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Full text of "Rudiments of the Arabic-vulgar of Morocco : with numerous exercises and examples of its theory and practice"

itssifi* 



Bill 



M. S. S. 

EDITION 



OF 



MOORISU-ARAIUC (illAMMAR. 




RUDIMENTS 

OF THE 

VTTT n 

-1 




WITH .NUMEROUS EXERCISES, 

AND 

KXAMPLES OF ITS THEORY AND PRACTICE. 
BY 

THE VERY REVEREND FATHER. 



I<EiKCHUNDI. 



Of the Order 

of St. Francis, Chief of the Spanish Catholic 
Missions in Morocco, etc. etc. 



TRANSLATED AND ADAPTED TO ENGLISH 
FROM THE 

Second Spanish edition. 
BY 

JAMES MACIVE'R MACLEOD 

HER BRITANNIC MAJESTY'S 
VICE CONSUL AT FEZ. 



TANGIER 

The Spanish Catholic Mission Press. 
1900. 



Copyright (All 
iiiK that of translation 
arc reserved ) 




O T 



L 



DEDICATION 

OF THE 

ENGLISH EDITION 

/ had intended to dedicate this book to my 
Mother whose loving companionship made a pleasure 'of 
what would often have been a dreary task. Non:, unfor- 
tunately I can only write this line in memory of her. 



^_vX)|G)-w ^ '<- - ^ ^ - .^ ><2S2 



To the Most Excellent, Don Francisco Merry 
y Colom Minister Plenipotentiary of Spain in 
Morocco, 

Your Excellency: 

In bringing forth the RUWIMEXTS of Arabic Vulgar 
as spoken in the Empire of Morocco, and in the sincere 
desire that the work may be of some use to the Spaniards 
settled, or who may settle, in this country, a debt of gra- 
titude and patriotism moves me to dedicate it to your 
Excellency who, in the long period in which you have 
been the worthy head of our Legation, has contributed so 
much to the prestige and respect which Spain enjoys, and 
to the enlarging of our Missions. 

I only feel in doing so that the little value and merit 
which I recognise in this book do not correspond to the 
name of your Excellency as I should wish. 

Nevertheless, may your Excellency be pleased to 
accept it with your usual benevolence, and thus supply 
what it lacks in value and merit, and see in it only a 
proof of the esteem and consideration of a humble Fran- 
ciscan monk who prays that God may preserve your life 
for manv rears. 




Tetuan 19 March 1S7-J. 



xv' 4 I I + * -f 4- 4 

PREFACE 

TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



European grammarians usually divide the Arabic Tongue 
into the Literary, and the Vulgar. 

Literary Arabic, called also "learned" "written" or "clas- 
-sical" is employed in writing; the Vulgar is the language 
spoken in the different moslem countries, but it is not written 
at any rate by educated persons as it is a corruption, more or 
less perceptible, from "Literary" Arabic from whose rules it 
constantly wonders. 

Still it would be an error to deduce from what has just 
been said that "Literary" and "Vulgar" Arabic are two en- 
-tirely distinct languages. For although it may not be spoken 
in the same manner in all countries the Arabic is one tongue 
and has the same fixed and invariable rules in all countries 
where it is spoken. The Arabs have abandoned more or less 
in conversation and familiar use the rules of its grammar ac- 
-cording to the greater or lesser grade of civilisation and edu- 
-cation of the natives of each country respectively: and for 
that reason the Arabic-Vulgar is the same as Arabic-Literary 
stripped of its principal grammatical difficulties and reduced 
to more simple forms. 

If in all the countries in which Arabic is spoken the gram- 
-matical rules were abandoned by the Arabs in equal number 



VIII 

in tlicir common conversation, and if in all these countries the 
letters of the Alphal' pronounced regularly and uni- 

formly, if in Barbary. Kgypt and Syria the same words were 
employed t<> a- things the Arabic-Vul- 

gar would be one and the same and would be subject to iden- 

,1 variations, and would be spoken in an uniform manner 
in all parts. 

But this is not the case. A grammatical rule which in 
Syria, for example, is observed with exactness is not found in 
use in Barbary, and "vice versa"; some letters of the Alphabet 
have t lii-re a distinctly different pronunciation from what they 
have here. AVhile in the former region they use a word incor- 
rupt and truly Arabic to express a certain idea, this same 
idea is here expressed by some word taken from Spanish, 
Italian, etc. 

Finally the same word used in both countries may be 
pronounced differently, with the vowels emphasized more or 

10 the rules of Orthography. 

Thence arise the local differences, or rather the variety 
of dialect 

Tin-re are four principal Dialects of Arabic -Vulgar name- 
ly tho^e of Arabia, Egypt, Syria and Barbary, and without 
any dou .-the last-named is the one which breaks away 

the most from grammatical rules, particularly that form of it 
spoken in the Empire of Morocco that is to say the Dialect 
treated of in this work. 

Many learned persons, versed in "Literary" Aarabic may 
y if they do not know the vulgar until y per ha j 

Yideed positively harmful. 1 have 



IX 

known some of these persons \vlio arc hostile to every ti 
relating to Arabic-Vulgar, and so, although I hardly expect 
to convince them I I'eel I ought nevertheless to make the fol- 
lowing observations, which appear to me unanswerable, in 
support of its utility. 

1. A learned person European or native though lie may 
speak "Literary" Arabic- observing all the rules of the grain- 
mar will not make himself understood by the coinmonatly of 
Morocco, and will be comprehended solely by those persons 
known in this country as "talebs", or "fkis" ("savants"), and 
whose number is very limited, (a) 

:>. Learned natives speaking amongst themselves never 
use literary Arabic. They observe its rules only in writing. 

:!. In common conversation the natives whether "fkis" 
or others employ the same words, and pronounce them in the 
same manner, although they may not be strict Arabic, nor 
their pronunciation that of the letters which correspond to 
them. Their only difference of speech lies in style. 

I. He who possesses the Arabic-vulgar will not only un- 
-dcrstand everyone, but be able to make himself understood 
to all the natives without exception or distinction, whereas he 
who possesses literary Arabic alone, will be understood, as 
has been already observed, only by the learned. 

Hence it will be understood that I do not write for those 
learned men whose role it is to explore the treasures contai- 
ned in Oriental books and Literaries. 

(a) I ha re read in an li is lory of Municeo that the famous Orient ali-t. 
Oollio ulio iii the _[7th. century came here accompanying a Dutch A 
had to ;i vail himself of an interpreter through not understanding tin- spoken 
Arabic ubile nevertheless when he tcroti In 1 astonished th. :i< Kmpirc 

by his profound learning, and knowledge of W'.i'd/t/ Arabic. 



X 

For such Literary Arabic alone can be of service. 
My task, if per! pretentious, may however, prove 

; al to all those who need to hold intercourse of any kind 
with this country. 

In Hit- > : . when, after our glorious campaign our 

ill occupied T.-tuau, it was my lot, in the course of my 
duty, to form part of our Missions in Morocco. In those mo- 
ments of enthusiastic patriotism, when all hearts beat under 
the sain<> impulse at the contemplation of our traditional ene- 
-mi' ,'Ted and humiliated, when all eyes were fixed 

upon the future reserved for this Empire in which Spain is cal- 
play an important part my first thought was 
directed towards investigating the means which might faci- 
litate the acquisition of the language of the country, and to 
laying myself out constantly to its study without other object 
than 'le to communicate with the natives in the various 

:ions which then or in the future might be established 
between us. 

X<>t withou 1 difficulties, due to not having in the 

'on any Monk conversant with the Arabic tongue, to the 

lack 3 for the purpose, ( I do not know of any treatise, 

<>r forcing, upon the Arabic Vulgar of Morocco), and 

finally to the difficulty of tiinding any moor who would lend 

him .uit application to compile some few 

r my priv 

in nf my short comings. I never entertai- 

ned the 8. might be useful to the public. 

P.ut at t I' certain >f the clergy and Laity, and 

eulariy, in nbeii the order of the superior, I \ 



XI 

obliged to put the M. P. S. into order and give them the form 
of a grammar. In so doing 1 have tric-d in these Krm.\n:N; 
subject to rules, as exactly as I can, the Vulgar idioms spoken 
in this Empire. 

The main object of this book being to facilitate the un- 
derstanding and speaking of Moorish Arabic-Vulgar my work 
would be very imperfect if I confined myself to merely ex- 
plaining the rules, and did not combine practice with theory. 
To be conversant with the Arabic Vulgar, which is a living 
language, it is indispensable to speak it and to hear it spoken, 
and these objects will be attained by means of the composi- 
tions and Exercises I add to illustrate all the rules contained 
in these RUDIMENTS. 

These Exercises employ the phrases most used in common 
conversation, so, from the first lesson, pupils begin to be fami- 
liarized with the usual forms of the language which is being 
taught to them notwithstanding my efforts I do not contend that 
this work by itself is sufficient for acquiring a perfect knonw- 
-ledge of Arabic Vulgar. Nevertheless I am convinced that it 
will facilitate its study very much, and the Missionary, the 
clerk, the craftsman, the merchant, and, in a word, all those 
Avho may come to this country may be enabled by its' help to 
understand, and to be understood by the natives. 

This is my only object in bringing it: forth, and the only 
reward of this humble missionary will be its being of some 
service to the public in the meantime until other persons, mo- 
-re learned and with better knowledge bring to perfection that 
Which I have attempted to commence. 

Joined to the RUDI.MKXTS is an Appendix in which, in ad- 



XII 

dition to inserting a Chronological Table containing the years 
of our Era from 1*7-' to r.>7:> in apposition to the corresponding 
years of tli'- Moslem Era, 1 give an idea of measures weights 
and monies of this country, and finally I include a Vocabulary 
of the terms most u^ual in familiar conversation. 

May all be for the greater honour and glory of God. 



. JOSEPH LERCHUNDI. 
Tetuan, March jx~-J. 



TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



Inflamed by the preachings of Mohamed, and eager to 
swell the dominions and multiply the adherents of the doctri- 
nes of the Koran the Arabs, spreading- like an overflowing 
torrent, subdued by force of arms, Persia, Syria and Egypt. 
They then subjugated Oumidia and Mauritania thus exten- 
ding their conquests over all North Africa from the Red Sea 
to the Atlantic Ocean. Crossing the channel, aftewards known 
as the Strait of Gibraltar, they seized Spain and penetrated 
even into France thus disseminating, mostly by their religious 
code, their rich and harmonious language, a tongue governed 
by a grammar of strict precepts and rigid laws. 

On the conquerors mixing with the conquered they soon 
saw their language amplified by many words taken from the 
Greek, Persian, Latin or other languages used by the subju- 
-gatcd peoples, and, as the populace is ever hostile to every 
trammel and fetter which restrains its communication with 
its kind, grammatical rules began to be forgotten formations 
and declensions to, be little heeded, and strange inflections 
and pronunciations were admitted into the current tongue. 
Thus originated the rule and common idiom known to Euro- 
-peans as Arabic vulgar to distinguish it from the literal, li- 
t'Tary, classical, or Icaniad) Arabic which follows the gram- 



XIV 

-matioal rules and which is used in books, and manuscripts of 
all kinds, hut which now is never used in common conversation. 
Many grammars and vocabularies of Argelians Arabic 
vulgar have been published in French. But very little has been 
written on that of Morocco. The only works we know are the 
following: ('i-fiinmntfi-a H/ii/inr mauro-arabicn' jnj'ta cerndciili 
iil.im'ttf.f /'turn by Fr<nicis 1)ombay } Vii'iia 1*00, a very small 
book, and not very correct in the pronunciation set forth. 
By an order of kin.? Charles IV of Spain signed in De- 
ber IT'.'* the reverend fathers Patricio de la Torre, Ma- 
-nuel P.acas Merino, and Juan dc Arce y Moris proceeded to 
Morocco to study the Moghrebin dialect and to collect the 
materials necessary for a Dictionary, or, at the least, to prc- 
-pare for publication and with arabic characters, that of fa- 
-ther IVdro de Alcala, printed at Granada in 1505 with the 
title of Voftihttlixfii <>/i*f<'ll<ino arabigo. 

The result of their labours was the publication of the fo- 

-llowin? works. Vucabuli Hann-ardb'njn comimento y de- 

i-litni<!,, , ,i l, mjn'i i/ letrd c'lxfrlloifi por el M. H. P. Fr. Pedro 

\'<-<ila, dil orili'H (!< ^tiii Jcronimo corregido aumentado y 

'i-i'iln'i/iifi pin- i-l P. Fr. Pdtricio de la Torre, 

' nu'.-0/Kt orili'ii, biblinf <:<. rin i/ rnfrdrn.f ic.o drla laiyua ard- 

-mulittt , ,i >l {,',,, I .Mnnntterio de S. Lorenzo del Escorial. 

This work was printed in the first years of the present 

ury: but, through the copies of it not having been used it 

is known to very fi-w, and the only copy we now know of it is 

that which is preserved in the Kscurial, and which only rea- 

-ches the length of fi ()i'rccimiento" for which reason we sup- 

-pose that the printing of it was not finished. 



XV 

The other work was the. Comi>t>n(li<> <ji-rim-m<(H<-nl /////// 
i' In li'tii/iift /ii'ii!i/'i/ft c/.s/ snhin coma vulijar, j>i- 1>. Ma- 
nuel Bacn* Mt'riim. This work is highly meritorious, and 
published in Madrid in ISDT, bill r ii arc vi-ry r 

So, to supply the need there was for a book dealiir_ 
-pressly with the Arabic vulgar of Morocco the very reverend 
father Joseph Lerchundi, the present Prefect of tin- Spanish 
Catholic Missions here published at Madrid in isy-j 1. 
-lent grammar under the modest title of lludimentoa d> I a/-a//u 
vulgar que se habla en el imperio dt> .Marrnecos, to which b 
-des explaining the rules of the common Moorish tongue he 
added numerous exercises and compositions, to the end that 
by combining practice with theory, the speaking and unde- 
-standing of Moorish Arabic vulgar would be facilitated. 

The first edition being exhausted, its author has resolved 
to publish this second edition with various improvements and 
additions. One of the most important is that relating to the 
translation of the Arabic words in latin characters. Some peo- 
ple censured the system of transliteration adopted in the lirst 
edition, and so, though it is difficult if riot indeed impossible 
to transliterate with exactness Arabic words, in the second 
edition the author has tried to approximate the translation as 
nearly as possible to the vulgar pronunciation of the words, 
and suppressing at the same time the double letters which 
were apt to confuse beginners a good, deal. 

For this reason the h of the letters ~ and -. liavi- 

^ ^ 

dropped. Leaving the consonanst thus, and proceeding to deal 
with the vowels he has had to consider two opinion^ held l>y 
those acquinted with the Moorish Arabic vulgar. Som- say 



XVI 

that the transcription ought to be rigorously exact, and that all 
the vowels suppressed in common conversation ought to be 
dropped. Others, on the contrary maintain that the translite- 
ration need not to be so rigorously exact but should be varied 
so as to adapt itself to the Spanish pronunciation and the rules 
of the Arabic grammar. In the first edition the second method 
was adopted, but in this edition both methods are follOAved so 
that each reader may choose the one he thinks better. 

The accentuation of the pronunciation has also been im- 
-proved, the accent being placed only over those vowels em- 
-phasized in pronouncing the words. 

Finally, to the appendices of the first edition has been 
added another treating of the irregularities of the Moorish 
dialect, the division of the syllables, and the accent. 

We do not need to extol the merit, or urge the usefulness 
of this book for persons much more competent than us have 
done so, Father Lerchundi having gained for his work the 
compliments and enthusiastic praises of the best arabists, 
particularly of the Royal Spanish Academy, which in a lucid 
despatch to the Director General of Public Instruction, says-' 
Father Lerchundi has given to his work an eminently prac- 

al character, but wittout deviating in the least from the 
methodical and scientific exposition of his subject. 

. I'utt ing aside the tedious repetitions of the usual methods 
of Aim and Ollmdorn" he inclines towards the older and sim- 
-pi :u of Robertson, which is better adapted for per- 

-sons somewhat accustomed to literary studies. The lang': 

clear, the printing excellent, the errata rare, so that ori- 
ginality, relevant merit, and manifest usefulness, all quail- 



XVII 

-ties entitling it to the best approbation of the Goverment, 
cannot be denied to the KUDIMEXTS of Father Lerchundi. 

We conclude by expressing our hopes that the respected 
author of this work may soon publish two other works he has 
in preparation, and that his strength may long be spared to 
him for the general good and public usefulness. 



FR. FRANCISCO M. a CERVERA M. 0. 
Tangier 4 October 1889. 



PREFACE 

TO THE ENGLISH EDITION. 



The aim of the English Edition of Father Lerehundi's 
Grammar of Moorish Arabic- Vulgar is to afford to persons 
who are acquaninted with English but not with Spanish, and 
who are desirous of learning to speak and understand the lan- 
guage used by Moors of all classes, an easy and efficient 
means of doing so. 

Hitherto the only book for that purpose available to the 
English speaking student has been Mr. J. E. Budgett Meakin's 
"Introduction to the Arabic of Morocco, IS'.M." a useful con- 
versation hand-book, but which unfortunately uses only Ro- 
man letters. Its author, moreover, expressly recommends 
such of his readers as understand Spanish to use Father Ler- 
chundi's work, which he adds truly is the only thorough gram- 
mar "of Moorish Arabic". 

The translator has adhered as closely as possible to the 
text of the original work, deviating from it only when the rule 
or illustration given is obviously not applicable to English. 
In such instances the original matter has been omitted, altered 
or supplemented as the case appeared to require. 

With regard to the transliterations now used the transla- 
tor has followed no hard and fast rule, but has tried rather 
to give to each word the English phonetic spelling most close 



XX 

to its pronunciation by natives. Even the best systems of trans- 
literation are but lame, and inadequate makeshifts, and take 
more trouble to learn and to apply in daily use than do the 
original arable characters and their pronunciation. The trans- 
-lator would, therefore, have preferred to omit the translite- 
rations almost entirely, but concluded to insert them as they 
may, perhaps, occasionally be helpful to the student in the 
masters absence. 

Excepting certain repetitions in the second edition pre- 
face, the prefaces to both the first and second editions are now 
given in fall for the sake of their interesting accounts of the 
origin of Moorish Arabic-Vulgar, and the efforts made to fa- 
cilitate its study by Europeans. 

Since, unknown to him, the work of translation was com- 
menced, the distinguished and learned author of the original 
work has passed away. He died at Tangier last year, all ranks 
nationalities, and creeds of the communnity there testifying, 
by unprecedented marks of respect at his funeral, to the high 
regard in which they held him. 

The translator has to thank the present head of the Spa- 
-nish Catholic Missions in Morocco, the Reverend Father Cer- 
-vera for accepting as a gift an undertaking to publish this 
Edition. Ikanks are also due to Doctor Joaquin Cort6s y 
Bayona of Spanish Legation for his kindly arranging about 
its publication, and to Mr. William Kirby Green for much 
assistance in the transcription of the M. S. S. 

J. M. MACLEOD. 

r IT July 1X98. 



PLAN OF STUDY. 



1 st - Study well all the letters of the Alphabet and their 
pronunciation, if possible with a native master, because there 
are very few Europeans who can pronounce them perfectly, 
especially the Gutturals. 

_)nd. fell the master, if a Moor, to pronounce the letters 
and all the words in these RUDIMENTS according to their pro- 
nunciation in common conversation. Otherwise it is likely that 
he may pronounce them with consonants or vowels which cor- 
-respond to thorn according to the rules of classical or Lite- 
rary Arabic. 

3 rd - Learn by heart all the Arabic words contained in 
each chapter or lesson, those which are found in the exercises 
and those which precede the compositions. 

4 th - After each lesson or chapter the master ought to read 
slowly the corresponding exercise, and the pupil should fol- 
low him respecting the words as he pronounces them until he 
can read them all by himself. The reading being finished the 
master should cover the column to the left, and the pupil 
should, then translate literally the Arabic text to Englis. The- 
reafter the right column should be covered and the English 
text translated to Arabic. 

5 1 ' 1 ' The pupil ought to write the compositions in presen- 



XXII 

-ce of the master until he learns thoroughly the forms of the 
letters and can write them by himself. 

fith- When the pupil can form the letters without the mas- 
ter's help he should write the compositions at home, but in 
doing so he should not have the key in sight and use it only 
for occasional consultation. 

7 th ' After the composition is written the master should 
take the book and ask, or read in Arabic, or in English, the 
phrases contained in the exercises and compositions, and the 
pupiel ought to answer translating them to English, or Arabic, 
as the case may be. 

8 th - The exercises being finished the master should put 
questions on the grammatical rules contained in each chapter 
or lesson. 

9 th - The order followed in these RUDIMENTS should not be 
inverted or altered; and the compositions as well as the Exer- 
cices should be revised as often as necessary till the pupil can 
repeat them with rapidity and fluency. 

10 th - In conclusion, the pupil ought to converse frequen- 
tly with the natives, and pay much attention Avhen he hears 
them speaking in Arabic. 



J ' * ' . ' . * * ' * '.'.*' . t ^c 



Explanation of AloToreviations. 



A. ... 


Active. 


Nr. . . . 


Ac. . . . 


Accusative. 


N 


Adj. . . 


Adjective. 


P. or pers. . 


Ar. . . . 


Arabic. 


Part. . . . 


C. . . . 


Composition. 


PI. plu. . . 


Cond. . . 


Conditional. 


L. U. . . . 


Col. . . . 


Collective. 




Com. . . 


Common. 




Corap. . . 


Comparative. 


Pres. . . . 


Cond. . . 


Conditional. 


Pte 


Conj. . . 


Conjunction. 




Dim. . . 


Diminutive. 


Pron. f d - . 


Ex. . . . 


Exercise. 




E.g.. . . 


For example. 


Prop. . . 


Eng. . . 


English. 


Pro. . . 


Fut. . . . 


Future. 


r. ac. n. . 


F. or fern. 


Feminine. 




Form. . . 


Formation 




Gen. . . . 


(lenitive. 


r. ac. p. . 


Ind. . . . 


Indicative. 




Lit. , . . 


Literal or lite- 






-rally. 




M. or Masc. 


Masculine. 


r.Jp, 



Neuter. 

Noun. 

Person. 

Particle. 

Plural. 

. Little used (a 
term rarely used 

vulgarly. ) 
. Present Tense. 
. Preterite Ten- 

-se. 
. Pronunciation 

formed. 
. Proper. 
. Pronoun. 
. Requires a no- 

-un in accusa- 
tive. 
. Requires a 

pronoun ( or 

person ) in 

accusative. 

Requires par- 



XXIV 



r. J P 


. . . -tide J and a per 


Subst. . 


. Used as 


a Subs- 




-son. 




-tantive. 




rjp. 


andac.n. Requires J 


tr. lit. . 


. Literal 


t ran si a 




with a person, 




-tion. 






an ace. noun pre- 


T. . . 


. Thingi. 






-ceded by some 


Tn. . . 


. Town. 






Part. 


U. . . . 


. Usual. 




S. . 


. . Substantive. 


V. . . 


. Verb. 




Sig. . 


. . Signifies. 


Vulg. . 


. Vulgar, 


or Vul 


Sing. 
Subi. 


or (S.) Singular. 
Subjunctive. 




-garly. 





FIRST PART. 



PRELIMINARY IDEAS. 



CHAPTER I. 



1. The arable alphabet consists of 28 letters all consonants, 
in which number is not included the lamaUf, >, it being 1 a 
compound of J and !. In the following table the name, form, 
and value of all the letters will be found. 

MOORISH-ARABIC ALPHABET. 



NAME 


FORM 


VALUE 

. 


NAME 


FORM 


VAI.UK 


Alif 


I 


, e, i, o, u, 


Dthal 


^ J. 


Dthal 


Ba 


v- 


b 


Ra 


JJ 


1! 


Tsa 


C-- 


ts or t 


Zain 


)} 


z 


Tza 


& 


tz or 


Ta 


i 


Taw 


Jeem 


t * 


3 


Tdha 


i 


Dtha 


Hha 


~ ^ 


hh 


Kaf 


^r 


k 




L 










Cha or kha 


~ A 


A'h (a) 


Lam 


J 


I 




c 










Dal 


5 J. 


D 


Meem 


^ ^ 


m 










1 





(a) pronounced like c/i in the Si i <>toli "'"Tit 



NAMK 


roan 


VAI.t'K 


NAME 


FORM 


VALUE 


, 


J J 


71 


Sin 


-u- 


s (close) 


Sdwd 


l + 


s open 


Sheen 


A jL> 


sh 


Dated 


J= 


da- 


llh 


t* 


h (a) 


A in 


* I 


a long op en 


Wow 


j 


If, 0, U 


Ghaiu 


; 


gh 


Ya 


_, ^ 


y> ee t % 




L 






" ^ 




Fah 


? 


f 


Ilamza 





(b) 


Kawf 


3 


k (a) 






(c) 



2. The Arabs read and Avrite from right to left. 

3. All the letters forming an arable expression must be 
joined to each other, except the letters 5, ^, i, ,, j, and _., 
which may only be joined to those preceding them. For this 
purpose the letters undergo a slight variation in form, but 
this variation presents no difficulty as the essential character- 
-istic of each letter is not altered. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE LETTERS. 

4. The arable tongue has guttural sounds and strong 
aspirates entirely unknown among us. For this cause, to ac- 
-quire the perfect pronunciation of some letters it is indispens- 

(a) Tills sound cannot bo pivi-n exactly in Roman characters. 

nrliims held that tlie/uim;.! is really the first letter of the aialiic 
aljihahct and onplit to be put in ttie place of J nt'f See X,.s. :,. :!7. and foll-nvini,' 
us trentiiiK ul' the lunnzci. 

' 1'ii- there are no r:ij>ital letters. 



3 

-able to hear them from the voice of a native master. This being 
premised, let us treat of the alphabet in general, and of 
the most usual pronunciation which the letters have in the 
vulgar idiom of Morocco. 

5. The I is pronounced, first, like our a in father thus ^_j(j 

f 

bab a door, or gate; second as e thus C^J i entza, thou; third 

as ee (i) thus 9\>>\ eebra. (or ibra) needle; fourth as o or it thus 

j' - 
/. 
^o! oodn, ear. 

The cause of this variation in the pronunciation is almost 
always the hamza (.) which, according to some scholars, is re- 
-ally a letter of the alphabet. In this case the ! is a mute let- 
-ter, put into motion by the hamza which gives it the sound 
of a, e, i, o, u, according to the vowel, which accompanies it. 
(SeeN?. 38.) 

In some cases ihe alif is not pronounced, as, for instance in 
the plurals of verbs, c. g, ^ r - amdtsu you made; LUc amdit 
they made. 

6. The *_, corresponds to our b, thus ^_,'.j bab door, or gate. 
The o is pronounced generally like the is in jetsam; thus 

vj^si! entza, thou; but sometimes it is pronounced like t simply, 
thus o^ enta, thou. 

The ^L> is almost always pronounced like o thus fcJU tsalet- 



-sa, three, or & .s/// snow. 

7. The pronunciation of the r is very like that of our j, 
thus U^/rt come, or has come, but the sound is soft and has not 
the d sound heard in our^" usually. 

. on Tliis letter is pronouncfil sometiincs liko our </ in floods thus 



tl itz l )lis se.cl: j- -^ yfizanut: J^v jreWM 8t, instead >f j;i/. joo/a. urj. 



.: j -^ ^^v 

J W 4 

Uut tliis a sound is i^'iirnilly written .^.)" i^*'' 1 N'!! " 



The ~ is a guttural aspirate and needs to be taught by the 
voice of the master, thus ^^ hhabb loved. 

Th<- - lias the sound of ch in the scotch word loch thus 

v_ 
1-,~A cJifii/iit tailor. It is transliterated kh generally. 

The ^ and ^ are pronounced like our d thus ,b dar house 
v -.JO (lain -b gold. 

'.). The , cnrrresponds to our >; and the j to our z thus 
)^\ , ; ~<ir:;''>i". Kice bird, Starling. 

10. The .L and ^ are pronounced like our t and d strongly 
articulated thus i9\jp taka window: J=c adam bone. 

11. The ^<" has the sound of our k thus ,*} kds a glass: 
Avhcn sounded like g hard it is Avritten with three dots thus ^lf. 

]:. The arable ali>habet proper laeks our sound rh as in Churn: never!)' 
in tlir arabie vulgar of M'.n.ec., tliat sound may be heard and is expressed by the 
'the thive dots beiiifr placed below these letters, thus i- "\ l<<-i 

t * f-^ *~*r*M, 

v C 

IL'. The J, the , the ^ correspond to our / ; m, and n: thus 
J-J led night: '-- ma water ,'- n<ir lire (or hell). 

1."). The ^ h;is the sound of a light liquid K or z thus -'-^ 
xixnl hunted. 

II. The pronunciation of the ^ is little different to the 
1? (10) thus _.^ don- 1 ight. 

. The a and ^ require to be taught by voice thus ^ . 

V ^* ^T * 

^rf// arab, ,j v (/Juirbi western, or a westerly wind (noun). 

!(',. The ^^^ is pronounced like our f thus x'y /"/>?r/ bean. 

17. The A has a stronger sound than j^ 1 : thus ? ,Js'o A'dn- 
-//v/ lirid^-i-: JLJ AV// said. In some parts of Morocco it is pro- 
-nounced hard thus JU ^/d/ he said. ^*i yamh they said. 

C 

1 s . is pronounce^ like our N thus ,.,...._. smen salt 

^ c 

lur :it'usi-(l with the ~. 



111. The ^ has the sound of /. thus :- xlni/' 

w " 

(verb), 

20. The ? corresponds to our h x in following words: hell, 
hot, ^_y liarab lied (verb). This letter, when it is at the 
the end of a word often has two dots above it, and in this < 
preceding vowel has the sound of <t, the > remaining mute: 
thus 'i-s r j kftrfd cinnamon: vj fula bean, Sometimes the y is 
converted into o> thus >U? fnk/( window: ^J.::;'.L tak<tl>'k thy 
window. (See X '.'. 1-51 . 

21. The j is almost always pronounced like our ir- or a 

(u) or as 6 long: thus J>L ircl river JOji dfidn worm; ^^-~- 
selvki greyhound. 

22. The most common pronunciatian of the _- is ce (i) thus 
v-o btr well. It is also pronounced like c long (our c in IV 
thus .j-j v _ij trek road; the iinal j: is sometimes mute and it 
then has the sound of the preceding vowel which is n, and in 
this case it is not dotted; thus o-W <i/rtgave: vei-b . ^U aid 
upon (preposition). In Morocco as a ruio the dots upon the let- 
-ters , s and v 4 are suppressed when they are finals. 

2:5. In the* following table the order in whieh oriei. 
write the alphabet is given, and should be noted in ease of the 
pupil using arabic dictionaries. 

Order of (>>-icnfal-A >'<thif A/j>/i'(lirf . 
1. ! 8. ^ 15. js 22. ^ 

_'. v _, i). 3 !;. L _':;. J 

21. 



3M 
V^,^ -J 


W.j 


17. 


i. S^' 


11, j 


is. 


r>. T 


12. , r- 


19. 


o. ~ 


1 .' ! . , ^> 


20, 






7. + 14. ^o 21. Ji 28. ^c 

24. From what has been shewn in this chapter it will be 
seen that all the arabic letters have their equivalents or ana- 
-logics in our alphabet except the following, o, O, , ^ which 
could be represented with two letters thus o ts, ^^ koonts, 
, i, sh , ^~ shercb to drcnk, and , ~ -,*-, and J . 

NOTE. Many believe that to purtray the pronunciation of arabic with Euro- 
-pean characters is of little utility; and, truly, the exact pronunciation of any 
tongue, particularly the arabic, cannot be learned in books alone. 

Nevertheless, Phonetic Transliteration being an innovation introduced by mo- 
-dcrn linguists as of great value in learning living languages I have no hesitation 
in adopting it. endeavouring at the same time to put it down with the greatest 
possible simplicity so as to facilitate to beginners the reading of the arabic 
words contained in these Rudiments. Without this help they would be embarrassed 
in many cases, since the arabic words are generally given without the correspond- 
-ing vowels, for which reason the Moors almost always break, on this point, the 
rules of literary arabic. 

READING AND TRANSLATION EXERCISE 1 



1. Peace be upon ye. 

'2. And upon yc, Peace. 

:;. How art thou? (c) 

1. Well. Prjiise(be)toGod(d) 
(Is) nothing wrong with 
thee? (meaning, arc you 
well). 



(a) Keep in view the instructions given in the Plan nf Stinlt/. 

vn-li. / /., is not usually cxprrsscd in tin- prcM'iit tense in arabic. 
(C) Lid-nil tr.iii-l.it ion I'IKHI tlcinl Tin j>,-ti:St to fled. 
.'1 'J'l g may be used at any time of the day. 



=Jb ,3LJ! 1 






(c) o^o I ^_c/ 3. 

Ls 4. 



-7- 

5. No evil (i. c. quite well). [ 

Hast thou brought the 
needle? 

6. I have brought the needle. 

7. Hast thou brought the gold? 

8. I have brought the gold. 

9. Hast thou brought the 

glass? 

10. I have brought the glass. 

11. Hast thou brought the 

Avater? 

12. I have brought the water. 

13. Hast thou brought the cin- 

-naraon? 

14. I have brought the cinna- 

-mon. 

Pronunciation of word: 



(a) 



V 



Y 5. 






: M\ 



U! 



^^\ 



6- 

7. 

8. 
9. 

10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 

14. 



1. Es-salaamu alikum. 

2. U-alilfum cs-salaam. 

3. JTee/ ? entsa. 

4. -4?a khair, alhamdu lillah, 

la has alik. 

5. La 6as. Jeebtsi al lbr<i! 

6. Jeebts al ibra. 

7. Jeebtsi ad-dahal$ 

(a) Sec Note d page (i. 



in prec3ding exercise. 

8. Jeebts ad-dahab. 

9. Jeebtsi al-kas? 

10. Jeebts al-kas. 

11. Jeebtsi al-mctf 

12. Jeebts al-ma. 

13. Jeebtsi al-karfa! 

14. Jeebts al-karfa. 



Expressions contained in the following composition exercise. 

I have and i --^ 

Thou hast aindik ^f^.\z 

The fire eii-nar ,LJ| 

The (salt) butter es-smin ,js~-' 

COMPOSITION 1. 
Phrase3 to tie written in aiabic. 

Hast thou the h're? I have the fire Hast thou the but- 
ter? I have the butter. Hast thou the cinnamon? I have the 
cinnamon. Hast thou the needle? I have the needle. Hast 
thou the gold? I have the ^old. Hast thou the glass? I have 
the glas>. Hast thou the water? I have the water. 

CHAPTER HI. 

THE DIVISION OF THE LETTERS. 

L ; .~). The arabic letters arc divided into the radical and 
iliary, the solar and lunar, the sound and unsound. 

The radicals are those which contain the root of the word. 

The auxiliary arc those which form the derivatives, the 
inflexions, and the terminations of the words. The ati.i-ili> 

are as follows: , , ^i- \jj~ J .\ ^ ^_ . ___. 

All the re>t are radi.-ids. 

The anj-iliarii.s may be radicals, but the radical* are never 

I 1 ";. T are: _ j_- : J , , - ^ ^ p J 



9 
^ !,.. All the rest arc lunar. When the words which com- 

L-- 

incnce with a solar letter are preceded by the article J! al, the 
J of the article is not pronounced, and in this case the Wm- 
letter is repeated thus ,LO! ad-dar the house, is pronounced 
ad-dtir and not <d-dar, .^iJ! as shemss, the sun, and not 
(il-Nhi'mss. ljut when the article precedes a noun which com- 
-mences with a lunar letter the J is pronounced, thus >*)! 
nl-afid the horse, or r,^! al-hhamar the donkey. 

27. All the letters of the alphabet arc sound except three 
I j ^_w which are called u-eak, either because they are liable to 
various changes, or because in certain cases they disappear. 
These three are also called prolonyiny letters, because fre- 
-qucntly they are used to prolong the sound of the vowel 
which precedes them, as will be shewn hereafter (29). 

READING AND TRANSLATION EXERCISE II. 



1. Hast thou seen the door? 

2. I have seen the door. 



1. 






X. Hast thou seen the ear? lO^^ c^i. 3. 

4. I have seen the car. ,.\^\ sj^jii. 4. 

^ 

5. Hast thou seen the snow? ^Ax)! ^^ 5. 

d 

6. I have seen the snow. ^.J_':J! sji^ii, G. 

il 

7. Hast thou seen the house? ,!jJI sjUii. 7. 

> , 

s. I have seen the house. ,LO! ^^L $. 

9. Hast thou seen the starling? jj ,^.M cfi. 9. 

10. I have seen the starling? '^ ^^ 10. 



10 

11. Hast thou seen the window? AslUl c^fi- 11. 

12. I have seen tlie window. AsUsM .j^i, 12. 

13. Hast thou seen the light? jxJ 1 O-^ 13. 

14. I have seen the light. _d! C^-az, 14. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing words. 
1. Shoofsti nl bah/ s. Shoofts ad-dar. 



2. Shoofts al bab. 

3. Shoofsti al udri! 

4. Shoofts al udn. 

5. Shoofsti at-telj? 

6. Shoofts at-telj. 

7. Shoofsti ad-dar? 



9. Shoo ft si az zarzor? 

10. Shoofts az zarzor. 

11. Shooftsi at -tdk,i! 

12. Shoofts at-taka. 

13. Shooftsi ad-doic.' 

14. Shoofts ad doic 



Expressions contained in the following composition exercise. 

Tlie bridge al-kantra 

The worm ad-doodo 

The greyhound as-selooki ,- 3 j-^- 

The road at-ttrtk *-^:.j ' 

COMPOSITION 2. 
Phrases to be written in arabic. 

Hast thou seen the bridge?--! have seen the bridge. Hast 
thou seen the worm? I have seen the worm. Hast thou seen 
the greyhound? I have seen the greyhound. Hast thou seen 
tlie road? I have seen the road. Hast thou seen the sun? I 
have seen the sun. Hast lliou seen the horse?! have seen 
the horse. Hast thou seen the donkey? I have seen the 
donk 



11 
CHAPTER IV. 

V O W K L S AND CONSONANT*. 



28. The Arabs have three short vowels, represented by cer- 
-tain small signs which are placed above or under the conso- 
-nants. Below arc shown the name, form, and application of 
each. 



1. 

2. 

3. 


NAME 


FORM 


VALUE APPLICATION 


Fatzha or Nisbah. 
Kesra or lie f 'da 

Damma or Refda 




/ is placed above the let- 
a > & -ter thus \ . ba or bay: ~ 
\ cha or chay kha or khay . 

is placed under the let- 1 
et, ^ 

-ter thus , > bee: 5 dee. 

f is placed above the let- 
o, u I -ter thus % > bo, or bit, 2 
\ do, or du. 









29. When the ! is found preceded by a nisbah, the j; by 
hefda, and the j by refda they are called prolonging letters 
(Sec N 27), in these cases the first has the sound of our a in 
father, the second that of ee or i, the third that of oo or o u, 
and the three vowels are long thus ^ ,t_j bob door r j bir (a 

^r - J" 

\ t 

well), aJjj fula bean. This pronunciation is constant and the 
exceptions are very rare. 

In other cases the vowels are generally short, and often 
have a vague peculiar sound which cannot be represented by 



- 12 

our vowels. The vowels arc generally nut n-ritten, but arc so- 
-mctimcs supcradded for reading. 

.".0. In common conversation the vowels which the final 

consonants have in literary arabic arc suppressed, saving cer- 

- - ' 

-tain rare exceptions. Thus one says -~-^ acbar, iia. khalak, 

J i ' "s\ i ' -I' 

bats, instead of >.,S i acbaroo . Wi khdlakaha. >l?u batza, 

"* - J ^^/ 

as in literary arabic (a). 

;>1. AVhen the three signs indicated are duplicated they 
arc called tunni'tin .^'J', and arc pronounced an, In, or een 
oon as v - ban, , . bin, -, > boon. 

These signs are very rarely found in common writing, and 
are always suppressed in common conversation. 

EXERCISE III. 

1. Good morning to thec. -^\r- >-^\ ~Lo 1. 

2. Good morning Sir (literal- ^rj. r ^ '..< ,.dr-l ^L^ 2. 

-ly, oh my master). 

.'). How art thou this morning? C^-ssrr^i , .--- o. 

... 

1. Well How art thou? (lit. j^ol . i! ^ 4. 

witli good) (lit. what 

thou . 

."). ( L Hiitc well, Praise to (!od. ^ J. v sr-l ...'.' V ">. 

(\. Hast thou seen the well? ,.J! j:^ ;. 

.1 often the VOWels which, accordlug t" the rules nl' literary arahii-. ou^lit 

tn lie placed in the be^imiiiif,' and middle of a word are suppressed ;il~n. 'I'lms 

i 

. ^r^ inlili'n-01,1 lorKidden. \3$&hakda tlin> " . *. i-nk'Hx BheJ l.iy down, are 

' s, , ' ' , , . 

u-ed in-te.i-l of _, ( _ s ..- moi _' .C> ''"''"''" ^ij.?,' '''lA'iK/n^.ns in liti'rary 

ur.iliie. 



13 

7. I have xvc.n the well. 

s. Hast thou seen the key? (a) 

'.. I have seen the key. 

10. Hast thou seen the Jewish 

quarter? 

11. I have seen the Jewish 

quarter. 

12. Where art thou 



13. I am goin<r to my house; 

good-bye. 

14. Go in peace. (Farewell) 



U or) 

J (b) 



.zL 1 , 

j^^i.u, 9. 

^~i~ 10. 

J^fi, 11. 

,^ 12. 



. , ,| i , 

V VW/ 1 ] J. >, 



Pronunciation of the foregoing exercise. 



10. Al mellalih. 

12. Lain mashee (or lain 

ghadi.) 

13. ylna mashee (or ana ghadi) 

en dari f abka alakhalr. 

14. Enishl bl-seldma. 



Expressions used in the following composition. 



1. Scbakh al khair 

'2. tiebakh al khalr ya stdi. 

3. Ketf sebakJif^L / 

1. /// khair, ash antza? 

it. tilionfts! 'A blr. 

8. Al mcftsahli, 



I have not. 

I have not brought. 



ma andt sh/ 
ma jeebts shi 



[a) M'ffxiilth which is t lie !;vnuin<' HIM bii- wonl is usi'il in (hr north of Mo- 
. nnd x n-i'ix in viiridiis parts of tin- wrst coast wln-ncvor any local (li 
s it is plari'd in parfnl IICMS. 
In liist(';'.(l ol'liihiri or ila dari. 8C6 nctc on n." 77. 



14 

The likeness (or image) es-sura 

The fleece es-soofa 

The wool es-soof 

The inn, depot al fundak 

Where? fain. 

Passed the night batz 

In, at, fi 

Tangier tanjd 

God created allah khallak 

The heaven and es-semd u 

The earth / drrf 

COMPOSITION 3. 
To be written in Arabic. 



Hast thou the horse? I have not the horse. Hast thou 
the glass? I have not the glass. Hast thou brought the 
likeness? I have not brought the likeness. Hast thou brought 
the wool? I have not brought the wool. Hast thou seen the 
Fundak? I have not seen the Fundak. Where did he passed 
the night? lie passed the night in the fundak. He passed 
the night in Tangier? God created the heaven and the earth. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE ORTHOGRAPHIC 



."_' There are four orthographic signs, and these are placed 
he letters: their names and forms are as below: 





NAMK 


FOHM 




NA.MK 


FOHM 


1. 


Socun or Gdzmct. 


c or 


3. 


Medda 




2. 


Tshesdid or Shidda 


"VA < 


4. 


Waslft 

















33 The gtsma indicates that the letter over which it is 
placed ought to be pronounced without a vowel thus ^,JS 
kalb dog: v_Jj kalb heart. In both these examples the J and ^_> 
have to be pronounced without vowels. 

34. The shidda placed over a consonant indicates that 
such consonant's sound is doubled thus Jl= allem, he taught, 
instead of JUfc. 

The Moors sometimes place the shidda below the letter when 
it takes the hcfda. 

The shidda is not placed over 5. 

35. The medda, placed over an 1, indicates the suppression 
of another 1, and serves to prolong its sound, thus L~> semd, 
instead of semdd the sky in place of !U,~. 

3G. The ivasla is placed over the initial letter I of words, 
and indicates that the letter which follows it ought to form a 
syllable with the last consonant of the preceding word, the 1 
being suppressed in the pronunciation thus *~,U.'Lj| dbulkdsem, 
in place of abu-el-kassem. 

This sign is rarely applied in the vulgar tongue, because 
generally the final consonants remain (30) without a vowel. 
Thus we say i.o.C'1 JVJ bab dl medlna the gate of the town 

instead of i^j.J' .ij babulmedinatsi. 



1G 



KXKRCISE IV. 

1. Who has come? *W ,.\ SL\ 1. 

* ^^ * ' 

2. Abulkasem has come. *wU)!^j! U. 2. 

:: What did he teach? Jc \J3 .'5. 

i 1 U T 
1, He taught the lesson. <>oui;i Jb 4. 

5. What hast thou seen? O--fi- / ^' 5. 

6. I have seen the heart. ^JliM C-^ G. 

7. Hast thou seen the dog? JbO! c^a^- 7. 



8. I have not seen the dog. v__vl\5! f > c^^ ^ 8. 

v_5 

9. Hast thou seen the sky? U*J1 vj^ai. 9. 

10. I have seen the sky. .i^-J! c^jii, 10. 

11. Hast thou seen the gate i^- v O' ^_>'-> C-^ 11. 

of the city? 

12. I have not seen the gate 

of the town. 

13. Hast thou seen the apples? 

14. I have not seen the apples. 

15. The prince came. 

It;. Where hast thou been? 
17. I have been in the house 
(or at home,). 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

I-"//. 7. (or (d jcroo). 



13, 

14. 
15. 



l:;. 
1."). 



l -dm i < r 



17 

HI. A'/"//?/.:/. 

17. AY//*/.* /'i;l- ( t,n 

Vocabulary. 



Abulfeda ( proper name ) abonlfcda 

Market Tain, fair .W,- 

I have not been ma /./"> ntxhi 

Doorkeeper, porter booab 

Has not come majdd sht 

But Jakiii 
Notwithstanding, nevertheless u-alakinn 

Crier berdhh 



Present, tribute 



liedce.a 



COMPOSITION 4. 



Where hast thou been? I have been in the town. What 
hast thou seen? I have seen the fun dak. Hast thou seen 
Abiilfeda. Hast thou been in the market? I have not been 
in the market. Has the door keeper come? The doorkeeper 
lias not come, but the crier has come. Hast thou brought 
the present? I have not brought the present. Hast thou 
been in the mountain? I have not been in the mountain. 

\ 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE HAMZA. 



.">7. The hamza is generally reckoned amongst the ortho- 
-uTaphir signs, but the Moors place it at the end of the 
alphabet. 



18 

The hamza ( . ) gcneraly, is accompanied by one of the 
weak letters ' or _. ^C 

At the beginning of a word it is placed over the \ if it takes 
the nisbah or refaa, and underneath if it takes the khcfda thus 

t E . < 

vt dmdr he ordered;', .o! uden ear; r JM r/ertf i see No. 5) 

/ w/ W " t 

39. In the middle or at the end of vi word it may be accom- 
-panied by one of the three weak letters, in which case it is 
placed over them, thus J.~ sal he enquired: (a) JLL> saeel the 

questioner, or enquirer: ,.^ mumin believer, faithful l.U 

? ' ^ " * 

kara ( he ) read I Jo bedel began. 

40. The hamza is also found alone that is to say unaccom- 
-panied by any of the weak letters either in the middle of a 
word, or at the end thus: J sal; J ~o instead of JL. or 
JLo .U ma water; *- sl calamity. Evil. -Li rfrtfl remedy, 
medecine. ~i> s/j? tiling (b). 

41. It should be noted that in the vulgar language of Mo- 
-rocco; the peculiar guttural sound which the hamza has as a 
consonant, is almost always omitted, and only the vowels 
which accompany it are pronounced as may be seen in the 
examples cited in Nos. f>, 38, 39, and 40. 

The pronunciation of the rm/ rotrel which accompanies it 

i 

is also often omitted thus: ^U! Ifidn colours, JLs' fial ele- 



-phants, J^i kal ate instead of aluan, aflal, akal (c). 

(a) In tliis c;ii- tin- i* 'it dotted 
**.* 

In tin- fiiur hi-f cxainiili'.^ tlir lannza does not take a vowel in the vulgar 
,. \\ In-r.-fiii-i' in tin--,, and c.tln-r .-hnilur i-;iscs even the /KI //;" it-rll' i- sii]i- 

n tin' I;,I,II,KIH writing. Thus oiic writes, 1^ ^ '_^ eft'. 

S? ' 

i :i i-crtaiii li:n,i \.t/, >t \-,-\-)>- - ,inc in;iy he;ir tlio 

linr ^'iiinil df HP i lly. 



19 



G. 
7. 

8. 
9. 

10. 
11. 
12. 
13, 
14. 



KXERCISE V. 

Who has come? 

The believer came. 

What did he read? 

He read the book. 

What did he eat (what 

ate he)? 

He ate the bread. 
What has he brought (or 

what did he bring)? 
He brought the bread 
Has'he brought (or did he 

bring) the meat? 
He brought the meat. 
Hast thou seen the ear? 
I have not seen the ear. 
Hast thou seen the devil? 



I have not seen the devil. 



15. Did he bring the gold? 

16. lie brought the gold. 



or 



Jfl 






j= G. 



,.iiYl 






-, 

v_> 



or i^k 

, y_5 



10. 
11. 
12. 
1:5. 
14. 



16, 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



4. 

G . 



... Al-keetsab. 
.. Al-khobs. 



7. ...jddb. 

9. ...Al-lchham, 



20 

NV>TK. It will br oK-ervi-d that the arabs ne one tense to express both our 
perfect and imperfect past ad this, too, in the interrogative as well as 

the affirmative. 

Vocabulary. 

1. My brother khat 

-2. My brother kho'tya 

:',. Thy brother khftk 

4. Thy brother kliok 

f>. I lamed (proper name) hamed 

'.. Razors (or eeasp knives) al-miias .AAV 

7. The mountains al jebaal JW^" 

8. Has not brought 

or did not bring) majaabshi ,~ V^ ^ 

9. Saw. (or has seen 1 st - shdf ^'^ 

2 nd - rdd ^, 

COMPOSITION 5. 

lias your brother come? My brother has come i see X." 7 . 
Who has come? Hamed has come. What did he bring? 
He brought the razors. Hast thou seen the mountains? 
I have not seen the mountains. Hast thou seen the elephant? 
I have seen the elephant. Did he bring the glass? lie did 
not bring the glass. Has he brought the water? He has not- 
brought the water. Who has seen the town? My brother 
has seen the town. 

On the divisions of the syllables. 

!_'. !-* Three lettered nouns form frequently one sylla- 
ble, and in this case the first radical letter takes the sound of 
the vowels thus: 



21 
v^J.i' kelb dog. _-3 l; ill} heart. 

b (/^/' llOUS3. 

43. 2 nd - TliM regular tri-literal verbs (see No, llT.i have 
usually two syllables thus: 

v ~..>. khas-sav (he) lost. ^_^:.^ ketsab (lie) wrote. 

T ^A khartij (he) went out. . 

In the first syllable the sound of the vowel is almost iniper- 
-ceptiblc which is however clearly pronounced in the second 
that is: 

44. 3 rd - If the word is composed of four letters forming 
two syllables, and each syllable has two letters; thus: 

-^ mcibrad file. - r "^V merkeb ship. 
irP keelma word. 

15. 4 th - If a letter of prolongation (29) is found in the 
middle of a word, this forms a syllable Avith the proceeding 
letter thus: 

\^*3<$ ka-tseb scribe. 
j~ kebeer great. 
ixO./ me-di-na town. 
SJlljL sul-ta-na empress. 
OjiU. hhanoots shop. 
^^x-C mek-tsub written. 

46. 5 th - The disposition of the syllables is usually altered 
when a letter is added, or affixed to a word thus: 

v J.3 kalb heart -Jj kalbl my heart. 

O" 

J.a., raj el foot. ^Wj re jly m Y foot. 

, jj.".C mek-tsub written (masc). 

ij j\\s> mek-tsub-a do (fern). 

^^ ke-tseb he Avrote. 

^ ke-tscb-u lie wrote it. 



22 



EXERCISE VI. 



1. Who saw the fort? 

2. My brother saw the fort. 

3. Who saw the house? 

4. Thy brother saw the house. 

5. What did thy father see? 

<;. My father saw the e!e- 
-phant. 

7. What did he lose? 

8. He lost the treasure (ino- 

-ney). 

9. W T hat did he write? 

10. He wrote the letter. 

11. Where did he go out from? 

12. He went out from the 

house. 

13. What did he see in the 

port? 
1-1. Ho .saw the saling ship. 

15. Hast thou seen the file? 

16. I have not seen the iile. 

17. The scribe was in the shop. 



. A! 2. 

4. 
5. 



Jrf 



10. 



J*\ 13. 

_J.i, 11. 

;.iL 15. 

Li. U 16. 

==J! 17. 



1*. The emperor was in the 
city. 



18. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



1. ... Borj. 

5. ... lidbdk or biik or / 

(j. Babd or /66d or biuja... 

al feel. 
8. ... /17-mdZ. 
10. , . Al-bdrdd. 



11. Men-ay n... 

12. ... JJ/r//. 

!.'{. ... F-aC.-marsa. 

17. ... A'dn ... 

18. Es-soolian.,, 



Vocabulary. 



Was 


kdn (m.) 


Was 


kanetz (f.) 


The stone 


al hajarn, 


Hard (adj f.) 


kassalilia 


The orange 


al Ic-cheena (a) 


Large (m.) 


kcbeer 


(f . ) 


kebeera 


The army (infantry) 


dl askar 


Troops 


<il-gdtsh (b) 


Sick (m.) 


mareed 


(f.) 


mareeda 


The daughter 


al bentz 


Tliy daughter 


bentaek 


The sickness 


al-mard 



(a) C'A ;is in (7)//i. hii-ili. tc. 

(b) Sec Note to rule No. 7. 



7. .-. \\\ 

(X%rt^v - ] 



w^: 



\rr- 



24 

COMPOSITION ('. 

The stone was hard. The orange was large. The em- 
-press was in the city. The army was large. Your father 
Avas in the shop. My father was ill. The daughter was in 
the stables. Your daughter was ill. The sickness was gre- 
-at. Your daughter was in the shop. My father saw the hc- 
-art. My heart was ill. The house was large. Hast thou 
seen the embarcation? I have seen the embarcation in the 
port. Hast thou seen the stone? I have not seen the. stone. 
I have not seen the army. 



^r W../.&. ^'.^C V6 ". ,y- ^\c >//- .,t^ ^,. -^.r 7>/: ,./. vJX 

"?& 



SECOND PART. 

THE ARTICLE, NOUM AND PRONOUN. 



CHAPTER I. 

Till-; ARTICLE. 

il. The article Jl al is the only one in the Arabic language 
and is used before both genders and numbers when placed 
before nouns it indicates that they have a definite determi- 
-nate sense thus: 

v.^lxJ! al kdb the dog. 

.-...1)0' id l->:Vi<( the bitch. 
^,'KM al kellab the dogs. 
OUJAJ! al kvl-bats the bitches. 
Proper names do not take the article, thus: 

*j ,.. mai'itim mary. 

is. Our detinite article is suppressed in Arabic before an 
appclative noun which requires the genitive thus: 

The heart of the man J->>-" . (te kalb o'-rojul,- and not al 

kalb-er-rajul. 
But if the genitive take the word ^\:^ emtsaa, or i de, the 

\*s 

article is not omitted thus: 

J^yl r - ^ U-^wi al kalb <^iil,nin ai'-i-ajal or else. 

J.^>3b v_^vU.M al kalb <!<T rnjul, 
I'.t. If there be two or more genitives, only the last one 



26 
takes the article thus: The door of the house of the peasant. 



.JwUM ,b ^,'j bab df.tr al-fellahh. Moreover, if the genitive 
required is a proper name, or if it takes a pronoun affixed to 
it (128) the article is suppressed thus: 

The house of Ali o'J^' aar ^ lil 

The door of my house v_r '- v^ bab dart. 

50. When the noun is preceded by demonstrative pro- 
-nounons, in Emjlhli the article is omitted; but in Arabic it 
is expressed thus: 

^^.Jl !jj> hada al murkeb This ship. 

51. When the substantive is qualified by the article the 
adjective which accompanies it is qualified also, the article 
being placed before it thus: 

~.-v! ^_,Jx]i al kelb al kibeer, the big (the) dog. 
See also N s - 104, 105, and 106. 

52. The word J.^L icalihed one, placed before a noun with 
the article is equivalent to our indefinite article, a or an, thus: 

wahlied al raj ul, a man. 

irulihed al maraa, a woman, (a) (See Xo. 111). 



EXERCISE VII. 



XL 



1. Good evening to thee (b) 

(greeting) 
L } . (!ood evening to thee (used 

at departure) 

iioiiii without ;ui article, cither in tin 1 singular or the plural 
. lly inir iinU'tiiiitc artii-U-. That is tosay oor indiflnite artic 
onderstood. 

(b) Traiisliitcd lit. Tin- ovr-niiiK '!' f;'"i>il Iti'iiijion tlire: tli > gi-ne- 

-i-iillv uiui; 



27 

:!. How art thou to night (or 
this (a) evening) 

4. Quite well thanks (lit. no 

evil god bless thee) 

5. How is thy father? 
G. Well thanks 

7. Whence hast thou come? 

8. I have corne from the 

market. 

9. Hast thou seen the horse? 

10. I have seen the horse and 

the mare. 

11. I have seen the horses and 

the mules. 

12. Hast thou seen the horses 

of the Sultan? 

13. I have seen the horse of 

the Sultan and the mule 
of the Vizir. 

14. Has thy brother seen the 

dog of the hunter? 

15. My brother has not seen 

the hunter's dog. 



or ) 



4. 



J~ '"' 
* 7< 



(JUJU 



jlUJb 



U 



9. 

10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 



14. 



15. 



\lthough rmshcctsi and kan arc past tcuse form, they here have tho 
meaning of the present. 



28 



J ^ 



Id. Hast thou brought tlic 
sugar of the merchant? 

17. I have brought the sugar 
of the merchant, but I 
have not brought the 
bread, (a) 

is. Where is the house of 
All's servant? 

lit. The house of the servant 
of AH is in this street. 

20. The Spanish Consul's gar- 

-den (is) pretty 

21 . The garden of the Baslia 

of Tetuan is pretty. 

22. Thy father's garden is 

large >Kx. 
1':;. My father's house is 

small, (b) 
24. This labourer is good, 

but that butcher is bad. 
2."). Hast thou seen a horse? 
jr.. I have seen a horse and 

a mule. 



9 tlini (In- won! l.ut is found in Coii)]>ositKm 1. 
(b) Be mindful of \v] of Ex. L'. 



^---M > 

B*JU I ^ 



r 

c 



16. 



17. 



IS. 



in. 



on 

^1 ). 



21. 



'ji ( .A- ju ) L-JJ! 22. 



Jli 






!3^ 21. 









27. I liavc seen a white horse. [ 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



L msah al khair . 

2. msak mbr'sk. 

3. ... mesltzi. 

4. ... alitili 'tbiii'ck /"/A 1 , 
(i. ... bdrakal-lehoo-fl-k. 

7. ... ge<'.f~f. 

8. ... gietz. 

10. ... Z oicda. 

11. Z khaiecl n-a al bdghldts 

( or Z bdghdl ) 

12. ... Es-Sooltan 

13. ... Z bdghld dal oozeer. 



II. ... es-saiiad ... 
15. ... ma-shf.if-sht ... 
Hi. ... (ixx-si'i/cnr di 

18. ... metzallem Alt. 

19. ... -F/ /Jrtrf ez-zanka. 

20. al-gharsa dal konsu- dez- 

bdnia mczlana 

21. ... al-basha... tstaven ... 

23. ... sagJnteera. 

24. /Jd al-fellahh meleJi, dak 

al gezzar (a) (orgtzar) 
kebuhh. 



Vocabulary. 



Hast thou bought, (or 
didst thou) buy 

I bought, ( or I have 
bought) 

The salt 

Government ( native 
not appliet to Foreign govts) 
Wine 



( lit drink 
Granada ( city ) 



Shreetst 

Shreets 

al melahh 
or al melha 

makhzen 

shardb 

khamdr 

samet 

ghnififa 



a In the northern provinces jrczzar i> prononctul \vitli die-/ - 
on Xo. 7, 



30 

Inkstand, or inkbottle doou-aia 

Pen kalam 

My friend sahhibi <^^ 

That (demonst. pronoun) (masc.) hadak 

(fern.) hadeek 

Judge kadi -J 

Girl derreea AJ , 

isheera *T~~ 



I have not seen or did not seen ma-shooftshi ^J^ 

Mohamed (prop, name} Mohammed 

( sagheer (fem.\ 
Small i' adi. masc. ) 

( see Ex. 7. 23).) 

New faf?y .) jedeed (masc.) 

jedeeda (fern. ) 

(He) Has not seen ma-shaaf-shi c t, . cU. U 

"Tr *"'' 

White beald(masc.) 

bdida(fem.) 

Black kah-hal (masc.) 

kah-hla (fern.) 

COMPOSITION 7. 

llast thou bought the meat of the butcher? I have bought 
the meat of the butcher. Hast thou bought the salt of the 
government? I bought the salt of the government. Hast 
thou bought the wine of the merchant of Granada? Hast thou 
bought the inkbottle and pen of the Basha's scribe? I have 
bought thy father's garden. I have bbught my friend's gar- 
-den. The judge is good. That girl is pretty. Hast thou 



31 

seen Ali's garden. I have not seen All's garden. -Has Moha- 
-mod's servant not come? The Spanish Consul has not come; 
but, the Hasha of Tangier has come. This labourer has 
brought a mule. A man has brought the merchants wine. 
A woman was in the kadi's garden. Hast thou the small 
book? I have not the small book. lias (he) brought the big 
horse? I have seen the small house. Did he see the new 
house? Hast thou bought a white horse? I have bought a 
white horse. I have bought a black mare. 



CHAPTER II. 

NOUN. 

".'!. Arabic nouns are divided into two kinds the substan 
-tives and the adjectival, the general and the proper. Omitting 
therefore any further remark upon the divisions of the noun 
we will treat of its characteristics. 

. 1. GENDER. 

54. There are two genders in Arabic, the masculine and the 
feminine. The gender of Arabic nouns is known either by 
their signification or by their terminations. 

Rules regarding signification. 

55. The names which denote males are masculine; and so 
are all the professions, occupations, and male animals: thus: 

, .>U.M J~s0 Abdelkader; J.=^. rc'ijnl man. 

v^^L tab'ib Physician; js\^ khahjat tailor. 
,U^ lihamar Donkey. 



32 

f>r>. The feminine nouns are: 

l- ; - The name of women (proper or surnames, ) female 
occupations, and female animals thus: 

A;U.,' Aitfia a proper name. 
L ;! .kL. $ nit a nft Empri 
C.--J !' daughter. 

^'..'.'A kluttt(i seamstress. 
X.Ua. hham'tra donkey. 

L >iui. r pi, e names of countries, provinces, and cities: thus: 
AJL-,] Axbfineca or LJ-^.O Sbaneca Spain. 

J..; u SfKTii Syria. 
I 

/ to** *3 j ' ( i s jj e z . 

L* 

:-5 rd - The name of those parts of the body which arc dupli- 
cated such as y~c rt??i: eye: 

. .Oj f/dfjni ear. 

J.^, ?//?;/ foot etc. etc. 

Rules regarding terminations. 

r>7. l- f - The following arc feminine. Tho nouns ending 
with > : tl; 

I iff.: ft turnip, isr-.r 2 ; 1 bate kit a melon. 
_""' Those ending in - unite thus: 



c-^v, rahha mill. ^~'j marsa sea port. 
:> r(1 - Tliose ending in ! thus: 

rain. '..- /f.s/j supper. 



EXOEPCH 



all of which. 
- sky are cnminonly. 



remedy used in the. 
U ma water masculine. 
Lw msa evening. 

r>s. The remaining nouns which have none of the tcrmina- 
-tions cited above are generally masculine thus: 

_ . ,.> der/li stair. t -^v jeer lime. 
C ^> -'" 5 

^ , re/i/t wind. 
C" J 
Nevertheless. Some nouns are feminine although they 

have a masculine termination thus: 

, *+* shimss sun. -^ ard earth. 

\j w > 

v >lj fta/j door, (a) *^- lehham flesh. 

I 

_ft--to r/rf/> light, (a) ,v"> e/*S SOUl. 

'o/i/i spirit. , ..' nar tire. 

^'^/-' road. . -o ,! arnab hare. 

akardb scorpion. JU melhh salt. 

- ^ 
Wax. *j._^.^ jehennam hell. 

belly ^^^- hhesir mat. 

^^.j Wdrf country; place of earth. 

s q_jAC soof AVool, and some others (b). 

EXERCISE VIII. 

1. Abdelkader us) a liar. ^ j/ ,^1 J.^ 1. 

> 

(a) />'"/'. ".'/KI and /< '/<' uro uscil as niasctilincs in sonic districts. 
1> Many names of animals, males, can he made feminine l>y aiiili, 

or ^) t>'" s : 

v ^^ /.'.//- (log. iJ.f /'"'" bitch. 

_> ^ L'uril iiiunkcy \n.) \2 3 k unlit mniiki'\ 

, ^\3 A'"'"'.v cock. L,Js /W/^N,/ lien. 

^ _/ ^ 

This is a rule which has few exceptions. 



34 

2. Aisha (i*) a liar. 

;:. The man (is) a liar. 

4. The woman (is) a liar. 

f>. The tailor (is) a coward, j 

G. The seamstress (is) 
pretty. 

7. This donkey (m.) is good. 
This crafts woman is ava- 
ricious. 

9. That merchant was a mi- 
-ser. 

10. Spain is large. 

11. Seest thou the good mir- 

-ror? 

12. I see the srood mirror. 



i:i. Dost thou sec the large 

book? 

1 1. I see the large book. 
1."). Dost thou see the black 

hor 

M. I sec the black horse. 
17. Dost thou sec the large 

mosque? 
1*. 1 see the large mosque. 



: 






<* i 



> o 

.r , " , 



10. 



SarJU! (S' 



1:5. 






111. My father's foot is small. 
L'O. This port is f;'00d. 
21. The supper \vas i;-ood. 
_'l'. The remedy was u'oocl. 
2:>. The world (earth) is ro- 

-und. 
'21. Tliy father's house is 

pretty. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



20. 



- 



1. ... khidab. 

2. ... k'uldaba. 
f>. ... khairoof. 

S. IIKd-al maUerna. 

-kheela. 
y. ... tajir... bakheela... 



ba- 



11. A'atshoosf (or tatslioof), al 

meraia (in Tetuan ul 
merda) . 

12. Kanshopf ( or tsanshoof)... 
1C. ... al-kahhdl. 

18. ... a/ jdmc'ta. 
"2:-}. ,. mekooirara. 



Vocabulary. 



This fm.) i3. /jarfa (fern.) 
Cold fw.) ^,lj 6rerf (fern.) Hij 
We saw (or have seen) shoofna 



hadl (a) 



You saw ( oi- 
Day 
Clear 



(a) When (hey arc I'ul 
r is suppressed. 



) shooftsoo L::;^ 

nehur jl^j 

stta/7 ^"'- 

sa/i/t/ -a.U9 

; 

l>y :i noun the proniinoialion oftlic linal \ a and 



30 

Hard kassnhh ^,.<? ! J 

v_ 
Work klidtlmd x-j.d^ 

Table Tablet or maida JO-A- or iiJUL 

Long. (tall, w.i Joj^ Tooc-d (f<-m.) i.lj_Ja Tooeela. 

Tree JSST^ sMjtra (plural ^^r^ shtjdr. 

Clock (or wateh) mngana iAC 

The time (lit the hour) .sd iiL- 

Thy eye n'tiich- i -^--\r 

Thy foot rt-jdek ^\.\^ , 

Cat (wr.) ia? A'dff ??7es/i ^ 

Flower j',j.j nooara ^ plural > ,'y nooar. 

Tunis Tsnuix >-'-> 

w -^ 
COMPOSITION S. 

This water is cold. Hast thou seen the cold water? AVc 
have seen the cold -\vatcr.-Dost thou see the clear day? I see 
the clear day. Is the work iiard'?--T!ie work is hard. The 
table is lon.^. Have you seen the long table? We saAv the long 
table. Have yon seen the largo tree? AVe saw the 1. 
tree. (Comp. 0.) Did you see the small watch? Wo have s 
the small watch (Comp. 7.) We have seen the small mirror. 
--Thy eye is small. Thy foot is small. Have you seen this 
white Pink? We have seen this white Pink. Dost thou see 
that white Cat? I see that white cat. We saw the red flower. 
Tunis is large. 1-Vz is large. Thy brother (Comp. 5. 
has a good pen. I have a large garden. Kx. 7 

j^ '2. TIIK XUMIJKIJS. 

.">'.'. Arabic i^mns have thr<:c numbers singular, <(i"<l, and 
plural, 

it ion. 



;7 

The siiiijnlar indicates one pci'son or tiling thus: 

>-> yoom day. 
Tlic dual denotes ttr<> persons oi 1 tilings thus: 

.r---;- yo'inaiu two days. 
The plum/ denotes fliree or more persons or thing thus: 



VvJ I 

\ - 



days, 



i'i!>. The dual is formed by adding the termination . v ain to 
the singular, thus: 

*\z dam year , .r^~ aamaln two years. 

If the singular ends in 5 this letter is changed into o to 
form the dual, thus: V man- a one time (or occasion ^^ 
marrtsani twice. 

The dual number is very little used in the Arabic-vulgar of 
Morocco. 

The following are the words most commonly used. 



Singular. Dual. 




Hour i~'.~ sdd. 


r r\\'o hours ^\z[.~, 


ddt,iahi. 


Week ix^v^ ji'imaa. 2 weeks ,. r .j;*^N 
^ * 

Month ^^ shalir. '2 months >.^< ,^.~. 


jinnalxalii. 
xhnharaiii. 


Century ^i ktrn. -2 centuries (.r-V 


kernaln. 


A pair ~y, ~i(i- 
A hundred 'L. mia. 
A time ij *> naithn. 


'2 pairs t~^j\ 
'2 hundred .t~~ 3 
'2 twice , v^j J 

yj. ' ^ 


zoujatn, 

miafnaiii. 


Thousand OJ-" di'f. 
Night i-lJ Din. 
Third ^Jj /.:////)r:. 
(Quarter a..) , i-iiba. 


2 thousand ,. v .^ 
2 nights . r .,xl.,j 
2 thirds ...xb 

v^ 

2 quarters .,..-*. , 


el fain. 

Hlfxain. 
t~i'ilfitza)n. 
riibain. 





38 




Fifth ^r^ 


khams. 


2 fifths ^^ 


=>. khitmsaui. 


Five minutes - ,i 


darj. 


10 minutes ,.rr?-j 


2 (hojfdn. 


Fathom, (a) LU 


kama. 


2 fathoms 


-5 ktimtaain. 


Cubit ) iJ'j 


kala. 


2 cubits \ .,.J 


i kaltsain. 


>(a) 








Cubit ) -J,> 


draa. 


2 cubits ) . r .,-- i 


2 drdt'iiii. 


Palm j+t, 


sh6ber. 


2 palms .v- 1 v . 


i. shcbi-uin. 


Span j.'3 


fetter. 


2 spans . r - t : 


5 frt,-i-(U'il. 


C\vt ,'Js.o 


kantar. 


) c\vf^ ' - 
U W bo . > \ -JE 


.? knntrmiin. 


J 




^ > 




Pound JJj, 


ratal. 


2 Ibs c v ;: ^ 


, nitlain. 


Ounce iJj 


tikta. 


2 OZS . V .:. ; J 


ukittdiii. 


Kola i-U 


(b) kohi. 


2 kolas ^A 


5 kolljiiin. 


Mudd I* 


(c) mudd. 


2 mudds t j J- 


- muddttiii. 


Kharroba -_*^ 


kharroba. 


2 kharrobas .^.A. 


J,A kharrob- 








tsaln. 


Metzkal ) 








( J lji; -- 


(d) metzkal. 


2 mctzkals .^J'-i;'- 


.*met~l-l<(in. 


\ducat) ) 












2 faces, or \ 




Face ^j 


(c) l)yt//i. 


c- 


~^=>.^ i.xijhain. 






moozonats. ) 





The foregoing are almost the only dii'd* used in Morocco. 
In other nouns the dual is expressed by moans of the word 
^. j.\ two placed before the plural of the noun as in English: 
thus: 



I at In. in. I iiditi-aii arc iiu'a>iii-r< ( l<'it;/th. 

(ajiacit y i'r liquids. 
anil A-A-i //.-' i an- iii' ',</ >!iill'~. Lrraiii etc. 

ryjihal i'ci : ir its vahh 1 i> n> ounc ". I' 1 
four of th 



39 

Two horses J-wL ~ .; zoojkhail, or better. 
J...'^.' ' j> . ; zooj dal-kh ail. 

01. There are two ]>[>n-alx, the regular and h-i-i-ijnlar. The 
regular plural masculine is formed by adding r j een, to the 

W " 

termination of the singular; thus: 

^L\=w Hhaddad Blacksmith. 

^i^\S^ Hhaddadcen Blacksmiths. 

>lsr^ Ilhajjam Barber. 

^/Ur^ Hliajjameen Barbers. 

02. The regular plural feminine ends in ^ atz, and is 
formed: 

l. st By adding ^J\ at? to the termination of the singular 
thus: 

*j jf* Mariem, Miriam or Mary. 
O<s'j- Mari&matz, Miriams or Marie*. 
2. lld By changing the final of the singular into ^,\ thus: 
'L~>y& darsa, molar tooth ^j(.^j.^ darsats, molars teeth. 

ibjs afida nlare sl^i^jfl audatz mares. 
If the penultimate letters of the singular is i, and the linal, 
j', this letter is changed intOj, thus: 

t.j iraa a letter. Plural, oM*J bi-airatz, letters. 

XDIK. Many nouns fiidinj,' in'or a ^ ^i'e;i ft7tcH masculine, form their plurals 
by lidding' to the termination ^j- ,\ tt (co^ thus: 

JJanlni, [,\j Basha I'l. Hashn's ^,.! l.L'j 

Ar/hu [j| Colonel Colonels ^J^t.li! 

' S ''"""' rl^^. S k.V Skies s^lal^Mi 

Ashaa m \^i Supper Suppers ^JVj^.ljus Aalnticutz, 

(>.">. The plural of the diminutives whether masculine or 
feminine ends in c^-1 thus: 



40 



v_^~U kaleeb, little licart. ^~r^ kal'tbatz, little hearts. 
ijjji di'ihla, little worm, o'-Jj-i dfthlats, little worms. 
C. I. r/ie irregular plural is formed in ways so numerous and 
so varied that it is difficult to subject it to any fixed rules. 
Nevertheless the following 1 are the principal rules. 



XOUXS OF THREE LETTERS IN -THE SINGULAR 



Forms of plural*. 



1st. 



or 
or 



2 nd - 
4th- 



or 
or 



!. (a) 



(15. If the three letters of which the singular is composed 
are sound their plural is usually formed by adding an ! or a j 
after the second letter of the singular. 



EXAMPLES. 



Form. Sing. 

1st. ^ii" Mb, dog. 

1st. ^^j itt-ntz, dauglifcM-. 

2" (1 - i Jj Avf//^ licart. 

L"i- ^Lv /j ft <?//", oath. 



Pi. 

kelab, dogs. 
benatz, daughters. 
kl f<b, hearts. 
lihelnf, oaths. 



i ''''>. II' the second letter of tlm singular be an \ the plural is 
formal liy clianging the ^ into _-" and inkling as a termination 

the syllable ..\\. 
\* 

Mir mini.') .rd \^ nr ,r:i(licr thr litlli' tlols . 7V]iivsoiits the r:ulic:il 
Idti-rs of \vliii-li I he .--iii-iil inii.i~i'(l a ml, thr l< tl: /-. I lie ;iu\ili;iry 1. 

I to form the iilural. 



41 



EXAMPLES. 



Form. 

;;ni. 



,J.<" 



lab, door. 
Avf.sv, cup. 



PI. 

liban, doors. 
, cups. 



I'M. It' the second letter be a j tlie plural is formed by 
adding an ! to the beginning 1 of the \vord and another ' 
before the last letter, thus: 



EXAMPLES. 



Form. 
4 111 - 
I th - 



Sin 



razor. 
latin, colour. 



Pi. 

muas, razors. 
Iftan, colours, (a) 



c,s. if the second letter be a ^, the plural is formed by 
adding a j after the second letter; it is also formed by adding 
an I at the beginning and another before the last letter thus: 



EXAMPLES. 



Form. 

-'"' 
L>'"'- 
4 th - 



Sing. 

^J bits, room. 
jj zit;, oil. 
^o bir, a well. 
r.? f eel > elephant. 



PI. 

^L^s b'u'itz, rooms. 
^<*j j ziutz, oils. 

,L-' biar, wells. (a) 

JLs! fa-ill, elephants. 



X<)I.\s OF Koi'll LETTERS IN THE siXcrLA 

!-'<>nn of the Plural. 



<)',). If the four letter- be . *<nni<l letters, the plural is for- 

> It i< not pronounced tlio ulif inin . u , 



12 
-mod by adding an \ after the second letter of the singular: 



thus: 



EXAMPLES. 



Sing. 

mark ilb } ship. 
~ r ^ mbrad, file. 



PI. 

mardkeb, ships. 
mbdred, files. 



70. If the second letter be an \ it is changed into ., thus: 



EXAMPLES. 






Sing. 

jamddf mosque. 
kaghet, paper. 



PI. 

ftM^a. juamdd, mosques. 
ie\j$ kiiaghet, papers. 



71. Those ending in ^_c form their plurals similarly to the 
four sound letter words (see No. 69) thus: 



EXAMPLES. 



Sing. 

seaport. 
khudmi, knife. 



PL 

marasl seaports. 
kh-uddmt, knifes. 



Norxs OK FIVE LETTERS IN THE SINGULAR. 

Form of the 2>lural. 



1~1. Tlu-sc nouns generally form their plural by adding ;in 
1 after tin- gecond Intel 1 of the singular, and suppressing the 



fifth if 



43 

it be a or the fourth letter if it be an \ or a . (a) 



, 



(J 






EXAMPLES. 

Sing. 

kantara , bridge. 

medarsa, school. 

mogliarfa, spoon. 

sultan, emperor 

mrftsahh, key. 

mokhtaf, anchor, 
hook. 

ssundokh, box. 



7' 

^'- 

- , X 

J&. 

c 






PI. 

kanatar, bridges. 
medares, schools. 
megharef, spoons. 
si at an, emperors. 
mefatsahh, keys. 

mckhatef, anchors, 

hooks. 

ssenddek, boxes. 



7:;. 
fourth 



If the second letter of the singular be an \, and the 
aj, the ! becomes j and the j is suppressed thus: 



EXAMPLES. 



Sing. 

>JP> hhanots, shop. 
==> kaboos, pistol. 



Pi. 

j\ja* hhiuints, shops. 
== kitdbes, pistols. 



71. The nouns which indicate a craft or a profession, en- 
-ding in ^_c, form their plural almost always by adding a s thus: 
(sounded like a). 

(a) This form has the samo cliaractcristics as the former (ti9). Take note that 
when the [th. letter is \ or a literary, they arc changed iuto thus 

-jU*, ^.d.O 1 .^.^, l ' t( ' : fuvthsr, in Arabic vulgar the tWrd letter ha ahvays 

t 

the sound of our , or c. short and in .some regions t.ikes no vo\vol wh.ite\vr. 



44 



EXAMPLES. 



Sing. 

i, soldier. 
,3^ bdhhri, sailor. 
,ac-r tubji, artillery- 

-man. 



Pi. 



L.-VX-' mekhaznia, soldiers. 

> * 

i'j v ^: bdhhria, sailors. 
^ 

isrr 2 tubj J a f artillery- 
-men. (a) 



KXKKCISK IX. 



Goodnight (departure), (b) 
Good evening isaluta- 

-tion). (c) 
I have been twice in thy 

house, (d) 
I stayed two days in 

Tctuan. (e) 
I have been twice in the 

Bashafs garden. 
I remained two years in 

Rabat. 



c 



ti -jd) ^-.j .j 



,i It iiii)n':irs tliat sninctiiurs they take ;i tsli-'it>ln over the j thus ^_J ,gj J 
//d// hi i r'l'in ; etc. etc. etc. 

'i tfivr th'i> ;i f,'(ni(l ni^ht." or. "make thcc jia>-; tlic niyht well' 
\". : . 'I'his >aliitation is n-cd Tor afternoon as well as eveiimir. 

\ thy niffht he ....<!. 
'/'/. Hi. I \v rnt.r,]-. I li.-i\ i> ^ 
Pr. lit. 1 reinaineil, .,r. I linve reinaiix il. 



7. I have been two weeks at 
Casablanca, and two 
months at Morocco 
City, (a) 

S The sultan's son has brought 
2,000 horses and 200 
mules. 

!> 1 have passed two nights li 
in my father's house. 

10. I have bought two pairs 

' of stockings. 

11. 1 have bought two cubits 

of cloth. 

12. I have bought two cubits 

of rope. 

!'{. Where hast thou come 
from? 

14. I came from the market. 

15. What hast thou bought? 

16. I bought two mud ds of 

wheat. 

17. Did thy brother see my 

friend? 



\ ^U jlkLJ! jJ 



JUJb 
jJI 



, 

J 



!;..! I \ 



:v 14. 

,! 15. 



17 



,| 7V. lit. \ siit. or, 1 luivc sat. 



40 



My brother did not see 

thy friend. 

I'.i. Has the believer (Moslem) 
not come? (The Arabs 
apply this word to 
Mohammedans only.) 

20. Did he see the mountains 

of Tetuan? 

21. He did not see the moun- 

-tains of Tetuan. 

22. Hast thou seen the mon- 

keys of Tetuan? 

23. I have not seen the mon- 

-keys of Tetuan. 
21. I have seen the monkeys 

of Sheshowan. 

25. My father has not come. 
2t',. He did not bring the pen. 
27. Did he bring the pen? 



ali I, CU! 18. 



J! U U 19. 



21, 






.i^ 



U. 



Jli.'! 



2-1. 

25. 
20. 

27. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



1. Allah <me*N/"A- Ix 

2. Mesdk-sdnl. 
MesJitts ... e?i darck. 



10. 

11. 

12. 



47 

G. Guelests"Gue" pronounced 1C. ... zra (or kmh or gmh). 

as in lt fjuerdon." (sec 17. ... sdhhebck. 

note No. 7) fer L'nhnf... 22. ... al lea r fid (or ez zatut)... 

7. ... fed-dar al'batdd. ... 21. ... sJieshowan. 

Marakesh. 

Vocabulary. 
How many cubits of broadcloth? ashal men kala dal-mdf 



Two cubits of broadcloth k alt sain dal-melf , _ $JUb ^-^'-J 
HOAV many mudds of wheat? ashal men mud dal-zra 



^;. 

Fresh butter, zebda *--> \ (see Com p. 1). 
How much is (it) worth ashal kalswa jr. 
Charcoal, l sf - *^? fahham 2 nd - V A'J fakhcr. 
Hast thou not seen? ma shtifts shi --- C^a 
My Uncle (paternal) dmmi ^ 

Thy Uncle dmmek \^ 
My aunt dmmtsl ^z 

Thy aunt dmmtsek 

Hast thou not brought? ( or, ) thou hast not brought 
ma jtiebts slu J^ ^^ ^ 

Cheese (in general) jeben ,.^^5 a cheese jebena i~=x 

How many kolas of oil c^o vMi Sis . .^ JWvil ashal men 

. v ^ w 

A'o^a dcz-ztf*. 

Bottle, 1 st - 1'j.^, rudCima 2 lul - is^ karaa. 

Thou hast not (or hast thou not?) (lit. not with thee any- 
-thing) ma aindek shi J 



Handkerchief sebenta i~v 

Has. (3 rd - pers. Ind. Pros. Feminine) (lit. with her) aindha 



How many rooms, as/wZ del-biutz o-Jb Jlrs-vi! 

This white pink, 7m-<7 al-koronfel al-baida LLflJJi)! ^f--* 



COMPOSITION 9. 

How many cubits of cloth hast thou bought? tsee Comp. Xo. 
7) I have bought two cubits of cloth (see Comp. Xo. 7). How 
many mudds of wheat has thou bought? I have bought two 
mudds of wheat. How many kolas of oil hast thou bought? I 
have bought two kolas of oil. How much does this wax 
weigh? (see Xo. 58). It weighs two hundredweights, two quar- 
ters and two ounces. How much does this fresh butter 
weigh? It weighs two pounds. How much is this charcoal 
worth? It is worth two ducats and two moozonats. Hast 
thou not seen my uncle? (paternal) I have not seen thy un- 
cle (paternal). Hast thou seen my aunt? i paternal) I have 
not seen thy auat (paternal). Hast thou not bought the 
cheese? I have not bought the cheese (see Comp. 3) but (see 
Comp. 4), I have brought the (Ex. I) bottle. Hast thou not 
my father's bottle? I have (see Comp. 3) not thy fat! 
bottle, but I have (Comp. 1) thy (paternal) uncle's bottles. 
Thou hast not the handkerchief of my (paternal) aunt, but 
thou hast (Comp. 1) my (paternal) uncle's handkerchief. 
How many rooms has thy daughter? She has two roon 
What see'st thou? Kx. I and 8] 1 sec (Ex. 8) this white pink. 
I see two horses and two dogs. 



49- 



1. How are. you? ( note the 

plur 
'2. AVell thanks (how are) 

you? ' Lit. Xo evil with 

you?) 

.">. Very well; praise to God. 
1. AVhat hast thou seen in 

the market? 

;">. I have seen two monkeys. 
r>. \Vhat hast thy brother 

brought? 

7. He lias brought two birds. 
S. Have the hunters come? 
!i. The hunters have come. 

10. Have the labourers (farm) 

come? 

11. The labourers came from 

the, k. -lid's garden. 

12. Where did the travellers. 

pass the night? 
ll>. The travellers passed the 

night at Alk-azar. 
11. How many donkeys (f.) 

hast thou? 
4 






\J 



a, 11. 



I 13, 



II. 






- : 

I."-. 1 have two donk< 

^ 

Id. How many \\eapons hast O r ..v~ _ : J'or-^J It'.. 

thou? 

17. 1 have many weapons. C-^luJb v 1: ; 17. 

IS. Thou hast not soon the ^-Li.^-J' ^... .j^.; 

little streets of Toman. 
1 0. Hast thou not brought 'my 

sister's little box 
JO. 1 have brought thy 

-tor's letter- 
21. Tho sultan's - the 



1 It - 
^v^->. ^__ 



Basha's d.iujrht;' 
I do not soo tho hearts of 
mon. 






-Jl. 



11 J' iYJ 2 


















Thov saw tho -ratos of ! 

*. 

tli 

Thy unv- . _ N 

not brinir the . 



( cups. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



... hhall 10. ... fell*' 

11. ... kdid. 

1-J 

1 1. ... hhdmdro 





51 

20. ... kMtzek ... 

21. OoJad ... thafon (a 

JL*. Mil kdnshoof shi ... der- 



mftslim. 



lt;. ... si'mihhdtz ... 

17. ... btz-=f ... 

is. ... ztnikatz ... 

I'.i. ... ssenidktz de-khttst. 

Vocabulary. 

Flights. Flocks O/"!^ frrag *P\. of O/^a /"e/'flf. gr hard. 
Forts ~'^'! be. r raj 

^Moslems fj>?.j r-^**^ muselmeen 
Weddings 
Houses 
Moslems (/.) 
Spanish, or Spaniard 
Pretty (PI.) ^ 

Bought (or has bought) 3 rd - Pers. M. Ind. Pret. ^J.^ shera, 
Pens ._Jj kloom PI. of *ij kalam. 

Camels (m.) Jv? jimal J^dE jtm/. 

1 st - c. -'j'-J nakutz or nag At z 






,^ <fr. 

- 

muslimatz JUL-^ muslima. 
u*e sbanyol or J.^-u^o sbanyolf. 



iLi ntakorntag. . . . 



b) Plurals of wb 



Camel drivers l sf - 



jUa^ jimmala.) 

VPlurs. 
2 nd - .r-U^ jhnmaUn) 



jimmal. 



They brought or have brought L>'.^ jaboo. 

Married fatTy. /</. w.J ^ j p mezooj Plural, 

^.j^ mezoojeen. 

Thou received'st or, hast received Os~~J kabudtstst. 

I received or have received O~^2 kabudtsfs. 



Sec mite a 






(b) Pronunciation of the x N'o. 71. 
O 



Thou lost'st, or, hast lost j^.fl:- ^7? ///>/. 

I lost, or, have lost ^ il.- tsUffts. 

Knife i,' on the coast) _rj-^ jt-nn-i PI. "j^a. j<~.iian-a. 

. t -.-Cv .- . v^'v.. xcl.Tikin. 

s^ " \- 

Knife Tangier or Tctuan ..--:.^ khuflmi PI. 71 

~ 



Hast limn found, or did'st thou find ^l> ? 

Thou hast found, or thou didst iind C^--^ 

I found or have found or ^-'^ jabarts. 



COM POSITION 10. 

They saw hvo flights of birds. Didst thou see the forts of 
tin 1 Moors? (Comp. 8). We saw three (Com p. s_; forts i't',;. The 
servant of Ali Ex. 7 has not seen 'Comp. 7< the nuptials of the 
Moors.- Thou hast seen the houses of the Moors, but thou hast 
not seen the rooms of the Moor esses. The daughters of the S[>a- 
-nish Consul are pretty. The servant of Mohammed bought 
two pens. The servant of Ali has bought three camels. 
AYhcre have the camel drivers come from? They come from 
Alkasar. What have they brought'? They have brought two 
male camels and three female camels. 1 have not seen the 
hunt !-. The sons of the kaid are married. What hast thou 
ivrd? 1 have received a handkerchief. I have received 
a present. What hast thou lost? I have lust a knife.- I have 
lost ;> letter. -Where didst thou lind this letter'.-' 1 found this 
letter in the garden. I have found two knives on th 
Wliat hast thou lost?- I have lost three knives.- \Vhat hast 
thou found in the road? -1 have found thr 



KXKUUSK XI. 

1. Tlum art \\-clcoinc. 

_'. ( lod bless thee. 

.'!. I low ;irt thou? 

I. Well, ;iud tliOU? 

5. ^Miitr \\-ell (lit. no evil) 

thanks to (iod. 
<;. 1 am a little sick. 

7. God give thee health. 

8. Where have the sailors 

come from? 
'.'. They come from the sea. 

10. What have they seen. 

11. They saw three ships. 

12. \Yli.-.t hast ihou lost? 

13. I have lost the book of my 

father. 
II. Hast thou found the 

papers? 
15. I have found the papers in 

the street. 
It'.. Have you seen any sea- 

-port? 
17. We have seen many sea- 

-ports? 




rtl 



i. 



. 
L^ 






LT 

!. 

LT 1 ll) - 
,3'.:. 11. 

M 12. 



14. 



a, 15, 



-A;.; L6. 



c . ir 



18. 

lit. 
20. 

21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 

25. 
26. 

27. 



*. 









1. 

3. 
6. 
7. 
9. 

ir,. 
17. 



-54 
Have the hunters any 

kuive? 
The hunters have many 

knives. 
How many stools did you 

see in the garden? 
We saw three stools. 
Dost thou see many flags? 
I see two flags. 
How many barges dost 

thou see? 
I see four barges. 
Have you seen the can- 

-nons of the Moors? 
We have seen the Moors 

cannons. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

Marhhaba bik. 
h'kuntzi ... 
... shooirni. 
...ittfik cs-ssahhha. 



18. 



1!). 



~! 20. 

j] 

Lai, 21. 
jU-' -- 

ftX***-,^ L . > , 



(a) 



(b) 



j , 

J 



*3 



26. 

27. 



is. 
20. 

22. ... sanajek .. 

24. ... 

25. ... 
2t>. ... 



goowareb (or koowareb) 
drMd ... 
meddfd ... 



... bez-zaf del-mdrdsl, 

( n) Plural <>f^ M 'j 
(b) Plural of oj kJ 



Vocabulary. 

Have you (or you have) brought jeebtsoo 
We brought or have brought jeebna 



Iloe Sing. ) 


PIS 


\s 


( plural ) 


fisan 


jW 


Drain (Sing. ) 


kdd&s 


^j 

' fct) ~* -J? 


( plural ) 


Ic/'iades 


(J*'*j 


Some 


shi 


^ 


Banisters v : '',-> darabez 


PI. of j_.J , 


3 darbuz 


Of my house 


de-dari 


S&'^ 


Of thy house 


de-darik 


e{jb3 


Bendeki (a native gold coin) (S.) 


bendeki 


_J;U ? 


( plural ) 


benddek 


J>- M . 


Bottle 


rduma 


Ityej 


( plural ) 


rda'nn 


fa 


Handkerchief 


sebanini 


tlju:* 


( plural ) 


sebani 


^iii 


Street 


zanka 


" iijj 


( plural ) 


zenaki 


s/^J 


We bought, or have bought 


sherina 


Uoy. 


You 


sheritoo 


^ ;: -^ 


They 


sMrail 


> ft k-U 


Fish-hook 


sennara 


W 1 
C \ -^.-v* 


( plural ) 


senaner 


ylk- 


Cock 1 st - 


farfij 


t^ ? 


s ( plural ) 

2nd. 


feraraj 
dtk 


C-' "*' 

o-C^ 





didk 


^V v< 


i 


diook 


^r.^ 



56 

COMPOSITION 11. 

Have you brought the hoes? We have brought the hoes. 
Have the soldiers seen any bridge? The soldiers saw two 
bridges. Have you brought the drains? We have brought 
the drains. Have the Moors any schools 7J .The Moors 
have many schools. How many spoons have you brought? 
"We have brought four spoons. Have yon seen the banisters 
of my house. I have seen the banisters of thy house. How 
many gold picees hast thou? I have four gold pieces. "We 
have brought the keys of thy house. Have you brought the 
bottles. We have brought the anchors. Thy brother bought 
two handkerchiefs. We have seen the streets of Tangier. 
How many shops have you bought? We have bought four 
shops. JIo\v many pistols have you bought? AY e have bought 
four pistols. AYhat did the sailors buy? The sailors bought 
four fish-hooks. How many cannons did the artillerymen buy? 
They bought four cannons. How many cocks hast thou 
bought? I have bought four cocks. 1 have four coek<. 

.">. Tin: CASES or N 



75. Xouns in Arabic Vulgar do not vary in their termina- 
-tions and the cases are distinguished by means of the article 
as in English, or by certain prepositions. 

7t'>. An Arable noun, with or without the artie ex- 

-pre minative, genitive or accusative. It will be nomi- 

-native if the subject of a verb, thus: 

'- / Tip 1 man came. 

It will dtive if governed by another indeterminate 



-57- 

noun eg: J-^' ( j-.r < 2i ei--rajcl. The eye of the man (see 
No. l> . 

It will be accusative it'll be directly governed by a verb. 
tints; - 

J-^J! ^i .-.- *> : it'i/'fx er-rdjel I saw the man. 

The genitive is also expressed by tin.: words - ';:-, xitxaa or 
- it of eg; .ilkLJIi X*j' ,j/ H/'/il <!<-* Si'n'fttH. the horse of tin; 



Sultan or j...^ ^.:.~- ^.^ al-a&d >uixn<t. es- Sultan 
No. in . 

77. The Propositions J It or le, and ., e?i or ne signify 

o 

the dative eg: to ( or for mo) J //' me ( or more regularly 
lili). Is whom, or for whom ^<s5 I'tmen, or ,. r ^.' ncmen he said 
to my father '-..'.-' J'-> Av(? cn-lxllxi 'for V-J). 

Take, note that after the preposition J the 1 of the article 
is suppressed, e'. For the man (a) J-^A- ( Ivr-raji'l. 

7S. The vocative takes no article and is indicated by the 
preposition b ?/ oh eg: Oh man J.-x, 'j ya r<ij<-l. 

The i a is also used instead of 'o ya ( see interjection o 

7'.'. The ablative is expressed by the prepositions I ft or 
[n, \:\ a..- man with: ^U a/rt by or upon -w ^c/a without: ^ 
men from; and ^ _ , It with in or by. 

Proper names take the same prepositions but, the article as 
in K 



[a common conversation In Morocco the 



\ \\hirh is tlic ,^''nuiuc Ar;tbio preposition. ( n otluT ui'L'asions also th<- 

' is soniftiuirs cli.-iimvil into . tlui.s: - 
w 

^^ lie arniod in.stcad of '... 

v_ ^^ 

iJ-i- ;-,/,( furth nuuko in.-H'iul of ^. l ^ t ; 



58 



EXERCISE XII. 



1. Good morning (Ex. .". 
'2. Good morning to thee (lit. 

thy morning happy;. 
:{. How art thou? (Ex. 10). 

4. Well, and thou? 

5. Well, thanks to God. 
0. IIoAV is thy father. 
7. lie is a little sick. 

s. God prolong his life. 

0. Thanks ( Ex. 10. Xo. 2. ) 
(lit. god guard thee or 
preserve thee from evil). 

10. Who has come to day? 

11. The Sultan has come. 
1:2. The Sultana came. 

I-'!. The son of the Sultan has 

come. 
1 1. The daughter of the Vizier 

came. 
\'>. The soldiers (Sultan's 

llH'll ) rainc? 

K.. Have you seen the Sultan? 
17. We have seen the Sultan. 



C ' 



U' 



lkj 



*J>\ U ,.^-Cu,! 
iliLJ! U 

j'liJ' 4 U 

. II ! 

j i y! ^-.' ^.-^ 
^ ..> -^ . 



10. 

u. 

12. 
13. 



,'Ul )! 

. . > -Oi Vln , 



U 15. 

i.u. 1 1 i . 
^ 17. 



i 

* ^x 

-^ 



,\V 

- 



1.1 *J 

is. Have you seen the Vizier's 
garden? 

I'J. We have not seen the Vi- 

-zier's garden. 
jo. Did you buy the Ba>h;i.'s 

horse? 

21. We bought the Basha'.s 

horse. 

22. We bought the mule i from) 

of the administrator. 
2)1. For whom (is) this horse? 

24. This horse ( is ) for the _J or ) Li, LI! 

Basha's. 

25. My father has bought a AjLCl! J_=J 

watch for my brother. 
20. Oh Mohamed! come. 

V_7 

'21. Mohamed, hast tliou seen J-.r 57 ^ 1 O-^- --. 

the horses? 
2S. I have not seen the horses. Jc*"^ ^ -^ J 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

:\. Axli Itlmli't'k. I'J. M shftfna shi ... 

S. ... itaoircl aomci'i/. . 22. ... al-amtn, 

'.. ... isellemek. 21. ... Idl-liasha (or 

10. ... al-ijom. 



^ 2:5. 
L'_> 21. 



-5. 




'., 28. 



60 

en-khai. 'jr.. ... ojee. 

Vocabulary. 

Came or has come (/V. j<iat# 

My motlier 1 st - i turn a. 

ii ml - oow ' or 



e.,= 



-1 th - mil tints/ ,-v, 

This last has a diminutive, affectionate meaning. 
Thy mother 1 st - imrnnk 

L )utl - immitk or miik ^if^^ 

.'i rtL ummck O-O! 

This last form has a diminutive, affectionate meaning, 
King inalek jJ.U 

Queen rnaleka i>lU 

Shoemaker kharraz ',^i. 

Moon l.-ui/ifir ,^.3 

^I'rived or has arrived ir^.sv^ai J-j 

Master craftsman mall em !*.- 

I 

Books 



For me J. 

For thee vj^O 

Women 

Oh >ir -lit my lord) 



kitxahats 
Ua or lilt 
Irk or Z7eA- 

//c /vrM; 



Help me ' impcritivci 



Towd l>t- 

and 
Towel -I.''"'- 



^ 



a Plural c.- 1 
r/ 
:.;/ Plural .:;///' 



. t',! 1 . 



COMPOSITION- 1-. 

Hast thy mother come? My mother has come. Has thy 
sister conic? My sister lias come. Has thy aunt come? (Comp. 
'.i . -My aunt has come. Have you seen the kin"-? We, i 
seen or sa\v; the king. Have you seen the Queen. Wo have 
not seen the Queen. Hast thou found (Comp. 10) the shoema- 
-ker? I liavc found the shoemaker. Dost thou see the moon? 
I see the moon. Has the Sultan's son arrived? Has the 
Vizier's doe tor (55) arrived? What has he brought? Pie has 
brought the medicine (57) (remedy) for my brother. The 
craftsman has come. He has brought the books for thee and 
for me. The Raid's wives have come. They have brought 
( Comp. 10) a present for thee ( Comp. 4 ). Oh Sir help me, 
Oh Abdclkader come. AH hast thou seen the books of my 
father? ! have not seen (Comp. 7) thy father's books. What 
have you bought? i Comp. 11 }. We have bought a towel. 
We bought three towels. 

EXERCISE XTII. 

1. Welcome. (a ^_ j -.>' 1. 

2. How are you? (b) ^JU. ^^ :>. 
;!. Well; and you? \.U J.< Y ,. ^ ^U ;!. 

!. Well i lit no evil.) . J.j $ -1. 

t >^- 

a x A i;Ti'i'ting signiflng literally finnili/ and - >/.<. m^aninii- your niv 1 in vour 
family and at your 68 

ii> When Moors uddresa a sniirriur tln-y frequently use the plaral insicad 
of tin' singular. 




,!. 
,'1U! jj. U 






o. 

10. 

11. 



J- c -, 

>\L= b*j U^ 13. 



,V How are the children? 
0. Ho\v is the household? 

7. My son is a little sick. 

8. There (well be) no evil 

if God will. 
l .i. (iod willing. 

Ki. With whom did the Sultan's 
son come? 

11. lie came with my uncle. 

12. They came with the army. 
i:i. They came without the 

army. 

1 !. Where have they been? 
15. They were in Fez. 
10. Whendicl they came? 
17. They came from Rabat. 
is. Where did they go to? 
l!i. They Avent to Mequinez. 

20. Where is the letter? 

21. The letter is on the table. 
'22. I have found the book on 

the. bed. 

2.'.. Didst thou find the needle 
in the street. 

ln-n ilriirini,' to enquire tor tin- wife, it 
imjM.litr to allude to lu-r </// i-iUj. 



j r 

* > 



LT 



1 ^ 16. 
v UU n. 

"^ 

.^ ,. r A 18. 

-^ W * 

j' ) w ---vCJ u.* in. 

UI ....l? 20. 

/ V " W- " 

gjuUI 1, >U! 21. 

.. - V_7 ^ 

' 



- 03 
21. The peasant bought the 

wool in the market. 
25. Hast thou bought a kola 

of Oil on the road. 
20. He bought the wheat with 

the money. 
27. The Sultan's sons have 

come from the mosque. 



.yJI r^ _ V _UJ! 21. 

-' c 

.4.JI 



-...!. 



' a^ , .) ..jz 



! ;YJ 27. 

&i 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



1. 
2. 

5 

7. 
8. 

10. 



Aldan wa-mldan. 
... hhaJcum. 
... al-ahd! 

wcadi ... 

... m s/ift allali 
Ma men ... 



M. ... kdnu 

18. ... mshaoo. 

19. ... en-Meknds. 
22. ... far ash.,' 

20. bcd-darahem (or belfloos). 



Vocabulary. 



I departed ( or went out) ^ 

or have gone ^ 

Thou departed ( or hast \ 

gone out ) \ 

He departed ( or has gone out ) 
lie remained, or has remained 
Place, square, market 

( plural ) 

this is really a Spanish expression for market 
Place, square, market ( plural ) blales 



kharjets 

kliarjeetzi 

kharj 
b'akd 

blasa 



.^ v .^ 



fd-asliur 



- G4 

Custom house 1 st i 

(lit. " house of the titlic " ) 

2ii. \cana 

I placed ( or I have placed ) amr-ltz 

Thou plaeedst (or hast placed) amclt:i 

Barque ( or ship ) r.s//'//// 

Barques sefain 



I 'pon, above (] 



fll'l. 

fcnl: 



Chair 



pi, 



or sin' i"li/atx C-y^* 

Cementeuy tombs. Graves ti-nknhar v-''i- is really 

plural of i>.i.* mkabra grave tomb ( very little us 
vulgar). 

I 

""~-? J '"~JJ 

COMPOSITION I..'!. 

Whore didst thou go out from? I departed from Morocco. 
K\. 9). Where hast th-m u'one out from?--! Ii.-i- out. 

i'rom the mosque ( or 1 left the mosque ). - From where has the 
Tradesman ^one out (Comp. li' . The tradesman has left 
the s 1'2 . -The sailor ( 74 ) has left the sea Ex. 11 . 

The moor ('.imp. ID ;-rinaii;ed in the mountain (Comp. 
The Emperoi-'s doctOF remained in the city.- The porter 
remained at the gal p. I and No. 5 )^ The town-crier 

(Comp. -1 remained in the market. The administrator (Ex. 



i;: 

I j departed IVoin the citr-tmn house. The kaid 'Ex. 10) left 
the market. -- \Vhorc hast tliou put the fish-hooks? Where 
have you put the bottles (Comp. I >. I put the fish hooks (Corap. 
11) in the ship. I have put the bottl.es on the table (Comp. 8). 
I have placed the ^ol<l pieces . Comp. 11) on the chair. The 
15ash;Vs son eanie without a horse (2G). The hunter (Ex. 7) 
camo without a musket. The hunters came (Ex. 10) without 
do^s (47). Tlie labourers (peasants) came ( Ex. 10) with 
the hoes ( Comp. 11 ). The artillerymen ( 74 ) came with the 
cannons. (Ex. 11 ). Thy friend (Ex. 9) came with the 
artillerymen. The camel drivers ( Comp. 10) came with the 
camels. My brother came with thy father. Whence hast 
thou come? ( Ex. G and 7 ). I have come from the cemetery. 
I saw (Ex. 2) thy uncle (Comp. ',)) in the Moor's cemetery. 

^ 1. FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES. 

SO. Adjectives have many different forms; the commonest 
are the following: 



Forms. Example. 


Root. 


l"t- (a) . . 1 . Writer ^'A? 


kalseb 


write 


^c< 


Written ^_^\\.- 


mkts&b 


to write 


^_^%Xi 


2" rt - (b) .j . . - ' 








' Made Jjfr*-' 


mam nl 


to make 


w'T^ 


\ Lar e jtr 


kebtr 


to enlarge 




3 rd - (c l . , 








Decrease ^.^> 


xfif/heer 


to decrease 


v i.o 



'I'.-ikcs an t :>!'tcr tin- first nnliral led. ' ,;i ; niil i;:>.) 

In Takes ^ before tin- first radical letter, and a lu-loro tlio last 
fetter. 

Takes a a ft IT (lie Second radical letter become less. 



Forms. 



06- 
Example. 



Root. 



4th. (a) , ] . . . \ 



5th- 



6th. 



* 1 '. 



Happy (j'-^r farhan 
Drunk J..v~. sukeran 
Liar ^_.!j/ kcddab 
Coward v^j-'J^ khdiraf 
Peasant ~bb felldhh 

Black 
Green 
Lame 



s^ khedar 



Fast 



^5 
rli> shemi 



to gladden ~ ,3 

to intoxicate v .Cv 

j 

to lie _--^ 

to fear ^_>'->- 
to till ^.b 

to blacken JS 
to make green ,-^^i. 

to lame r v i 

Fez / ^,'3 



Syria 



cinnamon 



A Fez man 

Syrian ... 

Cinnamon (see No. 82) \ 

' p.ii 

coloured j=y karfi \ 
Mountaineer ,\^jeblt \ mountain J..,^ 

81. The adjectives of the first six forms arc verbal ie 
adjectives derived from verbs. 

Those of No. 7 are substantive adjectives ie, derived from 
substantives. Those of the first and second forms appertain to 

(a) Takes ^ after the terniiii.-it rout letter. 

(b) Takes mi \ after the second radical letter, which must have a shiddu. 

(c) Has an J before the first letter of the root (see No. 11. 

(d) TiiUe.-s ^ after the last root letter. 



f,7 

the class of active and passive participles, but strictly spea- 
king they arc merely adjectives ;U )d some times are employed 
as nouns. Those of the third and fourth forms, are qualifying 
adjective.- those of the third indicating an habitual quality of 
the person or object described and those of the fourth a passing 
or acquired quality. 

Those of the fifth form designate an occupation or profcs- 
-sion, the nature of an action, or the intensity of a quality. 

Those of the i')" 1 - form denote colours such as white Red, and 
also bodily deformity. 

Those of the 7 t]l - form denote generally, the nation province 
or town, of which one is a native, and the different shades of 
colours. They arc equivalent to our titular, patronymic and 
possessive proper names. 

Si>. With regard to the formation of adjectives of the 7 th - 
class, it must be noted that if the root word ends in ? the 
derived word is formed by converting that letter into ^r thus 
for example from: 

ib\ ghnrnata Granada there is derived 
Jsbtfi </han>a.ft irranadian. 



Sometimes it is formed by changing the ? final into j:_J thus: 
LST A - ttfnjd Tangier, into ,^.^~ tanjmri a Tangier man 
eg. tangerine ( or a native of Tangier ). 

e ending in ! form their derivatives by adding _-. t>-! 
to th* 1 root word thus:' 

^^-^"' semawi celestial, from 
U . xenui sky. 

:> TJiose of the 3rd. ''"''"i iudimlr habitual quality of in-r^on or object, 
tli'i-c of (lie [ill. 2>,if-i;," : t nr acquired quality. 



-68- 





KXFRCISE XIV. 


1. 


Who arrived? 


W U. ^&\ i. 


2. 


A learned man has arri- 


\\ U- \ M ^l \ 9 
j>) |Jta J-V --b J-- -> 




-ved. 


(J^ 

\ " 


3. 


That Christian is learned. 


JU Jl,^aJ! ^-f te ;}. 

1 S? ' 


4. 


That shoemaker is igno- 


>U ; ^M ^Ix 4. 




rant, 




5. 


The craftsman is prisoner. 


c 1 -^ , 


G. 


The book is written. 


,_^::C ^.'x\J! G. 


7. 


The dog is tethered. 


J^jy ^.sltfl 7. 


8. 


This lad is young. 


, 1 <?*i h 1 .M 1 * 8 

k^.>w J el ^ t W All .WJw 1 1 v <JT O * 






>t ^ ( J4 J 


9, 


This market is large. 


^,r ^pi ij.> 9. 


10. 


The neighbour is prudent. 


MJ W 10 - 


11. 


Thy brother is angry. 


d Ui3 O r^i 11. 


12. 


That man is drunk. 


>!^.Cv Jt=v,M v^Tlj-* 12. 


13. 


That sailor is tired. 


C ,U j:^! J3 13. 


14. 


That artilleryman is con- 


c ,U r 3 ^=-'< ^Jl: 11. 




tent. 




15. 


Thy son ( is ) a liar. 


^'Ir ^-4 15, 


10. 


My son ( is ) a blacksmith. 


^L\^ .jrjj. 16. 


17. 


My father ( is ) a shoema- 


J!JA JT^J! 17. 




-kcr. 




18. 


My uncle ( is ) a butcher. 


j!j^ ^ 18 - 




Ex, 7. ) 





-69- 

19. Tliis paper is black. 

20. This cat (m.) is white. 

21. That paper is red. 

22. That cat is black, (mac.) 

23. That Christian ( m. ) (is) a 

Syrian. 

24. This moor (is) a mountai- 

-neer. 

25. That carpenter (is) a gra- 

-nadien. 

26. This mason (is) a tange- 

rine. 

27. The doorkeeper ( is ) a na- 

tive of Fez. 
2s. The flag is asli coloured. 



(Comp. 8. )L-M 
l iilCJ! 



19. 

20. 

i 22. 
3 23. 

A 24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



2. ... aalem (or hhakim). 

3. ... enesrani ... 

4. ...jaheel. 

5. ... mesjun. 
1. ... merbiit. 

8. ... Z (or derrc or 

or fefeZ ;... 

10. Aljar erzln. 



11. ... faksan. 

13. ... aiyan. 

15. THrfeA-... 

21. ... hhemar. 

25. Z)afc en-nejjar 

26. ... bennai ... 
28. Es-senjak ... 



70 

Vocabulary. 

Has been or was /can (masc. verb.) 

kanetz (fern, verb.) 

Perfumer attar 

Short (low oflStature ) kaseer 

Stout ( fat ) serm<-f,i >:^-^ 



"\Vicle n-asaa ?- 

L 

High aall ^ 

(fern.) aaila 

Tower soomda 

Muleteer lihdmmdr , -., 

Muleteers (plural) lihammara 5jU 

Barber (leech.) hhajjam * -s^ 

Barbers (plural) hhujjarneen t^^? 
My cousin ( paternal ) 
Baker 

Patient sdbdr 

xdhri- 

Tunis txi''ni* 

Tunisian t*i*t>i$; 

Blue :.<tralc 

Dear (jhali 

Yellow (m.) xafar 

xal'ai-a LI 

Cheap (m.) rdlcli >'> N 

Cheap ( /'. j r/cheesa 

Alexandria axlcaiidriia 

Alexandrian axlcamlraiit (a) 
(a) Borne nous of this clua end in _ : \ mi/. 



71 - 

Mogador es-stieera 

Mogador (adj.) (or per-] 



st'tiri ~> +~o 

-taining to Mogador)* ~ J "' 



COMPOSITION 14. 

Abdelkader was the Basha's; scribe ( Ex. 7 ). My father 
(Comp. G) was a perfumer (the same word is used for grocer, 
ie, a dealer in spices ). The cat was tethered ( Ex. 14 ). The 
book ( Ex. 5) was written. Hamcd (Comp. 5) was short 
( of stature ). My son is stout. The Tetuan ( Ex. 7 ) market 
(Comp. 4) is wide. The mosque tower is high (70). My 
uncle (Comp. 9) was a muleteer. Thy uncle was happy. 
llamcd's servant (Ex. 7) was drunk. My brother's (Comp. 5) 
master ( Comp. 12 ) (instructor) was an embroiderer. My 
son's master is a barber. (Surgeon. Leech). My cousin was a 
baker. My cousin is patient. This soldier is a Tunisian. 
My father i Ex. 6 ) was a native of Fez. They brought a 
green cloth (Ex. 9). This cloth (Comp. 9) is green. This 
cloth is blue. The blue cloth is dear. This handkerchief is 
yellow. This wool ( Comp. 3 ) is cheap. The charcoal (Comp. 
9 ) was dear. The bread ( Ex. 5 ) was cheap. The Emperor's 
doctor (55) was an Alexandrian. This merchant ( Ex. 8 ) is 
a native of Mogador. This lad ( Ex. 14) is a Syrian. 

5. THE GENDER AND NUMBER OF ADJECTIVES. 

83. All the adjectives given in the preceding paragraph 
are of the masculine gender, and form their feminine by 
adding ? n to the masculine, and suppressing the initial \ of 
the masculine. 



EXAMPLE*. 



Forms. 


Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Pronunciatio 


ls t. 


AVritcr , iW 


' LM 


katseba. 


2nd. 


Written , y& 


j& 


mktsilba. 


3*d. 


Large ,~$" 


^ 


kbira, 


4L 


Happy J'^VT 


CU^ 


, farhhana 


5th. 


Liar v ^J.i' 


fjiir 


kiddaba. 


7 th. 


Syrian ,A;, 


j .-. 
'.^ "* i 


shemta. 



pcion. 



6'- | Black 



khhla. 



si. The plural ^ of adjectives is generally regular, that is 
to say, it is formed by adding the termination .,.- t 1 - /^ to the 

Vw ' ' 

masculine singular. The exceptions are those of the r> nl - and 
t' th forms, whose plurals are in'vgulur, the 6 th - class forming 
their plurals by changing the ^ into ' and the o ri1 - forming 
it by suppressing the initial !. 



Forms. 


Singular. 


Plurals. 


Pronunciation. 


18 , 


>&. 


cr; l:< 


A- n(s a 6ce . 


2nd. 


^.^.C 


yX. 


mfctefli^ 


[Mi. 


c) U .' 3 


-V 3 


farhhan 




^;== 




'' i "' MM> - 



73 



Forms. Singular. 



KXAML'LES. 

Plural. 



Pronunciation. 



(b) 



"tii- (a) ,-L^ rnrW jebleen, 

Exceptions. 

^..i .u3 kbar. 

_ -s- o J^" 1 - kuhhal. 

s,". The plurals of the adjectives are generally the same 
for both genders. Still there arc some feminine plurals formed 
by ol like nouns ( sec X T o. (V2 ). 

Sil. Finally it should be rotcd that when certain adjectives 
arc of a substantive character, they have irregular plurals. 
Here are some examples. 

Adjectives sustantivates. 



Forms. 



Singular. 



^ovi katseb, ascribe. 
Jls aalim, a learned man. 



1st. 



""' 



written. 
^^ meets, dead. 
rib, doctor. 
kh-, poor. 

drunk, 
mountaineer. 



irregular Plural. 



u^ kutstsab. 

z \z a file ma. 

)LO mekdtseeb. 

'>** maictsa. 

Ja! attdba. 

>i.} fookartt. 

\^> svkdra. 

7 =s. jSbdla. 



(a) Several of this class form the plural by j sooXo. 71. 
('') J.J.VA J''(''-'? now of the third form is, in the plural, XV- 



- 71 - 



KXKIM'ISK \\. 

1. The letter was written. 
2. The handkerchief is dried. 
;5. The she-ass was tethered. 
1. The lesson (or reading) 

is easy. 

.". \Vc have seen a large tree'. 
('). My sister was short. 

7. The mistress was happy. 

8. The seamstress was a liar. 
1). My mother was a baker. 

10. Thy mother was patient. 

11. My aunt was a tunisian. 
!:>. This muslemanisegyptian. 
1.'!. The books were written. 

l l. This handkerchief is white. 
15. That mare is black. 

The handkerchiefs was 
dry. 

17. We have seen some larire 

bird-. 

18. The hunters are liars. 

I'.i. The beggars \vi-re happy. 
'Jo. These travellers | in. ) are 

mountainei 



J! L>. 



15 5 



(84) SjUM 4. 



^ 



o.i 



o 

;Xr 



J,... 



,.xx, u 



10. 
u. 

13. 

15. 
16. 

17. 

18. 
19, 
20. 



or 



-75- 



21. 



L>:;. 



Jl. 



Wo have scon the scribes 

of the Vizir. 
The learned men of I'Y/ 

have come to day. 
The Sultan's doctor's arc 

alexandrians. 
The mountaineers (m.) 

are strong. 
\\c have seen the drun- 

-kards in the market 

Place. 
These men are lame. 



IK I .7 fMt ! 

\ a. - . j \_ I 



^ 'c. , '.U'l 
J . 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



2. 


... nash fa. 


.'! . 


... merbnta. 


4. 


... salicld ... 


G. 


... kasslra. 


9. 


... Uti'ibbdzd. 


10. 


... sbbara. 


11. 


... tstinsila. 


12. 


llnd el-mcaclmd masrld 



13. ... 

15. Difc ... 

1G. ... natihfin. 

17. ... s/u ... 

20. Had dm ... 

'2',}. ... ascandranuii. 

21. ... 

Ji'i. ... 



Vocabulary. 



'Wounded (r/r//. xiihxfantiri' ) ( sing, i ntjrohh 
( plural ) mjnrahh 



99 

-- 



^U-^ fa) iJ 
C 



24. 



26. 



i fenera li\ ased \vit liout the artirli'. 



70 

Prisoners imprisoned ( sing. ) 
( plural ) 

Tliey went out, or have gone out ) 

/ 

( plural ) ) 

From is generally used without the ) 

/ 
article ) 

Inhabitant ( sing. ) 
Inhabitants ( plural ) 
Workman ( sing. ) 
Workmen ( plural ) 
Student or scholar 

( plural ) 
Thief 

( plural ) 
Governor 

Governors ( plural ) 
They arrived, or have arrived 
Learned man ( savant ) 

men (plural ) 

Mequinez (adj. > [icrson or thing \m.) 
Tetuan ( adj. ) (m.) 

Lieutenant 

(plural) 



Servants Kx. 7 sing.) (plural) 
Masons sing. Kx. 1 I < ( plural ) 
eyed 



msjiin 
nisajin 

khariu 

min 

sdken 
sitkkdn 
khaddarn 
khaddameen 

taleb 



surrdk 
hhakim 
hlwkkdm 



lihakeem 

Jthokama 
mek)i<t*i 

turtnirni 



plural ) 
Christians >ing. see Kx 1 1 



khalaif 

kit i)I d fa 

in<-f~nllmccn 

bixihja 

air 

nt'n r 

nasara 



,.\ 
*\ 



" 



- 



-''--' 



. 



\ ^ 



77 

Lame (m. ) aarj r ^! 

(f> ) ( P'iral sec Ex. 15) <n-j Uv^ 

Raids ( pi. see Ex. 10) knj<i zLi 

Fez-Cap. ( worn by government ) 



soldiers ) ) 

( plural ) sliooashl 

Mad silly hhamak 

(f.) ~hhamli 

( plural ) hhomak 

COMPOSITION 15. 



Hast thou found the wounded ( men )? (Comp. 10). I found 
( Comp. 10) the wounded men in the road (Comp. 2). Where 
did the prisoners go out from? ( Ex. G ). The prisoners went 
out from the prison. The inhabitants of Tetuan are workpe- 
ople. Where did the scholars go out from? The students 
went out from the school (72). Where have they gone to? 
(Ex. 3). They went to the mosque (70). Hast thou found the 
thieves? The thieves went out from the prison. Have the 
governors arrived? The governors have arrived to day ( Ex. 
12 ). The learned men have arrived (Ex. 10) to day. These 
Moors (Comp. 10) are natives of Mequincz (a belong to Me- 
quinez). These sailors ( 7-1 ) are alexandrians. These sol- 
diers (74) arc natives of ( or belong to ) Fez. The Vizir's 
scribes are tunisians. The servants of the khalifa belong to 
( or are natives of ) Tetuan. The masons are Fezzis. Those 
Moors are squint eyed. These Christians arc lame. These 
kaids are balds. These men (Ex. 15) are mad. This hand- 
-kerchief is green ( Comp. 9. ) This cap is red ^ Ex. 14 . 



78 



;< I',. niMixrrivKs or xrxs. 

87. As a general rule the diminnt/rc is formed by adding 
a ^ after the second letter: For example: 

io^ dinlit worm 2>'jjj2 dueeda little worm. 

bitch i-Jbf ki-Hhtt little bitch. 



i 
88. Nouns composed of three sound letters form their dimi- 

-nutives by adding a ^ with a shtdd-i. after the second 
letters: thus: 

, _ J.2 kalb heart <^J..U IcaVccb little heart. 

i^J^ 7>-eM dog > __ sllf Icclteeb little dop. 1 . 

If the second letter of the three is in-ak, it is changed into 
j, and the ^J of the diminutive is doubled by means of the 
xliiddn; thus: 

v _ .'-j bab door , _ .o *. bueeb doors. 

,'-3 /"rtr mouse Jj.3 fooeer little mouse. 

, :: L fa<V bird ,j _J= ^)(3rr little bird. 

^L-.o 6<^s room i -^ j-:' bueets little room. 

>'.'. 'When the third letter is a \ or a . it is changed into _J 
above wliich is placed a shidda thus: 

v^.'-Xf ki-rtth book ^_,^?' L-t .<<!) booklet. 
LCb f,-li'ic(( bar^-e 1LCJ..3 feleeca small boat. 
'."''. If the third letter be a j; it becomes doubled by adding 
a shidda., thus: 

MIC foi-nui ^_, _. used, Tin- vulgar diminutive oiiirlit to 

BtterB: l'"r this r.-ason if the sliidda he dinittrd. ;is in this in.--t.Hi- 
-<'-, it i ,' i\ ,, v at t In- cud vi,. 



7' 

bchima animal l^i buluima little animal. 
r ^j kinniiii f'a) rabbit. r -.:J Icaii'iin. little rabbit. 
111. If the \vord is of more than four, letters and the pc- 
-nultimate letter be a ' ft j or a ^ these letters are supp 
sed thus: 

~,VA* mcftsalih key ^-"^ rncfifxlili little key. 
^_J.j^~o snndok box AA~-^ .svn> />//, little box. 

',12. 1 st - When the nouns arc composed of sound letters 

and have a shidda over the second one, the shidda is supprcs 
-sed, and the _c of the diminutive is placed between the letters 
which are repeated, thus: 

iJaJ kdtta cat &kJ=5 katita kitten. 

L*=v hhabba a grain ^- :r: ^ hhbeeba 

2nd. jf t] lc nouns are composed of weak letters these are 
suppressed, following the same rule thus: 

~ ] :,~ senna j fruit basket ^-^..^ senlnaj little fruit basket. 
C - C, ' 

tpy* fellas cock L.^^ fellies little cock. 

iss-^ 2 ; battkha water melon is-Kr^; batetlkliu. 
( y.\. Diminutives derived form adjectives are,, generally, 
formed according to the above rules for nouns; thus: 

> \& dertf pretty ^_^j v 'i devil f pretty ish. 

mskeen poor honest . r C^.^ 



X<>TK. Exact traSlatlODS Of the 'above two duninutivcs arc hard to rind in 
English. Tlicsc- words, coined fort lie occasion, appear to irive tho nearest idea 
of tho Arabic mcamiiif,'. 

01. Adjectives of the 0*^- form, i SO j, which indicate the 
principal colours drop the initial i, and repeat the second ra- 
dical letter, at the same dime inserting a ^ thus; 

(a) The form \j kalaui is also used. 

" 



hhemeemar rcddisli. 






80 

j<scJ hhemar red h^ 

J.S--1 kuhliftl black J-ac^vaP kahihal blackish. 

.^J khadar green ^-si. khdeedar 

-> J 

!if). Finally, some diminutives arc formed irregularly. The 
following are those most often met wich in conversation. 



Primitive. 

raj id 1"),")) man. 
inn (C. 12) mother, 
ma water. 
s/i? some. 
sun. 



house. 
s daughter. 



^ aln eye. 
jj^l udn ear. 
Sly 6m letter, 
^i kabeer large. 

small, 
tall long. 

white. 
kaseer short. 



Diminutive. 

J.sr^j. raweejl manikin, 
i^ j . j 7i7 ? ?n a little mother. 
A i if mfi t la w a t e r y . 
ijj-l. slwohja. 
'^w,*^, shmeesa little sun 

sunny. 

5 r jj^ t??rrt little house. 
iX.;.? brnitsa little daugh- 

-ter. 

Axjjs ahrnnia little eye. 
.^..v.ol ltd in a. 

ii a j r : bcrnra little letter (a) 

x . 

^ ..> Kaoeeber largish. 

,..,i,o sayhiiror smallish. 
J, .>,.!= tt'iitrel tallish lon- 
gish. 

bt'tiirid whitish, 
shortish. 






|;I 



rulo \ 



81 



Primitive. 
J....U Kaleti Few ( little). 

jsr-^ sl;h<'x'ni hot, warm. 



Diminutive. 
J_JU kallwel very few 

very little. 
r =sr-usr-' skhikhen warmish. 

IK;. The f't-minine of diminutive adjectives terminates in i 
( sec 83 ) and their plural v thus: 

s^==> kabtbira largish (f). 
r j v~==> kablbireen largish ( plural m. f. ) 
The plural of diminutive nouns ends in ate ( 63 ). 

EXERCISE XVI. 

1. Have you seen this little 

worm? 

2. We have not seen that 

little worm ( Comp. 8 ). 
;>. For whom is this little dog 

(pup) (77 . 

!. This pup (is) for my uncle. 
5. That little female dog is 

for my aunt. 
G. The soldiers went out by 

the little gate. 
7. Who ate ( 41 ) the bread? 
s. A mouse ate the bread. 



*. U 2. 



for) 



f* 



or 



82- 
'.'. Who ate the wheat? 

10. A little bird ate the wheat. 

11. Whence went out the ad- 

-ministrators? 

12. The administrators went 

out from the custom 
house. 

13. That little room has two 

windows. 

14. Thy Uncle passed the J,_:sJ 

night in a little room. 

15. This booklet (is) for my 

aunt. 

16. We have bought (Comp. 

11 ) five booklets. 

17. We have bought a little 

boat. 



18. The scholar hunted a little 

rabbit. 

19. My brother hunted five 

little birds. 

20. My little (or dear) boy (is) 

somewhat poor. 

21. My little son is prettyish. 

22. With whom earnest thou? 



9. 



jtT' ^ U 

jri ^ Jji J^L 10. 



s 



V 12. 



13. 



-- 1 I . 



.J ,i 



1C.. 



^ ^ t ' ; \ IT 

- --X A LXJ fc.v*. J_ I , 



iU (Comp. 15) ^J'JJ! 18. 



10. 



21. 



83 

23. I came with that little 

man. 

24. How many sons ( or chil- 

dren ) has thy cousin? 

25. My cousin ( ie son of thy 

paternal uncle) has one 
little son and three little 
daughters. 

26. This orange is greenish. 



27. These lemons are greenish. 

28. That lemon is largish. 

29. That stick is longish. 



* 



fj j^ 



23. 



24. 



25. 



26. 
27. 

28. 
29. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



had (a) ed-d&ida. 
had (a) el-keliib. 
endmmlt'or U-dmmi. (b) 
fceid (see No. 165) ... 
Z oomdna. 
andu ... tikdn. 
khamsa .. 



( or kalhcen). 



uld dmmek. 
latmftn ... 
laimilna ... 
aoA:dz ( or Asa) 



(a) The final a and i are not pronounced: see No. I3ti. 

(b) The \ spooned be placed at the beginning of the word instead of 

^ C 

although the pronoun en or ne is more commonly used especially in Northen 

Morocco. 



84 



il~. sulla basket ( round 

cone basket. ) 
bj fendr lantern. 
\ kds cup, glass, 

tumbler. 

^ kitrah ball globe. 
'r** mazd goat. 
i>; zanka street. 
-i. khubzd loaf (of bread. 



kdJiaa coffee. 
malda table. 
tin id tray. 
i- ljti, I.-- 771 



^.J kabdd 






Vocabulary. 
Primitives. 
koffa basket (hand 
basket. ) 
bftsa kiss. 
btrmil barrel. 



Diminutives. 
kafifa little basket. 



.J btitsa little kiss. 

v j bertmel little barrel. 

. 

iLL, sfdlla little basket, 



^ 



feniier little lantern. 
fc^its little cup. 



little ball. 

mated little goat kid. 

zanlka little street. 

khubtza little loaf of 

bread. 

kahiira a little coffee. 

mfildd little table. 

stdnid little tray. 
They did not see, (or) they 

have not seen, 
received, hast received, of 

caught hold. 
Thy boy. 
Thy little son. 
Thy son, 



-85 

aatdni gave me, (or) lias given mo. 

aati'ik gave thce, (or) has given thee. 

mahhiaa aguardiente ( aniseed brandy . 

meshmash or apricots plural col. 

meshmasha apricot singular. 

nish apricots plural col. 

nisha apricot singular. 

der-rddz of rice. 

kahAaji coffee shop keeper. ( a ) 

COMPOSITION 16. 



These Moors ( Comp. 10) have seen (Ex. 10) thy boy in the 
marketplace ( Comp. 18 ). The sailors (74) have not seen 
your little son. My boy received a little letter. The gate- 
-keeper (Comp. 4) has received five notes. We have bought 
(Comp. 11 ) a little hand basket. Thy boy has given me a 
little kiss. That mariner gave me this little barrel. -I have 
not ( Comp. 3 ) the little baskets of the butcher, ( Ex. 7 ) but 
(Comp. 4) but I have the reed baskets of the mountaineer. 
We have bought a little lantern. Thy cousin gave me a little 
glass of aniseed brandy (aguardiente). The sailor gave thee 
five little barrels of aguardiente. This mountaineer gave 
thee a little basket of apricots. My father ( Ex. 6 ) gave me 
a little ball. I have lost ( Comp. 10 ) a little key ( 91 ). This 
merchant (Ex. 8 ) gave me a little plate ( 91 ) of rice. This 
kid (m.) ( is) blackish. These kids (/".) are largish. This cat 
(Comp. 8) (m. ) is whitish (95). Thy son is shortish. The 
sons (Ex. 10) of the scholar are shortish. This little street is 

(a) The termination ^ <>' is turkish. 
J 



-86- 

longish. This little loaf is warmish (95). The coffee house 
keeper gave me a little coffe ( ie a "small coffee" ). We have 
bought five small loaves. The customs administrator (Ex. 12) 
bought ( Comp. 10 ) this little house. Thy daughter (Comp. G) 
is prettyish. Hast thou bought this little table? My father 
has bought this little table. Thy uncle ( paternal ) (Comp. 9) 
has bought this little tray. 

7. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES. 

97. Arabic comparatives are formed by prefixing an olif \ 
to the root word ( form. . . . ! or J.*?' ). This gramatical form 
is not, however, always found in common speech, and the ad- 
jectives of the third formation (80) are, in Morocco, almost 
the only kind which admit of it if it be desired to form the 
comparative from the positive, that is to say, of an adjective 
of the third formation, the ,_C is suppressed and an initial ! is 
prefixed. 

The English word than is > min ( literally from ). 



Form 
of the root. 



Form 
of the positive. 



Formation of comparative. 



large great (80) 
small (80). 



kebdr larger greater. 
seghdr smaller. 



EXAMPLES. 

1 st - Joseph is bigger than 



Kaddiir. 

2 ld - Kaddiir is smaller 
than Joseph. 



* 5 I8t 



Yusef kebdr min Kaddiir. 

vS_.J ,V *^>^ 1 ^ - 
- ^ s s -* 

Kaddiir seghar min Yusef. 



-87- 

!s. This masculine comparative in the vulgar, is invariable 
and it is used also for the feminine ( a ) and for the plural of 
both genders: eg. Futma is smaller than Ilamed ^ j*~o\ i v V.3 
J T ^i Fatima seghar min Ilamed. 

'.>'.. The remaining adjectives, which cannot take this form 
of comparative, form the comparative in two ways. l st -by 
using the words, ^ y:$1 (b) ketzar min more than, after 
the positive: 2" d - by using the preposition O U ala on after the 
posetive thus: 

Joseph (is) more learned than Kaddur ,. r .- j\ J'^ vi .j 

' B * 

ij--3 Yusef aalim ketzar mim Kaddilr (j.'.J O U Jlc ^~^j 

Yusef aalim ala Kaddilr. 
These comparatives are called compartives of superiority, 

100. The comparative of inferiority is expressed by pla- 
cing the following words after the positive: ^ Ji! (c) kail 
miu, less than. Thus Kaddur is less learned than Joseph ,jJ~J 
O^J ^ r .o Jjl J'.i Kaddur aalem kali min Yusef. (d) 

101. The comparative of equality is expressed by placing 
the Avords Jla^ bhhal, or o^ /L-</" ; both of which mean as or 
Z?7ce for example: Joseph is as learned as Kaddur or kif Kaddur 
i j--J J -2=-.' J-i O^-|-| Yusef aalem bhhal Kaddur (or kif Kaddur. 

102. The comparative form is used also for the superlative 
(see No. 97 ) but very rarely so in the vulgar tongue. Vul- 

(a) The literary form of the feminiuc arc ) xX 3 and ; 

\*^> ' ^^J 

(b) J^l is the comparative of j\ katstr much adjective. 
-L J- ' 

(c) U| /for \\3\\ is the comparative of {^ kattl few (latiu paucus.) 

(d) The seutence may be inverted in this fashion. Joseph is more learned than 

ur (see Xo. 99) or, better, in this way. Kutlilii? is not leanm! HI,' Joseph 

>aJ \5-< JU M> & L* i jU Kaddur ma hila shl aalem kif Yusef. 
^.. ... i ^5 ^ ^J 



-garly the superlative is expressed in two ways: 1 st - By pla- 
cing the word ^j$\* bez-zaf ( much ) (a) after the positive, 
when the superlative is absolute. 2 nd - By placing the article 
J! aZ- (the) before the positive, and the prepositions I ft 
after it, when the superlative is relative . r ..> b'tni ( between ) 
or de (of) 3 (see 76) for example: Joseph is very learned or 
Joseph is most learned sJj^f ~~ v -r^lr-' ^ (/se f aalem bez-~nf 



Joseph is the most learned of the men 
Yusef al-aalem fi dl-rejal. 



JUJ! 



EXERCISE XVII. 



1. The earth is bigger than 



the moon. 

2. That dog is bigger than 

thine. 

3. This chair is smaller than 

that ( one ). 

4. Fatma is better than thy 

mother. 

5. Thy son is worse than 

mine. 



cr' 

^Vi f ( c ) cr 

J?^J r-f W - 



lAJLi 

^VJ.> 



(a) In some distriets the following words are .used instead of t:in.-c .u-ivcn 
ahove ^)'._J k-''l>nl<i ^\ /,//;?/, instead of _M thUS! t ,.j^' J'..- 

v.-ry ( or most 1c,-mi'<l. 

(b) Literally tluni tit, ,/,,,, thine. In Araliie the umin is genorallj 
(C) This in the comjiarativi- oi' 



1'his in tin' I'.Miijiarat, 



' liad. 



i). The shoemakers are 
better than the blacks- 
-miths. 

7. The soldiers are worse 
than the labourers. 

s. Thou knowest more than 
my brother. 

9. I know more than thy 
brother. 

10. Thou knowest less than 

the prince. 

11. The prince knows more 

than thou. 

12. I have seen a bigger 

ladder than this. 
1.'). This haik is whiter than 
the snow. 



7. 



(Ex. 10) 




( v> _e V *J or ) 
\ It 

r- 






* 11. 



13. 



Jlsll 



1-1. The Empress is prettier '. ^ r i:'\ LiLtLs ftjUsJLwJI 14. 
than thy aunt. U 



15. The Empress is as pretty ^\.:c. JU~ oL ;l j p iJlLLJI 15. 

as thy aunt. 
ID. The Khalifa is less learned 

than the talcb. 
(a) This in the comparative Of L' tt js .I'onni. >, 



> or ) 

U ia.^1 16. 



-90- 
17. This man is very menda- ^ 

-cions (literally is a 

liar very much ). 
is. The (door keeper) porter 

is very happy. 

19. This shop is very small. 

20. Abdelbari is more learned 

than the talebs. 

21. Joseph was the most 

drunken ( man ) of the 
town. 

22. The fki is the best ( man ) 

of the town. 

23. Kaddur was the worst of 

the soldiers. 



J;. ( 'j 

! ^ 



j..> 17. 



or 



JJ! 



18. 

19. 
20. 

21. 



2-1. My father was the best 



friend. 

25. The servant is the grea- 

test enemy. 

26. This is the greatest 

coward of the soldiers. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

2. ... dinl'L-. 5. ... akbtShh ... 

4. ... tihshi ... 6. Al kharni~'ii .. 



JU! 



c 



(Ex. 7 i 



C 



(a) j* I'; 2- 
>* I 



or ) 



Literally is. 



91 



8. KatsAraf (QY tatsdraf) ... 
!>. h'anaraf (tantiraf) ... 
11. ... kd'mraf (or taiardf) 
... mennek. 

12. ... seliim atdal ... 

13. ... hhaik .. 



20. Abd-albar! ... 

21. ... sekairi fel-beldd ... 

22. Al-ffiklh ... 
21. ... ashhab. 
25. ... adian. 



Sweet 

hhlntn ( see No. 84 ). 
Melon (noun ) icv^ 

collective ~Yi dellalih. 

C 

1 st - Poor (Wj.j 



Vocabulary. 
Tt/^w (w?J 

^ delldha. pi. 



hhlua. pi. 



dellalihats 



2 lul - Poor 



meskin (m.) 

meskina (f.) ( see Xo. 83) pi. 

msaken. 

dancish (m.) 

danrisha (f.) 

darawish pi. (see No. 86 3 rd -) 

Pretty, clever (afZJ.) ^ju Js dareef (m.) pi. as in Ex. 10 
comparative ^_ vial daraf. 

Compassionate (adj.] .^^ hhnin comparative J^aJ ahhann. 
Than I after the comparative Jl minnl. 
Than thou jjLw* minnek. 

Fat (adj.) t-r^^-' smln comparative ..j^-l asman. 
Tailors ...JsUk khaiyatin (for sing, see No. 7). 
Butchers ^j-^ j^zarah, or gizzara ( sing, see Ex. 7). 
Drunkerds i^.'-V- skairiiah ( sing. Ex. 7 to 21 ). 
Crow ( noun ) ,, _ ,Lc gharab. 

Pigeon ix'^.a. hhamamah sing. pi. ^--^w^ hhamamin or 
U^ hhamaim. 



1 st - Blind (adj.} Cff -l acima (w.) 
-^ a mi a (fern.) 

jjU*o aommian pi. (literal ). 
amlin pi. ( vulgar ). 



2 nd - Blind (adj.) j^ i> basir (m.) ( meaning literally 
the well-sighted perspicacious ). 

J^.0 j basara. (a) 

Unfortunate (rf/.) ^^j zoghbt (m.) 

Prudent (adj.} (J* ] ) erz ^ n - ( m -~) 
More prudent 



COMPOSITION 17. 

This melon ( Comp. 8) (57) is sweeter than sugar ( Ex. 7 ). 
This water melon is as cold ( Comp. 8 ) as the snow ( 6 ). I 
have not ( Comp. 7 ) seen a man more untrustful than this 
shoemaker (Comp. 12). This woman ( 52 ) is poorer than 
my aunt. This ( Comp. 8) bird (88) is more beautiful than 
that. Abdelkader (55) is quieter than you. My mother 
(Comp. 12) is quieter than thy aunt. The moon (Comp. 
12 ) is smaller than the sun ( 26 ). The butcher ( Ex. 7 ) is a 
greater thief (Comp. 15) than -the tailor (7). Hamed is 
fatter than Kaddur. The sailors are worse than the scribes. 
The blacksmiths' (61). of Tetuan are hardes workers 
than the blacksmiths (b) of Tangier. The tailors are as 
drunkers as the butchers. The prince is less wise (K*. 
1! than the Fakih. The crow is very black (80). This 
.11 is very \v!iiu- ( Comp. 7 ). Joseph is the happiest (1\!x. 



i cxpivsMin] is (lie word nxi-d in tin- Xorlh commonly. 
(\i) In Arable thu noun is repeated, ( sec first note of Ex. 17 ). 



-93- 

12 ) of the men (Ex. 10). This blind man is the most unfor- 
-tunato of the beggars. What hast thou bought (Com p. 7;? 
I have bought ( Comp. 7 ) a very large basket ( Comp. 1C ). 
We have bought (Comp. 11) a very small ban-el. Ali has 
bought (Comp. 10) a very pretty lantern ( Comp. 10). My 
little boy (Ex. 10) is prettier than thine (a). Thy little boy 
is prettier than mine (b). The prince is more prudent than 
the Vizir. My brother is more hardworking than thine. The 
taleb knows more than I. 



CHAPTER HI. 

RELATIONS BETWEEN NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 

103. The adjective agrees with the noun in number and 
gender eg.: 

, >= J v^ J-a-j raj el marid sick man. 
L^j^s t\jf\ mraa maridah sick woman. 
fje^j^ JWi rejal mardd sick men. 
The adjective is placed after the noun. 

104. When the noun is definite, the adjective in connection 
with it must be preceded by the article Jl, al the (51) eg.: 

( joi <*^.J\ J-=^-M al-rajel al-martd the sick man (lit. the 
man the sick ). 

Lij^i! 5i^o al-maraa al-maridah ( lit. the Avoman the 
sick. 

j^CJl ^c^ audi al-keblr (lit. my horse the big ). 

(a) Construed in Arabic than thij little boy sec preceding ni'ti', 

(b) See two previous notes, 



94 
s^XJ! ^_C,b ^>t> bob dart al-kebirah (lit. my house door the 

> V T'> 

large ) for the large door of my house. 

105. When a noun and an adjective form a proper name 

the noun does not take the article, eg.: ,^LiJ! ^.^..abd- 

> 

el-kader (a) Abdelkader: ^l^a.J! -X-^-s abd er-rahman (b) 
abderrahman. 

106. If the adjective attributive it has no article although 
noun may have it, as in English: eg. The master craftsman is 
learned JU *.UJ! al-mallem aalem: The Sultan is sad jlLLJ! 
^jj*. al-Sdltdn hhazndn ( 190 ). 

107. If the noun indicates something general or collective 
the adjective is used in the masculine singular, or in the plural 
the latter being the form in most common use in the vulgar 
tongue: eg. The bread is very dear ( meaning bread in gene- 
ral) ^LJLj J.Ls j r '-=^ al-khubz ghdli bez-zaf; The rose is 
beautiful, (meaning roses in general, or as a species ) ->_Jl 
( \*^*y or ) ^ y al-irdrd mezidn ( or mezianeen); The egg 
is dear ( meaning eggs in general ) ( J.U or ) ,.-- <j~~J ol- 
bdid ghdliin (or ghdli) ( lit. The grape is dear ) meaning gra- 
pes (in general ) are dear J.U ^^ouJ! al-indb ghali. 

108. The adjective becomes plural when it is connected 
with a noun in the dual ( 60): eg. These two days have been 
beautiful f^y t L>1===> t.K**?\ >jjjs hadilm al-ynmaln kanfi 
meztdneen. 

109. When the sentence contains two nouns in succession 
the adjectives connected with them is placed in the plural 
eg. Joseph and Mary are good ~bl> *j ^ v^s^-' Yitsef ica 
mirlam melahh. 

(a) Lit' i-'iUij the sl<n-i' f the Powerful ( meaning God ;. 
b Lit. th> tl'ii-'- <>f (li>. mn-ciful. ( ) 



KXKunsK xvm. 



1. You (plural) are welcome 

(Ex. 11). 

'J. God bless you (Ex. 7-G ). 
-'!. IIou are you? 

4. Well, and you? (lit. What 

are your news? ) 

5. I am chilled (ie have a 

cold) (lit. I chilled). 
G. There (will be) no harm, 
if God will ( Ex. 13 ). 

7. If God will. 

8. We have bought (Comp. 

11) a beautiful horse. 

9. We have seen ( Comp. 8 ) 

the beautiful horse. 

10. We have seen a drunken- 

-man. 

11. We have seen the drunken 

man. 

12. I have a white pigeon 

(Comp. 7). 

13. Hast thou the white pi- 

geon. 



o 

3. 

^^ 4. 

-~,^ t ; t 5. 



U, ..A . 



^ 10. 
'j or 

J! U^ 11. 

TJ.vi 12. 



96 

14. I have found (Comp. 10.) 

my beautiful boy (Ex. 
16). 

15. I have lost ( Comp. 10. ) 

my big horse. 

16. Hast thou seen my pretty 

house. 

17. Abderhman was happy. 

18. Abdelatif (a) was a baker 

(Comp. 14). 

19. The Avell is large big. 

20. This street is wide.' 

21. The bread, (or bread in 

general ) is cheap. 

2 2. The grapes (107) arc 

cheap ( ie grapes in ge- 
neral ). 

23. The army came (Comp. G) 
"2 1. The people came from the 

market ( Comp. 4 ). 
25. My father has passed two 

very good nights (60 ). 
_'i;. My mother has passed two 

very bad months (60) 
(a) Lit. UK; slavr of t lie Compassionate Benevolent. 



14. 



16. 



J,c 18. 



L ibi-M 



20. 
21. 

O.) 



^~*]' (LU or i '-> 



.^L 



26. 



-97- 

27. I have bought two hun- 

dred weights of very 
dear ( expensive ) 
apricots. 

28. The oranges ( or oranges) 

are sweet. 

29. The lemons (or lemons) 

(Ex. 16 ) are sour. 

30. The carpenter and the 

blacksmith (are) happy. 

31. The Imam (person who 

conducts worship) and 
the Kadi (Comp. 15) 
Avent out of the mosque. 



28. 



or) ^ 



30. 



31. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



1. 

4. 
5. 
8. 
18. 
20. 
24, 


... fikiim. 
... khebdrkum. 
Ana merufiahh. 

Abd-el-atif. 

... udsda. 
... en-nds ... 



25. ... 5rrl2 ( or jooz ) ( at fez 
it is pronounced dooz) 
kebahh ... 

28. Al-lichin liUCnn. 

29. ... hhamdhi ( or lilidmd. 

sing. masc. ). 
31. Al-imdm .. 



Vocabulary. 

I'gly discreditable, defective (adj.)} 

Fault, defect noun ) 

7 



z at&b. 



98 

Dress s*~==> ksu-a my dress J^S kestctst, 
My book J(j kitsdBl. 

^tr*" * 

Abdelgafur \*&*1\ -- abd-el-ghafur. Proper name ( lit. the 
slave of the merciful ). 

Abdelkerim *J.yJl -V- abd-d-kerim, proper name ( lit. the 
slave of the generous). 

Surety. Guarantor .j^e ddmen plural . .,-*^ dftmman. 

Florid, choice, excellent , Ix- mennnar plural r j , J^. 

>-' W"^ * 

Good perfect, mature ready ^-. jlL <a?& j~^ talbin. 

Pomegranate JoU, rummdnah pi. (see No. G2) o'-'^ rwm- 
~mdnats collective ..jU, rumman. 

Quince i-W^ sfarjilah, collective Ja^f sfdrjel. 

Pear i^W-^ lingasa (or linjasa) plural in ^.J afs (G2) col. 
vaUr- 1 ' lingds. 

(He ) came not. 

Has not come. -~. U. U maja sin. 

Did not come. 

Carpenters ij^ najjdra (singular see Ex. 14). 

Farrier jlLo baitdr plural in j (61) and also Jj 1 -^ baitdra. 

Painter ,j\j\ zfiAak plural in ,.*> (61 ) and also iiL; ziiuaka. 

Watchmaker ^^ mndynt plural in s ah (71). 

Courier, express, letter courier jj*k. j-aArfcrfspl. in .v (61) 
and also in s ah thus L^U. rakkasa. 

COMPOSITION 18. 

This donkey (20) has a great defect. This camel (Comp. 10) 
has many defects. This is the great defect. AVe have bought 
(Comp. 11 ) a new house (Comp. 7). We have seen (Com; 
the new house. He gave me ( Comp. 16 ) a new dress (suit of 



I/ I/ 

clothes;. If'- gave HIPC . Coinp. K' tlu- new dress. He bro- 
-ught (Ex.. 5 the grey dres? of my mother. Have you lost 
(Comp. 10) my red book? ( Ex. 14). He gave thee my white 
dress (Comp. 7 ). -He gave thee my green dress (80 and 83). 
Abdelgafur was fortunate ( happy ) ( Ex. 12 ). Abde'kerim 
was (Comp. I); better (Ex. 17) than Kadur. Abderrahman <\<>~> 
was tired ( Ex 11 ). The surety of my father is prudent ( Ex. 
1 I .The trees (collective Comp. 8) are flowering. The pome- 
granates are ripe. The quinces (col.) are mature. The 
pears (col.) are good (109). The army (Comp. 6 ) of the 
Emperor has not come. The people were (pi. Ex. 15) in the 
fundak. The carpenters are in the shop ( 73 ) of the blacks- 
-mith ( Gl ). The embroiderer (Comp. 1-1) and the perfumer 
( Ex. 1-4 ) were in the shop of the coffe house keeper ( Comp. 
Id). The furrier and the blacksmith were in the shop of the 
merchant (Ex. s\ The painter and the barber (Gl) have 
gone i Ex. 13) to Sheshowan (Ex. 9). The watchmaker gave 
me a watch (Comp. 8). The courier brought many (Ex. 10) 
letters. Fatma and thy mother (Comp. 12) are strong ( Ex. 
15 ). Abulfeda and Abulkasera (No. 36 and Comp. 4) brought 
(Comp. 10) much money (Ex. 13). The mason and the kaid 
(Ex. 10 and 14) have (Ex. 11 ) much money. The governor 
(Comp. 15) and the Fakili ( Ex. 17 ) have bought ( Comp. 11) 
a beautiful ( Ex. 7 ) mule ( Ex. 7 ). 



100 



CHAPTER IV. 

TIII-: NU.MKKALS. 

110. The numerals are of three kinds, cardinal, ordinal 
and divisional, 

S 1. CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



n 

1 
o 

a 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



( article indefinite _v^L u-cthed. 
?J-.aJj irdhidah. 
t ^j! tznaln or ~jj zooj. 
ij'llj tzelatza or JcAj' tzeltza. 
ixj i! arbaa. 
kliamsa. 
sitsa. 
sebda. 

txt'mn/a or loUj' tzemania. 
t*t n't d or ^x^j tscsda. 
ashyra, 
hhedash. 
tzendsh, 
tzletzash. 
arbatsash. 
khamstsash. 
,i,lLp .<f/.-7.<a,s-//. 

Jiujtj sa(>tifi!*!i. 

inii utxaxlt or i..lXJUs fKawantaaxlt. 
tsesatsaeh. 



, - 



, 



I 1 

- > ,.J ,~ui ashr"i,i. 

W " > 

-1 ^'~V~~ _* J.rA /',//,, ,/ ( ,!.-<!< r/n o. ic and twenty. 

c'r'.j'"'" -; w 'r v f ~ (llli " "'i aahi-iii two and twenty. 

23 ,j>jt~zj lj ly f~,'l,tf::,( ,ni ashrtii three and twenty 

30 .'--' tzi-li(t~ui. etc. etc. etc. etc. 

w " 

40 (J^J ai'bain. 

50 ,-s*..^ khamsin. 

W " 

60 (.r^' setxtin. 

\~- " 

70 ('^*.-~' sebain. 

80 .Hv tseman/n. 



90 ,.,- i' tsesain. 

100 L^ m? //a plural c^' 1 --' ?n ?/ 

101 J.-vL j i^s intya <ra 

102 TJ' j ^r 3 w///rt ?'v? 

w *^ 

103 JkiUj' j L.^ miyu irn f.:rl<it~a. etc. etc. etc. 



- . j . 

1-1 ..^ J --^' i.-- /;)///',' //v( irahed ica axhrin. 



1-- e- r ">^ c -? L^* -3 ^"'" init/a ii-ti txanaiii ir<i aalinn 

130 .J~j' 1. 



140 -.)-*')' i.^' m/ya >< arbain. 

^ " ' > -^ " 

200 ^rV miyatsain. dual 

300 iL* ^..u /2c?^ miya. ( a ) 

400 !.- .,-,! arba mii/a. 

500 LJ , ^.^A khams m/y/t. 

GOO L.^> o,^, scte miya. 

700 L^ ji;.^, .s-fV^A inhju. 

803 L.* -^J' tzeman rnhu. 



(a) Miy;i is ahvnys ns.-a in the slnjfuhir. cxcojit as sln-wu in Rule Xo. Ill One 
may, however, also say .^.l^^jj' .-.l.ou ,' etc. see Rule 113. 



102 
900 L% ,*.~J tsesa mhja. 



1.000 oy' alef plural ^.V alaf. 

1.001 -^'jj ' ^ alef ira irahed. 

1.002 ~j<j \ -r' alef ica zooj etc. etc. 

2,000 ^^1 alfain. 

3,000 sj^ ' o,dj tee/fz oZ/' ( alaf is pi. see 

Rule No. 114). 

4,000 ^y j! aria aZa/. 

5,000 ^_-^ "^ kltams alaf etc. etc. etc. 

20,030 v_ >^ (J' J^ a ^ ir ' in alef, singular see 114. 

30,0)0 v^jJl c ,J''^j tzeletzhi alef. 

100,000 V^A)! --S 7)i<//fs aZe/" ( a ) 

1.000,000 r}*;^- 3 melldii plural . t .'- ( ..* nidain. 

2.000,000 ..-V..-- > c-, 000 y 

L , -X . ^ 



20.000,000 ,.)^ >- v-"- axhr'in melifm. 

w- ^ > 

100.000,000 .,^1.* .O in?^/af melhnt. 

O '' 

111. J.^x^ irahed is not changed in any way when it comes 
before the noun, but if it follows the noun it should agree wirh 
it. In the first case the noun takes the article, but in the 
second it docs not do so. eg: 

A dog ^_^sli=^i.' ' .XaJj irahed al-k('lb. 
A bitch LjUssJl .Vaw'j irahed al-kdba. 

One dog ( meaning one only ) JoJ_. , ^ kdb imltcd. 

One bitch ii,Xa.i SLJo l:dba wahcila. 

The two first examples express our indcliiiiic artit 
and the two latter the idea of a definite singular. 

112. The word two in connection with the various decades 



\ lirii .-i iiuiiii tcrminatiiif,' in j' has an complementary Word ai'U-r it. this 
letter is sometimes pronounced ts or /. SIT l!ult- N 



10.", - - 

is expressed by r ~>! tznain; in other cases it is expressed by 
r _.; 200;'. eg. JUj r y, 200; rey (or JU.Jb der-rejal. See 

^, -^ * (^ S * 

No. 60 and 114- Two men JU, v r i.i . .^\j'l tznain u-a ashrin 

J \uf " * -** ^ " 

rejal; twenty two men. 

113. When the numerals from three to nine, inclusive, are 
joined with nouns or form parts of other numerals they fre- 
-quently drop the final i eg.: 

Three days >'^ ^Jo tzeltz iyam. 

Four hundred ---^ .j .! arba mlyat. 
Five thousand ^_^ ^rr^ khams alaf. 

114. The nouns which are attached to the numerals two to 
ten inclusive, usually take no article in the plural, or if they 
do are preceded by 3 ( 48 and 76 ) eg. 

Two houses ,Lo r *\ zoojdiar, or, otherwise tjJ3 ~ _ ; 200; 
ded-diar. 

Three daughters o'^ --j-o tzelatza del-benats. 



Ten houses ,bi JLt ashrah dlar. 

j J 

The same rule is observed when these numerals are preceded 
by hundreds, and thousands and the decades are not expres- 
sed. thus: 

One hundredand three houses .to AJ^J^ O> mhja iratzeletza 
dlar. 

One thousand and four houses .lo .j ,t _. ^_JL)! a/e/' j/-a d/-fra 
dmr. 

In all other cases the noun must be used in the singular, 
although in English for instance it might be in the plural, eg. 



Eleven houses ,b yi-lj^J hhedashar dar. 
Sixteen houses^b jL^L, setstaahar dar. 
130 houses ,b ^i j -^ mlya ica tzeletzin dar, 



104 

NOTE. When the numerals from 11 to 19 inclusive are joined with nouns an 
Is very commonly suffixed to the numeral thus: - 

Eleven ducats Vjs * I J^.1 hhfdashr metzkal. 

' 2 

Sixteen ounces _Z~3 . . f-..lv... settsashr ftkita 
- -^.^ }~ 

115. The Moors have also another way of expressing the 
cardinal numbers from 1,000 upwards, eg. 

1.000 ---/> y -^ ashra miya ten hundreds. 

1.001 J^jj -^ yjt^> ashra miya ica wahed eleven hundreds 
and one. etc. etc. etc. 

1,100 A^^JjoJ hhedashar miya eleven hundreds. 
1,200 A^ jc^-'jJ' tzenashar miya twelve hundreds. 

1,300 -^ ^Lij' tzeletzashar miya thirteen hundreds. 

And so forth up to 5,000 ^~L> ..^^^^ khmsin miya fifty 
hundreds. 

EXERCISE XIX. 

1. What hast thou? 

2. I have an inkbottle and 

a pen ( Comp. 7 ). JiM 

3. What hast thou seen in the k^iftJI c^-o =L_ ^>SL, , 

room (68) of the Fakili? 
(Ex. 17). 

4. I have seen (only) one J^J- ^_}'j ^,.z^ 4. 

book ( Ex. 5 ). 

5. We have seen (Comp. 8) 

one ( only ) table. 

6. I have one (only) friend. 



105 



7. *We found (or have found) 

three scorpions in the 
stable. 

8. lie gave me (Comp. 10) 

two books. 

9. He gave thee (Comp. 1(5 ) 

twenty two books. 

10. I remained ( Ex. 9 and 4) 

three days ( 59 ) in the 
Vizir's garden (Ex. 7 ). 

11. I have bought ( Comp. 7 ) 

six needles. 

12. I stayed two days (59) 

in Mequinez (Ex. 13). 

13. We have found two hun- 

-dred ducats ( 60 j. 

14. We have bought (Comp. 

11 ) 200 oranges. 

15. Four hundred soldiers 

have come. 
1G. The merchant gave me 

5000 ducats (GO). 
17. He gave me 2000 ducats. 



_,, 



_.j 



7. 



'Jss! 8. 



i-~ >>jU) 



, 






(a) 



JUi,' 



'ji, 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



(a) Or it may be used In the collective form preceding it by 3 eg: 



JJIi 



in dial-lltchlii. 



15. 



1G. 



17. 



^Jl* 



,j , 



103 

18. He gave thec 120 ducats. ' J'.ii 

19. He gave thec 2000 oranges. ^_.\.~...uJ .,~-aJ! 

( (-^" 

! ... ' 

20. He gave me 1004 ounces. 

21 . He gave me a derham. (a) 

22. He gave thee 103 derhams. 
2.'!. Thou owest me 11 ducats 

(b). 
24. I owe thee a dollar, (c) 



25. I owe thee 16 dollars. 
Jii. Thou owest me two mi- 
-llions of reals of vellon. 

27. Who built this house? 

28. The Sultan Muley (d) 

Ismail. 
2'.. In what year did he built it'? 

30. In the year 1210. 

3.1. How many people live 
( dwell ) in this town? 



oJ'-kV 18. 
_^r'JLs! 19. 
i or ) 

1 C ; '_U! 20. 
'.L" ' *'t 

^jT'Jas! 22. 



24. 



, ^ 

J! ,U 
\ 



27. 

28. 



ii 29, 



31. 



(a) Ilrtlf l>cst'I:i ..f.-ilvr,- 1 .'UilfO if 

ih- Lit. I u-k Of tli.--. 

I. Tlniii ;i-ki-~t ol'niP. 
(d) Muloy lit. my lonl or owner. 



107 



.'Si*. There are (literally there 
dwell) in it -1000 people. 

.">.".. I have bought this cloth 
(Ex. 9) for 100 ducats. 






'.A.C..f :;2. 



!jj> ^.o ,.; 33 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



I!. ... sahheb ... 

7. Jt'bdrna (or sibna) . 

-re& ... riia. 
11. ... ilxiri. 

20. ... ftafc. 

21. ... (IrrfKun. 

22. ... derliamxts. 
2;). h'anxalek ... 

21. J\((.tnalni ... ed-dtlro (or 



er-rlal). 

2(3. ... bell tin. 

27. ... ftercd ... 

28. .... mulal Ismaail. 

29. .Fas/i wen ddm bendha. 

30. Fiddm ( or f-ddm ... 

31. ... katseknil ... 

:;:;. .. w .'. 



Vocabulary. 



Farthing, smallest copper coin 
Boy (small). lt. JJ^ 



We have 
Tables (plurals) 



> /Y7ss plural - ^jAs //V/x. 
pi. ^'Uj t afiiilats. 



is 



JJc andna. 

.;U maidats J.j'^ nitnitd and ^r-L* 
2'"'- vj^'LLL tdblats, and J_-L1 /rtdfte/., (for the 
singular. See Comp. S. 

Our neighbour 'JU jdrna. 



K'abbit 



k<il'(ii)i<iJ>, pi. 



( sometimes pronounced ganaina ). 

I'artridgf il^^ hhejalah, pi. in 

Jac* 1 hJiajel. 



.^ 



kalatin 



(i G2) collective 



log 

Months pi. ,^~ slielnir, (sing, and dual see Xo. 

60). 

The year has ^ ->'-*-'' al-aumfih, (literally the year in 
it eg. The year has twelve months ^ jlk3\ .0 *U)I al- 
ddm f'th tzenashr shehar. 

Ducats pi. JJ'^ metzdkel, sing, and dual see Xo. 

60. 

What age hast thou? > _^,O_\ l^~, ,.^ Jlasrvi-l ashal men sna 
aindek, ( literally, How many from year hast thou? ) 

Year iu senahp], ^^ senln, ( 2 nd - form see Xo. 60). 

Discovered G.J.J beddn: went out, departed. ^ khan-ej, 
( requires accusative ). 

Gunpowder -jj'j bdrtid, pi: -JjJ bfidred. 

Friar ^Jo^ feraili, (pi. in 5 ) (74): or ^LeJ! ^.^J' 
en-nasdra taleb means lit. a literate man. ^.LeJl ^ 
en-nasdra fakih means a learned man tni-niit. 

^.La;!! v .t.< ^- shereef en-nasdra shcreef means a des- 
cendant of the prophet Mahomet by his daughter Fatma, a 
noble. 

Invented ( it ) him *,'_' bedaft ^^ kharrji'i. 

COMPOSITION 19. 

I have twelve coppers. The master craftsman has (Ex. 1(>) 
three knives (67). My friend (Comp. 7) has two sons (Ex. 10) 
and.') daughters (67). This woman has (Comp. 9) f> little 
boys. We have bought six chairs ( Comp. 13. We have two 
tables and thirteen chairs ( Comp. 13). Our neighbour has 
live sons. We have bought thirty trees (Comp. * ). I have 
received ( Comp. 10) seven letters ^62) for my father.-! have 



109 

found (Comp. 10) four rabbits and nine partridgesr Tho 
butcher ( Ex. 7 ) gave me two pounds ( GO ) of beef (Ex. 5 ).' 
I stayed throe months in the mountain ( Comp. 4). The year 
lias 12 months. The week has 7 days. Thou receivedst 
( Comp. 10 ) twenty four bundkis ( in Arabic the sing, is used 
see Comp. 11 ). I have received 4 ducats. Thou owest me 
400 ducats. I owe thee 3000 ducats. Thou owest me 10G 
ducats. Thon owest me 134 dollars. I owe thee 1005 reals 
of vellon. lie bought 100 oranges. He bought 2 cwts (GO) of 
wool (58). What age hast thou? I have 17 years 9 months, 
and 7 days (59). How much ( Comp. 9 ) money (Ex. 13) hast 
thou? I have 7000 ducats, and 20.000 derhams (Ex. 19). 
Who invented gunpowder? A friar invented gunpowder. 
In what year did he invent it?. In the year 1382. 

2. ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

11G. The ordinal numerals from the second to the tenth 
may be considered adjectives of the first formation see No. 80. 

Ordinals masculines. 



First 1 st - 


JJ1 iiuel. 


(a) 


gud. 


L~J fnlell. 




\ 


~r -* 1 




3 rd. 


c ; ^j^ Cielant. 




Second 


Jlj tzani. 




Third 


o^J'J' tzaletz. 




Fourth 


*.j'. 7*d&d. 




Fifth 


. ^ldL khdmes 





is of the formation \_^_j\ Xo. :>7, 

" 



Sixth 
Seventh 
Eighth 
Ninth 
Tenth 



First 



Second 
Third 



110- 
es. (a) 



.,.-y tzamen. 
''' tsasa. 



Ordinals feminines. 



1 s *- 
2 nd - 
3 rd - 



.1 



-ft Mii ah. 



tznl<ili. 
tzaltzn. 



NUTK. The remaining ordinals to (lie tentJi inclusive are fVinnnl by adding 

jj to the wasc. all thus.- -Fourth ix^j. /ubi'nili, etc. etc. <ct- No. 83. 

> 

117. From eleventh upwards the ordinal is formed by pla- 
-cing the article J! al, before the cardinal number. Tlic or- 
-dinals, thus formed are invariable ie take the same form for 
both genders eg. 

A tenth (m.) a tenth (/'.) '.L\^\^ a1-hheda*h. 

A twelfth (m.) a twelfth (f.) ^.Lf^" al-tcndsh or ct-tr- 
nash. (1) 

5< I}. DIVISIONAL NUMERALES (PARTITIVI> . 

11H. The partitive numerals, from the third ( pnrt ) to the 

(a) Derived from r ,}.^. which fur fh<> sak>' nf cupliiiny li:i< been cha 

to Jl,^ or i:;. 

(In Thf initial \ nl'if not being iinnioiin.-. . .. I \, it is. viilirarly 



-sidered nsif written 



the same kind. 



, 



i't-t'-/txh. lirar t his in mind in ot her in-tancc of 



Ill 

tenth (part are derived from the cardinals, and arc trilite- 
-rate of the formation J.*) or J.*?. 

Half J-) ni" 

Third part ^\J tzAttz or t:;filfit:;. 

Fourth part *j, rubaa or rAbAah or arbah. 

Fifth part ^r- vA khAms or khAmus. 

Sixth part ^--- *'''^- v >' or sAdAs. 

Seventh part .^~< sitbd or sAbiix. 

c 

Eighth part , t J tzAmAn. 



Xintli part *~J' f2.s-a or tzAsAfi. 

Tenth part ^c a ft ah dr. 

From the eleventh part upwards the partitives are expres- 
sed by means of the cardinals, in this manner: 

An eleventh part 1 st - ^boJ ^ j^L icahed min hhe- 
-dash ( lit. one from eleven ). 

L"i. ^-L'-^J ^ (^^ j 1 ) v3 kesmnh 
( or jtiz ) 7Hi'n lihedash, ( lit. meaning a part of eleven ).- 

A thirteenth part 1 st - ,l.Lj;JLj ._^ J,_^L iralicd min 
tzeltzash, ( lit. one from thirteen ). 

oiui. ^^,'jjj ^ (^ ^| ) L ? _^..j kesmah 
(orjAz) min tzeltzash, ( lit. a part of thirteen ). 

A hundredth part 1 st - ilj! i_ A^l^ icahed f I al-miynh, 
one in the hundred. 

2 nd - Lx. ^ r _o (j^.^ ^! ) i^j kesmah (or jrts ) mm mhjah. 
The plural of the partitives is of the formation JL*.^, that 
is, .)..t, for example: 

Tin is a contraction of the literal word v ji^J the plural i-nl.i. 

CJ 

0UoJl lessen, for nLijI ''' 

w '* -. 



>*-.>, 



Fourth part 
fifth part 
Three fourths ( 3 | 4 ) 
Three fifths ( 3 ] 3 ) 



112 

pi. *U, 



arbdd. 

khemas, etc. etc. etc. 
tzeltz arbdd, 
khmas. 



EXERCISE XX. 



1. How is thy father? (Ex. 12). 

2. He is a little tired. 

3. How is thy brother? 

4. How is (a) thy uncle? 
'5. How are thy sons? 

0. All ( of them ) are well. 

7. What hast thou read? 

8. I have read the first hook? 
0. Hast thou read the second 

book? 

10. I have read the third book. 

11. What chapter hast thou 

read. 

12. I have read the eighth 

chapter. 

13. I have read the eleventh 

and the twelfth chapter. 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

-7..- S 5 " 

K^ {* 
(*S* O. 

I 

. i..! i. 

,0 ,3 S. 



-v.y 10 - 
^\ 11. 

t 

,o J 12. 



() ,|^" and l.j^arc ronllv. i',igt ti-n.sc form. 



113 

14. Yesterday ( Comp. 10)1 

received the second 
letter. 

15. To day (Ex. 12)1 have 

received the third letter. 

16. He was born in Mecca in 

the 8 th - year of the 
Hegira (flight ofMoha- 
-med ) 

17. What book is this? 

18. This is the tenth book. 

19. Where is the tenth chap- 

ter. 

20. The tenth chapter is on 

(in) the twentieth page. 

21. He came to Alexandria, 

(on) thursday that is to 
say the 20 th - day of 
Shaban. (a) 

22. A day is the seventh part 

of a week. 

23. A week is the fourth part 

of a month (60). 



liJ! i'LJ! 
slJ! 

r 






. 

> 



4- J) 



14. 



JI 15. 



16. 



17. 



19. 



20. 



U 21. 



^ii a^Ji ^ ) 
" /> 

aj i - iJi^Sv. 
O> T? 



22. 



23. 



(a) Eighth month of moslem year. 

(b) ^i, Ma he and hia she ie are often used to express the present tense of 

2*i 

the verb "to be." 

8 



-114- 

24. He gave me the half of 

an orange. 

25. He gave me the third part 

of the rent. 

26. When did thy father die? 



27. He died in the year 1820. 

28. What hour (o'clock) is it? 

29. Four o'clock (lit. the fourth 

hour). 

30. Half past four (lit fourth 

and a half). 

31. Five o'clock ( lit. the fifth 

hour). 

32. A quarter past 5 ( lit. the 

fifth and a quarter). 



JaJ j\ ) Xij 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



c 3 



24. 



25. 



26. 



,U 27. 

M 28. 



\V 2 9. 
VV 30. 

31. 

32. 



5. ... ulddek. 

6. K&llilm (or kulla) ... 

7. ... karitsi. 

8. Karits ... 

11. Js/i mm 6ab ( or fasl), 

() Contractions for the what time. 



14. Al-barah (or amss or 

yamss ) ... 

16. Khaldk... Mekka... lu'jrah. 
20. , ,. u-arka .. 



115 



21. . Askandria enhdr la 



khemiss lani ... shaban ... 



25. ... kerd. 

26. Flwak (or fulak, fl-icakts, 

ai wakts, em fa) mats ...? 

Vocabulary. 



Chapter of the Koran \j *\j~> r al-koran. 

Sunday JL&. a^ ,l$j nhar al-hhad. 

Monday .rr^ jU-' neJidr al-tznin. 

Tuesday UbJiJ! ,t$j nehar al-tzeltza. 

Wednesday i*j.\V .l^j nehar al-arbdd. 

Thursday ^^.^l jl^j nehar al-khemls. 

Mufti ( Doctor of Moslem Law ) f meftsi (a) plural 



That is, that is to say 

Ramadan C^^ a O ramaaan - 

NOTE. The ninth Mohamedan month ie the month in which Moslems fast 
from sunrise to sunset, and eat at night as much as they like. 

Has born ( ie has given birth to ) (/.) O^Jj wuldets. 
Each son every son ^j J^ ktill iculd. 
Inherited, or has inherited ^jj wuretz. 
Minute iiJi dekikah, pi. rJ^'j-5 dekaiak. 
Except less only ^ ghalr, ^\ ilia. 

Less a quarter ;o , ^ ghalr rtiba, ( or 6rba; *.)> ^ ilia 
rftba, which latter is vulgarly contracted into al-ldru. 

Anchor (verb) ^Uasr" mokhtaf. 

Centime (of a peseta) ^jjj* mdzdnali, pi. c^''_. ; ^ 
mi't-i'tnats, (62 ), also 2U^.j iijuh pi. for dual see No. 60. 

(a; In Morocco it i* generally pronounced meftsi but in strict literal Arabic 
it is xi* mufti ie the present partciple of the verb x?| 



116 

COMPOSITION 20. 

Who has come? The courier (postman) has come (Comp. 18) 
Yesterday the first courier came. The second courier arri- 
ved to day (Comp. 18). Yesterday I received the first letter, 
and to day I received the second. What hast thou read? I 
have read the first chapter of the koran. I have read the 1 st - 
chapter of the Koran. I have read the 5 th - chapter of the 
Koran. I have read the 9 th - chapter (Ex. 20) of this book. 
The tenth chapter is on the thirtieth page. The mufti (Comp. 
13 ) left Mequinez on Sunday. My son ( Ex. 13 ) left Mogador 
(Comp. 14) on monday. The mufti arrived at Marrakesh (Ex. 
9) on tuesday. The Sultan arrived at Fez (56) on Wednesday, 
that is on the 20 th - day of Ramadan. When did he arrive at 
Alexandria? He arrived at Alexandria in the tenth year of 
hejirah. This book is the fiftieth. That book is the eightieth. 
My mother (Comp. 12) has given birth to the sixth son (Ex. 
9). Each son inherited the twentieth part. What o'clock is 
it? (lit. what hour is it ). It is 4 minutes past 3. It is half 
past 3. It is a quarter to 5 (lit. the 5 less a quarter). It is 5 
minutes past 6. It is 10 minutes past seven. He has given 
me the half of a pomegranate ( Comp. 18 ). He gave me the 
half of a melon ( 57 ). He bought (Comp. 10) the half of a 
water melon ( Comp. 17 ). I have seen a very large anchor. 
How much ( Comp. 9 ) money hast ( Ex. 13 ) thou? I have a 
centime. I have bought (Comp. 7) eight houses (Comp. 10). 
I have seen 9 towns. 



f 



117 
i 

CHAPTER V. 

PRONOUNS. 

119. Arabic pronouns are of three kinds, viz, personal de- 
-monstrative and relative. 

1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

120. The personal pronouns are of two kinds, viz the sepa- 
-rate and the suffixed. The primer kind form a separate word 
and are the subjects of the phrase, a sentence. The latter are 
used as adjuncts, direct or indirect, of nouns verbs and arti- 
-cles, and thus, joined with them, form, a single word. The 
personal, separate pronouns are the following. 

Singular. 

I (m. and f.) l>! dnd; or l>li! dndid. 

Thou (m. and f.) C^J> antsa, or enta (a) ,.~^ entin 
,. r ^j\ entlna tl1 entaia. 

W" " 

He (m.) js> Ma. 

She (f.) ^s> hia. 

Plural. 



We, ( masc. and fern. ) = hhend; hhendia. 

You ye, (do do ) *xj] entiim; l^J! entttma. 

They (do do ) /uim; U huma. (b) 

(a) In future we will as a rule use < to represent the letters s ^ ) and ^ , 
observing however thnt their sound is smoother than that of ^ which letter is 
always pronounced with a certain amount of emphasis. 

(b) Entuma and lift ma are really dual forms, which number Is not in common 



118 

121. When there are two personal pronouns in succession in 
a sentence, the 1 st - person, is placed before the 2 nd - and the 
2 nd - before the 3 rd - thus: 

Thou and I ( lit. I and thou ) JU>!j d\ ana u'a anta or 
rather viT'Jlj l>! ana ica Uak. 

Thou and lie _> ^ j^ol anta ica hua; or *J>j ^L^\ anta ica 
Hah. (a) 

122. A third personal pronoun is sometimes used as a subs- 
titute for the present indicative of the verb to be. thus: 

This is the Sultan ^jlkLJ! ** '^-* hdda hua al-Sidtan, 
This is the Sultana Empress iolLLJ! j> ^--* hadi hi al- 
Saitanah. (190) 



NOTE. These pronouns are usually made use of to make the meaning of the 
sentence clearer. For instance in the above sentences if the pronouns were omitted 
they might signify this Sultan this Sultana. 

EXERCISE XXI. 



Jl 



2. 
3. 

I. 



1. Where hast thou been? 

2. I have been in the market. 

3. I have bought a melon 

(Comp. 17). 

4. Thou hast bought two me- 

-lons. 

5. He has bought a ladder 
( Ex. 17 ). 



(a) The partcijilo [Jf which in conjunction witli the siil'lixi-tl pronouns is 

" 

in the literal Arabic as the subject of the verbs is not commonly used exi-t-pt in 
the instances qustcd here. 






-119 

6. She has bought 3 chickens 

(col.) and 4 partridges, 
(col. Comp. 19). 

7. We (m.) have bought 

( Comp. 11 ) 5 barrels. 

8. We (f.) have bought G very 

pretty lanterns (Comp. 
10). 

9. You ( m. ) have bought 

(Comp. 11) 7 horses 
(Ex.7). 

10. You (f.) have bought a 

basket (Comp. 16) of 
grapes (107 ). 

11. They (m.) bought (Comp. 

11) 2 measures of wheat 
(Ex. 9) and a half mea- 
-sure of barley (GO). 

12. They (f.) bought 2 new 

dresses. 

13. I have seen the needles 

(Ex. 19) on the table. 

14. Thou hast brought the 

gold (8) of the merchant 
(Ex. 8). 



UJ 8. 



10. 



12. 



U.J! 13. 



,.r-J^ 14. 




120 

15. The servant (m.) (Ex. 7) [ 

has brought the cup of 
the cafe-keeper (Comp. 
16). 

16. He has brought the water 

for the craftsman. 

17. She has brought the cin- 

-namon (20) for the cook 
(m). 

18. We ( m. ) have brought 

(Comp. 11) the snow 
from the mountain. 

19. You (m.) have seen (Comp. 

8) the Rice bird ( very 
like a starling ) (9) in 
the window ( 10). 

20. You (f.) have seen the 

light (14) in the prison 
(Comp. 15). 

21. They (m.) have seen (Ex. 

10) the new bridge (72) 
(Comp. 7). 

22. They (f. ) have seen the 

Tangier road (22) Comp. 
3). 



u:i 



JLUI 15. 



U' ^J.*> j* 16. 



17. 



^i is. 




.AJi. 20 



x U- *U \ *\ - I * O1 

5 i .".-> J ! i fe? Uw W^ * A 



^ * 22. 



121 

23. Thou hast seen the grey- 

hound (21) of Ali (Ali's 
greyhound). 

24. Thou and I will goto Ceuta. 



25. Thou and I will eat this 

bread. 

26. Thou and he will come to 

my house (Ex. 3). 

27. This is the Spanish Am- 

bassador ( lit. Ambas- 
sador of Spain ). 

28. This is the French Consul 

( lit. Consul of France ) 

29. He is the Kadi of Rabat. 

30. These are the Talebs of 

Tetuan. 

31. This is the camel driver 

(Comp. 10) of Alkazar. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



o~^ -f 



23. 



M^HMv 

IJflj 



!i 

^j 

Llk'l 



* 



24. 



ui 25. 



26. 



27. 



28. 

j 29. 
,* 30. 

!Jj> 31. 



4. 


... batttkh (col.) (or batte- 


8. 


... fendrdt ... 




-khats plural ). 


11. 


... shdir. 


G. 


. . . sherat . . . jeddd ( or jaj 


12. 


... kesau-i ... 




or dejaj) ... 


17. 


...jdbtt ... tebbdkh, 


7. 


... btiramtl. 


24. 


.,, nemshoo ... stbto 



122 



25. ... ntiklu or ndkulit 

26. ... tejiit ... 



27. ... Bashador ... 

28. . Fransa. 



Vocabulary. 



or 



Broom Solki, shettaba pi. ^Llki, shetateb. 
1 st - Oil jar ?; j/ A'/tea ( not often used ). 
2 nd - iLj 6<;tta plural in ^>i, thus 

bettat. 

3 rd - liUj zllata plural in ^ and also j^l> ; zidits. 

Slave (m.) J.-s a&d pi. J-v-^s afeid sJ/^.1.^^ m6mluk. pi. 



Hedgehog ( ?n. ) Xi.x.3 kanfCld pi. Jj kandfed. 

Funeral sjL^ jendza pi. jy-^jenalz. 

Fig 'L,yjZ karmusa pi. <^J ~>^jZ karmtisats ( 62 ) or 

(Vvy> karmus. 

Pricklypear L;J.\ hindia pi. j;3J.j> hindi; sometimes called 
jCjLaJ! 'L^jj karmusa e.i-ndsard ( lit. fig. of the Christians ). 

Roads ( pi. ) j'^3 turkdn ( for. sing, see Xo. 22 ). 

You have *=>A^S aindkum. 

Sealing wax ^XJ lek. 

Brick ijj^ ajora (vulgarly pronounced often lajora] pi. 
in cJ ( 62 ) collective ,_^ a/or or /a/or. 

We will buy ^AJ nashet-ii/. 

Larache ( a town in Morocco ) 

Arzila ( do 'do ) 

Saffi ( do do ) 

Prince of Believers 



.j , 



al-araish. 
arz<iil<i. 



.&~,\ asfi. 
.--! awiir al-mfimenin. One of 



the titles of the Sultan of Morocco. 



123 

COMPOSITION 21. 

1 have bought a broom. I have bought an oil jar. Thou 
hast bought 8 brushes. Thou hast bought four oil jars. He 
has bought ( Corap. 10 ) a slave. Thou hast bought six slaves. 
She has bought a hedgehog. ~\Ve (m.) have seen a funeral. 
To day (Ex. 12 ) we have seen two funerals. We have 
bought a basket (Comp. 1G) of figs (col.). He has light fire (12). 
The man-servant has two pounds (60) of fresh butter (Comp. 
9 ). We have seen (Comp. 8) the well ( Ex. 3 ) of thy father's 
garden. You ( m. ) have seen (Comp. 8 ) the Jewish quarter 
( Ex. 3 ) of Tetuan. You (f. ) have seen the key ( Ex. 3 ) of 
my father's house. They (m.) have ( Ex. 11 ) the portrail 
( Comp. 3 ) of Mary ( 47 ). The roads are bad. We (m.) have 
(Comp. 19 ) the wool ( Comp. 3 ) of the merchant. We ( m. ) 
have a very long cannon ( Comp. 13 and 8 ). We (f. ) have 
bought (Comp. 11 ) a very pretty (Comp. 17) knife (Comp. 
10). Thou hast seen the sky and the land ( Comp. 3 ). You 
( m. ) have a very good ( Ex. 7 ) heart ( 65 ). You ( m. ) have 
twenty camels (Comp. 10). You (f. ) have some ( Corap. 11 ) 
bottles ( Coinp. 11 ). Have you (f. ) some towels? (Comp. 12). 
We (f.) have six towels. Who has sealing-wax for (77) this 
letter? (62 ). I have sealing wax for that ( Comp. 7 ) letter. 
Have you ( m. ) bricks? ( col. ). We ( m. ) have two thousand 
(60) bricks. Thou and I will buy this mill (57). Thou and I 
will go ( Ex. 21 ) to Mequinez ( Comp. 15 ). Thou and I will 
come (Ex. 21) to the garden of my uncle (Comp. 9). This 
is the blacksmith ( 61 ) of Larache. That is the kakl (Ex. 10) 
of Arzila. He is the Basha of Fez ( 56 ). He was ( Comp. 6 ) 



124 

the Prince of Believers. These ( m. ) are the tax-gatherers 
( Ex. 16 ) of Saffi. They ( m. ) are the tax-gatherers of Moga- 
-dor ( Comp. 14). 

2. SUFFIXED PRONOUNS. 

1:23. These pronouns are of two kinds, direct and indirect. 
They are direct when suffixed to verbs, and in other cases are 
indirect. When joined to verbs or articles they have the raea- 
-ning of our personal pronouns; and when joined to nouns have 
the meaning of our possessive pronouns. 

Such pronouns are always placed after the words they 
qualify, and the article is never used before the noun to 
which they are joined. 

SUFFIXED PRONOUNS. 

Singular. 

Meaning. 

Me, when it is the objective of a 
verb or a preposition my mine 
masc. fem. sing and plural, when 
used with nouns. 

Thee, when it is the objective of a 
verb or a preposition thy thine, 
inasc. fem. sing, and plural, when 
used with noun. 

Him it, when it is the objective of 
a verb a preposition. His, masc. 
sing, and plural when used with 
noun. 



Persons. 



1 st - com. - I or la. 



2 nd - com. 



ek or k. 



3 rd - masc. s h or ft. 



125- 

i / i" Her it. when it is the objective of a 

fern. U> ha or a. 

( verb or preposition. 
Plural. 

Us, with verbs and preposition, as 
1 st - co;n. U ?m, ' an objective, our, with nouns 

masc. fern. sing, and plural. 



2 nd - com, ^ kum. 



You, with verbs and prepositions as 
an, objective. Your, with nouns, 
masc. fern. sing, and plural. 



3 rd - com. * hum or urn { Them, with verbs and prepositions. 
124. The first personal suffix ^ l is changed into J ni, 
when it is joined to a verb: thus 

v _ tli- shaf he saw, 

JLjli. shaf-)ii he saw me. 
o 

!^ dar house. 

^ ib dar-? my house. 

t_~*b /caZ6 heart. 

^*\j kalb-i wit/ heart. 

i^i ulad sons. 

ulad-l my sons. 

.to dtar houses. 



. 

diar-t my houses. 

*5j kiiddam before (in front of). 
^Sj kuddam-t before me. 

125. When words end in \, *, or ^ the suffix j: is generally 
pronoancee ia: thus t,j or !,y mrtra, or lira; Behind. 
Behind me _^^j or ^jiy* murata or urata. Father^! 6ft. 3/y 



126 

father ^_^j\ buya; (a) In _ fi in me ^ fi-ia or ^9 fiya. 
12G. The suffix ^C ie the 2 nd - personal, is pronounced ek 
or ak when the word to which it is joined ends in a consonant 
but when the word ends in a prolonged letter the suffix is 
pronounced simply k thus: He saw thee **&\L shaafefc. Thy 
heart ^ ? U kalbe*. Thy house ^/jb dare/,-. Thy sons ^J^J 
uladeA-. 2Yi?/ father ^j^ bu/c, or v_t$"V^ babafr. In Mee cX? 
fiA-. On thee oX^ aliA-. ,._> bi, with >^X biA:. 

127. The suffix of the third person masc. is pronounced u 
when the word ends in a consonant; but after a final prolon- 
ging letter ( 29), or a kesra it is pronounced h thus: 

He saw him ( or it ) isli shaafrt. 

His heart ./--J13 kalb u; his house *,b dar<?. 

7//s sons 5jY.! uladw; his houses ,'o^ diarf/. 

> 

In ?i .^J fi/i; with ?7 or, with him u bi/i. 

Hast thou bought the pen? JU)I sj^j ^ sheritst al-kalam? 
/have bought it (lit. Turn ) -^-x> Y i. sherits?7, from him, ?Y 7 
i-^ menn?l. (b) 

128. The suffix of the 3 rd - person feminine is pronounced 
ha always when it is preceded by a kesra, or by a prolonging 
letter; but in other cases it is usually pronounced a. 

The plural suffixes' pronunciation is invariable, excepting 

(a) The words (j(j father and ',* o iinmn ,,n>tli> r. are vulgarly used to signify 
my father or )ny matin >: without having the - Miflixed. 

(b) AVhrii tin- i)r'iio*itioM ^., is joined to the suffix the . is. ;is a nil. 

^ w 

-peatcil tlms: Trom me "-^ inenni. From th<--' ^J,x.' ineiiix 1 /^. In some parts of 
Morocco, the third pers. t'l-m. *\\\g. and tlie tirst and second persons of the plural 

are exceptions to this rule, thus: From /n v \j,-- miiUi?i. From/;'/- I, ^ ., IUJIKI 

I 
or iiiin/ii'. 



- 127 

that of the 3 nl - person which frequently in N. Morocco and 
always in S. Morocco is pronounced urn in the cases in which 
the singular is pronounced ft. 

EXAMPLES. 
Third person feminine singular. 

He saw her l$sU. shaafa; her heart l$ r .U kalba. 

Her house U,b dar/ia or dara. 

> 

Has thou bought the inkstand? i.>L.xJ) ^^.i. sheritsi 
alduata. 

/have bought it (lit. her) ^&\j~ sheritsa. 

Her sons UiYj! ulada; her houses U.lo diara or 
diar/ia. 

In Tier ($g fifta; with Tier l$j bi/ia. 

First person com. gender plural. 

He saw us La Li, shafn; oit?- heart L*la kalbTia. 
Our house l>jb darna; our sons lo"iU uladwa. 

Owr houses U^'ji diarna; in us LJ fina. 

Second person com. gender plural. 

shaffcrtm; yemr heart .\LU kalbfcwm. 
b darfetlwi; 7/owr sons JT^^I ulad/^m. 
Your houses *^'-J^ diar/vvlm; in you x^ = ~'.? 

Third person com. gender plural. 



He saAv ^/tem *^?l^ shafrt/??; ^/jetr heart *^Jj kalbr/??j. 
iT/ieir house ^!jJ darrnn or dar/jrtwi; fftei'r sons *aO^j! 
uladitm. 



128 

Their houses /**/-' > diarum. or diar7iw; in them *$ i'ihtim. 

129. If the last radical letter of the verb, is a ^ preceded 
by a fatha ( 161 ) it is changed into i, a, when joined to a 
suffix, for example: 

He gave ^a.\ adtd; he gave me v c''-^ aatant. 

He gave thee oJtksl aataAr; he gave Tim; s^\ aataft. 
He gave Tier UUbel aata/ia; etc. -etc. etc. 

130. The \ in the terminals L, and Li' of verbs when joined 
to any suffix is suppressed thus: 

You saw U^fi- shuftsu; you saw me Jy^-i, shuftsunt. 
You saw him *^f~ shuftsufc; you saw her U^xfi. shuftsufta. 
They saw i^li. shafti; They saw me; JoS 1 ^ shafiurt. 
They saw Mee o^S?'^ shafufc; They saw MS tusli, shafuna. 

131. When the suffix is joined to a noun ending in s this 
letter is changed into vO t or ts, thus: 

Letter iLj bdrda; my letter e5|^ baratsi. 

Thy letter O^|^J baratek; his letter A3.J baratu, etc. 

132. AVhen a verb governs two pronouns the one conveying 
the more direct objective is placed first, and that indicating 
the less direct objective second thus: I will tell thee it ( or it 
to thee cJJ Jyii li! ana enkolw lek; He sold 7 (to) me ^J ^ 
** hua baail li; He wrote t (to) MS W ^=3 katabu-l-?ia. (a) 



3. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

133. In No. 123 it was stated that the personal pronoun 
suffixes signified possession when joined to nouns. The words 

(a) The preposition I in this example is left without a vowel, or rather 
nn \ and forms a syllable wjth thee , in this way. Ket9-btil~na, 



129 

Jlo dial, and c. '..:.- ml an are also vulgarly used by tho Moors 
with the various suffixes to denote possession. 



EXAMPLES. 



Me, mine J.lo diall (m.f. sing. or pi.) or e^ emtaai. 
Thee, thine oX'to dialek (m. f. sing, or pi.) or >^&L emtaa<k, 
Him, his Jlo dtaZft (Vn. sing, or pi.) o* otx* emtaafi. 
Her, hers t$Jlo rftaZa (/. sing, or pi.) or l$frl^ emtaaha. 
l"s, our, Ulo dialna (m. f. sing, or pi.) or Uclx* emtaana. 
You, your, yours -v.CJl.o d talk Am (m. f. sing, or pi.) *-Csb 



Then, their, theirs *^lo dialhum or dlalum (m. f, sing. 
or pi.) ,*$sU emtaah&m. 

l.'M. When the possessives wme_, thine, etc., are used in 
the sense of attributes, or are alone in a sentence, they are 
expressed by the words JA-.O diall or ^h&s emtaai; dA-3L)J 
dialek, etc. etc. ( 133 ) thus: 

This book is mine J.lo ^_.,lx\?J ! Jo? had al-kitab diall. 

This ship is mine c~^ v % v ^' ' iaf ^ al-markeb emtaai. 

This house is mine ^(jl ,bJI !3-s 7id ed-dar diall. 

"Whose (lit. of whom) book? is this v _ ,lx\M 'j,> _a> ,.^i demin 
hua had el-kitab? 

Mine /J^i diali or ..^ emtaai. 

" " Sr 

Whose (of whom) is this house? ,LO! !j,> (.^'ji dlalmin 
had ed-dar. 

Ours ULo dialna or ucc* emtaana. 

135. Beyond these two cases the possessives may be ex- 
-pressed either by suffixes united to nouns ( as has been ex- 
-plaincd in Xo. 123 and following rules), or by the words 



- 130 
Llo or ..sU* cmtaat etc. but in the latter case the article 

^"T y_5 

must be placed before the noun preceding the pronoun thus: 
My book -jlxS" kitabi or ^lo ^LvJI al-ketab diali. My ship 
^ markabi or ^lo ^^JI al-markeb dlall. My house 
dar* or -sU* ,!jJ) ed-dar emtaai. Your house *.^=ib 






darkum, or 



O! ed-dar dlalkum, 



EXERCISE XXII. 



1. Whence hast thou come? 

( Ex. 6 and 7 ). 

2. I have come from my 

house. 

3. Hast thou seen my ser- 

-vant. 

4. I saw him on the roof. 

5. Where did thy sons see 

thee. 

6. My sons saw me in the 

garden ( Ex. 7 ). 

7. Of what thinkest thou or 

(of what art thou tliin- 
-king). 

H. I think ( am thinking ) of 
thce and of her. 

9. The Sultan gave him two 
thousand dollars (60), 



Jlo J^cjl c^ti, 3. 



*9 '**' / . ^ ^ O . 
w ' 



.-.a ,,J! j'ls! VJJUI :>. 

J ^ C - ^ 



12. I bought (Ex. 7) his book. 

13. I saw her daughter in the 

street ( Ex. 7 ). 

14. He saw his father. 

15. She saw her father. 

V 

Hi. The scribe (80) of the 
Basha bought my ink- 
-bottle (Comp. 7 ). 

17. I love thee very much. 

is. Thou lovest me very much. 

19. I love ( or like ) him. 

20. I love ( or like ) her. 

21. Thou lovest us. 

22. 1 love you ( pi. ) 

23. I love them. 

2-1. His sons were with thce. 
25. Her sons went with him 
(Ex. 13). 



131 

10. The Vizier gave her a 

dress (Com p. 18) of 
silk. 

11. I gave her a ring of gold 

and two bracelets of 
silver. 






l 10. 



r' 



U! 11, 



j!) i^ijJb ( JoL 
(- 



J 



UUJ 



IIJlj 



,;~u3ri 



13. 



14. 



a 15. 



16. 



Ul 17. 

Jt is. 
li! 19. 
Ijl 20. 

21. 

22. 
';! 2:;. 
if,! 21. 



132 - 

2r>. Our son went with her. 
27. Our sons bought ( Comp. 

11 ) your lambs. 
2*. Your son bought my lamb. 









j. 28; 



29. Your daughter bought 

( Ex. 21 ) their haiks. 

30. Thy servant (m.) has bou- j-sJ 

-ght a she-camel. (Comp. 

10). 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



4. ... setdhh. 

7. Fash katkhammemf 

s. Kankhmmem ... 

10. ... dal-hhartr. 

11. ... aatitsha or aatitsa... 

al-khatem ... debdlcj ... 
(or nebdil ) dcn-nnkara 
( or dnl-fudda). 



Vocabulary. 
(Quarter (i.e. district of a town 



**jj~> 



15. 


... slidfets ... 




17. 


... kanhhe"bbek 


... 


is. 


... kathMbbni 


... 


26. 


... mesha ( or 


f/hfidd) .. 


27. 


... al-khorfdn, 


or kher- 


28. 


... el-khoroof . 


1. . 


29. 


... hhondkitm. 





hhafi.mn, pi. 



.._ 



Kitchen j^i.3 hochtna, or i^L^n k<>tchina, ( this 

really a Spanish word) ( in lit. (tsh) Arabic the word is 
pi. ^lk<). 

c 



1:: 



Carpet Vjj zdrlnjii, pi. .cfj ' zardbi. 

Mattress .^.j^x^ medarrbn, pi. in C-A 

Tongs, pincers Ja'S) Ink-knt. 

Spoon (3^ maldk, pi. i^^* 1 m^dlek, 2 nd - 

i3yi* mogharfa, No. 72. 



Shepherd, pastor drover cj vw?, pi. . .v~cj roalan. 

Milk v^-.U 7tftZ<6. 

Tea ,cb1 d#a/ ; Coffee, sing, see Comp. 

16 pi. J^^s kahawi. 

Carafe ^!Jj berrdda, pi. ^,^J berdrtd. In Tetuan 

i.U A-o/ifa pi. J-.U 



AVith >^ rna, Witli you S*~> mdkum. 

Mat, sin" 1 , see No. 58 V^^- hheslmh, pi. jj^^ Jihesur 

and V^aa lihesatr; 2 nd - ^j ,-J teserihh, pi. ~j'~o tesarelih; 

C ^ ^- 

o r(1 - I^jj,^ gueddlmah, pi. *jJ-^ gueddim and ^i!^ guedadim. 

' " i 

Serpent i ^ hliana pi. in c^', also jS^a- lihaiai; 2 nd: ,r-^ 

hliansh, pi. , i-L^! hhenash and [ ^j-^- hheniish. 

COMPOSITION 'JL*. 

When (Ex. 20) didst thou see (Ex. 2) our quarter? Yes- 
-terday ( Ex. 20 ) I saw ( Ex. 2 ) your quarter. When wast 
thou (Ex. 4) in my kitchen? To day (Ex. 12 ) I have been 
in your kitchen. They brought ( Comp. 10) the merchant's 
carpet ( Ex. 8). They brought his carpet. They have brou- 
ght the mat. Her mat is new ( Comp. 7 ). Have you bought 
(Comp. 11) our mattress. He gave me the pincers. He gave 
thee the spoon. I gave him the ( fresh ) butter ( Comp. 9 ). 
I gave her the cheese (Comp. !)). The shepherd gave me 
milk. The coffee-keeper ( Comp. l'. ) gave us very good tea. 



134 

He gave them very good coffee. He gave you a new ca- 
rafe. His son went (Ex. 22) with you. Their (m.) uncle 
went with us. Your aunt ( Comp. 9 ) came (Comp. 12 ) with 
my servant-maid (or crafts woman ). I found ( Comp. 10 ) thy 
gold ring ( ring of gold ) ( Ex. 22 ). Thou hast found ( Comp. 
10) my silver bracelets ( Ex. 22 ). I think of ( lit. in ) you. 
I think of (lit.m)thee and them (m.) I think of him and 
her. I received (Comp. 10) thy letter, and put it (Comp. 13) 
on the table. When did you receive (Comp. 10) my letter? 
I received it yesterday. I have received it to day. Where 
did they see the serpent? They saw it on the road (22). The 
shepherd saw two serpents in the Kadi's garden ( Ex. 7 ) 
( Comp. 7). 

EXERCISE XXIII. 



1. Our father has lost his 

watch. 

2. Your father has bought a 

cap ( Comp. 15) for my 

uncle. 
.'!. His mother bought (Ex. 

21) my pens (Comp. 10). 
1. Her mother has bought 

thy knives ( 67 ). 
5. Their mother (Ex. 22) has 

seen our letters. 



_Llo , JiJ! &jL 

/ ^l.^:* O, 1 ^ 



* 
| 



G. 
7. 

s. 

1). 

10. 

11. 



i;jo 
Where ( Coin p. 3) didst j ( J& ^ _J ) ^x?^ v'- <-. 

thou know me? 
I knew thee in Ceuta (Ex. Jcx~, _ 0,^X3 ,s 7. 

21). 

I knew him in Mclilla. LLU _ ^3 ^ s. 

Thou knewest her in Cadiz. ~J'J =!__ '.^'.O,s '.. 

Thou knewest us in the j ',^13 ^'.j J! ^__ L^^ 10. 

Vizier's garden (Ex. 7). 
I knew you in the Rabat JaUyb i,^! ! Jc3,c 11. 

market. 



12. Did he take away the 

silver from thee? 

13. He took it away from me 

( removed ). 

14. Did he take the gold from 

thee. 

15. He took it from me. 
1G. I took it from him. 
17. I took it from her. 
is. I took it from them. 

1!>. Gavest thou me the ring 
(Ex. 22)? 

20. I gave it to thee yesterday. 

21. I gave it to him the day 

before yesterday. 



(LiaM _.!) 



Jj JJ 12. 






JJ 






14. 






U! 1G. 



J lii 



^ 

r 



is. 
19. 

20. 



~,LJ! rj 

i j 



( Ex. 20 ). 



> 



(a) 






136 

22. He gave it to us the day ~ ,UJ Jl U 

before yesterday. 

23. Didst thou give me the 

money ( Ex. 13 )? 

24. I gave it to thee before (i.e. 

in presence of) thy 
father. 

25. I gave it her in presence 

of thy mother. 

26. You saw me at ( lit. in ) 

the window. 

27. They saw thec in the shop. 

28. My small son has come. 

29. He brought a drain pipe 

(Corap. 11 ). 

30. I have bought a weapon. 

31. I have seen your pretty ^Xu: 

daughter in the market. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 






.~> 22, 



ai! 24. 



27. 

U 2S. 



30. 



6. ... araftsi-nt, or araftnt.(b] 
1. Araftvk ... 
8. ... Mel ilia. 



0. Arnfttha, or araftha (b)... 



12. 



(a) The pi. is used because the pronoun refers to >t v wln'di i> n ]il. mmn. 

r J . ' 

(b) Tliis M'ciuiil form is used in 'lYtnan, wlu-rc I lie >ri'oiiil i-crsnii. inasc. of the 
jircteriti- t'-nse is the s;iiiie ; is tlie first person. This should be borne in mind in 
Sliailur instances. Sue note to }u>. i:<i'. 



137 

13. Ziii'la-H. 1'.'. Atituni ... 

l,->. ZMeUf-U. - > 4ted ... 

16. ... .:>/ t'n'Ui'i-lfi or //?/;. 21. ... uftel el-ban-h. 

17. ... zfifmltfi-la or Za/i. (a) ! 30. ... sendhli. 

18. ... ,:nHclti"iltlm. 31. ... derliefah. 

Vocabulary. 

He, She, It. Has sold or sold. He, She, It, ->'j frdd, governs 
the dative in pronouns, ( and is followed by J preposition ) 
and the accusative of no.uns, thus: He sold me the wheat 

C^-aJsJIjt) <-, \j}\ J, o'j tact It ez-zra (or al-gamhh) (Ex.9). 
C ^' " ^ ' 

He sold it to me , A^'-J baau-li. 



I sold or have sold o,.* 

Thou soldest or thou hast sold C-^xj beati. 

Bedouin sing. ^j-\ J frerfjft pi. in r .. See No. Gl. 

Beans (col.) JL? /"H? ; (unit, fula i.e; meaning P single 
bean ) 16. 

Ribbon, Tape, Palmetto cord, Selvage edge, 1 st - tjj-Ji 
sherit; '_ )luL ia.^~ sefifa, pi. in cJ ( see 62 ), and also 
sefaif; 3 rd - ^'^ hhashta, pi. in c^^, ( 62 ) and also 5 ^ 



Lent or has lent od sellef, (governs dative, takes J, 
with pronouns and the accusative of nouns. 

At interest, profit, usury, 1 st - ^JIL'U bet-tdlda; 

2" d - f-V'jJ'-.' bel-fahlali; 

;jnt. ^.}j) ] j ber-rd>nhh. 

Upon security ( pledge, mortgage, pawn,) ..^yV.j bc-r-rthun, 

l,itcr:illy ',.j ?<(/!(. 
"5 



138 

Peas (col.) ,j^^ hlioms, hhemms, a hhtmmes, (in lit. 
Arabic . ^,-ov or , >=^. ). 

^ w 



Called or has called I st - Ll:. aiiet, governs dative and takes 
J, or ^c when doing 1 so 2 nd - ~'-^ sd/t//.. 

(He) called (to) me ( ^Jz _J) J. 1=.^. auet-U (or aliia). 

Spectacles, eye-glasses, pi. 1 st - ^aU* mencidei-, sing. ,tkx* 
irt'/x/itr; L )11(1 - ^','-ii. i or Ji|J niiader, or neddarat. 

Telescope, ( or prospective glasses of any sort), 1 st - ijU-* 
_v.x^! meraia al-hind; -2 nd - ifjTi. shiiiiafapl. in ^,-i, (62). 

COMPOSITION _ ) ;!. 

Who sold thee this wool (58)? This Bedouin has sold me it. 
"\Vlio has sold thee this wheat? That (Comp. 7 ) mountaineer 
(80) has sold it me. When ( Ex. 20) did he sell it thee? He 
sold it me to day. I sold the beans to him. I sold them in 
the market. Thou soldst me them in presence of Kador 
(97). I sold her a green ribbon (80). I sold it to her in my 
shop. He lent me his book. He lent me it. He lent thee his 
mare (02). lie lent her to thee. He lent it thee upon security. 
He lent it them on interest. He sold me the beans. He 
sold me them very dear. He sold us the peas. He sold us 
them yesterday (Ex. 20). Thy shepherd (Com. 22j called (to) 
me. My shepherd called -(to) thee. My man servant 'F.x. 7 
called (to) him. Her slave ( m. ) ( Coin)). 21 ) called (to) us. 
My friend (Comp. 7 called (to) you. Our guarantor (Comp. 
1 8 called ( to ) us. The " Imam " ( Ex. 18 ) called ( to ) me. 
He sold me thy spectacles.-- !Ir bought (Com. 10) a telescope 
in Cadiz. 



139 

4. DEMONSTRATIVE PROXOUXS. 
Singular. 



This (masc. ) L\* or lils hada (a). 
This (fern.} j:i> or 3U 



Plural. 

t 
These ( masc. and fern. ) j.jj or ..Is- had it m. 

Singular. 

That (masc. ) O/"!ia fedddfc or ^H5 
That (/V?n.) vi&i dlk or sjX.Xa 

Plural. 

Those (masc. and /'em.) o/3- s or O^~--* hadiik or 

136. The noun qualified and followed by the former de- 
-monstrative pronouns must take the article Jl, and the final 
! and j; of IJJ- and ^3-s are not, in that case, pronounced, 
for example: 

This book , ,'.A^==J! ! J^ /jarf al-kitab. 

This table *X>y! ^J-js TiacZ al-maida. 

When the above named demonstratives are the subjects of a 
sentence the final letters are pronounced, and the noun which 
they qualify, if it be indeterminate, drops the article e.g.: 

This (person masc. ) has seen us Usu. b. Tjada shafna. 

This (person fern. ) has seen us l^JU. ,_C-~ /iod? shafetna. 

(a) Composed of the particle U and v thc demonstrative lit, simple \} <l<(, 
not vulgarly used. 



140- 

This /.-; an untruthful man , .bo" J-a., ' J.> hada rajul kiddab. 

If the qualified noun be determinate, a :> r(l - personal pronoun 
must be placed between the demonstrative and the noun it 
qualifies U J 2 and 190) e.g.: This is the Spanish postman 

L~^l ^'jj' u* 'j^ hada lu'in er-rakkas es-sbaniuli (or 
V - ' \j j * 

^Lj^M esbanitil ). This is the Kadi's wife L^T ^s _r-~ 
^isUJIi hadi hia al-mara del-kadi. These are the sailors of La- 



-rache fioi 

^. .. 

dal-araish. 






hadum 



al-bahhariia 



KXERC1SE XXIV. 



1. Whose (of whom ) is this IJj- ( . r p-U* J) ,.^j 1. 

horse? (a) 

2. This horse is mine. 

:!. Whose is this she-ass? 

4. This she-ass is mine. 

"). Are these pigeons ( Comp. 

17 ) ours? 

I'.. Those pigeons are ours. '..^. '.:<.* y '^' . -clJj* (\. 

1. This breakfast is mine. , L'-O , tt LJI !jj 7. 

s. This dinner ( or food ) is ^Z .-Jb' V rjj- 8. 

mine. 
'.'. These haiks - Kx. -j-j are 

mine. 

,fO In int. f using a persOBftl 

-- anil 1!">. 



ULo ^ f U 

\ 



. 

""TT 



-141- 

10. This jclab (a) is thine. 

11. These jelabs are mine. 

12. That cloth is thine. 

13. That handkerchief is his. 

14. That bracelet is hers. 

If). Those rings are ours. 
Iti. That man is prudent 

( Ex. 14 ). 

17. That woman is quiet, 
is. Those soldiers (74) are 

cowards ( 84 ). 
1!). Those mooresscs ( Comp. 

10) are workwomen. 

20. These chickens ( Ex. 21 ) 

are yours. 

21. Those are very good men. 

22. This is my bullock. 

23. That is my cow. 
21. These are my oxen. 
25. Those are thy cows. 
20. This is thy pig ( m. ). 
27. These arc thy swine. 



.o 






jd. Lj. 



10. 

11. 

19, 
13. 

11. 

15. 



17. 
-<*- 18. 

-jr^ 10. 

iJu 20. 



21. 
22. 
23, 
24, 
25, 
26. 
27. 



\ lioodcil clonk worn by Moors 



142 



28. Those are our horses. 

29. These sister's anklets 

are my. 

30. These are thy sister's rings 

31. This is the carpenter's cow. 



7. 



U_< ( a) J 



^ xj^--* - s - 

':_! 29. 



v* a ^'< ,.3j. 30. 
1 ' V 

li :<\i...M sjjs 31. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



8. ... makla ... 

10. ...jllldlb (or jlllaba} ... 

11. ...jlldleb ... 

14. ... debalej ( or nebala ) 
'15. ... khudtem ... 
17. .. liheninali. 



22. 


... tdur ... 


23. 


... bdkdrah .. 


24. 


... ttran ... 


25. 


... bakdr ... 


20. 


... hhallfif ... 


27. 


... hheldlef .. 


29. 


... khelakhel 



Vocabulary. 



and 



Fisherman O'p. hhuitat or hhneicats pi. iSj&> 

Net .-.^=i ; i, ishtbka pi. in c^^ ( G2 
shibak- 

Seated , J'^ gdles or jdles. 

Threshold. Entrance 'i-iiz atba pi. in ot (62), ^~- atab, 
and f**c atabl. 

Hedge. Fence ^_>, ^ zarb pi. ^^, ; zernb, and zorub. 

Pencil ^^i^ 1 or -sLs>J1 *U kalam er-resds, or kalam al- 

v- ^ / j 

khnftf (lit. Penoflead). 

Lime kiln .~- knshah pi. in ^-' ( (12 ) and also . ^ 



14.') 

i* i* * 

Singer ^\- ylianndi pi. in ,j (61) and also ^jUo ghann<- 

Oven .,!,? farrdn pi. ..^r? fararin. 
Lime-burner .La. jliflfo 1 pi. in . . t j (Gl ). 
Straw ,. r J' fj&ew. 

Sword 1 st - ,.X- sekkln pi. ..~===tC, sekakln; 2 nd - v _ i~~. s<T or 
^ ^/.. .-. 

j^- ?/" pi. ^5>_?-~ ) s2tfA 
Satchel S.I&. eshkarah pi. ^LCi. eshkdir. 
Sack iA..\;k khanshah pi. ^i,L^ khanashi. 
Ear-ring Lo.d. khorsa pi. j^;^ kharas. 
Tobacco a iolt 



do for smokin '^ dokhan. 



do snulf 43^^ tenfihhah pi. ^ui tendfehh. 

c 

Jumad I. (The fifth month of the Moslem year JJ^T ^pl*a. 
jumdda al-uuel. 

Sheep 1st- ^.W Marti? pi. JXa. hhndla; 2 nd - ^.S' fcJ6*7i pi. 

, iU~3 kebdsh. 
w 

^ COMPOSITION 24. 

This is our barber ( 61 ). Our barber brought (Ex. 5) these 
knives (67). The fisherman brought this net. My uncle 
( Comp. 1) ) was ( Comp. 6 ) seated in the threshold of the door. 
This is the hedge of my garden ( Comp. 7 ). That pencil is 
mine. Our singer has come. This is a very ( 102 ) good 
singer (Ex. 7). Is that oven ours? I sold (Comp. 2o ) this 
limekiln to the limeburner. I bought this straw in the market. 
That sword is mine. My man servant ( Ex. 7 ) bought 
( Comp. 10 ) these swords. Arc those swords ours? This sack 
of money is theirs. That bottle ( Comp. !> ) is empty. I have 
a bracelet of gold ( s ). Thou hast two bracelets of silver 
(Ex. 22 ). Thou boughtest ( Comp. 7 ) these bracelets in Ka- 



144 

-dor the merchant's shop (73 ). This tobacco is very good. 
The snuff of Tetuan ( Ex. 7 ) is very good. From whence 
( Ex. G ) hast thou brought (Ex. 1) these carpets (Comp 22 )? I 
brought (Ex. 1) them from Rabat (Ex. 9). The carpets 
of Rabat are very good. When (Ex. 20) Avert thou in Rabat? 
I Avas in it in the month of Jumad 1 st - These arc our men 
servants ( or servants ) ( Comp. 15 ). Those are your sheep. 
This sheep has many defects (Comp. 18). That sheep has a 
great defect ( Comp. 18 ). 

5. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

137. Our relative pronouns, Avhen not interrogative are 

c 

expressed in Moorish vulgar Arabic by the Avords Jl It, or 

(N 

Jl el-ll, 5 d or jp di, which are usd for both genders, and 
all numbers, (a) 

EXAMPLES. 

1-t- The man trho came U. (J^jl ) J' J=^ er-rajul II ( or 
elli) jaa. 
2nd. The woman who came <oW ( J^ ^ ) c ^ ?^V al-marah 

"Tr "^ ^TT" ^ 

II ( or elll } jaat. 

.'! nl - The men whom I have seen (j^fi- LH ^2 
^.iL al-rej;\l d-ima shufts, ( or di ana shufts). 

I' 1 '- Tlie houses irhich I have seen ( C^-4^ ^- ^ } r-J 

^-.fi. ed-diar alii shufts ( or di shufts ). (b) 

(a) TJit-sn words ;irc contractions of the literary relative pronoun ujJI 
t'l-liiili and arc not liotli used in any one locality. 

1)1 \Vlntt tkitt in /In ali-lr.-n-t <cn>i' of the words arc o.\i>iv*>cd by '...- nut, tor 

litiTary rcl ]irononn :(.?,'. 1 do not know irtnit to tcllther \ a j 1^ 

\JJ*~ ' ^ 

^JJ ma kanaraf i/m nakul U-k. T \\ill give M<v all //ii/ tlion nci-dcst 
-' k'usitik kull (-KI tahlila.i. 



145 

5 th ' He irho died (oU ^i j\ ) o 1 -* J! eZ-Zt mat (or d mat). 
th - She who died <jui''- jp rft raatet ( or Zt matet ). 
7 (l >- They irho died L>1 ^.'! or J! eZZi or Z* matsu. 
S th - The man wZiom I have seen ju-fi. J! J-s^JI ar-rajal Zt 

9 th - The men u7om I saw. ^s, J! J'^r^ ar-rejal Z2 shufts. 

138. In the preceding examples the relative is the subject 
or object of the sentence, that is to say it is formed in the 
nominative or accusative case. But when the relative is in the 
dative, genitive, or ablative, prepositions and suffixed pronouns 
must be made use of. These are generally placed at the end. 
of the relative plause. The suffixes agree with the antecedent, 
and the prepositions must correspond to the case in which the 
relative may be. The ^\ It remains unchanged after the 
antecedent. 

EXAMPLES. 



1 st - The house of which Hamed is owner UVy> J^=J '! J 
ed-dar li Hamed mula/m. (tr. lit. The house, the which Hamed 
owner of her ). 

2nd. The man whose horse killed JO..S !Jxi _J! A.^.J! 

o* J 

ar-rajaal li (a) ketlu audu (tr. lit. The man the whom they 
killed his horse ). 

3 rd - The man to whom I have given J O^J=^ Jt J-W' 
ar-rajul II (a) atits hi (tr. lit. The man who I gave to him ). 

4th. The house from which he departed'^ r ^ '! .IjJI 

C^ ^Tr * 

ed-dar li (a) kharj menha ( or mennd ). 

5 th - The house in which Kador died IfrJ , JJ C-jU Jl ,!jJ! 

^ -"" o > 

ed-dar Zi (a) mat Kador fiha. 

(a) Elli, or di may be used instead of??. The pupil had best choose the word 
common in his district. 

10 



-146- 
Observations, 

1st. "\Vhen the relative pronoun is in the objective case a 
suffix, in agreement with the antecedent may be added to the 
verb, e.g.: The men whom I have seen (137) *$xft ('A J! JWr^ 
ar-rejal li ana shuftsum. 

The man whom I saw *\&i, ^\ Ja^l ar-rajul li shuftsu. 

The houses which I have seen ^sJ^ ^\ jl ^\ ed-diar li 
shuftsum. 

2 nd - If the antecedent be indeterminate, the relative J! is 
frequently omitted. For instance, J JU J.^., U. jdd rajfd 
kal li, man came (tvho) told me v^Tjj.*J ^~* J^, ^J JU kal 
li rajul mesha landak a man who Avent to your house ( lit. 
towards, with you french "chez vous") told me. 

139. The interrogates who sing, and pi., are expressed 
by ,oj&'! ( a ) ashkiln or eshkun when they are in the nomina- 
tive, or accusative cases, and by ^ men when they are in 
other cases. 

In the latter event they must be followed by <L_ fi. prep. 

EXAMPLES. 

1st. who came? ( sing, or has come? ) U> jj&-^ ashkiinjdd 
or o'therwise, U J! _j> ^^^ ashkun hiia lijdd, ( tr. lit. who 
is he who came ). 

2nd. Who ( pi. ) came? ( or have come? ) ijU. S^ ashkini 



(a) This word is composed of .^ JG ., "<] i.e. in the literal Arabic 
what thing is. 



147 

jaii, or otherwise, lj U. J! ^y^' ashkfm Mm It jafi, ( tr. 
lit. who are they who came ). 

3 rd - Whom hast thou seen? ( or whom sawest thou?) ..\&-\ 
vj^vfti ashkun shit ft si, or o^fi- ^ _* .^^' ashkun hua II 
shuftsi, ( tr. lit. who is he whom thou sawest ) ( or hast seen ). 

4th. whom ( pi. ) hast thou seen? ( or whom sawest thou? 
vjUii- .,_*&-! ashkun shuftsi or c^.~ J! * \J*^-' ashkun 
hum li shu-ftsi, ( tr. lit. who are they whom thou hast seen, 
or thou sawest ). 

5th. whose? of whom? 1 st - r o demin '2 nd - ^> <>L emtaamin 
3 rd - 'o^ dial min. 



6 th - To Avhom? (sing, or pi. ) gavest thou? CU-J=^ ,.J ?m/ 



7 th - For whom? See No. 77. 

8 th - With whom? ^ *- md 

9th. i n -\vhom? ^ l^- ft min. 

10 th - Which of you? (m. and f.) who amongst you (m. and 
/. ) ^O .,y^-l ashktim fikum. 

140. TF/ja#? (a) ^-! as^ when followed by a verb. e.g. 
vji^fi. .i.1 asft shuftsi what sawest thou? 

What hast thou ^i/Jya ,i! as/i aindak ( b ) what gave he 
to thee? ^/"Uatt ^! as/i dfaA.-. 

When folloAved by a noun r ^ ,i! ash min, e.g. what house 
sawest thou? .j^fi. .!i ^ , .! as/i mm rfar shuftsi. 

What book hast thou .j^O^s , _ .'-XT ^ , i,l ash min kitab 

w- w 

aindak. 

(a) Contraction of the literal words ^ 

^ V" ' 
)i \Vliat hast thou? is also frequently expressed by ^j;jCJ L* '"" ' 4 ^' instead 

of ash aindak-, ma Ifk is the phrase more commonly used in the interior town? 
of Morocco. 



148 



What is? (sing. masc.)_^-i>1 (a) ashenhua or more vulgarly 
ashenit (b ). 

What is? (sing, fern.) ^5$^ (a) ashenhia or more vulgarly 
shenia ( b ). 

What are? pi. com. 1 st - ^^ asherihum, or ashenum. 

What is this? what are 2 nd - _ U! ama Tma (lit. who is he). 

(This form, is, however, rarely used) ^* U! ama hia (lit. 
who is she, * l>! ama 7mm, ( lit. who are they ). For example: 
What is this? '* j-fc^ ashenfi, had shi; ( lit. what, him, 
her, it, this, thing. What are those ( masc. or fern. ) 

oXJj* ashem'im haduk, Avhich is thy book? oX>lz^ _ 

^ . 

asheml kitabak, what is your trade? ^\&-*e ^^i ashenia 

ssanatsek. Which is thy house? ^rjb -^x^,! ashenia, dardk or 
otherwise. vX!^ ^* ^^ wid hia darak, 



EXERCISE XXV. 



1. I will not forget the good 

thou which didst me. 

2. The camel (Comp. 10) 

which Ali took away i 
from the market was 
mine. 



j U 1. 



J,! 
lo 



(*) xi.' is composed of the three woords ^ ^ \ etc. etc. etc. The 

7 ^ ^ *~p ' 

^ is inserted for the sake of euphony. 
O 

(b) In ordinary vulgar conversation the j is dropped very frequently, and 



the pronunciation is as if the word were written 



itshcnfi. 



ugh>ni, or 






149 

3. The mare (G2) which thou 

boughtest is 6 years 
old (Comp. 19). (Lit. 
has G years ). 

4. The oranges (Ex. 18) that 

I have bought are good 
(109). 

5. The mufti (Comp. 20) 

who brought the books 
(Comp. 12) was a Fezzi 
( native of Fez ). 
G. The merchant (Comp. 8) 
who brought the cloth 
(Comp. 9) was a Rabati 
(native of Rabat ). 

7. The carpenter (Ex. 14) 

who made (or mended) 
the table was a Tetowni 
( native of Tetuan ).. 

8. The seamstress ( 56 ) who 
sewed this dress was pretty 

(or clever) (Comp. 10). 

9. The salt -dealer who 

brought the salt (Comp. 
7 ) is my friend. 



,s-j i, L! ib 
c e~ SL 

^.J-^ v_P (v^ 



jJ! 3. 



J! - 

**? *K 



Isi 



k J! ~bU1 9 



150 



10. The carpenter who has 

made the table is my 
friend. 

11. The barber (61) whom 

thou sawest in the 
street is my friend. 

12. The date thou gavest me 

was sweet (Comp. 17). 

13. The dates (col.) which 

thou boughtest were 
dear (107). 

14. I do not see ( Comp. 10 ) 

the star which thou hast 
seen. 

15. I see ( Ex. 8 ) all that you 

have brought. 

10. He took out all that was 
in his house. 

17. I have seen the sons of 

the Basha. 

18. He who lost (!.'{) the means 

( money ) of his fat hoi- 
was in ( the ) prison 
(Comp. 15). 



! 



,* 10. 



JJ J 



11. 



l jJ! 12. 



13. 



U U! 14. 



U! (I vM I 

W**> ww ! w -3 ! 
^ 



17 

X I 



is. 



- 

w^ 



-151 

19. He who sold me the par- 

tridges (col. Comp. 19) 
was seated in the cafe. ' 

20. The merchant with whom | ( vj: 

thou spokest yesterday 
(Ex. 23) has failed. 

21. The house from which the 

thief ( Comp. 15 ) went 
out is ours. 

22. The fathers ( or parents ) 

whose sons (or children) 
are good are always 
happy. 

23. The muleteers (Comp. 14) 

with whom thou wentest 
to Larache ( Comp. 21 ) 
are in the " fundak " 
( Comp. 3 ). 

24. That Christian ( Ex. 14 ) 

to whom thou soldest 
(Comp. 23) the wool 
has escaped (fled) from 
Mazagan. 



i* = 



J =JJ! 20. 



22. 



23. 



^ 



b 24. 



(a) M. is also called Jx j^ mahadAmah the destroyed, or the ruined. 



** 



152 

25. I have sold (Comp. 23) 

the garden in which 
thou wast yesterday. 

26. The husband whose wife ti\f> J! ( ^ ,-, 

-'" ^J 

is good will gain much 
money. 

27. These are the mountaineers 

of whom I spoke this 
morning. 

28. That lad (Ex. 14) who 

came this morning is 
handsome (Comp. 17). 

29. I do not know ( Ex. 17 ) 

what to eat ( lit. what 
I will eat ). (a) 

30. I do not know what to do 

(lit. what I will do), (a) 

31. I do not know what I Avill ^Lsj U 

breakfast upon, (a) 



25. 



2G. 



27. 



U 



28. 



U 29. 



U 30. 



31. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



1. 



d-amelti fita. 
"2. ... kharr&j ... 
G. .. rebut i. 



7. ... 

8. ... khaiietets ... 

9. Al-meldhh ... 



(a) In Arabic the verbs, ti-ill cat, trill make, (or will do) and will breakfast arc 
written in the feminine. 



12. Tsemdra 

13. Tsemdr ... 
11. ... nejma ... 

18. ... telUf ... 

19. ... kdhwa. 

20. ... haddrti (or tekellemti) . 
f6Us. 

22. Al-waldln ... d<m ( or 
daiman ... 



153- 

23. 
24. 

26. 



meshiti (or ghaditl ) ... 
hdrdb ... men el-jedida. 
(or ez-z&j) ...(or zaitjtu] 
... ierbdhh (or isoicwar) ... 
27. ... hadart (or tekellemt ... 

/"<? /jad es-sebahh ... 
29. ... ndfcf*/. 
30 ... wdmeZ. 
31, ... neftdr. 



Vocabulary. 



A bunch of grapes ->y^ dnkod pi. J.JUc andkid. 

Nosegay, bouquet ^-^ meshmtim pi. /li* meshdmim. 
\ \ 

I do not wish 1 st - 5 ~ ^s-^ l ma kanhhebb shi. 
2 nd - ...i. -_c*^ ^ wia kanabghl shi. 
Pay, wages, salary 1 st - i<jUJ ejardh or iijdrah. 

2 nd - JjU.1 ijarah. 
Thou givest me J-JaxxTfcafsa^ni. 

v_> " 

Melon 1 st - AJJ^> mentina; col. .,y.^ meniin. 

2 d - See Nos. 57 92 and Ex. 21. 

The el-ksari ( i.e. native or inhabitant of el-Ksar ) 
kdsart, 

The Baidawi (i.e. native or inhabitant of Casablanca) 
^jLs,j batdaicl. 
Egg 1 st - ixs.0 baldah pi. in o! ( G'2 ) col. ^ 6d?rf. 

jJj ?yeZrf de/d/ pi. r Wi iY^! ulad dejdj . 



2" d - ... 



He (masc.) paid ^U khalUs; A?.) defda. 
I will pay 






en-khdlles; JJJ nedfda, 



151- 

Wilt thou eat or thou wilt cat J.fb takid ( means also dost 
thou eat, or eatest thou etc. etc. 

Gone has gone, went fcm. ^.-.i-> mesliat; or o^--i ghaddt. 

I finished or fulfilled I have complered I have finished, I 
completed ^^j uf'^j must be followed by the accusative, or 
preposition ^-fi and objective. 

Word l^Mlmd pi. in cJ (G2) col. (speech) jJ^ kttAm he 
knows not on what to breakfast j^> U ^_o ^ U ?na kalaraf 
m<i 'tftar; he knows not on what to eat J$"L< U ^ ^.S" U m 

kniaraf ma yak til; ^_?j~\ '-" v ?/*r ~ J ma Jtataraf ma tshert, 

he knows not what to buy. (Lit. Avhat he will eat, will breakfast 
upon, Avill buy . 

Shut (past, partciple adj.) (m. ) 3jJ^iv meshdud (f.) ibjJ^i..' 
meshduda pi. in . >t j ?>i ( see 84 ). 

Didst thou remove, (or take away ) C-JJi ztiaeltsi. 

Merchants ,'^s-J' tujjdr ( sing 1 , see Ex. 7 and 8). 

Charcoal maker or charcoal seller ..lar? fahh-hham pi. in 
. . r^'-^ fahhhham i n . 

Why? ~-,i alddi; ~'^' Miash, ( contractions of the Avords 

i, ^ r : > b /; .s//?,, and ,^ ^ ^.U a/a at, shi, lit. for what thing. 

Occupation JjL- slwgliol, pi. Jlxi.1 aheghal. 

Occupied (busy) <//. HI. past partciple J^ii^ meshghol pi. 
in ,. y j f7i. 

v^ 

COMPOSITION L',"). 

That bunch of grapes Avhich thou hast is mine. The bouquet 
of ttoAvers (col. Comp. 8) Avhich thou liast found ( Comp. 10 in 
the street (Kx. 7i is mine. I do not Avant the Avages that thou 
givest me, I do not want the money (Ex. 13) that thou Divest 



155 

me. The peasant (80) who brought the flowers is from Tetuan 
( i.e. a Tetuan man )( Ex. '25 ). The Moor (Comp. 10) who 
sold (Comp. 23) the melons was an cl-Ksar man. He who sold 
the wool (58) was a Casablanca man. The uiooress (Comp. 10) 
who sold the chickens ( col. Ex. '21 ) is in (the) prison. She 
who bought (Ex. 21) the eggs went to her house. I see 
the star that thou see'st (Ex. 8). I see all that thou hast 
bought. He paid all that he bought (Comp. 10 ). I will pay 
for all that thou catest. I have fulfilled the word (promise ) 
(which or will on) I gave. The charcoal seller does not know 
(on) what to breakfast. The salt-dealer does not know what 
to eat (or what he will eat). The charcoal which this charcoal 
dealer brought is dear. (Comp. 14). The cook (?n.) (Ex. 21 ) 
with whom thou spokest this morning is in my house. the 
fundak in which my cousin ( Comp. 14 ) (w.) passed the night 
( Comp. 3 ) is very large. The prison from which' the thief 
escaped (Comp. 15) was shut. The muleteer (Comp. 15) whose 
son is sick (Comp. 6) has arrived ( Comp. 12 ) today. The 
blacksmith (Gl) whose daughter (Go) is in my house lost his 
father's money. The travellers (Ex. 10) Avith whom thou wast 
in the fundak (Comp. 3) passed the night (Ex. 10) on (in) 
the road (22). The talcb from whom thou tookedst the 
books (Comp. 12) passed the night in my house. This is the 
craftsman of whom I spoke. These are the merchants of 
whom I have spoken today. Why hast thou given me this 
occupation?. The shoemaker ( Comp. 12 ) whom thou hast 
seen in the street this morning is busy. Why hast thou sold 
the beans (col. Comp. 23) which I have bought':* Why ghvst 
thou me the salary which I do not wantVI do not wish that 
pay. 



156 



EXERCISE XXVI. 



C , 



.^ JCi! 5. 



1. Who will go with thee? 

2. The miller (m.) will go 

with thee. 

3. Who will go with my 

cousin? ( m. ) 

4. I will go with him to the 

mill. 

5. Whom sawest thou in the 

mill? 

C. I saw the miller (m.) 

7. I saw the miller. 

8. Whose are these doves? 

9. They are my sister's, (a) 

10. To whom gavest thou my 

rings? 

11. I gave them to your little 

sister (Ex. 7 ). 

12. With whom didst thou 

speak? (Ex. 25). 



(a) One mAy answer by repeating the subject of the interrogative sentence, 
8cu No. 19 of this Exercise. 




10. 



11. 



-157 

13. I spoke ( Ex. 25 ) with the 

singers. 

14. Of whom doubtest thou? 

(a) ( or whom dost thou 
suspect). 

15. The man whom I suspect 

is thy friend. 

16. For whom boughtest thou 

this sword? ( Comp. 24). 

17. I bought it for my cousin 

(m.) 

18. Whose is this dress? (Comp. 

18). 

19. It is my sister's, (b) 

20. Of whom art thou 

thinking? 

21. I am thinking of my mo- 

-ther. 

22. What hast thou? 

23. I have 20 ounces ( 60 ). 

24. What art thou thinking 

of? 



13. 



14. 



1;! 



.I J 



15. 



* ^r c- 
i, jj **; 



17 . 



(b) 



ar^ 



a 



II^V 19. 
.f *- 20. 

*=> } j\ 21. 

J JJ '2-2. 
'*s 23. 



(a) The verb ^Ci sftefr, (he) doubted must be followed by ^_ 

(b) In Arabic the subject of a question is very frequently repeated in the 
answer thereto. Thus one answers, ( as above shewn ): This dress is my sister's, 



158 
25. I am thinking of the 

wedding ( Comp. 10). 
I'll. What is thy occupation 

(Comp. 25 ). 



27. 1 have many occupations 

( Comp. 25 ): I am very 
busy. 

28. What is thy trade? 

29. I am a carpenter. 

30. Which is thy native-contry 

(58). 

31. What medecine has the 

doctor given thce. 
:)2. Which of you is the winner? 



33. 
34. 
35. 



Which of them is happy? 
What is that? 
What is this? 



J) Jlii.Y.5 



>! (a) 



U! j! ) 



-r'JUl 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



Et-tnhhfin (or er-rahluct) ... 
... nemshi ... tdJihona. 



27. 



29. 

30. 

31. 



Ci,! 32. 
l! 

x^J 33. 

* 

^' ;; i. 

i,! 35. 



15. ... konxhek ... 
:>~2. ... fjhdleb '( or with the 
article al-ghdTeb). 



.1 Tin- .-iiiKular I'nrin . 



159 

Vocabulary. 

Porcupine sing, ^j--^ dnrb, pi. ^'.J t .^ ddrbdn. 

(He ) killed (murdered ) J::J ketal, governs accusative pi. 
ktelii. 

AYild boar i. 1 *'! ^^ hheUnf al-ghaba, p\. LUJt OT- A 
lilidalef al-ghaba. 

Consuls 1 st - ojy^3 konsuat- 2" (1 - L.oLj kenasft, for sing. 
see Ex. 7; :; rd - L^jLa kf/anssa, ( a very vulgar form indeed!) 

( He ) spoke i-\* hddar, must be followed by, ^J>i or ^^ . or 
*j> with an objective noun or pronoun e.g.: 

Of what spoke he? ,:..! , '^z al-aish haddr. 

./ ^ 

'( or did he speak? ) ,J. , iJ.3 frisk lidddr. 

AVith whom did ho speak? ,_ v .s ,. r ..* ma men hdddr. 
Death ^>y mitt. 

(He) won, conquered, overcame ^^J-i cjliaUb. 
Herbs, pasturage, grass, *~>. rdbda. 
Reaper il/^aa. hliassdd, pi. in ,v (61). 
Sawyer juL 1 neshshdr, pi. in r j ( 61 ). 



Plank, board l*t. i^J Zdftfta; 2 1 " 1 - ~j. lohh, pi. in o^ (62) 
and also ~LM lodhk. 

COMPOSITION I'C). 



What is this? This is a porcupine. Who killed him (it)? 
This hunter killed it (Ex. 7 ). What is thin? It is a par- 
-tridge ( Comp. 19). What are these? They arc wild boars. 
Who killed them? The consul killed them. The consuls 
killed them. The butcher t Ex. 7 i has killed this pig . Kx. 
L' I . -With whom will the miller go? The miller will go with 



160 

my servant ( Ex. 7 ). I will go with thee to the mill. Whom 
dost thou want? ( Ex. 22). I want my mother (Ex. 22). 
Whose are these pigs? ( Ex. 24 ). They are the butcher's. 
To whom hast thou given the wheat ( Ex. 9 ). I have given it 
to thy man-servant. With whom didst thou speak? I spoke 
with the Vizier (Ex. 7). Of whom doubtest thou? I doubt, 
( or am not sure of) your father. Of what didst thou speak? 
1 spoke of the medecine ( 57 ) which the Doctor gave thee 
( 86 ). Of what art thou thinking? ( Ex. 26 ). I am thinking 
of the death ( murder ). Why thinkest thou? Which of you 
won? Thy cousin (m.) won ( Ex. 16 ). Who brought this 
grass? The reapers brought it. Who brought those boards? 
The sawyers brought them. What is thy trade? (Ex. 26 ). 
I am a reaper. This a sawyer and that is a carpenter ( Ex. 
14). 

6. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 

141. Some one somebody 1 st ' J-.=J J^ shi Jihad; 2 nd - J^.^ ^ 
shl wahed. ( This form 2 nd - rau?t be followed by ^> min. e.g.: 
Somebody came JoJ i. U. ja shl hhad. One of you has lost 



my book ->^ ^Jb *xL> (--^L -^ j') -^ c~ shi hhad 
( or shi icahed ) mink dm telUf kitubi. 

Some one, folowed by a noun is invariably ^^ shi c -- Some 
man Ja^ ^~ shi raj til. Some woman L c~* shi marda. 
Some men jUj ^i. shi rajaal. 

Some in the pi. when not interrogative, is also expressed by 
,ji bddd (lit. part), followed by r min, e.g. Some books 
(a) s^'oJ! j^io bddd al-kutfib. Sometimes (a) cJC-aJ' ^^-*-f 
bddd al-marrdf. Some of you *=i'v> ,jaJ! al-bddd minkilm. 
(a) Tin- t - i> li re understood though not expressed. 



1G1 

Something anything a.la. ~^ s/u hhaja, (lit. some-thing). 

142. Nobodij no one 1 st - -\=J Mad; 2 ml - J-.jJ ^^ hhatta 
hhad- 3 r(I - J-.aJj "=>> hhatta icahed, the negative U mrf, in 
each case being placed before the following verb, for exarn- 
-ple: Nobody has come -X^l la, t> majdd (a) hhad, ( tr. lit. wo 
7ms come cmej; U. U ( J*-aJj J:.a. or) J.aJ ^->-^- (b) hhatta 
hhad, (or hhatta tcahed) ma jdd, ( tr. lit. erew one has not 
come). 

No ( nobody no one ) etc when followed by a noun is inva- 
riably ^^ hhatta e.g.: No man has come la, U J--^., c-.<.^ 
hhatta rajul majdd. No woman has come o'-=^ L U-> -- ^ 
hhatta maraa majaat. 

Nothing 1 st - ^Jtj -walii; 2 a - i.=.L=^ .-\.=s. hhatta hhaja; o rd - 
-*- ^-^ hhatta shi. 

Each, every J kull, invariably, e.g.: 

Each man, every man J.a.. J^ fciiZZ raj ill. 

Each ( or every ) woman s'K.^ J^ fc?1Zi maraa. 

Each ( or every ) one (wj A=Jj J^ fcrt/^ icahed. 

l ( ]ach ( or every ) one (/".j J'J.^-L J^ kull icaheda. 

143. -4Z7, every thing, each thing, C A J^ kail shl, e.g.: 

v.p 

lie made it Z? ^i. J^ JL^s _y Ima amel //<??/ *7/?. (He ) did it 
, all well ( or every thing well) ^JU -i, J^ l^. amel kfdl 

C" ^ 

,s7u melehh. 

All followed by a noun is expressed by 1 st - x^^jemta 

(a) The above pronouns arc generally placed before the verb. 
ill When placed otherwise' they arc followed by _.j mhi. c.j;. ^ __;>. 
Wmltii 



1G2 

2 nd - \.J{ kdmil (a) sing masc. and 1\* kamlah, sing fcm. 
and j.^ 9 ^' kamlln, com. pi. and 3 rd - by J5" A-/VZ (a), -\vliich as 
a rule is accompanied by one of the suffixed pronouns if in 
English, the definite article precedes the noun. 

EXAMPLES. 

1 st - Each, (every) writer <^j% J^ kail katub. 

2 lld - Every person is untruthful <^_,\jS ^LJl JS" ki/ll insan 
keddab. 

3 rd - I am writing ( or I write ) all day ( i.e. the whole clay ) 
i^c^saiS' \j\ Js' ,l$.0! en-nehar kullCt ana kanketeb. 

4 th - I have not slept the whole ( or all ) night -L. C^A~X> I. 
( idUo j! ) L^ iLU! L_ ma nast shi fe-lila kfdla (or kamla). 

5 th - I have not worked*^/ day J^ 1 ^ .l^-U! ^_ ^i c^-V^ U 
( jJ^ or ) ma khedemt slit fen-nehar kamil ( or kfdli'i ). 

th - The w/joZe house was full of people f\^ ^'^ '.^ ,'-.)! 
, ^.U'j ed-dar kftlla kanet mammara ben-nas. 

7 th - The tchole house fell (\$ or) i-U^ ,LO! sj^^'J? tahhcts 
ed-dar kamla ( or A'rtMf ). 

Hti>- They aZZ departed (or They have M gone) .r^-*^ ^^ 
( ^ or) meshau kamUn ( or kCtllnm). 

J> th - ^l?i the people have gone (or M the people departed ) 
( l|Jo /-MUJ! or) - K-U)! ^<s^ lyL^ meshau jemia cn-nas (or 
en-nas kiilla). (b) 

() ,a^,;x /<to, jfira th ide of assembly, gathering toK<'tin'r, and L..-^ 

^..v . 

In mil, tin- id.'ii of entire, perfect, and !<^ A'*)//, tlic idc.i of totality, uiiiversu lit y 



oweners. 



Algerians sav :il.<<> WJ) . ^J) en-nas al-kitll and ,J.;_H k' AvJ// 






103 

10 th - All the people like thee !* ji f ^ (^ ki'itln a) kai- 
-hhobbuk; -J>"i- (^JJI *~*^ or) L^' ^JJ! ^C^/ kaihhebbuk 
cn-nas A-<??/ ( or jemla cn-nas ). 

H Ml - /1/Z the merchants died *. rv cv or L^or) dfcf JarcJ! 
L'L-- . ,'oc-J! et-tiijjar ktillnm (or fcf<//a or jemla} et-tujjnr 
ma tu. 

li )th - /!// the women lie ( tell lies ) *-^ or (^ or ) ^ L-JI 
L-JjC.f (LjJJ en-nesa kfillnm (or kidla, or jemta cn-nesa ) 
knikedbu. 

i;-> th - I bought all the bread there was in the market O-o .i, 
^^J! ^__ j 1 ^ J,! (^^1 ^^^ j!- 1 ^ or) ji x ^l sherits 
al-khubz h-iillfi or kdUd, or jemta al-khubz ) li kan fes-sok. 

14h- All of them saw (it) ( ^L* s^ali, or ) s^'-i, 
shafiih ( or shat'uh kamlin ). 

15 th - This is all big ^S ^ c i. ! J-> had sht A-?Z* 

^ "' ^rr ~ 

It will be seen by the above examples 1 st - that '^ Avith the 
sing, feminine suffix may be joined to the collectives and plu- 
-rals: and '2 11(1 - that ^s^ (b) is not as a rule joined to the sin- 



gulars; and 3 r(I - that and ~^ may be joined either to sin- 
-gulars, plurals or collectives. 

Each ( or every) one who, sing, and pi. are rendered ,.,.. J^ 
krill min (c). AH who, or All those who, or whosoever, singular 

(a) ki'illn ' Jg in tliis sense is placed before the verb. 8ee examples eijrhtli 

iiiul fourteenth. 

^ t , 

!>' In writing #.*^ jemin is used with the .suffixes, like t"_ Thus c.iie 






may write: -All tli< ;-,,,/, ( or men ) have come \'*\ or ^ '^^ lL*J I J^. 

P , -s -, U~ 

(C) This is also expressed by \\ g.^^ j<'in'm 'HI. nud particularly so 

V e- ' 
when the phrase to be rendered is plural in the KnidMi e.g.: .I/? > - mho ' 



make i _^ x , J ^^^ j> ;/ii <,'//? iamel. 



-1G4 

and pi. thus: Every one who makes (or does) J-ft*j ,^ r ~ j" ki'tll 
ruin iarael. All those who make ( or do ) |y**J ^ J^ A-/J wim 
iamolii. Whosoever may come ^.^ ^ JS" A'M wzm iji. 

4W that l J$" MM wa, e.g.: 4M /m f/joit wishest all thou 
desirest ^s-' U J$" A-M ma tehhebb. 

OMer (m.)js\ akhor,s'mg. other (f.) ,Jyj^ akhora, or 
okhra, or okhara, sing. pi. com. ^j^ akhorin. 

Both (lit. the two) ~j>J bezuj. Neither the one nor the 

c/ * 

other, 1 st - ^r!"JJ Vj bj Y Za 7iada u'a ?a hadak. 2 nd - ^-L^ 
*^ -V=Jj /mffa icaJihed minnftm. 

Alone (by himself, by herself, ) by myself, by thyself, by 
ourselves, by yourselves. This idea is rendered by suffixing 
to the word J^tj icahhed, or J^a-u icahhed, the various per- 
-sonal_suffixes thus: I alone, or I myself ^-V^j valiliedl, 
or ^J^-j walihdl. Thou thyself, oXx^j iraJihedak. He himself 
wahhdUf etc. etc. etc. 

Very self or ownself, is expressed by using the words ~.j, 



ro/i/i, ^fj ?ie/ > 6 > ; vO- rfrtYs ; meaning ( strictly speaking) sou I, 
life, Hjiirif, person, individual, essence, joined to the suffixed 
pronouns and preceded by the preposition ^ be e.g.: I myself 

-sk.vJ ul ana berolilii. Thou thine ownself j>l^ o vJU>Ji t'y^^ 
o --> </ 

berohhak. He himself ( ^j^J j^ ) .x~fv-> j,* lirta bencfsfi. ( or fce- 
-rfthhil ). She herself l^A^ $ /i? benefsa. 

The Arabs use these same words to express our reflective 
pronouns e.g.: He killed J.l\i la'h'L He killed himself .x^jj J.:o 
/.r/,7 ruhlu'i . I love - _ *s*& kanhhcbb. I love myself -^.ar-o' L<! 

^j, mm Icniililti'ht) rohlt/. He throw ^ ermd. lie threw 
himself ( iakj. or) \~.;..' ---, r/';^ ncf'tit, i or rohlu'i. 

Such a one (m.) ^-2 fi-lnn, -Ab /',/n^i. Xnch a one (fern.) 

w 



1C5 



L-^.3 l'i-ldn<i } Jo^ fi-Jauiid. ( Anglici so and so ) e.g.: So and so 



of such a place 






al-fi-./nui. Sucli a tiling i 



1 II. The pronoun agrees generally with the noun it repre- 
sents, in gender and number, and when personal, also in 
person. See rule No. KO regarding the agreement of adjecti- 
ves and nouns. 

As the relative pronoun Jj II or JJ dli, is invariable in 
all connections nothing need be said regarding its agreement 
with its antecedent. 

EXERCISE XXVII. 



1. Thou art welcome (Ex. 

11). 
2. Art thou still alive. 

3. I am still alive, praise to 

God! 

4. Has anyone come? 
;">. Nobody has come. 

(). I last thou brought any 

book? 
7. 1 have not brought any 

book. 
s . Some one o i' you has 

stolen my pens. 

Literally / am '///( ///// 
much xisi'cl by Moors. 






Lr 



.. U 4. 
U t, 5. 



,\rv ^ ^.ov 



', ',' 7. 



J.o 



,:ii/lif',-. '\'}\\< i< a u e\pr''-~i"ii vi-ry 



106 

|t. Some of you have stolen 
my papers (70). 

10. Hast thou any (some) 

book>? 

11. I have some books. 

rj. Hast thou seen anybody? 
!:). I have not seen anybody. 

14. Nobody has bought the 

peaches. 

15. Have you seen any woman? 
10. "We have not seen any 

woman. 
17. Has any girl come? (Comp. 

7). 

is. No ( girl ) has come. 

Hi. Nobody is content with 

his fortune. 
L'(|. Xonc ( no-one ) of you has 

seen my wife. 
1*1 . Hast thou brought any 

thing? 
_'_'. I have not brought any 

thing. 
-2:\. We see tli" sun (26 

day. 



--'-. 11. 

i \> i:!. 
<>Lv 14. 



V .i. !.Xti, 15. 

' Sr "^ 



..> U j 



^JA 17. 

^U '.-- is. 
ca in. 



. : ^ Ji J' - ^ ' - n 

_S~^ J } _* J * 'V^ 

(*jf. w^ 



107 

24. Each (every) one buys v _^ 

whatever he wishes. ( ^_ 

25. Everyone docs the good 

he wishes. 

2G. Every moor ( lit. Moslem) 
has a musket (Comp. 13). 

27. The taleb arranged (a) 
the books each one in 
its place. 

2*. Every servant who may 
( shall ) ( 143 ) come to 
my house will eat (well 
feed ). 

29. Abraham has sold every 

thing. 

30. He passed the whole day 

in the market. 

31. Abraham has slept the 

whole night. 

32. I have not spoken the 

whole night. 



-1- 



27. 



29. 



,_\_> 



32. 



(a) Lit. to sett Ic ( or put in order ) . 

O 3 ) \~3 '>'<'' i>ssci1 the d<in, in the same sense as ,lj bats, passed 

^ "~ . 

night, 



168 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



2. ... laki ler-rohh? 

8, ... sardk. ... 

9. ... sarku ... 
14. ... khckh. 
1!. ... besddu. 

23. ... kanshufa ... 

24. ... kalshert (or taisheri) 

... kaihhebb (or taihhebb). 



25. ... katamel (or tatamel). 
kathheb ( or tathheb ). 

27. ... retteb ... modda. 

28. ... mM7 ... 

29. Ibrdlum ... 

30. ... fcaSiZ (a) ... 

31. .. 



] have not read 



Vocabulary. 



-) r 



Fall a 1 st - ( adj. (w.) ^<s^ mammar (f.) in 5 a (83) pi. in v 
'in (*4); 2 nd - ( m. ) ^JU wm/2 pi. in ^ -hi ( 84 ) must be followed 



JCAV hebrew fw.j ^-^v ^i"^* P 1 - 'j 

Grandfather Jo. jerfrf pi. ii^awi Jedacf; and 2^.\^ j 

Grandmother i'-Xa. jedda, or .^JA lilianiid. 

Slippers, shoes ( a pair ) 2*L belgha, pi. ^J-^b bdaglu. 

(He) fell or has fallen (wj.) ~'i- frtTz/z /em. (143) pi. L 



\Vall Jwla 7i/w?f pi. -k~2>" hhlyot; and JbL 
Wood ( or carpentering ) L^ khdsliba pi. in j^ ( CrJ ) and 
^ .A khasheb. 

Burned (adj. or past part, verb.) (m.) ^Jir=^ enhdrak (f. ) 



War 1 st - ji* sharr ( lit. meaning Evil, misfortune)pl. , 
(a) f?oc ii" e K-7. 



\ 

i-<'<:r; L )ni] - Vy* guerra sp.-uiish word ; :5 nl - literary word) 
_,,.?v hhat-b pi. _.j,,.x lihnrnb ( not used ). * 

Drowned, sunk, adj. past, part, verb) , Av-i gharak pi. 



Strait ( of a sea ) \^*> boglia~. 

Gibraltar -^.ILJ^a. jrh<-ltarik ( lit. Mountain of Tarik). 
Vulgarly pronounced Gebeltar. 

NOTK. Tarik \vas the moorish general who conquered the, Spanish king Don 
i Umli-ri'-k on tliu banks of the river Guadalete, in A. II. 0.'. 711. A. D. 



The liiff, ( a province of Marocco ) y^juJJI errif. 
Kiftian c^j '"'/' P^- cr'j^ rnafa, and v _ w , 7-?/ 1 . 
(He) Pulled out, uprooted, wrenched, wrested .U A-ZZd; or 
aL 5 /rr?Za (governs the accusative). 

Pumpkin lz^ karda, pi. in ^ (02 ) col. ^ ^ kard. 

i 

Hair sing. ^,x;, shdra, and ,;- s/iar; pi. ,^xi- shdur, and ,-xi, 



Girls. iLs r?;/a pi. in o ( ^s like mldts, den-tats ( Comp. 7 ). 
Frog. &!a. jarana, pi. in sj^>), < (J'J ) and .^^ jarai/i col. 

> * ^ ^' 

.1^ jdrdn. 
Tank ^. v ^ sahertj pi. -t-.' ,1^^ seharej. 

^- x_ 

COMPOSITION '27. 

1 have not read the whole day. The whole prison ( Comp. 
l.'i was full of prisoners. The whole quarter ( Comp. 22 
was full of jews. My grand father has sold (Comp. 2;>) all the 
slippers. The whole wall fell all the (pieces of) wood fell. 
The whole house was burned. All of them ( 143 ) died in the 
war. All the people ( M."> a were drowned in the strait of 

In Ar. this expression i* sing, not pi. as in English. 



170- 

Gibraltar. All the soldiers (74) went ( or have gone ) (Ex. 13) 
to Shawan. The whole army ( Corap. 6 ) of the Sultan went 
(pi. Ex.13) to the Riff'. He pulled out all the hairs. This 
Riffian uprooted all the pumpkins (col.) which were in the 
garden (Ex. 7). He brought all the lime (58) there was in 
the lime-kiln ( Comp. 24 ). All the girls have bought ( Cornp, 
ll)their dresses (Ex. 21). He bought (Comp. 10) all the 
barley (Ex.21) there was in the market. Have you seen 
(Comp. 8) the Sultan? They all saAv (Ex. 10) him. This is 
all (of it) pretty (Comp. 17). This is all beautiful (Ex. 18 ). 
My grandmother has bought (Ex. 21 ) all the chickens (Ex. 
21 ). All the frogs are in the tank. The whole tank is full of 
frogs. We have some peaches. Hast thou bought anything? 
I have bought nothing. Has no carpenter come? ( Ex. 14).. 
Hast thou some partridges? (Comp. 19). I have many par- 
tridges. 

EXERCISE XXVI11. 



1. Every one who docs not 

eat will die. 

2. All those who do not keep 

the commandments of 
God will go to hell. 
.'. Whosoever will come (143) 
to my house will have 
food (lit. will cat) (Ex. 
27). 






U .\ 



10. 

11. 

12. 



r 

Whosoever will come to ray 
house will receive an 
alms. 

The one im.) sleeps, the 
other (m). reads, ( or 
issleeping, or is reading 

The one (/.) is a seamstress 
6 ) the other (f. ) a 
spinner. 

Have the servants ( m. ) 
come? 

Ali has come but the other 
has not come. 

The other one (/".) remained 
in her shop. 

Both of them have gone. 

They are both mad. 

Neither the one (?n.) nor 

the other ( m. ) please 

me (or I don't like either 

the one or the other 

of them). 

I have not seen the one 
(m.) or the other (m.) 
(or I have not seen 
either of them . 



1 



M -} 

; - ^5^- 



~oj .^. 

W -' 



j&^ 



&& 9. 

yy 

, . J * . I fV 

a i* I M4*J* lv/t 

<. tt ;j *> 11. 



I- 1 !. 



-172- 

11. The others have gone to 
the mosque. 

15. The others (f. ) remained 

in their house. 

16. I am going (Ex. 3) to drink 

another glass of wine 
( Comp. 7 ). 

17. I am going to drink some 

more coffee (lit. some 

other coffee ). 
IS. Hast thou another 

inkbottle. 
10. Xo sir but I have another 

pen. 

20. Have you other books? 

21. Xo, sir, but we have other 

papers ( 70). 

22. T myself brought the 

money. 
2.'5. TheBasha hirascf brought 

it (lit. them the money). 
21. I, alone, drank all the 

wine ( Ex. 7 ). 
2"t. Thou by thyself drankest 

all the aguardiente 
Hrandy ). 



** 



d^ 15. 



o'i J) *,U U! 16. 



17, 



jcis 18. 



* ^- 



UJt 



21, 



173- 



2' 1 .. She alone remained in the 
house. 

27, The Vizir killed himself 

yesterday. 

28, So and so (m.) has told me 

(17) that thou wast on 

the terrace. 

2',K AYho has told it thee. 
.'in. So and so (/".) of such a 

place told it me. 
31. So and so of such a place 

told it me. 






Jl 27. 



^ 
C 



(a) o-O y 1 - 
(b) "^ 



11. 


... hhomak. 


12. 


... tajvbni .. 


15. 


... bekcin ... 


it;. 


... neslirab. 


24. 


... shardbt . 


25. 


... shardbt i 



Pronunciation of the foregoing 

... ma takut sh/ imrif. 

... ma ihhfed slit, nl-t'ixaiat 

... lemshi (c) ... 
... tjl ... ikbed 
... ndfiis ... 
... ghazzala. 
... bekftt ... :'.(). Kaletail ... 

Vocabulary. 

Drinks or will drink (m.) _,.^o tsh-rdb, 
Will intoxicate ( himself) (m.) .C^.- iskdr. 

(A] The fuinininc is used for our nouti-r irciuK-r lierc. 
iii it Is supposed that the knteeedeai ;i> masi-ulinc. 

K-. iMifi'il, and ' 



b) 



31. 



-174- 

All those who keep (i.e. observe, bear in mind) ^j! a^a. 

jcm'ta It Vili fed. (See Xo. 143). 
Heaven. Paradise, iTs. jenna. 
"\Vill go -A^j temsht. 

Whatsoever poor person ( beggar ) will come (or may co; 

o A'M?/ ?nm /'< mm e 



^. 

pi. w ^=~ /Y'7. 

' *- 

Chain i-L^Lw (for *LJU ) sensela. ( See Note to no. 77.) pi. 



Kuskusu ( arab preparation of flour ) j 
(He) robbed, has robbed , ^ sartik, (governs the accusa- 
-tivc ). 

It will rain UiJI J r y Ze?^eZ esh-sldd. 

COMPOSITION 1'.^. 

Two men have come, the one is a shoemaker ( Coinp. 1:2 ) 
and the other a tailor ( 7 ). One is a carpenter ( Ex. 14 ) and 
the other a blacksmith (61). These arc masons ( Comp. 15 ) 
and the others sawyers (Comp. 2G ). Every one who drinks 
much wine i Comp. 7 ) will be intoxica'ted. All those who 
keep God's commandments will go to heaven. "Whosoever 
(/'. ) goes to my house will (may) drink a glass of wine. 
Whatsoever beggar who will oomc to my house will receive 
two fluses of alms. I have found ( Comp. 10 ) a chain of gold 
in the street (Ex. 7). Hast thou another chain? Xo sir, but 
I have another ring (Ex. '2~2 ). Hast thou other brace! 
( Ex. i )- 2 ). Xo sir, but I have other anklets (Comp. _' i 
Hast thou another plank (Comp. iV, ). I have another plank. 
We have bought (Comp. 11 1 another calf. We have other 



175 

calves in the stable (Ex. 10). We have many calves. I alone 
ate ( 1G5 ) all the kiiskusu. Thou thy self ( alone ) h'.."* atest 
all the kuskusu. He alone ate ( 1G5 ) all the oranges (col. 
Ex. is ). She alone ate ( 1G5 ) ate all the pomegranates (col. 
Comp. 18). They (m.} alone ate (1(55) the whole pig (Ex. 24). 
So and so (m.) of such a place has stolen thy horse ( 26 ). 
So and so ( m. ) has stolen thy musket ( Comp. 13 }. So and 
so (/".) was in thy garden. He bought the horse on ( lit. in} 
such a day ( Comp. H ). He came at ( lit. in ) such an hour. 
On (lit. m) such a day it will rain, if God will, ( Ex. 13 ). In 
such a month (GO) thy* grand father (Comp. 27) will die (Ex. 
28). 



PART THIRD. 

VERBS AND PARTCIPLES, 



CHAPTER I. 

THE VERB IN GENERAL,. 

145. Arabic verbs are divided into two kinds, the primitive 
and derivative, They are called primitive when the 3 rd - pers. 
masc. of the preterite tense is composed of radical letters only; 
and derivative when the 3 rd - pers. masc. preterite, in addition 
to the radical letters, of one or more of the auxiliary letters. 
(25 I. 

14(3. Primitive verbs are subdivided into two sorts, the 
trilateral and quadriliteral, the former being those in which 
the root consists of three letters, and the latter those having 
four letters in the root. 

1 17. They are also divided into regular and irregular, the 
regulars being those whose root is composed of three sound 
letters (27) e.g.: J.^ dm el he made, he did, and irregular 
when any weak letter ( 27 ) is found in the root or, when the 
two final radical letters are alike and arc united by means of 
a shidda: e.g. \.~s* nsdl he arrived J'.J kdl he said ^ 

he loved. 
12 



17* - 

1-1*. The root of the verb in Arabic is the 3 rtl - pers. masc. 
sing, of the past perfect tense indicative mood. The letters 
which form the root arc called radicals, and those employed 
to form the derivatives, the tenses, numbers, persons and 
genders are known as auxiliaries. 

149. The conjugation is divided into moods, tenses, numbers 
and persons. 

There are two moods. The indicative and the imperative. 

Two numbers. The singular and the plural. (The dual is 
not in vulgar use the plural being used in its stead ). 

Three persons in each number. 

Three genders, viz: masculine, feminine and common. 

NOTE. Hereafter ( 180) the mode of supplying the other tenses of our con- 
jugation of verbs will be shewn.. 

The passive voice is not used in the vulgar tongue ( 179 ). 

CHAPTER II. 

BEGULAR VERBS. 

lf>0. Regular verbs may be divided into the triliteral or 
quadtiliteralf primitives or derivatives. The verb Avill be trili- 
-teral primitive regular \\\\c.\\ its root is composed of three sound 
letters, and quadrilitcral when composed of four (145, lit', and 
1 17 ). The derivatives will be treated of hereafter ( li'.'.t . 

$ 1. FORMATION AND COX.I U<; ATIOX OF TIIK KF.C.n.AR 
THILITKRAL VERB. 

l.")l. The auxiliary Idler preceding the root arc called 
, and tho<e following the root svf/i > 



170- 



Thc preterite tense, in both numbers has suffixes only. 

The future tenso has prefixes in the sing., and in the pi. 
botli prefixes and suffixes. 

The imperative has a prefix in the sing., and in the pi. 
the Nufflx |j, wa, besides. 

In the following table the letters represent the prefixes and 
affixes of the verb, and the dots the three radical, or root, 
letters. 

TABLE of the formation of a regular trilateral verb. 



PERSONS. 


(JENDERS. 


PRETERITE. 


FUTURE. 


IMPERATIVE. 






Singular. 


Singular. 


Singular. 


1st. 


com. 


t JL> . . . 


. . . j n 




2nd. 


com. 


fio... 


. ' r . i * 


... 1 a or e 


3rd. 


masc. 


Root . . . 


. . . J ? 




3rd. 


fern. 


c / 

e>o. 


,...ii 








Plural 


Plural. 


Plural. 


i* 


com. 


na u . . . 


A Jj . . . i n 




2nd. 


com. 


til |3 . . . 


-s 


i"f 'j . . . ' a or e 


3rd. 


com. 


*!> 


(a) ft L . . . j i 





i;i i 'I'lni tiinil iil/f <>f the jil. i.s not pronounced. 



11= 

152. Conjugation of the trilitera.1, primitive, regular verb 
J*s amel he made ( or he did). 

PRETERITE. 
Singular. 

1 st - pers. com. O L ^ ana ameU I made, or 

liave made. 

2 nd - pers. com. C^-l^ C-o! anta amelfi (a) Thou uiadest, 
or hast made. 

3 rd - pers. com. (m.) J.^ ^ hua ame? He made, or 

has made. 

3 rd - pers. com. (f.) Cl^ s* hia ainelef She made, or 

lias made. 

Plural. 

1 st - pers. com. UUo LaJ hhona ainebia We made, or 
have made. 

2 lld - pers. com. iyJUs *\j) antum amel^? You made, or 
have made. 

3 rd - pers. com. \_jLp ** hum amel/y They made, 

or have made. 

(a) In TetQftn the 2nd. person sing, bas two terminattoMi one for the mas- 

-cnlinc. and tin' other for tlic foniiiiiiic: fur c.\ainile: 

C. i 

2nd. pers. m;i>c. timn metdest ^JL^s ^j^j j anta arneK like the Jst. person, 

_>nd. ]ii'i-s. ffin. tliini niiiili'gf. ^J^- ^Jl ;uita "ini'lt/. 

Tliis diilVrriiti;il icnniiuit ion is n.-rd in Al.^rri.i al.~o. and it should lie borne in 
mind throughout all the Conjugations 



1*1 

PUT I 
Singular. 

l- ; pers. com. JL*JU '. ; i ana ?jamel I will make, 

or shall make. 



2 nd - pers. com. -jju j^J anta famel (a) Thou wilt 
make, or shall make. 

:! nl - pers. com. (m.) J. r *j _*s hua /amel He will make, 

or shall make. 

:! r(1 - pers. com. (f.) J..X> ^ hia darnel She will make, 

or shall make. 

Plural. 

1 st - pers. com. 'jU*J \^\ hhena namehl We shall ma- 
-ke, or w T ill make. 

i )lul - pers. com. |^*3 *-'' antuin t^melu You shall ma- 
-ke, or will make. 

.') rd - pers. com. LU*j ** hum ?amclrt They shall 

make, or will make. 

IMPEEATIVE. 

Singular. 

2 lul - pers. com. o-^ J^t! admel anta (b) Make thou. 

.1 In Al^criii they conjugate the ftitm-e and the with more 

ri'^iilarity, for cxainiili-. 

1'iitti,-!- v)iid. pur.*, inasc. Hunt n'/'lt ,,t<ik>' 1,^; ^J| anta fmcl. 



Onil. jiers. iVin. llou n-ilt nwki* ^.^ ^,,:\ miti 



,-iif/i-,- -jiid. pers. inasc. ^J^,;| L**' " am cl anta. 

tii-f Oiul. pers. fein. ^,Jl l^s ' aann-li nnti. 

~ " 



These diftViviicrs are not observed in Moroeeo, or at anyrate in those parts of 
it where, the writer lias been. 

(b) The sound of the. : after the 1,1, in the pi. is almost inaudible. 



182 



nd. 



rs. com. 



Plural. 

aamel antum Make you. 



I 



EXERCISE XXIX. 

1. What hast thou done, or ^-.Us '^ 1. 

what d i d s t , t h o u , or 
Avhat madest thou, or 
what hast thou made. 

2. That chatterer ( gossip ) J-** 3 '-^ 

will make nothing. Ji, 

,5. 1 have done nothing. 

4. Did the shereef write? o~> ^' (a) ^_^:-^==> 1. 

r>. lie wrote me a lettej 1 . 
(I. I have written a book. 

7. I will write a chapter (Ex. 

20). ' 

8. My cousin (son of my ! ^ Jj-^ (b) 

paternal aunt ) has be- j 
-come very emaciated 
( or enfeebled ). 

(ft) The future ruli/arli/ is .soiiudod - , i.e. the second radical letter of the third 
person. Future ha* the sound of our. -. e.g.: (He] will write > ^\ ; ii<-t'-/'. in 

the liti'i;il the futui'e lias the n, -ounil that is the <ln,iiiiH< thus: _;.C_ % >:>k-ti>'< or 

iak-trfb. 

1> I'm nre i-nli/,1,-/;/ is a. thus; k x.^j id-ai'f. If<- ii-itl > !> "I'tliin). 

The future Aing n^te. 






3 < 



11. 



(f) 



12. 



13. 



14. 



!>. Thou hast become 
enfeebled. 

10. If thou dost not cat thou v^*"^ <-.;. Jfls I.-- b' 10. 

wilt become thin. 

11. He raised his eyes to the L*JJ (a) 

eky. 

12. She raised her eyes and 

looked at me. 
i:>. He embarked on a steamer ,j$UJ J.^L <__ (c) 

( lit. he mounted ). (e) .HHi ^^^w^J! j\ (d) 

14. lie raised his hands to the 

sky (he uplifted his 
hands ). 

15. We embarked at Mar- 'L\~~,jj> <2__ L^==, 15. 

-seilles. 

1G. My aunt (maternal) has j_aJ, ^_ ^_^= r i' ^'-^ 1C. 
embarked in a boat 
(80). 

17. He obeyed his father. sltb ($. IL> .! ) (g) ^tx~> 17. 

^_- "* 

:i Translated literally /i/x //,-. The sufflxos of the possessive pronouns are 
very frequently joined to the names of the various parts of the body. 
(b) Translated literally hrr <//*>. See note a. 
(c Translated literally lit* /run/. See note a. 

(d) Future is 

(e) This really A Spanish word. 
if) Translated literally nlii)> 0!' ///.'. 
(g) Future is d, thus 



= j ierk'-h. //,- iril 



\jr. 

\ ; 



w 



18. 

I 1 .'. 
20. 



20. 
27. 

29. 

30, 

31. 



184 
Did you obey the king? (a) ^cJI 

We will obey you. 

I 

lie kept the Moslem reli- ^^JL^JIJ ,. y j.O! (b) 
-gion. 

21. They kept the religion. 

22. Keep thou the command- 

-ments of God. 
2.'). My cousin dwelt in the ,b __ (c) ( ., 

blacksmith's house. 
You will dwelt in Fez. 
My uncle (maternal) j^lAf <d) 

printed thy book. 
Print (or stamp) thou this ^..'-Ja. 1 ! u^ ( oo' ) =- -*' ^i 

seal in the wax. 

I will imprint it. jjuk; 27. 

Print ( you) this book. <_/-<\M 'jj. '.x.l- 

Ile became angry with us. LJ.a * --^i 29. 

He will become angry J- , s.^i.- ::o. 

witli ( lit. against) me. 
Write to me in Arabic. 



23. 

24. 

25. 



:i S]i;ini.>h \vtir.i B i:\. r, and Com]). u> . 

1> l-'iitnrr i- ., tlms: U i-:s -.' iliht'.d. ,'/// /..,/.. or will 



Potarc i- <and 
Ef 



r 

v* 



a. II' ''/'''"' "i- \vill stanij)\ 



1*5 



1. 

8. Wald Ammti dad/' ... 

10. Ida ma takul slit ... 

11. Erj'cd (or crfan) din it ... 
1'J. ... shafttflia. 

i:>. Erkib ... bdbor, bapor or 
esTiesltkaf den-nnr. 

14. ... iedu. 

15. ... Mat-stlla. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

HI. Khdlti ... 
17. Sitnf or f'i 



in. II/K'fed ed-din ... (or al- 
isldm ). 

J.'!. ... 



Ji;. ... tdbd ... 
29. GAad^fr ... 
31. ... bel-arbia. 



Vocabulary. 

lie know, lias known, was acquainted with, acquainted 
( root ) ^ _ ?vi ^"'^A governs the accusative, future is in a e.g.: 
s _ a t *j Idraf, lie Avill A'wo^r (a). 

To-morrow !j.i yhadda. 

^Vhcnce, from where . v -' ,. r ^ m/ din. 

C- w 

News, information, sing. ^ khabar, pi. iL^.1 akhbar or 



AVhy 1 st - Jaw! cr ' wit r?y'e7; 2 llli - Jj>! Zi'a?i?i ; folowed by the 
corresponding suffixed pronoun e.g.: Why I .^ liann't; Why 
thou o-^"^ liannek- Why they -^.'Y I'mimCim, etc. See 1'art 
IV on this particle. 

Fakihs (learned men ) l^b fokdhd, sin<;-. See Ex. 17. 
lie ) played ( or has played ) ^^ Iddb, root, future in a. 



Chess T ^kx%J 



sttfrinj. 



The future literal is fn i with a Jt00m thus 



180 

Tired (adj. part, pi.) ,.^'-^ aiyaneen, sing. Sec Ex. 1-1. 
He ) worked, or lias worked (' root ) ,>- X .A khedem, fut. in e. 

At night JJ-Mci fel-W. 

He) heard (root} *_ v . semari, future in a, governs the 
accusative of a noun and the preposition ..- min. 

He breakfasted ( root ) r i=3 fetur, fut. in a, governs accu- 
sative. 

Christian ( female ) 'i^\j*&* ensardnta. 

( He ) drank, or has drunk , _ ,^ sharab, fut. in a, go- 
-verns accusative. 

(He ) ascended or has ascended JLL talad, requires to be 
followed by preposition J. 

(He) descended, or has descended 1 st - k^ htbtit; 2 ml ' J K - 
enzel, requires to be followed by J and *. 

W 

Now !* l.'b dd&a; 2 nd - ^C ,i dorok or dn'ik. 



1 st - Arabic verbs are always cited by their third person 
masc. preterite tense indicative mood i.e. Where we would 
cite a verb as the verb to play, to knoic, to hear, etc. etc., the 
Arabs would refer to them as the verb he played, he knew, lie 
heard, etc. etc. etc. 

2 n(1 - Literally this verb is written ^ samiaa. To be able 
to conjugate a verb according to the rules of Literal or clas- 
sical Arabic it is indispensable to know the vowel point borne 
by the second radical letter in the preterite and in the future 
as well. But in vulgar Arabic these rules arc not observed. 
In Morocco the second radical letter of the preterite of the 
trilitcral regular verbs alu-in/s has the sound of a or c 5 and 



1 s? 

never that of i, o, or it; while the same letter in the future, 
takes, as a general rule, the same vowol as the preterite, and 
very rarely o, or ft, and never i. 

.'! nl - The imperative has always the same vowel as the 
corresponding person of the future. So much do the Moors 
wander from the classical rules' that they frequently sui-im the 
second radical letter, i.e. they drop the vowel altogether 
which is never done in the literal Arabic. Thus they say ^l^>^> 
ar-ftt } she knew. L=^ ar-fti, they knew. ( j.?,*- ; narfd, we will 
know. lj?j*i tarfu, you will know, instead of aarafet, aarafn, 
nxnrlfil, tadrifu, etc. etc. as in the literal. 

I th - The same irregularity is observable in Morocco, re- 
-garding the vowel borne by the first radical letter. This 
latter letter according to classical grammatical rules ought 
to take the fathha in the preterite and the socun in the future. 
Not withstanding this, in vulgar conversation the contrary is 
very often the practice, e.g.: O-O trek, he abandoned, he 
left, vlJp iter-ku, he will abandon ( it ). In these examples it 
will be observed that the preterite takes socun and the future 
fathha. The rules we have given respecting the division of the 
syllables. (No. 42 and following ) in many cases outweigh the 
literal grammatical rules. 

COMPOSITION 29. 

Hast thou known my barber? (01). I knew him (recognised 
him ) this morning ( Kx. 2."> ). He knew me in Ar/ila t Comp. 
21 ). -Aisha ( ;1C ) knew thec in Saffi ( Comp. 21 ). To-morrow 
I will know thee ( or acquaint thec) if God will ; Kx. lo). 
AVill the muleteer know me? (Comp. 14). Aisha will know 



1> 

you. Thou wilt know it. Whence did he know this news? 
We have known it all in Saff'i. Did you know the lesson ( Ex. 
4) better than i Ex. 17 ) them. I am tired (Ex. 14) because 
I have played much. The f'akihs were tired because they 
worked much. I will play chess. The student ( Comp. 15 ) 
has worked little ( Ex. 11 ). We will work at night. You 
will play at night. Hear (thou) hast thou breakfasted'? 
I have breakfasted. (On) what shall we breakfast'? We will 
breakfast on bread and butter. The Ambassador ( Ex. 21 ) 
heard my words ( col. Comp. 25 ). That Cristian woman has 
heard it. I have heard it all. Hast thou heard it? I will 
hear thee. This Christian woman will hear thec. Hear ye. 
I have eaten ( 1G5 ) little, but (Comp. 4) I have drunk well 
(143). Thou hast drunk little. They drank much. They 
ascended to the roof ( Ex. 22 ). The muleteers ( Comp. 14) 
went down (descended) to the stable (Ex. 1H). That bedouin 
(Comp. 2;>) will ascend the tower (Comp. 14). This sol- 
-dier has descended from the tower. Will you ascend the 
tower? Ascend, Mohamed ( Comp. 7 ). I will ascend now. 
The muleteer has ascended now. 



KXKRCISK XXX. 



( a ) C^-C, 1. 



1. The mueddin (b) stopped 
speaking and descended 
from the tower (Comp. 
11 . 

I'uturu is in 'i .-.;;. ^^C*..' i'--li't. 

(b) Arabic wor ! the man who calls to prayers from iliot 

mosque tower. 



- 1 - 

2. My aunt stopped speaking 

(Ex. 29). 
:-{. Who spoke? (a) 

4. The " ulema " spoke, And 

all listened to their 
words. 

5. When (Ex. 20) wilt thou 

speak with my (m. ) 
cousin? 

6. To-morrow I will speak 

with him. 

7. Be silent (b) ( thou) for 

thou knowest nothing. 

8. Sit thou here and we will 

talk a litle (Ex. 11). 

9. He sat ( down ) (c; in the 

chair. 

10. They sat down on my 

right. 

11. We Avill sit down at the 

fountain. 






(a) 



c 



U 



*^ 



II 



U 



4. 



G. 



7. 



8. 



3j^J ^ ^ 

^_(c) w J- '... 

^.^-O * )*4ACS. 10. 

^_5 .. .. o -^ 

? ( f\3i U ) ^ LJ. 
U! 



11. 



(a) Future iu a e.g. \ <j ihdiir, i]\ciii-/ll speak, 
J-"3.. 

ii The 2 D< 1. radical of the <mj)ra<iv takes the vowel M like the ft'tur<<, c.^-. 
((t. See note (a; JIM-C iss junl U],.-ITV;I tious in Yooa biliary preceding this Excr- 



l-'uturc is in I- ..J.^s"' ij-l-'ss. or i^a-l ( s. lie will sit down. Her after (lie 



190 

12. The Fakih i Ex. 17; was 

seated (Comp. 24) at 
the door of the mosque. 

13. With whom did your father c/r 1 ' ( a ) 

lie down, (a) 

14. He lay down with my ^.. J .A' =... jJ, 14. 

brother. 

Ifi. At what hour did thy aunt 
lie down?(b) (Ex. 29). 

16. She lay down at 10 o'clock. 

17. Jacob went into ( lit. . ~,.sr'J ., ,<,i*j (c) Uk- 17 

\^ T^--- .. ^ ' *r 

I 

entered ) the prison 
(c) ( Comp. 15 ). 

18. Enter ( thou ) here, and 

sit ( thou down ). 

19. I entered the city and sj^o i. . 2Ju.X_Jj _^Lo 19. 

bought two swords 
(Comp. 21 . 

futures will not be noted except when this second radical letter take- a different 
vowi-1 from the preterit^. 

he lay down nil. <l,'t. --lie lay down. The vowel sound of the 
i! radical letter in the root, is maintained in all the persons of the pn 
tlir ;;n!. PITS. fern, of the -in^r. and the ;>rd. ]>er.. com. of the pi., in which 
persons the second radical Ir.tter i- usually left without a vowel. v lions 

in Vacahnlary preceding this Kxercise jia^re 18t?. 

^e note a aln'\ e. 
(C) Future in l.^j..- id-klid In 



Ill 






20. 



U 21. 



c 
& 






23. 






*>. 



20. The F.akilis ( Coin p. 2! ) 

entered the mosque. 

21. My uncle (Ex. 29) has 

gone out to the country 
(a). 

22. We left the garden at 8 

o'clock in the morning. 

23. Go out ( thou ) from here 

( Anglico " Get out" ). 

24. The ambassador gained 

much money. 

25. How much money didst 

thou gain? 

26. I gained two thousand (60) 

dollars. 

27. If thou workest (b) thou 

wilt gain much money. 

28. That Englishman hast 

lost (43) three thousand 
dollars. 
2ii. 1 have lost ncthiim\ 



.1 l-'uture in ti ^j-J ikh-ruj- 

C-' 
ili 'I'lic /////. lias tVcMiicnilv the inoaniiif,' of our pr.-si'iit t.-iis.>: and it 

rcguliirly takes the place of the inflaitire in i:n-lisli. Tims /, say h.- has 

In luiy wheat. "Thr M !,.]- -ay lie has ,voii<' If fill buy wheat. 



y\> ^f (b) 



^^=,^ 



25. 



26. 



b! 27. 



31. 
32. 
33. 

34. 



192 
Thou hast lost all the 

money ( capital ). 
He searched for thee. 
He found the basket. 
He searched for it and he 

found it. 
They searched for him by 

sea and land and they 

did not find him. 
Search ye and ye will find. 



.^ jui 



30. 



32. 

j,.^. a &Jb , ^,X3 33. 
4 | ... .. a ., . 



I ! -r> 

' a****-.? ! Oc> 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



21. ... Itliarej nel-barra. 

J:>. ... mentemm, or temmn... 

J I . ... er&a/j/i . . . 

27. Ida tekhdem ... 

2S. ... nl-inglis (often pro- 
nounced also Enjllzi or 
Enjliz) ... 

31. Fcttsh ... 



1. S6k6t al-mudden ... 

.'!. ... Jiaddr 

8. ... /je'na ... 

!>. Jdles or (?eZ^s ... 

10. ... aid imhit. 

11. ... aind, ( or koddam) 

al-md. 

15. J^as/i mm srida/ ... 

17. Dakh(d ntkob ... .".I. ... fel Ixilihar n-d fcl-ber. 

Vocabulary. 

^ HQ ) lit. set fire to, J.*;;. .s/idd/, governs accusative. 
Candle ix^.i slimi'in. 

She ) extinguished O^aiaJi entefnt. 
Lamp J-'-'-.J knndil, pi. J..oL-J k<u\adil. 



in:-! 

Fire, light 1 st - sing, see 12 and ;"s, pi. ^.J luran- 2" (1 - 
sing. L^sls aa/Va. (Lit. meaning, health, comfort). 

Cigarette C$ garro. (Corruption of Spanish word cigarro). 

(I[e) seized, caught 1 st - ^.3 kebtd; 2 Iul -^Ii shebbar, governs 
tho accusative. 

By the ears ,.j*Oa ,.** wiin al-udnin. 
Hood s_lJ taf&b, pi. ^.^.kabfib. 

By the arm ^,3 .^ wu'n daraai, (lit. from w?/ arm ). See 
note on No. 11 of Ex. L )( .t. 

Tied tethered .k> , er&ef, governs accusative with pronoun 
and =1_ or preposition J and a noun in the accusative. 

Column, pillar ij ,'-~. saria, pi. ,_,!_ suart. 

The feet and the hands. ( Generally used in the sing. ) thus 
*so.;_j *^V' rejltim wa tedtim, 

With palmetto ropes 1 s *- JL.^U bel-hhebdl; 2" d -' JL-^'L- 
beahhbal, sing, see EIx. '.'. 

Angered, irritated, enraged verb governs accusative, .j^i? 
fdkdss. 

Talk, conversation, gossip j',Jj> hddrd. 

j 

Divided (lie) shared *~3 kas6m, governs accusative of nouns 
and is followed by ,.^j batn, preposition amongst. 

Division, part, share i^ 3 kesma, pi. >' 2' aksdm. In on by 
parts -.Lj' U a/a ak*dm. In three parts >Lj^3 i; ; 'b?.j U a/a 
t<-lnt<i de.l-aksdm. 

(He) killed J--:i Are7e7 ; governs accusative, pronou-n of and 
preposition _,. 

Dagger L^ kom'tla or gfania, pi. in Jl^ t'i'J . 

Bey a dignitary ) ^t'j 6a?. 

( He ) governed .Cs hh<>k<;m, governs the accusative of 

pronouns or nouns, and when used in the sense of to "judge " 
13 



194 

is followed by the preposition U. 
He judged thee \ 
He ruled thee oXls S= hhekem allk. 

/ 



With suavity, benevolence, kindness waj bel-letafa. 
Subjects, public ( of a ruler ) ( of any place ) Li. raiia. 
Nation, state , r-^ Jens, or gins, pi. ^y^ genoos. 

COMPOSITION 30. 

Who has searched for me? Fatma (98) has searched for 
thee. I have lit the candle, and it has gone out (become 
extinguished ). Who has lit the lamp? My mother lit it light 
( thou ) the fire. Each one (142) lit his cigarette. We caught 
him by the ears. The soldier (74) caught by the hood. They 
seized me by the arm catch thou him. I will catch him. They 
tied us to a pillar. We will tie their lianas and feet. Tether 
(thou) those horses (Ex.7) to this tree (Comp. 8). Those 
bedouins (Comp. 23) tied me Avith palmetto ropes. That 
Tangerine (m. ) ( 82 ), has irritated me much ( 102 ). They 
enraged us with their conversation. I will divide my wealth 
(Ex. 6 ) amongst the poor ( Comp. 17 ). Thou wilt divide the 
money in parts. He divided it in two parts. I divided the 

rice (Comp. 1C) amongst the poor. Hast thou divided the 



breakfast (Ex. 24) in three parts. We will divide this apricot 
(Comp. 16). He killed him with a sword (Comp. 24). 
Thou killedest them with a dagger. Kill thou this wild 
boar (Comp. 2G ). The thieves (Comp. 1*> ) killed his 
friend ( Ex. 19 ). The Bey of Tunis ( Comp. * ) governs 
his subjects with kindliness. --My mother ruled her houso well 
who will rule this nation? Nobody will govern it. lie judged 



1115 

my friend, (or he adjudged upon my friend . Who will 
judge him? ( a who will ty him ). Thou wilt judge him. 

;< _>. co\.ir<;.VTiox OF THE QUADRILITERAL 

PRIMITIVE REGULAR VERB. 

1.').'!. The quadrilitcral verb ( l-4(> and 150) is conjugated 
like ^+z (152) that is to say it has the same prefixed and 
suffixed auxiliary letters as rhe regular primitive triliteral 
verb with this difference only, that in the imperative it does 
not take the ! before the radical letters. 



i:. There are however some d-iliti'i-nl verbs which have four letters in the 
}nl. per.*, ina.-c. sinjr. of the preterite tense, and nevertheless are not quadrilitc- 
-ral. To be genuinely quadrilitcral the verb must be priniitici' and have four 
sound letters in the root. 



Quadrttiteral regular primitive verb 
he interpreted 



r ' tor jem 



PRETERITE. 



Singular. 



1 st - pers. com. 
interpreted. 

2nd. pers. com. 
hast interpreted. 

:; nl - pers. masc. 
interpreted (a). 

.'! ri1 - pers. fern. 
has interpreted. 



rJ terjem# I interpreted or have 



V terjemu' Thouinterpretedst, or 



,;x J terjem He interpreted or has 



^^ tcrjemef She interpreted or 



(a) In classical Arabic the third radical letter takes in the preterite the 

fnthhii. and in the future and imperative the /,*/((. lint vulgarly, the vo\v</l sound 
of the preterite, which is always n or c is ret.tined in the future and imperative. 



100 

Plural. 

1 st - pcrs. com. L*:x>y tcrjOirma We interpreted or 
have interpreted. 

onri. pers. com. |*V^y terjem^ You interpreted or 
have interpreted. 

:i r(L pers. com. -**.>P terjemtf They interpreted or 
liave interpreted. 

FUTURE. 

Singular. 

1 st - pers. com. *^ t :-' w-terjem I shall or will inter- 
-pret i a . 

_ )11(1 - pers. com. *^t-v Merjem Thou shalt or wilt 
interpret. 

:> rtl - pers. masc. *^.,.".' Merjem He shall or will inter- 
-pret. 

.'! nl - pers. fern. *->> Merjem She shall or will intcr- 
pret. 

Plural. 

!-' i-'crs. com. ^*=^-"J Ji-terjem/> We shall or will in- 
,-tcrprct. 

L )II(I - per*, com. U Y .a., #-tcrjemrt You shall or \\'ill in- 
-terpret. 

:! nl - per-, com. L v v^x f .O /-tei'jem/> They >hall or will in- 
-terprct. 



I' In- piTliM-il i if | lir I'll hire r.u^'lit litiTall v tu tiiUr :i /'' (//, til MS; ^^ y ^, _ 

lint vulgarly they take ii" \.i\\d \\ h.iti'ViT i-xcrjit perhaps, in the J^st. and 2nd. 



rr-oii. ;i kind of, , ;iimo>t inaudiiilc. tluis: ETnterjem, teterjem, nterjemQ CM 



I'.iT 

[MPEBATIVE, 

Singular. 

J 1 " 1 - P<TS. coin. Interpret (tlioa i\i,- ; l) rvy tcrji'-in anta . 

Plural. 

L >nd. p,'rs. com. Interpret i >< . . ,_:_:') L.^.^,J tcrjcim"/ 
ant fun i. 
^uadrilitcral verbs arc little used in the vulgar toutfue. 

KXKIM'ISK XXXI. 

1. The interpreter did not <i~- ,~ ^ v ' '.- ,U=k.x)l 1. 

\ ^~ I > c '> 

interpretet well, (has a 

not interpreted ). 
L*. T have interpreted his L.- t *M . r .* .^ ^-.^^ L : ! '1. 

'"s ^- * * J 

words from Arabic to 

Spanish. 
'.\. They interpreted from iJJL*aJ! r .* 

Siianish to Arabic. 
I. Who caulked thy ship^'.'.i . 

;".. Thy cousin (m.) caulked it. jsj o^s J-j 5. 

6. If thou wishest I will 1C.1U" L:.U; 'j< _.>c v ';! .;. 

caulk sit ) thy small- Jj'.o 

-boat. 

Corruption ni't In' ol,i--sical word 



198 

7. We have caulked our 

barge (Ex. 11) . 

8. Have you caulked Abder- 

-hman's barge (Ex. 11). 

9. We will caulk it to-morrow 

(Corap. 29) if God will. 

10. Thy son scratched me. 

11. The lads scratched him 

in the market. 

12. Thy daughter scratched 

my face. 



13. The Doctor opened (lit. to 

me ) me the boil. 

14. They burst with laughing. 

15. Who tinned this saucepan? 
1G. The tinsmith tinned it. 

17. I have tinned thy cand- 

lestick. 

18. The tinsmith will tin my 

lantern. 

19. Tin (thou) this saucepan. 

20. He disturbed the water. 

21. They disturbed the water 

of the tank (Comp. 27), 



.UJt 



LUU 

L;:U3 



7. 



10. 

11. 



&j 12. 



JUJ! J, 



, 



i u. 

> 

SL\ 15. 
y^ji us. 

L'ii)3 17. 

bi" is. 



20, 






22. 

2.",. 

24. 



1 
You will disturb the river. 



2t>. 



27. 



2'.. 



Thy cousin rejoiced at my 

coming. 
My mint Kx. 29) rejoiced 

at thy coming. 
The good people (lit. men) 

have rejoiced at the 

good of the poor (Comp. 

16) (meaning were 

happy at something 

good for the poor ). 
When my master (Teacher) 

comes (143) (Comp. 12). 

I will rejoice much. 
When my brother comes 

my mother w r ill rejoice 

much. 
That rogue robbed me of 

four goats. 
They robbed the Kadi of 

all his money. 
The thieves ( Comp. 15 ) 

will rob thee of the 

mares. 



11 



i! J! U^ 22. 

^Jl- ~ V 3 J;^ jj. 23. 

-/ , ; -J 



\J 



"j ^^f-9 6 s)U 24. 



2G. 



r? ^"~ w5 



g y^~o *W .a 



29, 



30. 



200 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



1. Et-turjuman ma tcrjt-m 16. ... al-kazddr 

shi mesakkam. 17. ... al-hheska ... 

2. ... lesbaniilla. 19. ... dayhla ... 



4. ... kalftt ... 
6. Ida telihebb .. 



20. Khar vet ... 
22. .. ftl-v.dd. 



10. Kharbtshui ... 23. ... farahh Id-n-dsCd ... 

11. Al-aidl ... 24. ... ?m''/' ... 

12. ... fijhl. 25. En-nas al meldhh ... 
l.'j. ... tartak ... ed-demmdl. 2i>. Ilheln or 77i?H ... 

14. ... bed-dahhk or delilmk. 2>'. ... hhardml mirdk... maa~. 

15. ... kazdar ... tanjir. 

Vocabulary. 

(He) bespattered iaio^ barshct, governs an accusative and 
is followed by preposition ^ e.g.: ^ : 4-''- : 1 iaij barshct bel- 
ghdis, lie bespattered with mud. 

(He) pinched ^? J karfes, governs accusative, also -r f i 
kdrts. 

(He) tiled ( covered Avith tiles ) J--v karmcd, governs ace. 

(He) saddled (with a back saddle) ^2^ berdd, governs are. 

^ ' ' 
He) neighed ^.x- 1 ualilmdlih. 

(He) brayed k ; ^ JiarnM; ^ nehdlc. 
Asses, donkeys v *-^ lihamlr, ^ sing, see 2(1 . 
(He) mew('d ^_^-*- mairak, or mitir<i</. 

Cats H--LL? A-o^of; and i""i- J='._l=_j A't7ttf. and ; 
^ 

rnt'shash, (sing see Comp. 8 ). 
( He ) croaked J^- ; ^ taktdk, ( used of storks ). 




201 

Stork xj&i belarej, pi. in ^>\ ( G2 ). 

(It ) sprouted J. r v~. xanbel J. ? ~! as&e/. Quadriliteral form 
little used ). 

Wheat, (' sec Ex. 9). 

Indian corn 1 st - ' C_> turkii/; 2 1I(1 - I_x_J i beshna pi. ..'-^.. i 

" ^* 



i lie ) bleated *.<**j bdbaa. 
. GT 1 

Ewe 1 st - i^ 30 if/rf; pi. in vj^'! (02) and also r -*- ; ?idrf/; 2 

C^ 

, pi. in j^' 1 . t>2) col. 



COMPOSITION HI. 

Thou hast bespattered him with mud, We have bespattered 
you with water .Thy aunt (Ex. 20) bespattered me with oil 
( OS ). He pinched me. I will pinch thec. You will pinch us. 
He tiled thy house. They have tiled the large mosque. He 
saddled the donkey. Did you saddle the mule. I have 
saddled the mule (Ex. 7). Saddle ( thou) that donkoy. My 
horse neighed ( 2(i ). Have thy horses ( Ex. 7) neighed. Has 
thy donkey brayed. The muleteer's ( Comp. 14) donkeys 
brayed. Thy cat has mewed. My cats mewed. The stork 
croaked. The storks croaked. The wheat (stalks) sprouted. 

The barley sprouted (Ex. 21). The Indian corn sprouted. 

The barley will sprout. Thy ewe bleated, my sheep bleated. 

CHAPTER HI. 

IRREGULAR VERBS. 

1 .">!. The irregular verbs arc divided into seven kinds, 
namely the mute. Assimilated) concave, defective, limn- 
and double imperfect. 



^ 1. MUTI-: VK 



lf>5. Verbs are styled mute when their last letter and the 
letter preceding it are the same, in which case the penultimate 
letter is suppressed, and a shidda is placed over the final 
letter; e.g.: ,_^._^ hhabb he loved, for ^+- .^: _,C_.L shakk 
he doubted for ^t,C.\-L. 

The preterite is formed by inserting a ^r between the last 
radical letter and the suffixes excepting in the 3 rd - persons 
sing, and pi. (a). 

The future and imperative. The future is formed by the 
same auxiliary letters as are used in the triliteral verb (151) 
(b). 

The imperative does not take the initial !. 

1 he vowel sound taken by the first radical letter is always or r and is 
maintained through all persons of the preterite. 

(b) The vowel sound taken by the first radical letter of the ;")rd. per?. 111:1*0. 
future may be '. , or ;*, audit is maintained in the other persons, and in the 
imperative. The prefixes of the fut. n/7</. have no vowel. Notwithstanding its being 
against the rules >f grammar, the initial consonants are often soann in the vul- 
-gar. when they do not form a syllable with the letter following letter. Kveu in 
tin- vulgar, h.iwever mie may detect the sound of an < rapidly articulated. 

If the consonant articulated be a . , e . -i '"' I'" 1 '* almost inau- 
-dible < is iironoiiiH-cd ///../, th'- nd <o in the transliteration, tin 



y been ]>laced lii.-t. l-'nr example: /--fed. and v-I'aa. he raided ,' I-'.x. _".i 
intaiii. mine No. i;: . n-dari: to my h'.use \,,. r;t: *-fiua and - -h-kaf sliiji Comp. 



1 st - pers. com. 

ond. pers. com. 
loved. 

;> nl - pers. masc. 
(a). 

3 rd - pers. fern. 



Conjugation of the mute verb J^aw hhabb 
he loved (he desired he liked). 



PRETERITE. 
Singular. 

~..a. hhabbii I loved or have loved. 
w,.a. hhabb^i Thou lovedst or hast 

^-2.. hhabb lie loved or has loved 

^.^ hhabbel She loved or has loved. 
Plural. 



1 st - pers. com. 
loved. 

2" a - pers. com. 
loved. 

;> r<1 - pers. com. 
loved. 



I**- pers. com. 
i>" (1 - pers. com. 
.')''' pers. masc. 



hhabb??za We loved or have 



You loved or have 



s hhabbft They loved or have 

FUTURE. 

<* 

Singular. 

e?ihhebb I shall or will love (b). 

r 1 ' fehhebb Thou shalt or wilt love. 

) , ?hhebb He shall or will love (b). 



.'! nl - pers. fern. JLor-' fehhebb She shall or will love. 

^ce note a page 201. 
(b) See note b page i'nj. 



- -JOI - 

Plural. 

1 st - pers. com. I.Iar' enhhebbri We shall or will love. 
_ )n<1 - pers. com. |^-^-' fdihebbtf You shall or will love. 
:! nt - pers. com. \^~. ?hhebb/> They shall or will love. 

IMPERATIVE. 
Singular. 

_>mi. pers. com. (sj^o) , ^ hhcbb (anta hive thou). 

Plural. 

_ )ml - pers. com. (*-^) ^-^ hhebbft (antum) love ye. 
KXKKCISK XXXII. 



1. He loved me a little. 
L'. She loved thee much. 
:>. I will love you from today 
henceforward. 

4. Since he saw us he loved 

US. U*a. :3'.^ 

5. Love ( thou ) me much. ^_J ;_''._. c,oi 
i'.. The guardian of the quar- J) > s_^ '..= i., 

-ter did not wish to 
rob. (a) 

7. The general desired to ( ,_i_.- J } <, ^s_; 

write to the shcrcef of , . : < r ;JJ 

^ s -* ~" * 

w a/can, (a) 

fVe li"\v tin- English inrinitivi- i- .-X] 
)>"((. 1 \\\ iKig. i:i|. 



1 



( c*:' 



. ' . n - 
-- ' t . 



205 






s. The general will want to 

(a) embark on this 

steamer. 
9. After lie entered (Ex. :;<> ^_,U) (b) j-i, J., 

he shut the door. 

10. When wilt thou shut the 

door, shut it soon. Lii 'j'j.^. 

11. Shut (thou) the door with L^ J.J .j-jxj'j 

tlie key ( 72 ) (AngUci 
lock the door ) before 
they come. 

12. lie opened ( c ) the door 

and entered the house. 

13. I opened the door, and I 

saAv an italian (m.) in 
the street ( Ex. 7 ). 

14. Open I thou) the door bc- 

'-forc they come. 

15. After the girl ( Comp. 7) 

shut the door s li e ^ '. 
opened t he window 
(10). 

a See note a thi> FxerrNe No. i!. 
ili Future is in ,/. j ^_, ix/n/dd, he will .-luit. See note li N.I. i:<:> 

C Future is in i'i. \ _,--' ilili/ill. lie \\ill open, 
d ^ is a regular, triliteral verb. 



10. 



11. 



- 12. 



!'>. 



C 1 






206 



16. To-day I needed the 

wheat. 

17. I will need a manservant 

(Ex.7). 
]*. I require (need) a master 

( or tradesman ). 
1!. I need a cup. 
2n. We need the money ( Kx. 

13 . 

21. Do you need any cup? 

22. Wo need a cup, a bottle 

(Comp. 9) of wine, and 
pound (60) of bread 
(Ex.o). 
2;]. A dog has bitten me. 

21. That dog will bite thee. 

_'.".. A bee stung ( ar. bit ) me. 

2H. The bees will sting you. 

_'7. A flea has bitten me. 

2>. The fleas icol/i have bitten 
us very much during 
> ar. in , this night. 



I utiirf i- in -. ^^-- ikh''ss. >i 

w 
llic jirc.-'-nt ti'ii-i' i> formed by 



r - ' V-'! (a) ..vJ^k 

*w" ' >B> 



J! 16. 



JUxJI 



JU! 



(b) e*^^ 



19. 



JjJl . 
iU- 1 



(c) ,^ 2;',. 
~ *t? 

(j^ J' ! ) 
r!j.> ^-C2*; 21. 



z -27. 
J 1 28, 



Flit HIT is in o. 



note b No. i.'i.'i. 
or a ^ j to the fulure. 

iu.nld. Sci' note ' 



'7- 

20. He forgave mo the hire ' '-0' -"_ ^J ^+~, 20. 

(Ex. 20). 

30. Forgive me! (Excuse me! o ' ^~' :;o. 

31. I have forgiven thee. s^XJ o^^~ 31. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

.'!. ... mi))' hend en-koddam. Id. ... kliass-ni ... 

4. Melli ... (or min vakt />)... 23. Addd-ni ... 

I). Mokaddem al-hhdumd ... 25. ... ndhhla ... 

( or beghd) -... 2('. ... ndhhl or nahJial. 

7. Al-kh<dniav ... vazan. 27. ... bdrghota. 

0. Bad ma ... shadd ... 2.s. Barghot ... /c 7id Z- 

11. .. /aW ?na i/irt. 



-_>. 7/ArfZZ (or fetdhh) ... 



29. Semahh ... 



13. ... tdllan ... 

Vocabulary. 

lie doubted, suspected JLCi, sMkk, future in e, governs 
accusative, and ^__ with a noun or pronoun. 

(It) pained, hurt, grieved v o darr, fat. in o, governs ace. 

(He) pinche'd, nipped ^-~ chakk, future in n; governs 
accusative pronoun, or, and preposition , . with or noun. 

Pin iJ^k khalala, and J^ khalal, pi. in c_' (02) and 
J-^A klutldil. 

Lance ( noun ) i,i, ;.- mezray, pi. , 4 ,'^ mezartg. 

I !< sindr, .^nift'ed Z^ shdmm, fat. in ?t ; governs accusative. 

3e (noun) ?J,j fiarda, pi. in ^! (02) col. ^,j ^vnv/. 
Ife) sprinkled, ( he ) watered. .. , ntxhxh, future in ; 
governs accusative. 



208 

This afternoon LA^J! J.j =1_ fi had al- 
Pinks, (carnations) col. J^y koronfel, pi. in ^ (02) sing. 
Ex. 8. 

With orange (or lemon) flower water v >; Uj fc^md zaliar. 

With rosewater i, . U- 6e?m? n-ftrd. 

^ -* 

He restored, gave back -, ra<M, future in , requires J 
preposition and accusative of nouns. 

Money, capital, means, wealth, treasure JU mri? pi. J'y" 



COMPOSITION 32. 

The general doubted my word (Comp. 25). I have sus- 
-pected thee. My aunt ( Ex. 29) has suspected you. lie will 
always suspect thee ( Ex. 25 ). Hast thou doubted me. They 
suspected us. That Italian (Ex. 32 ) injured me very much. 
-The barber (01) will do you no harm 1 VI .You pitied 
me. They pitied us. I have not hurt anybody ( 142). You 
injured me in money ( Anglici, you hurt me financially ). He 
pricked me with a needle i 5 ). He pricked thee with a pin. 
They stabbed us with a lance. He will stab thee with a knife 
(Comp. 10). He will stab you with a lance. Hast thou smell 
anything? I have not smelt anything. He Avill smell this 
rose. Smell (tjiou) this rose. -- Smell yc this pink Kx. - 
Hast thou watered the roses'? I watered them this morning 
( Ex. 25 ). Have they watered the pinks? The manservant 

Ex. 7) will water them this afternoon. The fakih Ex. 17 
sprinkled us with orange flower water. I will sprinkle thee 
with roscxvuter. He gave me back the money. The Sultan 
will restore thy wealth if Clod will f Ex. 13). 



209- 



$ -J. ASSIMILATKD vi:ui;s. 

1 .");. Assimilated verbs are those whose first radical letter 
is a j or a .^jr. They arc conjugated like the regular triliteral 

l.")J ). The imperative however, cither does not take an ini- 
-tial ( , or, if it takes it the \, is not pronounced. 

These verbs although styled irregular by grammarians do 
not present any irregularity in the vulgar Arabic of Morocco, 
as Avill be seen in the followed conjugation. 

Conjugation of the assimilated verb J-j usal, he arrived. 

PRETERITE. 

I have arrived, I arrived, etc. etc. etc. 



Singular. 

1 st - pers. com. O^>j usaU. 
2nd. pers. com. sJ^Usj usalfi. 
3 rd - pers. masc. J-^j usal (a) 
.') ri1 - pers. fern. o^J-^sj ues-le^. 



Plural. 

1 st - pers. com. Id^jj iisahia. 
2nd. pers. com. LxLsj usalfft. 



3 rd - pers. com. 



ues?w. 



FUTURE. 
I til Hill, or win, arrive, etc. etc. etc. 



Singular. 

!-' pers. com. J-^ ?iusal. 
i )n(1 - pers. com. J-oJ fusal. 
.'J r(l ' pers. masc. J-^y ?usal. (b) 
;; rd - pers. fern. J-^ 



Plural. 



1 st - pers. com. UL^J ?iiiesl/?. 
2 nd - pers. com. LLs_J h\esl. 
;> rd - pers. com. Llo^j ?ueslrt. 



i i ii tin- jirrt' i-ifi 'tin- vnwrl of iiic second radical letter is d or e except in 

the third prrs. t'l'in. of the singular. :uid <>( the third pers. plural, in both of \vhu-h 
the second radical N gOCUlt. In the future and imperative the second radical takt - 
in the singular dm same vowel as in the jiref erite. and in the pi. it lakes none. 
The irregularity which these \eriis show in classical or literary Arabic 

u 



IMPERATIVE. 



Singular. 

2nd. pers. com. J-^j or 
usal. 



Plural. 

2 nd - pers. com. iji^j or 
ueslrt. 



EXERCISE xxxin. 



! JL0 



1. When (Ex. 20) will you | 

arrive at Tangier? 
(Cornp. 3). 

2. To-morrow if God will, is-vdJ !JLsJ t^\ I.:- .\' 

we will arrive at Tan- 
-gier at 5 oclock in the 
afternoon ( Comp. 32 ). 

3. When did you arrive at 

the fundak. 

4. We arrived at sunset, (a) 

,"). My mother bore two sons iY^ai ~j\ o_.o.J 
and three daughters, (b) 



AJ_-.*!J L-JU. j^ d 

i It < M . 

i hX^.. v^7 . 



I. 



C(iii,-ists hi this than when their sn'oml radical letjcr takes n I-CK,;I in the t'utiiiv, 
they drop tlic first radical letter in that tense, and in the imperative, thus: 

f c. 

hi- tn-rii-nl; L^y In- n-ill arrive; \..^- c/'/'/r, ; thou ; j._^ a In: j>i-i'/iii- 

c 

>';/! promise; _; promise th(m\ 



a ^ , ij iiiiii.ir<li \~ a nonn Hi' place, and signifies MeraMj/the /v./ci n-k, r<- 

///, ./' ,w^.y or ///, icert. < Hie df tin- .\lo-~leni call- to prayer is thus named, a.- i i 
the .-et nl' ]>rayers repeated at that liniir. i.e. snnsot. 

(b) Future in <, f''"- J..' J tul.d. she \\ill K : .ve /'/;V/i 1. 



211 

I). My aunt MX . _".' has 

given birth twice (60). 
7. This woman has never 

given birth, (a) 
My cows Kx. _' I have 

often given birth. 
;>. Thy mother is pregnant, 

and later on will give 

birth. 

10. This Mooress has marked 

her hands with indigo. 

11. Those Moor esses have 

marked their faces with 
indigo. 

12. 1 do not wish ( Comp. _'." 

thee to mark thy face 

with indigo, (c) 
1.'!. I wish you to mark your 

hands with i.c) indigo. (d)| 
1 1. The wheat became dry. (e) 

Sre No. :!!:; ami />< Wf No. I'L'S. 
(b) Stitiii, me.ins strietly lutii,-, and 



(b) 



-'J 10. 



, ^3T'O 1.'). 



14. 



_ /";.<(i(i is a contraction of ^ 



(c) Remember that our infinitive is expressed in Arable by the future. 
d' See note c, of E.\'Tci-r L".', pajre is:;. 



Future in e, 



. >' ill -//;/ ( will become dry ). 



212 

15. The peas and beans be- 

-came dried (Comp. 23). 

16. The barley will become 

dry to day. 

17. To day the haricot-beans 

will become dry. 

18. This afternoon (Comp. 32) 

the rice will become 
dry. 

19. This river (Ex. 31) will be 

dry a month hence. 

20. How much (Comp. 0) did 

the salt butter weigh'? (b) 

21. It weighed twenty pounds. 

22. It weighed two pounds 

and two ounces (60). 

23. The wool (58) weighed 

twenty quintals. 
21. This wax (58) will weigh 

two quintals. 
2."). Wo will weigli the meat 

(~>*) in this balance, (c) 

(a; Third JUTS. ('cm. of siii^. 
I' Kinur.' in - . ,\\ *j ii'i/.rii. f/'ll /<- : ; /h. 
Thr noun I'xjn ///, or 



'L; JJl ('a) , ^J 
/ jj ... 

J I w J 



16. 



17. 



18. 



19. 



:M. 



takc> one 



,;'3 



JJ'o , 
?/ w . 



213 

Jii. Weigh I'thou.' it wherever 

thou wishest. 
27. The sheep (Co in p. 21 

weighed little. 
Phis cannon (Ex. 11) 

weighs much. 
2H. The gold weighs more 

(99) than ( the) silver 

(Ex.22). 
30. My sheep ( Comp. 24) 

weighs more than thine. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



Wj 



29. 



.. fel-maghreb. 
.. n:eldt ... 
1. ... (tom-ra, or aomer-ha ... 



ben-nila.. 

11. ... vjhum ... 

12. ... ti'iahcm fijhak ... 



*. ... bezzaf dal-marrat. 13. ... t&eshmti iedkttm 

'.'. ... Jihobla ... (or liliamela). 14. J6^ ... 

srftid (or flsda ... 17. ... al-lhbia. 

10. ... 'ueslimut tedd (sing.) 19. ... min daba or 

formations , . . > !'* 01' 5 . . * tnus: .>'^ mizan, balance, ins- 
trument fur -cifjhiiig from .; liztJn, he weighed; - p ntinshar, a sate; ans- 
Cj^ J , 

troment for sawing from ^.j M&ar, he sawed; ^ rA .j mebrad, flli-: instrument 
fur tiling from _) ,. !>d i-l. If /tli'il: ijj^i i/i'V-/M/,'i/, vulgarly ><ntirkii. // 



from ^ ^_s tui-i-i,-, hosiruok; this word is not in common use ) or ^" t j- tin-rule. 

^ > ^^x 

second derivative form. ( Itl'J i //< linnnnn-cd. 






note 'i to No. is of K.xcrcise ::.', IIP.U. JI'L. 



wdhhed esh-shah)-. 



20. ... i'i~< : 



25. ... tntzdn. 

2(>. ... fain tehhebb. 



Vocabulary. 

(It) occurred. (It) happened. (It ) befell *-?j nkdd, future 
in ci, is followed by preposition J. 

This (thing) iJ! <Jjs had esht. 

Suddenly, on a sudden ijUc ^.z ala ghafla. 

In during last year Jj^ -'-*^ <H fel-ndm al-nftcl, or *U)! _ 
^oU-M fel-aam al-fdit. 

In the coming year, next year, or following year 1 st - =L_ 

( aJ. r M _,1 ) ^_clarvl yjJl fel-aam al- j at, (or al-mdji; 2 nd - =L_ 
>^ i 

JjlaJ* >lx)l fel-aam al-kdbel. 

Thus in this manner 1 st - 'J.\V hakda- 2 lul - IjjU hatda. 

(He) halted, stopped, tarried, stood, (was) detained ^" 7 ?j 
fikaf, future in ^ (fut. lit. i, kesra). 

Friend (fern.} Lc.Lc sahhcba, takes suffixes thus ^..^'.o 
xaltliebti, my friend, etc. etc. 

(He) inherited sJL.-,j ??/'e^ future in t>, (fut. Z/7. i, kesra), 
governs accusative noun, and takes prepositions __ or ..-. 

( He ) shipped, ( loaded on board a ship > 4~-_. .</_, future 
in a, ( fut. /<7. i ), governs accusative noun. 

Shipped, adj. or past partciple ^~^ mntuk. 

COMPOSITION .'!.'). 

What has happened? Nothing has happened ( M2 ). What 
has befallen thee. Nothing has befallen inc. Has aught )><- 



215 

-fallen him? ( 111 ). Nothing has befallen him. How (Ex. 1) 
did this happen? This happened suddenly. When (Ex. 20) 
did UK- general's death occur? ( Ex. .'12 ). It occurred last 
year. It occurred last month. Next year, if God will (Ex. 
13 ) it will not happen thus. How did this occur? It occurred 
in this manner. Next month it will not happen thus. Where 
( Comp. 3 ) was your uncle detained ( Ex. 29 ). He was detai- 
ned in Ceuta (Ex. 21 ). They were detained in the middle 
(118) of the road (22). I tarried in the garden ( Ex. 7 ) of the 
barber (61). He stopped at the door of thy friend feminine. 
He inherited a thousand dollars from his father. These 
lads (Ex. 31) inherited (Comp. 32) the wealth of their father. 
-That (person) will inherited the wealth of his father. I 
inherited the sixth part (118) of the money. Thou inheri- 
-tedst the third part ( 118) of the money. He inherited four 
(Ex. 24) gold rings. Yesterday (Ex. 20) he shipped all the 
wheat (Ex. 0). This afternoon (Comp. 32) he will ship all 
( 143) the wool ( 58 ). To day (Ex. 12) we will ship the chick 
peas ( Comp. 23 ) of the merchant ( Ex. 8 ) Joseph ( 97 ). The 
ship (09) is loaded. Our ship was ( Comp. 6) loaded in Ca- 
sablanca ( Ex. 9). 

3. CONCAVE VERBS. 

lf>7. The concave primitive verbs are those whose second 
radical letter is a j or a ^. These two letters arc in the root 
(i.e. the third person masc. of the preterite) always changed 
into !. For example Jy and ^- ; r , are for the sake of euphony 
written Jl3 kal, (he i said: and O" bat, he passed the night. 

The concave verbs arc divided into three classes. 



neraJ observations. 

1 st - All the concave verbs retain the ' in the 3 rd - persons 
of the preterite, and drop it in the remaining persons of that 
tense, and in the 2 nd - pers. sing, of the imperative. 

jmi. The initial \ of the imperative always disappears. 

1 st - class. 

The ! of the preterite in concave verbs of this class is chan- 
-gcd into j in the future, and in the 2 nd - pers. pi. of the im- 
-perative. 

In all the persons which drop the ! ( see above observation 
1 st - ), the first radical letter takes a damma. In those of the 

2" d - class. 

The \ of the preterite is changed into j: in the future and 
in the second pers. pi. of the imperative. In all the persons in 
which the \, disappears the first radical letter takes a kcni-a. 
In the concave verbs of the 

:;"' class. 

The \ of the preterite is retained in the future, and in the 
2nd. person pi. of the imperative. 

All the foregoing ruled are clearly shewn in the following 
conjugations, 



1.")S. Conjugation of the concave verb of the 1 st - class 
^ kan ( lie ) ii-as, ( he ) existed ... 

PRETERITE. 



l sf - 



3rd. 



Singular, 
pers. com. o kfinf 

I was. (a) 
pers. com. ^,--S kunf/ 

Thou wast, 
pers. masc. X kan 

( He ) was. 
pers. fern. vj^J^ kan^f 

(She ) was. 



Plural. 

1 st - pors. com. \-\S kimna 



2 I1(1 - pers. com. 



3 rd - pers. com. 



kun^il 



FUTURE. 



)nd. 



Singular, 
pers. com. .,j-Cj 

O 

I shall or will be. 
pers. com. ,.\Sj tckim 

Thou shalt or wilt be. 
pers. masc. .ij.C ?kun 

(He) shall or will be. 



3 rd - pers. fern. 



. 



fe'kun 



Plural. 
1 st - pers. com. L. ; ^G e?jkun/> 

\Vc shall or will be. 
L )Ild - pers. com. ^-V 

You shall or will be. 



pers. com. ^. 
They shall or will be. 



(She) shall or will be. 

(ii The cfomma has udwil/v tin- sound i' <i. tmt is 

e, or is one <>f tin- root K'tt.-r-. 



I M P E R A T I V E . 

Singular. Plural. 

2 nd - pers. com. . kun Be 2 nd - pers. com. !< 
( thou ). Be ( you . 

15'.). Conjugation of the concave verb of the 2 nd - 
^U. jab (a) ( he ) brought. 



kun/7 



PEETERITE. 



Singular. 
!-' pers. com. ^-^ jibf 

I brought, (b) 



jlbna 



ml - 



pers. com. 



Thou broughtest. 

.')"' pers. masc. , .'^ jab 

( He ) brought. 
;-> rd - pers. fern. ^- < '' 1 -^ 
She l)rought. 

FUTURE. 

Singular. 
1 st - pers. com. > -^- enjib. 



Plural, 
pel's, com. I 

We brought, 
pers. co m . ' --^ 

You brought, 
pers. com. ^--''^ jabrt 

They brought. 



I ^hall, or will bring, (c) 



Plural. 



' pers. com. 



and of the preposition , with. i.r-. 



i iiis i- i ..... iiMi.-ni Hi tin' vci-h 

" n-illi. or ntlirru i.-c /i.- In'i'iii/hf. 

- a rn!.- i- xiimilctl like /'. lnit \vlim in tin- i-i-..t tli'Ti' i- a ^ 

^ 
it i~ l>|-"init>in-i-(l likr '. 



^ 

C 



i iii niinil \vhut was siiiil 



the jirt'lixe? in r.(<- b (o Ny. i 



210- 

2" (1 - pers. com. *-~*~^ tej\b 2 nd - pers. com. L-^s: 
Thou shall or will bring. 

:!''' pers. masc. ^^ /jib :;r<1 ' P crs - com - l^- *J ib " 

(lie) shall or will bring. 
.'J rd - pers. fern. > ^s-J fejib 

(She) shall or will bring. 



IMPERATIVE 



Singular. 

2 nd - pcrs. com. < . 

Bring ( Ihou \ 



1 " 1 - 



Plural. 

pers. com. L^a. jibrt 
Bring ( you ). 



ir>0. Conjugation of the concave verb of the '3 r(1 - class 
^j^s*, khaf, he feared. 

PEETERITE. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 st - pers. com. c^^-^ khaff 1 st - pers. com. Li^ khafua 

or kluifV (a) I feared. or khofom We feared (a). 

J 1 " 1 - pcrs. com. ^.ick khaft/ L )lld - pers. com. L:\ii khat> 

or khoffi Thou fearedst. or khofrrt You feared. 

'! rd - pcrs. masc. .j. 1 --^ khaf :> nl - pers. com. LsU khafVt 



(Me) feared. 

.') ri1 - pers. fern. c^^'-A khafef 
(She) feared. 



They fearod. 



ii Classically it on,n-lit K> i.c khitv, kliif/M i-ii-. etd 



220 



FUTURE. 



Singular. 



1 st - pers. com. 



r-J ,"/*khnf 



nd - 



I shall or will fear. 
pers. com. % _ j'st-v fekhaf 



Thou shall or wilt fear. 
.'S 1 '' 1 - pers. masc. ^-'-s-r. /khaf 

He) shall or will fear. 
3 rd - pers. fern. > alss- 1 ' fekhaf 

(She) shall or will fear. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Singular. Plural. 

2 nd - pers. com. o^ khaf 2 nd - pers. com. L?'^ khaf/? 

fear ( thou ) ( a ). fear i you ). 



Plural. 



l- st - pcrs.com. LslsiJ ekhaf# 

We shall or will fear. 
2 lul - pers. com. LJ'^-'' fekhafri 



You shall or will fear. 
3 rd - pers. com. Ls'-x-v- /klKilV 
Thev shall or will fear. 



KXKUC1SK XXXIV. 

(c) ^ 



JU-..O 

L..r 



-7r C ! 

-_." 2. 

^ ;;. 

^r 4. 



1. How art thou? (b) 

2. How are you? (b) 

.'!. How is (bi thy father? 
1. How are tb) thy parents? ^~~- ^,- 
( Ex. 25 ). 

B In Minn- places thrv say ^j^ kit f fear thuii : 
hut this is not In conformity with the literal i-imjniratioii. 

h In i he -< \anil ile< the Arable vrrlx is ineil in the prei. 

I'lie win-il ,L, '"' J ai- '" -"Hietiiues |il;K-eil after the verh ill interro 






5. lIu\Y is ;l ; tiiy Wife? ' Tll<' 

house or the' family 
( Ex. 13 ). 

(>. The sherecf was on this 
bridge (72 . 

7. The soldiers will be on 

the road (22). 

8. The Emperor's son died 

(b) in the war ( Comp. 
27). 

'.'. My sister died in Morocco 
city (Ex. 9). 

10. Many have died in the 

Avar. 

11. I Avill die for my country 

(58). 

12. My mother died suddenly 

(Comp. 33). 

1.'!. Thy daughter died last 
year (Comp. 33). 

14. Who has said that? 

15. Our neighbour said it 

(Comp. in ;,. 

Sec note li X<>. l this F.xtTcisr. 

i> Future in i< 

* ^ a.. 

i- Fut iin 1 in " \ ,;.. iU-'l lie /'/// N 



'-jJ! _J ) .0 



.;,,< y , . .: \ 
__-._> t^-. , j . ^ 7 ..)^_~... 



,2- O l v ..IUJ! jJ. 8. 






J! i_ ^Ip 1 , L.'. 



10. 



*ls J. 5 



(c) JU j^ 

U,U jJ' 



12. 

13. 

1 I. 
15. 



im<'t he)' tc<H die, concave verb of the J^st. cla 
y, concave verb of the 1t. clRBB, 



222 

1G. He told it to me near the 

well. 
17. They have said tit) in the 

Jewish quarter (Ex. :; 
is. I will say to thee only one 

word ( Com p. 25 ). 
l'.. He did not believe me .(a) 

20. He will believe thee, and 

we will all believe thee. 

21. Wilt thou believe what he 

has said? 

22. I will not believe in 

dreams. 

23. I will believe in God and 

the Prophets. 

21. Bclievest thou what 1 say? 
_'.">. I believe thee. 
2(1. Tell me. Hast thou seen 

the key. (b) 

27. What did he tell thee? 
2s. He has not told me any- 

thing. 

i iitiirr in / __{.;_, ttfc In- /'// 



C 



'.3 10. 



Jls 17. 



is. 



10. 



C ' 



21. 



2"). 



27. 
28, 



i df tin- nd. cla- 



I ^ 

i' _ ikA, as the name of an instrament is derived from. 

^ 

lie OpClK-d. Si c .N.itr i- : 






32, 



34. 



36. 



37. 



40. 



What wilt them bring me? 
I will bring tliec some 

apples, 

lie brought me a birdcage. 
They brought him a pre- 

-sent (Comp. 4). 
They will bring us a ga- 

-zelle. 

Has tlie Consul risen? 
.(a) 
The Ambassador will rise 

soon (Ex. 33 ). 
Rise ( thou) (Ex. 31) soon 

and make me a little 

coffee. 
I have coffee, but 1 have 

no sugar. 

Bring me those books. 
Bring ( ye ) a pound of 

meat. 
Bring me the razors ( or 

knives ') i (IT ). 



31, 
32. 



^i. >.... * tt ij 



i^ .3 3<J. 

, j, 



JJ'i a," jkL 



,\J* I _-- I'). 



D I'uturi' in a _, ^ij ik'nn Inj cvV/ urine, I-OIHMVC verb of tlie J_st. i-l:i->. 



s. ... mat ... 



14. 



10. ... tnk ... 
21. .. brill .. 



224 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

23. ... anbia. 

31. ... kafez. 

.")!!. ... ghdzdla. 

."> i. Kam ... 



22. ... bel-menaim. 

Vocabulary. 

( He ) saw v ^ slmf, future in u, governs accusative. 

(He ) looked upon, gazed at, beheld v al:- sliaf, future in u. 

Is followed by prep. I or J as the sense may require. 

Bale (noun ) package sljS ferda, pi. in ^,\ ( G2). 

Thimble iala. hlidka, pi. in -o^ (62 ), also c*^ 1 bhelakL 

Stars **s^ nejiim; sing. Ex. 2.">. 

(He) fell, has fallen ^t_J? tahli; future in e is followed by 
prep. J or _ or ^; is a concave verb of 2 nd - class. 

Floor, earth, ground ^,! ard. 

Passed the night ^d bats; future in a, concave verb of 3 rd - 
class is followed by prep. <L_. 

From there, thence J' ..^ min temm or tcmmn. 

\ ^ . 
At dawn, at dayltreak ,^-f I ^.U ala nl-f't'jiT. 

He ) passed ,Lx /.: or v"-/ future in . is followed by .,_.* 

> I SB- 

or U. 

From here, hence L . r - min In mi. 
Locust col. 2\^jii-('(d; sing. ?-,->. jir<i<l<t. 
lie lle\v i ,']r /a;-; future in / ore, concave verb of 2 ll(l - class. 
Chicken >:'J_N j<''il<id<t ^->'-> ./'(/''; col. Kx. 21. 
\ >.- ..-- , , -. ,._,[. \ f,-., 



He) fled, escaped __'v-^ linrcih' trilitcr.il regular verb. Is 
followed by prep. J or ^ or o '~. 

COMPOSITION 34. 

What did you see? We have seen a bale. Hast thou seen 
my thimble.--! have not seen it. He looked towards th<- >ky 
(Comp. 3). Look (thou) to the sky and thou wilt see the 
moon ( Comp. 12 ) and the stars. After ( Ex. 32 ) they looked 
at me they fled to the mountain ( Comp. 4). A stone fell upon 
him (Comp. G) and killed him (Comp. 30). They fell from 
the roof i Ex. 22). Thy sister fell from the roof. I fell into 
a well. This fort fell last year. ( Comp. 33 ). Where did they 
fall to. They fell to the ground but (Comp. 4) they arose 
( Ex. ;H ). Where will the Emperor pass the night. He will 
pass the night in Mequinez ( Ex. 13 ) and will leave there 
Ex. ."><>) at day break. The army of the Emperor passed the 
night in Alkasar (Ex. 10). Where (Comp. 29) did the army 
pass? It passed by that river ( Ex. :>\ ). It passed by the 
bridge - 72 '). I will pass by the market. Pass ( thou) here. 
Yesterday '"'Ex. 20 ) the locusts ( as sing. ) ( col. ) passed. 
The stork Hew ^Comp. 31). The chicken flew. That partridge 
lias flown. The partridges flew. The hawk flew. That crow 
( Comp. 17 ) will fly. That starling ( '. ) will fly soon Ex. 33 . 
-The hens ( Ex. 21 ) will not fly. 

KXKWISK XXXV. 

1. He feared his father. *(<\: y ^-'^ 1- 

2. She feared her mother. UUj ^ o^'.^ 2. 

.. (^ 

15 



22G- 

3. Our forefathers feared 

God. 

4. Fear God, and thou shall 

lack nothing. 

5. Long ago there was a gar- 

-den here ( Ex. 71 ). 

6. This will endure for ever 

( always ). 

7. What did that moslem 

sell? (a) 

8. He sold an axe. 

9. For how much did he sell 

it? 

10. He sold it for four ounces. 

11. For how much will you sell 

me the mud of wheat. 

12. I will sell it thce for thirty 

ounces. 

i:!. It is very dear. 
1 I. Sell ( thou; me this belt. 
1."). We will sell all the belts. 
li'. My fuiiK-r kissed me twi- 

-cc. (b) 

.1 I'liinrr in . ^ _. ibi a, hf 



c " 







C ' 



e i 

p J f 






10. 
11. 



1 1. 
15. 
16. 



. vcrbofoni 



.'iirc in , /// A-/.IH, i-oiH-avo vt-rli of 



227 



1<. My mother kissed me three 

times. 

IS. Wilt tliou kiss me? 
11). I will kiss thee. 

20. My brother will kiss his 

mother. 

21. My litle boy awoke at 

four o'clock in the mo- 
-ning. 

22. At what hour (Ex. :-50,i will 

the tradesman awake, (a) 
2o. He will awake at eight 
o'clock ( Comp. l!i ). 

24. lie is very tired. 

25. He obeyed mo. (b) 

2i). I have obeyed thee, and I 
will always obey thee. 

27. Obey thy parents and God 
Avill give thee his bles- 



A 17. 

> 

,..- lx. 
c.o 10 



,1-3 21. 



, 

c/ 



"::." 



22. 



21, 
25. 

21 ;. 



*..ls -il . 



(c) 



- 



2S. lie will obey thee in every 
thing. 

(a) Kutiirc in < s ^ nSj ifrk. lie; n-ni awake, oom'ine verb of-jml. class. 

(l)) Fut nre in '. a^jjj ite&i in 1 I'-ni o&ey, concave rerb of 2nd. class. 

17 of K\. L".I, |i:i^c is:;. 

Tr. lit. God will give tlico tlic bkssiu},', ^ibiuulaucc, 



29. lie absented himself (di- 

sappeared) suddenly, 
(a) 

30. They disappeared from 

the city. 

U. lie will be absent. and we 
will not see him. 






Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



5. 

7. ... 6dd ... 

S. ... shdkor. 

14. ... kftrzift. 

15, ... ktrazl ... 



10. ... 

21. 

2f>. Tdd-ni. 

27. ... bdrrtkd, or bcirkd. 

29. 



Vocabulary. 



(He) it, issued, distilled, leaked JL/aaJ, future in /_, concave 
verb of 2 nd - class. 
Blood ( noun ) >^ dcm. 
Wound (noun ) 'i^^ jerhha; or ~^j<-/ih. 
Ivipened < verb neuter ) _'.!= tub, future in /, concave verb 
of 2 l "i- class. 

Id; ) swam. >'- <uim, future in o, concave verb of i-i- el 
Th'Tu remained, there exceeded, there was 
flint, future in /". 



! inflirc ill ;_ .,,ij l^'lu'li. lie- r-i'l ,ljs,ii>i>.,n- ;il'-<-lit liilil-clf . 

l> HI' onil. i-l 



He) tasted ^_-'~ dak, future in <>. 

Honey (nouni J.~.=. axi'.l. 

He was terrified, frightened s C'A IJn'if, the same as he 

feared ( KiO). 

Hull, (noun i ,^, tnr, pi. ^j|i*5 fmn>. 

He became old, he became grey liaircd^b, shab, future in /'. 

lie also, even he ^ ,:^ liliatta lu'i. 

lie added, augmented ^j zdd, future in i f governs accusa- 
-tive. 

Wolf jackal ^...O dib, pi. , ,':O diab. 

Hare . -^ arneb, pi. . JU ardneb. 

Dozen i~' fi tezzlna, pi. in c^^ (,<>-. 

]%el a 1 st - ijj- 1 nfnia, pi. ^j. 1 #7u 2 ncl - -JJ...* sdbalili, pi. ^.-'-^ 
,s-e/a6e7i/j. 

Red mullet ^,.^' .,UaLv snltnn al-lihot. 

C- 

lle) blamed j^ 1 /m, future in ?<, governs accusative. 
He) endured, persevered >b dam, future in u. 

COMPOSITION 3;"). 

Blood (lowed ( exuded ) from his wound. Nothing will leak 
from here. The grapes ripened (107). The ligs have ripened 
(Comp. 21). In this month r> ( > the melons will ripen (Ex. 21). 
The pears will ripen during this month ( Comp. is). Thy 
son swain i Kx. 2()> ('bathed) yesterday in the river (Ex. 31). 
The sailors iTl) swam in the sea iEx. 11 . This afternoon 
(Comp. 32). -I will bathe in the tank (Comp. 27). There was 
bread in abundance for the poor (Comp. 17). There was much 
food .Ex. 21 over for the poor. Here (Ex. 30) the wine will 
be in excess (will be abundant) (Comp. % 7)7 He tasted a little 



230 

wine. I tasted a little honey. Hast thou tasted this orange 
(Comp. 0). I have tasted it. He will not taste it. He Avas 
terrified by the bull. He will be terrified of the dog. They 
were much frightened. They were terrified. My father has 
aged much. He also will become aged. We all will become 
aged. lie added water to the wine. He will add nothing. 
They increased their goods (means) (Comp. .'52). They Avill 
augment the money (Ex. 13). Thy father has sold (Ex. 35) a 
jackal. They sold many partridges (Comp. 19). To day he 
will sell many rabbits (Comp. 19> To day we will see some 
hares. Has thy father sold anything. He has sold a dozen 
eels. They brought a Red mullet. They have brought some 
lied mullet. Thy uncle blamed me. Wilt thou blame me. 
I will not blame thee. He persevered much. It will last for 
ever (always). 

^ 4. DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

161. Defective verbs are those whose third radical letter is 
a ^ or an ^. 

These weak letters take the pronunciation of a in the root 
by reason of the vowel point preceding them, thus: --C biL'd; 
^j~- .s7ie'<i; ~i yliald for _JU. These verbs arc dividid into 
two classes. 

<'< iieral observation. 

The third radical letter is dropped in the future plural, in 
the imperative, and in the :; r<1 - persons of the preterite, r.-r/y^ 
the ;',''! pers sing. masc. bearing this in mind we go on to the. 



!-' class. 



The defective v< rbs of the 1 st - class take the fathha in the 
persons of the preterite, and the kesr.i in the remaining 
persons, and in the future and imperative. 

'2 nd - class. 

The second radical letter takes a kesra in the 1 st - 2 ntl - per- 
-sons of the preterite, and a fathha in the other persons, and 
tenses. The fathha takes the sound of a and the kesra that of t. 

102. Conjugation of the 

defective verb of the 1 st - class ^~* msha 

or mcsha. He went or has gone. 

PRETERITE. 



Singular. 

1 st - pers. com. O-~~- meshi 
I went (a). 



n(1 - 



pers. com. 



meshi^' 



Plural. 
1 st - pers. com. Lu^U.* mcshina 

AVe went. 
2nd. pers. com. u~~*? meshifrt 

You went. 
:5 nl - pers. com. \ 

They went. 



raeshaj? 



Thou wentest. 
'i rd - pers. mase. ,;~ mesha 

(lie) went. 

;> nl - pers. fern, ^vd..* mesliaf 
Shu - went. 



(a) The /' after the m is almost inaudiMo, IPIH-:HI<I'. vulgarly tin 1 \ st. radical 
U'ttcr. not wiih-t and iu^ tin' ruli's <.,i' gnuinnar tu the contrary ) is socun. 



oiul, 



FUTURE. 

Singular. Plural. 

pers. com. c ~<sj 7iemshi 1 st - pers. com. Li.<.J jiemsliiu 

I >hall or will go. We shall or will go. 

pers. com. -^O femshi 2 11(1 - pers. com. L_- Mils, hi u. 

S __'T> 5 / 

Thou shall or wilt go. You shall or will go. 

pers. masc. .!**> Zemshi 3 rd - pers. com. L^v fmishifi 

(He) shall or will go They shall or will go. 

pers. fern, c^r ' ems l 1 ' 

i She) shall or will go. (a) 

IMPERATIVE. 

pers. ^ emshi Go (thou). .2 nd - pers. L^! emshi/? Oo 

l(j:-5. Conjugation of the defective verb of the 2 nd - r/^.s-s 
,lJ ensu 7ze forgot, or 7ias forgottfii. 

N^ 7 

PRETERITE. 



Singular. 



1st. 



cns/f 



ensina 



CMI>I//' 



pers. com. ^-~3 
I forgot. 

2" d - pers. com. ^ ~~ > 

Thou forgotcst. 
.'!"' pers. niasc. ^ 

II-') forgot. 
o' <d - pers. ft'in. ^,~J ensaf 
foVgot. 

- of tin- Cntiirc Mimrt inirs take futlihn in tl 
lid in tin- litt'ial ounjiifjMtiuii, nnd >oiiictiuii:> arc m'Cini. 



Plural. 
1 st - pers. com. lx 

We forgot. 
2 nd - pers. com, 

You forgot. 
3 rd ' pers. com. L~.-- ensa/) 

They forgot. 



FUTU;K. 



Singular. 
I" 1 - pers. com. c ~~< m;nsn 

I shall or will forget. 
i."" 1 - pers. com. ^.^..\J /^nsa 

Thou shalt or wilt forget 
:i nl - pers. masc. ^~:.> ?<>nsa 

(He) shall or will forget. 
;>'' d - pers. fern. ^~~'j tvnsa, 

(She) shall or will forget. 



Plural. 
1 st - pers. com. 'j.~Ju /^-usa/"' 

We shall or will forget. 
L )11(L pers. com. L~.v) /nsa/> 

You shall or will forget. 
:'>"' pers. com. L~;J /rnsa/) 

They shall or will forget. 



IMPERATIVE. 



Singular. 

lld - pcM's. ~<\ ensa Forget 
(thou). 



Plural. 

J 1 " 1 - pers. L ; ' ensa/1 Forget 
(ye or you y. 



KXKRCISE XXX VI. 



1. Wchcrc did the Ambassa- 
dor go to? 

~2. The Ambassador went to 
Fez. 

,'!. Where have the barbers 
gone to? 

I. They have gone to tin* 
cafe i Kx. 25). 



C-- 



.">. He many times forgot me. 
G. They have forgotten ns. 
7. I will not forget you. 
s. You have forgotten my 

goodness. 
9. lie threw ( out ) the (a) 

stones to the street ...Ex. 

10. He threw (out) the things 

to the street. 

11. Thy aunt (Ex. 29 > threw 

up blood ( Comp. l-lo ) 
from her mouth. 

12. Where are my books. 

1:>. I have thrown them to the 

sea. 
1 1. I will throw them into the 

water closet. 

i:. Where did the Fakih walk? 
10. The Fakih walked in the 

market. 

IV. He will walk in the garden, 
is. I will walk on the roof. 



f 

^ t ~;x' '_::..~~ i S. 



;-* 



-- n .' <' - 10 

-"-- (-- _^J --N ^.- ( J.U. 



.itfJla, 11. 



(b) 



1 I. 

15, 

.'! 16. 



^.kJ' ^_ 

^ 



lii i ^ s ^, ifrnii. defective verb of Jst. ci 

1> i-'ut ni-i' in <> _,... tesra, or Isaro, iiciVft i\ > \ci-ii or omi 






2 
I'.'. He extinguished (a) tin; J.3, ..^." a'i _il; 10. 

1 igh t II Mini lay 

down. 
I'D. Extinguish fthou) this lire. 

21. I will not extinguish it 

until my father comes 
( 14:; . 

22. He bought (b) the mud for 

thirty ounces. 
2:3. They bought a horse for 

100 ducats. 
21. When (Ex. 20) will he buy jj ^ , 4 ^ -2 I. 

It? 

25. lie Avill buy it now. jj ^ 'oO 2"). 

2C>. The greyhound ( 21 ) has 

run (c) very much. 
27. They ran like (101) a grey- 

-hound. 
2*. He will run on foot more 

( i.e. faster ) than thou 

on horse back. 

(a) Future in / J-j ietfi or itfi. defective verb of j -t. l;i-.. 

'> i-'uturi' in / - i ieshrf or Ishrf, defective \crb 

^J ' 

(c) Future in t, defective verb of [>!. i-i 

.'1 l.iti'rally nn'iniiiii;' on lti> loot. 



(d) J.. 



~ v . 



J'.i. I do not wish to run. (a) 
'50. Thy mother this morning 

has wept. 

.'11, He wept for his sins. 
.'52. Our lord Jesus Christ wept. 

:;:;. When (Ex. ;;i ) he will 

know this news (Comp 
J'.i i lie will weep with 

joy- 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

S. ... al-khdir ... 21. ... hhatta ... 

'.. Ermd (or stleb) fil-Jihc- 22. Sherd... 

jtt)' ... 26. ... j'crd . . . 

10. ... ((i-Jiltt'idtj ... 2^. ... (da rc]ltt 

11. ... ffnnmn. 

II. ... ncl-rn<.'tdlu:r. 
1C). ... *<;rd ... 
1'.). Tcfd ... 



sS'O' U 'jl 21>. 

rl 



.'51. Hckd aid dcnCtbn. 



.'!.'!. ... i'trctf ... bel-farhhd. 



Vocabulary. 

He remained, slaved, restd c ij bckd, future in a, defective 
verb of _""' c; 

Not even, not one ^.^ liluttta, \ 1 l_ 

In the dark ^bLJ c^ /'i-dxnlla*. 
\+i 

Fasting (adj.) in. J..^ *ni,,i, /'fin. in i (83) pi. in .v' 

Ise \\\i' 



II built .o It- tin, future in /, governs accusative 
I|.' fried '.3 knla, futiu'e in /, governs accusative. 

Cook-maid 'i&\Jb tabbakha. 

With what? ' > bash. 



boiled 

He dictated Q ::s f^fn. future in i, is followed by prep. J 
and an accusative noun or pronoun. 
Cordoba, city < *~)j* kortnbn. 
Vein A v - ftrk. (lit. (urk , pi. A a ,s ari'lc. 

W^> ^^ ""' > 

(He) smoked -^ ktma, future in /. 

By fraud, gm 1 ^, robbery, secrecy 1 st - iKlJb bes-sarkn; _ )lld - 
bet-takhbta. 



COMPOSITION :>0- 

Xot even one soldier remained (74). All of them remained 
in the mountain (Comp. 4 i.~We remained in the dark. She 
will remain with her daughters ( f>"> ). They will remain fas- 
-tiii.i?. God bc-with thce (Ex. 3^ (good bye). Xo thing remai- 
-ncd ( 142 ). Thy daughter . (>'> > remained sick ( Comp. . 
The Sultan Abdcrrahman ( 105 i built this fort i Ex. (> ). The 
Khalifa iComp. 15) Abderrahman built the mosque (70 s ) of Cor- 
-doba. 1 will build my house of wood i Comp. 'J7 ). "\Vhen 
(Ex. 'Jo, will be build the house. lie will build it next year 
(Comp. :>:! .Who fried these eggs (Comp. 25). The cook-man 
( Ex. 21 has fried them. The cook-maid has. fried them. 
What wilt thon fry the eggs with. I will fry them with oil 
.-The cook-man will fry them with butter ( Comp. i>). 
Has the water boiled. The milk (Comp. 22, will boil Ex. :;i . 
The blood (Comp. :!5 . boiled in his veins. -Ho dictated the 



letter to me (02). The master dictated to me. He will dicta- 
te it to me. Thy son ( Ex. 1-1 ) smoked secretly. He will 
smoke a cigarette (Comp. 30). I will not smoke ( 124) before 
( in presence of) my father. Those soldiers (74) have smoked 
much. We will sit ( Ex. 30) and (will ) smoke a little ( or let 
us sit clown and smoke a little ). 



LT-- 



(b) 



LUI 



EXERCISE XXXVII. 

1. He met me in the Fez 

road, (a) 

2. He will meet me on the 

bridge. 

3. They went out (Ex. 30) to 

meet him. (b) 

4. The kadi went out to meet 

(c) the Basha. 

5. The robbers ( Comp. 15 ) 

will go out to meet 

thee. (d) 
0. The soldier guarded (e) 

my uncle's garden. 
7. Abddkader will guard my 

father's vines. 

I Flit HIT in a J-|j iolkd. li> 

Tr. lit. ///// went nut. tin;/ a- ill mtl Mm. 
(c) Tr. lit. l/< went nut. In- n-ni meet t/n i:,txi><t. 

Tr. lit. ///// /-/// ,/,i nut. ihi>i n-itt meet th-. 
(e) FiitniT in / ,.^^,. .^Z3r\} ililidi or ichlnl/, lie will 



JU) i. 



j.j 



b i^s-; J 'A^ 
life 



s. lie, hirnl ;i his house for 

twenty ducats. 
',. lie hired it to me for 

twenty five ducats. 

10. He will hire me the garden. 

11. We will hire thee the shop 

(73). 

12. He complained (b) of me 

to thee Consul, 
l.'i. He will complain of thee 
to the Kadi. 

14. Thy daughter complained 

of her husband (Ex. 25). 

15. They complained to the 

Kadi. 

1G. Complain of me if thou 
wishest ( Ex. 31 ). 

17. The Spanish Consul has 

protected me. (c) 
is. He will protect good peo- 

-plc. 
I'.i. 1 will not protect bad 

people. 

a] Future in i. j^\", iek-ri. lie will hire. 

Future in /. , lit. future.-: ^-.^ j,.shk/'. he will i;n,ti>lf>t. 

Sr 
< I'utiire in/. .^.j Istthmf, he will protect. 



11, 



i, 12. 



i;;. 



14. 



15. 



(c) 



17, 



a ^ is. 



J L, 'J! 
Ui! 



11'. 



2<>. 



21. 



o v 



w? 



21. 



-210 

_ 
Your manservant struck ' (a) ,xj ^ AV..O J,*:\JI 

me. (a) 
I will strike thee with this Us*. 1 ' , c.^. jo 

stick (Ex. 1T> . 
The thieves struck me on . 4- ^> 

the Morocco city road. 
The farrier ( Comp. 18 ) 

demanded (b) of me 

three dollars. 
They asked an alms < Ex. .--^ . r * ^_\.^ 

^p^ 7 O 

28) from my aunt. 
Will he requist anything LxU. ^ _.-- ^ 

of me? 
lie will demand all ( 113 ) 

thou hast. 
The muleteer who rc>tur- 

-ned (c) from Larache 



has become sick. 
All the Christians Coin p. 
If) i in Ua.bat have bc- 
-comc sick. 



W> 



ux, L! J.^ 1 
J*S 



20. 



21, 



21. 



25. 



2i;, 



;i TrilitciMl iv.u'iibr vor)). future in n, /<V. rutiirr in /' . 
t> TrilitciMl rcf,'iil;ir vcrl>, I'litun' in e, HI. future in . 

rut nrc in i. .^ t - iiTi-ci. he will rvturii. lit. ful lire in /'. 



211 
20. They returned to Casa- ; U~J' j'.'J ^*+j _".'. 

-blanca. 
30. We will return to tfequi- ^' ; --^ I?**./ ;1( - ) - 

nez. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 
1. Elkant .. I'.'. ... en-nas ctl-kebdhh. 



G. ... hhedd ... 



8. A'eVrf ... 



12. 



17. Hhemdnl ... 



20. ... dardbnl. 



23, 



27. ... e?y'art ... mertd. 
29. ... en-dar bdtda. 



NOTE. I'sually thi.s proper name is pronounced without the article in the 
common tongue. 

Vocabulary. 

He recounted, referred to, narrated k liMkd, future in i, 
requires J prep, and accusative. 

Fable, narrative, story 1 st - ^^ kliarafa, pi. in ^t (62)j 
2 1 " 1 - JoK^ liliakaia, pi. in ^_-l (02). 

Lie, (noun) ijj.:=b kedbd, pi. in c^' and also , ,jj.== 

ktdtib, 

(He) abhorred, hated, ^ kerah, governs accusative. 

It is two years since ^^ . K - .r^'- 1 ^.--* liadl ddmdni min 
di, ( tr. lit. This two years from that ). 

( lie ) became blind c? c dmd } future in a. 

( It ) sufficed j kt'fd, future in a, governs accusative. 

i' He) doubled, duplicated, folded J.l ; tznd or f<'nd, future 

in / ; governs accusative. 
1G 



242 

Load J.,s^ hhdmdl, pi. J^_^._=s. hhemftl, and JlaJ nhhmal. 

He hunted ^l-o sad, future in a, concave verb of 3 rd - class 
( 1GO). It is conjugated vulgarly in the preterite as if it were 
defective, except in the 3 rd - persons, e.g.: She hunted sJ^oJ->o 
sadeet; We hunted Uo-o sudina, etc. etc. The fut. is regular. 

Duck (noun ) i==v borka, pi. in o^ and also ^f^j boralc. 

( He ) washed J-~ ghdsdl, requires prep. J and governs 
accusative. 

(He) reached, accomplished, contrived to do or to get 
sj^r,.i cler6k, governs accusative. 

From the Sultan (french. chez ) ^ILLJl J.AC, ^ m in and 
es-sidtdn. 

(He) desired, wished, wanted 1 st - j**.: bdghd, fut. in /; 2 nd - 
v^^a. hhabb ( 155 ). 

COMPOSITION .'!T. 

Our grandfather ( Comp. '21) narrated this story. My 
grandfather has recounted many fables to us. They told 
(related) many lies. I have hated the lie. It is two years 
since my grandfather has become blind. Those who were in 
the prison (Comp 15) became blind. That bedouin ( Comp. 
23 ) will remain blind. He will recount what he saAv ( Comp. 
34) in Arzila (Comp. 21). We will narrate what has befallen 
us (Comp. 33). The bread thou gavest me sufficed (Ex. 
Will one mud of wheat suffice thee? Will one kola ^ GO ) of 
oil (Gs'i suffice thee. He doubled the load. He will double 
the money (Kx. I. 1 !). I have hunted a gazelle. Hast thou 
hunted ( pursued ) a duck. Hast thou hunted four ducks. 
He ground the wheat in Mohamed's (Comp. 7) mill (57). 



Whore wilt thoti grind this wheat? ! will grind it in the mill 
(Ex. 2(1 ). They ground the maize (Comp. :;i . Th*- Am' 
-sador washed ( himself) this morning ( Ex. 25). The mule- 
-teer (Comp. 14) washed his face at the fountain (Ex. .-JO . 
The barber washed my face. All that he desired was accom- 
plished. "\Yill the money be enough? ( i.e. will the sum of 
money accomplish your requirements ). It will accomplish 
what I desire. They were able to get, contrived to get ( ma- 
-nagcd to get, succeeded in getting) a present from the 
Sultan. They will accomplish nothing. From whence hast 
thou come. I have come from the market (or fair) ( Ex. 7 ). 

$ 5. IIAMZATED VERBS. 

104. The hamzated verbs are those which have a hamza in 
one of their radical letters, and are called 1 st - 2 nd - or .'5 rd - class 
according, to the hamza being found in the 1 st 2 nd ' or o rd - radi- 
-cal letter respectively. 

Those of the 1 st - and 2 nd - class are conjugated like the trilitc- 
-ral regular verb, and those of the 3 rd - class like the defective 
verbs. 

EXAMPLES. 
Hamzated verb of 1 st - class. 



Preterite. 

*.-! dmdr, (lie) Commanded 
ordered. 



Future. 
idmai' Jie) Will command. 



244 



IMPERATIVE. 



Command (thou) ^> dmdr (literal 
Hamzted verbs of 2 nd - class. 



Preterite. 
JU- sdl (he) Asked, claimed. 



Future. 

JLo isnl (he) Will ask (or) 
claim. 



IMPERATIVE. 

Ask ( thou ) J~l sal. 
Ilamzated verb of 3 rd - class. 



Preterite. Future. 

Us kdra He] read. !^_ ik-ra He will 

read. 



Imperative 
\j9\ kard Read (a) 
(thou). 



1(55. The verbs J\ kal, he ate, and J_aJ kliad, he took 
which both of the 1 st - hamzated class are irregular in their 
preterites. They are conjugated, either like the defective 
verbs (101) or as if they were biliteral, and in this latter event 
the second radical letter takes a damma in some places, and 
a fathha in others. 

In pronunciation the hamza, and the vowel taken by it arc 
suppressed II . 



(a) Tin- h'n,i::n i> f,'cncr;ill v supiirc-^-rd in the vnl^;ir writ iiif,'. and so these 
verba are conJtigAted as it' they wen- imt hmn^nii-ii. and so became confounded 
with tlu- defective verl>-. Bee N '. itM. 



215 

PRETERITE. 

/ ate, thou atest, he ate, she ate etc. or has, 
hast or have eaten. 

Singular. 



Defective Conjugation. 
l st -^ pers. com. ^--~z Id It or 

'ktlit. 
2 nd - pcrs. com. C-*J^ kliti or 



keliti. 



."> nl - pers. masc. ^ Ida or 

kela. 
,'> rd - pers. fern. ^^ Mat or 

Mlat, 



Biliteral Conjugation. 

? 

1 st - pers. com. ^^ kult or 



Ond. 



kelt. 



pers. com. vj^JS kultior 



o rd - pers. masc. Jff Avt? or 

Ml (a). 
:> rd - pers. fern. C-Jff WV or 



kdlet, or 



Plural. 
We, you, they ate or have eaten. 



Defective Conjugation. 
t - pers. com. UJ> kelina. 



2 11(1 - pers. com. L-Js' kelitfi. 



3 rd - pers. com. I Jo kclan. 



Biliteral Conjugation. 
1 st - pers. com. U^ kiilna or 



uJo kelna. 



pers. com. x Ar//rt or 



nd - 



.'5 rd - pers. com. LK" A-/ or 



) The initial \ is intentionably omitted. 



24G 

PRETERITE. 

/ t6ok, thou tookest f he took, (or I have taken, thou 
\ hast taken, ice have taken). 

Singular. 

Defective Conjugation Biliteral Conjugation. 

1 st - pers. com. ^,.-J.^ r.hadlt. 1 st - pers. com. J^.J.A khodtt 

^J.A khedtt. (a) 



2 nd - pers. com. ooJo. khaditi. 



3 rd - pers. mass. ^-'-^ khadd. 
:5 nl - pers. t'em. ^-J.^ khadat. 



2ud. pers. com. C^'-'.A khodtti 

C^O-^- khedtt i. 

3 rd - pers. masc. J-^J khad. 

3 rd - pers. t'em. o3-aJ khadet 



or khedet. 



Pluval. 

\Ve took, you took, they took (or have taken}. 

l~ f - pers. com. U.>J.A khadina. 1 st - pers. com. 'JJ-x' khudnn 

UJA kin'- dim. 

2 nd - pers. com. L:-O.A klinditi't. 2 nd ' pers. com. '_Jj.^ khodttri 

L-JJ. khvdtti*. 

:> nl - pers. com. LJ.A kJiftdnii. .'i rd - pers. com. 'JJ-N khadii 

or khedi'i. 

te to NI-. ; 



247 



In the future these verbs are regular e.g. 



j.<J.J nakhml I -\\ill take. 



l sf - pers. com. .SJ nakal \ 



will cat. 

L )II(I - pers. com. J-^b takul J-^b takhdd Thou wilt take. 

Thou Avilt eat. 



] - pers. masc. J^ 
He will eat. 



iaklwd He will take. 



IMPERATIVE. 



2"'i- pers. sing. / A-rtZ Eat j A7jod Take ( thou ). 

( thou ). 

! 

2 n<1 - pers. pi. \J& kill ft Eat LJA A7<orfA Take (ye). 

(you ) 

EXERCISE XXXVIII. 



1. lie ordered me to go to the 
Vizir's house. 

2. lie made all as the Sul- 
-tan's sons ordered him. 

:). The Emperor will com- 
mand everything. 



(a) 



(a) Lit. lie ordered nio that I should go_\_jj is composed of the preposition 



248 



9. 
10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 



He demands ( of me i.e. 

in Ar. I owe him ) (a). 

twenty derhams Ex. 11). 
He asks of thee (i.e. in Ar. 

Thou owest liim ) forty 

ounces (GO). 
He asks of us (i.e. in Ar. 

"We owe him ) one liun- 

-dred ducats. 
Tliou askest of me i i.e. 

Ar. 1 owe thee ^ thirty 

dollars. 
I ask thee ( i.e. Ar. Thou 

owest me ) a thousand 
metzkals. 

lie enquired after thee. (In 
She enquired for thy 

father. 

They enquired for you. 
Il- will enquire for me. 
We enquire for thee every. 

< I ;\ \' . 



sS ^ il 1. 



-ci- < < < . 

^X-^. 1 ^ . . .,**.._ > ftj 



1 1 _ 
- 10. 

~ 11. 

:. '- 
{ i:;. 



i',->'f' nt i>'iti>i- of \'^. by which ptu 1 verb to owe is expresai 

>^ r " 

niuiiouly u~i'il vulgarly tin 1 vrrl> x __ I'mnp. |.; i.- 

yi'd in.-tc.ul, ami i- ooiiju^ali'tl liko a dcfuctivi 1 \cr)>. 



240- 

II. He read my father's book, i 
1."). I have read the lirst book. 
li'i. Hast thou read the third 

book. 
17. He will read the eighth 

chapter, 
is. Read thou the ninth 

chapter. 

19. Read me this news paper. 

20. He read the koran to his 

manservant. 

21. What did he eat? 

22. He ate an apple. 

2:-5. I have eaten a pear (Comp. 
18). 

24. I have eaten a water me- 
-Ion ( Comp. 17 ). 

2f). 1 have eaten a sweet me- 
lon (92). 

'20. They ate twenty figs 
( 'omp. 21 ) and thirty 
nuts. 

27. They ate a pound of bread 
and two pounds (00) of 
meat. 

I* really ii Spanish word. 



s y 11. 

-/ i: - 

.,; ,3 10. 






18. 



20. 



21, 



24. 



25. 



ljS* 



& .a, 



28 



29 



30. 



:!1. 



32. 



J 



3ii. 



1. 
4. 



250 
I will eat a dish of kuskusu 

(Comp. 28;. 
Thou hast eaten many 

apricots (Comp. 16). 
Thou atest many (a) oran- 

-ges (Ex. 18). 
My brother saw an ele- 

-phant (68). 
Have you seen the car- 

-penter's file (69). 
We have not seen it. 
The Consul's scribe was 

seated ( Comp. 24 ) in 

the market. 
They have brought the 

Prince's horses, and the 

Vizier's mares. 
We have seen the mules 

( Ex. 7 ) of the adminis- 
trator ( Steward ). 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

/ n((>t<l .. . 



28. 



(a) 



*L 



30. 



33. 
34. 



U L. 
^ ; Jl 



aGt 



13. AY/// 
19. ... gd2< t't 



I, /.// ( I.F Is nine li usoil in N". Morocco. Probablv it i? a corruption of 

. . v. : 
J.i ...j fiuttnii' i-nl'li I'-ithniit number. 



-251 



22. ... teffahha. 



30. ... bdan ... 



26. ... gduzd (sing ). 

Vocabulary. 



Castle citadel i~oj kasba, pi. in o' and cf-~^ kdsdbi. 

He began, commenced bj ietM, future in a, requires v , or 

^v prepositions with a noun. 

(Question, enquiry J|- stfaJ; or JL^i^ mesaksla, pi. in cJ. 

(He) hid, (he) put away I ^ khdba ( little used vurgarly ) 
*^ khabbaa. 

(He) filled b!U weto, more vulgarly ^ ammar. 

Truth, right d^ hhakk, pi. ^J_^ hhdkok. 

Played upon, struck v ^ darab, governs accusative. 

-i. 

Ginbri (small Moorish guitar of two strings) ^:: rr -.== yinbrl, 
pi. ^^=s gindber. Player upon the ginbri, ^c t jL^=> ginabri. 

He remembered, reminded 1 st - J._ i-s adkdl, requires prep. 
O ls and an, accusative; 2 nd - .xai' Uf&kkar, 5 th - formation (169) 
governs accusative, or ^^ /7. 

He understood *^ fnlidm, (lit. *^? ), governs accusative. 



Infidel, unbeliever j.jb kdfer, pi. in . r .', and also ,<J 

Or not? Yj! rt Zd. 

Xut 1^- ?; ^ yYi/7ra or ydnzd, pi. in c^' col. ; =v oa??r; 2 lul - 

> -^ > -^ * 

islisss^a yiryada, pi. in C~^ col. ^ t=i>.S' yuerydd; 3 rd - --^K- 



kai-koba, col. v _ >3 J kai-kob. 



COMPOSITION 



The Sultan abderrahman took this city. The Moslems took 
the fort ( Ex. i> ) of the Christians. Our general took (Ex. .11' 
the citadel of Tetuan. To-morrow ( Comp. 2!>) he will cap- 



252 - 

-ture the city. The Moslems will take the arms (Ex. 10). 
He began at this book ( Ex. 5 ). He commenced in these 
words (Comp. 25 ). He began by this question. They have 
begun to work. I have begun to build a house. "Where will 
he begin to read? He will begin at the first chapter. He 
concealed the truth. He hid me in his house. He will hide 
the money (Ex. 13) in the stable (Ex. 1'J ). They hid the 
books (Comp. J2). He filled the sack (Comp. 24) witli 
wheat. They filled the barrels (Ex. 21) with wine. He will 
fllhthe barrel (Comp. 1G ) with aguardiente (aniseed Brandy) 
(Comp. 16). My master lias played the ginbri. Who will 
play the ginbri'? He remembered us. He will remember me. 
I will remember my sins ( Ex. 30 ). The infidel did not 
understand the truth. He will understand my words, Hast 
thou understood or not? I have understood you. Where hast 
thou bought these dates ( Ex. 25 ). 1 bought them in the mar- 
ket. Thy friend is drunk ( 80 ). The dates are dear ( 107 . 
This date ( Ex. 25 ) is very sweet ( Comp. 17 ). Hast thou a 
nut 1 ? I have many nuts. 

$ ('). DOUBLY IMPERFECT VERlis. 

H'.t'). Verbs having two weak letters in the root arc called 
don!,!;/ irnji'-r/'i-'-t, and are conjugated like simple irregular 
verbs. 

In classical Arabic there are tr<-bly imjH-rfcct, verbs also, 

i. 

i.e. verbs having three weak letters in the root, e.g. ^.^ In- 
i 

tniiu'd, _-^ In' in-nmixfd, but vulgarly they are not used. 
The following are examples of doubly imperfect verbs. 



Conjugation of the rcrb ut'a, In: fulfill' <1 
(or has fulfilled). 



I'KKTERITE 



Singular. 



'' d - 



filled. 

/ " - / 
fulfilledst. 

masc. -3 a 

O" * 

fulfilled. 

fern. ^4j 

fulfilled. 



-ft fit I ful- 



iifjti Thou 



ut'a (lie) 



(She) 



Plural. 



1 st - pers. com. LJ 
We fulfilled. 

ond. pers. com. LlvJ 
You fulfilled. 

3 ld - pers. com. Ls 
They fulfilled. 



1st. 



FUTURE. 

I shal or v: ill fulfil, etc. etc. etc. 

Singular. Plural. 

.3 ^ nCtl't. 



masc. 



c 



- (a) 



3 rd - fern. c a J ^/n. 

v rr' "^ 

IMPERATIVE. 

Singular. Plural. 



ufina 



I'ntiiiT literal ^i_,_ Si-c note It JKIITC J'l'.i. 



254 



107. Conjugation of the verb ^C*~> siia. It, he, 
teas irorth. 

PRETERITE. 

I hftce been trnrth, thou hast been icorth, etc. etc. etc. 



Singular. 

1 st - pers. com. ^o^~> sit it. 
2" d - pers. com. ^-^ *~, suiti. 
3 rd - pers. masc. ^*~> sua. 
3 rd - pers. fern. o'' suat. 



Plural. 

1 st - pers. com. l*Jj 
ond. pers. com. uXj *~, si'titi'i. 
3 rd - pers. com. \jy 
( or Ut 9 suau ). 



FUTURE. 



I shall or */,-/// 6e worth, etc. etc. etc. 



Singular, 
pers. com. ::*~J nesua. 



2 11(1 - pers. com. ^j^*-- ti-xini. 
3 rd - pers. masc. ^^~ J />/)^. 
3 rd - pers. fern. ^^ tesua. 


ond. pers. com. 
3 rd - pers. com. 



Plural. 
1 st - pers. com. L 



1M I'ER AT I VE . 



Singular. 



nd - 



pers. 



Plural. 

2" (l - pers. !jj^. or 
s ????. 



or 



s. Conjugation of the V6rb*'v>> jaa he came or has come. 

PRETERITK. 

I came, or have come, thou earnest, or hast come, etc. 



*>nd. 



Singular. 

pers. com. O-~> .//'. 
pers. com. C^^ jiti. 



pers. masc. 
pers. fern. 



jaa. (a) 



Plural. 

1 st - pers. com. U~ 
2 nd - pers. com. |y^ j' f "- 



3 rd - pers. com. 



jaat. 

FUTURE. 



Singular. 



1 st - pers. com. .s- J enji I 
will or shall come. 



Ollll. 



r(1 - 



pers. com. ^ tejiThou 
wilt or shalt come. 

pers. masc. ^.3^, ijl (b) 
He will or shall come. 



.'! 1 ' (1 - pcrs. fern. 



e 



* She 



will or shall come. 



Plural. 



1 st - pers. com. ^-^ enjiu 
We will or shall come. 



2nd. pers. com. |^s- ) tejlu 

You will or shall come. 
:! ri1 - pers. com. |_^ (/''"' 



They will or shall come. 



IMPERATIVE. 



Singular. 



i >ll(l - pers. ^=jJ ajl (lit. c=^ 



Plural. . 



- lu]> pcrs. 



(a) Is conjugated as if were biliteral. 

vln Future //v';-(i/ ' ^j-j' Vulgarly however it is conjugated as if not pos- 

^" ; " 
-sessiug the ft< 



EXERCISE XXXIX. 



The watchmaker (Corap. 
18) fulfilled his word 
(promise) (col. comp. 25). 

The tailor (7) did not ful- 
-fil his promise. 

The shoemaker (Comp. 12) 
will carry out his word. 

AVe will fulfil every tiling 
if God will. 

Be silent, and keep the 
promise thou gavest me 
the day before yester- 
day (Ex. 23 ). 

Jacob folded (a) his hand- 
-kerchief. 

He folded the paper and 
put it (b) on the table. 

You will fold the haik 
Kx. 17) and will put it 
on the mule. 



3 



S 

V.J' 1^ -^ 



.. 






AliJI 



i;i Future in i, j ^j-j ?/''? lie \\ ill doiilik'. will fold. 

i his word is commonly used in the sense of to put. or to plai- 



I -*- I 



9. 



10. 



11. 



IX1_C L ! aXs^i 13. 

- 5 -* ' - 



U (b) 



l^i.1 14. 



-257- 

ii. Fold this letter and close 



it (Ex. :\-2 . 

10. The blacksmith (Ol)be- 

-came tired (a) by the 
work ( Com p. 8 ). 

11. If you ( will ) work much 

you will become tired. 
1'2. All of them will become 

tired on the road. 
1)5. You became tired and you 

did nothing. 
11. How long it is! (or, It is a 

long time) since I have 

seen thee. 

15. He saw me (c) on the roof. 
10. He shall see us if God will. 

17. Sec him there! (Behold him 

yonder! ) 

18. What did he intend? (e) 

Kut lire in a. 

(b) Literal Translation. Iln- mm-li Hint I /i<"'< ! >">' s'>> .'/"" 

(c) Future in ,i - f j //v, lie will see. Not much used vulgarly. 

d) Preterite of the concave Tiomsotod verb e [^ i- dtotred, fut. in < '_;L_j. 
In this ])lirase. whi.'hlhe Moors always use when talknijrofa future event, in 
obedience to the teaching of the fcoron, chapter XN'IIl verse -':'., the preterit.- lias 

the meaning of our present by means of the preposition _,l if, which precedes it. 

<> 
(e) Future in i. 

17 



- 



- 



15. 

(d) -i .., n;. 

^- ^-* 

^ru J ) L*; 17. 



I/ 



18, 



258 

19. What did^t thou intend? 

20. What Avill he intend? 

21. He AA'ill intend an evil to 

his enemy. 

22. He Avas born in Constant!- 

-nople. (a) 

23. I Avas born in Granada 

(Comp. 7). 

24. Thou Avast born in Algiers. 

25. They Avere born in Tripoli. 

26. He buried his enemy. 

27. They have buried a Chris- 

-tian. 

28. Where did they bury him? 

29. They buried him in the 

Christian's cemetery. 

30. Yon will bury him in the 

Moor's cemetery (Comp. 
13). 



31. He folded the paper and 



'jr 



ryj (JJ 19. 
.o *> fp' 20. 
21. 



U 22. 
W23. 
Jl 24. 

** 26. 

3i 27. 



:-JO. 



ic 



kiljJl J^_L 31. 

..i 1 1 

placed it on the chair 
(Comp. 13). 

(a) Trilitoral regular verb, fut. in a (lit. fut. in o), signifies literallii er< 

( fe ) yj'ial literally *i<i>iifli'ii inl,niila,i.c. plural of jj '^ -^ islaml. Vulgarly it 



is pronounced zira, and ca/r. An Algerian, or au islander 



or vul- 



259 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



18. ... ntia. 

21. ... aduft (or 

L )- J. Khaldk ... estanbttl. 

24. ... al-jezdir. 

25. ... trdbles, 
26. 



'-5. ... ahdCi f or waadn. 
G. ... tua ... 
7. ... dmdCi ... 
10. ... AW ... 

14. Eshhal It ... 

15. #d-nl ... 

17. ... temma (or henak). 

Vocabulary. 

Ho ) roasted ^_Cj^ s/m, future in 2, governs accusative. 

Chickens ( very young ) ,pJ^? felales, sing, see Xo. 92. 

(Jreen-pepper (capsicum) Slab felfela, pi. J-fb f elf 61. 

Chestnuts (col.) ^ji'ia^J or Jlk~J kastal or kastan, sing, 
in s, pi. in ^_,!. 

( He ) cauterized, branded ^c kua, future in i, requires 
accusative, and preposition J. 

( He ) vacated, emptied ^^ khuwa, future in i, governs 
accusative. 

Court in the middle of a house (Spanish patio) 1 st - JjJ! .L-. 

u-dst ed-dar: 2 nd - ,LOI ~', merdhh ed-dar. 

^' 
Boil, tumour, postule, turuncle 1 st - JUJ demmdl, pi. Ju-Lo 

damamel ( 92) and 2 nd - ^ ^^ hhvbuba. 
Corner i^ rnkna, pi. in C^^ ( 62 ). 

COMPOSITION ."!. 

Who has come'? The prince of believers has come ( Coinp. 
21). The hunter (Ex. 7 ) has come from the mountain (Comp. 
4). Thy beautiful (Ex.7) daughter (Comp. 6) has come 



200 -= 

from the street ( Ex. 7). The servant-men (Comp. 15) of AH 
have come, and have brought the merchant's sugar (Ex. 7 ). 
I have come from the garden and I have brought the 
butcher's ( Ex. 7 ) mule ( Ex. 7 ). This afternoon ( Comp. 32 ) 
the peasant (Ex. 7) will come, and we will see a white (Ex. 7) 
horse. Come (thou) soon (Ex. 31), and bring me (Ex. 31) the 
mule. What did the cook-man (Ex. 21 ) roast. He roasted a 
cock-chickon, and acock (Comp. 11 ). He will roast three 
(young) chickens and five cocks ( Comp. 11 ). Hast thou 
roasted the green-peppers. I have roasted them. Those 
Moors have roasted a sheep and a mud of chestnuts. The sur- 
'geon (Comp. 14) has cauterized the/boil which he had on his 
hand. They cauterized my wound ( Comp. 35). ( Ar. they 
cauterized me the wound). The surgeon will cauterize thee 
that postule. I cauterized (him ) the Avound Avhich he had on 
his foot. He emptied the sack (Comp. 24). I have emptied 
the bottle (Comp. 9). They vacated the patio. He Avill vacate 
the house. He Avill empty this sack of wheat into the chest 
(72). They will empty the chests (72). He put (Ex.39) 
his haik on the table. Which of you ( 139 ) put the Avheat into 
the patio? I put it ( there ). Where Avill he put the tiles 
( Comp. 21 ). He Avill put them in the stable ( Ex. 19 ). Put 
(thou) the tiles in that corner. 

CHAPTER IV. 

DERIVATIVE VKRlis. 

ir,'.i. Derivative verbs are those Avhich, in addition to the 
primitive radical letters, have in their root one or more auxi- 
liary letters 1 lf> ). 



-2G1 - 

The derivatives of the triliteral primitive have ten forma- 
-tions, including the primitive, as shewn in the table hereun- 
-der. 

TAMLE of the derivative formations of the triliteral primitive 
regular verb . * he wrote, or has written. 



FORMATIONS. 


KOHM ATI VE LETT KK, 


EXAMTT.KS. 


l^- primitive. 




^cfe 


2 nd. 


.':* 


^J^ (a) 


grd. 


: : i : (b ) 


4^3 ^ 


4th. 


: : : f 


^i^i 


5t. 


.'7 .'s 


' "***.' 


Gth. 


: : i : > r 


^ ! x: ; 


7th. 


; : : ; i 


_i,a 


gth. 


.' .' x : , 1 


_:1^! 


gth. 


& 


4^1 


10th. 


(c) .' 1 ." ;L" J 


f^ 



170. Note that these formations are not applicable to all 
primitive verbs, for some have only one derivative, others two 



(a) The above arc Kivon with the vowels taken )>y them in the i-hissical Ara- 
-hlc, but it should be noted that vulgarly neither the first, nor the hi*t vu\vel- CM' 
the_[th. 5th. and (jth. formations are pronounced (30). 

(l>) The dots represent the radical letters i.e. the primitive form. 

(c) Five other formations arc omitted, bccauae vulgarly they are not used. 



2G2 

three or four, and only practice and dictionaries can give an 
exact knowledge of the formations each verb may have. 

The 2 nd - and 5 th - formations are in frequent use vulgarly, 
but the others are very rarely used. Indeed the 9 th - formation 
is never used vulgarly. 

The quadriliteral verb has four formations, but in the vul- 
gar only one, the 2 nd - is used. This receives a <o before the 
first radical letter of the primitive, and corresponds to the 
5th. formation of the triliteral e.g. ,5^^ tetartak (he) burst; 
( Jpj-J lit. ) vulg. Jj^ t&z6nz6l, It ( the earth ) quaked. 

^ 1. IRREGULAR DERIVATIVE VERBS. 

171. The derivatives of the irregular verbs are formed in 
the same manner as those of the triliteral regular (169) as 
may be seen in the folloAving table. 



,, V, 

x-:J ,)-: 




, 

- ij M LJ g : 1 j ! 

> ; V: s-i. 1= r^, LJ iJ : : 

> "N > . T x ^ > ^ 



', . 



172. In the 8 th - formation of the assimilated and hamzatcd 
verbs the first radical letter resembles the o characteristic of 
the derivative form by the use of the shidda. 

The second radical of the concave verbs, the _. or the ^ 



264 

( 157 ) is retained in the 2 nd ' 3 rd - 5 th - and 6 th - formations and is 
changed into I in the others. 

Certain of the derivative of the concaves of the first class 
have, vulgarly, in the second radical a ^_f instead of a j, as 
if they weresof the second class e.g. J kailem (for ^ ) he 
arose, 2 nd - formation of ->'-?, a concave verb of the 1 st - class; 
^_3 , >-ain:b, (for _^ , ) (he) (it) coagulated, curded, and 
v^o :' ti-ratieb, (for ^_^y ) it coagulated itself, i.e. the 2 1 " 1 - 
and 5 th - formations of ^_.',, also a concave verb of the fir<t 
class. 

In the 2 nd - 3 rd - f> th - and G th - formations of the hamzated verbs 
the first radical letter is changed vulgarly into a j, for exam- 
-ple, dvj ukhkhar, (he) delayed procrastinated: ^jj tftkhkhar, 
he delayed himself, for +L\ and ,i.b. 

^ 2. MEANINGS OF THE COMMONEST FORMATIONS. 

17,'}. The 2 nd - formation gives the primitive verb a transi- 
-tive meaning. 

EXAMPLES. 

Formation. 

1 st - primitive ~ ^ farahh, he rejoiced. 

2 nd - do ~ V 3 farrahh, he caused joy, he gladde- 

-ned, he cheered. 
1 st - primitive .u^ hhdzen, he was grieved, he mour- 

-ned. 
oini. do cl/^ hhazzen, he caused to grieve, he 

saddened. 
1 st - primitive- r t A khar< /, he went out, he departed. 

O 

2 nd - do - ^ kli'irrt'j, he caused to go out, he 

sent out. 



If the primitive verb be transitive the 2 n<1 - formation ren- 
-ders it doubly transitive or energetic. 

EXAMPLES. 

1 st - formation ( prim. ) ^.'.o katab, lie wrote. 

i: 1 " 1 - do _ ^ L-attab, lie caused to write. 

H do V-if" shfa'ub, he drank. 

i"" 1 do vT" sliarrab, he caused to drink. 



1 st - do .i kfihia, he cut. 

i - 

L )ml ' do aJ=3 kattaa, he cut into many 

pieces, or lie cut up. 

1 st - do (Sj bekd, he wept. 

L )U(I - do ^.C bekkd, he caused to weep 

(lit. JC! 4th.). ( a ) 

171. The 5 th - formation has mostly the meaning 1 of our 
reilcctive verb, and also gives a sort of passive voice to the 
jiui. formation. 

EXAMPLES. 

omi. Formation Jjj b6ddtl, he changed, he removed. 

o" 1 - do J-V tebeddel, he changed himself ( i.e. his 

apparent ). 

L"" 1 - do ^"r^ liharrak, he moved, he excited. 
.">"' do OJ~,;5r- (b) t&hharrtk, he was moved, was exci- 

-ted. 
L )lul - do b allem, he made to know, he taught. 

ii 'I'lic Jtli. fonnalion lias also a causative meaning hut, vulgarly Is but 
litt!' tisctl. In Its stead tin' -_)inl. formation is nsnallj- employed. 

!> In vulgar conversation the Ond. formation is sometimes! used instead of 

the 5th. Thus one says _ " zt'idj t !H' was married instead of ^ "-J tesuAfj. 

' 



266 

- 5 th - Formation J*3 tallem, he was taught, he learned. 
5 th - do sJoii' tekattaa, he was cut, cut himself, 

from *.\z3. 

5 th - do jJy t Ailed f he was engendered, was born 

from J-Jj. 

175. The 6 th - formation generally indicates an action com- 
-mon and reciprocal between two or more persons and as a 
rule it is used in the plural. 

EXAMPLES. 

1st, Formation ^_n-^ dardb, he struck. 

6 th - do \j>j\*ia) teddrbu, they struck each other. 



1 st - do *~9 kastm, he divided, shared. 

6 th - do \jy~>\&> tekdsmu, they divided, between them. 

176. The 7 th - and 8 th - formations have generally the mea- 
-ning of the 5 th - i.e. they are reciprocal, and passive. 

EXAMPLES. 

1 st - Formation ^j=* KKarak, he burned. 

7 th - do ^Jj^ enhharak, he was burned, it become 

burned. 

{ 
Aa. Khali, } 
he opened. 
^3 fctahh ) 

\*-~ 

\ JopJ! enhhall } he ( il ) opened (itself), 

7th. do 

( ^xaj! enfttdhh } or (he) (it) was opened. 

1 st - do ,0,^3 farak, he separated. 

7 th - do LJJ$ enfarak, he separated himself or 

was separated. 






- 207 - 

stii- Formation ^ ::j! cftanik, he separated himself or was 

separated. 

1 st - do S^N. jemda, lie joined, he assembled. 

7"' do a r -r e '' enjemaa, (vulgarly) hejoined himself 

or was joined. 
*"> do *<s~?J ejtemad, (literally) he joined himself 

or was joined. 

1 st - do *3 \ erfaa, he raised. 

8 th - do ^f',1 ertefdd, he raised himself, or he was 

or became raised. 
177. The 10 th - formation indicates usually the petition or 

the desire of the action signified by the 1 st - formation. 



EXAMPLES. 

1 st - Formation ai gliaftr, he pardoned. 
10 th - do r .jjoUJ estaghfer or ettghafer, (a) he sought 

pardon, 
1st- do j-i. (not used vulgarly) he knew, was 

aware of. 
2 nd - do v^ khabbar, he made to know, advised, 

informed. 

10 th - do ^..ar x:~, ! estakhbar or ettkhdbar, (b) he asked 
news, tried to know, he informed him- 
-self. 

(a) In the vulgur tongue the 10 th - formation is generally very irregularly 
pronounced, some letters heing suppressed and others doubled. Thus they say 

eenna or ,*! esenna or ^jj^l estentia, he awaited, expected, instead of 
"~ ~"' 



;' \ estanu 1 ()th. formation of ,j| and .^tw eaiii-s or jU,! esidnee ho 

J? "' w." O L/ 

became accustomed, instead of ^jU^j the Q formation of 



^ 
^ 
(b) See above Note a. 



208 

1st. Formation Jz (not used vulgarly) he knew. 
10 th - do J,*l\~J estddlem, he desired to know, or to 
learn. 



3. CONJUGATION OF DERIVATIVE VERBS. 

178. The derivative verbs care conjugated like the primiti- 
-vc, but the following remarks should be borne in mind. 

1 st - The initial I of the 4 th - formation is generally suppres- 
sed in the pronunciation. For example; one says ^^ at a, 

instead of c i=^ aata. 
>-> 

2 d - The initial ! of the 4 th - 7 th - 8 th - 9 th - and 10 th - formations 
i 

is always suppressed in the future: e.g. ^is^j tnfetahli he it i 

C 
will open ( himself) ( itself), future of ^XAJ!. 

C 
;rd. The ! prefixed to the imperative is dropped in all the 

formations: e.g. *.U all em teach ( thou ) Jt& tekellem speak 
(thou ). 

4th. The vowel sound of the preterite, which is a or e is re- 
-tained in the future and imperative, except in the 2 nd - ,'! nl -1 th - 
7th. #th. anc j iQth. formations of the defectives which tak a in 
the preterite and / in the future and imperative, (a) 

Classical the Ond. radical letter in tlu> jn-ctcrite takes the f',ithli uli'-<ii/*. 
mid in thi' fill nrc an iniiioriitivr ulirui/s the ki#i-<i t>xi'ept in the 5th. and (Jth. for- 

-inations wlien it has (he futhlin: thusond. formation ^ he dnii/lil. J^j 
,lli fonuation J,,;, h'j Uarned, ,i x ;;V /N ifi 



- 2ii9 - 



10. 



XL. 

What did he teach thee? (a) o\J=. ~-i 1. 

* ^- 

lie taught me a trade 

( craft ). 
We have taught them the 

song (57 ). 
I will teach them the les- 

-son (Ex. 4 ). 
Will you teach me ( the ) 

grammar? 
The-master will teach" 

thee ( the ) grammar. 
He learned the lesson in j is'~J! J.^L __ ij^iJ! J 

an hour. 
With whom didst thou le- (l . -'< CU+ltf . >- ^ 

-arn to write 'thou wilt 


write). 

I learned to write with the 

Taleb (I Avill write ). 
He will learn (the'i Arabic. 



.^_j,xJl JuCJ 



10. 



a) I'nturc in c Jju nil/fin he will teach. The penultimate letter of the dcri- 

\ " 
vative verbs has fjcncrally the saino vowel sound in the future as in (he preterite: 

but the exception must be remembered. See No. 178. 

(b) See note corresponding to Xo. C of Exercise :52. page .'01. 





-270- 

11. If ttfou sleepest (wilt sleep) 
(a) thou wilt learn little. 



12. lie meditated on God. (c) 

13. He thinks continually of 

this orphan (masc.) 

14. I will think upon those or- 

-phans. 

15. She thinks continually of 

her children ( sons ). 

16. I will meditate day and, 

night upon the law of 
God. 

17. He replied to (d) the Ge- 

neral's letter. 

18. They replied to their fa- 

-ther. 

10. That rubicond person will 
answer ( to ) the ques- 
tion ( Comp. 39). 



I, 



! 11, 



_a 12. 

* 1:5. 



15. 



i i_ JJ! 



17. 



L''A 18. 



(a) x -j Ond. pcrs. future of the verb w jj iidtis he slept. 
w w- 

(b) Literally translated: Thoti wilt not learn much. 

(c) Ond. t'cnnation. 

(d) Lit. , 4 ' ^ ^rd. formation, more commonly in the vulgar 

*^ ^ 



271 

20. I answered thy letter. 

21. Answer ( thou ) for me. 

22. That miser (Ex. 8 ) does 

not think (on anything) 
except money. 

23. The weaver gave me this 

haik for thee. (a) 

24. Did the weavers give thee 

anything? 

25. They have not given me 

anything. 

26. I will give thee my sword. 



27. Give (thou) me that cup. (b) 

28. The soldier will give thee 

the musket. 



~ 



,U 20. 

,U 21. 

:-* 22. 



: 

> > 



a^. 



.l.0 



(b) L-QJI 



-* 

-J 3TY"' 1 



23. 



24. 



U 25. 



26. 
27. 

28. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



5. ... en-ndhhit. 

10. ... al-arbiya. 

11. Jda tendds ... 

12. ... khdmmtm ... 

13. ... dima ... ifim. 

14. ... itama (or al-ltam). 

(a) 4th. formation of (J^ 

(b) Spanish word. 



16. ... fen-nehar. wafel-Jil 

17. . . . jd-ireb ( or wajeb) .. 
19. ... 2ddi- ... 

22. ... ghalr ... 

23. Darrdz ddtd ... 

24. ... darrdza. 
27. ... dsrt. (b) 



- 272 - 
Vocabulary. 

He finished, concluded, completed, perfected J^ k&mmel, 
governs accusative. 
Building ^ benl, (masc.) 

^^ * 

He helped, assisted ..lc aauen, 3 rd - formation, governs 

W 

accusative, pronoun, and , _ . (prep.) with accusative noun. 

Thing fcxla. hhaja. 

Poor fellow, (lit. poorish, poor little fellow) -!*-: ,^ 
deriwish. See No. 93. 

He liked, (it pleased him) ^^-ar-^l aajeb, 4 th - formation, 
governs accusative pronoun. 

Guncase j ,.~> s&rir, pi. fju seralr. 

Day after to-morrow !j-i -'-*. 6aad gliadda. 

(He) blessed O/,l> bdrak, 3 r(1 - formation, requires prep. <1_. 

He bet, wagered Jslx-''' tekhdt r .ir ) G th - formation, requires 



prep. , _ ' with a noun, and *.-- with pronoun. 

He sent, despatched, remitted 1 st - -ij~s sarred; 2> ul - i=-f-^ 
stii/'et, requires prop. J with pronoun and accusative noun: .'i nl - 
( <:l't*sical J ,' (irsel, not of then used ). 

COMPOSITION 40. 

Did he complete the building. He finished it. The masons 
(Comp. 15) have built the building. When (V.\. 20) will 
they complete it. They will complete it this week (GO). Did 
anyone help thee ( 141 ). Xo one has helped me 1 12 .--All 
of (11."); liit'in (everybody) lu-lped him. He assisted my sister 
K\. !<> Fat ma '.'> . !!< will help us with something. Sur- 
-cour ( thou) that poor blind man. Succour ye that poor or- 



- 2V 

-plum ( Ex. :)'.)). Succour ye the orphans fEx. 30) and God 
will bless thec. That lad has pleased thee (Ex. 14). He lias 
pleased me much. Did the wine please thee (Comp. 7). It 
did not please me. Did the dates please thee (Ex. 25). Did the 
sea-sleeve please thee. The gun-case pleased us. You will 
like the kuskusu ( Comp. 2<S ). ( Ar. The kuskusu will please 
thee ). God has blessed me. God will bless thee. God has 
blessed us. We have wagered four bundkis (Comp. 11). Dost 
thou wish to bet? I do not wish to bet with thee. He sent me 
to the shop (73 ). He sent him with a letter. They sent the 
mule ( Ex. 7 ) with the soldier. I will send thee the letter the 
day after to-morrow. I have sent the balance (scale) (Ex. 33) 
with thy manservant ( Ex. 7 ). Send me all the wool ( 58). 



EXERCISE XLI. 



1. lie went to the garden 

and has amused himself 

very much, (a) 
'1. They have been amused 

in the sport. 
.">, AVc will go to the moun- 

-tain and will amuse 

ourselves. 
4. He became angry (b) with 

us, and went to bed 

(Ex.13). 

;,tli. formation. 
(b) yth. formation. 

18 






L.yJJ 



UrJJ 



iW 



9. That madman (Comp. 15) 
will throw himself from 
the window if they (will) 
do not bind him. 

10. He busied himself with 

agriculture, (f) 

11. My cousin will employ 

himself by writing. 



274- 

5. If thou dost (wilt) not co- 

-me (a) with me niy fa- 
ther will be angry. 

6. I became angry with the 

bride and I have aban- 
doned her. (b) 

7. He threw himself into the 

tank, (c) 

8. They threw themselves 

into the sea and they 
were all drowned, (e) 



.. . 

s.5 O- 



(d) ( _^J J ) (c) 



. . w 



C^ 

, U !i! 



a 



6. 



7. 



8. 



9. 



10. 



JJ, 11. 



(ft) See note to Xo. 27 of Exercise XXX, page 191. 

(b) let. person preterite of the verb J.^ khalla, 2nd. formation, lie 

vJ' 
-doned, left. 

(c) gth. formation. 

(d) 5th. formation. 

(e) 3rd. pers. plural of verb ^ v t/liarttk. ]\c sank, 

(f) gth. formation. 



12. 



275 
Thy brothers will employ 

themselves by reading. 
My cousin ( son of mater- ,.? (a) 

-nal aunt ) was asto- 

-nished by his friend's 

death. 

He his surprised at him. 
He begged forgiveness of 

God. 
He will beg forgiveness 

of God. 
Ask him forgiveness for 

thy sins (Ex. 36). 
He took (c) from me all 

I had (143). 
Thy aunt took the hand- 

-kerchief from him. 
Remove ye this mat from 



14. 

15. 

16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 

20. 



21. We will remove this board. 

22. The tailor sewed me (d) a 

suit ( of clothes ). 

t 10* n - formation. 

(b) 5th. formation. 

(c) 2 n d- formation. 

(d) 2 n( l' formation. 



12. 



U J, 13. 



\ 
a ' I 

Ls 



2__ (b) 



16 



17. 



,^ u V L 

- * ; 3 



19. 



20. 



21 






276 



24, 
25. 
2G. 
27. 

28. 

29. 

30. 



The seamstress sewed 

thee these trousers, (a) 
He will sew us the jelab 

(Ex. 24). 
Sew ( thou ) me this haik 

(Ex. 17). 
His manservant poisoned 

(b) him. 
Her husband will poison 

her. 

His wife will poison him. 
This devil ( spirit ) has 

deafened me. (b) 
Those children (Comp. 19) 

have deafened me. 



I:^ 23. 



s> 



- 



^ 25. 

26. 
j 27. 

J' 28. 
29. 

30. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



1. ... tef&rr&j ... 

2. ... laib. 

4. Enfdfcdz ... 

5. ... eji ... 

6. ... arosa ... khllitsa. 
1. Ertcma (or testieb) 
S. ... gharkti,. 

(a) A pair, plural | j 
VJJ 

Jnd. formation. 



10. EshtegJial bd-fclahhd. 

11. TFiJifrf fc7ia?? ... kitaba, 

12. fcftofe/t- ... 

13. Wuld klialtlestdjeb ... (or 



18. Zuuel ... 
21. ... khashba. 



- 277- 
22. ... kliauct ... 2j. Semmem-u ., 



215. ... seriial. 



29. Sammem-ni ... al-jinn. 



Vocabulary. 



( He ) breakfasted ( him ) ( i.e. entertained to breakfast ) 
Ja3 fettar, governs accusative pronoun. Is of 2 nd - formation. 

( He ) lunched (himself) (i.e.. he) ^jLi-S tseghadda, 5 th - 
formation. 

( He) lunched ( him ) ( i.e. entertained him to lunch) ,^5 
ghadda, future in I, governs accusative 2 nd - formation. 

He supped, dined J~*j tdshsha, 5 th - formation. 

He dined (him) (i.e. entertained him to dinner or supper 
?Lz ashsha, future in i, governs accusative 2 nd - formation. 

( He ) abandoned JLi. khalla, future in i, governs accusa- 
tive 2 nd - formation. 

( He ) prayed j^*> salld, future in i, governs accusative 
2nd. formation. 

Asha ULs ( lit. alsha or i^i atema). The hour at which Mos- 
-lems offer the fifth daily prayer, i.e. an hour and a half more 
or less after sunset, magreb, ( Ex. 33 ). 

Dohr or donor do. The hour of the second daily prayer of 
Moslems, i.e. more or less, at 1 30. P. M. 

Asar r ^ai or assr. The hour of the 3 rd - daily prayer of Mos- 
lems i.e. between noon and sunset. 

(lie) sang ^^ glianna, future in i, 2 nd - formation. 

He rested, reposed, recovered ( as from a sickness -JS.! 
ertahh, 8 Ul - formation of -J,. 

COMPOSITION 41. 
I arrived at his house and he entertained (or he served me 



278 

to breakfast.) He will entertain thee to breakfast. They 
will give thee breakfast. Give me breakfast. He lunched at 
my house. I lunched with that orphan (Ex. 40). To day I 
will dine with the ambassador (Ex. 21). He will dine with 
the Vizier ( Ex. 7). My uncle gave me dinner. The cook 
( Ex. 21 ) will serve thee with dinner. Who entertained thee 
to supper. Give us supper^ I supped with the englishman 
( Ex. 30 ). He will sup ( dine ) at 8 o'clock. We will sup at 
the asha. He left (left behind him) the carpet ( Cornp. 22 ) in 
the room (68). They abandoned their arms (Ex. 10 ) fled 
( Comp. 34). He will leave the load. Leave (thou) it. He 
prayed the magreb (Ex. 33 ) and will pray the asha. The 
Moors prayed the dohor and the asar. He sang very well. 
The singer (Comp. 24) who has come from Marrakesh (Ex. 9) 
will sing this night (Ex. 32). He rested from his work (Comp. 
8). The labourers rested (Comp. 15). I will rest a little (Ex. 
30-9 ). Sit ( thou) (Ex. 30) and rest a little. We will sit, and 
(will) rest. 

EXERCISE XLII. 



1. He chose (a) saucepan 

(with two handles ). 

2. They chose this place 

( or site ). 

3. He will choose one of these 

two. 

(a) $th. formation. 



279 



J" t , 



4. He needed money and I 

gave it him. 

5. My son will need a jelab. 

Wilt thou give it him? 
G. I will give it him with 
much pleasure (litera- 
-lly to " on my head " ). 

7. I will need twenty ducats 

(60). 

8. The Moors and the Chris- 

-tians have made aliance 
(confederated), (b) 

9. The French and the Spa- 

-niards will join them- 
-selves ( together). 

10. My mother and my aunt 

embraced (c) and kissed 
(each other ). 

11. He showed him the road 

12. We will show the traveller 

the road to Fez. 

(a) gth. formation. 

(b) (Jth. formation. 

(c) gth. formation of "^ and of _lj. 

(d) Future in i, ~ Aj iiovi; Ond. formation Of 



t (a) J-^\ 4. 

W 



w y : 



Lj. \Ju\s 



10. 



11. 



13. 
14. 
15. 

16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 

20 
21. 



280 
Who cured ( doctored ) ' 

thee. 
The surgeon has cured 

me. 
The Spanish physician 

will cure thee. 
He took us (led us) by the 

hand, (b) 
Who will lead me to the 

mountain? 
I will conduct thee. 
Thanks. ( lit. tr. God will 

bless thee ). (c) 
The "white-washer" wa- 

-kened me very early, (d) 
The blacksmiths wakened 

me at day break. 
AVaken ( thou ) me early. 
He became accustomed to 

the work. 



(a) 



14. 



'5! 16. 



17. 



18. 



r v .j 

^ 



20. 



-Mj.^ 1 21. 



(a) Future in /, 



'''"<'"' ; ; }rd. formation of 



(b) Fut ure in/, j3'j '"'''''' i""!- formation of 
(C sec N.I. - of Kxri re 9. 

(<r n J- formation. 



24. 



27. 



2s. 



29. 



- 2*1 
Tic will become accusto- 

-med to fasting (the 

fast 
Her fat her married (i.e. 

caused her to marry,) 

her (to), (a) 
Her parents married her, 

( caused her to marry). 
lie married (himself ) (to) 

(b) his cousin, (c). 
My brother married a 

shereefa. 
His sister married a she- 

-reef. 
If God will, they will be 

married this month. 



,UaHj r U 21. 
, . U 



.- -< 2.-.. 

- 



.' y 

U_^T:J ioCi.' 29. 



_ 30. 



atit U 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



1. Khntar ... t<i>(/it<t. 

2. ... modaa. 

l}. ... irdlihed min hadtlm ez- 

-ziij. 
A. llhatnj ... 



6. ... aid rdst 
S. ... tddMfl, 

'.. ... fi 



... es-ssba- 



10. ... tddnkii 



( a) oml. formation. 
li i 5 tli. formation. 
(c) Tr. lit. ' dauglitci' of paternal uncle '' 



282 

11. Ui-ra... 21. ... ala al-fejtr (lit.fejr). 

12. ... mesdfer ... 24. ... bes-sidm. 

13. ...-dditftk. 25. zfifiej-a ... 
16. Idda-nd ... 

20. Al-bdiyad ftyakni bukrl . 



27. Tdzuuej ... bent fimmu. 
2s. ... sMrtfa. 



Vocabulary. 

(He) burned (himself) i.e. he was burned, ^ s.v' nhrak 
or eriharak, requires ^ with an accusative. 

Heat i'jUr-- skhana or sekhana. 

Heat (of the sun ) *LU kaila. 

He covered ( with a garment ) Js gliatta; future in /, re- 
-quire an accusative and prep. ^_>. 

Haik. See Ex. 17 and 22. 

He covered himself ( with a garment ) ^L-i.i' tgatta or te- 
-gliaita, requires prep. ^ with a noun. 

He mocked scoffed 1 st - jsr** tmeskhar or temeskhar; requi- 
-res C U; 2 nd - ,=b-~"- i ' temsdkhkhar, ( irregular ). 

^^~ ^ 

Old ( substantive adj.) 1 st - s^ti. s/j?6 ( signifies literally 

grey haired) pi. in .v; 2 nd - ^1- sheikh; pi. ^_^ shiitkh, and 

^/.. ~- c^" 

^.Li-! shiakh. 

He confounded (himself) disarranged itself etc. l>. t _=s 
tkhardet or tekharuet. 

He travelled^ 1 sa/'dr 3 rd - formation. 

He spilled (A~r* harrak; governs accusative. 

Back ( noun $i dftar, da/j-r or dahar; pi. ,^!i t?/jr ///?? or 
Uhor. 

i lie) discharged, fired off shot, r v ^ kharrej; requires accu- 

\*t * 

-sativo and -U with a noun or pronoun. 



283 

Shot, ( noun) JjUs amara; pi. ol^s 

Tie brought up. educated ( amcrican "raised" C J . rabba; 
future in /, governs accusative. 

Fear (noun) ^j>>&- khafif. 

They met (each other) ty& tlakau or tdakaCi; (I th - formation. 

(lie) entertained \ <~~<& dalief; governs accusative. 

The two ships, r j)-f *J>\j-^\ al-mrakeb or al-maraktb 
bez-zuj. 

COMPOSITION 42. 

The camel driver ( Comp. 10 ) Avas burning with fever ( lit. 
heat ). The kaid's house has been burned ( Ex. 10 ). -He will 
be burning with fever. That woman covered her son with 
the jelab (Ex. 24). Those fishermen (Comp. 24) covered 
themselves with their haiks. What (Comp. 3G) shall we cover 
ourselves with. That scoffer ( Ex. 31 ) made fun of (mocked) 
this old man. -He will not make fun of me. The earth (Comp. 
3) quaked ( 170 ) and we were much ( Comp. 35 ) afraid. Will 
the earth tremble to night? ( Ex. 32 ). If God will it will not 
tremble (quaked) (Ex. 13 ). He muddled the water in the 
tank ( Comp. 27). The river ( Ex. 31 ) has been muddled. 
I travelled by day and he travelled by night ( Ex. 40 ). He 
will travel by sea, and I will travel by land (Ex. 30). Did 
you spill the water on the ground. He spilled the oil on my 
back. He fired a shot at (against) a Christian (Ex. 14). I 
will fire a shot at them. They have fired many shots at us. 
This (person) brought up his children ( Ey. 10) well. My 
mother educated me in the fear of God. Who will educate 
(bring up) my children? They met (each other) in the Ceuta 



- 284 - 

( Ex 21 ) road (22). They met each other in the fundak. 
We met ( each other ) the day before yesterday ( Ex. 23 ) in 
Rabat (Ex. 9). The two ships met in the strait of Gibraltar 
( Comp. 27 ). He entertained the poor (Comp. 17) in his house. 
They entertained us in their house. Who will entertain us 
to nicrht. Someone will entertain us. 



EXERCISE XLIII. 



1. He awaited thee in the 

house. 

2. They awaited us in the 

street. 

3. Await (thou) me in the 

market. 

4. I will not wait here. 

5. He has at this moment 

called us. 

G. They called them hurri- 
edly. 

7. Call (thou) him. 

S. He paid him all his debts. 

'.i. He paid me the debt. 

10. I will pay thce all that I 

owe thee ( Ex. :-5s ). 

11. Pay (thou) me what thou 

. owest me (Ex. :s i, 



ifiujj ji; 

,bJl 



I?- 1 



.! 



( Jb _,^ 



1. 



9 

, 



4. 

5. 



-c 7. 

9. 
W. 

II. 



2s:, - 

12. Did lie prepare the arms, 
l.j. lie prepared them very 

early. 
11. I have prepared fa) them 

this morning. 
15. Have you prepared the 

supper (~>! . 
til. The cook (raj will prepa- 

-re it. 
17. He passed the night (Ex. 

27 ) in the mountain. 
is. We have passed the day 

(Ex. 27) without food 

( without eating ). ( Ex. 

24). 

19. I have quarrelled with 

your brother. 

20. Thy cousin (maternal) 

has quarrelled with them 
all. (b) 



iJJ.a> 15. 



(IOJ j! 



18. 



19. 



J..L 20. 



when the 
I 



(a) A shidda is placed over the formative or <ni.i-ili<i ri/ letter 
third radical letter preceding it has no vowel and is a .-. , ,5 .2 ^ is or jj- and 



in this case their pronunciation and mark are dropped, e.g. ^j^O^s. *'Jj*"> f r 

C i 

^j* Q..^, . fljjfdt. Sec thou recefvedst etc. page 51 and the verb. t Ink? No. i(>.">, 
(b) ;jr. formation, 



286 

21. We will not quarrel. 

22. He " took out " ( 173 ) the 

grass (Com p. 26) from 
the garden. 

23. Thy mother took out the ( a ) 

chocolate from the 
chest. 

24. He took out the kaftan t 

and presented it to me. 



25. Who "presented the with" 

this mule? 
-Mi. The administrator pre- 

-sented it to me (Ex. 12). 
27. Will he present me with 

anything? 
_'*. They will not present thee 

with anything. 
2!>. We will send out the mare 

to the market. 
i)0. He broke the cup. 
."I. They broke the inkstand 

and the pens. 



(a) 



word. 



21. 



.,'Lil 1 ! 



21. 



iUJ! 



26. 



27. 



_".. 



^ii i ,ir J i . -> so. 
^ ^ \* j 

JJ'^ .vAjj< ^> ;;i. 



ii'S of tunic wunn in- Moors f,'c IK- rally und al.-o liy some of 
Sultan'- Bol 



_S" 



287 - 

,>2. AVilt thou break the bottle? 
.".:;. I will not break it. 
34. Thou hast broken the 
plates- 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

[5. Aiiet ... udkt. I 15. Ujjedtfi ... 

6. ... bel-klak or kalak (or 20. ... khasem . 
bez-zerba. \ 23. ... choklat ., 



: 32, 

L, :;:;. 
- :( 34, 



8 . Kh allesil ... di u n u ... 

9. ... din. 
12. Ujjed... 

14. C/)j' e ^ ^ m 



24. ... kaftan ... 

25. ... hda or heda ... 
30. Marres ( or kessar) 
34. ,,. 6ds<7 or tabdsil. 



Vocabulary. 



He tarried, lagged, was late J.Ja*j tsattal. 
in coming 

^_T> ' \-S " 

taattal ala al-meji. 

AVas sold, became sold c.LM enbfid, 7 th - formation. 

AA r as or became adjusted, conformed, agreed together .a,^] 
ettefak; 8 th - formation of ,J^j requires prep. *x. 

"* ^.- 

He brought down, laid doAvn 1 st - Jsla habbet; 2" d - J;j nezzel, 
requires accusative. 

He went up, ascended, took up slL talla, requires ace. 

Store ( noun ) 1 st - ,jj^ makhzen, plural MJ^* mekhazen; 
2 nd - ^jA. khazin; pi. ri^ khazatn. 

lie) freed, saved 1 st - oX..L. sellek; 2 Iul - C-.U felh-t; ."> nl - 
^Afi^ aatak, governs accusative and require prep. .,-- 



Was or became, freed, saved 1 st - os fuUt; 2 n(1 - oXl~> selek; 
;;ni. ,xr-' neja, fat. in , require prep. . v --. 

(lie) filled ^ ammar, governs accusative and requires 
prep. _.. 

Land ( noun ), ground, soil , ,1*5 tarctb. 

Hole (in a garment, vessel or building) i.JL> tzokba, plural 
^J^j\ tzckab. 

( He ) merited, deserved J.,sL~! estaliel, 10 th ' formation of 
J.* ( , governs accusative. 

( He ) mixed LU. kallet, governs accusative. 

( He ) wetted ^,fj-? fczzeg, ( hard cj as in egg ) governs 
accusative. 

Fez Cap. (red cap. worn by Moors) ,^j J* tarbftsh, plural 

viAJa tarabesh. 
^ J 

They forgave (each other) !_jsr*L.3 tesdmhhu, 6 th - formation. 

( He ) changed, exchanged ( money ) v <. t ^s ssarref, gover. 

accusative. 

( He ) asked, enquired, questioned, interrogated ,^._<ss-jL~. 
sdkssa, future in i: .^L~i isak,s-?_, requires prep. O U and an 
accusative. 

COMPOSITION !.">. 

To-day (Ex. T2) the letter-courier ( Comp. 18 ) has been 
delayed very much. They were late (tardy in coming. 
The horse was sold for fifty dollars ( Ex. 10 ). All the oran- 
-ges (Ex.18) have been sold. It will l)c sold dear (Comp. 
14). He agreed with the c.-ifc-kfi-per (Comp. li'> ). Tlu-y 
agreed with the merchant. ( Kx. H i. AVitli whom ( 1'30) shall 
our brother deal? (i.e. come to an agreement with?) He will 



289 

( arrange) agree with that Mogador merchant (Comp. 14). 
lie took up the tables (Comp. 19) and brought down the chairs 

(Comp. 13). They brought down the sacks (Comp. 24), 
filled them ( Comp. 38 ) with wheat, and took them up to the 
store. The learned men (86) met together (176) in the mos- 
-quo ( 70). The mountaineers ( 86 ) met together in the rnar- 
-ket. He saved his sister (Ex. 10) from death (Corap. 26 ). 
They delivered us from the thieves (Comp. 15). He will de- 
-liver him from his enemies (Ex. 17 and 39). He saved me 
from death. He filled the hole with earth. Didst thou fill 
the bottle with wine? Have ( Comp. 25 ) you filled the sack 
with wheat? He deserved the pay for his work (Comp. 8). 
lie will merit the money for his work. He mixed the wine 
with water. My sister mixed it all. They mixed the wheat 
with the barley (Ex. 21 ). The manservant wetted the 
fez-cap. They wetted the barley. The Kadi (Comp. 7) and 
the Fakih ( Ex. 17 ) forgave each other. Didst thou exchange 
the bundki ( Comp. 11 ). I will change it. Who asked for 
me? They questioned me about the war (Comp. 27). He 
will enquire about my ( bodily health) health (Ex. 11 ). 

CHAPTER V. 

THE PASSIVE VOIOE. 

179. In classical Arabic the passive voice is formed from 
the active voice by means of the vowels or accents, but vul- 
-garly the passive voice is entirely in disuse, excepting in the 

partciple. Its place is supplied either by the use of formations 
19 



290 

f,th. yth. and 8 th - which have a passive signification, ( 174 and 
176 ) or by changing the passive into the active voice, i.e. by 
placing the ablative agent in the nominative with an active 
verb in agreement therewith, and putting the nominative into 
the accusative. If the ablative agent in such an instance be 
not exppressed in the sentence the verb is used in the plural. 

EXAMPLES. 

1 st - My book was burned ^jka .i jsru! enhharak kitsabi. 

2nd. The fire went out (extinguished itself) ,U! o^-a-k-Ji 
entefats en-nar. 

3 rd - The month ended (became ended) -fc--H 1^ entdmm 
esh-shahr ( or shahar ). 

4th. Everything was created by God ^i. J$" .iLk t&\ all ah 
khalak kull shi (lit. tr. God created everything). 

5 th - The Sultan was hated by the Vizier jlLLJt */^j \ J\ 
al-uzir kerah al- sultan ( lit. tr. The Vizier hdted the Sultan). 

6 th - Kador was overcome by Joseph jj3J ^JLi ^j. __j 
yusef ghaldb kaddur ( lit. tr. Joseph overcame Kador). 

7 th - The Sultan was hated .UJLJ1 U* r ^=> k&rhu es-sultan 
(lit. tr.: they hated the Sultan}. 

8 th - Kador was conquered ij->J '^ii ghalbil kaddur (lit. 
tr.: they conquered Kador). 

EXERCISE XLIV. 

1. The lime-burner was che- 
-ated (a) by this moun- 
-taineer. 

() jii ghashsli. Future in o, mute verb. 



, 

J " ' W 



JI.X* Lli JUt 3. 



. vi ., 



4. 



- 201 - 
2. Thou wast cheated (a) by ^\i^ ^-^ 2. 

thy ( Ex. 11 ) brothers. 
.". That chatterer has been 

cheated by the lads. 
4. This soldier (infantryman) 

was cheated by the mu- 

-kuddum. (b) 
f>. This mule Avas bought by 

me. 
G. This dress Avas se\ven by 

the tailor. 

7. The charcoal-sellers have ,.v>li~! \*\o 

been overcome by the 
fire wood-sellers, (c) 

8. The jellabs (Ex. 24) were 

seAven by my uncle. 

9. This Frenchman has been 

overcome by that Spa- 
niard. 

10. The Kalipli of Cordoba iJpJ is-U. \J& , CLaJ! 10. 
was conquered by the 
Christians. 

(a) Tr. lit. Thy brothers will cheat thro. 

!> Arabic word (luarclian. Here it means the functionary in charge of a 
quarter of a town, or in charge of a village, or sanctuary. 

(c) Tr. lit. The firewood-sellers overcame the charcoal sellers. 



Jj ui 5. 

j 



6. 



7. 



U 8. 



.. 



202 - 

11. The cup was (became) 

broken, (a) 

12. The bottle will break 

itself (i.e. will become 
broken). 

13. The bell (b) was heard. 

14. The music will be heard istU! ., 

( i.e. will make itself 
heard ) in the window. 
(c) 

15. The letter was written by 

the Sherif. 

16. This chapter was written 

by the Fakih. 

17. The prince was obeyed. 



18. The Sultan's son will be 

obeyed. 

19. This book was printed in 

Alexandria, (e) 

(a) 5th. formation of 

(b) 7th. formation of 

(c) Spanish word. 

(d) Tr. lit. They obeyed the prince. 

(e) 7th. formation of ^.J;. 



11. 






13. 



14. 



; * ^^ ^s.s^\ 16 



, 17. 



jJj UL is. 






in. 






rj] 



203 

20. Thy words will be unders- 

-tood (Comp. 38) by all 
the people. 

21. He was known (in acquain- 

tance with ). 

22. He was "brought in" (i.e. 

made to enter ) by for- 
-ce). (a) 

23. This money was gained 

by me. 

24. He was searched for by 

sea and by land. 

25. This robber was caught 

by the soldiers, (police). 
2G. The money will be divided 
Into two parts, (b) 

27. The Bey was tied to a co- J_=J, 

-lumn. 

28. He was killed in the pri- 

-son. (c) 

29. He will be killed in the 

market. 

( a ) UL.) dttkhkhal, he brought in, introduced. 

(b) ,^jij| cnlcaaem, became divided: 7th. formation. 
\ 

( c ) Ixiil 7th. formation. 



J! 20. 



21. 



'J(j S \ I *> OO 

^ i* -J J MA - ^ , 



23. 



jj 25. 



^ ^. J 1 *" 26. 



27. 



! 28. 



_ xij 29 



294 

30. All the lieges ( suljects ) 

will be governed with 
gentleness, (a) 

31. This "zauia" (b) was 

pulled doAvn ( razed ) 
( demolished ) (c)by the 
infantry soldiers. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



! 30. 



31. 



1. Mokadem ... ascarl. 

7. Al-hhattabin ... 

9. ... fransaui. 

11. Tehdrres ... 

13. Ensemaa en-nakus. 

1 !. Al-musika ... 

19. ,.. entebdd .. 



2:2. Dakhkltalfih bez-z6z. 
26. ... ienkasem did zCij. 
28. EnkeUl ... 

30. ... tenhhekem ... 

31. Al-asacariia tiiahhn 

zauia. 



Vocabulary. 



Master-craftsmen ,-^d*-* mall em in. 

Was or became hot ,.,=?*- eskhan, future in #. 

The "mohtasscb" (overseer of markets, weights and measu- 

/ o ^ 

res etc.) v^**.'^* mohhtseb, pi. in ,v (classical Avord . ^~.:;^ r ). 

Fish (noun) col. ^.^ hhot or lihout, pi. in c,- 1 (02), unit, 
iua. hhota. 

(a) .^,^-'1 enhhcl'-'in. \v.-is riilc'l: 7th. formation. 

("b " Znuia " I,it( rall\ 1110:1113 corner (if an antrlo. It is a cliapcl. or sanof nary, 
coutaining the grave of sonic saint. 

(c) Jj^ <itoA&| He demoliahed, palled down, ia the 2nd' formation of ^[^ 

C" ^ 

, he fell (Com] 



291 

Enemy, sing, sec Ex. .'!'., pi. 1 st - ^>'--;-- nodlan and 'j.;! ada; 

2 d - ..tLU tolban. 

\~< 

Went out (or) was extinguished ^aLj! entefa;7 th - formation. 
Was hired (or) became hired ^:^^=aj! enkera; 7 th - formation. 

COMPOSITION 44. 

His words have been well interpreted ( Ex. 31 ) Our son has 
been scratched by the lads ( Ex. 31 ). This candlestick was 
tinned by the tinsmith. Thou wast robbed (Ex. 31) last year 
( Comp. 33 ). I was loved (Ex. 32) by all. My sons ( Ex. 10) 
will be loved (155) by their masters ( teachers ). They were 
loved (155). The door was shut by him (Ex. 32). They were 
stung ( or bitten ) by the bees (Ex. 32). The water was ( or 
became) heated. The money was restored (Comp. 32) by 
the thieves. The butter has been weighed ( Ex. 33 ) by the 
mohtasseb. The fish (col.) have been weighed by the mohtas- 
-seb. Thou shall be believed (Ex. 34). Thou wilt be seen 
( Comp. 34 ) by all. He was feared ( Ex. 35 ) by his children. 
The fish was sold (Comp. 43). The sheep will be sold 
(Comp. 24 ). My benefits will be forgotten (Ex. 30 ). These 
stones were thrown ( Ex. 36 ) by our enemies. The fire we 
lighted (Comp. 30) has gone out. This mare was bought by 
Ali. The mosque of Cordoba was built by the Kaliph Abd- 
crrahman (Comp. 30). My house was built of wood. My 
garden was hired (became hired). I will be protected by 
the Spanish Consul ( Ex. 37 ). The wicked people will not be 
protected by us (Ex. 37 ). That story was related by thee 
( Comp. 37 ). 



296 

CHAPTER VI. 

MOODS AND TENSES. 

180. As has been already stated (No. 149) the verb in 
Arabic has only two moods and two tenses. The preterite 
corresponds to the two forms of past tense used by us (e.g. 
past " I killed" perfect past I killed). 

The future tense corresponds to our future imperfect. Let 
us now see how the Moors supply the remaining moods of oar 
conjugation. 

INDICATIVE. 

Present. 

181. To express our present indicative the Moors prefix a 
\jf or a o to the future: e.g. I make ( or do ) I do make I 
am making ^**^kanamel or Jy^> tanamel. Thou makest, dost 
make, art making, or art doing J**^ katamel. He makes ( or 
etc. etc. ) J<s*';o tatamel etc. etc. 

The o is the prefix used at certain places of the west coasts 
of Morocco, and the .^f that used in the northern provinces. 

The Arabic future frequently expresses the meaning of our 
present tense even without the prefixing of ^f or d.-: e.g. 

knowest thou Kaddor ,j-* s * **> taaraf Kaddur. I know him 

i3*j naarfCt, instead of ^_ j*:f katsaref and &>*.'*.$ kanarftl. If 
thou workest I will give thee a present J^.L oXiaxj ^.^ b' 
^'J-^-M idd teklidem natlk icalihcd al-liedini. 

The present tense is also expressed by the active partciple 



-297- 

or by a verbal adjetive: e.g. I go, I am going, I do go, ^~^ '-- <( 
( jp'-s _J) and mashl ( or gliadt. Thou goest ~_&Lj* j^ ; i 
( j^'-i jt) anta mashl ( or ghadi.) 
We go. etc. ( ..rso'-i J ) ,.v~i>U Lx_=J ft/iena mashlln (or 

V ^/ M * ^ 7 ^/ 

ghadiin.) 

They go, etc. ( ^.%-jOl c^t) ^^-U _s /<&n mashlln (or 
ghadlln.) 

Finally there are instances in which our present is expres- 
sed by the Arabic preterite: e.g. If thou wishest d^~^ b! Ida 



lihabblti, what dost thou wish? vJ^^= / ^> ask lihabbltl. Never- 
-theless such sentences may also be rendered by using the 
present or the future. 

IMPERFECT PAST. 

182. The imperfect past of the indicative is formed by 
prefixing ^ kan ( 158 ) to the future: e.g. 

/ 1st. j was making J-**i ^^^ hunt namel. 
Sing. < 2 nd - Thou wast J-o-so ^^ kfinti tamel. 

( 3 rd - He was A^JU ,' f kan iamel. 

o 

/ ist. ~\y e were 1^1^*; \-\S kan a namelii. 
PI. < 2 lul - You were LUsu Lj'.S' kuntit tamelti. 

( 3 rd - They were LU*j Ulf kanulamelCi. 
Sometimes the present tense ( in N. Morocco at anyrate ) is 
used with the verb ^ kan to express the imperfect past. 

The imperfect may be rendered also by the preterite of the 
verb ^ and the partciple of the verb it is desired to conju- 
gate, e.g. I was going _.i,L c^-^-=> LJ! ana kdnt matlit. 

v_5 

Thou wast going -S.l> ^2^ <^>\ anta k Ant i mashl, etc. etc. 
I was dwelling, (residing) =r>L, ^.^ L-! a?ia /vfoif saktin, 



-298- 

Thou wast dwelling ( residing ) ,^- ; == > ' ^->' ^. ' ant a 
kdnti sakhi. He was dwelling (residing) y ^=>L. ^ ^ liua 
kan saktn, etc. etc. 

PLUPERFECT. 

183. The pluperfect past is formed by putting the verb in 
the preterite together with the preterite of the verb ^ e.g. 

' 1 st - I had made <^b& ^L,^ kunt amelt. 

Sing.] 2 nd - Thou hadst made oU^ ^^ kunti amelt i. 
\ 3 rd - He had made J. v ^ ^ kan amel. 

i 1 st - We had made LJL^x u_S kiinnaamelna, 

( etc. (a) 

FUTURE PERFECT. 

184. This tense is formed by placing the future of the verb 
^ before the preterite, of the verb it is desired to conjuga- 
te: e.. 

1 st - I shall have made ^JU-Us , } SJ nkun or 
enktin amelt. 

Sing. ; ond. Thou shalt have made ^JLs ,.\ & tkun or 
, 

I tekun amelti. 

\ 3 rd - He shall have made ^z ^^ "tkun amd. 

( 1st. ^Ve shall have made -.Lc j->^- ; ??A'rtrt or 
( enkunu dmMnd, etc. 

I M P E R A T I V K . 

185. The third persons masc. and fern, of the singular and 

(a) There are iii.-tiinccs. ImweviT, in which the pluperfect and the imperfect 
past are expressed by the preterite alone without using the verb ^ 



-299- 

the 1 st - and 3 rd - of the plural which the Arabic imperative 
lacks, ( or wants) are rendered by using the future e.g. 

Let him make J-v*-* Iddmel. 

Let her make J-<**i' tddmel. 

Let us make t^Uiu nddmelu. 

Let them make L-Uau Idamlu. 

If the imperative be in the negative all the persons are ex- 
-pressed by the future the negation t ma being placed befo- 
-re the verb, and the word ,-i. shi after it; e.g.: 

Do (thou) not make ,- J. r *j U ma taamel shi. 

Do (ye) not make ,~ LI *j' U ?na taamluslii. 

<_p -^ 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, imperfect, and future tenses. 

18G. The present, imperfect past, and simple future of our 
subjunctive are expressed by the future of the indicative e.g. 

I desire that thou make (a) him il<.ou ^_^..^-o^' kanhhebb 
taamltl. 

I desire that you make him ?j.Lju JUs-o' kanhhebb taamhlh. 

He desired that I should (or shall) make him J^*j 'o! , .^-^ 

liliebb ana neamlu. 

He said that he would make him ^U*j JU kal Iddmeld. 

If thou make him I will be happy .j'^t? .,j.==J J.^A)' .,KJ 

-^ W' "^ O "^ 

laCikan taamlu enkiin farhhan. 

I would make him, if he should desire ^.sro ,0^ ^-U*J li^ 
ana naumchl ladkan thhebb. 

(a) lly Translation him is used in the above examples as supplying the place 
of an Arabic, masc. noun in the accusative case. 



300 - 

When yon will make him I will be happy M^Cj Jl^i' ^N. 
,jU^9 hin or hhtiin taamlii enkftn farhhdn. 

He will come when I should make him <jJ*>*5 Li! ^ s^ 

^ _i> * 

?Jt ftrfZtt ana naamlu. 

Preterite, perfect, and pluperfect. 

187. To express the subjunctive, preterite, perfect, and 
pluperfect the Arabs use the preterite of the indicative: e.g. 

I doubt (suspect) that he has made him (a) 1 st - j* o,0iji==> 
JLjS. kansliekkTiuaaamlu; or, 2 nd - *bz aJu oXi*^ kansliekkbian- 
-nti, (more vulgarly bainnu) aamlil. The word |Tjlj is compo- 
-sed of the particle (or preposition)^, and J\! that. This 
word ought to be folloAved by a noun, or a suffixed pronoun, 
but vulgarly it is very little used. 

If thou hadst come we would have made him (a) ,.^5-J 

* / o -^ 

UUa (j^P ^^^- Idukanjiti Id&kan amelnah; or 2 nd - . .,^J 
Bul^c tOj~j 1 *^ s ^ Idukan jiti ik&n amelnah. See No. 217. 

Sometimes our subjunctive pluperfect is rendered in Arabic 
by the same tense of the indicative ( 183 ) e.g. 

I would have made him (a) if I would have desired U! 
C-*-^ JU*w i^Kr ^ ^^ ana kunt ameltit Iddkan kunt 
liliabbit. 

If thou had desired we would have done vj^Jk ^^^ ^3 
LT |j^ Id&kan kanti hhabbiti Idukan kitnna amelnah. 

TIIK INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

188. Our infinitive present, preceded by another verb, and 

(a) Sec note a jiayr, -_".'i. 



301 - 

with or without a preposition, is expressed in Arabic by the 
indicative future tense: e.g. 

I desire to make J.^ ^sr-uS' kanhhebb nddmel, ( lit. tr. 
I desire I shall make). 

lie came to make J*w U. jad iaamel, (lit. tr. he came he 
shall or will make ). 

Man was created to work ^. 
khalak al-insan bash ikhdem or iekhdem. 



*\i ,.,LJ\V ^U. khlak or 



EXERCISE XLV 



1. I see a liar ( tr. lit. untru- 

thful man ) ( Comp 31 ) 
(Ex. 8-). 

2. See'st thou a cowardly 

soldier ( Ex. 44 ). 

3. She sees her husband (Ex. 

25). 

4. We see the good mirror 

(Ex. 8). 

5. Do you see that scarlet 

pink. 

6. I see a black horse (Ex. 8). 

7. What art thou doing? ( or 

making?) 

8. I am seeing the mosque. 



* 3. 






302 

9. I am complaining of the 
malefactors (Ex. 37 ). 

10. He protects the good peo- 

-ple. 

11. She requests (Ex. 37) (to 

have) the long table. 

12. We demand our salary 

(pay wages etc.) (Comp. 
25), 

13. He narrates ( Comp. 37 ) 

what he heard. 

14. He is hunting (or he hunts). 

15. They are hunting in the 

mountain. 

16. He was able to write. 

17. I am not able to eat. 

18. We are not able to write. 



19. Does lie bring the rope 

(Ex. 9). 

20. I do not know. 

21. Where goest thou? 

22. I am going to Marrakcsh 

.Morocco city . 



Li." 



c 



JJ! 



. 10. 



12. 



sj -L ,JJj 
L ( ^^^J *\ } t. ,J^ 

> 



_* 13. 

jj 14. 

=/ 15. 



.^ 17. 

U 18. 



j U 20. 
- 21. 



303 

23. Where are they going to? 

24. They are going to Rabat. 

25. Whence comest thou? 

26. I am coming ( or I come ) 

from the prison. 

27. Where is the jew. 

28. He is sleeping ( or he sle- 

eps ). 

29. The lads are sleeping ( or 

sleep ). 

30. Come ( thou ) if thou wis- 

-hest. 

31. If he wish, he (may) (can) 

is able to come. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

16. ... kadar ( or enjtm) ... 28. ... nddis. 

25 . ... jdi (or mdji ) ... 

Vocabulary. 
Green almonds ixj *s ferika, pi. in cJ, col. v. 



(a) 



(^ 25> 
0! 26. 

?\9 27. 

j* 28. 

^ JLJI 29. 
.=J 30. 



Old ancient (adj.) v-X3 kadim, pi. vulg. >bj Mddm, clas> 

T ' ' ' i ' ' 

-sical lwJwi and A-J'-^. 

Napoleon .\^^ ndpdUtin. 



(a) Present participle of the verb ^.^j Sec Ex. 10, 



304 



( He ) ruled, governed *x^ 

( In ) ( during ) ( per ) day jl^xJl '<L_ fen-nehar. 

( In ) ( during ) ( per ) week **y?^ T fel-jumdd. 

Doorkeepers .rf^f buuabin. 

He committed sins J^ J- r - amelliliaram. 

lie ached ( felt pain ) ,jj= liharak , governs accusative. 

Head , ^\. ras, pi. / ~>*j , rii'ts and / .-a , rods. 

w j w ^"> w ^> 

Captain of a ship ipfjj rrf?s, pure Arabic word pi. t/^j 
r#i$a. 

COMPOSITION 45. 

I was buying (Ex.36) the stockings (Ex.9) and thou 
wast buying trowsers (Ex. 41). He was buying a rope (Ex. 
9). He was buying two muds (60) of wheat. I was coming 
(168) to Tetuan (Ex. 7 ) and he was going (162) to Sheshawan 
(Ex. 9). I had lighted the candle (Comp. 30). He had 
lighted (Comp. 30) the lantern (Comp. 16 ). Will the fire 
(Comp. 30) have gone out? (Comp. 44). He will have killed 
him (Comp. 30) on (in) the road. Do not (thou) extinguish 
(Ex. 36) the fire? Do not thou kill him? Let us share (Comp. 
30) the money (Ex. 13 .Let us sit down (Ex. 30) and rest, 
(Comp. 41). Dost thou desire these almonds? I don't want 
them. Where goest thou? I am going to the market. Aban- 
-don ( thou ) not (Comp. 41) thy old friend. Napoleon was 
reigning in France (Ex. 21). The physician did not wish thee 
to eat, ( or wish that thou eat ) (165) three times (141) a day. 
He wrote to me that thou wouldst come here ( P]x. 30) twice 
(two times) (60) a week. Dost thou desire to see the dress? 
( Comp. 18). I don't want to see it. I told him not to open 



- 305 - 



the door (Ex. 32). lie told (said to) the gatekeepers not to 
open the gates of the city (or that they should not open the 
gates of the city). For whom workest thou? (77). I work for 
ray father. If thou think (Ex. 40) upon God thou wilt not 
commit many sins. Dost thou need me? (Ex. 42). I need thee. 
-The slave ( Comp. 21 ) does not want to work. May God be 
with thee. Dost thou remember (Comp. 38) me? I remember 
much about thee. What pains thee? My head pains me. (a) 
I wish to speak ( Ex. 30) with the captain. 

EXERCISE XLVI. 



1. Of what talkest thou? 

(Ex. 30). 

2. I am talking of the war. 

3. I am speaking of the 

wings of this bird (88). 

4. With whom talkest thou. 

5. I am talking with my 

mother. 

6. Of whom talkest thou? 

7. I am talking of the Sultan 

of Constantinople ( Ex. 
39). 

s. How many people (Ex. 39) 
dwell in this tOAvn? 



yJ! 
fjii 



Jlar^l 8. 



(a) Sec Note a to Exercise XXIX page 257. 
20 



-306- 

0. Four thousand people in- 
-habit it. 

10. What art thou writing 

(Ex. 29). 

11. I am writing a letter. 

12. What desirestthouto send 

( Comp. 40 ) to Cadiz 
(Ex. 23). 

13. I wish to send nineteen 

orange-plants, and ten 
lemon-plants, (a) 

14. He who can go with good 

friends will (himself) be 
good. 

15. If thouputtestnot(Ex. 36) 

the light, thy bed will 
be burned (176). 

16. I want thee to throw those 

stones (Ex. 36) into the 
street. 

17. I had presented thee with 

(Ex. 43) a rose (Ex. 32). 

18. He had irrigated (wate- 

-red) her garden. 

(a) ,!,; nok 



' 1? 1 *T^" 
' :< 



(S 



12. 



"\ ' 
(>..Uj 



flS. 



r _^_xu 

C7 ... 



!5 (a) 



14. 



_ 

Vr S 

. 0' ! 

V^^AVWI I y. 
' 



15. 



16. 



<JoD 



tr 



17 



-t -- 18. 






U 20. 



J 21. 



307 - 

10. It may be that I may buy 
( Ex. 3(5 ) these spurs. 

20. I cannot sell (Ex. 35) my 

spurs. 

21. If you had arrived an hour 

before (15G) you would 
have passed (a) the 
river easily. 

22. He had divided (Comp. 30) 

the apple (Ex. 38 ) in 
halves. ( Ar. by half). 

23. If thou lendest (b) money 

at interest (usury) Comp. 

23) thou shalt not be my 

friend. 
21. If he had not embarked 

(Ex. 29) on that steamer 

he shouled not have been 

sea-sick (lit. tr. stupified. 
25. If Hamed had come he 

would have grafted (d) 

these trees ( Comp. 8). 

( a ) sJai h c cut. Scc ^ T - 173. 

(b) .oJL- sellcf. he lent. Ond. formation. 

(c) ^\2 dakli, future in o, also ^ ~_\\ Icdutiakh, became stupiticd scu-ii'k. 

(d) *i. li'kkam, be grafted. 



22. 



,..c u , 

^- -* > 



.^ \ oX) W 

o w ^ 
<r J^ u J 

(c)r' 



24. 



308 - 

26. I suspect that he has been 

entertained in the hou- 
-se of his enemy (Ex. 
39). 

27. He enjoined me (a) to en- 

-tertain thee (Comp. 42) 
(or that I entertain thee) 
in my house. 

28. If thine enemy should ha- 

ve hunger give (thou) 
him to eat. (b) 

29. If he had worked (Comp. 

29) he would have gai- 
ned (Ex. 30) much 
money. 

30. If the Cook-maid had fried 

these eggs with oil 
(Comp. 36) I would have 
eaten them. 



* 7 

& I . 






30. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



3. ...jt 

13. ,. nokin . 



II. ... asshhab . 
1*. ... tarn es/ca 



(a) c-^S 2 nd - formation. 

(b) Tr. lit. Give , thou ; to him, he will cat. 



309- 

19. lemken ... mehdmtz. -II. ... ma ik&n shi dakh. 

21. ... irahhed es-sdda men k- 25. ... Ik Cm lakkam ... 

-bel ... kataatsu ... bts- 26. ... tedaiief ... 

sehida. -27. Wassd ... 

23. ... tesellef ... 2s. ...iktin ... bel-jila... 

Vocabulary. 

(He) renewed ^^jedded; governs accusative. 

(He) wintered (passed the winter) c xi, shatta, future in i. 

(He) swore v_jxla>. /i/jZef or hlieUf, requires pre. s _ ,. 



(He) cleaned ^~* msah or mesah, governs accusative. 

C 
(He) cleaned (grain) Jj ndkka, future in i. 

(He) cleaned (the well) J^k khdmmel. 

(He) litigated, pleaded, sued at law & .U. sharaa, requires 

prep. sz--*. 
C 

(He) wrangled, quarrelled, with. See Exercise XLIII. 

(He) forbore, forbeared, etc. (tr. lit. He took with patience) 
j ( ^~*te- or ^. ? s ) ( aabba or ddddd ) bess-sebdr, future in i ; 
governs accusative. 

Sicknesses J^ mrad, merdd or amrad; sing. See Comp. 6. 

(He) cursed J,xi ndrfZ (classically .,**)) governs accusative. 

(He) maintained, nourished <^J*~* kdtttiet, governs accu- 
-sative. 

My nephew ( fraternal) j;UJ -X widd khdi. 

( son of my sister ) '\.\ jJ. ^?<7rf fc/i<3f2. 

My niece ( daughter of my brother ) ^U O^AJ 6e?i< Widt. 

( sister ) .xjJ vj^.\j 6e?i^ kheti. 

\j? ' 

(He) painted (in various colours) ^Jj\ ztiftak, governs accu- 
sative. 



- 310 

lie) stained (or painted) the hands or feet with " henna " 
c \^v lihanna, future in /, governs accusative. 
(He) blackened the eyes or eyelids with antimony J-^s - 
kahlihhal, governs accusative. 

(He) painted, (or stained; with indigo. See Exercise XXXIII. 
Arms (of the body) ,^\^ drddtn or darddln. 



COMPOSITION 46. 

He wrote to you (Ex. 29) that you inform him (177) about 
(upon) the sickness ( Comp. G ) of his wife ( Ex. 25 ). I desire 
( Ex. 32 ) that you inform me about the health (Ex. 11 ) of my 
son. Kenew (ye) everything. He had taken me into (Ex. 44) 
his room (68). I wrote them that they should winter at a port 
(71). He was playing chess (Comp. 29). I told them that 
they should swear by God. Thou mayst not (Comp. 30) judge 
thy friend. If they read ( Ex. 38 ) this book they would learn 
(Ex. 40) much. They had raised (Ex. 29) their eyes to the 
sky (Comp. 3 ). Thou hadst raised me (172) from the 
ground (Comp. 34). May God deliver me (Comp. 43) from 
that sickness. If thou hadst arisen (Comp. 37) from bed (Ex. 
13) thou wouldst have seen ( Comp. 34 ) a ( Ex. IS ) beautiful 
horse. If thou give (Ex. 40) an alms i Ex. 28) to the poor 
(Comp. 17) God will bless thee ( Comp. 40). I am notable 
( I cannot ) ( Ex. 45 ) to clean this table ( Comp. 8 ). He does 
not wish to clean the room (Comp. 9). Thou litigatest with 
every body. He litigates with his father. Someone is calling 
1:; ) me. I am lilling ( Comp. -13 ) the jar ( Ex. 12 ) with 
water. They are lilling the sack (Comp. 21) with wheat : Ex. 
9), lie bore the sicknesses with patience. If thou wecpcst 



311 

for thy sins ( Ex. 30) God will pardon thee them (Ex. 32) If 
thou cursest people God will not bless thee. If thou wouldst 
send me ( Comp. 40) thirty dollars I should buy (Ex. 3G ) a 
horse in the Tetuan market (Ex. 7 ). He maintained his 
children ( imperfet past ). I maintained my nephews (impf. 
past. ). He desired to paint the table. This painter (Comp. 
18) knows (Ex. 17) (how) to paint, very well. Thy sister (Ex. 
10) painted her hands (Ex. 33) with henna. My sister stained 
her eyes with antimony. Thy mother stained her arms with 
indigo (Ex. 33). 



CHAPTER ML 

THE VERBS to be AND to have AS AUXILIARIES. 

is;). The verb ^ kan w r hose conjugation has been given 
in Xo. 158 is used in a similar tense as our auxiliary verb to 
be. 

All the j)ast tenses of our verb "to be" are rendered by the 
preterite of the verb ^. 

EXAMPLES. 

He was, or he has been or he had been, wise Jl= ^ _> hint 
kan ddlem. 

He was, has been, or had been sick & ^ ^ *> hila kan 

^ " ' W "^ 

mareed. 

What was there? or what has there been or what had there 
been? ^ ^ tisJikun. 

100. The present indicative of the verb to be ( .^ ) is not 



312 

as in other verbs formed by the future. If is sufficient to give 
the subject and the attribute, for the verb to be to be unders- 
tood: e.g. I am sick in Arabic is rendered merely "I sick: or 
I ain an Englishman I Englishman". 

EXAMPLES. 

lam sick , ^j ^ Ijl ana marld. 
w > 

Thou art learned Jlc vj^J! anta aalem. 

We are sick ^V baJ hhena marad. 

^ J 

Kaddor is drunken .UC- _** , jA? kaddur tota sekeran. 



That is my wife P^ c* ( -^~'^ a hadik ftlz/a mar ail. 

The tailors are cowards ,. r ^ la. * ...J^l al-khaiyatin 7ili 

w ' -^ l w " 

khawafin. 

191. The impersonal present indicative of our verb to be is 
expressed, 1 st - by the present partciple of the verb ^ ( 197 ) 
or 2 nd - by using the preposition preceded by the name of 
the place where the thing referred to exists, and joined by a 
suffixed pronoun. 

EXAMPLES. 



There is a man - J^-j . kain wahhed er-rajul. 

There is a woman 5lJI JA.I. ajjo kaina wahhed al-maraa. 

, -* 

There arc four men JU.Jb *.j>\ ..*&] kainiii arba der- 

* > ^ i - / *~~ " " 

rejal. 

77jer are five women *L.Ob L^Msi. ..^x.-'/ kainiii khamsa 

w 

den-nesa. 

There is a lovely tank in the garden J._=Jj *?-* ^'-j^J! 
.vj ',^ ^ ^~--' er-riad /"/'// wahhed es-sahenj mezian. 

The remaining tenses are expressed in the manner 
in No. 185 and following rules, 



- 313 - 



CHAPTER VIII. 



THE ACTIVE VERBS to have AND to Oire. 



1!)2. Tlie Arabic lack our active verb to have but its mea- 
ning is indicated by using the preposition I-M aind ( or and) 
( lit. with) to gcther with the suffixed pronouns (a) ( 123 ) e.g. 



PRESENT. 



Singular. 
1 st - I have --^ andt. 



J 1 " 1 - Thou hast 
.'!"' m. He has 
3 rd - f. She has 



O..\ andek. 
?-^ and it. 



andha 



Plural. 

1 st - We have 'OJ.AC andana. 
2nd. YOU have Xuc. andkilm. 
3rd. They have *J,;^ andhiim. 



193. The past tenses are expressed always by placing the 
3 rd - person masc. preterite of the verb ^ before the present 
tense: e.g. 

PRETERITE. 

Singular. 

1 st - I had, or I have had 

oiui. Thou hadst, or hast had 

3 rd - He had, or has had 

3 rd - She had, or lias had 



aniU. 
lean andek. 
/ca?i (//>. 
kan amid. 



(a) The active verb to /uv is also ( though not so frequently) esprcs^ed by 
the liiTii.isitions ^ _ , ; ^^ an _d j? __ I am ( or have) cold J,_;. ^^^_j| 

al-bitrd /0/<i, Thou art ( or hast > cold ^jCls 3J! <'i'^' - (? n?A', etc. etc. 



314 
Plural. 

1 st - We had, or have had '.i-.'.^ ^ kan andvna. 

on.i. YOU had, or have had S-~~ ^ kan andkum. 

:! r(1 - They had, or have had **X\i ^ kan andum. 
I'.i-l. The future is composed by putting the 3 rd - person of 
the future of the verb ^ before all the persons of the pre- 
-sent, e.g.: 

FUTURE. 



AJ ikun andt. 

X Ikun andek. 

>-C ikun and ii. 

-V ikun and a. 



Singular. 

1 st - I shall or will have 

2 nd - Thou shalt, or wilt have 

3 rd - m. lie shall, or will have 

3 rd - f. She shall, or will have 

Plural. 

1 st - We shall, or will have l>J..xc ,.\ Sj ikun andena. 

2'" 1 - You shall, or will have xxs tO_Sj ikun andkum. 

3 rd - They shalj, or will have **-'.:.:. j ^> 'ikun andum. 

195. The verb fo o-e is also wanting in Arabic, but, in 
Morocco its meaning is rendered by the verb JL- sal, he 
asked, claimed, ( 1G4 ) the creditor being he who asks, and 
the debtor he who is asked thus: Thou oicestme is translated / 
rf.s/.- from thc<i. I owe you is translated You ask from me. 

EXAMPLES, 

I owe thce .JLj:f _^J ( ant a knttaln't, ( tr. lit. thou at- 
of me. 

Thou o\vi'st me *JLJL^T.U! nun knnxalvk, ( t r. lit. / /y t s-A- of 
e/ieej. 



Thou owest him 
of tJiee ). 

Thou didst owe him (a) oXJ 
( tr. lit. lie did axk from thee). 

\Vc owed them (a) 
( tr. lit. jT 

EXERCISE XLVII. 



hiia kftisdlck ( tr. lit. He asks 



Inn ' 



)LJT LJ* *-* litnn kanit 
<t*k<.'(l from us). ( Imperfect past ). 



1. The shepherd (pastor) 

(Comp. 22) has been 

sick. 

2. I was very happy. 
.'!. He was a coward. 
I, AVliat was there in the 

street? 
f>. There has not been any- 

-thing ( or there was 

nothing ). 
(I. This cloth ( Comp. 9 ) is 

good. 

7. The soldiers ^ Ex. 41) arc 

drunkards. 

8. There are six horses in 

the stable. 

9. There arc twenty sheep 

in the market. 



JL. 



. v . j 
" 



2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 



c. 



J 



I. J! 8, 



(J. 



(n) The past tcn.sus arc ordinarily expressed by the iinpcn'oot preterite. 



316 

10. In this house there are : ^ 

twelve rooms. 

11. There are thirty trees 

(Comp. 8) in our garden. 

12. The year has twelve mon- 

-ths. There are 12 months 
in the year. 

13. There are seven days in 

the week. 

14. I have a cupboard, (a) 
lo. Thou hast two cupboards. 

16. We have an inkbottle and 

a pen. 

17. She had five pins ( Comp. 

32). 

18. Will I have food? 

!'.. Art thou sleepy ( tr. lit. 
(Is) the sleep in thee ). 

20. I am not sleepy, but I am 

thirsty. 

21. lie owed me forty ounces. 

22. Thou owcdst him twenty 

derhams. 

,u Arabic word. 



10. 



*tolj , 11, 



UN 12. 



,j 
f" 



13. 



^z 14. 



j^ 16. 



tf 17- 



.i^C 18. 

.O' I'.l. 



..' L> 20. 

U! 21. 



- :J17 - 

I*.'!. I owed him one hundred 
ducats. 



21. They owed us twenty five 

dollars. 

25. I OAVC thee forty dollars. 
2(1. Thou owest him a hundred 

ducats. 

27. How many hairs hast thouV 
2s. I have many hairs. 
20. Have you (the) cistern in 

your house? 
30. We have a cistern. 



. fj >-i^j 



24. 



v ,| -II .< 

" r.**J )' r~ ""'J 

-* \J" J ^_ 



JUi* C 



26. 

27. 
28. 
29. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



14. ... khazaua. 

15. ... khazain. 
18. .. kdfit. 



19. En-naas blk. 

20. 3/a &a shl ... al-atesh. 
29. ... al-metflla. 



Vocabulary. 



Happy, content fac?/- pi. ) -Kr^j 1 ! fwhhaneen. 
My cousin ( daughter of my father's brother ) -?- 
bent amml. 
My cousin ( daughter of my mother's brother ) J, 



Thy cousin ( daughter of thy father's sister ) oJ^-i C-N-^-J 
bent ammtek. 

Thy cousin ( daughter of thy mother's sister ) oXJ'.^ c^^ 
khaUk, etc. etc. etc. 



Things ^-=^ hhndtj; J->U* mesdiL 

Today I am ( feeling ) better ^c *L ^L ^J >jJl al-yom la 
bas shirat. 

Unoccupied, Empty (adj.) ^j 1 -^ khdfii, pi. in v. 
Peseta (coin) ^J bessita, pi. kwLj besaset. 

COMPOSITION 47. 

Hast thou been sick ( Comp. 6 ). Xo, sir, ( Ex. 28 ), my sis- 
-ter (Ex. 10) lias been sick. My sons are sick ( 103 ). This 
morning (Comp. 29) you were happy. They were cowards 
(84). My daughter (Go) was very pretty (Ex. 8 '). My 
cousin is beautiful (Ex. 7 ). Thy cousin (f. ) is a liar (83). 
"What is there in the market? There are melons ( Ex. 21 ) 
water-melons ( Comp. 17 ) oranges ( Ex. 18 ) apples (Ex.4) 
and pears (Comp. 18). There are many things. There 
are horses (Ex. 7 ) asses ( Ex. 31 ) mules (Ex. 7 mares 
and sheeps (Com. 24). In this room there are two tables 
(Comp. 19 ) and thirteen chairs ( Comp. 13 ). In my garden 
there are seventy trees (Comp. 8). Yesterday I was sad (106). 
What hadst thou? He was not good. There will be no evil 
(i.e. all will be well ) if God will ( Ex. 13 ). I was chilled 
(Ex. 18) but today I am better, thanks to God (Ex. 1 ). 
Hast thou some stockings? ( Ex. 9). I have many stockings. 
I had a store ( Comp. 43). They had four stores (Comp. 
1.; . AYill they have any store unoccupied. All the stores 
are full ( Comp. 27 ) of wheat, of maize, ( Comp. 31 ) and of 
chick peas ( Comp. 23). I owe him ten dollars. I owe them 
sixteen pesetas. He owes me four pesetas. --They m\v u.- a 
hundred ducats (GO). I owe you two thousand ducats. 



-319- 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE PARTICIPLE. 

100. There are two kinds of participles viz the active and 
the passive. The active is that which signifies continuing 
action e.g. <* r ^'O kateb, a writer, he who writes. The passive 
signifies past, completed, action, e.g. ^_,,_a~C mektub, written. 

197. The active participle of the triliteral verbs, both 
regular and irregular, is formed by adding an ! after the first 
radical letter. 

The second radical of the concaves, and of the hamzated 
verbs of the second class, informing the active participle is 
changed into ^c as will be seen in the following table. 

TABLE of active participles formed from triliteral primitive verbs. 



FORMATIVE LETTERS. 


ACTIVE PARTICIPLE. 


ROOT. 


.. i: 


'^ l - 


J-. 


.:,. 


^,U 


., 


.;i. 


JX, 


JL 


;-> 


4" 


I* 



320 

19*. The active participle of the quadriliteral and deriva- 
-tive verbs, is formed by placing a meem *, instead of the ^c, 
prefix of the future, e.g. from Jju lallem. He will teach, has 
formed the participle _l_x_.- mallem, he who teaches i.e. the 
master craftsman, or teacher, from ^?Lo isafar, he will tra- 
-vel we get ,sL mesafar, travelling or he who travels: third 
formation. Classically the ,* takes a damma, and the penulti- 
-mate radical a Icesra, thus *\** tnuaallim, j*\^* musafir etc. 

199. When the active participle takes the place of a verb 
( 181 and 182 ) it may be treatred in the manner as that from 
which it is formed. Apart from this case these participles may 
be considered merely verbal adjectives or nouns. 

For the formations of the feminine, and the pi. see Nos. N:;> 
84, sr> and 86. 

200. The passive participle is formed by placing a . (meem) 
before the 1 st - radical letter and adding a_. after the second. 
(80) Some of them however derived from irregular verbs un- 
-dergo a slight variation, as will be seen in the following table. 



TABLE of passive particii>b:. 



KOKMATIVK I.KTTKIIS. 


1'A-isivi: I'AHTH'II'I.KS. 


ROOT. 


/ t, > 


J^' 


J- 


. j . . > 


(a) ^^ 


^^ 




(b) J>' 


JU 


.,., 


(c)'_^ 


ok 




v^J^ 


vj* 


Ji . . , 


?" 


j 

|L 



-01. The passive participle of the quadriliteral and deri- 
vative verbs is formed by putting a > before the root, thus, 
from *^,j terjem, he interpreted, we get the participle *^p 
meteijem interpreted, and from jjp. hharrek, he moved, 2 nd - 
formation, we get ^)>3r- a mehhan-ek moved. 

Classically these participles are formed from the future pas- 
sive a , with a damma being put in, instead of the prefix: 
th us- 

Will be interpreted *=^:o interpreted +L^. 



Will be honoured ( 4 th - formation ) * _O honoured ' t .C.-. 
Vulgarly the > takes no vowel whatever. 



(a) The joined letters aiv srimrnti'd in .sound liy the 

(b) The second radical is suppressed. 

(c) The , is suppressed. 

21 



-322 

The feminines, and the pi. of passive participles are formed 
in the same manner as those of the active. SeeNos. 83, 84, 85, 
86, and 199. 

202. The concordance of participles with nouns is subject 
to the same rules as have been given for that of adjectives 
with nouns since the participles in that case are considered 
adjectives. See No. 103 and following rules. 



CHAPTER X. 

CONCORDANCE OF VERB AND NOMINATIVE. 

203. The verb agrees with the nominative in gender, num- 
-ber and person: e.g. The man has come U. J^jJI er-rajcl 

jda. The woman has come ola- t\j*Kal maraajdat. The men 
have come }.Us. J'-W^ er-rajaal jc'tfi. 

204. When two or more singular subjects form the nomina- 
-tive the verb is used in the plural, e.g. Mohamed and Ali 
have come Ua. ^J.o j^x--* Mohammed ica All j ad. 

205. When the subjects are of different persons the verb 
agrees with the 1 st - person in preference to 2 nd - and with the 
2 nd - in preference to the 3 rd -: e.g. Thou and I will go j^Jl + 111 
Liu,yj ana wa enta nemshiil ( lit. thou and I we icilt go ). Thou 
and he wilt go '_iv _* * vj^o! anta ica hua temshhl. See Xo. 
121, (lit. thou and he, you will go. 

206. When the subject expresses an entire species, or a 
collection, the verb is generally used in the plural: e.g. The 
chickens have flown Ij^Ui A'-x' al-jedad tdrfi. The pigeons 
have come LUf J.^' nl-hhaman jdft, but occasionally, in such 



323 

cases, the verb is used in the 3 r(1 - person feminine particularly 
when the verb precedes the nominative: e.g. The chickens 
have flown ilj^l Oj'-k taret al-jedad. 



CHAPTER XL 

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. 

207. When the sentence contains any interrogative prepo- 
sition, ( or particle ), such as (at) (in) where? ^s fain; to 
where? whither? ^^ lain; c \&^ eshkiln who? (sing, and pi. ) 
what? ,^\ ash; ij&z aldsli; what? etc. the construction is the 
same as in English: e.g. Where hast thou been? ^1^^ . r jU fain 
kt'inti; whither goest thou? e~^ ^^ lain ma shl; who has seen 

him? wli, , +\L\ eshkun saft't. 

o *' 

208. To give a sentence an interrogative meaning, when 
such meaning is not self evident or indicated by some inte- 
rrogative particle ( 207 ) the word ^~ shl or shal, is put after 
verb. Still the ~i is often suppressed and the interrogative 
indicated only by the inflexion of the speaker's voice. 

209. When the intherrogative sentence is negative, the 
word c~ shl is always used, even when the sentence has an 
interrogative particle. Has not he told it me J^ J. <sJU U ma 
kftli't ii sJit; why hast thou not told it me? ~i, J, i^U U rj^z 
alash ma knltih II shl ( 210, 211 and 212 ). 



EXERCISE XLVIll. 



1. This ( person ) is a writer 

(80). 



i. 



32* 

2. That ( person ) is a thief 

(Comp. 15). 
.'}. My uncle ( maternal ) is a 

merchant ( Ex. 8). 
4. My father is patient (Corap. 

14). 
."). My mother is patient. 

6. This bedouin is ignorant (d) 

(Ex. 14). 

7. Those mountaineers are 

ignorant. 

8. The book is written (80). 

9. Thy books are written. 

10. The door was open. (e) 

11. The windows were shut (f) ,.-)-- 

* ' \~j -* 

(Comp. 25). 

12. This letter was closed. 

13. The light was extingished. (g) 



(b) ^'J' 



JJLo 



.,'^IaJ) 



8. 

'.. 
10. 
11. 



- 

3 r , ^. 



)i 13. 



(a) Active participle of ^ he rolled. Ex. 31. 



(b) 

(c) 

(d) 

(e) Passive participle of $ he opened. Ex. :i:>. 

^* 

(f) > > j^ *'- *'"''. '"' cluscil. 1 



^j' he trmi' 'I. 

.o ssabar, he was patient, he forbore. 
iffttored, was ignorant of. 



(g) 



- 



. I 



(d) 



J 



- 325 - 

14. The horses are tied. (a) ^J 

15. The barrel was burst. (b) 

^p*- 

The dress is sewn. (c) 

17. lie is needed. 

18. He is married. 

10. They are married. 

20. Everything is arranged. 

21. My uncle Avrote a book. 

22. My aunt wrote a letter. 

23. The thieves stole 20 cows. 

24. The physician and the 

surgeon ( barber ) were 
in the shop. 

25. The Vizier and the Gene- &j,xjj LLo 

-ral ( Ex. 32 ) entered 

the city. 

2i'). My doves are pretty. 
27. The pigeons have laid 

eggs. 



c 



L, J! 



1 1. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



f 



J.H 



20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 



, 

^L.' ;. 
(oUJI 



20. 

27. 



(a) Passive participle of 

(b) 

(c) 
(d; 

(e) 

(f) 



he tied up, tethered. Comp. :'. 



. V.x. II. 
. Kx. IL'. 

. K.\. I-'. 



-. at 

J^.c, 'it arrutiij'-il.. Kx. .'iii, 



28. 
29. 

30. 
31. 

32. 
33. 
34. 



36. 
37. 
38. 

39. 
40. 



326 

The apples are dear. 
The oranges are cheap 

(Comp. 14). 

Who wishes to buy them? 
Why desirest thou to sell 

them? 
Where wishest thou to take 

them? 
How much money does he 

ask? 
Didst thou buy melons? 

(Comp. 9). 
Didst thou buy charcoal? 

(Comp. 9). 

Did they sell the horses. 
He has not sold the mare? 
Desirest thou not to sell 

this sheep.- 
Why desirest thou not to 

sell it? 
Why hast thou not pra- 

-yed? ( Comp. 41 ). 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 






28. 



JUar/ j&, 



30. 
^ 31. 

Y 32. 



33. 



-. 



-J u>v 



O4:. 




w 



\; in. 



10. 
13. 



... meftuhhu. 
... met ft. 



14. ... merbntui. 

15. ... mvtartak. 



16. ... meklialleta. 

17. ... mahhtaj. 

18. ... meziLdej ... 



327 - 

19. . 

20. . 
27. . 

Vocabulary. 



.. mezuuKJin. 
.. maddel. 
.. badu ,. 



* 



Powerful, potent ,^U kader. 
Penitent, (adj.) repentant ^ob' tdlb. 
Witness ( noun ) -Xali, shahed, pi. -_$-- shehtid. 
Present (adj.) meaning to be present ^U. hhader 
Complainant, plaintiff \JL shdki. 
Buyer ^j^ sliari. 

Roasted ( participial adj. ) jCyi..* meshici. 
Euined ( ) ^j-J^ mahd&m or 

dem. 

Sheltered ( part, adj.) (j^,-^ medarrek. 
Winds (noun) Gj riahh. 
Afficted ( part. adj. ) t ~i j meghduar. 
Ready, prepared ( part, adj.) X^y miijud; ~-- 
Journey, trip, voyage ( noun ) vf- sefar. 
Scratched (part, adj.) ^)jsr^ mekharbesh. 

Appeased, pacified, reconciled (part, adj.) ^Jl 

C 
Ploughed, tilled, cultivated (part. adj. ) ^.j^x 

Cut, (part, adj.) ^i>i^ mekatta. 
Divided ( part, adj.) *_**J^ maks&m. 
Enraged, angry ( part. adj. ) ^ji*' mefkus. 
Boiled ^JU-' mtglialll. 

Muddled, disturbed, troubled (part, adj.) J 
Account, (noun) y 



mehad- 



mujjdd. 

messalahh. 
* mahhrutz. 



mekharftet. 



hhesab, pi. in ^J\ (G2). 



328 

COMPOSITION 48. 

This ( person or -thing ) is powerful. That ( one ) is peni- 
-ten't. These men are penitent. My son was present. The 
witnesses were present. This is the complainant. That is 
the buyer. I wish (Ex. 32 ) roast meat (Ex. 5 ). Everything 
is ruined in that town. This spot ( site ) is sheltered from the 
winds. The physician was afflicted by the death of his dau- 
-ghter. I have prepared everything we need (Ex. 32) for the 
journey. Thy nephew (Comp. 46) has his face ( Ex. 33 ) scra- 
-tched. All of them Avere reconciled. That land ( Comp. 3 ) 
is ploughed. All the wood (Comp. 27) was cut. The house 
was divided in the midst. I am very angry with them. The 
water is boiled. The Avater is muddled. The lime-burner 
(or lime-seller) (Comp. 24) sold me (Ex. 35) the lime (58). 
That highland Avoman ( 83 ) has sold me the hens ( Ex. 21 ). 
Those hens are beautiful ( 107 ) but dear (107). The roses 
( 107 ) please me much ( Comp. 40 ) ( anglice, I like roses very 
much). I have bought some very pretty pinks (Comp. 32). 
I like Comp. 8 ) floAvers. Thou and I Avill write these acco- 
-unts. Thou and he Avill buy all that (137 ) AVC need. Abd- 
el-kader and Ali will go to hunt ( Comp. 37 ). The tailor and 
the shoemaker (Comp. 12) have died ( Ex. 34) in the co- 
-ffee-house ( Ex. 25 ). 

CHAPTER XII. 

NEGATIVE SENTENCES. 

210. Negative sentences arc expressed by placing the ne- 
gative particle l> ma before the verb, and the Avord _;- ,s/// 
after it e.g. I have not been _. i- o--*-^ ' - ma kinit *hi. 



I have not (i.e. I do not possess) ^L ^.-~~ '-> ma '///'//' sht. 

_M1. When the verb is followed by a safixed pronoun or 
the preposition J with the suffix, the word .L. is pl;i 
after the pronoun e.g. I have not known him -~ ^3^ '^ ma 
arit/'ti'i *hi. I have not told it him -. jJ ^,-'-3 U j?jr< />/>// //'/ *ln. 

All suoh negative sentences may be used interrogatively 
209 ). The inflexion of the voice, of other circunstance will 
indicate it whether the phrase be interrogative or- simple ne- 
-gative. 

J12. When suffixed pronouns arc joined to other preposi- 
tions, the ,> is placed immediately after the verb, i.e. be- 
\^> 

-fore the prepositions and thoir suffixed pronouns, e.g. He did 
not come with us Ux ,L l>. U ma Jan slit madnd. He did not 
come from Ceuta I r ~> , r * C L '.^ U ma jaa shl min sebta. 
(See rule 211 last sentence ). 
213. The -i- is generally suppressed, when in the negati- 

v.^ 

-ve sentence any of the following words occur. X-a.1 lihad, 

vt.^\ ,::^. hhatt/t hhad. J.^v' >\^ Jthutta n'alihed, -*.'.<.?*. hhatta, 

v_r- '. -* ^> ' *J~ 

nobody: i^ 1 .^ q,\^ liluitta hhaja, nothing; *= aomer, ( with 
suffixed pronouns) ever, never; jl ; ' baki, or J'; '-.-- ma zul, 
not yet: ^ ghir, ^! ///a, except only; "Y /a or I* ma, no nci- 
-ther, U that, that which, for example: 

Nobody has said that J.^J c .<^ JU U ma kalt't hlintta hliad. 

No man lias seen him J-^, c "^ 43Li U ma shafti hhatta i-<ij<l. 

He has not said anything i^ 1 .^. -::^. )U U ma kal hhatta 

<~^> 

hhaja. 

I will never tell him iLiJ '-- _-^o.= aomeri ma enkoti'i d 1 
He never did it or he never made it xUt '..- f^z anmenl ma 

s * 

amelti. 



- 330 - 

He lias not yet come U. U aL _s hua baki majdd. 

He has not yet told him JU U Jlj l _> 7wa ma zal ma kalti 
(see No. 237 on the particle, yet, not yet ). 

I have seen no one except Hamed X*-:J Y! ^jU-2-i> ' * ma 
shufts ilia hamed. 

Neither Kador nor AH came J^ ^ , a Ji ^ L U. U ?na 

vr -^ s -* \_? 

Jdd sM Za kaddtir tea la alt. 

He neither ate, drank, nor slept , ^xj U , , r i, U J$1 U w 

fcc 5 Z rn sharab ma nclcis. 

I do not know what to do J^jo U s 9 Xi U ma kanaraf ma 

namel. 

In Moorish Arabic the English grammatical rule that two 
( or more ) negatives make an affirmation does not obtain. On 
the contrary the more negatives employed the stronger be- 
-comes the negation. Thus it would be correct in Arabic to 
say he never said nothing to nobody. See Arabic examples in 
rule No. 213. 

214. It has been already stated (see No. 190) that to ex- 
-press the present indicative of our verb to be it is sufficient 
to mention merely the subject and attribute of the verb. But 
it should be noted that if the sentence be negative a personal 
pronoun, in agreement with the subject must always be inser- 
-ted between the words U ma and J^, sht, e.g. 

w^ 

1 st - I am not sick . & ^ ,> l1 U ma ana sht marhl. 
U -J ^_5 

L )II(I - Thou art not sick ^ ^ .:- ^i\ U md anta shi ma- 

w J ^jy 

rid. 

:i ni - He is not sick & ^ ,^- *> L- ma liiia shi mat-id. 
^ * ^ " 

4 Hl - Hamed is not sick ^ K ' ^ y -' -^^' /fnm> : d tun hnn 
shi mat-id. 



5 th - Fatma is not sick ^ 



^ ^ ^ 

" ' 



Ft if ma ma lt>a 



mahhena shi mer<i. 
l ma antum shi merad. 
^ wia ftwm s/it merad. 






15 th - AVe are not sick j^\ 

7 th - You are not sick w ~^ 

8 th - They are not sick ^ r * 

9*' 1 - The tailors are not sick 

w ' "Tp I w " 

al-khaiyatui ma hum shi merad. 

215. The above examples when the subject is in the first 
or second person are expressed sometimes, by putting the .'! nl - 
personal pronoun between the '-> and the -i., which 3 rd - per- 
-sonal pronoun must agree with the subject in number and 
gender e.g. 

1 st - .jzi ^ J" _?* '-* ' '^ ana ma h lia $ hi mat-Id. 

ond. j, : ^ ^ ^ '_, ^^\ anta ma hua shi mar Id. 

.'! r(1 - pi^* .: *5 1-- Uai.! hhena ma hum shi marad. 

^ ' r ^P \ 

1 th - ^*-s c ~ ** U ^ antum ma hum shi marad. etc. 

^'01 I 



EXKIICISE XLIX. 



1. The crafts woman did not 

see this mirror. 

2. The traveller did not sell 

his watch. 
.'!. He did not sell it. 

4. The merchants did not sell 

me the wool. 

5. They did not sell it me. 









u. 



L/ 



- 332 - 
G. The Moor (moslem) has 

not travelled (Comp. 42) 

with you. 
7. The Moors did not go out 

from the place (town ). 
s. The camel-driver (Comp. 

10) did not restore me 

the money (Comp. 32). 
9. Nobody has harmed me 

( Comp. 3L 1 . 
1<>. Xo man soever has doubted 

thee ( Comp. 32 ). 

11. lie has not given me any- 

-thing. 

12. I will never harm him. 

1 :;. 1'hou wilt never tell him (it). 
1 I. I never believed him (Ex. 

!.">. The Mooress (Comp. 10) 
has not yet given birth. 

If,. The peasant has not yet 
died Ex. :il . 

17. The traveller ( Ex. 42) 
whom we >.-iw at the 
bridge has not yet arri- 
-vcd 1 .v. . 



'<^...=i. U . .v*. . 

^ -J L- - r y 



o Sr J 



jUas! U 11. 



sj^ ',-- j.^z 12. 

ij' U ^> t ^i 13. 

s 

U _-^o 11. 



C-*U U ,?'j ~~y! ii;. 

K^ \\ 3^1 17, 



18. I have not seen more tlian 

four camels ( m. ) and 

one she-camel, 
r.i. I have not bought more 

than one quarter-cwt 

of wax. 

20. I have not seen either the 

Moors or the jews (Comp. 
27). 

21. They have neither read, 

nor written. 

22. I am not well (Ar. strong). 

23. Thou art not happy. 

24. The bird (88) is not in the 

cage ( Ex. 34 ). 

25. The she-ass (Ex. 15) is 

not in the stable. 

26. We arc not drunken. 

27. We are not jews. 

28. You are not Christians. 

29. The arms arc not in the 

room. 

;!(). The birds (Ex. 10) are 
not in the cage. 

31. I am not a Moor. 

32. Thou art not a Christian. 



;J3 - 

' \' <T> 
I u^r 1 - 



X- 



^ 
C 



L-! 

JJ! 





yi ^_ ^- > U 






A, *s U 



111. 
20. 

21. 

22. 
23. 
24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 
28. 

30. 
31. 



- 334 - 



The Moors arc not co- 
wards. 

;;i. I am not a Spaniard. 

Thou art not a Frenchman. 
:;r,. You arc not tunisians. 
;;7. We are not Tetuan-people. 



C 



~o 

, "" 



' . I-*;***- 
W " 



.i b! U 34. 
^_? 

L ^Jl^oi LJ 35. 
* t i 

1ft, l^J U 37. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

7. ... belad. 36. ... tunsstln. 

22. ... sehhihh. 37. ... 

Vocabulary. 



o' I- ma kankhaf 



J do not fear anyting ,-i- o ^ A i^. 
hhatta min shi. 
He slept .pxj ?iaas. 

COMPOSITION 49. 



The barley K\. :>3 ) has not dried. I have not sold ( Ex. 
the kidney beans Kx. :;:!'. lie has not yet prayed (Com p. 
II the magreb iKx. :;.;. They have not yet weighed (Ex. 
the sheep ( Comp. 24). They have not weighed them. Have 
they not brought ( Ex. 34 ) the balance ( scales ) ( Ex. 33 
They have not brought them. They will not bring me it. 

Have they not brought the pens? (Comp. 10). They will bring 

> 

thorn thee. The sailor (74 huvo not come K.s from the sea. 

The liuntors ( Ex. 10. will not come with us. The adminis- 

-trat.ir l-'.x. r_' does not fear anything. My master fears no 

I will never sell my goods ( Comp. 32 ). I have ne- 



-vor kissed ( Kx. .">,"> I my sister (Ex. 10). Nobody has awa- 
-kened ( Kx. .'!"> \ except Ilamcd ( Comp. 5 ). Neither the mu- 
-leteer (Comp. 14) nor the courier (Comp. 18) have gone out 
(Ex. :->0). I have not eaten ( Kx. :;s ) nor slept. I am not a 
coward (80). Thou art not good (Ex. 7). He is not a liar 
(80). She is not pretty (Ex. 8;. We are not merchants 
(Comp. 25). You are not thieves (Comp. 10). The adminis- 
trators ( Ex. 16 ) are not wise ( Comp. 15 ). I am not happy. 
-Thou art not sad (106). We are not blind (Comp. 17). You 
are not infidels (Comp. 38). We are not infidels. 



CHAPTER XIH. 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

216. The conditional particle if is rendered in Arabic by 
the expression X^ h'ikdn when the verb is in the imperfect, 
or pluperfect subjunctive, an by b! ida when it is in other 

tenses. 

EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF ..)*). 



1 st - If I bought a book I should read it J,^L r r ^. ; 'j' .^ 

-' ^rJ \~ 



ejxj ^_..,-v i ICican ana nesh-ri wahhed al-kitab nck-nih. 

oiui. if i gave thce a letter thou shouldst read it .^ *-. ! 
\t>\j&> V*jJ\ _ x .^'j oXJsxj ICikan natlk vahlind al-baraa tek-raha. 

:i nl - If thou went to Tangier thou shouldst see me .,^ ' 

w "* 

^j^^J ^ac-uJoJ ,^,0 c.- 1 Z//Avr antatemsht entanjn trslu'ifiii. 
4 th - I should have money if my uncle (paternal) wore here 



. .. _.> , a .C _,- ^i (a) 

C- C -' -T;~ *' 

/ //./> 'n?c?< cd-(lerahem. 

;")"' It' I had given thee a dollar thou \vouldst have bought 
the book _,'xCH c^jj.-'^ JU^I -^ o&ls! ^ITJ 

__ :,C" ^,j r .- J 1 ^ j') (b)hKv/f dtttxck n-ahhed er-rlal lukan 
sli'-n'fxi nl-Lital) ( or ?/,-^? alicrUsi al-kltab ). 

i; th - It' I had drunk I should have intoxicated myself .,'/J 

w 

.\L. .r^'j 1 ^ C^'t-^ j'-S' -^- J j~ It'/kan sharat lukan seket 
' or ilc nil si.'kert ). 

7 th - If thou hadst come we would have been happy ^'^J 
( IA^ 3 i0^r j' ) '-^r ^j;^' -^rr? liikanjiti ikfin farahhna (or 
//>/,v(/? farahhna). 

-\~ . When the verb is in the pluperfect the expression 
V:fJ is repeated before the second subject in the sentence, or 
j -^ in lieu of it, as has been shewn in above examples Xos. 
and 7. 

EXAMPLES OF THE [TSE <>F '-'. 

A 

!* If thoudrinkcst AVC will drink ^^ ^! v^J' C^o^ '^ 
hhena cnsharbu. 



_""' If thou desirest we shall go to Fez - 



/(/^ hlHthhSti in-msliit'i <-nf'as ( 181 ). 

:;"' If thou shalt lose thou shalt i>av ^_L^r- :< 

**s 

ti-kltsai fkltalli-* or ffkhnlles. 

I" 1 If IK- ha arrived tell him to come J .3 
j // 



-huisi- iu Ariiliic tr'inT;illy ooini-.< tir.-t. 

ni;\y nNn ' _ tlie plupon'ri-t in 



'tab. 



EXERCISE L. 



If the master beat thee 

you will fear him more. 
If I sold these waistbelts 

( Ex. 35 ) I should pay 

thee what I owe thee. 
If thou hadst come before 

thou wouldst have seen 

the Emperor. 
If this carpenter had gone 

to Cadiz he would have 

found work (Comp. 25). 
If this embroiderer (Comp. 

14) had gone to Madrid 

he would have gained 

much money. 
If you had given me a 

bird I would have given 

you a cage. 
If thou come? I will give 

thee a present. 
If thou fear God, thou 

shalt lack nothing. 
22 



jlTJ 2. 



_j 






.\ 



\ c- 



c 



338 

0, If we soil the wool wo will 
remain with nothing, 
( Anglice nothing will 
be left to us ). 

10. If thou obey thy father 
he will love thee much. 



11, If he had obeyed his pa- 



-rents ( Ex. 35 ) God 
would have blessed him 
(Comp. 40). 

12. If you had not absented 

yourselves from the city 
they would not have 
suspected you. 

13. If thou hadst not bathed 

(Corap. 35) in the river 
thou wouldst not have 
chilled thyself, (a) 

14. If thou taste (Comp. 37 ) 

this wine thou wilt like 
it (Comp. 35). 

l.". If thou do good thou wilt ^ >.ui U 
not repent, (b) 

(a) '///, lio became chilled 5th. formation 

(b) -jj emfem,he repent 



** e -" 



Jlo 



lit 10. 



11. 



v<Si Ui 



13. 



14. 



s l v 15. 



17. If they had caught (Comp. 



, - 
\S 



37 ) red-mullet I would 
have bought it from 
them (from them). 

18. If the war last long they 

will all die. (a) 

19. If the Ambassador would 

go to Fez he would 
settle (b) all the ques- 
tions (i.e. claims, suits 
cases ). 

20. If thou forget God thou 

wilt commit (lit. make) 
many sins. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



- 339 

16. If thou had caught ( by 
hunting Comp. 37) some 
rabbits I should have 
bought them. 



10. 



.tUL 






17. 



b! 18. 



19. 



^" 



l 20. 



:!. ... Mbel ... 17. 

5. ... madrid ... 18. 

9. ... bela shi. 19. 

13. ... teruuahhts ... 20. ... 

15. ... tendem ... 

(a) \{b tal, he became prolonged; future in t?. 

(b) \$,addel, he arranged, settled composed. 



stiltan al-hhofit .. 



idddel 
tamel 



dadni. 






340 

Vocabulary. 

(He) wounded ^j= jerahh. Slowly Ji^'-J bel-akal. 

(He) imprisoned ^^-^ s6j6n, governs accusative. 

For love of God lt. ^1 iJLsr-* ( L_ _.! ) J_s afa ( or fi ) 
mehhebba al-lah; 2 nd - ^ ZiZZafe. 

He pitied, sympathized 1 st - ,4-g-- shefak; 2 nd - ^-j-s- J ' 
tehhannen, requires ^U. 

(He) multiplied, became multiplied ^=> ketsar. 

COMPOSITION 50. 

If he should forget me (Ex. 36) I will not be his friend (Ex. 
19 ). If thou wish we will go to the cafe ( Ex. 36 ). If thou 
throw stones on the street (Ex. 36) it may be (Ex. 46 ) thou 
shalt wound someone. If you promenaded in the garden (Ex. 
36) that would not happen to you. If you go up on the roof 
(Cornp. 43) you will take cold (or become chilled) (Ex. 50). 
If thou buy the mud at 40 ounces (Ex. 36) thou shalt 
lose ( Ex. 30) all the money. If thou buy this horse for forty 
dollars ( Ex. 36 ) and take it to ( Ex. 42 ) Gibraltar (Comp. 27 
thou shall gain seventy. If thou run (Ex. 36 ) much thou wilt 
tire (thyself) (Ex. 39): go slowly. If he knew this news he 
would weep for delight ( Ex. :-J6 ). If they extingish ( Ex. :!' ) 
that light we will be ( Ar. remain ) in the dark ( Comp. 36 ). 
It' you do not eat thou shalt become feeble ( Ex. 2'. ;. If you 
wish to ( are agreeable to ) build my house I will give ( Ex. 
40) you two thousand dollars. If the master had dictated 
(Comp. :n; tlio letter to me I should have written (Ex. 29) it 
better (Ex. 17). If I had smoked in front of my father (Comp. 



341- 

36 ) he would have imprisoned me. If thou find him (Ex. 37) 
in the street tell him ( Ex. 34 ) to come to my house ( Ex. 38). 
If the thieves had found us (Ex. 37 ) in the road, without 
doubt we would have been killed ( Com p. 30 ). If the soldier 
had not guarded (Ex. 37) the vines they would have stolen 
(Ex. 31) all the grapes ( 107 ). If the French Consul ( Ex. 44 ) 
protect me ( Ex. 37 ) I should not fear ( Ex. 35) the Basha. 
If the beggars beg ( Ex. 37 ) an alms ( Ex. 28 ) of ( Ar. from ) 
thee give it them for love of God. If thou give alms to the 
poor, thy goods will be multiplied. If you pity the poor God 
will pity thee. After they looked at me they fled to the 
mountain. 



PART FOURTH. 



THE PARTICLES. 



CHAPTER I. 

219. Our adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjec- 
tions are all expressed in Arabic by particles. 

When consisting of only one letter the particles are known 
as prefixed or inseparable. There are eight of that kind 
namely. 

\ I 



12345 67 8 

Numbers 4 to 8, inclusive, are not used in the Moorish vul- 

-gar tougue. 
Particles are joined to the words which form their comple- 

-ments, but are never joined to words preceding them. 

The following lists, in Englih alphabetical order embrace the 

particles most commonly used in conversation. 

NOTE. Host English abverbs are expressed in Arabic by using a particle and 

a nouni: e.g. gladly ^ jj{j bel-farhha, with pleasure. 
^ 

A. 

ABOUT. (i.e. more or less (j-^'J -->.'; zaid nakess. 

ABOVE. .*< fok, from above to below vj^sor^ .0*3 , 
^ ' ^ ^*~-^ ^, 

fok en-tahht, sometimes J* ala. 



344 

ACCORDING TO. ^J^ ala, Oh^ k*f : G -- according to my view 

. . 
in my opinion Jji Jb ala rat. According to thy desir e: 

As thou choosest ^f^f ^^ ala meradek; According to 
( what ) he said JU O~$" kif kal. 

ADJACENT. See Near\ 

AFAR. i'jw bdad (sing.) J-*J bald. From afar J^w ^ min 
bald. Far from ^ -\jo baid min. 

AFTER. ->-*; bdad; e.g.: After the coffee tj$su\ ^ baad al- 

kahua. When used before a verb the expression is U jjy 

baad ma; e.g.: After thou makests i..U.xj U j.jo baad ma 

tamelA. A little while afterwards ij^i. Jju iaarf shtii. 

Sometimes Jjo requires to be followed by a suffixed pronoun; 

e.g.: Firstly he wrote to thy father and afterwards my 

i i . / \ \\^ 

brother came ^fj^i sjjo j v ^- ) _-^ ^_^_o Jyju alt'it-li 

katsb el-buk ica bddil jaa khoia. U Jjtj baad ma After that 
(i.e. when ) ^*=^ /i/z?; After he came la, ^.a. hhinjaa. 



AH. 2! /i^ ^ afcTi, i aZ-Za/i (lit. God ). 



ALSO. ,-A'^ lihatta, J'o tzani, ^\.~=> kaddlek; e.g.: Talso 
will o -i.*J U! x^. hhatta ana nemshi. 



ALTERNATELY. Aj_jJ! U ben-uuba (lit. by turn turn about). 

ALTHOUGH. U Jju 6aad ?na ; ^w> j-ju baad min. 

ALWAYS. '^ji dinittf *-j'- d'limin., L.v_jb ddhnina. For ever 

>'j.'J! c Jb a/a ed-duam. 
AMKN. ^*! am 2 ?i. 
AMIDST. is--. ^9 /"i jt-as^ or /"* ifesf; e.g.; In the midst of tho 

market ^J,^*J' k,j <L_ /"t west al-sok. 
A si'. _. toa, uft en vulgarly pronounced oo. 

. -jjb dair, pl< C J ?'t. Active particle of the verb, b 



315 

dar, he went around future in o; e.g.: Round the city 
i'Ajj^J! j : ^ daii- al-medln. 
A*.:Jkadd ( adcerb. of comparison ); e.g.: lie is as big as 

abdallah a^l -'- Jj ,~==> a * 7u?a kelirkadd abdalluh. 

^ ... - 

AS. The same as, as much as, as many a 5 -i kadd f with a 

suffixed pronoun; e.g.: 

As many as tliee (tliou past) \ 

The same as thce ( ) ,- i)JJ kaddek. 

As mucli as thee ( ) J 
AVhen followed by a verb the phrase is L j^J A-arfcZ wa. As 

they say, as much as they say, as many as they say 

\jjJuS Li J.J kadd ma kaikclu. 
AS TO. With regard to i^x ^ min jiha. As to the first ^ 

j!j i^a. min jiha al-otiel. As to the rest (remainder) 
J'J! JLja. . r ^> ?nm ;i/ia albaki. As to me-, as regards me 
x:>. ._.> 7?im jihtsl. As regards thee; as to thee ^ 

sjAJL^a. ??i i?i jih tek . 
ASSUREDLY. See Certainly. 
AT. Signifying place or time of some occurrence I ft or 

fe; e.g.: He came at night or in the night JJ-M cl_ U. 

jaafil-lil. He was at the door v ,'J! cL_ ^^ kan fel-bab. 

Signifying a price or rate, ^_j b6; e.g.: He bought at two 

dollars the mud J.J' J'._j r -Jb ~jj> ^>^> shera be-znj 

der-rlal al-mud. 

B. 



i; AD. ~^---- J kebehh (adj.) 3 rd - formation see Xo. 80. 



BADLY. tetUftjtj bel-kebehha; e.g.: He has done it badly 
^3 amelil kebelih. 

C" 



BECAUSE OF. On account of; by reason of J.=jJ ^J& ala ajel, 
L, ^.z ala sebba, followed by a substantive or a suffixed 
pronoun; e.g.: Because of thee v^Xu~, ^J& ala sebbtek, etc. 
etc. Because of thee ^XLa.1 ^J& ala ajelek, etc. etc. 

BEFORE. (In front of) >L'J kudddm. He Avent in front 
J3,ij mesha en-kuddam. 

BEFOBE. (Antecedent to} J-s kebel: ^J\*i kabattl or ILLs fc 

(. When followed by a verb it is rendered thus: U J*9 
wa. Before ( he ) comes c=F^ '-- s J-r* fcebeZ wa ?j?. 
When followed by a suffixed pronoun it is rendered thus: 

K ^ kebel min. Before me ,^ .Us fceteZ min-ni. Befo- 

c 7 >>> 

-re thee ^X.L^ jLs A;e6e? min-nek, etc. etc. Before a, noun 
the phrase is exppressed thus: Before the night JJJI J.J 
fce&eZ aZ-Z?/. A little while before ^^ J-jJ 'fce6eZ shiial. 
BEFORE. f/rt presence of] >'jj kouddam. Before the Sultan 
IJi kuddam al-Sultan. Is used thus with sufh'- 



> 
-xed pronouns; e.g.: Before me ^^3,9 kuddami or -'.J'-./. 

kabeltL before thee. 

% 

BEFOBEHASD. J-i r - mill kcbd . 



. In or at the beginning) JT! cL_ ft auCiel. I 
_..\J! /"eZ bed /I. 

BEHIHD. Kj wra; L^ mura; e.g.: Behind the door , _ >U1 ',^/> 
al-bab. Behind me (.j^^jj') ^f'^ 8 rn ft rain (or 
from behind ^,_J' r - min al-lura. (Vulgarly 
min laiira}. 
BELOW. c^sr- tsnhltlx; Wlicn used with suffixed pronouns it 

requires ^; e.g.: Below me 2* -ju^sr'' tsahhts minni. 
UKTWKKX. v-j !ya';;/; rciiuires to be followed by suffixed pro- 
-nouns or nouns. 



347 

XOTE. This particle is repeated before each word it affects thus one says Be- 
-tvreen thee and me X~j 4 ^jjCx^j bani-ck wa baim, literally between thce 

and between me, etc. etc. etc. 

BETTER. ,.r^ ahhsen or hhsen. See No. 6 of page 89. r ~>J 

(ikhlar or khlar. Better than ..>* ..HU^.' or ,.*> *~\ ahhsen 

w C/ C r > 

mm or akhiar min. 

BESOUGHT BESEECH. ^ij ergliab, requires pronoun in accu- 
sative. 

BESIDE. . .u^ __ fljunb. Lvaw hheda. 

XOTE. These adverbs require suffixed pronouns ( 123 ) to complete their mea- 
-ning; e.g.: ctja. heddJ, at my side c'lj^s. hhedak, at thy side etc. etc. etc. 

BEWARE. Look out; stand aside; ^X-'b balak } ( lit. thy mind) 
pi. *^=L."J balakum or balikum, or ^XJ'j ^. rzrfd balak, 
( lit. turn thy mind ). These are the expressions used by 
Moors to worn people to separate or stand aside to avoid 
some harm to themselves. 

BRAVO! Interjection ^f(&z affak, pi, *^Ufi affakum, 
BUT. ,.>^==J or ,.J==^ lakin; but still nevertheless 



(J' 
walakin, ,-Y^'^J walakinni. 

BY. , , be. Denotes the instrument by means of which any- 
thing is done. They killed him by blows ( of a stick ) 
LoxHj s^Jba ketluh bel-asa. 

BY. (Particle of swearing ) ^ be" or bi. By God t(j billah or 
j A; e.g.: 6iiL tiallah, or truth of God. Let him be exalted 
u hhak allah tsaalla. 



NOTE. -j'ju ta<illtt> is the (Jth. formation of 1^ a?/rt. he exalted: he rai- 

^ . ^' 

-scd. It is very frequently used after the name of God. 



.'MS 
C. 

CAMP. Encampment ilx-' mehliaUn. 

CERTAINLY. That is so: Of course: la^li bel-hhak. ^J'.j 

^^ * 

bel-ssaha. - _ ---- a-af-^tlj bet-tahkeek. fjw malum, (tr. lit. 

known), passive participle of the verb vJLs alem; not 

used vulgarly. (See 1 st - formation page 268. 
riiK \i-i.Y. Cheap ( j* : ^\ erkhtss, pi. o ^'--^j erkhass; e.g.: lie 

bought it cheap ( or cheaply ). o ^ :: -^, *'r~< shercih erkhts. 
COME-ON! COMK-ALONG! Let us o! alii v 



COMPLETELY. ^=j bel-kemal. 

D. 



DAILY. ,>^.) 

DAWN. ^s-? /"ey^ 1 , at dawn^sr^l ^J& ala al-fejvr. 

DEAR NIGH IN PRICE. JU ghalli, active participle of the 

verb LLi ghalla, (it) (he) became dear future in a. 
DELIVERED. ^^ deffaa, he delivered, governs accusative of 

nouns, and particle J with pronouns. 
DIFFICULTY. ^ouJlj bel-iaab, with difficulty. i-jLi^JL.' ieZ- 

meshakka. 

M-i ANT. See yl/"a7-. 
DOUBTLESS. No doubt jj-d,'lj bela-shikk. 



E. 



K.-^.C 1 ali-kar or b-knr, followed by the particle ,.*; 
: I'larlier than tliou oX.1_-- v ^=j' b-kar meniK'k. 



EASILY. ,_^ou IL bela taab (lit. without difficulty). iJl$-J j 
be sehala. 



ELSEWHERE. ^^ =>. ^ fijiha ftkhora or okhra. *..^v> ? ^ 

^.j^\ fi moda okhra. 
ENOUGH. iT,J baraka; (lit. blessing; ja'-ii. khalass. ^s.==.) 

tkfi ( lit. it suffices ). Requires the suffixed pronouns; e.g.: 

La.C 'ikfini, it suffices me. s^XaC /A/tAr, it suffices you. 
EQUITABLY. See Justly. 

EVERYWHERE. i^x J^ ^L_ fiklllljihct. 

EXCEPT. r i qlialr; ^-^ ,.>* mill qliair; . ^ 

7 > C/ w 

mendfin: ^\ ilia. 



F. 



FAIL. Without fail-, fail not; Jj Yj walabidd. 

FAR. See 4/V/r. 

FIX ALL Y . jd^tL ftlakh e r . 

FIRSTLY. ^I\V __ fd duel. j-O! =L_ fil-bedil. 

FLOGGED. See Thrashed. 

FOLLOWED. a-j' tebbaa ( he followed ), governs accusative. 

FOR. Signifying the dative. See page 57 Xo. 77. 

FOR. Signifying at the rate of, for so much ^_, M or bi. 
But when the phrase in English is rendered In the... the 
particle used is _; e.g. Five or six per cent (i.e. in the 
hundred) Lj! _ I.vwj iL^^a hamsa u-<i ftittn.fi al-mhi. 

FOR. Signifying in search of; for the purpose of bringing or 

obtaining, , ^ mnra. He has gone for the bread ', .- ^d.* 

> -* ^ ^ ^-~ 

j^\ emsha mnra al-khubz. 

FORMERLY. ( i.e. long age. ) ^jlj zeman, ( sig. lit. tinit^ . 
FORWARD. (i.e. go on!) 2j, 2\ zid, ~id. ( Lit. the L )ml - pers. 



-350 

sing, of the verb 2\j (he) added, increased, augmented, 
(Comp. 35). 

FROM. w> min } min is also used to express since i.e. from the 
time that: e.g.: From the time that ..... '! sJU*-*j-Ji .j-* 
mii> al-irn/ct fill. Sometimes it becomes J,U melli; e.g. 
Since he came Uw ^1,1* melli jaa; Since when sj^J ,_c! , . r -= 
min at irnkt or sJ^Ju ^ ,il ^ min ash min H'ukt; Since 
then (lit. from that hour, or time) O-^M Oi/'b ^ min 

I tt /** ' 

dak al-inikt or touJI ^_LAjJ5,.,^ mindtk al-sddd. 

" w 

FRONT. (In front) J^i.- beghart, and iJL? kebala, followed by 

suffixed pronouns: See Before. 

i-TRTiiER. Further than, ^ ^ or ..^ .^-' lehih min or Ze/ie?i 
min, 

G. 

GENTLY. Carefully, prudently L*LJlj bes-siasa i<J^.'j j'j^'j 
n-ahhcda vdhheda. 

BLADLT. ia^jaJllj bel-farhha(\it. with happiness). 
GOD. My God, my Lord ~) , l> ya rabbi or ??&; Oh God iM 'j 
ya all ah. 

CIJATIS. Jtis'o trtfaL 

VK. f A tomb )J totr or A-efcar pi. 






H. 

IIA. >' dh, U /;rh Means also behold! e.g.: There he is _* U 

A't ///>^ i lit. behold him ). 
HALLO! vb lah L> ?/a/ 
iiAxnr.D. -^: di-fnn, he handed, governs the ace. noun and 

particle J with a pronoun. 
HI:I-:JU.I->SI.Y ; ilai Jj& ala ghafla, ( lit. suddenly ). 



351 

HENCEFORWARD. ,* ^y U .+* min heiia lifok. 

HEREAFTER. -.'ji- 1 L^> - min hena en-koddam. Three days 

hence *~>\ ^M V- 5 <V m * n daba teltz lam. 
HERE. L hena. Come here \'\^ ^ aji lehena UU htnaia, 

Here lie is *s U ha Jit'ia. Here she is -. li 7m /u. II--re 

vj? 

tliey are (m.) %> U 7a Jiuma. From here - . v mm 

From here Lu ^ wm liinalija. 
HERE ABATER. See Henceforu-drd. 
HITHER. li^) -^. hhatta ne-liend. 



HOW. v_^-== Mf .JA^s k'tfvsh; e.g. I knoAv not how to do 
it jJUjJ (llflUjT^ _ a ,x:.^=> ta Tna keiiaraf kifdsh namdu. 

now MUCH Jlafc^l eslihal. At how much, at what rate or price 
Jlit-Mj beshhal. 

IIUREIEDLY. iLUJL' belmcighdula, ^ ^ '-f bejeri. 

I. 

IF. (conjunction] b! /rf, j 1 ^ lii-kan. See No. 216. 
IGXORANTLY. (lit. with ignorance) ^l^'-J bel-jehela, L*jJlj 

bel-ghashmia, '&**-* ^.f &e^a marfa. 
ILLICITLY. ^l^L) bel-harram ( lit. by lin ). 



IMMEDIATELY. a~-3 f<Srt ( ii'^J! ^_- /iS sdaa^ SCO Hoir). 



IMPATIENTLY. y^o ..^ men ghat)' ss6bar, or 



- 



IMPOSSIBLE. ^Jlssrv mCihhal, ^^-; - J wia imken. 

is.Lfi or /"J, pronounced simply, /" before the article; e.g.: 
In the city Ix,<_\ v .'! L_ fel medina. In a word ( i.e. In short 
in effect J.^sl^i al-hhassul ( or better al-hhassil). In the 
end, finally aJ akher (lit. signifying last) followed by 
a suffixed pronoun and preceded by ^11 Ha thus to the 

end a,;=J A! Ua akherih. 

> ^"^ 



352 

INSIDE. ^k r- ft kalb, ( lit. in the heart ). Inside the city 

i^)_O! v^JlJ I fi kalb al-medina. 
uraiDE. J i-b dakhal (active participle of the verb _L;=O 

dakhal (he) entered Ex. 30. 

INSTEAD OF. jSjS. I, ft Cll'td OT fc'lfld. 

INSTANTLY. See. Immediately. 
INTENTIONALLY. See Purposely. 

J. 

JUDICIOUSLY. See Wisely. 

.irsTLY. .i^'.J bcl-hhak, Jj*& bd-ddel. 

K. 

KNEES. (Lit. on knees) s_^'^ Lt 7 erA-a6 [v.^-J _.! ) or 



KNEELING. I was on iny knees C J^ -U >ju-.^' t^ n 

N Tr' ' ^ ^^ 

a/a erkabi, and so on with all the suffixed pronoun. 

L. 



; iA'. -jd^' 1_ feZ akher. 

\. A IE. (Adverb.) Is expressed by saying not early; thus: He 
came late ^X ^ V '"' majaa shi bekri, (lit. he did not 
come early ). Sometimes however, the participle delayed, 
j*> mitkhkhar; (see No. 172) and the participle JJaso tsattnl 
lie linguercd delayed, or became delayed, are used. 

LEAST. At the least, at the very least. J^U)'.j beJ-kalil ' ^' 



II\NI>. V J <sam; Towards the left hand side 

nlit (il-ixxr or ^".^ xhimdla. The latter expression is * 



used also to denote the north, the speaker being supposed 
to be facing eastwards towards mecca. 
LEGALLY. Acording to law c >^>\ ^..* -1- ala mujeb <:*/;- 

v^ ' ^ 

eJtraa. 

LKSS. J.s! /vYt/7, see page 86 No. 100, requires . r * m/; c 

lie made less than Hamcd -X^' .^ J-*' J. v c ame fcaZZ ?n/ 

//am erf. 
LIKE. (Advert) J'^s-: behhal, ^^f klf; e.g. He wrote like a 

taleb . __ .'Ik 1 ' j.aJ_. (_^<' J )JU: < ^ ketab behhal ( klf) 

ii-fthhed taleb. 
LIKE. Behhal requires to be follojved by a noun or suffixed 

personal pronoun; e.g.: Like thee oXJUr.' belihal&k; Like 

him x)'.3r, 5 behhalti; etc. etc. 

Nmi:. Al^'criiins use c.^S'^Jso with suffixed pronouns ^ kifi like inc. 

. " v_S 

^jZ&Sttfe'c like thcc. 

LITTLE BY LITTLE. j^-i- j?^~? &e-shzlai shzlai ; ^_C>^; v^j^- 
shfiai be-shilai. 

% 

LOOK OUT! See Ben-are. 

M. 

MATTER. f Fer&. J It does not matter, no matter ,-L "I^cjU 

y^J? J ,. 

maldorr *hL 

MEANTIME MEANWHILE. U J-J 6a?d W/ ..** - V -J 6rt/f? JJl/H. 01" 

W- 

(better) l y .v..j bainma. 
MKIKMFLTLLY. 

MIDST. Sec 



MOIIARAM. ( 1 st - month of Moslem year ) -J^* mohan-nm. 



MORE. ^ v <== kelar; More than r - > v-= ::: A'e^n- ?n/,- More 
and more ,;:==.' j ^==! 



MOUTHFUL. JUi' lokma. 

MUCH. -^tp'j bezzaf; requires particle i, JJsJLs kebbala; ^ 
ketir; (adj.) 3 rd - formation 80). Very and very much. 
These same expressions are used as for much. See page 
K7 No. 102. 

N. 

N.VMHLY. i.e. that is to say -;ju ?'</<?. 

V: 

NKAR. ,_^j t.3 kerib, pi. , _ ,' r 3 kerab. Lit. adjacent to next, 
proximate adj. of 3 rd - formation Xo. 80. See note on par- 
ticiple round example. He sat (him) down near the door. 
_.'-J' , _ .0 ,5 ~.U. jeliss kerlb al-bab. They were near 
the bed , : ~>-\ ^-'v-' ^ kanii kerab el -far ash. Near me 



c \* . _ .o r 3 kerlb minnl. Near thee. vJ^-O.^ v _ ^_- f _? Arertb 

v_> -J -J 

minek. From the above it will be seen that ^o ,3 A-e/-^ 
governs nouns in the dative with the particle J. 
NKARLY rU alalii; e.g.: Nearly two hours ( .r-'-' .- 

W "* ^- "w " 

aaatsain. 

NKARHAXD. (' From iiearhand ) > _ AJ t i K - ??i//? kerlb. 





NKCKSSAKV. It ;s necessary ) .. ',^ lazem; - - ^ In beddn. 
MOTHER, NOR. (Adverb, j <^ Ithatta, with the particl> 

^^ 

placed before the verb of negation; e.g.: Neither can I do 
this thing JL^ 'J> Lou i, ,jJJ ' _x hlmttn >nia 

Vr Sr ' ^ 

inn f-nkn<l(i.r *hi namel had eshsht. \Vlien the verb is not 
ressed the word used is 'J_Cs hakda (lit. thus} or 
wiXMJl' kndnlvk ( likewise ) or in the same manner; e.g.: 
He did not see him, nor did I ( see him ) j ,^ ^'-L 

!-==.- '-' /</""* ?/K/ .s/u// 1 // ,s//; */vf ana hakda. 

1*1 

NKV , v,; nomr, or aomer, followed by a su- 

-fflxe4 pronoun of the gender number and person of the 



subject of the verb; e.g.: 1 will never see him i?dJ U ^^- 
aomrl ma enshtifii. Thou wilt never see him a.^i.j I* oJ,^ 
aomrek ma teshufu, etc. etc. The negative U always in 
such cases precedes the verb. 

NEVERTHELESS. . 



.* 

NKJHT. JJ III; Last night JJJ! I ~ ,U! al-barahh f el-Ill, 
( lit. yesterday at night ). 

NIGHTLY. JJ J^ /t// h7. 

NO. ^ /a; 'j^J /rtfa. See No. 210 and following. 

xo MATTER. It does not matter, It is of no consequence l_^ 

,L^j ma idurshl. 
v_> j 

NOR. If folloAved by a verb, is U; but if preceded by other 

parts of speech it is Y la. See No. 213. 
NORTH. See Left hand Side under L. 
NOT. If joined to a verb is U ma, and the verb has to be 

followed by the word ^ shi. 
NOTHING TO DO WITH. e.g. I have nothing to do with him L.^ 

<>j^ i^v'.^v j:^.~z ma andl hhaja fza/i. 
NOTHING. irJo. c ^s. liliatta hhaja. J^ .^--^ hhatta shi. yjj 



n. Nothing more ukan. 

o " 

NOTWITHSTANDING. ^b) lakin. ^^j ualakin. ^-^j uala- 

kinni. 

NOW. L'b daba. ^\?\~ darok. C-^J! IJ-> had al-n-ukt. Just 
now ^U bb data aad. After a little ,_^j-^ ^u daba sliiiai. 

O. 

OF. ,. t ^ wim. See No. 48, 49 and 76. 

O 

OH. 'j /a as an exclamation of pain or grief. Ju ^ ?/!/. Woe, 
requires a sufnxcd pronoun, tr. lit. AVoc to me! Woe to 
thce etc. thus: ^^ icalall. ^X-^j icaialek, etc. etc. 



356 

on THAT, --Would to God that...! It' used in a past sense. t ^ 

,^J v ,'~o amin ssab lukan. In other instances it is ^A 

v ,lo amin ssab. Oh that thou hadst come JTjJ v .'-^ .^\ 

>jv~^ amin ssab lukan jtti. Oh that he may come ,.** 
zr?. A^ amen ssab iji. 

os.^J^. ala; e.g.: He came on horseback 2yJ! U '^ jaa 

ala al-aud. 

ONLY. Meaning except. See Except, 

OPINION. In my opinion ,^^, O U ala ral; and so on with all 
the suffixed pronouns. 

OPTION. See At his Pleasure. 

OR. _.' (tii. 

OUTSIDE. |Jj barra, get outside >- r -' T ^--^' kheroj en-barra. 
From outside lij r ^ min barra. Outside the city ,. r -.- ',_j 
LjJuJ! fiarrrt ??im al-medina.Is usually followed by min. 

P. 

PARDON ME. Excuse me. With your permission J. ^^ >! 

ii ^ ^ 

semahh li, or li.U. hhasha, followed by a suffixed pronoun. 

^J'\L^ hhashak, *ili.l=>. hhashakum, etc. etc. LiLa. in 
these forms is equivalent to speaking icith your permission 
or naving your presence. 

PASSED THE TIME. J^aJ! ',Ia. JUUCZ al-VUkt. 

KNT. "lie was i>aticnt with" >r o esabar, requires parti- 

-cle U and accusative pronoun or noun. 

ADVKNTURE, PERCHANCE. ^ji ( j-*\ amen dara, L<S_JJ 

rubbama. 

. -.M;iy be; possibly: . r -V> iemk<-n } ., JC ?Av?. Wlien 

^- o "*^ * 

followed by .a verb it is . r -O; e.g.: Perhaps he will conic 



-s-?. (J.V) iemken ijl. Followed by a past tense it is L>J . 
,.i -C rubbama ikun. In other instances it is U-< , rubbanui, 

L/ * , 

,jJb ikdar. 

PERPETUALLY. See Always. 

PLEASURE. ( With pleasure) See Gladly. 

PLEASURE. (At his pleasure) at his option; at his will o '<- 
jo|^ ala meradu, ^LLi. ^J.-^ alakhataru, and in like 
manner with all the other suffixed pronouns. 

POORLY. iu^s=ud (j bel meskena, ,&) ^ ,X>J u bel-tedrutsh. 

POSSIBLY. See Perchance. 

PRAISE TO GOD. jii J-<s^l al-hliamdu lillah. 

PRECIPITATELY. See Hurriedly. 

PRESENTLY. ^ji. l ; -b ^ m/ cta&a s/i4. 

PROBABLY. w L?j -iiafc'iL 

PROFITED. JL*O sselahh; *.& enfaa. 

' 



PROFITABLY. j'jjj bel-falda; ^.~j ben-n&fa. 
PURPOSELY. -^Jb belaani; ^.^c-iJL bel-kassed. 

a. 

QUICKLY. See #oo?i. 

QUIETLY. U^'-j bel-hena; i^l^'.j ber-rahha, 

R. 

RECARDIN(i, RELATIVE TO, RESPECTING. J..=J O U ai rt/7 ( 01' 

cy'eZJ, (lit. to the cause). i : ~. ^c Za se66a ( lit. to the 

cause). 

REVERSE. ( i.e. on the reverse ) ^_._JiJ'.j bel-maklAb. 
BIGHT. ( To the right hand ) L 1 - r .' imin<t. (On the ri^ht side 

^^Jl ^s rt/a dl-hnln. 
ROUND. (" yldiwfr. ) See Around. 



- ;;58 - 

S. 

SADLY: SAD. ^*> meghailr (lit. afficted ); .Lijo bel-meghlar. 
SAFELY. Without risk, securely, under safe conduct; .,UV.j 

bel-aman. 
SAME. The same JUr. 3 JbrJ behhal behlial; Ofcr ^h/ kif kif; 

\ a \ a Tffi/1 ITI f~i 

^j <**+y /icttt /tcttt 

SECRETLY. ( Deceitfully-with guile ) s.-^/.-sr-'-Lj be-takhbia or 

isyj'j be-ssarka, 
siDE.i^^jiha. On (or from ) all sides, i^^ J/ ,.^ wim Av)// 



SILENTLY. j^^lw saket (active participle of the verb 
sakt; He was silent, became silent ) c^JCJ \j bes 
vj^lSw.) b 6es sekat. 

SINCE. See From that time under F. 

SINFULLY. A^Hj bel-hharam. 

\ ' 

SLOWLY. JlJ'j belakal; -i'V.j bellati; w_^L)lj bes-slinta. 
. ( He spent, dispersed ) exchanged ( of money ) 



so. Jn this manner; See Tims. 

so THAT. , '?Ji bash; e.g.: So that I may see him; tf*iJ> , ^'.j 
6a6-/j enshuft't. 



SOMMTI.MES. O'r*'' / f=*' ) baad al-marrat. 

^ w 



SOON. Quickly; *~~3 fisa (for XcLJ! =L_ ft es-xnaa ), Lii 

dagMa. 
SOUND (NOUN). ,^OL /</&?; e.g.: Sound of cannon .r-V 

^- 

////<> nl-mcd/'o. 
.But still sec 



STKOXCLY. --^..s"^ sxlihihh (sing. lit. strong healthy) is an 
<"'/. ;) nl - formation sec No. 80. 



SUCCESSIVELY. ixj'.xj '.j bel metabacif ^*; \\^ i mfira 



N, *UDI)KN~LY. I.i -= flld fjlldfl'l. 
SUFFICIENTLY. LU.CJ 'j bdkefdiil. 

sux. The sun rose ,p.-.>-2*JI ( .j^vilL .' ) j^i^i sharkt ( or 
talaat ) esh shimss. 

T. 

/ 

TAKE! ^rl* /iA - . 

THANKS TO CJOD. Thank God see Praise to God under P. 

THAT. (Relative pronoun ) see Nos. 137 and 1;>S. 

THAT. (Demonstrative pronoun). Se page 139. 

THAT. ( Conjunction). That is seldom or never used in Arabic 
Vulgar as a conjunction in the manner we sometimes 
employ it. The future tense of verbs is used as a rule to 
render the ideas conveyed by the conditional cleases 
beginning in English with the word that. 

u^ ^^ 4- fe dak al-Mkt, isLJ! v^Xo _ fe dlk 
dl-sdda. 



THERE. (In that direction) ^jTMnAk, J tern, Ij temma. 



THERE. ( From there) v^> a .,* min hinak. J' .. r > min tern, 

^ * j w 

*j v-~ wua temma. 

\ ^ 

THOUGHTLESSLY. See Heedlessly. 

THRASHED. ( with a ship ) -.^s; dssci. 

THUS. 'j_G hakda; '--''-> halda. 

TIME. j^Jj ?r/fA:^ V marra; from time to time >v i'--' marra 
marra, icl XcL- scida^ stfcht. 

TO. Signiflying the dative, and with verbs of movement is J 
It or U: ji e?i or ?ie (sec Xo. 77 ; e.g.: To whom ,J limcii 
or . r *j nemen; He said to the man ( J.^.L _J N i J^JjjU 



360 - 

k<il ler-rajd (or ner-rajel). He went to Tangier c ^ J. 
ix^ mesha H Tanja ( or en Tanja). 

TOCKTHKR. ^ a- 3 ma buad, with a suffixed pronoun; e.g.: 
We will go together twaxi .* '>W-' nemshitl ma baadna; 



We will do it together *ao ^ tfyu namelil ma baadna. 
You will o together *C^*j ** L*u*3 tcmsliifi mabaadkum. 



^ 

TOMORROW. L r 2 ghadda;T\\Q day after tomorrow L\c J.*j 

ghadda; Tomorrow morning ~L~J! =1_ 'ji ghadda fes 

sebahh. 
TOO. Meaning also. 

TOO. (Adverb.) is expressed thus: Too much iot> f 1 '-.' b<'~iada, 

J-j^j bez-zald. 

TOWARDS. J,^ i7a, i^ cnjiha. 
TKANHiriLLY. See Quietly. 
TRULY. See Certainly. 

U. 

UNDKR, UNDERNEATH. See Below under B. 

UNLAWFULLY. JJ^L bel-hharram. See !?</ ,s/^. 

r.NTiL. .^ hhatta, ^ ila. 

DPON. J^* ta, v^?j? r ^'- The latter requires . r - when followed 
by a suffixed pronoun. When followed by nouns , . r .* is not 
required; e.g.: Upon thec, above thee ^l.v-- ^ _.? fak mcnm'k, 
etc. Upon or above, all things .i. J^ ^^3 fok kull .s7;/. 

D8BFULLT, -5Jjla) '; hi-l-fatda, x-iiJ I- bei-nt'fd. 

V. 

VAINLY. In vain J.Vj hatful. 

. -Is usually expressed by ^-'f 1 .' lic~-~nf or ^ kitztr. 
tainlij under C. 



301 



W. 



WELL. ( Adverb. ) ^JUmeZe/ift, v^ tatieb. 

WELL, VERY! (Capital) sin*-;. v^Tus ^//Vt/.- pi. ^ U; 

WHEN? , _ 6 jr ? flunk, 4'j-r f in J"-k, ^*' 3 j 2-^- fi wakt, vju--?j ,* 

nl irnkt. ('for vj^-J. d c! : J.C* emta or iemfa for c .v 

-^ '"TT *" *^ ^^ 

/-'/a (lit.). 
\VIIRX. (Not interrogative N ' ,.^ hhin or hliein ^ r * min 

din. 

WIIKRE WHETHER! .^"^ lain; At where ,.^j fain; From where 
a In. 



W1IENCEV r .'t 

WHILE. See Meantime under M. 
WHILST. See Meanu-Jiile under. M 
WHITHER. cr j^ Za??i. 

WHO. Relative pronoun. See Xos. 137 and i:-JS. 
WHO. Interrogative pronoun. See No. 140. 
WHY. For what reason? ^Y lash or nasli, . ~> * Ididxh ( cor- 
-ruption of .~~ ^^. . 

XUTK. In rci>ly to a question our word ''becnu.se" is usually omitti-d: O.K. why 
didst thou not conic! I was )>usy (not txs in English because I was ini-y . 



WKLLIXGLY. With pleasure g1, ^ din rani, (lit. Ou my 

-P s '*~ 

liead ) ,x.s c .ls . ~J, \z ala rasl icaalaaini. r^ 1 .^'- 1 

O> ^ ~* \.^ ./ O 1 * 

bel-khatar. 

WISELY. J-**Mj bel-akal. 

WIT (TO AVIT ) i.e. that is to say namely Jvxj ?<HJ/. 

WITH. When used before persons is *-* ma. When used before 



tilings is , _ ,bi; e.g.: With thee oA*- mdk t With us ll*.* 

mdnd etc. etc. etc. With the sword. ,.~s==a*Jlj bes-eskin. 
wmiix See Insi<lt'. 

WITHOUT. ( Moaning outside ). See Outside. 
WITHOUT. (Meaning non possession) bL fc^Zd, , n i ^ min ghair; 

Without cause ( or reason ) JL . -w &<?/ sebba; Without 

doubt O,^ ^s -* min ghair shekk. 

WORLD. l~o dunia, JU allem ( this form is little used ). 
WORSE. ^_~ j' aklxihh or kbahh- requires ,. r --, see Xo. 5 of 

Kxrrcise XVII page 88.- 



Y. 



VK^TERDAY. ~ ,'-'' al-baralih; (,?**'** yams ) ( , ^! ); The day 
before yesterday ~ ,'-J' Jj' <7c/ al-barahh or , .-' J^' 

Uriel amss (or yamss). 
YF.T. Not yet. J>'.; /;/c?. (lit. sing, remaing). This active parti- 

-ciple agrees with the subject or verb in number and gen- 
-der; e.g.: lie has not yet come law U -^-> ** hfia bdk/ ma 
jmt; Slic has not yet come C-'V '-* vV c? Jli " 1> (( k'" m " 
jttnf; They have not yet come LU. U .^.j +* hum bakiia 
ma jdu. 

NOTB, The plirasc U' '..- ),(( -<il: is al-.i iisrd. Iml iiviirrall v is invnriaMp. 
*^ ' 

hut in some iii-t;in,-rs tin- plural is J|l '...- '"" -"''<<'. 

C > 

EXAMPLES, 

!-' I havi! not yd told him .u.U U J!j U ?juf ^f/ u? A'^//^. 
I" 1 ' 1 - 'J'hou hast not yet told him x r :.U '..-- J', ',- tna ~<il inn 
koltih. 



3 rd - He has not yet told him 






1 th - She has not vet told him x:)'j ^,'_~- _> lit a ma- al 

w > -^ 

TJUf k/tUi'i. 

;>> They liave not yet told him U'J I.-- ( ,J'; Uh !I;U * 

^ N w ^ w J \ 

7i/?i mnzal ( or wire zalin) mrt k 



EXERCISE LI. 



1. AVhither goest thou? 

2. I am going to Mequinez, 

and from there I will go 
to Fez. 

:>. I told thy father to come 
to my house. 

4. lie came on horseback 

and arrived at nine 
o'clock at night. 

5. We supped at half past 

ten and layed down (Ex. 

30) at twelve o'clock. 
0. I have bought the mudd 

of wheat for forty 

ounces. 
7. My slave (m.) has bought 

two mudds at sixty 

ounces. 



x ,M " 

J kvXv' ( " 

J 

LAV 

- 



2. 



,i G. 



3G4 
s. They caught ( Comp. 30 ) 

him at the door of the 

mosque. 
It. 1 was seated on the right 

and Ali on the lefr. 

10. Do not do it secretly. 

11. They threw him down, (a) 

12. Come (thou) here and tell 

me what has happened. 

13. Perchance I have left my 

knife here. 

1 I. I have not seen it here. 
15. I was going in front and 

my cousin remained 

behind, (b) 

1>. (io on, man go on! 
17. Come thou inside and sit 

down, 
is. I was writing inside, and J-^b 

he was reading. 
I'.t. He did it purposely. 

lie made or adjii-teil the account- ., 

he counted, reckoi 

(b) When the verbs of movement exinvs* t 
\ uu^'lit to pre.-ede Hi. , !, y 

~ ' r' r 

-. 11. U, i;> and 17 of this K.\ 



J, 



^ 



U< !>. 

U 10. 
J>j 11. 

^ ( 12. 



14. 

15. 



w , 3; 10. 

' s ' s 

LO >.>! 17. 



18. 



_>,_ ItJii.iii'h, ;jrd. formation ( lit. 

sense of to where. Whither the 
and other adverbs of 



.'565 

20. After we supped we went 

outside. 

21. The thieves were there. 

22. They have now gone from 

here. 

Do not ( thou ) write now. 
I am instantly going to 

lay down the pen. 

25. lie was sitting at my side. 

26. They were at our side. 

27. We are at present busy. 

28. At the beginning of the 

year we will arrange 
accounts, (a) 

29. At the beginning of the 

book thou wilt find the 
chapter thou scekest. 

30. Thou dost everything up- 

-side down. 

31. Come thou with us to the 

mountain and thou wilt 
pass the afternoon hap- 



i-JLao' L. J,xj 20. 

\^J\ \^y ;; >[ 
-* " \ 

^ 'jb 22. 




X ** 25. 






26. 



j; 1 z*- as. 



\S \ ' ., A 

_^. ^p JTJ*^ >" 



Lxjtw? Ski .'II, 



(a) A better form is ^|. nrnia. that is "1)011111(1 me", 



366 
32. I have seen the Sultan's 

garden several times. 
;:::. There were many soldiers 

round the fort, 
."il. They all were arround. 
::.">. These carpenters Avork 

"time" "about" ( alter- 

-natively. ) 
3('. There is Kador and as yet 

thou hast not seen him. 
37. My friend was there God 

bless him. 

3s. Amen! ( So let it be!) 
:)!. Last night the Spanish \-^* .\ J-M 

Ambassador arrived. 
1". They say (i.e. it is said JJJ! 

that ) that some shops 

were robbed last night. 

( Ar. they stole from | 

me shops . 

11. The witness appeared be- 
fore the judje. 1 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

i:. 



J w 

.UJUi 



32. 



c*" 
. ,UI 



37. 

38. 
39. 

40. 



^ J^J 1 > ! -.? k'^ 

\ / 



,i him*/' n or 



11. .. hhadxr ... 



COMPOSITION 51. 

T\vo witnesses appeared before the Kadi. First of all I am 
going ( 181 ) to write a letter. The post arrived (156; the day 
before yesterday, and will leave to-day at twelve o'clock. 
The day before yesterday it rained in Tetuan. Joseph (97) 
and Jacob (Ex. 30) formerly were friends (Ex. 46 ). I ate 
( Ex. 38 ) before twelve o'clock. He will come before three 
o'clock. They arrived at the mountain before me. I knew 
(Corap. 29) that news before them (or before thy knew it). 
Prepare ( thou ) ( Ex. 43 ) the supper before my father arrives.. 
In the month of Ramadan the Moors neither eat nor drink 
before sunset (Ex. 33). Many camels come here (Comp. 10). 
Stand aside! Beware! Sit thou here (Ex. 30). Do not (thou) 
Kx. 36 ) go from here. Where is my stick? ( Ex. 16 ). Here 
it is. Where arc my spectacles? (Comp. 23). They are here. 
Where is my handkerchief? (Comp. 9). Here it is. I work 
upstairs ( Ar. above) (Comp. 29). The master-craftsman is 
above. The tailor cut (173 ) the costume from the top down- 
wards ( Ar. from above to below). Do not thou do it thus 
Answerest thou thy father thus ( Ex. 40). The mail-has not 
yet arrived. Hast thou not yet read Ex. 3* } my book? Oh! 
my tooth (62) pains me very much (Comp. 45 ). Yesterday 
I hired ( Ex. 37 ) the house for 20 ducats. Ali complained 
(Ex. 37) yesterday to my Consul. This Spaniard (Comp. 10) 
struck me (Ex.*37) yesterday in the midst, of the market. 
I do not work for nothing. I have bought them cheaply. 
Enough, sir, I do not wish more. Suffices it thee? It suffices, 
me. Thou hast done well, bravo! 



368 
KXKKCISE LII. 



1. To day everything is 

dear. 
2 Thou hast bought cvcry- 

-thing dearly. 
:>. My shop was near the mos- 

-quc. 
1. We have hunted nearly 

an hour. 
5. The ducks were (have 

been ) near thee. 
('. Ivnowest thou it for cer- 

-tain? 

7. How hast thou heard it? 
s. Thou speakest like a pro- 

-phet. 
'.. That Moor runs like a 

grey hound. 

10. I do not know how this 

washerwoman washes 
the clothes ). 

11. We will do as thou wishest 
1'J. Why has the steamer not 

me? 



:! '"I > 



. r lc ! JJ_\. 



- - ^ *** - 



* - 10. 



ou n. 



L 



-309- 
[:;. This is curable. ( Ar. this 

thing has a remedy ). 
II. How? 
15. The master will tell it thec 

with the book in his 

hand. 
10. 1 do not wish to hunt with 

the master. 

17. I will not speak with him 

though he come. 

18. He judges everything with 

equity and with wisdom. 

19. If thou goest not carefully 

in that business they 
will cheat thee. 

20. Wilt thou do me a favour? 

21. Wilt thoirtlo it with plca- 

-sure? ( Ar. wilt thou 
do it on thy head?) 

22. I will do it willingly (with 

pleasure) (Ar. I will do 
it on my head and eyes). 
2.'!. When wilt thou accomplish 

what I wish? 
24 






*!! '- 13. 



15. 



iL, 



J* 



1C. 



17. 



18. 



U to! 19. 



.* 



c- 



20. 
21. 



370 



24. 

25. 

2I 1 ,. 



28, 



30. 



32. 



33, 

34. 

35, 



When wilt thou go out to 

hunt? 

When wilt thou pay me? 
When I sell the mill I will 

pay the all that I owe 

thee. 
Let me know when the 

post-courier comes. 
I play from time to time 

with my friends. 
How much worth is this 

//heat? 
What does this wool weigh? 

As regards me I will do 

all that thou tellest me. 
As for thee ( as regards 

thee ) thou ?rilt guard 

the garden. 
Give me a light ( Ar. lire) 

(lit. comfort). 
(iivo me water. 
Thf-y have gone out from 

here. 






25. 
26. 



Ul 



,;. 

-' 



ix 
5 



r--l oO. 



31. 



-vjL'i 

> 



A)l U ;;;;. 



371 

3i;. To night tho^' will go out ] ( .^ La.,dru ill 1 ' _JJ^=L_ .'};. 
from the city. 

37. We have come from below. 

w 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

10. ... cufzabben ... 20. ... j6m.il ... 

1!'. ... aw/- or dmmar ... 

COMPOSITION 52. 

From where did those rabbits (Comp. 19) come out? (Ex 30). 

-They came out from here. I advised them (177) before 
hand. Henceforward I will not speak to them. I do not eat 
bread for nothing. They followed us closely, (near at hand). 

-They came from outside. We saw you from afar. We will 
go out at dawn. They were all kneeling. They Avere thro- 

-wing (Comp. 42) stones at us from all sides. Thou Avilt find 
(Ex 30) the carpet beluw the table. Indeed? (Is that a fact?) 
(Truly?) (Verily?) (Really?) Truly Really. They robbed 
him in my presence. I said it in every body's presence. I ha- 
ve worked too much. The enemies ^were inside. The thief 
Avas hidden (Comp. 3Si inside. They did not find him inside 
the prison. We did not rest (Comp. 41) between Tangier and 
the Fundak. Since he passed here I have not seen him. Sin- 
ce then the hunters (sportsmen) have not come. Since when? 
From a since) the 1 st - of Moharrem. I desire thec to write 
slowly. He Avishes to read slowly. After dinner (Ex.24) AVC 
will take coffee. The king arrived iirst and his army came 
afterwards (Comp. 6). After they brought the glasses they 
began to drink. The lads hid themselves (Comp. 38) behind 

he Avail. (Comp. 27). The army AVAS coming behind us. The 



-372- 



artillerymcn (74) placed (Ex. 39) the cannons (Ex. 11) in the 
rear. (Ar. behind). I pray (Conip. 41) daily. My God, help 
(thou) me! (Corap. 40). Where did thatr ogue pass by V (Ex. 31). 
-lie (it) passed through this hole (Comp. 43). Where did 
he escape to? (Comp. 34). He escaped to the mountain. 



EXERCISE LIU. 

1. Now then, let us go. 

2. Let us go to play. 

3. Now then, have you finis- 

-hed ifr. 

4. The Kaid was promena- 

-ding on the roof. 

5. Where are the seats? 

6. Where are the flags? 

7. I want a flag. 

8. Indeed the cannons are 

here. 

9. In the future (hencefor- 

-ward) he will not cheat 
me (Ex. 44) if Godwill. 
10. In short (finally) I do not 
want to quarrel with 
him. That is all (lit in 
Ar and peace.). 



U i. 



^ 

- 



s_5 ^5 



C 



4. 

5. 
6. 




UI 10. 



(a) The- phrase 
is also 



., 



L % -> HadaiBfl A-'T<. "that i Unit which" "was" 1 



- 373 - 

11. What br ingest thou? | 

12. I bring a haik instead 

of a jelab. 

13. The notary came instead 

of the Kadi. 

14. In the middle of the gar- 

-den there is a hoe and a 
basket (didst thou find). 

15. He fell in the middle of the 

street. 

1G. Dost thout sell handker- 
chiefs ? 

17. No. Thouwilt nndthemin 

another place. 

18. Formely I used to sell 

them ( Ar. I was selling 
them). 

19. God is every where. 

20. In vain wilt thou hide thy- 

self (b) from him. 



11, 
12. 



(a) JiLxJ! U 13. 

\ / w- , 



14. 



^ ^ 15. 



16. 



& *> /^S-' fl 17. 

i _/ 



ai^ 



&\ 19. 

^J' Jp L- 20. 



(a) Signifies literally, "just", "right'', but in Morocco it has the meaning of 
Notary, Plural of \ \_ ttilttl. 

L/ J}"~ 

s-' 1 Tckhabbn. IIu hid Iiimseclf ^th. Formation, 






374 

21. Verily I tell'you, that this ' > 

labourer deserves ( is 
worth) (Comp. 43) the 
Avage. (Comp. 2."> . 

22. fio, thou to my room and 

upon the table thou wilt 

see a bottle and a plate 

of SAveets. 
They were in front. 
He was living in front of 

our house. 
i 1 -"). 1 was reading then more 

than now. 
2i'>. Thou wert working more 

then than noAv. 
27. They destroyed (a) the 

citadel entirely. 
i'*. This (thing) happens 

amongst the women 
2!>. Between us Avill be no 
question (dispute, claim). 
.'!'. That is to say all of them 

are thieves, 



22. 



, 
j 



28, 



\ r ~> 

J 



in' destroyed, ra/cci, ruined. 
\ ' 



31. 



34. 



35. 



- 375 
All of them were sleeping 

in 'the fort except the 

watchman. 
They all struck me except 

this one. 
I eat everything except 

pork. 
They all stole except this 

shepherd. 
We bore all with patience 

except the toothache. 



31 



L-" 



5 



i= urui 33. 

" f ^ 

l3 ~> Ails' 3-1. 

ir,uJ^35. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



10. 
13. 
20. 
'22. 
27. 



... u es-selam (a u kan)., 
... al addel ... 
... tetekhaba ... 
... hhalafiat. 
Hedmti ... 



29. ... daua. 
31. ... assets ... 

33. ... al lehham del-hhUuf... 
35. ... al-hherikded-deras (lit. 
al ddrds.). 



COMPOSITION 53. 

Thou wilt easily leave (Comp. 41) that which thou lovest not 
(155) from thy heart n. 65). They easily conquered (Ex. 44) 
all their enemies (Ex. 17). Finally they deprived (Ex. 41) him 
of his clothes (Ex. 21) and beat him very much. The general 
went out (Ex. 30) to the outside of the city, and beheld (Ex. 
29) the sea with a telescope (Comp. 23). They threw (Ex. 36) 
him outside, and beat him to death (219). I have tethered 



37G 

(Comp. 30) him strongly. We will listen to thee (Comp. 29) 
with pleasure. Thanks to God we have dined (Ex. 38) well. 
I arn going (181 towards my town (Ex. 17). It is raining to- 
-wards Tangier. I will not rest until (I reach) Mequinez. 
I am going towards Saf'fi. I will not return (Ex. 37 until night.) 
The soldiers ran towards (Ex. 36) the river. They will not 
arrive (15G) until daylight. I will not rest until I finish it 
(Comp. 40). The Spanish army ( Comp. G and 10) came as 
far as here. I will reach as far as there. To day I have not 
read the newspaper (Ex. 38). To day I have not eaten even 
a mouthful. He did it ignorantly. He will share it (Comp. 
30) equally. They did it illicitly. He works impatiently. 
The Administrator (Ex. 12) presented himself unexpetedly. 
Impossible? Undoubtedly. They have all seen him. He 
was seated at the left of the Consul. 

EXERCISE LIV. 



1. Never did I see a man 

more Aviso than this. 

2. Thou hast never seen as 

pretty a Hag as this. 

''. lli\ will never buy it. 
1. U'c will never forget thy 

kindnesses. 

r>. I have never eaten so 
an orange as this. 



--^ 
'J 



Id. U; ,", 



J- -- 



.- 4. 



- ;377 - 

(>. I have never tasted "kiis- 
-ktts". 

7. They have never seen 

that mosque. 

8. Hast thou seen the Eni- 

-pressV 

9. Never. 

10. Never, will I do that 

never. 

11. The Kadi will arrange it 

according to law. 

12. AVe will sit down near the 

fountain. 

13. He placed the slippers 

near my feet. 

14. He sat down near me. 
1."). .Sit ye down near me. 
1C. AVe will write together. 
17. AVe will breakfast toge- 

-ther. 
is. AVe will walk (promenade) 

together. 
19. 1 will sit down at your 

side. 



G. 



7. 



U.-1 9, 

_C, r 5 10. 

^ 11. 



1-2. 



o >' 



.U 14. 
15. 
y 16. 
u 17. 



^=r!^a -J5CJ 19. 



20. 



21. 



23, 

21. 
25. 
26, 

27. 
28, 
29, 



- :)7s - 
Sit ( thee ) down far from 

me. 
I wish to see thee from 

afar. 
Be ye seated at a distance 

(far) from me. 
I have been far from here. 
Will I come back later? 
Do not (thou) return. 
Later on we will see the 

minarets, (a) 
After he filled the carafe 

*_? ; 

he g'avc me to drink. ( 

The army went out at day- 
-break. 

Du i;ot t Iiou \ speak 

wickedly i badly . 
He did i! badly. 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



^ j-*j JsJ 20. 



:>'* L ': 



^ i'vJU 



^ 
^' 



:5(). 



I do not like him who spc.-iks b.-ully < wickedly ) ( K\. :;<) ) to 
morrow -I Avill be^in ( Kx. ;5S i to work ( Com p. 2! ). The 



tflnnrete and almenara 



tVum 



\\-onl \ 



n \ ^ t menara, nona 

of |.l.n-.-. \\ liicli -i^-nili.- I!'. ,-.(////, (In- si. .it \vliiTi- tin- li.ylit is pliu-cd. iMiull- 



- .'{70 - 

physician i s<"> will arrive (156) to morrow morning. The day 
after to morrow I will speak with the watchmaker. I do not 
wish to work any more. My daughter ( i'>."> is more beautiful 

Ex. 7 I than the Empress (Comp. I'-''. My master is wise Ex. 
II but roguish (Ex. :;i t.Xo more than three soldiers came 

7 i . Each d,i y 1 \-2) it pleases me (Comp. 40) more and more- 

We saw him beyond the river. He did it well. I do it 
better. I will fold (Ex. 39) the paper (10) better than you. 

This handkerchief ( Comp. 9 ) is better than thine. Hast 
thou brought anything else? I have not brought anything. 
I will not spend less than you. How many dollars have 
you spent? I have spent at least two hundred dollars. 
How many horses were in the camp? There were at the 
least two thousand horses. Will you come to morrow with me 
to the mountain? If you do not come, at least send your son. 

- How many horses shall we need to go to Fez? At least five 
horses. Tell him to give us at the least one iimdcl of barley. 

-They were all there except the Vizir (Ex. 7). While they 
were sleeping they stole ( Ex. :>L ) all that was in the house. 

I think ( Ex. 40) often upon the orphans (Ex. 40). The 
master craftsman thinks much about his mother. They have 
brought much trine. Many people have come. You ar very 
angrs 'Ex. 1 I . He is very tired ( Ex. 14). It has not tired 
(Ex. ;>9 ) me at all (Ar. nothing).! fear i Ex. :!.Vi nothing. 

-This is good Ex. .">'.' for nothing. I dont know anything 

(Ar. I do not ku<r nntlt iny). Hast thou brought anything 

else? Xo more than this. I do not like either this or that. 

Neither Joseph nor Ali have worked today. I believe that 

ten thousand men have arrived at the enemies camp. It 



doesn't matter, although twenty thousand' may coine we will 
conquer Kx. II ) them easily. God will be with us and there 
is no conqueror (Ex.26) but God. I have never tasted so 
good a wine as this. Oh God; help me. He will come or he 
will write a letter. Give me the horse or the money. Oh 
that I may sleep to night! Oh that he may arrive well! ( in 
health!). Oli that he had written yesterday! Oh that thou 
maycst gain ( Ex. 30) much money! Oh that thou */-ouldst 
buy me a cap! 

EXERCISE LV. 



1. For whom are these books? 

2. For my master. 

.".. Why dost thou buy those j 

oranges? 
1. To eat them. 
"). Why dost thou look at the - U~J' d 

sky? 
(I. To sec the moon. 

7. Thou ansAverest Avorse 

than thy brother. 

8, Kxcuso me if I haA'c in- 

convenienced thee. (a) 

( .i. With your permission I Avill 

ak about this aft'air. 



f-jjj* ..a i. 

\ " 

J* 2. 

^" ^ 3. 

^ 

4. 






t. and _\\_' "/./.< >'. ^iirnify bo iiioon- 



V 



Importuned. 



X'a-J...^ 



10. H<> h-is done it perfectly. 

11. The interpreter speaks 

Arabic perfectly: (b) 
but he docs not know 
Spanish. 

12. I understand Arabic: but 

I cannot speak it. 
i:;. AVe eat poorly. 

14. He speaks little, but with 

wisdom. 

15. I have heard a few words. 

16. We have little work. 

17. I will learn little by little. 

18. We will sit down a little. 

19. I will drink a very little. 

20. He will be worth twenty 

dollars more or less. 

21. Why art thou working? 

22. I am working for my 

father. 

23. 1 have done it for thec. 

24. Have the artillerymen 

died? 

(a) See note a page 197. 

(k) aSX.-' """><'". 1'assive participle ui' tlic verb ^j-j 1 t''k lie 
s oinc tongue, or facultly, 



10. 

" 11 
- 



aj i:-5. 

j? 14. 

Ul 15. 
'J 1G. 
jo 17. 

io 19. 



21. 



21. 



.>- 



-382- 



.">!. 



.'I! 



l.y Cod, may lie be exal- 

ted, they have died! ta) 

Let them rest in peace! 

Lit. May Cod have 

mercy on them . 

They took us out forcibly. 

Here they sell by pounds 

or by ounces, as thou 

desirest. 

He gave me two ducats 

for my work. 
1 will sell it all to thee for 

one thousand ducats. 
AVe arc- ready to die for 

our conutry. 
The scwant has gone for 

the doctress. 
They sent me (to procure) 

for charcoal. 

. Desirest thou to exchange 
thy horse for my marc? 



V! 



^. L'. 



o 



-21. 

28; 



30. 



M't.T 111.- ..nth 
atlirmrithr vt-ri' -.1 lnit i> 






4 . 



I I.':'. tln> 



l.y tlir 



io]. ~ : ^\CM. 



;;.*). When- did he pass ( to- 
-wards? ) 

30. He has not passed hcre- 
-abouts nor there, nor 
above nor below, nor 
behind, nor in front. 

37. He did not go out for (by 

reason of ) fear. 

38. If thou sellcst at this price 

thou wilt gain ten per 

cent. 
;!'.'. lie wishes to collect five 

per cent per month of 

interest. 

lo. lie was travelling by sea. 
41. 1 dont like travelling by 

land. 



, 
w 









^ j * 

~~. J ^_ V 



. (a) 



rt- 



^ 40. 



Pronunciation of the foregoing. 



8. ...besselt filic (or ssedda- 2G. Allah ierhhe mum. 



11. 



atek) 

metktni't. 



31. ... mu ju din. 
39. .. Uekhalles .. 



COMPOSITION 

Why hast thou sold (Ex. 35) the sword? ( Coinp. i' I i 



, he collected, was paid. 



34 - 

Because I have no money. Why will that ruddy ;Ex. 
man look ( Ex. 10 at me? Because he desires ( Ex. 

:;L' to know thee ( Comp. 20 ) I am seated because I do not 

/ 

wi.-sh to work (Comp. 2'..) j uselessly. The prisoners 
( Comp. 15 ) went out (43)suddcnly from the prison. First he 
built ( Comp. 06 ) a fort ( Comp. 38 ) and then a house for him- 
-self. Probably the mail courier will not come (168) today. 
May be he will come. Perhaps he passed the night (Comp. :; ! 
at the fondack. May be he is remaining' on the road. He does 
it intentionally. What dost thou answer me? (Ex. 40) I tell 
thee what he has given me nothing. I hare nothing to do with 
him: it is necessary that thou hand me the money. I beseech 
thee to have patience with me. Probably I will hand it thee 
during this month. Probably he will come to see me. Pcr- 
-liaps he wrote the letter and they have not received it. Per- 
-chance a letter has come for me? At day break we hear 
the cannon shot ( Comp. "29 ). I was kneeling when they en- 
-tered my room. I pray on my knees. 

KXKKCISK LVI. 



1 . They will judge according 

to law. 

2. I will go to sleep according 

to thy wish. 

;:. According to what I have 
undesrstood the weaver 
- not wish to bet. 



is .^vsri i. 



._- _v - 






1. 1 will do it in accordance 
with the opinion of the 
wise men (the learned). 

,"). Kach one works according 
to what he is able. 

;. Do thou as thou best may 
(or). Do thou thy utmost. 

7. Thou cants travel safely. 

^. Art thou going to send me 
the weights? (the balan- 
-ce.). 

:i. Yes, Sir. just now. 

10. Dost thou wish to help 

me? (Com p. 40). 

11. Yes, Sir. With much plea- 

-surc. 

12. If thou help me 1 will give 

thee a present. 

1:5. Have you finished the 
building. 

1 1. Yes. We finished it yes- 
- tor day. 

15. Dost thou like cuttle-fish 
(lit. docs cuttlefish plea- 
se thce\ 



IJuJli 



J 
- 



j Ui 4. 



JS" 5. 



c !>. 

r 3 10. 

>t 11. 

>! 12. 



4/13, 

^ - 



w 



14. 



15. 



386 

10. Ye?. Hike them very much . *f-JL J *-ar\** aj 1G. 

(lit. they please me 
very much). 

' 1 1 a f \ 

17. I see him always (cons- AAJV>I ^__ A3 a ^j.i .^.o 17. 

-tantly) in the street. 
is. The lazy man always is JI U->b \'-\*Ji is. 

in the street. 
I'.i. Seek thou always the +S* iXa! 10. 

opinion of the Aviso man. 

20. I will ever remember iJ! xixj *i^jJI J.s 20. 

(Comp. 38) God. 

21. He took the money silently 

22. I do not wish to g-o without LL 

a musket. 
2.'). Without doubt he will 

come today. 
21. They have told me that , ^jJ! ,b ? Lv^ v L L.''J 21. 

the Administrators arc 

in the Custom-house, 

but 1 did not sec them. 
2.". Without me you cannot 

;is-'iiil)lc to amuse your- 

-selves, (a) 

i I -hull hi lie in, tell thai tin- l';irtiele !J_j villKurl.V rei|llire.- tu lie follnwed 
-ullii \ii jii >im ]>rei-i-iK>il i. \Vithout me "_, [\j I "hi. liii-i: In-lit 

. itii.)ut thee. etc, etc. 



> 

^- i 



-iA^ 

i o . 



_';. \Vithout thee we cannot 
-einble) do anything. 

21. He loves no one except 
his wife. 

J>'. 1 think only of God. 

i )c .>. The attorney will speaking 
about the law suit. (Case, 
question, claim acu- 
sation). 

."(). Above every thing love 
God. 

31. He was travelling i moun- 
ted ) on a mule. 

31'. The dishes are on the table. 

;;;;. All of them jrent out su- 
ccessively. 

.")!. I also have quarrelled 
withthe noighbour. 

;!.". My wife also has quarrelled 
with the neighbours. 

;)ti. Nor do I wish to quarre 
with that drunkard. 

.'17. Didst thou not enjoy thy 
self? ( Kx. 11 Xor 1 
either! ^Litl likewise) 




28, 



lUJ 1 

,^-^: S <^ ^-^ 



30. 
31. 

32. 
33, 

.". l . 






It is as small as a iiea. Li,Jl jj ^.^> ^ 38. 

3!'. It is as big as a camel. 

40. Thou art as big as I. , r5J ^ C^- ; - ! 40. 

41. I weigh as much as thee. ^J'-- 2 ^ j-^^ - ^- 

Pronunciation of the foregoing. 

5. ... kadd 'ma ikdar. -JO. Al-ftk>l ... dACiua ... 

I.;. .., /.vaW wit ttkdnr (or ... 31. ... rakeb ... 

jtihdek). 35. ...jlran. 
18. ^4Z rnd^rrfs. ... 

COMPOSITION 56. 

Thy sons rose early. The servants rose earlier than thou. 
The boys (little boys) came very early. Art thou still 
writing? Is he still sewing? Thy mother is not awakened 
yet. AYe have not yet supped. Dost thou wish a cigarette? 
Take! (i.e. Take one). He sleeps calmly. They hid them- 
selves behind the door. He was meditating Ex. {<" sadly upon 
the death. He was, sadly upon his father's grave. Finally 
he said he would not go out from his house. I desire that thou 
employ the time usefully. Let us go! we will go to the garden. 
Truly he deserves (Comp. 43) the wage. I write sometimes 
at night. I go out often to the garden. The tailor and the 
shoemaker were drunk. The muleteers and the cameldrivers 
arrived very early. I have not yet eaten (dined). Have 
yon not prayed yet ? AA T e have not prayed yet. Have they 
not yet bought the basin (Kx. I'J . They have not bought it yet . 
-The physician has not cured me yet. He will come and he 
will cure tli ! will. It is finished thanks to God!. 



APPENDIX I. 



TLrrriJ 

MOORISH MEASURES WEIGHTS AND MONIES. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 
Kama, i *LJ kama sing.; ^.x^Lj kamtain dual ; oL-fva 

W " 

kamats pi. Lt.a ^vsj mtss kama, half a kama. Inches cen- 
-timetres. 

Kala. '^.3 kala sing.; ,.^~Ha kaltain dual; o"^ kalats pi.; 
i.'U J5<" miss fcaZa, half a kala. SJU ^Jo fZ or ftlZzli AraZa, 

third of a kala. iJUaj, ?-&aa or erbaa or ??& or rfibita kola, 
C'-> 

fourth of a kala; i^U , r j' tfimn or tumiin kala or . r -^-J' 
o - w 

iJUJli iumun del-kala, an eighth of a kala. 

Draa. >',-> (Zraa or deraa, ,.^'1- drain dual, pj.^ dfirua 
(pi.) (lit. c,^! adrda). c.^ ^ nt'iss draa, half a draa. 
r, i.i .-', ?-6a (or erbaa) deraa, etc. etc. 

L^- V- 

Pace. isli. khalfa, sing, or s^Jci. khatua; d^U.lA khalfats pi. 

or sJlj.t^Jsa. khatuat. 
Foot. >- a kdem or kedem } sing. xiJ >! kdam or kedam pi. 

( lit. akdam. ) 
Span. ^ shber or sheber sing.; ,. r j^.i, shberain dual; ,L.^' 

shbar shebar (lit. ashbar. ) 

Hand.j3 fter or /efe- sing.; ,. r j t ::3 fetraln dual. 
League. ^.-^ fersakh, sing.; ^ ' t _3 ferasakh or fraxakh pi. 

i c "' C v 

or ^'.w sddd ( hour. ) 



390 - 

ile.^f mil sing.; JL! mial pi. (for lit. amlal). 
In some place a land measure called .:x^ marjdrf, (dual 
.r-js-xy rnarjaa/n, pi. *_=J.* mrajaa or mtirnjaa) is used. It 
contains 384 square kalas. 

MKASl'RES OF CAPACITY. 

LIQUIDS. 

Kold.J*\> kolla sing.; ,.y~dj kolta'ni, dual; J..U klr.l or kalel, pi.: 
ili *.' ?i /7ss kolla, half a kola, etc. etc. 

< lit ttrti')-. '*-*} \ ritbai or nibnila. 

Stone. T Half a quarter ) (lit. eighth ) i--,-' tsumnnn, half a 

sotne. i^v , ^-' 7r<ss tnmntta, etc. etc. 

This measure is used for ot7 only which is the only liquid of 
commercial importance in Morocco. There is another mea- 
-sure however for milk which varies in size in different 
localities namely J-/ ka II, dual; r: Lf kailain, pi. JLTI k'ml 
or ftkiftl, half a kail: LJ . ^=j ?IMSS 

J \* .. L. 



DRY MEASURE. 



^-* mudd, sin^.; Used for Grain; ,.^- -- muddnni, dual; 
pi. JSjJ-x or ij-v! mdfid, medfid mdad or <imdud, half a 
mudd; -V .jfi.' H/CX.S iiu'tdd, quarter mudd; ..*.', rubrtti or 
i, eighth, ,.vv> tnmni or tttmiii/, half an eighth of a 



mudd; .:,,J ^.- /i /'>> fir/tinit. 
The mudd varies greatly in sixc in ditlVrrnt locnliti 

WEIGHTS. 



Hundredweight. JjolA kantm-; ^ ,'.i=.^ L-mtturttni dual: . 

. ,lla\j ^ ; ;<// .>.- knnfai', half kantar: -. , 

> *^ i 'x 



1-bnd or rulii'i sing.: .^x- 1 , rubn'm dual: O-*J i i-baaf f 
w** *J ' > 



or nibnnt pi.; a..- , ^.- y?./)** y/;-^/, half a quarter fa stone ) 
!; _.. it<lr.!i<t. a quarter of a quarter ( half a stone. ) 

Nun:. In sonic parts of the west coast a imtliiT <//// m< ./../, . railed tin.- i_. 4 ^_^ 

ihn. dual. ^ a ~_-^_ A'//" rrolifuhi pi. . _ ^ f , ' ^.^ '''' ''''''' '' "'' '.'/'/" /'''. is usi-d. 
O " * "^V > > 

. \Je, fftil or ''>7r(/ sin<, r .: .,..li>, ertlaln or rtdlain dual: 

> ' w > 

J!s,' rn-^f/ and J^, r/?</ or e?-<e/ pi.; J.L, JrJ wriss ;-fa7, 

half apound: .*'.' -; ,! ?-t^ y^a/v- quarter a pound ( lit. 
' ^' ^ 

tr. 4 ounces. 
Ounce. 'LJfj nkila sing.: .^-j itkittaln dual; , itj! afc and 

^^'-Jo nkiiat pi.; Li a >.' ?u?s. ft k tin. half an ounce: xJ st.- . 
j u^ -^ (jj 

r&rw t'lkini, quarter ounce. 
Ducat. Jlai* sin.u 1 . mctxkd!; dual . r J'-i:'^ metskalaln; pi. Jjw 

mcfsakd or mtakcl. (a) 
Xnaid. Xjiij nitftttd. pi. sji,'lj'jj nualiats. (a) 

The equivalents in European weights of the foregoing are 
not given because they vary greatly in different localities 
even though known by the words given above. 

MONIES. 

COLD. 

Moorish gold piaces.-? -_3j._;_j bemlkl or bt')idek,i pi. . 

bnndc.k or btnaduk. Value ;' ounces (ukias). Half bendki 
J.. v .:. : ' (j^-- r/x.s bendckl M2 ' ^ ounces. 

SILVER. 

J)ncat. (\n imaginary piece money) Ju&* mfca2 sing.; dual 

(a) These two weights are tbose used for Gold, silver in-cciiuis stoi 

perfume essences. 



in, pi. J-3 .i* mtakel or metakeL Value 10 

w 

ounces 40 moozunats. 

0/^4 ounces. S$j\ fl)^ **'' derham d-arbaa flak, 

pi. in ^!. Value 4 ounces or 1C moozunats. 
Derham of 10 moozfinats. *j*. s^o jj^ derham d-aashra 

1'ijnh. Vuluc 2 I -j ounces or 10 moozunats. 
Derham of 8 moozunats. ij^-j i : v **;- derham temni itjah. 

Value 'J ounces or 8 moozunats. 
Derham of 7 moozunats. **->j *-.- - *-^\- derham de-sebaa 



t'lji'tli. Value I, 1 : 'j ounces or 7 moozunats. 

Derham of 4 moozunats. 3*-=.. ^.-J ,b _3O derham d-arba 

J ' J \*..'J \ J 

I'/j/ih or iJj uktia; pi. s _ ^j' //'(/.-. \'alue 1 ounce or 4 mo- 
ozunats. 

Moozuna.( Imaginary value) (a) sing. 3J ;y mflzCtna, dual 
r _<_^_^j ujhain (literally translated "two faces'"), pi. 
vi^'J. ',_..- mitztrnats or J^N-J ji7i (lit. "to faces" . 



nXs issfKI) BY THE LATE SULTAN MULF.Y AI. HASSAN AND 
I'RKSKXT SULTAN MULEY ABD-AL-AZIZ. 

l ts - Dollar J'j , ;/'(/ , invariable for dual and pi. ), 5 pesetas 
Spanish. 

L"" 1 - Ifalf dollar. \\i , . *=; ^NS r/a/. pi. ^'-J J 1 -'-^.' //XM/.S-N 
** >- w w > ^/ 

er-rlal. _" - pesetas Spanish. 

.'I 1 ' 1 (luiirti-r ilollar. Ju yjl a.. 1 , rbaa or r///>a rr-rial, pi. in 
^.' "/, I 1 i pesetas Spanish. 

4" 1 - Derham haxxani.- -Half peseta !'" ^a. >,^ derham 
lttts*,nii; l )lui - ^V..' , _. ; zi'ij blain; .> (I - ^i>3 Av^>7j or <jin-r*Ji, 
pi. ^^-J A-/v/.s/( or /////>/( :o ccntimos of a Soaiiish pea 



iiu-i'- 



393 



;.; 2" (i - , j />< / 

;;>'*i- Jo r " /i'/v/v.s/t or ifi-iii-.xh pi. in c~> '(' -~> centimes of a 
Spanish peseta. 

COPPER. 

I'if.ce of 4 fl uses. ,_JUJ'6 ^*> J arbaa dal-flus or fvli'ix. 
J'icct: of '2 //(tses. l**- ^-^ ~j\ ~i\i fl"*; - )n(l - if^j temnia (a) 
Piecv <>f / fl&s.jj^ fels pi. ^\* fins. In the vicinity of Te- 
-tuan the fels is called also .,^_!-~_^ doblon pi. dbalen or 






As at present forcing monies arc even more commonly in 
use in Morocco than Moorish coins it is thought advisable to 
give the names of the foreign most knwen generally current 
amongst the Moors. 

GOLD. 



Doubloon. Sing. L .jJ.~& doblon, pi. ,. r )L^s dbalen. Value 

v -^ * O 

1 ounce of gold. 
HaJfdoublan. Sing. ^_JL^ ^>J /1ss doblon Y-> ah of gold. 

. r > dollar piece. 1 st - 5 ^J //&>. pi. in ,i ^: - 2 ntl - , ^L^ .. , 
' '" ^ ^ <^' ^ 

i-uba doblon, pi. in o! f. 



? I * Sterling. y'fJ-^J ? K J //6rr inyliza. 

P . 

(I suit* (/'or. p j.. ( /^/~. _'() franc piece. 
Half lout* d'or. V- 1 _?-' ^ ; nt'ix* al-liu~; 10 franc piece. 
-f ^ (litfirtcr lout* d'or. . _ -s*^ JLj t _" er r/af (?/i6; 5 franc 
piece. 



a 'I'll,- \vortl li i/iitiii. \vliioh signifies ci^lit" dailith-ss has its uri^in in 
iiuciuut money whose \ ahii- was the fourth of a fids 



.^ 



SILVER. 

Dollar. 1 st - J(J i rfrtro, f inv. dual and pi. ); 2 nd - J'._j , 
i-Htt . inv. dual and pi. ); 3 rd - -== J'--' . r?a7 M;?-: 

4' 1 '- a5_v .: Vj , r/V// 6/> mcdfaa. 
C - - -J 

II<t!/' dollar. - - ''j v-' ^ ; nu*x er-Mal sins;.: ( '-' ^': ^'-^; 

" .. x ^/ ' ^ ..^ y^ 

?ies>v/ss (i<-r-i-/nJ pi. 

dollar. J'~! --' *--' , r^&fl cr rial sing.: cJ *-- ' i 
'..' ,." rnhat er-rtal pi. 



zfij bsaset. 

1 peseta ja'i'<-<\ xL~*~j be**cta. 
i )! . real rellon piece. . ^.- .> .Jb _ <.', ?>/ b eh' fin f< 

\^s * ^, -x , . -x . / 

//a// peseta* . r j---> - ; zfti l>1a" t n. 

^ c"^ 

i i 

I'ral "/ vellon. .\ >_._.' oeliun; pi. ^ i -. < blain. 
C/-/ - c 

~> franc pi<'<-< . -I 8t - ...%? J...- , /vV// /'ran*!*: L )n(1 - 
COPPER. 

-> i ^ i if..i- aasftra />//?/(. 



1 .") centimosofapeseta.x^j '*-~*. 

\* it is hardly possible to ^ive a <roncral idea of the moors 
method of touting money the form in which they reckon, is 
indicated in detail as follows, be.^innin.i;- with the "flus." 
1. y\n*. vJ.3 /UK*. 

j. ^JjLM^ iU' or. , -J.? ~ . ; /.fni fICts, or 
^, - *^ ^ ' c ^^ 

A.'. , . - :.' A />>-, s till'~l'lia. 
-* ^ - 

4. 1"' ....i 1 '^ j.x- ,' A rhaa di-l fh'i**. 

I"" 1 - w ;- tta*h<ir filss. 



.7.15 



5. Flus. 1 s1 - , r -_ji;b L^A 



_ >ll(1 - , >U3 , v ^z Annhr'm filss. 

w w> 



M ft z ft IHI ft 

'.'. ^w=j _ JLu ; j^ Mnzdnau 

10. L:.<.o ,~i . U^ f'i'iiii (ilialr ti'iniiia. 

^ ., ^' .. o ^ ^ ^/ 

11. \J*. <:^ -'r:-5->jr I'jniii <jhitir filx*. 

j Ujain. 



14. ^V j -*"^j Ujctin fi 

15. >=- j; .v;-i^j I [Jain fi nuss. 

l(i. i- r '-yj v-i ii'..'i' Tlata ghair temnia. 

17. ">.-- -i ij'uj Tlata ghair filss. 



1 ( .. ,j-..b j jo Jj '/Va^f (7 ///.s-x. 

20. Lx*5' j Xj'UJ' *Tlqta fi, temnia. 

21. , ^' j *-' -' Tltifd ft }?r/.s'x. 

22. /> SL.A*j' ...i i*j . I Arbaa ghair temnta. 
-','>. it*. +? **: j Arbaa ghtr fll&s. 

24. l sf - 5 j^j & ^ >' Arbaa ftjf/h. 

2" (1 - or / 'J.3 **,- J)rrham flftx. 
(~ ^ \ s 

;> rtl - or ^-r^j r/.-;/^. .ounce). 

etc. etc. etc. 

1 st - 5 ^>j ^vv^x Hliarnsii fijft/i. 

or O-'^. ; j--~ i^A Jfltanisa mf/~finat~. 
etc. ' etc. etc. 



etc. etc, etc. 



J_^N j .,.-> Sebaa tijAh. 
etc. etc. etc. 



;- 1 s1 - ?j.^- j ^/v Temnta iijnh. 

etc. etc. etc. 

_ )lul - or ,. ..::J . Uktitain. ( 2 ounces 8 mu- 

^, .. .. -^ 

-zunatz ). 

etc. etc. etc. 

GO. $jj\j* j.L\3A\ lld(i*li<(r muzfina. (11 mu- 

-zunatzetc. . 

7*2. 1 st - l ; o; a.-- ^JjJ' Tnashar muziina. (12 mu- 

*"> -^ > 

zunatz . ' 






L )IHI. or \^\ j^Jj Tdt aitctk. \ o ounces). 

etc. etc. etc. 

96. 1 st - ^\ ..* pdJjL- Settashar mazunatz ( 1G mu- 

-zunats). 

2" (l - or s jij' ixj,' Arbaa fiak. (4 ounces ). 

y I^*A Khamait flak. ( 5 ounces ). 

etc. etc. etc., and so on to. 

10 Ounce-. . ,. 

JLi.::.- M,:tal. ( 10 ounces ). 

etzcal. y 

fil | A 1 i \. I'j ** Or 1 I .M J'j . 

, ., Y- kani. sin.u'. 

"/// ,.r~ ; ,3 karnain. dual. 



, r 3 kort'Dl. pi. 

^- "^ 

,'.. ftawj. sin<?. 

i,t , r - '-- (titmttin. dual. 

1 y ^" 

>'_:. (in/'i'un. pi. not 



>iid. 

.-/(/// or sc///(/. pi, 



97 

shar or xfmln-r. sing. 



Mniitli. , v *~ shahrain. dual. 

/ 



or xlir ln'i r. pi. 

The Moslem year has twelve months the names and sequen- 
ce are as follow: 

1 st - * JSP* mohdrrem or vulgarly j^Lx)! al ash fir. It has 
30 days. 

2" (1 -^iyo ssafar or vulgarly, ,j..l.*J! <> U. s/taa <il-atsht'tr. It 
has 29 Days. 

3 1>(l - Jj s-.o , 1st. rabia al-u&el Sjjtj] ^ nd - al-mulud It has 
30 days. 

mnltld. It has 29 days. 

-")"' Jj a jpl^a, j Canada al-tiilel. It has 30 days. 

G th - jliJ! _- ^L^ jumada et-tani. It has 29 days. 

7 th - ^.> , riijvb, or rjeb. It has 30 days. 

s<i'. .,Uti, shaaban. It has 30 days. 

It'll- j^Uaj ramdun, or ramndnn. It has 39 days. See page llf>. 
10 th ' Jj^i xhual , or. vulgarly. ^e)' --^' al-atd c.i 
I has 29 days. 

11. HjufcftJuO dul-kanda. or. vurgarly. >Lc .^batn al-< 

-^ ^ 

It has 30 days. 

12. iar^Li dul-htijjfi, or vulgarly v -^ ' J- x.' ! al-<ttH al-ktblr. 
It has 29 days-ami in 30 days. 

All the months commence with the moon. 

Week. i.x. r .^ sing, juni'.t't. dual. ^-.X-x.^^ jnmatain pi. 



The week is divided into seven days -\vlioso names arc as 
follows: 



:)08 



Sunday. 

Monday. 

Tuesday. 

Wednesday. 

Thursday. 

Friday. 

Saturday. 

( 






v -V-v ncliar letnin or el-l<-tnin. 
-nehar et-d iufn. 
al-arbaa. 



y 



5 

. sins-. 



/ 



al-jimCiaa (for jtinui 
es-sebt. 

Day of 24 hours. 



..- - I ii inn in dual. 

C T; \ 

,.-. Ram tor aiiam). pi.j 

The day time. i.e. time during which the sun is above the ho- 
-rizon. ,'-^j nchnr sing. ^.','--5- nrfun-at pi. 

The Moors use the following terms to indicate the diffe- 
rent periods of the day. 

1* ( - ,^-f ' al fje>-y or ftjtr (for al-/'<'ji>- Day break. 



gnd. 
3rd. 

(Hi. 



LUi 



~'.... ' <-xx-*xeb(ih f early morning. 

^isr"^ <-(i-(li'lni s. a. m. 

.xs"^! ed-deha al-aali, about 10 a. in. 

L ef (d-fn'di, or al-t'n'teli * 



\ 



Midday. 



al-aalam. 
&al, 

<-<!-<lltoi- lit. flohr}. See page. L'77. 
r (lit ax*/ 1 ''. Sec page. 277. 

6 note of pagelMO SU1 
See page 277. 

JJJ1 ^J ?t/(,s.s dl-lil, midnight. 
Moors who und(\<rst;'.nd the hour of tlieo clock count them in 
-HUP- manner i;.eans, and express them by the car- 

-dinal numUers thus "the one", the two, three" etc. e. g: 



r,ti, 
yth. 
si i,. 
gth. 
10th. 






Hour. 



'. 

o L 

\ 

.2 ' 

\ i 

- r 





Its. 



.~, sntni. sing. 

.~. xri, if a in. dual. 
L- Ntutt*. pi. and 



er hour i'-~ 



. sing. 
.> darldln dual. 



Ten minutes. literally tr. ''Step' 1 

-.Ipl drai (for adraj). pi. ' 

C ' 

*~3 kasm. sing. 

.^3 kasmrtin dual, literally tr. Division. 
,-pl. 



THE ERA OF THE 



The Era used by tin 1 Arabs and indeed by all mohammedans 
is called the hfyira, tjsP Idgra, (i.e. Emigration, abandon- 
-ment flight) , and it began on the day in which mohamed fled 
from Mecca to medina. The iirst year of the Hegira began on 
IG'July ti'2'2 of the Christian era. 

The years composing the Hegira era are lunar and contain 
eleven days less than our solar years. 

The Hegira era is divided into cycles of 30 years of which 
1'.), called common, are of :\^\ days, and the remaining 11, 
called intercalated, have one more that is o5o days each. The 
intercalated years of the cycle are Nos. _', 5, 7, !<>. \:>, If. 
Jl, -21, Ji and -J!>. 

The correspondence of the Hegira years with those of the 
Christian era is found by the following method. 



400 

Divide the Hegira year by .'!.">, then subtract the quotient 
from the divided (the given Ilegira year ), and add G'2'2 to 
the difference. 

To find the Ilegira year corresponding- to any given Christian 
year, subtract G22 from tlie given year, divide the resulting 
difference by o'2, and add the quotient to the divided. 

KX VMl'LKS. 

Let 1'JSG be the hegira year to Avhich it is desired to iind the 
corresponding Christian year. 
IL'SI; : 33=38 ;!:; (say ;jn . 

r_'sr. : :;'.:= !_>:> 7 i;:>2=186J The Christian year required. 
Let 18Gi> be tlie Christian year to which it is desiret to find 
the corresponding liegira year. 
1869622=1247 ; 
1-JI7 : 3tf= y 39 . 

247. = l-28t) the liegira year required. 



NIK. The vi-ars aiv divided l>y :;:t and 32 respectively for the reason that 

Chri-i hin year makes :i:! of the Hegira. and i; vice versa " 
/ 

rilKOXOLOGICAL TABLE. 

Shewing the dates of the Hegira era corresponding to the 
Christian years from 1872 to 1M72. 

The asterisk indicates the Hegira intercalated' years and 
the D, the day of the week. The line _ ever the year closes 
tin- Ilcgira cycle of :!O years. 

f the .1. C. Kra nf the Hegira. 



1872 1-.'s'. .March 11 ]). i> i. c. Monday. 

!-".'< i 1 I). 7 i. e. Satuday. etc. 



- 101 - 



Era 

Of til.' -1. C. 


Era of the Hcgira. 


1S7I 


1291 


February 


18 


D. 


1 


1875 


12<)2 :: 





7 


D. 


1 


1876 


1293 


January 


28 


D. 


6 


1877 


1294 


,> 


16 


D. 


3 


1878 


f 12D5 

( 12% 


January 
December 


5 

26 


D. 
D. 


7 of 1878 
5 


1879 


12!7 ::: 





15 


D. 


2 


1880 


1298 





4 


D. 


7 


1881 


1299 


November 


23 


D. 


4 


1882 


1300* 





12 


D. 


1 


188u 


1301 





2 


D. 


6 


1 88 1 


1302 


October 


21 


D. 


3 


1885 


1803* 





10 


D. 


7 


1886 


1304 


September 30 


D. 


5 


1887 


1305 





19 


D. 


o 

t 


1888 


1306* 





7 


D. 


6 


1889 


1307 


August 


28 


D. 


4 


1890 


1308* 





17 


D. 


1 


1891 


1309 





7 


D. 


6 


1892 


1310 


July 


26 


D. 


3 


1893 


1311* 





15 


D. 


7 


1894 


1312 


July 


5 


1). 


5 


1895 


L313 


June 


24 


D. 


2 


1896 


1314* 





12 


D. 


6 


1897 


1315 





.) 


D. 


4 


1898 


1316* 


May 


22 


D. 


1 


1899 


1317 





12 


D. 


6 


26 













- 402 - 



Era 
of the J. C. 


Era of the Hegira. 


1900 


1318 


May 


1 


D. 


3 


1901 


1319* 


April 


20 


D. 


7 


1902 
1903 


1320 


March 


10 
30 


D. 
D. 


5 
2 


1321 


1904 


1322* 





18 


D. 


6 


1905 


1323 





8 


D. 


4 


1906 


1324 


February 


25 


D. 


1 


1907 


1325* 





14 


D. 


5 


1908 


1326 





4 


D. 


3 


1909 


1327* 


January 


23 


D. 


7 


1910 


1328 





13 


D. 


5 


1911 < 


1329 
1330* 


December 


2 

22 


D. 
D. 


_> 
6 


1912 


1331 





11 


D. 


4 


1913 


1332 


November 


30 


D. 


1 


1914 


1333* 





19 


D. 


5 


1915 


1334 





9 


D. 


;; 


1916 


1335 


October 


28 


D. 


7 


1917 


1336* 





17 


D. 


4 


1918 


1337 





7 


D. 


2 


1919 


1338* 


September 


26 


D. 


6 


1920 


1339 





15 


U. 


4 


1921 


1340 


September 


4 


D. 


1 


1922 


1341* 


August 


_'l 


D. 


5 


1923 


1342 





14 


D. 


3 


1924 


1843 





2 


D. 


7 


1925 


i:;il 


July 


_>0 


D. 


4 



- 403 



Era 

of Hi.' J. C. 


Era of the Hchira. 


1926 


1345 


July 12 


I). 


2 


1927 


1346* 


1 


D. 


6 


1928 


1347 


June 20 


D. 


4 


1929 


1348 


9 


D. 


1 


1930 


1349 s1 


May 29 


D. 


5 


1931 


1350 


19 


D. 


3 


1932 


1351 


7 


D. 


7 


1933 


1352* 


April 26 


D. 


4 


1934 


1353 


16 


D. 


2 


1935 


1354 


5 


D. 


6 


1936 


1355* 


March 24 


D. 


3 


1937 


1356 


14 


D. 


1 


1938 


1357* 


3 


D. 


5 


1939 


1358 


February 21 


D. 


3 


1940 


1359 


10 


D. 


7 


1941* 


1360 


January 29 


D. 


4 


19 12 


1361 


19 


D. 


2 


1943 < 


1362 

1363* 


8 
December 28 


D. 
D. 


6 

3 


11)11 


1364 


17 


D. 


1 


1945 


1365 


6 


D. 


5 


L946 


1366* 


November 25 


D. 


2 


1947 


1367 


15 


D. 


7 


1948 


L368* 


;: 


D. 


4 


1949 


1369 


October _' 1 


I). 


2 


1950 


1370 


13 


I). 


6 


1951 


1371* 


2 


D. 


3 



EM 

Of tllf J. C. 


Kra of tin- Ik-fjira. 


1952 


1372 


September 21 


D. 


1 


L953 


1373 


10 


D. 


5 


1954 


1374* 


August .'in 


1). 


o 


1955 


1375 


20 


D. 


7 


1956 


1376* 





D. 


1 


1957 


1377 


July 2',i 


D. 


2 


1958 


1378 


18 


D. 


6 


1959 


^379* 


< 


1). 


o 


I960 


1380 


June 20 


D. 


1 


1961 


1381 


15 


D. 


f> 


1962 


1382* 


4 


D. 


2 


1963 


1383 


May 25 


D. 


7 


1964 


1384 


13 


D. 


4 


1965 


138 


2 


D. 


1 


1966 


1386 


April 22 


D. 


6 


1967 


1387< 


11 


D. 


3 


1968 




March ;il 


1). 


1 


L969 


1389 


2< > 


I). 


. * 


1970 


L390< 


: 


D. 


2 


1971 


1391 


I'Vbruary 27 


1). 


7 


1972 


1392 


Hi 


D. 


I 



r , 

J ; ; . , . . e ^ 



APPENDIX II. 

THE IRREGULARITIES OF THE MOORISH 
DIALECT OF ARABIC. 



In the beginning of this work we mentioned, and we have 
had occasionally to revert to it, that the culyar Arabic wanders 
very frequently from the rules of clnvxictil or literal Arabic. To 
make the difference more easily understood we propose to show 
in this appendix the principal irregularities observable in the 
Arabic vulgar of Morocco when compared with the literal both 
as regards the preliminary observation we made and in rcla- 
-tion to all the parts of speech: 

PRELIMINARIES IDEAS. 
1. LETTERS OK THE ALPHABET. 

1 st - The pronunciation of some letters of the alphabet is 
different to that which they have in other moslem countries, 
and even within the Moorish Empire one finds different pro- 
-nunciations of the same letter, as lias been shewn in chapter 
II page '2. 

2 n < 1 - The Initial alif, (both the " uniting " and " separa- 
-ting"/ is frequently suppressed in the vulgar speech. 



406 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

>',-' mraa, woman. 
j-^v' hhmed, Hamed. 

~^j-*\ muai. waves. 
c 



Literal. 

em rat nn. 
ah mad it. 
amuajun. 



3 rd - When the harazated ///" is initial a Zawi, is frequently 
placed before it. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

.J.Y larneb, hare. 

^Y lamin, administrator. 



Literal. 

a r nab fin. 
amlniin. 



1 th - The hamzated ?'/ is sometimes changed into j. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

.. ukhkhar or ukahkliar, 

~* 

he hindered. 

> finisa, (f.) intimate 

friend. 



Literal. 

_ z 

r.\ akhkhant. 



anisatun. 



Ordinarily the nlif of the article preceding a word 
with a hamzated alif is not pronount-cil, and in this 
i of the article takes the fatha. 



EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. Literal. 

fbiad (adj. or noun) , ^>Y1 al abladu. 
the white. *--^Yl al-ahmani. 

KSA.Y lehhmar (adj. or noun 

the red. 
6 th - The letters p and ^> arc sometimes changed into 






EXAMPLES. 


Vulgar. 


Literal. 




f ' 


mrlt t sick. 


.tfj y mar Id fin. 




f o/ 


mdtdd, place, site. 


-<&** mdudiaun. 


thar, back. 


f4fb dahrun. 


atam, bone. 


^ aadmun. 



7 th - In like manner we have observed in some places the 
very rare conversion of the & into c. ; e.g.: x~^ aarsa, garden, 

W <- 

for L-^i gharsa, pi. c ' r - dras? for c -~-'fi glidrasl. 

^TT' ^"^ 

8 th - The J is changed into ^, and "vice versa". 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. 
_,!jLfl snali, arms weapons. 

iJpj z&nzla, earthquake. 
Jy ndfil, colour. 
Jju iK'tdlf (he) cursed. ,..' Zd(?d?id. 



. 



Literal. 
sildhun. 
zalzalittitn. 



408 

'.)"' The 5 of the personal pronouns 5, ,*, U, >, and >. is 

^ ' \ 

very frequently dropped in pronunciation. 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. Literal, 

jjjlj kttlu, (he) killed him. aJte kdtdldhu. 



ketla, 



*^3 ketlum, ) 



her. 



them. 



U ma-u-slu, not or is 



not. 



141=9 kdtdldhd. 



kdtdldlium. 

> U wd ftftd shdiun. 



10 th - Vulgarly the fa merbiita is not pronounced if a suffi- 
-xed pronoun does not follow it. i^See page 5 No. 20.) 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 
i.'jJ.^ mdlna, city. 



Literal. 



iijj-^ madtnatun. 



11 th - The ^j: in the plurals of the formation, . ; . 
also, not pronounced. 



is 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 
sldten, Sultans. 

ssnadak, boxes. 



Literal. 
salatlnn. 
ssanadlkn. 



^ 2. VOWELS AND ORTHOGRAPHIC 

!"' The vowel of the 1 st - radical letter of triliteral nouns 
is freqaently changed into sokun contrary to the rules of clas- 



too 

-sical Arabic and this also happens in some persons of the pre- 
-terite tense of some verbs. 

EXAMPLES. 

Literal. 

. .^so dahabun. 

f 

\^^ rijhin. 

jf <, i 
t ,yw samnun. 

, Jo kataba. 



Vulgar. 
^.sO dhab, gold. 

\A> rjel, foot. 
* ./ 

,. rv smen, salt butter. 
^v-fT kttb, lie wrote. 



A-fe'6? I wrote. 
ktebna we wrote. 



katabta. 
katabna. 



2 m} - In like manner the vowel of the 1 st - radical in the 
vulgar idiom is always suppressed when the 'J ml - radical is 
followed by a prolonging letter ( Xo. 20) in verbs and parti- 
-cles as well as nouns. This is a rule which has almost no 
exception. 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. Literal. 

i f I ' ' 

j'$j nehar. day. j-& naharnn. 

IvJ..-- medtna, city. JL.-J--* rnadinatun. 

^_,j.U khtb, hearts. 

Jl ^ jibal, mountains. 

s^^j butt, I built, (a) ^--.rV banaitri. 

'j-xj bnlnd, we built, (a) '-^ banarna. 

Th.' j of tln.'so i>x;\ini)los is vulgarly :i letter of prolongation. 



-410- 



Lulgar. 

Us huna. 
U-i- shamalan. 

hida. 

hhidaka. 



Vulgra. 

h&na, here. 
i. shmala, to the left. 
hhda, in front of or 
at side. 
hhdak, at thy side. 

.'5' d - The same suppression takes place when the 2 nd - radi- 
cal letter is followed by a ^ or a ^ preceded by fatha. 

EXAMPLES. 
Vulgar. Literal. 

CyL shra, he bought. v . sham. 



banati. 



rd-A f they bought. \\*2 shdrau. 

bna, he built. 
bnau t they built. 

4 th - The fatha followed by a ^C is often changed into 
and followed by j with a damma. 

EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 
JJ /</^ night. 

^Oj 2i^ Oil. 

j-J /"<?/^ he awakened. 
t'll'ik, upon thce. 
hi f t how? 



Literal. 
J-.) lailitn. 

f o / 

j; zattun. 
^3 fallaka. 
iilnika. 
katfa. 



411 - 



Vulgar. 

nauba, time occasion. 
zuficj, he married. 
tztiCtej, he was married. 



Literal. 

naubatun. 
T jj zqft&ajd. 
?: 3J* taza ufiaja . 



f> th - The kesra is frequently changed fatha, 1 st - in the 2 uct 
radical of the participial masc. agent, and 2 n(J - in the penul- 
timate letter of the pi. of formations . . ' . . and , ~ . ! . 






EXAMPLES. 
Vulgar. 

khlak, creator. 
jamaa, he who col- 
lects, mosque. 
kanatar, bridges. 
ssaAdak, boxes. 



. 
*J\ 



Literal. 

khalikiin. 
jamiaun. 



' \ i " 

Jalis kanatlru. 

> i 

\ ' ' 
^j^L^ ssanadlkn. 



th - The sokum of the 2 nd - radical letter borne by the tri- 
-literal nouns of classical Arabic is frequently changed into 
fatha in the vulgar. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

bhliar, sea. 
Ihlirnn, flesh. 
fj&r, dawn. 



Literal. 

f bahhrun. 

lahhnmfni. 
^? fajriin, 



- 412 - 

7 th - The vowel of the 2 nd - radical is changed vulgarly into 
sokun 1 st - in the feminine and the pi. of the agent or active 
participle; '2 nd - in various persons of the trilitcral regular verb, 
and 3 rd - in some persons of formations derived from verbs. 



- 



' ' \" 



EXAMPLES. 
Vulgar. 

n'tkna, inhabitant ! i\= 

( fern. 

saknin, inhabitants. 
~** m sdfra , traveller 

(fern.) 

~ kvtbct, she.wrote. 
.^ kvtbn, they wrote. 
:\> tkiitbft, you Avrite. 
xxi tktibfi, they will 

write. 

xxalhhtt f she paci- 

-fied. 

ssalltliit, they paci- 

-tied. 
L^Uftj inxftllut, they will 

pacify. 

i i 

- ' * 



Lulgar. 
sakinatitn. 

sakin'tna. 
musaflratan. 

katabat. 

katabu. 
tfiktiibfnici 



/ 

vT ssalahhat. 



-11:3 - 



Vulgar. Literal. 

Lsr-f-'! enfethn, they beco- L:s~ ; fM in fat ah ft. 

me opened. 

Lxilj! ertefau, they were : L*a:si irtn/'nafi. 

raised. 
LjAj&wl estaghfrn, they be- L.AXXW! istaijlif'arfi. 

sought pardon. 

8 th - In regard to the vowels of the 3 r<1 - radical, and other 
final consonants it has been already noted that they are omit- 
-ted in the vulgar tougue, ( see No. 30). If to the final conso- 
nants suffixed pronouns arc joined, one notes a change of 
vowels and socuns in the radical letters as will be seen in the 
following. 

EXAMPLES. 






Vulgar. 

tlden, ear. 

ndnl, my ear. 

rjel, foot. 

rjell, my foot. 

L-aU), heart. 

kaUx'k, thy heart 

( invariable ). 



Literal. 

* ' t 

.^1 udnhn. 

<~ .5 

c .o! udni. 

'' i 

J-^j rtjlftn. 

~ * ' * 

_^U kalbun. 

X -U kalbuka (a) (noun). 



a It is to be obsrrwd that the declension of nouns in classical Arabic: e.g. 

\vliicli lircdiiics in the accusative case l,-<i(1><ik anil in the genitive kttlt>i- 
-k<i; is not used in I lie mli/nr Arabic if Morocco. Tliis must In- rcineni'ierctl in the 
following examples. 



414 



Vulgar. 


Literal. 


'.^J.j kalba, her heart. 


l^iU kalbuha. (noun) 


jjj kalbit, his heart. 


iJla kalbuhu. (noun) 


2V &ra, letter. 


s^,j baratun. 


eJ V. &*<*, niy letter. 


^\yt bar ail. 


iXiV. bratek, thy letter. 


>^Xi 1 ^' &rt ratuka . 


,b dar. house. 

> 


jb darnn. 


L^Jlb darek, thy house. 

s 


^S \\5 daruka. 


?,b darrt, his house. 


s.b daruhu. 


U,b darna, our house. 


Ij.b daruna. 


v vxT fce'&, he wrote. 


v ^ kataba . 


^^ ketbn, he wrote it (mj 


^r katabahu. 


v^vJcT ketbet, she wrote. 


O---^ katabat. 


l^JuxT ketbetha, she worote 


.^^'-\i katabathu. 


^CVJ ^refc, he will aban- 


sSJya latrfikfr 


don. 




j^::j ittrkn, he will aban- 


,::) "tatntknln'r. 

s 


don it. 




.A^p iterkfim, hewillaban- 
1 " " 


*&. '"".""'" 


don thoin. 





- 115 

9th. TWO consonants following each other, or joined by a 
shidda are t'orind in the vulgar cither with soknn, or without a 
vowel. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

kantra, bridge. 
turjman, interpreter 
mt&rjema, interpre- 
-ted. 

tettret, she entertai- 
-ned to breakfast. 
LJls aallmti, they taught. 
taaallmu, they lear- 
-ned. 



s 



Literal. 

kantaratun. 

turjumanun. 

mutarjumettin. 

f attar at. 

a all mil. 
tadallamu. 



10 th - Lastly in the vulgar the vowels of preformative letters 
are often suppressed, in participial and other verbal nouns 
as well as in verbs. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

ikteb 

tktbti, you will write. 

iterjem, ( he ) will 

interpret. 




410 



Vulgra. 

< ii'fidd, he will restore. 



ij iknl, he will say. 

.a mferjem, interpreted. 
mkemmd, finished, 
perfected. 

- msafvr, traveller. 
mssalla, place of pra- 
yer. 

mdarsa, colleges. 
v*, colleges. 
i, keys. 



lateral. 

,j iantddu. 

,, 

Ai I al: ii I u. 

C.. * 

,::-- mntarjamini. 

9 

mCi.kammalun. 



.l_^=_/ mussalla. 



inadrasatun. 

; 

' \ ' ' 
^, _.- madaristi. 

w > 

' I ' ' 
^..1' -i_^ mafatiht't. 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 
$ 1. IKKK<;ULARITIK*OK THE ARTICLE, xoux AXU PUONOTM. 

r ! - We have already observed that the J of the article 
sometimes takes a /V<//m. See page 406. 

_ )11(1 - The dual number is not used in nouns; the only ex- 
ceptions bein some few nouns which express measures of 
time, length, capacity weight and some others. See pa^e :17 
11"- r,o. 'I'liese duals do not have, the termination, ,j\ nn/ } of 

the literal nominative, and instead there of they hav 



417 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar Literal 

i/. 

(itnnaln. two years, (in- Nom. .Ule namani 

-variable for all cases). Gen. etc. ^'.5 aarnnnu 

^^ 

shdhraln, two months.: Nom. , ^ >^ shahrani 

(invariable) 

Gen. etc. ,. r j t ^i, shahralni 



3 rd - The regular masculine plurals have always the termi- 
-nation ^J in, for all the cases, and never have the termination 
^ij (n\, or y?)ia which according to classical rules indicates 
the nominative, for example: 

Vulgar Literal 



O 9 



r;r yU.-- meelmin, invariable Xonr. j, r l*^ muslimunft. 

, ,0 , 

mohamedans Gen. etc. ^^w^ muslimina 

*-'" - 

4th. The termination ^\ at of the regular feminine plurals 
is used vulgarly for all the cases, e.g: 



Vulgar. 



mselmat, (inv) moha- 

A 

medans (women) 



Literal. 



Nom. ^j^U-v*^ mu*lhn<iliin. 
Gen. etc. - ,UL* musUmatin. 



5 th - In the irregular plurals of the formations . \ . . . j . . 
and ..!.., the first letter, whether radical or not, drops its 

vowel, as has been elsewhere observed. 
27 



418 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

jbal, mountains. 
klub, hearts. 
knat&r, bridges. 
mbartd, files. 



Literal. 
jlbalun. 
kulubCin. 
kanatlru. 
mabaridil. 



The initial ' of the plurals of formation . ! . . ! is sup- 



pressed. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 
, colours. 



Literal. 

.,ijJ! alftanun. 
j, forts. ~\ r j! abrajun. 

v^- C '' 

7 th - In moorish vulgar Arabic there is no true declensing 
because the final sings are suppressed; See page 13 N- 30, one 
form alone being vulgarly used for all the cases in determinate 
as well as indeterminate nouns. 






EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar 

Norn. 
al-kitab, ( inv. ) The < Gen. 

book - (ACC. 

No m. 
kitab, book, (Inv.) ' 



Literal 

al-kltabu. 
al-kitabi. 
,, 1 ^! Z kitdbd. 

,o kitabun. 

s il^r kitab In. 



Ace. l''j:==> kitaben. 



8 th - In the adjectives the plural masculine is, ordinarily, 
used for the feminine also. 

th - There are but few adjectives having grammatical 
comparative and superlative forms, and even these few drop 
the feminine form, and arc pronounced irregularly. 



EXEMPEE8. 



w 



Vulgar. 



ssaghar, less. (Inv.) 



Literal. 



assgliaru. (m.) 



_C t i^s soghra. (f .) 
10 th - In the typical form of the diminutive the following 
irregularities vulgarly occur: 1 st - The first radical letter loses 
its vowel; 2 nd - The fatha of the second radical letter is changed 
into kesra] 3 rd - The ^ Avith sokun which characterizes the 
diminutive takes fatha, and in some cases is doubled by 
means of the shidda. 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. 

v^ZU or. ^~Jj klidb or. Idittb, 
little heart. 



^.-b or. ^-^~^> klttb or. kltieb, 
little dog. 




kolaib&n. 



< c 'i > 
v A-..L5 klaibtin. 



fl th - In the cardinal numerals from three to ten, inclusive, 
the masculine form is used for both genders as a rule. 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. Literal. 

' ' ' i 
SJtU teleta, three. .< masc ' ^ ******* 

( fern, ^'jj' or. O^Jj talatiin. 



- 420 - 



Vulgar. Literal. 



L^ khamsa, five. ) masc. khamsat&n. 

/ f ' < ' 

' tern. , ~.sA khamsun. 

12 th - Nevertheless the feminine form is used when the num- 
-bers are joined to the numerals L-= or SjU ra?, ^M dZe/ 1 , and 
iu certain other instances. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 






teltmia, three hundred. 



i~j -,<sA or JL-- ^.^A khams- 
-mla, five hundred. 






Literal. 



(a) talatumaiatin. 



khamsumiatin. 



or ,^J talatu 



Jo! ^Jj frit iinm, three daily: aiiamin. 

l.'! th - The numerals from 11 to 19 inclusive are pronounced 
vulgarly with so much irregularity that the word >-t~-.z ten 
always drops its -> and sometimes its , also, they remain 
invariable in both genders. 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. Literal. 

masc. _i.s j-._.=J ahhada 

aashara, 
>; eleven. j fem _ 



aasharata. 

lut in the accusative j^-Jj tal . or in the gcuiti- 

' 

rule. 



421 - 



Vulgar. 



*buu J or ,tuju ,! arbaatash* 

< 
or arbaatashar, fourteen. 



Literal. 



masc. ,_.i._i i*j,! arbaaafa 

J 

aashara. 






arba a <i 



aashrata. 



14th. i n the personal pronouns, suffixed as well as separate, 
the 2 nd - person feminine singular, and the 2 lul - and ;> r(1 - persons 
feminine plural are not used. The classical duals yol enttima, 
and U* huma are the vulgar plurals. Instead of ^sr j nalilnid, 
UaJ hhna, we, is used vulgar. 

15 th - The classical duals and plurals of the demonstrative 
persons are not vulgarly used. See page lo ( J. 

10 th - The classical pronoun ^~~\ alladl, Avhich, its femini- 

'-rf , 

-ne its dual in distinct cases and its plural, are all included 
in one invariable form vulgarly namely .> d or jp di, J. II or 
^1 elli. See page 145. 

17 th - The classical pronoun .^ man or men, wlio? is expres- 
sed vulgarly by ^j&J eshkftn when it is nominative or accu- 
-sative. Similarly ,^ ash, and ,.^ , *\ ash men. what? which? 
is used instead of the classical form . ji alia. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

r> , : J\ ash men kikab \ 

W ^" 

what ( or which ) book? ) 



Literal. 

kitabhi. 



422 



$ 2. IRREGULARITIES OF THE VERB AND PARTICIPLE. 

1 st - The vulgar conjugation has the feminine gender only 
in the 3 rd - person of the singular although classically the 2 nd 
and 3 rd - person feminine of both singular and plural are used. 

2 nd - The 2 nd - person plural of the preterite ends in Li tit, 
instead of *i', and the preformative letter of the future 1 st - 
person is ., instead of '. 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 
ktebtii, you wrote. 



Literal. 



katdbtum. 

V ' 

s^^o&j nekteb, I will write. 1 ^^\ aktubu. 
3 rd - The form of the future which is used vulgarly is the 
same as the conditional, and this single form serves for all 
futures or aorists, be they indicative, conditional, subjunctive, 
or emphatic. 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. Literal. 



> iktt.'b, or iekteb, 
i he ) will write, 
etc. etc. etc. 



> ' 
Indicative, ^.j:..\.j laktubft. 

t, ' f* > 
Conditional, ^S-A.X.J laktfib. 

c 

Subjunctive, > _ ^jJC> iaktilba. 

_ ^ c 

[ , . r .,._\.\-j "taktft ba n n a 



Emphatic, < 

( r .,j_.C.j iaktuban. 

1 th - The passive voice used in the classical is completely 
unknown in the vulgar excepting in the particle. 

")"' In some persons of the preterite tense the shiildn is 
dropped according to literal rules; but vulgarly it is never 



423 - 

dropped, and a ^_c is inserted between the formative letters 
and the last radical, thus: 

EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar Literal 

> (, , / 
vj^v~o^ hhabbit, I loved. ^~^^ hababtd. 

I I 'C / / 

<~~.=. hhabbina, AVe loved. ^^ hababna. 
6 th - The j of the assimilated verbs is, vulgarly, retained, 
though literally it is almost always dropped; thus: 



EXAMPLES. 



Vulgar. 

itissal, He will arrive. 
tussdl. Thou wilt arrive. 



Literal. 



tasstlu. 



yth. The defective verbs in j are conjugated vulgarly like 
those ending in ^_C although, oddly enough, the j is never so- 
-unded, neither in. the preterite nor the future. The defective 
verbs which take a kesra with the 2 nd - radical in the literal 
preterite have vulgarly a fatha in the 3 rd - persons, thus: 

EXAMPLES. 
Vulgar. Literal. 

O & shkit, I complained. ^"L shakafitft. 

> / ^ 

'^..Ci, shkina, We compla- \> C L shakannn. 

-ined. 
C .\L) ishki, lie will com- _?-^-~^ ictshkil. 

plain. 



424- 



bka, he remained. 
bkat, she remained. 



baktia. 



bakiiat. 



,v;th. The hamzated. verbs in the ;> rd - radical are conjugated 
as if they were defective, thus: 

Vulgar. Literal. 

^j ,3 krit, I have read. < ^^ karat 11. 

' - / 

to *} krlna, we have read. l>!%i karana. 

; s 

See other irregularities of the hamzated verbs, page 211. 

'.i' 1 '- Yet in those tenses and inflections wherein the literal 
and vulgar conjugations are alike as regards the consonants, 
a considerable difference is observable in the vowels of the 
primitive as Nvell as the derivative verbs. We purposely omit 
to give examples for a AvliDle work would be needed to de- 
-monstrate all the irregularities of the vulgar as compared 
with the literal conjugation. See p.p. 179, 180, 181, 182, 194, 
r.i:>, 200, 20G, 213, and 260. 

10 th - The 2 n(1 ' radical of the active participles derived from 
primitive verbs which literally take kesra have sokun in the 
vulgar feminine and plural, thus: 

Vulgar. Literal. 

sakna, Inhabiting ij.i'L sakinatun. 
( fern. ) (inhabitant.) 

-^L, sakininn. 



r .~ .~ sakntn, Inhabitants 

pi.) (inhabiting). 

11 th - The * servile, of the active and passive participles of 
the quadnliteral and derivative verbs which in the literal 



-125 

take damma have usually sokun in the vulgar, except that of 
the 5 th - formation of the triliteral regular verbs which take 
fatJta, thus: 



Vulgar. 

meter jem, translated, 

interpreted. 

maaUcm, master-craf- 

-tsnian. 

* msafer, traveller. 
metaallem, appren- 

-tice 



Literal. 



/"{/ f 

Jbw miiaallimun. 

f \ ' ' 

r 9U**> musafirnn. 
% 1*;^ mutrtrtallimun. 



lotii. The * servile of passive participles derived from as- 
-similated primitive verbs which literally ought to have fatha, 
take, vulgarly the damma, thus: 



Vulgar. 

, . ; y muz Ci n, weighed, 

measured. 
j.*~'j. mdsuk, loaded (on 

a ship). 



Literal. 
mauzCintin. 

maftsitkun. 



^ J). IRREGULARITIES OF THE PARTICLES. 

1 st - The irregulaties observable in the particles consist 
chiefly in the suppression or change of the vowels, or accents, 
thus; 



42G 



EXAMPLES. 

Vulgar. Literal. 

s dla, upon. 
kif, how. 
Ima, here. 
hnak, there. 
!3_\i liakda, thus, so, (in 

this manner ). 
J~ii aand, with (or near). 
J_J frber, before (anterior 

to). 

l> J~s Abe? ?na, before that 
Latin (preusquam). 
*J!\ al-id-m, to day. fjj?' al-lauma. 

bla, without. ^ 6f/a. 

j /?, and. j H'a. 

2"' 1 - Many English particles are expressed in literal Arabic 
by nouns and pronouns in the accusative and without the ar- 
-ticle. But in the vulgar the tunicin is nearly always suppres- 
sed, thus: 



katfa. 
huna. 
hiinaka. 
hakada. 

ainda. 
kablii. 



Vulgar, 
much 



Literal. 
k at Iran. 



- 127 - 



j klil, little (few). 
xb dakhel, within. 
\~3 bar ret, (a) outside. 
krib, near. 
bald, far. 



kaltlan, 
dakhUan, 

barran. 

k art ban. 
baaldan. 

:>'' a - Indeterminate nouns in the accusative are expressed by 
the same nouns preceded by the article and some preposition, 
and this is the most usual rendering in Arabic vulgar, thus: 



Vulgar. 

JJ-inr- f el-Ill f at night. 
.iar^ bel-hhak, in truth, 

verily, 
ilai ^^ ala glafa, suddenly. 

t-J! 2. fel-berr, by land. 
j- 

P .xri 3 fel-blihar, by sea. 
J-^'4- fel-uftel, firstly. 



Literal. 
lallan. 

hliakkan, ( used also 
vulgarly sometimes). 
gaflatan. 
r j bar ran. 
rf bahhran. 



:sj) auualan. 

Finally we would note that these grammatical difference 
and many others, which for brevity, we omit, are observable 
not merely in the language of the ignorantly vulgar who in 
every country speak their tongue incorrectly, bmt also in that 
of the very this and cultured people, although in writting, 
educcated people follow the rules of the literal. 



(A In this examples, and other the fnthn, is sometimes sounded without thfl 



428 

THE DIVISION OF THE SYLLABLES. 

Grammarians divide the Arabic syllables into the simple 
or open and the compound or closed. The simple are formed 
by a consonant and vowel followed, sometimes, by a prolon- 
ging letter, e.g.: ^Ifka, ^_> bi, ^_Q fii, ] ^ ka, ^ bi fit. The 

compound consist of two consonants, one with a vowel, and 

<- f c, o > 

one without a vowel e.g.: Jj bal, J sil, ^ kun. 

In Moorish Arabic vulgar, besides the foregoing, there 
are following sillables. 

1 st - Those composed of two initial consonants and a long 
vowel, e.g.: IL bla, ^-^ mdi, ^ kin. 

2nd. Those composed of two initial consonants, a long or 
short vowel, and another consonant e.g.: ^J^> bnat, ^^ bnit, 
v ^3 kliib, s^l**** msaf, =s-; bhhar, ^^ kteb, , n ~ shrab. 

3 rd - Those composed of a consonant, long vowel, and 
another consonant, e.g.: ^"L, sak, ^Jj bab, ^ bir, JLj bid. 

4 Ul - Those composed of a consonant, vowel, and two other 
consonants, e.g.: bi kant, ~ J twj, ^ fett. 

5 th - Those composed of two initial consonants, a vowel 

and two other consonants e.g.: ^-^ ktebt, ^-.i ^ shrabt , AJ^ 

kronf, .^f- sfarj. 

<> th - Those composed two initial consonants, a vowel, and 
one or two final consonants e.g.: .i ar j nhrak, -^^j^ nhrakt 
( used for ^_ys^' enhhrak, or enliharak, etc. 7 th - Formation.). 

From the foregoing it results that a word which classically 
has two or three syllables, has in the vulgar only one, Thus: 



Vulgar. 



bhhar. 



Literal. 



bahh-run. 



429 



r <s~, smen. 
jl^j nhar. 

v >Jj klfib. 

kteb. 
ktebt. 



na-ha-run. 



sjS ka-ta-ba. 



ka-tab-tu. 



Similarly words of three, four live syllables in the clas" 
sical have in the vulgar only two, Thus: 






tf^ 



Vulgar. 
* mar-keb. 
/ mek-tub. 

mdina. 

kna-tar. 

terj-fna. 

kant-ra. 

taall-mu. 

sak-nin. 

msafra. 

maaf-rin . 

&/ r-// . 

kronf-la. 



? 



Literal. 

..' mar-ka-bun. 
mak-til-bun. 
ma-di-na-tun. 
ka-na-ti-ru. 
tar-j a- ma-tun, 
kan-ta-ra-tnn. 
ta-aal-la-rml. 
sa-ki-ni-na. 
mti-sa-fi-ra-tftn. 
mn-sa fi ri-na. 
l\^. ^i w sa-far-ja-la t ft n . 
JLlaj^j ka-ran-fu-la-tfin. 



Finally, Avords which in literal Arabic have five or six 
syllables have only three in the moorrish dialect. Thus; 



-430 



Vulgar. 
U-aal-lem. 
U-all-mu. 
met-aall-ma. 
met-aall-min. 



Literal. 

ia-ta-aal-la-mu. 

i ' T' x/ 

u x l*:o la-ta-aal-la-mu. 

r f 

~ mu-ta aal-1 i-ma-f t"i n . 
mu-to.-aal li-mi-na. 



r ,v 



THE ACCENT. 

As an orthographic sine to indicate that greater intensity 
of sound is to be given to the syllable accented, the accent is 
not known in Arabic writing. Nevertheless in. common conver- 
sation it is indispensable to observe the accent of Prosody 
upon pain of not being understood by the natives. The divi- 
sion of the syllables in moorish Arabic being so irregular, as 
we have just shewn their accents in Prosody necessarily are 
equally irregular. The pronunciation having been accentua- 
ted in this Edition we judge it convenient to set forth some 
rules, learned by experience, (a) 

1 st - Every simple syllable, followed by a letter of pro- 
longation (See N.o 29. page, 12) is long, and is pronounced 
with the same clearness and space of time as in English, e.g.: 
^L*8dken f inhabitant; s.^jlS" kateb, writer; ^ fCda, bean; 
j. *~. sura, chapter of the Koran; i\~~. sira, conduct; i.v.'.v mdi- 
na, city; j^t? farhhdn, happy; <^J~^ kiddab, liar: ^i 1 -^^ tnr- 
jman, interpreter; ^* ; , ', zarzdr, starling, rice, biad; r Ojs 

(a) We have consulted our excellent frionrt, and learned Aralust 1). Juan Qiu" 
jada, frei|iieiitly on this little studied subject, and have to thank liin warmly for 
the ,luta which with his accustomed goodnecs^, he has supplied to u*. 



431 

kasdir, tin; J>\+* ssdlahh, peaceful, (person); ^.'-^ jawab, he 
answered. 

2nd. When a word has two prolonging letters the first one 
is accented and is long, as has been shewn in rule 1, e.g.: -_./.- 
bdrud, gunpowder; .,l~.' blban, doors; y-j^ 1 sdknin, inhabi- 
tants; .^~ katbin, writers; ^~> ji==i.* mektubin, writings, or 
(plu) written; ^Jbj^ > merbiltin, tied (plu); UU kdlu, they said; 
U_fij ikdlu, they will say; LjJ-o ssdlhhu, they pacified; Lj.Lsj 
iddrbu, they fought (between themselves); Jj'jji gharnati, 
native of, or pertaining to Granada; S J^=3 kitdbi, my book; 
jUj bndti, my daughters. 

;! r(1 ' In dissyllabic words which drop the prolonging let- 
ters the accent is usually placed on the firts syllable, and is 
short, e.g.: ^_^==?^ mdrkeb, ship; A~c adskar, army; v ^- 
shdhrain. two months; ,J s kdrnain. two centuries; v -i- 

^/ " / ^ > * 

shebrain, two spans; ^4=> kclma, Avord; L-J-.^. kMdma, work; 
^^ mdrsa, port; ^jXl^ mdlik, king; Jlsr kdhal, black (plu.) 
negros; U huma, they; C^o i. shrdbti, didst thou drink; 
v^, .dJ neshrab, I will drink: =s.y Urjem, he interpreted; ^~- 
nterjem, I will interpret; JU adllem, he taught; JUj taallem, he 
learned. 

4 th - In like manner the short accent is placed upon the 
first compound syllable even when the second syllable ends in 
the letters ',_, or ^ preceded by their respective vowels, for in 
these instances they are not considered prolonging letters, 
e.g.: c?-^ khddmi, knife; c^r 5 ^ mkhdzni, soldier; -^r^ tnbji, 



artilleryman; a.^W, mountaineer; ^j kdlbi, my heart; 
Uj ^ shrabna, we drank; ULej ussalna, we arrived; Uli kolna, 
we said; ^^ jibna, we brought; c^-J nemshi, I will go; ^ 



- 432 

teshri, tliou wilt buy; j^~-> ishri, for i&shri), he will buy. 

Plurals terminating in !j , may be subjected to this rule 
4 th - e.g.: L-J v~ shrdbtu, you did drink; |?~ shdrbu, they 
drank; '_:>. p ntrjmu, we will interpret; IJ!a. hhabbu, they 
loved; IjXla koltu, you said; \j.\^jibtu, you brought. 

5 th - All the dissyllabic words not comprised within the 
foregoing rules are generally accented on the first syllable 
which is short, e.g.: ^it wderf, ear; j.o'l dkbar, greater; I? I rfna, 
I.; sj^o' e'?ia, thou; *~ ;( entum, thou (some people pronounce 
Mem, ?ita, ntem, suppressing the '); ^^\ alef, thousand; \\ 'da, 
to, towards; b! irfa, when, if. 

G th - The plurals of the formation 11*9 or ! . . . (lit. *U) 
sometimes vulgarly have two syllables, e.g.: !$b fok-lia, and 
at other times three e.g. l^ia ao-la-ma. In the former example 
comes under rule 4 th - and in the letter the accent on the first 
syllable is also short, i.e. the ante penultimate syllable. 

7 th - Similarly the accent on the first syllable of trisylla- 
bic word of the formation i!*3 or j . . . is short, e.g.: i^,j bdra- 
ca, blessing; i3J..ss ssadaka, alms. 

gth. The rest of the trisyllabic words have, ordinarily 
the accent on the penultimate, which is short, e.g.: Jj&smetdal- 
-li'in, apprentice; ^JU&i metadllmin, apprentices; b& katta- 
-fi.l!i',m he learns; Ljy^.==> kanshdrbu, we drink; U*a.J terj<!m- 
-nn, we have interpreted; l^a^J terjmtu, you have interpre- 
ted. In some districts the following words are exceptions to 
this rule; ^J^iaS tkMlemti, thou spokest; L^slO tek&llemna, 
we spoke; I^J^aS tektllemtu, you spoke; o^-,! estdgfdrti, 
thou begged'st pardon, and the like which are short by accen- 
ted in the ante-penultimate syllable. 






it 1 ' 1 - Thoplnrals in _' arc, ordinarily, accented on the 
penultimate syllable, o.g: _l-'' r - mnrral , tiin-:-: ^i- 1 -*^ jurtinnt 
wcek<: Jl' 1 .-'" ka mat, fathoms; Jl' 1 ^ iikiiat, ounce: ^L>^**- 

t. ambassadors; d^^'cf bi-nn^il, letters: ^* .-.'. bus- 
t, baslias: jpH~~Js tbixlal, little plates; ^L-'cs-'-f* 
little keys. 



1 st In those ItjjniMEXTS we have not accented monosyl- 
-lal)ic words except when they were preceded by the article. 

J,'" 1 - Passive participles derived from assimilated verbs 
belong to those under rule 1 st - and are accented on the second 
syllable because the first j is not considered as a prolonging 
letter c.g: ^ _ <U~y ??/.?^s nk, shipped (masc.). 'i)~>** miixftlsn i, Fein. \. 
shipped; i>lu.: .+-.3j~,* musukin, instead of mcnisftk mausfika, 
mauznkin, Seepage 421. 

;i nl - Plural nouns of the formation .Lj bibdn, ^\(~~S kl- 

^, ' ' W 

sdn coming under rule '2 m} - have sometimes been accented 
on both vowels, because it appeared to us that equal emphasis 
was, vulgarly, laid on them. Still Softer Quijada is of opinion 
that the accent inclines more on the 1 st - syllable than on the 
second and so, for this reason we have included these plural 
nouns under rule i )lld - 

I th - We have located the accents of the duals pau 
etc. in like manner, because many moors emphasize the pro- 
-nunciation of the d in the termination ain, but according 
to the explanations Seilor (^nijada has been good enough to 
make, it appears that this pronunciation is impure. 

.V 1 '- In tin- dissyllabic words the >//",/ accent is somoti- 
28 



-mes so slight that even moors, and Europeans who have spoken 
Arabic from their infancy can scarcely tell on Avhich syllable 
lies the emphasis. To this class belong some quadriliteral 
nouns and verbs coming under rules 3 rd - and 4 th - e.g: Jdr^ 
khalkhal, ylsij if tar, c~ir nemslii, etc. etc. 

6 th - Some authorities are of opinion that the accent of a 
word should not suffer any alteration when to it is joined a 
suffixed prononn. Still, in practice we observe that many 
moors carry over the prosodical accent to the penultimate sy- 
llable when a suffixed pronon is added. 



EXAMPLES. 



Without Suffixes. 



jxo ddrbu, they struck. 



li. sMfu, they saw, 



-Lxj' Mr?i, thou wilt give. 



I, he will give. 



With Suffixed. 

o darbuna, they struck 

us. 

| -iiSjAs darbunl, they struck 
^ me. 

lj2ld, shafuna, they saw 

us. 
>$^li- shafuna, they saw 

you. 
j tadtlna, thou wilt give 

us. 

lanttkum, lie will give 

you. 



- I.-J.-J 



ishi-i, he will buy. 



urn, behind. 



^j .: ixhi'Htuni. he will buy 
them. 

\ ^\ ,^ iirdin, behind nn-. 
' '.;! , _. itrdna, behind us. 



INDEX 

QF 

Chapters and Paragraphs. 



Dedication v 

Preface to the first Edition vn 

Preface to the Second Edition xm 

Preface to the English Edition xix 

Plan of study xxi 

Explanation of Abbreviations xxm 



2Psirt First 

PRELIMINARY IDEAS. 



CHAPTER I The Arabic Alphabet 1 

CHAPTER II. Pronunciation of the letters -2 

Exercise 1 6 

Composition 1 s 

CHAPTER III. Division of the letters 8 

Exercise II '. 

Composition 2 10 

CHAPTER IV. The vowels 11 

Exercise III '- 

Composition 3 11 

CHAPTER V. The orthographic signs II 

Exercise IV lt> 

Composition -1 17 



- 438 



CHARTER VI. The hamza 

Exercise V 

Composition 5 

On the division of the syllables. 

Exorcise VI 

Composition 



SPsirt Second. 



THE ARTICLE, NOUN, AND PRONOUN. 



17 
l'J 

20 
20 
22 

L'l 



CHAPTER I The article -25 

Exercise VII 26 

Composition 7. 30 

CHAPTER II. The Noun 31 

$ 1 st The Gender 31 

Exercise VIII 33 

Composition 8. 36 

$ 2'" 1 - The Number 3G 

Exercise IX 44 

Composition is 

Exercise X I'.t 

Composition 10 ;V2 

Exercise XI f>3 

Composition 11 50 

.'! rt! - The cases of the noun ;">; 

Exercise XII ">S 

Composition 1'2 61 

Exercise XIII 01 

Composition 13 04 

S 1 th - Formation of Adjectives. ..... r,.~> 

Exercise XIV OS 

Composition 11 71 

^ .""' The gender and number of the adjectives. 71 

Exercise XV. ... . 71 



139 

Composition 15 77 

r ^ 6 th - Diminutive noun 7s 

KxerciseXVI 81 

Composition 10 85 

7 th - Comparative and superlative. ... 89 

Exercise XVII 88 

Composition 17 92 

CHAPTER III. Concordance of noun and adjective. . 93 

Exercise XVIII :>:> 

Composition IS 98 

CHAPTER IV. The numerals 100 

1st. Cardinal numbers 100 

Exercise XIX 104 

Composition 19 108 

$ 2 nd - Ordinal numbers 109 

3 rd - Partitive numbers 110 

Exercise XX 112 

Composition 20 116 

CHAPTER V. Pronouns 117 

^ 1st. Personal pronouns 117 

Exercise XXI 118 

Composition 21 123 

$ 2 nd - Suffixed pronouns 12 1 

3 rd - Possessive pronouns 128 

Exercise XXII 130 

Composition 22 133 

Exercise XXIII. . . , 134 

Composition 23 !.">* 

4 th - Demonstrative pronouns 139 

Exercise XXIV 140 

Composition 24 113 

$ 5 th - Relative pronouns 144 

Exercise XXV 148 

Composition 25 15 I 

Exercise XXVI 15f, 

Composition 26 159 



_ 1 10 - 

:< (>"' nidi-Unite pronouns and adjectives . . It'.o 

tise XXVII K;.-) 

osition 27 ii;; 

XXVIII 170 

Composition 28 171 

DPsurt XiiircL 

T II K V E R B A X D '( HE PARTICIPLE. 



Kii I. The verb in general 177 

CHAPTER II. Regular verbs 17s 

^ I**- Formation and conjugation of the trili- 

-tcral regular verb.. 17S 

Exercise XXIX 182 

Composition '20 1>7 

Exercise XXX 

Composition 30 I'.M 

Ji 2" (1 - Conjugation of the quadriliteral primi- 

-tive regular verb 19") 

Exercise XXXI l'.7 

Composition 31 2<>l 

CHAPTKR III Irregular verbs 2i)l 

^ 1^'- Mute verbs -J2 

Exercise XXXII 2<> I 

Comi>osition .'12 -jus 

$ 2'" 1 - Assimilated verbs 

Exercise XXXI II iMO 

Composition .">:; 211 

ij :;"'' Coneavi- vcrlis 21.") 

Exercise XXXIV 221 > 

Composition :i! 22."> 

I XXXV 22.". 

Composition '>."> 22:1 

!"' D.-t'<-ciive vrrl.s 

XXXVI. 



Ill 

Composition .".(I i'.'!T 

Exorcise- XXX VI [ 238 

Composition 37 '2\~2 

$ :>"' II;imz;Ue<l verbs . . i'i:; 

Exercise XXXVIII 117 

Composition 38 .' _'.".! 

$ <;"> Doubly imperfect verbs 252 

Exercise XXXIX. 25C, 

Composition 39 2.V.I 

CHAPTER IV. Derivative verbs 260 

v< 1 st - Irregular derivative verbs 202 

$ 2 1 " 1 - Signification of the most usual forma- 
tions 2C.4 

$ :> r(1 - Conjugation of the derivative verbs. . 268 

Exercise XL -Jiiii 

Composition 40 '21-2 

Exercise XLI -7.'! 

Composition 41 277 

Exercise XLII i'7s 

Composition 42 283 

Exercise XLIII ^ I 

Composition 4:5 288 

CHAPTER V Passive voice 289 

Exercise XLIV 290 

Composition 44 195 

CHAPTER VI. Moods and tenses 29G 

Exercise XLV ::oi 

Composition 45 304 

Exercise XL VI 305 

Composition 4G 310 

CHAPTER VII. The auxiliary verbs to be and to have. 311 

CHAPTER VIII. The verbs-active to have and to on-e. :!!." 

Exercise XLVIT .".15 

Composition 47.' 818 

CHAPTER IX. The participle :U9 

CHAPTER X. --Concordance the nominative and verb. .".L'J 



- 442 - 

CHAPTER XL Interrogative sentences ...... 323 

Exercise XLVIII ........... 3:>3 

Composition 48 ............ 32S 

CHAPTER XIL Negative sentences ....... :;i's 

Exercise XLIX ........... 331 

Composition 49 ............ '.I'M 

CHAPTER XIII. Conditional sentences ...... ;;;;,') 

Exercise L ............. :;:i7 

Composition 50 ............ 340 



THE PARTICLES. 



CHAPTER I 313 

Exercise LI 363 

Composition 51 307 

Exercise LII 30S 

Composition 52 371 

Exercise LIII 372 

Composition 53 375 

Exercise LIV 370 

Composition 54 37S 

Exercise LV ;;so 

Composition 55 3S3 

Exercise LVI 3S1 

Composition 50 3ss 



APPENDIX 1 st Measures, weights and monies of Mo- 
rocco 3s ; i 

Measures of length 

do do capacity 3:Ki 



Measures of weight .'!'X) 

Monies 391 

Measures of time 39G 

The era of the hegira 399 

Cronological table, with years A. D. and A. H. 

between 1872 and 1972 400 

II. Irregularities of Moorish dialect of Ara- 
bic 405 

PRELIMINARY IDEAS. 1 st - Letters of the alphabet. . 405 

5; ond. Vowels and orthographic signs. . . . 408 
PARTS OF SPEECH. 1 st - Irregularities pertaining to 

the article, noun, and pronoun 416 

$ 2 lul - Irregularities pertaining to the verb and 

particles 4-2i } 

$ :> rd - Irregularities of the particles 425 

The division of the syllables 428 

The accent. 430 



KEY 



TO THE 



ARABIC COMPOSITIONS 



-'. -<&SM$v- 3$M- 



KEY TO THE ARABIC COMPOSITIONS. 



PRELIMINARY IDEAS. 



COMPOSITION 1. 






* U! ^JJLS * '4' 

COMPOSITION 2. 



. * ,1) r J 
,>*." O^ 2 - 



COMPOSITION -'!. 



vS** ^ 





\\ ^ ^j^, U . v iJ;.: u 



, .-,. 

L- > -^ 

COMPOSITION 4. 

-i-~ -? ^,-aL ..' ^. J-~' T V -*' <H sjl,^.^= * ^.;J> . >.- 






^ * w~ .. o w> 

^ J " ^ C*' ^~" ^ 

.-. " -C ! 1 x 'l .3 ' s" 

COMPOSITION "). 



i, * V.^\V i, .i^, U * 'U 

w ". . " v_3~" 1 ~-^"^ >, -. . 

I:jJ. 
COMPOSITION I'.. 



C 






s) .. 



^. ^ , c 



THE ARTICLE. 

COMPOSITION 7. 



c 

! JU vio ^ * ( . irsTli , 

^ ^ ( ' * J -s 






>Ju) -i. O'-i-i' ^ ^ v- i i ^,-.A^. ^ Jolj :/ ( Ju .J 



tia * 1 liU U 



[j ^> (iliJ! J-rJj j' 



, 



GENDER. 

COMPOSITION 8. 



i.LJI Ul Uai * 3.LM U! Ua^ 

y ' > ' 

9 Lo 



. 
u-ai, iljL JoUl 



woo jsay f. ^ 2o 



lA, ^ ^*' >tf vawi 

* UJ! ii 



S. 

j 



lj J! 

"' -^ ** ' I 



NUMBER. 

COMPOSITION 9. 



* r ^ 

o , JJ}^ ,.*>^ O^.J vi> * vJU^J i- c, } piJ wV 

13 ilfl . 



.. ./. 



I* 



o 



~ J 



-v , . 

C w 



s ,3 






iI\*JI ^t5"us J& 



^. ^j 



if, 



COMPOSITION 10. 



& - ,IJL_J1 j 

* v ? 

^ j ^Pt~ 

V * ' 



JLvfti Vj . XJ ^ 

^r IJ, T ... 

^ - _!- J *~v A 



U 



, 



, 



,. r j 



^.j 



6 



COMPOSITION 11. 






La. U^a. ^6,1^3 

vJ.bi v';--^ vJLti * c.bi :j 

j j- ; ^j -* 

ijo .! ^j-'J^ 



1 all > li'M'i > 

- \ ' t*" * W JU ^_ - O ^^v * 



NOUNS AND THEIR CASES. 

COMPOSITION 12. 

* Lii '- * ~J']='.J! L-ii. 9 sjjClrM I JLAJ- * .>ILL.M 



7- 

jj ', Ji ^_^~,w> V^e. 

s s * ~ 



J J 



^'JJ' Jufil * 



;V * ( JUJ 

" I 



I ',- * t v, 
^ **.' r ~* 9 J.AJ r . 



COMPOSITION i:>. 



..U! . 






, ^ . x. * .^ 



8- 

FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES. 

COMPOSITION 14. 

iL X c .! ji I'- ' N -^ , u/ 

. v..C~ . . \ 3 U a* I 3f *UH* ~w i ^i J w I l w > - 



=9 -_^._fi ^ fi a._-- 

__ ;- j ?" * .^^== i -' o 1 ^ -S 



.. ^^i * ^ij e J> 

t-\* * .Xs A I 
s-^-* * --^ 



THE GENDER AND NUMBER OF ADJECTIVES. 

COMPOSITION 15. 



^ ^j r -> * . 

* ^' ^- * a-^'-s^'J U^--- * '_ 

LU. * ^, 

- * w 






i' r j ; Jl v. _ )':} & ,.*~~>\3 ./Ljla 

-^ J s -^ W " "^ 



('-J'" 5 ' * a -- ""* ^- -j--* * r 



DIMINUTIVE NOUNS, 

COMPOSITION 16. . 



Xl/^ Lsli, ...L1! >. 

,, ^ ^ W " I ^ 

? o^r^ oV.-? 2 * C-T-Vj 
J,cvL lw -i, o'J 

* "S ' 



U Q J^J V J! ^ J, JlJas! 



li i-ULJI 

-. , t j,^ aa v ^ j> * ^^-:J! 

^ C " 

r j rrrr^ 33 oh^J' >_J. $. 



'as ^^ ^ A-VS-VST v'^. ^5-'-* * -'*3 



-10- 

"'...?*' v-~ ^~f--J~" -, *J-3 



COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES. 

COMPOSITION 17. 






.. , a ' 

* ' > 
*" * s 






^ 



Lik/i .^ 

W- 



'*' 2C.AC i V^l Fir* * i C s\ 

t** " ** < * >l "* ' . . V L^/* /** S ' ' f'*'" ^ "W" 

j ! ' M -* ' M 'AV I v . (' M 

^-. J .J '_;-'- -r- ^5-* y ^ vj?-*-- * u-^'- 

a>.j ^^~- * s ?^--J ^r.^ ij t- x - 2- j 'V.^ -w * ( 'V.^' 



11 

CONCORDANCE OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 

COMPOSITION 18. 



. , 



''"-'^ M x 

w '- -^ y- I J A^ 

> 

\ # U^.i! 

J JOl Aw ^ A~xo . > Sx 
' 






.. 

^Ur- JlTo; 



* *j ^jt-j 

.* ai V* - 
NUMERALS. 

COMPOSITION li). 

Jj ^U'l C 

w 



- 12 - 



_j 



B.A*- 






jJl 
\ " 



*&li 




if, >u) JI^ 






>* 



r a. j 






COMPOSITION 20. 



j 

> 



, 

v 



13 




,> 



*-* 



, ,.itUJ! * AJ& 
* 1 ^ 



, . 







21 c j ' ai 



Ue, 

^^ -^ 



ixJy! ojJ^ 






PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

COMPOSITION 21. 



.U! 



-j , > 

.y .J 



^w 

> 



iLJ! j, 



:j 



14 

JA, Jii .41,, 

> w " > 

r ~'t * j Jlsi VM 

..tljJa)! Sf, ,,) p* *1 a< 

^ X -X >- 



^-r o 

f- - f~ ^> 
x \ 



ti .> 

'* jJ ^^ jw ^> ^ _j > ^ j Jj 

i o r f" 

SUFFIXED PRONOUNS. 

COMPOSITION 22. 



! * LL^ luiJ 

^ " ' v 

IT* , J! !.jU * 

s */ -" ' 



J- 

^ sj^^. . , 

,> , 






, 



COMPOSITION 23. 



* 5. , j u 6. j^= 

^J . * 



i * 

u ^ * ^j/o CT JU 4 r ^j. f * j ji 4 ^ * 

u b 



J JaZt J..O 



-10 - 

~ 

^ 



^^ 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. 

COMPOSITION 24. 



j 






? Jl- 

^ ?" 



Ul 



- 
^_? 



CJ! 



LJ) 



-.._.' 



. 



-s 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

COMPOSITION 25. 



^ J,' 



u 






' ' 



b l .LJ! 



1 1 



^. vjl^.' v-i- v* 1 Jj ^__ -A.: 1 - ^ O 

Ji^i * si^k'i iitfi ^j?j * j^b i- jr 



U ^U! * J^sL U ^9^ U _ 



U 






> J! J-oj jajy jJ, ^..M 
Jl , j jLJ! * bl)i JU! t ^.A ^c.b d_ AJLJ Jl i\S^\ 

_5 U/"-/' ' ' s > -x ' O* 

jj:-, J! v^J'Ul * . V^J! ^-Ij'j .^AJJ! <!_ *^ ^-o 

^> O ^-x- / -^ W ( 

, .xJU c^,j. J! Jxil a * 13 * t:,b ^__ c,' 1 - 1 > _ -<xM J 
> v i ^^ 

J j- ,x'^iai I , u. -^ ^ j J i *^i vJL'j X* ^-^ j \ae-* 1 *j > j -^ 



18 

<:3 5.UAV juL*T , 1^ * ^ t i, l>b 

^ - > ' ^ " ^ / 

* iJ,UL\V ^JJi -i. v^^ar 

COMPOSITION 26. 

!jj iJbJ # JbJ .i_-^ * v _ >jd\ J,a.U !j^ * ! 

>.^\> fj^& *^^l * iJ^ (^C-X* * ^T---* C-S- 

J^5 * ^^flXAJ! *^lx3 * *^lX3 ,-lj^'^ * Xjl*)!i ^jj^! *J 



. 

Jl ^ ^>i-^ * vO.X . 
' 



"-O , Ui-^c 



~j ( ^ *~ 

-A^. * *jow ,.o ,uu. ^ ^! J^V c*,jjs LjU^ J! * 

O f > (^ * -* ' ^_ r ~' 

.Is 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVAL PRONOUNS 

COMPOSITION 27. 



-19- 
fclj ^-'-^ # -Lj-fcr . * ^"^ -!UOfl ^ i*ji 9. ^jipuJlj j, 



, 



T U-t, (iU!T J) 
4_ (^IJt *^ J) 

R^^. * . .UU&MJ IfcAw* JLj'^^! ^. A< s_>>. $ a,/-^ WO ;.i 

^... . \.)j ^ ..^ Q. ^^ j ^ 

-ftj '! !j_ * A^ ,'xd.M Ju * vju JJ !^ .o'J^--. 

w5'-> I* > e * <r '-' J U 

.^ o v^l ,U o L-t*)l <?_ !J^ ci r x ^1 

c; ^ j HP y , ( 

Ji.'v -. I (tt ! .-. -,M,I! /- . V !\ I,!/ I* 

-^A' J w a w***X' 1 w-* w,__ J JwwU ! f2-^^*~ ^ ! *X >*, 4. , . - iX**- a 



' 
^ 4- ^^== * 



COMPOSITION 28. 



* ae- e ^J ii C^o-? ias- s_^^ (J t ..J 

Sr ^rr ^-" < 

^ jr * v ,tyJij ^'Xfi j^ ^^. ^.^ ^^ ^ 



w.- 

^ -^ 



-20 



,_* * l^k -^r-.i.J.M JTI sj^L ^ 

^ ca k! un ,^^u ^ ^ ^ t0 'j:ji 

^ 1 -'-'l^ W > 



U LJ^.M kLJ! 4_ a i 



c-- ^ ' ^- * ^' ^ ..<' 



PRIMITIVE TRILITERAL REGULAR VERBS. 

COMPOSITION 29. 



_ 

C 



> ^- - >w- v \ ' J ) 

I | \ ; \ ( | J ,, . k' I ' 

-""V * o^ ^^ ^5^ ^ W -f 
* ^!>"-f ^^ (a) (^ jt) W U^ c ,^ J^ lj! * ^ 
Vulgarly those arc pronounced Idinni. lainmim, Idinnek etc. instead of 



2i _ 

~ Ja;uJt v ^.iJJ lil $ ija la/o^i. (a) 

c ; j.. > | 

LLM ^ t Jj LLM - q I, ^.j 

MwW I ^__ -- I *-'..X *J cOj V^sAr 1 ^ _ ' A'" -mi .-V- 

W .. T ^. W* .. ^ 



,' 

, J 

S. .w , a ^ii.J! M, 
' ^^ 

c i' Jj vJl^Ol^w ' - ,', 
-^p 



i 



^ t 

loxLb at i9'W u. 1 



' 

COMPOSITION 30. 



^s J) J :. 
-^j 

'Ulai Lb 






JU! 



(a) Sec note a page 20. 



_ 22 _ 



J.-xLj *AJilxJ sj^o! i 

^. , v 

, i^xl^s Ll.O i)1^)! * Jo 



J * AUalHj 



L JoJj oJi 



atJADRILITERAL PRIMITIVE VERBS. 

COMPOSITION 31. 



J -* -J } v. 

iliJ! - - N ' -CJ v J * 

^T S '^ : ^ -> c V< -^ 



8 s <- \- 

c -> - - C ^ 

^^ "\1lJw I v_**_ s* XJ tf 



MUTE VERBS. 






23 



V Jxs> , v-J - ' 



ul 



*'. U.J lx.t 

J J 



. . 

ASSIMILATED VERBS. 

COMPOSITION 33. 



^ ia.aw -^. A- 
\_;5 

J -iJ! !j,* * 



U j! Ijoi ^i, .KJ U 



a.j 

C 



U! # % . 1) wJa.'! >aj ^ IkJ 

W^ " > ^^ -/ 



Uj: J'JI U ;J 



24- 






9 



^*~, ,f v^^. r * v _ A~^J ^o jj^A ui^j.j > 

UJ! jb i_ ^^^ ^IT LJ'oi 
CONCAVE VERBS. 

COMPOSITION 34. 



U * ilii ii^l C^i-i- * 5^^a5! Jsa. 

^? .. x y- -^ 

;H ,. v IJJ ' \ \\ \ .-. 

k^Jw I ^ a ft^xJ i; v^*^ i._ J >fc-x 9" Vy**A> ^ ft ~~> go < - 



i^'J! JjJ! <!_ J.l> . Jl li * *~J! JA!, 

r " c E-^ ^ j 



^ , * i vi> ( ) 



I I ! xt , /M t 

41 -^> ] . ^Jaj I,* j ] JA 1 ^ s^*wJ ^JaJ 

^> -*> i s" 



- jit) 

COMPOSITION 35. 

' > 

\ 



_> 'J^ ,..= if, aJlO Jo^rs.' >J.. ' 

' 



,U! ,', 



" 



^Ji U! 



a I 'JO v. _ >^i> C*>1 * 

<J ^r Sr-" 

J * hr*^J U3! -h 

-J-- J* J 



> ji 

JL&I. &\i 
J C ' 



?lrT (* 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

COMPOSITION 36. 



26- 



r 



C- ~"~V - . c - 



-J i-H) 



^*ti. ^ 

a ^- o" x) U"'-' ;-3- 



iiyi J, J.3 



.,AAl J.U)) 



-^. 



COMPOSITION 37. 






i. 

<-r- ' 



e- 












* i_^-i_M 



*s, 



v** ^ : 

^ 



s. 



07 _ 



c 

r ^ * 



-- - \ ,,-J _ 

I 

r ; . r - j, ,-* ^..^v * - . , ^.j .-5 

w ^ i^> T -* y " 

> 

* , i 



HAMZATED VERBS. 

COMPOSITION 38. 



-JLJU SiijJI rJ.> ( rJ^ J) id,! .,UJ! J..^ .,'ILJI 

" - B V ^ > J ' w v _,' w 



,.^UJ< U,^'j .JLJ! ^ koJ! 
^ "' p ' . c r 



_ . ( . 

-> (> Q 

J) U. * , 






.x ,- ^ x, * 

* ,^ , 



28 



.* v^eJ J'~ * 

DOUBLY IMPERFECT VERBS. 

COMPOSITION 39. 



a 

-/ 



_ 

._-. 



- . ^,..- 

^ ... 



Jl j^, ^.^ 

v- ' -^ ^^ 



,. . 
,-!/ 



_j: JUJ1 J 
O C.SG ,l*J| 

~^" ^ \ 

_ tm ^X 

"- '-'- -.^ 

* > 

- o ; y ( : SjlxiJl 
' \ 
-" k., < 

J! 



DERIVATIVE VERBS. 

COMPOSITION 40. 



J^. JU U * J,aJ 

O> ^^ 

-d.j lijlxj # XdJ\J 



v' s^ s^J. . 

-^s I L i ( l 4 C^ 

,->^i! I ^ 0* I _ J. y^V**- I ^| ^\ A ^l 

v_T* ^"^ J 

y ..M LA_,._X- ! r-HJj^' ^ 

? ~ *r!j ^Ia5 C C'! c ! "_j ^=1 

^ v^**_' 1 J W^- ' V C ***--\A4^N-^ I C ' ^-^ ' . ' ^.i n.-^A 



cyo a> hA*J 1 -. 0-^J , U 

j j j*S v X ^.-3. ^^. ^-' ;:N f J^ ' 

S2-* iiiJ! L^ t A^ ^. S'lyJl J,=S.! a J Ji t ^ 

I > J } / 



COMPOSITION. 41 



^ 



30 

J> *> :-.}" ** ^--*-v. ;* * j^~~r > ^$-- 
,.v;J ,o- -r'-Is a -C_i,l & ^X_j5._i_. ^'."kM 

C. ' C ^ " ^ ' ^ 



_ 

V-' 

JjJ * illM ^ 



! ' 1 

' A ^*. '. 1 ' 



COMPOSITION ll'. 



x. , ^-. 

*- > 

./ _;-' J- 



"Is 



*' IM 






__ i o -, 

COMPOSITION 43. 



.^ Ulj) 

C" 



_ 

' ' * 



^3"^ o" ^_5 "~ *** -?* * ^ O*~ *J>'- 



32 
PASSIVE VOICE. 

COMPOSITION 14. 



JL*M * 



-'J! 



~t. ,*v -. ?--. '-~J- 

f _ 

JL^e .^O * LL.O ^ .i- 1 ! C^-v^=^^ 

.^ _-^*A^w x,.,,^^ ^> <. --j*- i ^> .,. ^**> ^^.^CX) -" 

i ^* '*^r^ "*" 

*> 

COMPOSITION 4"). 






1^ ~ --'-- 

-** -^ ^ -^ v^,* * 

./: x -^ tJk^JtJi 



^yi 

^ 






. . 

* - 






, 



\ U J^xM # slU'-^-Vife * .ia^-cT * Jsr'i 



* iv^^' ^ j-.s- 



, -\3 r csr-VO 
^_? J 






COMPOSITION 46. 



\ .k' .-. k' 

^ r*1v 'V' - *** L w 

^ ^J? w 

s _ -ouj ,.O -^..^J! 




" 



- 
- 










. 



i'LjJu 



COMPOSITION 47. 



_ ; ^-^ ^-' s . 

k yT .- JUj !jciT ^ 

- - ^ 



^ 

e 

V Jj ... 

J...3 ^_s~ 

> ,-V - 



' 

w 



^ 



J.U! o'^'j J'jJ 
? lo L-i * Ui 



- ' - 

^ w 



J .V_, -j..,.- .. f ^Jj.j 



, 

J 






COMPOSITION 48. 



, 

J 



r 



C- 



w 



l-l 

bl 









r- 3 



Jjj 



30 



COMPOSITION 49. 

J-^> U .3-' Sf- iJ JJl >.i- vJ^s*J t $ ~J 

^^v, . ... ^ ^^ J 



* -.. *j (> ?j (r^:' v _ y 

I* # ^ ^ * ^ * 



-i. LU. U io arr! vjX) * ^a*-^. 5 . * > li^l 

^ ' "J \ * '" \ ^ 

ai. o'ui'O U ..^"^ * l^*- 4 ,--i- la^s-'O U r j^ 



* J-'ji JU! ^-J 



, oUJ! ^ ^ jz>. U ^ A<sa.! r c s _ jU U 



sji^ei v 









* 



e-** * i 



COMPOSITION 50. 

^ , t^^c ^ j^x> U U! ^y^j j^> j-j- 
v_$ ^ /~ (^7' J" " > '*-^'??~' 

_.?*** s ^^ ^ "-?:*. ij~y ^"^ -^**" C 1 "-?' 



w *, * y***^- ^ p ^^ ^* jjJ *^<'- *- 

v -^ V> V - ^ 



-37 - 



^j?!P^ v^T ' '^ * JMJ^ tr/~ -.'/ o;'-k ^~ 
to! .ia^aJlj ,-C, ^l !l* ^jv*-' .I'G-' * J-^ ^/^ 
i, ft U to! * vU =L_ UJ ! 



U 



Lac-" ' - > 

fl^ L}***^ - v~ 

^ * ' s 

COMPOSITION 51. 



33- 



., 

S 

U 41 



.r-- ~ (_; - . 




->s:.=> Ul 
^ 



* .^^w^^ s _ tv-' (Jtar^ 1 ^ * , 3 -- ^-^-' r-^ -* 

i.oXi'j ^.) ^i- Ac $ J U;_ ..< ^i-x) iijJi C-^- P ~ 

^ O?- o? ^P L/-> ; -J (^ 

U * 



U ^J-^w U (j^-^-^ * (J^'.^K) ^-Jr-*'- * J--' 5 ^ c^ j-^O 



COMPOSITION .52 

,/ vii'..^ J^ UO w ' t ^ v ^w if. 
\ ' ^ rf "' 

c -i. w c .\==> L ^ a_- i, 

N r v 

y^ *i Ai^L, ^ ! ^ : Y* U * 



.: 



f tJ| 'J 



>L V 3 J'.j .LV3 jj,~ * ^.^)'o * , >!'.. f- >J..-' J! 

' 



. J.O: J ) ^ ^_ y. U >!jj > ^^ j 



L. ijjJ! L< i> 



L' 



- , 
w 



t ! - i \s 

,.; .- o ,.'..- ..- , ,j ^ > ..< c 

- c o- -* ^" J " "" 



^ 



COMPOSITION ;":>. 



L." 






j 



4(T - 

J ;ud)1 j^L 



^.^ *. Jlacf J 



U ,J! 



COMPOSITION 



'- 3 






<^ 
, s\ 



-? i 7 - I - ^ 

t ' \->^ A^ ^^rs^s^ 



I?' 






. , 

\^ 

-- . 



j 



r ^.. 

; '; I ;l^ 

-' 



e L. * ^.yu C , 

o L ,.iJ! ij.> #, .i, ,.P ~'0k >. ..x-ui ..- ji Jl. 

" -" ^ ^ - ' " -* 



, 

\~* 



IJU, L 



/ i>-' Ja^l Jo' 

w " ' > ^ 



COMPOSITION 55. 






* 



JLeJub 



J J .:^ A- 



4-2 



.ijLj 

_*" ^ ' 



COMPOSITION 50. 



UJL ^x'vJ* 

"5' " w ~ 



^ v - \-. c 
l < !i ^ v 

v^. 



,^o * VJJ' i 
c- 

^^c. yiT 

* I- -^' 

* L* . -- 1: " 

' 






^ 



KM) "i I UK diMl'usn IU.N. 









CT. KOV181! 



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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



PJ Lerchundi, Jose 

6763 Rudiments of the 

Arabic-vulgar of Morocco 




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