conserves. 
Pots for ointments, pomades, &c, 
Tazzas for sweetmeats. 
Cups on feet, called ' piadene ' in 

Venice. 
Flat plates. 

Plates with sunk centres, with or with- 
out feet. 
Wide bordered plates, with or without 

sunk centres. 
Circular salt-cellars. 
Small cups. 

Various vases, after the antique. 
Pear-shaped and globular vases. 
Double-bodied vases. 
Tower- shaped vases. 



It is difficult for us now, to apply these names with accuracy to the 
variously shaped pieces, and the more so, as we are informed, that in our 
author's time various names w^ere given by different artists and at different 
potteries to the same form. Thus the 'Vase a pera' was also known 
as *Vaso da due maniche' and 'Vaso Dorico;' and the body of such 
a vase was by some made in one piece, by others in two or three, making 



INTRODUCTION 



49 




Fig. I. 



joints at the lower part and at the insertion of the neck, and uniting them 
by means of lute {barbatina). These vases and jugs with pyriform bodies, 
moulded handles, and shaped spouts, or lips, were known 
as 'a Bronzo anfico' (fig, i), their forms, doubtless, 
being derived from the antique bronze vessels discovered 
in excavations. The shaped and pendent lips, we are 
told, are first formed upon the wheel as a projecting 
mouth or rim, the sides of which are cut away by means 
of a piece of wire, leaving the spout of the required out- 
line, and shaping and finishing it off dexterously with 
the hand assisted by pieces of wood called stecca. 

Some of these pieces have a stopper fitting into the 
neck by a screw, the worm of which is worked upon it by means of a piece 
of wood [sfecca) formed with projecting teeth, the interior of the neck 
being furnished with a corresponding sunken worm. The details of all 
these methods are illustrated on the 
third table of his atlas of plates. 
After telling us that the albarello \ 
(fig. 2) or drug pot, universally 
known under that name, is made of 
different sizes and always of one 
piece, our author describes the man- 
ner of forming the Vaso senza bocca 
(fig. 3), a sort of puzzle jug with 
hermetically fixed cover on the top and an opening beneath the foot, 
from which an inverted funnel rises inside the body of the vase. To fill 
it, the piece must be inverted, and the liquid poured into the funnel at 
the foot, and it may be again poured out at the spout, when required, in the 
ordinary wa}', the vase having been placed upright. 

We then have a minute description of the potter's bench and wheel, 
with exact directions for its construction, which is simple and effective, not 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3- 



' This form, and its name albarello, were 
probably suggested by the habit, in early 
days, of conveying some drugs on camel 
back from the East in jars formed, each of 



one joint, of bamboo ; we find it of the 
early glass-glazed wares of Egj'pt or Persia, 
and of the Hispano-Moresque enamelled 
pottery ; its use was continuous in Italy. 



50 



MAJOLICA 




differing materially from that in general use ; telling us also what forms 
of pottery are made upon that variety, or addition to the table of the wheel, 
called scudella, which differs from the ordinary flat circular disk, known 
as the mugiitolo, only in having a semi-globular piece of wood attached 
to its surface. 

It is hardly necessary to give another list of the forms made upon 
one or other of these tables, but we may follow our author in his description 
of that set of five, or sometimes nine separate pieces, which, fitting together, 
form a single vase. These sets, known as scudella 
da donna di parto or vasi puerperali, were made for 
the use of ladies in their confinements, and consist of 
the following pieces : — (i) the broth basin or Scudella, 
on raised foot. Over this fits the lid (2), Tagliere, 
which also does duty as a plate for the roll or slice 
'■ \ / '' of bread ; inverted over this is the drinking cup 

— ^ (3), Ongaresca ; upon the foot of which fits the salt 

cellar (4), Saliera, surmounted by its cover (5). Piccolpasso tells us that 
they were sometimes also made of nine pieces, but he does not give 
the particulars of their arrangement. 

Single portions of these are to be found in collections, but the writer 
is not aware of any one complete set having been preserved. 

In figure 30 a, b of his atlas we are furnished with the diameters and 
height of the usual piec.es made at the author's pottery, which were in 
all probability the ordmary dimensions in vogue at the time he wrote, but 
need not be repeated in this notice. Using either the mugiuolo or the 
scudella, the mass of clay, placed upon the desk, is revolved by the wheel 
and fashioned into form with the hands, assisted by variously shaped 
pieces of flat wood {stecche) and moulding tools of iron {ferri), all of which 
are figured in his designs. 

The forms of the seggers^ {case) and the composition of the clay 
of which they were made, as also of the tagli, punte, smarelle, pironi, &c., 
variously formed tripods and supports for holding the pieces to be fired, 
are given us in detail and accompanied by designs. The clay consists 

' 'Seggers'arecases made of fire-clay and are baked, being thus protected from dirt 
pierced with holes ; in these the finer wares or accident in the furnace. 



INTRODUCTION 51 



of a mixture of the red earth, used for coarser wares, and the white, 
which is reserved for vases and finer pieces. Of this mixture the seggers 
are formed upon the wheel, with openings cut through the sides and 
bottom. 

Shaped pieces with ornaments in rehef, masks, spouts, handles, &c., 
are formed in moulds made of plaster of Paris {gesso) upon the original 
models. Upon this subject our author refers to the eighth book of the 
Pirotechnica of S. Vannuccio Beringuccio, but he , nevertheless gives 
us the method adopted by himself. The mould being ready, the potter's 
clay is formed into a cheese-shaped mass, of a diameter suitable to the 
size of the mould; from this slices are cut by means of a wire worked 
over two pieces of wood of the thickness of the required slice, and placed 
at either side of the cheese of clay. A slice of even thickness being 
thus obtained it is pressed by the hand into the hollows of the mould; 
that for the other side of the piece is then steadily pressed over the 
clay which occupies the corresponding mould, and the excess exuding 
from the edge between is neatly cut away. The foot would be similarly 
formed in another mould, and subsequently attached to the bowl by means 
of lute {barbatind). 

This lute is made of the finer quality of clay, much worked and 
allowed to dry, then mixed with a certain quantity of the shearings of 
fine woollen cloth, kneaded with water, and diluted to the consistence 
of thick cream. 

To make shaped vases or ewers {hronzi anticht), a mould is formed 
to each side of the piece, uniting longitudinally at the handle and spout ; 
the clay pressed into each of these is neatly cut from the edge by means 
of the archetto, a wire strained across a forked stick, and joined to the 
corresponding side with barbatina, by which also the handle, formed in 
another mould, is attached to the piece, the inside being smoothed at 
the joint by means of a knobbed stick {bastone). The pieces known as 
abborchiatjy such as salt-cellars with ornaments in rilievo, are formed in 
the same manner, as are also the smartellati or tazze, &c., formed after 
the manner of pieces in beaten metal {repousse) with bosses and radiating 
compartments in relief. Of these many exist in collections, the majority 
— decorated with yellow and white grotesques, relieved by green, &c , 

E 2 



52 



MAIOLICA 



on a dark blue ground, and with central medallions painted with heads 
or figures of the young St. John and other saints, or cupids, on yellow 
ground — are usually, and perhaps rightly, ascribed to the fabrique of 
Faenza. It is, however, clear, from the drawing given by Piccolpasso 
(Tav. II, fig. 44), that such pieces were also made at Castel Durante, 
and it is perhaps difficult to decide between those produced at the one 
or the other fabrique. They were also made at Gubbio. The basket- 
like pieces {canestrelle) were similarly moulded. 



Having told us in his first book the nature of the clay and the manner 
in which it was formed into shape by turning or by moulding, Piccolpasso 
in his second book gives the receipts for and methods of preparing the 
glaze and colours, beginning with the marzacotto, the silicate of potass, 
or glass, which is the foundation of all glaze. 

He begins by telling us that, when in November and December the 
wines are racked from the lees, these last {feccia) should be gathered 
on filtering bags and made into balls, which, being dried, are burnt with 
the addition of a few dry sticks in a place at some distance from the 
town, on account of the bad smell which they emit ; they are surrounded 
by a low wall of brick or stone, and the pure white ash is collected 
in jars or barrels, slightly moistened to make it adhere together, and 
reserved for use. This- is the potash or alkaline element, and is preferred 
to that made by burning the tartar [grepola) collected by scraping from 
the wine casks, and burnt upon large unglazed pans placed over the fur- 
nace, although this last is used by those who make vases 'alia Castellana' 
(?sgraffiato ware). 

The next element is the siliceous sand, best procured from San 
Giovanni near Terina, beyond the Arno in Tuscany, which is white 
and clear as silver, heavy and free from impurity, and is known as rena 
di San Giovanni. Another kind, but of less excellent quality, comes 
from the Lake of Perugia; but it is not so white. In Venice and Padua 
they use a red-coloured sand from Udine, while at Verona and in Corfu 
certain stones with clear silvery centres are burnt and reduced to powder 
for the purpose. Of these ingredients— 



INTRODUCTION 53 



Rena (sand) lbs. 30 

Feccia (potash) „ 10 to 12 

are intimately mixed together, and kept in earthen jars ready for fusing. 

The preparation of the Bianchetto is next described. 

Take of the best Flanders tin [stagno] as much as you require, and 
melt it in a clean iron or earthen vessel, from which it is to be poured 
into one of wood, and kept rapidly stirred with a wooden pestle ; it will 
be converted into cinders (oxide of tin); another method is to squeeze 
the melted metal through a cloth. Then lay a sheet of paper on a common 
earthen pan, and spread the oxide, covering it with a broken dish or pieces 
open at the sides, that the fire may enter when it is baked. 

For the Verde, or green colour, take some pieces of old copper 
and expose them to the fire in a shallow pot ; it is better when it becomes 
of a red colour than when black, which proves it to be too much burnt, 
and requires to be mixed with alternate strata of sulphur and salt, and 
again placed in the furnace. So prepared and powdered it is known as 
ramina or rame adusto. Then take — 

Antimonia . . . . . . lb. i or 3 

Ramina . „ 4 „ 6 

Piombo {brusciato) „ i „ 2 

well mixed and pounded together. The antimony comes from Siena, 
and from the Maremma and Massa, but that received from Venice is 
the best. 

The Zallo, or darker yellow, is produced by the rust of iron, the 
best being that scaled from off old anchors; this is to be burnt in an 
earthen pot. Some afterwards soak it in urine, and others burn it with 
sulphur, as above described for the copper. Of these — 

Ferracica 

Piombo 

Antimonia . . . . 

Some add a little feccia \ the whole is then well pounded together and 
placed on paper in a dish. 



b. 


k 


2 or i| 


>» 


il 


5 M 2 


f» 


I 


3 » 2 



54 



M AID Lie A 



The Zallulino, or paler yellow, is made with — 

Antimonia . . . . . . lb. i or 2 

Piomho . . . . . . . ,, I5 n 3 

Feccia {once una) oz. i „ i 

Sal comune , „ i „ i 

These are all the made or compounded pigments used in the art ; the 
natural ones are : Zaffara, called also azzurro, for producing a blue colour, 
and which is brought from Venice ; and Manganese, which is found in 
the neighbourhood or brought from Tuscany. 

We are then told the manner of constructing a reverberatoryfurnace, 
in which the tin and lead can be oxidized, and which is built of brick with 
an earth called sciabione, probably a sort of fire-clay. It consists of an 
elongated square structure, divided longitudinally into two compartments, 
in one of which is placed the fire, while the other is occupied, on a higher 
level, by a shallow tray or trough made of tufo, a volcanic stone, or of brick 
work, to contain the metals, upon and over which the flame of the burning 
wood is made to play in its passage to the draft hole at the end. The 
metals are always mixed in the proportion — 

Tin {Stagno) . • lb. i 

Lead {Piombo) ,, 4, 6 or 7 

according to the quality required and the nature or purity of the tin. 
These furnaces are capable of oxidizing from 100 to 200 lbs. at one firing ; 
and the mixture of oxides when prepared is called Stagno accordato. 
Lead alone oxidized is known as Piombo abbruciato. As the oxide 
forms upon the molten metal it is drawn off by an iron instrument and 
collected in a clean copper vessel. 

The (artificial) bianco allattato, or milky white, which was invented 
by the Duke Alfonso d'Este, of Ferrara, although wrongly called bianco 
Faentino, white of Faenza, is composed of 35 or 40 parts of tin to 100 of 
lead, both of which must be of the best quality, according to the proverb 
' Piombo tedesco, stagno fiandresco.' 

The proportions of ingredients used at Urbino for the colours, &c., 
differ but slightly from those given above, and at Citta di Castello in the 



INTRODUCTION 55 



lbs. 


20 


»» 


40 


oz. 


8 


>) 


4 



Marches, and many other places, varying quantities of the same substances 
are used to produce the pigments, glaze, &c. We do not, however, think 
it necessary to reprint all these details, which, by our practical author's 
own admission, are varied according to the quality of the ingredients and 
the experience and practice of the * maestro ' ; but merely give the pro- 
portions for making the Marzacotto alia Castellana when tartar is used 
instead of feccia, namely, seven parts of the burnt tartar to thirty of 
sand ; and again a Venetian recipe for a tinted glaze, probably that 
which we find on the Venetian wares of the middle of the sixteenth 
century, viz. : — 

Feccia (potash from wine lees) 
Rena (siliceous sand) .... 
Azzurro (zaffir) . . . . 
Ramina (oxide of copper) 

At Venice also they frequently made use of cenere di levante instead 
of feccia, than which they were much stronger ; these probably were 
the ashes of marine plants, imported from the Levant, and contained soda 
for their alkaline base. They also added some tuzia alessandrina, a sub- 
limate from the calamine stone used in making brass, to the ingredients 
for producing the yellow pigment zallulino. In the Marches bol-armeniac 
was used in the preparation of zallo. 

The construction of the furnaces is the next subject for considera- 
tion. They were built of brick, and of an elongated quadrilateral plan, 
divided into two stories by an arched floor, pierced to allow a free circu- 
lation to the heat ; the upper chamber, which is higher than the lower, 
is furnished with four small openings on the upper part of either side 
{vedette), and nine similar ones in the vaulted roof; the lower chamber 
has a well, or depression, sunk about one foot beneath the surface, to 
receive the ashes from the fire, and both it and the upper one have an 
arched opening or feeding door {bocca) at one end. The dimensions usual 
at Castel Durante were six feet long by five wide, and six high, but in 
Venice they were larger, for, says Piccolpasso, ' I have seen one at the 
house of M° Francesco di Pier ten feet wide by twelve long, outside, 
having three openings to feed the fire.' 



56 MAJOLICA 



In the upper chamber the wares are placed for baking, the finer sorts 
being enclosed in the seggers (case) piled one above another, and the coarser 
arranged between, supported by pieces of tile, &c., and so packed as to 
fill the chamber as much as possible without impeding the free current 
of the fire. This is the first baking, and at the same time the pigments, 
prepared as previously described, are submitted to the action of the fire 
in the upper part of the furnace. The opening to the upper chamber is 
then roughly bricked and luted up, leaving only a small orifice {bocchetta) 
in the upper part. The small lateral openings {vedette) are also closed, 
and those in the roof loosely covered with pieces of tile. The vases 
containing the mixture of sand and feccia for making the marzacotto are 
then placed upon each other under the furnace at the further end (probably 
in the lower or fire chamber). All being prepared, and invoking the name 
of God, ' uso Christiano,' with the sign of the cross, take a handful of 
straw and light the fire made of well-dried wood placed in the lower 
chamber; this must be gradually increased for four hours, taking 
care that it is never pushed too much, lest the pieces run, or become too 
hard to receive the glaze. The furnace should be of a clear heat all 
throughout, and so continued for about twelve hours, drawing away the 
ashes from below with the cacciabragie or rake. When sufficiently 
baked let the fire burn out, and remove the cinders that all may become 
cool. 

The narrative changes at this exciting moment, and we are afforded 
an accurate description of the various mills [mulini) used for grinding the 
glaze and colours at Urbino, Venice, and other sites of the manufacture, 
which consist of fixed sunk tubs, at the bottom of which is a smooth 
flooring of flint stones accurately joined ; upon this bed slides or works 
a smaller stone disc {macinello), with an eccentric circular motion, produced 
by its being fixed upon the end of a bent perpendicular axle worked with 
a lever by hand power, or with cog and spindle moved by a water-wheel 
(one of which he had seen at Fuligno) or draught animal. 

Before lighting the furnace the ingredients for the marzacotto had been 
placed at the farther end of the fire chamber underneath ; when taken out 
it will be found fused into a mass ; from this the containing vase must be 
broken away, and the glass itself crushed in deep wooden mortars. 



INTRODUCTION 57 



pulverized, sifted and washed. To make the ordinary white enamel or 
bianco ccmune take of — 

Marzacotto lbs. 30 32 or 31 

Stagno (mixed oxides of tin and 
lead) (27V/(^ ante) . . . . „ 12 12 „ 11 

and for its coperta or outer glaze — 

Piombo (oxide of lead) . . . lbs. 17 16 or S\ 

Rena (sand) „ 20 20 „ 10 

Feccia (potash) . . . . „ 12 13 ,, 6 

Sale (common salt) . • . „ 8 9 „ 4 

In each case the ingredients are to be fused together, pounded and ground 
in the mill. 

As in the preparation of the colours, so we find that at Urbino and 
other fabriques the proportions of these ingredients were varied according 
to their quality, the character of the wares, and the habit of the maestro^ 
a larger quantity of the oxide of tin being used to produce a purer white 
enamel, as at Ferrara, where the proportions for the Marzacotto Ferrarese 
were — 

Stagno lbs. 6 6 or 7 

Rena 5 5 »» 5 

Sale M 3 9 H 9 

Feccia „ 5 4 „ 6 

mixed, melted, pounded and milled ; to 24lbs. of this composition add 
24 lbs. of Stagno, 24 of Rena, and 7 of salt, and again mix, fuse, and reduce 
to fine powder in the mortar and the mill. 

It is not necessary to quote from our author the many various recipes 
he gives, the preparation and composition of which are all founded on the 
same principles, except in the case of using a * slip ' or ' engobe ' of white 
earth, as practised at Citta di Castello, Fuligno, &c. 

In these cases the piece, after the first baking, is dipped into a bath 
of white earth of Vicenza, which has been milled into a creamy con- 
sistence with water. It is then again slightly baked, and ready to receive 
the glaze, composed of 9 lbs. of marzacotto and 3 of Piombo. 



::8 MA 10 Lie A 



By many, a small quantity of zaffara is added to the mixture in the 
varying proportions of 3 ounces to from 15 to 60 lbs. of bianco. 
A black pigment is composed of— 



Rame arso (burnt copper) 


lb. I 


or or 


Manganese . . . 


M I 


n I „ 1-3 oz, 


Rena (sand) . . 


„ 6 


H 12 „ 12 


Piombo (oxide of lead) 


„ 10 


M 12 „ 14 


Zaffara nera 


M 


„ I M 2I 



' And now I will give you the " sbiancheggiati,'' that is made in 
Lombardy, bearing in mind that the earth of Vicenza is used, as has 
been said of the colours of Castello — 

Rena . . lbs. 5 Piombo . . lbs. 10 

making the design {dipingasi) on the white earth, when they shall have 
had the earth of Vicenza ; I would say with a style of iron of this kind 
(gives design), and this drawing is called ^^ sgraffio'" (p. 41). 

This is an interesting passage, connecting as it does these incised 
wares with the fabriques of Lombardy, to which, from the character 
of the designs upon the earlier pieces, we have always assigned them. 

Neither need we follow our amorous Maestro through all the poetic 
rhapsodies of his 42nd page, in which he tells us that he has undertaken 
the work to relieve his mind from constant thought of his beloved lady, 
whose various charms he compares, in high-flown eulogy, with all that 
is glorious in nature and in art ; for, says he, ' the more I seek to free 
myself from amorous thoughts by the combination of a piombo and 
a stagno, to my soul the beautifully proportioned features of my "bella 
amata" constantly appear, reflected, as it were, in the various colours ; but 
I know no lustre that would paint her golden hair, or black that is not 
inferior to that of her beauteous lashes. The flash of her divine eyes 
is comparable to nothing but the scintillation of the sun's rays. The 
beautiful '* bianco di Ferrara " appears black, harsh, and red when placed 
beside her smooth and delicate arm ; and for her smile ! art is incapable 
of producing any object that could cause a fraction of the happiness 
which it conveys. ' 



INTRODUCTION 59 



Oh ! admirable potter, whose art not only fashioned the cold clay 
into forms of beaut}'', and clothed them with colour ' rich as an evening 
sky,' but drew poetic simile from earthy mixture in mentally painting 
her charms, which hand, could not portray. How gladly would we 
possess one of those love tokens, those tondini, with Cupid in the midst, 
or hearts united by the silken ribbon, or the piercing dart, or inefficient 
portrait of your 'bella incognita,' upon which you must have expended 
all your artistic power to make it worthy of her acceptance and of the 
reward of that ' dolcissimo rise' 



In his third book he goes into further details of the glaze and 
colours, manner of painting, firing, &c. 

The biancheito, which is only once baked, and the other colours, 
being removed from the furnace, are triturated with water on a piletta, 
or hand colour mill, or by means of a pestle and mortar, to reduce 
them to a fine powder, and passed through a horse-hair sieve. Some 
grind them on a slab of porphyry, which is even better. The green 
pigment may be baked two or three times. The zallo and the 
zalltdino, after once or twice baking, are covered with earth and again 
baked in the hottest part of the furnace. 

The white enamel glaze, having been properly milled, and fined 
through a sieve, is made into a bath with water to the consistence 
of milk. The pottery baked in biscuit is taken out of the furnace, and 
after being carefully dusted with a fox's tail, is dipped into this bath of 
glaze and immediately withdrawn, or some of the pieces may be held 
in the left hand, and the liquor poured over them from a bowl. A trial 
piece should show the thickness of glove leather, in the adhering coat. 
The invetriaiura having been thus applied, the pieces are allowed to 
dry, and are now ready to receive the painting. This is executed with 
coarser and finer brushes or penelli, made of goats' and asses' hair, and 
the finest of the whiskers of rats or mice ; the ordinary wares being 
held in the left hand or on the left knee, and the finer in wooden cases, 
lined with tow, to prevent rubbing. A different brush must be used 
for each colour. The painters generally sit round a circular table. 



6o MAJOLICA 



suspended from the ceiling, which turns round, and upon which the 
different pigments are placed. 

The outlines and shadows are painted with a mixture of zallo and 
zaffara nera in the proportions of 2 parts of the former to \ and \\ of 
the latter, the first mixture producing the lighter tint known as mista 
chtaray the second a darker colour, the mista scura. With the former 
the sketch is made, and the shadows put in ; with the other you retouch 
and finish. In the absence of zaffara nera make a mixture of equal 
quantity, composed, one half of good zaffir and one half of manganese, 
to add to the zallo. 

For a tree, dead flesh, stones, and certain roadways in full light, 

take of— 

Zallulino, 2. Bianchetio, 3 or 4 parts. 

For timber or woodwork, and some roads, with the stones reddened, 

Zallo, I. Bianchetto, i\ or 2. 

For the sky, the sea, steel, and other iron, &c. 

Zaffara, i. Bianchetto, 2 or 3. 
For ploughed land, street, ruins, and stone work, 

Mista chiara, i. Bianchetto, 2. 
For green fields, certain foliage, or shrubs, in sunlight, 

Zallulino, i, Ramina, 2. 

For the hair, 

Zallulino, 2. Zallo, 1. 

The painters, nevertheless, vary these proportions, and the pigments 
are used lighter or darker as they may require. 

Piccolpasso states (p. 48) that as yet a red colour is unknown to 
their art, but that he has seen it used in the ' bottega di Vergiliotto in 
Faenza,' beautiful as cinnabar, but it is deceitful or uncertain. It is 
made by grinding bolo-arminio with red vinegar, and painting over 
the zallulino. This may probably be the rich red, notable upon some 
of the wares attributed to Faenza, and also abundantly used at 
Caffaggiolo. 

Certain precautions, we are told, are necessary in using the bianco 



IXTRODUCTIOX 6r 



ferrarese, which is apt to have air bubbles, being appHed twice as thick 
as the ordinary enamel, and moreover can only be painted over with 
the black and blue zaffir, the former for outlines, the other for shading, 
using only zalhilino and zallo for finishing the subject. 

From the excellent Ferrara white invented by Duke Alfonso, we 
are led to consider the method of glazing ordinary common pans and 
other vessels. 

Piombo (oxide of lead) . lbs. 3 21 or 20 

Rena (sand) ... ,,2 7„ 8 

Ferraccia {oxide oVwon) . oz. i\ lbs. i „ t 

this being, in fact, nothing more than the ordinary j-ellow coloured 
lead glaze used for the inside of common red earthenware in England 
and elsewhere. 

To return to the painted pieces ; these, after being dried in a clean 
place, taking care that the bianco is not chipped or rubbed off, are 
painted with zallulino on the outer edge, and are then ready to receive 
the coperta or outer glaze ; the composition of this, corresponding with the 
enamel, has been already given (p. 57), and it is milled and prepared in 
every way like the bianco. The bath, similarly prepared, must be more 
liquid, as a thinner translucent coating only is required over the colours ; 
into this the pieces are dipped, precisely as in the former process, 
and being again dried, are ready for the final firing. For this purpose 
the furnace, after being well cleaned, is hned under the arching with 
a luting, composed of sciabione, a sort of fire-clay mixed with asses' 
dung, and iron scales from the blacksmith. The furnace is then 
filled with the wares in their seggers, &c., in which the pieces are 
supported by points or pironi, tripods, triangles, &c., made of clay, as 
on the first baking, and the fire applied in the same way by the lower 
chamber. Care is required in packing the furnace, that it be full 
without overcrowding, and that a free current be left for the heat to 
pass among all the pieces, filling spaces not occupied by the seggers 
with crude wares, colours to be baked, &c., as before. 

After prayer and thanksgiving tD God, commence the fire, not, however, 
without obsers'ing the state of the moon, for this is of the greatest 



62 MAIOLICA 



importance. Those who are old and experienced in the art state that 
you should avoid firing at the waning of the moon ; the fire will want in 
brightness, as the moon wants in splendour. Avoid also doing it at the 
period of the aquatic signs of the zodiac, as this is very perilous. The 
heat is to be increased little by little, avoiding smoke in the furnace; and 
after about eleven hours of firing open one of the side vedette, and see 
if all is bright and clear within. This do also with the others ; and should 
one part be less heated than another, place additional fuel at that end, 
opening the upper orifices in the roof, that the draught may be increased 
in that direction. When all is equally fired, allow it to go down, but in 
order to examine whether it has succeeded, take the vedetta, a long 
iron rod, at the end of which is a socket, in which place a piece of dried 
willow wood ; introduce this at the lateral openings and it will take fire, 
illuminating the interior, and enabling you to examine the state of the 
wares. 

Our author finishes his third book by referring to a series of designs 
in his atlas, illustrative of the styles of decoration; they are as follows: — 

Trofei. — Arms, musical instruments, books, tools, &c., spread over 

a coloured ground ; of very general use, particularly in 

the State of Urbino, 
./?a^^5c/f^.— Arabesques of oriental derivation, after damascened work, 

generally upon a light ground, and more in use at Venice 

and Genoa. 
Cerquaie. — Wreaths and diapering of oak branches, and acorns ; much 

used in the Duchy of Urbino, in compliment to the 

reigning family, Delia Rovere. Generally in dark yellow 

on a blue ground, and frequently encircling a central 

medallion. 
Grotesche. — Male and female figures, with foliated limbs and in grotesque 

combinations, with animals, &c. ; on white, and on coloured 

grounds. 
/b^/zV.— Leafage covering the surface. Genoa and Venice. 
Fiori. — Flowers intertwined, with birds in camateu. Venice. 
Frutti. — Fruits mixed with foliage, similarly used. 



INTRODUCTION 63 



Foglie da dozzena. — A coarser variety oi foglie on inferior wares. Much 

made at Venice. 
Paesi. — Landscapes, with buildings, &c. Also frequent at Venice and 

Genoa. 
Porcelan.—Uight scroll-work, foliated and with flowers, in blue on 

a white ground. 
Tiraia. — Strapwork or interlacings, mixed with light foliated scrolls 

on a white ground, with or without a central white 

ornament. 
Sopra Bianco. — More accurately called ' bianco sopra bianco,' Grecian 

honeysuckle, and various ornament painted in a white 

pigment on a white ground. 
Quartiere. — Foliated decoration, in equal compartments, radiating from 

the centre. 
Groppi, con fondi e senza. — Strapwork interlaced to form figures, or to 

enclose medallions with busts, &c., on a darker ground, 

and intermixed with foliated ornament. 
Candelliere. — Grotesques arranged with symmetry, generally about 

a central foliated stem. Much used in the Duchy of 

Urbino. 



In a supplement Piccolpasso gives us an account of the manner of 
making majolica^ and it will be observed that throughout his narrative 
he has never applied that term to the painted and glazed wares pro- 
duced at his own ' botega,' or at any of the others to which he refers. 

He tells us that he feels he ought not to omit the account of it, which 
he has received from others, although he has never made, or even 
witnessed the making of it himself (* non ch' io ne abbia mai fatto ne 
men veduto fare '). ' I know well,' he says, * that it is painted over 
finished works ; this I have seen in Ugubio, at the house of one Maestro 
Cencio ' ; except that the portion of the design which is to receive the 
lustre colour is left white at the first painting ; thus, a figure in a grotesque 
whose extremities are to be lustred will only have those parts painted 
which are to be coloured, leaving those extremities merely sketched in 
outline on the white ground ; these, after the colours have been set 



64 MA 10 Lie A 



by firing, are subsequently touched with the lustre pigment, composed as 
follows: — 

Rosso da Majolica. 

A. B, 

Terra Rossa . . . oz. 3 6 

Bolo Arminio . . . „ i o 

Feretto di Spagnia . . „ 2 3 

Cinabrio . . . . „ o 3 

To the second mixture B (called * majolica d' oro ') add a carlino of 
calcined silver, grinding them all together, then place them in a pipkin, 
with a quattrino'^, and fill with red vinegar, in which they are to macerate 
until the latter is all consumed; it is then again ground up with more 
vinegar, and applied with a brush to those parts of the design to be lustred. 
The process of firing differs from the former one, inasmuch as the 
pieces are not enclosed in seggers, but are exposed to the direct action 
of the flames. 

The furnace is differently constructed, the fire chamber square in 
form, having no arched roof pierced with holes, but only two intersecting 
arches of brick to support the chamber above, the four corners being 
left as openings for the free current of the flames. Upon these arches 
is placed a large circular chamber or vessel, formed of fire-clay, which 
fits into the square brick structure, touching at the four sides, and sup- 
ported on the intersecting arches beneath, but leaving the angles free. 
This inner chamber is pierced in all directions with circular holes, to 
allow the flames free passage among the wares. The method of building 
these furnaces is kept guarded, and it is pretended that in it and the 
manner of firing consist the great secrets of the art. The scudelli are 
packed with the edge of one against the foot of another, the first being 
supported on an unglazed cup. The furnaces are small, only from three 
to four feet square, because this art is uncertain in its success, fre- 
quently only six pieces being good out of a hundred ; * true the art is 
beautiful and ingenious, and when the pieces are good they pay in gold.' 

Only three varieties are produced, golden, silver, and red; other 

' Small copper coin. 



INTRODUCTION 65 



colours can only be given by the other method. The fire is increased 
gradually, and is made of palli or dry willow branches ; with these three 
hours' firing is given ; then, when the furnace shows a certain clearness, 
having in readiness a quantity of dry broom {ginestre o vogliam spartio) 
cease using the willow wood, and give an hour's firing with this ; afterwards, 
with a pair of tongs remove a sample from above. Others leave an opening 
{vedefta) in one of the sides, by which a sample or trial, painted on a piece 
of broken ware, can be removed for examination, and if it appears 
sufficiently baked, decrease the fire. 

This done, allow all to cool, then take out the wares, and allow them 
to soak in a lessive of soap-suds, wash and rub them dry with a piece of 
flannel, then with another dry piece and some ashes (of wood) give them 
a gentle rubbing, which will develope all their beauty. 

' This is all, as it appears to me, that can be said about the majolica, 
as also about the other colours and mixtures that are required in this 
art.' 

The foregoing is an abstract or epitome of this curious and interesting 
manuscript, which gives us a perfect idea of the manner, and comparatively 
simple appliances, under which these beautiful and highly decorative 
examples of the potter's art were produced in Italy during the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. The rationale of these processes is clear enough, 
and requires no comment, but we may perhaps remark, that whereas the 
fixing of the glaze and colours in the ordinary process is merely produced 
by a degree of heat sufficient to liquefy and blend them, in the case* of 
the metallic reflection a different effect is requisite, and different means 
are adopted. The pigments consist partly of metallic salts, which being 
painted on the wares, after exposure to a simple heat for some time, 
have then directed upon their glowing surface the heated smoke given 
off by the fagots of broom ; this smoke being in fact carbon in a finely 
divided state, has great power, at a high temperature, of reducing metals 
from their salts ; painted on the wares these are thereby decomposed, 
leaving a thin coat of mixed metal, varying in colour and iridescence from 
admixture with the glaze and other causes, and producing the beautiful 
effects so well known. 



66 MAIOLICA 



Scripture subjects are perhaps more general upon the pieces of early 
date, particularly those of Faenza, on which designs from Albert Durer, 
Martin Schon, and other German painters are found, executed with the 
greatest care ; such subjects were also used at Caffaggiolo. The 
Renaissance spirit, awakening a passion for the antique, declared itself 
in numerous representations from Greek and Roman history and 
mythology, scenes from Homer, the Metamorphoses of Ovid, and the like, 
which formed main stock subjects for the wares of the Umbrian fabriques, 
excepting always the sacred histories delineated by Orazio Fontana and 
others, from the designs of Raffaelle and his scholars. A very beautiful 
drawing of his school, and which has been ascribed to Raffaelle's own 
pencil, is in the Royal Collection at Windsor. It is for the border of 
a plate, and consists of a continuous circular group of amorini, dancing 
in the most graceful attitudes. It was among the artists of this Duchy 
that the habit of writing the subject on the back of the piece chiefly 
prevailed, and instances of curious spelling and strange Latinity frequently 
occur. Transmutation of subject is not rare, as the burning of the 
' Borgo ' for the siege of Troy, and others. 

Nor need we here give illustrations or enter into many details of 
form; they appear to have varied considerably at different localities 
of the craft, all partaking of a classic origin, mixed with some Orientalism 
in the earHer, and Gothic forms in the more northern pieces ; but upon 
all the exuberance of fancy and rich ornamentation characteristic of 
the Italian ' cinque-cento ' is made evident, as it is upon the furniture, the 
br6nzes, and the jewellery of that artistic period. 

There can be little doubt that the maiolica and finer painted wares 
were looked upon at the time they were produced as objects of ornament 
or as services ' de luxe.' The more ordinary wares or dozzinale were 
doubtless used for general domestic purposes in the houses of the higher 
classes, but the finer wares decorated by better artists were highly 
prized. Thus we find that services of such pieces were only made for 
royal or princely personages, frequently as presents from the reigning 
prince of the State in which they were produced. So also at Sevres 
and at Meissen, although it does not appear that the Italian fabriques were 
maintained in the exclusive hands of royalty, except perhaps in some few 



INTRODUCTION 67 



instances. Some of the choicest specimens in our cabinets were single 
gift pieces ; small plates and scodelle, which it was then the fashion for 
gallants to present, filled with preserves or confetti, to the ladies of 
their choice. Many of these are of the form known as tondino, small, 
with a wide flat brim, and sunk centre ; in this the central medallion 
was generally occupied by a figure of Cupid, hearts tied with ribbon or 
pierced by arrows, the fede or joined hands, and similar amatory devices, 
or with a shield of arms and initial letters. The borders are painted with 
grotesques and trophies, among which sonnets and music sometimes 
occur, and medallions with love emblems, portraits, and armorial bearings. 
These amatorii pieces also occur as large plates and deep saucers, 
hacinetti or tazze and fruttiere, the surface of which is entirely covered 
with a portrait of the beloved, accompanied by a ribbon or banderole, on 
which her name is inscribed, with the complimentar}^ accompaniment of 
' bella/ ' diva,' ' paragon di tutti,' &c. Other such pieces are decorated 
in the manner of the tondini, curious amatory sentences and emblems 
being introduced among the ornaments. Jugs, vases, and other shaped 
pieces were also decorated in a similar style. A curious example, 
formerly possessed by the Marquis d'Azeglio, is figured in Delange's 
Recueil (pi. 8) ; it is a bell made of this pottery, and inscribed ' Bella 
dei Belle.' 

There is little doubt that many of the pieces ostensibly for table 
use were only intended and applied for decorative purposes, to enrich 
the shelves of the ' credenza,' ' dressoir,' or high-backed side-board, 
intermingled with gold and silver plate, Venetian glass, &c. Such 
pieces were known as ' piatti di pompa,' or show plates, and among 
them are some of the most important and beautiful of the larger 
dishes and bacili, as well as the more elaborate and elegant of the 
shaped pieces. 

All objects for table use : inkstands, ornamental vases, and quaint 
surprises ; salt-cellars of curious forms ; jugs of various size and model ; 
drug pots and flasks in great variety ; pilgrims* bottles, vasques, and 
cisterns [rinfrescatoid), candelabra and candlesticks, rilievos and figures 
in the round; in short, every object capable of being produced in 
varied fancy by the potter's art; even to beads for necklaces, or whorls 

F 2 



68 MAIOLICA 



for spinning [fusciaroUi), some of which are in the writer's collection, 
decorated with knot work and concentric mouldings, and inscribed 
severally ANDREA • BELLA = MARGARITA • BELA; = MEMENTO • IHE •; 
these and similar examples in the British Museum, are finished with 
considerable care, and are probably of the earlier years of the sixteenth 
century. 



CHAPTER 111 
Collections 

Italy. 

COLLECTIONS of the finer examples of Italian Majolica and 
enamelled pottery must have been formed in various royal and 
noble palaces at the time of their production, specimens received as 
presents, and others purchased in encouragement of the art, being 
without doubt prized and guarded for their ornamental excellence. 

Perhaps the most extensive collection of this nature may have been 
• that of the Dukes of Urbino, which eventually in great part would seem 
to have reverted to the Medici family, at Florence, on the marriage of 
Vittoria, granddaughter to Francesco Maria II, with Ferdinand de' 
Medici, after the Duch}'^ had been absorbed into the Pontifical States. 
It is probabl}' the remainder of this collection which now forms so rich 
an assemblage of the wares of the Urbino fabriques, belonging to the 
Italian Government, and exhibited in the Museum of the Bargello, in 
Florence. We shall enter more into a detailed consideration of this 
collection under the head of Urbino. Perhaps from this same cabinet 
came some of the fine Urbino pieces which are said to have been pro- 
cured from Cosimo III de' Medici, by his friend Sir Andrew Fountaine, 
and which formed a portion of the rich collection formerly at Narford 
Hall, but since dispersed. 

The vases of the ' Spezieria,' attached to the palace at Urbino, ordered 
by Duke Guidobaldo II, of the Fontana family, were presented by 



MAIOLICA 



Francesco Maria II to the Santa Casa at Loreto, where they are still 
in great part preserved. (See Urbino.) 

Until within the last thirty years many of the Italian palaces contained 
specimens of these wares, which had been in the possession of the families 
from the time of their production, but the greed of collectors and the 
demands for public museums stimulated the activity of dealers throughout 
Europe, and almost every house in Italy has been ransacked for its ceramic 
and other treasures. The need or cupidity of the owners, or the necessities 
of the division of property after death, have in too many instances caused 
them to part with these heirlooms ; so much so, indeed, that England and 
France now possess more specimens of these wares than remain in the 
native land of their production. 

The decline of taste for the objects of the ' cinque-cento,' which super- 
vened upon their decadence, followed by troublous times, and the devastating 
wars of the last century, caused many of these pieces to be stowed or hid 
away in lumber closets, or cellars, and it is only within the last half-century 
that many of them have again been brought to light. Such was the case at 
one of the Roman palaces, where an oval cistern of the largest size and 
highest quality of Urbino ware, two smaller ones, and several large dishes 
and other pieces, among them a fine lustred Xanto, were, not forty years 
since, unearthed from a cellar. Some few amateurs and antiquaries, as 
Passeri, gathered stray pieces, while others continued to adorn the 
inhabited or desolate show rooms, the plates being frequently mounted 
in frames, and hung as pictures on the wall. 

The Bargello Collection at Florence is the only important one in that 
city. A few pieces still remain in some of the palaces, as a fine Urbino 
dish in the Corsini, and a few other pieces in private hands. 

The Villa Albani at Rome had a rich collection, but most of these passed 
to Mr, Barker, and were some years since dispersed. In the Barberini 
palace is an oval vasque of the largest size, and some other pieces. Some 
few private amateurs possess specimens. Naples and the South of Italy 
have but little except of the later wares of that city and of Castelli pre- 
served in the Museum at St. Elmo. The sale of the rich collection of the 
late Signer Alessandro Castellani was the last great event of that nature 
in the Eternal City. It took place in 1884. 



INTRODUCTION 71 



Arezzo possesses in the city museum a room full of examples, among 
them a very fine earl}' Faenza plate, some by Xanto, and other good 
specimens of Castel Durante and other fabriques. 

At Ravenna, in the Library, are some pieces. 

At Siena is the collection of Signor Alessandro Saraceni ; among the 
rest a fine plate with the monogram of Orazio Fontana. 

At Volterra there were some examples in the Casa Maffei. 

At Gubbio the Rangbrasci are said still to possess some specimens ; and 
Count Baglioni, at Perugia, we believe, yet has a cabinet. 

At Fermo, it is said that the de' Minicis still retain examples, but 
Urbania no longer possesses those of their historian, Sig. Giuseppe 
Raffaelle. 

The Gallery at Modena possesses some choice pieces from the Castle 
at Ferrara. 

At Pesaro is the large collection at the Hospital for Incurables, 
bequeathed to that institution by the Cavaliere Mazza, among which are 
some fine examples. They have been lately described by M. £mile 
Molinier. 

Bologna, in the Museum of the University, has a choice collection, made 
chiefly under the guidance of Sig. Frati, to which we have had frequent 
occasion to allude. The Delsette Collection, so ably catalogued by 
Sig. Frati, has been entirely dispersed, but the tiled flooring of the 
Marsigny Chapel in S. Petronio is now well cared for, as also is that in 
the Bentivoglio of S. Giacomo Maggiore, 

At Venice the Correr Collection has the important series of early 
plates, now assigned to Nicolo da Urbino. An exquisite ewer by 
M. Giorgio, and other fine specimens are described in the excellent 
catalogue by its late lamented director, Sig. V. Lazari, and since 
by M. E. Molinier. The tiles in a chapel of S. Sebastiano are 
noteworthy, 

Brescia, in the Museum, has a Giorgio, and others were in the Palazzo 
Bronomi. 

Miian, in the Brera, has a few fine examples. Those in the Library 
of the Trivulzio Palace were unfortunately destroyed by an accidental 
fire. 



72 MA 10 Lie A 



Spain. 

At Madrid there are specimens in the Dispensary of the Escurial, and 
in the Museum. 

The Comte di Valencia and Sig. G. de Osma have Hispano-Moresque. 
At Seville, La Cartuja contains the collection of M, Pickmann. 

Germany. 

Dresden, In the Japan palace there are some i8o examples ; but the 
wares of Italy of the better period are but poorly represented in that rich 
assemblage of ceramic productions. 

Berlin has a large number (some looo pieces) in her Museum, but we 
do not know that their classification and catalogue is yet complete. 

Dr. Reichenheim and the Hainauer private collections. 

Ludwigsburg possesses the examples mentioned by Goethe, and 

Hanover, that bequeathed by the late M. Kestner. 

Brunswick, in the ducal palace, also has an extensive collection, which 
suffered much breakage and loss consequent upon the wars of the first 
empire. It still has some fine pieces, but the same want of catalogue 
and arrangement exists as in the other German museums. 

Munich, in the National Museum. 

Nuremberg ; also Frankfort, the H. Seckell collection. 

Sigmaringen, in the Museum, and near 

Cassel, at Wilhelmshohe, are a number of pieces, as also at Wil- 
helmsthal. 

Holland. 

The Hague, in the well-known collection of china, possesses a few 
good pieces of Italian ware, particularly a Castel Durante circular dish 
finely painted. 

Sweden. 

Stockholm possesses some good examples in her Museum, some of 
which are illustrated in Delange's folio work, 

Russia now has the Basilewsky collection, and specimens are in the 
houses of some of her wealthy nobles, among the non-resident of whom 
are possessors of collections in other countries. 



INTRODUCTION 73 



France. 

The Louvre Collection is rich in number, amounting to over 650 
pieces, among which are many of the greatest beauty and interest. It 
was ably catalogued by the late M. Alfred Darcel, whose work is 
frequently referred to in these pages ; but we look forward to the 
promised new catalogue by M. Emile Molinier. 

The Hotel Cluny is also rich in its Italian pottery, having many pieces 
of note, which are referred to. 

Some highly interesting specimens are preserved in the rich Ceramic 
Museum at Sevres. 

The private collections, like many of those in England and Italy, 
have been greatl}' scattered within the last few 3'ears. Those of Debruge 
Dumenil, Solt3-koff, De Sellieres, Pourtales, Visconti, Rattier, and Louis 
Fould and many others have passed under the auctioneer's hammer, 
while that of M. Sauvageot is absorbed, by his bequest, into the Louvre. 
The last great sale was that of the rich Spitzer collection. 

There 3'et remain man}^ which are ver}' rich ; among them may be 
particularly' mentioned those formed by the Barons Saloman, Alphonse, 
Adolphe, and Gustave de Rothschild, the last one of the finest in 
Europe; Prince Ladislaus Czartorisky; M. Ch. Schaefifer has a fine 
collection of Persian and Rhodian ware. 

There are examples also in the possession of MM. — 
S. Bardac. Doucet pere. M. and R. Kann. 

Doctor Belliol. Foule. Lange. 

M. G. Berger. Gaillard. Leroux. 

Le Blanc. Gavet. Ch. Mannheim. 

Bonaffe. Paul Gognault. Rochard. 

Bonnet. Alfred Gerente. Martin le Roy. 

Chabriere. Leopold Goldschmidt. 

At Rouen, M. Dutuit has a rich cabinet of Italian pottery, and there 
are specimens in the Museum of that city. 

At Tours, M. Gnierche; and at Lj'ons, the Baron Vitta. 



74 



MAIOLICA 



England. 

The choicest representative collection of Italian pottery in England, 
and perhaps in the world, is that in the British Museum ; although not 
extensive (about three hundred specimens) it is remarkable for the 
artistic excellence of the examples, the many pieces signed by the painters, 
and the illustration of almost every period and fabrique of the art. The 
nucleus of this collection is a piece which came into the Museum by 
bequest of Sir Hans Sloane, its original founder. At the dispersion 
of the Bernal Collection the attention of the Trustees was directed to 
this branch of ancient art, in which our National Museum was sadly 
deficient, and we owe to the knowledge and keen perception of then 
Mr., now Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, the accumulation of this 
invaluable series, the which, moreover, he greatly enriched by numerous 
donations from his own choice cabinet. 

More important in regard to numbers, and perhaps equally so with 
respect to choice specimens, is the South Kensington Collection, the 
descriptive catalogue of which we wrote in 1872. The writer well 
recollects the consultation held and the examination of the first piece 
about to be acquired for the New Museum (the fine St. Francis plate 
by M". 'Giorgio) by the amateurs and connoisseurs to whom it was shown 
at Marlborough House in 1854. The Bernal sale followed, and the 
Soulages Collection was acquired by purchase. But it is to the untiring 
energy and acute discernment of then Mr., now Sir J. C. Robinson that 
we are indebted for the selections made from the Bernal and various 
other sales, and for the important examples purchased by him in Italy 
and elsewhere. 

In the- Museum of Economic Geology are a few examples illustrative 
of the appHcation of natural materials to art purposes, some of which 
are interesting, and are referred to under the respective fabriques to which 
they may belong; and in the Soane Museum is a quoted specimen. 

In the Art Museums of Edinburgh and Dublin are examples. 

Liverpool, in the Mayer ; Brighton, in the Willett ; and Oxford, in the 
Fortnum Collection at the Ashmolean Museum. 



INTRODUCTION 75 



Private Collections. 

As in France and Italy, the dispersion of private collections has been 
painfully frequent during the last few years in England. With the 
exception of Mr. Fountaine's, no special cabinets of majolica or Italian 
pottery existed in England half a century ago. Horace Walpole, at 
Strawberry Hill, had several fine pieces in his extensive and very 
miscellaneous collection, as was the case at Stowe and some other 
noble mansions. The dispersion of the Strawberry Hill collection was 
a great event, and prices were deemed high, although perhaps not one 
tenth, or in some instances one fiftieth, of what they would now realize. 

The sale of the contents of the Duke of Buckingham's seat at Stowe 
also brought many choice specimens into the market, and served to 
enrich other cabinets, particularly that of Mr. Ralph Bernal, at whose 
death his also was brought to the hammer. This sale was a great event ; 
no such extensive and choice collection had ever been sold in England, 
and it occurred at a moment when the attention of antiquaries and 
connoisseurs was keenly directed towards the arts of the Italian Renais- 
sance. The Trustees of the British Museum, and the Committee of 
Council on Education, then forming the museum at Marlborough House, 
had their attention directed to this unusual opportunity for enriching 
the national collections ; amateurs and dealers, antiquarians and dilettanti, 
flocked from all parts of England and the Continent, the collection being 
so rich in all the various categories of art objects. Competition was 
great, and prices far exceeded those of Stowe and Strawberry Hill. 
Some of the choicest specimens in the British and the South Kensington 
Museums were acquired on this occasion, the greater part having been 
purchased by our Government. Since that period many other cabinets 
have been disposed of in London, as the Montcalm, the Uzielli, the 
Marryat, and others. The Marquis d'Azeglio sold his collection in Paris, 
and that of Mr. Barker has passed into the possession of Mr. Cook of 
Richmond (Visconde de Montserrat), with the exception of some few pieces. 

The late Mr. Addington parted with his fine examples, as did also 
Mr. Morland. 

The oldest, and at the same time the richest, private collection of 



76 M AID Lie A 



Italian pottery in this or in any other country was that belonging to the 
late Mr. Andrew Fountaine, of Narford Hall, in Norfolk, and its wealth 
was enhanced and supported by an equally rich assemblage of the faience 
then known as of Oiron or Henry Deux, now St. Porchaire ; of Palissy, 
of Nevers, and of the enamels of Limoges, This royal and noble 
company had a chamber exclusively devoted to its display, but, alas! all 
have since been dispersed by public sale. 

Mr. Marryat, in his History of Pottery, described the room in which 
it was then contained, but since then the late owner built a larger for 
its reception. The old octagon was, when the present writer was 
Mr, Andrew Fountaine's kindly-welcomed guest, entirely filled with 
Oriental porcelain, opening from the smaller drawing room, which formed 
a wing to the larger ; at the end, a new oblong octagon, of increased size, 
had been constructed, entirely of stone and metal. Here the collection was 
ranged on shelves around, niches above affording convenient placement 
for the larger Italian and Nevers vases, while encircling the floor the 
great Palissy and Urbino cisterns, &c., formed a fitting basement. As 
in the smaller octagon, it was lighted from above, and communicated with 
the drawing-room by a door formed of one large sheet of plate glass. 
The effect was very rich. 

It is not necessary to enter into any detail of the numerous remarkable 
examples which this room contained, but some notice of the history of 
so remarkable a collection may be given. Its original founder. Sir Andrew 
Fountaine, inherited Narford Hall from his father, who had built it, and 
who had there cultivated the friendship of Pope, rendering his house ' the 
rendezvous of living genius and a repository for works of art and learning,' 
Sir Andrew travelled much, long residing in Italy, where he was highly 
in favour with the grand Duke Cosmo HI de' Medici, in the earher part 
of the last century. From him it is believed that Sir Andrew may have 
acquired some of the finer specimens of Limoges and Nevers, as also 
probably of the Italian pottery. His love for art was greatly in advance 
of the period, extending, as it did, to objects of this class, then comparatively 
little appreciated, a circumstance which, aided by his own knowledge, 
enabled him to form so rich a collection. On his return to England, Narford 
became a museum of pictures and other works of art, where Sir Andrew 



INTRODUCTION 



77 



cultivated the society of the learned, and enjoyed the friendship of Swift, 
who mentions him in the Journal to Stella in terms of high regard. He 
died in 1753 \ 

The collection had been, moreover, greatly added to by the late 
Mr. Andrew Fountaine, who, altering and enlarging the house, availed 
himself of the opportunities offered by the sale of the Bernal and other 
cabinets of note, to make important additions to its art treasures. Passing 
to younger and inappreciative successors, it was dispersed by auction at 
Christie's in 1884. 

The richest private collection now in England is that made within 
the last few years, from the dispersion of other collections at home and 
abroad, by Mr. Henry Salting, who kindly allows it to be exhibited, 
for the public benefit, at the South Kensington Museum. 

The following amateurs possess (1895) more or less extensive 
collections of the wares which form the subject of this volume, man}'^ of 
whose specimens are referred to in its pages : — 



Amherst, Lord. 

Attree, C. 

Berney, the Rev. T. 

Cook, F. (Visconde de Montserrat). 

Coutts, Baroness Burdett. 

Currie, David. 

Falkener, E. 

Fortnum, C. Drury E. 

Franks, Sir A. Wollaston. 

Godman, F. Ducane. 

Gosford, Earl of 

Holford, R. S. 

Hope, Mrs. H. T. 

Huth, Louis. 

Layard, Lady. 

Leighton, Sir F. 

Locker, F. Lampson. 



Lombe, Evans. 

Maguire, H. 

Mayer Collection, Liverpool. 

Mills, J., of Norwich. 

Norfolk, Duke of. 

Parker, Montagu, of Chudleigh. 

Pfungst, H. 

Ram, Stephen. 

Rothschild, Baron Adolph de, and 

others of the Rothschild family. 
Spencer, Earl. 
Stanhope, H. Scudamore. 
Swaby, J. 
Tabley, Lord de. 
Taylor, J. E. 
Wallace, Lady. 
Walhs, H. 



^ Chalmers' Biographical Diet. See also Bowles' ed. Pope, vol. v. p. 302 ; Swift's 
Works, Index. 



GLAZED WARES 

(VERNISSEES) 

OF ORIENTAL ORIGIN 



Siliceous, Vitreous or Glass-glazed Wares 

THIS division comprises those varieties of pottery known under the 
names of Persian, Damascus, Anatohan, Rhodian, and Lindus wares, 
also certain pieces supposed to be of Sicihan make, which have been 
denominated Siculo-Arabian, 

Presuming, as we do, that these wares all derive from the same 
origin, probably Egyptian, and are branches of the same family, varied in 
technical character by the localities, the circumstances, and the material 
substances that entered into their composition, we have endeavoured to 
treat of them as branches of one great family, firstly, considered as 
a whole, and following those branches in their separate sub-divisions. . 

The leading characteristics of these wares are : — 

1. A paste or body composed of a sandy red or white argillaceous 
earth and some alkali or flux, greatly var>^ing in their relative proportions, 
and producing degrees of hardness and fineness of texture from a coarse 
sandy earthenware to a semi-vitreous translucent body, the latter being, 
in fact, a kind of porcelain of artificial paste. 

2. A glaze composed as a true glass, of siliceous sand and an alkali 
(potash or soda), with the addition, in some few cases, of a small quantity 
of oxide of lead or other flux. 

Such may be taken as the general, but by no means the constant, 
definition of the component ingredients of all the varieties rightly classed 
together as members of this group. Doubtless great variations occurred 



8o PERSIAN, DAMASCUS, AND RHODIAN WARES 

in their composition at different periods and localities of production ; 
we find examples of the earlier Persian tiles, and perhaps of Damascus 
and Anatolian wares of the sixteenth century, in or under the glaze 
of which the oxide of tin seems to have been used to produce a white 
and more even surface. 

Carefully conducted chemical analysis is still needed ; but after an 
attentive examination of many pieces of presumably * Damascus ' wares, 
the writer is led to think that the paste, carefully selected and prepared, 
was occasionally washed with a thin slip of stanniferous or other white 
material, upon which the design was painted, and again covered with 
a rich translucent silico-alcaline or glass-glaze. 

Persian, Damascus, and Rhodian Wares. 

In the introductory chapters we ascribed the origin or parentage of 
the wares of this section to the glazed pottery and artificial semi-porcelain 
of ancient Egypt, produced at least as early as the eleventh dynasty ; 
{c. B. c. 2500) ; we have also seen that siliceous glazed and enamelled bricks 
were used for wall decoration at Babylon and in Assyria. At what 
early period a similar manufacture existed in Persia or in India we 
have no exact knowledge ; we only have the evidence afforded by fragments 
found among ruins at various ancient sites. If not previously known, 
its mode of production might have been learnt m Persia from Assyrian 
potters at the conquest of that country by Cyrus. Probably also the 
Egyptian arts had much influence on those of Persia during the occupation 
of Egypt by Cambyses ; as also when Ochus again conquered Egypt 
(b. c. 340), taking back with him much valuable booty. There was, 
moreover, a large commerce between those countries in remote time. 

One of the earliest monuments existing of the ceramic art of Persia 
is the polychrome relief, brought by M. Dieulafoy from the king's palace 
at Susa, and now in the Louvre. These slabs are of the period of the 
Achaemenian dynasty (b. c. 560-331), but their style of modelling denotes 
the influence of the Ionian cities of Asia Minor, although the general 
design is rather that of Assyria and Babylon. Their beautiful colour and 
certain details of their ornamentation are as distinctly Persian. Count 
Julien de Rochechouart tells us, in his interesting Souvenirs d'un Voyage 
en Perse, that he possessed a brick of dark blue glazed surface, having 
cuneiform characters in white, which was found among the ruins of 
Kirman. It has been supposed that metaUic lustre as an enrichment 
had been observed on some of the Babylonian bricks, but their iridescence 



PERSIAN, DAMASCUS, AND RHODIAN WARES 8i 

has since been ascribed to the effect of decomposition, rather than to 
a truly metallic glaze. 

Recurring to Egypt, we learn that Professor Petrie found a plate in. 
the Fayoum, believed to be of the third century; it bears in the centre, 
on an ivory-white ground, an ox or antelope, with plants, flowers, &c., in 
Manganese purple ; the border has a sort of wave ornament, with turquoise 
edging and back ; it would seem that the designs used upon some of the 
early Persian tiles may have been derived from a similar source. We 
also trace a similar sentiment in the decoration of some of the Fostat 
fragments, and on the vases from Sicily, which we ascribe to a Siculo- 
Arabian origin ; if not so, they may perhaps have been of old Cairene 
fabrication imported into that island. 

We are less inclined to attribute them to Persian potters working in 
their own land or in Egypt, believing rather that the art emanated from 
the latter country to Persia and elsewhere. Mr. Wallis^ describes some 
plates with vitreous glaze, found on the site of an ancient Persian town, 
and having decoration analogous to that of the same vases. Among the 
pieces found at Susa, is a dish of siliceous glaze, with a triangular, perhaps 
m^^stical, figure in blue and green, painted on pale gre}^ ground ; it was 
found with coins of the Sassanian djmasty, and may be of a time pre\aous 
to the Arabian conquest : it has not the metallic lustre. The pottery 
discovered by M. Dieulafoy is for the most part believed to be of Parthian 
origin ; it is covered by blue, green, or cream coloured siliceous glaze 
of self colour, and has distinct affinit}' with inferior Egyptian ware. 

We learn from Herodotus, that the Achaemenian monarchs brought 
artizans from conquered countries into their owm, and, doubtless, some 
had come from Eg3'pt, from Chaldaea, and Babylonia. 

The Parthian pottery found at Susa was probably made during a period 
of comparative decline. Art revived under the Sassanian monarchy, 
and although so little is known of the minor arts during those periods, 
we may presume that the productions of the potter improved with the 
rest ; moreover refugees from Byzantium — the ceramic productions of 
which empire, as also their works in glass, are so little known to us — 
may have introduced methods of colouring and decoration to the country 
of their adoption, then ruled by Khosroes. 

In Arabia, the tiles on Mahomet's tomb and Mosque at Medina, of 
the year a. d. 707, one of which is in the Museum at Sevres, seem to be 
glass glazed, and not stanniferous. 

The tide of Mahommedan conquest in the early part of the seventh 

' H. Wallis, Notes on Early Persian Lustre Wares, parts i, 2, 3. London, 1885 9. 

G 



82 PERSIAN, DAMASCUS, AND RHODIAN WARES 

century spread from Mecca through Syria, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Persia; 
and again, under the disciples of Omar, through Egypt and northern 
Africa, to Spain and other parts of southern Europe. With the exception of 
these last, the other countries were native seats of this form of ceramic industry 
from the earliest ages ; and it is quite as reasonable to suppose that these 
nomads learnt the art from those they conquered, as that they were its 
teachers, and that, as did the Jews of old, they employed artizans from among 
the people they had subdued, to erect the buildings and to fabricate the ob- 
jects which they required, and which it may be questioned whether they 
were themselves then capable of executing. Absorbing by conversion, 
or enslaving the unconverted, they were all-powerful to apply the arts 
of every place and every people to their special need, engrafting thereon 
their own particular taste in design, or applying thereto any special 
knowledge which they may have originated or elsewhere attained. We 
must not, however, forget that the Arabs, in certain branches of the sciences 
and arts of those days, had special knowledge which would accompany 
them and be adapted in the countries they had conquered. The moribund 
arts of ancient Egypt were revived and modified by the Arab invasion, and 
it is not improbable that by means of their chemical knowledge the 
metallic lustre was produced and apphed on the surface of important pieces 
of their pottery. Thence its adoption and use extended, spreading east- 
ward to Persia and westward to Sicily and Spain. 

Mr. Wallis refers to texts describing lustred wares made at Fostat 
in the first half of the eleventh century. Fostat was destroyed in the 
year 564 of the Hegira (a. d. 1147). The rubbish heaps around that old 
city's site have been Mr. Wallis' happy hunting ground, and both he and 
Mr. Frank Dillon have unearthed fragments of wares of similar technical 
production and character of ornamentation — some with, some without 
metallic lustre enrichment — to those vases and albarelli brought from Sicily, 
and which we have distinguished under the name of Siculo-Arabian. 

Overflowing the northern shores of Africa the Arabian wave passed 
westward into the Balearic Islands and to Spain. At Cordova the 
mosque remains which was commenced in the eighth century by Abd-el- 
Rhaman the king. Sicily and various spots in southern Italy were 
occupied, and the conquerors generally known as 'Saracens' brought with 
them into Europe the arts they had previously known and those they 
had adopted. 

We have alluded to the piratical king of Majorca and his conquest 
by the Pisans in 11 15; he was, in all probability, an adherent of the 
Moorish princes of the Almohadi dynasty, who conquered the Arab or 
Saracenic successors of Abd-el-Rhaman and came to an end under Mutamed- 



PERSIAN, DAMASCUS, AND RHODIAN WARES 83 

al- Allah in 1038. With that period the history of the Hispano-Moresque 
wares probably commences. 

To return to the Egypto-Arabian and Persian pottery. We have 
described a piece of purely Oriental ware which the writer found inserted 
m the wall above a lateral arch of horseshoe form at the church of 
Sta Cecilia in Pisa, the only example of the many bacini in church towers 
and facades in various parts of Italy which had a real claim to Saracenic 
origin. This church was consecrated in 1107; the victorjj^ said to have 
been gained b}^ the Pisans over the pirates of Majorca was only eight 
years subsequent. 

It is not, therefore, unreasonable to suppose that this was really one 
of those ceramic trophies said to have been brought home by the 
victors and inserted as a memento and offering over that church door. If 
so, it may be an example of the higher class of early wares made by 
the Saracenic invaders of the Balearic Islands, in the second decade 
of the twelfth centur}'. This beautiful fragment is figured and described 
at page 15 of our introductory notice. 

Spreading eastward and westward, gaining power and establishing their 
authority in all the more important centres of civilization and luxury, the 
Mahommedans displayed their religious fervour in the erection of gorgeous 
buildings for the obser\^ance of their creed and of colleges for its culture : 
on these were la\'ished all the resources of the arts they had at their 
command; and we find that in Egypt some of the earliest mosques had 
Coptic Christians for their architects, while at Damascus and elsewhere 
Christian buildings were converted to their use. W^e beUeve, moreover, 
that where a large building was erected, potters and designers of tile 
decoration were taken from elsewhere to the work, and the necessary 
simple furnaces there erected; it is not so probable that tiles would be 
carried from Damascus or from Cairo to decorate the Mosque of Omar 
at Jerusalem (also perhaps originally a Roman or Romano-Christian 
structure), as that the potters were brought to the spot, there to fabricate 
their tiles for the particular design of the building. A great impetus 
was thus given to all the constructive arts ; and, of whatever blood, Arab 
or Syrian, Egj-ptian or Persian, the designers of these admirable works 
may have been, they have rarely if ever been surpassed in decorative 
excellence. At Nice, in Anatolia, the minaret of the mosque erected 
about 1389 is thus decorated; at Konieh (the ancient Iconium) in 
Asia Minor the mosque, built from 1074. to 1275, is also partly lined with 
tiles ; Broussa has tombs of perhaps as early as the thirteenth century ; 
Constantinople is rich in examples of various date ; and those at Damascus, 
Jerusalem, Cairo, and in Persia have alread}'^ been referred to When such 

G 2 



84 PERSIAN, DAMASCUS, AND RHODIAN WARES 

works were executed at large centres, it is reasonable to suppose that 
potteries were for the time established, at which vessels for domestic use 
and ornament were also produced ^ 

Nassiri Khosrau (1035-42) had noted lustred wares in the bazaars 
of Misr (old Cairo); he states that at Misr faience of all kinds was made, 
some so fine and diaphanous that you could see your hand through it, 
when held to the light, &c. ; and also that they were decorated with 
colours which are analogous to those on a stuff called bougalemotm, the 
nuances changing according to the position in which you place the vase. 
This would seem to refer to a subdued or madreperla lustre. 

From the remarks in Sefer Nameh's ^ account of the travels of 
Nassiri Khosrau we may infer that lustre ware was not then known 
in Persia, as he for the first time sees it at Fostat in the eleventh 
century. 

The Calatayad makers are referred to by Edresi in his description of 
Africa and Spain, written about 1154. 

Ibn Batoutah (1350) refers to the ornamental glazed tiles in Persia 
where they are called Kashany, he sees them at the Meshed Ali, at Tabruz, 
and at Kalhat; but it is yet doubtful whether Kashany was a lustred 
or a coloured ware. Mr. Wallis tells us that non-lustred tiles are now 
known at Constantinople as Kishaniah. 

Describing Kashan in 1 178-1229 Yacoub, the Persian geographer, states, 
' Quashan is a city of Djebal, twelve farsakhs from Goum, three days 
from Ispahan and four from Ardistan. The beautiful faience known 
as gaschi is made here.' 

Mr. WaUis is of opinion that ceramic art in Persia was inferior, in 
the middle of the eleventh century, to that of Egypt ; but that between 
that time and the end of the twelfth it had improved and had, perhaps, 
supplanted the Egyptian. 

From the statements of these various writers, and particularly through 
the careful researches made by Mr. Wallis at Fostat, and the confirmatory 
evidence afforded by fragments which he unearthed from the rubbish 
heaps of the ancient city, with some proof also of their local production, 
we are inclined to the opinion that the lustrous enrichment was probably 
of Egypto-Arabian origin and invention rather than Persian. The siHceous 

' The writer has himself found pieces of Jerusalem, Petra ; and in Egypt at Assouan 

vessels of this ware, some to all appearance and elsewhere. 

of very early date, and at considerable "^ Sefer Nameh, Relation du Voyage de 

depth, on the sites of nearly all the more Nassiri Khosrau ; traduit par Ch. Schefer, 

important cities of Syria and Egypt— as 1881, p. 151. 
Damascus, Baalbec, Tyre, Sidon, Caesarea, 



PLATE I I 




FLASK. PERSIAN LUSTRED WARE 
Late XVI or Early XVII Century 




PLATE. PERSIAN LUSTRE!) WARE 
Late XVI or Early XVII Century 



PERSIAN 85 

glaze was native to that country, and we learn that among the Arabs 
a certain knowledge of chemistry existed, which maj^ have led to the 
discovery of this method of enrichment by painting such portions of the 
surface as were required to be lustrous with solutions of salts of copper 
and silver, which being reduced by the action of heated wood smoke 
in the furnace, left a metallic film of greater or less intensity and variety 
of tint according to the circumstances of application and the effect of 
firing. 

Mr. Wallis thinks that this lustrous enrichment may have been known 
even in the early centuries of the Christian era. In Egypt it would 
seem that the ceramic art declined, while, on the other hand, it rose to 
great perfection in Persia under the Seljoukee dynasty, who also invaded 
Egypt and Syria, and raised Persia into renewed prosperity. 



PERSIAN. 

Until 1876 very little was known in Europe of the earlier lustred tiles 
and other wares of Persia ; about that time the amateurs of Paris and 
of London were surprised by the amazing beauty and intricacy of design 
on those gorgeous tiles, with dark blue or creamy white ground, on 
which the beautiful Persian lettering stood out in full relief, surrounded 
by a diapering of infinite fancy and richness of effect. We have already 
referred to the enamelled bricks of Bab^^onia, as also to the grand rehefs 
from the Susan Palace, highly coloured and in parts glazed with a stanni- 
ferous enamel. We find no such use of tin oxide among the monuments 
and wares of Ancient Eg^-pt. May it not therefore be inferred that the 
Persians derived that method from a Babylonian or an Assyrian source? 
Of the architectural or domestic pottery of Persia from the period of the 
Achaemenian monarchs until the eleventh or twelfth century we know 
absolutely nothing but a few fragments of uncertain date found on the sites 
of ruined habitations. With the Mahommedan conquest the art probably 
revived, but we have no dated examples anterior to the eleventh or twelfth 
century, when tiles for architectural decoration replace the more cumbrous 
enamelled brick. Though probably not of Persian invention, we find the 
metallic lustre in general and dexterous use as early as the thirteenth century, 
or perhaps even in the twelfth. This was during a period of national pros- 
perity under the rule of the Atta Begs, soon to fall beneath the destructive 
advance of Ghenghis Khan, by whom, however, the arts were encouraged 
and artizans from various countries introduced. The tiles of that period are 
of the greatest beauty, and equally admirable for design and execution ; the 



86 PERSIAN 

lustrous enrichment and colouring being perfectly executed upon a stanni- 
ferous or otherwise whitened surface, covering the red body and beneath 
a siliceous glaze. Mr. Wallis suggests that, as it was considered derogatory 
in Byzantium, during her prosperous days, to drink or eat from vessels 
of other material than gold or silver, in her declining years, when the 
precious metals were absorbed, the potters would copy designs from the 
gold and silver smith, and the lustred ware became a cheap but showy 
substitute for the precious vessels which had previously enriched the 
Credensa. 

The forms and surface ornamentation of the Persian pottery in the 
thirteenth century were analogous to that of the metal vessels of the time, 
but with the potter's adaptation suitable to the material he handled. 

Metal ewers, cups, &c., supposed to be of Mesopotamian or Cairene 
production, of which there is a rich collection in the British Museum, as 
also those made at Damascus, Mosul, and the Persian cities, are decorated 
with circular and ogee panels on which kings and ladies are represented, 
concentric belts with foliation, in which birds and animals appear covering 
the intervening ground of the piece, and with occasional inscriptions 
between ; human and animal forms are there without restraint, as upon 
some of the earlier painted tiles. 

Their workmanship is the pure handicraft of the individual wandering 
artist, and it may be inferred that from these works the potter derived 
much of the design for his decoration in the lustre pigments. 

■ Mr. Wallis writes of Persian design — 'the purity of outline defining 
the contour of the Greek statue or circumscribing the ideal forms displayed 
on the Greek vase is beyond its reach ; yet it is at home in the 
graceful sinuosities of ornament, and can weave with masterly hand the 
subtleties of those intricate interlacings so dear to the Oriental mind.' 
Of such are the elaborate patterns covering the surface of those tiles 
between the raised letters of the inscription. 

At Rhages or Rhei, two leagues from Teheran, these tiles of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries are found, and were probably there 
made. Also at Kashan on the road from Nain to Malthus, and on the 
Mosque of Natinz of the twelfth century. Dr. Mechin was of opinion 
that the Arabs brought the art of applying the lustre with them when 
they conquered Persia, but it was new to Nassiri Khosrau in the eleventh 
century. 

Except from representations in illuminated manuscripts and fragments 
found on sites of occupation, we know very little of the Persian pottery for 
domestic use of that earlier period ; and not till about the sixteenth century, 
with rare exceptions, can we ascribe those pieces now in our public and 



PERSIAN 87 

private collections. They were for the most part produced, after another 
period of decadence, under the dynasty of the Sefis, chiefl}' under the 
energetic reign of Schan Abbas II, who encouraged the potter's as well as 
other arts. In the productions of this period the use of the tin enamel is 
almost entirely discontinued, and a pure siliceous glaze is generally used. 
From the palace of Ferabad near Ispahan, destroyed in 1721, have been 
brought those well-known tiles with figures of that monarch on horseback 
and with hawk on hand, in low relief; or with elegantly arranged and 
embossed flowers, modern reproductions of both of which are now 
abundantly supplied. 

Other specimens are cups, basins, flasks, &c., some having dark blue, 
others creamy white ground, on which intricate designs of trees, foliage 
and flowers with animals and birds cover the entire piece (see pi. 2) ; and of 
pieces without metaUic lustre the South Kensington Museum possesses the 
richest collection in Europe, the invaluable result of Colonel R. Murdoch 
Smith's and Mr. C. Purdon Clarke's assiduous gatherings in various parts 
of Persia, of which the former gives much information in his 8vo volume 
on Persian Art \ as also on the renewed fabrication of wares in recent 
time. The majority of the pieces of blue and white decoration are of the 
later sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ; and on some of them are 
marks frequently imitative of Chinese, or in that character by Chinese 
hands. 

Another variety, of which fine examples are preserved in the British 
Museum, gifts from the Henderson and Franks collections, and others 
in the South Kensington Museum is the so-called ' Gombron Ware ' 
of Horace Walpole's day (see pi. 3). 

In illustration of the former knowledge of these wares in England 
the late Mr. Alex. Nesbitt informed us that at Draj'ton House in North 
Hants are portraits of the latter half of the seventeenth century, of 
a man and a woman in Persian costume by whose sides are long-necked 
bottles * of unmistakable Persian lustre ware ' with patterns of the same 
character as those on plates in his, in the writer's, and in the British 
Museum and South Kensington collections. 

The classification of Persian glazed pottery is one of considerable 
difficulty, but may be roughly stated in periodic sequence as below : — 

A. Architectural decorative bricks faced with subjects in relief and 
coloured by a stanniferous enamel. 

B. Fragments of early but uncertain date, with rude ornamentation of 
plants, men, and animals beneath a siliceous glaze. 

' Col. R. Murdoch Smith, Persian Art (South Kensington Handbooks), 8vo, London. 



88 



PERSIAN 



C. The richly painted and lustred tiles of the twelfth to the fourteenth 
centuries; of coarse body, sihceous glazed over a stanniferous wash. 

D. Painted and lustred tiles and wares of the sixteenth century (Sefis 
dynasty). 

E. White wares, highly baked, semi-translucent and with rich siliceous 
glaze (' Gombron ware '}. 

F. Wares with decoration in blue or grey on a white sandy body beneath 
a siliceous glaze. Some with Chinese marks or their imitation. 

G. Modern reproductions, 

Marks. Persian. 

We do not pretend to give more than a few marks which have been 
observed on pieces of Persian ware. Very few are known on those of 
the earlier and better times. On the blue and white pieces of com- 
paratively recent production marks occur frequently in imitation of those 
on Chinese porcelain. On many of the pieces in the rich collection 
of the South Kensington Museum such marks are seen in varied form, 
but we have not ventured on their reproduction. 



^^ 



Inside a pot with cover, spout, and loop handles, 
decorated in red lustre on a rich blue ground ; the 
name of the maker ' Hatim ' thus written. Franks Coll. 
Brit. Mus, 



On a bottle with pierced shoulders, painted with 
flowers, pinks, &c. ; in green, blue, and red. Of good 
period (later sixteenth century ?), possibly of Syrian or 
Rhodian make. Franks Coll. Brit. Mus. Remarkable in 
its resemblance to that on the wares of Cafaggiolo. 



On one of two shallow basins of modern Persian 
faience, of ^^^good quality — rude landscape in blue on white 
ground. The mark on the back reads ' Hasin AH 1261 * 
corresponding to our 1845. 



SICULO-ARABIAN 



89 



On the similar basin— landscape after the 'willow 
pattern,' reads, ' Muhamed Ali 1278,' i. e. 1861 a. d. 
These may be of the Nahinne fabrique. Both in Franks 
Coll. Brit. Mus. 




n ^A 



On a flask — deer among foliage in cobalt blue on 
white ground. Of good quality and probablj' of seven- 
teenthcentury. Fortnum Coll. Ashmolean Mus. 




SICULO-ARABIAN. 

We have seen that the rubbish heaps of Fostat yielded to the diggers 
fragments of lustred and plain wares, manj'^ of which agree singularly 
in character of technique, both as to body and glaze, with those vases, 
which, having been almost all found in or brought from Sicily, we formerly 
concluded^ and still believe to have been made in that island; and to 
which we gave the name of Siculo-Arabian. 

Of these are the fine oviform vases in the South Kensington Museum, 
illustrated in the Catalogue at page 36; four vases of similar form which 
passed from the Castellani collection to the Hotel Cluny; one in the 
British Museum from our own ; some in the Godman Collection ; some 
in Sicily, and a few elsewhere. Of those still rarer pieces, decorated 
with lustrous enrichment on dark blue ground, are the two similarly 
oviform, * the Falconer vases ', now in the South Kensington Museum ; 
one or two were in the possession of the Duke of Verdura at Palermo ; 
two alharelli now in the rich Godman collection ; one illustrated in 
Delange's folio as belonging to Madame Yvorne ; and some fragments. 

We may here remark that this form is not to be found in Persian 
pottery; it is derived from the joint of bamboo, used as a vessel for the 
transmission of drugs, &c. from Arabia and the East to Cairo and else- 
where, and was adopted as a model for drug-pots in Italy and in Spain ; 
an indirect confirmation of the Sicilian rather than the Persian origin 
of the pieces in question. 

These are all of the same character of fabrication ; a sand}' argillaceous 
paste of dull white colour, tough in texture and sometimes very hard, 
probably from excess of firing ; the outlines of design in black ; the glaze 
' Catal.ofMaiolica, &c., in South Kensington Museum, 8vo, 1872, p. 11. 



90 SICULO'ARABIAN 



thick and hard, translucent, and running in tears about the base of the 
piece. The inscription generally more imitative than readable, but when 
so, only exclamatory, or wishing happiness to the possessor, and in Cufic 
or imitative Cufic form. 

Mr. Wallis tells us that upon some of the fragments found at Fostat, 
with decoration a reflet on white ground, the glaze was found to be 
stanniferous : such pieces were probably of another age. We do not think 
it is so on those now under consideration. 

Prince Filangieri, whose description of the technique of similar pieces 
still in Sicily exactly agrees with that above given, further states that 
the glaze is a soda glass. 

In a foot-note^ we quote the words of Prince Filangieri descriptive 
of one of these interesting early vases. In this he refers to them as of 
Caltagirone, as though it were an accepted fact that at least some such 
were made at that place. He refers also to Trapani, Girgenti, Castro 
Giovanni, and Mazzara as probable sites of their production and whence 
specimens have been obtained. 

The question arises, were these vases made in Sicily by the Saracenic 
potters of the eadier conquest of the island in 827, during the course of 
that occupation and before the Moorish wave had again flooded the islands 
with another Mahommedan race, whose ceramic works have also left 
their traces of seeming local manufacture ; or were they imported from, 
and the production of, those potteries at old Cairo, where the fragments 
yielded by the Fostat rubbish-heaps doubtless originated ? 

Strongly Persian as they are in many characteristics, we know of 
no similar pieces brought from that country ; the difference between those 
enriched with the metallic lustre and the plainer pieces is solely in that 
enrichment ; and the period of their production would appear to be 
approximately concurrent in all the known examples. 

' Op. cit. p. 73. ' Circa ai Vasi di Calta- ' Una tal sorte di Vasellame ornata a 

girone in S.'cilia il piu superficiale esame tralicci, a modo dei vasi cinesi, lunghesso 

del lor carattere li allontana dalle faenze gli spartimenti verticali, cui e messa la lor 

propriamente dette, giacche la loro pasta superficie, ha una sistema di fascie orizzon- 

molto silicea, e piii che dura, e quasi cotta tali sul face dei fregi, che ne dintornano 

a modo di un gres a^sai fine. II loro liscio la parte inferiore e lo esterno della gola, 

consiste in una vernice piii che durissima, cui collegasi al coUo. Dette fascie orizzon- 

e richiamante le vernici alcaline a base di tali sono messe, parte a caratteri cufici, 

soda. I disegni poi condotti sulla loro procedenti da destra verso sinistra, 

invetriatura, sono a mezzo di un contorno alternati superiormente da stemmi ed 

nerastro, come nei disegni dell' epoca bisan- intrecciamenti di linee geometriche nei 

tina, o della scuola italiana di pittura della modi i piu bizzarri e parte a campi ver- 



maniera molto prima di Cimabue.' micolati.' 



PLATE III 




•'>.'■' 


^:s 


^.v 




A* 


■ ^ 


}i 




■s:^. f 




j^ ^ 


^-.,^^^ 






**••• 



ik.kfc> 



BASIN. I'ERSIAN IKANSLUCKNT ('goMBRON'?) WARE 
Xy// Century 




IPtZZP^. DAMA.SC'IJS WAKK 
XVI Century 



DAMASCUS 91 



Is it not equally reasonable to presume that, with the Saracenic 
invaders, came some of those potters who had previously worked in 
Egypt, and that the3-, establishing themselves in the newly conquered 
island, were the makers of these vases at one or other of the localities re- 
ferred to, and during the period previous to the invasion of the Moors ? 

Believing such a presumption to be probable, we classed these 
curious, but somewhat coarse, pieces as Siculo-Arabian, and we propose 
to continue that name as a distinctive and appropriate appellation. 

DAMASCUS. 

This name has been used as a generic term, covering or including all 
those wares of the siliceous glazed family, except the Persian, and 
mcluding such as were probably made in Turkey, Syria, Asia Minor, 
Rhodes, &c., a certain general character in form and ornamentation 
pervading the whole class. There can be no doubt that Damascus was 
an important producer of this pottery, which was known to the commerce 
of the sixteenth century and earher as * Damas ' ware, and examples exist 
having silver mountings of the period of Queen Elizabeth \ We know 
moreover that Timour Be3' took with him from Damascus in 1402 ' men 
who made bows, glass, and earthenware,' and that at Timour's banquets 
at Samarcand food was served in vessels of 'gold, silver, earthenware, 
glass and porcelain^'; and accordingly we learn from Vambery^ that won- 
derfully beautiful, tile work was to be seen in the Mosques of Bokhara 
and Samarcand. Constantinople and Broussa were also large centres of 
the manufacture. 

We suggested, in the Catalogue of the South Kensington Collection 
of Maiolica, &c., at page 9, the propriety of reviving the term ' Damas ' 
or * Damascus' ware for this family, in preference to the misapphed 
general name of Persian, only warranted from the Persian motif, more or 
less apparent although modified, which we find in the floral designs on 
the varieties of these wares. That suggestion has been generally adopted, 

* Loans Exhib. Cat Nos. 3280-1, p. 292. ' A Regnault Morel pour tin pot de Damas 

Damascus ware was known in France in plein de gingeuibre vert, Qt'cJ 

the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, as 1420. Inv. du Due de Bourgoyne : 

evinced in the inventories of those periods. ' Ung pot de ferre de Pouvrage de Damas 

Thus : — blanc et blue, gamie le pie, et couvercle que 

1380. Inventory of Charles V : est de jaspre, d argent dore, iin anse de 

' Ung petit pot de terreenfacon de Damas. Serpent d' argent dore'.' 

Ung petit pot deterre a biberon sans garnyson, ^ See Clavigo's Travels, translation in 

de lafacon de Damas: Bohn's Series. Also Cherefeddin, trans- 

1416. Comptes royaux. Hotel de la Royne : lated by Petis de la Croix. Delf. 1743. 



92 DAMASCUS 



rightly limiting the term, however, to the finer Damascus ware and giving 
to the other varieties their own special names of 'Anatolian/ ' Rhodian,' 
&c. The paste varies in quahty more than in kind (see pis. 3 and 4). 

The decoration of the finer pieces of Damascus ware is in well- 
harmonized tones of blue, sage green, puce, and tobacco brown, with 
occasional use of turquoise, the whole blended with admirable skill on 
a purely white ground ; the dark blue is of great intensity and clearness, 
on which letters or forms reserved in the white are singularly effective. 
Scale work, panels of oriental form or leafage, large spraj^s of flowers, 
particularly roses, tulips, hyacinths, and carnations. The forms are 
elegant; large bowls on raised feet, flasks or bottles bulb-shaped, pear- 
shaped jugs with cylindrical necks and loop handles, circular dishes, &c. 
An important example of the highest quality of this ware is described 
and figured in colour in vol. xlii of Archaeologia, pi. xx, p. 394. It is 
a hanging lamp made for and obtained from the Mosque of Omar at 
Jerusalem, or more correctly the Dome of the Rock, signed and dated 
June 1549 (the period of the restoration of the Mosque by Soliman the 
Great) by 'the painter, the poor, the humble Mustafa.' There is also 
an illustration of it in Delange's folio work on Maiolica. Formerly in 
the writer's collection, it is now preserved in the British Museum. 

An even larger lamp of more varied colour was acquired some years 
since by the South Kensington Museum; it was said to have come from 
Constantinople, where, in all probability, it was made. 

There can be little doubt that, not only in Syria, Anatolia, and Rhodes, 
potteries existed where wares of great similarity were made, but that 
at Broussa and Constantinople large quantities of tiles and vessels were 
produced by equally skilful hands. The decoration and make of all 
such were so similar in character that it is hard to distinguish their 
varieties, and the more so from the fact that the potters frequently 
followed to places where their work was needed. 

The British and S. Kensington Museums are rich in fine examples of 
Damascus ware; the former chiefly bequeathed by the late Mr. John 
Henderson. 

Mr. F. Ducane Godman, Mr. Louis Huth, and Mr. Salting have many 
and very fine specimens. 

ANATOLIAN. 

At Kutahia in Anatolia a variety was made differing considerably from 
that which we have accepted as of Damascus origin. At first a few pieces 
were brought to the notice of connoisseurs, about w^hich some doubts 



PLATE IV 




JUG. DAMASCUS WARE 
XV/ Century 




PLATE. KUTAYA WARE 
XVI Century 



RHODIAN 



were expressed as to whether they might not be of Itahan production, 
arising chiefly from the form of the plates, with narrow but deep centres, 
and wide-spreading borders, a form found in the wares of Gubbio and 
of other Itahan fabriques. Careful examination, however, soon revealed 
the Oriental character of the ware, the sandy body, close and heavy, 
perhaps surfaced with a thin wash of tin, on which the design was painted 
in blue on the very white ground, and covered with a vitreous glaze. 
In addition to such plates, the late Mr. John Henderson acquired candle- 
sticks and a lamp for suspension, which fine examples are now, by his 
bequest, in the British Museum. In Mr. F. Ducane Godman's very rich 
collection is a small jug, on which is an inscription in Armenian, beneath 
the glaze, which records that the piece was made by one Abraham of 
Kutahia, in a year which, whether of the Armenian or the Mahommedan 
calendar, would bring the date approximately to the middle of the sixteenth 
century. These pieces may have been of the second half of the sixteenth 
century; but of more recent time are those cups and saucers, sprinklers, 
perfume vases and covered bowls, generally pieces of smaller size, which 
are so abundant in collections. The ground of the piece is usually white, 
sometimes incised with cross lines by means of a piece of wood scratching 
the soft paste ; a gay decoration of many colours, among which a brilliant 
yellow is conspicuous, in scale work, lattice and diaper patterns, flowers, 
&c. Its glaze is frequently not brilliant, but rather rough on the surface ; 
the pieces, however, are thinner and lighter than the earlier Kutahia ware, 
and are well baked (see pi. 4). 

RHODIAN or LINDUS. 

The greater number of pieces known in collections as ' Persian ware ' 
are of this variety. It is to Mr. Salzmann ' that we owe the discovery of 
the remains of ancient furnaces at Lindus, in the Island of Rhodes, from 
the old palaces of which he collected numerous examples of their wares. 
Local tradition declares that a pottery existed at that spot, under the 
influence of the Knights of Rhodes, who, presumably, brought these 
potters into the island from the Syrian mainland. Other neighbouring 

' To quote from M. Salzmann : ' Dans une vaient quelques Persans, ouvriers falenciers, 

de leurs nombreuses courses centre les dont les chevaliers de St. Jean songerent 

infideles les galeres de Pordre de St. Jean a utiliser I'industrie. Dans ce but, ils les 

de Jerusalem prirent un jour un grand etablirent a Lindos, parceque dans cette 

navire turc appele la Caraque. Le butin localite on trouvait un sable d'une nature 

fut tres considerable, les prisonniers furent particuliere propre a la fabrication d'un 

nombreux. Parmi ces derniers se trou- bel email transparent' 



94 RHODIAN 



islands have also furnished examples ; and the palaces of Italy have in 
this direction (as in that of the Damascus, lustred, and other Persian 
potteries) yielded a richer harvest of accumulated treasures than could 
be procured in the land of their original production. This variety, although 
extremely beautiful, is generally coarser than the Damascus and finer 
Anatohan, and the decoration more marked and brilliant, but less refined. 
A bright red pigment, so thickly laid on as to stand out in relief upon 
the surface of the piece, is characteristic, although a nearly similar pigment 
is seen on tiles from Constantinople, Broussa, and elsewhere, of equal 
beauty with that upon the Rhodian. The predominant decoration of 
the plates consists of two or three sprays of roses, pinks, hyacinths, and 
tulips, with leaves, sometimes tied together at the stem and spreading over 
the entire surface of the piece in graceful lines ; the border frequently of 
black and blue scroll work. Ships, birds, and animals are also depicted ; 
and a shield of arms occurs on some few pieces. In addition to the above 
it is presumable, as has before been said, that many tiles, and probably 
formed pieces for domestic use, were made on the spots where important 
buildings were being erected and so decorated ; the potters or tile makers 
having been brought from elsewhere for the purpose (see pi. 5). 

In the British Museum is a jug, from the Henderson collection, on 
which is an inscription in Turkish, although the piece is apparently 
Rhodian ; this might be explained by the fact that Rhodes was long under 
Turkish influence ; if indeed this specimen was not made in Turkey. 



PLATE V 




CANDLESTICK. RHODIAN 
XVI Century 




CIRCULAR DISH. RHODIAN 
XVI Century 



ENAMELLED (emaillees) OR TIN GLAZED (stanniferes) 



HiSPANO-MoRESQUE PoTTERY 

WE cannot do better than reprint in the main what we wrote on these 
wares in the Catalogue of the South Kensington Collection in 1872, 
but with such interpolations and amendments as more recent investigation 
has afforded. 

A few 3'ears since this numerous and now well-defined class of wares 
was indiscriminately grouped with the lustred Maiolica of Italy, in which 
country the larger number of specimens now in our collections had been 
preserved, and whence they have been procured. So much was this 
the case, and on the contrary, so small a number of examples have been 
found in the native country of their production, that M. Delange and 
others hesitated to believe in their Spanish origin, thinking it more 
probable that they were the work of Moorish potters established in the 
sister peninsula. It is a curious fact that this opinion has, to a certain 
extent, been recently confirmed by the discovery of a fragment of purely 
' Hispano-Moresque' pottery, both in design and general character, among 
the rubbish heaps from the ancient potteries of Diruta. This fragment 
was found by M. Emile Molinier, among others of Dirutan lustred ware, 
which are in quantity at a spot where the cutting of a road-way disturbed 
the rubbish heaps of the old potteries, and where the late M. Eugene 
Piot had previously unearthed fragments of the early lustred bacili ascribed 
to the fabrique of Pesaro by Passeri. 

Unless merely accidental, the locality of this piece of distinctly 
* Hispano-Moresque ' character, to use the term now generally accepted, 
opens the question, whether at least some few of the numerous specimens 
of such wares which Italy had preserved, may not really have been made 
by Moorish potters at Italian furnaces, to which they had immigrated 
and brought their art? At first producing pieces after their own fashion 
and design the}" would, probably, then apply the lustrous enrichment to 



96 HISPANO-MORESOUE WARES 

others of Italian design and character, thus introducing the use of that 
method of effective decoration to the Dirutan and other Itahan potteries. 

M. Riocreux of Sevres v^as the first to point out their distinction as 
a class. 

The correspondence in technical character with the lustred 'azulejos,' 
the well-known tiles which adorn the palace of the Alhambra at Seville 
and other buildings, and with the celebrated 'jarra,' or Alhambra vase, as 
also a marked difference in design between these and any wares of known 
Italian manufacture, led to the conviction that they must be of Spanish 
origin, and the work of the Moorish potters and their descendants who 
had been established in that country. 

Under this belief they were classed together as Hispano- Arabian 
enamelled and lustred wares, but this appellation would connect them with 
the so-called Saracens, who, under their Caliphs, conquered that country 
from the Goths in a.d. 712. These first Arab invaders were themselves 
expelled in 756 by the disciples of Omar, under Abd-el-Rhaman, who caused 
himself to be proclaimed Caliph at Cordova. This city thus became 
the great centre of his power and of the arts, and here was erected 
the mosque the decoration of which attests the exquisite Oriental taste of 
its founders. The ornamental wall tiles on this building are of truly 
Hispano-Arabian manufacture. 

Edresi, whose work on Africa and Spain was finished in 1154, writes, 
' here the gold coloured pottery is made which is exported to all countries.' 

In describing Calatayud, in the Caliphate of Cordova, he must have 
referred to potteries existing previous to 1120, when that place was con- 
quered by the Christians, who might have continued the previously worked 
Moorish potteries. 

But the rule of the successors of Abd-el-Rhaman had its end, the line 
becoming extinct in 1038 by the death of Mutamed-al-AUah ; anarchy 
followed, and the house, divided against itself, fell under the Moorish 
conquest of 1090. 

Granada became the chief seat of the Moorish rulers in 1235, and here 
they erected the fortress-palace of the Alhambra about 1273. 

The only works of Saracenic pottery assignable to the period anterior 
to this date, are, as beforesaid, the tiles of the Mosque at Cordova, unless, 
as has been suggested, the wares described under the last section as 
Siculo-Arabian can claim so early an origin. It would seem highly 
probable that the art of applying the metallic lustre pigments was of 
Egypto-Arabian origin, or was introduced by that people, not only into 
Spain, but even into Persia, from whence it was believed by many to have 
emanated, and directly from both or either of these sources into Italy. 



HISPANO-MORESOUE WARES 97 

We may therefore conclude that the wares under consideration were, 
for the most part the work of the Moorish potters and their descendants 
in Spain, and hence are now more correctly known as Hispano-Moresque 
pottery. The period of their production ranges from the twelfth to the last 
century ; and it has latterly again revived. 

To continue our historical sketch. After an occupation of the country 
for four centuries, the Moors were conquered by Ferdinand and Isabella 
in 1492. The Christian element would then predominate in the decoration 
of the pottery; and in 1566 the last blow was struck at Moorish art by 
the promulgation of a decree prohibiting the speaking or writing of their 
language, forbidding the use to men and women of their national dress 
and veil, and the execution of decorative works in the Moresque style. 

But the final persecution was under Philip III in 1610, when from six 
to nine hundred thousand persons were expelled the kingdom and their 
property confiscated, while other thousands perished by famine and the 
sword. 

When first recognized as a distinct family, these wares were found 
to be difficult of classification, from the entire absence of dates or 
names of manufactories. Labarte and others considered the copper- 
lustred pieces to be the earlier, but Mr., now Sir J. C. Robinson^, with 
his usual acumen, saw in the ornamentation of various examples, reasons 
for reversing this arrangement, and suggested one which subsequent obser- 
vation has only tended to confirm. He ranked those pieces having 
a decoration in a paler lustre, with interlacing and other ornaments in 
manganese and blue, coats of arms, &c., to be of the earlier period; 
those having the ornament in the paler lustre only, without colour, 
to be of nearly equal date, as also some of the darker coppery examples 
with shields of arms, and of a still later period those, so glaring in 
copper coloured lustre as to be more painful than pleasing to the eye. 

But it is to the late Baron J. C. Davillier- that we owe a clearer 
elucidation of the history of these wares, by the publication of documents 
referring to the subject, and by a careful examination of the monuments 
of Moorish art that remain to us in Spain. 

Since the death of that astute connoisseur and able writer, Senor 
Juan F. Riano has produced his handbook of the industrial arts of 
Spaing a considerable part of which is devoted to ceramic wares. 

^ Soulages Catalogue, p. 50. ^ Juan F. Riano, The Industrial Arts in 

2 Histoire des Faiences Hispano-Mo- Spain ; S. K. M. Handbook, 8vo, London, 

resques a reflets metalliques. Paris, Didron, 1890. 

1861. 

H 



98 • HISPA NO-MORESQUE WARES 

Referring to facts, and confirming, for the most part, the information 
previously afforded by M. DavilHer in his excellent work, which, however, 
Seiior Riafio only notices as an 'interesting little brochure,' he tells 
us of fragments and whole pieces, some inscribed, and probably of the 
early years of the eleventh century, which have been found at Cordova. 
On one piece a stag, and, on a plate, a falcon perched on a horse's back, 
are depicted, presumed to be the work of the Saracenic potters. Notwith- 
standing these facts, he doubts whether the vases of the Alhambra were 
made in Spain, and, believing that the use of the lustre enrichment had 
its origin in Persia, he inclines to the opinion that those vases may have 
been made in and imported from that country, an opinion shared, we 
believe, by very few connoisseurs : the fact that on one of the well- 
known vases birds, and on the other antelopes, are represented, being, in his 
opinion, indicative of a Persian rather than a Moorish origin ; allowing, 
however, that as the now lost vase bore the arms of the Moorish kings 
of Granada, they may have been made in Andalusia. 

Seiior Riaiio informs us that there was a guild of potters at 
Barcelona in 1304, and that statutes existed in 1355. He refers to large 
wine jars made at Toledo and Seville with incised ornamentation, a fine 
one of which is in the South Kensington Museum. Also to well-heads 
of pottery from Toledo, with Cufic inscriptions in relief; one such is in 
the same collection (No. 1763, '71). 

In the abstract of Piccolpasso's manuscript, which has been given in 
the introductory chapters, will be found (page 63) a description of the 
process in use at Gubbio for producing the metallic lustre, as communi- 
cated to him by M°. Cencio ; and we shall see that it was by a similar 
process, with small variations in the ingredients and manner of manipulation, 
that this enrichment was applied to the Spanish wares. M. Davillier 
gives us the result of experiments made at Sevres, and others by 
M. Louis Carrand, which confirm the recipe given by Piccolpasso, and 
prove that copper and silver, reduced from their salts by the action of 
smoke upon the heated surface, were the metals employed. 

It has been presumed that this mode of decoration is of Arabian, 
or perhaps, with greater probability, of Eg3'^pto-Arabian origin, and that 
it was introduced by that people into Europe, as also into Persia and 
other countries ; in corroboration of this opinion is adduced the discovery, 
by the late Sir H. Layard, of fragments and tiles of stanniferous glaze 
and lustre decoration, at Khorsabad, under some twelve feet of earth. 
Others are attributed to the ninth century by M. Lenormant, while in 
Persia we hear of those on the mosque of Natinz of the twelfth 
century ; and in the South Kensington Museum are fragments brought 



MALAGA 99 

by M. Mechin from the ruins of RheT, a city which was destroyed in 
the twelfth centur}'. These fragments, representing human figures and 
animals, were in all probability the work of Persian and not of Arabian 
potters. The use of the oxide of tin to produce an opaque white enamel 
has also been attributed to an Arab source. We are, however, disposed 
to think that both those methods were known to an earlier civilization 
on the banks of the Tigris or Euphrates, or, ma3'hap, in Egypt, from 
whence it ma}- have been derived by the Persians and Arabians. 



MALAGA. 

M. Daviliier was of opinion that in all probability this was the earliest 
site of the manufacture, and argues that its maritime situation and trade 
with the East and its proximity to Granada would seem to warrant that 
opinion, which, however, is not confirmed by the earliest documentary 
evidence yet brought to light, that of the traveller Edrisi referred to 
above in reference to Cordova. 

One Ibn-Batoutah, a native of Tangier and a traveller, writing in 1350^, 
after journe3ing through the East, states that 'at Malaga, the beautiful 
gilt potter}' or porcelain is made, which is exported to the most distant 
countries.' He makes no mention of a fabrique at Granada in describing 
that cit}', and we may therefore reasonably conclude that Malaga was 
the centre of this industry in the Moorish kingdom at the time he wrote, 
and if so there is some probability that the celebrated Alhambra vase was 
made there. From the stj'le of its ornamentation, the form of the 
characters in the inscriptions, and other inferences, the date of this piece 
may be fairly assigned to the middle of the fourteenth century, which 
would be about the same period as that traveller's visit to the city. It 
has nevertheless been ascribed by others to an earlier time, about 1320. 
This vase is so generally and well known that we need only allude to 
its characteristic form and richly decorated surface. It has been figured 
in Mr. Owen Jones's work on the Alhambra, from which there is a wood- 
cut in the third edition of Marr3'at's History of Potter}^, and also in 
other books-; but, as we were informed by M. Daviliier, never quite 
correctly. He caused a large photograph to be taken of it and a cast from 
the handle. This vase is said to have been found in the sixteenth 
centur}' under the pavement of the Alhambra, together with several 

^ Voj'ages d'Ibn-Batoutah, Traduction dades Arabes, with text, by P. Lozano. 
Defremery, Paris, 8vo, 1858. 4to. Madrid, 1785. 

' It was first engraved in the Antique- 

H 2 



TOO HISPANO-MORESQUE WARES 

others, all of which were filled with gold, a tradition which may perhaps 
have some foundation in fact. The first mention of it occurs in a work 
by a Doctor Echeverria, called Paseos por Granada, or Walks through 
Granada, in which a curious dialogue is given between an imaginary 
stranger and a native, by whom he is conducted to the garden 
called 'Adarves,' connected with the Alhambra, laid out, he says, by 
means of the treasure found, and there he is shown the vase and its 
companion, together with some fragments of a third. It thus appears 
certain that about 1764 two of the vases remained and portions of 
a third. The second vase, also engraved in the Antiquedades Arabes, 
was decorated with birds instead of antelopes, and bore the device of 
the kings of Granada, which is so constantly repeated on the azulejos 
of the Alhambra, one of which is in the British Museum and another in 
the South Kensington, 

The late M. Fortuny found in the wall of a house at Granada a 
remarkable tile, or rather slab, of lustred faience, which he was enabled 
to secure ; at the dispersion of that able artist's effects it was sold, and 
again brought to the hammer in Paris on May 8, 1894, at the dispersion 
of objects belonging to the Due de Dino, and was secured for Spain by 
Don G. I. de Osma at the large price of 19,500 francs. 

This remarkable azulejo measures 90 centimetres by 44 wide. It is 
covered with a diaper of foliated sprays, flowers and scrolls, with birds 
and shields bearing the arms of the kings of Granada, but without the 
device which accompanies them on the tiles of the Alhambra. On 
a surrounding border is an inscription of ' Neskhy' characters, in panels, 
surrounded by a ribbon, which also encloses rosettes and the shield of arms 
repeated. The whole is in pale golden lustre on a creamy white ground, 
the inscription, &c. being reserved on the lustred border. This inscription 
reads (as translated by M. Ch. Schefer), ' Glory to our master the Sultan 
.Abouf Hadjhddj] Nacir tdin^ Ellah ' (who gives his aid to the religion of 
God). This important inscription shows that the date of the piece is 
between 1333 and 1354, during the reign of that prince, who did most 
for the embellishment of the Alhambra. It is figured in the illustrated 
catalogue of the latter sale. 

The Alhambra vase was copied at the Sevres manufactory in 1842, after 
drawings made from the original by Dauzats\ and since by Messrs. Deck, 
in faience, of the original size after the cast and photographs procured by 
M. Davillier. This last is now in the South Kensington Museum. 

The fabrique of Malaga existed in the sixteenth century, as we learn 

' Brongniart and Riocreux, Musee Ceramique de Sevres, P. pi. iii. fig. 2. 



MAJORCA loi 

from Lucio Marineo, known as the chronicler of their Majesties Ferdinand 
and Isabella. Writing of the memorable things of Spain in 1517, he says 
that * at Malaga are made also ver}^ beautiful vases of faience.' 

After this date no further record is found, and M. Davillier thinks it 
probable that the works gradually declined as those of Valencia increased 
in importance, and that b}' the middle of the sixteenth century they had 
entirely ceased. 

He attributes to these potteries three large deep basins in the Hotel 
Cluny at Paris (No. 2584, &c.), which are covered w4th designs in golden 
reflet and blue, of great similarity to those of the Alhambra vase ; also two 
vases in the same collection (No. 2049). Some pieces with coats of arms 
and Christian emblems are also probably of a later period of that fabrique, 
and made for Spanish and other Christian purchasers. 

The fine vase from the Soulages collection now in the South 
Kensington Museum (No. 8698 '63) is also attributed by M. Davillier to 
Malaga, and a vase of similar character in the Museum at Stockholm 
is figured in Delange's folio work. In the Museum of the University 
at Bologna are three vases of like kind. 

But few azutejos with metallic lustre were made by the Moors in 
Spain. Some exist in the ancient Moorish villa in Granada known as 
the ' Cuarto real,' one of which, ornamented with pale golden arabesques 
on yellowish white ground, is figured at page 2 of Mr. Marryat's third 
edition. 

MAJORCA. 

The fabrique of Majorca is also thought to be one of the most ancient, 
and the extension of its manufactures by commerce is indirectly proved 
by the adoption of the term * Maiolica,' slightly altered from Majorica, 
and signifying in the Majorcan style, or after the Majorcan manner, by 
the potters of Italy for such of their wares as were decorated with the 
metallic lustre. Indeed it is more than probable, that from a Moorish 
or perhaps a Persian source, or both, this process was acquired b}' the 
potters of Pesaro and Diruta, &c., and modified as well as improved by 
the Italian Maestri. The lustre colours of the Italian wares differ 
materially on the one hand from those of Spain, and on the other from 
the Persian, taking an intermediate character, and superior to both in 
richness of effect. 

Scaliger^, writing in the first half of the sixteenth century, speaks highly 
of the wares of the Balearic Islands; but not being an 'expert' in ceramic 

' I. C. Scaliger, Exercitationes, &c., ex. xcii. 



I02 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARES 

productions, after praising the porcelain recently brought from China, 
admires what he calls their imitations made at Majorca. * So much so,' says 
he,' that it is difficult to distinguish the false from the true(!), those of the 
Balearic Islands not being their inferiors in form or brilliancy, even 
surpassing them in elegance ; it is said that such excellent ones are now 
brought that they are preferred to the most beautiful pewter utensils for 
the table.' ' We call them " majolica" changing one letter in the name 
of the Balearic Island, where we are assured that the most beautiful are 
made.' Interesting testimony to the importation of these wares into Italy 
and the knowledge of their origin, as also to the derivation of the term 
apphed to the home manufacture of Pesaro, Diruta, and Gubbio. 

M. Davillier makes some further remarks and quotations on this term, 
and upon the story of the bacini which adorn the Pisan and other 
churches, confirming the views of the writer, as expressed in his paper 
on that subject \ and instancing a plate in the tower of the church of 
Santa Francesca-Romana, near to the Basilica of Constantine at Rome, 
as the only example having the metallic lustre. The writer well knows the 
example alluded to, and at first formed the same opinion as M. Davillier ; 
but repeated observations of it, in different lights, have ^caused him 
to alter that opinion, and to conclude that it was devoid of metallic 
lustre, but that, from partial decomposition of the glaze by the action of 
the atmosphere, it had acquired a degree of iridescence, which, at that 
height, might be readily mistaken for ' reflet metallique.' Such is also 
doubtless the case with those at Pavia and elsewhere which, on too hasty 
observation, have been described by later writers as lustred. 

Although presumably of much earlier date, we know no record of Major- 
can pottery occurring till that of Giovanni di Bernardi da Uzzano, the son 
of a rich Pisan merchant, who in 1442 wrote a treatise on commerce and 
navigation, published by Paquini ^, in which he speaks of the manufactures 
of Majorca and Minorca, particularly mentioning faience, which, adds he, 
* had then a very large sale in Italy.' 

There was a great commerce between these islands and Italy, as 
instanced by Capmany ^, who cites several authors in support of his 
statements, particularly Balducci-Pegolotti, who gives a list of towns in 

^ Read before the Society of Antiquaries elsewliere, about some of wliich notices have 

on Feb. 16, i860. Proceedings, vol. i. p. 94, since been written announcing them as 

but by an oversight not published in the newly observed ! 

Archaeologia till 2nd series, vol. xlii. p. 379. " Paquini, Delia decima, &c. Lisbon and 

When that paper was written, the writer Lucca, 4to, 1765. 

well knew the roundels in the church ^ Capmany, Memorias Historicas. Barce- 

towers of Pavia, at Rome, Bologna and lona, tom. iii, 4to. 1780. 



PLATE VI 




CIRCULAR UISH. HISPANO-MORESQUE 
XV or Early XVI Century 




KWER. HISPANO-MORESQUE 
XV or Early XVI Century 



VALENCIA 103 

Italy having commercial relations with Majorca in the fourteenth centurj'. 
That island possessed at that period 900 vessels, some of 400 tons burden, 
and counted some 20,000 sailors. Muratori ^ states that at the commence- 
ment of the fifteenth century Pedro Santon, a Catalonian corsair, commanded 
a ship with a crew of 500 men. These proofs of commercial intercourse 
between Spain and Italy w^ould readily account for the quantity of Hispano- 
Moresque ware found in the latter countr}-. 

M. J. M. Bover de Rostelli of Majorca has found evidence that the 
principal seat of the manufacture was at ' Ynca,' in the interior of the 
island; and in confirmation of that discovery some plates have been 
observed by M. Davillier in collections on which the arms of that island 
are represented. One such, he states, is in the Hotel Cluny (No. 2,050), 
and is probably' of the fifteenth century. It is Moresque in style, with 
illegible inscriptions, in an odd mixture of the Arabic and Gothic characters; 
the lustre is of a red colour, the arms in the centre. He is mistaken in 
referring to another example in the British Museum; no piece bearing 
the arms said to be of that town, and communicated by a resident in the 
island, is in that collection. These arms are, paly, gules and or, on a fess 
argent, a dog in the act of bounding, sable. 

There would seem also to have been a fabrique at- Ivica, for Vargas ^, 
in his description of the Balearic Islands, says : * It is much to be regretted 
that Ivi9a has ceased to make her famous vases of faience, destined for 
exportation as well as for local consumption.' But of their precise nature 
he gives us no information, and we have no knowledge. 

The generally accepted idea that lustred wares were produced in and 
exported from the Balearic Islands, sustained, as it would appear to be, 
by the statements above quoted or referred to, has been disputed by Don 
Alvaro Campaner y Fuertes in a letter to the late Baron Davillier. 

. VALENCIA. 

This kingdom was in the time of the Romans noted for its works in pottery, 
those produced at Saguntum, the present Murviedro, near to the city of 
Valencia, having a great reputation at that period according to Pliny, who 
at book XXXV. ch. 12 of his Natural Histor}^ mentions the jasper red pottery 
of Saguntum, where 1,200 workmen were employed 'K 

To these, after the occupation of the Goths, succeeded the Arab 

' Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores. ^ See a work on this pottery by the 

Fol. Milan, 1723. Comte Antonio de Lumiares de Valcarcel, 

^ Vargas, Descripcion de las islas Bale- published in 1779. 
ares y Pityusas. 4to. Madrid, 1787. 



I04 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARES 

workmen who accompanied the Mussulman conquest in 711. Again, when 
the Moors were, in 1239, subjected to the Christian domination under 
' layme ' I of Aragon, surnamed ' el conquistador,' the potter's art was 
considered of sufficient importance to claim a special charter from the 
king, who granted it to the Saracens of Xativa, a small town of the kingdom, 
now called San-Felipe. This charter ^ provides that every master potter 
making vases, domestic vessels, tiles, * rajolas ' (an Arabic name for wall- 
tiles, synonymous with 'azulejos'), should pay a 'besant' annually, and 
freely pursue his calling. 

We cannot agree with M. Davillier in thinking that lustred pottery was 
not made in this province anterior to the fifteenth century, and that it 
was introduced from Malaga. 

In 1442 Giovanni di Bernardo da Uzzano refers to the wares brought 
from Spain, which were then highly esteemed in Italy ; he describes them 
as a white ware, covered with ornament of golden lustre and with 
capricious lettering ; they were so much esteemed at Venice that ship-loads 
were imported every year. In 1437 a law was passed forbidding the 
importation of lavori di terra, but excepting correzuoli (crucibles) and wares 
de Maiolica. This law, which is referred to by the late Sir Wm. Drake in 
his notes on Venetian Ceramics, p. 11, as in force in 1455, is older than 
the mention of it by Uzzano. 

In 1474 a still stronger decree was passed prohibiting importation of 
any earthen wares, with the exception of crucibles and Majolica che viene 
da Valenza. This is believed by Sig. Urbani de Ghelt of to be the first 
application of the word Majolica to denote a class of wares, viz. those 
enriched with the metallic lustre (see pi. 6). 

Marineo Siculo^, writing in 1517, devotes a chapter to the utensils 
and other objects of faience made in Spain, in which he states that the 
most esteemed are those of Valencia, which are so well worked and * so 
well gilded '; whilst Capmany [pp. cit.) records a decree of the Municipal 
Council of Barcelona in 1528, relative to the exportation of faience to 
Sicily and elsewhere, and in which ' la Loza de Valencia ' is named. 

Antonio Beuter, in his Chronicle printed in 1530, mentions the places 
whence the potter's earth was procured, and says it is ' extremely good 
at Paterna, Manises, Quartae, Carcre, Villalonga, Alaquaz, &c., so much 
so that Corebus, the inventor of pottery (according to Pliny), could not 
make better at Athens ; they equal the vases of Corinth, and those of Pisa, 

^ Cited in the Coleccion de Documentos Memorables de Espana, Alcala de Henares. 
Ineditos of D. M. Salva, torn, xviii. Folio, 1539, Lib. i, fol. v. v°. 

' Lucio Marineo Siculo, De las Cosas 



VALENCIA 105 

of Pesaro, or elsewhere do not surpass them for beauty nor for fine 
workmanship.' 

Again, BarrejTos, a Portugese, in his Chorographia \ praising the 
pottery of Barcelona, says that it is 'even superior' to that of 
Valencia. 

And in 1564 Martin de Vic3'ana- speaks of the town of 'Biar' as 
having fourteen potteries, where vases, dishes, &c. were made for the 
use of the district and for exportation. The town of 'Trayguera' had 
twenty-three fabriques where large vases and other objects of earthenware 
were made. Both these towns are in the province of Valencia. 

Escolano^, another Valencian writer, speaks of the wares made from 
time immemorial with great elegance of workmanship at ' Paterna,* where, 
he states, the Christian population is mixed with the Moors ; also the 
• bourg d'Alaquaz,' where beautiful enamelled {vidriados) ware was made ; 
and ' Manises,' famous for its enamelled faience and * azulejos*.' The 
small towns, previously mentioned b}^ Beuter, he also names, but par- 
ticularly praises the wares of ' Manises,' as being so beautiful and elegant 
' that,' sa3's he, ' in exchange for the faience that Italy sends us from Pisa, 
we send vessels to that country laden with the wares of Manises.* 
Another writer, Fr. Diago, in 1613, after praising the wares of Paterna 
and Carcre — among them large tiles for roofing lustred with brilliant 
copper colour, some of which are now to be seen on buildings not 
anterior to the seventeenth centurj', as the cupola of the church at Manises 
and others at Valencia — speaks specially of the faiences of Manises, ' so 
well gilded and painted with such art that all the world is enamoured 
with them, so much so that the Pope, the Cardinals, and the Princes send 
their orders hither, wondering that with simple earth such exquisite 
things can be made.' 

The expulsion of the Moors in 1610 b3' Philip III gave the fatal blow 
to this industry', as we learn from contemporary' authors that many of 
the banished artisans were potters ( ' olleros 'j. 

From time immemorial St. John the Evangelist has been particularly 
venerated at Valencia, and in the grand processions of Corpus Christi the 
emblematic eagle is carried, holding in its beak a banderole, on which is 

' Barreyros, Chorographia de Alquns * These * azulejos ' were exported to 

Lugares. 4to. Coimbra. various countries ; there is a pavement 

* Martin de Vicyana, Cronica de Valencia. formed of them in the Mayor's Chapel 

Valencia, fol. 1564. at Bristol (see Lysons' Antiq. of Glou- 

' Escolano, Historia de la Insigne y cestershire). One, from Haccombe 

Coronada Ciudad y Regno de Valencia. Church in Devonshire, is in the British 

Folio, Valencia, i6to. Museum. 



io6 - HISPANO-MORESQUE WARES 

inscribed the first sentence of his gospel : * hi principio crat Verbum et 
Verhuni erat apttd Deum! 

On some pieces of Hispano-Moresque ware this sentence is inscribed, 
and the eagle sometimes covers the front, sometimes the back, of certain 
pieces. There is therefore reason to infer that such pieces were made 
in one of the fabriques of Valencia; and if so their style would be, to a 
considerable extent, t3^pical of the Valencian pottery. 

The decoration was probably inspired by the wares of Malaga, and 
it is likely that many of the pieces of the fifteenth century, bearing 
inscriptions in Gothic characters with animals, &c. in blue, may be of 
this fabrique. 

Thus in the British Museum is a plate (figured in Marryat, p. ii) 
painted with an antelope and Moresque ornament in blue, and with the 
inscription- ^^^^^ ^^^^j.^^^ 

guartia nns. 

Others occur, though very rarely, with Spanish inscriptions. 

In the province of Valencia, at Murcia, and at several other places, 
we are told that excellent lustred wares were made, but that none were 
such important centres of the art as Manises. 

Eximenus, writing of Valencia in 1499, says, ' The twenty-seventh 
excellent thing is, that some artificial objects are made there, which bring 
great renown to the country, &c. . . . but above all in the beauty of the 
golden pottery so splendidly painted at Manises, which enamours every one 
so much, that the Pope and Cardinals and the Princes of the world obtain 
it by special favour, and are astonished that such excellent and noble 
works can be made of earth.' 

In our classification of the lustred wares of Oriental derivation, made 
for the South Kensington Museum Catalogue in 1871, we were led to 
believe that a peculiar kind of enamelled earthenware, covered with a dark 
blue glaze, and enriched with foliated vermicular diapering of rich coppery 
lustre, all or nearly all the few known pieces of which had been procured 
in Sicily, was an insular production by Moorish potters of the fifteenth 
century. We ventured to class it as such under the term of Siculo- 
Moresque\ 

Subsequent information afforded to our much regretted friend the 
late Baron Charles Davillier, shortly before his death, revealed the fact 
that these pieces were a production of Manises, and probably of somewhat 
later date than had been supposed. The finest example known is a tazza 

1 Vide S. K. Cat. of Maiolica, p. 65. 



VALENCIA 107 



now in the South Kensington Museum, of which there is a woodcut 
engraving in that work, 

Mr. (now Sir) J. C. Robinson remarks on this piece in the catalogue of 
the Soulages Collection : * This tazza is the finest specimen which has 
yet appeared of a variety of Maiolica ware of great rarity, and of the origin 
of which little is known with certainty. It is grounded with a deep 
blue translucent enamel, and covered, both inside and out, with a minute 
scroll diaper pattern in copper-coloured lustre, arranged in zones. From 
the fact of this, and all the other specimens of the same ware hitherto 
observ^ed, having been brought from Italy, and from the unmistakable 
evidence of the shapes of the pieces, which are decidedly in the style of 
that country', and apparently of the first half of the sixteenth century, the 
Italian origin of this ware may be held to be established.' 

He then refers to the approximation, in colour, of the ground, and 
the somewhat coppery lustre, to that of some Persian wares, the material 
of which is a siliceous frit covered by a vitreous glaze. It is quite 
possible that such pieces may have inspired, and been used as the originals 
from which their decoration was derived, while the forms were at the 
same time modified, to meet the Renaissance spirit and taste of the period 
of their production in Spain, and not in Italy as that able connoisseur 
suggested. 

In illustration of these remarks by Mr. Robinson, the reader is referred 
to pages 85 and 89 of this work, on the Persian and Siculo-Arabian 
wares, where the similarity of technical characteristics, and the theory 
that the latter may be of Sicilian origin, but the work of Arabian artisans, 
are considered. 

It is worthy of remark, from a technical point of view, that the transparent 
blue glaze of the specimen now illustrated is applied over an * engobe ' 
or thin wash of tin oxide or white clay which conceals the dark colour of the 
bod\^ In the original Oriental specimens, on the contrary, it is generally 
applied at once upon the ware, which is of a greyish white colour, and 
highly siliceous. 

Another and even larger, though less perfected, example was in the 
hands of Messrs. Sasson ; a barrel-shaped fountain, for wine or water, 
with orifice for tap below : on the wider part two lions are depicted in 
coppery lustre, face to face, surmounted by a coronet; the rest of the 
surface is covered with the vermicular diapering in coppery lustre, which 
is found on all the pieces known to us. The British Museum has some 
albarelli from the Henderson Collection, and there are others in the 
Louvre. Two small plates of this variety are in the Fortnum Collection at 
the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. It is worthy of note that on some of the 



io8 HISPANO-MORESOUE IV A RES 

pieces of this ware the (§) scroll in lustre colour occurs on the reverse ; 
could it be from this that the same scroll, so frequent on the lustred wares 
of Gubbio, may have been suggested ? 

Aragon. — Senor Riano refers to a deed, executed at Calatayud in 
1507, by one Muhamed ben Suleyman Attaalab, an artificer in gold lustre 
ware, engaging himself with Abdallah Alfoguey, to teach him that industry 
in four years and a half. They were both of the Moorish suburb of 
Aragon. 

At Muel, in the province of Aragon, near Saragozza, this industry 
was practised in 1585. Henrique Cock gives an interesting account, in 
his travels at that date, of the process then in practice for the production 
of these lustrous wares. 

He states, * The earthenware sold at Zaragoza is thus made ; first the 
vessels are fashioned of the local clay and they are baked in a proper oven ; 
removed, they are glazed with white and then polished ; afterwards make 
a wash of certain materials in the following way, — take 25 lbs. of lead 
(one arroba), add 3 or 4 pounds of tin, and as much of a sand found there- 
about ; fused into a glass, and after broken into small pieces ; pounded 
into a fine flour and kept for use.' This is doubtless the enamel glaze, 
but the action of the furnace in the oxidization of the two metals is not 
properly stated. It is noteworthy that previous to the application of the 
stanniferous enamel the piece is ^glazed with white and then polished'; 
this imphes the application of a 'pohshed' engobe beneath the enamel 
glaze. Afterwards to gild the pottery, he writes, * take strong vinegar, 
mix with about one shiUing of silver in powder, vermilion and red ochre 
and a little wire (or wine?); when mixed paint on with a feather and 
rebake. 

But a more accurate account of the process is to be found in a MS. in 
the British Museum, referred to by Sefior Riano (Egerton No. 507, MS. 
fol. 102). Count Florida Blanca, in 1785, wishing to establish a factory 
of lustred wares at Madrid, had the following report (epitomized) furnished 
to him from Manises: — 

* After baking, the pottery is glazed with white and blue, the only 
colours used except gold ; if it be painted on gold colour it can only be 
on the white glaze after twice baking; they are then lustred and baked 
with dry rosemary only. The white glaze is made of lead and tin fused 
together in a special oven ; after properly baking they become like an 
earth, and are then mixed with an equal weight of sand ; fine salt is added, 
again baked, and when cold pounded. The only good sand is from 
a cave at Benalquacil near Manises. For best glaze twenty-five pounds 
of lead and six to twelve of tin, and half a bushel of powdered fine salt ; 



VALENCIA 109 



less tin for an inferior quality. Five substances are required for the 
gold colour; copper three ounces, the older the better; silver about (as 
much as) one shilling, also old ; sulphur three ounces ; red ochre, and of 
strong vinegar a quart ; three pounds (of twelve ounces) of the scoriae 
left after this pottery is painted with gold colour (and doubtless baked) 
is added to the mixture. They are mixed thus,— a small quantity of 
sulphur is put into a crucible with two small bits of copper and between 
them a silver peseta ; the rest of the sulphur and copper is then added, 
placed on a fire, and made to boil until the sulphur is consumed and 
burnt away ; take off the fire, and when cold pound very fine ; the 
red ochre and scoriae are then added, mixed, and again pounded ; mixed in 
a basin with enough water to make a pasty consistence, it is then applied to 
the vessel with a stick (or brush ?). The piece is then baked for six hours.' 
At the commencement of the seventeenth century the Valencian wares 
had lost nearly all their Moresque character, and the employment of the 
copper lustre only was retained, designs with figures in the costumes of 
that period, and coarse leafage, birds, &c., with rococo ornaments. 

In 1780 Mr. Talbot Dillon, in his Travels in Spain, states that at 
Manises, a pretty village two leagues from Valencia, the people, mostly 
potters, make a beautiful faience of a copper-coloured gilding. 

In t8oi Fischer, a German traveller, speaks of the same wares, and 
M. Davillier found its last producer at Manises, one ' layme Cassans,' 
who varied his duties to his guests as a small innkeeper by making 
lustred pottery, with a simple wheel and small furnace, his wife assisting 
him in the decoration of the pieces. 

It would thus appear that although the fabrique of Malaga may have 
been more ancient, that of the province of Valencia was one of the 
most important in Spain. But many other potteries existed, as at 
Barcelona, whence Hieronymus Paulus, in 1491, writes, speaking of the 
faience of that place, as having been long esteemed and sought after 
even at Rome \ 

Talavera seems however to have been an important producer, by the 
statement of Marineo Siculo. We first find its productions mentioned 
in 1560, and again in 1573, when a fine white glazed pottery was made 
there, supplying the country round; it was also exported to Portugal 
and to India. A red pottery was also produced at Talavera, and of 
later time wares painted in blue and other colours on the white ground, 
some in imitation of Chinese patterns, others after the manner of Savona 
and of Rouen. Works existed at Triana ; Puente del Arzobispo ; laen 

' Apud Schott, Hispania Illustrata, torn. iii. 1491. 



no 



HISPANO-MORESOUE WARES 



in 1628 ; Toledo under Ignacio de Velasco in 1735 ; also at Segovia and 
Zamora. At Ivi9a the Royal ordinances refer to vessels of fine earth 
curiously worked, which were protections against poison. At Alcora, about 
1726, a large work was established by Don Buenaventura Pedro de Alcan- 
tara; privileges were granted and the business thrived, producing some 
three hundred thousand pieces annually of various kinds. Lustred ware 
was made in 1749, as also porcelain. 

These various productions of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
are referred to by Senor Riafio, who also tells us that in 1768 King 
Charles III founded and encouraged works at La Carolina and La Carlota 
in Andalusia, as also the well-known Buon Retiro at Madrid. 

That these Hispano-Moresque wares were imported into England 
is proved by fragments found in London, on one of which, in the British 
Museum, is represented a man in the costume of the period of Henry IV 
of England, about 1400. 

Makers' names have never been observed upon pieces of this pottery, 
and marks are very rarely met with. On the back of two small plates 
with deep centres, in which is painted a shield of arms bearing a crowned 
eagle with open wings, in blue, the rest of the surface being diapered 
with small vine or briony leaves and interlaced tendrils in concentric 
order, of golden lustre on the creamy white ground, are the accompanying 
marks. 





These pieces are similar, perhaps of the same service, probably of 
Malaga or Valencia, and of the fifteenth century ; they are now in the 
writer's collection at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. A mark like to 
the first is on a piece in the Salting collection. 

In the British Museum, from the late Mr. Henderson's rich collection. 



VALENCIA III 



is a vase, on one side of which is the inscription : ' Illustrissimo Signore 
Cardinale D'Este in Urbe Roma.' It is probably one of those pieces 
of Manises manufacture spoken of by Fr. Diago in 1613. 

Mr. Chaffers also gives us marks occurring on a piece, probably 
of the same fabrique, then in Mr. Reynolds' Collection. They consist of 
a hand, and the date 1610, in a circle on the face of the piece, and the 
letter M, surmounted b}' an O, on the reverse. 

The others given as marks in that useful work are probably only 
ornamental devices. 

The Louvre and the Hotel Cluny at Paris contain fine examples of 
this potter}', as also the Museum at Sevres ; and in the British Museum 
are specimens of considerable interest, already referred to ; also a fine 
dish, having the arms of Castile and Leon impaled with Aragon, which 
may have been made for Eleanor, daughter of Pedro IV of Aragon, 
Queen of John I, King of Castile and Leon, married 1375, died 1382 ; 
and a sort of biberon, with spouts at the sides. Both of these are 
engraved in Mr. Marryat's work. 

The South Kensington Museum is rich, but perhaps the finest collec- 
tion in England is that of Mr. F. Ducane Godman, richer in examples of 
Persian, of the so-called Siculo-Arabian, and of Hispano-Moresque than 
any public or private collection in Europe. Mr. Salting also has many 
fine examples. 

A foreign and distinct character of artistic production was introduced, 
at Seville, b}'^ Niciiloso Francesco, an Italian, who also in an inscription 
informs us that he was a Pisano. The taste for the Italian Renaissance 
was spreading into Spain, partly through the introduction of Dello and 
other painters, and particularly by the return of Alonso Berruguete after 
his sojurn in Italy ; moreover, we learn from Vasari that works of the 
Delia Robbia botega had been sent to Spain by merchants, and that 
Luca had forwarded to the king figures, in the round, of enamelled 
terra-cotta, and some in marble. We have notice also of the large 
exportation of Italian wares from Pisa, &c., into Spain. 

Some pieces of the wares of Urbino, &c., exist in collections, on which 
the arms of Spanish famihes are painted; two such, doubtless part 
of a service, were in the possession of Baron Antony de Rothschild in 
London; they are fine works of the Fontana school of Urbino, perhaps 
by Orazio, and represent subjects from Amadis de Gaule ; on each is the 
shield of arms of a Spanish house. 

But to Nkuloso Francesco Spain owes two of the finest and most 
original monuments of the ceramic art of the early sixteenth century 
which have been presented to our times, viz. the altar front and dossale 



112 HISPANO-MORESQUE WARES 

in the chapel erected by Ferdinand and Isabella in the Alcazar at 
Seville, and the rich fagade to the door of the church of Santa Paula 
in a suburb of that city. 

His earliest recorded work is the tomb of Monsignore Lopez, in 
the church of Santa Anna at Triano, the seat of the Sevillian potteries 
on the other side of the river ^ It consists of a picture, painted on tiles, 
and representing the deceased, recumbent and holding a book between 
his hands; on either side of the pillow a peculiar quadrangular knot 
ornament is painted, which suggests a somewhat varying figure occurring 
on pieces of Faentine and Caffaggiolo make (South Kensington Museum 
Catalogue, No. 8963, '63). The inscription states, ESTA • FIGURA • I • 
SEPULTURA- ES. Dl MISO- LOPEZ • EN -EL- AGNO- DEL- MIL .CCCCCIII. 

The work next in date, and far superior in execution, is the altar in 
the Alcazar, l^he frontal bears a central roundel, on which is represented 
the Annunciation, with surrounding wreath of fruits and leafage; this is 
sustained on either side by a female figure holding a flambeau and with 
scaly termination, ending in scroll-work and a cornucopia ; above are 
shields bearing the royal arms; the yoke and motto TANTO • MONTA • ; 
the fasces of arrows; the crowned F; and the crowned Y or double J. 

The dossale consists of a large central picture representing the 
salutation of Mary and Elizabeth, surrounded by a framing, on which is 
painted the tree of Jesse, between classic mouldings ; again beyond are 
grotesques after the manner of the Loggie, and on either side the yoke 
and motto, and the arrows, are depicted on wreath-surrounded roundels. 
On a banderole is the signature NICULOSO • FRANCISCO • ITALIANO- ME • 
FECIT, and above, on the left, AGNO • DEL • MIL • CCCCCIill • 

This remarkable work of ceramic painting is on tiles carefully joined 
and covered with a rich glaze, the colouring admirably managed, and the 
execution masterly. The general design would seem to have been 
inspired, and in much copied, from an illuminated manuscript or a painted 
glass window of Flemish character. 

The decoration of the portal of Santa Paula is a work of singular 
beauty ; the moulded brick-work in two colours is in itself a master- 
piece, the tile covering extending outside the arch from he capitals of 
the Gothic pilasters. This broad band is grounded with grotesques of the 
greatest variety and careful execution in dark blue, green, yellow, and 
white upon a rich orange ground, reminding one of the finer pieces of 
the Siena fabrique ; upon this are seven roundels after the manner of the 

^ Pedro de Medina, writing in the first de Espagna, gives curious details of the 
half of the sixteenth century. His work, making of faience at Seville, in chapter 
Libro de Grandezas y Cosas Memorables xxii. 



VALENCIA 1 13 



Delia Robbia, having subjects in relief of white and coloured enamel, 
each surrounded b}^ a garland of fruits, leafage, &c. in colour. Above 
the arching but beneath the cornice, on a grounding of tiles tinted as 
a fleecy clouded sky, on either side an angel in white enamelled ware 
is standing on a bracket of lustred surface ; above each of these is 
a square panel bearing the sacred monogram in rehef of Hispano-Gothic 
lettering, also of lustrous surface, sustained each by a kneeling angel in 
white. Surmounting the cornice are alternating cherubs, winged heads, 
and flambeaux of white enamelled ware. Over the door is a shield 
sustained by an eagle and bearing the royal arms, of white marble, 
relieved against a ground of painted tiles; on its right the yoke and 
motto, on its left the arrows are painted each on a shield. This grand 
work is inscribed by its maker, NICULOSO • FRANCISCO • ITALIANO- ME • 
FECIT • IN • EL- ACNO- DEL • 1504; and again in another place 1508, and 
elsewhere NICULOSO • PISANO. The eff"ect upon the eye of this rich 
portal, when seen in the full blaze of a Sevillian sun, is gorgeous 
indeed, but well harmonized and softened by the judicious use of colour 
and the negative toning of the brickwork, upon which it rests as a richly 
jewelled crown. It is not offensively glaring, as one feels, at first sight, 
the general effect of the Delia Robbia friezes on the hospital at Pistoia. 
The fourth and only other known work by this master ceramist is over 
the door of the Convent of Nuns, Las Monjas de Santa Paula, in an 
outskirt of Seville. It is a large picture painted on tiles representing 
the saint, nimbed and clothed in a long mantle. She holds a book 
between her hands; there is a border of trofei, and the date, 1504. It 
is framed in a wide border of brickwork of two colours ; on each 
side is the inscription SANTA-PAULA-; below are the arms of Portugal 
and Spain and those of the foundress Yasabel Enriquez. 

These works are accurately described by the late Baron I. C. Davillier 
in the Gazette des Beaux Arts (vol. xviii. 28), and, with the exception of 
the last, were studied and greatly admired b}'^ the writer in 1884. 

He partially agrees with his lamented friend in the opinion that Faenza 
or Caffaggiolo may have been the schools at which Niculoso learnt to 
mature his art ; in that art he may have been first grounded at his 
native Pisa, but the writer is inclined to think that the knotted ornament on 
the tomb of Lopez may refer to Faenza, or to Faentine artists working in 
Tuscany, and that Niculoso may probably have graduated under the Delia 
Robbia, and also learnt some scheme of colouring after the manner of the 
Siena botega of M*^. Benedetto. We must, however, bear in mind that 
at Faenza, in the vault of the Cathedral, are enamelled rilievos in the Delia 
Robbia manner, but which are believed to be of Faentine production 

I 



114 SICULO-MORESQUE WARES 

between 1474-7 ^- Could Niculoso have had anything to do with these 
works previous to his emigration to Spain ? 

In the British Museum is a plate, on which is painted a helmeted male 
head heightened with lustre and having scrolls of lustre on the back, 
after the manner of some Hispano-Moresque pieces. This plate is stated 
to have been so long in private possession before it was presented to the 
Museum, that all suspicion of modern imitation is denied. It is such 
a piece as might have been produced by an Italian maiolica painter, 
working at a fabrique where Moorish wares were still made, and possibly 
from the Niculoso botega. 

Of other artists working in Spain, mention is made of Jiian Flores, 
a Fleming, who painted tiles for the royal palaces at Madrid, at the Pardo, 
and at Segovia; he was master tile-maker to Philip II, in 1565. (Riaiio.) 

SICULO-MORESQUE. 

The evidence afforded by excavations and investigations in Sicily is 
ably put together by Prince Filangieri, in his report to the Minister of 
Public Instruction on this subject ^. 

The most ancient pieces of what is supposed to be Siculo-Moresque 
pottery are those found in 1864, on demolishing the church of S. Giacomo 
la Marina at Palermo, and those found over the vault of the Martorano 
in 1870; the Martorano dates from the twelfth century, and these are 
believed to be contemporary. They bear imitation Arab mottoes. 

In the Verdura, Scala, and Salinas collections are other specimens, as 
also in the Museum at Palermo. They have certain marks, as * AlmtoUy 
made of earth ; * ton mohtawa' impermeable clay ; * tin-a-mali' plastic clay ; 
and some names of makers as 'Ibrahim' and ' Bami.' Two notable 
examples are at Mazara, one in the house of Count Giovanni Burzio; the 
other in the sacristy of the church of the Madonna del Paradiso. Prince 
Filangieri refers to Marr^^at, ' History of Pottery and Porcelain, ' ed. 1857, 
p. 14, for illustration of a piece in the Sevres Museum ; he further states 
that these all resemble in form and make the celebrated Alhambra 
vase; the inscriptions are in large Cufic character, Uillahi-l-molk' the 
power is in God ; on the Burzio vase * Success ' in Arabic, a usual 
expression on Mussulman ornamental inscriptions in Sicily or elsewhere. 

There may be some slight confusion of the siliceous and stanniferous 

' Vide Carlo Malagola, Memorie Storiche ^ Gaetano Filangieri, Principe di Sa- 

sulle Maioliche di Faenza, p. 464. F. Ar- triano, II Museo Artistico Industriale e 

gnani, Le Ceramiche e Maioliche Faentine, le Scuole Officine de Napoli ; Napoli, 

fol. Faenza, 1889, p. 21. 1881. 



SICULOMORESQUE WARES 115 

wares in these references to specimens in collections, but for the most part 
they would appear to be similar to, if not actually, the workmanship of 
Moorish potters in Spain, with which country Sicily was in intimate 
political connexion. The distinct proof of the fabrication of similar Moorish 
pottery in Sicily is yet wanting, and the exact agreement of the above- 
quoted examples with the well-known varieties of Hispano-Moresque 
pottery would rather lead to an adverse conclusion. Porous water jugs 
or coolers, probabl}^ of the sixteenth century, and of the same form as the 
well-known Rhodian pyriform jugs with loop handle, and which have 
elegantly designed openwork strainers inside the neck, are doubtless the 
workmanship of Moorish hands or their descendants in Sicily, where 
they are occasionally found. 



I 2 



EUROPEAN 



PLUMBEOUS OR LEAD GLAZED AND STANNIFEROUS 
OR ENAMELLED WARES 

ITALIAN 

Sgraffiati, Graffiti, or Incised Wares. 

THIS mode of ornamentation, one of the most primitive and universal 
in a ruder form, appears but little on the early glazed wares of our own 
country ^ ; of those of France a fine example, attributed to the fourteenth 
century, is preserved in the Museum at Sevres, and is figured in De 
Brongniart and Riocreux's quarto volume on that collection, M. PL xxix. 
3, as also at page 104 of M. Jacquemart's Merveilles de la Ceramique, 
part 2. 

In Italy it was brought to a high degree of perfection, not merely as 
a manner of ornamenting pottery, but applied on a large scale to mural 
decoration. It appears to have been in use from an early period, examples 
of a coarse kind occurring among the plates incrusted in the towers of 
churches of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries at Pisa and elsewhere, 
and it was probably in use before, or coeval with, the earliest rudely painted 
wares. 

Of such are a small bowl of Sgraffiato or incised ware, No. 14. '71 in 
the South Kensington Museum; four leaves and zig-zag border, incised 
and coloured with green and brown on the creamy white ground ; it is 
one of those smaller pieces inserted in the church towers of Pisa and 
other cities of Italy, mention of which is made in the Introductory chapter. 
This and another were procured at Pisa by Sig. Fezzi, we are not informed 
from what church, and it is difficult to assign an exact date ; but they are in 

^ In the British Museum is a dish rudely incised, and dated 1699; also portion of 
a small jug. 



ITALIAN INCISED WARES 117 

all probability not later than about 1300. The other is a small bowl of 
glazed earthenware, No. 15. '71 in the same Museum; leaves and a rude 
leafage border outlined in manganese, and dashed with green and yellow 
brown ; thirteenth or fourteenth century : although not ornamented with 
sgraffio, this piece is clearly of the same period and manufacture as the 
preceding, and is from the same source. The reader is referred to a paper 
in the Archaeologia of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. xlii, p. 379, for 
further information on this subject. 

Its method, as applied to pottery, is described by Piccolpasso in his 
manuscript, and consists in covering the previousl}'^ baked ' biscuit * of 
ordinary potter's clay w^ith a 'slip ' or engobe of the white marl of Vicenza, 
by dipping it into a bath of that earth milled with water to the consistence 
of cream ; when dry this white covering, fixed by a slight baking, is 
scratched through with an iron instrument showing the design in the red 
colour of the clay against the superimposed white ground. It is then 
covered with an ordinary translucent lead glaze composed of sand, lib. 5, 
lead (oxide), lib. 10, and clouded with yellow and green by slight application 
of the oxides of iron and copper. 

Piccolpasso sa3's : ' Now I intend giving you the white which is used 
in Lombardy. Here is the white, bearing in mind that the earth 
of Vicenza is used (as a slip) as has been said of the colours of Castello 
painting or designing on the white earth, when they have had the earth 
of Vicenza, I would say with a style of iron of this kind (gives figure), and 
this drawing is called sgraffio .' 

From this passage we learn that it was not a mode of decoration 
exclusively confined to the fabrique of Citta di Castello ; and accordingly 
Signer Raffaelli considers that ' sgraffio ' was also made at Castel Durante. 

From a careful examination of many examples of the incised wares, 
we are of opinion that they were produced at several places ; it w^as indeed 
a more simple manner of ornamentation than painting in colour, and 
therefore more likely to be used at smaller local potteries. 

At Pavia fragments and whole pieces have been dug up, and were in 
the possession of the late Sig. Camillo Brambilla and others, proving a local 
fabrique of such wares. 

There appears to be a considerable range in the dates of various 
specimens in collections, some of which are probably among the earliest 
examples of Italian decorative pottery that have descended to us ; others may 
be of the middle or last quarter of the fifteenth century, and are highly 
characteristic ; upon them great skill is shown in the combination of figures 
and foliage in rilievo, with the incised ornamentation. Nearly all the pieces 
of this particular variety are probably the work of one botega, and are 



ii8 ITALIAN INCISED WARES 

distinguished by the character of their designs ; a border of mulberry leaves, 
shields of the ' Pavoise ' or kite form, one on a fine dish in the British 
Museum being charged with the biscia of the Visconti ; the impresa on the 
other is the flaming bomb-shell adopted by Alfonso d'Este in 1512, 

A sort of Gothic character is seen in some of the leafage mouldings, 
costumes of the North of Italy in the fifteenth century, lion supporters and 
other details which connect them with the North Italian art, and we have 
little hesitation in believing that they were produced in Lombardy or the 
Venetian mainland. The above-quoted passage from Piccolpasso is confirm- 
atory of that opinion, and Sir J. C. Robinson, describing a fine example, an 
inkstand belonging to Lord Spencer, advances a similar opinion in the 
Catalogue of the Special Loan Exhibition of 1862 (p. 401), 

Work of another manner may be observed on pieces of a somewhat 
more recent date, among which is one in the South Kensington Museum 
bearing the arms of the city of Perugia. 

These may with considerable probability be ascribed to that neighbour- 
hood, perhaps to Citta di Castello, but we cannot, with some writers, find 
any authority for classing all the incised wares as the produce of La Fratta. 

Two fine examples of the former type are in the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford (Fortnum Coll., see pi. VII), one having raised foliage in the centre 
and incised ornamentation on both sides ; one also, of the latter manner, 
with sgrajfio decoration of oak leafage surrounding a figure of the Virgin. 

Some other examples, by other hands, afford no clue to the locahty 
of their production. Of such is a sort of barrel or cylindrical bottle in 
the Briti-sh Museum, divided internally into compartments, and inscribed 
outside ' viN nero ' ' vin bian ' * olium azetto ' and the date 1525. 

In the Castellani Collection was a lamp formed as a human foot, with 
sgraffiato ornamentation covered by a brown enamel. It was signed 
C. F. F. 1659. P. Bastiano. 

A circular dish, exhibited in the ' Loans Court ' of the South Kensington 
Museum as * Intra ware,' was of coarse workmanship, the design a bunch 
of flowers in the centre and others on the border. It appeared to be 
of recent workmanship, and, if from the neighbourhood of Intra on the Lago 
Maggiore, may be the reminiscence of an ancient Lombard handicraft. 

The late Marquis d'Azeglio had a curious inkstand of this ware. 

Of the more important examples, the Louvre possesses a fine cup on 
raised stem and supported by three lions, in the interior a man, habited 
in the costume of the fifteenth century, stands playing a mandolin between 
two females, one of whom sings while the other plays the tambourine ; the 
raised and incised mouldings on this piece are very characteristic. It is 
engraved in M. Jacquemart's Merveilles, pt. 2, p. 206. 



i 



PLATE VI 




PLATEAU. SGRAKKIATO WARE 
XV or Early XVI Century 




PLATEAU WITH RAISED CENTRAL FLOWER 
XV or Early XVI Century 



ITALIAN INCISED WARES 119 

In the Hotel Cluny is a cup of the same character, with other examples. 
The Museum at Sevres also has specimens. 

In the British Museum are some fine dishes, one of which is remark- 
able for the admirable execution of the work ; on it are represented figures 
in the costume of the fifteenth century, festoons of fruit and other 
ornaments. On the other, already referred to, are the figures of a gentle- 
man and a lady, who plays the viol, in the costume of the fifteenth or early 
sixteenth century, standing dos-a-dos ; on her side is a ' Pavoise ' shield 
bearing the biscia or serpent of the Visconti, while he supports himself 
on one bearing the flaming bomb-shell, the impresa o! Alfonso d'Este, borne 
by him at the Battle of Ravenna in 1512. 

One of the most highly finished and elegant examples of this mode 
of ornamentation which has come under our notice, is a ' hanap ' or ewer, 
which was sold in Paris some years ago, and was since in Mr. R. Napier's 
Collection at Shandon (No. 2984). A curious ware having the appearance 
of ' sgraffiato/ but not really ornamented by that method, is described 
among the Hispano- Moresque pottery in the South Kensington Museum, 
No. 1459, page 61. 

At Pavia, in the second half of the seventeenth century, a family of 
amateur and artistic potters— for it has hardly been shown, although 
suggested, that they established a fabrica for commercial production — 
decorated many pieces, large and small dishes, &c., of a ware the body 
of which is of red colour, covered with a white slip and ornamented, 
by means of the graving iron, with various subjects and decorative 
designs, the whole generally covered by a rich treacle-brown glaze. The 
execution of these works, though careful, is by no means of a highly 
artistic character ; they were probably, for the most part, made for 
presents. The minute history of the whole family is to be read in the 
pages of Camillo Brambilla, whose elegant work ^ does more than full 
justice to its subject. The dates of these pieces are from 1676 to 1694, 
they are by three members of the Ciizio family, viz. Giovan Antonio Barnaba, 
Giovanni Brizio (a Canonico), and Antonio Maria, a Presbyter and proto- 
notarius. In the Montferrand Collection was a dish having the Virgin and 
Child incised and enamelled in colour ; it was inscribed with the initials 
O. T. S. C. and the date 1624 ; could these be the initials of one of the 
Cuzio family of the previous generation ? Only some ten or twelve 
of their pieces are recorded, most of which are fully signed and dated, one 
by Giovan Antonio, June 11, 1676; one by Giovanni Brizio, the Canon, 
March 25, 1677 ; one in the South Kensington Museum by Antonio Maria 

■ Camillo Brambilla, Antonio Maria Cuzio e la Ceramica in Pavia. 4to, Pavia, 1889. 



120 ITALIAN INCISED WARES 

bears the portrait of an ecclesiastic surrounded by ribbons inscribed 
'TIMETE • DOMINVM-'— ' LIBERA • ME • DOM IN E • AB • HOMINE • MALO- 
ET- A- LINGVA- INIVSTA-'; on the reverse with flowers and concentric 
mouldings, 'PRESBYTER • ANTONIVS • MARIA • CVTIVS • PAPIENSIS- 
PROTHONOTARIVS- APOSTOLIC VS. FECIT- SOL AMENTE-E- INGANNATO- 
CHI- TROPPO- S|. FIDA •'; and in the centre 'PAPI/E- DIE- XV||. MAN- 
1694/ 

Of these Brambilla records ten examples: another dated 1687, and 
apparently unknown to him, was sold in Paris in 1873. It was inscribed 
'AN IMA . NOSTRA • SICVT- PASSER- EREPTA- EST- DELAQ_VEO- VENAN- 
TIVM- PRESBITER. ANTONIVS- MARIA- CVTIVS- PAPIENSIS- 1687.'; on 
the reverse ' 1687 - PAPl/E.' 

He also describes a Sgraffiato plate by some other hand dated ' 1734 
a di 26 Marzo Pavia/ the central subject a person with a table and 
sweetmeats inscribed ' O miei Signori le chi il vostro feste per confetture. 
Voi non mi barate.' 



Since the above was set in type we have seen several specimens, 
cups and shallow bowls, of early graffito ware which have been recently 
unearthed at Cyprus. They are eminently Italian in character, and may 
probably be the production of Italian potters working in that island. On 
some are incised figures in costume of the fourteenth century. They have 
been secured by Sir A. W. Franks for presentation to the British Museum, 
and two characteristic specimens have been given by him to the writer for 
the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. 



PAINTED WARES 



CHAPTER I 
TUSCANY 

WHEN grouping the various wares so abundantly represented in the 
South Kensington collection, we classed together several examples 
of an early painted pottery, some, if not most, of which were seemingly 
of mezza ware, not being glazed with the stanniferous enamel ; they 
seemed to us to have been for the most part from the same fabrique, 
and of the middle, or perhaps earlier half, of the fifteenth century ; and, 
from certain characteristics, we were disposed to assign them to a Tuscan 
origin. Perhaps connected therewith is another series of early pieces, 
a leading feature upon which is the frequent use of the peacock's feather 
as a motif in the decoration. The similarity in the technical qualities 
of the glaze and pigments used, which approach so nearly to those of 
Caffaggiolo or Siena, and the occurrence of the arms of Tuscan families 
upon some of the pieces, induced us to assign them to the same origin ; 
and in this we were supported by the opinion then held by the much 
lamented M. Alfred Darcel. The correction or, at least, the modification 
of these attributions is due to the valuable investigations of Professor 
F. Argnani of Faenza, who, in Tav. xi. fig. i. iii. of his work, gives 
us figures of certain fragments dug up at Faenza, which entirely 
agree in their decoration with these pieces. On such unquestionable 
evidence we would now unhesitatingly class them among the many 
productions of Faenza, from which place we had no small suspicion 
that they might have originally come. It is, however, not improbable 
that this peculiar decoration of peacock's feathers and heavy scroll 
foliage, although originally of Faenza, may subsequently have been 
used by the Faentine artists who worked for the Medici at Caffaggiolo. 
But if so, onl}^ some of the later pieces so decorated could have been 
of Tuscan production, and Faenza would rightly claim the earlier. 

In and about Florence lead glazed pieces are found which may probably 
be earlier than the fourteenth century; and there is little doubt that the 



122 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

stanniferous enamel was in use towards the end of that century, mostly on 
boccaletti of ovoid form and coarse workmanship, having two handles and 
adorned with leafage and heraldic animals, the Florentine ^?^//o, &c., outlined 
in manganese and filled in with zaffiro blue. 

It might have been expected that the investigations of the Commen- 
datore Milanesi, whose recent death we deeply deplore, would have brought 
to light the existence of early and important potteries in or about Florence 
and other Tuscan cities ; but it would seem that, with the exception of 
Cafifaggiolo and Siena, the others, such as Montelupo, Cancelli, and 
S. Miniatello, though producing ordinary wares abundantly, were not 
remarkable for artistic excellence. 

It would also seem from communications made by the Com. Milanesi 
to Sig. Urbani de Gheltof, who has published them in his Notizie 
Istoriche sulla Ceramica Italiana, at page 65, that the potters 'vasat' 
were members of the 'arte maggiore' to which the ^medici' and the 
apothecaries ^ speciaW also belonged; the painters also, and the sellers 
of colours, a curious combination which seems to have arisen from 
their common use of drugs, pigments, and such like materials and 
compositions. 

In a book of expenses of the Medici of 1424 to 1426, an entry, on 
March 23, 1425, is made in favour of one Bartolomeo di Simone, for 
expenses incurred in his ^ lavori di tera.' On December 24 of the same 
year, we find that a payment of three soldi was made to * Ventura legafore, 
per fare asortire sua lavori di inaioliche in II giarre^ (i). Again, under date 
May 23 of the same year, ^ soldi diecisette ed otto piccoli' are paid for ^ ghabella 
di lavori di terra spacciati per istima difwr. 10 lib. soldi 16, den. 8. per poliza! 
From this notice Sig. Urbani de Gheltof infers that, at this remote 
period in Florence and in other parts of Italy, the Hispano-Moresque 
method (of glazing) had been introduced and referred to under the name 
of * lavori di terra di niaiorica ' in the Venetian documents of the years 
1431 or 1437, and, for the first time, here termed * Maiolicha.' 

By this it would seem that, in the second decade of the fifteenth 
century, the use of the stanniferous enamel was established in Tuscany, 
but we know not for how long previously, nor from whom acquired. 

We cannot agree with the late M. Jacquemart^ who surmised that 
at Caffaggiolo Luca della Robbia learnt the nature of the enamel glaze 
which he applied to his rilievos in terra cotta, not being assured that 
that pottery was established anterior to his earliest enamelled and painted 
work. We know that Luca painted subjects on plain surfaces enamelled 

' Les Merveilles de la Ceramique. Part 2, Paris, 1868. p. 122. 



TUSCANY 123 

with the stanniferous glaze as early as the year 1456, when he executed 
the painted tiles which form a kind of framing to the tomb of Benozzo 
Federighi, in the church of San Francesco di Paolo, under the hill of 
Bellosguardo. The most important work by him of this nature is the 
lunette over one of the doors in the entrance-hall of the 'Opera del 
Duomo' in Florence. 

Of characteristic Florentine fifteenth century production are the rare 
vases made by the Delia Robbia chiefly to adorn the tops of altar pieces or 
of the lavabo. They are mostly coloured dark blue, and sometimes in part 
gilded, adorned with mouldings, imbrication, &c. in relief, and with two, some- 
times dolphin, handles. Two of such are in the Ashmolean Museum (Fort- 
num Collection), others at the South Kensington Museum and in the Louvtc. 

That Luca was the originator of the stanniferous enamel is equally 
mythical, although still believed and upheld bj^ some of the recent Italian 
writers on Maiolica, viz.. Mess. Corona, Genolini, and, in a degree, by Urbani 
de Gheltof ^ &c. ; but that he improved that enamelling for his own particular 
purposes we think probable, intensifying its solidity and whiteness and 
imparting a richness of glazed surface which is most nearly approached 
by the wares of Caffaggiolo and the earlier productions of Forli. 

The late erudite Commendatore Milanesi stated that the stanniferous 
glaze was used in Tuscany as early as during the ^trecento' and we 
cannot but regret that we are 3-et without the valuable documentary 
information, which we hoped that careful investigator would have already 
published, on the potteries of Tuscany and the artists who are recorded 
as having worked at Caffaggiolo. 

A kind of spice-box and cruet-stand is referred to by Jacquemart, 
which would probably be the make of some Tuscan fabrique. It would 
seem to be of the sixteenth centur}-, and is white, with slight ornamentation 
in yellow and pale blue. The words PEPE- SALES- I- SPEZIO • IZVCHER 
denote the receptacles for those several condiments, while places to hold 
two missing cruets are inscribed OLIO and ACETO. At the back and 
on either side of the handle is a mark which denotes that it was made 
for the service of a Grand Duke of Tuscany ; it consists of the grand ducal 
crown encircling two palms and a branch of laurel. This was the impresa 
of Cosmo de' Medici, son of Giovanni, who was created Grand Duke by 
the pope in 1569. The mark is copied by Chaffers from the Merveilles 
de la Ceramique, pt. 2, p. 141, and somewhat resembles a mark on some 
of the Venetian wares of later time. Signor Genolini places it among 
the Venetian marks, Tav. xxiii. No. 378, without any reference. 

' Notizie Istoriche ed Artistiche sulla Ceramica Italiana, 8vo, Roma, 1889, p. 64. 



124 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

M. Natilis Rondot^ has shown us that Italian potters estabhshed works 
at Lyons in the sixteenth century, and there produced istoriati and other 
pieces in the Urbino manner. Of those potters the first recorded was 
a Florentine, one Benedetto Angela di Lorenzo (1512-1536), and with him 
some others were associated. A Maestro Giorgio (1529- 1554) is also recorded, 
the only one with that distinction. Jean or Jovan (probably Giovanni) 
1512-1518 ; and Bastiano di Antonio his brother (1523 and 1536-38) ; also 
Battisto di Gregoire [Gregoriol) 1529 and 1556-62. 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 

Those who have travelled, as we were wont ere railroads had been 
formed in Italy, by the old post road from Bologna to Florence, will probably 
recollect a stern but picturesque machicolated building, standing not far 
from the last post-house before reaching the Tuscan capital. Built by 
Cosmo de' Medici, this villa was one of the favourite resorts of Lorenzo ; 
and at Caffaggiolo the young Giovanni, afterwards Leo X, was educated 
by Politian. Within those walls also the beautiful Eleonora di Toledo was 
murdered by her husband, Pietro de' Medici, in 1576. 

It was the ill-indited name of this castello scrawled upon the back of 
a plate, and, until the discovery of others more legibly written, read as that 
of its painter, which proved that at this spot a fabrique had existed and im- 
portant and highly artistic works had been produced. The occurrence of 
a monogram upon several, and the comparison of their technical details, led 
to the recognition of others, revealing the fact that this fabrique had 
existed from an early period in the sixteenth century, if not earlier, and 
was then productive of a large number of pieces of varying quality. 

In further proof of the existence of this fabrique, which in all probability 
was specially belonging to the Medici family, and of its activity in 1521, 
the late M. Eugene Piot published ^ the translation of a letter communicated 
to him by the late Com""® Gaetano Milanesi, of Florence ; this letter is from 
J. F. Zeffi, the agent of Lorenzo de' Medici, addressed to Francesco da 
Empoli, and reads — • 

* Spectabilis vir. Une lettre pour Antonio di Bernardo de^ Medici estjointe 
a celle-ci, faites quHl la re^oive. On lui envoie en outre deux ecuelles avec leurs 
couvercles, qu'il m^ a fait demander. On envoie aussi une ecuelle et son couvercle 

* Natalis Rondot, La Ceramique ' Gazette des Beaux Arts, T. xxiv. 2® 

Lyonnaise. Paris, 1889 ; Les Potiers de periode, La Ceramique Italienne de la 

terre Italiens a Lyon. Lyon, 1892 ; Les Collection Spitzer. 
Faicnciers Italiens a Lyon. Lyon, 1895. 



PLATE VIII 




PLATE. CAFFAGGIOLO OR FAENZA 
XVI CenlHrv 




PLATEAL'. CAFFAGGIOLO 
Early XVI Century 



CAFFAGGIOLO 125 

pour Marc- Antonio Ghondi, et qiiatre petits vases pour Giovanmaria qne noire 
maitre, Lorenzo, lui envoie. Faites que chacun ait le sien. 

' Vous direz a Carlo Aldobrandini que ses vaisselles sont cuites et queje les 
hit enverrai bientot. 

J. F. Zeffi.' 

' Le 26 Septembre, 1521, in Cafaggiuolo. 

At the back is written 

* Spcctabili viro Francesco da Empoli in Firenze! 

There can be but httle doubt that this pottery was a creation of the 
Medici, and derived its methods of production, and probably some of its 
eariier and better artists and their designs, directly from Faenza. In this 
opinion we are confirmed by that of the late M. Alfred DarceP in the 
last paper that he wrote, by the late M. Eugene Piot -, by Sir A. W. Franks, 
and by M. Emile Mohnier. 

The period of its first foundation, and whether any minor pottery 
previously existed in its immediate neighbourhood, are yet unknown to us. 

It is a somewhat important fact that, although many are of early style, no 
piece of a * mezza ' ware confidently assignable to this establishment is 
known to the writer ; all that have come under his notice are enamelled 
with the white stanniferous glaze, no instance of the use of an * engobe ' or 
* slip ' having been observed. 

It is moreover worthy of note that neither Piccolpasso nor Passed 
mentions Caffaggiolo, although both refer to Faenza for the abundance and 
excellence of her wares, another testimony to the precedence of the latter 
potteries. 

It is also a curious fact that neither Vasari, Roscoe, nor Rossetti mentions 
Caffaggiolo as a ceramic fabrique ; although the former praises Faenza and 
Castel Durante. 

We will now proceed to consider the evidence afforded by the following 
examples : — 

On a plate formerly in the Fountaine Collection, Cupid playing on 
a flageolet in the centre, with border of grotesques on dark blue ground, 
and dated 1531, we have on its imbricated reverse the crossed circle of the 
Casa Pirota in Faenza accompanied b}^ a trident. 

In the Spitzer Collection was a plate described by M. Emile Molinier 
in the large illustrated Catalogue, PI. 2— P^Tamus and Thisbe the subject, 
with border of cherubs, trophies, &c., imbrication on the reverse, and the 
trident accompanied by a small circle, also presumably of the Casa Pirota. 

And again, from the same rich collection we have two plates, one 

* Gazette des Beaux Arts, T. ix. 3® periode. La Ceramique Italienne. 

* Gazette des Beaux Arts, T. xxiv. 2'' periode. La Ceramique Italienne. Coll. Spitzer. 



126 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

representing a triumph, with monsters and masks on the border, and 
marked behind / Chafagglolo with the trident beneath. On the other, 
grotesques on blue ground and signed beneath In Chafagguolo, with the 
well-known combined S and P mark of that fabrique above, and the trident 
below. 

Again, we have among the excellent illustrations which are so important 
a feature of Professor Argnani's work ^ on tav. viii. fig. ii. and iii, the design 
of a ' Scodellotfo' with tin glaze, and bearing the rnark of a P, ascribed by him 
to the second half of the fifteenth century, and found at the Palazzo Sforza 
in Cotignola ; and on tav. xvi the representation of another fragment signed 
with an ill-formed P, and in possession of that author, its place of discovery 
not recorded, but presumably of Faentine origin ; also on the same tavola 
two fragments of similar style in decoration, around the Medici stemma, 
on each of which is the mark composed of the barred P, its upper member 
turning into an S above ; both these latter having been found in the Castello 
at Caffaggiolo. 

The mark of a large P alone occurs on the plateau No. 8928. '63 in 
the South Kensington Museum, on which Pope Leo X is portrayed in 
procession, and which can hardly be of other than the Medici pottery. 

The P with a paraph occurs on a plate in the Pesaro Museum (Molinier), 
and on one referred to in the South Kensington Museum Catalogue at 
p. 98. Its occurrence on pieces with or without the written name of the 
fabrique Caffaggiolo, and combined with the paraph and the S-formed top is 
well known. 

The above facts would seem to imply a connexion between the artists 
working at Faenza and, perhaps subsequently, at Caffaggiolo, and it has 
occurred to the writer that, at an early stage of the latter establishment, an 
artist, or the artists of a botega, who had used the P simple, or with the 
paraph, may have been brought from Faenza to the Medici fabrique, where 
they again adopted the P as a mark on their works, which thus became the 
master mark of the botega, modified from time to time under circumstances 
and for reasons to us unknown. 

The trident is less conspicuous, occurring on but few pieces, and we can 
hardly agree with M. Molinier in thinking that it may have been the earliest 
mark used at Caffaggiolo, its use at Faenza as late as 1531 being proved by 
the mark on the Casa Pirota plate above referred to as formerly in the 
Fountaine Collection. 

That the importance as to amount of produce at the Caffaggiolo pottery 
has been overestimated by some writers, there can be but little doubt, and 
that many pieces have been ascribed to its furnaces which really were 
' Federigo Argnani, Le Ceramiche e Maioliche Faentine, 4to, Faenza, 1889. 



CAFFAGGIOLO 127 

the produce of those at Faenza or Forh, is equally probable. It was 
this tendency, on the first recognition of its wares, that led the late 
M. Jacquemart to overestimate its ceramic importance, and brought down 
upon him the too severe comments of Professor Argnani in his valuable 
work \ The late M. Darcel was less impulsive and more cautious ; and 
although occasionally differing from those high authorities, the present writer 
now feels satisfied that much which he supposed of Tuscan origin was 
really the produce of Faenza and other neighbouring potteries. 

But it has remained for a comparatively recent Italian writer to 
exaggerate the importance of the Caffaggiolo botega, as against those of 
Faenza, in a degree that would have surprised those older authors. 
Sig. Genolini - presumes that as Cosimo de' Medici built that castello early 
in the fourteenth century, it must have been a source whence the streams of 
ceramic art flowed to the Marches, to Umbria, and to Central Italy. The works 
at Faenza must therefore have been but an offspring from the Tuscan pottery, 
instead of, as we of the older school believe, probably the earliest, most 
abundant and excellent in point of art, of any of the centres of ceramic pro- 
duction in Itah', and that Caffaggiolo in great measure emanated therefrom. 

In truth the more we study examples left to us, the less we are inclined 
to dogmatize as to their precise origin ; to quote from a paper in the 
Gazette des Beaux Arts by the late M. A. Darcel'^, whose knowledge and 
discrimination is well known to all real connoisseurs, ' Mais a mesure que 
Ton etudie de plus pres la ceramique italienne, on devient plus prudent et 
Ton a I'attribution moins facile que jadis.' 

The imaginary discovery made by Dr. Carlo Malagola * that these pieces 
were the produce of a Faentine botega, the Ca-Faggioli, and as strongly 
supported by Professor Argnani, was a mere house of cards, which has fallen 
beneath the criticisms and evidence brought forward by MM. A. Darcel, 
Piot, Dr. Umberto Rossi, Emile Molinier, and the present writer; and 
it is to be regretted that their painstaking and otherwise valuable contribu- 
tions to the ceramic history of Italy should have been so far marred by 
that too frequent but ill conceived patriotism, the ' carita del nativo loco' 

The leading characteristics of the Caffagiolo wares are a glaze of 
rich and even quality, and purely white ; the use of a very dark cobalt 
blue of great intensity, but brilliant as that of lapis lazuli, frequently in 
masses as a grounding to the subject, and it would seem laid on purposely 
with a coarse brush, the strokes of which are very apparent. A bright 

^ Op. cit. p. 125. periode, p. 971. 

* Angelo Genolini, Maioliche Italiane. * Dott. Carlo Malagola, Memorie Storiche 

4to, Milano, 1881, p. 50. sulle Maioliche di Faenza 8vo. Bologna, 

^ Gazette des Beaux Arts, T. xviii. 2^ 1880. 



128 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

yellow, an orange of brilliant but opaque quality, a peculiarly liquid and semi- 
transparent copper green is also found, and another characteristic pigment 
is an opaque bright Indian red; a brown and a purple are also used. 

The use of the metallic lustre seems to have been tried at Caffaggiolo, 
or elsewhere, applied to some of the pieces, but from the extreme rarity 
of examples bearing the mark of, or fairly ascribable to, that establishment, 
we may perhaps infer that only a few experimental pieces were made, 
and that this method of enrichment was but little used. No. 7154 in the 
South Kensington Museum is an important example, having the mark. 
M. Darcel refers to others so ascribed. 

As might be expected, the arms, emblems, and mottoes of the Medici 
family frequently occur, and occasionally the letters S. P. Q. F. are introduced 
on labels for * Senatus popiilusque Florentinus! 

M. Jacquemart believed that some of the early groups, Sic, in rilievo 
and in the round, and early plaques bearing the sacred emblem, the 
majority of which are generally ascribed to Faenza, may be of this botega. 

The British and the South Kensington Museums are rich in fine 
specimens of this ware of various date and great variety, some of which 
are among the most beautiful examples of the potter's art. 

It is remarkable that we have no recorded names of the artists 
who painted these beautiful pieces, and it is only at the latter end of 
the sixteenth century that we find mention of Giacomo and Loys 
Ridolfi of Caffaggiolo, who emigrated, with other potters, from the then 
less encouraged manufactories of Italy, to try their fortune in France. 
M. Jacquemart, quoting from B. Fillon, tells us that these potters or painters 
founded 2ifaiencerie in 1590 at Marchecoul, in Bretagne. 

We will now shortly notice some of the more important pieces of those 
wares in public and other collections. 

Two large and finely painted early dishes were presented by Mr. Franks 
to the British Museum ; they were probably made early in the sixteenth cen- 
tury: on one is a group of saints, Benedict, Scholastica, Mauro, and two 
others, after an engraving by Benedetto Montana, on red ground with a 
border of leafage moulding and peacock's feather ornament, which curiously 
connects it with those pieces which we formerly assigned to some Tuscan 
furnace, possibly Caffaggiolo. (See ante^ p. 121.) 

On the other is the subject of the Judgement of Solomon. The colours 
on these pieces are very rich, with much of the characteristic red pigment ; 
the drawing, bold and firm, has an archaic tendency which points to an 
early period. 

The earliest dated piece having a mark and with reason believed to 
be of this fabrique, is a plate in the style of Faenza, with border of 



PLATE IX 




BUST OK ST. JOHN. CAFFAGGIOLO 
-YF/ Cejttiiry 




JUG WITH ARMS OF TllF ALKSSANOKO DKGLl ALKSSANDKI FAMILY. CAFFAGGIOLO 

XVI Century 



CAFFAGGIOLO 129 

grotesques and central shield of arms, in the painting of which the 
characteristic red pigment is used, and on which is the date 1507, with the 
mark, that curious combination of letters P, L, and O, shown in facsimile 
in the appendix. It belonged to Baron Gustave de Rothschild, of Paris, 

Another is dated 1509. The letters S. P. Q. F. occur among the 
ornaments. 

M. Jacquemart considered as of the first period, those pieces having 
letters allusive to the Florentine republic, the Medici arms and emblems. The 
motto of Giuliano de' Medici * Glovis ' also occurs, which the late Mrs. Bury 
Palliser deciphered as ' Si Volg,' — * it (fortune) turns,' when read backwards ^ 

Of the early period are those pieces in the South Kensington Museum 
bearing the shield of the Medici, and the curious representation of the 
procession of Pope Leo X of that famil3\ 

A fine plate, painted perhaps b}' the same hand, having for subject the 
Flagellation, after Diirer (?), with rich border of grotesques, &c., passed into 
the collection of M. Basilewski from that of Monsignore Cajani ; it has 
a mark on the reverse. (See Mark No. 20.) 

Some of the most characteristic pieces of the fabrique bear a mark 
composed of the letters P and S, with a paraph ; such is the mark upon 
one of the lustred pieces in the South Kensington Museum; and it 
also occurs on a flask in the British Museum, from Mr. Henderson's 
Collection. One also having this mark, and bearing the arms of the 
Medici, is noticed by M. Jacquemart, but is unknown to the writer. We 
can hardly agree with M. E. Molinier in reading this monogram as 
* Semper,' seeing that it would appear to have developed from the P simple 
or P with a paraph, the mark presumably brought from Faenza to Caf- 
faggiolo ; and we also find upon others these letters, occurring separately 
or combined with others, as A and F. 

Of painted pieces, a fine dish, once in the Basilewski, now in the G. de 
Rothschild - Collection at Paris, with a subject of prisoners round the throne 
of a conqueror, has the word ' GONE LA ' on a boat, on which also is a cupid 
holding a dolphin ; the border of the piece is decorated with genii, among 
arabesques, on a blue ground. In the former collection is a fine example 
which is figured on pi. 30 of M. Delange's Recueil. It represents Diana 
visiting the sleeping End3mion, apparently after a design by Sandro Botticelli 

* * Giuliano, having been appointed Gon- imprese militari ed amorose, Lyons, 1574, to 

falonier to the Church, wished bj' this motto which work the late M. Darcel had been 

to show that fortune, which previously had recently referred bj' his friend M. E. 

frowned upon him, had now turned in his Bonnaffe for an explanation of the motto, 

favour.' (Note, Marrj-at, p. 82.) Mr. Marrj-at (Gazette des Beaux Arts, T. ix. 3^ periode, 

or Mrs. Bury Palliser may have derived pp. 119, 120, note.j 

this translation from the Dialogo dell' - Mely, p. 125, 



I30 



ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



and engraving by Robetta ; the border is covered with a crowd of genii on 
a dark blue ground, and it bears the usual mark. 

One in the Alphonse Rothschild Collection in Paris has, in addition to 
the mark, a trident, and the name In Chafaggiuolo, fantastic birds and 
a border of genii, grotesques, &c., covering the piece, which is figured 
in Delange's Recueil, pi. 25. 

A small plate, formerly in the Narford Collection, is marked with 
a trident and the letter O. 

On another in the Alphonse Rothschild collection is the same mark and 
name of fabrique, but spelt with a G instead of C. 

A beautiful little plate, admirably painted with grotesques, a candelieri, 
on blue ground, belonged to Count Nieuwekerke ; it is well represented 
by a woodcut in Jacquemart's Merveilles de la Ceramique, pt. 2, p. 127. 

In the Castellani Collection was a plate (diam. 45 c.) having the Cap- 
poni (?) arms, and, in an arabesque border, open books, two of which are 
inscribed ' Semper vivat ' ; coarse work ; mark, the PS with two cross-bars 
above * in Chaffagiuollo! 

M. C. Gerente had an unusual example, with central medallion of 
the Emperor Nero, surrounded by interlaced ornament in blue on 
a white ground. On the reverse is a ribbon inscribed CAFAGIOLI, 
between the twice repeated usual mark. The letters S. P. Q. R. and 
S. P. Q. F. occur on cartouches among the ornamental interlacings, 
together with the arms and tiara of Leo X, and the motto ' Sempe Glovi * 
(Delange pi. 26). It is now in the Hotel Cluny. 

A fine bowl in the British Museum, decorated on blue ground with 
cupids, &c., medallions containing the devices of the Medici family, and their 
shield of arms with other ornaments, is an interesting specimen. 

A large carelessly painted dish, in the same collection, subject Abel's 
sacrifice, has the word ' GLOVIS ' and the letters S. P. Q. R. on the altar, 
and on the reverse the name, curiously spelt, In Chafaggilolo, between 
the ordinary mark twice repeated. 

The name seems to have been spelt in various ways, as * Cafifagiulo,' 
' Cafagiol,' * Caffaggiolo,' * ChafTaggiolo,' ' Chafaggilolo,' &c. 

A fine plate, which belonged to Baron Lionel de Rothschild, by the 
same hand as No. 2990 in the South Kensington Museum, at the back 
of which two crossed quivers, a bow and arrows are represented. 

The letters AD in a circle are on one formerly belonging to Mr. 
Addington, with border of cupids on blue ground and shield of arms in 
the centre. 

In Mr. Salting's very rich collection is a plate, one of several acquisitions 
from the Spitzer Collection recently sold at Paris. On it Judith is repre- 



PLATE X 




PLATEAU. MUTius scAEvoLA, ' tit Gn/idito Nellano, 1547 ' 




I'KATE. IHE CREATION OK EVE. BY FERD. MARIA CAMPANI 
Circa 17.^0 



CAFFAGGIOLO 131 



sented on horseback, attended by her servant who carries the severed 
head of St. John ; on the back are scrolls. The usual monogram above 
'Jap^ in Cliafagguolo,' and the trident beneath. This would seem to be 
the signature of one Jacopo, as pointed out by M. Piot in the Gazette des 
Beaux Arts, T. xxiv, 2® periode, p. 389, if not intended for the word fafo 
badl}^ writ. 

The letter P, crossed by a paraph, also occurs. A plate in the Delsette 
Collection, No. 85, with the Fontana arms was so marked. 

The combination of P and A, which occurs on an early piece in the 
South Kensington Museum, would seem also to have been a mark in use 
at a later time, as it occurs on some pieces in the Louvre (Nos. 150, 151), 
ascribed by M. Darcel to this pottery. 

The letter S alone occurs on a jug in the Fortnum Collection (see 
plate ix), and on a dish, subject Coriolanus, with border of trophies, and 
dated 1546, and some other pieces. (Chaffers.) 

The letter G, as also M, is found on pieces in the Louvre (Nos. G 143, 
144, 153), which were ascribed by M. Darcel to Caffaggiolo. We do not 
know these specimens. M. Jacquemart, differing from M. Darcel, considers 
one in the Louvre (No. G 518), marked with a rude P, to be of Caffaggiolo 
lustred ware ; but we agree with M. Darcel in ascribing it to Gubbio, 
perhaps to M. Prestino. 

On a plate in the Fortnum Collection, from the Montferrand, representing 
the story of Mutius Scaevola, and a border of dogs hunting wild animals 
in a woody landscape, are the marks of the fabrique, the letters A. f , and 
the place ' in Galeano 1547/ a sm.all * castello ' a few miles distant from Caf- 
faggiolo. (See plate X.) 

Another plate by the same hand * in Chaffaggiolo,' is in the South 
Kensington Museum (No. 6656, '60), and another is in the possession of 
M. Dutuit. 

M. Delange, in his Appendix to Passeri \ records a piece dated * /« 
Chafaggiolo fato Adj 21 di junto, 1570/ the latest dated example that we 
have seen noted. 

The plate in the South Kensington Museum on which the statue of 
St. George by Donatello is represented (No. 1726) is of great interest, as is 
that (No. 1717) on which a ceramic painter is shown at his work in presence 
of a gentleman and lady, probably personages of high standing whose 
portrait he may be taking. It is to be regretted that he refrained from 
recording their or his own names, and was content with affixing only 
the monogram of the fabrique at the back of the piece. 

* Histoire des Peintures sur Majoliques faites a Pesaro ; traduite par H. Delange. Paris, 
1853- 

K 2 



132 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

The beautiful plate with central subject of Vulcan forging arrows, and 
elegant border of grotesques, masks, cupids, &c., No. 2990 in the same 
Museum, is probably by the same hand as the two last referred to, and is 
a fine example. The large jug having the Medici arms on the front and 
other devices of that family (No. 1715), is remarkable for its excellence of 
glaze and colour, as well as for its historical associations. 

Of a later period are the two vases Nos. 321 and 322, which, if not made 
at Caffaggiolo or other botega under the patronage of the Medici, may 
have been the work of Nicolo Sesti at Florence or at Pisa. 

We may here refer to the tiled floor in a small room of the Pitti Palace 
at Florence, which is entirely decorated in fresco by Pietro da Cortona ; in 
the centre of the pavement is the subject of the triumph of Bacchus : one 
of the tiles is signed ' Benedetto Bocchi fecit' This may probably be of 
Florentine production about 1640. 

That the fabrique of Caffaggiolo was known in the first half of the last 
century is proved by an interesting extract from the Descrizione della 
provincia del Mugello, by Dr. Giuseppe Maria Brocchi (Firenze, 1748), 
published by II Cav® Umberto Rossi in the Arte e Storia (Firenze, 31 
Maggio 1890) in his review of the work by Professor Argnani. ' Da un 
antico piatto di maiolica molto bello, di due bracchia e mezzo di giro 
fabbricato nel 1544, il quale era gia alia pieve di Faltona ed ora conservato 
appresso di me, in cui si vedono con molte fiorami e rabeschi dipinte le 
armi delle nobilissime famiglie fiorentine Rinuccini e Pazzi, si viene 
in cognizione che in detto luogo di Cafaggiolo vi fosse anticamente I'arte 
di lavorare simili terre, essendovi scritte nel medesimo piatto le sequent! 
parole, alquanto pero scorrettamente, come si vede : fato adi primo di fraio 
nel 1544 ; i gafaginollo. Inoltre sotto le medesime parole vi e la presente 
cifra (// solito monogrmnm) la quale pur si vede raddoppiata dietro al 
medesimo piatto, supponendosi che possa in essa esprimersi il nome dell' 
artifice da cui fu parimente scritto ancor per di dietro, con lettere molto 
maggiori fato in Gafagiollo. Da questo modo di scrivere Gafagiuollo e 
Gafagiolo colla lettera G invece della C e dal raddoppiamento della lettera / 
sembra che I'artefice fosse forestiero, non pronunciando il nome di Cafag- 
giuolo come si usa qui : ed e molto probabile che fosse fato venire di fuori 
da alcuno della famiglia de' Medici per introdurre in quella loro villa di 
Cafaggiuolo I'arte di fabbricare le maioliche.' 

Towards the end of the fifteenth century artificers came from Faenza and 
were established in Tuscany, and about that time the Caffaggiolo fabrique 
probably began to work. To Faenza, therefore, the merit is due of giving 
a new impulse to the making of maiolica in Tuscany, and by reason of this 
fact the wares assigned to Cafaggiolo and Florence, and those of Faenza, 



SIENA 133 

have such close affinity. Nevertheless they have certain distinct character- 
istics, differing in the mode of treating the ornamentation and the colour. 
The Faentine wares have their special manner, the Tuscan have their own 
(Um" Rossi). 

Two fabriques were established probabl}'' succursal to Caffaggiolo, one 
at Gagliano as proved by the signed plate in the Fortnum Collection ; 
another at Monte, a place still inhabited, lying half way between Gagliano 
and Caffaggiolo. To this probably belongs the Cluny plate fato in Monte 
with tridents round the inscription ; it is of the second half of the sixteenth 
century, a coarse imitation of the Urbino manner. 

The last record of Caffaggiolo is the plate referred to by Delange, and 
said by to him be dated 1570. 

Francesco de' Medici occupied himself in the production of the new 
porcelain by artizans brought from Faenza. After his death Nicolo Sesti, 
one of those artists, obtained from the Grand Duke Ferdinando I permission 
to continue the production of maiolica and of porcelain in Florence and 
at Pisa. By him probably are the large vases and two pilgrims' bottles in 
the South Kensington Museum, by us attributed to Tuscany and probably 
Caffaggiolo, as also the vase belonging to Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, 
on which is inscribed the name of its local production * Pisa.' 



SIENA. 

The first record we have of the ceramic arts at Siena occurs in 
a notice which we referred to in 1872 in the South Kensington Museum 
Catalogue, at p. 128. * Passeri, at chapter x. p. 37 \ quotes a notarial deed, 
dated 6th July, 1462, by the notary Sepolcro Sepolcri, by which a partner- 
ship was formed between Ventura di Mastro, Simone da Siena di Casa 
Piccolomini, and Matteo de Raniere da Cagli, for the purpose of enlarging 
business premises, and developing a pottery at Pesaro. Passeri suggests 
that this may have been the means of introducing the use of the tin 
enamel, which he believed to have come from Tuscany.' 

This deed, as also the following, are referred to by Sig. Toti, in a com- 
munication to a periodical Gli Studi in Italia, Roma, July and August 
1881 ; by Mohnier in 1883 ; and by Urbani de Gheltof in 1889. It does 
not however tell us that Mastro Simone was a ^ vasaio,' but such is pre- 
sumable from the deed. 

In 1528 the statuto of the crafts of the ^ vasai' and the ^ orciolai' of 
Siena was destroyed, and a commission was formed, of which Luca di 

' Istoria delle Pitture in Maiolica, fatte in Pesaro, ed. 1857, p. 33. 



134 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Bernardino, Marcantonio di Giovanni, Andrea da Faenza, Francesco di Luca, 
and Filippo di Paolo, were members, to compile a new statute which was 
approved in 1529. 

In the Gazzetta del Popolo Firenze, 24 Sett. 1874, No. 267, is the 
description of a broken boccale, which belonged to the Duca di Verdura 
and was found beneath the largest old tower, the prison, at the Castello 
di Sta Fiora of the Aldobrandeschi, near Monte Anicata, in the neighbour- 
hood of Siena. This Castello was built about the year 830 a.d., and became 
a palace in the sixteenth century. In the prison tower of that palace 
Ghinozzo di Sassoforte died of hunger. The jug is, seemingly, a work 
of the fifteenth century, and appears to be covered with a stanniferous 
glaze, the handle is lost, an unglazed shield in relief beneath the spout 
bears a lion rampant, at the sides are flowers in relief and glazed. This 
interesting early piece is possibly the product of a Sienese pottery. 

In agreement with these records are the dates found upon tiles, 
forming a pavement to the chapel of Sta Caterina, figured in the folio 
work^ by Sig. A. Busari and A. Toti, and fully described by M. Emile 
Molinier^. This pavement, which was originally an offering given by 
the Borghesi at the end of the fifteenth century, may probably not have 
been commenced till the period of the first dated tile 1504, and possibly 
not completed till the second date 1509. Renovations seem subsequently 
to have been necessary, and tiles, evidently copied from the earlier 
originals, are dated 155 . . (the last figure illegible). About 1533 it was 
repaired, and there is record that M. Domenico di Giovanni was paid 
TO soldi, 9 den. 5 ^ per sua fadicha di avere acconcio lastrico.' Again in 
1600 a more important renovation took place ' Li operai desiderosi che anco 
qnesto si conducesse a perfettione allogarono tal lavoro a M". Girolamo di Marco 
vasaio in Pantaneto (a quartiere of Siena) quale fabrico in tutto pezzi n" 
tre mila sessantuno, e monto tutto it lavoro e il far lo spazzo lire mille dugento 
cinquanta' ; and again on others of coarser workmanship is the date 1651. 
M. MoHnier describes this pavement as being painted in blue, green, and 
yellow on an ochre ground, figures of genii riding monsters, centaurs 
with dolphin tails, &c., and that it was specially made for this chapel, 
as the occurrence of the letters S. C. (Sta Caterina) with the often found 
S. P. Q. R. on one of the tiles, would seem to prove. Some quite modern 
restoration occurs, the tiles of which M. Molinier thinks may have been 
made at Doccia ; we would rather suppose that they may have been the 
work of the druggist Pepi, whose clever reproductions we recollect seeing 
some thirty or more years since at Siena. 

' A. Busari A. Toti, La Casa di Santa Caterina in Siena, Folio, Siena, 1880. 
^ Emile Molinier. Les Maioliques Italiennes en Italic. 8vo, Paris, 1883. 



SIENA 135 

In tone of colouring and in character of design the tiles of the Petrucci 
palace pavement, some of which are in the Louvre ^ and some in the 
South Kensington Museum^, and which bear the date 1509, agree with 
those of Sta Caterina, but the border, instead of being on an ochre, 
is on a black ground, which we again find on a fine dish in the British 
Museum also bearing the Petrucci Stemma. 

A considerable number of pieces, seemingly the work of one able 
hand, have been variousl}^ assigned to the furnaces of Faenza, of Pesaro, 
and of Caffaggiolo ; to the first from a general similarity in the character 
of their design, but on a more distinct knowledge of the former existence, 
and of the works produced at the fabrique of Caflfaggiolo, their manifest 
affinit}' led to an assumption of the same origin. On the other hand, 
the initials I. P., occurring in large characters on the reverse of some 
of the pieces, were presumed to be those of the words In Pesaro, and 
led to their being mistaken for others really painted at the Lanfranco 
works at Pesaro, and signed with the same initials, but in a smaller 
form, and standing for ^jiacomo phisiir,' the name of the artist. These last, 
then unknown to collectors, were cited by Passed, who was supposed 
to refer to the far more beautiful works now under consideration. 

One of these, a plate (No. 11. 67 in the South Kensington Museum, 
from the Marr3'at Collection), is a choice example of ceramic art. and shows 
to what a high degree of artistic and of technical excellence, with com- 
paratively speaking coarse materials and appliances, the Italian potters 
of the latter end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries 
arrived. It was the culminating period of renascent art in Italy, and the 
influence of the great painters and sculptors of the time was pulsating 
through ever}'- branch of ornamental handiwork. Full of the richest colour, 
yet harmoniously toned and mellowed, the effect of the whole piece is very 
pleasing, while the largeness of treatment and at the same time the 
accurac}" of the ornamental details are truly admirable. We have in fact 
all the qualities found in the illuminated miniatures of the period, as 
far as the limited number of pigments applicable to enamel painting on 
earthenware would permit. In the centre is a figure of St. James the 
Great; the saint is clad in a loose tunic of purple colour, edged with 
3'ellow ; a mantle of white, shaded with blue, falls over his left shoulder, 
and is gathered in folds round the lower part of his body by the left 
hand ; with the right he grasps a clasped volume coloured 3'ellow. Sandals 
are on his feet, and his long hair, falling in ringlets over the back, and 
like the beard coloured orange, is surmounted by the nimbus of bright 

* Darcel, Notice, p. 103. No. G iii et seq. ^ Nos. 4915 to 5386-'57. 



136 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

yellow. He is walking in a landscape, with a rude stone-built and thatched 
erection on his left; tall spare trees, very characteristic of the artist, 
shrubs, &c., are delicately sketched in blue heightened with yellow. The 
border is enriched with grotesques, among which pyramidal foliated masks 
are conspicuous, cleverly rendered and relieved upon the rich orange 
ground. On the reverse are the large capital letters I. P. This plate 
would appear to have been one of a service probably made for some 
church dignitary, as all that are known have subjects of religious character. 
The Bernal Collection contained two : that with the figure of St. Bartho- 
lomew is in the British Museum : the other, the subject of which is the 
Magdalen praying, was in the possession of the late Mr. Bale, and is now in 
that of Mr. Salting. Two others were in the Marryat Collection, of which 
the piece under consideration is one \ the other represented Santa Lucia. 

Although not so carefully executed, the religious subjects on the pieces 
Nos. 1785 and 7537, in the South Kensington Museum and the similarity 
in the colour and ornamentation of the borders, might suggest their having 
formed part of the same service. 

The initials I. P., which at the suggestion of Passed were generally 
misinterpreted as * in Pesaro,' in the case of these plates have no allusion 
whatever to that fabrique ; in fact, it is highly probable that Passeri 
never saw one of this service ; but, in ascribing pieces having those 
same initials to the Pesaro artists, he was perfectly correct, as is proved 
by a plate in the Bologna Museum, inscribed at the back with a description 
of the subject, and as having been made at the Lanfranco fabrique of 
Pesaro by ^ Jacomo Pinsur' The initials of this Jacomo Pittore , at 
once supply the letters, seen doubtless upon some other piece and quoted 
by Passeri, whose statement has been misapplied by subsequent critics 
to the initialled pieces under consideration [vide Pesaro). These larger 
initials are not, we believe, those of the painter of these plates, as we 
find, on one of his finest in the British Museum (Henderson bequest), the 
letters F. O. I. equally distinct; we believe rather that they were those 
of the owners. Its subject is that of Mutius Scaevola before Porsenna. 
(See Mark No. 45.) 

A comparison of these examples with the drug pot, dated 1501 (No. 
1569), and the pavement tiles (Nos. 4915-5386), as also with the small 
a porcelan plate, No. 4487, South Kensington Museum, and all with each 
other, leads to the belief that one Maestro Benedetto of Siena was the 
producer of all these pieces, and, as in the case of Maestro Jeronamo, of 
Forli, was the head of an establishment at which works of high artistic 
excellence were painted. 

' See coloured plate, South Kensington Museum Catalogue, p. 132. 



SIENA 137 

The acquisition of that plate, No. 4487, the painting of which in blue 
camaieu is assuredly in the manner of the finer examples above referred 
to, and which is signed on the reverse ^ fata i Siena da m" benecietto,' affords 
us conclusive evidence of the origin of the various pieces in question. It has 
for central subject an old man seated contemplating a skull held in his 
right hand, surrounded b}' interlacing in white and blue * tirata ' and with 
scroll-work border, all in blue a porcelan. 

This highly artistic piece is very interesting as proving the existence 
at Siena of a ' botega' at which at least one artist of great excellence must 
have worked ; that this artist was M°. Benedetto, the head of the pottery, is 
also very probable, and if so, the painting of this piece was by his hand. 
The drawing of the central figure, which probably represents one of the 
Hermits of the Desert, is masterly, and finished with the greatest care; it is 
executed in a blue of rather low tone, and heightened with touches of white 
laid on with great nicety ; the trunk of a tree is behind him, and beyond is 
a desert landscape, with one small tree dehcately outlined in the manner of 
the artist who signs I. P. 

In the Catalogue of the South Kensington Museum the connexion of 
these several examples is minutely traced in their separate description, that 
and the British Museum possessing the more important specimens that we 
know of this master's work ; we need only therefore generally observ^e, that 
they are worth}' of being ranked among the most excellent productions of 
the potter's skill in Italy during the earlier years of the sixteenth century, 
and that, in respect of their technical characteristics and the tone and 
manner of their colouring and design, they are nearly allied to the pro- 
ductions of the Caffaggiolo furnaces, perhaps based upon a Faientine origin. 
We are glad to find that M. E. Molinier agrees with us in this opinion. 

We are indebted to Dr. Lessing for notice of a plate in the Berlin 
Museum (K. 1751), the centre occupied by Cupid and a boy, the border 
with grotesques ; reverse, scale pattern in colours and a mark nearly similar 
to that on Fabriano pieces. By him it is ascribed to Siena. 

We lose sight of the Sienese pottery for two centuries, when it again 
appears under the then best ceramic painter in Italy, Ferdinando Maria 
Campani, who is said, but we do not know on what exact authority, to have 
worked also at Castelli and at San Quirico. A piece signed by him is in the 
South Kensington Collection, and we give the facsimile of his signature upon 
another in the British Museum (see marks). His subjects, as in that 
instance, were frequently taken from the ' Bible Series ' of Raffaelle, as 
rendered by Marc Antonio's engravings, and from the works of the Caracci. 

Bar. Terchi, Romano, also worked at Siena, and a piece in the Chamber 
of Arts at Berlin is said to be signed ' Terenzio Romano Siena, 1727.' We 



138 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

suspect that this inscription may have been wrongly read, as has been the 
case with that on a plaque in the South Kensington Museum, which is 
ascribed to the fabrique of San Quirico, and is clearly signed * Bar. Terchi 
Romano.' 

Sig. Urbani de Gheltof, perhaps not knowing the above described examples 
and influenced by the fact that the late M. Darcel had, in 1864, classed such 
pieces among those of Caffaggiolo, is doubtful of the existence of an early 
fabrique at Siena; M. Darcel's opinion had since been modified. 

Sig. Urbani states that from 1775 to 1778 Biagio Bertolini and Giovanni 
Battista Vannini had a manufactory of maiolica at the furnaces of La Santis- 
sima ; the business did not succeed, and was ceded to the Ceccarelli family. 

We have already referred to the reproductions of Bernardino Pepi, who 
commenced in 1847, and who also made enamelled reliefs in the manner of 
the .Delia Robbia. His partners Egisto Paladini and G. Mazzuoli made 
maiolica after the old manner. 

PISA. 

There can be little doubt that potteries existed in the neighbourhood 
of this important commercial city, and it is more than probable that the 
painted and incised bacini, which ornament her church towers and 
facades, are mostly of local manufacture in the twelfth, thirteenth, and 
fourteenth centuries. On this subject we must refer the reader to the 
Introductory chapter, and to the remarks on Persian and Hispano-Moresque 
wares. Among the latter, references will be found to two writers who 
stated that a commerce existed between Valencia and Pisa, from whence 
faience was imported into Spain in exchange for the wares of that country. 
It does not, however, follow that this faience was entirely of Pisan 
production, although exported thence. 

Antonio Beuter ^, praising the wares of Spain, says that they are 
equal in beauty to those of Pisa and other places. This was about 1550. 
Early in the next century Escolano says, speaking of the wares of Manises, 
'that in exchange for the faiences that Italy sends us from Pisa, we 
export to that country cargoes of that of Manises^,' 

In the Collection of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, of Paris, was a large 
and well-formed vase, with serpent handles, under which the name PISA 
is inscribed on tablets. It is much in the manner of the later Urbino 
wares, having grotesques on a white ground. We now know that, after 
the death of Francesco de' Medici, Nicolo Sesti obtained permission 

' Beuter, Ant., Cronica, cap. viii. pp. 84, 85. 

^ Escolano, Historia, &c. de Valencia. Folio, Valencia, 1610. 



PISA, ASCI A NO, MONTE LUPO 139 

from his successor, Ferdinand I, to continue the production of maioHca 
and of porcelain in Florence and at Pisa. To his fabrique therefore this 
vase may reasonably be ascribed, as also those in the South Kensington 
Collection on which are the arms of the grand Duke Ferdinand. 

Signor Genolini ^ makes the extraordinary mistake of assigning to Pisa 
of the ^ prima epoca' the well-known twelve roundels of the months which 
are believed to be by Luca della Robbia, and which have been in the South 
Kensington Museum for some quarter of a century ; they were acquired for 
that museum by Sir J. C. Robinson from the Campana Collection. He 
doubles his error by stating that they are in the Louvre. 

ASCIANO. 

Quoting from Brongniart '^ who refers to a passage in the life of Luca 
della Robbia, in which it is stated that he found at that place a pottery 
with good furnaces, which enabled him to complete on the spot a large 
altar-piece which he was making for the church of the Minori Conventuaiij 
M. Jacquemart thought it probable that such a pottery must have left 
some examples of its produce ; but it by no means follows that they were 
other than ordinary terraglia. 

We have note of a vase of white body with moulded service and green 
snaky twisted handles, on which are the initials * F. P. Asciani xii. Maj 
1600/ also of a plate which was in the Passalaqua Collection, decorated 
with blue and yellow leafage and with a central shield of arms; on the 
reverse was inscribed in capital letters * F. F. D. Fortunatus, Philligellus, 
p. Asciani 1578 dies 30 Augusti.' 

MONTE LUPO. 

This small town, at the opening of the Val d'Arno inferiore, and on the 
road from Florence to Empoli, has long been known as a producer of 
glazed wares, for the most part of inferior artistic merit. The few pieces 
signed by their painters are indeed remarkable for their ugliness and rude 
execution. To Monte Lupo, however, a ware of superior character has been 
assigned, but we know not on what authority. It is highly glazed, of treacle 
brown or black colour, and ornamented by subjects painted in oil colours, 
with gilding enrichments ; many of the pieces being of very elegant form. 
Signor Giuseppe Raffaelli, however, informs us that such wares were 
produced at Castel Durante. Certain pieces, marbled on the surface in 
imitation of tortoise-shell or agate, were supposed to be of Monte Lupo ; 
but Piccolpasso tells us that such also were produced at Castel Durante. 

' Angelo Genolini, Maioliche Italiane. 410, Milan, 1881, p. 114. 
* Traite des Arts Ceramiques. Paris, 1877. 



CHAPTER II 



DUCHY OF URBINO 

PESARO 

THE epitome of Passeri's history of the pottery of Pesaro, which we 
compiled in 1872, needs httle alteration in itself; and indeed, although 
the opinion of some writers is strongly adverse to many of his statements, 
the value of his work is so considerable that we make no apology for 
its reproduction, but with additional notes. 

There can be no doubt that one or more manufactories of glazed 
earthenware existed at Pesaro, or in its immediate outskirts, from a very 
early period, and that it probably succeeded to works established 
there in Roman times, the remains of which have occasionally been 
brought to light; but with the exception of the recorded names of 
certain potters, occurring in deeds and records preserved among the 
public archives of the city and elsewhere, we are uninformed and unable 
to recognize the produce of these earlier potteries, or to know their 
characteristics. 

Anterior to 1540 we have no signed and dated example, and should 
therefore be reduced to the position of entire ignorance as to their 
previous productions but for the work of the indefatigable archaeologist 
Giambattista Passed. Born at Farnese in the Campagna di Roma in 
1694, where his father, of a patrician family of Pesaro, practised as a 
physician, and educated at Rome, he subsequently settled in his parental 
city, and published his Istoria delle pitture in Majolica fatte in Pesaro 
e in luoghi circonvicini, in 1758. To him we are indebted for the notice 
of the potters above alluded to, and in his work he gives us an account 
of the mode pursued in the manufacture ; much of which, however, 
he appears to have derived from the earlier MSS. of Piccolpasso. He 
tells us that the large early bacili enriched with a madreperla lustre, 
which he exactly describes in his seventh chapter, p. 25, were the 



PESARO 141 

produce of Pesaro; and in corroboration he states that many of them 
are painted with the coats of arms and portraits of the members of noble 
Pesarese famihes, instancing one with the arms of the * Bergnana ' family 
then preserved in the Casa Olivieri. It has been objected to Passeri's 
statement, that he was probably influenced in his writing by that local 
partiality wrongly deemed patriotic \ in favour of the native city of his 
family, and that he ascribed to her furnaces what may in equal likelihood 
have been produced at Diruta or Gubbio. 

Notwithstanding this tendency to exaggerate in favour of his beloved 
Pesaro, his erroneous statements, repeating in many instances those of 
others, as in the attribution of the discovery of the stanniferous enamel to 
Luca della Robbia, derived from Vasari, Passeri's errors and exaggerations 
were no worse than those made by other writers of more recent time 
and better opportunity for corrective information ; we cannot but feel 
that Passeri's work was one that opened the road to that field of inquiry 
which has since occupied so many able investigators. We should indeed 
be sorry to endorse M. £mile Molinier's too severe judgement on that 
work, nor that ' il faut surtout se garder de prendre au serieux un livre 
qui fait encore autorite, cet abominable manuel de Passed,' neither can 
we agree in his dictum * or il est aujourdhui demontre par tous ceux qui 
se sont occupes serieusement de la question que jamais a Pesaro on n'a 
fabrique de faiences a reflets metalliques - '. 

We were glad to find that, in one of his later communications to the 
Gazette des Beaux Arts, the late M. A. Darcel rather inclined to agree 
with us in an opposite conclusion which we had always maintained. 
But subsequentl}', at page 137-8 of vol. vii, third period of the same 
periodical, he writes * cependant nous avions reconnu, en etudiant les 
produits des ateliers de Faenza, que c'etait d'eux que devaient etre sorties 
toutes les pieces archaiques ; qu'elles fussent ou non revetues de ces 
jaunes a reflets metalliques-^', to the exclusion of Diruta and Pesaro, 
a conclusion hardly in accordance with documentary evidence or ascertained 
fact. Passeri wrote in the middle of the last centur}^, when the art was no 
longer in existence, and its specimens were only preserved in the cabinets 
of the curious ; but he was a man of erudition and research, and may have 
had means of obtaining local information with which we are unacquainted ; 
we think therefore that, as his statements have not yet been met by 

* Recent instances of the strong bias of additions to the history of the Itah'an 

this local patriotism are to be found in wares. 

the works of Dr. Malagola and Professor ^ La Ceramique Italienne au xv^ siecle, 

Argnani on the potteries of Faenza, both p. vi. Paris, 1888. p. 46. 

of which are otherwise such valuable ^ Gaz. Beaux Arts,T.xviii.2*periode, p.978. 



142 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

proofs of their total incorrectness, or by counter statements of greater 
weight, we are justified in accepting them until additional light be thrown 
upon the subject. He tells us that remains of antique furnaces, and 
ruins of a vase shop of classic times, with fragments of red and black 
wares, and lamps marked with the letter G, were found in the locality 
known as the ' Gabbice,' where the Lanfranchi works were afterwards 
established in the sixteenth century, and where the earth is of fine 
quality. Upon the latter subject he quotes from Piccolpasso, who states 
that the Pesaro potter's earth was even sent to Venice. He traces its 
use in the time of the Goths, and states that it again revived under the 
government of the Malatesta, and that soon after a mode of adorning 
the churches was adopted, by the insertion of discs or ' bacini ' of earthen- 
ware, at first simply glazed with the oxide of lead, but that coloured 
ones were subsequently used. He says that in his time the churches of 
St. Agostino, the Duomo, and S. Francesco were so ornamented,^ and he 
also refers to a tomb at Bologna opposite S. Domenico of about the year 
iioo, as being decorated with glazed tiles. Referring to the town archives, 
relative to the trades of ' Figoli,' ' Vasai,' and ' Boccolari,' he finds that on 
Feb. 12, 1396, one * Pedrinus Johannis a Boccalibus ' of Forli is recorded as 
then living at Pesaro. 

The wares then produced were made by covering the crude baked clay 
with a slip or engobe of white earth, the ^ terra di San Giovamii' from Siena, 
or with that of Verona, and glazing it with ' marzacotto' a mixture of 
oxide of lead, sand, and potash. The colours used were yellow, green, 
manganese black, and cobalt blue, from zaffara of the Levant. 

During the government of the Sforza, the manufacture greatly 
developed and was protected, for on April i, i486, a decree was made 
prohibiting the introduction of earthenwares for sale from other parts, 
except the jars for oil and water (ch. 6). The original of this edict is 
still preserved at Pesaro; it is in Latin and may be thus rendered: 'Be 
it enacted, that whereas our illustrious Lady Camilla and most illustrious 
Signor Giovanni Sforza d'Arragona, Count of Pesaro '^, are desirous to 

^ See historical notice, page 9, and a widow Camilla was generous enough to 

paper by the writer published in the receive him as her own son, and used her 

Archaeologia, vol. xlii, p. 379. influence with his subjects to induce them 

* Giovanni Sforza was an illegitimate son to acknowledge him as their sovereign, 

of Costanzo Sforza, who had no issue by his As soon as he attained maturity he repaid 

wife Camilla. He succeeded to his father in this lady's kindness by depriving her of 

1483 through the intervention of Pope Sixtus all authority and banishing her from Pesaro. 

IV, on condition of paying an annual tribute He married Lucrezia Borgia, daughter of 

of 750 crowns to the papal see. His father's Pope Alexander VI, and was soon after- 



PESARO 143 

benefit the city of Pesaro and to favour the citizens in all just demands: 
And whereas the art of vase making was formerly practised in the said 
city and carried to greater perfection than in any other part of Italy, 
and still produces extensively at Pesaro, attracting the admiration of 
all Italy and other countries : By command of these most illustrious 
potentates, it is forbidden both to citizens and foreigners (be their station 
what it may) to import any earthen vessels whatsoever, whether for 
ornament or otherwise, manufactured beyond the city and territory of 
Pesaro, with the exception of oil and water jars ; and that a fine of ten 
livres of Bologna be imposed for every infraction of this law besides the 
forfeiture of all or any such foreign made ware,' &c. &c. This was 
confirmed in 1508 In 1510 a document enumerates 'Maiolica' as one 
of the trades of Pesaro, naming also ^figoli,' ^ vasai^ and ^ boccalari' ; 
and we must bear in mind that there is good reason for believing that 
at that period ' Maiolica ' was a name technically understood as applying 
onl}^ to the lustred wares. It is also noteworthy that in this edict no 
exception was made in favour of Valencia wares as was the case at 
Venice, where the production of the metalhc lustre was not known. 

Passeri states that abouti450 the invciriait^ia or glazing had already 
begun to perfect itself under the Sforza, when those early pieces were 

wards driven from Pesaro by Caesar attached to the Biblioteca Classense at 

Borgia, his wife's brother. He returned Ravenna, among other pieces of maiolica 

after the death of Alexander VI, and died hitherto unknown to connoisseurs ; on one 

at Pesaro in 1510, leaving (by his second is the supposed portrait of Caterina Riario 

wife Ginevra Tiepolo) a son, Constanzo II, Sforza, with a verse from Petrarch on 

who died in 1512, at the age of three years. a banderole '^ La vita, el fine, el di loda la 

(Marrj'at, ed. 1868, p. 102.) In the late sera'; on another is the same portrait and 

Mr. Fountaine's Collection at Narford Hall the sentence ' In cor gentile non regna in- 

was a dish supposed to commemorate the gratitudine' : it is again repeated on the third 

passing of this edict ; on it are portraits plate with the line ' Sola la niorte estingue 

believed to be of the j'^oung Sforza and el vero amore ' ; on the fourth piece is 

Camilla da Marzana, and above them is a fantastical head supposed to be a portrait 

a scroll representing the edict. This piece, of Gerolamo Riario ; the borders of these 

which had passed from the Narford into pieces are decorated with 7?orrtw^, and they 

a foreign collection, was sold at Paris in are all enriched with the madreperla lustre. 

May 1894, and acquired by Mr. Salting at Dr. Malagola is inclined to attribute them 

the somewhat high price (with commission) to Fori! ; we think they are probably 

of ^490. The supposition as to who are from the furnaces of Pesaro or Diruta, and 

the persons represented is quite without by an artist who produced so many of the 

authority, but it is a fine example of early well-known similar ia«7/. We may observe, 

ustred ware, probably by an early master however, that the attribution of the portraits 

working at Gubbio, or previously at Pesaro. on these dishes is by no means assured 

Doctor Carlo Malagola refers to four large (vide Pasolini, Caterina Sforza, vol. i. 

plates, which are preserved in the Museum pp. 348 9; and vol. ii. p. 393). 



144 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

produced decorated with 'arabesque' borders encircling coats of arms, 
portraits, and ideal heads outlined with manganese, and colouring the 
dress, &c , with the ' madreperla ' lustre leaving the flesh white. Sig. 
Urbani de Gheltof^ dwells upon the important part taken in the 
development of ceramic production in Venice by artists from Pesaro in 
the course of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Baldassare 
dei Baldassini of Pesaro worked in the first and second half of the six- 
teenth century, and also his sons. 

This is in itself a strong proof of the importance of the artistic 
potteries at that Umbrian city at an early period, and is an answer to 
the doubt, expressed so strongly by some French writers, as to Passeri's 
statement to that effect. 

About 1450-1500 * fruttiere ' were made with fruits in relief and busts 
of saints, &c., and coats of arms in the centre enriched with the lustre 
colour 2. 

Following Vasari, he ascribes the improvement in the manufacture by 
the use of the stanniferous glaze to the discovery of the Delia Robbia, 
and states that, although the art of making it was known earlier at Florence, 
the fine (enamelled) ware was only introduced at Pesaro about 1500. 
That the lustred ware derived its name from the pottery of Majorca, and 
that the earlier and coarser varieties were known as ' niezza majolica' 

Guid' Ubaldo II greatly encouraged the art, and in 1552 granted 
to Bernardin Gagliardino, Girolamo Lanfranchi, Ranaldo, and others, an 
edict prohibiting the importation of other wares for sale, thus confirming 
the former acts, which would appear to have fallen into neglect ; and in 
the year 1562, on June i, he granted another confirming to Giacomo 
Lanfranco a protection of his art, or patent for applying real gold to his 
wares ^. 

In chapter X, page 37, Passeri refers to other documents proving the 
extent of this branch of industry at Pesaro, and instances one dated July 6, 
1462, executed by the notary Sepolcro Sepolcri, by which a partnership was 
formed between Ventura di Mastro, Simone da Siena di casa Piccolomini, 
and Matteo di Raniere da Cagli, for the purpose of enlarging a crockery 
shop or business, * negozio di vasaria,' already existing, and for which 
purpose they borrowed money at interest, from Donna Pandolfina di Ser 
Michele de' Corradi, wife of Pietro Paolo Bindi, and a larger additional 
sum of 270 golden ducats from Count Monaldino di Monte V ecchio, as 

' Urbani de Gheltof, Studii, p. 45. South Kensington Museum, and a plate in 

* Of such may be No. 436 in the Ash- the Museum at Pavia which M. Mohnier 

molean Museum (Fortnum Collection). doubtingly suggests may be of this variety 

" Seemingly of such is a cup 'Y/ in the of Pesaro wares. 



PESARO 145 

appears from an act of liquidation made by the heirs of this firm in 1484, 
now preserv'ed in the archives of S. Andrea. This last sum of 270 ducats 
was, as Passeri remarks, a large amount at that period, and proves the 
extent of their business ; he also infers that the employment of such 
a capital would denote the formation of new works, probably for the 
purpose of introducing some improvement in the manufacture ; and that, 
as the then new mode of glazing or enamelling with the stanniferous glaze 
had been perfected by Luca della Robbia in Florence, it is not improbable 
that the application of it to the wares of Pesaro was introduced from 
Tuscan}' by this Sienese. 

A further mention of these partners occurs in an act dated April 28, 
1463, by which Matteo acknowledges himself debtor to Mariotto Torti 
of Perugia, for the value of 1,200 lbs. of 'terra ghetta' from the lake of 
Perugia, which was used for the glazing. 

Among the deeds signed before another Pesarese notary, Matteo di 
Gaspare de Leporibus, on November 7, 1504, is one by which 'Appollonio 
del q. Antonio da Ponte di Segna,' creditor of one ' Mastro Giorgio del 
q. Stefano Schiavone vasaio da Pesaro,' acknowledges receipt of the value 
of 62 golden ducats in part payment of a debt, a portion of which payment 
is in money, and the larger amount ' in tot vasts diversis figulariae ' — in 
various figulate vases. 

Further, he refers to an edict made by Galeazzo Sforza in 1510, when 
governor of Pesaro for his nephew Costanzo II, in reference to the order 
of the procession to be held in honour of S. Terenzio, the patron saint of 
the city. In this, among the various trading bodies or guilds, which 
form confraternities, are inscribed the figiili e fornaciari, the potters 
and the stove men ; a further proof of the importance of this branch of 
manufacture. 

We will now leave the work of Passeri and seek for other records of 
the wares made at Pesaro previous to the sixteenth century ; returning to 
him for information on the produce of that and later periods 

Dennistoun, in his History of the Dukes of Urbino (vol. 3, p. 388), 
refers to a letter among the diplomatic archives of the duchy, which are 
presented at Florence, dated 1474, from Pope Sextus IV, in which he 
thanks Costanzo Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, for a present of most elegantly 
wrought earthen vases, which, for the donor's sake, are prized as much as 
if they had been of gold or silver instead of earthenware. 

Another letter from Lorenzo the Magnificent to Roberto Malatesta, 
thanking him for a similar present, says, ' they please me entirely by their 
perfection and rarity, being quite novelties in these parts, and are 
valued more than if of silver, the donor's arms serving daily to recall 

L 



T46 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

their origin^' This Roberto was in the Florentine service, and died 
about 1482; he was a member of the Malatesta famil}', former lords of 
Pesaro. 

There is strong reason for assuming that both these presents consisted 
of wares produced at the Pesaro furnaces. 

The Marquis Campori publishes^ a document by which we learn that 
in 1493 Isabella d' Este had ordered works to be executed for her at Pesaro. 
And again in an inventory of 1491 -^ wares of that fabrique are thus 
mentioned : * Uno piatello di terra lavorato et depinto di quelli se fanno 
a Pesaro. Dui altri patelliti simili et lavorati a dicto modo ; tace septe di 
simile lavoro di terra,' which would seem to indicate a special and 
distinct class of wares. 

Referring to these letters and documents we would remark, that if 
Tuscany had not as yet produced glazed or enamelled wares, and if the 
Grand Ducal establishment at Caffaggiolo did not exist at that time 
(circa 1480), we could comprehend the remark made in Lorenzo's letter 
of thanks for these specimens, that 'their perfections and rarity being 
quite novelties in these parts,' pleased him, &c. ; but Luca della Robbia 
had painted on flat surfaces covered with his own stanniferous glaze some 
thirty years previously, and painted wares could be no novelty at Florence. 
Passeri also tells us, but not upon positive authority, that fine ware or 
Porcellana was first made at Pesaro about 1500, and was introduced 
from Tuscany *, meaning thereby that the stanniferous glaze was then and 
there first introduced, and used in preference to the mezza majolica of 
the earlier period. How then could such wares be looked upon as 
' novelties in these parts ' ? But, if these pieces were decorated with the 
rich metallic glaze and madreperla lustre, as may be inferred, they probably 
were novelties to the Florentines as productions of an Italian pottery, 
although they were in all likelihood acquainted with the * Majorcan ' 
and Spanish wares. We may fairly assume that these presents, being 
the produce of Pesaro, and exciting so much admiration as ' being quite 
novelties ' to Lorenzo, must have had something more than a mere richness 
of glazing ; and that the peculiarity which excited that admiration may have 
been their * madreperla lustre,' a thing then unknown upon Tuscan wares, 

' Gaye, Carteggio, i. 304. Sienese Maestro Simone in 1462. See ante. 

"^ Notizie, p. 729. We now know, from the researches of 

^ Inventario di Guardaroba Estense, p. Professor Argnani at Faenza, and the 

34. discovery of pieces of earlier date than 1500 

■• His uncertainty as to the precise date in other places having the stanniferous 

of its adoption is shown in the suggestion glaze, that its use was more generally and 

that it might have been introduced by the earlier known than Passeri supposed. 



PES ARC 



HI 



and greatly differing in tone and character from those of Spain. We would 
therefore give more credit to Passeri's statement, derived perhaps from 
information not now available to us, that some of those well-known early 
baciii with portrait heads imaginary or real and coats of arms, enriched with 
that peculiar madreperla lustre, were produced at Pesaro, whence, as 
he tells us, the secret of the lustre pigments, only known to one or 
a few hands, may have been transported to other localities and to Gubbio, 
where it was still further developed under Maestro Giorgio. The 
fashion for these large daci/i di pompa doubtless caused them to be made 
without the lustre enrichment, at Faenza and other potteries, and of such 
many have descended to us ; but that all the more archaic pieces having 
that peculiar madreperla and golden lustre were the produce of one 
botega only, and that that botega was either at Pesaro or Diruta, we do 
not think probable. It has yet to be proved, by an investigation of the 
rubbish heaps of ancient pottery works at' La Gabice,'six miles to the west- 
ward of Pesaro, whether fragments can be unearthed of those lustred 
wares stated to have been made thereabout. 

Passeri then describes examples of the enamelled pottery of Pesaro 
which he had seen ; the earliest he refers to are floorings of tiles 
existing in his time, upon one of which, brought to him by a workman, 



was inscribed 



'adi 4 de Genar 
o . in Pesaro.' 



and on the other 



1^02. 



A considerable period elapses between this and the next dated example, 
a plate, with the subject of Horatius Codes, inscribed, — 
* Otazio solo coritro Toscatia tutta. 
Fatto in Pesaro. 1541.' 
which he wrongly ascribes to Orazio Fontana ; it subsequently passed 
into the Delsette Collection (Cat. No. 2i8\ and was sold in Paris at the 
dispersion of the Spitzer Collection. 
On another — 

'/ Pianetto de Marte 
fatto in Pesaro 1542 

/;/ hottega da M astro Gironimo Vasaro. LP.' 
This plate has since been lost sight of, but one of the same sen'ice is 
preserved in the Louvre. From the initial letters Passeri concludes that 
several pieces which he had seen, and on which they are painted on the 
reverse, must also be of this fabrique. An error has grown out of this 
statement, Mr. Marryat and other writers having applied it to certain 

L 2 



148 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

fine early pieces with borders of grotesques, and bearing these initials in 
large characters on the reverse; there can be little doubt that they were 
the work of a far more able artist at Siena, working some twenty or thirty 
years before the date on the Pesaro plate {see Siena). Those initials on the 
Pesaro plate really stood for ' lacomo Pinsur/ as proved by another piece 
to be described. 

He further mentions a plate having a mark consisting of the initials 
O A connected by a cross, and a bas-relief with the same initials which 
again occur sculptured over a door, which he suggests may have been that 
of the potter's house ; we should, however, be more disposed to regard 
it as a conventual or cathedral monogram. 

A more interesting piece, a ballate or coppa amatoria, is recorded 

by him, having a cupid centre with borders ' a trofei ' on blue ground, 

among which is an open music book with accurate notes of the air and the 

verses,^ — 

' O bel fiore, 

Amor mio bello, 

Amor mio caro, 

La grisola, la grisola.' 

and on a cartel, the date * 1550 Terencio fecit.' It is inscribed ' Quesfo 
piatto fit fatto in la bottega di Mastro Baldassar Vasaro da Pesaro e fato per 
fiiano di Terenzio,fiolo di Mastro Matteo Boccalaro' This artist was known 
as // Rondolino ; pieces initialled with a T may perhaps be by his hand. 
.Passed quotes from Tommaso Garzoni, a Venetian noble, who, writing 
in the Piazza Universale in 1585, in reference to Italian pottery, states: 
' benche oggi in Italia tutta la gloria par die tocchi a Faenza in Romagna 
die fa le Majoliche cost biandie, e polite, e a Pesaro nella Marca d' A neon a die 
lavora ottimamente intorno a qitesto mestiero'^! And also from the writings 
of a Spanish theologian, Antonio Beuter, who in the ' Cronica Generale 
di Spagna,' translated into Italian and published at Venice in 1556, at 
chapter 8, pp. 84, 85, states : ' Che Corebo die secondo Plinio fit /' inventore 
di lavorar la creta, in Atene non li fece migliori, ne fitrono di piit valore i 
vasi de' Corinti, ne /' opere di Pisa, ne di Pesaro, ne li castelli delta Valle 
Siciliana d' Abruzzo, ne d' altri luoghi in sottigliezza, di lavoro ne bellezza "'.' 

' p. 3I ed. 1857. ' * Although Coroebus, according to Pliny, 
^ ' Whilst in the present day, in Italy, all was the inventor of working in clay, they 
the glory of the art rests with Faenza in did not make them better in Athens, nor 
Romagna, where Majolica is made of such were the vases of Corinth of greater value 
whiteness and delicacy, and with Pesaro than the works of Pisa, or of Pesaro, or 
in the March of Ancona, where the highest of the Sicilian valley of the Abruzzi and of 
excellence is attained in this workman- other places, for the delicacy of the work- 
ship.' manship and their beaut}'.' 



PLATE XI 




TAZZA. THK CREATION OF ANIMALS. LANKKANCO. PESARO, I54O 




CIRCULAR DISH. LANFRANCO OF PESARO 
Circa 1544 



PESARO 149 

Of the pieces produced at Pesaro about the middle of the sixteenth 
century only some few signed and dated plates are recorded by Passeri 
as then existing in collections ; but his statement that the productions of 
that period were of a very high standard and rivalling the sumptuous 
pieces of the Urbino fabriques was, by many connoisseurs, considered 
as mythical as his statement that the grand old madreperla bacili were 
made at the Pesaro furnaces. It is true that the majority of the 
signed and dated examples known were istoriati of no high quality ; but 
it is a curious fact that of other fabriques some of the few pieces signed by 
the best masters of this art are inferior in execution and hardly worthy 
of their signature. 

The earliest dated piece with which we are acquainted is in the Ash- 
molean Museum (Fortnum Coll.) at Oxford, No. 418. It is 3. fnittiera, on 
which is painted the creation of animals by the Almighty, who, moving in 
their midst, is surrounded by animals rising out of the ground ; a distant 
landscape, with a town (!) on the side of a steep mountain, forms the 
background. It is apparently the work of a somewhat undeveloped 
hand. (See PI. XI.) 

On the reverse is inscribed — 

' 1540 
Chrianite anim 
allis Christttts 
fatto in Pesaro^ 

(For facsimile, see Mark No. 67.) 

In the Massa Collection of the Hospital for Incurables at Pesaro is 
a plate (No. 202). The chase of the Calydonian boar inscribed — 

* La chaccia delporcho chalidonko 
fatto in Pesaro 1541.' 

A more important tazza was in the Fortnum Collection (since pre- 
sented to the British Museum), having for subject Cicero expounding 
the law before Julius Caesar, a composition of six figures; in the centre, 
Cicero, represented as an aged bearded man, holds a folio in his hands, 
standing before Caesar, who is seated on a throne, and clad as a Roman 
warrior ; on the left of the picture are four Roman soldiers : the scene is 
in a room, the wall of which is of bevelled masonr}', coloured green, and 
pierced with a curtained window, through which is seen a mountainous 
landscape. 

Freely and ably handled, and richly coloured, approaching in manner 
to the works of some of the artists of the Fontana fabrique of Urbino, 
it is equal to them in the quality of the glaze and force of colour, but 



150 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

has in the design a distinct character of its own. It is inscribed on 
the reverse — 

' Cicerone et jttlie cesare 

ciiado idete le lege 1542' 

in la botega <f mastro 

Girolame da le Gabice 

In Pesaro. (See Mark No. 68.) 

In this we have a very interesting example corroborating the 
records given by Passeri of the Lanfranchi fabrique, and of its locaHty. 
This is the Maestro Girolamo di Lanfranco of Gabice, a dependency or 
castello six miles west of Pesaro, and thus mentioned in a register, 

* 1560 Mastro Girolamo di Lanfranco delle Gabice^ vasaro, possiede una 

Casa, Qr'C. 
' 159^ ^^^ succede Giacomo stto figlio ' 
' 1599 gli succedono Girolamo e Lndovico ftgli di 
Giacomo' (Passeri, ch. ix, p. 34.) 

The painting of this piece is by the same hand as the first named, 
though more masterly. The inscription on the back, written in clear 
blue, is also in the same handwriting. The last figure of the date is 
blurred, and may be either a 2 or a 4. On the face of the piece the 
glaze has also run, slightly blurring the colours on one side. 

Careful comparison of the painting, glaze, and handwriting of the 
inscription on this piece reveals the fact that some of the more important 
services of that period were painted by the same hand, and are therefore 
certainly the produce of the Lanfranco potteries of Pesaro. 

Sir A. W. Franks agrees with us in ascribing to them the service executed 
by order of Quid' Ubaldo as a present to a certain 'frate Andrea da 
Volterra,' who must have been highly esteemed by the Duke, although 
no other knowledge of him has descended to us. The pieces of this 
service bear the arms of the Duke, and the inscription g. v. v. d. munus. 
F. ANDREW. voLATERANo, the four first letters being the initials of ' Guido 
Ubaldo Urbini Dux' Passeri (page 58) describes one of these pieces, 
which are all istoriati, having the subject of Coriolanus intreated by his 
mother, and another that of the Deluge. Two others, one representing 
the sacrifice of Jacob, the other the burning of Troy adapted from 
Raffaelle's Incendio del Borgo, were in the Delsette Collection (Nos. 259, 
260), whence they passed to Mr. Barker, and then to Sir F. Cook. One 
piece of the service is in the Museum of Economic Geology in Jermyn 
Street, the subject the Triumph of Trajan ; and another, a fluted tazza, is 
in the British Museum. The Rothschild Collection at Paris possesses 
another piece, and one is in the Museum of the University of Bologna. 



PESARO 151 

Another service, painted for some German family or Guild, and bearing 
their shield of arms, of which one large plate is in the Ashmolean Mus. 
(Fortnum Coll. No. 420 PI. XI), while another belongs to Miss Lockwood. 
Some also of the grand oval dishes or plateaux with subject centre, 
grotesque surroundings on the white ground, raised marks and rich orna- 
mentation on the back. But more important evidence is afforded b}' the 
fact that, on comparison of the signed M". Girolamo da le Gabice plate with 
the small vase, formerly in the Stowe Collection but now in the British 
Museum (the generous gift of R. Needham Philips, Esq.) on which a 
combat of warriors is painted, after a print by Bartel Beham, both are 
considered, by Sir A. W. Franks and other experienced judges, as probably 
by the same hand. This gem of ceramic art is figured in Mr. Marryat's 
book at p. 37 (third edition). 

In the South Kensington Museum is a fine example by this same 
hand, a circular dish No. 7167, perhaps also 8927; subject 'Lucretia' 
admirably painted. A fine triangular plateau in the possession of Mrs. Hope 
has the character of their finest productions. 

Here therefore we have unquestionable proof that Passeri's statement 
with regard to the Lanfranco botega and its products is correct, and this 
fact must, in the opinion of the writer, considerably enhance the value of 
that able antiquary's attribution of early archaic madreperla lustred 
wares to the Pesaro furnaces, perhaps confirmed by other evidence 
unknown to us ; and to his statement that its application both to the 
mezza wares and to the stanniferous glazed pieces spread from thence 
to Gubbio, where it was further developed b}^ M". Giorgio. Wherever first 
practised in Italy, there can be little doubt that the art of appl3'ing lustre 
was derived from oriental potters who, probably flying from persecution in 
Spain or in the East, xmy have found refuge in one or other of the coast 
towns of Italy. Of the claims of Diruta for the monopoly of these early 
lustred wares we will take note when treating of that fabrique. 

Also dated 1542, but in another and inferior hand, is the interesting 
plate in the Museum of the University at Bologna. The subject is of 
nymphs bathing, and on the reverse is inscribed — 

'faffo in Pesaro 1542 

vo 

in dottega di mo Gironimo 

vasaro 

iachomo pinsnr* . 

(See Mark No. 69.) 

By the foregoing quotation from a deed, we have seen that this 
&achomo ' was the son of M". Girolamo. and succeeded him in the 



152 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

possession of the house, &c. This signature also shows that the initials 
occasionally seen on pieces by Passeri were not intended to signify ' in 
Pesaro/ but the work of lachomo, painter. 

The following examples may also be ascribed to his brush. A plate 
in the Louvre (Sauvageot Collection, No. G. 232) with emblematic figures 
of music and astronomy, inscribed at the back — 

' El pianete 
de Mercurio 
fato in Pesaro! 

There is no date on this piece, but from the subject it was probably 
of the same service as that mentioned by Passeri {see ante), as having 
the inscription */. panefte di marte fatto in Pesaro 1542, in bottega di 
maestro Gironimo vasaro, I. P! 

In the British Museum are two examples apparently by the same 
hand. One representing the fable of Circe and her companions, and 
inscribed — 

De pico e 
de Circae 
fato in pesaro 

(See Mark No. 74.) 
the other — 

como apollo 
tolse la vaca 
a argano 
fato in 
pesaro 

(See Mark No. 75.) 
A tazza, with the subject of Callisto beaten by Diana and her nymphs, 
is in the Basilewski Collection, and is illustrated in Delange's Recueil, 
pi. 79. It is inscribed * Fatto in Pesaro 1544.' We have not seen this 
plate, but judging from the print, it would appear to be superior to the 
work of lacomo. M. Jacquemart (Merveilles de la Ceramique) mentions 
one with Samson and the Philistines, dated 1545. 

Another, painted with the triumphal march of the Emperor Aurelius, 
was in the Soltikoff Collection, and signed 

^ Fatto in Pesaro 1552.' 
Next in sequence is a plate which was in the possession of M. Dutuit at 
Rome, and formerly belonged to the Marquis D'Azeglio; the subject 
Mutius Scaevola, the design of which is superior to the painting; it is 
inscribed — 



PESARO 153 

1566 

MVT. SCE. 
PISAVRI. 

M. Jacquemart mentions one, Camillus throwing his sword into the 

balance, inscribed — 

^vce vidis 

di pisauro ' 

but without date ; and another, undated, is mentioned by Delange in his 
supplement to the translation of Passeri, representing a conqueror dragging 
a captive queen behind his car — 

' Fato in Pesaro^ 

It is, nevertheless, extremely difficult, without actual comparison, to 
distinguish between the ' istoriate pieces of the Lanfranchi fabrique at 
Pesaro, and many of those produced at Urbino in the Fontana furnaces, 
and it is indeed more than probable that some of the artists not 
absolutely interested in the botega were occasionally employed at either 
place ^ 

Another corroboration of Passeri's statement, and of the importance of 
the Lanfranchi establishment, occurs in an anon3'mous document published 
by the Marquis Giuseppe Campori I It is preserx'ed among the archives 
of Modena, and is dated Pesaro, Oct. 26, 1660. It relates how the Duke 
of Modena had been entertained at the house of the Signora Contessa 
Violante ^ con tiitta qiiella domestichezza^ which he desired; how he was 
presented with six bacili filled with delicacies made b}' the nuns, sent to 
him by the daughters of the Countess, and which were kept in the 
dishes. That, some of his family wishing to buy maioliche painted by 
Raffaelle of Urbino, a great quantity of bacili and tazzoni was brought 
to them, not by Raffaelle, but painted by a certain ancient professor of 
that kind of painting denominated ' il Gabbiccio' le furono porfate gran 
quantita di bacili e di tazzoni o fnittiere, nan gia di Raffaello, ma dipinti da 
tin tale antico professore di tale pittura denominato * // Gabbiccio^ who, as 
the Marquis Campori suggests, was probably that Girolamo di Lanfranchi 
the maestro of the establishment at the Gabice. It then goes on to 
relate that these dealers in antiquities, like some of their brethren of the 

^ We learn from M. B. Fillon that an artist Faienciers Italiens a Lyon au XVI^ Siecle, 

of Pesaro, one Giovanni Francesco, settled in Lj'on, 1895, viz. 

France. He and other Pesaro Potters are Giovanni Francesco da Pesaro (1557- 1575), 

named in M. Natalis Rondot's LaCeramique Cristoforo Pesaro (1561-1573), and 

Lyonnaise, 8vo, Paris, 1889, in his Potiers Constantino Pesaro (1565-1573). 

de Terre Italiens a Lyon au seizieme - Notizie della Maiolica e della Porcellana 

Siecle, 8vo, Paris, 1892, and in his Les di Ferrara. Modena, 1871, p. 142. 



154 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

present day, asked too much money, to wit, a hundred doble for a rinfres- 
caiore, certainly well painted, but for which they offered twelve! And 
that they only succeeded in acquiring another rinfrcscatore and a large 
turtle, that would serve as a basin or a dish, painted with grotesques and 
figures on the bowl and the cover, for which they paid 22 doble. 

The Marquis Campori observes that the cover of this tarfantga 
was sold not long since in Modena to a foreign amateur; and once, when 
in Florence, the writer learnt that such a piece was then in the hands 
of Sig. Rusca of that city. He had himself seen at Rome the lower 
portion of a large turtle- or tortoise-shaped dish in the Palazzo Barberini, 
which might perchance belong to that cover or be the other half of 
a similar piece. A carapace of great beauty was sold in Paris at the 
Castellani sale in 1878, fetching 25,000 francs, but did not agree with 
the Barberini piece ; it may probabl^^ be that formerly in the possession 
of Rusca. The lower portion of another was in the possession of 
Godfrey Wentworth, Esq., of Woolley Park near Wakefield. 

Passeri tells us how rapidly the art declined after 1560, wanting the 
encouragement of a reigning ducal court; he also ascribes much evil 
influence to what he considers the bad taste of preferring the unmeaning 
designs of the Oriental porcelain, which was greatly prized by the 
wealthy, and the painting after the prints of the later German school of 
Sadeler, &c , in preference to the grander works of the old masters ; the 
landscapes were, however, well executed. He also gives us a history of 
the revival of the manufacture in his own time under the influence and 
encouragement of the cardinal prelate, Ludovico Merlini. In 1718 there 
was only one potter at Pesaro, Alfonzo Marzi, who produced the most 
ordinary wares. 

In 1757 Signor Giuseppe Bertolucci, an accomplished ceramist of 
Urbania, in conjunction with Signor Francesco de' Fattori, engaged 
workmen and artists and commenced a fabrique, but it was soon 
abandoned. 

Again in 1763 Signors Antonio Casali and Filippo Antonio Caligari, 
both of Lodi, under Passeri's influence came to Pesaro, and were joined 
by Signor Pietro Lei da Sassuolo of Modena, an able painter on faience, 
and on August 13 established a fabrique producing wares of great 
excellence hardly to be distinguished from the Chinese. 

The worthy Passeri concludes with a hope that he may succeed in 
establishing a school of design for subjects, with the assistance of the 
Abbate Giannandrea Lazzarini, one of the most able ' Maestri di Pittura.' 

The following examples of the wares produced under that revival are 
worthy of record. 



PESARO 155 

A small plate or stand for a broth basin, in the Ashmolean Mus. (Fortnum 
Coll.) decorated on the white ground with flowers and birds slightl}' raised 
in relief and painted, and with other flowers delicately painted on the 
flat surface, is inscribed in small letters on the reverse — 

C. C 

Pesaro 

1765 
P. P. Lj. 

This can be no other than the mark of the last firm spoken of by 
Passeri, the upper initials standing for Casali and Caligari, and the lower 
for Fitise Pietro Lei. It is carefull}' executed, but weak in colour, and 
in shape and general st3ie in the manner of the other fine Italian 
enamelled earthenwares of the last century. 

A plate in the possession of Miss Lock wood at Rome has a similar 
mark ; it is more imitative of porcelain and of considerable technical 
excellence ; the ground is dark blue, covered with foliated ornament 
incised into the paste, filled in with gilding, and enclosing panels painted 
W'ith children, flowers, &c. 

Jugs inscribed with verses in modern Greek were made for that 
market. 

Urbani de Gheltof ^ informs us that Casali and Caligari ceased partner- 
ship, each opening a botega on his own account. 

In 1812 Marino Frongini a workman from the Casali, who had 
opened a work on his own account, ceded it to Ditta Benucci and 
Lacci. 

The Casali works passed to one Paolucci and were closed in 1849. 

The Caligari to Magrini and Co. who reopened it in 1870. 

Mazzolari Donati and Rizzoli opened a work in 1780 under the name 
of Ditta Reggiani and Co. at which Pietro Lotti painted, and Pietro Gai 
who, in 1848, discovered the secret of the metallic lustre. 

In 1864 the Marquis Giacomo Mattei opened a fabrique of wares 
in imitation of the ancient in the name of the Casa Albani, and, with the 
assistance of Pietro Gai, produced good specimens of lustred wares 
painted by the Bertozzini. 

The Molaroni and the Societa Ceramica di Pesaro produced imitations 
of the ancient pieces. 

* Notizie sulla Ceramica Italiana. Roma 1889, p. 205. 



156 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



GUBBIO 

In our notice of the works produced at Gubbio, written for the 
Catalogue of the South Kensington Museum in 1872, we stated the 
results of much careful enquiry, comparison of specimens, and con- 
sultation with the most able students of ceramics at that time. Recent 
investigation by others does not materially alter those conclusions ; we 
can therefore hardly do better than quote in extenso what was then 
written. 

Although probably not one of the earliest fabriques of Italian 
enamelled and painted wares, Gubbio undoubtedly holds one of the 
most prom.inent positions in the history and development of the potter's art 
in the sixteenth century. This small town, seated on the eastern slope 
of the Apennines, was then incorporated in the territor}^ of the Dukes of 
Urbino, under whose influence and enlightened patronage the artist 
potters of the duchy received the greatest encouragement, and were thus 
enabled to produce the beautiful works, of which so many examples 
have descended to us. Chiefly under the direction of one man, it would 
seem that the produce of the Gubbio furnaces was for the most part 
of a special nature, namely, a decoration of the pieces with the lustre 
pigments, producing those brilliant metallic ruby, golden, and opalescent 
tints, which vary in every piece, and which assume almost every colour 
of the rainbow as they reflect the light directed at varying angles upon 
their surface. That it was of a special nature, and produced only at 
a few fabriques almost exclusively devoted to that class of decoration, is, 
we think, to be reasonably inferred from Piccolpasso's statement, who, 
referring to the application of the 'Majolica' pigments, writes ' Non cJi io 
ne abbia mat fatto lie men veduto fare' He was the Maestro of an 
important botega at Castel Durante, one of the largest and most pro- 
ductive of the Umbrian manufactories, within a few miles also of those 
of Urbino, with which he must have been intimately acquainted and in 
frequent correspondence. That he, in the middle of the sixteenth century, 
when all these works were at their highest development, should be able 
to state that he had not only never applied, or even witnessed the process 
of application of these lustrous enrichments, is, we think, a convincing 
proof that they were never adopted at either of those seats of the 
manufacture of enamelled artistic pottery. By inference, confirmed by 
the evidence of the existing wares themselves, we may conclude that they 
were only used at the three known furnaces of Pesaro, Diruta, and 
Gubbio ; perhaps with the rare exception of a few experimental pieces 



GUBBIO 157 

made at Caffaggiolo and elsewhere. Although much modified and 
improved, these lustre colours were not invented by Italian artists, but 
were derived from the potters of the East, probably from the Moors of 
Sicily, of Spain, or of Majorca. Hence the name ' Majolica,* which, as 
w^e learn from Piccolpasso (Suppl. p. 72 of MS.), was originally applied 
only to wares having the lustre enrichment; and it is probable that this 
distinctive appellation was more or less in use until the decline of the 
manufacture. Since then the term has been more generally applied, all 
varieties of Italian enamelled potter}- being usually, though wrongly, known 
as ' Majolica.' At Gubbio there appears to have been a Collegio of Vasai 
in 1300, according to the * Libri delle Riforme ' of Gubbio, and that ware 
was made by one Luccolo di Giovanetto Andreuecoli^ who in 1348, as 
Vasarius Vasoriim pictortnn, had concessions granted ^. 

The art of appljing these metallic pigments is stated by Passeri 
(ch. 7, p. 22, 2nd ed. 1857) to have been known at Pesaro, w-here he 
states that those early bacili, decorated with the armorial bearings and 
portraits of the governors of Pesaro under the rule of the House of 
Sforza, were produced and enriched with the beautiful madreperla 
and ruby lustre. And he further states that this secret art was taken 
thence to Gubbio about the year 1518, and was lost some thirty years 
later. Although proved to be inexact in some respects, we have no 
positive evidence to contradict this statement of the earl}' use of the lustre 
colours at Pesaro, and accept Passeri's statement in the main in the absence 
of more authentic and definite information. This question has been 
further considered in our notices on Pesaro and on Diruta, to which place 
some modern writers are disposed to ascribe all these early lustred bacUi. 
In dates we shall soon discover that he is at fault. The Gubbio fabrique 
was in full work previous to 1518; but that some of the early bacili, 
apparentl}' the work of one hand, were made at Pesaro, whence perhaps 
the artist and the secret passed to Gubbio, is far from improbable. The 
reason for this emigration is not known, but it may be surmised that 
the large quantit}'^ of broom and other brushwood, necessary for the 
reducing process of the reverberatory furnace in which this lustre was 
produced, might have been more abundantly supplied by the hills of 
Gubbio than in the vicinit}^ of the larger city on the coast. The method 
of producing these metallic effects may here be briefly stated from the 
description in the supplement to Piccolpasso's work. He there (MS. 
p. 72) states the ingredients of the pigments^ as communicated to him 
by Maestro Vincenzio of Gubbio, and explains the method of building 

^ Rossi and Urbani de Gheltof. * Vide ' Introduction,' page 64. 



158 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

the furnace, in which the pieces to be lustred, after baking, are exposed to 
the action of hot smoke, produced by the burning of faggots of broom 
and brushwood. This smoke, being carbon in a highly divided state, 
coming into contact with these pigments on the heated wares, reduces 
the metaUic salts, leaving a thin surface of the metals, which, being 
of a mixed nature and blended with other ingredients, produce those 
varied and beautiful tints. It would seem that experienced and careful 
manipulation was requisite, doubtless the result of long practice, and hence 
the fact of its almost exclusive adoption at one botega, in which the 
secret of the pigments and of their successful application was strictly 
guarded. That the process was costly we gather from Piccolpasso's state- 
ment that sometimes not more than six pieces out of a hundred succeeded 
in the firing. 

The fame of the Gubbio wares is associated almost entirely with one 
name, that of Giorgio Andreoli. We learn from the Marchese Branca- 
leoni ^ that this artist was the son of Pietro, of a 'Castello' called 'Judeo,' 
in the diocese of Pavia, a place inhabited chiefly by pagani, a name 
then applied to Arians as was also that of Giudei, not being used only 
to denote the Jews; and that, accompanied by his brother Salimbene, 
he went to Gubbio in the second half of the fifteenth century. He appears 
to have left, and again returned thither in 1492, accompanied by his 
younger brother ' Giovanni.' They were enrolled as citizens in the ' Libro 
delle Reforme' on May 23, 1498, on pain of forfeiting 500 ducats 
if they left the city, in which they engaged to continue practising their 
ceramic art. Patronised by the Dukes of Urbino, Giorgio was made 
' Castellano ' of Gubbio. Passeri states that the family was ' noble ' in 
Pavia. From a notarial deed dated 1542 it appears that he had three 
sons, Francesco, a ' juris-consult' ; Vincenzio the potter, and Ubaldo of 
whom we have no knowledge of his participation in the work. Francesco 
detto il Cortese took a high position; in 1556 he was ' Vicario Generale ' 
for the Duchy of Urbino, and was Ambassador to the Courts of Rome 
and Naples. It is not known why or when he was created a ' Maestro,' 
a title prized even more than nobilit}^ but it is presumable that it took place 
at the time of his enrolment as a citizen ; his name with the title ' Maestro ' 
first appearing on a document dated that same year, 1498. Piccolpasso 
states that majolica painters were considered noble by profession. The 
family of * Andreoli ' and the ' Casa ' still exist in Gubbio, and it was 
stated by his descendant Girolamo Andreoli, who died some sixty 
years since, that political motives induced their emigration from Pavia. 

' ' Lettera di Maestro Giorgio," Gubbio, Jan. 6, 1857. 



GUBBIO 159 

Maestro Giorgio was an artist b}- profession, not only as a draughts- 
man but as a modeller, and being familiar with the enamelled terra 
cottas of Luca della Robbia, he is said to have executed with his own 
hands, and in their manner, two large altar-pieces: one of which in 151 1 
he placed in the church of S. Domenico at Gubbio, in the chapel of the 
Bentivoglio family' dedicated to S. Antonio Abbate. The original receipt 
for this work is in the archives of the town (Brancaleoni). It was 
divided and sold in the last century-, but the statue of the saint is still 
in the church,' In 1513, for the same church, he is said to have made 
the altar of the * Madonna del Rosario,' the central subject and other 
portions of which are now in the Museum at Frankfort-on-the-Maine : 
also in 15 13 to have made the high altar (still /';/ situ) of the church of the 
Ossenanti, the ' Annunziata,' a mile from Bevagna. In a chapel near 
Assisi were formerly six figures of angels holding candlesticks, decorated 
with ruby lustre on the wings and dress ; one onl}' of these exists, and 
was in the possession of the Marchese Brancaleoni. Other pieces in 
rilievo are mentioned, decorated with the metallic lustre. The Madonna 
del Rosario is a fine work in part glazed, and in part coloured in 
distemper on the unglazed terra cotta, in which respect it agrees with 
works known to have been executed by Andrea della Robbia assisted 
b}' his sons. There are no signs of the application of the lustre colours 
to any portion of the work, but this might be accounted for b}^ the 
great risk of failure in the firing, particularly' to pieces of such large 
size and in high relief. The principal subject is the Madonna del Rosario, 
della Misericordia, or del Popolo, who shields under her mantle the 
faithful of all ranks and nations from Pope to pilgrim. Above, in a half- 
circle, are figured the Father and two kneeling angels; on the base 
or predella Christ rising from the tomb, Mar3', S. John, S. Sebastian, 
and S. Roch surrounding. This well-known general arrangement of 
Della Robbia's altar-pieces will be at once recognized by those who 
are familiar with them. It was taken down at the invasion of Italy by 
the French, and remained in pieces till 1835, when it was purchased 
for the Frankfort Museum. 

A somewhat ecstatic notice of this altar-piece was published in the 
Athenaeum, No. 928, in 1845. 

But this is not the complete work : for it would seem that only the 
central subject, the lunette and the predella, were secured for the Stadel 
Museum at Frankfort, where it has been restored in apparent entiretv. 
In its original state, however, it had a surrounding of a series of subjects 

' One of the angels is said to have found posed to be that numbered G. 722, in the 
his way to the Paris museums, and is sup- Louvre. 



i6o ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

known as the * Misteri del Rosario,' and consisting of the sacred history 
from the Annunciation to the Coronation of the Madonna, executed in 
rilievo. One of these is now in the Museum of the Louvre \ and the 
remainder were (1870) in the possession of Monsignore Cajani at Rome. 
They consist of a series of oblong-square panels about 15 inches in length, 
each occupied by a subject complete in itself, and modelled with great care and 
artistic ability in high relief; the grouping of the figures and composition 
of the subjects show them to be the invention of an able artist, and the free 
handling of the ' stecco ' proves it to be the work of a practised hand. 
A careful examination of the Frankfort altar-piece assured us that it is by 
the same modeller, and in this the marked beauty and expression of some 
of the heads are convincing of his excellence. Like to the productions of 
the Delia Robbia in technical qualities, it differs in manner from any work 
of that family or fabrique known to the writer, who was then familiar with 
nine-tenths of the extant works of that school. On one of the qiiadrl is 
a large mask and the inscription in distinct Roman characters, 




The drapery of the figures and other parts are glazed in white and 
colour, the flesh has been left unglazed, and subsequently tinted with dis- 
temper. 

From a consideration of the style of this work, the record of others, some 
of which are heightened with the lustre colours, and the fact stated by the 
Marchese Brancaleoni, that the receipt for the altar-piece of S. Antonio is 
still preserved in the archives of Gubbio, we are inclined to think that 
history must be correct in attributing these important works in ceramic 
sculpture to M°. Giorgio Andreoli ; and if they were his unassisted work, 
he deserves as high a place among the modellers of his period as he is 
acknowledged to have among artistic potters ^. 

^ We believe it to be that representing perhaps personal knowledge of his works 

the Circumcision and numbered G. 776 in at that city may have inspired M". Giorgio, 

M. Darcel's Catalogue. who may also have received direct assistance 

'^ It has occurred to the writer whether from Pietro Paolo Agabiti da Sassoferrato, 

M". Giorgio may not have derived assistance who made the * Ancona ' for an altar at 

in the modelling and execution of these Arcaria in 1513, which is spoken of by 

works from one of the pupils of the Delia Ricci as a fine work worthy of the Delia 

Robbia school. Agostino da Duccio worked Robbia. This ' Ancona ' is now at Sinigaglia. 

at Perugia in 1461, and the fame, and — (Perkins' Tuscan Sculptors, vol. i, p. 201.) 



GUBBIO i6i 

To go back twelve years in the history of the products of this fabrique, 
we have in the South Kensington Museum a ver}^ interesting example 
of a work in rilievo, No. 2601, a figure of S. Sebastian lustred with the 
gold and ruby pigments, and dated 1501. Notvs^ithstanding its inferiority 
of modelling when compared with the above-named works, we are in 
little doubt that this is after his model, if not by M°. Giorgio's own hand, 
agreeing as it does in the manner of its painted outline and shading with 
the treatment of subjects on the earlier dishes, believed to be by him. 

We must also bear in mind that an inten'al of twelve 3'ears had elapsed 
between this comparativel3' crude work and that beautiful altar-piece, and 
we may obsen'e at the same time an equal difference in the merit of his 
painted pieces. 

Passeri states that he brought the secret of the ruby lustre with him 
from Pavia, and M. Jacquemart (Mer\eilles de la Ceramique) infers that 
he must have produced works at Pavia before going to Gubbio ; but we 
are inclined to think, with Sir J. C. Robinson, that it was from an artist 
previously working at Gubbio that he acquired the art and the monopoly of 
the rub}' tint ; and it is by no means improbable that this artist, or his pre- 
decessor, may have emigrated from Pesaro as stated above. The following 
conclusions arrived at by then Mr., now Sir J. C Robinson, after the careful 
study of a vast number of examples of the Gubbio and other works, are 
endorsed by the writer, who contributed some few of the facts upon which 
those conclusions were based, and who had himself examined the contents of 
the principal European collections. We are glad to find that M. Emile 
Molinier agrees with those conclusions in the main, but with the one 
exception of a strong dislike for Passeri's work and disbelief in the pro- 
duction of lustred wares at Pesaro in the earlier time, as stated by that 
writer. Those conclusions, slightly modified, are : — 

ist That Maestro Giorgio did not invent the ruby lustre, but succeeded 

to an earlier artist of Gubbio, who had previously' used it. 
2d. That man}' pieces signed with his initials were reall}' painted 

by several distinct hands. 
3d. That what is believed to be his own work may be distinguished 

therefrom. 
4th. That probabl}' nearly all the 'istoriati' pieces (1525-50) by artists 

of Urbino, Castel Durante, or other fabriques, and enriched with 

lustre, were so decorated by a subsequent operation for the most 

part at the Giorgio hotega \ 

' The works painted and lustred at Diruta confirmed by the statement of Piccolpasso 
are of course an exception to this inference, in his supplement on the ' Majolica' decora- 
but its general application seems to be tion. He says : ' So bene ch' ella si dipinge 

M 



i62 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Before entering on the subject of Maestro Giorgio's own works, it will 
be necessary to glance at those earlier productions of his predecessors and 
probable instructors. In the absence of more positive evidence of the 
manufacture of early lustred wares at Pesaro, and knowing that such were 
produced at Diruta, with a view to classifying all the lustred wares together 
and in sequence as much as possible, we have thought it more convenient 
to mclude those early pieces which may have been made either at that city 
or at Diruta in the same category as the lustred wares of Gubbio. And 
in order to facilitate the methodical study of the rise and development of 
the art at Gubbio, we would propose a classification of the lustred wares 
in the following manner, and in approximate sequence of date : — 

A. Works ascribed to Pesaro or Diruta, the typical bacili, referred to 

by Passed, &c. 

B. Works believed to be by an earl3^master who preceded M°. Giorgio 

at Gubbio. 

C. Works ascribed to Maestro Giorgio's own hand. 

D. Works of the fabrique, and pieces painted by unknown artists, 

though bearing the initials of the master. 

E. Works by the artist signing N., and by his assistants. 

F. Works painted by other artists, at other fabriques, and subsequently 

lustred at Gubbio. 

G. Works of M". Prestino, and of the later period. 

Of the first class A. are those early * mezza-majolica ' dishes having 
a lustre of a peculiar pearly effect. They are frequently painted with 
portraits and armorial bearings, and were also produced at the Diruta 
potteries ^ 

Of this first division fine examples are to be seen in all the public 
Museums and many private collections. On No. 3035 53 in the South Ken- 
sington collection, a bacile of the ordinary type of ' mezza ' ware, lustred with 
the golden and madreperla tints, is the only mark with which we have hitherto 
been acquainted ; the reverse is covered with the coarse yellowish white 
glaze on which are two scrolls painted in grey-blue colour. (Mark No. 80.) 
This scroll mark is worthy of attention ; we first find it on this early Pesaro, 
Diruta, or Gubbio piece, and we constantly find it in use at the latter 

sopra i lavori forniti : questo ho veduto in The fact of the Gubbio signatures to the 

Ugubio in casa di un M<*. Cencio.' (I well pieces being almost always in metallic 

know that it is painted over finished (or lustre colours is another proof that this 

executed or supplied) works ; I have seen additional decoration was a ' specialite.' 

this in Gubbio at the house of one Master * Forfurther remarks thereon, see Pesaro 

Cencio.) and Diruta. 



PLATE XII 




PLATEAU. GUBBIO 
EArly XVI Century 




TAZZA. HERCULES AND THE HYDRA. BY M. GIORGIO 
Circa 1515 



GUBBIO 163 

fabrique on the enamelled wares lustred by M". Giorgio and by his assistants. 
This same kind of scroll occurs in coppery lustre on the reverse of 
a piece of that peculiar ware which we formerly were led to believe had 
been made by Oriental potters in Sicily, and which we therefrom ventured 
to classify as Siculo-Moresque, but which the late Baron Charles Davilier 
subsequently found recorded as a production of Manises. May we venture 
to suggest the possibility of some affinity between these scrolls ? May not 
some Moorish potter from the Spanish works have wandered into Italy, 
landing at some coast town, at Ancona or Pesaro, and there finding 
employment in his art, have communicated the modus operandi of the lustre 
enrichment, and introduced the scroll which became more or less adopted 
at Pesaro or Diruta and at Gubbio as a mark or ornament characteristic of 
the ' Maiolica ' or lustred wares ? 

Class B. is important as connecting the former with the works of the 
Gubbio furnaces. Of this there are two examples in the Ashmolean Museum 
(Fortnum Coll. Nos. 425-6, PI. XII. i). Still more characteristic are Nos. 
7682, which bears a variety of the Gubbio scroll, and 7684. '61 in the South 
Kensington Museum (vide Catalogue). 

The latter is thus described in the Catalogue. * Large circular Dish. 
Female bust portrait in profile, with a scroll, inscribed " chi a tenpo non 
dorma": on her sleeve is a dev^ice of a burning heart bound round with 
a cord ; inner border of flower-buds, and outer rim of scroll and palmette 
ornaments ; executed entirely in ruby lustre, blue outline and shading. 
Reverse, concentric lines in ruby. Gubbio. About 1500. Diam. 16 in. 
(Soulages Coll.). 

'This may be taken as a typical example: it is one of those interesting 
transitional pieces, made at the period when the newly adopted tin 
enamel glaze, and the ruby lustre pigment were being used together. 
The form of the present dish differs from that of the early b^cilt, on two 
of which we find the work of the same painter, according to the opinion 
of Sir J. C. Robinson, whose remarks on this piece in the Catalogue of the 
Soulages Collection are as follows : " This ancient artist, there is every 
reason to believe, was the master, or, at any rate, the immediate prede- 
cessor of Giorgio, and it is presumed that he was the inventor (?) of the mby 
lustre, his pieces being the earliest in date on which this celebrated pigment 
has, as yet, been observed to occur. Both the lustre tints are unusually 
brilliant, the gold or yellow surpassing even that of Giorgio; the ruby 
inclines to orange or copper colour, as contrasted with the more perfectly 
developed pigment of Giorgio. His style of execution is similar to the 
early manner of Giorgio, manifesting, perhaps, greater force and precision 
of outline, though with the same careful, timid modelling or shading in 

M 2 



i64 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

the simple blue pigment, which, as usual with the early Gubbio masters, 
is the only colour employed in the flesh ",' 

Class C. contains of course the cream of the manufacture, being the 
works assigned to M". Giorgio's own hand. The series in our museums 
is very complete, containing as it does examples from the earliest period 
of his unsigned work, to the pieces dated as late as 1532. 

A coarsely painted and supposed lustred bacile of mezza-majolica, 
having the centre filled with the subject of the ' Ecce Homo,' and 
round the border the inscription: 'DON. GIORGIO, 1489 \' is in the 
Museum at Sevres. It cannot be assigned with any surety to the 
Gubbio fabrique, nor certainly to the master's own hand. It has been 
surmised that the Don., an abbreviation of Donno, may be synonymous 
with ' Maestro,' and may be the signature of or allusive to Giorgio's 
elevation to that title, but the date on the plate is unfortunately nine 
years anterior to that event. On the other hand it has been argued that 
priests of a certain rank take that title, and this was perhaps one of 
a set, each having the owner's name upon it. We are more inclined to 
the latter interpretation. In the South Kensington Museum is a circular 
plaque with the sacred monogram and M. 1491. G., the G being 
surmounted by a cross. This also has in error been ascribed to M". 
Giorgio ; it is not lustred, and probably of Faenza ; the initials are those 
of a title of the Virgin, the * Mater Gloriosa.' Similar letters occur on 
plates and other pieces. An interesting plaque recently presented to the 
British Museum by Sir J. C. Robinson, and which has come to our know- 
ledge since printing the list of pieces dated before 1500, at pages 22-3, bears 
the Virgin and Child group, coloured but without lustre, and inscribed 
GIORGIO . L°M3AR° . 1493- This early piece may possibly have been 
made at Gubbio, for or by Giorgio, in the year after his advent and referring 
to his Lombard origin. 

Among the unsigned pieces of an early period is a Tazza in the 
Louvre, on which is a portrait head, in partial relief, of Federigo Duke of 
Urbino, having the inscription ' Dux Urbin ' on the face of the piece. 
He died in 1482, and it has been suggested that the portrait was con- 
temporary; if so this would be of earlier date than the Don. Giorgio dish. 
It cannot, however, be one of those referred to by Passeri (p. 26), having 
the portraits of Federigo and Guid' Ubaldo I, because he says that on 
them ' ne in queste vi e rosso di sorte alcuna ' (neither on them is there 
any sort of red ruby lustre). 

The first dated piece, which we have every reason to believe a work 

^ The last figure is by some read as a 5. 



GUBBIO 165 

of Maestro Giorgio, is the lilievo of S. Sebastian, dated 1501, No. 2601 
in the South Kensington Museum. Other, but undated, works in 
rihevo exist, which, as in this instance, are heightened with the gold and 
ruby pigments. Among the unsigned pieces in that Museum No. 7161 
is interesting, as one of his early works, after the manner of the ancient 
bacili. The vase No. 8407 is a rare and important example. No. 8890 
is a brilliant specimen of the ruby lustre and of admirable general effect. 

The earliest example having a mark which ma}' perhaps be considered 
that of Giorgio, and painted by him, is a small plate which was in the 
possession of Monsignore Cajani, but was since sold by Castellani in 
Paris in May 1878 : a central medallion with half figure of S. Petronio, is 
surrounded by a border of the style of the early wares, beautifully and care- 
fully drawn and lustred with ruby and gold ; it is marked at the back 
with a sort of G, intersected by a cross and a paraph. (Mark No. 84.) 
A somewhat similar form of the letter occurs on the mark No. 90. This 
last has b}- some been ascribed to Maestro Cencio, who then was but a child ! 

The Marquis Brancaleoni, (op. cit.), mentions a plate formerly in the 
' Casa Piccini,' with arabesque border, and the subject the Sacrifice of 
Abraham, designed with freedom and precision. The mark at back 
(which has been ascribed to Faenza) given at No. 83, consists of an arm 
and hand holding a pike or halbert, the blade of which cuts a rainbow \ 
and the date 1515 ; the former in ruby lustre, the date in blue, with 
Gubbio scrolls in gold. This is probably the plate referred to in Marryat 
and in Chaffers as having been lost sight of from the Bernal Collection. 

We now come to the period of his signed pieces, some of the first 
of which show to what perfection he had brought his art. The earliest 
known signed and dated piece was in the collection of the late Mr. 
Robert Napier; the border is decorated with trophies, &c., among 
which occurs the date 1517, written in blue, while at the back 1518 is 
pencilled in lustre colours. 

Another plate of the same ser\'ice and having the same initials of 
the owner, a piece of exceeding beauty for the qualit}^ of the lustre colours, 
is in the British Museum ; a facsimile of the central initials and of the date 
on the back is given at No. 85 of the Marks. Among the arabesques the 
word ' azuro ' is written on the ground, being doubtless a direction to 
the assistant who filled in the blue grounding of the piece. 

The beautiful plate No. 401 in the South Kensington Collection, 
having for subject S. Francis receiving the stigmata, is dated 1518 on 
the face, and has on the reverse the full signature and date 1519. 

' It has been suggested that this is, of applying the rainbow hues to the decora- 
pcrhaps. a poetical allusion to Giorgio's art tion of his potterj' ! 



i66 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Brancaleoni mentions a tazza in ' Casa Tondi,' at Gubbio, referred to 
by Passeri ;— white glaze with foliage and 'rabesche' in blue, yellow 
and ruby lustre, signed and dated October 25, 1519. (Mark No 90.) It 
is said to be of very porcelainous quality. Here we have a reproduction 
of the G on the Cajani plate. 

M". Giorgio's manner of decoration outlined and shaded in blue consists 
of foliated scrolls terminating in dolphins, eagles, and human heads, 
trophies, masks, &c. ; in the drawing of which he exhibited considerable 
power with great facility of invention. These grotesche differ materially 
from those of Urbino and Faenza, approaching more to the style of some 
of the Castel Durante designs. In the drawing of figures, and of the nude, 
Giorgio cannot be ranked as an artist of the first class. 

From 1519 his signature, greatly varied, occurs through succeeding 
years. It would be useless to repeat the many varieties, several of which 
will be seen among the marks on specimens of various collections. We 
believe that to whim or accident may be ascribed those changes that 
have tasked the ingenuity of connoisseurs to read as other names. Thus 
on Mark No. 89, the G is more truly a C, although the date 1519 pre- 
cludes the idea that it is Cencio's. Occasionally it is accompanied by 
other initials, a cross, &c., doubtless those of the owner of the piece, 
and not merchants' marks, as has been suggested. Several pieces of 
a service now in the British Museum, including one of singular beauty 
from the late Mr. Henderson's collection, have the mark No. 94; this, as 
does No. 95, includes the letter S, which M. Jacquemart supposed 
might be the initial of Salimbene, Giorgio's brother. Others, as Nos. 91 
and 93, are variously ornamented ; scrolls, plain or foliated, in lustre 
colours, generally adorn the sides of the reverse. M. Leroy Ladurie 
possessed a plate in rilievo, with the signature * Matr" Gio ' twice 
repeated on the border. One in the Louvre ascribed to this fabrique, 
with portrait of 'Julia Bella,' has the inscription * ex . o . Giorg' on 
a ribbon. Other complications of the signature occur on the works of 
his assistants, of which more anon. His finer and more important pieces 
were generally signed in full, ' Maestro Giorgio da Ugubio,' with the year, 
and sometimes the day of the month. The plateau No. 7157 in the South 
Kensington Museum is an important piece, it bears the shield of the Bran- 
caleoni with richly designed and lustred surrounding; and No. 8939 is 
one of the most carefully drawn of his figure subjects. On No. 1633 of 
the South Kensington Museum Catalogue occurs the date 1532, the latest 
on any piece in that Museum which may with probability be ascribed to 
Giorgio's own brush. In the British Museum are many Giorgio's, eighteen 
of which are from the collection of the late Abbe Hamilton, of Rome. 



PLATE XIII 




TAZ?A. HEAD OF A SAIXT. M. GIORGIO. GUBBIO, DATED I52O 




TAZZA. THE YOUNG ST. JOHN. GUBBIO 
Circa 1536 



GUBBIO 167 

About the year 1525 he executed some of his most beautiful works ; 
perhaps the finest large dish, and of the highest quality which has been 
preser\'ed to us, passed from the possession of the late Baronne de 
Parpart, whose husband had acquired it from Prince Bandini, at Rome, 
to the collection of the late Sir Richard Wallace : a rich grotesque border 
surrounds the subject of Diana and her n3'mphs, surprised by Actaeon ; 
in careful drawing and colouring it has all the qualit}' of the small tazza 
No. 8939 above referred to : the facsimile of the signature at the back 
is given in mark No. loi. This fine dish has been figured by Delange 
in the Recueil, pi. 65, as also a plate of earlier date, signed ' M°. Giorgio 
1520. a di 2 de O'tobre in Ugubio B. D. S. R./ having for subject the 
Judgement of Paris, after Raffaelle, pi, 64. It is in the collection of 
M. Dutuit of Rouen, and on it the reflet is artistically subordinated to 
the painting ; the four initials would seem to indicate that another artist 
had painted the subject; and it is remarkable that the signature of 
Giorgio, as well as the initials, is written in blue colour. (We have not 
had an opportunity of seeing this exceptional piece.) The choice examples 
which were in the late Mr, Fountaine's rich collection are well known, 
particularly one mentioned by Passed as then belonging to him, with 
subject after a print by Robetta (1505) called the ' Stream of Life' (Mark 
No, 93\ and a flat plate having for subject the Three Graces, after Marc 
Antonio, purchased from M, Roussel, of Paris, one of the choicest works 
of the Master. At the dispersion of the Fountaine Cabinet the former 
was purchased by Mr, G. Salting, whose collection is now one of the 
finest in private hands ; the latter by the South Kensington Museum. 

In the Louvre are about seventy-five specimens of Gubbio ware. In the 
Spitzer Collection dispersed in 1893, were twenty-two signed. The Museum 
of the University' of Bologna has some remarkably fine pieces, and there are 
others in the Hospital of Incurables at Pesaro. One of great size and beauty 
in the Bologna Collection represents the Presentation of the Virgin, and is 
signed and dated 1532; Fine di maiolka, Mark No. 112, an unique instance 
of the qualit}' of the ware being stated in the inscription. This noble piece 
rivals that in the Wallace Collection, the subject covering the whole surface, 
and executed with great power. It will be obser\'ed, in comparing these 
with the earlier productions of his brush, that in his more youthful 
and unsigned works, Maestro Giorgio was unable to temper and 
modulate the lustre colours, which though powerfully, were somewhat 
heavily applied ; in the works of his best period, just considered, he 
will be found to have perfected their use by subduing them to the 
general effect. In the Castellani Collection, sold at Paris in 1878, was 
a remarkable jug, having in front an armorial shield bearing two busts 



i68 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

face to face m. and f. in chief, with helm and crest a male bust, the whole 
surrounded by a rich wreathage of laurel and inscribed Oct. 5. SCARS 
indicating its measure of capacity ; ruby and gold lustre enriched the whole 
surface. It cost the buyer ^^650. The Marchese Brancaleoni mentions 
a fine plate then in his library, the subject, Magdalene washing the Saviour's 
feet, after an engraving by Albert Durer : this piece is cited by Passeri, 
and is signed and dated 1528. He also mentions having seen pieces painted 
in Giorgio's manner but not lustred. Signor Castelletti of Perugia speaks 
of a plate then at Citta di Castello signed by Giorgio, but not lustred. In 
the Casa ' Bonaventura Andreoli ' at Gubbio, belonging to a descendant of 
Giorgio was a plate with cupid centre, and date 1526. M. Jacquemart observed 
that from 1518 his signed works increase in quantity till 1527, when they 
diminish in number, again increasing till 1532-3 and '34. Maestro Giorgio 
is said to have been living in 1552. A lapse of two years then occurs ; 
at last 1537-39 ^"*^ '4^ close the series. It has been observed by 
M. Darcel and the writer, and more recently confirmed by M. Emile 
Molinier, that the isforiati works believed to have been painted at Gubbio are 
traced in blue, whereas those of Urbino are mostly in grey or bistre colour. 

In the next division D. are the works of the fabrique under the 
Maestro's direction, and pieces which, though manifestly painted by 
other hands, are signed in lustre with his initials or full signature. Among 
these may be ranged a large number of richly decorated pieces to be 
found in all collections, many of which have been moulded with leafage 
borders, raised bosses, &c., and lustred with the greatest brilliancy : one 
such is that under No. 435 in the Fortnum Collection, and a brilliant 
little tazza No. 8906. '63 is in the South Kensington Museum. In the 
Museum at Pesaro M Molinier observed an unusual piece, on the back 
of which, in rilievo, is a shield supported by two Genii and inscribed ' Opus 
Sperandci' evidently moulded on one of that artist's models. No, 6864 in 
that Museum is an exceptional piece elaborately decorated with bianco 
sopra bianco and other ornament, seemingly the work of a Durantine or 
other fabrique and to which the lustrous enrichment had been superadded ; 
it bears the initials of M°. Giorgio and the rather late date 1537. 

What part each distinct member of the Andreoli family took in the 
working of their botega and in the manipulation of its rich productions 
we can never know, but that Salimbene was there occupied we are 
assured, as doubtless was Vincenzio the master's son, so soon as he 
was old enough to engage in the work. Other able assistants must also 
have been engaged therein, and it is reasonable to suppose that some 
other than the Maestro himself may have been authorized to place the 
initials of the padrone on articles of the general fabrique. He probably 



GUBBIO 169 

reserved to himself the execution of and the full signature on the 
more important pieces of his own production and the finer works 
painted by Xanto, Orazio Fontana, Nicolo da Urbino, and other 
isfon'atori at Urbino and elsewhere, to be more or less carefully and richly 
lustred at the Gubbio furnaces. It is quite reasonable to suppose that 
his brother Salimbene may have executed pieces, and that the letter S. 
sometimes found simpl\', sometimes in monogrammatic combination, 
and sometimes accompanied b\- the M" G" signature of the firm, may refer 
to him. Of such ma\' possibly be the marks No. 94, 95, if they are not 
emblems of the owner for whom those pieces were painted. It would 
seem more likely that the mark No. 95 refers to Salimbene : and we 
have note of a coarsely executed plate, once in the hands of M. Riblet, 
the dealer of Florence, on which was a portrait bust of a female holding 
a flower in her hand and with leaf and flower border ; on this the mark 
No. 95 is on the reverse, and it will be observed that the lower portion 
consists of the letter A astride of a distinct V, the letter S being impaled 
by the shaft bearing a cross in X form ; we might suppose this to refer 
to Salimbene and Vincenzio Andreoli. Sig. Genolini ^ in his notice 
on the Gubbio potteries, among other questionable conclusions, suggests 
that as M°. Giorgio's monogrammatic signatures are all in his opinion 
so similar ('di una forma quasi costante') we cannot accept those which 
some have read as of a M". Gileo or Gigleo. We submit that the 
comparison of a large number of signed pieces would lead to quite an 
opposite conclusion as to their similitude ; but it is presumable in his case, 
as in that of some other modern Italian writers on the maioHca of Italy, 
that the lack of a more thorough knowledge of the contents of public and 
private collections in Germany, France, and England, and of the ceramic 
literature of the latter countr}', has led them to form conclusions too 
hastily, and that a larger acquaintance and careful comparison of the 
objects on which the}- have written, might probably lead to different 
opinions on their part. That erudite connoisseur the late M. Alfred 
Darcel, writing on this subject shortly before his death, says ^ nous avoiis 
arrive aux memes conclusions, assavoir que les Italiens peuvent connaitre les 
textes niais ignorer les monuments' 

A separate division has also been formed of the works ascribed to, or 
signed b}' the artist who used the letter N, variously formed, as his mono- 
gram. Sir J. C. Robinson ingeniously suggested that this letter, containing 
as it does the three, V, I, and N, may really have been adopted by V^incenzio, 
the only one of M". Giorgio's sons known to have assisted. He succeeded 

' Maioliche Italiane. 



170 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

M". Giorgio in the fabrique, where he was generally known as M°. Cencio^ 
M. Jacquemart does not agree with this theory, nor does M. Piot. The 
former, referring to a cup where the N occurs together with the initials 
of Giorgio, thinks it probably has reference to * Nocera/ an outskirt of 
Gubbio on the Via Flaminia, where it had been suggested by Mr. Marryat 
that a branch pottery may have existed. We suspect that this must 
have been a lapsus calami on Mr. Marryat's part, or an error of the 
printer, and that he must have referred to Santa Natoia, a locality in 
the march of Ancona where, as Piccolpasso informs us, some lustred 
wares were made. Whichever, if either, view may be correct, we know 
a number of examples signed with this letter, the greater part of 
which are painted in a similar style, and seemingly by the same hand ; 
neither is that hand recognizable, nor is that signature seen, on pieces 
of an early date, and hence the not improbable inference that they may 
be the productions of M". Cencio, working on his father's, and subsequently 
on his own account ; or of the furnace at Santa Natoia. 

Brancaleoni states that he worked with his father till 1536, when he 
married and set up for himself He made his will in 1576, and died that 
year. Piccolpasso, in the Appendix to his work, says that it was from 
M°. Cencio that he gained the receipt for the lustre pigments, which 
he makes known. 

The piece quoted by M. Jacquemart would be of the former period 
bearing the initials of his father as Maestro of the fabrique, and the N 
allusive to his own name, or to the branch botega, if such existed, 
under his charge. No. 434 in the Fortnum Collection is a fair example. 

Among the marks on pieces in other collections are given varieties 
of the marks of this artist : one. No. 124 accompanying the initials of Giorgio, 
alluded to above ; another, No 127 accompanied by a C or G ; another, with 
the M for Maestro, on a piece in the Sevres Museum. 

There is little doubt that although M". Giorgio may himself have 
applied the lustre pigments with his own brush to the finer pieces painted 
by other artists, at other places, the majority of those numerous pieces 
so enriched were executed by his partners or assistants. M. Darcel 
thinks that this practice did not begin earlier than 1525, in which view 
we are incHned to agree, but M. Jacquemart objected entirely to the 
idea, thinking it derogatory to the dignity of art, a somewhat quixotic 
view which, we believe, that able writer eventually saw reason to amend. 
We now however find it renewed in another form by Sig. Genolini, who' 

* Giuseppe Raflfaelli publishes extracts * M. Vincentio, M. Georgii de Maiolica do 
from deeds referring to ' Vinccntius M. Eugubi presente,' &c. (Memorie delle 
Georgii Andreoli figulus dc Eugubio,' Maiolichc Durantine. Fermo, 1846, p. 60.) 



GUBBIO 171 

supposes that Francesco Xanto was the only one who studied to imitate 
them (the works of Giorgio) and that, to a certain extent, he succeeded ; 
moreover there are some who believe that, to give more value to his works, 
Xante sometimes put on them the same signature as M°. Giorgio ^ ! The un- 
answerable evidence of the pieces themselves, and the statement of Piccol- 
passo, prove that the works of others were enriched at Gubbio, In one of 
his latest articles M. E. Piot writes^ 'I'interet qu'avait Maestro Georgio 
a utiliser les vases &c. peints par d'autres artistes, auxquels il donnait une 
valeur bien superieure, est clairement indique par leur diversite ; elles 
ne presentaient aucune difficulte ; les rehauts metalliques etaient places sur 
les vases entierement termines.' 

Under division F. we class the works of this kind, among which is the 
interesting tazza in the Fortnum Collection undoubteflly painted by Nicolo 
da Urbino and elaborately lustred by Giorgio's own hand signed in full 
and dated 1526. The central subject is the double scene of the 
decollation and the bringing the head of John the Baptist to Herod, 
who is at table. A border of human headed monsters surrounds, with 
the armorial shields of Sforza and Crivelli of Milan. No. 8886 in the 
South Kensington Museum is a fine portrait plate ; and on No. 4726 is 
the painter's date and mark, and that of him who lustred over it; the 
very remarkable plaque No. 520 in the same Museum, the pamting of which 
is ascribed to Orazio Fontana, bears the monogram of Giorgio Andreoli 
at the back, and the small plate No. 8907, also believed to be painted by 
Orazio, is dated in lustre colour as late as 1549. 

The many lustred works of Francesco Xanto of Urbino are also 
instances. One formerly in the Napier Collection has the description 
of the subject, Aeneas carrying off Anchises, dated 1532, and signed 
' Fra Xante da Rovigo in Urbino,' all in blue colour, whilst the N occurs 
in ruby lustre. A similar plate is in the Correr Collection at Venice, and 
Mr. Addington had another * De Giove e Semele, F. X. R.' in blue, and 
' 1529 M°. Giorgio da Ugubio,' in lustre. Other examples are given 
among the marks. A plate formerly in the Napier Collection, the 
Judgement of Paris, in the style of an early Orazio Fontana, is dated 1538, 
with C in lustre colour. The Marchese Brancaleoni mentions a plate, 
part of a service, with the arms of Luti of Siena, dated 1539, in lustre 
colour, and inscribed, 

* Questi son fatti a Vistignano in Villa 
Piatti, tondi, scudelle e scudilli 
Per serv'ire a la Chicuccia Camilla.' 

' Maioliche Italiane, p. 65. - Gazette des Beaux Arts, T. xxiv. 2® pde. p. 380. 



172 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Maestro Prestino or Perestino is the last artist of Gubbio of whom we 
have record. He appears to have succeeded Maestro Cencio, although 
we have no knowledge of his connexion with the Andreoli family ; his 
pieces are occasionally signed, and he seems to have revived the earlier 
embossed wares, which displayed the lustre colours to such advantage. 
There is no piece in the South Kensington Museum signed by this 
artist. 

Among the marks are facsimiles from pieces signed by Prestino, one 
dated as late as 1551 ; but Brancaleoni records a plate, Venus and Cupid, 
' '557 a di 28 di Maggio in Gubbio per Mano di Mastro Prestino.' In 
the Louvre is a bas-relief of the Virgin and Child, the flesh of a rosy 
white, draperies slightly iridescent with gold and ruby on blue ground, on 
the reverse of which ' 1536 Perestinus' occurs. 

We do not believe in the existence of the M°. Gileo or Giglio, whose 
name seems to have been invented to account for the signature on two 
plates, one of which was in the Basilewski Collection, We believe with 
Delange, Darcel, Jacquemart, and other authorities, that they are only 
ill-written inscriptions of Giorgio's name, perhaps by N or some other 
worker, or even by the master himself who at that time, 1541, was over 
seventy years of age and his hand hardly so steady as in youth. We 
are surprised to find that M. Mely revives this myth, and that Genolini 
also believes in this long since exploded theory. 

Before closing these notes on the remarkable products of this 
abundant pottery, we will refer to several marks which occur on pieces 
in all probability made and painted there, but some of which we are 
unable to explain. A plate with bust portrait of a warrior, which 
belonged to M. Meusnier of Paris, having four coats of arms on the 
border and the letters Y. A. E., is inscribed on the face of the plate 
'Gabriel, da. Gubbio.' This doubtless is a portrait plate, and the letters 
may allude to the families or individuals whose arms are blazoned. 
' Gualdo ' is said to be inscribed on a brilliantly lustred specimen, which 
we have failed to trace, and pieces in the Louvre have been doubtingly 
classed under that name, by M. Darcel ; it may have been the name of 
some neighbouring village, to which the artist had taken his work to 
paint, or may it not, though badly indited, be meant for ' Ubaldo,' the 
name of Giorgio's third son ? 

A man's head, rudely sketched in lustre colours, occurs on the back 
of a plate in the British Museum, more probably an artist's whim than 
an intentional mark. The letters MR combined occur on a lustred piece, 
perhaps a monogram of M. Prestino. The letter P, variously formed, 
may also probably be his initial. 



CAST EL DURANTE 173 



About 1560-70 the use of the lustre pigments would seem to have 
been almost discontinued ; the secret of their proper composition and 
manipulation was lost during the general decadence of Italian artistic 
pottery, and the death of Guid' Ubaldo II, in 1574, was the 'coup de 
grace ' to the already much deteriorated wares of the Duchy. 

These beautiful colours, known to the Italians as ' rubino,' 'cangiante/ 
' madreperla,' * a reverbero,' and to the French as * reflet metallique,' * nacre,' 
&c., have been to a certain extent reproduced, and unfortunately many pieces 
have, after chipping and scratching, been palmed upon unwary amateurs 
as ancient specimens by unprincipled dealers at Florence and elsewhere. 
The most successful reproduction of the famous lustre was first made at 
Gubbio itself, by an able young chemist and artist, Luigi Carocci, who 
conducted his experiments at the pottery directed by Luigi Ceccarelli of 
that place. Some of his specimens are excellent, though far from having 
those artistic qualities so apparent in the finer specimens of Maestro 
Giorgio. In 1858 Guglielmo Spinace de lesi also produced some good 
specimens with the lustrous enrichment. 

CASTEL DURANTE. 

This important site of artistic ceramic production during the course 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and to later time, rose upon the 
ruins of the earlier Castel Ripense in the thirteenth century, and was 
further developed and new life thrown into it b}^ Guillaume Durand, 
a French prelate of great learning, whose principal literary work was 
the * Rationale divinorum officiorum ' and from whom it took its new 
name. Sent by the Pope Martin IV in 1284 to that province, then known 
as the Massatrebana, to construct a fortress, Durand, being a valiant 
and able man of war as well as a bishop of the Church, chose this 
place as suitable for a castle of refuge and defence for the Guelphs of that 
surrounding district against their imperial enemies. 

Choosing a site on the plain, surrounded on three sides by the 
bending riv^er Metauro and its tributaries, he took with him artizans and 
workers in various trades, and doubtless a number of more able 
potters and brickmakers than the comparatively primitive population 
could probably furnish. As Passeri has told us, in reference to the 
neighbourhood of Pesaro, the river Metauro, in its windings, left a muddy 
deposit which was particularly excellent for the potter's use ; and if any 
works existed previousl}'^ for making the ordinary common wares for 
domestic purposes, it was by Durand's encouragement and introduction 
of superior men and means, that the potteries of Castel Durante were 



174 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

brought onward towards that high position for artistic merit, and abundant 
production, which they assumed during the whole course of the sixteenth 
century. Guillaume Durand ^ died Bishop of Mende in 1320. 

Of the wares produced during the century after the Bishop's death 
we know absolutely nothing, although records exist among the archives 
of the city, including a document of the year 1360, containing matter 
concerning the heirs of one 'Giovanni dai Bistugi,' a potter, whose name 
would imply that he was an artizan who only made the unglazed pieces ; 
from which we may infer that other hands were there employed to 
apply the glaze by a second firing, either with or without an engobbiatura 
of white clay. We will first endeavour to trace the history of the 
Durantine productions as gathered from recorded documents, until we 
arriv^e at a later period, when direct reference can be made to the few 
signed pieces which have descended to us. But, before doing so, we 
must not omit to notice the fact, that to a Durantine Maestro we owe 
the earliest and only contemporary history of the processes of the potter's 
art, as practised in the sixteenth century in Italy — the MS. by Piccolpasso 
now preserved in the library of the South Kensington Museum. 

It is recorded that in the year i486 the family of the Piccolpassi, 
probably attracted by the growing prosperit}' of Castel Durante, came 
from Bologna and took residence in that Umbrian Castello, In 1524 
Michele Piccolpasso became the father of Cipriano, the future historian 
of the Arte del Vasaio. by his wife Alda. Their boy showed talent in 
various ways, particularly in his study of the arts, and subsequently in 
military fortification. His father had intended him for the legal profession, 
but he seems to have preferred the medical, which to a degree he followed. 

During the earlier part of his life Cipriano Piccolpasso proved his 
talent for art by his acknowledged excellence as a designer of ornamenta- 
tion, a fact which probably induced him to forsake medicine, and become 
the Maestro of a pottery. Successful in his new occupation, he was per- 
suaded to put on record his experienced knowledge of the details of 
the manufacture, and in 1550 completed his MS. 'entitled I Tre Libri dell* 
arte del Vasajo'^. This work, the Arte del Vasajo del Cav. Cipriano 

' A large albarello was sold in Paris in "^ This MS. has passed from the hands of 

1878 from the Castellani Collection, on Signor Giuseppe Raftaelli of Urbania, to 

which was a portrait bust, with the inscrip- the Library of the South Kensington 

tion ' Guglielmus Edificatore de la terra de Museum. It was published at Rome in 

Durante. S. C. T. D. ' (Senatus Consult. 1857, with engravings from the sketches. 

Terrae Durantinae). It was doubtless of A translation in French, with less accurate 

Durantine fabrique of the sixteenth cen- illustrations, was published in Paris in 1861, 

tury, and commemorative of Guillaume Les trois Livres de I'Art du Potier, par 

Durand. Claudius Popelin. 



CASTEL DURANTE 175 



Piccolpasso Durantino, minutely describes the details of the working, 
the nature of the paste, the pigments and the glaze ; this curious MS. 
is illustrated by drawings of the furnaces, the mills, and instruments 
necessary to the art as then practised; but unfortunately gives us but 
little information of its histor^-^ and development in other parts of Italy, 
or the means of recognizing the works of artists or of fabriques by their 
monograms or by their st3'le. 

The late M, Eugene Piot tells us^ that this w^ork was \\Titten at the 
request of the Cardinal de Tournon, who, for ten years, was first minister 
to Francis I, was disgraced at that kings death and retired to Italy, taking 
up his abode for one 3^ear at Castel Durante. He there found young 
Piccolpasso and induced him to write his Arte del Vasajo; this he 
himself states in another MS. written late in life, a description of 
Umbria, which was in M. Piot's possession and which contained much 
matter of interest with respect to ceramics, not all of \vhich may 3'et 
have been utilized. Like Passed and others of later time, with true Italian 
love of // caro paese, he lauds the unmatched fertility of the soil and 
the excellent produce of the Durantine potteries, the first in the world ! 
At that time there is no doubt that Castel Durante was one of the most 
abundant centres of the then flourishing ceramic art in Italy, having 
previously produced some of her finest examples. He after^vards seems 
to have brought to practical use his early love for military fortification, 
for we are told that he also wrote a work entitled * Sulla architettura e 
fortificazione delle citta e terre dell' Umbria,' which was formerly in the 
library of the Cardinalate at Urbino, from whence it passed to the Vatican. 
For this work, in 1566, he received the honorary citizenship of Perugia. 
In that same year, by commission of the Pope, he fortified the coast 
of the Adriatic against the incursions of the Turks, received the order of 
S. Giorgio, and in 1575 w'as elected Castellano of Massa and Carrara, 
and in 1578 was created gentiliiomo of that Marquisate. He died in 
1579, leaving a widow but no children. 

For documentary historyof the local manufacture we are mainly indebted 
to Signor Giuseppe Raffaelli, who has assiduously gathered many inter- 
esting notices preser\^ed in the archives of the cit}^ and, combining them with 
information derived from the MSS. of Piccolpasso, has published his 
valuable Memorie ^. From these we will make the following notes. He 
surmises that the manufacture of glazed potter^', as an art, was introduced 
at the time when Monsignor Durante built a ' Castello,' at the badia of 

'Gaz.des Beaux Arts, T.xxiv, 2^ pde,p.374. delle Maioliche lavorate in Castel Durante 
* Giuseppe RafTaelli, Memorie Istoriche o sia Urbania. 8vo, Fermo, 1846. 



176 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

S. Christoforo at Cerreto on the Metauro, in 1284, as a place of security 
to the Guelphs. 

Seventy years afterwards, in 1361, we learn that the then deceased 
Maestro Giovanni dai Bistugi of Castel Durante, already referred to, 
was probably so named to distinguish him from the workers in glazed 
ware. This glazed ware was doubtless the ordinary lead glazed pottery 
or * mezza ' ware, which preceded the use of that with stanniferous enamel, 
and does not, as M. Darcel would suggest, afford any proof that the use of 
this enamel was known here, before its application by Luca della Robbia\ 
At that time even these lead glazed wares were little known, and it was 
not till 1300 that they seem to have become more generally adopted. 

Thenceforward their manufacture continued, for in 1364 a work is 
mentioned on the bank of the torrent Maltempo at ' Pozzarelli,' perhaps so 
named from the pits dug for extracting the loam. About this time one 
known as '// Vasaio' -is mentioned, and in the Acta Civilia of January 20, 
1480, M. Aiigelus Magistri Vasarii, and in 1495 Petro Angeli Vassarii, are 
named as of Durante, while in 1461, in a book of the ducal expenses, the 
entry occurs on August 20, ' Spesi per 4 boccali et 5 mezze tolte da M. Gentile 
bolognini 5.' 

Of the works of one of these early artists there then existed the arms 
of the Feltreschi over the door of the post locanda, built about 1440 
by Cecco Gatti ; the arms are * three bars with the eagle of Feretrana,' in 
rilievo, with the inscription ' Ospes Ciccus Gattus salvere te jubet;' the 
crest is a crowned griffin. 

The early wares were coarse, painted with coats of arms and half 
figures, the flesh being left white and the dress in gay colours. Signor 
Raffaelli had not seen any early pieces, presumably of this fabrique, with 
the gold or ruby lustre. 

Defendente Sacchi says '^, that soon after its supposed discovery by Luca 
della Robbia, the tin glaze was apphed to majolica dishes, &c., at the 
fabriques of Faenza and Castel Durante, We now know that it was in 
use long previously at the former fabrique, and probably was also known 
at the latter, both being ancient centres of the art. 

About 1490 the following artists were working : 

Pier del Vasaro. Superchina. Bernacchia. 

The Sabatini. Savini. Marini. 

Picci. Gatti. Morelli. 

whilst Francesco di Firenze procured engravings, and Bernardino Dolce 
gave designs. 

* Notice des FaYences Peintes, p. 152. ^ Album, 1838, Art. 31, p. 241. 



CASTEL DURANTE 177 



In 1500 both the mezza and the enamelled wares, as well as the 
sgraffio work were produced. 

Guido di Savino, of whom nothing more is recorded, took the art to 
Antwerp (or may he not have taken wares for sale ?). 

From Castel Durante, of which place they were a native family, the 
Pelliparii emigrated to Urbino, where, on establishing themselves and their 
botega, they took the name of Fontana, to which attaches some of the noblest 
productions of Italian fictile art. But it is presumable that, before Nicola 
de Pelliparii went to Urbino, he would have learned and practised his art 
at one of the more important of the Durantine boteghe, and hence arises 
a question of considerable interest. In our notice on the works of the 
Faentine potteries written for the catalogue of the South Kensington 
Museum, we described that very beautiful service, so many pieces of which 
are in the Correr Museum at Venice and one in the Fortnum Collection. 
The delicate but subtle colouring and careful execution, the quality of 
glaze, the forms of the plates, and indeed the general character of these 
pieces, approach more to what we believe to be that of the finer productions 
of Durantine furnaces than to those of Faenza or of Urbino. To M. Emile 
Molinier ^ we owe, not perhaps so much the immediate discovery as the 
courageous avowal of a belief, the idea of which had been lurking in our 
own mind, and of which the late M. Darcel had also entertained a sus- 
picion, as he stated to us shortly before his lamented death, that these 
exquisite pieces had been the work of no other than Nicolo Pellipario; 
and further, the probability is, that they and certain earlier plaques, 
seemingly by the same hand or of approximate manner, were executed 
at a fabrique of the highest class in Castel Durante previous to Nicolo's 
emigration to Urbino (circa 1519?), where probably he subsequently exe- 
cuted the Gonzaga-Este service about 15 19 or 1520. The Correr ser\'ice 
may therefore have been painted at Castel Durante between 1515 and 1518. 

We are glad to find that this opinion, in respect to probable date and 
fabrique as regards the Correr service, is shared by M. Emile Molinier, 
who, in careful obser\'ation directed by large knowledge of Renaissance art, 
has worthily succeeded to the mantle of the late M. Alfred Darcel, the 
last of the older school of ceramic historians in France. 

For further remarks upon the works known to be by, and attributed 
to Nicolo da Urbino, when working in the botega estabhshed by his son 
Guido in that city, we must refer our readers to the notices on that 
productive centre. When working at his native Castello we befieve, with 
M. Molinier, that he painted the Correr service and possibly the earliest 

* Emile Molinier, La Ceramique Italieime. Paris, 1888, p. 79. 

N 



178 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

of the plaques in the South Kensington Museum (No. 4277. '57), which 
is described in the Catalogue of that collection under the head of Faenza 
wares, at p. 529. We now think it more probable that the first of those 
pieces may have been made at Castel Durante about the year 1505 or 
1510 (the second, No, 69. '65 the Resurrection, is not by his hand as we 
then too hastily assumed, nor of the same botega) ; and the Correr service 
about 1515 or 1518. Following the then accepted opinion as to their date, 
and supposing that the year 1482, inscribed on one piece, was really that 
of their production, we had been led to assume an earlier period for other 
pieces whether or not of Nicolo's work, but probably of that fabrique. And 
here we must take the opportunity of confessing that, in assigning the 
Resurrection plaque and some other pieces to the same hand or fabrique 
as those of the Correr service and the plaque representing the sale of 
Joseph, we were too hasty in our assumption and too dogmatic in its ex- 
pression. Larger experience has impressed the necessity for greater caution. 
On further comparison of pieces not then known to us, but which may 
with every probabihty be assigned to the same hand, we are now 
of opinion that the masterly Resurrection plaque is by an artist who 
worked certainly for some time in the botega of M". Jero, of Forli : we 
shall consider this matter further when discoursing on that fabrique and 
on those of Faenza. 

Certainly anterior, but of the same fabrique as the Correr service, 
and possibly an earlier work by its painter, is the important plaque above 
referred to. No. 4277. '57, the description of which we here reprint. ' It 
is square, measuring H. 15 in., L. 15 in. The subject is of many figures 
in a hilly landscape, a town in the distance ; probably representing 
Joseph sold by his brethren, after an unknown design by a master, 
apparently of the Umbrian school. About 1480-82.' 

' The decorative application of these plaques is unknown, but it is 
presumable that they were like the similar paintings on porcelain now 
produced at Dresden, Munich, and elsewhere, made as small pictures for 
incrustation, or for hanging in frames upon walls. The present speci- 
men is remarkable for its size and for the excellent though timid art with 
which it is painted ; indeed, the figure of the child in the foreground has 
so much of the spirit of Raffaelle that, but for the probability of its having 
been already made at the time of his birth in 1483, and if the myth 
of his having painted on pottery could be believed, we might ascribe it and 
some touches on the surrounding figures to his boyish hand. A broken 
hilly country is represented of a thoroughly Umbrian character, among 
which are trees, and a town in the distance ; on the road thereto a party of 
four horsemen advances, seven others wait on a nearer rising ground to the 



PLATE XIV 




PLATE. THE CALUMNY OF APELLES. ASCRIBED TO NICOLd PELLIPARIO 

Circa 15 15 




TAZZA. TIBERIUS RECEIVING TRIBUTE. BY NICOLO DA URBINO 

Circa 1525 



CASTEL DURANTE 179 



right, while on the left three men, wearing turban caps and loose garments, 
hurr}' awa}' together. The foreground is occupied by a group of six men 
in armour to the right, and four women, one with a child in her arms, on 
the other side ; they contemplate, and apparently are speaking to a naked 
boy, who stands in their midst, and by his attitude would seem to cast him- 
self upon the strangers, one of whom with open arms advances towards him ' 

' The whole composition is more in the manner of the early Umbrian 
school than in that of Francia, to which it next approximates ; indeed, 
the young Timoteo della Vite, Giovanni Santi, or even Perugino, might 
have designed it. The colours used are somewhat pale and liquid ; 
a lively 3'ellow predominates in the dresses, and in the high lights of the 
trees, as gold was used for the latter purpose in the paintings of that period. 
A pale thin blue is much used, and with great delicacy of effect, a deep 
ochreous orange, a purple, and a liquid green complete the palette. The 
glaze appears to be stanniferous, but it is difficult to determine from sight 
onl}', whether it be so or merely the ordinar}' copcrta covering a slip of 
fine white clay.' (South Kensington Museum Catalogue, p. 529.) 

When the above extract was written it was the generally received opinion 
that the date 1482, accompanied by two letters which may perhaps be read 
as T M or B (see Mark 153) which are seen on the face of one of the plates 
of the Correr ser\'ice, was that of its production. We now believe that 
that date refers to an earlier drawing or engraving from which the subject, 
Solomon adoring the idols, was painted somewhere about the year 15 r5. 
The plaque would therefore be of the time when Raffaelle was a young 
man. 

Of the Service in the Miiseo Correr at Venice. 

In the absence of inscribed name by the painter or of the locality at 
which they were painted, we were quite prepared to acquiesce in the 
opinion of the late Signor Lazari, that the beautiful service, seventeen pieces 
of which are in the Museo Correr ^ at Venice, and some other works possibly 

^ The following is a list of the subjects scenes from the history 

upon the pieces in the Correr Museum; the ' of Midas, 

backs of all are perfecth- plain : — 7. Piatto Peleus and Thetis. 

1. Scodella Solomon adoring the Idols. 8. Tondino Meleager. 

I Kings xi. 9. do. 'Julia' and 'Otinelo,' an 

2. do. Solomon with Bathsheba old Italian romance. 

and Adonia. i Kings i. 10. do. Young Lady caressing an 

3. do. The Four Seasons. unicorn, j'oung cavalier 

4. Piatto Narcissus and Echo. before her ; allegorj'. 

5. do. Marsyas and Apollo. Figured in Delange, PI. 

6. do. Midas crowned, &c. ; three 27, another in PI. 28. 

N 2 



r8o ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

painted by the same admirable early artist, were produced at Faenza. 
They perfectly agree with the qualities lauded by Garzoni at the approxi- 
mate period of their production, and surely no wares of that period could 
in their qualities of enamel be more worthy of the expression bianche e 
polite than the pieces of this service. A careful examination of them in 
company with Signor Lazari at the time he was gathering materials for 
his able notizia of the objects in that Museum, then under his charge, 
and subsequent visits by the writer, have impressed on his mind the 
peculiarities of their painter's earlier manner; and the acquisition of one 
of the pieces of the service upon the dispersion of the Pourtales Col- 
lection, after years of fruitless search, has enabled him to compare 
them side by side with some of the more characteristic pieces cf the 
Gonzaga-Este service, and to confirm a long entertained suspicion, agreeing 
with that of the late M. Darcel and the outspoken opinion of M. Emile 
Molinier, and further confirmed by the opinion of Sir A. W. Franks, 
that these beautiful pieces are the handiwork of Nicolo Pellipario, in the 
writer's opinion anterior to his assumption of the title Nicolo da Urbino. 

The subject of the piece in the writer's possession (No. 474, see PI. XIV) 
is the Calumny of Apelles painted on the wide border, rosettes in bianco 
sopra bianco are on the sides of the central hollow, on the medallion 
bottom of which is represented a bull reclining in a landscape, before, and 
touched by the foot of which, a green feather (?) or palm branch is planted 
in the ground. 

To continue our history of the wares of Castel Durante, it would appear 
that the manufacture was at its perfection about 1525 and 1530, and continued 
to produce good wares even till 1580, although not of the higher class. 

In connexion with the istoriati pieces, with mythological subjects, the 
following artists are recorded : — Luca and Angiolo Picchi, Pier Francesco 
Calze, Ubaldo della Morcia, Simone da Colonello, the Fontana, &c., also 
the Appoloni, Giorgio Picchi, Lucio, Bernardino, and Ottaviano Dolci. 

Giovanni Tesio and Lucio Gatti went to Corfu in 1530, and taught 
the art in the Ionian Islands, while Francesco di Pier del Vasaro, 
according to Piccolpasso, sent to or erected the largest furnace in Venice. 
Lavolini introduced designs of the Roman school by Rafifaellino del 

II. Tondino A woman rushing at a young a6. Tondino Orpheus and the Bacchante. 

17. do. A bearded man in early six- 
teenth century costume, his 
hands chained ; allegory. 
Five of the pieces, Nos. i, 5, 9, 10, 12, are 
figured by M. Molinierin L'Art, ' La F'aience 
15. do. Orpheus and the Brutes. a Venise.' 







man armed ; allegory. 


12. 


do. 


Euridice and Aristeo. 


13- 


do. 


Orpheus playing ; Charon 
in a boat. 


14. 


do. 


Orpheus and Euridice. 



CASTE L DURANTE i8i 



Colle, who was working at the church of Corpus Domini, and the Duke 
Guidobaldo II called Giambatfista Franco from Venice, to make designs 
for the pieces here produced. At that period thirteen vaserie were at 
work in Castel Durante, a remarkable proof of the development of one 
branch of artistic industry in a small Italian Duchy. 

It would appear that the great artists painted only the more important 
subject of the piece, leaving the ornamentation to be finished by the 
pupils and assistants. 

At pages 22 and 23 of his work, Signor Raffaelli gives a list of artists 
and of painters whose designs were used. 

Piccolpasso informs us that the earth or loam gathered on the banks of 
the Metauro, near Castel Durante, is of superior quality for the manufac- 
ture of pottery ; a variety called ' celestrina ' was used for making the 
seggers ('astucci'j w^hen mixed with the 'terra rossa'; but for the finer 
class of work the loam deposited by the river, \\hich when washed was 
called ' bianco allattato,' and when of a blue shade of colour, was reser\ ed 
for the more important pieces. The turnings of this variety, mixed with 
the shavings of woollen cloth, was used to attach the handles and other 
moulded ornaments, and was known as ' barbatina.' 

He tells us that the red pigment of Faenza, known as 'Vergiliotto,* 
was not used at Castel Durante. We presume this pigment to be that 
ochreous red used for heightening and shading the draperies, &c., by 
the painters of the Fontana fabrique at Urbino, and that of Lanfranco 
at Pesaro, and some others; if so, the absence or presence of this 
pigment would be useful as evidence in determining the origin of a piece. 

Signor Raffaelli thinks that many of the wares generally known as 
of Urbino were so called from the province, and frequently included 
those which were really the produce of Castel Durante. Vasari speaks 
of the Durantine pottery when lauding Battista Franco of Venice, who, 
having no equal as a designer, was emploj^ed by the Duke of Urbino 
to make an infinite number of drawings for the excellent ceramic painters 
of Castel Durante, the potter's earth of which place is the finest in Italy. 

Among other authors Felibien^ in France writes, 'Castel- Durante, autre- 
ment Urbania, ville du Duche d'Urbin dans I'Etat Ecclesiastique en Italic, 
etoit celebre par les ouvrages de terre qui s'y faissoient dans le XVP Siecle.' 

Passed also speaks in high commendation of the Durantine wares, 
and Pozzi, in his Dizionario di Fisica, &c., states that it was the rival of 
and only second to, Faenza in the quality of its productions. 

The fatal blow to this branch of industry was the death of the last Duke 

^ Felibien, Des Principes de 1' Architecture, de la Sculpture et de la Peinture. 410, Paris, 1676. 



i82 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Francesco Maria II, on April 28, 1631, when there being no longer a court, 
the trade declined money became scarce, arid the artists emigrated. 

The young Amantini, however, assisted by the moulder Pompeo Savini, 
produced some rilievos of the Madonna, saints, Presepi, &c., in biscuit, 
which in some instances were subsequently coloured and gilt. 

By the middle of the seventeenth century the art had declined almost to 
its lowest ebb, as proved by a vase in Signor Raffaelli's possession signed 
by one ' Giambattista Papi 1652,' and only wares of the more ordinary kind 
were manufactured. 

In 1750 a revival occurred under the influence and encouragement of 
the Cardinal President Stoppani. The Signori Luzi and Biscioni pro- 
duced both enamelled pottery and porcelain, which is referred to in the 
work of Passeri (p. 108). The best artists at Urbania were the Lazzarini, 
the Frattini, and Biagini, who painted from prints b^'- Sadeler, Martin de 
Vos, the Carracci, Bassano, Tempesta, &c. 

Subsequently Passeri induced Giuseppe Bartolucci to leave Urbania 
and establish a work at Pesaro. 

Within the lart half century another artistic pottery was established, and 
it is not a little singular that it also was transported to Pesaro. Its pro- 
ductions were chiefly in imitation of the ancient wares. 

Of signed examples of the wares of Castel Durante, the earliest piece 
known to be of this fabrique is the beautiful bowl formerly belonging 
to Mrs. H. T. Hope, which was exhibited in the Loan Collection of 1862 
and described by then Mr., now Sir J. C. Robinson in the Catalogue, under 
No. 5160. The ground of this piece is of an intense dark and rich blue, 
entirely covered with a decoration of grotesques, among which occur 
a shield of arms of the Delia Rovere family, surmounted by the papal tiara 
and the keys, proving it to have been made for Pope Julius II ; trophies of 
books, festoons of drapery, and, above, a boy angel holding a * veronica ' or 
napkin impressed with the face of the Saviour. At the sides other trophies, 
satyrs, cupids, and interlaced foliage are richly and harmoniously disposed, 
among which are two labels inscribed respectively ^ Iv. II. Pon. Max.' and 
^ Tu . es . sacerdos t eter! There is another shield of arms barry of four 
argent and sable, a chief gules ; a trophy of two axes in saltire beneath 
a quiver and shield. The reverse is enriched with interlaced arabesque 
foliage in blue, and in the centre the inscription — 

' 1508 adi 12 de Seteb. facta fu, i Castel Durat ' 
' Zona Maria Vro.' 

There is every probability that this bowl was among the presents made 
by the young Duke Francesco Maria della Rovere to his uncle, on his 



CASTEL DURANTE ' 183 



succession in 1508 to the Duchy of U rhino, in right of his mother 
Giovanna, daughter of Federigo di Montefeltro and sister of Guidobaldo I. 

' In the design and execution of the painting, splendour of colour, and 
perfection of enamel glaze, this magnificent piece is a triumph of the art.' — 
(J.C. R) 

The name of the painter, ' Zona (Giovanni) Maria, Vasaro,' of Castel 
Durante, does not occur in the list of those given by Raffaelli. This 
beautiful work is however a better record of his excellence as an artist, and 
of the perfection to which the Durantine pottery had attained in the first 
years of the sixteenth century. 

We think we recognize variations of the same manner in two examples 
of the South Kensington Museum Collection. (Nos. 1728, 1735.) 

In the rich and even quality of the glaze, the tendency to that form of 
decoration known as ' a candeliere,' mixed grotesques, trophies of musical 
instruments, and cupids in a st3de of painting which is free, and at the same 
time firm and sure, and in the rich, yet soft colouring, we find in Mrs. 
Hope's bowl a type of what became a very general style in the decoration 
and colouring of the Durantine wares. 

Of eleven years later we have the pharmacy jars which must have 
formed portions of a large and important service, one of which is in the 
British Museum and another in the South Kensington. The signature on 
the British Museum jar states : ^ Ne la botega di Sebastiano d' Marforio ' and 
' A di xi de Octobre fece 15 19,' and again at the base, ' In Castel dura! (See 
Mark No. 154.) These vases were formerly in the farmacia Purgotti at Cagli. 

Formerly in Mr. Fountaine's Collection at Narford was a beautiful plate 
(tazza) grounded in the richest blue, and painted ' a candeliere ' with 
sphinxes, &c., and two figures of cupids ; it is a piece of very high qualit}', 
and bears on the reverse the date 1520. It is figured in Delange's Recueil, 
pi. 24, and is now in Mr. Salting's Collection. 

Another fine plate in Mr. Salting's Collection, the death of Lucretia, 
with inscription in Greek, is of Castel Durante. 

Several istoriati plates in various collections may have been the 
work of one and the same artist ; they are painted with some ability in 
colours of considerable richness, but of great liquidity and softness of 
effect, and are inscribed on the reverse in a large loose handwriting 
in yellow pigment. On a fragment by this hand are the letters S. B. 
(Mark No. 158.) 

The earliest is a plate formerly in the D'Azeglio Collection, representing 
a king distributing wine and bread to soldiers. It is dated ' 1524 in Castel 
Durante! 

In the Fortnum Collection No. 486 (see PI. XX), a tazza admirably 



i84 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

painted with a dance of Cupids after Marc. Antonio may perhaps be 
ascribed to Castel Durante rather than to Faenza. 

A tazza in the Louvre (No. 236}, representing Apollo and Marsyas, is 
inscribed ' 1525 in Castel Durante.' 

Another, No. 237 in the same collection from that of Campana, has for 
subject the Rape of Gan^^mede, with the same date and place. 

One in the Basilewski Collection S. Martin in Castel-Ditrante 1525. 

In the British Museum is another, with the subject of Dido and As- 
canius. Dated 1526. (Mark No. 157.) 

In the Ashmolean Mus. (Fortnum Coll., from that of Prince Napoleon) 
is one representing the flight into Egypt ; similarly inscribed and dated. 
It is figured in Delange's Recueil, pi 68, and on PI. XV. 

There are also several pieces by this same painter in the Museum at 
Arezzo, probably portions of an extensive service. 

Another piece in the Louvre (No. 238}, with Bacchanalian subject, is 
dated ' 1530 in Castel Durante' 

An albarello in the Louvre (No. 244), decorated with the usual trophies, 
bears on a cartouche * in Castello Duranto 1541-' 

Mr Fountaine had a tazza decorated 'a candehere' on blue ground 
and inscribed ^fata in durat! 

In the Basilewsky Collection was a plate signed ' In Castel Dura' 

Mr. Marryat had a pharmacy vase on which was inscribed ' a de sei 
d' Maggio 1550 a faro in Stitdii Durantiiis' 

Next in sequence of date are a set of richly coloured pharmacy vases 
with medallions and grotesques on varied grounds, brought by M. Signol 
from Sicily, one of which was inscribed ' Fato in tera Durantin apresso a la 
cita dUrbino' and another ^ In Castello Duranti a preso a Urbtno niiglie 7. 
1555.' One of these inscribed pieces is in the Museum at Sevres, the other 
in the Hotel Cluny, at Paris. Two others of the same set are in the 
Ashmolean Museum (Fortnum Coll.), at Oxford. 

Delange, in the supplement to his French translation of the work of 
Passeri, states (p. 102) : * Si notre memoire est fidele, il nous semble avoir 
vu un vase sur le socle duquel etait ecrit " Fait dans la boutique de Picolo 
Passo" mais il se trouvait le nom a la suite d'un autre artiste qui avait 
execute la peinture.' 

A vase, boldly decorated with grotesques, was in the collection of 
Monsignor Cajani, at Rome, since in that of M. Gavet, and is inscribed 
' P. Mastro Simono in Castello Durate 1562.' It is figured in Delange's 
Recueil, pi. 75. This piece was one of a set of eight which were 
formerly at Fermo; they have an armorial shield on one side, with the 
initials G. E. 



PLATE XV 




TAZZA. THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. INSCRIBED ' /« Costel Durante, J 526 




PLATE. HERCULES AND THE HYDRA. SIGNED ' /« botega lU M. Guido DurantWO 

in Urbino, 1535 ' 



CAST EL DURANTE i8s 



In the Castellani Collection sold at Paris in 1878 was a large albarello, 
on which the bust of a man was painted in a medallion surrounded b}' the 
inscription ' Guglielmo Edificatore de la terra de Durante ' and the letters 
S. C. T. D (Senatus Consulto Terrae Durantinae). A laurel crown surmounts 
and grotesques surround : the name of the medicine is also inscribed. This 
is an interesting jar, as it was painted in honour of Guillaume Durand, the 
founder of the new Castello in 1284. 

The letters P. B. have been noted on a plate ' a trofei ' in the style of 
these wares. 

Among the ornaments on the reverse of a plate in the British Museum, 
subject the Rape of Helen, well painted in a bluish tone, and ascribed to 
Castel Durante, are the letters h b and R h. (Mark No. 156.) 

On some inferior pharmacy' jars is the inscription ' Giambatista Carli de 
Terra Durantis et Johannes Liicafiliiis ejus fecet pilliirum, 1618.' 

Still later we have a piece in the Louvre (No. 291), representing the 
triumph of Flora, and signed * Hipollito Rombaldotti Pinse in Urbania ' 
And another is recorded ' Fatta in Urbania nella botega del Signor Pietro 
Papa 1667.' 

By the same hand is a large vase with serpent handles, latel}' in the 
possession of Bagatti Valsecchi of Milan, painted with figures of Eloquence 
and Glory ; it is inscribed beneath ' Hipolito Rombaldotti D. Vrbania Pinse 
Canno 1678. 2^genb' 

It would seem that this fabrique continued to flourish when those of 
Urbino and Pesaro had comparatively decayed ; this may partly have been 
owing to the encouragement given b}' the Duke Francesco Maria II (1574 
to 1631), who frequently resided at Castel Durante and took some interest 
in the manufacture. It, however, only produced at this period works of 
more general utilit}', artistic and ornamental pieces being the exception. 

Signor Frati ^ ascribes to this place and period certain pieces which were 
in the Delsette Collection, particularly two vases which he thinks ma}'^ have 
been made for Urban VIII, when Cardinal Maffeo, the Barberini arms 
being emblazoned upon them. Their subjects are allegorical, and the 
signature ' Mellis Opus,' which is inscribed on one, may, as he suggests, be 
the name of Giovanni Mel or Miele of Flanders, from whose design they 
may have been painted. 

A plate in the same collection, ' sbiancheggiata ' work with medallions, 
he also ascribes to this fabrique ; it is marked with the letters P. F. C. L , 
and dated 1636. 

Other pieces also classed by him under this head, which were 

' Luigi Frati, Di un Insigne Raccolta di Majolichc Dipinte (Delsette Col.), Bologna, 1844. 



i86 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

probably of the last century, are marked with the initials HR. P., the 
two former united, H P. and another H. R , probably all variations of the 
same monogram. 

A very large dish in the Delsette Collection, No. 885, subject Acis and 
Galatea, is marked V. R°. 

Mr. Marryat refers to three fine vases in the same collection on which 
the initials G. F. occur; the subject of one is after Agostino Carracci. On 
two others, representing the four elements, are the letters G F. F., probably 
the same initial with the additional F for ' fece.' A holy water cistern also, 
with figures of St. Peter and St. Paul in relief, and with twisted columns, is 
marked C. S. 

Signor Frati also surmises that the cups made with the dust of the 
Santa Casa at Loreto were produced at Castel Durante. (See Urbino.) 

The wares of Castel Durante are generally to be recognized by a pale 
buff" coloured paste, and great richness and purity of the glaze. The 
plates are rarely decorated at the back, except some few examples, but, like 
those of Urbino and Pesaro, are generally edged with yellow on the subject 
pieces and with grey white on those having grotesques, which are in a low 
olive tone on a blue ground. The outlines are in blue and grey ; the colours 
are sometimes rather pale but harmonious, and the carnations are of an olive 
tmt, thought by some a distinguishing mark of the fabriq-ue, while the absence 
of the ochreous red pigment alluded to by Piccolpasso, and so noticeable on 
the Urbino and Pesaro istoriati pieces is remarkable. In the draperies 
painted on these wares blue and an ochreous yellow predominate. Broadly 
treated grotesques, generally arranged ' a candeliere,' and trophies of arms, 
musical instruments, books, &c., frequently in camaiea of greenish grey on 
a blue ground, are favourite subjects of ornament ; these also occur painted 
in rich colours, among which a deep clear brown may be noted, and sur- 
rounding medallions having portrait or fanciful heads on a yellow ground. 

Subject pieces do not appear to have been so abundantly produced at 
Castel Durante as at the neighbouring fabriques, and such pieces to which 
the lustre enrichment has been added are still less frequent. 

Many of the tazze, the whole surface of each covered with a portrait 
head, may probably be assigned to this place, where there would appear 
to have been one or two artists who made almost a speciality of this 
style of decoration. Some of these pieces have been assigned to the 
painter Francesco Durantino, to whom Sir J. C. Robinson attributes 
a portrait of Raffaelle figured in Delange's Recueil, pi. 73 and formerly 
belonging to the Marquis D'Azeglio, but whether painted by him at Castel 
Durante, Urbino, or Bagnolo, we have no means of knowing. 

The British and South Kensington Museums are rich in these portrait 



CAST EL DURANTE 187 



plates ; among them is a remarkable example on which a likeness of 
Pietro Perugino in full face is portra3-ed, and which we are disposed 
to assign to this fabrique, but alwa3's with some hesitation^. 

Another class of pieces which we believe to have been for the most 
part made at Castel Durante are those decorated with oak branches 
painted 3'ellow on a blue ground, and sometimes in relief, surrounding 
a small medallion central portrait or imaginar}!- head. These cerquato 
pieces were so decorated in comphment to the Delia Rovere, the reigning 
ducal family. 

Castel Durante seems to have supplied a larger number of Spezieria, 
or pharmacy jars, vases, and bottles, than any other fabrique, perhaps, 
with the exception of Faenza. 

A ware of a different kind, formed of a red clay, and glazed with 
a rich treacle brown or black glaze, the forms of the pieces being 
sometimes extremely elegant, has also been assigned to other localities. 
Some of them are enriched with gilding, and with subjects painted in 
oil colours, not by a ceramic artist. We are informed, however, by 
Signor Giuseppe Raffaelli, that wares of this description were made at 
Castel Durante, a fine example of which, with portraits of a Count 
Maldini and his wife, is preser\'ed in the Library at Urbania. He describes 
these as made of a red earth, cov'ered with an intensely black glaze, on 
which the oil painting and gilding was executed. It is nevertheless 
probable that Montelupo produced a similar ware, and pieces occur, 
ornamented with reliefs and with raised work, engobe\ with a white or 
yellow cla}' on the brown ground b}' the process known as pdfe sur pate. 
Certain pieces marbled on the surface to imitate tortoiseshell, agate, &c., 
are ascribed to this pottery. 

During the course of the sixteenth century artists from the Durantine 
works emigrated to Venice, to Rome, to Genoa, to France, and elsewhere. 
We shall again hear of some of them when considering the wares produced 
at those respective Italian cities. 

The blue and yellow draperies of the earlier period were also a leading 
feature in the revival after 1730, a washy green was likewise used ; the 
drawing was good, and some of the landscape pieces excellent, of careful 
finish, soft colouring, and good aerial perspective. We believe, however, that 
man}' pieces of this period ascribed to this fabrique were really- the produce 
of Castelli or Naples. 

^ For Francesco Durantino, see also Urbino and Bagnolo, or Bagnara, near Perugia. 



i88 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



URBINO. 

On this important ceramic centre of the sixteenth century we cannot 
do better than reprint what we wrote in 1872 for the Catalogue of the 
South Kensington Collection of Maiolica, &c., with such additions and 
corrections as may be deemed necessary from more recent investigation 
and inference. Although not to be ranked with the earliest seats of the 
manufacture of artistic pottery in Italy, there is no place so much associated 
with these beautiful productions of the potter's art as the small city of 
Urbino, whence, indeed, was derived one of the names by which it is 
distinguished. Crowning one of the many steep hills of Umbria, remarkable 
in the landscape from her picturesque position and the towering palace 
of her Dukes, the former resort of literature and art remote from the 
great high roads, Urbino is one of those many curious sites with which 
Italy abounds, and which gather round themselves an individual history 
of the greatest interest ^. What giants of art and of literature were born 
or nurtured in that little town, now so neglected and unknown ! He who, 
climbing the steep ascent and tortuous narrow streets, has visited the 
deserted halls and richly decorated cabinets of her palace ; and has 
travelled through the beauteous scenery of her neighbourhood, to where 
the delicious valley of the Tiber bursts upon the sight, will never forget 
the impressions that they leave. 

In proof of the antiquity of ceramic industry of a more ordinary 
kind in the vicinity of this city, Pungileoni, in the * Notizie delle pitture 
in Majolica fatte in Urbino,' tells us that an antique amphora was not 
long since discovered in the grounds of the Villa Gaifa hard by the river 
Isauro, and that near to it were also found remains of a potter's furnace. 
This, however, does not prove the early establishment of a fabrique of 
glazed or enamelled decorative wares. Marryat states that in a register 
of Urbino dated 1477, one Giovanni di Donino Garducci is mentioned 
as a potter of that place, but it is not till 1501 that any further record 
occurs. In that year Doctor Alessandro Spagnoli of Mantua, vicar-general 
to Monsignore Gio. Maria Arrivabene, Bishop of Urbino, gave a commis- 
sion to Francesco di Donnino, who, with Giovanni di Donnino, was 
a potter at Urbino, for an assortment of vases, dishes, &c., for the 
use of the Cardinal di Carpaccio, and among them are mentioned bacili 
having the arms of the Cardinal in the centre, and water boccali or 
jugs, with little lions on the covers. M. E. Molinier refers to a pavement 

' See Mr. Dennistoun's Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino, 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1851, 
a work full of information, and illustrated by engraved views and portraits. 



'U 



URBINO 189 

of tiles in the Vescovado at Padua, executed by Giovanni Antonio and 
Francesco da Urbino ; these may have been the members of the Donnino 
Garducci famil}^ referred to. This pavement was ordered in 1491. 
Pungileoni further informs us that the Fontana hotega, the most im- 
portant of the cit}'-, was in Urbino. in the Contrada San Paolo (where 
Guido Merlini or Merligno also had a shop), and that subsequently 
Orazio took the adjoining house. He establishes this information by 
documentary proof, and shows that they then had furnace, magazine, 
and house, with a cortile in which the pieces could be dried before baking ; 
and he denies what Passeri, quoting from Vemaccia, states, that the 
works were not in Urbino itself, but at a place called ' Fermignano,' three 
miles distant from the city. This establishment is, however, not improbable 
in reference to the furnaces for the less valuable wares, or perhaps for 
the forming and baking of the crude pieces, previous to the painting and 
final glazing, the city being on the summit of a steep hill, away from 
that supply of cla\% sand, and fuel, which would be found upon the lower 
ground in the neighbourhood of the river. We have a parallel instance 
at Pesaro, the works of the Lanfranchi being at the ' Gabice,' some distance 
from that city, although it is not to be doubted that the}' had magazines 
or shops in the city itself. We think therefore that both statements may 
be reconciled, and that as the Fontana had vaserie for the manufacture 
of more ordinary pottery, the works at which they were made may have 
been situated at Fermignano, although the botega for the production 
of the more artistic wares was really in Urbino itself. The earliest 
pieces known to us, which can with any probability be ascribed to the 
potteries of Urbino, are those of the Gonzaga-Este ser\'ice, which are 
undoubtedly the work of Nicola da Urbino ; these must have been 
painted between the period of the Marquis's marriage with Isabella d' Este, 
in 1490, and (the arms upon the pieces being those of the wife and not 
of the husband) before her death in 1539. We think, however, from 
internal evidence, that it is more probable that they were produced anterior 
to or about 1519, the 3'ear of her husband's death. Nicola therefore, may 
have been working at Urbino at the same time as the Donnini. 

Next in sequence would be the Basilewski plate, dated 1521, followed 
b}' the Sta Cecilia, painted b}* Nicola in 1528. To these we shall presently 
refer. 

We have no record of the precise date at which the Pellipario, after- 
wards Fontana, family came from Castel Durante and settled at Urbino, 
but we have documentary' proof that ' Guido Niccolai Pellipario figulo 
da Durante,' or 'Guido, son of Nicola Pellipario, potter of Durante,' was 
established at Urbino in 1520. 



190 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

From this period, through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
a number of pieces are dated and signed by various artists, or as having 
been made in the boteghe of various maestri of Urbino. 

We propose to consider the works of the more important of these 
artists under their separate respective names, beginning with Nicola as 
the earhest of whom we have known examples ; the Fontana family, 
and of Guido Durantino ; the works of Fra Xanto ; of Francesco 
Durantino ; of the Patanazzi; classing together the works of other artists 
of the fabrique, of whom we have smaller record by remaining examples 
or documentary history. There seems little doubt that the revival, or 
perhaps the first introduction, of artistic ceramic manufacture at Urbino 
was under the influence of Guidobaldo I, and that many of the potters and 
nearly all the more important artists immigrated from Castel Durante. 
Long lists of names have been published by Raffaelli, but it is difficult 
to distinguish between the more ordinary potters, and the artists whose 
works we are unable to recognize from the absence of signed specimens. 

NicoLo (or Nicola) da Urbino. 

Considerable uncertainty exists, and some confusion has arisen among 
writers in respect to the works of this very able artist, and as to his 
connexion with the Fontana family and fabrique at Urbino, as also 
to the marks on various pieces attributable to his hand only, but which 
have been assigned by M. Jacquemart to the fabrique of Ferrara, and 
by other writers to various painters and localities, A certain similarity 
in some of his less careful pieces has caused them not unfrequently to 
be attributed to Xanto, but a closer study of his manner will show it 
to be really very distinct, though greatly varied. 

We will proceed to give a list of all the signed pieces known to 
the writer, and will draw our conclusions therefrom. The first is in the 
British Museum, a plate representing a sacrifice to Diana, and inscribed 

on the reverse . y. (Mark No. 171); and comparing it with those of the 

Gonzaga-Este service, Mr. Franks arrived at the conclusion that they also 
were painted by Nicola in his most careful manner; the clue thus found, he 
ingeniously deciphered the monogram on the beautiful fragment in the 
Sauvageot Collection (Louvre, G. 324), painted with a group from the Par- 
nassus by Rafifaelle, clearly and unmistakably by the same hand ; Delange, 
pi. 100. (Mark No. 170.) 

Those two exquisite plates in the British Museum from the Bernal 
Collection, to which we have alluded, are portions of a service painted by 
Nicola da Urbino for Isabella d' Este, wife of Gian. Francesco Gonzaga, 



URBINO 191 

Marquis of Mantua, daughter of Ercole I, and sister to Alfonso II, Dukes 
of Ferrara. On one plate her shield of arms\ carefully blazoned, 
occupies the centre, the subject of Apollo and Python is on one side, and 
that of Apollo seizing Daphne on the other; on a shield suspended from 
a tree is what appears to be a bundle of rods standing in a square box; 
this may perhaps be intended for a crucible filled with bars of gold, beneath 
and about which a fire is burning, if so it is the well-known ' impresa ' 
or cognizance of the Gonzaga ; on a label is inscribed * nee spe nee metu,' 
the motto of Isabella d' Este, and on another is the monogram, which is also 
found on other pieces of this service, and which is given in facsimile among 
the marks, No. 172, from one in the Museum at Bologna. The other British 
Museum specimen has for subject a troop of horse-soldiers entering a cit}', 
a woman with her dead child meets them ; the armorial shield is on the 
front of a tower in the architectural background. That at Bologna is 
a ' mesciroba' or ewer, of quaint form and great beauty of painting, and 
on which the same arms and motto occur. The companion 'hanap' is in 
the Baron Alfonse de Rothschild Collection, and is figured in Delange's 
folio work (pi. 31). Signor Frati, of Bologna, informed the writer some 
3^ears since that he had seen a ver}' beautiful vase bearing the same arms 
and dated 1519- 

Another plate of the same ser\'ice and equall\' beautiful with those in the 
British Museum, was in Mr. Fountaine's Collection at Narford Hall; on this 
the arms fill the centre of the piece It since belonged to Mr. Spitzer, and was 
sold at the sale of his collection in 1892-3, passing into that of Mr. Salting. 

The next signed example which comes under notice is a less carefully 
painted plate forming part of the Basilewski Coll., now at St. Petersburg. 
Its subject represents a crowned and sceptred king, probabl}' Solomon or 
David, seated on a throne, with architectural background, &c., and on the 
reverse occurs the monogram of Nicola, somewhat varied from that on 
the Louvre piece (Mark No. 174, and date 1521). This is also figured 
by Delange, pi. 55. 

Lastl}', and of equal importance in the history of this very able ceramic 
painter, is a large circular dish, which, among the other noble specimens of 
the Urbino fabrique, long preserved in the Museum of the Uffizi, is now in 
the Bargello at Florence. 

^ This shield bears the arms of Gonzaga, use his own wnthout impalement. Married 

impaling those of Este. They would, there- in 1490, the Marquis died in 1519. Isabella 

fore be those of Isabella, it being the custom or Elizabeth, a great patroness of literature 

in Italian heraldr3' for the wife to use her and art, whose accomplishments and per- 

own family arms impaled on the left of her fections were lauded by the poets of her 

husband's, whereas the husband would onlj- da}^, died in 1539. 



192 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

The entire surface is covered with the subject of the martyrdom of 
Santa Ceciha, painted with care, and unmistakably by Nicola, but not in 
the earlier and more delicate manner of the Gonzaga service ; on the re- 
verse is the monogram, again varied by connecting the upright limbs of the 
letter N with a cross-bar to form an H. It will be noticed that the first 
monogram in the series has a cross-bar between the first and second stroke 
of the N to form an A, and would therefore read NICOLA. On the 
Basilewski piece this is omitted, and the name would read NICOLO ; 
while by the addition seen on the Bargello dish it would give the more 
Tuscan pronunciation to the name by spelling it NICHOLA. 

But what is still more interesting, he adds to the titular inscription ^fata 
in botega de Giiido da Castello durante in Urbino, 1528,' thus proving his 
connexion with the Fontana fabrique, and we think also with that family, 
unless this ' Guido da Castello durante ' be other than he who is called in 
notarial documents ' Mag. Guido Niccolai de Durante figulus Urbinas,' 
and 'Mag. Guido Nicolai figulus de Durante civis Urbini' (Pungileoni). 
The period of his working at Urbino seems to have commenced anterior to 
1519, about which year he must have painted the Gonzaga-Este service, 
which is of distinctly Urbinesque character ; we also have the signed and 
dated pieces of 1521 and 1528. But we now recognize Nicola's younger 
hand on the service in the Correr Museum of about 1515, and of 
characteristic Durantine technique, from which we may infer that it was 
executed by him previous to his migration from Castel Durante. 

These facts and inferences harmonize with what we know of the family 
history, and lead to the conclusion that the painter of these pieces was that 
Nicola or Nicolo Pellipario of Castel Durante, who emigrated from thence 
with his son Guido, and established a botega at Urbino in that son's name, by 
whom the name Fontana was subsequently assumed. 

It may be suggested that the Guido named on the dish was perhaps 
' Guido Durantino,' in whose botega the service for the Montmorency was 
made (of which anon) ; but the pieces so signed are, we believe, not all by 
the same hand, and none are recorded of earlier date than 1532. Moreover, 
we incline to the supposition that both these two Guidos, Durantini, are but 
one and the same Maestro Guido Fontana, of Castel Durante ^ 

Neither can we suppose it to be ' Guido Merlino,' for the pieces signed 
as of his botega all have the Christian and surname, the latter variously 
spelt ' Merhno,' 'Merhngo,' and * Nerlino,' and the dates are 1542 and 1551. 

' A negative argument in favour of tliis to ' Guido Niccolai di Durante,' no such 
conclusion may be grounded on the fact that, papers have been found in which any other 
although notarial documents exist referring Guido Durantino is mentioned. 



URBINO 193 

Mr. Marr3'at and some other writers have suggested that Nicola 
may have been a pupil of Xanto, but dated pieces negative this theory-, for 
we have seen that Nicola painted from before 1519 till 1528 and probably 
after, whereas the earliest dated Xanto is not anterior to 1530. It is more 
probable that Nicola was the instructor, rather than the pupil of Fra. Xanto. 

M. Darcel's suggestion that he was the same as Nicolo di Gabriele, 
who was painting in 1530, we think equally improbable. 

Many unsigned pieces by Nicola are preserved in public and private 
collections, but frequently are not recognized. 

Some of the finest with which we are acquainted were in the Narford 
Collection, one rare example, now in the British Museum, being a plateau 
with raised centre, on which is painted a female pla3'ing the pipes. The 
subject of Apollo and Mars3'as fills the inter\"ening space, and is surrounded 
b}' a rich border of human-headed dragons and hippocampi, with medallions 
of dark reddish-brown ground, painted with profile heads in camaieit. 

In the Fortnum Collection is a plate with similar border, and as we 
believe by the same hand, but richly lustred and signed by M". Giorgio 
1526'. 

Another magnificent circular dish, 21 inches in diameter, is entirely 
covered with the subject of the Conversion of St. Paul, a crowded compo- 
sition of many figures, with architectural background. This admirable work 
we ascribe to Nicola, but with some hesitation ; it is in all probability' b^' 
the same hand as a piece representing the Galatea, after Raffaelle, now in 
the British Museum, from the late Mr. Henderson's Collection, which 
Sir J. C. Robinson attributed to Nicola; and although the treatment is 
grander and more powerful than that of the usual works of the artist, there 
are many points of resemblance which induce us to believe the Narford 
dish to be by the same hand. This example is signed at the back 'in 
Urbino,' and on a label in the foreground of the subject occur the letters 
L. V. (Mark No. 179), which we are disposed to read as the number 
(55) ^^ the piece in the service to which it belonged ; in corroboration 
of which we may refer to the piece of the Gonzaga-Este service in the same 
collection, where on the bases of columns the number XXVTI is twice 
repeated. Sir A. W. Franks agrees with the writer in thinking that the 
piece in question is by the same hand as Mr. Henderson's ' Galatea,' and 
that it has great affinit}^ with the work of Nicola. 

Examples occasionally occur in collections apparently painted by Nicola 

and lustred at the Gubbio works ; of such was a fragment in the Narford 

Collection ; and in that of the late Mr. R. Napier was a plate, the painting of 

which was ascribed b^' Sir J. C. Robinson to Nicola ; subject ' Europa,' 

' Reproduced in colour as frontispiece to this volume. 

o 



194 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

dated on the back 1524, and enriched with metallic lustre in the botega of 
Maestro Giorgio (Shandon Catalogue, No. 2873). 

A small plaque, having the half figure of the Virgin and Child, /;/ rilievo, 
carefully modelled, outlined in colour, and painted in the manner of 
Nicola, but not lustred, and possibly an exceptional piece by him, was in 
the possession of Monsignor Cajani at Rome. 

His manner is remarkable for a sharp and careful outline of the figures, 
the features clearly defined, but with much delicacy of touch ; the eyes, 
mouth, and nostrils denoted by a clear black spot, the faces oval, derived 
from the Greek model ; a free use of yellow and a pale yellow green ; 
a tightening of the ankle and a peculiar rounding of the knee, the hair and 
beard of the older heads heightened with white ; the architecture bright and 
distinct; the landscape background somewhat carefully rendered in dark 
blue against a golden sky ; the stems of the trees, strangely tortuous, are 
coloured brown, strongly marked with black lines ; and the rolled up 
clouds are treated in a manner not very true to nature. 

But previous to Nicola's working at the Urbino fabrique we believe that 
he had learnt and practised his art at his native town Castel Durante. 
There, using the methods, the pigments, the enamel and the cristallina 
adopted at what must have been the most artistic botega of that locality, his 
works would naturally have a somewhat different tone from that which we 
cbserv^e on later pieces painted by his hand at Urbino. Notwithstanding its 
former attribution to Faenza, it has long been the opinion of connoisseurs 
that the choice pieces of a service in the Correr Museum at Venice were 
probably of Durantine production, and it has further grown into a convic- 
tion that they are the earlier work of Nicola, when young and exercising his 
art at a Durantine botega. We owe to M. Emile Molinier the publication 
of this conviction, which is shared by Sir A. W. Franks, by the late M. Darcel, 
and by the writer. 

Those choice pieces of Nicola's earlier art, one of which is in the writer's 
collection (see PI. XIV) were probably painted between 1515 and 1518. 
We have referred to this service in our notice on the productions of Castel 
Durante, at p. 179. 

Few Majolica painters have produced works of greater beauty than this 
Correr service and that of the Gonzaga-Este, which are equally excellent in 
the quality of glaze, the brilliancy of colour, and the dehcacy of manipu- 
lation ^ 

^ Signer Genolini's knowledge and ap- merito o die non lasciarono aJcuna memoria 

preciation of the works of this admirable di marca o monogramma.' Maioliche Ita- 

artist may be judged of from the following liane, p. 8. 
extract : ' Nicolo da Urbitw ed altri di riiinore 



URBINO 195 



The Fontana Family. 

On the subject of this leading family of Italian ceramic artists we feel 
that we cannot do better than reprint in extenso the notice b}'" Mr. J. C. 
Robinson, appended to the Soulages Catalogue, the observations in which, 
with but small exceptions, we have every reason to confirm. He writes: 

* The celebrity of one member of this family has been long established by 
common consent. Orazio Fontana has always occupied the highest place in 
the scanty list of Majolica artists, although at the same time nothing was 
definitely known of his works. Unlike their contemporary', Xanto, the 
Fontana seem but rarely to have signed their productions, and consequently 
their reputation as yet rests almost entirely on tradition, on incidental 
notices in writings, which date back to the age in which they flourished, and 
on facts extracted at a recent period from local records. No connected 
account of this family has as yet been attempted ; although the materials are 
somewhat less scanty than usual, there can be no doubt, however, that 
a considerable proportion of the products of the Fontana bofeghe is still 
extant, and that future observations will throw light on much that is now 
obscure in the history of this notable race of industrial artists. The infor- 
mation I have succeeded in getting together will establish several facts 
hitherto unnoted, and, at any rate, la}^ the groundwork for a more detailed 
account. Orazio Fontana, whose renown, during his lifetime even, seems 
to have completely eclipsed that of the other members of his family, and in 
fact of all the other Urbinese artists, is first mentioned b}' Baldi, at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, in his eulogy of the state of Urbino, 
pronounced before Duke Francisco Maria II. At a more recent period 
Crescembeni alludes to him in reference to a subject which we shall here- 
after have occasion to discuss more particularly ; and lastly, Passed, quoting 
both these authors, has added in a brief notice all that was known of him up to 
a very recent period. Passeri, following Crescembeni, assumes him to have 
been a native of Urbino, but is in doubt as to the actual place of his labours, 
suggesting Urbino, Fermignano, Castel Durante, and lastly Pesaro, where 
he insinuates " he found the earth more proper for his art " ; in assuming him 
to have worked at the last-mentioned city, however, Passeri merely gives 
way to a ridiculous mania for exalting his own locality ; there is, in fact, not 
a tittle of evidence bej'ond this loose assertion, that he was ever in any way 
connected with Pesaro ; and it is equally certain, on the other hand, that 
Urbino was the real seat of his labours : but in fixing the period in which 
he flourished as between 1540 and 1560, Passeri is within the truth, as we 
shall presently' see. 

* Pungileoni, however, was the first to furnish us with reliable evidence, 

02 



196 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



and more recently Raffaelli has considerably enlarged our sources of 
information. Having thus far noted the gradually-increasing posthumous 
reputation of its leading member, we will now turn to the facts representing 
the family in general. From documents cited by Raffaelli, it is established 
beyond doubt that the original family name was Pellipano, of Castel 
Durante, Fontana being an adopted cognomen or surname ; and it is 
not immaterial to observe that, down to the latest mention of any one 
of the family (in 1605), they are invariably described as of Castel Durante. 

* The first who occurs is Nicolo Pellipario, who was alive in the year 
1540, and though not specially so qualified, was doubtless the proprietor of 
a vaseria; this Nicola had a son, Guido, who is mentioned in a notarial 
deed as early as 1520. The latter appears, in turn, to have had three 
sons, Orazio, Camillo, and another Nicola; Guido, the father survived 
Orazio, and probably also Nicola, living at least after 157 r, in which 
year Orazio died \ leaving a daughter, Virginia. Camillo, the second 
son, very likely lived much longer, and Pungileoni notices his son Guido, 
who died in the year 1605^. In addition to these names, Dennistoun 
states ^ I know not on what authority, that Orazio was assisted in his 
labours not only by his brother Camillo, but also by a nephew (Flaminio), 
who afterwards settled in Florence. This latter may have been another 
son of Camillo. 

Nicola, ob. circa i§§o ? 

I 
Guido, oh. 7576. 

Orazio, ob. 1571. Camillo. Nicola. 

. I . ! I 

Virginia. Guido, ob. 1605. | | 

Flaminio^. Domitilla. 

'The Fontana were undoubtedly manufacturers as well as artists, 
i. e. they were the proprietors of vaserie. Of the first Nicola, as we 
have only a brief incidental notice of him, nothing positive can be 
affirmed. The supposition of his being identical with " Nicola da 
Urbino" has already been discussed in our notice of that artist; but with 
respect to his son Guido, we have the testimony both of works still extant, 

' Raffaelli, p. 35, and ibid, (note) 26. — Pungileoni,Giornale Arcadico, vol. xxxviii. 

* ' Di cui in un libro della Confrater- p. 353. 

nita di S. Croce da Urbino leggesi : Guido ^ Dennistoun, Dukes of Urbino, vol. iii. 

Durante di Camillo pittore da Castel Durante p. 402. 

entro in la Compagnia a di 20 gennaro * We have corrected this pedigree by 

1581, ed in appresso, obiit die 9 Julii 1605.' additions printed in italics. 



URBINO 197 

and of contemporary documents. An inscription on the reverse of a fine 
plateau in the Fountaine Collection informs us that it was " fatto in Urbino 
in Botega di M" Guido Fontana Vasaro " (i. e. " made in Urbino in the 
shop of Maestro Guido Fontana, vase maker"); whilst we learn, by the 
evidence of monuments ^ that his son Orazio also had a shop or manu- 
factory of his own, and we have fortunately evidence of an entirely 
circumstantial nature on this point. Raffaelli gives an extract from a notarial 
document", estabhshing the fact that Orazio worked in conjunction with 
his father up to the year 1565, at which date he separated himself from 
the latter, and set up a botega on his own account in the Borgo San Polo, 
near to his father's establishment, there being at the time of this separation 
important commissions, both from the Duke of Urbino and from Piedmont, 
in process of execution, and on which Orazio in particular was bound 
to exercise his art. The fact is thus estabhshed, that between 1565 and 
1571 at any rate, there were two distinct Fontana manufactories, — that 
of father and son. What became of Orazio's establishment after his death, 
whether it was continued by his brother Camillo, or reunited to that of the 
father, there is no evidence to show. With respect to the remaining 
members of the family, our information is of the scantiest kind. Camillo, 
who was inferior in reputation as a painter only to his elder brother, 
appears to have been invited to Ferrara by Duke Alfonso II, and to 
have introduced the Majolica manufacture into that city^. We know 
not, however, at what period of his career this migration occurred, and 
from the fact of the mention of his son, the younger Guido, as living 
at Urbino in 1581 (see ante\ it is fair to presume that he returned again 
to Urbino, and probably ultimately succeeded his father. Of Nicola 
the third (?) son, we have only incidental mention in a legal document, 

' Vase formerly in the Strawberry Hill creditum quod dicti Mag. Guido at Horatius 

Collection, inscribed, ' Fate in Botega di habent cum illustrissimo et excellentissimo 

Oratio Fontana ; ' and likewise a large vase Domino nostro Urbini invictissimo Duce et 

in the Musee Ceramique of Sevres, inscribed quod habent in Pedemonte . . . et quia 

on the triangular plinth, ' In botega di M '. dictus Horatius alligabat, prout alligat dicta 

Oratio Fontana ; ' also a vase of the same credita ad ipsum spectare . . . et velle de 

model, similarly inscribed, was in the cetero suam artem exercere.' Rog. Girolamo 

collection of Alexander Barker, Esq. Fazzini Not. Urbinate,8 Nov. 1565. Quoted 

- ' Cum sit quod versa fuerit et vertatur by Raffaelli, p. 35, note 24. And ' Caesar 

extrajudicialis controversia inter Mag. Marini . . . dedit . . . Mag. Horatio Fontanee 

Guidonem f. Nicolai de Durante figulum unanidomum in burgo S. Pauli juxta stratam 

et habitatorem Urbini ex una, et Mag. Hora- bona Mag. Guidonis Fontanae : Rocr. 

tium ejus filium ex altera causa et occasione Gasparre Fazzini.' — Ibid, note 25. 

bonorummobilium et suppellectiliumdomus ^ Pungileoni, Giornale Arcadico vol. 

etapothecae Mag. Guidonis . . . et specialiter xxxvii. p. 353. 



198 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

merely establishing the fact of his existence in the year 1570 ^ Guido, 
son of Camillo, we have seen, lived till 1605 ; and of Flaminio, who 
may either have been son of Camillo or of Nicola, Dennistoun's vague 
notice asserting his settlement in Florence is all that I have been able 
to collect. No signed pieces of Camillo, Flaminio, Nicola the second, or 
Guido the second, have as yet been observed. 

' It has been already stated that a considerable proportion of the 
Fontana Majolica is doubtless still extant ; and it becomes now desirable to 
endeavour to identify the works of the individual members of the family, 
without which the mere knowledge of their existence is of very little 
moment; but this is no easy task; although specimens from the hands 
of one or other of them are to be undoubtedly found in almost every 
collection, the work of comparison and collation has as yet been scarcely 
attempted. This similarity of style and technical characteristics of the 
several artists moreover, working as they did with the same colours on 
the same quality of enamel ground, and doubtless in intimate communi- 
cation with each other, resolves itself into such a strong family resem- 
blance that it will require the most minute and careful observation, 
unremittingly continued, ere the authorship of the several specimens can 
be determined with anything like certainty. The evidence of signed 
specimens is of course the most to be relied on, and is indeed indispen- 
sable in giving the clue to complete identification in the first instance ; 
but here, in the case of the Fontana family, and doubtless also in that 
of many other Majolicara, a difficulty presents itself which should be 
noticed in the outset. This difficulty arises in determining the author- 
ship of the pieces signed " Fatto hi botega" &c. &c. ; this mode of 
signature, in fact, proves very little in determining individual character- 
istics, inasmuch as apparently nearly all the works so inscribed are 
painted by other hands than that of the proprietor of the vaseria ; thus, 
in the case of pieces executed in the hotega of Guido Fontana, we may 
expect the painting to be rather from the hand of Horatio or Camillo 
than that of their father the Vasaro ; in fact, I have myself observed 
that one and the same hand may be traced in pieces inscribed respec- 
tively from the boteghe of both Guido and Orazio, the hand being, 
I have little doubt, that of Camillo. In cases, however, in which the 
artist has actually signed or initialled pieces with his own name, of course 
no such difficulty exists, but the certainty acquired by this positive 

' ' Mag. Guido f. Nicolai de durante milium, et Nicolaum filios legitimes.' Rog. 

nuncupatus Fontana figulus Urbini re- Marcus Antonius Theofilus Not. Urb. 

liquit .... in omnibus autem ejus bonis 1570, die 29, <S:c., &c. — Raflfaelli, p. 36, 

suos haeredes esse voluit Horatium, Ca- note 30. . 



URBINO 199 

evidence is as yet confined in the case of the Fontana family to their 
greatest name, Orazio. 

'The information I am now, however, enabled to communicate will, 
I think, be conclusive in estabhshing the identity of his works, and 

I confidently anticipate that the greatly increased attention which the 
Majolica is now receiving will soon result in the acquisition of equally 
satisfactory evidence as regards the others. 

' It appears from Passed that a great number of pieces from the hand, 
or at any rate the fabrique, of Orazio were preserved in the "Garda 
Roba" of the Dukes of Urbino, whence they in all probability passed 
into the possession of the Famese family' at the devolution of the Duchy 
in 1631 ; this he gathers from an inventory extant at Pesaro in his time, 
and from the same source Passeri has extracted the following mark (see 
Mark No. 180), indicating ^^ Orazio Fontana Urbinate fece." Succeeding 
writers, down to the present time, have quoted and reproduced this as the 
only known monogram of Orazio. At the same time it must be obser\'ed 
that no one, not even Passeri himself, has ever been able to verify its 
existence on any piece of Majolica. M. Delange, writing as late as 1853, 
saj^s, "En revanche Passeri donne le sigle d'un celebre artiste, dont 

II est regrettable qu'on n'ait jamais vu d'exemple, c'est le monogram me 
d'Oratio Fontana." 

'But although the mark rests simply on Passeri's unsupported autho- 
rity, I am not disposed to question its authenticity; and think it most 
likely sooner or later some piece so signed will come to light. This, 
however, was not the only monogram employed by Oratio; and I have 
now the satisfaction of adducing for the first time four others copied 
immediately from pieces of ware in existence. In the summer of 1855 
M. Delange was kind enough to communicate to me the following 
monogram, copied from a fine plate representing the rape of a Sabine, 
in the Collection of the Cavaliere Alessandro Saracini, in Siena. This 
mark (see Mark No. 182), I should observe, had been previously given to 
M. Delange by H. Scudamore Stanhope, Esq., and the latter gentleman 
has since kindl^'^ confirmed the authenticity of the mark, and communicated 
to me his impression as to the st3'le of painting and general appearance 
of the piece. Neither of these gentlemen, however, seems to have read the 
monogram, or suspected its true attribution. Shortly afterwards I dis- 
covered the same mark on a plate in the Collection of the British Museum, 
originally from the Bernal Collection, representing the chase of the 
Calydonian boar. (See Mark No. 181.) 

'This specimen was at once revealed as an Urbino piece by a hand 
ver}- often obser\'ed elsewhere, and which I had long suspected to be one 



200 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

of the Fontana family. On endeavouring to decipher the monogram, 
which, it will be observed, is identical with the one from the Saracini 
Collection, there was little difficulty in construing its ingenious combinations ; 
taking the large O as the beginning, and the smaller o in the centre as the 
last letter, the word " Oratio " stands clearly confessed ; and it may be 
observed that the pages of Brulliot might be searched in vain for a more 
felicitous combination. The date, 1544, which accompanies both these 
specimens, evidently refers them to the very earliest period of the artist ; 
the British Museum plate, indeed, bears every evidence of youthful care 
and timidity. Although distinguished by an unmistakable and character- 
istic style, it is yet far from equalling in power and beauty the specimens 
still to be described. 

' The next mark may be seen on a magnificent plateau, the painting 
representing the Massacre of the Innocents, copied from Marc Antonio's 
engraving after Raffaelle. This splendid piece, unfortunately cruelly 
fractured, is the chef d'oeuvre of the collection of Majolica of the Museum 
of the Louvre. In the foreground of the composition is conspicuously 
placed the following initial. (See Mark No. 184.) Although a far finer and 
more powerful work, there can be no doubt of its being by the same hand 
as the British Museum piece ; I should indeed deem it to be of the finest 
and most full}^ developed period of the artist, probably somewhat before 

1550- 

' We have next two marks very closely resembling each other, from 

pieces in the celebrated Collection of Andrew Fountaine, Esq. These two 

pieces are large tazze or fruttiere evidently from the same service. One of 

them is admirably painted with the subject of St. Paul preaching at 

Athens, from Raffaelles well-known cartoon, whilst the other represents 

David slaying Goliath. The marks, as in the previous instance, are placed 

in the foreground of the composition on tablets or slabs of stone drawn in 

perspective. Nothing can exceed the brilliancy of colour and glaze, and 

the masterly drawing of these pieces. They are, in fact, equal, if not 

superior in excellence, to the Louvre specimen, unquestionably by the same 

hand as it, and of about the same period. The monogram on the plate 

representing St. Paul preaching may, I think, be construed as follows : 

The first character is probably intended for the Greek letter phi, but 

has at the same time a double meaning, and may be read as the monogram 

O • F. (See Mark No. 185.) In either case it is useless to observe that the 

first letter of the name of Fontana is indicated. The next character is 

a delta for " Durantino " (Orazio Fontana Durantino) ; the delta, however, it 

should be observed, is probably compounded with some other letter which 

is not obvious. The signature in the " David and Goliath " piece difi'ers 



URBINO 20I 

only in the first of the characters, which, in this case, is a regular Greek phi. 
(See Mark No. 186.1 It is not m}'^ intention to enter into any more detailed 
description of the technical and artistic qualities of these noble specimens 
of the art; we shall revert to their consideration further on. I will here 
only obsen^e that they are unquestionably by the same artist as the 
specimens previously adduced.' 

These notes by Mr, Robinson comprise the bulk of the information con- 
veyed by Pungileoni and Raffaelli ^ and leave little to add. A reprint of 
the extracts from documents referring to the various members of the family 
and published by these authors, would hardly be looked for in the present 
work; but it may be interesting to know that on December 29, 1570, Guido 
made his first will, styling himself ' Mag. Guido f. Nic. de Durante nuncu- 
patus Fontana figulus Urbini,' in which he mentions Horatium, Camillum, 
and Nicolaum, his sons, and Flaminium, son of Nicola. His second will 
is dated October 16, 1576, and by this his heirs were Camillo ; Virginia, 
daughter of Orazio (then dead); Flaminio, son of Nicola; Nicola, his own 
son ; and Elizabeth, his second wife. 

Guido Fontana and Guido Durantino. 

We have said that it is a matter of uncertainty whether Guido Fontana 
and Guido Durantino were the same person, or rival maestri ; and that we 
are disposed to the former opinion, from the fact that, in the documents 
quoted by Pungileoni, no other * Vasaio ' named Guido, and of Castel Durante, 
is named. The pieces inscribed as having been made in their boteghe, 
although painted by different hands, may by the wording of their inscriptions 
afford some explanation ; thus, on the Sta Cecilia plate painted by Nicola, 
he writes in 1528, 'fata in botega di Guido da Castello d'Urante in 
Urbino ' (see Marks), from which we argue a connexion with the Fontana. 

On a plate painted by a well-known but nameless hand, formerly in the 
Narford Collection, representing the siege of the Castle of St. Angelo by 
the Constable de Bourbon, is written, 'fatfe in Urbino in botcgo de M''. Guido 
fontana Vasaro' (Mark No. 176.) Genolini informs us that the Marchese 
Molza of Modena had a large plate with battle subject, inscribed * Fatte 
in Urbino in botega di M°. Guido Fontana.' Of pieces by other artists whose 
names are not recorded, in the British Museum is a plate of the well-known 
service on which are the arms of the Constable de Montmorency, having 
for subject the myth of Jupiter and Semele, and on the reverse of which 

■ P. Luigi Pungileoni, Notizie delle pitture Giuseppe Raffaelli, Memorie Istoriche 

in Maiolica fatte in Urbino, published with delle Maioliche lavorate in Castel Durante 
the edition of Passeri's work. Pesaro. 1857. o sia Urbania. Fermo, 1846. 



202 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

is inscribed, * Nella botega di 71/". Guido Durantino in Urbino, 1535.' 
Three pieces of this service belonged to the Baron Sellieres and one to 
M. Poucet, another is in the Museum at Rouen, and three others were in 
the Narford Collection. Mons. M. Kann, of Paris, possesses one. 

Another plate of the same service, formerly in the Visconti Collection 
and subsequently in that of Prince Napoleon, is illustrated in Delange's 
Recueil, pi. 72; it is now in the Ashmolean Museum (Fortnum Coll.), 
and is inscribed, ' Hercole mazzo hydra in botega di M°. Guido Durantino in 
Urbino 1533.' (See PI. XV.) 

Of a service bearing the arms of Cardinal Duprat, one piece is in the 
Louvre (G. 329), subject David and Goliath, and with a similar signature. 
Another is in the Ceramic Museum at Sevres similarly signed, and dated 

1535- 

Another plate also so signed, but without date, is in the Soane Museum ; 
it represents the Fates. 

A beautifully painted plate, subject the Judgement of Paris, bearing the 
date on a stone in the landscape, which was in the collection of Mr. D. M. 
Davidson, is inscribed, ' /;/ botega di 71/". Guido Durdtino, 1532.' 

Other similarly inscribed pieces are in collections. 

A fine plate was in that of the Baron de Sellieres, which M. Jacquemart 
considered to be a prototype of the Fontana school, * et sans doute le 
siimmum des oeuvres de Guido' representing the Muses and the Pierides 
after Pierino del Vaga, signed * Fatto in Urbino in botega di M°. Guido da 
Castel Durante X.' If not a numeral the X would seem the initial of Xanto. 

The first, second, and third of these examples are painted by different 
hands; the first the Sta Cecilia by Nicola, the second the siege of the Castle 
of St. Angelo by an abundant artist of the Fontana fabrique, whose work 
is found on pieces of the best time, and also we think on some which are 
signed 'fato in botega de Orazio Fontana' and whom we imagine to be Guido 
Fontana himself. The third and others, by unknown artists working in 
the fabrique, some perhaps by the younger Nicola, by Raffaelle Ciarla, &c. 

The apparent anomaly of the father's work being found on pieces made 
in Orazio's botega would be accounted for by the fact that the separation 
was an amicable one, and that there was at the time work in hand on 
important commissions, which would have to be completed between the two 
maestri, and accordingly this same hand is observable on some of the jars 
at Loreto. We believe that Sir J. C. Robinson was disposed to attribute 
these works to Camillo, whose painting we should connect with pieces of 
a later date ; but in the absence of positive evidence, it must still remain an 
uncertain question. 

Unfortunately, we know no piece signsd as actually painted by the hand 



URBINO 203 

of Guido Fontana, but as he took that cognomen after settling in Urbino, it 
would be more probable that he would himself apply it on his own work ; 
whereas Nicola (presumably his father) on the piece of earlier date, retained 
the name of their native castello. By others the botega would long be 
known as that of the ' durantini,' and that it retained that appellation, even 
in the following generation, is proved b}* the occasional reference to Orazio 
Fontana as of Castel Durante. 

The manner of the painter of these pieces, of which the late Mr. 
Fountaine's Guido Fontana plate is a typical example, whether Guido himself 
as we suspect, or his son Camillo, approaches very much to that of Orazio, 
but is less refined and rich in colouring, wanting that harmon}' and power 
of expression for which he was remarkable ; the drawing is more correct 
and careful than that on some of Orazio's work, but is more dry and on 
the surface ; there is great force and movement in the figures, and the 
landscape backgrounds are finished with much care and effect, sometimes 
covering the whole piece ; the foliage of the trees is also well rendered. 

Orazio Fontana. 

Pungileoni states that Orazio was a pupil of Taddeo Zucchero. On 
setting up for himself in 1565, by a deed dated the 8th November he agreed 
to maintain and keep for three years ' Domitilla' and ' Flaminio,' children of 
his brother Nicola. 

Among the man}' important works executed at Guido's botega some 
were unfinished at the time of the separation, including certain foreign 
commissions, some of which were for Piedmont, as we learn from 
Francesco Pacciotti, architect to the court of Turin at that period. 

Guido Ubaldo II, Duke of Urbino, gave a service to Charles V, and 
another to Philip II of Spain, painted by Orazio after designs by Taddeo 
Zucchero. 

At the sale of the Castellani Collection at Paris in 1878 was a plate on 
which was a portrait of Charles the Fifth, filling the whole surface, the bust 
resting on a label inscribed ' PROGENIES • DIVVM • QVTNTVS • SIC • 
CROLVS • ILLE ■ IMPERII • C^SAR -^LVMINA • ET • ORA • 
TVLIT • ^T • SViE • XXXI • ANN • M • D.XXXI • &.' It was 
ascribed to Orazio Fontana, but if so it must have been painted from 
a portrait bearing the above date, as at that time Orazio was but a child. 
It might however hav^e been one of the pieces of the service presented to 
that Emperor. It was bought for M. Basilewski for ^^800 ^. 

' We cannot agree with the late M. Darcel (Gaz. des Beaux Arts) in attributing this 
to a successor of Xanto. 



204 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

On September 17, 1562, Paolo Mario, writing from Urbino to a minister 
of the Duke of Urbino on the subject of a credenza sent to Phihp II by 
Guidobaldo II, speaks of the care bestowed upon its production, * che se si 
fosse fatta di gioie,' and for which designs representing the history of Julius 
Caesar had been brought from Rome ; * the which after many accidents 
was finally finished in the greatest perfection, so that in it one might study 
the arts of sculpture, painting, and illumination or miniature as well as the 
history of Caesar.' He states that Muzio Giustino Politano, the Secretary 
of His Excellency, had dictated the verses and quotations which are on the 
backs of the pieces, all of which were packed in ten ^ arche' and would be 
sent under the care of an experienced * Maestro.' This maestro may 
perhaps have been Raffaelle Ciarla, as referred to by Pungileoni. The 
MS. letter is preserved in the archives of Florence ^ 

It is also stated that the Duchess Vittoria Farnese ordered vases of 
Orazio to present to her uncle. Cardinal Farnese ; and Annibale Caro, writing 
from Rome on January 15, 1563, to the Duchess, says: 'the Duke has 
caused m2iny drawings to be made here of storiettes with which to paint 
a service at Urbino, which has been finished, and the drawings remain in 
the maestro's hands.' 

The celebrated vases made for the Spezieria of the Duke were produced 
at the Fontana fabrique, and subsequently presented to the Santa Casa at 
Loreto, where many of them are still preserved. Those shown to the 
writer, on his visit to that celebrated shrine now many years since, did 
not strike him as being of such extraordinary beauty and great artistic 
excellence as the high-flown eulogy bestowed upon them by some writers 
would have led him to expect. The majority of the pieces are drug pots of 
a not unusual form, but all or nearly all are istoriati, instead of being, 
as is generally the case, simply decorated with trofei, fogUe, grotesclie, 
the more usual and less costly ornamentation. Some of the pieces have ser- 
pent handles, mask spouts, &c , but he vainly looked for the magnificent vases 
of unsurpassed beauty, nor indeed did he see anything equal to the shaped 
pieces preserved in the Bargello at Florence, or in the Collections of the late 
Mr. Fountaine, the Rothschilds, &c. The work of the well-known hands 
of the Fontana fabrique is clearly recognizable, particularly of that on 
Mr. Fountaine's Guido F^ontana plate; several pieces are probably by 
Orazio. Some, more important vases, preserved in a low press, were finer 
examples. We have said that the pieces considered individually are 
not so striking, but taken as a whole service, originally numbering some 
380 vases, painted with subjects after the designs of Battista Franco, 

' Archivio ccntralc di Firenzc. Carte d' Urbino. Div. G. Filza, 254. 



URBINO 205 

Giulio Romano, Angelo, and Raffaelle, and as the work of one private 
artistic pottery in the comparatively remote capital of a small duchy, it bears 
no slight testimony to the extraordinary development of every branch of 
art-industry in the various districts of Italy during the sixteenth century. 
They were made by order of Guidobaldo II ; but on the accession of 
Francesco Maria II, in 1574, that Duke found the financial condition of the 
duchy in so embarrassed a state that he was unable to dev^ote much 
attention to the encouragement of art. He abdicated in favour of the Holy 
See, and died in 1631. The vases of the Spezieria were presented to our 
Lady of Loreto ; his valuable art collections were removed to Florence, 
subsequently becoming the property of Ferdinand de' Medici, the husband 
of Vittoria, his granddaughter. 

On the vases of Loreto, 'the subjects are the four Evangelists (by 
B. Franco), the twelve Apostles (by O. Fontana and associates\ St. John, 
St. Paul, Susannah, and Job. The other represent incidents in the Old 
Testament, actions of the Romans, their naval battles (by B. Franco), and 
the Metamorphoses of Ovid. On eighty-five of the vases are portrayed 
the games of children, each differing from the other. These vases are 
highly prized for their beauty as well as for their variety' ; some have been 
engraved by Bartoli. A Grand Duke of Florence was so desirous of 
purchasing them, that he proposed giving in exchange a like number 
of silver vessels of equal weight ; while Christina of Sweden was known to 
say that, of all the treasures of the Santa Casa, she esteemed these the 
most. Louis XIV is reported to have offered for the four Evangelists 
and St. Paul an equal number of gold statues ^' 

While on the subject of Loreto we may allude to certain small shallow 
cups or saucers, bearing in the centre the ill-painted figure of the Lady 
of Loreto, generally on a yellow ground, and inscribed externally in capital 
letters with the abbreviated words CON • POL • DI • S • CA. One in the 
Fortnum Collection is inscribed CON • POL • ET • AQVA • DI • S • CASA, 
and bears at the back a portion of the seal of the Sanctuary'. These cups 
are said to have had mixed with the paste of which they were formed 
a portion of the dust shaken from the Virgin's dress, or swept from the 
walls of her house, which conve3-ed to them certain healing and beneficent 
qualities, and caused them to be highly prized by pilgrims to the shrine, 
to the higher class of whom they were probably presented in return for 
offerings during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They are said, 
but we know not on what authority, to have been made at Castel Durante. 

With his other art treasures, the ornamental vases and vessels of the 

' Marryat, from D. Lugio Granuzi, Relazione istorica della Santa Casa in Loreto, 1838. 



2o6 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Credenza, among which were doubtless some of the choicest productions 
of the Urbino and Pesaro furnaces made for Guidobaldo, and inherited by 
Francesco Maria, must have been in great part removed to Florence ; and 
there accordingly we find some remarkable specimens. For many years 
neglected, these noble pieces were placed almost out of observation on the 
top of cases which contained the Etruscan and other antique vases in 
the gallery of the Uffizi. When more general interest was excited on the 
subject of the Renaissance pottery, these examples were removed to another 
room, and the writer will not easily forget the pleasure he experienced, 
through the courtesy of the then Director, in an examination of them at 
that time. They now occupy central cases in one of the rooms of the 
Bargello used as a museum of art objects, and form a magnificent assemblage 
of vases, ewers, vasques, pilgrim's bottles, and other shaped pieces, dishes 
and salvers, perhaps the richest that has descended collectively to our 
days, among which may be recognized the works of all the more important 
ceramic artists of Urbino. 

Among fifty of the more important pieces is the circular dish by 
Nicola, referred to in the notice on his works. Three lobed cisterns or 
'vasques' appear to be by the artist who painted Mr. Fountaine's plate 
signed ' in botega di Guido Fontana ' (see ante), and thought to be Guido 
himself. Twenty-one are more or less decorated with grotesques on a white 
ground, having medallion or central subjects. These may be for the 
most part by that other pencil, contemporary with Orazio's, which we 
suggest may probably be Camillo's. By Orazio is a fine circular dish 
representing * Lo incendio di Troja,' and perhaps two others. An oval 
bowl is apparently by Francesco Durantino. Two pieces only show Xanto's 
brush ; and one may probably be by Lanfranco of Pesaro, subject, the 
Rape of Helen. Five pieces are perhaps by G. Picci, and the rest are 
difficult to ascribe : among these is a central fragment admirably painted 
with figures of Venus and Cupid. 

Portions of a magnificent service of the best period of Orazio Fontana's 
botega are dispersed in various collections, as also some pieces of equally 
rich quality made after the same models, but probably of another ' credenza.' 
Two of the former were exhibited at the Loan Exhibition in 1862, by 
Baron Anthony de Rothschild. They are large oval dishes, with raised 
medallion centres, and having the surface, both internally and outside, 
divided into panels by raised strapwork springing from masks, with orna- 
mental moulded borders, &c. These panels, edged with cartouche ornament, 
are painted with subjects from the Spanish romance of Amadis de Gaul, and 
on the reverse are inscriptions in that language corresponding with the panel 
illustrations. The central subject is not of the same series, but represents 



URBINO QO-J 

boys shooting at a target on one dish, and warriors fighting upon the other. 
The border is painted with admirable Urbino grotesques on a brilHant 
white ground. The size of these pieces is 2 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. 8^ in. Of 
this same service Mr. Fountaine possessed one dish, a circular plateau 
of great beauty, and two small plates, with central subjects, and border of 
grotesques on white ground. One of these is coloured in a sort of bistre 
or neutral tint of singular and rich effect. 

The reverse of these pieces is less carefully painted with dolphins 
swimming among waves, genii, &c., and on one, exhibited by the late 
Mr. Addington, are the arms of ' Inigo Avalos d'Aragon, Cardinal of 
Naples, and Marchese del Vasto,' who was created Cardinal in 1560, and 
was Archbishop of Turin from 1563 to 1564. He died in 1600. Raffaelli ^ 
gives a document dated November 8, 1565, and relating to the separation 
between Orazio Fontana and his father Guido, in which mention is made 
of two services, one being for the Duke Guido Ubaldo II, and the other for 
an order from Piedmont ^, which Orazio is bound to superintend, and on 
which he is to exercise his art. 

The Baron Lionel de Rothschild possessed two triangular salvers of 
great beauty, divided into panels by raised cartouche-work, masks, &c., and 
which may be of the same service. Sir J. C. Robinson thinks they are by 
the hand of Orazio. 

Among the specimens in the Bargello, at Florence, are dishes of similar 
character and high quality. The Louvre also possesses at least one example. 
Other fine pieces are in the British and the South Kensington Museums. 

The mould for these dishes was used at a later period to produce works 
of great inferiority in painting on the same forms. 

Grander examples of this class are two circular vasques or cisterns, 
which were exhibited, one by Mr. Barker, the other by Sir H. Hume 
Campbell, at the Loan Exhibition of 1862. The first is supported by three 
console legs with lions' feet, it is painted outside with grotesques on the 
pure white ground, and the interior is filled with a scene representing a 
Roman battle, with elephants, &c. It now belongs to Sir F. Cook. 

Mrs. H. T. Hope possessed a nearly similar piece. 

There is a large oval cistern of unusual size and great beauty in the 
Barberini Palace at Rome; the interior painted with a shipwreck, after 
Pierino del Vaga, the original drawing of which is in the Uffizi gallery 
at Florence. Grotesques, on a white ground, decorate the exterior. It is 
supported by a triton at each end, but the base has been unfortunately 
much broken. 

^ Op. cit. p. 35, note 24. ^ Vide Turin. 



2o8 ITALIAN FAINTED WARES 

A somewhat similar piece, perhaps the companion, is in the possession 
of the Rothschild family at Paris. 

The Baronne de Parpart had a trilobed vasque painted with the subject 
of the Judgement of Paris, after Raflfaelle, which sold for ;^5io at the 
dispersion of that collection. 

The shaped pieces produced at this fabrique are of the most elegant 
and quaint forms, characteristic of the taste of the ' cinque cento, 
Pilgrim's flasks, ewers, vases, sauce boats in the form of shells, fish, or crabs, 
and inkstands in great variety, all displaying excellent modelling with 
careful execution and finish, a glaze of great richness, and colour boldly 
and judiciously applied. Later, these forms were still maintained, but only 
as the medium for careless moulding and worse painting. Examples of the 
good period are rare to meet with in a perfect state. 

Mr. Fountaine's Collection at Narford was very rich in shaped pieces 
of the various periods of the fabrique. 

The Marquis d'Azeglio had a pair of candelabra, in the style of 
the 'cinque cento,' bearing the device of Guidobaldo II, which came 
from a convent near Pesaro and may be of that fabrique, and are 3 ft. 7 in. 
in height. They are now in the Basilewski Collection, and figured in 
Delange's Recueil, pi. 94. 

Among other fine examples attributed to Orazios own hand may be 
mentioned a plate in the Louvre, representing the Martyrdom of San 
Lorenzo, and another with the Triumph of Galatea. 

In the British Museum is a circular dish, admirably and most carefully 
painted with the story of Psyche, an undoubted work in Orazio's best manner. 

As with many other majolica painters, Orazio's works vary from hasty 
and comparatively inferior, to the most carefully finished and admirable 
paintings. Among the first is the plate in the British Museum, which is 
signed with his monogram ; and it may be here remarked as a curious 
circumstance that pieces signed by the painters are frequently inferior 
examples of their work. This mark is repeated on a fine dish in the 
Saracini palace at Siena, subject the Rape of the Sabines ; and on one in 
the Berlin Museum (No. K. I794\ the Muses and the daughters of Theseus 
after a design by Pierino del Vaga (see Mark No. 183). 

A curious plate is in the Salting Collection ; the whole surface covered 
by a landscape and the town of Urbino (indicated by a label), to the open 
gate of which, surmounted by a shield bearing a hon rampant argent on an 
azure field, some mounted and fully armed warriors are flying at full speed, 
their blazoned shields at their backs, a whip in the right hand ; one is dis- 
mounted, his horse is fallen. They are pursued by others equally equipped, 
three bearing an eagle displayed on their shield (Gonzaga ?). Labels bearing 



URBINO 209 

initial letters doubtless indicate the persons represented ; they are D. V. 
(Dux Urbin^ ?), D. M. (Dux Mantov^ ?). D. R. M. (?). Another label on 
a tower bears the monogram of Orazio Fontana as Mark No. 181. In the 
middle foreground is a small building, in the window of which are con- 
spicuously displayed two ranges of vases, three in each, the botega of a 
potter. The style of painting is like that on the siege of Goleta plate and 
that of S. Angelo, and may be b}' Guido or perhaps Orazio himself 

Of his signed botega pieces are a vasque in the Baron Alphonse 
de Rothschild Collection at Paris, with grotesques externally, and subject 
inside, a feast; it is inscribed ' FATO • IN • VRBINO • IN • BOTEGA • 
DI • ORAZIO • FONTANA.' 

In Mr. Barker's Collection from that of Delsette was a globular vase 
similarly signed, but omitting ' Urbino.' (Delange, pi. 84.) 

Mr. Montagu Parker possessed a pair of serpent-handled vases from 
Strawberry Hill, one of which is also similarly signed in dark blue letters 
on a light blue ground, round the pedestal ; the subject on the body of the 
piece is after Giulio Romano. 

In the Museum at Sevres is a vase, probably the pendant to 
Mr. Barker's, round the pedestal of which is written in capital letters 
ORAZIO • FONTANA. 

Another vase formerly in the collection of the Baron Sellieres, painted 
with the subject of the Triumph of Amphitrite, is more full}^ inscribed 
'FATO • IN . BOTTEGA • DI • MESTRO • ORATIO • FONTANA • 
IN -ORBINO.' 

It appears that the Fontana botega, although greatly encouraged and 
patronised, was neither founded nor maintained by the Duke Guidobaldo, 
but was created solely by the enterprise and sustained by the united 
industry of the Pellipario family. 

Orazio died on August 3, 1571. By his will he left his wife, 
Agnesina Franchetti Veneziana, 400 scudi, &c., with power to remain 
in partnership with his nephew Flaminio, with a view to the benefit 
of his only daughter, Virginia, who had married into the Giunta family 
when 3'oung. We think there is every probability that the fabrique was 
so continued, and that a numerous class having the character of the wares 
of the botega, but of inferior artistic merit and showing the general 
decadence of the period, may with probability be attributed to it. We shall 
again allude to these works. 

Camillo Fontana. 

On many of those grandiose pieces of the Fontana fabrique the 
work of another hand is seen, which differs from that of the painter 

p 



2ib ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



of Mr. Fountaine's Guido Fontana dish, as also from the acknowledged 
manner of Orazio. They are among the most decorative productions 
of the factory, large round dishes with grotesque borders on a white 
ground, shaped pieces similarly decorated, and having subjects on panels 
executed by the artist in question ; others also where the subject covers 
the whole surface of the dish. We have no clue to the name of this 
able painter, but we would venture to suggest the great probability that 
these were the work of Camillo, who is said to have been an artist only 
inferior in merit to Orazio himself. In manner they approach nearly to, 
and are difficult to distinguish from, the finer examples of the Lanfranchi 
fabrique at Pesaro ; less powerful and broad than the work of Orazio, 
and less careful in drawing than those ascribed to Guido, they approach 
the former in the blending of the colours and rich soft effect of surface, 
while a similar mode of rendering various objects, as stones, water, 
trees, &c., pervades all three, with slight individual variations. A peculiar 
elongation of the figures, and narrowing of the knee and ankle joints, is 
characteristic of this hand, as also a transparent golden hue to the flesh. 

We are almost wholly in the dark as to the clever painters of the 
grotesques on a pure white ground which so charmingly decorate many 
of the noblest productions of Orazio's furnace. The work of two or 
more hands is manifest on various pieces of the best period ; one, perhaps 
the most able, is constantly seen on pieces, the istoriati panels or interiors 
of which are painted by Orazio himself or by the artist whose works 
we have just considered, and may perhaps also have been by the hand 
of the latter, a similar method of heightening with small strokes of red 
colour being observable on both. Gironimo, by whom we have a signed 
piece in the South Kensington Museum (No. 4354, '57) may have been 
another, but his manner is of a somewhat later character. 

It has been stated that Camillo went to Ferrara, by request of the 
Duke Alfonso II d' Este, to superintend the fabrique which he had 
established or revived in that city ; but it would also seem that some 
confusion has arisen on this subject, another M'\ Camillo of Urbino having 
directed the Duke's work, and lost his life in his service. He was 
accompanied by one Giulio Durantino of Urbino, who may have been 
the painter of those pieces bearing the impresa and motto of that Duke 
[vide Ferrara). Camillo is also stated to have gone to Florence to super- 
intend the grand ducal fabrique. On his return to Urbino he married 
Margherita di Antonio Spelli, who brought him a small farm and a house. 
He died on July 9, 1605. 

Of Nicola, jun. we know nothing; he is mentioned in his father's 
wills made in 1570 and 1576: and that he was unfortunate or improvident 



U RBI NO 21 1 

would seem probable from the fact that in the deed of contract between 
Orazio and his father, on the occasion of his setting up for himself in 1565, 
he agrees to keep and provide for Domitilla and Flaminio, children of his 
brother Nicola, for the space of three 3'ears. 

Flaminio the nephew, son of Nicola, continued the works, and was 
dear to the Dukes Guidobaldo and Francesco Maria, who took him to 
Florence to teach and aid pupils studying under Bartolomeo degli Am- 
manati, and where he remained for some years. In the South Kensington 
Catalogue, under the fabrique of Caffaggiolo, are classed certain pieces; 
Nos. 321, 2, 3, p. 124, supposed to have been produced under the influence 
of this member of the family. We now have reason for assigning them 
to the Sesti botega at Pisa (vide ante, p. 138). 

The work of another, a later and inferior hand, probably of the Fontana 
fabrique, is abundant in collections ; his manner is between that of the 
Fontana and of the Patanazzi ; free and effective, but loose and careless ; 
the Fontana pigments are used, and occasionally pieces occur painted with 
greater pains. Many vases with serpent handles, and other shaped pieces, 
were painted by this hand, of whose name we have no record ; and it would 
be onl}' guessing to suggest that Guido Fontana, junior, the son of Camillo, 
who died in 1605, may have been their author. 

Francesco Xanto. 

Another important artist working at Urbino was Francesco Xanto, who, 
like Giorgio, adopted the unusual habit of signing, in various forms, the 
greater number of the pieces which he painted. Although we cannot but 
appreciate the modesty, the ' Lamp of Sacrifice,' which induced so many of 
the earlier and contemporary artists of the highest excellence, to refrain 
from attaching their names to the works of their hands, or at the most 
signing a few of their admirable productions in monogram ; we must regret 
their having used so much reserve, and that in conseqence conjecture must 
take so large a place in the history of this branch of artistic handicraft. 

We have, however, little other information of this painter beyond what 
is conveyed by the inscriptions on pieces by his hand. 

His name is mentioned by Rog. Vincenzo Vanni, on March 29, 1539, 
as ' Franciscus Xatis fictilinus vasorum pictor egregius' (Pungileoni). 
A native of Rovigo, he seems to have settled at Urbino, and there produced 
all his works. Although the signed pieces by Xanto are comparatively 
more abundant than those of any other Italian ceramic artist, it is singular 
that Passeri only records two, which, from the st3'le of their signature, he 
ascribes to ' Maestro Rovigo da Urbino.' His true name, gathered from 
his varied signatures, would appear to be ' Francesco Xanto Avelli da 

p 2 



212 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Rovigo/ and the dates of his signed works extend from T530 to 1542, 
although it is highly probable that many existing undated pieces were 
executed before, and perhaps after those dates. His earlier works are 
for the most part more fully signed, while many of the latter have only 
one or two initials. We, however, cannot agree with M. Jacquemart in 
the statement that * we never saw undoubted pieces by him with the X 
alone ' (Merveilles Ceramiques, p. 177), instancing a piece thus marked 
and dated 1548, which he thinks too late to be by Xanto. Excellent as 
a painter, he was also a poet, as confirmed by a plate in the British 
Museum, the subject of which is taken from a poem by himself, entitled 
' II Rovere Vittorioso.' \ (See Mark No. 193.) While another plate, formerly 
in Mr. Marryat's Colle\;tion, which is undoubtedly a very careful work of 
this artist, leads us to the inference that he was not himself the proprietor 
of an estabhshment, but at that period (1541) was painting in the ^ botteg 
di Francesco de Silttano' (Mark No. 205). Thisis further confirmed by the 
fact that the term * Maestro ' is not assumed by him on any of his signed 
pieces ; nor do we find his name ever connected with the Fontana fabrique, 
unless the X on the Seillieres plate be Xanto's initial (vide ante, p. 202), 
and must thence conclude that he was working in a rival establishment, 
that of Francesco Silvano, of which we know nothing more. Works by 
Xanto are to be found in almost every collection of any note, and among 
them are examples of high artistic excellence, although very many betray 
want of care and hasty execution. It appears that many of his pieces 
were subsequently enriched with the golden and ruby lustre colour, at 
the botega of M°. Giorgio, and M°. N at Gubbio ; and, indeed, it was 
mainly b}^ the observation of these, so distinctly painted and signed by 
Xanto at Urbmo, and to which the metallic reflet had been added, evidently 
by a subsequent process, that it was inferred that the lustre was a special 
enrichment applied at another fabrique to works painted elsewhere. Of 
Xanto's style and merits as an artist, Sir J. C. Robinson writes : — 

* Xanto's works may be considered to represent perfectly the " Majoliche 
istoriate," and he certainly had a talent for the arrangement of his works in 
composition, nearly all his subjects being " pasticci " ; the various figures 
or groups introduced being the invention of other artists copied with adroit 
variations over and over again, and made to do duty in the most widely 
different characters. As an original artist, if indeed he can be so con- 
sidered, he may be classed with the more mannered of the scholars of 
Raffaelle. His designs are generally from classical or mythological subjects, 
Ovid, Virgil, and Trogus Pompeius having for several successive years 
furnished him with subjects. Ariosto was likewise a favourite author, and, 
curiously enough, on a plate in the British Museum Collection, Xanto has 



URBINO 213 

put on record his own claims as a poet, in a more enduring shape than the 
written work itself. This plate is painted with a subject from a poem 
composed by Xanto in honour of Duke Francesco Maria of Urbino ; the 
subject, however, without the inscription, might just as well have been taken 
for an illustration of Ovid. Xanto's execution, although dexterous, is 
monotonous and mechanical ; his scale of colouring is crude and positive, 
full of violent oppositions ; the only merit, if merit it be, being that of 
a certain force and brightness of aspect ; in every other respect his colouring 
is commonplace, not to sa}' disagreeable even ; blue, crude opaque 3'ellow, 
and orange tints, and bright verdigris green are the dominant tints, and are 
scattered over the pieces in full unbroken masses, the 3'ellow especially 
meeting the eye at the first glance. 

* In the unsigned pieces, before 1531, the glaze is better and more trans- 
parent, the execution more delicate, and the outline more hard and black 
than in the later specimens. 

* Some of Xanto's wares are profusely enriched with metallic lustres, 
including the beautiful ruby tint ; the specimens so enriched, however, form 
but a small percentage of the entire number of his works extant. This 
class of piece is, moreover, interesting from the fact that the iridescent 
colours were obviously not of Xanto's own production, but that on the 
contrary, they were applied to his wares by M°. Giorgio, and the supposed 
continuers of Giorgio's " fabrique " in Gubbio. Many pieces are extant, 
which, in addition to Xanto's own signature, nearly always written in dark 
blue or olive tint, are likewise signed with the monogram N of the Giorgio 
school in the lustre tint ; and one specimen at least has been observed 
which, though painted by Xanto, has been signed in the lustre tint by 
Maestro Giorgio himself ^' 

We cannot entirely agree with this somewhat severe judgement upon his 
artistic merits. 

Sir J. C. Robinson thinks it not improbable that in his earlier time he 
worked in the botega of Maestro Giorgio at Gubbio, and other writers have 
considered him as a pupil of that master ; but there is little reason to 
believe that he ever applied with his own hands the lustre enrichment, the 
specialty of the Gubbio school, to the wares painted by him at Urbino. 
Among the marks will be found facsimiles of the signatures on examples of 
various date, some of them with the added monogram of the Gubbio fabrique 
in lustre colour. 

Of this last class, Mr. Napier possessed two specimens ; one, a plate 
with the subject of Apollo and Daphne * really painted by Francesco Xanto 

^ Catalogue, Loan Exhibition, p. 426. 



214 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

during his early time, the lustre tint and signature, " 1529 M". G°. i/giibw," 
having been afterwards added.' (Cat. Shandon Coll., No. 2876.) The 
other (No. 2882), representing /Eneas carrying Anchises from Troy, * after 
the engraving by Agostino Veniziano after Raffaele,' is signed and dated 
' 1532, Fra Xanto A da Rovigo i Urbino^ richly lustred with gold and rub}^, 
in which latter tint it is marked with the letter N, the supposed monogram 
of the successor of M°. Giorgio at Gubbio, 

In the British Museum is an admirable specimen, subject the Roman wolf, 
richly lustred, signed in colour by Xanto and in lustre by N. (Mark No. 194.) 

The British Museum possesses several other choice specimens, lustred, 
and simply painted. One is remarkable as representing the Fall of 
Francis I, at the battle of Pavia. 

The South Kensington Museum is not so rich in lustred works by Xanto. 

Among the numerous pieces in various hands, — 

The late Mr. Addington exhibited at the Loan Exhibition of 1862 
a beautiful pilgrim's bottle by Xanto, representing Mercury conducting 
Psyche to Olympus, after Raffaelle's fresco in the Farnesina ; and on the 
other side an allegory ; the letters F. A. R., and the date 1530, the earliest 
yet noticed, occur on two small square labels. 

In the Correr Museum at Venice is a cup dated 1530, and a piece bearing 
the same date is in the Brera at Milan (Molinier). 

Mr. Joseph exhibited in 1862 a very fine circular dish, representing 
Venus standing on a shell in the sea, with tritons, river gods, &c., partly 
after Mario da Ravenna's engraving after Raffaelle; it bears a shield of 
arms, and is signed by Xanto and dated 1533. 

The fine salver, painted with a composition of more than sixty figures 
engaged upon the attack and defence of a fortress, bemg taken from the 
print by Giorgio Pens after Giulio Romano \ dated 1529, and representing 
the taking of Carthage, has been already alluded to as the proof that Xanto 
worked at the botega of Francesco Silvano. The artist has painted from 
this design to represent another subject, that of the siege of Goleta, by 
Charles V, which happened in 1535. 'This is the more curious 
because the piece, as is evidenced by an elaborate coat-of-arms enriched 
with the collar of the Golden Fleece painted on the margin of the salver, 
was executed for a prince of the Gonzaga family, probably Federigo 
Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, in whose service Giulio Romano was at the 
time this salver was painted.'— (Robinson, Loan Catalogue, p. 436.) 

A facsimile of the inscription and signature at the back of this dish will 
be seen among the Marks No. 205. It is painted with great care, and is 

' See Bartsch, vol. viii. f. 344, No. 86, in print room, British Museum. 



PLATE XVI 




PLATE. THE BULL OF PERILLUS. ASCRIBED TO ORAZIO FONTANA 

Circa 1540 




CIRCULAR DISH. THE FLIGHT OF XERXES. SIGNED "* I537. BY FR. XANTO 



URBINO 215 



a fine intact and particularly interesting example of the master. Formerly 
in the collection of Marryat, in whose * History of Pottery and Porcelain * 
it is well figured at p. 64 ; it passed for a very inadequate sum into that of 
the Baron James de Rothschild, at Paris. It is greatly to be regretted 
that the opportunity of acquiring it for our national collections, afforded 
by the public sale of Mr. Many^at's Collection, was not made available. 

Other pieces were painted apparently for other members by marriage of 
the Gonzaga family; instance one exhibited by Mr. Barker, and described 
in the Loan Catalogue, No. 5198; and the large circular dish in the 
South Kensington Museum, No. 1748, '55, each bearing the arms of that 
family, with various impalements. 

Several pieces of a service painted by Xanto, and bearing the arms of 
the Strozzi family, are extant : as also of one bearing the shield of the Pucci, 
another Florentine family; and on many other examples the armorial 
bearings of Italian houses of various parts of the Peninsula are painted on 
the margin or the centre of the piece, proving the widespread reputation of 
this artist. 

An unusual specimen was in the collection of Mr. H. Scudamore Stan- 
hope, an allegorical subject, painted on a ground of intense black enamel, 
with groups of rolling clouds in grey ; the subject, the clouds, and even the 
background are brilliantly lustred with gold and ruby ; there is no signature 
on the reverse, which is, however, entirely covered with the usual * Maestro 
Giorgio ' lustrous scrolls. 

A carefully finished and unusual example is now in the British Museum 
from Mr. Henderson. On the bright yellow ground Vulcan is depicted 
forging arrows for Cupid, who is being restrained by Venus ; and on the 
reverse Saturn and Phcebus are represented drawn in their cars. It is 
probably one of the pieces of a puerperal ser\4ce, has no signature, but the 
date 1539. 

In the Fortnum Collection are three specimens, two of which were 
shown at the Loan Exhibition of 1862, and are described in its Catalogue 
(Nos. 5249, 5255\ (See PI. XVI.) 

The following exceptional signatures on pieces by F. Xanto are worthy 
of note : — 

A caudle cup formerly in the Narford Collection has the following 
capital letters on two labels: — 



M.A.X.X. 



M.X.A.R. 



(Mark No. 207.) A large and fine dish in the same collection is signed 
in ' bianco sopra bianco,' * Fra Xanto A. da Rovigo I Urbino,' on a label 



2i6 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



in the foreground of the subject, a stag hunt; with the Pucci arms on 
the rim. 

On a plate also then at Narford, representing the Judgement of Paris, 
is the following inscription on the reverse : — 

1531 
Per cui Troia Superba 

fu combusta 
- - fauola 

Francesco Xanto A ueUi di 
Rouigo 1 Urbino . psse 

We may here mention certain Greek and Roman characters and 
others not of any language, which Xanto has sometimes introduced 
on shields, banners, &c., in the subject. These have been frequently mis- 
taken for marks, but the writer believes that they are merely ornamental, 
or at most monograms of the owners of the pieces ; several are given in 
Chaffers and Jacquemart. 

: A considerable number of pieces has been noticed at the end of the 
titular inscriptions on which occur the words * nota,' * historia,' ' favola.' On 
placing several of these pieces together, with others by Xanto, Sir A. W. 
Franks believed that, without seeing the inscriptions on the reverse, 
he could distinguish them by their style from those signed by Xanto ; 
and as these words had never been noticed on a piece with Xante's 
signature, it was inferred that, although there was great general similarity 
in the painting, they must be the works of a pupil or an imitator. The 
plate last referred to as then in Mr. Fountaine's Collection, by Xanto, and 
one of the Strozzi service, on which the writer observed Xanto's initials 
accompanied by the word ' nota,' would, however, rather weaken the con- 
clusion arrived at, that pieces on which these words occur are never by 
Xanto, but by an imitator. They are painted quite as forcibly as those 
by Xanto, the leading peculiarity being a brown tone in the flesh tints, 
and a harder outline. The writer would, however, suggest that these 
differences may only arise from a temporary manner, and the use of 
somewhat different pigments by Xanto himself, who is proved by the 
above examples to have added the words 'favola' and 'nota' to two at 
least of his signed pieces ; and, moreover, there are some pieces inscribed 
with those words, without Xanto's initials, but which have the greatest 
resemblance in manner to his usual works>\ 

Among the Marks (Nos. 208, 9) will be found two facsimiles of signa- 
tures on pieces in the British Museum, by this supposed pupil or imitator, 
whose existence, though doubted by the writer, is not disproved by the 



U RBI NO 217 

fact that Xanto did occasionally use those words after his descriptive 
inscriptions. 

The finest example of such works with which the writer is acquainted 
is a large circular dish formerly at Narford, representing the burning of 
Troy, with the word ' historia ' on the reverse after the description of the 
subject, and no signature. 

We have no evidence to confirm Passeri's supposition that Battista 
Franco painted pieces and initialled them with the letters B . F . V . F . 
That artist was called to Urbino in 1540, by Guidobaldo II, to make 
designs for various pieces, and it has been stated that these initials were 
observed on some of the vases in the Spezieria, at Loreto. He returned 
to Venice, where he died in 1561 ; one of his cartoons for a plate is in 
the British Museum, and others are preser\'ed. 

In the Mazza Collection at Pesaro, No. 168, is a plate representing 
Cupid and other figures, which on the reverse is inscribed * Unica umana 
Battista unica 1532'; it has been supposed, without any authority, to be 
a work of Franco's. 

Of Francesco Durantino, of Urbino, we know nothing more than his 
signed works, and one of these gives rise to the question whether or not he 
ought to be ranked among the potters of Urbino, or as having a small 
establishment of his own at ' Bagnolo ' or ' Bagnara ' near Perugia. Among 
the Diruta wares will be found a piece by an inferior artist (No. 2432) in the 
South Kensington Museum signed as having been made in ' Bagnorea' in 1691. 

It may also be here mentioned that the plate of the Narford Collection 
made at Venice *in Chastello' is painted in a manner which has great 
affinity with that of Francesco Durantino. 

A plate in the British Museum representing the meeting of Coriolanus 
and his mother is signed ' fracesco durantino 1544.' (Mark No. 211.) 

In the Casa Patrizi at Venice is a vase signed * Francesco Durantino. 
1545' (Urbani de Gheltof). 

The Marquis dAzegho had a tazza which was covered by the portrait 
head of Raffaelle, on a dark blue ground ; a work which Sir J. C. Robinson 
agreed with the writer in assigning to Francesco Durantino (see Urbino 
and Bagnara) ; and knowing the high qualities of that artist, both in drawing 
and colouring, as evinced by a tazza in the British Museum and other 
pieces, we see no reason against the suggestion that he ma}^ also have 
been the painter of this exceptionally fine work. 

An oval cistern formerly in the collection at Narford Hall, painted with 
subjects after Giulio Romano, is signed * Francesco Duranno Vasaro, 
a mote Bagnolo d Peroscia 1553.' 



2i8 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Mr. Ross had a plate, subject the Flaying of Marsyas, inscribed: — 

* vilan scurrichato ma de Apollo. A mote bagnolo 1547.' 

From this it would appear that he had either established a bofega on 
his own account at probably the village now known as Bagnara, near 
Perugia, or was working there for a maestro. 

The South Kensington Museum possesses a similar cistern from the 
Soulages Collection by the same hand, but not signed. (No. 533, '65.) 

A plate, painted with great care, and approaching to the manner of 
Orazio Fontana, was in the Narford Collection. It represents the arrest 
of a gentleman, with landscape background ; it is signed on the reverse 
with the letters F . D . and the date 1543. A careful comparison with the 
signed plate in the British Museum confirms the writer in assigning this 
piece to Francesco. (Mark No. 210.) 

A tazza in the Spitzer Collection, Orpheus descending into Hell, is 
marked F . (|). D . 

A yellow tone of flesh, flowing drapery, animals, particularly horses, 
drawn with great vigour of action, a fine and delicate outline, with careful 
execution but occasional weakness of effect, and a peculiar softness of 
tone on some of the smaller and more distant figures, are characteristic 
of this artist's style ; the landscape executed with care and good effect. 
An example in the British Museum has, however, all the richness of colour 
and force of effect of the works of the Fontana. 

GuiDO Merlingo or Merlini or Nerglino seems to have been a pro- 
prietor of a botega in Urbino, although his name does not occur as the 
actual painter. 

A dish, deep blue, with the signs of the zodiac round the rim, is signed 

* Fate in botega di Guido Merlingo Vasaro da Urbino in San Polo adi 30 
di Marzio 1542.' The San Polo here mentioned is probably the suburb 
of Venice, so called, to which other signatures refer. (See Venice.) 

In the Brunswick Museum a dish representing Mark Antony is signed 
'fate in botega de Guido de Nerglino.' 

In the Louvre (G. 357) is a plate, subject Judith and Holophernes, 
signed at back ' ne 1551 fato in Botega de Guido Merlino.' 

The Rev. T. Berney had a large plate painted in the same botega 
representing a battle subject, coarsely painted, in the style of the later 
Urbino wares. To the titular description is added * fate in botega d Guido 
Merlino.' 

Caesare da Faenza worked in his fabrique about 1536, as proved by an 
agreement dated ist January in that year, in which he is styled ' Caesare 
Care Carii Faventinus ' (Pungileoni). 



U RBI NO 219 

Among other recorded names are those of— 

Federigo di Giannantonio, ) 

Ntcolo di Gabnele, Swho worked about 1530. 

Gian Maria Mariani, ) 

Simone di Antonio Mariani, about 1542, 

Luca del fu Bartolonieo, about 1544, a)id 

Guy, from Castel Durante. 

Francesco Silvano had a botega in Urbino, at which Xanto worked 
in 1541, as prov^ed by the signature on a plate representmg the storming 
of Goleta (vide Xanto). 

Georgio Picchi or Picci, the younger, of the Durantine family, painted 
at Urbino. Pieces signed by him are extant. Borders of Cupids among 
clouds and covering the surface are a favourite decoration. 

GiRONiMo OF Urbino is also one of the later artists. 

In the Berlin Museum (No. K. 1818) is a large plate painted with 
a view of the Villa d' Este at Tivoli, with gardens, &c. It is inscribed * /'/ 
sontuosiss" et ameniss" palozze e giardini di tivoli fatto in Urbino del i^yj die 
} de Augosto Gironimo d tomaso fecit! 

M. Riocreux mentions a plate with grotesques on white ground, and 
subjects in camaieu signed ' Gironimo Urbin fece 1583.' 

There is a striking piece by this artist in the South Kensington Collection 
(Mark No. 215), to which we have already referred. 

Rafaelle Ciarla worked under Orazio Fontana, and is stated to have 
gone to Spain with an assortment of vases. Could it be that he went in 
charge of the ser\dce painted by order of the Duke of Urbino for Philip II 
of Spain, at Orazio's fabrique, and on which that maestro is said to have 
worked? (Marryat.) He painted about 1530-60. 

GiuLio OF Urbino accompanied Camillo Fontana to Ferrara ; he seems 
also to have worked elsewhere. 

Vasari mentions him in connexion with the works produced at Ferrara. 

A large jug in the Museum of the University of Bologna is signed by 
this artist, ' Giulio da Urbino in bottega di M '. Alessandro in Arimin'; 
it is decorated with trophies and a subject from Ovid. 

On a large ovoid vase, one of a pair in the Castellani Collection, painted 
with figures of Justice, cupids, masks, &c , was the inscription ' Christofan- 
de-Urb.' 



220 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



The Patanazzi. 

Of the decadence of the Urbino potteries are the productions of the 
members of the Patanati or Patanazzi family. They do not appear to have 
succeeded to any of the former eminent artists as masters of a fabrique, 
but painted at the estabhshment of Joseph Batista Boccione, as we are 
informed by a signed example. Passeri only mentions them as being of 
a noble family, and as finding their names inscribed on specimens, which 
he instances. One of these is in the South Kensington Museum : a large 
dish (No. 26i2\ signed ALF . P . F . VRBINI . 1606. 

A large oval dish which belonged to J. Swaby, Esq. with raised masks 
and compartments of subject in the style of the fine pieces of the Fontana 
fabrique, but sadly deficient in their excellence of painting, has the sig- 
nature 'Alfonso Patanazzi fe. Urbini, in botega di Jos. Batista Boccione 
1607,' by which we learn that the Patanazzi were not owners of a botega. 

Another example, a large circular dish painted with the Judgement of 
Paris, and signed 'Alfonso Patanati feci,' was in the possession of Mon- 
signore Cajani, at Rome. 

M. Piot states that Alfonso also worked at Pesaro. 

The Marquis d'Azeglio had a portion of an inkstand signed ' Urbini 
Patana fecit anno 1584.' It is figured by Delange, Recueil, pi. 100. 

The initials A. P. occur on pieces attributable to his hand, and on 
a large dish in the Passalaqua Collection were the letters O. A. P. P. 1548, 
an early dated piece. 

The name spelt PAGAN UCCI was inscribed on a tazza in the Bale 
Collection, subject the Rape of Helen, after Giulio Romano. 

Alfonzo Patanazzi's style is coarse but free, the colours having a per- 
vading brown tone, the features strongly marked and the outline careless, 
but the general effect not wanting in breadth and boldness. 

In the Spitzer Collection was a pair of vases with serpent handles, 
signed on the pHnth M°. ANTONI • PATANZI • VRBINI • 1580, the only 
known example by a hitherto unrecorded member of this family. 

A large cistern was in the Fountaine Collection, having the inscription, 
' t6o8, Urbini ex figlina Francisci Patanati,' and is by another member 
of the family. (Mark No. 236.) 

The initials F. P. 1617 on a piece. No, 367 of the Delsette Collection, 
is probably of the same ; it had the bust portrait of a woman in the centre 
with surrounding trophies. 

The colours used in the Narford specimen are less brown than those 
of Alfonso, and the style of painting reveals a hand found on many 
pieces, decorated v/ith subject and grotesques, of the later period. Many 



PLATE XVII 




PLATE. ST. JOHN AT PATMOS. URBINO 
Circa \~.^ 




BASIN. BY ALKONZO PATANAZZI. URBINO 
Circa 1590 



U RBI NO 221 

plates of a service bearing the arms of a bishop of the Contarini family 
were in the Narford Collection, and probably by Francesco Patanazzi. 

The letters E. B. with two shields of arms are on a puerperal cup 
seemingly of the Patanazzi school. 

The 3'oung Vincenzio is the last whose name occurs. Passeri cites a piece 
signed by him ' Vincenzio Patanazzi da Urbino di eta d'anni tredici, 1620.' 

Another plate by this 3'outhful phenomenon was in the collection of 
Monsignore Cajani at Rome, representing the Expulsion from Paradise. 
It is a most inferior production, and not meritorious even for a 3'oung 
artist of only twelve years, as we learn by the signature. (Mark No. 237.) 

Several pieces of a service exist, painted in the careless manner of 
the decadence of the Urbino fabrique, having inscriptions on the back 
descriptive of the subjects, and written in the French language. Some 
of these were in Mr. Fountaine's Collection ; the quality of their paste 
and glaze, the tone of the colours, and the general technique of these 
plates would lead to the conclusion that they were made at Urbino or at 
Pesaro. M. Jacquemart (Merveilles de la Ceramique, pi. 2, p. 280) 
considered that they were probably made in France by some of those 
Durantine or Pesarese artists who are recorded as having emigrated to, and 
established potteries in, that country. We were inclined to think it equally 
probable that they were executed in Italy for a French order, and 
inscribed accordingly. We have a similar instance in the noble pieces 
of the best period with Spanish legends from ' Amadis de Gaul,' evidently 
works of the Orazio Fontana botega made to order for a Grandee of 
Spain. 

But the researches of M. Natalis Rondot have convinced us that in all 
likelihood these pieces were made at Lyons for the most part by artists, 
whose names he records, emigrants from Urbino, Pesaro, Genoa and else- 
where, who had established themselves in France ^. 

Several examples of various dates and by various hands are preserv^ed 
in collections on which the words 'in Urbino' only inform us of the place 
of their production, without telling us by whom, or in whose establishment 
they were made. The following are from some of them : — 

In the Narford Collection, a plate: subject, Mucius Scaevola ; signed at 
back * In Urbino IJ33' 

The Marquis d'Azeglio had a plate : subject Diana and Actaeon ; 
inscribed, ^ 1J34 Urbini! 

A plate representing the Prodigal Son, after Durer, is in the Museum of 
the University at Bologna; it is inscribed, */;/ Urbino iJ4)- 

^ Natalis Rondot, Les Potiers de terre Italiens a Lyon au seizieme siecle. 8vo, 
Lj'ons, 1892. 



T. R. F. 


1587 
tto in Urbino, 


L. V. 


Urbino. 


1533 
Urbino 


L 



222 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

In the British Museum is a plate: subject Hercules carrying off the 
columns; inscribed * Vrbi . 1542.' 

On a dish formerly in Mrs. D. M. Davidson's Collection is the curious 
inscription, ' Nel anno de le tribulationi d' Italia adi 26 de Luglio i 
Urbino' (? by Xanto): subject, a priest kneeling to St. Mark. 

Others are accompanied by initial letters. 

in Urbin Ptte F™ occurs on a plate in the Fortnum Collection : subject, 
St. Luke seated on a bull, and holding an open book. 
(Mark No. 220.) 

occurs on a vase which was in the Debruge Collection : 
the subject of the Israelites gathering Manna. 

on a fine plate, formerly in the Narford Collection. 

on a plate : subject David and Goliath ; in the Louvre 
(No. G. 315), ascribed by M. Darcel to the school of 
Xanto. 

i Urbino B on a plate : subject Hector and Achilles in the river 
Xanthus ; was in the Collection of the Rev. T. Berney. 

In the Louvre (Sauvageot Collection, G. 440) is an aiguiere formed 
of alternate convex and concave bands, with dolphin mouth and serpent 
handles, decorated with grotesques and signed ' VRBINO 1604 P.' 

Other initialled pieces, variously ascribed to this fabrique, but of which 
we have not the marks in facsimile : — 

G . M. on a plate: the baptism of Christ; supposed by M. 

Jacquemart to be the initials of Gianmaria Mariani. 

G. on a large plate, representing the Parnassus, after 

Raffaelle, with grotesques on the reverse ; Baron Gust, 
de Rothschild Collection, at Paris. 

• f • L • R • These letters are on a plate representing a lion hunt, 

richly coloured after Marc Antonio ; it was in the 
Berney Collection, and ' it has been suggested that the 
initials stand for Francesco Lanfranco Rovigense. The 
same letters, in conjunction with the signature of Maestro 
Giorgio, dated 1529, are on a plate — subject Jupiter 
and Semele, Addington Collection (Chaffers).' We would 
suggest that the second letter ma}' be an ill-formed X, and 



URBINO 223 

that * Francesco Xanto Rovigense ' may be the interpreta- 
tion, an opinion agreeing with that of Sir J. C. Robinson. 
(Loan Catalogue, No. 5240.) 

The letter S occurs on a plate in the Alphonse 
Rothschild Collection, which M. Darcel attributes to 
Urbino. 

Ojone. On a plate, No, 345, Campana Collection : subject 

Joshua commanding the Sun to stand still ; painted 
in the manner of the Fontana (Chaffers). (We cannot 
find this piece in M. Darcel's Catalogue of the Louvre 
Collection.) 

In the Delsette Collection, No. 835, was a large dish, subject Acis 
and Galatea, signed 'V R°.' 

And No. 692, a landscape plaque, signed ' Giovanni Peruzzi dipinseJ 

With the exception of the large dishes before alluded to, and some 
few others, the wares of Urbino, as a rule, are not ornamented on the 
reverse. The more usual pieces are edged with a yellow line, which is 
repeated round the foot or central hollow, in the middle of which the 
titular inscription or date is written in manganese black, dark olive, or 
blue colour. The outlines and shading are of a greenish grey tone 
var^'ing in intensity-. The paste is sometimes of a pink hue, produced by 
the colour of the clay shining through the glaze, but in other cases of 
a purer white. In the * sopra bianco' grotesques the ground is rendered 
unusually white by an additional surface of terra di Vicenza or bianco 
di Ferrara ; the glaze is of fine quality and even surface. It may be 
here noticed that the wares known of the Lanfranco fabrique at Pesaro 
have similar characteristics, and it is not possible to distinguish between 
them. 

Some wares of a better class were produced at Urbino during the last 
century ; in the South Kensington Museum is a lamp (No, 685b) made, as 
the inscription tells us, at the Fabrica de Maiolicafina which was established 
or conducted in that cit}- in 1773 by a French artist named Rolet. We 
previously hear of him at Borgo San Sepolcro in 1771. 

In the Berlin Museum (No. K. 2265) is a plaque painted with a landscape 
in the manner of Castelli ; it is marked ' Urbino 1705.' 



224 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



CITTA DI CASTE LLC. 

This site is referred to by Piccolpasso in respect to the use of certain 
earths and colours * alia Castellana' and to the application of an engobe 
and the decoration of pieces by the Sgraffio process, which he minutely 
describes. On these subjects we must refer the reader to the abstract 
of Piccolpasso's MS., and to the description of the 'Sgraffiati' or Incised 
wares. Sig. Urbani de Gheltof would infer, from those early references, 
that the Sgraffw mode of decoration was first adopted at Citta di Castello ; 
there can be no doubt that it had a high reputation for such wares. 



BORGO SAN SEPOLCRO. 

On a lamp, formed of faience of a blueish white shade, painted with 
garlands of flowers, &c., in colour, is written under the foot, ' Citta Borgo 
S. Sepolcro a 6 Febraio 1771. Mart. Roletus fecit.' This French painter 
on faience worked also at Urbino, and like the members of the Terchi 
family seems to have been of a roving disposition. 



SAN QUIRICO UORCIA. 

Cardinal Flavio Chigi established a work here about 1714, inspired 
with the idea of reviving the art of painting on faience. It was 
directed by Piergentili, a painter who had given some study to the 
celebrated vases by Orazio Fontana. On his death Bartolomeo Terchi, 
Feschi, or Ferchi, seems to have worked at, or directed, the establishment, 
for in the Louvre (Campana Collection, No. G. 601) is a plaque representing 
Moses striking the rock, and signed * Bar Terchi Romano in S. Quirico.' 
We shall meet with this wandering artist again at Bassano. With other 
members of his family he seems to have worked at various potteries 
throughout Italy, and examples occur on which his or their signatures 
appear, only accompanied by the patronymic ' Romano' and which are 
of course difficult to assign to any one of the fabriques at which we know 
them to have u'orked. Some large vases in the Berlin Museum, partly 



CITTA DI CASTELLO, ETC. 225 

enamelled and painted, partly terra cotta biscuit, gilt, are signed * Bar Teschi 
Romatio' evidently an error, or arising from the running of the letter r 
in the firing. Another variety, omitting the concluding letters of the name, 
is on a plaque which also may have been painted at Siena or San Quirico 
(Mark No. 246). 

'Et-rU.eyc 

Ferdinando Maria Campani. before going to Siena, worked also at this 
fabrique ; its productions were not sold, but given as presents by the 
Cardinal. 



CHAPTER III 



STATES OF THE CHURCH 



DIRUTA. 



WE have very little positive information in respect to this fabrique. 
Alluded to by Passeri as a pottery near Foligno, where pieces 
were produced remarkable for the whiteness of the paste, we are led 
to the supposition that he may have confounded the wares produced 
at other neighbouring localities with those made at Diruta ; neither does 
he inform us whether it produced lustred wares, or only those of 
polychrome decoration. A few years since certain plates came under the 
notice of collectors inscribed ' In Deruta,' the subjects painted in blue 
outline, and lustred with a brassy golden colour. Doubt and uncertainty 
had long existed as to the spot where the large bacili, and other pieces 
of a well-known and abundant ware, lustred with a golden pigment of 
peculiarly pearly effect in certain lights, had been produced, and the 
discovery of these signed examples, having a somewhat similar metallic 
enrichment, caused connoisseurs to grasp at the, perhaps hasty, con- 
clusion, that to Diruta must be assigned all such wares of early date and 
hitherto unknown locality, and that Diruta must have possessed a pottery 
at a very early time and of an important character. 

The statement made without quoted authority by Passeri, that these 
well-known bacili, enriched with madreperla, as also some of gold and ruby 
lustre, were the produce of Pesaro, and his assertion in support of this 
that many of them bore portraits and armorial insignia of noble Pesarese 
of the latter half of the fifteenth century, was negatived, it was thought, by 
the discovery of these signed examples. 

As in the case of Caffaggiolo, when pieces became known among col- 



D I RUT A 227 

lectors on which the name of that then forgotten Castello was inscribed, 
in the excitement at their first discovery, and from their approximation in 
general character, we were led to ascribe many pieces to Caffaggiolo that 
really had been made at Faenza. 

So with Diruta, plates and tazze became known in collections, some 
lustred, some only polychrome, none of the former of earlier date than 1544, 
nor of the latter than 1535, and bearing the name of that horgo. Confirma- 
tion of the existence of such potteries was also afforded by the statements 
of Passeri and of Piccolpasso who tells us that they had been worked from 
early time. Local evidence of the former existence of these works was 
first made known by the late M. Eugene Piot, ' cet amateur si delicat, qui 
doublait un marchand des plus habiles ' — to use the words of the late 
M. Alfred Darcel. In the course of one of his collecting tours in Italy, M. Piot 
visited Diruta, and happening to arrive at a time when some roadway was 
being made or altered, the rubbish heaps of the old potteries were 
disturbed, revealing fragments of the wares there formerly produced, 
which led him to the conclusion that Diruta was the spot whence all the 
early lustred wares had emanated. In their enthusiasm at this discovery 
M. Piot and some other learned French wTiters on Italian faience at once 
adopted the somewhat hasty conclusion that all the early lustred wares, 
including those bacili with madreperla which, mainly on the statement of 
Passeri, had hitherto been ascribed to the potteries of Pesaro, were the 
production of Diruta and of nowhere else. More recently M. Emile 
Molinier, for whose opinion as for that of M. Piot we have the highest 
respect, visited the site of those ancient potteries, confirming M. Piot's 
statement as to the existence of fragments of early lustrous wares, others 
of which he discovered and brought away. 

Upon the evidence of these fragments M. Molinier joins in the opinion 
adverse to Passeri's statement that the early lustred bacili were made at 
or in the neighbourhood of Pesaro, declaring his disbelief that lustred wares 
were ever produced at that locality. But as we have documentary con- 
firmation of Passeri's assertion that important potteries existed at Pesaro 
in early times, and as his statement of the excellence of the wares pro- 
duced at the Lanfranco botega in the sixteenth century is fully confirmed by 
the signed and dated piece now in the British Museum, the comparison 
of which with the Stowe vase and other fine specimens reveals their 
origin, we think we ought to hesitate before arriving at such strong negation 
of Passeri's statement that those lustrous wares were also made at Pesaro. 
It is precisely this material evidence which chance afforded to M. Piot 
at Diruta, and which local opportunity assiduously and critically applied 
afforded to Professor Argnani at Faenza, that should be sought for at 

Q ^ 



228 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES. 

' Le Gabice' a distance of some six miles from Pesaro, and at other sites of 
potteries in and about that city, before the too sweeping sentence is 
passed that none of the early lustred bacili were there produced, and that 
Passeri's assertion is without foundation. To quote from one of M. Emile 
Molinier s later works : * Qui sait quelles decouvertes nous reserve 
le sol de I'ltalie ; le jour ou Ton voudra faire quelques fouilles sur 
I'emplacement des villes qui ont ete des centres importants de production 
ceramique, ce jour-la on en apprendra certainement tres long sur la faience 
italienne.' 

The fragments brought by M. MoHnier from the Diruta rubbish heaps, 
which he kindly permitted us to examine, certainly confirm his and 
M. Plot's opinion, that many of the early bacili with lustrous surface were 
the produce of those potteries. Some are precisely of that w^ell-known 
character with yellow backs and pearly lustrous faces ; others more 
distinctly of the type of those brassy lustred wares which have always been 
assigned to Diruta ; but still more remarkable are some pieces, in every 
respect agreeing with the Hispano-Moresque wares of Valencia, and thus 
giving rise to the question as to whether some such, accepted as of Spanish 
production, may not have been the workmanship of Moorish potters who 
had emigrated to Italy, seeking work and perhaps introducing the art 
of lustrous surfacing to the potteries of Diruta and of Pesaro. 

It has been suggested^ that as Agostino di Antonio di Duccio, the 
pupil of Luca della Robbia, went to Perugia, and there executed a work 
in enamelled terra-cotta on the fa9ade of the church of S. Bernardino 
in the year 1461, it may be considered probable that he established this 
fabrique in the neighbourhood, and that its productions must have been of 
a highly artistic character (Jacquemart). The only known pieces inscribed 
with the name are, however, by no means of such high merit when 
compared with the productions of other furnaces, and the earliest date 
^s ^535- But of anterior production and much finer quality are those un- 
signed pieces which, differing materially in character from the known wares 
of Gubbio, are with every probability ascribed to the Dirutan furnaces. 

Castel di Diruta or Deruta is a borgo or dependency of Perugia, in 
what were the States of the Church, on the road from that city to Orvieto, 
by Todi. It is but a few miles from Perugia, within an easy day's journey 
of Gubbio ; and although we are now assured that potteries existed there 
from an early period, of the wares they produced we know nothing but 
some few fragments. It is not improbable, as is stated, that Agostino di 
Duccio may have availed himself of them in preparing his work for San 

■ ' V. Lazari, Notizia dclla raccolta Corrcr, p. 59. 



DIRUTA 229 

Bernardino, and have given useful instruction in respect to the stanniferous 
glaze. 

The mode of apphcation of this metalHc enrichment appears to have 
been Httle known in Tuscany, and certainly never practised at the furnaces 
of the Delia Robbia family. Passeri's assertion, although not proved by 
positive documentary evidence, or the existence of signed and dated 
examples, is we think worthy of acceptance, perhaps under pro es and 
awaiting further research, that the use of the metallic lustre, probably 
derived from Moorish potters and adopted at Pesaro and Diruta, was com- 
municated to Gubbio, its subsequent great centre. 

It is extremely difficult in many instances to decide with any degree 
of certainty, as to whether some individual early specimens of the lustred 
ware alluded to above be of Pesaro, of Gubbio, or of Diruta workmanship ; 
the similarity of the process necessary to these productions entails a cor- 
responding similarity of result, but we notice generally a somewhat coarser 
grounding, a golden reflet of a brassy character, a ruby, when it (rarely) 
occurs, of pale dull quality, looser outlines of a colder and heavier blue ; 
and in the pieces not lustred, the same tones of colour, a dark blue 
approaching to that of Cafifaggiolo in depth but wanting its brilliancy, the 
use of a bright yellow to heighten the figures in grotesques, &c., in imitation 
of the golden lustre, and a thin green. The drawing is frequently of an 
inferior stamp, and a certain tout ensemble per\'ades the pieces difficult to 
define, but more or less prevailing. 

The first documentary^ evidence of the Diruta potteries we owe to the 
investigations by Professor Adamo Rossi and the Count Conestabile 
among the archives of Perugia. These were published in the Giornale di 
erudizione artistica at Perugia in 1872, the same year in which the 
Catalogue of the Maiolica, &c., in the South Kensington Museum was 
published, but too late for the results of their researches to be included in 
the latter work. Subsequently M. Charles Casati included them in his 
Notice sur les Faiences de Diruta, Paris 1874. Eight records are referred 
to giving the names of potters working at Diruta. The first is of March 19. 
1387, an Act by the notary Francesco de Angeluccio by which Giovanni 
di Andrea Ventnrella acknowledges to have receiv^ed, from the vase 
makers of Diruta, the sum of six livres for expenses at the procession 
of S. Ercolano. 

The second is an Act of Constitution, written in the vulgar dialect, of 
a society for the making of vases at Diruta ; and is dated Oct. 20, 1475. ^^ 
is between Agnolo and Michalagnolo di Annibale on one part and Pietro 
Cristofano and Giapocho di Francesco detto Franciuolo, vasari, of Diruta and 
the Comte di Perugia on the other part, ' di fare una arte di vasa' at the 



230 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES. 

furnaces of the said Michalagnolo situate at Montenero in the district of 
Diruta on the other side of the Tiber towards Perugia, &c. E ancho 
promecie el dido Agnolo et obligase dc pagare nel principio de dicta compagnia 
tutti li denare che bisogtteranno per piombo, stagno, terra ghreta, zaffora e 
generalmente per tucti li colori oportuni e che bisogneranno in lo paese nostra 
a la dicta arte et ancho per lo cocime. 

From this we learn that tin for the stanniferous enamel was in use 
there in the year 1475. 

They further agree to bring to, or erect, all necessary mills and 
instruments requisite for carrying on the work at the premises of the said 
Michalagnolo. 

Also, in regard to the sale of their produce at fairs, &c., and the expenses 
attending thereon, &c. 

The third document dated Oct, 9, 1488, is a contract for the sale by Cecco 
di Bartolomeo, detto del Bianco and Bernardino di Matteo detto Bellomo to 
a merchant of Perugia of ' tres salmas laborerii subtilis terre code de quo 
laborerio ipsi laborant et sunt magistri.'' By the notary Tancio di Nicold. 

The fourth document in the Perugian Communal archives grants the 
rights of citizenship of Perugia to an artist of Faenza who wishes to 
establish himself at Diruta, one Lazzaro di Battista di Faenza ' qui fuit et 
est vasarius et artem vasariorum exercuit et exercitare intendit et vemt ad 
habitandum in castro Diriiti.' Jan. 21, 151 1. 

The fifth is an Act of the Papal Government, a rescript from the 
Cardinal San Vitale, Legate for Umbria, and is dated March 31, 1513. It is 
in the communal archives of Diruta, dispensing the inhabitants thereof 
from payment of certain fees, contributions, &c., in regard to the market held 
at Diruta on Wednesday of every week, and because * istic ea figulina 
exercetur quae in bona jam Italic parte nota est et habetur in precio! And this 
because the inhabitants need encouragement from the State, their country 
being unhealthy and exposed to depredations. 

The sixth is a contract passed under the hands of Maestro Ercolano 
di Francesco, notary, dated Jan. 24, 1521, by which the Prior and con- 
fraternity of San Antonio di Diruta engage to furnish every year to the 
rector of the church of S. Antonio at Perugia ^ otto scudelle, otto piatelletti 
otto tondi ed otto scudellini col segno del tau, e depinti con le armi in azzuro di 
esso rettore! 

The seventh document is a decision by the Vice-Legate of Perugia, 
Monsignore Michele de' Torri, dated Jan. 19, 1554, upon a difficulty arising 
between the colleggio dei vasai of Perugia and one Fieragostino, a maker of 
jaience at Diruta, ^ftgulinam exercentem Diruti! 

The eighth and last of the documents brought to light by Professor 



D I RUT A 231 

Adamo Rossi is dated Jan. 18, 1588, by which we find that the Cardinal 
Gaetano, on a protest from the Comune of Diruta, deprives Cesare di 
Alexandro di Christoforo di Diruta of the privilege which he had accorded 
him, to gather throughout the province of Umbria fragments of broken 
glass and bottles, for use in the fabrication of faience. 

These documents afford us two facts in respect to the Diruta potteries, 
viz., (i) That there were potteries, we know not for what character of wares, 
established there as early as the eighth decade of the fourteenth century, 
1387. (2) That the use of tin, doubtless for the production of the stanni- 
ferous enamel, was known and practised at Diruta (or, there then intro- 
duced?), in the last quarter of the fifteenth centurj^, 1475. ^^ learn 
nothing of the lustring process, nor do any preparations of copper or 
silver appear in the list of ' // colori' named in this last deed. 

A more direct piece of evidence is furnished b}' a passage in the 
Descrittione di tutta Italia by Leandro Alberti (ed. Venezia, 1553, fo. 85 
verso), in which we read * Sono niolti noniafi i vasi di terra cotta quivt fatti 
per esser talmetite lavorati che paiono doraii. Et anclie tanto sotttlmente sono 
condotti che iufino ad hora non si ritrova alcitn' artefice neW Italia che se li 
possa agguagliare, benche assai sovente habbiauio isperimentato et tentato di Jar 
simile. Sono dimandati questi vasi di Majorica per che primieramente fii 
ritrovata quest' arte nel isola de Majorca et quivi portata ^ '. 

We must bear m mind, however, that this was written in the advanced 
sixteenth century, when the art, particularly as regards the use of the lustre 
enrichment, was in its decadence. It is also remarkable that Alberti makes 
no allusion to the glories of Gubbio, the resplendent works of Maestro 
Giorgio ; but less so that he does not refer to the lustred wares of Pesaro, 
seeing that their production had probably ceased some half a century 
before he wrote. 

We take this extract from Alberti to be of less value in support of the 
claims of Diruta, than the letter from Pope Sextus IV in 1474 thanking 
Costanzo Sforza for a present of earthen vases sent by that Lord of Pesaro, 
and prized as gold or silver ; and that from Lorenzo il Magnifico to 
Malatesta, thanking him for a similar present of wares, doubtless made at 
Pesaro (vide p. 145), and which 'being quite novelties in these parts' 
must have had some such special characteristic. 

The earliest dated piece known to us was in the Castellani Collection — 
a votive plaque, two women seated on a bed, four persons kneeling around ; 
a figure of the Madonna in the sky : below is the date 1505, and inscribed 

' Quoted by Labarte in his Histoire des Arts industriels, and again by M. Emile 
Molinicr, Les Majoliques Italiennes en Italie. 



232 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES. 

round avendo • lo • iobe • doe • amalate • in • chasa • merecommandae • 

AQVISTA • GLORIOSA • VER • MARIA • EF • SAO • (sce Mark 247), 

A plate with sphinx on dark blue ground, signed ^fatta in diruta 1525,' 
is in Mr. Salting's Collection. 

In the Fountaine Collection was a tazza, grotesques a candeliere on 
blue ground, inscribed ' i^-^^,fatta in Diriita '; figured in Delange's Recueil, 
pi. 40. M. Jacquemart refers to a tazza then in the collection of the 
Countess de Cambis, since in that of Spitzer, subject Cupid and Apollo, 
in pale and crude colours, signed * Francesco Urbini, i Diruta^ 1537.' 

The exceptionally excellent pieces assigned with probability to Diruta 
are, a tazza in the Louvre, having the helmeted head of Roma in profile, 
after G. B, del Porto, outlined and shaded in blue, and lustred with a brassy 
gold, and another in the Hotel Cluny, with the subject of Diana and Actaeon, 
admirably drawn in similar colour, and similarly enriched, perhaps by the 
same unknown artist. It has at the back the mark No. 252. 

In the Basilewski Collection was a fine plate, grotesques in blue on gold 
ground. It is figured in Delange's Recueil, pi. 44. 

Mr. Fountaine had a fine fondino, having the portrait of a lady in the 
sunk centre, outlined and shaded blue, with light golden lustre on a dark 
blue ground. 

In the British Museum, from the collection of the late Mr, Henderson, 
are two plates, grotesques in blue on the white ground, and without metallic 
enrichment, for which enrichment they may have been intended. 

The works of * El Frate,' of whose name or order we are not informed, 
are the most numerous signed pieces of the Diruta fabrique which have 
descended to us. They date from 1541 to 1545. His style is generally 
loose and inaccurate, the design traced in brown or blue, a brassy golden 
reflet, the enamel dull, and in all respects inferior to the painting of the 
Louvre, the Cluny, and other earlier and finer plates referred to above. 

In the Pourtales Collection was a plate with subject from Ovid's 
Metamorphoses, lustred and signed ^ El Frtr i Deruta pt 1541.' 

In the Louvre, No. G. 575, is another; subject, the birth of Adonis, also 
lustred and by the same hand, with the date 1542. 

Mdme la Baronne Salomon de Rothschild had one, Apollo pursuing 
Daphne ; signed ' F'ebo Dafene in Deritfa, 1544/ with a large letter P in 
lustre colour. (Mark No. 254.) 

In the church of S. Pietro at Perugia the sacristy is paved with tiles 
painted on brick-red ground and dark blue border, foliated scroll work, &c. 
It is dated 1563 and is probably of Diruta ^ 

Mr. Barker had a fine specimen, engraved in Delange's Recueil, pi. 45, 
' Molinier, Majoliques Italicnncs en Italic. 



D I RUT A 233 

the subject Alexander and Roxana, painted in blue, and with a rich golden 
reflet ; it is signed ' denitafe el f rati pause' (Mark No. 255.) It was in the 
Delsette Collection, and in 1870 in that of M. Dutuit of Rome. 

Signore Rafaelle de Minicis of Fermo, had a plate inscribed ' di parlamto 
di corvo e dlla cornice i druta el frafe pensi , 1545.' 

In the Louvre is a plate (No. 576, Campana), subject from the Orlando 
Furioso, Rodomonte carrying off Isabella, * 1545 in denita f rate fecit.' (Mark 
No. 258.) Another in the same Museum, No. 582, has a similar signature. 

One in the Salting from the Spitzer Collection was similarly dated and 
signed ^ el frate pinsi' 

M. Basilewski, of Paris, had one of the finest pieces with which we are 
acquainted. We recollect it in the collection of Monsignore Cajani, at 
Rome. It is a large dish the whole surface of which is covered with the sub- 
ject of Santa Cecilia, after Raffaelle, richly lustred with the golden pigment 
so characteristic of the Diruta wares. On the reverse is a mark consisting 
of a large letter F crossed with a florid paraph, and surmounted by a -r^ 

This may probably also be the work of the Frate, and the mark may so 
signify; the drawing is somewhat careful, but the colouring weak. 

In the Louvre, probably by another hand and without metallic lustre 
(No. G. 582, Campana), is a plate, subject a Roman triumph. On a pedestal 
is inscribed the name ' Ant. Lafreri,' after whose engraving it is painted ; 
on the reverse, 'y>/ deruta — 554.' 

M. Jacquemart ascribes all the vases formed as pine cones to the earlier 
period of this fabrique, but we cannot entirely agree in that general conclusion. 

He is probably more correct in assigning to it those pieces with 
grotesques in rilievo, outlined with blue and lustred with pale gold, of 
which No. 1804 in the South Kensington Museum is an example. The 
finest piece of this type with which we are acquainted is a large plate in the 
British Museum, having for central subject Mucins Scaevola, painted in 
blue outline ; raised grotesques and gadroons outlined and grounded in blue 
fill the outer border, and the whole is richly lustred in gold. 

The Louvre also possesses two good examples, and in the Museum at 
Arezzo is a rihevo of the Adoration of the Magi, probably of this fabrique 
but having great affinity to the works of M°. Prestino, from which it is 
difficult to distinguish some of these pieces. In the Visconti Collection was 
a plate, with central female portrait and the letter S on blue ground, the 
border of grotesques in rilievo on grey. 

On a plate, having the bust of a heroine, border imbrications and branches 
of fruit a reflet, inscribed RATIO • PO • perhaps of Diruta or Gubbio ; 
in the collection of Sig. A. Castellani, who suggested that it might be by 
Orazio Ponipci who from Castel Durante went to the Abruzzi. 



234 ITALIAN FAINTED WARES. 

The letter D, with a paraph, occurs on painted pieces, mostly of inferior 
artistic quality; such is No. 4342 in the South Kensington Museum. We 
have also noticed it on pharmacy vases and on a plate formerly in the 
possession of the late Mrs. Bury Palliser, with subject from the Orlando 
Furioso, La morte de Zerbino (Mark No. 256). 

In the Louvre is a plateau (G. 573), which M. Darcel ascribes to the 
earlier period of the fabrique, but which we should think of later date, 
having central medallion with profile bust of a female, and surrounded by 
rayed and other ornament of somewhat oriental style, not lustred but painted 
in pale green, orange yellow, &c., on the reverse of which is the letter S with 
a paraph (Mark No. 259). 

The letters C • B occur on a dish ascribed to this fabrique on uncertain 
authority and painted with the arms of Montefeltro. It belonged to Count 
Nieuwekerke (Chaffers). 

The letters C • V ' The initials probably of Giorgio Vasajo whose name 
occurs on a piece which belonged to Count Baglioniof Perugia' (Chaffers). 

M. Jacquemart quotes a piece of the last century, a plateau painted with 
grey-blue flowers in white reserves on a ' chamois ' ground, and inscribed 
in the centre, * i^j^i fabrica di Majolica fina di Gregorio Caselli in Deruta.' 

The plaque which is the main object of M. Casati's pamphlet, and of 
which he gives a coloured representation, measures forty centimetres high 
by thirty wide, is entirely covered, except the narrow inscribed edging, with 
the head and neck of a young woman looking upwards as in adoration ; it is 
painted on an ochreous yellow ground and shaded in the same colour, the dark 
rolling locks of hair and the portion of bluish-grey dress alone affording the 
relief. It is much in the manner of and perhaps painted after a design by 
Guido. On the pale green edging is inscribed ' petrvs • pavlvs • mancinvs • 

DE • DIRVTA • FECIT • HOC • OPVS • AD • SVI • VSVM • ETC 163O.' 

It is perhaps by an amateur artistic hand, and probably a devotional 
tablet representing the Magdalen or some female saint. 

Among pieces ascribed to Diruta in the South Kensington Museum the 
following are worthy of note : 

No. 6665. A bacile of the old form and manner with subject centre, a man 
washing the head of an ass seated in a chair, inscribed ' Chi lava il capo 
a Pasino se perd' o iyj6, border a quartiere of scale work and foliation, 
yellow lustre. It is remarkable as a late reproduction of the bacile of 
the early years of that century. 
No, 2541. An early bacile, not lustred, having the Virgin and angels in 
centre and the letters M- G. surmounted by an orb on the border; 
seemingly not enamelled. 
No. J571. Baciiio. Dance of cupids, after Marc' Antonio. 



BAG NO RE A 235 



No. 4378. Tagliere. A candeliere; grotesque birds, &c., on varied ground ; 

dated 1544 (Mark No 27o\ 
No. 4332. Fruttiera. A lover and his mistress ; marked and dated 1539. 

(Mark No. 268.) 
Nos. 7144 and 7155- Late pieces of inferior quality, circa 1650, mainly 
interesting from the titular inscription on the first, and * Fecit in Tera 
Diriite! 
In the later years of the last century an establishment was opened for 
making enamelled wares by Gregorio Caselli. A plate in the possession of 
M. Gasnault at Paris, with flowers, &c., painted in blue, had at the back * 1771. 
Fabrica di Maiolicaftna di Gregorio Caselli in Diruta! 

BAGNOREA. 
{Bagnolo or Bagnara.) 

No mention is made of a fabrique at this spot by any of the writers on 
the subject, but it becomes a question whether one of considerable merit did 
not exist there, and perhaps under the direction of Francesco Durantino. 
The works of that artist have always been classed among the productions of 
Urbino, nor have we ventured to separate them from that group ; but we 
think it probable that he was at some period of his life the ' Maestro' of 
a pottery at Bagnara, and it is not unlikely that the pieces recognized as his 
were painted there. We ground this opinion on the inscription of the 
oval cistern formerly in the Narford Collection, which reads, ' Francesco 
DuraWw, Vasaro. A mote Bagnolo d' Peroscia 1553,' and which appears to 
us strong evidence that he was then the proprietor of a botega at that spot. 
The companion cistern is in the South Kensington Museum. On the other 
hand, we have no record of a piece signed by him as being painted in Urbino. 
This ' Mote Bagnolo ' is probably the same as the Bagnara of the present 
day, a small castello or village to the left of the road leading from Perugia to 
Citta della Pieve. In further evidence of the existence of a pottery at this 
place at a later period, we have in the South Kensington Museum a large 
circular dish (No. 2432) inscribed at the back, ' lo Silvestro Daglt Otrinci Da 
Deruta. Fatto in Bagniorea 1691 ' (Mark No. 272). 

To avoid inconvenience we have allowed the works of Francesco 
Durantino to remain among the Urbino wares, to which the reader is 
referred. 



236 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES. 



FABRIANO. 

The discovery of a fine work, signed with the artist's monogram, 
the date 1527, and the place at which it was painted, is all we know of the 
existence of a botega at Fabriano. There can be little doubt that many- 
such local and individual furnaces existed during the sixteenth century, 
under the direction of ceramic artists in many instances emigrant from 
one of the more important centres, encouraged by the patronage of the 
leading families to set up for himself at another locality. This plate, 
which has for subject the ' Madonna della Scala,' after Marc' Antonio's 
engraving from Raffaelle, is cleverly painted ; on its reverse is the 
inscription, of which we give a facsimile (Mark No. 273). It was 
exhibited by M. Spitzer, of Paris, at the ' Exposition Universelle,' was 
purchased from him by Sig. Alessandro Castellani, and subsequently sold 
by public auction at Christie's on May 12, 1871, for £ii'\, M. Basilewski 
being the purchaser. Another example by the same hand and with the 
same subject, but without signature, was sold at the same time. 

In the Museum of Economic Geology in London is a plate of the same 
botega having for subject round the border the Rape of Proserpine with 
Cupid in the centre. It is painted in grisaille, the sky warmed with touches 
of 3^ellow, and is ably executed. This fabrique not being then known, 
it was ascribed to that of Urbino, but the monogram on the reverse, 
exactly corresponding with that on the signed Fabriano piece, proves it 
to be of the same origin (Mark No. 274). 

The tazza No. 7r45. '60 in the South Kensington Museum, on which 
there is a curious monogram (Mark No. 275), and which we doubtingly 
classed among the Urbino wares, may possibly be a work of this fabrique, 
and we have therefore included it. 

In the Berlin Museum (No. K. 1751) is a dish with Cupid and a boy 
in the centre, and border of grotesques ; on the reverse, scale pattern and 
the mark (No. 274). It is entered as of Siena, but the mark would seem 
to claim it for Fabriano. 

Marcoaldi' informs us that in the statutes of Fabriano the Ars vasarioriini 
is recorded in 1415, and again in 1435, the capitanei vasariorum Meo 
Marchetti and Francesco luliani are named. 

The pieces above referred to show that in 1527 artistic work was there 
produced. 

From that time to the present century we hear nothing of her potteries ; 

' Cav. Oreste Marcoaldi, Guida e Statistica della Citta e Comunc di F'abriano, 
vol. i. p. 116. 



FABRIANO — FOLIGNO — SPELLO—LA FRATTA 237 

but it seems that in 1834 Cav. Antonio Ronca set up a fabrique for 
enamelled wares in the old convent of the Cappucini, which he made over 
to Raffaele Marnti in 1844, under whose management it prospered. The 
produce was so highly approved by the Court of Rome that he received 
a gold medal from Pope Gregor3'' XVI. His successors were Rinaldo 
Migliani and Cesare his son, to whom he sold the business. Reproduc- 
tions of lustred wares after the manner of Gubbio, and sgraffiati pieces with 
foliated reliefs, stecchetti after the manner of Montelupo, were successfully 
produced, and the mechanical plant of the pottery greatly improved. In 
1867 Saute and Vitaliano Monti opened another fabrique. There are also 
other potteries for the production of ordinary stoviglie (Urbani). 

FOLIGNO. 

We have no means of recognizing the pieces made at this fabrique, 
which is onl}' known to have existed from the statement in Piccolpasso's 
MS., that the 'terra di Vicenza ' was there made use of, doubtless as slip ; 
he also gives a drawing of a mill used at that place for grinding the colours, 
and some receipts for their composition. He particularly refers to the blue 
pigment, the ' color di Foiigno! 

SPELLO. 

Of the pottery of this place we know nothing. Piccolpasso mentions the 
locality in connexion with a fir.er quality of light-coloured earth from its 
neighbourhood. 

LA FRATTA. 

Between Perugia and Citta di Castello is supposed by some writers 
to be the locality at which the sgraffiati or incised wares were produced, 
all of which they have indiscriminately assigned to that place. There is 
no doubt that this incised ornamentation was in use here, as at other 
places, from a very early period, it being in fact a primitive mode of 
decoration. Sabelli in his Guida sicura dell viaggio in Italia, Ginevra 
1680, names Fratta as a fabrique of Maiolica, but he does not state of what 
character. The incised wares were continued even during the seventeenth 
century, and the earlier style of ornamentation was maintained. Red glazed 
wares and incised pieces are still produced in the neighbourhood. Of the 
works in sgraffio we have treated in a separate division, to which we 
refer for description of examples, &c. 



238 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES. 



VITERBO. 

The potter's art must have been exercised at Viterbo probably from 
antique times, for in documents as early as 125 1 we find that exception 
was made in their favour, only on those nights when they were baking 
their wares, by permitting them to go to and from their houses and furnaces 
after the sounding of the bell by which all citizens were warned to retire 
indoors under heavy fine for disobedience. 

Regulations also existed as to the forms in which vases were to be made 
in accordance with ancient custom, which proves the existence of potteries 
from a much earlier time. 

Doubtless the wares produced were but of ordinary kind for domestic 
use, as we find no community {arte) of potters mentioned, although they 
had a church — that of ' S. Nicola delle Vascella ' or dei Vascellari — which 
was demolished in the seventeenth century. There are two painted tile 
pavements in churches at Viterbo, one signed with the name of ' Paolo di 
Nicolb pittore' ; but Sig. Urbani de Gheltof, from whom we derive these 
particulars, thinks they may be Faentine, rather than the production of 
Viterbo. 

Whatever it may have been in earlier times, this pottery is not recorded 
by any other writer, but an inferior plateau in the South Kensington 
Museum, inscribed with the name of the city, and with that of DIOMEO, 
who was perhaps the painter of the piece in 1544, proves its production 
(Mark No. 277). 

In the Barberini Palace at Rome is a plate on which the figure of 
Hercules in repose is painted, and which bears the inscription I • F • R • 
VITERBIEN • on a band encircling the central subject. ' It appears to be 
of the sixteenth century ' (?). The border is of arabesques of yellow tone. 
A fracture of the glaze has destroyed some portion of the inscription. 
(De Mely.) 

LORE TO 

Is named in connexion with the set of spezieria vases of the fabrique 
of Orazio Fontana, which were presented to the shrine of Our Lady of 
Loreto by Francesco Maria II, the last Duke of Urbino, on his abdication 
in favour of the Holy See. They are described in our notice on Urbino. 
It was the habit to collect the dust gathered from the walls of the Santa 
Casa and the dress of the Virgin ; of this, mixed in small quantities with the 
potter's clay, cups or bowls were formed, and painted with figures of the 
Virgin and Child, generally on a yellow ground. These cups were inscribed 



J V TERBO — L ORETO — R OME 239 

outside CON • POL • DI • S • CASA (with dust of the Holy House). 
Occasionally, it would seem that holy water from the shrine was sprinkled 
on the dust, thereby to impart a still greater sanctit}-. A cup in the 
Ashmolean Museum (Fortnum Collection) is inscribed CON • POL • 
ET • AQVA • DI • S • CASA (with dust and water of the Holy House). 
These cups were probabl}- presented as marks of favour to pilgrims who 
had visited, and probably enriched the sanctuary. 

Sig. Giuseppe Raffaelli believes that they were made at Castel Durante, 
for the establishment at Loreto. The seal of the convent was affixed to 
them in red wax. 

ROME. 

When writing the introductory notice to this section for the Catalogue 
of maiolica in the South Kensington Museum, we could adduce no 
record of the production of artistic faience in Rome, previous to the immi- 
gration of Diomede Durante and Gio. Pavlo Savino in 1600. The Etruscans 
and the Greeks in Pagan times, the Byzantine school of the Middle Ages, 
and at the period of the Renaissance, the great Tuscan and Venetian artists 
worked in Rome upon those monuments of genius of which she is so 
justly proud ; but the\' are possessions rather than original native produc- 
tions; and it would appear that even in so comparativel}' small a branch 
of artistic manufacture Rome was indebted to artists from Castel Durante, 
Faenza, Pesaro, and elsewhere for the establishment of fabriques of maiolica. 
Had there been pre-existing furnaces producing wares of artistic merit, it 
would hardl}' have been worth while, nor would the}' have been encouraged 
to bring their art to Rome ^ 

We since learn from the researches of Sig. Bertolotti^ that in 1514 an 
ars figuloriim was constituted, and that in Rome artificers and artists worked 
who came from Faenza, from Pesaro, Gubbio, Perugia, and other centres of 
ceramic industry in Italy. Names are recorded among which are Giovanni 
Antonio, detto Zambecchino da Faenza (1514), Cristoforo da Pesaro (1517-18), 

^ In the campanile of some of the Roman Museum Catalogue in 1872, and in our 

churches discs of glazed coloured and incised anterior paper in Archaeologia, vol. xlii., 

wares are to be seen which maj' have been in which those on S. Lorenzo fuor, S. 

of local make ; those on Sta. Francesca Bartolomeo, S. Giovanni e Paolo, Sta 

Romana and Sta. Maria Maggiore are the Francesca Romana, and Sta Bibiena are 

most conspicuous. Referring to them, Sig. mentioned. 

Urbani de Gheltof writes, ^ che not crediamo - Bertolotti, Artisti Urbinati in Roma 

per la prima volta di additare agli sfndtosi.' prima del Secolo XVIII. Urbino, 1881. 

Notizie Istoriche, 1889, p. no. They were Quoted by Urbani de Gheltof, Notizie 

referred to by us in the South Kensington Istoriche, p. in. 



240 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES. 

Ippolito di Beneamatis da Gubhio (1517), Mariotto da Montelupo and Tomaso 
da Perugia (15 14). 

In 1514 the Roman vasai established a rule that a tax ought to be paid on 
earthenwares coming from Urbino and from Faenza, and that those of 
Diruta might not be sold without previous inspection of the goods by the 
consoli delP arte. These rules were seemingly altered in the second half 
of the sixteenth century, when Cardinal Lenoncourt ordered of Luca vasajo 
da Urbino a credenza o{ historiati de terra after designs by Paolo Folco. 

A partnership artis majoricae is alluded to by Bertolotti, as existing in 1565 
between the same Luca Baldi and Antonio di Giovanni Maria del Francese 
da Castel Durante, to continue for five years. In 1555 one Antonio da 
Urbino vasellaro furnished the Pontifical Court with sixty plates of maiolica ; 
of these we have no recorded description, neither have we means of 
recognizing any of the works produced in Rome by any of the above-named 
artist potters. Subsequently it would appear that Antonio del Francese 
ceased partnership with Luca Baldi, and joined Giovanni Giaconio Super- 
cJiino and was still living in 1579. Sig. Urbani de Gheltof refers to a plate 
formerly in the possession of M. Widmann, of Venice, on which was 
painted the fable of Myrrha, signed ^ A di 4. aprille 1579 y«/o in botega da 
Antonio da Casteldurdte in Roma,'' which he thinks may be attributed to del 
Francese. 

From that period to 1600 we have no further record. In that 3^ear the 
series of pharmacy vases, of which those two in the Fortnum Collection at 
Oxford are the most important, appear to have been made. That fact was 
revealed to us by the finding and purchase, from the shop of old Depoletti 
the Roman dealer in 1863, of two pharmacy vases of ovoid form, having 
an entwined serpent handle on each side and domed cover surmounted by 
a knob ; on an oval supported by two cupids is inscribed — on the one 
FATTO -IN- ROMA -DA- GIG- PAVLO- SAVING • MDC^; a similar oval on the other 
vase bears fattg • in • bgtega • de • m- digmede • durante in • rgma (Marks 
Nos. 279, 280). These vases (see pi. xxi) are decorated on one side with 
grotesques ably sketched in yellow, greyish blue, and orange colours on 
a white enamel ground of considerable purity; on the other, a leafage 
diaper in the same tone of blue covers the like ground. On one only, 
immediately above the inscribed oval, the head of a buffalo is painted 
in dark blue, approaching to black, and may refer to the locality of the 
botega, possibly in the vicinity of the Via or Palazzo del Bufalo. They 
were for many years in the possession of the Gaetani family, and 

^ The family name Savivo occurs among those recorded by Raffaelli (op. cit. p. 109) 
as ceramic artists of Castel Durante. 



ROME 24T 

were first described by the writer in the South Kensington Museum 
Catalogue at p. 461. The st3le of execution is in the manner of the 
Urbino grotesque decoration of the Fontana fabrique, but has not that 
dehcacy, combined with artistic freedom and naivete, so remarkable in 
the productions attributed to Camillo Fontana, and other contemporary 
artists working some fifty 3'ears before ; in certain respects the}' have 
affinity to the w^ork of M, Gironimo of Urbino. 

Delange in the Recueil states (p. 32\ * Siir deux grands plats que nous 
avons vus a Rome, que, nous croyofis, appartiennent a M. Lardarelle, et 
decores d'un grand sujet au milieu, entoure d'une bordure de grotesques dans le 
style d^ Urbino, on lit sur Vun: ^^ Fato in bottega de Diomede Durante in 
Roma" sur r autre " Gio. Paolo Savino fato in Roma MDC." ' 

Unless M. Delange's memorj- was somewhat at fault, and he has noted 
these inscriptions as on * deux grands plats ' instead of the vases under 
consideration, those dishes must be other examples b>^ the same hand, and 
of the same 3'ear. The slight difference of wording in the inscription on 
the second from that on one of the vases, would, if correctly copied, 
confirm the statement that the}' are from other pieces. 

Two vases of the same model were sold at the dispersion of the 
Castellani Collection at Rome. Another, inscribed ' Roma, 1600,' is in the 
Museo Artistico Industriale at Rome. A tazza on foot, in the Castellani 
Collection, had a cartouche inscribed roma • anno • ivbilei • 1600. 

Another pharmacy vase of nearly similar model and decoration to those 
above described, with two shields of arms (one of the Peretti), was inscribed 

ROMA • FECIT • 1620. 

A mark similar to a half-closed umbrella was on a pair of cylindrical 
vases decorated with rocks and trees, circa 1610, and seemingly of like 
fabrique. The}' were in the Castellani Collection. 

The next example is a large circular dish in the possession of Miss 
Lockwood, long resident at Rome, the central medallion subject on which 
is the Temptation of Eve ; this is surrounded by a border of grotesques in 
the Urbino style, on white ground, among which occurs an oval label 
(Mark No. 281) inscribed alma roma, 1623. Nearly a quarter of a century 
later in date, this piece shows a proportionate degree of artistic decadence, 
but we recognize the same class of pigments similarly applied, the yellow 
somewhat more pronounced, and a browner shade of orange, and we have 
no hesitation in ascribing the piece to the same botega. 

Numerous examples of similar general character, but inferior execution, 
used frequently to be met with in the shops at Rome, and prove the 
production to have been abundant. Also in Miss Lockwood s possession 
are two figures of lions modelled in the round, and with every probability 

r 



242 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

ascribable to the same fabrique. They are marked with the initials G. F. 
and dated 1664. 

A Pontifical bond under date Jan. 28, 1633, conceded the fabrication of 
porcelain to one Tomaso SavigJtonni, who with inolta sua industria, fatica 
e spesa had succeeded in making it. 

In 1673 Pope Clement X accorded to Lorenzo Pignani da Gualdo the 
privilege of applying gold on maiolica by a special system till then not 
practised. Could this have been a last faint flash of the application of the 
lustre enrichment rather than of real gold ? 

By archives in the Reale Archivio di Roma, communicated to Sig. 
Urbani de Gheltof by the Commendatore de Paolis, we learn that in 1745 
Gregorio Cerasoli vasellajo di Ripa Grande had succeeded in making 
enamelled wares in imitation of those of Lodi, Marseilles, and Savona; he 
was granted a privativa for twenty years and opened a fabrique. 

A similar privilege was granted to Filippo Cticcumos, a Roman, in 1761, 
for making porcelain ; but a certain Samuele Hirtz, a Saxon, feeling himself 
unfairly used by Cuccumos, made protest to the Camera Apostolica, affirm- 
ing that he only was the true maker of the porcelain presented by 
Cuccumos his partner; his protest was in vain, for the fabrique continued 
working in 1784. 

We will here quote a foot-note from page 463 of the South Kensington 
Maiolica Catalogue of 1872 : 

' It is possible that further researches might make known the former 
existence of some, perhaps private, furnaces for the production of porcelain 
at Rome at an earlier period in the century. A short time before leaving 
that city in the spring of 1870, the writer observed in the hands of Sig. 
Corvisieri, the dealer, an extremely well-modelled group of the " Deposition," 
executed in a hard artificial white porcelain of a gre}^ shade, very similar 
to that of Doccia, on which, scratched in the clay, was ROMA- MAG • 1769 
above the monogram of two interlaced letters C, surmounted by a crown, 
a mark similar to that incised on the porcelain of Buen Retiro, in Spain.' 

We recollect directing the attention of Sig. Barnabei to this group at 
the time: in his Dell' arte ceramica in Roma (Roma, 1881), he attributed 
the group to Carlo Coccorese, who, from Naples, would thus appear to 
have worked at Rome. But may not the double-C mark apply to the 
Cuccumos fabrique which afterwards seems to have declined ? 

In 1785 Giovanni Trevisan detto Volpafo, the eminent engraver, engaged 
himself in artistic ceramic industry. On this subject we will quote what 
we published in the South Kensington Catalogue of Maiolica, at page 463 : 

'About the last decade of the century, the well-known engraver, 
Giovanni Volpato, of Venice, the friend of Canova, established a manufactory 



ROME 243 

of fine porcelain and "terraglia verniciata"' in the vicinity of Santa Maria 
Maggiore, at Rome \ B3' the courtesy of a grandson of the founder, who in 
his 3'outh was occupied at the works, I am enabled to give the following 
brief particulars : 

* The manufacture of white glazed earthenware, as also that of "biscuit" 
porcelain, according to the records of the famil}', was introduced by the 
famous engraver Giovamii Volpato, of Venice, in the year 1790. He 
expended a large sum of mone}' in making experiments, and in the founding 
of the works, as also in procuring numerous models, which were executed 
with the greatest care from the antique, and from other objects in museums, 
&c., as also from the works of Canova. At one time no less than twenty 
experienced artists were emplo3^ed in modelling the " biscuit " porcelain to 
suppl}' the great demand. Large furnaces were constructed, but the great 
expense and risk of the production of pieces for table use necessitated their 
sale at a price which could not compete with the French wares, although 
superior in the qualities of strength and resistance. So soon as Giovanni 
Volpato had perfected the manufacture he committed it to the charge of 
his son Giuseppe, who had married Madalena Riggi, of Milan. 

' In 1803 Giovanni Volpato died, and about three months after his son 
Giuseppe died also, leaving a widow with six sons ; she subsequently 
married Francesco Tinned, the chief modeller of the *' biscuit " figures, 
who superintended the manufactory until 1818, when the eldest son, by 
her first husband, succeeded to the works ; but in 1820 they declined, 
partly from the difficulty of procuring one of the component earths, and 
partly from the scarcity of good artists and a decrease in the demand 
for the wares. An exclusive permission having been granted by Pope 
Leo XII to excavate the white clay of Civita Castellana, where a pottery 
had previously existed the Pope wishing its re-establishment, the 
works were again commenced at that place, and continued till 1831, when 
Angela Volpato died, and was succeeded by his 3'ounger brother Giuseppe^ 
who caused several subjects to be produced in glazed pottery, particularly 
figures of saints ; but in consequence of illness he was obliged to forgo 
the management, and the works ceased. 

' The figures and groups in " biscuit " porcelain, of pure white and stone 
colour, variations arising from the different degrees of heat to which they 
were exposed in the oven, were undoubtedly the more important artistic 
productions of the Roman fabrique; but glazed potter}', very similar in 
character to that of Leeds or the " Queen's ware " of the Wedgwoods, 

^ Sig. Urbani de Gheltof tells us it was Castellana he occupied the premises for- 
at Volpato"s own house near Sta. Puden- merly used as a fabrique by Buonac- 
ziana, op. cit. p. 114, and that at Civita corsi. 

R 2 



244 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

and known as '' terraglia verniciata," and also included in the general term 
'' majolica," was also made ; and in this material, statuettes, figures of animals, 
candelabra, vases and portrait busts were also produced. 

' There can be little doubt that the finer examples were produced at 
the period when the elder Volpato perfected the establishment, and when 
his critical and artistic e3'e directed his modellers ; many of the figures 
and groups are admirable for their grace and careful execution ; few bear 
any mark, but occasionally pieces, both of the "biscuit" and glazed ware, 
bear the name G • Volpato • Roma • impressed in the clay. 

' The collection of Signor Belotti at Rome contained several examples, 
as a portrait bust of the young Napoleon, busts after the antique," and 
the dancing-girl after Canova, in biscuit ; Canova's lions, a rilievo of the 
Assumption of the Madonna, and two altar candlesticks, in the white 
glazed ware, are good examples. Sig. Cte. Cigni, at Rome, also had 
a collection, among which are five examples after the antique. Mr. Alex. 
Nesbitt had a bust portrait of Pope Leo XII in the glazed ware.' 

The Ashmolean Museum, from the writer's collection, possesses a rilievo 
of the Virgin and Child, and a pair of vases of the same elegant form as 
that in the South Kensington Museum, of the glazed ware ; as also some 
'biscuit' figures. One of these, the Melpomene, after the well-known 
antique marble in the Vatican, is stamped on the side of the base 
G • Volpato ■ Roma. Of the pieces made for the use of the table few 
are met with or detected, as they are rarely marked. Miss Lockwood 
possesses two flower-pots, in coloured ware, stamped with the name. 

From another document published by Urbani de Gheltof we learn that 
one Lanfranco Bosio di Bergamo, a maker of ^ porcellana soprafnie, terra 
d'lnghilterra, e maiolica' formerly living at Genoa, opened a furnace in 
Rome in 1780, but does not seem to have been successful. 

In the last century Bar. Terchi Romano worked at San Quirico and 
at Siena, at which latter city Terenzto Romano also painted in 1727, as 
noticed in the productions of that pottery, but we have no record of their 
having worked at Rome. 

A manufacture of coarse glazed pottery, rudely ornamented with figures, 
flowers, fruit, &c., in colour, still continues in the ' Trastevere, ' which 
supplies the ' contadini ' and the humbler classes of the city with pots and 
pans of various form and startling decoration. 



CHAPTER IV 



THE MARCHES 

FAENZA. 

SINCE compiling our historical notice in 1872 on the ceramic productions 
of Faenza, much important information has been acquired by the re- 
searches of Dr. Carlo Malagola among local and other records. These 
documents and his inferences therefrom are embodied in his valuable 
Memorie Storiche". Following thereon was the elegant and admirably 
illustrated volume by Professor Federigo Argnani in 1889 2, in which he 
refers to and agrees with the conclusions of Dr. Malagola's work, supporting 
them by some additional documentary evidence and quotation ; describing 
also and figuring fragments and whole pieces of wares unearthed in Faenza, 
conclusively proving thereby the early date of her productions. We shall 
embody the valuable matter conveyed by these works, though we may differ 
from the opinions of their writers as regards their dominant theory. 

But few of those who read these lines will have lived long enough to 
recollect the old posting-days of Italian travel, before railroads existed 
in that still divided country ; when in private chariot on wedding tour (as 
was our happy lot in 1848), or in the ramshackle public conveyance, dust- 
smothered, one dragged wearily on that long and rather monotonous old 
post-road the Via Aemilia^ (now run alongside by the rail), which forms 
almost a straight line from Piacenza to Ancona, through one of the richest 
countries in the world. After passing the fine cities of Parma, Reggio, 

^ Dottore Carlo Malagola, Memorie Sto- Faenza, 1889. 

riche sulle Maioliche di Faenza. Bologna, ' The Via Aemilia, commenced by the 

1880. Consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (b.c. an. 

^ Professore Federigo Argnani, Le 87), formed the continuation of the Via 

Ceramiche e Maioliche Faentine. 4to. Flaminia towards Cisalpine Gaul. 



246 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



Modena, and Bologna, one reaches Faenza and Forli, important and early 
centres of the potter's art. 

Faenza is a small dull town on the site of the Roman Faventia, and 
excepting some respectable public buildings has not now much to stay the 
traveller; moreover, if he be an Englishman he will blush on recalling 
the cruelty of his countryman, Sir John Hawkswood, who, a condottiere 
serving Gregory XI, delivered the town and its miserable inhabitants to 
pillage, rapine, and massacre by his brutal soldiery in 1376, Torricelli, who 
invented the barometer, was a native of Faenza, which had for her rulers 
in the Middle Ages the Pagani, of the azure lion on a silver field, of one 
of whom (Machinardo) Dante wrote :— 

' La citta di Lamone ^ e di Santerno 
Conduce il leoncel dal nido bianco 
Che muta parte dalla state al verno' (Inf. xxvii.) 

Or, as somewhat verbosely rendered by Gary : — 

* Lamone's city and Santerno's range 
Under the lion of the snowy lair. 
Inconstant partisan, that changeth sides. 
Or ever summer yields to winter's frost.' 

The Manfredi were afterwards lords of the city, whose communal palace 
was once theirs : it has its chamber of horrors, where Galeotto, nearly over- 
coming the four assassins employed by his wife, Francesca Bentivoglio, was 
finished by herself; leaping from her couch, she seized a sword and gave 
the fatal thrust. 

It was the opinion of the late Signor Lazari and others, that artistic 
potteries were commenced at Faenza under the dominion of the Manfredi. 
Astorgio I had possession of the city and territory in 1379, having acquired 
it from Nicolo d'Este, with the permission of Pope Urban VI, and it 
continued in that family till 1501, when Astorgio III lost his possessions and 
his life by the Duke Valentino. 

Of the antiquity of the ceramic industry at this site there can be no 
doubt ^; of its extent and importance there is equal certainty, and there is 

' Faenza is on the small river Lamone, production of Caft'aggiolo, which he con- 

the ancient Anemo. siders delle piu antiche fabbriche d Italia f 

^ Sig. Genolini in his second paragraph We know not on what authority he grounds 

on Faenza doubts the fabrication of vaserie this opinion, which is opposed to the con- 

at that city so early as the beginning of the elusions of all serious students and investi- 

hfteenth century, and believes that works gators of the subject, 
of early time so attributed were really the 



FAENZA 247 

moreover some reason to believe that the French word faience applied to 
this class of pottery was derived from the name of the Lamonine city. For 
this honour there is, however, another claimant, in the small town, under the 
Esterel Mountains, a short way from Cannes and Grasse, called by the very 
name, Fayence (Favenfia), and now chej-lieu of a canton of Draguignan in the 
Var, and near to the port of Frejus. Mezerai, in his Grande Histoire, Paris, 
1651, tom. iii. page 978, sa3^s that this place was chiefly renowned for its 
Vaisselles de terre, and there would seem to be good evidence of the existence 
of its potteries from a very early period to the present day ; but of what 
degree of artistic merit we are unable to decide. It must remain an open 
question whether the name, as applied to enamelled earthenware, was 
derived from the French town, or from the Italian city. In Mr. Marryat's 
History of Pottery and Porcelain, Glossary-, p. 485, is an interesting notice 
on this subject, which we transcribed in the South Kensington Museum 
Catalogue at p. 470 et seq 

As with that of Urbino, the fabrique of Faenza has been a kind of refuge, 
among amateurs, for pieces destitute of sufficient outward sign to mark them 
as of other localities, and every gaunt and early piece, strong in blue and 
yellow colour, has been set down as Faentine. We agreed with MM. 
Jacquemart and Darcel (but not to the full) in the belief that many works of 
Caffaggiolo had formerly been classed as of Faenza, and we have shown also 
that Forli may lay claim to some pieces of high interest. We could not, 
however, coincide with those writers in some of their conclusions, and were 
not convinced that the plaque in the Hotel Cluny, the piece bearing the 
most ancient date hitherto discovered (if we except that at Sevres, inscribed 
xxxxiiiiiiii, and supposed to read 1448', inscribed in early characters around 
the sacred monogram, 'NICOLAUS DE RAGNOLIS AD HONOREM 
DEI ET SANCTI MICHAELIS FECIT FIERI ANO 1475,' was rightly 
attributed to Caffaggiolo by the former eminent connoisseur, instead of to 
Faenza, to which it had previously been allotted, and to which it has since 
been proved by Dr. Malagola and by Professor Argnani to belong. 

We learn from those writers that it was formerly fixed over one of the 
doors of the church of S. Michele at Faenza ; that b}^ some means it passed 
into the Pasolini Collection, on the dispersion of which it was eventually 
secured for the Museum of the Hotel Cluny at Paris. 

Let us first examine in sequence the documentary evidence afforded by 
the researches of Malagola and Argnani, and that derived from other 
sources, before we consider those early dated and other pieces still 
preserved, and which may be, with approximate certainty, assigned to the 
potteries of Faenza. 

In 1454 Isacco de Dondi, a noble of Padua, agreed with Giacomo di 



248 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



Pietro bochalaro in Faenza that the latter should furnish him with a service 
of Majolicha bianchaftna con atorno e socio bele et vaghe dipinture, et al mezzo 
le sue arme cum oro. These last two words at once open the question 
whether any variety of the metallic lustre was applied at any of the 
Faentine potteries, for no method of attaching real gold as a permanent 
enrichment was supposed to be then known in Italy, nor do we hear of 
such being used until late in the sixteenth century by the Lanfranchi at 
Pesaro. We are, however, inclined to agree with M. Darcel that this may 
have been real gold, applied in the same manner as on Venetian glass of 
that period. Possibly it may have been only a certain amount of mere oil 
or varnish-gilding such as we occasionally find on pieces of Rhodian ware, 
but this method also is probably of more recent date. 

Presuming it to be the metallic lustre which even Professor Argnani 
hardly believes to have been in use at Faenza, whose artists, he tells us, 
preferred a more classical and national mode of embellishment \ either the 
wares must have been sent to some other locality, as Pesaro, Gubbio, or 
Diruta, or there must have been some botega in Faenza at which that art 
was known and practised. 

If such a botega existed, may it not have been from thence that some 
of the well-known bacili of the later fifteenth or early sixteenth centuries, 
which Passeri and others ascribe to Pesaro, emanated, many of which, 
when not so enriched, are with every probability works from Faentine 
furnaces? In answer to this we have no information from Professor 
Argnani of any discovery of fragments of lustred pieces in any one spot 
denoting the site of a fabrique of such wares in Faenza. 

The first published matter bearing upon the wares of Faenza is the 
passage by Garzoni in the Piazza Universale, a publication of 1485, in which 
he speaks of the pottery of this place as excellent for its whiteness, &c., 
chefa le niajoliche cost bianche e polite^ a remark borne out by the quality of 
the service above referred to, and such early examples as are known. 

Tonduzzi, in the Indice to his Historic di Faenza, 1675, under ^ Maiolica' 
states that its production ' hebbe principio ' in Faenza, where it arrived at 
great perfection 300 years since, and adds that he had seen writings 
in which it was stated that after 1300 * Maeslri di Majolica ' flourished at 
Faenza, &c. 

Scaletta, in his Notizie della Chiesa e Diocese di Faenza, 1726, adduces 
similar evidence, but neither of these writers produce the documents. In 
the Storia d'Ariano of Tomaso Vitale it is stated that in 1421 the art of 
making '■Vasellami' which had long previously flourished at Faenza, was 
introduced, and these wares were known as ' P^aenzari.' 

^ Op. cit. p. 79. 



FAENZA 249 

Piccolpasso, in his MS., refers in general terms to the excellence of the 
Faentine wares of his time, giving to them the preference, and describing 
the red colour known as the rosso di Faenza, which he states was used 
at the botega of Maestro Vergilio. 

We learn that in 1559 Maestro Piero Paolo Stanghi was paid on account 
from the ducal chamber at Ferrara for a ser\ice executed for the Prince ; 
and again in 1574 Alfonso ordered pharmacy vases for his farmacia at Isola 
from one Baldazzar of Faenza. These wares were also highly esteemed in 
France, and it would seem that it was mainl}- b}' the immigration of Faentine 
potters into that country- that the fabriques at Nevers and at Rouen were 
established or perfected. A document in the Actes de Tabellionage of 
Rouen states that in 1567 a ship l^'ing there had on board 'trois coffrcs bahiits 
pleins de vaissille blanche et peinte de Faeuze,' and Italian artists painted tiles 
in that city from 1542, as proved b}'^ two from the Chateau d'Ecouen, now in 
the possession of the Due d'Aumale, one of which has for subject Mucins 
Scaevola, and the other Curtius ; a standard on the first is inscribed ' ROVEN • 
1542.' These are believed to be from the furnaces of Masseot Abaquesne, 
who supphed the Constable of Montmorency with faience for his new 
residence. This same manufacturer in 1545 made vases for a pharmacy at 
Rouen. Under the head of Urbino, we have seen how that same patron 
had a service made for him b}* Guido Durantino, some pieces of which are 
extant. At Ljons from 1574 to 1586, we hear of opposition on the part 
of Pesarese and Genoese potters there established, to the setting up of a 
rival furnace by Giuliano Gamb^n and Domenico Tardessir of Faenza. On 
this subject see Natalis Rondot, op. cit. 

Henry III of France in 1580 was so delighted with the pottery of 
Faenza, that in November of that 3'ear he desired that large quantities might 
be sent to him 'with the swiftness of enchantment.' Even the Cardinal 
ambassadors could not resist the temptation of carrying with them some 
of these charming crocs to Rome and into France. 

It was Biaggio Biassini of Faenza who went to Ferrara to superintend 
the experimental establishment of Alfonso I, and Cesare Cari of the same 
place who had migrated to Urbino. 

In 1633 Francesco Maria Sassatelli, writing from Imola to Francesco I, 
Duke of Modena, states that he had only recently- been able to engage 
a suitable artist [Pittor excellente da Majolica) of Faenza to make a pave- 
ment of tiles for the Duke ; that he had secured the ser\'^ices of Francesco 
Vicchij, padrone of the principal botega of maiolica in that cit}', who had 
promised to send his painter (or designer) to Modena ; but that he could 
not leave till the following Wednesda}-, having important unfinished work 
in hand; and that at the botega of M". Francesco the best painters were 



250 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

employed. This MS. letter is preserved in the archives of Modena 
(G. Campori). 

Of the Casa Bettinl, the famil}^, and its production, we have documents 
and notices quoted by Malagola and referring to that house, which he 
believes to have been the most ancient of Faenza. Of the precise character 
of their wares or the distinctive marks that can be considered as repre- 
sentative, we have, however, little that is valuable ; the three marks 
which he instances are those of owners rather than of the botega. 

The leading, and indeed the only certainly known work, is the pavement 
in San Petronio, on which we have the inscription ' Bologni • Betini- FECI • 
Petrus Andrea De Fave,' and the date 1487. 

Dr. Malagola (page 220) refers to plates stated, on the somewhat 
doubtful authority of Demmin, as being dated 1425, and others bearing the 
arms of Manfredi and other families, dated 1470, which latter are now lost, 
but the authenticity of which seems very questionable. He also refers to 
the discs after the manner of the Delia Robbia in the Cathedral of Faenza of 
1474, of which more anon ; but he does not specify any pieces, except the 
pavement, which can, from inscription or record, be distinctly assigned to 
the Casa Bettini. He mentions some pharmacy jars dated 1513, on which 
are marks composed of the letters C and B, &c., with crosses above, and 
which we believe refer (as do many such-hke monograms) to the monastery 
or pharmacy for which they were made, rather than to the establishment of 
the maker. 

M. F. de Mely, in his chapter on Faenza \ supplements Dr. Malagola by 
adopting that writer's suggestion that the monograms on two pieces in the 
South Kensington Museum (Nos. 1719 and 4037 , which we assigned to 
Caffaggiolo, and one in the Cluny Collection (No. 2839), were to be read, 
as they at first sight appear, simply as P and A ^, i. e Petrus Andrea of the 
pavement; but it seems to us that these monograms contain the letters 
P. L. A. and T., and that it would be too bold a conclusion that they are 
intended for the names of that worthy artist. M. de Mely gives another 
mark, new to us. No. 357, which he observed on a coupe in the Pesaro 
Museum ; the foliated mask of a satyr formed by the letter A to which a P is 
joined, both being scratched in the paste, and over which the foliation and 
nine crossed circles, which have some resemblance, in miniature, to the Ca. 
Pirota mark, are painted. This he also reads as P. A. for Petrus Andrea, the 
pyriform mask being, in his opinion, highly characteristic of Faentine 
decoration. 

Dr. Malagola refers also to the Casa Pirota as one of the most important 

^ Y. dc McIy, La Ceraniique Italienne. 8vo. Taris, 1884. 
^ Vide Marks, Caffaggiolo, Nos. 15, 16. 



FAENZA 251 

producers : to that of ' In nioiife' to which he, as we believe wrongly, 
attributes the Cluny dish, so signed with surrounding tridents, but which 
we now assign to Monte near Caffaggiolo ^ : to the Vergilio and Vergilliotto 
boteghe, recorded by Piccolpasso and Scaldamazzi as having privilege in 
1552 : to the Ca. Fagioli, the high exaltation of which would seem to have 
been his and Professor Argnani's fondest hope : also to the Bettisitii, from 
which ser\'ices were ordered as gifts from the Anziani of Florence to Cardinal 
Buoncampagni in 1574, and to Cardinal Guastavillani in 1578 ; of these no 
remaining pieces are known. He notes the {2ihr'\(\uQo{ Francesco Vt'cc/i i a.s 
working in the seventeenth centur^^ : and another, that of Tonducci Cavina 
Grossi, at the end of the seventeenth, which was sold in 1693 to Count 
Annibale Carlo Ferniani and still exis s, according to Malagola the oldest 
in Italy. He also gives us long lists of potters' and artists' names ; the 
majority of the latter were already known to us, but he includes a new one, 
that of F. Atanasio, who was the owner of a plate dated 1534, painted by 
Baldasara Manara, who signs it with his initials B. M., and which plate, 
well known to us, is in the Museum of Economic Geology in London. 

M. Emile Molinier, in his interesting small volume entitled La Ceramique 
Italienne"^ (Paris, 1888), discourses on the earliest examples now existing, and 
known to us, of glazed and enamelled wares produced in Ital}-. Of these 
some of the more important would appear to be of Faentine production. 
But it is to Professor Argnani's work that we must return for record of the 
earlier productions of Faenza found during excavations in that ancient city. 

Dr. Argnani is too severe upon our old confrere M. A. Jacquemart, whose 
enthusiasm led him, on the revelation of the Medici fabrique at Caffaggiolo, 
to ascribe too much to that artistic potter}', and in a measure to negative 
the high antiquit}', the extensive production, and the artistic perfection of the 
products of Faenza. On the other hand, he is too confident in supporting 
the assumption of Dr. Malagola, that the Tuscan fabrique had no existence, 
except in the heated imagination of M. Jacquemart and a few enthusiasts, 
but that the great house of the Faggioli in Faenza was the producer of all 
those signed pieces universally accepted as having been made at the Tuscan 
Castello. Nevertheless, Professor Argnani's book supplies facts of the 
highest importance to the ceramic history of Italy. Judging mainly from 
the fragments afforded by excavation in various places, he concludes that 
glazed wares do not appear till the course of the twelfth century, referring 
also to the discs in various church towers, &:c. Not until 1300 does the use 

' Vide Mark No. 43. reference to our Catalogue of the Maiolica 

' We take this opportunity of acknow- in the South Kensington Museum, 
ledging M. Molinier's highly complimentary' 



252 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

of the slip of white terra di Viceiiza o di Siena covered by a lead glaze 
[cristallma] seem to have been adopted for the better wares, and their orna- 
mentation by incision [sgraffio) or with designs outlined in manganese, 
with green and yellow colouring. The eariier wares were sometimes 
ornamented by ingobbiahira ^ applied by means of a bullock's horn, pierced at 
the point to keep the creamy colouring evenly in line. He states that the 
maker of the ruder wares was known as a Vasaio, while he who made 
the mezza wares or bianchette was a Vassellaio (page 15). 

Towards the middle of the fourteenth century the use of the potter's 
wheel [tornio] is apparent, great progress is shown in form and colouring, 
the boccale (jug) becomes an abundant form, its makers taking the name 
of boccalari. Zaffre is then used for the blue colour ; letters and stemme, 
and especially the sacred monogram, and rude ornaments outlined in 
manganese black and filled in with green, were painted on the white engobe, 
the piece bathed in the cristallina glaze and again fired. This was the ware 
called bianchetta and mezza maiolica. Professor Argnani then tells us the 
important fact that towards the end of that century, or early in 1400, pieces 
were made at Faenza more or less enamelled with a stanniferous glaze, and 
among the excellent illustrations of his volume he gives us, on plates IV 
andV, boccali, one of which of mezza maiolica bears the arms of Astorgio I, 
Manfredi, and on another, whitened with the stanniferous enamel, the same 
coat of arms is similarly represented. The crest over the Manfredi shield 
is the unicorn's head, which was adopted solel}^ by Astorgio I in the year 
1393, and used by no other member of the family. 

These boccali were found beneath the Manfredi Palace at Faenza in 1883, 
and give evidence not only of the advanced state of the ceramic art at 
F^aenza in 1393, other fragments of ruder wares proving its long anterior 
production, but also of the very important fact that the stanniferous enamel 
was there known and in use anterior to the fifteenth century. They do not 
however support the conclusion which Sig. Argnani too hastily arrives at, 
that its use was invented at Faenza nor have we proof for or against its 
having been known elsewhere in Italy at an equally early time, at Naples 
for instance. Those boldly designed and characteristic boccali mark a central 
point from which we may assume the existence of important works at 
Faenza long before, and from them may follow down the history of her 
potteries with few breaks to the present day. 

That the stanniferous enamel was known generally in Italy in the four- 
teenth century is indirectly shown by the writing of Pierre le Bon referred 
to by Demmin ^ ; in the Margarita Preciosa, written in 1330, we read : 
* Videmus cum plumbeum et stannum fuerunt calcinata et combusta quod 
* Aug. Demmin, Guide de I'Amateur, fourth edition, p. 10. 



FAENZA 253 

post hac congruum convertentur in vitrum, sicut faciunt qui vitrificant vasa 
figuli.' During the course of the fifteenth century the wares of Faenza 
maintained their individual severity of style and boldness of colouring, 
graduall3nmproving in quality till their perfection in the early sixteenth, when 
the boteghe of the Bettini, Bettisii, Ca. Pirota, in Monte, Scaldamazza di Vir- 
giliotto, &c., were celebrated. We omit the name of Ca. Faggiolo, because we 
can see no proof that under that name any important artistic pottery existed. 
At those works the following artists painted, viz. some members of the Bettini 
family, Baldasara Manara, Giovanni Brama, Nicolo da Fano, &c. ; few indeed 
seem to have left record of their names, exquisitely beautiful as are some of 
the pieces that undoubtedly were painted at Faenza. 

To return to the fragments found b}' Professor Argnani in the excavations 
under the Manfredi Palace, which are such good evidence of the early 
potteries of Faenza, and upon which he mainly grounds his history of their 
development ; he tells us that foitdi oi red earth were made, coarsely graffiii on 
the mother-clay, some coloured with patches of yellow and green, and 
covered by a simple lead glaze. Then occur those the coarse body of which 
is whitened by a slip of ferra di Siena o di Viceuza similarly ornamented 
and glazed ; and boccali of creta or river mud, turned and of simple form, 
many of which are whitened by a slip beneath the glaze. Next he finds the 
timid application of the stanniferous enamel, and on both of these last the 
arms and special impresa of Astorgio I of the Manfredi, fixing their date of 
production anterior to 1400. On others are the gigHo, which he concludes 
must be that of Florence, although it is represented as of green colour: may 
it not be merely an ornament derived from the fleur de lis of the Manfredi 
coat? On others capital letters in Gothic manner. Further excavations 
afforded fragments of wares, considered by Herr Lessing as of Caffaggiolo, 
but which seem to us of distinctly Faentine character of colour and decora- 
tion, and on one of which is found the markP composed of a capital P crossed 
by a paraph, and to which we referred in our notice on the Caffaggiolo 
fabrique. Then follow pieces evidently the produce of the well-known Ca. 
Pirota ', and others of the highest artistic quality. Malagola tells us that in 
the sixteenth century more than thirty boteghe for the production of wares of 
various quality were working in Faenza. 

There is so much matter of value in Professor Argnani's work that we 
cannot but regret that a too local patriotism has led him to credit Faenza 
with more than she can justly claim. His table of marks and attributive list 

^ Sig. Genolini states that there is no an opportunity of comparing the Carlo V 

proof that the crossed circle is a mark plate at Bologna with some of the finer 

denoting the Ca. Pirota, as suggested by examples so marked. 
Sir J. C. Robinson. He may not have had 



254 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

are sadly faulty, much being derived from the not too accurate compilations 
of Graesse, of Ris Paquot, and of Demmin. 

The most important monument of Faentine ceramic art which has been 
preserved to the present time is the remarkable series of painted tiles 
forming a pav^ement first brought to our notice by Sig. Frati of Bologna, 
and more recently described and illustrated by M. fimile Molinier^. In the 
Catalogue of the South Kensington Collection we wrote of this pavement 
as follows : 

' In the church of St. Petronio at Bologna is a pavement of tiles covering 
the ground of the chapel of St. Sebastian, and without doubt laid down at 
the expense of Donato Vaselli, a Canon of that Basilica, who about 1487 
decorated that chapel at his own cost, and after expending eighteen hundred 
Bolognese lire, left much unpaid, for which breach of faith, but for timely 
Apostolic indulgence, he might have been disgraced. The date upon one 
of these tiles is 1487, and upon others are inscriptions in parts unfortunately 
imperfect from the injury or misplacement of some of the squares, but 
which as put together by Signor Frati of that city, the able author of the 
descriptive catalogues of the Delsette and Pasolini Collections, and of 
a pamphlet upon this flooring^, would read BOLOQNIESVS • BETINI • 
FECIT ; while upon other tiles occur: 



CHORNELIA-BE 
FAVENTICIE 



ZETILA- BE 
• FAVETICIE 



XABETA • BE 
FAVENTCIE 



and again upon another a small label inscribed PETRVS • ANDREA • 
DEFAVE. There is some doubt as to the correct reading of these 
inscriptions from the circumstances above mentioned. Signor Frati con- 
siders that they may be taken to imply that it was the work of the Betini, 
a Bolognese family, of whom Elizabetta, Cornelia, and Gentilis (orGentila?) 
were members, working at Faenza, but whether the letters B E after the 
last three female names stood for that of the family, or for the compli- 
mentary epithet BELLA, in connexion with female portrait heads painted 
upon other of the tiles, is doubtful. An authority for the latter supposition 
is found in pieces of the pavement to be described under the head of Forli, 
where are tiles painted with female heads, and the word bella following 
the name on the same tile ; these may have been therefore the Faentine 
beauties of that day ; but the last inscription leaves but little doubt that 

' Maioliques Italiennes en Italic, 1883; La C^ramique Italienne, 1888. 
^ Di un pavimento in Maiolica, &c. Bologna, 1853. 



FAENZA 255 

Pet rus- Andreas de Faventia was the artist who executed the work. M. Jacque- 
mart's suggestion that these were names of the donors, rather than of 
those who executed the work, can hardly be sustained, as we learn b}' docu- 
ments, cited by Signor Frati, that it was laid at the cost of the Canon Donate 
Vaselli. The Faentine origin of the plaque in the Hotel Cluny, dated 1475, 
is proved to be correct ; and whatever doubt ma}- attach to that belonging 
to the Baron Selliere, dated 1487, there can be none in respect to the 
pavement of San Petronio : the fact of the name Petnis Andre-de-Fave 
occurring independent of the others upon a piccolo cartello seems to us an 
indisputable proof to that effect. It is painted with great skill, in a st3'le of 
colouring and with ornaments which we are accustomed to attribute to 
Faenza ; trophies, animals, heads the arms of Bologna, and her motto 
LIBETAS (5/V), the keys of St. Peter, and various devices are represented, 
among them the silver case of lancets on a green field, and the wounded 
vine, imprese of the Manfredi famil}^ of Faenza.' 

In the chapel of the Bentivoglio family in St. Giacomo Maggiore, at 
Bologna, is another pavement of similar character, but much injured by 
wear. 

It is extremely difficult to decide as to which of the great centres we 
may assign those pieces signed with a monogram composed of the letters 
T and B (1) with and without a paraph. They have hitherto been considered 
as of some Faentine fabrique, perhaps the Casa Bettini ; on the other hand 
we think we can recognize, on the Resurrection plaque. No. 69. '65 in the 
South Kensington Museum, the same hand as that which had previously' 
been working at Forli in the botega of 71/". Jero. That plaque bears the T B 
monogram with a paraph, and we find it on a plate with fine landscape in the 
British Museum without the paraph, probably painted by another hand. 
Again, in Mr. Salting's Collection is a plate of very Castel Durantine char- 
acter, painted with grotesques on a blue ground, on the back of which that 
monogram w^ith paraph is conspicuous, but on which we also find the crossed 
double circle (akin to the Ca Pirota mark) and the crossed quadrangle, which 
we associate with Faenza or Caffaggiolo. Moreover this reminds us that 
on Mrs. Hope's grand bowl, signed ^ Zona Maria' of Castel Durante (see 
Mark 152), the crossed circle of the Ca. Pirota is also seen, from which 
it has been suggested that its painter might have emigrated from the 
latter Faentine to the former Durantine botega. 

The pieces of the Correr service are now recognized as by the hand of 
Nicolo Pellipario. On the ' Salomoni ' plate of that ser\'ice we have, with the 
date 1482, which can hardly be that of its painting, two letters which read 
to us more like a mediaeval T and B (or M) than G • I • O • as suggested by 
Lazari. Can there be an}- connexion here ? 



256 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

The pavement of tiles in the church of St. Sebastiano at Venice bears 
another modification of the same 'B monogram, with the date 1510, and 
which we agreed with Sig. Lazari, after mutual and careful examination, in 
referring to the same botega. Was that botega at Castel Durante or at 
Faenza ? Both inclined to the former; and, although we ourselves still 
think that Castel Durante has strong claim to the St. Sebastiano pavement 
and to the pieces signed with the 'S monogram, that mark and its varieties 
have been so long considered Faentine, that we will not displace but include 
it among such marks, with a reserving doubt in favour of Castel Durante. 

The Resurrection plaque referred to above is so admirable that it claims 
special consideration and description. It is in the style of and probably 
from a design by Melozzo da Forli, and painted at Faenza (?) or at Castel 
Durante about 1510-20. It is 95 in. high by 8 in. wide (see coloured plate 
in South Kensington Museum Catalogue, page 531). 

In all the higher qualities, as well as in delicacy of finish and minute 
attention to details, this plaque is one of the most artistic productions of the 
Italian painters on enamelled pottery which has descended to us. When 
we consider the small number of pigments known to the ceramic artists 
of that early time, it is remarkable to find so exquisitely delicate a tone of 
colouring as pervades the whole of this picture ; at the same time there is 
a breadth of treatment and an effect of rilievo and of distance, which are of 
a very high order. The handling is like that of the great illuminators of the 
day, as Girolamo dai Libri and others, while the delicate transparency 
of the nicely graduated colour has something of the effect of oil painting. 
It is the work of an artist of the highest excellence, and we think may be 
an advanced work by the same hand that painted the plate signed * in botega di 
M°. Jero da Forli' a plate in Mr. Salting's Collection, and a plaque on which 
St. Jerome is depicted, with landscape background. 

The composition is in a rocky landscape, through openings of which are 
seen a mountainous distance, with a town and a river or lake ; in the 
foreground the open sarcophagus lies diagonally, surrounded by a group of 
eight soldiers mostly in armour, and in attitudes of varied prostration and 
alarm ; a delicately pencilled cloud, among which are seen three cherubs' 
heads, supports the rising figure of the Saviour, who holds in his left hand 
the staff and banner of the cross. The spirit of Mantegna pervades the 
whole composition, and is particularly shown in the bold and masterly fore- 
shortening of the prostrate soldiers, while the expression of fear, astonishment, 
and awe depicted on their countenances is rendered with great ability. 

In the British Museum is a plate from the Henderson Collection which, 
for refinement in colouring and careful drawing, is equal to the plaque just 
now described, and may probably be an earlier work b}' the same hand. 



FAENZA 257 

On it is painted the scene of the death of the Virgin, after an engraving by 
Martin Schongauer of about 1500. It has always been ascribed to Faenza. 

We also see in Mr. Salting's Collection another and larger plaque, 
certainly by the same painter as that of the Resurrection, and which bears 
the date of 1523 on a label. It represents the Deposition : before a rocky 
cave is a sarcophagus, into which three disciples are depositing the body of 
Christ ; a group in front is composed of the Virgin, who is sinking in a swoon 
between two women, and a man (St. John ?). Three crosses are on a hill 
in the right distance. It is evidently a later work by the same hand as the 
Resurrection plaque above described. 

Returning to a consideration of those pieces preserved in museums and 
private collections, and which can with reasonable probability be referred to 
Faenza; after the Nicolaus de Ragnolis plaque of 1475 S to which we have 
already referred at page 247, we have the devotional plaque in the South 
Kensington Museum (No. 521. '65). In the centre is the sacred mono- 
gram in Gothic lettering, reserved in white on the dark blue ground, 
an outer border-wreath of orange and white flowers, an inner of zigzag 
rays alternately orange and white, the date 1491 and monogram (see Mark 
No. 297); it is in all probability attributable to the fabrique of the Casa 
Pirota. Of date 1499 are some sepulchral inscriptions on tiles referred 
to by Malagola as being in one or more churches in Faenza ; one to the 
memory of Antonio Porcari, bearing his shield of arms ; it is in the cloister 
of S. Domenico ; another has the figure of Christ with instruments of 
the Passion and the inscription 'OHC • EST- SEPVLCRVM • MAGISTRI • 
ANDREE • DE • BARBERIS • 1499.' 

Of works in rilievo, perhaps of Faenza production, we may refer to 
a roundel with shield of arms a testa da cavallo supported by two infant angels 
with coloured border, now in the British Museum from the Castellani 
Collection. 

Delange, Recueil, pi. 13, figures a group of the Virgin and Child formerly 
in the D'Azeglio Collection, dated ' 1499 ^^^ 28 de Marzo,' probably Faentine. 

Of the sixteenth century, in the Hotel Cluny (No. 2081) are two pharmacy 
vases, a pair, one dated 1500, the other signed ' Faenza'; and after this date 
there is no longer any question of the importance and excellence of the 
productions of her furnaces, although unfortunately' we have but little 
information in respect to the masters of estabhshments or the able 
painters who worked at them. 

* M. Molinier seems to have wrongly read we did not agree with others in ascribing 

what we wrote on the subject of this plaque it to Caffaggiolo, being of opinion that in 

in the Catalogue of the South Kensington character it was more Faentine — 'are not 

Maiolica at page 473. We stated there that convinced that the plaque,' &c. 



258 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

It was presumably from Faenza that an artist went to Spain in the early 
years of the sixteenth century, and executed a work in a chapel known as 
the Capilla de Azulejos in the Alcazar at Seville, the altar of which is 
decorated with grotesques, the devices of Ferdinand and Isabella being 
introduced among them, and a composition in the centre. The inscription 
NICVLOSO • FRANCISCO • ITALIANO • ME • FECIT • 1504 • is on 
the work. He may have studied his art in the studio of the Delia Robbia, 
and possibly may have been the author of those three medallions on the 
chevet and cupola of the Cathedral at Faenza, commenced in 1474 and 
finished in 1477, and which are believed to be of Faentine production. We 
have no authority for this suggestion, but the general similarity of the work 
would point to such an origin, and the dates of production would also 
harmonize. They are particularly referred to by Professor Argnani. 

In the Jahrbuch der Kon. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen, i Heft, 
1894, a devotional picture painted on six tiles, which is in the Berlin 
Museum, is figured in colours and described by Dr. O. von Falke. It 
is beheved to be of Faentine production, but there is much in the colouring 
and general character of the work that would induce us rather to ascribe 
it to Forli. The approximate date is believed to be as early as 1460 ; if 
so, it would take precedence of the above-described works. Thereon is 
represented the Virgin, seated, with clasped hands and expression of deep 
grief; five large swords centre their points upon her breasts; surrounding 
are seven roundels on which are scenes of the Saviour's life and death ; an 
architectural bordering with the shields of the Piccolomini Pope Pius II, and 
of the Emperor Frederick III, is intertwined above with ribbons bearing 
their names inscribed in Gothic or rather fifteenth-century lettering. The 
composition is of German character, but the figure of the Virgin is thought 
to be Italian. It measures 50 cm. by 37. 

We propose considering the wares attributed to Faenza under the 
following heads : 

A. Of the Casa Bettini. 

B. Of the Casa Pirota. Maestro Vergilio. 

C. By Baldasara Manara. 

D. By other artists presumably of Faenza. 

E. Wares of the last century, and modern. 



A. — The Casa Bettini. 

We have already noticed the pavement in S. Petronio, which is signed 
by Petrus Andrea, perhaps the maestro or leading artist of this botega. 



PLATE XVfl 




VASE. CASA PIROTA. FAENZA 
Circa 1520 




PLATE. SHIELD OF ARMS OF (?) ALTOVITI AND SODERINI. CASA PIROTA. FAENZA 

Circa 1520 



FAENZA 259 



B. — Productions of the Casa Pirota. 

One of the most important, if not the leading establishment at Faenza 
was known under this name, and probably existed from an early period, but 
when and by whom, founded, and the name of its maestro, we have yet to 
learn, A house on the north side of the principal street, where a pottery 
existed some years since at which we saw some well-executed reproductions 
of the old wares, was stated by the proprietors to be on the site of that 
ancient botega. 

The greater part or nearly all the pieces known to us as being marked 
with the crossed circle, signed with the name of the house, or executed by 
the same hands as such pieces, are of a marked character of decoration ; the 
wide borders are generally decorated with grotesques, reserved in white 
and shaded with a brownish yellow, or reserved in a paler greyish tone 
heightened with white, on a dark blue ground. A berettino and sopra 
azzuro are the terms applied to this mode of decoration ; and in the 
former, and perhaps earlier style, we find works of the highest quality 
of enamelled pottery, admirable for their decoration and artistic painting. 

The plaque No. 521 in the South Kensington Museum, dated 1490, is 
the earliest recorded piece which can be ascribed to this botega, unless the 
Cluny plaque of 1475 be b}^ the same maker ; and the sequence of works 
of identical technical character, signed with the mark of the establishment, 
continues through 1520, 1527, 1530, &c., finally falling into decadence in 
the hands of an inferior painter, by whom the South Kensington Museum 
possesses one plate marked as of the Casa Pirota in Faenza, and by the 
same brush, another signed ' Faia in Forli ' (Nos. 1776, 4317). 

That interesting plaque is remarkable as the earliest specimen known of 
the style of work called ' sopra azzuro' It is difficult to say whether the 
enamel is stanniferous, but we are inclined to think that the grounding was 
formed, in imitation of the glaze on some of the Persian wares, by mixing the 
blue pigment with the ' marzacotto.' It may be classed with those pieces 
on which occur the mark believed to be of the ' Casa Pirota ' in Faenza, 
namely, a circle crossed, and having a pellet or crescent in one quarter. 

The monogram may be that of the convent or fraternity for which the 
plaque was made, or it may perhaps be read as * Mater' or ' Maria Gloriosa ' : 
M. Mohnier suggests 'Mariae' or ' Matri Gloriosae.' 

M. Darcel and some other writers, misled by the monogram it bears, 
partly fell into the singular error of ascribing this plaque to Maestro Giorgio, 
with whose works it has not one single point of resemblance or technical 
affinity. 

s 2 



26o ITALIAN PAINTED IV A RES 



A further confusion has arisen from the assumption that the red pigment 
made use of in the armorial bearings, &c., upon some of these pieces, 
similar to that which occurs on examples known to be of Caffaggiolo, is 
sufficient to stamp them as of that fabrique, although many such bear the 
crossed circle of the Casa Pirota. This is in all probability that rosso di 
Faenza alluded to by Piccolpasso, which may have been equally well known 
at Caffaggiolo, if not derived by that fabrique from the potters at Faenza ; 
its use on pieces ascribable to each of those potteries is unquestionable. 
The works of at least three painters are discernible upon the wares of 
the Casa Pirota. First are those charming pieces of the greatest technical 
excellence by the painter of a shallow bowl, No. 354. '72 in the South 
Kensington Collection, which is marked on the back with the crossed circle 
having a pellet in one of the quarters ; the subject is Curtius leaping into the 
gulf, with border of grotesques reserved in white, shaded with brownish 
yellow on the dark blue ground. By him are other pieces similarly shaped 
with central subjects and borders in similar tone. One in the British 
Museum from the Henderson Collection, its subject Jesus before Annas 
after Albert Diirer, is signed IN FAENZA; the Entombment is the subject 
of another in the same museum ; another with similar subject, dated 1519, 
belonged to Mr. Fountaine ; one is in the Museum at Arezzo ; and prob- 
ably by him also is the plate in the Museum at Bologna representing the 
coronation of Charles V in that city in 1530, and which is signed on 
the back FATO • IN • FAENZA • IN • CAXA • PIROTA. The style of 
this painter has some distant affinity with that of the more careful works 
of Baldasara Manara, who may have been his pupil, but who fell into 
a careless manner in his later work. 

An important piece was in the collection of the Baron Gustave de 
Rothschild in Paris, but whether painted by the artist whose works we have 
under consideration, or by that more fertile hand presently to be considered, 
we are not able to say. It represents Joseph discovering his cup in 
Benjamin's sack, and is inscribed in a circular band on the reverse 
FATE . IN • FAE • lOXEF • IN • CA • PIROTE • 1525. 

To this artist, or to him who follows, may probably be ascribed a fine 
plateau with the usual dark blue border and grotesques, the centre of which 
is filled with the subject the Calumny of Apelles, and surrounding bianco 
sopra bianco. It is in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, and is figured by 
Dr. R. FOrster in his paper on the subject in the Jahrbuch for 1894, Part I. 

We next have the painter of the fine plateau, No. 7158 in the South 
Kensington Museum, and of the better examples of those abundant pieces of 
this botega, having central subjects painted in a greenish-yellow tone on the 
berrettino, or coats of arms emblazoned, and wide borders covered with 



FAENZA 261 

grotesques in a lighter tone heightened with white on dark blue ground. 
This artist also ventured into bolder subjects upon plaques of considerable 
size, two of which are in the British Museum. One represents the 
Adoration of the Magi ; over a portico which forms a background to the 
composition, the crossed circle and pellet, mark of the fabrique, and the date 
1527 are inscribed, while on the reverse is a yellow roundel between the 
letters B • B • F • F • and the same date (see Mark No. 307 on another 
piece in Mr. Salting's Collection). In that museum also are some pieces of 
a service painted by the same hand, one covered with the subject of the 
Centaurs and Lapithae; on a jug in the foreground of the picture are the 

VIC 
letters y • Others, having the usual grotesques on sopra azztiro border, 

are centred by the arms of Guicciardini the historian, and have the 
crossed circle mark on the reverse. 

In the Fountaine Collection was a plaque by the same hand, dated 1529 
on the reverse, in an ornamental roundel between the letters F • F • In the 
Loan Collection of 1862 (Cat. No. 5173) was a large trencher, subject 
a Holy Family after the manner of Michel Angelo, on a stone in the fore- 
ground the letters AN • EA • AN • and on a square tablet F • ; another 
(Loan Cat. 5174), a plaque, has for subject the Virgin and Child m the 
clouds above a group of the Apostles (after Marc Antonio's engraving 
of Raffaelle's ' Madonna di Foligno '). 

In M. Delange's folio work a plate is figured, then belonging to Madame 
D'Yron, now in the Salting Collection; on it is a banquet described as that of 
Dido and Aeneas ; in the foreground are the letters F • R • on a slab. There 
are good examples of this master's work in the Continental collections, so 
also in the British Museum and at South Kensington, where, from the fine 
plateau No. 7158 of his more careful time, are examples of his decadence, such 
as No. 4357, representing the picture by Raffaelle, * Lo Spasimo di Sicilia,' 
which also is signed with the letters F • R • on a stone in the foreground. 

A fragment which passed from Sig. Castellani into the hands of 
M. Basilewski in May, 1872, was by this same master, and on the reverse 
was a pink flower, the garofalo, which puns upon Benvenuto Tisio's nick- 
name, surmounted by the letter B (Mark No. 310). That the painting of 
this fragment was by the hand of that master is out of the question, but it is 
an extremely interesting mark, possibly referring to a design of Garofalo's 
from which the subject may have been copied. This is another instance of 
the difficulty in assigning the marks and monograms on these painted 
pieces ; they may refer to the designer of the subject, to the owner of the 
piece, to its painter, or to the fabrique at which it was produced ; the 
greatest caution is required before we make a definite attribution, which can 



262 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

only be safely arrived at by careful comparison of many examples of the 
same class. In this case it may be presumable that these letters F • R • are 
the initials of the painter or designer of the subject. 

The medalHons upon some of the scalloped and impressed pieces 
[scannellato and smartellato) which we believe to be Faentine are much in 
the manner of those greenish-yellow pictures and probably by inferior 
pupils. The borders are moulded in gadroons or angular panels and 
decorated a qiiartiere with grotesques and foliation reserved and shaded with 
cobalt on an orange ground or painted in yellow on the dark blue. None of 
these pieces are marked with the crossed circle of the Casa Pirota, although 
there is considerable affinity between them and the sopra azzuro wares. 

Marks but rarely occur on such ; they consist generally of a double 
monogram of the letters V with R and A with F (see Mark No. 328) varied. 
A piece in the British Museum with Mark No. 332 is a curious instance 
of the economy observed at the pottery: having been decorated in the 
ordinary way, it appears that, in the firing, the glaze had run from the 
surface, leaving a bare place on the uncovered ' biscuit ' at the side of 
the central medallion, and hopelessly disfiguring the subject. That the piece 
might not be wasted the interior was filled in with fruit modelled in the 
round and coloured from nature ; again submitted to the action of the fire, 
these adhered to each other and to the surface of the tazza, producing an 
ornamental piece from what would otherwise have been unsaleable. 
A similar piece is in the Ashmolean from the writer's collection (No. 479). 

From what we are told by Piccolpasso, there can be little doubt that 
a similar class of wares was also made at Castel Durante, and under figures 
42 and 44 of Tav. II he gives us examples of the manner of moulding such 
pieces ; it becomes a question therefore whether any, and which, of these 
pieces were produced at Castel Durante, and which at Faenza. One in 
Sir F. Cook's Collection (from Barker) with very dark ground, and differing 
in some particulars from the more typical pieces, is lustred with ruby and 
gold ; it is a solitary instance, to our knowledge, qf a piece, presumably 
Faentine, being enriched with the lustrous colours ; but here again we fall 
back upon the probability of its being a piece really made at Castel Durante 
and lustred in the usual way at Gubbio. 

A plate in the Basilewski Collection, figured by Delange in his folio work, 
pi. 55, subject a king enthroned, and seemingly intended for David or 
Solomon, but there described as Charles V, has on the reverse a monogram 
of the name NICOLO and date 1521. This has been attributed to Nicolo 
da Fano, but is distinctly in the manner of Nicolo da Urbino, and the 
monogram is a variety of his. (Vide Urbino, p. 191, and Mark No. 174) 

Much confusion has arisen among our continental neighbours in respect 



FAENZA 26^ 

to the works of that excellent master of Urbino, some of whose pieces have 
been attributed to the laboratory of the Duke of Ferrara, others to Nicolo 
da Fano of Faenza, and a small remainder to himself, errors which 
a comparison of specimens, and a better knowledge of his style, might have 
avoided. 

Passeri refers to the fabrique of Maestro Vergilio, and Piccolpasso states 
that it was in his botega that the rosso di Faenza was used, giving the mode of 
its production by means of bol armeniac (a silicate of alumina highly charged 
with oxide of iron), and describing the difficulty of its manipulation, and his 
own want of success in its application. We must, however, bear in mind 
that Piccolpasso wrote some twenty years later than the date of pieces made 
at the Casa Pirota upon which the red colour is seen, and that it w^as used 
abundantly at CafTaggiolo. If his statement is correct, that this pigment 
was only used at the botega of Maestro Vergilio in Faenza, and we have it 
on specimens bearing the mark of the Casa Pirota, may we infer that 
Vergilio was really the maestro of that important establishment ? 

A plate formerl}' in the hands of Delange, with subject Apollo and 
Marsyas, was inscribed at the back ''Apollo Marsio fatto in la bottega de 
Maestro Vergilio da Faenza ij^6. Nicolo da Fano.' 

A document among the archives of the house of Este, states that in 1556 
Alfonso of Ferrara bought maiolica from one Nicolo da Faenza, perhaps the 
same Nicolo da Fano. 

Following in the footsteps of the * green man,' but with more awkward 
tread, one or perhaps more painters continued the style of colouring and 
sopra azzttro grotesques, apparently working at the Casa Pirota, but we also 
find examples on which the mark may be only an imitation of the true ; it 
must, however, be confessed that its form was varied from an early period 
of its use, as will be seen from those which are given among marks on 
pieces of this fabrique. 

One specimen of this later time in the South Kensington Museum, 
conspicuous for its inferior painting (No. 1776), is marked with the crossed 
circle; while another (No. 4317) shows an equally bad production by the 
same brush ' In Forli,' proof direct that both these fabriques had the dubious 
advantage of that painter's assistance. 

Before quitting the subject of this important Faentine botega, we would 
refer the reader to the observation made by Sir J. C. Robinson in his 
description of the late Mr. Hope's Castel Durante bowl, in a note to page 
404 of the 1862 Loan Catalogue (No. 5160) ; where he calls attention to the 
fact that on that work by Giovanni Maria, of Castel Durante, in 1508, occurs 
this same emblem, the mark of the Casa Pirota, a circle or globe quartered 
b}^ crossed lines, and having the pellet or small circle in one of the quarters. 



264. ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

which is held in the hands of two of the amorini on the front of the piece. 
This cannot be an accidental circumstance, neither is it the emblem or 
impresa of the patron of these potteries ; but it may imply a connexion 
between them ; and as we know that the works at Faenza existed anterior to 
1508, it may be that Zona Maria Vro (Giovanni Maria Vasaro ^) emigrated 
from the Casa Pirota of Faenza, and established himself at Castel Durante, 
where, on an important work executed for Pope Julius II, he records his 
name, and introduces a memento of his former locality. 

That there was close connexion between the fabriques of Faenza and 
Caflfaggiolo there can be little doubt, and accordingly we find that the red 
pigment so frequent upon the earlier pieces of the Tuscan pottery is the 
same as that used upon the Faentine, which is probably no other than 
the rosso di Faenza referred to by Piccolpasso. Further, it may be noted 
that the trident occurs as a mark in connexion with the crossed circle on 
a plate of the Narford Collection, dated 1531 (Mark 308) ; it will also be seen 
alone on Nos. 1723 and 2544 in the South Kensington Museum, presum- 
ably of Faenza, and again on a plate signed ' in chafaggiuolo' and with the 
mark of that establishment. Maybe he who used it as his emblem also 
emigrated from the Casa Pirota to the Tuscan Valley. 



C. — The Works of Baldasara Manara. 

The first notice we have of this painter on pottery occurs in Zani's 
Enciclopedia Metodica^, in which work, under the name of Mannara, he 
refers to the signature of the artist upon a sottocoppa (see Mark No. 336), on 
which is painted the subject of the Triumph of Time, then in the possession 
of Doctor Marchini of Parma. This tazza, which is perhaps the most 
important example signed by that artist, is one of a service, pieces of 
which exist bearing his signature, and similarly decorated with orange 
scale-work on the yellow ground of the reverse. One of these, engraved 
in Delange's folio work, pi. 58, was in the possession of Monsignore Cajani 
at Rome, and is now in the South Kensington Museum ; its subject is the 
Resurrection. Other two are in the Ashmolean Museum (Fortnum Collec- 
tion), viz. that with the Triumph of Time, above referred to, a composition of 
eighteen figures surrounding a car, on which Time is drawn by two 
stags, and a tazza painted with the subject of an armed conqueror in Roman 
costume, seated, and surrounded by his officers, to whom an old man kneels 

^ Sir J. C. Robinson reads the letters Vro as Urbino ; we think, however, that Vasaro 
or Vasaio, vase maker, is more hkely to be correct. 

- Pietro Zani, Enciclopedia Mctociica. 28 vols. 8vo. Parma, 1817-28. 



PLATE XIX 




CUPID RIDING A HOBBY-HORSE. KAENZA 
Circa 1520 




TAZZA. THK TRIUMPH OK TIME. SIGNED 'Boldosaro Manora fan ' faenza 

Circa 15^0 



FAENZA 265 

while offering a human head on a salver, which the former regards with 
astonishment (? Pompe3^'s head brought to Caesar) ; five other figures 
follow the old man ; a town and landscape are in the background. It is 
painted in precisely the same manner as the Triumph of Time, and signed 
on the reverse (see pi. XIX.). 

Another tazza, also in the Fortnum Collection, and evidently by the 
same hand, has for subject Alexander and Diogenes ; and again, another, 
representing Christ healing the Paralytic, is decorated with blue and yellow 
reticulation on the reverse ; both these are without signature. 

The Marquis D'Azeglio had another with this artist's signature, the 
subject Pyramus and Thisbe. 

In the British Museum is a plaque less carefully painted than the fore- 
going signed examples, with an equestrian portrait of Batiston Castellini, 
the standard-bearer to the Duke of Ferrara, inscribed * batiston • casteilin • 

FAVENTIN • lA STRNWS • MILES • DVCIS • FERRARIEN • ANTESIGNAM •' dated OU the 

reverse '1536, a di tri de luje^ and signed ^ Baldesara-Manara faentine fa- 
ciehat * (Mark No. 337). 

This is an extremely interesting piece, as it fixes the date at which he was 
working, and proves that Faenza was the site of his labours, which the 
letters /rt« on the Triumph of Time tazza had only imperfectly revealed. 

Some pieces of another service exist, of which one is in the British 
Museum, subject the Vestal Tuccia, and another in the Museum of Economic 
Geology in Jermyn Street, the signature on the back of which is given 
(Mark No. 338). The subject of this plate is Narcissus at the fountain ; 
Cupid stands on the other side. The name F. ATNANASIVS is prob- 
ably that of the owner of the piece ; the letter F. may or may not stand for 
Faenza, while the B. M. are the initials of our artist, by whom undoubtedly 
the plate was painted ; the date 1534. Argnani, Genolini, and others fall into 
error on this name, which may be read Y rater AT //AN AS I VS. Three 
shields of arms are on the border of the plate, which is painted with even 
less care than the British Museum plaque. Other unsigned pieces, 
ascribable to Baldasara, are in collections. We cannot agree with the late 
M. Darcel in ascribing to his hand the admirable centre of a plate in the 
Louvre (G. 67), which is be3'ond Manara's power, and not in his manner. 

Probably of the Casa Pirota is a plate, which we have not seen, 
but which is figured by Delange on pi. 52 ; to judge from the engraving, 
the treatment of the central subject has a strong resemblance to Manara's 
manner. It belonged to M. Joseph. 



266 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



D. — Works by other Artists presumably of Faenza. 

As before stated, a multitude of homeless casuals have been attributed 
to the workshops of Faenza, from technical characteristics and manner of 
decoration, while as many more of somewhat different complexion have 
been promiscuously charged upon Urbino. Our ignorance, from want of 
evidence of the exact localities of their production, leads to this doubtful 
generalization, and, until the discovery of signed specimens by the same 
hands, or documental record, we must rest content with the assumption. 

Many early pieces, modelled in high relief and in the round, are 
probably of this origin, although there can be little doubt that other places 
produced parallel examples. Of the former is, we believe, the group 
representing the Adoration of the Magi in the South Kensington Museum 
(No. 2410), a fountain representing a knight sleeping, his horse tied to a tree ; 
also No. 2551, &c. In M. Delange's large work is figured an inkstand, 
pi. 12, representing a mounted and armed knight, and a bell, pi. 8, formerly 
belonging to the Marquis D'Azeglio, quaintly inscribed Sl^dCiana • bclU • 
0Opra • Taltrc • btUc, which are probably of the production of Faenza in 
the latter years of the fifteenth century. They differ from pieces ascribed 
to Caffaggiolo in a certain rigidity of modelling, the use of a shading 
and outline of a darker or more indigo-like blue, and a free application of 
yellow and orange pigments ; a more Gothic sentiment prevails on some, 
probably from the influence of the German school ; and we find subjects 
copied or derived from the works of Diirer, Martin Schoen, &c., more 
frequently upon the higher class of Faentine wares, and those of Forli, 
than on pieces by painters working at the more southern centres of the 
art. A plaque, also figured by Delange from Monsignore Cajani's Collection, 
pi. 14, representing the Virgin and Child, dated 1492, may be of Faenza 
or Forli, but we are more inclined to ascribe that curious one in the 
Louvre (G. 39), also figured in the same work, pi. 10, representing the 
saints ' Crepin and Crepinien,' patrons of the cordwainer's craft, to the latter 
fabrique. 

From an early period Faenza seems to have produced a large number of 
electuary pots and pharmacy bottles ; a pair of such are in the Hotel Cluny, 
one bearing the name faenza, the other dated 1500. Many of these vases 
are decorated in the style known as a quartiere, being divided into compart- 
ments painted in bright yellow, &c., on dark blue, with foliated and other 
ornament, and usually having a medallion with profile head or subject on 
one side, under which the name of the drug in Gothic lettering is inscribed 
on a ribbon. A curious example is in the British Museum, a large flask- 



PLATE XX 




TAZZA. DANCK OF CUPIDS. AKTKK THK FKINT BY MARC ANTONIO (BARTSCH, 217), 
BUT ALTERED IN THE BACKGROUND. KAENZA OR CASTEL DURANTE 

Circa 1525 



FAENZA 267 

shaped bottle of dark blue ground with yellow leafage, and Ynt\i twisted 
handles, upon the medallion of which is represented a bear clasping a 
column, with the inscription ' etsarnmo boni amici^ allusive, in all probability, 
to the reconciliation of the rival houses of Orsini and Colonna in 1517. 

We would here refer to the frequent occurrence on these vases, as 
occasionally upon other pieces, of pharmaceutical and ecclesiastical signs, 
letters, &c., surmounted by the archiepiscopal cross, and other emblems 
which we believe are allusive to the uses of monastic and private pharmacies 
for which the services were made, and not to be confounded, as has too 
frequently been the case, with the marks of boteghe, or of the painters of 
the piece. These emblems have no other value to us than the clue which 
they might afford to patient investigation of the locality and brotherhood 
of the conventual establishment to which they ma}' have belonged, and 
among the archives of which may be recorded the date and the fabrique 
b}'' which they were furnished. 

But what are of far greater interest are those admirable early pieces, 
painted by ceramic artists of the first rank, who, be3'ond a rare monogram 
or date, have left no record of their place or name, and whose highly-prized 
works are jealously guarded in our public and private museums. Some of 
these, with reasonable probabilit}^ are believed to have been executed at 
Faenza. 

Of later date are certain fine pieces, by a superior hand, perhaps working 
at Faenza, or, with equal probability, at Castel Durante, but which must 
not be confounded with those by an artist associated with the Casa Pirota, 
and who is known among amateurs as the ' green man,' although we find 
the same initial letters F. R, on stones or other objects in the foreground. 
His works are in colours of the richest tone, yet harmonized, and with 
admirable disposition and xigorous 3'et careful design. A large plate 
(No. 7680 in the South Kensington Museum) has for subject the Gathering 
of the Manna finely treated by his hand. At Narford was one representing 
St. Jerome in the desert ; and another, referred to at page 183, now 
belongs to Mr. Salting, on which Lucretia is the subject, with an in- 
scription in Greek. The companion plate representing Dido, with Latin 
inscription, and signed F. R. upon a stone, is in Sir F. Cook's Collection. 
Although hitherto ascribed to Faenza, we incline to the belief that 
these pieces may be Durantine. Another fine plate, perhaps by the 
same hand, subject the rape of Helen, also belongs to Mr. Salting. 

Of minor excellence, but characteristic in its decoration, and of early 
date, is a deep bowl-shaped plate in the Basilewski Collection from that of 
Mr. Barker, figured in Delange, pi. 47, with the subject of Actaeon, sur- 
rounded by a border of interlaced strapwork in yellow, blue, orange, &c., 



268 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

■ . — ^ 

and dated on the reverse 1503 (Mark 349) ; it is described in the Loan 
Catalogue (No. 5159). 

Of the highest excellence is a plate formerly in the Narford Collection, 
also figured by Delange, pi. 23 ; it is covered with grotesques, satyrs, &c. ; 
in the lower part a satyress is nursing her baby, a subject which, with the 
addition of a satyr playing on a pipe, and landscape background, covers 
a beautifully painted plate in the British Museum. The Narford piece is 
painted in a low but harmonious tone of colour on blue ground, and on the 
face occur the initials I. R. and the date 1508 (Mark 350). 

The admirable plateau, described under No. 5162 in the 1862 Loan 
Catalogue, and then belonging to the Baron Lionel de Rothschild, we believe 
to be of Caffaggiolo rather than of Faenza ; as may be that in Sir F, Cook's 
Collection from Mr. Barker's, an exquisite piece, signed with the letter 
R. (Mark 352), and representing a centaur tied to a column, cupids, &c. The 
British Museum has some examples of early date and great excellence, 
which may be assigned to this locality, although they do not afford us 
dates or monograms. So with a small but beautiful plate then belonging to 
Mr. Morland, and described under No. 5175 of the Loan Catalogue, as a 
unique example. 

In the collection of Mdme. Salomon de Rothschild, of Paris, was a plate 
having for subject the decollation of a saint, and signed on the reverse amidst 
imbricated ornament, ' Fatoin Favenza 1523.' M. Darcel ascribes No. G. 68 
in the Louvre to the same brush. 

Several examples are preserved, of an early character, perhaps the work 
of one hand, who marked them on the back with a large M crossed by 
a paraph. They are usually plateaux with raised centres on which are 
portrait heads, or shallow dishes with flat borders. No. 1612 in the South 
Kensington Museum is a specimen, and the Marks Nos. 339-40 are from 
others of the same artist or fabrique, which, wanting more definite infor- 
mation, is supposed to be Faenza, and there we leave them. Delange 
figures one with the portrait of ' Lucia bella,' from the collection of 
M. Fau, pi. 15. At Narford was one from the Delsette Collection, having 
a bear-hunt in the centre, with medallions on the border of blue and orange 
leafage. Sir A. W. Franks has another, and others are in the British 
Museum and South Kensington Collections. 

Variations of the letter F are found on pieces, some of which are fairly 
ascribable to this fabrique, but we need not point out the fact that many 
other localities of the manufacture can claim the same for their initial letter, 
and that the characteristics of the pieces themselves are a necessary test. 

Later in the sixteenth centur}'^, when subject-painting covering the whole 
surface of the piece was in general fashion [isforiafa), the unsigned works 



FAENZA 269 

produced at Faenza are difficult to distinguish from those of other fabriques. 
Some examples exist in collections, as one in the Louvre (G. 77) with the 
subject of a cavalry skirmish, and inscribed * 7/6/ in Faenca^ but we have no 
knowledge of their painters, and even the occurrence of the name of that 
city is but rarely met with. Her wares are usually ornamented on the back 
with imbrication, as was the manner of Manara, or with concentric hues 
of blue, yellow, orange, &c. We have seen that this fashion pertained also 
to Caffaggiolo. 

E. — Of the pottery produced at Faenza during the seventeenth and the 
last centur}' we have but little record. Some pharmacy vases are mentioned 
by M. Jacquemart, signed 'Andrea Pantales Pingit, 1616,' but the signature 
does not appear to be accompanied by the name of that city. In 1639 
Francesco Vicchij was the proprietor of the most important fabrique. The 
Marquis D'Azeglio had a specimen of that period having a mark. 

In the South Kensington Museum, No. 549. '83 is an ugly white inkstand 
with coloured shield of arms, signed ^ Zacharia Valaressi 165 1 in Faenza! 

In 1693 Tonducci, there established, sold his fabrique to Count Annibale 
Carlo Ferniani, in whose family it remains and is still working. Dr. Malagola 
and Sig. Urbani de Gheltof record the names of painters engaged there. 
In 1771 we find the name of a French artist known as Monsu, and in 1777 
Gaspare Germani, from Hungary, was employed ; other artists, as modellers, 
&c,, were also there. There is now at the Ferniani fabrique a museum, in 
which are various specimens of Faentine production of the last century 
and others. In 1777 also the brothers Benini and Tommaso Ragazzini 
came from the Ferniani works and established a fabrique, which was closed 
in 1778. Some other equally short-lived works began and ended during the 
last years of the eighteenth and the earlier years of the present century. 

From Faenza artist-potters emigrated to various parts of Italy and 
elsewhere. We find Faentine potters 



at Venice in 


1489 


Matteo di Alvise 


M 


1574-6 


Vincenzo di Benedetto Gabellotto 


at Ferrara in 


1490- 1502 


Frate Melchiorre 




1493 


Ottaviano 




1502-24 


Biaggio dei Biassini 


* 


1517-28 


Antonio e suo figlio Camillo 




1527 


Vincenzo 




1528-35 


Catto 


in Urbino 


1536 


Cesare Cari 


Imola 


1543-52 


Giovan. Maria Raccagna 



270 



ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



in Mantua 


1552 


Tomaso Scaldamazza 


M 


1616 


Francesco Nisi 


Verona 


1563 


Giovanni Battista 


at Lyons 


1574 


Domenico Tardessiri 

Giuliano Gambini settled at Lyons 


at Nevers 


1592 


Scipione Gambini, probably coming from 
Lyons. 



FORLI. 

At a short distance from Faenza, Forli, on the site of the Roman Forum 
Liviiy though a fine and interesting town, is no longer a place of that import- 
ance which she held as a free city in the middle ages, nor when under the rule 
of the Malatesta and of the Ordelaffi. Much exciting and romantic history 
attaches to the period of her occupation by Girolamo Riario, the nephew 
of Sixtus IV, and his heroic wife and widow Caterina Sforza ; here is 
that Rocca so valiantly defended by her against the troops of Caesar Borgia 
and his French allies. Taken at the assault, maltreated by the Borgia, she 
was rescued by Allegri, the French commandant, on the plea that by French 
military law a woman could not be held prisoner — a convenient pretext, 
for, on receipt of sufficient ducal ducats, Caterina was basely given up 
to her worst enemy, by whom she was taken prisoner to Rome. 

The amount of written record which has as yet been brought to light 
on the subject of the ceramic industry of Forli is very small, and devoid 
of those details which would make it of substantial value to our history. 

The earliest notice we have of her pottery is an indirect one occurring 
in a document referred to by Passeri, and dated as early as 1396, a passage 
in which states that Pedrinus Joannis a Boccalibus de Forlivio olim et nunc 
habitator Pensauri — John Pedrinus, formerly of the potteries of Forli, and 
now an inhabitant of Pesaro ; thus proving that such a manufactory did 
exist at the former town previous to that date ; but it does not inform us 
whether it was more than a furnace for the production of ordinary wares. 
Piccolpasso, writing in 1548, refers to the painted maiolica of Forli, and there 
can be no doubt, from the examples we still possess, that at the time he 
wrote, in the middle of the sixteenth century, it was well known as having 
been one of the important fabriques of Northern Italy. 

We learn that in 1549 the Comune agreed that wares of Faenza 
might be brought into Forli on condition of the payment of a dazio or 
bounty to the vasai of the latter city, to be used for the repair, and 
probably keeping in repair, of the town clock in the communal palace; 
and further, that the Faenza market might be opened to the wares of Forli. 



FORLI 2-ji 

In the Istorie di Forli, written and published by Paolo Bonoli in 1661, 
he states that the maiolica of ForU is not to be despised, if not of the 
perfection of that produced at Faenza ; that many young persons were 
employed at that work under trained maestri. We must bear in mind, how- 
ever, that at the time he wrote the art was everywhere en decadence, and 
that at least one hundred and fifty years had passed since the period of its 
perfection. 

But of far more value is the evidence afforded by the fortunate juxta- 
position of some half-dozen pieces of the best period in the collection of 
the South Kensington Museum, and the fact that on one highly 
characteristic example we have recorded the name of the botega and the 
place in which it was produced — * /' la botega d M°. ieroda Forli.' The careful 
comparison of this, w^hich has a marked style of its own, with the other 
pieces referred to, alike in respect to technique, tones and application of 
colour, and quality of glaze, enabled us to trace a connecting chain of de- 
velopment, and to recognize a marked character in the productions of at 
least one botega at Forli, at which works of the highest artistic merit had 
been produced in the later years of the fifteenth and early in the sixteenth 
century. 

Probably the first piece in point of age is a kite-shaped plaque 
for wall incrustation, in the South Kensington Museum, No. 2591. '56, 
bearing the arms of the family of Ordelaffi, Lords of Forli ; its probable 
date is about 1480-90. 11 in. by 8| in. 

The green of the lion is, like that of Caffaggiolo, remarkable for its 
transparent nature, and doubtless coloured by copper ; the drawing is 
vigorous and able. The Ordelaffi were Lords of Forli during the greater 
part of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ; the last, Luigi, died in exile 
at Venice in 1504. Dante refers to this family under the figure of the 
green lion's claws : 

' La terra, chefe gia la liinga prova, 
E di Franceschi sanguinoso mucchio, 
Sotto le tranche verdi si ritrova! — Inferno, xxvii. 

Next we have the plaque No. 490. '64, with ogee-shaped top and 
moulded edge, painted in brilliant colours ; outlined and shaded with blue 
on w^hite ground. The Virgin is seated on a dwarf wall or pedestal, 
coloured bright orange and purple, and inscribed with the date 1489 ; the 
Child sits on her left knee, supported by her hands ; he is naked, holding 
an orange orb surmounted by a purple cross in the right hand, and is 
crowned with an orange nimbus, crossed purple. The drawing of the whole 
subject is very masterly, particularly the treatment of the Virgin's head ; 



272 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

the heavy and somewhat artificial folds of the drapery and the general 
manner of the design are characteristic of the school of Mantegna, and 
may with reasonable probability have been sketched by Melozzo da Forli. 
M. Emile Molinier writes of this plaque \ ' Cette piece est I'une des 
plus belles faiences que possede le musee de South Kensington ; M. Fortnum 
ne serait pas eloigne de croire que le dessin en a ete execute par Melozzo 
da Forli lui-meme.' 

Probably next in sequence of date is the deep bowl-shaped plateau or bacile, 
No. 7410. '60 On its central medallion is a group of boys gathering and 
picking fruit from a tree ; one climbs, while six receive the fruit below ; 
landscape background ; the sides of the bowl are covered with scale pattern 
in orange and blue on white ground ; the rim, grounded in orange, is 
ornamented with scale and ribbon work in blue and purple ; on one side 
are two shields of arms, in colour, surmounted by a crown ; they are those 
of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, who died in 1490. Reverse, 
palmette and leaf ornament in deep blue on the white ground. A com- 
parison of this fine and boldly decorated piece with the plaque No. 490 will 
at once show that the same colours were used probably by the same hand, 
and on an enamel of similar whiteness and brilliancy, and that therefore 
there can be little doubt that this service, painted for Matthias Corvinus, 
King of Hungary, was the work of an able artist of Forli painting in 
the botega of Maestro lero. The plate No, 1738 is of the same service, 
as is also the 'tondino' No. 2597. Another badle is in the possession of 
M. Ch. Mannheim at Paris. A plate in the Fortnum Collection may be 
by the same hand. Perhaps of the same service may be the vase No. 351 
in the South Kensington Museum from Mr. Webb's Collection ; it is half 
ovoid in form below a spreading shoulder and elongated conical neck. On 
either side is a strap-like S handle, with scroll ends ; the decoration, 
strongly outlined and painted in dark blue, divides into zones of scale 
and other pattern, relieved with yellow or white on blue ; on the handles 
a band of crescents in blue and yellow. Its probable date is about 
1480-90. Another similar vase of large size, a magnificent piece, is in 
Mr. Salting's rich collection ; on this, beneath the handles, is a monogram 
composed of the letters A and V. Another like vase, which may be of the 
same set or service, is in the Museum at Brunswick. 

Matthias Corx'inus was born in 1443, and began his troublesome reign 
in 1458; he married (i) the daughter of King Podiebrad of Bohemia, who 
died in 1464 ; (2) Beatrice, daughter of Ferdinand King of Naples. He was 
a liberal patron of the arts and sciences, an excellent linguist and scholar, 
an able general and brave soldier ; he died in 1490. 

' La Ceramique Italienne, p. 61. 



forlI 273 

The curious early vase, No. 8529 in the South Kensington Museum, in 
which a mixture of Gothic and Renaissance ornamentation occurs, we have 
also assigned to this fabrique, although M. Piot thought it might be of 
Pavian production. 

All these pieces have a strongly marked character, perhaps approaching 
nearer to the productions of the best period of the Caflfaggiolo fabrique 
than to any other, and have hitherto been classed as of unknown origin, 
or doubtingly ascribed to Faenza. Their characteristics are, an enamel 
of great brilliancy and whiteness, an orange colour of brilliant and deep 
quality, a dark blue of great intensity, much used and in a peculiarly massive 
manner, a liquid and transparent green, and a purple of great depth and tone. 
The ornamentation is in a large and boldly effective style, even on the 
smaller pieces, although this manner is less apparent on those painted in 
blue cama'ieu. 

Of somewhat later date but retaining the same general characteristic 
technique is the tile No. 7549 of the South Kensington Catalogue, painted 
in blue on white ground ; Sta. Veronica holding the ' vernicle ' or napkin 
impressed with the face of our Saviour. Its date would probably be about 
1490 to 1500. It is T05 in. square. The drawing of this subject seems to be 
by the same masterly hand as the plaque No. 490. It was purchased by the 
writer in a small shop at Forli in i860, and there is every reason to believe 
that it came from a house or church in that town. 

Next we have the piece which tells us, by its inscription on a label, 
the botega and the locality of the pottery which produced these exceptionally 
fine works. A large plate. No. 4727 in the South Kensington Museum ; 
subject, Christ disputing with the Doctors, painted in blue relieved 
with white on a white ground ; on the upright sides a diaper pattern in 
bianco sopra bianco^ and on the rim trophies of musical instruments, 
arms, tools, &c. Reverse, elaborately ornamented with belts of foliated 
scrolls in blue, on white ground ; in the centre, on a label under a goose, 
is inscribed, ' / la botega d w° iero da Forli' (Mark No. 384). About 1500. 
Diam. 14 in. 

This very interesting piece is figured in colour at page 554 of the South 
Kensington Museum Catalogue, and is the only one known to be signed 
with the name of the owner of a botega in Forli ; unfortunately we only 
learn his christian name ' iero ' (for Jerolamo or ? Geronimo), but whether 
painted by him we are not informed, neither do we learn his family 
patronymic. Though treated in a larger and bolder style, we have little 
doubt that the tile No. 7549, and the fine plaque No. 490, are by the same 
clever artist, and it is reasonable to believe that the designs for all three 
were after the great master of the place, Melozzo. The subject of this 

T 



274 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

plate is ably treated. Nothing can exceed the beautiful porcelanous quality 
of the enamel, which, thin but purely white and even, covers the whole 
surface with a brilliant glaze ; the entire subject and ornamentation are 
outlined and shaded with great delicacy in a blue of a somewhat grey tone, 
and heightened with pure white. ' A porcellana ' was the technical term 
for this manner of colouring, although perhaps with strictness it applies 
only to the design on the reverse, which savours of Eastern influence. 
The border, a trofei, is most elaborate, consisting of arms, books, tools, 
shoes, musical instruments, &c. This plate was formerly in the CoUegio 
Romano at Rome, from whence it was obtained by the late Sir Henry Cole ; 
it is in as perfect condition as on the day it left the workshop of M". iero. 

A plaque or tile from the Piot and Spitzer collections, now in that of 
Mr, Salting, is beautifully painted by the same hand with the subject of 
St. Jerome in the desert. At back it is inscribed ' memento mei.' 

M. Fau exhibited at the Trocadero, in Paris, a fine delicately painted plate, 
white ground with pale blue and bianco sopra bianco decoration, surrounding 
panels with coats of arms, some in colours. 

The Marquis D'Azeglio had a plate with similar style of border, and 
central subject of David and Goliath, on which occurs the date June 1507. 
One of the same character was contributed to the Loan Exhibition of 
1862 by Mr. Addington, an exquisite plate of great perfection of manufacture 
and dexterous painting, after an early Italian engraving, with border of trofei 
and medallions on dark blue ground, which Mr. now Sir J. C. Robinson 
minutely described in the catalogue of that collection, No. 5181, but it 
bears neither signature nor date. 

Another plaque of later date, described by Mr. Robinson in the catalogue 
of the Napier Collection (No. 3008) as of the highest qualit}'- of art, he 
thinks resembles the work of the Forli painter. Its subject is Adam's 
Temptation, after Marc Antonio's print. It bears the date 1523, and at the 
back a mark, thought by him to represent a weaver's shuttle and a distaff, 
and which he suggests may be a rebus of the artist's name (Mark No. 383). 
The remains of what must have been an important monument of the 
ceramic art of Forli, though now unfortunately much injured and having 
comparatively few of the pieces intact, are the tiles which formed a pave- 
ment; No. 30, '66 in the South Kensington Collection. These are painted 
with various coloured devices, coats of arms, and portraits ; among them one 
initialled P. R. and D. O. with the inscription ego pIgit . petrvs . inmagina . 

SVA . ET . IMAGINE . CACELERIS . SVE . DIONISI . BERTINO . RIO . 1513. They WCre 

formerly in the private chapel of a villa at Pieve a Quinto, near Forli. 

We quote our description of these tiles from the South Kensington 
Catalogue. ' There can be but little doubt that this pavement is mainly the 



FORLI 



275 



handiwork of the painter who executed the plate, which the label tells us 
was made in the botega of m» iero in Forli ; but that inscription leaves 
us in doubt as to whether these tiles were painted by the Maestro 
himself, or by one Pietro R. We hardly dare suggest the possibility of the 
omission of the capital letter P in signing his name upon the plate No. 4727, 
or of the phonetic rendering of any local pronunciation of the name ^tero, 
by which we may arrive at the conclusion that the Maestro and the painter 



s\ 



D 



A 



.' I 






O^ 



\ 



^^ 



V)J ^GOPIGIT-PJETRys-T 

iV^GINE- CSCELERIS'SYE 
DIOHISIvBEKTmo 

RIO -x-^i 3 



"S^ 



were the same person ; we w^ould however suggest that there is some 
awkwardness in the rendering of Geronimo or Girolamo by " iero ". 

* That the tile upon which this puzzling inscription occurs, and the other 
portrait tiles of this pavement, and the Basilewski scodella, were painted by 
the same hand there is not the slightest doubt, and we further believe that 
the dish No. 4727 was also his work in the botega of " M°. iero." We must 
hope for the discovery of another specimen of his very excellent art, or of 
some document which may more clearly reveal to us his name and history. 
A plaque described by Mr. J. C. Robinson under No. 3008 in the 

T 2 



276 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

catalogue of the Napier Collection at Shandon, representing the Temptation, 
Eve offering to Adam the forbidden fruit, after a rare print by Marc Antonio 
(Bartsch, No. i) \ is dated 1523, and is of the highest artistic excellence, but 
unfortunately much broken. Mr. J. C. Robinson states that it has several points 
of resemblance with the Forli plate No. 4727, and we think it probable that 
it may be classed as a more mature and careful work of the same painter. 
On the back of the Shandon plaque is the Mark No. 383, which Mr. J. C. 
Robinson thought was intended to represent a distaff and a weaver's shuttle, 
" probably a charade or rebus of the name of the painter " ; if so, may not 
the letter R, the second initial accompanying what may possibly be the 
painter's portrait on the tile, stand for rocca, the Italian word for distaff, and 
the painter's name declare itself as Pietro Rocca ? But this is mere specula- 
tion, perhaps more worthy of acceptance if we felt sure that these were really 
the objects represented, but we confess that there appears to us as great 
a similitude to a brush and painter's palette as there may be to a distaff and 
a shuttle. 

' Among the other portraits on these tiles are some imaginary and of 
classic personages, and others which may be more real and of contemporaries. 
Thus we have "niron," "chamilo," "base," " charlomn," "stephanvs • 
NARDiNvs," " CECHVS • DE • RVBEis," a dogc, with the inscription " prencipvs 
QVE • VENECIA," a bcardcd portrait of " vgolinvs . mvsicV' and that of the 
painter " melotivs . fitor"-^ of Forli, also a "Carolina" and a " leta." 
They are painted in an orange pigment, heightened with white, on a yellow 
ground, or on one of a nearly similar tint in camaieu, and are bordered with 
blue arabesque leafage, a porcetlana, in precisely the same tone of colour, 

' At the sale of the Shandon Collection it remarkable for the modesty of his profound 

passed into that of Mr. Locker. character. He is also mentioned in equal 

"^ Of this worthy musician, Leandro terms of praise in an anonymous work 

Alberti, in his Descrizione d' tutta Italia, entitled Ilustri antiche e moderni d' Forh, 

Bologna, 1550, folio, p. 280, says, Ugolino Forli, 1757, 4to, p. 162. He was a canon 

{nominato Orivetuno) glorioso musico, et and ' Vicario generale.' 

inventore de le note sopra gli articoli delle dita ^ This would seem to be a new ortho- 
delle mane. Florio Biondo, of Forli, in the graphic variation ofthe name of the illustrious 
Roma ristaurata et Italia illustrata, p. 6, painter of Fori), which has heretofore been 
says, Ugolino Urbivetuno da Forli ne le cose written as Melozzo, Melozzi, Melozio, and 
di musica si lasciad' granlungaqual sivoglia Meloccio, the latter preferred by Marchesi 
altro addetro, et il libro cK egli ha scritto d' (Supp. istorie della citta di Forli, lib. ix. all' 
musica oscurera qualunque altro die n' abbia onn. 1484), who tells us that he was so highly 
mai scritto non aliramente che si scriva quello esteemed by the Count Girolamo Riario, 
che ha Bonato scritto d' apologia. Marchesi Signor of Forli, that he appointed him his 
(Vit. Viror. illust. Forliv, 4to. Forolivii, 1726, equerry and gentleman, with large provision ; 
p. 182) speaks of him in similar laudatory whileZani,inhisEncicl. Metod.jdoesnothesi- 
terms as great in philosophy and music, and tate to call him the ' Ratfaello degli Antiche.' 



FORLI 277 

and after the same designs, as a corresponding pattern on the plate and on 
the bowl before referred to. These designs occupy the larger octagonal 
tiles, others of which are painted with trophies, &c., in a like tone of colour ; 
on others again are shields of arms, one of which bears per fess gules and 
azure, on the first a demi lion rampant issuant or, on the second three stars 
or above three hillocks vert. 

' The other shield bears per fess or and azure, a dog (or wolf) rampant 
argent spotted azure, on a chief azure, three stars or ; and on a label beneath 
are the initials B. M. L. F. Another tile is painted with what is probably 
the tmpresa of the family, a plant in flower, perhaps intended for a nettle, 
with the motto malva • per • chi • la • tochia • finis • ; this may be intended 
for the common mallow plant, the malva sylvestris, known as the malva in 
Italian, but is not an}- known tmpresa of the Malvasia family of Bologna; on 
the other hand, we think the more correct reading to be mat • va • per • chi • 
la ■ tochia — harm or evil comes to him who touches ; a motto more appropriate 
to the nettle than the healing mallow. The most important tile is, however, 
that already referred to, on which the supposed portrait of the painter, with 
his initials P. R., and that of Dionisus Bertino Rio, his (or somebod3''s) 
cancelliere, or chancellor, or secretary, initialled D. O., are painted, together 
with the date and the inscription as given above.' 

'The latinity of these inscriptions is seldom classic, and although in the 
present instance it maj' imply that the painter Petrus had executed the 
portrait of some other person and of his chancellor, we have suggested that 
his real meaning by the abbreviated word " pIgit " was that he had executed 
his own portrait on the tile, together with that of the chancellor, perchance 
of his patron and through whom he received the benefit of the patronage, 
and in gratitude claims him for his own. It has been suggested that caceleris 
may be intended for consigliere, counsellor or adviser, but it may be after all 
only a high-flown title for his own scribe and accountant. 

' They formed the pavement of a private chapel in a villa at Pieve a Quinto, 
between Forli and the pine forest.' 

The charming scodella above referred to was evidently painted by the 
artist who executed the pavement tiles, and in the same peculiar tone of 
giallo sopra giallo ; it was brought to England some 3'ears since b\' Signor 
Castellani and sold at the then high price of ;^i8o to M. Basilewski. On 
the reverse the initials G (or Cj I are painted, and they are repeated upon 
a book in the foreground of the composition (Mark No. 380), which consists 
of many figures, probably representing an allegorical or romance subject. 
How do these initials read? Are the}' the first two letters of a different 
spelling of the same name, Gironimo, as that upon the plate (No. 4727), 
where it is inscribed as M". iero, possibly for leronimo, or can it be that 



278 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

the first letter G or C is the initial of his patronymic, placed, as is so 
constantly the habit in Italian parlance, before his christian name ? This is 
another instance of the many difficulties in deciphering monograms which 
occur on Italian pottery and in attaching them to known names, as difficult 
and uncertain a task as the determination of Itahan heraldry. 

We have omitted to mention a curious early plaque in the Louvre 
(G. 39), classed by M. Darcel under Faenza, and assigned by M. Jacquemart 
to Caffaggiolo, but which, judging from its tone of colouring and other 
qualities, perhaps approaches nearer to the earlier pieces made at Forli. It 
is figured in Delange's folio work, pi. 10, and represents the patrons of the 
cordwainer's craft, Saints Crispin and Crispinian, with a hide and shoe- 
maker's tools, shoes, &c. 

Another plaque, kite-shaped, now in the Hotel Cluny at Paris, from the 
Castellani Collection, on which a cock holding a fleur-de-lis in its beak is 
figured in black upon the white ground and with the date 1466 beneath the 
bird, may also be an early Forli piece. 

Considerable uncertainty has existed for some time past in respect to 
several highly artistic pieces which might claim to be Faentine or of Forli. 
Of the latter we have the plate in the South Kensington Museum, signed as 
having been painted in the botega of M°. iero (see Mark No. 384); with this we 
would associate the Sta. Veronica tile No. 7549. A plate in Mr. Salting's 
Collection with richly decorated border and centre occupied by the figure of 
a nude boy leaning on a staff, and a plaque in the same collection, from 
that of M. Piot, all which are without doubt by the same hand, painted in 
clear blue heightened with white on a white ground a porcellana ; these were 
doubtless painted at the same fabrique, that of M". iero of Forli. Seemingly 
by the same hand, more developed but of the highest excellence of ceramic 
painting, is the plaque in the South Kensington Museum (No. 69. '65), the ^ 
subject being the Resurrection, probably from a design by Melozzo da Forli. 
This is boldly marked with the 'B monogram, which again occurs (Marks No. 
288 and 290) on a plate in the British Museum, seemingly by another hand, 
and of Castel Durante or possibly of Faenza. The question arises, is 
this the monogram of another botega at Forli than that of M"". iero, or is it 
the mark of a botega of Faenza or Castel Durante to which this admirable 
artist had subsequently betaken himself? We have referred to this 
question under Faenza, at page 255. 

Excepting the plaque in the Napier Collection, a lapse of twenty-nine years 
occurs between the date upon the pavement and the next recorded piece ; 
and during this time a great change for the worse seems to have come over 
the productions of the manufactory. Perhaps under other hands it had 
ceased to produce works of excellence, for it next appears in the less 



FORLI 279 

admirable light of an imitator of the wares of Faenza, by an inferior artist, 
who comes thence to Forli and there produces No. 43J7 of the South 
Kensington Collection — a tazza with battle subject; in the foreground 
a nude figure cutting off the head of a vanquished warrior, probably David 
and Goliath ; painted on blue ground. Reverse, inscription, * Fata in Forli.' 
Diam. io| in. (Mark No. 386). 

This is an interesting plate, although b}^ no means admirable in respect 
of art, as the inscription on the back corrects former opinion as to a numerous 
class of works of similar stamp, all of which have been considered as the 
production of Faenza. An attentive examination and a careful comparison 
of a number of these specimens will show that they may be divided in 
accordance with degrees of excellence. The first, of the highest merit in 
respect to careful painting and quality of colour, are more usually marked 
at the back with the crossed circle and pellet, believed to be that of the 
* Casa Pirota' at Faenza, whence perhaps the st3le and the patterns were 
taken by artists w^ho subsequently worked at Forli and elsewhere. 

In this specimen we have the type of an inferior class painted in 
the same manner, and even adopting the same ornaments on the reverse, 
among which is a sort of imitation of the crossed circle mark. They were, 
perhaps, produced as counterfeits of the wares of the fabrique at Faenza by 
an inferior painter at Forli. Thirdly, we have a still coarser imitation in 
certain pieces produced at Padua. 

A plate in the Louvre (G. 92), on which is painted the Murder of the 
Innocents, after Baccio Bandinelli, is similarly signed *fata in forli' and \\ith 
the date 1542. This plate has been figured with facsimile of the mark in 
Delange's folio work, pi. 76. Another in the same collection (G. 93), a still 
inferior work, representing the Punishment of Croesus by the Parthians, 
with the legend 

'Aurum sitis 
Aurum Bibe,' 

bears also the same inscription of the fabrique without date. 

On a large dish in the Ravenna Library of the same st3-le as the inferior 
productions of the Casa Pirota in Faenza, a battle scene or triumph in the 
centre and border of sopra azzuro, is the inscription : 

FV • AT 

IN 
FORLI 

And on another by the same hand, in the Biblioteca at Forli, is the 
inscription : AF • I FOR I. 



28o ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Mr. Barker had a plate from the Delsette Collection, subject the 
story of Alexander and Roxana, and which is inscribed on the reverse 
^ Leochadius Solobrinns picsit forolivia mece //XT'j ^rid in the University 
Museum at Bologna is a basin on which is painted a representation of the 
supper at which Mary Magdalene washes Jesus' feet; on the back it is 
signed by the same artist, with the date 1564 (Mark No. 388). Another is in 
the Library at Ravenna and signed ^ Forlli Luchadiio 1563.' 

M. Delange mentions a small plate with the letters L. S. on the reverse, 
which he suggests may be the initials of the same artist. 

That bearing the date 1564 is the latest signed and dated piece of the 
fabrique with which we are acquainted. 

We learn through the researches of MM. B. Fillon and Laferriere 
Percy that one 'Jerome Solobrin ' was established at Amboise in France, 
1494 to 1502. He could hardly have been a brother of Leochadius, as has 
been suggested, though probably an elder relative. 



RIMINI. 

The Com'■^ Luigi Tonini\ in his account of certain early pieces 
preserved in the Comunal Museum at Rimini, and which have been found 
in various parts of that city, reasonably presumes that they are of local 
production from the fact of several of them bearing Sigle monograms or 
armorials, referring to members of the Malatesta family, from 1416 to 
1429. They would appear to be of simply glazed ware, or niezza 
maiolica. Three others were sold at the Castellani sale in Paris in 1878, 
on one of which was an uncial letter A. Two others, covered with 
stanniferous enamel, which M. Darcel considered as of the fourteenth 
century, belong to M. Victor Gay. On one are the letters A. L. in 
uncial characters. 

The first, and indeed the only early mention of this fabrique is in the 
work of Piccolpasso, where he names it merely as among existing 
potteries. A few pieces have been preserved which confirm his statement, 
being inscribed at the back with the name of this city. The majority of 
them may have been of the same service, dated 1535, and ahke in the 
style of painting. 

A plate at the Hotel Cluny (No. 2098) is inscribed at the back ' di Adam 
ed Eva, in Rimino. 1535.' 

In the British Museum is another, representing the Fall of Phaeton, 
which is signed at the back ' 1535 in Arimin ' (Mark No. 395). 

' Com. Luigi Tonini, Lc Figuline Riminensc. Bologna, 1870. 



RIMINI— RAVENNA 281 



M. Basilewski had a plate, figured in Delange's Recueil, pi. 78, subject 
the Trojan horse, inscribed 'jn arimin 1535/ One in Mr. Barker's 
Collection was signed * in Rimino ' ; and another * in Ariminensis 1535/ as 
quoted by Delange, who may probably refer to the British Museum 
specimen, the subject being similar. Some pieces in the Louvre are ascribed 
by M. Darcel to the same artist as the Cluny example, one of which 
(No. 96), in addition to the titular inscription ' NOE,' has an ill-formed letter 
X or Y, supposed to be the initial of the painter, and a branch of vine 
stem without leaves (Mark No. 396). On another (No. 103) the inscription 
* Guido Selvaggio,' referring to the subject, the Guido of the Orlando 
Furioso, has been mistaken for the signature of * Guido Salvino,' who, 
according to Piccolpasso, took the art to Antwerp. 

The st^'le of painting on these pieces is marked b}' a rather startling 
contrast of colours, the flesh tints are very pale and hea\'ily shaded with a 
reddish yellow, the blues are blackish, the dravv^ing of the subject free and 
careless ; the landscape being better treated, the tree stems brown shaded 
with black ; but perhaps the most characteristic feature is a glaze of 
singular richness and brillianc}', which greatly enhances the effect of the 
colours. 

Of a later date is a jug in the Museum of the University of Bologna, 
decorated with a subject from Ovid, the handle, &c., a trqfei, and signed 
' Giulio da Urbino in bottega di M", Alessandro in Arimin.' This is 
probably the artist who, according to Vasari's statement, went to Ferrara 
from Urbino, In the Museum at Bologna is a vase signed by Julio da 
Urbino, as made at 'Rimino ' (Mark No. 397). 

To this fabrique M. Molinier ascribes two pieces, godronnes, Xhe 
Creation of Man, and Adam and Eve, designed and modelled in very pale 
bistre tone ; Nos. 484 and 145 in the Museum at Pesaro. 



RAVENNA. 

Piccolpasso states that potteries existed at Ravenna, and that the mud 
deposited b}' the river was excellent for the purpose. 

In 1532 so much of various wares was sent to Ravenna by the potters 
of Faenza that the XocdX Jigoli made complaint, and the Council decreed that 
they should only be brought for sale on the daj-s of the fair. Revoked in 1526, 
this decree was renewed, on further complaint by the local potters. We 
have no means of learning the quality of those wares. 

In the collection of the late Baron J. Ch. Davillier, of Paris, be- 
queathed by him in part to the Louvre and in part to the Museum at Sevres, 



282 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

is a plate painted in blue camdieu on a blueish-grey glaze of a similar tone 
of colour to that used at Venice and Padua, with the subject of Amphion 
carried on the waves by three dolphins, and playing the viol. It is the 
work of an able hand, perhaps after the design of a master of the fifteenth 
century, and is itself probably of the earlier quarter of the sixteenth. 
The subject is surrounded by a delicate border, a porcellana, and on the 
reverse is the inscription ' Ravenna ' (Mark No. 390). It is figured in 
Delange's Recueil, pi. 46. 

One Pietro Mazzolini, of Ravenna, was working at Urbino in 1569 
(Pungileoni). 

A pretty ' hanap,' or small jug, in the British Museum from the late 
Mr. Henderson's Collection, ornamented with yellow intertwined branches 
of foliage on a dark blue ground, and with a shield of arms supported by 
two cupids, has beneath the handle the letters R. V. A., with the date 1552, 
which have been read as RaV^;^A. We fear, however, that there is some 
doubt as to the genuineness of this piece. 

Wares not of Venetian manufacture were forbidden to enter that city, 
except for exportation. Accordingly we find that early in the sixteenth 
century Piero dei Ponti was permitted to bring from Ravenna certain wares 
* diece casse di lavori di piera per le parte de lavante.' This concession was 
renewed to Piero on April 10, 1522, being granted to * Pier Frutarnol 
maiolicaro di Ravena! This would show that the productions of Ravenna 
were esteemed anterior to 1535, the earliest date of known pieces \ 

BOLOGNA. 

Dr. Malagola, in his Memorie, tells us of records by which it appears 
that before 1312 a society existed in Bologna, ' Magistrorum artis urceorum^ 
having special statutes. 

Piccolpasso refers to the earth used by the potters of this city, and 
it is probable that they produced works of merit, which, however, we 
have not as yet the means of distinguishing, no documents on the sub- 
ject or inscribed pieces having been discovered. In records of 1549 
Alexandro di Francesco Begnamini, Pier di Mattheo di Agoletti, and Vin- 
cenzo di Simon delle Selle, are named as boccalari, which implies painters 
on maiolica. 

A registry occurs in the archives of the Senate of the death in 1574 of 
one Antonio quondam Pauli de Milionibus figidi. And again, in 1595, we 
find that a concession was made to Angelo Michele Risio, Alessio Rosa, 

' Urbani de Gheltof, op. cit. p. 40. 



BOLOGNA— IMOLA 283 



and Giovanni Virgilio, to open a fabrique of maiolica ^ ex argilla ad instar 
fauentinorum maiolica appellata' with privilege to work for ten years. 

Of the fabriques opened at Bologna during the course of the last 
century we will not here make record. They will be found in the Notizie 
of Signor Urbani de Gheltof 

Some excellent modern imitations of Delia Robbia rilievos and 
painted wares were produced by Messrs. Angelo Minghetti and Son, of 
this city, good examples of which were shown at the Roman Exposition 
of 1870 and subsequently. 

IMOLA. 

The first establishment for making enamelled wares in Imola would 
seem to be recorded in a document discovered by Dr. Malagola in 
the municipal archives of that city. It appears that in 1543 Giovanni Maria 
Raccagna of Faenza, detto Taffarino, memorialized the Comune of Imola 
for permission to establish himself in that town as a maker of white and 
coloured wares; which was granted to him under the obligation ^ docere 
dicfam artem omnibus Itnolensibus earn adiscere volentibus ' ; and the introduc- 
tion of Faentine wares was forbidden. Taffarino died at Imola in 1552; the 
work was conducted by his successors, but they were deprived of their 
exclusive privilege. 

In 1586 a commission of four members was created by the Comune to 
compile the rules of the artis majolicae (Malagola). 

Pieces modelled somewhat after the st3^ie of those by Bernard Palissy 
have been ascribed to this site ; wares covered with a thick white enamel, 
and frequently formed with basket-like open work at the sides, have also 
had this origin imputed to them ; but we do not know by what authorit}'. 
Nor do we find any record of an example inscribed with this name, though 
such were made, as is proved by the fact referred to by Campori that, in 
1741, Gio. Andrea Ferrari obtained leave to produce wares in the Ferrarese 
States, * a somiglianza di quella d' Imola! 

In 1790 Ignazio Cavazzuti, reporting on the works at Sassuolo, alludes 
to a fabrique at this place, as also to that at Lodi, of which he was the 
director. 



CHAPTER V 



NORTHERN DUCHIES 

FERRARA 

WE do not know that any additional light of importance has been 
thrown upon the history of the ceramic productions of Ferrara, 
Modena, Mantua, and neighbouring localities since 1872, when we 
gathered together the material facts derived for the most part from the 
researches of the Marchese Giuseppe Campori\ of Modena. From 
these we learn that Alfonso I, Duke of Ferrara, who married Lucrezia 
Borgia, and was a great patron of art, found means, notwithstanding 
his troubled and warlike rule, to estabhsh a fabrique of maiolica at his 
castle in Ferrara. This is confirmed by Piccolpasso, who further states 
that the Duke invented a peculiarly brilliant white glaze, afterwards 
known as * bianco di Ferrara.' Although the precise period of the intro- 
duction of the art is unknown, as early as 1436 the name of ' Maestro 
Benedetto bocalaro in Castello' is recorded; in 1472 one Enrico, and in 
1489 Gio. da Modena, are named ; while in the Memoriale of the 
expenses of Leonello, Marchese di Ferrara, in 1443, occurs the first 
mention of painted and glazed wares. We there find entries of payments 
made to one * Bastiano bocalaro' for tiles painted from the designs of Jacopo 
di Sagramoro and his companions, representing various plants and 
vegetables, and which were placed over the benches of the ' Cortile della 
Fontana ' of the palace, then used as a market for herbs. In 1471 Ludovico 
Corradini of Modena, ' scultore in terra, had a commission to pave two rooms 
in the Schifanoia Palace. In 1474 the chapel known as the * Capella del 
Cortile ' in the ducal castle was consecrated : it was erected by the Duke 
Ercole I, and Ariosto, in describing it, notices the pavement of painted tiles ^. 

' Notizie della Majolica e della Porcellana di Ferrara. Modena, 1871. 
^ Sellegado a guadri semipedali sopra vitreadi de varj coluri concatenadi de eerie vitalbe. 
Descr. MSS. in Bib. Palatina. 



FERRARA 285 

Artists appear to have been introduced from Faenza by Ercole I about 
1490, and Frate Melchiorre and his son had a place allotted to them in the 
castle, the former being known as ' Maestro dei lavori di terra.' A curious 
document is brought to light by the Marquis Campori from the archives of 
Mantua, dated 1494, b}' which it appears that Isabella (d'Este), wife of the 
Marquis of Mantua (Gonzaga\ had sent a plate which had been broken into 
three pieces to be repaired at Ferrara by the Maestri working at the castle ; 
this was done, and the mended plate returned by Francesco Bagnacavallo 
at the desire of the Duchess of Ferrara, with another as a present. In 
his accompanying letter, Bagnacavallo says that he has ordered six pieces 
to be made, if it will please her Excellency to have them, but that they 
will not be of maiolica. but better, thinner, and lighter, all white, worked 
with white upon white {tna non serano di maioliche, ma serano piii galante, 
pill subtitle, et piii leggiere, tuti bianchi lavorati di biancho sopra biaticho)', 
by which passage the Marquis Campori infers that the broken piece sent 
was only of mezza-maiolica, having a lead glaze, while that made at 
Ferrara was coated with the stanniferous enamel, and that this was the 
then meaning of the term ' bianco sopra bianco,' s^'nonymous with 
' bianco allattato malamente detto bianco faentino^ not merely the decoration 
of a white arabesque upon a white ground ; but whether this white was 
introduced b}' the Faentine artists or invented at Ferrara is an open 
question. 

Contemporary with Fra. Melchiorre, one Ottaviano da Faenza was 
paid in 1493 for wares furnished to the nuns of ' Corpo di Christo ' ; 
and in 1501 Giovanni da Modena worked at some stoves in the castle ; 
while in the same j-ear the name of Biagio da Faenza first appears, who 
in 1502-3 made some wares for the new monastery of Sta. Catterina, 
and in 1505-6 executed other work at the ' stnfa ' in the ' castel niwvo* 
At that time M". Cristoforo da Modena was known as the ' bocalaro ducale^ 
who in the subsequent year was ordered to cover a ' loggetta ' vWth tiles 
for the Duchess Lucrezia Borgia. Duke Ercole I was then in power, but 
was succeeded b}- his son, Alfonso I, in 1505, as Duke of Ferrara, Modena, 
and Reggio 

In the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, xiii, pt. 13, May 1895 et seq., is a paper 
by M. Charles Yriarte on Isabella d'Este, &c. At page 390 he describes 
the pavement of ' La Grotta,' which had been inhabited by her previous 
to the use of the Castello. The tiles of this pavement have been dispersed ; 
some are in the Gewerbe-Museum at Beriin. M. Edouard Andre has 
some twelve which are figured at page 391 of the Gazette : on them we 
find the arms of the Gonzag^, and various imprese and mottoes in mixed 
French and Italian. M. Yriarte ascribes these tiles to Pesaro or to Ferrara ; 



286 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

the date 1522 is on the frieze of the cortile, but the tiles may be somewhat 
earher. 

From 1506 to 1522 the artistic works seem to have been discontinued, 
probably on account of the wars in which the Duke was engaged against 
Pope JuHus II and the Spaniards, who took Modena and Reggio, and 
reduced him to great want of money ; so much so that in 1510, not wishing 
to increase the charge on his subjects, he pledged his plate and precious 
objects, even to the jewels of his wife Lucrezia, and ornamented his creden- 
ziera by making use of vases and dishes of earthenware, the produce of his 
own industry. This statement was thought by M. Jacquemart to prove 
the continuance of the manufacture, but we should understand it rather as 
implying that the pieces produced by his own hands, or under his own 
supervision, at the ducal pottery managed by Maestro Biagio before Alfonso 
became duke, were brought into service on this occasion. This view 
is, we think, confirmed by the fact that in 1520 Duke Alfonso, through 
his ambassador, Jacopo Tebaldi, at Venice, ordered a set of jars for his 
spezieria, the production of which was to be superintended by Titian, and 
their cost arranged (about 2s. (^d. each for the larger vases). Of these 
eleven large, eleven smaller, and twenty of the smallest size, with the covers, 
were forwarded to Ferrara. Another indirect confirmation, in the opinion 
of Campori, is found in a document referred to by him (at page 27) as being 
in the archives of Modena, by which it seems that Isabella Gonzaga 
had commissioned Alfonso Trotti, a gentleman of Ferrara, to procure for 
her some plates of fine maiolica in Venice and Faenza, which he did in 1518. 
But may it not be equally probable that that lady merely wished to procure 
specimens of the artistic pottery of those fabriques? In 1522 the moneys 
paid for tin and lead are again recorded, as is also the engagement of 
Antonio da Faenza, at twelve livre per month (about 165. 9«f.), with food 
and lodging for two persons ; in 1528 he is succeeded by one Catto, who died 
in 1535. It is not certain whether Antonio was a painter on pottery 
or a master potter ; although he remained in the Duke's service till 1528, 
other bocalari were engaged, but it is not till 1524 that we find money paid 
(twelve soldi) to one ' Camillo ' for painting vases for the potter. In 1529 
the brothers Dossi directed the artistic productions of the works, as two 
livre were allowed to Dosso for two days' work, tracing designs for the 
potter, and to Battista one livra for modelling handles. Thus it would 
appear that these great artists, who were employed by the Duke to 
decorate his palace, &c., with frescoes and paintings, gave designs also 
for the pottery and models for the shaped pieces. 

Signor Giuseppe Boschini, in his letter to Mayr on * due piatti dipinti 
in majolica^ suggests that as the Dossi in their decorations adopted the 



FERRARA 287 

grotesques, derived and modified from the antique by the great 
Raffaelle, it is not improbable that some of the pieces so ornamented on 
a white ground, and which are generally ascribed to the potteries of 
Urbino, may have been the produce of the ducal establishment at Ferrara ; 
and then describes two plates which he had seen in the hands of a dealer, 
as being of this character, and on each of which occurs the emblem 
and motto adopted by Duke Alfonso II on his marriage with Margarita 
di Gonzaga. 

These were probably portions of the ser\^ice believed to be that which 
was ordered for the occasion in 1579, and of which two pieces exist 
in the South Kensington Museum ; but of the works produced at the earlier 
period of the establishment, under the management of Bastiano and of 
Biagio, we have no authenticated examples. 

M. Jacquemart has supposed that certain beautiful pieces — one of 
which, a hanap, was in the collection of the Baron Alphonse de Roth- 
schild at Paris, and figured by Delange in his Recueil, pi. 31 ; others 
in the British Museum and elsewhere — and which bear the united arms 
of Gonzaga and Este, may have been of that origin ; but on them the 
Gonzaga has the first place in the shield, impaling the coat of Este. 
These pieces are undoubtedly portions of a service made either for 
Gian. Francesco II di Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, who, in 1490, 
married the accomplished Isabella, daughter of Ercole I and sister of 
Alfonso I, Duke of Ferrara, or even more probably for that lady sub- 
sequently to her husband's death in 1519 ; she died in 1539. Some of them 
have monograms not easily explained, although the first letter of one 
consisting of the interlaced Y and S may be intended for a florid form of, 
or used instead of, the letter I, and thus composed of the two first letters 
of the name ' Isabella,' as in the case of the I. S. interlaced adopted in the 
arms of Malatesta, on the marriage of Sigismondo Pandolfo with Isotta da 
Rimini. The motto ^ nee spe nee metu' occurs on some of these pieces, 
which without doubt were painted by Nicolo da Urbino, and are referred 
to in the notice of the Fontana fabrique. 

Another pottery seems to have existed in the Schifanoia Palace, 
protected by Sigismondo d'Este, brother of the Duke, and directed by 
Biagio Biassini, of Faenza, who is mentioned in the archives of 1515 to 
1524. In 1523 three painters, II Frate, ' pittore alia majolica,' Grosso, 
and Zaffarino, are spoken of as residing there. This fabrique ceased at 
the death of Sigismondo, in 1524. 

From T534 to 1559, during the reign of Ercole II, the work does 
not seem to have been encouraged ; Pietro Paolo Stanghi, of Faenza, is 
the only artist recorded, having made the ornaments to a stove in the 



288 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

castle; but Alfonso II took more interest in the manufacture, and Vasari 
speaks of the fine productions of his furnaces. In his grandfather's time 
the artists of Faenza were more renowned, but later, under the Umbrian 
dukes, Urbino had attracted the Fontana family and other able artistic 
potters from Castel Durante, and had become the leading manufactory ; 
thence came Camillo and Battista, his brother, neither of whom, however, 
was of the Fontana family. 

Campori attributes to Alfonso I the invention of porcelain, and cites 
a letter written to him from Venice on May 17, 1519, by his ambassador, 
Jacopo Tebaldi, in which he refers to a small plate and a scutella of porcelain, 
which he sends from a Venetian potter. Maestro Leandro Peringer, who, it 
would seem, had made experiments at the Duke's suggestion, but who declines 
to continue them at his own cost, or to accept the Duke's offer to establish 
him at Ferrara. It seems from this more probable that the Venetian 
artist had succeeded in producing a kind of porcelain, the fabrication of 
which the Duke of Ferrara wished to adopt and encourage in his own 
city, but which was probably then abandoned. And it would further 
appear from an entry in the book of the Duke's expenses at Venice 
in September, 1504, preserved in the archives of Modena and also 
made known by the Marquis Campori, that the sum of £2, 35. had 
been paid ^ per schudelle sette de porcellana contrafacta e imo bochale a la 
chatalana^ showing that this counterfeit porcelain was then produced by 
an unrecorded Venetian potter, probably the same who, as we have just 
seen, fifteen years later declines going to Ferrara on account of his age, 
* che'l e troppo al tempo, et che non se vole levar de qua' 

Nearly half a century has passed away before we hear of fresh experi- 
ments in the production of porcelain, directed by M°. Camillo, of Urbino, 
assisted by his brother Battista, and which seem to have resulted in success. 
When injured by the accidental explosion of a cannon, which ultimately 
caused his death and that of three gentlemen, in 1567, he kept the secret, 
refusing to divulge it. This event is mentioned b}^ Bernardo Canigiani, 
the ambassador of the Florentine court, who speaks of Camillo da Urbino 
as a maker of vases, painter, and chemist, and the true modern discoverer 
of porcelain, ' Ritrovatore moderno alia porcellana' (Campori, p. 50). 

It would seem, however, that his brother Battista must have known 
something of the process, which he may have been able to perfect by 
experiments, for it appears that between 1568 and 1569 the work was 
continued, as on December 17 of the latter year an entry is made of an 
unusual allowance of wine for a workman engaged in preparing the 
ingredients ' per far porcellana! 

Xhe fact of this discovery of a porcelain of artificial or mixed body 



FERRARA 289 



in the sixteenth centurj' in Italy seems to have been known and 
acknowledged, and is referred to by Vasari and Aldrovandi, in the 
following century by Magalotti and Bonanni, and again in the last by 
Passeri, Targioni, by the Osservatore Fiorentino, by Galuzzi, and others 
(p. 51). It was lost sight of until the fortunate discovery of a few pieces 
of what proved to be the Medici china set connoisseurs on the alert, 
and prompted Dr. Foresi, of Florence, to make search for documents on 
the subject, resulting in his finding records w^hich proved that these 
pieces were reall}^ specimens of the porcelain made by the Grand Duke 
Francesco II de' Medici, at Florence, about 1580. 

It seems to the writer not improbable that two small cups exhibited 
at the Loan Exhibition of 1862, one by Her Majesty, and one by the 
Earl of Stamford and Warrington, and described by Mr. J. C. Robinson 
in the catalogue of that collection under Nos. 7901, 7902, may have 
been produced by M". Camillo at Ferrara, or by the unknow^n artist at 
Venice. 

As remarked by the Marquis Campori, it is more than probable that 
the Grand Duke of Tuscany and the Duke of Ferrara were both engaged 
at the same time in making experiments for the fabrication of porcelain, 
and that each arrived at a nearl}' similar result, and within a few years of 
each other's success. The priority of discovery would seem, however, to 
rest with Ferrara, but unfortunately we are without specimens which can 
be traced to that origin. 

There is much confusion in respect to the two Urbinati artists of 
the name of Camillo ; the patronymic of one, that M". Camillo who 
worked at Ferrara, and was a discoverer of porcelain, is unknown ; but 
the other M". Camillo, who is stated to have gone to Florence, and 
is believed to have directed experiments with equal success for the 
Grand Duke, was the brother of the celebrated Orazio Fontana. 
The first was killed, as we have stated, in 1567; the last was living 
until 1589. 

It is to be regretted that we have at present no clue by which we 
can, even with probabilit}', attribute any of the examples of maiolica in 
our collections to the earlier works of the Faentine artists produced 
under Alfonso I at Ferrara ; the more so as both under his reign and 
under that of Alfonso II the fabrique was conducted, not with a view 
to profit or commercial enterprise, but simply from princely magnificence 
and love of art ; the produce was for their own use, and for presents 
among friends, but not for sale : we may therefore conclude that it 
was of highly artistic and great technical excellence. This was exceptional 
among the potteries of that period in Italy, all of which (not to include 



290 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

the porcelain work of the Grand Duke of Tuscany) were commercial 
undertakings, more or less patronized and encouraged by the ruling 
families of their several localities. Some Ferrarese pieces have doubtless 
been preserved, and are probably now classed among those of Faenza, 
with which they must have a great affinity. In the Gallery at Modena 
are some in the Urbino manner, which came from the guardaroha of the 
Casa d'Este, and perhaps may have been made at Ferrara ; one having the 
three white eagles of the Este is dated 1526. 

In the Castellani Collection sold at Paris in 1878, Lot 190 was thus 
described : * Coupe ronde sur pied bas, armoiries de la famille Estensi, 
surmontees d'une tete de cherubin et flanquees de deux sphinx. Au-dessous, 
un cahier de musique ouvert portant un Duo jusqu'au signe verte folium 
(tournez la page). Decor en camaieu sur fond gros bleu ; les armoiries 
seules sont en couleurs.' It is possible that this may be a piece of the 
earlier productions of Ferrara. 

It is not till 1579, when the art was in decadence, and when the Urbino 
style of ornamentation prevailed, that, on the occasion of the marriage 
of Alfonso II with Margarita di Gonzaga, it is believed that a credenza was 
made, the pieces of which are to be recognized by bearing the device of 
a burning pyre, with the motto * Ardet aeternum' 

This service is supposed by Signor Giuseppe Boschini to have been 
made at Ferrara, but the Marquis Campori, notwithstanding a diligent 
search among the archives, which he has explored with such valuable 
results to the history of ceramic art in Italy, can find no entry of the 
production of any such service, nor indeed any further record of the 
continuance of the fabrique at the ducal castle, after the untimely death 
of M°. Camillo in 1567, or during the course of that year ; from which he 
concludes that at the death of Battista, M". Camillo's brother, which 
happened, as he believes, within a short period, and perhaps also partly 
in consequence of the earthquakes which caused so much damage to 
Ferrara during the years from 1570 to 1574, the production of maiolica 
ceased, after having continued, with small interruption, during a period of 
nearly a century and a half. 

The pieces of this service, while assimilating to the later pro- 
ductions of the Urbino furnaces, have a distinctive character of their 
own, and although their connexion with Ferrara may be merely one of 
ownership, and not of origin, we think it well to class them for the 
present under that head, simply because we have no other standard to 
which we can attach all that is known of the history of that princely 
botega, and because these pieces have, in default of positive evidence 
to the contrary, been accepted as Ferrarese. 



ESTE 291 

They are remarkable for the purity of the white enamel ground ; the 
grotesques are by another hand than those on pieces universally accepted 
as of the later period of Urbino or of Pesaro, but they are not easily 
distinguished without examination of the specimens side by side. They 
cannot bear comparison with the finer w^orks produced at the Fontana 
fabrique at Urbino in the zenith of its existence, wanting that masterly 
execution of the grotesques which we are disposed to attribute to Camillo, 
and indeed hardly superior to those painted at Rome by Gio. Pavlo. 
Savino at the botega of M°. Diomede Durante. 

Two cruets of this service are in the Louvre (Nos, G. 588, 590) ; two, 
for ' Olio ' and * Aceto/ from the Soulages Collection, are in the South 
Kensington Museum. At Narford was a circular cistern or vasque, with 
serpent handles, decorated externally with grotesques on the white ground, 
and inside with the figure of Neptune riding on the sea ; on a rock 
rising from the waves is placed the blazing pyre, surmounted by the 
motto ' Ardei aeterntini ^.' There were also a salt-cellar and a vase with 
serpent handles and double spout in the same collection, decorated in 
the same style and bearing the same impresa. Another example was in the 
Napier Collection, No. 2956. Perhaps it is one of these salt-cellars which 
is now in the British Museum. Two pieces are in the Brera at Milan. 
A salt-cellar is m the Museo Correr at Venice. 

Alfonso II died in 1597, after which the dukedom was absorbed 
into the States of the Church. The Este family removed to Modena, to 
which place the contents of the palace at Ferrara were carried, including 
the old maiolica, some of which is mentioned in inventories of the seven- 
teenth century. A few pieces, which escaped destruction during the 
French invasion of Italy, were gathered from neglected corners of the 
palace, and placed in the Public Gallery of Modena in 1859. 

ESTE. 

The early wares decorated by the ingobhiahira or the sgraffiata process 
and mezza maiolica seem to have been produced at Este anterior to the 
fourteenth century, and some fragments have been found in the vicinity ; 
but of the local productions of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth 
centuries we have no exact record. In the eighteenth centur^^, Ati- 
ionibon of Venice was established and made good enamelled ware at 
Novi, and Gio. Battista Brunello of Este made maiolica before 1765. 

' The same impresa occurs on a contemporary medal on which the portraits of the 
Duke and Duchess are represented facing each other. 

U 2 



292 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

He was joined by M°, Ant. Verziera, and artists came to them from Novi 
bringing designs and colours. This led to actions on the part oi Antonibon. 
One Giovanni Pietro Fan on, a. Frenchman, leaving Novi, went first to 
Bologna and thence to Este. Giovaniti Franchini purchased the secret of 
making porcelain from Varion, and they together set up a fabrique ; 
a fine group, the Gods on Parnassus, by them is now in the Casa Franchini 
at Este. Varion left his partner, but did not succeed in making wares 
* a ringlese.' He died, and his widow associated herself with Antonio 
Costa of Novi, with better success : they also made fine porcelain. 

Girolamo Franchini erected large works at Este in 1782 : obtaining 
privileges in 1785. The marks on his wares are a radiated roundel bearing 
the letter G beneath ESTE, or simply G. F. In consequence the Brunello 
works were closed, and were sold in 1810 to Domenico Apostoli, whose 
descendants produce good wares, with ornament in relief of rich red colour, 
and others of tortoiseshell brown. The Fabri and Costa works ceased. 
That of the Franchini is still active. (Urbani de Gheltof, La manifattnra 
di maiolica e di porcellana in Este, 8vo ; and in his Notizie, at p. 47.) 



MODENA. 

Although the antique pottery of Modena is referred to by Pliny and by 
Livy, we have no exact record or marked example of wares produced there 
during the period of the Renaissance. Lodovico Corradini and other 
Modenese artists in terra-cotta worked at Ferrara, and Cristoforo da Modena 
was boccalaro to the Duke of that territory in the sixteenth century. 

At the end of the fifteenth century Codro Urceo, the poet, sent 
a present of pottery to Luca Riha, from Modena, accompanied by a Latin 
epigram. 

Piccolpasso, moreover, names Modena as a place where maiohca was 
produced, but whether of a superior or of a more ordinary kind we are 
not informed. In the last century, about 1765, Geminiano Cozzi, of that 
city, was the leading maker of porcelain at Venice, but the monopoly 
granted to the fabrique of Sassuolo impeded the manufacture of enamelled 
wares elsewhere in the duchy. 

At SASSUOLO, a town prettily situated ten miles to the south of 
Modena, an establishment for the manufacture of enamelled earthenware 
was introduced by Gio. Andrea Ferrari in 1741. It would seem, from 
documents quoted by Campori, that he obtained from the Duke Francesco III 
the right of making ordinary white and painted maiolica, as the stanniferous 
enamelled wares were then universally denominated, to the exclusion of all 



MODENA 293 



rivals in the duchy, and all importation of the like from other parts, except 
during the fair held at Reggio. The work commenced in 1742, and in a few 
years he was joined by Gio. Maria Dallari ; their rights were from time to time 
renewed, and in 1756 confirmed to the extent of granting the monopoly to 
the family for three generations ; the materials were not to be charged with 
import dut}', and the advantages secured to the fabrique were further 
extended in 1761 by even excluding the foreign wares from the fair at 
Reggio, the manufacturers on their part being bound to supply the duchy 
with an abundance of good wares at moderate prices. Notwithstanding 
occasional appeals against the monopol}', the work continued, emploN'ing 
artists from Imola and Faenza, among others Ignazio Cavazzuti of Modena, 
and Pietro Lei of Sassuolo, the ceramic painter, who was subsequently 
associated with Casali and Caligari at Pesaro in 1765. 

The wares produced were various, among others finer pieces painted in 
the Japanese st3'le, and with flowers and gilding; groups of figures were 
also made, and a large export business carried on. 

In 1790, the spirit of free trade having stirred the minds of the council, 
notwithstanding a most favourable report made b}'^ Ignazio Cavazzuti, an 
* expert ' of the period, in answer to an appeal against the conduct of the 
manufacture, permission was granted to import wares from other princi- 
palities into the duchy. 

The French invasion, that destructive volcanic wave, which, after 
devastating the continent of Europe, carried away on its receding surge 
to the country whence it came so many of the more valuable and portable 
treasures which its advance had uprooted, severel}' injured the manufactory 
at Sassuolo, as it had destroyed that of Buen Retiro ; but it partiall3' re- 
covered from the shock, not however again producing wares above 
those of ordinary qualit}'. It still continues, employing some fift\' or sixty 
hands at the two separate establishments which w^ere directed by the 
brothers Carlo and D. Antonio Rubbiani, who sent specimens of its 
produce to the Paris Exposition of 1867, gaining the bronze medal. 

REGGIO must have had a potter}^ for in 1565 an appeal was made 
to the Duke Alfonso II to forbid the importation of wares from elsewhere, 
whereby to encourage the native boccalari; but what they produced does 
not appear. 

At SCAN D IAN O, a neighbouring borgafa, one Nuvoletti set up in 
1754 to make enamelled ware, but the privileges granted to Sassuolo 
were fatal to his undertaking. 

So also at S. POSSIDONIO, where the Marquis Achille Taccoli 
established an experimental pottery at his villa about the same period; 
he was joined by one Carlo Cremonesi, followed by Geminiano Benassi 



294 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

of Modena and Paolo Costoli of Padua. The work lasted a year only, 
when it was put down and the produce destroyed by the authorities, on 
the strength of the monopoly granted to Sassuolo. The Marquis made 
another effort, but with the same result. 



MANTUA. 

From a document in the Archivio della Camera di Commercio, seen 
by Signor Portioli, and referred to by Campori, it would appear that the 
art was introduced at Mantua under the government of the Marchese 
Lodovico III (1444- 1478), and that its workers had their statutes, which 
were altered and amended from time to time ; but we are quite unable 
to judge of the character of the wares produced. They were presumably 
of an inferior quality, for we find that Isabella d'Este in 1494 (see Ferrara) 
procured maiolica for her own use from Ferrara, Urbino, &c., which 
would argue that the pottery of Mantua was inferior. In the second half 
of that century Schivenoglia mentions a bottega di Maioli, conducted by 
one Zonan Antonio. Majolaro, and remains of a furnace with fragments 
of ware, were discovered in 1864 on the ' riva al Lago inferiore,' from whence 
Signor Portioli procured a small plate painted with a female bust, ara- 
besques, &c. Campori states that about 1591 potters came from Arbizzola 
or Albissola on the Ligurian coast and established a botega which existed 
till 1630; he quotes documents of the year 1616 confirming its existence, 
and the formation of a partnership for three years* between Giuseppe 
Casale and Scipione Tamburino for the production of maiolica ; and another 
of 1617, prohibiting the importation of foreign wares, except at the fair of 
S. Lorenzo in Ostiglia. This order was repealed in 1621, and in 1626 
another document confers the right of making maiolica upon one Lazzaro 
Levi. Campori suggests that the imprcsa adopted by Francesco Gonzaga 
after the battle of Taro, namely a crucible in a fire and containing ingots of 
gold, may be a distinguishing mark of the Mantuan faience even of a later 
period. 



CHAPTER VI 



VENETIAN STATES. 

VENICE. 

WHEN the Catalogue of the South Kensington Maiolica was pubhshcd 
in 1872 our knowledge of the production of artistic enamelled pottery 
in Venice was rightly said to begin with the 3'ear 1540. Previous to that 
date there can be little doubt that the Venetian ovens produced enamelled 
wares of greater or less merit, but we had no sufficient record of their 
character. 

The researches of the late Signor Lazari, of the Marquis Campori, and 
of Sir William Drake gave to us all that we then knew upon the subject, 
in addition to the more positive evidence inscribed upon specimens in our 
collections. 

Since that time the researches of Sig. Urbani de Gheltof* have 
given us more definite information, and from them we learn that from 
the first occupation of the group of Adriatic islands, and even from pre- 
historic times, the potter's art was practised, as proved by pieces found in 
excavations. 

During the reparation made a few years since to some parts of the foun- 
dation of the basilica of St. Mark, an opportunity was afforded for the 
recovery of pieces of pottery buried previously to the erection of that edifice 
and anterior to the 3'ear 825. Fragments of rude unglazed wares were 
brought to light of debased classic form — lamps, portions of drinking cups, 
and amphorae ; on one piece, the neck and shoulders of an amphora, the 
letters NELI are incised; these Sig. Urbani would read as of the family 
ELIA by whom the church of S. Basso was founded But whether 
those early rude unglazed wares were all absolutely made on the Rialto, 

^ Studii intorno alia Ceramica Veneziana. Venice, 1876 (privately printed). Les Arts 
Industriels a Venise. 8vo, Venice, 1885. 



296 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

or brought over from the mainland when making the foundation of 
the old basilica, we have no positive assurance. He concludes that 
pieces covered with a green, yellow, or brown plumbiferous glaze on 
forms, as lamps, &c., still of classic origin, were of the eleventh to the 
thirteenth centuries. 

Seme very interesting fragments of glazed capitals, pillars, and moulded 
arching, probably portions of the ancient edifice, were found in excavating 
for foundations beneath the Fondaco dei Turchi ; these doubtless were 
of local production. Sig. Urbani believes that as early as the commence- 
ment of the fourteenth century a slip or engobe of terra bianca was used 
to conceal the rude clay beneath a lead glaze, and that the mezza maioltca 
was then and there made. 

It has been observed that, as an economy in the manufacture, this was, 
for the cheaper wares, only used on the inside of the vessel ; for those 
of higher price the whole piece was bathed in the creamy clay. Sig. 
Urbani finds numerous fragments of such wares ornamented by the 
sgraffmta process, which seems to have been in use at Venice, as we 
know it was more or less in all Italy. He remarks, however, that there 
is a marked oriental influence in the character of the foliation and other 
design upon those pieces. 

From a codice of 1300 preserved in the library at the Brera, it appears 
that a corporation existed at Venice by and for whom certain rules were 
established; they were producers of ' scutelle' ^ pladene,' ' mezzore' pieces 
for table use. By these rules the wares were only to be glazed inside ; 
they were not to be repaired {meridare), probably implying that fire-cracks 
were not to be concealed and glazed over ; no work was to be done in 
December or January, and any persons buying gleta or bianco must 
report the purchase to the supervisor within eight days, and allow 
other compagni to have some portion at the cost price. This gleta is 
probably the same as the ghetta of Piccolpasso, lake or river deposit. 
In 1303 rules were made in respect to the purity of colours used ; and in 
1306 other rules were passed, forbidding the grinding of colours at the 
workman's house. In 1307 other regulations appeared as to the purchase 
oi gleta bianca', and in 1312 a modification of the rule against working in 
December and January. The fragments of such wares found in Venice were 
doubtless produced by these workers. 

In the Register of the Grande Scuola di S. Maria della Carita is the will 
of Sier Nicolb Bocaler, which cannot be later than within the first half of the 
fourteenth century; he therefore probably began his work as a potter at 
the end of the thirteenth century. Another is Antonio de Lorzi Scudeler, 
whose will is entered in 1413 in the same registry. 



VENICE 297 

In 1323 the Maggior Conseglio gave order that the firing of the ovens 
should take place onl}' at night, doubtless on account of the smoke. The 
profits afforded would seem to have been considerable, as we hear of one 
donna Francesca Scudelera, who, at the time of the war of Chioggia, con- 
tributed 1000 ducats towards the expenses of the defence, out of the gains 
from her fabbrica di stoviglie. It does not, however, follow from this that 
they were other than the ordinary wares of various quality for domestic use. 

Signor Urbani de Gheltof refers to the beautiful roundels of Delia 
Robbia rilievo in the church of S. Giobbe as perhaps the work of 
a Florentine sculptor working at Venice, and suggests that Antonio Ros- 
sellino, w^ho, Sansovino states, erected an altar in that church, may probably 
have executed these. Having carefully studied these roundels we should 
think it more probable that some member of the Delia Robbia family executed 
them, possibly after Rossellino's designs. Of the remains of a pavement 
of tiles formerly in the sacristy of the church of Sta. Elena, and there placed 
by order of Giovanni and Francesco Giustiniani probably in the earlier 
half of the fifteenth century, we have only the description by Cicogna, 
and a fragment now belonging to Sig. Urbani de Gheltof. Whether it 
was the work of Venetian artists, or of those of Castel Durante or Faenza, 
we do not think there is sufficient evidence to decide. 

The other important tile pavement in Venice is that of the Lando Chapel 
in the church of S. Sebastiano; by some it has been supposed Venetian, 
but Faenza has long had the credit of its production. We have referred 
to this fine work in our notice of the Faentine and Durantine potteries, 
inclining, as we still do, in favour of Castel Durante as its producer rather 
than Faenza. The same question was entertained b}' the late Sig. Lazari, 
with whom we examined the pavement many years ago. 

In 1426, and again in 1437 and 1455, strict rules were enacted in regard 
to the importation of foreign wares, not permitting them to be brought 
even into the Venetian Gulf, but excepting, as in the decree of 1437, 
' i lavori di Majolica^ and those imported da Valenza to which Marineo 
Siculo referred in 15 17, which were esteemed above all others from 
Spain, as being so well lustred ^. Advantage of exceptions in the rules 
of 1455 having been too freely taken, a more stringent law was enacted 
on March 27, 1474, prohibiting all pottery except crucibles and * Majolica 
che viene da Valenza ' : this would seem to be the first use of the word 
^Majolica' as denoting a particular quality of wares enriched with the 
metallic lustre. 

In 1503, however, it appears that exception was made in favour of certain 

* Sloviglie cosi siimale sopra tulle le allre di Spagna, e cost bene dorale. 



298 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

productions from Faenza, which were then at their highest perfection 
(Malagola), and it may have been for such only that the exception was 
made. About the middle of the fifteenth century we find artists' names 
recorded ; the testament of Mainardo de Antonio bocalario de confinio sancti 
Pantaleonis ; to Giacomo de Bernardo, his nephew, he bequeaths his pottery 
works, instruments, and laboratory. Mainardo's father, who was a potter 
of Pesaro, died in 1477, and must have worked in the early years of that 
century ; here we have proof of a well-established pottery at S. Pantaleone 
in Venice during the early years of the fifteenth century. An albarello in 
the collection of M. Fajet is suggested as probably of this botega. 

Referring to the enamelled wares in rilievo made at Nuremberg, it is 
a curious fact that one Francesco G. Salvatore, calling himself ' Scutelario 
teiitonico de norimbergo,' was an inhabitant of Venice in contrada S. Marziale, 
and made his will in 1488, Nov. 23; he was a ^ scodellaio' Urbani de 
Gheltof has a boceale with figure of an angel in relief, coloured, and on a fine 
green ground a beautiful work in the German manner, which he suggests 
may be by this artistic potter. 

In 1489 one Matteo d'Alviso, of Faenza, lived at Venice, and made jugs 
and plates of great value for Doge Agostino Barbarigo, painted by one 
Tommaso disegnador (Procur. di S. Marco, Decreti, &c., Malagola). On 
a fete day he showed wares on the piazza S. Marco which were broken by 
the procurators, against whom he appealed, and was granted an indemnity 
of 370 ducats. 

In the Archivio Notariale is recorded the will dated March 28, 1515, of 
Giacomo Antonio Bocalario de Safito Angello de Pisanro, living at S. Barnaba 
in Venice, leaving legacies to his wife and relatives, all Pesarese, and money 
to certain of the churches and for repairing the port at that city ; Giacomo 
must therefore have been established at Venice at the end of the fifteenth 
century, and was evidently a well-to-do potter. His works were probably 
continued by his two sons Francesco and Gasparo, but what quality of 
wares they then produced we have no means of learning. It would hardly 
seem probable that they were lustred wares, or they would have been 
protected as a native industry against those imported from Majorca and 
Spain. 

Whether his sons continued to use the established name of the botega 
di M". Jacomo after their father's death, or whether a grandson having his 
baptismal name subsequently conducted the works, it would seem prob- 
able that a fine plate, formerly in the possession of Mr. Durlacher and 
signed at back ' In Venetia a St'. Barnaba In Botega dj M''. Jacomo da Pesaro 
1^42' (Mark No. 404) was a production of that pottery. The glaze of this 
dish is of a uniform pale grey tone, probably intended to imitate Chinese 



VENICE 299 

celadon ; it is covered with ornamentation painted in white ; in the centre are 
a fish and a mask ; foHated scroll and strapwork with flowers, &c., surround, 
and on the border are four heads in medallions inscribed lvcretia • omero • 
FAVSTINA • oviDio. In the Castellani Collection was another example, a small 
fruitiera with basket border, white ground, the border enriched with bianco 
sopra bianco, on the centre two heads, well drawn in blue ; signed at back 
* 1543 / Venetia a Sa Beniaba M°. Jacomo.' M. Molinier states that there is 
another in the Louvre inscribed ' M°. Jaconw da Pesaro a di Setembre 1548.' 

In 1518 Isabella Gonzaga. Duchess of Mantua, ordered of Alfonso Trotti, 
the Duke's representative at Venice, Piadenetfe di preta of Venice and of 
Faenza, which were approved b}- her (Malagola, pp. 364, 365). 

We learn from the archives of Modena that in 1520 the great Titian was 
commissioned b}' Alfonso I, of Ferrara, through his agent at Venice, Tebaldi, 
to procure a quantit}' of glass made at Murano, and of earthen and maiolica 
vases, for the ducal pharmac}' ; and that Titian himself undertook to super- 
intend the execution of the work. 

On June i Tebaldi writes : ' By the boatman, Giovanni Tressa, I send 
to 3'our Excellency eleven great, and eleven medium, and twenty smaller 
vases of maiolica, with the covers, commanded b}' Titian for3our Excellenc3's 
pharmac}-.' 

We may therefore infer that the works at Venice were either superior in 
their productive capacity- to those established in the castle at Ferrara, or 
that these had ceased working for the time. 

M. Jacquemart believed that works producing artistic wares existed at 
Venice as early as the second half of the fifteenth century, arguing that if 
the qualities of the Venetian potter3' were of so high an order at that period 
as to induce the inventor of the celebrated bianco di Ferrara to order vases 
for his own pharmac\' it must have been developed and perfected from an 
earlier date. It is equally- probable that wares for such a purpose were, 
more cheaply produced at the larger Venetian fabrique than they could 
be at the private furnace in the Castello at Ferrara. 

M. Jacquemart, in support of this opinion, instanced an albarello in 
the collection of M. Fa\et also referred to b}^ Sig. Urbani (see ante\ painted 
with a portrait head with long hair cut square on the forehead, in the fashion 
of the fifteenth century, and having among the ornaments a legend in 
Venetian patois. 

The importance of this industry- at Venice in the earl}' sixteenth centurj' 
is proved bj- the discover}* of an inscribed slab, which was originall}- on the 
sepulchre of the Arte dei Boccaleri; it bore the words scola • figvlor • svis • 

OMNIBVS • PIE • DEDICAVIT • MDXIII. 

Signor Lazari considered that the examples of glazed tiles existent in the 



300 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

sacristy of the church of Sta. Elena at Venice, before referred to, having the 
arms of the Giustiniani family, and dating about 1450-1480 ; as also those in 
the Lando Chapel of S. Sebastiano, having a monogram and the date 1510 
(see Faenza), and other examples anterior to about 1545, were importations 
from Faenza or from Castel Durante, an opinion then shared by the writer 
after a careful examination of those pavements in his company. 

It would seem that wares, either the produce of the Venetian potters, or 
perhaps the Valencian and * Damas ' wares, together with Venetian glass, 
were objects of Venetian commerce with England, carried on by means of 
the celebrated galleys of Flanders. 

Among Mr. Rawdon Brown's Venetian state papers' is recorded a safe- 
conduct from Richard II, granting permission during ten years to the 
passengers on board two Venetian galleys then lying in the port of London 
(September 27, 1399) to sell small wares brought over by them, nam.ely, glass 
vessels and earthenware plates, free of duty ^. 

Sir William Drake gives the wording of a petition dated December 22, 
1664, from the Guild of the * Boccaleri ' of Venice, in which reference is 
made to the previous decrees in their favour issued in the years 1455, 1472, 
and 1518, prohibiting the importation of foreign earthenware ; and a decree 
of the Senate of March 21, 1665, prohibiting the importation or sale in Venice 
of any sort of foreign earthenware by any person not being a member of the 
Guild, but upon the condition that that body should keep the city well 
supplied with ' latesini,' and that shops should be kept open for its sale ^ 

As before, two varieties of earthenware are exempted from this pro- 
hibition, viz. ' correzzoli ' crucibles and the ' magiolica da Valenza.' 

This petition states that the workers at this ' povera arte ' were reduced 
to thirty persons, including masters and workmen ; and from its general 
tenor we may infer that, at the period of its presentation, the potter's art in 
Venice was reduced to the production of very ordinary wares ; neither do 
we find any allusion to its artistic excellence at the periods of the former 
decrees, the last of those referred to being of the year 1518 ; two years 
afterwards we find the order from the Duke of Ferrara for pharmacy 
jars, and not till twenty years later the first recorded piece of artistic ware 
bearing a date. 

It is curious, and perhaps confirmatory of the inferiority of Venetian 
artistic pottery at that period, that .an exception should still be made in 

^ Vol. i. p. Ixvi, and p. 39. that dye used at Venice, and perhaps else- 

^ Drake, Ven. Cer., p. 10. where,andinallusionto the dark blue colour. 

^ The term lattesini or lattisini applied to We should rather believe that it alludes to 

these Venetian wares has been supposed to the milky whiteness of the best wares, and 

be derived from /fl/fsmo=indigo— a name for their bianco sopra bianco ornamentation. 



PLATE XXI 




VASE. GROTESQUES. BY ' M. Diotuede Durante in Roma MDC 




\ 




CIRCULAR DISH. A MERMAJD. VENICE, DATED l6 OCT. I54O 



VENICE 301 

favour of the maiolica of Valencia, which we know also to have been 
imported into Genoa, At the date of the decrees of 1455, 1472, and 1518 
these Spanish wares were in great perfection, but were sadly inferior in 1664. 

It seems probable, therefore, that from 1520 to 1550 was the culminating 
period of its excellence in respect to painting and design ; but it is neverthe- 
less reasonable to suppose that the pieces produced in 1520 under the 
supervision of Titian must have been decorated with considerable artistic 
excellence. 

The earliest dated example is a deep circular dish in the Ashmolean 
Museum (Fortnum Collection, pi. xxi), the centre of which is occupied by 
the figure of a mermaid floating on the sea, a horn in her right hand, 
and regarding herself in a mirror which she holds in her left ; the wide 
border is covered with intricate and very elegant arabesque sprays of 
foliage, with fruits and flowers, among which are birds. The whole is 
painted in dull pale blue on a grey enamel, and heightened with white ; 
on the reverse is the inscription ' 1540 • adi • 16 • del • mexe • deotvbre.' 
This plate is clearly by the hand and of the botega of M". Lodo\dco, whose 
name occurs on No. 4438 of the South Kensington Collection. 

An early piece with shaped edging, perhaps of this botega, is in Mr. 
Salting's Collection ; subject, Hercules and Antaeus, after Marc Antonio's 
engraving from Pollaiuolo. 

The next date, April 13, 1543. is on the plate No. 8512 in the South 
Kensington Museum, accompanied by a name which reads aolasdinr, and is 
a piece of the same general character, but may be by a different brush. 

It would seem also that Guido Merligiio, of Urbino, had a shop in Venice 
at San Paolo. 

Mr. Marryat^ cites an example painted with signs of the Zodiac and 
inscribed 'Fate in botega de Guido Merligno Vasaroda Urbino in San Polo 
a di 30 di Marzio 1542.' (See Urbino, p. 218.) There are others in the 
Brunswick Museum ; another is referred to in the Campana Collection at 
the Louvre ; and the Rev. T. Berney possessed an example. (Loan 
Catalogue, p. 443.) 

Sig. Lazari '^, quoting from Piccolpasso, refers to a fabrique of enamelled 
earthenware existing in Venice between 1545 and 1550, which Piccolpasso 
had visited, and which was conducted by Francesco or Cecco di Pieragnolo 
del Vasaro and his father-in-law, Gianantonio da Pesaro, from Castel Durante. 
They had erected the largest furnace to be seen in those days ^ Piccolpasso 

* Op cit. p. 65. larga 10 piedi e lunga 12, dico di sopra dalla 

^ Not. Race. Correr, p. 79. volta quella del piancito, ed avea tre bocche 

' * Ne hoveduta una io in casa di M. Fran- dove si dava fuoco, ma questa non fa al pro- 

cescodi Pier del vasajodella terra di Durante, positonostro.' Page29ofthc Roman edition. 



302 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

also describes the mills for grinding clay peculiar to Venice, and states 
that earth was imported from Pesaro. These artists probably introduced 
a new style. 

Further, we have the N'arford plate, the work of a different painter from 
those produced by Maestro Lodovico, and probably of a different botega, 
dated 1546, and inscribed '■fatto in Venezia in chastello ' (see Mark No, 409). 

And again, of April 25, 1550, is the plate No. 4605 in the South 
Kensington Museum, which with greater probability may be deemed of 
the Lodovico fabrique. 

M. Demmin ' mentions a dish at the Hague in the Meerman Westreman 
Collection, inscribed * I fortissimi Roma contra ire Pierro Baldantonio a di 
Octo. 1551, in Venicio.' 

In 1567 Battista di Francesco, writing on May 25 to the Duke of Ferrara 
on the subject of borrowing the sum of three hundred crowns, in considera- 
tion of his services, which he offers to the Duke as a master potter and 
maker of maiolica in various shapes and of various qualities, sa3^s that he is 
then living at Murano with his wife and children. He tells the Duke that 
he possesses a well-stocked shop, but that he is anxious to serve him as 
a potter at Ferrara, having heard so much of the Duke's magnanimity and 
other excellences ; and he begs a reply may be addressed to M. Battista di 
PVancesco, maker of maiolica vases, Rio delle Verrieri, Murano. We do 
not hear of his having received the appointment. 

M. Molinier suggests that Johann Newdorfer (the Vasari of Germany), 
whose name is found on pieces of faience of Italian character and somewhat 
in the Venetian style, may have really painted these ; and that he may 
have learned the art at Venice. Two pieces are in the Museum at 
Cassel (Nos. 11, 12) of the same service, with shield of arms and lambre- 
quins in the German st3'le in the centre ; two monograms are below, and 
the date 1552 ; above is a large cartouche, the inscription in Gothic character 
' Spartam quam nactus es banc orna Johann Newdorffer rechenmeister.' 
At the German Museum in Nuremberg are some pieces of Venetian 
oriental character, and bearing shields of arms of the German families Imhoff 
and Schlawdersbach. Another has the united shields of Lochinger and 
Imhof. Andreas Imhof married Ursula Schlawdersbach in 1518, and Jobst 
Lochinger married Helene Koler, nee Imhof, in 1548. Some others 
are in public and private collections, having German coats of arms. 

One was in the Spitzer Collection also with the Imhoff arms, and border 
in the manner of the Kutahia scrolls and flowers, blue on white ground. 
One in the Museum at Sevres (No. 21 11) is dated 1548. 

' Guide dc TAmateur. .. ,. ■ 



VENICE 303 

M. Molinieralso thinks that the pieces covered with black or brown glaze 
and gilding, some painted with flowers and in oil colours ' a froid' and with 
gilding, may be of Venetian production. 

In the Brunswick Museum there is a large dish, No. 1154, having the 
subject of Moses and Aaron entreating Pharaoh, with a rich border of 
medallions figurative of the months, &c., and the inscription ' 1^68. Zener 
Domenigo da Venecia Feci in la botega al ponte sito del Andar a San Paolo.' 

The companion dish in the same collection is signed ' Domengo Becer 
feci 1^68' ) Its subject is the Overthrow of the Eg^'ptians in the Red Sea ; 
the reverse has a fine scrollwork border on rich blue ground. 

Another, No. 36, in the same Museum : Christ and St. Peter ' lo domenigo 
da Vencia in Venecia feci.' (Molinier.) 

Another, and presumably inferior, fabrique produced in 1593 the drug 
pot No. 5402 in the South Kensington Museum by ^ Jaconio Vasellaro, 
a ripa granni^ after which we lose sight of dated pieces till the earlier 
years ol the next century. 

M. Emile Molinier ascribes the dark blue service, with ornamentation in 
white and real gold, made for Cardinal Farnese and now at Naples, to 
a Venetian botega. He refers to one such piece inscribed ' Rda Madre sitor 
Zuana iyg6' This ware is of a fine ' latticinio' indigo in colour. It has 
also been assigned to the potteries of Castelli. It is imitated by recent 
forgers. 

One Stcfano Barcella Veneziano was an artist on enamelled wares, but 
whether he painted on the Venetian pottery or elsewhere is uncertain. (Mark 
No. 400.) 

Among other artist potters working at Venice, a long list of whom is 
given by Sig. Urbani, were Baldassari de Baldassini of Pesaro, Marino and 
his son, Andrea of Urbino and his son Vito, Battista and Comin di Gerardo 
Fontana da Urbino, Vicenzo di Benedetto, Gabellotto and Gian-Maria of 
Faenza, Angelo and Matteo of Treviso, Bernardino di Martino and Baldassare 
Marforio of Castel Durante. 

We next come to a series of pieces having for mark a C-formed fish-hook, 
with loop at one extremity and barbed point at the other. The only name 
which occurs in connexion with these examples is that of one Dionigi Marini, 
who signs a plate having this mark twice repeated, and the date 1636. Its 
subject is horses, and it is stated to be in the collection of M. Roger de 
Beauvoir. 

The same mark, with the date 1622, is on a piece in the Berlin Museum. 

A plate, also referred to by M. Jacquemart and by Mr. Chaffers, 
representing the Annunciation, was in the UzieUi Collection, and on it the 
hook divides the four letters of the date 1571. This specimen has been lost 



304 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES. 

sight of, but it seems more probable to the writer that the date may have 
been read in error, perhaps from the imperfection of the glaze, and may 
have been possibly intended for 1621 or 1671. 

A large room fountain in the Hotel Cluny, decorated with masks and gar- 
lands in rehef, has a similar mark, but M. Jacquemart considered that its style 
denotes a period of production too far removed from that of the plate in 
question to suppose any connexion in regard to their fabrique. He does 
not appear to have seen the plate, neither has the writer; but M. Jacque- 
mart's remark is confirmatory of our doubt as to the correct reading of 
its date. 

In the seventeenth century the ^ lattesini ad itso di Faettza' were largely 
made at Venice ; and in 1628-9 ^^^ ^^3^ such wares were taken to 
the fair at Padua by permission. They were still protected by prohibition 
of importation of other than the * Majolica da Valema' but in 1669 the 
establishment of the Marnardi at Bassano and the Antonibon at Nove led to 
the diminution of that class of wares at Venice. 

About the middle of the last century the estabhshment of the Bertolini at 
Murano produced enamelled earthenware. 

At Nove the Antonibon, and at Bassano the Manardi, in 1669, and Gio. 
Maria Salmuzzo, and in its neighbourhood Giovanni Antonio Caffo, working 
for the Marnardi in 1738, were manufacturers of enamelled pottery of various 
excellence during the second half of that century. 

In 1753 the Bertolini obtained a decree of the Senate permitting them to 
open a shop in Venice for the sale of their maiolica, free for ten years of all 
import and export duties. In their petition they had stated that the ware 
they were able to produce, after many costly experiments, was perfect in 
respect to the qualities of whiteness, lightness, and design, and equal to 
that produced by any other fabrique in the State; but that from the 
monopoly held by Antonibon of Nove, and Salmuzzo of Bassano, they 
were unable to compete with them, although the wares they produced 
were of equal excellence. Notwithstanding, the manufactory had ceased 
before the expiration of the term of the decree in 1763, when it was 
annulled. 

The leading characteristics of the enamelled pottery produced at Venice 
in the sixteenth century are, a close buff-coloured body, covered by an 
even glaze of grey colour produced by the admixture of a small portion 
of zaffre, and known as 'smaltino.' A similar tone of grounding was 
used at Padua. Upon this the design was outlined and shaded in blue, 
of a rather low tone," the high lights being touchW in with white. The 
reverse of the dishes generally have a belt of foliated sprays round the rim, 
and radiating flutings or alternating thin and thicker lines round the 



T REV ISO 305 

* cavetto.' It is worthy of remark that some of the Paduan wares are 
similarly ornamented, and we may thence infer some connexion between 
the establishments, or an attempt at imitation ; the fact that a cross was 
adopted as a mark at both places is also noteworthy. 

Such are the pieces produced by M". Lodovico about 1540 ; but we may 
also assign to his botega others on which the glaze is of greater richness, 
and the blue of greater intensity, with the occasional use of a brilliant yellow 
pigment ; of such are No. 4605, in the South Kensington Museum, dated 
1550, and we are inclined to conclude that these pieces are of the later period 
of the manufacture and betray Durantine influence. 

The subject pieces, such as tlie late Mr. Fountaine's plate made 'in 
Chastello 1)46,' and one unsigned in the writer's possession, representing 
the destruction of the children of Niobe, but without inscription, be- 
token the influence of Urbino, and may have emanated from the botega 
of Guido Merligno. 

The Venetian wares of the last centur}^, which, without positive proof, 
are generally believed to have been produced by the Bertolini, have also 
distinctive qualities. They are remarkable for their thinness and lightness ; 
baked at a high temperature, they are almost as sonorous as metal, and, 
having the ornamentation round the rim executed in rilievo, they have been 
mistaken for enamelled copper with repousse flowers, &c. The colours 
used on them were generally blue and brown, with yellow occasionally, 
on a pale blue or dull white ground. 

Sig. Urbani de Gheltof (op. cit.) gives much information on the 
potters of Venice and their productions during the last and the earlier 
portion of the present century. 

Venice lays claim to the invention of porcelain ; and we have alluded to 
this matter, although be^'ond the boundary of our subject, in the notice on 
the fabrique at Ferrara. We may however state that the production of 
porcelain was taken up by a member of the noble family of Vezzi, in partner- 
ship with Liica Mantoiani, and works opened in S. Niccolo in 1719 : it 
failed about 1740. The Heivelcke also set up works in 1758, but it too was 
soon closed. Ginimiano Co^s/ opened a fabrique at S. Giobbe in 1765, and 
made excellent porcelain, the best about 1769. The works fell with the 
Republic in 1812. 

T REV I SO. 

Garzoni, in the Piazza Universale, which has been alread}'^ quoted in 
reference to the pottery of Pesaro and other places, speaks of the wares 
of Treviso as being as inferior to those of Faenza as puff-balls to truffles. 
A deep dish formerl}' in the Addington Collection, on which is painted the 

X 



3o6 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

subject of the Sermon on the Mount, with border of grotesques on a blue 
ground, has on the reverse a male portrait, supported by cupids and encircled 
by a band on which is inscribed : d.o.n. p.a.r.i. s.t. o.e.d. a. t.r.a.v.i.s.i.o., 
and on a label * mdxxx 8.' 

Whether this is intended for the signature of the artist, or the name and 
portrait of the owner, to whom it might have been a gift-piece, is an open 
question ; we incline to the latter solution, in which case it becomes doubtful 
whether the piece was made at Treviso or at some other fabrique, for pre- 
sentation to the Don, a resident of that place. 

Wares somewhat hke that produced at Monte Lupo, and perhaps at 
Castel Durante, having a glossy black or brown-black glaze, decorated 
with sprays, scrolls, birds, &c., in thin gilding, the paste being of a coarse 
red clay, have been ascribed to this place of manufacture. Such may also 
have been made at Venice : France also produced a similar pottery. 

An inferior incised ware was made at Treviso in the last century, which 
could advance nearly as good a claim to the production of all the (t2ix\y sgraffiaii 
as that made for La Fratta (see p. 237). A plate of atrocious execution in this 
style is inscribed, * Fabrica di boccaleria alia campana in Treviso, Valentino 
Petro Storgato Bragaldo jo figlio fabricator. Jouane Giroto Liberal figlio 
fecie. Matteo Schiavon inciso e delineator. Anno dni c.i.c. ic. cclxix.' 

Fragments of wares with a white and unctuous glaze, painted with 
flowers and ornaments in the style of the Rhodian, and which are 
generally ascribed to Candiana, have been found at Treviso and in the 
neighbourhood. 

In the last century (1766) Giovanni Rossi di Stefano opened a fabrique of 
maiolica at La Fiera, a borgo of Treviso, and obtained a grant for ten years. 
In 1771 it was made over to Giovanni Maria Ruberii, to whom privileges 
were granted in 1772 and 1777. Subsequently one Giovanni Fontehasso set 
up as a rival and made soft paste porcelain which had a reputation. It 
degenerated, and ceased in 1862. 

BASSANO. 

This fabrique appears to have been established in the first half of the 
sixteenth century, as shown by the researches of Signor G. Basseggio. 
About 1540 one Simone Marinoni, of Pesaro, where he learned the art, 
erected a furnace in a suburb of Bassano called the Marchesane. He had 
a furnace also at Angarano (Urbani de Gheltof). Two pieces attributed to 
this botega are mentioned, one dated 1555, representing Saints Francis, 
Antonio, and Bonaventura, the colours and glaze on which have partly 
failed in the firing; and a plate dated 1595, initialled S. M. 



BASS A NO 307 



In the Castellani Collection was a fooc-shaped inkstand decorated in 
green and yellow and signed J.C.F.R 1569 P BASANO (Mark No. 432). 

The Maiiardi brothers Ottaviano, Sforza, and Georgio in the second half 
of the seventeenth century succeeded in making the latiesini wares similar 
to those produced at Faenza and at Lodi ; obtaining in 1669 the privilege 
for twent3'-five years to make such wares; in 1675 to make use of certain earths 
therefor; and in 1693 the right to make wares after the manner of Genoa. 
Soldiers originally by profession, on the occurrence of the war with the 
Turks at Candia, they left their works at Bassano for the scene of action, 
were made prisoners, and died before 1705. Meanwhile the Moretti family, 
having established works in a suburb of Bassano in 1694, probably for 
inferior wares, rose to the occasion and produced pieces of a better class, 
continuing to the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

Of the Manardi family a sister remained, with Odoardo her son and his 
four daughters much reduced in circumstances. On April 30, 1707, the}'' 
obtained the privilege to reopen the works for twelve years under the 
direction of Gwvan. Anionio Caffo, and sought for the best artists. One of 
the Manardi sisters living at Rome engaged Bartolomeo and Antonio Terchi 
for two years ; Antonio painted figures, Bartolomeo landscape. Their work 
continued there for only a short time, as in 1727 we find one of them at 
Siena and Bartolomeo at S. Quirico ^ 

In 1737 Caffo^ having left the Manardi, obtained leave to set up a pottery 
on his own account. Both the Manardi and the Caffo fabriques gradually 
declined. 

The Moretti having in the meanwhile set up works at Angarano which 
failed, it was taken up by Baldasare Marinoni, of the family of the early 
potter of Bassano, who, taking to wife Ippolita Menighini, began to set up 
a pottery in 1754, which was hardly productive till 1779. He died leaving 
a widow and five children. Their works were opposed by Antinobon 
of Nove. The Nove fabrique being moved to Bassano, it was united to 
that of the Marinoni by the marriage of the last descendant to Zotesso, 
of the other house. Their only daughter married one Delia Vella, who 
had conducted the works of the Marinoni of Angarano, and became the 
more active and continuous producer. 

A plate in the Louvre (No. G. 599), painted with the subject of Lot and 
his daughters escaping from Sodom, is signed * Antonio Terchi in Bassano,' 
with the mark of a crown with five points (Mark No. 433). 

On the back of a piece belonging to M. Le Blanc in Paris, painted 
with a landscape, is the signature, ' B ' Terchj, Bassano,' and the five- 
pointed crown (Mark No. 434 j. 

' Urbani de Gheltof, Intorno alcune Fabbriche in Bassano. 1876. 

X 2 



qc8 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



A pair of vases with subjects after Raffaelle are signed ' Bar Terchi 
Romano, 1726,' but we have no means of knowing whether they were 
painted at Naples, S. Quirico, Siena, or Bassano; there is also some 
doubt whether the mark of the crown alone (Mark No. 435) can be attri- 
buted to this fabrique or to a work by Terchi at some other place. 

NOVE, NEAR BASSANO. 

This fabrique, commenced at the latter end of the seventeenth century, 
in 1689, was fully estabHshed in 1728, under the direction of Giovanni 
Battista Antonibon, who, in 1732, petitioned the State for leave to open 
a shop for the sale of his wares in Venice. Lazari, in the Catalogue of 
the Museo Correr, rightly states that it had a beginning ' in sul finire 
del secolo xvii,' not in ' the first years,' as he has been misquoted. 

Pasquale Antonibon, son of Giovanni Batiista, succeeded him in 1738. 
He was a man of great energy and well acquainted with the potter's art; 
he soon secured the services of the best handicraftsmen and artists of the 
time, specially of // Cecchetto, an excellent painter. The business prospered 
and increased greatly, and the magazine opened by him at Venice had 
to be supplemented by another in 1741. Further concessions were made to 
him by the Republic in 1761 and 1765. In 1750 he commenced making 
porcelain with the assistance of Sigismondo Fischer of Dresden, then of 
a French artist, and afterwards of Pietro Lorenzi of Cadore, producing hard 
paste porcelain of great repute. In 1770 G. B. Anionibon relinquished the 
fabrique of Nove to his mother, who conducted them under the manage- 
ment of Giovanni Maria Baccin, who left her in 1780 to set up a fabrique in 
partnership with Gio. Battista Viero of Bassano, which was famous for 
figures and groups modelled by Domenico Bosello, formerly working at 
Angarano. The fabrique at Nove was then put under the direction of 
Francesco Parolin of Bassano; in 1783 its privileges were renewed, and 
after the fall of the Republic in 1802 it was let to Giovanni Baroni, 
who with his son Paolo continued the work, aided by German and French 
artists, till 1824, when it was again taken in hand by Antonibon, and but 
feebly continued ; on his death it was held by the Commendatore Pas- 
quale Antonibon, who finally made it over to his son Gio. Battista : it still 
produces wares of various kinds (Urbani de Gheltof). 

M. Demmin records a ' surtout de table,' the inscription on which 
reads, * Delia fabrica di Gio. Batta. Antonibon nelle none di Decen. 1755-' 

Some admirable works in faience were produced at Nove, one of the 
most remarkable being a vase in the Italian style of the period of 
Louis XVI , the ground of which is of a fine ' gros bleu,' with medallions, 



NOVE — PADUA 309 



carefuU}'^ painted with classical subjects, and enriched by gilding applied 
with great skill. This vase, which is 2 feet 5 inches high, was seen by 
the WTiter man}'^ years since, in the hands of M. Kuhn, a dealer at 
Geneva, with some figures, and other pieces of the same manufacture, 
all of which he had purchased at Venice. It thence passed into the 
possession of Mr. C. W. Reynolds. On the base are cartouches mscribed 
* Fab" Baroni Nove.' 

In 1762 one hundred and fifty men were employed at the works. 
Pasquale Antonibon then had the direction. 

The faience is of excellent technical quality and good painting, and is 
much esteemed. Well-modelled pieces are met with, formed as fish, &c., 
lying upon a dish, with rockwork, fruit, &c., in relief, and surmounted by 
a lemon to form the handle of the cover. Upon one such M. Jacquemart 
records the mark S • I • G. 1 750. 

In the rooms connected with the chapel at N^'mphenburg, near Munich, 
is a service of man}- pieces, having the arms of the Royal family of Bavaria, 
and said to have been made for Maximilian Emanuel, the Elector, who 
lived from 1662 till 1726; they are coarsely painted with subjects from 
Roman history, &c., with descriptions in Italian on the reverse, and on 
several the name which seems to read DOUI, but the first letter is 
probably intended for an N, and the third for V. There is a candlestick 
among the rest. 

Giovanni Battista Vicro of Bassano, who joined Baccin after leaving 
the direction of the Antonibon works at Nove, undertook the manufacture 
of ordinary sfoviglic until 1882, when he commenced making artistic maiolica 
(Urbani de Gheltof). 

PADUA, 

Padua is named by Piccolpasso, among other cities at which works 
existed in his time (1548), but without entering into any description of 
the character of the wares produced ; and we are indebted to the re- 
searches of the late Sig. Vincenzio Lazari, the able author of the Notizia, 
and Director of the Correr Collection at Venice, for the discovery of 
the long anterior foundation and of the locality of the botega, as also the 
existence of an interesting example of its produce. In the street of 
Padua still called after the pottery, the ' Via delle Boccalarie,' he found 
a house in which were manifest remains of the ancient furnaces, and 
upon the walls of which, towards the street, was a casing of enamelled 
tiles, in blue and white triangles ; among these was a disc of 52 centimetres 
in diameter (20^ inches), painted with the subject of the Virgin and Child 
upon a throne, between S. Roch and Santa Lucia, with angels and 



3TO ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

a shield of arms ; these figures are shghtly in rehef, and white, with 
the exception of the hair, which is yellow, and the dress of the Virgin of 
a pale blue. The clay is coarse, and the glaze thinly though care- 
fully applied. The subject is after a drawing by Nicolo Pizzolo, 
a pupil of Squarcione, and rival of the celebrated Mantegna (about 
1450-1500). On a part of the throne is the name NICOLETI (Mark 
No. 4461 This interesting piece is now in the Public Museum at Padua. 

M. Emile Molinier states that it is executed in outline a sgraffw, the 
red clay being covered by a yellow-white engohe. 

The researches of Sig. Urbani de Gheltof have brought to light 
many hitherto unknown facts in the history of Paduan ceramics. It 
appears that in the sixteenth century there was a corporation of the local 
potters. 

Excavations for building, &c., have yielded scodelle and hacini of mezza 
maiolica similar to those of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries to be seen 
in the towers, &c., of churches in various parts of Italy. Earlier wares of 
mediaeval and classic times are also found in abundance ; and among the 
glazed fragments previously covered with an engobe are some pieces 
showing Oriental influence in the designs of the ingobbiatiira and sgrafftata 
ornamentation : others are Gothic in manner, with inscriptions, some in 
Latin, others in the vulgar diction of the period. 

But these mezza wares do not appear to have been of sufficient 
excellence to satisfy the more wealthy of the Paduans, for in 1451 one 
Isacco Dondi ordered from Giacomo di PietrOj bocalaro in Faenza, 
a iurmtMre. o{ maiolica biancafina. 

In 1497 Pietro Barozzi, then bishop of Padova, ordered a pavement of 
tiles from Giovanni Antonio e Francesco da Urbino, to be placed in the 
private chapel cf the Vescovado. These still exist, and are illustrated in Sig. 
Urbani de Gheltof's pamphlet^: the bishop's arms appear in a shield 
suspended by ribbons from a surrounding circular wreath, each angle of the 
square being occupied by a cherub's head. 

In 1534 and subsequently Giovan Campa obtained leave to export ^lavori 
de piera ' to ' Portognaro.' These must have been of mezza maiolica, for 
the manufacture of tin-enamelled wares does not appear to have been 
introduced at Padua before 1544- In that year Nicola dalle maioliche 
obtained exclusive right to make ' minere de Piombo ad itso dei boccalari.' 

From the period of the production of the Nicoleti tile till the middle of 
the sixteenth century, we have no example of Paduan enamelled pottery. 
No. 1742 in the South Kensington Museum is the earliest known, dated 

' La Ceramica in Padova. Padova, 1888. 



CAN DIANA 31 1 



1548: it is marked with the cross always occurring on signed pieces 
of this fabrique, and is by the same hand as the following piece, No. 
1684, which is dated 1550. A plate in the British Museum— the Head of 
Pompey brought to Caesar— is dated 1550. The great similarity to some 
pieces of the Venetian wares, from the inferior examples of which it is 
difficult to distinguish them, and which they, perhaps, were intended to 
imitate, is shown by No. 1724 in the South Kensington Museum, bearing 
the date 1555 and the Paduan cross. 

Next in sequence is a plate with the subject of Adam and Eve, formerly 
in Mr. Barker's from the Delsette Collection, dated ' 1563 a padoa,' and 
bearing the same mark (Mark No. 447) ; and of the same year, one in the 
British Museum, on which the cross is placed between two initials N and F 
(Mark No. 452) ; and of the following year, and by the same hand, is 
another piece in the same collection, representing Hercules and a n3'mph, 
or perhaps Poh'phemus and Galatea (Mark No. 453V 

We have no further record of the manufactory, but pharmacy vases 
with handles continued to be made even till the last century, and were 
known as * Alia Padovana ' ; they were of a pearly grey colour with flowers 
in relief. 

The signed and dated pieces above mentioned are by no means of high 
artistic merit; the colouring and drawing are generally careless and 
inferior, with strong high lights coarsely rendered in white or yellow. 
A per\'ading grey tone is observable on all the pieces, arising from the 
grounding, which both on the face and the reverse is of a blue-grey tint, 
imparted to the substance of the glaze, and characteristic of the wares of 
this fabrique. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, and judging from 
the examples which have descended to us, it could have been onl}'^ of 
secondary rank. 

CANDIANA. 

This pottery- was only known to us as having produced wares painted in 
imitation of the Rhodian or Syrian, and we should have remained ignorant 
of the place where these copies were made, but for an example in the 
collection at Sevres, which is marked ' Candiana, 1620'; another has since 
been recorded with the date 1637. M. Jacquemart mentions a piece of 
the same ware, on which are the letters S • F • C, and another inscribed 
MS • DEGA, on a ribbon or cartouche which crosses the bouquet of 
flowers on the face of the piece ; another from the D'Azeglio Collection, 
attributed by Mr. Chaffers, w^ith some doubt, to this pottery, has the name 
PA C ROSA. 



312 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

We are inclined to think that these two last must be the names of the 
owners rather than of the painters of the pieces. 

None of the examples are of high quality, either in respect of glaze or 
colouring, which is but a poor and weak attempt to reproduce the brilliant 
effect of the Oriental wares. They all appear to be of the seventeenth 
century. 

Not recollecting the existence of any important place of that name, it 
was suggested by the late Marquis d'Azeglio that this term, Candiana, 
may merely refer to the style of ornamentation on a ware really made at 
Venice or at Padua, and imitative of the Oriental imported from Candia 
and Rhodes. But Candiana really had a fabrique. Sig. Urbani de 
Gheltof^ reminds us that at a small place in the Paduan territory called 
Candiana was an abbey of some note in history ; and he refers us to 
a document of August 3, 1604, in which it is stated that the Padre Pietro da 
Verona, residing at Candiana, wrote to Pietro Gazzini, sending to him three 
artificers from their local pottery, who sought employment in Padua. The 
letter bemoans the sad state of the art of the sciidellari at Candiana and the 
small sale for their wares. The three men's names were Antonio Paulo, 
pittore ; Lodovico, fornitore ; and Giovanni de Dnisin, piffore. 



VERONA. 

In a contract for the dowry to be given to the daughter of one 
Baldassare, a weaver, living at San Luca in Venice, signed on April 4, 1499, 
we find among the witnesses Antonino de Favenzia bochalariits Veronensei. 
From this we learn that the art was there in practice at that time, and that 
it had been introduced from Faenza-. Piccolpasso also names Verona as 
a producer of fictile wares. 

Formerly in the possession of the Rev. T. Berney, of Bracon Hall, was 
an extremely well-painted istoriato plate ; its subject the clemency of 
Alexander in liberating the wife and family of Darius. There is a shield of 
arms on the face of the piece, which is inscribed on the reverse, ' 1563, a di 
genaro • Giv • Giouani • Batista • da • faenza • In Verona M,' followed by 
another letter which has unfortunately scaled away with a portion of the 
glaze. The first three letters of the name have been supposed to read 
/ c, <7, and have thus been taken to signify franco, and the painting 
consequently the handiwork of the celebrated G. Battista Franco. But 
we agree with Sir J. C. Robinson and M. Jacquemart in the reading of 

' Notizie Istoriche sulla Ccrainica Italiana, p. 24. Roma, 1889. 
- Urbani de Ghcltof, La Ccramica nel Vencto, p. 18. 1885. 



VERONA 313 

the three letters as Giuseppe ; the distinct dot over the central letter i, and 
the form of the others, preclude the idea of their being intended for an 
awkward abbreviation of the surname Franco. 

The letter M, followed by another, is probably the mark of the 
botega, perhaps the initials of its owner's name ; but of this we know 
nothing, nor of the artist who painted this interesting example of an 
otherwise unknown fabrique. We learn that this plate is now in the South 
Kensington Museum. 



CHAPTER VII 



LOMBARDY, PIEDMONT, AND STATES OF GENOA. 

MILAN. 

NOT until the last decade of the sixteenth century do we find record of 
the existence of a fabrique at this city, although Piccolpasso refers 
to the wares made in Lombardy without defining any particular site. 

By investigations made among the Milanese annals Sig. Genolini dis- 
covered that in 1594 Rocco di Bigli e Guglielnto Sonnazio, in the name 
of the Universita dei bottegarii dei vasi da prida, prayed that the exclusive 
privilege of making maiolica might not be granted to Prandoni and 
Mantica, who we presume had begged for that right ; and also against 
fraudulent imitation of such wares. On May 13, 1594, Giovanni Pietro Leyna, 
Milanese, asked for that privilege for ten years, he having invented methods 
of producing wares of golden and various colours and enriched with 
translucent colours like gems, &c. The privilege was granted for six 3^ears, 
but the works do not seem to have been successful, as we find no further 
notice of them. 

There is reference in 1595 to one Giovanni Maria, who had a furnace 
in the parish of San Carpoforo. 

From 1595 to 1726 there is no record of such wares being produced at 
Milan ; but on July 5 in the latter year a decree was passed by the Regia 
Camera forbidding the introduction of maiolica forestiera into Milan on pain 
of forfeiture of 100 golden scudi. 

In 1745 a fabrique existed under the direction oi Felice Clerici,vj\\o asked 
for and obtained certain privileges and exemption from tax. This was an 
important botega, and by him were employed Carlo Giuseppe Negrini, 
Pasqiiale Rubati, Paolo Gallcili, Francesco Giovanola, Anlonio Marlinelli, 
Amadeo Stailan, Alessandro Giovanola, painters, and Giuseppe Fonlana 
and Carlo Gisso/ie, modellers. 



MILAN 315 

In 1746 Clerici erected new works near the Porta Vercellina and obtained 
a confirmation of his privileges. The Giunta del Mercimonio in 1748 
continues his grant for twelve years, but every three years he must make 
a return of his operations. 

The Giunta in 1759 again renewed his prerogative for twelve years, 
seeing that the works increased to the public good, the wares improved 
in form and quality; and that 115 persons are employed. The Regia 
Camera granted him a thousand lire annually for twenty 3^ears. 

Clerici's works were at S. Vittorio and in active operation in 1772. The 
wares produced by him were painted with flowers, &c., on the white 
enamel ground and enriched with gilding. Of known pieces of Clerici's 
wares several are in the collection of Cav*' Emilio Conti, at Milan ; others 
in the possession of the Bagatti-Valsecchi of the same city. 

Mr. C. W. Reynolds had a service, the tureen bearing that maker's mark, 
the letters PnfC with ' Milano ' above (Mark No. 460). A plate with similar 
mark is in the South Kensington Museum. 

On May 15, 1762, Pasqiiale Rubati, having left the ser\'ice of Clerici, 
petitions for the exception of the ' Dazi Civici ' and the contribution 
from the Mercimonio in his favour; he having erected a new fabbrica di 
maiolica near S. Angelo and far away from the works of Clerici and 
S. Vittorio. 

In 1764, on August 11, Rubati complains to the Tribunale that one 
Fiocdii, a mere vendor of wares, in partnership with Francesco Grosenf, 
were about to set up a new fabrique at a short distance from his, and prays 
the Tribunale not to grant them permission. 

We find, on March 11, 1796, that Pasqiiale Rubati has been some time 
dead ; and that his widow made over half the works to his son Carlo Rubati, 
who joins Emamiele Bonzanini in continuing the business. Although many 
pieces are marked with Pasquale, the father's name, we do not meet with 
any bearing the names of Carlo or of this new firm. 

The productions of the Rubati fabrique were of excellent quality, 
flowers, insects, &c., painted in relief on the white ground ; man}- pieces 
with Japanese subjects and figures in Japanese costume ; others after the 
manner of Capo di Monte, &c. Fine examples are in the private collections 
at Milan above referred to. The mark is varied, F • P • R • M sometimes 
on a heart-shaped scudo, as (Mark No. 459) on a piece in the late Sir 
W. Drake's collection ; others are signed * F di Pasquale Rubati, Mil".' 
Jardinieres, so signed, belonged to M. Paul Gasnault (Jacquemart). 
On a plate at Sevres is the Mark No. 458. 

Sig. Genolini found also that in 1784 an address was presented to the 
Emperor during his sojourn at Milan, signed by Captain Cesare Confalonicri, 



3i6 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

a hitherto unknown maker of maiolica at Milan. He states that he had at 
great cost erected new works at Santa Cristina ; these works had continued 
some seven years, but that they were then closed and neglected in conse- 
quence of the invidia of others, to the great prejudice of himself and his 
numerous family ; he details the insults he had experienced and the damage 
done to the machinery and building ; and prays that a delegate might 
decide as to what processo dcfensivo crimitiale should be taken. The only 
known piece produced at those works is a large tureen, having flowers 
painted on a yellowish-white enamel and gilding ; the handles are formed 
as lions' heads, and four lions' paws are beneath ; on the cover is a group 
of Venus and Bacchus on a goat, &c. It is signed beneath, ' Fabbrica de 
Santa Cristina! 

Many pieces in collections are only signed Milaiio in full or abbreviated ; 
on others, ascribed to some one of those works, an oval or a circle in black 
is seen beneath the piece. 

A service also attributed to Milan, in the style of Dresden, with flowers 
in caniaieu rouge violace, has one piece inscribed with what would seem to 
read W''^ Brecchi! It is referred to by M. Jacquemart. There is in the 
neighbourhood of Milan, *at St. Chrystophe,' a modern manufactory which 
was under the direction of Giiilio Richard, who reopened works begun 
by Liiigi Tinelli in 1823 for making porcelain : they were closed in 
1840 (Urbani). Services of faience and imitations of early wares, some 
stamped with Wedgwood's name, were there made. The mark is G. R. 
(Chaffers). In partnership with others it subsequently took the name of 
the Societa ccraniica Richard. 

LOOT 

We attach small value to the statement made by Corona ^ that the 
ceramic art was taken to Savona by one Angelo Cattaneo o Catani from 
Lodi ; no definite authority having been given in support of that statement. 
He however refers to a document, till then unknown, communicated to him 
by Sig. Braghirolli from the archives of Mantua, by which it appears that 
in 1526 one Maestro Alberto Catani, bochalaro, of Lodi was experimenting 
on the production of porcelain for the Marchese di Mantova. It appears 
that a family named Cappelletti, of Lodi, made vasi e stoviglie there in the 
sixteenth century. In the next century the manufacture greatly improved 
and increased, and took rank with that of Faenza. In 1625 Pietro Gio- 
vanni Sordi, and at the same time Pietro Ponds, of Lodi, painters of such 
wares, are recorded : the latter died at Vienna in 1680. Their productions 

' Italia Ccramica, p. 464. 



LODI — PA VIA 317 



v/cre similar to those of Faenza and other contemporary potteries ; white 
enamelled wares, for the most part, with or without central subject figure 
or shield of arms in colour. In 1669 the brothers Ma)iardi introduced at 
Bassano the manufacture of lattesini after the manner of Faenza and Lodi, 
and continued its production till 1733 ; this fact reveals to us the character of 
those wares. Sordi's works subsequently passed into the hands of Giovanni 
Battista Dallari, and again in 1725 to Sempliciano Ferretti. Antonio^ the son 
of the latter, took up the business with vigour, and engaged Antonio Casali, 
Filippo Antonio CalUgari (who in 1763 went to and worked together at 
Pesaro under the influence of Passeri), and Ignazio Cavazziiti to improve the 
work. The latter, however, soon left Ferretti, founding another pottery 
which continued till the end of that century. Ignazio Cavazzuti, who 
reports so favourably in 1790 of the manufactory at Sassuolo, states that the 
establishment at Lodi was under his direction, and that his family was then 
settled at that place. Other makers at Lodi were the Rossctti in 1746, of 
whose production a fine vase was exhibited at Rome in 1889 ; it was 
decorated in blue after the manner of Moustiers and signed : 

S. F. 

Lodi 

G. Giacinto Rossettij 

fecit. 

We next meet with Francesco Roda in 1794 ; the Crevacci and the 
Caravaggio in 1798; the Crociotani ; the Manwioli ; and the Ganginelli 
in 1820; also some other works belonging to the Cerasoli family were 
in action during the earlier 3'ears of this century. Dr. Lorenzo Dossena 
revived the fallen fabrique of the Ferretti ; and, when it was owned b}' the 
Pallavicini, artistic objects were produced (Urbani de Gheltofj. 



PA VIA. 

The notice of the ceramics of Pavia given to us in M. Emile Molinier's 
interesting volume, Les Maioliques Italiennes en Italic, pubHshed in 
1883, was followed in 1889 b}' an elegantly-printed essay, entitled 
'Antonio Maria Cuzio e la Ceramica in Pavia/ by Le Chevalier Camello 
Brambilla, whose recent death we deeply deplore. By that we learn that 
architectural terra-cotta work of great excellence was a local production 
from early time, as may be seen in the buildings of that city, and as we 
also find in many other localities of Northern Italy. 

There is no doubt that jnezza-niaio/ica, some of which was ornamented 



3i8 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



by the sgraffiata method, was produced ; and we are told by the Anonimo 
Ticinese that such was the case early in the fourteenth century at Pavia : 
* Stint in civitate fornaces ubi fiunt vasa vitrea . . .et vasa fidilia . . . et tegulae 
decoquuntur' Of the architectural terra-cotta we learn that some is 
believed to have been designed, if not modelled, by Amadeo ; other by 
Luca de Alemania, who is not recorded as a resident in Pavia ; but in 
the civic archives is a circular of 1455, from Milan, permitting the 
entry of figuUni and terra-cottas made by him, free of dazio. Giovanni 
Jacopo Dolcebono ; and Giacomo Sala or Saba, who in a document of 
143 1 is styled ' bochalarium papiensem,' and called ^ magister a ftctilibus 
seu imaginibus terrae ' ; were also producers. 

We learn that the Andreoli family came from the neighbourhood of 
Sesto Calende to Pavia, probably to find emplo3anent at the latter place ; 
but whether Giorgio was born previously to, or after, their settlement 
there we have no knowledge. We agree with Sig. Brambilla ^ that 
he probably there learnt his art as a modeller; but we have no evidence 
of any work produced by him at Pavia ; and he must have been still 
young when he went to Gubbio, anterior to 1492. It has long since been 
acknowledged by serious students of ceramic history that the attribution 
to Giorgio Andreoli of the well-known ' Don Giorgio ' plate of Sevres, 
by M. Jacquemart, was one of his too hasty assumptions. Another early 
piece was supposed to be by Giorgio when at Pavia, on the weak authority 
of M. Demmin. Signor Brambilla believes that the earlier wares produced 
at Pavia were of ordinary kind, known as ^ vasi di-preda or ' predanu' ; 
these were made of common brick earth glazed only on the inside with 
lead glaze. The better wares, covered with the terra bianca beneath 
the glaze, were mostly decorated by the sgraffiata method. 

The late M. Eugene Piot, writing in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts 
(Vol. xxiv. 2nd pt. page 383), on the contrary, believes that in the fifteenth 
century artistic wares may have been produced at Pavia, which would 
probably combine the Gothic with the Renaissance in their form and 
ornamentation. He states that Cesare Cesariano, an architect, often 
praises the vases of Pavia in his commentary on the works of Vitruvius, 
printed in 152 1. M. Piot writes : 

* Nous transcrivons litteralement le principal passage les concernant ; 
c'est un curieux document sur la poterie emaillee, alors dans toute sa 
nouveaute et dans tout son eclat. 

' Tels, dit-il, on voit de nos jours en Italic, les vases de terre tres bien 
peints et vitrifies, qui se font en Romagne et dans quelques autres endroits 

' Op. cit. p. 29, ' Si preparasse quel gusto squisito e quelle cognizione, die tie inaturaronn si 
splendidnmente Tingegno, educandolo ad opere insigni.' 



PA VI A 319 

de la Marche d'Ancone. La nature a repandu partout, comme les 
mineraux, la terre propre aux vases. On cro3'ait autrefois qu'elle ne se 
trouvait que dans la region de Damas et dans le pays des Mores. Nos 
potiers de Pavie I'ont reconnue dans le voisinage de leur ville, et pres du 
Po. lis en font des vases excellents et si varies que beaucoup se sont 
plus delectes par la beaute de leurs peintures vitrifiees que par la vue 
de I'or et de I'argent, bien que ces metaux soient precieux comme les 
diamants et les perles, et que Ton fasse tout, pour eux et par eux. 
Cependant, comme ils ne sont que d'une seule couleur, il semble qu'ils 
ne parlent pas aux yeux, qu'ils ne sont pas aussi plaisants a Tame que 
ces beaux vases peints et vitrifies sur lesquels brillent I'universalite 
des couleurs minerales, et singulierement les plus beaux qui ne peuvent se 
faire sans les scones d'or et d'argent, comme on pent en voir les foglie 
ou laminelle tenuil^ime qui sont dessus, comme des suffiimigatiotis de 
poudres varices qui auraient recu par la combusiione les couleurs de 
toutes les pierres precieuses qui possedent en elle limpidia ou diaphana- 
colorazione.' 

M. Piot writes: * Nous avons conserve dans cette traduction quelques-unes 
des paroles du texte italien, importantes, mais facilement comprehensibles. 
Suffumigation est un mot francais que I'Academie a retenu dans son 
dictionnaire ; il est S3'nonyme de fumigation. Nous ne nous arreterons 
pas a relever la grace avec laquelle I'illustre capo maestro de la cathedrale 
de Milan caracterise le brillant aspect des faiences peintes ; on ne ferait 
pas mieux de nos jours, et les lamelles metalliques d'une extreme tenuite 
qu'il y soit caracterisent tres bien les lustres dont etaient rehaussees 
celles qu'il avait sous les yeux. La connaissance des argiles plastiques 
et de leur qualites etait alors, plus qu'aujourd'hui, necessaire a I'architecte. 
Cesare Cesariano y revient dans un autre passage oil, tout en accordant 
aux poteries italiennes la superiorite sur celles de Damas et d'Afrique, ii 
fait une reserve. Excepted dit-il, que nos terres tiont aucune des qualites 
de celles appellees porcelatue qttiy diton, se brisent si la potion qu'on y verse 
est empoisoune'e! 

With characteristic sarcastic humour, M. Piot continues : 
' Les savants archeologues qui conduisent leur barque sur la mer sans 
fond de la ceramique universelle n'ont pas encore aborde a la fabrique 
de Pavie : je la leur recommande. Situee dans le voisinage d'une grande 
ville comme Milan, elle avait a sa porte une colonie d'artistes du plus grand 
merite, charges d'orner avec profusion la celebre Chartreuse qui porte son 
nom ; il y a du en rejaillir quelque chose sur ses productions. Elles 
doivent etres rares cependant ; non signees, il faudra les chercher parmi 
les incertaines des premieres annees du seizieme siecle. Pour ma 



320 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

part je n'ai rencontre dans nos musees qu'un vase seul, ayant tous les 
caracteres d'une oeuvre du quinzieme siecle, que je sois dispose a donner 
a la fabrique de Pavie. Le couvercle de ce vase est orne d'une frise 
circulaire trilobee en forme de crete : les anses sont formees par deux 
dragons ou guivres qui rapellent les armes des Visconti, parfaitement 
modelees ; le culot est a godrons en relief, et une bande d'ornements 
Renaissance orne la panse ; il appartient au South Kensington Museum 
de Londres.' 

This remarkable vase was thus described by us in the South Kensington 
Museum Catalogue, at page 559 : 

* No. 8967. '63. Vase and cover. Oviform, surmounted by a conical 
cover, having embossed gadroons and a series of six pointed lucarnes or 
windows, cusped and crocketed ; the apex is surmounted by a ball of 
orange colour; the body of the vase is divided into three zones by 
projecting mouldings, the lower embossed with oblique gadroons, separated 
by orange beading, and alternately painted with diapering in blue and 
white on the white ground ; the central belt is orange with palmette 
ornament in blue ; the shoulder has a band of acanthus leaves in green 
and blue ; the neck and foot, which have been much broken, had similar 
ornaments to the lower part of the body ; the handles, formed as winged 
dragons, are green, touched with blue and orange. Italian (Forli ?). About 
1480-90. H. 24 in., W. 15! in, (Soulages Collection).' 

Agreeing with M. Piot as to its North Italian character, we doubtingly 
attributed it to Forli, judging from certain qualities of glaze and colour. 
Its actual birthplace must still remain uncertain. 

On August 19, 1596, one Joannis de Zavatinis was accorded by the 
Comune the exclusive privilege of making raaiolica for which he had 
petitioned ; but his work did not continue. 

In 1609 Antonio Dust of Bergamo also desired to establish himself in 
Pavia as a maker of maiolica after the manner of Faenza : his prayer was 
granted subject to the approval of the Senate. We know no example of his 
wares. The most interesting known pieces of Pavian decorated wares are 
those produced by the family Cuzio, and mainly by Antonio Maria. 
Whether they had a pottery for commercial purposes, or only conducted 
a private botega and furnace for the production of carefully-executed pieces 
for special use as presents, &c., we have no positive information, but we think 
the latter the more probable. Of these large piatti da pompa some ten or 
a dozen have been preserved to our time. Adopting the old style of 
ornamentation by sgraffiata, which in the larger and better pieces is 
executed with more minute care than boldness of efifect, Antonio Maria 
Cuzio was careful to record his name and exact date upon every important 



PA VIA 321 

piece. One of these is in the South Kensington Museum, No. 461 1, and is 
described in the Catalogue of that Collection as follows : ' Bowl or plate, 
sgraffiaia or incised ware : in the centre is the portrait of an ecclesiastic 
surrounded by ribbons bearing inscriptions : reverse also inscribed pres- 
byter • ANTONIVS • MARIA • CVTIVS • PAPIENSIS • PROTHOXOTARIVS • APOSTO- 

Licvs • FECIT • PAPiiE • DIE • XVII • MAij • 1694. The cxccution is very careful ; 
the ornament is left in relief of the white slip or engobe, and the ground 
entirely worked over with minute scale-work diapering : the rich translucent 
brown glaze is run over all, giving a darker tone to the ground and leaving 
the subject of a lighter colour.' 

The dates of these large piatti are from 1676 to 1694 ; three individuals 
of the Cuzio family made them, viz. one dated 1676, by Giovanni Antonio 
Baniaba ; one dated 1677, b}' Gio. Brizio, canonico ; and eight by Antonio 
Maria the prothonotario, dated from 1677 to 1694. An illustration of the 
piece by Gio. Brizio Cuzio forms the frontispiece to Sig. Brambilla's 
pamphlet. Antonio Maria, who was the most active producer of the 
family, was born at Pavia on Oct. 2, 1635, and died on Dec. 28, 1699 ; 
he had two brothers. It is remarkable that on the plates signed by them 
the word fecit does not occur, as on those by Antonio Maria. Other 
less important pieces, and without signatures, although of the same class 
of workmanship, are in collections. 

Of the signed pieces Sig. Brambilla possessed one by each of the 
brothers ; these, with other objects of his collection, were bequeathed by 
him to the Museum at Pavia. 

Of the others, one is in the Louvre, one in the Cluny, one at Limoges, 
one in the South Kensington Museum, one in the Malaspina collection, one 
in that of the Marchese Visconte Venosta at Milan, and one was sold at the 
dispersion of the Passalaqua. (See Sgraffiati, p. 116 et seq.) 

A later and much inferior work in sgraffio, on a large plate, is described 
and figured by Brambilla. It is worked with flowery and leafage border, 
the central subject a seller of sweetmeats, with inscription and date '1^)4 
a di 26 Marzo, Pavia' It belongs to Sig. Lino Meriggi, of that cit3^ 

Of other fabriques, we learn that the family Guangeroli had one anterior 
to 1 731 in company with Pio Zerbi. In 1733 it was in the hands of 
Annunziata Zerbi, and in 1798 of Giuseppe Maria Guangeroli. 

Another fabrique of maiolica was conducted b}' Cailo Pessina and Rosa 
Gredazzi until 1735, when it was made over to the brothers Maura and Siro 
Antonio Cantii; in 1741 to Marco Pellino and Agostino Ferri', again and 
again it changed hands until it also was obtained by Giuseppe Maria 
Guangeroli. A new establishment was set up by the widow Pessina on her 
marriage with Gio. Maria Rainoldi \ these works also passed under many 

Y 



322 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

owners, till finally they belonged to Antonio Valvassori and Alessandro 
Farina. The Guangeroli works continued to produce maiolica until the end 
of the century ; in 1773 a painter of the Africa family worked for them 
(Urbani de Gheltof). The constant change of owners would seem to imply 
that neither of these works prospered financially or produced wares of much 
importance. 

A monogram composed of the letter F, the stem of which is crossed by 
a C and surmounted by a .n., is on a white plate painted with flowers in 
blue ; Sig. Brambilla, to whom it belonged, suggested that it should be read 
as of the Fratelli Cantii, but on no definite authority. He refers to another 
plate, having flowers on the border, and red and blue bunches of grapes 
in the middle, the name ' Pawia' being inscribed on the back. 



PIEDMONT. 

TURIN. 

From documents discovered by the Marchese Giuseppe Campori, of 
Modena^ in the archives of Turin, it appears that in the year 1564 certain 
sums of money were paid to Maestro Orazio Fontana, of Urbino, who is 
styled 'chief potter to his highness,' for two * credenze ' of his wares which 
had been bought for the Duke, Emanuele Filiberto, payment being made 
through the Archbishop of Turin, Hieronimo della Rovere. Other moneys 
were paid to Orazio and Nani by an order signed at Nice on January 6 of 
that same year for certain vases ordered by the Duke ; money was also paid 
to Antonio Nani, a potter of Urbino, for the expenses of bringing these 
vases. (See Urbino, p. 203.) 

From these extracts the improbable inference has been drawn that, as 
Orazio was the Duke's ' chief potter,' he must have had a fabrique at Turin, 
whereas there can be little doubt that the same Orazio was ' chief potter ' to 
many other grandees at various places, his establishment at Urbino being at 
that time the most important a-nd most widely known botega in Italy. 

Neither can we agree with another inference drawn from these docu- 
ments, viz. that as these pieces of Urbino ware were appreciated and 
purchased at Turin in 1564 there must have been at that time a fabrique of 
highly artistic enamelled faience in that city. We should draw a contrary 
conclusion, on the principle that it is not requisite to send owls to Athens, 
and that had there been a local pottery, at which anything beyond ordinary 

' Notizie della Majolica, &c., di Ferrara, p. 83 et seq. 



TURIN 323 

wares were made, Emanuele Filiberto would have encouraged it by his 
patronage. 

It seems to us more probable that Nani was called to Turin to advise as 
to the quality of the clay and other matters, with the idea of producing finer 
wares at an established pottery- at which only ordinary vessels for domestic 
use had been made. Italian writers, however, try to believe that a fabrique 
existed under the personal supervision of Orazio and of Nani, but they 
find no record or specimen, and admit that it must have had but a short 
existence ; moreover there is no evidence of Orazio having been at Turin. 

One Francesco Guagni, of Castel Durante, is mentioned by Pungileoni 
as haxing been in the Duke's service, but it seems doubtful whether he was 
a ceramist, who made researches for the composition of porcelain at that 
court in 1567, or whether he was a military' engineer. Campori affirms the 
latter. Thus much for the e\idence of histor}'. 

Some ten 3'ears later a fabrique existed which may possibl}' have been 
originally organized under the direction of Antonio Nani, but certainly was 
not prompted or inspired by the beautiful vases of the Fontana fabrique, 
for in Mr. C. W. Reynolds' Collection was a ' canestretta,' the sides of 
which are of open work, formed by crossed bars, and in the centre the 
subject of a nude 3'outh carrj'ing birds on a pole is coarsel}'^ painted in 
a manner certainly not after that of Orazio. On the reverse is the 
inscription ' Fatta in Torino adi 12 d Setebre 1577.' This interesting 
piece, now in the Museo Civico at Turin, the gift of the late Marchese 
V. E. J. d'Azeglio, is the only known example of the enamelled pottery 
made at Turin in the sixteenth centur}-. It is covered with a thick and 
very white enamel ; pieces of the same character have been ascribed by 
Italian collectors to Imola. 

In 1646 we find that a new furnace has been erected in the * Regio 
Parco ' b}' Anfoiiio Bianco, a Genoese, in union with others. Again, in 
1649 ^^^ then Duke, Carlo Emanuele, nominated as superintendent and 
impresario of Bianco's fabrique one Nicola Corrado of Albissola, granting 
privileges and forbidding the making of maiolica elsewhere in the State. 
These grants seem, however, to have ceased in 1657, for the works 
were then let to Enrico la Reviera, a dependent of the Duke's mother 
(Vignola ^). 

Vittorio Amadeo II obtained from Bologna in 1699 a master potter in 
order to renew the work ; but, as it seems, with small success, neither could 
other artists succeed with the inferior materials at hand. 

A piece cited by M. Jacquemart, with landscape decoration, is marked at 

* Giovanni Vignola, Sulle Maioliche e Porcellane del Piemonte. 8vo. Torino. 1878. 

Y 2 



324 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

the back with the crossed shield of Savoy; he considers it to be of a date 
anterior to those marked with the same shield surmounted by a crown. 

A plateau which belonged to the Marquis d'Azeglio (who, waning in his 
former love for the maiolica of the sixteenth century, latterly devoted his 
attention to and made most interesting observations on the faience and 
porcelain produced in Italy during the seventeenth and eighteenth, of 
which he possessed a rich collection of examples since given by him to the 
Museo Civico at Turin) has on the reverse the Mark No. 468, namel}', 
the shield of Savoy surmounted by the crown. This piece, painted with 
horses, birds, hares, &c., in blue on the white ground, is ascribed to the 
latter end of the seventeenth century. 

Not until 1725 do we find any further progress made; in that year 
Giorgio Rosetli di Macetto opened a work for the production of maiolica 
and obtained a patent from the Duke. He produced works alia China 
and other, but after two years ceded the business to Pietro Bistorto. 
Giorgio Giacinto Rosetii of Pinerolo founded a fabrique of porcelain in 
1737, but without much success. He became owner of the Bistorto 
furnaces in 1743. In 1765 Antonio Ardizzone di Bra had a furnace, 
but gave it up to Lorenzo Longarini and Giovanni Batista Ravotti in 
1 771, who again parted with it to Giacomo Berberis and Antonio Grossi. 
It would appear that from some cause or other their business did not 
succeed. Rosetti however continued the production of maiolica and 
porcelain till the beginning of the present century (Vignola). 

An example, a large dish in the same collection, painted with flowers 
on a white ground, is inscribed at the back ' Fabrica Reale di Torino,' 
a monogram composed of the letters C. R., and the date 1737. 

The Marquis d'Azeglio also had a dish of the same period, painted with 
the subject of Susanna and the Elders, and signed at back gratapaglia • 

FE • TAVR. 

M. Jacquemart mentions an example of good quality, inscribed * Laforest 
en Savoy e 1752.' 

In the British Museum is a fruit basket of brown glazed ware, appa- 
rently of the earlier part of the eighteenth or later years of the preceding 
century, the open-work border of which is formed as the collar of the 
order of the Santissima Annunziata of Savoy; this would point either to 
a Savoyard origin or owner, for whom it may have been designed ; it 
was probably one of a service or set, and has some resemblance to the 
brown dish No. 4353 in the South Kensington Museum, ascribed to La 
Fratta, and to certain pieces variously attributed to Monte Lupo, Castel 
Durante, and Venice. 

Mr. Chaffers gives a mark which occurs impressed on two vases 



VINO VO— Vise HE 325 



21 1 inches high, then belonging to Mr. Jackson, of Hull, 'of very light and 
resonant ware, with rich maroon-coloured glaze.' The mark is a crowned 
shield, bearing a large T (or tau cross) surmounted by a smaller b ; it does 
not seem to us to have any reference to the arms of Savoy. 

In 1794 Pietro Maria Rosetii opened works to make wares like the 
English. 

Another factory was erected near the Porta Susa in 1807-8, but was 
closed in 1830. 

In 1824 Richard Dortii and Prelaz moved their plant to Turin, and 
made porcelain and pipe-clay wares after the English manner ; they took the 
Rosetti furnaces. In 1846 it was worked 2& Luigi Richard Ss^Cie. The 
fabrique was closed in 1863. 

In 187 1 Giuseppe Devers, a pupil of Ary Scheffer, established a school 
of ceramics which ceased at his death. Some admirable works were 
produced by the pupils of this school. 



VI NOVO. 

At Vinovo, about 1776, Giovanni Vittorto Brodel, obtaining permission 
from the King to experiment on the production of porcelain, induced 
Pietro Atifonio Hannong of Strasburg to come to Turin. The whole 
Castello at Vinovo was put at his service by the King ; but, getting into 
debt, Brodel ceded the business to Hannong, retiring in 1778. Hannong 
also made maiolica, but affairs did not prosper, and, he leaving the works 
in debt, the}'^ were seized and the wares and plant sold by auction on 
behalf of the creditors. In 1780 the Castello was granted to Dr. Vittorio 
Amadeo Gioanetti, who formed a company, and, with ro3'al privilege, w^as 
enabled to produce porcelain of excellent quality. The Doctor died 
after having conducted the factory to 1814. It was continued under 
Giovanni Lomello until 1820. 

The mark consists of the two capital letters D G, above which is a 
V surmounted by a + (see Mark No. 476). 



VISCHE. 

At Vische, near Turin, a factory for making porcelain was opened by 
a society in 1765, having obtained privileges from the Sardinian Govern- 
ment ; but it failed before 1776, and the wares it produced are not known. 



326 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



MONDOVI. 

Tradition states that maiolica was made at Mondovi in the seventeenth 
or early eighteenth century at a place called // Piano delta Valle. 

In 1808 Francesco Perotti of Mondovi, a medico, with one Randazzo, 
started a fabrique in the rione called Rinchiuso, at a small house in the 
Gherbiana, near the gardens of the Perotti family. The clay found by 
Perotti did not prove to be of good quality or in sufficient quantity, and 
the works soon ceased. 

Benedetto Musso of Savona, in 1810, established himself at Carrassone, 
a borgo of Mondovi, seeking a suitable clay ; he began making wares, 
and prospered, at one time employing a hundred workmen. The works 
were continued by his son Alessandro. The marks on pieces were M • M. 

Several other smaller fabriques were worked in the neighbourhood ; 
as that of Giuseppe Besio about 1834. Mark B • G. 

Also one by Annibate Musso, whose pieces in 1850 were marked M • A. 



POLLENZO. 

The Pollentia of Roman times, said to have been erected by the 
Consul Marcus Fulvius Flaccus about 630 a. u. c, near which the fierce 
battle with Alaric took place in 402-3 a. d., was noted for the excellence 
of its brown woollens and of its potter's clay, from which were formed the 
catices referred to by Martial : 

* Non tantum pullo lugentes vellere tanas 
Sed sotet et catices haec dare terra suos^' 

Pliny also states that the best earths in Italy for the making of terra- 
cotta vessels were those of Arezzo for the Samian ware, and those of 
Sorrento, of Asti, and Pollenzo for * et caticum tantum, Surrentum, Asta, 
Pottentia -.' 

Fragments of vessels, tazze, amphorae, &c., are found, many worked 
in relief and of a very fine and light quality of clay ; some nearly black, 
others red and approaching to purple in colour. 

But we have no record of the production of glazed or enamelled wares 
at the period of the Renaissance. 

' Martial, Epig lib. xiv. 157. ^ Hist. Nat. lib. xxxv. 46. 



GENOA 327 

STATES OF GENOA. 
GENOA. 

In our Catalogue of the South Kensington Collection of Maiolica we 
gave a separate notice of wares which we presumed, from the mark of 
the well-known pharo upon them, might probably be of Genoese produc- 
tion. Piccolpasso, in his description of designs for decoration, states that 
some of those patterns were frequently used at Genoa. This leads us 
to believe that during the course of the sixteenth century', and probably 
long anterior, works existed in active production in the immediate sur- 
roundings of that city. Whether they had any really artistic value, or were 
merely for objects of domestic utility, we have no present means of 
knowing. He further states that the earth used there was dug from the 
solid, and not that gathered from the river bed. 

The small pamphlet published by Sig. Torteroli^ on the wares of 
Savona did not throw light on the potteries of the neighbouring city. 

In 1881 Sig. F. Alizeri ^ published a pamphlet, describing a remarkable 
quadrOj formed of tiles, with lateral colomiette, that on the right entwined 
with vine foliage, that on the left with oak. It has a sort of architrave 
above, a suppedaneo and frieze below, within which is the inscription 
AVE • MARIA • 1529. The central portion, thus surrounded, consists 
of tiles, so formed as to fit in with the design of the picture and its 
framing ; on them is painted the seated figure of the Virgin, clad in white 
v^estment, holding the Child, and in her left hand a book; from which 
circumstance the picture is known as the ' Vergine delta Sapienza! The 
colours used are yellow, blue, and green. The total measurement is 
\ vi\.(y2. high by i m. 29 wide. It probably was the altar-piece in a private 
chapel, and came from the family villa of the Marchese Del Carretto at 
Finale. It was then in possession of the Sig. Avvocato Giuseppe Grillo, of 
Genoa. Sig. Alizeri states that in the Genoese archives (* negli atti 
nostri ') the death of Francesco da Pesaro is entered as occurring in that 
same year 1529 ; he is the earliest artist potter of whom Sig. Alizeri can 
discover record at Genoa. It is possible that this altar-piece may have 
been finished by him at Genoa, previous to his death. 

In the church of Santa Maria di Castello, at Genoa, in the chapel 
formerly of the Botto family, are painted tiles covering the walls. He 
finds the name of one Goracchi da Borgo San Sepolcro, a painter of vases, 

^ Tommaso Torteroli, Intomo alia Maiolica Savonese. Torino, 1856. 

* F. Alizeri, D'una rara Maiolica nuovamente recata in Geneva. Genova, 1881. 



328 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 



who went to the school of Bcrgamasco, when he was in Genoa in 1566, 
to improve his hand in painting. Also other Pesarese : one Tonwmso, 
one Gio. Francesco, one Bartolomeo. To what extent they worked at 
Genoa, or whether they passed on to Albissola and Savona, we have no 
record. That the works of later time have been confused with those of 
Savona and other neighbouring potteries is the opinion of Sig. Torteroli 
and of Sig. Vignola, 

Among those Italian potters who, coming from Genoa, established 
themselves and produced wares at Lyons, M. Natalis Rondot finds 
record of twelve between the years 1556 and 1574, three of whom were 
natives of Pesaro, and two of Faenza. Between the years 1575 and 1650 
other ten were working at Lyons, some of whom bear the names and 
were doubtless descendants born at Genoa or in France of the earlier 
immigrants. M. Rondot gives their names and the respective dates in 
his last brochure, Les Faienciers Italiens a Lyon au seizieme siecle. 
Lyon, 1895. 

SAVONA. 

On the Riviera, some eight leagues to the west of Genoa, is the site 
of an extensive manufacture which was very active during the latter 
half of the seventeenth century ; to the present day brick and tile kilns, 
and potteries for the production of ordinary * terraglia,' vases for mural 
ornament, ornamental pots for orange trees, and other works in terra-cotta, 
are scattered in various spots along the coast road from this city to * Genova 
la Superba.' 

Signor Torteroli tells us ^ that, on excavations being made in con- 
structing foundations for certain modern buildings, fragments of pottery 
were found of various sorts from that of Roman time, the glazed wares 
of the revival, and the painted enamelled productions of the seventeenth 
century, &c. He reminds us that the father of the Emperor Pertinax was 
P. Elvius Successus, the master of a botega at or near Savona ^. That potteries 
existed there in Roman times would seem further proved by the name of 
the borgo now known as ' delle Fornace,' which he suggests was formerly 
the Vicus Figuloritm. In the thirteenth century wares were exported thence 
to Sardinia, Corsica, and to Provence. Terra-cotta in various forms was 
much manufactured, and subsequently glazed tiles for covering the dadoes 
of walls, &c., some of which were still in situ when he wrote. One of 

' Op. cit. padre dell' iniperatore sullodato, dice, 

"^ Sig. Torteroli refers to ' le parole di Pater eitis iabeniain corlilkmin in Ligiiria 
Giulio Capitolino, la dove, parlando del c.xrrcKcraC 



SA VON A 329 

these, then in the Casa Pavesi, used for the public schools, has since 
been sold. Another was then in the Casa Vaccinoli. 

In the church of S. Giacomo is a chapel encrusted with glazed and 
painted tiles. At Albissola, near at hand on the post-road to Genoa, in the 
sacristy of the parish church, is a picture formed of tiles, the subject being 
the Birth of Christ. It is signed b}' the painter ' FaUa in Arbisola del 1)^6. 
p. mano. di Agustino Gtronimo Urbinato. La dipinse! 

Potters from Albissola established themselves at Mantua in 1591, 
encouraged by the Duke Vincenzio. 

Of the Corradi family of that place, Domenico emigrated to France, 
establishing himself at Nevers ; Nicola worked at Turin for Giacomo 
Bianchi in 1649. 

In 1670 Litigi Levantino worked at Venice in the Contrada Sa. 
Barnaba. 

It would seem that at Savona and Genoa, as also at an earlier period at 
\'enice, a new artistic impulse was given to the otherwise more ordinary 
pottery, in the later years of the sixteenth century, b3' the arrival of artist 
potters from Pesaro, Urbino, Faenza, and Castel Durante; leading to the 
production of better-formed and painted Savonese wares, which were at 
their best about the middle of the seventeenth century. 

An important production of these furnaces was terra-cotta for architec- 
tural and kindred decoration. A large cornice, probably" of the sixteenth 
century, is still to be seen in the Via degli Orefici, built on the facade of 
the house of Verzellino, 

Nearly all the examples of Savona faience have a similarit}- of character, 
a good glaze, a ground of a bluish white, upon which the subjects are 
painted in a rather pale but clear tone of blue. These are frequently 
figures in groups, in the costume of the last century, with flowers, foliage, 
&c. ; the pieces are thin and well-baked, and the forms frequently rather 
exaggerated, with scalloped edges, &c. Many pieces are modelled after 
the pattern of silver smartellati and with leafage, masks, S:c., in rehef 

Redi the poet, in two of his letters dated 1685 and 1695, refers to the 
maiolica of Savona; also Fantoni, in a poem written in 1783. 

The most frequent mark is a shield of arms of the town, surmounted by 
a crown, and sometimes accompanied by the initials of the makers. 

Girolamo Salomini was one of the earlier * maestri ' about the middle of 
the seventeenth centur}', and the letters G. S. are supposed to be his initials, 
unless they may be read as ' Guidoboiio Savoua.'' The six-pointed star, 
formed by crossing two triangles, and known as Solomon's Seal, is stated to 
have been the mark of the Salomini. 

Giau. Antonio Gitidobono from Lombardy was a painter, who worked 



330 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

with his two sons Bartolomeo and Domenico; the initials Ga G have 
been ascribed to the former. Gimi. Antonio went to Turin with his sons, 
and painted pieces for the Court ; he died in 1685, aged eighty. Bartolomeo 
was the better artist ; he worked also in oils and in fresco : he died at Turin 
in 1709. Domenico afterwards went to Genoa; thence to Naples, where 
he died in 1746. Gian. Tommaso Torteroli, called // Sordo, who lived 
and died at Savona, and Agostino Ratti, were working also about the 
same period. 

Two examples were in the possession of the Rev. Thomas Staniforth, 
of Storrs, Windermere, marked (No. 483). 

On a dish, with blue figures on white, is the Mark No. 485 (Chaffers). 

Some pieces in the Chamber of Arts at Berlin are signed AGOSTINO • 
RATTI • SAVONA • 1720. 

In Dr. Diamond's collection was a piece marked with a trumpet, from 
which hangs a banner of the House of Savoy. He ascribed this to Savona. 
Vignola assigns a similar mark to the maker Chiodo. 

In the British Museum, from the late Mr. Henderson's Collection, is a 
small ewer, bearing a mark carelessly painted, and which Mr. Chaffers has 
rendered as a fish tied to a stake. We agree with Dr. Diamond in suspect- 
ing that these marks are similar, but badly designed, both being intended 
for the trumpet with the banner of Savoy. 

Mr. Chaffers also gives some marks from pieces in the collection of 
M. Edouard Pascal, at Paris, and others ; the letter S under a rude shield, 
and N • G • under a sort of crown, which are supposed of Savonese origin. 
The writer has seen pieces, apparently of this ware, marked with a double 
tower or square battlemented castle, one side of which rises higher than 
the other, and which conveys a rough idea of the tower at the entrance 
of Savona. It is probably a mark of B. Guidobono. 

Genolini refers to a tile having a representation of the Deposition in 
low relief, painted blue on the white ground ; signed ' Bartolomeo Bolero di 
Savona Feci ij2g di jbreJ 

Early in the eighteenth century we find a French family, said to be of 
Marseilles, but who had probably also worked at Moustiers, coming into 
and established in Italy. A cylindrical jar in the D'Azeglio Collection, 
painted with a sea combat, boats, figures, &c., signed at the back ^ Primum 
Opus NBorrelli Mensi Julij 1735,' and again, ^ IVBorrelli Invent. Pinx. A. S. 
1735,' is an example of their work. 

Two vases painted in green cama'ieu are signed 'Jacques Borrelly, Savonne, 
1779, 24 Septembre' ; and other pieces occur with the signature Giacomo 
Borrelly. M. Jacquemart surmises that the former was the father and an 
Italian, whose son, after working at Moustiers and Marseilles, returned to 



SA VON A 



331 



Savona. This Giacomo Borrelli or Boselli had his fabrique in the Via di 
Torino, on the front of which is a small temple in maiolica. 

The Borelli introduced wares after the manner of the English and 
French, to the detriment of the native maiolica. 

Signor Giovanni Vignola, in his memoir on the maiolica and porcelain 
of Piedmont {Appendice), gives the following list of other makers and 
artists of Savona : 

Chiodo. Li Levantino. 

Chiodo e Levantino. Bartoli e Levantino. 

Rubatto e Boselli. Folco. 

G® Rubatto. Siccardi. 

S° Rubatto. Pescetto. 

Giordano. P° Brusco. 

Croce. G' Berti. 

A° Levantino. C" Marcenar". 

G® Bellotte. Giacomo Boselli. 

Valente. * Bartolomeo Botero (Genolini). 



CHAPTER VIII 



NEAPOLITAN STATES. 



NAPLES. 



THAT potteries existed at a very early period in and about Naples 
there can be no doubt ; and it is presumable that glazed wares, with 
and without the addition of a white slip or engobe, were produced from 
a relatively early time. 

Although we have not any examples marked and dated of such early 
wares, there can be little doubt that the important pavement of tiles in 
the church of San Giovanni a Carbonari was an output from the local 
furnaces. We accidentally omitted any reference to this pavement when 
writing the Catalogue of Maiolica in the South Kensington Museum in 1872, 
although it had engaged our attention some twenty years previously. Either 
at that time, or in 1863 or 1864, some work was being executed at the base 
of the Carracciolo monument, and several of the tiles had been displaced, 
the broken fragments, with old mortar, bricks, &c., being cast away outside : 
probing into this rubbish heap we found one whole tile and two or three 
pieces, which we were enabled to secure ; that whole tile was subsequently 
given to the British Museum, the broken one is in the Ashmolean, at Oxford. 

Within the last decade M. Emile Molinier has made a careful examina- 
tion of this pavement, a full description of which, with illustrations, he 
published, in his small but valuable volume entitled La Ceramique 
Italienne, in 1888. He there states that Burckhardt attributes these 
tiles to the school of the Delia Robbia ; we concur with M. Molinier 
in disagreeing with that attribution : it appears to us that there is nothing 
in the designs, the nature of the glaze, or the manner of treatment that 
coincides with the Delia Robbia ware; and moreover they are in every 
respect inferior. On the other hand, as M. Molinier points out, occasional 
features in the designs on these tiles show a certain amount of Oriental 
character, although but rudely painted in dark manganese and other 



NAPLES 333 

colour ; while on others we find the rigid representation of heraldic 
animals, and the lettering of words in a distinctly ' Gothic ' manner. 
We agree, also, in opinion with M. Molinier, that the approximate date 
of this work is probably about 1440, and that it was of Neapolitan pro- 
duction. 

A pavement of tiles, formerly in the monastery * di Donna Regina' some 
of which are of ' mezza maioHca'; some with stanniferous glaze, decorated 
with the arms of a Queen of Naples of the Angevin dynasty and others ; 
and some having portraits, is referred to by Urbani, but without any 
assumption that it is of Neapolitan production. 

Prince Filangieri ^ however considers that it is so, as also the tiled pave- 
ment of the fifteenth century in the cathedral at Capua, and others of the 
sixteenth in San Pietro a Majella ; again, in San Giovanni alia Pietra Santa, 
and one made in the last century for the monastery of San Andrea delle 
Dame, but now in the Museo Nazionale at Naples. 

We doubt whether any of these pavements are of high artistic merit. 

In the church of S. Angelo a Nilo was a pavement in front of the fine 
tomb of Cardinal Brancaccio, b}' Donatello and Michelozzo, some of the 
tiles of which were decorated with birds, animals, female heads in profile ; on 
some the arms of the Cardinal ; on others of elongated form the words 
AMAQiO ; others had the peacock feather decoration attributed to 
Tuscany, and which was used in earlier time at Faenza. A memorandum 
in our note-book, made many years ago, attributes this pavement to 
Tuscan}^ rather than Naples. Cardinal Brancaccio died in 1428. It is 
possible that these tiles may have been of the Delia Robbia fabrique. 

Recurring to that in the church of San Giovanni a Carbonari, the 
distinctive character of which is so well recalled to our memory by the 
description and illustrations in M. Molinier's Ceramique Italienne, it has 
occurred to us that a remarkable vase in the South Kensington Collection 
(No. 2562. '56), which we classed among pieces of doubtful origin and 
described as follows, may be a work of the same fabrique and approximate 
period : 

* Vase. Truncated, pear-shaped. Two-handled. On either face are two 
leopards or lions rampant, combatant, in a diaper of oak leaves ; vine or ivy 
leafage covers the sides and handles ; outlined in manganese, and filled in 
with dark purple on the white ground. Fifteenth century. H. 14I in., 
diam. 14^ in. 

'A very interesting piece of early date, perhaps the most ancient example 
of Italian glazed ware with painted decoration which the Museum possesses. 

' II Museo Artistico Industriale e le Scuole officine di Napoli. Napoli, 1881. 



334 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

There is no clue by which we can fix the locahty of its manufacture, or its 
precise date, but a certain Oriental character about the design would show 
the influence perhaps of Moorish potters.' 

See woodcut at page 640 of the South Kensington Museum Catalogue. 

When Antonio Beuter speaks of the excellent wares made at Castelli 
in the first half of the sixteenth century, it is not unlikely that Neapolitan 
productions were included in the ceramic importations from that port 
to Spain, but we have no examples of that period to confirm the fact. 
M. Jacquemart tells us of a vase of somewhat similar general character 
to those about to be described, on which is the inscription * P il sig. Francho 
Nepita. 1532 ' ; but it is not improbable that his information was derived 
from an ill-written memorandum, and that the date was 1682. 

About 1684 Paulus Franciscus Brandi made some vases which are 
described as very large and grandiose in style, with handles formed as 
caryatides, and painted with religious subjects, in a free but elegant style, 
m blue camaieu on one side only, M. Jacquemart, probably not having seen 
the dated piece, ascribed these to the end of the sixteenth century, but 
Mr. Marryat informs us that one of the three vases painted with the 
subject of the Last Supper is signed in full with the date 1684 ; another, 
' Fran. Brand Napoh casa Nova.' M. Jacquemart reads the last two words 
of this inscription as * Gesii Novo,' and makes known to us a mark (Mark 
No. 501) beneath each of the two vases he describes ; the inscription on 
the second of these he gives as ' Paulus Fran'^"^ Brandi Pinx 68 + .' Over- 
looking the fact that the art of Southern Italy was of later development 
than in Tuscany and the North, that able writer interprets these numerals 
as 1568, whereas it is more probable that the same period of the following 
century was intended, unless the inscription on the first-named vase is 
wrongly rendered. The subjects of these last are the Miraculous Draught 
of Fishes, and Christ in the Garden (Mark No. 502). 

These vases are also referred to by II Principe Filangieri, who also 
notices a similar piece in the collection of Sig. F. Ponti of Milan. 

M. Jacquemart observes, on these marks, that the closed crown is an 
important feature, differing materially from the open crown of Tuscany, 
and from that which accompanies the signature of the Terchi at Bassano, 
and sometimes found alone ; and he reasonably infers that other marks, 
in which this same closed crown is a feature accompanied by initial 
letters, a palm branch, &c., may be assigned to a Neapolitan fabrique. 
Some of these have hitherto been mistaken for the marks of Nove, 
Bassano, Castelli, &c. The crown is sometimes surmounted by a star 
with the initials B. C. or A. underneath ; rarely impaled on a palm branch 
between B. and C. 



NAPLES 335 

In the eighteenth century the production of enamelled wares at Naples 
was revived, and signed pieces are known bearing the dates 1717, 17 18, 
and 1749, by Saverio Grue ; while others have the initials of Carlo Coccorese, 
with the dates 1721 and 1734. Two tiles are referred to by Signor 
Urbani de Gheltof, signed ' S. Grue. p. Napoli 1749 ' : they were in the 
possession of Count di Montbrun. 

A vase is also referred to by Genolini, signed ' Fra. Ant. Grue. p. 
Napoli 1722.' 

At the royal fabrique of Capo di Monte, established by Charles III 
in 1736, several varieties of fine wares were made, from a beautiful artificial 
porcelain to a faience of high qualit}^, of which, however, little seems to 
have been produced. 

Of such is a jug painted with flowers in Captain Langford's possession ; 
it is marked with the letter N, surmounted b}' an open crown, the well-known 
mark of the later period of the fabrique. 

Of the same late period is a ' fontaine de sacristie,' described by 

M. Jacquemart, modelled with the dove of the Holy Spirit, cherubs issuing 

from clouds, &c., and richly gilt and painted, on which is the same mark, 

J . . ^ Capo di Monte, 
and the signature . Mo'V 

In or about 1760 one Nicola Giusfiniani of Cerreto opened a fabrique 
for maiolica at Naples, engaging excellent artists, among whom was one 
Ferdinando Midler of Mannheim. The Giustiniani fabrique continues to 
the present day producing enamelled and more ordinary wares. 

The Etruscan wares made by F. Del Vecchio, white and gold services 

and other faience, bear the mark of his works, stamped " ^' ' The 

Giustiniani, Mollica, and other modern producers of faience and terra-cotta, 
generally mark with their names impressed upon the paste. 

The wares of Schioppa and those of Cacciapuoli are referred to by 
Urbani and by Novi. 

Some pieces of the last century, supposed to be Neapolitan, painted 
with figures, landscapes, &c., in very pale colours, and marked at the back 
with letters H. F or IF combined, are probably of German, and not 
of Italian origin, as some have supposed. 

Three important specimens of the fabrique of Castelli or of Naples 
were in the possession of Signor Alessandro Castellani. On one of these 
plates is the portrait of the celebrated Neapolitan Tribune, Masso Aniello 
(Massaniello), surrounded by rich foliated ornamental border, on the 
upper part of which is a coat of arms, charged with an amphora, and 
accompanied by the motto p.vtricio • lancellam. The reverse is inscribed 



336 ITALIAN PAINTED IVARES 

' Tomaso Aniello figlio de Greco d'Amalfi et Antonia Gargani, nato 21 
Giugno, 1620.' 

The second has the portrait of Greco d'Amalfi, and the inscription 
' Greco d'Amalfi Marito di Antonio Gragnano.' 

The third plate bears the portrait of the Tribune's wife, and is inscribed 
' Bernadina Pisa Moglie di Tomaso Anillo d' Amalfi.' 



CASTELLI. 

Castelli is now a ^piccolo paesello^ standing on a high rocky ridge 
running northward of the Gran Sasso d' Italia above the rivers Leomogna 
and Rio, which water the valley of Mavone. This district, formerl}^ known 
as the ' Agro Atriano' was originally inhabited by the Siculi. In later times 
it took the name of the * Valle Siciliana ' in the Abruzzi Ultra. The 
monastery of the Cenobio di S. Salvatore di Castelli w^as a well-known and 
important establishment in its day. Aquila, on the southern side of the 
ridge of Monte Corno, is the nearest town of importance. 

In and about Castelli there has probably been an extensive ceramic 
industry from the earliest times, all the more important requisite materials 
being in the immediate neighbourhood ; an excellent potter's clay, hills 
yielding an almost endless supply of brushwood, and cheap labour. Pliny 
states that pottery was exported thence ; and it is referred to by Polydorus, 
and by Pansa di Penne (Bindi). There is little doubt that a considerable 
exportation of these wares took place in the sixteenth century to various 
places, among others to Spain, for we are referred by Passeri to the Cronica 
Generale di Spagna, by Antonio Beuter, whom we have previously quoted, 
and who, with a laudatory compliment at the expense of Coroebus, particu- 
larizes the wares of Pisa, Pesaro, and ' li Castelli della Valle Siciliana 
d' Abruzzo.' It will be noticed that these three fabriques so particularized 
are all places whence pottery could be readily exported, without much land- 
carriage, the advantage however being with the two former ; and we know 
from other sources that a commerce existed between Valencia and Pisa for 
the interchange of the Hispano-Moresque and Italian faience. Fragments of 
pottery of classic and earlier times occur abundantly throughout this district. 

Pieces of glazed wares from the Abruzzi, and believed, from the circum- 
stances of their disinterment, to be of the thirteenth or early fourteenth 
century, were in the hands of Sig. Barnabei a few years since, some of 
which had a semblance of enamel glaze, but were probably only * mezza 
maiolica' A broken jug of unusual form, with wide-mouthed spout, was 
remarkable. 



CASTELLI 337 

Cherubini^ tells us of fragments from Castelli of mezza ware, with 
ornament worked a graffito, and of very early time ; but we know that 
this primitive method of ornamentation was almost universal throughout 
Italy. 

Professor Bindi - records a plaque, in riliev^o, having the arms of the little 
Comune of Castagna painted in colours, and signed ^ Federicus Sebastiani 
fieri fecit ij68.' This would therefore be the earliest dated piece on record. 

Professor Bindi also records that in 1372 Roberto de Melatino of Teramo 
built a house in front of S. Luca, over the door of which he placed his 
* Stemma, lavorato in figulina di Bartolomeo di Maestro Giocoudo,' with 
crest a human foot, from the great toe of which hangs a chain holding 
a block, inscribed : 

' lo so hracchu rissoso pe natiira 

De offendere a chi me sdegna se procura! 

Another ' tnattonella ' of Castelli is in the Museo Artistico Industriale at 
Rome ; it is signed ' Fecit hoc Titus Pompei iji6' 

Professor Bindi refers to a document which tells us that in the second 
half of the fifteenth century one Maestro Renzo Anxanetisis (of Lanciano) 
was celebrated as ' Pictor et opifex fictilium, non vulgaris. Figulinae Castelli 
in Dioecesi Pinnensis diutissime praefuit ; eamque eximiis vasorum picturis, 
elegantioribus illonim formis novisque ex ingcnio, quo emiuebat, excogitatis 
ill list ravit^J This records a real artist, painting on either the tnezza wares, 
or possibly on enamelled maiolica. 

Polidoro, the son of Maestro Renzo, was also a painter, but it does not 
appear whether he worked on ceramic wares. 

From that time a century passes without further note of artistic potters 
at Castelli. The next recorded is one Tito Pompei, a potter working in 
1515, but of whom nothing more is known. Then Orazio Pompei, on 
the front of whose house was the inscription haec • est • domvs • oratii • 
FiGVLi • 1569, and a painting on maiolica, representing the Virgin and 
Child, with the date 1551 and the letters ORG, which have been read as an 
abbreviation of the name ORAZIO. We learn that this painting is quite an 
inferior work. 

We further learn that in a chapel, dedicated to San Donato, on a hilltop 
near Castelli, the ^ soffito' and the pavement are covered with tiles painted 

^ G. Cherubini, Dei Grue e della Pittura liche di Castelli. Napoli, 1867. See also 

Ceramica in Castelli. 8vo. Naples, 1865, Diego Bonghi, Intorno alle Majoliche di 

and Roma, 1873. Castelli. 410. Naples, 1856. 

■^ Bindi, Le Maioliche de Castelli. Napoli, ' Polidoro, De Artibus Frentanorum. 
1883. Rosa, Notizie Storiche delle Maio- 



338 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

after the manner of Faenza or Pesaro, upon which part of the name 
'ORAT . . . PO . . . hoc ' can be read. The subjects are taken from the 
Litanies, the Ave Maria, and other prayers, and are well executed. 
Other artists seem to have assisted Orazio in this work, their names being 
inscribed — Jacovo de Felippe, pingebafy i6i^. Jacobus Philippi de Castel. 
Geronimo de Felippo. Jacovo de Felippe. f. Jacovo de Felippe. feci. 1615, 
1616. Nicola Truvo. fecit. Yo. Marchionno. fecit hoc. S • M • P • N • 
Don Domenico Barone. fecit hoc (Urbani, quoting from Corona). 

By these we learn that an important fabrique, probably under the 
direction of Orazio Pompei, was established at Castelli at the end of 
the sixteenth century, employing several artists in painting maiolica, but 
seemingly not of a very high class, nor possessing those characteristics in 
the colouring and softness of tone which became so distinctive under the 
subsequent school established by the Grue family. Of this family, the 
first we hear of is Francesco, a vasajo of Castelli in 1594 ; but whether him- 
self an artist, we do not know. Carl Antonio Grue, the son of Francesco, 
was the talented ceramic painter whose works, with those of his followers 
and family, have given an individual character to the maiolica of Castelli. 

Examples of his work are in the Museo Nazionale at San Martino, 
Naples and in the collections of the Conte de Correale and of the Com''® 
G. Colonna. 

Some of his pieces are signed C • A • G • Pi. 

Francescantonio, his son, was educated for the Church, but his artistic 
proclivities led him to the ceramic studio ; he went to Urbino, there to learn 
something more of the technical work, returning however to Castelli. The 
imposition of an additional tax caused a local revolution, in which he took 
a leading part ; on its suppression he was taken to Naples, and there 
imprisoned in 1716. He remained in Naples for ten years, painting on 
maiolica and engraving by the acid process. Among other works he is said 
to have painted for the Hospital of Incurables some of the series of vases 
reported to have been for the most part destroyed during a popular 
tumult in 1799. Writing in the Gazzetta di Napoli in 1874 (July 6), 
11 Com'"" Barnabei denies that this was the case, as seven of the larger 
vases, still preserved in that * Farmacia,' are dated 1748, with the name 
Lorenzo Sallandra Pitore de vasi di Greta. He states that it is clear 
that these vases were made for the compartments they now occupy; that 
they are not of great excellence, the Bible subjects being but poorl}' 
executed ; but they are interesting, as proving the existence of another 
fabrique at Naples. Frances''" Antonio Grue had returned to Castelli about 
1735, and died there in 1746; leaving a ceramic school in Naples, where 
he had painted till 17 16, and at which fabrique it is probable that these 



CAST ELL I 339 

vases were subsequent!}' produced, and where C. Coccorese had also 
painted. 

Sig. Barnabei believes that the vases made by F. A. Grue were for 
another pharmacy ; that, with one exception onl}', they were all destro3'ed in 
the tumult, that last one being now in the Museo di San Martino, at Naples, 
from the Bonghi Collection, and inscribed * D • O • M • Sisfe viator et vide. 
Hos fictiles alveolos mira arte dipidos ingenio manuque D. Francisci Antotni 
Xaverii Grue, &c., ij^j' 

We may here remark that, from the time of F. A. Grue's sojourn at 
Naples, it becomes almost impossible to distinguish the works produced for 
the most part b}^ the Grue family at Castelli from those made at Naples ; 
the}', and the pupils of their school, worked sometimes at one, sometimes 
at the other fabrique ; and, except on such pieces as are signed, with the 
locality and date inscribed, much must be left to conjecture. 

Examples of France^ Antonio Grue are in the Museum of San Martino. 
He signs 'Dr. Franc Anton" Grue. 1718'; 'fra^ Ant* Grue • P • Napoli 
1722 ' ; ' Dr. Franc*. Ant°. Grue. p. Castelli 1737.' 

Another piece was in the Parpart Collection : subject, the body of 
Chlorinda carried to the camp of Tancred : it was signed beneath ' Dr. 
FraiKf. Ant. Xati' Grue pinxit. Castelli, ijj)' 

A still earlier is signed F • G • DE • CHA • P • 1747. 

The history of this talented famil}' of ceramic painters, and of the school 
formed by them, is told with loving detail by Signor G. Cherubini, in 
a pamphlet entitled De Grue e della Pittura Ceramica in Castelli. Roma, 
1878. 

Anastasio, the brother of Francescantonio, painted small landscape 
subjects. He was the first, and the most able, in the use of gilding on the 
Castelli wares. Born in 1691, he died in 1743. 

Aurelio also painted landscape. 

Liborio, born in 1701, died 1776, was the younger brother. He painted 
historical scenes and female faces with great delicacy. He signed in full 
and with the initials L • G • P. 

Francesco Savcrio, or Filippo Saverio, son of Francescantonio, was 
a clever painter of miniatures. He applied for an appointment in the Ro3'al 
fabrique at Capo di Monte, but was refused, as not then being accustomed 
to painting on porcelain. 

When the fabrique was removed from Capodi Monte to the Rojal palace 
at Naples Saverio was included among the artists employed. He travelled 
in France, Germany, and England, was able also as a modeller, and 
produced fine groups and medallions in biscuit. He was born at Atri 
about 1731 and died in 1799. 

2 2 



340 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Other members of the family, less famous as artists, were Nicolo 
Tommaso, known as ^ Lo Znmpo'; Pier Valentino; Liborio (senior) and 
Bernardino. Also a Francesco Saverio, born in 1720, the son of Giovanni 
and Geltrude Amicucci of Canzano, an able artist. 

One Francesco Saverio Grue, as it would seem a member of another 
family, was painting on maiolica from 1730 to 1755 ; his works are 
frequently confused with those by his namesake. 

The works of the Grue family are characteristic of the Abruzzi and 
Neapolitan wares. The drawing is executed with facility and freedom, 
and among those by the more eminent members of the family are pieces 
of very great beauty. The technical quality of the wares is good, the 
colouring somewhat pale and sickly, although many pieces are painted 
with great elegance, charming delicacy of touch, and modulation of the 
tones of colour. Gilding is occasionally added, not merely to the edges 
of the piece, but used somewhat after the manner of the lustre pigments 
in heightening and relieving. 

The Gentili were also a family of painters at Castelli, and, perhaps, 
pupils of the Grue. An example is quoted by Marryat as in the possession 
of Dr. Rosa, signed as early as 1670, and the work of Bernardino, the elder 
member of the family. It is signed Qitesto crocifisso del carmine lo fece 
Bernardino Gentile per sua divozione, 16 jo. He died in 1683. 

His son Carmine Gentili^ born 1678 or 79, died 1763, was instructed by 
Carlantonio Grue. He painted sacred and profane subjects with great skill. 
A Virgin by him, after Domenichino, is signed C • G • P. He also signed 
C«« G^'^ P. 

His sons Giacomo (1717-1765) and Bernardino (1727-1813) also painted 
after the style of, but with less excellence than, their father. 

The manner of the Gentili differs from, and yet is analogous in colouring 
and general treatment to, that of the Grue family. 

The Capelleti brothers, Candeloro (1689-1772) and Nicola (1691-1777), 
whose mother was Superna Grue, were artists at Castelli, as were also 
Gesualdo Fuina (1755-1822) and another member of that family. 

Long lists of the names of other artists of greater or less merit, who 
worked at Castelli and at Naples, will be found in the works of Rosa, 
Cherubini, and Bindi. 

The decadence of the Abruzzi and Neapolitan maiolica set in immediately 
after the decease of the Grue family, by whom, indeed, it had been mainly 
developed. 

The rich assemblage of these wares, mainly derived from the Bonghi 
Collection, and now to be seen in the Museo Nazionale di San Martino at 
Naples, comprises examples of all the more important, and many of the less 



PALERMO— CALTAGIROXE 341 

known, artists who painted at those fabriques. Our collections in England 
are not so richly representative of these, nor of the cotemporary productions 
of the Savona furnaces, during the course of the last century ; nor have 
they been generally so highl}^ esteemed in England as they have in their 
native country, and in France and Germany. 

We learn that several furnaces still work at Castelli, but their produce is 
only of an ordinary ware. 

SICILY. 

PALERMO. 

We have very little accurate information of the ceramic productions 
of Sicily. Works by the Arab and the Moorish potters are believed to 
have been produced in the island. Fragments of glazed wares, some 
with metallic reflection, were found on the demolition of the church of 
S. Giacomo in 1864, when digging for new foundations. These fragments 
w^ere possibly of the works of those potters of the seventh to the eleventh 
century who are believed to have worked during the early Arabian 
occupation of the island ; they are referred to in our notice of the Siculo- 
Arabian wares at page 89. 

In the sixteenth century we know that Giovanni BatUsta Brama, of 
Palermo, was working at Faenza in 1546. Some albareUi formerly in the 
possession of the late Baron Charles Davillier, and bequeathed by him to 
the Louvre and to the Sevres Museums, are signed ^ Fatto in Palermo 1606.' 
Their decoration is in coarse resemblance to the manner of Castel 
Durante. 

We have note of a vase, spherical, decorated with trofei in manner of 
Castel Durante, the bust of a man, and inscribed ' iacovo cefali di pe 

CASTRO LA FELICE IN HYRACl ALLI 1617 GIOSE P PE : PIRAINA : DI >E CASTRO 

LA pinse' (Hyraci near Palermo). 

CALTAGIRONE. 

It was believed that in this neighbourhood, where potteries have existed 
from very early times, the Arabian occupants of Sicily had furnaces 
producing those siliceous glazed vases some of which bear ill-indited 
Arabic lettering, and of which we have examples in our museums, 
nearl}' all having been brought from that island. This belief is in a 
measure confirmed by the statement of the late Prince Filangieri in a paper 



342 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

communicated by him to II Museo Artistico Industriale, &c., in 1881, at 
page 73, where he tells us that the remains of such furnaces and frag- 
ments of such wares had been found at Caltagirone. These however refer 
to wares which we have arranged as a separate class in this work, viz. the 
Siculo-Arabian, and to that section we would refer for further detail. 

The glazed and enamelled pottery produced at Caltagirone of later date 
seems to have been of small importance. Sig. Corona refers to a pharmacy 
jar in his possession, painted with yellow flowers and green leafage, on 
which is inscribed ' Hope ra facta di M" Antonino Brandi in Caltagirone 
anno 1779.' 

Signor Urbani de Gheltof reminds us that Jacquemart states that one 
Brandi worked at Naples in 1568, but that we have no further notice of 
him, or his family or works. 

CoLLESANO, in the vicinity of Cefalu, Sicily. Signor Corona states 
that he possesses a pharmacy vase decorated with figures and foliage, 
and signed loanni Saldo Collesano. It is attributed to the seventeenth 
century (Urbani). 

SARACENIC POTTERS IN SOUTPIERN ITALY. 

In the interesting report drawn up by Prince Filangieri ^ we are told 
that in various parts of Southern Italy fragments of wares have been 
found having marked Oriental character, and probably the workmanship of 
the Arabian or Moorish occupants, or brought by them to the sites of th eir 
occupancy. 

We learn also that when Frederick II erected Castel Lucera 
he colonized it with 20,000 Saracens from Sicily; this was in 1223. 
Castel di Adria and Castello di Monte were similarly occupied. It is 
highly probable that potters were among the handicraftsmen who were 
thus brought into the southern parts of Italy, and that their methods and 
styles may have gradually been communicated to the makers of more 
primitive wares in the vicinity of Naples. 

In the Cathedral at Salerno, and particularly on an ambo in the 
Cathedral of Ravello, fragments of Oriental tiles are inlaid as a mosaic in 
the marble, a use which might almost seem to have been borrowed from 
the Roman practice of enriching the surface of walls by slabs of glass of 
various colour, inlaid in pattern and with border; a use, however, which 
does not seem to have been much adopted ^ 

' Op. cit. '^ Vide Ncsbitt in Archaeologia for 1871-2. 



MINOR FABRIQUES 343 



MINOR FABRIQUES. 

Ariano. — At Ariano, on the road from Foggia to Benevento, pottery 
works were introduced, in 1421, by Francesco Sforza, the then Viceroy of 
Calabria, who employed artists from Faenza, We learn this from Tommaso 
Vitale, Storia della Regia Citta di Ariano, Roma, 1794, referred to by 
Urbani de Gheltof. 

Atri. — At this locality an establishment was formed for the production 
of maiolica by the Acquaviva, lords of Atri, probably under the influence of 
Aurelio Grue, who, together with his brother Liborio, painted subjects on 
plaques, enriching them with gilding. One such, preser\'ed in the Museo 
Filangieri at Naples, is signed ' Liboriiis Grue />.' On it are the portraits of 
five Jesuit missionaries, one of whom is of the family of the Acquaviva 
(Urbani). Disagreement between the brothers led to the departure of 
Liborio, who went to Teramo. On the death of Aurelio, in 1743, the 
works, left in the hands of a pupil, declined. 

Bussi. — At Bussi, a small village in the Abruzzi, a fabrique was formed 
by Francesco Grue, but which seems to have been of short duration. 

A painting on tiles, representing the works of San Francesco Saverio, 
is in the church of San Angelo near Lucoli : it is inscribed ' Franc. Ant. 
Xaveriits Grue, Phil, et Theol. Doctor. Inventor et pinxit in Oppia Bttxi 
Anno D. iji) ' (Rosa). 

Corona refers to an inkstand inscribed * Signor Antonio Bucciato, Bussi, 

17^5' 

Cerreto. — Certain pieces, produced during the last century and 
decorated with fruit and leafage, are attributed to this locality by 
Sig. Novi in his paper in the Atti dell' Accademia Pontaniana (vol. xiii. 
p. II, page 541) on * La fabbricazione della porcellana in Napoli.' • 

Grottaglie, near Taranto. — Beckwith (p. 103) states, probably on the 
authority of Jaennicke (p. 355), but which seems to have no other con- 
firmation, that dishes, bearing the arms of the Martina family, were made 
at Grottaglie. 

Pescolanciano. — In the mountains of the Abruzzi near Isernia. At 
this place the Duke Pasquale Maria, about 1771, established a fabrique 
for the production of porcelain and enamelled wares. He used the 
materials of the neighbourhood, producing fine white wares and biscuit 



344 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

porcelain. Disgusted by the bad conduct of his workmen, he abandoned 
the works. The capital letter P was the mark on his wares. 

San Apollinare. — Novi, La fabbricazione della porcellana in Napoli, 
at p. 541, states that the monks of Monte Cassino established a pottery for 
enamelled wares at this place. 

Teramo. — Liborio Grue and his brother Aurelio worked together for 
some time at the fabrique of the Acquaviva in Atri, but, quarrelling, they 
separated, Liborio coming to Teramo, where he executed some of his 
best works, particularly a plate referred to by Bonghi, representing La 
Parola. 

Torre dei Passeri, in the Abruzzi. — On a bottle, coarsely painted with 
a landscape, belonging to the Conte dei Marsi at Naples, is inscribed, on the 
front, ' Tiiris Passiriis. A. B. ijSj.' 

Vietri sul Mare, near Salerno. — Corona states, at p. 249 of his work, 
that potteries were established at Vietri towards the end of the sixteenth 
century. The Tajani produced glazed and enamelled wares which were 
much esteemed in Sicily and Apulia. Other like wares were made by 
Antonio Punzi, who obtained a bronze medal at the Paris Exhibition in 
1878. 

A piece was some few years since in the possession of the Duca di 
Verdura, decorated with scrolls, flowers, birds, &c., in rococo style, 
made at Vietri di Salerno by one Padre Vincenzo Forastieri, who signed 
it ' P. V. Forastieri, lyS^J 



CHAPTER IX 



Local Italian Potteries of Minor Importance. 

ARCEVIA. — The Marchese Ricci, in his Memorie istoriche delle arti, &c., 
>^ della Marca di Ancona, at pages 158 and 183 of his second volume, 
states that works existed at Arcevia in the sixteenth centur3', where statues 
and ornaments for the altar were produced. Anselmi also, in his works on 
the national monuments of that province, affirms that agreements of a society 
of vasai arcevicsi with others of Perugia, Pesaro, Castel Durante, and Faenza 
existed for making maiolica, &c., and describes the characteristics of pieces 
of the local fabriques. In 1513 a commission was given to Andrea della 
Robbia to make an altar for San Giovanni near Arcevia, which has since 
been taken to the Collegiatadi S. Medardo in that city. At Archevia also, in 
the first half of the sixteenth century', a scholar of the Delia Robbia, named 
Pietro Paolo Agabiti da Sassofenato, worked : to him are attributed an altar 
in Santa Maria del Soccorso ; statues of S. Francesco and S. Bonaventura, 
formed}' belonging to Monsignore Cajani, and other works at Castel Planio; 
at Cupramontana, dated 1529; at Jesi; at Serradeconti ; at Serrasanquirico 
and Monterubbio (Urbani de Gheltof). 

Bergamo. — In 1773 Francesco Bosio opened a fabrique in the Borgo 
Palazzo, and continued it for two 3ears ; he then moved to Petos in Val 
Tezze and ceded the fabrique to Antonio Aldcgani and Carlo di Ponteranica, 
but it soon ceased, probably from the inferior quality of the clay, Giuseppe 
Abbati, in 1774, took up the works in the Borgo Palazzo and produced maiolica 
and tortoiseshell wares, obtaining privileges in his favour, but he soon failed, 
the privileges being rescinded in 1777. A fragment marked * Bergamo 
^112>' probably by Bosio, was in Sig. Urbani de Gheltof s possession. 

Brescia.— Our esteemed friend the late Sir J. Kingston James had 
a plate decorated with landscapes and figures in blue on white, and on the 



346 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

reverse A. R. Brescia ; but Sig. Urbani de Gheltof states that he can find 
no record of a fabrique, 

BussETO.— Sig. Urbani finds record of one Giovanni Pietro de Rociis 
or hoxis, who executed some works di terra at Busseto, where he hved till 
1462. He went to Mantua after 1467 and was recalled in 1470. He was 
privileged and extolled. 

Cancelli, in Tuscany, is referred to by Milanese as having had a fabrique 
of maiolica, but we have no definite particulars to record. 

Casalmaggiore, on the Po near Parma. — Campori states that one 
Alessandro Pessarotti opened works there in 1766, but which soon ceased 
production. 

Castelfiorentino, near Perugia — There is no record of a fabrique here, 
but Sig. Funghini of Arezzo has a brocca of sgraffiafo work inscribed 
a- DI • dieci • Di • gennaio • 1517 • SI • FECE • which he attributes to this place, 
having found remains of a furnace for the production of such wares. 

Castellione di Suasa, in March of Ancona. — Anselmi tells us that 
there is tradition of a fabrique here, at a place called Vasen'a, and that 
he possesses a maiolica a sfecca which he ascribes to it, a large tazza 
with handles, subject an oak tree of the Delia Rovere, and the mono- 
gram A • OR • FA • at its side (probably of owner's rather than maker's 
name). Anselmi states that in the last century table and other wares 
were made which, having no special character of their own, were supposed 
to be of Pesaro. 

Castelnuovo di Garfagnana, near Massa. — Campori tells us that 
in the second half of last century Giovanni Maria Dallari tried in vain 
to make good wares at that place. 

Castiglione del Lago.— Urbani de Gheltof refers to Sabelli, who 
states that in the seventeenth century maiolica was made there. 

Cremona. — Jaennicke, in his Grundriss der Keramik, states that maiolica 
was made here, but we have no confirmatory record. 

DocciA.— At this important fabrique of the Ginori the production of 
porcelain had commenced in 1735; it was chiefly to making improvements 



LOCAL ITALIAN POTTERIES 347 

in that material that the energies of its managers were directed. The 
production of maiolica after the old models was not commenced till 
about 1850. 

Finale, in the Emilia. — Here Giovanni Maria Dallari opened a fabrique 
in the second half of last century, but it soon stopped, for in 1776 he was 
occupied in experimenting elsewhere in the Emilia (Urbani?). 

FoRNOVo.— Campori refers to one Daniele Botti, vasaio of this place, 
who, in 1487, was a party to a society contract, which was to last five 
years, with Salvatore del fu Mariino, his cousin, for working the ' arte ac 
misterio bocalorum^ 

Nardo. — Maiolica is said to have been made here under the influence 
of the Acquaviva, and was highly praised by Corrado in the sixteenth 
century. They are believed to be decorated in blue on white, but we 
do not know examples (Corona, in La Ceramica, pp. 287, 288). 

Palaia.— Sig. Funghini of Arezzo found the remains of ancient furnaces 
and fragments of sgraffiato ware at this place, showing that works existed 

in the sixteenth century. 

Pantaneto.— A pavement of tiles was made here in 1600, by Girolamo 
or Giorgio di Marco, for the confraternit^'^ of S* Caterina in Fontebranda 
of Siena, to replace tiles of the sixteenth century (broken or wanting) 
in a pavement at the oratory. They are very inferior to those they 
replaced. 

Parma. — Documents of the fifteenth century, examined by Campori, 
prove that vasai and other such artificers were working here at that period. 
H e names Giovanni da Panocchia, a scudellaro in 1425 ; Ziliolo and Luca 
Moyle in 1410 ; and Galeotto Pavesi, ' bocaloro di panexi nixi da Modjno' as 
the author of an ancona ^fata di terra cotta invidriata^ which in 1463 
was placed at the altar of S. Agata in the larger church at Parma. But 
there is no proof of a fabrique of maiolica at Parma in the first years 
of the sixteenth century. The fine pavement in San Paolo described by 
Molinier\ and referred to by Campori, is not of Parmesan production. In 
1583 the Duke of Parma engaged Giovanni Batiista Serullo or Cernllo, of 

' La Ccrainiquc Italiennc. 1888. 



348 ITALIAN PAINTED WARES 

Genoa, to make some quadrelli after the Genoese manner to decorate his 
rooms. Payments to Serullo are recorded from 1582 to 1594 ; that of 
Dec. 2, 1586, was for 71 scudi, on account of 100 scudi doro to be paid 
him 'per dar principio a far la rnaiolica.' That work, however, lasted but 
a short time. 

In 1759 Du Tiilot, governor of Parma, gave a prohibitive privilege for 
nine years to one Cartier to establish a fabrique. Cartier left the work 
after a year's trial, and it was taken by Nicola Piacenlini, to whom the 
same privileges were granted. In 1785 it was abandoned. In 1766 Carlo 
Arhtsi attempted to imitate the wares of Piacentini, but he and Alessatidro 
Passe rollt failed under the ban of the privilege (Urbani). 

Passignano.— Sabelli refers to the maiolica furnaces opened here in 
the seventeenth century (Urbani). 

RiXANATi is referred to by Raffaelli. 

RoNCiGLioNE. — In 1754 a fabrique was established here by the Abbate 
Bartolomeo Armanni, which is referred to by Erculei. 

RovEzzANO is another place referred to by Jaennicke on his own 
authority as a producer of maiolica, but without reference. 

RoNCO, — In 1725 Pier Francesco Giielpa tried to make maiolica here with 
clay from Valsera, but neither he nor his partner Giovanni della Fontana 
could succeed. One Rebuffa di Zumaglia, a priest, then tried, but was 
ruined. Subsequently terra-cotta wares were made there by Francesco 
Vaglio. 

San Archangelo, near Pesaro. — In a petition made to the Camera 
Pontificia reference is made to a fabrique existing here in 1789. 

San Donino (Borgo). — Notarial acts of this place give the names oi vasai 
who had furnaces. Campori records Genesio Palanienghi (1426), Anionio 
Longhi detto Molinaro (1454), Bertolano e Giovanni Antonio Porcelli o 
Portelli (1455), Giacomo Staquette e Pier Giacomo Migoni {1^18). 

San Ei.pidio al Mare. — Raffaelli also refers minutely to certain furnaces 
which existed here. 



LOCAL ITALIAN POTTERIES 349 



San Miniatelo. — Although bearing a long inscription, we are left in 
doubt as to the locality of ' Saminiatelo ' ; it could hardly be a borgo of 
S. Miniato in Florence, but we suspect that the piece is Tuscan. 

ri 'TECE . Of-£Sro. l^/AT£LO. /N. 

EoTTEGHA.lii.BrCHOA/r. 1^"EL. 

NAWO. fN. SM^.INIATELO. CH V ^ S TO . TZ/vro. 

AGHoi^TfND . 7:>l. -M- G. A. T)/.ClNgE. 
1)1 . QrVGN fo. is2^i , 

ViADANA. — Campori reports the opinion of Portioli as to some fragments 
of vases on which the arms of Gonzaga Este and Gonzaga Medici occur, 
that they were made here in the sixteenth century, 

ViCENZA. — Produced the white earth used as a slip on the mezza wares, 
but we hear nothing of her ceramic productions till the eighteenth century, 
when in 1788 Count Carlo Viceniini del Giglio opened a large fabrique. 
The pieces produced were various, marked with the Giglio and V beneath. 
The works fell with the republic. 



CHAPTER X 



Literature, 

WE have reprinted the Hst of works consulted or referred to in the 
historical notices of the various fabriques which we prepared in 1872 
for the Catalogue of Maiolica and kindred wares in the South Kensington 
Museum. In this reprint we have marked with an asterisk those works 
which may be considered as of standard value in the ceramic library, or of 
special interest in respect to that branch of the subject of which they treat. 
Since that date many additions have been made to the literature of the 
subject. 

Of the majority of these we now give an additional list, in which are 
included some older publications referred to in the pages of this volume ; 
and we also propose passing in slight review the more prominent of 
those recent works, which for convenience may be divided into five 
classes, viz. — 

1. Works on the general subject of Ceramics. 

2. Works on the general subject of Maiolica. 

3. Monographs and notices of local and special productions. 

4. Critical notices and papers. 

5. Catalogues of Collections. 

Of works on the general subjects of pottery and porcelain in the 
English language, several manuals and handbooks have been compiled in 
concentrated form by American authors, and with more or less care and 
judicious reference to standard works. Of these are Ch. Wyllis Elliott's 
* Pottery and Porcelain,' a well illustrated and arranged volume on the 
general subject; M. S. Lockwood's small 'Handbook of the Ceramic 
Art,' much concentrated ; W. C. Prime's ' Pottery and Porcelain ' and 
J. H. Treadwell's ' Manual,' both handy volumes fitted to stimulate 
further inquiry from the larger works to which they refer. 

Miss Jennie J. Young's 'The Ceramic Art,' published in London 



LITERATURE 351 



and in America, is a well-compounded and ver}' neat volume for * familiar 
and speed}^ reference,' to use the author's own words, well illustrated, 
but seemingly intended for the use of American rather than for English 
amateurs, her references to examples being mostly to those in transatlantic 
cabinets ; and, to quote her preface, ' casual reference only is made to 
the marks of factories and artists.' Her short remarks on Luca della 
Robbia and the tin enamel are excellent, and quite in accordance with the 
facts as now known. But Mr. Arthur Beckwith's ' Majolica and Fayence ' 
is, although occasionally somewhat wanting in refinement of expression, 
a mult urn in parvo on the matter of which it treats. Published at a low 
price, the many illustrations are perhaps as good as could be so produced, 
and the printing clean and clear. The marks, crowded together on one 
page, are rather confused and insufficient, but it is full of material derived 
from larger works and used with judgement. There is indeed more matter 
in this little volume and fewer errors than we find in works of far greater 
pretension produced in France and Italy, to some of which we shall have 
occasion to refer. 

In 1873 M. Albert Jacquemart published his ' Histoire de la Ceramique ' 
an elegant volume, profusely illustrated by woodcuts and the admirable 
etchings by his son Jules (friends both, whose loss we since deplore). It 
contains all the results and conclusions derived from the indefatigable 
work of its talented author, and, as might be expected, the theories 
advanced by him, some of which were perhaps too imagina^)^ The 
section on Maiolica occupies eighty-one pages (273 to 354), in which we 
find statements and opinions that subsequent investigations have consider- 
ably modified. It is, notwithstanding, a valuable book. 

M. Edouard Gamier published his * Histoire de la Ceramique' at Tours 
in 1882. It is a nicely printed and illustrated octavo volume, the con- 
tents in the main compiled from others, particularly from the writings of 
Jacquemart and Darcel. It displays, however, that want of knowledge 
of the contents of museums and private collections out of France, and of 
the literature of other countries, that leads to the retention of foregone 
conclusions, since corrected. It is in fact a pretty volume, more fitted for 
the boudoir table than for the student's desk. 

M. Ris-Paquot's * La Ceramique' (Paris, 1888) commences with an 
address to his readers, certainly not remarkable for refinement or modesty, 
and in which he takes credit to himself for the increased sale of his book, 
telling us that it had adv^anced the study and ' la vulgarisation ' of the 
ceramic art. That it may have advanced the latter sentiment is possible, 
for the book is but commonplace throughout, as deficient in correctness and 
in real knowledge as it is in refinement of expression. The illustrations 



352 LITERATURE 



are vulgarized reproductions from other works, particularly from the 
South Kensington * Handbook of Maiolica,' of which wares he gives but 
meagre account, his volume being chiefly useful in reference to the 
modern faience of France, of which there are abundant notices and 
references. 

Friedrich Jaennicke's ' Grundriss der Keramik,' published at Stuttgart 
in 1879, is a very different work from the last referred to. In it we 
find the whole history of Ceramics concisely but carefully considered, 
and the productions of ever}^ period and country referred to and 
illustrated with care from all the best authorities of that time. The 
section devoted to the Italian wares is mainly compiled from the Catalogue 
of the South Kensington Collection, but with full and complimentary 
acknowledgement. The number of marks, however, is small and inadequate ; 
though a good list is given of works on ceramic art. 

We have next to examine those books particularly devoted to the 
faiences of Italy; and, although Sig. Giuseppe Corona has wandered far 
and wide in his enthusiastic inquiries, his volume * La Ceramica,' published 
at Milan in 1879, is so inadequate a result of considerable painstaking 
that we refrain from considering it in detail, agreeing entirely with 
the critical remarks and the verdict pronounced on it by the late M. A. 
Darcel in his paper published in the ' Gazette des Beaux-Arts,' vol, vii, 
1892, p. 138. 

Excellent notices on the different fabriques, and careful critical descrip- 
tions of the examples of their produce preserved in the Correr Museum 
at Venice, were written by the late Sig. Lazari in his admirable catalogue 
of that collection, published as far back as 1859. Valuable notes also were 
appended to the catalogues of the Delsette and Pasolini Collections by the 
erudite Dr. Frati of Bologna ; but, with these exceptions, we have little 
else than monographs of local productions. 

It is a singular fact, and much to be regretted, that no general and 
illustrated work on the faience of Italy which can be considered as at all 
worthy of the subject, treating it as a whole, and carefully studying the 
history and characteristics of the various boteghe and of their productions, 
has been written in the language of that country which produced such 
masterpieces of ceramic art. 

Signer Angelo Genolini's quarto volume entitled ' Maioliche Italiane,' 
published at Milan in 1881, but poorly supplied that want. Apparently 
knowing but little of the contents of private and public collections 
beyond those few still remaining in Italy, or of what other authors 
had written on the subject, he has repeated old and since corrected 
theories ; his own observations have but little weight, being grounded 



LITERATURE 353 



for the most part on the opinions and statements of M. Demmin, to 
whom he constantly refers, and whose dictum is now held to be of small 
authoritative value. 

He tells us that the well-known painted roundels ascribed to Luca 
della Robbia, which were purchased from the Campana Collection for the 
South Kensington Museum thirty-six years' since, are at Paris ; that the 
Sebastian Marforio albarelli, one of which is at Kensington and one in 
the British Museum, are also in the French capital ; believes, with 
Jacquemart, that the Caffaggiolo fabrique was of very early date and 
that of Faenza less so ; that lustred wares were made at Castel Durante, 
because Francesco Bertoldo in 1545 married Antonia, the daughter of 
M°. Cencio, and thus obtained the secret ! Evidently unacquainted with his 
works, he ranks Nicolo da Urbino as one of the inferior artists, &c., &c., 
ad finem. II Com'^. F. Bemabei, writing in * La Domenica Letteraria,' 
Rome, April 23, 1882, accuses Sig. Genolini of deriving much from 
the South Kensington Catalogue without acknowledgement or even 
allusion to the existence of that work. M. A. Darcel, in the ' Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts,' vol. vii, p. 140, 1892, brings a similar charge against him in 
reference to his own ' Notice des Fayences peintes Italiennes ' in the Louvre: 
that modest but valuable and now scarce little volume, built on the same 
lines with and deriving much from the anterior work of Sig Lazari, but 
adding thereto additional information and original matter. Sig. Genolini 
gives a considerable number of marks, but poorl}- represented, his copies 
and reductions from other works being carelessh* executed and frequently 
incorrect, and his attributions, adopted in many instances from Demmin, 
Graesse and Ris-Paquot, are of equally weak authority. The marks for 
the most part are given without reference to the pieces on which they 
occur, or the collection in which they are kept ; and some inscriptions 
are incorrectl}' rendered in a fictitious old character, materially differing 
from the originals. There are no illustrations. 

Much more valuable are the contributions to local ceramic history 
issued, in a limited number of copies, b\- Sig. Urbani de Gheltof, and 
particularl}' that volume which comprises notices of all the known localities 
of that industry- in Ital}', from the earliest time to the present century-, viz. 
his ' Notizie Istoriche ed Artistiche sulla Ceramica Italiana' (Roma, 1889). 
From this we have drawn much information, particularly in respect to 
the more recent and industrial rather than artistic productions of the 
many potteries of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, for which 
wares, with few exceptions, we confess but small esteem. 

As is the case with other of the more recent writers in Italy, a want 
of knowledge of the collections and literature of other countries, particularly 

A a 



35 f LITERATURE 



of England, has led to occasional errors of judgement, and the matter 
of the South Kensington Catalogue seems to be unknown. We find that 
he agrees with us in attributing the pavement in S. Sebastiano at Venice to 
the Castel Durante potteries ; but in reference to the twelve painted discs 
attributed to Luca della Robbia in the South Kensington Museum he writes 
(at page 107) of them as still of the Campana Collection, and attributes them 
to Pisa, wanting proof that can assign them to any other fabrique. We will 
not dwell on other such inaccuracies arising from the want above referred 
to, but gladly accept the valuable additions to our knowledge which his 
pages convey. 

Before considering the more important of the local monographs 
published in Italy, we must not omit reference to the neat octavo volume 
by M. de Mely, entitled ' La Ceramique Italienne' (1884). 

In it he has epitomized much information on the various fabriques, 
the artists who worked at them, and the marks which distinguish their 
productions. In this latter and very important part, although we cannot 
agree with all his attributions, his book is very superior to some other 
more pretentious but insufficient works, as direct reference is given to the 
piece on which each mark occurs. 

We fear that we cannot always accept his judgement on pieces, and 
must differ from him in more instances than one. His views on the Gubbio 
fabrique do not accord with those of more experienced writers, disbelieving 
the well-assured fact that works painted by others were merely enriched 
with lustre at the botega of M". Giorgio. He suggests that Xanto worked 
in connexion with M°. Giorgio, as many of the lustred istoriaii pieces are 
by the former, and that the single letters occurring in conjunction with the 
Giorgio monogram denote divisions of work or period of production. He 
makes sad confusion also (p. 65) with the works and marks of Nicolo da 
Urbino, and with the productions of the Ferrara furnaces. 

In 1880 Dr. Carlo Malagola gave to the world the result of his 
indefatigable researches among the archives of Faenza and elsewhere, 
in reference to the potteries and potters of that ancient city. This very 
important contribution to local ceramic history was unfortunately marred 
by the theory adopted by its author from very poor evidence, that no such 
fabrique had ever existed as that at Caffaggiolo in Tuscany, but that pieces 
bearing that name on the reverse were really the production of a Faentine 
fabrique of the Ca Fagiolo \ a fabrique which must have been established, 
as Malagola inferred, merely from the recorded existence of some Faxoli or 

* The idea on which this theory was the Caffaggiolo fabrique was estabhshed, 
grounded is not original; it had been sug- and doubting as to whether the Ca signified 
gested by Dr. Frati before a knowledge of Casa in that then puzzling name. 



LITERATURE 355 



Fagioli among the working potters of Faenza. The world of amateurs was 
taken by surprise at this announcement, which gathered some disciples but 
more unbelievers. Dr. Malagola's pet theory was vigorously attacked by 
Dr. Frati of Bologna in 1883 in a pamphlet published at Modena. 

Dr. Malagola subsequently indited ' La fabbrica delle Maioliche della 
famiglia Corona.' This pamphlet consists of a letter addressed to Sig. 
Corona, the curious author of * La Ceramica,' referring to documents which 
prove the existence of a famil}'- named Corona at Faenza, some of whom 
were potters. 

Corona, by whom this letter is published, prides himself on having 
received this communication from such an authority as Malagola, and is 
supremely happy to learn that a family of potters of his own name is 
actually recorded at Faenza in the sixteenth century. Having, as it 
were almost by divine inspiration, taken to the study of ceramics and 
their history, it is most fortunate to find that others of his name, and 
of earlier time, had been producers of fictile wares ; and his romantic 
mind would seem to harbour the idea that the love of the fictile art had 
been transmitted with the name, although unknown to him. Happy enthu- 
siasm ! 

In 1889 Professor Federigo Argnani brought out his beautifully 
illustrated and elegant work, * Le Ceramiche e Maioliche Faentine,' full of 
valuable record of pieces found by excavation in various parts of Faenza 
and its neighbourhood, proving by tangible evidence what Malagola had 
shown by record, that the potteries of Faenza had existed and were of 
importance from very early time, and showing that the use of the 
stanniferous enamel had been known there as early as the period of 
Eustorgio II in the fourteenth century. 

It is upon this discovery and the many pieces of early and later 
wares of Faentine make, so perfectly represented in the coloured plates, 
accompanied by some additional record, that the great value of this volume 
rests. Unfortunatel}', in like case with the Malagola records, their value 
is much impaired by Professor Argnani's adoption and strong advocacy of 
Dr. Malagola's theor}'^ of the non-existence of the Medicean fabrique at 
Caffaggiolo. The appearance of this elegant volume revived the almost 
forgotten controversy. 

In May of the following year. Dr. Umberto Rossi, in ' Arte e Storia,' 
published a paper subversive of the conclusions of Malagola and Argnani. 
On August 9 of that same year, not knowing that Dr. Rossi had written on 
the subject, we, perhaps somewhat severely, criticized Argnani's work in 
the 'Academy,' condemning his and Dr. Malagola's theory, and giving 
proof against its probability. In vol. vii, 1892, of the ' Gazette des Beaux- 

A a 2 



356 LITER A TV RE 



Arts/ the late M. A. Darcel, unaware of either Dr. Rossi's or our own papers, 
contributed one of three articles entitled ' La Ceramique Italienne d'apres 
quelques livres nouveaux,' criticizing these and other Italian works on 
maiolica ; two others followed, acknowledging and agreeing with what 
we had written in the ' Academy,' and showing how ill-founded was the 
Malagola theory. Had Dr. Malagola and Professor Argnani been better 
informed of the contents of other public and private collections out of Italy, 
and with the foreign literature on the subject, they could hardly have 
ventured to support the opinions they so warmly advocated. The works 
of each will, notwithstanding, always hold their position as valuable con- 
tributions to the history of Italian ceramics, and the latter as a model for 
their accurate historical illustration. 

We must not omit reference to the valuable pubhcation by Sig. 
Giuliano Vanzolini, ' Istorie delle Fabbriche di Maiolica Metauresi,' which, 
in two octavo volumes (Pesaro, 1879), comprises the works of Passeri, 
Pungileoni, Raffaelh, Ranghiasci-Brancaleoni, Marcoaldi, and Campori, 
with notes, appendix, and index. 

We need not dwell on the several important contributions to local history 
of Italian ceramic production, as those by Sig. Bindi, Brambilla, Casati, 
Rosa, Urbani de Gheltof, Vignola, &c., each and all valuable for their 
respective subjects, though occasionally displaying a pardonable weakness 
for laudation of local achievement which is sometimes amusing. 

M. Natalis Rondot has taken much trouble in following out the history 
of istoriati wares produced at Lyons and elsewhere in France by Italian 
potters emigrant from Pesaro, Urbino, and other fabriques in the sixteenth 
century. His volumes are models of painstaking research in local interests. 

A few years since, M. fimile Molinier, who has done such good work in 
various fields of Renaissance art history, made a tour through Italy and 
elsewhere, to gather material for a new catalogue of the Louvre collection 
of Italian faience, traversing the ground which the writer had trodden 
thirty and forty years before, when those lands were far less barren of 
specimens, and the subject fresh. The result of his travels M. Molinier im- 
mediately and from time to time gave to the world in a series of communica- 
tions to the Parisian periodical ' L'Art,' and gathered subsequently in small 
octavo book form, entitled ' Les Maioliques Italiennes en Italie' (Paris, 1883). 
Many of his observations, if not always original, were of considerable value ; 
but he rather too rapidly evolved some theories, and ventured on correc- 
tions of the work of others which brought down strong protest from the 
learned Sig. Frati of Bologna. Few in Italy have a tithe of Sig. Frati's 
knowledge of her fictile wares. Since then M. Molinier has published, 
under the form of four illustrated communications to ' L'Art,' a dissertation 



LITERATURE 357 



on ' La Faience a Venise,' in which there is much valuable information, 
the result of his own obser\'ations, and gleaned from the writings of 
Sig. Urbani de Gheltof, with occasional references to M. Darcel and to 
the South Kensington Museum Catalogue ; and in 1888 a duodecimo, 
entitled * La Ceramique Italienne,' a valuable contribution in which he 
carefully studies the authentic dated and recorded pieces of these wares 
anterior to the sixteenth centur}'. 

The mantle of the late M. A. Darcel has been worthily assumed by 
M. Molinier, and we look forward to the appearance of his promised 
catalogue of the maiolica in the galleries of the Louvre. 

We cannot close this short notice of the more recent literature of our 
subject without referring also to Mr. H. Wallis' valuable and admirably 
illustrated * Notes on Early Persian Lustred Wares ' and his descriptive 
account of pieces in the magnificent * Godman Collection.' 

The late Mr. R. H. Soden-Smith, the chief former of the South Ken- 
sington Art Library in its earlier years, conceived the idea of compihng 
classified bibliographical hand-books of the leading divisions of Art, History, 
&c. Of these useful lists several were published ; but the rapid increase 
of the library and extent of subjects soon rendered the earlier editions 
inadequate. The present indefatigable Librarian, Mr. Weale, has since 
taken the matter in hand and has recently issued the volume on Ceramic 
Literature. This most valuable work is a manel of painstaking industry 
and elaborate classification, and claims its place on the shelves of every 
antiquarian and artistic library. 



M A I O L I C A 

MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



Some few marks occurring on pieces of Persian and Hispano- 
Moresque production have been given on the pages descriptive of 
those wares. We do not pretend to any complete list of such. 



M A I O L I C A 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



SGRAFFIATO WARE 



No. I. 



The only instance we know 
of a mark on an early piece ol 
this ware ; it is incised into the red 
paste on a plateau in the South 
Kensington Museum No. 349/64. 
Of about 1520. It is of the Citta 
di Castello or Perugian group. 
Sig. GenoHni gives varieties 
or ill executed copies of this 
mark. 

No. 2. 

On a dish formerly in the Montferrand Collection. 
TheVirgin and Child, incised and enamelled in colour. 
Perhaps by a member of the Cuzio family? 




o. 



T. 



S. 



c. 



1624 



No. 3. 

On a lamp formed as a human foot. 
Sgraffiato ornamentation covered with 
a brown enamel. Castellani Collec- 
tion, 



C, F. F. 1659. 
P. Bastiano. 



No. 3*. 

On a cup in the British Museum ; about 1650. 

B 



M. F. 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



SGRAFFIATO WARE. 

Works of the Cuzio Family at Pavia 
lOHANNES . ANTONIVS . 
BARNABAS . CVTIVS . PAPI/ENSIS . 
ANNO. DOMINI . 1676 . DIE . VNDECIMA 



lOHANNES . BRITIVS 
CANO . ORDIN . PAPIyC 



IVNY 

= CVTIVS 
. 25 MARTY 
1677 



No. 4. 

On a plate with rose in centre, 
foliation and ribbon border. 

No. 5- 

On a plate. The Annunciation, 
with foliated and ribbon border. 
In the Brambilla Collection at 
Pavia. 



No. 6. 
PRESBITER . ANTONIVS . MARIA On a plate in the Limoges 

CVTIVS . PROTHON . APOSTO . 1677. Museum. Angels, coat of arms, &c. 
Other pieces by this artist similarly inscribed are dated, i688, 1690, 1691, 
1692, 1693, and one in the South Kensington Museum, 461 1. '58, dated 1694. 



1734 la 26 marzo Pavia. 



No. 7. 

On a large circular dish. 
A man selling sweetmeats : with 
inscription. 




TUSCANY. 

CAFFAGGIOLO 

No. 8. 

On a plaque in the South Kensington Museum, 
6655. '60. Shield of arms of the Florentine family Bono 
or Boni, on white ground diapered with scrolls, &c. in 
dark blue, and edged with a laurel wreath. On a ribbon 
is inscribed, MCCCC9I . auOVCa Ol BoilO 

No. 9. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 2. '65. 
Cupid bound on a pedestal, carried by musicians. 
Reverse, concentric lines in blue, and a mark. About 
1500. Caffaggiolo ? 



TUSCANY 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 

No. lo. 

A mark and early date ascribed to this fabrique. 



^^ € % 



No II. 

On the centre of a plate in the South Kensington 
Museum, 6981. '60. Cupids holding flasks of wine 
are in an open sarcophagus, on which are the initials 
G. M., with three shields of arms. Reverse, peacock's 
feathers and mark. Caffaggiolo or Faenza ? About 
1510. 

A similar mark occurs on a plate figured by Delange, Recueil, pi. 42. 

No. 12. 

On a circular dish in the South Kensington Museum, 2559. '56. Two boys 
climbing a fruit tree, another rides an owl ; on a ribbon * E . non . se . po . mangiare . 
senza . fatiga.' Reverse, monogram. Caffaggiolo (?) or Faenza. About 1500. 





B 2 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 




No. 13. 

On a circular dish in the South Kensington Museum, 1673. '55. 
Alexander meeting Diogenes : may be from a design by Luca 
Signorelli ; painted in dark blue and orange on white, border of 
diaper on orange. Reverse, coarse yellow glaze, with an owner's 
(?) mark scratched in the paste. Faenza or Caffaggiolo ? About 
1510. (Bernal Collection.) 



< 



No. 14. 

On a caudle cup in the Museum at Pesaro. Cupid burning 
a heart, on yellow ground. Caffaggiolo or Faenza ? Agrees 
in form with the A of Mark 16. 



No. 15. 




On a plateau in 
the South Kensington 
Museum, 1719. '55. On 
a ground of blue dra- 
pery, a large shield of 
the Medici arms, sur- 
mounted by the ducal 
coronet, and sprays of 
foliage. Reverse, mono- 
gram. Caffaggiolo or 
Faenza? About 1510- 
20. (Bernal Collection.) 
Dr. Malagola and M. 
de M^ly attribute these 
marks to Petrus Andrea 
of Faenza. We read 
four letters in the mono- 
gram, P. L. A. and T. 



TUSCANY 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



No. i6. 

On a large jug or ewer in the South 
Kensington Museum, 4037. '56. In 
front shield of arms and a label dated 
1544, between two large cornucopiae 
springing from a mask ; the rest covered 
with floral scroll diaper ; the monogram 
is beneath the handle. Caffaggiolo or 
Faenza ? 

The arms are those of one of the 
Florentine families. 




No. 17. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 
1 716. '55. Grotesques in white, touched with 
red and yellow on the border of deep blue. 
On a central medallion a child turning somer- 
sault. Reverse, blue scale work, spotted red, 
zig-zag or flame ornament, and red central star. 
Caffaggiolo or Faenza? About 1515-20. 

M. Mely refers to a plate in the A. Rothschild 
Collection having the same mark. He attributes 
it to Faenza. It is also on two plates in the 
British Museum. 




No. 18. 

On a ewer in the South Kensington Museum, 
2602. '56. The surface diapered with peacock's 
feather pattern ; in front a medallion encircled by a 
wreath and bearing a shield of arms of the Rinuccini 
or Bardi of Florence ; mark beneath the handle. 
Caffaggiolo or Faenza ? About 1500-20. 





6 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 

No. ig. 

Variations of a mark believed to be of Caffaggiolo. One of these occurs 
on a fine plate which belonged to Baron Gustave de Rothschild, and is dated 
1507. It has in the centre a shield of arms and arabesque border. 




/ 



(/ 



) 



No. 20. 

On a fine dish with bor- 
der of masks, grotesques, 
and medallions on blue 
ground ; central subject 
the * Flagellation,' after an 
artist of the German school. 
Passed from the collection 
of Monsignore Cajani to 
that of M. Basilewski. 



TUSCANY 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 

No. 21. 

On a plate in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford 
(Fortnum Collection), with wide border of dark 
blue, on which are arabesque scrolls, and among 
them flowers and vases ' wiped out ' or reserved, 
and coloured yellow and orange, or tinted with 
pale green. Centre, shield of arms. About 1515. 
A similar mark was on a piece in the Uzielli 
Collection ; others of this ser\'ice are in the British 
Museum, having the star No. 17 on reverse. 
CafFaggiolo or Faenza. 

No. 22. 

On a dish formerly in the Soltikoff Collection, attributed to Faenza by 
Delange, but perhaps of this fabrique. ' In the centre, St. Francis, encircled 
with rich arabesques on orange ground, white borders painted in blue and 
yellow palmettes.* 





MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



c. 



No. 23. 

On pieces attributed to this fabrique, but unknown 
to the writer. 








No. 24. 

Beneath the handle of a large jug 
in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford 
(Fortnum Coll.), on which are the arms 
of the family 'Alessandro dei i\les- 
sandri.' About 1500-20. 




No. 25. 

On another jug in the Ashmolean Museum (Fortnum 
Collection), doubtless of this fabrique, on the front 
is a shield of arms. 



TUSCANY 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



T 



No. 26. 

On a ewer in the South Kensington 
Museum, 1715. '55. On front the Medici 
arms surmounted by the Papal Tiara; 
beneath the word 'Glovis.' About 1520. 



/ 




No. 27. 

On a plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 6664. '60. Portion of 
a triumphal procession after Mantegna. Reverse, concentric lines in blue, a mark, 
and the date 1514. 





\/ll( 



V 



U-" 




\ ' i' 




The same mark, with the same date in ordinary numerals, is on another piece 
of the series in Sir F. Cook's Collection. 



lO 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 




No. 28. 

On a plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 
8928. '63. A procession. Pope Leo X, seated 
on a rich portable throne, is borne on men's 
shoulders, preceded by a rider on an elephant and 
surrounded by Cardinals on mules, the guard, &c. 
The arms of Medici are on the standards. Reverse, 
concentric lines of blue and the mark. Caffaggiolo. 
1513-21. (From Soulages Collection.) 



No. 29. 

On a small plate, with a heart 
transfixed by two arrows in the centre, 
between the letters P. E. In the 
possession of MissLockwoodat Rome. 



A nearly similar mark is on a plate in the Pesaro Museum (Molinier). 
Also on a pharmacy jar in the Castellani Collection, dated 1567. 

A variant with the paraph at base of the P was on a plate (Castellani 
Collection), bearing the armorial shield of a bishop, border with medallions 
of Emperors, and ornament on white ground. 

On a plate in the British Museum; subject Daedalus and Icarus; the letter P. 
Caffaggiolo ? or Faenza. 



TUSCANY 



II 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



No. 30. 

On a piece formerly in the Delsette 
Collection (No. 85^ with shield of arms in 
the centre, of the Fontana family, the 
letters P. F. and border a quartiere. 




/ 



No. 31. 

Is a variety of the mark in which 
the stroke of the P is prolonged to 
form an R, crossed with the usual 
c/5 -formed paraph. The piece on 
which this mark occurs is unknown 
to the writer. 




12 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



No. 32. 



On a plate. Subject Judith and her servant on horseback carrying the head 
of Holophernes. Formerly in the Spitzer, now in Mr. Salting's Collection. 




y^ yncy 




ox?qiM^ 





No. 33. 

On a plate formerly in the 
Alphonse Rothschild Collection. 
(M. de Mdy notes this mark as 
without the monogram. Delange 
gives it correctly on his pi. 25.) 

The same mark occurs, but 
without the monogram, on a plate 
in Mr. Salting's from the Spitzer 
Collection, subject a triumph. 



TUSCANY 



13 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



No. 34. 

On a plate. Prisoners brought before a 
King, on the central medallion ; children and 
masks on the border. Collection of Baron 
Gustave de Rothschild. 



No. 35 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 
1717 



'55. A majolica painter in his studio, painting 



a plate in the presence of two personages of dis- 
tinction. Reverse, concentric lines in orange and blue, 
and a monogram. Caffaggiolo. About 1515-20. 



No. 36. 




On a small plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 
7154. '56. Lustred. On the central medallion, a portion 
of a branch, the right-hand spray of which bears 
a flower of crown-like form ; the left, an acorn ; probably 
emblems of an alliance. On the rim is a garland of 
flowers of the same form as that on the centre ; outlined 
blue, and filled in with gold lustre on white ground. 
Reverse, concentric lines of gold lustre ; in the centre 
the mark. Caffaggiolo. About 15 10. 

A similar monogram is on a richly lustred flask, and on a large jug with shield 
of arms, in the British Museum. 




14 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



No. 37. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 
1726. '55. St. George, after the statue by 
Donatello, landscape background, and sur- 
rounded by a border of grotesques on dark 
blue ground. About 1515-20. 

No. 38. 

A nearly similar monogram is repeated above 
and below a scroll ribbon on which the name 
CAFAGIOLI is inscribed in Roman capitals, 
on a plate with the head of Nero in the 
centre. Knot work, &c., with the arms of Leo X, 
the motto Semper Glovis, the letters S.P.Q.R. 
and S.P.Q.F. painted in blue on white ground. 
(See Delange, pi. 26; De Mely, p. 124.) 



No. 39. 

On a plate ; subject. Mucins Scaevola. On border, dogs hunting animals in 
a wood. Fortnum Collection in Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Galiano is a small 
hamlet in the hills, a few miles from Caffaggiolo. 





^^f^f^n^fi^ 




TUSCANY 



15 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



No. 40. 



On a circular dish in the South Kensington Museum, 6656. '60. Apollo and 
Pan, with a shepherd, &c., landscape background. Reverse, inscription and 
monogram. Caffaggiolo. About 1547. Diam. 15I in. 




No. 41. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 
1269. '55. Blue arabesque a porcellan mixed with 
trophies on a white ground, in the centre the arms 
of the Pazzi family in colours. Reverse, monogram 
and scrolls in blue. Caffaggiolo. About 1540. 

An ordinary example of the later ware, with the 
arms of a Florentine family of historical note. 




i6 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CAFFAGGIOLO. 



< 



No. 42. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 1501. '56. Border of 
arabesques and trophies ; in the centre, a trophy with shield inscribed 
S. P. Q. R. Reverse, a monogram. Caffaggiolo. About 1550. 

MONTE 









No. 43. 

A dish in the Hotel Cluny at Paris, 
painted with the subject of the Rape of 
Helen, somewhat in the manner of the 
Urbino wares, is inscribed at the back, 

' V. rato d' Elena 
Fato in Monte.' 

Monte is a small paese near Caf- 
faggiolo. 



SIENA 







No. 44. 

On a plate in the South Kensington 
Museum, 4487. '58. In centre an old 
man seated holding a skull; interlacings 
in white and blue tirata; border of 
scroll work on white ground. Reverse, 
signature of M" Benedetto. Diam. 
9I in. About 1510-20. 



TUSCANY 



17 



SIENA. 



No. 45. 

On the reverse of a plate. 
Subject Mucius Scaevola ; gro- 
tesque border on orange 
ground. Henderson Collec- 
tion, now in British Museum. 




No. 46. 

On a plate in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, II. '67, Border 
of grotesques, edged with bead 
ornament on orange ground ; in 
the centre a figure of S. James (the | 
Great) in a landscape, bordered m 
by a moulding, and a white belt 
inscribed • s • iacobvs • m • and 
with sprays ' bianco sopra bianco.' 
Reverse, scale-work border and 
the letters I • P • Siena. About 
1510. Diam. io| in. (Marryat 
Coll.) 

The same letters are on a plate ; the Magdalen with cherubs, grotesque border. 
Diam. 9 in. It was in the Bale Collection from the Bernal, now in Mr. Salting's. 





No. 47. 

On a plate. S. Jerome in the desert, 
border dark yellow with medallions, &c. Coll. 
Baron A de Rothschild. Ascribed to Siena by 
M. de Mdy. 




i8 MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



SIENA. 



«r\- 



f 



No. 48. 

On a coupe in the Louvre. En grisaille. Suggested by De Mely 
to be by Ferd. Maria Campani (?) 



No. 49. 



On a plate. Subject, the creation of the stars, after Raffaelle; in the British 
Museum. 










V 



PISA 

No. 50. 

■p T Q A On a vase decorated with grotesques, after the Urbino manner. 

■*■ ■*• »--'-^*-* Collection Baron Alphonse de Rothschild. 



MONTELUPO 

^ % __ On a tazza in the South Kensington 

W r ^^ IT Museum, 6668. '60. Rudely painted 

^^ ^^ ^^ with three standing figures of cavaliers. 

-__— ^^^% Reverse, inscribed and dated. Monte- 

A Ju. ]fr\J» lupo, near Florence, 






TUSCANY 



19 



MONTELUPO. 

No. 52. 

On a circular plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 4359. '57. A castle 
on the raised centre, surrounded by sunk radiating flutings, coarsely picked 
out in colours and filled in with flowers. Reverse, mark dated 1627. Montelupo. 




No. 53. 

On a circular plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 192. '55. Raised 
centre, with coat of arms, from which radiate flutings filled in with grotesques, 
fleur-de-lis, &c. Reverse, signed 'i6th April, 1663.* 

'b1KCx^^o 



y 



y 



^^vy(((ivvv^^ 



ca 



20 MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 

MONTELUPO. 

^°- 54- * Dipiiita Giovinale Tereni 

On a piece in the Sevres Museum j n a- 7 > 

is the signature da MoilteltipO. 

The capital letter L, with what appears to be a palm branch or wolfs tail (?) in 
front, on d. piece vernisse'e was supposed by M. Jacquemart to be of Montelupo. 

ASCIANO 
F, P. No. 55. 

Asciani die xii Mai/ ^" ^ ^^^^' ^^^^^ '^^^^ moulded surface, 

and armorial shield ; green snaky handles. 
I 600. 

F. F. D. No. 56. 

FORTUNATUS PHILLIGELLUS ^, ^" ? plate Passalagua Collection 

blue and yellow leafage and central coat 
P. ASCIANI 1578 DIES ofarms. 

30 AUGUSTI. 

DUCHY OF URBINO 

PESARO 



No. 57. 

On a bacile in the British Museum, subject a half- 
length female portrait, with a scroll inscribed, ' PER • 
DORMIRE NON • S • AQVISTA.' Scale border 
of yellow, orange, &c. ; the Gubbio scroll in black also 
occurs on the reverse. 




««Si».^ — ^** 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



21 



PESARO. 

No. 58. 

On a circular dish in the South 
Kensington Museum, 2595. '56. 
In the centre an equestrian figure 
galloping with lance in hand ; 
border a quartiere in compart- 
ments of scale work and scroll 
foliage, all painted in colour on 
the white ground. Reverse, 
coarse yellow glaze and the 
mark in black. Pesaro or Vi- 
terbo ? About 1520-30. 



No. 59. 

On a plateau for an ewer in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, 3030. '55. On raised centre the 
profile bust of a woman, with the letter B ; inner 
border of rayed compartments filled with scale 
work and foliation on orange and yellow ground. 
A garland of fruit on the rim. Reverse, blue and 
orange concentric lines and monogram. Pesaro 
or Viterbo ? About 1510. 

No. 60. 

This mark appears on a plate stated by Dennis- 
toun, in his History of the Dukes of Urbino, as of the 
ancient Pesaro fabrique ; it is in the Museum at The ^^ 
Hague. We place the mark here, doubting as to whether ' jl * C^ * N/ 
it ought not to be among those of the first section in 
the Gubbio class; we do not recollect having seen 
the piece in question. Pungileoni refers to one having 
the letters G. A. T. interlaced. 



No. 61. 

On a plate, sixteenth century : bust of a woman. * Achal 
i doni ' on a banderole. Pesaro. (De Mely, p. 42.) 





22 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



PESARO. 



No. 62. 



On a plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 4078. '57, On dark blue 
ground in the centre, a half figure, in profile, of a lady richly dressed ; banderole 
inscribed : sa^nna bella va. Inner border of flowers and pellets, and outer one 
of oval beads on orange and yellow ground. Pesaro or Faenza? About 1500-10. 





I 




^ 




No. 63. 

On a piece. No. 2873 in the Hotel Cluny. (De 
Mely.) Pesaro ? 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



23 



PESARO. 

No. 64. 

On a deep round plate. Arms of Pope Paul III (Farnese). 
Pesaro ? (Castellani Collection.) 

No. 65. 

Incised on back of a plate. A young woman playing viol; 
fruit and foliage on the border. Pesaro? (Castellani Collection.) 

No. 66. 

On a large round plate, bacile. Bust of a woman with 
winged crown ; on a banderole, ' non . bene. Prototo. Vedit. 
A U R.' Palmettes, &c., of various colours. Pesaro ? (Castellani 
Collection.) 



No. 67. 

Inscription on the reverse of a 
tazza in the Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford (Fortnum Collection), repre- 
senting the creation of animals. Lan- 
franchi fabrique, Pesaro. 



L^A 




> 



I 




o 






SW^f% %J 



nffi 



V 



'J 



/-^ 



No. 68. 

Is on the reverse of a 
fruttiera, now in the British 
Museum, from the Fortnum 
Collection, and important as 
a typical example of the pro- 
duce of the Lanfranchi botega, 
perhaps painted by Maestro 
Girolamo. 






\n ^ 



/ 



I'iflf 



C^C^ri/" 



/ _ 



(efre ij 



dA 




%^' 



^ 



24 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



PESARO. 






uafov 



(cicl)0ynO ni\r\L^ 



II pianeta di Marte 
Fatto in Fesaro 1542 
Fato in botega di Mastro 
Gironimo Vasaro. I. P. 

1550 Terencio fecit questo piatto fu 

fatto in la bottega di Mastro Baldassar 

Vasaro da Fesaro, e fato per mano di 

Terenzio, fiolo di Mastro Matteo 

Boccalaro. 



La chacua delporcho 

chalidonico 
fatto in Fesaro 154 1. 



Oratio solo contro la Toscana 
tutta. Fatto in Fesaro 1541. 



C<* 






? 



^(#.<0 



No. 69. 

On the reverse of a plate in the 
Museum of the University of Bologna, 
representing nymphs at the bath ; it 
is by a less able hand than the last, 
that of 'jachomo,' son of Maestro 
Girolamo. 



No. 70. 

Plate referred to by Passeri. 
planet Mars. 



The 



No. 71. 

On a 'coppa amatoria' referred to 
by Passeri. Cupid centre, border of 
trophies on blue ground. 

No. 72. 

On a plate in the Museum at Pesaro, 
Massa Collection. Facsimile of inscrip- 
tion in MoHnier, Maj. Ital. en Italic, 
p. 112. 

No. 73. 

On a plate with the arms of Gozzi 
of Pesaro: was in the Spitzer Collec- 
tion. 



No. 74. 

Is upon a plate in the British 
Museum, representing Circe and her 
companions changed into hogs. 



DUCHY OF U RBI NO 25 



PESARO. 



No. 75. 



co-mo ^ytli/o 



By the same hand, probably both ^ ^ ^' ^- ^ ^^ q 

careless works of * jachomo ' ; it is also t 

in the British Museum. A 



/-^•z 



yx^f. 






No. 76. (i:(X 

Is the mark of Casale and Caligari, and of the painter Pietro Lei, VflScvvd 

who established a work at Pesaro in 1763; it occurs on the saucer nOS" 

of a broth basin in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (Fortnum 

Collection). V' * *b . Z . 



No. 77. 

^To _ 
j_o _..Q r I * • ^* 

Museum. Pesaro, by Casali and Caligari. A similar mark on ^t 

a similar jug is in the Ashmolean Museum (Fortnum Collection). 



c. c 



No. 78. 

These letters may be the mark of Francesco de* Fattori of -T* • -f • 
Pesaro, eighteenth century. 

M. de Mely, in his Ceramique Italienne, gives several marks unknown to us, and 
which we refer to on his authority ; we cannot, however, accept the first four, believing 
them, probably, to be of Gubbio rather than of Pesaro ; we refer to the scrolls and the 
ill-formed letter N. 

The fifth can only refer to the master Pietro Perugino, from whose painting the 
subject of the piece is copied. 

The tenth and eleventh we can only suppose to be ornamental. 

The twelfth, a capital G, may perhaps be of Cafiaggiolo or, if lustred, Gubbio. 

The thirteenth may refer to the contents, if it be a pharmacy vase. 

No. 14 seems to be the same referred to by Molinier (page 108) on a lustred coupe, 
Alexander placing Homer's works in the coflFer of Darius, No. 306 Pesaro Museum, 
which he ascribes to LJrbino. 



26 MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 

PESARO. 

The fifteenth, given by Greslou, is probably the same as that indifferently rendered 
as No. 191 in Genolini. 

The remainder are marks on wares of the last century difficult to appropriate with 
accuracy. 

Signor Genolini gives copies of some marks, without stating whence he adopts them, 
or on what pieces they occur. We do not reproduce, and can only report them on his 
authority. 

His No. 180 is a large foliated monogram in which the letter B is most prominent. 
? of Pesaro. 

No. 187 is probably a reduction of the larger capitals I. P. occurring on some plates 
attributed to Siena. 

No. 188. A large P, but probably reduced from the mark on a plate in the Hotel 
Cluny, No. 2873. 

No. 190. The capital letters O and A with a cross between, and the date 1582. 

No. 191 probably adopted from Greslou. ? of Pesaro. 

No. 192. A circle, or letter O, having four smaller surrounding ones at top and 
bottom, and one on each side. 

No. 196 reads ell : r . PC, P, 1757. 

No. 197. Pesaro 1771. 

GUBBIO 

No. 79. 

GIORGIO L^jVBARO On a devotional plaque in the British Mu- 

seum, the gift of Sir J. C. Robinson. The 
Virgin and Child group, painted in colours but 
without lustre. Gubbio? 

No. 80. 

On a circular dish. Bacile. 
In the South Kensington Museum, 
3035. '53. Lustred Mezza Majo- 
lica. Profile portrait of a lady ; 
inscribed scroll 'asai avaz achi 
FVRTVN apas A ' ; border a quar- 
Here, in alternate compartments of 
foliated ornament and scale-work. 
Reverse, coarse yellowish-white 
glaze, on which are two scrolls 
painted in grey blue. Pesaro, 
Diruta, or Gubbio ? About 1490- 
1500 Diam. i6g in. 



1493 




DUCHY OF URBINO 



27 



GUBBIO. 

No. 81. 

On a circular dish. Bacile. 
In the South Kensington Museum, 
7682. '61. Lustred ware. Majolica. 
Two equestrian figures in richly 
decorated armour, one bearing 
a lance, the other a banner; border 
of foliated ornament ; the design, 
outlined with manganese black and 
shaded with grey, is entirely in 
gold lustre on white ground. 
Reverse, yellow glaze, with mark 
in centre in manganese black. 
Probably Gubbio. About 1490- 
1500. Diam. 14! in. (Soulages 
Collection.) 



No. 82. 

This monogram occurs in lustre 
colours on the back of a plateau, with 
female profile bust on a raised centre, of 
the well-known early type richly lustred. 
Gubbio ? or Diruta. In the British 
Museum. 



No. 83. 

On a plate formerly in Casa Piccini at Gubbio, and 
lost sight of from the Bernal Collection. The arm, sword, 
&c., are in ruby lustre, the date in blue, Gubbio scrolls 
round the border in gold. The subject is Abraham's 
sacrifice. 




28 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 




No. 84. 

On a small plate of early period, central medallion 
with half figure of a bishop (S. Petronio or Ubaldo) ; 
border of leaf ornament in rigid style, carefully drawn 
in blue outline and lustred with ruby and gold, formerly 
in the possession of Monsignor Cajani at Rome, since 
in the Castellani Collection. 




No. 85. 

The centre of a 'tondino,' one 
of a service of great beauty in 
the British Museum, is occupied 
with this combination of initials 
and emblems which may be the 
owner's rather than the maker's 
mark ; the date 1518 is at 
back. 



\ 




\Am (^ 



No. 86. 

On a Scodella. Hunting subject, naked men on horse- 
back with dogs, &c., in manner of Pollaiuolo about 1525 ; 
lettering in blue washed round with lustre ; the G in 
ruby. From Castellani Collection to Spitzer. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 29 



GUBBIO. 

No 87. 
On a tazza in the South 
Kensington Museum, 401. '54. ^J 

On a square centre, framed in 
ruby lustre and dated 1518, St. 
Francis receiving the Stigmata. 
At the angles are four cherubs' 
heads, trophies of arms filling 
the intervening spaces on pale 
blue ground, all richly lustred. 
Reverse, concentric lines of 
ruby and radiating gadroons 
of gold lustre. 






<F-21P- 



No. 88. 
On a plate in the South Kensington ^ 

Museum, 8892. '63. On a dark blue ground yj 

a shield of arms, cherubs' heads, flaming cornu- 
copiae, and a banderole inscribed 'viva . viva . 
in . ETERNUM '. Reverse, the initials, of M^ 
Giorgio in ruby lustre. Gubbio. About 1520. 
Diam. 9I in. (Soulages Collection.) 



A <J<- 




No. 89. 

An unusual form of the Giorgio monogram, perhaps acci- 
dental ; it was on a plate formerly in the collection of the 
Baron de Monville. Somewhat similar marks occur, but 
with the G more developed; one dated 1520 was in the ''*^ 

collection of Mrs. D. M. Davidson, and one dated 1522 in that /S/^ 

of Mr. Amherst. 

No 90. f^ 

On the back of a tazza, said by Brancaleoni /k I ^v6 2^ S ^^ 

to be in the ' Casa Tondi ' at Gubbio, and re- t B 

ferred to by Passeri ; of remarkable porcellainous fc' t C? () L 

quality ; foliage and rahesche in blue ; yellow f S^^ ^ 

and ruby lustre. The form of the last letter 
corresponds with that of Mark No. 5. 



/% ^ 



30 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 

No 91. 

On a plate formerly in the possession of Signor Marnelli. Since sold at the 
Castellani sale, Paris, for ^600, to M. Spitzer. 




No. 92 

On a plate, with sunk centre, in the 
South Kensington Museum, 1789. '55. 
The subject of Diana and Actaeon 
covers the wide border ; the side of the 
sunk centre is of golden lustre, and the 
bottom is filled by a medallion, cupid 
playing with a child's horn. Reverse, 
Monogram of Maestro Giorgio, and 
date 1524. Gubbio. Diam. 10,^ in. 
(Bernal Collection.) 



DUCHY OF U RBI NO 



31 



GUBBIO. 

No. 93. 

On a fine dish formerly in the collection of Mr. Fountaine, of Narford Hall, 
from the Bernal, and now in that of Mr. Salting ; referred to by Passeri. The 
subject is after a print by Robetta (1505 , known as 'The Stream of Life.' 






V 



#1/ I 



y 




J 







No. 94. 

On several pieces of a 
service in the British Museum, 
one from the Henderson 
Collection ; the central com- 
bination occurs painted on 
the face of two of the pieces, 
and not connected with the 
Giorgio monogram. That 
from which the mark was 
copied is dated 1524 on the 
face ; it is seen on some of 
the coins of Perugia, and is 
doubtless the emblem or mark 
of the owner. Some of the 
pieces are in Giorgio's best 
manner. 




32 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 




No 95. 

A similar emblem, perhaps a variety of the 
last on another piece of the same service. It is 
in the Louvre (Campana Collection, 9. 476). 
Almost precisely the same mark occurs on a plate, 
rather coarsely painted with a female portrait 
bust holding a flower, and with a leaf and flower 
border. It was sold by auction some years since. 



P 






No. 96. 

On a plate in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, 1788. '55. At 
the bottom of the deeply sunk 
centre, of yellow lustre, a shield 
of arms, ' Gules on a chief argent, 
a porcupine ' ; border covered 
with the subject of the death of 
Pyramus. Reverse, scrolls, the 
monogram of M^ Giorgio, and 
date 1522, in ruby and gold 
lustre. 




No. 97. 

On a small Fruttiera in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, 8939. '63. A man and woman 
standing beside a stream and embracing, taken 
from a composition known as the 'Stream of 
Life,' engraved by Robetta (see No. 93. Re- 
verse, foliated scrolls, and the mark in ruby. 
Gubbio. By Maestro Giorgio. Probably painted 
in 1525. Diam. 7f in. (Soulages Collection.) 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



33 



GUBBIO. 



*. ^ 



No. 98. 



On a plate, subject 
Jupiter and Semele. 
Painted and initialled in 
blue by Xanto, and 
lustred by Giorgio. 
Spitzer Collection. 





J) ^ C<oy^^ ^ ^iV^^l^ 




No. 99. 

On a caudle cup. 
Bust of a man. Castel- 
lani Collection. Gubbio. 
Owner's or giver's name 
and G. Mo. for botegal 




No. 100. 

On a plate. The chase of the Calydonian Boar, ruby and pearly lustre. 
Castellani Collection. The titular inscription black, signature and date lustre. 




oJt (tcuvOiAji 



34 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 



No loi. 



This signature and exact date is painted in gold 
copiae being ruby. It is on the back of one of the 



.^'' 




^^>veuo 




lustre, the fruit in the cornu- 
finest works of M^ Giorgio 
known to us. A dish of 
the largest size, having 
the subject of Diana and 
her nymphs surprised by 
Actaeon filling the centre, 
with a border of the 
richest grotesche. This 
noble piece is illustrated 
in Delange's Recueil, 
pi. 65, and now belongs 
to Lady Wallace, pre- 
viously to the Baronne 
de Parpart, and formerly 
to the Prince Bandini 
Giustiniani, of Rome. 
(This mark is reduced 
to half size.) 




^^ f^u/4'O 



No. 102. 

On a plate. Subject the 
decollation of John the Baptist, 
grotesche border, with shields 
of arms; in the Fortnum Collec- 
tion. The painting of this 
piece is attributed to Nicolo da 
Urbino. The arms are those 
of Sforza and Crivelli (?) of 
% Milan. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



35 



GUBBIO. 



i; 



No. 103. 

An eccentric variety of the 
Giorgio signature. 



>> 



^ 




/ 




.XJ\^ 



<f 







No. 105. 

On a plate in the South 
Kensington Museum, 8908. '63. 
In the centre a male profile 
head in grisaille on gold ground ; 
wide border of grotesque orna- 
ments in grisaille, heightened 
with gold and ruby lustre on 
blue ground. Diam. 9^ in. 
(Soulages Collection.) 



0- w^^^^u io 



No. 104. 

On a plate in the South 
Kensington Museum, 7685. '61. 
The caz;^//o of the plate grounded 
with gold lustre ; on a central 
medallion, cupid swinging on 
a tree, in grisaille on dark blue 
ground; ra^^sr/;^ border, richly 
lustred with gold and ruby on 
blue ground. Signed. Diam. 
11^ in. (Soulages Collection.) 




D 2 



36 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 




M"" Giorgio 1520. 
a di 2 de otobre. Ugubio, 

B. D. S. R. 



No. 106. 

The Gubbio mark surmounted by 
initials, probably of the owner rather 
than ihe painter. They have been 
supposed by Lazari to be of Baldasara 
Manara of Faenza. The subject, 
Aurora in a biga, and the hours, is after 
Marc Antonio. It was in Mr. Barker's 
Collection. 



No. 107. 

Signor Genolini gives a mark (his 
No. 124), but tells us neither the subject 
nor the possessor of the piece. It is 
doubtless that figured by Delange, with 
facsimile of mark, pi. 64. The Judge- 
ment of Paris ; in the Dutuit Coll. 



No. 108. 
The G here is formed as one of the well-known Gubbio scrolls. 



V 




DUCHY OF URBINO 37 



GUBBIO. 



No. 109. 

Another variety. 










No. no. 

A piece painted by 



/jr^^<^ /^ another artist and lustred 

Vy yV ^l \0\t^^ *' Gubbio. From the 

J '/ 1 \^ * \ collection of Signor 

/ C^^ Marnelli. 



% ati ly 



No. III. 



~ ■"-- ^ 



grotesche border of fine work : the M G in ruby, the 
rest in gold and lustre 



/«^ 



38 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 




No. 112. 

On the magnificent 
circular dish in the 
Museum of the Univer- 
sity at Bologna, one of 
the finest pieces of maio- 
lica remaining to us. 
The whole surface is 
covered with the subject 
of the Presentation of 
the Virgin, admirably 
drawn and richly lustred 
in gold and ruby. The 
inscription on the reverse 
beneath the mark is 
remarkable, and the only 
instance recorded. (Mark 
reduced.) 



No. 113. 

A late signature of the usual type. 



A 



No. 114. 

On a fragment ot a tazza with portrait, lustred. 
Passalaqua Collection (287 Sale Cat.). 



M. G. Gubbio mark at 



No. 115. 

C "p On a plate, with Medici arms in centre, border ornaments in gold 

and blue on white and gold ground. Fould Coll., sold in Paris 1882. 
On reverse, Gubbio. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



39 



GUBBIO. 



No. Ii6. 



On a fine Gubbio plate, having the Torregiani shield with 
trophies, &c. Sold by Sig. Gagliardi in Paris. <1 



W 



No. 117. 

A mark similar to the last. 



ii 



T 



No. 1 18. 

In lustre on the reverse of a plate, cupid centre, formerly 
in Mr, Farrer's Collection. A similar mark occurs on a piece 
in the Louvre (G. 535). 




No. 119. 

This mark occurs on No. 4726 in the South Kensington 
Museum, and on a plate— Hercules and Cerberus — in the 
Campana Collection at the Louvre (G. 318) 




/rjc 



No. 120. 

On a piece formerly in 
Mr. Barker's Collection. 



Mm 



fl#l 




>^M1 



No. 121. 

On a plate, masks and trofeion dark blue ground, 
lustred gold and ruby, the mark blue ; back lustred. m 
Gubbio. Spitzer Collection. (Salimbene ?) '>' 




A 



40 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 




No. 122. 

On a puerperal cup with coat of arms, lustred. (? Salimbene.) 
Castellani Collection. 



No. 123. 

On a plate with the monogram of Christ in lustre. Gubbio* 
Castellani Collection. (? Salimbene Andreoli.) 



O 



No. 124. 

On a plate formerly in the Collection of Monsig. P 

Cajani. Bust of a young woman Cana-ora-hella. % * f B 
Reverse, inscription with four Gubbio scrolls. - ^ 



W ? 



/ 




X 



No. 125. 

On a plate in the Sevres 
Museum. 




DUCHY OF U RBI NO 



41 



GUBBIO. 



No. 126. 

In the Correr Museum at Venice. The S 
in blue, the N in ruby, and the date in gold. 



No. 127. 

A variation of the mark on a piece in the 4 
Campana Collection, Louvre, No. G. 527. ~ 



No. 128. 

On a vase with cover in the shape of a pine cone in the 
South Kensington Museum, 519. '65. White ground, touched with 
green and orange, and with ruby and gold lustre. Underneath 
the foot the figure or mark, being the Arabic numeral 4- 
(Gubbio ? or Diruta.) About 1520. H. loj in., diam. 6^ in. 
(Soulages Collection.) 

No. 129. 

On a tazza in the South Kensington Museum, 8903. '63. In 
the central medallion a profile bust of a man in grisaille with 
drapery in ruby, and cap in gold lustre on blue ground ; border 
of open fir cones and scroll foliage in gold lustre on a white 
ground, shaded with blue. Reverse, scrolls and the letter N in 
ruby lustre. About 1530. (Soulages Collection.) Diam. 9^ in. 
Supposed to be by M° Cencio. It has been suggested that the 
N may stand for Nocera, an outskirt of Gubbio, on the Via 
Flaminia, where another furnace may have been erected by 
M° Giorgio, or by a rival. But M. Piot refers such to Santa 
Natoia in the march of Ancona, where a writer of the sixteenth 
century states that a fabrique existed. 






42 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 





Jj- 




No. 130. 

On a deep plate or Fruttiera in the South Kensington 
Museum, 8895. '63. Central medallion with an ' Agnus Dei ' in 
relief, from which radiate acanthus leaves in gold, and flowers in 
ruby lustre, on white ground, lined and shaded with blue. 
Reverse, slight scrolls and the initial in ruby. Gubbio. About 
1530-35. Diam. gf in. (Soulages Collection.) 

No. 131. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 7690. '61. In 
the centre Cupid, with bow painted in grisaille on ruby ground ; 
border of scroll ornament in ruby and gold lustre on blue. 
Reverse, decorated with spiral scrolls in lustre and the mark. 
Gubbio. About 1530. Diam. 9I in. (Soulages Collection.) 



No. 132. 

On a tazza, in the South Kensington Museum, 
8910. '63. The head of St. John the Baptist in 
a charger, on deep blue background diapered with 
scrolls in ruby lustre ; above is a pendant garland 
of green leaves and fruit, and on one side a cross, 
and scroll inscribed 'ecce-agnus dei.' Reverse, 
Giorgio scrolls, the date 1535, and initial in lustre. 
Gubbio. Diam. 9 in. (Soulages Collection.) 



No. 133. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 8962. '63. In 
the centre a trophy of arms on pale ruby ground ; border of 
trophies in grisaille on blue ground lustred with yellow and ruby. 
On two labels are respectively inscribed A • M • and S • P • Q • R. 
Reverse, scrolls and the initial in ruby. Castel Durante ? Lustred 
at Gubbio. About 1535- Diam. 9I in. ^ Soulages Collection.) 

No. 134. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 8961. '63. 
In the centre the letter A, surrounded by foliage, lined with 
blue, and lustred in gold : the border of obliquely radiating 
ornaments, in gold and ruby lustre and blue. Reverse, 
rude scrolls in lustre, and the mark. Gubbio. About 
1535-40. Diam. 9I in. (Soulages Collection.) 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



43 



GUBBIO. 



No. 135. 

On a tazza in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, 4726. '59. Are- 
thusa escaping from the pursuit of 
Alpheus. Reverse dated 1536, 
a mark, and inscribed 'Alfeo ch' 
segue sua diua aretusa,' all in blue, 
touched with lustre ; the Gubbio 
scroll ornament in yellow and ruby. 
(Urbino, lustredat Gubbio.) Diam. 
10 fin. 



(T 








No. 136. 

On a tazza in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, 8899. '63. The 
birth of Adonis ; composition of 
seven figures in a landscape. 
Reverse, the date 1541 in ruby 
lustre, and the inscription ' nasi- 
mento d adonis" in black. (Pesaro 
or Urbino, lustred at Gubbio) 
Diam. 11 in. (Soulages Collection.) 






navmentv 



No. 137. 

On a coarse piece in the British Museum, 
with a dog in the centre ; ruby and gold 
lustre. 




44 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 




No. 138. 

The N O in lustre ; the other mark in blue. A piece 
with similar marks, and dated 1535, was in the hands of 
a London dealer some years since. A plate painted by 
same hand and with the blue mark, not lustred, is in the 
Ashmolean Museum (Fortnum Collection). 





No. 139. 

On a plate in the British Mu- 
seum. Subject, the Centaur Nes- 
sus ; from the Bernal Collection. 
The painting is not in the manner 
of M" Giorgio. 




No. 140. 

Another variety. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



45 



GUBBIO. 



No. 141 

On a plaque or tile in 
the South Kensington Mu- 
seum, 520. '65. St. Jerome 
seated in a rocky landscape. 
Reverse, a large initial 
monogram, composed of 
A and G, in lustre colour. 
The painting ascribed to 
Orazio Fontana of Urbino, 
and lustred by M^ Giorgio 
at Gubbio. About 1540. 
H 6\ in., W. 5 in. (Soulages 
Collection.) 




No. 142. 

On a plate in the South 
Kensington Museum, 8907. 
'63. Angelica delivered from 
the monster by Ruggiero ; 
from the story by Ariosto. 
Reverse, foliated scrolls, and 
date 1549, in ruby lustre. 
Inscription, ' Angellica ligata 
al duro scoglio,' written in 
blue. Probably painted by 
Orazio Fontana of Urbino, 
and lustred at Gubbio. 
Diam. g\ in. (Soulages 
Collection.) 




nceCu'c<x. m^U a[ 




46 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



GUBBIO. 




\ 



ilr 




I 



No. 143. 

On a plate in the British Museum, 
with scale border and ' Diamante ' in 
centre. It is more in the style of the 
Gubbio wares than those of Diruta. A 
similar mark is on a piece (No. G. 533) in 
the Louvre; and, with the scroll, on a piece 
in the Museum at Gubbio. (De Mely, 
P- 83.) 

No. 144. 

Similar to No. 147, and 
important for the date. It 
occurs on a plate represent- 
ing Hercules and Antaeus 
after Pollaiuolo in the Basi- 
lewski Collection, and also 
on a piece in the Louvre, 
G. 359. Subject, Abraham 
visited by the Angels. They 
are probably the Maestro 
Giorgio signature by 'pro- 
curation ' of a careless hand. 
A somewhat similar but 
blurred name is on a plate 
in the Sauvageot Collection 
of the Louvre, G. 475. Two 
hunters, with dog, hare, &c., 
and border of trophies 



No. 145. 

Occurs on a plate formerly in Mr. Barker's Collection. 
Trophies shaded in blue on yellow ground. Shield of arms 
in centre, and date 1540. 




DUCHY OF URBINO 



47 



GUBBIO. 



/ 



No. 146. 

Is on a tazza in the Ashmolean Museum, 
Fortnum Collection, somewhat coarsely 
painted in the style of the Fontana fabrique, 
with the subject of Constantine crossing the 
bridge, and seeing the cross in the sky. It is 
faintly lustred in gold, and has the mark on 
the reverse in gold lustre colour. 




No. 147. 

A curious signature given by M. Delange in the 
appendix to his translation of Passeri's work. It has 
been attributed to an unknown M^ Gillio. Perhaps the 
same as No. 144. 



No. 148. 
On a square bas-relief, the Virgin and Child, enriched with metallic lustre. 
The end lobe of the label, on which the date is repeated, has been mistaken for the 
letter C, and it has hence been somewhat hastily inferred that the letter standing 
for 'Cencio,' combined with the signature ' Perestino,' would indicate that they 
were one and the same person. 





5T^t?o 



f 



r^ 



3 



J 



48 MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 

GUBBIO. 

No. 149. 

Another signature of Maestro Prestino, on a plate subject Venus and Cupid, 
belonged to Mr. Falcke. 

No. 150. 

This letter may also stand for a monogram of Prestino. It 
occurs on a bowl having the Virgin and Child painted in lustre 
colours, and was in Mr. Fountaine's Collection. A nearly similar 
R is on a piece in the Pesaro Museum (Molinier). A more decided 
P occurs on a piece in the Louvre, G. 518; and again another 
formed more nearly to a D, with the date 1533, on a plateau, 
subject the establishment of the throne of David, after a lost work 
of Raffaelle ; in the Bracon Hall Collection of the Rev. Mr. Berney. 



No. 151. 

These marks were adopted by Messrs. Carocci, Fabbri, and 
Co., manufacturers of modern lustred ware at Gubbio. Sig. Pietro 
Gay was the artist who personally superintended the work. 
Specimens were shown at the International Exhibition in 1862. 





1^ 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



49 



CASTEL DURANTE 



No. 152. 

On a fine bowl be- 
longing to Mrs, T. Hope, 
the work of Giovanni 
Maria, vasaro of Castel 
Durante, Sept. 12, 1508. 
Bold and elaborate gro- 
tesque decoration on a 
rich blue ground. 



•^'U.^ 









% 
% 




€>\X 



/ 




% 



By the Painter of the Museo Corver Service, now believed 
to be Nicolo Pellipario, when working at Castel Durante. 
Circa 15 15. 

No. 153. 

This mark and early date, 1482, is on the face of one of 
seventeen plates of a service by the same hand, in the Correr 
Museum at Venice (No. 215), representing Solomon adoring 
the Idols. Signor Lazari read this monogram as composed 
of the letters G • I • O •, the O being crossed by the I, but 
they may be meant for T • M • or B • followed by a small 
letter which may be q or p. The date is probably that 
of the design or engraving from which the subject was 
painted, probably at Castel Durante about 1515. 




50 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CASTEL DURANTE. 

No. 154. 

On a pharmacy jar in the British Museum, decorated a trofei. 




A A Li 



\^ 



/H^t;fo^^o 



y^0).|it(fc75: 




No. 155. 

On a similarly decorated dish in the 
Museum of the University of Bologna. 



If 




No. 156. 

On a plate in the British Museum ; 
subject the Rape of Helen. Reverse, 
scroll ornament, among which these 
monograms are four times repeated. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



CAST£L DURANTE. 

No. 157. 

On a plate in the British 
Museum ; subject, Dido and As- 
canius, inscribed in yellow colour. 
A neariy similar inscription by the 
same hand and of the same date 
is on a plate in the Ashmolean 
Museum (Fortnum Col. No. 507, see 
pi. XV). Its subject is the Flight 
into Egypt. Figured by Delange, 
pi. 68. 

On a plate, subject the Rape of 
Ganymede, No. 237 in the Louvre, 
is a nearly similar inscription with 
the date 1525. 



i 

i 



« 1 



m 



f\ 



I 



No. 158. 

On a fragment of a tazza, probably 
by the same hand and representing 
three river Deities in a landscape, on 
the margin of a running stream. 



Sj 




n 





vctd 



No. 159. 

On a plate formerly in the 
possession of Mr. Barker. 



E a 



52 MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



CASTEL DURANTE. 
No. l6o. 



N TERR 



On a drug pot in the South Kensington 
Museum, 2590. '56. Grotesques in grisaille DVRANTIS 

on dark blue. About 1550-60. 



No. 161. 

On a drug pot, yellow and dull blue foliation. Castel 
Durante ? In possession of Miss Devidis. 



lA 



X 




No. 162. 

On a large plate with raised centre, 
Cupid, Apollo, and Daphne, 1532. In 
Pesaro Museum. (Molinier.) 

The same mark, but smaller, is on 
a bottle in the same Museum. 



No. 163. 

On a plate painted in chiaroscuro. Hercules and Cerberus. 
Castellani Collection. Castel Durante. 



T 

No. 164. 

P Mastro SimonO in Castelo On a vase figured by Delange, p. 75. 

Duyate 1 562 . Covered with grotesques, among which 

is the signature and date. 

No. 165. 

S. I 580. On a plate. Joseph leaving his mantle. Museum of Pesaro. 

(De Mdly.) 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



53 



CASTEL DURANTE. 



No. i66. 



On a plate with armorial shield, No. 271 Louvre. Border a trofei C\ Q 
(De Mely). 



No. 167. 



On a basin, decorated with trofei. Female head in centre. ^r^*\T% 
Probably Castel Durante. 



No. 168. 

On three large vases in 
the Barberini gallery, Rome. 
' Hipollito Rombaldonid'Ur- 
bania pinse 1647.' 

On a 'coupe' No. 291 
Louvre, the Triumph of 
Flora, is the same signature. 




No. 169. 

On a pharmacy jar mentioned by Chaffers. This mono- 
gram is that of the Carthusians, not a mark of the fabrique, 
for which it has been accepted. 




54 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO 




No. 170. 



da ^rfi 



mo 



On a fragment the bottom of a plate, in the Louvre, 
from the Sauvageot Collection (No. G. 824) ; subject 
the Parnassus after RafTaelle, figured in Delange's 
Recueil, pi. 100. 



dj 



b-mr i\ A h'nih) 






H 



laviK^ 



No. 171. 

On a plate in the British Museum, 
representing a sacrifice to Diana, by 
Nicola da Urbino (Nicola Pellipario). 



•V- 




No. 172. 

On a * hanap ' or ewer, in the Museum of the 
University at Bologna, having the arms of Gian. 
Francesco Gonzaga impaling those of Isabella 
d' Este (married 1490; he died 1519; she died 
1539-) Also on a similar piece in the Roth- 
schild Collection in Paris. Illustrated in Delange's 
Recueil, pi. 31. By Nicolo da Urbino. 




No. 173. 

On a plate ; subject, a young female seated on a plinth, holds 
a trumpet, and crowns a young man who kneels. On a book beneath, 
omnia • vina'i • amor • e( • cedamur . . . questo. Arms of the Scaligeri (?) 
hanging on column. Fine work by Nicolo da Urbino. Castellani 
Collection. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



55 



URBINO. 

No. 174. 

On a plate; subject, a king en- 
throned, probably David or Solomon. 
In the Basilewski Collection. Figured 
in Delange's Recueil, pi. 55. By 
Nicolo da Urbino. 



No. 175. 

On a large circular 
dish in the Bargello, 
at Florence, repre- 
senting the Martyrdom 
of Sta Cecilia. By 
Nicolo da Urbino. 

(This markisreduced 
from the original.) 








•mo i^zs 



No. 176. 

On a plate formerly in the Narford Collection ; subject the Siege of the Castle 
of St. Angelo. Illustrated in Delange's Recueil, pi. 81. 



r 






' -^ - Jf 



56 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 



n. 







\ J 3 y 



No. 177. 

On a plate. 
Spitzer Collection. 



. ff( ^tf 1^ 



No. 178. 

On a plate in the British 
Museum, Jupiter and Semele, 
one of a service bearing the 
arms of the Constable de 
Montmorency. 

Another piece of this service 
is in the Ashmolean Museum 
(Fortnum Collection). It is 
figured by Delange, pi. 15, 
p. 72. 

Another is in the Brera at 
Milan. 

A nearly similar signature 
without date is on a plate. The 
death of Goliath. Louvre, No. 
329, with the arms of Cardinal 
Duprat. 




No. 179. 

On a large dish formerly in 
the Narford Collection, the Conver- 
sion of St. Paul. Attributed to Orazio 
Fontana. Probably the number of 
the piece, not a mark. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



57 



URBINO. 



No. i8o. 



The mark given by Passed as occurring on pieces made by Orazio 
Fontana for the Duke of Urbino. 

A nearly similar mark, the letter D replacing the lower F, occurs 
on some large vases of much later date. 

On some of the vases at Loreto are the letters B • F • V • F • 




No. i8i. 

On a tazza in the British Museum, 
from the Bernal Collection. 

On a plate in Mr. Salting's Collec- 
tion the same monogram occurs in 
a label on the wall. The subject is the 
flight of mounted warriors before their 
enemies towards the open gates of 
Urbino: each carrieshis armorial shield. 
Urbino, dated 1541. 



No. 182. 

On a circular dish in the collection of the Cava- 
liere Alessandro Saracini at Siena, representing the 
Rape of the Sabines. It is painted in Orazio's early 
manner, and a fine example. 



No. 183. 

This mark is on the face of a large plate, No. 
K. 1794 in the Kdnigl. Museum, Berlin, ' Match 
between the nine Muses and the daughters of 
Theseus (after the design by Pierino del Vaga). 



On the reverse 






torcfo 



ca 



ko 




»;44~ 




Come Horazio Comfda 
Seor . . . It Sabini. 




Questo fu fatto nela botega 
de M° Guido vasaro 
da castello dur- 
anto in urbi- 
no a di J d 
nouenbre 
nel IS42. 



58 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 




'i TT ^ 



No. 184. 

On a fine plate in the Louvre (No. G. 337); 
subject, the Massacre of the Innocents. 



No. 185. 

On a plate formerly in Mr. Fountaine's Collection 
at Narford. St. Paul preaching at Athens, after 
Raffaelle. 



No. 186. 

On a tazza, also formerly in the Narford 
Collection; subject, David and Goliath. 



No. 187. 

This mark occurs in the landscape, on a plate formerly 
in the Toscanelli Collection at Pisa, representing the 
Healing of the Sick at the Beautiful Gate, after Raffaelle. 
In the writer's opinion it may be a work of Orazio's later 
period. 



No. 188. 



On a fine vase formerly in 
the Barker Collection, figured by 
Delange, pi. 84, is the inscription 



FATTO IN BOTEGA 
DE M° ORATO FONTANA. 



Mo 



No. 189. 

On a Fruttiera in the 
Correr Museum, at Venice, 
No. 258, and attributed 
by Sig. Lazari to Fla- 
minio Fontana ; subject 
the Judgement of Paris. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



59 



URBINO. 



No. 190. 



On a stone in the foreground is inscribed, 



On a plaque in the Franks Collection, since given by him 

to the British Museum, painted with a fine figure of St. Paul. 

P. E. S. PAVILIS, 

1583 
and the initials 

It has all the manner of the Fontana School, and may 

perhaps be attributed to Flaminio. 



No. 191. 

On a plaque, also in the British Museum, 
from the Franks Collection, finely painted 
with the Crucifixion in the manner of the 
Fontana fabrique. 



No. 192. 

On a plaque in the British Museum. 
The Annunciation. 



F^F 



<^ 




1567 
SFORZA . D. P . 



Works of Fratwisco Xanto. 



No. 193. 

On a plate in the 
British Museum ; subject, 
from a poem composed by 
the painter of the plate 
in honour of his patron, 
Duke Francesco Maria I, 
of Urbino, and called 'II 
Rovere Vittorioso/ 









riiTVi 



r^ 



6o 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 






No. 194. 

On a plate in the British Mu- 
seum ; painted with the subject of 
Mars, with the Roman wolf and 
twins, and signed in colour by 
Xanto ; richly lustred at Gubbio by 
the Maestro, signing with the letter 
N, in the iridescent pigment. 

Another example of a piece 
painted by Xanto, and lustred by 
N, was in Mr. Napier's Collection 
(Catalogue Shandon Collection, No. 
2882). 

Also one painted, but not signed 
by Xanto, lustred and signed by 
Mo Giorgio, 1529 (Catalogue Shan- 
don Collection, No. 2876). 



AS?l 






No. 196. 

On a plate in the 
South Kensington Mu- 
seum, 1780. '55. Pyramus 
and Thisbe. On the side 
a shield of arms bearing 
Hercules and the lion, on 
a gold ground. Reverse, 
inscribed with title of 
subject, signed ' Fra 
Xanto,' and dated 1531. 
Urbino. Diam. 10 in. 
(Bernal Collection.) 



No. 195. 

On a plate in the South Kensington 
Museum, 1685. '55. Allegorical or mytho- 
logical subject ; a shield of arms. Reverse, 
initialled by Xanto and dated Urbino, 1531. 
Diam. 7I in. (Bernal collection.) 






DUCHY OF URBINO 



6i 



URBINO. 



No. 197. 



On a circular dish in the South Kensington Museum, 1748. '55. An adapta- 
tion {pasticcio) from Raffaelle's picture of the marriage of Alexander and Roxana ; 
on the upper part is a shield bearing the arms of Gonzaga, impaled with those 
of Este, and surmounted by a ducal coronet. On a soldier's shield are the 
letters X • H • A Reverse, inscribed with the title of the subject. Signed by 
Xanto, and dated 1533. Urbino, Diam. 18^ in. (Bemal Collection.) 







TUlTVtf.' 



|sje 6 X' w wo da Tfoyif) %mj^eio 









62 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 



-max 1^^'( fonoo. 







ilyUTnio (pox ^/lit 



T 



t^co 



r^ • 



y ■• 



X 



ll£^' 



No. 198. 

On a plate in the 
South Kensington 
Museum, 272. '71. 
Pahnurus faUing from 
/Eneas' galley. Lus- 
tred. Reverse, signa- 
ture and date. Urbino. 



No. 199. 

On a plate in the South 
Kensington Museum, 

1698. '55. Allegorical 
subject, 'The Discord of 
Italy.' Reverse, inscribed 
with title of subject. 
Signed by Xanto, and 
dated 1536. Urbino. 
Diam. io\ in. (Bernal 
Collection.) 



DUCHY OF URBINO 63 



URBmO. 

No. 200. 

On a tazza in the 






^jff -u^i-moao u'af 



South Kensington Mu- 
seum, 4557. '56. Alle- 
gorical subject. A group 
of four nude females, to 
whom a bearded man ^^^,. ^ 

offers gold, carried by l^tfUjfTl ^6^^ t ^VtWL 

a boy on a salver ; on a F ^ ^^^ "^ / 

scroll is inscribed 'Omnia ^ 

^ pecuniam facta sunt.' 

Reverse, the subject, the 

date 1531, and the letter *^^^ 

X. Urbino, by Francisco 

Xanto. Diam. lof in. 



No. 201. 



On a plate in the South Kensington /^ //^ n a ^ ^* V 

Museum, 1696. '55. Jupiter and the fallen / ^vRA^ ^A^tytO C/ Itti 

Dionysius of Syracuse. Reverse, title of t*)'^ y^ ^ tVvi r/ijf'A 

subject; signed by Xanto, and dated 1540. ' ^ ^ )*/ 

Urbino. Diam. 10 in. (Bemal Collection.) ^ *-^ 



No. 202. r^eu«i. 



ooiu'/, Pyxxbe^ ^\:. 



A plate signed with two initials only / ^ ^ 

and Pyrrha. Was in the Narford 



of Xanto's name; subject, Deucalion |()7 6u01l<? Ojv'/C^' 

and Pyrrh^ AA/oo in fVi^ Mo..r/.v^y-i ' 

Collection. 



/-?! 



64 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 






to 



> 



%^y^ 



No. 203. 

On a tazza in the 
South Kensington 
Museum 1790. '55. 
Brutus and Portia. 
Reverse, title of sub- 
ject, the initial of 
Xanto, and date 1541. 
Urbino. Diam. io| 
in. (Bernal Collec- 
tion.) 









No. 204. 

Another example 
representing the myth 
of Cephalus and 
Procris, painted in 
colour by Xanto, 
subsequently lustred 
and signed in lustre 
colour with an E 
or No. 3 reversed. 
It was in the Narford 
Collection. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 65 



URBINO. 



M'DXxx XI. 



No. 205. 



The circular dish representing ■^ - -*^ ^^ 



vr(iv%'^^"^ 



the storming of Goleta, in the <-f ^ . . -T^^ 

Collection of Baron James de "^ I ^ \ X ^ ^t\^'t\V^\^ 

Rothschild, at Paris, from that of ^h^ttfff^^'^ T^^ *^ 

Mr. Marryat. ^ ^ ^f ^ ^i 



No. ao6. 



i/f i 

JJCa dro^ -ware cv 



On a plate, which 
belonged to Mr, 
Barker, representing 
* Leander in the sea 
and Hero at the 

window.' It is in- _ _ 

teresting, as bearing # ^ 

the latest date upon ^ 

any work signed by 
Xanto. 



?^- 



66 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 




^KAi>^ 



No. 207. 

On a caudle cup, Narford 
Collection, on two separate scrolls. 



By a supposed imitator or pupil of Xanto. 



No. 208. 

On a plate in the 
British Museum, 

painted in the manner 
of Xanto, but with 
a brownish tone and 
varnish -like surface. 






i 



^Shoi^tA^ 




No. 209. 

On a plate by 
the same hand, also 
in the British Mu- 
seum. The works of 
this painter gener- 
ally have the words 
'Historia,' ' Nota,' 
' Fabula/ added to 
the titular inscrip- 
tion. 



/o <^ Ks>-nny. feu*' . 



710 tA^ 




DUCHY OF U RBI NO 



67 



URBINO. 



By Francesco Durantifio. 



No. 210. 

On a plate, Narford Collection ; subject the 
arrest of a cavalier. Painted with great care. 



r 




154- 



N o. 2n 

A tazza in the British Museum ; 
subject, Coriolanus met by his 
Mother. 

In the Casa Patrizi at Venice 
is a vase similarly signed, 1545 
(Urbani). 






No. 212. 

An oval cistern 
formerly in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Fountaine; 
painted with subjects 
after Giulio Romano. 






MDXXXXI. 

hi Urbino nella 



No. 213. 

Formerly in the Marryat, since in the Baron James 
de Rothschild Collection, was a fine plate, on which 
the siege of Goleta is depicted, with the arms of Gon- bottCP' di FvcincesCO 

de Si Liiano. 
(Silvano.) 



zaga on the rim. 18 inch diameter 
in Marryat, third edition, p. 64. 



It is figured 



F 2 



68 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 



No. 214. 



Of the signed pieces by Guido Merlino it is difficult to ascertain which were 
executed at Urbino and which at Venice, except one which is in the Museum 
at Cassel, and signed Fate in botega di Guido Merlino in Orhino (MoHnier), which 
reads as though the piece were of Urbino production; and that one on which 
he writes Fato in la Bottega de Guido Merligno, Vasaro da Urbino in San Polo 
a di 30 di Marzo 1542. This was clearly made at Venice. 

The Louvre plate (No. 357) Judith and Holophernes is signed 



and the date being subsequent, we may conclude that it also is of the Venetian botega. 



UjK 



By Gironimo. 






l^e^ 



No. 215. 



On a bowl in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, 4354. '57, with deep 
sunk centre, and on the border six 
oval sunk pools in the manner of 
Palissy, grounded alternately yellow, 
green, and blue, and painted with 
cupids in grisaille; on medallion 
centre cupid in grisaille, on dark 
yellow ground ; the rest filled in 
with coloured grotesques on white 
ground. Reverse, concentric lines 
in blue and yellow, and signed. 
Diameter 15J in. 



No. 216. 

On a large plate No. K. 1818 in the 
Kunstgewerbe Museum, at Berlin, is a re- 
presentation of the Villa d' Este with gardens, 
&c., at Tivoli. At the back is inscribed 



' ilsontuosiss^ et ameniss'^ palazzo 
et giardini di tiuoli fatto in 
Urbino del 1575 die 3 de agosto 
gironimo et tomaso fecit' 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



69 



URBINO. 

No. 217. 

On a tazza in the South 
Kensington Museum, 6662. '60. 
Elliptic. Strap work in relief, 
terminating in blue masks; the 
surface painted with strap work 
and masks surrounding two medal- 
lions; on one Moses striking the 
rock, on the other the return 
of the spies from the Promised 
Land. Reverse, strap and scroll 
work, and four lions' masks in 
relief. Urbino. About 1580. H. 
2j in., L. 8 in., W. 6\ in. 




Various Marks of Urbino. 



IS^^ 



No. 218. 

Occurs on a piece in the Fort- 
num Collection at the Ashmolean 
Museum, the inferior work appar- 
ently of a young artist. The same 
mark has been observed on other 
pieces by the same hand, one of 
which is lustred. 



Pi }>ic<» £T c\Yc^ 




No 219. 

On a plate. D'Azeglio Collection. St. Jerome plucking 
a thorn from the Lion's foot. Dated 1542. 



M. 



70 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 



5/na Av^A 



a 8 



\)r 






hq 



No. 220. 

On a plate representing St. Luke, 
seated on a bull in the clouds, and hold- 
ing an open volume. In the Ashmolean 
Museum (Fortnum Collection). 



*T^ 




No. 221. 

Occurs on the front of a fine dish, 
believed of Urbino. Painted with 
the martyrdom of St. Lorenzo, and 
dated 1531. It was sold for 295 
guineas at Lord Northwick's sale. 




No. 222. 

On a plate, representing Diana and Actaeon. Formerly 
belonging to M. Delange, of Paris, and attributed by him to this 
fabrique. 




No. 223. 

On a large plate. Warriors discovering a treasure in a sarcophagus. 
Museum Pesaro. De Mely. ? Same as Molinier's No. 306, Urbino, 
a lustred cup. 



u 



No. 224. 

This mark accompanied by the initials 



E.F.B. 
1594. 



occurs on a ewer, 



painted with yellow scrolls on a blue ground, and inscribed ' YMASQVE • 
DE • BVONA • CANA.' In the Rothschild Collection at Paris, and 
believed of Urbino. We do not know the piece. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



7^ 



URBINO. 



No. 225. 



On an istoriata plate formerly in M" Cajani's possession 
at Rome, of this or the Castel Durante fabrique, about 1540, 
representing 'Ascupapio et rescusita 11 morti.' 




No. 226. 

Communicated to me by the late Dr. A. Foresi of 
Florence, as on a plate in his possession. Subject, the 
Rape of the Sabines, and supposed by M. Demminto be 
by ' Giovanni Vasajo.* 




No. 227. 

This mark occurs on a piece ascribed by Mr. Chaffers to this 
fabrique and to the brush of Caesare Carl, who painted in the 
botega of Guido Merlino 1536-51 (?). 






No. 228. 

On a plate, allegorical subjects, in the Museum at 
Padua. M. Molinier suggests the reading as 'Sitnone 
di Antonio Mariani' 



S. A. M. 



No. 229. 

On a plate, coarsely painted with gro- 
tesques, attributed to Urbino. 



/ 






72 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 




No. 230. 

On a large basin, in 
the British Museum, 
with snake handles. Sub- 
ject, Adam and Eve in 
Paradise. In the later 
Urbino style. It came 
from the Ahh6 Stabini's 
to the Sloane Collection, 
and was the first piece 
of majolica possessed by 
the British Museum. On 
the exterior are coarsely 
executed grotesques, on 
white ground. 



Pompio 

O. F. V. 

1590 



No. 231. 

On a plate. Castellani Collection. 



I6C> 



No. 232. 

On a large plate, in the British Museum, painted 
in dull blue cama'ieu, with the subject of the decol- 
lation of St. John. It is difficult to assign the 
piece to any known fabrique, but it may perhaps 
be an Urbino work of the later period. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



73 



URBINO. 

Pieces by the Patanazzi, 
No. 233. Urbini Patana 

On an inkstand figured in Delange, pi. 100. fecit aUfW 1 584 

No. 234. 

On a plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 2612. '56. Romulus 
receiving the Sabine women. Reverse, with title of the subject. Signed, and date 
1606. Urbino. Diam. 19I in. 

FEGXT >^ 




74 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



URBINO. 




No. 235. 

Presumed to be a mark by Alfonso 
Patanazzi. 



J: <^o^ 



No. 236. 

On a large cistern, formerly in Mr. 
Fountaine's Collection at Narford. 




No. 237. 

On a plate formerly 
in the possession of 
Monsignore Cajani at 
Rome; subject, the Ex- 
pulsion from Paradise. 




No. 238. 

On a caudle cup. Two shields of arms and grotesques. 
Late Urbino, Patanazzi fabrique. Castellani Collection. 



DUCHY OF URBINO 



75 



URBINO. 



No. 239. 

On a plate. Two genii holding 
a shield of arms. Grotesques and 
cameos round. Urbino. Patanazzi 
school, Brambella Collection. Pavia. 
(Molinier.) 




No. 240. 

On a plaque in the KSnigl. 
Museum, Berlin, K. 2265, with 
landscape in the manner of Castelli. 



Urbino 1705 



No. 241. 

On a lamp in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, 6865. '60. A sliding 
pillar lamp with four burners ; the 
foot, pedestal, lamp, and cover of 
enamelled earthenware, with metal 
pillar, snuffers, &c., suspended by 
chains. Garlands of fruit, flowers, 
&c., hanging by ribbons, in blue, 
red, and yellow on a white ground. 
Signed under the foot. H. 28 in., 
diam. of base, 9 in. 



Fabvica di Maiolica fina 

di Monfiur Rolet in Urbino 

A, 28 Apr He 1773. 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



BORGO SAN-SEPOLCRO 

Citta Borgo S. Sepolcro 
a 6 Febraio 1771. 



Mart. Rolehts fecit. 



No. 242. 

On a lamp of faience, white with 
garlands of flowers. 



SAN QUIRICO D'ORCIA 



Bar Terchi Romano 
in S. Quirico. 



No. 243. 

On a plaque in the Louvre, No. G. 
601. Moses striking the rock. 




No. 244. 

On a basin in the South 
Kensington Museum, 5865. '59. 
Group of Hercules and other figures. 
A piece made for Card. F. Chigi. 



No. 245. 

'^^is.r'Tk.Y ^ ' R fnc^ ^" ^ plaque in the South Kensington Museum, 

6657. '60. A triton and a nymph, &c., after An : Caracci 
San. Quirico (?) 



tvo 



Btrdeyc 



No. 246. 

On another example. 



STATES OF THE CHURCH 



77 



STATES OF THE CHURCH. 



DIRUTA 



No. 247. 

On a votive plaque. Two women 
seated on a bed, four others kneeling 
around. Inscribed, avendo • 10 • 

lOBE • DOE • AMALATE • IN • CHASA • 
ME • RECOMMANDAE • ACQUISTA • 
GLORIOSA • VER • MARIA • EF • SAO. 

Castellani Collection. 



T-BER'^TA 




IS'oS' 



No. 248. 

On a dish with the arms of Montefeltro. It 
belonged to Count Nieuwekerke, and was ascribed to 
Diruta. 




No. 249. 

On a plateau. Winged horses, cariatides, &c., a reflet. 
Diruta? Castellani Collection. 



H 



No. 250. 

Mark given by Genolini as on a piece attributable 
to Diruta. 




No. 251. 

On a plate. 
Daphne. In the 
Spitzer Collec- 
tion. (Molinier.) 



t / 



^ inru-fv^ 




78 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



DIRUTA. 



No. 252. 

On a fine tazza in the Hotel Cluny, Paris, painted 
in cama'ieu bleu, and heightened with golden lustre ; 
subject Diana at the Bath. 




No. 253. 

At the back of a bacile in the 
British Museum, painted in colour, and 
ascribed to this fabrique. 



No. 254. 

On a plate in the 
Baronne Salomon da 
Rothschild Collection ; 
Phoebus pursuing Daphne, 
lustred with golden 
colour. 



STATES OF THE CHURCH 



79 



DIRUTA. 



JNO. 255. 

On a fine plate formerly belonging to Mr. Barker, since to M. Dutuit of Rome ; 
subject, Alexandra and Roxana painted in blue with gold reflet. Delange 
Recueil, pi. 45. 




.^ftTTVlM C 





No. 256. 

On a plate, with subject from the Orlando Furioso, 
La morte di Zerbino, formerly in the possession of the 
late Mrs. Bury Palliser. 



No. 257. 

Also occur on pieces 
supposed of this fabrique. 





8o 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



DIRUTA. 



I54r- 



i 
[ 










No. 258. 

A plate in the Cam- 
pana Collection, No. 576, 
Louvre ; subject from 
Orlando Furioso. 

There is a similar 
signature of the Frate 
on another, No. 582, in 
the same Museum, and 
a ain on a plate in the 
Castellani Collection. 




G. V. 



No. 259. 

On a plateau in the Louvre, ascribed by M. Darcel 
to Diruta. 



No. 260. 

The initials, probably, of Giorgio Vasaio, whose 
name occurs on a piece of Count Baglioni of Perugia. 
(Chaffers, followed by Genolini.) 



STATES OF THE CHURCH 



8i 



DIRUTA. 



No. 261. 



On a plate in the Louvre, d reflet, a triumph. 
On an archway is inscribed the artist's name 
(after whose engraving it was painted) ; and on 
the reverse 



Antonio Lafreri 
In Deruta 1554. 



No. 262. 

On a plate with candelieri in relief and central 
medallion. Museum at Limoges. (De Mely.) 



1771 

FABRICA DI 
MAIOLICA FINA 

DI 
GREGORIO CAS 
ELLI IN DI 
RVTA. 



No. 263. 

On a piece ascribed to Diruta by De Mely. 



Head 



of a woman in profile, white border with yellow and 
blue arabesques. 




No. 264. 

On a plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 
2605. '56. On the raised medallion centre grounded 
in dark blue is a trophy of books ; the rest divided 
'a quartiere'; scale work, alternating with scroll 
foliage; border of leafage. Reverse, the letter B. 
Diruta. About 1525-30. Diam. 13^ in. 




No. 265. 

On a plate, lustred. ' Pensa el fine Bella.' Passalaqua 
Collection (290). Diruta. 



B 

and lustred scrolls. 



82 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



DIRUTA. 




No. 266. 

On a plateau in the South Kensington 
Museum, 1432. '56. On the raised centre a 
female portrait in profile, inscribed ' Lorenza 
Bella,' surrounded by a double border of 
foliated scroll work. Reverse, petals encircling 
the mark in blue. Diruta? About 1530. Diam. 

13I in- 



No. 267. 

On a small tazza in the South Kensington Museum, 
8943. '63. Embossed and lustred. In the centre an 
acanthus leaf and scroll foliage ; the border of raised 
ovals and pellets. Reverse, rude lustre scrolls and 
the initial D. Diruta. About 1530. Diam. 8 in. 
(Soulages Collection.) 

A tazza in the Castellani Collection, with figure of St, Sebastian in the 
centre in rilievo, was marked with a D and scrolls. 





No. 268. 

On a tazza in the South Kensington 
Museum, 4332. '57. A lover and his mistress 
seated under a tree ; Cupid hovering in the air 
above ; in the background the sea with ships. 
Reverse, ornamented with sprays of foliage, 
and the mark and date in blue colour. Diruta. 
Dated 1539. Diam. g\ in. 



STATES OF THE CHURCH 



83 



DIRUTA. 



No. 269. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 
4383. '57. In the centre an escutcheon of arms; 
border of coarsely painted trophies in grisaille, height- 
ened with yellow on blue ground. Reverse, the mark. 
Diruta ? About 1560. Diam. 9 in. 




No. 270. 

On a plate in the 
South Kensington Mu- 
seum, 4378. '57. Design 
a candeliere, the surface 
entirely covered with a 
composition of grotesque 
birds, foliage, mask, &c., 
outlined with blue on 
a varied ground oi 
blue, green, and yellow. 
Reverse, monogram and 
date, 1544. Diruta? 
Diam. \'2.\ in. 



/ 



A 



W 




No. 271. 

On a tazza in the South Kensington Museum, 
7155- '56- White ground with ornament in compart- 
ments, blue lined and touched with yellow ; in the 
centre a butterfly in the same colours. Reverse, blue 
lines and a mark. Diruta? About 1560. Diam. 8| in. 




G 2 



84 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



BAGNOREA 



•x<r^x 



No. 272. 

On a circular dish 
in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, 2432. '56. 
The Virgin, the Child, 
and S. Ann visited by 
S. Praxades? 



FABRIANO 




g)^'!!^^ & 



\ 





No. 273. 

On a plate, subject 
the ' Madonna della 
Scala' after Marc' An- 
tonio's engraving from 
RafFaelle. Spitzer to 
Castellani, and now 
Basilewski Collection. 




STATES OF THE CHURCH 



85 



FABRIANO. 

No. 274. 

On a plate in the Museum of Economic Geology, 
London. The Rape of Proserpine ; Cupid in the 
centre. 

The same mark occurs on a dish in the Kunstgewerbe 
Museum at Berlin, No. K. 1751. Cupid and a boy in 
the centre, border of grotesques. Reverse, scale pattern 
in yellow, blue, and brown. It has been ascribed to 
Siena, but we think it is probably of Fabriano. 




No. 275. 

On a plate in the South Kensington 
Museum, 7145. '60. A draped female 
on horseback in act of charging a man, 
&c., painted in brown grisaille. This 
monogram is repeated on her shield. 
It is a coppa amatoria, and the mono- 
gram may be that of the giver or fair 
receiver, the B standing for Bella. 




VITERBO 
No. 276. 

On a plate in the Barberini Palace 
at Rome. Subject, Hercules in repose. J p 
Border of arabesques. Probably of 
seventeenth century. (De Mely.) 



R . VITERBIEN 



86 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



VITERBO. 




No. 277. 

On a plateau in 
the South Kensington 
Museum, 2431. '56. 
The metamorphosis 
of Actaeon. Wide 
border, blue ground 
with trofei in white, 
blue and orange. 
Among them a youth 
holding the scroll. 



ROME 



a dt ^ Aprille 

1579 fato in 

botega da Antonio 

da Casteldurate in Roma' 



No. 278. 

On a plate formerly in Venice ; 
subject, the fable of Myrrha. Urbani. 



Nos. 279 and 280 

Occupy a conspicuous place on the front of a pair of vases with snake handles, 
painted with grotesques on a white ground ; in the Ashmolean Mus., Fortnum Coll. 



innn 



iTEGA PFM 

DXOWEDE 

PVRANir 
JN ROMJV 



innziL 



FATTO 

ROMA* DA' 



STATES OF THE CHURCH 



87 



ROME. 



No. 281 

Is on the margin of a plate, on the 
centre of which is the subject of 
the Expulsion from Eden; it is in the 
possession of Miss Lockwood, at 
Rome, 



No: 282. 

On a jug of Oenochoe form, covered with grotesques 
coarsely painted. Probably Roman of about 1620. 




No 283. 

On a group in white porcelain. 
The Deposition ably modelled, incised 
in the paste. 



No. 284. 

On figures in biscuit porcelain, and 
in fine white faience, stamped in the 
clay. 



ROMA 



G • VOLPATO • ROMA. 



88 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



THE MARCHES 

FAENZA 

No. 285. 

Signatures and date on tiles, the pavement of the S. Sebastiano chapel in San 
Petronio at Bologna (Molinier and M^ly). 



I 













No. 286. 

On a plate formerly 
in the Narford Collec- 
tion representing the 
Virgin and Child, on 
a dark blue ground. 
An early piece probably 
about 1490. Engraved 
in Marryat, p. 104. 
FaenzaorCaffaggiolo.(?) 



THE MARCHES 



89 



FAENZA. No. 287. 

On the pavement of tiles in the Lando chapel, church of S. Sebastian© at 
Venice, dated 1510. 




As given by Meurer. 



No. 288. 

On a plaque in the South 
Kensington Museum, No. 69. 
'65. The Resurrection, prob- 
ably after a design by Melozzo 
da Forli about 1515 to 1520. 



90 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 




No. 289. 

Said to be on a plate with subject after Albert Diirer, 
but is, perhaps, a reduction from that on the plaque in the 
South Kensington Museum, No. 69. 




i 



No. 290. 

On a plate in the British 
Museum, fine landscape centre, 
Apollo and Marsyas on the 
wide margin. A later work, 
probably of the same botega, at 
Faenza (?) or Castel Durante. 




No. 291. 

On a plate in the Salting Collection. 
Boldly painted grotesques in the manner 
of Castel Durante on dark blue ground. 
Reverse, this mark in the centre, and 
round the cavetto the crossed double 
circle as of Ca. Pirota and the crossed 
square like Mark No. 21 alternately. 



THE MARCHES 



91 



FAENZA 

No. 292. 

On a plate ; boys and animals, arabesque border in 
rich colours on blue ground. 




No. 293. 

On a piece probably of the same botega. 



No. 294. 

On an electuary 
pot : the letter B also 
occurs on the reverse 
of an early dish in 
the Louvre (G. 43). 

On a plate of the 
Delsette Collection 
No. 119, subject a 
Combat of Warriors, 
the same letter oc- 
curs crossed with a 
paraph. A similar 
mark was on a plate 
in the Farrer Collec- 
tion, with cupid centre 
and grotesques so/ra 
azzuro, after the man- 
ner of the Casa Pirota 
pieces ; it was dated 
1520. Also on one 
oftheCastellaniCoIl. 
(79) of polychrome 
colouring. 





r 



92 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 





No. 295. 

On a small drug pot in the British Museum, with 
male portrait on medallion, dark blue ground on which the 
mark is reserved ; on the other side is the letter P 
surmounted by a double cross between E. F. Probably of 
the same hotega. 

No. 296. 

This mark occurs on the face of a piece figured in 
Delange's folio work, pi. 54, from the D'Azeglio Collec- 
tion ; central subject a boy with a wolf or dog, and wide 
bianco sopra bianco border ; the mark is on a stone in the 
foreground, and may or may not be a variety of the 
mark of this botega. Faenza or Caffaggiolo. (?) 



Marks on productions of the Casa Pirota. 



No. 297. 

On a plaque in the South Kensington Museum, No. 521. '65. Circular. 
Divided by concentric raised mouldings into three parts ; dark blue ground ; in the 
central medallion $ • |^ • <S in white ; outer border wreath of orange and white 
flowers ; middle filled with zigzag rays, alternately orange and white ; the date 
1491 and a monogram. Faenza. Diam. lof in. (Soulages Collection.) 




-J-Q.V 




THE MARCHES 



93 



FAENZA. 

No. 298. 

On a scodella, subject 
Christ bound and led ; 
exquisitely painted, after 
the composition by Albert 
DOrer ; border of gro- 
tesques reserved on blue. 
In the British Museum. 
(Henderson Collection, 
from that of M. Fould.) 



NT^Af W^ 



No. 299. 

On a plate in the 
Museum of the University 
of Bologna, representing 
the coronation of Charles 
V. in that city in the 
year 1530, the probable 
date of the piece. 




mAM 



'ct 




mm 




No. 300. 

In the foreground of 
the subject of a tazza 
which belonged to Ma- 
dame D'Yvon, of Paris, 
representing a banquet 
(Dido and Aeneas), 
figured in Delange's Re- 
cueil, pi. 77, now in the 
Salting Coll. 



No. 301. 

On a plaque of upright oblong form in the South 
Kensington Museum, No. 4351. '57. Christ bearing His 
cross, after the painting by Raffaelle known as ' Lo 
Spasimo di Sicilia.' Faenza, signed F. R. About 1530. 
H. 19 in., W. 13 in. 




T^^ 



94 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 




No. 302. 

On a Plateau in the South Kensington 
Museum, No. 7158. '60. In the raised medal- 
lion centre is a shield of arms blazoned in 
colour, surmounted by a crested helmet ; the 
surface is grounded with dark blue ; leafage 
moulding, and a circle of cupids playing, 
occupy the hollow of the dish ; the wide 
rim with grotesques ; the whole in light 
blue heightened with white sopra azzuro. 
Reverse, concentric zones of dark blue 
diaper and scale pattern ; in the centre 
the mark grounded in yellow. Faenza. 
About 1525. Diam. 17I in. (Soulages 
Collection.) 




No. 303. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, No. 1732. 
'55. In centre a shield of arms surmounted by a cherub's 
head on pale blue ; wide border of grotesques in pale blue, 
touched with white on the dark blue ground. Faenza. 
About 1525. Diam. g\ in. (Bernal Collection.) 




No. 304. 

On a small shallow bowl or saucer; 
subject the Saviour, in a sarcophagus; 
border of cherubs' heads, grotesques, &c., 
reserved, in white, and shaded in yellow- 
brown on dark blue ground. In the 
British Museum. 

Prof Argnani gives a nearly similar 
mark, the crossbars being double, as on 
a piece in the Museum at Forli. 



THE MARCHES 



95 



FAENZA. 



No. 305. 

On the reverse of a large plaque in 
the Kunstgewerke Museum at Berlin, 
Adoration of the Magi. The date and 
Casa Pirota mark are also on the face. 




No. 306. 

On an example by the same hand as 
the following. 




96 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. No 307. 

On a large plateau formerly in the Napier Collection (No. 3005), now in Mr. 
Salting's ; subject the Judgment of Paris ; wide border of grotesques. 

The crossed circle with the dot and central crescent in blue and yellow also 
occurs on a choice plate with blue grotesques on orange border, and central 
shield of arms. In the collection of M. Kann of Paris. 




No. 308. 

On the reverse of a plate formerly in 
Mr. Fountaine's collection, surrounded 
by an imbricated pattern in blue and 
orange ; in the centre Cupid playing a 
flageolet ; border of grotesques, masks, 
&c., in orange, shaded with red, on dark 
blue ground, dated 1531. Faenza. Now 
in the Salting Collection. (?) 



THE MARCHES 



97 



FAENZA. 



No. 310. 

On a fragment, painted with allegorical or romance 
subject, by one of the artists who signs F. R. This 
mark is similar to the rebus adopted by Benvenuto 
Tisio, detto Garofalo, and the design may have been 
by that painter, Basilewski Collection. 




No. 3n. 

The hotega mark carelessly executed accom- 
panied by the letter S. 




No. 312. 

The usual mark with the addition of the letter B. 




No. 313. 

On a plate. Shield of arms with helm, lion crest, and inscription 
VA • INTEGRO ; border in style of Ca. Pirota. Castellani Coll. 



B. 



H 



98 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 




No. 314. 

Another variety of the mark. 




No. 315. 

On a tazza in the South Kensington 
Museum, 1776. '55. Mucins Scaevola ; 
painted in colours, outlined and shaded 
in blue on the white ground. Reverse, 
concentric rays and circles in blue, 
dashed with orange, and the mark. 
Faenza. About 1530. Diam. 10 in. 
(Bernal Collection.) 

This and No. 4317 in that Museum 
are seemingly painted by the same hand ; 
that, on a blue ground, having the inscrip- 
tion Fata in Forli ; this, on a white 
enamel, bears the mark of the Casa Pirota 
hotega at Faenza. 




No. 316. 

A nearly similar mark is on a piece of the 
service with arms of Guicciardini the historian. In 
the British Museum. 



THE MARCHES 



99 



FAENZA. 

No. 317. 

On a plate in the South Kensington Museum, 4624. 
'58. Central medallion of Cupid on yellow ground ; 
wide border of grotesques in pale blue, heightened with 
white, on dark blue ground. Reverse, the mark in 
orange. Dated 1524. Diam. 9^ in. 




No 318. 

On a plate in the South Kensington 
Museum, 8963. '63. The Adoration of 
the Shepherds, after Francia ; in dark 
blue and green relieved with yellow. 
Reverse, interlaced knot ornament or 
mark. Faenza. About 1520-25. Diam. 
10^ in. (Soulages Collection.) 




No. 319. 

On a fragment found at Faenza and in 
possession of Professor Argnani (Tav. 
XVII. No. I ; op. cit. a more simple form 
of the knot he gives at No. 10). 




lOO 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA 




No. 321. 

On a plateau in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, 2544. '56. Ara- 
besque and diaper ornaments in white 
and yellow enamel on the dark blue 
ground, in imitation of the Venetian 
enamels ; sopra smaliino. Reverse, 
scroll and zigzag ornaments, and 
a trident. Faenza or Caffaggiolo ? 
About 1530. Diam. 15^ in. 



No. 320. 

On a circular dish in the South 
Kensington Museum, 1723. '56. 
Bacile. Decoration in sopra az- 
zuro ; central shield of arms, Medici 
impaling Strozzi ; the surface 
covered with scroll ornament, plaits, 
and foliation, in colours on the pale 
blue ground, surrounded by a garland. 
Reverse, plaits, zigzags, and the mark 
in dark blue. Faenza or Caffaggiolo ? 
About 1530. Diam. 155 in. (Bernal 
Collection.) 

The mark on the back of this 
piece also occurs on one in the 
British Museum, the subject of which 
is Orpheus playing, nymphs, &c. 




THE MARCHES 



lOI 



FAENZA. 



No. 322. 



On a large plateau, formerly in the possession of Monsignore Cajani at Rome ; 
central shield of arms, surrounded by a wreath, leafage, arabesques, &c. on a grey 
blue ground ; of similar character to No. 1723 in the South Kensington Museum, 
which is marked with a trident. 



Faenza or Caffaggiolo ? 




No 323. 

On a plate in the South Kensington 
Museum, 1729. '55. Scroll ornaments 
and interlacings in dark blue, touched 
with white, and a green garland on 
pale blue ground, sopra azzuro ; 
central trophy of arms. Reverse, 
scrolls and mark. Faenza. About 
1530. Diam. 9f in. (Bemal Col- 
lection.) 

Professor Argnani, Tav. XVII. 
No. 7, records a nearly similar mark 
on a piece in his possession. 




I02 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 



No. 324. 



The letter F carelessly formed occurs on a plate in the British Museum 
attributed to the Casa Pirota ; central shield of arms. 




No. 325. 

On a small round plate, with coat of arms and 
inscribed Sor Diletadi Navare. M D XXXV ; dolphins, 
masks, &c. on border. Faenza. Castellani Collection. 



F 



No. 326. 

The same letter on a cartouche occurs on a plate of the 
Spitzer Collection (Molinier). A man and woman under a tree, 
grotesques round ; on a stone is inscribed ANEA AN. 




No. 327. 

On a tazza, spirally fluted, 
St. Jerome in the centre, leafage 
on alternately orange and dark 
blue ground. Faenza. Cas- 
tellani Collection. 



THE MARCHES 



103 



FAENZA. 



No. 328. 



—r 



On another shaped tazza, figured by Delange, 
pi. 89 ; St. Francis. This monogram was then supposed 
to be that of Orazio Fontana. 



Vl'Ji 



No. 329. 

On a large plate, No. K. 1841, 
in the Kunstgewerbe Museum, 
Berlin. Marcus Curtius. Reverse, 
blue and yellow, the mark, &c., in 
yellow is painted over the same 
in blue and within a label of 
antique form. 



HAKdOClOJio 



No. 330. 

On a tazza, No. K. 21 11, in the Kunstgewerbe 
Museum, Berlin. ' Scannalato and with rude grotesques. 
Faenza about 1550.* 



If 



No. 331. 

This mark occurs on a piece unknown to the writer 
but stated to be in a Museum at Berlin. 




E 



A.EN5/V 



I04 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 

No. 332. 

On a tazza in the South Kensington Museum, 436. '69. Moulded ; a central 
figure (Mercury ?), and bunches of flowers round the sides painted in blue and 
yellow on a white ground ; on reverse a mark. Faenza. Late sixteenth century. 
H. 3I in., diam. 12 in. 

The mark upon this piece is precisely similar to that on a moulded dish 

filled in with fruit, in the British Museum, 

^ ( ^ and which is given in facsimile at No. 333. 

In that we have one of the well known 

XT r*v ^^^^ »*— scannalato pieces covered with grotesques, 

■•-^ f^Vl •• I / ^" compartments grounded alternately in 

^^ ^ *• Jf , blue and orange, around a central yellow 

medallion, on which is a figure, and which 
have almost universally been ascribed to Faenza. The present example differs 
in decoration, and is probably of later date, but may with probability be referred 
to the same origin. Sig. Urbani de Gheltof ascribed this mark, on white pieces, to 
Venice. 




No 333. 

On the reverse of a moulded {scannalato) fruttiera 
in the British Museum, which, after painting, had failed 
in the firing, and was then filled in with fruit modelled 
in the round. Faenza (Vergilio ?). 




No. 334. 

On a tazza in the South Kensington Museum, 
161 1. '55. Embossed ' Smartellato.' On central 
medallion, Cupid with a vase; foliated scrolls in 
pale blue on compartments of orange and blue 
ground. Reverse, blue and orange, and mark 
or ornament? Faenza ? About 1525. Diam. 8 in. 

Argnani's Tav. XVII. No. 7 is nearly similar. 



THE MARCHES 105 



FAENZA 

No. 335 



On a tazza recorded by Delange, moulded in "^ j U*pP /^ i/7 



3tf 

rilievo ; grotesques on varied ground. ' 



By Baldasara Manani. 



No. 336. 



\iojlS<A^fio'srfy 






On a tazza carefully painted with the subject of 
the Triumph of Time. On the reverse the sig- 
nature, and orange imbrication on yellow ground. 
Ashmolean Museum, Fortnum Collection, No. 

482 (see PI. XIX). Formerly in that of Dr. xyW^^^/yl^l/' yC 

Marchini, of Parma. Also on No. 482 Fortnum 
Collection, Caesar receiving Pompey's head ; 
and on a plate in South Kensington Museum. 
Christ rising from the tomb figured in Delange, 
No. 58, dated 1535. 




No. 337. 

On the reverse of a plaque in the British Museum, representing a warrior on 
horseback, inscribed beneath, BATISTON ' CASTELLIN ' FAVENTIN' lA- 
STRENVVS • MILES • DVCISQ • FERRARIEN ' ANTESIGNAN. 









I 



io6 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 



XIJXX 



No. 338. 

On the reverse of a plate in the 
Museum of Economic Geology, London; 
allegorical subject, and three shields of 
arms. 




No. 339. 

Dn the centre of 
a plate in the South 
Kensington Museum, 
1612. '55. St. George 
and the Dragon 
painted in dark blue, 
green, and orange 
on the white ground. 
Reverse, petals and 
scrolls, with the 
monogram in dark 
blue. Faenza? About 
1500. Diam. 8 in. 



THE MARCHES 



107 



FAENZA. 

No. 340. 

On an early plate with raised centre 
and female portrait, ' Lucia Bella,' 
collection of M. Joseph Fau, figured 
in Delange, pi. 15. Faenza ? or 
Diruta. The same mark, slightly 
varied, occurs on examples in the 
British and South Kensington Mu- 
seums, &c. 




No. 341 

A nearly similar monogram on a plate in the 
Kunstgewerbe Museum at Berlin. Grotesques, 
'perhaps Faenza.' 




M 



Hfi) 



No. 342. 

Another variety of the same mark, on a plate 
with Moor's head in the centre, and yellow orna- 
mentation. 




io8 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 




No. 343. 

On a plate ; female bust portrait with turban on 
head ; blue ground. 




No. 344. 

On a plate, Barker Collection from Delsette (120' ; 
a troop of soldiers. 





Nos. 345, 346. 

Varieties of the mark 
on pieces supposed of 
Faenza. 



FAENZA. 



THE MARCHES 



109 



No. 347. 

This mark was on 
the reverse of a plate 
representing Samson 
pulling down the pillars 
of the temple. It was in 
the Marryat Collection, 
and ornamented at the 
back. 




No. 348. 

On a plate. Subject the Lion of St. Mark, in the 
collection of the late Mr. A. Nesbitt, probably Faenza, 
and of early character, the mark nearly approaches 
some figured by Argnani, Tav. XVII, but with the 
additional A. 



^^ 



On other pieces aftribitted to Faenza. 



No. 349. 

On a plate. Basilewski Col- 
lection from Barker. Subject, 
Actaeon ; strap-work border ; 
figured in Delange, Recueil, pi. 
47, and described in Loans Cata- 
logue of 1862, No. 5150. 



» 



no 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 





No. 350. 

On a very choice plate formerly in 
Mr. Fountaine's Collection. Satyrs, 
satyress with baby, grotesques, &c., 
figured by Delange, pi. 23 ; the labels 
occur among the ornaments. Another 
fine piece, probably of Faenza, is in 
the Baron Gustave Rothschild Col- 
lection at Paris, and is dated 1507. 



No. 351. 



On a very fine plate in the Museum at 
Modena ; dark blue ground, cupids and 
grotesques, central and other masks, probably 
Faenza. 



tgj 



tjIERJI 



1508 




F. R. 



No. 352. 

On a beautiful plate in Sir Fras. Cook's Collection from 
Barker, a centaur tied to a column, cupids, &c. ; admirably 
painted. Faenza ? or Caffaggiolo. 

No. 353. 

On a large tazza in the South Kensington Museum, 7680. 
'61. The Gathering of the Manna, copied from an engraving 
by Agostino Veneziano, after Raffaelle. On a stone the 
blurred letters F. R. Reverse, plain. Faenza or Castel 
Durante ? About 1520-30. Diam. 16 in. Soulages Col- 
lection. 



T>li 



No. 354 

On a plate formerly in the Narford Collection, repre- 
senting St. Jerome, after Albert Diirer, finely painted. By 
the same hand as the Gathering of the Manna, in the South 
Kensington Museum (No. 7680), Mr. Addington's Death of 
Lucrezia, now Mr. Salting's ; that of Dido in Sir F. Cook's 
Collection, and a plate in the British Museum similarly 
signed. These must not be confounded with the works 
of the artist who signed with the same initials on pieces of 
the Casa Pirota, painted in a greenish yellow tone on the 
bereitino (South Kensington Museum, No. 4351. Mark 301). 



THE MARCHES 



III 



FAENZA. 



No. 355 

Is on a plate formerly in the 
Narford Collection ; subject Diana 
and Actaeon, coarsely executed, with 
border of grotesques and medallions 
bearing portraits, 8zc. 



No. 356. 

On a scodella, central 
subject St. Jerome in the 
Desert, border of trofei, 
reverse a quartiere ; fine 
work, about 1520-30. In 
the British Museum, Hen- 
derson Collection. 

These letters with DI. 
occur on pieces made 
for the Duke of Bavaria, 
1590* with his arms in 
colour and subjects from 
Roman History (Campori) 
Argnani, DO. . PI. (Nos. 
70-71). 



t I 



1^*^ f" 

^ ^ 



(Tn 




Othe)' Marks. 






^> 


No. 357. 

On a coupe the A P scratched in the i 1 
paste, the foliated mask painted over. ^f 
Museum at Pesaro. (De Mdy.) / 1 





® 



r 



A© 







112 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 




No. 358. 

On a bust in glazed terra cotta. MAXI- 
MILIA. Height 7 inches. Faenza? Cas- 
tellani Collection. 




No. 359. 

On a fragment, bleu sopra bleu, family 
stemma supported by amorini. Argnani, No. 
3. Tav. XVII. 



No. 360. 

On a coupe. A shepherd playing the flute of 
Pan. Musee de Limoges. Attributed to Faenza 
by De Mely. 




No. 361. 

On the handle of a vase, in possession of M. Tellot 
de Dreux. Attributed to Faenza by De Mely. 



THE MARCHES 



113 



FAENZA. 



No. 362. 

On a drug pot in Sir A. W. 
Franks' Collection, since given to 
the British Museum. Head of 
Camilla on coloured medallion ; 
trophies in greys and greens. 




No. 363. 

On a large plate ; K. 2019 in the Kunst- 
gewerbe Museum, Berlin. The head of 
Hastrubal brought to the Roman Consul. 
Reverse, scale pattern. 




H(fL 



"Rtr/cA 




No. 364. 

This and the succeeding mark occur on pieces in the Louvre, Campana Col- 
lection, G. 641, 3. The first has for subject the Baptism of Christ, with shields of 
arms and the initials I. B. R. On the border of the reverse the larger inscription 
is written in blue, the smaller, with date, in black. The letters F. F. we read as 
Faentino Faciebat. 

Pnni\A.^ Y(uin<i-nu^ T'T'5'J'^ 



r«yn 



. ^io: -BApfj^j^^^ 



C 



114 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FAENZA. 










No. 365. 

Is on the reverse of a com- 
panion piece, painted with the 
bust portrait of a bearded 
man, round which is inscribed 
lOANNES • BAP • RUB- 
BEVS • for whom, doubtless, 
the service was painted by 
E. Raynerius, of Faenza, and 
whose initials (not intended 
as those of the painter, 
though similar) occur with the 
arms on the other plate. A 
third piece of the service is 
in the Louvre, Jesus and the 
Woman of Samaria, on which 
only part of the inscription 
remains — ius — F. — 57 — . 
The style is loose and in- 
ferior, and the colouring cold. 




cnutcir. 




No. 366. 

On a plate with 
female bust por- 
trait and border 
of fruit, flowers, 
foliage, &c., in 
yellow and blue. 
Franks Collec- 
tion; now in the 
British Museum. 



THE MARCHES 115 



FAENZA. 

No. 367. 

In the Brunswick Collection is a plate representing the Rape of Helen, and 
inscribed /a^wca ob opus fecit a di 12 di Abrile 1543 sioria delena. 



No. 368. 

In the Museum at Sigmaringen is a fine plate 
having for subject the Descent from the Cross, which 
also is inscribed Giovano Brama dj Parlerma 1546 in 
faenza, accompanied by a monogram consisting of the 
letters MLJ. 



^ 



No. 369. 

The letters OR'^o are mentioned by Delange as on a plate : subject a cavalier 
without his head, preceded by Death on horseback ; which he assumes may be of 
Faenza; and on one with blue ground, the reverse ornamented with a wreath 
of leaves and fruit. 

No. 370. 

Sir J. C. Robinson, in the catalogue of Mr. Napier's Collection, under No. 2994, 
described a small salver with central coat-of-arms, and border of grotesques, 
marked A. P, which he assigns to this fabrique or to Diruta. 

No. 371. 

On some large pharmacy vases in the National Museum at Florence ; one 
is inscribed 1^^6/ato infaienza in Botega di M^.fran. 

No. 372. 

On another, 1556 lo Aut Rcmanino Ciniadi {o Ciniani?) pinsitti de Fauex. 

No. 373. 

An interesting early dish, now in the South Kensington Museum, from the 
Castellani Collection, and which may be Faentine, represents a potter at work with 
his tools about him, and on a banderole ' Qui se lavora de pignati.' 

No. 374. 

On pharmacy vases, Parpart Collection, papal arms and r^ -Kjt \ 

monogram of 

I 2 



ii6 MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 

FAENZA. 

No. 375. 

r^ T On a plate, with orange border, in the Basilewski Collection. 

Warriors seated at the feet of a woman. 

No. 376. 

An ugly white inkstand in 

the South Kensington Museum, Zachavia J^alavesst i6^i ill Faeuza 

549. '83, is signed— 

No. 377. 
F. B. K. On some wares of the eighteenth century by Francesco Ballanti. 

Fabbrica 

di R. B. No. 378. 

R. B. ^"d F. On pieces of the Benini Fabrique 1777-8 

F. 1778. ^^^^^"^^• 

1777 

AT No. 378*. 

w^ \l On a plate filled in with walnuts modelled in the round. 

^^ C/ ^ • (Fortnum Collection) Faenza or Imola(?) early eighteenth 
century. 



FORLI 




No. 379. 

This mark is on a small plate of the same style of de- 
coration as No. 2592 in the South Kensington Museum 
which we ascribe, but not with certainty, to Forli. 



THE MARCHES 



IT7 



FORLi. 

No. 380. 

On a scodella, admirably 
painted in a yellow grisaille giallo 
sopra giallo, with an allegorical or 
romance subject of many figures, 
by the painter of a pavement of 
tiles in the South Kensington 
Museum, 30. '66, of Forli. See 
page 275 and No. 381, the signed 
Tile. The smaller mark is on the 
face of the piece, the larger on 
the reverse. This rare example 
passed from the Castellani Col- 
lection to that of M. Basilewski. 





/^^^.^ ■^_ 



No. 381. 



^ 






\ 



J 



1 1 



o^Y 



'jL 



V)jEGOHGITvP£TBOrs-l (J^^^ 

AGINE- CSCELERIS-SYE 
DIOHISIvBEILTllIO 

K,^\ RIO -x-J^I ^ ' 



.S'i 



'% 



%\ 



y 



ii8 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FORLi. 




No. 382. 

On a fine vase in Mr. Salting's 
Collection, perhaps one of a set of 
three ; one is at Brunswick and one in 
the South Kensington Museum. Forli, 
about 1485-90. 



No. 383- 

On a plaque formerly in 
the Napier Collection, No. 
3008, and described under 
that number in the cata- 
logue by Sir J. C. Robinson, 
who suggests that it may be 
by the master of Forh. It 
is dated 1523. The subject 
is the Temptation of Adam, 
from Marc Antonio's print 
after Raffaelle (Bartsch, 
No. i). From the Napier it 
passed into Mr. Locker's 
Collection. 



THE MARCHES 



119 



FORLI. 

No. 384. 

On a large plate in the South Kensington Museum, 
4727 ; Christ disputing with the Doctors. By M". iero 
da Forli. 



No. 385- 

On a plateau in the 
South Kensington Mu- 
seum, 6666. '60. On the 
raised centre a shield ot" 
arms and the initials P. P., 
surrounded by four me- 
dallions containing profile 
portraits of two ladies and 
two knights in armour ; 
in the spaces between 
foliation &c., on orange. 
Reverse, concentric lines 
orange and blue, and 
monogram. 

Diam. 14^ in. circa 1510. 
Forli or Faenza ? 




^^^ 



v^_t 



No. 386. 
On a Tazza in the 
South Kensington Mu- 
seum, 4317. '57. Battle 
subject, blue ground, in- 
scription on the reverse. 
Circa 1540. Forli. 




T20 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



FORLi. 




FV • KT' 

IN 

FORL 



No. 387. 

On a plate in the 
Louvre, G. 93, subject, 
the Punishment of 
Croesus by the Parthians, 
with the legend — 
* Aurum sitis 
Aurum Bibe.' 



No. 388. 

This signature and date are on the 
reverse of a basin in the University 
Museum at Bologna, the subject on 
which is the supper at which Mary 
Magdalene washes Jesus' feet. 



No. 389. 

On a large dish in the library at Ravenna ; 
a battle scene with border of grotesques 
on dark blue ground. 



AF • l{n)¥OR{l)l 



On another dish in the Biblioteca at 
Forli. 



THE MARCHES— NORTHERN DUCHIES 



121 



RAVENNA. 

No. 390. 

On a plate bequeathed to the Louvre by Baron Ch. Davilier. Subject Amphion 
carried by Dolphins. Figured in Delange's ' Recueil,' pi. 46. 



K 




^z- 



FERRARA. 
No. 391. 

This inscription is on a dish in the South Kensington Museum, 6663. *6o. 
A bacchanalian procession. Although classed under Ferrara and painted by 
a native thereof, it is not certain that the piece was made in that city. 




UicJSilli ^rran^rhj^^ 



?■ 



122 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



RIMINI. 

Adam ed Eva No. 392 

inRimino 1535 



On a plate in the Hotel Cluny, No. 
2098. 



No. 393. 

In the Basilewski Collection was a plate 
figured in Delange's ' Recueil * : The Trojan 
horse, marked 



jn arimtn 
1535 



in Rimino 



No. 394. 

One in the Barker Collection. 



No. 395. 
}f% ATilfy?fA -• On a plate in the British Museum. The Fall of Phaeton. 






No. 396, 

In the Louvre, No. 96, ascribed by M. Darcel to the 
same artist. 



No. 397. 

On a jug in the Museum at Bologna ; subject from Ovid : of later period. 














VENETIAN STATES 



123 



1540 



VENETIAN STATES. 

VENICE. 
No. 398. 

On a circular dish. 
In centre a mermaid, 
border of arabesque 
sprays, fruits, and 

flowers in dark blue ^DI ' 16 ' DEL ' MEXE ' DEOTVBRE 

on grey ground. 
Fortnum Collection, 
Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford. 

No. 399. 

On a Plateau : interlaced oak branches, trophy of arms in centre, in pale blue on 
grey ground. In the South Kensington Museum, 4438. '58. 



. afe? 



rf ? 1 




No. 400. 

On a piece unknown 
to the writer. 



lo o)efano Bcwcelfcx VeTie:^Tano 



xn?] 



X 



124 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



VENICE. 




Nos. 401, 402. 

These crosses, on pieces un- 
known to us, may mark them as 
of the fabrique of M". Lodovico 
of Venice, or that of Padua. 



No. 403. 

IN BOTEGA DE MAISTRO CIACO we give this in- 

DA PESARO A SANTO BERNABA scHption on the au- 

IN VENECIA 

1542 . DI . 23 . MARZO 



thority of GenoHni, 
as being on a plate 
in the Museum at 
Sigmaringen. 
No. 404. 

On a circular dish, 20 in. diam. : pale grey ground, lace work ornamentation 
in white, scrolls and medallions on the rim. Was in possession of Mr. Durlacher, 
1872. 



%^ 



^^. o- 8****^ 



u^f^^-^-^^. 



'Jk 



5>'^%fc, 



^ 



T + 



VENETIAN STATES 



125 



VENICE. 

No. 405. 

On a plate, painted 
with signs of the 
Zodiac. (Marryat.) 
For other pieces by 
this Guido, see Urbino. 



Pate in botega de Guido 
Merlingo Vasaro da Urbino 
in San Polo a di jo di 
Marzio 1342. 



No. 406. 

Plateau. Medallions bearing portrait-heads, arabesques between border a can- 
deliire. In the South Kensington Museum, 8512. '63. 

A Q^/trf }^jrt/^^ i^^Ji 



/Sl^3 



No. 407. 

On a tazza with open-work border, 
white ; in a central medallion two heads of 
old men. Castellani Collection. 



<; 






No. 408. 

On a plate in the Col- 
lection of Baron A. de 
Rothschild, of Paris. 
Painted in manner of 
Castel Durante. (De 
Mdy.) A Repast in 
Olympus. 



In Venetia a Sa Thoma in bottega 
dj M° Francesco da Castel-Durante. 



t'^^^ 



126 MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 

VENICE. No. 4og. 

On a circular dish, 21 in. diameter : Fountaine Collection. The subject, the 
Destruction of Troy, covers the whole surface. It is figured in Delange's ' Recueil/ 
plate 80. 



jA oi'^^^v. di^Yoi^ 



ifi-cr 



No. 410. 

On a large plate ; foliation on pale blue ground. In the Louvre (De M6ly). 



^iffx w'\-m\0 {p\^()0m^ I S f— ^ 





No. 411. 

On a plateau in the South Kensington Museum, 4605. '58 : a landscape and 
outer border of foliage on the herettino. 



■ri.(Z 





4Cy — "— ^ — 



VENETIAN STATES 



127 



VENICE. 

No 412. 

On a large fountain in the Cluny Museum, No. 3083. A cupid with 
wreaths of flowers and bouquets in relief, and basket of flowers on cover. 

The same mark occurs with the date 1571 (?) (Genolini), and again 
with the date 1622 in Berlin Museum. 

Also on a plate, horses, &c., which was in the Collection of M. Roger 
de Bouvoir. It is signed Dianigi Marini 1636. 



Q 



No. 413. 

On a dish No. K. 1886 in the Kunstge- 
werbe Museum, Berlin : subject a battle 
between Venice and Genoa on a bridge. 
Reverse, flowers and leafage in blue green 
yellow, and brown. 

No. 414. 
On a dish in the Meermann Westree* 
men Collection, at the Hague. (Demmin.) 
Painted in polychrome. 



No. 415. 
On a large dish in the Brunswick Mu- 
seum. Moses and Aaron with Pharaoh. 
Rich border. 

No. 416. 
The companion dish is signed — 



domenego da uenecia 
feci 



I fortisshni Roma 
contra ire Pierre 
Baldantonio a di ij Octo : 
i§^i in Venicio. 

1^68 Zener Domenigo 
da Venecia Feci in la 
botega al pimte sito del 
Andar a San Paolo. 

Domengo Becerfeci 1^68. 



No. 417. 

On a large jug In 
the Passalaqua Col' 
lection with central 
medallion on which is 
a Ducal figure, H. 27 
in., D. 18 in. 

On the handle below 



10 . FACCIO . FAR . PER. 
AMORE . DI . GIOVAN. 

1587. 

SIO . COTiNO . BARISELIO . 
D . SATO . LOREZO . FACCIO 
FARE . QVESTO. 



128 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



VENICE. 







No. 418. 

On a drug pot in the South 
Kensington Museum : leafage 
on pale blue ground. On a 
ribbon Ilia jicna nicol. Shield 
of arms and the label behind. 



R da Madre 
Suor Zuana 
1596/ 



D A M A SEIMO 



No. 419. 

On a plate, dark blue ground 
{lait'ctm'o?) similar to the 
Farnese service at Naples. 
(Molinier.) 

No. 420. 

On a fragment of plate : Lion of St. 
Mark in relief, blue and yellow on pale 
blue : signed on reverse. 

Passalaqua Collection (305). Venice ? 




No. 421. 

On a plate: buildings, figures, and land- 
scape. In the South Kensington Museum, 

1 79- '53- 
Diam. 9^ in. Eighteenth century. 



No. 422. 

On a plate in British Museum : landscape centre, fruit 
border in relief Same fabrique as Mark No. 421. 



VENETIAN STATES 



T29 



VENICE. 

No. 423. 

On a plate : female figures and cupids in 
landscape with architecture, border of raised 
work. (Bertolini fabrique ?) Now in the 
Ashmolean Museum (Fortnum Collection, 
from that of the late R. Holland, Esq.). 

This mark also occurs on a plate in the 
British Museum. From the Franks Collec- 
tion: bacchic cupids, &c. in blue and brown. 




No. 424. 

Sig. Genolini gives this signature with- 
out stating on what piece. 



Jo Stefano Barcella 
Veneziano Rox (or Pnx) 



S. G. I. B. 



No 425. 

On a piece of enamelled ware, believed Venetian, 
of about 1750, 

No. 426. 
We reproduce these marks, on the authority of Sig. Genolini, as being on 
Venetian wares of the eighteenth century, which however he does not specify, nor 
are they known to us. 

No. 427. 

On a plate, seemingly Venetian : eighteenth century. 

No. 428. 

On a statuette : a corn merchant, seemingly Venetian : 
eighteenth century. 



No. 429. 

On a salt-cellar. A child on a rock holding a shell. Limoges 
Museum (De Mdy): eighteenth century. (? porcelain.) 




130 - MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



T R E V I S O. 



No. 430. 



D.O.N. P.A.R.I. S.T. O.E.D. °" ^ "^r" ah^^ I""" 

merly in the Addington 
A. T.R. A. V.I. S. I. O. Coll. Subject, the sermon 



on the Mount : border 



^ M D X X X R ^ ^^ grotesques on blue 

^ ^ ground. Reverse, a male 



portrait and inscription 
on a circular band. 



BASSANO. 



S. M. . ^°- 431 

On a plate ascribed to Bassano by Basseggio: 
1505 probably the mark of Simone Marioni. 

)\\ I J. ^ I On a foot-shaped inkstand de- 

corated in green and yellow. 
Castellani Collection. 






i 



No. 433. 

^ ^ On a plate in the Louvre No. G. 599, 

esv^A^L^ Subject, Lot and daughters leaving Sodom. 



B** TercSi No. 434- 



On the back of a piece virhich belonged to M. Le Blanc, at 

No. 435- 

This mark was used by the Terchi, and probably at Bassano. 



VENETIAN STATES 



131 



BASSANO. 

No. 436. 

On a pair of Vases, subjects from 
Raffaelle: perhaps painted at Bassano by 
Terchi. 



Bar: Terchi Ro7nano 
1726 



No. 437. 

On a plate in the Correr Museum, Venice. Ruin