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Full text of "The Turkish bath : its design and construction; with chapters on the adaptation of the bath to the private house, the institution, and the training stable"

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From Scale Drawings by the A uthor. 

E. & F. N. SPON, 125, STRAND, LONDON. 



THE present work originally appeared in the form of 
a series of illustrated articles in the columns of the 
Building News. It has been carefully revised and en- 
larged with the addition of much new matter. The 
object of the author in publishing the work in its 
present form is to provide, in addition to a text -book 
for the architect, a treatise which shall enable the 
public to form their own judgment as to the relative 
merits of the baths that compete for their patronage. 
The principles, herein enunciated, upon which good baths 
should be built, will be easily grasped by the ordinary 
reader ; and the detailed plans and instructions will, it 
is hoped, supply such information as will enable the 
designer of baths to cope with the exigencies of any 
and every case with which he may be confronted. 


March 1890. 







BATH 32 












1. Turkish Baths, Savoy Hill, London .. .. .. ,, 21 

2. Turkish Baths, Charing Cross, London .. .. .. .. 24 

3. Turkish Baths, Euston Road, London 28 

4. A Plunge Bath .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 50, 51 

5. Methods of arranging Couches in Cooling Room . . . . 56 

6. View of a small Furnace Chamber, with portion of wall broken 

away to show the " Convoluted " Stove 65 

7. An Air Filter 67 

8. Plans and Section of a Furnace Chamber, &c., for a Bath on the 

ordinary Hot-air Principle . . . . . . . . . . 68 

9. Section of Hot Room, showing Foul-air Conduit . . . . 72 

10. A Fireclay Heating Apparatus .. .. .. .. .. 74 

11. Longitudinal Section of Sudatory Chambers 84 

12. A Shampooing Basin .. .. .. .. .. .. 90 

13. Valve for Regulating Temperature of Water 91 

14. A Needle Bath 94 

15. Spray, Wave, and Douche Baths 95 

16. Regulating Valves for Needle, Douche, &c. .. .. .. 96 

17. Bather's Shower Bath 99 

18. Section and Plan of an Enamelled Iron Ceiling .. .. .. 107 

19. Plans of Plunge Baths 112 

20. Section of Benches in Hot Rooms, and in Cooling Room Divans 115 

21. Furniture of a Turkish Bath .. .. .. .. .. 117 

22. Plan of Mr. Urquhart's Small Private Bath and of the Hot 

Room at Sir Erasmus Wilson's Bath at Richmond Hill .. 119 

23. Methods of constructing Turkish Baths in existing Houses .. 124 

24. A complete Private Turkish Bath 126 

25. Design for a Private Turkish Bath .. .. .. 130, 131 

26. Plan of the Baths at the Hotel Mont Dore, Bournemouth .. 135 

27. Plan of the Great Northern Railway Company's Turkish Bath 

for Horses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 





SINCE the revival of the bath of antiquity, and its 
introduction into this country under the name of the 
Turkish bath, this method of bathing has become very 
generally adopted ; and although onward progress is 
rendered less rapid than it might be, by the wide-spread 
popular ignorance that ascribes an element of danger to 
the bath, erroneous impressions are being gradually 
removed, and the continual building of new baths testi- 
fies to the manner in which the institution flourishes 
on British soil. 

To what extent the delusion concerning the supposed 
danger connected with this form of bathing is to be 
ascribed to popular ignorance and prejudice, or to the 
fact that baths of unsuitable design and construction, 
and of faulty heating and ventilation, are put before 
the public, it would be hard to say. Certain it is that 
the latter cause has done much very much injury. 

I cannot but think that one of the chief obstacles to 
the progress of the bath in this country, is that little 



or nothing has been written or said about its proper 
design, construction, and working, and that no full 
inquiry has been made into the best possible method of 
supplying heat to the bathers. As a consequence, we 
have had, and still have, placed before the public, and 
meeting with undeserved success, "Turkish baths" 
which are such only in name unhealthy, ill-ventilated 
cellars, where the air, deteriorated at the outset by the 
heating apparatus, stagnates in the sudatory chambers, 
and becomes loaded with the exhalations and emana- 
tions of the bathers, and not unfrequently charged with 
a nauseating and disgusting odour. What wonder that 
we so often hear persons remark that they have tried 
the bath, but neither enjoyed it nor did it agree with 
them ! The damaging effect of "baths " of this type on 
the prospects of the true bath is incalculable. 

In the absence of enlightenment, however, thousands, 
convinced of the value and benefit of the bathing, 
periodically attend these miserable substitutes for 
properly-planned, hygienically-heated, and effectively- 
ventilated Turkish baths. Viewing any self-evident 
shortcomings as irremediable evils, ignorant of the 
true principles of bath construction, and knowing little 
or nothing of the physiological action of the bath, they 
have neither the means of ascertaining, nor the power 
to detect, the genuine article from the harmful substitute. 
With the public the best bath will be the most elaborate 
and most flashily decorated, and the moth-and-candle 
principle comes into play with striking semblance to the 
original type. 

So much has been written and said about the arrange- 


ment, design, and working of the baths of the ancient 
Romans, and of the Oriental nations of to-day, that it 
will be superfluous and unnecessary here to enter upon 
the subject, fascinating though it be to any one interested 
in the building of modern baths. An intelligent study 
of old plans, and of the writings of those who have 
given their attention to the elucidation of the special 
purposes to which the various apartments of the 
Roman Thermce were devoted, serves in no small 
degree to a complete understanding of the problems 
involved in the perfecting of the bath in modern times. 
So also with regard to the Hammam of the East, an 
acquaintance with its plan and working is equally in- 
structive. But to fully elucidate the history of thermo- 
therapeutic architecture would require a volume of itself, 
since the many questions that present themselves to the 
student of ancient baths cannot be properly understood 
without considerable and lengthy description. Those 
desirous of studying the subject of the design of ancient 
and Oriental baths will find many works within easy 
reach. In his ' Manual of the Turkish Bath,' the late 
David Urquhart has given a most complete account of 
Eastern baths ; and in Sir Erasmus Wilson's ' Eastern 
or Turkish Bath,' will be found a popular account of 
the sumptuous baths of antiquity, which will serve as an 
introduction to further researches with the aid of more 
abstruse works, such as Wollaston's * Thermae Romano- 
Britannicae,' Cameron's ' Baths of the Romans,' and par- 
ticularly the careful description of the Pompeian Balnea 
in Sir William Cell's ' Pompeiana.' In the admirable works 
of Samuel Lysons, the Gloucestershire antiquary, will be 

B 2 


found interesting accounts of the remains of old Roman 
baths in this country ; and in Daremberg and Saglio's 
1 Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines,' is 
a most capable essay on ancient Balnea. In Eastern 
travellers' books, desultory descriptions of the Oriental 
bath will be found ; and in Owen Jones's work on the 
Palace of the Alhambra, at Granada, plans and sections 
are given of the elegant little bath that the Moorish 
builders erected therein. 

For the purposes of this work, and for the sake of 
brevity and convenience, I have thought fit to adopt 
the following terms from the old Roman vocabulary, 
to designate the apartments of the modern bath. I 
respectively term the first, second, and third hot rooms, 
the Tepidarium, Calidarium, and Laconicum. Although 
the exact nature of the ancient Roman laconicum is 
still a question in debate, I have chosen to employ the 
term to designate herein the hottest of the hot. The 
washing room I call the Lavatorium ; the cooling room, 
the Frigidarium ; and the separate dressing room, the 

The modern " Turkish bath " is rather a revival of the 
Roman bath, than that of the East. Among the Orientals, 
the air of the sudorific chambers is charged more or 
less heavily with vapour. In the ancient Roman bath, 
the atmosphere must have been more or less dry. And 
it has been decided by physiologists and physicians 
of the hydropathic school, that the air of the bath can- 
not be too free of all moisture. With a perfectly dry 
atmosphere a high degree of heat can be borne, and the 
dryness moreover is conducive to perspiration. This 


absolute need for a dry atmosphere in the bath will be 
found fully explained in an admirable work by Dr. W. B. 
Hunter, M.D., entitled ' The Turkish Bath : its Uses and 
Abuses.' But notwithstanding the fact that the type of 
bath employed at the present day resembles, in point of 
dryness of atmosphere, that of ancient Rome, the name 
of Turkish bath, originally given to it by Mr. Urquhart, 
has held good, and must now be accepted as the correct 
modern designation. 

Neither the term " Turkish," however, nor the desig- 
nation " hot-air " bath, convey to the uninitiated any 
idea of the true principle of " the bath," as I shall herein- 
after call it for brevity's sake. More properly it is a 
"heat bath" a thermal cure. In the ordinary hot-air 
bath, the heated air is simply a medium ; and, as I 
have endeavoured to explain in the body of this little 
work, the heat is best supplied to the body of the bather 
by direct radiation. By the " Turkish bath," therefore, 
I would be understood to mean a method of supply- 
ing pure heat not necessarily hot air to the surface 
of the human body for hygienic, remedial, and curative 

In the following pages, however, I have, in this respect, 
treated of the subject from the broadest point of view, 
and have explained the method of designing the hot-air 
bath pure and simple, looking upon the convected and 

* The Germans, with more perception and accuracy than ourselves, term 
the therapeutic agent that we called the Turkish bath, the "Roman- 
Irish bath " the Rdmisch-irische Bdder. Both the ancient Roman bath 
and the old Irish " sweating-house," gave out radiant heat from the walls 
to the bather, and did not depend on the supplying of hot air. 


radiating heat principles as both good of their kind, 
and perfectly admissible modes of applying heat to the 
human frame. I have adhered to this plan throughout, 
because, even supposing that it were shown conclusively 
to-morrow, that the principle of heating by convection 
is absolutely wrong, baths of this type would, owing to 
the slow march of improvement in this country, still 
be built and require to be planned. Moreover, it has 
been in the past, and still is, the generally accepted 
idea that the Turkish bath is a hot-air bath pure and 

Medical men of eminence who have studied the 
question have thought fit to retain the term " hot air " 
in descriptions of the Turkish bath. In deference to 
their opinion I may hereinafter, in places, speak of the 
hot-air bath. The arguments put forward in favour of 
radiant heat, with a comparatively cool atmosphere, in 
the sudorific chambers, are, for the most part, the result 
of my own experience and study. 

I treat of my subject in two sections, dealing with 
public and private baths respectively. Chapters II. to 
VII. are devoted to the elucidation of the principles 
to be observed in the building of public baths, either 
for true public purposes or as commercial speculations. 
It is unnecessary to speak of these two classes of 
baths under separate heads : what is required of the 
one is required of the other. The only difference is 
that one is the property of the people, and may be 
required to be designed in a block of buildings con- 
taining other kinds of baths ; and the other is owned by 
a company of persons or by a single individual as the 


case may be, and is generally an establishment complete 
in itself. 

It is not to the credit of the English nation that so 
little has been done in connection with Turkish bath 
building for the people. The attention given to the 
question of supplying bath-houses of any kind is of the 
most meagre character. The provisions of the Public 
Baths and Wash-houses Act are entirely inadequate. In 
these matters the German nation is far ahead of us. 
Fortunately for the general health, the Englishman is 
renowned for his morning " tub." But the cold tub is 
merely a tonic bath, and the Turkish bath cleanses both 
the inward and outward man, besides constituting a 
most perfect tonic. The cleanliness of the vast body of 
the English depends on the warm shallow bath, an in- 
effective means at the best, and, often, when taken at a 
high temperature, fraught with a real danger to certain 
constitutions. Used, as customary, without a tonic 
application of cold water, it is eminently conducive to 
cold-catching. But one cannot blame the average 
Englishman for his neglect of the health-giving habit of 
scientific bathing, unless he sees the advantage of, and 
has means to afford, a Turkish bath in his own house. 
He looks in vain for an appropriate, comfortable, and at- 
tractive bath-house provided for him by the Legislature, 
and he dislikes the thought of the impure atmosphere 
and odours of the so-called " Turkish baths " provided 
by enterprising business men. He can do nothing but 
fall back on his warm water bath and cold morning tub. 

In the second section, comprised in Chapters VIII. 
to X., I have dealt with private baths, including the 


bath in the house and mansion, in institutions of one 
kind and another, and in connection with training stables. 
In the chapter on the bath in the private house, will be 
found plans of baths of several types, from the smallest 
and least expensive to the most elaborate and costly. 

It is my hope that this little work may lead to some 
attention being bestowed on the question of providing 
public Turkish baths worthy of the country ; that it 
may add a stimulus to the building of high-class baths 
as commercial speculations ; and that, from its pages, 
those desirous of experiencing the luxury of a model 
Turkish bath in their own homes, may learn the best 
methods of its design and construction. 




IN order to avoid unnecessary expense in working and 
management, a public Turkish bath should be con- 
venient and compact in plan. It should be as perfect 
as possible in regard to heating and ventilation, in order 
to insure patronage ; and, for the same reason, it should 
be made a thing of beauty. A badly-ventilated, incon- 
venient, and ill-adorned bath does harm, both to the 
bather and the cause. It is its own enemy, and harm- 
ful also to all other baths ; whereas every ably-designed 
bath has in itself the elements of success, and assists 
existing institutions by increasing the number of con- 
verts to the process. 

A good bath does not necessarily mean an elaborate 
and expensive one, but primarily one where the heating 
and ventilation are on the latest and most approved 
principles, and where the shampooing and washing rooms 
are kept sweet and clean, the bathing appliances effec- 
tive, and the cooling rooms ample, and supplied with 
an abundance of fresh air. This is not the result of 
sumptuousness and elaboration, but of pure applied 
science. Amplitude of space, however, facilitates its 


attainment, as it is difficult to render a cramped bath 
beneficial and attractive. 

By an attractive bath, I would be understood to mean 
one in which the visitor will feel interest in the design ; 
where pleasant objects are presented to his eye, both 
in the sudorific chambers and in the cooling rooms. 
Artistic decorations have here a commercial value. The 
bath requiring time, the bather is compelled to pass 
some hours in the various apartments, and it is there- 
fore highly desirable that his surroundings be rendered 
pleasant and entertaining. In a Turkish bath, as in 
other architectural matters, this is not the result of a 
prodigal expenditure on costly decorations and fittings," 
but rather of a careful arrangement of necessary and 
desirable features, and a knowledge of the methods of 
obtaining piquancy of effect by their distribution on 
the plan. 

The arrangement of the modern bath is modified 
from that of the Ancients and Orientals to suit the 
accepted form of practice in this country, so that the 
order of the different processes through which the bather 
passes governs the disposition of the various apartments. 
The chief object to be attained is to induce a more 
or less vigorous perspiration by the application of heat. 
This heat is now generally applied through the medium 
of the air, which is raised to a high temperature by 
being passed over and in contact with the heated sur- 
faces of stoves of various designs, or by direct radiation 
from hot metal or firebrick. Theoretically, the generally- 
adopted - method of applying the heat to the bather 
might be greatly improved, but practically it has been 


found the best. Into these questions, however, I shall 
enter when treating of the heating and ventilating of 
the bath. For the present, it will suffice to say that the 
chief object to be attained in the bath is the supplying 
of an abundance of pure hot air to the various sudorific 
chambers, and the rapid withdrawal of the foul air and 

Since the disposition of the various apartments is 
governed by the methods of bathing in vogue, it will be 
necessary to first give the reader a brief account of the 
various processes undergone by the bather. The object 
of the profuse perspiration to be attained is twofold 
(i) To cleanse the blood of impurities ; and (2) to loosen 
the dead scales of the epidermis, or scarf-skin, that 
spreads itself everywhere over the true skin or cuticle. 
Besides this, however, physiologists tell us that the heat 
itself has a beneficial effect on the body in other ways, 
and is, in cases of disease, a most powerful curative and 
remedial agent. This latter fact explains the necessity 
for the high temperatures employed, as mere perspira- 
tion could be attained with a comparatively low degree 
of heat. 

The course of treatment to be undergone by the 
bather, as given by Sir Erasmus Wilson, is .(i)_. 
Jkg3QSU|_iiL_he. naked body to hot dry air. (2) 
Ablution_with warm and cold water. (3) Cooling and 
drying the skin. In addition to these, however, there 
sEould be added the process of " massage " or sham- 
pooing before washing. 

The perspiration is attained in the various hot rooms 
the Tepidarmm+ Calidarium, and Laconicum. The 


nature of these apartments which I shall hereinafter 
consider in detail must be determined by the preten- 
sions of the establishment. 

Perspiration having been induced, 'the bather submits 
to the kneading of the muscles of the trunk and limbs 
by the shampooer. For this operation, which restores 
tone and vigour to the muscular and nervous system, a 
separate and distinct apartment should, in high class 
baths, be provided. Vigorous friction with a coarse 
glove succeeds the shampooing. This detaches the 
dead portions of the epidermis, and is an operation 
generally practised in the^Lavafanum a washing room 
adjoining the shampooing room. In the same place 
the bather receives copious ablutions with warm water. 
The less robust conclude the cleansing process with a 
douche, needle, spray, or shower Jbath, graduated from 
warm to cold ; and the strong bather, by plunging into 
a bath of cold water, the object of which is to contract 
and close the sweat-glands and pores of the skin that 
have been swelled and opened by the high temperatures 
of the calorific apartments. For these purposes a_srnalL 
room, with the various appliances named, and a large 
chamber containing a more or less ample plunge bath, 
must be provided. In small baths, provision for both 
these operations is made in one general shampooing and 
washing room, where the bather is " massed," rubbed 
down, washed, and takes the plunge or shower bath. The 
plunge may, if thought advantageous, be placed partly 
in the cool apartment and partly in the hot rooms, in 
which case, the bather dives under a glazed partition 
of some sort, which, furnished with an india-rubber flap 


dangling in the water, prevents the hot air of the 
sudatorium from entering the cooling rooms. 

The above description gives an outline of the 
cleansing and hygienic processes, and of the nature of 
the requirements of those portions of the bath devoted 
to their attainment. I have named them first as being 
the most indispensable portion of the necessary suite 
of rooms, since the bath may exist if it be merely in 
the form of an old Irish " sweating-house," or a some- 
what similar construction of the North American Indian; 
but without the heated chamber and its appurtenances 
there can be no bath. 

The next important features to be considered are 
the dressing and cooling rooms. Before entering the 
bath rooms proper, the bather must divest himself of 
his clothing, and assume the bathing garment. The 
dressing room or Apodyterium, and the cooling room or 
Frigidarium^ are generally made one and the same ; 
but they may, with advantage, be designed as separate 
and distinct apartments, the. provision for dressing 
and undressing consisting of a room or rooms with 
small dressing-boxes around it. The frigidarium 
will then be a simple apartment designed for the 
economical reception of the reposing couches, it being 
absolutely essential that the bather rest awhile, after the 
bath, to allow the body to gradually assume its normal 
temperature. Neglect of this precaution may cause a 
renewal of perspiration, and possibly a "cold." 

If a combined apodyterium and frigidarium be 
adopted, it must be fitted with a number of divans to 
accommodate a given number of persons, or be divided 


into smaller spaces with dwarf screens, each space re- 
ceiving a pair of couches. The divisions may be effected 
by more or less elaborate and ornamental wooden par- 
titions. In ladies' baths more privacy must be observed. 
Each lady bather should have a private dressing and 
reposing room, even if only formed by dwarf wooden 

An arrangement may be designed whereby the bather 
enters first a room fitted with a number of dressing- 
boxes, and then passes through the frigidarium on his 
way to the hot rooms, whence he returns after his bath. 
Where the establishment is on a large scale, the ar- 
rangement may lead the bather first to a room fitted 
with dressing-boxes, then to the hot rooms, and finally, 
by way of the plunge bath, into a commodious and 
separate cooling room. 

Subsidiary to the cooling and dressing rooms should 
be others for the attendants, manager, and also for the 
hairdresser and chiropodist, or, at any rate, some sort 
of provision made for them. A pay office, with counter 
and a set of lockers for the receipt of the bather's watch, 
money, and other valuables, should be the first object 
that one meets on entering from the vestibule con- 
necting the establishment with the street. In connec- 
tion with this office may be the manager's room, and 
provision for the supply of refreshments. If the bath be 
the property of a company, a board room may be 
required. As on entering a bath the visitor must 
immediately divest himself of his boots and shoes, in 
order that he may not pollute apartments that are 
devoted to the attainment of that cleanliness which is 


next to godliness, a_raised step must be provided at the 
entrance to the apodyterium to warn him to enter un- 
shod, or a portion of the combined cooling and dress- 
ing room may be divided off by similar means. Pro- 
vision for the boots and shoes must be in the form of 
a set of pigeon-holes near the entrance, where, also, 
racks for coats and hats must be placed. 

Thejiair-dressing room and accommodation for the 
chiropodist if he does not practise his art at the couch 
of the bather must adjoin the frigidarium, as also 
should the attendants' room. j\ lavatory must be placed 
in the frigidarium when used as the dressing room. 
Closet accommodation should be accessible from the 
same apartment, but should be perfectly cut off from 
it by means of a passage or lobby. The greatest care 
should be taken to prevent these conveniences from 
becoming offensive. Returning from the bath, the 
sense of smell is peculiarly sensitive, and the slightest 
odour is detected. The worst position for the closets is 
near the door by which the bather leaves the lavatorium. 
Defects in this point may ruin an otherwise excellent 
bath. If the cooling rooms and hot rooms be on 
separate floors, the closets may be designed off a landing 
on the staircase. In the separate accommodation for 
attendants and shampooers the same caution must be 

Adjoining, under, or partly under, thejaconicum must 
be placed the heating apparatus in its chamber^ with 
stokery and provision for fuel, &c. The stokery should 
be large, light, and properly ventilated, and the atten- 
dants should be able easily to communicate with the 


stoker. Of the arrangements for heating and supplying 
the water to the lavatorium I shall speak in another 
chapter. Laundry, linen and towel rooms, and a drying 
room must be provided. They are important necessities, 
and should not be cramped in dimensions. 




ALTHOUGH the process of the bath determines the 
position of the various apartments in relation to one 
another, the exact disposition of the plan must be 
governed by the shape of the ground to be covered, the 
nature of the site and surroundings, and if the bath 
be constructed in an existing building the amount of 
space allotted to it. The relative position of chamber 
to chamber of the sudatorium, and of the latter to the 
cooling rooms, must remain more or less constant ; but 
the angle of connection with each other, their shape, 
proportions, and floor levels, must, together with the 
positions of the subsidiary apartments, be determined 
by the exigencies of the site, and considerations of 
convenience and economy. Frequently, the architect 
will be called upon to design a bath in a given space 
in the lower floors of some existing building. He may 
be given the ground or basement floor to make the 
most of as best he can. His plan is thus considerably 
hampered. If the site includes the basement and ground 
floor of an ordinary house, he may arrange the offices 
and cooling and dressing rooms on the ground floor ; 
and the hot rooms, shampooing room, and bath rooms, 



in the basement. Where possible, the hot rooms should 
be pushed out beyond the back wall of the houses, 
and lighted from the top. In cities, the hot rooms will 
often have to be in the actual basement. Where space 
is valuable a whole house may be given up to baths if 
the floors be made fire and heat proof. The basement 
may be devoted to hot rooms and shampooing rooms, 
the ground floor to offices and dressing rooms, and 
the first floor to cooling rooms. Ladies' baths, again, 
can be arranged on the floors above, and both baths 
can be heated from one apparatus. In a bath where 
three floors are available, the first floor may be devoted 
to extra cooling and dressing rooms. In inexpensive 
sites the bath may be all on one level. This is the 
most convenient arrangement, but in large cities is 
generally too costly. The Hammam and Savoy baths, 
in London, are, however, all on one level, the former 
being practically all above ground, and the latter con- 
structed in the basement of an existing building. 

The London Hammam was the first public Turkish 
bath erected in this country, and owes its existence to 
the fervid zeal of the late David Urquhart. It was 
erected in 1862, from the designs of the late Somers 
Clarke. The bath rooms proper are modelled on the 
Eastern plan, and have quite an Oriental effect, with the 
stars -of stained glass sparkling in the sombre domed 
tepidarium. In this bath the office is arranged in the 
old building in Jermyn Street, adjoining which is the 
combined frigidarium and apodyterium, a structure of 
wood, originally intended as a temporary building only. 
This is covered with an open-timbered roof, and divided 


into nave and aisles by cut-wood posts, and lighted by 
a clerestory. These posts form the divisions of the 
divans, which are separated from one another by orna- 
mented wood partitions worked in an Eastern manner. 
Connected by double doors with this apartment are the 
hot rooms. The main room a very moderately-heated 
tepidarium is a square on plan, with splayed angles, 
over which rises a dome of brickwork. On either side of 
this square, and connected with it by the horseshoe arches 
supporting the dome, are transept-like apartments, used 
as portions of the tepidarium, similar adjuncts existing 
at the ends and joining on the one hand the frigidarium, 
and on the other a heated smoking saloon, which occu- 
pies a position corresponding to that of a Lady-chapel 
in this very ecclesiastical-looking plan. On either side 
of this saloon are two calidaria. A drying room and 
laundry are arranged over the smoking saloon, and 
w.c.'s, &c., are placed at the end of the latter apartment 
In the splayed angles supporting the dome are doors 
leading to four apartments two used as hot rooms of 
different temperatures, and the others as a washing- 
room and a shampooer's waiting room. Under the 
dome there is an extensive platform of marble slabs, 
beneath which is the douche room, reached by a short 
flight of steps. The plunge bath is placed partly in 
the tepidarium, and partly in the frigidarium, with an 
arrangement to prevent the transmission of the hot air, 
such as I have herein before explained. In the centre 
of the frigidarium is a little marble fountain. One of 
the divans is partitioned off for the accommodation 
of the chiropodist. A gallery is provided for the hair- 

c 2 


dresser, and connected with a shop in Jermyn Street. 
The ground sloping considerably, a descent of a few 
steps has to be made to reach the frigidarium from the 
street. A refreshment bar is placed in the frigidarium. 
The manager's room is on the second floor, adjoining 
the old building, and has a window overlooking the 

The Hammam was the first public Turkish bath 
erected in this country, and the Savoy (Fig. i) is one 
of the latest and largest, and also on one level. It was 
designed by Mr. C. J. Phipps, F.S.A., to suit the base- 
ment of an existing building. Entering from Savoy Hill, 
a short passage conducts to a staircase leading to the 
vestibule, where are provided rails for hats and coats. 
The counter of the ticket-office is placed at the entrance 
to the frigidarium, and near this office is the committee 
room the bath being the property of a private com- 
pany. In vaults projecting under the street, provision 
is made for an engine and dynamo. The frigidarium 
serves also as the apodyterium, and is cut up into divans 
by ornamental wood partitions. Connected with it is a 
saloon for the hairdresser and chiropodist, and an atten- 
dants' room. A lavatory is provided in a recess. Access 
is gained to the hot rooms through double doors. The 
plunge bath is placed partly in the hot rooms and partly 
in the frigidarium. The tepidarium is divided by arcades 
into miniature nave and aisles. Two subdivisions at the 
end of the tepidarium lead to the calidarium, adjoining 
which is the heating apparatus, fitted with two of Messrs. 
Constantine's "Convoluted " stoves. Access to the stokery 
is gained by a passage at the end of the tepidarium. 






The shampooing room is placed off the cooler end of the 
tepidarium, dwarf walls separating it from the latter 
apartment, as also from the lavatorium. Here, there are 
six marble basins, corresponding with the six marble 
slabs in the shampooing room. A small chamber is 
screened off the lavatorium to accommodate the douche 
and spray. A passage leads from the douche room to 
the attendants' room, by way of the laundry. Off this 
passage, and approached by doors from two of the 
divans, are the w.c.'s, &c., for the bathers' use. Pro- 
vision for the supply of refreshments is made at the 
back of the office. This bath is designed in an Eastern 

In the generality of modern baths, the frigidarium 
forms also the apodyterium. This arrangement is 
economical of space, and has been found, in practice, 
the most convenient for bathers ; but there is much to 
be said in favour of a separate and distinct cooling 
room, such as that at the Camden Town Turkish Baths. 
Erected from the designs of Mr. H. H. Bridgman, 
F.R.I.B.A., these baths are specially noteworthy for 
their spacious frigidarium and ample plunge bath. 
Entering from the street, a corridor conducts to a short 
flight of stairs leading to the office. Adjoining this is 
an apodyterium, fitted with two ranges of dressing- 
boxes, one above the other, a gallery forming the floor 
of the upper tier. From hence a short staircase leads 
to the door of the tepidarium, at right angles to which 
is the calidarium. Adjoining the tepidarium is a com- 
bined shampooing and washing room, a door in which 
opens into a chamber containing a plunge bath of quite 


exceptional dimensions. A staircase leads to the door 
of the lofty and spacious cooling room. This is lighted 
from the top, and contains a fireplace, a feature usually 
omitted in cooling rooms, and really superfluous, though 
adding greatly to cheerfulness of aspect in the winter. 
From this frigidarium the bather can return to his 
dressing-box by way of a lobby. Thus he makes a 
complete round, and does not meet the incoming 
bathers on the staircase to the tepidarium. 

The latest built elaborate commercial baths in London 
are those of Messrs. Nevill in Northumberland Avenue 
(Fig. 2). They were designed by Mr. Robert Walker, 
F.R.I.B.A., and comprise both ladies' and gentlemen's 
baths, though, as at the old Pompeian Balnea, the 
former set are ungallantly cramped into a very small 
space. They occupy a corner site, and the entrance to 
the gentlemen's bath is formed at the rounded angle. In 
the vestibule is the usual cashier's office, and provision 
for hats and coats. From the vestibule the combined 
cooling and dressing room is entered, after passing the 
boot room on the left and the refreshment bar on the 
right. Between the boot room and the staircase is the 
hairdresser's room. Dwarf wooden partitions divide 
the cooling room. Off a landing on the staircase are a 
lavatory and w.c.'s and toilet-table. The staircase leads 
to the first floor where are provided extra couches 
and to the bath rooms in the basement. The first floor 
is practically a gallery. In the basement are three 
hot rooms, the tepidarium being an elegant apartment 
elaborately adorned with marbles and rich faience. A 
heated smoking room adjoins the second hot room. 

FIG. 2 

JYote, PolfiutUna* 

Turkish Baths, Northumberland Avenue, Charing Cross. 


There are in this bath three shampooing rooms an 
arrangement conducing greatly to privacy. A douche 
room and plunge bath are provided in the angle of 
the building. Vaults under the street are utilised as a 
laundry, attendants' room, meter room, and engineer's 
shop, and as store-rooms. 

The ladies' baths partly adjoin the gentlemen's, and 
are partly separated by an area. They are entered 
from the side street. On the ground floor is the pay- 
office and cooling room. Additional couches are pro- 
vided on the first floor, where is also an attendants' 
room. In the basement are three hot rooms and two 
shampooing rooms. A washing room, shower bath, and 
plunge bath adjoin the shampooing rooms. The hottest 
rooms of both sets of these baths are within a few feet 
of each other. Each, however, has its separate and 
distinct furnace. A passage formed by the area allows 
access to the stokery and furnace chambers. 

In Messrs. Nevill's baths at London Bridge the cool- 
ing rooms, &c., are in the basement, and the bath rooms 
proper in a sub-basement. 

Bartholomew's baths at Leicester Square are an 
excellent example of a compactly-arranged double set 
of baths. The various apartments are designed one 
above the other on different floors, the area of the 
building being limited. On the ground floor, as usual, 
are the pay office and a combined cooling and dressing 
room, and an attendant's room. In the basement 
are the bath rooms, arranged en suite first a sham- 
pooing and washing room, containing, also, in a very 
compact manner, the plunge and shower baths ; next 


is the tepidarium ; then the smaller second hot room ; 
and, lastly, the smallest hot room of a very high 
temperature. The heating chamber is placed adjoining 
this. The principle of its construction is that generally 
adopted in the baths erected under the late Mr. Bartho- 
lomew's direction, viz. a furnace with a coil of thin iron 
flue-pipes, radiating, in a measure, a certain amount of 
heat directly into the hot rooms. The bath rooms are 
divided from one another by glazed wood partitions, 
as distinct from the solid walls dividing baths like the 
Hammam and Savoy. A consideration of these two 
methods of dividing the hot rooms, does not, however, 
concern us here. A staircase from the entrance vesti- 
bule leads to the ladies' baths on the second and third 
floors, where also are manager's and other private 

Broadly speaking, baths may be divided into two 
classes, viz. those in which the various apartments 
are arranged en suite, and those irregularly planned. 
Where possible the former arrangement is preferable, 
as, with the hot rooms in a line, the circulation of air 
is facilitated. Fig. n is a section of a set of hot 
rooms arranged en suite; and the baths at Figs. 
24 and 25, in Chapter VII L, are planned on this 

As I have said above, where a basement and ground 
floor are available, and a little space can be gained 
at the back of the existing building, the office, cooling 
and dressing rooms can be arranged on the ground 
floor, and the bath rooms proper on the basement level, 
but with light and air above. If the site be an ordinary 


narrow-fronted town house, and the bath an unassuming 
one, the plan may be arranged after the manner of 
Mr. Joseph Burton's baths (Fig. 3), in the Euston Road, 
London. Here a pair of ordinary town dwelling-houses 
are pressed into the service of the bath. The basement 
and ground floors are devoted to the baths, the upper 
floors forming a private hotel. On one side are the 
gentlemen's, and on the other, the ladies' baths. Entering 
the former, we find a space on the ground floor, fronting 
the street, serving as an office. Adjoining this is a 
range of dressing-boxes, and further on a cooling room, 
excellently lighted by a large window forming the whole 
end of the apartment. From this little frigidarium a 
marble staircase leads to the door of the tepidarium, 
formed at basement level at the back of the houses. 
This chamber is lighted by means of a ceiling-light 
constructed in the form of a small, flat dome, with 
stained-glass stars set therein. A marble seat runs 
round the whole of this chamber. On one side of the 
staircase is placed the calidarium, and, on the other, 
the combined shampooing room and lavatorium, a door 
from the latter forming an exit for the visitor who has 
completed his bath. At one end of the shampooing 
room is a chamber containing the cold plunge bath and 
needle bath. A door from hence leads to a staircase 
conducting to the furnace-chamber. A laundry is pro- 
vided at the head of these stairs. The furnace-chamber 
is placed under the further end of the calidarium. The 
baths for ladies are arranged on a very similar plan. 
The gentlemen's baths are among the earliest erected in 
this country, and still form a most compact and con- 

FIG. 3. 









Turkish Baths, Euston Road, London. 


venient institution. They were designed by Mr. James 
Schofield. The illustration shows the ladies' baths. 
The ceilings of the hot rooms are not indicated on 
.the section. 

The whole of the baths mentioned in this chapter are 
the property of private individuals or companies. The 
number of baths provided in this country under Act of 
Parliament or by civic corporations is so small, and 
their size and design so insignificant, that it would be 
waste of space to describe them here. They are un- 
worthy of the nation. One of the best is the pretty little 
bath provided on the first floor of the public bath-house 
recently erected by the Corporation of Stockport. The 
fine new baths at Bath erected from designs by Major 
Davis, the city architect, do not include a Turkish bath. 
It must be admitted that some slight increase in the 
amount of attention paid by corporate bodies to bath- 
building is latterly to be noticed, and a few years may 
possibly see a great advance in this direction. That 
this may indeed be so should be our sincere hope, since 
the lack of fine public baths is a standing disgrace to a 
nation that prides itself upon its cleanliness. 

In Germany, considerable attention has been bestowed 
upon the design of the Turkish bath, many excellent 
baths having been built in the more complete bath- 
houses of the Empire. Well-arranged Turkish baths are 
to be found in the baths at Nuremberg, Hanover, and 
Bremen, the latter planned with both a first and second 
class frigidarium to the one set of bath rooms. The 
plan, however, has nothing to recommend it, and in this 


country would be useless. The Nuremberg bath is 
handsomely planned, and has a spacious frigidarium. 
It is placed in a building comprising ladies' and gentle- 
men's swimming baths, shallow baths, and a Russian bath. 
In many of the hydropathic establishments (Kurbader} 
of Germany, will be found excellent Turkish baths. A 
sumptuous double set of bath rooms is provided in the 
Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden, which was erected at a 
cost of about ioo,ooo/. The Turkish baths are placed 
on the ground floor, and in other floors are provided 
baths of every kind. Each set of rooms for the ladies' 
and gentlemen's Turkish baths comprises undressing 
room and cooling room, two sudorific chambers, 
shampooing room, douche room with cold plunge bath, 
and a separate chamber with warm plunge. Adjoining 
the shampooing room are the warm and hot rooms of 
the Russian bath. Between the two sets of bath rooms 
is placed a handsome circular swimming-bath, and ad- 
joining, the Wildbad^ deep, full bath of warm mineral 

One of the most elaborate Turkish baths erected, 
in modern times, is that on the Praterstern, at Vienna, 
which cost, in round numbers, I25,ooo/. The build- 
ing comprises ladies' and gentlemen's Turkish and 
Russian baths, and includes a residential block for those 
taking a course of baths. The whole of the arrange- 
ments are on a most sumptuous scale. The cooling 
room of the gentlemen's baths measures no less than 
35-3 metres long, and 10-5 broad. There are both 
warm and cold plunge baths, besides a fine circular 


piscina, in a circular domed chamber. Similar provisions 
are made for the ladies on a smaller scale. Though 
plain and somewhat heavy in external design, the 
building internally is resplendent with tiles, marble, 
and ornamental woodwork. 




IT is scarcely necessary to say anything more as to 
the subsidiary apartments of a Turkish bath. Such 
adjuncts as the entrance hall and vestibule, the pay 
office, refreshment department, laundry and drying- 
rooms, hairdressing and attendants' rooms, and other 
minor provisions, are obviously simple matters, requiring 
little or no detailed explanation. Sufficient has already 
been said about them to enable the architect, assisted by 
the drawings given, to design them with convenience and 
economy. The features peculiar to the bath are those 
requiring careful consideration. It is upon the design of 
the hot rooms, the cooling rooms, and the washing rooms 
that the success or non-success of a new bathing establish- 
ment depends, and too much study cannot be given to 
these apartments. 


These are now generally required in a suite of three 
" first, second, and third hot." The first is the tepidarium, 
and must be by far the largest of the three, since in it 
the greater number of bathers will assemble at one time. 
The last must be the hottest room the laconicum and 


need only be a very small one, as but few bathers use it, 
and that, generally, for a very short time. The second 
hot room should be about midway, in size and tempe- 
rature, between the first and the third. Of a given area 
allotted to the hot rooms, from one-half to two-thirds 
may be devoted to the tepidarium, and from one-third to 
one-half to the super-heated rooms, always remembering 
that it is well to err on the side of providing a large and 
roomy tepidarium. Of the space allowed for the smaller 
rooms, one-quarter to one-third may be given to the 
hottest, and the remaining space to the second hot- 
room, or calidarium. 

The hot rooms, it should be remembered, are strictly 
bath rooms, and must be treated as such ; that is to say, 
the whole of the floors, walls, ceilings, partitions, and 
fittings, must be capable of being frequently cleansed 
with water. The choice of materials to be employed for 
lining the walls, &c., is therefore limited. And in two 
ways. For not only must they be of this washable 
nature, but they must be of a character to resist the 
influence of the heat. Happily, this is an age of glazed- 
ware and vitrified goods of every description. Glazed 
and fire-burnt bricks and tiles, terracottas, faience, and 
pottery generally, are now so extensively manufactured 
that there is little excuse for not constructing a bath 
throughout of materials at once washable and unaffected 
by high temperatures. Still, in baths where rigid 
economy must be studied, . and lowness of cost is the 
great object, plaster may be placed upon the walls of 
the hot rooms, and in its way will answer admirably, 
and be fairly washable. It has even one advantage it 



does not become unbearably hot to the touch, should the 
bather lean against the walls, whereas, with a highly 
glazed surface the walls become burning hot, and need 
lining with a dado of felt or other non-conducting sub- 
stance. And since this latter method overcomes the 
objection named, the best possible material for lining the 
walls is glazed brickwork. In cases where elaboration 
is desired, they may be lined with marbles and faience. 
With a judicious selection of colours, however, a very 
pleasing appearance can be given by the employment of 
simple glazed brickwork, and at a very moderate cost. 

The flooring in cheap baths is admirably formed by 
simple unglazed tile pavement over concrete. A slight 
roughness is very agreeable to the feet. Glazed tiles are 
inadmissible, as they become too hot for the naked feet ; 
and if the slightest moisture come upon them they are 
rendered dangerously slippery. In elaborate baths, 
marble, and marble mosaics may be used, but the 
surface must not be too smooth. In providing floorings, 
the greatest care should be taken to avoid anything 
liable to become slippery to the tread. 

Floors of ordinary-sized baths, where the soil is 
reliable, may be of 6 in. of concrete, with mosaics or 
tiles laid in cement. The benches for reclining and 
shampooing must be built up from this with half-brick 
risers and glazed fronts, having weathered marble slabs 
with rounded nosings, as illustrated at Fig. 3. 

The ceilings of the fire and heat-proof floors, which, 
when there are other apartments above, must be provided 
over the hot rooms, may be of plaster. But the heat at 
the ceiling level is very great, and the plaster here 


rapidly darkens and blackens, and in this state looks 
anything but attractive in a place where the mere 
uspicion of uncleanliness is nauseating. If employeds 
(and this remark also applies to plaster on walls), it 
should be used in the simplest manner possible, with- 
out the slightest attempt at modelling the surface. 
Enamelled iron may be used, with effect, for ceilings. 
The little laconicum is best covered with a flat vault, 
the soffit being of glazed bricks, and the springing 
being brought down below the main ceiling level. 

Fire-proof floors over hot rooms may be of any design 
that is also heat-proof. The main point is to have a 
sufficient thickness of concrete, and the iron joists 
and cross girders well buried therein. Ordinary floors 
may be rendered heat-proof by partially filling the 
space between ceiling and floorboards with sawdust or 
sheets of slag-wool laid on boarding nailed to fillets on 
the joists. The sawdust should be filled up to the top 
of the joists; over this a layer of thick felt, and the 
boarding above. This, however, is only a makeshift 
when compared with a solid floor of concrete. 

When the hot rooms are in a basement in the open, 
they may be top-lighted, and the ceiling above need not 
be a heavy fire-proof construction. A sufficient air 
space, however, must be provided between the ceiling 
and roof, to prevent irradiation of heat a remark that 
applies also to anything in the shape of a window in 
the sudatorium. It must be double, or look into 
an area covered with pavement lights. In the case of 
a top-lighted room there must be a ceiling-light and a 

D 2 


Where the hot rooms are constructed quite above 
ground, consideration must be given to the prevention 
of loss of heat by radiation. This may be effected by 
providing thick hollow walls, the cavity being often 
usefully employed for the extraction of the vitiated 

Heat permeating other apartments and neighbouring 
premises is a frequent source of trouble to the builder 
of a Turkish bath, but is always the result of want of 
study of the subject on the part of the designer. The 
evil may be successfully combated if it be resolved that 
no hot room, shampooing room, or lavatorium shall be 
constructed without a thick concrete floor above, and 
that the furnace chamber be perfectly and completely 
insulated. Should the walls of the hot rooms adjoin 
apartments to which it is urgently necessary that 
the heat should be prevented from being transmitted, 
they may be rendered heat-proof by building them 
hollow and filling the cavity with soot. 

Double doors and lobbies must be employed to prevent 
the transmission of the heated air to rooms where its 
presence would be injurious. To keep the hot air of the 
bath-rooms from the cooling-rooms, &c., should be the 
great aim of the architect. Many baths are rendered 
quite repulsive by what I may perhaps term the 
" sudorific smell " that assails the nostrils of the visitor 
entering the vestibule. 

The space allotted to the sudatory chambers may be 
divided into the various rooms, either by glazed brick 
walls or by framed and glazed partitions ; or again, 
they may be formed by a combination of solid brick- 


work and glazed woodwork. Any piers in these rooms 
must be of brickwork, iron columns being inadmis- 
sible. Masonry, too, must be discarded throughout, 
or used with caution. Some stones such as red 
Mansfield become black with exposure to the heat, and 
others fare still worse. The employment of porous and 
absorbent materials must be guarded against throughout 
this portion of the bath, as it should be remembered that 
effete matters, particles of waste tissue, and possibly 
the germs of disease, are continually being given off 
by the perspiring bathers, and must be prevented from 
finding a lodgment. 

The best woods for use in the hot rooms are close- 
grained and free from essential oils. Mahogany is 
excellently adapted for the purpose, and so, also, is 
teak. Pitch pine must be discarded altogether. Deal, 
when employed, should be perfectly seasoned, 
and may then give trouble from the exudation of 

The partitions, and the doorways in them, must be 
so placed as to govern the flow of hot air. So long as 
the main divisions be planned with this end in view, the 
separate rooms may be divided and broken up as the 
architect may fancy. But the constant flow of the 
heated air from the inlet in the hottest room towards 
the lavatorium must not be interfered with by recesses, 
nooks, and corners, or anything that would cause the 
current to stagnate. And here we may see the practical 
advantage possessed by a bath where the hot rooms are 
en suite, and in a line with one axis. For here the 
air sweeps uninterruptedly through the different 


chambers without eddying around corners and stag- 
nating in recesses far out of the main stream. 

The doorways in the partitions should not be too lofty. 
They should not be hung with doors, as anything 
necessary in this way will be amply supplied by 
depending curtains. 

Glazing in the hot rooms requires care. The glass 
will expand considerably with the heat, and, what is 
more, if the furnace fire die out rapidly at any time, 
will contract and fracture. This difficulty, however, is 
the result of bad management, and does not concern the 
architect, unless, indeed, it be the result of improper 
fixing. Even moderate-sized sheets of glass should be 
carefully fixed in chamois leather with screwed beading, 
putty being wholly inadmissible. The sheets of glass 
should not be of too large dimensions. Rolled glass 
will be found the cheapest in the end, as inferior 
qualities, where homogeneity of texture is wanting, 
will crack and split in all directions. Lead glazing 
should be altogether discarded. 

No provision for draining the hot rooms is necessary, 
as they must, when in use, be kept free from moisture. 
The floor may, however, if thought desirable, be laid 
with an imperceptible fall the way the water would be 
swept when cleansing viz. towards the lavatorium. 

As the best position for a bather to assume in the 
sudatorium is one approaching to the horizontal, a bath 
cannot be considered complete unless a liberal number 
of marble-slabbed benches be provided. These should 
run round the solid walls, the risers of the benches being 
formed of brickwork glazed, faced with tiles, or 


plastered and white marble slabs set thereon. These 
slabs cannot be less than 24 in. wide, and must be of 
the ordinary seat height not lower. In the risers must 
be provided a liberal number of "hit-and-miss" venti- 
lator gratings, the vitiated air finding its way from the 
space beneath the slabs in the way designed, which 
may be into surrounding areas, into hollow walls, or 
into a flue or flues running the whole height of the 

The air at the floor line and that at the ceiling level 
being of vastly different temperatures, it follows that an 
arrangement might be designed whereby the benches 
might be stepped in three or four rows, and, by 
ascending, the bather could select any temperature he 
might choose. Such an arrangement was often employed 
in the baths of the ancient Romans, and has been tried 
in modern institutions ; but it should be avoided. The 
expirations from the lungs and the exudations from the 
bodies of the bathers /#//, and it therefore follows that 
all below the first tier would be breathing air polluted 
by those above them. The system, therefore, stands 

As regards height, the sudorific chambers should not 
be too lofty, or they cannot, on the ordinary hot-air plan, 
be heated with due economy. The vastness of the old 
Roman tepidarium would have been impracticable under 
this system ; but with the heat radiating direct from the 
walls and the floors, there was no difficulty. It is far better 
to have a comparatively low chamber with a constant 
stream of freshly-heated air passing through it, than a 
lofty one with a sluggish current. From 10 to 15 or 


1 6 ft. may be taken as moderate extremes of height in a 
public bath. The small third hot room will be less lofty 
if the heating-chamber be placed under it ; for by 
raising the floor of the laconicum a few feet, so as to 
necessitate ascending to it by a few steps from the level 
of the tepidarium, one can more economically construct 
the furnace chamber. 

This latter, which I have more particularly described 
and illustrated in the chapter on heating and ventilation, 
should, if the system adopted be on the ordinary hot-air 
principle, be so placed that an abundant supply of fresh 
pure cold air can be obtained for the furnace, which, 
when heated, can be delivered into the hottest room 
above, not less than 5 ft. from the level of the floor of 
that chamber, and, also, where a smoke flue of ample 
section can be constructed. The heated air may be 
delivered through the gratings in the walls of the 
laconicum, or a shaft of glazed brickwork, of rectangular 
section, may be constructed against the end wall and 
coped at the required level 5 ft. or more above the 
floor line. Should the exigencies of the site separate 
the furnace chamber from immediate connection with 
the hottest room, the heated air must be conducted 
from the former to the latter by means of a large shaft 
or shafts of glazed brickwork. Similar means may have 
to be employed to bring the cold air to the heating- 
chamber, and at the mouth of this shaft some provision 
must be made for filtering the air before it is brought 
into contact with the heating surfaces of the furnace. 

Horizontal and inclined flues for conducting hot or 
cold air may be carried from point to point on rolled 


iron joists having tooled York slabs set thereon, the 
flues being constructed of 4^ in. brickwork with glazed 
face internally, and covered with tooled York slabs. 
Provision must be made, in such flues, for effective 
cleansing, by means of iron air-tight doors. 


The lavatorium and shampooing room ' now engage 
our attention. In elaborate baths they may, for the sake 
of effect, be distinct apartments, while, where strict 
economy must be studied, they may be comprised in 
one room ; and where, again, space is extremely valuable, 
the plunge bath and douche may be also included. If 
the first arrangement be adopted, the shampooing room 
must be connected with the tepidarium, and the lava- 
torium placed next. Where the combination apartment 
is used, it will take the position of the shampooing 
room. Practically, the combination arrangement is the 
best. It is putting the bather to needless and undesir 
able trouble to require him to move from one apartment 
to another during the washing process. 

The suite of washing and shampooing rooms may be 
arranged in either one of the following ways, according 
to the pretensions and requirements of the establish- 
ment : (i) A shampooing room, a lavatorium, a douche 
room, and a plunge bath chamber; (2) 'a combined 
shampooing and washing room, and a combined douche 
and plunge bath chamber ; (3) several small combined 
shampooing and washing rooms, a douche room, and a 
plunge bath chamber; (4) an apartment comprising 


shampooing slabs, washing basins, douche, &c., and a 
plunge bath. 

A single shampooing room does not present a very 
complicated problem to the designer. The chief object 
to be borne in mind is that the shampooers require " elbow- 
room," and their patient in a convenient position to allow 
of their practising their art. As this is no light task if 
properly performed it becomes of urgent moment that 
the apartment should be no less perfectly ventilated than 
a sudorific chamber. In a vitiated atmosphere, no 
shampooer can work well for a prolonged period, and, 
moreover, pure air is as necessary for the bathers when 
in these places, as when they are in the hot rooms. 

The shampooing benches may be similar in descrip- 
tion and size to those in the hot rooms. A width of 2 ft. 
is an ample provision, since the shampooer can more 
conveniently work with the bather as near him as pos- 
sible. The benches may be constructed in a similar man- 
ner to those before described. They must be arranged 
on plan so that the shampooer has ample room, whilst 
at the same time space is not extravagantly wasted. 
The benches must be topped with white marble slabs. 
They may run round the wall, or be placed at right 
angles to them ; or, again, if found more convenient, 
they may be altogether isolated. Similar means of 
ventilating the shampooing and washing rooms as the 
hot rooms must be provided. The vitiated air must 
be extracted at the floor level, as the temperature here 
must be maintained considerably above that of respired 


Movable wooden-framed marble-topped benches may 


be substituted for those of a permanent type ; but the 
plan has nothing to recommend it except lowness of 

The separate lavatorium need not be so large as its 
adjoining shampooing room, as here the bathers will not 
recline, but sit or stand before washing-basins, to which 
must be conducted the flow pipes of hot water, and 
branches from the cold water supply pipe. These basins 
which may be of glazed earthenware if solid marble 
cannot be afforded should be large and capacious. 
Of water-fittings I shall speak under the head of 
" Appliances." 

In a combined shampooing and washing room the 
benches and basins will be required together. The 
basins may be fixed under a hole in the marble slabs, 
or affixed to the walls, as may be convenient. Whilst 
arranging the position of the benches with regard to 
the room, and the basins with regard to the benches, it 
will be as well to remember the postures that the bather 
assumes whilst being shampooed viz. 1st, sitting; 2nd, 
on the back ; 3rd, reverse. The basin must be so placed 
with respect to the slab that the shampooer may, without 
altering his position, take water from the basin with his 
handbowl, and pour it over the bather. A shampooer 
cannot well work with less than 5 ft. 6 in. between his slab 
and that of his adjoining fellow, when the slabs are at 
right angles to the wall and the adjoining shampooer is 
also working in the same space between the two benches. 
Where the room is long and a row of benches are placed 
at right angles to the wall, the shampooers have each 
their separate space to work in. Each one can then 


manage in 4 ft, and the slabs can be set out 6 ft. from 
centre to centre. Where the long sides of the slabs are 
against the walls and the basins are sunk into the slabs, 
there must be at least 7 ft. 6 in. from basin to basin. In 
the case of slabs at right angles to the walls, the basins 
are best placed between the slabs. 

It is an excellent plan to provide a slight screen in 
one corner of the washing room, behind which the enter- 
ing bather may, if he chooses, have a warm spray from 
a large rose before proceeding to the hot rooms. 

In ladies' baths it is well to provide private shampoo- 
ing recesses by means of partitions of sufficient height, 
which may be of wood and obscure glass. In this way 
any shampooing room may be rendered more private. 
Upright marble slabs will often be found useful in 
dividing the benches. 

The walls and ceilings of the apartments now under 
consideration may, so long as there be a dado of glazed 
ware, be lined in the same way as the hot rooms. But 
as regards flooring, still more care is required to prevent 
slipperiness. The soap and water that will be plentifully 
spilt around, renders this precaution needful. More- 
over, provision must be made for drainage. 

The flooring may be of rough tile mosaic, or simple 
tiles. Marble is too slippery, and glazed tiles are wholly 
inadmissible. Marble mosaics, roughly set, may be 
employed. The fall to which the floor is laid must be 
determined by the position of the gullies. 

The drainage system of a hot-air bath is a most im- 
portant consideration. In a place where the occupants 
are, literally, breathing at every pore, it is obvious that 


too much care cannot be taken to prevent all possible 
odours, and the slightest suspicion of an escape of 
deleterious sewer gases. The traps employed in 
the washing rooms should be of the best possible 
design and material, and proof against the evil known 
as " siphoning." The gullies above them are best placed 
adjoining one of the ventilators in the walls, at the floor 
level, as then a current of air sweeps over them and up 
the extraction flues. It is not always that an oppor- 
tunity is afforded to cut off the waste water from the 
drainage; where the bath rooms are above ground, 
however, this should be done if practicable. Where 
possible, an excellent plan is to construct a culvert 
under the basement floor. In this the whole of the 
pipes can be placed the soil-pipes, the lavatorium 
and plunge bath wastes, &c., and access gained to them 
by a manhole. By this means a cut-off could be effected 
between waste-pipes and the sewerage system. The 
culvert itself could be ventilated by connecting it with 
an extraction flue. This is all costly ; but the builder 
of a Turkish bath will do well to be prepared to lay 
out a liberal sum to perfect the system of drainage of 
the establishment, and in the end, when the public have 
appreciated the attention bestowed, he will thank his 
architect for having impressed upon him the necessity 
for this extra expenditure. 


The douche room should be a small chamber adjoin- 
ing the lavatorium, and fitted with a circular needle bath 


with shower or douche above, and any other kind of 
spray bath that may be required. It should not be a 
dark, cold, uninviting hole. For this reason, and also 
because a corner is admirably adapted to receive an 
appliance of the shape of a needle bath, it is better, 
often, to fit it up in an angle of the lavatorium. But 
of these additions I shall have much to say anon, as 
one of the most important points about a bath is the 
arrangement of the water-fittings. Needle baths will be 
found indicated, on the plans given in these pages, by an 
incompleted circle. 


Though, according to medical authorities, this does 
not form a necessary appendage to the hot-air bath, it is 
yet a feature that must be provided in the least pre- 
tentious of public establishments. Ever since, and long 
before, Cicero observed, in a letter to his brother Quintus, 
" Latiorem piscinam voluissem ubi jactata brachia non 
offenderentur," men who have taken the hot-air bath 
have loved the ample plunge. But although it should 
be sufficiently large for any bather to take a dive, and 
for an expert to take a true " header," it is a vast mistake 
to overdo it, and construct a small swimming bath, out 
of all proportion with the other features of the establish- 
ment. One does not look for such an adjunct : it is a 
great expense to keep up, requires a lot of space, and 
tempts many to stay too long in the cold water. All 
purposes will be served by a bath which will allow the 
bather to swim without touching the sides with his hands, 


and to dive along under water without danger of striking 
his head at the other end before he rises to the surface. 
Wherever possible, the bath should be quite 25 ft. in 
length and at least 7 ft. wide. In inferior institutions it 
may be as narrow as 4 ft. and proportionately shorter ; 
but in such a bath one can only flounder about, and 
healthy bathers will go elsewhere. 

In deciding the position of the plunge bath there 
is one point to be strongly guarded against, and that is, 
that it be not stowed away in a damp, cold-looking, 
cellar-like place. Such a position may be all very well 
when the proprietor wishes to conceal dirty water ; but 
from every other point of view it is highly objectionable. 
The wise man will bring his bath forward into the lightest 
possible position, where its clear, limpid waters will look 
enticing instead of repelling. For preference, it should 
be placed where the bather will take it naturally, en route 

_to_the.frigidarium, as at the Charing Cross baths, pre- 
viously illustrated. In baths all on one level, it is 
convenient to place the bath partly in the lavatorium 
and partly in the frigidarium ; but, to most persons, 
the necessity for passing under the inevitable par- 
tition and flap spoils the full enjoyment of the plunge. 

Iff^piaced within the frigidarium, and approached by a 
door from the lavatorium, some sort of a screen should 
be provided over the bath, as, at times, the apparition 
appearing at the above door, in full view of the occupants 
of the cooling-room, is somewhat ludicrous. 

The demands of decency must be borne constantly in 
mind by the architect of a Turkish bath. If the bather, 
on leaving the plunge bath, finds himself in the frigi- 


darium, he must ascend the steps under hanging towels. 
The arrangement that will be found the most convenient 

a direct importation from the East is to suspend a 

hoop from the ceiling, and from this hang cords -.attached^ 
to towels. The hoop can be swung by an attendant 
over the end of the bath, and in it the bather can dry 
himself and be wrapped in towels before proceeding to 
his couch. 

Whether the plunge bath be placed in a separate 
chamber, in the lavatorium, or partly in the frigidarium, 
its construction will remain essentially the same. If not 
in shape and size, in other respects it .is a small swim- 
ming bath. The weight and pressure of the water must 
be remembered. A good foundation must be prepared 
for the bath, with a thick layer of concrete passing well 
under the side walls and covering the whole floor. 
The side walls should be built of concrete and lined with 
white glazed bricks. In certain soils, the excavation for 
the bath may be puddled with advantage, but if properly 
constructed, this should be unnecessary. The bottom of 
the bath need not be flat, as the most economical method 
of constructing a plunge bath is to make its deepest part 
about two-thirds of its length from the end at which the 
bather enters. This may be about 4 ft. 6 in. in depth 
from bottom to water-line. From this point the floor will 
slope towards either end, gradually towards the entering 
end, and more rapidly towards the exit. At either end, 
where the depth of water should be about 3 ft, must be 
provided steps for ascent and descent. If the bath be 
not more than 6 ft. wide, these should occupy the whole 
width, and be of marble or slabs of some cheaper material 


on brick bearers, or they may be built solid. A coping 
of marble, stone, or purpose-made bricks must be placed 
on the side walls ; and, if the bath be in the cooling room, 
this may advantageously be raised several inches to 
protect from splashing. On the coping may be required 
metal standards and a neat hand-railing. A water-supply 
pipe and screw-down tap, an overflow and a waste-pipe 
will be needed, all of which I have more particularly 
specified hereinafter. 

The plunge bath is at times a source of two difficulties 
it may leak, and it may be below the level of drain. 
The first evil is the result of an error in design, or of bad 
workmanship ; the latter is unavoidable. The following 
method of constructing a plunge bath has been adopted 
with perfect success : On the bed of concrete prepared 
for its floor, erect side walls of concrete, and on the floors 
and walls thus formed spread two distinct layers of 
asphalt, covering all and running up to the underside 
of coping. Against the sides build half-brick walls in 
cement, with glazed face, and lay the floor with glazed 
bricks flat. The general principles of this construction 
I show in the accompanying illustration. 

Where the bath is lower than the drain, all that can be 
done is to drain out as much as possible and pump the 
remaining water from a " sump " provided in a suitable 
position. By raising the plunge bath chamber a few feet, 
the bottom of bath may, in some cases, be just kept 
above the drain level ; but steps must then be placed 
between it and the washing-room, and steps in such 
places are dangerous, being very liable to become 

, 9 9 -- 



E 2 



Dressing and cooling accommodation in a public bath 
may be provided in one of the following ways : i. A 
separate frigidarium and distinct dressing room, arranged 

(a) in direct communication with one another, or (b) con- 
nected by a lobby, corridor, or ante-room ; 2. A com- 
bination apartment arranged (a) with dressing-boxes 
around the walls, and couches in the centre, or vice versd ; 

(b) with Oriental divans ; (c) with couches screened off 
in pairs or singly by dwarf wood screens ; (d) with a 
few private dressing-boxes, a few couches, and a few 
lounges, and easy cushioned chairs ; and (e) as a simple 
room with couches placed therein, by the side of which 
the bather will undress, and on which he will recline 
after his bath. 

The first of these arrangements may be admirably 
adapted to unpretentious establishments, where, how- 
ever, it is wished to employ separate rooms ; the second 
(i, b) is only suitable for elaborate baths of the highest 
class, in which it may be adopted with excellent and 
with practical results. Of the combination arrange- 
ments (a) has little to recommend it ; (b) is expensive 
and extravagant of space, though it may be made very 
effective in appearance and very pleasing and com- 
fortable ; (6-) is suitable for ladies' baths ; (d) is very 
practicable, and gives the apartment a pleasant, homely 
look ; and (e) is best for cheap baths, being the simplest 


arrangement possible, wholly unsuited, however, to 
establishments of any pretension. 

If the plan include a separate cooling room, it is 
nothing more than a spacious, cheerful apartment, de- 
signed with a view to the reception of couches, and the 
usual accessories designed in connection with it the 
refreshment room, hairdresser and chiropodist's saloon. 
If this separate cooling room be provided, a distinct 
apodyterium, with little dressing-boxes, must be de- 
signed. If the bath be small and easily managed, cur- 
tains may be employed to screen those undressing ; but 
if it be a large establishment, with a number of bathers 
constantly dressing and undressing, doors must be pro- 
vided, and these must be under lock and key in charge 
of an attendant. Each dressing-box must be fitted with 
a seat, rack, and shelf ; and looking-glasses, toilet-tables, 
and lavatories for general use must be placed in the room, 
which must be designed in direct connection with the 

This should be spacious, light, lofty, and perfectly 
ventilated, the vitiated air being here extracted at the 
ceiling level, since the temperature at which the apart- 
ment will be kept is an ordinary one over that of the 
exterior air when the weather is cold, and under when 
it is at all hot. 

Where the cooling room and dressing room do not 
immediately adjoin, the means of communication should 
be carefully studied, so that it may be free from cross 
draughts of cold air, and so that it may be dignified and 
room-like not a mere passage. It may have the air 
of an ante-room, but must not be crossed by entering 


bathers who have not divested themselves of their boots 
or shoes. Slamming doors should be avoided, having 
regard to the exposed condition of the bathers. 

In spite of the theoretical and sentimental advantages 
of separate cooling and dressing-rooms, a combined 
frigidarium and apodyterium seems to have found favour 

Personally, I would gladly enter a protest against the 
employment of the combined cooling and dressing room 
as a decidedly uncleanly habit. It is certainly not 
pleasant to know that, having obtained perfect physical 
cleanliness, both inwardly and outwardly, one must 
return to couches whereon previous bathers may, as 
likely as not, have, however temporarily, deposited more 
or less of their underclothing or superimposed raiment. 
But economy o# construction is nowadays a question 
that must be considered at every step, and the combina- 
tion apartment saves both space and materials, and is 
also economical as regards attendance. Moreover, it 
must be confessed that a cooling room provided with 
elegant and spacious divans, wherein the bather dresses 
and undresses, may be made very pleasing to the eye 
and withal comfortable and convenient. The dressing- 
boxes, too, of the separate apodyterium are not con- 
ducive to the general sense of comfort. 

In arranging the plan of a combined cooling and 
dressing room it is necessary to first decide as to how 
the apartment will be furnished viz. which of the plans 
above mentioned shall be adopted. This is much a 
matter of individual taste, though, as I have said above, 
the divan is to be preferred in many cases. It is often 


well to provide a cooling room of what may be called 
the " picturesque " order, or the reverse of stiff formality. 
By this I mean such an arrangement as 2, d. The 
bather can then choose between reclining in semi-privacy 
or in the open, or, again, resting in an easy chair. 
With a handsome plunge bath and a pretty little 
fountain, such rooms may be rendered very attractive. 

Whatever be the plan adopted, it must, I repeat, 
be carefully thought out previously, and not left as an 
afterthought. The size of the reclining couch will be 
found to be the governing feature. This should be 6 ft. 
6 in. long by 2 ft. 6 in. wide, or 6 ft. by 2 ft, according 
as luxury or economy is the end in view. Next to this 
must be considered the space allowed for each bather to 
dress in, and also the routes for bathers and attendants. 
Four feet between the couches is a sufficient space where 
couches are screened off in pairs. 

Couches may be arranged in pairs or singly. Two 
pairs of couches screened off with only a small space 
between of 4 ft. or so is an objectional arrangement. It 
is difficult to explain why this is so ; but the bather who 
has made one of four strangers thus closely penned up 
will appreciate the objection. An arrangement of four 
couches must expand into a spacious divan. 

At Fig. 5 are shown different ways of arranging 
couches in the frigidarium. A shows the objectionable 
arrangement spoken of; B is the comfortable, spacious 
divan ; G the method of placing couches in pairs ; and 
D is a private couch suitable for ladies' baths. 

The floor of a cooling room must be boarded. In a 
bath where cost is subordinate to excellence, a parquetry 



floor may be provided, and mats employed, as cleaner 
than fixed carpets. The walls and ceilings may be 
treated in any manner that may be chosen plastered, 
papered, or decorated with colour. 

FIG. 5. 






H T 


-aamftfo/ *roo<l j ere fas ajt 






? D Ivan 

four* coucfies 






\ 1 



^ Coucfi 
n" ' 

Methods of arranging Couches in Cooling Room. 

Any shaped room may be adopted as a combined 
frigidarium and apodyterium so long as it fulfils the 


essential points i.e. that it be spacious, capable of easy 
and perfect ventilation, and of being kept cool, light, 
and cheerful. In the cooling room the bather will often 
stay longer than in any other apartment, and no pains 
should be spared to render it healthy, comfortable, and 
attractive. The hygienic points to be attended to are, 
that there be an abundant supply of fresh cool air and an 
effective withdrawal of vitiated air ; for the cold-air bath 
in the cooling room is, in its way, as all-important as 
the bath of hot air. The freshness of the air is of 
equally vital importance, as much of the invigorating 
effect of the bath that effect which to the minds of the 
uninformed is weakening results from submitting the 
heated skin to volumes of cold air.* In arranging any 
screens or screen walls in the cooling room, therefore, 
regard must be had to the method of ventilation, that 
there be no stagnant corners and recesses. The scheme 
of ventilation must be decided by the nature of the 
apartment and its position. In most cases the air is 
best admitted through the windows, fitted with fan- 
lights falling backwards from the top, and extracted 
by a powerful self-acting exhaust at the ceiling level. 
In some positions extraction flues will have to be built, 
and, in others, flues of large area must conduct to the 
source from which the fresh air is drawn. Under 
certain circumstances perfect ventilation will not be 
obtainable without the aid of a powerful blowing fan- 

* Not draughts. The ancient Romans, it is curious to note, would 
walk in the open air after the bath ; and both the Frigidariutn of the 
Romans and the Mustaby of the Turks were, and are, open to the 


wheel driven by a motor of some sort, and running so 
as to exhaust the vitiated air. The means does not 
so much matter so long as the end be gained, and an 
ample supply of cool air obtained. A warm, close 
" cooling room " is worse than useless. In such places 
the bather will break out into renewed perspiration, 
and lie perspiring for hours, and become greatly 
weakened thereby, with a good chance of taking a chill 
on leaving the establishment. 

Cooling rooms will always remain sufficiently warm 
in all weathers if they be in any ordinary relation to 
the heated apartments ; but in the height of summer 
care is required to keep them sufficiently cool. Where 
simple, everyday precautions will not suffice, the air 
itself must be cooled, either by passing it through a cold 
chamber or over ice-boxes in inlet tubes, or through 
a water-spray. Only in exceptional cases, however, is 
it necessary to resort to such measures, as, contrary to 
the teachings of theorists, it has been found in practice 
that the proper temperature for the cooling room of 
a hot-air bath varies in different states of the weather, 
and should not remain constant all the year round. 




OF the many questions that merit attention and study 
in connection with the Turkish bath, all sink into insig- 
nificance by the side of that of the heating' and the 
nature of the heat supplied in the sudatory chambers. 
Other things being equal, it is, after all, the heating that 
distinguishes one bath from another on the score of 
excellence. The heating of the " bath " is the Alpha 
and Omega of the whole matter. 

There are two ways in which heat may be applied 
to the body by direct radiation, as from the sun or 
an open fire ; and by convection, as through a volume 
of air. 

The ancient Roman bathers, with floors below them 
which rested upon piles, or little pillars of brick or tile, 
around which the flames and hot gases from the furnace 
played, and surrounded by heated, hollow walls, evidently 
submitted themselves to the action of a heat that must 
have been of a purely radiating character. 

So, also, in a less perfect manner, the Turks, who 
employ flues running beneath the floors, and the Moors, 
who adopt stoves visible to the bathers. 

Theoretically, radiant heat in a bath is vastly superior 
to that which is transmitted to the body through the 


medium of the air. Its virtues have been extolled by 
David Urquhart and other eminent authorities on the 
bath. " There is a difference," says Mr. Urquhart, 
"between radiating and transmitted caloric. ... I 
cannot pretend to treat of this great secret of nature ; 
to work out this problem a Liebig is required. This I 
can say, that such heat is more endurable than common 
heat. There is a liveliness about it which transmitted 
heat lacks. You are conscious of an electrical action. It 
is to transmitted heat what champagne is to flat beer. 
. . . Let us drop, if you please, the word * bath ' : it is 
' heat.' Let us away with that absurdity ' hot-air ' : it is 
the application of heat to the human frame." Elsewhere 
this writer has pointed out that the terms thermce, sejac, 
and hammdm\hz names given to the bath by the 
Romans, Moors, and Orientals proper mean heat, and 
not " hot-air " or " hot-air bath." 

My own studies, observations, and experience lead me 
to the conclusion that the direction in which we shall 
improve the "Turkish bath" will be in the way of 
providing sudatories that shall give off pure, radiant heat 
in such a manner that the whole surface of the body may 
be sensible of a degree of heat, while the lungs may 
breathe comparatively cool air air that has not passed 
over the sides of a fiery furnace and been suddenly raised 
to an enormous temperature, but which has received 
its heat by a gentle and gradual process of warming. 
Under this system the heat of which we are sensible is as 
the gentle Zephyr to rude Boreas or the biting eastern 
winds. If we go into a kiln of brickwork, such as is 
employed in firing clay goods, after the charge has been 


removed and all fumes and odours have disappeared, we 
shall note the soft and balmy nature of the heat that 
radiates directly from the walls and vaulting. We are, 
to all practical intents and purposes, in a Roman laconi- 
cum. The thick walls have been highly charged with 
caloric during the firing of the bricks or other articles. 
They have absorbed vast quantities of heat, and are now 
giving off the same to the enclosed air and to ourselves 
standing within. In the old Roman bath the walls were 
charged with caloric by means of innumerable earthen 
tubes lining the sides of the laconicum, and covered 
with a peculiar plaster. But in both cases the nature of 
the resultant heat is identical. It radiates to one from 
all sides. There is no acrid biting of the face such as 
one feels in the worst type of hot-air baths ; no 
unpleasant fulness or aching of the head ; and no 
panting or palpitating. Such is the " bath " of pure 
radiant heat, a thing totally distinct from, and 
altogether of a different genus to, the bath of heated 
air. And one might be pardoned for the enthusiasm 
which would lead one to suggest that it is only in the 
supplying of this kind of radiant heat in the modern 
bath that true and rapid progress can be expected, and 
possibly that not until this great or partial according as 
the system of radiation and convection pertains in existing 
baths revolution has been effected, will the bath, at 
present used by the few, become the custom of the many. 
Some day, peradventure, this hypothetical method of 
employing pure radiant heat may be rendered possible 
and practicable, and we may be placed in a bath where 
we shall receive great heat whilst breathing a compara- 


tively cool atmosphere, and thus receive a measure of 
that electrical invigoration we experience when, in some 
sheltered bathing cove, we have exposed our bodies to 
the fiercest rays of the morning sun whilst yet we breathe 
the fresh, cool, ozone-laden air. 

Till modern invention, however, has provided us with 
this desideratum in the heating of the bath, we must be 
satisfied with existing methods. And unless something 
really practical is perfected, it is far wiser to rely upon 
the system of heating by convection through the air 
the principle, generally adopted, of continuously pass- 
ing large quantities of freshly-heated air through the 
sudatory chambers ; exposing, however, the heating ap- 
paratus, so that a maximum of radiant heat may be 
obtained ; and carefully guarding against injuring the air 
whilst raising its temperature. If only existing baths 
were in perfect harmony with this principle, one would 
have little cause for complaint, and might the more 
leisurely await the perfecting of the true radiating prin- 
ciple of heating, which I am satisfied is the one upon 
which we must base all our hopes for the future of 
the "Turkish "bath. 

For practical purposes, it will suffice if the method of 
heating and ventilating a bath on the hot-air principle 
be explained. This I shall now do, and subsequently 
give plans and instructions for methods of heating 
and ventilating on systems where, by the exposure of 
the heating surfaces of furnaces, a large proportion of 
radiant heat is thrown into the hot-rooms. 

The necessary appliances and arrangements for the 
heating and ventilation of a bath on the ordinary hot-air 


principle comprise a furnace in its chamber, with flues 
or shafts supplying cold, and drawing off the heated air, 
and a stokery with provisions for firing and storing coke, 
&c. Too often the stokery is unscrupulously cramped, 
and the life of the stoker thereby rendered anything 
but pleasant. Its design is a simple matter, and perhaps 
for this reason neglected. The arrangement and con- 
struction of the furnace chamber requires care, and the 
selection of a stove or furnace great j udgment. As regards 
the latter feature, the most important point to consider is 
the nature of the heating or radiating surfaces. What will 
raise the air to the required temperature, without in the 
process depriving it in any way of its vitalising elements, 
and without adulterating it with either smoke and 
fumes from leakage, or with particles of foreign matter 
given off from the material employed in its construc- 
tion ? 

There is nothing really better as a radiating surface 
than ordinary firebrick. From this material a soft heat 
is given off, differing in quality from that obtained from 
iron. An iron furnace, however, requires less thought 
in design, gives less trouble in fitting up, and is cheap, 
economical, and expeditious. Stoves, therefore, with an 
iron radiating surface, have been largely adopted in the 
past, in spite of the objection that, when super-heated, 
particles of metal are thrown into the air of the hot 
rooms. Of iron furnaces there are many placed before 
the public ; but though all are doubtless suited to 
ordinary requirements, there are few that are capable of 
creditably fulfilling the conditions indispensable for the 
hygienic heating of the air of a Turkish bath. 


. 1 

These conditions may be summarised as follows : 

1. A maximum of heating-surface, with a minimum of 
grate space. 

2. Perfect immunity from the danger of leakage from 
the furnace into the hot-air chamber or conduit. 

3. Freedom from the defect of liability to over-heat 
the air. 

4. Inability to adulterate the air by throwing off 
matter from the heating surfaces. 

Such primary essentials must be constantly borne in 
mind by the designer of furnaces for the Turkish bath. 
Their importance must be obvious to all. 

Of the many iron stoves, Messrs. Constantine's 
" Convoluted " stove has been adopted the most 
frequently, as an eminently practical furnace for the 
effective heating of the sudatory chambers. The 
appearance of this stove is familiar to all architects, 
and it will be unnecessary, in these pages, to minutely 
describe its construction. 

The method of constructing a furnace suitable for a 
small public bath is, however, shown at Fig. 6. The 
excavations for stokery and heating chamber being 
completed, and the position of the furnace determined, 
a solid foundation of concrete must be prepared, upon 
which the brickwork to support the stove must be laid. 
At the same time, the foundations for walls of furnace 
chamber, stokery, coke store, and the side walls for the 
horizontal cold-air conducting flues will be prepared. 
These latter must then be built in half-brick with glazed 
interior face, and the furnace inclosed in similar work, as 
shown in perspective sketch. The flues must be covered 



with York stone slabs 3 in. thick, up to within three inches 
or so of the convolutions of the stove, at which distance 
the side walls of the furnace must be erected, the back 
one similarly, and the front one round the four projecting 
doors, which are, respectively, the ash-pit door, the fire 

FIG. 6. 

View of a small Furnace Chamber, with portion of wall broken away 
to show the " Convoluted " Stove. 

door, and two doors for cleansing the horizontal smoke- 
box and interior of convolutions. The furnace walls 
must be continued up to a few inches ' above the bend 
of iron smoke flue, and then if, as shown, the furnace 
be small covered with a 4-in. York slab in one piece. 
If the furnace be large, a flat brick arch must form the 



covering, as at Fig. 8, where this arch supports the 
flooring of the laconicum. The openings for the ad- 
mission of the heated air into the conduit leading into 
the hot rooms may be either directly above, as shown in 
the last-named illustration, or in the side, as in Fig. 6, 
with inclined flues. As a rule, it is more economical, in 
heating on the principle now under consideration, to 
place the furnace below the level of the hot rooms ; 
but if desirable to place both on one level, the back wall 
of the furnace chamber becomes the party wall of the 
laconicum, and it must be stopped short of the ceiling, 
and the air debouched over it. 

In cheap baths the interior face of furnace chamber 
may be of stock brickwork ; but best glazed work should 
be adopted in good ones. All hot and cold-air ducts 
should be similarly lined with glazed ware. In first- 
class work the floors of horizontal and inclined flues 
should be of white glazed tiles set in cement. Manholes 
must be provided for cleaning when necessary. Every 
portion of furnace chamber, flues, shafts, and conduits 
for hot and cold air must be " get-at-able " either by 
means of manholes or by long brushes. Air-tight doors 
must be indicated on the plans wherever this necessity 
demands them. 

The iron smoke-pipe from furnace must be conducted 
to the smoke flue, and the connection between furnace 
chamber and flue hermetically sealed. The walls for a 
small furnace chamber need not be more than 4! in. 
thick. Large furnaces require walls one-brick thick. 

The cold-air flues leading from either side of the 
furnace must be conducted to their respective kilets. 



If possible, at least two inlets should be provided, facing 
different ways : this with regard to the possibility of 
certain winds drawing the air out where it is wanted to 
enter. The openings should be vertical, like windows, 
and, in cities, furnished with a solid frame and casement, 
fitted with louvres of plate glass with polished edges. 
Between the rebate and the casement it is a good plan 

FIG. 7. 

An Air Filter. 

to leave a space of an inch and a half for a movable 
stretcher-frame holding several layers of " cheese-cloth " 
to filter the air. The construction of such an air filter 
is shown at Fig. 7. The glass louvres keep out the 
wet, and throw off coarse particles of falling soot ; 
and the provision of a movable stretcher permits the 
cloths to be frequently changed for clean ones a very 

F 2 



important point, though little heeded, if not, perhaps, 
wholly ignored. 

FIG. 8. 

.SectLon on Ltne A 

Plans and Section of a Furnace Chamber, &c., for a Bath on the ordinary 
Hot-air Principle. 

The position of air intake is a matter of great import- 
ance, especially in large towns. It evidently is bad to 
draw a supply of air from the bottom of an area. Even 
the position shown in Fig. 8 is not good : the shaft 


should be carried higher. The best places for the in- 
takes are where there is always a current of pure air 
blowing, and away from smoky chimneys. Theoreti- 
cally, it would seem that the higher the level of intake 
the better ; but in cities, by going high we get among 
the belching chimney-tops, even if we escape the stag- 
nation below. Moreover, a high inlet with a strong wind 
tending to exhaust the air in the shaft might find the 
architect with the cold air sweeping through his bath, and 
all the heated air rushing up the supply-shaft. A large 
" lobster-back " automatically turning towards the wind, 
would in many cases prevent such a disastrous result. 
Even in low-level intakes, as I have said, trouble will 
sometimes arise from the same cause. This may be 
remedied by providing more than one inlet, so that only 
the one facing the current of air will be employed, the 
other being closed, which could be effected by fixing the 
glass louvres, spoken of above, on pivots, and connecting 
them with a rod and adjustable rack. It would be a very 
simple matter to make the wind itself automatically open 
and shut the louvres. 

The theory of the heating and ventilation of the hot 
rooms requires most careful study, and the particular 
scheme to be adopted in any new bath must be well con- 
sidered with respect to the restrictions of the site. At 
Fig. 8, I have endeavoured to show how to make the 
best of what is perhaps a bad job : the site only admits 
of ventilation at a back area, it is impossible to construct 
flues anywhere else, and the fresh air must be drawn 
from the same area. On the ground floor are cooling 
and dressing rooms ; the bath r-ooms are in the basement 


and the furnace in a sub-basement, reached from a 
passage at the end of the stairs for the bather. Two 
convoluted stoves are shown in a vault ; three air-inlets 
are provided, and the foul air is drawn up into the smoke 
flues, two in number, which, above, could join one another. 
Let us follow the air in its passage through the bath. 
Entering at the intakes, any coarse impurities are thrown 
off by the smooth louvres, and the tendency of finer 
particles to rush in is checked by the stretched canvas 
cheese-cloths. Thus deprived of its actually visible im- 
purities, the air passes through a longer or shorter conduit 
of glazed brickwork until it reaches the horizontal flues 
running to beneath the furnace walls, along which it is 
rapidly drawn, and, ascending between the walls and 
heating surfaces and between the two adjacent heating 
surfaces, absorbs the radiating heat and enters the 
laconicum by way of the rectangular shaft constructed 
above the vault spanning the two stoves. 

Questions of temperature I will omit for the present. 
The air, on passing through the laconicum, will be 
practically pure, as it is in such great bulk compared 
with the number of occupants of this highly-heated 
chamber, and it will not be absolutely necessary to 
provide ventilators. These should commence in the 
calidarium, and should, in the scheme of ventilation 
here considered, be so disposed that the nearer 
they are to the lavatorium and shampooing-room, 
the more frequent will they become. The object of 
this disposition of outlets for vitiated air is, that the 
cross currents thus created may not interfere with the 
main flow from the heating chamber to the lavatorium. 


Were too many ventilators to be placed near the hotter 
end of the sudatorium,this stream would be diverted. Too 
much of the freshly-heated air would flow out at these 
points, and the onward movement of the air would be 
enfeebled. There would then be difficulty in maintaining 
the temperature in the tepidarium and lavatorium. 

In passing onward through the various rooms, two 
changes are wrought in the air : it loses so much of the 
caloric with which it is charged for every foot it travels, 
and it becomes laden with the exhalations from the 
lungs of the bathers. A large proportion of carbonic 
acid is thrown into the air, and as the normal 
temperature of the human body remains, in a healthy 
person, at about 98 Fahr., and rises but a few points 
even when submitted to the action of heat, these 
exhalations, in addition to being heavier than air, are 
very much below the average temperature of a sudatory 
chamber. Consequently they fall, and must be extracted 
at the floor level. 

The total area of the outlets for vitiated air should be 
about equal to the area of the narrowest part of the 
shaft that conducts the fresh, hot air from the heating 
chamber. Thus, supposing the latter to be 5 superficial 
feet, and the size of outlet ventilators a clear 12 in. 
by 3 in., there may be 20 ventilators disposed round 
the bath-rooms, say 4 in the calidarium, 7 in the 
tepidarium, and 9 in the combined shampooing room 
and lavatorium. 

In the diagrams at Figs. 8 and 9 the foul-air conduit is 
the space comprised under the marble-topped benches 
running round the hot rooms. At the end of the laco- 



nicum they enter flues, which I have shown as running 
side by side with the smoke flues. 

Other methods of heating the air, besides those 
mentioned, include coils of iron flue-pipes in a brick 
chamber a principle that has been frequently adopted 
in the past and plain cylindrical iron radiating stoves, 
such as employed at the Hammam in Jermyn Street. 

FIG. 9. 

Cross Section oj Tepldorluro 

Section of Hot Room, showing Foul-air Conduit. 

In the latter plan, however, a great expense is created 
by the large number of furnace-fires to be kept con- 
stantly burning. An exposed stove in a hot room, 
has, moreover, the objection to its use that it re-heats 
the air in the bath, which should never on any account 
be done. 

If the iron stove-pipe system is adopted, a furnace 
similar to the one shown at Fig. 10 must be provided, and 
after an additional few feet of brick flue the iron pipe 
would commence and turn back upon itself much as the 
flue in the fire-brick furnace. Proper supports must be 


provided, and the pipes must be stout and jointed together 
with expansion joints, otherwise considerable difficulty 
will be found in keeping a long length of flue pipe 
perfectly free from leakage. Furnaces on this principle 
may be designed so that they throw a certain amount of 
radiant heat direct into the hot-rooms, and they possess 
this advantage over a mere stove, that they warm the 
air more gradually. The furnace should be built adjoin- 
ing the laconicum, the partition wall being of 4j-inch 
glazed brickwork, having a large number of small 
openings made therein by leaving void spaces as de- 
scribed further on for the fireclay heating apparatus. 
Behind this wall the iron flue-pipe should be placed, 
turning back upon itself, as described above, for perhaps 
half-a-dozen times, and ending in the vertical brick flue. 
The furnace itself should be of fire-clay, and so designed 
that its utmost heating power may be economically 
employed in warming the incoming air, which should 
pass over the furnace and iron flues, through the holes in 
partition wall, and thus into the hot rooms. The flue, 
if of wrought iron, should be rectangular in section, but 
if of cast-iron it should be round. 

The most economical way of obtaining a high tempe- 
rature in a small, inexpensive, and unpretentious private 
bath is by means of a common laundry stove, with a 
longer or shorter length of iron flue in the apartment. 
This is the cheapest and quickest method of raising the 
temperature of a room for sudorific purposes. 

To turn to methods of heating from a radiating 
surface of firebrick, at Fig. 10 I have given the plan, 
elevation, and sections of a fireclay heating apparatus, 



It is constructed wholly of fireclay fireclay bricks, 
quarries, and cement In the main it consists of a long 

FIG. 10. 

' - *' ~ -"- f^* f-'-'. *. .f^ri ., .** fcw~^-.f^< q.-^.> -,-.i.i 

Looattudtnal , Section 

A Fireclay Heating Apparatus. 

flue of firebricks and slabs, which coils backwards and 
forwards over itself till the desired amount of radiating 


surface is gained. Between the coils are spaces for 
super-heating the air already warmed by passing over 
the actual furnace and into the warm air chamber, the 
air passing through by means of perforated bricks. The 
illustration shows a simple furnace ; but it would be an 
easy matter to improve upon this by providing iron air- 
tight doors lined with fireclay, for cleansing flues and 
air-chambers. The example given is only suited to heat 
a small public bath. For a large set of hot rooms, a 
compound apparatus could be constructed by placing an 
additional furnace in a sub-basement, the one on the 
level of the sudatory supplying radiant heat, and the 
lower one hot air. Two such apparatus might be placed 
one behind the other, end to end, or might form the 
sides of the laconicum ; the last plan, however, being 
the least to be recommended, as in such positions they 
would not directly radiate their heat into the adjoining 
hot rooms. 

The advantage of such a furnace as that shown is 
that it supplies radiant heat of a most exhilarating kind, 
besides a proportion of heated air, and from a fireclay 
surface, the employment of which renders it absolutely 
impossible to overheat the air, or to contaminate it by 
deleterious particles resulting from the decomposition of 
metal. Moreover, the stoking of this class of furnace 
requires less arduous attention than an iron stove. Its 
disadvantage is that, should the temperature of the bath 
be allowed to fall markedly, it requires some time for 
the extra heat to be made up again. Inasmuch, how- 
ever, as fires at public baths must be kept banked up 
overnight, this is not a matter of importance. It is this 


very slowness of increase in temperature that constitutes 
the safeguard against that overheated air, the presence of 
which we can, with practice, detect by the smell in so 
many baths. The difficulties involved in the construction 
of a furnace of this nature relate to the prevention of 
cracking and consequent escape of sulphurous fumes and 
carbon into the air. The very simplicity of the con- 
struction of the flues and air-chambers constitutes the 
chief danger, as the chances are that, unless the architect 
stands by and sees every joint made, the work will be 
done badly. Absolutely faultless workmanship must be 
employed throughout, and the fireclay materials must 
be literally of the very best and soundest description. 
Every single joint must be perfectly made with fireclay 
cement or paste. The fireclay bricks, &c., must be 
selected with regard to the amount of indestructible 
silica in the clay, consistent with hardness and toughness. 
Homogeneity of material must be obtained, having 
regard to expansion and contraction. The same 
material used for the bricks, &c., worked into a paste, 
must be employed for the joints. 

The design for a furnace on the principle shown at 
Fig. 10 must be prepared with constant regard to ex- 
pansion and contraction in heating and cooling. Should 
this warning be disregarded, fractures will result. It 
will be seen, upon reference to the plans, that the block 
of flues and air spaces is left quite free, to allow of any 
expansion, the connection with the smoke-shaft being by 
means of an iron flue-pipe, which, being provided in 
considerable length before passing through the party- 
wall of laconicum and stokery, by its flexible nature 


permits any slight movement in a vertical direction. If 
an " expansion " joint were provided, there would be a 
sufficient length of iron pipe if it passed direct from the 
junction with the heating apparatus into the stokery. 
So much of the iron flue as is in the laconicum must be 
coated with asbestos or some composition, or the heating 
will not be wholly by firebrick. The junction of iron 
flue and heating apparatus is shown by a cast-iron cap 
sliding over a projecting rim of fireclay, moulded into 
the last quarry cover, similar to the way in which cast- 
iron mouthpieces are fitted to retorts. 

This heating apparatus is shown visible in the laco_ 
nicum, but if thought desirable it could be screened by 
a wall of glazed bricks 9 in. and miss 4^ in. The 4^ by 
3 in. holes can be arranged in diamond patterns. This 
screen wall, however, cuts off a large quantity of radiant 

The first flue past the actual furnace shown with 
ordinary dead-plate, raking fire-bars, ashpit, fire-door, 
and ashpit door for regulating draught has walls 4^ in. 
thick ; above, smaller bricks, 3 in. wide ; but in a larger 
apparatus, 9 in. and 4^ in. respectively would be 
required. The quarries between flues and air spaces 
are 24 in. by 24 in. by 3 in., with rebated joints. 
Larger covers would be more liable to crack at any 

In addition to heating by means of furnaces, steam- 
heating may be employed, if found, as in many cases 
it would be, convenient and economical. The chief 
disadvantage of this method of heating Turkish baths, 
is the constant danger, however slight, of bursting a 


pipe in the heating coil, which, by immediately filling 
the highly-heated atmosphere with vapour, might prove 
most disastrous to the occupants of the hot rooms, who 
would be seriously scalded. Nevertheless, the principle 
has been largely employed in the heating of the most 
recent Turkish baths in Germany. 

If adopted it may be either on the hot-air or radiating 
plan, as in heating by means of furnaces. In the first 
method the fresh air is introduced into a chamber con- 
taining a coil of steam-pipes, and passes thence into the 
laconicum by a shaft or conduit, as in the case of air 
heated by a stove. In the second method, steam 
radiators compact batteries of pipes must be placed 
in recesses in the hot rooms, fresh air being introduced 
over them. The steam-pipes employed should be of 
the " small bore " type, about | inch internal diameter, 
and of wrought iron or copper. In order to ensure as 
far as possible against the danger of explosion, the 
system of pipes should be tested, when fixed, by severe 
hydraulic pressure. 

It is certainly a great advantage, in point of ease 
and economy, to be able to warm a building, drive 
machinery, and heat Turkish and Russian baths 
from one boiler, which can readily be done, very 
ordinary pressures of steam giving sufficient heat to 
keep the radiators of the requisite temperature. But 
the nature of the heating accomplished by means of 
steam-pipes is very inferior to that from large radiating 
surfaces of firebrick. 

The average temperatures of a public bath should 
range from about 110 in the shampooing rooms to 


250-26o in the hottest part of the laconicum, taking 
the readings of the thermometer at a level of 6 ft. 6 in. 
above floor-line. Between the entrance of the heated 
air and its point of furthest travel in the shampooing 
rooms, the bather should be able to select any tempera- 
ture that may be most agreeable to him, and as many 
find by experience that a certain degree of heat is best 
suited to themselves, it shows attention to the habitues 
of the bath, if the hot rooms are carefully maintained at 
the same uniform temperatures throughout the year. 
This may be Iio-I2o in the shampooing rooms, 140 
in the tepidarium, 180 in the calidarium. and 250 in 
the laconicum. These must be the maxima of the 
average temperatures of each room at 6 ft. 6 in. above 
the floor. In a pure atmosphere the highest tempera- 
tures are comfortable, but in a foul one they become 

In a good bath, where there is a rapid and continuous 
flow of air, there will be comparatively little difference 
between the temperature at say 4 ft., 6 ft., and 8 ft. 
above the floor. In badly-ventilated rooms, where the 
air stagnates, there will be a considerable difference. 
And here we may note a serious objection to the heating 
of a bath by convection ; for while the head may be in 
a high degree of heat the feet are in comparatively 
cool air, whereas, if possible, it should be just the 
reverse. In convected heat, this of course applies in its 
entirety, as where so-called radiant heat is employed the 
evil is not quite so marked. And here, too, we may note 
the admirable nature of the Roman system of heating, 
where the floors radiated the majority of the heat, and 


the walls a slightly less amount. The fresh air under 
the ancient system must have entered through the 
cooler rooms, and being drawn towards the calidarium 
found its exit through the ceilings, at times by way of 
the regulating device mentioned by Vitruvius. Thus 
the ancient bather would not suffer the inconvenience 
that accrues to the bather in the modern hot-air 
bath, whose head, when he is standing upright, is in a 
considerably higher temperature than any other portion 
of his body. 

The temperature of a bath should not be regulated 
by the firing of the furnace. This should be regularly 
stoked, and kept at one uniform heat-giving condition. 
Bad firing and forced firing may crack the stove should 
it be of iron, and the air may be overheated. The 
temperature should be regulated by means of the 
hit-and-miss ventilators at the floor level. Fanlights 
between the various hot rooms, with screw-rod adjust- 
ment, serve as a means for regulating their relative 

The heating power of furnaces must be studied. 
Having calculated the cubical contents of the rooms to 
be heated, and given the heating power of the stove or 
apparatus to be employed per cwt. of metal or super- 
ficial foot of radiating surface, we arrive at the necessary 

Messrs. Constantine give the following tables to 
show the heating power of the " Convoluted " stove. 
The figures give the requisite size of stove to raise the 
air to about the relative temperatures I have mentioned 
before, and with ordinary firing. 


Weight of 

Sq. ft. of 
heating surface. 

Area capable 
of heating. 


sq. ft. 

cub. ft. 








69 ... 















.. 296 .. 


When different kinds of heating apparatus are em- 
ployed, their heating power must be carefully ascer- 
tained and calculations entered into, or it may be 
found necessary to resort to the costly and humiliating 
process of dragging out the stove or pulling down 
the furnace and refitting a larger one. This point is 
worth attention. Such mistakes are not unfrequently 

As regards the amount of air that should flow through 
the hot rooms, an allowance of 40 cubic feet per head 
per minute should be the minimum, if purity of atmo- 
sphere is to be maintained. In a bath, the importance 
of perfect ventilation cannot possibly be over estimated, 
as not only has the respired air from the lungs to be 
removed, but also the deleterious exhalations from the 
skin which are produced by perspiration. 

The allowance of 40 cubic feet per head per minute 
should not, if properly distributed, cause an unpleasant 
draught in any part of the hot rooms ; for it must be 
remembered that even in a highly-heated atmosphere 
a waft of air of the same temperature is felt to be cold. 
The main thing to be studied in this provision of a large 
volume of air is that the cold inlet be ample, and the 



passage from this intake to the point where the air is 
debouched into the laconicum equally roomy and un- 
obstructed. The rapidity of flow will depend upon the 
means provided for the extraction of the foul air. With 
large horizontal flues, and a capacious and tall shaft, the 
so-called natural system of ventilation will be as effec- 
tive as could be desired. Greater extraction power is 
gained if in the brick stack a smoke-pipe can be placed 
running up the whole height. In many cases mecha- 
nical ventilation could be employed with the greatest 
benefit. A powerful air-propeller fixed at the end 
of a system of horizontal flues under the floors of the 
hot rooms, and running so as to exhaust, would do away 
with all the objectionable odours and nastiness of many 

The purity or foulness of the air in the hot rooms 
forms all the difference between a good bath and a bad 
one, which latter is infinitely worse than no bath at all. 
There exist, at the present time, scores of baths where 
the odours of the sudatory chambers are nauseat- 
ing. Such foulness arises from stagnation of the air. 
There is no continuous flow, and the respirations and 
exhalations of the bathers are not removed. A sys- 
tem of ventilation may be pointed out, but it is on the 
wrong principle, and does not act. There is no change 
of air. The atmosphere of such places becomes pesti- 

Owing to the expansion by heat, a relatively greater 
volume of air enters the laconicum than the cold intake. 
This fact, however, does not practically affect the 
arrangements for ventilation, &c. Theoretically, how- 


ever, it would seem to demand that the shaft conducting 
from furnace to hot rooms should be of greater sectional 
area than that to the furnace from the intake about 
one-third larger and that the total area of outlets for 
the escape of vitiated air should be about midway 
between the two. 
__The whole principle of the ventilation of the hot rooms 

^.ofLaJTurkish bath resolves itself, primarily, into the fact 
that we have to continually remove the bottom layer of 

^cdr. The provision of the foul-air conduits below the 
floor level is equivalent to providing a suspended floor 

__witk a. hollow space under. This is just the reverse of 
the principle of ventilating rooms of ordinary tempera- 
jture, where we require to constantly remove the top 
layer, and often actually do so when we provide false 
ceilings to passages, &c. 

The ventilators placed at the floor level of the hot 
rooms should be actually so, and not 3 in. or 6 in. above. 
Long, wide gratings 6 in. deep are preferable to those of 
deeper and narrower design. In theory, indeed, the 
whole circumference of the hot rooms should be lined 
round with gratings, thus making the sudatorium like a 
lidless box inverted, into which hot air is thrown and 
escapes all round the bottom edges. 

There is one point about the circulation of air in a set 
of hot rooms that requires considerable attention, and 
that is the back-flow along the floor. In any bath where 
hot air is supplied, if the bather will hold his linen 
"check" across the top of the doorway between the 
rooms he will find that the air is flowing from the laco- 
nicum to the shampooing room. If, however, the sheet 

G 2 


be held across the lower portion of the doorway, he will 
find that there is a current of air setting in an opposite 
direction from the shampooing room to the laconicum. 
This is shown at Fig. 1 1. 




It will be seen from the diagram that the bather is 
really in this back-flow when he is standing between and 


in a line with the doors of the hot rooms. All the air 
appears to be travelling along the top of the bath, and 
the bather reclining on the marble-topped benches would 
seem to be bathed in air that has passed along the top 
of bath, round the shampooing rooms, and back along 
the floor. In reality, however, it is only from door to 
door that the currents exist exactly as shown at the 
diagram, Fig. n, there being a secondary circulating 
process in each room. 

This circulation of air will exist in any bath heated on 
the modern system that is to say, where freshly-heated 
air is passed in in sufficient quantity. It is a natural 
result, and tends to distribute the heat more equally. 
The back-flow is only objectionable when a door is 
opened direct from the heated shampooing rooms to a 
cooler apartment, as the plunge bath chamber. The 
bather standing in a line between the doorways may 
then feel a cold draught. To guard against this, double 
doors, with a small lobby between, should be provided 
to any means of communication .with a cold chamber. 

A set of hot rooms could be constructed so that the 
bather would be in the top current of air that flows from 
the heating apparatus. By reference to Fig. II the 
reader will understand that by the provision of a plat- 
form or grating midway between the floor and ceiling 
this end would be attained. 

The atmosphere of the sudatorium must be perfectly 
free from vapour. "Perfect dryness of the air," says 
Mr. Urquhart, " is indispensable to the enduring of a 
high temperature. . . . This dryness is further requisite 
for electrical isolation. With vapour in the chamber an 


atmosphere is created injurious to health and conducive 
to disease. It is the very condition in which low, putrid, 
and typhus fevers flourish. The electrical spark will not 
ignite in such an atmosphere, and the magnet will lose 
its attractive power. We all know the difference of our 
own sensations on a dry and on a damp day." 




THE water-fittings of a Turkish bath include a boiler 
of some form for heating the water, a cold-water cistern, 
and a hot-water tank; supply-pipes, flow and return 
pipes, and branch pipes ; lavatorium fittings, comprising 
bowls, basins, and cocks ; douche room fittings, as the 
" needle " bath, shower, douche, spray, and " wave " 
baths ; a warm shower-bath for bathers entering the 
bath, or desiring such a shower at intervals ; and the 
fittings of the plunge bath. In addition to this there 
may be required a drinking fountain in the tepidarium, 
and an ornamental fountain in the frigidarium ; lava- 
tories in various positions ; and, possibly, fittings and 
appliances for the laundry. 

Premising an ample supply of pure water, it must be 
brought into the building through a water-meter to the 
cold water cistern, which should be at a sufficiently high 
level to obtain a good "head." This cistern must be 
capacious and properly connected, on the ordinary circu- 
lating principle, with a hot water tank and boiler. Of 
suitable boilers there are several in the market, of many 
and varied designs. Simplicity of construction should 
be the guide to a selection. The boiler will perhaps its 
most conveniently placed in the stokery, and have be 


separate furnace and flue, any scheme for combining the 
heating of the hot rooms and of the water being out of 
the question. In small baths, however, the hot-water 
tank may, for economy's sake, be placed near the ceiling 
in the laconicum. Where waste steam can be obtained, 
a water super-heater, with steam coil, may be employed 
with advantage ; but in the majority of cases the 
ordinary circulating system will be found the most 

The supply-pipes must be of large section, and 
indeed, the whole scheme of water-fitting should be 
liberal. It must be remembered that, in addition to 
the wants of the lavatorium and douche room, plunge, 
&c., there will be a large amount of water required 
for laundry purposes, if washing be done upon the 

The cold supply cistern may, by the exigencies of 
the case, be kept down as low as the ceiling of the bath- 
rooms, and be placed over some subsidiary apartment 
This does not give much pressure of water. For all 
purposes it is best to have the cistern at a minimum 
height of about 20 ft. above the draw-off taps and 
valves of the various bathing appliances. This will 
ensure a good head of water, and make the douche a 
formidable affair. 

The pipes, unions, tees, valves, and cocks should all 
be of the best description in so important a work as the 
fitting-up of a public bath. Ordinary bungling plumbing 
is here out of place. Lead piping should be discarded 
for all but very cheap work, and iron employed in its 
stead, with proper screwed joints, angles, and tees. 


Should there be sufficient means, copper piping should 
be employed for anything under I in. internal diameter, 
and gunmetal should be used for unions, &c., and for 
cocks and valves. 

Handsome, large, and well-made water-fittings con- 
duce, in no small degree, to the effect of a bath. There 
should be no attempt at hiding away of pipes, &c. 
They should be made features of the bath, and be 
designed with care and neatly finished. Every pipe, 
joint, and connection should be prearranged, and the 
means of fixing and supporting the same carefully 
designed. Boxings, and the like, should be discarded, 
and everything frankly exhibited. The day for mys- 
terious plumbing has gone by. There is some beauty 
even in a pipe. 

To consider the fittings, we will commence with the 
lavatorium. Branches from the hot and cold water 
supply pipes must be conducted to each shampooer's 
basin. These may be finished separately, with in- 
dependent nozzles, as at Fig. 12; or the pipes may be 
connected with the valve shown at Fig. 13, about 18 in. 
above the basin, the outlet of the valve being fitted with 
a foot or 1 5 in. of indiarubber hose. In the latter case 
the pipes and valve would stand some 9 in. from the 
wall, and depend from the horizontal supply pipes, 
which in their turn could be carried on wrought-iron 
brackets affixed to the wall, or be hung by iron ties, as 
indicated by dotted lines at Fig. 16. The internal 
diameter the measurement given in all the figures of 
these branch pipes to taps over shampooing basins 
should be f in. 



Cocks and valves for the purposes of the Turkish 
bath are best of the " gland" pattern. They should 
have bold handles. Those of the screw-down type are 

useless, except as stop-cocks. Roundways should be 
used, and, to insure freedom of running, the turning 
part should be equal to the inner diameter of the pipes. 
The whole should be of gunmetal, and, if the pipes to 



be used be of iron, screwed at the end. Fig. 13 shows 
the type of valve to be employed to regulate the 
temperature of water for shower baths, &c. To be 

FIG. 13. 

Valve for Regulating Temperature of Water. 

useful, as well as bold and effective in appearance, the 
handles should be large. 

In every case, the cold water must be placed on the 
right hand, and the hot on the left. 

The earthenware basin is provided to hold water 


mixed to the required temperature. A waste and over- 
flow are not shown in the illustration, but they should 
be provided. The basin is best wide and shallow- 
shallower than shown. There should be no over- 
hanging ledge to catch the shampooer's hand-basin ; for 
this reason I have shown, at Fig. 12, the basin sunk into 
the marble slab, instead of the marble being on top, as 
ordinary. The copper hand-basin is provided for the 
shampooer to take water from the earthenware basin 
and throw over the shampooing slab, or over the bather. 
In addition, a wooden, copper-banded soap-bowl must 
be provided. 

Should there be a row of shampooing basins and 
benches, the horizontal supply-pipes must be continued 
along the wall, and branches dropped to each basin. 
The basins are most conveniently placed when raised 
somewhat higher than the benches. In the illustration 
given, I have shown how to arrange horizontal foul- 
air flues under the basins. In other cases the fixing of 
the basins will be much simpler. For pure lavatorium 
purposes these basins, cocks, &c., are all the water- 
fittings to be considered ; but in an apartment com- 
bining the purposes of douche room and perhaps a 
plunge bath chamber as well as a washing and mas- 
sage room, more or less of the fittings about to be 
described will have to be accommodated. 

The tonic appliances for treating the bather subse- 
quently to the shampooing, the soaping, and the cleans- 
ing, are various. The most useful is the simple shower 
bath, with a very large rose, and amply supplied with 
water through a regulating valve. It is employed for 


thoroughly cleansing the bather before he enters the 
plunge, whose waters are for the common use of all. 
In many small baths its place is efficiently taken by 
an ordinary hand rose or spray of the kind shown at 
Fig. 15. The shower proper is usually fixed above 
the "needle" bath, as at Fig. 14, or formed by a con- 
tinuation of the " backbone " of the needle. It is best 
to have separate regulating valves for the needle and 
shower, as at Fig. 16 ; but at Fig. 14 it is shown with a 
branch from the pipe conducting to the needle, and with 
stop cocks. The needle-bath is a skeleton-like structure 
having a large hollow backbone and branching ribs. 
The water ascends the backbone, and, passing into 
the ribs, squirts out of small holes punctured in their 
internal circumferences. The bather stands in the 
centre of the apparatus, with the ribs encircling him. 
The ribs should be of J-in. copper piping, the backbone 
and lesser supports being of iron, 2j and ij in. diameter 
respectively. In a convenient position for the attendant 
must be placed the regulating valve. 

A more elaborate contrivance may be made, which 
will include needle, shower, ascending shower, spinal 
douche, and back shower ; but this should be left for 
hydropathic institutions and invalids. Simplicity in 
these matters should be the great desideratum. The 
above-named additions, however, may be briefly de- 
scribed. At Fig. 14 I have indicated the position of 
ascending shower. It would be connected with the 
pipe supplying needle and shower, and have a stop-cock. 
The spinal douche is a little nozzle behind the shower 
proper, and should have similar connection with the 



supply-pipe. The back shower or spinal spray would 
be a rose placed ab.out half-way up the iron backbone, 
and be connected in the same manner. Avoid these 
complications in a bath for healthy persons. 

The needle bath is best left exposed, but it may be 

FIG. 14. 

A Needle Bath. 

enclosed in a metal shield if desired. This bath may 
be placed in one of three positions (i) in the shampoo- 
ing room, (2) in a separate chamber, (3) in the plunge 
bath chamber. It is most conveniently placed where the 
bather passes it en route from the washing room to the 



plunge. For this appliance a good head of water is 
absolutely essential, as with a low pressure it is very 
ineffective. The illustration shows the bath standing on 
iron shoes. If fixed in a corner, as ordinarily, it can be 
secured to the wall by such cramps or brackets as may 
be necessary. 

Besides the needle and shower, as above, the tonic 
bathing appliances may include an ordinary horizontal 
douche that can be pointed in any direction, a 
spray, or large rose, and a " wave." These three 
appliances may be placed together as at Fig. 15. They 
are connected to the pipes from the regulating valves 

FIG. 15. 

ft Ware Douche 

fit fttjalafur) 


Spray, Wave, and Douche Baths. 

by means of a foot or so of flexible hose. To this is 
secured a tapering copper pipe. The douche has a gun- 
metal nozzle. It is directed against the back and spine, 
but must not be used upon the head or chest. With a 
good head of water this is a most powerful appliance, 
feeling more like a rod of some solid substance pressing 
against one than a stream of water. The "wave" 



is formed by a copper spreader. The spray is simply a 
large rose, 6 in. or 8 in. diameter. 

It may be found convenient to arrange the valves for 

the whole of the above-mentioned appliances together, 
as at Fig. 16. Each pair of hot and cold handles 
are here brought together. These handles should be 
long, so as to admit of easy regulating of the tempera- 


ture of the water ; they may well be 9 in. in length,, 
The douche, wave, and spray should be kept as close as 
possible to the handles that regulate their temperature. 

I would repeat the caution that it is very necessary 
to beware of complications in these water-fittings and 
appliances. Some of the more " fussy " contrivances 
as, for example, the elaborated needle bath as above 
described require so much regulating, and so many 
valves and stop-cocks, that it is quite an undertaking for 
the attendant to set them going. Simplicity in design 
and construction should be observed in this work : 
the pipes as few as need be ; the valves as simple as 
possible ; and the whole put together in a manner 
that will permit of their being easily examined and 

I have before hinted at the desirability of making 
some sort of provision whereby the bather may, on 
entering the bath, have a warm spray or shower, of any 
temperature that may be agreeable to him. In high 
class baths this feature should always be provided, as it 
is a great luxury, and, moreover, to certain constitutions 
a necessity, thus to be able to take such a shower before 
entering the hot rooms, or at such intervals during the 
sojourn in these apartments as may be desired. The 
proper position for this shower-bath requires some con- 
sideration. Were it only for the entering bather that it 
should be provided, it would be best placed in a lobby 
near the entrance to the hot rooms ; but as the occupants 
of the hot rooms may frequently desire some such shower, 
it must be arranged with regard to this fact. It should be 
convenient for the entering bathers and for those in the 



bath. A small chamber entered by doors from the lobby 
to the tepidarium, and also from the tepidarium itself, 
would be convenient. At times it may be placed in a 
nook off the shampooing room. Wherever it be placed, 
the apparatus provided for the purpose of the shower 
must be such as can be managed by the bather himself, 
so as not to take up the time of the attendants ; and for 
this reason it must be capable of easy regulation, and 
free from liability of scalding the user, unless through 
gross carelessness. A valve with one handle only must 
be employed, as, unless the bather has had some prac- 
tice, it is difficult to obtain this immunity from danger 
of scalding when two handles are used. A valve such 
as that shown at Fig. 17 should be employed. This 
valve must be so designed as to supply cold, tepid, 
and hot water in regular gradation not intermittently, 
as do some valves of this description. It must be so 
placed that any one taking the shower may, whilst be- 
neath the rose, be able to easily reach the handle. The 
rose should not be less than 6 in. or 7 in. diameter. 
Fig, 12 illustrates the complete fitting up of this bather's 

In hydropathic establishments it might be an improve- 
ment to add a small foot-bath, formed by a sinking of 
about 6 in. in the floor, and filled with hot water ; for 
physiologists tell us it is bad for invalids to enter the 
hot rooms with cold feet. Supply pipes, a waste, and 
overflow would have to be provided for this bath, and 
a marble seat might be placed round it. A marble 
coping and mosaic flooring would render it pleasing in 



I have hereinbefore, at Fig. 4, given plan and sections 
of a plunge bath, and shown its water-fittings. The 

FIG. 17. 

<3. y 6 3 o 

~Co/>per bell 

Gjiamctol Rose, 


Bather's Shower Bath. 

overflow and waste run into cast-iron drainpipes, which 
should be employed till outside the building. On the 

H 2 


end of the overflow pipe is screwed a gunmetal rose with 
leather packing, the screw-holes being drilled into the 
flange of pipe. For the waste I have shown a " disc " 
valve of gunmetal. This is similarly screwed to flange 
of pipe, and with leather packing. The valve is opened 
and closed by a movable rod. If fixed, it might catch 
the toes of the swimmer, and for this reason it would 
perhaps be best to set the valve itself back in a recess. 
Instead of this valve, an ordinary 4-in., 5-in., or 6-in, 
" plug " waste could be employed, but it is rather clumsy 
on such a scale. When practicable, a screw-down valve, 
with wheel and spindle outside the bath, is the best 
means of letting out the waste water. The supply-pipe 
should be connected with the main supply just after 
the water meter. The valve should be of the " screw- 
down " pattern, either with a thumbscrew, wheel and 
spindle, or a key. 

In coast towns, where a sea-water plunge may be 
employed, a little rose on a bracket should be provided 
in a convenient position, for cleansing the hair from 
salt water. 

Of the lavatory fittings in the cooling room, and of 
the rt sanitary " water-fittings, it is unnecessary to speak, 
except to say that, in a place devoted to the attainment 
of cleanliness, plumbing of this nature should be as 
perfect as possible. 

A drinking fountain is a desirable feature in the 
tepidarium of a bath of any pretension. It should be 
placed at the coolest end of the room, affixed 
to a, wall, and provided with a supply-pipe, waste, 


and tap of some sort. The bowl is best formed of 
glazed earthenware. 

If an ornamental fountain be required in the frigi- 
darium, it should be of terra-cotta or modelled glazed 
ware, and must be provided with supply-pipe, waste, 
and means of regulating the jet of water. A fountain 
is a very desirable addition to a cooling room, as it is 
restful to the ear, and may be made pleasant to the 
eye by means of flowers and plants arranged around 
and upon it. 




LIGHT and shade being the soul of all ornamental effect, 
we may well consider first the methods of lighting the 
bath. As a rule, much artificial light will be required. 
The hot rooms, being often in a basement, are_as-^a 
rule but feebly illumined from areas and the like. 
Seeing that purity of atmosphere in these apart- 
ments is of so vital importance, the method of artificial 
lighting adopted should not be such as impregnates the 
air with obnoxious and harmful, if unnoticeable, fumes. 
Gas, for this reason, used in the ordinary manner, is 
objectionable, as the ventilation being by means of low- 
level exits for the foul air, the products of combustion 
must of necessity pass by and envelop persons below 
the burners, though, of course, in a diluted state. 
Should, therefore, gas-lighting be employed in a suda- 
tory chamber, it should for preference be on one of 
those systems whereby the burner is cut off from the 
atmosphere of the room, and provision made for carrying 
off the fumes. Happily, the use of electric lighting is 
at last increasing with marked rapidity ; and the incan- 
descent light is admirably adapted for all purposes of 
the Turkish bath. Where it can possibly be adopted 
it is a great addition to a bath. 


For cooling room purposes gas is not so objectionable, 
except that it is heating, and assists in vitiating the 
atmosphere. But inasmuch as the fumes in this case 
will ascend with the general body of air, the objection 
to gas is much lessened in these apartments. Never- 
theless, the electric light is the illuminant to be 

^Pfee-qualitY of the lighting in the cooling room should 
be_^tojned and softened. It is not a place for brilliant 
general illumination, but rather for a soft light pervading 
the whole, and auxiliary lights where required, such as 
near couches, &c. a system, in fact, diametrically 
opposed to sun-burner illumination. Nothing more 
objectionable of its kind can well be imagined than a 
glaring light in the ceiling of a cooling room. It would 
be found intolerable. 

For practical purposes, the greatest amount of light 
required in any part of a frigidarium is that at the 
heads of the couches, where it must be of such strength 
as will admit of comfortable reading. One gas-burner, 
or one small incandescent lamp, to every two couches 
is a fair allowance. If effect be desired, there is, of 
course, much in the distribution of the illuminating 
agent that affects for good or evil, and the placing 
and the relative powers of the lamps or burners must 
be considered. The dominant point of light might 
be a prettily-designed lantern with a few brilliant points 
of colour in it, depending from a chain over a fountain, 
throwing its rays downwards on to the falling waters, 
and not in the eyes of those bathers who may be 
reclining upon the couches. 


Throughout the bath, in either natural or artificial 
lighting, by windows or lamps, it should be the aim 
not to throw strong light in the eyes of the bather a 
principle of universal application, but especially to be 
regarded in a place where, more often thaa not, the 
occupants of the various apartments are reclining, face 
upwards, on benches or couches. In the hot rooms, 
as in the cooling room, little general illumination is 
required. A bright artificial light in such places seems 
especially painful to the eyes. What light, therefore, 
may be provided in the sudatory chambers, should 
be as diffused as possible, the additional lights for the 
few who practise reading in these apartments being so 
arranged as not to be objectionable to the majority of 
bathers. The lights should be shaded so as to throw 
their rays downwards in a very small compass. 

Considerably more light is required in the lavatoria 
and shampooing rooms. In scheming the plan of 
bath rooms in a basement, where daylight can only be 
obtained at one point, it is desirable, if practicable, to 
arrange the shampooing room so that it may enjoy the 
benefit of this light. 

For effect, the scale of lighting in the bath rooms 
may be a rather dark laconicum, and a gradually- . 
increased amount of light from thence to the sham- 
pooing room. The plunge-bath chamber shoukl__be__ 
well lighted, but not above the tone of the frigidarium, 
^ or the bather will feel to be going from cheerfulness to 
comparative gloom, which would be unpleasant. A 
bright, warm light should be that in the plunge-bath 
chamber, with perhaps an ornamental lamp over~the 


bath itself; and if the intermediary staircase should 
there be such a feature be lighted on a lower scale, the 
effect on entering the frigidarium will be a cheerful 


Under this heading, I would speak of the means of 
obtaining effect in a bath, of the materials to be 
employed, and of the design of features of the effect 
of the whole and the proportions of its parts, rather 
than of anything implying the laying on of so-called 

The architecture of a bath is interior architecture as 
distinct from that involving external work. Much of 
this, moreover, can often only be seen by artificial light. 
These two restrictions point to the employment, for the 
most part, of surface decoration, rather than of model- 
ling of tiles, mosaics, marbles, in place of mouldings, 
cornices, and pilasters. 

There are three features of the bath that are fit 
subjects for handsome designing, and they are the 
frigidarium, the tepidarium, and the plunge bath. There 
is an excuse for elaborating the first two, in that these 
are the apartments in which the bather remains the 
longest time ; and as for the plunge, it is in itself an 
object capable of giving a very pleasing effect. Over- 
elaboration in respect to added ornament in the hot 
rooms, however, gives an air of incongruity. Simplicity, 
with good proportions, seems here the most pleasing. 
The general effect of the hot rooms should be light, a 


statement which is wholly in harmony with what I have 
said on their lighting, though it may not at first sight 
appear to be so. The tone of the ceilings and walls and 
floors should be light, the darkest portions being a dado. 
A generally dark and heavy tone of colouring is very 
oppressive in a sudatory chamber. Keep them light : 
light ceilings of plaster for cheap baths, and of lightly 
decorated, large, thin tiles, or lightly-tinted enamelled 
iron, for more expensive establishments ; light walls of 
white, ivory, cream, or buff glazed bricks, without start- 
ling bands of a vulgar, as distinct from a really bold, 
contrast ; and mosaic floors of a light filling-in and not 
too dark pattern. The risers to marble-topped benches 
may be of another tone, but not too dark ; and, in place 
of a dado of bare glazed bricks, it is perhaps best to 
stretch Indian matting to keep the bather from the 
burning wall, as at Fig. 20. This will necessitate fillets 
affixed to plugs in the brickwork. Woodwork looks 
best dark and polished, affording an agreeable contrast 
to the lighter materials. 

Bright points of colour may be obtained by stained 
glass in ceiling-lights or windows, and at night by 
coloured glass shades over lamps, &c. 

The use of iron joists with glazed brick arches 
between is not to be recommended for the ceilings of 
the hot rooms. To say the least, it is a heavy-looking 
arrangement. Enamelled iron may be made to look 
very well if affixed in sheets of delicate tint with light 
patterns, and affixed with "buttons" with enamelled 
heads to the fireproof floors, as at Fig. 18. Large thin 
tiles make an admirable ceiling for small baths. They 



may be fixed with ornamental wood fillets, or made 
with screw-holes and affixed to ceiling joists. 

Glazed brickwork for the walls of hot rooms, &c., 
should be specified to be executed with an extra neat 
joint, and should bond to less than 12 in. to the foot ; 
otherwise the effect of the unwieldy mortar joints is 

FIG. 1 8. 

Sec r ion, 
3-0' . 

Plan., looking up. 

Section and Plan of an Enamelled Iron Ceiling. 

clumsy. This applies equally to walling and to arches 
and vaults. Work which may pass as fair in ordinary 
cases, looks coarse and rough in the glazed interior walls 
of a bath. In selecting glazed bricks there is some 
difficulty in obtaining really delicate tints ; much of the 
work produced is unfortunately of a very crude 


One portion of the tepidarium, and other bath rooms, 
admits of being rendered very attractive ; and that is 
the flooring. Mosaic work is always pleasing, if it be 
designed with taste and executed artistically. Marble 
and tile mosaics are both good, the former admitting 
of a richness of effect quite its own, and the latter of 
brilliant colouring. In designing marble-mosaic floors, 
however, one may well fight shy of including that 
senseless, purposeless description which is nowadays so 
often employed as a filling-in between borders. I refer 
to the heterogeneous jumble of every colour mixed 
without regard to one another, and giving at a distance 
a dirty grey tone, and near at hand an effect like a 
gravel walk covered with faded cherry-blossom to be 
flattering. Despite the fact that this method of design 
is of antique origin, and has a real classical designation, 
I cannot but think that it is to be avoided, and that 
fillings-in should be made with tesserae of one tint, or 
that mosaic should be abandoned altogether. 

Given the means, it is easy to render a set of bath 
rooms elaborate, with fai'ence and modelled glazed ware, 
marbles and painted encaustic tiles, and many other 
suitable but expensive materials ; but for my own part 
I prefer to see comparative simplicity in a sudatory 
chamber, though by this I do not mean monastic 
severity of style. 

The general air of the frigidarium requires some 
consideration. It should have an effect of its own, 
quite distinct from anything else. It should have 
something of the conservatory in it. It should be 
richly carpeted, have much woodwork about it, and 


be pleasant with plants and laden with the murmur of 
falling waters. It should be light, certainly ; cheerful, 
cool, and airy looking ; and as lofty as possible within 
reason and common sense. The ceiling should be of 
a light tone. A lantern-light where the light may come 
in, rather than be seen, and where the vitiated air may 
go out, is a pleasant and useful addition. 

Points for emphasising with a view to ultimate effect 
are the stairs to hot rooms if a staircase be needed 
the divans or screens for couches, and an ornamental 
fountain as above described. The staircase may be 
rendered attractive with bowl newels, and perhaps white 
marble treads to the stairs. The divans may be 
rendered things of beauty by designing ornamental, 
open-work wood partitions, in either an Oriental style 
or otherwise. It is not easy to make small dwarf 
partitions, enclosing a couple of couches, look handsome. 
As a rule, they are of a flimsy and gimcrack order of 
architecture. They should be made as solid as possible. 
For effect there is nothing better than prettily-designed 

As regards style, I do not see why one method of 
design should be more suited than another for the bath. 
Having become popularly known as the " Turkish " bath, 
an Eastern or Saracenic style has been often adopted 
in the past. And, inasmuch as such style is essentially 
an interior style of architecture, there is something to be 
said on this score. It is, moreover, a style in which 
surface decoration pertains rather than modelled work, 
or, at least, the modelling is in very low relief. There 
is yet ample scope for the display of skill in the design 


of a bath in an Oriental style, as hitherto such attempts 
have only been made in a half-hearted manner ; and in 
many smaller commercial baths the unskilful use of 
the style has vulgarised it to no small extent* 

Considering that the old Romans brought the bath 
to a great pitch of excellence far, very far, I should 
be inclined to say, in advance of our present knowledge 
of the subject their style of architecture would seem 
fitted to its design at this day ; and for large public 
baths, larger than any yet erected in this country, one 
can imagine that a very interesting design could be 
made in the Roman style, founded on a study of the 
old baths, and, for the sake of the interest attaching to 
them, reproducing many of the original mosaics, pictures, 
details, &c., of the public baths of the time of the Empire. 
In a like manner in the Moorish style one could obtain 
a very elegant effect by a careful study of old baths in 
Eastern countries,! drawing, perhaps, some inspiration 
from the courts of the palaces of the Moors, with their 
pleasant retired air, for the frigidarium. I have often 
thought, when looking at the late Owen Jones' splendid 
model at the Crystal Palace, what an admirable frigi- 
darium the Court of the Lions would make, with its 

* I do not know of any building bath or otherwise, civil or domestic 
in this country where the true spirit of Oriental colour decoration has 
been grasped. One of the chief principles which seems to have been 
missed is that in real Saracenic art the colours are employed in very 
small portions only, and no colour becomes insubordinate to the general 

t Here is a branch of architectural design absolutely unstudied. Few 
architects visit the East, and none enter the baths there, either in Egypt, 
Turkey, or Morocco. The ordeal of the true Oriental shampooing 
doubtless deters the few who might be curious about these buildings. 


spacious central area, and retired nooks suitable for 
couches, and its pretty sparkling fountain and green 
plants, its brilliant colouring, and general cheerfulness 
of effect Similarly, in a Roman style, a Pompeian 
court seems suggestive of the arrangement of a fine 
frigidarium, with its cubicula for couches, and its central 
area and fountain. 

The above are but theoretical suggestions as to what 
might be done should the bath make such progress in 
this country as may necessitate the provision of hand- 
some public baths for the people. In every-day 
practice there is not a great field for elaborate design- 
ing in baths. Although only the Roman and Eastern 
styles have been mentioned, there can be no manner of 
reason why an architect should not design his bath in 
whatsoever style he may please. 

I have spoken of the plunge bath as a feature capable 
of being rendered a thing of beauty. This is in reference 
as much to its plan as to the materials of the sides and 
floor, &c. There is no reason why a plunge should 
always be a plain oblong on plan. It may be of any 
of the shapes indicated at Fig. 19. Many bathers, 
especially in warm weather, like to stay some minutes 
in the plunge, and not go straight through ; they may 
like to swim up and down the bath, and thus require 
room to turn, and a keyhole plan, such as at A, is suit- 
able, and especially useful where the bather has to return 
to the end of bath he entered. Another shape is shown 
at B. In ladies' baths still more margin for novel 
planning is allowable, as here the true dive seldom 
pertains. A delicate semi-oval plan, such as that at D, 



which is much after the pattern of the Roman bath 
recently discovered at Box, could be employed ; or a 
plain, circular bath with steps around, such as that of 

FIG. 19. 

-t U-, 


R *s 


Z ' 


1 ' rfr^V 


IU-V r 

Plans of Plunge Baths. 

the Pompeian Balneum, shown at C ; or, again, such a plan 
as that at E, after the classic one at Bognor in Sussex. 
For inspirations as to the plans of plunge baths, we 
cannot do better than refer direct to the old Roman 
remains, either in Italy itself, or in Great Britain and 
other provinces and colonial dependencies of the old 


Empire. The Romans were fully alive to the possibilities 
of the plunge bath as a subject for artistic design, and 
often produced baths of great beauty. 

The flooring and sides of these baths should be of a 
light tint, and there should always be more or less 
pure white. Nothing really is better than plain white 
glazed bricks, with neat joints. With this bottom the 
water always looks clean when it is clean, and shows 
contamination when it exists. Marble-mosaic floorings 
should be chiefly of white tesserae, any simple patterns 
being executed in light tints. Delicate tints, such as 
strawberry, pea green, and peacock blue, look well 
through the water. The floor of the plunge bath may 
thus be made very pretty. The sides are best of glazed 
brickwork, neatly executed, and coping and treads of 
steps of so-called white marble. 


The work of the upholsterer in fitting up a Turkish 
bath comprises the complete furnishing of the cooling 
room with couches, lounges, ottomans, carpets, mats, 
and any chairs and tables that may be required, besides 
the usual furniture common to all rooms. In the 
sudatory chambers may be required easy chairs of 
peculiar construction, with stretched canvas seats ; 
in some cases movable wooden benches in lieu of fixed 
marble-topped ones ; and any carpeting, matting, felt 
for benches, curtains (if any), and Indian matting for 
dadoes. These are the principal requirements that need 
consideration, the remaining furnishing of subordinate 



apartments being, of course, of commonplace and ordi- 
nary description. The refreshment department requires 
possibly a coffee-maker, refrigerator, ice-box, and shelf 
fittings; but, as a general rule, no arrangements for 
actual cooking. 

The cooling room couches are usually made 6 ft. by 
2 ft. ; but 6 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. is a more liberal 
allowance. They should be made of polished wood, 
strongly framed, stuffed with horsehair and covered 
with a red Turkey twill, as at A, Fig. 21. Where divans 
are adopted, on the Eastern model, the benches must 
be framed of wood, permanently fixed, and covered 
with mattresses kept in their places by a wooden fillet, 
as Fig. 20. Above the couch thus formed it is well to 
stretch a dado of Indian matting, affixed above to a 
moulded rail. 

The carpets employed in the cooling room should be 
soft to the tread. Nothing, of course, equals a Persian 
or Turkey carpet, and one .or the other should be pro- 
vided when their cost can be afforded. A rich carpet 
adds greatly to the effect of the room. In cases where 
a polished wood floor is adopted and shown, soft durable 
matting or strips of carpet must be placed along any 
routes, such as from and to the hot rooms and the boot- 
room, by the sides of couches, to lounges and tables, &c. 
anywhere, in fact, where the bather may require to 
tread. Anything in the nature of fastenings likely, by 
any possibility, to injure the feet, must be carefully 

A table or two for books, papers, magazines, &c., 
should be provided in the cooling room. The provision 



FIG. 20. 

<SecLon of Bench 
en tfot 

Indian Mat-liny 


Section of Benches in Hot Rooms and in Cooling Room Divans. 

I 2 


of lounges, &c., must depend upon the design of the 
room, and whether nooks or angles are available for 
their accommodation. Little wooden or metal tripod 
tables must be placed by the heads of the couches 
(Fig. 2 1, B). 

The chairs in the hot rooms must be designed upon 
some such lines as at C and D, whereat are shown an 
iron, and a wooden, framed chair. Beechen frames are 
best, and the seat formed of rather closely-woven canvas 
fixed at top and bottom and hanging in a curve. A few 
of these seats should always be provided in the hot 
rooms. Movable wooden benches are constructed of 
beech, oak, or well-seasoned yellow deal, as at E. The 
head end is best raised as shown. Very carefully- 
seasoned wood should be employed, for all joinery 
purposes, in the hot rooms. 

In the boot room, the pigeon-holes must not be for- 
gotten, and a cushioned seat, perhaps, for taking off 
boots and shoes. A shelf or shelves for linen checks is 
useful in this position. 

Sometimes the floor of the calidarium is carpeted all 
over, but strips of matting or carpet are better. The hot 
laconicum is best carpeted throughout. The tepidarium 
should have strips of carpet where the bathers must 
necessarily tread. In some baths it is the custom to 
provide, instead of carpet, felt sandals for use in the hot 
rooms. For similar reasons to the carpeting the non- 
conduction of heat fine white felting is sometimes 
placed in strips along the marble benches, as at Fig. 20. 
Of the Indian matting for a portion of the walls above 
the benches, I have already spoken. 



In the shampooing rooms, little blocks of wood shaped 
as at E, Fig. 5, are required as head-rests. They should 
be about 12 by 5 by 4 in., and hollowed to fit the head. 

FIG. 21. 


Furniture of a Turkish Bath. 




THE Turkish bath in the house may be designed on any 
scale, from a single room heated to the required tem- 
perature by a common laundry stove, to an elaborate 
suite of apartments, providing all that is found in the 
public bath, and even added luxuries. It may be an 
addition to an existing building or a feature designed at 
one and the same time as the house. 

There are, of course, many expedients for producing 
perspiration by heated air much simpler than by the 
special construction of a suite of bath rooms ; but as 
they will be familiar to all studying the subject of baths, 
I will pass them over here as mere makeshifts. For 
although there is something to be said in their favour, in 
that the head is free and one can breathe cooler air, 
there are serious objections to their use, as the lamps 
employed burn the air, and there is also an absence of 
that rapid aerial circulation which is so much to be 
desired. Besides the actual objections to their use, more 
or less inconvenience attends the employment of the 
sheet and lamp (or cabinet and lamp) baths, and there 
is little of the luxury of a true sudatorium about the 
extemporised bath, admirable as it may be as a hydro- 
pathic expedient. 



The bath in the house may consist of one of the 
following arrangements : (i) A single room used as a 
sudatory chamber and for washing ; (2) a hot room and 
a washing, room ; (3) a combined hot room and washing 
room, and a cooling room ; (4) a cooling room, washing 
room, and hot room ; or (5) a suite of chambers of such 
extent as to provide every possible luxury, such as even 
the old Roman gentlemen would have coveted. Where 
there is no second room the bather must use his bed 

FIG. 22. 

Ontc fioom 


Plan of Mr. Urquhart's Small Private Bath and of the Hot Room at Sir 
Erasmus Wilson's Bath at Richmond Hill. 

room as a cooling and reposing room, as he must also 
in the cases where only a washing room and a hot room 
are provided. 

For a simple sudatory chamber, where washing opera- 
tions are also conducted, all that is required is a room 
with brick walls and fire- and heat-proof floor and 
ceiling, with an adjoining lobby, a flue to conduct 
smoke from a simple stove, and a sunk washing tank 
or lavatrina. Allowance must be made for a couch 


opposite the stove. Fig. 22 (A) shows the simplest form 
of a bath room possible ; it is that which Mr. Urquhart 
constructed, and has described in his ' Manual of the 
Turkish Bath.' It was erected by him to show how 
cheaply an effective bath room might be built, the 
whole arrangement, with water fittings and building of 
three of its walls, only costing 37/. 

The room or rooms forming the Turkish bath in a 
private house should be cut off by a lobby from the 
other apartments of the house, with carefully-fitting 
self-closing doors at either end ; and in the case of an 
elaborate bath, another little lobby with double doors 
and heavy curtains, should be placed between the 
cooling room and the two bathing rooms, as at Fig. 24. 
Tha air of the hot rooms should, of course, be perfectly 
and absolutely cut off from that of the house. 

The position of the bath in a house will depend upon 
the size of the bath and the house and its situation. 
In town houses, where the bath consists of only a wash- 
ing and a hot room, the first floor will be the most con- 
venient. Where a cooling room is provided, the ground 
floor is as handy as anywhere ; and this position allows of 
the easier construction of the heating apparatus. In the 
country, the bath is best built away from the house, 
connected by a short lobby, which may be utilised for 
boots, &c., as at Fig. 24. The main difficulties to be 
overcome are the heating of the bath, and the non-con- 
duction of heat to places where it is not wanted. 

The heating apparatus of a private bath may be, for 
the simplest, a common laundry stove, as at Fig. 22 (A) 
and at Fig. 23 ; for bigger baths, a small convoluted 


stove, as at Fig. 24 ; or a furnace of firebrick with an 
iron flue, as at B, Fig. 22 a plan of the hot room 
(15 ft by 12 ft.) of the bath which Sir Erasmus Wilson 
built at Richmond Hill. For elaborate baths, a 
small furnace wholly constructed of fireclay, such as 
that of which I have given complete plans in the 
chapter on " Heating and Ventilation," would be the 
best. A furnace of this description is shown in the 
design for an elaborate private bath, at Fig. 25. 
Should the bath be heated regularly every day, a fire- 
brick furnace is certainly the best, as such furnaces 
retain their heat a long time. It should be " banked " 
at night. A bath only required at times, and quickly, 
is best heated with a thin iron stove. A portable iron 
stove and a long length of iron flue will rapidly raise 
the temperature. The simple baths illustrated at Figs. 
22 (A) and 23, are therefore very convenient and 
effective. The principle of heating by the transmission 
to the hot rooms of freshly-heated air is also a very con- 
venient one for private purposes, as on this system the 
bath may be on an upper floor, and yet have its heating 
apparatus conveniently stowed away below, as at Fig. 24. 
A small furnace chamber, such as that at Fig. 6, ante, 
must be constructed, and a hot-air flue of large section 
built up to the hot room. If the bath be on the ground 
floor, the construction of any form of heating apparatus 
is rendered easier. 

To prevent the transmission of heat to other apart- 
ments of the house, the precautions hereinbefore men- 
tioned must be observed. Hollow walls must be provided 
round the heated chambers, to prevent loss of heat on 


the external side, and the transmission of heat through 
internal walls. The floors above and below should 
if not of solid fireproof construction be formed as 
described in the section dealing with the design of the 
sudorific chambers, with puggings of slag-wool, as- 
bestos, sawdust, or materials having similar properties. 
Windows should be double. Wherever possible, con- 
crete floors should be provided to the hot rooms and 
washing rooms, so that they may be covered with tiles or 
mosaics, and on account of the spilling of water. It 
should be needless to point out the necessity of having 
most careful regard to safety from fire by the stoves or 

The ventilation of private baths should receive as much 
careful attention as those for public use. The hollow 
external walls may often be used with advantage for the 
extraction of the vitiated air, which must be let into the 
cavity at the floor level. If the bath be constructed 
on the ground floor, with nothing beneath, the system 
of carrying off the vitiated air by horizontal conduits- 
recommended for public baths should be employed, 
as in the accompanying design for a large private bath, 
where the whole of the foul air is drawn into one vertical 
shaft of sufficiently wide section. Much that I have 
said on the heating and ventilation, and, indeed, on 
many matters in connection with the design of public 
baths, applies in the case of the private one, and the 
reader is therefore referred to preceding pages for many 
hints as to its construction. 

In the accompanying figures I have endeavoured to 
explain the arrangement and construction of private 


baths, from those formed by converting existing rooms 
into bath rooms, to an elaborate and complete design. 
Fig. 22 (A) is a plan of Mr. Urquhart's cheap private 
bath, an apartment only measuring n ft. by 16 ft, 
yet forming an effective sudatory chamber, with simple 
iron stove, couch, seat, and sunk tank or lavatrina. On 
this principle I have arranged the plans of the baths 
adapted to existing rooms in a house, shown at Fig. 23. 
One plan shows a hot room built on to an existing 
ordinary bath room. A doorway is formed in the old 
external wall, and the new chamber constructed with 
hollow walls, with glazed bricks internally. An extra 
room would, of course, be thus formed on the floor 
below. A fireproof floor would be provided, and the 
pipes from iron stove conducted to old fireplace in 
bath room, which would become the lavatorium, and 
undressing room if necessary. A double-doored lobby 
is formed in the latter apartment, and the slipper bath 
used as ordinarily. It will be seen that by appropriating 
the adjoining bed room, a frigidarium is obtained, by 
taking away the flue-pipe to a new chimney, and 
knocking a doorway through the old partition wall, thus 
making a complete set of bath rooms. 

The other plan, given at Fig. 23, shows an existing 
room divided into a combined hot room and washing 
room, and a cooling room. Three of the walls being 
ordinary external walls, the hot room is lined 
with lath and plaster on quartering, leaving an air- 
space between to prevent loss of heat by absorption 
and radiation. One or two of the spaces between the 
quarters should be formed into lath and plaster flues, 



for the withdrawal of the vitiated air, being connected 
below with the hot room, and above lead into the open 
air. A pugged partition and double-doored lobby 

,-,* -*"'< 

to njd //reflect 

Plan of portion /-' F/oor o/ Mouse 
^froyring *Sudatory chamber Auilt or? f and 
ordinary bathroom u&ed 03 L 

I / ,, lWww^ 

Flan of ffoom ffo'x /oj divided 
into Frigiffartum and combined 
Calidarium and Layatorium 


Methods of constructing Turkish Baths in existing Houses. 

separate the rooms. Space is left in the hot room for 
a full-length couch opposite the radiating stove, which 
has a metal screen around to protect the more adjacent 


walls from the heat. A lavatrina is provided, as shown 
at the enlarged section. A nook is formed for a shower. 
This recess could be fitted with enamelled iron screen 
and hood, as at the end of elaborate slipper-baths. A 
couple of couches, lavatory, and toilet table are com- 
pactly arranged in the little frigidarium. 

Where these plain iron radiating stoves are employed, 
the fresh air should be admitted as near the stove as 
possible, and if the inlet be connected with a space 
formed round the stove by a sheet-iron jacket, the air 
will enter the room at a considerably raised temperature. 
The temperature of the incoming air in a bath where 
the heat radiates directly from the stove or furnace to 
the body of the bather, is not a matter of such vital 
importance as it is in cases where the heat is transmitted 
through the agency of the air itself. 

Cost of construction being now so constant a factor 
in every consideration, I have been led to give the 
above plans and descriptions of cheaply -formed baths 
as suggestions for the adaptation of other rooms. But 
plans of more elaborate baths are occasionally required, 
and at Fig. 24 I give the plan and cross section of a 
bath constructed as an appendage to, and at one and 
the same time as, the house. In this plan all necessaries 
are liberally provided for, but there is no extravagant 
outlay on elaboration of features and decoration. It 
is arranged on the first floor of a projecting wing off 
the main building. The frigidarium is cut off from the 
corridor or landing of the house by a lobby, which 
provides a w.c. and a space for boots and shoes and 
linen and towels. Between the frigidarium and bath 



rooms is a double-doored lobby of a kind that is very 
useful in both public and private baths. Hung with 

FIG. 24. 

A complete Private Turkish Bath. 

heavy curtains over the inner face of either door, it 
forms a perfect preventive against the entry of the air 


of the hot rooms into the cooling room. Between the 
combined tepidarium and lavatorium and the laconicum 
is a glazed partition with a doorway, fitted with a 
curtain if necessary. The walls are 18 in. 9 in. and 
4^ in., with 4J- in. cavity, used for ventilation. The 
bath rooms are lined with glazed brickwork. The floor is 
of fireproof, iron and concrete, construction. Enamelled 
iron sheets are screwed to the ceiling joists in the hot 
rooms, and pugging placed over. Under the laconicum is 
the stokery and furnace chamber, fitted with a small con- 
voluted stove, a hot-air shaft leading to the bath room. 
Fresh air comes to the stove by horizontal flues from 
either side of the building. The windows in the bath 
rooms are double. In the laconicum are two felt-covered 
wooden benches, as at Fig. 21 (E), ante, and a similar 
bench occupies one side of lavatorium, opposite which 
is the lavatrina, 18 in. deep, partly sunk into the floor and 
partly raised. The shower should be placed over this. 
In the frigidarium are two couches, hooks for clothes, 
lavatory, and toilet tables, &c. This would be a very 
effective plan for a comfortable private bath. 

The ordinary " slipper," " length," or " shallow " bath is 
out of place in the rooms of a Turkish bath ; but where 
the bath has to be adapted with economy to an existing 
bath room, as at Fig. 23, and in cases where, say, some 
members of a family take the Turkish bath and others 
the ordinary warm bath, it may remain as at the last- 
named figure, and serve the purposes of a lavatrina. The 
lavatrina, as designed in the plan of the large Turkish 
bath appended, however, is the most convenient appara- 
tus to facilitate the orthodox method of lathering and 


washing oneself in this style of bathing, as distinct from 
the ordinary method of immersion in a large body of 
water ; and as the former manner is the most economical 
of water, it is unnecessary, in providing a Turkish bath 
in a house, to make any increased provision for the 
supply of hot and cold water over and above that which 
would be allowed for an ordinary slipper-bath. 

In a private bath the lavatorium will also serve the 
purpose of a tepidarium. This chamber should therefore 
be as large as possible. In it may be required a sham- 
pooing slab, and, possibly, a small plunge bath, in addi- 
tion to the lavatrina, reclining-bench, and what water 
fittings are to be provided. All that will be required 
are hot and cold water taps over the edge of the lava- 
trina, which should also have a waste and overflow. 
Having to be worked by the bather himself, the shower 
arrangement should be such as shown at Fig. 17, ante. 
This will serve all purposes, unless a douche and a needle 
are desired, when the regulating valve of this appliance 
must be placed conveniently within the bather's reach 
while standing in the bath. 

The private bather, unless he can afford to engage a 
bath-man, must look upon shampooing as a luxury but 
not a necessity of the bath. Dr. W. J. Fleming, in a 
lecture on the "Physiology of Turkish Baths," read 
before the Glasgow Physiological Society some years 
back, said that the accessories of shampooing, &c., are, 
despite the popular opinion to the contrary, non-essential. 
A shampooing slab which must be of marble is there- 
fore not a necessary provision in any but very elaborate 
private baths. 


A complete private bath must contain the piscina, or 
plunge. Unless space and expense be no object, this 
cannot well be made capable of affording a vigorous 
dive ; but endeavours should be made to secure a bath 
of such dimensions as will admit of a refreshing immer- 
sion of the whole body. It will be constructed and fitted 
exactly as a small public plunge bath. 

The frigidarium of a private bath should be as pleasant, 
cheerful, and comfortable as possible. It should be a 
cosy place where the bather may recline and cool, and 
smoke and read, or otherwise divert himself to his heart's 
content. If so preferred, it might be arranged like an 
Eastern divan ; or it might be a simple, homely room, 
fitted with one or two comfortable couches. A fireplace 
may here be a desirable feature, for appearance sake, 
during the winter months. The room should be really 
ventilated viz. well supplied with pure, fresh air, and 
with effective means of withdrawing the vitiated atmo- 
sphere, since, as I have pointed out in the chapters on 
public baths, the cooling process is, in its way, as important 
as the heating, it being essential that the bather should 
expose the whole surface of his skin to volumes of pure 
cool air. 

At Fig. 25, pages 130 and 131, I give plans of a large 
private Turkish bath. It is such a building as would be 
a most desirable and pleasing addition to a country 
mansion ; and considering the money prodigally lavished 
over the appurtenances of the modern mansion house, it is 
indeed surprising that more has not been attempted in 
the way of appending a feature that is at once a talisman 
of health, a cure for disease, and an untold luxury. The 




public bath may be a blessing, but for comfort and 
luxury it cannot compare with the well-appointed private 

The design I give as a suggestion, to be modified 
and adapted to any style of design. The building 
could be connected to the house by a corridor, or by a 
glazed xystos, either abutting on to the main wall of 
house or a little detached. Off the lobby to the fri- 
gidarium are recesses for boots and for linen. The 
frigidarium about 1 5 ft. square has benches fitted up 
like one side of a divan, bay windows with space for 
plants and flowers, lavatory and toilet-table, and an 
ornamental fountain. A lobby separates this apartment 
from the bath rooms, and off it are a w.c. and a towel 
closet, which latter could be supplied with hot air. 
The combined lavatorium and tepidarium 14 ft. square 
is a domed chamber, with semicircular recesses 
containing the plunge bath and lavatrina. A sham- 
pooing bench is shown. A marble dado surrounds the 
walls, and marble corbels are provided to pendentives of 
dome which could be of brick or terracotta and con- 
crete and marble springers to horse-shoe arches. The 
shower is placed over the lavatrina. Plenty of space is 
left for a bench or chair in this chamber. Adjoining is 
the laconicum with a firebrick furnace, after the nature of 
that of which I have before given full detailed drawings. 
The vitiated air is drawn through flues in the floor, to a 
shaft on the opposite side to the chimney. The stokery 
and coke-store adjoin the laconicum. Fresh air would 
be admitted to the furnace as explained in the detailed 
description of the furnace illustrated at Fig. 10. If there 


were no available supply of water from house, a boiler 
and tank could be placed in the stokery, and a cistern on 
the flat roof. The flat roof, if of iron and concrete, would 
form an abutment to dome. If thought desirable, the 
same flat roof could be carried over the combined tepi- 
darium and lavatorium. An air space should be left 
between the masonry of dome and covering of copper 
or other material. The lights should be double glazed. 
With the radiating stove there is no objection to the 
loftiness of the dome. This bath could be perfectly 
ventilated and supplied with pure heat of a most hygienic 





THE bath for the hydropathic establishment will 
generally be required in connection with, and what 
is of greater moment in harmony with, other baths, 
such as medicated baths, Russian or vapour baths, and 
the ordinary douche, wave, spray, and needle baths, 
which, where the Turkish bath is included, may often 
be efficiently administered with the appliances usually 
provided in the shampooing and washing room. More- 
over, if the establishment include the pumilio-pine 
treatment, or system of pine-therapeutics, there will 
be required rooms or halls for the inhalation of dry 
pine and pinal vapour. The nature of the communica- 
tion between these different baths, as the medicated, 
Russian, &c.^ and the Turkish bath, and their relative 
positions, must be carefully studied. It should^e com- 
pact and the various passages and corridors as short as 
possible, these passages and corridors being provided 
with means for maintaining them at a suitable, and 
uniformly equable, temperature. This latter point we 
do not find so carefully studied in hydropathic establish- 
ments as its importance would warrant. The conse- 
quence is that, in passing backwards and forwards to 



and from the different bath rooms, the delicate invalid 
contracts a serious chill. 

I give herewith, at Fig. 26, a plan of the baths at the 

FIG. 26. 

Plan of the Baths at the Hotel Mont Dore, Bournemouth. 

H6tel Mont Dore, at Bournemouth, which, though 
not confessedly a hydropathic institution, has yet a fine 


bathing establishment of the hydropathic type, as well 
as complete arrangements for the administration of the 
pine cure. These baths include a Turkish bath, with 
three hot rooms, a shampooing room, and cooling room, 
connected by an anteroom with the suite of miscella- 
neous bath rooms of the gentlemen's department. The 
latter comprise a room for the tonic water baths, such 
as the needle, douche, sitz, hip, and wave ; a room or 
" hall " for the inhalation of pine vapour, whilst in a bath 
of condensed steam ; and a room for the administration 
of the Mont Dore cure, consisting of the application of 
pulverised Mont Dore water, or spray, to the eye, nose, 
or ear, as may be required, this room being also used 
for the inhalation of dry pine. In addition are arrange 
of slipper baths, in comfortably fitted bath rooms, for the 
purposes of electric and medicated baths, such as those 
of pine extract, sulphur, iodine, &c., &c., and for ordinary 
hot and cold spring-water and salt-water Laths. In 
connection are arranged dressing and reposing rooms, 
besides necessary subsidiary apartments. A somewhat 
similar suite of rooms is arranged for ladies on the other 
side of the block. There is no separate Turkish bath, 
however ; certain days of the week are set apart exclu- 
sively for ladies' use. The steam boilers, which supply 
the steam to the vapour baths and pine- vapour baths, 
and the water super heaters, as well as the hotel lift and 
pumping machinery, are arranged in a basement under 
the stairs, anteroom, tepidarium, and shampooing 

It will be seen that the compact little Turkish bath, 
which was arranged under the direction of the late 


Mr. Charles Bartholomew, is in direct communication with 
the other baths, allowing the bather to pass from the hot 
rooms, or shampooing room, to medicated or pine bath, 
or vice versa. In designing the plan of baths of the 
type of those at the Mont Dore, this intercommunication 
between the various baths is the point to be most care- 
fully studied. Direct communication is required between 
the Turkish, and the Russian, bath, inhalation hall, and 
medicated baths, as some methods of treatment render 
this an absolute necessity. 

In a small establishment the hydropathic appliances 
are movable, and used in ordinary bath rooms, the 
Turkish bath being the only feature requiring special 

A true hydropathic establishment of any size should 
be provided with two Turkish baths, one for ladies and 
one for gentlemen, as the power and efficiency of the 
treatment may depend upon the regularity and persis- 
tency with which it is carried out. Where there is only 
one bath, it has to be set apart on different days for the 
use of ladies and gentlemen, and it is evident that the 
benefit of a course of baths may be greatly lessened 
by the occasional unreadiness of the bath. Two suites of 
rooms should, therefore, be provided. It may be that 
they will be most economically constructed and worked 
if arranged side by side, so that they may have their 
furnaces together, and be stoked with economy. 

Where, as in country establishments, there is plenty 
of room, it is often convenient to arrange the Turkish 
and other baths on the ground floor adjoining the main 
building, a corridor of connection being placed, if neces- 


sary. It should be remembered, however, that invalids 
have to be taken often carried or wheeled in movable 
chairs to the baths, and allowance should therefore be 
made for the passage of such a wheeled chair from the 
top story, by way of a lift, to the door of the baths. 

In a large establishment, a full complement of rooms 
should be provided for the Turkish bath viz. three 
hot rooms, a washing and shampooing room, and a cool- 
ing room. They will, of course, be on a small scale ; but 
the whole number should be provided. A plunge bath 
should also be added, but in small hydropathics may be 
dispensed with altogether. 

For hydropathic purposes the lavatorium is generally 
required to have rather more elaborate water-fittings 
than other baths. The needle bath should include the 
ascending shower, the back shower, and the spinal douche 
a small nozzle behind the rose of the vertical shower. 
The regulating appliances for these various showers, 
sprays, &c, should be brought together, and conveniently 
placed for the attendant. A very ingenious appliance, 
suitable for a hydropathic bath, is a thermometer regu- 
lating valve, which indicates the temperature of the 
water being supplied to the bather. The waters mix 
in a ball, into which is inserted the bulb of a sensitive 
thermometer, which rises and falls as the hot or cold 
handles are turned. 

If the shampooing and washing room of the Turkish 
bath is to be used for the administration of the tonic 
water baths to other bathers besides those taking the 
Turkish bath, it must be made of ample dimensions. So, 
also, if the cooling room is to be used as a reposing 


room for other bathers, it must be made of large 

Perfect ventilation is of paramount importance in baths 
used for the treatment of disease. Purity of atmosphere 
in the hot rooms is a vital necessity, and so also is it in 
the miscellaneous bath rooms of a hydropathic establish- 

Unreadiness is a great vice in the Turkish bath 
appended to these institutions. Hot rooms beneath their 
proper temperature, and lukewarm water, are unpardon- 
able delinquencies, either in the early morning, in the 
evening, or during the day. For this reason I would 
recommend a furnace of fireclay, as it retains its heat for 
a long time, and is not subject to the rapid changes of 
iron stoves. 

Much of that which I have said with respect to the 
hydropathic bath will apply to the design of the bath 
for hospital and asylum purposes. Here, however, 
efficiency is all that is required, and everything need be 
but of the plainest description. The conditions and 
exigencies of each case must determine the size, position, 
and nature of the suite of bath rooms. All that has been 
said upon the subject of the design and construction of 
the bath must be studied, and the principles, herein 
given, applied to the peculiar circumstances. So also in 
regard to Turkish baths for hotels, and for residential 
blocks of buildings, and for clubs. 

There is a wide field for activity in Turkish bath 
building, in the increased provision of baths in hospi- 
tals, asylums, and public and private institutions of one 
kind and another ; and also in hotels, " flats," and clubs. 


The hydropathic establishments have long adopted the 
Turkish bath as a powerful remedial and curative agent 
in perfect harmony with the principles of the Water 
Cure. But it is only occasionally that such provision 
has been made in hospitals and asylums ; and although 
within the last few years noticeable innovations have 
been made in this respect, the subject has heretofore 
been greatly neglected. Seeing, too, the immense extent 
to which co-operative living has developed, and the 
consequent enormous increase in size of large hotels, 
residential blocks, &c., I cannot but think that the 
builders of such tenements could with advantage turn 
their attention to the supplying of small Turkish baths 
for the visitors and residents. 




ANIMALS of many kinds, including horses, dogs, cows, 
sheep, and pigs, have been experimented upon with 
regard to the bath, and with much success. But for prac- 
tical purposes all we need here consider is the design of 
the bath for horses, since a bath for a horse will evidently 
be suitable for a cow, and might not be wholly beneath 
the dignity of a pig. It is, after all, only in connection 
with the training of horses that anything of practical 
importance has been accomplished in this direction. 
Several Turkish baths for horses have been erected 
in this country in connection with hospitals for horses, 
attached to large businesses, and appended to training 
stables. In the development of race-horses the treat- 
ment has, according to the opinion of several authorities, 
been found eminently beneficial. 

The bath must be arranged in connection, and in direct 
communication with the stables. It may consist, as 
Fig. 27 a plan of a bath built for the Great Northern 
Railway Company's hospital for horses of a washing, 
and two hot, rooms. An airy shed will do for a place 
for the animals to cool, and in fine weather they will 
derive more benefit from being turned out in the open. 
In the plan given it will be seen that the horse is led 



through the washing room into the first hot room. 
Without turning round, he may be led into the second 
hot room and thence into the washing room again. In 
the hot rooms, which are heated by a convoluted stove, 
are stocks, wherein, if restive, the animal can be secured. 
A similar arrangement is made in the washing room, 
where, after undergoing the sweating process, the horse 
is groomed down, an operation that should be per- 
formed in part with an iron strigil, much after the 

FIG. 27. 

Plan of the Great Northern Railway Company's Turkish Bath 
for Horses. 

pattern of those employed upon their own bodies by 
the ancient Romans. 

These equine Turkish baths need be very inexpensive 
and simply constructed, though, where it is desired to 
do the thing well, glazed bricks should, for the sake 
of cleanliness, be used for lining the walls. All that 
will be required in the washing rooms is a couple of 
draw-off taps with hot and cold water, some pails, a 


scraper, and wash-leather. On leaving the sudatory 
chamber, the horse should first be well scraped with 
the scraper, carefully sponging, or dousing him, if neces- 
sary, with warm water. Buckets of hot, tepid, and cold 
water should then be thrown over him, and having been 
well rubbed down with the leather, he should then be 
covered with a cotton sheet, and his legs bandaged with 
cotton bands, the sheets, &c., being gradually removed 
after an interval of about a quarter of an hour, and the 
animal turned into a shed, or into the open, to cool. 


( 144 ) 




AIR, allowance of, in hot rooms .. .. .. .. 81 

backflow of 83 

circulation of, in hot rooms .. .. .. .. 85 

expansion in heating . . . . . . . . . . 82 

filters 67 

flues for vitiated .. .. .. .. .. .. 92 

inlets for cold . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 

intake, position of . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 

arrangement of . . . . . . . . 69 

its changes in the bath . . . . . . . . . . 71 

,) of bath, necessity for dryness of . . . . . . . . 85 

overheated .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 76 

passage of, through bath rooms 70 

rapidity of flow of .. .. .. .. . .. .. 82 

Apodyterium, the .. .. .. .. .. .. .*. 4, 13 

and frigidarium, combined .. .. .. 13 


BATH, architecture of .. .. .. .. .. 105 

ascending shower . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 

back shower . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 

decoration of .. .. .. .. .. .. 105 

elaborate needle .. .. .. .. .. .. 138 

foot 98 

materials for .. .. .. .. .. .. 105 

Mr. Urquhart's cheap private .. .. .. 120,123 

INDEX. 145 


Bath, needle 93,94 

position of private .. .. .. .. .. .. 120 

preliminary shower .. .. .. .. .. 97 

primary object of .. .. .. .. .. .. 10 

public, general requirements of .. .. .. 9 

shower .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 92 

style of design for .. .. .. .. .. .. 109 

subsidiary apartments of .. .. .. .. .. 14 

the, in asylums .. .. .. .. .. .. 139 

the, in hospitals .. .. .. .. .. .. 139 

the "slipper" 127 

wave .. .. .. 95 

Baths, ancient and modern, difference between .. .. 10 

Roman and Oriental .. .. .. .. 2 

works on.. 3 

cheap 66 

private .. .. 125 

complete private .. .. .. .. .. 125-127 

construction of, in private houses .. .. 123,124 

Eastern .. .. .. .. .. .. .. no 

elaborate private .. .. .. .. .. 129,132,133 

importance of double sets of .. .. .. .. 137 

importance of intercommunication between various .. 137 

in crowded sites .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 

nature of private .. .. .. .. .. .. 119 

objections to extemporised hot air .. .. .. 118 

Old Roman .. .. .. .. .. .. no 

on one level .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 

private .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 118 

public and commercial .. .. .. .. .. 6 

public, lack of, in England . . . . . . . . 7 

supply of water for private .. .. .. .. 128 

two classes of .. .. .. .. .. .. 26 

ventilation of private .. .. .. .. .. 122 

Bath-rooms arranged en suite, advantage of .. .. .. 37 

drainage of .. .. .. .. .. .. 44 

Balnea, the Pompeian .. .. .. .. .. .. 112 

ancient .. .. '.. ,. .. .. .. 4 


146 INDEX. 


Benches, felting for marble ... .. .. .. .. 116 

Bignor, Roman bath at .. .. .. .. .. .. 112 

Boilers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 87 

Boot-room, fittings for .. .. .. .. .. .. 116 

Box, Roman bath at . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 


CALIDARIUM, the 4, 33 

floor of 116 

Ceilings of enamelled iron .. .. .. .. .. 106 

Checks, shelves for .. .. .. .. .. .. 116 

Cisterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 88 

Cleansing process, ways of concluding 12 

Cold plunge, object of .. .. .. .. .. .. 12 

Combined cooling and dressing room, its arrangement . . 54 
Cooling and dressing rooms combined, their merits and 

demerits .. .. .. .. .... .. 54 

Cooling room, carpets for .. .. ., .. .. 114 

couches in .. .. .. .. .. 114 

furniture of .. .. ... .. .. 113 

importance of ventilating .. .. .. 57 

method 57 

,, lighting of .. !03 

the separate .. .. .. .. .. 53 

Cooling rooms in hydropathic establishments .. .. 138 

:? > fireplaces in .. .. .. .. .. 23 

methods of arranging .. .. .. .. 52 

temperature of 53, 58 


DIVANS, construction of .. .. .. .. .. u^ 

Douche, horizontal g$ 

room, the .. .. .. .. fm tt ^r 

spinal 93 

Drainage, importance of perfect 44 

Dressing and cooling rooms I3 

Dry atmosphere, necessity for, in bath 

INDEX. 147 



FIRING, evil of bad and forced .. .. .. .. .. 80 

Floorings for cheap baths . . . . . . . . . . 34 

Flues, hot and cold air, construction of . . . . . . 40 

Foul air conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 

Frigidarium, design of . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 

divans in .. .. .. .. .. .. 109 

fountain in .. .. .. .. .. .. 101 

of private baths .. .. .. .. .. 129 

the .. .. 4,13 

the old Roman .. .. .. .. .. 57 

Furnace, advantage of a fireclay .. .. .. .. 75 

fireclay, for private bath .. .. .. .. 132 

method of constructing . . . . . . 74 

expansion and contraction of . . . . 76 

Furnaces for private baths .. .. .. .. .. 121 

heating power of . . . . . . . . . . 80 

with iron flues .. .. .. .. .. .. 72 

Furnace chamber, position of . . 40 


GAS, objections to, in bath .. .. .. .. .. 102 

Glazed earthenware, its suitability for baths . . . . . . 33 

Good and bad baths, difference between . . . , . . 82 

Good bath, what it is, and how gained . . . . . . 9 


HAIR-DRESSER and chiropodist 15 

Hammam, the, Jermyn Street .... 18 

Ha,mmam, the Oriental . . 3 

Heat, convected and radiant .. 5> 59 

methods of applying to bather .. ..10,56 

prevention of transmission of .. .. .. 122 

Heating apparatuses for private baths . . 120 

screen walls to . . 77 

Heating by fireclay furnaces .. 73 

148 INDEX. 


Heating by iron flue-pipes 72 

ordinary stoves ... .. .. .. .. 72 

convection, objection to .. .. .. .. 79 

steam.. .. .. 77 

arrangements for . 78 

dangers attendant upon .. . . . . 77 

of small baths .. .. .. .. .. .. 73 

of the bath, its importance . . . . . . . . 59 

by the ordinary method . . . . . . 62 

on the hot-air principle .. .. .. .. 62 

and ventilation .. .. .. .. .. .. 59 

theory of.. .. .. 69 

High temperatures, beneficial effect of in cases of disease . . 1 1 

necessity for II 

Horses, bathing of .. .. .. .. .. ., 142 

" Hot-air bath," a misleading term .. .. .. .. 5 

Hot-air bath, the .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 

appliances and arrangements for . . . . 63 

Hot air, height of delivery of, into laconicum 40 

manner ; , .. .. 40 

principle, objections to.. .. .. .. .. 61 

Hot rooms, benches in .. .. .. .. .. .. 38 

brickwork in .. .. .. .. .. .. 107 

ceilings of 34 

chairs and benches in .. , .. .. n6 

decoration of .. .. .. .. .. 105 

doorways in 38 

firepropf floors over.. .. .. .. .. 35 

glazing in 38 

height of .. 39 

Indian matting in .. .. .. .. .. 106 

joinery in 37 

lighting of 102 

materials for,. ... .. 38 

objection to stepped benches m 39 

proportional area of . . . . . . . . 33 

position of partitions in . . . . . . . . 37 

radiation of heat from .. 35 

INDEX. 149 


Hot rooms, windows in .. .. .. .. .. .. 35 

treatment of woodwork in ... .. .. .. 106 

Hydropathy and the Turkish bath .. .. .. .. 140 

Hydropathic establishments, the bath in .. .. .. 134 

INVALIDS, consideration for, in bathing establishments .. 138 

Irish " sweating houses," old .. .. .. .. .. 5, 13 


LACONICUM, the 4,32 

ceiling of 35 

floor of .. .. .. .. .. .. 116 

Ladies' baths 14,44,111 

Laundry .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16 

Lavatorium, the .. .. .. .. .. .. 4, 43 

and shampooing room .. .. .. .. 41 

the hydropathic 138 

of private bath .. .. .. .. .. 128 

washing basins in . . . . . . . . . . 43 

water fittings of .. .. .. .. .. 89 

Lavatrina, the .. .. .. .. .. .. 119, 127 


MONT DORE, baths at the Hotel .. .. .. .. 135 

cure, the .. 136 

Moorish bath, heating of the .. .. .. .. .. 59 

Mustaby, the Turkish 57 


OBSTACLES to! the progress of the bath ' i 

Oriental colour decoration .. . .. .. .. no 


PAY office, the 14 

Perspiration, object of .. .. .. .. .. .. u 

150 INDEX. 


Plumbing 88, 100 

Plunge bath, the 46 

between hot rooms and frigidarium .. .. 12 

chamber, lighting of . . . . 104 

construction of . . . . 48 

decoration of .. .. .. .. .. 113 

depth of 48 

for private baths .. .. .. .. .. 129 

in hydropathic establishments .. .. .. 138 

water fittings of . . . . . . . . . . 99 

Popular ignorance and the bath . . . . . . . . I 

Processes of the bath . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 

Public Baths and Wash-houses Act, inadequacy of . . . . 7 

Public baths in England, unworthy of the nation . . . . 29 

general disposition of plan of .. .. .. 17 


REST after bath, necessity for .. .. .. .. .. 13 

Roman baths, method of heating the old .. .. .. 59 

nature of heat in old . . . . . . . . 79 


SANITARY accommodation, necessity for care in providing.. 15 

Shampooer, space required by each . . . . . . . . 43 

Shampooing and the private bath .. .. .. .. 128 

benches . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 42 

positions of bather during .. .. .. , 43 

value of .. .. .. .. .. .. 12 

and washing room combined, arrangement of.. 43 

room 42 

ventilation of . . . . . . . . 42 

, lighting of .. 104 

Shower for head .. .. .. .. .. .. .. IQO 

preliminary warm . . . . . . . . . . 44 

So-caUed " Turkish baths," their harmfulness ,. .. 2 

Stokery, the I5 

Stoves, attributes of good 64 

INDEX. 151 


Stoves, " Convoluted " .. .. 64 

heating power of . . . . . . 80 

,, . method of constructing furnace 

chamber for . . . . . . . . 64 

iron 63 

objections to exposing in hot rooms .. .. .. 72 

plain iron radiating .. .. .. .. .. 125 

radiating surfaces of .. .. .. .. 63 

Subsidiary apartments of the bath .. .. .. .. 32 

Sudatorium, best position for bathers in .. .. .. 38 

Sudatory chamber, a simple .. .. .. .. .. 119 


TANK, hot water .. .. 87 

Temperature, importance of maintaining . . . . . . 79 

of bath rooms .. .. .. .. .. 78 

regulating 80 

variations in .. .. .. .. .. 79 

Tepidarium, the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 32 

drinking fountain in .. .. .. .. 100 

mosaic floors in .. .. .. .. .. 108 

of private bath .. .. .. .. ..128 

old Roman .. .. .. .. .. 39 

Thermce, old Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Tonic baths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 

Transmission of heated air, prevention of . . . . 36 

heat .. 36 

Treatment, course of, in the bath . . . . . . . . 1 1 

Turkish bath, association of miscellaneous hydropathic 

baths with the .. .. .. .. 134 

building, field for activity in .. .. .. 139 

for animals .. .. .. .. .. 141 

for horses .. .. .. .. .. 141 

Great Northern Railway Company's 141 

heating of the true . . . . . . . . 59 

the, a misnomer t . . . . . . . . 5 

what it is .. .. 4 

152 INDEX. 

Turkish bath, direction in which improvement may be 

made in the . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 

Turkish baths, Baden-Baden .. .. .. .. .. 30 

Bartholomew's, Leicester Square .. .. 25 

Bremen 29 

Burton's, Euston Road . . . . . . . . 27 

Camden Town . . . . . . . . . . 22 

foul atmosphere of some so-called . . . . 2, 82 

in Germany .. .. .. .. .. 29 

lukewarm .. .. .. . *. 139 

Nevill's, London Bridge .. .. .. 25 

Northumberland Avenue . . . . 23 

Nuremberg 30 

Savoy Hill 20 

Vienna .. .. .. .. 30 


VALVE, thermometer regulating 138 

Valves and cocks .. .. .. .. .. .. 90 

regulating, for shower bath, &c. .. .. .. 96 

Ventilation * .. 139 

importance of, in hot rooms .. .* .. 81 

in cramped sites .. .. .. .. .. 69 

mechanical .. .. .. .. .. .. 82 

Ventilator gratings . . . . * . . . . . . . 83 

Ventilators, disposition of, in hot rooms . . . . . . 70 

. number and size of.. .. .. .. .. 71 

position of .. .. .. .. .. .. 71 


WASHING and shampooing rooms, various ways of arranging 4 1 

Water, pressure of 88 

Water fittings 87 

of private bath .. .. .. .. .. 128 

value of simplicity in .. .. .. .. 97