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E. If. Speight. 

From a Portrait by G, Richmond. K.A. 











THERE is nothing new in this little book, which 
simply aims at giving in a convenient form in- 
formation about the School. I have endeavoured to 
make it as complete and accurate as possible, but I 
have no doubt that there are omissions and mistakes, 
and I shall be very grateful to any reader who will 
point out such to me. 

Those who wish to make fuller acquaintance with 
the history of the School may be referred to the two 
standard works which have supplied the materials for 
the short sketch in this book, viz., " Rugby, the School 
and Neighbourhood," collected and arranged from the 
writings of the late M. H. Bloxam, O.R., F.S.A., by 
the Rev. W. H. Payne-Smith, M.A. (1889), and "A 
History of Rugby School," by W. H. D. Rouse, M.A. 

My best thanks are due to the Rev. A. T. Michell, 
Mr. Morris Davies, Mr. A. J. Lawrence, and other Old 
Rugbeians for helping me with much information ; also 
to the Old Rugbeian Society for the use of the map 
on p. 91, and to Messrs. E. H. Speight and G. A. Dean 
for the use of many photographs. 









INDEX 229 




DR. ARNOLD frontispiece 






T. JAMES, S.T.P 37 










1886 91 



















TEMPLE READING ROOM. . . . . .143 

ART MUSEUM . . . 147 








OLD BIGSIDE . . . 207 





* l 

Si .2 


Photo. E. H. Speight. 





RUGBY SCHOOL was founded in the year 1567, 
in accordance with the will of Lawrence Sheriffe, 
" citizen and grocer of London." The exact date of 
the founder's birth is not known, but it must have been 
between five and ten years after Henry VIII. had 
ascended the throne, for in 1541 he had finished his 
apprenticeship and was admitted to the freedom of 
the Grocers' Company. The place of his birth has 
been in dispute, and the honour has been claimed not 
only for Rugby itself, but also for the little village of 


Lawrence Sheriffe RUGBY [CHAP. I 

Brownsover, some two miles distant on the other side 
of the Avon. Tradition has fixed on an old house in 
the latter place as the scene of his birth, but it can 
hardly be doubted that tradition is in this instance 
wrong, for a certain petition drawn up in 1641 by 
inhabitants of Rugby, definitely speaks of Rugby as 
the place " where hee [Lawrence Sheriffe] was borne." 
Indirect evidence also points to the same conclusion, 
for, on the one hand, it is asserted that the house in 
question is of a much later period, and, on the other, 
supposing it to be the same as, or on the site of, 
Lawrence Sheriffe's house in Brownsover, it is most 
unlikely that he was born there, for it was only 
bought by him in 1562, and at the time of his birth 
belonged to the monastery at Leicester. Moreover, 
as has been pointed out, Rugby and Brownsover were 
equally unimportant hamlets in Lawrence Sheriffe's 
time, and his choice of the former as the site of the 
School and Almshouses tends to confirm the opinion 
that it was his birthplace. From Rugby, then, Law- 
rence Sheriffe was sent to seek his fortune in London, 
and, after having served his apprenticeship, was, in 
1541, admitted to the freedom of the Grocers' 

He lived in London for the rest of his life, and 
enough is known of his career to show that hejpros- 
pered in his trade, and that he was, like John Gilpin, a 
"citizen of credit and renown." His life was no doubt 
uneventful, like that of many another industrious and 
peaceful citizen, but an interesting incident, fortunately 
preserved to memory in Fox's " Book of Martyrs," 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Lawrence Sheriffe 

shows that in the troubled period through which he 
lived he was no time-server, but stood up for his 
opinions with a loyalty, courage, and shrewd sense 
which are pleasant to think of. 

During the reign of Edward VI. he had become one 
of the tradesmen by appointment to the Princess Eliza- 

G. A. Dean. 

beth, and supplied her household with spices, and it was 
in her defence that he gave proof of his good qualities ; 
in 1554, the first year of Mary's reign, Elizabeth had 
been sent to the Tower under charge of complicity in 
the unsuccessful rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyatt, and 
though she had been released in default of any con- 
vincing testimony against her, devotion to her was by 


Lawrence Sheriffe RUGBY [CHAP. I 

no means a sentiment likely to lead to the favour of 
those in authority. Under these circumstances, Law- 
rence Sheriffe happened one morning to pay a visit to 
the " Rose Tavern," not far from where he lived in 
Newgate Street, and there heard a certain Robert 
Farrer, a haberdasher from the neighbourhood, with 
whom he was on friendly terms, talking wildly against 
the Princess, saying that " that jill had been one of 
the chief doers of this rebellion of Wyatt, and before 
all be done, she, and all the hereticks her partakers, 
shall well understand it. Some of them hope that she 
shall have the crown, but she, and they I trust that so 
hope, shall hop headless or be fried with faggots, 
before she come to it." Lawrence Sheriffe could not 
put up with this, and replied, " Farrer, I have loved 
thee as a neighbour, and have had a good opinion of 
thee, but hearing of thee that I now hear I defy thee, 
and tell thee I am her grace's sworn servant, and she 
is a princess, and the daughter of a noble king, and it 
ill becometh thee to call her a jill ; and for thy so 
saying, I say thou art a knave, and I will complain on 
thee." Farrer refused to retract his words, and accord- 
ingly Lawrence Sheriffe, taking with him an honest 
neighbour, brought his complaint before certain com.- 
missioners who were sitting at the time at the house of 
Bonner, Bishop of London. As might have been 
expected, the commissioners threw cold water on his 
complaint: "Perad venture," said Bonner, "you took 
him worse than he meant," while another commissioner 
affirmed that " there is not a better Catholick than 
Farrer, nor an honester man, in the City of London." 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Lawrence Sheriffe 

Lawrence Sheriffe, however, was not to be so easily 
suppressed, and, after proclaiming Elizabeth as his 
gracious lady and mistress, shrewdly brought forward 
an argument which the commissioners could not treat 
so scornfully, namely, that at the Court he had seen 
the Lord Cardinal Pole and King Philip do obeisance 
to the princess on bended knee. " And then methinketh 
it were too much to suffer such a varlet, as he is, to call 
her a jill, and to wish them to hop headless that shall 
wish her grace to enjoy the possession of the crown, 
when God shall send it her as the right of her 
inheritance." Bonner caught at these last words : 
" Yea, stay there," quoth Bonner, " when God sendeth 
it unto her, let her enjoy it. But truly," said he, "the 
man that spake the words you have reported meant 
nothing against the Lady Elizabeth, your mistress, 
and no more do we. But he, like an honest and 
zealous man, feareth the alteration of religion, which 
every good man ought to fear : and therefore," said 
Bonner, "good man, go your ways home, and report well 
of us toward your mistress, and we will send for Farrer 
and rebuke him for his rash and indiscreet' words, and 
we trust he will not do the like again." So Lawrence 
Sheriffe was sent off, content, no doubt, that his 
strategy had wrung as much as this from such an 
unsympathetic tribunal. 

This is the only glimpse that we get of the personal 
character of Lawrence Sheriffe : it is hardly to be 
doubted in which direction his sympathies lay in the 
religious controversies of the time, but probably he 
was far too moderate in his opinions to be the object 


Lawrence Sheriffe RUGBY [CHAP. I 

of any molestation ; but although his championship of 
Elizabeth in her darkest hour does not seem to have 
affected his prosperity, he profited no doubt by his 
loyalty to her when she ascended the throne, for the 
year after that event he received a grant of arms from 
the Heralds' College. In 1559 this was not an empty 
honour, nor were Lawrence Sheriffe's arms, so familiar 
to all Rugbeians as the arms adopted by the school 
which he founded, derived from some fabulous ancestor, 
but a new coat of arms, bearing reference to his calling. 
They are as follows : 

Azure, on a fesse engrailed between three griffins' 
heads, erased, or, a fleur-de-lis of the first, between two 
roses gules. Crest, a lion's paw, erased, or, holding a 
bunch of dates, the fruit of the first in the pods argent, 
the stalks and leaves proper. 

The griffins, legendary guardians of the treasures 
of the East, are appropriate to the arms of one whose 
" argosies with portly sail " brought back the spices of 
the East. They appear also in the arms of the Grocers' 
Company. The lion's paw which holds the dates 
would also' seem to point to the dangers of the trade, 
while the fleur-de-lis and the Tudor roses may well be 
the result of his faithful service to Elizabeth. 

Little more remains to be said about the life of 
Lawrence Sheriffe, but his continued prosperity is 
attested by the following facts : in 1562 he exchanged 
New Year's Gifts with the Queen, receiving "one gilt 
salt with a cover weighing 7 oz.," in return for " a sugar 
loaf, a box of ginger, a box of nutmegs, and a pound 
of cinnamon " ; about the same time he is found 


CHAP. l] HISTORY Lawrence Sheriffe 

speculating in landed property, in company with a 
somewhat mysterious Thomas Reve, and in 1566 he 
was elected to be Vice- Warden of the Grocers' Com- 
pany. In the following year he fell ill, and "being 
sick in body, but of good and perfect remembrance, 
thanked be God," he drew up on the two and twentieth 
day of July the will, in which he made those provisions 
for the foundation of a Schoolhouse and Almshouse 
in Rugby, which have caused the perpetuation of his 
name and fame. What his illness was is not known, 
but he recovered for a time and came down to Rugby, 
perhaps, as has been suggested, on the " graye ambling 
nagge " which he bequeathed to his wife : here he 
busied himself no doubt with the scheme that must 
have been so much in his mind, and here, on the 3ist 
of August, he added a codicil to his will, making an 
alteration which was destined to be of immense im- 
portance to the school. Soon after executing this 
codicil, he returned to London and died : the exact date 
of his death is not known, and for many years it was 
supposed that, in accordance with the provision of his 
will, his body was, as he wished, " decently buried 
within the parish church of St. Andrew, in Rugby, 
near the bodies of my father and mother, and a fair 
stone laid upon my grave, with a title thereon de- 
claring the day of my decease and so forth." For 
some reason, however, his wishes were not complied 
with, and it was discovered in 1864 by Mr. Bloxam, 
that his body had been laid to rest in the Grey Friars 
Church, or Christchurch, Newgate Street, the street in 
which he lived. Though the church was destroyed in 


Lawrence Sheriffe RUGBY [CHAP. I 

the Great Fire of London, the old registers fortunately 
escaped, and contain the following entry : 

" September, 1 567. The xvi. Daye was buryed Mr. 
Lawrence Shyryfe." 

Though not buried in the place of his choice, the 
bones of Lawrence Sheriffe lie among those of a 
goodly company. The Grey Friars' church had been 
a favourite burying-place in mediaeval times, and had 
contained the tombs of three queens : it had, however, 
been ruthlessly despoiled at the Reformation, and 
" nine alabaster tombs and seven score tombs of 
marble " had been pulled down and sold by a gold- 
smith and alderman of London. The <; fayre stone," 
which we may hope was placed over Lawrence 
Sheriffe's grave, must have perished in the Great Fire, 
which destroyed all but a portion of the cloisters ; 
but among the many interests which cluster round 
the church built on the ruins of the old one, not the 
least to all Rugbeians comes from the thought that it 
is the resting-place of the founder of their school. 

It may be noted that Founder's Day at Rugby is 
kept on a date (October 20) which has no known 
connection with the life of the founder. We have 
seen that the days of his birth and death are unknown, 
and that the day of his interment was only discovered 
in 1864. October 20 was fixed upon at a time when 
the school year was divided into two halves, ap- 
parently as forming a suitable break in the middle of 
the second half-year. When this date was fixed on, 
and how long Founder's Day has been celebrated, we 
do not know, but it was at any rate before Mr. Bloxam 


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Founder's Day IU'(,i;Y [CIIAI'. I 

entered the school in 1813. At that time it was kept 
as a whole holiday, except that the school had to 
assemble in the morning in the great schoolroom to 
hear a Latin essay commemorative of the founder 
delivered by the head foundationer, the essay itself 
having been previously written by one of the masters. 
At the present time the day is marked only by a 
special service in the morning (when the lessons are 
read by the two head foundationers), and by a half- 
holiday, but it seems likely that in the near future 
measures will be adopted for making it more of a 
special occasion in the school year. 

The debt owed by the school to its founder is also 
kept before it by the constant use of a special collect, 
the origin of which does not appear to be ascertain- 
able, but which was certainly used in 1821, when the 
first chapel was consecrated. It runs- as follows : 

"We give Thee most humble and hearty thanks, O most 
merciful Father, for our Founder Lawrence Sheriffe, and for all 
our Governors and Benefactors by whose benefit this whole 
school is brought up to Godliness and good learning: and we 
humbly beseech Thee to give us grace to use these Thy blessings 
to the glory of Thy Holy Name, that we may answer the good 
intent of our religious Founder, and become profitable members 
of the Church and Commonwealth, and at last be partakers of 
Thy Heavenly Kingdom, through our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. Amen." 

The provisions for the Charity which Lawrence 
Sheriffe founded are contained in his will, and a docu- 
ment appended to the will, called the Intent, in which 
he sets forth the details of his scheme. He had taken 

(HAP. I] HISTORY Foundation 

the first steps during his lifetime, and had (as Mr. 
Rouse has lately shown) built a large house, which he 
calls his Mansion House, on the site of some cottages 
which he had purchased and pulled down. This 
Mansion House was to be the residence of the master 
of the school, and was situated on the north side of 
what is now Church Street, opposite the parish church 
of St. Andrew, just to the east of the present alms- 
houses. He directs in his Intent that a "fair and 
convenient school house " should be built near to this 
Mansion House ; also " four meet and distinct lodgings 
for four poor men." These four poor men were to be 
called the almsmen of Lawrence Sheriffe, of London, 
grocer, and two of them were to be chosen from 
among the inhabitants of Rugby, two from among 
those of Brownsover. In like manner the school, 
which was to be called the Free School of Lawrence 
Sheriffe, of London, Grocer, was " to serve chiefly for 
the children of Rugby and Brownsover, and next for 
such as be of other places thereunto adjoining." An 
honest, discreet, and learned man, a Master of Arts if 
possible, was to be chosen and appointed to teach 
grammar, freely, in the school. The master was to 
receive a salary of 12 per annum, equivalent in 
modern times to about 180, and was to live in the 
Mansion House without being charged either for rent 
or repairs. The almsmen were of course to have free 
lodging, and jd. a week for maintenance, equivalent 
to about Ss. gd. at the present time. 

To carry out this scheme he chose two dear friends, 
as he calls them : George Harrison, of London, gen- 


Endowment RUC1UY [CHAP. I 

tleman, and Barnard Field, citizen and grocer, of 
London ; the property which was to supply the 
wherewithal was made over to them and to their heirs 
for ever, that they might use it for the specified pur- 
poses. This property was as follows : 

1. The Mansion House and land in Rugby. 

2. The house and land at Brownsover, which have 
been mentioned before as belonging originally to the 
Monastery at Leicester : Lawrence Sherifife's sister, 
Bridget, and her husband, John Howkins, were to be 
tenants of this property during their lifetime at an 
annual rent of 16. i^s. ^.d. y and on their death their 
descendants were to be preferred as tenants to any 
other person. 

3. A third part of a field of twenty-four acres, near 
London. This field was called Conduit Close, and 
had been purchased by Lawrence Sheriffe in 1560 for 
3 20. This is occupied nowadays by the houses 
round Lamb's Conduit Street and Great Ormond 
Street, which intersect about in the middle of the 
property : it is close to the Foundling Hospital. 

It was with this piece of land that the codicil dealt, 
which was added by Lawrence Sheriffe on his last 
visit to Rugby, a few weeks before his death. He 
had in his will left a legacy of 100 for the school, 
but by his codicil he revoked the legacy and left the 
land instead. The importance of this codicil is 
obvious, for Conduit Close has been long in the heart 
of London, and the third part, which in 1567 brought 
in about 6 or .8 a year, yields now 5,700. The 
alteration made the fortune of the school. 



4. A sum of 50 ( = circa 750) was left to provide 
for the building of the schoolhouse and almshouses. 

Such were the provisions of the will and intent, but 
it was many a long year before these provisions were 
freed from attack and the school enjoyed its own 
without molestation. Its history during the first 
century of its existence is one long struggle against 
injustice, due to the shameful dishonesty of the tenants 
of the Trust, and the no less shameful slackness and 
indifference of the trustees. It was most unfortunate 
that the provisions of the Trust gave any loophole 
for dishonesty : had there been more careful arrange- 
ments for the holding of the Trust property by a 
sufficiently large and renewable body of trustees the 
difficulties would probably never have arisen ; as it 
was, the heirs of Barnard Field (George Harrison 
seems to have dropped out from the first) yielded to 
the temptation to try to evade the conditions of the 
Trust and make the Conduit Close property their 
own, while successive Howkinses attempted to do the 
same with the Brownsover land. 

The real troubles began as early as 1580, but even 
from the very first the founder's intentions were not 
carried out as they should have been. The four alms- 
men, indeed, were selected without delay and installed 
in the Mansion House, and this was not an unreason- 
able arrangement, as there could be no school or 
schoolmaster until the schoolhouse was built. Ob- 
viously, however, the building of this schoolhouse and 
of the almshouses should have been immediately pro- 
ceeded with ; as it was, the schoolhouse was not finished 


The Trust RUGBY [CHAP. I 

till seven years after the founder's death, and when 
the first master, Edward Rolston, of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, was installed in the Mansion House, and 
for many years after, no attempt had been made to 
begin the almshouses. All that was clone was to block 
up the doors of the almsmen's rooms opening into the 
house and to provide them with separate access from 
the outside. Thus, at the outset, rooms which should 
have been at the service of the master, and which 
might perhaps have been used for boarders, were filled 
by the almsmen. It was not as if the schoolhouse was 
a very elaborate building requiring years to finish : it 
was a large plain room, built like the Mansion House 
itself, of bricks and timber, with windows glazed in 
small leaded panes, and a thatched roof, in the pic- 
turesque style still constantly met with in old houses 
in the neighbourhood. The money for the building 
was provided, and there is no apparent reason for the 
delay ; it would seem that for some reason or other 
Harrison left things to Field, and that Field was busy 
with his own concerns, for we know that he was en- 
gaged with other merchants soon after Lawrence 
Sheriffe's death in attempting to get satisfaction from 
the King of Barbary, who had appropriated certain 
shiploads of cloth sent into his dominions, and a few 
years later he had similar trouble with the King of 

Whatever may have been the cause of the delay, 
seven years or so after the founder's death the school 
was started ; but before many years there was serious 
trouble. In 1580, probably, Rolston had been suc- 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Troubles 

ceeded by a young Warwickshire man, Richard Seele, 
of Trinity College, Oxford, and it is to be feared that 
the first Oxonian master was no credit to his university, 
for after a short tenure of office he was forcibly ejected. 
The deed was done by a leading county magnate, 
Edward Boughton, of Cawston Hall, who " with divers 
others in his company . . . made a forcible entry into 
the school of Rugby and from thence removed with 
strong hand and displaced Richard Seele." One can 
imagine the stir made in the village, and the excite- 
ment in the schoolhouse when in strode Boughton 
and his followers and turned out the expostulating 
dominie ; it is not every day that the wielder of the 
rod finds the tables so suddenly turned on him ! 

The story has come down to us through a petition, 
which was presented by some inhabitants of Rugby to 
the Privy Council against this Edward Boughton : it 
was indeed a high-handed proceeding, and, at first 
sight, one's sympathies go out to Seele ; but further 
consideration makes it very doubtful whether he is 
deserving of sympathy. Boughton did not act 
apparently on his own initiative, but on that of the 
trustee, Barnard Field ; for the petition, which is very 
violent in tone, accuses him amongst other things of 
being in league with papists, and namely with one 
Barnard Field. Now Field had appointed Seele, and 
there can be no reason for supposing that he would 
have been anxious to get rid of him, if he had not 
shown himself unworthy of his position ; this view is 
further confirmed by the fact that Boughton is also 
accused of being a "boulsterer and mayntainer of evell 

17 c 

Litigation RUdltt [CHAP. I 

men and evell causes in the cuntriewhearehe dwellethe, 
namelie of Nicholas Greenhell and others": but this 
Nicholas. Greenhill, who was appointed by Field when 
he had got rid of Seele, seems, from the little that is 
known of him, to have been a good sort of man ; at 
any rate he made several little improvements in the 
building at his own expense, during the four and 
twenty years that he was master, bequeathed to the 
school the various fixtures which he had put in, and 
did what he could to prevent the misuse of the Trust 
property. Very likely Boughton was an overbearing 
person, and his methods were certainly irregular, but 
Mr. Rouse has not unreasonably conjectured that the 
prime mover in this petition may have been Howkins, 
grandson of Lawrence Sheriffe, who perhaps found 
in Seele no obstacle to dishonest dealings with the 
Brownsover property. 

And now we enter upon the long period of litigation 
which lasted off and on right up to the year 1667, 
exactly a century after the Founder's death. It arose, 
as we have said, from the dishonesty of the heirs of 
Barnard Field, beginning with his grandson Barnard 
Dakyn, who held the third part of Conduit Close on 
trust, and of the Howkinses, the tenants of Brownsover 
parsonage : later on the Conduit Close land also got 
into the hands of the Howkinses. The object of all 
these people was to establish a claim to the Trust 
property as their own personal property, subject only 
to the rent charge fixed upon it at the time of the 
Founder's death ; but whenever they could, they with- 
held even this. It is true that the will of Lawrence 


CHAP. l] HISTORY Chancery Commission 

Sheriffe makes no provisions for the rise in value of 
the property, probably he did not think of it, but it 
is obvious that his intention was, that the property 
should belong to the Trust, not to the tenants, and 
this being so, the increase in value would be to the 
advantage not of the tenants, but of the school and 
almshouses which the property was to support. This 
principle always guided the legal decisions which 
marked the course of litigation, and the fact that the 
strife was so long continued shows once more the 
truth of the old saying that possession is nine-tenths 
of the law, and is a speaking commentary on the gross 
negligence of the trustees who were from time to time 
appointed. The three most important dates in the 
period, are those of the three Chancery Commissions 
which were appointed in 1602, 1614, and 1653, to settle 
the business. 

Before 1602, Barnard Dakyn had had the audacity 
to sell the Conduit Close property for 120, in spite 
of the fact that Greenhill (who was still Master) had 
an action pending against him for recovery of certain 
moneys unlawfully detained ; the Commission, how- 
ever, was not brought about by Greenhill, but by 
Anthony Howkins of Brownsover, who sympathized, 
no doubt, with Dakyn's action, and hoped to get rid 
once for all of the claims of the master. He was unde- 
ceived, for the Commission did all that Greenhill could 
desire : it cancelled the sale made by Dakyn, appointed 
twelve Warwickshire gentlemen as trustees, in whom 
all the school property was vested, made arrangements 
for filling up vacancies among those trustees, ordered 


Chancery Commission RUGBY [CHAP. I 

the building of almshouses, and settled the payments 
to be made to master and almsmen. 

But now comes the disappointing part. So inert 
were these trustees that, in spite of the decision of the 
Commission, the enemies of the school still triumphed, 
showing a pertinacity worthy of a better cause ; after 
twelve years of claiming and counter-claiming, the 
result was a second Chancery Commission, which met 
in 1614 at Hixhall, in Middlesex, Augustine Rolfe, or 
Rolph, being master of the school at the time. This 
Commission ended by confirming the decree of the 
first, and ordering payment of the arrears of rent 
which the tenant of Conduit Close had refused to pay: 
this tenant was a certain Rose Wood, and the property 
had come to her from her first husband, John Vincent, 
who had bought it from Dakyn : it will be remem- 
bered that the first Commission had ordered the sale 
to be cancelled, but this had not been done : the second 
Commission failed equally to get the better of the 
strategems of Rose Wood, for when a forty years' lease 
of the property was granted to one Henry Clerke, at 
the rent of ten pounds, an absurdly small rent con- 
sidering that the first Commission had estimated it as 
worth double that amount, straightway the lady 
appeared on the scene again and obtained the transfer 
of the lease to herself. 

Nor did this second Commission lead to more satis- 
factory results in other ways. The trustees were as 
neglectful as ever, and the unfortunate master was left 
to fight his battle alone as best he might ; consequently, 
we find Wilgent Greene, Rolfe's successor, after vainly 



protesting against the new lease of Conduit Close, 
coming to an agreement on his own account with Rose 
Wood, by which, needless to say, the Trust was de- 
frauded. We may also notice that not even a protest 
had been raised, when about i6i2the grasping Anthony 
Howkins had himself been forced by Edward Boughton 
the younger, who must have inherited his father's spirit, 
to alienate the tithes and part of the glebe land at 
Brownsover for a yearly payment of 28 i?s. 6d., a 
thing which he had of course no right to do. 

Such being the spirit of the trustees, it was natural 
that things should go from bad to worse, and the 
darkest days of the school were during the period of 
the great Civil War. In 1641, the year before the war 
broke out, Greene died, and there was a great to-do 
about his successor. The inhabitants of Rugby had 
got it into their heads, and the indolence of the trustees 
had no doubt fostered the idea, that they had the right 
to choose the schoolmasters : so when Greene died, 
they held a meeting and chose a Rugby man, Edward 
Clerke : they submitted their choice to the surviving 
trustees and the heirs of those that were dead (the 
provision for keeping up the number by a system 
of co-option had been neglected), and a majority of 
these appears to have agreed to the choice ; but there 
was some dispute, and the matter was referred to the 
Lord Keeper, who ordered that Clerke should have 
the place. However, Sir Roger Fielding, one of the 
dissentient trustees, was not to be beaten : his prefer 
was the vicar of Long Itchington, near Rugby, Raphael 
Pearce by name, and so strenuously did he canvass 


Dark Days RUGBY [CHAP. I 

the county people in his behalf that he succeeded 
somehow in upsetting the previous arrangements, and 
Edward Clerke had to retire from his post in favour 
of his rival. The joy of the unfortunate Pearce, who 
was poor and had doubtless hoped that his new position 
would bring better times to himself and his large 
family, must have been short-lived. War broke out, and 
in the troubled times that ensued, the best right was 
the right of the strongest : the tenants of the Trust 
property were not slow to take advantage of the cir- 
cumstances, and the Howkinses refused to pay their 
rent ; the tenants of Conduit Close did likewise, 
alleging that the land had been damaged by breast- 
works drawn across it, although the damage did not 
affect so much as one acre. 

Poor Pearce must have wished himself back in 
Long Itchington, for, as is said in a petition drawn up 
later on behalf of his wife, he " became in extreme 
want and exceeding poore, having nothing many times 
wherewith to provide bread for himselfe his wife and 
children, which caused a wonderfull weakness in his 
body. Which same weakness, for want of sufficient 
dyet, growing more and more upon him, it brought 
him at last to his much lamented death." 

Such was the fate of this " so able honest and painfull 
a Schoole Master," most unfortunate of all those who 
have presided over Lawrence Sheriffe's foundation. 
His death took place in 1651, but some months before 
it he had given up his post in despair, and for a while 
there was no teaching of grammar freely in the now 
dilapidated school-house. Hitherto the work had gone 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Brighter Prospers 

on steadily in spite of all troubles; as early as 1621 
there is direct evidence of a boy from the school passing 
on to Cambridge: direct evidence is apparently hard to 
procure, for at this time only four Cambridge colleges, 
and none at Oxford, give information as to previous 
education in their entrance registers, but as six Rug- 
beians were entered at three of these four Cambridge 
colleges between the years 1621 and 1642, we may 
reasonably suppose that other scholars went elsewhere, 
and that the masters of the school did not shape their 
conduct on that of the trustees. 

The year 1651, then, stands as the lowest point in 
the school history. On the " ffowerth " day of Decem- 
ber in that year Lord Leigh, the sole surviving trustee, 
appointed Peter VVhitehead as master, and two years 
later yet another Chancery Commission was appointed. 
This Commission quashed the claim of the Howkins 
family (who now held both the Conduit Close and 
Brownsover properties) to pay only the rent prescribed 
in Lawrence Sheriffe's time, and ordered them to pax- 
arrears. . Once more they began their old tactics of 
appeal and evasion, but at last they were worsted, and 
on November 26, 1667, the Lord Keeper confirmed the 
decree. That settled the matter, and it is exceedingly- 
satisfactory to learn not only that Mrs. Pcarce and 
Mrs. VVhitehead gradually received the unpaid salaries 
of their husbands, but that an obstinate Howkins was 
prosecuted and put into prison and not released till he 
had paid his debts. One can imagine the master 
quoting his " pcde Poena claudo " with particular gusto 
when that happy event took place ! From this time 


Brighter Prospers RUCHY [CHAP. I 

onward the school, amidst all its ups and downs, is 
free from the enemies who threatened its very exist- 
ence, and the good results of this relief were soon 

Whitehead had been succeeded in 1660 by John 
Allen, who died ten years later. The next master, 
Knightly Harrison, is interesting as having been the 
first Old Rugbeian to hold the post, unless indeed 
Edward Clerke, who was deposed in favour of Pearce, 
was educated in the school of his native place, which 
may well have been the case. Harrison resigned after 
five years, and was succeeded in 1675 by Robert Ash- 
bridge, who is notable for having begun the School 
Register. We have seen that from early times boys 
were sent up from the school to the University, and 
the register shows clearly that, though of course quite 
small, it was not a mere village school, but that a num- 
ber of boys came as boarders from the neighbourhood. 
Even had there been no register at the time this might 
have been deduced from the fact that, in the master- 
ship of Ashbridge, another storey was added over the 
schoolroom. Ashbridge only stayed six years, and 
Leonard Jeacockes, who was appointed in his place, 
had a sad career, tt is clear that some special cir- 
cumstances caused his failure, for he started with a 
capital entry of twenty boys in 1682, five of whom 
must have been boarders, while in the following year 
there are only two names recorded ; in 1684 only one, 
and then for two years there is a complete blank. It is 
also noticeable that a good many boys who must have 
left the School during this period were re-admitted 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Holyoake 

in 1688. What then were the special circumstances 
which caused this temporary collapse? It has been 
recently conjectured by the Rev. A. T. Michell, that 
the explanation may be found in the occurrence of 
an epidemic in the town. He has shown that the 
normal death-rate of Rugby at the time was about 20 
per annum : in 1680 it rose to 42, and in the following 
year it was 37 ; then after a lull of three years it rose 
again in 1685 and the two succeeding years to 50, 
40, and 49. This would amply account for the cessa- 
tion of entries in 1685, but it does not clear up the 
sudden drop in 1683, the middle of the three years' 
lull which followed the first outbreak, after the good 
entry in the previous year. Mr. Michell has pointed 
out in this connection that severe outbreaks of small- 
pox in Rugby in 1710 and 1733 apparently made 
little or no difference in the register, and it seems 
probable on the whole that there was some additional 
reason for the collapse. Possibly Jeacockes's health 
may have given way as early as 1683, or he may have 
done something to make himself unpopular with his 
neighbours: however this may be, he died in 1687, 
when only thirty-three years of age. 

And now we come to the first great name among 
the Masters of Rugby, Henry Holyoake, De Sacra 
Quercu, as he calls himself with a pleasing fancy which 
enlists our sympathy at once. He was of a Warwick- 
shire family who had strongly espoused the Royalist 
cause. His grandfather, while incumbent of Southam, 
near Rugby, had had his house pillaged by some 
Parliamentary troops, who found in it "a drum and 


Holyoake RUC'.UY [CHAP. I 

several arms " ; his father, a most versatile man, when 
Chaplain of Queen's College, Oxford, had commanded 
a company of foot, mostly composed of undergraduates, 
with such success that he was made a Doctor of 
Divinity ! He had made his living by the practice of 
medicine during the Commonwealth, and had spent his 
spare time in compiling a large English-Latin and 
Latin-English Dictionary. His son came to the 
school under interesting circumstances : he was one 
of the Chaplains at Magdalen College, Oxford, when 
James II. made his famous attempt to Romanize that 
foundation. Holyoake was amongst the many mem- 
bers who resigned in protest against the arbitrary ex- 
pulsion of Fellows, and though afterwards restored he 
chose to remain at Rugby, where he had been appointed 
as master, and resigned the chaplaincy soon after. 

He presided over Rugby school with conspicuous 
success for the long period of forty-three years, a 
record unbroken as yet, and likely to remain so. 
During these years, 630 boys were admitted to the 
school, and the large proportion of non-foundationers 
(nearly five to one) shows that the fame of the school 
was spreading, and that it formed at this time a strong 
connection among the leading families in Warwick- 
shire and the neighbouring counties. The numbers 
in the school at any one period have been variously 
estimated ; it depends of course on what number of 
years is taken as the average length of a school gene- 
ration : putting it at six years, as Mr. Rouse has done, 
for boys came very young in those days, the numbers 
must have reached upwards of ninety. 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Holyoake 

If this estimate is correct, it is evident that Holyoake 
must have had assistant masters to help him in the 
teaching. The Commission of 1653 had contemplated 
this necessity, and had provided that in such a case, 
the trustees should " find or enjoin the Schoolmaster 
to provide an usher," who was to be paid such salary 
as they thought fit, out of the overplus of the rents ; 
there is, however, no evidence that this had yet been 
done. The names of three of Holyoake's assistants 
are known, and they probably helped him not only in 
the school, but in the livings which the trustees 
allowed him, as a special mark of their high esteem 
for him, to hold. Pluralism was not yet in disrepute, 
and it doubtless did not seem unfitting to anyone that 
Holyoake, while master, held successively the livings 
of Bourton-on-Dunsmore, Bilton, and Harborough. 

It is quite likely, too, that his assistant took in 
boarders : it is true that, as Holyoake was a bachelor, 
he must have had a good deal of room in his house, 
and that fresh rooms were added over the schoolroom, 
but, considering the proportion of boarders, there 
could hardly have been accommodation for them all 
on the school premises. 

The great occasion of the school year was Speech 
Day, which took place in August. It was called Trustee 
Day in early times, and apparently the institution 
grew up from the ceremonies at the most important 
and best attended of the quarterly meetings of the 
trustees, which took place in that month : it would be 
only natural that on such an occasion the trustees 
should be given the opportunity of judging the pro- 

Holyoake RUdl'.V [CHAI 1 . I 

ficiency of the scholars : the custom, however, of 
strewing the schoolroom with rushes may have been 
derived from festivals of the same sort in earlier times. 
There still exist Latin and English compositions of 
Speech Days in Holyoake's time. Themes have 
changed, and the domestic history of trustees no 
longer forms the burden of our soiig on such occasions, 
but in their general character time leaves little trace on 
Speech Days. 

For forty-three years Holyoake lived among his 
boys and his books, and died in 1731, full of years and 
honour : his will, with its many legacies and remissions 
of outstanding debts, bears witness to his kindly 
disposition ; his relations, his executor, his servant 
and the poor are all remembered ; so also is the 
daughter of " Mrs. Harris, the tripe woman," who re- 
ceives thirty pounds, in memory, perhaps, of savoury 
dishes ! To the school he bequeathed the portraits of 
his grandfather and father, by whose side he was 
buried in St. Mary's, Warwick, and also his books, 
which were carefully preserved till they disappeared 
mysteriously from the Clock Tower some thirty or 
forty years ago. One or two of them with Holyoake's 
name have been found among the volumes in the 
Library, but as no list of them survives, it is impossible 
to trace those which have no such distinguishing 

Some examples survive of Holyoake's letters to 
parents, which show his character as a man and a 
schoolmaster in so pleasant a light, and bring him so 
vividly before us, that they deserve quotation. The 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Holyoake 

two first were communicated to " The Meteor " of May 
20, 1899, by the Rev. A. T. Michell, through the 
kindness of the possessor. 

" 1702, December 16. Rev. Mr. Holyoake, from Rugby, 
to Sir Justinian I sham, Bart. 

" Your two young gentlemen went to Lamport on Friday last, 
healthfull and well. I am happy that I can say they both con- 
tinue very hopefull, and are like to prove extraordinary scholars. 
Mr. John (besides his judgment in Greek and Latin Authors) 
shews great parts and ingenuity in his Compositions, both in 
Prose and Verse, with solid sense and substantial Latin ; and I 
beleeve will have a peculiar Genius to Horace's measures, whom 
he has sometimes happily imitated in Odes on occasionall sub- 
jects. Mr. Edmund has also made very great improvements : 
He renders his Authors naturally and with good command : 
writes judicous latin ; composes a short Epigram not without its 
acumen in the close, and has a very good foundation in Greek, 
of which he gives no mean Account. Their Morals also bear 
proportion with their learning, their behaviour being always 
civil and decently modest, and their recreations innocent." 

" *7 3 J u fy 2 3- The same to the same. 

"As I have always done the young Gentlemen justice in 
giving their good characters, so I think it as necessary to give 
you information when they do amisse. On Wednesday last they 
both took a ramble, and wand'red about four or five miles from 
home in order to have gone farther : I sent two messengers after 
'em, and desired my Brother Blake to take a Horse to go in 
quest of 'em, who found 'em, and brought 'em back in the 
evening. The offence taken was as follows : In the morning 
looking by chance upon Mr. Edmund, I saw him busy in cutting 
and mangling the covers of his new Lexicon, for which I re- 
prov'd him, and gave him a gentle correction upon the Hand. 
Mr. John I also corrected in the same manner for his verses, 
which were intolerably bad, both in the measure of the sense 
and quantity : upon this they took their journey : and I don't 


Holyoake RUdBY [CHAP. I 

know in what respect I have given them the least provocation 
besides since their return. I design'd, Sir, if this had not hap- 
pen'd, to have inform'd You, that since Whitsuntide they have 
strangely falPn from their former diligence and good humour, 
especially Mr. John, who has not compos'd me one Exercise well 
since He came last to Schole : but has rather lost than gained 
ground. Tis pity, Sir, the wheel should run back : that they 
who were of so great hopes, should frustrate at last the expect- 
ations of their parents and Master. If you please to do me 
the favour to write a chiding line or two to each of 'em, we'll 
hope the good effects. I have not punish'd 'em for this their 
fault, but make this complaint their punishment, knowing that 
your frown will produce much greater effects than all the 
Master's Rods can do." 

It is satisfactory to find that both boys turned out 
well, and gained Fellowships at Oxford. The third 
letter is quoted by Mr. Bloxam, and belongs to the 
year 1726 : 

" Kind S r ," he writes to a Mr. Ward, '' Your young Gentleman 
is very hopeful. At first indeed I believe he thought of nothing 
but Liberty, but he soon applyed himself to busines, and moves 
with promising success; for He had lately discovered a pretty 
Emulation of not being outrivaled by any of his Equals, which 
Inclination t'will be my busines to cherish : I have as t'were 
just tasked Him and accordingly S r you'l find him at present 
raw and unpolished yet I question not, but he'l soon make a considerable figure." 

After a short interregnum, during which the school 
was carried on by Joseph Hodgkinson, an old Rug- 
beian, and doubtless an assistant master at the time, 
another old Rugbeian, John Plomer, was elected to the 
vacant place. Plomer had been an usher under his 
predecessor, and in that capacity had done well, but 
as a head master he was not successful : during his 


CHAP. l] HISTORY Change of Site 

eleven years of rule the numbers in the school went 
do\vn very much. He resigned in 1742, and after him 
comes a succession of four masters from Queen's 
College, Oxford. The first of these, Thomas Crossfield, 
would seem to have been an exceptionally able man. 
Such a reputation had he as a scholar and a teacher, 
that in his first year there were no fewer than fifty- 
three entries ; and his fame must have been widespread, 
for only two of these were foundationers, and of the 
remainder only half were from the neighbouring 
counties. But before his abilities had time to display 
themselves in the new sphere he died, in his thirty- 
third year. He was succeeded by his friend, William 
Knail. In Knail's time a great event in the school 
history took place : the change of site. For many 
years the school buildings had been very ricketty : 
again and again they had been patched up, and bills 
for repairs had formed no small item in the school 
expenses, till in the middle of the eighteenth century 
the architect appointed to survey them found that 
repairs were no longer possible : the old roof would 
stand no more tinkering, and its removal was expected 
to cause the general collapse of the walls. There 
seems to have been no thought of rebuilding on the 
old site ; this would have made the continuation of 
the school during the operations very difficult, and, 
besides, in the old premises there was no playground : 
like the Idle Apprentice, the boys had used the 
churchyard for their games. 

The first idea was to purchase a newly-built house 
and ground close by the school, on the west side. The 


Change of Site RUGBY [CHAP. I 

house still stands the large red-brick house with 
Corinthian pilasters, covered now with creepers, on 
the north side of the Market Place. The negotiations 
fell through for some reason or other; most fortunately, 
for on that site there would have been no room for 
expansion. The house finally fixed upon was the 
large Manor House of the village, standing where 
the present schoolhouse stands, on the south side of 
the town. This house was a good-sized building, 
some hundred years old, perhaps, at the time of its 
purchase ; it formed three sides of a square, the open 
side facing on the Hillmorton Road. To the west of 
it, where the School House hall now is, was built the 
new schoolroom, of which some account is given in 
another place (see p. 100). With the house were 
purchased some adjacent fields and farm buildings, 
the whole property covering some eight acres of 
ground, and costing 1,000. The money for the 
purchase and the new building, 1,800 in all, was 
raised by a mortgage on the Conduit Close property. 
This property had been steadily growing in value, but 
it was let out on a long building lease, which did not 
fall in till 1780, and in 1748 the income of the Founda- 
tion did not amount to more than 116 ?s. 6d. To 
enable the Trustees to make this mortgage, an act of 
Parliament was necessary, and this was passed in 1748, 
through the influence of Sir Thomas Cave, one of the 
Trustees, member for the county of Leicester. Cave 
was himself an old Rugbeian, and speaks of the school 
in one of his letters as " that Seminary to which I am 
indebted for whatever little Talent I am master of," 




Change of Site 

and he devoted himself to its service with praiseworthy 

So in 1750 the school went over to the new premises, 
but in its new home it was not, at first, particularly 
fortunate in its directors. Knail resigned in 175 1, and 
is remembered chiefly through some words of an old 


From Kadclyffe's " Memorials." 

pupil, who, speaking of the original buildings, says 
" I have said many a lesson in a small room, into which 
the Doctor occasionally called some boys, and in 
which he smoked many a pipe, the fragrance of which 
was abundantly retained in the blue cloth hangings 
with which it was fitted up." His successor, Joseph 
Richmond, only stayed four years, and is remarkable 
only for the blank in the register under his name : 

33 D 

New Constitution RUGBY [CHAP. I 

doubtless there were not many entries to be recorded, 
but one cannot believe that there were none ! The 
next master, the last of the four Queen's men, was 
Stanley Burrough, who had been an assistant master : 
he remained at Rugby twenty- three years, but he made 
no particular mark in the place, though the school was 
fairly prosperous, and a few of his pupils attained dis- 
tinction in after life. It was during his mastership, 
however, that a gallery for the use of the school was 
erected in the Parish Church, and for the first time the 
school attended services on a Sunday in one body. 
Though not distinguished in other ways, his reign is 
marked by a most important act, passed in 1777, by 
which a new constitution was given to the school. 
This act was made necessary by the approaching 
termination of the lease of the Conduit Close property. 
On the expiration of that lease, the Trustees looked 
forward to an annual income of over two thousand 
pounds, but ready money was needed at once to pay 
off the debt on the new buildings and premises, which 
amounted to six thousand pounds, and also to improve 
the trust property. Accordingly the act sanctioned 
the raising of a sum not exceeding ; 10,000, by sales, 
fines, or mortgage, and appended to it was a schedule 
" containing Rules, Orders, and Observations, for the 
good government of Rugby School and Charity." By 
this schedule it was laid down that Burrough was to 
be " continued," so long as he should behave well ; the 
boys were to be taught grammar, Latin and Greek, 
and one or more Ushers were to be appointed by the 
Trustees to assist the masters in this, and to hear the 


( HAT. l] HISTORY New Constitution 

boys under twelve say their Catechism once a fortnight : 
a special master was to be appointed to teach writing 
and arithmetic, but head masters and assistants alike 
were for the future to be removable at the will and 
pleasure of the trustees, who were enabled, if they liked, 
to grant pensions to them out of the Trust funds. 
The foundation was extended to within five measured 
miles of Rugby (this was extended to ten miles by 
the trustees in 1780), and in addition to his salary 
(63 6s. %d. and a sum not exceeding 50) the head 
master was to have a capitation fee of $ on every 
foundationer : the foundationers were to attend Sunday 
services, and were to be examined in the hearing of 
the trustees at the quarterly meetings. Regulations 
were made with respect to the alms houses, the Clerk 
to the trustees, and a Receiver of the rents of the 
Middlesex estate : a fire-engine was to be bought for 
the use of the school and town, and finally, eight 
exhibitions to Oxford or Cambridge were established, 
of the value of 40, tenable for seven years. 

Burrough, who still enjoyed a freehold appointment, 
resigned in 1778, and was succeeded by one of the 
most distinguished of Rugby head masters, and the 
first to bear that title, Thomas James, an Etonian and 
Fellow of King's, commonly spoken of in Rugby at 
the present day as James the First. Under him, the 
school took its position as one of the leading English 
public schools, and the numbers increased rapidly : 
the year after he came there were only eighty boys ; 
eleven years later, in 1790, there were 240. His face, 
as depicted in his portrait, is very attractive, with 


Thomas James RUGBY [CHAP. I 

its long aquiline nose, arched eyebrows, and firm but 
pleasant mouth which speaks the character of the 
man. His mental abilities were of no mean order, 
but his success was due not so much to his capacities 
as a scholar and a mathematician, but to his abundant 
energy, which displayed itself in the organization of 
the school down to the minutest details : in this 
organization he had little foundation to work on, for 
none of his predecessors had been called upon to 
govern anything like such a large number of boys, 
and it says much for the merit of his work that, 
through the manifold changes that have been made 
during the last century, much of it remains intact. 
The system which he introduced was based on the 
Eton system, under which he had been educated. 
The school was divided into six forms ; the Sixth was 
the highest, and (like the Fifth) has survived as a name, 
though the reason for it has passed away. The rout- 
ine of work for all forms was most carefully arranged. 
It consisted mainly of translation from Latin and 
Greek authors, and composition in these languages, 
' but it was not exclusively classical : Bible History 
alternating with the Histories of Rome and England, 
modern geography, and Milton, all find a place in 
the regular curriculum of the Sixth and Fifth, while 
modern languages and mathematics, which latter study 
James hirnself greatly loved, although they were 
" extras," were encouraged. 

James's arrangement of school hours has in the main 
survived, the principle being that on whole school 
days there should be five lessons, one before breakfast, 


T. JAMES, S.T. P. 

Scholae Rugbeiensis Magister. 

Engraved by Matthew Haughton, 1792, from a Painting by 
G. Engleheart. 

Thomas James RlCl'.Y [CHAP. I 

prepared overnight, two before dinner, and two more 
in the afternoon, and it is from this period that the 
three half-holidays on Tuesday, Thursday and Satur- 
day are inherited, though at this time the Thursday 
half-holiday was not a regular one, but only given in 
honour of specially good work done by some member 
of the Sixth, " play for So-and-So " being the formula 
under which the good news was announced. The 
forms were very large, six masters being considered a 
reasonable number for a school of 200 boys, and 
James introduced the Eton tutorial system. Every 
boy who wanted private tuition paid four guineas a 
year, and in return received help in preparing his 
lessons : a boy was not compelled to have a tutor, but 
most boys did, and some such help must have been 
very necessary in days before dictionaries and school 
editions had paved the paths of learning : the system, 
too, helped to eke out the pittance received by the 
assistant masters, whose official salary was as a rule 
only 60 : this was indeed supplemented by additional 
grants from the trustees or from James himself, who 
was always ready with his purse to further the interests 
of the school, but the whole did not amount to more 
than ;ioo, and it is a further testimony to the character 
of the head master that he was able on these terms to 
attract such men as the two Sleaths, afterwards head 
masters respectively of Repton and St. Paul's, Innes, 
head master of Warwick School, Philip Homer, re- 
nowned as a Greek scholar, and Richard Bloxam, him- 
self an Old Rugbeian, and father of the well-known 
antiquary. The income of the head master amounted 


CHAT. l] HISTORY Thomas James 

to nearly eleven hundred pounds, in addition to his 
house and grounds, which he held rent free. The 
bulk of this came from school .fees, the official salary 
remaining at 113 6s. &/., but a curious item was 
furnished by a custom which prevailed among parents 
of sending a guinea at Christmas " to enable him to 
engage able scholars and respectable gentlemen ;" this 
guinea was, later on, added to the head master's tuition 
fee. These Christmas presents amounted in one year 
to 167, but they did not cover by 100 the expenses 
incurred in supplementing the salaries of assistants. 

Besides arranging the routine of work for all in the 
school, James drew up a book of sumptuary laws, 
which affords much interesting information : several 
of the minor regulations have been handed down to 
posterity, such as the system of tradesmen's notes, for- 
bidding tradesmen to supply boys on credit, unless a 
note, signed by the boarding-house keeper, is brought 
for the article required ; if a tradesman breaks this 
rule he is put out of bounds. Again, he introduced 
special paper on which " impositions " were to be 
written out, imposed fines for books lost or left about, 
and required the bookseller to write the boy's name in 
every book sold. Weekly allowances of money were 
introduced, rising from yl. in the lowest form to a 
shilling in the Sixth, and in lieu of prizes, which did 
not then exist, a stimulus to the diligent was given by 
the system of" merit money"; anyone in a form who 
was "sent up for good," as it was called, at the end of 
the week had his allowance doubled. 

Such regulations would seem to be those of a peace- 

Thomas James RUGBY [CHAP. I 

ful and well-ordered community, and indeed, accord- 
ing to the standards of the time, James was a strong 
disciplinarian. But in this respect standards have 
altered enormously : the head mastership of a public 
school is no sinecure now, but it is easy work compared 
with the struggle imposed on James in his efforts to 
maintain control over the turbulent young scamps 
committed to his care. The boarding house system 
of the time differed widely from that of the present 
day, by which all boarding houses are under the care 
of masters responsible for the well-being and conduct 
of their inmates : it is true that some masters besides 
the head master took in boarders, but numbers of 
boys lodged with townspeople ; these houses were 
called by the Eton name, " dames' houses," though 
the keeper was generally a man. 

But what made discipline still more difficult was 
that there was as yet but little idea of trusting the 
upper boys with the maintenance of it. There were 
indeed " praepostors " as they were called, and these 
had many privileges, chief amongst them that of fag- 
ging their juniors ; they made full use of this privilege 
and demanded services undreamt of by the modern 
fag ; besides acting as bootblack, water carrier, and 
general servant, the unfortunate fag might be called 
upon on winter evenings to perform the functions of a 
warming pan, and early on a summer morning he 
might have to speed across country to take up some 
night-line set by his master, for fishing was one of the 
principal amusements of the time. But the praepostor 
had little thought of doing service in return for the 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Thomas James 

service he exacted ; and his relations with the head 
master were those of a genial antagonist, bearing no 
malice when defeated, but ready to seize any oppor- 
tunity of stealing a march, and delighted when a 
stratagem succeeded. Moreover the masters were few ; 
some of them had to attend to curacies which they 
were allowed to hold in order to make a living, and 
outside the form room things were apparently left to 
the head master. Under such conditions it is not to 
be wondered at that James found his task no easy 
one. He endeavoured, as he says, to govern more by 
4C principles of justice, and what I call among the boys 
(my only law) the Eternal Rule of Right and Wrong 
. . . than by the terror of the Rod ; though I have 
established that on all becoming occasions (in my 
own opinion) from boys of six years old to boys of 
eighteen, or even more than eighteen years of age." 
His impartial justice and avoidance of all underhand 
methods won the respect of his pupils ; where his 
system failed was in not awakening the sense of respon- 
sibility among the praepostors, and we consequently 
find him remarking in a letter that " a head master's 
house may always be expected to prove a hot-bed of 
rebellion, because he will have a larger number of big , 
boys there." In like manner we read of incidents which 
in modern times would be quite incompatible with the 
maintenance of any authority. On one occasion, for 
instance, a young donkey was tied up to his desk in 
school ; he had influence enough to be able to treat 
the incident lightly, and merely remarked, "Take him 
down, but pray don't hurt the young doctor," but in 

4 1 

Thomas James RUGBY [CHAP. I 

his war of wits with his greatest pupil, Walter Savage 
Landor, the two met, as it were, upon an equality ; it 
must have been hard to preserve dignity when met, 
as James was on one occasion when he knocked at 
Landor's study door, with nothing but the reply, " Get 
thee hence, Satan," and it was for writing scurrilous 
verses in the head master's album that that strange 
genius had finally to be removed. It is strange, too, to 
hear of boys getting hold of his horses and laming 
them over fences, and to read of the junketings that 
took place at the end of the half year. Means of loco- 
motion were very scanty in those days, and it took a 
week or more to get rid of all the boys, and as much 
to collect them again. " A sort of saturnalia," writes 
an old pupil in his reminiscences, " followed the 
speeches" (they were then held in June, at the end 
of the half year). " The last few days of the half- 
year were spent in all kinds of riotous excesses. Xo 
lessons were expected to be done, excepting after a 
manner chosen by the boys that is to say, anyhow ; 
and half the windows of the school were broken, to be 
paid for by the parents, for the benefit of the Rugby 
glaziers. Then the closing scene may scarcely be 
credible. What is called a feast, or supper, was given 
at each boarding-house, and punch ad libitum was the 
order of the night." 

It is never safe to omit the necessary grain of salt 
in reading an old boy's account of his deeds at school, 
especially if they tend to establishing his character as 
a "wild young spark": the same writer, at any rate, 
met with his reward often enough to have his mind 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Thomas James 

impressed with the fact that James, "although a small 
man, had a very powerful arm " ; but the nature and 
extent of the discipline maintained is made clear 
enough, and the difficulty of establishing even as 
much as this is shown by the rebellions which occurred 
on three successive occasions at the end of the century. 
The only one of these of which an account has been 
handed down took place under James's successor, and 
will be described in its place, but one of the two which 
James had to deal with was serious enough to provoke 
a special meeting of the Trustees (Nov., 1786), at which 
they expressed their unanimous determination to 
support the head master's authority, and their hope 
that he would not hesitate to expel every boy who 
should presume to dispute it. 

Sixteen years of such labour, lightened only by the 
half yearly holiday of one month (cut short by the 
period during which the boys gradually dispersed) 
were as much as James's health could stand : his 
nimbleness of wit, energy, and determination, were 
combined with a highly-strung nervous system which 
gave way before the strain, and in 1794 he resigned. 
Soon afterwards he was made a prebendary of 
Worcester cathedral : he recovered his health and 
spirits, but died in 1804, in his fifty-sixth year. He 
was buried at Worcester, but a monument (vide p. 122) 
was erected to him in the school chapel when it was 
built, and the surplus of the money collected among 
his old pupils for the purpose was used to found a 
prize for Greek verse, a subject which he introduced 
into the school curriculum. 


Henry Ingles RUGBY [CHAP. I 

James was succeeded by another Etonian and 
Fellow of King's, Henry Ingles, who well sustained 
the credit of the school during his twelve years of 
mastership. The numbers indeed fell by about fifty, 
but numbers are not always a sure indication of the 
efficiency of a school. He was a gloomy man, sad- 
dened by a terrible shock he had received when he had 
suddenly and unexpectedly met men carrying home 
the body of his eldest son, who had been accidentally 
drowned : it is related of him that, when one of the 
masters told him of the victory of Trafalgar, and 
added, " But I am sorry to say, sir, Lord Nelson is 
dead," he replied, "And I wish I were dead also." He 
made few changes in the school, but it is worth re- 
membering that he abolished the Christmas present 
guinea, and introduced the system of having outside 
examiners for the exhibitions. He also attempted to 
make arrangements for every boy to have a separate 
study (the study system had been introduced by his 
predecessor), and it is noticeable that he thought the 
care of a boarding-house " incompatible with the 
general duties of the school," and wished to reduce 
the numbers in the School House (then only twenty- 
two) to six or seven ; doubtless, too, he took his share 
in furthering the great re-building scheme carried out 
under his successor, but his reign is chiefly marked by 
the great rebellion of 1797. It took place in November, 
a month which James, too, had found a rebellious one, 
probably owing to the excitement of the great horse 
fair which was held then. The " Black Tiger," as 
Ingles was significantly called, was walking down the 


CHAP. I] HISTORY The Rebellion 

town one day when he heard sounds of firing as he 
passed Gascoigne's, one of the " dames' houses " ; he 
walked into the yard and found a boy named Astley 
amusing himself by firing cork bullets at the study- 
windows. He asked him where he got the gunpowder, 
and Astley gave the name of a grocer called Rowell : 
but Rowell, who had entered the powder in his books 
as tea, denied the charge, and the head master, setting 
greater value on his word than on that of the boy, 
flogged Astley as a liar. Not unnaturally the School 
was very much incensed, and wreaked its vengeance 
on Rowell's windows, whereupon Dr. Ingles gave 
out that the damage should be paid for by the Fifth 
and Sixth Forms. A round robin was drawn up in 
answer, in which they refused to do so, and forestalling 
the vigorous measures which were sure to follow, at 
fourth lesson on Friday they blew open the door of 
the head master's school with a petard. On the 
following day, Saturday, after second lesson, the 
mutineers got hold of the school bell and proceeded to 
ring a loud alarum on it, by way of formally declaring 
war, while fags were sent round to all the boarding- 
houses to gather the clans. They then blocked up 
the passage by which the Doctor came from the 
School House to the big school-room, and this done 
they broke all the windows, and dragging out the 
benches, wainscoting, and head master's books, they 
made a bonfire of them in the Close, to the delight of 
the spectators who lined the Dunchurch Road. Ingles 
did not venture to appear on the scene ; he sent at 
once for the masters, but they were all taking advan- 


The Rebellion RUdUY [CHAP. I 

tage of the Saturday holiday ; two were fishing in the 
Avon, another was shooting rabbits near Brinklow ; 
none of them were to be found ; so the doctor fell back 
on a recruiting party who happened to be in Rugby 
at the time, and posted the sergeant before the School 
House to guard the position with fixed bayonet. It was 
reserved for Mr. Butlin, banker and J.P., to quell the 
disturbance. He negotiated with the horse-dealers, 
who, armed with their long whips, formed no con- 
temptible force, and at the head of these and the rest 
of the recruiting party, he marched into the Close. 
The rebels left their bonfire and retired to the Island 
(see p. 93), a real island at that time, surrounded by a 
moat too broad for any but a good jumper to clear, 
and from four to six feet deep ; it was crossed on the 
west side by a small drawbridge ; the mutineers drew 
this up, but Butlin's strategy was too much for them ; 
w r hile he was reading the Riot Act and holding the 
attention of the boys, the drovers waded across the 
moat behind them and the position was lost. Stern 
was the vengeance of the head master ; several of the 
ringleaders were expelled on the spot, amongst them 
a future bishop and a future general, but it is on record 
that these could look back on the event with greater 
equanimity than those who were assigned to the chas- 
tisement of the rod. 

Ingles resigned in 1806, and the choice of the 
trustees fell on John Wooll, a Balliol man. The 
choice was a good one, although they had an oppor- 
tunity of making a still better, for among the candi- 
dates was Samuel Butler, James's favourite pupil, who 



J- Wooll RUGBY [CHAP. I 

as head master of Shrewsbury became the most 
famous master of his time. The schedule of 1777 
ordained that, ceteris paribus, preference should be 
given to an old Rugbeian, and the only reason sug- 
gested for the rejection of Butler is that the trustees 
were frightened by the rumoured severity of his dis- 
cipline. Though Wooll was not endowed with the 
powers that Butler possessed, he proved in many 
ways a good master, and seems to have been looked 
upon with affection by his pupils. " I really regret 
him," writes one of these, the great actor Macready ; 
" he was kind, most hospitable, ready to enjoy and 
delighted to look upon enjoyment, in short, of a most 
benevolent disposition. He had little or no preten- 
sions to profound learning, but he was a thoroughly 
good-natured, kind-hearted man." The numbers in 
the school were well maintained during Wooll's mas- 
tership, though they fell off at the end of his time, 
and reached in one period as many as 381, nor did its 
reputation for scholarship suffer. 

But something more than benevolence, or the 
strictest maintenance of discipline according to the 
prevailing methods, was wanted to deal with the evils 
which existed in public schools ; the best friends of 
the system would be far from denying that in our own 
day it is free from imperfections and from great 
dangers, but before Wooll's successor, Thomas Arnold, 
entered on his work, its possibilities for good were 
unrevealed. One of the most crying evils was the 
bullying. Macready, for instance, was lodged in the 
boarding house of his cousin, Mr. Birch, one of the 

CHAP. I] HISTORY Bullying 

masters ; he writes of him in after life as " the friend 
of my life, my relation, my tutor, my benefactor 
God bless him." Nor was he ill-adapted for school 
life; he 'always retained the warmest affection for 
" dear old Rugby," yet his first year was made 
wretched by bullying. " This system of bullying," 
he writes, " seemed to have banished humanity from 
most of the boys above me, or rather of those between 
me and the highest forms. I was fag to a young 
man of the name of Ridge, an Irishman, who was a 
very harsh task-master ; and I was made so un- 
comfortable in the Common Hall, that, but for the 
refuge of my own snug bedroom, I should have been 
almost despondent. . . . From the bullying endured, 
the first year of my term was real misery." 

In like manner Bloxam tells us of a " barbarous 
custom," which was indeed abolished by Dr. Wooll. 
When a boy got his remove from a form he was 
welcomed to his new form by various kinds of 
torture ; on getting out of the lowest form into the 
second form he was " chaired," t'.e. y hoisted up and 
pinched till he shrieked with pain. In another form 
the torture was called " buffetting," the new-comer 
having to run the gauntlet up and down the great 
school room while he was buffetted with handkerchiefs 
tied into what were called Westminster knots, and the 
same writer remembers, as a small boy, being released 
for a short time with the rest of the set by the writing 
master in order to watch a " buffetting." This does not 
sound so formidable, especially as body armour in 
the shape of book-covers might be arranged to 

49 E 

Bullying RUGBY [CHAP. I 

afford some protection, but against the " clodding " 
in the Fifth form no defence prevailed. For this 
process clods of clay were gathered by fags from 
the banks of the pool in the Close ; these were made 
into balls, dried, and hurled at the sufferer as he 
ran "the gauntlet along the sheds. Another thing 
which must have pressed hard on the weak was the 
prevalence of fighting ; as a means of settling quarrels 
it has many advantages, and athletic youngsters like 
Landor no doubt enjoyed it, but it was another thing 
when the unfortunate new boys (and they came very 
young in those days) were picked out and set at each 
other by their seniors. Some of them, however, throve 
on it ; one young man aged eight and a half years 
reported to a horrified family servant who had been 
sent three weeks after the beginning of the half to see 
how he was going on, that he had already fought four 
battles and received three floggings ; for Wooll did not 
forget Solomon's precept, and we read of one occasion 
when in the extraordinarily short space of fifteen 
minutes he flogged the whole of a form of thirty-eight 
boys, who had thought fit to put a stop to a lesson by 
the simple expedient of going away. 

Reforms were, indeed, urgently needed, and unless 
we realize how very imperfect education was at Rugby 
and elsewhere we shall fail to estimate Arnold's work 
at its true value. It would, however, be a mistake to 
paint the picture too black, and the affection which 
was inspired by their school in many Rugbeians shows 
that there was in it much that was good ; had it not 
been so indeed Arnold would never have succeeded. 



J/5 O 

rt t! 
I * 
I ? 

Thomas Arnold RUGBY [CHAP. I 

The chief event of W coil's reign was the building 
of the new School House and school rooms ; a de- 
scription of these will be found in another section, 
but it may be mentioned here that the money for the 
building came from the surplus income which had 
been increasing for many years with the increase in 
value of the London property, and had accumulated 
till it had reached the large sum of ^"40,000. It was 
well that the surplus was large, for so massive was the 
construction of these new buildings that, without in- 
cluding the chapel, which cost between seven and eight 
thousand, they ran away with ,35,000. The School 
House and schools were begun in 1809 and took six 
years to complete. It must .have been a worrying 
six years for teachers and taught, as the lessons went 
forward to the sound of hammer and saw ; how they 
ever managed to keep the school work going as 
usual is a marvel, but somehow or the other it was 
done. When the buildings were finished in 1816 
attention was turned to the Close, and the divisions 
between the fields were levelled, to its great improve- 
ment as a playing ground. Finally, in 1819 the 
chapel was begun, and consecrated in 1821. Hitherto 
the school had worshipped in the parish church, 
though the Big School had been used since its 

In the second half-year of 1828 Thomas Arnold 
took over the reins of government from Wooll, and 
the fourteen years during which he held them form 
one of the most important epochs in the history of the 
school and of English education in general. He is 


2 J 

3 I 

V) ~ w 




Thomas Arnold KU(H5Y [CHAP. I 

perhaps the most famous of schoolmasters ; everyone 
has heard of him ; at Rugby his name is still on all 
lips; our cousins from beyond the seas come to visit 
his grave and his study. Why is it ? What did he 
do ? The answer to these questions is amply given in 
two books of two of his best known pupils, his life by 
Dean Stanley and " Tom Brown's Schooldays " by 
T. Hughes. It may be as well, however, to try yet 
again in a few words to give some idea of the facts, 
as even now misunderstandings still arise. For in- 
stance, we find the latest historian of Winchester 
(Mr. Leach) writing that Arnold " consciously and 
avowedly reformed Rugby after the fashion of Win- 
chester." Now whatever we owe to Winchester for 
having helped to mould Arnold, this of course was 
not the case. It is true that in a few details Arnold 
introduced changes which were due to his memories of 
his old school, but in the main he preserved the old 
school constitution ; this constitution was doubtless 
similar to that of Winchester, but its descent was not 
from Winchester through Arnold, but from Eton 
through James. Moreover, the reforms which Arnold 
made, which changed the whole character of public 
school institutions without destroying them, were 
due not to the influence of what had been or was 
anywhere else, but simply and solely to the intense 
zeal with which he carried into practice his own ideas 
of right and wrong. It is only fair to Mr. Leach to say 
that he seems to recognize this on a subsequent page, 
where he nai'vely says, " Arnold's real greatness as a 
schoolmaster did not lie in the introduction of any novel 

(HAP. I] HISTORY Thomas Arnold 

ideas or practices, not even in the bringing of Rugby 
into closer harmony with Winchester ideas and prac- 
tices, so much as in his extraordinary enthusiasm and 
intellectual courage, and the way in which he inspired 
others with the same enthusiasm and courage." 

What Arnold did for public schools was to alter 
and expand, to a degree which amounted to a revolu- 
tion, the aims and objects which these institutions set 
before themselves. Before his time the avowed object 
of the public schools was to impart learning ; systems 
and discipline were subservient to this end, and though 
incidentally they had other effects, their main object 
was to render learning possible and effective ; if this 
object was attained their work was done, and they 
were judged by their success or failure in this respect. 

Arnold took a much broader view of the objects of 
education ; while deeply impressed with the import- 
ance of learning, he realized that it was only a part of 
education, and that the great end and aim of educa- 
tion was the formation of character. This was the 
great object which was to dominate all others : to 
this end learning and everything else must be sub- 
servient. The ideal which he set before himself was 
to train boys to become not merely scholars but 
Christian gentlemen. 

But, like most men who have done great things for 
the world, Arnold was not only an idealist, but a most 
practical man as well. In the public school system 
at Rugby he found to his hand an instrument which, 
however imperfect, was capable of serving his ends ; 
he did not therefore attempt to revolutionize ; he ac- 


Thomas Arnold UUCiHY [CHAP. I 

cepted the system as a whole, rejecting some parts 
and developing others, with the object of creating 
conditions under which a boy's character could grow 
on right lines. We may mention a few points to illus- 
trate the way in which he worked. 

He accepted the two great features of English 
public schools, the liberty allowed to all, and the 
power exercised by the senior over the junior boys, 
but he bent all his energies to bring it about that the 
liberty should not be mere licence, and that the power 
should be exercised for good and not for evil, as had 
been too often the case. The power he vested in the 
hands of the Sixth Form only, having, as Stanley 
says, " a strong belief in the general union of moral 
and intellectual excellence ; " the liberty he curtailed 
but little, but, on the other hand, he freely exercised 
the right of sending away those who, even if they had 
not committed any flagrant evil, showed themselves 
unfit to make proper use of their privileges ; on this 
point he was very emphatic, and his opinion is well 
worth notice at a time when the justice of superannua- 
tion rules is often called in question ; " till a man learn 
that the first, second and third duty of a schoolmaster 
is to get rid of unpromising subjects, a great public 
school," he said, " will never be what it might be and 
what it ought to be." 

Secondly, he introduced very necessary reforms as 
regards the status of assistant masters. " From the 
first," to quote Stanley again, " he maintained that 
the school business was to occupy their main and un- 
divided interest. The practice, which owing to their 


Thomas Arnold RUGBY [CHAP. I 

lower salaries had before prevailed, of uniting some 
parochial cure with their school duties, was entirely 
abolished, and the boarding houses as they respec- 
tively became vacant he placed exclusively under their 
care." Hitherto "dames' houses" had still survived. 
An increase in school fees had also enabled him to 
raise the salaries of his assistants, so that he felt 
himself justified in every way in making the demand 
that his assistants should give their whole time and 
energies to their school work. 

Thirdly, he laboured strenuously to make the direct 
religious teaching effective. This he did, not by mul- 
tiplying services, nor by attempting to force young 
minds into a fixed mould of piety, but by using the 
opportunities which the pulpit afforded for imparting 
something of the fiery zeal for right which consumed 
him, for presenting forcibly and directly to the minds 
of his hearers the practical effects which religion ought 
to have upon their daily life at school, and for stimu- 
lating in them the quality of moral thoughtfulness 
which he prized so much. 

Such were the main points of his system. In 
carrying it out he had to meet with the storm of 
abuse and opposition that so often is the lot of great 
reformers. Perhaps, had he been content to concern 
himself with the school only, people might have let 
him alone ; had he done so, he would not have been 
Arnold. His heart and mind were too full of passion- 
ate desire for reforms in Church and State for him to 
stand aloof; the education of boys in the small 
society of school was successful to him only if they 


CHAP. l] HISTORY Thomas Arnold 

learned there how to play a true part in the larger 
societies wherein they were destined to move. And so 
it came about that the man whose great aim in life 
was to help to make English boys and men Christians 
in practice and not only in name, was accused of laxity 
of religion, and that his educational system was the 
object of bitter attack. But he was " ever a fighter," 
a magnificent fighter, with no arrogance and the 
broadest sympathies, but inflexible in the main- 
tenance of what he thought right, and in the end 
he triumphed over all opposition. With the better 
sort of boys he soon succeeded ; no boy worth any- 
thing could resist the influence of a man so trans- 
parently sincere, in whose zeal for religion there was 
such a complete and refreshing absence of humbug or 
of mere conventionality, a man who was not afraid of 
anybody. The trustees, too, in spite of the dislike 
with which many of them regarded his public views, 
did not fail to recognize the good work which he was 
doing at the school; even in July, 1836, when a resolu- 
tion of censure was brought forward, which Stanley 
says " would probably have occasioned his resignation 
had it not been lost," there was no criticism of his 
school work ; " they did all I wanted," writes Arnold 
at the time, " about the school." They could, indeed, 
hardly have done otherwise in face of a special reso- 
lution of confidence in him which they had passed in 
the previous March. Last of all the popular prejudice 
against him died away, and in 1841, the year before 
his death, when he was elected Regius Professor of 
Modern History at Oxford, he was beginning to 


Thomas Arnold 

RUG 15 V [CHAP. I 

the place which he 

occupy in general estimation 

The question remains to be asked, how far did Arnold 
succeed in realizing his ideals of school life? What 
permanent results did he leave? He would have been 


From Ackerman's "Public Schools." 

the last to affirm that his ideals had been completely 
realized, or that he was satisfied : he had no blind self- 
satisfied faith in the public school system: "experience," 
he writes to a friend in 1835, "seems to point out no one 
plan of education as decidedly the best, it only says, 
I think, that public education is the best when it 
answers ... a very good private tutor would tempt 




Thomas Arnold 

one to try private education, or a very good public 
school, with connections among the boys at it, might 
induce one to venture upon public. Still there is 
much chance in the matter ; for a school may change 
its character greatly, even with the same master, by 



the prevalence of a good or bad set of boys, and this no 
caution can guard against." Again he writes, in 1840, 
to an old pupil, " I have many delightful proofs that 
those who have been here, have found at any rate no 
such evil as to prevent them serving God in after life ; 
and some, I trust, have derived good from Rugby. 
But the evil is great and abounding, I well know ; and 


Thomas Arnold RUGBY [CHAP. I 

it is very fearful to think that it may to some be 
irreparable ruin." 

What the dangers of the system were is obvious to 
all readers of Tom Brown ; it depended so largely on 
the character of the Sixth that when the Sixth were 
weak all sorts of abuses crept in. But Arnold's 
greatness and his success lay in the fact that he did 
inspire a very large proportion of boys placed in 
authority with something of his own spirit of duty, 
and that in the minds even of boys who did not come 
into personal contact with him, he implanted a feeling 
of their responsibility as members of a great society. 
In this way he did succeed in showing what a public 
school, in spite of its imperfections, " might," to use 
his own phrase, " and ought to be." He did succeed 
in rousing people to the fact that the aim of edu- 
cation was not merely to stimulate the intellectual 
faculties but the moral faculties as well, that the great 
object to be pursued was the formation of character. 
In this he was a pioneer, and his example soon had 
great results. " A most singular and striking change 
has come upon our public schools," wrote Dr. Moberley, 
head master of Winchester, to Dean Stanley soon after 
Arnold's death, " a change too great for any person to 
appreciate adequately, who has not known them in 
both these times. This change is undoubtedly part of 
a general improvement of our generation in respect of 
piety and reverence, but I am sure that to Dr. 
Arnold's personal earnest simplicity of purpose, 
strength of character, power of influence, and piety, 
which none who ever came near him could mistake or 


CHAP, i] HISTORY' A. c. Tait 

question, the carrying of this improvement into our 
schools is mainly attributable. He was the first." 
What he left, then, was not a cut-and-dried mechanical 
system, but a great example. The public school 
system remains much as he left it : some evils, such 
as drinking and the grosser forms of bullying, have 
been practically stamped out ; but the dangers of mis- 
use of liberty and power must always go along with 
the advantages of the right use of them, and the spirit 
which animated Arnold is still the only thing which 
can avert the dangers and bring out the advantages. 

Arnold was succeeded by A. C. Tait, afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury ; it was no easy task to fill 
the place vacated by the sudden death of a man whose 
influence was so great, and Tait, with all his good 
qualities, was not an Arnold. " Tait was certainly by 
no means a born schoolmaster," says one authority; 
" as the head master of a public school he was hardly 
a success," writes another ; but the standard by which 
he was judged was an exceptional one, and if in follow- 
ing up Arnold's work Tait did not give evidence of 
the exceptional powers which his predecessor had 
shown, he nevertheless accomplished much good work 
by his quiet unflagging industry, and after a terrible 
illness in 1848, the affection, which he inspired in 
large numbers of his pupils, became enthusiastic. 
The chief alteration that was made in the school 
during his time was in point of numbers ; Arnold 
had endeavoured to restrict the number of boys in 
the school, and had persuaded the trustees in 1830 to 
limit the number of non-foundationers to 260 : he had 


E. M. Goulburn RUGBY [CHAP, I 

not found it possible to keep to that limit, but now 
the restriction was entirely removed, and the numbers 
rose till they reached close upon 500. Tait's health 
was much shaken by his illness, and in 1850 he re- 
signed, on being made Dean of Carlisle. 

E. M. Goulburn, afterwards Dean of Norwich, was 
chosen as his successor ; he was not in sympathy with 
the tendencies of thought which had become charac- 
teristic of the place, and the control of a large school 
was not so congenial to his tastes as the parochial 
work to which he returned after eight years at Rugby, 
but he maintained in the school a high standard of 
efficiency. The numerous Scholarships gained at the 
Universities bear witness to the excellence of the 
teaching, while his successor, Dr. Temple, has given 
striking testimony to the deep religious impression 
that he had made upon the whole school, and especially 
on the Sixth Form. " I do not know," he said, when 
unveiling the Goulburn Memorial window in the 
Chapel, " that I ever witnessed so striking and so 
permanent a work as that which he had done ; and I 
learnt to look upon him more and more as one of the 
salt of the earth, who served the Lord there, and \vho 
made all those who were then with him feel his 

Goulburn resigned in 1858, and for the next eleven 
years the school flourished under the vigorous govern- 
ment of the present Archbishop of Canterbury, who 
as Chairman of the Governing Body still maintains an 
intimate connection with Rugby. 

Two events at the end of his time must be recorded : 


From Radclyffc's " Memorials." 

New Statutes RUGBY [CHAP. I 

(i) the Tercentenary of the School in 1867, to com- 
memorate which the New Buildings were begun. The 
work was continued for the next twenty years, but 
there is no need to say anything about it here, as the 
buildings are dealt with in another section ; (2) the 
Public Schools' Acts of 1868 and 1872, under which 
the constitution of the School was entirely changed. 
The management of the School was taken from the 
trustees and put into the hands of a governing body 
of twelve members, and a scheme was passed by which 
the trustees transferred to the governing body, the 
School House, School Buildings, and Close, and also 
the net yearly income of the charity, subject to certain 
deductions. The governing body, empowered by the 
Acts of Parliament, proceeded to make statutes for 
the regulation of the School. The most important of 
these, which was not carried through without con- 
siderable opposition, was that by which the nature of 
the Foundationerships was altered : the old privileges 
were confined to residents in or within five miles of 
Rugby at the time of the passing of the Act of 1868; 
for the future, the privileges were connected with 
previous attendance at a subordinate school, called the 
Lower School of Lawrence Sheriffe, at which the in- 
struction was to be " such as may be suitable for boys 
intended for commercial and other similar occupa- 
tions, and also may qualify them for admission into 
the Higher School." The system under which major 
and minor foundationers are elected from the sub- 
ordinate school is described elsewhere. The Lower 
School was opened on May 27th, 1878, under the mas- 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Old Rugbeians 

tership of Mr. H. T. Rhoades (O.R.). The appoint- 
ment is in the hands of the head master of the great 
school, subject to the sanction of the governing body. 
Dr. Temple was succeeded, in 1870, by H. Hayman, 
who resigned after four years. It is well known that 
this was not a flourishing period in the fortunes of the 
school, but the time has not yet come when the details 
of the trouble can be sketched without offence : suffice 
it to say in conclusion that under T. W. Jex-Blake, 
now Dean of Wells, himself an Old Rugbeian boy 
and master, the school fully regained its prestige, and 
that through his energy and generosity its building- 
equipment was, when he resigned in 1887, practically 
complete, while under his successor, J. Percival, now 
Bishop of Hereford, Rugby was guided by the strong 
hand of a great head master. A new boarding house 
was built in 1893, during his mastership, and the pre- 
sent head master, H. A. James, directs a school of 
nearly 600 boys, vigorous descendant of the Free 
Grammar School of Lawrence Sheriffs. 


No sketch of the history of the school, however 
slight, would be complete without mention of the most 
famous of those who have received their education 
there. Places of education have a calm way of claim- 
ing credit for the achievements of all their sons, what- 
ever their mutual relations may have been ; does not 
Oxford, for instance, feel a personal, if diffident pride 
in Shelley's fame? It is a comfortable doctrine, even 

Old Rugbeians RUGBY [CHAP. I 

if, like many others, it does not always tally with the 
facts, and we will make no apologies for accepting it : 
we know that many of those whom we mention re- 
cognized a debt to Rugby and paid it in affection ; let 
us assume it to have been their own fault if this was 
not the case with all. 

To begin with statesmen: the governing class has 
in the main been very faithful to Eton, but Rugby 
has supplied some well-known names. It is curious 
that while no Rugbeian has attained the dignity of 
Prime Minister in England the school has supplied 
one to France : this was W. H. Waddington (entered 
1841), who in the course of his brilliant career presided 
in 1878 over one of the many short-lived ministries of 
the Third Republic ; before this he had held the port- 
folios of Public Instruction and Foreign Affairs, and 
had represented France at the Congress of Berlin. 
Subsequently as Ambassador to England ( 1883 1 892) 
he did his utmost to maintain good relations between 
the two countries. In 1877, while Waddington was at 
the Quai D'Orsay, and another Old Rugbeian, F. O. 
Adams (ent. 1840), was Chief Secretary at the British 
Embassy in Paris, Lord Derby (ent. 1840) was con- 
trolling the English Foreign Office. At different 
periods the same statesman held office, twice as 
Colonial, once as Indian Secretary. Roundell Palmer 
(ent. 1823), afterwards Lord Selborne and Lord 
Chancellor, can only be half counted, for he left in 
the Fifth to go to Winchester ; but there are two Irish 
Secretaries, E. J. Walhouse, afterwards Lord Hatherton 
(ent. 1806), who held office. in 1833, and E. Horsman 


CHAP, I] HISTORY Old Rugbeians 

(ent. 1819), who, after being a Lord of the Treasury 
in 1840-1, was Secretary for Ireland in 1855-7. ^ T r 
should we forget S. R. Lushington (ent 178 5), Governor 
of Madras from 1830-4, Sir Charles Bagot (ent 1790), 
who ended a long diplomatic career as Governor- 
General of Canada ; W. P. Adam (ent. 1835), Minister 
of Public Works in 1873, and F. J. Halliday (ent. 
1814), who was Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal during 
the Indian Mutiny and Vice-President of Council for 
India in 1877. At the present day there are many 
Rugbeians who have done and are doing good service 
to the state, both in Parliament and the Civil Service. 
There is Lord Cross (ent. 1836), who has twice been 
Home Secretary, once Secretary for India, and is 
now Lord Privy Seal ; Sir Richard Temple (ent. 
1839), who has been Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, 
Governor of Bombay, and a prominent figure in 
Parliament ; Sir H. Drummond Wolff (ent. 1843), who 
entered the Foreign Office at seventeen, and has 
identified his name with the Eastern Question, both in 
Parliament, when he was a member of the famous 
" Fourth Party," and in diplomatic service at Constan- 
tinople and elsewhere ; the Right Hon. G. J. Goschen 
(ent. 1845), wno m a l n g an d distinguished parlia- 
mentary career has twice been First Lord of the 
Admiralty and once Chancellor of the Exchequer ; Sir 
James Fergusson (ent. 1845), who was wounded at 
Inkerman, and has been Governor of South Australia, 
New Zealand, and Bombay, Under-Secretary in three 
Departments and Postmaster-General ; Lord Brassey 
(ent. 1851), who long ago made his name as a naval 

Old Rugbeians RUGBY [CHAP. I 

authority, and is now Governor of Victoria ; Lord 
Sandhurst (ent. 1869), Under-Secretary for War in 
1886, now Governor of Bombay ; Sir Arthur Godley 
(ent. 1862), permanent Under-Secretary for India; 
Sir J. Engleheart (ent. 1837), and Sir H. Longley 
(ent. 1845), who have distinguished themselves in the 
Home Civil Service, and others who have made a name 
in India, like Sir A. Arbuthnot (ent. 1832), and Sir W. 
Lee-Warner (ent. 1859); C. B. Stuart-Wortley (ent." 
1865), who was Under-Secretary for Home Affairs in 
1885, and two members of the present Ministry, R. 
W. Hanbury (ent. 1859), and J. A. Chamberlain (ent. 

Amongst men of letters who have come from Rugby 
three names stand out pre-eminent : Walter Savage 
Landor (ent. 1783), A. H. Clough (1829), and 
Matthew Arnold (1837). Of Landor's schooldays, 
characteristic of his after life, there are many excellent 
stories ; even the long-suffering Dr. James had at last 
to protect his authority against repeated onslaughts, 
by getting rid of him ; but his poetic fame is linked 
with Rugby by the lines on " The Swift joining the 
Avon," just as that of Matthew Arnold is by the great 
poem, " Rugby Chapel." Landor, however, was not 
the first Rugbeian to win fame by his pen ; Thomas 
Carte (ent. 1695), whose championship of the Stuart 
cause was such that when Bishop Atterbury, his 
patron, was sent to the Tower in 1722, 1,000 was 
offered for his apprehension, wrote a History of 
England and other works, the manuscripts of which 
are in the Bodleian, and Hume is said to have borrowed 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Old Rugbeians 

largely from his works. Edward Cave (ent. 1700), 
who apparently, left the School under false accusation 
of raiding his housekeeper's poultry -yard, was founder 
of the " Gentleman's Magazine," and a friend of Dr. 
Johnson, who wrote his biography. 

John Parkhurst (ent. 1742) was a celebrated lexico- 
grapher ; and contemporary with Landor was H. F. 
Gary (ent. 1782), the well-known translator of Dante, 
friend of Charles Lamb, who wrote of him as " the 
pleasantest of clergymen," and of Coleridge, who was 
first attracted to him by hearing him reciting Homer 
to his son on the beach at Littlehampton. He is 
buried in Westminster Abbey by the side of Dr. 
Johnson. A little later comes one who perhaps should 
not be excluded, C. Apperley (ent. 1789), who wrote 
on sporting subjects, under the name of Nimrod. 
Amongst antiquarian writers there are several who 
attained some distinction: W. Bray (ent. 1746), R. W. 
Eyton (ent. 1829), J. Fetherstone (ent. 1850), but best 
known to all Rugbeians is the name of M. H. Bloxam 
(ent. 1813), one of the most generous and devoted 
friends that the School has ever had. Amongst politi- 
cal writers are A. G. Stapleton (ent. 1814), who was 
private secretary to Canning, and wrote his life, and 
S. G. Osborne (ent. 1819), who wrote the well-known 
letters to " The Times," signed S. G. O. No Rugbeians 
need reminding of the names of A. P. Stanley (ent. 
1829), and T. Hughes (ent. 1834), whose works did so 
much to spread the fame of their great head master. 
G. A. Lawrence (ent. 1841) was a well-known novelist 
in his time, while the name of " Lewis Carroll " (C. L. 


Old Rugbeians KUdP.Y [CHAT. I 

Dodgson, ent. 1846) is gratefully remembered by 
thousands of readers ; and the philosophical works of 
T. H. Green (ent. 1850) have become classics. 

Of living Rugbeian writers it is harder to speak, 
but the poetry of A. G. Butler (ent. 1844) and James 
Rhoades (ent. 1852) is known to many, as are the 
histories of W. Bright (ent. 1837), J. F. Bright (ent. 
1844), and F. York Powell (ent. 1864), and the his- 
torical and other writings of H. O. Arnold-Forster 
(ent. 1869), while the "Methods of Ethics," and other 
works of Henry Sidgwick (ent. 1852), are well known 
to students of philosophy. 

With the men of letters we should perhaps class 
those who have won a wide fame as scholars, such as 
John Conington (ent. 1838), F. J. A. Hort (ent. 1841), 
J. B. Mayor (ent. 1841), A. Sidgwick (ent. 1853), and 
H. J. S. Smith (ent. 1841) who shone alike in classical 
and mathematical learning, but perhaps the most 
famous scholar from the school was Samuel Butler 
(ent. 1783), Bishop of Lichfield, who as head master 
of Shrewsbury was one of the most successful teachers 
that have ever lived. 

Besides Butler, there are several Rugbeians who 
have presided with success over Public Schools. 
Amongst the earliest are J. Saunders (ent. 1697), 
who was for thirty years master of Sedbergh School 
(which is at the present time in the hands of an old 
Rugbeian, H. G. Hart, ent. 1858), and J. Burton (ent. 
1698), head master of Winchester, who was at Rugby 
before he entered College at Winchester as one of 
founder's kin. 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Old Rugbeians 

Others .are \V. B. Sleath (ent. 17/3), head master of 
Repton for thirty-two years; John Sleath (ent. 1776), 
high-master of St. Paul's ; J. H. Macau lay (ent. 1809), 
who succeeded Sleath at Repton ; C. J. Vaughan (ent. 
1830), to whom Harrow owes so much ; G. G. Bradley 
(ent. 1838), head master of Marlborough ; A. G. 
Butler (ent. 1844), and E. H. Bradby (ent. 1839), who 
successively guided Haileybury from infancy to full 
growth ; T. W. Jex-Blake (ent. 1844), first old Rug- 
beian head master of Rugby since the Act of 1777, and 
finally, F. W. Walker (ent. 1845), the present high- 
master of St. Paul's School. 

Of clergy who became noted in other ways, an in- 
teresting figure is that of W. Paul (ent. 1696), who 
was chaplain to the rebels in 1715, and in the follow- 
ing year was dragged on the hurdle to Tyburn in full 

Rugbeians who have held sees in England are E. 
Legge (ent. 1781), Bishop of Oxford; R. Bagot (ent. 
1790), Bishop of Bath and Wells; T. L. Claughton 
(ent. 1819), first Bishop of St. Albans, and E. Parry 
(ent. 1843), Suffragan of Dover. Amongst those who 
have held colonial sees, we may mention F. Gill (ent. 
1834), Bishop of Madras; E. R. Johnson (ent. 1842), 
Bishop of Calcutta, and T. V. French (ent. 1839), 
Bishop of Lahore, who distinguished himself at Agra 
during the Mutiny, by insisting that the native Chris- 
tians should be allowed to come inside the fort. 

At the present day the bishoprics of Chester and 
Gibraltar and the suffragan diocese of Shrewsbury are 
in the hands of Rugbeians. 


Old Rugbeians RUGBY [CIIAr. I 

The list of old Rugbeian soldiers and sailors who 
have distinguished themselves is a long one. In a little 
book, "Naval and Military Services of Rugbeians," 
published in 1865, which includes those who entered 
the school between 1744 and 1853, there are over 370 
names, and this list is, we believe, incomplete. Selec- 
tion among these is not easy, but there are some names 
which stand out prominent. Chief among them is Sir 
Ralph Abercrombie (ent. 1748), who did so much to 
restore the spirit and discipline of the British army at 
the beginning of the great struggle with France. 
After a distinguished career in different parts of the 
world he was given command of the army to drive 
the French out of Egypt in 1801 ; it is recorded that 
he was on the point of setting out to revisit his old 
school when he was stopped by the news of his 
appointment to this command. He performed his 
task well, defeating the French at Aboukir and again 
near Alexandria ; in the latter battle he was wounded, 
and dying on his way to Malta was there buried. A 
public monument in St. Paul's was voted to him, and 
a peerage and pension given to his family. Another 
heroic name of the time is that of Mansel ; John Man- 
sel (ent. 1744) commanded a brigade of heavy cavalry 
in the Duke of York's campaign in 1794. Stung 
by an unfair suggestion in one of the Duke's des- 
patches reflecting on his zeal he determined to prove 
his worth on the next occasion, and led a series of 
magnificent charges on April 26th at the village of 
Cawdry. After taking the village he attacked in 
succession two strongly posted batteries of eight and 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Old Rugbeians 

fourteen guns, and by their capture decided the 
fortunes of the day. He lost his life, however, and 
his son, Major J. C. Mansel (ent. 1780), was wounded 
and taken prisoner in attempting to save his father's 
life. Another son, Robert Mansel (ent. 1780), was 
in the navy, and in 1801, when in command of the 
" Penguin," eighteen guns, sustained a brilliant en- 
gagement with a French corvette of twenty-four 
guns and two privateers of eighteen and sixteen guns ; 
after an hour and a half the corvette struck colours, 
but the other ships continued the fight till night fell, 
and the " Penguin " suffered so severely that the three 
French vessels managed to escape in the night. Then 
there was G. T. Walker (ent. 1772), who routed a 
French column at Vimiera in 1808, and at the famous 
storming of Badajoz in 1812 led the desperate esca- 
lading attack on the bastion of St. Vincent, by which 
the place was taken, though he lost 500 out of his 
brigade of 900. He was terribly wounded in this 
attack, but contrary to the expectations of his doctors 
recovered, and, after attending the Rugby speeches in 
June of the next year returned to gain fresh wounds 
and glory in the Peninsula ; he lived to his seventy- 
ninth year. A. B. Clifton (ent. 1783), fought with 
Landor when at school, and in many battles with the 
French, and lived to be over ninety. J. B. Skerrett (ent. 
1785), with 1,000 British and 800 Spaniards success- 
fully defended Tariffa in 181 1 against a French army 
of 10,000. He was killed in 1814 in the attack on 
Bergen-op-Zoom, when he was first in the works, 
though he had broken his leg not many weeks before. 


Old Rugbeians RUGBY [CHAI'. I 

N. W. Oliver served under Abercrombie, and elsewhere, 
and deserves mention as one of those who set their faces 
against the absurd system of duelling, and steadily 
refused in 1821 to challenge a naval officer who had 
insulted him. G. G. C. L'Estrange (ent 1791), when a 
boy at school was victim of a time-honoured joke, and 
in innocence of heart and ignorance of Latin showed 
up with woeful consequences two verses which he had 
got another boy to do for him : 

" Hos ego versiculos scripsi, sed non ego feci 
Da mihi, praeceptor, verbera multa, precor." 

In later years he distinguished himself greatly at the 
battle of Albuera in 1811, and was recommended by 
the Duke for promotion "in the strongest manner" ; 
" some way or other," he says, " after the other parts 
of the same brigade were swept off by the cavalry, this 
little battalion alone held its ground against all the 
columns in mass." Other well-known officers who 
served in the Peninsula were J. P. Hamilton (ent. 
J 793)> wno afterwards distinguished himself as 
.chief minister plenipotentiary to Columbia, and Sir 
Willoughby Cotton (ent. 1795), who led the great 
rebellion of 1797 when at school, and, after troubles 
in Europe were over, served with distinction in Burmah, 
Jamaica, and Afghanistan. He was a great friend of 
Sir Henry Havelock. Nor should the exploit be for- 
gotten of H. Hanmer (ent. 1797), head of the school 
when he left in 1807 : when aide-de-camp to Sir Robert 
Hill before Pampeluna, in order to save time in deliver- 
ing an important message, he ran the gauntlet under 


CHAI'. I] HISTORY Old Rugbeians 

the walls of the town and leapt his horse over the 
chasm in the bridge over the Arc, the central arch of 
which had been blown up. Rugbeian sailors of the 
time were naturally not so numerous, though there 
were more than one would expect ; G. L. Proby 
(ent. 1792), afterwards third Earl of Carysfort, was 
probably the only Rugbeian present at the battles of 
the Nile and Trafalgar ; his two elder brothers (ent. 
1 788) had both served their country, one in the navy, 
the other in the army through many campaigns. 

Boys went straight from the Close to the battlefield 
in those days. G. Whichcote (ent. 1803, aged eight), 
one of the twenty-six Rugbeians who fought at Water- 
loo, had been in nine historic battles and sieges before 
then, and had been in the same form with the boy who, 
as senior praepostor of the week, asked for a holiday 
when Paris surrendered in 1815 ! General Whichcote 
lived to be one of the last survivors of Waterloo ; he 
died in 1891. Another real Rugby boy present at 
Waterloo was E. N. Macready (ent. 1807), brother of 
the great actor, who won his lieutenantship at the age 
of sixteen on that great day : his account of the battle 
is quoted by Creasy in the " Decisive Battles of the 

In the Crimea the list of Rugby officers swells to 
seventy-two ; those of them who fell there are com- 
memorated in the Crimean window in the Chapel. 
Notable amongst them were Thomas Unett (ent. 1814), 
who tossed with Colonel Wyndham as to whose column 
should lead the attack on the Redan, won, and was 
mortally wounded there; Sir William Eyre (ent. 1817), 


Old Rugbeians RUGBY [CHAP. I 

the "four-eyed chief" of the Kaffir war (so called 
because he wore spectacles), who led a Brigade in 
the Redan attack and handed over his command when 
wounded to an old schoolfellow, Frank Adams (ent. 
1819). H. W. Adams, brother of the above, who com- 
manded a Brigade and distinguished himself greatly at 
Inkerman and elsewhere, and others who shared in the 
cavalry charges at Balaclava and the various famous 
incidents of the war. Of the young Rugbeians who 
fell in this war one of the most deeply lamented was 
A. Clevland (ent. 1849), wno survived the charge of 
the Light Brigade, killing single-handed three Cos- 
sacks who attacked him as he was returning on his 
wounded horse, but was killed by a shell at Inkerman ; 
while few names are more worthy of remembrance than 
that of J. W. J. Dawson (ent. 1850), who, going straight 
from the School to the Crimea when only sixteen, lost 
his life in an heroic attempt to avert danger from some 
wounded under his charge ; a siege-train had exploded, 
and Dawson, rushing in among the burning shells, 
began to carry them off, when one burst in his hands 
and wounded him mortally. 

Serving in the blockade of Sebastopol by sea was 
J. C. D. Hay (ent. 1883), famous for his exploits 
against the Chinese Pirates in 1849, and m later years 
a Lord of the Admiralty. 

Nor were Rugbeians wanting in the Mutiny. Chief 
among them was W. S. R. Hodson (ent. 1837), famous 
at school for his running, and in history as the organizer 
and leader of Hodson's Horse. His action in killing 
the three princes near Delhi has caused much conten- 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Old Rugbeians 

tion, but his niche in the temple of fame is secure. 
Then there was J. L. Vaughan (ent. 1833), constantly 
mentioned in despatches; H. A. Sarel (ent. 1839), 
who commanded the cavalry under Nicholson at 
Najuffghur and elsewhere, and was fourteen times 
mentioned in despatches ; W. T. Johnson (ent. 1841), 
wounded at Inkerman, who commanded the small 
body of native cavalry in Havelock's relief of Lucknow 
with conspicuous success; H. S. Wilmot (ent. 1843), 
who won the Victoria Cross at Lucknow ; H. S. Mit- 
ford (ent. 1851), recommended for the V.C. ; J. C. 
Gawler (ent. 1844), who had already done splendid 
work in the pacification of Kaffraria as chief of the 
so-called Auca-Gawler tribe ; H. C. Wake, a civilian, 
who gallantly defended Arrah with a handful of men 
against 2,000 mutineers. A window in the Chapel 
commemorates those who fell. 

The military traditions have been well sustained in 
later years. W. Palliser(ent. 1845) was famous for his 
artillery inventions. H. H. Crealock (ent. 1843), well- 
known also as an artist, served through the Crimea 
and greatly distinguished himself in the attack on the 
Redan, being left there while Colonel Wyndham was 
bringing up fresh men; after seeing much other service 
he commanded a Brigade in the Zulu War, while his 
brother J. V. Crealock (ent. 1849), who was twice men- 
tioned in despatches in the Mutiny, was military 
secretary to Lord Chelmsford. H. M. Bengough (ent. 
1851) also served with distinction in the Zulu War. 
H. M. Hozier, author of " The Seven Weeks' War " 
(ent. 1851), gained a name in the Abyssinian Cam- 


Old Rugbeians RUGBY [CHAP. I 

paign of 1868 and was accredited representative of the 
English Government for inspection of Military Matters 
in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. Sir G. S. 
Arbuthnot (ent. 1833), a Crimean veteran, commanded 
the Burmese expedition of 1887, and Rugbeians have 
served with distinction in most of the various cam- 
paigns of the last thirty years, e.g., Sir C. S. B. Parsons 
(ent. 1869), wno nas done good service in Egypt under 
Lord Wolseley and Lord Kitchener, and Sir W. H. 
Meiklejohn, who commanded a Brigade in the Indian 
North-West Frontier War of 1897-8. 

The number of Rugbeians who go into the army 
has naturally increased largely since the formation of 
a special Army Class in 1887 ; consequently^ of the 
numerous Rugbeians serving in the present South 
African campaign the majority are subalterns. Of 
officers who, up to the present moment, have come 
before the public in the war we may mention Col. 
J. F. Brocklehurst (ent. 1867), commanding the 3rd 
Cavalry Brigade in Ladysmith, and Captain J. S. Cay- 
zer (ent. 1886), signalling officer with General Buller. 
Two young officers have been mentioned in despatches : 
1st Lieut. A. J. B. Percival (ent. 1887), for services at 
the Modder River ; 2nd Lieut. C. F. Holford for ser- 
vices at the battle of Colenso. 

It remains to mention some of those who have been 
distinguished in other walks of life : an interesting 
figure, from adventitious circumstances, is that of 
A. S. Douglas (ent. 1759), whose claim to the vast 
possessions of his uncle, the last Duke of Douglas, 
was disputed, and led to one of the most famous 


CHAP. I] HISTORY Old Rugbeians 

lawsuits ever known. We are told that Edinburgh 
was illuminated for three nights when at last the 
House of Lords, in 1769, reversed the decision of the 
Courts of Scotland and decided it in Douglas' favour. 
Amongst doctors there have been Simon Burton 
(ent. 1696), Court physician, who attended Pope in 
his last illness; Henry Halford Vaughan (ent. 1774), 
President of the College of Physicians, and Physician 
in Ordinary to George III.; James Fellowes (ent. 1786), 
who was knighted for his services as Inspector of 
Military Hospitals in the Peninsular War, and also 
got a war medal and clasp for Barossa, and Charles 
Locock (ent. 1810), physician to Queen Adelaide and 
the Royal Family. Amongst judges there have been 
Thomas Coltman (ent. 1796), L. W. Cave (ent 1847), 
Lord Davey (ent. 1848), Lord Bowen (ent. 1850), 
G. Farwell (ent. 1860) ; while the stage owes to Rugby 
one of her greatest actors in W. C. Macready (ent. 
1803), who remained till his death a good friend to 
the School. Among men of science we may mention 
two distinguished botanists, J. Pettiver (ent. 1676), and 
M. J. Berkeley (ent. 1817); H. Highton (ent. 1829), 
for many years a Master at the School, one of the 
pioneers of the electric telegraph, and D. Galton (ent. 
1834), an authority on the hygienic construction of 
buildings, who was President of the British Association 
in 1895 and 1896. Among war correspondents, there 
are F. C. Lawley (ent. 1837), who in the American 
war of 1862 represented "The Times " with the Con- 
federate Army, and W T . H. Bullock (ent. 1850), who 
wrote for "The Daily News" in the Franco-Prussian 

81 G 

Old Rugbeians RUGBY [CHAP. I 

War. Amongst famous travellers we may mention 
Lord Mountmorris (ent. 1784) and Sir John Carr (ent. 
1785), who both published widely-read books of travel; 
W. C. Oswell (ent. 1833), who went with Livingstone 
into Central Africa, and discovered Lake Ngami in 
1849, besides doing much exploration in South Africa; 
F. C. Selous (ent. 1866), whose work in South Africa is 
known to all ; and, lastly, we may add M. S. Wellby 
(ent. 1881), whose recent expeditions in Tibet and 
Abyssinia have shown him to be possessed of the 
qualities which make great explorers. Finally we 
come to the few who have won distinction in the arts, 
J. Lodge (ent. 1814) and H. S. Oakeley (ent. 1843), 
well-known musical composers ; J. E. Hodgson (ent. 
1 846), the only Rugbeian, we believe, who ever attained 
an} 7 reputation as a painter, and C. E. Kempe (ent. 
1851), whose fine work in stained glass is widely 
known and appreciated. 




THE town of Rugby is well known to hundreds who 
have never stayed there, as a considerable railway 
centre. Now that the Great Central Railway is com- 
plete, there are no less than eight approaches to 
Rugby by rail. Travellers coming to it by any one 
of these numerous ways may get a very fair idea- of 
the nature of the country which surrounds it. It is a 
gently undulating grass country, and has been held 
by some to be devoid of beauty. Dr. Arnold, for 
instance, speaks of Warwickshire in one of his letters 
as one of the only five counties he knew which could 
not supply his " physical cravings for the enjoyment 
of nature." " We have no hills," he complains, " no 
plains not a single wood, and but one single copse : 
no heath no down no rock no river (this was very 
hard on the Avon !) no clear stream scarcely any 
flowers, for the lias is particularly poor in them 
nothing but one endless monotony of inclosed fields 
and hedge-row trees." Most people, however, would 
agree that tame as the country is, compared with 
many parts of England, its shady roads, with their 
broad margins of grass, its picturesque villages and 
gentle slopes, have a great charm of their own, 


especially when the hawthorn and the dog-roses are 
in bloom. It is, however, emphatically a country for 
riders of horse or bicycle, not for the pedestrian. The 
town itself is situated on the edge of a low plateau, 
overlooking the valley of the Avon : till the railway 
came, it was quite a small place, much like any other 
Warwickshire village, and must have been rather 
pretty with its old thatched brick and timber cottages. 
Its principal attraction was the large cattle and horse 
fair in November. 

The railway has brought prosperity with its usual 
modern concomitant of ugliness. The old houses 
have nearly all disappeared, and the fields give way 
to rows of cottages and villas of the common type. 
As yet, however, the town is not very large, contain- 
ing only some eleven thousand inhabitants. 

The school buildings, as well as the boarding 
houses, are situated at the south edge of the town, about 
half-a-mile from the London and North Western 
Railway station, which is at the north end. None of 
the buildings date from an earlier period than 1809. 
For the first two centuries, nearly, of its existence, the 
school was situated close to the present market-place, 
on the north side of Church Street, opposite the 
parish church. It has been in its present situation 
since 1750, but the buildings which were then bought 
or erected were all pulled clown in 1809 and the fol- 
lowing years. 


Before dealing with the buildings, however, it will be 
well to give some account of the Close, the place to 



which a visitor's steps will probably be first directed ; 
it is the principal, and was till recent times the only 
playing ground of the school. It lies on the south side 
of the main block of school buildings, and in its pre- 
sent dimensions occupies over seventeen acres. It is 
still, with its broad expanses of well-mown turf and 
its shady trees, the most attractive place in Rugby ; 
but its beauty has been sadly spoiled by the havoc of 
storms, notably those of 1881 and 1895 ; for its 
particular charm lay in the splendid elm trees, mark- 
ing the lines where in old days the hedges had run 
when the ground was still divided into fields. Elm 
trees are notoriously untenacious, and in the storms 
referred to the great giants came crashing down one 
after the other, and their loss is but ill compensated 
for by the increase of room which their disappearance 
has given. Perhaps the latter storm did most to spoil the 
look of the place, for it attacked the line of fine trees 
that ran along the eastern edge, by the Barby road, 
and left but a few stumps to shelter the ground on 
that side. With the trees went also most of the rooks, 
whose pleasant homely note added greatly to the at- 
tractiveness of the Close. Among the trees which have 
disappeared, the earliest to attain fame was a great elm 
which was called " Treen's Tree," after a family of that 
name who held the farmyard in which it stood. Three 
of these Treens, sons of an " old Mother Treen," who 
lived at the corner of Sheep Street at the beginning 
of the century, were champions of the town against 
the school in the pugilistic encounters which were the 
fashion of the time. This tree was the largest in the 


The Trees RUGBY [CHAP. II 

Close, and was spared the fate which has fallen on so 
many of its brethren, by being cut down, in 1818, to 
make room for the chapel, the west end of which is 
built on its site. The wood was used for panelling 
the vestry. Some verses, made on the occasion, have 
been preserved ; though of little merit, they are in- 
teresting as showing the sentiment which the spot 
inspired in the minds of an earlier generation of Rug- 
beians : the last verse may be quoted as a specimen : 

" With thee were formed with thee are fled 

Ties of the distant and the dead, 

And many a former tale and token 

Might cheer old hearts the world had broken ! 

Fond recollections joined to thee ! 

Young loves and friendships, poor Treen's Tree ! " 

It is interesting to note that when, in 1865, the new 
chapel necessitated the removal of an elm planted by 
Dr. Wooll, which stood at the present east end, 
engineering skill came to the rescue, and instead of 
being cut down it was successfully removed by a 
contractor, on a December morning, to the place 
which it now occupies on the south side of the chapel : 
it stood the transplantation wonderfully ; a photo- 
graph taken at the time gives an idea of what a diffi- 
cult business this must have been. 

To a later generation the best known trees were a 
little group of three large elms, called the "Three 
Trees," which stood a little apart from their neigh- 
bours, about the middle of the ground as it was before 
the last addition ; they were within the limits of the 
football ground, and many a Rugbeian can still re- 



The Trees 

member bruising himself against them ; two of the 
three fell in 1881, but the remaining one retained the 
name, no longer applicable, till it shared the same 
fate in 1895. Nor must we forget the tree that helped 
to form Case's Gallows, a peculiar goal set up in his 
school days by the present Waynflete Professor of 
Moral Philosophy at Oxford, in which the cross-bar 


was formed by a horizontal branch of a tree which 
met the short arm of the " gallows." It stood between 
Old Bigside and the Chapel Piece. 

One sad incident is connected with the trees in the 
Close. In the south-west corner of the chapel is a 
marble tablet erected to the memory of a boy who 
was killed by a fall from a tree. It bears the 
following touching inscription : " Kdmundo Lally, 

The Close RUGBY [CHAP. II 

filio unico, cariss: obsequentiss: qui vixit annis xii. m. 
ii. d. xi. H. M. F. C. parentes contra votum superstates. 
Te juvenem egregiae spei, te morte immatura per- 
emptum, quern merito luget Rugbaea, Ave Vale." 

The Close, as it is now, is divided into three parts, 
though, as we have said, the trees which formed the lines 
of demarcation are disappearing : the older northern 
part consists of " Old Bigside " on the east, and the 
" Pontines " and " Chapel Piece " on the opposite side ; 
the name " Pontines " was, of course, given to it because 
of its marshy character ; this must have been very 
much more noticeable in the days when the slope 
down to it was more pronounced ; various levelling 
operations, undertaken at different times, have de- 
stroyed the appropriateness of the name. 

The u Chapel Piece " occupies the greater portion of 
what used always to be called " Littleside," corre- 
sponding to " Bigside " ; for a long time it was con- 
sidered to belong by special right to the School 
House ; no other boarding house could play on it 
unless the School House waived their claim, and there 
was a famous Bigside Levee, or meeting of senior 
boys, on the subject in Tait's time ; for weeks the 
discussion was protracted by the rhetoric of a great 
School House orator, but at length the opponents of 
privilege prevailed, and for the future the ground fell 
to those who could take it first. It was on a corner 
of this ground, behind the old chapel, that, as readers 
of " Tom Brown " need not be reminded, fights took 
place in days when fighting was still an institution. 

These three parts made up, until 1854, the whole 


From coloured map in O. R. Society's pamphlet on "The Origin 
of Rugby Football," by permission. 

The Close RUGBY [CHAP. II 

playing ground, and had been formed from three 
fields bought with the house in 1749, when the school 
moved to its present quarters ; these fields were 
known as the Garden Close, which was by the house, 
the Barn Close, which bordered the Dunchurch Road, 
and beyond these the Pond Close. Apparently the 
Barn Close was from the first used for playing ground; 
" Bigside " cricket and football were played here till 
preparations began, about 1818, for the erection of the 
first chapel. The divisions between the fields were 
levelled, about 1 8 16, when with the new buildings the 
school premises began to take their present shape. 

The Pond Close was a field full of historic interest. 
At the eastern end of it was the tumulus, which, with 
the trees that grow on and around it still forms such 
a pleasant feature of the Close. This tumulus is pro- 
nounced by Mr. Bloxam to be an ancient British 
barrow. "It was used," he says, " for a twofold 
purpose, first as a burial place for some warrior or 
chieftain of the tribe of the Dobuni secondly, for a 
military purpose, as an advanced post for videttes on 
the northern frontier of the tribe of the Dobuni," the 
Avon with the morasses on each side forming the 
barrier between that tribe and their neighbours the 
Coritani. It was one of a series of tumuli, many of 
which still exist, connecting the two ancient British 
track-ways, the Fosse Way and the Watling Street, 
" both of which were subsequently utilized by the 
Romans, and formed into Roman roads." 

At some period later than the end of the thirteenth 
century the monks from the great Cistercian Abbey of 



Pipewell, who had built a Grange some fifty yards 
from the tumulus, dug a broad moat all round it and 
filled it with water from springs in the gravel. This 
was done in order to provide a fish pond for the Grange, 
and keep up the supply of fish which was demanded 
by fast-days. Thus the tumulus became an island, 
and it still retains the name of Island, though the moat 
was drained in 1847. The Island, while still it was 
such, played a considerable part in the school life. It 
was to this natural stronghold that the mutineers re- 
tired in the great rebellion of 1797 (vide p. 45), and in 
later years it became the scene of the curious system 
of" Island Fagging," as it was called, by which for a 
short space of time, in the Spring, the Island was trans- 

The origin of the custom is not quite clear. It 
had certainly been the practice of the boys, from 
the previous century, to cultivate little allotment 
gardens opposite the Close, on the Barby Road appar- 
ently as well as on the Dunchurch Road, and these 
gardens were visited annually by the Trustees and 
visitors on Speech Day, which, until 1836, was on the 
Wednesday in Easter week. According to one au- 
thority, it was when these allotments on the Barby 
Road were sold for building land that the gardens 
were transferred to the Island. Another Old Rug- 
beian writer connects it with the erection of the pre- 
sent school buildings, when the custom of decorat- 
ing the form rooms with flowers and ferns for Speech 
Day fell into disuse, in 1814. However this may be, 
it is certain that it pleased some of the Sixth Form, 


The Island RUGBY [CHAP. II 

to whom the Island was sacred, to cause gardens to 
be made on it. Now the Island being covered with 
trees, is not a place naturally adapted for horticulture ; 
it was consequently necessary, if flowers were to be 
found there on Speech Day, that they should be trans- 
planted thither from some more congenial soil; but for 
some weeks before this was done, in order to keep the 
fags employed, the surface was diligently scratched 
and made ready for the reception of the plants. There 
were more fags in the school than were needed for the 
purpose, so those of the Sixth who took no interest 
in the proceedings excused three or four fags each. 
The rest, some eighty or ninety in number, were 
formed in line by the school buildings, and at a given 
sigrfal raced for the bridge which spanned the moat. 
A few of the first arrivals were excused, and the number 
was still further diminished by the elimination of 
those who first volunteered to jump over the moat, a 
feat seldom accomplished by a fag, for the moat was 
broad, and tfte best jumpers could only clear it in two 
places ; certain moreover seem to have purchased their 
freedom by procuring a spade or other gardening tool. 
Spades, however, must have been rare, and for the most 
part the digging had to be done with knives, large 
nails, or pointed sticks. Making bricks without straw 
must have been light work compared to digging up 
the Island with a pocket knife ! This went on till the 
week before Easter, when turf had to be procured to 
cover the top of the Island, and form borders round 
the beds. The turf was obtained by the simple process 
of cutting it in some neighbouring field where it seemed 



good, and dragging it back to the Island on a " turf- 
cart," a rude wooden conveyance to which some twenty 
fags would be harnessed by a rope with cross-bars at short 
intervals. Finally the fags were despatched to procure 
flowers by the same simple method of appropriation, 
and great must have been the dismay of the owners of 
neighbouring gardens on finding their bulbs and other 



. Speight. 

flowers mysteriously thinned by the young pillagers. 
One wonders if they ever recognized their lost treasures 
when the Speech Day procession passed across the 
Close to inspect the beauties of the Island Gardens. 

In 1836 the system came to an end, for Speech Day 
was changed to the end of the Summer "half," when 
cricket was in full swing, and no one had time to think 
of "dressing" the Island. For several years after the 


The Island RUGBY [CHAP. II 

abolition of Island fagging, the Island remained a place 
of resort for the privileged, and a common meeting 
place : it was on the Island, for instance, or on a little 
mound under the elms, between Bigside and Littleside, 
which has disappeared, that in Tom Hughes's time the 
Bigside Football " levees " met to discuss points that 
arose in connection with the game. But when the moat 
was drained in 1847 the peculiar fascination of the 
place was gone, and though in 1852 a motion to admit 
fags to it was rejected on the ground that the freedom 
of the Island was " the only external mark of respect 
now left to the Sixth," succeeding generations ceased 
to struggle for a privilege that had lost so much of its 
charm, and the Island became common ground. 

Close to the Island, in the middle of the Pond Close, 
lay the Grange of the Monks of Pipewell, who made 
the moat round the Island. It was built in the latter 
part of the thirteenth century, when, like the School 
in later times, the monks moved from a position near 
the parish church. It was surrounded by a moat, 
which, like that round the Island, was used as a fish- 
pond ; but, according to Mr. Bloxam, the moat was 
older than the Grange, and the site of that building 
was one of those moated areas, which were common 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and were 
formed " not as strongholds, but merely for defensive 
purposes against temporary marauders, and sudden 
aggression." It is not known what happened to the 
Grange when the monasteries were dissolved, but the 
moated area remained till about the year 1816, when 
it was filled up. 


Near the south-western corner of the Pond Close, 
not far from where the Bath now stands, there used 
to be a square pool, dug probably, like the island moat, 
by the Monks of the Grange, and for the same reason, 
but interesting chiefly as having been a favourite haunt 
of Landor when he was a boy at the school. It was 
here, as he tells us in a note to the Imaginary Conver- 
sation between Leofric and Godiva, that he wrote a 
little poem on the subject, and after recalling the 
laughter with which the friend to whom he showed it 
greeted the last line, and the earnestness with which 
he entreated and implored him not to tell his school- 
fellows, he gives the verses, " if," as he says, " any one 
else should wish another laugh at me : "- 

" In every hour, in every mood, 

O lady, it is meet and good 
To bathe the soul in prayer, 

And at the close of such a day, 

When we have ceased to bless and pray, 
To dream on thy long hair." 

" May the peppermint " (so he ends) " still be growing 
on the bank in that place ! " 

The path running parallel to the Dunchurch Road 
used to be and is still sometimes called " Scholar's 
Walk," though the name was never very widespread. 

Of" New Bigside," the southern portion of the Close, 
little need be said, for it possesses no antiquarian 
interest. The ground which composed it was incor- 
porated with the Close at three periods ; the eastern 
end, where the boarding house School -field (now Mr. 
Brooke's) stands, was added in 1850, and part of the 
southern end in 1864, but the greater part of the 

97 H 

The Close RUGBY [CHAP. II 

cricket ground, as it now is, was presented by Dr. 
Goulburn in 1854 : it was levelled in that year and the 
next, and was first used for cricket in 1856; before 
that time the fields formed a small farm, where the 
head master kept cows, the farm house standing where 
the boarding house now is, on the Barby Road. New 
Bigside, as it will perhaps continue to be called till 
it is as old as " New College," is sacred to cricket, 
football only being played on one edge of it, and forms 
a very fine ground, especially since its borders were 
enlarged in 1886 (to the great relief of slow bowlers), 
by the levelling back of the bank which runs along 
the south side. 

We must not take leave of the Close without allusion 
to the conjecture of Mr. Bloxam's that -Cromwell's 
Ironsides once encamped in it. It was on March 3Oth 5 
in the year 1645, that Cromwell quartered at Rugby 
with 1,500 horse and two regiments of foot, on his way 
from Northampton to Coventry. On this occasion he 
may well have lodged at the Manor House, the princi- 
pal house in the village (though a tradition points to 
the now demolished " Shoulder of Mutton " Inn), while 
his troopers would occupy the surrounding sheds and 
fields. Nor, perhaps, though the transition is some- 
what abrupt, should we omit to mention " Samson's 
Quarters," a name forgotten now, but well known to 
former generations ; it was given to the corner of the 
Close by the White Gate and the head master's wall, 
because it was there that the caterer (whose reputed 
strength had gained him the name of Samson) spread 
out his provision baskets. 

9 s 


The Close is not the only playing-ground for the 
school. In 1886 a large field of eight acres, a little 
west of the Close, was opened. It was purchased by 
subscriptions raised in memory of C. M. Caldecott, 
of Holbrook Grange, near Rugby, an old Rugbeian 
who took a keen interest in school games, and it is 
named after him. It lies on the south side of the 
Hillmorton Road behind the houses, nearly opposite 
the glebe land, formerly known as Reynolds's field, 
where football used to be played before " Caldecott's " 
was acquired. The greater part of it had been a 
market garden, and the levelling, turfing, etc., was no 
mean task. Some half mile from the school, further 
up the Hillmorton Road, are the fields known as 
" Benn's." These fields, which comprise forty-three 
acres, were bequeathed to the school by Mr. G. C. 
Benn in 1895. They form a farm which for some 
years previously had been rented by Mr. W. G. 
Michell, in order that the school might be able to 
play football there throughout the winter. Two of 
the fields have now been thrown into one and levelled, 
and make a splendid cricket ground. The growth of 
the town rendered the gift of these fields (which are 
close to the Great Central Railway) quite invaluable. 

Of the games with which the Close and other 
grounds are so pleasantly associated in the minds of 
all those who have played there, we shall speak else- 
where ; we must now return to the school buildings. 


Old Buildings RUdlJV [CHAP. II 


We have seen that in spite of the antiquity of its 
foundation, Rugby School can boast of no buildings 
dating from before the second decade of this century. 
In 1750 the school was moved to its present position, 
when for 1,000 the trustees bought the old Manor 
House, standing on the site of the present School 
House. Drawings of this house survive, and display 
on the front a main block, with a Georgian front, and 
two rather barn-like wings stretching towards the Hill- 
morton Road (p. 33). On the Close side, the original 
gables of the house appear, for the main part of the 
house was older than the front (p. 84). On the west 
side of this house, where the School House Hall now 
is, was built the schoolroom ; it was built by a local 
man called Johnson, and closely resembled the original 
schoolroom, except that the south end, towards the 
Close, was built in semicircular shape ; at this end, 
with his back to the window, and dominating the 
room, sat the Master. Over this room were two 
chambers, one a trunk-room, the other the chief 
dormitory, which went by the name of Paradise, 
though, or perhaps because, it had the reputation of 
being not the most peaceable lodging in the house. 
The building was surmounted at the north end by a 
small clock tower, with a large clock ; on the west 
side, the big doors, which were only opened on the 
day when the trustees met in August, were approached 
beneath a Doric porch, introduced, presumably, to 
give a classic tone to the seat of learning. Later on, 


From Ackcrman's " Public Schools.' 

Old Buildings RUGBY [CHAP. II 

as the school grew under James's guidance, the porch 
was removed to the north end of the building, and two 
new schoolrooms were built against the big school (p. 
1 1). But the numbers soon outgrew the accommoda- 
tion, though barns and outbuildings were transformed 
into schoolrooms, and in 1808 the trustees determined 
to rebuild the whole of the school buildings. Various 


architects sent in designs for the work ; Samuel Wyatt, 
the architect whose plans had gained most favour, 
died before he could begin to execute them, and they 
were then intrusted to Mr. Henry Hakewill. 

The buildings which Hakewill erected are commonly 
known as the Old Buildings, and form the School 
House, i.e., the head master's private house and board- 
ing house, and the schoolrooms, which, with the school 
house, form the Old Quadrangle. The buildings* 
however, have been considerably enlarged since their 
erection, and the addition of studies and form-rooms, 
of bath rooms, and, last of all, a new dormitory over the 
Old Big School, has made an extra storey all round the 
quadrangle, so that from the inside of that quadrangle 
it is hardly possible now to estimate the effect of the 
original plan. The best points of view are from the 
High Street, looking up to the " Quad Gates," and from 
the Close. From these points the alterations do not 
seriously interfere with the original idea, and most people 
would agree that, in spite of the obvious architectural 
defects, Hakewill's buildings are worthy of their object. 
They are built of white brick with stone facings and 
battlements, in imitation of the castellated style of the 
fifteenth century, and their principal defect lies in the 



inevitable unreality of the imitation, though we are 
inclined to believe that not a few who see them for the 
first time are surprised to find that they are not a 
hundred years old. But the imitation, though unreal, is 
not offensive, and the splendid solidity of all the work, 
induces a feeling of permanence and security which is 

rhoto. E. H. Speight. 


one of the chief charms of really ancient buildings. 
The main entrance faces, as we have seen, down the 
High Street. On entering the gates, we find ourselves 
in a porch leading to the Quadrangle ; this porch was 
for a long time used regularly as a fives court (see 
p. 215), and here, as we are told in " Tom Brown," the 
School House boys used to assemble in summer for the 
house singing, which took place on the last Saturday 


The Old Library RUGBY [CHAP. II 

of the half-year. In one corner of this porch a winding 
staircase leads up to the Sixth School, built in 1827, 
a rather small but lofty room, where (except for a few 
years in the Eighties) the Upper Bench of the Sixth 
has been taught ever since the room was built. 

Originally this was the Library, and the upper part 
of the room is lined with book cases, containing the 
Bloxam collection, mostly volumes dealing with anti- 
quarian subjects, one of Mr. M. H. Bloxam's many 
legacies to the school ; access to these is given by a 
slight gallery which runs round half way up the room. 
Round the lower part of the room are hung the tops 
of the little tables at which many generations of the 
Sixth have sat, but whose utility was impaired by 
the feature which has given them their interest the 
names carved upon them. The big bow-window look- 
ing out upon the street is filled with very interesting 
stained glass, the gift of Dr. Percival, containing the 
names, and in many cases the portraits, of successive 
head masters from the earliest times till 1894; like 
many other places in Rugby, this room is indissolubly 
connected with memories of Dr. Arnold, for it was 
here, " sitting," as he says in a letter to an old pupil, " in 
that undignified kitchen chair, which you so well re- 
member, at that little table, a just proportional to the 
tables of the Sixth themselves," that- for years he gave 
the daily lessons which made so deep an impression 
on so many of the hearers. " Kitchen chair " and 
table are both preserved in the Art Museum. 

Opening out of this room, but having its principal 
entrance from the Quadrangle, of which it forms the 



north side, is a long gallery, divided now into two parts 
by a wooden partition. This was built as a memorial of 
Dr. Arnold and is called the Arnold Library : all the 


C. A. Dean, Rugby. 

books belonging to the School Library are still labelled 
" Arnold Library," but only the classical books remain 
in their old quarters, the great mass of them being 
housed in the Temple Reading Room. For many 


Old Quadrangle RUGBY [CHAP. II 

years the Museum of the Natural History Society 
was placed in this gallery, but it has lately been re- 
moved to a building of its own. The greater part of 
the room being thus freed has been made into a form 
room for the Lower Bench of the Sixth, and new 
windows on the Quadrangle side have much increased 
its facilities for light and ventilation. The west end 
of the gallery, partitioned off, contains the classical 
books and is also used as a form room for the " Special- 

Coming down the stairs, we find ourselves in the 
Old Quadrangle, a small square paved with asphalt. 
On the west side is the Old Big School, surmounted 
by a newly-erected dormitory belonging to the School 
House. On the south and east the quadrangle is 
surrounded by low cloisters, with rows of School House 
studies above them, the names of which, " New Row," 
and " New Top Row," indicate that they are additions 
to the original buildings. The appearance of the 
south side has not been improved by the building of 
a row of bath rooms, with ugly little lozenge-shapecl 
windows, over the studies. Behind the cloisters on 
the south side are form rooms, in one of which the 
gown has yielded to the sword, for it is used as the 
armoury of the Rifle Corps. It must have been hard 
work for the master in old days when forms of forty- 
five to sixty boys had to be taught in these rooms. 
Above these are School House dormitories. 

At the south-eastern corner of the Old Quadrangle 
a tall arch in the cloister forms the entrance to the 
School House dining hall, which stands, as we have 

1 06 


seen, on the site of Johnson's Big School, and is of 
much the same dimensions as that building ; it is a 
long, tall room, plainly furnished with strong oak 
tables and benches and with an oak wainscoting some 
eight feet high all round it ; a severe room, scornful of 
ornament and impossible to damage. On the east side 

Photo. G. A. Dean. 


are two large fireplaces with broad heavy fenders of 
iron. At one of these took place the roasting so vividly 
described in "Tom Brown." At the south end, under- 
neath the window, is a platform just wide enough to 
receive a bench and table, where the Sixth in the 
house sit at meals. Over the hall is another dormitory. 


School House RUGBY [CHAP. II 

The hall communicates by a side door with the other 
School House buildings, which run round a small inner 
courtyard. Between the hall and the head master's 
part of .the house are the three original storeys of 
studies ; the two upper passages have a row of studies 
on each side looking out on to the Close on one side, 
on to the court on the other. These " dens," as they 
are familiarly termed, are queer, cosy little places, 
where the occupant can sit in his armchair and take 
down a book from any of his shelves without having 
to get up. They are warmed, nowadays, by hot water 
pipes, but till within recent years there was no nearer 
source of heat in winter than a big fire at the end of 
the passage. As custom forbade the study doors of 
all except the house magnates to be left open, but little 
warmth found its way into many of the studies, whose 
occupants had to be content with the less hygienic 
plan of lighting many candles or inviting many friends. 
For the last five years, the School House and all the 
other boarding houses, as well as all the form rooms, 
and more recently the chapel, have been lit with 
electric light supplied by a small private company of 
which the house masters are the shareholders. 

From the middle of the three rows of studies a door 
leads into the entrance hall of the head master's house, 
the most interesting room in which is naturally the 
head master's study, the headquarters of the school 
life for so many years. It is a fair-sized room in acorner 
where the building projects towards the Close, and has 
one window looking out on to the Close, and a second, 
over the mantelpiece, looking towards the chapel. 



At one corner of the room is a turret with a short 
staircase leading straight out into the Close. It was in 
this room that Tom Brown had his first interview with 
Dr. Arnold when he found him with his children round 
him, busily engaged in carving a ship, and hither 
come the successive generations of Rugby boys, when, 
for advice or praise or blame, they are summoned 
to the head master's presence. Few Old Rugbeians 
could enter that room without some feeling of awe. 
In front of the study and the adjoining drawing-room 
there is a narrow strip of garden raised above the level 
of the Close, from which it is separated by a low brick 
wall. It is over this wall that, on the last day of the 
Summer term, one of the trustees (for many years 
past it has been, and we hope it will be for many years 
to come, the Chairman, Lord Leigh) reads out the 
results of the examination on which the leaving exhi- 
bitions are awarded. Beyond the line of the building 
there is more garden, the chief feature of which is a 
fine copper beech, but the greater part of the head 
master's garden lies on the other side of the Barby 
Road : it is notable for a beautiful fern-leaved beech 
which was planted by Dr. Arnold. The outside of 
the head master's house is splendidly covered by Vir- 
ginia creeper and ivy, and the front door with its ivy- 
clad turrets is a favourite subject for sketch and photo- 

Returning to the Old Quadrangle, we have still to 
visit the Old Big School, which forms the western side. 
It is a large plain room, some sixty-three feet by 
twenty-nine, panelled part of the way up in oak. 


Old Big School RUGBY [CHAP. II 

During the first six years of its existence, from 1814 
to 1820, until a chapel was built, services for the school 
were held here on Sundays, and for many years it 
played a more important part than it has done 
since the New Big School, opened in 1886, has become 
the natural meeting-place of the school as a whole. 
Here, for instance, the school assembled for morning 
prayers, and old Rugbeians of the time have vivid 
recollections of the little addresses on points of disci- 
pline, or the like, which from time to time, as occasion 
arose, Dr. Temple delivered after these morning 
prayers. Here, too, for many years, were held the 
speeches, on which occasion a special structure of 
seats was raised for spectators, which went by the 
name of the Oxford Gallery, because the first seats 
erected in this way were meant for Old Rugbeians 
still at the Universities ; the name " Oxford " shows 
that at the time few Rugbeians went to the sister 
University, and indeed the great majority of Uni- 
versity scholarships won by members of the school are 
still at Oxford. Here also the school concerts used 
to be held, the choir being massed on raised benches 
at the south end, round a small organ. Nowadays, 
however, the only occasion on which the school gathers 
there is for the afternoon calling over on half-holidays, 
when the boys come in by the east door, and file out, 
form by form, through the south door, the master of 
the week standing at a sort of pulpit-desk by the door. 
This desk is the sole survivor of the numerous ones of 
the kind that adorned the room in the days when 
several forms were all taught there at the same time. 



Even in recent years want of space has sometimes 
driven two forms together into Old Big School, but the 
modern schoolmaster shuns society in school hours, and 
though a curtain, hung on a rail across the room, veiled 
the two forms from each other, he of the weaker voice 
was generally driven from the field to seek a tem- 


From Ackerman's " Public Schools." 

porary asylum elsewhere. Old Big School still has 
some share in the festivities of Speech Day, for the 
head master's lunch to the guests on that occasion is 
spread here. On the walls at the ends of the room 
are boards, on which are painted the names of all 
those who have gained exhibitions since 1829. 
Amongst these may be noticed the names of many 

ii i 

Old Big School RUGBY [CHAP. II 

Old Rugbeians who have distinguished themselves in 
later life. Behind these boards, at the North end, as 
was seen when they were taken down in 1899 on ac- 
count of building operations, are carved in the plaster 
names of boys who were among the first frequenters 
of the room (they range from 1815 to 1829). As they 
are high up on the wall, they were presumably carved 
at the time when the " Oxford Gallery " was put up 
for Speech Day. All round the room on several 
boards are the names of the various form masters in 
the school ; opposite these the various forms are sup- 
posed to stand when waiting for their turn to come at 
calling over. 

Outside Old Big School, in a shallow recess on the 
east wall, stands the old pump with the date 1817 
on it. On each side of it the curious may notice 
wooden boards with little hooks on them ; these were 
put up some thirteen years ago in order that the 
various fives courts might be " taken " there ; the 
custom had been that the fives courts should be 
engaged for the different hours by the insertion of a 
small note in the wire or wall stating the claim : such 
notes could only be inserted after certain hours, and 
this necessitated much running across the Close and 
consequent formation of a regular track in places. To 
obviate this these boards were put up and now the 
notices are stuck on the hook corresponding to the 
court desired. Carefully are these notes written and 
eagerly are they scanned in the Spring term when 
competition is keen, for custom ordains that if there 
is any mistake at all in the wording, mistake of date 

I 12 


or spelling or name, the note may be " dished," as it 
is called, in favour of another. 

Between the south end of the Old Big School and 
some form rooms a gateway leads into the New 
Quadrangle. The old building on the left projects a 
little way beyond the gateway and ends in a turret ; 
up this a winding staircase gives access to a small but 
well-known form room, long used as a school for the 
Twenty (the form next to the Sixth) in the days of 
Price and Cotton and Tom Evans : in the time of the 
last-named it was known familiarly as Uncle Tom's 
Cabin ; it is now used for the lowest and smallest 
form, but it is famous still as the place where Solomon's 
celebrated maxim is acted upon. It was for this room* 
or its predecessor, that under the head mastership of 
Dr. Wooll the happy motto was suggested, " Much cry 
and little wool." 

The wall beyond the turret formed the front wall of 
one of the two original fives courts of the school ; there 
was ample space, for the old chapel did not extend 
nearly so far east as the present one. A school built 
on to the vestry of the old chapel used later to serve 
as a back wall for the court. The ground was 
paved with flagstones, and bat fives only was played 
there. There was another fives court made in Tait's 
time where the New Quadrangle now is, on the site of 
some cottages which were bought up because their 
insanitary condition made them dangerous to the 

In the New Quadrangle we come to the new build- 
ings of the school ; those in the New Quadrangle con- 

H3 I 

New Buildings 



sist of the chapel on the south side, and a large block 
of form rooms which runs along the north and west, 
and is joined to the chapel by a short cloister (now shut 
in and fitted with racks to hold hats). The rest of the 
new buildings are either in or near the Close. It may 
seem ungracious in the generation which uses them to 


E. H. Speight 


criticise too severely buildings which the generosity of 
countless old Rugbeians has presented to the school, 
but truth will out, and it must be confessed that few 
would claim for these buildings erected by Mr. Butter- 
field (excepting the interior of the chapel) any degree of 
beauty. Their aim is to attain, by free use of different 
coloured bricks and slate, the richness of colours 
characteristic of some Italian building ; but the aim 



has not been realized and the colour effect is irritating 
rather than rich ; especially annoying is the use of 
slabs of slate, instead of glass, to fill the tracery of a 
window. There are few who do not think that with 
all their faults the old buildings are preferable to the 
new, for in their strength and simplicity they do, to 
some extent, attain the qualities of what they imitate. 
It is sad to think what an opportunity for beautiful 
work has been lost at Rugby in the numerous build- 
ings which have been erected since the tercentenary 
in 1867. This building scheme has been accomplished 
mainly through the generosity of old Rugbeians, and 
the way in which they have responded to the appeals 
issued at various times may be judged by the fact 
that between 1867 and 1887 no less than 57,725 was 
raised, mostly by subscription, for various objects, 
principally buildings. 

A short statement of the different amounts which 
make up the large total is given in the report of the 
School Improvement Fund, which was open from 
1877 1887, and is perhaps worth reproducing here. 
It is as follows : 

* d- 

1. By Tercentenary Fund (including Bath, 1876) 22,156 7 10 

2. By School Improvement Fund (begun 1877) 20,729 6 6 

3. By Funds at the disposal of the Masters 1 875 

1885, devoted to the completion of New 

Quadrangle ' . . 2,767 o o 

4. BytheGoverningBody,forGround^5,85o; viz., 

a. For Temple Observatory, Art Museum and 

Temple Reading-Room 1,700 o o 

b. For New Big School 3,250 o o 

c. For Caldecott field 900 o o 

New Buildings RUGI5Y [CHAP. II 

L > d. 

5. By subscription to Caldecott field through 

W. H. Bolton, Esq 1,191 6 10 

6. By subscription to new Racquet Court and 

Fives Courts 1,69$ 

7. Second Sanatorium (from Sanatorium Fees) . 1,328 u 10 

8. Tait Memorial Scholarship Fund 2,007 14 6 

Total (irrespective of ,2,500 devoted to the 
Memorial Windows in Chapel, and the 
Stanley Monument) 57,725 7 6 

It may be added here, that since 1887 there have 
been various funds and bequests, chief among which 
are the bequests in 1895 by the late Mr. G. C. Benn, 
(an old Rugbeian), of forty-three acres on the Hill- 
morton Road, for playing fields (see p. 99), and the 
fund in memory of the late Rev. P. Bowden-Smith, 
by which the west end of the chapel has been rebuilt 
and enlarged (completed 1898). Future generations 
of Rugbeians will not lack examples to inspire their 
generosity towards their school. And in this connec- 
tion should be recorded the names of two old Rugbeians, 
the late Frederick Dumergue, secretary of the Tercen- 
tenary Fund, and Dr. Jex-Blake (head master from 
1874 1887, now Dean of Wells), secretary of the 
School Improvement Fund, whose untiring energy 
did so much to insure the success of the two funds. 

To return to the New Quadrangle. The blocks of 
form rooms (the west block completed the quadrangle 
in 1885), have only associations too modern to make 
them of general interest : we turn therefore to the 





The present chapel has grown out of the original 
chapel built by Hakewill and finished in 1821 ; need- 
less to say it is entirely different in character, and now 
nothing remains of Hakewill's chapel ; till 1898, hovv- 


From Radclyffe's "Memorials." 

ever, when the west end was rebuilt and enlarged in 
memory of the Rev. P. Bowden-Smith, this was not 
the case, for the building erected by Mr. Butterfield 
(finished in 1872), incorporated the whole west end 
of the old chapel. The old chapel, interesting from 
its associations, which however it has transferred to 
its successor, was not a thing of beauty ; it was 



built, like the rest of Hake will's buildings, of white 
brick, with stone dressings, in the style which has 
been nicknamed " The Georgian Gothic," and with 
its heavy tracery and stout buttresses pretending to 
support a very solid wall, it was but a very clumsy 
imitation of fifteenth-century \vork. Inside it was 
still worse, for there was a flat plaster ceiling inter- 
sected by thin beams in a geometrical pattern, a 
ceiling much detested by Dr. Arnold : its length was. 
ninety feet, its breadth and height (to the ceiling) 
thirty feet, and the solidity of its construction may be 
judged from the fact that it cost .7,500. Many 
additions were afterwards made to the old chapel, 
but only the " Narthex " or ante-chapel, erected in 
1856, survives. 

The present chapel consists chiefly of a long, lofty 
nave (the full length of the building is 140 feet): 
since the recent alteration of the \vest end (carried 
out by Mr. Jackson, with Mr. Butterfield's approval), 
the height of the nave has been made uniform all the 
way down ; the old west end was lower and narrower 
than the new one, which has a small aisle on each side. 
A remarkable feature of this west end is that the large 
windows of the former building have been put in the 
clerestory, the aisles being low. Beyond the west 
end the chapel widens out into a transept, the roof of 
the nave being supported by tall round pillars of red 
and white stone in alternate blocks. Beyond the 
transept three steps lead up under a lofty arch to the 
chancel, which terminates in an apse. The roof of the 
chapel is of open woodwork, elaborately painted. The 




whole of the interior (excepting the west end) is de- 
corated with coloured bricks and painting, forming 
patterns on the red brick and white stone of which 



E. H. Speight. 

the building is composed. Exception may be taken 
to the details of this decoration, but the general effect 
of the interior of the chapel is undoubtedly good, its 
height and fine proportions giving it a great air of 



space and dignity. This has been much increased by 
the enlargement of the west end, though the large 
west window is not altogether successful, two very 
heavy mullions running straight up giving it a rather 
stiff and clumsy appearance. All the old windows of 
the chapel are filled with stained glass : some of these, 
and of the mural monuments and tablets, of which the 
building contains no less than seventy-two, are of 
great interest. 

Entering the chapel by the small door from the 
quadrangle, on the south side, we find ourselves under- 
neath a small oak gallery, containing the keyboard of 
the organ. The organ chamber is on our left, and 
was built, as an inscription on the wall outside shows, 
by the pupils of Dr. Temple : a warning perhaps is 
necessary (for the inscription is written in very large 
characters) that the words " Hanc aediculam " refer, 
as the diminutive shows, to the organ chamber only, 
and not, as the casual observer might perhaps suppose, 
to the chapel itself. 

The organ is not the original instrument of the 
chapel, though, it has incorporated in it something 
of its predecessor. The first organ was built by 
Elliott in 1821, and consisted of great organ, swell 
organ to tenor F, and a set of pedal pipes. It was 
put at first in a gallery over the west door, but was 
subsequently removed to a chamber built for it over 
the vestry, on the north side of the chapel, near the 
east end ; at the same time a choir organ of five 
stops and a second set of pedal pipes were added 
by Hill. The erection of the present organ was 



begun in 1872, after the enlargement of the chapel. 
The work was done by Messrs. Bryceson, who in- 
cluded three stops from the old organ in the new 
one. It is a fine instrument, and, as it now stands, 
has cost little short of ^"2,000. The original plan, 
however, is not yet complete : fifteen stops, the pro- 
bable cost of which would be about 800, are still 
wanting. The present gallery for the keyboard was 
built in 1897 ; before that it stood on the south side 
of the chapel, some forty feet from the body of the 
instrument, the connection being partly by electric 
and partly by pneumatic action, an arrangement which 
was inconvenient in many ways. The electric action 
has been retained. The old organ stood for many 
years in Old Big School, but was taken down when a 
new instrument was built for New Big School, soon 
after its erection. 

Above the organ loft is a window representing the 
" Confession of St. Thomas " : its interest lies in the 
fact that it was erected after Dr. Arnold's death, in 
accordance with his wishes ; its subject was one to 
which his mind very frequently recurred, and, when the 
pain of his last short illness seized him, the first words 
he uttered were those which form the inscription of 
this window : " And Jesus said unto him, Thomas, 
because thou hast seen me thou hast believed ; blessed 
are they that have not seen and yet have believed." 

The window is unfortunately far from beautiful. 

On the wall close by this window is a fine memorial 
by Chantrey of Thomas James, head master from 
1778 1794 (vide p. 36); he is seated, in wig and 


Dr. James RUGBY [CHAP. II 

gown, with a book on his knees, the figure being in 
deep relief: below is an inscription by Bishop Butler, 
his favourite pupil. 


Coll . Regal . apud . Cantabr . olim . soc . 

Scholae . Rugbeiensis . ab . a . s . MDCCLXXVIII . ad . a . s . 

MDCCXCIV . magister 

Vixit . annis . LV . mensibus . x . diebus . IX . 
decessit . X . Kal . Octobr . a . s . MDCCCIV . Vigornia: . 

sepultus . est 

Erat . in . hoc . viro . ingenii . acumen . singulare 
Quo . venustates . literarum . ipse . penitus . persentiret 
Erat . in . iis . exponendis . verborum . naturalis . non . 

fucatus . nitor 

ita . ut . quod . ipse . optime . intellixisset 

Copiose . et . dilucide , cum . aliis . communicaret 

Erat . lepore . condita . gravitas . qua . mentes . puerorum . 

ad . se . alliceret 

et . discendi . taadium . docendi . suavitate . leniret 
Erat . in . sumptibus . eorumdem . moderandis . in . 

valetudine . tuenda 
in . moribus . ad . pudicitiam . probitatein . pietatem . 


animus . vere . paternus 

his . ille . virtutibus . instructus 

Scholam . hancce . magna . discipulorum . frequentia . 

magno . famae . cumulo 

auxit . atque . ornavit 

Qui . autem . apud . discipulos . suos . sancti . parentis . 

locum . tenuit 
idem . ille . huius . scholar . gubernatoribus . ita . cams . 

acceptusque . fuit 

ut . ab . iis . una . mente . regi . honorifice . commendaretur . 

cujus . favore . prasbendarius . in . ecclesia . cathedrali . 

Vigornice . constitutus . esset 

tali . et . prseceptori . et . amico 

alumni . ejus . pio . gratoque . animo . h . m . p . c . 

a . s . MDCCCXXIV . 

Arnold's grave RUGBY [CHAP. II 

The seats in the chapel, as in most other buildings 
of the kind, run east and west, facing each other, the 
blocks being slightly raised as they recede from the 
middle : a few steps then on and down from the north 
door, bring us to the end of the central gangway, just 
below the chancel steps : here a plain gray stone, in- 
scribed simply with a small cross and the name, marks 
the grave of Thomas Arnold. He is buried in the 
vaults which he caused to be made at what was the 
east end of the old chapel : he alone of the head 
masters is buried there, with a few of his pupils who 
died at school, and two assistant masters. The vaults 
were afterwards closed. The plain stone which marks 
his grave is a worthier and more fitting memorial of 
him than the badly executed monument which stands 
in the north transept. On the step above the grave 
stands the lectern, where on Sundays members of the 
Sixth Form read the lessons from a Bible presented 
lately by the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Temple). 
On the south, at the corner of the chancel, is the 
pulpit of plain oak : it was part of the furniture of the 
first chapel, and has been in use ever since. 

The chief feature of the chancel is the window at 
the east end, representing the Adoration of the 

It was brought by Dr. Arnold from the Church of 
Aerschot, near Louvain, in Belgium, at a time when the 
parish was raising funds to restore the church, and 
with this object sold some of its stained glass. The 
three kings are represented in the three stages of 
manhood which tradition associated with the names 



Balthazar, Melchior, and Caspar. Balthazar, King of 
Saba, the old man, kneels before the Virgin and 
Child in a beautiful crimson mantle and offers his 
gifts ; to the left advances Melchior, King of Araby ; 
to the right stands Caspar, King of Egypt, here, as 
is usual in Northern art, depicted as dark-skinned. 
Behind the principal figures runs a semicircular 
balustrade, beyond which areseen peasants and serving- 
men, and charming little glimpses of landscape. Above 
the Virgin, in the centre of an arch, is a disc inscribed 
with a large M. On either side are two twisted pillars, 
recalling the two pillars taken from the Temple at 
Jerusalem to Constantinople, which appear also in 
Raphael's cartoon of the Beautiful Gate of the Temple. 
The design of the window has been attributed, solely 
on general grounds, to Albert Dtirer, and it has been 
classed as fifteenth-century work : this is certainly not 
so : the architecture depicted in the window, as well as 
the general style, show it to be undoubtedly a sixteenth- 
century work, and there is no reason to connect it 
with Albert Diirer. An interesting resemblance has 
been noticed by Mr. Kempe in the figure of Melchior 
(the king on the left) to a print by Lucas Cranach 
the younger of Charles V., the Emperor, the points of 
resemblance being in the projecting under lip and 
bent knee. The resemblance, however, is not enough 
to build hypotheses of design upon, or to prevent the 
natural conclusion that the window is by some Flemish 
artist of the sixteenth century. The window has, of 
course, received modern additions to fit it to its 
present position ; the angels in the small upper lights 


East window 



and the blue in the trefoils of the three principal 
lights are modern, as is the border at the bottom. The 
head of the Virgin is also modern, the difference in 
the colour of the hair of the old and new part being 

very noticeable. Ac- 
cording to C. W. 
Radclyffe's " Me- 
morials of Rugby" 
(1843), the twisted 
pillars are also mo- 
dern, but this would 
seem to be a mis- 
take. The window 
was the gift of the 
masters and was set 
up in 1834. It is 
interesting to note 
that two windows 
from the same 
church, representing 
the Nativity and 
Pentecost, were ob- 
tained at the same 
time for Wadham 
College Chapel. 

On either side of 
the east window in the apse are two lancet windows. 
These were filled with stained glass representing single 
figures of prophets and saints, in memory of Dr. Cotton, 
Bishop of Calcutta, who was an assistant master at the 
school from 1836 1852. They were designed by Mr. 


-. *t1K@*! ;,. _ , 

!! 11 fir* m\ 

Photo. E. H. Speight. 



Butterfield and executed by Messrs. Gibbs. Below 
the windows are a central cross and eighteen medal- 
lions in mosaic ; round the cross are the four evan- 
gelists, on the left Old Testament heroes, on the right 
some mediaeval saints. They were presented by two 
masters and some Old Rugbeians. Above the win- 
dows in the apse is a large mosaic representing God 
the Father surrounded by the symbols of the four 
evangelists, and angels at the sides. On the com- 
munion table are a pair of seventeenth-century 
candlesticks in bronze gilt, given by Rev. R. Bird, 
assistant master 1821 1841. On either side of the 
chancel are memorial slabs, some of men who have 
gained renown in the outer world or spent their lives 
in the service of the school, others of Rugbeians whose 
promise has been cut short by an early death. On 
the south wall of the chancel is a window represent- 
ing the Flight into Egypt. It was presented to the 
school by Rugbeians in India in memory of their 
comrades (who fell previous to the Mutiny) : an in- 
scription on brass below runs thus : 

" Hanc fenestram Rugbeienses apud Indos Orientales 
commorantes suorum baud obliti. P. C. MDCCLii." 

It is in what was called Nuremberg style, and came 
from the workshops of the Kelners, who supplied 
several of the new windows in Cologne Cathedral. 
The art of staining glass was at a low ebb unfortun- 
ately at the time, and the window with its common- 
place design and smooth bad colouring is not an 
ornament. Already the colours are beginning to run, 


Windows RUdliV [CHAP. II 

as they did in a window by the same firm which was 
presented by Dr. Goulburn and stood in the south 
transept till the recent alterations. The subject was 
Christ blessing Children, and less than half a century 
had reduced it to a lamentable condition : it is a pity 
that the same fate does not overtake all bad glass. 
But though the glass perishes the memory of the gift 

Very different to these is the first window on the 
south wall, as we leave the chancel. It is a very 
beautiful work, which came from Rouen, and was put 
up in 1839, having been purchased by subscription. 
No details of its purchase have been handed down, but 
the fact that Rouen was its place of purchase would 
not necessarily indicate that it is French work. It 
has been put down as fourteenth-century work, but it 
cannot be so early : the flat triple arch in the upper 
part with its renaissance mouldings would seem to 
point to the sixteenth century. The dreadful glass 
in the tracery at the top and the scroll below were 
added to adapt it to its present shape. It has been 
generally taken, as the texts on the scroll indicate, to 
represent the Presentation in the Temple. There are, 
however, certain features which militate against this 
theory. The figure of the man kneeling at the Virgin's 
feet and holding a book is more suggestive of some 
other saint than Simeon, who, we believe, is uni- 
versally represented as standing to take the child 
in his arms. The beautiful figure, too, of the woman 
kneeling on a cushion suggests in many ways the 
figure of a donor. However this may be, the glass is 




very beautiful. The figure of Simeon, if it be Simeon, 

is said by Radclyffe to be modern, while Benson, in 

" The Book of Rugby School," 

speaks of it as partly modern : 

if any of it be modern it has 

been exceedingly well done. 

The blue background seems to 

show signs of different hands 

in its differences of colour and 

greater and less markedness of 


Close by this window on the 
Wall is a monument by West- 
macott to Dr. Wooll, who was 
head master from 1806 1828, 
and who, as the inscription by 
an old pupil, the Rev. J. H. 
Macaulay, head master of Rep- 
ton school, testifies, " amores 
omnium singulari quadam sua- 
vitate sibi conciliavit."' 

By the door on the projecting 
east wall of the transept is a 
beautiful portrait medallion by 
Mr. Bruce-Joy of the late Arch- 
bishop Benson, assistant master 
from 1852 1859; above are 
some memorial tablets. The 

two south windows of this transept were designed by 
Mr. Butterfield and executed by Messrs. Gibbs. The 
one further west was given by Mrs. Buckoll in memory 

129 K 


E. If. Speight. 


Windows RUC.I5Y [CHAP. II 

of her husband, the Rev. H. J. Buckoll, assistant master 
from 1826 till his death in June, 1871, and author of 
the hymns for the beginning and end of term and of 
several others well known to all Rugbeians. The sub- 
ject is the Transfiguration : in the upper lights are our 
Lord in glory with Moses and Elias ; below are Peter, 
James, and John ; and below these again three small 
groups representing the Feeding of the Multitude. 
The corresponding window was erected by the Rev. 
C. B. Hutchinson, assistant master from 1858 1884, 
and his wife, in memory of their only son, who died in 
May, 1866, in his fifth year. Above are our Lord in 
glory with St. Stephen and St. John the Baptist ; below 
are the three archangels, typical of guardian spirits ; 
and at the bottom three small groups of the Nativity, 
Christ with the Doctors in the Temple, and Christ 
blessing little Children. 

The window in the west wall of this transept was 
inserted in 1898, in memory of Dr. Goulburn, head 
master from 1850 1858. It is a fine example of the 
work of a distinguished Old Rugbeian artist, Mr. 
C. E. Kempe, and, like the window which it has re- 
placed, represents Christ blessing Children : unfortun- 
ately, in the position it occupies it is not seen to the 
best advantage. 

The next window on the south wall of the west end 
is again an old window. It was bought by a subscrip- 
tion raised at the Universities and was erected in 1840. 
It came from Germany (the exact place of purchase 
has not been recorded), and is probably sixteenth- 
century work. While not to be compared to the two 



old windows previously mentioned, it has considerable 
merits of colour. It represents our Lord before Pilate. 
When it was bought it is said to have " suffered some- 
what from the introduction of a gray landscape and 
the intrusion of a mean figure holding an ewer before 
Pilate's feet ": these were removed about 1855. As 
in the other cases the text is an addition. The flat 
triple arch is again noticeable in the composition of 
this window. 

The last window on the south side, by Messrs. 
Hardman, depicts the Entombment and Resurrection. 
It was presented by friends in memory of Old Rug- 
beians who died in the Indian Mutiny : their names 
are recorded on a brass plate below the window. The 
west window in the south aisle has recently been filled 
with glass by Morris and Co., from a design by Sir 
E. Burne-Jones. It was presented by J. Collins, Esq., 
in memory of his mother. The west doors open into 
an ante-chapel : over the door on the inside is in- 
scribed in gold letters : eutppavfav STTI rei$ e!pmo<nv JAOI elg 
TOV olnov xvpov TTO^VJO^X " I was glad when they said 
unto me, We will go into the house of the Lord." 
The windows in the ante-chapel are by a French 
artist and were given principally by Dr. Goulburn. 
They represent "The Confession of Boys, The Acts 
of St. Lawrence, The First Communion, and The 
Four Professions." Returning to the chapel the first 
window on the north side is a companion window to 
the " Mutiny Window," by the same firm, put up in 
memory of Old Rugbeians who fell in the Crimea : it 
represents the Confession of the Centurion. The 

Windows RUC.IJY [CHAP. II 

next window is again an old one : it was inserted in 
1836, having been bought by subscription. It is said 
by Radclyffe to have come, like the east window, 
from Aerschot, but curiously enough Benson does 
not record the fact. Like the other old windows, it 
is probably sixteenth-century work. The colour is 
good, but it is perhaps the least attractive of the old 
windows. The subject of it has been disputed : the 
inscription, added when the window was put up, runs 
thus " Apparuit primo Marian Magdalenae. Sanctus 
Marcus, cap. xvi., ver. 9 " : but it certainly represents 
the traditional appearance of our Lord after His 
resurrection to His mother. He appears, as Benson 
says, in red, " in garments dyed from Bozra," with 
" the standard of His victory over Death and Hell in 
His hands," while she is turning towards Him, "join- 
ing her hands and, according to the plaintive old 
legend, falling upon her knees, to thank Him meekly 
for that He had been pleased to bring redemption to 
man, and to make her the humble instrument of His 
great mercy." 

The window in the west wall of the north transept 
contains three small single figures, by Wailes and 
Hardman : the central figure of Christ blessing a child 
was given by Mr. Bloxam ; the St. John on the right 
by friends in memory of R. B. Townsend, a Rugbeian 
who died young in 1852 ; the St. Luke on the left by 
members of the Sixth Form in 1846. 

Close by on the north wall are monuments to Dr. 
Arnold and Dean Stanley, one above the other. Both 
monuments have recumbent figures : that of Stanley 



is a fine work by Boehm, full of quiet dignity ; that 
of Arnold above it is by Mr. John Thomas, a well- 
known sculptor of the time, but it is sadly to seek both 
in design and execution. It bears the following in- 
scription, written by Arnold's great friend, Chevalier 
Bunsen : 

Vir. Rev. 


Historiae . recent . aevi . tradendae . apud . Oxonien . pro . Reg 
hujus . Scholae . per . annos . xiv . antistes . strenuus . unice . dilectus 

Thucydidem . illustravit . Historiam . Romanam . scripsit 

Populi . Christiani 
libertatem . dignitatem . vindicavit . fidem . confirmavit . scriptis . vita 

Christum . praedicavit . apud . vos 
Juvenum . animos . monumentum . sibi . deligens. 

Tanti . viri . effigies . vobis . hie . est . proposita 

Corpus . sub . altari . conquiescit 
Anima . in . suam . sedem . patre . vocante . immigravit 

fortis . pia . laeta 

Nat. a. d. XIII . Jun.MDCCXC. Mort.a. d. xn. Jun. MDCCCXLII 
amici . posuerunt. 

The inscription on Dean Stanley's monument runs 
as follows : 

"Effigie, quam spectatis, revocatur alumnus hujusce scholae 
germanus et primarius, ejusdemque, et supra jacentis magistri, 
interpres unicus, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Ecclesiae West- 
monasteriensis, ubi sepultus est, Decanus, qui cum litteris, 
theologia, perigrinatione, optiini cujusque consuetudine, ingenio, 
vel senior, recente, apud aequales floreret, in publicis et privatis 
officiis ita versatus est, ut patriam et civitatem dei uno amore 
complexus, Christum non in deserto non in penetralibus quojrere, 
sed palam loquentem mundo, docentemque in synagoga et in 




[CHAP, ii 

templo, pertranseuntemque benefaciendo, sibi imitandum pro- 
ponere videretur. Natus Id. Decemb. A. S. MDCCCXV obiit a. d. 
xv. Kal. Sext. MDCCCLXXXI." 

Above these monuments is a window in memory of 
Mrs. Arnold, wife of Dr. Arnold, given by members 
of the family : it represents in the upper lights 



E. If. Speight. 

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; below them Sarah, Re- 
bekah, and Rachel ; and below these three small scenes, 
Abraham entertaining angels, Rebekah meeting Isaac, 
and Jacob meeting Rachel. The corresponding win- 
dow on the same side was erected to the memory of 
the Rev. C. T. Arnold, assistant master from 1841 



1878 : at the top are Nehemiah, David, and Malachi, 
then Ezra, Elijah, and Zechariah, and at the bottom 
three scenes of the Sermon on the Mount. These 
windows are by the same firm as the ones opposite 
them in the south transept. Below this window is a 
large memorial slab to Archbishop Tait, head master 
from 1842 1850, and one to Theodore Walrond. 

The inscription to Tait is by Archbishop Benson, 
and runs as follows : 

" Ne vaster sacer paries nomine ceteris caro vobis proprio 
videatur indigere, Archibald! Campbell Tait, hie legite virum 
animo vere Rugbeiensi atque Arnoldiano octo annos Arnoldo 
proximos vobis prasfuisse profuisse. Academiae qui antea 
Oxoniensi in deliciis habitus, capitulo post Carleolensi sedibus 
Londinensi Cantuariensi prasfectus, XIII tandem annos in pri- 
matu gerendo versatus totius Anglise immo majoris Britannia, 
indolem virilem cum simplici pietate conjunxit. Judicio sen- 
suque omnium communi plusquam omnes usus, partibus nihil, 
multum paci concedendo, morum, orationis, prudential, gravitate, 
sale, securitate, patribus et senatus et ecclesiae consiliantibus 
auctor sanus sapiensque placuit. Tantum virum Deus vita; 
disciplina pame tragica ut filium Ipsi acceptum erudiebat. 
Domum ad suos revocavit in DCA prima Adventus A DNI 


Finally, among the memorial slabs on the east wall 
of this transept, we may notice one written by Dr. 
Arnold to a pupil whose life was lost in the endeavour 
to rescue another boy when bathing in Churchover 
Brook. " Infra sepultus jacet JOHANNES WALKER, 
I.E., juvenis ingeniosus, mitis, pius, proptereaque im- 
pavidus, qui sodalem vicino fluvio jam submersum 
morti erepturus, ipse vitam vita redemit. A.n. v. 
Kal. Sept. A. S. MDCCCXLI aet. XVI." 


Chapel Exterior RUGBY [CHAP. II 

The chief feature of the exterior of the chapel is a 
hexagonal tower at the east end, which is surmounted 
by a heavy-looking stone cap. The height of the 
tower is 138 feet. It is strengthened at the base by 
ungainly buttresses, and the exterior of the building 
in general lacks the dignity which the interior possesses 
in large measure. On the north wall of the west end 
is an inscription (by Mr. R. Whitelaw) recording the 
rebuilding of the west end in memory of the Rev. 
P. Bowden-Smith, assistant master from 1852 till his 
death in 1895. It runs as follows : 

" Carum et honoratum nomen Philippum Bowden-Smith 
Rugbeiensem per XLVII annos discipulum magistrum amplificata 
hac aede commemoraverunt omni aetate uno animo amici an. sal. 


The enlarged chapel was reopened by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Dr. Temple) in October, 1898. 
The Goulburn window and Benson memorial were un- 
veiled by him at the same time. It should perhaps 
be added that a scheme is now on foot for the erection 
of memorials to two of the most distinguished sons of 
Rugby one to A. H. Clough, the other to Matthew 
Arnold, whose well-known poem, " Rugby Chapel," is 
the best expression of his father's greatness and his 

The hymn-book used in the chapel is a special one ; 
it has grown through several editions from a small 
book published in 1804, the first special hymnal of 
any public school, which contained only thirty-eight 
" Psalms, Anthems, and Hymns." The present edition, 
published in i897,contains 359hymns. Its chief features 



are the number of hymns (forty) based on psalms, and 
the hymns for special school occasions written by the 
Rev. H. J. Buckoll, who is commemorated in a window 
in the south transept. Several of the best tunes in 
the special tune- book are by music-masters and other 
masters at the school. 


The path from the chapel along the west side of the 
Close leads to the bath. This was opened in 1876, 
and is the chief of many splendid gifts to the school 
from the Rev. T. W. Jex-Blake. Over the door is 
the inscription " Rugbeiensis Rugbeiensibus." The 
actual water surface of the bath is 70 feet long by 
30 feet broad ; the depth is graduated from 3 feet 
6 inches to 6 feet 6 inches ; there is a heating appa- 
ratus by which the temperature of the water is so re- 
gulated that the bath can be used all the year round. 
The old bath, on the site of which it stands, was a very 
small one (dug as early as 1754), fed by the springs 
which in former times filled the fishponds of the monks 
of the Grange : the water, according to all accounts, 
must have been very cold. A good swimming bath 
had become more of a necessity, since the growth of the 
town had destroyed the charm of the bathing-places 
in the Avon, beloved by former generations, " Swift's," 
named after the 

" Silent and modest brook ! who dippest here 
Thy foot in Avon, as if childish fear 
Withheld thee for a moment ' 


Gymnasium RUGBY [CHAP. II 

and " Aganippe," and the shallower stretch of 
" Sleath's." 

At the south-west corner of the Close are several 
buildings two covered Eton Fives-courts, built and 
presented in 1864 by some masters whose names are 
recorded on a stone inside the court the gymnasium 
and workshop, and the " New " cricket pavilion. The 
gymnasium was opened in 1872. It is a large building, 
particularly ugly on the outside, but providing inside 
ample space and every conceivable kind of appliance 
for the development of muscles. It is built on the 
side of a slope, and the ground floor was fitted up and 
opened in 1880 as a workshop. A small subscription 
is charged for the use of the bath, gymnasium, and 
workshop, which are controlled by skilled attendants. 
In the south-east corner of the Close are two racquet 
courts and several fives courts. The first racquet 
court was built in 1859, the second in 1884. Both courts 
have been recently covered with Mr. Bickley's patent 
cement, which, while hard and durable, has the great 
advantage of allowing no moisture to form on it, so 
that the courts can be played on now on the man}' 
days when a quick change of temperature causes the 
ordinary cement wall to be bathed in wet. Fives 
courts are built against the walls of the old racquet 
court on both sides. These are " Rugby " fives courts, 
oblong courts with plain walls ; they are of different 
dimensions, the results of various experiments at 
realizing the ideal size for a court of the kind. New 
fives courts have been and are being erected in a line 
with the new racquet court, and the dimensions of the 



latest of these is 29 feet by 19 feet ; the back wall is 
5 feet high, with wire netting above, the front wall 
about 30 feet high, the service board 29 inches. The 
courts which experience has shown to be least suitable 
for hand fives are principally used for squash racquets. 
Between the two racquet courts is a bat fives court 

I 'ho in. /:. H. Sf eight. 

NI-:\V lilCSIDK, BATH, AND < ; Y.M N ASI I'M. 

with no side walls, and at the back of the old racquet 
court are two uncovered Eton fives courts : here, too, 
is a large corrugated iron shed, presented by Dr. 
Percival, where cricket can be practised in the spring 
on a cocoanut matting pitch. Close by the racquet 
courts is the boarding house (now Mr. W. P. Brooke's), 
the only one (excepting the School House) built on 
school property, and owned by the Governing Body : 


Temple Observatory RUGBY [CHAP. II 

it was built by Sir Gilbert Scott. Just beyond it we 
come to the Island (see p. 92), on the edge of which 
is the old cricket pavilion. 

A gate behind the Island takes us out into the 
Barby Road. Almost opposite this gate a road leads 
in a few yards to the sanatorium, where all serious 
cases of illness are attended to ; it contains forty beds. 
Opposite the sanatorium, on the left side of the road, 
is the Temple Observatory. This building was due 
mainly to the Rev. J. M. Wilson, assistant master 
1859 1879, now Archdeacon of Manchester, who pre- 
sented the telescope. It was opened in 1878, with 
sub-curator's house attached, on ground given by the 
Governing Body. The big telescope in the observatory 
was originally made for the Rev. W. R. Dawes, a well- 
known astronomer : it is thus described in the memoirs 
of the R. A. S. : " Equatorial, originally mounted at 
Haddenham (Hopefield Observatory), Bucks. The 
glass was cut by Chance and Co. Aperture 8 inches, 
focal length no inches. The figure is excellent to 
the circumference, and the dispersion but a little over- 
corrected. The finder has an aperture of 2 inches. 
The micrometer was a parallel wire by Dolland. A 
driving clock and a very good Bond's spring governor 
render the action very smooth." 

The telescope bears the following inscription ; 
" Hoc Perspicillum in usum Dawesii ab Alvano Clark 
elaboratum, Scholae Rugbeiensi, quo cceli miracula 
explorent, scientiam augeant, exerceant ingenia, in dei 
gloriam, Frederico Temple auctore, D.D., J. M. 
Wilson, A.D. MDCCCLXXI." The observatory also 



contains a transit instrument and a twelve-inch re- 
flecting telescope. Regular observations of double 
stars have been taken here for many years past. It 
is open to boys at certain times on all .cloudless 
evenings during the term. 

Returning to the Barby Road and turning to the 
right past a boarding house (now Mr. C. G. Steel's), ' 
we reach the Temple Reading Room and Art Museum, 
the former in the lower storey of the building, the 
latter above it. The north end of the building is the 
curator's house. The block stands back from the 
road, and on the lawn in front of it was erected, in 
1899, the statue of the late Judge Hughes, known to 
all the world as the author of " Tom Brown's School- 
days." It was erected by subscription amongst old 
Rugbeians and others, a surplus of 186 over the 
cost of the statue (;i,ooo) being devoted to the 
Home Mission. The statue is the work of Mr. T. 
Brock, R.A., and is successful as few modern open-air 
statues are. The figure, which is more than life-size, 
is of white marble and stands on a pedestal of gray 
granite, the total height being about eighteen feet. 
He is represented as bare-headed, with a pen in the 
right hand and a book in the left ; the head, half 
turned to the right, looks over the Close towards the 
School House. The pose is very natural and dignified, 
the difficulties of modern dress have been very skilfully 
overcome, and the whole gives a vivid impression of a 
strong, fearless man. The likeness is also pronounced 
to be excellent by those best qualified to judge. On 
the pedestal is the following inscription : " Thomas 


T. Hughes Statue 




E. H. Speight. 


Hughes, Q.C., M.P., author of ' Tom Brown.' Born Oc- 
Watch ye : Stand fast in the faith : Quit you like men : 
Be strong." The statue was unveiled by the Archbishop 



of Canterbury on Speech Day, 1899, before a large 
company made especially interesting by the presence 
of several of" Tom Brown's " contemporaries at school. 
Amongst the speakers on that occasion, the Right 
Hon. G. J. Goschen (O.R.) expressed most happily 
the feelings which prompted the erection of a statue 


G. A. Dean. 


as the most fitting memorial of Tom Brown at Rugby, 
referring to him as " the incarnation of the highest 
form of the British schoolboy, the best type of the 
character of the school which moulded him." 

The Temple Reading Room was opened in 1879; 
the special subscription list towards it, in memory of 
Dr. Temple's headmastership, is notable for an anony- 
mous gift of 2,000. It contains the bulk of the 


Art Museum RUGBY [CHAP. II 

school library, the Arnold Library as it is still called. 
The chief newspapers and periodicals are taken in, 
and the room is open to subscribers during the greater 
part of the day. The windows are of stained glass, 
bearing the names and arms of Rugby boys and 
masters who have become bishops. At the end of the 
room is a bronze bust by Mr. T. Brock, R.A., of the 
late Lord Bowen, and a beautiful water-colour by 
Sir W. B. Richmond, R.A., of the late Dean 
Vaughan. Here, too, is hung a photograph of the 
late G. Nutt, assistant master 1874 1895, to whose 
knowledge and zeal as librarian the library owes a 
great debt. In the library there now stands a 
model of the Acropolis presented by the British 

Above the reading-room is the art museum, one of 
the most interesting places in Rugby, the existence of 
which is a striking testimony to the efforts made by 
modern educational systems to widen the range of 
mental activity. The institution was mainly due to 
Dr. Jex-Blake, "in the hope" (to quote his words) 
" that leisure hours would then be given by many 
boys to a delightful form of culture, often too little 
thought of at home or school, and with the conviction 
that some few boys would draw great enjoyment, life- 
long interest, and a new faculty from it." An interest- 
ing illustrated account of the museum (from which 
these notes are for the most part taken) was con- 
tributed by the curator, Mr. T. M. Lindsay, to " The 
Magazine of Art" for September, 1898. In this 
account he pays a just tribute to the generosity of 



the late Mr. M. H. Bloxam, whose most valuable and 
interesting gifts form the nucleus of the collection. 
Mr. Bloxam was widely .known as an antiquary and 
author of a " Handbook of Gothic Architecture" ; to 
all Rugbeians he was also known as an unfailing 
friend of his old school for more than half a century. 
With the exception of some family portraits he either 
gave or bequeathed the whole of his magnificent 
collections to the school. Many others, besides Mr. 
Bloxam, have contributed generously to the collec- 
tion, which now contains specimens of many kinds of 
work of artistic and archaeological value. It com- 
prises " paintings in oil and water colours ; statuary 
in plaster, marble, and bronze (original and copies) ; 
casts of antique gems ; arms and armour ; carvings in 
wood and stone ; ancient pottery, glass, coins, and 
medals ; ecclesiastical metal work ; examples of mural 
painting from demolished churches ; engravings, etch- 
ings, mezzotints, photogravures, and their variants ; 
photographs of nature and art ; wood-engravings ; the 
Arundel Society's publications in chromo-lithography, 
and fictile ivories, etc." 

The visitor will find all the exhibits clearly labelled 
and arranged, as far as possible, according to their 
classes or periods. Amongst the drawings and paint- 
ings he should not fail to notice three drawings by 
Michael Angelo, and one of St. Michael "attributed 
to Raphael, but more probably by his pupil, Giulio 
Romano " ; a small oil painting by Turner, charac- 
teristic of his later manner; a good example of J. S. 
Cotman ; two small portraits by Ferdinand Bol, 

H5 L 

Art Museum RUGBY [CHAP. II 

and a portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, " much re- 
stored," of a Mr. John Bland ; a portrait of a baby 
attributed to Velasquez ; an excellent collection of 
water-colours, including examples of Cox, Turner, 
Prout, Alfred Hunt, and many others ; a fine drawing 
in charcoal and coloured chalks (Perseus and Andro- 
meda) by Sir E. J. Poynter, and pencil drawings by 
John Flaxman and the late Lord Leighton. Amongst 
the cases in the room the most interesting perhaps is 
the one which contains a number of Greek helmets. 
One of these is of unique interest, from the fact that it 
comes from the bed of the river Sert, the ancient 
Centrites, a tributary of the Tigris. The river barred 
the way of the Greeks in the famous retreat of the 
Ten Thousand, and they had considerable difficulty in 
effecting the passage of it with the Persians opposing 
them on the opposite bank, and the Carduchi threaten- 
ing their rear (Xen. Anab. iv. 3). It is most probable 
then that this helmet belonged to one of the Ten 
Thousand. It was discovered in 1884, when Mr. T. B. 
Oakley and another old Rugbeian were being carried 
down the Sert on a raft. The raft got into shallow 
water where the Sert joins the Tigris, and the boat- 
man, in lifting up his pole from the bed of the stream, 
brought up on it this telmet. It was taken to be an 
old copper kettle, and Mr. Oakley bought it for 
about a shilling : he afterwards gave it to Mr. Bloxam. 
Noticeable also amongst the collection of armour is 
a very rare Gothic gauntlet, of which we believe only 
two other specimens exist, and some buff jerkins of 
the Commonwealth period, which are also rare. Many 


Art Museum RUGliV [CHAP. II 

of the relics of the period of the Civil Wars come from 
the neighbouring battle-fields of Naseby and Edgehill. 
There is also a fine trophy -of Dervish arms, recently 
given by Colonel Sir C. S. B. Parsons (O.R.). 

A very interesting case from the Bloxam collection, 
placed under the window on the staircase, contains 
weapons illlustrating the development of the primitive 
palaeolithic flint-head into the battle-axes of mediaeval 
times. On the staircase, too, should be noticed the 
chair and table which Dr. Arnold habitually used 
when teaching. These are very few amongst the things 
which form the permanent collection : they are sup- 
plemented from time to time by loan collections of 
.various kinds. Gift, bequest, and purchase have so 
enlarged the contents of the art museum that the sum 
of 16,000, for which they are insured, is said to fall 
short by 9,000 of their real value. 

Adjoining the art museum is the drawing school, 
built in 1888, a large room 45 feet by 35 feet, made of 
wood and iron : the outside, which is not beautiful, is 
fortunately screened by some trees : the inside is light 
and well adapted for its purpose, and is well furnished 
with casts.. 

Close to the corner where the Barby Road joins the 
Hillmorton Road are some wood and iron sheds 
erected in 1 894. They contain a large room where 
the collections of the Natural History Society are exhi- 
bited (see p. 179), a physical laboratory and lecture 
room, and music schools, where the votaries of the art 
may practise in small compartments without any 
disturbance to their neighbours. 



Close by, opposite to the entrance to the head 
master's house, is the New Big School. It was com- 
pleted in 1886, and stands on the site of a boarding- 
house occupied successively by Messrs. Highton, 
Burrows, Green, and Michell, the last-named building 
a new house further up the Hillmorton Road when the 


A'. //. Speight. 

old one was demolished. The site was given by the 
governing body, the money for the building being 
raised by subscription. The building is a characteristic 
work by Mr. Butterfield : the ground floor is occupied 
by a vestibule and three large class rooms : two stair- 
cases lead up to the Big School, which takes up the 
whole of the upper storey. The room is eighty-three 


New Big School RUGBY [CHAP. II 

feet by thirty-seven, but its length is curtailed by a 
fine organ which occupies the east end, a small chamber 
on the south side, which was originally designed for 
its reception, proving unsuitable for many reasons. 
The room is used for morning prayers once a week, 
for concerts and lectures, for " Speeches," and for ex- 
aminations such as the scholarship examination, when 
a large number of candidates have to be seated. For 
ordinary purposes it is large enough, but on the occa- 
sions when visitors are added to the school the want of 
room is rather severely felt. It is surrounded by a 
high oak panelling, above which are coloured windows 
on either side of the room ; it has rather a handsome 
waggon-roof. At the west end of the room, on a 
pedestal, stands a bust of Dr. Arnold by Mr. Alfred 
Gilbert, R.A. It was originally intended for West- 
minster Abbey, but being too large for the place which 
it was destined to occupy there, it was presented to the 
school. It is a fine bust, but the likeness is not con- 
sidered very good by those who remember Arnold. 
Round the walls are hung portraits of some former 
head masters and distinguished Old Rugbeians. The 
majority of these are copies. On the west wall are 
Dean Stanley and Matthew Arnold ; on the north 
Dr. Jex-Blake by Herman Herkomer ; Lord Derby ; 
Dr. Arnold ; Dr. Temple by Watts ; Dr. Percival by 
Hubert Herkomer; T. Hughes; Dr. Hort ; F. Du- 
mergue by G. P. Jacomb-Hood, and Dr. Cotton: on the 
south wall are W. C. Oswell, Rev. E. H. Bradby, F. C. 
Selous, and the Rev. Septimus Hansard. On the 
west wall, too, are four portraits from the Bloxam col- 



lection, which would perhaps be more fittingly placed 
in the Art Museum. They are of Mary, Lady Howard 
of Effingham, by Otto Venius or Vern ; Sir Richard 
Steele, by Kneller ; Henry, Prince of Wales (son of 
James I.); and a good portrait of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth by Sir Peter Lely. In the recess on the south 
side is a portrait of Mary, Queen of Scots, from the 
same collection. 

Behind the organ is kept a red velvet banner with 
the school arms embroidered on it, which is displayed 
on great occasions : it is a testimony to the fame of 
" Tom Brown's Schooldays," for it was presented in 
1860 by Mr. William Mills of Connecticut, U.S.A., 
who was so struck with admiration by that work that 
he deputed a friend, Mr. J. G. Day, to present this 
banner to the school. 

Of the boarding-houses there is no need to say more 
than appears on a subsequent page (p. 156); but it may 
be useful to give a list of the various houses, in so far 
as they can be traced ; for this list I am indebted to 
the Rev. A. T. Michell, who is preparing one for the 
forthcoming new edition of the first volume of the 
" Rugby Register." 


About 1790 there were : 

Finch. Malin (Sheep Street). 

Loggin. Moor, C. (Hillmorton Road). 


About 1801-1806 : Extinct. 

Mrs. Bucknill (now High St., No. 24) ... 1831 

Mr. Philip Williams (now Market Place. No. 5) . . 1831 

Mr. William Gascoigne (now Market Place, No. 6) . 1822 





Mr. Townsend (now 23 and 24, Market Place) . . . 1831 

Rev. W. Birch (site of four Western Almshouses), Church St. 1826 

Mrs. Wratislaw (now Lloyd's Bank), Church St. . . 1824 

Mr. Robert Stanley (site of part of New Schools) . . 1847 
Dr. Bloxam (west corner of Sheep Street and Lawrence 

Sheriffe Street) . 1831 

Birch (as above). Bloxam (as above). 

"Troy House," 14, Hillmorton Road. i, Newbold Road. 

12, Hillmorton Road. 

1832. Grenfell. 1831-40. Lee. 1831-9. Buckoll. 

1845. Congreve. 
1848. Walrond. 
1851. Shairp 1857. 33, Bilton Road. 

16, Hillmorton Road. 1841-6. Pen rose. 
1841. Arnold, C. T. 

1838-40. Men vale 
(not known where). 


Hillmorton Road, 

South side. 
1790. Moor, C. 
1803. Moor, ]. H. C. 
1832. Bird. 
1841. Mayor. 
1863. Wilson. 
1879. White'aw. 

Barby Road. 
1830. Price. 
1850. Evans. 
1862. Hutchinson. 
1884. Donkin. 

Horton Crescent. 
1893. Stallard. 

Hi'lmorton Road, 

Hillmor;on Road, 

South side. 

North side. 

1836. Powlett. 

1841. Highton. 

1840. Cotton. 

1850. Burrows. 

1852. Compton. 

1872. Green. 

1858. Smythies. 

1882. Michell 

1 86 1. Anstey(/r0te;?/. ). 

(new house 1884). 

1862. Moberly. 

1874. Philpotts. 

Hillmorton Road, 

1875. Lee- Warner. 

North side. 

1884. Morice. 

1845. Bradley. 

1895. Payne-Smith. 

1858. Jex-Blake. 

1868. Elsee. 

1889. Collins. 

Barby Road. Barby Road. 

1828. Anstey. 1853. Arnold. 

'1854. Bowden-Smith. 1878. Scott. 

1889. Steel. 1892. Brooke. 


__ ; 3 

Photo. J. Hcnsmaii, Rugby. 




THE object of this chapter and the following one is 
to give some account of the various activities which 
make up the life of the school. 

There are at present in the school not far from 
600 boys. Of these some forty live in the town or 
neighbourhood, and attend the school as day boys ; 
the rest live in boarding-houses managed by masters 
in the school. Of these houses there are nine the 
largest is the School House, which is under the control 
of the head master ; it contains some eighty boys, and 
forms part of the old school buildings ; the other houses 
contain some fifty-two boys each. 

A limited number of those who wish to wait until 
room can be found for them in a boarding-house are 
boarded at private houses (licence being given by the 
governing body) until a vacancy occurs. To each of 
the boarding-houses a junior master is attached as 
tutor ; his nominal duties are limited to the taking of 
evening preparation twice a week, and in some cases 
the instruction twice a week of a " Tutor Set," con- 
sisting of those boys in the house who are in the 
Classical Upper School, excluding the Sixth ; but 
his real raison d'etre is that he may get to know the 


Boarding-Houses RUGBY [CHAP. Ill 

boys in the house, to the mutual advantage of them 
and of him. The School House has three tutors. The 
boarding-houses, the great majority of which have 
either been entirely built, or much altered and added 
to within the last fifteen years, are all arranged on the 
same general scheme. The chief feature of each is a 
large hall, where the boys have all their meals ; these 
halls are also used as sitting and reading rooms by 
the older boys, and by the younger within certain 
limits, the daily and illustrated papers, paid for by 
a house subscription, being taken in there. They are 
also used for evening preparation four times a week, 
when boys in the Middle School prepare their next 
morning's lesson under supervision of the house master 
or tutor. In some cases the house library is placed in 
the hall. P^very boy has a study, which, according to 
the size of the study, and his position in the school, 
he shares with another, or holds as his separate domain. 
None of the studies in any house holds more than 
two. These studies are furnished with the necessary 
cupboards, table, and chairs, the ornamentation being 
left to the devices of the occupants. The dormitories 
are of various sizes. The boarding fee is 24 a term, 
in advance, besides which there is a house entrance 
fee of ^3 3^. Applications for admission for boarders 
are made to the boarding-house masters. 

The school course of work is still mainly classical, 
two-thirds of the boys being in what is called the 
Classical Side, which aims in the main at preparation 
for the Universities. The results of this work may be 
roughly estimated by the number of scholarships 


CHAP. Ill] WORK OF THE SCHOOL Classical Side 

gained at the Universities, still better perhaps by the 
result of the examination for Oxford and Cambridge 
certificates, for which the whole Sixth Form enters at 
the end of the summer term. Statistics on both lines 
prove a high level of attainment. Latin and Greek 
are, of course, the principal subjects taught on the 
Classical Side, but modern tendencies have caused a 

Photo. E. H. Speight. 


considerable expansion in the curriculum, which in- 
cludes, besides these two subjects, Divinity, History, 
Geography, English Literature, French, Mathematics, 
and Natural Science: in the Upper School Modern 
Languages (i.e., French and German) and Natural 
Science are alternative subjects. Rugby was the first 
of the great public schools to introduce the teaching 
of Natural Science as part of the regular work. 


Modern Side RUGBY [CHAP. Ill 

Boys who are not on the Classical Side are taught 
in one or other of three separately organized de- 
partments : these are, 

1. The Modern Side. This was introduced in 1886, 
and aims at giving a general education of a literary 
character to boys who do not intend to go to the Uni- 
versities. The curriculum differs from that of the 
Classical Side chiefly in the absence of Greek. Latin 
forms part of the regular work, and the time gained 
by the abolition of Greek is devoted chiefly to French, 
but more time is given than on the Classical Side to 
English subjects and Natural Science, and in the 
upper forms to German. 

2. The Army Class. This was originally part of 
the Modern Side, but is now organized quite se- 
parately. A special fee of five guineas per term is 
charged to all members of it, which enables it to be 
arranged in small sets, where special attention can be 
given to the particular needs of every boy, the average 
number in each set being only twelve. The numbers 
in the Army Class are limited to about fifty, and no 
boy is admitted to it until he reaches the top form of 
the Middle School (Upper Middle i). The curriculum 
in the Army Class is, of course, arranged solely with a 
view to certain examinations, namely, the examinations 
for Woolwich and Sandhurst and the Indian Woods 
and Forests ; mathematical subjects are therefore 
prominent. The Army Class has two divisions, but 
promotion into the upper division does not always 
depend solely on merit, preference being given, where 
it is advisable, to those whose examination is hard at 



hand. These divisions are each subdivided into two 
sets of about a dozen boys for almost all subjects, and 
the two divisions do not do the same subject at the 
same time, the object being that the same two masters 
may teach one subject throughout the whole of the 
Army Class. Since the introduction of this system, 
the Army Class has been remarkably successful. 

3. Specialists. By this class opportunity is given 
to those desiring to " specialize " in Mathematics or 
Natural Science, generally with a view to University 
scholarships in these subjects. Such specializing is not 
admitted till a boy reaches the Upper School. If he 
then shows promise, arrangements are made by which 
he can devote most of his time to one or both of these 
subjects. These " specialists," of whom there are 
generally about fifteen, are taught Classics and English 
subjects in a form by themselves. 

The regular tuition fee is 14 6s. %d. per term, pay- 
able in advance, but for the use of the chemical and 
physical laboratories a special fee is charged, i 15^. 
per term in ordinary cases, but varying up to a maxi- 
mum of 3 IQS. per term according to the amount of 
instruction given. 

The school is divided for purposes of instruction 
into nine forms, most of which are subdivided into 
parallel or successive divisions. The nomenclature 
of these forms is of various origin, and is somewhat 
complicated by not unfrequent change, so that the 
value of the terms, so to speak,- is not in all cases per- 
manent. The top form has had a permanent name, 
the Sixth, for more than a century, since the time 


Forms RUGBY [CHAP. Ill 

when Dr. T. James divided the school into six forms, 
the basis of all subsequent organization, though of the 
names only the Sixth and Fifth have survived. The 
Sixth has two divisions, called the Upper Bench 
and Lower Bench, and in view of the disciplinary 
powers which all its members possess, it is ordained 
that no boy may be promoted into it until he is 
fifteen and a half years old. As a rule a boy is not 
promoted till he is sixteen. The entrusting of large 
duties and responsibilities to the Sixth Form has 
been a marked characteristic of the school system 
since the days of Dr. Arnold. The duties of the 
Sixth Form at Rugby may be summed up by saying 
that they are in general responsible for the disci- 
pline of the school and the houses, and the enforce- 
ment of all rules. Amongst their minor duties may 
be mentioned that of reading the lessons in chapel 
on Sundays, and taking the collections. Along with 
their duties and powers go certain privileges, chief 
among which is the right to fag all boys not in 
the Upper School. In modern times the duties of a 
fag are not very arduous : he has to sweep out and 
dust the study of a Sixth Form boy every now and 
then (for there are always more fags than studies), a 
duty which he generally performs in a manner which 
would shock any housemaid, and he will occasionally 
be called upon to run messages ; but the increase of 
hot water pipes has in most cases done away with the 
duty of making fires and toast, and the electric light 
needs no cleaning hand. It not unfrequently happens 
that Sixth Power is granted in a house to a boy who 

1 60 


is not in the Sixth Form ; in such cases his powers 
and privileges do not extend beyond his own house, 
but it is very seldom in any case that a fag is called 
upon to do anything by a Sixth Form boy in a 
different house. 

The head of the school has special duties, of no 
insignificant kind. Besides summoning and presiding 
over all " Sixth Levees " and " Bigside Levees," z>., 
meetings of the Sixth and Upper School, reading the 
lessons in chapel at the first and last services of term, 
and on any occasion when by accident nobody else 
presents himself, he has to keep and publish the 
school accounts ; all the money which is raised by a 
compulsory subscription for the school games (as 
distinguished from the house games) passes through 
his hands, and this amounts to no inconsiderable sum. 
He is, as it were, the treasurer of a games club to 
which all the school belongs. 

Below the Sixth comes a form called the Twenty. 
The name, given originally because of the number in 
the form, is no longer applicable, for the numbers in it 
vary from twenty-five to twenty-nine. It is a specially 
important form from the constant presence in it of the 
ablest boys who cannot be promoted into the Sixth 
until they reach the maximum age, and ever since the 
days of B. Price the teaching of the Twenty has been 
one of the great features of Rugby. 

Next to the Twenty comes the Fifth, then the 
Lower Fifth. Both of these forms have parallel 

These forms constitute the Upper School, which 
161 M 

Forms RUC.I'.Y [CHAP. Ill 

has privileges not enjoyed by those below it. The 
Upper School boy is exempt from fagging and from 
supervised work at evening preparation, and the whole 
Upper School has the right, or is under the obligation, 
of attending " Bigside Levee " ; the Middle School 
boys, as fags, have not the franchise. The questions 
which come before a Bigside levee are practically con- 
fined to points about the games ; as a rule the levees 
are purely formal meetings which fix the dates for 
the beginning and end of football, the athletics, and 
kindred points ; occasionally, however, motions are 
brought forward which excite keen controversy, such 
as systems for guiding the inter-house competitions, 
and at such times a vote possesses a real value. All 
decisions of Bigside levees are subject to the veto of 
the head master. It is one of the duties of the head 
of the school to keep a record of these decisions. 

The names of the Middle School Forms show a 
lack of variety, running through a series of Upper 
Middles and Lower Middles. One more picturesque 
name, " The Shell," has in recent years been dropped 
.on the Classical side, though it is still retained on the 
Modern. The name came originally from Westmin- 
ster School, where it was given to the form that sat 
in a shell-like alcove at one end of the great school- 
room : from Westminster it spread to several other 
schools. At Rugby the Shell has gradually sunk in 
rank among the forms until it has at length been 
eliminated. Last of all comes the Lower School : this 
name was formerly applied to a considerable section 
of the school; in modern times it clings only to a 


CHAP. Ill] WORK OF THE SCHOOL Superannuation 

small form of about fifteen on the Classical side, and 
half a small form on the Modern. 

The reason why these names have gradually altered 
in their application is the tendency to lessen the ap- 
parent severity of the superannuation rule. This rule 
lays down that no boy may remain in the Lower School 
after the term in which he is fifteen years old, in the 
Lower Middles after sixteen, Upper Middles after 
seventeen, Upper School below the Sixth after eigh- 
teen, or in the Sixth after the summer term of the 
year in which he is nineteen. A boy is also liable to 
superannuation after he has been four terms in the 
same form ; this of course does not apply to the Sixth. 
Such a rule, however necessary for the welfare of the 
school in general, would press very unfairly on certain 
boys if it were inviolable. Consequently, except for 
boys over nineteen, the head master has power to 
suspend it in individual cases, and though no boy 
can claim such suspension, a good report for conduct 
and industry from all masters with whom the boy has 
to deal always ensures it, if the limit of age or time 
in the form has not been greatly exceeded. In such 
cases, much depends on the boy's reports. These are 
written for every boy in the school at the half-term and 
end of the term, and sent to the parents or guardians. 
They contain information about the boy's place and 
progress in all his work, together with general remarks 
from the house master and head master. 

Promotion in all forms goes strictly by the final 
order of each term, which is reached by a careful and 
elaborate system of marking, regulating the propor- 


Promotions KU<;iJY [CHAP. Ill 

tions to be assigned to term's work and examination, 
and to the various subjects. The largest proportion 
of marks is assigned to form subjects, />., those sub- 
jects which are taught to each form by the form 
master. On the Classical side these are Latin, Greek, 
and English subjects, while on the Modern side French 
takes the place of Greek. For other subjects the 
various parts of the school are divided up into a 
separate organization of sets : promotion in these sets 
goes entirely by set work, but the marks obtained 
when reduced to their due proportion are added to 
the form marks, and so affect largely the boy's place 
in his form. A form order on these lines is made out 
for the reports at the end of each half-term : the final 
order is made up on term and examination marks 
combined. Examination on all subjects takes place 
in the last week of the summer and autumn terms. 
Prizes are awarded for good work in the latter ex- 
amination ; the head of each form in term's work also 
gets a prize, and on the Classical side (as far down 
as the Upper Middles) the boy who is top in Classical 
composition. In the spring term the amount of ex- 
amination is mostly left to the discretion of the form 
or set master ; in the regular examinations almost all 
the papers for each form are set and looked over by 
masters other than the form master. In the Middle 
School a weekly order in form subjects is made out, 
and some of the top boys in each form are allowed to 
prepare their evening work in their studies. 

The system of forms and sets renders the time-table 
of lessons somewhat elaborate. On an ordinary " whole 




school day " there are five lessons, three in the morning, 
two in the afternoon. The day begins with a short 
service in chapel at 7.0 in the summer, and 7.30 in the 
winter months : to keep up the standard of punctuality 
and prevent a rush to the doors at the last moment, 

" The schoolboy groans on hearing 

That eternal clock strike seven," 



E. H. Speight. 

the forms have to attend a calling over and leave their 
books in their various rooms before chapel. First 
lesson, which has been prepared overnight, follows for 
an hour. The normal scheme for the next three 
lessons is that an hour's preparation done out of school 


Time-table RUGBY [CHAP. Ill 

is followed by an hour's lesson, but it constantly 
happens that a master has to take two classes for a 
prepared lesson in consecutive hours ; in such cases 
the class which has an " early second or third," has to 
get its preparation done beforehand, while in compen- 
sation it gets a leisure hour, made all the sweeter from 
the fact that most people are in school. The lower 
forms, instead of preparing their work out of school, 
come in for an hour and a half, and prepare under 
supervision, so that at all sorts of different times boys 
and masters may be seen hurrying in and out of 
school. Fifth lesson is unprepared, and, like first 
lesson, sees the whole school in at the same time. It 
ends at 6.0 in the winter, 5.30 in the summer. 1 

The evening preparation in houses for Middle 
School forms lasts for an hour and a half: it does 
not take place on Wednesday (in the summer term 
Thursday) evenings, which are consequently chosen 
for all lectures and concerts, nor on Saturday, which 
is the meeting day of the Debating and Natural 
History Societies. Of the composition in the Upper 
School two " copies " or exercises a week are done out 
of school, and each boy goes to the master at a fixed 
time to have his copy corrected viva voce. The third 
" copy " is done in school. All " extras " have to 
be worked in during out of school hours, but this is 
made easier by there being three regular half-holidays 
a week (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday), while every 
third Monday is also a half-holiday. This is called 

1 See Appendix. 
1 66 


" middle-week." It was instituted by Dr. Arnold, but 
the origin of the name is not clear. It has been sup- 
posed to be derived from its having been given in 
compensation for a mid-term exeat ; but these exeats 
survived alongside with "middle-week " till the " half- 
years " gave way to three "terms" in 1866. More 
probably it compensated for monthly whole holidays, 
and perhaps it was so called because the half-holiday 
Mondays are sandwiched in each between two dis- 
tinct whole-school day Mondays. Half-holidays are 
also not unfrequently given on fine Mondays, in re- 
cognition of scholarships or special events. 

The summer holidays are eight weeks long (a 
special feature of the school which all Rugbeians 
remember with deep satisfaction). Eight weeks are 
distributed between Christmas and Easter ; nowadays 
they are nearly always evenly divided, the school 
staying over Easter. if it falls early. 

Drawing and music hold a prominent place in the 
work of the school. Drawing is a compulsory subject 
for all the Middle School, and the artistic interests of 
the drawing classes are stimulated by occasional visits 
in the drawing hour to the Art Museum, where the 
drawing master, who is curator of the museum, gives 
them an informal lecture on some of the exhibits. 
Music is not compulsory, but in various ways is very 
widely taught. For private instruction in professional 
drawing and instrumental music an extra fee of .3 los. 
a term is charged, and so many boys avail themselves 
of the musical opportunities that a school orchestra 
of varied instruments has become a reality, and a brass 


Choir RUGBY [CHAP. Ill 

band leads the rifle corps on days when they " march 
out." The orchestra is excused one lesson a week 
for purposes of practice. Still more boys get a certain 
amount of musical training in the choir. All new boys 
have their voices tried, and if the result is satisfactory 
they are put in the choir ; some fortunates pass steadily 
through the alto stage, and never have to leave it ; 
others return to it when the cracked treble has passed 
into a bass, or, less commonly, into a tenor, for tenors 
are always rare birds. In this way boys learn a good 
deal of vocal music, for there are regular practices for 
chapel singing, and also practices for theschool concerts 
which are given twice a year, at the end of the summer 
and autumn terms. In return for the time given to 
these practices, those who sing in the concert are 
excused repetition at the end of term, and in the 
Middle School the Saturday evening work, an essay 
or the like, is remitted. 

The choir was not always so well supported as it 
now is. When the first chapel was consecrated in 
1821, and volunteers from theschool were called upon 
to form a choir, so diffident were Rugbeians of the 
time of their vocal powers that only two boys offered 
themselves ! A paid choir was consequently started, 
and continued as late as about 1866, when the boys 
were induced to sing by being made responsible for 
the singing. There are two annual singing competi- 
tions, taking place towards the end of the spring 
term ; one for the best house quartette, the other for 
the best house unison-singing. The quartette competi- 
tion has been held since 1876, when Mr. Edwards, for 

1 68 

CHAP. Ill] WORK OF THE SCHOOL Scholarships 

many years school organist and music master, pre- 
sented four cups for the successful singers. The 
unison singing competition was begun in 1893 ; a fine 
cup, purchased by subscription, goes to the winning 

Opportunities are also provided to boys for hearing 
good instrumental music: besides a short organ re- 
cital in the Chapel on Sundays after morning service, 
there is an orchestral concert in the autumn and 
spring terms, and concerts of chamber music are also 
arranged from time to time. 

Such are the main features of the routine of school 
work ; we must now give some data as to the scholar- 
ships and prizes which are offered. 


An examination is held at the school every June 
for election to ten or more scholarships, if the candi- 
dates show sufficient merit. They are of the following 
value : 

4 or more of ^100 open to boys between 12 and 14 
2 ^80 12 15 

2 ;6o 12 15 

40 12 15 

4 20 12 15 

The examination is conducted by the head master 
and assistants. There is no special work to be pre- 
pared, and the papers are set mainly with a view to 
well-taught boys between thirteen and fourteen, but 
allowance is made for age by adding a proportional 
percentage on marks obtained. A special scholarship 


Scholarships RUGBY [CHAP. Ill 

augmentation fund provides for the private increase 
of any scholarship to such an amount as in the judg- 
ment of the head master the circumstances of the 
scholar may require. All scholarships are tenable as 
long as a boy remains at school, provided that the 
head master is satisfied with the good conduct and 
industry of the scholar. If this is not the case the 
scholarship may be forfeited. Candidates have to 
apply to the secretary for admission to the examina- 
tion on or before May 26th, and testimonials of good 
conduct and registrar's certificate of birth must be 
sent at the same time. No boy is admissible who is 
not fully twelve years old on the 1st of January, or 
who will be more than fourteen or fifteen, as the case 
may be, on the 1st of July of the current year. 

The Natural Science candidates are examined in 
Elementary Physics (Statics, Dynamics, and Hydro- 

The ;ioo and ,80 scholarships are generally 
awarded for proficiency in Classics, English, Elemen- 
tary Mathematics, and French ; but any scholarship 
may be won by excellent work either in 

(a) Classics, together with English, Elementary 
Mathematics, and Elementary French ; or 

(fr) Mathematics or Natural Science, or both com- 
bined, together with Latin, English, Elementary 
Mathematics, and Elementary French ; or 

(c) French or German, or both combined, with 
other subjects as in (&) ; or 

(d) English, Latin, French, German, Mathematics, 
and Natural Science, and candidates may also offer 


CHAP. Ill] WORK OF THE SCHOOL Scholarships 

one or two of the following subjects : Chemistry, 
Electricity and Magnetism, Heat, Light, Geology, 
Physical Geography, Botany. The examination is 
partly of a practical kind, and the candidates have 
to name their subjects when applying for admission. 
The 40 and 20 scholarships can be held either by 
a boarder or a day boy, but scholarships of a higher 
value are only tenable by boarders, who, unless they 
are already members of the school, are assigned a 
place in a house by the head master. 

Among the scholarships there are certain special 
ones founded by or in memory of individuals. These 
are the Tait scholarships founded in memory of 
Archbishop Tait, head master from 1842 1849 : the 
Walrond scholarship founded in memory of Theodore 
Walrond, C.B., a distinguished Old Rugbeian who was 
head of the school when Dr. Arnold died : the Derby 
scholarship founded in memory of Edward Henry 
Stanley, 1 8th Earl of Derby, who entered the school 
in 1840: the Benn scholarships founded in accord- 
ance with the wishes of the late George Benn, O.K., 
who died in 1895. One of the Benn scholarships has 
special conditions attached (see below), but the money 
from the other special foundations is amalgamated 
with the other funds which the school possesses for 
the payment of scholars. At the same time, though 
all scholarships are awarded in the same examination, 
special scholars are from time to time designated as 
Tait, Derby, Walrond, or Benn scholars. The names 
are thus perpetuated without the general scholarship 
system being interfered with. 


Foundationerships RUGIJV [CHAP. Ill 

The scholarships are open to all comers, but these 
are not the only aids to education, for the foundation 
offers great advantages to residents in accordance with 
the wishes of the founder, Lawrence Sheriffe. These 
are now regulated by statutes which took the force of 
law in July, 1874. Persons residing in or within five 
miles of Rugby on July 3ist, 1868, are entitled to send 
their sons, if of good character, and able to read 
English, and capable of being taught the first elements 
of grammar, to enter the school as foundationers and 
receive the instruction of the school free of charge. 
Such persons are becoming fewer, and the most im- 
portant regulations of the foundation apply to resi r 
dents in or within five miles of Rugby who were not 
so residing on July 3 1st, 1868. To these are offered : 
i. Twelve major foundationerships, giving free tui- 
tion. These are confined to boys between twelve and 
fourteen years of age, who have attended the Lower 
School of Lawrence Sheriffe (commonly called " The 
Subordinate School "), which takes boys of eight and 
upwards, for the two years preceding their election. 
The tuition fees in this school are, for boys under 
twelve, 6 per annum ; for boys over twelve, ? IDS. 

2. Twenty-four minor foundationerships, giving 
education at a tuition fee of 20 per annum. For 
these there is no restriction except that the boys must 
enter the school between twelve and fourteen, and the 
parents home must be in or within five miles of Rugby 
whilst their boys are at school. 

3. A scholarship of the value of 2$ per annum, 
founded by the late Mr. G. C. Benn, and called after 


CHAP. Ill] WORK OF THE SCHOOL Exhibitions 

him. It is tenable with a minor, but not with a major 
or old foundationership, and elections only take place 
as a vacancy occurs. 

Finally, the masters offer free tuition to every day 
boy (whether previously a member of the school or 
not) who is admitted into the Upper School before he 
is fourteen years of age. 

Vacant foundationerships are filled up, and masters' 
free admissions are given, at the entrance examina- 
tions every term ; also at the annual scholarship ex- 
amination in June. If in the appointment of major 
foundationers the number of boys qualified exceeds 
the number of vacancies, preference is given to the 
boys who stand highest in the last preceding exami- 
nation of the Subordinate School. If it happens in 
the case of minor foundationers, the entrance exami- 
nation supplies the test. Foundationers are eligible 
to scholarships, but a major foundationer vacates his 
place on the foundation if elected to a scholarship, 
and a minor foundationer does the same if his scholar- 
ship exceed 20 per annum. 

There are no " close " scholarships from Rugby at 
the Universities, but every year three major exhibi- 
tions of 60 per annum, and four minor of 30, are 
awarded. These are open to members of the Sixth 
Form who have been in the school not less than three 
years, and are tenable at the Universities or any other 
place of education approved by the governing body. 
The major exhibitions are given for general profi- 
ciency, the minor are given respectively for Classics, 
Mathematics, Natural Science and Modern Languages 


Prizes RUGBY [CHAP. Ill 

(French and German). A major and a minor or two 
minor exhibitions may be held together. They are 
tenable for four years, and are awarded on an examina- 
tion conducted at the end of the term by external ex- 
aminers, named or approved by the governing body. 
This is now the Oxford and Cambridge Certificate 

Scholars and exhibitioners may waive the emolu- 
ments in favour of others to whom they are of greater 
importance, while retaining the distinction. 

The prizes founded to encourage the pursuit of 
various studies are numerous. Chief amongst them is 
a gold medal, which the Queen founded in 1848 for 
an English essay on an historical subject. Prizes in 
books are given for almost every conceivable subject, 
to be competed for by different parts of the school. 
Amongst them may be mentioned : The trustees' 
prizes for a Latin essay (founded 1820), Latin hexa- 
meters (founded 1813), and Latin lyrics or elegiacs ; 
the head master's prizes for an English poem (founded 
1813), Greek prose, geography, and Homer; a prize 
for English literature, founded in memory of Dr. Jex- 
Blake's headmastership ; prizes for Latin prose ; a 
prize for Greek iambics, in memory of Dr. T. James, 
head master 1778 1794; prizes for divinity, founded 
in memory of Archbishop Tait, and by A. F. Buxton, 
Esq. (O.K.), and the late Dr. Hastings Robinson (O.R.), 
and others ; a prize for ecclesiastical history, history 
of the Prayer Book, or Christian Evidences, given by 
the Rev. Canon Evans ; prizes for general modern 
history, founded by Mrs. Bowen in memory of her 



son, the late Lord Bowen (O.R.) ; a prize for set sub- 
jects in the Army Class, founded in memory of the 
late H. C. Wrigley, who died while still a member of 
the school ; Tom Hughes prizes, founded by Dr. 
Percival, Bishop of Hereford, head master 1887 1895, 
which consist of a copy of Judge Hughes' work, " The 
Manliness of Christ," given to every boy who becomes 
head of the School, the School House, the Cricket 
Eleven, and the Football Fifteen. 

Other prizes, which have no particular interest in 
their origin, are given for certain Classical subjects, 
history, mathematics, modern languages, natural 
science, and reading. 





FROM the work of the school we will now turn to 
the societies. The two most important are the De- 
bating Society and the Natural History Society, which 
meet -on alternate Saturday evenings during the au- 
tumn and spring terms. Of these the Debating Society 
is the elder and can trace its origin back to 1833 ; the 
society then first formed was not long-lived, but since 
1845, when its successor was established, the records 
have been kept almost continuously, and amongst the 
speakers have been many Rugbeians who have made 
a name for themselves in after life. As now con- 
stituted all members of the Upper School are eligible 
to the society, but they must be proposed and seconded 
by members, and are elected by ballot. The president 
is a master, the vice-president, secretary, and usher 
being selected from members of the school. The 
subjects of debate are principally such as arise in all 
debating societies, political questions of the day natur- 
ally affording the best field for argument, though it is 
as rare in the society as in more august assemblies 
that the eloquence of the speakers influences the 

177 N 

Natural History Society RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

voting on such subjects. Visitors, whether members 
of the school or not, are admitted to the debates, and 
the gatherings are naturally largest when some topic 
of general school interest is down for discussion ; that 
the debates do not often hang fire may be seen from 
the pages of the " Meteor," the school journal, where 
they are duly reported. 

The Natural History Society dates from 1867, when 
it was formed under the presidency of Mr. F. E. 
Kitchener, an assistant master at the time. Its re- 
cords have been regularly kept since that date, and 
have been issued annually in the form of a report. 
Any member of the school may join the society in 
one or other of the following ways : (i) by presenting 
to the honorary secretary a note, signed by his house 
master, giving leave for a terminal charge of three 
and sixpence to be made in the house bills ; (2) by 
paying direct to the honorary secretary a " compound- 
ing fee " of fifteen shillings. The members proper are 
limited to fifteen, and are elected by the committee, but 
there are a number of honorary members and corre- 
sponding members, the latter chiefly consisting of ex- 
members of the society. Amongst these may be 
noticed the name of Mr. F. C. Selous, O.R., who was 
one of the early members of the society. The mass of 
those who join the society are called associates. Its 
popularity may be judged by the fact that in 1898 the 
number of members and associates reached 365, and 
the wide scope of its activities may be seen by a glance 
at any of the annual reports. These reports publish 
the essay which wins the society's annual prize, and 



some of the most interesting of the various papers 
read at the fortnightly meetings. They also contain 
the reports of the various sections, of which there 
are no less than seven, a meteorological section which 
takes regular observations of barometer, thermometer, 
and rainfall, also entomological, botanical, zoological, 
architectural, geological and photographic sections. 
Most of these combine business with pleasure in the 
summer term by expeditions to places of interest in 
the neighbourhood. 

The most precious possession of the Natural History 
Society is its museum. The prime origin of this 
appears to have been a heap of stones and fossils 
which the boys of the time brought back with them 
after the holidays, in response to a request from Dr. 
Arnold that they should bring specimens of the com- 
mon stones and fossils of their respective neighbour- 
hoods. These lay in an unsorted and diminishing 
heap until Mr. J. M. (now Archdeacon) Wilson set to 
work on them in 1859, when he joined the staff of 
masters. The specimens worth keeping were selected, 
and to them were added a collection of fossils of the 
local Lias which he made with the aid of pupils, and 
a small collection of British and foreign fossils pre- 
sented by other masters. They were all placed in the 
Arnold Library ; at first a single case sufficed, but the 
collection soon overflowed on to the adjoining book- 
shelves. When the Natural History Society was started 
in 1867 botanical and entomological collections were 
begun by the president and Mr. A. Sidgwick, and various 
boys formed collections of birds eggs and fresh-water 


N. H. S. Museum RUGJ3V [CHAP. IV 

shells. When the new buildings were erected these 
were housed in a small room in them ; but the geo- 
logical specimens remained in their old quarters in 
the Arnold Library, and were presently joined by the 
others, when the opening of the Temple reading-room 
set free a large space in the Arnold Library. Here the 
collections, constantly increasing by gifts from all 
quarters, remained till 1894, when the temporary 
buildings at the corner of the Hillmorton Road were 
erected and the greater part of the Arnold Library 
became a school room for the lower bench of the Sixth. 
Want of light and proper cases had very seriously 
hampered the usefulness of the collections, but a 
special room in the new quarters has provided admir- 
ably for their accommodation and made it possible to 
arrange and display them as they deserve. The room 
is lighted from above and heated by water-pipes below, 
and the whole wall and floor space (forty-five feet by 
forty-five) is thus available for cases and shelves. The 
work of arrangement was no light one ; some of it has 
been done by Mr. Collinge, of Mason College, Bir- 
mingham, some by the efforts of masters and boys, 
and the value of the collections has been much in- 
creased thereby in every way. To the scientist they 
present much that is of interest, while the casual 
observer will notice especially the cases of stuffed 
birds and animals, the collection of butterflies, the 
fossil remains of one of the large extinct New Zealand 
birds, and the mummy, whose history is unknown, but 
whose genuineness has been lately demonstrated by 
a photograph taken by means of the X rays, which 

1 80 


showed the bones. The museum also contains a 
plaster model of the neighbourhood of Rugby extend- 
ing four miles in all directions, a good library of 
natural history books, and a portrait of the late Mr. 
M. H. Bloxam, O.R., a devoted friend of the Natural 
History Society, which benefited much by his learning 
and his generosity. 

The museum and library are open to members and 
associates from 2 p.m. to locking-up on week-days, 
and from 2 to 4 on Sundays. 

Besides the museum the Natural History Society 
also boasts of a vivarium, which was established in the 
glass-houses which belonged to the market gardener 
who held the greater portion of what is now Calclecott's 
field. The collection is almost entirely confined to 
British and foreign birds, chief amongst which in a 
well-deserved popularity is a fine white cockatoo. 
Occasionally " strange serpents " find their way to 
the vivarium, for not long ago a tiny crocodile was 
presented by an Old Rugbeian ; but though kept in 
the warmest of the glass-houses he only survived a 
month. The vivarium helps to support itself by the 
sale of flowers, for which the glass-houses provide 
ample room. 

A third and far smaller society is called Eranos. 
It consists of twelve members only, who fill up their 
number by co-option from among the Sixth, who 
alone are eligible. It was instituted by the Rev. 
F. B. Westcott (now head master of Sherborne) some 
ten years ago, and meets regularly for reading and dis- 
cussing papers, chiefly on literary subjects. 


Volunteer Corps RUGBY [CHAP. IV 


Here, between the societies and the games, is per- 
haps the right place to notice the Volunteer Corps, 
the enrolled members of which form the F Company 
in the 2nd V. B. Royal Warwickshire Regiment. It 
was founded in 1860, at the time when the Volunteer 
movement was spreading over England through fear 
of French aggression, but it was not the first institu- 
tion of the kind : the school had shared in the move- 
ment of the same nature in . 1803, and had raised 
a contingent equipped in blue coats with scarlet 
cuffs and collars, and armed with heavy wooden 
broadswords. When the second volunteer corps was 
organized in 1860, officers as well as privates were 
all members of the school. Since 1868, however, the 
superior officers have been masters ; at present there 
are a captain and two lieutenants from the masters, 
and three cadet officers from the school. Patriotism 
combined with the attractions of " marches out," " field 
days," and perhaps the smart red uniform, renders the 
rifle corps a very popular institution, so much so that 
there is at present a total strength of 260. A special 
feature of the arrangements is that the members from 
each house form a section or sub-section, which are 
thus complete permanent units. This arrangement 
puts a good deal of responsibility on the non-com- 
missioned officers, which is increased by the fact that 
promotions from the ranks to lance-corporal are made 
on the recommendation of the house sergeant. The 
natural rivalry between these house-sections is stimu- 



lated by three competitions, the successful squad gain- 
ing temporary possession of the challenge shields, 
which are placed in the house hall. These competi- 
tions are (a) in manual and firing exercise, motions of 
rifle on the march, and bayonet exercise ; (I?) in smart- 
ness of dressing ; (c) in general efficiency, including 


E. H. Sjeight. 


attendance at drill and a tactical exercise carried out 
by squads of twelve with a non-commissioned officer 
in command. The corps attends one or two large 
public school field-days during the year : these are 
held at Aldershot and mean a whole holiday for those 
who go ; besides these a number of small field-days 
or " marches out " are organized during the year : the 
fighting is frequently followed by tactical instruction 


Volunteer Corps RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

to the cadet officers and non-commissioned officers, 
mistakes in the field being pointed out, while victors 
and vanquished alike find comfort in tea. 

The rifle corps possesses a range of its own in the 
Avon valley, permanent use having been granted by 
the owner, Mr. Boughton Leigh. It is about one and 
a half miles from the school, with canvas targets 
working on the newest principles and telephonic 
communication between markers and firing points. 
From among the marksmen eight are selected to 
represent the school in the various shooting matches, 
and the competition for the Ashburton Shield at Bisley. 
This trophy has been won twice in 1861, the first 
year it was competed for, at Wimbledon, and in 1 894. 
The Spencer Cup has also twice fallen to Rugby (in 
1889 and 1890), and the Cadet's Trophy and Veteran's 
Trophy once each. The Queen's Prize has twice been 
won by Old Rugbeians, viz., J. B. Carslake in 1868, 
and A. P. Humphry in 1871, while P. Richardson was 
equal in 1886. In 1892 the Allcomers Aggregate 
fell to G. A. Wilson. The interest in shooting is 
further stimulated by various challenge cups, which 
are in some cases supplemented by a money prize 
given by the Company. For one of these a competi- 
tion is held every month at 500 yards range only. 
The others are all competed for at 200 and 500 yards, 
under Bisley regulations : they consist of the Denman 
and Humphry Cups, the Wimbledon Cup for the 
highest score at Bisley, a House Cup for teams of 
three from each house, the Town and School Cup, 
which is competed for between teams of ten from the 



town and school corps, and the Wratislaw Cup for 
individual marksmen from school and town companies. 


The school also possesses a Fire Brigade, consist- 
ing of two officers from among the masters and two 
boys from each house. It was formed in 1892, its 
main object being to interest boys in fire brigade 
work, though no doubt their knowledge would prove 
exceedingly useful in case of a fire in any of the 
boarding-houses : hitherto they have fortunately had 
no opportunity of displaying their skill under any but 
imaginary circumstances, for they do not, of course, 
go out with the town fire brigade. They possess a 
hose-cart and fire-escape, but a modern fire-engine 
belonging to the town has superseded the old school 
engine of 1822, itself a successor of ah engine bought 
in 1780, in accordance with statute, " for the use of the 
school, alms-houses, and town of Rugby." The 1822 
engine still survives, with the directions how to spread 
the water by the application of the thumb when used 
for gardening purposes ! 


Of the games played at Rugby, the one chiefly 
associated with the name is football. Unlike cricket, 
which was developed under the guiding hand of a 
central club, so that the rules were everywhere the 
same, the game of football progressed along very 

Football RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

different lines at different schools. Of these school 
games many, owing to their special characteristics, 
were not suitable for general adoption ; the game 
played at Rugby, however, attained through the Uni- 
versities and clubs, whither its cult was transferred by 
Old Rugbeians and members of other schools, notably 
Marlborough, which had adopted the game,a popularity 
which increased so rapidly that it has spread over the 
British Isles. Its rules have for many years been laid 
down by a Union to which the various clubs send 
members, and the school has since 1888 laid aside the 
special features which, to some extent, lingered there, 
and adopted in all games the rules of the Rugby 

As to the origin of the game, much has been 
written ; the similarity has been established between 
the modern Rugby game and a very ancient English 
popular game, which may perhaps claim its fount 
and origin in the " Harpastum " of the Roman settlers 
in Britain.' But the modern game undoubtedly sprang 
from and was modelled on the game played at Rugby 
School. It was necessary then, if the chain was to 
be complete, to establish the connection between the 
primitive game and the game played at Rugby. Mr. 
Montague Shearman, author of the well-known 
" Badminton " volume, has endeavoured to do this, but, 
in our opinion, an interesting pamphlet on " The Origin 
of Rugby Football," published in 1897 by the Old 
Rugbeian Society (see p. 219), has disproved his con- 
clusions. His thesis is that the primitive game, the 
main feature of which was the carrying of the ball, sur- 



vived at Rugby alone of all the great schools, because 
it " alone seems to have owned, almost from its founda- 
tion, a wide open grass playground of ample dimen- 
sions." But, as the pamphlet has pointed out, this 
theory will not hold for two very good reasons : (i.) 
that for the first two centuries, nearly, of its existence,. 
z>., till 1750, when the school moved to its present 
position (see p. 31), there was no proper playground 
at all, and, even then, the ground obtained remained 
divided up into fields of no great size till 1816; (ii.) 
that the carrying of the ball, the distinctive feature of 
the primitive and modern games, was not an original 
feature of the game played in the Rugby Close, but an 

That this is so is amply proved by the statements 
of the late Mr. M. H. Bloxam, who entered the school 
in 1813, and the late Rev. T. Harris, who entered in 
1819. It will readily be understood that in the early 
part of this century, when games had not attained, 
either at schools or elsewhere, the prominent position 
which they occupy at present in the national life, 
there was none of the elaborate codifying of rules 
which obtains nowadays ; the laws which governed 
the football in the Close were laws of custom and 
tradition, strict enough on some points, such as offside 
play, but not attempting to provide a hard and fast 
system. It was not till 1846 that a code of written 
rules appears, " sanctioned by a Levee of Bigside on 
the /th of September." These do not profess to con- 
tain the whole theory of the game, but assert that 
" they are to be regarded rather as a set of decisions 

Football RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

on certain disputed points in football, than as contain- 
ing all the laws of the game, which are too well known 
to render any explanation necessary to Rugbeians." 
But the number of rules shows that, however well known 
the main laws might be, there were, as might be ex- 
pected, a very large number of disputed points. 

When the game, then, was in the plastic state which 
preceded the codification of its rules, it was quite na- 
tural that by degrees a change in its methods should 
have sprung up, which led inevitably, when once it had 
obtained a footing, to the complete alteration of its 
nature ; this change was the practice of carrying and 
running with the ball. The evidence collected in the 
pamphlet of the Old Rugbeian Society goes to show 
that this change began between 1820 and 1830. The 
two oldest authorities are, as we mentioned before, 
agreed that running with the ball was not allowed 
in their time. The ball might be taken on the bound 
and drop-kicked, and there were much the same regula- 
tions as still exist for a fair catch, but the player might 
not run on with it. The introduction of this innovation 
is put down by Mr. Bloxam to a boy named Ellis, who 
in the second half-year of 1823, as he says, "for the 
first time disregarded this rule, and on catching the 
ball, instead of retiring backwards " (to take his kick), 
" rushed forwards with the ball in his hands towards the 
opposite goal, with what result as to the game," he 
continues, " I know not, neither do I know how this 
infringement of a well-known rule was followed up, or 
when it became, as it is, the standing rule." 

There is no other evidence than Mr. Bloxam's for 
1 88 


attributing the first carrying of the ball to Ellis, 1 and 
his evidence is not first hand, for he was not an eye- 
witness ; but whether it was so or not is not a question 
of great importance, for no one has suggested that his 
action was generally approved at the time, or that 
it led speedily to the alteration in the game ; the 
evidence is all the other way : but it is obvious that 
when once the idea had been suggested, the tempta- 
tion must have been very great to the fast runner 
who found himself in possession of the ball with an 
opening ahead ; and so it gradually came about that 
running with the ball obtained, as the pamphlet says, 
between 1830 and 1840, " a customary status," which 
was "legalized first by Bigside Levee in 1841-42, and 
finally by the rules of 1846." Picking up, however, 
was for many years only legal when a ball was on the 
bounce ; a rolling ball had to be played with the foot. 
It would seem, then, that although the similarity is 
great between Rugby Football and the ancestral game 
which attracted the unfavourable notice of kings as far 
back as' 1314, the former can lay no claim to direct 
descent from the latter : whether, if it had not been 
for this primitive game, it would have occurred to any 
boy to play football at all in the new Close or else- 
where, whether the players were influenced at all by 
having heard of or seen this primitive game, are dif- 
ferent questions, but it is evident that Rugby Football 
proper is a product of the nineteenth century, and that 
its main features were developed in the Close. 

1 A tablet has been placed by the O. R. Society in the wall 
of the head master's garden to commemorate Ellis's exploit. 


Football RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

It would be beyond the scope of this little book to 
attempt to trace the manifold changes which have 
made the Rugby Football of to-day such a different 
game from that played by a previous generation, es- 
pecially as, for nearly twenty years, the parent game at 
Rugby has relinquished its special features and fallen in 
with the legislation passed by the Union of the various 
clubs which are its offspring. It may, however, be in- 
teresting to note a few of the steps in the history of 
the game at Rugby. 

Of the game as it was played fifty and sixty years 
ago there remain three descriptions in particular, to 
which, if he does not already know them, the reader 
may be referred. Best known of these is the de- 
scription in " Tom Brown " of the great annual match 
of School-house v. School ; then there is a capital 
description of a Sixth match (i.e., Sixth v. School) 
by W. D. Arnold, which may be found incorporated 
in a chapter on football in " The Book of Rugby 
School" (1856), and quoted in Mr. Rouse's History 
(p. 266) ; finally, there is the QuToQaXtopaxfaj which 
first appeared in a school magazine, " The Rugbeian," 
in 1840, and has been reprinted for the benefit of a 
younger generation in the pamphlet on the " Origin 
of Rugby Football." It is a skit in Homeric Greek 
on the Sixth match of 1839 by Sir Franklin Lush- 
ington, the greater part of which is taken up with a 
list of the heroes who fought on that day, amongst 
whom we find Tom Hughes and Theodore Walrond, 
Bradley and Hodson and Matthew Arnold. 

Imagination may easily make up from these de- 


scriptions a picture of the old game : but the eye too 
may still get some idea of what it looked like, in the 
games played annually in the autumn term which 
have survived from former years. These have hitherto 
been three in number, the Sixth match at the begin- 
ning of the season, the Old Rugbeian match on No- 
vember ist, and "Cock Houses" (the two best House 
fifteens v. the School) at the end of the term. Not 
that these games are played under the old rules ; the 
modern rules are adhered to as far as circumstances 
permit ; the peculiarity of these games is that you 
may still see here, especially in the last-named, instead 
of the fifteen a side, sides of fifty and upwards con- 
fronting each other : for the number of players is not 
limited, and besides the players in the school Old 
Rugbeians join in the fray. In all other respects the 
game is different, but the crowded field, the enormous 
scrummage, the tramp of many feet all recall the foot- 
ball of past generations of Rugbeians, and in the Old 
Rugbeian match non-combatants of the school may 
still be seen guarding the goal line. The Sixth match 
has for many years been losing its interest, from the 
disparity in number of the sides (not as in old days 
in favour of the School, but of the Sixth), and its 
failing to attract Old Rugbeians ; there has, there- 
fore, seemed no objection to the scheme for making 
more of Founder's Day (Oct. 20), which comes early 
in the football season, by playing the O. R. match on 
that date, and in future this change will be made, the 
Sixth match surviving as an ordinary Bigside game. 
The difference between these " survival " games 

Football RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

and the ordinary matches shows how great an effect 
the limitation of numbers has had. The earliest trace 
of this appears to be in 1839 or 1840, when, according 
to the late Mr. G. C. Benn, "a match was made of fifteen 
or twenty on each side chosen from those who were 
thought to be some of the best players." The custom 
grew, though the big games still continued, and in 
1867 we find the first " foreign " match, twenty a side, 
between the school and a side got together by Mr. 
A. H. Harrison, of which all but two were Old Rugbeians. 
The school was defeated. 

As Rugby football spread foreign matches became 
natural features of the school games, and we find that 
in 1870, three years after the first match of the kind, 
a regular School Twenty was chosen, with colours. 
It was an inevitable result of the introduction of 
foreign matches that the school game should conform 
to the changes of rule introduced from time to time 
by the Rugby Union founded in 1871 ; otherwise 
such matches would have been impossible, for Old 
Rugbeians who kept up the game naturally joined 
some Rugby football club where the Union rules 
were in force. We consequently find that in 1874 
a Bigside Levee legalized the picking up of the 
ball when rolling in accordance with the Union rule 
(hitherto, in spite of many attempts to bring about 
the change, the old rule had stood that the ball 
might only be picked up when bouncing), and in 1876 
the school matches were played fifteen a side. In the 
same year was abolished " hacking over," a feature of 
the game which had excited much unfavourable com- 




ment, but which was really, according to all accounts, 
not nearly so bad as it sounded, being a dexterous trip 
rather than a deliberate kick. " Hacking on the ball " 
in the scrummage, which had been an inevitable feature 
in the game when the ball had to be driven through 
the dense mass of players on Bigside, survived as long 

E //. 


as the twenty game with its long tight scrummages 
flourished, but disappeared when the looser modern 
game came in with the change to fifteen a side. 
Finally, in 1881, the Union rules en masse were sub- 
stituted for school rules in the fifteen game. But 
though these changes were necessary when the school 
met outside players, and were thus destined gradually 
to make their way into all games, some of the old 

193 O 

Football RUC.r-Y [CHAP. IV 

traditions did not die without a struggle in the con- 
tests which, after the middle of the century, began to 
engross the interest of the school, and still cause per- 
haps even more excitement than any other games ; we 
mean the house matches. 

We have seen that the School House contains eighty 
boys, while the other houses have only fifty. In the 
days when there were no picked sides, but the weaker 
were put to guard the goal line, and when, moreover, the 
other houses were not so large or so numerous as they 
are now, the School House was a match for the rest of 
the school put together, and the match " School House 
v. School " was, as readers of " Tom Brown" know, one 
of the great events of the football season. But the 
supremacy was not to last; in 1850 a single house, 
Cotton's (now Payne-Smith's) was, as its "Fasti" record, 
" cock house in football, beating school house, which, 
for the first time in its great history, played a 
single house in playing us." The Old Rugbeian 
Society's pamphlet, so often referred to, has printed 
in an appendix gleanings from the " Fasti " or annals 
of different houses, which show that from this date 
onwards (except in 1851, for which there is no record) 
there was some competition among the houses. For 
many years, however, there was no regular method of 
conducting it, superiority being decided by the best 
houses challenging each other: in 1853, for instance, 
the School House match book records that " notwith- 
standing that the Shairpites (Shairp's house, since 
extinct, had come to the front in 1851) were generally 
considered to be far the strongest house, it was thought 



better by the School House not to drop the annual 
custom of playing them." The numbers engaged 
varied, and on this occasion the School House played 
with twenty-five against twenty-one of their opponents, 
while in the following year we find them " venturing to 
bring twenty-seven" against the same house, "though 
they were not thought to have degenerated since the 
previous year." Sometimes opinions differed as to 
the result of the games; in 1855 the School House 
claims to have had much the better of a drawn 
game with Shairp's, while Compton's (Payne-Smith's) 
"Fasti" attribute the victory to Shairp's, although they 
had but eighteen boys, all told, in the house, and 
claim the second place for themselves ! It appears, 
too, that Old Rugbeians might join in the fray, for 
we hear of Tom Hughes "doing much service" for 
the School House in 1857. As time went on the con- 
ditions under which the competitions were held be- 
came definitely fixed, and in 1867 a regular system of 
playing off ties was instituted, but, as we have said, the 
old traditions of the game lingered in these matches : 
the fifteen game was not substituted in them for the 
twenty till 1888, and the methods of the twenty game 
survived in spite of the change till within quite recent 
years. Hence it comes that Rugby has been rather 
behind other schools which have adopted the game, 
in seizing the principles of the " modern scientific foot- 
ball," the dawn of which is said by a great authority 
in Mr. Marshall's book to have been marked by the 
reduction of the number of players from twenty to 
fifteen aside. One result of this was that of the annual 


Football RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

matches which the school has played with Cheltenham 
College for the last five years it lost the first four. 
It was not till 1899 that the tables were turned. An 
annual match with Uppingham also has now been 
arranged : the first match was won by Rugby. 

House matches have a very important influence on 
the game at Rugby, not only because of the interest 
they arouse, but because the school games are organ- 
ized on the house system. Not only are there house 
matches played in the autumn term between house 
fifteens, but second house fifteens have a competition 
in the spring term for a cup presented by Mr. A. S. 
Francis, O.R. Moreover, on days when the thirty 
best players in the school are playing on " Bigside " 
(sometimes there are two "Bigside" games), the houses 
play each other in " Belows " (i.e., those " below " Big- 
side) and " Two-Belows " : only the few for whom no 
place can be found in these games are sent off to take 
part in a mixed game, rejoicing in the emphatic name 
of " Remnants." On days when there are no inter-house 
games the various houses play " Littlesides," i.e. pick-up 
games amongst members of the house. The increase 
of ground of late years has enabled this system to be 
very thoroughly worked, and, now that " Remnants " 
has been established on a firm basis, every boy in the 
school who may play gets a game of football on a 
half-holiday. The same remark applies to cricket, 
which is organized on the same lines. 

Football is compulsory for all below the Sixth who 
have not got a medical certificate of unfitness. The 
season lasts from the beginning of the autumn till 


three quarters of the way through the spring term : 
in the latter term it has of late years largely taken the 
place of" running," but it is not pursued with the same 
zest as in autumn, as the only competition is between 
the second house fifteens ; foreign matches continue 
till the end of the season, but the various " distinc- 
tions " which mark individual prowess are only given 
.in the autumn term. These are : (i.) the Fifteen colours ; 
viz., a red, white and blue ribbon on the straw hat, 
dark blue knickerbockers, and school crest on a white 
jersey, (ii.) " Caps " (about thirty-five of these are 
given nowadays, including the Fifteen). These are the 
oldest of the football distinctions, dating from about 
1843, though the exact date seems uncertain ; they 
are gorgeous affairs of velvet with gold or silver 
braid, which set the fashion of football caps for the 
Universities and other Rugby football clubs. They are 
awarded by the head of the Fifteen, but they vary in 
colour, each house having its own. In the old days 
players wore them on the field, and they must have 
added a pleasant touch of colour to the scene. In 
the modern game, where heads in the scrummage are 
unseen, the cap would have a hard time of it, and have 
become as indeed they always must have been 
quite useless bits of splendour. With the cap go 
certain privileges of crest and knickerbocker. (Hi.) 
Flannels. The name has survived its appropriateness. 
It was jrjven in times when the regulation garments 
were " ducks," and flannel trousers were reserved as a 
mark of distinction. "Flannels" are now distinguished 
by black stockings and a crest on the straw hat. 


Football UUCI15V [CHAP. IV 

It has only been within the last fifteen years that 
common sense has prevailed in allowing all boys to 
wear garments most suitable for games, distinction 
being only preserved in the colour of the material. 
About the same time a wise legislation reduced to a 
reasonable degree the endless multiplicity of braid 
and ribbon which formerly marked distinction in 
games or degree of seniority. It should be mentioned 
that in games old members of the school teams resign 
their colours at the beginning of the season, except 
the senior member left, who becomes captain. 

No account of the school games could omit all 
mention of Rugbeians who have distinguished them- 
selves therein. This is no place for a full list, which 
would be a very long one, but a few names may be 
selected. " First and foremost of all half-backs, 
whether of this or any other period," writes Mr. A. G. 
Guillemard, himself a noted Old Rugbeian Inter- 
national player, "was C. S. Dakyns, who from 1861 to 
1868 accomplished such marvellous achievements on 
Old Bigside at Rugby, and in the ranks of the Rich- 
mond Club, as could hardly be credited by those who 
never saw him at his prime." Full of resource and 
excellent in all departments of the game, his unerring- 
drops with either foot from among a crowd of ad- 
versaries seem to have been the feature of his play 
which most impressed his contemporaries. Among 
other noted players in the early days of club football 
were A. Rutter, first President of the Union, and K. 
Rutter, " whose long left-foot drops " (to quote the 
same authority), u were as useful to his club (Rich- 


Football RU<;I;Y [CHAP, iv 

mond) for many seasons as was his left-hand bowling 
to the Middlesex County Eleven ; " E. C. Holmes, 
" one of the most hard-working of men, and equally 
good in or behind the scrummage," who, with A. Rutter 
and L. J. Maton, drafted the first code of rules, and 
with M. Davies and G. Hamilton formed a trio whose 
combination was very effective on the field ; C. S. 
Fryer, a very fast and tricky half-back ; C. W. Sher- 
rard of the R.M.A., and F. Stokes of Blackheath, 
" one of the very best examples of a heavy forward," 
who was captain of the English International team for 
the first three years of its existence. Of the first 
International Twenty in 1871, no less than ten were 
old Rugbeians, prominent amongst them being J. F. 
Green, " for several years one of the most brilliant of 
half-backs," F. Tobin, and D. P, Turner, a magnificent 
forward who played in five successive matches against 
Scotland. Seven of the next year's team came 
from Rugby, including F. W. Isherwood, " perhaps 
the best forward playing on this occasion ; " and for 
some years the school continued to be well repre- 
sented, amongst those selected being C. W. Crosse in 
1874, " one of the very best of forwards that ever came 
from Rugby;" E. H. Nash, who was conspicuous in 
the match against Scotland in 1875 ; A. T. Michell, 
" an admirable half-back," captain of the Oxford team 
in 1874, and brother of W. G. Michell, who has shown 
for many years in the Close how well the game may 
be learned at Wellington and Cambridge ; also G. F- 
Vernon, the well-known cricketer, in 1878, who plavcd 
five times for England and was " certainly one of the 



very best forwards of his time." Of late years Rugby 
has supplied but few International players: three 
members of the 1880 fifteen obtained that honour, but 
since then there have been only two, A. Mackinnon, 
who represented Scotland in 1898 and 1899, and A. O. 
Dowson, who played for England in 1 899. We have 
only mentioned a few among International players, 
but doubtless there were many as good in earlier days 
whose fame never spread beyond the Close : such 
were "Jem Mackie " and the other heroes of 1839, 
celebrated in the $aTO@a*toftax,ia, and after them players 
like A. G. Butler, M. T. Martin, J. S. E. Hood and 
C. Marshall, while all authorities unite in placing 
F. E. Speed, captain of the fifteen in 1877, amongst 
the best three-quarter backs ever seen at Rugby. 


Cricket at Rugby, at the present time, is organized 
on the same system as football : as in football there are 
" Foreign matches," Bigsides and Littlesides, House 
matches, Belows, Two and Three Belows, and Rem- 
nants. The competition, however, among the House 
Belows of various grades differs in that for the last five 
years it has been conducted under the League system- 
each house playing two matches against every other 
house. The object of this was to keep up the interest 
which "counting" games give, fora house defeated in 
Belows early in the term used to find itself condemned 
to a monotonous series of " bosh " Belows. The result 
of the new system has been successful, though the 


Cricket RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

strength of a House Belows varies much from time to 
time, according as its prominent players are engaged 
in Bigside or not, Belows being only played when 
there is a Bigside. 

A special feature of cricket organization which has 
been introduced latterly is the " Young Guard.". This 
consists of boys under sixteen who show promise : 
they have special " ends " (i.e., practice nets) at the 
further end of Caldecott's, where they get coached by 
the master who manages this Young Guard, and a 
professional, whose appointment and payment have 
been due to the suggestion and generosity of the Old 
Rugbeian Society. Besides the " ends " the Young 
Guard have pick-up games on days when such games 
do not interfere with the "counting" games, and in 
these the umpire endeavours to impart some of the 
science of the game which can only be learned in a 
match. When a boy is over sixteen and has to leave 
the Young Guard, he is, if still promising, allowed to 
go on the " ends " reserved for those who have gained 
the " tie " (the first school distinction), where he 
practises with the better cricketers of his age and gets 
occasional coaching from masters, until he gets his 
Twenty-Two colours, when he has the freedom of 
the Twenty-Two ends : here there are two if not 
three professionals ready to bowl at him, as well as 
masters. The attempt to provide stepping-stones for 
the young cricketer has combined with other things 
to raise the standard of cricket in the school at large. 
Chief among other factors in this we should place the 
general improvement of the grounds, and the practice 



of playing all house matches on the best ground, New 
Bigside, where the young cricketer who plays correctly 
has much more chance of making runs than on a bad 
wicket, and the bowler can get his field into the 
positions which he wants. All cricket distinctions, the 
Tie, Twenty-Two, and Eleven, are given by the head 
of the Eleven. The Eleven colours are light blue cap 
and shirt and white flannels. All others nowadays 
wear gray flannels. 

Cricket has certainly flourished at Rugby for more 
than a century ; of its early days little is known, but, 
as Mr. Rouse has pointed out, " Nimrod " (C. Apper- 
ley, entered 1789) speaks of it as being in high repute 
in his time. " All along the ground " was not yet the 
cricketer's ideal in those days, for Nimrod boasts that 
he had never seen balls "sent further or higher from the 
bat " than when hit by the heroes of his time. Since 
1831 scores have been preserved, and these, from 1831 . 
to 1893, have been published by the Old Rugbeian 
Society, beginning with a defeat at the hands of the 
Arden Club in May, 1831, a defeat which was avenged 
in July of the same year. " Foreign matches " then had 
already begun at that time, and are to be found in the 
scores along with the principal school games, Sixth 
v. School and School House v. School, as in football, 
North v. South (of chapel), and so on. Lists of the 
Eleven, painted in the cricket pavilions, date from 
1834; in 1840 we find the school playing the M.C.C. 
at Lord's, and in the next year, after the Wellesbourne 
match, took place the M.C.C. match which forms the 
basis of the well-known description in "Tom Brown." 


Cricket RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

Of the famous cricketers whose names appear in 
this book we may mention a few. In 1843 we find 
the first recorded " century " opposite the name of 
C. O. Pell ("Pell" in the scores, for initials were 
omitted except in cases where two of the same name 
might be mistaken) : he made 1 13 out of 185 against 
the Wellesbourne Club at Wellesbourne, and followed 
it up with 92 against the Town Club. He gained 
fame afterwards, not only as a cricketer, but as a 
marksman at Wimbledon. Five years later we find 
the first mention of the well-known name of C. G. 
Wynch, one of the best leg hitters ever seen in 
the cricket field ; we may mention here that the first 
100 on " Bigside " was scored in 1849 by H. A. 
Pickard, who in later life served with great distinction 
in India. Contemporary with these, though strangely 
enough his name does not appear in the scores, was 
David Buchanan, a thorn in the side of batsmen on 
the most famous cricket fields as well as on the Close 
and the Rugby Town Club ground, for many more 
years than fall to the lot of most famous bowlers. In 
1854 first appears the name of E. G. Sandford, three 
years captain of the School Eleven, and a well-known 
figure in Oxford and Gentlemen of England elevens ; 
and overlapping him at school was E. M. Kenney, a 
famous fast right-hand bowler. At this time, too, we 
notice the name of B. B. Cooper, captain of the Eleven 
in 1 862, who used to go in first with W. G. Grace for the 
Gentlemen, and made a stand of 283 with him for the 
first wicket on one occasion, which was unsurpassed 
for many years ; also C. Booth, and 1C. Rutter, the 



Middlesex slow bowler. Contemporary with these 
was T. Case, who in his brilliant career at Oxford 
showed as much excellence in cricket as in other 
things. Coming to 1866 and 1867 we find the Eleven 
captained by B. Pauncefote, perhaps the best all- 
round cricketer who ever learnt the game on the 
Close ; included in its ranks were W. Yardley, the 
brilliant bat who scored for Cambridge the first hun- 
dred ever made in the 'Varsity match, and still holds the 
record as the only player who has performed that feat 
twice, and C. K. Francis, a fast right-hand bowler, 
probably the best ever produced by the school, who at 
Lord's in 1869 took seven Marlborough wickets in the 
first innings and all ten in the second. Passing over 
in the Seventies such sterling cricketers as H. W. 
Gardner, W. O. Moberley, and G. F. Vernon, we come 
to C. F. H. Leslie, captain in 1879 and 1880, the last 
Rugbeian to gain a place in an All England Eleven. 
Since his time there have been no such notable players, 
though the Close has seldom seen a more successful 
schoolboy bat than E. H. F. Brad by, captain in 1885, 
who in that season scored four centuries in eleven 
innings, and had an average of 69. There are few 
Rugbeians at present playing in first-class cricket, 
but P. F. Warner, captain in 1892, is becoming one 
of the mainstays of the Middlesex eleven, while 
R. W. Nicholls helped last year when playing for that 
side to make the record stand for the last wicket. 

Such are some of the names best known in the 
Close during the last half century. It would be in- 
teresting to trace the changes in the game from the 


Cricket RUCiBV [CHAP. IV 

old days of underhand bowling and top hats, through 
what was in 1855 "the still developing era of swift 
round bowling, with all its manifold paraphernalia of 
newspaper reports, pads, pavilions, and professionals " 
(John Lillywhitein 1850 was the first professional); but 
space forbids, and we can only call attention to one or 
two points of interest. Peculiar to Rugby, we believe, 
is the term, perhaps the institution, " Pie Match." A 
Pie Match is a match after which the winning side 
celebrate their victory by a " stodge," to use the modern 
slang word, and as far back as 1850 we find a school 
Pie Match being contested on Bigside. The losing 
side used to contribute double the amount of the 
winning to the feast, in which only two of the losers 
shared, the two who had made most runs and taken 
most wickets. School Pie Matches have long since 
dropped out, but house Pie Matches still flourish, 
though the feast nowadays is generally provided by 
the house master. 

The great match of the year is the Marlborough 
match, which is played at Lord's on the first two days 
of the summer holidays. It was first played in 1855 
at Lord's, and has been an annual match ever since, 
excepting in the years 1858, 1859, and 1861, while in 
the years 1888 and 1891 rain prevented any play. 
Since 1871 the match has always been at Lord's ; in 
the preceding years it had been occasionally played 
at the Oval, and once each on the respective school 
grounds. Rugby got a long start in victories to begin 
with, and of the forty matches that have been played 
(up to 1899) she has won twenty-two; thirteen have 


Cricket RUdlJY [CHAP. IV 

been won by Marlborough, and five only have been 
drawn. It is curious to note in how few cases there 
has not been a large margin of wickets or runs for the 
winning side. 

It may be interesting to note that, besides by Marl- 
borough in 1868, the Close has three times been 
visited by elevens from other schools. In 1858 a 
Harrow eleven, not the proper school eleven, for it 
contained two Old Harrovians, played a two days' 
match and was badly beaten, while in 1887 and 1897 
the school celebrated the Jubilees by defeating in 
single day matches elevens from Clifton and Upping- 
ham respectively, the result in each case being some- 
what contrary to expectation. It is not likely, how- 
ever, that a second school cricket match will be 
adopted, the present arrangement having very great 


Another time-honoured pastime of Rugby boys is 
cross-country running. It seems to have dated from 
the end of last century at any rate, and at the begin- 
ning of this it was the custom to have a run after the 
prizes had been awarded, when the winners of the 
prizes supplied ale at the end of the run at some public 
house in the neighbourhood ; as readers of " Tom 
Brown" will remember it was in full swing in the 
Thirties, and since 1837 records of the runs have been 
kept by the head of the running, who is called Holder 
of " Bigside Bags," it being his duty to keep the bags 



in which the " hares " carry the "scent." At that time 
the runs were paper-chases in the true sense of the 
word ; although the general direction Was known and 
the " come-in " or end of the run was at a fixed place, 
the course varied according to the pleasure of the hares, 
and the tracking of their course formed a great feature 
of the sport. The " come in " in those days was gener- 
ally at some public house, where ale was provided for 
those who succeeded in reaching the goal within a 
certain time. It would seem that gradually the course 
of the runs became more and more fixed (the first 
"times" recorded are in 1844), and in 1858 L. N. 
Prance, who then held the Bigside bags, wrote a de- 
scription of the fixed course of Bigside runs. These 
descriptions were revised and printed by R. S. Benson 
in 1877, and since then there have been two more 
editions, in 1883 and 1893, which contain not only 
descriptions of the runs but records of runners. Notice- 
able among the earliest recorded winners of runs are 
A. H. Clough and W, S. Ho.dson, while in 1849 and 
1850 occurs repeatedly the name of T. W. Jex-Blake 
who held Bigside bags in those years. 

There are thirteen runs described in this book, all 
of which, except one, the Hillmorton, introduced in 
1882, are old ones dating from the Thirties : they vary 
in distance from the Hilton, which is just under five 
miles, to the Crick, the most famous of them all, 
which is about twelve and a quarter miles. For many 
years the Crick used always to be run on the first 
Thursday in December, but of late years it takes 
place, like most other Bigside runs, in the spring 

209 p 

Running RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

term. The " record " for it is held by K. B. Kellett, 
who in 1889 ran it in the splendid time of i hour, 
1 5 minutes, 1 5 seconds. The first half of the course 
lies mostly over fields, the last six miles are along 
the road from Crick to Rugby, where the very few 
who under present regulations may compete are 
cheered on their way by swarms of bicyclists. In 
1 88 1 a cup was given by former winners of the Crick, 
to be called the Running Cup : for some years this 
was competed for by house running eights, the cup 
going to the house whose representatives scored most 
points in Bigside runs. The competition for the cup 
was keen, but it began to be recognized that, except 
for individual boys, long distance running is apt to 
prove too much of a strain, and in 1892 the system of 
inter-house competitions was abolished. At the same 
time very strict regulations were laid down with re- 
gard to running in general. The Running Cup for a 
few years went to the winner of the Crick ; it now 
goes to an individual runner, but one or two other 
runs besides the Crick may count in. The interest in 
running is still kept up by a School Running Eight, 
who have two or three matches in the spring term 
against outside running clubs. The members of the 
Running Eight wear a distinctive dark and light blue 
ribbon on the straw hat. 

By the rules which have been in force since 1893, no 
boy under sixteen is allowed to run any Bigside runs, 
and leave from home is also necessary ; for the Crick 
the limit of age has been put at seventeen, and leave 
has to be obtained from home and from house master. 



The organization of house runs was also altered at the 
same time. The various houses, as well as Bigside, 
have their traditional runs, but the method under 
which they were conducted was different : starting 
from some point close to the school all those who 
ran (and running was compulsory for all fags and 
junior boys) kept together till a point was reached 
where the u come-in," generally some half-mile or more 
long, began ; then those who liked raced on, the rest 
going as they pleased. At the end of the " come-in " 
stood the "coat fags," who had carried the coats of the 
runners from the starting point to the " come-in." 
This system, as being apt both to come hard on the 
bad runners, and to encourage the good runners to race, 
as well as providing a very poor afternoon's employ- 
ment for the coat fags, was altered in 1893. Since 
then all house runs have started from and finished at 
the house ; no times may be taken, and instead of all 
going together they are run in two divisions, senior 
and junior, each under charge of two responsible per- 
sons. For those who cannot manage even the junior 
house runs there are special very short runs in which 
the " remnants " from the different houses combine. 

House runs form the regular exercise throughout 
the winter on days when it is too wet for football. 
Formerly they were the mainstay of the spring term, 
but of late years increase of ground has enabled foot- 
ball to be played in the spring term by all the school. 
The football season generally stops soon after the first 
week in March ; after this boys begin practising for the 
Athletics, which take place at the end of March. The 

Athletics RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

earliest recorded athletics were held in 1853, but the 
institution apparently dates from before that time. 
The School House seems to have started the idea, 
which is the reason why the head of the School 
House is an ex officio steward. The Athetics were 
very comprehensive at first, including not only running 
and jumping but hand-fives, place-kicking and drop- 
ping, swimming and diving. The competitions in 
these still take place, but are not associated with the 
athletics. The events now included in these comprise 
flat races of a mile, half-mile, quarter-mile, 150 and 
100 yards ; 100 yards hurdle races, high jump, broad 
jump, throwing the cricket ball, putting the weight, 
and an inter-house tug of war. For most of these 
events there are junior as well as open competitions. 
The prizes are almost all provided by school subscrip- 
tions, three weekly allowances being stopped for the 
purpose, but the head master gives the prize for the 
mile. The rule that no other prizes should be given 
was only broken in favour of the late Mr. M. H. 
Bloxam, who for many years gave prizes for two flat 
races of 300 yards for junior boys ; these races are 
still called after his name. Some of the events, how- 
ever, have challenge cups attached to them which 
go to the winner for the year, and there are two 
Athletic Cups for the two who win most points in the 
events. Finally, there is the Wrigley Cup, instituted 
in 1891 in memory of H. C. Wrigley, a member of the 
Sixth Form and Army Class, who died in the Easter 
holidays of 1890. It goes to the house which gains 
most points in the sports, and greatly increases the in- 




terest in the competitions, for points can be scored in 
all events, and in the open events go down to the fourth 
in the order of winners. Not unfrequently the issue de- 
pends on the tug of war, and the interest is sustained 
right to the end. The Athletics, which take place on 

E. H. Speight. 


two days, are managed by five stewards. The heads of 
the School, School House, the Eleven and the Fifteen, 
are stewards ex officio. Bigside levee elects the one or 
more stewards necessary to complete the number. Of 
p<jrformances recorded at the Athletics the most 
notable are C. W. L. Bulpett's mile in 4 minutes, 
391 seconds (1871), K. L. Curry's 105 feet, 2 inches, for 


Athletics RUOIIY [CHAP. IV 

throwing the cricket ball in the same year, F. W. 
Capron's high jump of 5 feet, 5 inches, in 1879, ar| d 
C. A. S. Leggatt's broad jump of 20 feet, 2 inches, 
also in 1879. M. J. Brooks, the famous Oxford high 
jumper, did not do anything phenomenal at school. 
There are plenty of ten seconds " dead " recorded for 
the 100 yards, but times in such races cannot, at any 
rate before the perfection of stop-watches, be relied 

Other athletic events of the spring term are the 
School and House Steeplechases. The courses for 
these, of varying length and difficulty, according to 
the age of the competitors, but never exceeding about 
a mile, are set with flags through the fields by the 
Clifton brook ; they cross and recross the brook, and 
finish up not far from the Clifton road and Butler's 
Leap, the leap from the road over the low railing and 
the brook below, just before it passes under the bridge, 
made famous by A. G. Butler. Organized house 
brook-jumping, " paper chasing " as it was called, has 
died out, but brook-jumping is still a popular pursuit 
on fine spring days. 


Two other games largely played at Rugby de- 
serve mention, Fives and Racquets. The former is 
the older game : when it first came into existence we 
do not know, but given a wall, a paved ground and 
a boy, one may be fairly safe in conjecturing that 
some sort of fives will be played. The buildings 



completed in 1816 afforded, unintentionally no doubt, 
special facilities for the game, for a narrow stone 
coping runs all round them about three feet from 
the ground, where the wall becomes slightly thinner ; 
it thus forms a natural line over which the ball must 
be hit. There were two specially suitable places 
known in the Thirties, at any rate, as the Great and 
Little Fives Courts. The Little Fives Court was under 
the old Sixth School, the library as it was then, just 
inside the school gates : the door in the east wall is 
modern, and the place was well adapted for hand fives, 
which was played there ; it was used by the School 
House long after it had ceased to be a recognized fives 
court, but the door has spoilt it. On the Great Fives 
Court bat fives only was played : the front wall was 
formed by the windowless west wall of the block of 
schools which faces the Close ; the floor was paved, 
and when a form room was built against the vestry 
of the old chapel, there was a back wall ; when the 
new chapel was built the space was no longer free. A 
third fives court was built in 1848 in what is now the 
New Quadrangle, on the site of some old cottages 
which were bought up and pulled down : this of course 
disappeared when the new buildings were erected. 
All the fives courts nowadays are at the south end of 
the Close, and were built for the purpose (see p. 139) : 
bat fives is still a popular game, though there is only 
one court, the flooring of which is not what it might 
be, while, besides the plain wall Rugby hand fives 
courts, there are four Eton fives courts, which are 
not however so well frequented. These courts are most 


Racquets RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

sought after in the spring term, when school competi- 
tions are carried on as well as house competitions 
(generally handicaps) of all kinds. There are, how- 
ever, no matches with outside players, and conse- 
quently there is no regular school pair at fives. 
Racquets was introduced with the building of the old 
court in 1859. Since 1884 there have been two 
courts. A professional racquet player is employed 
at the courts, who, besides playing, sells the requisite 
materials for fives and racquets and looks after the 
courts. From 1868 to 1894 the well-known champion 
player, J. Gray, was professional, and since then his 
son has carried on the work. The school has from the 
first competed for the Public Schools Challenge Cup, 
but has only been successful twice, in 1870, when 
H. W. Gardner and T. S. Pearson carried it off, and 
again in 1896, when it was won after a most exciting 
struggle by W. E. Wilson-Johnston and G. T. Hawes. 
There have, however, been many good players, notable 
amongst them, besides the pair of 1870, being J. W. 
Weston, R. O. Milne, S. K. Gwyer, and C. F. H. Leslie, 
while successive Bowden-Smiths have identified their 
name with the game. 

The best players in the school form what is known 
as the Racquet Club : these have the privilege of book- 
ing courts at a fixed time for the whole term, care 
being taken that they do not monopolize the courts, 
and of changing in the dressing-room at the courts. 
The six best players in the club are selected by com- 
petition in the autumn term, and these six compete 
with each other in the spring term after reasonable 



time allowed for practice ; those who come out first 
and second are chosen as the pair to represent the 
school. By this method the pair can be fixed upon 
early enough in the spring term to allow of their 
practising together, in ordinary games and in matches 
with outside players, for nearly a couple of months 
before the competition, even if, which is not often the 
case, they have not played much together before. The 
expenses of racquet playing being heavy, those who 
represent the school are subsidized, but only to a 
reasonable degree, by the Old Rugbeian Society. 
The racquet pair have two distinctions in dress, a 
jersey trimmed with light blue for playing in, and a 
special badge instead of the school crest on the 
ordinary school blazer. Besides the regular school 
racquet competitions in the spring term for singles 
and doubles, there is a challenge cup competed for by 
pairs from the different houses in the summer term. 
The head master, too, gives a -racquet to be played for 
by boys under sixteen. 


To the few who may not play active games, and to 
many others, exercise and employment is afforded by 
the gymnasium and workshops. They are open 
regularly during play hours, while for the gymnasium 
the various boarding-houses have a special hour in the 
evening once a week. A subscription of los. a term 
is charged for the gymnasium, js. a term for the 
workshops. Boxing and fencing are taught without 


O. R. Society RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

extra charge at the gymnasium at certain stated 
times, and private lessons may also be had. Dis- 
tinctions, worn only inside the gymnasium, are given 
to the best gymnasts, the best pair of whom are chosen 
to represent the school in the inter-school competition 
at Aldershot. A gymnastic eight is also now selected 
to compete with Harrow. The workshops afford facili- 
ties for turning and all kinds of carpentry. 


Frequent mention has been made in these pages of 
the Old Rugbeian Society. It was founded on 
December 19, 1889, its object and purpose being "to 
assist and promote the games of Rugby School, and 
so form a bond of union between past and present 
Rugbeians." The minimum donation, which is of the 
nature of an entrance fee, is a sovereign ; no further 
subscriptions are required, though they are gladly re- 
ceived. The society has cricket colours. Its founder 
and first hon. sec. was S. P. B. Bucknill ; he was 
succeeded in 1893 by Morris Davies, whose presence 
in Rugby is a great factor in the successful working 
of the society, which is thus constantly kept in touch 
with the needs which from time to time are most 
pressing at the school. The membership of the 
society has risen steadily since its formation, and it 
now numbers 853, and has a balance in the last state- 
ment of accounts of 286 los. lid. The society lends 
a helping hand to all sorts of things connected with 
games, e.g., payment of cricket professionals, subsidiz- 



ing of racquet players, levelling of ground, cementing 
of racquet courts, and so on : a list of principal votes 
for the last ten years (nearly) amounts to ;8o8 : its 
great object is to act as fairy godmother without 
taking upon itself expenses which should reasonably 
fall on the school subscriptions, and in this it has 
succeeded admirably. The society sends a copy of 
the " Meteor " (the school paper) and the " School 
Calendar " to all subscribers of a pound and upwards, 
and has published two works, frequently referred to 
in these pages, a volume of Rugby School Cricket 
Scores, from 1831 to 1893, with several interesting 
appendices (price los. 6d.\ and a shilling pamphlet on 
" The Origin of Rugby Football." It has been proposed 
that the society should extend its scope so as to in- 
clude other things than games, while keeping them 
as its primary object, but hitherto the objection has 
prevailed that such a step might lead the society into 
a sphere of action for which its present constitution 
would render it ill adapted. It is, however, very much 
to be hoped that the society will some day see its way 
to some slight alteration of its rules such as would 
enable it to support such work as the publication of 
the School Register ; this most interesting work has 
hitherto been dependent on the energy and enterprise 
of individuals. 

Before leaving the subject of games it should be 
mentioned that questions as to the management and 
organization of games are discussed, when they arise, 
before the Games Committee, which consists of 
masters and boys, the latter predominating: its de- 


Periodicals RUCI5V [CHAP. IV 

cisions are of course always subject to the approval 
of the head master, while any radical change has to be 
submitted to a Bigside levee before being submitted 
to the head master. 


It will not be out of place here to say a few words 
about the periodicals which have from time to time 
been published by members of the school. The 
earliest of these seems to have been the " Rugby 
Magazine," which flourished during the years 1835- 
1836. There is an interesting letter (No. 92) in 
Stanley's " Life of Dr. Arnold," in which, writing to a 
pupil (H. Highton, afterwards a master at Rugby, 
Principal of Cheltenham, and a distinguished scientist), 
he welcomes the idea, at the same time laying down 
the conditions which alone could ensure its being of 
value to the school the inexorable rejection of trash, 
"or worse still, anything like local or personal 
scandal or gossip," and the absence of politics ; " I do 
not wish," he says, "to encourage the false notion of my 
making or trying to make the school political." In a 
subsequent letter (No. 116) he speaks of the second 
number : " It is written wholly either by boys actually 
at the school, or by undergraduates within their first 
year. I delight in the spirit of it, and think there is much 
ability in many of the articles. I think also that it is 
likely to do good to the school." The Magazine con- 
tained no chronicle of school events ; its contents are 
purely literary, but some of the lighter contributions 
give glimpses of the school life of the time. Amongst 



the contributors to it was A. H. Clough. Following 
the Magazine, in 1840, came a single number, which 
must be exceedingly rare now, of the " Rugbeian." 
It contained the <puTo@xMof*ax,{a, (see p. 190). 

The same traditions were kept up in the " Rugby 
Miscellany "(1845), "Rugbeian" (1850-1852), "New 
Rugbeian" (1858-1861), and the " New Rugby Maga- 
zine " (1864-1865). 

In 1867 was started the " Meteor," which has 
flourished ever since. Its stability is due to the fact 
that it has no other aims than to chronicle school 
events : " small beer " they may be to the outside 
public, but to past and present Rugbeians they are of 
great interest, and the " Meteor " has become a school 
institution ; once only we believe did it launch out 
into literary effort, but its voyage was a very short 
one. It has of late clothed itself in a pictorial 
cover, designed by Mr. T. Lindsay. The head of 
the school is an editor ex officio; the other editors are 
co-opted : formerly the editors shared the profits, but 
of late years, since the " Meteor " has been supplied to 
every boy, being chargeable in the bills, they receive 
a fixed sum, the surplus going to the school funds. 

Literary propensities have, however, produced other 
papers at intervals. There was the " T. V. W." (Two 
Venturesome Wilsonites) in 1877-1878, best known 
from delightful descriptions of the school in the manner 
of Herodotus, from the pen of Mr. A. Sidgwick ; then 
came the "Leaflet" (1883-1886), where illustrations 
first make an appearance, and the " Sibyl," which had 
a comparatively long life (1890-1895). Finally, in 


Missions RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

1898, comes the " Laurentian," destined, we hope, to 
survive for many seasons. 


We must not conclude without a word about the 
two missions which the school and Old Rugbeians 
support. The oldest of these is the Fox Mission. It 
was founded in memory of Henry Watson Fox 
(entered 1831), who went out as a missionary in 
Southern India, and died young in 1848. The funds 
go to maintain a mastership in the Noble College at 
Masulipatam, a large native school. A sermon on 
behalf of this fund is preached annually in the school 
chapel on November ist, All Saints' Day. The other 
mission, called the Home Mission, was started in 
1889 : it was feared at the time that the Fox Mission 
Fund might suffer by the new move, and a minimum 
of 300 was consequently guaranteed to it, the deficit 
to be a first charge on the Home Mission : hitherto 
no call has been necessary, and the two have flourished 
side by side, though it is only natural, perhaps, that 
more interest should be felt in the Home Mission, 
which consists in the maintenance of two boys' clubs, 
the largest at 223, Walmer Road, Netting Hill,W., the 
other at Mission Room, Theodore Street, Birmingham. 

The Netting Hill "Rugby Club" has developed 
from a small organization of the kind started by Mr. 
A. F. Walrond, O.R. It is situated in one of the 
poorest and roughest parts of London, and it still suc- 
ceeds, in spite of the gradual introduction and steady 
maintenance of discipline, in attracting the poorest and 



roughest class of boys. The present manager, Rev. F. 
Meyrick-Jones, is an old Malburian, but he is assisted 
in the work by several old Rugbeians, who, living in 
London, devote some of their evenings to regular 
work at the club. The annual report will give the 
reader a good idea of the organization of the club. 
Two special annual events may be mentioned as being 
the chief ways in which Rugby boys may come into 
contact with the club : (i.) the visit to the school in 
the spring on the day of the annual general meeting, 
when members of the club come down, headed by a 
capital drum and fife band loudly playing the 
" Floreat," the school song, play games in the Close, 
and are feasted in the boarding-houses ; (ii.) the camp 
in August, when a number of them are taken down 
for a week's outing, generally by the sea, and old and 
present Rugbeians are welcomed by the regular staff 
to take part in the various labours and amusements 
which camp life affords. In such ways the Home 
Mission endeavours to win the interest and sympathy 
of the school in a branch of social work which must 
appeal to all sorts and conditions of men. 


Finally, we must add a few words about the school 
song. The earliest composition of the kind was an 
English imitation of the Winchester " Domum," the 
Latin chorus of which was retained. It flourished at the 
beginning of the century and is quoted by Bloxam 
in one of his contributions to the " Meteor," reprinted 
in " Rugby " (p. 89) ; it is evidently a youthful com- 


The "Floreat" RUGBY [CHAP. IV 

position, and is chiefly remarkable for a curious emen- 
dation in the first stanza. It ran originally : 

" Let us now, my jovial fellows, 
Shout aloud with youthful glee, 
Sing, old Rose, and burn the bellows, 
Sing sweet home and liberty." 

According to Bloxam the third line referred to one 
" George Rose, Esq., sometime M.P. for Christchurch, 
who was equally celebrated for his vocal abilities and 
his wanton Destruction of furniture when in a state of 
excitement. Such appears in a note to an edition of the 
' Ingoldsby Legends/ published in 1863." The refer- 
ence being forgotten, the line became unintelligible, 
and was altered to "Sing sweet home and burn 
libellos." The music, not apparently the well-known 
tune of the Winchester "Domum," used to be played as 
a voluntary on the organ in the parish church, and later 
on in the chapel, on the last Sunday of the half year. 
The Rugby " Domum " fell into disuse in Dr. Arnold's 
time, and its place was not filled till in 1870 the Rev. 
C. E. Moberly, a master at the school, wrote the words 
and music of the " Floreat," which has endeared itself 
to all Rugbeians since. It runs as follows : 

" Evce laeta requies 

Advenit laborum, 

Fessa vult induties 

Dura gens librorum, 

Nunc comparatur sarcina, 

Nunc praesto sunt viatica, 

Nos laeta schola miserit 

Nos laeta domus ceperit 
yEquales, sodales, citate, clamate 
Floreat, floreat, floreat Rugbeia. 


Chorus. Floreat, floreat, floreat Rugbeia, 
Floreat, floreat, floreat Rugbeia ! 

" Campi nostri gramina 

Trita jam quiescent, 

Dein bimestri spatio 

Laeta revirescent, 

Sic se tandem refectura 

Nostrac mentis est tritura, 

Et rigor omnis difHuet 

Et vigor ortus affluet 
Ut choro sonoro, citemus clamemus 
Floreat, floreat, floreat Rugbeia. 

" Ilia vivat operum 
Strenua navatrix, 
Et virtutum omnium 
Unica creatrix. 
Ilia regno cives bonos 
Et bonorum det patronos, 
Det claros senatores 
Laureates bellatores, 
Et donis coronis, laudata beata, 
Floreat, floreat, floreat Rugbeia. 

" At si fatum omnes nos 

Tanta vult conari, 

Haecce saltern tempora 

Fas sit otiari ; 

Nondum cancellarii 

Sumus aut episcopi, 

Sic fratres gaudeamus 

In loco desipiamus, 
Et choro sonoro citemus clamemus 
Floreat, floreat, floreat Rugbeia." 

225 Q 


Act of 1748, 32 ; of 1777, 34 ; 

of 1868, 66. 
Allen, John, 24. 
Almshouses, 9. 
Armoury, 106. 
Arms School, 8. 
Army Class, 158. 
Arnold, Thomas, 52-62, 104 ; 

Grave, 124; Monument, 

133 ; Bust, 150. 
Arnold Library, 105, 144. 
Art Museum, 144. 
Ashbridge, Robert, 24. 
Athletics, 212. 

Banner, 151. 

Barn Close, 92. 

Bath, 137. 

" Benns," 99. 

Benson, E. W., 129. 

Bigside, Old, 90 ; New, 97 ; 

Levees, 162 ; Runs, 209. 
Bloxam, M. H., 71, 104, 145, 


Boarding-Houses, 151, 156. 
Bowden-Smith, 117, 136. 
" Buffetting," 49. 
Burrough, Stanley, 34. 
Butler, Samuel, 46, 72. 
Brownsover Parsonage, 4, 14. 

" Caldecotts," 99. 

" Case's Gallows," 89. 

Chapel, 117-136; Piece, 90. 

Choir, 1 68. 

Christmas Presents, 39. 

Classical Side, 156. 

Clerke, Henry, 20. 

Clerke, Edward, 21. 

" Clodding," 50. 

Close, 86-98. 

Commissions, 1st, 19 ; 2nd, 

20 ; 3rd, 23. 

Conduit Close, 14, 22, 32. 
Constitution of School, 34, 66. 
Crick, 209. 
Cricket, 201-208. ' 

Dakyn, Barnard, 18, 19. 
" Dames' Houses," 40, 58. 
Debating Society, 177. 
Drawing, 167. 

"Eranos," 181. 
Exhibitions, 35, 172. 

Fagging, 40, 160. 
Field, Barnard, 14. 
Fire Brigade, 185. 
Fives Courts, 103, 113, 138, 



" Floreat," 224. 
Football, 185-201. 
Foundation, 13, 35. 
Foundationerships, 172. 
Founder's Day, 10 ; Prayer, 

Garden Glose, 92. 
Goulburn, E. M., 64, 98, 130. 
Grange of Pipewell Monks, 96. 
Greene, Wilgent, 20. 
Greenhill, Nicholas, 18. 
Gymnasium, 138, 217. 

Hakewill, H., 102. 
Harrison, George, 13, 16. 
Harrison, Knightley, 24. 
Hayman, H., 102. 
Hodgkinson, Joseph, 30. 
Holidays, 167. 
Holyoake, Henry, 25-30. 
Hawkins, John, 14 ; Anthony, 

21 ; William, 23. 
Hughes, T., 54; Statue, 141. 
Hymn Book, 136. 

Imposition Paper, 39. 
Ingles, Henry, 44. 
Island, 92-96. 

James, H. A., 67. 
James, Thomas, 35-43 ; Monu- 
ment, 121. 

Jeacocks, Leonard, 24. 
Jex-Blake, T. W., 67, 116, 137. 

Knail, William, 31, 33. 
Lally, E, 89. 

Landor, W. S., 42, 70, 97. 
Library, Old, 104. 
" Littleside," 90. 
Lower School of Lawrence 
S her i fife, 66, 172. 

Macready, W. C., 48, 81. 
Manor House, 32, 98, 100. 
Mansion House, 13. 
Merit money, 39. 
Meteor, 221. 
Missions, 222. 
Modern Side, 158. 
Music, 167. 

Natural History Society, 178. 
New Big School, 149. 
Notes, for tradesmen, 38 ; for 
fives courts, 112. 

Observatory, 140. 

Old Big School, 106, no. 

Old Rugbeians, Statesmen and 
Civil Servants, 68-70 ; Men 
of Letters, 70-72 ; Scholars, 
72 ; Head Masters, 72, 73 ; 
Clergy, 73 ; Military and 
Naval, 74-80; Miscellaneous, 

Old Rugbeian Society, 218. 

Organ, 120. 

Oxford Gallery, no. 

" Paradise," 100. 
Pearce, Raphael, 21. 
Percival, J., 67. 
Periodicals, 220. 
Plomer, John, 5. 
Pond Close, 92. 



" Pontines," 90. 
Pool, The, 97. 
Prizes, 174. 
Pump, The, 112. 

Quadrangle, Old, 102 ; New, 

Racquets, 138, 216. 
Reading Room, 143. 
Rebellion, Great, 44. 
" Reynolds's Field," 99. 
Richmond, Joseph, 33. 
Rifle Corps, 182. 
Rolfe, Augustine, 20. 
Rolston, Edward, 16. 
Rugby Town, 85. 
Running, 208. 

Samson's Quarters, 98. 
Scholars' Walk, 97. 
Scholarships, 169. 
School House, original, 16 ; 

2nd, 32, 100 ; present, 52, 

106 ; Head master's house, 

1 08. 
School Improvement Fund, 


Seele, Richard, 17. 
Shell, 162. 
Sheriffe, Lawrence, 1-13. 

Shooting, 184. 
Singing Competitions, 168. 
Sixth Form, 160. 
Specialists, 159. 
Speech Day, 27, 93. 
Stanley, A. P., 54, 71 ; Monu- 
ment, 133. 
Steeplechases, 214. 
Studies, 108, 156. 
"Swifts," 137. 

Tait, A. C., 63 ; Monument, 


Temple, F., 64. 
Tercentenary Fund, 115. 
Three Trees, 87. 
Time Table, 166, 227. 
Treen's Tree, 87. 
Trustees, 15, 19,20, 32,43,66. 
Turret School, 113. 
Twenty, The, 113, 161. 

Vincent, John, 20. 
Vivarium,. 1 8 1. 

Walker, J, 135. 

Whitehead, Peter, 2 3. 

Wooll, John, 46 ; Monument* 

Workshop, 138, 218. 





Crown 8v0, profusely illustrated, 
price 35. 6d. fief each. 

Assistant Master at Charterhouse. With 58 

RUGBY. By H. C. BRADBY, M.A., Assistant 
Master at Rugby. 

ETON. By A. GLUTTON-BROCK, New College, 
Oxford. [In t tie press. 


Fellow of New College, Oxford. 
church, Oxford. 

College, Oxford. 

TAYLORS', and others to follow. 




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