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V,7 
1930 
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FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

PUBLICATION 270 
BOTANICAL SERIES VOL. VII, No. 1 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 

BY PAUL C. STANDLEY 

Associate Curator of the Herbarium, Department of Botany 

T-.wr- > \"^ r > r 

IHi u 





B. E. DAHLGREN 
Acting Curator, Department of Botany 

EDITOR 



of 

f \ NATURAL 
**r HISTORY 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

January 22, 1930 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

PUBLICATION 270 
BOTANICAL SERIES VOL. VII, No. 1 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 
BY PAUL C. STANDLEY 

Associate Curator of the Herbarium, Department of Botany 



~<3 6 1330 

B. E. DAHLGREN 

Acting Curator, Department of Botany E/?S! T V OF jti IM/~ 

wr ILL/A ' 

ir.TvrT/Yp > 



EDITOR 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

January 22, 1930 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



v, 7' 






THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 



PAUL C. STANDLEY 



The family Rubiaceae is an essentially tropical group. Although 
in America it is represented in the North Temperate Zone by a 
substantial number of species, these belong to only a few genera, and 
chiefly to Galium and Houstonia. The temperate Rubiaceae are 
mostly herbs, but those of the tropics are preponderantly shrubs, 
or occasionally large trees. The shrubs, particularly those belonging 
to the genera Palicourea and Psychotria, often form a conspicuous 
part of the undergrowth in the primeval forests, from- southern 
Mexico southward through Brazil, and along the Andes as far as 
southern Peru. 

In America it is in the vicinity of the equator, probably, that 
the family is most lavishly represented, but in Central America, 
especially in the mountains of Costa Rica and Panama, there exist 
many species. The genus Psychotria is well represented there, but 
it is worthy of note that the vast genus Palicourea, so profusely 
represented in the Andes, has but few Central American species. 

There has been published an adequate account of the Rubiaceae 
of only one South American country Brazil. The text of Schumann, 
who treated the majority of the genera in Martius' FloraBrasiliensis, 
is a model of monographic work, and his exact and lucid account 
of the family must command the respect and admiration of all 
students of the group. Mueller's treatment of the Psychotrieae, 
the more difficult portion of the family, it must be admitted, is 
sadly inferior. 

In Colombia the Rubiaceae are exceptionally well represented, 
by a larger number of species, perhaps, than in any other American 
country except Brazil. This eminence may not be maintained when 
other regions have been explored more thoroughly, and I suspect 
that Colombia's present excellent showing in the Rubiaceae results 
largely from the extensive exploration carried on there in recent 
years. Nevertheless, consideration of the large number of Colombian 
species now known from a single collection leads to the presumption 



4 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

that many additions to the present species list may be expected 
as exploration progresses. 

Aside from their purely taxonomic interest the Colombian 
Rubiaceae demand attention because of their practical value. Some 
of the trees furnish wood of superior quality, and several yield drugs 
which are in demand abroad. Ipecac is the product of two or more 
low shrubs of the family, and from the Cinchonas, of romantic 
history, is obtained Peruvian bark, the source of quinine, one of 
nature's kindliest gifts to the world, and, above all, to dwellers in 
the malaria-infested tropics. For the natural product obtained from 
the bark of these Andean trees, now grown on so vast a scale in 
the distant East Indies, no satisfactory substitute has been found. 

One introduced plant of the same family has become of para- 
mount importance to Colombia. In the product of the Arabian 
coffee trees she finds one of the chief sources of wealth of her mountain 
departments. 

For the preparation of the present account of the Colombian 
Rubiaceae the writer has been exceptionally fortunate in being able 
to examine practically all the material existing in American herbaria. 
There have been studied the collections from the following insti- 
tutions, the letters in parenthesis being those used on the succeeding 
pages to indicate the location of the specimens cited : Field Museum 
of Natural History (F); United States National Herbarium (W); 
Gray Herbarium (G); Missouri Botanical Garden (M); New York 
Botanical Garden (Y ) ; Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
(P). In addition, there have been received on loan more than 700 
sheets from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K), and a smaller 
but interesting series from the Royal Museum of Stockholm (S). 
To the custodians of the herbaria from which specimens were lent 
the writer is deeply indebted. 

The collection received from Kew was of particular interest, as 
illustrating so characteristically the conditions existing with respect 
to South American material in most herbaria, in the case of families 
not monographed recently. Some of the specimens, if not from 
Colombia at least from other Andean countries, were collected more 
than a hundred years ago by classical collectors in these regions. 
Many of these relatively ancient specimens represent species 
described recently from collections made within the past thirty 
years, and others belong to species still undescribed. One wonders 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 5 

whether some of our own collections will lie in the herbarium an 
equally long time, to be studied by botanists whose grandfathers 
are not yet born. 

1. UNCARIA Schreb. 

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. Prodr. 4: 349. 1830. Nauclea 
aculeata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 382. 1819, not Willd. 1797. 
N. tomentosa Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 221. 1819. Ourouparia 
tomentosa Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 132. 1889. 

Type from the banks of the Rio Magdalena near Nares, Bonpland. 
San Martin de Loba, Bolivar, Curran 29 (W). Also in Central 
America, Surinam, and Trinidad. 

A large scandent shrub armed with stout curved spines; leaves 
oval, 10-15 cm. long, obtuse-acuminate, whitish-tomentulose or 
glabrate beneath; flowers whitish, fragrant, in dense globose heads. 

2. ALSEIS Schott 

Alseis Blackiana Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 30. 1879; Biol. Centr. 
Amer. Bot. pi. 37. 

San Martin de Loba, Bolivar, Curran in 1916 (F, W). Also in 
Panama. 

A tree with oblanceolate or obovate-oblong, glabrate leaves 
7-20 cm. long; flowers white, in long spikes; capsule oblong-turbinate, 
9-12 mm. long. 

3. MANETTIA L. 

Manettia alba (Aubl.) Wernh. Gen. Manettia 29. 1919. Nacibea 
alba Aubl. PI. Guian. 95. pi. 87, f. 2. 1775. 

Santa Rosa, El Valle, alt. 200-300 m., Killip 11562 (W, G, Y, P). 
Also in the Guianas. 

Leaves thin, conspicuously nerved, ovate or elliptic, glabrous; 
calyx lobes 4, minute, triangular; corolla white, the tube about 
3 mm. long; capsule glabrous, oval, 4 mm. long. 

Manettia calycosa Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 330. 1861. M. 
Holtonii Wernh. Gen. Manettia 23. 1919. 

Santa Marta, 540 m., H. H. Smith 1892 (F, W, G, M, P). La 
Paila, Cauca, Holton 606 (G, P; type collection of M. Holtonii). 
Without locality, Andre 869 (K, Y). Guayabetal to Monte Redondo, 
Cundinamarca, 1,300-1,500 m., Pennell 1785 (Y). Libano, Tolima, 
1,100-1,300 m., Pennell 3432 (G, Y, M). Angelopolis, Toro 897 (Y). 
Titiribi, Toro 409 (Y). Los Micos, Toro 825 (Y). Azufral to Moral, 
Tolima, 1,800-2,300 m., Killip & Kazen 9604 (W, G, Y). Cuchilla, 
El Valle, 1,200-1,600 m., Pennell, Killip & Hazen 8557 (Y). Ibague", 
1,300 m., Andre K558 (K). Wernham (1. c.) reports Funck 417 from 



6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Santa Marta and Kalbreyer 360 and Schlim 89 from Ocafia. The 
species occurs also in Haiti and Venezuela. 

Leaves thick, lanceolate or lance-ovate, long-acuminate, scaber- 
ulous or puberulent or glabrate, conspicuously veined ; calyx lobes 4, 
lanceolate or ovate, 3.5-5 mm. long, acute; corolla red, tomentulose, 
1.7-2 cm. long; capsule obovoid-globose, 5-6 mm. long, tomentulose. 

I can see no difference whatever between the type collection of 
M. Holtonii and other collections referred by Wernham to M. 
ealycosa. 

Manettia calycosa var. latifolia Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 273. 
1929. 

Between Chinacota and La Esmeralda, Norte de Santander, 
1,000-1,300 m., Killip & Smith 20855 (W, type; Y). 

Leaves rounded-ovate, abruptly acute-acuminate. 

Manettia coccinea (Aubl.) Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 624. 1797. Nacibea 
cocdnea Aubl. PI. Guian. 96. pi. 37, f. 1. 1775. M. sanctae-martae 
Wernh. Gen. Manettia 51. 1919. 

Santa Marta, 300 m., H. H. Smith 391 (F, G, M, P; type collec- 
tion of M. sanctae-martae). Islitas, Rio Nari, Andre 444 (F, K, Y). 
Puerto Wilches, 100 m., Killip & Smith 14908 (W, Y). Tierra Alta 
on Rio Sinu, Bolivar, 100-200 m., Pennell 4639 (W, G, Y). Also 
in Central America, Mexico, West Indies, and the Guianas. 

Plants glabrous or sparsely and minutely puberulent on the 
younger parts; stipules truncate or acute; leaves large, ovate, long- 
acuminate, rounded at the base; calyx lobes 8, linear, 5-10 mm. long, 
recurved; corolla red, glabrous outside, 17-20 mm. long; capsule 
6-10 mm. long, subglobose. 

M . sanctae-martae is a form with very narrow calyx lobes and an 
obscurely puberulent hypanthium. It does not seem worthy of 
recognition even as a variety or form. 

Manettia coccocypseloides Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 64. 1914. 

Type from Pitalito, Tolima, Sprague 244. Popayan, 1,600-2,000 m., 
Lehmann 4760 (F, W, Y); at 1,500-2,000 m., Lehmann 7593 (F). 
Without locality, Lehmann K.134 (F). Pandi, Andrt 1573 (K, Y). 
Hills of Miraflores above Palmira, Cauca, Pittier 877 (W). Charta, 
Santander, 2,000-2,600 m., Killip & Smith 18921 (W). Northern 
slope of Mesa de los Santos, 1,000-1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15395 
(W). Rio Surata Valley above Surata, 2,000-2,300 m., Killip & 
Smith 16535 (W, Y). California, Santander, 2,000 m., Killip & 
Smith 17004 (W, Y). La Gallera, Micay Valley, Cauca, 1,200 m., 
Killip 7825 (W). La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,600-2,100 m., Killip 11583 
(W, Y). East of Neiva, Huila, 700-1,500 m., Rusby & Pennell 515 
(W, Y): alt. 1,800-2,300 m., Rusby & Pennell 848 (W, Y). La 
Palmita west of Armenia, Caldas, 1,100-1,300 m., Pennell, Killip 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 7 

& Hazen 8623 (W, G, Y). La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,500-1,750 m., 
Pennell 5180 (W, G, Y). Cuchilla, east of Zarzal, El Valle, 1,200- 
1,600 m., Pennell, Killip & Hazen 8557 (W). Without locality, 
Purdie (G). 

A slender scandent herb, the stems puberulent; leaves lanceolate 
to ovate, acuminate, puberulent; stipules small, broadly ovate; 
flowers white, 1 cm. long, in few-flowered cymes; calyx lobes 4, 
linear-oblong, 3-4 mm. long; corolla puberulent outside; capsule 
subglobose, sparsely puberulent or glabrate. 

Manettia corticifer Wernh. Gen. Manettia 25. 1919. 

Type from Pasto, Triana 1795 in part. Rio San Rafael, below 
Cerro Tatama, Caldas, 2,500-2,800 m., Pennell 7533 (W, G, Y). Cerro 
Tatama, Caldas, 3,200-3,400 m., Pennell 10512 (W). 

Leaves coriaceous, lanceolate or ovate, 2-4 cm. long, acuminate, 
the lateral nerves obsolete, the margins recurved; calyx lobes 4, 
lanceolate, 1.5 mm. long; hypanthium glabrous; corolla white or 
pinkish, glabrous outside, 4 mm. long; capsule 5 mm. long. 

Manettia cryptantha Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 269. 1929. 

Cordillera Oriental east of Neiva, Huila, 1,080-2,300 m., Rusby 
& Pennell 871 (Y, type), 879, 648. 

Stems densely and minutely puberulent; stipules broadly trian- 
gular, laciniate-denticulate; leaves ovate-elliptic or oblong-ovate, 
4-6 cm. long, acuminate, obtuse or rounded at the base, sparsely 
short-pilose or glabrate beneath; calyx lobes 4, lanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate, 5-8 mm. long, acuminate; corolla white, sparsely puberu- 
lent outside, about 10 mm. long; capsule acute at the base. 

Manettia echitidea Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 274. 1929. 
La Japa, Tolima, 1,000-1,400 m., Lehmann 7594 (F, type; K). 

Stems glabrate, when young retrorse-scaberulous; stipules 
rounded, laciniate-denticulate; leaf blades lance-oblong, 2.5-4.5 cm. 
long, acuminate, obtuse at the base, ochraceous beneath and puberu- 
lent along the costa; calyx lobes 4, triangular, 1.5 mm. long, acute, 
glabrate; corolla glabrous outside, 5-6.5 mm. long. 

Manettia Lehmannii (Wernh.) Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 
269. 1929. Neosabicea Lehmannii Wernh. Journ. Bot. 52: 225. pi. 
533. 1914. 

Above Popaydn, Cauca, 2,200 m., Lehmann 3514 (W, K, type 
collection). 

Leaves elliptic or ovate, acute, 3-5 cm. long, densely villous- 
pilose especially beneath; calyx lobes 4, lanceolate, acute, 4-5 mm. 
long; hypanthium densely short-villous; corolla sparsely villous, 
the tube about 1 cm. long. 



8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Manettia Lindenii Sprague is reported from Colombia by 
Wernham (Gen. Manettia 28. 1919), but apparently in error, the 
specimen being really from Venezuela. 

Manettia Lobbii Wernh. Gen. Manettia 26. 1919. 

Type ascribed to Colombia, Ldbb 97. It is probable that the 
plant is from Ecuador. 

Leaves thick, elliptic, acuminate, glabrous, 3-5 cm. long, the 
lateral nerves obsolete, the margin revolute; calyx lobes 4, ovate- 
lanceolate, acute, 2 mm. long; hypanthium glabrous; corolla glabrous 
outside, the tube 7 mm. long, the limb 6-7 mm. broad. 

Manettia meridensis Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 178. 1889. 

Las Vegas, Santander, 2,600-3,000 m., Killip & Smith 16078 
(W, Y). Wernham reports Schlim 86 from Ocafia at 1,200 m., and 
Kalbreyer 694, collected between Ocafia and Pamplona at 1,560 m. 
The species occurs also in Venezuela. 

Leaves thick, narrowly lanceolate to elliptic, long-acuminate, 
acute or obtuse at the base, glabrous above, appressed-pilose beneath 
along the nerves when young; calyx lobes 4, lanceolate or oblong, 
elongate; hypanthium white-tomentose; corolla white or pink. 

The determination of Killip & Smith 16078 is somewhat doubtful, 
but the specimens agree well in most respects with the rather un- 
satisfactory original description. 

Manettia pectinata Sprague, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 836. 1905. 

Las Nubes, Santa Marta, 1,350 m., H. H. Smith 1665 (F, W, G, 
M, P, S, type collection) . 

Leaves ovate or elliptic-ovate, 3.5-8 cm. long, short-acuminate, 
rounded at the base, glabrous; calyx lobes 8, triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm. 
long; hypanthium glabrous; corolla white, nearly glabrous, the tube 
10 mm. long, the lobes 5-6 mm. long; capsule obovoid-globose, 
5 mm. long, glabrous. 

Manettia pisifera Wernh. Gen. Manettia 27. 1919. 

Type from La Banca, at 3,000-3,300 m., Pearce. The specimen 
probably was not collected in Colombia. 

Stems pubescent; leaves thin, elliptic, acuminate, the nerves 
evident, hirtellous beneath along the nerves; hypanthium glabrous; 
calyx lobes 4, lanceolate, 2 mm. long; corolla glabrous outside, the 
tube 12 mm. long, the lobes 2.8 mm. long; capsule globose, 4 mm. 
long. 

Manettia pleiodon Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 184. 1889. 
Lygistum pleiodon Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 288. 1891. 

Type from Mariquita, Karsten* 

Glabrous, the young branches minutely puberulent; stipules 
2-3-dentate; leaves ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, acute at the 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 9 

base; calyx lobes 8, subulate, reflexed; corolla 2 cm. long; capsule 
subglobose, 5 mm. long. 

Probably this should be treated as a synonym of M. coccinea. 

Manettia rivulorum Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 273. 1929. 

Dense woods along streams, Las Vegas, Santander, 2,600-3,000 
m., Kittip & Smith 16058 (W, type; Y). 

A scandent shrub, the young branches appressed-pilose; stipules 
rounded, laciniate-denticulate; leaf blades elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 
4-5.5 cm. long, short-acuminate, acute or obtuse at the base, strigil- 
lose beneath especially along the nerves; calyx lobes 4, elliptic, 
2-2.5 mm. long, acute, ciliolate; capsule globose-obovoid, 6-7 mm. 
long, acute at the base, glabrate. 

Manettia sabiceoides Wernh. Gen. Manettia 30. 1919. 

Type from Mariquita, Quindio, 1,950 m., Triana 1793. 

Young stems covered with sulphur-yellow pubescence; leaves 
elliptic, papyraceous, short-acuminate, glabrate above, puberulent 
beneath on the veins, the lateral nerves 8-10 pairs; calyx lobes 4, 
ovate-oblong, acuminate, 3 mm. long; corolla sparsely puberulent, 
the tube 12 mm. long, the lobes 3 mm. long. 

Manettia scaberrima Wernh. Gen. Manettia 24. 1919. 

Type from Colombia, without locality, Linden 895. Wernham 
reports also Tnana 1792 from La Palmilla, Marquita, at 1,650 m. 

Leaves subcoriaceous, rugose, ovate, caudate-acuminate, 2.5-4 
cm. long, 1.2-2 cm. wide, rounded or cordate at the base, scaberulous 
above, puberulent beneath, especially on the veins; calyx lobes 4, 
oblong, 3-7 mm. long; corolla 12 mm. long or more, tomentulose; 
capsule subglobose, puberulent or glabrate. 

Manettia Smithii Sprague, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 267. 1905. 
Lygistum Smithii Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 45: 405. 1910. 

Type from Campo Alegre, Santa Marta, 450 m., H. H. Smith 
1393 (F, W, G, M, P, Y, type collection). 

A slender vine; leaves ovate, 4-7 cm. long, short-acuminate, 
short- villous; cymes 1-3-flowered; calyx lobes 8, ovate, acute, 3.5-4 
mm. long; corolla red, villous, the tube 16 mm. long, short- villous. 

Manettia Spraguei Wernh. Gen. Manettia 39. 1919. 

Type from San Martin district, Villavicencio, Sprague. 

Glabrous; leaves elliptic, 7 cm. long, acuminate, acute at the 
base, with 7-8 pairs of nerves; calyx lobes 4, linear, 8 mm. long or 
more; corolla tube not exceeding 14 mm.; capsule subglobose. 

Manettia suratensis Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 274. 1929. 
Type from thickets along river, Surata, Santander, 1,700 m., 
Kittip & Smith 16811 (W). 



10 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Stems sparsely villous; stipules subtruncate, laciniate-denticulate; 
leaf blades lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 4.5-8 cm. long, long- 
acuminate, acute or decurrent at the base, sparsely whitish-pilose 
beneath; calyx lobes 8, linear or lance-oblong, 2-3 mm. long, acute, 
recurved; corolla sparsely villous, the tube green, 8 mm. long, the 
lobes white, 5 mm. long. 

Manettia Toroi, sp. nov. Suffrutex scandens, ramulis gracili- 
bus, novellis sparse et minutissime pilosulis mox glabratis, vetus- 
tioribus brunnescentibus; stipulae vix 0.7 mm. longae, adpressae, 
late rotundatae, margine setuloso-ciliato; petiolus gracilis 4-10 mm. 
longus, puberulus vel glabratus; lamina membranacea, lanceolato- 
oblonga vel oblonga, 4-9.5 cm. longa, 1.2-3.5 cm. lata, 'longiacumi- 
nata, basi acuta vel obtusa, supra viridis, glabra, costa impressa, 
nervis fere obsoletis, subtus pallidior, ad costam gracilem elevatam 
sparse pilosula, aliter glabra, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 6 
inconspicuis, nervulis obsoletis; inflorescentiae axillares pauciflorae, 
1-2 cm. longe pedunculatae, pedicellis plerumque 4-8 mm. longis 
glabris vel sparse pilosulis; hypanthium oboyoideum 2.5 mm. 
longum; calyx 2.5 mm. longus 4-partitus, lobis late triangulari- 
ovatis acuminatis erectis glabris saepe ciliolatis; corolla in alabastro 
10-12 mm. longa extus glabra, 5-6 mm. longa, basi acuta; semina 
2.5 mm. lata. Colombia: Salgar, region of Medellin, July 20, 1928, 
Rafael A. Toro 1266 (Herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard., type). 

Manettia Trianae Wernh. Gen. Manettia 27. 1919. 

Type from Pasto, Triana 1795, in part. Meneses, Andre 2869 
(K). Niebli, Andre K555 (K). 

Leaves somewhat fleshy, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, 4-6.5 cm. 
long, glabrous, the lateral nerves obsolete; calyx lobes 4, ovate- 
lanceolate, 2.5 mm. long; hypanthium glabrous; corolla purplish, 
glabrous outside, the tube 4.5 mm. long, the lobes 3 mm. long. 

Manettia Utopia Wernh. Gen. Manettia 43. 1919. 

Type from Colombia, Triana. Laguneta to Magana, Caldas, 
3,000-3,200 m., Kittip & Hazen 9472 (W, Y, P). San Antonio, 
Cauca, 2,400-2,700 m., Pennell & Killip 7393 (W, G, Y). 

Leaves coriaceous, lanceolate to ovate, long-acuminate, glabrous, 
yellowish beneath; calyx lobes 4, triangular, acute, 1.5 mm. long, 
fleshy; capsule obovoid, 5-6 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, glabrous. 

4. CINCHONA L. 

The species of Cinchona are the source of the drug quinine. 
Although several species of the genus occur in Colombia, the col- 
lection of the bark was never so important in that country as in 
Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 

The genus has always been considered a difficult one. This 
results from the fact that the forms have been separated and named 
upon almost as slight characters as the Crataegus species of the 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 11 

United States. The trees were studied by men who were interested 
primarily in their products, which seem to vary greatly even within 
the species. Examination of a large amount of material in connection 
with a careful study of the extensive literature dealing with the 
taxonomy of the Cinchonas has convinced the writer that the actual 
number of recognizable species, according to our usual species 
standards, is a small one, and that most of the names must be 
reduced to synonymy. 

Cinchona barbacoensis Karst. in Koch & Fint. Wochenschr. 
2: 31. 1859; Fl. Columb. 1: 47. pi 23. 1859. 

Type from dense forests of the western slope of the Cordillera 
de Barbacoa, near San Pablo, at 100-1,000 m., Karsten. Rio 
Timbiqui and Rio Maya, in dense wet coastal forests, 100-600 m., 
Lehmann 8628 (F, W, S, Y). Cordoba, Cauca, 30-100 m., Pittier 517 
(W). Forests of Rio Timbiqui, Lehmann B.T 41 5 (Y). 

A tree 4-9 m. high, the branchlets appressed-pilose; stipules 
lanceolate, acute, pilosulous; leaves short-petiolate, oblong-elliptic 
to oblong-oblanceolate, 10-18 cm. long, 6-7 cm. wide, acute, 
attenuate to the base, glabrate above, beneath pilose, especially 
on the nerves, with short stiff subappressed hairs; inflorescence 
sessile, large, broad, the flowers congested; hypanthium sericeous; 
calyx glabrate, the teeth short, triangular, acute; corolla sericeous, 
white or pink, 1 cm. long, the 5 lobes lanceolate, obtuse, shorter 
than the tube; capsule linear, 5-9 cm. long, 3-5 mm. broad, glabrate. 

Cinchona barbacoensis is remarkable because of the fact that it 
grows at a lower altitude than any other species of the genus. It is 
well marked by the long and very slender capsules, which often are 
curved. 

Cinchona Henleana Karst. in Koch & Fint. Wochenschr. 2: 
31. 1859; Fl. Columb. 1: 55. pi 27. 1859. 

In forest below Boca Antizales, Bolivar, 800-1,200 m., Pennell 
4506 (Y). Also in Venezuela. 

A tree 15 m. high, the branches minutely tomentose; stipules 
triangular-ovate, acuminate, tomentulose, the margins revolute; 
leaves short-petioled, oblong-obovate or oblanceolate-oblong, 20-40 
cm. long, 7-15 cm. wide, acute or acuminate, narrowed to the base, 
glabrous above, hirtellous or hispidulous beneath on the nerves; 
panicles few-flowered, the flowers sessile or nearly so; calyx 5-7 mm. 
long, tomentulose, truncate and obscurely denticulate; corolla pink, 
coriaceous, densely sericeous, the tube 2.5 cm. long, the 5 lobes 
oblong, obtuse, shorter than the tube; capsule oblong, densely and 
minutely tomentose, 3.5-4 cm. long. 

Easily recognized by the very large calyx. 

Cinchona officinalis L. Sp. PI. 172. 1753. C. lancifolia Mutis, 
"Periodic de Santa Fe" 465. 1793; Humb. Ges. Naturf. Freund. 



12 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Berlin Mag. 116. 1807 (type from Andes of Bogota, Mutis). C. 
nitida R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 50. pi. 191. 1799. C. lanceolata R. & P. 
Fl. Peruv. 2: 51. 1799; 3: 1. pi. 223. 1802. C. angustifolia Ruiz, 
Quinol. Supl. 14. 1801. C. Condaminea H. & B. PI. Aequin. 1: 33. 
pi. 10. 1808. C. macrocalyx DC. Bibl. Univ. 41: 150. 1829. C. land- 
folia 7 angustifolia DC. Prodr. 4: 352. 1830. C. calisaya Wedd. Ann. 
Sci. Nat. III. 10: 6. 1848. C. amygdalifolia Wedd., 1. c. C. Conda- 
minea /3 Candollei Wedd. Ann. Sci. III. 11: 269. 1849. C. Condaminea 
8 lancifolia Wedd., 1. c. C. lancifolia var. obtusata Karst. Med. Chinar. 
36. 1858. C. lancifolia var. discolor Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 22. pi. 12. 
1858. C. lancifolia var. vera Howard, Rept. Internat. Bot. Congr. 
220. 1866. C. lancifolia var. rubra Howard, 1. c. 1866. C. lancifolia 
var. calisaya Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. V. 11: 358. 1869. 

Balsillas, Huila, cultivated, Rusby & Pennell 697 (W, G). Forest 
above Balsillas, 2,200-2,600 m., Rusby & Pennell 732 (F, W, G, M). 
Without locality, Saenz A208 (W). Quetame, Dawe 340 (W). 
Without locality, Lehmann 8676 (Y). Fusagasuga, Holton 437 (P, Y). 
Chipaque", Potrero Grande, Ariste-Joseph A871 (W). Eastern 
llanos, Ariste-Joseph A869 (W). Ranging southward to Bolivia. 

A large or medium-sized tree, sometimes 24 m. high, with a 
trunk 1-1.5 m. in diameter, the bark rugose, fuscous, the branchlets 
strigillose-pilosulous; stipules free, lanceolate or oblong, acute or 
obtuse, glabrous, deciduous; leaves petiolate, lanceolate to elliptic 
or ovate, small, acute, acuminate, or obtuse, at base attentuate to 
rounded, subcoriaceous, glabrous above, beneath glabrous or puberu- 
lent or hispidulous, especially on the nerves, usually about 10 cm. 
long and 3.5-4 cm. wide, often scrobiculate beneath; inflorescence 
terminal, leafy, cymose-paniculate, dense, many-flowered; hypan- 
thium strigose; calyx glabrous or nearly so, reddish, the teeth 
triangular, acute; corolla pink or red, sericeous, the tube about 1 cm. 
long, the 5 lobes ovate, acute; capsule oblong, striate-costate, usually 
1.5-2 cm. long, glabrate. 

"Caqueta," "quina tunita," "quina," "quina anaranjada," 
"tunita," "red Cartagena bark." 

Like most other species of Cinchona, this is a highly variable 
plant, and the forms have been described under a large number of 
names. The bark is or has been in some parts of the range of the 
species an important source of quinine. 

Cinchona pitayensis Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 11: 269. 1849. 
C. lanceolata Benth. PI. Hartw. 190. 1845, not R. & P. C. Condaminea 
e pitayensis Wedd., 1. c. 1849. C. corymbosa Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 
19. pi. 10, 1858. C. Trianae Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 45. pi. 22. 1859. 
C. pitayensis a colorata Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. V. 11: 359. 1869. 
C. pitayensis Trianae Wedd., 1. c. 1869. C. pitayensis 8 almagueren- 
sis Wedd., 1. c. 1869. C. pitayensis y pallida Wedd., 1. c. 1869. 

Type from the forests of Pitayo, near Popayan, Hartweg 1047. 
Type of C. corymbosa from the volcanoes of Cumbal and Chile, at 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 13 

2,500-3,500 m., Karsten. Type of C. Trianae from the forests of 
Volcan Purace", near Popayan, at 2,500 m. Eastern Cordillera, 
Ariste- Joseph A888 (W). 

A large tree, sometimes 30 m. high, with a trunk a meter thick, 
the bark corky, brown; stipules free, lanceolate, acute, glabrous; 
leaves petiolate, elliptic to lance-oblong, 6-11 cm. long, 3-5 cm. 
wide, acute at base and apex, coriaceous, glabrous, scrobiculate 
beneath in the axils of the nerves; inflorescence terminal, short, 
dense, few-flowered; hypanthium pilosulous or glabrate; calyx lobes 
5, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate; corolla pink, sericeous, the tube 
1 cm. long, the lobes short, ovate, villous within; capsule ellipsoid, 
glabrate, 2.5 cm. long, 1 cm. broad. 

Karsten states that the bark was exported as "China de Pitayo." 
Hartweg reports the name as "quina roja de Pitayo." 

Cinchona pubescens Vahl, Skrivt. Naturh. Selsk, 1: 19. 1790. 
C. purpurea R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 52. pi. 193. 1799. C. ovata R. & P. 
Fl. Peruv. 2: 52. pi. 195. 1799. C. cordifolia Mutis ex Humb. Ges. 
Naturf. Freund. Berlin Mag. 1: 117. 1807 (type from Colombia). 
C. pubescens a cordata DC. Prodr. 4: 353. 1830. C. rugosa Pav6n ex 
DC., 1. c., as syn. 1830. C. cordifolia a vera Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 
1849. C. succirubra Pavon ex Klotzch, Abh. Akad. Berl. 1857: 60. 
1858. 

Popayan, 1,700-2,500 m., Lehmann 3549 (F,W). Aguadas, Antio- 
quia, 1,600-2,200 m., Lehmann 4640 (F). La Ceja, Tolima, 2,000 
m., Lehmann 2114 (W). Without locality, Lehmann CLXXXXV 
(W),B.T.514 (G). Hato Viejo, Lehmann B.T.71 9 (Y). Forests on the 
Rio Timbiqui, Lehmann 8998 (Y). Cuatro Esquinas to Rio Piendamo, 
Cauca, 1,700-1,900 m., Pennell & Killip 6380 (W, G, P, Y). El 
Ramal to Rio Sucio, Cauca, 2,200-2,000 m., Pennell & Killip 8088 
(W, G, P, Y). Rio Palace 1 , Cauca, 1,600 m., Pennell & Killip 8281 
(W). Central Cordillera, Dawe 862 (W, Y). Tacuey6, Cauca, 
Pittier 1485 (W, Y). Without locality, Purdie (G). Balsillas, 
Huila, 2,200-2,600 m., Rusby & Pennell 733 (F, W, G, M). East of 
Villeta, April 25, 1852, Holton (Y). San Antonio de Cena, Ariste- 
Joseph A838 (W). Eastern llanos, Ariste-Joseph A870 (W). Balsillas, 
Huila, 2,200-2,600 m., Rusby & Pennell 788 (F, W,G, M), 805 (W, G). 
La Baja, Santander, 2,700 m., Killip & Smith 18330 (W, G), 17135 
(W, Y). Without locality, Lehmann B.T.638 (Y). Ranging south- 
ward to Bolivia. 

A medium-sized tree, the trunk commonly about 30 cm. in 
diameter, the branchlets variously pubescent; stipules free, ovate, 
large, obtuse or acute, caducous, sericeous or nearly glabrous; 
leaves petiolate, usually broadly ovate to orbicular, large, rounded 
to acute at the apex, at the base cordate to acute, often decurrent, 
usually glabrate above but often pubescent, beneath densely pilose 
to nearly glabrous, often scrobiculate; inflorescence terminal, panic- 
ulate, leafy, large, many-flowered, open, the flowers subsessile; 



14 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

hypanthium sericeous; calyx 5-dentate, minutely sericeous or tomen- 
tulose; corolla red or pink, sericeous, the tube usually about 1 cm. 
long, the lobes lanceolate, 5-7 mm. long, villous within; capsule 
lanceolate or oblong, striate-costate, glabrate, usually 1.5-2.5 cm. 
long. 

"Quina amarilla," "quina terciopelo," "quina calisaya." 
The species as here treated is a highly variable one as regards 
shape and pubescence of the leaves, form of calyx lobes, and size of 
corolla. It seems impossible, however, at least with the information 
now available, to divide it into species or varieties which can be 
recognized with any considerable degree of accuracy. The forms of 
C. pubescens are the chief source of quinine. They vary greatly as 
to their quinine content. 

Cinchona rosulenta Howard ex Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. V. 12: 
66. 1869. 

Type collected near Velez, Prov. Ocafia, Pur die. 

Leaves broadly ovate or rounded-ovate, acute, attenuate to the 
petiole, sparsely pilose above, finally glabrate and shining, pilose 
beneath; panicles lax, rufous-villous-tomentose, the flowers medium- 
sized; calyx teeth ovate, acuminate; corolla sericeous-tomentose. 

"Quina de la tierra fria." Said to be nearly indistinguishable 
from C. succirubra. 

5. JOOSIA Karst. 

Joosia umbellifera Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 9. pi 5. 1858. 

Type from the wet hot forests on the western slope of the Andes 
of Bogota, near Servita, Karsten and Triana. Also in Peru. 

A medium-sized tree; stipules linear-oblong, acute or obtuse, 
1.5 cm. long; leaves short-petiolate, oblong, obovate-oblong, or 
oblong-lanceolate, 10-22 cm. long, 5-10 cm. wide, long-acuminate, 
at the base acute, glabrous above, appressed-pilose beneath on the 
nerves; inflorescence terminal, cymose-umbellate; calyx lobes 
triangular-ovate, acute; corolla white, subsericeous, 12-14 mm. long, 
the lobes ovate, each bearing at the apex 2 large oval petal-like 
appendages; capsule linear, appressed-pilose, 3.5-6.5 cm. long, 
3 mm. wide. 

One other species of Joosia occurs in Peru. 

6. MACROCNEMUM L. 

Macrocnemum grandiflorum Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 1: 76. 
1854; Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 161. pi 101. 1889. Lasionema 
grandiflorum Wedd. Hist. Quinquin. 98. 1849. 

Type from Colombia. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 15 

A tree; leaves broadly elliptic, acute, rounded or narrowed at 
the base, glabrous above, glabrous beneath or puberulent in the 
axils of the veins, 8-15 cm. long; panicles axillary; corolla 18 mm. 
long, glabrous outside; calyx lobes triangular, acute. 

Macrocnemum pastoense Karst. Linnaea 30: 150. 1859. 

Type collected on the banks of the Mayo and Juanambu rivers, 
near Pasto, Karsten. Boca Esmeralda on Rio Sinu, Bolivar, 150-300 
m., Pennell 4564 (F, G, M, W, Y). Boca Tai on Rio Sinu, Bolivar, 
80 m., Pennell 4183 (Y). Without locality, Barclay (K). Also in 
Panama. 

A tree; leaves obovate or oval-obovate, abruptly short-acuminate, 
obtuse or rounded at the base, glabrous or nearly so; corolla pink, 
minutely pilose outside, the tube 7-10 mm. long. 

Macrocnemum polyphlebium, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis 
validis obtuse tetragonis sparse sericeis, internodiis brevibus; 
stipulae caducae, brunneae, lanceolato-oblongae, 1.5 cm. longae, 
acuminatae, sparse sericeae; petioli graciles vel crassi, 6-14 mm. 
longi, sericei; lamina elliptico-oblonga vel elliptica, 8-15 cm. longa, 
3-6.5 cm. lata, abrupte longeque caudato-acuminata, acumine 
angusto c. 2 cm. longo attenuate, basi acuta vel subobtusa, papy- 
racea, supra viridis, glabra, nervis prominulis, subtus pallidior, ad 
nervps dense sericeo-strigosa, aliter glabra, costa gracili elevata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 15, angulo acuto latove adscen- 
dentibus, gracilibus, prominentibus, yalde arcuatis, in marginem 
desinentibus, nervulis transversis crebris manifestis parallelis; inflo- 
rescentia terminalis sessilis vel longipedunculata, interdum e basi 
trichotoma, dense multiflora, cymosp-paniculata, 6-12 cm. longa, 
ramosa, ramulis dense cinereo-strigosis, floribus sessilibus vel usque 
ad 7 mm. longe pedicellatis, saepe subsecundis; hypanthium cylin- 
dricum 3-4 mm. longum strigosum; calyx 1.5 mm. longus, ad medium 
5-lobus, lobis late ovato-triangularibus acutis extus strigosis; corolla 
alba sparse strigillosa, tubo gracili 1 cm. longp, 1.5-2 mm. lato, tereti, 
lobis valvatis oblongis 4.5 mm. longis acutiusculis intus glabris. 
Colombia: Wet forest slope, Susumuco, southeast of Quetame, Dept. 
Cundinamarca, alt. 1,200-1,400 m., September 5, 1917, Francis W. 
Pennell 1740 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,041,903, type; duplicates in 
G,Y). 

The species is a well-marked one because of the character of 
the pubescence, and the long-acuminate leaves with numerous 
costae. 

Macrocnemum pubescens (Benth.) Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 
1: 76. 1854. Lasionema pubescens Benth. PI. Hartw. 191. 1845. 

Type from Mercaderes, between Pasto and Popayan, Hartweg. 
Popayan, 1,500-1,800 m., Lehmann 5447 (F). Woods between Toyo 



16 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

and Cafias Gordas, Antioquia, 1,600-2,200 m.,Lehmann4741 (F, W). 
Dolores, Cauca, Andrt 2836 (Y). Without locality, Triana 1798 (K). 
A shrub or tree; leaves obovate, abruptly short-acuminate, 
densely pubescent beneath; corolla glabrous outside or minutely 
puberulent, red or pink, the tube 8 mm. long; capsule curved, 1.5-2 
cm. long, glabrous. 

Macrocnemum roseum (R. & P.) Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 1: 
76. 1854. Cinchona rosea R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 54. pi. 199. 1799. 

Reported from Colombia by Schumann (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
161.1889). Also in Peru. 

A tree; leaves oblong or obovate-oblong, 6-12 cm. long, obtuse, 
cuneate at the base, glabrous above, puberulent beneath in the axils 
of the veins; inflorescence ferruginous-tomentose; corolla pink, 
11-12 mm. long; capsule 1.5-2 cm. long. 

Macrocnemum rotundatum Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 267. 
1929. 

Type from Buesaco, alt. 1,800-2,100 m., Lehmann 6303 (F; 
duplicate in W). East of Neiva, Huila, 1,800-2,300 m., Rusby & 
Pennell 845 (W, M). Without locality, Triana 152 (K). Antioquia, 
Jervise (K). 

Branchlets glabrous; leaves petiolate, oval-obovate or obovate- 
oblong, 4.5-12.5 cm. long, rounded or very obtuse at the apex, 
usually acute at the base but sometimes obtuse or rounded, glabrous 
beneath or strigillose on the veins, often barbate in the axils; panicles 
axillary; calyx shallowly 5-dentate, the teeth acute or apiculate; 
corolla glabrous outside, the tube 7-8 mm. long; capsule glabrous. 

"Quina cimarrona." 

Macrocnemum stylocarpum Karst. Linnaea 30: 149. 1859-60. 

Type collected near Bucamaranga, Karsten. 

A tree 6 m. high; leaves petiolate, obovate-lanceolate, acute, at 
base rounded, submembranaceous, glabrous; stipules obovate, 
obtuse, deciduous; inflorescence axillary and terminal, long-pedun- 
culate, the flowers pink, short-pedicellate; corolla glabrous; capsule 
terete, 2.5 cm. long, glabrous. 

7. REMIJIA DC. 

Remijia firmula (Mart.) Wedd. Hist. Quinquin. 93. 1849. 
Cinchona firmula Mart. Reise Bras. 3: 1286. 1831. Ladenbergia 
firmula Klotzsch in Hayne, Arzneigew. sub pi. 15. 1846. 

Reported by Schumann (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 156. 1889) from 
San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 2954. Also in Brazil. 

Branchlets cmereous-villous; leaves petiolate, oblong, 10-25 cm. 
long, acute, attenuate to the base, strigillose beneath, strongly 
coriaceous; inflorescences large, axillary, longer than the leaves; 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 17 

calyx ferruginous-tomentose, the lobes subulate, very acute; corolla 
2 cm. long, the lobes equalling the tube, ferruginous-tomentose 
outside, linear-lanceolate; capsule pyriform, 1 cm. long. 

Remijia macrophylla (Karst.) B. & H. ex Flueck. Chinarinde 
16. 1883. Cinchona macrophylla Karst. Linnaea 30: 151. 1859-60; 
Fl. Columb. 1: 71. pi 35. 1859. 

Type from the eastern base of the Cordillera of Bogota^ Karsten. 

A shrub or small tree 4.5 m. high, the branchlets hirsute; stipules 
much longer than the petioles, narrowed and acuminate from a 
broad base; leaves petiolate, membranaceous, opposite, ternate or 
quaternate, lanceolate, short-acuminate, narrowed at the base, 
hirtellous above, beneath pubescent, especially on the nerves, 55 cm. 
long and 17 cm. wide; inflorescence axillary, longer than the leaves, 
racemose, pubescent, the flowers subsessile; calyx lanate, short, 
5-dentate; corolla 2 cm. long, sericeous, the lobes triangular, about 
equaling the tube; capsule pilosulous. 

Remijia prismatostylis (Karst.) B. & H. ex Flueck. Chinarinde 
16. 1883. Cinchona prismatostylis Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 13. pi. 7. 
1858. 

Described from the wet mountain forests near Bogota, Guanacas 
Pass near Popayan, and the western slope of Volcdn Chile, south of 
Pasto, at 1,500-1,800 m., Karsten. 

A handsome tree 15-18 m. high with oval crown, the branchlets 
puberulent; stipules united into a calyptriform cap, this splitting 
along one side; leaves petiolate, coriaceous, oval or elliptic, sub- 
cordate, strigose or glabrate above, beneath sericeous or pilosulous; 
inflorescence terminal, cymose-paniculate, leafy, puberulent, the 
flowers subsessile; calyx puberulent, denticulate; corolla tomentu- 
lose, the 5 lobes oval, acute, villosulous within; capsule oblong, 
subterete, 7-10 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide. 

"Cascarilla blanca," "azahar." 

Remijia Purdieana Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 11: 272. 1849. 

Type from hills near Cauvas, Antioquia, Purdie. 

Branchlets ferruginous-tomentose; stipules ovate-lanceolate, 
acutish, pubescent; leaves oblong, J.5-30 cm. long, 7-15 cm. wide, 
abruptly acuminate, at base attenuate, subcoriaceous, glabrate, 
when young pilosulous on the nerves; panicles axillary, long-pedun- 
culate, subcorymbose, ferruginous-tomentose, the flowers sub- 
capitate; hypanthium pilose; calyx lobes 5, lanceolate, subfoliaceous, 
pubescent; corolla membranaceous, puberulent, the tube slender, 
1 cm. long, the lobes linear, equaling the tube, papillose within. 

Remijia Trianae Wernh. Journ. Bot. 52: 225. 1914. 
Type from Villavicencio, Plain of San Martin, at 390 m., Triana 
3273/1. 



18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A shrub, the branches ferruginous-villous or densely tomentose; 
stipules ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, up to 8 cm. long and 3 cm. wide, 
rufous-hispidulous; leaves opposite or ternate, subcoriaceous, elliptic, 
up to 40 cm. long and 18 cm. wide, acuminate, narrowed at the base, 
glabrate above, hispidulous-villous beneath, especially on the nerves; 
inflorescence 35 cm. long, the flowers small; calyx lobes very short, 
triangular; corolla tube 8 mm. long, the lobes of the same length; 
fruit ovoid, 2.5 cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide, glabrate. 

8. LADENBERGIA Klotzsch 

Ladenbergia bogotensis (Karst.), comb. nov. Cinchona bogot- 
ensis Karst. in Koch & Fint. Wochenschr. 2: 30. 1859; Fl. Columb. 
1:83. pi. 41. 1859. 

Type from forests of Susumco and Servita, Cordillera of Bogota, 
at 1,980-2,130 m., Karsten. 

A tree 12-15 m. high, the branchlets glabrous; stipules oval, 
connate at the base, minutely pilose; leaves petiolate, oval or elliptic, 
30 cm. long and 20 cm. wide or larger, acutish, at the base acute or 
narrowed, glabrous above, sparsely pilose beneath on the nerves; 
panicles pilosulous, few-flowered, the flowers sessile or short-pedi- 
cellate, 5-7-parted; hypanthium tomentulose; calyx glabrate, crenate 
or lobed, the lobes broadly triangular; corolla white, 6 cm. long, 
sericeous-pilose, the lobes elliptic, acutish, shorter than the tube, 
papillose within; capsule 15-17 cm. long, 1 cm. broad, glabrous. 

"Azahar," "cascarilla roja," "requeson," "cascarilla boba." 

Ladenbergia calycina (Wedd.), comb. nov. Cascarilla calycina 
Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 10: 12. 1848. 

Described from Colombia. Las Estrellas, western Andes of 
Popayan, 1,000-1,500 m., Lehmann 8627 (F). 

Stipules free or short-connate; leaves oblong or rounded-ovate, 
obtuse at each end, subcoriaceous, glabrous above, ferruginous- 
pilose beneath in the axils of the nerves; panicles few-flowered; calyx 
lobes rounded, subfoliaceous, slightly imbricate at base. 

Ladenbergia heterophylla (Wedd.), comb. nov. Cascarilla 
heterophylla Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 10: 10. 1848. Buena heter- 
ophylla Wedd. Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 186. 1869. 

Reported from Colombia. 

Leaves rounded-ovate, obtuse or acutish, submembranaceous, 
often lanceolate, glabrate, or pilosulous beneath on the nerves and in 
their axils; stipules free or short-connate; panicles many-flowered; 
calyx lobes rounded-ovate, obtuse; capsule very long. 

Ladenbergia Hookeriana (Wedd.), comb. nov. Cascarilla 
Hookeriana Wedd. Hist. Nat. Quinquin. 91. pi. 24, A. 1849. Buena 
Hookeriana Wedd. Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 187. 1869. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 19 

Type collected near Ocafia, Purdie. Without locality, Lehmann 
B.T.1225 (K). 

Stipules free or short-connate; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, at 
the base attenuate, coriaceous, glabrate, when young pubescent- 
tomentose beneath; panicles many-flowered, the flowers subcapitate; 
calyx teeth triangular-acuminate; capsule large, arcuate. 

"Quina clava." 

Ladenbergia macrocarpa (Vahl) Klotzsch in Hayne, Arz- 
neigew. 14: sub pi. 15. 1846. Cinchona macrocarpa Vahl, Skrivt. 
Naturh. Selsk. 1: 20. 1790; Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 43. pi. 21. 1859. 
Cascarilla macrocarpa Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 10: 13. 1848. Buena 
macrocarpa Wedd. Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 187. 1869. Cinchona ovali- 
folia Mutis ex Humb. Ges. Naturf. Freund Berlin Mag. 1: 118. 1807. 
Cinchona magniflora Pa von ex DC. Prodr. 4: 354. 1830, as syn. 

Reported by Karsten from the mountain forests of Bogotd and 
Antioquia, at 2,200-2,700 m. Without locality, Ariste-Joseph A866 
(W). Eastern llanos, Ariste-Joseph B98 (W). Without locality, 
Bonpland (P). Also in Ecuador and Peru. 

A tree 12-15 m. high, the branchlets ferruginous-tomentose; 
stipules united into a caducous cap, tomentose; leaves petiolate, 
oval-elliptic or broadly oval, large, coriaceous, at the base usually 
rounded or subcordate, glabrate above, ferruginous-tomentose 
beneath or glabrate; panicles terminal, few-flowered, the flowers 
sessile or nearly so; calyx teeth short, obtuse; corolla densely seri- 
ceous, 5.5 cm. long, the 5-6 lobes about half as long as the tube; 
capsule oblong-clavate, 5-8 cm. long, tomentose or glabrate. 

"Quino rojo," "quina blanca," "quinquina blanca." 

Ladenbergia magnifolia (R. & P.) Klotzsch in Hayne, 
Arzneigew. 14: sub pi. 15. 1846. Cinchona magnifolia R. & P. Fl. 
Peruv. 2: 53. pi. 196. 1799. Cinchona grandifolia Poir. Encycl. 6: 
38. 1804. Cinchona oblongifolia Mutis ex Humb. Ges. Naturf. Freund. 
Berlin Mag. 1: 118. 1807. Cinchona nitida Benth. PL Hartw. 190. 
1845, not R. & P. 1799. Ladenbergia nitida Klotzsch in Hayne, 
Arzneigew. 14: sub pi. 15. 1846. Cascarilla magnifolia Wedd. Ann. 
Sci. Nat. III. 10: 10. 1848. Cascarilla nitida Arm. Sci. Nat. III. 10: 
11. 1848. Cascarilla oblongifolia Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 10: 12. 

1848. Cascarilla magnifolia a vulgaris Wedd. Hist. Nat. Quinq. 79. 

1849. (^Cinchona heterocarpa Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 11. pi. 6. 1858. 
C. heterocarpa var. bogotensis Karst., 1. c. 1858. Buena magnifolia 
Wedd. Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 186. 1869. B. nitida Wedd., 1. c. 1869. 

Type of Cinchona heterocarpa from Popayan and Pasto, at 1,300- 
1,800 m., Karsten; type of C. heterocarpa var. bogotensis from Ubala 
and Gachala, Triana. Type of Cinchona nitida collected between 
Fusagasuga and Pandi, Hartweg 104.8. El Colegio, Cundinamarca, 
Dawe 44 (W.) Pacho, Cundinamarca, 1,400-2,000 m., Lehmann 751 4 
(F, W, Y). Bolivia, Cauca, Holton 436 (P, Y). Between Quilichao 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

and Popayan, Cauca, 1,700 m., Lehmann 3448 (F, W). Pandi, 
Cundinamarca, 1,000-1,900 m., Lehmann 2513 (W). Las Guacas, 
Morales, Cauca, 1,600 m., Pennell & Killip 6294 (W, G, Y). Near 
Guachinte, Cauca Valley, Dawe 817 (W, Y). East of Neiva, Huila, 
1,000-1,300 m., Rusby & Pennell 1053 (Y). Morales, Cauca, 1,700 m., 
Rusby & Pennell 8319 (W). Without locality, Purdie (G). La 
Esmeralda, Cauca, 1,200 m., Pittier 933 (W). Armenia, Toro 1316 
(Y). Ranging southward to Bolivia. 

A tree with cinnamon-brown bark; stipules 2-3 cm. long, free or 
slightly connate at the base, acute, sericeous; leaves petiolate, elliptic, 
broadly elliptic, or oblong-ovate, 10-30 cm. long, 7-20 cm. wide, 
obtuse or acute, at the base acute or rounded, glabrous above, 
barbellate beneath in the axils of the veins; inflorescence paniculate, 
long-pedunculate; calyx lobes 4-5, triangular-ovate, acute, tomentu- 
lose; corolla white, about 1.5 cm. long, the lobes lanceolate, acute, 
equaling or shorter than the tube; capsule linear-oblong or lanceolate, 
2.5-7 mm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, glabrate. 

Called "cascarillo" in Colombia, and "cascarillo amarillo" in Peru. 

Ladenbergia muzonensis (Goudot), comb. nov. Cinchona 
muzonensis Goudot, Phil. Mag. 132. 1828. Cascaritta muzonensis 
Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 10: 11. 1848. Herilea muzonensis Klotzsch 
& Karst. ex Walp. Ann. Bot. 2: 788. 1851-52, as syn. H. rosea 
Klotzsch & Karst. ex Walp., 1. c., as syn. Buena muzonensis Wedd. 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 187. 1869. 

Type from forests near Muzo. 

Stipules free or short-connate; leaves ovate-lanceolate or elliptic- 
lanceolate, acuminate, attenuate at the base, submembranaceous, 
glabrous, the costa minutely puberulent; panicles many-flowered, 
the flowers subcapitate; calyx teeth very short, obtuse; corolla white; 
capsule straight or subarcuate, pubescent-tomentose. 

Ladenbergia pedunculata (Karst.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6 8 : 146. 1889. Cinchona pedunculata Karst. in Koch & Fint. Wochen- 
schr. 2: 30. 1859; Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 53. pi 36, 1859. Remijia 
pedunculata Flueck. Chinarinde 17. pi. 6. 1883. 

Type from the eastern slopes of the mountains of Bogota, near 
Susumuco, at 1,000 m., Karsten. Without locality, in 1882, Lorent 
(W). 

A small tree 3.5-4.5 m. high, the young branches sericeous; 
stipules obovate, longer than the petioles, sericeous-pilose; leaves 
petiolate, coriaceous, lanceolate or elliptic, 20 cm. long, acute at 
base and apex, when young minutely appressed-pilose, pilose beneath 
in the axils of the veins; inflorescence axillary, cymose, long-pedun- 
culate, corymbifprm, the branches pilosulous, the flowers subsessile; 
calyx lobes 5, triangular, subacute; corolla white, the tube 7-8 mm. 
long, the lobes lanceolate, acute, 5 mm. long; capsule lanceolate, 
15-18 mm. long, 6-7 mm. wide. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 21 

Ladenbergia undata Klotzsch in Hayne, Arzneigew. 14: sub 
pi. 15. 1846. Cascarilla undata Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 10: 12. 1848. 
Cinchona undata Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 131. pi. 65. 1861. Buena 
undata Wedd. Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 187. 1869. 

Edge of woods, Las Vegas, Santander, 2,600-3,000 m., Killip & 
Smith 15990 (W, Y). Reported by Karsten from Ocaiia, at 1,500- 
2,000 m. Also in Venezuela. 

A tree 8-12 m. high, the branches ferruginous-tomentose; stipules 
free or short-connate, hirsute; leaves short-petiolate, thick-coria- 
ceous, strongly bullate, elliptic or oval, obtuse or rounded at the 
apex, subcordate or rounded at the base, shining and glabrate above, 
tomentose beneath, the margins strongly revolute; panicles corymbi- 
form, few-flowered, brown-tomentose; calyx lobes large, ovate- 
oblong, mostly obtuse; corolla hirsute-sericeous, 3-3.5 cm. long, the 
lobes shorter than the tube; capsule oblong, 4-5 cm. long, glabrate. 

9. CAPIRONA Spruce 

Capirona decorticans Spruce, Journ. Linn. Soc. 3: 200. 1859. 
Monadelphanthus floridus Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 67. pi. 33. 1859. 

The type of M. floridus was collected along the Rio Meta near 
Jiramene, at 200 m., Karsten. The species occurs also in Peru. 

A tree 12-15 m. high; leaves oblong to broadly elliptic, obtuse or 
short-acuminate, 20-45 cm. long, glabrous; flowers in large terminal 
panicles; corolla red, 2.5-3 cm. long; one of the calyx lobes often 
expanded into a large red limb; capsule 2-3 cm. long. 

10. SCHIZOCALYX Wedd. 

Schizocalyx bracteosus Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 1: 74. 1854. 

Type from banks of the Rio Mayo, Goudot. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, 7-18 cm. long, 5-8 cm. wide, short-acumi- 
nate, acute at the base, glabrate above, puberulent beneath; panicle 
shorter than the leaves; flowers short-pediceled, the bracts foliaceous, 
ovate; corolla 8 mm. long. 

Schizocalyx hirsutus Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 264. 1929. 

Type collected between Narino and El Tambor, Santander, in 
thickets along trail, at 150-300 m., Killip & Smith 14959 (W). 

A tree, the branchlets hirsute; leaves oblanceolate-oblong, 14-24 
cm. long, abruptly acuminate, narrowed to the base, sparsely 
hirsute above, hirsute beneath with stiff spreading hairs; panicles 
large, many-flowered, the flowers pedicellate; hypanthium obconic, 
3 mm. long; calyx closed in bud, bilobate in flower, one of the lobes 
sometimes expanded into a large white limb 2 cm. long; corolla 
glabrous outside, the tube 8 mm. long. 

11. CALYCOPHYLLUM DC. 

Calycophyllum candidissimum (Vahl) DC. Prodr. 4: 367. 
1830. Macrocnemum candidissimum Vahl, Symb. 2: 38. 1791. 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 414 (F, W, P). Widely distributed 
in tropical America. 

A medium-sized tree; leaves ovate to rounded-oval, abruptly 
acuminate, 5-12 cm. long, nearly glabrous; flowers small, white, in 
terminal corymbose panicles; calyces partly with one large foliaceous 
petioled white lobe; fruit a cylindric capsule 6-10 mm. long. 

In Panama the tree is called "alazano," "harino," "salamo," 
"madrono," and "guayabo alazano." The wood is heavy, strong, 
and very fine-grained. It is employed in Central America for making 
combs, and burned for charcoal. The tree is an exceptionally beau- 
tiful one when in flower, because of the abundance of long-persisting, 
white or cream-colored calyx lobes, which give it the appearance of 
a huge bouquet. 

12. FERDINANDUSA Pohl 

Ferdinandusa dissimiliflora (Mutis), comb. nov. Cinchona 
dissimiliflora Mutis ex Humb. Ges. Naturf. Freund. Berlin Mag. 1: 
120. 1807. Ladenbergia dissimiliflora Klotzsch in Hayne, Arzneigew. 
14: sub pi. 15. 1846. GomphosiaGoudotiana Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 
10: 14. 1848. 

Described from Colombia. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, at the base rounded or 
subcordate, glabrous above, beneath more or less villous on the 
nerves; calyx 5-dentate, the teeth acuminate; capsule lanceolate. 

Ferdinandusa guainiae Spruce ex Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6: 208. 1889. 

Reported by Schumann from the Rio Negro above the mouth of 
the Rio Casiquiare, Spruce 3510. Also in Brazil. 

Leaves oblong or obovate-oblong, 5-8 cm. long, subobtuse, acute 
or rounded at the base, glabrous on both surfaces; calyx obscurely 
5-7-denticulate, glabrous; corolla about 4 cm. long, glabrous, the 
lobes one-fifth as long as the tube; capsule linear-oblong, glabrous, 
3.5-4.5 cm. long. 

13. HILLIA Jacq. 

Hillia macromeris, sp. nov. Ramuli validi, glabri; stipulae 
caducae, non visae; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 12-16 mm. longo; 
lamina coriacea, oblongo-elliptica, 11-15 cm. longa, 5.5-7 cm. lata, 
abrupte acuminata, acumine anguste triangulari 1-1.5 cm. longo 
attenuate subobtuso, basi obtusa vel acuta, glabra, supra fusco- 
viridis, costa prominente, nervis subimpressis, subtus pallidior et 
brunnescens, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
c. 7, gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo acutissimo adscendentibus, 
subarcuatis, juxta marginem conjunctis, margine revoluto; flores 



SB 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 23 

terminates, sessiles; hypanthium oblongo-turbinatum 7 mm. longum 
glabrum, calyce non viso; corolla extus glabra, tubo gracili 14 cm. 
longp 4 mm. crasso superne vix dilatato, lobis 5 linearibus c. 10 cm. 
longis et 5 mm. latis, longe sensimque attenuatis. Colombia: 
Forests of Santa Maria on Rio Timbiqui, September, 1903, F. C. 
Lehmann B.T.416 (Herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard., type). 

The material available consists of a very short branch with 
attached leaves, a few detached leaves, and a single flower. From 
H. parasitica Jacq. the present plant differs in the much larger flow- 
ers, noteworthy for their very long and narrow corolla lobes, and in 
the conspicuously elevated nerves of the leaves. 

Hillia parasitica Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 18. 1760. 

Santa Marta, 1350 m., H. H. Smith 1654 (F, W, G, M, P, Y). 
La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,800-2,100 m., Pennell 5898 (W). Cordillera 
Oriental east of Neiva, Huila, 1,800-2,300 m., Rusby & Pennell 868 
(Y). La Obrel, Kalbreyer 884 (K). Without locality, Lehmann 
K.I 19 (K). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A glabrous epiphytic shrub, sometimes scandent and 7.5 m. 
long; leaves petioled, mostly elliptic, 6-14 cm. long, cuspidate- 
acuminate; flowers terminal, solitary, sessile; calyx 6-parted or 
absent; corolla white, the slender tube 6-10 cm. long. 

14. COSMIBUENA R. & P. 

Cosmibuena gardenioides Wernh. Journ. Bot. 51: 321. 1913. 
Type from Cauca, at 1,460 m., Lehmann 1955. 

Leaves elliptic, 11 cm. long, rounded at the base and apex; 
calyx 3-3.5 mm. long; corolla tube 4 cm. long. 

Cosmibuena grandiflora (R. & P.) Rusby, Bull. N. Y. Bot. 
Gard. 4: 368. 1907. Cinchona grandiflora R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 
54. pi. 198. 1799. C. obtusifolia R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 3: 3. pi 198. 
1802. Buena latifolia Benth. PI. Hartw. 191. 1845. C. latifolia 
Klotzsch ex Walp. Repert. Bot. 6: 69. 1846. C. arborea Standl. 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 447. 1914. 

Rio Surata Valley, Santander, 1,500-1,800 m., Killip & Smith 
16424 (W, Y). Espejuelo, Cauca, 1,000 m., Pittier 985 (W; type 
of C. arborea). Between Piedras and Ibague", 1,100 m., Andre 1976 
(Y). La Paila, Holton 438 (Y, P), 439 (G). Teta, Lehmann B.T.355 
Y). Estuary of the Yurumagui and Maya, Lehmann 8873 (Y). 
_, Cauca, 1,000-1,300 m., Lehmann B.T.1171 (Y). Without 
locality, Triana 1818 (K). Santa Marta, November, 1844, Purdie 
(K). Without locality, Bruchmuller (K). The type of B. latifolia was 
collected between Villeta and Guaduas. The species occurs also in 
Peru and Bolivia. 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A glabrous tree 5-12 m. high; leaves petioled, elliptic, oval, or 
oblong-elliptic, rounded or very obtuse at the apex; calyx about 1 
cm. long; corolla white or ochroleucous, the tube 5-9 cm. long. 

It is doubtful whether the other species listed here are distinct 
from C. grandiflora. I have not seen type material of them, and the 
descriptions do not mention any characters which seem very impor- 
tant. The corolla evidently exhibits great variation in length. 

Cinchona grandiflora was described from Peru, but Ruiz and 
Pavon cite also specimens from Colombia, collected near Quebrada 
Larga by Sebastian Jose" Lopez Ruiz. They give the vernacular 
names as "mestiza," "azuceno," "capecape," "capecito," and "cape 
negro." Lehmann reports the vernacular name as "narciso." 

Cosmibuena macrocarpa (Benth.) Klotzsch ex Walp. Repert. 
Bot. 6: 69. 1846. Buena macrocarpa Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 104. 
pi. 38. 1844. C. gorgonensis Wernh. Journ. Bot. 51: 321. 1913. 

Type from Gorgona Island. Type of C. gorgonensis also from the 
same island, Barclay 919. 

A glabrous tree; leaves oval-elliptic, obtuse, cuneate at the base, 
7.5-10 cm. long; calyx 3 mm. long; corolla whitish, the tube 5 cm. 
long; capsule 7.5-10 cm. long. 

Both species names are based on material from the same island, 
and the distinguishing characters given for C. gorgonensis do not 
seem to be of specific importance, in consideration of the variation 
in material referred to C. grandiflora. 

15. COUTAREA Aubl. 

Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 196. 
1889. Portlandia hexandra Jacq. Sel. Stirp. 63. pi. 182, f. 20. 1763. 
C. speciosa Aubl. PL Guian. 314. pi. 122. 1775. C. Scherffiana Andre", 
111. Hort. 25: 120. pi. 321. 1878. 

Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 101 (W). Barranquilla, Bro. Paul 24 
(W). Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 349 (F, W, P). Villavicencio, 450 
m., Pennell 1401 (W). Buenavista, east of Since, Pennell 4008 (W). 
Turbaco, Bro. Heriberto 486 (W); Killip & Smith 14198 (W, Y). 
Usiacuri, 250 m., Bro. Elias 279 (W). Type from Cartagena. Type 
of C. Scherffiana from Pasto, Andre. Widely distributed in tropical 
America. 

A shrub or small tree, glabrous or sparsely pubescent; leaves 
short-petiolate, oblong to broadly ovate or elliptic, short-acuminate, 
glabrous or nearly so; flowers terminal, usually in clusters of 2-3; 
calyx lobes 6, linear; corolla asymmetric, white to purplish, 4-5 cm. 
long, glabrous or puberulent; capsule about 3.5 cm. long. 

The vernacular name "madiagola" is reported from Turbaco. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 25 

Coutarea hexandra var. pubescens (Pohl) Schum. in Mart. 
Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 198. 1889. C. pubescens Pohl, PI. Bras. Icon. 2: 148. 
pi. 200. 1831. 

Rio Cabrera, Tolima, 1,400 m., Lehmann 2366 (W). Rio Cabrera 
to Villavieja, Huila, 500 m., Rusby & Pennell 870 (W, Y). Without 
locality, Lehmann 8651 (G). Guaduas to Villita, 1,500 m., Andre 675 
(K). Cauca, Andre 2923 (W, Y). North of Arjona, Bolivar, 30-50 
m., Kittip & Smith 14553 (Y). Widely distributed in South America. 

Sometimes a tree of 10-12 m.; like the typical form except that 
the leaves and flowers are densely pubescent. 

Coutarea Lindeniana Baill. Adansonia 12: 300. 1879. 

Ocafia, in savannas, 1,200 m., Schlim 696 (K). Espiritu Santo, 
Ocana, Purdie (K). Also in Venezuela. 

A small tree; leaves elliptic or oblong-elliptic, petiolate, acumi- 
nate, glabrous or sometimes velvety-pubescent beneath; cymes 
dense, many-flowered; calyx lobes elongate, linear-subulate; corolla 
white, tinged with pink outside, 2.5-3.5 cm. long. 

16. HENRIQUEZIA Spruce 

Henriquezia oblonga Spruce ex Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. 22: 
297. 1859. 

Type from the banks of the Rio Atabapo near the mouth of the 
Rio Casiquiari, Spruce 3702. 

A small tree 6 m. high; leaves petiolate, elongate-oblong or 
subovate-oblong, obtuse or acutish, 12-14 cm. long, 4-4.5 cm. wide, 
glabrous, shining above, paler and dull beneath; capsule suborbic- 
ular, 7-8 cm. in diameter. 

17. POGONOPUS Klotzsch 

Pogonopus speciosus (Jacq.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
265. 1889. Macrocnemum speciosum Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. 1: 19. 
1797. Howardia grandiflora Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 1: 70. 1854. 

Santa Marta, 45 m., H. H. Smith 100 (F, W, P). Rio Frio, 
Santa Marta, Walker 1277 (F, W). Armenia, Toro 540 (Y). Also 
in Venezuela and Central America. 

A large shrub or small tree; leaves short-petioled, obovate or 
oval-obovate, 10-20 cm. long, abruptly acuminate, thin, sparsely or 
densely puberulent beneath; cymes forming a terminal panicle; one 
calyx lobe of some of the flowers expanded into a red rounded-ovate 
limb 1-5 cm. long; capsule 5-7 mm. long. 

Pogonopus tubulosus (DC.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
265. 1889. Calycophyllum tubulosum DC. Prodr. 4: 367. 1830. 

Rio Sucio to Dabeiba, Lehmann 7459 (K). Ranging to Brazil, 
Argentina, and Bolivia. 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A tree 10-15 m. high; leaves short-petioled, ovate, obovate, or 
elliptic, short-acuminate, densely pubescent or glabrate; cymes 
forming terminal panicles; one of the calyx lobes in some flowers 
expanded into a red ovate limb 7-10 cm. long; corolla about 3.5 cm. 
long, the 5 lobes very short; capsule 7-9 mm. long, compressed- 
globose, rounded at the base, glabrous, 7 mm. long. 

18. CONDAMINEA DC. 

Condaminea corymbosa (R. & P.) DC. Prodr. 4: 402. 1830. 
Macrocnemum corymbosum R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 48. pi. 189. 1799. 

Rio Coello, Tolima, 1,000-1,500 m., Kittip 9735 (W). Calinia, 
El Valle, Killip 11199 (W). Titiribi, Toro 421 (Y). Ibague", 1,300 
m., Andre 1955 (Y). Reported from Mariquita and Santa Ana, 
Bonpland (HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 299. 1830). Also in Peru, the 
type region, and Panama. 

A shrub or small tree with very large, oblong or obovate, nearly 
sessile, usually clasping, glabrous leaves; inflorescence terminal, 
long-pedunculate, as long as the leaves; calyx 8 mm. long, truncate 
or irregularly dentate; corolla glabrous, 2.5 cm. long; capsule bisul- 
cate, about 17 mm. long. 

19. RUSTIA Klotzsch 

Rustia rosea (Klotzsch & Karst.) Schum. in E. & P. Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. 4 4 : 18. 1891. Henlea rosea Klotzsch & Karst. ex 
Walp. Ann. Dot. 2: 788. 1851-52, as syn. 

This is listed by Schumann (1. c.) as a valid species of Riistia, 
but it has not been described, so far as I know. The name is listed 
by Walpers merely as a synonym of Cascarilla muzonensis. 

Rustia occidentalis (Benth.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 
2: 14. 1881. Exostema occidentale Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 104. 1844. 

Type from Gorgona Island. Buenaventura, El Valle, in coastal 
thickets, Killip 11707 (W, Y). Also in Central America. 

A glabrous tree; leaves oblanceolate, 10-30 cm. long, long- 
acuminate, attenuate to the base; flowers in narrow few-flowered 
panicles; corolla salverform, the tube 6-7 mm. long; capsule obovoid, 
10-14 mm. long. 

Rustia splendens (Karst.), comb. nov. Henlea splendens Karst. 
Fl. Columb. 1: 157. pi. 78. 1861. 

Type from Jiramene, Karsten. Without locality, Purdie (G). 

A nearly glabrous tree up to 9 m. high; leaves short-petiplate, 
obovate-oblong or obovate, 20-35 cm. long, abruptly short-acuminate; 
flowers in a large terminal panicle; calyx cupular, truncate or ob- 
scurely denticulate; corolla 2.5 cm. long, the lobes very short. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 27 

20. WARSGEWICZIA Klotzsch 

Warscewiczia coccinea (Vahl) Klotzsch, Monatsb. Akad. 
Berlin 1853: 497. 1853. Macrocnemum coccineum Vahl, Symb.,Bot. 
2: 38. 1791. 

Susumuco, 1,240 m., Andre 1008 (Y). Rio Dagua, Buenaventura, 
Lehmann 5804 (F). Between Chinacota and La Esmeralda, Norte 
de Santander, 1,000-1,300 m., Killip & Smith 20900 (W). Upper 
Rio Lebrija Valley, Santander, 400-700 m., Killip & Smith 16272 
(W). Between Narino and El Tambor, 150-300 m., Killip & Smith 
14968 (W). Occurring also in Panama, and widely distributed in 
South America. 

A shrub or small tree; leaves petioled, obovate or obovate-oblong, 
15-60 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate, pubescent or glabrate 
beneath; cymes forming a long narrow inflorescence; one of the 
calyx lobes in some of the flowers expanded into an oblong or elliptic 
limb 3.5-7 cm. long; corolla yellow. 

Warscewiczia peltata Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 1: 73. 1854. 

Type collected in Colombia by Goudot. 

A tree 8 m. high; leaves ovate-oblong, short-acuminate, peltate, 
25-40 cm. long, pubescent beneath; cymes arranged in a raceme 50 
cm. long; expanded calyx lobe elliptic-lanceolate, 5-7 cm. long. 

21. SICKINGIA Willd. 

Sickingia cordifolia Hook. f. in B. & H. Gen. PI. 2: 34. 1873. 
Flexanthera subcordata Rusby, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 7: 368. /. 6. 
1927. 

Santa Marta, Purdie (photo, and fragment of type from Herb. 
Kew., F; dupl. in G). East of Bonda, H. H. Smith 2404 (F, M, P, 
type collection of F. subcordata). Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 92 
(F, M, P). 

A tree 12 m. high; leaves short-petiolate, ovate or oblong-ovate, 
10-25 cm. long, acuminate, at the base rounded or cordate, glabrous; 
flowers in small, short-pedunculate, dense panicles shorter than the 
leaves; calyx lobes rounded; corolla 6 mm. long, the lobes very 
short, ovate-triangular; stamens exserted; capsule 1.5 cm. long or 
larger. 

Sickingia Goudotii (Baill.), comb. nov. Chimarrhis Goudotii 
Baill. Adansonia 12: 307. 1879. 

Described from Quindio and Tolima, Goudot. 

Leaves acuminate, at the base long-attenuate, finely tomentose 
beneath; panicles terminal, 25 cm. long; corolla lobes short; stamens 
exserted. 

Sickingia myriantha, sp. nov. Arbor 12-15-metralis, ramulis 
subteretibus vel obtuse tetragonis brunnescentibus glabris, inter- 



28 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

nodiis brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae in tubum 2-4 mm. longum 
subtruncatum vel brevissime bilobum connatae, glabrae; folia 
opposita, petiolo 1-3 cm. longo glabro gracili; lamina obovata, 
obovato-oblonga vel rarius oblongo-elliptica, 8-20 cm. longa, 3.5- 
8.5 cm. lata, abrupte breviterque acuminata, rarius acuta vel sensim 
acuminata, basin versus attenuata vel acuta, crasse membranacea 
vel subcoriacea, fere concolor, subtus in axillis nervorum primariorum 
dense breviterque barbata, aliter glabra, costa nervisque supra non 
elevatis, subtus prominentibus, costa gracili, neryis lateralibus 
utrpque latere c. 12, gracilibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, parallelis, 
levissime curvatis, prope marginem arcuato-cqnjunctis, nervulis 
obscuris; inflorescentia terminalis, cymoso-paniculata, 9-20 cm. 
longa et lata, ramosa, breviter vel longe pedunculate, ramulis 
minute sparseque puberulis, bracteis anguste triangularibus acutis 
1-3 mm. longis, floribus sessilibus; hypanthium 1 mm. longum 
glabrum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus obsolete remoteque denticulatus, 
dentibus latissimis rotundatis; corolla alba, extus glabra, tubulpso- 
campanulata, 4 mm. longa, 3.5 mm. lata, lobis 5 late triangularibus 
obtusis c. 0.6 mm. longis, tubo intus paullp supra basin ad insertionem 
staminum barbato; filamenta ad basin pilosa, superne glabra, 
antheris exsertis glabris oblongis 1.5 mm. longis. Colombia: Las 
Nubes road, region of Santa Marta, alt. 1,200 m., December 3, 
1898, H. H. Smith 1810 (Herb. Field Mus. No. 138,660, type; 
duplicates in W, Y). La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,550-1,700 m., Pennell 
5028 (W, Y), 5859 (W, Y). Without locality, Lehmann 7692 (K, W). 
Highlands of Popayan, 1,700-2,000 m., Lehmann 5535 (F, K, S, W). 
Popayan, 1,700 m., Lehmann 2799 (K, W). Tolima, Goudot (K). 
Paniquita, Lehmann B.T.I 112 (Y). 

22. RONDELETIA L. 

Rondeletia brevipes Benth. PI. Hartw. 191. 1845. 

Type from Guaduas, Prov. Bogota, Hartweg 1050. 

Petioles scarcely 2 mm. long; stipules linear, longer than the 
petiole; leaf blades oval-elliptic or oblong-elliptic, obtuse, soft- 
pubescent beneath; flowers 5-parted, cymose-paniculate, the panicles 
leafy; corolla tube 4 mm. long, tomentose; seeds appendaged at each 
end. 

According to the description, this seems to be closely related to 
R. pubescens HBK. 

Rondeletia colombiana Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 
129. 1920. R. ovata Rusby, 1. c. 

Sierra de Onaca, 1,500 m., H. H. Smith 1813 (Y, type; F, W, 
M, S, P). Las Nubes, 1,350 m., H. H. Smith 1813 (Y, type of 
R. ovata). Growing in forest or thickets. 

A small tree 4.5-6 m. high; stipules lance-subulate or ovate- 
acuminate, about 1 cm. long; petioles 1-2.5 cm. long; leaf blades 
elliptic or ovate, 10-20 cm. long, acuminate, sparsely or densely 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 29 

appressed-pilose; flowers 4-parted, in loose panicles; calyx lobes 
linear or lance-linear, 3-5 mm. long; hypanthium appressed-pilose; 
corolla pink, the tube 12 mm. long, very sparsely tomentose. 

With regard to R. colombiana and R. ovata, their author makes 
the statement that "the two species are, however, obviously distinct, 
though closely related." The present writer is unable to find any 
tangible difference between the two type specimens, which were 
considered by their collector to represent the same plant. 

Rondeletia cupreiflora Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 
40: 314. 1908. 

Thickets near Anfoquia, 1,700-2,000 m., Lehmann 7289 (F, Y, 
type collection). Also in Ecuador. 

A shrub or small tree 5 m. high; stipules triangular, acute, 5-6 
mm. long; leaf blades oblong, 7-14 cm. long, 2.5-5.5 cm. wide, acumi- 
nate, at the base acute, sparsely pilose beneath; flowers 4-parted, 
in corymbiform panicles; hypanthium subtomentose; calyx lobes 
lance-subulate, nearly equaling the hypanthium; corolla copper-red, 
20-30 mm. long, puberulent. 

Rondeletia discolor HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 396. 1820. 

Type collected between Mariquita and Honda, Bonpland. 

A shrub, the branches glabrous; stipules linear-subulate, glabrous; 
petioles 4-6 mm. long; leaf blades ovate-oblong, 5 cm. long, acumi- 
nate, glabrous above, white-tomentose beneath; flowers about 2.5 
cm. long, 4-parted, in terminal sessile panicles; calyx lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate-subulate, spreading; corolla red; seeds angled. 

Rondeletia disperma Jacq. Sel Stirp. 59. 1763. 

The type material was collected in the vicinity of Cartagena, 
on the islands of Baru and Tierra Bomba. Since the fruit is described 
as 2-celled with one seed in each cell, evidently the plant is not a 
Rondeletia, and its proper position is unknown. 

Rondeletia eriantha Benth. PI. Hartw. 192. 1845. 
Between Villeta and Guaduas, Prov. Bogota, Hartweg 1051 (Y, 
type collection). 

A shrub 2.5-3.5 m. high; stipules lance-subulate; leaves sub- 
sessile, oblong-obovate, 7-10 cm. long, acute or acuminate, narrowed 
to the rounded or subcordate base, appressed-pilose beneath along 
the nerves or glabrate; flowers 5-parted, forming a large corymbi- 
form panicle; calyx lobes ovate, acutish; corolla tube 8 mm. long, 
densely retrorse-pilose; seeds acute at each end. 

Rondeletia euryphylla, sp. Arbor parva, ramulis gracilibus 
vel crassiusculis, subteretibus vel obtuse tetragonis, densissime pilis 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

subrigidis adpressis vel adscendentibus fulvis vel brunnescentibus 
pilosis, internodiis brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae 5-9 mm. longae, 
e basi triangulari subulato-acuminatae, erectae, rigidae, persistentes, 
extus dense adpresso-pilosae; folia opposita, petiolo crassiusculo 
3-7 mm. longo dense adpresso-piloso; lamina late ovata, ovato- 
elliptica vel rarius ovato-oblonga, 5.5-13 cm. longa, 2-6 cm. lata, 
abrupte sensimve acuminata, vel longiacuminata, basi acuta vel 
abrupte acuminata, rarius obtusa, crasse membranacea, supra 
viridis, dense pilis brevibus patulis vel subadpressis asperulo-pilosa, 
nervis prominentibus, subtus dense molliterque pilis crassiusculis 
albidis pilosa, costa crassiuscula elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere 11-13, prominentibus, gracilibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
arcuatis, parallelis, juxta marginem conjunctis, nervulis prominen- 
tibus transversis et subparallelis reticulato-conjunctis; flores tetra- 
meri in paniculam 4-9 cm. longam et 6-10 cm. latam trichotomam 
dense multifloram apice rqtundatam dispositi, ramulis adscendenti- 
bus vel patulis dense pilis adscendentibus crassiusculis pilosis, 
bracteis linearibus vel subulatis 4-10 mm. longis, ramulis plerumque 
secundifloris, pedicellis plerumque 1-3 mm. longis; hypanthium 2 
mm. longum, late oblongum, pilis longiusculis subadpressis dense 
indutum; calyx 4-partitus, laciniis 2-3 mm. (in fructu ad 5 mm.) 
longis, linearibus, lanceolatis vel anguste triangularibus, acutis vel 
obtusis, extus adpressp-pilosis, intus glabris, saepe reflexis; corolla 
alba, extus pilis brevibus albidis adscendentibus dense induta et 
saepe plus minusve tomentosa, tubo 7-8 mm. longo, 1.5 mm. lato, 
superne yix dilatato, lobis rotundatis, 2.5-3 mm. longis, saepe 
crispulis, intus minute puberulis vel fere glabris; capsula subglobosa, 
5 mm. longa, fusco-brunnea, pubescens vel glabrata; semina numero- 
sissima, minuta, angulata. Colombia; Bele"n, Dept. Caldas, alt. 
1,500-1,700 m., September 15, 1922, Francis W. Pennell 10627 
(U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,701, type). Titiribi, near Medellin, 
Toro 523 (Y). Girardote, Toro 7^9 (Y). Without locality, Goudot 
(K). Salgar, Toro 1283 (Y). 

Toro 749, a fruiting specimen, differs from the other collections 
in its smaller leaves, laxer inflorescence, and longer calyx lobes, but 
it is probably only a variant from the typical form. R. euryphylla is 
easily recognized by the abundant, soft or somewhat rough pubes- 
cence of the leaves, and by the complete absence of tomentum except 
sometimes on the corolla. 

Rondeletia glabrata, sp. nov. Frutex 1.5-2.5 m. altus, 
ramulis gracilibus teretibus cinnamomeis glabratis, internodiis 
2.5-5.5 cm. longis; stipulae e basi triangulari longe sensimque 
attenuato-acuminatae, 7-9 mm. longae, erectae, persistentes, brun- 
nescentes, glabratae; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 5-9 mm. longo 
supra anguste sulcato glabrato; lamina ovata vel oblongo-qvata, 
7.5-13.5 cm. longa, 2.5-5 cm. lata, longe sensimque acuminata, 
acumine angusto, basi acutiuscula vel abrupte breviterque acuta, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 31 

crasse membranacea, utrinque glabra vel in statu juvenili subtus 
ad nervos sparse arachnoideo-tomentulosa, lucida, supra viridis, 
subtus paullo pallidior, costa nervisque gracilibus, supra conspicuis 
sed non elevatis, subtus prominentibus, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 12, angulo lato adscendentibus, valde arcuatis, parallelis, 
juxta marginem conjunctis, nervulis prominulis subparallelis et 
reticulato-conjunctis; flores tetrameri in paniculam rotundatam 9 
cm. longam et 10 cm. latam trichotomam laxam multifloram 5 cm. 
longe pedunculatam basi foliis 2 c. 5.5 cm. longis fulcratam dispositi, 
cymulis 3-5-floris, pedicellis 2-6 mm. longis minute sparseque tomen- 
tulosis vel glabratis; hypanthium late oblongum 2 mm. longum 
sparse tomentulosum; calyx 4-partitus, laciniis linearibus viridibus 
2-4 mm. longis, extus sparse minuteque tomentulosis vel glabratis, 
intus glabris; corolla extus sparse et adpresse arachnoideo-tomen- 
tulosa, tubo gracili 14-15 mm. longo superne vix dilatato et 2 mm. 
lato, lobis 4 rotundatis saepe crispulis intus glabris, extus fere glabris, 
2.5-3 mm. longis; capsula subglobosa 3 mm. longa costata glabrata. 
Colombia: In woods between Piedecuesta and Las Vegas, Dept. 
Santander, alt. 2,000-2,500 m., December 19-24, 1926, E. P. Killip 
and Albert C. Smith 15504 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,351,375, type; 
duplicate in Y), 15482 (W, Y). 

Corolla "red" or "pinkish red." 

This species is well marked by the glabrous leaves and long red 
corolla. 

Rondeletia inconstans, sp. noy. Frutex vel arbor parva 2-4.5 
m. alta, ramulis gracilibus vel crassiusculis, subteretibus vel obtuse 
tetragonis, ferrugineo-brunneis, statu juvenili laxe arachnoideo- 
tomentosis, cito glabratis, internodiis elongatis; stipulae 6-20 mm. 
longae, persistentes, anguste oblongae, apice obtusae vel rotundatae 
et mucronatae vel cuspidatae, glabratae, erectae, brunnescentes; 
folia opposita, petiolo valido 5-14 mm. longo tomentoso vel glabrato; 
lamina ovata, elliptico-ovata vel oblongo-elliptica, 8-20 cm. longa, 
4-9 cm. lata, abrupte acuminata, basi abnipte acuta vel acuminata, 
rarius obtusa vel rotundata, crasse membranacea, statu juvenili 
utrinque laxe cinereo-tomentosa, supra cito glabrata, viridis, nervis 
prominulis, subtus glabrata vel ad nervos arachnoideo-tomentosa, 
rarius in tota superficie arachnoideo-tomentosa, costa nervisque 
gracilibus prominentibus, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 9-15, 
angulo lato vel angusto adscendentibus, curvis, prope marginem 
conjunctis, nervulis transversis saepe prominentibus et parallelis, 
reticulato-conjunctis; flores tetrameri, in paniculam terminalem 
sessilem vel pedunculatam dispositi, paniculis laxe ramosis trichoto- 
mis ad 12 cm. longis, ramulis albido-tomentosis vel glabris, bracteis 
linearibus vel oblongis 2-8 mm. longis, cymulis densis, floribus 
sessilibus vel ad 3 mm. longe pedicullatis; hypanthium ovale 2 
mm. longum dense albo-tomentosum; calyx 4-partitus, laciniis 
oblongis vel lineari-lanceolatis, 1.5 mm. (in fructu ad 3 mm.) longis, 
acutis vel obtusiusculis, extus sparse tomentulosis, intus glabris; 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

corolla rosea extus laxe vel dense albido-tomentosa, tubo gracili 
8-14 mm. longo, superne paullo ampliato, lobis 4 rotundatis 2 mm. 
longis crispulis, intus glabris capsula subglobosa 4-5 mm. longa, 
tomentulosa vel glabrata, costata; semina numerosissima, minuta, 
angulata. Colombia: Quetame, Pipiral, eastern Andes of Bogota, 
alt. 1,000-1,600 m., July, 1897, F. C. Lehmann 8751 (Herb. Field 
Mus. No. 578,284, type; duplicates in W and S). Andes of Antio- 
quia, 1,400-1,700 m., Lehmann 5156 (F, W, S). Villavicencio(?), Andre 
K.1098 (Y). Mindo(?), Andre K.1099 (Y). Buenavista to Pipiral, 
Cundinamarca, 1,000-1,200 m., Pennell 1683 (W, Y). Charta, 
Santander, 2,000-2,600 m., Killip & Smith 19100 (W. Y). California, 
Santander, 2,300 m., Killip & Smith 17074 (W, Y). Toledo, Norte 
de Santander, 1,700-1,900 m., Killip & Smith 20084 (W, Y). Forests 
of Rio Palace", highlands of Popayan, 1,500-1,700 m., Lehmann 
B.T.394 (G, Y). Without locality, Andre 1097 (K). Venezuela: 
Upper Cotiza, near Caracas, in light forest, 1,350 m., Pittier 9837 
(W, G), 7403 (W), 71 92 (W). Between Maracay and Choroni, 
1,200 m., Fendkr 1994 (G, K, M). Los Castillitos, above Caracas, 
1,300-1,500 m., Pittier 9181 (W, G, Y). Caracas, 900-1,200 m., 
A. G. Bailey 31 (K). Middle Cotiza, near Caracas, in savannas, 
1,000-1,400 m., Pittier 8045 (W). Ojo de Agua, 1,500 m., Eggers 
13419 (W). Cotiza, 1,200 m., John (W). 

The corolla is described as "red," "pale carmine," and "tube 
pink, lobes white, pink-tinged." 

The specimens cited are variable in size of corolla and in leaf 
pubescence. It may well be that they represent more than a single 
species, but the material at hand is not sufficiently extensive to 
enable one to determine the importance of the variations. Either all 
the material represents one species, or else it should be separated 
into three to five, and the propriety of such a separation is very 
doubtful under present conditions. 

R. inconstans agrees in most details with the description of 
R. orthoneura Schum. & Krause, but in that the flowers are said to 
be pentamerous. 

Rondeletia orthoneura Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 
40: 314. 1908. 

Type reported as from Colombia, Warscewicz 622. 

Stipules ovate-oblong, 6-8 mm. long; petioles 3-6 mm. long; 
leaf blades elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 6-14 cm. long, acuminate, at 
the base acutish or rounded, villous-tomentose when young, in age 
arachnoid-pilose; flowers 5-parted, the panicle long-pedunculate; 
calyx lobes linear, 2 mm. long, acute; corolla tube 12-15 mm. long, 
tomentose. 

It is quite possible that the type of this species is from Panama 
rather than Colombia. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 33 

Var. angustior Schum. & Krause, op. cit. 315, has narrower 
leaves than the typical form. The type is Triana 1779 from Colombia. 

Rondeletia pubescens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 396. pi. 291 
1820. 

Type collected between Mariquita and Honda, Bonpland. Honda, 
Tolima, 300-500 m., Pennell 3558 (F, W, G, Y, M). Quebrada de 
Angeles to Rio Cabrera, Huila, 450 m., Rusby & Pennell 341 (W, 
Y). Natagaima, Huila, 450 m., Rusby & Pennell 1155 (F, W, G, 
Y, M). Below Boca Saldana, Huila, 400 m., Rusby & Pennell 
1209 (G, Y). Piedras, 800 m., Andre 1911 (Y). Without locality, 
Linden 1170 (G). Rio Paez, Tolima, 1,000-1,500 m., Lehmann 5775 
(F). Honda and La Yegua, Tolima, 100-500 m., Lehmann 7334 (F). 
Prov. Antioquia, Kalbreyer 1914 (K). On plains and hillsides, or 
sometimes in forest. 

A shrub; stipules lance-subulate, usually shorter than the petioles; 
leaf blades oblong, obtuse or acutish, glabrate above, densely 
grayish-pubescent beneath; flowers usually 5-parted, yellowish 
white, in large leafy panicles; hypanthium whitish-puberulent; 
calyx lobes lanceolate or oblong, acute or obtuse; corolla tube about 
5 mm. long; seeds acute at each end. 

Rondeletia Purdiei Hook. f. in Curtis' Bot. Mag. pi. 5669. 
1867. 

Santa Marta, Purdie (G, type collection). Near Bonda, 45 m., 
H. H. Smith 319 (F, W, G, Y, M, P). Near Masinga, 75 m., H. H. 
Smith 320 (F, W, G, Y, P, M). Torrecilla, near Turbaco, Bolivar, 
150-300 m., Killip & Smith 14263 (W, Y), 14628 (W, Y), 14397 
(W, Y). Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 28 (W), 87 (W, Y), 133 (W). 
Foothills of Cordillera de Santa Marta, near Rio Frio, Pittier 1721 
(W, Y). Cartagena to Turbaco, Goudot (K). Without locality, 
Funcke & Schlim 720 (Y). In thickets or dry forest. 

A shrub or small tree; stipules broadly triangular, subulate- 
acuminate; leaves short-petiolate, oblong-obovate to oblong or ovate- 
oblong, mostly obtuse, attenuate or acuminate at the base, nearly 
glabrous; flowers white, in dense rounded panicles; hypanthium 
appressed-pubescent; calyx lobes ovate or elliptic, obtuse or acute; 
corolla tube 8-9 mm. long, sparsely appressed-pubescent; seeds 
attenuate at each end. 

Called "coral" at Turbaco. 

Rondeletia reflexa Benth. PI. Hartw. 192. 1845. Arachnothryx 
reflexa Planch. Fl. Serres 5: sub pi. 442. 1849. 

Type collected near Villeta, Prov. Bogotd, Hartweg 1052. Bogota, 
Ariste-Joseph A857 (W). Caracoli near Honda, Andre 540 (K). 

A shrub 1.5-2.5 m. high; stipules subulate; leaves short-petiolate, 
ovate to oval, acuminate to obtuse, glabrate above, finely and densely 
whitish-tomentose beneath; flowers 4-parted, in terminal leafy 



34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Eanicles; hypanthium densely white-tomentose; calyx lobes lanceo- 
ite or oblong, acute, reflexed in fruit; corolla tube 12 mm. long, 
laxly tomentose. 

Rondeletia rhynchospora HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 395. 1820. 
Type from Honda, Bonpland. 

A shrub; stipules linear, sericeous, slightly shorter than the 
petioles; leaves oblong-elliptic, 7 cm. long or more, acute, slightly 
narrowed at the base, pubescent above, grayish-tomentose beneath, 
reticulate-veined; flowers in terminal trichotomous panicles; capsule 
subglobose, pubescent; seeds appendaged at each end. 

Rondeletia rosea (Linden), comb. nov. Arachnothryx rosea 
Linden, Hort. Linden No. 2. 1859. 

Described from cultivated plants grown at Brussels, and brought 
from Colombia by Schlim. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-elliptic, short-petiolate, acute at the base 
and apex, glabrate above, cinereous-puberulent beneath on the 
nerves; flowers in terminal panicled cymes, short-pedicellate; calyx 
lobes triangular-subulate; whole inflorescence appressed cinereous- 
pubescent; corolla pink, puberulent, the 4 lobes ovate, obtuse. 

The description and colored plate of this plant are so indefinite 
that it is difficult to decide whether they really apply to any Colom- 
bian species of which material is available. 

Rondeletia rugulosa, sp. nov. Ramuli subteretes, ferrugineo- 
brunnei, novellis albido-tomentosis, vetustioribus pilis adscendentibus 
rigidis fulvis hirsutis, internodiis elongatis; stipulae oblongo-tri- 
angulares, 10-12 mm. longae, acuminatae, erectae, brunneae, extus 
sparse tomentosae et adpresso-pilosae, persistentes; folia opposita, 
petiolo valido 4-8 mm. longo hirsute et interdum tomentoso; lamina 
oblongo-elliptica vel ovato-elliptica, 8-14 cm. longa, 3.5-6 cm. lata, 
longiacuminata, basi acuta vel anguste rotundata, crasse membran- 
acea, supra yiridis, statu juvenili laxe arachnoideo-tomentosa, cito 
glabrata, reticulato-rugulosa, nervis impressis, subtus dense tomen- 
tosa, interdum dense albo-tomentosa, ad nervos adpresso-pilosa, 
costa nervisque gracilibus elevatis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
c. 12, angulo lato adscendentibus, curvis, prope marginem conjunctis, 
nervulis transversis crebris parallelis anastomosantibus; flores 
tetrameri in paniculam terminalem sessilem 16 cm. longam dispositi, 
panicula laxe ramosa, ramulis albo-tomentosis, floribus congestis 
sessilibus vel brevissime pedicellatis, bracteis subulatis 2 mm. 
longitudinem vix superantibus; hypanthium dense albo-tomentosum 
ovali-obovatum 2 mm. longum; calyx 4-partitus, lobis 1.5-2 mm. 
longis, erectis vel patulis, lanceolato-oblongis, acutis, extus tomen- 
tosis, intus glabris; corolla extus laxe albo-tomentosa, infra lobos 
pilis brevibus rigidis adpresso-pilosa, tubo gracili 1 cm. longo superne 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 35 

paullo ampliato, lobis 4 patulis rotundatis 2 mm. longis intus glabris. 
Colombia: Without locality, /. Linden 692 (Gray Herb., type; 
duplicate in K). Santa Marta, Purdie (G, K). 

The Purdie specimens differ in having a denser and whiter 
tomentum on the lower leaf surface. R. rugulosa probably is related 
to R. discolor HBK., but in that the flowers are described as being 
about 2.5 cm. long. 

Rondeletia Schumanniana Krause (Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: 
315. 1908), although cited from Colombia, was collected in Veraguas, 
Panama. 

Rondeletia sp.(?) Petesia tomentosa Jacq. Sel. Stirp. 18. 1763. 

Type from Cartagena, Jacquin. 

This has been referred with doubt to the genus Rondeletia, but 
the description does not agree with any of the species known from 
the Atlantic coast. 

23. SIPANEA Aubl. 
Sipanea biflora L. f. Suppl. PI. 134. 1781. 

Reported by Schumann (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 252. 1889) as 
collected along the Orinoco near Maypures, Spruce 3620. Also in 
the Guianas and Brazil. 

A low herb, the slender stems often prostrate, puberulent; leaves 
ovate or elliptic, acute, 2-4.5 cm. long, glabrous above, appressed- 
pilose beneath; flowers axillary; calyx lobes subulate, glabrous, 3-4 
mm. long; corolla 1.5 cm. long, glabrous, the lobes oblong, obtuse; 
capsule subglobose, 4 mm. in diameter. 

Sipanea colombiana Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 174. 1917. 

Type from Crecenoche, Prov. Ocana, alt. 270 m., Schlim 548. 
Plains of the Rio Guatique and Rio Meta, 100-300 m., Lehmann 
8758 (F). Lower Magdalena, Dawe 445 (W). 

An erect, densely pubescent herb; leaves sessile or nearly so, 
oblong or oblong-elliptic, 2-4 cm. long, obtuse or acute; flowers in 
small dense cymes; calyx lobes linear, 2.5-4 mm. long; corolla white, 
the slender tube 9-14 mm. long, nearly glabrous; capsule 3-4 mm. 
long. 

Sipanea glomerata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 310. 1820. 

Type collected along the Orinoco near Atures, Bonpland. 
Reported by Schumann (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 249. 1889) from 
Maypures, Spruce 3665. 

Stems woody at the base, yellowish-sericeous; leaves very 
shortly petiolate or subsessile, lanceolate, long-acuminate, sericeous 
on both surfaces; inflorescence terminal, subcapitate, sessile, the 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

outer bracts trifid; calyx lobes subulate, sericeous, 8-9 mm. long; 
corolla yellow, 2 cm. long, the tube densely sericeous above the 
middle, the lobes ovate, acute. 

Sipanea Trianae Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 174. 1917. 

Type from Colombia, Triana 1776. Grassy plain east of Villa- 
vicencio, 450 m., Pennell 1450 (G). 

A pilose herb; leaves ovate, 2-3 cm. long, scarcely acuminate; 
calyx lobes setaceous, 3 mm. long; corolla pink, densely pilose, the 
tube 4 mm. long. 

24. ELAEAGIA Wedd. 

Elaeagia utilis (Goudot) Wedd. Monogr. Cinchon. 94. 1849. 
Condaminea utilis Goudot, Compt. Rend. 18: 260. 1844. 

Type from Fusagasuga, Goudot. Mount San Martin, near Charta, 
Santander, 2,300-2,500 m., Killip & Smith 19156 (W, Y). 

A tree 4.5-6 m. high; leaves short-petiolate, broadly elliptic, 
abruptly very shortly and broadly acuminate, acute at the base, 
glabrous or nearly so, 15-25 cm. long; flowers 3-4 mm. long, white, 
arranged in large sessile terminal glabrous panicles; corolla lobed 
nearly to the base; fruit a small capsule. 

The vernacular name is reported as "arbol de cera." 

25. OLDENLANDIA L. 

Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Sp. PL 119. 1753. 

Sandy salt marsh, Cartagena, Pennell 12006 (W, G). Widely 
distributed as a weed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

A slender annual, glabrous or nearly so; leaves linear; flowers in 
axillary few-flowered cymes; corolla white, about 1 mm. long; 
capsule nearly 2 mm. long. 

Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) DC. Prodr. 4: 425. 1830. Hedyotis 
herbacea L. Sp. PL 102. 1753. 

Villavicencio, 500 m., Pennell 154-9 (F, W, G). Buenaventura, 
at sea level, Pennell & Killip 5806 (W, G). Santa Marta, H. H. 
Smith 1780 (F, W, G, P). Puerto Berrio, 130 m., Pennell 3769 (W, 
G). Rio Grande, Andre K.I 406 (F). On open banks or in wet 
fields. Widely distributed in tropical America and in the Old World. 

A glabrous annual with linear leaves; flowers solitary in the leaf 
axils, on long pedicels; corolla white, 1.5 mm. long; capsule 2.5-3 
mm. long. 

26. ARCYTOPHYLLUM Willd. 

Arcytophyllum aristatum, sp. nov. Frutex prostratus repens, 
caulibus crassis ramosissimis 3-20 cm. longis dense foliatis glabris; 
stipularum vagina brevissima subtruncata plerumque bidentata; 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 37 

folia sessilia, anguste oblonga, c. 5 mm. longa et 1.5 mm. lata, apice 
obtusa vel acuta et pilifera, seta 0.7 mm. longa instructa, coriacea, 
glabra, lucida, costa supra late subimpressa subtus prominula, 
marginibus subincrassatis; flores terminales solitarii subsessiles; 
hypanthium late obovoideum 1 mm. longum; calycis lobi 4 lineari- 
subulati, 1.8 mm. longi, superne filiformi-attenuati, glabri, sinu 
rotundatp separati; corolla alba glabra 4.5 mm. longa, tubo lobis 
rotundatis obtusis fere duplo longiore. Colombia: Paramo del 
Quindio, Dept. Caldas, alt. 3,700-4,200 m., August 15-20, 1922, 
Francis W. Pennell and Tracy E. Hazen 10003 (U. S. Nat. Herb. 
No. 1,140,737, type; duplicates in G and Y). Paramo de Ruiz, 
Tolima, 3,400-3,800 m., Pennell 3021 (W, G, Y). Tolima, Goudot 
(K). Ecuador: Paramos 12 miles west of Tulcan, Prov. Carchi, 
3,300 m., Hitchcock 20923 (W, Y). Hills near Cuenca, August, 
1864, Jameson (W, S). Villanaco, near Loja, Jameson (K). Hills 
near Cuenca, Jameson 52 (K). 

Closely related to A. confertum (R. & P.) Standl., of Peru, but 
that differs in its narrower and longer leaves and broader, conspicu- 
ously piliferous calyx lobes. 

Arcytophyllum cachirense (Karst.) Schum. in E. & P. Nat. 
Pfl. 4 4 : 28. 1891. Hedyotis cachirensis Karst. Linnaea 30: 145. 
1859-60. Mallostoma cachirense Karst. Fl. Columb. 2: 9. pi. 105. 
1862. 

Type from Mount Cachiri, between Ocana and Bucamaranga, 
at 3,000 m., Karsten. 

A shrub 60-90 cm. high, the branches erect, puberulent; leaves 
sessile, crowded, mostly tcrnate, linear-lanceolate, acute, glabrous, 
1.5-2 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; stipules pilosulous, subulate from a 
broad base; inflorescence umbelliform, cymose, terminal, the flowers 
short-pedicellate, pinkish white; calyx lobes 4, linear-lanceolate, 
acute; corolla subrotate, the lobes lanceolate, acute, villous within; 
capsule turbinate. 

Arcytophyllum capitatum (Benth.) Schum. in E. & P. Nat. 
Pfl. 4 4 : 28. /. 8. 1891. Rachicallis capitata Benth. PL Hartw. 195. 
1845. Hedyotis capitata Walp. Repert. Bot. 6: 56. 1846. H. 
Hartwegiana Wedd. Chlor. And. 2: 45. 1857. Ereicoctis capitata 
Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 281. 1891. 

Ascent to Sqtara, Prov. Popayan, 3,000-3,300 m., Hartweg 1070 
(Y, type collection). Guanacas, Andes of Popayan, 3,000-3,400 m., 
Lehmann 5578 (F, W). Paramo de las Delicias, Andes of Popayan, 
3,000-3,500 m., Lehmann 8452 (F, W). Steep open gulch in forest, 
Cerro Tatama, Caldas, 3,200-3,400 m., Pennell 10488 (W). Also in 
Ecuador. 

An erect shrub, densely leafy; leaves oblong, acute, coriaceous, 
glabrous; stipules broadly ovate, pale, loose, glabrous, ciliate with 
several long bristles; flowers sessile in terminal heads; corolla white, 
the lobes pilose within; calyx lobes linear. 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Arcytophyllum caracasanum (HBK.) Standl. Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 18: 126. 1916. Hedyotis caracasana HBK. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 3: 393. 1820. Rachicallis caracasana DC. Prodr. 4: 434. 1830. 

Paramo de Buena Vista, Huila, 3,000-3,600 m., Pittier 1114 (W, 
Y). Paramo de Santurban, Santander, 3,950-4,160 m., Killip & 
Smith 17518 (W, Y), 17502 (W, Y). Reported by Weddell (Chtor. 
And. 2: 44. 1857) from Paramo de Buena Vista, Funck & Schlim 
1277. Also in Venezuela. 

An erect glabrous shrub, corymbosely branched, densely leafy; 
leaves oblong, obtuse, muticous, very thick, the margins revolute; 
stipules triangular-ovate, irregularly erose-dentate; flowers terminal, 
solitary, sessile; calyx lobes oblong-lanceolate. 

Arcytophyllum caucanum Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
18: 127. 1916. 

Paramo de Buena Vista, Cauca, 3,000-3,600 m., Pittier 1137 
(W, type). Azufral, Andre 325 4 (F, K, Y). Paramo de Moras, 
Cauca, 3,000-3,500 m., Pittier 1412 (W.) Without locality, Triana 
1775 (K). 

An erect shrub; leaves oblong or oval, 6 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, 
obtuse or acutish, mucronulate, glabrous, coriaceous; stipules 
broadly ovate, ciliate with several long bristles; flowers in dense 
terminal clusters; calyx lobes triangular-oblong, acute; corolla 7-9 
mm. long, the lobes pilose within. 

Arcytophyllum cephalanthum (Wedd.) Standl. Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 18: 127. 1916. Hedyotis cephalantha Wedd. Chlor. And. 
2: 46. 1857. 

Province of Pamplona, at 3,200-3,250 m., Linden 1340 (G, type 
collection). Ocana, 2,550m., Kalbreyer 582 (K). Ocana, 1,800-2,100 
m., Schlim 343 (K). Weddell (1. c.) reports also Funck & Schlim 1278 
from Pamplona. 

An erect shrub, the branches puberulent; leaves lanceolate or 
oblong, sometimes 2 cm. long, acute, shprt-petiolate, glabrous; 
petioles puberulent; stipules triangular, acuminate, entire, pubescent; 
flowers terminal, capitate; corolla lanate in the throat. 

Arcytophyllum latifolium Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
18: 127. 1916. 

Paramo de Buena Vista, Cauca, 3,000-3,600 m., Pittier 1159 (W, 
type). 

An erect glabrous shrub; leaves broadly ovate-oblong, 10-14 
mm. long, very obtuse or rounded at the apex; stipules broadly 
ovate, ciliate with several bristles, pale, loose; flowers subcapitate; 
calyx lobes lance-oblong, acute; corolla 6-8 mm. long, the lobes 
pubescent within. 

Probably only a form of A. capitatum. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 39 

Arcytophyllum muticum (Wedd.) Standl. Joum. Washington 
Acad. Sci. 18: 163. 1928. Hedyotis mutica Wedd. Chlor. And. 2: 
43. pi. 50, f. B. 1857. 

Type from Pdramo de Coati (Choachi[?]), Prov. Tunja, at 3,500 
m., Linden 1327; reported by Weddell also from Province of Bogotd, 
Goudot. Paramo de Choachi, near Bogota, 3,700 m., Kittip & 
Ariste-Joseph 11958 (W, G, Y); PenneU 2223 (F, W, G, M, Y). 
Pdramo de Santurban, Norte de Santander, 3,900 m., Kittip & Smith 
19583 (W). Paramo de Cruz Verde, near Bogota, 3,300-3,600 m., 
PenneU 2088 (W, G, Y). Paletara, Cauca, 3,000 m., PenneU 6931 
(W, G, Y). Paramo de Guasca, 3,200 m., Ariste-Joseph A520 (W). 
Paramo de Buena Vista, Cauca, 3,000-3,600 m., Pittier 1142 (W). 
Paramo de Moras, Cauca, 3,000-3,500 m., Pittier 1400 (W). Paramo 
de las Coloradas, Santander, 3,900-4,100 m., Kittip & Smith 18449 
(W). Paramo de las Puentes, Santander, 3,500-3,700 m., Kilhp & 
Smith 18224 (W). Paramos de Bogota, Dawe 128 (W). Growing in 
grassy meadows. Also in Costa Rica. 

A prostrate shrub; leaves lance-oblong, sessile, glabrous, obtuse, 
muticous, coriaceous; flowers terminal, solitary; calyx lobes obovate- 
oblong, obtuse, muticous; corolla white. 

Arcytophyllum nitidum (HBK.) Schlecht. Linnaea 28: 492. 
1856. Hedyotis nitida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 392. 1820. Rachi- 
cattis nitida DC. Prodr. 4: 433. 1830. H. Humboldtiana Steud. 
Norn. Bot. ed. 2. 1: 727. 1840. Ereicoctis nitida Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
1: 281. 1891. Mattostoma nitidum B. & H. ex Ind. Kew. 2: 150. 1895. 

Type from Bogotd, Bonpland. California, Santander, 3,000 m., 
Kittip & Smith 16910 (W, Y). Paramo de las Coloradas, Santander, 
3,900-4,100 m., Killip & Smith 18413 (W, Y). Paramo de las 
Puentes, Santander, 3,500-3,700 m., Kittip & Smith 18237 (W). 
Paramo de las Vegas, Santander, 3,700 m., Kittip & Smith 15627 
(W, Y). Paramo de Romeral, Santander, 3,800-4,100 m., Kittip & 
Smith 18574 (W). Paramo del Hatico, Norte de Santander, 2,900 
m., Kittip & Smith 20664 (W, Y). Charta, Santander, 2,300 m., 
Kittip & Smith 18889 (W, Y). Paramo de Mogotocoro, Santander, 
3,700 m., Kittip & Smith 17599 (W). Above Bogota, 2,700 m., 
Rusby & PenneU 1288 (Y). Balsillas, Huila, 2,200 m., Rusby & 
PenneU 762 (W, G, Y). Paramo de Chaquiro, 3,000 m., PenneU 
4281 (Y). Near Bogotd, Ariste-Joseph A886 (W); in 1919, Ariste- 
Joseph (W). Montserrate, Ariste-Joseph A49 (W). Paramo de 
Choachi, near Bogotd, 3,700 m., Killip & Ariste-Joseph 11940 (W, 
Y). Santa Marta, Purdie (G). Mountains near Bogotd, Holton 
416 (G). Montserrate, Dawe 19 (W). In high grassy meadows, on 
brushy slopes, and in sphagnum bogs. Also in Venezuela. 

An erect, densely branched shrub, sometimes 60 cm. high, 
densely leafy; leaves linear to oblong, muticous, imbricate, coriaceous, 
the margins re volute, glabrous; stipules triangular-ovate, usually 
3-dentate, puberulent, long-persistent; flowers terminal, solitary, 
sessile; calyx lobes oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate; corolla 
white or tinged with pink. 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Arcytophyllum thymifolium (R. & P.), comb. nov. Hedyotis 
thymifolia R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 1: 56. pi. 88, f. a. 1798. H. thujoides 
Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 3: 527. 1818. H. thesioides Willd. ex 
HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 391. 1820, as syn. H. ericoides Willd. ex 
HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 393. 1820. Anotis thymifolia /3 thesioides 
DC. Prodr. 4: 432. 1830. A. thymifolia ft ericoides Wedd. Chlor. And. 
2: 44. 1857. Anotis ericoides DC. Prodr. 4: 433. 1830. 

Type of H. ericoides collected between Ona and Paramo de 
Saraguru. Reported by HBK. from Pasto, and by Weddell (Chlor. 
And. 2: 44. 1857) from Plateau of Tuquerres at 3,000 m., Triana. 
Also in Ecuador and Peru. 

A dense erect shrub, the branches puberulent; stipules triangular- 
ovate, 1-3-dentate; leaves linear, mostly 5-15 mm. long, revolute, 
glabrous; flowers in small dense terminal cymes; calyx lobes linear 
or linear-lanceolate; corolla white, glabrous, usually 6-8 mm. long. 

27. DIDYMOCHLAMYS Hook. f. 

Didymochlamys White! Hook. f. Icon. PL pi 1122. 1872. 

Type from Atrato. In forest, Cordoba, El Valle, 80-100 m., 
Killip 5137 (W). 

A small fleshy herb, epiphytic or terrestrial; leaves apparently 
alternate, oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate-oblong, acuminate, 
nearly sessile, glabrous; stipules 2 at the base of each petiole, the 
larger one linear, the smaller deltoid and glandlike; flowers in a 
terminal head subtended by 2 large, white or green, cordate bracts; 
calyx lobes 5, lanceolate; corolla campanulate; fruit 2-celled, many- 
seeded. 

28. SCHRADERA Vahl 

Schradera acuminata Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 284. 1929. 

In forest, La Cumbre, Dept. El Valle, 1,800-2,000 m., Pennell 
5146 (W, type). 

A glabrous tree; leaves petiolate, elliptic or oval-elliptic, 6.5-8.5 
cm. long, abruptly short-acuminate, obtuse or rounded at the base, 
with about 12 pairs of lateral veins; flower heads about 4-flowered, 
the peduncle 5 mm. long, the involucre 17 mm. long; calyx 7 mm. 
long. 

Schradera cacuminis Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 284. 1929. 

Bushy summit of west peak, La Cumbre, El Valle, 2,100-2,400 
m., Killip 11369 (W, type). 

A glabrous tree; leaves petiolate, narrowly elliptic-oblong, 8.5- 
10.5 cm. long, gradually or abruptly long-acuminate, acute at the 
base, the lateral nerves about 14 pairs; flower heads about 8-flowered, 
the peduncle 1 cm. long, the involucre 1.8 cm. long; calyx tubular, 
9 mm. long; corolla white, the tube 10-12 mm. long, the lobes 5 
mm. long. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 41 

Schradera Lehmannii, sp. nov. Arbor 2.5 m. alta, ramulis 
crassis subteretibus rimosis ochraceis scaberulo-puberulis et minute 
verruculosis, internodiis brevibus; stipulae caducae, non visae; folia 
longe petiolata opposita, petiolo valido 2-2.8 cm. longo glabrato 
supra anguste sulcato; lamina coriacea, ovalis vel elliptico-ovalis, 
10-13 cm. longa, 5-6.5 cm. lata, apice rotundata et abrupte breviter- 
que acuminata, acumine triangulari subobtuso 5-7 mm. longo, basi 
obtusa vel subrotundata, abrupte contracta atque breviter decurrens, 
utrinque glabra, supra fusca, nervis manifestos sed non elevatis, 
subtus vix pallidior, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 15, gracillimis, obscuris, angulo lato adscendentibus, rectis, 
prope marginem conjunctis; inflorescentia terminalis 1 cm. longe 
pedunculata, pedunculo crasso puberulo vel glabrato; involucrum 
cyathiforme, 2.5 cm. longum, 3 cm. latum, basi late rotundatum, 
truncatum et subintegrum, sparse scaberulo-puberulum vel glabra- 
tum; flores numerosi dense congesti sessiles; calyx glaber cylindrico- 
campanulatus 6-7 mm. longus truncatus subinteger; corolla (perfecte 
evoluta non visa) 14 mm. longa extus sparse puberula vel glabra, 
laciniis 5 lanceolato-linearibus attenuatis tubo longioribus. Colom- 
bia: In dense rain forest on the coast of Buenaventura, July, 1903, 
F. C. Lehmann K.14% (Herb. Kew., type). 

From S. acuminata Standl. this differs in the long-petioled leaves 
with more divergent nerves, and in the larger, longer-pedunculate 
involucre. 

Schradera revoluta Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 285. 1929. 

In forest, La Gallera, Micay Valley, Cauca, at 2,200-2,500 m., 
Killip 7971 (W, type). 

A glabrous tree; stipules broadly ovate, 8 mm. long; leaves 
short-petiolate, lance-oblong or narrowly elliptic-oblong, 4-6.5 cm. 
long, obtuse or acutish, obtuse at the base, the lateral nerves about 
10 pairs; heads about 5-flowered, the peduncle 3-5 mm. long, the 
involucre 7-8 mm. long; calyx 6 mm. long; corolla white, the tube 
1 cm. long, the lobes oblong, 7 mm. long, acutish. 

Schradera stellata Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 106. pi. 40. 1844. 

Type from Gorgona Island. 

Glabrous; leaves oblong-elliptic, long-acuminate, 7.5-12.5 cm. 
long; flower heads terminal, solitary, pedunculate, about 6-flowered, 
the involucre very short, irregularly sinuate-lobate, deflexed; 
corolla white, the lobes linear, 20 mm. long, stellately spreading, 
much exceeding the short tube. 

29. GONZALAGUNIA R. & P. 

Gonzalagunia asperula (Wernh.) Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 
278. 1929. Gonzalagunia panamensis var. scabrida Schum. in Mart. 
Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 293. 1889. Gonzalea asperula Wernh. Journ. Bot. 51: 
219. 1913. Duggena asperula Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 
125. 1916. 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Type from Colombia, Triana 137. Titiribf near Medellin, Toro 
405 (Y), 445 (Y). Santa Barbara, Antioquia, Pennell 10915 (W, G, 
Y). Armenia, Toro 635 (Y). Near Villavicencio, 800 m., Andre 1100 
(K). 

A slender shrub; leaves nearly sessile, lanceolate or ovate, 
usually rounded at the base; densely pilose beneath with short, 
spreading, often brownish hairs; calyx lobes very short, obtuse; 
corolla white, 5-6.5 mm. long; fruit 4-coccous, white. 

G. panamensis var. scabrida was described from Colombia. 

Gonzalagunia cornifolia (HBK.) Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 
4: 279. 1929. Gonzalea cornifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 416. 
1819. G. panamensis var. cornifolia Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
293. 1889. 

Type from Honda, Bonpland. Below Boca Saldana, Huila, 400 
m., Rusby & Pennell 1196 (F, W, G, M, Y). El Convenio, west of 
San Lorenzo, Tolima, 500-700 m., Pennell 3506 (W, G, M, Y). 
Salgar, Toro 1045 (Y). Puerto Berrio, Toro 1102 (Y). Piedecuesta, 
Santander, 980 m., Killip & Smith 15439 (W, Y). Puerto Caldas, 
2,000-2,500 m., Pennell 8902 (W, Y), 8926 (W, Y). Quebrada 
Nueva to Cuchilla, El Valle, 1,200 m., Pennell, Killip & Hazen 
8445 (W, Y). Manizales, Caldas, 1,000-1,500 m., Pennell 10189 
(W, Y). Santuario, Caldas, 2,000 m., Pennell 10311 (W, G, Y). 
Santa Barbara, Antioquia, 900-1,500 m., Pennell 10892 (W). Las 
Minitas, Antioquia, 2,000-2,500 m., Pennell 10938 (W). Magdalena, 
Holton 429 (G, Y, P). La Paila, Holton (Y). El Cascajal, 1,380 m., 
Andre 37 44 (Y). Mindo, Andre K.541 (K, Y). Naranjo, Magdalena, 
Andre K.543 (K, Y). Isla Brava, Andre K.542 (K, Y). Cuesta de 
Tocota, Cauca, 1,500-1,900 m., Pittier 731 (W, Y). La Manuelita, 
Cauca, 1,100-1,300 m., Pittier 802 (W). Salgar, Toro 1263 (Y). 

A slender shrub, the branches often recurved; leaves short- 
petioled, lanceolate to ovate, rounded or obtuse at the base, ap- 
pressed-pilose; calyx lobes short, deltoid or rounded; corolla white, 
usually 8-10 mm. long; fruit white. 

This is closely related to G. panamensis, but usually it can be 
separated easily by the short corolla. 

Gonzalagunia dependens R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 1: 56. pi. 86. 
1798. Gonzalea pendula Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 132. 1805. Gonzalea tomen- 
tosa H. & B. PI. Aequin. 1: 225. pi. 64- 1808. Gonzalagunia tomentosa 
Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 284. 1891. Gonzalagunia rugosa Standl. Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 446. 1914. Duggena rugosa Standl. Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 18: 126. 1916. D. tomentosa Standl., 1. c. 

Rio Dagua, Buenaventura, Lehmann 5095 (F, Y). Forests on 
Rio Dagua, Cauca, Lehmann B.T.615 (Y). East of Neiva, Huila, 
1,300-1,800 m., Rusby & Pennell 956 (W, G, Y). Huila, Rio Paez 
Valley, Cauca, 1,600-1,900 m., Pittier 1258 (W, type of Gonzalagunia 
rugosa). Rio Quindio, Salento, Caldas, 1,500 m., Killip & Hazen 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 43 

8954 (W, G, Y). Jimenes, Rio Dagua, Andre 2528 (F, G, Y). Tona, 
Santander, Kittip & Smith 19490 (W, Y). Ocafia, Purdie (G). 
Volcan Purace", Hartweg 1055 (G). Also in Ecuador and Peru. 

A slender shrub; leaves ovate or lanceolate, long-acuminate, 
glabrous above, densely white-tomentose beneath; inflorescence 
white-tomentose; corolla white, the tube 5 mm. long; fruit white, 
4-coccous. 

Gonzalagunia pendula is illustrated in the original plate as having 
bifid stipules, but doubtless they were so drawn in error. Otherwise 
the plate and description agree well with the specimens listed here. 

Gonzalagunia discolor Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 277. 1929. 

La Gallera, Micay Valley, Cauca, at 2,000-2,200 m., Kittip 
7959 (W, type; Y). 

A slender shrub; leaves short-petiolate, ovate or ovate-elliptic, 
1.5-3.5 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate, obtuse or rounded at 
the base, glabrous above, strigillose or scaberulous beneath along 
the nerves or nearly glabrous; panicles spikelike, 1-3 cm. long, 
few-flowered; calyx lobes scarcely 1 mm. long, rounded-ovate, very 
obtuse; fruit 4-coccous, purplish red. 

Gonzalagunia flexuosa Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 278. 1929. 
La Gallera, Micay Valley, Cauca, at 1,400-1,500 m., Kittip 
7696 (W, type; G, Y). Also in Ecuador. 

A slender tree; leaves petiolate, ovate-oblong or narrowly ovate, 
11-15 cm. long, abruptly long-acuminate, green above, sparsely 
strigose or glabrate, grayish beneath, pilose with spreading whitish 
hairs; panicles 20-50 cm. long, the flowers slender-pedicellate; calyx 
lobes unequal, 1-2 mm. long, spreading, oblong-linear, obtuse; 
corolla white, 6-8 mm. long, sparsely strigose; fruit 4-coccous, densely 
strigose. 

Gonzalagunia Killipii Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 276. 1929. 
La Gallera, Micay Valley, Cauca, at 1,100-1,300 m., Kittip 
7823 (W, type; G, Y). 

A slender shrub; leaves short-petiolate, ovate or oblong-ovate, 
9-11 cm. long, long-acuminate, rounded at the base, green above, 
scaberulous or glabrate, bullate, densely whitish -tomentose beneath; 
panicles 15-28 cm. long, the flowers short-pedicellate; calyx scarcely 
1 mm. long, 4-dentate, the teeth broadly triangular, acutish; corolla 
white, 5-6.5 mm. long, sparsely strigose; fruit white, depressed- 
globose, 5 mm. broad, nearly glabrous. 

Gonzalagunia panamensis (Cav.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6 6 : 292. 1889. Buena panamensis Cav. Anal, Hist. Nat. 2: 279. 
1800. Duggena panamensis Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 
126. 1916. ' 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Cacagualito, region of Santa Marta, 450 m., H. H. Smith 98 
(F, W, M, P, Y). Bonda and Calabaza, 75-750 m., H. H. Smith 
97 (F, W, G, M, P, Y). Also in Central America, Mexico, and Cuba. 

A slender shrub or small tree, sometimes 4.5 m. high; leaves 
slender-petipled, lanceolate to ovate, appressed-pilose; calyx lobes 
short, deltoid, obtuse or acute; corolla white, 12-17 mm. long; fruit 
4-coccous. 

Gonzalagunia rudis Standl. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 17: 
170. 1927. Duggena rudis Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 125. 
1916. Gonzalagunia acutifolia Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 
131. 1920. 

Calabaza, region of Santa Marta, 180 m., H. H. Smith 99 (F, 
M, P, S; Y, type of G. acutifolia). Santa Rosa, forests along Rio 
Caballete, El Valle, 200 m., Killip 11556 (W, G). Also in Panama. 

A slender shrub; leaves subsessile, ovate-oblong, rounded at the 
base, strigose; calyx lobes very unequal, linear; corolla white, 5 
mm. long; fruit 4-coccous. 

30. CARMENOCANIA Wernh. 

Car men oca nia porphyrantha Wernh. Journ. Bot. 50: 241. pi. 
520. 1912. 

Type from Carmen, Prov. Ocana, Schlim 755. 

Stipules short, broad, apiculate; leaves opposite, short-petiolate, 
mostly obovate, 12-15 cm. long, short-acuminate, narrowed to the 
base, very sparsely pilose beneath along the nerves; flowers in 
terminal many-flowered corymbose cymes, mostly sessile; calyx 
lobes setaceous-linear, 7-8 mm. long; corolla violaceous, densely 
sericeous, the tube 2.5 cm. long, the 5 lobes 6-7 mm. long; ovary 
2-celled. 

31. CASSUPA H. & B. 

Cassupa alba (Schum. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. IV. 4: 63. 1891, 
nomen nudum) Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: 322. 
1908. 

Type from Cundai, alt. 1,200 m., Lehmann 2590. Reported also 
from Bogota, Triana 1838, 1840. 

A tree 8 m. high; leaves elongate-oblong or obovate, 20-30 cm. 
long, short-acuminate, densely white-puberulent beneath; flowers 
white, the corolla 4 cm. long, smooth, glabrous; berries globose, 
9 mm. in diameter. 

Cassupa Pittieri Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 445. 1914. 

Cordoba, Dagua Valley, Cauca, 30-100 m., Pittier 514 (W, type). 

A small tree 4-5 m. high; leaves petioled, oval, 28 cm. long, 
abruptly short-acuminate, green beneath, puberulent along the veins; 
flowers white, in a dense panicle; corolla 6 cm. long, verrucose, 
puberulent. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 45 

Cassupa verrucosa H. & B. PL Aequin. 1: 43. pi. 12. 1808. 

Type collected near San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Bonpland. 
Schumann (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 283. 1889) reports Spruce 3041 
from the same locality. 

A tree sometimes 10-13 m. high; leaves long-petiolate, obovate- 
oblong, 18-40 cm. long, short-acuminate, cuneate at the base, glabrous 
above, beneath grayish-subtomentose; corolla pale red, 5-5.5 cm. 
long, tomentulose; fruit red. 

32. ISERTIA Schreb. 

Isertia coccinea Vahl, Eclog. Amer. 2: 27. 1798. Guettarda 
coccinea Aubl. PI. Guian. 317. pi. 123. 1775. 

Rio Timbiqui, 400 m., Lehmann 8998. Also in the Guianas and 
Brazil. 

A large shrub or small tree; leaves long-petiolate, oblong or 
obovate-oblong, 15-30 cm. long, acuminate, cuneate at the base, 
glabrous above, ferruginous-tomentose beneath; corolla 7-8 cm. long, 
red, ferruginous-tomentose; fruit globose, tomentose, red, about 1 
cm. in diameter. 

Isertia Haenkeana DC. Prodr. 4: 437. 1830. 

Frasquillo, on Rio Sinu, 90-120 m., Pennell 4600 (W). Between 
Puerto Wilches and Puerto Santos, 110 m., Killip & Smith 14887 
(W). Between Narino and El Tambor, 150-300 m., Killip & Smith 
14950 (W). Islitas, Rio Nari, Andre 420 (K). Carare, Andre 274 
(K, Y). Rio Nembi, Andre K.570 (K). Also in Central America. 

A shrub 1-3.5 m. high; ^aves opposite or ternate, short-petioled, 
obovate or oblong-obovate, 20-45 cm. long, beneath densely short- 
pilose or glabrate; flowers orange-red and yellow, in large dense 
narrow panicles; corolla 1.7-3.5 cm. long, puberulent or tomentulose; 
berries purplish, 5 mm. in diameter. 

Called "canelito" in Panama. 

Isertia Humboldtiana Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 
40: 321. 1908. 

Type from Colombia, without definite locality, Lehmann 
CXCVIII. Reported also from San Bartolom6 on the Rio Magda- 
lena, the specimen previously listed (HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 
324. 1820) as /. coccinea Vahl. 

A shrub; leaves oblong, short-acuminate, 30-40 cm. long, 
ferruginous-puberulent beneath; ovary puberulent; corolla 2 cm. 
long, glabrous. 

Isertia hypoleuca Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 220. 1841. 
/. coccinea var. hypoleuca Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 286. 1889. 

Without locality, Triana (K); Goudot 21 (K). Santiago, Toro 
583 (Y). Also in the Guianas, Brazil, and eastern Peru. 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A shrub or small tree, similar to I. coccinea, but the petioles 
usually longer; leaves densely white-tomentose beneath; calyx 
usually glabrous; flowers commonly smaller than in that species 
and less densely tomentose. 

Isertia rosea Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 284. 1899. 

Reported by Schumann from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, 
Spruce 2894> Also in Brazil and French Guiana. 

Leaves petiolate, oblong-lanceolate to oblong or obovate-oblong, 
12-38 cm. long, obtusely acuminate, cuneate at the base, glabrous; 
ovary 4-parted; corolla 4 cm. long, rose-purple, glabrous outside; 
berries 6 mm. in diameter, glabrous. 

Isertia Purdiei Sprague, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 22: 434. 
1905. 

Type from Muzo, Purdie. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong, caudate-acuminate, cuneate at the base, 
glabrous above, gray or whitish beneath and reticulate-veined; calyx 
truncate, entire, appressed-pubescent; corolla tube sericeous, the 
lobes more than one-third as long as the tube, verruculose outside, 
reflexed in anthesis; anthers 7 mm. long. 

Isertia Spraguei Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 65. 1914. 

Type from eastern cordilleras near Pitalito, Sprague. 

A tree; leaves elliptic or elliptic-oblong, 26-38 cm. long, acuminate, 
griseous-tomentose beneath; corolla 5-5.5 cm. long, sparsely and 
minutely pubescent; calyx glabrous. 

33. COCCOGYPSELUM Sw. 

Coccocypselum guianense (Aubl.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6: 315. 1889. Tontanea guianensis Aubl. PI. Guian. 108. 1775. 

Santa Marta, 600 m., H. H. Smith 541 (F, W, P). Widely 
distributed in northern South America and Brazil; also in Mexico, 
Central America, and the Greater Antilles. 

Stems pilose or hirsute with spreading hairs; leaves ovate or 
rounded-ovate, rounded to acutish at the apex, pilose on the upper 
surface with short appressed hairs, soft-pilose beneath; heads few- 
flowered, long-pedunculate; corolla blue, 7-10 mm. long; fruit blue, 
6-11 mm. in diameter. 

Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. Prodr. 4: 396. 1830. 
Tontanea hirsuta Standl. N. Amer. Fl. 32: 147. 1921. 

Buenavista to Pipiral, Cundinamarca, 1,000 m., Pennell 1676 
(W, G). Rio Piedras, west of Popayan, Cauca, 1,600 m., Pennell 
& Killip 7209 (W). Amalfi, Antioquia, 1,700 m., Lehmann CXCVII 
(W). Also in Bolivia, Mexico, Central America, and Trinidad. 

Stems densely hirsute or hispid; leaves oval or rounded-ovate, 
rounded to acutish at the apex, hirsute or hispid; flower heads few- 
flowered, long-pedunculate; calyx lobes linear, acute; corolla 12-14 
mm. long, pale blue; berry dark blue, 6-10 mm. broad. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 47 

Coccocypselum hispidum Standl. Tontanea hispida Standl. 
N. Amer. Fl. 32: 147. 1921. 

Buenaventura, El Valle, at sea level, on railroad embankment, 
Pennell & Killip 5305 (W). Buenaventura, Andre 260 (K). Also 
in Central America. 

Stems pilose with appressed or ascending hairs; leaves ovate 
or rounded-ovate, hispid; heads sessile, few-flowered; corolla bluish 
white; calyx lobes linear; fruit blue, 8-15 mm. long. 

Coccocypselum lanceolatum (R. & P.) Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 132. 
1805. Condalia lanceolate R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 1: 54. 1798. Coccocyp- 
selum repens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 316. 1819, non Sw. Cocco- 
cypselum canescens C. & S. Linnaea 4: 139. 1829. Tontanea canescens 
Standl. N. Amer. Fl. 32: 146. 1921. 

San Roque, Toro 1345 (Y). Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 2407 
(F, W, P), 127 (F, W, P). Morales, Cauca, Pennell & Killip 8290 
(W). La Cumbre, El Valle, Pennell 5181 (W). Rio Surata Valley, 
above Surata, 2,000-2,300 m., Killip & Smith 16570 (W). Chapa, 
Cauca, 1,850 m., Lehmann 3590 (W). Charta, 2,000 m., Killip & 
Smith 18862 (W), 17445 (W). Potrerillo to Miraflores, Palmira, El 
Valle, 1,200-1,800 m., Pennell & Killip 6096 (W). East of Neiva, 
Huila, 1,300-1,800 m., Rusby & Pennell 957 (F, G, W). Toledo, 
Santander, 1,700-1,900 m., Killip & Smith 20061 (W). Mesa de 
los Santos, Santander, 1,000-1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15054 (W). 
Icononzo, Cundinamarca, 1,400-1,800 m., Pennell 2868 (W). El 
Convenio, west of San Lorenzo, Tolima, 1,000-1,200 m., Pennell 
3451 (W, G). Fusagasuga, Holton 420 (P). Hills of Miraflores 
above Palmira, Cauca, 1,600 m., Pittier 890 (W). San Andre's de 
la Sierra, Magdalena, 1,100-1,300 m., Pittier 1705 (W). Highlands 
of Popayan, 1,600-2,000 m., Lehmann B.T .395 (F, Y). El Pedregal 
and Juca, Popayan, 1,200-1,800 m., Lehmann 8468 (F). Widely 
distributed in South and Central America. 

Branches densely pilose-sericeous; leaves oblong to ovate, acute 
or obtuse, densely appressed-pilose; flower heads long-pedunculate, 
very densely many-flowered; calyx lobes oblong or ovate, usually 
obtuse; corolla purplish blue, 5 mm. long; fruit bright blue. 

The original description of Condalia lanceolata agrees so well 
with the plant commonly known as Coccocypselum canescens that 
there is little doubt that the earlier name of Ruiz and Pav6n should 
replace the species name canescens. 

34. HIPPOTIS R. & P. 
Hippotis albiflora Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 33. pi. 17. 1858. 

Type collected in the mountains east of Bogota, at 1,000 m., 
Karsten. 

A tree 9-12 m. high; leaves lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, 
15-20 cm. long, acuminate, sparsely appressed-pilose above, finely 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

striolate-nerved between the veins; flowers in axillary pedunculate 
3-flowered cymes; calyx 3 cm. long, the limb spathaceous; corolla 
white, much exceeding the calyx, the limb 5-lobed. 

35. PENTAGONIA Benth. 

Pentagonia brachyotis Standl. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 
17: 171. 1927. Watsonamra brachyotis Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 17:443. 1914. 

Boca Tai on Rio Sinu, Bolivar, 50-80 m., in forest, Pennell 
4616 (Y). Also in Panama. 

A small tree about 3.5 m. high; leaves petiolate, the petiole 
with large auricles at the base; leaf blades rhombic, 33-37 cm. long, 
obtuse at the base, deeply pinnatifid, minutely sericeous beneath 
along the veins; calyx 10-12 mm. long, the lobes obtuse; corolla red, 
the tube 3 cm. long, the lobes 5-6 mm. long. 

Pentagonia magnified Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: 325. 
1908. Watsonamra magnifica Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 
441. 1914. 

Type from Rio Timbiqui, Lehmann 8886. 

A shrub or small tree 3 m. high, sparsely branched; leaves very 
shortly petiolate, obovate or obovate-oblong, 30-40 cm. long, 
acuminate, glabrous, finely striolate between the nerves; flowers 
in dense sessile axillary cymes; calyx tubular, 1.5 cm. long, red; 
corolla tubular, red, 2-2.5 cm. long, the lobes short, oblong, obtuse, 
reflexed; fruit baccate, globose, 12-15 mm. in diameter. 

36. SOMMERA Schlecht. 

Sommera Purdiei, sp. nov. Ramuli graciles, teretes, ferrug- 
ineo-brunnei, glabri, internodiis brevibus elongatisve; stipulae 
anguste lanceolatae, 2.3 cm. longae, caducae, longiattenuatae, 
brunneae, glabrae; folia opposita, petiolo 5-8 mm. longo glabro; 
lamina obovata vel elliptica, 6-11.5 cm. longa, 3-5 cm. lata, acuta 
vel abrupte breviterque obtuso-acuminata, basi cuneato-acuta vel 
obtusiuscula, crasse membranacea, supra viridis, glabra, nervis non 
eleyatis, subtus paullo pallidior, tantum ad nervos minute denseque 
sericea, costa nervisque lateralibus gracilibus, prominentibus, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 6, angulo acuto adscendentibus, leviter 
curvis vel fere rectis, prope marginem conjunctis, inter nervulos 
creberrime striolata; inflorescentiae axillares, cymosae vel subum- 
bellatae, 3-5-florae, pedunculis 2-3 cm. longis sericeis, bracteis 
linearibus vel subulatis, pedicellis vix longioribus, pedicellis 1-3 mm. 
longis; hypanthium turbinatum 5 mm. longum basi acutum sericeum; 
calyx 5-partitus, lobis obovatp-oblongis 6-8 mm. longis obtusis vel 
rotundatis glabratis persistentibus; corolla extus minute et subsparse 
sericea, tubo 8 mm. longo, crasso, lobis 5 oblongis obtusis 5 mm. 
longis; fructus immaturus ovoideus glabratus 12 mm. longus. 
Colombia: Bogota, Purdie (Gray Herb., type; duplicate in K). 
Without locality, Goudot (K). 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 49 

37. SABIGEA Aubl. 

Sabicea ambigua, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi adpresso-pilosuli 
vel glabrati, internodiis ut videtur brevissimis; stipulae magnae, 
multifidae, 4-8 cm. longae, laciniis numerosissimis anguste linearibus 
vel crasse filiformibus, interdum incrassatis, dense minuteque 
puberulis, inaequalibus; petiolus gracilis vel validus, 2-4.5 cm. 
Ipngus, subteres vel angulatus, dense et minutissime adpresso- 
pilosulus vel glabratus, supra interdum late sulcatus; lamina mem- 
branacea, anguste oblanceolato-oblonga, 20-38 cm. longa, 6.5-12 
cm. lata, abrupte acuminata, acumine anguste triangulari attenuato- 
acuminato, basin versus Ipngissime sensimque attenuata, supra 
viridis, glabra, nervis manifestis sed non elevatis, subtus paullo 
pallidior, ad nervos costamque minute adpresso-pilosula, aliter 
glabra, minute albido-puncticulata, cpsta gracili elevata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 20, gracilibus, elevatis, angulp lato 
adscendentibus, arcuatis, in marginem desinentibus, nervulis yix 
prominulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentia densa multiflora sessilis 
vel brevissime pedunculata, floribus sessilibus vel breyiter pedicel- 
latis, bracteis elongatis anguste linearibus; calycis laciniae anguste 
lineares vel fere filiformes, 1.6-3.3 cm. longis, minute puberulae; 
bacca c. 7 mm. longa, oblonga vel crasse clavata, obscure 5-costata, 
glabrata; semina numerosissima ferruginea c. 0.3 mm. diam. 
Colombia: Without definite locality, Triana 1847 (Herb. Kew., type). 
Coteje, Rio Timbiqui, November, 1898, Lehmann B.T.519 (K). 

The true position of this plant is quite uncertain. Evidently it 
is closely related to Sabicea umbrosa Wernh., but both these species 
are so unlike other members of the genus Sabicea that I was at first 
inclined to make them the basis of a new genus. After learning 
that one of them had been referred to Sabicea without question by 
Wernham, I decided to leave the two plants temporarily in that 
genus, until better material of them may be obtained. The leaves 
in both these species seem to me to be alternate, with a stipule 
opposite each leaf. Wernham, however, illustrates the type spec- 
imen of S. umbrosa with opposite leaves. I have not seen the type, 
but a second specimen of the same species which I have seen, prob- 
ably a part of the type collection, seems to me to have alternate 
rather than opposite leaves, a condition almost unknown in the 
family Rubiaceae. 

Sabicea asperula (Ball) Wernh. Monogr. Sabicea 30. 1914. 
Manettia asperula Ball, Journ. Linn. Soc. 22: 142. 1886. 

Type from coast near Buenaventura, Ball. 

A scandent shrub, the branches densely strigose; stipules broadly 
ovate or rounded; leaves oval, short-acuminate, 9-12 cm. long, 4-4.5 
cm. wide, sparsely strigose above, beneath strigose, more densely 
so on the veins, the lateral veins 10 pairs or fewer; inflorescence 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

lax, 1.5 cm. broad, strigose, the peduncle 1.5-2 cm. long; bracts few, 
linear, not forming an involucre; calyx lobes 3-4 mm. long, usually 
spreading, linear-subsetaceous; corolla sparsely strigose, the tube 
6 mm. long, the lobes lanceolate, acute, 2.5 mm. long, barbate at 
the apex; fruit sparsely spreading-pilose, 6 mm. long. 

Sabicea camporum Sprague, Trans. & Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 
22: 434. 1904; Wernh. Monogr. Sabicea 50. pi. 4, f. 5-9. 1914. 

Type from Cabuyaro, Rio Meta, Sprague 1$. 

A suffrutescent erect herb 30-60 cm. high, the young branches 
densely fulvous-villous; leaves about 6 cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide, 
rough-pubescent above, whitish beneath and minutely arachnoid- 
tomentose; flowers in hirsute and tomentose sessile cymes, densely 
crowded; calyx lobes lanceolate; corolla tube 3-4 mm. long, the 
lobes 2 mm. long. 

Sabicea cana Hook. Icon. PI. pi. 247. 1840. 

Between Yolomba and Cancan, Antioquia, 1,200-1,800 m., 
Lehmann 4004 (W). San Roque, Toro 1854 (Y). Also in Peru. 

A scandent shrub, the stems arachnoid-tomentose; stipules ovate, 
obtusish, 8 mm. long and wide; leaves petiolate, broadly ovate, 
large, acute or obtuse, densely white-tomentose beneath, arachnoid 
above or glabrate; flowers sessile in dense sessile axillary heads, 
whitish-tomentose; calyx lobes triangular; corolla tomentose, the 
tube 4-5 mm. long, the lobes 2-3 mm. long. 

Sabicea colombiana Wernh. Monogr. Sabicea 39. pi. 12. 1914. 

Region of Santa Marta, 450 m., H. H. Smith 1834 (F in part, M). 
Rio Timbiqui, 400 m. or less, Lehmann 9001 (Y). La Gallera, Micay 
Valley, Cauca, 1,100-1,300 m., in clearing, Kittip 7821 (W). El 
Convenio, Tolima, 1,000-1,200 m., edge of forest, Pennell 3468 (W, 
G, Y). San Andre's de la Sierra, Magdalena, 1,100-1,300 m., Pittier 
1648 (W). Between Puerto Wilches and Puerto Santos, Santander, 
in forest, 1,100 m., Kittip & Smith 14853 (W, Y), 14857 (Y). Wern- 
ham reports the following: Triana 681. Ocana, 1,170 m., Schlim 
697. Cauca, 1,200 m., Triana 1752. Also in Venezuela and Panama. 

A large scandent shrub, the branches strigose; stipules large, 
ovate, obtuse, reflexed; leaves elliptic or oval, acute or acuminate, 
strigose, especially beneath on the nerves, or glabrate; inflorescence 
lax, strigose, many-flowered, pedunculate or subsessile; bracts 2-3, 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 7-8 mm. long, forming an involucre; 
calyx lobes linear-oblong, glabrate, 4-4.5 mm. long; corolla white, 
strigose, the tube 9 mm. long. 

Sabicea glomerata Wernh. Monogr. Sabicea 50. 1914. 

Type from Pilcuan, Barbacoas, at 875 m., Triana 1756. Villa- 
vicencio, 500 m., in thicket, Pennell 1376 (W,Y). 

A scandent shrub, the young branches densely yellow-tomentose, 
later glabrate; leaves broadly lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, 10-12 cm. 
long, 4.5-5 cm. wide, usually rounded at the base, short-acuminate, 



51 

sparsely rough-puberulent above, densely yellow-tomentose beneath, 
the petioles up to 13 mm. long; stipules broadly ovate, membran- 
aceous, glabrous, short-acuminate, up to 14 mm. long and 12 mm. 
wide; flowers crowded in dense sessile axillary heads, nearly glabrous; 
calyx lobes oblong, subglabrous, 3-5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide; corolla 
white, about 7 mm. long, densely sericeous. 

Sabicea novo-granatensis Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 303. 
1889. 

Described from Villavicencio, Llano de San Martin, and Guaduas, 
Karsten. Reported by Wernham (Monogr. Sabicea 41. 1914) from 
Bogota, Susumuco, 875 m., Triana 1755. 

Leaves lanceolate to oval, 12-13 cm. long, 4-6.5 cm. wide, sparsely 
rough-strigillose above, pilose beneath on the veins, very obtuse at 
the apex, acute at the base, the petioles 2 cm. long; stipules oval, 
7-10 mm. long, 5-12 mm. wide; inflorescence lax, the bracts ovate, 
fqliaceous, subinvolucrate, the peduncle 2-2.5 cm. long, yellow- 
hispid, the pedicels elongate; calyx lobes broadly lanceolate, 6 mm. 
long and 2.5 mm. wide, spreading-hirsute; hypanthium densely 
sericeous-pilose; corolla densely hirsute, the tube 7 mm. long, the 
lobes 2 mm. long. 

Sabicea Trianae Wernh. Monogr. Sabicea 62. 1914. 

Type from Colombia, Triana 717. 

A scandent shrub, the branches arachnoid-tomentose, finally 
glabrous; leaves elliptic, narrowed at each end, 8-9 cm. long, 3.5-4 
cm. wide, sparsely strigose above along the costa, elsewhere glabrous 
or at first arachnoid and hirsute, beneath with similar but denser 
pubescence, the petiole aiachnoid-tomentose, 5 mm. long; stipules 
6 mm. long and 4 mm. wide, deflexed; flowers crowded in few- 
flowered heads 1.5 cm. broad; bracts few, forming an involucre; 
peduncle 3-4 mm. long; calyx lobes oval, acute, 9 mm. long, 4 mm. 
wide; ovary tomentose. 

Sabicea umbrosa Wernh. Monogr. Sabicea 27. pi. 1, f. 1. 1914. 

Type from Antioquia, in the deep shade of forest, at 900 m., 
Kalbreyer 1887. Without locality, Kalbreyer (K). 

Suffrutescent, the stem procumbent, about 30 cm. long; leaves 
elliptic, acute at each end, about 27 cm. long and 15 cm. wide, 
pubescent beneath on the veins, the lateral nerves 15-22 pairs; 
petiole up to 25 cm. long; flowers in subsessile verticils, crowded, the 
bracts broad, divided into setae 2 cm. long or more; corolla glabrous, 
the tube 4 cm. long, the lobes oblong, subacute, 8 mm. long. 

Sabicea villosa R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 265. 1819. Schwenkfeldia 
villosa Willd. ex R. & S., 1. c., as syn. Sabicea hirsuta HBK. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 3: 417. 1820. Schwenkfeldia hirsuta Spreng. Syst. Veg. 
1:765. 1825. 

Campo Alegre, in thickets on damp hillsides, 450 m., H. H. 
Smith 1834 (F in part, W, G, P, Y). Wooded cliffs of Rio Dagua, 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

C6rdoba, El Valle, 80-100 m., Kittip 5080 (W, G). La Teta, Cauca, 
1,000-1,300 m., Lehmann 5090 (F). Widely distributed in tropical 
America. 

A large scandent shrub, the branches hirsute; stipules broadly 
ovate or rounded, reflexed; leaves petiolate, elliptic-oblong or ovate, 
acuminate, hirsute; flowers sessile in few-flowered axillary heads; 
calyx lobes linear-lanceolate, up to 4 mm. long; corolla white, 
sparsely strigose, the tube scarcely 6 mm. long; fruit purple or 
violet, 1 cm. long. 

Sabicea villosa R. & S., var. adpressa (Wernh.), comb. nov. 
S. hirsuta HBK., var. adpressa Wernh. Monogr. Sabicea 55. 1914. 

Don Diego, border of clearing, near the coast, H. H. Smith 
2653 (F, W, M, P, S, Y.) Buenaventura, El Valle, on exposed cliffs 
at sea level, Killip 11684 (W, G, Y). Puerto Wilches, Santander, in 
marshy land, 100 m., Killip & Smith 14929 (W, Y). Widely 
distributed in tropical America. 

Stems appressed-hispid, otherwise like the tropical form. 

38. BERTIERA Aubl. 

Bertiera guianensis Aubl. PL Guian. 180. pi. 69. 1775. 

Angostura, Magdalena, Andri 456 (K, Y). Reported from 
Bogota by Schumann (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 325. 1889), on the 
authority of Karsten. Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A slender shrub; leaves short-petiolate, ovate-oblong or ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, appressed-pilose, 9-15 cm. long; flowers 
small, white, in terminal panicles; fruit a globose 10-costate berry 
3.5 mm. long. 

39. HAMELIA Jacq. 

I lamella brachystemon Wernh. Journ. Bot. 49: 216. 1911. 
Ocafia, Schlim 547 (K, type collection). 

Leaves ternate, glabrate; corolla 1.5 cm. long, tubular; stamens 
not exceeding the middle of the corolla tube. 

Hamelia lutea Rohr ex Smith in Rees, Cycl. 5: 17. 1811. 

Santa Marta, near sea level, H. H. Smith 1818 (F, W, G, M, P, 
Y). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A shrub; leaves opposite, elliptic, glabrate; corolla short, yellow, 
expanded above. 

Hamelia odorata (H. & B.) Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 
267. 1819 (as syn.). Duhamelia odorata H. & B. ex R. & S. Syst. 
Veg. 5: 267. 1819. H. suaveolens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 414. 
1820. 

Type collected along the Rio Magdalena near Garrapatas, 
Badillas, etc., Bonpland. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 53 

A shrub; leaves ternate or quaternate, nearly glabrous; flowers 
sessile or nearly so; corolla tubular, purplish. 

Hamelia patens Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 16. 1760. H. erecta 
Jacq., 1. c. Schoenleinia thyrsoidea Miers, Proc. Roy. Hort. Soc. 4: 
186. 1864. 

Between Chindcota and La Esmeralda, Norte de Santander, 
1,000-1,300 m., Killip & Smith 20915 (W). Chinacota, 1,400 m., 
Killip & Smith 20784 (W). Rio Surata Valley, Santander, 800-1,500 
m., Killip & Smith 16364 (W). Bucamaranga, Santander, 1,000 
m., Killip & Smith 16191 (W). East of Neiva, Huila, 800-1,000 m., 
Rusby & Pennell 418 (Y). Turbaco, 150-200 m., Pennell 4753 (Y). 
Brazuela de Perales, Antioquia, 150 m., Pennett 3706 (G, Y). La 
Virginia, Libano, Tolima, 1,100-1,400 m., Pennell 3294 (Y). La 
Paila, Holton 439 (Y), 435 (Y). Cuchilla, El Valle, 1,100-1,400 m., 
Pennell, Killip & Hazen 8534 (G, Y). Guayabal, El Valle, 900 m., 
Killip 8353 (G, Y). Salazar, Kalbreyer 852 (K). Without locality, 
Hartweg 1054 (K). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A shrub 1-3 m. high; leaves mostly ternate, pubescent or tomen- 
tose beneath; corolla tubular, orange-red. 

The specific name erecta has priority of position, but it is perhaps 
preferable to use the long-established name patens. 

Hamelia pedicellata Wernh. Journ. Bot. 49: 212. 1911. H. 
tubiflora Wernh., 1. c. 

Turbaco, 200-300 m., Killip & Smith 14167 (W, Y). Santa 
Marta, at sea level to 600 m., H. H. Smith 394 (F, G, M, P, Y), 
1817 (F, G, W, M, P, Y), 1812 (K, Y). Rio Frio, Santa Marta, 
Walker 1274 (W, G, M). Barranquilla, Bro. Elias 113 (W), 116 (W) ; 
Bro. Paul 15 (W). Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 24 (W). Villavicencio, 
Intendencia Meta, 500 m., Pennell 1570 (W, Y). Natagaima, Huila, 
400 m., Rusby & Pennell 1194 (W, Y). La Paila, Holton 430 (G, P, 
Y), 435 (K, P). Barranquilla, August 30, 1852, Holton (K, Y, type 
collection of H. tubiflora). Medellin, Tow 329 (Y). Gamarra, 
Magdalena, 50 m., Rusby & Pennell 26 (Y). Buenavista, Caldas, 
180 m., Pennell & Rusby 64 (Y). Puerto Berrio, Antioquia, 140 m., 
Rusby 4793 (Y). Santa Marta, Purdie (G). Lake Sapatoza, Magda- 
lena Valley, Allen 364 (K). Santa Marta, May, 1844, Purdie (K). 
With9ut locality, Triana 1758 (K). Santa Marta, Schlim 949 (K). 
Also in Venezuela. 

A shrub; leaves mostly quaternate, nearly glabrous; corolla 
orange-red, 1.5 cm. long; flowers mostly pedicellate; berries red or 
purple. 

Called "cresta de gallo" at Barranquilla. 

40. HOFFMANNIA Sw. 

Hoffmannia asperula Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 280. 1929. 
San Antonio, above Cali, Cauca, 1,900 m., Pittier 767 (W, type). 
Dauro, Toro 1137 (Y). La Palmilla, Quindio, Goudot (K). 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A shrub, the branchlets villosulous; leaves opposite, petiolate, 
oblong-oblanceolate, 15-21 cm. long, long-acuminate, long-attenuate 
to the base, glabrous above, rough-puberulent beneath ; cymes short- 
pedunculate, shorter than the petioles; calyx 1 mm. long, the lobes 
triangular, acutish, pubemlent; corolla reddish yellow, sparsely 
puberulent, the tube 3 mm. long, the lobes oblong, obtuse, 2 mm. 
long. 

Hoffmannia corona ta Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 282. 1929. 

Tamesis, region of Medellin, Toro 974 (Y, type). 

Branchlets densely appressed-pilose; leaves opposite, short- 
petiolate, oblong-elliptic or oblong-obovate, 6-9 cm. long, acuminate, 
long-attenuate to the base, glabrous above, beneath paler and 
incurved-puberulent; cymes 2-3-flowered, long-pedunculate, the 
flowers pedicellate; calyx lobes linear, ciliate, 2-3 mm. long; corolla 
acute in bud, sparsely villosulous, the tube 1 mm. long, the lobes 
ovate-oblong, 5 mm. long; berries oval, 6 mm. long. 

Hoffmannia dichroantha Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 281. 1929. 

In forest below Cascada Chorron, south of Antizales, Bolivar, 
at 1,700-2,000 m., Pennell 4418 (Y, type). 

A shrub, the branchlets bifariously ferruginous-puberulent; 
leaves opposite, short-petiolate, oblong-lanceolate, 6-9.5 cm. long, 
long-acuminate, narrowed to the base, minutely appressed-puberu- 
lent beneath; cymes few-flowered, sessile or nearly so, the pedicels 
1-2 mm. long; calyx scarcely 1 mm. long, the lobes ovate-triangular, 
obtuse, ciliolate; corolla red, glabrous, acute in bud, 3 mm. long. 

Hoffmannia glabra Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 281. 1929. 

Valley of Charta, Santander, 2,000 m., Killip & Smith 19034 
(W, type; Y). Charta, 2,600 m., Killip & Smith 19005 (W). Loso, 
Norte de Santander, 2,200-2,400 m., Killip & Smith 20405 (W, Y). 
Southern slope of Mt. San Martin, Santander, 2,300-2,500 m., 
Killip & Smith 19139 (W, Y). Above Fusagasuga, Cundinamarca, 
1,800-2,300 m., Pennell 2707 (Y). Antioquia, Jervise (K); Cape 
Corrientes, Seemann 1075 (K). Barroblanco, 2,400 m., Andre 1363 
(K). Near Cartago, Cauca, Andre 2416 (K). San Moreno, Andre 
K.1105 (K). 

A shrub 1-1.5 m. high, the branchlets glabrous; leaves opposite, 
slender-petiolate, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 8-19 cm. long, long- 
acuminate, acute or acuminate and decurrent at the base, glabrous; 
cymes densely many-flowered, equaling or shorter than the petioles, 
sessile or pedunculate; calyx 1 mm. long, the lobes triangular, acute, 
usually ciliolate; corolla pale yellow, glabrous, obtuse in bud, the 
tube 4 mm. long, the lobes oblong or oval, 3 mm. long; berries oblong, 
8 mm. long, black or wine-colored. 

Hoffmannia Killipii Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 282. 1929. 
Dense forest, Rio Santa Rita, Salento, Caldas, 1,600-1,800 m., 
Killip & Hazen 8986 (W, type; G). 



THE RUBIACEAE OP COLOMBIA 55 

A tree, the branchlets glabrous; leaves opposite, long-petiolate, 
elliptic, 25 cm. long and 10-12 cm. wide, acute at the base, glabrous; 
cymes laxly many-flowered, equaling or shorter than the petioles, 
pedunculate, the pedicels 6-8 mm. long; calyx 0.7 mm. long, the 
lobes broadly rounded; berries globose-oval, 4-5 mm. long, glabrous, 
2-celled. 

Hoffmannia pauciflora Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 280. 1929. 

In damp forest near Valparaiso, region of Santa Marta, 1,050- 
1,500 m., H. H. Smith 1814 (F, type; G, K, M, P, Y). Without 
locality, Moritz 843 (W). Moist woods above Mancha, Santa Marta, 
May, 1844, Purdie (K). Near San Sebastian, Santa Marta, June, 
1844, Purdie (K). 

A slender shrub 1-2.5 m. high, the branchlets villosulous or 
puberulent; leaves opposite, slender-petiolate, oblong-elliptic to 
oblanceolate-oblong, 8-13.5 cm. long, short-acuminate, acuminate 
and decurrent at the base, glabrous above, minutely villosulous 
beneath along the nerves; cymes 3-7-flowered, umbelliform, short- 
pedunculate, shorter than the petioles, the pedicels 2-7 mm. long; 
calyx scarcely 1 mm. long, the lobes broadly triangular, acutish; 
corolla whitish, acutish in bud, glabrous or sparsely pilose, the tube 
2 mm. long, the lobes oblong, 4-4.5 mm. long, acutish; fruit oblong, 
4-7 mm. long, glabrous. 

Hoffmannia triosteoides Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 279. 1929. 

Western slope of Pena Blanca, near Charta, Santander, in dense 
woods, 2,500 m., Killip & Smith 19265 (W, type; Y). Charta, 
2,000-2,600 m., Killip & Smith 19314 (W, Y), 17449 (W), 19015 
(W, Y). Southern slope of Mt. San Martin, near Charta, 2,300-2,500 
m., Killip & Smith 19147 (W), 19141 (W). Between Piedecuesta 
and Las Vegas, Santander, 2,000-2,500 m., Killip & Smith 21141 
(W, Y). Loso, Norte de Santander, 2,200-2,400 m., Killip & Smith 
20434 (W). Californ : a, Santander, 2,200 m., Killip & Smith 17092 
(W). Rio Surata Valley, above Surata, Santander, 2,000-2,300 m., 
Killip & Smith 16597 (W, Y). 

A shrub 0.6-1.8 m. high, the branchlets densely villous; leaves 
opposite, petiolate, elliptic to oblong-obovate, 5-19 cm. long, abruptly 
acuminate, abruptly acuminate or usually long-decurrent at the 
base, green above and sparsely villous, paler beneath and densely 
villous; cymes subsessile, densely few- or many-flowered, shorter 
than the petioles, the pedicels 2 mm. long or less; calyx lobes linear, 
1.5-2 or sometimes 6 mm. long, villosulous; corolla white, acutish 
in bud, sparsely villous, the tube 1.8 mm. long, the lobes lance- 
oblong, 6 mm. long; berries red* oval, 5-7 mm. long, sparsely villous. 

Hoffmannia viridis Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 134. 
1920. 

Ravine in mountain forest, Don Amo Estate, region of Santa 
Marta, 900 m., H. H. Smith 2649 (Y, type). 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A glabrous shrub 1.5 m. high; leaves long-petiolate, oblong- 
elliptic, 15-20 cm. long, 6-8 cm. wide, abruptly acuminate; inflo- 
rescence lax, few-flowered, slender-pedunculate, equaling or shorter 
than the petioles; pedicels slender, 4-6 mm. long; calyx lobes trian- 
gular, acute; corolla in bud abruptly acuminate. 

In the original description the lower leaf surface is described as 
"very sparsely and minutely pilose." It is really glabrous and marked 
with numerous short pale raphids. 

41. RARITEBE Wernh. 

Raritebe palicoureoides Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 337. 1917. 

Type material from Susumino at 390 m. and Villavicencio at 
900 m., Triana 1825. 

A shrub, the young branches somewhat hirtellous, especially 
about the nodes; stipules lanceolate, 5 mm. long, acuminate; leaves 
elliptic, 12-17 cm. long, 4-6 cm. wide, acuminate at each end, glabrous; 
flowers cymose-corymbose, the inflorescence many-flowered, pedun- 
culate, hirtellous; calyx glabrous, the 5 teeth minute; corolla glabrous, 
the tube 5-6 mm. long, the lobes narrowly oblong, 3 mm. long, 
obtuse; fruit 2-celled, glabrous, 3-4 mm. long. 

This is the only species of the genus known heretofore, but the 
plant described below seems to be congeneric. 

Raritebe viburnoides, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis gracilibus 
teretibus dense adpressp-hirsutis, vetustioribus ferrugineo-brunneis, 
internodiis elongatis; stipulae anguste triangulares, longiattenuatae, 
10-14 mm. longae, adpresso-pilosae, tenues, brunneae, erectae et 
adpressae, persistentes; folia opposita, petiolo 2-3 mm. longo setuloso- 
piloso; lamina ovata vel elliptico-ovata, 6-8 cm. longa, 3-4 cm. lata, 
acuminata, basi late rotundata, papyracea, supra yiridis, lucida, 
ad costam hispidula, nervis subimpressis, subtus lucida, ad nervos 
strigosa, aliter glabra, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 6, angulo acuto adscendentibus, prominentibus, subarcuatis, 
remote a margine conjunctis, nervulis prominulis laxe reticulatis; 
inflorescentia terminalis, cymoso-corymbosa, dense multiflora, c. 2 
cm. longa et 4 cm. lata, trichotoma, ramulis adpresso-pilosis patenti- 
bus, floribus sessilibus secundis; bracteae 1.5-4 mm. longae lineares 
vel subulatae; hypanthium obovoideum 1 mm. longum fere glabrum; 
calyx 1.5 mm. longus profunde 5-lobus, laciniis lineari-subulatis 
acutis recurvis sinu lato separatis; corolla alba, infundibuliformis, 
extus glabra, 5-5.5 mm. longa, tubo crasso superne paullo ampliato, 
lobis 5 ovatis acuminatis; bacca globosa 4-5 mm. longa sparse stri- 
gillosa 2-locularis; semina minuta angulata. Colombia: In forest, 
La Gallera, Micay Valley, Cordillera Occidental, Dept. El Cauca, 
alt. 1,900-2,000 m., July 1, 1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 7934 (U. S. Nat. 
Herb. No. 1,140,960, type; duplicate in G). 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 57 

42. POSOQUERIA Aubl. 

Posoqueria latifolia (Rudge) R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 227. 1819. 
Solena latifolia Rudge, PI. Guian. 1: 26. 1806. Tocoyena Mutisii 
HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 411. 1820. T. longifolia HBK., 1. c. T. 
macrophylla HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 412. 1820. Stannia grandi- 
flora Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 31. pi. 16. 1859. P. platysiphonia Rusby, 
Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PL 132. 1920. 

Atrato and Iruand6, December, 1857, Schott (F). Villavicencio, 
525 m., Pennell 1488 (Y). Near Valparaiso, Santa Marta, 1,200 m., 
H. H. Smith 1655 (F, W, M, P; Y, type of P. platysiphonia). Rio 
Boquilla, Salento, Caldas, 1,600-1,900 m., Killip & Hazen 8794 
(W). Gorgona Island, Seemann (G). Without locality, Purdie (P). 
Honda, Ariste- Joseph A3 82 (W). San Andre's de la Sierra, 1,100- 
1,300 m., Pittier 1699 (W). Mountains of New Granada, Purdie 
(G). Honda, Tolima, Ariste- Joseph A747 (W). Without locality, 
Bruchmuller (K). Plains of Maragusta, April, 1846, Purdie (K). 
Ocana, Schlim 682 (K). Types of T. Mutisii and T. longifolia from 
Colombia, Mutis; type of T. macrophylla collected along the banks 
of the Rio Magdalena between Mompox and El Pen6n, and near 
Honda, Bonpland. The species is widely distributed in tropical 
America. 

A glabrous tree, sometimes 6 m. high; leaves mostly oval or 
oblong and 8-20 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate, coriaceous; 
flowers white, in dense terminal cymes; corolla tube slender, 13-18 
cm. long; fruit globose, 4-5 cm. in diameter, yellow, edible, full of 
large seeds. 

"Narciso de monte" (Turdie); "cachaco" (Villavicencio); "chu- 
rumbelo" (Cartagena). Called in Panama "borajo," "boca vieja," 
"fruta de mono," "huevo de mono," and "fruta de murcie*lago." 
The tree is a very showy one in flower. P. platysiphonia is distin- 
guishable only by the broad corolla tube, and I suspect that this 
had its origin only in heavy pressure during the drying of the speci- 
mens. Killip & Hazen 8794 is a fruiting specimen, remarkable for 
its broad rounded leaves. Flowering material may show it to be a 
distinct species. 

Posoqueria maxima, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi subteretes 
glabri; stipulae rotundato-ovatae, apice rotundatae, 27 mm. longae 
et 20 mm. latae, glabrae, parallele venosae, deciduae; petiolus 
crassus 2-3 cm. longus; lamina suborbicularis, subcoriacea, c. 28 
cm. longa et 25 cm. lata, basi late rotundata, glabra, costa nervisque 
supra vix elevatis subtus prominentibus, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 8, angulo acuto adscendentibus, gracilibus, arcuatis, prope 
marginem conjunctis; calyx 2 mm. longus brevissime lobatus, lobis 
late rotundatis; corolla extus glabra, tubo gracili 29 cm. longo, basi 
3 mm. lato, superne 7 mm. lato, lobis 5 anguste oblongis, apice 
rotundatis, reflexis, 4-4.5 cm. longis, 1 cm. latis, intus minute papil- 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

losis; antherae exsertae lineares acuminatae 12 mm. longae. 
Colombia: "New Granada," Purdie (Gray Herb., type). 

Although the single specimen seen is not an altogether satis- 
factory one, it seems to .represent a species clearly distinct. From 
P. latifolia it differs in the large leaves and stipules and very long 
corolla; from P. longiflora Aubl. in the broad leaves and stipules. 
The flowers are even larger than is usual in P. longiflora. 

Posoqueria Spraguei Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 66. 1914. 

Type from San Jose*, in a creek of the Rio Putamayo, Caqueta 
District, Sprague. 

A glabrous shrub; leaves oval, 25 cm. long, 12 cm. wide, very 
shortly acuminate; corolla tube more than 23 cm. long. 

Perhaps only a form of P. latifolia. 

Posoqueria velutina, sp. nov. Ramuli validi subteretes, 
novellis dense velutino-puberulis, vetustioribus ochraceis; stipulae 
4-5 mm. longae, late ovato-triangulares, obtusae, puberulae, cilio- 
latae; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 4-6 mm. longo supra sulcato 
puberulo; lamina coriacea, late elliptica vel rotundato-elliptica, 
rarius oblonga, 9-11 cm. longa, 5.5-8 cm. lata, apice obtusa vel 
subrotundata, basi obtusa vel abrupte breviterque angustata, supra 
flavo-viridis, glabra, costa nervisque manifestis sed non elevatis, 
subtus paullo pallidior, dense velutino-puberula, costa crassa pro- 
minente, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 7, gracilibus, prominen- 
tibus, angulo acuto adscendentibus, nervulis obsoletis; cymae 
pedunculatae pauciflorae, floribus longipedicellatis, pedicellis minute 
puberulis; calyx 2-3 mm. longus glaber, lobis late ovatis obtusis 
ciliolatis; corollae tubus 6-7 cm. longus, 3-4 mm. latus, extus sparse 
puberulus vel fere glaber, obis oblongis obtusis fere 1.5 cm. longis; 
antherae c. 8 mm. longae acuminatae furfuraceo-strigosae. Colom- 
bia: Salgar, region of Medellin, July 20, 1928, Rafael A. Toro 1257 
(Herb. N. Y. Bot. Card., type). 

The other Colombian species of this genus have glabrous leaves 
and flowers. 

43. TOCOYENA Aubl. 

Tocoyena foetida Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 25. pi. 
129. 1845. 

Reported by Schumann (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 346. 1889) from 
Maypures, Spruce 3582. Also in Brazil. 

A shrub or small tree, the branchlets pilose with appressed or 
spreading hairs; leaves petiolate, oblong-lanceolate or obovate- 
oblong, 15-35 cm. long, acuminate, acute at the base, subtomentose 
and scabrous above, beneath softly pubescent; inflorescence terminal, 
subcapitate, sessile, few-flowered; calyx lobes subulate, very acute, 
erect, short- villous; corolla ochroleucous, 18-20 cm. long, the tube 
very slender, the lobes ovate-oblong, pubescent outside, 2.5-3 cm. 
long. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 59 

44. SPHINCTANTHUS Benth. 

Sphinctanthus polycarpus (Karst.) Hook. f. ex Schum. in 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 354. 1889. Conosiphon polycarpus Karst. Fl. 
Columb. 2: 95. pi 149. 1865. 

Type from the Rio Meta, at 300-400 m., Karsten. 

A shrub; stipules triangular, acute; leaves petiolate, obovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, attenuate at the base, glabrous, subcoriaceous, 
18 cm. long, 5-6 cm. wide; flowers terminal, short-pedicellate, 
glomerate-cymose, about 2.5 cm. long, greenish-white; calyx 5-6- 
dentate; corolla funnelform, the tube elongate, minutely sericeous, 
the lobes lanceolate, acute, half as long as the tube; fruit oval, as 
large as a walnut, fleshy, many-seeded. 

45. RANDIA L. 

Randia aculeata L. Sp. PI. 1192. 1753. R. mitis L., 1. c. 
R. latifolia Lam. Encycl. 3: 24. 1789. R. obovata HBK. Nov. Gen. 
& Sp. 3: 409. 1818, not R. & P. 1799. 

Santa Marta, on seashore, H. H. Smith 1811 (F, G, W, P); alt. 
75 m., H. H. Smith 1867 (F, W, P), 2400 F, W, P). Girardot, 
Cundinamarca, 350-400 m., Rusby & Pennell 90 (F, G, W, Y). Tener- 
ife, Andre 207 (K, Y). Fusagasuga, Andrt 1608 (K, Y). Rio Saldana to 
Natagaima, 400-450 m., Rusby & Pennell 248 (Y). Llano de Ibague", 
Holton 411 (Y). Type of R. obovata collected at the mouth of the 
Sinu, Bonpland. The species is widely distributed in the West Indies, 
Central America, and Mexico. 

A very spiny shrub; leaves mostly obovate or rounded-oboyate 
and 2-6 cm. long, glabrous or nearly so; flowers perfect, terminal, 
solitary or clustered; corolla 6-8 m. long, white, the throat barbate; 
fruit globose, 6-12 mm. in diameter, the pulp blackish and full of 
large seeds. 

The name Randia mitis precedes R. aculeata on the page, but 
DeCandolle in uniting the two Linnaean species employed the name 
R. aculeata, which has been used by most subsequent authors. 

Randia formosa (Jacq.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 342. 
1889. Mussaenda formosa Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 16. 1760. 

Type from Cartagena, Jacquin. Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 111 
(W), 224. (W). Usiacuri, 250 m., Bro. Elias 304 (W). Barranquilla, 
Bro. Elias 345 (W). San Martin de Loba, Bolivar, 100 m., Curran 180 
(W). Buenayista, Bolivar, 100 m., Pennell 3975 (W, Y). Santa 
Marta, Purdie (K). Cartagena, Turbaco, Goudot (K). Orocne", Rio 
Meta, 100-400 m., Lehmann 8750 (K). Puerto Wilches, Rusby & 
Pennell 4804 (Y). Ranging to Peru and Brazil, Panama, and the 
West Indies. 

An unarmed shrub; leaves mostly ovate or elliptic and 3-7 cm. 
long, puberulent or appressed-pilose beneath; flowers perfect, 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

terminal, solitary, sessile; corolla white, the slender tube 5-10 cm. 
long; fruit oval, 2-3 cm. long. 

Randia Gaumeri Greenm. & Thomps. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 1: 
410. 1915. 

Santa Marta, 30 m., H. H. Smith 1717 (F, W, P). Hills above 
Santa Marta Bay, June, 1916, Curran (W). Also in Yucatan. 

A very spiny shrub; leaves cuneate-orbicular, small, glabrous, 
ciliolate, blackening when dried; flowers perfect, terminal, sessile; 
corolla 5-6 mm. long, the throat glabrous. 

It may be that more ample material will reveal differences 
between the Colombian and Yucatan plants, but none are apparent 
in the several specimens now at hand. 

Randia spinosa (Jacq.) Karst. Fl. Columb. 2: 128. 1869. 
Mussaenda spinosa Jacq. Sel. Stirp. 70. 1763. Gardenia armata Sw. 
Prodr. 51. 1788. Mussaenda pubescens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 
410. 1818. M. nitida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 410. 1818. Gardenia 
Humboldtiana R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 243. 1825. M. Humboldtiana 
Steud. Nom. Bot. 540. 1821. G. pubescens Bartl. ex DC. Prodr. 4: 
387. 1830, as syn. R. armata DC. Prodr. 4:387. 1830. R. nitida DC., 
I.e. R. dioica Karst. Linnaea 30: 153. 1859-60. R. hondensis Karst. 
Linnaea 30: 154. 1859-60. Basanacantha spinosa Schum. in Mart. 
Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 376. 1889. B. spinosa var. nitida Schum., op. cit. 378. 
1889. Basacantha dioica Hook. f. ex Ind. Kew. 277. 1895. 

Type from Cartagena, Jacquin. Cartagena, Schott 1 (F); Bro. 
Heriberto 123 (W). San Martin de Loba, Bolivar, Curran 98 (W). 
Opposite Boca Carare, Antioquia, 125 m., Pennell 3826 (W, Y). 
Upper Rio Lebrija Valley, Santander, 400-700 m., Killip & Smith 
16299 (W, Y). Panche, Andre 1689 (K, Y). Turbaco, Bolivar, 
200-300 m., Killip & Smith 14697 (Y). Type of M. nitida from 
Turbaco, Bonpland, Type of R. hondensis from the Magdalena 
Valley at 260 m., Karsten. Type of R. dioica collected in Colombia 
by Karsten. The species is widely distributed in tropical America. 

A spiny shrub or small tree; leaves large, usually pubescent, 
at least beneath; flowers dioecious; corolla white or yellowish, 
glabrous, the tube about 2.5 cm. long; fruit oval or subglobose, 
2.5-3.5 cm. long. 

"Manangolo" (Curran). 

46. GENIPAL. 

Genipa americana L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 931. 1759. 

Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 2646 (F, W, M, P, Y); Purdie (P). 
San Andre's de la Sierra, Magdalena, Pittier 1703 (W). Carare, 
Andre 320 bis (K). La Paila, Holton 441 (Y). Without locality, 
Lehmann B.T.912 (Y). Widely distributed in tropical America. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 61 

A large or medium-sized tree; leaves large, obovate, short- 
petioled, glabrous; flowers yellowish white, 2-4.5 cm. long, in small 
terminal cymes; fruit globose, brownish, 6-7 cm. in diameter, the 
pulp filled with numerous large compressed seeds. 

Genipa caruto HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 407. 1820. G. ameri- 
cana var. caruto Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 352. 1889. 

Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 93 (F, W, P). Greene", Rio Meta, 
100-400 m., Lehmann 8748 (F). Widely distributed in tropical 
America. 

Differing from G. americana in the dense pubescence of the 
under surface of the leaves. 

Called "jagua" in Panama; "caruto" in Venezuela; "bi," "bicito," 
and "tutumillo" in Bolivia; "jenipapa," "jenipabo," in Brazil; 
"tapuripa" in Surinam. This tree and the preceding one are common 
and widely dispersed in tropical America. Their wood is strong and 
resistant, flexible, whitish, tinged with gray. It is used for many 
purposes. The bark is rich in tannin. The scant pulp of the fruit 
is edible, but not very palatable, and its juice is sometimes fermented 
to produce an intoxicating beverage. Upon cloth the juice produces 
a permanent brownish or blackish stain, and it was much used by 
the Indians for dyeing. It was employed commonly, and is still 
utilized in some regions, for painting the body, giving almost the 
same general effect as tattooing. 

47. DUROIA L. f. 

Duroia genipoides Hook. f. in B. & H. Gen. PL 2: 82. 1873. 
Type from Maypures on the Orinoco, Spruce 8624- 

Branchlets glabrous; leaves ternate, short-petiolate, obovate to 
oblong, 9-12 cm. long, shortly obtuse-acuminate or obtuse, cuneate 
at the base, coriaceous, glabrous; fruits long-pedicellate, narrowly 
oblong, 2-3 cm. long, 1.5 cm. in diameter, rounded at base and apex. 

Duroia hirsuta (Poepp. & Endl.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6 6 : 367. 1889. Amaioua hirsuta Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 
25. pi. 230. 1845. Schachtia dioica Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 89. pi. 44- 
1860. 

Type of S. dioica from Villavicencio, Karsten. Villavicencio, 
450 m., Pennell 1470 (Y). Without locality, Triana (K). Also in 
Brazil. 

A shrub or small tree 3-4.5 m. high; leaves obovate-oblong, 
cuspidate-acuminate, hispid, 18-25 cm. long; flowers in dense 
terminal cymes; corolla 2.5 cm. long; fruit baccate, ellipsoid-globose, 
3 cm. long. 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Called "turma de mico" in Colombia. The internodes of the 
branches often are inflated and inhabited by ants. 

Duroia Spraguei Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 66. 1914. 

Type from Mocoa, Caqueta District, Sprague 369. 

A tree; leaves thin, broadly oblanceolate, about 23 cm. long and 
10 cm. wide, cuspidate, hispid beneath; flowers subsolitary; corolla 
sericeous; ovary densely sericeous-hispid. 

Vernacular name, "taruquilla." 

48. AMAIOUA Aubl. 

Amaioua guianensis Aubl. almost certainly occurs in Colombia, 
because it is known from Panama and the Guianas, but no Colombian 
specimens have been seen. The fruit is called "amajoua" or "graines 
a Tatou" in French Guiana; "canella de neado," "pimentao," and 
"marmelada brava" in Brazil; "madrono torcido" in Panama. 

49. ALIBERTIA A. Rich. 

Alibertia edulis A. Rich. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 234. 
pl.21,f.l. 1830. 

Estrella, Carlo Papayal, Curran 386 (W). Without locality, 
Triana 1841 (K). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A glabrous shrub or tree with lance-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate leaves; flowers dioecious, white, sessile, solitary 
or fascicled; fruit a globose berry 2.5 cm. in diameter. 

"Guayabo Peru" (Curran); "perita" (Schumann). 

Alibertia Garapatica Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 384. 1889. 
Garapatica edulis Karst. Fl. Columb. 1: 57. pi. 28. 1858, not A. 
edulis A. Rich. 1830. 

Type collected near Tomaraz6n and Chiriguana, region of Santa 
Marta, Karsten. Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 798 (F, M, P, S). Saha- 
gun, Bolivar, Pennell J^087a (Y). Also in Panama. 

A glabrous shrub or small tree; leaves short-petiolate, elliptic or 
oblong-elliptic, 7-10 cm. long, short-acuminate; staminate flowers 
whitish, in dense terminal clusters, the pistillate in terminal clusters 
of 5 or more; fruits small, globose. 

"Garapatica." 

Alibertia hexagyna Karst. Linnaea 30: 144. 1859-60. 

Type from inundated banks of the Rio Meta, Karsten. 

A shrub 2-3 m. high; leaves lanceolate, coriaceous, glabrous, 
pilose beneath in the axils of the veins; stipules lanceolate, acute, 
persistent; flowers terminal, the staminate cymose, white; calyx 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 63 

limb 4-5-dentate; corolla sericeous; pistillate flowers solitary, the 
calyx 5-dentate, the teeth linear; fruit fleshy, many-seeded. 
"Perita." 

Alibertia pedicellata Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 66. 1914. 

Type from Mocoa, Caqueta District, Sprague 362. Without 
locality, Triana 1838 (K, Y). 

A glabrous tree; leaves oblanceolate, obovate, or elliptic, acute 
or acuminate, 16-20 cm. long; flowers short-racemose; fruit ellipsoid, 
2.5 cm. long. 

50. RETINIPHYLLUM H. & B. 

Retiniphyllum concplor (Spruce) Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. 
Bras. 6 5 : 8. 1881. Commianthus concolor Spruce ex Benth. Journ. 
Bot. 5: 235. 1853. 

Reported by Mueller (1. c.) from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, 
Spruce 3535. Also in Brazil. 

A shrub 3 m. high; leaves short-petiolate, oblong-elliptic, 9-18 
cm. long, cuspidate, acute at the base, minutely scabrous beneath 
on the veins, the lateral veins 11-16 pairs; flowers in terminal racemes, 
the flowers pedicellate; calyx obsoletely 5-dentate; corolla 3 cm. 
long, puberulent, the lobes scarcely half as long as the tube; fruit 
baccate, 6 mm. long, 5-angled. 

Retiniphyllum truncatum Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
11. 1881. 

Type collected along the Rio Negro above the mouth of the Rio 
Casiquiare, Spruce 3131. 

Glabrous; leaves lance-elliptic, subacute at each end, 6-8 cm. 
long, the lateral veins 10-11 pairs; flowers in terminal pedunculate 
spikes longer than the leaves, the flowers sessile; calyx minutely 
5-denticulate; corolla 15-17 mm. long. 

51. MACHAONIA H. & B. 

Machaonia acuminata H. & B. PI. Aequin. 1: 101. pi. 29. 
1808; Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 102. pi. 89, f. 1. 1888. 

Garz6n, Rio Madalena, 400-1,000 m., Lehmann 8648 (F, Y). 
Magdalena Valley, Goudot (K). Without locality, Andre K.I 106 
(K). Also in Ecuador and Brazil. 

A small tree; leaves densely pubescent beneath; sepals ovate, 
obtuse; fruit pubescent. 

"Espuela de gallo." 

Machaonia grandis Wernh. Journ. Bot. 51: 220. 1913. 
Type from Choro, Barbacoas, Triana 1625. 
A shrub; leaves oval, short-acuminate, 8 cm. long, glabrous; 
calyx lobes oblong, obtuse, ciliate; fruit glabrous. 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Machaonia Ottonis (Schum.) Urban, Symb. Antill. 5: 511. 
1908. Machaonia spinosa var. Ottonis Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6 6 : 100. 1888. 

Without locality, Wagner (G); Wagner 35 (W); Linden 1546 
(G). Orocne", Rio Meta, 100-500 m.,Lehmann 8747 (F). Rio Saldana 
to Natagaima, Huila, 400 m., Rusby & Pennell 251 (G, Y). Also in 
Brazil. 

A shrub, the branchlets often with spinose tips; leaves ovate or 
elliptic, acute or acuminate, 3-6 cm. long, glabrous; flowers small, 
in large corymbiform panicles; calyx lobes suborbicular; fruit densely 
pubescent. 

52. GUETTARDA L. 

Guettarda cordata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 420. 1820. 
Type from Cuesta de Tolima, Bonpland 

Leaves ovate-elliptic, deeply cordate at the base, rounded at 
the apex, whitish-tomentose beneath. 

Guettarda crispiflora Vahl, a West Indian species, is reported 
from Bogota by Kunth (HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 420. 1820), 
but the record doubtless is based upon specimens of some other 
species. 

Guettarda discolor Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 134. 
1920. 

Mountain forest, Sierra de Libano, region of Santa Marta, 1,650 
m., H. H. Smith 1809 (Y, type). Also in Venezuela. 

A tree; leaves elliptic to lance-oblong, 7-10 cm. long, 3-5 cm. 
wide, abruptly acuminate at each end, minutely grayish-tomentose 
beneath, puberulent along the nerves; inflorescences furcate, the 
branches simple, the flowers conspicuously secund; corolla tube 12 
mm. long. 

Guettarda malacophylla Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 288. 1929. 

On Rio Magdalena, Neiva and Timana, 400-1,200 m., Lehmann 
8710 (Y, type). Without locality, Goudot (K). 

A tree 7.5 m. high, the young branchlets densely pilose; leaves 
very shortly petiolate, oval to obovate-elliptic, 3.5-6 cm. long, 
short-acuminate, obtuse or broadly rounded at the base, densely 
velvety-pilose on both surfaces with spreading hairs; flowers cymose- 
capitate, the cymes few-flowered, nearly sessile; hypanthium terete, 
tomentose; corolla densely sericeous, the tube 7-8 mm. long. 

Guettarda hirsuta (R. & P.) Pers. has been reported (HBK. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 3: 420. 1820) from Ibague" and Cuesta de Tolima. The 
species is a Peruvian one, and probably does not occur in Colombia. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 65 

Guettarda ocoteaefolia Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 289. 1929. 

Near Panche, 1,550 m., Andre 1670 (F, type; G, K, Y). Fusaga- 
suga, 1,800 m., Andre 1448 (K, Y). 

Young branchlets densely strigillose; leaves petiolate, oblanceo- 
late-oblong or oblong-obovate, 8-18 cm. long, obtuse or nearly 
rounded and abruptly short-acuminate at the apex, sometimes acute, 
narrowed to the acute or obtuse base, scaberulous or glabrate above, 
paler beneath, sparsely and minutely strigillose or glabrate; cymes 
dense, few-flowered, long-pedunculate; hypanthium tomentose; 
corolla densely grayish-sericeous, the tube 15 mm. long, the 5 
lobes oval, 5-6 mm. long. 

Guettarda odorata (Jacq.) Lam. 111. Gen. 2: 219. 1793. 
Laugeria odorata Jacq. Sel. Stirp. Amer. 64. pi. 177, f. 21. 1763. 

Type from Cartagena, Jacquin. Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 345 
(W). Without locality, Funck & Schlim 623 (Y). Also in Venezuela. 

A shrub or small tree; leaves mostly elliptic or rhombic-obovate, 
3-6 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate, appressed-pilose beneath 
along the veins; corolla tube 1-1.5 cm. long; fruit globose, 6 mm. 
in diameter. 

Guettarda roupalaefolia Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PL 
135. 1920. 

Three miles east of Masinga; Minca, region of Santa Marta, 
600 m., H. H. Smith 441 (Y, type; F, W, G, M, P, S). Trail from 
Rio Frio to San Andres de la Sierra, Magdalena, 200 m., Pittier 
1717 (W). 

A tree; leaves long-petioled, broadly ovate or rounded-elliptic, 
10-20 cm. long, obtuse to acuminate, grayish-tomentose beneath; 
corolla pinkish, the tube 12 mm. long. 

Guettarda Rusbyi Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 288. 1929. 

Rocky hill at gorge above Natagaima, Huila, 450-500 m., Rusby 
& Pennell 1154 (F, type; W, Y, G, M). Along stream, Espinal to 
Cuamo, Tolima, 400 m., Pennell & Rusby 200 (Y). Piedras, 600 
m., Andre 1940 (F, K, Y), 1898 (Y, K). Without locality, Funck & 
Schlim 644 (Y); Lehmann 8677 (Y, G, K). Above Honda, Holton 
409 (K, Y). Without locality, Lehmann B.T.905 (G, K); Goudot 
(K); Triana 1748 (K), 1746 (K). 

A tree, the young branchlets strigillose; leaves short-petiolate, 
ovate-elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 5-12.5 cm. long, acuminate, rounded 
or obtuse at the base, scaberulous or glabrate above, strigillose or 
rarely puberulent beneath along the nerves; cymes dense, few- 
flowered, long-pedunculate; corolla tube 10-13 mm. long, densely seri- 
ceous, the lobes oval, 3 mm. long; fruit oval, 7-12 mm. long, 4-celled. 

Guettarda sabiceoides Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 289. 1929. 

Forests of the Rio Palace", highlands of Popayan, 1,500-1,800 m., 
Lehmann B.T.950 (K); Triana 1749 (K). La Gallera, Micay Valley, 
Cauca, in forest, 1,400 m., Kittip 7699 (W, G). 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Young branchlets strigose and puberulent; leaves slender-petio- 
late, oblong-elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 10-15 cm. long, abruptly 
acuminate, abruptly decurrent at the base, glabrous above, minutely 
sericeous beneath along the nerves; inflorescences furcate, pedun- 
culate, the branches 1-2 cm. long, densely many-flowered, the 
flowers secund; hypanthium 5-angled; corolla 6-7 mm. long, reflexed- 
pilose; drupe 5 mm. long, 5-celled. 

53. CHOMELIA Jacq. 

Chomelia spinosa Jacq. Sel. Stirp. Amer. 18. pi. 13. 1763. 
Anisomeris spinosa Schum. in E. & P. Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 4 : 98. 
1891. C. brachyloba Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 136. 1916. 
C. longicaudata Rusby, Bull. Torrey Club 52: 139. /. 1. 1925. 

Type from Cartagena, Jacquin. Torrecilla, Bolivar, 150-300 
m., Kittip & Smith 14394 (W, Y). Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 392 
(F, W, G, M, P; Y, type of C. longicaudata). Cartagena, Bro. Heri- 
berto 135 (W). Usiacuri, 250 m., Bro. Elias 270 (W). Santa Marta, 
Purdie (G, K). Earrauquilla, Bro. Elias 518 (W). Lower Magdalena, 
Dawe 435 (W, K). Also in Panama. 

A shrub or small tree, armed with stout spines; leaves ovate 
or elliptic, pilosulous when young; flowers yellowish white, in small 
slender-peduncled cymes; fruit drupaceous, black at maturity. 

54. MALANEA Aubl. 

Malanea colombiana, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor, ramulis 
gracilibus subteretibus ferrugineo-brunneis lenticellis numerosis 
elevatis pallidis notatis, novellis dense cinereo-strigosis, internodiis 
elongatis; stipulae deciduae, ellipticae, 7-10 mm. longae, acutae, 
extus sericeae, erectae; folia opposita, petiolo 4-14 mm. longo stri- 
goso; lamina ovalis, elliptica vel ovali-ovata, 5-11 cm. longa, 2.5-7.5 
cm. lata, apice obtusa vel rotundata et abrupte acuminata, acumine 
obtuso brevissimo vel usque ad 1.5 cm. longo, basi rotundata, crasse 
membranacea, supra viridis, glabra vel ad costam sparse strigillosa, 
subtus vix pallidior, praesertim ad nervos sparse strigillosa, costa 
nervisque gracilibus elevatis, nervis lateralibus utrpque latere c. 7, 
angulo acuto adscendentibus, arcuatis, juxta marginem conjunctis; 
inflorescentiae axillares, graciliter longipedunculatae, foliis saepe 
longiores, trichotomae, floribus sessilibus glomerato-spicatis, spicis 
paniculatis, ramulis pilis griseis subadpressis dense indutis, bracteolis 
decussatis ovatis acutis strigillosis calyce brevioribus; hypanthium 
obovoideum glabrum 1 mm. longum; calyx 4-lobus, 1.3 mm. longus, 
glaber, lobis inaequalibus ovatis obtusis; corolla alba vel viridi- 
lutescens, extus glabra, 2.5 mm. longa, lobis oblongis obtusis paten- 
tibus intus albo-pilosis; stylus exsertus; fructus oblongus, 6 mm. 
longus, 3 mm. latus, glaber, apice calyce persistente coronatus. 
Colombia: In moist soil along railroad, Buenaventura, El Valle, at 
sea level, Francis W. Pennell and Ellsworth P. Killip 5987 (U. S. 
Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,580, type; duplicates in G and Y); in coastal 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 67 

thickets and forest, October 5-10, 1922, Kittip 11701 (W, G, Y), 
11764 CN, G, Y). 

55. PITTONIOTIS Griseb. 

Pittoniotis trichantha Griseb. Bonplandia 8: 8. 1858. Antir- 
rhea trichantha Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 2: 42. 1881. 

Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 2085 (F, P). Also in Panama. 

A small tree; leaves petiolate, broadly ovate or ovate-elliptic, 
6-14 cm. long, abruptly acuminate, thin, appressed-pilose beneath; 
flowers small, in dense panicled cymes, the flowers secund along the 
slender branches; corolla 4-5 mm. long; drupe 2-3-celled, 5-6 mm. 
long. 

56. CHIOGOCCA L. 

Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc. Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 94. 1893. 
Lonicera alba L. Sp. PI. 175. 1753. C. racemosa L. Syst. Nat. ed. 
10. 917. 1759. C. brachiata R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 67. pi. 219. 1799. 
C. anguifuga Mart. Spec. Mat. Med. Bras. 17. pi. 5. 1824. 

Cali and Quilichao, Cauca, 1,000-1,500 m., Lehmann 7640 (F, 
W). Guaduas, Cundinamarca, Ariste-Joseph A867 (W). Mesa de 
los Santos, Santander, 1,000-1,500 m., Kittip & Smith 14985 (W, Y), 
15432 (W, Y). La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,650-1,850 m., Pennell 5717 
(W). Cali, 1,000-1,500 m., Lehmann 8265 (W). Fusagasuga to 
Pandi, Cundinamarca, 1,000-1,200 m., Pennell 2753 (W, G, Y). 
Rio Surata Valley, 1,500-1,800 m., Kittip & Smith 16434 (W, Y). 
Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 85 (F, W, P), 2406 (F, W), 94 (F, P), 
1836 (F, P), 839 (F, G, P). Fusagasuga, 1,800 m., Andre 1372 
(F, K, Y). La Plata, Tolima, 1,000-1,200 m., Lehmann 8469 (F). 
San Agustin, Tolima, 400-1,600 m., Lehmann 2303 (F). La Paila, 
Cauca, Holton 434 (G, P), 433 (P). Rio Hacha, September, 1844, 
Purdie (K). Near Cali(?), Andre K.1108 (K, Y). Between Palmira 
and Cali, Andre 2611 (K). Guaduas, Andre 543 (K, Y). Opia, 
December, 1852, Holton (Y). Santa Marta, Purdie (Y). Widely 
distributed in tropical America. 

A shrub, the branches often long and pendent or subscandent; 
flowers pale yellow or nearly white; fruit white, compressed, fleshy. 

Called "raiz de murcie'lago" at Turbaco. 

The species is a variable one as to size and shape of the leaves, 
size of the corolla, and size of the fruit. It seems impossible to 
distinguish definitely the segregates which have been proposed. 

Chiococca micrantha J. R. Johnston, Proc. Amer. Acad. 40: 
696. 1905. 

Tierrabomba Island, Cartagena Bay, Kittip & Smith 14129 (Y). 
Also in Venezuela. 

A shrub 1-3 m. high; leaves lanceolate, 3-5 cm. long, acuminate, 
attenuate to the base; inflorescences about 3-flowered, the flowers 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

pedicellate; corolla small, greenish, about twice as long as the calyx; 
fruit white, 3 mm. broad. 

57. COFFEA L. 

Coffea arabica L. Sp. PI. 172. 1753. 

Coffee is, of course, one of the principal products of Colombia, as 
in most tropical American countries, and it is grown in the mountains 
upon a large scale. That of Colombia holds a high reputation in the 
markets of the world because of its superior quality, ranking with 
that of Venezuela, Ecuador, and Central America. 

58. IXORA L. 

Ixora floribunda (A. Rich.) Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 134. 1866. 
Siderodendron floribundum A. Rich, in Sagra, Hist. Cub. 11: 24. 
1850. 

Jiracasaca, 750 m., H. H. Smith 858 (Y), 1777 (F, W, G, M, 
P, Y). Forest near Masinga, 180 m., H. H. Smith 858 (Y); at 240 
m., H. H. Smith 858 (Y). Santa Marta, 300 m., H. H. Smith 858 
(F, W, G, M, P, Y). Without locality, Triana 1729 (K). Magdalena 
Valley, Goudot 12 (K). Also in Cuba and Bolivia. 

A shrub or tree, sometimes 18 m. high; leaves petiolate, oblanceo- 
late-oblong to elliptic or oblong-oval, obtuse to short-acuminate, 
acute at the base, glabrous; flowers white or pinkish, in terminal 
sessile pubescent panicles; corolla glabrous, the tube 5-6 mm. long, 
the oblong spreading lobes slightly shorter; stamens exserted. 

59. MORINDA L. 

Morinda panamensis Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 136. 1854. 

San Martin de Loba, Bolivar, Curran 74 (W), 185 (W). Estrella, 
Bolivar, Curran 326 (W). Also in Central America. 

A shrub or tree, sometimes 6 m. high, with a trunk 10 cm. in 
diameter; wood yellow; leaves elliptic or oblong-elliptic, acuminate, 
4-10 cm. wide, glabrous or nearly so; flowers white or pink, 1.5 cm. 
long, the heads on peduncles 1-3 cm. long. 

Called "yna de huevo." 

Morinda Roioc L. Sp. PI. 176. 1753. 

Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 65 (W), 31 (W); Bro. Elias 494 (W); 
Schott, November, 1857 (F). Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 312 (F, W, 
P), 2546 (F). Manga Island, Cartagena, Killip & Smith 14013 
(W, Y). La Popa, near Cartagena, Killip & Smith 14061 (W, Y). 
Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A shrub or small tree of coastal thickets, often subscandent; 
leaves mostly linear-oblong to oblanceolate-oblong, acute or acumi- 
nate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers 1 cm. long, the small dense 
heads on peduncles 3-10 mm. long. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 69 

A note with Schott specimen reads: "Said to be very poisonous. 
Sea water taken internally acts as an emetic and as an antidote." 

Morinda turbacensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 380. 1820. 

Type collected between Cartagena and Turbaco, Bonpland. 

A shrub; leaves obovate-oblong, acute, hirtellous, softly pubescent 
beneath, 7.5 cm. long; heads very shortly pedunculate; corolla 
villous-hirtous. 

This species seems to be known only from the original collection. 
It may be only a form of M. Roioc. 

60. COUSSAREA Aubl. 

Coussarea grandifolia Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 144. 
1920. 

Mountain forest, Valparaiso, Santa Marta, 1,200-1,500 m., H. H. 
Smith 1830 (Y, type; F, M, P). 

A glabrous tree 6-9 m. high; stipules 2 cm. long, connate into a 
loose deciduous sheath; leaves petiolate, obovate to broadly elliptic, 
12-25 cm. long, 8-15 cm. wide, abruptly short-acuminate; flowers 
white, in small pyramidal panicles; calyx obscurely 5-dentate; 
corolla tube 6-11 mm. long, the lobes about 6 mm. long. 

Coussarea grandis Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 100. 1881. 

Type from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 3458, 3485. 

Glabrous; stipules short, broadly obtuse, connate into a tube; 
leaves short-petiolate, elliptic-lanceolate, 15-23 cm. long, 5-8 cm. 
wide, long-acuminate, acute at the base; flowers ternate at the ends 
of the branchlets; calyx truncate; corolla 4.5-5 cm. long, puberulent, 
the lobes nearly as long as the tube; fruit oblong-ellipsoid, 3 cm. 
long, acute at each end. 

Coussarea leptoloba (B. & H.) Muell. Arg. Flora 58: 468. 
1875. Faramea leptoloba B. & H. Gen. PI. 2: 121. 1873. 

Reported by Mueller (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 100. 1881) from 
San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 31 41. Also in Brazil. 

Stipules short-sheathing, the sheath multidentate at the apex; 
leaves short-petiolate, elliptic-lanceolate, 15-23 cm. long, 5-8 cm. 
wide, cuspidate-acuminate; cymes terminal, sessile, with few 
branches, the flowers sessile; calyx tubular, its lobes narrowly 
triangular, recurved; corolla 3 cm. long, puberulent, the lobes 
slightly shorter than the tube. 

Coussarea petiolaris (Benth.), comb. nov. Faramea petiolaris 
Benth. Linnaea 23: 450. 1850. 

Type from Colombia. 

Stipules short, broad, muticous; leaves long-petioled, broadly 
ovate, cuspidate, acutish at the base; panicles slightly longer than 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

the petioles, the umbels 5-7-flowered ; calyx truncate; corolla lobes 
shorter than the tube. 

Coussarea venosa, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi, compressi, virides, 
sparse minuteque puberuli; stipulae (perfectae non visae) persis- 
tentes, basi breviter connatae, ovato-triangulares, c. 8 mm. longae, 
puberulae, erectae; folia brevissime petiolata, opposita, petiolo 
3-5 mm. longo crasso dense et minute puberulo; lamina coriacea, 
elliptico-oblonga, 19-23 cm. longa, 6.5-8 cm. lata, subabrupte 
acuminata, acumine angusto breyi obtuso, basin versus sensim 
angustata, supra glabra, luteo-viridis, nervis subimpressis, subtus 
pallidior, ad costam validam elevatam sparse pilosula, nervis latera- 
libus utroque latere c. 15, valde elevatis, gracilibus, arcuatis, angulo 
acuto adscendentibus, juxta marginem conjunctis, neryulis promi- 
nentibus laxe reticulatis, margine revoluto; inflorescentia terminalis 
4 cm. longe pedunculata, racemoso-paniculata, 4.5 cm. longa, pauci- 
ramosa, ramis infimis vix 1 cm. longis divaricatis rigidis minute 
puberulis, superioribus brevissimis, floribus ad apices ramorum 
capitato-congestis sessilibus; drupa ellipsoidea subcompressa 1.6 cm. 
longa glabra; semen suborbiculare subcompressum nigrescens 7 mm. 
latum. Colombia: Forests of Coteje, Rio Timbiqui, in 1910, F. C. 
LehmannB.T.647 (Herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard., type). 

61. FARAMEA Aubl. 

Faramea angustifolia Spruce ex B. & H. Gen. PL 2: 121. 1837, 
nomen; Muell. Arg. Flora 58: 471. 1875. 

Type collected along the Rio Negro near San Carlos, Spruce 8075. 
Also in Brazil. 

Stipules connate into a long narrow biaristate sheath; leaves 
elongate, 8-17 cm. long, 0.8-3 cm. wide, long-acuminate, membrana- 
ceous, glabrous, with 10-13 pairs of almost perpendicular lateral 
veins; cymes terminal, pedunculate, umbellately 5-rayed, the 
flowers umbellate; calyx campanulate, minutely 4-dentate; corolla 
8-9 mm. long, glabrous, the 4 lobes half as long as the tube; fruit 
globose, 8 mm. broad. 

Faramea calophylla, sp. nov. Frutex glaber, ramulis laevibus 
subteretibus vel in siccitate subcompressis lutescentibus, internodiis 
elongatis; stipulae c. 1.5 cm. longae, e basi triangulari lineares, 
involutae, caducae; petioli crassi 6-12 mm. longi supra late sulcati; 
limbus elliptico-ovalis, oblongo-ellipticus vel oblongus, 9-15 cm. 
longus, 2-7 cm. latus, apice acutus vel saepe rotundatus et abrupte 
caudato-acuminatus, acumine 1-2 cm. longo lineari obtuso, basi 
acutus vel obtusus et abrupte breviterque decurrens, coriaceus, 
lucidus, fere concolor, costa supra elevata subtus bisulcata crassi- 
uscula, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 16, gracilibus, utrinque 
prominulis, angulo fere recto divergentibus, subarcuatis, prope 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 71 

marginem nervum collectivum irregularem efformantibus, nervis 
intermediis inter laterales nervulis transversis conjunctos conspicuis 
et eis parallelis, margine incrassato et angustissime revoluto; inflores- 
centiae terminales, cymoso-corymbosae, laxe pauciflorae, 3-4 cm. 
longe pedunculatae, pedicellis crassis c. 6 mm. longis, bracteis minutis 
ovatis acuminatis deciduis; fructus transverse ovalis laevis 1.5 cm. 
latus; semen griseum 12 mm. longum subtus profunde sulcatum. 
Colombia: Buenaventura, Dept. El Valle, at sea level, October 5-10, 
1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 11765 (U. S. Nat. Herb., type; duplicates 
in Gray Herb, and herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard.). Cordoba, alt. 80-100 m., 
May 6-8, 1922, Killip 5139 (W, G, Y). 

Faramea cestroides, sp. nov. Arbor parva glabra, ramulis 
gracilibus subteretibus, internodiis 2.5-6 cm. longis; stipulae deciduae, 
breviter connatae, e basi ovato-triangulari subulato-acuminatae; 
petiolus gracilis, 4-7 mm. longus, supra late sulcatus; lamina oblonga 
vel ovato-oblonga, 9.5-15.5 cm. longa, 3-5.5 cm. lata, apicem versus 
angustata et abrupte caudato-acuminata, acumine 1.5-2.5 cm. longo, 
basi obtusa vel acuta et interdum breviter decurrens, chartacea, 
fere concolor, sublucida, pallide marginata, margine interdum anguste 
revoluto, costa nervisque utrinque prominentibus, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 14, angulo fere recto divergentibus, gracilibus, prope 
marginem irregulariter conjunctis; inflorescentia terminalis, 1-1.8 cm. 
longe pedunculata, cymoso-corymbosa, trichotoma, 2-5 cm. longa, 
usque ad 6 cm. lata, ramulis 1-3-floris, bracteis infimis ad 1 cm. 
longis, ceteris subulatis 1-2 mm. longis, floribus subsessilibus; 
hypanthium breviter cylindricum 1.5 mm. longum; calyx 1 mm. 
longus truncatus remote 4-denticulatus; corolla pallide caerulea 
glabra, tubo 12 mm. longo superne paullp dilatato et 2.2 mm. lato, 
lobis 4 triangulari-oblongis 3.5 mm. longis acutiusculis intus glabris 
patentibus; antherae lineari-oblongae semiexsertae; stylus inclusus. 
Colombia: Sierra del Libano, Santa Marta, alt. 1,800 m., January 
26, 1891, H. H. Smith 1776 (Herb. Field Mus. No. 138,636, type; 
duplicates in G, M). Ocana, 1,800-2,100 m., in forest, Schlim 461 
(K). Ocana, 2,100 m., Kalbreyer 587 (K). Portachuelo, 2,100-2,400 
m., Kalbreyer 1854 (K). 

According to Kalbreyer, a shrub 2.5 m. high, the flowers very 
fragrant, the corolla pale blue outside and white within. 

The species is easily recognized by the very short corolla lobes. 

Faramea cuspidata Benth. PI. Hartw. 194. 1845. 

Type from the western slope of the Andes of Popayan, Hartweg 
1063. Dense forests of Rio Timbiqui, 500 m., Lehmann 9002 (F, Y). 
Micay, Lehmann K.I 21 (K). Timbiqui, Lehmann K.I 20 (K). 

A glabrous shrub 2.5-3 m. high; stipules ovate, subconnate, 
4 mm. long, aristate; leaves short-petiolate, narrowly oblong, 
caudate-acuminate, the tip 2-2.5 cm. long, linear; flowers in large 
lax corymbs, slender-pedicellate; calyx 4-dentate; corolla blue, 
glabrous, the tube 6 mm. long, the linear lobes slightly longer. 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Faramea cyathocalyx, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis crassis 
subcompressis luteo-viridibus glabris, internodiis elongatis; stipulae 
subpersistentes 6-7 mm. longae et ultra, late triangulares, acutae, 
glabrae, in aristam validam sensim desinentes; folia breviter petiolata 
opposita, petiolo valido c. 12 mm. longo supra late sulcato; lamina 
coriacea, oblonga, 14-22 cm. longa, 5-9 cm. lata, abrupte acuminata, 
acumine angusto c. 1.5 cm. longo attenuate obtusiusculo, basi acuta 
vel obtusa et abrupte contracta, utrinque glabra, supra luteo-viridis, 
costa elevata, nervis subimpressis, subtus pallida, costa crassa 
elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 13, gracilibus, promi- 
nentibus, angulo fere recto divaricatis, fere rectis, remote a margine 
arcuato-conjunctis, nervulis vix prominulis laxe reticulatis; flores 
sessiles in axillis fasciculato-cymosis, inflorescentiis sessilibus vel 
subsessilibus, floribus dense congestis subcapitatis, bracteis minutis; 
hypanthium glabrum turbinatum 5 mm. longum; calyx 1 cm. longus 
cylindrico-campanulatus, ore 6 mm. latus, subtruncatus et brevis- 
sime 4-lobus, lobis latissimis truncatis; corolla in alabastro 2-2.5 cm. 
longa extus glabra acuminata, lobis tubo brevioribus. Colombia: 
In forest, Frasquillo on Rio Sinu, Dept. Bolivar, alt. 90-120 m. f 
March 5-6, 1918, Francis W. Pennell 4607 (Herb. N. Y. Bot. Card., 
type). 

Vernacular name, "jazmin." A striking plant because of the 
large leathery leaves and axillary inflorescences. 

Faramea flavicans (H. & B.), comb. nov. Coffea flamcans 
H. & B. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 210. 1819. Tetramerium jasminoides 
HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 373. pi. 287. 1820. F. jasminoides DC. 
Prodr. 4:497. 1830. 

Type of T. jasminoides from Ibague", Bonpland. 

Leaves oblong-elliptic, acuminate, acute at the base, 6.5 cm. 
long, subcoriaceous, glabrous; stipules deltoid-ovate, acute, muticous; 
cymes terminal, the branches 3-flowered; calyx 4-dentate; corolla 
glabrous, the lobes half as long as the tube; fruit smooth. 

Faramea insignis, sp. nov. Arbor glabra, ramulis gracilibus 
in siccitate compressis, internodiis 2-2.5 cm. longis; stipulae deciduae, 
2-2.5 cm. longae, basi breviter connatae, lineares, aristato-attenuatae, 
virides, erectae; petioli crassiusculi 4-6 mm. longi supra late sulcati; 
limbus oblongus, 8-18 cm. longus, 2-5.7 cm. latus, apice acutus vel 
obtusus et abrupte caudato-acuminatus, acumine 2-2.5 cm. longo 
lineari obtuso, basi obtusus vel acutiusculus, chartaceus, sublucidus, 
subconcolor, costa gracili utrinque elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 13, gracilibus, prominulis, angulo fere recto divergentibus, 
fere rectis, prope marginem in nervum distinctum collect! vum 
conjunctis, nervulis prominulis laxe reticulatis, extremis nervulum 
gracilem submarginalem efformantibus, margine piano paullo 
incrassato; inflprescentiae cymoso-corymbosae 2.5-4.5 cm. longe 
pedunculatae, interdum basi foliis 2 parvis angustis fulcratae, 
trichotomae, cymulis paucifloris, pedicellis gracilibus 5-9 mm. longis, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 73 

minutis; hypanthium ovale 1 mm. longum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus 
truncatus et remote atque obsolete denticulatus; corolla intense 
caerulea glabra, tubo 9-10 mm. longo gracili 1 mm. lato superne non 
dilatato, lobis 4 lineari-lanceolatis 8-9 mm. longis versus apicem 
acutiusculum sensim attenuatis, intus glabris; antherae inclusae. 
Colombia: Forest along the Rio Caballete, Santa Rosa, Dept. El 
Valle, alt. 200-300 m., September 22, 1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 11538 
(U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,715, type; duplicates in Gray Herb, 
and herb. N. Y. Bot. Card.). Forest along Rio Calima, Cordoba, 
Dept. El Valle, alt. 80-100 m., Killip 11792 (W, Y). 

In its leaves and flowers this plant is almost identical with F. 
cuspidata Benth., also Colombian, but that has strikingly different 
stipules, only 4 mm. long. 

Faramea Killipii, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor glabra 3.5-4.5 m. 
alta, ramulis crassiusculis quadrangulatis lutescentibus vel fuscis, 
internodiis elongatis; stipulae usque ad 2 cm. longae basi alte 
connatae attenuatae deciduae; petioli crassi, 7-13 mm. longi, supra 
late sulcati, superne anguste marginati; limbus oblongus vel elliptico- 
oblongus, 8-14 cm. longus, 3-5.5 cm. latus, apice abrupte breviterque 
acuminatus, acumine triangulari obtuso c. 7 mm. longo, basi obtusus 
vel acutus, subcoriaceus, fere concolor, lucidus, costa valida supra 
plana subtus elevata, nervis later*alibus utroque latere c. 12, supra 
inconspicuis, subtus prominulis, angulo lato divergentibus, fere 
rectis, remote a margine conjunctis, nervulis prominulis reticulatis, 
marginatus, margine saepe anguste revoluto; inflorescentiae cym- 
oso-corymbosae, terminales vel pseudolaterales, dense multiflorae, 
sessiles et a basi ramosae vel pedunculatae, pedicellis 6-8 mm. longis; 
fructus purpureo-caerulescens, transverse ovalis, 10-12 mm. latus x 
laevis; semen ovale, 7 mm. longum, nigro-griseum, subtus profunde 
exsculptum. Colombia: Edge of woods, eastern slope of Paramo 
del Hatico, between Toledo and Pamplona, Dept. Norte de 
Santander, alt. 2,400 m., March 12, 1927, E. P. Killip & Albert C. 
Smith 20569 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,355,598, type). Aguachica, 
Ocana, 240 m., Schlim 273 (K). Pericos, Ocana, Schlim 531 (K). 
Pamplona, 2,700-3,000 m., in forests, Schlim 1075 (K). Without 
locality Triana 1730 (K). Between Sibate and Fusagasuga, Cundi- 
namarca, 2,400-3,000 m., in dense forest, Lehmann 7428 (K). 

Probably conspecific is a collection from the southern slope of 
Mount San Martin, near Charta, Dept. Santander Killip & Smith 
19167 (W, Y). This is in bud and also in fruit. The calyx is obscurely 
denticulate. 

From F. calophylla this is distinguished by the thinner, less 
conspicuously nerved leaves, with very short, broad acuminations. 

Faramea Langlassei, sp. nov. Arbor glabra 15-20-metralis, 
ramulis crassiusculis, internodiis elongatis; stipulae non visae, 
petioli crassi 5-8 mm. longi; lamina oblonga vel anguste oblonga, 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

8-17 cm. longa, 2-6 cm. lata, apice abrupte caudato-acuminata, 
acumine 1.5 cm. longo obtuso, basi obtusa vel acuta, coriacea, fere 
concolor, costa gracili elevata, nervis utrinque prominentibus gracil- 
ibus, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 17, angulo fere recto diver- 
gentibus, leviter arcuatis, prope marginem in nervum distinction 
conjunctis, nervulis prominulis reticulatis, margine pallido incrassato; 
inflorescentia umbellato-corymbosa, sessilis, trichotoma, pauciflora, 
7 cm. longa, bracteis minutis deciduis, umbellulis trifloris, pedicellis 
gracilibus 5-7 mm. longis; hypanthium oboyoideum 1 mm. longum; 
calyx campanulatus 1 mm. longus minutissime denticulatus; corolla 
alba glabra 2 cm. longa, tubo 1 cm. longo superne solemniter dilatato 
et 5 mm. lato, lobis 4 anguste lanceolato-triangularibus versus 
apicem sensim attenuates; antherae inclusae. Colombia: El Roble, 
alt. 1,800 m., December 13, 1899, E. Langlasst 108 (U. S. Nat. Herb. 
No. 530,585, type). 

Faramea Lehmannii, sp. nov. Frutex glaber, ramulis in sicco 
compressis crassiusculis ad nodos paullo crassioribus, internodiis 
elongatis; stipulae deciduae 5-7 mm. longae, triangulares, acutae, 
breviter connatae; petioli crassi 6-10 mm. longi; lamina obovato- 
oblonga vel lanceolato-oblonga, 10-25 cm. longa, 3-8 cm. lata, apice 
obtusa vel acuta et abrupte caudato-acuminata, acumine 1.5 cm. 
longo obtuso, basin versus cuneatim attenuata, coriacea, concolor, 
sublucida, costa nervisque utrinque prominentibus, costa crassa, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere 11-15, angulo fere recto divergent- 
ibus, leviter arcuatis, prope marginem arcuato-conjunctis, nervulis 
prominulis et arete reticulatis, margine fere piano incrassato; inflores- 
centia umbellato-corymbosa, 3.5 cm. longe pedunculata, 4 cm. longa, 
basi umbellatim ramosa, pedunculis paucifloris, floribus brevissime 
pedicellatis, bracteis caducis; hypanthium cylindricum c. 2 mm. 
longum; calyx campanulatus truncatus 2-2.5 mm. longus; corolla 
in alabastro 8 mm. longa longiattenuata, lobis tubo longioribus. 
Colombia: Timbiqui, F. C. Lehmann 8630 (Herb. Field Mus. No. 
578,484, type; duplicate in Y). Tulud, Cauca, Holton 432 (K, P, Y). 

The Holton collection, which is in fruit, although having much 
smaller leaves than the type, is almost certainly conspecific. The 
fruit, still immature, is globose, 6 mm. in diameter, and obtusely 
tuberculate. 

In the form of the corolla F. Lehmannii suggests F. occidentalis, 
but in that the leaves are thinner and less conspicuously veined 
and the calyx is dentate. 

Faramea oblongifolia, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor c. 3.5 m. 
alta glabra, ramulis crassis in sicco subcompressis, internodiis 
elongatis; stipulae deciduae, 1-1.5 cm. longae, alte connatae, tenues, 
parte libera obtusa vel acuta et breviter apiculato-acuminata; 
petioli crassi 5-10 mm. longi supra late canaliculati; lamina anguste 
oblonga, 8-18 cm. longa, 2-5 cm. lata, apice breviter acuminata 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 75 

vel acuta obtusave acumine obtuso, basi obtusa vel acutiuscula, 
subcoriacea, in sicco fusca, subconcolor, sublucida, costa nervisque 
supra planis, costa interdum subimpressa, costa subtus elevata 
gracili, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 12-19, angulo fere recto 
divergentibus, fere rectis, prope marginem in neryum distinctum 
collectivum conjunctis, nervulis prominulis laxe conjunctis; inflores- 
centia cymoso-corymbpsa, sessilis, trichotoma, laxe multiflora, 
8-12 cm. longa, ramulis crassis, cymis umbelliformibus 3-5-floris, 
bracteis primariis interdum foliaceis, ceteris minutis late ovatis 
breviter acuminatis, pedicellis crassis 2-4 mm. longis; hypanthium 
obovoideum 1.5 mm. longum; calyx 1-1.2 mm. longus, late campanu- 
latus, obsolete denticulatus; corolla alba vel caerulescens glabra, 
tubo 13 mm. longo, superne non dilatato, 1.6 mm. lato, lobis oblongo- 
ovatis 6-7 mm. longis patentibus; antherae inclusae; fructus trans- 
verse ovalis, 8 mm. altus, 10-12 mm. latus. Colombia: In forest, 
La Cumbre, Dept. El Valle, alt. 1,800-2,100 m., May 14-19, 1922, 
Francis W. Pennell 5715 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,756, type; 
duplicates in G and Y), 5700 (W, G, Y). Quindio, Goudot 120 (K). 
Ocana, 1,200 m., Schlim 681 (K). 

The species is well marked by the narrow, obtuse or short- 
acuminate leaves, and the large many-flowered inflorescences. 

Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich. Me*m. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 
5: 176. 1834. Ixora occidentalis L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 893. 1759. 
Tetramerium odoratissmum DC. Prodr. 4: 496. 1830. 

Don Amo Road, Santa Marta, 180 m., H. H. Smith 2403 (F, W, 
G, Y, M, P). Without locality, Hartweg (P). Cartagena, Bro. 
Heriberto 532 (W). Along Mompos-Juana Sdnchez Trail, island of 
Mompos, Bolivar, in 1916, Curran (W). Without locality, Funcke 
& Schlim 632 (Y). Also in Central America, Mexico, and the West 
Indies. 

A slender glabrous shrub or small tree; stipules aristate; leaves 
short-petiolate, narrowly oblong or lance-oblong, short-acuminate, 
acute at the base, thin; inflorescences terminal and axillary, few- 
flowered, corymbose or umbellate, the flowers long-pedicellate, 
white, fragrant; corolla glabrous, 2 cm. long, the linear-lanceolate 
lobes equaling or longer than the tube; fruit 1.5 cm. broad. 

"Jazmin" (Curran). 

Faramea parvula, sp. nov. Frutex gracilis 1-metralis, ramulis 
gracillimis angulatis viridibus glabris c. 1 mm. diam., internodiis 
5-10 mm. longis; stipulae deciduae 2 mm. longae acutae breviter 
connatae, in aristam erectam 1.5-2 mm. longam desinentes; folia 
brevissime petiolata opposita, petiolo 1-1.5 mm. longo glabro; 
lamina rigide membranacea, anguste lanceolata vel lineari-lanceolata, 
2-2.5 cm. longa, 4-5 mm. lata, versus apicem obtusum longe sen- 
simque attenuata, basi obtusa, utrinque glabra, supra luteo-viridis, 
costa elevata, nervis obsoletis subtus paullo pallidior, costa crassi- 
uscula elevata, nervis lateralibus obscuris numerosis angulo lato 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

divergentibus; flores terminates solitarii foliis 2 c. 12 mm. longis 
fulcrati sessiles; calyx late campanulatus, 1 mm. longus, obscure 
denticulatus et in dentes 2 subulatos 1-1.5 mm. longos erectos 
virides desinens, glaber; corolla alba extus glabra, tubo gracili 
5-7 mm. longo tereti, lobis anguste oblongis acutis, patentibus tubum 
aequantibus; antherae inclusae. Colombia: Cucurutha, Prov. Anti- 
oquia, alt. 2,100 m., December 25, 1879, Kalbreyer (Herb. Kew., 
type). 

This is very unlike any of the other Farameas of western South 
America, being especially well marked by the very small narrow 
leaves, slender habit, and solitary flowers. The form of the calyx, 
also, is unusual, but the characters of the plant as a whole seem to 
agree well enough with those of other species of the genus Faramea. 

Faramea Purdieana Benth. Linnaea 23: 453. 1850. 

Type from Colombia. 

Stipules short-aristate; leaves petiolate, oblong, acuminate, acute 
at the base, coriaceous, marginate; peduncles several, short, 
3-5-flowered; calyx truncate; corolla lobes slightly shorter than the 
tube. 

Faramea salicifolia Presl, Symb. Bot. 24. pi. 70. 1833. 

Muzo, Goudot (K). Widely distributed in South America, 
especially in Brazil. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules connate into a sheath, subulate- 
aristate; leaves very shortly petiolate, lance-ovate to linear-lanceo- 
late, 5-8.5 cm. long, 0.5-3 cm. wide, cuspidate-acuminate, firmly 
membranaceous; cymes terminal, fastigiate-corymbose, the branch- 
lets 1-3-flowered, the flowers slender-pedicellate; calyx teeth trian- 
gular; corolla 10-14 mm. long, glabrous, the 4 lobes fully half as 
long as the tube; fruits about 8 mm. wide. 

The determination of the single Colombian collection is some- 
what doubtful. 

62. GEOPHILA Don 

Geophila herbacea (Jacq.) Schum. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 4 4 : 
119. 1891. Psychotria herbacea Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 16. 1760. 
Psychotria herbacea Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 191. 1819. Cepha- 
elis violaefolia DC. Prodr. 4: 537. 1830. 

Isla Brava, Magdalena River, Andre K.539 (F). Santa Marta, 
H. H. Smith 1332 (F, G, W). Puerto Wilches, Santander, 100 m., 
Killip & Smith 14764 (Y). Palmira, El Valle, 1,100 m., Pennell 
& Killip 6160 (Y). Widely distributed as a weed in the lowlands 
of tropical America. 

A creeping herb with rounded or ovate, cordate, petioled leaves; 
flowers white, in terminal pedunculate heads, the pedicels bracteo- 
late near the base; ovary glabrous; fruits red or black, 5 mm. long. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 77 

Geophila tenuis (Muell. Arg.), comb. nov. Mapouria tennis 
Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 5 : 425. 1881. 

Type collected along the Rio Negro above the mouth of the Rio 
Casiquiari, Spruce 3524- 

Leaves ovate, acute, cordate at the base, pilose above; heads 
2-3-flowered, the pedicels bracteolate at the apex; ovary pilose. 

63. CEPHAELIS Sw. 

Cephaelis axillaris Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 45. 1788. Tapo- 
gomea axillaris Poir. Encycl. 7: 585. 1806. Evea axillaris Standl. 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 123. 1916. 

Loso, 2,200-2,400 m., Kittip & Smith 20410 (W, Y). Pica-Pica 
Valley above Tapata, 2,400 m., Kittip & Smith 20214 (W, Y). 
Above Surata, 2,000-2,300 m., Kittip & Smith 16590 (W, Y). Las 
Vegas, 2,600-3,000 m., Kittip & Smith 16040 (W, Y). Charta, 
2,000-2,600 m., Kittip & Smith 19318 (W, Y), 18850 (W, Y). Western 
slope of Peiia Blanca, near Charta, 2,500-2,600 m., Killip & Smith 
19288 (W). Santa Marta, 1,350 m., H. H. Smith 389 (F, W, G, M, 
P, Y). La Gallera, Micay Valley, 1,400-1,500 m., Killip 7782 (W, 
G, Y). Fusagasuga, 1,800-2,300 m., Pennell 2700 A (W, Y). Santa 
Marta, Purdie (G, N). Cordoba, Cauca, 30-100 m., Pittier 554 (W, 
G). Salgar, Toro 1267 (Y), 1270 (Y). Near Bogota, Tracey 14 
(K). Also in Central America and the West Indies. 

A glabrous shrub, usually about 1 m. high; stipules bilobate, 
the lobes obtuse or acute; leaves short-petiolate, obovate-oblong, 
abruptly acuminate, attenuate to the base; flower heads small, 
axillary, sessile; corolla white; fruit blue. 

Cephaelis campy loneuroides Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 4: 294. 
1929. Evea campyloneuroides Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 123. 
1916. 

Cordoba, Dagua Valley, Cauca, 30-100 m., Pittier 581 (W, 
type); Kittip 11785 (W, G, Y). In forest. 

A shrub 2 m. high; stipules bilobate, the lobes lanceolate, long- 
attenuate; leaves petiolate, elliptic to oblanceolate-oblong, 14-18 
cm. long, abruptly acuminate, appressed-pilose beneath; flower 
heads terminal, long-pedunculate, trichotomous or the heads several 
and umbellate, 1-1.5 cm. long, the bracts green, oval-obovate, 
obtuse, sericeous; corolla white. 

Cephaelis crassifolia, sp. nov. Arbor omnino glabra, ramulis 
crassis teretibus laevibus in sicco fuscis, internodiis brevibus vel 
elongatis; stipulae persistentes, connatae, 6 mm. longae, crassae, 
breviter bilobae, lobis late triangularibus acutis sinu rotundato 
separatis; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 1-2 cm. longo; lamina ovali- 
obovata vel obovato-elliptica, 11.5-16.5 cm. longa, 6.5-9.5 cm. lata, 
apice rotundata et breviter acuminato-producta, basi late cuneata 
vel abrupte contracta et breviter decurrens, coriacea, conspicue 



78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

marginata, sublucida, supra yiridis, rhaphidibus crebris elongatis 
conspersa, nervis non elevatis, subtus pallida, costa crassissima 
elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 14, prominentibus, 
gracilibus, arcuatis, angulo lato adscendentibus, prope marginem 
conjunctis, nervulis obscuris; inflorescentia terminalis 4-4.5 cm. 
longe pedunculate, pedunculo crasso apice bracteis 2 late ovatis 
obtusis coriaceis instructo, capitulis 1-2 dense paucifloris 2 cm. longe 
pedunculatis; bracteae rotundato-ovatae, 5-6 mm. longae, induratae, 
adpressae; flores sessiles; fructus subglobosus 10-12 mm. longus 
calyce persistente coronatus. Colombia: In forest, Cordoba, Dept. 
El Valle, alt. 80-100 m., May 6-8, 1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 5133 
(U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,556, type; duplicates in G and Y). 

This species is a well-defined one because of its handsome, broad, 
very thick leaves. Although the calyx is persistent upon the fruit, 
in every specimen it is so weathered that its exact form can not be 
determined accurately. 

Cephaelis elata Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 45. 1788. C. punicea 
Vahl, Eclog. Amer. 1: 19. 1796. Tapogomea elata Poir. Encycl. 7: 
585. 1806. T. punicea Poir., 1. c. Uragoga punicea Schum. in E. & 
P. Nat. Pfl. 4 4 : 120. 1891. Evea elata Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 18: 123. 1916. 

Los Dantos to Puerto Canoa, 600-900 m., in forest, Pennell 
4516 (Y). Without locality, Triana 1632 (K). Ranging northward 
to Mexico, and in the West Indies. 

A large glabrous shrub; leaves oblong-oblanceolate to elliptic- 
oblong, 10-25 cm. long, acuminate; heads terminal, long-pedunculate, 
the large bracts deep red; corollas white. 

Gephaelis Ipecacuanha (Brot.) A. Rich. Bull. Fac. Med. 4: 
92. 1818. Calicocca Ipecacuanha Brot. Trans. Linn. Soc. 6: 137. pi. 
11. 1802. Ipecacuanha officinalis Arruda, Diss. PI. Brazil 44. 1810. 
Uragoga Ipecacuanha Baill. Hist. PI. 7: 281. 1880. (l)Uragoga 
granatensis Baill. Hist. PI. 7: 370. 1880, nomen. Psychotria Ipeca- 
cuanha Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 123. 1916. Ouragoga 
Ipecacuanha Farwell, Drugg. Circ. 61: 175. 1917. 

Boca Verde, on Rio Sinu, Bolivar, 100-400 m., Pennell 4570 
(W, G, Y); February 14, 1918, Pennell (Y). "Forest of DarieV' 
Dawe 867 (Y). Also in Central America and Brazil. 

Plants suffrutescent, usually simple and about 30 cm. high; 
stipules 4-5-parted into linear-setaceous segments; leaves short- 
petiolate, elliptic to obovate, 6-16 cm. long, short-acuminate, pale 
beneath, glabrous or nearly so; flower heads terminal, pedunculate, 
the 4 green bracts rhombic-obovate, about 6 mm. long; corolla 
hirtellous, white, 5-6 mm. long; fruit blue, 7 mm. long, the nutlets 
somewhat twisted, 3-costate. 

"Raicilla" (Colombia, Panama). "Poaja" (Brazil). From the 
slender knotted roots of this plant at least a part of the ipecac of 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 79 

commerce is obtained. The plant grows usually in dense wet 
lowland forests. 

Cephaelis Jervisei, sp. noy. Frutex dense ramosus, ramulis 
crassiusculis subteretibus laevibus glabris, internodiis brevibus; 
stipulae persistentes, erectae, 6-7 mm. longae, glabrae, basi breviter 
connatae, apice breviter bifidae, lobis ovatis acutis; folia opposita 
breviter petiolata, petiolo gracili 5-13 mm. longo; lamina subcoriacea, 
elliptico-oblonga vel obovato-oblonga, 8.5-11.5 cm. longa, 2-4.5 cm. 
lata, abrupte breviterque acuminata, acumine angusto obtuso, basi 
acuta, conspicue pallidp-marginata, supra viridis, lucida, costa 
prominente, nervis subimpressis, glabra, subtus pallidior, secus 
costam applanatam minute ciliata, aliter glabra, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 19, ceteris tenuioribus parallelis interpositis, angulo 
lato adscendentibus, gracillimis, prominulis, arcuatis, in marginem 
desinentibus, nervulis obsoletis; inflorescentiae pseudo-axillares 4 
cm. longe pedunculatae, e capitulis 3 longipedunculatis compositae, 
basi bracteis 2 patentibus triangulari-ovatis 5-6 mm. longis acutis 
ciliatis glabris fulcratae; capitula 1-1.8 cm. longe pedunculata, 
pedunculis crassis angulatis glabris erectis, capitulis 1 cm. latis 
dense multifloris, floribus sessilibus; bracteae exteriores orbiculari- 
ovatae 6-7 mm. longae subacutae glabrae, interioribus aequilongis 
angustioribus; calyx campanulatus 2.5 mm. longus subtruncatus 
ciliolatus; corolla in alabastro 6 mm. longa extus glabra. Colombia: 
Antioquia, Jervise (Herb. Kew., type). 

Cephaelis longiflora, sp. nov. Ramuli graciles subteretes, 
novellis dense sordido-puberulis, internodiis elongatis; stipulae 
persistentes 3-4 mm. longae, basi breviter connatae, profunde 
bifidae, lobis apice late rotundatis, dense puberulae; folia graciliter 
petiolata opposita, petiolo 7-25 mm. longo dense puberulo; lamina 
rigide membranacea, elliptico-oblonga vel anguste elliptica, 6-14 cm. 
longa, 2-4.5 cm. lata, abrupte et longissime acuminata, acumine 
angusto longe attenuate, basin versus sensim angustata vel interdum 
abrupte contracta et decurrens, supra fusca, glabra, nervis promi- 
nulis, subtus multo pallidior, brunnescens, ubique villosulo-puberula, 
costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 15, ceteris 
multo gracilioribus parallelis interpositis, gracillimis, angulo lato 
adscendentibus, prominulis, arcuatis, prope marginem conjunctis, 
nervulis obsoletis; floribus in capitula paucifloris congestis, capitulis 
parvis 5-10 mm. longis, graciliter 1-3.5 cm. longe pedunculatis, in 
cymas laxas trichotomas longe pedunculatas 4-12 cm. longas dis- 
positis, ramis sparse vel dense puberulis; bracteae paucae, exterioribus 
basi breviter connatis, orbicularibus vel late ovatis, apice rotundatis 
vel obtusis, minute puberulis, floribus paucis sessilibus; hypanthium 
cylindricum 1 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 1.2 mm. longus, lobis 
orbicularibus apice rotundatis; corolla 4 mm. longa extus glabra, 
tubo gracillimo vix 1 mm. crasso fauce paullo dilatato et ore 2 mm. 
lato, intus glabro, lobis 5 oblongis 4-5 mm. longis obtusis intus 
glabris; antherae inclusae 3.5-4 mm. longae. Colombia: Without 



80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

definite locality, F. C. Lehmann B.T.990 (Herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard., 
type; duplicate in herb. Kew.). Without locality, Lehmann K.I 36 
(K). Western Andes of Popayan, alt. 1,400-1,800 m., Lehmann 
5908 (K). 

The species is quite unlike any other known from northwestern 
South America, and is easy to recognize because of the numerous 
long-stalked, small heads arranged in cymes, and the very long and 
slender corollas projecting far beyond the bracts. 

Cephaelis ostreophora Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 284. 1917. 

Type from Colombia, Triana. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules small, 2-aristate; leaves nearly sessile, 
lanceolate, 7-11 cm. long, acuminate, rounded at the base; flower 
heads axillary, pedunculate, 7-10-flowered, the bracts ovate-cordate, 
acuminate, bluish, 17 mm. long; corolla glabrous, the tube 16 mm. 
long. 

Cephaelis pseudaxillaris Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 284. 1917. 

Type from Choio, Barbacoas, at 960 m., Triana 1689. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules ovate-oblong, 1 cm. long; leaves 
elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, 8-16 cm. long, 3.5-5.5 cm. wide, acute 
at the base; flower heads axillary, sessile, 1 cm. long; corolla 5-6 mm. 
long, barbate in the throat; fruit subpyriform, sulcate, 5 mm. long. 

Perhaps synonymous with C. axillaris. 

Cephaelis pubescens Hoffmannsegg ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 
213. 1819. 

Guadual, Antioquia, forest borders, 450-600 m., Kalbreyer 1385 
(K). Near Lake Sapatoza, Magdalena Valley, in forest, Allen 216 
(K). Rio Meta, 200-600 m., Lehmann 8749 (K). Also in Brazil and 
the Guianas. 

A shrub; leaves large, thin, lance-elliptic, acuminate, acute or 
cuneate at the base, puberulent, especially above; heads large, long- 
pedunculate, terminal, the 2 outer bracts cordate, 2 cm. long, dark 
purple; corolla 5 mm. long; fruit blue, 3 mm. long. 

Cephaelis sororiella (Muell. Arg.), comb. nov. Psychotria 
sororiella Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 375. 1881. 

Type collected near San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 3682, 
3076. 

Leaves firmly membranaceous, broadly lanceolate, 7-14 cm. long, 
sparsely pubescent on the nerves; heads terminal, short-pedunculate, 
the involucre 4-parted, 13-15 mm. long, the lobes lance-ovate. 

Cephaelis setifera, sp. nov. Frutex omnino glaber, ramulis 
gracilibus teretibus laevibus in sicco lutescentibus vel fuscis, inter- 
nodiis brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae in vaginam 1-2 mm. longam 
apice 4-setiferam connatae, setis 3-5 mm. longis erectis rigidis 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 81 

persistentibus; folia opposite, petiolo 2-4 mm. longo; lamina oblongo- 
ovata vel lanceolato-oblonga, 5-11 cm. longa, 1.5-4.5 cm. lata, 
longissime et anguste acuminata, basi obtusa vel acuta, crasse 
papyracea, interdum sublucida, costa nervisque utrinque prominen- 
tibus, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 8, angulo lato vel acuto 
adscendentibus, gracilibus, arcuatis, prope marginem conjunctis, 
nervulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentiae terminates, 1.5-2.5 cm. longe 
pedunculatae, capituliformes, pauciflorae, 1-2 cm. altae, pedunculo 
gracili angulato glabro; bracteae primariae 4, late ovatae, c. 8 mm. 
longae et 6 mm. latae, acutae vel acuminatae, capitulum arete 
involucrantes, interioribus aequilongis sed angustioribus; flores 
sessiles; hypanthium 1 mm. longum; calyx cupularis, 0.6-1 mm. 
longus, truncatus, remote denticulatus, dentibus subulatis; corolla 
infundibuliformis, 8 mm. longa, tubo superne dilatato, fauce 2.5 
mm. lato, lobis oblongo-triangularibus 2.5 mm. longis subacutis; 
fructus subglobosus 4.5-5 mm. longus laevis. Colombia: Forests 
in the highlands of Popayan, alt. 1,600-1,900 m., December, 1886, 
F. C. Lehmann B.T. 970 (Herb. Field Mus. No. 559,850, type; dupli- 
cates in G and K). Highlands of Popayan, 1,600-2,000 m., Lehmann 
8392 (F, S, W, Y). Angelopolis, Toro 295 (Y). 

In general appearance this plant is much like Psychotria lupulina 
Benth., which should, probably, be transferred to Cephaelis. Psycho- 
tria lupulina differs from Cephaelis setifera in its larger, laxer, many- 
flowered heads, with more numerous bracts, broader and larger 
leaves, and puberulent peduncles. 

Cephaelis timbiquensis, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi subteretes 
laeves glabri, internodiis elongatis; stipulae crassae, erectae, 2 cm. 
longae, multineryiae, basi breviter connatae, ad medium bifidae, 
laciniis semiovatis acutis, dense puberulae; folia petiolata, petiolo 
gracili c. 1.5 cm. longo minute puberulo; lamina oblongo-ovalis, 
crasse membranacea, abrupte breviterque acuminata, acumine 
triangulari obtuso, basi acuta vel obtusa, supra viridis, glabra, 
nervis in statu sicco prominentibus, subtus paullo pallidior, praeser- 
tim ad nervos minute strigillosa vel glabrata, costa gracili eleyata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 28, gracillimis, prominentibus, 
angulo fere recto diyergentibus, subarcuatis, prope marginem arcuato- 
conjunctis, nervulis prominentibus arete reticulatis; inflorescentia 
terminalis 4.5 cm. longe pedunculata, densa, e capitulis 5 racemosis 
composita, basi bracteis 2 distinctis late ovatis 2.5 cm. longis acutis 
coloratis minutissime puberulis vel glabratis fulcrata; capitula 3-4 
mm. longe pedunculata, ovoidea, 3-3.5 cm. longa, densissime multi- 
flora, bracteis omnibus fere aequilongis, exterioribus late ovatis 
acutis vel acuminatis coloratis multinerviis, sparse puberulis vel 
fere glabris, interioribus angustioribus; flores sessiles, hypanthio 1.5 
mm. longo minute puberulo; calyx 5-partitus glaber, laciniis inaequa- 
libus 3-4 mm. longis oblongo-oyatis acuminatis erectis rigidis 
viridibus. Colombia: Rio Timbiqui, alt. 200 m. or less, F. C. 
Lehmann 8991 (Herb. Kew., type). 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Cephaelis tomentosa (Aubl.) Vahl, Eclog. Amer. 1: 19. 1796. 
Tapogomea tomentosa Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 160. pi. 61. 1775. Uragoga 
tomentosa Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1: 301. 1891. Evea tomentosa Standl. 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 123. 1916. 

Villavicencio, 500 m., Pennell 1395 (W, G, N). Icononzo, 1,400- 
1,800 m., Pennell 2873 (W, Y). Frasquillo, 100-200 m., Pennell 
4599 (W, Y). Malena, 150 m., Pennell 3784 (W, G, Y). Forests of 
Coteje on Rio Timbiqui, Lehmann B.T.643 (W, G, Y). Between 
Puerto Wilches and Puerto Santos, 110 m., Kittip & Smith 14840 (W, 
Y). Cordoba, 100 m., Kittip 5136 (W, Y), 5262 (W). Magdalena, 
Peale (P). "Bogota," Turner (P). Without locality, Hartweg 1056 
(P). Antizales, Bolivar, 1,200-1,600 m., Pennell 4471 (Y). Carare, 
Andre 281 (F, K, Y). Fusagasuga(?), Andre K.529 (K, Y). Mesa 
de los Santos, Santander, 1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15155 (W, Y), 
15258 (W, Y). Naranjo, Andrb 367 (K). Ranging to Mexico and 
southward to Bolivia. 

A slender shrub, sometimes 4.5 m. high, copiously hirsute; leaves 
lanceolate to ovate-elliptic, long-acuminate; flower heads terminal, 
pedunculate, dense, many-flowered, the bracts large, red, much 
exceeding the flowers; corollas yellow; fruit blue. 

The plant is a very showy and handsome one when in flower. 

Cephaelis Trianae, sp. nov. Ramuli graciles obtuse tetragoni 
laeyes glabri, internodiis 1.5-5.5 cm. longis; stipulae 1 cm. longae, 
basi breviter connatae, oblongo-ovatae, obtusae, glabrae, persis- 
tentes; folia opposita breviter petiolata, petiolo gracili 4-13 mm. 
longo glabro; lamina crasse chartacea, oboyato-oblonga, 8-15 cm. 
longa, 3-6 cm. lata, abrupte cuspidato-acuminata, acumine angusto 
c. 1 cm. longo attenuate, basin versus longe cuneato-attenuata, supra 
viridis, lucida, glabra, neryis non elevatis, subtus pallidior, satis 
dense et minutissime strigillosa (sub lente), costa gracili eleyata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 13, gracillimis, prominentibus, 
angulo lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, 
nervulis pbsoletis; inflorescentiae terminales, 1 cm. longe peduncu- 
latae, spicato-capitatae, ovoideae, 4-4.5 cm. longae, 2.5 cm. latae, 
densissime multiflorae, bracteis infimis 2 cm. longis, omnibus late 
ovatis vel rotundato-ovatis arete imbricatis numerosis adpressis 
apice rotundatis minute puberulis vel glabratis. Colombia: With- 
out definite locality, Triana 1677 (Herb. Kew., type). 

Cephaelis violacea (Aubl.) Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 977. 1797. Tapo- 
gomea violacea Aubl. PI. Guian. 1 : 157. pi. 60. 1775. 

Cordoba, 100 m., Kittip 5141 (W, G, Y), 5265 (W, G, Y), 5138 
(W). Buenaventura, at sea level, Kittip 11749 (W). Choco and 
Barbacoas, Triana 3140 (K). Also in the Guianas. 

A glabrous shrub or small tree; stipules broad, obtuse; leaves 
short-petiolate, oval to elliptic-oblong, acuminate; heads large, 
terminal, sessile, the bracts about 5, green or violet; corolla yellowish 
white; fruit blue. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 83 

64. DECLIEUXIA HBK. 

Declieuxia fruticosa (Willd.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 279. 
1891. Houstonia fruticosa Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 3: 527. 
1818. D. chiococcoides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 354. pi. 281. 1819. 

Quilichao, Cauca, 1,200 m., Lehmann 3455 (W). Mesa de los 
Santos, Santander, 1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15232 (W, Y). Rio 
Sucio to Rio Piedras, west of Popayan, 1,500-1,800 m., Pennell & 
Killip 8177 (W). Aganche, Cauca, Pennell & Killip 6258 (W, G, 
Y). Teta, Lehmann B.T410 (F, Y). Cali, Cauca, 1,000-1,200 m., 
Lehmann B.T.I 087 (D). Also in Panama, and ranging to Brazil. 

A low erect plant, herbaceous or suffrutescent, glabrous; leaves 
opposite or ternate, oblong-elliptic; flowers small, white, in umbellate 
cymes; fruit didymous, 2-celled, the cells 1-seeded. 

65. PSYCHOTRIA L. 

Psychotria is the largest genus of the family Rubiaceae, and 
almost pan-tropic in its distribution. In Colombia it is represented 
by about 75 species, a number which will increase with later explo- 
ration, since many species of the genus are known to be local in 
distribution. 

The genus is a difficult one. The species often seem to be 
separated only by slight characters, yet as material accumulates, 
it usually strengthens the species and emphasizes the importance of 
the distinguishing characters, despite the apparent triviality of the 
latter. 

This genus exhibits a far greater amount of variation than its 
close relative, Palicourea. While the inflorescence of Palicourea is 
constant as to form, that of Psychotria follows no special pattern, 
but is susceptible of almost endless variety. The stipules, likewise, 
which are so uniform in general appearance in Palicourea, are greatly 
diversified in Psychotria. 

Mueller, in his treatment of Psychotria and allied genera in 
Martius' Flora Brasiliensis, employed a generic arrangement which 
has been adopted by few subsequent authors. He united with 
Psychotria the genera Palicourea, Geophila, and Cephaelis, but kept 
as distinct Mapouria, here merged in Psychotria. 

It must be admitted by all who know these groups that the 
genera are difficult of separation. There are no sharp lines of demar- 
cation between Psychotria and Cephaelis, or between Psychotria and 
Palicourea. Often it is a matter of personal judgment, rather 
intuition than a result of conviction based upon examination of 
structural details, which determines the allocation of a given plant 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

in one or the other group. But the groups are all so large, and for 
the most part so easy of recognition, at least after considerable 
experience, that it seems advisable to recognize them. 

Mapouria possesses good claims for recognition, but it and 
Psychotria can be distinguished definitely only with mature fruit. 
Since in many species the fruit is unknown, it is not practical at the 
present time to accord generic rank to Mapouria. 

Psychotria alba R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 58. pi. 205, f. a. 1799. 
P. densiflora H. & B. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 189. 1819. P. patula 
Willd. ex R. & S., 1. c. P. hundensis H. & B. ex R. & S., 1. c. P. 
ardisiaefolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 359. 1820. Mapouria alba 
Muell. Arg. Flora 59: 458. 1876. Uragoga alba Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
1: 299. 1891. 

Santa Marta, 1,050 m., H. H. Smith 1825 (F, W, G, P). La 
Paila, Cauca, Holton 427 (P, Y). Upper Rio Lebrija Valley, San- 
tander, 400-700 m., Killip & Smith 16289 (W, Y). Armenia, Toro 
636 (Y). Near Fredonia, Antioquia, 1,000 m., Lehmann 3225 (W, 
K). La Capilla, highlands of Popayan, Lehmann B.T.391 (Y). La 
Manuelita, Cauca, 1,100-1,300 m., Pittier 801 (W, Y). Rio Sucio 
to Rio Piedras, Cauca, 1,800-2,000 m., Pennell & Killip 8192 (W). 
Mesa de los Santos, Santander, 1,000-1,500 m., Killip & Smith 
14989 (W), 14990 (Y). Ibagu<, Goudot (K). Ocana, in forests, 
1,200 m., Schlim 539 (K). Pericos, Ocana, 1,500 m., Schlim 532 
(K). Types of P. patula and P. densiflora collected by Humboldt 
and Bonpland in "America meridional!," perhaps in Colombia. 
Type of P. hundensis from Honda, Bonpland. Type of P. ardisiae- 
folia from Turbaco, Bonpland. The species ranges south to Bolivia. 

A shrub or small tree, nearly glabrous; stipules large, usually 
obtuse, brown, caducous; leaves petiolate, elliptic-oblong, usually 
broadest at the middle, acute or acuminate, acute at the base, 
glabrous or puberulent beneath along the nerves; inflorescence 
terminal, pedunculate, glabrous or minutely puberulent, many- 
flowered, open, radiately branched at base, the bracts inconspicuous, 
deciduous; flowers short-pedicellate, the pedicels often elongate in 
fruit; corolla white, 4 mm. long, minutely puberulent or glabrous; 
fruit subglobose, 4.5 mm. long. 

Psychotria alibertoides Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 68. 1914. 

Type from San Jose", Rio Putumayo, Caqueta District, Sprague 
602. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules oblong, rounded at the apex, 1 cm. 
long, caducous; leaves short-petiolate, obovate, 14-15 cm. long, 
6.5-7 cm. wide, short-acuminate, acute at the base; inflorescence 
dichotomous or trichotomous, terminal, pedunculate, 7-10-flowered; 
calyx limb 2.5 mm. long and 6 mm. wide, obscurely dentate; corolla 
white, glabrous, the tube 13 mm. long, the lobes oblong, obtuse, 
4.5 mm. long. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 85 

Psychotria amita, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor parva ut videtur 
dense ramosa, 1-3.5 m. alta, ramulis gracilibus teretibus puberulis 
vel glabris, novellis viridibus, vetustioribus ochraceis vel subferru- 
gineis, internodiis brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae in vaginam 1-3 mm. 
longam persistentem truncatam puberulam vel glabram connatae, 
vagina in lobos 4 dentiformes remotos 0.5-1 mm. longos desinente; 
folia opposita, petiolo gracili 2-6 mm. longo puberulo vel glabro; 
lamina elliptico-oblonga vel lanceolata-oblonga, 3.5-7.5 cm. longa, 
1-3 cm. lata, longe angusteque acuminata, acumine acuto, basi 
acuta, papyracea, marginata, supra viridis, glabra, nervis prominen- 
tibus, subtus paullo pallidior, ad nervos sparse minuteque pilosa vel 
puberula vel interdum glabra, cpsta gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 10, gracillimis, prominulis, angulo lato adscen- 
dentibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis inconspicuis; 
inflorescentia terminalis, plerumque 1-3 cm. longe pedunculata, 
rarius sessilis, anguste paniculata, 2-6 cm. longa, 1.5-4.5 cm. lata, 
laxe pauci- vel multiflora, ramulis primariis oppositis brevibus 
divaricatis vel inferioribus adscendentibus, dense puberulis; flores 
plerumque in cymulas trifloras aggregatas dispositi, sessiles; bracteae 
subulatae, puberulae, 1-2 mm. longae; calyx vix 0.5 mm. longus 
glaber acute denticulatus vel subtruncatus; corolla alba vel viridi- 
alba, 3-4 mm. longa, infundibuliformis, minute puberula, tubo crasso 
superne vix dilato, lobis tubo duplo brevioribus, oblongis, apice 
acute cucullatis; fructus subglobosus glaber 4-5 mm. longus auranti- 
acus vel maturus niger, sulcatus, costis obtusis. Colombia: In 
woods, vicinity of California, Dept. Santander, Eastern Cordillera, 
alt. 2,000 m., January 11-27, 1927, Ellsworth P. Killip and Albert C. 
Smith 17080 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,325,729, type; duplicate in Y); 
in open woods, Killip & Smith 16892 (W). Santa Marta, Purdie 
(G). Wooded banks of Rio de la Baja, below La Baja, Santander, 
2,200 m., Killip & Smith 18291 (W, Y). La Baja, Santander, in 
forest, 3,000 m., Killip & Smith 18124 (W, Y), 18342 (W, Y). 
Pica-Pica Valley, above Tapata, Norte de Santander, 2,100-2,400 m., 
in dense woods, Killip & Smith 20228 (W, Y), 20240 (W). Western 
slope of Mount Pena Blanca, near Charta, Santander, 2,500 m., in 
dense woods, Killip & Smith 19282 (W, Y). Without locality, 
Linden 1316 (K). Mountains of Characaybo, September, 1844, 
Purdie (K). 

Psychotria anceps HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 360. 1820. P. 
lutida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 361. pi. 283. 1820. Mapouria 
biacuminata Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PL 136. 1920. 

Type collected near the falls of Tequendama, Bonpland. Type 
of P. lucida from the banks of the Rio Magdalena, Bonpland. Minca 
and Escalera de los Indies, 150-750 m., H. H. Smith 1826 (F, W, S, 
P, type collection of M. biacuminata). Melgar, Cundinamarca, on 
open slope, 1,300-1,700 m., Pennell 2845 (W, Y). West of San Lorenzo, 
Tolima, 400-600 m., Pennell 3523 (W, G, Y). Antioquia, Jervise (K). 
Near Jiron, Weir 86 (K). Rio Ullucos, Cauca, 1,000-1,700 m., 
Lehmann 4455 (K). 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A glabrous shrub or small tree; stipules large, ovate, acutish, 
brown, caducous; leaves petiolate, oblong, oblanceolate-oblong, or 
rarely elliptic-oblong, short-acuminate, attenuate at the base, 
coriaceous, lustrous above; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, 
paniculate, trichotomous, many-flowered, broad, the branches min- 
utely puberulent or glabrate, the bracts minute; flowers sessile; 
calyx teeth triangular, acute or obtuse; corolla yellowish or greenish 
white, 4 mm. long, glabrous outside, the lobes short, rounded; fruit 
red, globose, coarsely costate, 3 mm. long. 

Psychotria articulicymosa Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 253. 1917. 

Type from Bogota, Anapoirna, at 600 m., Triana 1692. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules ovate, subcoriaceous, 7 mm. long, 
obtuse, finally more or less pectinate; leaves short-petiolate, papy- 
raceous, rhombic or elliptic, 9-14 cm. long, 3.5-6 cm. wide, acuminate, 
cuneate at the base; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, paniculate, 
the flowers sessile in cymules, the bracts small; calyx broadly lobate; 
corolla tube 2.5 mm. long, the lobes 3 mm. long. 

Psychotria Aschersoniana Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. 
Engler40:330. 1908. 

Type from humid forest near Cerro Munchique, at 2,200-2,300 m., 
Lehmann 3722. Rio Cabrera, Tolima, 2,000 m., Lehmann 2337 (W). 
San Jose", Cauca, 2,300-2,500 m., Pennell 7616 (W, G, Y). La 
Cumbre, El Valle, 1,700-2,200 m., Pennell & Killip 5790 (W, G, Y), 
Killip 11419 (W, G, Y). Bogota, Turner 57" (K). Antioquia, 1,650 
m., Kalbreyer 1647 (K). Ocaiia, 1,800 m., Schlim 679 (K). 

A shrub or small tree, the branches densely pubescent; stipules 
persistent, biparted, the lobes subulate, 10-15 mm. long; leaves 
petiolate, oblong-lanceolate, large, long-acuminate, acute at the 
base, densely pubescent; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, at first 
dense but in fruit large and open, paniculate, the flowers short- 
pedicellate; calyx obsoletely denticulate; corolla yellow or white, 
glabrous outside; fruit black, glabrous, 4 mm. long. 

Psychotria aschersonianoides Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 251. 
1917. 

Type from Colombia, Triana 195. Cerro Tatama, in mossy 
forest, 2,800-3,300 m., Pennell 10466 (W). Paramo del Hatico, 
Norte de Santander, 2,900 m., Killip & Smith 20696 (W), 20647 (W). 
Below Paramo de Chaquiro, Bolivar, 2,800-3,100 m., Pennell 4363 
(Y). Las Vegas, Santander, 2,600-3,000 m., in woods, Killip & 
Smith 15890 (W). Without locality, Ariste-Joseph B46 (W). Paramo 
Rico, Santander, 3,200 m., Killip & Smith 17855 (W). Mount 
Santa Ana, Cauca, 2,700-3,000 m., Pennell 7436 (W, G, Y). Pam- 
plona to Toledo, Norte de Santander, 2,800-3,000 m., Killip & Smith 
19846 (W, Y). Guadalupe, 3,000 m., Apollinaire & Arthur 114 (W). 
Bogota, Goudot (K). Ocaiia to Pamplona, 2,850 m., Kalbreyer 
1198 (K). 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 87 

A shrub 1 m., high or less, often weak and procumbent, the 
branches short- villous; stipules short, persistent, bilobate; leaves 
petiolate, ovate or elliptic, 5-14 cm. long, acute or obtuse, usually 
rounded at the base, hispidulous, often densely so beneath; inflores- 
cence terminal, pedunculate, thyrsiform-paniculate, dense, the bracts 
linear, the flowers sessile or nearly so; calyx 5-lqbate, the lobes 
ovate, acute; corolla yellow, 1 cm. long, sparsely pilose; fruit blue, 
ovoid, 6 mm. long, villosulous or glabrate. 

Psychotria axillaris Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 962. 1797. Ronabea 
latifolia Aubl. PL Guian. 154. pi. 59. 1775, non Psychotria latifolia 
H. & B., 1819. 

Dense forest on Rio Timbiqui, Lehmann 9020 (K, Y). Forest of 
Buenaventura, Lehmann B.T.891 (K, Y). Also in Trinidad, the 
Guianas, and Bolivia. 

A shrub about 2 m. high; stipules subulate, persistent, 2 mm. 
long; leaves petiolate, elliptic to oblong, 12-15 cm. long, acuminate, 
tapering at the base, glabrous or with minute scattered hairs beneath; 
inflorescences axillary, short-pedunculate, densely few-flowered, 
scarcely longer than the petioles, the flowers nearly sessile, white; 
calyx minutely 5-dentate; corolla barbate within; fruit black. 

Psychotria bertieroides Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 67. 1914. 

Type from Mocoa, Caqueta District, Sprague 386. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules short-connate, biaristate, persistent, 
the aristae 3 mm. long; leaves petiolate, elliptic, 16-22 cm. long, 
6-9 cm. wide, acute; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, thyrsoid, 
lax, 11 cm. long and 6 cm. wide, the cymules dichotomqus, subsecund; 
flowers sessile, 4-5 mm. long; bracts obsolete; calyx minutely dentic- 
ulate; corolla sparsely pubescent; fruit costate, glabrous. 

Said to be related to P. patens Sw. 

Psychotria bogotensis, sp. nov. Ramuli graciles subteretes, 
junioribus dense ferrugineo-puberulis, vetustioribus ochraceis rimosis, 
internodiis brevibus; stipulae caducae, late ovatae, 7-9 mm. longae, 
cuspidatq-acuminatae, tenues, ferrugineae, fere glabrae; folia oppo- 
sita, petidlo gracili 4-8 mm. longo puberulo; lamina lanceolato- 
oblonga, crasse papyracea, 4.5-8 cm. longa, 1-2.5 cm. lata, longe 
angusteque acuminata, basin versus longe sensimque angustata, 
supra fusca, glabra, nervis non elevatis, subtus brunnescens, ad 
nervos minute ferrugineo-puberula, costa gracili elevata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 11, angulo acuto adscendentibus, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, leviter arcuatis, prope marginem con- 
junctis, nervulis obscuris; inflorescentiae terminates vel pseudo- 
axillares, sessiles vel pedunculatae, cymoso-paniculatae, 2.5-3 cm. 
longae et latae, laxe multiflorae, ramulis gracilibus adscendentibus 
minute sparseque ferrugineo-puberulis, floribus sessilibus vel brevis- 
sime pedicellatis; bracteae subulatae 1-3.5 mm. longae saepe deciduae; 
hypanthium obovoideum 1 mm. longum obscure puberulum vel fere 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

glabrum; calyx 0.8 mm. longus 5-dentatus, dentibus triangulari- 
ovatis acutis; corolla extus glabra tubuloso-infundibuliformis 7 mm. 
longa, tubo crasso superne vix dilatato, lobis anguste trian- 
gularibus tubo triplo brevioribus, acutis, intus minute puberulis; 
antherae subexsertae; fructus subglobosus glaber 5 mm. longus. 
Colombia: Chiquinquira, near Bogota, alt. 2,700 m., July, 1909, Bro. 
Ariste-Joseph (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,124,994, type); September 
1909, Ariste-Joseph A297 (W). 

Like so many of the Psychotrias, this plant has no salient 
characters, but it has been impossible to refer the specimens to any 
of the species reported from Colombia. 

Psychotria boqueronensis Wernh. Journ. Bot. 52: 315. 1914. 
Coffea spicata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 371. pi. 286. 1820, non 
Psychotria spicata Benth. 1841. 

Type from El Boqueron, 2,620 m., Triana 1684* Type of C. 
spicata from Colombia, Mutis. Chapinero, near Bogota, 2,800 m., 
Pennell 1998 (W, Y). Region of Bogota, in 1919, Ariste-Joseph (W). 
Mountains near Bogota, Holton 421 (G, K, P, Y). Montserrate, 
near Bogota, Herb. Parseval-Grandmaison (G). Tequendama(?), 
Andre K.lll (Y). Without locality, Triana 80 (K) \Linden 1296 (K). 
Bogota, in forests, Goudot (K). Hills near Bogota, Weir (K). Bogota, 
2,700 m., Tracey 252 (K). 

A stiff glabrous shrub; stipules short, broadly oblong 2-3-aristate, 
persistent; leaves short-petiolate, obovate or elliptic, 2.5-6 cm. long, 
obtuse or acute, acute at the base, coriaceous, bright yellow-green 
when dried; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, spiciform, the 
flowers subsessile; calyx teeth short, triangular, acute; corolla 
glabrous, white, 5-6 mm. long; fruit globose, 5 mm. in diameter. 

Psychotria brachiata Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 45. 1788. 

Armenia, Caldas, 1,100-1,400 m., Pennell, Killip & Hazen 8661 
(W, G, Y). Cascada Chorron, Bolivar, Pennell 4434 (Y). Los Dantos 
to Puerto Canoa, Bolivar, 400-800 m., Pennell 4522 (W, Y). Dept. 
of Tolima, Ariste-Joseph A776 (W). Without locality, Andre 942 
(K); Triana 1705 (K). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A shrub with glabrous branches; stipules short, green, persistent, 
bilobate, the lobes rounded; leaves petiolate, oblong-obovate to 
oblong-elliptic, acuminate, acute to attenuate at the base, glabrous 
or nearly so; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, paniculate, narrow, 
the branches short, divaricate, subtended by long narrow involute 
bracts, the flowers in dense bracted clusters; corolla white or blue, 
1 cm. long, pubescent; fruit glabrous, blue. 

Some of the Colombian specimens have much larger flower heads 
than any of the West Indian material, but all the specimens appear 
to be conspecific. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 89 

Psychotria cabuyarensis Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 68. 1914. 

Type from Cabuyaro, Rio Meta, in forest, Spraguel54. Wernham 
reports also Barclay 739 from St. Francis Esmeraldas. 

A glabrous shrub or small tree 3 m. high; stipules broadly ovate, 
caudate-acuminate, 1.5 cm. long and broad; leaves subsessile, 
obovate, 26-31 cm. long, 9-12 cm. wide, acuminate, attenuate to the 
base; inflorescence terminal, thyrsiform, lax, long-pedunculate, the 
bracts minute, caducous; flowers greenish white; fruit ovoid, 8-9 mm. 
long. 

Psychotria carthaginensis Jacq. Enum. PL Carib. 16. 1760. 
P. foveolata R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 59. pi. 207, f. b. 1799. 

Type from Cartagena, Jacquin. Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 4.1 
(W). Melgar, Cundinamarca, 1,300-1,700 m., Pennell 2845 (G). 
Without locality, Cuming (Y). Masinga, 150 m., H. H. Smith 1803 
(Y). Enllanada, Ocafia, 1,200 m., Schlim 584 (K). Ocana, 1,200 m., 
Schlim 511 (K). Puerto Ocana, Rio Magdalena, Hartweg 1060 (K). 
Highlands of Popayan, 1,600-1,900 m., Lehmann B.T.393. Widely 
distributed in South America. 

A nearly glabrous shrub; stipules obovate, obtuse, brown, 
caducous; leaves petiolate, lance-elliptic to oblong-obovate, acute or 
acuminate, acute to attenuate at the base, minutely puberulent 
beneath or glabrate; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, paniculate, 
usually radiately branched at the base, open, many-flowered, the 
bracts minute, deciduous; flowers sessile; calyx denticulate; corolla 
white, 4 mm. long, minutely puberulent or glabrous; fruit red, 
4 mm. long, costate, glabrous. 

P. floribunda HBK. (Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 359. 1820) must be 
closely related, if not a synonym of this species. The type locality 
is given doubtfully as Turbaco. 

Jacquin's brief description and his plate (Sel. Stirp. Amer. 
pi. 174, f 22) are far from satisfactory for the identification of his 
species, which is probably the same as either P. foveolata or P. alba 
R. & P. Since there is at hand a specimen from Cartagena referable 
to P. foveolata, and none referable to P. alba, I have assumed that 
the Jacquin plant is conspecific with the former. 

Psychotria choriophylla, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi, subteretes, 
ochracei vel brunnescentes, sublucidi, glabri, internodiis brevibus; 
stipulae (perfectae non visae) persistentes incrassatae, c. 4 mm. 
longae, parte apicali non visa; folia breviter petiolata opposita, 
petiolo crasso 7-13 mm. longo glabro supra late sulcato; lamina 
crasse coriacea, elliptica vel oblongo-elliptica, 10-12 cm. longa, 
4-6.5 cm. lata, abrupte breviterque acuminata. acumine c. 6 mm. 
longo triangulari obtuso, basi subacuta vel obtusa vel interdum 
abrupte breviterque contracta, supra lucida, nervis lateralibus 
prominulis, glabra, subtus pallidior, lutescens, ad nervos minutissime 



90 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

puberula vel fere omnino glabra, costa valida elevata, nervis later- 
alibus utroque latere c. 8, angulp lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, 
prope marginem conjunctis, nervulis prominulis reticulatis, margine 
saepe revoluto; inflorescentia terminalis 1 cm. longe pedunculata, 
cymoso-paniculata, angusta, 5 cm. longa et 2.5 cm. lata, dense 
multiflora, pedunculo crasso, sparse et minute scaberulo-puberulo, 
basi trichotoma, ramis crassissimis brevibus adscendentibus vel 
suberectis subcompressis minute scaberulo-puberulis, floribus sessij- 
ibus ad apices ramulorum densissime capitato-congestis, bracteis 
inconspicuis, late ovatis vel rotundatis, plerumque 1-2 mm. longis, 
apice obtusis vel rotundatis, extus minute puberulis; hypanthium 
late turbinatum fere 1 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus 
glaber, 5-dentatus, dentibus triangularibus acutis vel obtusis minute 
ciliolatis, disco annulari incrassato; corolla 3 mm. longa, in alabastro 
apice rotundata vel obtusa, extus minute puberula, tubo obconico 
crasso fauce dense albido-barbato, lobis 5 oblongis obtusis patentibus 
intus dense papillosis tubo aequalibus vel longioribus; antherae 
exsertae oblongae fere 1 mm. longae. Colombia: Provincia de 
Buenaventura, April, 1853 (?), Triana 3149 (Herb. Kew., type). 

An isolated species, in general appearance not similar to any 
other known from Colombia. 

Psychotria cincta, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor parva, ram- 
ulis gracilibus subteretibus viridibus glabris, internodiis 7-10 cm. 
longis; stipulae persistentes virides in vaginam adpressam 2-4 mm. 
longam truncatam glabram connatae, vagina in lobos 4 subulatos 
rigidos 7-14 mm. longos erectos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo 
gracili 6-15 mm. longo supra sulcato glabro; lamina elliptico- 
oblonga, 14-18 cm. longa, 3-6.5 cm. lata, coriacea, longe angusteque 
acuminata, acumine attenuate saepe falcato, basi obtusa vel acuta, 
glabra, late marginata, margine incrassato stramineo, costa gracili 
utrinque elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 14, gracilibus, 
prominentibus, angulo fere recto adscendentibus, valde arcuatis, in 
marginem desinentibus, nervulis subtus prominulis laxe et irregu- 
lariter reticulatis; inflorescentia terminalis 7-8 cm. longe pedunculata, 
thyrsoideo-paniculata, 6-11 cm. longa, 3.5 cm. lata, laxe multiflora, 
pedunculo gracili rigido, rhachi flexuosa minute hirtella, ramis 
primariis brevibus rigidis alternis divaricatis vel subrecurvis, floribus 
cymulosis subsecundis sessilibus; bracteae oblongo-triangulares, 
acutae, 2 mm. longae vel multo breviores; calyx vix 0.5 mm. longus, 
remote obscureque denticulatus; fructus globosus 4-4.5 mm. longus 
glaber obscure costatus. Colombia: In forest, Cordoba, Dagua 
Valley, alt. 100 m., May 6-8, 1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 5140 (U. S. 
Nat. Herb. No. 1,141,369, type; duplicate in G). 

This plant is a close relative of P. patens Sw., but it is easily 
distinguished by the sharply denned, pale margins of the leaves. 
The lateral veins run directly from the costa into the thickened 
margin. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 91 

Psychotria conferta Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 107. 1844. 

Type from Colombia. 

Branches puberulent only at the apex; stipules bifid, 4 mm. 
long, the lobes lanceolate, acute; leaves petiolate, oval-elliptic, 10-15 
cm. long or larger, acuminate, attenuate to the base, glabrous; 
inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, corymbose-paniculate, many- 
flowered, trichotomous, the bracts minute; flowers short-pedicellate; 
calyx 5-fid; corolla puberulent, villous in the throat, the lobes twice 
as long as the tube. 

Psychotria cuspidata Bredem. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 192. 1819. 
Ronabea didymocarpos A. Rich. Me"m. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 5: 170. 
1834. P. cornigera Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 227. 1841. Pali- 
courea didymocarpa Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 138. 1866. Psychotria 
acuminata Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 107. 1844. Uragoga cuspidata 
Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 960. 1891. 

Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 2083 (F, W, G, M, P). Without 
locality, Hartwegl061 (G). Huangubio, highlands of Popayan, 1,600- 
1,800 m., Lehmann B.T.392 (F, G, Y). Without locality, Lehmann 
B.T.1255 (Y). La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,700-2,100 m., Kittip & 
Hazen 11162 (W, G, Y), Kittip 5576 (W, G, Y), 11344 (W, G, Y). 
Frasquillo, on Rio Sinu, 100-200 m., Pennell 4598 (Y). Dauro, 
Toro 1163 (Y). Mesa de los Santos, Santander, 1,500 m., Kittip & 
Smith 15151 (W, Y), 15154 (Y). Without locality, Triana 1682 
(K). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A slender glabrous shrub or small tree 1.5-3.5 m. high; stipules 
short, green, persistent, bicuspidate; leaves short-petiolate, lanceolate 
to elliptic-ovate, very long-acuminate, obtuse to rounded at the base 
or rarely acute; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, small, corym- 
bose-paniculate, the few branches slender, ascending or rarely 
reflexed; calyx truncate; corolla white, glabrous outside, about 5 
mm. long. 

P. acuminata is a form with narrow, extremely long-acuminate 
leaves, and further study may show that it is a distinct species. 
It was described from Gorgona and the coast of Colombia. 

Psychotria daguensis, sp. nov. Arbor parva, ramulis graci- 
libus subteretibus dense pilis pallidis adpresso-hirsutis, vetustioribus 
ochraceis, internodiis brevibus; stipulae breviter connatae, persis- 
tentes, 5-10 mm. longae, adpresso-hirsutae, ad medium bifidae, 
lobis lineari-lanceolatis attenuatis; folia opposita, petiolo valido 2-5 
mm. longo adpresso-hirsuto; lamina subcoriacea, elliptico-oblonga, 
5.5-10 cm. longa, 2-4 cm. lata, abrupte angusteque acuminata, 
acumine acuto, basi acuta vel obtusa, supra viridis, sparse adpresso- 
setosa, costa neryisque prominentibus, subtus vix pallidior, undique, 
ad nervos densius, pilis longis gracillimis adpresso-pilosa, costa 
gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 16, elevatis, 
gracilibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, parallelis, juxta 



92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

marginem conjunctis, neryulis transversis prominentibus irregu- 
laribus; inflorescentia terminalis 2-4 cm. longe pedunculata, thyr- 
soideo-paniculata, densissime multiflora, 2.5-3.5 cm. longa, 1-2 cm. 
lata, ramis primariis diyaricatis, interdum fere obsoletis, crassis, 
dense breviterque hirsutis, floribus numerosis ad apices ramorum 
dense conferto-capitatis; bracteae parvae oblongae obtusae hispi- 
dulae; hypanthium dense hispidulum; calyx 0.6 mm. longus 5- 
partitus, lobis anguste triangularibus acutis extus dense hirtellis; 
fructus ovalis 3 mm. longus, obtuse costatus, dense breviterque 
hirsutus, calyce persistente coronatus. Colombia: In forest, 
Cordoba, Dagua Valley, Dept. El Valle, alt. 100 m., May 6-8, 1922, 
Ellsworth P. Killip 5135 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,558, type; 
duplicate in Y). 

Psychotria decora, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis gracilibus sub- 
teretibus glabris, vetustioribus pchraceis vel brunnescentibus, inter- 
nodiis elongatis; stipulae persistentes, breviter connatae, ovatae, 
2.5 mm. longae, glabrae, in aristam 2 mm. longam desinentes; folia 
opppsita, petiolo 4-6 mm. longo valido marginato, margine undulato; 
lamina oblonga, 12-14.5 cm. longa, 4-5 cm. lata, abrupte acuminata, 
acumine angusto attenuate 1.5-2 cm. longo, basi acuta, papyracea, 
marginata, glabra, supra fusca sublucida, costa nervisque promi- 
nulis sed non conspicuis, subtus concolor, costa gracili eleyata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 7, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
gracillimis, prominulis, leviter arcuatis, juxta marginem conjunctis, 
nervulis vix prominulis irregulariter reticulatis; inflorescentia 
terminalis 5 cm. longe pedunculata, cymoso-paniculata, laxe pauci- 
flora, 6.5 cm. longa, 5 cm. lata, pedunculo gracili puberulo, ramulis 
oppositis gracilibus adscendentibus puberulis; bracteae subulatae 
1-1.8 mm. longae; cymulae triflorae, pedicellis 1-5 mm. longis; 
hypanthium turbinatum 1 mm. longum puberulum; calyx 0.5 mm. 
longus 5-dentatus, dentibus minutis triangularibus acutis; corolla 
ochroleuca infundibuliformis 8 mm. longa extus minute puberula, 
tubo gracili basi 0.5 mm. lato, superne sensim dilatato, fauce 2.5 
mm. lato, lobis subrotundatis 1.5 mm. longis. Colombia: In forest 
along the river, opposite Boca Carare, Dept. Antioquia, alt. 125 m., 
January 14, 1918, Francis W. Pennell 3823 (Herb. N. Y. Bot. 
Gard., type). 

An isolated species, noteworthy for its handsome leaves and long 
slender corolla. 

Psychotria emetica L. f. Suppl. PI. 144. 1781. Cephaelis 
emetica Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 203. 1805. Uragoga emetica Baill. Hist. 
PL 7: 371. 1880. 

Type from Giron, Mutis. Magdalena Valley, Dawe (Y). Puerto 
Berrio, Toro 1124 (Y). Boca Verde, on Rio Sinu, 90-120 m., Pennell 
4240 (Y). Cisneros, El Valle, 300-500 m., Killip 11466 (W). With- 
out locality, Triana 1722 (K). Also in Central America and Bolivia. 

Stems simple, suffrutescent, 30 cm. high or more, puberulent; 
stipules distinct, 3-4 mm. long, triangular-lanceolate, acuminate, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 93 

deciduous; leaves short-petiolate, elliptic-oblong to oblanceolate- 
oblong, acute or acuminate, at the base acute to long-attenuate, 
glabrous above, puberulent beneath; inflorescences axillary, about 
as long as the petiole, solitary or geminate, bearing a few capitate 
subsessile flowers, sometimes bifurcate, the bracts minute; calyx 
obscurely dentate; corolla white, 5 mm. long, glabrous outside; fruit 
6 mm. long. 

The plant has been used as a source of ipecac, but it is said to 
be inferior to Cephaelis Ipecacuanha. 

Psychotria erythrocephala (Schum. & Krause), comb. nov. 
Uragoga erythrocephala Schum. & Krause. Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: 
343. 1908. P. Spraguei Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 67. 1914. 

Dense woods near Buenos Aires and Quilichao, Lehmann 5442 
(F, type collection). In thicket, Cuatro Esquinas, Cauca, 1,700- 
1,800 m., Pennell & Killip 6368 (W, G, Y). In woodland, Morales, 
Cauca, 1,700 m., Pennell & Killip 8292 (W). Mesa de los Santos, 
Santander, 1,500 m., in woods, Killip & Smith 15182 (W, Y), 15070 
(W). Ocaiia, Purdie (G, K). Highlands of Popayan, 1,500-1,800 
m., Lehmann B.T.396 (K, Y), B.T.I 278. El Hatico and Aganche, 
1,200-1,600 m., Lehmann B.T.517 (K, Y). Caracoles, Kalbreyer 
1055 (K). Without locality, Triana 1708 (K). Type of P. Spraguei 
from San Agustin, Tolima, Sprague 804- 

A shrub 1-3.5 m. high, the branches hirsute; stipules persistent, 
bifid, the lobes linear, up to 2.5 cm. long; leaves petiolate, lanceolate 
or narrowly oblong, large, long-acuminate, acute to attenuate at 
the base, hirsute or hispidulous; inflorescence head-like, terminal, 
pedunculate, dense and many-flowered; bracts lanceolate or linear, 
red; calyx lobes 5, linear, 2-4.5 mm. long; corolla pink, glabrate, 
6 mm. long; fruit hispid, ellipsoid. 

Psychotria familiarifolia Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 253. 1917. 

Type from Colombia, Triana 134. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules oblong, obtuse, 8 mm. long; leaves 
coriaceous, petiolate, lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed to the base, 
8-12 cm. long, 2.5-4 cm. wide; inflorescence terminal, cymose- 
umbellate, trichotomous, lax, the bracts small, ovate-oblong; calyx 
lobate; corolla glabrous outside, the tube 3 mm. long, the lobes 1.5 
mm. long, obtuse. 

Psychotria Fendlefi Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 129. 
1916. 

Onaca, 750 m., H. H. Smith 1832 (F, W, G, M, P, Y). Mamatoca, 
30 m., H. H. Smith 1802 (F, G, M, P, Y). Rio Frio, Santa Marta 
Mountains, Walker 1228 (W, G, M). Near Bonda, 45 m., H. H. 
Smith 1803 (Y). Also in Panama. 

A glabrous shrub 1-2 m. high; stipules brown, obtuse, 7-9 mm. 
long, caducous; leaves petiolate, elliptic-obovate or cuneate-obovate, 
thick, usually rounded at the apex and very shortly produced, the 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

tip obtuse, attenuate to the base and decurrent; inflorescence 
terminal, cymose-paniculate, pedunculate, many-flowered, radiately 
branched from the base, the flowers mostly sessile, the bracts 
minute, caducous; calyx shortly and obtusely dentate; corolla white, 
5 mm. long, glabrous outside. 

This is probably only a form of P. carthaginensis. 

Psychotria fortuita, sp. nov. Frutex 1-3.5 m. altus, ramulis 
gracilibus subteretibus glabris, vetustioribus ferrugineis rimulosis, 
internodiis plerumque elongatis; stipulae caducae, ovatae, obtusae 
vel acuminatae, tenues, ferrugineae, glabrae, fere liberae; folia 
opposita, petiolo gracili 4-13 mm. longo glabro; lamina lanceolato- 
oblonga, papyracea, 6-15 cm. longa, 2-4.5 cm. lata, longe angusteque 
acuminata, acumine acuto, basi acuta vel saepius subabrupte 
longeque angustata et decurrens, supra obscure viridis glabra, 
nervis manifestis sed vix elevatis, subtus paullo pallidior, ad axillas 
costarum saepius obscure domatiata et obsolete barbellata, aliter 
glabra, costa gracili eleyata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 12, 
angulo lato adscendentibus, gracilibus, prominulis, arcuatis, prope 
marginem conjunctis et interdum neryum collectivum efformantibus, 
nervulis obscuris; inflorescentia terminalis vel pseudo-axillaris, vulgo 
1-4 cm. longe pedunculata, cymoso-paniculata, laxe multiflora, 3-7 
cm. longa, 4-10 cm. lata, ramis primariis gracilibus elongatis, infimis 
verticillatis, superioribus oppositis divaricatis vel adscendentibus 
glabris; flores sparsi, plerumque 1-4 mm. longe pedicellati, rarius 
sessiles; bracteae minutae deciduae; hypanthium late turbinatum 
glabrum 1 mm. longum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus glaber remote 5- 
dentatus, dentibus late triangularibus acutis; corolla alba vel viridi- 
alba 3-3.5 mm. longa tubuloso-infundibuliformis extus glabra, tubo 
crasso superne vix dilatato, lobis oblongo-triangularibus obtusis 
tubo duplo brevioribus. Colombia: In damp forest, glen near a 
stream, Las Nubes, alt. 1,350 m., December 17, 1898, H. H. Smith 
1821 (Herb. Field Mus. No. 138,669, type; duplicates in W, G, M, 
P, Y; distributed as Palicourea Pavetta). Tona, Santander, in woods, 
1,900-2,100 m., Kittip & Smith 19454 (W). Loso, Norte de San- 
tander, in woods along stream, 2,200-2,400 m., Kittip & Smith 
20425 (W, Y). Rio Surata Valley, Santander, 2,000-2,300 m., edge 
of forest, Kittip & Smith 16617 (W), 16679 (W, Y), 16739 (W, Y). 

Psychotria gallerana, sp. nov. Arbor parva, ramulis gracilibus 
subteretibus, novellis sordide villosis, vetustioribus ochraceis vel 
brunneis, internodiis breyibus vel elongatis; stipulae 4-6 mm. 
longae, subacutae, in vaginam persistentem dorso villosulam con- 
natae; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 3-9 mm. longo villosulo vel 
glabrato; lamina elliptico-oblonga vel oboyato-oblonga, 6-9.5 cm. 
longa, 2.5-3.5 cm. lata, abrupte longiacuminata, acumine angusto 
obtuso, basin versus cuneatim angustata, basi ipsa acuta vel subob- 
tusa, subcoriacea, marginata, supra viridis, ad costam villosula, 
nervis manifestis sed non elevatis, subtus pallidior, ad nervos 
villosula, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 95 

c. 15, angulo lato adscendentibus, gracilibus, prominentibus, valde 
arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis obsoletis; inflorescentia 
terminals, sessilis vel 1 cm. longe pedunculata, cymoso-paniculata, 
3-4 cm. longa, 4-7 cm. lata, laxe multiflora, basi 2-5-ramosa, ramis 
adscendentibus sparse puberulis, cymulis paucifloris, floribus sessi- 
libus vel 1-3 mm. longe pedicellatis; bracteae ovatae vel oblongae, 
1-2 mm. longae, obtusae vel acutae, glabrae; hypanthium fere 1 
mm. longum glabrum; calyx 1-1.5 mm. longus glaber 5-partitus, 
lobis obovatp-ovalibus apice rotundatis et apiculatis; corolla infundi- 
buliformis, in alabastro 4.5 mm. longa, extus glabra, lobis tubo 
brevioribus; fructus niger ellipsoideus 5 mm. longus costatus glaber, 
calyce persistente coronatus. Colombia: In forest, La Gallera, 
Micay Valley, Dept. El Cauca, alt. 1,900 m., July 1, 1922, Ellsworth 
P. Killip 7943 (U. S. Nat. Herb., No. 1,140,632, type; duplicates 
in G and Y). 

Psychotria graciliflora Benth. ex Oerst. Kjob. Vid. Medd. 
1849-50:35. 1852. 

Cupica, Seemann (K). Also in Central America. 

Glabrous; stipules connate, 3-5 mm. long, deciduous, acuminate, 
entire or minutely bidentate; leaves short-petiolate, oval to elliptic- 
oblong, small, acuminate, long-attenuate to the base; inflorescence 
terminal, pedunculate, cymose-paniculate, lax, trichotomous, equaling 
or shorter than the leaves; calyx truncate; corolla 4 mm. long, 
pilose in the throat. 

Psychotria grandis Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 43. 1788. 

In forest, Don Diego, H. H. Smith 2648 (F, W, Y). Also in 
Central America and the West Indies. 

A large shrub or small tree, nearly glabrous; stipules broadly 
ovate, cuspidate-acuminate, large, subpersistent; leaves nearly 
sessile, cuneate-obovate or oblong-obovate, large, abruptly short- 
acuminate, attenuate to the base, glabrous; inflorescence terminal, 
cymose-paniculate, long-pedunculate, radiately branched at the 
base, the branches minutely puberulent; flowers sessile, the bracts 
deciduous; calyx obscurely denticulate; corolla whitish, 3 mm. long, 
glabrous outside, barbate in the throat. 

Psychotria halophiloides Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 254. 1917. 

Type from Gallego, Quindio, at 2,280 m., Triana 185. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules oblong, rounded-obtuse, deciduous, 1 
cm. long; leaves short-petiolate, coriaceous, elliptic, about 7 cm. 
long and 3 cm. wide, acuminate at each end; inflorescence terminal, 
pedunculate, cymose-corymbose, 5-6-branched at the base, dense, 
the bracts minute; flowers very shortly pedicellate; calyx subentire; 
corolla tube 5-6 mm. long, the lobes 1.7 mm. long. 

Psychotria Hartwegiana, nom. nov. Coffea marginata Benth. 
PL Hartweg. 193. 1845, non Psychotria marginata Sw. 1788. 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Type from the ascent to Paramo de Guanacas, Prov. Popayan, 
Hartweg 1059. Delicias, Andes of Popayan, 3,000-3,600 m., Lehmann 
8460 (F, K), 4473 (F, K). Headwaters of Rio Lopez, Cauca, 2,500 
m., Pittier 1099 (W). Paletara, Cauca, 3,000-3,200 m., Pennell 
6959 (W, G, Y); at 2,900-3,400 m., Lehmann 3533 (K). Without 
locality, Purdie (K). Also in Bolivia. 

Plants low, simple, suffrutescent, the branches glabrous or at 
first puberulent; stipules caducous, broadly ovate, about 4 mm. 
long; leaves large, petiolate, elliptic to oblong-ovate or lance-oblong, 
acuminate, at the base acute or attenuate, puberulent or pilose 
beneath, at least along the nerves, paler beneath; inflorescence 
axillary, long-pedunculate, corymbose-paniculate, puberulent or 
short-pilose, rather dense, the branches divaricate, the flowers 
sessile or nearly so, glomerate; calyx 5-dentate; corolla yellowish 
white, glabrous, 5 mm. long; fruit nearly 5 mm. long. 

Psychotria Hazenii, sp. nov. Frutex 1.5-metralis ut videtur 
dense ramosus, ramulis gracilibus teretibus viridescentibus, novellis 
dense breviterque pilosis, internodiis brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae 
6-9 mm. longae, persistences, virides, breviter connatae, glabrae 
vel basi pilosulae, ad medium vel profundius bifidae, lobis lineari- 
lanceolatis longiattenuatis erectis; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 
5-14 mm. longo pilosulo; lamina crasse membranacea, elliptico- 
oblonga vel lanceolato-oblonga, 4.5-7 cm. longa, 1.5-2.5 cm. lata, 
longe angusteque acuminata, acumine subacuto, basi acuta, supra 
laete viridis, ad costam prominulam sparse pilosula, nervis incon- 
spicuis, subtus pallidior, rhaphidibus elongatis pallidis conspersa, 
ad nervos minute hirtella, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 17, gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo lato adscen- 
dentibus, leviter arcuatis, prope marginem nervum collectivum effor- 
mantibus, nervulis paucis prominulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentia 
terminalis, sessilis vel 1-3 cm. longe pedunculata, basi saepe tricho- 
toma, 1.5-3 cm. longa, densa, interdum subcapitata, ramis primariis 
obsoletis vel usque ad 1 cm. longis, fere glabris, floribus sessilibus 
ad apices ramorum dense confertis; bracteae lanceolatae vel lineares, 
5-11 mm. longae, longe attenuatae, virides, glabrae, imbricatae; 
calyx 1.8-2.5 mm. longus glaber profunde 5-fidus, laciniis lanceolato- 
linearibus attenuatis glabris; fructus caeruleus glaber ellipsoideus 
4-5 mm. longus sulcatus, costis acutiusculis, carpellis facie interiore 
profunde angusteque sulcatis. Colombia: Forest above La Cumbre, 
Dept. El Valle, alt. 1,800-2,200 m., May 14-19, 1922, Ellsworth P. 
Killip 5573 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,570, type; duplicates in G 
and Y). Rio Santa Rita, Salento, Caldas, in dense forest, Killip & 
Hazen 9002 (W, G, Y). 

A well-defined species, apparently marked by the small leaves 
and small dense inflorescence with large foliaceous bracts. 

Psychotria hebeclada DC. Prodr. 4: 513. 1830. P. justicioides 
Schlecht. Linnaea 9: 596. 1834. Palicourea molliramis Schum. & 
Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: 331. 1908. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 97 

Santa Marta, 450 m., H. H. Smith 1799 (F, W, G, M, P). Near 
Cacagualito, 450 m., H. H. Smith 1799 (Y). Don Amo, 600 m., 
H. H. Smith 1799 (Y). Jiracasaca, 750 m., H. H. Smith 1799 (Y). 
Minca, 600 m., H. H. Smith 1799 (Y). Don Diego, H. H. Smith 
1799 (Y). South of Mamatoca, 300 m., H. H. Smith 2797 (Y). 
Dagua, Buenaventura, 200-500 m., Lehmann 5113 (F). La Paila, 
Cauca, May 18, 1853, Holton (K, Y). Rio Frio, Magdalena, Pittier 
1631 (W, Y). Magdalena, Holton 425 (P, Y). Turbaco, Bro. Heri- 
berto 414 (W). Dense wet forest near Las Juntas, Rio Dagua, Cauca, 
200-500 m., Lehmann 4667 (F, type collection of P. mollramis). 
Without locality, Triana 1681 (K). Ranging to Mexico; also in 
Ecuador. 

A shrub, sometimes 3 m. high, the young branches densely 
puberulent; stipules short, green, persistent, bidentate; leaves thin, 
petiolate, ovate to oblong-elliptic, long-acuminate, acute or attenuate 
at the base, finely pubescent, at least beneath; inflorescence terminal, 
pedunculate, thyrsoid-paniculate, dense, many-flowered, densely 
pubescent; calyx 5-lobate, the lobes short, ovate, acute or obtuse; 
corolla whitish, 5 mm. long, pubescent; fruit glabrate, subglobose, 
4 mm. long. 

Psychotria Hindsii, sp. nov. Ramuli graciles subteretes vel 
subcompressi, novellis dense ferrugineo-villosulis, internodiis elon- 
gatis; stipulae caducae, ferrugineae, oblongae vel ovatae, 10-13 mm. 
longae, acuminatae vel cuspidato-acuminatae, dense ferrugineo- 
villosulae; folia breviter petiolata opposita, petiolo 0.8-3 cm. longo 
gracili dense ferrugineo-villosulo; lamina crasse membranacea, 
oblonga vel oblanceolato-oblonga, 12-22 cm. longa, 4-7.5 cm. lata, 
acuminata vel longe acuminata, acumine angusto attenuate, basin 
versus longe angustata, superne fusca sublucida ad nervos vel in tota 
superficie ferrugineo-villosula, nervis non elevatis, subtus paullo 
pallidior, ubique puberula vel ad nervos breviter pilosula, costa 
gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 17, gracilibus, 
prominentibus, subarcuatis, angulo acuto adscendentibus, juxta 
marginem conjunctis, nervulis paucis prominulis laxe reticulatis; 
inflorescentia terminalis 2-5 cm. longe pedunculata, cymoso-pani- 
culata, laxe multiflora, 5-9 cm. longa et fere aequilata, pedunculo 
gracili dense ferrugineo-villosulo, ramis oppositis vel infimis verti- 
cillatis, gracilibus, adscendentibus et saepe curvis, puberulis, floribus 
sessilibus ad apices ramulorum glomeratis, bracteis triangularibus 
acutis vel acuminatis 1-2 mm. longis persistentibus; hypanthium 
obovoideum 0.5 mm. longum minute puberulum; calyx cupularis 
0.5 mm. longus subtruncatus et remote obscureque denticulatus; 
corolla 3.5 mm. longa extus sparse et minute puberula, tubo cylind- 
rico superne vix dilatato fauce non barbato, lobis 4 oblongis obtusis 
tubo paullo brevioribus. Colombia: Tumaco, in 1841, Hinds 
(Herb. Kew., type). Between Juntas and Popayan, Lehmann 
B.T.695 (Y). 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Psychotria Holtonii, sp. nov. Ramuli densissime breviterque 
pilosi; stipulae deciduae, non visae; folia opposita, petiolo 1.5-2 cm. 
longo gracili hispidulo; lamina elliptico-oblonga, c. 20 cm. longa et 
7.5 cm. lata, anguste et subabrupte acuminata, basi acuta, crasse 
papyracea, supra viridis glabra, nervis prominentibus, subtus palli- 
dior, ad nervos sparse breviterque pilosula, costa gracili eleyata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 16, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis 
transversis prominentibus parallelis nervulis reticulatis connexis; 
inflorescentia terminalis 3 cm. longe pedunculate, 5 cm. longa et 
4.5 cm. lata, densissime multiflora, fere capitiformis, pedunculo 
crasso hispidulo, ramulis primariis 5-7 mm. longis; bracteae ovatae 
10-13 mm. Ipngae acutae vel acuminatae nervosae glabrae; flpres 
congesti sessiles vel subsessiles; calyx 5-partitus, laciniis linearibus 
5-7 mm. longis obtusis glabris nervosis; fructus subglobosus 4-5 mm. 
longus glaber sulcatus. Colombia: Las Minas, September 19, 1853, 
/. F. Holton (Herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard., type). Forest above Cascada 
Chorron, Bolivar, 2,000-2,500 m., Pennell 4409 (Y). 

The available material is somewhat imperfect and incomplete, 
and unsatisfactory for study, but the species represented is, appar- 
ently, a quite distinct one, with no very close relatives. 

Psychotria horizontalis Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 44. 1788. 
P. divaricata H. & B. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 191. 1819. P. glances- 
cens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 358. 1820. 

Santa Marta, 450 m., H. H. Smith 893 (F, G, M, P). Near 
Masinga, 300-450 m., H. H. Smith 393 (Y). Campo Alegre, 450 m., 
H. H. Smith 393 (Y). Chaca, 600 m., H. H. Smith 393 (Y). Don 
Diego, H. H. Smith 2647 (F, W, M, Y). Turbaco, Goudot (K). 
Without locality, Cuming (K); Linden 1389 (K). Salango, Sinclair 
(K). Santa Marta, 900 m., Schlim 917 (K). Ocafia, 1,200 m., Schlim 
671 (K). Also in Ecuador, the West Indies, Central America, and 
Mexico. 

A shrub 1-3 m. high, glabrous or nearly so; stipules ovate- 
triangular, acute or obtuse, caducous, 3-8 mm. long; leaves short- 
petiolate, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, acute 
or obtuse at the base, bright grayish green when dry, glabrous or 
nearly so; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, small and rather 
few-flowered, usually 5-rayed at the base, the branches puberulent, 
the flowers mostly sessile, the bracts minute, caducous; calyx deeply 
5-lobed, the lobes elongate, linear; corolla white, 3-4 mm. long, 
glabrous; fruit red, glabrous, 4 mm. long. 

Psychotria hylocharis, sp. nov. Frutex 1.5 m. altus, ramulis 
gracillimis olivaceis dense subadpresso-pilosis vel puberulis; stipulae 
in vaginam adpresso-pilosulam 1.5 mm. longam persistentem 
truncatam connatae, in setas 4 graciles 3-6 mm. longas erectas 
desinentes; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 2-7 mm. longo pilosulo; 
lamina membranacea, anguste elliptico-oblonga vel obovato-oblonga, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 99 

6-14.5 cm. longa, 2-4 cm. lata, longe angusteque acuminata, basin 
versus angustata vel tantum acuta, supra yiridis, ad costam patenti- 
pilosa, nervis prpminentibus, subtus pallidior, ad nervos breviter 
pilosa, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 13, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, leviter 
arcuatis, juxta marginem conjunctis, nervulis transversis prominulis 
subparallelis; inflorescentia terminalis 2-4 cm. longe pedunculata, 
cymoso-paniculata, c. 4 cm. longa et lata, laxissime multiflora, 
pedunculo gracillimo, ramis divaricatis vel adscendentibus pilosulis; 
bracteae anguste lineares 2-7 mm. longae virides glabrae; flps 
centralis cymulae sessilis, ceteris usque ad 2.5 mm. longe pedicellatis 
vel subsessilibus; hypanthium 0.5 mm. longum puberulum vel gla- 
bratum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus 5-dentatus, dentibus triangulari- 
ovatis acutis; corolla alba tubuloso-infundibuliformis 3 mm. longa, 
extus minutissime puberula, tubo superne vix dilatato, lobis ovalibus 
obtusis tubo duplo brevioribus; antherae subexsertae; fructus 
subglobosus 2.5 mm. diam. caeruleus crasse costatus. Colombia: 
Las Dantas to Puerto Canoa, on Rio Esmeralda, Dept. Bolivar, in 
forest, alt. 400-800 m., February 27, 1918, Francis W. Pennell 4532 
(Herb. N. Y. Bot. Card., type). Antizales, Bolivar, 1,700-2,000 m., 
in forest, Pennell 4442 (Y). Damp forest, Don Amo, 600 m., H. H. 
Smith 2408 (Y). 

This resembles somewhat P. hebeclada DC., but that species 
differs in its dense thyrsiform inflorescence, copious pubescence, 
and more developed calyx lobes. 

Psychotria involucrata Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 45. 1788. 

Villavicencio, 600 m., on moist forested slope, Pennell 1585 (G, 
Y). Forests of Rio Timbiqui, 200 m., Lehmann 8981 (G, K, Y). 
Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A slender, nearly glabrous shrub; stipules short, green, persistent, 
truncate, biaristate; leaves petiolate, ovate to elliptic, acuminate at 
the apex, contracted and decurrent at the base, glabrous; inflores- 
cence terminal, pedunculate, dense, few-flowered, rounded, the 
flowers sessile or nearly so, the outer bracts narrow, longer than 
the flowers; fruit globose, black, 4 mm. long. 

Psychotria Killipii, sp. npv. Frutex omnino glaber, ramulis 
gracilibus subteretibus rimosis ochraceis, internodiis elongatis; 
stipulae in vaginam 2-3 mm. longam persistentem laxam basi 
incrassatam connatae, parte superiore tenui interdum decidua; folia 
opposita, petiolo gracili 3-5 mm. longo; lamina coriacea, anguste 
oblongo-lanceolata, 4.5-6 cm. longa 8-13 mm. lata, longe angusteque 
acuminata, basi acuta, supra in sicco fuscp-viridis, subtus paullo 
pallidior, costa nervisque utrinque obscuris vel obsoletis, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere 4-5, angulo acutissimo adscendentibus; 
inflorescentia terminalis vel pseudo-axillaris, 2-5 cm. longe pedun- 
culata, cymoso-paniculata, laxe pauciflora, 2-3.5 cm. longa et 
aequilata, pedunculo gracili, ramulis gracilibus oppositis, cymulis 



100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

trifloris, pedicellis 1-4 mm. longis; bracteae triangulares vel subu- 
latae 0.5-1.5 mm. longae; calyx fere 1 mm. longus 5-dentatus, dentibus 
late triangularibus obtusis; corolla alba in alabastro 2 mm. longa, 
lobis roseis; fructus niger globosus 4-5 mm. longus obtuse leviterque 
costatus. Colombia: In clearing, La Gallera, Micay Valley, Dept. 
El Cauca, alt. 1,500-1,800 m., July 1, 1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 7892 
(U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,630, type; duplicate in Y). 

A relative of P. pendula (Jacq.) Urban and P. crassa Benth., 
this plant is easy of recognition because of the narrow elongate leaves. 

Psychotria lassula, sp. nov. Frutex c. 60 cm. altus omnino 
glaber, ramulis crassis subteretibus lucidis rimosis ochraceis vel 
brunneis, internodiis 1.5-4 cm. longis; stipulae in vaginam truncatam 
induratam 2-3 mm. longam connatae, persistentes; folia opposita, 
petiolo crasso 2-5 mm. longo; lamina coriacea, oblonga, 4-7.5 cm. 
longa, 1-2.5 cm. lata, obtusa vel subacuta, basi acuta vel obtusa, 
marginata, supra viridis, rhaphidibus minutis conspersa, nervis 
occultis, subtus paullo pallidior, costa crassiuscula prominula, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 4 obscuris, angulo acutissimo adscen- 
dentibus; inflorescentia terminalis, cymoso-paniculata, 1-3 cm. longe 
pedunculata, laxe multiflora, 2-5 cm. longa, 4-8 cm. lata, ramis 
paucis, infimis verticillatis divaricatis vel recurvis crassiusculis, 
cymulis paucifloris, pedicellis 1-4 mm. longis; bracteae triangulares 
0.5-1 mm. longae acutae; fructus ruber globosus 4-5 mm. longus 
leviter sulcatus, costis latis rotundatis. Bolivia: Polo-Polo, near 
Coroico, North Yungas, alt. 1,100 m., October-November, 1912, 
OttoBuchtien 5767 (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 1,177,869, type). Colombia: 
Buenaventura, El Valle, in coastal thickets, Killip 11759 (W, G, Y). 
Peru: Cerro de Campana, Spruce (K). 

From P. pendula (Jacq.) Urban, of the Antilles, this is distin- 
guished by its longer, relatively narrower, and chiefly obtuse (rather 
than abruptly acuminate) leaves. From P. paramorum it differs 
also in the few and obscure nerves of the leaves. 

Psychotria lateriflora, sp. nov. Frutex 2-metralis, ramulis 
crassis glabris, internodiis brevibus; stipulae deciduae, 2-2.5 cm. 
longae, ovatae, profunde laciniatae, virides, glabrae; folia opposita, 
petiolo gracili 2-4 cm. longo glabro; lamina pbovata vel elliptico- 
obovata, 14-17.5 cm. longa, 6-7.5 cm. lata, apice obtusa, brevissime 
abrupteque acuminata, acumine obtuso, basi acuta, papyracea, 
marginata, supra viridis, glabra, rhaphidibus minutis conspersa, 
nervis manifestis sed non elevatis, subtus pallida, ad nervos sparse 
puberula, costa valida prominente, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
c. 17, gracilibus, prominulis, angulo lato adscendentibus, leviter 
arcuatis, in nervum distinctum collectivum prope marginem con- 
junctis, nervulis obsoletis; inflorescentiae axillares, solitariae, 7-18 
cm. longe pedunculatae, cymoso-umbellatae, trichotomae, pedunculo 
gracili glabro, apice bracteis 2 ovatis 8-10 mm. longis viridibus 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 101 

onusto, ramulis primariis 1-2.5 cm. longis adscendentibus glabris, 
floribus sessilibus ad apices ramulorum dense congestis; bracteae 
plerumque 4-7 mm. longae, ovatae vel oblongae, obtusae, virides, 
glabrae; calyx 1-1.5 mm. longus 5-dentatus, dentibus triangularibus; 
fructus ovalis 3-4 mm. longus profunde sulcatus, in sicco albidus, 
costis acutiusculis. Colombia: In forest above La Cumbre, Dept. 
El Valle, Cordillera Occidental, alt. 1,800-2,200 m., May 14-19, 
1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 5591 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,573, 
type). 

Although clearly a relative of P. macrophylla R. & P., this plant 
is conspicuously distinct in its lacinitate stipules and umbelliform 
inflorescence. 

Probably conspecific is a rather unsatisfactory specimen from 
Mount San Martin, near Charta, Santander, Killip & Smith 1920S 
(W). 

Psychotria limonensis Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 54: Beibl. 
119: 43. 1916. Mapouria latifolia Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. 
PI. 137. 1920. 

Cacagualita, in damp forest, 450 m., H. H. Smith 1805 (F, W, 
M, type collection of M. latifolia) ; in mountain forest, 750 m., H . H. 
Smith 2405 (F, W, M, P). Also in Central America. 

A nearly glabrous shrub or small tree; stipules ovate, acuminate, 
large, caducous; leaves petiolate, elliptic-ovate, 6-12 cm. wide, 
abruptly short-acuminate at the apex, abruptly contracted at the 
base; inflorescence terminal, sessile, much branched, the flowers 
mostly short-pedicellate, the bracts caducous; calyx minutely dentic- 
ulate; corolla white, 5-6 mm. long, glabrous outside, the throat 
barbate. 

Psychotria longirostris (Rusby), comb. nov. Rudgea longi- 
rostris Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 143. 1920. 

Sierra del Libano, 1,800 m., in dense mountain forest, H. H. 
Smith 1819 (Y, type; F, W, M, P, S). Region of Santa Marta, 
H. H. Smith 1821 (Y). In dense woods, Pica-Pica Valley above 
Tapata, Norte de Santander, 2,100-1,400 m., Killip & Smith 20273 
(W, Y). Rio Surata Valley above Surata, Santander, 2,000-2,300 m., 
Killip & Smith 16589 (W, Y). Southern slope of Mount San Martin, 
Santander, in dense woods, 2,300-2,500 m., Killip & Smith 19187 
(W, Y), 19154 (W, Y). Charta, Santander, 2,000 m., Killip & 
Smith 19020 (W). Loso, Norte de Santander, woods along stream, 
2,200-2,400 m., Kittip & Smith 20427 (W, Y). La Gallera, Micay 
Valley, Cauca, in forest, 1,400 m., Kittip 7748 (W, G, Y). Ocana, 
1,800 m., Schlim 582 (K). 

A shrub 2.5-4.5 m. high, said, perhaps incorrectly, to be some- 
times scandent; stipules 2.5-3.5 mm. long, persistent, green, short- 
connate, bidentate at the apex; leaves slender-petiolate, narrowly 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

elliptic-oblong or rarely elliptic-oblong, 7-12.5 cm. long, nar- 
rowly long-acuminate, acute at the base, glabrous or sometimes 
minutely pilosulous beneath along the costa; inflorescence terminal, 
sessile or pedunculate, broadly paniculate, the flowers sessile; calyx 
truncate and obsoletely denticulate; corolla white, 6 mm. long, 
glabrous or minutely puberulent; fruit blue, 4 mm. long. 

Psychotria longissima, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis crassis 
subteretibus in sicco ochraceis glabris, internodiis plerumque 
elongatis; stipulae deciduae, virides, elliptico-ovatae, 1-1.5 cm. 
longae, acutae, glabrae; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 1.2-2.5 cm. 
longo glabro; lamina elliptico-oblonga vel oboyato-oblonga, 15-24 
cm. longa, 5-7 cm. lata, anguste acuminata, basin versus angustata, 
papyracea, marginata, supra viridis glabra, nervis manifestis sed 
non elevatis, subtus pallidior, glabra vel ad costam sparse puberula, 
rhaphidibus saepe conspersa, costa yalida prominente, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 14, gracillimis, prominulis, angulo acuto 
adscendentibus, arcuatis, juxta marginem conjunctis; inflorescentia 
axillaris, 10-18 cm. longe pedunculata, cymosp-paniculata, 3-7 cm. 
longa et lata, laxa vel densa, multiflora, basi trichotoma, ramulis 
brevibus vel elongatis oppositis validis divaricatis sparse puberulis 
vel glabris; bracteae virides, ovatae vel lanceolatae, 6-10 mm. 
longae, acutae, puberulae vel fere glabrae, persistentes; flores 
conferti sessiles; calyx 2-3 mm. longus glaber vel puberulus profunde 
5-lobus, lobis oblongis vel lanceolatis acutis; fructus ovalis 5-6 mm. 
longus profunde sulcatus, costis acutis. Colombia: In forest, 
C6rdoba, Dept. El Valle, alt. 80-100 m., May 6-8, 1922, Ellsworth 
P. Killip 5134 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,557, type; duplicates 
in G and Y). Buenaventura, El Valle, in coastal thickets, Killip 
11714 (W, Y); in dense wet forest, Lehmann B.T.1125 (K, Y). 

The corolla is described in the collector's notes as "white" or 
"pale greenish yellow," but there are no corollas on the specimens 
examined. Psychotria longissima is an ally of P. macrophylla R. & P., 
differing in the form of the inflorescence, the long peduncles, and 
the conspicuous large bracts. 

Psychotria lupulina Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 230. 1841. 

Isla Brava, Magdalena, Andre 272 (F, K, Y). Corazon, 3,200 
m., Andrt K.I 130 (F, K, Y). San Martin de Loba, Bolivar, Curran 
69 (W), 196 (W, G). Puerto Ocafia, Magdalena, Holton 408 (G, P, 
Y). Ocana, Purdie (G). Puerto Wilches, Santander, 100 m., Killip 
& Smith 14912 (W, Y). Greene", Rio Meta, Lehmann 8814 (K). 
Also in Bolivia, Brazil, and the Guianas. 

A shrub with glabrous branches; stipules short, green, persistent, 
truncate, shortly biaristate; leaves subsessile, broadly ovate to 
elliptic or obovate, acuminate, rounded to acute at the base, glabrous; 
inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, cymose-capitate, the bracts large 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 103 

and foliaceous; peduncles pubescent; calyx minutely 5-dentate; 
corolla white, glabrous outside, 10 mm. long. 

This species might be placed equally well in the genus Cephaelis. 
Curran reports the vernacular name "buche de pava" for the plant. 

Psychotria macrophylla R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 56. pi. 202, f. a. 
1799. P. anomothyrsa Schum. & Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 35: 3. 
1903. P. tolimensis Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 68. 1914. Hoffmannia 
striata Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 134. 1920. P. albacostata 
Rusby, op. cit. 138. 1920. 

Inza, Cauca, 1,500-1,700 m., Lehmann 4932 (F, K). Sierra del 
Libano, 1,650 m., H. H. Smith 2409 (Y, type of Hoffmannia striata). 
Las Nubes, 1,350 m., H. H. Smith 1807 (Y). Las Nubes and Man- 
zanares, 900-1,500 m., H. H. Smith 1806 (Y, type of P. albacostata; 
F, W, M, P). Titiribi, Toro 563 (Y). Hills of Miraflores, above 
Palmira, Cauca, 1,200-1,600 m., Pittier 887 (W, G). La Cumbre, 
El Valle, 1,800-2,100 m., Pennell 5889 (G, W, Y). Cordoba, El 
Valle, 80-100 m., Kittip 5264 (W, G, Y). La Virginia, Tolima, 
1,200-1,500 m., Pennell 3256 (W, Y). Pinares, Caldas, 2,400-2,700 
m., Pennell 9321 (W, G), 9390 (W). Cisneros, El Valle, 300-500 
m., Killip 11465 (W, G). La Gallera, Micay Valley, Cauca, 1,400 
m., Killip 7751 (W, G, Y). Eastern paramos of Guasca, 1921, 
Ariste-Joseph (W). Rio Boquilla, Caldas, 1,600-1,900 m., Killip & 
Hazen 8832 (W). Salento, Caldas, 2,100-2,500 m., Pennell 8874 
(W). Tequendama, Cundinamarca, Ariste-Joseph 1070 (W). Las 
Dantas to Puerto Canoa, Bolivar, 400-800 m., Pennell 4528 (Y). 
Mediation, Quindio, Andre 2035 (Y). Angelopolis, Toro 926 (Y). 
Sonson, Toro 1210 (Y). Without locality, Triana 1707 (K). Quindfo, 
Andre 2035 (K). Type of P. tolimensis from Pitalito, Tolima, 
Sprague 237. Ranging to Bolivia and southern Mexico. 

Stems simple, suffrutescent, glabrous or nearly so; stipules short, 
broad, apiculate, caducous; leaves petiolate, elliptic to lance-oblong, 
acuminate, at base acute to attenuate, glabrous or pruinose-puberu- 
lent beneath on the nerves; inflorescence axillary, pedunculate, 
paniculate, the branches often reflexed, glabrous or minutely puberu- 
lent, the flowers sessile, the bracts minute; calyx denticulate; corolla 
whitish or yellowish, glabrous, 4-5 mm. long; fruit 4-5 mm. long, 
glabrous, white. 

In some of the specimens the fruit is described as red or orange, 
but if these notes are correct, it is probable that the specimens 
belong to a distinct species whose characters are not apparent in 
the material at hand. Hoffmannia striata was based upon a form 
with unusually narrow leaves. 

Psychotria macropodantha, sp. nov. Suffrutex simplex 30-60 
cm. altus, caule valido tereti rimpso ochraceo glabro, internodiis 
3-6.5 cm. longis; stipulae in vaginam 2 mm. longam connatae, 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

glabratae, persistentes, dorso costatae, costa in mucronem brevem 
excurrente; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 3-10 mm. longo; lamina 
elliptico-oblonga, 6.5-9.5 cm. longa, 2.5-3.5 cm. lata, breyiter 
acuminata, acumine obtuso, basi acuta, marginata, supra viridis 
glabra minute puncticulata, nervis fere obsoletis, subtus pallida, 
statu juvenili sparse scaberula, mox glabrata, costa valida elevata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 9, gracillimis, prominentibus, 
angulo lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, prope marginem conjunctis, 
neryulis obsoletis; inflorescentia axillaris, 1.5 cm. longe pedunculata, 
capitata, 1.3 cm. diam., pedunculo gracili glabro; flores sessiles vel 
brevissime pedicellati; bracteae oblongae, 3-5 mm. longae, virides, 
glabrae; calyx persistens 1.5 mm. longus profunde 5-lobus, lobis 
lanceolatis attenuatis; fructus subglobosus 4.5 mm. longus glaber 
fere laevis. Colombia: In dense forest, Rio Surata Valley, above 
Surata, Dept. Santander, Eastern Cordillera, alt. 2,000-2,300 m., 
January 5-6, 1927, E. P. Killip & Albert C. Smith 16631 (U. S. 
Nat. Herb. No. 1,352,355, type; duplicate in Y). 

The color of the corolla is stated to be "yellow-green," but no 
corollas are present in the specimens. Psychotria macropodantha is 
an isolated species, probably related to P. macrophylla R. & P., but 
well marked by the capitate inflorescence. 

Psychotria marginata Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 43. 1788. P. 
divaricata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 362. 1820, non H. & B. 1819. 

Rio Dagua, 400 m., Lehmann 4029 (W). Dagua, Buenaventura, 
200-500 m., Lehmann 5115 (F, K). Without locality, Triana 1690 
(K). Juntas, Lehmann B.T.693 (G, K, Y). Type of P. divaricata 
from the Andes of Quindio, Bonpland. Widely distributed in tropical 
America. 

A nearly glabrous shrub; stipules large, brown, oblong to ovate, 
entire, caducous; leaves short-petiolate, obovate-oblong to narrowly 
elliptic-obovate, minutely puberulent beneath or glabrate, abruptly 
acute or acuminate; inflorescence terminal, long-pedunculate, panic- 
ulate, lax, the slender pedicels 2-5 mm. long; calyx teeth short, 
obtuse; corolla yellowish white, 3 mm. long, glabrous outside; fruit 
globose, 3-4 mm. long. 

Psychotria megistophylla, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi rimosi; 
stipulae deciduae, ferrugineae, lanceolato-oblongae, 4-4.5 cm. longae, 
longe acuminatae, erectae, glabrae vel sparse puberulae; folia fere 
sessilia opposita, petiolo usque ad 13 mm. longo, interdum fere 
nullo, crasso, puberulo; lamina crasse chartacea, cuneatim oblongo- 
obovata, c. 40 cm. longa et 15-19 cm. lata, apice acuta vel saepissime 
rotundata et breyiter apiculato-acuminata, interdum late emarginata 
et apiculata, basin versus longe sensimque cuneato-attenuata, supra 
fusco-viridis, glabra, nervis subimpressis, subtus in sicco ferruginea, 
ubique vel tantum ad nervos minute denseque puberula, costa 
gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 39, gracilibus, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 105 

elevatis, leviter arcuatis, angulo lato divergentibus, nervum collec- 
tivum distinctum prope marginem efformantibus, nervulis obscuris; 
inflorescentia terminalis c. 27 cm. longe pedunculata, cymoso- 
corymbosa, 10-15 cm. longa, 8-12 cm. lata, laxe multiflora, axi 
central! nulla, ramis basalibus verticillatis suberectis curvis minute 
puberulis, floribus sparsis longe pedicellatis, pedicellis rectis 3-6 
mm. longis, bracteis minutis deciduis; fructus ellipsoideus, 6-7 mm. 
longus, basi acutiusculus, apice obtusus vel rotundatus, obtuse 
costatus, glaber, pyrenis facie ventrali planis. Colombia: Santa 
Maria, Timbiqui, F. C. Lehmann 8631 (Herb. Kew., type). 

The type material consists of five sheets, two of which show 
fruiting panicles, the other specimens being sterile. The plant is 
easily recognized among all the Colombian Psychotrias by its very 
large leaves of distinctive form. 

Psychotria melaneoides Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 338. 1917. 

Type from Barbacoas, Triana 338. 

A nearly glabrous shrub; stipules oblong, persistent, biaristate, 
the aristae 3 mm. long; leaves petiolate, papyraceous-coriaceous, 
ovate-elliptic, 9-15 cm. long, 4-7 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, 
sub truncate to obtuse at the base; inflorescence terminal, long- 
pedunculate, thyrsiform, pyramidal, lax, the bracts minute, setaceous; 
flowers sessile; calyx obtusely and broadly lobate; corolla tube 3 
mm. long, the throat barbate, the lobes 1.5-2 mm. long, obtuse. 

Psychotria micayensis, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi obtuse tetra- 
goni glabri, internodiis brevibus; stipulae maximae, deciduae, 
rotundato-ovatae, 2-2.5 cm. longae, fere 2 cm. latae, acutae, glabrae, 
viridescentes; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 3-3.5 cm. longo glabro; 
lamina elliptico-oblonga vel obovato-oblonga, c. 26 cm. longa et 9 
cm. lata, acuminata, basin versus longe angustata, herbacea, supra 
viridis glabra, nervis prominulis, subtus pallida, ad nervos sparse 
puberula, costa crassa, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 16, 
gracillimis, prominulis, angulo lato adscendentibus, leviter arcuatis, 
juxta marginem conjunctis, nervulis obsoletis; inflorescentiae axil- 
lares 5 mm. longe pedunculatae, cymoso-paniculatae, c. 4.5 cm. 
longae et latae, dense multiflorae, ramis adscendentibus curvis 
validis fere glabris, floribus sessilibus dense confertis; bracteae 
ovatae vel oblongae, plerumque 3-5 mm. longae, obtusae, puberulae 
vel glabratae, virides; calyx 1-1.5 mm. longus villosulus 5-dentatus, 
dentibus oblongo-triangularibus obtusis vel acutis; fructus ovalis 
albus glaber 5 mm. longus profunde sulcatus. Colombia: In forest, 
La Gallera, Micay Valley, Dept. El Cauca, alt. 1,400-1,500 m., 
June 29-30, 1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 7760 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 
1,140,625, type). 

This is another relative of P. macrophylla R. & P., differing 
from that species in its greatly enlarged stipules and nearly sessile 
inflorescence. 



106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Psychotria munda, sp. nov. Ramuli gracillimi teretes glabri 
virides, internodiis 1-3 cm. longis; stipulae persistentes glabrae, in 
vaginam truncatam 1 mm. longam cpnnatae, vagina in lacinias 4 
subulatas erectas 0.6-1 mm. longas desinente; folia breviter petiolata 
opposita, petiolo gracili 3-6 mm. longo glabro; lamina firme mem- 
branacea, anguste lanceolato-oblpnga, 4.5-8 cm. longa, 0.8-1.5 cm. 
lata, longissime et anguste acuminata, acumine acuto, basin versus 
sensim angustata, glabra, supra luteo-yiridis, nervis non elevatis, 
subtus pallidior, sublucida, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 15, gracilibus, prpminulis, arcuatis, angulp lato 
adscendentibus, juxta marginem conjunctis, nervulis prominulis laxe 
reticulatis; inflorescentia terminalis 8-12 mm. longe pedunculata, 
cymoso-paniculata, laxe pauciflpra, 1.5-2 cm. longa et aequilata, 
pedunculo gracili erecto minutissime puberulo, ramis paucis brevibus, 
basalibus oppositis minutissime puberulis, floribus sparsis sessilibus 
vel 1-2 mm. longe pedicellatis, bracteis persistentibus inconspicuis 
usque ad 1 mm. longis; hypanthium glabrum obovpideum 0.8 mm. 
longum ; calyx glaber 0.5 mm. longus 4-dentatus, dentibus triangulari- 
bus acutis; corolla extus glabra vel minutissime puberula, in alabastro 
2.5 mm. longa, tubo gracili tereti, fauce non barbata, lobis 4 oblongis 
acutiusculis tubo duplo brevioribus; antherae inclusae lineari- 
oblongae. Colombia: Santa Marta, "Hort. Saunders," No. 4259 
(Herb. Kew., type). 

Psychotria ochroleuca, sp. nov. Frutex humilis, ramulis 
gracillimis subteretibus dense puberulis, vetustioribus ochraceis, 
internodiis elongatis; stipulae in vaginam 3-3.5 mm. longam persis- 
tentem truncatam puberulam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 remotos 
lineari-attenuatos 3 mm. longos ciliatos desinente; folia opposita, 
petiolo gracili 7-12 mm. longo puberulo vel pilosulo; lamina anguste 
elliptico-oblonga, 6.5-10 cm. longa, 2-3.5 cm. lata, subabrupte et 
longiuscule acuminata, acumine angusto acuto, basi acuta vel longe 
angustata, crasse papyracea, marginata, supra viridis, ad nervos vel 
tantum ad costam pilosula, subtus pallidior, ad nervos pilosula, ad 
costam longius pilosa, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 14, angulo acuto vel latp adscendentibus, gracilibus, prp- 
minentibus, leviter arcuatis, marginem attingentibus; inflorescentia 
terminalis, sessilis, cymoso-paniculata, 3-7 cm. longa et lata, e basi 
trichptoma, dense multiflpra, ramis primariis suberectis, ceteris 
divaricatis, dense puberulis; bracteae lineari-attenuatae 3-9 mm. 
longae puberulae saepius virides; flores vulgo 1-2 mm. longe pedicel- 
lati vel subsessiles; hypanthium late turbinatum dense puberulum 
1 mm. longum; calyx 5-partitus 1-1.5 mm. longus puberulus, lobis 
triangulari-ovatis acutis inaequalibus viridibus; corolla ochroleuca 
tubuloso-infundibuliformis 4.5 mm. longa, extus dense minuteque 
puberula, tubo superne paullo sensimque dilatato, lobis latis obtusis 
apice breviter cucullatis; fructus immaturus 4 mm. longus ellipsoideus 
sparse puberulus costatus. Colombia: Near Rio Flautas, Rio Paez 
Valley, Cauca, alt. 2,700 m., January 26, 1906, H. Pittier 1221 
(U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 531,415, type). 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA , 107 

This species is characterized by the copious pubescence, many- 
flowered inflorescence with divaricate branching, and deeply lobed 
calyx with well-developed green lobes. 

Psychotria oleifolia (HBK.), comb. nov. Coffea oleifolia HBK. 
Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 372. 1820. 

Type from Bogota, Mutis. 

Branches glabrous; stipules connate, truncate; leaves petiolate, 
oblong, subacuminate, cuneately narrowed at the base, reticulate- 
veined, coriaceous, glabrous, shining above, yellowish beneath, 3.5 
cm. long and 2 cm. wide; corymbs terminal, pedunculate, tricho- 
tomous, glabrous; bracts minute; flowers solitary, sessile; calyx 
irregularly incised; corolla glabrous, the 4 lobes oblong, acutish, the 
throat villous. 

Psychotria paramorum, sp. nov. Frutex omnino glaber, 
ramulis crassis teretibus lucidis fusco-brunneis, vetustioribus rimosis; 
stipulae in vaginam intrapetiolarem 4-5 mm. longam connatae, 
parte superiore membranacea et saepe decidua; folia opposita, petiolo 
crasso 3-4 mm. longo supra late sulcato; lamina crasse coriacea, 
ovata, elliptico-ovata vel ovato-oblonga, 3.5-6 cm. longa, 1.5-2.5 
cm. lata, acuminata, basi obtusa, subacuta vel fere rotundata, 
marginata, sublucida, fere concolor, in sicco fusca, costa nervisque 
supra manifestis, costa subtus eleyata gracili, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 8, gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo acuto adscen- 
dentibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis paucis, inter- 
dum prominulis; inflorescentia terminalis vel pseudo-axillaris, 1-3 
cm. longe pedunculata, late paniculata, laxe multiflpra, 2-3 cm. 
longa, 3.5-5.5 cm. lata, basi trichotoma, ramulis divaricatis validis; 
cymulae saepe umbelliformes pauciflorae pedunculatae, pedicellis 
crassis 1-2 mm. longis; bracteae plerumque triangulares et c. 1 mm. 
longae, infimis interdum subulatis et 4 mm. longis; hypanthium 
semiglobosum 1-1.5 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus 
5-dentatus, dentibus triangularibus acutis; corolla alba, hypocrateri- 
formis, 5 mm. longa, extus glabra, lobis late oblongis obtusis tubo 
paullo brevioribus; fructus subglobosus ruber 5 mm. longus obscure 
costatus, costis rotundatis. Colombia: In shrub zone below 
Paramo de Chaquiro, Cordillera Occidental, Dept. Bolivar, alt. 
2,800-3,100 m., February 24, 1918, Francis W. Pennell 4342 (Herb. 
N. Y. Bot. Card., type). Cascada Chorron, south of Antizales, 
Bolivar, Pennell 4388 (Y). 

Evidently a close ally of P. pendula (Jacq.) Urban, of the West 
Indies, but differing in the conspicuously nerved leaves; distinct 
from P. crassa Benth. in the small calyx lobes and inconspicuous 
bracts. 

Psychotria patens Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 45. 1788. P. 
flexuosa Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 966. 1798. Uragoga patens Kuntze, Rev. 



108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Gen. 2: 962. 1891. Palicourea patens Urban, Repert. Sp. Nov. 18: 
197. 1922. 

San Andre's de la Sierra, Magdalena, 1,100-1,300 m., Pittier 1677 
(W). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A slender glabrous shrub, usually about 1 m. high; stipules 
persistent, short, green, biaristate; leaves short-petiolate, lanceolate 
or lance-oblong, long-acuminate, obtuse to acute at the base, stiff; 
inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, paniculate, the very slender 
branches reflexed; calyx lobes triangular; corolla glabrous outside, 
7 mm. long; fruit white or pale blue. 

Psychotria pinularis Sesse* & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2. 57. 1894. 

Santa Marta, 75 m., H. H. Smith 1804 (F, W, G, M, P, Y). 
Rio Frio, between Ci&iaga de Santa Marta and the foothills, Pittier 
1596 (W, G). Barranquilla, Bro. Paul C36 (W). Rio Frio, Santa 
Marta, Walker 1268 (W). Torrecilla, near Turbaco, 150-300 m., 
Kittip & Smith 14245 (W, Y), 14862 (W, Y), 14673 (W, Y). La 
Paila, Cauca, Holton 428 (P, Y). Santa Marta, Schlim 931 (K); 
Goudot (K). Magdalena, Goudot (K). Also in Ecuador, the Guianas, 
Central America, Mexico, and the West Indies. 

A nearly glabrous shrub, usually 1-2 m. high; stipules short, 
connate, acute, green persistent; leaves slender-petiolate, thin, acute 
or acuminate, acute or attenuate at the base; inflorescence pedun- 
culate, terminal, cymose-corymbose, the branches often puberulent; 
calyx truncate; corolla white, up to 1 cm. long, glabrous outside. 

Some of the Colombian material has been distributed as P. 
horizontalis Sw. 

Psychotria pisonioides, sp. npv. Frutex, ramulis validis 
subteretibus, novellis tenuiter ferrugineo-tomentosis, vetustioribus 
griseis rugulosis, internodiis brevibus; stipulae caducae, oblongae, 
11-15 mm. longae, tenues, brunnescentes, glabrae; folia opposita, 
petiolo 3-5 mm. longo supra sulcato puberulo vel glabrato; lamina 
elliptico-oblonga vel oblonga, 3-6.5 cm. longa, 1.5-3.5 cm. lata, 
longe caudato-acuminata, acumine obtuso, basi acuta, papyracea, 
supra fusca, glabra, nervis non elevatis, subtus fusco-brunnescens, 
primo ad nervos sparse puberula, cito glabrata, costa gracili elevata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 8, angulo acuto adscendentibus, 
arcuatis, prominentibus, prope marginem conjunctis, nervulis obso- 
letis; inflorescentia terminalis, cymoso-corymbosa, 2.5-3.5 cm. longe 
pedunculata, dense multiflora, 1.5-2 cm. longa et lata, basi tri- 
chotoma, ramis ferrugineo-tomentulosis, floribus aggregatis sessi- 
libus; bracteae lineares vel subulatae, 3-5 mm. longae; calyx 3-3.5 
mm. longus, tubuloso-campanulatus, glaber, ad medium vel pro- 
fundius 5-lobus, laciniis lanceolatis longiattenuatis erectis; corolla 
alba infundibuliformis extus glabra, tubo 7 mm. longo, superne 
paullo ampliato, ore 2.5 mm. lato, lobis triangularibus obtusis 2 
mm. longis. Colombia: In forest, Pinares, above Salento, Dept. 
Caldas, alt. 2,600-2,900 m., August 2-10, 1922, Francis W. Pennell 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 109 

9204 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,679, type). Quindio, La Trocha, 
Goudot (K). 

This Psychotria may be recognized by its small caudate-acuminate 
leaves, and by the large, deeply lobed calyx. 

Psychotria Pittieri Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 132. 
1916. 

Cupica, Seemann 1021 (K). Also in Central America. 

A slender, densely branched shrub; stipules 4-6 mm. long, 
persistent, green, the lobes linear-subulate; leaves short-petiolate, 
elliptic, 4-5.5 cm. long, abruptly acuminate, obtuse or acute at the 
base, hirsutulous above along the costa, appressed-pilosulous 
beneath; inflorescence terminal, sessile, few-flowered; calyx lobes 
rounded-ovate, obtuse; corolla white, 4-5 mm. long, appressed- 
pubescent; fruit blue. 

Psychotria podocephala (Muell. Arg.), comb. nov. Mapouria 
podocephala Muell. Arg. Flora 59: 460, 466. 1876. 

Type from the region of San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 
3076, 8682. 

Glabrous; stipules oblong-ovate, acute, connate, 5-6 mm. long; 
leaves petiolate, spatulate-obovate, 18-23 cm. long, cuspidate; 
flowers capitate, arranged in a terminal short-pedunculate head 
14-16 mm. in diameter; calyx lobes 4-5, broadly ovate, obtuse; 
corolla 7 mm. long, barbate in the throat; fruit 13 mm. long. 

Psychotria psychotriaefolia (Seem.) Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 18: 133. 1916. Cephaelis psychotriaefolia Seem. Bot. Voy. 
Herald 138. 1852-57. 

Without locality, Lehmann 9043 (K, Y). Poponte, Allen 886 
(K). Also in Panama. 

A shrub, the young branches ferruginous-tomentose; stipules 
thin, brown, 1.5-2 cm. long, attenuate, caducous; leaves short- 
petiolate, obovate to oblong-oblanceolate, acute or short-acuminate, 
attenuate to the base, puberulent beneath, at least on the nerves; 
inflorescences axillary and terminal, sessile, dense, the branches 2 
cm. long or less, each with several glomerules of sessile flowers, 
ferruginous-tomentose; calyx dentate; corolla 3 mm. long; fruit red, 
4-5 mm. long, glabrous. 

Psychotria rhodoleuca Muell. Arg. Flora 59: 541, 545. 1876; 
in Mart. Fl. Bras. 65: 314. pi. 49, f. 1. 1881. 

Type from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 3674- 
A glabrous shrub; stipules short-sheathing, bisetose on each side; 
leaves nearly sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, 10-15 cm. long, cuspidate- 
acuminate; inflorescence terminal, short-pedunculate, paniculate, 
compact, the bracts foliaceous, linear-spatulate, ciliolate; calyx 
5-denticulate; corolla red; flowers 13-16 mm. long; fruits 3 mm. long. 



110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Psychotria rondeletioides, sp. nov. Ramuli rigidi graciles 
teretes virides glabri, internodiis 5-6.5 cm. longis; stipulae (perfectae 
non visae) persistentes, 5-6 mm. longae, basi incrassatae, ut videtur 
apice mucronatae, glabrae; folia breviter petiolata opppsita, petiolo 
crasso 5 mm. longo glabro; lamina coriacea, late elliptica vel ovali- 
elliptica, 7-10.5 cm. longa, 4-6 cm. lata, apice abrupte acuta, acumine 
acuto, basi obtusa, late rotundata vel subtruncata, utrinque glabra, 
luteo-viridis, concolor, neryis supra conspicuis sed vix elevatis, costa 
subtus elevata gracili, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 7-9, gracilibus, 
elevatis, subarcuatis, angulo lato divergentibus, prope marginem 
conjunctis, nervulis prominentibus et arete reticulatis; inflorescentia 
terminalis 5 cm. longe pedunculata cymoso-paniculata, 5 cm. longa 
et aequilata, pedunculo gracili erecto fere glabro, ramis verticillatis 
gracilibus adscendentibus minutissime puberulis, floribus ad apices 
ramulorum plerumque ternis sessilibus vel 1-2 mm. longe pedicellatis, 
bracteis minutissimis vel obsoletis; hypanthium turbinatum 1-1.5 
mm. longum minute puberulum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus minute 
4-denticulatus, dentibus acutis; corolla extus minutissime puberula, 
tubo crasso 3.5 mm. longo superne paullo ampliatp, lobis 4 ovalibus 
obtusis 2 mm. longis. Colombia: Without definite locality, Funck 
& Schlim (Herb. Kew., type). 

The material available is very scant, and there is some doubt 
regarding the proper generic disposition of the plant. If really a 
Psychotria, as seems probable, it is a well-marked species, easily 
recognized by its broad, yellow-green, nearly sessile leaves. 

Psychotria rufescens H. & B. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 192. 
1819. P. micrantha HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 363. pi. 284. 1820. 
Mapouria micrantha Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 69. 1914. 

Type from Rio Magdalena, Humboldt and Bonpland. La Manue- 
lita, Palmira, El Valle, 1,100 m., Pennell & Killip 6161 (W). Rio 
Agua Bonita to Rio Vieja, east of Zarzal, El Valle, 1,100-1,300 m., 
Pennell, Killip & Hazen 8580 (W, G, Y). Cuchilla, east of Zarzal, 
El Valle, 1,200-1,600 m., Pennell, Killip & Hazen 8524 (W). With- 
out locality, Lehmann 668 (W). Between Narino and El Tambor, 
Santander, 150-300 m., Killip & Smith 14961 (W). Santa Marta, 
600 m., H. H. Smith 317 (F, W, G, P). Rio Orejas, Cauca, 1,000- 
1,400 m., Lehmann 7933 (F, W). Without locality, Andre 2925 (K). 
Also in Ecuador and Central America. 

A shrub or small tree, the branches rufous-hirsute; stipules large, 
caducous, brown, bidentate at the apex; leaves petiolate, oblong, 
oblong-elliptic, or lance-oblong, acuminate at the apex, acute or 
attenuate at the base, softly pubescent, especially beneath ; inflores- 
cence terminal, pedunculate, pubescent, open-paniculate, radiately 
branched; calyx lobes short, broad, obtuse; corolla white or greenish 
yellow, pubescent, 3 mm. long; fruit pubescent, 4 mm. long. 

Psychotria rufiramea, sp. nov. Arbor parva, ramulis crassis 
subteretibus ferrugineo-puberulis vel glabratis, internodiis elongatis ; 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 111 

stipulae caducae, late ovatae, 1 cm. longae, breviter connatae, 
obtusae vel subtruncatae, rarius acutae, ferrugineo-puberulae; folia 
opposita, petiolo valido 0.5-1.5 cm. longo puberulo; lamina subcori- 
acea, obovata vel obovato-oblonga, 11-29 cm. longa, 5-12 cm. lata, 
apice obtusa vel rotundata et abrupte breviterque acuminata, 
acumine triangulari obtuso, basin versus sensim vel abrupte longeque 
angustata, decurrens, supra fusco-viridis, glabra, nervis non elevatis, 
subtus paullo pallidior, brunnescens, vulgo ubique sed praesertim 
ad nervos minute ferrugineo-puberula, costa valida elevata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 16, gracilibus, angulo acuto vel lato 
adscendentibus, prominentibus, arcuatis, prope marginem conjunctis, 
nervulis irregularibus prominulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentia 
terminalis vel pseudo-axillaris, 5-10 cm. longe pedunculata, late 
cymoso-paniculata, 3-10 cm. longa, 5-18 cm. lata, basi interdum 
foliis parvis bracteata, pedunculo crasso, ramis primariis validis, 
inferioribus verticillatis, superioribus oppositis divaricatis vel etiam 
subreflexis, dense ferrugineo-puberulis, floribus sessilibus ad apices 
ramulorum dense capitato-congestis; bracteae ovatae vel lanceolatae, 
2-8 mm. longae, ferrugineo-tomentellae, persistentes; h^anthium 
1 mm. longum tomentellum; calyx 1 mm. longus 5-dentatus, ferru- 
gineo-tomentellus vel glabratus, dentibus latis obtusis brevibus; 
corolla alba, tubuloso-infundibuliformis, 4-6 mm. longa, extus 
glabra, tubo crasso superne paullo dilatato, lobis obtusis tubo triple 
brevioribus; fructus subglobosus 5-6 mm. longus glabratus leviter 
costatus. Colombia: In forest above La Cumbre, Cordillera 
Occidental, Dept. El Valle, 1,800-2,200 m., May 14-19, 1922, 
Ellsworth P. Killip 5582 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,571, type; 
duplicates in G and Y); alt. 1,550-1,700 m., Pennell 5026 (W, G, Y). 
Forest above Salento, Caldas, 2,000-2,500 m., Pennell 8919 (W). 
Las Vegas, Santander, in dense woods along stream, 2,600-3,000 
m., Killip & Smith 16056 (W, Y). 

The outstanding characters of this species are the large leaves 
and abundant rusty pubescence. 

Psychotria rugulosa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 356. 1820. 

East slopes of central Andes of Popayan, 1,800-2,200 m., Lehmann 
7932 (F, K). Dolores, Tolima, 1,000-1,500 m., Lehmann 6360 (F, K, 
W). Anganche and La Teta, highlands of Popayan, 1,000-1,400 
m., Lehmann 5168 (F, K). Also in Ecuador, and in Peru(?). 

A shrub, the branches glabrous; stipules oblong, acuminate, thin, 
brown, caducous; leaves petiolate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 
very long-acuminate, long-attenuate to the base, finely puberulent 
beneath along the nerves, the nerves impressed above; inflorescence 
terminal, pedunculate, cymose-paniculate, rather dense, many- 
flowered, the branches glabrous or nearly so; bracts linear, deciduous; 
flowers sessile; calyx dentate, ciliolate; corolla glabrous outside, 5 
mm. long, the lobes acutish, equaling the tube; fruit globose, gla- 
brous, red, 4 mm. long. 



112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

The original locality of the species is given doubtfully as Peru, 
but no Peruvian specimens have been seen by the writer. 

Psychotria salentana, sp. noy. Arbor parva, ramulis crassis 
subteretibus glabris in sicco fuscis, internodiis 2.5-4 cm. longis; 
stipulae caducae oblongo-ovatae, acutae, fere liberae, 2.5 cm. longae, 
tenues, ferrugineae, glabrae; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 1.5-3 cm. 
longo supra sulcato glabro; lamina obovata vel oblongp-obovata, 
19-30 cm. longa, 7.5-13 cm. lata, crasse papyracea, apice obtusa 
vel fere rotundata et breviter cuspidato-acuminata, acumine anguste 
triangulari 1-1.5 cm. longo attenuate, basin versus longe angustata, 
glabra, supra obscure viridis, nervis non elevatis, subtus paullo 
pallidior, brunnescens, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 17, angulo acuto adscendentibus, gracilibus, 
prominentibus, fere rectis, prope marginem conjunctis; inflorescentia 
terminalis, 4-7.5 cm. longe pedunculata, late cymoso-paniculata, 
7-12 cm. longa, 8-13 cm. lata, multiflora, remote ramosa, ramis 
primariis verticillatis adscendentibus vel divaricatis interdum 
subreflexis validis glabris, cymulis capituliformibus dense pauci- 
floris, floribus sessilibus; bracteae deciduae, ovatae vel lanceolatae, 
acutae, remote ciliolatae; hypanthium late turbinatum 1 mm. 
longum glabrum; calyx 1-1.5 mm. longus glaber truncatus vel 
remote undulato-dentatus; corolla alba, hypocrateriformis, 4.5 mm. 
longa, extus glabra, tubo crasso fauce dense albo-barbato, lobis late 
oblongis obtusis apice minute cucullatis tubo longioribus; fructus 
subglobosus 4.5-5 cm. longus glaber obtuse leviterque costatus. 
Colombia: In forest, Rio Boquilla, west of Salento, Cordillera 
Occidental, Dept. Caldas, alt. 1,600-1,900 m., July 27, 1922, Ellsworth 
P. Killip and Tracy E. Hazen 8793 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,657, 
type; duplicate in G). Rio Santa Rita, Salento, in dense forest, 
1,600-1,800 m., Killip & Hazen 9011* (W). 

The species is related to P. grandis Sw., but has very different 
stipules. 

Psychotria salicifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 356. 1820. 

Type locality given doubtfully as "New Granada" (Colombia). 
Western Andes of Popayan, 1,500-1,800 m., Lehmann 5907 (F). 
Highlands of Popayan, 1,600-1,900 m., Lehmann B.T .393 (F). 

A shrub 2 m. high, glabrous or nearly so; stipules oblong, acute, 
brown, caducous; leaves petiolate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 
mostly 5-8 cm. long, long-acuminate, long-attenuate to the base, 
glabrous; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, cymose-paniculate, 
small, open, radiately branched at base, the bracts caducous; flowers 
short-pedicellate; calyx shallowly dentate; corolla 4 mm. long, 
glabrous outside, the lobes longer than the tube, the throat naked; 
fruit globose, glabrous. 

Psychotria sanmartensis Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 
139. 1920. P. indulgens Rusby, 1. c. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 113 

Las Partidas, 1,050 m., H. H. Smith 1829 (Y, type; F, M, W, P). 
Valparaiso, 1,350 m., H. H. Smith 1828 (Y, type of P. indulgens; 
F, W, M, P, S). Las Vegas, Santander, in woods, 2,600-3,000 m., 
Kittip & Smith 15967 (W, Y), 15984 (W, Y). 

A glabrous tree 7-10 m. high; stipules short, sheathing, the 
margin deciduous; leaves short-petiolate, coriaceous, elliptic-ovate 
to elliptic-oblong, acuminate at the apex, acute or acuminate at 
the base, shining; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, dense, many- 
flowered, cymose-corymbose, repeatedly dichotomous, as broad as 
long; central flower of each 3-flowered cymule sessile, the lateral 
ones pedicellate; calyx obscurely dentate; corolla white, glabrous, 
6-7 mm. long, the lobes shorter than the tube; fruit 5-6 mm. long, 
subglobose, white. 

The types of P. sanmartensis and P. indulgens are so very much 
alike that it is difficult to guess why they should have been considered 
to represent distinct species. 

Psychotria santae-rosae, sp. nqv. Frutex 3.5 m. altus, 
ramulis gracilibus pilis fulvis patentibus dense setoso-hirsutis; 
stipulae lanceolato-oblongae, persistentes, 1.5-2 cm. longae, breviter 
connatae, hispidae, ad medium bifidae, lobis angustis longiattenuatis, 
late pallideque marginatae, ciliatae; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 
1-4.5 cm. longo hirsute; lamina papyracea elliptica vel elliptico- 
oblonga, 14.5-26 cm. longa, 6.5-11.5 cm. lata, caudato-acuminata, 
acumine angusto attenuate, basi acuta vel subobtusa, utrinque 
pilis longis setoso-hirsuta, supra viridis, nervis prominulis, subtus 
fusca, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 16-20, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo lato vel angusto adscendentibus, 
gracilibus, arcuatis, prope marginem conjunctis, nervulis transversis 
prominulis subparallelis; inflorescentia terminalis vel pseudo-axillaris, 
6-14 cm. longe pedunculata, paniculata vel thyrsoidea, 4-9.5 cm. 
longa, 2-5 cm. lata, densissime multiflora, pedunculo gracili dense 
hispido, ramis primariis c. 1.5 cm. longis verticillatis crassis rectis 
divaricatis hispidis, floribus ad apices ramorum primariorum dense 
capitato-congestis; bracteae ovato-oblongae vel lanceolatae, 3-10 
mm. longae, obtusae vel acutae, hispidulae; calyx 2 mm. longus 
5-lobus, lobis lineari-lanceolatis attenuatis hispidulis; fructus subglo- 
bosus 2,5-3 mm. longus breviter hispidus vel glabratus, leviter 
costatus, calyce persistente coronatus. Colombia: In forest, Santa 
Rosa, Dagua Valley, Dept. El Valle, alt. 200-300 m., September 
22, 1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 11580 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,714, 
type). 

Related to P. daguensis Standl., but differing in the very large 
leaves, copious long pubescence, and ample inflorescence. 

Psychotria Schlimii, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis gracilibus 
teretibus glabris, internodiis 1-3 cm. longis; stipulae persistentes 
in vaginam truncatam glabram 1 mm. longam connatae, vagina in 



114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

lacinias 4 subulatas 1-2 mm. longas erectas glabras remotas desinente; 
folia petiolata opposita, petiolo gracili 5-9 mm. longo glabro; lamina 
rigide membranacea, anguste lanceolato-oblonga, 4-8.5 cm. longa, 
1-2 cm. lata, longissime et angustissime acuminata, acumine apice 
anguste attenuate, basin versus longe sensimque angustata, supra 
luteq-viridis, ad costam prominentem sparse pilosula, aliter glabra, 
nervis vix prominulis, subtus paullo pallidior, ad nervos minute 
pilosula, aliter glabra, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 11, gracillimis, prominulis, arcuatis, angulo lato 
adscendentibus, in marginem desinentibus, nervulis obscuris; 
inflorescentia terminalis vel pseudo-axillaris, sessilis, cymoso-pani- 
culata, interdum racemose ramosa, e basi pauciramosa, folia vix 
aequans, ramis gracilibus rectis rigidis glabris, floribus ad apices 
ramorum capitato-congestis sessilibus, bracteis lineari-subulatis 
plerumque 2-3 mm. longis; hypanthium 1 mm. longum glabrum; 
calyx glaber 1-1.2 mm. longus breviter dentatus, dentibus ovatis 
acutis; corolla alba, tubo gracili cylindrico 10 mm. longo extus 
glabro fauce non barbato, lobis 5 oblongis patentibus obtusis 3 
mm. longis intus minutissime papillosis; antherae exsertae oblongae 
1.5 mm. longae. Colombia: Province of Ocaiia, alt. 1,800 m., 
May, 1846-52, L. Schlim 695 (Herb. Kew., type). 

An isolated species of uncertain affinities, perhaps not properly 
referable to Psychotria. 

Psychotria sinuensis, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis subteretibus 
gracilibus fusco-ferrugineis sparse ferrugineo-villusulis, internodiis 
elongatis; stipulae caducae, subliberae, ovato-lanceolatae, 2 cm. 
longae, acuminato-attenuatae, tenues, ferrugineae, glabratae; folia 
opposita, petiolo crasso c. 1 cm. longo puberulo; lamina elliptica, 
crasse papyracea, marginata, 16-23 cm. longa, 8-11.5 cm. lata, 
acuta vel obtusa et brevissime protracta, basi acuta vel abrupte 
contracta et longe decurrens, supra glabra, nervis non elevatis, 
subtus statu juvenili saltern ad nervos minute ferrugineo-puberula, 
mox glabrata, costa crassa elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
c. 17, angulo lato adscendentibus, gracilibus, prominentibus, 
arcuatis, prope marginem in nervum collectivum conjunctis, nervulis 
obscuris; inflorescentia pseudo-axillaris, sessilis, e basi ramosa, 
ramis primariis 5-10 mm. longis crassis puberulis apice umbellato- 
ramosis, floribus capitatis sessilibus, capitulis densissime multifloris 
breviter pedicellatis 6-8 mm. latis; bracteae latae, capitula involu- 
crantes, c. 4 mm. longae, acutae vel acuminatae, acute irregulari- 
terque lobatae, ferrugineae, glabratae, bracteis interioribus angustis; 
hypanthium turbinatum 1 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 1.2 mm. 
latus. Colombia: In forest, Boca Verde on Rio Sinu, Dept. Bolivar, 
alt. 100-400 m., March 4, 1918, Francis W. Pennell 4572 (Herb. 
N. Y. Bot. Gard., type). 

The type material is only in bud. The species is marked by the 
peculiar inflorescence. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 115 

Psychotria spiciflora, nom. nov. P. spicata Muell. Arg. Flora 
59: 550. 1876, non Benth. 1841. 

Collected near San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 3089. Also 
in Brazil. 

Glabrous; stipules bifid, 2 mm. long, the lobes ovate, subacute; 
leaves petiolate, lance-obovate, 10-20 cm. long, cuspidate, cuneate 
at the base; inflorescence terminal, nearly sessile, spicate, dense, 2 
cm. long; calyx obsoletely 5-denticulate; corolla red, 1.5-1.7 mm. 
long, the lobes equaling the tube. 

Psychotria Spruceana (Muell. Arg.), comb. nov. Mapouria 
Spruceana Muell. Arg. Flora 59: 496. 1876. 

Type collected on the Rio Negro above the mouth of the Rio 
Casiquiari, Spruce 8843. 

Branchlets glabrous; stipules connate into a short truncate 
sheath; leaves short-petiolate, lance-elliptic, 8-12 cm. long, cuspidate, 
acute at the base, coriaceous; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, 
corymbiform, 2 cm. long and 3-3.5 cm. wide, the flowers sessile or 
the ultimate ones pedicellate; calyx truncate and obtusely 5-dentate; 
corolla 5-7 mm. long, pulverulent-tomentulose, the lobes half as 
long as the tube; fruit ellipsoid, 6 mm. long. 

Psychotria tatamana, sp. nov. Frutex ut videtur dense 
ramosus, ramulis validis teretibus ferrugineis, novellis dense ferru- 
gineo-villosulis, internodiis brevibus; stipulae 5-6 mm. longae, fere 
liberae, caducae, ovato-triangulares, subulato-acuminatae, tenues, 
ferrugineae, puberulae vel glabratae; folia opposita, petiolo 3-5 mm. 
longo valido ferrugineo-puberulo; lamina elliptico-oblonga vel ellip- 
tico-lanceolata, 2-3.5 cm. longa, 0.7-1.4 cm. wide, subcoriacea, 
acuminata, acumine pbtuso, basi acuta, marginata, supra fusco- 
viridis glabra, rhaphidibus minutis conspersa, nervis obsoletis, subtus 
pallidior, brunnescens, ad nervos villosula vel scaberula, costa valida 
prominente, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 6, angulo lato adscen- 
dentibus, gracilibus, prominulis, arcuatis, prope marginem conjunctis, 
nervulis obsoletis; inflorescentia terminalis vel pseudo-axillaris, 
sessilis vel 1.3 cm. longe pedunculata, cymosa, pauciflora, 1.5-2 
cm. longa, interdum fere capitata, ramulis dense ferrugineo-puberulis, 
floribus sessilibus vel breviter pedicellatis dense confertis; hypan- 
thium turbinatum 1.2 mm. longum glabratum; calyx 1.5-2 mm. 
longus extus minutissime puberulus, lobis late oblongis obtusis; 
corolla alba, infundibuliformis, extus glabra, 13 mm. longa, tubo 
superne sensim dilatato fauce fere 5 mm. lato, lobis 3.5-4 mm. 
longis triangulari-oblongis acutiusculis, apice brevissime cucullatis, 
intus glabris; fructus ruber subglobosus 6 mm. longus glaber leviter 
obtuseque costatus, calyce persistente coronatus. Colombia: Mossy 
forest, Cerro Tatama, Dept. Caldas, Cordillera Occidental, alt. 
3,200-3,400 m., September 8-10, 1922, Francis W. Pennell 10511 
(U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,698, type), 10510 (W, Y). 



116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A plant of distinctive appearance because of the very numerous 
small leaves, small inflorescence, nearly concealed among the leaves, 
and large corolla. 

Psychotria undata Jacq. PL Hort. Schoenbr. 3: 5. pi. 260. 
1798. P. rufescens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 364. 1820. P. hirta 
HBK., 1. c., non H. & B. 1819. P. rufescens a ferruginea DC. 
Prodr. 4: 512. 1830. P. rufescens hirta DC., 1. c. 

Santa Marta, 150 m., H. H. Smith 318 (F, W, G, M, P); sea- 
shore, H. H. Smith 1800 (F, W, G, M, P), 1801 (F, W, G, M, P); 
H. H. Smith 8J>9 (Y). La Manuelita, Cauca, 1,100-1,300 m., Pittier 
793 (W, G). Panche, Andre 1638 (F, K, Y). Type of P. hirta 
from the Andes of Quindio, Humboldt and Bonpland. Also in Vene- 
zuela, Central America, the West Indies, and Mexico. 

A shrub, the branches rufous-hirsute; stipules large, thin, brown, 
obtuse, caducous; leaves short-petiolate, oblong-elliptic to oblong- 
obovate, acuminate at the apex, acute to attenuate at the base, 
rufous-pilose, especially beneath, thin; inflorescence terminal and 
axillary, sessile, short, rufous-pilose, the flowers in small dense 
glomerules; calyx truncate; corolla white, pubescent, 3-4 mm. 
long; fruit 5 mm. long, pubescent. 

Psychotria viridis R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 61. pi. 210, f. b. 1799. 
P. glomerata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 362. 1820. P. microdesmia 
Oerst. Vid. Medd. Kjob. 1852: 36. 1852. 

Guayabal, Zarzal, El Valle, 900 m., Killip 8362 (W, G). Ranging 
southward to Bolivia and north to Central America and Cuba. 

A glabrous shrub or small tree; stipules large, acuminate, thin, 
brown, caducous; leaves short-petiolate, obovate or obovate-oblong, 
acute or short-acuminate at the apex, cuneately attenuate to the 
base; inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, spicate-paniculate, the 
lower branches verticillate, the minute flowers sessile in distant 
glomerules; corolla greenish white; fruit red. 

66. PALICOUREA Aubl. 

Palicourea is an American genus which reaches its greatest 
development in the South American Andes. It extends northward to 
central Mexico, and ranges through the West Indies, but with only 
a small number of representatives. In Central America the species 
are very few until Costa Rica is reached. In that country, whose 
flora shows such striking affinities with that of Ecuador, the number 
of Palicoureas is a substantial one, and the shrubs form a conspicu- 
ous part of the undergrowth in the cold wet mountain forests. 
Psychotria is represented in Mexico by a respectable number of 
species, and in the West Indies by a very large number. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 117 

Most of the members of both genera are quite without economic 
importance. Although the Psychotrias, except sometimes in fruit, 
are inconspicuous, with chiefly whitish or greenish flowers, the 
Palicoureas often are strikingly beautiful, with blossoms in varying 
shades of yellow, orange, red, blue and purple. 

The stipules in Palicourea are always, probably, persistent, 
green, and united into a sheath which terminates in four broad or 
narrow lobes. The leaves are much more uniform than in Psychotria. 
The inflorescence is terminal and generally thyrsiform, although not 
invariably so. The corolla is usually longer and narrower than in 
Psychotria, and nearly always has an evident "bulge" at the base. 

When dry, the inflorescence almost always has a yellowish or 
reddish tinge, which is rare in Psychotria. The corollas often change 
color in drying, especially if they are blue or purple. 

About 70 species of Palicourea are known at present from 
Colombia. Probably no other country can produce so large a number, 
unless it be Ecuador. The Ecuadorian flora is still so little known 
that one can not make estimates regarding its composition with any 
high degree of safety. 

Palicourea abbreviata Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 141. 
1920. 

Top of San Lorenzo Ridge, 2,250 m., H. H. Smith 1815 (Y, type). 
Without locality, Triana 1653 (K), 1647 (K), 1656 (K). 

A gnarled shrub 3 m. high, the branches glabrous; stipule sheath 
loose, 6-8 mm. long, the lobes distant, linear, slightly shorter; leaves 
short-petiolate, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 4-7 cm. long, 2-4 cm. 
wide, acuminate at the apex, obtuse or rounded at the base, cori- 
aceous, densely short-pilose beneath along the nerves; panicles 
sessile or nearly so, pyramidal, 5 cm. long, very dense, many- 
flowered, the branches ascending, nearly glabrous, the bracts small, 
ovate or lanceolate; flowers sessile or short-pedicellate; calyx lobes 
short, rounded; corolla glabrous, 9 mm. long, stout. 

Palicourea acetosoides Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 280. 1917. 

Type from Colombia, Triana 126. 

A nearly glabrous shrub; stipules closely sheathing, the tube 
5 mm. long, the distant lobes 2 mm. long; leaves petiolate, papy- 
raceous, elliptic-obovate, scarcely acuminate, cuneately narrowed to 
the base, minutely pilose beneath on the costa; inflorescence 
30 cm. long, the basal branches 6 cm. long, the upper branches 1-2 cm. 
long, glabrous, the bracts small; calyx lobes oblong, obtuse; corolla 
4 mm. long, yellowish-pulverulent. 



118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Palicourea Albert-Smithii, sp. nov. Frutex 1-3-metralis, 
ramulis gracilibus glabris, junioribus subtetragonis viridibus in 
sicco fusco-olivaceis, vetustioribus subteretibus olivaceo-ochraceis, 
internodiis elongatis; stipulae in vaginam 2.5-4 mm. longam glabram 
truncatam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 remotos lineares yel anguste 
triangulares acutiusculos erectos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo 
gracili 8-12 mm. longo supra sulcato sparse minuteque adpresso- 
pilosulo; lamina crasse papyracea, elliptico-oblonga vel oblongo- 
ovata, 6-13 cm. longa, 2-5 cm. lata, acuminata, apice obtuso, basi 
acuta, marginata, supra viridis, ad costam vix prominentem minute 
puberula, subtus pallidior, ad venas minute hirtella, costa gracili 
elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 14, angulo lato adscen- 
dentibus, gracilibus, pallidis, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, 
nervulis prominentibus reticulatis; inflorescentia sessilis vel 1.5-2.5 
cm. longe pedunculata, pyramidali-paniculata, prope basin interdum 
foliaceo-bracteata, 6-10 cm. longa, 5-7 cm. lata, laxe multiflora, 
ramulis gracilibus adscendentibus hirtellis; bracteae lineares vel 
lanceolatae, 2-5 mm. longae, interdum virides, minute hirtellae vel 
glabrae; flores sparsi, pedicellis gracilibus 2.5-5 mm. longis; hypan- 
thium semiglobosum 1.5 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 1-2 mm. 
longus profunde 5-lobus, lobis valde inaequalibus oblongis vel late 
triangularibus obtusis vel acutis glabratis, saepius ciliolatis; corolla 
caerulea extus glabra tubulosa 17 mm. longa, tubo gracili basi 
paullo ampliato, fauce 2.5 mm. lato, lobis oblongis obtusis 3 mm. 
longis; fructus didymo-globosus 5 mm. latus glaber sulcatus, costis 
obtusis. Colombia: In wooded valley, Paramo del Hatico, between 
Toledo and Pamplona, Dept. Norte de Santander, alt. 2,900 m., 
March 12-13, 1927, E. P. Killip & Albert C. Smith 20700 (U. S. 
Nat. Herb. No. 1,355,706, type; duplicate in Y). Between Pamplona 
and Toledo, in dense woods, 2,800-3,000 m., Killip & Smith 20008 
(W). Toledo, Norte de Santander, 1,700-1,900 m., Killip & Smith 
20096 (W, Y). 

The plant is noteworthy for the lax inflorescence and slender 
blue corollas. 

Palicourea albiflora, sp. nov. Ramuli graciles obtuse tetragoni 
dense villosulo-tomentosi, internodiis 3-5 cm. longis; stipulae persis- 
tentes in vaginam 6-7 mm. longam truncatam dense tomentosam 
adpressam connatae, vagina in lacinias 4 oblongo-lineares 6-8 mm. 
longas sparse tomentosas vel glabratas ciliatas approximatas desi- 
nente; folia opposita, petiolo 9-13 mm. longo gracili sordido-tomen- 
toso; lamina subcoriacea, anguste elliptico-oblonga vel ovato-oblonga, 
7.7-9 cm. longa, 2.5-3.3 cm. lata, abrupte sensimve longiacuminata, 
acumine angusto versus apicem obtusum sensim attenuate, basi 
acuta, supra viridis, ad costam sparse villosa aliter glabra, nervis 
non elevatis, subtus pallida, ad costam gracilem elevatam villosa, 
ad nervos et nervulos adpresso-pilosula, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 12, angulo acuto adscendentibus, gracilibus, prominentibus, 
arcuatis, in marginem desinentibus, nervulis prominulis arete 
reticulatis; inflorescentia terminalis 4.5 cm. longe pedunculata, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 119 

pyramidali-paniculata, dense multiflora, c. 4 cm. longa et aequilata, 
basi trichotoma et foliaceo-bracteata, ramis divaricatis dense villo- 
sulo-tomentosis, floribus dense congestis 1-2 mm. longe pedicellatis, 
bracteis conspicuis linearibus vel anguste oblongis, plerumque 5-8 
mm. longis obtusis sparse villosulis; hypanthium breyiter villosulum 
obovoideum 1.5 mm. longum; calyx glabratus, laciniis 5 oblongis 
3-4 mm. longis obtusis erectis ciliatis; corolla alba 8-9 mm. longa, 
in alabastrp obtusa, extus sparse breviterque villosula vel glabrata, 
tubo gracili superne paullo sensimque dilato fauce 2 mm. lato, lobis 
late oblongis obtusis 1.5 mm. longis suberectis. Colombia: Cuchilla, 
Divisadera, Goudot (Herb. Kew., type). 

In most characters the plant is similar to P. ionantha Standl., 
but in that the pubescence is much less abundant, the calyx lobes 
are much shorter, and the corolla is glabrous. 

< 

Palicourea anacardifolia (H. & B.), comb. nov. Psychotria 
anacardifolia H. & B. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 190. 1819. Palicourea 
macrocarpa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 369. 1820. 

Type locality of P. macrocarpa given as "In calidis Regni Novo- 
Granatensis(?)." 

Branches glabrous; stipules connate, bifid, the lobes linear, 
exceeding the petioles; leaves opposite, petiolate, obovate-oblong, 
short-acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, paler beneath 
and hirtellous, especially on the nerves, 15-22 cm. long; panicles 
pedunculate, 7.5-10 cm. long, the branches spreading, glabrous, the 
bracts linear; calyx lobes rounded-ovate, acute; corolla glabrous, 
16-18 mm. long; fruit subglobose, as large as the fruit of Prunus 
spinosa. 

Because of the large size of the fruit, it is probable that the 
plant is not a Palicourea. 

Palicourea anceps, sp. nov. Arbor parva, ramulis crassiusculis 
subteretibus glabris, internodiis brevibus; stipulae in vaginam 3-4 
mm. longam truncatam glabram connatae, vagina in lobos 4 breves 
remotos erectos 2-3.5 mm. longos oblongos vel lineares acutos vel 
obtusos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 5-10 mm. longo 
glabro; lamina rigide coriacea, lanceolato-oblonga vel elliptico- 
oblonga, 7-13.5 cm. longa, 2.5-5 cm. lata, acuminata, acumine 
obtuso vel acuto, basi acuta, glabra vel rarius subtus ad nervos 
hinc inde hirtella, supra lutescenti-yiridis, costa prominente, nervis 
manifestis sed non elevatis, subtus vix pallidior, costa gracili elevata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere plerumque 14-16, gracilibus, promi- 
nentibus, angulq lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, marginem attin- 
gentibus, nervulis prominulis reticulatis; inflorescentia sessilis vel 
2-4.5 cm. longe pedunculata, pyramidali-paniculata, dense multi- 
flora, 5-10 cm. longa, 4-9 cm. lata, ramulis adscendentibus glabris; 
bracteae plerumque oblongae vel ovatae et 2-5 mm. longae, obtusae 



120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

vel acutae, glabrae, ciliolatae; pedicelli crassi 1-5 mm. longi apice 
vix incrassati; hypanthium late turbinatum 2 mm. longum glabrum; 
calyx 1.5 mm. longus profunde lobatus, lobis late ovatis obtusis vel 
acutiusculis glabris; corolla tubulosa extus glabra 14-16 mm. longa, 
tubo basi paullo ampliato, superne vix dilatato, fauce 3-4 mm. lato, 
lobis 2 mm. longis oblongo-ovatis intus minute papillosis; antherae 
inclusae; stylus interdum exsertus; fructus subglobosus 6-8 mm. 
longus glaber purpureo-niger sulcatus, costis obtusis. Colombia: 
In forest, Canaan, Mount Purac<, Dept. El Cauca, alt. 3,100-3,300 
m., June 11-13, 1922, Francis W. Pennell and Ellsworth P. Killip 
6608 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,595, type; duplicates in G and Y). 
Paletara to Calaguala, Cauca, open brushy forest, 3,000-3,200 m., 
Pennell 7082 (W, G, Y). Cordillera Oriental, east of Neiva, in 
forest, 2,000-2,500 m., Rusby & Pennell 612 (W, G, Y). Coconuco, 
Cauca, in woodland along stream, 2,300-2,500 m., Killip 6876 (W, 
G, Y). Without locality, Ariste-Joseph 702 (W, Y; determination 
doubtful). 

The color of the corolla is described variously in the collector's 
notes: "tube deep blue, lobes dark green;" "yellow and green;" 
"green-yellow;" and "blue and yellow." 

Palicourea Andrei, sp. nov. Ramuli validi subteretes fusco- 
brunnei breviter pilosuli; stipulae late ovatae obtusae 7 mm. longae 
pilosulae subpersistentes; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 2 cm. longo 
breviter piloso; lamina ovato-ovalis, 13-16 cm. longa, 8.5-10 cm. 
lata, obtusa(?), basi late rotundata, subcoriacea, supra obscure 
viridis, adpresse pilosula, nervis npn elevatis, subtus pallidior, dense 
pilosa, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 22, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo fere recto divergentibus, leviter 
arcuatis, marginem attingentibus; inflorescentia x 6.5 cm. longe 
pedunculata, cymoso-paniculata, c. 8 cm. longa et lata, dense 
multiflora, trichotoma, ramis suberectis dense villoso-pilpsulis, 
floribus sessilibus dense confertis; bracteae late ovatae acuminatae 
1.5-3 mm. longae pilosulae; hypanthium semiglobosum 1.5 mm. 
longum dense pilosulum; calyx 2-2.5 mm. longus pilosulus breviter 
lobatus, lobis late ovatis obtusis; corolla hypocrateriformis extus 
minute villosula, tubo fere 3 cm. longo basi ampliato, superne vix 
dilatato, fauce 4 mm. lato, lobis anguste oblongis 7 mm. longis 
obtusis. Colombia: Altaquer, May 23, 1876, E. Andre 3351 (Herb. 
N. Y. Bot. Gard., type; duplicate in K). 

The material of this plant is far from satisfactory for study, 
and on this account it is not certain that it belongs properly in the 
genus Palicourea. 

Palicourea angustifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 367.* 1820. 
P. querceticola Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: 332. 1908. 
P. quindiensis Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 282. 1917. P. Moritzii 
Wernh., op. cit. 283. 1917. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 121 

Dense forest, Alto de Pesares near Popayan, 2,300-2,700 m., 
Lehmann 5906 (F, type collection of P. querceticola) . Schumann 
and Krause report also Lehmann 3713, collected near Paisbamba, 
and Lehmann CLXIV, without locality. Mount Quindio, at 2,340 
m., Triana 78 (1663) (K, type collection of P. quindiensis) . Without 
locality, Moritz 844 (W, type collection of P. Moritzii; ascribed to 
Colombia, but probably from Venezuela). Near Popayan, 1,700- 
2,500 m., Lehmann B.T.I 228 (K, Y). Highlands of Popayan, 1,600- 
2,300 m., Lehmann B.T. 390 (F, G, K, Y). Popayan, Lehmann K.134 
(F, K). Cordillera Occidental, 2,400 m., Langlasse 91 (W, G, a 
very densely pubescent form). Angelopolis, Toro 905 (Y). Caldas, 
2,500 m., Dawe 782 (W, K, Y). Capilla, Lehmann B.T. 516 (K, Y). 
Titiribi, Toro 1200 (Y), 1196 (Y). Las Nubes, 1,350 m., H. H. 
Smith 1807 (Y). Santa Marta, H. H. Smith 1816 (F, W, M, P, S). 
Region of Bogota, in 1919, Ariste-Joseph (F, W). Without locality, 
Ariste-Joseph 706 (W, Y). Greene", Ariste-Joseph A837 (W). 
Vicinity of Bogota, Ariste-Joseph B43 (W), A3 59 (W). Sopo, 
Ariste-Joseph 769 (W). Canoas, Ariste-Joseph A96 (W). Hills of 
Miraflores, Cauca, 1,600-1,200 m., Pittier 871 (W, G, Y). Chiquiri- 
bamba, Andre K.502 (K, Y). Magana, Caldas, 3,000-3,200 m., 
Killip & Hazen 9481 (W, G, Y). Buenavista to Azufral, Tolima, 
1,800-2,500 m., Killip & Hazen 9579 (W, G, K, P, Y). Pinares, 
Caldas, 2,600-2,900 m., Pennell 9186 (W, G). La Cumbre, El Valle, 
1,800-2,100 m., Pennell 5710 (W, G, Y). Murillo, Tolima, 2,200- 
2,600 m., Pennell 3161 (Y), 3160 (Y). Tequendama, 2,300 m., 
Pennell 1972 (Y). Balsillas, Huila, 2,100 m., Rusby & Pennell 772 
(Y). Cordillera Oriental east of Neiva, Huila, 1,300-2,300 m., 
Rusby & Pennell 585 (Y), 980 (Y). Between Boquilla and Volcancito, 
Holton 424 (G, P, Y). Fusagasuga(?), Andre K. 1113 (K, Y). Tequen- 
dama(?), Andre K.1114 (K). Without locality, Triana (K); Triana 
128 (K), 129 (K); Linden 1082 (K), 1083 (K). Antioquia, 1,950 
m., Kalbreyer 1636 (K); alt. 2,100-2,400 m., Kalbreyer 1500 (K). 
Ocana, 2,550 m., Kalbreyer 610 (K). San Pedro, Ocana, 1,800 m., 
Schtim 665 (K). Also in Venezuela. 

A shrub or small tree, sometimes 5 m. high, the young branches 
densely puberulent or rarely glabrous; stipule sheath 4-6 mm. long, 
the lobes subulate, erect, equaling or longer than the sheath; leaves 
short-petiolate, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 6-23 cm. long, 2-5 cm. 
wide, long-acuminate at the apex, obtuse or acute at the base, thick, 
usually puberulent or pilose beneath, at least on the nerves; panicle 
pedunculate, thyrsoid, many-flowered, open or dense, often equaling 
the leaves, the branches usually ascending and densely puberulent 
or pilose, the bracts minute; flowers pedicellate; calyx minute, 
acutely dentate; corolla tubular, 10-15 mm. long or even longer, 
usually puberulent or short-pilose but sometimes glabrate; fruit 4-5 
mm. long, purple-black. 

The color of the corolla is given as "purple," "violet-purple," 
"violet," "pink," and "purplish." The specimens referred here show 
considerable variation, but I have been unable to divide them 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

satisfactorily. P. quindiensis is described as having flowers only 
8-9 mm. long, but there is great variation in the length of the corolla, 
the flowers of some plants attaining a length of nearly 2 cm. 

Palicourea antioquiana, sp. nov. Frutex yel arbor parva, 
ramulis yalidis subteretibus vel obtuse tetragonis dense villoso- 
tomentosis vel breviter hirsutis, vetustioribus ochraceis, internodiis 
brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae persistentes in vaginam adpressam 
vel laxam 6-10 mm. longam truncatam extus dense villoso-tomen- 
tosam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 approximates lineares vel lineari- 
lanceolatos superne attenuates apice acutos vel obtusos 5-13 mm. 
longos erectos extus tomentellos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo 
valido 1-2.3 cm. longo dense villosulo-tomentoso; lamina subcoriacea, 
elliptico-oblonga vel elliptica, rarius lanceolato-oblonga, 12-20 cm. 
longa, 4.5-9 cm. lata, apice breviter et saepe abrupte acuminata, 
basi acuta, supra fusca vel lutescens, ad costam breviter villosa, 
plerumque rhaphidibus angustis pallidis conspersa, costa paullo 
elevata, nervis lateralibus manifestos, subtus paullo pallidior, dense 
molliterque pubescens, costa valida elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 17, angulo angusto yel latiusculo adscendentibus, 
prominentibus, crassiusculis, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, 
nervulis prominentibus laxe reticulatis; inflorescentia 5-7 cm. longe 
pedunculata, thyrsoideo-paniculata, dense multiflora, 6-11.5 cm. 
longa, 5-8 cm. lata, ramulis crassis divaricatis vel adscendentibus 
breviter villosulo-tomentosis; bracteae lineares vel lanceolato- 
lineares, 8-18 mm. longae, persistentes, attenuatae, extus tomen- 
tellae; flores conferti sessiles yel 2 mm. longe pedicellati, pedicellis 
crassis; hypanthium late turbinatum 2.5 mm. longum dense tomen- 
tosum; calyx dense vel sparse tpmentosus, fere ad basin 5-fidus, 
laciniis linearibus vel lanceolato-linearibus 7-13 mm. longis, apicem 
versus sensim angustatis, intus glabris; corolla albida vel lutescens, 
extus dense villoso-tomentosa, 17-22 mm. longa, tubo 4-5 mm. 
lato, basi paullo ampliato, superne vix dilatato, lobis erectis yel 
patulis ovato-oblongis 2-4 mm. longis obtusis apice cucullatis; 
stylus interdum exsertus. Colombia: Western Andes of Popayan, 
alt. 1,900-2,600 m., F. C. Lehmann 7934 (Herb. Field Mus. No. 
578,691, type; duplicates in K and W). In forest below San Jose", 
Cauca, 2,100-2,500 m., Pennell 7631 (W, Y); at 2,400-2,700 m., 
Pennell & Killip 7352 (W), 7345 (W). In forest above Aguada, 
Antioquia, 2,300 m., Lehmann 3132 (K, W). Prov. Antioquia, 
1,350-1,650 m., forest border, Kalbreyer 1693 (K). Santo Domingo, 
Antioquia, 1,950 m., Kalbreyer 1709 (K). 

Palicourea antioquiana is a well-marked species, noteworthy 
because of its copious pubescence and large corolla and calyx. 

Palicourea apicata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 367. pi 285. 1820. 

Without locality ("New Granada"), Linden 1085 (G, K). Also 
in Venezuela. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 123 

A glabrous shrub; stipule sheath elongate, sometimes equaling 
the petiole, obscurely bidentate; leaves opposite, petiolate, subcori- 
aceous, oblong or elliptic-oblong to oblanceolate-oblong, 5-13 cm. 
long, 2-4 cm. wide, acuminate, narrowed to the base, paler beneath; 
inflorescence cymose-paniculate, sessile, lax, rather few-flowered, 
usually shorter than the leaves, the branches ascending or spreading; 
flowers pedicellate; calyx lobes minute, acute or obtuse; corolla 8-9 
mm. long, glabrous, purple. 

Palicourea Aristei, sp. nov. Ramuli graciles, obtuse tetragoni, 
in sicco fusco-olivacei, minute adpresso-pilosuli vel glabrati, inter- 
nodiis elongatis; stipulae adpressae, in vaginam truncatam puber- 
ulam 2-3 mm. longam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 remotes triangulari- 
oblongos obtusos vel acutos erectos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo 
gracili 5-15 mm. longp strigoso; lamina subcoriacea, ovali-elliptica 
vel rarius ovato-elliptica, 4-10.5 cm. longa, 2-5.5 cm. lata, abrupte 
et brevissime acuminata, acumine obtuso, basi late cuneata vel 
obtusa, supra viridis, interdum ad costam sparse adpresso-pilosula, 
nervis manifestis sed vix elevatis, subtus pallidior, praesertim ad 
nervos hirtella vel adpresso-pilosula, costa gracili eleyata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 15, gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo 
lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis 
prominentibus reticulatis; inflorescentia sessilis vel 2.5-4.5 cm. 
longe pedunculata, corymbiformis, dense multiflora, 5-9.5 cm. longa, 
4-11 cm. lata, basi trichotoma, interdum basi foliaceo-bracteata, 
ramulis gracilibus adscendentibus sparse puberulis; bracteae ovatae 
vel lineares, 1-5 mm. longae, acutae, adpresso-pilosulae; flores 
pedicellati, pedicellis 1-3 mm. longis validis apice paullo incrassatis; 
hypanthium late turbinatum 1.5 mm. longum glabrum; calyx fere 
2 mm. longus glaber ad medium 5-lobus, lobis late ovatis ciliolatis 
apice obtusis vel rotundatis; corolla gracilis in alabastro 12-16 mm. 
longa, extus minutissime fulvo-puberula, tubo basi paullo ampliato, 
supeme sensim dilatato, lobis apice minute cornutis. Colombia: 
Without locality, Bro. Ariste-Joseph 705 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 
1,121,651, type; duplicate in Y). Chapinero, near Bogota, Ariste- 
Joseph A719 (W). 

In many details the plant here described agrees with the original 
description of P. vaginata Benth., of the same region, but in that 
the leaves are said to be softly pubescent beneath, and the corolla 
glabrous. 

Palicourea bryophila, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor, ramulis 
crassiusculis subteretibus in sicco fuscis laevibus glabris, internodiis 
brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae in vaginam laxam 7-9 mm. longam 
truncatam glabratam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 approximates 
lineares 6-10 mm. longos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo crassius- 
culo 1.2-3 cm. longo glabro; lamina papyracea, elliptico-oblonga vel 
elliptico-obovata, 15-19 cm. longa, 6.5-8 cm. lata, abrupte brevi- 
terque acuminata, basin versus angustata, marginata, supra glabra 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

vel ad costam puberula, rhaphidibus minutis pallidis saepius con- 
spersa, subtus paullo pallidior, ad nervos pilosa vel glabrata, costa 
crassa elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 16, angulp lato 
adscendentibus, gracilibus, elevatis, arcuatis, marginem attingen- 
tibus, nervulis prominulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentia sessilis vel 
5 cm. longe pedunculata, pyramidali-paniculata vel thyrsoidea, laxe 
multiflora, 9-15 cm. longa, 6-8 cm. lata, ramulis divaricatis vel 
adscendentibus glabris; bracteae lineares vel oblongae, 5-7 mm. 
longae, attenuatae, glabrae; pedicelli 3-7 mm. longi crassi glabri; 
hypanthium late turbinatum 2 mm. longum glabrum; calyx late 
campanulatus 3-4 mm. longus glaber, fere ad medium 5-lobus, 
laciniis ovalibus vel oblongo-ovatis, apice rotundatis vel obtusis; 
corolla caerulea tubulosa 15-17 mm. longa, extus glabra, tubo basi 
paullo ampliato, fauce 4 mm. lato, lobis oblongis obtusis 3-3.5 mm. 
longis; antherae subexsertae lineares. Colombia: Mossy forest, 
Cerro Tatama, Dept. Caldas, alt. 2,800-3,300 m., September 8-10, 
1922, Francis W. Pennell 10465 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,694, 
type). Salento, Caldas, 2,100-2,500 m., Pennell 8868 (W). Without 
locality, Triana 1728 (K). 

Related to P. Toroi Standl., but in that the stipules are very 
different. 

Palicourea caldasana, sp. nov. Arbor parva, ramulis obtuse 
tetragonis validis minute puberulis vel hirtellis, vetustioribus 
subteretibus ochraceis; stipulae breviter connatae, 5-10 mm. longae, 
puberulae vel glabratae, ad medium bilobae, adpressae, lobis fere 
contiguis oblongis vel ovatis obtusis; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 
vel valido 6-15 mm. longo supra sulcato minute puberulo; lamina 
subcoriacea, ovali-elliptica, elliptico-oblonga vel obovato-oblonga, 
6.5-13 cm. longa, 2.2-5.5 cm. lata, abrupte acuminata vel tantum 
acuta, basi angustata vel rarius obtusa, supra viridis, glabra vel ad 
costam sparse puberula, costa prominente, nervis manifestis sed 
non prominentibus, subtus paullo pallidior, ad nervos hispidula vel 
puberula, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
11-15, angulo lato vel acuto adscendentibus, gracilibus, prominen- 
tibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus; inflorescentia 2-3.5 cm. 
longe pedunculata, thyrsoideo-paniculata vel pyramidali-paniculata, 
8-14 cm. longa, 4-10 cm. lata, dense multiflora, ramulis plerumque 
divaricatis puberulis; bracteae triangulares vel lineares, acuminatae 
vel attenuatae, 1.5-6 mm. longae, ciliolatae; pedicelli 1.5-6 mm. 
longi; hypanthium turbinatum 1.5 mm. longum glabratum; calyx 
1.5-3 mm. longus profunde 5-lobus, lobis ovalibus vel ovatis glabratis 
apice obtusis vel rotundatis, rarius acutis; corolla lutea tubulosa 
extus glabra vel sparse minuteque puberula, 10-13 mm. longa, basi 
paullo ampliata, fauce 2.5-3 mm. lata, lobis late ovatis vel oblongo- 
ovatis obtusis 1.5-2 mm. longis, intus minute papillosis; antherae 
subexsertae lineares 2.5 mm. longae. Colombia: In thicket, Panares, 
above Salento, Dept. Caldas, alt. 2,600-2,900 m., August 2-10, 1922, 
Francis W. Pennell 9191 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,678, type; 
duplicates in G and Y). Salento to Laguneta, Caldas, in forest, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 125 

2,800-3,100 m., Kittip & Hazen 9144 (W, G, Y). Alaska, above 
Salento, Caldas, 2,900-3,200 m., Killip 9810 (W, G, Y). 

From P. vaginata Benth. this plant differs in its large panicles 
and well-developed calyx lobes. 

Palicourea caloneura Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 142. 
1920. 

Top of San Lorenzo Ridge, 2,160 m., H. H. Smith 1808 (Y, 
type; F, W, M, P, S). 

A shrub 0.6-1.2 m. high, the branches glabrous; stipule sheath 
2.5 mm. long, the lobes separated, narrowly triangular, of equal 
length; leaves petiolate, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 4-6 cm. long, 
1.5-3 cm. wide, obtuse or acute, acute to nearly rounded at the base, 
coriaceous, short-pilose beneath along the nerves; panicle short- 
pedunculate or sessile, 3-4 cm. long, thyrsoid, the branches ascending 
or spreading, sparsely puberulent or glabrate, the bracts minute; 
flowers sessile or short-pedicellate; calyx lobes minute, obtuse or 
acute; corolla glabrous, pinkish, 10 mm. long, narrow-funnelform. 

Palicourea calophlebia, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor parva, 
ramulis crassis obtuse tetragonis dense minuteque puberulis vel 
hirtellis, internodiis brevibus; stipulae in vaginam 7-10 mm. longam 
truncatam laxam vel adpressam puberulam vel adpresso-pilosulam 
connatae, vagina in lobos 4 lineares sensim attenuates erectos 8-13 
mm. longos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 1.2-2.5 cm. 
longo dense puberulo supra late sulcato; lamina rigide papyracea 
vel subcoriacea, elliptica, late elliptica vel obovatp-elliptica, 18-27 
cm. longa, 9.5-14 cm. lata, apice breviter cuspidato-acuminata, 
acumine acuto vel obtuso, basi acuta vel abrupte contracta et 
breviter decurrens, supra viridis, glabra vel ad costam prominentem 
sparse puberula, nervis prominulis, subtus pallidior, saltern ad 
costam nervosque hirtella vel puberula, costa crassa elevata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 23, angulo lato divergentibus, gracilibus, 
prominentibus, arcuatis, juxta marginem arcuato-conjunctis, nervulis 
prominentibus eleganter reticulatis; inflorescentia 1.5-4 cm. longe 
pedunculata, thyrsoideo-paniculata, densissime multiflora, contracta, 
8-16 cm. longa, 3-7 cm. lata, interdum basi foliaco-bracteata, rhache 
crassa tomentella vel dense puberula, ramulis primariis brevissimis 
adscendentibus, divaricatis vel subreflexis; bracteae oblongo-ovatae, 
ovatae vel late rhombico-ovatae, 6-11 mm. longae, acutae vel 
obtusae, tenues, persistentes, glabratae, venosae; flores dense conferti, 
sessiles; hypanthium late turbinatum 1 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 
2.5-3.5 mm. longus prpfunde 5-lobus glaber vel glabratus, lobis 
ovatis vel oblongo-ovatis acutis; corolla alba tubulosa extus glabra 
vel minute sparseque puberula, 7-9 mm. longa, tubo 2-2.5 mm. lato, 
lobis oblongis pbtusis fere 2 mm. longis; antherae inclusae; stylus 
interdum breviter exsertus. Colombia: In forest, west of Rio 
Boquia, Dept. Caldas, alt. 1,600-1,900 m., July 27, 1922, Ellsworth 
P. Killip and Tracy E. Hazen 8804 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,659, 



126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

type; duplicates in G and Y). Tocota, Cauca, 2,000 m., Lehmann 
2936 (K, W). Dauro, Toro 1142 (Y). Without locality, Triana 
16U (K). 

This species is easily recognized by the very large, handsomely 
veined leaves, and by the narrow dense spikelike inflorescence, 
copiously furnished with broad bracts. 

Palicourea caprifoliacea Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 340. 1917. 

Type from Colombia, Linden 1080. Rio Dagua, Cauca, 2,000 
m., Lehmann 2919 (W). Without locality, Triana 127 (K). Prov. 
Antioquia, Kalbreyer 1290 (K). 

A shrub or small tree; stipules 1 cm. long, bifid, the lobes acute; 
leaves short-petiolate, elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, 8-22 cm. 
long, 3-12 cm. wide, short-acuminate, at the base acute to attenuate, 
chartaceous, sparsely pubescent beneath on the nerves; panicle 
pedunculate, narrowly pyramidal, many-flowered, 12-28 cm. long, 
the branches ascending or spreading, the bracts inconspicuous; 
flowers pedicellate or sessile; calyx minute, the lobes obtuse; corolla 
yellow, glabrous, 5-6 mm. long. 

Palicourea caucana, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis gracilibus dense 
scaberulo-puberulis, vetustioribus subteretibus griseo-ochraceis, 
internodiis 2-5 cm. longis; stipulae fere liberae, 4-5 mm. longae, 
dense puberulae, profunde bilobae, lobis ovato-oblongis obtusis 
erectis; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 3-8 mm. longo dense puberulo; 
lamina subcoriacea, oblongo-elliptica vel oblongo-obovata, 4-7 cm. 
longa, 1.7-3 cm. lata, abrupte angusteque acuminata, apice obtusa, 
basi acuta vel subobtusa, supra viridis, glabra vel ad costam subim- 
pressam sparse puberula, nervis obscuris, subtus pallida, praesertim 
ad nervos asperulo-puberula, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 12, gracilibus, prominulis, angulo lato adscen- 
dentibus, marginem attingentibus; inflorescentia 4.5 cm. longe 
pedunculata, basi bracteis 2 lanceolatis foliaceis 12-15 mm. longis 
fulcrata, dichotoma, ramis primariis 2-3 cm. longis puberulis, 
floribus cymosis congestis; bracteae oblongae vel ovatae, virides, 
obtusae vel acutae, 4-6 mm. longae, tenues, glabrae, ciliatae, brac- 
teolis bracteis conformibus, calycem arete amplectentibus et multo 
excedentibus; flores conferti pauci sessiles vel pedicellis 2-4 mm. 
longis stipati; hypanthium semiglobosum 1 mm. longum puberulum; 
calyx 1 mm. longus, lobis late ovatis obtusis vel acutis ciliolatis; 
corolla rubra infundibuliformis extus glabra, tubo gracili 12-13 mm. 
longo basi ampliato, superne sensim dilatato, fauce 3 mm. lato, 
lobis triangulari-oblongis acutis 4 mm. longis, intus minute papillosis; 
filamenta 3-4 mm. longe exserta gracillima glabra, antheris linearibus 
2.5 mm. longis. Colombia: In forest, La Gallera, Micay Valley, 
Dept. El Cauca, alt. 2,000-2,200 m., July 1, 1922. Ellsworth P. 
Killip 7957 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,634, type). 

Although it would be preferable to have more ample material 
of this plant for study and description, the single specimen available 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 127 

shows that it is distinct from anything known otherwise from 
Colombia. The long-exserted stamens make its recognition easy. 

Palicourea chaquirana, sp. nov. Frutex ut videtur dense 
ramosus, ramulis gracilibus subteretibus fuscis glabris, vetustioribus 
conspicue lenticellatis et rimosis; stipulae persistentes, breviter 
connatae, erectae, 2-2.5 mm. longae, ad medium bilobae, Ipbis ovato- 
triangularibus obtusis glabris; folia opppsita, petiolo gracili 5-7 mm. 
longo glabro supra late sulcato; lamina subcoriacea, lanceolato- 
elliptica, 2.5-4.5 cm. longa, 1-2 cm. lata, longiacuminata, basi acuta 
vel cuneata, manifeste marginata, supra viridis, ad costam promin- 
ulam minute puberula vel glabra, nervis subimpressis, subtus pallida, 
lutescens, secus costam crassiusculam elevatam ciliata, aliter glabra, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 10, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, valde arcuatis, juxta marginem cpnjunctis, 
nervulis prominulis reticulatis; inflorescentia sessilis, trichotoma, 
ramulis primariis erectis glabris 1-1.5 cm. longis apice umbellatim 
ramosis, floribus in cymulas densas paucifloras dispositis, sessilibus 
vel subsessilibus; bracteae ovatae 1-2 mm. longae acutae persistentes; 
hypanthium cylindrico-turbinatum 1.5 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 
glaber 0.5 mm. longus obsolete remoteque denticulatus; corolla 
alba infundibuliformis extus minutissime puberula vel fere glabra, 
9 mm. longa, basi ampliata, tubp dilatato fauce 4 mm. lato, lobis 
oblpngo-ovatis acutiusculis erectis 2-2.5 mm. longis intus minute 
papillosis; antherae subexsertae lineares 2.5 mm. longae; fructus 
ovoideo-globosus 6 mm. longus glaber profunde sulcatus, costis 
obtusis. Colombia: Shrub zone below Paramo de Chaquiro, 
Cordillera Occidental, Dept. Bolivar, alt. 2,800-3,100 m., February 
24, 1918, Francis W. Pennell 4312 (Herb. N. Y. Bot. Card., type). 

A well-marked species because of the small leaves and the 
arrangement of the inflorescence. 

Palicourea corymbifera (Muell. Arg.), comb. nov. Psychotria 
corymbifera Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 247. 1881. 

Reported by Mueller from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 
3486. Also in Brazil and Venezuela. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaves quaternate; stipule sheath 3 mm. 
long, bidentate, the teeth scarcely 1 mm. long; leaf blades elliptic- 
lanceolate, 13-20 cm. long, cuspidate, acute at the base, minutely 
puberulent on the veins; panicle umbelliform, 6-9 cm. broad, the 
lowest branches verticillate; calyx 10-denticulate; corolla 8 mm. 
long, ferruginous-tomentulose; fruits 5 mm. broad. 

Palicourea crocea (Sw.) R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 193. 1819. 
Psychotria crocea Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 44. 1788. 

Mountain forest near Valparaiso, 1,200-1,500 m., H. H. Smith 
1824 (F, W, G, M, P, Y). San Andre's de la Sierra, Magdalena, 
1,100-1,300 m., Pittier 1642 (W). Without locality, Triana 1655 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

(K), 1643 (K). Ocafia, 1,200 m., Schlim 1 (K); at 1,050 m., Scfdim 
694 (K). Ocaiia, 1,800 m., Kalbreyer 520 (K). Toche, Holton 423 
(K). Near Ocaiia, 1,500 m., Wyatt (K). Widely distributed in 
tropical America. 

A nearly glabrous shrub or tree, sometimes 7.5 m. high; stipules 
3.5 mm. long, the lobes subulate; leaves short-petiolate, firm, elliptic- 
oblong or ovate-oblong, 8-15 cm. long, long-acuminate at the apex, 
acute or obtuse at the base; panicles sessile or pedunculate, pyrami- 
dal, open, many-flowered, the branches spreading or ascending, 
glabrous or puberulent, the bracts minute; flowers long-pedicellate; 
calyx lobes minute, ovate or rounded; corolla red or orange, tubular, 
glabrous, 8-12 mm. long; fruit purple-black, 4-5 mm. long. 

Palicourea cyanantha, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis gracilibus 
obtuse tetragonis pallide olivaceis minute puberulis vel hirtellis, 
internodiis 3-4 cm. longis; stipulae in vaginam 6-7 mm. longam 
truncatam puberulam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 approximatos 
erectos lineares longiattenuatos 1.5-2.5 cm. longos 1-1.5 mm. latos 
glabratos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 1-1.8 cm. longo 
minute strigilloso vel glabrato supra late sulcato; lamina oblongo- 
elliptica, papyracea, 20-22 cm. longa, 7.5-8.5 cm. lata, abrupte 
angusteque acuminata, basi acuta vel obtusiuscula et leviter inae- 
qualis, supra viridis, glabra vel ad costam prominentem sparse 
puberula, nervis prominulis, subtus paullo pallidior, ad costam 
gracilem elevatam breviter hirsuta et puberula, ad nervos sparse 
puberula vel glabrata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 17, angulo 
lato adscendentibus, gracilibus, prominentibus, arcuatis, juxta 
marginem conjunctis, nervulis prominulis eleganter reticulatis; 
inflorescentia 2.5 cm. longe pedunculata, thyrsoideo-paniculata, 
dense multiflora, 7 cm. longa et 4 cm. lata, rhache fere glabra, ramulis 
primariis vix 1 cm. longis divaricatis; bracteae caeruleae tenues 
venosae late ovatae vel oblongo-ovatae, 1-1.8 cm. longae, acutae, 
fere glabrae, persistentes; flores conferti, pedicellis ad 3 mm. longis; 
hypanthium late turbinatum 1.2 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 3-4 
mm. longus glaber fere ad basin 5-fidus, laciniis inaequalibus 3-4 
mm. longis lineari-oblongis acutiusculis; corolla "caerulea," non 
visa; fructus globosus caeruleus fere 5 mm. diam., leviter sulcatus, 
costis obtusis. Colombia: In forest, Miraflores, Palmira, Cordillera 
Central, Dept. El Valle, alt. 1,800-2,100 m., May 27, 1922, Ellsworth 
P. Killip 6139 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,583, type; duplicate in 
Y). 

Palicourea cyanantha must be a showy plant when in flower 
because of the blue color of the whole inflorescence. Distinguishing 
characters are the unusually long stipule lobes and the large bracts 
of the inflorescence, which almost conceal the flowers. 

Palicourea demissa, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor parva 2.5-6 
m. alta, ramulis validis crassis obtuse tetragonis glabris, vetustioribus 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 129 

ochraceis, internodiis brevibus; stipulae in vaginam laxam gla- 
bram viridem persistentem 4-6 mm. longam et 4-9 mm. latam 
connatae, vagina truncata in lobos 4 remotos oblongo-lineares 
obtusos vel acutiusculos 3-5 mm. longos desinente; folia opposita, 
petiolo 0.8-2 cm. longo gracili vel validiusculo supra sulcato; lamina 
rigide herbacea, elliptica, rotundato-elliptica, oblongo-elliptica vel 
rarius obovata, 9-14.5 cm. longa, 4-7.5 cm. lata, apice abrupte 
breviterque, interdum brevissime, acuminata, rarius sensim acumi- 
nata, acumine obtuso, basi acuta vel interdum obtusa, supra glabra, 
costa neryisque subimpressis vel planis, subtus paullo pallidior, secus 
costam hinc inde breviter pilosa vel fere omnino glabra, costa valida 
elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 11-16, elevatis, arcuatis, 
angulo lato adscendentibus, juxta marginem laxe conjunctis, margine 
paullo incrassato; panicula sessilis vel usque ad 7 cm. longe pedun- 
culata, thyrsoidea, 7-10 cm. longa, 4-7 cm. lata, dense multiflora, 
rhache percurrente, ramulis primariis validis adscendentibus vel 
divaricatis glabris; bracteae ovatae vel lineari-lanceolatae, plerumque 
2-3 mm. longae, infimis 7 mm. longis, acutae vel attenuatae, ciliolatae; 
pedicelli validi 3-7 mm. longi; hypanthium turbinatum 2-2.5 mm. 
longum glabrum; calyx 1.5-2 mm. longus 5-lobus, lobis inaequalibus 
ovatis vel rotundatis acutis vel obtusis ciliolatis in sicco viridibus; 
corolla lutea tubulosa extus glabra 12 mm. longa, tubo 2.5-3.5 mm. 
lato, lobis oblongis obtusis 3 mm. longis intus minute papillosis; 
stylus interdum exsertus; fructus purpureus vel nigrescens globosus 
7-9 mm. diam., profunde sulcatus. Colombia: Edge of woods, 
vicinity of Loso, north of Toledo, Dept. Norte de Santander, alt. 
2,200-2,400 m., March 6-7, 1927, E. P. Killip & Albert C. Smith 
20393 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,355,444, type; duplicate in Y), 20472 
(W, Y), 20388 (W, Y). Road from Pamplona to Toledo, Norte de 
Santander, in dense forest, 2,800-3,000 m., Killip & Smith 20007 
(W, Y), 19958 (W, Y), 19902 (W, Y). Eastern slope of Parana del 
Hatico, Norte de Santander, edge of woods, 2,900 m., Killip & 
Smith 20598 (W). Western slope of Paramo del Hatico, edge of 
woods, 2,800-2,900 m., Killip & Smith 20728 (W, Y). Western 
slope of Cerro San Vicente, near Charta, Santander, dense wet woods, 
2,500-2,700 m., Killip & Smith 19070 (W, Y). 

Palicourea demissa is related to P. vaginata Benth., but it differs 
from that species in the large calyx and hypanthium and in the 
longer and stouter corolla tube. 

Palicourea densa, sp. nov. Frutex 1.5-2.5 m. altus, ramulis 
crassis acute quadrangularibus, novellis sparse pilosulis vel glabratis; 
stipulae persistentes in vaginam glabram truncatam 7 mm. longam 
connatae, vagina in lobos 4 lineares obtusos distantes glabros 10 
mm. longos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo valido glabro vel 
glabrato 2.5-3 cm. longo; lamina obovato-ovalis, c. 20 cm. longa 
et 12 cm. lata, apice late rotundata et vix apiculata, basi acuta 
vel prope basin abrupte angustata et breviter decurrens, firme 
membranacea, supra viridis, glabra, costa et nervis prominulis, 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

subtus paullo pallidior, ad costam et nervos inconspicue adpresso- 
pilosula vel glabrata, costa crassa elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 17, angulo lato divergentibus, gracilibus, subarcuatis, 
prominentibus, in marginem desinentibus; inflorescentia violacea, 
terminalis, 9.5 cm. longe pedunculata, spiciformis, 5.5 cm. longa et 
3 cm. lata, densissime multiflora, pedunculo crasso sparse pilosulo 
angulato, floribus in glomerulis densis sessilibus secus axem paniculae 
glomeratis sessilibus vel subsessilibus, bracteis plerumque c. 1 cm. 
longis, oblongis vel lanceolatis, acutis vel obtusis, sparse pilosulis 
vel glabratis, ciliatis; hypanthium turbinatum 2 mm. longum dense 
pilis fulvis adpresso-pilosum; calyx 5-fidus, laciniis oblongis 4-5 mm. 
longis obtusis, sparse vel versus basin densius pilosulis vel glabratis; 
corolla 10 mm. longa extus pilis crassis multicellularibus sparse vel 
dense villosa, tubo crasso superne sensim dilatato ore fere 3 mm. lato, 
basi paullo ampliato, intus paullo supra basin densissime barbato, 
lobis 5 oblongis obtusis apice subcucullatis 2-2.5 mm. longis. 
Colombia: Pulperia, Prov. Antioquia, in forest shade, alt. 1,950 
m., May, 1880, Kalbreyer 1685 (Herb. Kew., type). 

Evidently a relative of the Colombian P. dorantha Wernham, 
which differs in its short-acuminate leaves, large inflorescence, and 
much larger corolla. 

Palicourea dives, sp. nov. Frutex 2-3-metralis, ramulis gra- 
cilibus teretibus glabris, internodiis elongatis; stipulae in vaginam 
glabram 3-4 mm. longam connatae, parte libera biloba, lobis 1.5-3 
mm. longis, falcato-triangularibus, obtusis, sinu rotundato vel obtuso 
sejunctis; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 1.5-2 cm. longo glabro; 
lamina firme membranacea, oblongo-elliptica, 11-17 cm. longa, 5-7 
cm. lata, abrupte longiacuminata, acumine angusto attenuate, basi 
abrupte angustata et longe decurrens, supra viridis, minutissime 
scaberula et asperula, costa subimpressa, nervis prominulis, subtus 
pallidior, glabra, minute elevato-puncticulata, costa gracili elevata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 26, gracillimis, angulo lato 
adscendentibus, arcuatis, prominentibus, juxta marginem conjunctis, 
nervulis arete reticulatis et subimpressis; inflorescentia terminalis, 
11 cm. longe pedunculata, corymbosa, c. 5.5 cm. longa et 9 cm. lata, 
dense multiflora, basi trichotoma, ramis curvo-divaricatis, glabris, 
floribus congestis sessilibus; bracteae conspicuae, flores fere occul- 
tantes, foliaceae, late oblongae vel ovales, 6-10 mm. longae, apice 
obtusae vel rotundatae, glabrae, ut videtur coloratae, persistentes; 
hypanthium late turbinatum glabrum; calyx c. 1.2 mm. longus 
glaber, lobis late ovatis obtusis dorso subcarinatis; corolla caerulea 
in alabastro 1 cm. longa, extus glabra, apice obtusa, tubo gracili 
superne paullo dilatato ore 1.8 mm. lato, lobis oblongis 2.5 mm. 
longis obtusis; fructus subglobosus 4-6 mm. longus, pyrenis dorso 
obtuse costatis. Colombia: Santa Rosa, October 24, 1876, Ed. 
Andrk 4283 (Herb. Kew., type). Near Cugambe(?), May 23, 1876, 
Andrt 8499 (K). 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 131 

The species is a well-marked one because of the broad inflores- 
cence with its very numerous large bracts. 

Palicourea dorantha Wernh. Kew Bull. 1914: 69. 1914. 

Type collected between Pitalito (Tolima) and Mocoa (Caqueta 
District), Sprague 345. Rio Santa Rita, Caldas, in dense forest, 
1,600-1,800 m., Killip & Hazen 8989 (W, G, Y). Santiago, Toro 
734 (Y). 

A small tree, sometimes 6 m. high, nearly glabrous; stipule 
sheath up to 1 cm. long, deciduous, the lobes 1-2 cm. long; leaves 
short-petiolate, thick, short-acuminate at the apex, acute at the 
base, many-veined, pilose beneath along the veins; panicles large 
and broad, pedunculate or sessile, dense, the branches spreading or 
ascending, glabrous, the bracts small, lanceolate to ovate, acute; 
calyx lobes rounded, imbricate, 2 mm. long; corolla blue, 2 cm. 
long, broad, densely tomentose, the lobes short, rounded. 

Palicourea effusa, sp. nov. Arbor 6-7.5 cm. alta, ramulis 
crassis, novellis acute quadrangularibus in sicco fuscis glabris, 
internodiis c. 3 cm. longis; stipulae in vaginam 2 mm. longam 
adpressam glabram connatae, vagina in lobos 4 remotos 2-3 mm. 
longos triangulares acutos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo 8-15 mm. 
longo glabro; lamina elliptico-ovalis vel late elliptica, 11.5-14.5 cm. 
longa, 6-8.5 cm. lata, acuta vel breviter acuminata, basi acuta vel 
obtusa, subcoriacea, marginata, supra lutescenti-viridis, glabra vel 
ad costam prominentem sparse hirtella, nervis prominulis, nervulis 
impressis, subtus pallidior, ubique subsparse hirtella, costa valida 
elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 15, gracilibus, elevatis, 
pallidis, angulo lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, nervulis prominentibus 
pulchre reticulatis; inflorescentia sessilis late paniculata, basi 
trichotoma, laxa, multiflora, 20 cm. longa, ramis primariis suberectis, 
superipribus late adscendentibus, gracilibus, glabris vel sparse 
hirtellis; bracteae anguste triangulares, 1-2 mm. longae, acuminatae, 
glabrae, ciliolatae; flores pedicellati, pedicellis rectis glabris 1-4 mm. 
longis apice explanatis; hypanthium turbinatum 1-1.2 mm. longum 
glabrum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus profunde 5-lobus, lobis late ovatis 
acutis glabris; corolla alba extus glabra tubulosa 13 mm. longa, tubo 
gracili basi paullo ampliato, fauce 2.2 mm. lato, lobis oblongis 
obtusis 2 mm. longis. Colombia: Edge of woods, eastern slope of 
Paramo del Hatico, between Toledo and Pamplona, Dept. Norte de 
Santander, alt. 2,200 m., March 12, 1927, E. P. Killip & Albert C. 
Smith 20562 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,355,591, type; duplicate in Y). 

Evidently this plant is related to P. lineariflora Wernh., but it 
differs from that species in the conspicuously pubescent leaves and 
short corolla. The dilation of the apex of the pedicel, under the 
hypanthium, also is a character worthy of mention. In the genus 
Palicourea the hypanthium usually is jointed with the pedicel, but 
the joint between the two is very inconspicuous. 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Palicourea fastigiata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 368. 1820. P. 
riparia Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 224. 1841. 

Quindio to San Juan, Andre K.I 120 (F, Y). Buga, Andre 2457 
(Y). Norosi to Tiquisio, Bolivar, 150-600 m., Curran 158 (W). La 
Paila, Cauca, Holton 426 (K, P, Y). Without locality, Triana 1641 
(K). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A nearly glabrous shrub or small tree, sometimes 6 m. high, 
with a trunk 7.5 cm. in diameter; stipules 5 mm. long or less, bifid, 
the lobes broad, obtuse or acute; leaves short-petiolate, oblong- 
elliptic to ovate-oblong, medium-sized, thin, acuminate at the apex, 
usually acute at the base, glabrous; inflorescence cymose-corymbose, 
long-pedunculate, dense, many-flowered, the branches ascending or 
erect, usually puberulent, the bracts minute; flowers slender-pedi- 
cellate; calyx lobes minute, ovate or rounded ; corolla yellow, glabrous, 
8-10 mm. long, tubular; fruit 4-5 mm. long, purple-black. 

Palicourea guianensis Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 173. pi. 66. 1775. 

Don Amo, 750 m., H. H. Smith 2084 (F, W, G, M, P, Y). Cuatro 
Esquinas, Cauca, 1,700 m., Pennell & Killip 6322 (W). Cisneros, 
Toro 1023 (Y). Highlands of Popayan, 1,600-2,000 m., Lehmann 
B.T.515 (F, G, K, Y). Juntas, Cauca, 200-1,000 m., Lehmann 5114 
(F, K). Without locality, Triana 1662 (K). Antioquia, Jervise (K). 
Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A nearly glabrous shrub or small tree; stipules 8-10 mm. long, 
biparted, the lobes lanceolate or ovate, obtuse; leaves short-pet- 
iolate, large, thin, elliptic-oblong to ovate or elliptic, acuminate at 
the apex, acute to nearly rounded at the base, glabrous or nearly 
so; panicles large, dense, many-flowered, thyrsoid or pyramidal, 
the branches ascending or spreading, glabrous or puberulent, the 
bracts subulate, inconspicuous; flowers pedicellate; calyx lobes 
minute, deloid, acute or obtuse; corolla yellow or orange-red, 10-18 
mm. long, usually densely furfuraceous-tomentose; fruit ovoid, 4-5 
mm. long. 

Palicourea heterantha Standl. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 
141. 1916. 

Headwaters of the Rio Lopez, Rio Palo Basin, Cauca, at 2,500- 
3,000 m., Pittier 1098 (W, type). 

Young branches villous; stipule sheath loose, 5-7 mm. long, the 
lobes linear, as long as the sheath; leaves long-petiolate, elliptic or 
obovate-elliptic, 8-13 cm. long, 5-7 cm. wide, rounded at the apex 
and shortly produced, acute at the base, thick, pilose beneath along 
the veins; panicle pedunculate, thyrsoid, 5-6 cm. long, many-flowered, 
the branches spreading, pilose, the bracts lanceolate, 3-8 mm. long; 
calyx lobes ovate, obtuse; corolla ovoid-urceolate, 10-12 mm. long, 
5-6 mm. wide below, glabrous. 

Palicourea heterochroma Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. 
Engler 40: 335. 1908. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 133 

In open forest near Popaydn, Cauca, 1,600-1,800 m., Lehmann 
2830 (W, type collection). Rio Ortega, Cauca, 1,500-1,700 m., 
Pennell & Killip 7250 (W, Y). Coconuco to Popayan, Cauca, 2,000- 
2,500 m., Killip 6894 (W, G, Y). Rio Pilat6n, 1,500 m., Andre 
3712 (K, Y). Cuatro Esquinas, Cauca, 1,700 m., Pennell & Killip 
6345 (W). RioNembi,Andre3431 (K). Barbacoas, Triana3151 (K). 

A shrub or small tree, nearly glabrous; stipule sheath 7-8 mm. 
long, the lobes lance-subulate, of equal length; leaves petiolate, 
subcoriaceous, oblong to oval-obovate, large, acute or abruptly 
short-acuminate, at base acute or subobtuse, glabrous or nearly so; 
panicles pedunculate, usually about 12 cm. long and nearly as broad, 
the branches stout, spreading or ascending, glabrous or sparsely 
puberulent, the bracts large, lanceolate; flowers short-pedicellate; 
calyx 6-8 mm. long, the lobes lance-triangular, acute; corolla pink 
or purple, 2 cm. long, glabrous, the lobes acute. 

Palicourea hypomalaca, sp. noy. Ramuli crassiusculi sub- 
teretes in sicco fusco-olivacei, puberuli, internodiis 4.5-7 cm. longis; 
stipulae 5-7 mm. longae, breviter connatae, profunde lobatae, 
puberulae, lobis rotundatis; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 1-1.8 cm. 
longo dense puberulo vel hirtello; lamina subcoriacea, ovato-oblonga 
vel lanceolato-oblonga, 14-17 cm. longa, 5-6 cm. lata, longe angus- 
teque acuminata, basi acuta, supra lutescens, minute puberula vel 
ad costam prominentem breviter hirtella, nervis prominulis, subtus 
dense velutino-pubescens, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere c. 17, gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo lato diver- 
gentibus, leviter arcuatis, prope marginem arcuato-conjunctis, nervis 
transversis prominulis; inflorescentia 9-10 cm. longe pedunculata, 
pyramidali-paniculata, laxe multiflora, 10-12 cm. longa, 8-9 cm. 
fata, ramulis primariis validis compressis vel angulatis adscendentibus 
dense hirtellis; bracteae anguste triangulares 1-3 mm. longae acumi- 
natae puberulae; flores pedicellati, pedicellis crassis hirtellis 2-7 mm. 
longis; hypanthium oblongum 1-1.5 mm. longum puberulum; calyx 
2 mm. longus, 0.5 mm. latus, subrotatus, brevissime obscureque 
lobatus, lobis late rotundatis extus puberulis; corolla tubulosa 14 
mm. longa extus papillosa, tubo basi valde ampliato, superne 
sensim dilatato, fauce 4 mm. lato, lobis late ovatis obtusis fere 2 
mm. longis; antherae inclusae lineares 3-3.5 mm. longae. Colombia: 
Forests of Rio Timbiqui, in 1899, F. C. Lehmann 9003 (Gray Herb., 
type; duplicates in K and Y). Highlands of Popayan, 1,600-2,000 
m., Lehmann 7935 (W, K). 

The plant is related to P. guianensis Aubl., but is well differ- 
entiated by the abundant soft pubescence of the narrower leaves. 

Palicourea ipnantha, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis gracilibus 
glabris, vetustioribus teretibus ochraceis vel griseis, internodiis 
elongatis; stipulae in vaginam 2-3.5 mm. longam glabram truncatam 
connatae, vagina in lobos 4 remotos triangulari-oblongos 1.5-2 mm. 
longos obtusos erectos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 3-10 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

mm. longo supra sulcato glabro; lamina lanceolato-oblonga vel 
elliptico-oblonga, 4-7 cm. longa, 1.2-3 cm. lata, sensim acuminata, 
apice ipso obtuso, basi acuta, subcoriacea, supra viridis, ad costam 
prominentem sparse adpresso-pilosula vel glabrata, nervis lateralibus 
manifestis sed vix elevatis, subtus pallidior, ad nervos minute et 
subadpresse pilosula, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utrpque 
latere c. 13, gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
valde arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis prominulis reti- 
culatis; inflorescentia sessilis vel breviter pedunculata, dense multi- 
flora, paniculata, basi trichotoma, 4-7 cm. longa, 2-5.5 cm. lata, 
ramis primariis adscendentibus sparse minuteque puberulis; bracteae 
lanceolatae vel subulatae 1-2.5 mm. longae glabrae ciliolatae; flores 
conferti, pedicellis crassis 1-2 mm. longis; hypanthium turbinatum 
1.5 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 2-2.5 mm. longus profunde 5-lobus 
glaber, lobis late oblongis apice rotundatis vel obtusis interdum 
ciliolatis; corolla purpurep-violacea, tubulosa, 13-20 mm. longa, 
extus glabra, tubo gracili basi paullo ampliato, superne sensim 
dilatato, fauce 3-4 mm. lato, lobis oblpngo-triangularibus obtusis 
2-4 mm. longis; antherae lineares semiexsertae; fructus ovoideus 
5-6 mm. longus glaber sulcatus, costis obtusis. Colombia: In 
forest, El Penon, southwest of Sibate", Dept. Cundinamarca, alt. 
2,800-2,900 m., October 13, 1917, Francis W. Pennell 2424 (U. S. 
Nat. Herb. No. 1,042,291, type; duplicate in. Y), 2394 (Y). In dense 
forest between Sibate" and Fusagasuga, Cundinamarca, 2,400-2,900 
m., March, 1892, Lehmann K.I 40 (K). 

The sheet of Pennell 2394 in the herbarium of the New York 
Botanical Garden bears an annotation to the effect that it was 
compared at Kew in September, 1920, and found to be P. popaya- 
nensis Benth., equaling " Hartweg 1055." The type of P. popayanen- 
sis, however, is Hartweg 1058, and No. 1055 is listed (PI. Hartw. 
192. 1845) as Gonzaka pulveruknta H. & B. The plant here described 
does not agree in various details with Bentham's description, and 
I can not believe that P. ionantha belongs to that species. The 
leaves of P. popayanensis are described as appreciably larger, and 
the corolla as orange-colored. 

Palicourea justicioides, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor parva, 
ramulis gracilibus subteretibus vel obtuse tetragonis dense fulvo- 
pilosis vel glabratis, internodiis brevibus; stipulae in vaginam 4-6 
mm. longam truncatam dense pilosam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 
remotos lineari-subulatos 4-7 mm. longps erectos breviter pilosos 
desinente; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 1.3-2.5 cm. longo dense 
piloso; lamina anguste elliptico-oblonga vel ovato-oblonga, 13-17 
cm. longa, 4-5.5 cm. lata, longe angusteque acuminata, basi acuta, 
crasse membranacea, supra viridis, undique breviter pilosa, nervis 
vix elevatis, subtus paullo pallidior, dense breviterque pilosa, costa 
crassiuscula elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 15, angulo 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 135 

lato adscendentibus, gracilibus, elevatis, arcuatis, marginem attin- 
gentibus, nervulis prominulis nervos parallele conjungentibus; 
inflqrescentia 3-5.5 cm. longe pedunculata, trichotoma, anguste 
paniculata, c. 11 cm. longa et 6 cm. lata, interdum foliaceo-bracteata, 
ramulis adscendentibus dense pilosis; bracteae virides, infimis lineari- 
bus et 1.5 cm. longis, superioribus oyatis acutis 3-5 mm. longis dense 
pilosis; flores congesti vel subspicati sessiles; hypanthium 1.5-2 mm. 
longum densissime albido-pilosum; calyx campanulatus 4 mm. longus 
extus pilosus ad medium 5-lobus, lobis late triangularibus acutis; 
corolla infundibuliformis extus dense longipilosa 16-18 mm. longa, 
superne sensim dilatata, fauce 6 mm. lata, lobis oblongo-oyatis 
acutiusculis 2.5 mm. longis; stylus exsertus. Colombia: Titiribi, 
June 30, 1928, Rafael A. Toro 1198 (Herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard., type). 
Concordia, Antioquia, forest border, 1,800 m., Kalbreyer 1519 (K). 
"Colombia," Lobb 27 (K). Ecuador: Andes, 1,800-2,100 m., Pearce 
(K). 

This species does not appear to be closely related to any of 
those described previously from Colombia. It is distinguished 
particularly by the abundant pubescence, the large calyx of dis- 
tinctive form, and the very broad corolla clothed with long shaggy 
pubescence. 

Kalbreyer describes the plant as a shrub of 1.5-2 m., with light 
blue inflorescence and blue corolla. 

Palicourea Kalbreyeri, sp. nov. Frutex 2-2.5 m. altus, 
ramulis gracilibus subteretibus glabris viridibus, internodiis 3.5-6.5 
cm. longis; stipulae persistentes, erectae, 9-11 mm. longae, glabrae, 
basi breviter connatae, apice bifidae, laciniis c. 6 mm. longis acutis 
ciliatis; folia opposita, petiolo 8-14 mm. longo valido glabro; lamina 
oblonga, anguste oblonga vel lanceolato-oblonga, 9-14 cm. longa, 
3-4.5 cm. lata, subcoriacea, longiacuminata, acumine attenuate 
angusto, basi acuta, supra luteo-viridis, ad costam elevatam sparse 
pilosa vel fere glabra, nervis prominentibus, subtus fere concolor, 
ad costam elevatam et nervos sparse pilis longiusculis debilibus 1 
pallidis pilosa vel glabrata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 15, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo latp adscendentibus, valde arcuatis, 
in marginem desinentibus, nervulis prominulis arete reticulatis, 
margine saepe revoluto; inflorescentia terminalis vel pseudo-termi- 
nalis, recurva, lutea, 5.5-7 cm. longe pedunculata, thyrsoideo- 
paniculata, laxe multiflora, 10-12 cm. longa, 7-8 cm. lata, pedunculo 
valido hince inde piloso, ramis oppositis gracilibus, angulo recto 
divaricatis vel interdum subreflexis, sparse pilosis, floribus subcon- 
gestis, sessilibus vel pedicellatis, pedicellis usque ad 2 mm. longis, 
bracteis linearibus vel subulatis attenuatis 2-6 mm. longis sparse 
puberulis vel glabratis; hypanthium obovoideum glabrum 0.6 mm. 
longum; calyx glaber 0.7 mm. longus 5-fidus, laciniis triangularibus 
acutis; corolla lutea 6 mm. longa, in alabastrp apice late obtusa, 
extus glabra, tubo cylindrico, basi paullo ampliato, ore fere 2 mm. 



136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

lato. Colombia: San Jose", Prov. Antioquia, in 1880, Kalbreyer 
1619 (Herb. Kew., type). 

Noteworthy for the combination of narrow, nearly glabrous 
leaves, large lax panicles, and very small corollas. 

Palicourea Killipii, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis gracilibus teretibus 
laevibus glabris in sicco fuscis vel olivaceis, vetustioribus obtuse 
tetragonis; stipulae in vaginam glabram 5-7 mm. longam truncatam 
apice ciliolatam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 remotos anguste lineares 
attenuates erectos 5-7 mm. longos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo 
gracili 1-4 cm. longo glabro; lamina elliptico-oblonga vel anguste 
elliptica, rarius ovata, 11-32 cm. longa, 4-12 cm. lata, longiacuminata, 
basi acuta vel attenuata, crasse papyracea, supra glabra vel tantum 
ad costam puberula, costa prominente, neryis manifestis sed vix 
elevatis, utrinque rhaphidibus minutis pallidis conspersa, subtus 
paullo pallidior, secus nervos minute puberula vel glabrata, costa 
gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 17-25, angulo lato 
adscendentibus, gracilibus, prominentibus, valde arcuatis, marginem 
attingentibus, nervulis conspicuis prominulis reticulatis; inflores- 
centia purpurea thyrsoideo-paniculata, sessilis vel 2-5.5 cm. longe 
pedunculate, laxe multiflora, 7-13 cm. longa, 8-10 cm. lata, ramulis 
adscendentibus vel divaricatis glabris; bracteae lineares glabrae 7-12 
mm. longae persistentes; flores pedicellati, pedicellis 5-18 mm. 
longis; hypanthium late cylindricum 2-2.5 mm. longum glabrum; 
calyx 5-partitus glaber, lobis linearibus 7-15 mm. longis, 1.5-2 mm. 
latis, attenuatis, glabris; corolla purpurea tubulosa extus glabra 22 
mm. longa, 3-5 mm. lata, basi ampliata, lobis late triangularibus 
obtusis 2.5 mm. longis erectis; stylus inclusus; fructus globosus 5-6 
mm. longus glaber profunde sulcatus, costis acutis. Colombia: In 
forest, La Gallera, Micay Valley, Dept. El Cauca, alt. 1,400-1,500 
m., June 29-30, 1922, Ellsworth P. Killip 7694 (U. S. Nat. Herb. 
No. 1,140,620, type; duplicates in G and Y); alt. 1,900-2,000 m., 
Killip 7983 (W, G, Y); alt. 2,000-2,200 m., Killip 79^5 (W). 

A well-marked species, not closely related to any other. It is 
noteworthy for the large corolla and especially for the very long 
and narrow calyx lobes. 

Palicourea Lehmannii (Schum.), comb. nov. RudgeaLehmannii 
Schum. in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 4 6 : 116. 1891, nomen; Bot. Jahrb. Engler 
40: 342. 1908. 

Western cordillera of Cali, Cauca, 2,000 m., Lehmann 2989 (W, 
type collection). In forest, La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,700-2,100 m., 
Killip & Hazen 11124 (W, G, Y); at 1,800-2,200 m., Killip 5583 
(W, G, K, P, Y). 

A small tree, the branchlets glabrous; stipule sheath 2 mm. long, 
the lobes ovate- triangular, obtuse, 2 mm. long; leaves short-petiolate, 
elliptic-oblong or lance-oblong, 11-19 cm. long, narrowly long- 
acuminate, at the base acute or obtuse, glabrous; inflorescence 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 137 

sessile, trichotomous, broadly paniculate, laxly many-flowered, 11-16 
cm. long, the branchlets glabrous, the flowers pedicellate; calyx 
lobes rounded or broadly ovate and obtuse; corolla purple, glabrous, 
the tube 3 cm. long, the lobes 4 mm. long, bearing at the apex a 
dorsal hornlike appendage 3-4 mm. long; fruit subglobose, 5-6 mm. 
long, glabrous. 

Although referred by Schumann to the genus Rudgea, I see no 
reason for excluding this plant from Palicourea. The long appendages 
of the corolla lobes are very unusual in Palicourea, it is true, but 
they would be exceptional also in Rudgea, and the stipules are quite 
unlike those found in the latter genus. 

Palicourea leuconeura, sp. nov. Frutex vel arbor parva, 
ramulis gracilibus teretibus glabris lutescenti-viridibus glabris 
laevibus; stipulae persistentes in vaginam 2-2.5 mm. longam viridem 
glabram adpressam truncatam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 remotos 
triangulares vel oblongos acutos erectos desinente; folia opposita, 
petiolo gracili 5-18 mm. longo supra sulcato glabro; lamina lanceo- 
lato-oblonga, ovato-oblonga vel elliptico-oblonga, 6-16 cm. longa, 
2-2.5 cm. lata, longe angusteque acuminata, basi acuta et saepe 
inaequalis, subcoriacea vel crasse papyracea, glabra, supra lutescenti- 
viridis, costa nervisque prominentibus, subtus pallidior, costa gracili 
elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 12-15, angulo lato acutove 
adscendentibus, gracilibus, eleyatis, pallidis, arcuatis, marginem 
attingentibus, nervulis prominulis eleganter reticulatis; inflorescentia 
sessilis vel 1.5-4 cm. longe pedunculata, late paniculata vel corym- 
boso-paniculata, basi trichqtoma, laxe vel dense multiflora, 4-7 cm. 
longa, 4-11 cm. lata, ramulis divaricatis vel adscendentibus, graci- 
libus, puberulis vel glabratis; bracteae anguste triangulares vel 
lineares, 1-4 mm. longae, inconspicuae, glabrae, ciliolatae; flores 
pedicellati, pedicellis 1-5 mm. longis gracilibus superne vix incras- 
satis; hypanthium late turbinatum 1-1.5 mm. longum glabrum; 
calyx 0.5 mm. longus, lobis minutis, late triangularibus vel ovatis, 
obtusis vel acutis; corolla alba vel viridescenti-alba, extus glabra 
vel minute puberula, tubuloso-infundibuliformis, 7 mm. longa, tubo 
basi ampliato, superne paullo dilatato, fauce 1.5-2 mm. lato, lobis 
oblongis obtusis 2 mm. longis; antherae inclusae; stylus interdum 
exsertus; fructus subglobosus glaber purpureo-niger 4-5 mm. longus 
sulcatus, costis obtusis. Colombia: Mountain forest above Val- 
paraiso, region of Santa Marta, alt. 1,500 m., May 27, 1899, H. H. 
Smith 1822 (Herb. Field Mus. No. 138,670, type; duplicates in W, 
G, M, P, Y); at 1,350 m., H. H. Smith 1827 (Y), 1823 (Y). Cali- 
fornia, Santander, 3,000 m., open woods, Killip & Smith 16909 
(W, Y). Above Surata, Santander, dense forest, Killip & Smith 
16583 (W, Y). La Baja, Santander, in dense forest, 3,000 m., Killip 
& Smith 18337 (W, Y); at 2,700 m., in thicket, Killip & Smith 
18327 (W, Y). Toledo, Norte de Santander, open hillside, 1,700- 
1,900 m., Ktilip & Smith 20047 (W, Y), 20087 (W, Y). Wooded 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

banks of Rio La Baja, Santander, 2,200 m., Killip & Smith 18281 
(W, Y). Ocana, 1,800 m., ScMim 664 (K). 

This plant is related to the Venezuelan P. apicata HBK., differing 
from it in the much shorter stipules. 

Palicourea libana, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis crassiusculis obtuse 
tetragonis, novellis dense tomentosis, vetustioribus ferrugineis 
glabratis; stipulae in vaginam 2.5-3 mm. longam tqmentosam 
truncatam connatae, vagina in lobos 4 remotos lineari-subulatos 
erectos 2.5-3.5 mm. longos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo gracili 
1 cm. longo dense hirtello; lamina elliptica vel elliptico-oblonga, 
c. 12 cm. longa et 5.5 cm. lata, apice abrupte breviterque acuminata, 
basi acuta et subobliqua, crasse membranacea, supra sublucida, 
glabra vel ad costam sparse puberula, nervis non elevatis, subtus 
pallidior, ubique dense molliterque pubescens, costa gracili elevata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 12, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
gracilibus, arcuatis, prominulis, juxta marginem conjunctis, neryulis 
inconspicuis; inflorescentia 3-3.5 cm. longe pedunculata, pyramidali- 
paniculata, dense multiflora, basi trichotoma, 9-14 cm. longa, 7-10 
cm. lata, ramulis adscendentibus tomentosis crassiusculis; bracteae 
ovatae vel lanceolatae, acuminatae, 2-4 mm. longae, extus tomen- 
tosae; flores conferti sessiles vel pedicellis crassis 1-3 mm. longis 
stipati; hypanthium late turbinatum 2 mm. longum dense tomen- 
tosum; calyx 1 mm. longus extus tomentosus, lobis brevibus rotun- 
datis; corolla alba tubuloso-infundibuliformis 18 mm. longa extus 
dense tomentosa, tubo superne sensim dilatato, fauce 4 mm. lato, 
lobis oblongis acutis 2.5-3 mm. longis; fructus subglobosus 5 mm. 
longus sulcatus tomentosus, costis obtusis. Colombia: Libano, 
Dept. Tolima, in forest, alt. 1,100-1,300 m., December 26-29, 1917, 
Francis W. Pennell 3434 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,042,825, type; 
duplicate in Y). 

Related to P. justicioides Standl., but in that species the bracts 
are large and often foliaceous, the calyx is several times as large, 
and the corolla much broader. 

Palicourea Lindenii, sp. nov. Ramuli crassiusculi, teretes vel 
obtuse tetragoni, glabri, brunnescentes, internodiis 3-5.5 cm. longis; 
stipulae persistentes in vaginam 8 mm. longam amplam glabram 
truncatam connatae, vagina in lacinias 4 remotas lineares glabras 
obtusas 10-12 mm. longas desinente; folia opposita, petiolo cras- 
siusculo 10-12 mm. longo glabro; lamina oblonga, 8-15 cm. longa, 
3-6 cm. lata, acuta vel obtusa et abrupte breviterque acuminata, 
acumine triangulari acuto, basi acuta vel subobttfsa et saepe inae- 
qualis, subcoriacea, supra yiridis, ad costam elevatam sparse pilosa, 
aliter glabra, nervis prominulis, subtus paullo pallidior, ad nervos 
pilis debilibus longiusculis sparse pilosa, costa gracili elevata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 14, angulo lato adscendentibus, promi- 
nentibus, gracilibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 139 

prominentibus arete reticulatis, margine saepe anguste revoluto; 
inflorescentia terminalis sessilis vel 5.5 cm. longe pedunculata, late 
thyrsoideo-paniculata, dense multiflora, 8-10 cm. longa et aequilata, 
basi trichotoma, ramis validis divaricatis vel angulo lato adscen- 
dentibus saepe angulatis glabris, floribus plerumque pedicellatis, 
pedicellis crassis 2-3 mm. longis, bracteis oblongis vel lanceolatis 
2-10 mm. longis obtusis vel acutis glabris; hypanthium glabrum late 
turbinatum 1-1.3 mm. longum; calyx 2-2.5 mm. longus glaber, 
laciniis ovalibus vel oblongo-pvatis obtusis inaequalibus; corolla 
fere 2 cm. longa, tubo cylindrico basi paullo ampliato superne vix 
dilatato ore 2.5 mm. lato, lobis ovato-oblongis suberectis obtusis 2 
mm., longis. Colombia: "New Granada," in 1842, Linden 1079 
(Herb. Kew., type). 

The plant is marked by the very long stipule lobes. It is repre- 
sented by two sheets in the Kew herbarium. 

Palicourea lineariflora Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 280. 1917. 

Llano de San Martin, 440 m., Triana 1639 (K, type collection), 
77 (K). Facatativa, Cundinamarca, 2,600 m., Lehmann 2578 (F, 
W). Pradera, Cundinamarca, 2,600-3,000 m., Lehmann 7516 (F, 
K). Usaque*n, 2,400 m., Apollinaire & Arthur 101 (W); Ariste- 
Joseph B39 (W). Nemoc6n, Ariste-Joseph B99 (W). Chapinero, 
Cundinamarca, 2,700 m., Pennell 2041 (W, G, M, Y). Misiones, 
Cundinamarca, Dawe 50 (W, K). Mountains near Bogota, Holton 
422 (G, K, P, Y). Quebrada de la Vieja, Ariste-Joseph A884 (W). 
Facatativd, Ariste-Joseph A191 (F, W). Zocancipd, Cundinamarca, 
Ariste-Joseph B50 (W). Boquer6n de Bogotd, 2,750 m., Andre 716 
(K, Y). Mountains of Usaqu&i, in 1917, Ariste-Joseph (W). Tequen- 
dama, January, 1923, Ariste-Joseph (W). Without locality, Ariste- 
Joseph B40 (W). Facatativa, 2,600 m., Lehmann 2578 (K). Bogota, 
Turner (K). Without locality, Linden 1301 (K). 

A glabrous shrub or small tree; stipules 5-6 mm. long, the lobes 
lanceolate, acute, shorter than the tube; leaves petiolate, subcori- 
aceous, elliptic, acute or obtuse at each end, 5-12 cm. long, 2.5-6.5 
cm. wide; inflorescence pedunculate or sessile, corymbose, usually 
as broad as long, lax, many-flowered, the branches curved-ascending, 
slender, the bracts minute; flowers pedicellate; calyx minute, the 
lobes ovate, acutish; corolla slender, glabrous, yellowish or whitish, 
1.5-2 cm. long or even longer; fruit subglobose, 5 mm. long. 

Palicourea longifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 369. 1820. 
Psychotria longifolia Spreng. Syst. Veg. 1: 745. 1825. 

Type from Santa Ana, Bonpkmd. 

Branches glabrous; stipules caducous; leaves opposite, petiolate, 
lance-oblong, acuminate at the apex, acute at the base, membrana- 
ceous, glabrous, paler beneath; inflorescence paniculate, sessile, 15-20 
cm. long, the branches spreading, glabrous, the bracts subulate; 
flowers solitary, pedicellate; calyx glabrous; corolla glabrate. 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

If the stipules really are caducous, as described, the plant is 
scarcely a Palicourea, but perhaps rather a Psychotria. 

Palicourea longistipulata (Muell. Arg.), comb. nov. Psycho- 
trio, longistipulata Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 248. 1881. 

Type from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 3697. 

Branchlets sparsely puberulent; stipules 12 mm. long, the lobes 
linear-subulate; leaves short-petiolate, broadly lanceolate, 6-18 cm. 
long, cuspidate, acute at the base, rigidly membranaceous, villosulous 
above along the veins, pubescent beneath; inflorescence corymbose, 
umbelliform, pedunculate, fulvous-pubescent; calyx shallowly 5-lobed, 
the lobes rounded-obtuse; corolla 8 mm. long, fulvous-villosulous; 
fruit oblong-ellipsoid, hispidulous, 5 mm. long. 

Palicourea lugubris Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 40: 
337. 1908. 

Timbiqui, Lehmann 9017 (F, G, K, Y), B.T.755 (Y). Also in 
Ecuador. 

A nearly glabrous shrub; stipules 7-8 mm. long, bifid nearly 
to the base, the lobes lance-oblong, acute; leaves short-petiolate, 
thin, blackish when dried, elliptic-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 8-17 
cm. long, 4-6 cm. wide, long-acuminate at the apex, cuneately acute 
at the base, glabrous; inflorescence pedunculate or sessile, cymose- 
corymbose, small, dense, the branches ascending, puberulent, the 
bracts linear; flowers short-pedicellate; calyx lobes linear-oblong, 
acute; corolla 8-10 mm. long, sparsely puberulent or glabrous; fruit 
4 mm. long. 

Palicourea lutulenta, sp. nov. Frutex yel arbor 1-6-metralis, 
ramulis validis obtuse tetragonis vel subteretibus, junioribus dense 
villoso-tomentosis, tomento fulvo vel ochraceo, vetustioribus 
sordide ochraceis; stipulae in yaginam laxam 6-8 mm. longam et 
5-8 mm. latam incrassatam primo dense villoso-tomentosam con- 
natae, vagina truncata in lobos 4 lineares 4-5 mm. longos acutos 
desinente; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 1-2 cm. longo supra sulcato 
dense villoso-hispidulo; lamina oblongo-elliptica yel oblongo-oyalis, 
8-15 cm. longa, 4-7.5 cm. lata, apice abrupte breviterque acuminata 
vel rarius obtusa, basi acuta vel obtusa, subcoriacea, in sicco 
lutescens, distincte marginata, supra tantum ad costam villosula, 
subtus pilis fulvis nitidis undique molliter pilosula, costa valida 
elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 11-13, prominentibus, 
angulo lato adscendentibus, yalde arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, 
nervulis prominulis irregulariter reticulatis; panicula plerumque 1-3 
cm. longe pedunculata, thyrsoideo-pyramidalis, 5-14 cm. longa, 6-7 
cm. lata, dense multiflora, rhachi percurrente, ramulis primariis 
crassis, divaricatis vel adscendentibus, dense et sordide hirtellis; 
bracteae lanceolatae vel lineares, 2.5-15 mm. longae yel longiores, 
ciliatae et plerumque hirtellae, persistentes; flores sessiles vel pedi- 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 141 

cellis brevibus crassis stipati; hypanthium turbinatum 2 mm. 
longum sparse vel dense pilis lutescentibus hirtellum; calyx 1-1.8 
mm. longus 5-lobus, viridis vel lutescens, lobis inaequalibus, ovatis 
vel rotundato-ovatis, acutis vel obtusis, hirtellis vel tantum ciliatis; 
corolla tubulosa lutea vel viridescens 11 mm. longa, extus dense 
pilis luteis villosula vel glabrata, tubo crasso fauce fere 4 mm. lato, 
lobis oblongo-ovatis 2 mm. longis obtusis erectis; stylus inclusus; 
fructus globosus glaber 6-8 mm. longus profunde sulcatus, costis 
obtusis. Colombia: Western slope of Paramo Rico, Dept. San- 
tander, in woods, alt. 3,000-3,600 m., January 15-19, 1927, E. P. 
Killip & Albert C. Smith 17209 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,352,841, 
type; duplicate in Y). Western slope of Paramo de las Puentes, 
above La Baja, Santander, 3,300 m., in oak forest, Killip & Smith 
18167 (W, Y). California, Santander, open hillside, 3,000 m., Killip 
& Smith 16930 (W, Y). La Baja, Santander, in oak forest, 3,500 
m., Killip & Smith 18079 (W, Y). Quebrada de Pais, north of La 
Baja, Santander, 3,200 m., in dense forest, Killip & Smith 1877 If 
(W, Y). Las Vegas, Santander, in woods, 2,600-3,000 m., Killip 
& Smith 16119 (W), 16189 (W). 

This is a relative of P. demissa Standl., but it is easily distin- 
guished from that species by the abundant pubescence of all parts 
of the plant. 

Palicourea lyristipula Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 339. 1917. 

Without locality, Linden 1081 (K). This is one of the two 
collections cited in the original description, the other being Triana 
ISO. 

Branches quadrangular, densely pubescent; stipules 13 mm. 
long, the lobes lanceolate, acute, scarcely equaling the sheath; 
leaves petiolate, firm-chartaceous, obovate or elliptic, subacu- 
minate, narrowed to the base, 9-17 cm. long, 5-8 cm. wide, pubescent 
beneath on the nerves; inflorescence thyrsoid-paniculate, 20 cm. 
long and 7 cm. broad, lax, many-flowered, the rachis glabrate, the 
bracts subsetaceous, small and inconspicuous; flowers mostly 
pedicellate; calyx lobes oblong-lanceolate, obtuse; corolla glabrous, 
the tube 12 mm. long, the lobes 2 mm. long, obtuse. 

Palicourea macrobotrys (R. & P.) R. & S. Syst. Veg. 5: 194. 
1819. Psychotria macrobotrys R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 2: 57. pi. 203, f. a. 
1799. 

Salento, Caldas, in forest, 2,100-2,500 m., Pennell 8873 (W, G, 
Y). Antioquia, Jervise (K). Ranging to Bolivia and Brazil. 

A shrub, the branches densely pubescent; stipule sheath 4 mm. 
long or less, truncate, the lobes subulate, usually longer than the 
sheath; leaves short-petiolate, lance-oblong or narrowly elliptic- 
oblong, thin, long-acuminate at the apex, acute at the base, finely 
soft-pubescent beneath over the whole surface; inflorescence thyr- 
soid, pedunculate or sessile, much elongate and narrow, spikelike, 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

the branches very short, the bracts linear, inconspicuous; flowers 
pedicellate; calyx minute, broadly ovate, acute; corolla yellow, 
tubular, about 1 cm. long, pubescent; fruit 3.5-4 mm. long. 

Palicourea myriantha, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis crassis 
obtuse tetragonis minutissime puberulis vel glabratis in sicco fuscis; 
stipulae 12-17 mm. longae, breviter connatae, extus puberulae, fere 
ad medium bilobae, lobis ovato-oblongis apice obtusis vel rotundatis 
persistentibus; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 2.5-7.5 cm. longo supra 
sulcato puberulo vel glabrato; lamina crasse papyracea, elliptico- 
ovalis vel obovato-ovalis, 16-32 cm. longa, 8-19 cm. lata, apice 
rotundata vel obtusa et brevissime obtuseque protracta, basi acuta 
vel rotundata et abrupte contracta, supra viridis, glabra vel ad 
costam prominentem sparse hirtella, nervis manifestos sed vix 
prominentibus, subtus paullo pallidior, ubique molliter pubescens, 
costa valida elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 20, gracilibus, 
prominentibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, prope marginem 
arcuato-conjunctis; inflorescentia 2-6.5 cm. longe pedunculata, 
pyramidali-paniculata vel thyrsoideo-paniculata, dense multiflora, 
11-24 cm. longa, 5-19 cm. lata, ramulis primariis divaricatis validis 
dense puberulis; bracteae ovatae vel late oblongae, obtusae, 2-6 
mm. longae, tomentellae; flores sparsi pedicellati, pedicellis 2-4 
mm. longis hirtellis apice incrassatis; hypanthium late turbinatum 
1.5 mm. longum sparse puberulum; calyx 1-1.5 mm. longus profunde 
5-lobus, lobis ovatis acutis puberulis; corolla lutea tubulosa extus 
hirtella 10 mm. longa, tubo basi paullo ampliato, fauce 2 mm. lato, 
lobis oblongo-triangularibus acutis 1.5 mm. longis; stylus interdum 
exsertus; fructus immaturus globosus glabratus. Colombia: In 
forest above Salento, Dept. Caldas, alt. 2,000-2,200 m., July 25-31, 
1922, Francis W. Pennell 8941 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,668, 
type; duplicates in G and Y). Quindio, in 1876, Andr6 21^1 (K). 
Balsillas, Huila, along stream, Rusby & Pennell 741 (W, G, M, Y). 
East of Neiva, Huila, in forest, Rusby & Pennell 868 (W, Y). 

The relationship of this species is with P. lutulenta Standl. 
in that the leaves usually are much smaller, and the stipules are 
very different. 

Palicourea nitidella (Muell. Arg.), comb. nov. Psychotria 
nitidella Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 250. 1881. 

Type from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 3121. 

Stipules lanceolate, long-acuminate; leaves petiolate, ovate or 
elliptic, 7-13 cm. long, 2.5-5.5 cm. wide, acutely acuminate at the 
apex, acute at the base, glabrous, the veins 5-11 pairs; panicle 
compact-corymbiform, long-pedunculate, the bracts triangular; 
calyx obsoletely 5-dentate; corolla 14 mm. long, furfuraceous- 
tomentulose. 

Palicourea nubigena, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis validis obtuse 
tetragonis densissime villoso-tomentosis, tomento ochraceo subad- 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 143 

presso, internodiis 2.5-8 cm. longis; stipulae magnae fere liberae, 
late ovatae, 2-2.5 cm. longae, membranaceae, brunnescentes, extus 
tomentulosae, apice breviter bilobae, lobis acutis; folia opposita, 
petiolo crassiusculo 2.5-4 cm. longo dense villoso-tomentoso; lamina 
elliptica, obovato-elliptica vel elliptico-oblonga, 14-20 cm. longa, 
5-9 cm. lata, apice longe et subabrupte acuminata, basi acuta, rigide 
herbacea, supra viridis glabra, nervis subimpressis, subtus pallidior, 
pilis brevibus patentibus ubique molliter hirtella, costa crassa eleyata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 18, gracilibus, prominentibus, 
angulo lato adscendentibus, valde arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, 
nervulis prominentibus laxe reticulatis; panicula sessilis, trichotoma, 
ovoideo-pyramidalis, 11 cm. longa, 9 cm. lata, dense multiflora, 
ramulis adscendentibus vel superioribus divaricatis, dense ochraceo- 
tomentosis; bracteae anguste oblongae, 6-10 mm. longae, obtusae, 
tenues, brunneae, extus adpresso-pilosulae, intus glabrae; flores 
conferti breviter pedicellati, pedicellis crassis hirtellis; hypanthium 
turbinatum 2 mm. longum hirtellum; calyx 2-3 mm. longus profunde 
5-lobus, lobis triangulari-ovatis obtusis, extus sparse hirtellis; corolla 
alba extus dense yilloso-tomentella 8-11 mm. longa, tubo crasso 
3.5-4 mm. lato, lobis erectis oblongis obtusis, tubo paullo vel duplo 
brevioribus. Colombia: In mossy forest, Cerro Tatama, Dept. 
Caldas, alt. 2,800-3,300 m., September 8-10, 1922, Francis W. 
Pennell 10464 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,693, type). 

In general appearance this somewhat resembles P. lutulenta 
Standl., but the very large stipules of P. nuMgena are distinctive. 
They are much larger than in most species of the genus. 

Palicourea obscurata (Muell. Arg.), comb. nov. Psychotria 
obscurata Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 253. 1881. 

Type from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 3046. 

Branchlets glabrous; stipules triangular-ovate, 4 mm. long, 
obtuse; leaves short-petiplate, ovate, 9-16 cm. long, 4-7 cm. wide, 
cuspidate-acuminate, coriaceous-membranaceous, glabrous, the veins 
9-11 pairs; panicle short-pedunculate, subglobose, 2 cm. long, the 
flowers minutely pulverulent-tomentulose; calyx obsoletely 5- 
denticulate; corolla 7 mm. long. 

Palicourea orthoneura, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi cortice laevi 
ochraceo obtecti, subteretes, glabri, internodiis brevibus vel elongatis; 
stipulae persistentes in vaginam 4 mm. longam glabram truncatam 
connatae, vagina in lobos 4 triangulari-oblongos obtusos 2-3 mm. 
longos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo crassiusculo 10-18 mm. 
longo glabro; lamina elliptico-oblonga, 9-12 cm. longa, 3.5-5 cm. 
lata, coriacea, utrinque glabra, supra viridis, lucida, costa et nervis 
elevatis, subtus luteo-viridis, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere 4-5, angulo acutp valde adscendentibus, gracilibus, 
elevatis, in marginem desinentibus, arcuatis, nervulis prominulis 
arete reticulatis, margine subrevoluto; inflorescentia terminalis, 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

cymoso-paniculata, 4.5-7 cm. longa, 3.5-6 cm. lata, dense multiflora, 
6-9 cm. longe pedunculata, ramis validis adscendentibus et saepe 
incurvis, glabris vel minutissime pulverulis, infimis oppositis vel 
subverticillatis, floribus sessilibus dense congestis, bracteis anguste 
triangularibus vel linearibus 1.5-3 mm. longis acutis; hypanthium 
obqvoideum 0.6 mm. longum glabrum; calyx glaber 0.5 mm. longus, 
lobis brevissimis rotundato-ovatis, apice obtusis vel rotundatis; 
corolla 2.5-3 mm. longa extus glabra, tubo crassiusculo fauce barbato, 
lobis oblongis tubo aequilongis obtusis. Colombia: Without defi- 
nite locality, Triana 1660 (Herb. Kew., type). 

The species is easily recognized by the few strongly ascending 
nerves of the leaves and the very small flowers. It may be that it 
should be placed in Psychotria rather than in Palicourea. 

Palicourea ovalis, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis crassiusculis 
subteretibus glabris, internodiis 2-9 cm. longis; stipulae in vaginam 
3-6 mm. longam truncatam glabram vel margine ciliolatam connatae, 
vagina in lobos 4 c. 2 mm. longos triangulari-oblongos acutos desi- 
nente; folia opposita, petiolo 1-1.7 cm. longo supra late sulcato, 
subtus sparse adpresso-piloso; lamina ovalis vel elliptico-ovalis, 
11.5-13.5 cm. longa, 5.5-7 cm. lata, apice rotundata et abrupte 
breviterque acuminata, acumine triangulari acuminato fere 1 cm. 
longo, basi rotundata vel obtusa et interdurn abrupte contracta, 
subcoriacea, rigida, supra viridis, glabra, rhaphidibus brevibus 
pallidis conspicue conspersa, nervis nervulisque manifestis, subtus 
pallidior, tantum ad cpstam dense adpresso-pilosa, costa crassiuscula 
elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 12, angulo recto adscen- 
dentibus, gracilibus, prominentibus, valde arcuatis, in marginem 
desinentibus, nervulis elevatis et pulchre reticulatis; panicula 3 cm. 
longe pedunculata, pyramidalis, laxa, pauciflora, 6-9 cm. longa, 
8-12 cm. lata, ramulis divaricatis vel subreflexis glabris, rhachi 
percurrente; bracteae anguste triangulares, patulae, 2-4 mm. longae, 
acutae, ciliolatae; pedicelli validi 7-20 mm. longi glabri; hypanthium 
obovoideo-turbinatum 2.5 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 2 mm. 
longus, 4 mm. latus, breviter 5-lobus, lobis late ovato-triangularibus 
acutiusculis ciliolatis; corolla caerulea tubulosa (in alabastro), 3 cm. 
longa, crassa, extus glabra, intus supra basin dense villosa, lobis 
ovato-oblongis 5-6 mm. longis obtusis; antherae lineares 6 mm. 
longae; fructus immaturus globosus 6 mm. diam. Colombia: In 
forest, La Cumbre, Dept. El Valle, alt. 1,800-2,100 m., Francis W. 
Pennell 5711 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,141,913, type; duplicate in 
Y). Coraz6n(?), AndrS K.501 (K). 

Here probably belongs Killip & Smith 19143 from the southern 
slope of Mount San Martin, near Charta, Dept. Santander, alt. 
2,300-2,500 m. (W, Y). No corollas are present on the specimens, but 
the collector's notes describe the corolla as "green proximally, 
brown-red distally, lobes green." The plant is said to be a "shrub" 
4.5-6 m. high. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 145 

Palicourea ovalis is marked chiefly by the very large corolla and 
the oval leaves. 

Palicourea paradisiaca, sp. noy. Ramuli yalidi teretes olivacei 
glabri, internodiis 1.5-4.5 cm. longis; stipulae in vaginam 3-4 mm. 
longam glabram persistentem truncatam connatae, vagina in lobos 
4 lineari-subulatos 2-3 mm. longos erectos desinente; folia opposita, 
petiolo valido 1.2-2 cm. longo supra sulcato glabro; lamina elliptico- 
oblonga, 14-16 cm. longa, 6-7.5 cm. lata, abrupte breviterque 
acuminata, acumine triangulari, basi acuta, subcoriacea, anguste 
marginata, supra viridis glabra, rhaphidibus pallidis brevibus 
crebris conspersa, costa prominente, neryis vix elevatis, subtus 
pallidior, ad nervos hirtella, ad costam gracilem elevatam hirsutula, 
neryis lateralibus utroque latere c. 14, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, arcuatis, in marginem desinentibus, 
nervulis prominentibus arete reticulatis; inflorescentia paniculata, 
anguste pyramidalis vel thyrsoidea, 15. cm. longe pedunculata, 5-17 
cm. longa, 3-18 cm. lata, pauci- vel multiflora, ramis validis adscen- 
dentibus glabris, bracteis c. 1 mm. longis triangularibus acutis, 
pedicellis crassis 2-8 mm. longis; hypanthium glabrum 1.5-2 mm. 
longum; calyx 1.5 mm. longus 5-lobus glaber, lobis late rotundatis 
minute ciliolatis; corolla 2 cm. longa extus glabra, tubo crasso, basi 
paullo ampliato et 4 mm. lato, fauce 5 mm. lato, lobis ovato-tri- 
angularibus obtusis 3 mm. longis; fructus globosus 7 mm. longus. 
Colombia: Valparaiso, July 22, 1928, Rafael A. Toro 137 % (Herb. 
N. Y. Bot. Gard., type). Venezuela: Between Maracay and Choroni, 
also Colonia Tovar, 1,800 m., Fendler 558 (K, Y). Colonia Tovar, 
Fendler 558 /3 (K,Y); at 1,700-2,300 m., in forest, Pittier 10062 (Y). 

Palicourea pasti Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 283. 1917. 

Pasto, Triana 1650 (K, type collection), 1658 (K); Andrt 888 
(K). Without locality, Triana 1640 (K). Pasto Volcano, 2,500-3,200 
m., Lehmann 6312 (K). 

A shrub, glabrous throughout; stipules 4-8 mm. long, obscurely 
lobed at the apex; leaves petiolate, coriaceous, elliptic or obovate- 
lanceolate, scarcely acuminate, the apex obtuse, acute at the base, 
4-12 cm. long, 2-5 cm. wide; inflorescence cymose-corymbose, sessile 
or short-pedunculate, up to 15 cm. broad, the bracts small, ovate 
or lanceolate; calyx lobes obtuse; corolla blue, the tube 6-7 mm. 
long, the 4 lobes 2 mm. long, concave, pubescent within. 

Palicourea Pennellii, sp. nov. Arbor, ramulis crassis obtuse 
tetragonis ferrugineis vel fuscis, novellis sparse hirtellis; stipulae in 
vaginam truncatam incrassatam 2-4 mm. longam glabram connatae, 
vagina in lobos 4 remotos lanceolatos 5-6 mm. longos subulato- 
acuminatos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo crassiusculo 5-9 mm. 
longo hirtello; lamina coriacea, sublucida, elliptica vel oblongo- 
elliptica, 4-6.5 cm. longa, 1.5-3.8 cm. lata, abrupte breviterque 
acuminata, apice obtuso, basi acuta, anguste marginata, supra 
viridis glabra, costa prominente, nervis manifestis prominulis, 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

subtus paullo pallidior, secus nervos sparse minuteque hirtella, 
costa crassiuscula elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 16, 
angulo lato adscendentibus, prominentibus, gracilibus, brunnescenti- 
bus, valde arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis manifestis 
eleganter reticulatis; inflorescentia lutea, sessilis vel ad 4.5 cm. 
longe pedunculata, paniculata vel subcorymbpsa, dense multiflora, 
4.5-7 cm. longa, 5-7 cm. lata, ramulis oppositis vel subfastigiatis, 
adscendentibus vel suberectis, validis, ferrugineis, minutissime 
hirtellis; bracteae lineares vel subulatae 2-9 mm. longae attenuatae 
glabrae; flores sessiles vel pedicellati, pedicellis crassis 1-2 mm. 
longis; hypanthium late turbinatum 1 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 
1-1.5 mm. longus profunde 5-lobus, lobis ovatis pbtusis pallidis 
glabris; corolla lutea extus glabra infundibuliformis, basi paullo 
ampliata, superne sensim dilatata, fauce 3 mm. lata, lobis late 
ovatis obtusis fere 2 mm. longis; fructus subglobosus glaber 5 mm. 
longus, costis obtusis. Colombia: Mount Santa Ana, Dept. El 
Cauca, alt. 2,700-3,000 m., June 29-30, 1922, Francis W. Pennell 
7tf6 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,616, type; duplicates in G and Y). 
An isolated species, somewhat suggesting a Viburnum in general 
appearance. 

Palicourea per quadrangular is Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 341. 
1917. 

Without locality, Linden 1087 (K). Rio Santa Rita, Caldas, 
1,700-1,900 m., Kittip & Hazen 9028 (W, G, Y). Antizales, Bolivar, 
1,500-1,800 m., Pennell 44U (Y). Mesa de los Santos, Santander, 
1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15286 (W). San Bernardino, Caldas, 
1,500-2,000 m., Pennell & Hazen 10157 (W). Antioquia, Jernse 
(K). Also in Venezuela. 

A shrub or small tree, nearly glabrous, the branches quadrangular; 
stipule sheath 5-10 mm. long, truncate, biaristate, the aristae subu- 
late, about as long as the sheath; leaves short-petiolate, thick and 
firm, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 12-25 cm. long, 5-11 cm. wide, 
abruptly short-acuminate, acute at the base, many-veined, hirsute- 
pilosulpus beneath along the costa; panicle pedunculate or sessile, 
thyrsoid, up to 30 cm. long, narrow, the short branches divaricate, 
glabrous; flowers usually long-pedicellate; calyx lobes ovate, obtuse; 
corolla glabrous, 7 mm. long; fruit 5 mm. long. 

The corolla is variously described as "pale yellow," "light blue," 
and "blue," but all the specimens appear to be conspecific. The 
flower colors reported for some of the species of Palicourea are very 
confusing and inconsistent, and it seems certain that in many cases 
they have been noted carelessly, perhaps from memory, or by 
persons who had no definite idea of the definition of color terms, a 
class to which many of our botanists seem to belong. The size of 
the plant, likewise, seems to have been reported too often from 
memory alone. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 147 

Palicourea popayanensis Benth. PI. Hartw. 193. 1845. 

Type from forests near Popaydn, Hartweg 1058. Hills of Mira- 
flores, above Palmira, Cauca, 1,200-1,600 m., Pittier 876 (W, Y). 
Cuatro Esquinas, Cauca, 1,700 m., Pennell & Killip 6335 (W, G, 
Y). Miraflores, El Valle, 1,800-2,100 m., Killip 6140 (W). Pavas, 
El Valle, in forest, 1,700-2,100 m., Killip 11661 (W, G, Y). Rio 
Quindio above Armenia, Caldas, 1,400-1,600 m., edge of forest, 
Pennell, Killip & Hazen 8725 (W, G, Y). Balsillas, Huila, in forest, 
2,100 m., Rusby & Pennell 803 (Y). Titiribi, Tow 399 (Y). Angelo- 
polis, Tow 268 (Y). 

A shrub or small tree, glabrous or nearly so; stipule sheath 3-4 
mm. long, truncate, the lobes linear, usually shorter than the sheath, 
acute or obtuse; leaves short-petiolate, elliptic-oblong, 7-17 cm. 
long, firm, acuminate, acute to nearly rounded at the base, glabrous 
or sparsely pilose beneath along the costa; panicle pedunculate or 
sessile, thyrsoid-pyramidal, open, large, many-flowered, glabrous, 
the branches ascending or spreading, the bracts minute; flowers 
pedicellate; calyx lobes minute, acute or obtuse; corolla orange or 
yellow, glabrous, 10-13 mm. long, tubular, stout; fruit 5-6 mm. long. 

It is not certain that the specimens listed really represent P. 
popayanensis. Pennell 2394, here referred to P. ionantha, was 
compared by Britton in 1920 with the type of P. popayanensis at 
Kew, and is said by him to be the same as Hartweg "1055" (1058[?j). 
The Pennell specimen, however, does not agree with the original 
description of P. popayanensis, while the specimens here cited do 
agree with it in most details. 

Palicourea populifolia Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 
141. 1920. 

Las Nubes, 1,500 m., H. H. Smith 1833 (Y, type; F, W, M, P). 
Santa Marta, Purdie (K). Near San Sebastian, January, 1844, 
Purdie (K). 

A tree 6 m. high, the branches glabrous, terete; stipules green, 
bifid, the lobes linear, acute, 4-6 mm. long; petioles slender, 5-7 cm. 
long; leaf blades oblong-ovate to broadly ovate, acute at the apex, 
rounded and unequal at the base, puberulent beneath along the 
costa; panicle pedunculate, pyramidal, lax, many-flowered, the 
branches minutely puberulent, the bractlets minute; flowers pedi- 
cellate; fruit globose, 3-4 mm. long; corolla 7 mm. long, glabrous. 

Palicourea psittacorum, sp. nov. Frutex, ramulis validis 
subteretibus dense villosulo-hirtellis, internodiis 1.5-2 cm. longis; 
stipulae in vaginam 2.5-3 mm. longam extus dense puberulam con- 
natae, vagina in lobos 4 fere contiguos oblongos obtusos 3-4 mm. 
longos glabratos ciliolatos erectos desinente; folia opposita, petiolo 
crasso 3-5 mm. longo dense hirtello; lamina coriacea, elliptico- 
oblonga, 3-5.5 cm. longa, 1-2 cm. lata, longe angusteque acuminata, 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

acumine pbtuso, basi acuta, marginata, supra luteo-viridis, ad 
costam hirtella, costa nervisque subimpressis, subtus cinerea, ad 
nervos dense albido-hispidula, costa crassiuscula elevata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 12, angulp lato vel angusto adscenden- 
tibus, prominentibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, nervulis 
prominulis reticulatis; inflorescentia 1.5-2.5 cm. longe pedunculata, 
interdum basi foliaco-bracteata, thyrsoideo-paniculata, dense multi- 
flora, 3-4 cm. longa, 2-3 cm. lata, ramulis brevibus divaricatis dense 
hispidulis; bracteae ut videtur virides, lineares vel lanceplato- 
lineares, plerumque 5-7 mm. longae, ciliatae, numerosae, cpnspicuae; 
flores conferti sessiles vel brevissime pedicellati; hypanthium turbi- 
natum 1.5 mm. longum puberulum; calyx 1.5-2 mm. longus profunde 
5-lpbus, lobis puberulis vel glabratis, ciliplatis, ovalibus vel ovatis, 
apice obtusis vel rotundatis; corolla viridi-lutea tubulosa 8-10 mm. 
longa extus puberula, tubo basi paullo ampliato, superne paullo 
dilatato, fauce 2 mm. lato, lobis c. 1 mm. longis; stylus interdum 
breviter exsertus. Colombia: La Lora to summit, new Quindio 
Trail, Dept. Tolima, alt. 3,280 m., August 14, 1922, Ellsworth P. 
KiUip 9782 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,140,688, type; duplicate in Y). 
Closely related to P. angustifolia HBK., but with different stipules. 

Palicourea Purdiei, sp. nov. Ramuli crassiusculi subteretes 
fusci lucidi, internodiis 2-3 cm. longis; stipulae in vaginam glabram 
2 mm. longam connatae, bifidae, lobis anguste triangularibus 2 mm. 
longis acutis rigidis persistentibus erectis; folia opposita, petiolo 
valido 7-10 mm. longo supra sulcato glabro; lamina elliptico-pblonga, 
5.5-9 cm. longa, 2-3.5 cm. lata, acuta vel subobtusa, apice ipso 
saepius obtusp, basi cuneatim angustata vel abrupte contracta, 
coriacea, marginata, glabra, sublucida, supra viridis, costa nervisque 
prominentibus, nervulis subimpressis, subtus pallidior, in sicco 
brunnescens, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
c. 15, gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, 
marginem attingentibus, nervulis vix prominulis reticulatis; inflores- 
centia 2 cm. longe pedunculata, paniculata, corymbiformis, laxe 
multiflora, c. 6 cm. longa et lata, basi trichotoma, ramis adscen- 
dentibus gracilibus minutissime puberulis; bracteae 1-1.5 mm. 
longae subulatae; flores pedicellati, pedicellis 2-7 mm. longis puberu- 
lis; hypanthium late turbinatum 1.5 mm. longum minutissime 
puberulum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus, lobis minutis ovatis acutis; 
corolla tubuloso-infundibuliformis 12 mm. longa extus minute 
puberula, tubo gracili basi paullo ampliato, superne sensim dilatato, 
fauce 2.2 mm. lato, lobis brevibus obtusis. Colombia: Santa 
Marta, Purdie (Gray Herb., type). Mountains of San Sebastian, 
Nevada de Santa Marta, July, 1844, Purdie (K; probably the same 
collection as the type). Mountains of the Nevada, alt. 3,000 m., 
June, 1844, Purdie (K). 

Palicourea lineariflora Wernh. is the nearest ally of P. Purdiei, 
but in the former the corolla is longer, and the stipules are decidedly 
different. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 149 

Palicourea pyramidalis, sp. nov. Ramuli valid! obtuse tetra- 
gone in sicco fusci glabri, internodiis elongatis; stipulae breviter 
connatae, adpressae, 8-12 mm. longae, glabrae, profunde bilobae, 
lobis ovato-oblongis obtusis persistentibus; folia opposita, petiolo 
gracili 0.8-2 cm. longo glabro; lamina subcoriacea, elliptico-ovalis 
vel obovatp-ovalis, 8-15 cm. longa, 4-7 cm. lata, abrupte et brevis- 
sime acuminata, acumine obtuso, basi acuta yel subobtusa, glabra, 
in sicco fusca, subconcolor, costa gracili utrinque elevata, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere c. 21, gracilibus, utrinque prominentibus, 
angulo lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, marginem attingentibus, 
nervulis subtus prominulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentia sessilis vel 
4-5 cm. longe pedunculata, late pyramidali-paniculata, laxe multi- 
flora, 14-18 cm. longa, 13-20 cm. lata, ramulis primariis divaricatis 
gracilibus glabris; bracteae lineari-subulatae 2-7 mm. longae persis- 
tentes glabrae; flores sparsi, pedicellis gracilibus 3-9 mm. longis 
apice paullo incrassatis; hypanthium turbinatum glabrum 1.2 mm. 
longum; calyx glaber 1 mm. longus profunde 5-lobus, lobis late 
ovatis acutis; corolla tubulosa 8-10 mm. longa extus glabra, tubo 
basi ampliato, superne vix dilatato, fauce 2.5 mm. lato, lobis oblongo- 
ovatis acutiusculis 1.5 mm. longis. Colombia(?); Without locality, 
F. C. LehmannB.T.1203 (Gray Herb., type; duplicates in K and Y), 
B.T.1252 (K, Y). 

A relative of the Venezuelan P. petiolaris HBK., in which, 
however, the stipules are shorter, the petioles much longer, and the 
inflorescence puberulent. 

Palicourea rigida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 370. 1820. 

Santa Marta, Purdie (Y). Widely distributed in South America. 

A nearly glabrous shrub with thick stout branches; stipule lobes 
short, acuminate; leaves subsessile, coriaceous, stiff, elliptic to ovate 
or obovate, large, obtuse to short-acuminate at the apex, rounded 
to acutish at the base; inflorescence long-pedunculate, ovoid, large, 
dense, many-flowered, the branches minutely puberulent or glabrate, 
the bracts lance-subulate; calyx lobes nearly obsolete; corolla yellow, 
12-14 mm. long, furfuraceous-puberulent, the lobes very short; fruit 
black, 5-6 mm. long. 

Palicourea salmonea Schum. & Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 
30: 333. 1908. 

Highlands of Popayan, 1,500-2,000 m., Lehmann 5112 (F, W, Y, 
type collection). Lehmann 7929 also is reported by the authors of 
the species. San Martin de Loba, Curran 194 (W). 

A slender glabrous shrub ; stipules 4 mm. long, the lobes subulate; 
leaves short-petioled, subcoriaceous, oblong or elliptic-oblong, 6-15 
cm. long, 2-5.5 cm. wide, long-acuminate at the apex, acute at the 
base; panicle pedunculate or sessile, pyramidal, 7-12 cm. long, lax, 
many-flowered, the branches slender, usually ascending, the bracts 
minute; flowers on long slender pedicels; calyx lobes ovate, acute, 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

scarcely 1 mm. long; corolla tubular, salmon-colored, glabrous, 
slender, 10-14 mm. long. 

This species is closely related to P. crocea. 

Palicourea semirasa, sp. nov. Arbor parva interdum 6 m. 
alta, ramulis gracilibus teretibus laevibus in sicco fuscis, internodiis 
brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae 3-5 mm. longae, persistentes, brevis- 
sime cpnnatae, fere ad basin bifidae, erectae, lobis ovatis vel late 
oblongis apice obtusis vel rotundatis glabris ciliolatis; folia opposita, 
petiolo 0.7-1.5 cm. longo crassiusculo supra sulcato glabro; lamina 
oblongo-lanceolata, ovato-oblonga vel elliptico-oyata, 9-15 cm. longa, 
3-5 cm. lata, apice longe et plerumque sensim acuminata, basi 
acuta, crasse papyracea, glabra, supra in sicco luteo-viridis, costa 
nervisque prominentibus, subtus fusco-viridis, costa gracili eleyata, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 11, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
arcuatis, prope marginem arcuato-conjunctis, nervulis obscuris; 
inflorescentia late thyrsoidea 6-12 cm. longa, 6-11 cm. lata, laxe 
multiflora, 2-5 cm. longe pedunculata, ramulis adscendentibus 
gracilibus, ut pedunculus minute puberulis vel glabratis; bracteae 
minutissimae; flores pedicellati, pedicellis 3-10 mm. longis; hypan- 
thium obovoideo-turbinatum glabrum; calyx 0.5 mm. longus glaber, 
dentibus minutis late rotundatis; corolla lutea 11-13 mm. longa 
tubulosa, solum ad apicem papilloso-puberula, tubo 2.5-3 mm. 
lato, lobis triangulari-ovatis obtusis 1.5 mm. longis; stylus breviter 
exsertus; fructus subglobosus glaber 5-6 mm. longus sulcatus, costis 
obtusis. Colombia: In woods, Mesa de los Santos, Dept. Santander, 
alt. 1,500 m., December 11-15, 1926, E. P. Killip & Albert C. Smith 
15154 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,351,085, type), 15069 (W), 15275 
(W, Y). 

This is a relative of the widely distributed P. guianensis Aubl. 
That species differs in having much broader leaves, larger stipules, 
and a corolla which is furfuraceous-tomentose throughout. 

Palicourea speciosa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 368. 1820. 
Psychotria speciosa Spreng. Syst. Veg. 1: 746. 1825. 

Type from Santa Ana, Bonpland. 

Branches glabrous; leaves opposite, petiolate, oblong, acuminate 
at the apex, acute at the base, 17-20 cm. long, 4 cm. wide, reticulate- 
veined, scaberulous and shining on both surfaces; inflorescence panic- 
ulate, pedunculate, 7.5 cm. long, the branches spreading, pubescent- 
hirtous, the bracts minute, subulate; flowers solitary, pedicellate; 
corolla 12 mm. long, pubescent. 

Palicourea Toroi, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi obtuse tetragoni, 
novellis sparse hirsutis cito glabratis, internodiis 4-6.5 cm. longis; 
stipulae in vaginam adpressam 10-12 mm. longam truncatam glabram 
connatae, vagina in lobos 4 approximates tenues lanceolatos 13-17 
mm. longos, 4-6 mm. latos, acuminates, apice ipse obtuso, desinente; 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 151 

folia opposite,, petiolo crasso 1.5-3 cm. longo sparse hirtello vel 
glabrato; lamina crasse papyracea, ovalis vel oblongo-elliptica, 17-26 
cm. longa, 8-11.5 cm. lata, apice abrupte et brevissime acuminata, 
acumine acuto, basi obtusa vel acuta, supra viridis, ad costam sparse 
hirtella, nervis lateralibus conspicuis, subtus vix pallidor, ad nervos 
hirtella, costa crassa elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 21, 
gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo fere recto adscendentibus, arcuatis, 
marginem attingentibus, nervulis prominulis reticulatis; inflorescentia 
8 cm. longe pedunculata, pyramidali-paniculata, c. 10 cm. longa et 
aequilata, laxe multiflora, ramis divaricatis sparse hirtellis vel fere 
glabris; bracteae lineari-lanceolatae vel ovato-oblongae, 4-8 mm. 
longae, subulato-acuminatae, persistentes, glabrae; pedicelli crassi 
2-8 mm. longi glabri; hypanthium cylindrico-turbinatum 2 mm. 
longum glabrum; calyx 4 mm. longus fere ad basin 5-fidus, lobis 
ovalibus, late oblongis vel obovato-ovalibus, glabris, apice obtusis 
vel late rotundatis; corolla aperta non visa, in alabastro glabra. 
Colombia: Dauro, April 6, 1928, Rafael A. Toro 1133 (Herb. N. Y. 
Bot. Card., type). 

Palicourea Toroi is related to P. heterochroma Schum. & Krause, 
but in that the stipule lobes are lance-subulate, the leaves nearly 
glabrous, and the calyx lobes lance-triangular. It is a pleasure 
to name this plant in honor of its collector, who has obtained in 
Colombia such a large series of interesting Rubiaceae. 

Palicourea triphylla DC. Prodr. 4: 526. 1830. Psychotria 
triphylla Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 233. pi. 32. 1881. 

Don Amo, 450 m., in damp forest, H. H. Smith 2798 (Y). Puerto 
Wilches, Santander, 100 m., edge of woods, Killip & Smith 14917 
(W, Y). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A shrub 1-2.5 m. high, the branches terete, glabrous or nearly 
so; stipule lobes linear, 6-10 mm. long; leaves ternate, short-petiolate, 
oblong or obovate-oblong, long-acuminate at the apex, usually acute 
at the base, puberulent, especially beneath, or finally glabrate; 
inflorescence long-pedunculate, narrowly pyramidal-paniculate, 
dense, many-flowered, short-pilose, the bracts linear-subulate; 
flowers pedicellate, the pedicels and calyx red; calyx teeth obtuse; 
corolla yellow, furfuraceous-puberulent, 12-15 mm. long; fruit black. 

Palicourea vagans Wernh. Journ. Bot. 55: 281. 1917. 

Mount Quindio, at 2,340 m., Triana 131 (K, type collection). 
La Baja, Santander, 3,500 m., in oak forest, Killip & Smith 18088 
(W, Y). Paramo de las Puentes, above La Baja, Santander, 3,300 
m., Killip & Smith 18165 (W, Y). Pamplona, in forest, 2,400 m., 
Schlim 1074 (K). Ocana, in forest, 2,400 m., ScMim 442 (K); at 
1,800 m., Schlim 21 (K). Ocana to Pamplona, 3,000 m., Kalbreyer 
762 (K). Around Ocana and Granada, 2,550 m., Kalbreyer 482 (K). 
Also in Venezuela. 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

A shrub 2-4.5 m. high, the young branches densely pubescent; 
stipule sheath 4-6 mm. long, the lobes linear, very short; leaves 
opposite, short-petiolate, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, 4-7 cm. long, 
2-3 cm. wide, short-acuminate at the apex, acute at the base, thick, 
pubescent beneath on the nerves; inflorescence cymose, rather few- 
flowered, usually sessile, terminal and in the uppermost axils, dense, 
the bracts inconspicuous; flowers pedicellate; calyx lobes deltoid, 
minute; corolla 16-18 mm. long, purple, furfuraceous-puberulent or 
glabrate, the tube 5 mm. wide at the mouth; fruit 5-6 mm. long. 

Palicourea vaginata Benth. PI. Hartw. 193. 1845. 

Type from Andes near Bogota, Hartweg. Cerro Santa Ana, 
Cauca, 2,700-3,000 m., Pennell 7462 (W, G, Y). Chiquinquira, 
July, 1909, Ariste-Joseph (W). Region of Bogota, Ariste-Joseph 549 
(W); in 1919, Ariste-Joseph (W). El Penon, Cundinamarca, in 
forest, 2,800 m., Pennell 407 (W, G, Y). La Calera, Ariste-Joseph 
A8S6 (W). Chapinero, Cundinamarca, 2,800 m., Pennell 2009 (Y). 
Charta, Santander, 2,600 m., in forest, Killip & Smith 18860 (W, 
Y), 19004 (W, Y), 19007 (W, Y). Paramo del Hatico, Santander, 
2,200-2,800 m., Killip & Smith 20563 (W, Y), 20592 (W, Y), 20609 
(W, Y). Pica-Pica Valley, Norte de Santander, in woods, 2,100- 
2,400 m., Killip & Smith 20409 (W, Y), 20400 (W, Y). Culaga 
Valley, Norte de Santander, 2,300 m., Killip & Smith 20332 (W, 
Y). Pamplona to Toledo, Norte de Santander, 2,800-3,000 m., 
Killip & Smith 19848 (W), 19841 (W, Y). Murillo, Tolima, 2,200- 
2,600 m., Pennell 3156 (Y). Boqueron de Bogota, 2,750 m., Andre 
716 (K). Hills above Bogota, 2,700 m., Tracey 121 (K). 

A shrub or small tree, sometimes 6 m. high; stipules connate 
into a sheath, membranaceous at the apex, shallowly bilobate, the 
lobes obtuse, glabrous; leaves thick, petiolate, oval-elliptic to elliptic- 
oblong, short-acuminate, narrowed at the base, shining above, soft- 
pubescent beneath or nearly glabrous, 7.5-14 cm. long; panicles short, 
dense, usually sessile, broad, the branches spreading or ascending, 
puberulent, many-flowered, the bracts minute; flowers pedicellate; 
corolla yellow, glabrous or puberulent, 8-12 mm. long; fruit purple 
or black, 6-8 mm. long. 

67. RUDGEA Salisb. 

Rudgea colombiana, sp. nov. Ramuli crassiusculi subteretes 
sordide ochracei, novellis minute et sparse puberulis vel glabratis, 
internodiis elongatis; stipulae deciduae (perfectae non yisae), c. 3 
mm. longae, rotundatae, glabrae, apice aculeoligerae; folia opposita, 
petiqlo valido vel gracili 1-3 cm. longo glabro supra sulcato; lamina 
tenuiter coriacea, elliptica, oblonga-elliptica vel obovato-elliptica, 
12-24 cm. longa, 5-10.5 cm. lata, apice obtusa vel subrotundata 
et abrupte cuspidato-acuminata, acumine 1-2.5 cm. longo longi- 
attenuato, basin versus sensim cuneato-angustata, utrinque glabra, 
supra sublucida, costa non elevata, nervis prominulis, subtus paullo 
pallidior, brunnescens, costa crassiuscula elevata, nervis lateralibus 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 153 

utroque latere c. 11, gracilibus, prominentibus, arcuatis, angulo lato 
adscendentibus, prope marginem arcuato-conjunctis, nervulis pro- 
minulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentia terminalis sessilis vel 8 mm. 
longe pedunculata, paniculata, multiramosa, c. 8 cm. longa et 5 
cm. lata, dense multiflora, ramis oppositis divaricatis validis sparse 
et minute puberulis vel fere glabris, bracteis ovatis plerumque 1-2 
mm. longis inconspicuis, floribus ad apices ramulorum dense glo- 
meratis sessilibus; hypanthium vix 1 mm. longum glabrum; calyx 
0.5 mm. longus glaber minute 5-dentatus, dentibus triangularibus 
acutiusculis; corolla extus glabra in alabastro obtusa, 3 mm. longa, 
fauce dense barbata, lobis pblongis obtusis tubo aequilongis; fila- 
menta exserta glabra, antheris oblongis vix 1 mm. longis. Colombia: 
Timbiqui, September, 1903, F. C. Lehmann B.T.758 (Herb. Kew., 
type; duplicate in herb. N. Y. Bot. Gard.). 

The generic position of the plant is not altogether certain. 

Rudgea fimbriata (Benth.) Standl. in Standl. & Cald. Lista PI. 
Salv. 274. 1920. Psychotria fimbriata Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 
226. 1841. R. micrantha Muell. Arg. Flora 59: 454. 1876. 

Without locality, Triana 1692 (K), 1721 (K). Ranging to Bolivia, 
Brazil, and Central America. 

A glabrous shrub; stipules triangular-ovate, incised-laciniate; 
leaves subsessile, broadly elliptic to elliptic-oblong, 8-15 cm. long, 
acuminate at the apex, obtuse at the base; flowers sessile, cymose- 
paniculate, the panicles small, broad, many-flowered; calyx minutely 
5-dentate; corolla 5-7 mm. long, the lobes longer than the tube; 
fruit ellipsoid, 5-8 mm. long. 

Rudgea fissistipula Muell. Arg. Flora 59: 449, 460. 1876. 
Type from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, Spruce 3683. 

Branchlets minutely puberulent; stipules 19-22 mm. long, obovate, 
cleft to below the middle into numerous subulate lobes; leaves 
short-petiolate, ovate, 25-32 cm. long, cuspidate, abruptly contracted 
at the base, glabrous; panicles short-pedunculate, dense, small; 
calyx lobes ovate-triangular, acuminate, ciliolate; corolla 6-7 cm. 
long, papillose. 

Rudgea insolita, sp. nov. Ramuli validi subteretes fusci 
dense pilosuli, internodiis elongatis; stipulae ovato-triangulares, 
dense pilosulae, apice breviter aculeolato-ciliolatae; folia opposita, 
petiolo crasso 1-2 cm. longo dense pilosulo; lamina subcoriacea, 
ovalis vel late elliptica, 11-15.5 cm. longa, 6-9 cm. lata, acuta, basi 
late rptundata, lucida, ciliata, supra ad costam pilosula, nervis vix 
elevatis, nervulis prominulis, subtus vix pallidior, secus costam 
sparse pilosula, cpsta gracili eleyata, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere c. 10, gracilibus, prominentibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, 
prope marginem conjunctis, nervulis prominulis arete reticulatis; 
inflorescentia terminalis 2 cm. longe pedunculata, cymoso-corym- 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

bosa, 6 cm. longa et lata, dense multiflora, trichotoma, ramis pri- 
mariis crassis 1-1.5 cm. longis dense pilosulis, floribus sessilibus ad 
apices ramorum dense congestis; bracteae plerumque oblongo- 
lineares et 3-5 mm. longae; hypanthium dense hirsutum; calyx 
5-partitus, laciniis oblongis recurvis 3-5 mm. longis pbtusis sparse 
hispidulis; corolla hypocrateriformis extus dense hispidula, tubo 
gracili 2.3 cm. longo superne vix dilatato, fauce 3 mm. lato, lobis 5 
oblongis vel lineari-oblongis 7-9 mm. longis obtusis apice cucullatis. 
Colombia: Bogota, Purdie (Gray Herb., type; duplicate in K). 

In general appearance the plant is similar to R. ovalifolia Salisb., 
of the Guianas. 

Rudgea Killipii, sp. nov. Arbor gracilis 3.5-6 m. alta omnino 
glabra, ramulis gracilibus subteretibus olivaceis, internodiis elongatis; 
stipulae 2 mm. longae truncatae, apice breviter subulato-laciniatae; 
folia opposita, petiolo crasso 2-3 mm. longo; lamina elliptico-oblonga, 
ovali-elliptica vel ovato-elliptica, 5.5-10 cm. longa, 2.5-6 cm. lata, 
acuta vel subaeuta, basi obtusa vel rotundata, subcoriacea, mar- 
ginata, supra viridis, costa nervisque prominulis, lucida, subtus 
pallidior, costa crassa elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 
9, gracillimis, prominulis, angulo acuto adscendentibus, subarcuatis, 
remote a margine laxe conjunctis, nervulis prominulis reticulatis; 
inflorescentia terminalis 3 cm. longe pedunculata, cymosa, tricho- 
toma, c. 4.5 cm. longa et 5.5 cm. lata, laxe pauciflora, ramis suberectis, 
floribus sessilibus vel breviter pedicellatis aggregatis; bracteae 
minutae; hypanthium turbinatum 2-2.5 mm. Iqngum; calyx cam- 
panulatus 2 mm. longus truncatus interdum irregulariter fissus; 
corolla alba extus glabra, tubo 7 mm. longo superne paullo dilatato, 
lobis 4 oblongis apice cucullatis 5 mm. longis. Colombia: In 
woods, Mesa de los Santos, Dept. Santander, alt. 1,500 m., December 
11-15, 1926. E. P. Killip & Albert C. Smith 15246 (U. S. Nat. Herb. 
No. 1,351,157, type; duplicate in Y). 

Rudgea Kunthii, nom. nov. Psychotria calycina HBK. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 3: 356. 1820, non Rudgea calycina Benth. 1850. 

Type locality given doubtfully as New Granada, Bonpland. 
Antizales, Bolivar, 1,500-1,800 m., in forest, Pennell 4454 (Y). 

A shrub or small tree; stipules oblong or oval, obtuse, rounded 
at the apex and subulate-laciniate; leaves short-petiolate, lanceolate 
or oblong, very long-acuminate, acute at the base, thin, glabrous; 
inflorescence corymbiform, pedunculate, trichotomous, few-flowered, 
glabrous, the flowers pedicellate; calyx spathaceous, 4 mm. long, 
split on one side, minutely 5-denticulate; corolla white, the tube 
5-6 mm. long, the lobes narrowly oblong, longer than the tube. 

Rudgea marginata, sp. nov. Frutex 1.5-3.5 m. altus omnino 
glaber, ramulis yalidis subteretibus, vetustioribus ochraceis rimosis, 
internodiis brevibus vel elongatis; stipulae c. 2 mm. longae, crassae, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 155 

multilobatae, lobis subulatis incrassatis; folia opposita, petiolo crasso 
3-5 mm. longo; lamina coriacea, oblanceolato-oblonga, oblongo- 
obovata vel elliptico-ovalis, 6-11.5 cm. longa, 2.5-7 cm. lata, apice 
obtusa vel rotundata, apiculata, basin versus saepius angustata, 
basi ipsa rotundata vel obtusa, flavo-viridis, opaca, marginata, 
costa nervisque supra prominentibus, costa subtus elevata gracili, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 11, gracillimis, prominulis, angulo 
angusto vel lato adscendentibus, leviter arcuatis, juxta marginem 
in nervum collectivum conjunctis, nervulis vix prominulis incon- 
spicue reticulatis; inflorescentia 3.5-7 cm. longe pedunculata, cymoso- 
paniculata, 2.5-4.5 cm. longa, 3-5 cm. lata, dense multiflora, tricho- 
toma vel basi yerticillatim ramosa, ramis crassis angulatis, floribus 
confertis sessilibus; bracteae late triangulares c. 1 mm. longae; 
hypanthium late turbinatum c. 0.8 mm. longum; calyx 1 mm. 
longus undulatus; corolla infundibuliformis extus sparse et minutis- 
sime puberula, tubo crasso 3.5 mm. longo, fauce barbato, lobis 
oblongis obtusis 2-2.5 mm. longis; antherae semiexsertae; stylus 
exsertus; fructus subglobosus laevis 4 mm. longus. Colombia: 
Along borders of dry forest and in thickets, near Masinga, alt. 75 
m., August and November, 1898, H. H. Smith 314 (Herb. Field 
Mus. No. 137,376, type; duplicates in W, M, P, S, Y). Ibague", 
Goudot (K). Without locality, Triana 1687 (K). 

Rudgea Woronovii, sp. nov. Ramuli crassi stipulis omnino 
occulti, internodiis brevibus; stipulae magnae persistentes, 3-4 cm. 
longae, glabratae, profunde multilaciniatae, laciniis inaequalibus 
linearibus vel fere subulatis rigidis erectis; folia magna, breviter 
petiolata, opposita, petiolo c. 2 cm. longo glabro; lamina membra- 
nacea, oblongo-obovata, c. 30 cm. longa et 12.5 cm. lata, apice abrupte 
et brevissime acuminata, basin versus longe cuneatp-attenuata, 
glabra, supra laete yiridis, costa nervisque prominentibus, subtus 
pallida, costa gracili elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere c. 
22, gracilibus, angulo lato adscendentibus, arcuatis, in marginem 
desinentibus, nervulis prominulis eleganter reticulatis; inflorescentia 
terminalis thyrsoideo-paniculata, longissime pedunculata, pedun- 
culo gracili erecto 16 cm. longo glabro; panicula 8 cm. longa et 3 
cm. lata, laxe multiflora, ramulis alternis adscendentibus gracilibus 
minutissime sparseque puberulis vel fere glabris, floribus 1-2 mm. 
longe pedicellatis, pedicellis apice incrassatis, bracteis minutis subu- 
latis; fructus subglobosus leviter bisulcatus glaber 3-3.5 mm. longus, 
basi et apice rotundatus, pyrenis facie ventrali profunde sulcatis. 
Colombia: Territorio de Caqueta, in sylvis circa Ketucha, Rio 
Orteguaza, August 20, 1926, G. Woronow 6064 (Herb. Bot. Card., 
Leningrad, type). 

The plant has the general aspect of a Palicourea, but the form 
of the stipules seems to necessitate its reference to Rudgea. Prob- 
ably it is related to R. fissistipula Muell. Arg., but the leaves of 
that species are different in outline, and the inflorescence is alto- 
gether different. 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

68. CORYNULA Hook. f. 

Corynula longiflora, sp. nov. Herba perennis repens suffruti- 
cosa epiphytica, ramulis elongatis gracillimis vix 1 mm. crassis 
ochraceis dense pilis brevibus patentibus albidis pilosulis, internodiis 
brevibus; stipulae persistentes vix 0.5 mm. longae, truncatae vel 
apiculatae, incrassatae et cum petiolis cpnnatae, integrae; folia 
fere sessilia, interdum 1.5 mm. longe petiolata, opposita; lamina 
crassiuscula, elliptica vel late ovata, 3-12 mm. longa, 2-6 mm. lata, 
obtusa vel subacuta, basi pbtusa vel rotundata, enervia, utrinque 
densissime pilis brevissimis albidis patentibus vel subadpressis 
induta; flores terminates subsessiles solitarii; hypanthium oblongum 
2 mm. longum albido-pilosum; calyx 5-partitus, laciniis filiformibus 
5-6 mm. longis pilosulis; corolla viridis extus sparse, ad lobos densius, 
pilosula, tubo gracillimo 15 mm. longo, basi 0.5 mm. lato, superne 
paullo dilatato, fauce 1.5 mm. lato, lobis 5 anguste oblongis obtusis 
3-4 mm. longis patentibus intus glabris, in alabastro valvatis; 
antherae exsertae lineari-oblongae 1.2 mm. longae; ovarium 2- 
loculare, ovulis in loculis solitariis erectis. Colombia: Around 
Ocaiia, alt. 1,350 m., in 1878, Kalbreyer 645 (Herb. Kew., type). 

"Half shrub rooting on a tree, with long rooting branches; 
flowers velvety green, outside lighter green; leaves soft-velvety." 
The generic position of this curious little plant is somewhat uncertain, 
and it may be referable to some other genus, but it has not been 
possible with the rather unsatisfactory material available to make a 
better disposition of it. The typical and only other species of the 
genus inhabits the mountains of Ecuador. 

69. NERTERA Banks & Soland. 

Nertera depressa Banks & Soland.; Gaertn. Fruct. 1: 124. pi. 
26. 1788. 

La Baja, Santander, 2,700-3,500 m., Kittip & Smith 18030 (W). 
Pica-Pica Valley above Tapatd, 2,100-2,400 m., Kittip & Smith 
20236 (W). Cerro Tatama, 3,400-3,700 m., Pennell 10580 (W). 
Mount San Vicente, near Charta, 2,500-2,700 m., Kittip & Smith 
18992 (W, Y). Paramo del Hatico, 2,900 m., Killip & Smith 20651 
(W, Y). Boqueron de Bogota, 2,800 m., Andre 774 (F). Alto de 
Cruz Grande, Andri 774 (F). Bogota, Holton 431 (P). Widely 
distributed in the mountains of South and Central America. 

A slender creeping herb with small leaves and with bright red, 
fleshy fruits. 

70. ERNODEA Sw. 

Ernodea littoralis Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 29. 1788. 

Cartagena, November, 1857, Schott (F). Ranging to the West 
Indies and Central America. 

A seashore shrub 0.5-1.5 m. high; leaves oblong to elliptic, nearly 
sessile, acute, 2-3.5 cm. long, glabrous or nearly so; flowers small, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 157 

white or pink, sessile in the leaf axils; fruit a yellow drupe 4-6 mm. 
long. 

71. MITRACARPUS Zucc. 

Mitracarpus frigidus (Willd.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
81. 1888. Spermacoce frigida Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 3: 531. 
1818. 

East of Neiva, Huila, 800-1,000 m., Rusby & Pennell 416 (W, 
G, M, Y). Also in Venezuela, Brazil, and the Guianas. 

A perennial herb, the stems puberulent or hispidulous; leaves 
lanceolate, pubescent; corolla white, much longer than the calyx. 

Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. Prodr. 4: 572. 1830. Spermacoce 
hirta L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 148. 1762. S. diffusa Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. 
Veg. 3: 531. 1818. 

Bonda, 45 m., H. H. Smith 85 (F, W, G, M, P, S, Y). Masinga, 
75 m., H. H. Smith (F, Y). Natagaima, Huila, 400 m., Rusby & 
Pennell 1190 (Y). Without locality, Triana 1623 (K). Widely 
distributed as a weed in tropical America. 

An erect, usually much-branched annual, hispidulous or gla- 
brate; leaves lanceolate to ovate-oblong, acute, scabrous or yillous; 
flowers in dense axillary clusters; corolla white, not exceeding the 
calyx. 

The plant is a variable one, and it may be that with more ample 
material, to show the range of variation, it will be possible to recog- 
nize more than a single species among the specimens now referred 
to it. 

72. PERAMA Aubl. 

Perama plantaginea (HBK.) Hook. f. ex Schum. in Mart. Fl. 
Bras. 6 6 : 88. 1888. Buchia plantaginea HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 
270. pi 182. 1817. 

Type from Javita, on the Orinoco, Venezuela, Bonpland. 

A branched suberect herb, the stems glabrate; leaves opposite, 
short-petiolate, oblong, subacuminate, narrowed to the base, 5- 
nerved, up to 7 cm. long, 2 cm. wide, lanuginous-pilose above, 
lanate beneath; flowers in very dense, short spikes arranged at 
the end of a long peduncle; corolla small, white, pilose; fruit dry, 
3-celled, glabrous. 

73. RICHARDIA L. 

Richardia scabra L. Sp. PI. 330. 1753. Richardsonia scabra 
St. Hil. PI. Us. Bras. vii. pi. 8. 1824. 

Cuamo to Rio Saldana, Tolima, 400-450 m., Pennell & Rusby 206 
(W). Santa Marta, 750 m., H. H. Smith 1798 (F, W, P). Ibague", 
1,300 m., Andre 2006 (F). La Paila, Holton 419 (P). Guanabanal, 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

El Valle, in marsh, 1,000 m., Killip 6219 (W). Fredonia, Tow 1181 
(Y). Without locality, Lehmann B.T.533 (Y). Altamira, Tolima, 
600-1,300 m., Lehmann 8731 (Y). Quebrada de Angeles, Huila, 
450-600 m., Rusby & Pennell 297 (Y). Widely distributed, usually 
as a weed, in tropical America. 

A pilose or hispid, usually prostrate, annual; leaves oblong or 
lanceolate, petiolate; flowers small, white, in dense clusters at the 
ends of the branches; fruit of 3 carpels. 

74. DIODIA L. 

Diodia hyssopifolia (Willd.) C. & S. Linnaea 3: 350. 1828. 
Spermacoce hyssopifolia Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 3: 532. 1819. 

Coastal thicket, Buenaventura, El Valle, Killip 11696 (W, G, 
Y). Buenaventura, Andre 257 (K). Also in Brazil and the Guianas. 

An erect perennial herb; leaves linear-lanceolate, 2-6 cm. long, 
acuminate, plane, glabrous; flowers sessile in the leaf axils; fruit 
ellipsoid, puberulent at the apex or glabrate. 

Diodia maritima Thonn. in Schum. & Thonn. Beskr. Guin. PL 
75. 1827. 

Santa Marta, on seashore, H. H. Smith 1792 (F, W, G, P, Y). 
Widely distributed in tropical America and in western Africa. 

A prostrate herbaceous perennial; leaves oblong, acute or obtuse, 
glabrous, 2-3 cm. long, coriaceous; flowers white, axillary, solitary, 
sessile; fruit glabrous, the cocci obscurely 3-carinate dorsally. 

Diodia rigida (Willd.) C. & S. Linnaea 3: 341. 1828. Spermacoce 
rigida Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 3: 531. 1818. 

Quebrada de los Angeles to Rio Cabrera, Huila, 450-550 m., 
Pennell 353 (F, W, G, M, Y). Guataqui, Andre K.1125 (K, Y). 
Natagaima, Huila, 450-550 m., Rusby & Pennell 1145 (Y). East of 
Neiva, Huila, 600-900 m., Rusby & Pennell 1076 (Y). Without 
locality, Moritz (W, P). Mesa de los Santos, Santander, 1,500 m., 
Killip & Smith 15231 (W, Y). Near Lake Sapatoza, Magdalena 
Valley, Allen 133 (K). Piedras, Andre K.1124 (K). Fusagasuga, 
Andre K.1126 (K). Usually in grassland. Widely distributed in 
tropical America. 

An erect or ascending, annual or perennial herb; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, 2-4 cm. long, scabrous or hispidulous; flowers lavender, 
axillary, sessile, usually solitary; fruit hispidulous or glabrate. 

Diodia rogaguana Rusby, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 7: 380. 1927. 

Near Lake Sapatoza, Magdalena Valley, in water, Allen 327 (K). 
Also in Bolivia. 

An herb 30-60 cm. high; leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, 1.5-2.5 
cm. long, 5-12 mm. wide, obtuse or acutish, gray-hispid; flowers 
white, axillary, sessile, the clusters several- or many-flowered. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 159 

Diodia setigera DC. Prodr. 4: 563. 1830. 

Reported by Schumann (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 21. 1888) from 
Ocana, Schlim 242. Also in Brazil. 

A prostrate or ascending, perennial herb; leaves ovate, acute, 
1-1.5 cm. long, aculeolate-serrate, pilose beneath along the cpsta; 
flowers axillary, sessile; fruit obovoid, glabrate, the cocci 3-carinate 
dorsally. 

Diodia teres Walt. Fl. Carol. 87. 1788. 

Bonda, H. H. Smith 2628 (F, W, M, P, S, Y), 324 (F, W, G, M, 
P, Y). Bonda and Masinga, 60-300 m., H. H. Smith 1783 (F, W, 
G, M, P, Y). Jiracasaca, 750 m., H. H. Smith 1782 (Y). Six miles 
south of Mamatoca, 150 m., H. H. Smith 1781 (Y). Without 
locality, Moritz 1598 (W, P). Masinga, 150 m., H. H. Smith 82 
(F, W, G, M, P, Y). Santa Marta, Purdie (G). Growing in open 
places, usually grassland. Ranging northward to the United States. 

An erect or ascending annual; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 
scaberulous; flowers white or lavender, axillary, sessile; fruit minutely 
and densely appressed-pubescent, the cocci nearly smooth dorsally. 

75. HEMIDIODIA Schum. 

Hemidiodia ocimifolia (Willd.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
29. 1888. Spermacoce ocimifolia Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 3: 
530. 1818. 

Iruando Falls, Schott 5 (F). Paime, Ariste-Joseph A724 (W). 
Santa Marta, 600 m., H. H. Smith 1796 (F, W, P). La Trinidad, 
Libano, Tolima, 1,100-1,300 m., Pennell 8817 (W). Coraz6n, Andre 
K.1123 (K). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A large perennial herb; leaves lanceolate, attenuate at the base, 
3-5 cm. long, puberulent or glabrate; flowers clustered in the leaf 
axils, sessile, white. 

This is a common weed of the tropical American lowlands. 

76. EMMEORRHIZA Pohl 

Emmeorrhiza umbellata (Spreng.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6 6 : 408. 1889. Borreria umbellata Spreng. Neue Entd. 2: 144. 1821. 
Endlichera umbellata Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 38. pi. 74. 1888. 

Santa Marta, 300 m., H. H. Smith 80 (F). Chinacota, Norte 
de Santander, 1,400 m., Killip & Smith 20828 (W). Between Pamplo- 
nita and Chinacota, 1,300-1,800 m., Killip & Smith 20762 (W). 
East of Neiva, Huila, 1,800-2,300 m., Rusby & Pennell 571 (W, Y). 
El Convenio, Tolima, gravelly hillside, 700-900 m., Pennell 3508 
(W), 8510 (W). Also in Brazil and southward to Bolivia. 

A suffrutescent vine, pubescent or nearly glabrous; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, 5-10 cm. long; flowers small, white, 
umbellate, the umbels panicled. 

The plant is easy to recognize because of its umbellate flowers. 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

77. SPERMACOCE L. 

Spermacoce glabra Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 82. 1803. 

Near Mamatoca, 30 m., H. H. Smith 2082 (F, W, M, P, Y). La 
Manuelita, Cauca, 1,100-1,300 m., Pittier 813 (W, Y). Natagaima, 
Huila, 400 m., Rusby & Pennell 1189 (Y). Widely distributed in 
tropical America. 

Plants probably annual, glabrous; leaves lanceolate to elliptic; 
flowers white, sessile in the leaf axils; fruit glabrous. 

Spermacoce tenuior L. Sp. PL 102. 1753. 

Medellin, Tow 825 (W). Usiacuri, 250 m., Bro. Elias 273 (W). 
Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 272 (W); Schott 7 (F). La Popa, near 
Cartagena, 50-175 m., Killip & Smith 14063 (W, Y). Torrecilla, 
near Turbaco, 150-300 m., Killip & Smith 14390 (W, Y). Cie"naga, 
H. H. Smith 322 (F, W, G, M, P, Y). Bonda, 30 m., H. H. Smith 
84 (Y). Honda, Tolima, 300 m., Pennell 3611a (Y). Turbaco, Bro. 
Heriberto 419 (W). A widely distributed weed of tropical America. 

An erect annual, nearly glabrous; flowers white or purplish pink; 
fruit pubescent. 

Called "lappa vermelha" in Brazil. 

78. BORRERIA Mey. 

Borreria anthospermoides DC. Prodr. 4: 550. 1830. 

Type from Bogota. Rio de Arzobispo, near Bogota, 2,800 m., 
Pennell 2123 (F, W, G, M, Y). Near Bogota, 2,800 m., MacDoweU 
(W); Ariste- Joseph A373 (W). Montserrate, Niemeyer 121 (W). 
San Cristobal, Niemeyer 163 (W). Above Bogota, 2,700 m., Rusby 
& Pennell 1260 (W, Y), 1297 (Y). Southeast of Bogota, 2,800 m., 
Andre 1000 (K, Y). Facatativa, 2,600 m., Andre 637 (K, Y). Region 
of Bogota, Ariste-Joseph (W). Rio San Francisco, above Bogota, 
2,700 m., Pennell 1934 (W, Y). San Francisco, Bogota, 2,780 m., 
September, 1909, Ariste-Joseph (W). Boquer6n de Bogota, 2,800 
m., Andre 728 (K). Hills, Bogota, Weir 193 (K). Bogota, Holton 
417 (Y). Growing on brushy slopes or in rocky places. 

A perennial herb or a low shrub, glabrous or nearly so; leaves 
linear or lanceolate, small; flower heads terminal and solitary or 
in small corymbs; calyx lobes 4, linear-lanceolate, acute; corolla 
white or pinkish. 

Borreria bogotensis (HBK.), comb. nov. Spermacoce bogo- 
tensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 345. 1819. Diodia bogotensis C. & 
S. Linnaea 3: 347. 1828. 

Type collected near Bogota, Bonpland. Between El Charquita 
and Tequendama, Niemeyer 95 (W). Las Vegas, Santander, 2,600- 
3,000 m., Killip & Smith 16003 (W, Y). 

A perennial herb with long, trailing and rooting stems, glabrous 
or nearly so; leaves oblong-lanceolate, small, the margins serrulate; 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 161 

flowers in dense, chiefly terminal heads; calyx lobes 4, lanceolate; 
corolla pink and white or white. 
Called "chichipaca." 

Borreria capitata (R. & P.) DC. Prodr. 4: 545. 1830. Sperma- 
coce capitata R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 1: 61. pi. 91, f. b. 1798. S. ferruginea 
St. Hil. PI. Usu. Bras, pi IS. 1824. B. ferruginea DC. Prodr. 4: 
547. 1830. 

Cacagualito, 480 m., H. H. Smith 1784 (F, W, G, Y). Orocne", 
Rio Meta, Lehmann 8818 (F). Chapa, Popayan, 1,300-1,800 m., 
Lehmann 2848 (W). Villavicencio, 450 m., Pennell 1448 (W, G, Y). 
Melgar, Cundinamarca, 900-1,300 m., Pennell 2855 (W, G, Y). 
Icononzo, Cundinamarca, 1,000-1,200 m., Pennell 2907 (W, G, Y). 
California, Santander, 2,200 m., Killip & Smith 16856 (W, Y). 
Mesa de los Santos, Santander, 1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15243 (W, 
Y). Ocana, 1,050-1,800 m., Schlim 24 (Y), 147 (Y). In marshy 
meadows and on open grassy slopes. Widely distributed in South 
America. 

An erect perennial herb, densely pubescent; leaves linear to 
lanceolate or oblong, sessile or nearly so; flowers white, in dense, 
chiefly terminal heads; calyx lobes 4, subulate; corolla 2-5 mm. 
long; fruit puberulent at the apex. 

Borreria chartensis Standl., sp. nov. Herba ut videtur 
perennis, caulibus gracilibus, elongatis, procumbentibus, usque 
ad 60 cm. longis et ultra, subteretibus, viridibus, glabris, inter- 
nodiis foliis longioribus; vagina stipularis 3-5 mm. longa, brunnes- 
cens, puberula vel glabrata, setis pluribus 6-10 mm. longis glabris 
onusta; folia basi in petiolum brevem contracta, ovata vel oblongo- 
lanceolata, 2-4 cm. longa, 0.6-1.7 cm. lata, acuta vel acuminata, 
basi acuta vel obtusa, membranacea, supra viridia, prope marginem 
scaberula, ad nervos subimpressos saepe puberula, subtus pallidiora, 
ad nervos scaberula, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 4, angulo 
acutissimo adscendentibus, elevatis, margine plana vel anguste 
revoluta; inflorescentiae terminales et ex foliis superioribus axillares, 
sessiles, dense multiflorae, terminalibus foliis involucralibus plerum- 
que 4 magnis fulcratis; hypanthium oblongum apice puberulum; 
sepala 4, fere ad basin libera, lineari-oblonga, attenuato-acuminata, 
2-2.5 mm. longa, viridia, glabra, ciliolata; corolla alba, infundibuli- 
formis, 6 mm. longa, extus glabra, ad ^ in lacinias ovatas obtusas 
intus villosas divisa; antherae exsertae; stigma capitatum; capsula 
oblongo-obovoidea 3.5 mm. longa apice puberula. Colombia: 
Vicinity of Charta, Dept. Santander, alt. 2,000-2,600 m., on open 
hillside, February 1-11, 1927, E. P. Killip & Albert C. Smith 19207 
(U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,354,495, type; duplicate in Y), 18863 (W, 
Y). Without locality, Triana 102 (K). 

In general appearance this plant is much like B. laevis (Lam.) 
Griseb., but that differs in having a minute calyx and much smaller 
corolla. 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Borreria densiflora DC. Prodr. 4: 542. 1830. Spermacoce 
spinosa Sw. Obs. Bot. 45. 1791, non Jacq. 1760. B. spinosa C. & S. 
Linnaea 3: 340. 1828, excl. syn. 

Bonda, 60 m., H. H. Smith 1790 (F, G, W, P, Y). Cartagena, 
Schott 6 (F);Bro. Heriberto 174 (W, Y). Turbaco, Bro. Heriberto 
431 (W), 493 (W, G); Killip & Smith 14172 (W, Y). La Popa, near 
Cartagena, 50-175 m., Killip & Smith 14056 (W, Y). Eastern 
paramos of Guasca, toward Gacheta, 400 m., Rusby & Pennell 
1193 (Y). Honda, Tolima, 250 m., Pennell 3611 (Y). Without 
locality, in 1898, F. C. Nicholas (Y). Widely distributed as a weed 
in tropical America. 

A stout erect annual, nearly glabrous; leaves sessile or nearly so, 
linear-lanceolate; flowers in very large and dense, terminal and 
axillary clusters; calyx lobes 2, linear; corolla white, 2 mm. long. 

Borreria sp. Spermacoce humifusa Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 
3: 530. 1818; HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 349. 1819. 

Type from Bogota, Bonpland. 

Stems suffruticose, procumbent, glabrous; leaves short-petiolate, 
oblong-lanceolate, triplinerved, ciliolate-serrulate, glabrous; flower 
heads terminal and axillary, pedunculate, subtended by 4 leaves; 
calyx lobes 4, acute, ciliate; ovary glabrous. 

This is doubtless a Borreria, and, judging from the description, 
it may well be the same as B. bogotensis (HBK.) Standl. 

Borreria laevis (Lam.) Griseb. Goett. Abh. 7: 231. 1857. 
Spermacoce laevis Lam. 111. 1: 273. 1791. S. capitellata Willd. ex 
R. & S. Syst. Veg. 3: 530. 1818. B. capitellata C. & S. Linnaea 3: 
319. 1828. B. Herbert-Smithii Rusby, Descr. N. Sp. S. Amer. PI. 
144. 1920. 

Cartagena, Bro. Heriberto 145 (W), 69 (W). El Recuerdo, Santa 
Marta Mountains, Niemeyer 22 (W). Turbaco, 200-300 m., Killip 
& Smith 14180 (W, Y). La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,550-1,700 m., 
Pennell 5014 (W, G, Y). California, Santander, 2,000 m., Killip & 
Smith 17006 (W, Y). Rio La Vieja, Caldas, Pennell, Killip & 
Hazen 8592 (W). Turbaco, Bro. Heriberto 418 (Y). Popayan, 
Lehmann B.T.619 (G, Y). Medellin, Toro 49 (Y). Bonda, Las 
Nubes, and Masinga, 45-1,350 m., H. H. Smith 86 (F, W, G, M, Y). 
Mamatoca, 30 m., H. H. Smith 87 (Y). Cuaco Mountains, 1,350 
m., H. H. Smith 321 (F, G, W, M, S; Y, type of B. Herbert-Smithii). 
Campo Alegre, 450 m., H. H. Smith 1898 (Y). Don Amo, 750 m., 
H. H. Smith 1898 (Y). Rio Don Diego, H. H. Smith 2652 (F, W, 
M, P, S, Y). Bonda, 45 m., H. H. Smith 2547 (F, G, W, Y). Jordan, 
180 m., H. H. Smith 2795 (Y). Without locality, Triana 1609 (K). 
Ocana, 1,050 m., Schlim 147 (K). Type of S. capitellata from Bogota. 
Widely distributed as a weed in tropical America. 

An annual; leaves oblong-lanceolate to ovate, acuminate, more 
or less pilose beneath, thin; flowers small, white, in dense, terminal 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 163 

and axillary clusters; calyx lobes 4, triangular, minute; corolla 
2-2.5 mm. long; fruit pubescent at the apex. 

Borreria latifolia (Aubl.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 8 : 61. 
1888. Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. PI. Guian. 55. pi. 19, f. 1. 1775. 

La Teta, Cauca Valley, 1,000-1,500 m., Lehmann 5444 (F). 
Villavicencio to Buenavista, 900-1,200 m., Pennell 1665 (W, G, Y). 
Pipiral to Susumuco, Cundinamarca, 1,100-1,300 m., Pennell 1706 
(Y). Villavicencio, 450 mm., Pennell 1461 (Y). Mesa de los Santos, 
Santander, 1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15251 (W, Y). Santa Marta, 
H. H. Smith 2629 in part (W). Widely distributed in tropical 
America. 

An annual or perennial herb, yellowish green when dry, the 
stems narrowly winged above, glabrous or pubescent on the angles; 
leaves broadly elliptic, acute, thick, conspicuously nerved, scabrous 
above, puberulent beneath, at least along the nerves; inflorescence 
verticillate, the white flowers densely crowded in the axils. 

When dried, the plant is easily recognized by the yellow-green 
color assumed by the leaves and stems. 

Borreria melochioides Standl., sp. nov. Herba ut videtur 
annua, erecta, simplex vel pauciramosa, 20-60 cm. alta, caulibus 
gracilibus dense pilis brevibus lutescentibus hirsutis, internodiis 
foliis longioribus; vagina stipularis breyissima pilosa, setis c. 7 
ciliatis 3-7 mm. longis onusta; folia sessilia, lanceolata vel oblongo- 
lanceolata, 2-6 cm. longa, 0.6-1.5 cm. lata, longiacuminata, basi 
obtusa, in sicco luteo-viridia, supra dense breviterque aspero-pilosa, 
nervis impressis, subtus dense pilis gracilibus lutescentibus pilosa, 
nervis gracilibus elevatis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 5, angulo 
acuto adscendentibus, margine piano vel revoluto; inflorescentiae 
axillares, capitatae, sessiles, spurie verticillatae, foliis involucralibus 
2, quam caulina brevioribus, floribus sessilibus; ovarium obovoideum 
2 mm. longum breviter pilosum; sepala 4, linearia, attenuato- 
acuminata, viridia, subaequalia, breviter pilosa, 3 mm. longa; 
corolla lilacina, 6-7 mm. longa, infundibuliformis, ad ^ in lacinias 
ovato-oblongas extus ad apicem sparse pilosas intus villosas diyisa; 
antherae exsertae; stylus apice alte bifidus; capsula obovoidea, 
bisulcata, c. 2.5 mm. longa, breviter pilosa, sepalis coronata; semina 
oblonga 1.8 mm. longa fusco-brunnea punctulata. Colombia: 
Melgar, Dept. Cundinamarca, alt. 500-600 m., December 4-5, 1917, 
Francis W. Pennell 2922 (U. S. Nat. Herb. No. 1,042,537, type; 
duplicates in G and Y). Without locality, Goudot (K). 

The plant is evidently related to B. latifolia (Aubl.) Schum. and 
B. poaya (St. Hil.) DC., the dried specimens having the same yellow- 
green coloration which characterizes those species. From B. latifolia 
the present species differs in its narrow leaves and verticillate 
inflorescence; B. poaya is a coarser, stouter plant, usually with less 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

copious pubescence and broader leaves, and with a usually glabrous 
ovary and longer sepals. 

Borreria ocimoides (Burm.) DC. Prodr. 4: 544. 1830. Sperma- 
coce ocimoides Burm. Fl. Ind. 34. pi. 13, /. 1. 1768. B. parviflora 
Mey. Prim. Fl. Esseq. 83. pi. 1. 1818. 

Quebrada de los Angeles, above Natagaima, 450-600 m., Rusby 
& Pennell 317 (W, Y). Turbaco, Bro. Heriberto 418 (W). Libano, 
1,100-1,400 m., Pennell 3289 (W, Y). Canabetal, Rio Magdalena, 
100 m., Pennell 3878 (W, G, M, Y). La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,550- 
1,700 m., Pennell 5024 (W, G, Y). Rio Sucio to Rio Piedras, west 
of Popayan, 1,500-1,700 m., Pennell & Killip 8208 (W, Y). Rio 
Piedras, west of Popayan, 1,600-1,700 m., Pennell & Killip 7208 (W, 
Y). Villavicencio to Buenavista, 900-1,200 m., Pennell 1673 (Y). 
Angelopolis, Tow 271 (Y). Popayan(?), Andre K.1132 (Y). Rio 
Paez, Tolima, 1,000-1,400 m., Lehmann 4471 (F). Bonda, 30 m., 
H. H. Smith 88 (Y), 1798 (Y). Escalera de los Indios, 300 m., 
H. H. Smith 90 (W, G, M, Y). Onaca Estate, H. H. Smith 2629 
(F, W, M, P, S, Y). Mirica Road, 450-600 m., H. H. Smith 2794 
(Y). Rio Don Diego, H. H. Smith 2651 (Y), 2650 (F, W, M, P, Y). 
LasNubes, 1,350 m., H. H. Smith 1787 (F, W, G, M, P, Y). 
Masinga, 60 m., H. H. Smith 1791 (Y). Las Partidas, 1,050 m., 
H. H. Smith 1786 (Y). Jiracasaca, 750 m., H. H. Smith 1788 
(F, G, Y). Buritaca, H. H. Smith 1789 (Y). Near Lake Sapatoza, 
Magdalena Valley, Allen 340 (K). A weed in waste places. Widely 
distributed in tropical America, and in Africa and Asia. 

A slender branched annual, the stems glabrous or puberulent 
on the angles; leaves oval to oblong-lanceolate, 1-3 cm. long, glabrous; 
flowers minute, white, in dense axillary clusters; sepals 4; stamens 
included; fruit glabrous or puberulent. 

Borreria suaveolens Mey. Prim. Fl. Esseq. 81. pi. 1. 1818. 
Spermacoce tenella HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 345. 1819. B. tenella 
C. & S. Linnaea 3: 317. 1828. 

Masinga, 240 m., H. H. Smith 83 (F, G, M, P, W, Y). San 
Lorenzo Ridge, 2,190 m., H. H. Smith 1795 (F, G, W). Fusagasuga(?), 
Andre KJ.126 (Y). La Esmeralda, Cauca, 1,200 m., Pittier 944 
(W). Tacuey6, Cauca, 1,800 m., Pittier 1021 (W). Popayan, 1,500- 
2,000 m., Lehmann 7595 (F). Without locality, Lehmann B.T.531 
(F, G, Y). Buenos Aires, Cauca, 1,000-1,500 m., Lehmann B.T.6 17 
(G, Y). Popayan, 1,500-2,500 m., Lehmann 8538 (Y). East of 
Neiva, 700-1,200 m., Rusby & Pennell 430 (Y), 1084 (Y). El Con- 
venio, Tolima, 1,000-1,200 m., Pennell 3467 (W, G, Y). Medellin, 
Tow 453 (Y). Honda, 300 m., Pennell 3581 (Y). Pavas, El Valle, 
1,500-1,800 m., Pennell 5531 (W, Y). Cuatro Esquinas, Cauca, 
1,700 m., Pennell & Killip 6367 (W). El Ramal to Rio Sucio, 
Cauca, 1,600-1,900 m., Pennell & Killip 8108 (W, G, Y). Near 
Palmira, Cauca, 1,000 m., Pittier 1536 (W). Popayan, Andre 
K. 1131 (K); at 1,000-2,000 m., Lehmann (K). Without locality, 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 165 

Linden 1493 (K). La Paila, Holton 418 (Y). On grassy or rocky 
slopes and in thickets. Widely distributed in tropical America. 

A perennial, sometimes suffrutescent, usually erect, glabrous 
or nearly so; leaves linear or lanceolate, rarely broader; flowers in 
dense, globose, chiefly terminal heads; calyx lobes 4, triangular- 
oblong; corolla white, 2.5-5 mm. long; anthers exserted. 

The plant is a variable one. Pittier reports that in the Cauca 
Valley it is called "sanaltodo," and is employed to "purify the blood." 

Borreria verticillata (L.) Mey. Prim. Fl. Esseq. 83. 1818. 
Spermacoce verticillata L. Sp. PI. 102. 1753. B. podocephala DC. 
Prodr. 4: 542. 1830. 

Buritaca, 600 m. or less, H. H. Smith 1785 (F, G, W, P, Y). 
Susumico, Cundinamarca, 1,200-1,400 m., Pennell 1730 (W, G, Y). 
Mesa de los Santos, Santander, 1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15165 
(W, Y). Widely distributed in tropical America. 

An herbaceous or suffrutescent perennial, usually erect, glabrous 
or nearly so; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, subsessile; flowers 
in dense, terminal and axillary heads; calyx lobes 2, linear; corolla 
white, 2 mm. long. 

79. RELBUNIUM Hook. f. 

Relbunium ciliatum (R. & P.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. 
Bot. 2: 62. 1881. Galium ciliatum R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 1: 59. 1798. 

Southwest of Las Graces, Bogota, 2,700 m., Pennell 2185 (F, M, 
W, Y). Zipac6n, Cundinamarca, 2,500 m., Rusby & Pennell 1212 
(F, M, W, Y). California, Santander, 2,800 m., Killip & Smith 
16956 (W, Y). Paramo de Vetas, Santander, 3,400-3,700 m., Killip 
& Smith 17414 (W, Y). Coconuco to Popayan, Cauca, 2,000-2,500 
m., Killip 6886 in part (W, Y). Paramo de Santurban, Norte de 
Santander, 4,200-4,500 m., Killip & Smith 19563 (W). On open 
or shaded banks or hillsides. Ranging southward to Peru. 

Stems glabrous; leaves oblong or linear-lanceolate, acute, mucro- 
nate, glabrous but usually ciliate; flowers white or pale greenish 
yellow; fruit glabrous. 

The leaves of this species usually are ciliate, but frequently they 
are quite without cilia. 

Relbunium hirsutum (R. & P.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
116. 1888. Galium hirsutum R. & P. Fl. Peruv. 1: 59. 1798. 

Tuquerres, 3,000 m., Lehmann 4687 (F); Andre 3200 (F, Y). 
Las Vegas, Santander, 2,600-3,000 m., Killip & Smith 16114 (W, 
Y). Guadalupe, 3,000 m., Apollinaire & Arthur 102 (W). Paletara, 
Cauca, 3,000 m., Pennell 7069 (W). Paramo de las Coloradas, 
Santander, 3,900-4,100 m., Killip & Smith 18399 (W), 18447 (W). 
Canaan, Mount Purac<, Cauca, 2,900-3,200 m., Killip 6753 (W). 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

La Baja, Santander, 2,700-3,500 m., Killip & Smith 18033 (W, Y). 
Coconuco to Popayan, 3,000-2,500 m., Killip 6886 in part (Y). 
Above Bogota, 2,700 m., Rusby & Pennell 1263 (M, Y). On brushy 
slopes or open banks. Ranging southward to Peru. 

Stems short-hirsute; leaves lanceolate to oblong-ovate, acute, 
short-hirsute; flowers greenish white or greenish yellow; fruit glabrous. 

Relbunium hypocarpium (L.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 
2: 63. 1881. Vaillantia hypocarpia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1307. 1759. 
Rubia incana HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 338. 1819. Rubia hispida 
Willd. ex Spreng. Syst. Veg. 1: 397. 1825, as syn. Galium albicans 
Wedd. Chlor. And. 2: 38. 1857. Relbunium hypocarpium var. 
incanum Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 113. 1888. 

Onaca Estate, Santa Marta, 750 m., H. H. Smith 2626 (F, M, 
P, Y). Sierra del Libano, 2,250 mm., H. H. Smith 1343 in part 
(M, Y). Honda, Andre 3192 (F, Y). Chipaque(?), Andre 3192 (F, 
G, Y). Quetame, 1,800 m., Andre 984 (F, G, Y). La Trinidad, 
Libano, Tolima, 1,100-1,400 m., Pennell 3238 (F, G, M, Y). Guaya- 
betal, Cundinamarca, 1,300-1,500 m., Pennell 1763 (Y), 1762 (Y). 
East of Neiva, Huila, 1,800-2,300 m., Rusby & Pennell 857 (G, Y), 
538 (Y). Paramo de Ruiz, Tolima, 3,400-3,600 m., Pennell 3079 
(G, M, Y). Salento, Caldas, 2,100-2,500 m., Pennell 8863 (G, Y). 
La Palmita, Caldas, 1,100-1,300 m., Pennell, Killip & Hazen 
8624 (G, Y). Paramo del Quindio, Caldas, 3,700-4,200 m., Pennell 
& Hazen 10004 (G, Y). San Jose", Cauca, Pennell & Killip 7417 
(G, Y). Canaan, Cauca, 3,300 m., Pennell & Killip 6522 (G, Y). 
Potrerillo de Miraflores, El Valle, 1,200-1,800 m., Pennell & Killip 
6089 (Y). La Cumbre, El Valle, 1,700 m., Pennell 5123 (G, Y). 
Bogota, Holton 415 (G, P). Paramo Rico, Santander, Killip & 
Smith 17664 (W, Y). Between Piedecuesta and Santos, Santander, 
1,000-1,500 m., Killip & Smith 15396 (W). Paramo de Mogotocoro, 
Santander, 3,700 m., Killip & Smith 17614 (W, Y). On open hill- 
sides, in thickets or clearings, and in forest. Widely distributed in 
tropical America. 

A slender much-branched herb, often subscandent; stems pilose 
or retrorse-pilose, sometimes glabrate; leaves elliptic to ovate or 
oval, rounded to acute at the apex, thick, usually pilose or hispid- 
ulous on both surfaces; flowers greenish yellow; fruit orange-red, 
pilose. 

Relbunium nitidum (HBK.) Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6 6 : 
114. 1888. Rubia nitida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 339. pi. 280. 
1819. 

Santa Marta, 2,250 m., H. H. Smith 1343 in part (F, G, P, Y). 
Mount El Derrumbo, Cauca, 2,500-2,900 m., Killip 7991 (G, W, Y). 
Charta, Santander, 2,000-2,600 m., Killip & Smith 19126 (W, Y). 
Without locality, Ariste-Joseph A285 (W), A899 (W). Mountains 
near Bogota, Holton 414 (P, Y). La Baja, Santander, 2,700-3,500 
m., Killip & Smith 18051 (W, Y). East of Neiva, Huila, 2,200- 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 167 

2,500 m., Rusby & Pennell 894 (G, M, Y). Balsillas, Huila, 2,000 
m., Rusby & Pennell 931 (Y). Rio San Rafael, below Cerro Tatama, 
Caldas, 2,500-2,700 m., Pennell 10417 (G, Y). In forest or thickets 
or on rocky banks. Also in Ecuador. 

A slender much-branched herb, procumbent or often subscandent, 
the stems reflexed-pilose or glabrate; leaves elliptic or obovate, 
acute or obtuse, usually coriaceous, glabrous above, ciliate, beneath 
usually hispidulous; corolla described as purplish brown to white; 
fruit fleshy, glabrous, orange or red. 

It is doubtful whether this is more than a variety or form of 
R. hypocarpium. 

80. GALIUM L. 

Galium canescens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 336. 1819. 

Rosalito to Murillo, Tolima, 2,700-3,000 m., Pennell 3188 (F, G, 
M, W, Y). Between Pasto and Tiquerres, Andre 8192 (F, Y). 
Between Mutiscua and Pamplona, Norte de Santander, 2,700 m., 
Kittip & Smith 19764 (W, Y). La Baja, Santander, 3,100 m., 
Kittip & Smith 18148 (W, Y). Mountains near Bogota, Holton 
415 (Y). Paramo del Quindio, Caldas, 3,800-4,000 m., Pennell & 
Hazen 10051 (G, W, Y). Caqueza, Cundinamarca, 1,500-1,600 m., 
Pennell 1838 (G, W, Y). Tequendama, Holton 412 (G). Also in 
Ecuador and Peru. 

Stems pilose above; leaves in 4's, ovate, short-acuminate, 3- 
nerved, pilose; flowers axillary and solitary, or in 3's at the ends 
of the branches; fruit dry, uncinate-hispid. 

Galium obovatum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 336. pi. 277. 1819. 

Tequendama, Holton 412 (P, Y). Pica-Pica Valley, above 
Tapata, Norte de Santander, 2,100-2,400 m., Killip & Smith 20201 
(W, Y). Paramo de Romeral, Santander, 3,800-4,100 m., Kittip & 
Smith 18549 (W, Y), 18556 (W, Y). Las Vegas, Santander, 2,600- 
3,000 m., Killip & Smith 16094 (W, Y). 

Stems reflexed-pilose or glabrate; leaves in 4's, obovate, rounded 
and apiculate at the apex, sparsely pilose or glabrate, 3-nerved; 
flowers usually in 3's, pedicellate; fruit dry, uncinate-hispid. 

Galium piliferum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 337. 1819. 

Type collected in the Andes of Quindio, near Los Gallegos and 
Quebrada de Tochecito, Bonpland. Moist rocky canyon, Rio San 
Francisco, above Bogota, 2,800 m., Pennell 1930 (F, G, M, W, Y), 
1927 (F, G, M, W, Y). Paramo de Ruiz, Tolima, 3,100 m., Pennell 
3103 (Y). In forest, Rosalito, Tolima, 2,900-3,200 m., Pennell 8112 
(Y). Vetas, Santander, 3,100 m., Killip & Smith 17382 (W). Open 
hillside, Tona, Santander, 1,900-2,100 m., Kittip & Smith 19509 
(W, Y). 

Stems uncinulate; leaves in 6's or 8's, linear-oblanceolate, 
setulose-acuminate, uncinate on the margins and costa, 1-nerved; 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

flowers terminal, the corolla white, yellowish green, or purplish; 
fruit dry, uncinate-hispid. 

Galium Trianae Wernh. Journ. Bot. 50: 244. 1912. 

Type from Colombia, Triana. Without locality, Triana 1598 
(W, Y), 1601 (Y); Ariste-Joseph B42 (W). Bogota, Ariste-Joseph 
A268 (W). Wet meadow, San Crist6bal, Cundinamarca, 2,800 m., 
Pennell 2310 (F, G, M, W, Y). Verj6n, Ariste-Joseph A159 (W). 
Tequendama, Ariste-Joseph A14& (W). Southwest of Las Cruces, 
Cundinamarca, 2,600 m., Pennell 2161 (Y). 

Stems uncinulate, glabrate; leaves in 6's, oblong, 1-nerved, acute 
or obtuse, glabrate; corolla white; fruit dry, uncinate-hispid. 

Judging from the description of Rubia scabra HBK. (Nov. Gen. 
& Sp. 3: 340. 1819, non Salisb. ; Galium scdbrum Wedd. Chlor. And. 
2: 39. 1857, non L., 1753), it is probable that it is identical with 
G. Trianae. 



KEY TO THE TRIBES AND GENERA OF 
COLOMBIAN RUBIACEAE 1 

Ovules 3 or more in each cell of the ovary. 
Fruit dry. 

Flowers arranged in very dense, globose heads ; ; ; . . Naucleeae. 
Flowers not in dense globose heads. 

Corolla bilabiate, the lobes imbricate. Stamens unequal. 

Henriquezieae. 
Corolla regular. 

Seeds winged, vertically imbricate Cinchoneae. 

Seeds not winged, or, if winged, horizontal. 

Corolla lobes imbricate or contorted, never valvate. 

Ronddetieae. 
Corolla lobes valvate. 

Seeds horizontal; stipules entire or bifid; plants 
trees or large shrubs Condamineae. 

Seeds peltately attached; stipules often fimbriate; 
plants usually herbs or very low shrubs. 

Hedyotideae. 
Fruit fleshy. 

Corolla lobes valvate Mussaendeae. 

Corolla lobes imbricate or contorted. 

Seeds many, minute, pitted or rarely tuberculate. 

Hamelieae. 

Seeds usually few and large, the testa smooth or fibrous. 

Gardenieae. 
Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell of the ovary. 

Ovules 2 in each cell of the ovary Retiniphylleae. 

Ovule 1 in each cell. 
Ovules pendulous. 

Stamens inserted in the throat of the corolla tube. 

Guettardeae. 

Stamens inserted at the base of the corolla tube. 

Chiococceae. 

Ovules erect or ascending. 

Corolla lobes contorted Ixoreae. 

*The key is adapted from that published by Wernham for the tropical American 
genera. See Journ. Bot. 54: 326. 1916. 

169 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Corolla lobes valvate. 
Ovules affixed to the base of the ovary. 

Ovary 1-celled, or 2-celled but with a very thin septum. 

CoiLSsareae. 
Ovary with 2 or more cells, the septum thick. 

Flowers perfect; stamens usually inserted in the 
throat of the corolla; plants usually trees or 
shrubs Psychotrieae. 

Flowers usually dioecious; stamens usually inserted 
at the base of the corolla; plants mostly herba- 
ceous Anthospermeae. 

Ovules affixed to the septum. 

Stipules entire, not leaflike; plants trees or shrubs. 

Morindeae. 

Stipules fimbriate, or leaflike; plants mostly herbaceous. 
Stipules fimbriate, not leaflike Spermacoceae. 

Stipules resembling the leaves and forming whorls 
with them Galieae. 

NAUCLEEAE 
A single genus in Colombia 1. Uncaria. 

CINCHONEAE 

Corolla lobes valvate. 

Placenta pendulous from the apex of the cell. Flowers in spike- 
like inflorescences 2. Alseis. 

Placenta not pendulous. 

Placenta ascending or erect from the base of the septum; 
plants usually scandent 3. Manettia. 

Placenta adnate to the middle of the septum; plants not 
scandent. 

Capsule splitting from below upward 4. Cinchona. 

Capsule splitting from above downward. 

Fruit dehiscing into 4 spirally coiled valves; corolla lobes 
bifid 5. Joosia. 

Fruit not dehiscing into 4 spirally coiled valves; corolla 
lobes entire or nearly so. 

Capsule loculicidal 6. Macrocnemum. 

Capsule septicidal. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 171 

Valves of the capsule bifid 7. Remijia. 

Valves entire 8. Ladenbergia. 

Corolla lobes imbricate or contorted. 

Corolla lobes contorted (one external in Calycophyllum). 

Calyx lobes unequal, one of them expanded into a large colored 
limb. 

Flowers zygomorphic 9. Capirona. 

Flowers regular. 

Calyx becoming deeply 2-lipped 10. Schizocalyx. 

Calyx truncate 11. Calycophyllum. 

Calyx lobes equal or nearly so, none of them expanded into 
a large Hmb. 

Stamens unequal 12. Ferdinandusa. 

Stamens equal. 

Calyx caducous; seeds bearded 13. Hillia. 

Calyx persistent; seeds not bearded 14. Cosmibuena. 

Corolla lobes imbricate 15. Coutarea. 

HENRIQUEZIEAE 
A single genus in Colombia 16. Henriquezia. 



Calyx lobes unequal, one of them expanded into a large colored 
limb 17. Pogonopus. 

Calyx lobes equal or nearly so. 

Calyx deciduous; anthers dehisc'ng longitudinally. 

18. Condaminea. 

Calyx persistent; anthers dehiscing by pores 19. Rustia. 

RONDELETIEAE 

Corolla lobes imbricate. 

Calyx lobes unequal, one of them sometimes expanded into a 
large colored lobe 20. Warscewiczia. 

Calyx lobes equal or nearly so. 
Seeds usually large, winged on one side 21. Sickingia. 

Seeds small, not winged 22. Rondeletia. 

Corolla lobes contorted. 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Plants small herbs 23. Sipanea. 

Plants shrubs or trees 24. Elaeagia. 

HEDYOTIDEAE 
Seeds angled or winged; plants herbaceous 25. Oldenlandia. 

Seeds boat-shaped or plano-convex; plants usually shrubby. 

26. Arcytophyttum. 

MUSSAENDEAE 
Inflorescence terminal. 
Flowers in a dense head subtended by bracts. 

Leaves appearing alternate, one of each pair much reduced 
and resembling a stipule 27. Didymochlamys. 

Leaves opposite 28. Schradera. 

Flowers not in a dense head. 

Inflorescence elongate, spikelike 29. Gonzalagunia. 

Inflorescence not spikelike. 

Calyx lobes unequal, one of them expanded into a large 
limb 30. Carmenocania. 

Calyx lobes equal or nearly so. 

Ovary 2-celled 31. Cassupa. 

Ovary 4-6-celled 32. Isertia. 

Inflorescence axillary. 

Plants creeping, herbaceous; flowers in heads, these pedunculate 
or sessile 33. Coccocypselum. 

Plants not creeping, usually shrubs or trees. 

Leaves with many close parallel striolae in the meshes between 
the ultimate veins. 

Inflorescence 1-3-flowered 34. Hippotis. 

Inflorescence many-flowered. 

Calyx spathaceous or lobed, the lobes not foliaceous; 
leaves sometimes pinnatifid 35. Pentagonia. 

Calyx deeply lobed, the lobes foliaceous; leaves entire. 

36. Sommera. 

Leaves not striolate between the veins 37. Sabicea. 

HAMELIEAE 
Ovary 4-5-celled. 

Corolla lobes contorted in bud 38. Bertiera. 

Corolla lobes imbricate in bud 39. Hamelia. 

Ovary 2-celled. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 173 

Anthers exserted; inflorescence axillary 40. Hoffmannia. 

Anthers included; inflorescence terminal 41. Raritebe. 

GARDENIEAE 
Flowers perfect. 
Inflorescences terminal or terminal and axillary. 

Corolla not regular, the buds curved 42. Posoqueria. 

Corolla regular, the buds not curved. 

Flowers arranged in many-flowered lax cymes. .43. Tocoyena. 
Flowers solitary or 3-4 in a head. 

Corolla tube at most barely exceeding the limb, usually 
shorter 44. Sphinctanthus. 

Corolla tube elongate 45. Randia. 

Inflorescences lateral. 

Corolla tube villous in both throat and base; testa of the 
seeds fibrous 46. Genipa. 

Corolla tube villous in either throat or base, but not in 

both; testa not fibrous 45. Randia. 

Flowers dioecious. 
Stipules forming a conical cap, deciduous above a circular slit. 

Staminate flowers in cymes, the pistillate usually solitary, 
rarely 2-3 in a head 47. Duroia. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers both in cymes ... 48. A maioua. 

Stipules free, or connate at the base, not forming a cap dehiscent 
by a transverse slit. 

Staminate inflorescences lateral; plants often armed with 
spines 45. Randia. 

Staminate flowers terminal; plants unarmed 49. Alibertia. 

RETINIPHYLLEAE 
A single genus in Colombia 50. Retiniphyllum. 

GUETTARDEAE 
Corolla lobes imbricate in bud. 

Fruit dry, separating into 2 small cocci 51. Machaonia. 

Fruit drupaceous, indehiscent. 

Calyx limb deciduous; anthers included 52. Guettarda. 

Calyx limb persistent; anthers long-exserted . . . .55. Pittoniotis. 
Corolla lobes valvate in bud. 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. VII 

Corolla tube slender, much elongate; plants usually armed with 
spines 53. Chomelia. 

Corolla tube short; plants unarmed 54. Malanea. 

CHIOCOCCEAE 
A single genus in Colombia 56. Chiococca. 

IXOREAE 

Calyx calyculate at the base 57. Coffea. 

Calyx simple 58. Ixora. 

MORINDEAE 
A single genus in Colombia 59. Morinda. 

COUSSAREAE 

Ovules connate, borne on a common basal column ... 60. Coussarea. 
Ovules separate in a 1-celled ovary, collateral, basilar . 61. Faramea. 

PSYCHOTRIEAE 
Inflorescence an involucrate head. 
Seeds flat on the inner side; plants creeping herbs. . .62. Geophila. 

Seeds deeply furrowed on the inner side; usually trees or shrubs. 

63. Cephaelis. 

Inflorescence without an involucre, the flowers usually not in heads. 

Fruiting carpels much compressed laterally. Plants herbaceous. 

64. Declieuxia. 

Fruiting carpels not compressed. 

Stipules not pectinate, or very rarely so; seeds deeply furrowed 
or flat on the inner side. 

Corolla tube not gibbous at the base; inflorescence usually 
not thyrsoid 65. Psychotria. 

Corolla tube gibbous at the base; inflorescence usually 
thyrsoid 66. Palicourea. 

Stipules pectinate; seed with inrolled ventral surface. 

67. Rudgea. 

ANTHOSPERMEAE 

Fruit pyriform, leathery, splitting into 2 cocci 68. Corynula. 

Fruit a succulent berry-like drupe 69. Nertera. 



THE RUBIACEAE OF COLOMBIA 175 

SPERMACOCEAE 

Fruit a 2-celled drupe, indehiscent and not separating into cocci. 

70. Ernodea. 

Fruit dehiscent, or separating into cocci. 
Fruit circumscissile. 

Ovary 2-celled 71. Mitmcarpus. 

Ovary 3-4-celled 72. Perama. 

Fruit not circumscissile, separating into cocci. 
Cocci indehiscent. 

Cocci more than 2 73. Richardia. 

Cocci 2 74. Diodia. 

Cocci dehiscent at the base or apex. 

Cocci opening only at the base 75. Hemidiodia. 

Cocci opening at the apex. 

Seeds winged; plants scandent; flowers in umbels. 

76. Emmeorrhiza. 

Seeds not winged; plants not scandent; flowers not in 
umbels. 

Cells of the fruit unlike, one opening, the other remain- 
ing closed 77. Spermacoce. 

Cells of the fruit alike, both opening 78. Borreria. 

GALIEAE 
Flowers surrounded by a calyx-like involucre. ..... .79. Relbunium. 

Flowers not involucrate . . . . 80. Gcdium. 



TO 



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