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Fallen, fallen, a silent heap ; their heroes all 
Sunk in their urns: Behold the pride of pomp, 
The throne of nations fallen ; obscured in dust 
E\en yet majestical The solemn scene 
Elates the soul ! DYER. 





I.. MESSRNF. ....... 1 

II. MYCENJE . ....... 5 

HI. MILETUS ....... 10 

IV. NAUPLIA . . . . . . 20 

V. NEMEA ........ 22 

VI. NINEVEH . . . . . . 24 

VII. NUMANTIA ....... 42 

VIII. OLYMPIA . . . . . . 44 

IX. PUTEOLI ....... 57 

x. PALMYRA (TADMOR) . . . . . 60 

xi. PATR.*: . . . . . . .100 

XII. PF.LLA ........ 103 

XIII. PERGAMUS . . . . . . .108 

XIV. PERSEPOLIS . . . . . . 112 

XV. FETRA (WADY MOUSA) ..... 137 

XVI. PHIGALIA . . . . . . 156 

XVII. PLATjEA . . . . . . . 161 

XVIII. P^KSTUM ........ 167 

XIX. POMPEII . . . . . . .177 

XX. RAMA ........ 198 

XXI. ROME ........ 200 

XXII. SAGUNTUM ....... 304 

v j,i CONTENTS. 


. 308 





. 317 







. . 348 



. 365 



. . 372 


. 381 


, . 385 


. 387 


. . 402 



. . 479 


. 496 




PATJSANIAS* appears to have had great interest in 
the history of the Mes'senians ; for his history of 
their wars is more minute and animated than any 
other part of his narrative. His account of the city 
gives us a grand idea of what it must once have 
been ; and the present splendid remains produce a 
conviction of his veracity. 

The Avails of Messene t, built of hewn stone, 
crowned with battlements, and flanked Avith towers, 
Avere stronger and higher than those of Byzantium, 
Rhodes, and the other cities of Greece. They in- 
cluded Avithin their circuit Mount Ithome. It had 
a large public square or forum, ornamented with 
temples, statues, and a splendid fountain. Beautiful 
edifices Avere on every side. 

The Messenians had seA'eral wars with the Lace- 
daemonians ; and at one time Avere so unfortunate as 
to be reduced to the condition of the Helots. They 
were at length, hoAveA'er, reinstated by the Thebans, 
\vho took their city from the Spartans, who had 
possessed it a long time, after having expelled all 
* Dodwell. t Barthelemy. 



its inhabitants. Those who were dispersed in differ- 
ent regions of Greece, Italy, and Sicily, on the first 
notice given them, returned with incredible joy : 
animated by the love of their country, natural to all 
men, and almost as much by their hatred of the 
Spartans, which length of time had only increased. 
They built themselves a city, which, from the ancient 
name, was called Messene. 

After their return they fell out with the Acliaians, 
and having worsted their celebrated general, Philo- 
poemen, they had the meanness and atrocity to put 
him to death. His history is thus related by 
Rollin : 

"Dinocrates, the Messenian, had drawn off Messene 
from the Achaian league ; and was meditating how 
he might best seize upon a considerable post near 
that city. Philopoemen, then seventy years of age, 
and generalissimo of the Achaians for the eighth 
time, lay sick. However, the instant the news of 
this was brought him, he set out, notwithstanding 
his indisposition, made a counter-march, and ad- 
vanced towards Messene with a small body of forces. 
Dinocrates, who had marched out against him, was 
soon put to flight ; but five hundred troopers, who 
guarded the open country of Messene, happening to 
come up and reinforce him, he faced about and 
routed Philopoemen. This general, who was solici- 
tous of nothing but to save the gallant youths who 
had followed him in this expedition, performed the 
most extraordinary acts of bravery ; but happening 
to fall from his horse, and receiving a deep wound in 
the head, he was taken prisoner by the enemy, who 
carried him to Messene. 

" Upon the arrival of the news that Philopremen 
was taken prisoner, and on his way to the city, the 
Messenians ran to the gates ; not being able to per- 
suade themselves of the truth of what they heard, 


till they saw him themselves ; so greatly improbable 
did this relation appear to them. To satisfy the 
violent curiosity of the inhabitants, many of whom 
had not yet been able to get a sight of him, they 
were forced to show the illustrious prisoner on the 
theatre. When they beheld Philopoemen, dragged 
along in chains, most of the spectators were so moved 
to compassion, that the tears trickled from their eyes. 
There even was heard a murmur among the people, 
which resulted from humanity, and a very laudable 
gratitude ; " That theMessenians ought to call to mind 
the great services done by Philopoemen, and his pre- 
serving the liberty of Achaia, by the defeat of Nabis 
the tyrant." But the magistrates did not suffer him 
to be long exhibited in this manner, lest the pity of 
the people should be attended with ill consequences. 
They therefore took him away on a sudden ; and, 
after consulting together, caused him to be conveyed 
to a place called the Treasury. This was a subter- 
raneous place, whither neither light nor air entered 
from without, and had no door to it, but was shut 
with a huge stone that was rolled over the entrance 
of it. In this dungeon they imprisoned Philopoamen, 
and posted a guard round every part of it. 

"As soon as it was night, and all the people were 
withdrawn, Dinocratcs caused the stone to be rolled 
away, and the executioner to descend into the dun- 
geon with a dose of poison to Philopoemen, command- 
ing him not to stir till he had swallowed it. The 
moment the illustrious Megalopolitan perceived "the 
first glimmerings of light, and saw the man advance 
towards him, with a lamp in one hand and a sword 
in the other, he raised himself with the utmost diffi- 
culty, for he was very weak, sat down, and then 
taking the cup, he inquired of the executioner, whe- 
ther he could tell what was become of the young 
Megalopolitans his followers, particularly Lycortas ? 
B 2 


The executioner answering, that he heard almost all 
had saved themselves by flight, Philopoemen thanked 
him by a nod, and looking kindly on him, ' You 
bring me," says he, " good news ; and I find we are 
not entirely unfortunate;" after which, without 
breathing the least complaint, he swallowed the 
deadly dose, and laid himself again on his c^pak. 
The poison was very speedy in its effects ; for Phi- 
lopoemen, being extremely weak and feeble, expired 
in a moment. 

" When the news of his death spread among the 
Achaians, all their cities were inexpressibly afflicted. 
Immediately all their young men who were of age 
to bear arms, and all their magistrates, came to Me- 
galopolis. Here a grand council being summoned, it 
was unanimously resolved not to delay a moment 
the revenge of so horrid a deed ; and, accordingly, 
having elected on the spot Lycortasfor their general, 
they advanced with the utmost fury into Messene, 
and filled every part of it with blood and slaughter. 
The Messenians having now no refuge left, and being 
unable to defend themselves by force of arms, sent a 
.deputation to the Achaians, to desire that an end 
might be put to the war, and to beg pardon for their 
past faults. Lycortas, moved at their intreaties, did 
not think it advisable to treat them as their furious 
and insolent revolt seemed to deserve. He told 
them that there was no other way for them to ex- 
pect a peaee, but by delivering up the authors of 
the revolt, and of the death of Philopoemen ; to sub- 
mit all their affairs to the disposal of the Achaians, 
and to receive a garrison into their citadel. These 
conditions were accepted, and executed immediately. 
Dinocrates, to prevent the ignominy of dying by an 
executioner, laid violent hands on himself, in which 
he was imitated by all those who had advised the 
putting Ph lopremen to death." 


A mere village* now occupies the site of Messene, 
and this is situated on its ruins, about three quarters 
of a mile from the great gate, which, of its kind, is 
the most magnificent ruin in Greece. 

A circular wall, composed of large regular blocks, 
incloses an area of sixty-two feet diameter. In this 
wall are two gates, one facing Cyparissaii, and the 
other looking towards Laconia. The architraves 
have fallen ; but that which belonged to the Laco- 
nian gate remains entire, with one end on the ground, 
and the other leaning against the wall. 

There are the remains, also, of a stadium, and of a 
theatre, one of the smallest in Greece. Several other 
traces, masses of fine walls, and heaps of stones, that 
are scattered about the place, are overgrown or 
nearly concealed by large trees and luxuriant 


THIS city was the capital of Agamemnon, who was 
the commancler-in -chief of the assembled Greeks, 
before the walls of Troy. This event took place, 
B.C. 1184; and the present ruins are supposed to 
be the ruins of the city before that event. 

Perseus translated the seat of his kingdom from 
Argos to Mycenae. The kings who reigned at My- 
cenae, after Perseus, were Erectryon, Sthenelus, and 
Eurystheus. The last, after the death of Hercules, 
declared open war against his descendants, appre- 
hending they might some time or other attempt to 
dethrone him ; which, as it happened, was done by 
the Heraclidas ; for, having killed Eurystheus in 
battle, they entered victorious into Peloponnesus ; 
and made themselves masters of the country. But 
a plague obliged them to quit the country. Three 

t Barthelemy ; Rollin ; Dodwell ; Clarke. 


years after this, being deceived by the ambiguous 
expression of the oracle, they made a second attempt, 
which likewise proved fruitless. This was about 
twenty years before the taking of Troy. 

Atreus, the son of Pelops, uncle by the mother's 
Bide to Eurystheus, was the latter's successor. And 
in this manner the crown came to the descendants of 
Pelops, from whom Peloponnesus, which before was 
called Apia, derived its name. The bloody hatred of 
the two brothers, Atreus and Thyestes, is known to 
all the world. 

Plisthenes, the son of Atreus, succeeded his father 
in the kingdom of Mycenae, which he left to his son 
Agamemnon, who was succeeded by his son Orestes. 
The kingdom of Mycense was filled with enormous 
and horrible crimes, from the time it came into the 
family of Pelops. 

Tisamenes and Penthilus, sons of Orestes, reigned 
after their father, and were at last driven out by the 

The length of the Acropolis of Mycense, is about 
four hundred yards,* and its breadth about two 
hundred. The whole circuit of this citadel can still 
be made out ; and, in some places, the walls remain 
to the height of fifteen or twenty feet. They are 
constructed of huge stones, and belong to that style 
of building commonly called Cyclopean. This de- 
scription of wall building is recognised by its massy 
materials, and by a certain style of rudeness ; in 
which, however, different epochs are easily distin- 
guished. The oldest part of the walls of Mycenas, 
resembles the Cyclopean walls of Tiryns, a place to 
the south, about seven miles distant, which are appa- 
rently nothing more than huge masses of unwrought 
stone, placed one above another, with the interstices 
filled up by smaller materials. ^ 

* Knight. 


The citadel of Mycense is of an irregular oblong 
form, and is now chiefly an object of curiosity for 
the gate, or great entrance, to the north and west 
angle. The approach to this gate is by a passage 
of fifty feet long, and thirty wide, formed by two 
parallel and projecting walls, which was a part of 
the fortification, and were obviously designed to com- 
mand the entrance, and annoy any enemy who might 
venture to attack the place. The door is formed of 
three stones, two upright, and a cross-stone, forming 
a soffit. This last is fifteen feet long, four wide, and 
six feet seven inches thick in the middle, but di- 
minishes towards each end. On this stone stands 
another of a triangular shape, which is twelve feet 
long, ten high, and two thick. Two lions are cut 
in relief on the face of this stone, standing on their 
hind legs, on opposite sides of a round pillar, on 
which their forepaws rest. 

The kingdom of the Argives* was divided into 
two portions, by Acrisius and his brother Proatus. 
Argos and Mycenas were their capitals. These, as 
belonging to the same family, and distant only about 
six miles and a quarter from each other, had one 
tutelary deity, Juno ; and were, jointly, proprietors 
of her temple, the Heraeum. This renowned temple 
was adorned with curious sculpture, and numerous 
statues. The image was very large, made by Po- 
lycletus, of gold and ivory, sitting on a throne. 
Among the offerings was a shield, taken by Mene- 
laus, from Euphorbus, at Ilium ; an altar of silver, 
on which the marriage of Hebe with Hercules was 
represented ; a golden crown and purple robe, given 
by Nero ; and a peacock of gold, set with precious 
stones, dedicated by Hadrian. 

Near it were the remains of a more ancient temple, 

* Chandler. 


which had been hurned ; a taper setting some gar- 
lands on fire, while the priestess was sleeping. 

The cause of the destruction of Mycenae is said to 
have been this : Eighty of its heroes accompanied 
the Spartans to the defile of Thermopylae and shared 
with them the glory of their immortal deed. This is 
said so to have excited the jealousy of their sister city, 
Argos, that it was never afterwards forgiven. The 
Argives, stung by the recollection of the opportunity 
they had thus lost of signalising themselves, and 
unable to endure the superior fame of their neigh- 
bours, made war against Mycena?, and destroyed 
it. This event happened about five centuries before 
Christ. AVe cannot, however, believe that the Ar- 
gives, who were an exceedingly mild and benevo- 
lent people, could have done such an act of atrocity 
as this. 

Strabo could not imagine where Mycena? could 
have stood. He says, that not a single vestige 
remained. Pausanias, however, who lived at a 
much later period, found its colossal ruins, and 
described them as they are seen at this very day. 

" It is not," says Dr. Clarke, " merely the circum- 
stance of seeing the architecture and the sculpture of 
the heroic ages, which renders a view of Myceiue one 
of the highest gratifications a literary traveller can 
experience ; the consideration of its remaining at this 
time, exactly as Pausanias saw it in the second 
century, and in such a state of preservation, that an 
alto-relievo, described by him, yet exists in the 
identical position he has assigned for it, adds greatly 
to the interest excited by these remarkable ruins : 
indeed, so singularly does the whole scene correspond 
with his account of the place, that, in comparing 
them together, it might be supposed, a single hour 
had not elapsed since he was himself upon tho 


Everything* conspires to render these ruins pre- 
eminently interesting ; whether we consider their 
venerable a-e, the allusions made to them in such 
distant periods, when they were visited by Sophocles, 
Euripides and other poets and historians of Greece, 
as the classical antiquities of their country ; or the 
indisputable examples they afford of the architecture, 
sculpture, mythology and customs of the heroic ages. 

The walls consist of huge unhewn masses of stone, 
so fitted and adapted to each other, as to have given 
rise to an opinion, that the power of man was in- 
adequate to the labour necessary in building them. 

One of the first things that is noticed is a tu- 
mulus of an immense size. This has been opened, 
and the entrant is no longer concealed. This 
sepulchre has been erroneously called the " treasury 
of Atreus ;" and the " monument of Agamemnon." 
" That this sepulchre," says Clarke, " could not have 
been the treasury uf Atreus, is evident from Pausanias's 
description, because it was without the walls of the 
Acropolis ; and that it cannot be the monument of 
Agamemnon, because it was ic it/tin the citadel." 

In regard to the tomb of Agamemnon, the follow- 
ing account has been given by }Ir. Turner : " I 
entered by a subterraneous passage, opened by Lord 
Elgin, and was surprised to find myself in an immense 
dome, about ninety feet high, and fifty round the 
bottom. It had two doors, one into the open air, 
and another into an interior chamber, which was 
thoroughly dark, and, I was told, very small. It was 
built of immense stones, and was in excellent preserva- 
tion. The tomb being subterraneous, there are no 
traces above-ground, and you might walk over it for 
years, without suspecting that you were walking over 
so interesting a ruin." 

The other antiquities must remain for the more 


attentive examination of future travellers ; who, as it 
is hoped, will visit the ruins provided with the neces- 
sary implements for making researches, where, with 
the slightest precaution, they will be little liable * to 
interruption, the place being as destitute of inhabi- 
tants, and almost as little known, as it was in the 
time of Strabo ; when it was believed that not a 
vestige could be found t. 


THIS celebrated city was the capital of Ionia, 
situated, inthe time ofPausanias, ten stadia from the 
mouth of the Meander ; but that river accumulated 
its deposit, afterwards, so closely, that the town was 
removed, in process of time, more than three miles 
within the land. Of its origin there are two accounts : 
some ascribing it to a colony from Crete, under the 
conduct of Miletus ; some to Sarpedon ; and others to 
Neleus, the son of Codrus, king of Athens, who died 
there, and whose tomb was in existence for many ages. 
" Alyattes, king of Sardis, made war upon the 
Milesians in the following manner," says Herodotus. 
" As the time of harvest approached, he marched an 
army into their country to the sound of the pastoral 
pipe, harp, and flutes, played upon by women as well 
as men. On his arrival in their territories, he neither 
hunted, nor in any respect injured their edifices, 
which stood in the fields ; but he totally destroyed 
the produce of their lands, and then returned. As 
the Milesians were securely situated near the sea, all 
attacks upon their city would probably have proved 
.ineffectual. His motive for not destroying their 
buildings was, that they might be induced again to 
cultivate their lands, and that on every repetition of 
his excursions, he might be secure of plunder." 

* Clarke. t Strabo ; Pansani: s ; Rollin ; Wilder; Banthe- 
lemy ; Chandler ; Turner ; Clarke. 


In this manner the war was protracted during a 
period of eleven years ; the Milesians receiving no 
succour from any of their neighbours, except the 
'natives of Chios. In the twelfth year of the war the 
enemy again set fire to the corn, and a sudden 
wind springing up, the flames caught the temple of 
Minerva and burnt it to the ground. Alyattes, sup- 
posing that the Milesians must be destitute of corn 
from these repeated conflagrations, sent word that an 
ambassador would be at Miletus to make a truce, 
until he had rebuilt the temple. When Thrasy- 
bulus, king of Miletus, heard this, he directed all the 
corn that could be in any way collected, to be 
brought into the public market-place ; and at an 
appointed time ordered the Milesians to commence a 
scene of feasting and dances. When Alyattes heard 
of this festivity, convinced that he had been mistaken 
as to the hope of starving the Milesians out, he not 
only immediately offered peace, but entered into a 
strict alliance with them, and forthwith erected two 
temples to Minerva instead of one. 

The lonians having been drawn into revolt through 
the intrigues and ambitious views of two persons, 
Aristagoras and Hysteius, the Persians, having 
roxited the lonians, laid siege to Miletus, both by sea 
and land. They not only undermined the walls, but 
applied every species of military machines against it. 
The oracle had declared : 

And thou, Miletus, versed in 51] too long, 
Shalt be the prey and plunder of the strong : 
Your wives shall stoop to wash a long-hair'd train, 
And others guard our Didymaeau fane. 

This prophecy was fulfilled. The city was taken 
and utterly destroyed. The greater part of the Mile- 
sians were slain by the Persians, who at that time 
wore long hair ; and their wives and children were 
carried into slavery. Those who survived, were 


sent to Susa ; Darius treating tlicm with great 

The Milesians, continues Herodotus, on suffering 
these calamities from the Persians, did not meet 
with the return from the people of Sybaris, which 
they might justly have expected. When Sybaris 
was taken by the Crotoniati, the Milesians had 
shaved their heads, and discovered every testimony 
of sorrow ; for betwixt these two cities a strict hos- 
pitality prevailed. And here we must give room for 
a beautiful instance of sensibility on the part of the 
Athenians. When they heard of the destruction of 
Miletus, they gave way to many indications of sor- 
row; and some years after the capture of Miletus, 
a drama, written by Phrynicus, being represented at 
Athens, the whole audience melted into tears. The 
poet, for thus reminding them of so terrible a cala- 
mity, was fined a thousand drachma?, and the piece 
forbidden to be played in future. 

A bloody battle was fought under the walls of the 
town, between the Athenians and Argivcs on one 
side, and the Peloponnesiane assisted by the Persians 
and the revolted Milesians on the other. The for- 
tune of the day turned to the side of the Athenians; 
and they would have entered the city and recovered 
their authority, had not a fleet of fifty-five sail, 
belonging to the enemy, compelled them to draw off 
their forces and retire. 

B.C. 412*. In this year the inhabitants of 
Miletus joined the Lacedaemonian party against 
Athens. When the Athenians heard of this, they 
voted the expenditure of a thousand talents, which, 
in more prosperous times, they had deposited in 
the citadel, under the sanction of a decree of the 
senate and people, to reserve it for an occasion of the 
utmost danger. This enabled them to recruit their 
* Gillies. 


fleet ; and having secured the fidelity of the Lesbians, 
they endeavoured to recover their authority in 

Lysander of LacedcEmon acted a great atrocity at 
Miletus. Apprehending that those who were then 
at the head of the people, would escape his revenge, 
he swore that he would do them no harm. These 
chiefs, giving credit to his oath, appeared therefore 
in public ; but no sooner had they done so, than the 
treacherous Lysander gave leave to the nobles of 
the town to put them all to death, which they imme- 
diately did, although the number ' amounted to no 
less than eight hundred ! He caused, also, an incre- 
dible number of persons, who were of the party 
opposed to him, to be massacred ; and this he did 
not only to gratify his own malice and revenge, but 
to serve the enmity, malice, and avarice of his friends, 
whom he took delight in supporting in the gratifica- 
tion of their passions by the death of their enemies. 

The Milesians, when free from a foreign yoke, were 
often reduced to a state of vassalage by domestic 
tyrants, who governed them with absolute sway, and 
made them feel all the evils of a foreign subjection. 
In the time of Antiochus II., for instance, we read of 
one Timarclms, who, reigning in Miletus, and prac- 
tising all manner of cruelties, was driven out by that 
prince, and rewarded by the citizens with the title of 

When Alexander left Ephesus, he marched to 
Miletus. But the city, expecting succours from the 
Persians, closed its gates against him. Memnon, 
one of the most valiant commanders of Darius, who 
had shut himself up in the fortress, determined to 
make as stout a defence as possible. The Macedo- 
nian, however, attacked him skilfully and vigour- 
ously, sending fresh troops to supply the places of 
those that were wearied ; yet finding his troops still 


repulsed in all directions, the garrison being well sup- 
plied with every thing necessary for a siege, he 
planted all his machines against the walls, made a 
great number of breaches, and attempted new sca- 
lados wherever they were attached. At length the 
besieged, after many brave efforts, fearful of being 
taken by storm, capitulated. When he had suc- 
ceeded, Alexander acted in a manner much more 
noble and generous than he had done before, or did 
after in many cases ; he treated the Milesians with 
great humanity. The foreigners, however, that had 
taken part with them, he sold as slaves. 

Miletus is thus described in the pages of Barthelemy, 
whose Travels'of Anacharsis,as we have before observed, 
have all the authority of an ancient author : " When 
at Miletus, we surveyed with admiration its temples, 
festivals, manufactures, harbours, and the innumerable 
concourse of ships, mariners, and workmen, there per- 
petually in motion. This city is an abode of opulenge, 
learning, and pleasure; it is the Athens of Ionia. 
Within the walls the city is adorned by the productions 
of art; and without, embellished by the riches of nature. 
How often have we directed our steps to the banks 
of the Mseander, which, after having received a mul- 
titude of rivers, and bathed the walls of various cities, 
rolls its waters in innumerable windings through the 
plain which is honoured by bearing its name, and 
proudly ornaments its course with the plenty it 
creates! How often, seated on the turf, which bor- 
ders its flowery margin, surrounded on all sides with 
the most delightful prospects, and unable to satiate 
our senses with the purity and serene splendour of 
the air and sky, have we not felt a delicious languor 
insinuate into our souls, and throw us, if I may so 
speak, into the intoxication of happiness ! Such is 
the influence of the climate of Ionia : and as moral 
causes, far from correcting, have only tended to 


increase it, the lonians have become the most effe- 
minate, but, at the same time, are to be numbered 
among the most amiable people, of Asiatic Greece. 
In their ideas, sentiments, and manners, a certain 
softness prevails,' which constitute the charm of 
society ; and in their music and dancing is a liberty, 
which at first offends, and then seduces. They have 
added new charms to pleasure, and enriched their 
luxury by inventions. Numerous festivals occupy 
them at home, or attract them to the neighbouring 
cities, where the men appear in magnificent habits, 
and the women in all the elegance of female orna- 
ment, and with all the desire of pleasing." 

St. Paul, in his way from Corinth to Jerusalem, 
passed through Miletus ; and as he went by sea, and 
would not take Ephesus in his way, he caused the 
priests and bishops of the church of Ephesus to come 
to Miletus*. 

Miletus fell under subjection to the Romans, and be 
came a considerable place under the Greek emperors. 
Then it fell under the scourge of the Turks ; one of 
the sultans of which (A. D. 1175) sent twenty thou- 
sand men, with orders to lay waste the Roman impe- 
rial provinces, and bring him sand, water, and an 

* Acts xx. ver. 13. And we went before to ship, and sailed unto 
Assos, there intending to take in Paul : for so had he appointed, 
minding himself to go afoot. 

14. And when he met with us at Assos, we took him in, and 
came to Mitylene. 

15. And we sailed thence, and came the next day over against 
Chios ; and the next day we arrived at Samos, and tamed at Tro- 
gyllium ; and the next day we came to Miletus. 

16. For Paul had determined to sail by Ephesus, because he 
would not spend the time in Asia : for he hasted, if it were possible 
for him, to be at Jerusalem the day of Pentecost. 

17. And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the ciders 
of the church. 

18. And when they were come to him, he said unto them, Ye 
know, from the first day that I came into Asia, after what manner 
I have been with you at all seasons. 



oar. All the cities on the Mteander were then 
mined : since which, little of the history of Miletus 
has been known. 

The Milesians early applied themselves to naviga- 
tion ; in the spirit of which they, in the process of 
time, planted not less than eighty colonies, in different 
parts of the world ; and as we are ourselves so largely 
engaged in colonisation, perhaps an account of the 
colonies, sent out by the Milesians, may not be deemed 





Islands in the Propontis. 

Miletopolis, in Mysia. 


Priaptia. Ptesus. Arisba. 

Colonim. Lainpsacus. Limnar*. 

Pariuai. Gai-getta. Percote. 

Zaleia, at tljc foot of Mount Ida. 
Scepsis, on that mountain. 


lasus. I Latinos. j Heraclea. 


Icaria. | Leros. 








Phasis and Dioscorias. 






















Theodosia. Panticapaeura. 

Nymphaea. Myrnecion. 


Phanngoria. | Hermonassa. | Cephi. 

Tanais in Sarmatia ; Salamis in Cyprus ; Naucratis, Chemis, 
Paralia in Egypt ; Arnpe on the Tigris ; Clauda, on the Euphrates. 

From this list we may imagine to what a height 
of power and civilisation this city must have once 
attained. Babylon stands in a wilderness and a 
desert by its side. 

Miletus was adorned with superb edifices ; and was 
greatly celebrated for its trade, sciences, and arts. It 
gave birth also to many eminent persons ; amongst 
whom may be particularly mentioned, Thales *, 
Anaximenes t, Anaximander |, Hecatceus , Timo 
theus ||, also the celebrated Aspasia, the wife of 
Pericles. It was also famous for its excellent wool, 
with which were made stuffs and garments, held in 
the highest reputation both for softness, elegance, and 

It had a temple dedicated to Apollo Didymaeus, 
which was burnt by Xerxes. The Milesians, how- 
ever, soon after rebuilt it, and upon so large a scale, 
that Strabo describes it as having been equal in extent 
to a village ; so large indeed was it, that it could 
never be covered. It stood in a thick grove. With 
what magnificence and prodigious spirit this edifice 

* He was the first that accurately calculated eclipses of the sun ; 
he discovered the solstices ; he divided the heavens into five zones, 
and recommended the division of the year into three hundred and 
sixty-five days. 

f The inventor of sun-dials and the gnomon. This philosopher 
had nevertheless many curious opinions ; amongst which may be 
mentioned, that air was the parent of every created heing ; and that 
the sun, moon, and stars, had been made from the earth. 

He taught that men were horn of earth and water, mixed 
together by the heat of the sun. 

An historian. || A musician. 



was designed, may in some measure be collected from 
the present remains. Strabo called it the " greatest 
of all temples;" adding that it continued without a roof 
on account of its bigness ; Pausanias mentions it as 
unfinished, but as one of the wonders peculiar to 
Ionia ; and Vitruvius mentions this among the four 
temples, which have raised their architects to the 
summit of renown*. 

There was a magnificent theatre also built of stone, 
but cased with marble, and greatly enriched with 
sculptures. There was also one temple of Venus in 
this town, and another in the neighbourhood. 

Miletus is now called Palatskia (the palaces). Not- 
withstanding its title, and the splendour of its ancient 
condition, it is but a mean place now. The principal 
relic of its former magnificence is a ruined theatre, 
measuring in length four hundred and fifty-seven 
feet. The external face of this vast fabric is marble. 
The front has been removed. A few seats only 
remain, and those, as usual, ranged on the slope of a 
hill. The vaults which supported the extremities, 
with the arches or avenues of the two wings, are 
constructed with such solidity, that they will not 
easily be demolished. The entrance of the vault is 
nearly filled up with rubbish ; but when Dr. Chandler 
crept into it, led by an Armenian, with a candle in a 
long paper lantern, innumerable bats began flitting 
about them ; and the stench was intolerable. 

The town was spread with rubbish and overgrown 
with thickets. The vestiges of " the heathen city," 
are pieces of wall, broken arches, and a few scattered 
pedestals and inscriptions, a square marble urn, and 
many wells. One of the pedestals has belonged to a 
statue of the Emperor Hadrian, who was a friend to 
the Milesians, as appears from the titles of Saviour 
and Benefactor, bestowed upon him. Another lias 

* Ionian Antiquities. 


supported the Emperor Severus, and has a long in- 
scription, with this preamble : " The senate and 
people of the city of the Milesians, the first settled 
in Ionia* and the mother of many and great cities 
both in Pontus and Egypt, and in various other parts 
of the world" This lies among the bushes behind 
the theatre. 

Several piers of an aqueduct are standing. Near 
the ferry is a large couchant lion, of white marble ; 
and in a Turkish burying-ground another ; and traces 
remain of an old fortress. Besides these, there are a 
considerable number of forsaken mosques; and among 
the ruins are several fragments of ancient churches. 

Wheler says, that in his time, there were many 
inscriptions, most of them defaced by time and 
weather ; some upon single stones, others upon very 
large tombs. On one of them were carved two 
women hunting, with three dogs ; the foremost hold- 
ing a hare in its mouth. 

" Miletus," says Dr. Chandler, from whom we 
have borrowed several passages in this article, " was 
once powerful and illustrious. The early navigators 
extended its commerce to remote regions ; the whole 
Euxine Sea, the Propontis, Egypt, and other coun- 
tries, were frequented by its ships, and settled by its 
colonies. It withstood Darius, and refused to admit 
Alexander. It has been styled the metropolis and 
head of Ionia ; the bulwark of Asia ; chief in war 
and peace ; mighty by sea ; the fertile mother, 
which had poured forth her sons to every quarter. 
It afterwards fell so low as to furnish a proverbial 
saying, ' The Milesians were once great ;' but if we 
compare its ancient glory, and its subsequent humi- 
liation, with its present state, we may justly exclaim, 
' Miletus, how r much lower art thou now fallen* !' " 

* Herodotus ; Strabo ; Pausanias ; Quintus Curtius ; Ptidcaux ; 
Chandler ; Stuart ; Barthelemy ; Gillies. 
. C 2 



THIS town, now called Napoli di Romania, is 
situate along the foot of the rocky promontory, 
which projects into the sea, at the head of the 
gulf of Napoli. Its walls were built by the Ve- 

Ancient Nauplia, which is said to have been built 
by Nauplius, absurdly called the son of Neptune, 
became the chief naval arsenal of the Argives. 
Even so early as the time of Pausanias, however, 
it had become desolate; only a few remains of a 
temple, and of the walls, then existing. Its modern 
history is rather interesting. 

The Venetians obtained possession in 1460. In 
1495 it surrendered to Bajazet, but was again taken 
by the Venetians, under Morozini, in 1586, after 
a month's siege, and became the head -quarters of 
that nation, in the Morea. In 1714, it was treach- 
erously given up to Ali Coumourgi, and was the 
seat of Turkish government, and residence of the 
Pasha of the Morea; till Tripolizzi was selected 
as being more central ; when it became subject to 
the Bey of Argos. The crescent remained unin- 
terruptedly flying on this fortress, till the 12th of 
December 1822, when it surrendered to the Greeks, 
after a long and tedious blockade ; the Turkish 
garrison having been reduced to such a state of 
starvation, as to feed on the corpses of their com- 
panions. In 1825, Ibrahim Pasha made a fruitless 
attempt to surprise the place ; and it has been the 
strong -hold of the Greeks in their struggle for 
liberty. In April, 1826, the commission of govern- 
ment held their sittings here ; but were obliged 
to retire to jEgina, on account of civil dissentions, 
and two of the revolted chiefs being in possession 
of the Palamadi. During the presidency of Capo 


d'Istrias, who always resided, and was assassinated 
in the town, it again became the seat of govern- 
ment; and on the 31st of January, 1833, Otho, Prince 
of Bavaria, arrived here, as first king of restored 

The strength of Napoli is the citadel, which is 
called the Palamadi, over whose turreted walls a 
few cypresses raise their sombre heads. It stands 
on the easternmost and highest elevation of the 
promontory, and completely overhangs and com- 
mands the town. To all appearance it is impreg- 
nable, and, from its situation and aspect, has been 
termed the Gibraltar of Greece. It is seven hun- 
dred and twenty feet above the sea; and has only 
one assailable point, where a narrow isthmus con- 
nects it with the main land ; and this is overlooked 
by a rocky precipice. 

Mr. Dodwell made fruitless inquiries in respect to 
the caves and labyrinths near Nauplia, which are 
said to have been formed by the Cyclops ; but a 
minute examination is neither a safe nor easy under- 
taking. " The remains that are yet unknown," says 
he, " will be brought to light, when the reciprocal 
jealousy of the European powers permits the Greeks 
to break their chains,* and to chase from their out- 
raged territory that host of dull oppressors, who 
have spread the shades of ignorance over the land 
that was once illuminated by science, and who, un- 
consciously trample on the venerable dust of the 
Pelopidse and the Atridae." 

Nauplia is a miserable village ; the houses have 
nothing p'eculiar about them, but are built in the 
common form of the lowest habitations of the villages 
of France and Savoy. The inhabitants are indolent. 
" The indolence of the Napolitans," says M. La 
Martine, " is mild, serene, and gay the carelessness 
* This was written in 1806, and published in 1819. 


of happiness; while that of the Greek is heavy, 
morose, and sombre ; it is a vice, which punishes 
itself." * 

A town of Argolis, greatly distinguished by the 
games once celebrated there. These games (called the 
Nemean games) were originally instituted by the 
Argives in honour of Archemorus, who died from 
the bite of a serpent ; and, afterwards, renewed in 
honour of Hercules, who in that neighbourhood is said 
to have destroyed a lion by squeezing him to death. 

These games consisted of foot and horse races, and 
chariot races ; boxing, wrestling, and contests of every 
kind, both gymnastic and equestrian. They were 
celebrated on the liJth of our August, on the 1st and 
3rd of every Olympiad ; and continued long after 
those of Olympia were abolished. 

In the neighbouring mountains is still shown the 
den of the lion, said to have been slain by Hercules ; 
near which stand the remains of a considerable 
temple, dedicated to Jupiter Nemeus and Cleome- 
nes, formerly surrounded by a grove of cypresses. 

Of this temple three columns only are remaining. 
These columns, two of which belonging to the space 
between antae, support their architrave. These 
columns are four feet six inches and a half in dia- 
meter, and thirty-one feet ten inches and a half in 
height, exclusive of the capitals. The single co- 
lumn is five feet three inches diameter, and belongs 
to the peristyle. The temple was hexastyle and 
peripteral, and is supposed to have had fourteen 
columns on the sides. The general intercolumnia - 
tion is seven feet and a half, and those at the angles 
five feet eleven inches and a quarter. It stands upon 

* Pausaaias ; Dodwcll ; La Marline. 


three steps, each of which is one foot two inches in 
height. The capital of the exterior column has 
been shaken out of its place, and will probably ere 
long fall to the ground. " I have not seen in Greece," 
continues Mr. Dodwell, " any Doric temple, the 
columns of which are of such slender proportions as 
those of Nemea. The epistylia are thin and 
meagre, and the capitals too small for the height of 
the columns. It is constructed of a soft calcareous 
stone, which is an aggregate of sand and small petri- 
fied shells, and the columns are coated with a fine 
stucco. Pausanias praises the beauty of the temple ; 
but, even in his time, the roof had fallen, and not a 
single statue was left." 

No fragments of marble are found amongst the 
ruins, but an excavation would probably be well re- 
paid, as the temple was evidently thrown down -at 
one moment, and if it contained any sculptured 
marbles, they are still concealed by the ruins. 

Near the temple are several blocks of stones, some 
fluted Doric frustra, and a capital of small dimen- 
sions. This is supposed to have formed part of the 
sepulchre of Archemorus. Mr. Dodwell, however, 
found no traces of the tumulus of Lycurgus, his 
father, king of Nemea, mentioned by Pausanias, 
nor any traces of the theatre and stadium. 

Beyond the temple is a remarkable summit, the 
top of which is flat, and visible in the gulf of 
Corinth. On one side is a ruinous church, with 
some rubbish ; perhaps where Osspaltes and his 
father are said to have been buried. Near it is a 
very large fig-tree. To this a goatherd repaired 
daily before noon with his flock, which huddled 
together in the shade until the extreme heat was 
over, and then proceeded orderly to feed in the cool 
upon the mountain. 

" Nemea," continues Mr. Dodwell, " is more 


characterised by gloom than most of the places I 
have seen. The splendour of religious pomp, and 
the long animation of gymnastic and equestrian 
exercises, have been succeeded by the dreary vacancy 
of a death-like solitude. AVe saw no living creatures 
but a ploughman and his oxen, in a spot which was 
once exhilarated by the gaiety of thousands, and 
resounded with the shouts of a crowded popula- 


Of Nineveh, the mighty city of old, 
How like a star she fell aiid pass'd away ! 


THE Assyrian empire was founded by Ashur, the 
son of Shem, according to some writers ; but accord- 
ing to others, by Nimrod ; and to others, by Ninus. 

Ninus, according to Diodorus Siculus, is to be 
esteemed the most ancient of the Assyrian kings. 
Being of a warlike disposition, and ambitious of that 
glory which results from courage, says he, he armed 
a considerable number of young men, that were brave 
and vigorous like himself ; trained them up in labo- 
rious exercises and hardships, and by that means 
accustomed them to bear the fatigues of war patiently, 
and to face dangers with intrepidity. What Dio- 
dorus states of Ninus, however, is much more appli- 
cable to his father, Nimrod, the son of Cush, grand- 
son of Cham, and great-grandson of Noah ; he who 
is signalised in scripture as having been " a mighty 
hunter before the Lord ;" a distinction which he 
gained from having delivered Assyria from the fury 
and dread of wild animals ; and from having, also, 
by this exercise of hunting, trained up his followers 
to the use of arms, that he might make use of them 
for other purposes more serious and extensive. 

* Barthelerny ; Dodwell ; Rees ; Brewster. 


The next king of Assyria was NINTTS, the son of 
Nimrod. This prince prepared a large army, and in 
the course of seventeen years conquered a vast extent 
of country ; extending to Egypt on one side, and to 
India and Bactriana on the other. On his return he 
resolved on building the largest and nohlest city in 
the world ; so extensive and magnificent, as to leave 
it in the power of none, that should come after him, 
to build such another. It is probable, however, that 
Nimrod laid the foundations of this city, and that 
Ninus completed it : for the ancient writers often 
gave the name of founder to persons, who were only 
entitled to the appellation of restorer or improver. 

This city was called NINEVEH. Its form and 
extent are thus related by Diodorus, who states that 
he took his account from Ctesias the Gnidian : " It 
was of a long form ; for on both sides it ran out 
about twenty-three miles. The two lesser angles, 
however, were only ninety furlongs a-piece ; so that 
the circumference of the whole was about seventy- 
four miles. The walls were one hundred feet in 
height ; and so broad, that three chariots might be 
driven together upon it abreast ; and on these walls 
were fifteen hundred turrets, each of which was two 
hundred feet high." 

When the improver had finished the city, he ap- 
pointed it to be inhabited by the richest Assyrians ; 
but gave leave, at the same time, to people of other 
nations (as many as would) to dwell there ; and, 
moreover, allowed to the citizens at large a consider- 
able territory next adjoining them. 

Having finished the city, Ninus marched into Bac- 
tria ; his army consisting of one million seven hundred 
thousand men, two hundred thousand horse, and 
sixteen thousand chariots armed with scythes. This 
number is, doubtless, greatly exaggerated. With so 
large a force, he could do no otherwise than conquer 


a great number of cities. But having, at last, laid 
siege to Bactria, the capital of the country, it is said 
that lie would probably have failed in his enterprise 
against that city, had he not been assisted by the 
counsel of Semiramis, wife to one of his officers, who 
directed him in what manner to attack the citadel. 
By her means he entered the city, and becoming 
entire master of it, he got possession of an immense 
treasure. He soon after married Semiramis ; her 
husband having destroyed himself, to prevent the 
effects of some threats that Ninus had thrown out 
against him. By Semiramis, Ninus had one son, 
whom he named Ninyas ; and dying not long after, 
Semiramis became queen : who, to honour his me- 
mory, erected a magnificent monument, which is said 
to have remained a long time after the destruction of 
the city. 

The history of this queen is so well known,* that 
we shall not enlarge upon it ; we having already 
done so in our account of Babylon ; for she was one 
of the enlargers of that mighty city. 

There is a very great difference of opinion, in 
regard to the time in which Semiramis lived. Ac- 
cording to A. c. 
Sanchoniathon, she lived . 1200 

Herodotus 500 

Syncellus 2177 

Petavius 2060 

Helvicus 2248 

Eusebms 1984 

Archbishop Usher . . . . 1215 

Alexander's opinion of this celebrated woman may 

be gathered from the following passage of his speech to 

his army: "You wish to enjoy me long; and even, if 

it were possible, for ever ; but, as to myself, I compute 

* See Herod, i. c. 184 ; Diodor. Sic. ii. ; Pompon. Mela, i. 
c. 3 : Justin, i. c. 1 ; Val. Max. is. c. 3. 


the length of my existence, not by years, but by glory. 
I might have confined my ambition within the narrow 
limits of Macedonia ; and, contented with the king- 
dom my ancestors left me, have waited, in the midst 
of pleasures and indolence, an inglorious old age. I 
own that if my victories, not my years, are com- 
puted, I shall seem to have lived long ; but can you 
imagine, that after having made Europe and Asia but 
one empire, after having conquered the two noblest 
parts of the world, in the tenth year of my reign and 
the thirtieth of my age, that it will become me to 
stop in the midst of so exalted a career, and discon- 
tinue the pursuit of glory to which I have entirely 
devoted myself ? Know, that this glory ennobles all 
things, and gives a true and solid grandeur to what- 
ever appears insignificant. In what place soever I 
may fight, I shall fancy myself upon the stage of the 
world, and in presence of all mankind. I confess 
that I have achieved mighty things hitherto ; but the 
country \ve are now in reproaches me that a woman 
has done still greater. It is Semiramis I mean. How 
many nations did she conquer ! How many cities 
were built by her ! What magnificent and stupendous 
works did she finish ! How shameful is it, that I 
should not yet have attained to so high a pitch of 
glory ! Do but second my ardour, and I will soon 
surpass her. Defend me only from secret cabals and 
domestic treasons, by which most princes lose their 
lives ; I take the rest upon myself, and will be 
answerable to you for all the events of the war." 

" This speech," says Rollin, " gives us a perfect 
idea of Alexander's character. He had no notion of 
true glory. He did not know either the principle, 
the rule, or end of it.* He certainly placed it where 
it was not. He was strongly prejudiced in vulgar 
error, and cherished it. lie fancied himself born 
merely for glory ; and that none could be acquired 


but by unbounded, unjust, and irregular conduct. In 
his impetuous sallies after a mistaken glory, he fol- 
lowed neither reason, virtue, nor humanity ; and as 
if his ambitious caprice ought to have been a rule and 
standard to all other men, he was surprised that 
neither his officers nor soldiers would enter into his 
views, and that they lent themselves very unwillingly 
to support his ridiculous enterprises." These remarks 
are well worthy the distinguished historian who 
makes them. 

Semiramis was succeeded by her son Ninyas ; a 
weak and effeminate prince, who shut himself up in the 
city, and, seldom engaging in affairs, naturally became 
an object of contempt to all the inhabitants. His suc- 
cessors are said to have followed his example ; and 
some of them even went beyond him in luxury and 
indolence. Of their history no trace remains. 

At length we come to Pull, supposed to be the father 
of Sardanapalus ; in whose reign Jonah is believed to 
have lived. "The word of the Lord," says the Hebrew 
scripture, "came unto Jonah, the son of Amittai, 
saying, Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and 
cry against it ; for their wickedness is come up before 
me." Jonah, instead of acting as he was commanded, 
went to Joppa, and thence to Tarshish. He was 
overtaken by a storm, swallowed by a whale, and 
thrown up again. Being commanded again, he arose 
and went to Nineveh, " an exceedingly great city of 
three days' journey;" where, having warned the 
inhabitants, that in forty days their city should be 
overthrown, the people put on sackcloth, " from the 
greatest of them even to the least." The king sat in 
ashes, and proclaimed a fast. " Let neither man nor 
beast," said the edict, " herd nor flock, taste any 
thing ; let them not feed, nor drink water ;' but let 
man and beast be covered with sackcloth ; and cry 
mightily unto God; yea, let them turn every one 


from his evil way, and from the violence that is in 
their hands. Who can tell if God will turn and 
repent, and turn away from his fierce anger, that we 
perish not ? " 

On the king's issuing this edict, the people did as 
they were commanded, and the ruin was delayed. 
On finding this, the prophet acted in a very unworthy 
manner. To have failed as a prophet gave him great 
concern ; insomuch, that he desired death. " Take, 
I beseech thee, O Lord, my life from me ; for it is 
better for me to die than to live." " Shall I not 
spare Nineveh," answered the Lord, " that great city, 
wherein are more than six-score thousand persons, 
that cannot discern between their right hand and 
their left hand ; and also much cattle ?" 

Sardanapalus was, beyond all other sovereigns re- 
corded in history, the most effeminate and voluptuous ; 
the most perfect specimen of sloth, luxury, coward- 
ice, crime, and elaborate folly, that was, perhaps, 
ever before exhibited to the detestation of mankind. 
He clothed himself in women's attire, and spun fine 
wool and purple amongst throngs of concubines. 
He painted likewise his face, and decked his whole 
body with other allurements. He imitated, also, a 
woman's voice ; and in a thousand respects dis- 
graced his nature by the most unbounded licentious- 
ness and depravity. He even wished to immortalise 
his impurities ; selecting for his epitaph the follow- 
ing lines : 

Haec habeo qnae edi, quseque exsaturata libido 
Hausit ; at ilia jacent m uhu et proeclara rclicta. 

" This epitaph," says Aristotle, " is only fit for a 

* The character of Sardanapalus has been treated more gently by 
a modern poet. " The Sardanapalus of Lord Byron is pretty 
nearly such a person as the Sardanapalus of history may be sup- 
posed to have been, young, thoughtless, spoiled by flattery and 


Through all the city sounds the voice of joy, 

And tipsy merriment. On the spacious walls, 

That, like huge sea-cliffs, gird the city in, 

Myriads of wanton feet go to and fro ; 

Gay garments rustle in the scented breeze ; 

Crimson and azure, purple, green, and gold ; 

Laugh, jest, and passing whisper are hoard there ; 

Timbrel and lute, and dulcimer and song ; 

And many feet that tread the dance arc seen, 

And arms unflung, and swaying head-plumes crown'd : 

So is that city steep'd in revelry*. 

In this dishonourable state Sardanapalus lived 
several years. At length the governor of Media, 
having gained admittance into his palace, and seen 
with his own eyes a king guilty of such criminal 
excesses ; enraged at the spectacle, and not able to 
endure that so many brave men should be subject to 
a prince more soft and effeminate than the women 
themselves, immediately resolved to put an end to his 
dominion. He therefore formed a conspiracy against 
him ; 'and in this he was joined by Belesis, governor 
of Babylon, and several others. Supporting each 
other for the same end, the one stirred up the Medes 
and Persians ; the other inflamed the inhabitants of 
unbounded self-indulgence ; but, with a temper naturally amiable, 
and abilities of a superior order, he affects to undervalue the san- 
guinary renown of his ancestors, as an excuse for inattention to 
the most necessary duties of his rank ; and flatters himself, while 
he is indulging his own sloth, that he is making his people happy. 
Yet, even in his fondness for pleasure, there lurks a love of con- 
tradiction. Of the whole picture, selfishness is the prevailing 
feature ; selfishness admirably drawn, indeed ; apologised for by 
every palliating circumstance of education and habit, and clothed 
in the brightest colours of which it is susceptible, fiom youth, 
talents, and placidity. But it is selfishness still; and we should 
have been tempted to quarrel with the art which made vice and 
frivolity thus amiable, if Lord Byron had not, at the same time, 
pointed out with much skill the bitterness and weariness of spirit 
which inevitably wait on such a character ; and if he had not given 
a fine contrast to the picture, in the accompanying portraits of 
Salarnenes and Myrrha." HEBKR. 

* Atherstone's " Fall of Nineveh." 


Babylon. They gained over, also, the king of 
Arabia. Several battles, however, were fought, in 
all of which the rebels were repulsed and defeated. 
They became, therefore, so greatly disheartened, that 
at length the commanders resolved every one to 
return to their respective countries; and they had 
done so, had not Belesis entertained great faith in an 
astrological prediction. He was continually con- 
sulting the stars ; and at length solemnly assured the 
confederated troops, that in five days they would be 
aided by a support, they were at present unable to 
imagine or anticipate; the gods having given to 
him a decided intimation of so desirable an interfer- 
ence. Just as he had predicted, so it happened ; for 
before the time he mentioned had expired, news 
came that the Bactrians, breaking the fetters of ser- 
vitude, had sprung into the field, and were hastening 
to their assistance. 

Sardanapalu?, not knowing any thing of the revolt 
of the Bactrians, and puffed up by former successes, 
was still indulging in sloth and idleness, and prepar- 
ing beasts for sacrifice, plenty of wine, and other 
things necessary wherewith to feast and entertain his 
soldiers. While the army was thus indulging itself, 
Arbaces, receiving intelligence, by some deserters, of 
the security and intemperance of the enemy, fell in 
upon them in the night on a sudden ; and being in 
due order and discipline, and setting upon such as 
were in confusion, he being before prepared, and the 
other altogether unprovided, they easily broke into 
their camp, and made a great slaughter of some, forcing 
the rest into the city. Upon this, Sardanapalus com- 
mitted the charge of his whole army to his wife's 
brother, (Salamenes,) and took upon himself the 
defence of the city. But the rebels twice defeated the 
king's forces ; once in the open field, and the second 
time before the walls of the city; in which last 


engagement Salamenes was killed, and almost all his 
army lost ; some being cut off in the pursuit, and 
the rest (save a very few) being interrupted, and 
prevented from entering into the city, were driven 
headlong into the Euphrates ; and so great was the 
number destroyed, that the river became dyed with 
the blood, and retained that colour for a great dis- 
tance and a long course together. 

Sardanapalus, now perceiving that his kingdom 
was like to be lost, sent away his three sons and his 
three daughters, with a great deal of treasure, into 
Paphlagonia, to Cotta, the governor there, his most 
entire friend ; and sent posts into all the provinces 
of the kingdom, in order to raise soldiers, and to 
make all other preparations necessary to endure a 
siege ; being greatly encouraged to do this from an 
acquaintance with an ancient prophecy; viz. that 
Nineveh could never be taken by force, till the river 
should become a foe to the city. 

The enemy, on the other hand, grown more cou- 
rageous by their successes, eagerly urged on the 
siege. They made, nevertheless, but little impres- 
sion on the besieged, by reason of the strength of 
the walls ; for balistae to cast stones, testudos to 
cast up mounts, and battering-rams, were not known 
in those ages. The city was also well supplied with 
every thing needful. The siege, therefore, lasted 
two years : during which time nothing to any pur- 
pose was done, save that the walls were sometimes as- 
saulted, and the besieged penned up in the city. At 
length, in the third year, an unfortunate circum- 
stance took place. This was no other than the over- 
flowing of the Euphrates, and from continual rains, 
coming up into a part of the city, and tearing down 
thirty furlongs of the walls in length. 

When the king found this conceiving it to be no 
other than a fulfilment of the prophecy, on the im- 


probability of which he had so strongly relied he 
gave himself up to despair ; caused a large pile of 
wood to be made in one of the courts of his palace ; 
heaped together all his gold, silver, and wearing 
apparel ; and inclosing his eunuchs and concubines 
in an apartment within the pile, caused it to be set on 
fire ; when all perished in the flames in common with 

When the revolters heard of this, they entered 
through several breaches made in the walls, and 
took the city. They clothed Arbaces with a royal 
robe, proclaimed him king, and invested him with 
despotic authority : in gratitude for which Arbaces 
rewarded every one according to his deserts. He 
showed great clemency, also, to the inhabitants of 
Nineveh ; for though he dispersed them into several 
villages, he restored every one to his estate. He, 
nevertheless, razed the city to the ground. The sum, 
found in the palace and elsewhere, appears to be 
incredible : for it is stated to have been no less than 
equivalent to 25,000,000,000 of pounds sterling. 
The fire lasted more than fifteen days. Thus, after 
a continuance of thirty generations, the Assyrian em- 
pire was overturned, in the year of the world, 3080 ; 
and before Christ 868. Thus far Diodorus ; but 
Usher, and many other historians, amongst whom 
may be mentioned Herodotus, state, that the Assy- 
rian empire, from Ninus, lasted only 520 years. 

Several kings reigned after this, under what is 
called the second Assyrian empire. For on the fall 
of the former, three considerable kingdoms were 
generated, viz : that of the Medes, which Arbaces, 
on the fall of Nineveh, restored to its liberty ; that 
of the Assyrians of Babylon, which was given to 
Belesis, governor of that city ; and that of the Assy- 
rians of Nineveh. 

The first king that reigned in Nineveh, after the 



death of Sardanapalus, is called in Scripture Tiglatlt- 
Pileser*; the second Salmanascr, in whose reign, 
Tobit, with Anna his wife, and his son Tobias, was 
carried captive into Assyria, where he became one of 
Salmanaser's principal officers. That king having 
died after a reign of fourteen years, he was succeeded 
by his son Sennacherib ; he, whose army was cut off 
in one night before the walls of Jerusalem. He had 
laid siege to that city some time before, but had 
inarched against Egypt, which country having sub- 
dued, he once more sat down before the sacred city : 
" And it came to pass, that the angel of the Lord 
went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a 
hundred and four score and five thousand ; and when 
they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all 
dead corpsest." After so terrible a blow, the pre- 
tended king of kings, as he presumed to call himself, 
" this triumpher over nations, and conqueror of gods," 
returned to his own country, where " it came to 
pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch, 
his god, that he was struck by his two sons|, who 
smote him with the sword : and Esarhaddon, his 
youngest son, reigned in his stead." The destruc- 
tion that fell upon his army, has been thus described 
by a celebrated poet of modern times. 


" The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold, 
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold ; 
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, 
When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee. 

* ii. 

" Like the leaves of the forest when summer is green, 
That hobt with their banners at sunset were seen ; 
Like the leaves of the forest when autumn hath blown, 
That host on the morrow lay withered and strown. 

JElian calls him Thilgamus. t 2 Kings. 

J Adrauinielech and Sharezer. 2 Kings, xix. ver. 37. 



" For the angel of death spread his wings on the blast, 
And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed ; 
And the ej es of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill, 
And their hearts but once heaved, and for ever grew still. 


" And there lay the steed, with his nostril all wide, 
But through it there rolled not the breath of his pride ; 
And the foam of his gasping lay white on the turf, 
And cold as the spray of the rock-beating surf. 

*' And there lay the rider distorted and pale, 
With the dew on his brow, and the rust on his mail ; 
And the tents were all silent, the banners alone, 
The lances unlifted, the trumpet unblown. 


" And the widows of Ashur are loud in their wail ; 
And the idols are broke in the temple of Baal ; 
And the might of the Gentile, unstnote by the sword, 
Hath melted like snow in the glance of the Lord." 

Esarhaddon was succeeded by Nebuchodonosor the 
First, in whose reign Tobit died*. Perceiving his end 
approaching, that good old man called his children to 
him, and advised them to lose no time, after they 
had buried him and their mother, but to quit the city, 
before its ruin came on. " The ruin of Nineveh," 
said he, " is at hand ; the wickedness of the city will 
occasion its ruin." 

Nahum represents the wickedness of this city, too, 
in terms exceedingly vividt: " Woe to the bloody 
city ! It is all full of lies and robbery." " It shall 
come to pass, that all they that look upon thee shall 
flee from thee, and say, Nineveh is laid waste; who 
will bemoan her ? " " The gates of thy land shall be 
set wide open unto thine enemies ; the fire shall de- 
vour thy bars." " The sword shall cut thee off; it 
shall eat thee up like the canker-worm." "Thy nobles 
shall dwell in the dust ; thy people be scattered upon 
the mountains, and no man shall gather them." 

* Tobit, xiv. ver. 5, 13 f Nahum, chap.iii. 



Zephaniah, also, issued similar denunciations*. 
"The Lord will make Nineveh a desolation, and 
dry like a wilderness : and flocks shall lie down in 
the midst of her ; both the cormorant and the bittern 
shall lodge in it ; their voice shall sing in the win- 
dows ; desolation shall be in the thresholds." " This 
is the rejoicing city, that dwelt carelessly, that said 
in her heart, '/ am, and there is none beside me.' 
How shall she become a desolation ; a place for beasts 
to lie down in ! every one that passes by shall hiss 
and wag his hand." 

The ruin, predicted, came in the reign of Saracus. 
Cyaxares, king of the Medes, entering into an alli- 
ance with the king of Babylon, they joined their 
forces together, laid siege to the city, took it, slew 
their king, and utterly destroyed it. 

" God," says the historian, " had foretold by his 
prophets, that he would bring vengeance upon that 
impious city, for the blood of his servants, where- 
with the kings thereof had gorged themselves, like 
ravenous lions ; that he himself would march at the 
head of the troops that should come to besiege it ; 
that he would cause consternation and terror to go 
before him ; that he would deliver the old men, the 
mothers, and their children, into the merciless hands 
of the soldiers ; and that all the treasures of the city 
should fall into the hands of rapacious and insatiable 
plunderers; and that the city itself should be so 
totally destroyed, that not so much as a footstep of 
it should be left; and that the people should ask 
hereafter, Where did the proud city of Nineveh 
stand?" t 

* Zephaniah, chap. ii. 

t Soon after the great fire of London, the rector of St. Michael, 
Qucenhithe, preached a sermon before the Lord Mayor and corpo- 
ration of London, in which lie instituted a parallel between the 
cities of London and Nineveh, to show that unless the inhabitants 


This prophecy has been fulfilled only in part ; the 
absolute completion of it remains still to be fulfilled. 
In the time of Hadrian, the ruins of it still existed ; 
and at a subsequent period a great battle was fought 
on the space left among the ruins, between Hera- 
clius, Emperor of Constantinople, and Rhazates, 
general to Chosroes, king of Persia. On that me- 
morable day, Heraclius, on his horse Phallas, sur- 
passed the bravest of his warriors ; his hip was 
wounded with a spear ; the steed was wounded in 
the thigh; but he carried his master safe and victo- 
rious through the triple phalanx of the enemy. In 
the heat of the action, three valiant chiefs were 
successively slain by the sword and lance of the 
emperor ; amongst whom was Rhazates himself. 
He fell like a soldier ; but the sight of his head 
scattered grief and despair through the fainting 
ranks of the Persians. In this battle, which was 
fiercely fought from day-break to the eleventh hour, 
twenty-eight standards, besides those which might 
be torn or broken, were taken from the Persians ; 
the greatest part of their army was cut to pieces, 
and the victors, concealing their own loss, passed 
the night on the field. They acknowledged that 
on this occasion it was less difficult to kill than to 
discomfit the soldiers of Chosroes. The conquerors 
recovered three hundred Roman standards, as well 
as a great number of captives, of Edessa and Alex- 

of the former repented of their many public and private vices, and 
reformed their lives and manners, as did the Ninevites on the 
preaching of Jonah, they might justly be expected to become the 
objects of the signal vengeance of Heaven : putting them in mind 
of the many dreadful calamities that have, from time to time, 
befallen the English nation in general, and the great City of London, 
in particular ; and of the too great reason there was to apprehend 
some yet more signal vengeance from the hands of Omnipotence, 
since former judgments had not proved examples sufficient to warn 
and amend a very wicked people. 


andria. Soon after this battle, Chosroes felt com- 
pelled to fly : he was afterwards deposed, thrown 
into a dungeon, where he was insulted, famished, 
tortured, and at length murdered by one of his 
own sons. 

We have given an account of its ancient size and 
splendour : we must now give some account of the 
ruins which still remain : for though some writers 
insist, that even the dust of this vast city has dis- 
appeared, it is certain that some of its walls still 
subsist, beside the city of Mosul. 

Mosul was visited by Captain Kinneir, in the 
years 1813-14. " About a mile before .we entered 
Mosul," says he, " we passed two artificial tumuli, 
and extensive ramparts, supposed to be the ruins of 
the ancient Nineveh. The first tumulus is about 
three quarters of a mile in circumference. It has 
the same appearance, and is of about the same height, 
as those we saw at Susa. The circumference of the 
other is not so considerable; but its elevation is 
greater, and on the top stands the tomb of Jonah, 
the prophet, round which has been erected a village, 
called Nunia." 

Captain Kinneir proceeds to state, that the Jews 
go in pilgrimage to this tomb ; which is a small 
and insignificant building, crowned with a cupola. 
The rampart is esteemed, by some, to have been 
thrown up by Nadir Shah, when he besieged Mosul. 
Captain Kinneir, however, had no doubt that this 
opinion is founded in error, since they in no way 
resembled the field-works which an army, such as 
that of Nadir Shah, was likely to erect. I cannot 
doubt, therefore," says he, " that they are the ves- 
tiaes of some ancient city, probably Nineveh; or 
that Larissa, described by Xenophon." In regard 
to Mosul, he describes it as a sombre-looking town, 
fast dwindling into insignificance. 


These ruins were subsequently visited by Mr. Rich, 
the East India Company's resident at Bagdat. They 
lie on the eastern banks of the Tigris*. To the 
north are the Gara mountains, on the chain of which 
snow is said to lie in clefts and sheltered situations 
from one year to another. The Tigris is here about 
four hundred feet broad, its depth, for the most part, 
about two fathoms ; and near the bridge was fought 
the celebrated battle between Chosroes' troops and 
those of Ileraclius, to which we have just now 
alluded. On the eastern side of this bridge many 
remains of antiquity have been found, consisting, for 
the most part, of bricks, some of which are whole 
and some in fragments, and pieces of gypsum, some 
of which are covered with inscriptions, in cruciform 
character t. There are also narrow ancient passages, 
with apertures or doors, opening one into the other, 
dark, narrow, and vaulted, appearing as if designed 
as vaults for the reception of dead bodies. 

Mr. Rich afterwards through the area of 
Nineveh to the first wall of the inclosure. He found 
it a line of earth and gravel, out of which large hewn 
stones are frequently dug, as out of all the walls of 
the area. Beyond was a ditch still very regular ; 
beyond which was a wall, and beyond that another 
wall larger than any. " The area of Nineveh," says 
Mr. Rich, " is, on a rough guess, about one and a 
half to two miles broad, and four miles long. On 
the river on the west side there are only remains of 
one wall ; and I observed the same at the north and 
south extremities ; but on the east side there are the 
remains of three walls. The west one appears to 
have run a little in front of Nebbi Yunus. Between 
it and the river the ground is subject to frequent 

* Diodorus says, that Nineveh stood on the Euphrates : but 
tills is contrary to all evidence. 

f One of these is in the British Museum, 


inundations and changes ; but it has not interfered 
with the area," 

Mr. Rich did not observe at the angles of the walls 
any traces of towers, bastions, or any works of that 
kind. These walls are not more than from ten to 
fifteen feet high. Large masses of hewn stone are fre- 
quently dug up, and bricks are ploughed up perpe- 
tually. There is also a piece of grey stone, shaped 
like the capital of a column, such as at this day sur- 
mounts the wooden pillars or posts of Turkish, or 
rather Persian, verandahs ; but there was no carving 
on it. Pottery, too, is often found, and other Baby-- 
Ionian fragments ; also bits of brick adhering to them. 
These are found near a mound, called the Mount of 
Koyunjuk, the height of which is about forty-three 
feet, and its circumference 7691 feet. Its sides are 
very steep, and its top nearly flat. 

Some years ago, a very large bas-relief was dug up 
among the ruins, representing men and animals, 
covering a grey stone about ten or eleven feet in 
height. All the town of Mosul left their houses to 
go and see this remarkable specimen of antiquity ; 
but not one had the taste to endeavour to preserve it. 
It was in a few days, therefore, cut up or broken to 

One day, as Mr. Rich was riding along on the out- 
side of the walls, his attention was directed to an 
object of great antiquity. " Some people had been 
digging for stones," says he, " and had dug a hole in 
the ground, from which they had turned up many 
large hewn stones with bitumen adhering to them. 
I examined the excavation, which was about ten 
feet deep, and found it consisted of huge stones, laid 
in layers of bitumen and lime-mortar. I brought 
away some specimens of them sticking together. I 
also saw some layers of red clay, which were very 
thick, and had become as indurated as burnt brick ; 


but there was not the least appearance of reeds or 
straw having been used. This mass appeared to 
have been a foundation or superstructure. We found 
among the rubbish some pieces of coarse unglazed 
pottery. It would not have been possible to tell, 
from the appearance of the surface of the ground, 
that there had been building beneath a water- 
course full of pebbles had even passed over it. It is, 
therefore, very difficult to say to what extent ves- 
tiges of building may exist outside the inclosures, 
the area of which may have been the royal quarter ; 
but certainly was never sufficient for the city of 

" Except the ruins of some large and lofty tur- 
rets," says Mr. Morier, " like that of Babel or 
Belus, the cities of Babylon and Nineveh are so 
completely crumbled into dust, as to be wholly un- 
distinguishable, but by a few inequalities of the 
surface on which they once stood. The humble tent 
of the Arab now occupies the spot formerly adorned 
with the palaces of kings ; and his flocks procure but 
a scanty pittance of food, amidst fallen fragments of 
ancient magnificence. The banks of the Euphrates and 
Tigris, once so prolific, are now, for the most part, 
covered with impenetrable brushwood ; and the 
interior of the province, which was traversed and 
fertilised with innumerable canals, is destitute of 
either inhabitants or vegetation." 

Among the ruins is a wall, and on the borders of 
that the peasants of the neighbourhood assemble 
every year, and sacrifice a sheep, with music and 
other festivities ; a superstition far anterior to the 
religion they now possess. " One thing is suffi- 
ciently obvious," says Mr. Rich, " to the most 
careless observer, and that is, the equality of 
age of all the vestiges discovered here. Whether 
they belonged to Nineveh or some other city, is 


another question ; but that they are all of the same 
age and character does not admit of a doubt." 

Mr. Rich took measurements of the mounds, that 
still exist among these ruins, and did not neglect to 
cut his name on the wall of what is called Thisbe's 
Well. " Some traveller in after times," says he, with 
an agreeable enthusiasm, " when her remembranqe 
lias long been swept away by the torrent of time, 
may wonder, on reading the name of Mary Rich*, who 
the adventurous female was, who had visited the 
ruins of Nineveh. He will not be aware, that had 
her name been inscribed at every spot she had visited 
in the course of her weary pilgrimage, it would be 
found in places, compared with which, Mousul is the 
centre of civilisation." 

F.rom the circumstance that from all the mounds 
large stones, sometimes with bitumen adhering to 
them, are frequently dug out, Mr. Rich was inclined 
to believe, that but few bricks were used in the 
building of this once vast city. There is, however, 
not much certainty as to this, or in regard to what 
kind of architecture it was. for the most, or, indeed, 
any part constructed ; for though its walls may bo- 
traced in a multitude of directions, nothing now 
remains beside a few mounds, some bricks, and large 
stones, hewn into a shape which evidently prove, that 
they once formed the houses or the temples of a cityt. 


THIS city stood near the river Douro ; out of the 
ruins of which has arisen the town of Soria. Accord- 
ing to Strabo, it was the capital of Celtiberia. 

Strong by nature and art, and by the number of 
its inhabitants, it was built upon a hill, difficult of 

, * Daughter of Sir James Mackintosh, and wife of Mr. Rich. 

f Herodotus ; Diodorus Siculus ; TElian ; Prideanx ; Rollin ; 
Stackhouse ; Gibbon ; Rees ; Brewster ; Kinneir ; Morier ; Rich. 


access, and on three sides surrounded by mountains. 
Its extent was, also, so great, that it had within its 
circuit pasture for cattle. It wa.s unprotected by 
walls or towers ; yet it bravely maintained itself, for 
a considerable time, against the power of the Romans. 
The cruelty and injustice of the Romans during this 
war is justly stigmatised, as being altogether un- 
worthy a great and powerful people. The inha- 
bitants at first gained some advantages over the 
Roman forces, till Scipio Africanus was commanded 
to finish the war, and to destroy Numantia alto- 
gether. With an army of sixty thousand men he 
began the siege. He was opposed by the inhabitants 
with great skill and courage, though their force did 
not exceed four thousand men. Finding themselves, 
however, greatly pressed, the Numantians gave them- 
selves up, first to despair, and then to fury. Their 
provisions, too, at length began to fail ; and they 
were constrained to feed upon the flesh of horses ; then 
on that of their slain companions ; and, lastly, they 
drew lots to kill and devour each other. After a multi- 
tude of misfortunes, they signified a desire to capitu- 
late ; but Scipio having demanded, that they should 
surrender unconditionally on the next day, the Nu- 
mantians refused ; and when they obtained a longer 
time, instead of surrendering, they retired and set fire 
to their houses, and destroyed themselves ; so that not 
even one remained to grace the triumph of the con- 
queror. This, however, has been denied by some 
writers, who insist, that a number of Numantines 
delivered themselves into the hands of Scipio, and 
that fifty of them were drawn in triumph at Rome, 
and that the rest were sold as slaves. This occurred 
in the year of Rome 629. 

Not a vestige remains, but a few traces at a place 
called Puente Gavay, a spot difficult of access*. 
* Strabo ; Plutarch ; Brvdonc ; Swinburne ; Jose. 



THIS city, known likewise by the name of Pisa, 
was situated on the right bank of the Alpheus, at the 
foot of an eminence called the Mount of Saturn. It 
is peculiarly worthy of attention ; since it was near 
its walls that the most celebrated games, from the 
institution of which all occurrences were dated in 
Greece*, were held. 

For nearly the whole of what follows, in regard 
to the games, we are indebted to Rollin ; ours being 
an abstract. 

There were four kinds of games solemnised in 
Greece. The Olympic, so called from Olympia, near 
which they were celebrated after the expiration of 
every four years, in honour of Jupiter Olympicus. 
The Pythic, sacred to Apollo Pythius, also cele- 
brated every four years. The Nemean, which took 
their name from Nemea, a city and forest of Pele- 
ponnesus, instituted by Hercules, solemnised every 
two years. And lastly, the Isthmian; celebrated 
upon the isthmus of Corinth, from four years to four 
years, in honour of Neptune. That persons might 
be present at these public sports with greater quiet 
and security, there was a general suspension of arms 
and cessation of hostilities, throughout all Greece, 
during the time of their celebration. 

The Greeks thought nothing comparable to a 
victory in these games. They looked upon it as the 
perfection of glory, and did not believe it permitted 
to mortals to desire any thing beyond it. Cicero 
assures us, that with them it was no less honourable 

v * The computation of time by Olympiads, which began about 
four hundred years after the destruction of Troy, was used until the 
reign of Theodosius the Great ; when a new mode of reckoning, by 
indictions, or from the victory of Augustus at Actium, was intro- 
duced ; the Olympic games, in the general assembly, were abolished ; 
and the image, made by Phidias, was removed to Constantinople. 


than the consular dignity, in its original splendour 
with the ancient Romans. 

We shall confine ourselves to the Olympic games, 
which continued five days. 

The combats, which had the greatest share in 
the solemnity of the public games, were boxing, - 
wrestling, the pancratium, the discus or quoit, and 
racing. To these may be added the exercises of 
leaping, throwing the dart, and that of the trochus 
or wheel ; but as these were neither important, nor 
of any great reputation, we shall content ourselves 
with having only mentioned them. 

athletas was given to those who exercised themselves 
with design to dispute the prizes in the public games. 
The art, by which they formed themselves for these 
encounters, was called gymnastic, from the athletse's 
practising naked. 

Those who were designed for this profession fre- 
quented, from their most tender age, the gymnasia 
or palaestrae, which were a kind of academies main- 
tained for that purpose at the public expense. In 
these places, such yoiing people were under the direc- 
tion of different masters, who employed the most 
effectual methods to inure their bodies for the fatigues 
of the public games, and to form them for the com- 
bats. The regimen they were under was very severe. 
At first they had no other nourishment but dried figs, 
nuts, soft cheese, and a gross heavy sort of bread. 
They were absolutely forbid the use of wine, and 
enjoined continence. 

Who, in the Olympic race, the prize would gain, 
Has borne from early youth fatigue and pain, 
Excess of heat and cold has often tried, 
Love's softness banish'd, and the glass denied. 

The athletas, before their exercises, were rubbed 
with oils and ointments, to make their bodies more 


supple and vigorous. At first they made use of a 
belt, with an apron or scarf fastened to it, for their 
more decent appearance in the combats ; but one of 
the combatants happening to lose the victory by this 
covering's falling off, that accident was the occasion 
of sacrificing modesty to convenience, and retrenching 
the apron for the future. The athlete were only 
naked in some exercises, as wrestling, boxing, the 
pancratium, and the foot-race. 

It was necessary that their morals should be 
unexceptionable, and their condition free. No stranger 
was admitted to combat in the Olympic games ; and 
when Alexander, the son of Amyntas, king of Ma- 
cedon, presented himself to dispute the prize, his 
competitors, without any regard to the royal dignity, 
opposed his reception as a Macedonian, and conse- 
quently a barbarian and a stranger ; nor could the 
judge be prevailed upon to admit him till he had 
proved, in due form, that his family was originally 
descended from the Argives. 

They were made to take an oath, that they would 
religiously observe the several laws prescribed in 
each kind of combat, and do nothing contrary to the 
established orders and regulations of the games. 
Fraud, artifice, and excessive violence, were abso- 
lutely prohibited; and the maxim so generally re- 
ceived elsewhere, that it is indifferent whether an 
enemy is conquered by deceit or valour, was banished 
from these combats. 

It is time to bring our champions to blows, and 
to run over the different kinds of combats in which 
they exercised themselves. 

WRESTLING is one of the most ancient exercises of 
which we have any knowledge, having been practised 
in the time of the patriarchs, as the wrestling of the 
angel with Jacob proves*. 

* Gen. xxxii. 24. 


Wrestling among the Greeks, as well as other 
nations, was practised at first with simplicity, little 
art, and in a natural manner ; the weight of the 
body, and the strength of the muscles, having more 
share of it, than address or skill. 

The wrestlers, before they began their combats, 
were rubbed all over in a rough manner, and after- 
wards anointed with oils, which added to the strength 
and flexibility of their limbs. But as this unction, 
in making the skin too slippery, rendered it difficult 
for them to take hold of each other, they remedied 
that inconvenience, sometimes by rolling themselves 
in the dust of the' palaestrae, sometimes by throwing 
a fine sand upon each other, kept for that purpose in 
the porticoes of the gymnasia. 

Thus prepared, the wrestlers began their combat. 
They were matched two against two, and sometimes 
several couples contended at the same time. 

OF BOXING, OR TUB CESTUS. The combatants 
covered their fists with a kind of offensive arms called 
cestus, and their heads with a sort of leather cap, to 
defend their temples and ears, which were most 
exposed to blows, and to deaden their violence. The 
cestus was a kind of gauntlet or glove, made of 
straps of leather, and plated with brass, lead, or iron, 
inside. Their use was to strengthen the hands of the 
combatants, and to add violence to their blows. 

Boxing was one of the rudest and most dangerous 
of the gymnastic combats ; because, besides the danger 
of being crippled, the combatants ran the hazard of 
losing their lives. They sometimes fell down dead, or 
dying, upon the sand ; though that seldom happened, 
except the vanquished person persisted too long 
in not acknowledging his defeat : yet it was common 
for them to quit the fight with a countenance so dis- 
figured, that it was not easy to know them after- 


OF THE PANCRATIUM. The Pancratium was so 
called from two Greek words* which signify that the 
whole force of the body was necessary for succeeding 
in it. It united boxing and wrestling in the same 
fight, borrowing from one its manner of struggling 
and throwing, and from the other, the art of dealing 
blows, and of avoiding them with success. 

OF THE Discus, OB QUOIT. The discus was a 
kind of quoit of a round form, made sometimes of 
wood, but more frequently of stone, lead, or other 
metal, as iron or brass. Those who used this exercise 
were called Discoboli ; that is, flingers of the discus. 

The athletae, in hurling the discus, put themselves 
into the best posture they could, to add force to their 
cast. He that flung the discus farthest was the victor. 

The most famous painters and sculptors of anti- 
quity,intheirendeavours to represent naturally the atti- 
tudes of the discoboli, have left posterity many master- 
pieces in their several arts. Quintilian exceedingly 
extols a statue of this kind, which had been finished 
with infinite care and application by the celebrated 

OF THE PENTATHLUM. The Greeks gave this 
name to an exercise composed of five others : 
wrestling, running, leaping, throwing the dart, and 
the discus. It is believed that this sort of combat 
was decided in one day, and sometimes the same 
morning ; and that the prize, which was single, could 
not be given but to the victor in all those exercises. 

OF RACES. Of all the exercises which theathletEe 
cultivated with so much pains and industry, for their 
appearance in the public games, running was in the 
highest estimation, and held the foremost rank. 

The place where the athletae exercised themselves 

* Hav Kpdras. 

-f- There is a fine specimen in the Townley gallery, at the 
British Museum. 


in running, was generally called the Stadium by the 
Greeks ; as was that wherein they disputed in earnest 
for the prize. Under that denomination was included 
not only the space in which the athletas ran, but also 
that which contained the spectators of the gymnastic 

The middle of the Stadium was remarkable only 
by the circumstance of having the prizes allotted to 
the victors set up there. St. Chrysostom draws a 
fine comparison from this custom. " As the judges," 
says he, " in the races and other games, expose in the 
midst of the Stadium, to the view of the champions, 
the crowns which they are to receive ; in like manner 
the Lord, by the mouth of his prophets, has placed 
the prizes in the midst of the course, which he designs 
for those who have the courage to contend for them." 

There were three kinds of races, the chariot, the 
horse, and the foot-race. 

1. OF THE FOOT-RACE. The runners, of whatever 
number they were, ranged themselves in a line, after 
having drawn lots for their places. Whilst they 
waited the signal to start, they practised, by way of 
prelude, various motions to awaken their activity, 
and to keep their limbs pliable and in a right temper. 
They kept themselves breathing by small leaps, and 
making little excursions, which were a kind of trial 
of their speed and agility. Upon the signal's being 
given, they flew towards the goal, with a rapidity 
scarcely to be followed by the eye, which was solely to 
decide the victory ; for the Agnostic laws prohibited, 
upon the penalty of infamy, the attaining it by any 
foul method. 

2. OF THE HORSE-RACES. The race of a single 
horse with a rider was less celebrated by the ancients; 
yet it had its favourers amongst the most considerable 
persons, even kings themselves, and was attended with 
uncommon glory to the victor. 



3. OP THE CHARIOT-RACES. This kind of race 
was the most renowned of all the exercises used in 
the games of the ancients, and that from whence 
most honour redounded to the victors. It is plain 
they were derived from the constant custom of princes, 
heroes and great men, of fighting in battle upon 
chariots. Homer has an infinity of examples of this 
kind. All those, who presented themselves in the 
Olympic games to dispute the prize in the chariot 
races, were persons considerable either for their riches, 
their birth, their employments, or great actions. 
Kings themselves aspired passionately to this glory, 
from the belief that the title of victor in these games 
was scarcely inferior to that of conqueror, and that the 
Olympic palm added new dignity to the splendours 
of a throne. 

The chariots were generally drawn by two or 
four horses. Sometimes mules supplied the place 
of horses. These chariots, upon a signal given, 
started together. Their places were regulated by 
lot, which was not an indifferent circumstance as 
to the victory ; for being to turn round a boundary, 
the chariot on the left was nearer than those on the 
right, which in consequence had a greater compass to 
take. They ran twelve times round the Stadium. 
He that came in first the twelfth round was victor. 
The chief art consisted in taking the best ground at 
the turning of the boundary ; for if the charioteer 
drove too near it, he was in danger of dashing the 
chariot to pieces ; and if he kept too wide of it, his 
nearest antagonist might get foremost. 

To avoid such danger, Nestor gave the following 
directions to his son Antilochus, who was going to 
dispute the prize in the chariot-races. " My son," 
says he, " drive your horses as near as possible to the 
turning ; for which reason, always inclining your body 
over your chariot, get the left of your competitors; and 


encouraging the horse on the right, give him the rein, 
whilst the near-horse, hard held, turns the boundary 
so close to it, that the nave of the wheel seems to 
graze upon it ; hut have a care of running against 
the stone, lest you wound your horses, and dash the 
chariot in pieces." 

It was not required, that those who disputed 
the victory should enter the lists, and drive their 
chariots in person. Their being spectators of the 
games, or sending their horses thither, was sufficient. 

No one ever carried the ambition of making a 
great figure in the- public games of Greece so far as 
Alcibiades, in which he distinguished himself in the 
most splendid manner, by the great number of horses 
and chariots, which he kept only for the races. It is 
not easy to comprehend, how the wealth of a private 
person should suffice to so enormous an expense : 
but Antisthenes, the scholar of Socrates, who relates 
what he saw, informs us, that many cities of the 
allies, in a kind of emulation with each other, sup- 
plied Alcibiades with all things necessary for the 
support of such magnificence. Equipages, horses, 
tents, sacrifices, the most exquisite provisions, the 
most delicate wines ; in a word, all that was neces- 
sary to the support of his table or train. 

We must not omit, in speaking of the Olympic 
games, to notice that ladies were admitted to dispute 
the prize in them as well as the men, which many of 
them obtained. Cynisca, sister of Agesilaus, king 
of Sparta, first opened this new path of glory to 
her sex, and was proclaimed victrix in the race of 
chariots with four horses. This victory, which till 
then had no example, did not fail of being celebrated 
with all possible splendour. A magnificent monu- 
ment was erected in Sparta in honour of Cynisca-; 
and the Lacedaemonians, though otherwise very 



little sensible to the charms of poetry, appointed 
a poet to transmit this new triumph to posterity, 
and to immortalize its memory by an inscription in 


THE VICTORS. These honours and rewards were 
of several kinds. The spectators' acclamations in 
honour of the victors were only a prelude to the 
rewards designed them. These rewards were dif- 
ferent wreaths of wild olive, pine, parsley, or laurel, 
according to the different places where the games 
were celebrated. Those crowns were always attend- 
ed with branches of palm, that the victors carried 
in their right hands. As he might be victor more 
than once in the same games, and sometimes on the 
same day, he might also receive several crowns and 

"When the victor had received the crown and 
palm, a herald, preceded by a trumpeter, conducted 
him through the Stadium, and proclaimed aloud his 
name and country. 

When he returned to his own country, the peo- 
ple came out in a body to meet him, and conducted 
him into the city, adorned with all the marks of his 
victory, and riding upon a chariot drawn by four 
horses. He made his entry not through the gates, 
but through a breach purposely made in the walls. 
Lighted torches were carried before him, and a 
numerous train followed, to do honour to the pro- 

One of the most honourable privileges granted 
to the athletic victors, was the right of taking place 
at the public games. At Sparta it was a custom 
for the king to take them with him in military ex- 
peditions, to fight near his person, and to be his 
guard; which, with reason, was judged very honour- 


able. Another privilege, in which the useful united 
with the honourable, was that of being maintained 
for the rest of their lives at the expense of their 
country. They were also exempted from all civil 
offices and employments. 

The praises of the victorious athletae were, 
amongst the Greeks, one of the principal subjects 
of their lyric poetry. "We find, that all the odes 
of the four books of Pindar turn upon it, each of 
which takes its title from the games, in which the 
combatants signalised themselves, whose victories 
those poems celebrate. 

Sculpture united with poetry to perpetuate the 
fame of the champions. Statues were erected to 
the victors, in the very place where they had been 
crowned, and sometimes in that of their birth also, 
which was commonly clone at the expense of their 
country. Amongst the statues which adorned Olym- 
pia, were those of several children of ten or twelve 
years old, who had obtained the prize at thaii age in 
the Olympic games. They did not only raise such 
monuments to the champions, but to the very horses 
to whose swiftness they were indebted for the Ago- 
nistic crown : and Pausanias mentions one, which 
was erected in honour of a mare, called Aura, whose 
history is worth repeating. Phidolas, her rider, 
having fallen off in the beginning of the race, the 
mare continued to run in the same manner as if he 
had been upon her back. She outstripped all the 
rest, and upon the sound of the trumpets, which 
was usual toward the end of the race to animate the 
competitors, she redoubled her vigour and courage, 
turned round the goal, and, as if she had been sensi- 
ble of the victory, presented herself before the judges 
of the games. 

Nor did the entertainments finish here. There 


was another kind of competition; and that, too, 
which does not at all depend upon the strength, a 
tivity, and address of the body, and may be called, 
with reason, the combat of the mind ; wherein the 
orators, historians, and poets, made trial of then 
capacities, and submitted their productions to t 
judgment of the public. 

It was a great honour, and, at the same time, 
a most sensible pleasure for writers, who are gene- 
rally fond of fame and applause, to have known how 
to reconcile the voices in their favour of so nume- 
rous and select an assembly as that of the Olympic 
aames, in which were present all the finest geniuses 
of Greece, and all the best judges of the excellence 
of a work. This theatre was equally open to his- 
tory, eloquence, and poetry. 

Herodotus read his history in the Olympic 
games to all Greece, assembled at them, and was 
heard with such applause, that the nanies of the 
nine Muses were given to the nine books whicl 
compose his work, and the people cried out wherever 
he passed, That is he, who has written our history, 
and celebrated our glorious successes against the 

Anciently, Olympia was surrounded by wal 
had two temples, one dedicated to Jupiter, and 
another to Juno ; a senate-house, a theatre, and 
many other beautiful edifices, and also an mnumerabl 
multitude of statues. 

The temple of Jupiter was built with the spoils, 
taken from certain states which had revolted ; it was 
of the Doric order; sixty-eight feet high, two 
hundred and thirty long, and ninety-five broad. 
This edifice was built by an able architect, name( 
Libon and it was adorned by two sculptors of equal 
skill who enriched the pediments of the principal 


front with elaborate and elegant ornaments. The sta- 
tue of the god, the work of Phidias, was of gold 
and ivory, fifty cubits high. On the one pediment, 
CEnomaus and Peleus were disputing the prize of the 
race in the presence of Jupiter ; on the other was 
the battle of the Centaurs and the Lapithas. On the 
summit of each pediment was a Victory, of gilt 
brass ; and at each angle a large vase of the same 

This statue was the finest the world ever saw. 
" Indeed," says Mr. Dodwell ; and he is borne out 
by the authorities of all those ancient writers who 
have written of it, " it appears to have united all 
the beauty of form, and all the splendour of effect, 
that are produced by the highest excellence of the 
statuary and the painter." 

The altar in this temple* was composed of ashes 
from the thighs of the victims, which were carried 
up and consumed on the top with wood of the white 
poplar-tree. The ashes, also, of the Prytanseum, in 
which a perpetual fire was kept on a hearth, were 
removed annually, on a fixed day, and spread on it, 
being first mingled with water from the Alpheus. 
The people of Elis sacrificed daily, and private 
persons as often as they chose. 

Olympiat preserved, much longer than Delphi, 
and with less diminution, the sacred property, of 
which it was a similar repository. Some images 
were removed by Tiberius Nero. His successor, 
Caius Caligula, who honoured Jupiter with the 
familiar appellation of brother, commanded that his 
image should be transported to Rome ; but the archi- 
tects declared it was impossible, without destroying 
the work. 

* Chandler. f Chandler. 


The god, in the time of Pausanias, retained his 
original splendour. The native offerings of crowns 
and chariots, and of charioteers, and horses, and 
oxen, in brass, the precious images of gold^ivory, 
or amber, and the curiosities consecrated in the 
temples, the treasuries, and other edifices, could 
not be viewed without astonishment. The number 
of statues within the grove, was itself an amazing 
spectacle. Many were the works of Myron, Lysip- 
pus, and the prime artists of Greece. Here kings 
and emperors were assembled ; and Jupiter towered 
in brass from twelve to thirty feet high ! Let the 
reader peruse the detail given by Pausanias, and 
imagine, if he can, the entertainment which Olympia 
must then have afforded to the antiquary, the con- 
noisseur, and historian. 

Of all splendour, the temple of Juno alone can 
be ascertained with any degree of certainty. The 
soil, which has been considerably elevated, covers 
the greater part of the ruin. The walls of the 
cella rise only two feet from the ground. " We 
employed," says Mr. Dodvvell, " some Turks to 
excavate; and we discovered some frusta of the 
Doric order, of which the flutings were thirteen 
inches wide, and the diameter of the whole column 
seven feet three inches. We found, also, part of a 
small column of Parian marble, which the intervals 
of the flutings show to have been of the Ionic or 
the Corinthian order. The work of ruin, however, 
is constantly going on ; and lately the people of 
Lalla (a town in the neighbourhood) have even 
rooted up some of the foundations of this once 
celebrated sanctuary, in order to use the materials 
in the construction of their houses*". 

Clarke; Pausanias; Plutarch; Rollin ; Chandler; Barthe- 
lemy ; Dodwell. 



A MARITIME city of Campania, between Baize and 
Naples. It was founded by a colony from Cumse. 
It was, in the first instance, called Dicsearchia, 
(" Just Power*,") and afterwards Puteoli, from the 
great number of wells that were in the neighbour- 

It was delightfully situated on a point projecting 
into the sea, nearly in the centre of the bay of Puz- 
zuoli. It was the sea-port of the inhabitants of 
Cannae ; and a rendezvous for merchants from Greece, 
Sicily, and all parts of Italy. The attractions of the 
town, also, on account of its hot baths and mineral 
waters, allured the more opulent citizens of Rome to 
its vicinity. 

In the square of the town stands a beautiful 
marble pedestal, covered with bas-reliefs, represent- 
ing the fourteen towns of Asia Minor, destroyed by 
an earthquake, and rebuilt by Tiberius. It supported 
a statue of that emperor, erected by the same cities 
as a monument of gratitude. The cathedral stands 
on the ruins of a temple, and is built chiefly of 
ancient materials. 

A temple of Serapis offers many subjects of ob- 
servation. Half of its buildings, however, are still 
buried under the earth thrown upon it by volcanic 
commotions, or accumulated by the windings of the 
hill. The inclosure is square, environed by buildings 
for priests, and baths for votaries ; in the centre re- 
mains a circular platform, with four flights of steps 
up to it ; vases for fire, a central altar, rings for vic- 

* "-This name indicates," says Mr. Swinburne, " that they pur- 
sued, or wished to be thought to pursue, a line of conduct in com- 
mercial transactions, which it would be happy lor mankind, all 
maritime powers would adopt." 


tims, and other appendages of sacrifice, entire and 
not displaced ; but the columns that held its roof 
have been removed to the new palace of Caserta. 
The temple itself was not discovered till A.D. 1750, 
on the removal of some rubbish and bushes, which 
had, till then, partly concealed it from observa- 

Behind this place of worship, stand three pillars 
without capitals, part of the pronaos of a large 
temple. These are of Cipoline marble, and at the 
middle of their height, are full of holes eaten in 
them by the file-fish*. 

In the neighbourhood of Puteoli are many relics 
of ancient grandeur, of which none deserves more 
attention than the Campanian "Way, paved with lava, 
and lined on each side with venerable tombs, the 
repositories of the dead, which are richly adorned 
with stucco in the inside. This road was made in 
the most solid, expensive manner, by order of Domi- 
tian, and is frequently the subject of encomium in 
the poems of Statius. 

One of the most striking monuments of the city 
is the remains of the mole that formed the ancient 
part. Several of its piers still stand unbroken ; they 
are sunk in the water, and once supported arches 
(to the number of twenty-five,) part of which re-- 
main above the water. 

At the end of this mole began the bridge of Cali- 
gula, which extended across part of the bay to 
Baiee, no less than half a mile in length in a straight 
line. This structure has long since been swept 

On the hill behind the town are the remains of an 
amphitheatre, called, after that at Rome, the Coli- 
seum. It was of considerable magnitude. The 
* Pholas dactylus^ 


gates, and a large portion of the vault and under 
apartments, remain. One of these apartments, or 
rather dungeons, in which St. Januarius, the patron 
saint of Naples, was confined, is now turned into a 
damp and gloomy chapel ; the arena is a garden ; 
vines, fig-trees, and pomegranates, have gradually 
crept up the circumference, and now cover the slope, 
and run over the ruin*. 

It is easy to guess what the animation and splen- 
dour of Puteoli must have been, at the time when 
the riches of the East were poured into its bosom ; 
and when its climate, wit, and beauty, allured the 
most opulent Romans to its vicinity. 

Cicero had a marine villa here, called Puteolanum. 
Pliny relates that it was on the shore, and adorned 
with a portico, which seems to have been remarkable 
for its beauty. He adds that Cicero erected h^ere a 
monument, and that, shortly after his death, a 
fountain of warm water, very wholesome for the 
eyes, burst forth, and gave occasion to an epigram, 
which the philosopher quotes with applauset. The 
portico is fallen, the groves are withered, the foun- 
tain dried up, and not a vestige of the retreat 
left behind to mark its situation. The verses 
remain, and perpetuate the glory of the orator, the 
fame of the fountain, the beauty of the villa, and 
what is more honourable than all united, the grati- 
tude of Cicero's freed-man, Tullius. 

St. Paul landed here in his way from Rhegium 
to Rome ; and found Christians even in that early 
age. In the museum of Portici is a picture 
presenting a view of ancient Puteoli, supposed to 
have been painted before St. Paul landed there. 
" The picture," says Mr. Williams, " is of course very 
different from the present state of the city ; but still 
* Eustace. t Plin. xxx. c. 3. 


a likeness may be traced, if we keep in view the site 
of the various temples, and other objects, the foun- 
dations of which are still visible." 

On the sea shore, near Puzzuoli, are also found 
seals, coins, cornelians, and agates ; bearing impres- 
sions of corn, grapes, and vine-branches, ants, eagles, 
and other animals. These are thrown up by the 
waves, after violent storms ; and commemorate the 
magnificence of a city, now forming part of the Medi- 
terranean bed*. 


" As patience is the greatest of friends to the unfortunate, so is 
time the greatest of friends to the lovers of landscape. It resolves 
the noblest works of art into the most affecting ornaments of created 
things. The fall of empires, with which the death of great cha- 
racters is so immediately associated, possesses a prescriptive title, as 
it were, to all our sympathy ; forming at once a magnificent, yet 
melancholy spectacle ; and awakening in the mind all the grandeur 
of solitude. Who would not be delighted to make a pilgrimage to 
the East to see the columns of Persepolls, and the still more mag- 
nificent ruins of Palmyra ? Where awe springs, as it were, personi- 
fied from the fragments, and proclaims instructive lessons from 
the vicissitudes of fortune. Palmyra, once a paradise in the centre 
of inhospitable deserts, the pride of Solomon, the capital of Zenobia, 
and the wonder and admiration of all the East, now lies 'majestic 
though in ruins!' Its glory withered, time has cast over it a sa- 
cred grandeur, softened into grace. History, by its silence, mourns 
its melancholy destiny ; while immense masses and stupendous 
columns denote the spot, where once the splendid city of the desert 
reared her proud and matchless towers. Ruins- are the only legacy 
the destroyer left to posterity." HARMONIES OF NATURE. 

THIS city was the capital of Palmyrcne, a country on 
the eastern boundaries of Syria, its origin is uncer- 
tain ; but a portion of its history is exceedingly in- 
teresting ; and its vast assemblage of ruins are beheld 
with astonishment and rapture by the curious, the 
learned, and the elegant. 

* Pliny ; Swinburne ; Eustace ; Wilkinson. 


It was situated in the midst of a large plain, sur- 
rounded on three sides by a long chain of mountains. 
It stands in a desert, in the pachalic of Damascus, 
about forty-eight leagues from Aleppo, and about 
the same distance from Damascus, eighty-five miles 
west from the Euphrates, and about one hundred and 
seventeen from the shores of the Mediterranean. 

History is, for the most part, silent in regard to 
the early history of this city. It is said to have been 
built by Solomon, after he had conquered the king of 
Hamathzoba, within whose dominion the country 
lay, in which the city was afterwards erected. He 
called it Tadmor*, which some have construed as 
the place of Palmst; and sometimes "Tadmor in 
the Wilderness." 

We are assured by Josephus, that this was the 
city which the Greeks and Romans afterwards called 
Palmyra. His words are : " Now, Solomon went 
in the desert above Syria, and possessed himself 
of it ; and built there a very great city, which was 
distant two days' journey from the upper Syria, 
and one day's journey from the Euphrates, and six 
long days' journey from Babylon the great. Now 
the reason why this city lay so remote from those 

* The persons who visited Palmyra in 1678, found in the neigh- 
bourhood " a garden, full of palm-trees ;" but when Mr. Wood 
was there, not a single one remained. " The name_of Palmyra," 
says Mr. Ad'lison, " is supposed by some to have been derived from 
the word Palma, indicative of the number of palm-trees that grew 
here ; but that name was given by the Greeks, and, although 
Palma signifies palm-tree in the Latin, yet in the Greek tongue it 
Las a very different signification. Neither does Tadmor signify 
palm-tree in the Syrian language, nor in the Arabic ; nor does 
Thadamoura, as the place is called by Josephus, signify palm-tree in 
the Hebrew. Neither do palms thrive in Syria, as the climate is 
too severe for them in the winter." 

t 1 Kings, ix. 18. 2 Chron. viii. 4. 


parts of Syria, that are inhabited, is this : that below 
there is no water to be had ; and that it is in that 
place only that there are springs and pits of water. 
When, therefore, he had built that city, and encom- 
passed it with very strong walls, he gave it the name 
of Tadmor ; and that is the name it is still called by 
at this day among the Syrians* : but the Greeks 
name it Palmyra." 

That the city was built by Solomon is most pro- 
bable ; but that the present ruins have any relation to 
buildings of his erection is very improbable: indeed we 
must assume it as certain that they arenot ; they being 
entirely those of the Greek orders. With the excep- 
tion of four Ionic half-columns in the Temple of the 
Sun, and two in one of the mausoleums, the whole 
architecture of Palmyra is Corinthian. Neither his- 
tory nor even tradition, moreover, speaks of any other 
architect than Solomon. 

Some have been disposed to give it an earlier 
existencet. The Arabic translator of Chronicles 
makes Palmyra older than Solomon ; John of An- 
tioch, surnamed Melala, says, that he built it on the 
spot where David slew Goliah, in memory of that 
action ; and Abul-Farai mentions in what year, with 
the particulars. These and other accounts of the early 
state of Palmyra, which might be collected from the 
Arabic authors, bear such evident marks of fable and 
wild conjecture, that we shall pass them over. 

Notwithstanding this, we assume the city to have 
been founded by the celebrated king to whom the 

* It is a well known and very true observation, that is made by 
Ammianus Marcellinus (lib. xiv.), that the Greek and Roman 
names of places never took among the natives of Syria ; which is 
the reason why most places retain their first and oiiginal names at 
this day WHISTON. 

t Wood. 


honour is given : who built the temples is totally 

The motives which tempted Solomon to build a 
city in a plain, now altogether a desert, we copy 
from Mr. Addison's Travels to Damascus : " The 
astonishment that takes hold of the mind at the 
strange position of this magnificent city, at one 
time the capital of the East, on the edge of the 
great desert, and surrounded for several days' jour- 
ney on all sides by naked solitary wilds, is removed 
by marking well the peculiarity of its geographical 
position. The great caravans coming to Europe, 
laden with the rich merchandise of India, would na- 
turally come along the Persian gulf, through the 
south of Persia, to the Euphrates, the direct line ; 
their object then would be to strike across the great 
Syrian desert as early as possible, to reach the large 
markets and ports of Syria. With more than 600 
miles of desert without water, between the mouth of 
the Euphrates and Syria, they would naturally be 
obliged to keep along the banks of that river, until 
the extent of desert country became diminished. They 
would then find the copious springs of Tadmor the 
nearest and most convenient to make for; and in 
their direct route from the north of India along the 
Euphrates. These springs would then immediately 
become most important, and would naturally attract 
the attention of a wise prince like Solomon, who 
would ' fence them with strong walls.' Here the 
caravans would rest and take in water ; here would 
congregate the merchants from adjacent countries and 
Europe; and from hence the great caravan would be 
divided into numerous branches, to the north, south, 
and west*. A large mart for the exchange of com- 
modities would be established, and an important city 
* Ch. ix. ver. 18. 


would quickly arise. The choice of this spot by 
Solomon, we may naturally consider founded on a 
policy of enriching himself by drawing the commerce 
of India through his dominions, from which com- 
merce, probably, he derived the wealth for which he 
is so celebrated. In the chapter, succeeding that in 
which Solomon is mentioned to have built Tadmor in 
the wilderness, we read that ' the weight of gold that 
came to Solomon in one year, was six hundred three 
score and six talents of gold*; besides that he had 
of the merchantmen, and of the traffic of the spice- 
merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the 
governors of the country.' " 

The city which Solomon built was destroyed by 
Nebuchadnezzar ; but who rebuilt it is entirely un- 
known. It is not mentioned by Xenophon, in his 
history of the expedition of Cyrus the younger, 
though he gives a very accurate account of the desert, 
and must have left this place not a great way to the 
right in his march towards Babylon. Nor is it once 
alluded to by Diodorus, nor Plutarch, nor Arrian, 
nor Quintus Curtius, nor, indeed, by any of the 
biographers or historians of Alexander ; although he 
marched through this desert to Thapsacus. 

Nor is it taken any notice of as being in existence 
even in the time of Seleucus Nicator, he who built 
so many cities in Syria ; nor is it once mentioned in 
the history of his successor. It is not even men- 
tioned so lately as the time in which Pompey the 
Great conquered the country in which it is situated. 
No notice is taken iu Roman history of its being in 
any way existing, till the time of Mark Antony; 
who, after the battle at Philippi, marched against it, 
as we are told by Appian, with a view of plundering 
it ; but the inhabitants escaped with their effects 
* Ch. x. v.14. 


over the Euphrates. This very circumstance proves 
it to have heen at that time no very large place ; 
added to which, it seems to he certain, that none of 
these temples, &c., could have heen in existence ; for 
the Romans had, for some time, heeri alive to the 
benefits of works of art ; especially paintings, sculp- 
ture, and architecture. His sole object, in going 
thither, was to plunder the Pahnyrene merchants, who 
were supposed to have acquired considerable wealth, 
by selling the commodities of India and Arabia. 

Added to all this, Strabo, the best and most accu- 
rate geographer of ancient times, does not once speak 
of its name. The first description of this now cele- 
brated place is by Pliny ; and it runs thus : " Pal- 
myra is remarkable for situation, a rich soil, and 
pleasant streams. It is surrounded on all sides by a 
vast sandy desert, which totally separates it from the 
rest of the world, and has preserved its independence 
between the two great empires of Rome and Parthia, 
whose first care, when at war, is to engage it in their 
interest. It is distant from Seleucia three hundred 
and thirty-seven miles ; from the Mediterranean two 
hundred and three ; and from Damascus one hun- 
dred and seventy-six." 

These distances are not quite accurate, being too 
great. Palmyra is also mentioned by Ptolemy, who 
makes it the capital of sixteen cities in Syria Palmy- 
rena. Trajan and Hadrian made expeditions into the 
East, and must have passed through this city, or near 
it. Nothing, however, is said of it. Had the tem- 
ples been there at that time, Hadrian, who was so 
great a patron of the elegant arts, would, there can 
be no doubt, have valued them. Some, indeed, insist 
that he repaired the city; and that it was thence 
called Hadrianopolis. 

The Palmyrenes submitted to that emperor about 
the year 130. Hadrian, then, making a tour through 



Syria into Egypt, delighted with the situation and 
native strength of the place, is said to have deter- 
mined on furnishing it with various splendid edifices 
and ornaments ; and it is probable, that he then con- 
ferred upon it the privileges of " Colonia Juris 
Italici," which, as we learn from Ulpian, it actually 
enjoyed, and the inhabitants were thence induced by 
gratitude to call themselves " Hadrianopolitae." It 
is supposed that many of its marble pillars, particn - 
larly those of the long porticoes, were the gift of this 
emperor. It must, nevertheless, be borne in mind, 
that all this is little better than conjecture. Mr. 
Halifax, however, says, " that as the most ancient in- 
scription, he met with at Palmyra, was dated the three 
hundred and fourteenth year from the death of Alex- 
ander, that is, ten years before Christ, and another, 
dated between twenty and thirty years before Hadrian, 
consequently before the Romans got footing there, he 
concluded, that the sumptuous structures he saw 
there were not raised by the Romans." 

From an inscription on the shaft of a column in 
the long portico, where all the inscriptions seem to 
have been under statues, it appears that, in the reign 
of Alexander Severus, they joined that emperor in 
his expedition against the Persians. 

From this time to the reign of Gallienus, no men- 
tion is made of this city : but then it became so con- 
spicuous, that its history will be a subject of interest 
to all succeeding times. 

The following is an abstract of the history of this 
period, presented to us in the pages of Gibbon, Mr. 
Wood, and other writers. A place possessed of 
such singular advantages, and situated at a con- 
venient distance from the gulf of Persia, and the 
Mediterranean, was soon frequented by the caravans, 
which conveyed to the nations of Europe a consider- 
able part of the rich commodities of India. Palmyra 


insensibly increased into an opulent and independent 
city ; and, connecting the Roman and Parthian 
empire by the mutual benefits of commerce, was 
suffered to observe an humble neutrality; till at length, 
after the victories of Trajan, the little republic sank 
into the bosom of Rome, and flourished more than 
one hundred and fifty years in the subordinate yet 
honourable rank of a colony ; and it is during this 
period of peace, Mr. Gibbon is disposed to believe, 
that the wealthy Palmyrians constructed those 
temples, palaces and porticoes of Grecian architecture, 
the ruins of which in modern times have excited so 
much admiration and wonder. 

The Roman affairs in the East had been for some 
time in a very deplorable condition, when Odenatus, 
a Palmyrenc, but of what family or rank originally 
in the state is not agreed *, made so judicious a use 
of his situation between the two rival powers of 
Rome and Persia, as to succeed in getting the balance 
of power into his hands. It appears, that he declared 
in favour of different interests, as alterations of affairs 
rendered necessary. At length he joined the shattered 
remains of the Roman army in Syria, routed Sapor, 
the Persian king, and advanced as far as Ctesiphon, 
the capital of his empire. He returned from this 
expedition in great glory ; and hence Gallienus, 
emperor of Rome, was induced to declare him 
Augustus and co-partner of his empire. 

This elevation, which he enjoyed jointly with his 
celebrated consort, Zenobia, appeared to reflect anew 
splendour on their country, and Palmyra for a while 
stood upon an equality with Rome. The competition, 

* He was of mean parentage, according to Orosius. Zonaras 
tails him "a man of Palmyra ;" and Agathias speaks of him as a 
person entirely unknown, till he made his name illustrious by his 
actions. Sex tusRufus, however, calls him by an epithet implying 
that he was a senator. 



however, was fatal ; and ages of prosperity were 
sacrificed to a moment of glory. 

The last public action of Odenatus was his re- 
lieving Asia from the Goths, who had over-run 
several of its provinces, committing great ravages ; 
but retired upon his approach : in pursuing them, how- 
ever, Odenatus was assassinated by an officer of his own 
guard, named Meeonius, who was also his kinsman ; 
and who, having taken the son off also, became for a 
short time sovereign. He, too, shared the fate of 
those he had betrayed, and Zenobia became sovereign 
queen in his stead. 

All that is known of Zenobia's extraction is, that 
she claimed a descent from the Ptolemies of Egypt * ; 
and that she boasted of having Cleopatra for an ances- 
tress. She was a woman of very great beauty t ; and 
of very extraordinary enterprise. We cannot enter 
into her history so fully as we could wish. She 
conquered Syria and Mesopotamia; she subdued 
Egypt ; and added the greater part of Asia Minor to 
her dominions. Thus a small territory in the desert, 
under the government of a woman, made the great 
kingdoms of the Ptolemies and the Seleucidas part of 
the dominions of a single city, whose name, we look 
in vain for in their history ; and Zenobia, lately con- 
fined to the barren plain of Palmyra, ruled from the 

* Though history nowhere gives the first name of Zenobia, we 
learn from coins, that it was Septiinia. 

t She is thus described : Her complexion was a dark brown ; 
she had black sparkling eye*, of uncommon fire ; her countenance 
was divinely sprightly ; and her person graceful and genteel beyond 
imagination ; her teeth were white as pearls, and her voice clear and 
strong. If we add to this an uncommon strength, and consider her 
excessive military fatigpes ; for she used no carnage, generally rode, 
and often marched on foot three or four miles with her army ; and 
if we, at the same time, suppose her haranguing her troops, which 
she used to do in her helmet, and often with her arms bare, it will 
give us an idea of that severe character of masculine beauty, which 
puts one more in mind of Minerva than of Venus. 


south of Egypt to the Bosphorus and the Black 

At length Aurelian, the Roman emperor, entered 
the field against her ; and the loss of two great battles, 
the former near Antioch, the-lattcr at Emesa, reduced 
her to the necessity of taking shelter within the walls 
of her own capital. Aurelian besieged her there ; 
but the enterprise was exceedingly difficult. " The 
Roman people," said Aurelian, " speak with con- 
tempt of the war, which I am waging against a 
woman. They are ignorant both of the character 
and power of Zenobia. It is impossible to enumerate 
her warlike preparations, of stones, of arrows, and of 
every species of missile weapons. Every part of the 
walls is provided with two or three balistae *, and 
artificial fires are thrown from her military engines. 
The fear of punishment has armed her with a desperate 
courage. Yet I still trust to the protecting deities 
of Rome, who have hitherto been favourable to all 
my undertakings." 

In another letter he writes to the senate in the 
following terms : " I hear, Conscript Fathers, that it 
hath been urged against me, that I have not accom- 
plished a manly task, in not triumphing over Zenobia. 
But my very blamers themselves would not know how 
to praise me enough, if they knew that woman ; her 
firmness of purpose ; the dignity she preserves to- 
wards her army ; her munificence when circumstances 
require it ; her severity, when to be severe is to be 
just. I may say, that the victory of Odenatus over 
the Persians, and his putting Sapor to flight, and his 
reaching Ctesiphon, were due to her. I can assert 
that such was the dread entertained of this woman 
among the nations of the East and of Egypt, that she 

* There are several meanings to this word : Balista implying 
a cross-bow, a sling, or an engine to shoot darts or stones. 


kept in check the Arabians, the Saracens, and the 
Armenians ; nor would I have preserved her life, if 
I had not thought she would much benefit the Roman 
state." This was written after her defeat. 

Tired of making unsuccessful attempts, Aurelian 
determined to try the effects of negociation, and 
accordingly wrote to Zenobia. The style he adopted, 
however, rather commanded terms than proposed 
them : 

" Aurelian, emperor of the Roman world, to 
Zenobia, and the others united together in hostile 

" You ought to do that of your own accord, which 
is commanded by my letters. I charge you to sur- 
render, on your lives being spared ; and you, Zenobia, 
may pass your life in some spot where I shall place 
you, in pursuance of the distinguished sentence of 
the senate ; your gems, silver, gold, silk, horses, and 
camels, being given up to the Roman treasury. The 
laws and institutions of the Palmyrenes shall be 

To this letter Zenobia returned the following 
answer : 

" Zenobia, Queen of the East, to the Roman Em- 
peror, Aurelian. 

" Never was such an unreasonable demand pro- 
posed, or such rigorous terms offered, by any but 
yourself! Remember, Aurelian, that in war, what- 
ever is done should be done by valour. You impe- 
riously command me to surrender: but can you 
forget, that Cleopatra chose rather to die with the 
title of queen, than to live in any inferior dignity ? 
We expect succours from Persia ; the Saracens are 
arming in our cause ; even the Syrian banditti have 
already defeated your army. Judge what you are to 
expect from the junction of these forces. You shall 
be compelled to abate that pride with which, as if 


you were absolute lord of the universe, you command 
me to become your captive." 

When Aurelian read this letter, says Vopiscus, he 
blushed ; not so much with shame, as with indig- 

Her answer inflamed the emperor to the highest 
pitch. He pressed the siege, therefore, with re- 
doubled vigour ; and the city was reduced to such 
extremities, that her council advised her to send for 
succour to the Persians. Thus counselled, she deter- 
mined on going to the king of Persia in person. She 
set out, therefore, on the fleetest of her dromedaries, 
and had already reached the banks of the Euphrates 
(about sixty miles from Palmyra), when she was 
overtaken by Aurelian's light horse, and brought 
back, captive, to the feet of Aurelian. "We are told, 
that the sight of the queen gave the Roman emperor 
infinite pleasure ; but that his ambition suffered some 
humiliation, when he considered that posterity would 
always look upon this only as the conquest of a 
woman*. The city surrendered soon after, and was 
treated with great lenity. 

Aurelian now went to Emesa ; on arriving at 
which place, he questioned the queen as to her mo- 
tives, and the persons who had advised her to make 
so obstinate a defence. He sternly asked her, how 
she had presumed to rise in arms against the empe- 
rors of Rome ? " Because," answered Zenobia, " I 
disdained to consider as Roman emperors an Aureolus 
or a Gallienus. You alone I acknowledge as my 
conqueror and my sovereign ; and this I do, because 
you know how to conquer." 

* " Her manly understanding," says Gibbon, " was strengthened 
and adorned by study. She was not ignorant of the Latin tonguei 
but possessed, in equal perfection, the Greek, the Syriac, and the 
Egyptian languages. She had drawn up, for her own use, an 
epitome of oriental history, and familiarly compared the beauties 
of Homer and Plato, under the tuition of the sublime Longinus." 


When, however, the soldiers demanded her imme- 
diate execution, her fortitude forsook her. She con- 
fessed by whose counsel she had been guided. She 
purchased a dishonourable life at the expense of 
her friends. They were immediately led to execu- 
tion; herself was reserved to grace the conqueror's 
triumph. , 

Among those of her friends, whose names she had 
betrayed, was the illustrious Longinus, author of 
that noble Treatise on the Sublime, which is so well 
known and appreciated by every scholar. He it was, 
she confessed, who had drawn up the letter. " Her 
councillors," she said, " were to be blamed, and not 
herself. What could a weak, short-sighted, woman 
do ? especially when beset by artful and ambitious 
men, who made her subservient to all their schemes ? 
She never had aimed at empire, had they not placed 
it before her eyes in all its allurements. The letter 
which affronted Aurelian was not her own Lon- 
ginus wrote it ; the insolence was his." 

When Aurelian heard this, he directed all his fury 
against the unfortunate Longinus. That illustrious 
person was immediately led to execution. Far from 
lamenting his fate, however, he condoled with his 
friends, pitied Zenobia, and expressed his joy ; look- 
ing upon death as a blessing, since it would rescue 
his body from slavery, and give his soul to that free- 
dom he the most desired. " This world," said he, 
with his expiring breath, " is nothing but a prison ; 
happy, therefore, is he who gets soonest out of it, and 
gains his liberty." 

A modern poet has very finely alluded to this in 
his poem on Palmyra. 

On the hushed plain, where sullen horror broods, 
And darkest frown the Syrian solitudes ; 
Where morn's soft steps no balmy fragrance leave, 
And parched and dewless is the couch of eve ; 


Thy form, pale city of the waste, appears 

Like some faint vision of departed years ; 

In massy clusters still a giant train, 

Tliy sculptured fabrics whiten on the plain. 

Still stretch thy columned vistas far away, 

The shadowed dimness of their long array. 

But where the stirring crowd, the voice of strife, 

The glow of action and the thiill of life? 

Hear the loud crash of yon huge fragments fall, 

The pealing answer of each desert hall ; 

The night-bird shrieking frow her secret cell, 

The hollow winds, the tale of ruin tell. 

See, fondly lingering, Mithra's parting rays 

Gild the proud towers, once vocal with his praise ; 

But the cold altars clasping weeds entwine, 

And Moslems worship at the godless shrine. 

Yet here slow pausing memory loves to pour 

Her magic influence o'er this pensive hour : 

And yet, as yon recesses deep prolong 

The echoed sweetness of the Arab song, 

Recalls that scene, when wisdom's sceptred child, 

First broke the stillness of the lonely wild. 

From air, from ocean, from earth's utmost clime, 

The summoned genii heard the muttered rhyme ; 

The tasking spell their airy hands obeyed, 

And Tadmor glittered in the palmy shade. 

So to her feet the tide of ages brings 

The wealth of nations and the pomp of kings, 

And for her warrior queen, from Parthia's plain 

To the dark Ethiop, spreads her ample reign : 

Vain boast, ev'n she who winds the field along, 

Waked fiercer frenzy in the patriot throng ; 

And sternly beauteous in the meteor's light, 

Shot through the tempest of Emesas fight. 

While trembling captives round the victor wait, 

Hang on his eye, and catch the word of fate, 

Zenobia's self must quail beneath his nod, 

A kneeling suppliant to the mimic god. 

But one there stood amid that abject throng, 

In truth triumphant, and in virtue strong ; 

Beamed on his brow the soul which, undismayed. 

Smiled at the rod, and scorned the uplifted blade. 

O'er thee, Palmyra, darkness seems to lower 

The boding terrors of that fearful hour ; 

Far from thy glade indignant freedom fled, 

And hope too withered as Longinus bled *. 

* Anon. 


Palmyra, having become subject to a foreign yoke, 
bore the burthen with impatience. The inhabitants 
cut off the Roman garrison. On which Aurelian 
instantly returned, took the town, destroyed it, and 
put to death most of its population, without distinc- 
tion of age or sex. The slaughter was so extensive, 
that none were left to plough the adjacent lands. 

Aurelian soon repented of his severity. He wrote 
to Bassus : " You must now sheathe the sword ; 
the Palmyrenes have been sufficiently slaughtered. 
We have not spared women ; we have slain children ; 
we have strangled old men; we have destroyed the 
husbandmen. To whom, then, shall we leave the 
land ? To whom shall we leave the city ? We 
must spare those who remain ; for we think, that the 
few there are now existing, will take warning from 
the punishment of the many who have been de- 

The emperor then goes on to desire his 'lieutenant 
to rebuild the Temple of the Sun as magnificently as 
it had been in times past ; to expend 300 pounds 
weight of gold, which he had found in the coffers of 
Zeuobia, beside 1800 pounds weight of silver, which 
was raised from the sale of the people's goods ; 
together with the crown jewels, all which he ordered 
to be sold, to make money to beautify the temple ; 
while he himself promises to write to the Senate, to 
send a priest from Home to dedicate it. But, in 
the language of Gibbon, it is easier to destroy than 
it is to restore. 

Zenobia was now to be led to the conqueror's 
triumph. This triumph was celebrated with extra- 
ordinary magnificence. It was opened by twenty 
elephants, four royal tigers, and above two hundred 
of the most curious animals from every climate of the 
known world. Ambassadors from ^Ethiopia, Arabia, 
Persia, Bactriana, India, and China, attended the 


triumph ; and a long train of captives, Goths, 
Vandals, Sarmatians, Alemanni, Franks, Gauls, 
Syrians, and Egyptians. Amongst these, Zenobia. 
She was confined in fetters of gold; a slave supported 
the gold chain which ' encircled her neck, and she 
almost fainted under the weight of her jewels. She 
did not ride, but walk ! preceded by the chariot in 
which she had once indulged the vain hope of en- 
tering Rome as empress*. 

The Palmyrenes t, says Zosimus, had several 
declarations from the gods, which portended the over- 
throw of their empire ; and, among others, having 
consulted the temple of Apollo, at Seleucia in Cilicia, 
to know if they should ever obtain the empire of the 
East, they got the following unceremonious answer : 

Avoid my temple, cursed, treacherous nation ! 
You even put th.e gods themselves in passion. 

The religion of the Palmyrenes, it is e-wident, was 
pagan ; their government, for the most part, repub- 
lican ; but their laws are entirely lost ; nor can any- 
thing be known in respect to their polity, but what 
may be gathered from the inscriptions. Their chief 
deity was the Sun. 

In regard to their knowledge of art, they have 
left the finest specimens in the ruins that now re- 
main ; and, doubtless, Longinus' work on the Su- 
blime was written within its walls. " From these 

* " The emperor afterwards presented Zenobia with an elegant 
villa at Tibur, or Tivoli, about twenty miles from the capital ; 
where, in happy tranquillity, she fed the greatness of her soul with 
the noble images of Homer, and the exalted precepts of Plato ; sup- 
ported the adversity of her fortunes with fortitude and resignation ; 
and learned that the anxieties, attendant on ambition, are happily 
exchanged for the enjoyments of ease, and the comforts of philo- 
sophy. The Syrian queen sank into a Roman matron ; her 
daughters married into noble families ; and her race was not yet 
extinct in the fifth century." GIBBON. 
j- Addison. 


hints we may see," says Mr. Wood, " that this 
people copied after great models in their man- 
ners, their vices, and their virtues. Their funeral 
customs were from Egypt, their luxury was Persian, 
and their letters and arts were from the Greeks. 
Their situation in the midst of these three great 
nations makes it reasonable to suppose, that they 
adopted most of their customs and manners. But 
to say more on that head from such scanty materials, 
would be to indulge too much in mere conjecture, 
which seems lather the privilege of the reader than 
of the writer." 

Some years after this, we find Diocletian erecting 
several buildings here ; but what they were is not 
stated. Justinian, also, repaired Palmyra, which, 
according to Procopius, had been almost entirely 
deserted. These repairs, however, are supposed to have 
reference rather to strength than to ornament ; and 
this is the -last mention of Palmyra in Roman history. 

The various fortunes of Palmyra, to and from 
the time of Mahomet's appearance, are scarcely 
known, except that it was considered as a place of 
great strength ; and that in the twelfth century, 
A. D.I 171, there were, according to Benjamin of 
Tudela, who visited the spot in that year, two thou- 
sand Jews in it. 

Palmyra, according to the Arabs, once occupied an 
area nearly ten miles in circumference, and is sup- 
posed to have been reduced to its present confined 
and ruined state by the quantities of sand* driven on 
it by whirlwinds. 

The walls of the city were flanked by square towers. 
They were three miles in circumference, and it is 

* Yet Bruce says : " Palmyra is nowhere covered with sand 
or rubbish as in other ruins. The desert that surrounds it is 
rather gravel than sand, and is, therefore, not easily moved. Her 
mountains are perfectly bare, and produce nothing." 


imagined that they included the great temple. What 
remains there are of the wall, do not look, according 
to Mr. Wood, unlike the work of Justinian ; and 
may be part of the repairs mentioned by Procopius ; 
and the highest antiquity anything else can claim is 
the time of the Mamelukes. 


(From Sellerus). 

ANNO PERS. Palmyra, built by Solomon after he had finished 

Jul. 3720. the temple of Jerusalem. 

Mund. 3010- 

P. J. 4125. Destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, before lie kid 

M. 3415. siege to Jerusalem. 

P. J. 4673. Pillaged by Mark Antony. 
M. 3963. 
V. C. Varr. 
713, ante 
Christ 41. 

Anno Christi Hadrian, Imp. 6, went into the East, and is snp- 

122. posed to have rebuilt Palmyra ; in consequence 

of which it assumed the name of Hadrianople. 

At this period Malenthon was a second time 

secretary of the city. 

264. Odenathus, having roused the Persians, is de- 
clared Augustus by Gallienus. 

267. Odenathus, with his son Herodianus, slain by 
Mseonius, who assumes the sovereignty of 
Palmyra ; but is himself slain a few days 
after. Then Zenobia assumes the empire iu 
her own name, and those of her sons. 

Circa 216. Palmyra made a Roman colony by Caracalla, in 
his expedition into Parthia. 

227. The republic assisted Alexander Severus against 
Artaxerxes, king of Persia ; Zenobia being 
their general. 

24. The republic assisted Gordian against the Per- 

260. Valerian taken prisoner by Sapor, king of 


A. D. 2GJ. Zenobia routed Gallienus's general, Hcrodwnns. 

Vabellathns assumes the empire. 
2G3. Claudius chosen emperor of Rome. 
270. Zenobia conquers Egypt by her general Zabdas. 

272. Palmyra taken by Aurelian. 

273. Zenobia follows in the triumph of Aurelian at 


293. Hierocles, governor of Palmyra, under Dioclesian. 
52^. Justinian repairs and fortifies Palmyra. 
63. Palmyra subjected by the Mahometan*; Jabals, 

the son of Al Hum, being then lord of Tadmor, 

and king of Gassan. 
659. The battle of Tadmor, between Dalracus and 

746. Solyman, the pseudo-caliph., beaten by Merwari, 

fled to Tadmor. 
1172. Palmyra visited by Benjamin of Tudela. 

1678- Palmyra visited by some English merchants, 
attended by forty servants and touleteers, who 
first informed Europe, that such splendid ruins 
as those of Tadmor were in existence. At this 
time Melham was Emir. 
1G91. The English merchants visit Palmyra a second 

time ; the Emir being Hassine. 
1693. DAr, Emir of Palmyra*. 

We shall now give place to accounts in respect to 
the first impressions, made by these ruins on the 
minds of different travellers. 

Mr. Halifax sayst, " the city itself appears to-have 
been of a large extent by the space now taken up by 
the ruins;" but that there are no footsteps of any Avails 
remaining, nor is it possible to judge of the ancient 
figure of the place. The present inhabitants, as they are 
poor, miserable, dirty people, so they have shut them- 
selves up, to the number of about thirty or forty fami- 

* This Emir lived upon rapine ; being followed by a considerable 
number of men, who not only hated labour, but disliked equally to 
live under any settled government. 

t Philosophical Transactions. 


lies, in little huts made of dirt, within the walls 
of a spacious court, which inclosed a most mag- 
nificent heathen temple : thereinto also Mr. Hali- 
fax's party entered, the whole village being ga- 
thered together at the door ; whether to stand upon 
their defence in case the strangers proved enemies 
(for some of them had guns in their hands), or out 
of mere curiosity to gaze, he knew not. However the 
guide, who was an Arab whom Assyne their king 
had sent to conduct them through the village, being 
a man known among them, they had an easy ad- 
mittance ; and, with a great many welcomes in their 
language, were led to the sheik's house, with whom 
they took up their abode. " And to mention here 
what the place at first view represented, certainly 
the world itself coiild not afford the like mixture of 
remains of greatest state and magnificence, together 
with the extremity of poverty and wretchedness." 
The nearest parallel Mr. Halifax could think of, was 
that of the temple of Baal, destroyed by Jehu, and 
converted into a draught -house. 

" "We had scarce passed the sepulchres," says Mr. 
"Wood, " when the hills opening discovered to us all 
at once the greatest quantity of ruins we had ever seen, 
all of white marble ; and beyond them, towards the 
Euphrates, a flat waste as far as the eye could reach, 
without any object that showed either life or motion." 

When Mr. Wood's party arrived, they were con- 
ducted to one of the huts, of which there were about 
thirty, in the court of the great temple. The inha- 
bitants of both sexes were well-shaped, and the 
women, though very swarthy, had good features. 
They were veiled ; but did not so scrupulously con- 
ceal their faces as the Eastern women generally do. 
They paint the ends of their fingers red, their lips 
blue, and their eyebrows and eyelashes black *. 

* This was the custom also inthedavsofEzekiel. Seech.xxiii. 40. 


They had large rings of gold or brass in their ears 
and nostrils, and appeared to be healthy and robust. 
The ruins were next visited by Mr. Bruce: " When 
we arrived at the top of the hill," says he, " there 
opened before us, the most astonishing, stupendous, 
sight, that perhaps ever appeared to mortal sight. 
The whole plain below, which was very extensive, 
was covered so thick with magnificent rnins, as the 
one seemed to touch the other, all of fine proportions, 
all of agreeable forms, all composed of white stone, 
which, at that distance, appeared like marble. At 
the end of it stood the Palace of the Sun, a building 

' O 

worthy so magnificent a scene. 

The effect on the imagination of Mr. Addison ap- 
pears to have been equally lively : " At the end of 
the sandy plain," says he, " the eye rests upon the 
lofty columns of the Temple of the Sun, encompassed 
by a dark elevated mass of ruined buildings ; and 
beyond, all around, and right and left towards the 
Euphrates, as far as the eye can reach, extends 
the vast level naked flat of the great desert, over 
which the eye runs in every direction, piercing the 
boundless horizon, without discovering a human 
being or a trace of man. Naked, solitary, unlimited 
space extends around, where man never breathes 
under the shade, or rests his limbs under the cover of 
a dwelling. A deep blue tint spreads along its sur- 
face, here and there shaded with a cast of brown ; the 
distant outline of the horizon is clear and sharply 
defined ; not an eminence rises to break the mono- 
tonous flat, and along the edge extends a large 
district covered with salt, distinguished from the rest 
by its peculiar colour. 

"There is something grand and awe-inspiring in its 
boundless immensity. Like the first view of the ocean, 
it inspires emotions, never before experienced, un- 
earthly in appearance, and out of character with the 


general fair face of nature. The eye shrinks from con- 
templating the empty, cheerless solitude, and we 
turn away in quest of some object to remove the 
scenes of utter loneliness, that its gloomy aspect is 
calculated to inspire." 

From these pages we turn with satisfaction to 
those of an American : " I have stood before the 
Parthenon, and have almost worshipped that divine 
achievement of the immortal Phidias. I have been 
at Milan, at Ephesus, at Alexandria, at Antioch ; 
but in none of these renowned cities I have beheld 
any thing, that I can allow to approach in united 
extent, grandeur, and most consummate beauty, this 
almost more than work of man. On each side of 
this, the central point, there rose upward slender 
pyramids pointed obelisks domes of the most grace- 
ful proportions, columns, arches, and lofty towers, 
for number and for form, beyond my power to des- 
cribe. These buildings, as well as the walls of the 
city, being all either of white marble, or of some 
stone as white, and being everywhere in their whole 
extent interspersed, as I have already said, with 
multitudes of overshadowing palm trees, perfectly 
filled and satisfied my sense of beauty, and made me 
feel, for the moment, as if in such a scene I should 
love to dwell, and there end my days." 

Burckhardt speaks thus of Palmyra and Balbec : 
" Having seen the ruins of Tadmor, a comparison 
between these two renowned remains of antiquity 
naturally offered itself to my mind. The temple 
of the Sun at Tadmor, is upon a grander scale 
than that of Balbec, but it is choked with Arab 
houses, which admit only a view of the building in 
detail. The architecture of Balbec is richer than 
that of Tadmor." 

In respect to the rains, we must content ourselves 
with giving a very general account, as it would be 



impossible to render a minute description intelligible 
without the aid of plates.* Our account will be a 
compilation from those given by Mr. Halifax, Mr. 
Wood, Mr. Bruce, Mr. Addison, and other writers, 
who have been there. 

The entire number of distinct buildings, which 
may still be traced, are from forty to fifty. To the 
northward of the valley of the tombs, on the highest 
eminence in the immediate vicinity, towers the ruined 
Turkish or Saracenic castle. It is seated on the 
very summit of the mountain, and surrounded by a 
deep ditch, cut out of the solid rock. It is said by 
the Arabs to have been built by Man Ogle, a prince 
of the Druses ; its deserted chambers and passages 
partake of the universal solitude and silence; there 
is not a living thing about it; it seeins to be deserted 
even by the bats. 

From this castle is seen an extensive view round 
about : you see Tadmor under you, inclosed on three 
sides with long ridges of mountains, which open 
towards the east gradually, to the distance of about 
an hour's riding ; but to the east stretches a vast plain 
beyond the reach of the eye. In this plain you see 
a large valley of salt, lying about an hour's distance 
from the cityt. 

* In Mr. Wood's well-known, though exceedingly scarce work? 
the ruins are represented in fifty-seven copper-plates, sixteen inches 
by twelve inches, printed on imperial paper ; they are finely ex- 
ecuted, the drawing is correct and masterly, and the engraving highly 
finished. The Palmyrene and Greek inscriptions on the funeral 
monuments, and other buildings, are copied; and besides picturesque 
views of the ruins, from several points of sight, the plans are 
generally laid down, and the several parts of the columns, doors, 
windows, pediments, ceilings and bas-reliefs, are delineated, with 
a scale by which they may be measured and compared. 

t " In this plain," says Mr. Halifax, " you see a large valley of 
salt, affording great quantities thereof, and lying about an hour's 
distance from the city : and this, more probably, is the valley of 
salt, mentioned in 2 Sam. 813, where David smote the Syrians, 


It is imagined by the Persians that this castle, as 
well as the edifices at Balbec, were built by genii, 
for the purposes of hiding in their subterranean 
caverns immense treasures, which still remain there*. 
" All these things," said one of the Arabs to Mr. 
Wood, " were done by Solyman ebn Doud, (Solo- 
mon, the son of David,) by the assistance of spirits." 

But of all the monuments of art and magnificence, 
the most considerable is the Temple of the Sun. 

This temple, says Bruce, is very much ruined ; of its 
peristyle there only remains * a few columns entire, 
Corinthian, fluted and very elegant, though appa- 
rently of slenderer proportions than ten diameters. 
Their capitals are quite destroyed. The ornament of 
the outer gate are, some of them, of great beauty, both 
as to execution and design. 

Within the court are the remains of two rows of 
very noble marble pillars, thirty-seven feet high. 
The temple was encompassed with another row of 
pillars, fifty feet high ; but the temple itself was only 
thirty-three yards in length, and thirteen or fourteen 
in breadth. This is now converted into a mosque, 
and ornamented after the Turkish manner. 

North of this place is an OBELISK, consisting of 
seven large stones, besides its capital, and the wreathed 
work above it, about fifty feet high, and just above the 
pedestal twelve in circumference. Upon this was 
probably a statue, which the Turks have des- 

On the west side is a most magnificent arch, on 

and slew one hundred and eighty thousand men ; than another, which 
lies but four hours from Aleppo, and has sometimes passed for it." 
* " Istakar," says Abulfeda, quoted by Sir William Ouseley, 
"is one of the most ancient cities in Persia, and was formerly the 
royal residence : it contains vestiges of buildings so stupendous, 
that, like Tadmor, and Balbec, they are said to be the work of 
supernatural beings." 



the remains of which are some vines and clusters of 
grapes, carved in the boldest imitation of nature that 
can be conceived. 

Just over the door are discerned a pair of wings, 
which extend its whole breadth ; the body to which 
they belong is totally destroyed, and it cannot now 
certainly be known, whether it was that of an eagle 
or of a cherub, several representations of both being 
visible on other fragments of the building. 

The north end 'of the building is adorned with a 
curious fret -work and bas-relief; and in the middle 
there is a dome or cupola, about ten feet in diameter, 
which appears to have been either hewn out of the 
rock, or moulded of some composition, which, by 
time, is grown equally hard. 

At about the distance of a mile from the OBELISK 
are two others, besides the fragment of a third ; hence 
it has been reasonably suggested, that they were 
a continued row. 

Every spot of ground intervening between the 
walls and columns, is laid out in plantations of corn 
and olives, inclosed by mud walls. 

In the direction of the mountains lie fragments of 
stone, here and there columns stand erect, and clumps 
of broken pillars are met with at intervals. All this 
space seems to have been covered with small temples 
and ornamental buildings, approached by colonnades. 

Next to the temple, the most remarkable structure 
is the long portico, which commences about two 
thousand two hundred feet to the north-west of the 
temple, and extends for nearly four thousand feet 
further in the same direction. " It is a remark 
worthy the observation of historians," says Volncy, 
" that the front of the portico has twelve pillars like 
that at Balbec ; but what artists will esteem still 
more curious is. that these two fronts resemble the 
gallery of the house built by Perrault, long before the 


existence of the drawing which made us acquainted 
with them. The only difference is, that the columns 
of the Louvre are double, whereas those of Palmyra 
are detached." 

About one hundred paces from the middle obelisk, 
straight forward, is a magnificent entry to a piazza, 
which is forty feet broad and more than half a mile 
in length, inclosed Avith two rows of marble pillars, 
twenty-six feet high, and eight or nine feet in com- 
pass. Of these there still remain one hundred and 
twenty-nine ; and, by a moderate computation, 
there could not, originally, have been less than five 
hundred and sixty. The upper end of the piazza 
was shut in by a row of pillars, standing somewhat 
closer than those on each side. 

A little to the left are the ruins of a stately build- 
ing, which appears to have been a banqueting-house. 
It is built of better marble, and is finished with 
greater elegance, than the piazza. The pillars which 
supported it were one entire stone, which is so strong 
that one of them, which has fallen down, has received 
no injury. It measures twenty-two feet in length, 
and in compass eight feet nine inches. 

In the west side of the piazza are several apertures 
for gates, into the court of the palace. Each of these 
is adorned with four porphyry pillars ; not stand- 
ing in a line with those of the wall, but placed by 
couples in the front of the gate facing the palace, on 
each side. Two of these only remain, and but one 
standing in its place. These are thirty feet long, and 
nine in circumference. 

" We sometimes find a palace," says Volney, " of 
which nothing remains but the courts and walls ; 
sometimes a temple, whose peristyle is half thrown 
down ; and now a portico, a gallery, or a triumphant 
arch. Here stand groups of columns, whose sym- 
metry is destroyed by the fall of many of them ; 


these we see ranged in rows of such length, that, 
similar to rows of trees, they deceive the sight, and 
assume the appearance of continued walls. On which 
side soever we look, the earth is strewed with vast 
stones, half buried, with broken entablatures, da- 
maged capitals, mutilated friezes, disfigured reliefs, 
effaced sculptures, violated tombs, and altars defiled 
with mud." 

" In their ruined courts," says another traveller, 
" and amid the crumbling walls of their cottages, 
may be seen, here and there, portions of tlie ancient 
pavement of the area ; while all around the inclosure 
extend groups of columns, with pedestals for statues, 
and walls ornamented with handsome architectural 
decorations, the ruins of the majestic portico and 
double colonnade, which once inclosed the whole of 
the vast area. Portions of a frieze, or the fragments 
of a cornice, upon whose decoration was expended 
the labour of years, are now used by the poor vil~ 
lagers to bake their bread upon, or are hollowed out 
as hand-mills, in which to grind their corn." 

Among the walls and rubbish are a vast number 
of lizards and serpents ; and that circumstance led to 
the celebrated poetic picture painted by Darwin. 

Lo ! where PALMYRA, 'mid her wasted plains, 

Her shattered aqueducts, and prostrate fanes, 

As the bright orb of breezy midnight pours 

Long threads of silver through her gaping towers, 

O'er mouldering tombs, and tottering columns gleams, 

And frosts her deserts with diffusive beams, 

Sad o'er the mighty wreck in silence bends, 

Lifts her wet eyes, her tremulous hands extends. 

If from lone cliffs a bursting rill expands 

Its transient course, and sinks into the sands ; 

O'er the moist rock the fell hyena prowls, 

The serpent hisses, and the panther growls ; 

On quivering wings the famished vulture screams, 

Dips his dry beak, and sweeps the gushing streams. 

With foaming jaws beneath, and sanguine tongue, 

Laps the lean wolf, and pants, and runs along ; 


Stem stalks the lion, on the rustling brinks 
Hears the dread snake, and trembles as he drinks. 
Quick darts the scaly monster o'er the plain, 
Fold after fold his undulating train ; 
And, bending o'er the lake his crested brow, 
Starts at the crocodile that gapes below. DAUWIK. 

On the eastern side of the area of the Temple of the 
Sun, there is a curious doorway of one solid block of 
stone, which commands a fine view of the desert. 
" As we looked out of this narrow gateway," says 
Mr. Addison, " we fancied, that Zenobia herself 
might have often stood at the same spot, anxiously 
surveying the operations of Aurelian and his block- 
ading army. Froni hence the eye wanders over the 
level waste, across which the unfortunate queen fled 
on her swift dromedary to the Euphrates ; and here, 
the morning after her departure, doubtless congre- 
gated her anxious friends, to see if she was pursued 
in her flight ; and from hence she was probably first 
descried, being brought back a captive and a pri- 
soner in the hands of the Roman horsemen." 

On the east side of the Piazza, stands a great num- 
ber of marble pillars : some perfect, but the greater 
part mutilated. In one place eleven are ranged toge- 
ther in a square ; the space, which they inclose, is 
paved with broad flat stones ; but there are no re- 
mains of a rdof. 

At a little distance are the remains of a small tem- 
ple, which is also without a roof ; and the walls are 
much defaced; but from the door is enjoyed the 
magnificent coup-d'osil of all the ruins, and of the 
vast desert beyond. Before the entry, which looks 
to the south, is a piazza, supported by six pillars, 
two on each side of the door, and one at each end. 
The pedestals of those in front have been filled with 
inscriptions in the Greek and Palmyrene languages, 
which are become totally illegible. 

Among these ruins there are many SEPULCHRES. 


They are ranged on each side of a hollow way, 
towards the north part of the city, and extend more 
than a mile. They are all square towers, four or 
five stories high. But though they are alike in form, 
they differ greatly in magnificence. The outside 
is of common stone ; but the floors and partitions of 
each story are marble. There is a walk across the 
whole building, just in the middle ; and the space on 
each hand is subdivided into six partitions by thick 
walls. The space between the partitions is wide 
enough to receive the largest corpse j and in these 
niches there are six or seven piled one upon another. 

" As great a curiosity as any," says Mr. Halifax, 
" were these sepulchres, being square towers four or 
five stories high, and standing on both sides of a hollow 
way, towards the north part of the city. They 
stretched out in length the space of a mile, and perhaps 
formerly might extend a great way further. At our 
first view of them, some thought them the steeples of 
ruined churches, and were in hopes we should have 
found some steps of churches here ; others took them 
to have been bastions, and part of the old fortifications, 
though there is not so much as any foundation of a 
wall to be seen. But when we came, a day or two 
after, more curiously to inquire into them, we quickly 
found their use. They were all of the same form, 
but of different splendour and greatness, according to 
the circumstances of their founders. The first we 
viewed was entirely marble, but is now wholly in 
ruins ; and we found nothing but a heap of stones, 
amongst which we found two statues ; one of a man ; 
another of a woman, cut in sitting, or rather leaning, 
posture, and the heads and part of the arms being 
broken off; but their bodies remaining pretty entire ; 
so that we had the advantage of seeing their habits, 
which appeared very noble ; but more approaching 
the European fashion, than what is now in use in the 


East, which inclined me to think they might be 
Roman. Upon broken pieces of stone, tumbled 
here and there, we found some broken inscriptions, 
but, not affording any perfect sense, they are not 
worth the transcribing." 

These are the most interesting of all the ruins. As 
you wind up a narrow valley between the mountain 
range, you have them on yo:ir right and left, topping 
the hills, or descending to the border of the valley : 
some presenting heaps of rubbish, and some half fallen, 
expose their shattered chambers, and one or two still 
exist in almost an entire state of preservation. They 
are seen from a great distance, and have a striking 
effect in this desert solitude. 

The ruins of Palmyra and Balbec are very differ- 
ent. " No comparison can be instituted between 
them," says Mr. Addison. " The ruins of Balbec 
consist merely of two magnificent temples, inclosed 
in a sort of citadel ; while here, over an immense area, 
we wander through the ruins of long porticoes leading 
up to ruined temples and unknown buildings. Now 
we see a circular colonnade sweeping round with its 
ruined gateway, at either end ; now we come to the 
prostrate walls, or ruined chambers of a temple or 
palace ; anon we explore the recesses of a bath, or the 
ruins of an aqueduct ; then we mount the solitary 
staircase, and wander through the silent chambers of 
the tombs, ornamented with busts, inscriptions, and 
niches for the coffins, stored with mouldering bones ; 
and from the summits of funereal towers, five stories 
in height, we look down upon this mysterious assem- 
blage of past magnificence ; and beyond them, upon 
the vast level surface of the desert, silent and solitary; 
stretching away like the vast ocean, till it is lost in 
the distance, far as the eye can reach. The dwelling 
of man is not visible. The vastness and immensity of 
space strikes us with a we, and the mouldering monu- 


ments of human pride, that extend around, teach us 
a sad lesson of the instability of all human great- 

Though antiquity has left nothing either in Greece 
or Italy, in any way to be compared with the 
magnificence of the ruins of Palmyra, Mr. "Wood 
observes, that there is a greater sameness in the 
architecture of Palmyra than at Rome, Athens, and 
other great cities, whose ruins evidently point out 
different ages of decay. But, except four half-columns 
in the Temple of the Sun, and two in one of the 
mausoleums, the whole architecture is Corinthian, 
richly ornamented with some very striking beauties 
and some as visible faults. 

Through the valley of the tombs may be traced 
remnants of a ruined aqueduct, which formerly con- 
ducted water to the town from, at present, an 
unknown source ; it consists of a vaulted passage 
running underground, covered with a fine hard stucco. 
In regard to the present supply, there are two rivers, 
the waters of which, when judiciously distributed, 
must have conduced greatly to the subsistence and 
comfort of the ancient inhabitants ; but these are 
now allowed to lose themselves in the sand. 

Mr. Wood says that all the inscriptions he saw 
were in Greek or Palmyrene, except one, which was 
in Latin. Many attempts have been made to explain 
the Palmyrene inscriptions. They were generally 
supposed to be Syriac. Gruter, having seen an 
inscription at Rome, gave it as his opinion that the 
characters were Arabic. Scaliger, speaking of the 
same inscription, gave the subject up in despair. 
Some have thought they were Greek, translated from 
the Palmyrene. Upon this hint M. Barthelemy 
examined the inscriptions copied into Mr. Wood's 
work, and came to the conclusion, that Syriac was 
the living language of the inhabitants of Palmyra, at 


the time those monuments were erected ; and that the 
greatest part, if not all the characters, are the same 
as those made use of in writing Hebrew at this day, 
although they have a different appearance. 

We shall now give a few specimens: "This 
splendid and durable monument, Jamblichus, the son 
of Mocimus, the son of Acaleises, the son of Malichus, 
erected for himself, his children, and his posterity, in 
the month of April, year 314." 

There is another to the same purport, erected in 
the same month, one hundred years after : " This 
monument, Elabcelus Manceus Cocchceus Malachus, 
the son of Waballathus, the son of MancEUS, the son 
of Elabtelus, built for himself and family in the month 
of April, year 414." 

Another inscription implies that " Septimius Ode- 
nathus, the most excellent senator, had erected this 
monument for himself and his posterity, to preserve 
their name for ever." 

Another contains an epitaph erected by Sorsechus, 
to his wife Martha, in the reign of Marcus Antoninus, 
A. D. 178. 

A third is of the same nature ; appropriated by 
Malchus, to himself and his children, though built 
by his ancestors. 

Besides sepulchral monuments there are others, 
erected by order of the senate and people of the com- 
monwealth of Tadmor, to the honour of those citizens 
who had deserved well of the republic. Among these 
is one in honour of Alilamenes; another in honour 
of Julius Aurelius Zenobius; another in honour 
of Jarisbolus; and others in honour of Septimius 
Orodes. The last of these was a great benefactor to 
the public and private institutions of Palmyra. He 
had been an officer in his younger days, and had 
greatly distinguished himself under his prince, Ode- 
nathus, against the Parthians ; during the year 


in which this monument was erected, he exercised 
the office of symposiarch, in the festival dedicated to 
their Patron God, Jupiter Belus. That in honour 
of Alilamenes runs thus: " The senate and the peo- 
ple have placed this in honour of Alilamenes, the 
son of Panas, the son of Mociinus, the son of Cranes, 
devoted lovers of their country, and in every respect 
deserving well of their country, and of the immor- 
tal Gods, in the year 450, and the 30th day of the 
month of April." 

There are," also, monuments erected by private 
persons to the memory of their friends. The finest 
of these contains the grateful remembrance which 
the Palmyrene merchants, trading to Vologesias*, 
retained of the great services which Julius Zobeidas 
did them in that expedition. 

Another inscription commemorates the virtues of 
a person named Malenthon, secretary to the republic 
of Palmyra, when " the God Hadrian" arrived in 
the city (A.D. 122). He is remembered for having 
contributed to the adornment of the temple of Belus, 
and for having given a largess to the public baths, of 
oil for the use, not only of the citizens, but of 

The monument erected to Jamblichus seems to 
be the oldest, and the work of Domitian the latest ; 
taking in about three hundred years between them. 
The other rich and extensive buildings were, Mr. 
Wood supposes, erected before the last of these dates, 
and probably after the first; perhaps about the time 
ELAB^ELUS built his monument. 

It is rather remarkable, that there is no monu- 
ment in memory of, nor any inscription in honour of 
Zenobia; for which Dr. Halley accounts on the 
supposition, that the Romans were so much irritated 

* A city in Persia. 


and ashamed, that they destroyed and defaced every- 
thing that might be erected in honour of her. 

The decay of Palmyra has been accounted for from 
its peculiar situation. A country without land, if 
the expression may be allowed, could only exist by 
commerce: their industry had no other channel to 
operate in; and when loss of their liberty was fol- 
lowed by that of trade, they were reduced to live 
idly on as much of their capital as had been spared 
by Aurelian. When that was spent, necessity 
compelled them to desert the town. 

Time has partially preserved the peristyles, the 
intercolumniations, and entablatures ; the elegance of 
the designs of which equal throughout the richness 
of the materials. These being, in many respects, 
the greatest and most entire, is attributed to there 
having been, for so long a time, few inhabitants to 
deface them, to a dry climate, and their distance 
from any city which might apply the materials to 
other uses. These ruins present a sad contrast with 
the hovels of the wild Arabs, now the only inha- 
bitants of a city which, in former times, emulated 
Rome. " Of all the contrasts of past magnificence 
with present meanness," says Mr. Addison, " of the 
wealth and genius of by -gone times with the poverty 
and ignorance of the present day, no more striking 
instance, perhaps, can be found than is presented in 
the present poor Arab village of Tadmor. You there 
see a few poverty-stricken inhabitants living in 
square hovels of mud mixed with chopped straw, 
roofed with earth, leaves, and dry sticks, congre- 
gated round the magnificent Temple of the Sun of 
yore ; despoiled of its ornaments by one of the haugh- 
tiest and most powerful of the Roman emperors, 
who came with his victorious troops from the distant 
provinces of Gaul and of Britain, to rend asunder 
the dominion of which this spot, in the midst of 


desert solitudes, had rendered itself the head." Mr. 
Addison then goes on to state that the " village 
of Tadmor consists, altogether, of about a dozen or 
fifteen families, and there can be hardly more than 
twenty able-bodied males in the whole place. This 
little community possesses a few herds of goats and 
dromedaries, which, together with the poultry, form 
the chief wealth of the villagers. These poor peo- 
ple are not, however, sufficiently advanced in the 
desert to be without the reach of the Syrian govern- 
ment; they all pay a capitation tax to Ibrahim 
Pasha. The portion of cultivated land on this spot 
is very small; there are merely a few scanty gardens, 
which produce roots, vegetables, and a miserable 
supply of corn. There are one or two palm-trees 
along the banks of the stream, and a few shrubs of 
the thorny acacia." 

These ruins were, some years ago, visited by a lady 
who has made a great noise in Syria Lady Hester 
Stanhope. During her residence there she gave a kind 
of fete to the Bedouins. " The great sheikh," says Mr. 
Carne, in his letters from the East, " and some of his 
officers constantly reside at the ruins. Their habitations 
are fixed near the great temple ; they are all well-dis- 
posed and civil in their manners, and their young 
women are remarkable above all the other tribes for 
their beauty. It was a lovely day, and the youth of 
both sexes, dressed in their gayest habiliments, were 
seated in rows on the fragments of the pillars, friezes, 
and other ruins with which the ground was covered. 
Her ladyship, in her Eastern dress, walked among 
them, addressed them with the utmost affability, and 
ordered a dollar to be given to each. As she stood 
with all that Arab array amidst the columns of the 
great Temple of the Sun, the sight was picturesque 
and imposing, and the Bedouins hailed her with the 
utmost enthusiasm ' queen of Palmyra,' * queen of 


the desert ;' and, in their enthusiasm, would have pro- 
ceeded to confer more decided marks of sovereignty ; 
but they were declined." 

This fete was afterwards described to Mr. Buck- 
ingham by an Arab, who had been present, in the 
following hyperbolical style : " As soon as it was 
known in the desert that the princess intended to 
journey to Tadmor, all the tribes were in motion; war 
was changed to universal peace, and every sheik, or 
chief, was eager to have the honour of leading the 
escort. Councils and assemblies were held at Horis 
and at Hamak, at Sham, and at Thaleb, Damascus, 
and Aleppo ; messengers were sent in every direction, 
and nothing was neglected that might serve to make 
the way full of pleasure. When money was talked 
of, every one rejected it with indignation, and ex- 
claimed, 'Shall we not serve the princess for ho- 
nour?' Every thing being settled, the party set out, 
preceded by horsemen in front, dromedaries of ob- 
servation on the right and the left, and camels laden 
with provisions in the rear. As they passed along, 
the parched sands of the desert became verdant 
plains ; the burning wells became crystal streams ; 
rich carpets of grass welcomed them at every place 
where they stopped for repose, and the trees under 
which they pitched their tents, expanded to twice their 
size to cover them with shade. When they reached 
the broken city (the ruins), the princess was taken 
to the greatest of all the palaces (the Temple of the 
Sun), and there gold and jewels were bound round 
her temples, and all the people did homage to her as 
a queen, by bowing their heads to the dust. On 
that day Tadmor was richer than Damascus, and 
more peopled than Constantinople; and if the princess 
had only remained, it would soon have become the 
greatest of all the cities of the earth : for men were 
pouring into it from all quarters; horsemen and 


chiefs, merchants and munugemein (astrologers and 
learned men who consult the stars) ; the fame of her 
beauty and benevolence having reached to Bagdad 
and Isfahan, to Bokhara and Samarcand ; the greatest 
men of the East being desirous of beholding it for 
themselves. The Arab, who firmly believed all this, 
narrated the return from Palmyra in the same 
romantic strains ; and ended by repeating his regret 
at the misfortune of not having been one of the happy 
multitude, assembled on that occasion; he having 
been then on some business with another tribe to 
the south of the Dead Sea * ." 

Lady Hester is now dead. The following account 
is taken from a paper published originally at Smyrna : 
" "We announced in our last number the death of Lady 
Hester Stanhope. Our readers will no doubt be glad 
to have a brief sketch of the principal circumstances of 
that extraordinary woman's life. It was at Djonni, 
in Syria, that Lady Hester died, after a long illness, 
at the age of sixty-four. That reader must be indif- 
ferent, who reverts not with interest to his recollec- 
tions of a woman, who has expired on the borders of 
the desert, amidst the Druses and Turkomans, over 
whom that noble daughter of the Infidels once exer- 
cised so strange and so marvellous a sway. The 
destiny of Lady Stanhope presents one of those fea- 
tures of which not another instance could, perhaps, 
be found in the annals of the East. Only imagine 
forty thousand Arabs suddenly assembled upon the 
ruins of Palmyra, and these wandering, savage, and 
indomitable tribes surrounding, in silent astonish- 
ment and admiration, a foreign woman, and pro- 
claiming her Sovereign of the Desert and Queen of 
Palmyra ! Convey yourself in thought to the scene 
of this incredible triumph, and you will then conceive 
what woman that must have been, who imposed 
* Buckingham,. 


silence on Mussulman fanaticism, and created for 
herself, as it were, by magic, a sovereignty in the 
domains of Mohammed. ' Lady Hester Stanhope,' 
says M. de Lamartine, in his admirable work, 
' was a niece of Mr. Pitt. On the death of her uncle, 
she left England, and visited various parts of Europe. 
Young, handsome, and rich, she was everywhere 
received with the attention and interest due to her 
rank, fortune, mind, and beauty ; but she constantly 
refused to unite her fate to that of her worthiest 
admirers ;. and, after spending some years in the 
principal capitals of Europe, embarked with a nume- 
rous suite for Constantinople. The real cause of this 
expatriation has never been known. Some have 
ascribed it to the death of a young English officer, 
who was killed at that period in Spain, and whom 
an eternal regret rendered for ever present in Lady 
Hester's heart : others have imputed her voluntary 
banishment to a mere love of adventure in a young 
person of an enterprising and courageous character. 
However this might be, she departed, spent some 
years at Constantinople, and then sailed for Syria in 
an English vessel, which carried also the larger part 
of her fortune, as well as jewellery, trinkets, and 
presents of all sorts, of very considerable value.' The 
vessel encountered a storm in the gulf of Macri, on 
the road to Caramania ; the ship was wrecked, Lady 
Hester Stanhope's property was all lost, and it was 
as much as she could do to save her own life. 
Nothing, however, could shake her resolution. She 
returned to England, gathered the remainder of her 
fortune, sailed again for Syria, and landed at Latakia, 
the ancient Laodicea. She had at first thought of 
fixing her abode at Broussa, at the foot of the Olym- 
pus ; but Broussa is a commercial city, situate on the 
avenues to the Ottoman capital, and reckoning not 
less than sixty thousand inhabitants ; and Lady 



Hester sought the independence and solitude of 
the desert. She therefore selected the wilderness 
of Mount Lebanon, whose extreme ramifications 
lose themselves in the sands. Ruined Palmyra 
Zenobia's ancient capital suited her fancy. The 
noble exile took up her residence at Djouni, prepared 
for every vicissitude. ' Europe,' said she, ' is a mono- 
tonous residence ; its nations are unworthy of free- 
dom, and endless revolution are their only prospects.' 
She applied herself to the study of the Arabic lan- 
guawe, and strove to obtain a thorough acquaintance 
with the character and manners of the Syrian people. 
One day, dressed in the costume of the Osmanlis, she 
set out for Jerusalem, Damascus, Aleppo, and the 
desert ; she advanced amidst a caravan loaded with 
wealth, tents, and presents for the Scheiks, and was 
soon surrounded by all the tribes, who knelt to her, 
and submitted to her supremacy. It was not solely 
by her magnificence, that Lady Hester had excited 
the admiration of the Arabs : her courage had been 
proved on more than one occasion ; and she had 
always faced peril with a boldness and energy which 
the tribes well remembered. Lady Hester Stanhope 
knew also how to flatter the Mahomedan prejudices. 
She held no intercourse with Christians and Jews ; 
she spent whole days in the grotto of a santon, who 
explained the Koran to her ; and never appeared in 
public without that mien of majestic and grave inspi- 
ration, which was always unto oriental nations the 
characteristic of prophets. With her, however, this 
conduct was not so much the result of design, as of 
a decided proneness to every species of excitement 
and originality. Lady Hester Stanhope's first abode 
was but a monastery. It was soon transformed into 
an oriental palace, with pavilions, orange- gardens and 
myrtles, over which spread the foliage of the cedar, 
such -as it grows in the mountains of Lebanon. The 


traveller, to whom Lady Hester opened this sanctu- 
ary, would behold her clad in oriental garments. Her 
head was covered with a turban made of red and 
white cashmere. She wore a long tunic, with open 
loose sleeves ; large Turkish trousers, the folds of 
which hung over yellow morocco boots, embroidered 
with silk. Her shoulders were covered with a sort 
of burnous, and a yataghan hung to her waist. Lady 
Hester Stanhope had a serious and imposing counte- 
nance ; her noble and mild features had a majestic 
expression, which her high stature and the dignity of 
her movements enhanced. The day came when all 
this prestige, so expensively kept up, suddenly va- 
nished. Lady Hester's fortune rapidly declined ; her 
income yearly decreased ; in short, the substantial 
resources, which had, at one time, sustained the 
magic of her extraordinary domination, were daily 
forsaking her. The Queen of Palmyra then fell back 
into the rank of mere mortals, and she who had signed 
absolute firmans, enabling the traveller to visit in 
security the regions of Palmyra she, whose authority 
the Sublime Porte had tacitly acknowledged soon 
saw her people disown her omnipotency. 'She was 
left the title of queen, but is was but an empty name, 
a mere recollection ; and again the monastery's silence 
ruled over the solitude of Djouni. A queen, stripped 
of her glory of a day, Lady Hester Stanhope has ex- 
pired, the sport of fate, at the moment the East is 
convulsed. She has expired in obscurity and loneli- 
ness, without even mingling her name with the great 
events of which it is now the theatre. " 

All this, if no exaggeration had been employed, 
might have served to the excitation of a smile : but the 
matter did not rest there. Lady Hester, or the Prin- 
cess, as she was styled, having given to the Sheik an 
absurd paper of authority, no one is permitted to visit 
Palmyra without paying a thousand piastres ! " The 


consequence of which is," says Mr. Game, " several 
travellers have left Syria without seeing the finest 
ruins in the world*." 

NO. xi. PATR^E. 

" NIGHT overtook us," says Mr. Williams, " before 
we reached Patras, anciently called Patra>. But such 
a night ! the moon was in full splendour; and while we 
travelled among the mysterious scenes, we were often 
tempted to pause and ask what could be those shadowy 
towers, that were perpetually arresting our attention? 
Nothing could bemorc pleasingor more romantic, than 
the winding of our cavalry among the projecting rocks 
and dismal hollows, when first a gleam of light pre- 
vailed, and then a solemn darkness veiled and soft- 
ened all in sweet composure. The glow-worms, peep- 
ing from the bushes, seemed like fairies' eyes; fire- 
. flies glanced in thousands, like the sun's bright rays 
stealing on rippling waters in ebon shade; and how- 
divine the evening star appeared, tipping the dark 
chain of Mount Olonos! The blackbird, too, with 
its train of dear associations, awakened our peculiar 
interest. All seemed, by their look of delight to say, 
' Sing on, sweet bird ! and tell us of our absent 
friends and beloved country!'" 

Patrae was a town of Peloponnesus, anciently 
called AROE. 

Diana had a temple there, and a statue formed of 
ivory and gold, which was considered a masterpiece. 
Apollo also had a temple, in which was a statue of 
the god, raised by Icadius. 

In the time of Pausanias, Patrae was also adorned 
with porticoes, a theatre, and an odeum ; the last of 

* Diodorus ; Strabo ; Josephus ; Appian ; Zosimus 5 Procopius ; 
Benjamin of Tudela ; Halifax ; Halley ; Wood ; Pridcaux ; 
RolHn ; Gibbon ; Bruce ; Volney ; Brcwster ; Burekliardt ; 


which was superior to any in Greece, with one 
exception, viz. that of Herodes Atticus at Athens. 
In the lower part of the city was a temple of Bac- 
chus, in which was an image preserved in a chest. 
There was also one of Ceres, with a pleasant grove 
and a prophetic fountain, which determined the events 
of illness. After supplicating the goddess with 
incense, the sick person is said to have appeared, 
living or dead, in a mirror suspended so as to touch 
the surface of the water*. 

Patras was selected by Augustus as a place in 
which to settle some of those, who had fought with 
him at Actium. Some of the cities of Achaia were 
made tributary to the Patrenses, and they continued 
long to flourish after the decay of the neighbouring 

They were rich in the monuments of art. Pau- 
sanias enumerates nineteen or twenty temples, 
besides statues, altars, and marble sepulchres, exist- 
ing in his time in the city, the port, and the sacred 

Patras, though it has now recovered the destruc- 
tion, was wholly destroyed by the Turks in 1770. 
We must, however, first state, that in 1447 it made 
the best defence against the Turks of any place in 
the Peloponnesus. In 1532 it was taken and ran- 
sacked by Doria. But of all its distresses the last 
was the most terrible; this was in 1770. It had 
lately been freed by the temporary success of Greek 
insurgents from the yok< % of the Turks; but the 
appearance of the Athenians, who rushed through 
the passes of the isthmus to the assistance of the 
Mahometans, soon decided the fate of the place. 
An army of ten thousand, both horse and foot, 
entered the town through every avenue. It was not 
a contest, but a carnage: not a Greek capable of 


bearing arms was spared, and the houses were all 
burned to the ground*. 

In forty years, Patras recovered this calamity, 
and is now said to be a flourishing place ; but Mr. 
Dodwell describes it as being composed, like all other 
Turkish cities, of dirty and narrow streets; with 
houses built of earth, baked in the sun ; with eaves 
overhanging the streets. 

The few remains, which are in Patras, are of 
Roman construction ; and those neither grand, in- 
teresting, nor well preserved. In the castle, how- 
ever, there are said ta be several beautiful forms of 
female statues: and here we have to state an instance 
of barbarism, strikingly illustrative of the character 
of the more ignorant portion of the Turks. Some 
marble columns and mutilated statues having been 
found, a few years ago, in the garden of a Turk, he 
immediately broke them to pieces ! 

There are several large fissures in the walls of the 
castle, occasioned by an earthquake, about forty 
years ago ; in which forty persons were killed in the 
town, and thirteen crushed by the falling of one of 
the turrets. 

" Nothing can be," says Mr. Hobhouse, " more 
pleasant than the immediate vicinity of this town ; 
which is one blooming garden of orange and lemon 
plantations, of olive groves, and currant grounds. 
The temple and the statues, the theatre, the columns 
and the marble porch, have disappeared : but the 
valleys and the mountains, and some, not frequent, 
fragments, of more value than all the costly monu- 
ments of barbaric labour, these still remain, and 
remind the traveller, that he treads the ground 
once trod by the heroes and sages of antiquity. 
To traverse the native country of those, whose 
deeds and whose wisdom have been proposed to all 
* iiobhousc. 


the polished nations of every succeeding age, as the 
models which they should endeavour to imitate, but 
must never hope to equal, with no other emotions 
than would arise in passing through regions never 
civilised, is unnatural; is impossible ! No one would 
roam with the same indifference through the sad 
solitudes of Greece, and the savage wilds of Ame- 
rica; nor is the expression of feelings, which it is 
the object and end of all liberal education to instil 
and encourage, to be derided as the unprofitable 
effusion of folly and affectation." * 


IT was a long time before the Greeks had any 
regard to Macedonia. The kings, living retired in 
woods and mountains, it seemed not to be considered 
as a part of Greece. 

Pella was the capital of the kings of Macedon. 
There Philip lived and reigned, and here Alexander 
was born. After his death the kingdom of Macedon 
frequently changed masters. Philip Aridaeus was 
succeeded by Cassander, who left three sons. Philip, 
the eldest, died presently after his father. The 
other two contended for the crown, without enjoying 
it ; both dying soon after without issue. 

Demetrius Poliorcetes, Pyrrhus, and Lysimachus, 
made themselves masters of all, or the greatest part 
of Macedonia, sometimes in conjunction, and at other 
times separately. 

After the death of Lysimachus, Seleucus possessed 
himself of Macedonia, but did not long enjoy it. 

Ptolemy Ceraunus having slain the preceding 
prince, seized the kingdom, and possessed it alone 
but a very short time; having lost his life in a battle 

* Pausanias ; Chandler ; Rees ; Hobhouse ; Dodwell ; Wil- 


with the Gauls, who had made an irruption into 
that country. 

Sosthenes, who defeated the Gauls, reigned also 
hut a short time. 

Antigonus Gonatus, the son of Demetrius Polior- 
cetes, obtained peaceable possession of the kingdom 
of Macedonia, and transmitted these dominions to 
his descendants, after he had reigned thirty-four 

He was succeeded by his son, Demetrius, who 
reigned ten years, and then died ; leaving a son, named 
Philip, who was but two years old. 

Antigonus Doson, reigned twelve years, in the 
quality of guardian to the young prince. 

Philip, after the death of Antigonus, ascended 
the throne, at the age of fourteen years. After 
him, Perseus ; who was defeated and taken prisoner 
by Paulus .'Emilius ; and Macedonia, in consequence 
of that victory, was added to the provinces of the 
Roman empire, B. c. 160. 

For this success Paulus ./Emilius was honoured with 
a triumph ; and as a description of that ceremony will 
serve to. diversify our pages in a very agreeable 
manner, we adopt the account afforded us by Plutarch. 
" The people erected scaffolds in the Forum and 
Circus, and all other parts ef the city where they 
could best behold the pomp. The spectators were 
clad in white garments ; all the temples were open 
and full of garlands and perfumes ; the ways cleared 
and cleansed by a great many officers and tipstaffs, 
that drove away such as thronged the passage, or 
straggled up and down. This triumph lasted three 
days. On the first, which was scarce long enough 
for the sight, were to be seen the statues, pictures, 
and images, of an extraordinary bigness, which were 
taken from the enemy, drawn upon seven hundred 
and fifty chariots. On the second, was carried, in a 


great many wains, the fairest and the richest armour 
of the Macedonians, both of brass and steel, all 
newly furbished and glittering ; which, although 
piled up with the greatest art and order, yet seemed 
to be tumbled on heaps carelessly and by chance ; 
helmets were thrown on shields, coats of mail upon 
greaves, Cretan targets, and Thracian bucklers and 
quivers of arrows lay huddled among the horses' 
bits ; and through these appeared the points of 
naked swords, intermixed with long spears. All 
these arms were tied together in a way, that they 
knocked against one another as they were drawn 
along, and made a harsh and terrible noise ; so that 
the very spoils of the conquered could not be beheld 
without dread. After these waggons loaden with 
armour, there followed three thousand men, who 
carried the silver that was coined, in seven hundred 
and fifty vessels, each of which weighed three 
talents, and was carried by four men. Others brought 
silver bowls, and goblets, and cups, all disposed in 
such order as to make the best show, and all valu- 
able, as well for their bigness, as the thickness of 
their engraved work. On the third day, early in 
the morning, first came the trumpeters, who did not 
sound as they were wont in a procession or solemn 
entry ; but such a charge as the Romans use when 
they encourage their soldiers to fight. Next followed 
young men, girt about with girdles curiously wrought, 
which led to the sacrifice one hundred and twenty 
stalled oxen, with their horns gilded, and their heads 
adorned with ribands and garlands ; and with these 
were boys that carried platters of silver and gold. 
After this was brought the gold coin, which was di- 
vided into vessels that weighed three talents, like to 
those that contained the silver ; they were in number 
fourscore wanting three. These were followed by 
those that brought the consecrated bowl, which 


TEmilius caused to be made, that weighed ten 
talents, and was all beset with precicras stones. Then 
were exposed to view the cups of Antigonus and 
Seleucus, and such as were made after the fashion 
invented by Thericles, and all the gold plate that was 
used at Perseus's table. Next to these came Per- 
seus's chariot, in which his armour was placed, and 
on that his diadem. And after a little intermission, 
the king's children were led captives, and with them 
a train of nurses, masters, and governors, who all 
wept, and stretched forth their hands to the specta- 
tors, and taught the little infants to beg and entreat 
their compassion. There were two sons and a 
daughter, who, by reason of their tender age, were 
altogether insensible of the greatness of their misery ; 
which insensibility of their condition rendered it 
much more deplorable ; insomuch, that Perseus him- 
self was scarce regarded as he went along, whilst 
pity had fixed the eyes of the Romans upon the 
infants, and many of them could not forbear tears ; 
all beheld the sight with a mixture of sorrow and 
joy, until the children were past. After his children 
and their attendants, came Perseus himself, clad 
all in black, and wearing slippers, after the fashion 
of his country. He looked like one altogether 
astonished and deprived of reason, through the great- 
ness of his misfortunes. Next followed a great com- 
pany of his friends and familiars, whose countenances 
were disfigured with grief, and who testified to all 
that beheld them by their tears, and their continual 
looking upon Perseus, that it was his hard fortune 
they so much lamented, that they were regardless of 
their own. After these were carried four hundred 
crowns all made of gold, and sent from the cities by 
their respective ambassadors to ^milius, as a reward 
due to his valour. Then he himself came seated on 
a chariot magnificently adorned (a man worthy to bo 


beheld, even without these ensigns of power) : he 
was clad in a garment of purple interwoven with 
gold, and held out a laurel branch in his right hand. 
All the army, in like manner, with boughs of laurel 
in their hands, and divided into bands and companies, 
followed the chariot of their commander ; some sing- 
ing odes (according to the usual custom) mingled 
with raillery ; others, songs of triumph, and the 
praises of ^Emilius's deeds, who was admired and 
accounted happy by all men ; yet unenvied by every 
one that was good." 

" The ancient capital of the kings of Macedon," says 
Monsieur de Pouqueville, " does not announce itself in 
its desolation to the eye of the stranger, as at Athens 
and Corinth, by the display of the remains of its 
ancient splendour. Its vestiges are found on an emi- 
nence sloping to the south-west, and surrounded by 
marshes. In vain, however, does the traveller look for 
the walls of the city, for the citadel, for the dykes con- 
structed to defend from inundation the temples, build- 
ings, and the monuments of its grandeur. The barba- 
rians from the North, the Romans, and the succession 
of ages, have destroyed even the ruins. The once 
powerful city of Pella is now sunk down into frag- 
ments of tombs, masses of brick and tile, and about 
threescore huts, inhabited by Bulgarians, with a 
tower garrisoned by about a dozen Albanians. Such 
are the present edifices, population, and military 
establishment of Pella, once the powerful capital of 
Alexander and Perseus ! A low Mahommedan now 
commands, whip in hand, in the city where Alexander 
first saw the light ; and the paternal seat of that 
monarch, whose dominions extended from the Adri- 
atic to the Indus, was, some years ago, the property 
of Achmet, son of Ismael, Bey of Serres*/' 
* Plutarch ; Kees ; Pouqueville. 



Tins was a city of Great Mysia, in Asia Minor, 
the capital of the kingdom of Pergamus, which was 
founded by a eunuch, named Philatera, who had 
been a servant to Docima, a commander of the troops 
of Antigonus. 

Pergamus was assaulted by Philip, king of Macedon, 
in his war against Attalus the First, who had taken 
part with the Romans. All his efforts, however, 
being unavailing, he turned his rage and fury against 
the gods; and, not satisfied with burning their 
temples, he demolished statues, broke to pieces their 
altars, and even pulled up the stones from their 
foundations, that not the least footsteps of them might 

At the death of Attalus, his son Eumenes the 
Second succeeded ; and it was during his reign and 
under his inspiration, if such an expression may be 
allowed that the celebrated library was collected*, 
which makes such a figure in literary history. 

The kingdom ceased to exist at the death of 
Attalus the Third ; since that prince left it to the 
Roman people. 

As this event was very important to the city as 
well as kingdom of Pergamus, we may, with pro- 
priety, enter a little into the character of the prince, 
who made so extraordinary a bequeathment. His- 
torians relate, that he was scarcely on the throne 
before he stained it with the blood of his nearest 
relatives. He caused almost all those, who had served 
his father and his uncle with extreme fidelity, to have 
their throats cut ; under pretence that some of them 
had killed his mother, who died of a disease in a very 
advanced age, and others his wife, who died of an 
incurable distemper. He caused the destruction also 
ofjvvives, children, and whole families. Having com- 
* This library consisted of two hundred thousand volumes. 


mitted all these enormities, he appeared no more in 
the city, and ate no longer in public. He put on 
old clothes, let his beard grow, and did every thing 
which persons, accused of capital crimes, used to do 
in those days ; as if he intended thereby to acknow- 
ledge the extent of his own atrocity. From hence 
he proceeded to other species of folly and iniquity. 
He renounced the cares of state, and retired into his 
garden, and applied to digging the ground himself, 
and sowing all sorts of poisonous as well as wholesome 
herbs ; then poisoning the good with the juice of the 
bad, he sent them in that manner as presents to his 
friends. At length he took it into his head to prac- 
tise the trade of a brass- founder ; and formed the 
raodel of a monument of brass to be erected to his 
mother. As he was casting the metal for this pur- 
pose, one hot summer's day, he was seized with a 
fever, which in a few days carried him off. The 
principal clause in his will was expressed in these 
terms : " Let the people of Rome inherit all my 
fortunes." This will having been carried to Rome, 
the city and kingdom of Pergamus, as we have 
already stated, passed into a Roman province. 

Pergamus gave birth to Apollodorus, the precep- 
tor of Augustus ; and Galen, next to Hippocrates the 
greatest physician that ever adorned the annals of 
medical science. It is also remarkable for having been 
alluded to by Tiberius, in one of his hypocritical 
speeches to the Roman senate, as reported in Tacitus. 
" I know very well," said he, " that many men will 
condemn me for suffering Asia to build me a temple, 
as Spain at present would do : but I will give you a 
reason for what I have done, and declare my resolu- 
tion for the future. The divine Augustus, whose 
actions and words are so many inviolable laws to me, 
having consented that the people of Pergamus should 
dedicate a temple to him and the city of Rome, I 


thought I might follow so great an example ; so much 
the rather, since the honour, intended me, was joined 
with the veneration paid to the senate. But as on 
the one hand it might have been too great a piece of 
severity to have denied it for once ; so on the other, 
doubtless, it would be too great a vanity and folly, 
to suffer one's self to be adored as a God, through all 
the provinces of the empire. Besides, it cannot but 
be a great diminution to the glory of Augustus, to 
communicate it indifferently to all the world. For 
my own part, I am mortal, and subject to human in- 
firmities ; I am contented with being a prince here, 
without being raised to the throne of a God. I pro- 
test to you, I desire this testimony may be given of 
me to posterity. It will be glory enough for me to 
be thought worthy of my ancestors ; a vigilant prince, 
one who is insensible of fear, when the common- 
wealth is in danger. These are the temples and 
monuments which I desire to erect in your breasts : 
for works of marble and brass, raised to the glory of 
princes, are contemned by posterity as so many naked 
sepulchres, when their memory is condemned. I 
entreat heaven to give me a serenity of mind, and a 
spirit to discern and judge uprightly of the laws of 
God and man ; and after my decease, I confide, my 
fellow-citizens and allies will preserve my memory 
with their blessings and praises." 

Mr. Turner found several ancient inscriptions at 
Pergamus. He ascended the ancient Acropolis, 
which is built on a mount of about two hundred feet 
height, overhanging the town : on the top are ex- 
tensive remains of the walls both of the Roman and 
Venetian city. Part of the walls are built with large j 
fluted columns, laid length- ways. Among the Roman 
ruins are several immense arched caves under ground, I 
about sixty feet deep. At the top of the hill lay a 
large Corinthian capital, and half way down the hill 


a small marble column, on which is a Greek inscrip- 
tion, now illegible. 

In a valley west of the Acropolis are considerable 
remains of a large Roman amphitheatre ; near which 
is a gate with part of a wall. The arch of the gate 
is curiously inclined, being unequal ; the only instance 
of such an irregularity Mr. Turner ever saw in an 
ancient building. There are also ruins of several 
Roman baths ; in one of which was found a vase, 
which has excited a great deal of admiration. Mr. 
Turner thus describes it : " It is of fine marble, and 
in good preservation, being only a little broken round 
the rim. The shape of it is a flattened globe ; on the 
outside round the circumference of the centre are 
fifteen equestrian figures in high -relief ; nine of these 
have their heads much broken, nine have their arms 
extended ; the horses are all at full speed, and a race is 
probably the subject represented, as none of the 
figures bear arms. Five of the figures are clinging to 
their horses, and one appears to be falling. Nothing," 
continues Mr. Turner, " can exceed the spirit of the 
execution ; the very horses seem to breathe ; above 
and below the figures a band, on which is engraved 
the pattern of a laurel leaf, surrounds the vase : a 
very correct engraving of which is given in the work 
of Choiseul-Goufner. There are said to have been 
seven of these vases at Pergamus ; six of which were 
taken to Constantinople." 

There are also in the neighbourhood of Bergamo, 
the present ruins of this city, six tumuli ; three large 
and three small*. 

* Tacitus ; Plutarch ; Choiseul-Gouffier ; Rees ; Turner. 



'< I know 

The wealth," she cries, " of every urn, 
In which unnumbered rubies burn, 
Beneath the pillars of CHILMINAR." 

MOORE; Lalla Rookh. 

THIS city is supposed to have been founded by 
the famous Jemsheed, from whom it is to this day 
called Tuklit-e- Jemsheed ; the throne of Jemsheed ; 
a prince, to whom Persian authors attribute the 
invention of many useful arts* ; and. to whom they 
refer the first great reform in the manners and usages 
of their countrymen. He, also, introduced the solar 
year ; and ordered the first day of it, when the sun 
entered Aries, to be celebrated as a festivalt. 

An old Persian author has left the following descrip- 
tion of Persepolis : "Jemsheed built a fortified palace 

* Sir John Malcolm has preserved an account of Jemsheed, from 
Moullab Ackber's MSS., which may serve to diversify our page. 
"Jemsheed was the first who discovered wine. He was immoderately 
fond of grapes, and desired to preserve some; which were placed 
in a large vessel, and lodged in a vault for future use. When the 
vessel was opened, the grapes had fermented. Their juice, in this 
state; was so acid, that the king believed it must be poisonous. He 
had some vessels filled with it, and poison written upon each: 
these were placed in his bed-room. It happened that one of his 
favourite ladies was affected with nervous head-aches. The pain 
distracted her so much, that she desired, death ; and observing a 
vessel with the word poison written upon it, she took it and 
swallowed its contents. The wine, for such it had become, over- 
powered the lady, who fell into a sound sleep, and awoke much 
refreshed. Delighted with the remedy, she repeated the dose so 
often, that the monarch's poison was all drunk. He soon dis- 
covered this, and forced the lady to confess what she had done. 
A quantity of wine was made ; and Jemsheed, and all his court, 
drank of the new beverage, which, from the circumstance that 
led to its discovery, is to this day known in Persia by the name 
of zeher-e-khoosh, or the delightful poison." 

f It is called Nouroze. Some of the sculptures of the dilapi- 
dated palace are supposed to represent the processions at this 


at the foot of a hill, which bounds the fine plain of 
Murdasht to the north-west. The platform, on 
which it was built, has three faces to the plain, and 
one to the mountain. It is formed of hard, black 
granite. The elevation from the plain is ninety 
feet ; and every stone, used in this building, is from 
nine to twelve feet long, and broad in proportion. 
There are two great flights of stairs to this palace, so 
easy of ascent, that a man can ride up on horseback 
and on the platform a palace has been erected, part 
of which still remains in its original state, and part 
is in ruins. The palace of Jemsheed is that, now 
called the Chesel-Setoon, or Forty Pillars. Each 
pillar is formed of a carved stone, is sixty feet high, 
and is ornamented in a manner so delicate, that it 
would seem to rival upon hard granite the sculpture 
of a carving upon the softest wood. There is no 
granite like that, of which these pillars are made, to 
be now found in Persia : and it is unknown from 
whence it is brought. Some most beautiful and 
extraordinary figures ornament this palace ; and all 
the pillars, which once supported the roof (for that 
has fallen) are composed of three pieces of stone, 
joined in so exquisite a manner, as to make the be- 
holder believe, that the whole shaft is one piece. 
There are several figures of Jemsheed in the sculp- 
ture ; in one he has an urn in his hand, in which he 
burns benjamin, while he stands adoring the sun; in 
another, he is represented as seizing the mane of a 
lion with one hand, while he stabs him with another." 
The remains of this city stands in one of the finest 
plains of Persia ; being eighteen or nineteen leagues 
in length, and in some places two, in some four, and 
in others six leagues in breadth. It is watered by 
the great river Araxes, and by a multitude of rivers 
beside. Within the compass of this plain there are 
between one thousand and one thousand five hundred 



villages, without reckoning those in the mountains, 
all adorned with pleasant gardens, and planted with 
trees. The entrance of this plain, on the west side, 
has received as much grandeur from nature, as the 
city it covered could do from industry or art. 

Some authors say, that to attempt any guess of 
the period when the city first rose from the plain, 
would be useless, and that the only means, now re- 
maining, of forming any satisfactory conjectures, in 
regard to its origin, can only reach to the probable 
era of the different remaining ruins. When in Persia, 
however, Mr. Francklin met with a short account 
of the building this palace, in MS., being part of a 
work, called Rouzut al Sefa, or the Garden of Purity ; 
of which he gives this as a translation : " It is 
related by historians, that King Jemsheed removed 
the seat of government, which was formerly in the 
province of Sejestaun, to Fars; and that in the 
neighbourhood of Shirauz, having taken in a spot of 
ground, of twelve furlongs in length (forty-eight 
English miles), he there erected such a palace, that 
in the seven kingdoms of the world there was" nothing 
that could equal it. The remains of that palace, and 
many of the pillars of it, are visible to this day; and 
he caused the palace to be called Chehul Minar, or 
Forty Pillars. Moreover, when the sun, quitting the 
sign Pisces in the heavens, had entered Aries, Jem- 
sheed, having assembled all the princes, nobles, and 
great men of his empire, at the foot of his imperial 
throne, did on that day institute a grand and solemn 
festival ; and this day was henceforth called- Noo 
lioze, or first day of the new year (when the founda- 
tion of Persepolis was laid), at which period he 
commanded, from all parts of the empire, the attend- 
ance of the peasants, husbandmen, soldiers, and 
others, in order to prosecute the design ; requesting 
that all, with joyful hearts and willing hands, should 


lend their assistance in completing the work. This 
numerous assembly obeyed the command of their 
monarch, and the building was finished with all signs 
of mirth and festivity." 

To this account the Persians add, that Queen 
Homaie, who flourished about eight hundred years 
after Jemsheed, added a thousand columns. 

Diodorus gives some account of the workmen, that 
were employed in building this palace. " Cambyses, 
the son of Cyrus," says he, " conquered Egypt in the 
third year of the seventy-third olympiad, when he pil- 
laged the country and burnt the temples, the treasures 
of which the Persians carried off into Asia ; and they, 
also, led away with them the workmen and architects 
of Egypt, whom they caused to build the famous palace 
of Persepolis, and of several other cities." This account 
appears the more probable, since, as M. le Comte dc 
Caylus is justly of opinion, they cannot be attri- 
buted to the Persians before Cyrus ; since Herodotus 
describes the Persians of that age as a people of great 
simplicity; having neither temples nor altars, but 
worshipping Jupiter on the summits of mountains. 
The account, here given, is sufficient to account for the 
Egyptian appearance of Persepolis. There are ap- 
pearances of five different buildings united in one; 
and each, apparently, of a different age, after the 
manner of the Egyptians. 

Though there are doubts as to the origin of Perse- 
polis, there are none as to the circumstance of its 
being destroyed by Alexander. 

As the conqueror drew near the city *, he per- 
ceived a large body of men, who presented a most 
lamentable picture. These were about four thousand 
Greeks, greatly advanced in years, who, having been 
taken prisoners of war, had suffered all the torments 
which Persian tyranny could invent. The hands of 

* Rollin. 



some had been cut off, the feet of others ; and others 
again had lost their noses and ears ; after which, 
having impressed by fire barbarous characters on their 
-faces, the Persians had the inhumanity to keep them 
as so many laughing-stocks, with which they sported 
perpetually. They appeared like so many shadows 
rather than men. Alexander could not refrain from 
tears at this sight j and as they unanimously besought 
him to commiserate their condition, he bade them, 
with the utmost tenderness, not to despond, and 
assured them that they should again see their coun- 
try. This, however, the Greeks did not desire ; being 
unwilling to be seen by their former companions in 
the dreadful state in which they were. They prayed 
the king, therefore, to let them remain where they 
were, but to relieve their awful condition. This 
Alexander did ; but he was so enraged at what he 
had seen, that he set the city on fire soon after. 
The other account is, that the conqueror called his 
generals together, and represented to them that no 
city in the world had been more fatal to the Greeks 
than Persepolis, the ancient residence of the Persian 
monarchs, and capital of their empire. For that it 
was from thence all those mighty armies poured, 
which had overflowed Greece ; and whence Darius, 
and afterwards Xerxes, had carried the fire-brand of 
the most accursed war which had laid waste the best 
part of Europe ; and therefore it was incumbent on 
them to revenge the manes of their ancestors. 

Animated by this, the soldiers force their way into 
the city, put all the men to the sword, and rifle and 
carry away every man's goods and estate ; amongst 
which was abundance of rich and costly furniture 
and ornaments of all sorts. There were hurried away, 
here and there, vast quantities of silver, and no less 
of gold, great numbers of rich garments, some of 
purple, and others embroidered with gold; all of 


which, says Diodorus, became a plentiful prey to the 
ravenous soldiers. For though every place was 
full of rich spoil, yet the covetousness of the Mace- 
donians was insatiable. They were even so eager in 
plundering, that they fought one another with drawn 
swords ; and many, who were conceived to have got 
a larger share than the rest, were killed in the quarrel. 
Some things, which were of extraordinary value, they 
divided with their swords, and each took a share. 
Others, in a rage, cut off the hands of such as laid 
hold of a thing that was in dispute. They first 
ravished the women as they were in their jewels and 
rich attire, and then sold them for slaves. The 
riches -are said to have amounted to no less than 
eighteen millions sterling ! 

Such is the account left us by Diodorus. He then 
goes on to describe the destruction of the temple or 
palace, burned down by Alexander. "Alexander," says 
he, " made a great feast for the entertainment of his 
friends in commemoration of his victory, and offered 
magnificent sacrifices to the gods. At this feast 
were entertained .women, who prostituted their bodies 
for hire ; when the cups went so high to drunken- 
ness and debauchery, that many were drunk and 
mad. Among the rest there was . a courtesan, 
named Thais, an Athenian, then mistress to Ptolemy, 
afterwards king of Egypt, who said in a gay tone 
of voice, ' That it would be a matter of inex- 
pressible joy to her, were she permitted, masked 
as she then was, and in order to end the festival 
nobly, to burn the magnificent palace of Xerxes, 
who had burned Athens ; and so set it on fire with 
her own hand, in order that it might be said in 
all parts of the world, that the women, who had fol- 
lowed Alexander in his expedition to Asia, had taken 
much better revenge on the Persians, for the many 
calamities they had brought upon the Grecians, 


than all the generals who had fought for them both 
by sea and land.' 

" This spreading abroad, and coming to the ears of 
the young men, presently one cries out, ' Come on ; 
bring firebrands !' and so incites the rest to fire the 
citadel, to revenge that impiety the Persians had 
committed in destroying the temples of the Grecians. 
At this, others with joy set up a shout ; but said that 
so brave an exploit belonged only to Alexander him- 
self to perform. The king, stirred up at these words, 
embraced the proposition; upon which, as many as 
were present left their cups and leaped upon the 
table, and said that they would now celebrate a- 
victorious festival to Bacchus. Thereupon, mul- 
titudes of firebrands were presently got together; 
and all the women that played on musical instru- 
ments, which were at the feast, were called for; 
and then the king, with songs, pipes, and flutes, 
led the way to this expedition, contrived and ma- 
naged by this courtesan, Thais, who, next after the 
king, threw the first firebrand into the palace. This 
precedent was presently followed by the rest. The 
fire once raised, there was no stopping it; but 
Alexander soon repented what was doing, and gave 
orders for extinguishing it; but this being too late, 
the palace was burned, and remains now nearly in the 
same state it was left at the conclusion of the fire." 

According to Arrian, Alexander burned the palace 
of the Persian king much against the will of Parme- 
nio, who exhorted him to leave it untouched. To 
which Alexander answered, that he was resolved to 
revenge the ancient injuries, Greece had received 
from the Persians ; who, when they marched into 
Greece, burned its temples, and committed many other 
barbarous devastations. 

This, we think, is one reason why the building 
burned must have been a temple, and not a palace. 


The Persians had burned the temples of Greece, there- 
fore Alexander burned the temple of the Persians. 
Besides, as the feast was held in the palace, it is not 
very likely that the master of the feast should have 
burned the place, in which he was not only then feast- 
ing, but in which he was to sleep on the very night 
of the conflagration; and that it was not destroyed 
is evident from the circumstance, recorded by Strabo 
and Arrian that Alexander inhabited the royal 
palace at Persepolis after his return from India. 
Added to which, it is certain that there is, at this 
time, no appearance or marks of tire on any part of 
the ruins. 

In respect to these ruins, it has been well observed, 
that magnificent columns, portals, and other archi- 
tectural decorations, mark this spot as the site of a 
splendid " palace ;" while the style of the sculptures 
and the inscriptions, many of them in the single- 
headed character, found only at this place, Nineveh, 
Babylon, Susa, and Van, proves them to be of a very 
high antiquity. Mr. Kinneir, however, says they 
are generally admitted to be the remains of the 
" palace," destroyed by Alexander; and the striking 
resemblance of the building, as it exists, to the ac- 
count given of Persepolis by Diodorus, is, in his 
opinion, sufficient to remove any doubt, that may 
exist upon the subject. We confess that such is not 
our impression. 

Those who regard the ruins as being the remains 
of a Persian temple, insist that the sculptured sub- 
jects, as well as the style of architecture, resemble, 
in many particulars, those of Egypt: among which 
may be mentioned the figures, divided by trees, the 
sphinxes, the vases and chains, the domes and archi- 
traves, the subterranean passages in the tombs, the 
sarcophagi and urns, and the well, twenty-five feet 
deep and fifteen square. The sculpture at Persepolis 


was also painted mostly in blue, a favourite colour in 
Egypt ; but sometimes in black and in yellow. For 
these remarks we are indebted to Mr. Buckingham. 

According to Arrian, it was tbe castle of Perse- 
polis which Alexander burned. In Mr. Buckingham's 
opinion, however, the ruins now seen correspond 
neither with those of a palace, nor of a castle; they 
were, therefore, according to him, not those of the 
edifice burned by Alexander at all; for on all these 
remains, as we have before stated, no mark of fire is 
to be traced, which could not be the case if this had 
been the principal agent used in its destruction. 

The opinion, that these ruins are the remains of 
the palace, is not on the authority of all history, 
but on the assertion merely of Quintus Curtius and 
Diodorus. The whole story as to the burning, is said 
to have been copied from a Greek writer, named 

Though there are no remains of a city now at Per- 
sepolis, nor in any part of the plain in which it is 
situated ; certain it is, that the city was not destroyed 
by Alexander ; for it was a very important place for 
many centuries after. 

Curtius, therefore, is guilty of an error in saying 
that the city was so far from being rebuilt, that 
unless the river Araxes ran near it, there are no 
signs to guess where it stood ; for neither Arrian 
nor Strabo, nor even Diodorus, whom Curtius com- 
monly copies, acquaint us with any thing but the 
burning of the palace. 

The first book of Maccabees says, that there was 
a rich temple at Persepolis ; and, the second, that 
Antiochus Epiphanes determined to pillage it. Alex- 

* Ksempfer, Hyde, Niebuhr, and St. Croix, regard the ruins as 
those of a palace : Delia Valle, Chardia, D'Hancarville, and 
others, as those of a temple. This is a question, however, which 
many writers regard as being impossible of solution, till an alpha- 
bet shall have been discovered of the arrow-headed inscriptions. 


ander, therefore, could not have destroyed it ; for it 
is highly improbable, from the history of those times, 
that so laboured and magnificent a work should have 
been rebuilt and restored in the short period between 
Alexander and the Syrian king; viz. 160 years. 
That prince formed the design of pillaging both 
" a temple," and the city. 

Though Persepolis long survived the palace of 
Jemsheed, its inhabitants are said to have regarded 
with unextinguishable hatred the people by whom 
they were conquered ; and, as if inspired by those 
fragments of former glory, with which they were 
surrounded, they maintained a character for pride 
and courage, that was not entirely subdued, till 
several centuries after the Arabians first overran 

Its subsequent history has been summed up by 
Mr. Fraser. " It was among the earliest conquests of 
Ardeshir Babegan ; Shepoor II. made it his residence ; 
Yesdigird I. held his court there ; and Hoormuz II., 
who reigned at the close of the sixth century, passed 
two months every year in it. In the succeeding age, 
however, it ceased to be a royal residence ; for 
Khoosroo Purveez bestowed the government on one 
of his favourites ; and it was here that the last of the 
Sassanian kings lay concealed, when called to the 
throne, A. D. 632. Twelve years afterwards, it capi- 
tulated to the Mohammedans ; but the people, hav- 
ing slain their foreign governor, were all put to the 
sword. The city was ultimately destroyed by 
Sumcaneah-u-Dowlan, and the fanatical Arabs, A. D. 
982. Such," concludes Mr. Fraser, " is the sketch of 
the latter days of Istakhar*, (the only name by 

* At the distance of about five miles is a conspicuous hill, on 
the top of which, and visible to the eye from Persepolis, are the 
remains of a fortress. This hill is now called Istakhar, and is 
quite distinct from Perscpolis. Of this hill Le Brun has given a 


which the city is recognised by the native Persian 
historians) ; but the question, who was its founder ? 
and who raised the mighty fabrics, of which the 
ruins still astonish the traveller? yet remain un- 

The authors who have described these ruins are, 
Garcias de Silva Figueroa, Pietra de la Valle, Sir 
John Chardin, Le Brun, Francklin, Niebuhr, 
Morier, Buckingham, Porter, Ouseley, and Fraser. 

It has been truly said, that we cannot proceed a 
step in Persia, without encountering some monument 
of the cruelty of conquerors and of human vicissi- 
tudes. These ruins have been variously described ; in- 
somuch that, had travellers not agreed in respect to 
the latitude and longitude, one would be tempted to 
suspect, that they had visited different ruins. Our 
account will therefore be desultory : for to give a full 
and regular one would, without drawings, be of little 
available use. 

" It is very difficult to give any detailed account of 
the ruins of this celebrated place," says Mr. Bucking- 
ham. " There is no temple, as at Thebes, at Palmyra, 
or at Balbec, sufficiently pi'edominant over all other 
surrounding objects to attract the chief attention, 
and furuish of itself sufficient matter for description 
and observation. Here, all is broken and detached 
fragments, extremely numerous, and each worthy of 
attention ; but so scattered and disjointed, as to give 
no perfect idea of the whole. Its principal feature is, 
that it presents an assemblage of tall, slender, and 
isolated pillars, and separate door- ways and sanctu- 
aries, spread over a large platform, elevated, like a 
fortification, from the level of the surrounding plain." 

" The works of different travellers, describing these 

drawing; and the original must strike every traveller the moment 
he enters the palace of Merdusht ; as it has all the appearance of 
having been much fashioned by the hand of man. MORIER. 


ruins," says Sir William Ouseley, " furnish many in- 
stances of extraordinary variation. But this discor- 
dance is not peculiar to those, who have written 
accounts of Persepolis. We find that, concerning the 
same visible and tangible objects, two, three, and even 
four, travellers in other countries have disagreed ; all 
men of considerable ingenuity, and none intending to 
deceive." Sir William then refers to a passage in 
Sir Thomas Herbert's Travels. " Forasmuch as the 
remaining figures, or images, are many and different, 
and so many, as in two days I was there it was im- 
possible I could take the full of what I am assured 
an expert limner may very well spend twice two 
months in, ere he can make a fancy draught ; for, to 
say the truth, this is a work much fitter for the 
pencil than the pen ; the rather for that I observe 
how that travellers, taking a view of some rare piece 
together, from the variety of their fancy, they usu- 
ally differ in those observations : so that when they 
think their notes are exact, they shall pretermit 
something that a third will light upon." These 
observations were made by Sir Thomas among the 
ruins of the city, of which we now are treating. 

" Nothing," says Mr. Fraser, " can be more strik- 
ing, than the appearance of those ruins on approach- 
ing them from the south-west. Placed at the base 
of a rugged mountain, on a terrace of mason-work 
that might vie with the structures of Egypt, it over- 
looks an immense plain, inclosed on all sides by dis- 
tant but dark cliffs, and watered by the Kour Ab, 
which once supplied a thousand aqueducts. But the 
water-courses are dried up ; the plain is a morass or 
a wilderness ; for the great city, which once poured 
its population over the wide expanse of Merdusht, 
has disappeared, and the grey columns rise in solitary 
grandeur, to remind us, that mighty deeds were done 
in the days of old." 


The last account of this place we have by an Eastern 
writer, is that given by Mirza Jan, in the account he 
gives of a journey he made from Shirauz to Isfahan. 
" Beyond the village of Kenarch, about half a para- 
sang, is a mountain, and at the foot of it an extraordi- 
nary place, wherein are columns and marbles, sculp- 
tured with strange devices and inscriptions, so that 
most persons imagine this edifice to have been 
constructed before the creation of man/' This is very 
curious ; since the sculptures themselves give positive 
evidence of his existence. 

The following account of these ruins is taken 
from Mr. Francklin. " They arc about two days' 
jonrney from Shiraz, on a rising grouud, in a plain, 
surrounded by an amphitheatre of mountains. They 
occupy a circumference of one thousand four hun- 
dred square yards. The front is six hundred paces 
from north to south, and three hundred and ninety 
from east to west, and the height of the foundation 
from forty to fifty feet. 

The columns are ascended by a grand staircase 
of blue stone, about fifty feet high, the sides embel- 
lished with two immense sphinxes, dressed out with 
bead-work. At a small distance from these portals' 
you ascend another flight of steps leading to the 
grand hall of columns. The sides of these stairs are 
charged with reliefs of figures holding vessels in their 
hands, camels, triumphal cars, horses, oxen, and rams. 
At the head of the stair is a relief of a lion seizing 
a bull. This stair leads to the great hall of forty 
or fifty pillars, in nine rows, of six each ; of which 
fifteen remain entire, from seventy to eighty feet 
high; the diameter at the base twelve feet, and 
distance between the columns twenty-two. Their 
pedestals are curiously wrought, and little injured, the 
shafts fluted to the top, and the capitals adorned 
with a profusion of fret- work. East of this, are 


remains of a square building, entered by a door of 
granite ; most of the doors and windows standing of 
black marble, highly polished. On the sides of the 
doors, at entering, are bas-reliefs of two figures, re- 
presenting a man stabbing a goat; a common device 
all over the palace. Over another door of the same 
apartment are two men, and a domestic behind them, 
with an umbrella. At the south-west entrance of 
this apartment are two large stone pillars, carved 
with four figures in long garments, holding spears 
ten feet long. Exclusive of the ancient inscriptions, 
in unknown characters, interspersed over these ruins, 
there are others, accurately described by Niebuhr. 
Behind the hall of the pillars, and close under the 
mountains, are remains of a very large building, 
with two principal entrances from north-east, and 
south-west ; the wall divided into several partitions, 
ornamented with sculpture, and over its twelve doors 
the relief of the lion and bull, as before : and besides 
the usual figures, one of a man in long garments, 
with a cap turret-formed, seated on a pillar, holding 
in his hand a small vessel, and wearing a girdle 
round his waist, projecting beyond his clothes, and 
under him several lions. Behind this ruin, a con- 
siderable way to the north, up the mountain llehumut, 
are remains of two buildings, of three sides, cut out 
of the rock, forty feet high, ascended to by steps, 
now destroyed. Two of the sides are loaded with 
carvings, as of some religious ceremony, including 
the figure last mentioned. Former travellers have 
supposed these tombs to be of the kings of Persia; 
the natives call it Mujilis Gemsheed, or the Assembly 
of king Gemsheed, who resorted hither with his 
nobles. Under these reliefs several openings lead to 
a dark subterranean passage, of six feet by four, into 
the rock. At the foot of this mountain, to the south, 
are the remains of windows, like those in other parts 


of the palace ; and, a little westward from it, a stone 
staircase, leading to a magnificent square court, 
with pediments, and corners of pillars, and on those 
ancient inscriptions. In several parts of the palace 
are stone aqueducts. These venerable ruins have 
suffered from time, weather, and earthquakes; and 
are half huried in sand, washed down from the moun- 
tains. Persian writers ascribe it to King Gemsheed ; 
and the addition of one thousand columns more, to 
Queen Homaiae, eight hundred years after; but 
there is no epoch assigned." 

This account is from Mr. Francklin; we now 
turn to Mr. Morier. " Tavernier and Des Ferrieres- 
Sauvebceuf, are the only persons who have spoken 
slightingly of these ruins ; but there is no small 
reason to believe, that the latter never saw the ruins 
he speaks of; and that the former merely wrote from 
the dubious information of a capuchin, who resided 
for some years at Isfahan." 

Besides the inscriptions, above alluded to, there are 
others in Arabic, Persian, and Greek. Dr. Hyde 
observes, that the inscriptions are very rude and 
clumsy ; and that some, if not all, are in praise of 
Alexander ; and therefore, they must be later than 
that conqueror. 

The Persepolitan capitals convey the idea of rich 
silks and feathers having been tied round the tipper 
part of tall wooden posts ; and rich silks, feathers, 
and precious stones, have always been the materials 
with which Eastern monarchs form their most gor- 
geous decorations. 

These ruins bear incontrovertible evidence of 
antiquity ; and although in some things they resemble 
Egyptian, and in others Indian edifices, they, especially 
in the palace, possess leading features, sufficiently dis- 
tinct to entitle them to be considered as of a separate 
school. Yet, being, amongst numerous palaces, 


the only vestiges of lofty stone columns and numerous 
sculptures, and being traced immediately subsequent 
to the Egyptian expedition under Cambyses, they 
afford strong grounds for believing, that Thebaid 
influence, by example, or workmen, or both, led to 
these works, so unlike what had formerly been prac- 
tised in Persia. That the style was not spread over 
the empire, may be accounted for from its immediate 
subjugation by the Greeks. In latter times the use 
of the Gothic arches, and Turkish domes, highly 
ornamented, have been, throughout all Persia, ex- 
tensively introduced in their palaces, mosques, and 
tombs. The hand of the Musselman has likewise 
reached the remotest quarters of India *. 

The materials, of which the palace is composed, are 
chiefly hard blue stone ; but the doors and windows 
are of black marble, and so beautifully polished, that 
they reflect objects like a mirror. This high polish 
is agreeably alluded to in the account, given by Mr. 
Murray, in his historical account of travels in Asia, 
where he mentions that those ruins were visited by 
Garcias de Sylva in 1621. "The ambassador came 
to the spot called Cilminar, celebrated for the mighty 
ruins which cover its site the remains of the ancient 
Persepolis. They were diligently surveyed by our 
author, who describes them with an enthusiasm, 
which perhaps betrays him into some degree of ex- 
aggeration. He dwells on the superb range of columns, 
particularly those called the Forty Minarets ; the 
magnificent stairs by which they are ascended ; the 
vast interior square, four hundred and thirty feet by 
three hundred and ten, and the huge pieces of marble, 
without any apparent juncture. The sculptures were 
innumerable, and are conceived by him to represent 
the actions of a race of men prior to any now known, 
even to the ancient Babylonians and Persians. Yet, 

* Civil Architecture. 


though ascending to this vast antiquity, they are so 
entire, that, with the exception of a few fragments 
broken off, they might seem to have been recently 
finished. In comparing these with the monuments 
of other nations, lie observes, that the pyramids are 
mere artificial mountains ; while the temples of Greece 
are in ruins ; here only art and grandeur are united 
in pristine perfection. The high polish of the marble 
was amusingly shown by a mastiff, who, seeing his 
own figure reflected on the walls, was worked up to 
fury, which was always increased by the view of the 
corresponding gestures in the reflected image; till 
the scene being repeated whenever they came, they 
were at length obliged to chain and send him off." 

" In some places," says Mr. Fraser, " the number 
of sculptures is so great, that they bewilder the eye. 
Those figures, which are disposed in groups to suit 
the compartments, are variously habited and em- 
ployed. Some resemble royal guards and attendants, 
clothed in long robes, with brogue-like buskins, and 
fluted flat-topped caps, bearing bows and quivers, 
shields and spears. Others are placed in long rows, 
and appear to represent a procession of many nations, 
being differently dressed and appointed. They bear 
gifts and offerings, and lead animals of various sorts. 
Animals stand on a pedestal, which elevates them 
five feet. Their heads are so mutilated, that it is 
impossible to say what they were meant to represent ; 
their necks are decorated with collars of roses ; short 
curled hair covers the chest, back, and ribs ; and the 
workmanship is singularly correct and delicate. 

Almost every one in this procession holds in his 
hand a figure like the lotos ; a flower full of meaning 
to the ancients. That the Persians offered horses to 
the sun, and oxen to the moon, is fully shown by this 

" Though, at first sight," says Sir Robert Porter, > 


" I acknowledge that a general similitude to the 
Egyptian contour strikes the mind ; yet the impres- 
sion gradually wears away when the details are 
examined ; the finishing of the parts, and the grace 
and truth of the bas-reliefs, everywhere proclaiming 
the refined taste and master chisels of Greece. When 
comparing the colossal proportions of the structure, 
and its gigantic sculptures, with the delicacy, beauty, 
and perfection of the execution of its ornaments, I 
might say, with the poet, ' Here the Loves play on 
the bosom of Hercules.' " 

Sir Robert Porter supposes that these works of art 
were designed to perpetuate the memory of the grand 
religious procession of Cyrus the Great, described by 
Xenophon ; or, probably, that of Darius, at the fes- 
tival of the No Roz, or vernal equinox, receiving 
presents from the numerous nations of his vast 

" The numerous basso-relievos," says a celebrated 
French geographer, " are highly valuable, as illus- 
trating the ancient costumes and manners of the 
Persians. Those carved on the walls of the staircase 
are numerous, exhibiting trains of Persian subjects 
from the different parts of the kingdom, bringing 
presents to the sovereign, led forward in small par- 
ties by officers of the court, acting as masters of the 
ceremonies. In other parts are figures of the king on 
his throne ; and over him a symbolical representation 
of him in the form of a genius, or celestial type of 
the earthly potentate; conformable to the views incul- 
cated by the ancient Persian religion. Guards of 
different descriptions are also delineated ; and ani- 
mals, partly exaggerated and symbolical, and partly 
fair representations of nature, contribute to the 
effect of lively and extended ornament. Battles, 
single combats, and other incidents in the Persian 
history, are here, as well as in the other Persian relics 



of antiquity, represented sometimes by symbols, and 
sometimes according to nature." 

Mr. Morier says, that though Le Brim and Chardin 
have given only one line of figures on the right of the 
staircase, he thought it was evident that there must 
have been the same number on the left as there are 
on the right. He, therefore, hired some labourers 
from the surrounding villages to dig ; when, to his 
great delight, a second row of figures was discovered, 
highly preserved, the details of whose faces, hair, 
dresses, arms, and general character, seemed but as 
the work of yesterday. There is this distinction, 
however, between the two rows : the faces of all the 
figures to the right of the staircase are mutilated ; 
those of the newly-discovered ones are quite perfect ; 
and this shows that they must have been covered 
before the invasion of the Saracens : for to that people 
is attributed the mutilation of all the figures. . 

Le Brun counted one thousand three hundred 
figures of men and animals, the half of which were 
as large as life, without including those on the tombs; 
and he counted the fragments of no less than two 
hundred and five columns. Destruction, however, 
is going on very rapidly. In one part of the remains 
there were twenty-five pillars standing, where now 
there are only thirteen. Thus, 

Delia Valle, in 1621, saw 25 pillars standing. 

Herbert, in 1027 . . \ 1Q 

Olearius, in 1638 . . j 

Ksempfer, in 1696 '*. . ) ,_ . ,. 

Niebuhr, in 1765 '. . f 17 pfflare standing. 

Franklin, in 1796 . . ) 

Porter V 15 

Morier, &c y 

Lieut. Alexander, in 1826 13* 

Mr. Morier says, that on com paring LeBrun's, Char- 
* Fraser. 


din's, and Niebuhr's drawings with the sculptures, he 
found them in general correct in outline, but imperfect 
in details of dress, arms, &c. ; and that although the 
figures are in themselves ill-proportioned, inelegant, 
and deficient in anatomical drawing, they are ex- 
ceedingly interesting in general character, and have 
not been done justice to in the works of these travel- 
lers. They, moreover, furnish the best models of 
what were the nations, that invaded Greece with 
Xerxes, and that were subdued by Alexander. 

The Hall of Pillars appears to have been detached 
from the rest of the palace, and to have had a com- 
munication with the other parts by hollow galleries 
of stone. It is situated on an eminence, commanding 
an extensive view of the plain of Merdusht. It is 
strikingly grand, and conveys to the beholder the 
idea of a hall of audience of a powerful and warlike 

The Palace of Forty Pillars (called Shehel Setoon) 
was the favourite residence of the latter Sophi kings. 
The front is entirely open to the garden, and it is 
sustained by a double range of columns, upwards of 
forty feet high, each column shooting up from the 
united backs of four lions of white marble. The 
exhaustless profusion of the splendid materials, of 
which this palace is internally formed, which reflect 
their own golden or crystal lights on each other, 
along with all the variegated colours of the garden, 
give the appearance of an entire surface, formed of 
polished silver and mother-of-pearl set with precious 
stones; a scene well fitted for an Eastern poet's 
dream, or some magic vision in the tales of an Ara- 
bian Night. 

This hall, travellers suppose to be the precise part, 

which formed the banqueting -hall where Alexander 

displayed his triumph ; the place where the kings of 

Persia received the homage of their subjects, dis- 

K 2 


played their magnificence, and issued their bene- 
ficent orders ; also the private palace which was 
appropriated to the domestic intercourse of the mem- 
bers of the royal family. 

Sir Robert Porter says that he gazed at the niins 
with wonder and delight. " Besides the admiration 
which the general elegance of their form, and the 
exquisite workmanship of their parts excited," says 
he, " I never was made so sensible of the impression 
of perfect symmetry, comprising also in itself that of 
perfect beauty." 

Mr. Morier says, that on one of the highest columns 
is the remains of the sphinx, so common in all the 
ornaments of Persepolis ; that he could distinguish 
on the summit of every one a something quite uncon- 
nected with the capitals; so that the high columns 
have, strictly speaking, no capitals whatever, being 
each a long shaft to the very summit on which the 
sphinx rests. The capitals, he continues, of the 
lower columns are of a complicated order, composed 
of many pieces. There are also three distinct species 
of base. 

Deslandes imagined, that these columns never sup- 
ported a roof, but idols : on which Porter says, " I 
am not aware of a precedent in any idolatrous coun- 
try, for such a wilderness of gods as we should have 
found assembled here in effigy; and, least of all, 
could we expect to find such extravagant proofs of 
polytheism in a palace, that appears to have owed its 
origin to the immediate ancestors of Cyrus, the 
simple worshippers of Mithra, or the sun ; and the 
proTidest decorations of which may be dated from 
Darius, the follower of the philosophic Zoroaster, 
whose image, the god of his idolatry, is nothing 
grosser than the element of fire. To suppose these 
pillars to have been the supports of commemorating 
statues to the honour of the heroes of Persia, seems 


equally untenable ; for it is not in absolute monar- 
chies, as in republics, or in commonwealths, where 
kings form only one great member of the body 
politic, that the eminent warriors and worthies of 
the land have such monuments erected to them. In 
Persia we find the bas-reliefs of its kings and their 
attendants on the walls of its palaces : in Rome we 
find the statues of Brutus, and Cato, and Cicero, 
under the ruins of the forum." 

In regard to the magnificent colonnade, which 
occupies the terrace, " the imagination," says Mr. 
Fraser, " cannot picture a sight more imposing than 
those vast, solitary, mutilated pillars, which, founded 
in an age beyond the reach of tradition, have 
witnessed the lapse of countless generations, and 
seen dynasties and empires rise, flourish, and decay, 
while they still rear their grey heads unchanged." 

" On ascending the platform, on w y hich the palace 
of Chehelminar once stood," says Porter, " nothing 
can be more striking than the view of its ruins: so 
vast and magnificent, so fallen, mutilated and silent ; 
the court of Cyrus, and the scene of his bounties; 
the pavilion of Alexander's triumph, and, alas! the 
awful memorial of the wantonness of his power. 
But every object, when I saw it, was beautiful as 
desolate; amidst the pleasing memories of the past, 
awakening poignant regret, that such noble works of 
ingenuity should be left to the desert alone ; that the 
pile of indefatigable labour should be destined, from 
the vicissitudes of revolution, and the caprice, igno- 
rance, or fanaticism of succeeding times, to be left in 
total neglect; or, when noticed, doomed to tho 
predatory mallet, and every other attack of unre- 
flecting destruction." 

One of the most remarkable features of these ruins 
are the beds of aqueducts which are cut into the 
solid rock. The great aqueduct is discovered among 


a confused heap of stones, almost adjoining to the 
ruined staircase. In some places it is so narrow, 
that a man is obliged to crawl through; in others it 
enlarges, so that he can stand upright in it. 

Sir William Ouseley says, that he did not perceive 
among these monuments of antiquity, which the 
Takht exhibits: 1, any object appearing to be a 
vestige of the Arsacidan kings; '2, nor any vestige 
of the Sassanian dynasty, except two inscriptions; 
3, nor any representation of a crooked sword; 4, nor 
any human figure with a full face ; 5, nor any human 
figure mounted on horseback; 6, nor any figure of 
a woman; 7, nor any sculpture representing ships, 
or alluding to naval or marine affairs; 8, nor any 
arches; 9, nor any human figure sitting cross- 
legged, or resting on the knees and heels, according 
to modern usage in Persia; 10, nor any human figure 
in a state of nudity; 1 1, nor any vestiges either of 
wood or of brick; 12, nor any remains of gilding; 
13, nor any insulated statue, or sculptured figure, 
separated from the general mass of marble, and 
showing in full relief the entire form of any object. 
Nor did he see any figure, that has ever actually 
been an object of idolatrous veneration. " The 
reader will easily believe," says Sir William, " this 
catalogue of negative remarks might have been 
considerably augmented, when he considers the great 
extent of these stupendous ruins; the seeming anoma- 
lies of their plan; the extraordinary style of their 
architecture; the labyrinths or narrow passages, 
which have been excavated with much art in the 
adjacent mountains, and of which no traveller has 
yet ascertained either the termination or the myste- 
rious design; the multiplicity of ornamental devices 
in the ruins; and, above all, of the human figures 
which their sculptures exhibit. 

" That I have not exaggerated the wonders of 


Jemsheed's throne," continues this accomplished 
traveller and scholar, " will be evident, on a reference 
to the accounts, given by most respectable persons 
of various countries, who, in different ages, have 
visited its ruins. Not only youthful travellers, 
glowing with lively imaginations ; but those of sober 
judgment, matured by the experience of many years, 
seem, as they approach the venerable monuments, to 
be inspired by the genius of Eastern romance ; and 
their respective languages scarcely furnish epithets 
capable of expressing with adequate energy the 
astonishment and admiration, excited by such a 
stupendous object." The learning, which Sir William 
has expended upon Persepolis and other cities of the 
East, is astonishing. 

In regard to a portion of a platform, another 
traveller says : " To me it seemed to tell its 
own story ; lying like the buried body of the last 
Darius under the ruins of his capital, and speaking 
with a voice from the grave ; crying, in the words 
of Euripides over the like desolation ; ' Oh woe, 
woe, woe ! my country lost ! and thou, boast of my 
noble ancestors, how art thou shrunk ; how art thou 
vanished ! ' 

There are no appearances now either of a city, 
or a citadel, in any direction, about Persepolis. 
Three quarters of a mile from Persepolis is the 
tomb of the Persian hero, Rostum ; four chambers 
hollowed out in the rock, adorned with the altar of 
fire, the sun, and a mystic figure. Under the 
sculpture of the second chamber is a gigantic eques- 
trian figure, very .perfect, with others kneeling before 
him, and seeming to seize his hand. On one side of 
this is an inscription in ancient characters, different 
from those at Persepolis. 

A little to the north, at the foot of the rock, are 
two more figures of horsemen contending for a 


ring, and under the horses' feet two human heads* 
besides other attendants. Both these horses are 
called llustum, whose tomb is shown near the foot 
of the rock, a square building, of blue stone, 
twenty feet high, with windows and niches. 

In part of the rock to the east is a mutilated 
equestrian figure, with a horn on the left side of his 
forehead, called Iskunder zu el Kemeen, or Alex- 
ander, Lord of horns*. 

In regard to the excavations, Mr. Kinneir is dis- 
posed to believe, that they could have been applied 
to no other use than as receptacles for the dead. 
The city continued to rank among the first cities of 
the empire, until the Mahomedan conquest, and was 
the burial place of many of the Sassanian kings. 

The body of Yesdigird, the last of that powerful 
race, was transported from the distant province of 
Khorassan, to be interred at Persepolis, or rather, 
perhaps, in the cavities of Nuckshi Rustum. 

" Our first, and, indeed, lasting impressions," says 
Mr. Morier, " were astonishment at the immensity, 
and admiration at the beauties, of the ruins. Although 
there was nothing in the architecture of the build- 
ings, or in the sculptures and reliefs on the rocks, 
which could bear a critical comparison with the 
delicate proportions and perfect statuary of the 
Greeks; yet, without trying Persepolis by a stan- 
dard to which it never was amenable, we yielded at 
once to emotions the most lively and the most 

* In allusion to the horns of Jupiter Ammon. 
1 Diodorus ; Plutarch ; Arrian ; Quintus Curtius ; Pietro d 
laValle; Chardiu ; Le Brim ; Francklin , Encylop. Metropol. ; 
Rees; Brewster; Kinneir; Morier; Porter; Malcolm; Buck- 
ingham; Ousely; Fraser. 



THE whole land of Idumea, now a mountainous 
rocky desert, was vaguely known to be full of re- 
mains of ancient grandeur and magnificence ; but 
the country is inhabited by fierce and intractable 
tribes of Arabs, who seem to have inherited the 
spirit of their forefathers, and to proclaim to ap- 
proaching travellers, as the Edomites did to the 
children of Israel " Thou shall not pass." 

" The evidence," says Mons. De la Borde, "collected 
by Volnev distinctly shows, that the Idumeans were a 
populous and powerful nation, long posterior to the 
delivery of the remarkable prophecies concerning 
them, recorded in Scripture ; that they possessed a 
settled government ; that Idumea contained many 
cities ; that these cities have long been absolutely 
deserted ; that Idumea was eminent as a commercial 
nation ; and that it offered a much shorter route to 
India from the Mediterranean, than the one ordinarily 

Petra lies almost in a line between the Dead Sea 
and the gulf of Akaba, at the head of the Red Sea. 
" At what period of time it was founded it is im- 
possible to determine*. From the mention of its 
inhabitants, the Edomites or Idumeans, in scriptural 
history, as well as from the character of its monu- 
ments, it is evident, however, that the city must be 
of immense antiquity. The Edomites had command 
of ports on the Red Sea, which put the commerce of 
India and Ethiopia into their hands, and was the 
source, both at an early period of their history and 
in the time of the Roman empire, of all their great- 
ness. Petra was the centre point where the caravans 
rested between the Asiatic seas and the Mediterranean. 

* Chambers. 


The book of Job, a work of great antiquity, proves 
distinctly the great prosperity of his countrymen, the 
Edomites, and their acquaintance with many civi- 
lised arts. From it we learn that they wrought 
mines, manufactured wire- brass, and coined money; 
that they possessed mirrors, used scales and the 
weaver's shuttle, and had many musical instruments; 
and, finally, that they were well advanced in astro- 
nomy and natural history, and had correct notions 
of a Deity and a future state. They also cut inscrip- 
tions on tablets, and their rich men built splendid 
tombs. All these things betokened no mean degree 
of civilisation in the land of Edom at a very early 
date, and confirm the supposition that portions of 
the remains of Petra are among the oldest, if not 
really the oldest, existing monuments of man's 

Dr. Vincent* says, " Petra is the capital of Edom, 
or Seir, the Idumea, or Arabia Petrasa of the 
Greeks, the Nabotaea, considered by geographers, his- 
torians, and poets, as the source of all the precious 
commodities of the East." The whole commerce of 
the East, indeed, originally passed through Arabia 
Petrasa to Phoenicia, Tyre, and Egypt. " Notwith- 
standing," continues Dr. Vincent, " that the caravans 
decreased in proportion to the advance of navigation, 
still Petra Was a capital of consideration in the age 
of the Periplus ; there was still a proportion of the 
trade passed from Leuke Kome (the white village) 
to this city, and its princes maintained a rank similar 
to that of Herod in Judaea. In all the subsequent 
fluctuations of power, some commercial transactions 
are discoverable in this province ; and if Egypt 
should ever be under a civilised government again, 
Petrasa would be no longer a desert." 

" The Nabataii," says Pliny, " inhabited a city 
* Periplus of the Red Sea. 


called Petra, in a hollow somewhat less than two 
miles in circumference, surrounded by inaccessible 
mountains, with a stream running through it. It is 
distant from the town of Gaza, on the coast, six 
hundred miles, and from the Persian Gulf, one hun- 
dred and twenty-two." 

Strabo says, " the capital of the Nabataei is called 
Petra ; it lies in a spot, which is itself level and plain, 
but fortified all round with a barrier of rocks and 
precipices; within, furnished with a spring of ex- 
cellent quality, for the supply of water, and the 
irrigation of gardens; without the circuit, the coun- 
try is in a great measure desert, especially towards 

Such are the ancient accounts of a city, which, 
for many centuries, has been to Europe as if it did 
not exist. According to this geographer it was a 
great and flourishing city, standing on a high rock in 
a plain, hemmed in and fortified all round with a 
barrier of rocks and precipices ; and from this posi- 
tion it derived its name. 

Very little is known of the history of this remark- 
able city, and of this little we have only space for a 
few incidents. 

When Antigonus had got possession of Syria and 
Judasa, he sent one of his generals (Athenseus) 
against the people of Petra, because they had made 
several inroads into the country, and carried away a 
large booty. Athenosus succeeded so far, that he 
got possession of the town and likewise all the spoils 
deposited in it; but in his retreat the Arabs defeated 
his troops, regained all the spoils, and then took re- 
possession of their city. When they had done this, 
they wrote a letter to Antigonus, complaining of the 
injustice with which Athenaaus had treated them. At 
first Antigonus affected to disapprove of Athenaeus' 
proceedings ; but the moment he could assemble a 


sufficient number of- troops, he despatched his son, 
Demetrius, into Arabia, with orders to chastise the 
Petrseans with the utmost severity. This, however, 
was easier to be said than done. Demetrius marched 
thither, it is true ; but as he could not succeed in 
taking their city, he found himself compelled to 
make the best treaty he could, and march back 
again. A further account is given, by another writer : 
" When Demetrius*, by order of his father Anti- 
gonus, sate down before Petra with an army, and 
began an attack upon it, an Arab accosted him after 
the following manner : ' King Demetrius : what is it 
you would have ? What madness can have induced 
you to invade a people, inhabiting a wilderness, where 
neither corn, nor wine, nor any other thing, you can 
subsist upon, are to be found ? We inhabit these de- 
solate plains for the sake of liberty ; and submit to 
such inconveniences as no other people can bear in 
order to enjoy it. You can never force us to change 
our sentiments, nor way of life ; therefore, we desire 
you to retire out of our country, as we have never 
injured you ; to accept some presents from us; and 
to prevail with your father to rank us among his 
friends.' Upon hearing this, Demetrius accepted 
their presents, and raised the siege. " 

The city was, in the time of Augustus, the resi- 
dence of a monarch, and considered the capital of 
Arabia Petrasa. The country was conquered by 
Trajan, and annexed by him to the province of Pales- 
tine. In more recent times, Baldwin I. king of Jeru- 
salem, having made himself also master of Petra, 
gave it the name of the Royal Mountain. 

The probability that the ruins of Wady Mousa 

are those of ancient Petra, is thus stated by Colonel 

Leake : " The country of the Nabataei, of which 

Petra was the chief town, is well characterised by 

* Harmonies of Nature. 


Diodorus as containing some fruitful spots, but as 
being, for the most part, desert and waterless. With 
equal accuracy, the combined information of Eratos- 
thenes, Strabo, and Pliny, describes Petra as falling 
in a line drawn from the head of the Arabian gulf 
(Suez) to Babylon ; as being .at the distance of three 
or four days from Jericho, and of four or five from 
Phcenicon, which was a place now called Moyeleh, 
on the Nabatrean coast, near the entrance of the 
yElanitic Gulf ; and as situated in a valley of about 
two miles in length, surrounded with deserts, inclosed 
within precipices, and watered by a river. The lati- 
tude of 30 20', ascribed by Ptolemy to Petra, agrees 
moreover very accurately with that, which is the 
result of the geographical information of Burckhardt. 
The vestiges of opulence, and the apparent date of the 
architecture at Wady Mousa, are equally conforma- 
ble with the remains of the history of Petra found in 
Strabo, from whom it appears that, previous to the 
reign of Augustus, or under the latter Ptolemies, a 
very Large portion of the commerce of Arabia and 
India passed through Petra to the Mediterranean, 
and that armies of camels were required to convey 
the merchandise from Leuce Come ^Leuke Kome]j, 
on the Red Sea, through Petra, to Rhinocolura, now 
El Arish. But among the ancient authorities regard- 
ing Petra, none are more curious than those of 
Josephus, Eusebius, and Jerome, all persons well 
acquainted with these countries, and who agree in 
proving that the sepulchre of Aaron in Mount Hor 
was near Petra. From hence it seems evident that 
the present object of Mussulman devotion, under the 
name of the tomb of Haroun, stands upon the same 
spot whicli has always been regarded as the burying- 
place of Aaron ; and there remains little doubt, there- 
fore, that the mountain to the west of Petra is the 
Mount Hor of the Scriptures; Mousa being, perhaps, 


an Arabic corruption of Movra, where Aaron is 
said to have died." 

Till within these few years, these ruins have been 
to Europeans, as if they did not exist. In 1807, 
M. Seetzen, travelling under the name of Morse, 
made an excursion into Arabia Petrsea, as far as 
what he calls the frontiers of Idumea, but he did not 
approach the ruins of the capital*. The first tra- 
veller, who gave to modern Europe any knowledge of 
this city, was Burckhardt. In this journey, made 
in the summer of 1812, he encountered many dangers 
and difficulties ; not so much from the inaccesible 
nature of the country, as from the rapacity and pre- 
judices of the Arabs, who conceive that their ruined 
towns are all filled with hidden treasures ; and that 
European visitors come for the sole purpose of carry- 
ing these away. " I see now clearly," said his guide, 
" that you are an infidel, who have some particular 
business among the ruins of the city of our fore- 
fathers ; but, depend upon it, we shall not suffer you 
to take out a single para of all the treasures hidden 
therein ; for they are in our territory, and belong to 
us." With these difficulties, Burckhardt had little 
opportunity of doing more than merely ascertain- 
ing, that such ruins as those of Petra did actually 
exist. " I was particularly anxious," says he, in 
his journal, under date of August 22, " of visiting 
Wady Mousa, of the antiquities of which I had heard 
the country people speak in terms of great admira- 
tion ; and from thence I had hoped to cross the desert 
in a straight line to Cairo ; but my guide was afraid 
of the hazards of a journey through the desert. I 
therefore pretended to have made a vow to slaughter 
a goat in honour of Haroun (Aaron), whose tomb I 
knew was situated at the extremity of the valley ; 
and by this stratagem I thought that I should have 
* He is supposed to have been poisoned at Akaba, where he died. 


the means of seeing the valley in my way to the 
tomb. To this my guide had nothing to oppose ; the 
dread of drawing upon himself, by resistance, the 
wrath of Haroun, completely silenced him." Farther 
on, speaking of the antiquities of Wady Mousa, the 
same traveller says, " Of these I regret that I am not 
able to give a very complete account. I well knew 
the character of the people around me. I was with- 
out protection in the midst of a desert, where no tra- 
veller had ever before been seen ; and a close exami- 
nation of these works of the infidels, as they are 
called, would have excited suspicions that I was a 
magician in search of treasures. I should at least 
have been detained, and prevented from prosecuting 
my journey to Egypt, and in all probability should 
have been stripped of the little money which I pos- 
sessed, and, what was infinitely more valuable to me, 
of my journal-book. Future travellers may visit the 
spot under the protection of an armed force ; the 
inhabitants will become more accustomed to the 
researches of strangers, and the antiquities of Wady 
Mousa will then be found to rank amongst the most 
curious remains of ancient art." 

We shall now give some account of the travels of 
Mr. Banks, and the party by whom he was accom- 
panied.* tHaving quitted the tents of the Bedouins, 
with whom they had sojourned for a few days, they 
passed into the valley of Ellasar, where they noticed 
some relics of antiquity, which they conjectured were 
of Roman origin. Here they rested with a tribe of 
Arabs. The next day they pursued their journey, 
partly over a road paved with lava, and which, by 
its appearance, was evidently a Roman work, and 
stopped that evening at Shuback, a fortress in a 
commanding situation ; but incapable, by decay, of 
any effectual defence against European tactics. 
See Month. Mag. No. 367^ 


In the neighbourhood of this place they encoun- 
tered some difficulties from the Arabs, but which, by 
their spirit and firmness, they overcame, and pro- 
ceeded unmolested till they reached the tents of a 
chieftain called Eben Raschib, who took them under 
his protection. This encampment was situated on 
the edge of a precipice, from which they had a mag- 
nificent view of Monnt Gebel-Nebe-Haroun, the hill 
of the prophet Aaron (Mount Hor) ; and a distant 
prospect of Gebel-Tour (Mount Sinai), was also 
pointed out to them. In the fore-ground, on the 
plain below, they saw the tents of the hostile Arabs, 
who were determined to oppose their passage to 
Wady Mousa, the ruins of which were also in 

Perceiving themselves thus as it were waylaid, 
they sent a messenger to the chief, requesting per- 
mission to pass ; but he returned for answer, that 
they should neither cross his lands, nor taste his 
water. They were in fact in the land of Edom, to 
the king of which Moses sent messengers from Kadish. 
" Let us pass," said he, " I pray thee, through thy 
country : we will not pass through the fields, or 
through the vineyards ; neither will we drink of the 
waters of the well : we will go by the king's high- 
way ; we will not turn to the right hand nor to the 
left, until we have passed thy borders." But Edom 
said unto him, " Thou shalt not pass by me, lest I 
come out against thee with the sword." Numbers 
xx. 17, 18. 

The travellers, after some captious negotiation, at 
last obtained permission to pass ; but not to drink 
the waters. They did not, however, very faithfully 
observe this stipulation ; for on reaching the borders of 
a clear bright sparkling rivulet, their horse would taste 
the cooling freshness of its waters; and Eben Raschib, 
their protector, insisted also that the horses should bo 


gratified. On crossing this stream they entered on 
the wonders of Wady Mousa. 

The first object that attracted their attention 
was a mausoleum, at the entrance of which stood two 
colossal animals ; but whether lions or sphinxes they 
could not ascertain, as they were much defaced and 
mutilated. They then, advancing towards the prin- 
cipal ruins, entered a narrow pass, varying from 
fifteen to twenty feet in width, overhung by preci- 
pices, which rose to the general height of two hun- 
dred, sometimes reaching five hundred feet, and 
darkening the path by their projecting ledges. In 
some places niches were sculptured in the sides of 
this stupendous gallery, and here and there rude 
masses stood forward, that bore a remote and mys- 
terious resemblance ^ the figures of living things, 
but over which, time and oblivion had drawn an 
inscrutable and everlasting veil. About a mile 
within this pass, they rode under an arch, which 
connected the two -sides together; and they noticed 
several earthen pipes, which had formerly distributed 

Having continued to explore the gloomy wind- 
ings of this awful corridor for about two miles, the 
front of a superb temple burst on their view. A 
statue of Victory, with wings, filled the centre of an 
aperture in the upper part, and groups of colossal 
figures, representing a centaur, and a young man, 
stood on each side of the lofty portico. This mag- 
nificent structure is entirely excavated from the solid 
rock, and preserved from the ravages of the weather 
by the projections of the overhanging precipices. 
About three hundred yards beyond this temple, they 
met with other astonishing excavations ; and, on 
reaching the termination of the rock on their left, 
they found an amphitheatre, which had also been 
excavated, with the exception of the proscenium ; and 



this had fallen into ruins. On all sides the rocks 
were hollowed into innumerable chambers and sepul- 
chres ; and a silent waste of desolated palaces, and 
the remains of constructed edifices, filled the area to 
which the pass led. 

Since this, Captains Irby and Mangles, who 
accompanied Mr. Banks, have published an account 
of their journey : " Our defile brought us directly 
down into the valley of Wady Mousa, whose name 
had become so familiar to us. It is, at the point 
where we entered it, a stony but cultivated valley, of 
moderate size, without much character or beauty, 
running in a direction from east to west. A lesser 
hollow, sloping down to it from the southward, meets 
it at an angle. At the upper end of the latter valley 
is the village seen over stages ofianging fruit-grounds, 
which are watered by a spring. * * Some hundred 
yards below this spring begin the outskirts of the 
vast necropolis of Petra. * * As we advanced, 
the natural features of the defile grew more and more 
imposing at every step, and the excavations and 
sculpture more frequent cm both sides, till it pre- 
sented at last a continued street of tombs, beyond 
which the rocks, gradually approaching each other, 
seemed all at once to close without any outlet. There 
is, however, one frightful chasm for the passage of 
the stream, which furnishes, as it did anciently, the 
only avenue to Petra on this side (the eastern). 

"It is impossible," continues Captain Irby, "to 
conceive any thing more awful and sublime than the 
eastern approach to Petra. The width is not more 
than just sufficient for the passage of two horsemen 
abreast ; the sides are in all parts perpendicular, 
varying from four hundred to seven hundred feet in 
height ; and they often overhang to such a degree, 
that, without their absolutely meeting, the sky is 
intercepted, and completely shut out for one hundred 


yards together, and there is little more light than in 
a cavern." This half subterranean passage is more 
than two miles in length, and retains throughout 
the same extraordinary character. 

" After passing the Khasne, the defile becomes 
contracted again for three hundred yards, when sud- 
denly the ruins of the city burst on the view in their 
full grandeur, shut in on the opposite side by barren 
craggy precipices, from which numerous ravines and 
valleys, like those we had passed, branch out in all 
directions. (All of these ravines, however, that 
were explored, were found to terminate in a wall of 
rock, admitting of no passage outwards or inwards.) 
The sides of the mountains, covered with an endless 
variety of excavated tombs and private dwellings, 
presented altogether the most singular scene we ever 
beheld. We must despair to give the reader an idea 
of the peculiar effect of the rocks, tinted with most 
extraordinary hues, whose summits present us with 
Nature in her most Bavage and romantic form ; whilst 
their bases are worked out in all the symmetry and 
regularity of art, with colonnades and pediments, 
and ranges of corridors adhering to the perpen- 
dicular surface." 

The next party that visited Petra were Messrs. 
Laborde and Linant. After traversing Wada Araba, 
they entered the Wady Mousa, the " mysterious 
valley of Petra." Laborde confesses that, notwith- 
standing the perfect good feeling which existed be- 
tween the travellers and their conductors, he felt an 
indefinable kind of fear that the grand object of their 
journey the minute investigation of Petra might, 
after all, be defeated. The " Fellahs of Wady 
Mousa" were yet to be reconciled to their plan of 

It is a common belief amongst the Arabs, that 
immense treasures are buried beneath the ruins that 
L 2 


strew the rocky desert of Idumea ; and it is, of 
course, a natural inference, that the object of Euro- 
peans in visiting the country is, by magic or superior 
craft, to obtain access to those treasures, the posses- 
sion of which belongs to the lords of the soil. But 
in drawing near to the city, a danger, says M. 
Laborde, on which the travellers had not reckoned, 
proved a cause of their security. The plague had 
been brought from the shores of the Mediterranean 
into the secluded "Wady Mousa, and the Fellahs had 
fled from its violence. The travellers, during their 
inspection of the city, were comparatively free from 
annoyance : but they would have staid longer if 
their Arab conductors, who were afraid of the plague, 
had not teased them to return ; and the fact of their 
residence in Petra was beginning to spread. 

Messrs. Laborde and Linant arrived in Petra from 
the south ; and on reaching a point from which they 
could see the extent of the town, they were struck 
with amazement at the immense mass of ruins strewed 
around, and the extensive circle of rocks inclosing 
the place, pierced with an innumerable quantity of 
excavations. In fact, words are inadequate to convey 
a clear idea of the ruins of Petra. 

In Laborde's plan of Petra, the town is exhibited 
as completely encircled by huge rocks. These rocks 
are excavated in every variety of form. The only 
entrance to the town is from the south-west, by the 
windings of a narrow ravine, through which flows 
the river, or rather stream, of Wady Mousa*. 

" We wound round a peak," says M. Laborde, 
" surmounted by a single tree. The view from this 
point exhibited a vast frightful desert ; a chaotic sea, 
the waves of which were petrified. Following the 
beaten road, we saw before us Mount Hor, crowned 

* Wady signifies a valley ; Wady Mousa is the valley of Moses. 


by the tomb of the prophet, if we are to credit the 
ancient tradition, preserved by the people of that 
country. Several large and ruinous excavations, 
which are seen in the way, may arrest the attention 
of a traveller who is interested by such objects, and 
has no notion of those, still concealed from his view 
by the curtain of rocks which extends before him ; 
but at length the rock leads him to the heights above 
one more ravine ; whence he discovers within his 
horizon the most singular spectacle, the most en- 
chanting picture, which Nature has wrought in her 
grandest mood of creation ; which men, influenced by 
the vainest dreams of ambition, have yet bequeathed 
to the generations that were to follow them. At 
Palmyra, Nature renders the works of man insig- 
nificant by her own immensity and her boundless 
horizon, within which some hundreds of columns 
seem entirely lost. Here, on the contrary, she seems 
delighted to set, in her most noble frame- work, his 
productions, which aspire, and not unsuccessfully, to 
harmonize with her own majestic, yet fantastic, ap- 
pearance. The spectator hesitates for a moment, as 
to which of the two he is the more impelled to 
admire ; whether he is to accord the preference to 
Nature, who invites his attention to her matchless 
girdle of rocks, wondrous as well for their colour as 
their forms ; or to the men who feared not to mingle 
the works of their genius with such splendid efforts 
of creative power." 

We now give an abstract of what has been written 
of this city, mainly taken from a very intelligent pe- 
riodical journal, published at Edinburgh (Chambers's 

Nearly at the spot where the defile opens into the 
site of the city, one excavation in the site of the pass 
arrests the attention of the traveller. This is a vast 
circular theatre hewn out of the solid rock, consisting 


of thirty -three seats of stone sloping upwards, and 
surmounted, and in some degree sheltered, by the 
rocks above. The countless tombs in the immediate 
vicinity of this ruined edifice led M. Laborde to re- 
mark on the extraordinary taste of the people of 
Petra, in selecting a place of amusement, encircled on 
air sides by the mansions and memorials of death ! 

It is unnecessary to enter into a minute descrip- 
tion of the excavated tombs and sepulchres, studding 
the rocky walls around Petra. The basis of the archi- 
tecture, in almost all cases, is Grecian, mingled with 
Roman ; though in many instances a style is apparent, 
which must be regarded as Egyptian, or rather the 
native style of Petra. Many of the chambers within 
the tombs are so immense, that their real character 
might be doubted ; were it not for the recesses they 
contain, destined, it is plain, for the reception of 
bodies. How enormous must have been the labour 
and expense, necessary for the excavation of these 
sepulchres, some of which are large enough to stable 
the horses of a whole tribe of Arabs ! It is impossible 
to conceive that such resting-places could have been 
appropriated to any other persons than rulers or 
rich men, and great, indeed, as Mr. Burckhardt 
remarks, " must have been the opulence of a city, 
which could dedicate such monuments to the memory 
of its rulers." Some of the finest mausoleums, as we 
have already seen, are not in the main valley, but in 
the ravines leading from it, where their multiplicity 
is beyond conception. In a ravine on the north-west, 
M. Laborde beheld one, called by the natives El- 
Deir, or the Convent, of miich larger dimensions than 
the Khasne, and, like it, sculptured out of the rock, 
though not in a style so perfect. 

As the visitor advances into the area, he beholds 
in front of him one of the most splendid and beauti- 
ful objects in or around Petra, and what may justly 


be called one of the wonders of antiquity. This is 
the front of a great temple, nearly sixty- five feet in 
height, excavated from the solid rock, and embel- 
lished with the richest architectural decorations, all 
in the finest state of preservation. Six pillars, thirty- 
five feet high, with Corinthian capitals, support an 
ornamented pediment, above which stand six smaller 
pillars, the centre pair crowned by a vase, and sur- 
rounded by statues and other ornaments. Mere 
description can do no justice to this building. Near 
it stands a magnificent triumphal arch. 

This temple is termed by the Arabs " Khasne Pha- 
raon" Pharaoh's treasure ; from their supposition 
that here are hidden those stores which they have 
vainly sought for elsewhere. In the sarcastic words 
of M. Laborde, " It was quite in accordance with 
their character, after having fruitlessly spoiled the 
monuments inclosed in the tombs, to seek the spot 
where the constructor of such magnificent edifices had 
deposited his treasure. That spot they supposed they 
had found at last it was the urn which may be dis- 
tinguished on the top of the monument. This must 
contain all the riches of the great king ; but, un- 
happily, it is out of their reach, and only taunts their 
desire. Consequently, each time that they pass 
through the ravine, they stop an instant, fire at the 
urn, and endeavour to break it, in the hope of bring- 
ing it down and securing the treasure. Their efforts 
are fruitless ; and they retire murmuring against the 
king of Giants, who has so adroitly placed his treasure 
120 feet above their reach." 

The temple is hewn in an enormous and compact 
block of freestone, which is lightly coloured with 
oxide of iron. Its high state of preservation is owing 
to the shelter which the surrounding rocks afford it 
against the wind, and also in preserving the roof from 
the rain. The only traces of deterioration are in the 


statues at the base of the column, which has been 
produced by the humidity undermining the parts 
most in relief, or nearest to the ground. To the same 
cause may be attributed the fall of one of the columns 
which was attached to the front. Had the structure 
been built instead of being hewn, the fall of this 
column would have dragged down the entire building. 
As it is, it merely occasions a void, which does not de- 
stroy the effect of the whole. " It has even been use- 
ful," says M. Laborde, "in so far as it enabled u?, by 
taking its dimensions, to ascertain the probable height 
of the temple, which it would otherwise have been im- 
possible to do with precision." He calls the temple 
" one of the wonders of antiquity," and apologises for 
the expression in the following manner : " We are 
apt, doubtless, to charge the traveller with exaggera- 
tion who endeavours, by high-sounding eulogiums, 
to enhance the merit of his fatigues, or the value of 
his labours : but here, at least, plates designed with 
care will establish the truth of a description which 
might otherwise appear extravagant." 

The interior of the temple does not fulfil the expec- 
tations, created by the magnificence of the exterior. 
Several steps conduct to a room, the door of which 
is perceived under the peristyle. "Although the 
chamber is hewn regularly, and is in good proportion, 
the walls are rough, its doors lead to nothing, and 
the entire appears to have been abandoned while the 
work was yet in progress. There are two lateral 
chambers, one of which is irregular, and the other 
presents two apertures, which seem to have been 
hewn for two coffins." 

Captain Irby speaks of this temple in the follow- 
ing manner : " The position is one of the most 
beautiful that could be imagined for the front of a 
great temple, the richness and exquisite finish of 
whose decorations offer a most remarkable contrast to 


the savage scenery that surrounds it. It is of a very 
lofty proportion, the elevation comprising two stories. 
The taste is not exactly to be commended ; but many 
of the details and ornaments, and the size and pro- 
portion of the great doorway especially, to which 
there are five steps of ascent from the portico, are very 
noble. No part is built, the whole being purely a 
work of excavation ; and its minutest embellishments, 
wherever the hand of man has not purposely effaced 
and obliterated them, are so perfect, that it may be 
doubted whether any work of the ancients, except- 
ing, perhaps, some on the banks of the Nile, have 
come down to our time so little injured by the lapse 
of ages. There is, in fact, scarcely a building of 
forty years' standing in England so well preserved in 
the greater part of its architectural decorations. Of 
the larger members of the architecture nothing is de- 
ficient, excepting a single column of the portico ; the 
statues are numerous and colossal." 

The brook of "NVady Mousa, after leaving the eastern 
defile by which it entered, passes directly across the 
valley, and makes its exit by a rocky ravine on the 
west, almost impassable by the foot of man. On the 
banks of this stream are situated the principal ruins 
of the city. There, at least, are found those in chief 
preservation for, properly speaking, the whole valley 
may be said to be covered with ruins. 

The remains of paved-ways, bridges, and other 
structures, may still be seen among the other ruins of 
the valley. Not the least interesting object, observ- 
able in the vale, is the aqueduct which is continued 
from the eastern approach along the face of the rocks 
constituting the eastern Avail of this city. This aque- 
duct is partly hewn and partly built, and is yet in a 
very perfect condition. 

The only inscriptions, hitherto discovered at Petra, 
are two which M. Laborde met with on tombs. One 


of these, in Greek characters, was so much mutilated 
as to be unreadable, and the other, a Latin one, noti- 
fied that a certain Roman consul died at Petra, when 
governor of Arabia. 

The only living being found residing in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of the ruins, with the exception 
of the reptiles that infest the excavations, was a 
decrepit old man, who had lived for forty years on 
the top of Mount Ilor, an eminence at the west of 
Petra, where a tomb, said to be that of Aaron, is 
seen. The wandering Arabs, who revere the Jewish 
traditions, hold this place as sacred, and support its 
old guardian by occasional pilgrimages and con-, 

* We may here give place to a few pertinent observations, in 
regard to the infancy and old age of nations, written by M. Claret 
Fleurien : " If we are not disposed to challenge all the testimonies 
of antiquity, we cannot refuse to believe that the Old World has had 
its infancy and its adolescence : and, observing it in its progressive 
career, we may consider it as in its maturity, [and foresee, in an, 
unlimited time, its decrepitude and its end. The New World, like 
the Old, must have had its periods. America, at the epoch of its dis- 
cover)', appears as if little remote from creation, from infancy, if we 
consider it in regard to the men by whom it was inhabited : the 
greater part of its people were still at the point where our ancestors 
and those of all the nations, at this day civilised, were four thousand 
years ago. Read what travellers and historians have related to us 
of the inhabitants of the New World ; you will there find the man 
of the Old one in his infancy : among the small scattered nations, 
you will fancy that you see the first Egyptians ; wild and savage men, 
living at random, ignorant of the conveniences of life, even of the 
use of fire, and not knowing how to form arms for defending them- 
selves against the attack of beasts 4 : in the Pesserais of Tierra del 
Fuego,the savage Greeks, living on the leaves of trees, and, as it were, 
browsing on grass, before Pelasgus had taught the Arcadians to con- 
struct huts, to clothe themselves with the skin of animals, and to eat 
acorns b : in the greater part of the savages of Canada, the ancient 
Scythians, cutting off the hairof theirvanquished enemies, anddriuk- 

"Diodor. Book I. Parag. 1. Art. 3. 
b Pausanias. Book VIII. Chap. 1. 


For want of space we must here close our account ; 
referring for a more enlarged knowledge of this cele- 
brated " city of the desert," to the travels of Burck- 
hardt, Captains Irby and Mangles, and MM. Laborde 
and Linant. The following references lead to some of 

ing their blood out of their skull* : in several of the nations of the 
north and south, the inhabitant of the East Indies, ignorant of culture, 
subsisting only on fruits, covered with skins of beasts, and killing 
the old men and the infirm, who could no longer follow in their 
excursions the rest of the family 1 " : in Mexico, you will recognize 
the Cimbri and the Scythians, burying alive with the dead king the 
great officers of the crown c : in Peru as well as Mexico, and even 
among the small nations, you will find Druids, Vates, Eubages, 
mountebanks, cheating priests and credulous men d : on every part 
of the Continent and in the neighbouring islands, you will see the 
Bretons or Britons, the Picts of the Romans, and the Thracians, 
men and women, painting their body and face, puncturing and mak- 
ing incisions in their skin ; and the latter condemning their women 
to till the ground, to curry heavy burdens, and imposing on them 
the most laborious employments e : in the forests of Canada, in the 
Brazils, and elsewhere, you will find Cantabri causing their enemies 
whom they have made prisoners of war to undergo torture, and 
singing the song of the dead round the stake where the victim is 
expiring in the most frightful torments f : in short, every where, 
America will present to you the horrible spectacle of those human 
sacrifices, with which the people of both worlds have polluted the 
whole surface of the globe ; and several nations of the New World, 
like some of those of the Old , will make you shrink with horror 
at the sight of those execrable festivals, where man feeds with 
delight on the flesh of his fellow-creature. The picture which the 
New World exhibited to the men of the Old who discovered it, 
therefore, offered no feature of which our history does not furnish us 
with a model in the infancy of our political societies." 

Herodot. Book IV. 

b Ibid. Book III. and IV. Val. Max. Book II. 

c Ibid, and Strabo. 

d In the ancient history of Gaul, in that of the British islands, 
and in all the histories of the ancient times of Europe, of the North, 
of Asia, &c. 

e Herodot. Book II. f Strabo, Book II. 

B The Irish and the Massagetae, according to Strabo, Book II. 
The Scythians, according to Eusebius, Preparat. Evangel. Book II, 
Chap. 4, and other people of the Old Continent. 


the passages, in which the fate of this city was foretold 
by the sacred writers *. 

" I will stretch out mine hand upon Edom, and will cut off 
man and beast from it, and I will make it desolate from Temau ; 
and they of Dedan shall fall by the sword. And I will lay my 
vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel, and they 
shall do in Edom according to mine anger, and according to my fury, 
and they shall know my vengeance, saith the Lord God." Ezekiel, 
xxv. 13, 14. 

" Say unto it, thus saith the Lord God, behold, O Mount Seir, I 
am against thee, and I will stretch out mine hand against thee, and 
I will make thee most desolate, I will lay thy cities waste, and thou 
shall be desolate, and thou shall know thai I am the Lord. Be- 
cause thou hast had a perpetual hatred, and hast shed the blood of 
the children of Israel, by the force of the sword, in the time of their 
calamity." Ezekiel, xxxv. 3, 4. 

" The cormorant and the bittern shall possess it, the owl also aud 
the raven shall dwell in it, and he shall stretch out upon it the line 
of confusion, and the stones of emptiness. The ihorns shall come 
up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof, and 
it shall be an habitation of dragons, and a court for owls." Isaiah, 
xxxiv. 11, 13. 

"And Edom shall be a desolation; every one, that goeth by it, 
shall be astonished, and shall hiss at the plagues thereof." Jere- 
miah, xlix. 17. 

" And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph 
a flame, and the house of Esau for stubble, and they shall kindle 
in them, and devour them, and there shall not be any remaining of 
the house of Esau." Obadiah, 18. 


THIS was a town of Arcadia, called after Phigalus. 
Bacchus and Diana had each a temple there, and the 
public places were adorned with the statues of illus- 
trious natives. " In the forum," says Anacharsis, 
" is a statue which might serve for the history of 
the arts. The feet are almost joined, and the 
pendant hands are fastened close to the sides and 
thighs; for in this manner were statues formerly 
sculptured in Greece, and thus they are still in 

* Diodorus ; Strabo ; Pliny ; Vincent ; Volney ; Seetzcn; Burck- 
Lardt ; Irby and Mangles ; Laborde ; Chambers ; Knight. 


Egypt. It was erected for the athlete Arrhacion, 
who gained one of the prizes in the 52nd, 53rd, 
and 54th Olympiads. We may hence conclude 
that, two centuries before our time, many statuaries 
still servilely followed the Egyptian taste." 

This town was situated on a high and craggy 
rock, near Megalopolis. Being the key, as it were, 
of Arcadia, the Lacedemonians laid siege to it and 
took it 659 B. c. In order to regain the city, the 
inhabitants consulted the oracle of Delphos, who 
directed them to select one hundred men from 
Orestasium to assist them. These brave persons 
perished; but the Orestasians, in concert with the 
Phigalians, attacked their enemies and routed them. 
The Phigalians afterwards erected a monument in 
honour of the one hundred men who had fallen. 

There was one temple dedicated to Diana Conser- 
vatrix, in which was her statue, and another dedi- 
cated to Apollo the Deliverer. 

Chandler relates, that M. Joachim Bocher, an 
architect of Paris, was desirous of examining a build- 
ing near Caritena. He was still remote from that 
place, when he perceived a ruin, two hours from 
Verrizza, which prevented him from going further. 
This ruin stands on an eminence, sheltered by lofty 
mountains. The temple, it is supposed, was that of 
Apollo Epicurius, near Phigalia. It was of the 
Doric order, and had six columns in front. The 
number which ranged round the cella was thirty- 
eight. Two at the angles are fallen; the rest are 
entire, in good preservation, and support their ar- 
chitraves. Within them lies a confused heap. The 
stone inclines to grey, with reddish veins. To its 
beauty is added great precision in the workmanship. 
These remains had their effect, striking equally the 
mind and the eye of the beholder. 

The walls of Phigalia alone remain; they were 


flanked with towers, both square and circular. One 
gate towards the east is yet covered by blocks, which 
approach each other like the underside of a stair- 
case. There has been a temple, of fine limestone, of 
the Doric order, on which is an inscription. 

Pausanias describes Phigalia as surrounded by 
mountains, of which one named Cotylium was distant 
about forty stadia, or five miles. The temple of 
Apollo stood on this, at a place called Bassse. 

Under the ruins of this temple, the Baron Von 
Stachelberg discovered, in 1812, some curious bas- 
reliefs, which are now in the British Museum. 
They were executed in the time of Pericles, the 
temple having been built by Ictinus, the architect of 
the Parthenon. 

These bas-reliefs, representing the battle of the 
Centaurs and Lapithse, and the combat between 
the Greeks and Amazons, composed the frieze in 
the interior of the cella, in the temple of Apollo the 
Deliverer. The battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae is 
sculptured on eleven slabs of marble; that of the 
Greeks and Amazons occupies twelve. 

Besides these there are other fragments from the 
same temple: 1. A fragment of a Doric capital of 
one of the columns of the peristyle. 2. A fragment 
of an Ionic temple of one of the columns of the 
cella. 3. Two fragments of the tiles, which 
surmounted the pediments, and formed the superior 
moulding. 4. Fragments of metopes, found in the 

The following observations lately appeared in the 
Times newspaper: " In the saloon of the British 
Museum are the celebrated bas-reliefs, found at Mount 
Cobylus, near the ancient city of Phigalia, in Arcadia. 
They represent the battles of the Greeks and Amazons, 
and those of Theseus and the Lapithse against the 
Centaurs. According to Pausanias, they were the 


work of Ictinus, a contemporary of Phidias. The 
grandeur of conception displayed in their composition, 
the variety of attitude and action shown, is not 
surpassed by those in the Elgin saloon, though their 
execution may be inferior. The combat of the 
Greeks and Amazons occupies twelve slabs of marble, 
and that of the Centaurs eleven. Both the history 
of the Amazons and the battle, here represented, are 
obscure. The origin of the name is derived from 
two words, ' Ama' or ' Ma,' which in all old lan- 
guages signifies ' mother' its ubiquity is proof of 
its antiquity and the ancient name of the sun, as 
found in the Temple of Heliopolis, in Egypt, is 
'On,' 'Ton,' or 'Zoan;' but that any nation of 
Amazons, in the vulgar acceptation of the word, 
ever existed, is more than problematical. Faber 
says that those nations, who worshipped the female 
principle of the world, such as the Iberians, the 
Cimmerians, the Moot*, the Atalantians of Mauri- 
tania, and the lonians, were Amazons, and a cele- 
brated invasion of Attica by them is mentioned. 
We are told that Eumolphus, an Egyptian, was the 
leader; and Pausanias mentions an Attic victory or 
trophy, called an Amazonium, erected to their manes. 
According to Arrian, the Queen of the Amazons, on 
the borders of the Caspian Sea, sent ambassa- 
dors with defiance to Alexander. In the time of 
Pompey, they were still supposed to exist ; and Dion 
Cassius says, that in the Mithridatic war buskins 
and boots were found by the Roman soldiers, 
undoubtedly Amazonian. The worship of the male 
and female deities in Greece caused peace between 
the sects, and the origin of their quarrel and their 
name was forgotten in Europe. In Asia the Persians 
and the Jews seem still to have formed an exception. 
Cambyses, in his invasion, destroyed in Egypt every- 


thing connected with the female worship; he overturn- 
ed the sphinxes, but he left the obelisks untouched. 
The scene of the combat, depicted on these ta- 
blets, is drawn with great force and spirit : some of 
the Amazons have long tunics, others short vestments, 
only reaching to the knee; one on horseback has 
trousers, and loose sleeves reaching to the wrist ; on 
the head of some is the Archaic helmet, and those 
without have the hair fastened in a knot on the top; 
they all but one wear boots, which reach to the 
knees; their robes are fastened with a zone; some 
have two belts crossed between the breasts; their 
arms are swords, and the double-headed Scythian 
battle-axe, as also spears, bows, and arrows. None 
of these last are preserved, they being probably of 
bronze, as the holes remain, and added afterwards, 
as was the custom with ancient sculpture; the shields 
are small, and of the lunar form, opening at top. 
The Athenian warriors have cloaks, or tunics, 
fastened round the neck, and tightened about the 
waist by a belt; it reaches no lower than the knee; 
the right arm is bare. In one group a fierce warrior 
has seized a mounted Amazon by the hair ; he is 
dragging her from the horse, which is rearing. The 
action of the female figure is very fine: she firmly 
maintains her seat, till relieved by another ; who, 
with uplifted axe and shield to protect her from the 
flying arrows, shall have brained her antagonist. 
The 18th slab has five figures and two horses; in 
one the horse has fallen, and an Athenian warrior 
has his right hand fixed on the throat of the Amazon, 
while, with the other hand, he has grasped her foot, 
and drags her, who seems to have lost all recollection, 
from the horse's back. The position of the centre 
figure is very fine: he is within the guard of the 
shield of the Amazon, and is striking a deadly blow 


with his hand, in which has heen a sword. In 
another group an Athenian has fallen ; he rests on 
his left hand, and extends his right in supplication 
to the female warriors who surround him, and is in 
the act of surrendering, while behind him an Amazon 
is striking him with her battle-axe. In the sculp- 
tures of the Lapithee and Centaurs all the warriors, 
with the exception of Theseus, are armed with 
swords, who, as an imitator of Hercules, has a club. 
The shields are large and circular; they have a 
broad border round the circumference, and resemble 
those of the Ephibi of Athens. Of the helmets there 
are four kinds one which fits the head closely, 
without either crest or vizor; another with a crest, 
and one with guards for the ears, and a fourth with 
a pointed vizor. In one of the sculptures Theseus is 
seen attacking a Centaur; he has the head of the 
monster under his left arm, and with the right, which 
probably held a club of bronze, as the hole remains, 
he is destroying him. He appears to have arrived 
just in time to save Hippodomia, whom the 
Centaur has disrobed, and who is clinging to the 
statue of Diana. From the tiara behind, and the 
lion's skin, this figure is supposed to be Theseus; 
the Centaur is Eurytion; a female figure is also seen 
pleading on her behalf, and, in the distance, a Goddess 
is hastening in a car drawn by stags to the rescue ; 
this probably is Diana, as the temple was dedicated 
to Apollo." 

The city of Phigalia is now become a mere village, 
known by the name of Paolitza *. 


THIS city has long been famous ; for it was in a 
plain near to it that was fought the celebrated battle 
between the Greeks and Persianst. On the evening 

* Chandler ; Bai thelemy ; Rees ; B:e\vster ; Cell, f Rollin. 


previous to the engagement, the Grecians held a 
council of war, in which it was resolved, that they 
should decamp from the place they were in, and 
march to another more conveniently situated for 
water. Night being come on, and the officers en- 
deavouring at the head of their corps to make more 
haste than ordinary to the camp marked out for 
them, great confusion happened among the troops, 
some going one way and some another, without ob- 
serving any order or regularity in their march. At 
last they halted near the little city of Plataea. 

On the first news of the Grecians being decamped, 
Mardonius drew his army into order of battle, and 
pursued them with hideous shouting and bawling of 
his barbarian forces, who thought they were ad- 
vancing not so much in order of battle, as to strip 
and plunder a flying enemy ; and their general like- 
wise, making himself sure of victory, proudly in- 
sulted Artaba/us ; reproaching him with his fearful 
and cowardly prudence, and with the false notion, he 
had conceived of the Lacedaemonians, who never fled, 
as ho pretended, before an enemy ; whereas here was 
an instance of the contrary. But the general found 
quickly this was no false or ill-grounded notion. He 
happened to fall in with the Lacedaemonians, who 
were alone and separated from the body of the Gre- 
cian army, to the number of fifty thousand men, 
together with three thousand of the Tegeatae. The 
encounter was exceedingly fierce and resolute on both 
sides ; the men fought with the courage of lions, and 
the barbarians perceived that they had to do with 
soldiers, who were determined to conquer or die on 
the field. The Athenian troops, to whom Pausanias 
sent an officer, were already upon their march to their 
aid i but the Greeks who had taken part with the 
Persians, to the number of fifty thousand men, went 
out to meet them on their way, and hindered them 


from proceeding any farther. Aristides, with his 
little body of men, bore up firmly against them, and 
withstood their attack, telling them how insignificant 
a superiority of numbers is against true courage and 
bravery. The battle being thus divided, and fought 
in two different places, the Spartans were the first 
who broke in upon the Persian forces, and put them 
in disorder. Mardonius, their general, falling dead 
of a wound he had received in the engagement, all 
his army betook themselves to flight ; and those 
Greeks, who were engaged against Aristides, did the 
same thing as soon as they understood the barbarians 
were defeated. The latter ran away to their former 
camp which they had quitted, where they were 
sheltered and fortified with an inclosure of wood. 

The manner, in which the Lacedaemonians treated 
the Plataeans some time after, is, also, not unworthy 
of remembrance. About the end of the campaign, 
which is that wherein Mitylene was taken, the Pla- 
taeaus, being in absolute want of provisions, and 
unable to make the least defence, surrendered, upon 
condition that they should not be punished till they 
had been tried and judged in form of justice. Five 
commissioners came for that purpose from Lacedae- 
mon ; and these, without charging them for any 
crime, barely asked them, Whether they had done 
any service to the Lacedtemonians and the allies in 
war ? The Platasans were much surprised as well as 
puzzled at this question, and were sensible that it 
had been suggested by the Thebans, their professed 
enemies, who had vowed their destruction. They 
therefore put the Lacedaemonians in mind of the 
services, they had done to Greece in general ; both at 
the battle of Artemesium, and that of Platasa, and 
particularly in Lacedsemonia, at the time of the 
earthquake, which was followed by the revolt of 
their slaves. The only reason, they declared, of their 
M 2 


having joined the Athenians afterwards, was to 
defend themselves from the hostilities of the Thebans, 
against whom they had implored the assistance of 
the Lacedaemonians to no purpose : that if that was 
imputed to them as a crime, which was only their 
misfortune, it ought not however entirely to obliterate 
the remembrance of their former services. " Cast 
your eyes," said they, " on the monuments of your 
ancestors, which you see here, to whom we annually 
pay all the honours, which can be rendered to the 
manes of the dead. You thought fit to entrust their 
bodies with us, as we were eye-witnesses of their 
bravery ; and yet you will now give up their ashes to 
their murderers, in abandoning us to the Thebans, 
who fought against us at the battle of Plataea. Will 
you enslave a province where Greece recovered its 
liberty ? Will you destroy the temples of those gods 
to whom you owe the victory ? Will you abolish the 
memory of their founders, who contributed so greatly 
to your safety ? On this occasion, we may venture 
to say, our interest is inseparable from your glory ; 
and you cannot deliver up your ancient friends and 
benefactors to the unjust hatred of the Thebans, 
without eternal infamy to yourselves." 

One would conclude, that these just remonstrances 
would have made some impression on the Lacedae- 
monians ; but they were biassed more by the answer 
the Thebans made, and which was expressed in the 
most bitter and haughty terms against the Platasans, 
and, besides, they had brought their instructions from 
Lacedaemon. They stood, therefore, to their first 
question, " Whether the Plataaans had done them 
any service during the war ?" And making them pass 
one after another, as they severally answered " No," 
each was immediately butchered, and not one escaped. 
About two hundred were killed in this manner; and 
twenty-five Athenians, who were among them, met 


the same unhappy fate. Their wives, who were 
taken prisoners, were made slaves. The Thebans 
afterwards peopled their city with exiles from Megara 
and Plata^a ; but, the year after, they demolished the 
latter entirely. It was in this manner the Lacedaemo- 
nians, in the hopes of reaping great advantages from 
the Thebans, sacrificed the Platzeans to their animo- 
sity, ninety -three years after their first alliance with 
the Athenians. 

Herodotus relates, that cenotaphs, composed of heaps 
of earth, were raised near the town ; but no vestige of 
these remain ; nor are there any traces of the sepul- 
chres of those who fell at Plataea. These are men- 
tioned by Plutarch, who says, that at the anniversary 
of those who were killed at Platea, the Archon 
crossed the city to go to the sepulchres, and drawing 
water from the fountain in a vase, washed the columns 
of the tombs, and made libations of wine, oil, milk, 
and perfumes. 

Here was a temple of Minerva, in which Polyg- 
notus executed a group of the return of Ulysses ; 
and a statue of the goddess of great size, of gilt wood; 
but the face, hands, and feet, were of ivory. Also a 
temple of Diana, in which was a monument of 
Euchidas, a citizen of Plataea, to commemorate his 
having run from Platasa to Delphos, and returned 
before sunset : he expired a few minutes after. The 
distance was thirty-seven leagues and a half. 

Mr. Dodwell says, he could find no certain 
traces of this temple, nor of one dedicated to Ceres, 
unless several heaps of large stones might be re- 
garded as such. Neither could he find any remains 
of a stadium. He saw, however, a frieze of white 
marble, enriched with Ionic ornaments. 

Dr. Clarke says, that the upper part of the pro- 
montory is covered with ruins ; amidst which he 
found some pieces of serpentine porphyry ; and the 


peasants, he says, in ploughing the soil in the neigh- 
bourhood, find their labours frequently obstructed 
by large blocks of stone, and earth, filled with 
broken remains of -terra cottas. The ground-plot 
and foundations of temples are visible among the 
vestiges of the citadel, and remains of towers arc 
conspicuous upon the walls. 

The walls form a triangle of about three thousand 
three hundred yards in compass. In some parts 
they are in a high state of- preservation, and ex- 
tremely interesting ; since they were rebuilt in the 
reign of Alexander, after having been destroyed by 
the Persians. They are of regular masonry, eight 
feet in thickness, and fortified by towers, most of 
which are square. 

The view from the ruins is extremely interesting 
and beautiful. " When we look towards Thebes," 
says Mr. Dodwell, " we behold the Asopos, and the 
other small streams, winding through this memorable 
plain, which, towards the west, is separated by alow 
range of hills from the equally celebrated field of Leuc- 
tra; while the distant view is terminated by the two 
pointed summits of Helicon, and the snow-topped 
heights of Parnassus." " What must this city have 
been, in all its pride and glory !" exclaims Mr. Wil- 
liams. " The remains now appear grey as twilight ; 
but without a charm of returning day. Time is mo- 
delling now, instead of art. Miles of ancient pottery 
and tiles, hardly allowing the blades of corn to grow 
among the ruins; sheep-tracks among the massive 
foundations ; asses loaded with brush- wood, from 
shrubs growing in the courts of ancient palaces and 
temples ; shepherds with their flocks, the hells of the 
goats heard from among the rocks ; tombs and sar- 
cophagi of ancient heroes, covered with moss, some 
broken and some entire ; fragments, and ornaments, 

* O * * * 

* DodwdlT" 


and stones containing mutilated inscriptions ; these 
are the objects, which Plataea now presents. But 
who, that stands there, with a recollection of its 
ancient glory, and having Parnassus full in view, can 
quit the spot without regret ? * " 


Wreck of the mighty relics of the dead 
Who may remove the veil o'er P.SSTUM spread, 
Who pierce the clouds that rest upon your name, 
Or from oblivion's eddies snatch your fame 1 
Yet as she stands within your mould' ring walls, 
Vancy the days of former pride recals ; 
And at her hidding lo ! the Tyrrhene shore, 
Swarms with its countlets multitude once more; 
And bright pavilions rise ; her magic art 
Peoples thy streets, and throngs thy busy mart. 
In quick succession her creative power 
Restores the splendour of Phoenicia's hour, 
Revives the Sybarite's unbless'd repose, 
Toss'd on the foldings of the Paestum rose, 
Lucania's thraldom Rome's imperial sway, 
The Vandal's triumph and the robber's prey. 

But truth beholds thee now, a dreary waste ; 
Where solitude usurps the realms of taste. 
Where once thy doubly blooming roses smiled, 
The nettle riots, and the thorn runs wild; 
Primeval silence broods upon thy plain, 
And ruin holds her desolate domain : 
Save where, in massive pride, three temples stand 
Colossal fragments of a mighty land. 
Sepulchral monuments of fame, that tower 
In proud derision of barbarian power ; 
That still survive and mock, with front sublime, 
The spoiler's vengeance, and the strifes of time, 


WHEN the president Dupaty first beheld Paestum, 
he expressed his admiration in the following manner: 

* Herodotus; Rollin ; Barthelemi; Rees ; Brewster ; Clarke; 
Dodwell; Williams. 

f- By an accident this article is misplaced, which, it is hoped, the 
reader will be pleased to excuse. 


" No ; I am not at Paestum, in a city of the Sy- 
barites ! Never did the Sybarites choose for their 
habitation so horrible a desert ; never did they 
build a city in the midst of weeds, on a parched 
soil, on a spot where the little water to be met with 
is stagnant and dirty. Lead me to one of those 
groves of roses, which still bloom in the poetry of 
Virgil.* Show me some baths of alabaster ; some 
palaces of marble ; show me on all sides voluptuous- 
ness, and you will indeed make me believe I am at 
Paestum. It is true, nevertheless, that it was the 
Sybarites who built these three temples, in one of 
which I write this letter, seated on the ruins of a 
pediment, which has withstood the ravages of two 
thousand years. How strange ! Sybarites and works 
that have endured two thousand years ! How could 
Sybarites imagine and erect so prodigious a number 
of columns of such vile materials, of such uncouth 
workmanship, of so heavy a mass, and such a same- 
ness of form ? It is not the character of Grecian 
columns to crush the earth ; they lightly mounted 
into the air ; these, on the contrary, weigh ponder- 
ously on the earth ; they fall. The Grecian columns 
had an elegant and slender shape, around which the 
eye continually glided; these have a wide and clumsy 
form, around which it is impossible for the eye to 
turn : our pencils and our graving-tools, which flatter 
every monument, have endeavoured in vain to beau- 
tify them. I am of the opinion of those, who think 
that these temples were the earliest essays of the 
Grecian architecture, and not its master-pieces. The 
Greeks, when they erected these pillars, were search- 
ing for the column. It must be admitted, however, 
that, notwithstanding their rusticity, these temples 
do possess beauties ; they present at least simplicity, 
unity, and a whole, which constitute the first of 
* " Bifericjue rosaria Psesti." 


beauties : the imagination ma} 7 supply almost all the 
others, but it never can supply these. It is impos- 
sible to visit these places without emotion. I pro- 
ceed across desert fields, along a frightful road, far 
from all human traces, at the foot of rugged moun- 
tains, on shores where there is nothing but the sea; 
and suddenly I behold a temple, then a second, then 
a third : I make my way through grass and weeds ; 
I mount on the socle of a column, or on the ruins 
of a pediment : a cloud of ravens take their flight ; 
cows low in the bottom of a sanctuary ; the adder, 
basking between the column and the weeds, hisses 
and makes his escape ; a young shepherd, however, 
carelessly leaning on an ancient cornice, stands sere- 
nading with his reedy pipe the vast silence of this 
desert." Such was the language of Dupaty, when 
he entered these celebrated ruins ; nor was his en- 
thusiasm in any way misplaced. 

Pccstum was a town of Lucania, called by the 
Greeks Posidonia and Neptunia, from its being si- 
tuated in the bay. It was then called Sinus Psestanus; 
now the Gulf of Salerno. 

Obscurity hangs not only over the origin, but 
over the general history of this city. The mere out- 
lines have been sketched, perhaps, with accuracy ; 
but the details are, doubtless, obliterated for ever. 

In scenery Peestum yields not only to Baiae, but to 
many other towns in the vicinity of Vesuvius ; yet, 
in noble and well-preserved monuments of antiquity, 
it surpasses any city in Italy ; the immortal capital 
alone excepted. 

The origin of the city may be safely referred to 
remote antiquity ; but those are probably in the right, 
who would fix the period at which the existing tem- 
ples were erected, as a little posterior to the building 
of the Parthenon at Athens. But even this calcula- 
tion leaves them the venerable age of twenty-two cen- 


turies ; and so firm and strong arc they still, that, 
except in the case of extraordinary convulsions of 
nature, two thousand two hundred and many more 
years may pass over their mighty columns and ar- 
chitraves, and they remain, as they now are, the 
object of the world's admiration. 

Whatever age we may ascribe to the temples, 
certain it is that the city cannot be less than two 
thousand five hundred years old. 

It was founded by a colony of the Dorians, who 
called it Posetan ; a Phoenician name for the God of 
the Sea, to whom it was dedicated. Those settlers 
were driven out by the Sybarites, who extended 
the name to Posidonia. The Sybarites were expelled 
by the Lucanians ; and these, in turn, were expelled 
by the Romans, who took possession of it ( A.C. 480). 
From this time the poets alone are found to speak of 
it. It was, nevertheless, the first city of Southern 
Italy, that embraced the Christian doctrine. In 
840, the Saracens, having subdued Sicily, surprised 
the city, and took possession. The question now 
arises, to whom was Paesium indebted for its tem- 
ples ? To this it has been answered, that, as the 
ruins seem to exhibit the oldest specimens of Greek 
architecture now in existence, the probability is, that 
they were erected by the Dorians. 

" In beholding them," says Mr. Eustace, " and 
contemplating their solidity, bordering upon heavi- 
ness, we are tempted to consider them as an interme- 
diate link between the Egyptian and Grecian monu- 
ments ; and the first attempt to pass from the im- 
mense masses of the former, to the graceful propor- 
tions of the latter." 

" On entering the walls," says Mr. Forsyth, " I 
felt the religion of the place. I stood as on sacred 
ground. I stood amazed at the long obscurity of its 
mighty ruins. They can be descried with a glass 


from Salerno ; the high road of Calabria commands a 
distant view ; the city of Capaccio looks down upon 
them, and a few wretches have always lived on the 
spot ; yet they remain unnoticed by the best Neapo- 
litan antiquaries." 

The FIRST temple* that presents itself, to the traveller 
from Naples, is the smallest. It consists of six pil- 
lars at each end, and thirteen on each side. The 
cella occupied more than one-third of the length, and 
had a portico of two rows of columns, the shafts 
and capitals of which, now overgrown with grass and 
weeds, encumber the pavement, and almost fill the 
area of the temple : 

The serpent sleeps, and the she- \volf 

Suckles her young. 

The columns of this temple are thick in proportion 
to their elevation, and much closer to each other than 
they are generally found to be in Greek temples; " and 
this," says Mr. Forsyth, " crowds them advanta- 
geously on the eye, enlarges our idea of the space, 
and gives a grand and heroic air to a monument of 
very moderate dimensions." 

In the open space t between the first and second 
temples, were two other large buildings, built of the 
same sort of stone, and nearly of the same size. Their 
substructions still remain, encumbered with fragments 
of the columns of the entablatures ; and so overgrown 
with brambles, nettles, and weeds, as scarcely to 
admit a near inspection. 

The SECOND |, or the Temple of NEPTUNE, is not 
the largest, but by far the most massy and imposing 
of the three : it has six columns in front and fourteen 
in length ; the angular column to the west, with its 
capital, has been struck and partially shivered by 
lightning. It once threatened to fall and ruin tha 
symmetry of one of the most perfect monuments now 

* Eustace. f Ibid. J Anon. 


in existence, but it has been secured by iron cramps. 
An inner peristyle of much smaller columns rises in 
the cella, in two stories, with only an architrave, 
which has neither frieze nor cornice between the 
columns, which thus almost seem standing, the one 
on the capital of the other a defect in architecture, 
which is, however, justified by Vitruvius and the 
example of the Parthenon. The light pillars of this 
interior peristyle, of which some have fallen, rise a 
few feet above the exterior cornice and the massy 
columns of the temple. Whether you gaze at this 
wonderful edifice from without or from within, as 
you stand on the floor of the cella, which is much 
encumbered with heaps of fallen stones and rubbish, 
the effect is awfully grand. The utter solitude, and 
the silence, never broken save by the flight and 
screams of the crows and birds of prey, which your 
approach may scare from the cornices and architraves, 
where they roost in great numbers, add to the 
solemn impression, produced by those firm-set and 
eternal-looking columns. 

The THIRD edifice is the largest*. It has nine pillars 
at the end and eighteen on the sides. Its size is not 
its only distinction ; a row of pillars, extending from 
the middle pillar at one end to the middle pillar on 
the other, divides it into equal parts, and it is con- 
sidered that though it is now called a temple, it 
was not one originally. Some imagine it to have 
been a Curia, others a Basilica, and others an 

These relics stand on the edge of a vast and deso- 
late plain t, that extends from the neighbourhood of 
Salerno nearly to the confines of Calabria. The ap- 
proach to them is exceedingly impressive. For miles 
scarcely a human habitation is seen, or any living 
creature, save herds of buffaloes. And when you 

* Eustace. t Anon. 


are within the lines of the ancient walls of the town 
of the once opulent and magnificent Paestum 
only a miserable little tavcrna, or house of enter- 
tainment, a barn, and a mean modern edifice, belong- 
ing to the nominal bishop of the place, and nearly 
always uninhabited, meet your eye. But there the 
three ancient edifices rise before you in the most im- 
posing and sublime manner they can hardly be 
called ruins, they have still such a character of firm- 
ness and entireness. Their columns seem to be 
rooted in the earth, or to have grown from it ! 

" Accustomed as we were * to the ancient and 
modern magnificence of Rome," says Stuart, " in 
regard to the Parthenon, and, by what we had heard 
and read, impressed with an advantageous opinion 
of what we were to see, we found the image our 
fancy had preconceived greatly inferior to the real 
object." Yet "Wheler, who upon such a subject 
cannot be considered as of equal authority with 
Stuart, says of the monuments of antiquity yet re- 
maining at Athens, " I dare prefer them before any 
place in the world, Rome only excepted." " If," 
continues Dr. Clarke, " there be upon earth any 
buildings, which may be fairly brought into a com- 
parison with the Parthenon, they are the temples of 
Paestum in Lucania. But even these can only be so 
with reference to their superior antiquity, to their 
severe simplicity, and to the perfection of design 
visible in their structure. In graceful proportion, in 
magnificence, in costliness of materials, in splendid 
decoration, and in every thing that may denote the 
highest degree of improvement to which the Doric 
style of architecture ever attained, they are vastly 
inferior." This is, at least, that author's opinion. 
Lusieri, however, entertained different sentiments. 
Lusieri had resided at Paestum ; and had dedicated 


to those buildings a degree of study which, added to 
his knowledge of the arts, well qualified him to 
decide upon a question as to the relative merits of 
the Athenian and Posidonian specimens of Grecian 
architecture. His opinion is very remarkable. He 
considered the temples at Paestuin as examples of a 
pure style, or, as he termed it, of a more correct and 
classical taste. " In these buildings," said he, " the 
Doric order attained a pre-eminence beyond which it 
never passed ; not a stone has been there placed 
without some evident and important design ; every 
part of the structure bespeaks its own essential 
utility *." 

" Can there be any doubt," says Mr. Williams, 
" that in the temple of Neptune at Paestum, the 
very forms have something within themselves, cal- 
culated to fill the mind with the impression which 
belongs to the sublime ; whilst, in the temple of 
Theseus (at Athens), the simple preservation of its 
form bespeaks that species of admiration, that peculiar 
feeling, which beauty is calculated to draw forth ? 
It required not age to constitute the one sublime, or 
the other beautiful. In truth, their respective charac- 
ters must have been much more deeply ^impressed 
upon them in their most perfect state, than in the 
mutilated form in which they now stand ; surrounded 
by the adventitious attributes with which antiquity 
invests every monument of human art." 

* The Doric order may be thus defined : a column without a 
base, terminated by a capital, consisting of a square abacus, with 
an ovolo and annulets. An entablature, consisting of the parts, 
architrave, frieze, and cornice ; the architrave plain, the frie/e orna- 
mented with triglyphs symmetrically disposed, and a cornice with 
mutules. These are sufficient to constitute a definition ; and are, 
I believe, all that can be asserted without exception; but some 
others may be added as necessary to the beauty and perfection of 
the order; and which, though not universal, arc, however, general 
among the examples of antiquity. AIKIN, on the Doric order. 


Several medals* have been found at Fcestum ; but 
they denote a degeneracy from Grecian skill and 
elegance, being more clumsily designed and executed 
than most coins of Magna Graecia. 

The private habitations t were unable to resist the 
dilapidations of so many ages ; but the town wall is 
almost entire, and incloses an area of three miles in 
circumference. In many places it is of the original 
height, and built with oblong stones, dug out of the 
adjacent fields. They are a red tavertino, formed 
by a sediment of sulphureous water, of which a 
strong stream washes the foot of the walls. It comes 
from the mountains, and, spreading itself over a flat, 
forms pools, where buffaloes are in summer conti- 
nually wallowing up to their noses. 

These walls are built of huge polyhedric stones*, 
which afford some idea of what has been lately 
thought the Cyclopean construction. Their mate- 
rials, however, are a grey stone, without any mix- 
ture of the marble, granite, and lava, which are held 
essential to their construction. They are five, at 
least , and, in some places, twelve feet high. They 
are formed of solid blocks of stone, with towers at 
intervals ; the archway of one gate only, however, 
stands entire. Considering the materials and the 
extent of this rampart, which incloses a space of 
nearly four miles round, with the many towers that 
rose at intervals, and its elevation of more than forty 
feet, it must be acknowledged that it was, on the 
whole, a work not only of great strength, b\it of 
great magnificence. 

The material, of which they are built, is the same 
throughout each of the temples and common to all. 
It is an exceedingly hard, but porous and brittle 
stone, of a sober brownish-grey colour. It is a 

* Swinburne. f Ibid. Forsyth. Eustace. 


curious fact, that not only the ignorant people on the 
spot, but Neapolitan antiquaries also, wonder whence 
the ancients brought these masses of curious stone : 
and yet few things are more certain, than that they 
found them on the spot. 

The stone of these edifices* was probably formed at 
Pajstum itself, by the brackish water of the Salso 
acting on vegetable earth, roots, and plants ; for you 
can distinguish their petrified tubes in every column : 
and Mr. Macfarlane, who passed a considerable 
time on the spot, adds, " The brackish water of the 
river Salso that runs by the wall of the town, and in 
different branches across the plain, has so strong a 
petrifying virtue that you can almost follow the 
operation with the eye. The waters of the neighbour- 
ing Sele (a considerable river the ancient Silarus) 
have in all ages been remarkable for the same quality. 
In many places where the soil had been removed, we 
perceived strata of stone similar to the stones which 
compose the temples ; and I could almost venture to 
say that the substratum of all the plain, from the 
Sele to Acropoli, is of the like substance. Curious 
petrifactions of leaves, pieces of wood, insects, and 
other vegetable and animal matters, are observed in 
the materials of columns, walls, &c." 

Taking these wonderful objects into viewt, their 
immemorial antiquity, their astonishing preservation, 
their grandeur, or rather grandiosity, their bold 
columnar elevation, at once massive and open, their 
severe simplicity of design, that simplicity in which 
art gradually begins, and to which, after a thousand 
revolutions of ornament, it again returns, taking, says 
Mr. Forsyth, all into one view, " I do not hesitate to 
call these the most impressive monuments I ever be- 
held on earth." 

* Foreyth. f Ibid. 


Within* those walls, that once encircled a populous 
and splendid city, now rise one cottage, two farm- 
houses, a villa, and a church. The remaining space 
is covered with thick, matted grass, overgrown with 
brambles, spreading over the ruins, or buried under 
yellow, undulating corn ; a few rose-bushes flourish 
neglected here and there, and still blossom twice a 
year ; in May and December. They are remark- 
able for their fragrance. Amid these objects and 
scenes, rural and ordinary, rise the three temples, 
like the mausoleums of the ruined city, dark, silent, 
and rnajestict. 

" Majestic fanes of deities unknown! 
Ages have roll'd since here ye stood alone ; 
Since your walls echoed to the sacred choir, 
Or blazud your altars sacrificial fire. 
And now the wandering classic pilgrim sees 
The wild bird nestling in the sculptured frieze ; 
Each fluted shaft by desert weeds embraced, 
Triglyphf, obscured entablatures defaced; 
Sees ill-timed verdure clothe each awful pile, 
While Nature lends her melancholy smile ; 
And misplaced gainiture of flowers that shed 
Their sweets, as it in mockery of the dead." ROGERS. 


THIS city is said to have been built by Hercules ; 
and so called, because the hero there exhibited a long 
procession (Pompa) of the captives, he had taken in 
Spain, and the head of Geryon, which he had 
obtained by conquest. 

The Oscans, Cumasans, Etruscans, and Samnites, 
seem to have been successive possessors of the district 
in which the city stood. 

Although evidently of Grecian origin, nothing cer- 
tain is known of its early history. With many other 

* Eustace. 

T Dupaty ; Stuart ; Swinburne ; Eustace ; Clarke ; Forsyth ; 
Williams; Chambers; Knight; Parker; Rees ; Brewster. 


cities, it underwent various reverses during the Punic 
and Social wars of the Romans. It was besieged by 
Sylla ; and, about the age of Augustus, became a 
colony ; when its history merges in the more impor- 
tant annals of the Roman Empire. 

Pompeii shared the fate of Herculaneum*. 

In the month of February, A.D. 63, the Pompoians 
were surprised by an earthquake and eruption, which 
caused considerable damage. As soon, however, as the 
inhabitants had recovered their consternation, they 
began to clear away the ruins, and to repair the 
damage sustained by the edifices. 

After an interval of sixteen years, during which 
period several shocks were experienced, on the night of 
the 29th of August, A.D. 79, a volume of smoke 
and ashes issued from the mouth of the crater of 
Vesuvius with a tremendous explosion. After rising 
to a certain height, it extended itself like a lofty pine ; 
and, assuming a variety of colours, fell and covered 
the surrounding country with desolation and dismay. 

The inhabitants, terrified by repeated shocks, and 
breathing an atmosphere no longer fit to support life, 
sought refuge in flight ; but were suffocated by the 
ashes, oppressed by flames of fire, or overwhelmed by 
the falling edifices. In this awful time, Pliny the 
Elder lost his life. 

Pompeii, notwithstanding this, once more rose from 
its ashes ; but was again overwhelmed in A.D. 471 1. 

It would be difficult to decide upon the relative 
magnitude of Pompeii and Herculaneum : yet, from 
the lead it takes in ancient authors, the former must, 
in all probability, have been the most populous. Its 
walls were once washed by the waves : but the sea 
has since retired to some distance. The chief ap- 
proach from Rome to Pompeii was through Napfes 

* See Herculaneum, vol. i. p. 335. f I bid. 


and Herculaneum, along a branch of the Appian 

As you walk round the city walls t, and see how the 
volcanic matter is piled upon it in one heap, it looks as 
though the hand of man had purposely buried it, 
by carrying and throwing over it the volcanic mat- 
ter. This matter does not spread in any direction 
beyond the town, over the fine plain which gently 
declines towards the bay of Naples. The volcanic 
eruption was so confined in its course or its fall, as 

* It is well known that the Romans constructed with great solidity, 
and maintained with constant care, roads diverging from the capital 
to the extremities of the empire. The good condition of these was 
thought to be of such importance, that the charge was only entrusted 
to persons of the highest dignity, and Augustus himself assumed the 
care of those in the neighbourhood of Rome. The expense of their 
construction was enormous, but they were built to last for ever, and 
to this day remain entire and level, in many parts of the world, where 
they have not been exposed to destructive violence. They usually 
were raised some height above the ground which they traversed, and 
proceeded in as straight a line as possible, running over hill and val- 
ley with a sovereign contempt for all the principles of engineering. 
They consisted of three distinct layers of materials; the lowest, stones 
mixed with cement, (statumen ); the middle, gravel or Email stones, 
(rudera), to prepare a level and unyielding surface to receive the 
upper and most important structure, which consisted of large masses 
accurately fitted together. It is cuiious to observe that, after many 
ages of imperfect paving, we have returned to the same plan. The new 
pavement of Cheapside and Holborn is based in the same way upon 
broken granite, instead of loose earth which is constantly working 
through the interstices, and vitiating the solid bearing which the 
stones should possess. A further security against its working into 
holes is given by dressing each stone accurately to the same breadth, 
and into the form of a wedge, like the voussoirs of an arch, so that 
each tier of stones spans the street like a bridge. This is an im- 
provement on the Roman system : they depended for the solidity 
of their construction on the size of their blocks, which were irre- 
gularly shaped, although carefully and firmly fitted. These roads, 
especially in the neighbourhood of cities, had, on both sides, raised 
footways (margines), protected by curb-stones, which defined the 
extent of the central part (agger) for carriages. The latter was 
barrelled, that no water might lie upon it. Cell. 
-f- Knight. 


to bury Pompeii, and only Pompeii : for the showers 
of ashes and pumice-stone, which descended in the 
immediate neighbourhood, certainly made but a slight 
difference in the elevation of the plain. When a 
^own has been buried by lava, like Herculaneum, the 
process is easily traced. You can follow the black, 
hardened lava from the cone of the mountain to the 
sea, whose waters it invaded for " many a rood ;" 
.and those who have seen the lava in its liquid 
state, when it flows on like a river of molten 
iron, can conceive at once how it would bury 
every thing it found in its way. There is often a 
confusion of ideas, among those who have not had 
the advantage of visiting these interesting places, as 
to the matter which covers Pompeii and Hercula- 
rieum. They fancy they were both buried by lava. 
Herculaneum was so, and the work of excavating 
there was like digging in a quarry of very hard 
stone. The descent into the places, cleared, is like 
the descent into a quarry or mine, and you are always 
under ground, lighted by torches. But Pompeii* 
was covered by loose mud, pumice-stone, and ashes ; 
over which, in the course of centuries, there collected 
vegetable soil. Beneath this shallow soil, the whole 
is very crumbly and easy to dig, in few spots more 
difficult than one of our common gravel-pits. The 
matter excavated is carried off in carts, and thrown 
outside the town ; and at times when the labour is car- 
ried on with activity, as cart after cart withdraws with 
the eartli that covered them, you see houses entire, 
except their roofs, which have nearly all fallen in, 
make their appearance ; and, by degrees, a whole 
street opens to the sunshine or the shower, just like 
the streets of any inhabited neighbouring town. It 
is curious to observe, as the volcanic matter is re- 
moved, that the houses are built principally of lava, 
the more ancient product of the same Vesuvius, 
* Knight. 


whose latter result buried and concealed Pompeii for 
so many ages. 

It is certainly surprising*, that this most interest- 
ing city should have remained undiscovered till so 
late a period, and that antiquaries and learned men 
should have so long and materially erred ahout its 
situation. In many places, masses of ruins, portions 
of the buried theatres, temples, and houses, were not 
two feet below the surface of the soil. The country 
people were continually digging up pieces of worked 
marble, and other antique objects. In several spots 
they had even laid open the outer walls of the town ; 
and yet men did not find out what it was that the 
peculiar isolated mound of cinders and ashes, earth 
and pumice-stone, covered. There is another circum- 
stance which increases the wonder of Pompeii being 
so long concealed. A subterranean canal, cut from 
the river Sarno, traverses the city, and is seen darkly 
and silently gliding under the temple of Isis. This 
is said to have been cut towards the middle of the 
fifteenth century, to supply the contiguous town of 
Torre dell' Annunziata with fresh water ; it probably 
ran anciently in the same channel ; but cutting it, or 
clearing it, workmen must have crossed under Pompeii 
from one side to the other. 

In a work, so limited in extent as this, it is utterly 
impossible to give any thing like a representation of 
the various objects to be seen in the exceedingly 
curious ruins of this city. We can, therefore, only 
give a general outline, and refer the reader to the 
very beautiful illustrations, published by Sir William 
Gell, in 1817 and 1819 ; and more especially to those 
published by the same accomplished antiquary in 
1832. Never was there any thing equal, or in any 
way assimilating to them, in the world before ! The 
former work contains all that was excavated up to 
those years ; the latter the topography, edifices, and 
* Knight, 


ornaments of Pompeii, the result of excavation since 

" Pompeii," writes Mr. Taylor to M. Ch. Nodier, 
" has passed near twenty centuries in the bowels of 
the earth ; nations have trodden above its site, while 
its monuments still remained standing, and all their 
ornaments untouched. A cotemporary of Augustus, 
could he return hither, might say, ' I greet thee, 

my country ! my dwelling is the only spot upon 
the earth which has preserved itsjbrm ; an immunity 
extending even to the smallest objects of my affec- 
tion. Here is my couch ; there are my favourite 
authors. My paintings, also, are still fresh, as when 
the ingenious artist spread them over my walls. 
Come, let us traverse the town; let us visit the theatre; 

1 recognise the spot where I joined, for the first time, 
in the plaudits gi^en to the fine scenes of Terence 
and Euripides. Rome is but one vast museum ; 
Pompeii is a living antiquity' " 

The houses of Pompeii are upon a small scale ; 
generally of one, sometimes of two stories. The 
principal apartments are always behind, inclosing a 
court, with a portico round it, and a marble cistern 
in the middle. The pavements are all mosaic, and 
the walls are stained with agreeable colours ; the de- 
corations are basso-relievos in stucco, and paintings 
in medallion. Marble seems to have been common. 

On both sides of the street* the houses stand quite 
in contact with each other, as in modern times. 
They are nearly of the same height and dimensions, 
being similarly paved and painted. The houses, as 
we have before stated, are on a small scale. The 
principal apartments are always behind, surrounding 
a court, with a small piazza about it, and having a 
cistern of marble in its centre. 

An edifice, supposed to be Sallust's house, has an 
unusually showy appearance. The rooms are painted 
* Brewstcr. 


with the figures of gods and goddesses, and the floors 
decorated with marbles and mosaic pavements. 

The gates of the city, now visible, are five in 
number. These are known by the names of Hercu- 
laneum or Naples, Vesuvius, Nola, Sarno, and 
Stabite*. The city was surrounded with walls, the 
greater portion of which have also been traced. Its 
greatest length is little more than half a mile, and its 
circuit nearly two miles. It occupied an area of 
about one hundred and sixty-one acres. The general 
figure of the city is something like that of an egg. 
There have been excavated about eighty houses, an 
immense number of small shops, the public baths, 
two theatres, two basilicas, eight temples, the prison, 
tlie amphitheatre, with other public buildings of less 
note; and also fountains and tombs. The streets 
are paved with large irregular pieces of lava, neatly 
dovetailed into each other. This pavement is rutted, 
with the chariot wheels, sometimes to the depth of 
one inch and a half. In general, the streets are so 
narrow, that they may be crossed at one stride; 
where they are of greater breadth, a stepping-stone 
was placed in the middle for the convenience of foot 
passengers. On each side of the street there is a 
footpath, the sides of which are provided with curbe, 
varying from one foot to eighteen inches high, to 
prevent the encroachments of the chariots. 

It is well knownt, that amongst the Romans 
bathing formed part of every day's occupation. In 
the year 1824, the baths of Pompeii were excavated. 
They are admirably arranged, spacious, highly deco- 
rated, and superior to any thing of the kind in modern 
cities. They are, fortunately, in good preservation, 
and throw considerable light on what the ancients 
have written upon the subject. Various circum- 
stances prove, that the completion of the baths only 
a short while preceded the destruction of the city. 
* Chambers. f Anon. 


They occupy a considerable space, and are divided 
into three separate apartments. One of these was set 
apart for the fire-places and the accommodation of 
the servants, and the other two were each occupied 
by a set of baths, one of which was appropriated to 
the men, and the other to the women. The apart- 
ments and passages are paved with white marble in 
mosaic, or alternate white and black squares. The 
chambers are ornamented with various devices, and 
highly finished. Above one thousand lamps were 
discovered during the excavation. 

There have been two theatres excavated, a large 
and a small one ; both of which display the remains 
of considerable magnificence. They are constructed 
after the usual plan of a Roman theatre. The 
theatre is formed upon the side of a hill, the corridor 
being the highest part, so that the audience, on 
entering, descended at once to their seats. There is 
space to contain about five thousand persons. This 
theatre appears to have been entirely covered with 
marble, although only a few fragments remain. 

The smaller theatre nearly resembles the larger one 
in plan and disposition of parts ; but there is this 
remarkable difference; it appears from an inscription 
to have been permanently roofed. It has been 
computed that it accommodated one thousand five 
hundred persons. 

The amphitheatre of Pompeii does not differ in any 
particular from other Roman buildings of the same 
kind. Its form is oval; its length is four hundred 
and thirty feet; and its greatest breadth three hun- 
dred and thirty-five feet. There were paintings in 
fresco one, representing a tigress fighting with a 
wild boar; another, a stag chased by a lioness; 
another, a battle between a bull and a bear. There 
were other representations besides these ; but the 
whole disappeared upon exposure to the atmosphere*. 
* Chambers. 


Adjoining to the theatre*, a building has been 
excavated, called, from the style of its architecture, 
the Greek temple ; otherwise, the temple of Hercules. 
The date of its erection some have supposed to be 
as far back as eight hundred years before the 
Christian era. It is in a very dilapidated state. 
Before the steps in front there is an inclosure, sup- 
posed to have been a pen to contain victims for the 
sacrifice ; and by its side there are two altars. 

The temple of Isist is one of the most perfect 
examples, now existing, of the parts and disposition 
of an ancient temple. The skeleton of a priest was 
found in one of the rooms. Near his remains lay an 
axe, from which it would appear, that he had de- 
layed his departure till the door was closed up, and 
so attempted to break through the walls with his 
axe. He had already forced his way through two ; 
but before he could pass the third, was suffocated by 
the vapour. Within the sacred precincts, doubtless, 
lay a number of skeletons ; probably those of the 
priests, who, reposing a vain confidence in their deity, 
would not desert her temple, until escape was hopeless. 
Several paintings of the priests of Isis, and the cere- 
monies of their worship, were found, together with a 
statue of the deity herself. 

One of the buildings, surrounding the forum, has 
received the appellation of the Pantheon, from there 
having been found in the centre of its area an altar 
encircled with twelve pedestals; on which, it has 
been supposed, stood the statues of the mythological 
deities. The area is one hundred and twenty feet 
in length, by ninety in breadth. Numerous cells, 
attached to this building, have been found ; these, in 
all probability, were for the accommodation of priests. 
Near to this plaee were discoverod statues of Nero 
and Messalina, and ninety-three brass coins. 
* Chambers. ( Anon. 


Adjoining to the Pantheon* is a building, supposed 
to have been a place for the meeting of the senate or 
town-council. In the centre is an altar, and on each 
side of this, in two large recesses, stand two pedestals, 
which most likely supported effigies of the gods to 
whom the place was sacred. Near this is a small 
temple, elevated on a basement. On the altar there 
is an unfinished bas-relief, representing a sacrifice. 
In the cells attached to the building were found a 
number of vessels in which wine was kept. 

Adjoining to this is a large building, which, from 
various inscriptions, appears to have been erected at 
the expense of a lady named Eumachia, for the bene- 
fit of the public. Amongst other relics found, was 
a statue of this lady, five feet four inches high. 

The forum of Pompeiit is situated at the north- 
east corner of the city, and is entered by a flight of 
steps, leading downwards through an arch in a brick 
wall,' still partly covered with stucco. Upon enter- 
ing, the spectator finds himself in a large area, sur- 
rounded by columns, the ruins of temples, triumphal 
arches, and other public erections. There are, also, 
a number of pedestals for the support of statues. 

There is a subterranean wine-vault:}: near the city 
gates, which has been examined with great attention. 
It is very extensive, and contains the earthen ves- 
sels and bottles wherein the wine had been kept. 
They were arranged in the same precise order as 
previous to the awful eruption which desolated the 
city. The interior of this place much resembles 
cloisters, the roof being arched with strong stones. 
It was in these vaults where the unhappy inhabitants 
sought refuge from the sudden and overwhelming 
shower of fire and ashes. 

After such an amazing lapse of time, liquids have 
been found approaching to a fluid state an instance 

* Chambers. f Ibid. J Pbilip. Brewster. 


of which cannot be sufficiently admired, in a phial 
of oil, conceived to be that of olives. It is white, 
greasy to the touch, and emits the smell of rancid 
oil. An earthen vase was found, in the cellars, con- 
taining wine, which now resembles a lump of porous 
dark violet-coloured glass. Eggs, also, have been 
found, whole and empty. 

On the north side* of the Pantheon, there runs a 
street, named the Street of Dried Fruits, from the 
quantity of fruits of various kinds, preserved in 
glass vases, which have been found. Scales, money, 
moulds for pastry and bread, were discovered in the 
shops, and a bronze statue of Fame, small and well 
executed ; having bright bracelets of gold upon the 
arms. In the entrance which conducts from this 
street tothe Pantheon a box was found, containing 
a gold ring with an engraved stone in it ; also, forty- 
one silver, and one thousand and thirty-six brass, coins. 

On the walls are representations of Cupid making 
bread. The mill stands in the centre of the picture, 
with an ass on each side; from which it has been in- 
ferred, that these animals were employed in grinding 
corn. Besides these, there are in this building a 
great number of very beautiful paintings. 

Three bakers' shopst at least have been found, all 
in a tolerable state of preservation. The mills, the 
oven, the kneading-trough s, the vessels for contain- 
ing water, flour, and leaven, have all been discovered, 
and seem to leave nothing wanting to our knowledge. 
In some vessels the very flour remained, still capable 
of being identified, though reduced almost to a cinder. 
One of these shops was attached to the house of 
Sallust ; the other to that of Pansa. The third 
seems to have belonged to a sort of capitalist : for 
instead of renting a mere dependency in another 

* Anon. t Parker. 


man's house, he lived in a tolerably good house of 
his own, of which the bakery forms a part. 

Beneath the oven is an ash-pit. To the right is 
a large room, which is conjectured to be a stable. 
The jaw of an ass, and some other fragments of a 
skeleton, were found in it. There is a reservoir for 
water at the farther end, which passes through the 
wall, and is common both to this room and the next, 
so that it could be filled without going into the 

In another place* there is an oil-mill ; in a third, 
supposed to have been a prison, stocks were found ; 
and in a fourth were pieces of armour, whence it 
has been called the Guard-room. In this quarter of 
the city a bronze helmet was found, enriched with 
bas-reliefs, relating to the principal events of the cap- 
ture of Troy. Another helmet found represents the 
Triumph of Rome ; greaves of bronze, highly orna- 
mented, also were found. 

Contiguous to the little theatre, the house of a 
sculptor has been cleared. There were found sta- 
tues ; some half finished ; others just begun : with 
blocks of marble, and all the tools required by the 

The walls, in the interior of the buildings, are 
generally adorned with fresco paintings, the colours 
of which are in a state of perfect preservation, and 
have all the freshness of recent finishing. The shells, 
also, which decorate some of the public fountains, 
have sustained no injury from the lapse of ages, or 
the volcanic products in which they were buried. 

During the progress of excavation, t at Pompeii, 
a painting was found in the Casa Carolina, which 
scarcely held together to be copied, and fell to pieces 
upon the first rain. It was of grotesque character, and 

* Chambers. { Knight. 


represented a pigmy painter, whose only covering was 
a tunic. He is at work upon the portrait of another 
pigmy, clothed in a manner to indicate a person 
of distinction. The artist is sitting opposite to 
his sitter, at an awful distance from the picture, 
which is placed under an easel, similar in construc- 
tion to ours. By the side of the artist stands his 
palette, which is a little table with four feet, and by 
it is a pot to wash his pencils in. He therefore was 
working with gum, or some sort of water-colours : 
but he did not confine himself to this branch of the 
arts ; for to the right we see his colour-grinder, who 
prepares, in a vessel placed over some hot coals, colours 
mixed with wax and oil. Two amateurs enter the 
studio, and appear to be conversing with respect to 
the picture. On the noise occasioned by their en- 
trance, a scholar, seated in the distance, turns round 
to look at them. It is difficult to explain the pre- 
sence of the bird in the painting-room. The picture 
is not complete : a second bird, and, at the opposite 
side, a child playing with a dog, had perished before 
Mazois (an artist who has preserved some of the 
most valuable remains at Pompeii) copied it. This 
picture is very curious, since it shows how few things, 
in the mechanical practice of painting, have changed 
during two thousand years. 

There is another picture* preserved at Pompeii, 
representing a female, employed in making a copy 
of a bearded Bacchus. She is dressed in a light 
green tunic, without sleeves, over which she wears 
a dark red mantle. Beside her is a box, such, as 
we are told by Varro, as painters used, divided into 
compartments, into which she dips her brush. 

Among the recent discoveries at Pompeiit, may 
also be enumerated a bronze vase, encrusted with sil- 
ver, the size and form of which have been much 

* Knight. f Brewsier. 


admired, and a bronze statue of Apollo, of admirable 
workmanship. The deity is represented as sacrificing, 
with his avenging arm, the family of Niobe ; and the 
beauty of its form, and the life of the figure, are so fine, 
that it is said to be the finest statue in the Bourbon 
Museum. " As to the furniture," says Mr. Mathews, 
" they illustrate Solomon's apophthegm, that there is 
nothing new under the sun ; for there is much, that, 
with a little scouring, would scarcely appear old- 
fashioned at the present day." 

" It was a source of great amusement," says Mr. 
Blunt, u to observe the doors of cafe-keepers, bar- 
bers, tailors, tradesmen, in short, of every description, 
surmounted by very tolerable pictures, indicating 
their respective occupations. Thus, at a surgeon and 
apothecary's, for instance, I have seen a series of 
paintings displaying a variety of cases, to which the 
doctor is applying his healing hand. In one he is 
extracting a tooth ; in another applying an emetic ; in 
a third bandaging an arm or a leg." In 1819, seve- 
ral surgical instruments were discovered in the ruins of 
a house near the gate adjoining to the burial-ground*. 
In a street, which conducts to the Forum, called 
the Street of Fortune, an immense number of 
utensils have been found. Amongst other articles, 
were vases, basins with handles, bells, elastic springs, 
binges, buckles for harness, a lock, an inkstand, gold 
ear-rings, a silver spoon, an oval caldron, a sauce- 
pan, a mould for pastry, and a weight of alabaster 
used in spinning, with its ivory axis remaining ; a 
number of lamps, three boxes, in one of which were 
found several coins of Titus, Vespasian, Domitian, &c. 
Among the most curious things found, were seven 
glazed plates, packed in straw ; a pair of scales and 
steelyard were also discovered. 
Fishing-netst, some of them quite entire, have been 
* Brewster. -J* Chambers. 


found in great numbers in Herculaneum as well as in 
Pompeii. Linen, also, with the texture well denned. 
In the shop of a baker a loaf was found, still retain- 
ing its form, with the baker's name stamped upon it, 
and which, to satisfy the curiosity of modern profes- 
sors of the art, we shall give : it was " Eleris J. 
Crani Riser." On the counter of an apothecary's 
shop was a box of pills ; and by the side of it, a 
small cylindrical roll, evidently ready for cutting up. 

Along the south-side of another building runs a 
broad street, which, from various articles of jewellery 
being found there, is called the Street of the Silversmiths. 
On the walls of the shops several inscriptions appear, 
one of which has been thus translated : " The Scribe 
Issus beseeches Marcus Cerrinius Vatia, the ^Edile, to 
patronise him ; he is deserving.' 5 

Near to the small theatre, a large angular inclo- 
sure has been excavated, which has been called the 
Provision Market by some, by others the Soldiers' 
Quarters. It contains a number of small chambers, 
supposed to have been occupied by butchers, and 
vendors of meats, liquors, &c. In one of these was 
discovered utensils for the manufacture of soap. 

If we again fancy for a moment the furniture*,im- 
plements, and utensils, which would be brought to 
light in our own houses and shops, supposing them to 
be overwhelmed, and thus laid open some centuries 
hence, we might conjecture that many of the same 
description must have belonged to those of a nation 
so civilised as the Romans ; but still it is pleasing to 
ascertain, from a testimony that cannot deceive us, 
the evidence of the relics themselves, that they had 
scales very little different from our own ; silver 
spoons, knives (but no forks), gridirons, spits, frying- 
pans, scissars, needles, instruments of surgery, sy- 
ringes, saws, and many more, all made of fine brass ; 
* Blunt. 


that they had hammers, and picks, and compasses, 
and iron crows, all of which were met with in a 
statuary's shop ; and that they had stamps which they 
used, as well for other purposes, as for impressing the 
name of its owner on bread before it was sent to the 
oven. Thus on a loaf, still preserved, is legible : 
Siligo C. Glanii : This is Caius Glanius' loaf. 

Many of their seals were preserved in this manner ; 
consisting of an oblong piece of metal, stamped with 
letters of the motto; instruments very similar to those 
used in England for marking linen. Tims possessed 
of types and of ink, how little were the Romans re- 
moved from the discovery of the art and advantages 
of printing ! 

At the end of one of the streets*, was discovered a 
skeleton ofaPompeian, who, apparently for the sake 
of sixty coins, a small plate, and a saucepan of silver, 
had remained in the house till the street was already 
half filled with volcanic matter. From the situation 
in which he was found, he had apparently been 
arrested in the act of escaping from the window. 
Two others were also found in the same street. 

Only sixty skeletons^ have been discovered in all ; 
it is, therefore, clear, that the greater part of the 
inhabitants had found time to escape. There were 
found in the vault of a house in the suburbs, the 
skeletons of seventeen individuals, who appear to 
have sought refuge there from the showers of ashes 
which poured from the sky. There was also pre- 
served, in the same place J, a sketch of a woman, 
supposed to have been the mistress of the house, with 
an infant locked in her arms. Her form was imprinted 
upon the work, which formed her sepulchre ; but only 
the bones remained. To these a chain of gold was sus- 
pended ; and rings, with jewels, were upon her fingers. 
The remains of a soldier, also, were found in a niche, 
* Gell. f Parker. J Chambers. 


where, in all probability, he was performing the 
office of sentinel. His hand still grasped a lance, 
and the usual military accoutrements were also found 

In one of the baths'", as we have before stated, 
was found the skeleton of a female, whose arms and 
neck were covered with jewels. In addition to gold 
bracelets, was a necklace; the workmanship of which 
is marvellous. Our most skilful jewellers could make 
nothing more elegant, or of a better taste. It has 
all the beautiful finish of the Moorish jewels of 
Granada, and of the same designs which are to be 
found in the dresses of the Moorish women, and of 
the Jewesses of Tetuan, on the coast of Africa. 

It is generally supposed, that the destruction of 
this city was sudden and unexpected ; and it is even 
recorded, that the people were surprised and over- 
whelmed at once by the volcanic storm, while in the 
theatre. (Dionys. of Hal.) But to this opinion 
many objections may be raised, amongst which this; 
that the number of skeletons in Pompeii does not 
amount to sixty ; and ten times this number would 
be inconsiderable, when compared with the extent 
and population of the city. 

The most perfect and most curious object, how- 
ever, that has yet been discovered, is a villa at a little 
distance from the town. It consists of three courts ; 
in the third and largest is a pond, and in the centre 
a small temple. There are numerous apartments of 
every description, paved in mosaic, coloured and 
adorned with various paintings on the walls ; all in 
a very beautiful style. This villa is supposed to have 
belonged to Cicero. 

" The ruins of Pompeii," says Mr. Eustace, " pos- 
sess a secret power, that captivates and melts the 
soul ! In other times, and in other places, one single 

* Taylor. 


edifice, a temple, a theatre, a tomb, that had escaped 
the wreck of ages, would have enchanted us ; nay, an 
arch, the remnant of a wall, even one solitary co- 
lumn, was beheld with veneration ; but to discover 
a single ancient house, the abode of a Roman in his 
privacy, the scene of his domestic hours, was an 
object of fond, but hopeless longing. Here, not a 
temple, nor a theatre, nor a house, but a whole city 
rises before us, untouched, unaltered the very same 
as it was eighteen hundred years ago, when inhab- 
ited by Romans. We range through the same 
streets ; tread the very same pavement ; behold the 
same walls ; enter the same doors ; and repose in the 
same apartments. AVe are surrounded by the same 
objects ; and out of the same windows we contemplate 
the same scenery. In the midst of all this, not a voice 
is heard not even the sound of a foot to disturb 
the loneliness of the place, or to interrupt his reflec- 
tions. All around is silence ; not the silence of soli- 
tude and repose, but of death and devastation : the 
silence of a great city without one single inhabitant : 

' Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silcntia terrent. ' 

" Perhaps the whole world does not exhibit so awful 
a spectacle as Pompeii ; and when it was first disco- 
vered, when skeletons were found heaped together in 
the streets and houses, when all the utensils, and even 
the very bread, of the poor suffocated inhabitants, 
were discernible, what a speculation must this ill- 
fated city have furnished to a thinking mind ! To 
visit it even now, is absolutely to live with the ancient 
Romans ; and when we see houses, shops, furniture, 
fountains, streets, carriages, and implements of hus- 
bandry, exactly similar to those of the present day, 
we are apt to conclude, that customs and manners 
have undergone but little alteration for the last two 
thousand years." 

' In walking through this city of the dead," says 


Chateaubriand, " one idea has pursued me. As the 
labourers clear the different edifices, they remove 
whatever they discover, household utensils, imple- 
ments of divers trades, pieces of furniture, statues, 
MSS., &c., all of which are promiscuously carried to 
thePortici Museum. In my opinion, people might have 
employed their time better. Why not have left these 
things as they found them, and where they found 
them ? Instead of their removal, they should have 
preserved them on the spot; roofs, ceilings, floors, 
and windows, should have been carefully restored, in 
order to prevent the destruction of the walls and 
paintings. The ancient inclosure of the town should 
be rebuilt, the gates repaired, and a guard of soldiers 
stationed there, together with some individuals well 
versed in the arts. Would not this have been the 
most interesting museum in the world ? A Roman 
town preserved quite entire, as if its inhabitants had 
issued forth but a quarter of an hour before !" 

" I am filled with astonishment," says Dupaty, 
" in walking from house to house, from temple to 
temple, from street to street, in a city built two 
thousand years ago, inhabited by the Romans, dug 
out by a king of Naples, and in perfect preservation. 
I speak of Pompeii. 

" The inhabitants of this city were asleep, when 
suddenly an impetuous wind arose, and, detaching a 
portion of the cinders which covered the summit of 
Vesuvius, hurried them in whirlwinds through the 
air over Pompeii, and within a quarter of an hour 
entirely overwhelmed it, together with Herculaneum, 
Sorento, a multitude of towns and villages, thousands 
of men and women, and the elder Pliny. What a 
dreadful awakening for the inhabitants ? Imprudent 
men ! Why did you build Pompeii at the foot of 
Vesuvius, on its lava, and on its ashes ? In fact, 
mankind resemble ants, which, after an accident has 


Destroyed one of their hillocks, set about repairing it 
the next moment. Pompeii was covered with ashes. 
The descendants of those very men, who perished 
under those ashes, planted vineyards, mulberry, fig, 
and poplar trees on them ; the roofs of this city were 
become fields and orchards. One day, while some 
peasants were digging, the spade penetrated a little 
deeper than usual ; something was found to resist. 
It was a city. It was Pompeii. I entered several of 
the rooms, and found in one of them a mill, with 
which the soldiers ground their corn for bread ; in 
another an oil-mill, in which they crushed the olives. 
The first resembles our coffee-mills; the second is 
formed of two mill-stones, which were moved by the 
hand, in a vast mortar, round an iron centre. In 
another of these rooms I saw chains still fastened to 
the leg of a criminal ; in a second, heaps of human 
bones ; and in a third, a golden necklace. 

"What is become of all the inhabitants? We see 
nobody in the shops ! not a creature in the streets ! 
all the houses are open ! Let us begin by visiting the 
houses on the right. This is not a private house ; 
that prodigious number of chirurgical instruments 
prove this edifice must have had some relation to the 
art in which they are used. This was surely a school 
for surgery. These houses are very small ; they are 
exceedingly ill contrived ; all the apartments are 
detached ; but then what neatness ! what elegance ! 
In each of them is an inner portico, a mosaic pave- 
ment, a square colonnade, and in the middle a cis- 
tern, to collect the water falling from the roof. In 
each of them are hot-baths, and stoves, and every- 
where paintings in fresco, in the best taste, and on 
the most pleasing grounds. Has Raffaele been here 
to copy his arabesques ? 

" Let us pass over to the other side of the street. 
These houses are three stories high ; their foundation 


is on the lava, which has formed here a sort of hill, 
on the declivity of which they are built. From above, 
in the third story, the windows look into the street ; 
and from the first story, into a garden. 

" But what do I perceive in that chamber. They 
are ten death's-heads. The unfortunate wretches 
saved themselves here, where they could not be saved. 
This is the head of a little child : its father and 
mother then are there ! Let us go up stairs again ; 
the heart feels not at ease here. Suppose we take a 
step into this temple for a moment, since it is left 
open. What deity do I perceive in the bottom of 
that niche ? It is the god of Silence, who makes a 
sign w r ith his finger, to command silence, and points 
to the goddess Isis, in the further recess of the 

" In the front of the porch there are three altars. 
Here the victims were slaughtered, and the blood, 
flowing along this gutter into the middle of that 
basin, fell from thence upon the head of the priests. 
This little chamber, near the altar, was undoubtedly 
the sacristy. The priests purified themselves in this 

" Here are some inscriptions : ' Popidi ambleati, 
Cornelia celsa.' This is a monument erected to the 
memory of those who have been benefactors to Isis ; 
that is to say, to her priests. 

" I cannot be far from the country-house of Aufi- 
dius ; for there are the gates of the city. Here is the 
tomb of the family of Diomedes. Let us rest a mo- 
ment under these porticoes, where the philosophers 
used to sit. 

" I am not mistaken. The country-house of 
Aufidius is charming ; the paintings in fresco are 
delicious. What an excellent effect have those blue 
grounds ! With what propriety, and consequently 
with what taste, are the figures distributed in the 


panels ! Flora herself has woven that garland. But 
who has painted this Venus ? this Adonis ? this 
youthful Narcissus, in that bath ? And here again, 
this charming Mercury ? It is surely not a week 
since they were painted. 

" I like this portico round the garden ; and this 
square covered cellar round the portico. Do these 
amphorae contain the true Falernian ? How many 
consulates has this wine been kept ? 

" But it is late. It was about this time the 
play began. Let us go to the covered theatre : it is 
shut. Let us go to the uncovered theatre ; that too 
is shut. 

" I know not how far I have succeeded in this 
attempt to give you an idea of Pompeii." Ex- 


RAMA is supposed to have been built with mate- 
rials, furnished by the ruins of Lydda, three miles 
distant ; and it is the spot in which our titular saint, 
St. George, is said to have suffered martyrdom ; 
although, according to most authors, his remains 
repose in a magnificent temple at Lydda. 

Notwithstanding the present desolate condition of 
Rama, it was, when the army of the Crusaders 
arrived, a magnificent city, filled with wealth, and 
abundance of all the luxuries of the East. It was 
exceedingly populous, adorned with stately buildings, 
and well fortified with walls and towers. 

The Musselmans here reverence the tomb of 
Locman, the wise; also the sepulchres of seventy 
prophets, who are believed to have been buried here. 

* Pliny; Dupaty; Taylor; Knight; Chambers; Parker; 
Encyclop. Londinensis and Metropolitana, Rees' and Britannica ; 
Phillips ; Chateaubriand ; Eustace ; Forsyth ; Blunt ; Stuart ; 
Clarke ; Williams ; Cell. 


Rama is situated about thirty miles from Jeru- 
salem, in the middle of an extensive and fertile plain, 
which is part of the great field of Sharon. " It 
makes," says Dr. Clarke, " a considerable figure at 
a distance; but we found nothing within the place 
except traces of devastation and death. It exhibited 
one scene of ruin: houses, fallen or deserted, appeared 
on every side ; and instead of inhabitants, we beheld 
only the skeletons or putrifying carcasses of horses 
and camels. A plague, or rather murrain, during 
the preceding year, had committed such ravages, 
that not only men, women, and children, but cattle 
of all kinds, and every thing that had life, became its 
victims. Few of the inhabitants of Europe can have 
been aware of the state of suffering, to which all the 
coast of Palestine and Syria was exposed. It 
followed, and in part accompanied, the dreadful 
ravages, caused by the march of the French army. 
From the accounts we received, it seemed as if the 
exterminating hand of Providence was exercised in 
sweeping from the earth every trace of ancient 
existence/ ' In Rama* there was a voice heard ; 
lamentation and weeping, and great mourning; 
Rachel weeping for her children, and could not be 
comforted, because they were not.' "t 

* Jeremiah xxxi. 15. -j- Brewster; Clarke. 



To seek for Rome, vain stranger, art thou come, 

And find'stno mark, within Rome's walls, of Rome? 

See here the craggy walls, the towers defaced, 

And piles that frighten more than once they pleased : 

See the vast theatres, a shapeless load, 

And sights more tragic than they ever show'd. 

This, this is Rome! Her haughty carcass spread 

Still awes in ruin, and commands when dead. 

The subject world first took from her their fate ; 

And when she only stood unconquer'd yet, 

Herself she last suhducd, to make the work complete. 

But ah ! so dear the fatal triumph cost, 

That conquering Rome is in the conquer'd lost. 

Yet rolling Tiber still maintains his stream, 

Swell'd with the glories of the Roman name. 

Strange power of fate! unshaken moles must waste ; 

While things that ever move, for ever last. VITALIS. 

As the plan of this work does not admit of otir 
giving any thing like a history of the various trials 
and fortunes of Rome; we must confine ourselves, 
almost entirely, to a few particulars relative to its 
origin, summit of glory and empire, its decay, and 
ultimate ruin. 

There is no unquestionable narrative of facts, on 
which any writer can build the primitive history of this 
vast city and empire; but in its place we have a mass 
of popular traditions and fabulous records. On the 
taking of Troy, .ZEneas, a prince of that city, quitted 
his native land, and after a long period, spent in 
encountering a variety of vicissitudes, he arrived on 
the coast of Italy, was received with hospitality by 
the King of Latium, whose name was Latinus, and 
afterwards obtained his throne, from the circumstance 
of having married his daughter. 

.ZEneas after this built the city of Lavinium, and, 
thirty years after, his son founded that of Alba Longa, 
which then became the capital of Latium. Three 
hundred years after, Romulus founded Rome. 


Though Livy has given a very circumstantial ac- 
count of the origin of this city, sufficient data have 
been afforded, since his history was written, to justify 
our doubting many of his statements. The first au- 
thor in modern times, that led Europe to these doubts, 
was, we believe, Dr. Taylor; who, in a work written 
about sixty years ago, entitled Elements of Civil 
Law, has the following passage : " It was not pecu- 
liar to this people, to have the dawn of their history 
wrapped up in fable and mythology, or set in with 
something that looked like marvellous and preter- 
natural. There is scarce a nation, that we are ac- 
quainted with, but has this foible in a greater or less- 
er degree, and almost pleads a right to be indulged 
in it. " Datur hsec venia antiquitati, ut miscendo 
humana divinis primordia urbium augustiora faciat." 
(Liv. I. Praef.) Indeed the Romans themselves had 
some suspicion of their own history. They generally 
dated their periods not AB u. c. but began their sera. 
from their consuls, by whom they always reckoned. 
The records of Rome were burned at the irruption of 
the Gauls : they had nothing for it but tradition be- 
fore that period. Nor was there an author extant of 
that age, or near it, at the time that Livy compiled 
his history. Diocles Peparethius (the father of 
Roman history, since Fabius Pictor, the first his- 
torian that Rome produced, and all his followers, 
copied him implicitly) was a writer of no very great 
credit. The birth and education of Romulus, is the 
exact counter-part of that of another founder of a 
great empire ; and Romulus, I am satisfied, could 
not resemble more his brother Remus, than his brother 
Cyrus. The expedient of Tarquin's conveying ad- 
vice to his son, by striking off the heads of flowers, 
is given with the minutest difference, by Aristotle to 
Periander of Corinth, and by Herodotus to Thrasy- 
bulus. Which similarity is very ill accounted for by 


Camerarius. This was one of those ambulatory 
stories which (Plutarch in his Greek and Roman 
Parallels will furnish us with many such) seem 
confined to no one age, race, or country ; but have 
been adopted in their turn, at several periods of time, 
and by several very different people, and are perhaps, 
at least some of them, true of none. And, lastly, one 
would imagine, that the history of the seven kings, 
which has such an air of romance in it, was made on 
purpose for Floras to be ingenious upon in his recapi- 
tulation of the regal state of Rome." 

The truth of this subject we leave to abler hands ; 
proceeding at once to the manner in which the cere- 
monies are recorded to have been adopted at the first 
laying down the foundations of the city. Romulus, 
having sent for some of the Tuscans, to instruct him 
in the ceremonies that ought to be observed in laying 
. the foundations, and they having instructed him 
according to his desire, his work began in the follow- 
ing manner : First, he dug a trench, and threw 
into it the first-fruits of all things, either good by 
custom, or necessary by nature ; and every man taking 
a small turf of earth of the country from which he 
came, they all cast them in promiscuously together. 
Making their trench their centre, they described the 
city in a circle round it. Then the founder fitted to a 
plough a brazen plough-share; and yoking together 
a bull and a cow, drew a deep line or furrow round 
the bounds ; those that followed after, taking care 
that the clods fell inwards towards the city. They 
built the wall upon this line, which they called Pomce- 
rium, from pone mcenia. Though the phrase of 
Pomcerium proferre be commonly used in authors, 
to signify the enlarging of the city, it is, nevertheless, 
certain that the city might be enlarged without that 
ceremony. For Tacitus and Gellius declare no per- 
son to have had a right of extending the Pomoerium, 


but such a one as had taken away some part of an 
enemy's country in war ; whereby, it is manifest, that 
several great men, who never obtained the honour, 
increased the buildings with considerable additions. 
It is remarkable that the same ceremony with which 
the foundations of their cities were first laid, they used, 
too, in destroying and rasing places taken from the 
enemy ; which we find was begun by the chief com- 
mander's turning up some of the walls with a plough. 
"We do not, as we have before stated, propose to 
give even a slight history of this celebrated city. 
It is sufficient for our purpose to state, that it was 
first governed by kings, and then by consuls, up to 
the time when the Gauls took the city, under their 
commander Brennus. This was the first calamity 
that Rome experienced at the hands of an enemy; 
and this occurred in the three hundred and sixty- 
fifth year after its foundation. 

The city of Veii had just surrendered to Camillus 
after a ten years' siege, when the Gauls made an 
irruption into Italy, and had begun to besiege Clu- 
sium, a Tuscan city; at which time a deputation 
arrived at Rome with an entreaty from the Clusians, 
that the Romans would interfere in their behalf, 
through the medium of ambassadors. This request 
was immediately complied with ; and three of the 
Fabii, persons of the highest rank, were despatched 
to the Gallic camp. The Gauls, out of respect to 
the name of Rome, received these ambassadors with 
all imaginable civility ; but they could not be induced 
to raise the siege. Upon this, the ambassadors going 
into the town, and encouraging the Clusians to a 
sally, one of them was seen personally engaged in 
the action. This, being contrary to the generally 
received law of nations, was resented in so high a 
manner by the enemy, that, breaking up from before 
Clusium, their whole army marched directly against 


Rome. At about eleven miles from the city, they 
met with the Roman army, commanded by the 
military tribunes ; who, engaging without any order 
or discipline, received an entire defeat. Upon the 
arrival of this ill news at Rome, the greatest part of 
the inhabitants immediately fled. Those that re- 
solved to stay, however, fortified themselves in the 
Capitol. The Gauls soon appeared at the city gates ; 
and, destroying all with fire and sword, carried on 
the siege of the Capitol with all imaginable fury. 
At last, resolving on a general assault, they were 
discovered by the cackling of geese ; and as many 
as had climbed the ramparts were driven down 
by Manlius ; when Camillus, setting upon them 
in the rear with twenty thousand men he had got 
together about the oeuntry, gave them a total over-- 

The city, however, had been set on fire by the 
barbarians, and so entirely demolished, that, upon 
the return of the people, they resolved upon aban- 
doning the ruins, and seeking a more eligible abode 
in the recently conquered city of Veii, a town already 
built and well provided with all things. But this 
being opposed by Camillus, they set to work with 
such extraordinary diligence, that the vacant space 
of the old city was quickly covered with new build- 
ings, and the whole finished within the short space of 
one year. The Romans, however, on this occasion, 
were in too great a hurry to think of either order or 
regularity.. The city was, therefore, rebuilt without 
any reference to order ; no care being taken to form 
the streets in straight lines. 

In this conflagration, all the public records were 
burned ; but there is no reason to believe, that it was 
accompanied by any losses, which a lover of the arts 
should mourn for. As many writers have remarked, 
the Romans were not naturally a people of taste. 


They never excelled in the fine arts ; and even their 
own writers invariably allow, that they were indebted 
for every thing that was elegant in the arts to the 
people of Greece*. 

It is possible that, during the three hundred and 
fifty years, which elapsed from the Gallic invasion 
till the reign of Augustus, many magnificent build- 
ings may have been erected ; but we have no evi- 
dence that such was the case ; and the few facts, 
which we are enabled to glean from the pages of 
ancient writers, are scarcely favourable to the suppo- 
sition. The commencement of the age of Roman 
luxury is generally dated from the year 146 B. c., 
when the fall of Carthage and of Corinth elevated 
the power of the republic to a conspicuous height. 
Yet, more than fifty years afterwards, no marble 
columns had been introduced into any public build- 
ings ; and the example of using them as decorations 
of private houses was set by the orator Crassus, in 
the beginning of the first century before the Christian 

The architectural splendour of the city must be 
dated from the age of Augustus. " I found it of 
brick," he was accustomed to say ; " I shall leave 
it of marble." Nor was he content with his own 

* The conquest of Greece contributed to the decay and ruin of 
that very empire, by introducing into Rome, by the wealth it 
brought into it, a taste and love for luxury and effeminate pleasures ; 
for it is from the victory over Antiochus, and the conquest of 
Asia, that Pliny dates the depravity and corruption of manners in 
the republic of Rome, and the fatal changes which ensued. 
Asia, vanquished by the Roman arms, afterwards vanquished 
Rome by its vices. Foreign wealth extinguished iii that city a 
love for the ancient poverty and simplicity, in which its strength 
and honour consisted. Luxury, that in a manner entered Rome 
in triumph with the superb spoils of Asia, brought with her in her 
train irregularities and crimes of every kind, made greater havoc in 
the city than the mightiest armies could have done, and in that 
manner avenged the conquered globe. ROLLIN. 


labours ; at his instigation many private individuals 
contributed to the embellishment of the capital. 
The Pantheon, one of the noblest structures of 
Rome, and several others, were the works of his 
chief minister, Agrippa. 

Tiberius and Caligula betrayed no wish to imitate 
their predecessor ; but several works of utility and 
magnitude were completed under Claudius. Then 
came, however, the emperor Nero; with whose reign 
is associated that memorable conflagration, which 
malice attributed to the Christians, and which raged 
beyond all example of former ages. This fire left, 
of the fourteen regions into which Augustus had 
divided the city, only four parts untouched. It 
was, therefore, fatal to many of the most venerable 
fanes and trophies of the earlier ages. This con- 
flagration lasted from six to nine days. *In the time 
of Titus, too, another fire ravaged the city for three 
days and nights ; and in that of Trajan, another 
conflagration consumed part of the Forum, and the 
Golden House of Nero ; after which few remains of 
the ancient city were left ; the rest being, to use the 
language of Tacitus, " scanty relics, lacerated and 

The city, nevertheless, soon rose with fresh gran- 
deur and beauty from its ashes. Trajan performed 
his part ; and Hadrian followed with redoubled assi- 
duity. They were followed by the Antonines ; and 
so effective was the example they set, that most of 
the more opulent senators of Rome deemed it an 
honour, and almost an obligation, to contribute to 
the glory and external splendour of their native city. 
These monuments of architecture were adorned with 
the finest and most beautiful productions of sculpture 
and painting. Every quarter of Rome w r as filled with 
temples, theatres, amphitheatres, porticoes, trium- 
phal arches, and aqueducts ; with baths, and other 


buildings, conducive to the health and pleasure, not 
of the noble citizens only, but of the meanest. 

The principal conquests of the Romans, were 
achieved under the republic ; and the emperors, for 
the most part, were satisfied with preserving those 
dominions which had been acquired by the policy of 
the senate, the active emulation of the senators, and 
the martial enthusiasm of the people. The seven 
first centuries were filled with a rapid succession of 
triumphs ; but it was for Augustus, to relinquish 
the ambitious design of subduing the whole earth, 
and to introduce moderation into the public councils. 
He bequeathed a valuable legacy to his successors, 
the advice of confining the empire within those 
limits which nature seemed to have placed as its 
permanent bulwarks and boundaries : on the west 
the Atlantic ocean ; the Rhine and Danube on the 
north ; the Euphrates on the east ; and towards the 
south the deserts of Africa and Arabia. 

The first exception to this policy was the conquest 
of Britain ; the second the conquests of Trajan. It 
was, however, revived by Hadrian; nearly the first 
measure of whose reign was the resignation of all 
that emperor's eastern conquests. 

The Roman empire, in the time of the Antonines, 
was about two thousand miles in breadth, from the 
wall of Antoninus and the northern limits of Dacia, 
to Mount Atlas and the tropic of Cancer. It ex- 
tended, in length, more than three thousand miles, 
from the Western Ocean to the Euphrates ; it was 
situated in the finest part of the temperate zone, 
between the twenty -fourth and fifty -sixth de- 
grees of northern latitude ; and it was supposed to 
contain above sixteen hundred thousand square 
miles, for the most part of fertile and well cultivated 

Pius studied the defence of the empire rather than 


the enlargement of it a line of policy, which ren- 
dered him more serviceable to the commonwealth than 
the greatest conqueror. Marcus and Lucius ( Autoniui) 
made the first division of the empire. At length it 
was put up to public sale and sold to the highest 
bidder. It was afterwards arrested in its ruin by 
Alexander Severus. The fortunes of the empire, 
after the progress of several successive tyrants, was 
again restored by the courage, conduct, and extraor- 
dinary virtues of Claudius the Second ; to whom has 
been attributed, with every probability of truth, the 
courage of Trajan, the moderation of Augustus, and 
the piety of Antoninus. 

Then followed Aurelian, Tacitus, and Probus ; 
and Rome felt redeemed from the ruin that awaited 
her : but Constantine laid the inevitable ground- 
work of its destmction, by removing the imperial 
throne to Byzantium. Rome became an easy prey 
to her barbarian enemies ; by whom she was several 
times sacked, pillaged, and partially burned. The 
most powerful of these enemies was Alaric : the 
people he had to conquer arid take advantage 
of, are thus described by Ammianus Marcellinus : 
" Their long robes of silk purple float in the wind, 
and as they are agitated, by art or accident, they 
occasionally discover the under-garments, the rich 
tunics, embroidered with the figures of various 
animals. Followed by a train of fifty servants, and 
tearing up the pavement, they move along the street 
with the same impetuous speed, as if they had tra- 
velled with post-horses ; and the example of the 
senators is boldly imitated by the matrons and ladies, 
whose covered-carriages are continually driving round 
the immense space of the city and suburbs. When- 
ever these persons of high distinction condescend to 
visit the public baths, they assume, on their entrance, 
a tone of loud and insolent command, and appropriate 


to their own use the conveniences which were designed 
for the Roman people. As soon as they have indulged 
themselves in the refreshments of the bath, they 
resume their rings, and the other ensigns of their 
dignity; select from their private wardrobe of the 
finest linen, such as might suffice for a dozen persons, 
the garments the most agreeable to their fancy, and 
maintain till their departure the same haughty 
demeanour, which, perhaps, might have been excused 
in the great Marcellus, after the conquest of Syracuse. 

" Sometimes, indeed, these heroes undertake more 
arduous achievements ; they visit their estates in 
Italy, and procure themselves, by the toil of servile 
hands, the amusements of the chase. If at any time, 
but more especially on a hot day, they have courage 
to sail in their painted galleys, from the Lucrine 
Lake to their elegant villas on the sea-coast of Puteoli 
and Cajeta, they compare their own expeditions to 
the marches of Ctesar and Alexander. Yet, should a 
fly presume to settle on the silken folds of their 
gilded umbrellas ; should a sun-beam penetrate 
through some unregarded and imperceptible chink 
they deplore their intolerable hardships, and lament, 
in affected language, that they were not born in the 
land of the Cimmerians, the regions of eternal dark- 

Such was the character of the nobles of Rome at 
the period in which their city was taken possession of 
by Alaric. As soon as the barbarian had got pos- 
session of the Roman port, he summoned the city to 
surrender at discretion ; and his demands were 
enforced by the positive declaration, that a refusal, 
or even a delay, should be instantly followed by the 
destruction of the magazines, on which the life of 
the Roman people depended. The clamours of that 
people, and the terror of famine, subdued the pride 
of the senate. They listened without reluctance to 



the proposing of a new emperor on the throne of 
Honorius ; and the suffrage of the Gothic conqueror 
bestowed the purple on Attains, the prefect of thy 
city. Attains was created emperor by the Gothl- 
and Romans ; he was, however, soon degraded by 
Alaric, and Rome subjected to a general sack. Tlu> 
conqueror no longer dissembled his appetite for plun- 
der. The trembling senate, without any hopes of 
relief, prepared, by a desperate resistance, to delay 
the ruin of their country. But they were unable to 
guard against the secret conspiracy of their slaves 
and domestics. At the hour of midnight, the Sala- 
rian gate was opened, and the inhabitants were 
awakened by the tremendous sound of the Gothic 
trumpet. Eleven hundred and sixty-three years 
after the foundation of Rome, the imperial city, 
which had subdued and civilised so considerable a 
part of mankind, was delivered to the licentious fury 
of the tribes of Scythia and Germany. A cruel 
slaughter was made of the Romans ; the streets of the 
city were filled with dead bodies, which, during the 
consternation, remained unburied. The despair of 
the inhabitants was sometimes converted into fury ; 
and whenever the barbarians were provoked by 
opposition, they extended the promiscuous massacre 
to the feeble, the innocent, and the helpless. The 
private revenge of 40,000 slaves was exercised with- 
out pity or remorse ; and the ignominious lashes, 
which they had formerly received, were washed away 
in the blood of the guilty, or obnoxious families. The 
matrons and virgins of Rome were exposed to inju- 
ries more dreadful, in the apprehension of chastity, 
than death itself. 

When the portable riches had been seized, the 
palaces were rudely stripped of their splendid and 
costly furniture ; the side-boards of massy plate, and 
the variegated wardrobes of silk and purple, were 


irregularly piled in the wagons, that always followed 
the march of a Gothic army. The most exquisite 
works of art were roughly handled, or wantonly 
destroyed ; many a statue was melted for the sake of 
the precious materials ; and many a vase, in the divi- 
sion of the spoil, was shivered into fragments by the 
stroke of the battle-axe. The sack lasted six days. 

The edifices, too, of Rome received no small injury 
from the violence of the Goths; but those injuries 
appear to have been somewhat exaggerated. At their 
entrance they fired a multitude of houses ; and the 
ruins of the palace of Sallust remained, in the age of 
Justinian, a stately monument of the Gothic confla- 
gration. Procopius confines the fire to one peculiar 
quarter ; but adds, that the Goths ravaged the whole 
city. Cassiodorus says, that many of the " wonders 
of Rome," were burned; and Olympiodorus speaks of 
the infinite quantity of wealth, which Alaric carried 
away. AVe collect, also, how great the disaster 
was, when he tells us, that, on the retreat of the 
Goths, 14,000 returned in one day. 

The injury done by Genseric (A.D. 455), is said 
to have been not so great as that, perpetrated by the 
Goths ; yet most writers record that the Vandals and 
Moors emptied Rome of most of her wealth. They 
revenged the injuries of Carthage. The pillage lasted 
fourteen days and nights ; and all that yet remained 
of public or private wealth, of sacred or profane 
treasure, were transported to the vessels of Genseric. 
Among the spoils, the splendid relics of two temples, 
or rather of two religions, exhibited the remarkable 
example of the vicissitude of human things. Since 
the abolition of Paganism, the capital had been vio- 
lated and abandoned; yet the statues of the gods and 
heroes were still respected, and the curious roof of 
gilt bronze was reserved for the rapacious hands of 
Generic. The holy instruments of the Jewish wor- 


ship had been ostentatiously displayed to the Roman 
people, in the triumph of Titus. They were after- 
wards deposited in the temple of Peace ; and, at the 
end of four hundred years, the spoils of Jerusalem 
were transferred to Carthage, by a barbarian who 
derived his origin from the shores of the Baltic. It 
was difficult either to escape or to satisfy the avarice 
of a conqueror, who possessed leisure to collect, and 
ships to transport, the wealth of the capital. The 
imperial ornaments of the palace, the magnificent 
furniture and wardrobe, the sideboards of massy plate, 
were accumulated with disorderly rapine ; the gold 
and silver amounted to several thousand talents ; yet 
even the brass and copper were laboriously removed. 
The empress was rudely stripped of her jewels, and, 
with her two daughters, the only surviving remains 
of the great Theodosius, was compelled, as a captive, 
to follow the haughty Vandal; who immediately 
hoisted sail, and returned, with a prosperous naviga- 
tion, to the port of Carthage. Many thousand 
Romans of both sexes, chosen for some useful or 
agreeable qualifications, reluctantly embarked on 
board the fleet of Genseric ; and their distress was 
aggravated by the unfeeling barbarian, who, in the 
division of the booty, separated the wives from their 
husbands, and the children from their parents. 

The consequences of this Vandal invasion, to the 
public and private buildings, are thus regarded by 
the same authority (Gibbon) : " The spectator, who 
casts a mournful view over the ruins of ancient Rome, 
is tempted to accuse the memory of the Goths and 
Vandals, for the mischief which they had neither the 
leisure, nor power, nor perhaps the inclination, to 
perpetrate. The tempests of war might strike some 
lofty turrets to the ground ; but the destruction which 
undermined the foundations of those massy fabrics, 
was prosecuted, slowly and silently, during a period 


of ten centuries. The decay of the city had gradu- 
ally impaired the value of the public works. The 
circus and theatres might still excite, but they sel- 
dom gratified, the desires of the people ; the temples, 
which had escaped the zeal of the Christians, were 
no longer inhabited, either by gods or men ; the 
diminished crowds of the Romans were lost in the 
immense space of their baths and porticoes ; and the 
stately libraries and halls of justice became useless 
to an indolent generation, whose repose was seldom 
disturbed, either by study or business. The monu- 
ments of consular or imperial greatness were no 
longer revered as the immortal glory of the capital; 
they were only esteemed as an inexhaustible mine of 
materials, cheaper and more convenient than the dis- 
tant quarry. Specious petitions were addressed to 
the easy magistrates of Rome, which stated the want 
of bricks or stones for some necessary service ; the 
fairest forms of architecture w r ere rudely defaced for 
the sake of some paltry or pretended repairs ; and the 
degenerate Romans, who converted the spoil to their 
own emolument, demolished, with sacrilegious hands, 
the labours of their ancestors. " 

In 472 the city was sacked by Ricimer, who 
enjoyed power under cover of the name of the 
Emperor Libius Severus. His victorious troops, 
breaking down every barrier, rushed with irresistible 
violence into the heart of the city, and Rome was 
subverted. The unfortunate emperor (Anthemius) 
was dragged from his concealment, and inhumanly 
massacred by the command of Ricimer his son-in- 
law ; who thus added a third, or perhaps a fourth, 
emperor to the number of his victims. The soldiers, 
who united the rage of factious citizens with the 
savage manners of barbarians, were indulged, with- 
out control, in the licence of rapine and murder ; the 
crowd of slaves and plebeians, who were unconcerned 


in the event, could only gain by the indiscriminate 

pillage ; and the face of the city exhibited the 
strange contrast of stern cruelty and dissolute in- 
temperance. The sack of Rome by Ricimer is gene- 
rally overlooked by the apologists of the early 
invaders ; but it must not be forgotten, that they 
were indulged in the plunder of all but two regions 
of the city. 

To Vitiges (about A.I>. 540) must be ascribed the 
destruction of the aqueducts, which rendered the 
thermae useless ; and as these appear never to have 
been frequented afterwards, their dilapidation must 
be partially, but only partially, ascribed to the 

Vitiges burned every thing without the walls, and 
commenced the desolation of the Campagna. 

The last emperor of Rome was Augustulus. 
Odoacer, king of the Heruli, entered Italy with a 
vast multitude of barbarians, and having ravaged it, 

. -t 

at length approached Rome itself. The city made 
no resistance ; he therefore deposed Augustulus, and 
took the dignity of empire on himself. From this 
period the Romans lost all command in Italy. 

A. D. 479. Five centuries elapsed from the age 
of Trajan and the Antonines, to the total extinction 
of the Roman empire in the west. At that unhappy 
period, the Saxons fiercely struggled with the natives 
for the possession of Britain. Gaul and Spain were 
divided between the powerful monarchies of the 
Franks and Visigoths ; and the dependent kingdoms 
of the Suevi and Burgundians in Africa were ex- 
posed to the cruel persecution of the Vandals, and 
the savage insults of the Moors. Rome and Italy, 
as far as the banks of the Danube, were afflicted by 
an army of barbarian mercenaries, whose lawless 
tyranny was succeeded by the reign of Theodoric, 
the Ostrogoth. All the subjects of the empire, who, 


by the use of the Latin langiiage, more partictilarly 
rleserved the name and privileges of Romans, were 
oppressed by the disgrace and calamities of foreign 
conquest ; and the victorious nations of Germany 
established a new system of manners and government 
in the western countries of Europe. 

That Home, however, did not always suffer from 
the Goths, is evident from a passage in one of the 
letters written by Cassiodorus, at one time minister 
to Theodoric : " The care of the Roman city is a 
subject to which our thoughts are ever awake. For 
what is there which it behoves us to provide for, more 
worthy than the keeping up the repair of a city 
which, it is evident, contains the ornaments of our 
republic ? therefore, let your illustrious highness 
know, that we have appointed a notable person, on 
account of its splendid Cloaca?, which are productive 
of so much astonishment to beholders, that they may 
well be said to surpass the wonders of other cities. 
There thou mayest see flowing rivers, inclosed, as it 
wore, in hollow mountains. There thou mayest see 
the rapid waters navigated by vessels, not without 
some anxiety lest they should suffer shipwreck in the 
precipitate torrent. Hence, O matchless Rome ! it 
may be inferred what greatness is in thee. For what 
city may dare to contend with thy lofty superstruc- 
tures, when even thy lowest recesses can find no 
parallel ?" 

In 546, Rome was besieged by Totila the Goth. 
Having reduced, by force or treaty, the towns of 
inferior note in the midland provinces of Italy, 
Totila proceeded to besiege Rome. He took it 
December 17th of the same year. On the loss of 
the city, several persons, some say five hundred, 
took refuge in the church of St. Peter. As 
soon as the daylight had displayed the victory of 


the Goths, their monarch visited the tomb of the 
prince of the apostles ; but while he prayed at the 
altar, twenty-five soldiers and sixty citizens were put 
to the sword in the vestibule of the temple. The 
arch-deacon Pelagius stood before him with the 
gospels in his hand. " O Lord, be merciful to your 
servant." " Pelagius," said Totila, with an insulting 
smile, " your pride now condescends to become a 
suppliant." " I am a suppliant," replied the prudent 
arch-deacon; " God has now made us your subjects, 
and, as your subjects, we are entitled to your cle- 
mency." At his humble prayer, the lives of the 
Romans were spared; and the chastity of the maids 
and matrons was preserved inviolate from the pas- 
sions of the hungry soldiers. But they were re- 
warded by the freedom of pillage. The houses of 
the senators were plentifully stored with gold and 
silver. The sons and daughters of Roman consuls 
tasted the misery which they had spurned or relieved, 
wandered in tattered garments through the streets 
of the city, and begged their bread before the gates 
of their hereditary mansions. 

Against the city he appeared inexorable. One 
third of the walls was demolished by his command ; 
fire and engines prepared to consume or subvert the 
most stately works of antiquity ; and the world was 
astonished by the fatal decree, that Rome should be 
changed into " a pasture for cattle!" Belisarius, hear- 
ing of this, wrote him a letter, in which he observed, 
" That if Totila conquered, he ought, for his own 
sake, to preserve a city, which would then be his 
own by right of conquest, and would, at the same 
time, be the most beautiful city in his dominions. 
That it would be his own loss, if he destroyed it, 
and redound to his utter dishonour. For Rome, 
having been raised to so great a grandeur and ma- 


jesty by the virtue and industry of former ages, 
posterity would consider him as a common enemy of 
mankind, in depriving them of an example and living 
representation of their ancestors." 

In consequence of this letter, Totila permitting 
his resolution to be diverted, signified to the ambas- 
sadors of Belisarius, that he should spare the city ; 
and he stationed his army at the distance of one 
hundred and twenty furlongs, to observe the motions 
of the Roman general. With the remainder of his 
forces, he occupied, on the summit of Gargarus, one 
of the camps of Hannibal. The senators were dragged 
in his train, and afterwards confined in the fortresses 
of Campagna. The citizens, with their wives and 
children, were dispersed in exile ; and, during forty 
days, Rome was abandoned to desolate and dreary 

Totila is known to have destroyed a third part 
of the walls ; and although he desisted from his me- 
ditated destruction of every monument, the extent 
of the injury inflicted by that conqueror may have 
been greater than is usually supposed. Procopius 
affirms, that he did burn " not a small portion of 
the city," especially beyond the Tiber. One of the 
authors of the Chronicles records a fire, and the 
total abandonment of the city for more than forty 
days ; and it must be mentioned, that there is no 
certain trace of the palace of the Cassars having 
survived the irruption of Totila. 

With Totila, the dilapidation of Rome by the 
barbarians is generally allowed to terminate. 

The incursion of the Lombards in 578 and 593 
completed the desolation of the Campagna ; but did 
not affect the city itself. 

Their king Luitprand (in 741) has been absolved 
from a supposed violence ; but Astolphus (in 754) 
did assault the city violently ; and whatever struc- 


turcs were near the walls must be supposed to have 
suffered from the attack. 

From that period, Rome was not forcibly entered, 
that is not after a siege, until the fall of the Carlo- 
vingian race, when it was defended in the name of 
the emperor Lambert ; and assaulted and taken by 
barbarians, commanded by Arnulphus, son of Carlo- 
man of Bavaria (A. D. 896). 

It would exceed our limits were we to enter into 
a detail of the various causes, which were so long at 
work in effecting the ruin of the ancient monuments 
of Rome. If we except the Pantheon, the ancient 
remains have been so mutilated and destroyed, that 
even the name is, in many cases, doubtful. If a per- 
son, says Dr. Burton, expects to find at Rome such 
magnificent remains, as he has read of in Athens, he 
will be grievously disappointed. It is highly neces- 
sary to know, that whatever exists at Rome as a 
monument of ancient times' has suffered from various 

Gibbon states four causes of decay : The injuries 
of time and nature ; the hostile attacks of the bar- 
barians and christians ; the use and abuse of the 
materials ; and the domestic quarrels of the Romans. 
There is great truth in Pope's remark 

Some felt the silent strokes of mouldering age ; 
Some hostile fury ; some religious rage ; 
Barbarian blindness, Christian zeal conspire, 
And Papal piety, and Gothic fire. 

The injuries done by the Christian clergy to the 
architectural beauty of Rome, may be divided into 
two kinds : those, which were commanded, or con- 
nived at, by the Romans, for useful repairs or con- 
structions; and those, which were encouraged or 
permitted from motives of fanaticism. 

In the year 426, during the reign of Theodosius 
the Younger, there was a great destruction of the 


temples and fanes. " The destruction of the idol- 
atrous fanes," says an ecclesiastical writer, " was 
from the foundation ; and so complete, that we cannot 
perceive a vestige of the former superstition. Their 
temples are so destroyed, that the appearance of their 
form no longer remains; nor can those of our times 
recognise the shape of their altars. As for their 
materials, they are dedicated to the fanes of the 
martyrs. Temples are not found among the wonders 
admired by Theodoric, except the half-stripped 
Capitoline fane is to be enumerated; and Procopius 
confines his notices to the Temple of Peace, and to 
the Temple of Janus. In the reign of Justinian, the 
temples were partly in private hands, and, therefore, 
not universally protected as public edifices. Pagan 
structures would naturally suffer more at the first 
triumph of Christianity than afterwards, when the 
rage and the merit of destruction must have dimi- 
nished. It is not then rasli to believe, that many 
temples were destroyed or despoiled, and the mate- 
rials employed to the honour of the new religion. 
Du Barga asserts that there were marks on the 
obelisks of their having been all overthrown, with 
the exception of one, which was not dedicated to any 
of the false gods of antiquity." 

The destruction of the baths are attributed to the 
same piety, and those of Diocletian and Caracalla 
showed, in the eighth century, evident marks of 
human violence. Pope Gregory III. employed nine 
columns of some ancient building for the church of St. 
Peter. The rebuilding of the city walls by four popes, 
in the same century, was a useful but a destructive 
operation. Pope Hadrian I. threw down an im- 
mense structure of Tiburtine stone to enlarge the 
church of St. Maria in Cosmedin. Bonus I. had be- 
fore (A. D. 676) stripped the marble from a large 
pyramid, generally known by the name of Scipio's 


Tomb. Paul II. employed the stones of the Coli- 
seum to build a palace. Sixtus IV. took down the 
Temple of Hercules, and destroyed the remains of an 
ancient bridge to make four hundred cannon-balls for 
the castle of St. Angelo. Paul III. and his nephews 
laboured incessantly at the quarry of the Coliseum. 
He devastated, also, many other buildings. Sixtus 
V. threw down several statues still remaining in the 
capital. Urban VIII. took off the bronze from the 
portico of the Pantheon, and some of the base of the 
sepulchre of Cecilia Metella; and Paul V. removed 
the entablature and pediment of a structure in the 
Forum of Nerva, and also the remaining column of 
the Temple of Peace. Lastly, Alexander VII. 
took down the arch called " di Portogallo," in order 
to widen the Corso. The inferior clergy, too, were 
great depredators ; insomuch that a volume of no 
inconsiderable size has been composed by one of their 
own order to enumerate the Pagan materials applied 
to the use of the church. 

It is difficult to say where this system of depre- 
dation would have stopped, had not Benedict XIV. 
erected a cross in the centre of the arena, and declared 
the place sacred, out of respect to the blood of the 
many martyrs who had been butchered there during 
the persecution. This declaration, if issued two or 
three centuries before, would have preserved the 
Coliseum entire; it can now only protect its re- 
mains, and transmit them in their present state to 

Conflagrations, also, contributed to the destruction 
of the city. In 312 the temple of Fortuna was 
burned down. The palaces of Symmachus and Lam- 
padius, with the baths of Constantine, suffered by 
the same cause. 

Nor must the destruction be confined to one ele- 
ment. The Tiber rose, not unfrequently, to the walls, 


and many inundations arc recorded. Indeed, even 
so early as the second siege of the city by Totila, 
there was so much uncultivated land within the 
walls, that Diogenes, the governor, thought the 
corn, he had sown, would be sufficient to supply 
the garrison and citizens in a protracted defence. 

It is impossible to assign a precise date to the 
total destruction of the greater portion of the ancient 
site; but the calamities of the seventh and eighth 
centuries must have contributed to, if they did not 
complete, the change. A scarcity in the year 604, 
a violent earthquake a few years afterwards, a 
pestilence in or about the year 678, five great inun- 
dations of the Tiber from 680 to 797, a second 
famine in the pontificate of Pope Constantino, which 
lasted thirty-six months, a pestilence in the last 
year of the seventh century, and the assault of the 
Lombards for three months in 755; these are the 
events which compose the Roman history of this 
unhappy period. 

Added to all this, the importance of the new 
city accelerated the ruin of the old; and great 
was the destruction during the periods in which 
separate parties fought their battles in the public 
streets, after the restoration of the empire of the 
West; in which we must record the ruin, caused by 
Robert Guiscard, which proved more injurious to 
the remains of Rome, from 1082 to 1084, than all 
the preceding barbarians of every age: for the 
Normans and Saracens of his army, with the papal 
faction, burned the town from the Flaminian 
gate to the Antonine column, and laid waste the 
sides of the Esquiline to the Lateran; thence he set 
fire to the region from that church to the Coliseum 
and the Capitol. He attacked the Coliseum for 
several days, and finished the ruin of the Capitol. 

A cotemporary writer says, that all the regions of 


the city were ruined; and another spectator, who 
was in Rome twelve years afterwards, laments that 
although what remained could not be equalled 
what was ruined, could never be repaired. 

Thou stranger which for Rome in Rome here seckest, 
And nought of Rome in Rome perceiv'st at all, 
These same old walls, old arches, which thou seest, 
Old palaces, is that which Rome men call. 

Behold what wreck, what ruin, and what waste, 
And how that she which with her mighty power 
Tamed all the world, hath tamed herself at last, 
The prey of Time, which all things doth devour. 

Rome now of Kome is the only funerall, 
And only Rome, of Rome hath victory ; 
Ne ought save Tyher, hastening to his fall 
Remains of all : O World's inconstancy ! 

That which is firm, doth flit and fall away ; 

And that is flitting, doth abide and stay. 

SPENSER'S Ruins of Rome. 

In the annals for 1 167, we find that the Germans 
Barbarossa assaulted the Vatican for a week, and that 
the Pope saved himself in the Capitol. The Colonna 
were driven from the mausoleum of Augustus. After 
the Popes had begun to yield in the unequal contest 
with the senators and people, and had ceased to be 
constantly in the capital, the field was left open for 
the wars of the senators ; that is, of the nobles them- 
selves. The Colonna and Ursini then appear among 
the destroyers of the city. In 1291, a civil war 
occurred, which lasted six months ; the issue of which 
was, according to a spectator, that Rome was reduced 
to the condition of a town " besieged, bombarded and 

At the period in which Henry VII. was crowned 
Emperor, battles were fought in every quarter of tha 
city. The fall of houses, indeed, the fire, theslaugh- 
ter, the ringing of the bells from the churches, the 
shouts of the combatants, and the clanging of arms, 
the Roman people rushing from all quarters towards 


the Capitol ; this universal uproar attended the 
coronation of the new Caesar, and the Cardinals ap- 
prehended the total destruction of the city. 

The absence of the Popes, also, from the year 
1360 to 137(5, lias been esteemed peculiarly cala- 
mitous to the ancient fabrics. Petrarch was over- 
whelmed with regret. He complained that the 
ruins were in danger of perishing ; that the nobles 
were the rivals of time and the ancient Bar- 
barians ; and that the columns and precious mar- 
bles of Rome were devoted to the decoration of 
the slothful metropolis of their Neapolitan rivals. 
Yet, it appears that these columns and marbles 
were taken from palaces comparatively modern, 
from the thresholds of churches, from the shrines 
of sepulchres, from structures to which they had 
been conveyed from their original state, and finally; 
from ruins actually fallen. The solid masses of 
antiquity are not said to have suffered from this spolia- 
tion ; and the edifices, whose impending ruin affected 
Petrarch, were the sacred basilicas, then converted 
into fortresses. 

The great earthquake of 1349 operated, also, in a 
very destructive manner; several ancient ornaments 
being thrown down ; and an inundation of the Tiber 
is recorded among the afflictions of the times. The 
summits of the hills alone were above the water ; 
and the lower grounds were for eight days converted 
into a lake. 

The return of the Popes was the signal of renewed 
violence. The Colonna and Ursini, the people and 
the church, fought for the Capitol and towers ; and 
the forces of the Popes repeatedly bombarded the 

During the great schism of the West, the hostile 
entries of Ladislaus of Naples, and the tumultuous 
government of the famous Perugian, Braccio Montone, 


despoiled the tomb of Hadrian, and doubtless other 
monuments. Yet that violence is supposed to have 
been less pernicious than the peaceful spoliation 
which succeeded the extinction of the schism of 
Martin V, in 1417 ; and the suppression of the last 
revolt of the Romans by his successor Eugenius IV, 
in 1434 : for from that epoch is dated the consumption 
of such marble or travertine, as might either be 
stripped with facility from the stone monuments, 
or be found in isolated fragments. 

We now give place to a description of what re- 
mained in the time of Poggio Bracciolini. Besides a 
bridge, an arch, a sepulchre, and the pyramid of 
Cestius, he could discern, of the age of the republic, 1, 
a double row of vaults, in the salt-office of the Capitol, 
which were inscribed with the name and munificence 
of Catullus. 2, Eleven temples were visible, in some 
degree, from the perfect form of the Pantheon to the 
three arches and a marble column of the temple of 
Peace, which Vespasian erected after the civil wars 
and the Jewish triumph. 3, Of the public baths, 
none were sufficiently entire to represent the use and 
distribution of the several parts; but those of Dio- 
cletian and Caracalla still retained the titles of the 
founders, and astonished the curious spectator ; who, 
in observing their solidity and extent, the variety of 
marbles, the size and multitude of the columns, com- 
pared the labour and expense with the use and the im- 
portance. Of the baths of Constantine, of Alexander, 
of Domitian, or rather of Titus, some vestige might 
yet be found. 4, The triumphal arches of Titus, 
Severus, and Constantine were entire, both the struc- 
tures and the inscriptions; a falling fragment was 
honoured with the name of Trajan ; and two arches 
were still extant in the Flaminian way. 5, After the 
wonder, of the Coliseum, Poggo might have over- 
looked a small amphitheatre of brick, most probably 


for the use of the Praetorian camp : the theatres of 
Marcellus and Pompey were occupied, in a great 
measure, by public and private buildings ; and in 
the Circus Agonalis and Maximus, little more than 
the situation and the form could be investigated. 
6, The columns of Trajan and Antonine were still 
erect; but the Egyptian obelisks were broken or buried. 
A people of gods and heroes, the workmanship of 
art, was reduced to one equestrian figure of gilt brass, 
and to five marble statues, of which the most con- 
spicuous were the two horses of Phidias and Praxi- 
teles. 7, The two mausoleums or sepulchres of 
Augustus and Hadrian could not totally be lost ; 
but the former was visible only as a mound of earth ; 
and the latter, the castle of St. Angelo, had acquired 
the name and appearance of a modern fortress. With 
the addition of some separate and nameless columns, 
such were the remains of the ancient city. 

In the intervals between the two visits of Poggio 
to Rome, the cell, and part of the Temple of Con- 
cord, and the base of the tomb of Metella, were 
ground to lime; also a portico near the Minerva. 
Poggio's description of the ruins, it may be observed, 
is not sufficiently minute or correct to supply the 
deficiency of his contemporary Blondus ; but we may 
distinctly mark, that the site of ancient Rome had 
arrived at the desolation in which it is seen at the 
present day. The Rome of the lower and middle 
ages was a mass of irregular lanes, built upon or 
amongst ruins, and surmounted by brick towers, 
many of them on ancient basements. The streets 
were so narrow, that two horsemen could ride 
abreast. Two hundred houses, three towers, and 
three churches, choked up the forum of Trajan. The 
reformation of Sixtus IV., and the embellishments of 
his successors, have obliterated this town, and that 

VOL. II. Q, 


which is now seen is a capital, which can only date 
from the end of the fifteenth century. 

Not long before the imperialists carried Rome, the 
Colonnas, in 1526, sacked it, as it were; and that 
was followed by that of the Abate di Farfa, and the 
peasantry of the Orsini family*. 

Rome was assaulted by the Bourbon, May 5, 
1527 ; and the imperialists left it February 1 7, 1528. 

No sooner was the Bourbon in sight of Rome, than 
he harangued his troops, and pointed to the end of 
all their sufferings. Being destitute of artillery, with 
which he might batter the walls, he instantly made 
his dispositions for an assault ; and having disco- 
vered a breach, he planted, with his own hands, a 
ladder against the rampart, and prepared to mount 
it, followed by his German bands. But, at that 
instant, a shot, discharged from the first arquebuse 
which was fired, terminated at once his life and his 
misfortunes. Much fruitless inquiry has been made 
to ascertain the author of his death, which is com- 
monly attributed to a priest ; but Benvenuto Cellini, 
so well known by his extraordinary adventures and 
writings, lays claim to the merit of killing this hero. 
By whatever hand he fell he preserved, even in the 
act of expiring, all his presence as well as greatness 
of mind. He no sooner felt himself wounded, than 
he ordered a Gascon captain, named Jonas, to cover 
him with a cloak, in order to conceal his death, lest 
it should damp the courage of his soldiers. Jonas 
executed his commands with punctuality. The Con- 

* The cicerone said to the king of Sweden, as that monarch was 
looking over the ruins of the Coliseum, " Ah, sire, what cursed 
Goths those were, that tore away so many fine tilings here, and 
pulled down such magnificent pillars, &c." . " Hold, hold, friend," 
cried the king, " what were your Roman nohles doing, I would ask, 
when they laboured to destroy an edifice like this, and build their 
palaces with its materials !" 


stable still continued to breathe when the city was 
taken. lie was, therefore, carried thither, and there 
expired, May 5, 1527, at thirty-eight years of age. 

Philipart, prince of Orange, contrived to keep the 
troops in ignorance of their commander's death, till 
they were masters of Rome ; and then, to render 
them inaccessible to pity, he revealed to them the 
fate of Bourbon. No language can express the fury 
with which they were animated at this sad intelli- 
gence. They rent the air with the cries of " Came, 
carne ! Sangre, sangre ! Bourbon, Bourbon !" 

Theimagination is Appalled at the bare recital of the 
wanton outrages on human nature, which were com- 
mitted by Bourbon's army, during the time that they 
remained masters of Rome. The pillage lasted, with- 
out any interruption, for two months. 

Never had that proud city suffered from her bar- 
barian conquerors, in the decline of the Roman empire, 
from Alaric, from Genseric, or from Odoacer, the 
same merciless treatment as she underwent from the 
rage of the imperial troops ; the subjects, or the sol- 
diers of a Catholic king ! Rapacity, lust, and impiety, 
were exhausted by these men. Roman ladies of the 
noblest extraction were submitted to the basest and 
vilest prostitution. The sacred ornaments of the 
sacerdotal, and even, of the pontifical dignity, were 
converted to purposes of ridicule and buffoonery. 
Priests, nay even bishops and cardinals, were de- 
graded to the brutal passions of the soldiery; and 
after having suffered every ignominy of blows, muti- 
lation, and personal contumely, were massacred in 
pastime. Exorbitant ransoms were exacted re- 
peatedly from the same persons ; and when they had 
no longer wherewithal to purchase life, they were 
butchered without mercy. Nuns, virgins, matrons, 
were publicly devoted to the infamous appetites of 


the soldiers ; who first violated, and then stabbed, 
the victims of their pleasures. The streets were 
strewed with the dead ; and it is said that eight thou- 
sand young women, of all ranks and conditions, were 
found to be pregnant within five months from the 
sack of the unfortunate city. 

Three years after the sack by Bourbon, that is in 
1530, an inundation of the Tiber ruined a multi- 
tude of edifices both public and private, and was 
almost equally calamitous with the sack of Rome. 
Simond, writing from Rome in January 1818, says : 
" The Tiber has been very high, and the lower 
parts of the town under water; yet this is nothing 
compared with the inundations recorded on two pil- 
lars at the port of Ripetta, a sort of landing-place. 
The mark on one of them is full eighteen feet above 
the level of the adjoining streets ; and, considering 
the rapidity of the stream, a great part of the city 
must then have been in imminent danger of being 
swept away." In 1819 the Pantheon was flooded ; 
but this is not an uncommon event, as it stands near 
the river, and the drain, which should carry off the 
rain-water that falls through the aperture in the top, 
communicates with the stream. The inundations of 
the Tiber, indeed, are one of the causes, which com- 
bined to destroy so many of the monuments of Rome 
during the middle ages. There is one recorded in 
1345, among the afflictions of the times, when only 
the summits of the hills were above the water, and 
the lower grounds were converted into a lake for the 
space of eight days. Several floods are mentioned by 
the ancient writers ; and Tacitus speaks of a project 
which was debated in the senate, A.D. 15, for divert- 
ing some of the streams running into the Tiber, but 
which was not carried into execution in consequence 
of the petitions of various towns, who sent deputies 


to oppose it ; partly on the ground of their local 
interests being aftected, and partly from a feeling of 
superstition, which emboldened them to urge that 
" Nature had assigned to rivers their proper courses," 
and other reasons of a similar nature. 

Aurelian endeavoured to put an effectual stop to the 
calamities which sprang from the lawless river, by 
raising its banks and clearing its channel. However, 
the deposits resulting from these frequent inundations 
have contributed greatly to that vast accumulation of 
soil, which has raised the surface of modern Rome so 
many feet above the ancient level ; and thus the evil 
itself has occasioned a remedy to a partial extent. 

We must now close this portion of our imperfect 
account, and proceed to give our readers some idea 
in respect to the present condition of Rome's ancient 
remains ; gleaned, for the most part, from the pages 
of writers who have recently been sojourners in " the 
Eternal City :" but in doing this we by no means 
wish our readers to expect the full and minute parti- 
culars, which they may find in works entirely dedi- 
cated to the subject ; for Rome, even in its anti- 
quities, would require a volume for itself. 

When Poggio Bracciolini visited Rome in the 
fifteenth century, he complained that nothing of old 
Rome subsisted entire, and that few monuments of 
the free city remained ; and many writers of more 
recent times have made the same complaint. " The 
artist," says Sir John Hobhouse, " may be compa- 
ratively indifferent to the date and history, and re- 
gard chiefly the architectural merit of a structure ; but 
the Rome which the Florentine republican regretted, 
and which an Englishman would wish to find, is not 
that of Augustus and his successors, but of those 
greater and better men, of whose heroic actions his 
earliest impressions are composed." To which, how- 


ever, may be added what Dr. Burton questions, 
viz., Whether, in his expectations, the traveller may 
not betray his ignorance of real history. " The works 
of the Romans, in the early ages of their nation, 
were remarkable for their solidity and strength ; but 
there seems no reason to suppose that much taste or 
elegance was displayed in them. But then, again, if 
we wish to confine ourselves to the republic, there is 
surely no need of monuments of brick and stone to 
awaken our recollections of such a period. If we must 
have visible objects on which to fix our attention, we 
have the ground itself on which the Romans trod ; we 
have the Seven Hills ; we have the Campus Martius, 
the Forum, all places familiar to us from history, and 
in which we can assign the precise spot where some 
memorable action was performed. Those who feel 
a gratification, by placing their footsteps where 
Cicero or Caesar did before them, in the consciousness 
of standing upon the same hill which Manlius de- 
fended, and in all those associations which bring the 
actors themselves upon the scene, may have all 
their enthusiasm satisfied, and need not complain 
that there are no monuments of the time of the 

The remains of ancient Rome may be classed in 
three different periods. Of the first, the works ot 
the kings, embracing a period of two hundred and 
forty-four years, from the foundation of the city by 
Romulus to the expulsion of Tarquin, very little 
have escaped the ravages of time ; the Tullian walls 
and prison, with the Cloaca Maxima, being the only 
identified remains. Of the works of the republic, 
which lasted four hundred and sixty-one years, 
although the city, during that period, was more than 
once besieged, burned, and sacked, many works are 
yet extant : the military ways and aqueducts, and 


some small temples and tombs. But it was during the 
third period, that of the emperors, that Rome attained 
the meridian of her glory. For three centuries all the 
known world was either subject to her, or bound by 
commercial treaties ; and the taste and magnificence of 
the Romans were displayed in the erection of temples 
to the gods, triumphal arches and pillars to con- 
querors, amphitheatres, palaces, and other works of 
ostentation and luxury, for which architecture was 
made to exhaust her treasures, and no expense was 
spared to decorate. 

Architecture was unknown to the Romans tmtil 
Tarquin came down from Etruria. Hence the few 
works of the kings, which still remain, were built in 
the Etruscan style, with large uncemented, but regu- 
lar blocks. In the gardens of the convent Giovanni 
a S. Paolo is a ruin of the Curia Hostilia, called 
the Rostrum of Cicero ; and some few fragments, 
also, remain of a bridge, erected by Ancus Martius. 
On this bridge (Pons Sublicius) Horatius Codes op- 
posed singly the army of Porsenna ; and from it, 
in subsequent times, the bodies of Commodus and 
Heliogabalus were thrown into the Tiber. In the 
pontificate -of Nicholas V. it was destroyed by an 
inundation. There are also the remains of a large 
brick edifice, supposed to have been the Curia, 
erected by Tullus Hostilius, which was destroyed by 
fire when the populace burned in it the corpse of Clo- 
dius. Julius Caesar commenced its restoration ; and 
Augustus finished it, and gave it the name of Curia 
Julia, in honour of his father by adoption. 

In regard to the form and size of the city, we must 
follow the direction of the seven hills upon which it 
was built. 1. Of these MONS PALATINES has always 
had the preference. It was in this place that Romu- 
lus laid the foundation of the city, in a quad- 


rangular form ; and here the same king and Tulhi3 
Hostilius kept their courts, as did Augustus after- 
wards, and all the succeeding emperors. This hill 
was in compass 1200 paces. 2. MONS TARPEITJS, 
took its name from Tarpeia, a Roman virgin, who in 
this place betrayed the city to the Sabines. It had 
afterwards the denomination of Capitolinus, from the 
head of a man, casually found here in digging for the 
foundation of the temple of Jupiter. This hill was 
added to the city by Titus Tatius, king of the Sa- 
bines ; when, having been first overcome in the field 
by Romulus, he and his subjects were permitted to 
incorporate with the Romans. 3. MONS ESQUI- 
LINUS was taken in by Servius Tullius, who had here 
his royal seat. 4. MONS VIMINALIS derived its name 
from the osiers that grew very plentifully upon it. 
This hill was taken in by Servius Tullus. 5. MONS 
C<ELIUS owes its name to Coelius, or Coeles, a Tuscan 
general greatly celebrated in his time, who pitched 
his tents here when he came to the assistance of 
Romulus against the Sabines. Its having been taken 
into the city is attributed to Tullus Hostilius, by 
Livy and Dionysius ; but by Strabo, to Ancus 
Martius. 6. COLLIS QUIRINALIS was so called from 
the temple of Quirinus, another name of Romulus ; or 
from the Curetes, a people that removed hither from 
a Sabine city, called Cures. It afterwards changed 
its name to Caballus, Mons Caballi, and Caballinus, 
from the two marble horses, with each a man hold- 
ing him, which are set up here. They are still 
standing, and, if the inscription on the pilasters be 
true, were the work of Phidias and Praxiteles; made 
by those masters to represent Alexander and his 
horse Bucephalus, and sent to Nero as a present by 
Tiridates king of Armenia. 7. MONS AVENTINUS 
derived its name from Aventinus, an Alban king, 


from the river Avens, or from (ab Avibus) the birds, 
that used to flock there from the Tiber. Gellius 
affirms, that this hill was not enclosed within the 
bounds of the city, till the time of Claudius; but 
Eutropius expressly states that it was taken into it 
even so early as that of Ancus Martius. 

As to the extent of the whole city, the greatest, 
recorded in history, was in the reign of Valerian, 
who enlarged the walls to such a degree, as to sur- 
round a space of fifty miles. The number of in- 
habitants, in its flourishing state, is computed by 
Lipsius at four millions. The present extent of the 
walls is about thirteen miles. Sir John Hobhouse 
walked round them in three hours, thirty- three 
minutes and three quarters ; and Dr. Burton did 
the same in three hours and ten minutes. 

This circuit will bring into view specimens of every 
construction, from the days of Servius Tullius down 
to the present. Aurelian took into his walls whatever 
he found standing in their line, and they now include 
some remains of the Tullian walls, the walls of the 
Praetorian barracks, the facing of a tank, aqueducts, 
sepulchral monuments, a menagerie, an amphitheatre, 
a pyramid, &c. Thus do they exhibit the uncemented 
blocks of the Etruscan style, the reticular work of 
the republic, the travertine preferred by the first 
emperors, the alternate tufa and bricks employed by 
their successors, and that poverty of materials which 
marks the declining empire. Since the first breach, 
made by Totila, the walls have been often and vari- 
ously repaired; sometimes by a case of brick- work, 
filled up with shattered marbles, rubble, shard, and 
mortar. In some parts, the cementitious work is 
unfaced; here you find stones and tufa mixed; there 
tufa alone, laid in the Saracenic manner : the latter re- 
pairs have the brick revetement of modern fortification. 


The gates of Rome, at the present day, are sixteen 
in number, of which only twelve are open. The 
wall of Romulus had but three or four ; and there 
has been much discussion among antiquaries, as to 
their position. That of Servius had seven ; but in 
the time of Pliny, (in the middle of the first cen- 
tury) there were no less than thirty-seven gates to 
the city. The twelve gates at present in use cor-' 
respond to some of the principal gates of former 

Modern Rome, however, can scarcely be said to 
rest upon the ancient base. Scarcely two-thirds of the 
space within the walls are now inhabited, and the 
most thickly peopled district is comprised within 
what was anciently the open plain of the Campus 
Martins. On the other hand the most populous 
part of the ancient Rome is now but a landscape ; 
it would almost seem, indeed, as if tlie city had 
slipped off its seven hills into the plain beneath. A 
remarkable change, too, has taken place in the sur- 
face of the site itself. In the valleys the ground has 
been raised not less than fourteen or fifteen feet. 
This is strikingly observable in the Forum, where 
there has been a great rise above the ancient level, 
owing partly to the accumulation of soil and rubbish 
brought down by the rains ; bnt chiefly, as there is 
reason to believe, to that occasioned by the demo- 
lition of ancient buildings, and the practice which 
prevailed of erecting new structures upon the pros- 
trate ruins. 

The Tiber, too, still remains ; but its present ap- 
pearance has been variously estimated. " The Tiber," 
says Dr. Burton, " is a stream of which classical 
recollections are apt to raise too favourable anti- 
cipations. When we think of the fleets of the capital 
of the world sailing up it, and pouring in their 


treasures of tributary kingdoms, we are likely to 
attach to it ideas of grandeur and magnificence. 
But if we come to the Tiber with such expectations, 
our disappointment will be great." 

Sir John Hobhouse speaks differently : " Arrived 
at the bank of the Tiber," he says, speaking of the 
traveller's approach to Rome from the north, across 
the Ponte Molle, " he does not find the muddy 
insignificant streani, which the disappointments of 
overheated imaginations have described it ; but one 
of the finest rivers of Europe, now rolling through 
a vale of gardens, and now sweeping the base of 
swelling acclivities, clothed with wood, and crowned 
with villas, and their evergreen shrubberies." Not- 
withstanding this, the Tiber can be by no means 
called a large river, and it is scarcely navigable even 
below Rome, owing to the frequent shoals which 
impede its course. A steam-boat, which plies be- 
tween the capital and Fiumicino, a distance of about 
sixteen miles, is generally five or six hours in making 
the passage. Ordinary vessels are three days in 
making their way up the Tiber to Rome ; being 
towed up always by buffaloes. The velocity of its 
current may be estimated from the fact, that it de- 
posits its coarser gravel thirty miles from the city, 
and its finer at twelve ; it hence pursues its course 
to the sea, charged only with a fine yellowish sand, 
imparting to its waters that peculiar colour, which 
poets call golden, and travellers muddy. Yet these 
waters enjoyed, at one time, a high reputation for 
sweetness and salubrious qualities. Pope Paul the 
Third invariably carried a supply of the water of the 
Tiber with him on his longest journeys ; and his 
predecessor, Clement the Seventh, was similarly pro- 
vided, by order of his physician, when he repaired 
to Marseilles, to celebrate the marriage of his niece, 


Catherine de Medici, with the brother of the Dau- 
phin, afterwards Henry the Second of France. 

Both within and without the walls of Rome, frag- 
ments of aqueducts may be seen. Of these " some," 
says Mr. Woods, " are of stone, others of brick- 
work, but the former cannot be traced for any conti- 
nuance ; and while two or three are sometimes sup- 
ported on a range of arches, in other places almost 
every one seems to have a range to itself. It is 
curious to trace these repairs, executed, perhaps, fif- 
teen centuries ago. The execution of the brick-work, 
in most instances, or perhaps in all, shows them to 
be decidedly prior to the age of Constantino ; and 
the principal restorations, in all probability, took 
place when the upper water-courses were added. 
They generally consist of brick arches, built within 
the ancient stone ones ; sometimes resting on the old 
piers, but more often carried down to the ground ; 
and, in some cases, the whole arch has been filled 
up, or only a mere door- way left at the bottom. 
Sometimes this internal work has been wholly, or 
partially, destroyed ; and sometimes the original 
stone- work has disappeared, as the owner of the 
ground happened to want bricks, or squared stones. 
In one place the ancient piers have been entirely 
buried in the more recent brick-work ; but the brick- 
work has been broken, and the original stone-work 
taken away : presenting a very singular, and, at first 
sight, wholly unaccountable appearance. In other 
parts, the whole has fallen, apparently without 
having had these brick additions; for a range of 
parallel mounds mark the situation of the prostrated 

" I do not know any thing more striking," says 
Simond, " than these endless arches of Roman aque- 
ducts, pursuing, with great strides, their irregular 


course over the desert. They suggest the idea of 
immensity, of durability, of simplicity, of boundless 
power, reckless of cost and labour, all for a useful 
purpose, and regardless of beauty. A river in mid- 
air, which had been flowing on ceaselessly for fifteen 
or eighteen hundred, or two thousand years, poured 
its cataracts in the streets and public squares of Rome, 
when she was mistress, and also when she was the 
slave of nations; and quenched the thirst of Attila, 
and of Genseric, as it had before quenched that of 
Brutus and Caesar, and as it has since quenched that 
of beggars and of popes. During those ages of de- 
solation and darkness, when Rome had almost ceased 
to be a city, this artificial river ran to waste among 
the ruins ; but now fills again the numerous and 
magnificent fountains of the modern city. Only 
three out of eleven of these ancient aqueduct ? remain 
entire, and in a state to conduct water ; what, then, 
must have been the profusion of water to ancient 
Rome ? " 

The Tarpeian rock still exists ; but has little in its 
appearance to gratify the associations of a classic tra- 
veller. Seneca describes it as it existed in his time 
thus: "A lofty and precipitous mass rises up, rugged 
with many rocks, which either bruise the body to 
death, or hurry one down still more violently. The 
points projecting from the sides, and the gloomy 
prospect of its vast height, are truly horrid. This 
place is chosen in particular, that the criminals may 
not require to be thrown down more than once." 

Poggio Bracciolini gives a melancholy picture of 
what, in his time, was the state of this celebrated 
rock. " This Tarpeian rock was a savage and soli- 
tary thicket. In the time of the poet it was covered 
with the golden roofs of a temple ; the temple is over- 
thrown, the gold has been pillaged, the wheel of 
fortune has accomplished her revolution, and the 


sacred ground is again disfigured with thorns and 
brambles. The hill of the Capitol, on which we sit, 
was formerly the head of the Roman empire, the 
citadel of the earth, the terror of kings ; illustrated 
by the footsteps of so ma iy triumphs, enriched with 
the spoils and attributes of so many nations. This 
spectacle of the world, how is it fallen ! how changed! 
how defaced ! The path of victory is obliterated 
by vines, and the benches of the senators are con- 
cealed by a dunghill." 

" Like the modern Tiber, the modern Tarpeian," 
says an elegant traveller, " is little able to bear the 
weight of its ancient reputation." " The only preci- 
pice that remains," says another traveller (Mathews) 
" is one about thirty feet from the point of a wall, 
where you might leap down on the dung, mixed in 
the fold below, without any fear of breaking your 

The Aqueducts were, beyond all question, some 
of the noblest designs of the Romans. Frontinus, a 
Roman author, and a person of consular dignity, who 
compiled a treatise on this subject, affirms them to 
be the clearest token of the grandeur of the empire. 
The first invention of them is attributed to Appius 
Claudius, A. u. c. 441 , who brought water into the city 
by a channel eleven miles in length. But this was very 
inconsiderable compared to those that were afterwards 
carried on by the emperors and other persons ; several 
of which were cut through the mountains, and all 
other impediments, for above forty miles together ; 
and of such height, that a man on horseback, as Pro- 
copius informs us, might ride through them without 
the least difficulty. This, however, is meant only of 
the constant course of the channel ; for the vaults and 
arches were, in some places, 109 feet high. 

Procopius makes the Aqueducts only fourteen ; 
but Aurelius Victor has enlarged the number to 


twenty. The Claudian Aqueduct conveyed 800,000 
tons of water each day into the city. 

The Forums of Rome were of two kinds ; one a 
place of popular assembly, both for business, and 
pleasure ; serving at once the purposes of what we 
call an Exchange, certain courts of justice, and of 
hustings for the election of public functionaries : the 
other consisted of market-places. The chief forum 
was emphatically called the Roman, or the Great 

The second forum, built in Rome, was erected by 
Julius Csesar. The third was called sometimes the 
Augustan, from its having been formed by Augustus ; 
and sometimes the Forum of Mars from the temple 
of that god, erected by him. Some remains are still 
in existence. The fourth forum was begun by Domi- 
tian, but being finished by Nerva, it was called after 
his name. A fifth forum was built by the emperor 
Trajan ; said to have been the most celebrated work 
of the kind in the city. It was built with the 
spoils he had taken in his wars. The roof was of 

Ammianus Marcellinus, in his description of Con- 
stantino's triumphal entrance into Rome, when he has 
brought him, with no ordinary admiration, by the 
Baths, the Pantheon, the Capitol, and other noble 
structures, as soon as ever he gives him a sight of the 
Forum of Trajan, he puts him into an ecstacy, and 
cannot forbear making a harangue upon the matter. 
We meet in the same place with a very smart re r 
partee, which Constantino received at the time from 
Ormisdas, a Persian prince. The emperor, as he 
greatly admired everything belonging to this noble 
pile, so he had a particular fancy for the statue 
of Trajan's horse, which stood on the top of it, 
and .expressed his desire of doinw as much for 
his own beast. " Pray, sir," says the prince, " before 


you talk of getting such a horse, will you be pleased 
to build such a stable to put him in ?" 

Besides these there was another. This was situ- 
ated not in the city, but in its neighbourhood. It 
was called the Forum Populi, which is frequently 
mentioned in the history of the republic ; and which 
interests us as being the popular and commercial 
resort of a free people. At stated periods, the Ro- 
mans, and their friends and allies, used to meet at 
that spot, and celebrate the Latinos Feriee ; on which 
many holidays and religious ceremonies were accom- 
panied by renewals of treaties of amity, by the inter- 
change of commodities, and by manly sports and 
pastimes. While the Roman citizens came from 
the Tiber, the free confederates descended from their 
mountains, or wended their way from the fertile 
plains beyond the river. Sir William Gell thinks 
he can fix this interesting spot. The habitations 
around the temple of Jupiter Latialis, on Mont 
Albano, are supposed to have constituted the village 
called Forum Popnli. It is probable that the 
meeting of the Latin confederates upon the moun- 
tain, and the fair held there, led to its erection. Here 
the consuls had a house where they sometimes 
lodged, which Dio Cassius (lib. Hi.) says was struck 
with lightning. 

We now return to the Great Forum. 

It was once, 

And long the centre of their universe, 

The Forum, whence a mandate, eagle-winged, 

Went to the ends of the earth. Let us descend 

Slowly. At every step much may be lost. 

The very dust we tread stirs as with life ; 

And not a breath hut from the ground sends up 

Something of human grandeur. 

We are come : 

And now where once the mightiest spirits met 
In terrible conflict ; this, while Rome was free, 
The noblest theatre on this side heaven ! ROGERS. 


The Forum* was an entirely open space ; it hart 
public buildings in it, as well as around it ; we even 
read of streets passing through it. The Curia, or 
Senate-house, stood near the foot of the Palatine 
hill, in about the middle of the eastern side of the 
Forum. It was built originally by Tullus Hostilius, 
the third king of Rome ; and, after having been re- 
paired by Sylla, was destroyed by fire in the year 
53 B. c., when the body of Clodius, who had been 
murdered by Milo, was carried into it by a tumul- 
tuous multitude, and there burnt on a funeral pile, 
formed of benches of the senators, the tables, the 
archives, and such other materials as the place 
afforded. Sylla's son rebuilt it ; but under the 
false pretence of erecting a temple to " Felicity." 
It was again restored by Julius Caesar. 

Vitruvius says, that the Greek Forum was square, 
with ambulatories in the upper story ; the Roman 
was oblong, with porticos, and shops for bankers, 
and with galleries in the upper floor, adapted for the 
management of the public revenues. The Roman 
forum also included many other edifices of a differ- 
ent nature ; as the basilicas, prison, curiae, and were 
enriched with colonnades and sculpture. That of 
Trajan was entered by four triumphal arches, and 
had his magnificent column in the centre of it. 

A few words will describe the present state of this 
celebrated spot: 

Now all is changed ! and here, as in the wild, 

The day is silent, dreary as the night ; 

None stirring, save the herdsman and his herd, 

Savage alike ; or they that would explore, 

Discuss and learnedly ; or they that come 

(And there are many who have crossed the eartli) 

That they may give the hours to meditation, 

And wander, often saying to themselves . 

' This was the Roman Forum." 

* Knight. 


The list of edifices in the Forum would be tedious ; 
nor could even learned antiquaries now make it 
correct ; but among them we may mention the 
temple of the Penates, or household gods, the temple 
of Concord, the temple of Jupiter Stator, the temple 
of Castor and Pollux*, the temple of Vesta, the 
temple of Victory,- the temple of Julius Caesar, and 
the arches of Fabian, Tiberius, and Severus. All 
these, however, and in most cases even the traces of 
them, have disappeared, the few objects remaining 
being a puzzle to such persons as take an interest in 
them, and examine the matters on the spot. 

" The glories of the Forum are now fled for ever," 
says Mr. Eustace. Its temples are fallen; its sanctua- 
ries are crumbled into dust; its colonnades encumber 
pavements, now buried under their remains. The 
walls of the rostra, stripped of their ornaments, and 
doomed to eternal silence; a few shattered porticos, 
and here and there an insulated column standing in 
the midst of broken shafts, Vast fragments of marble 
capitals and cornices heaped together in masses, 
remind the traveller that the field which he now 
traverses was once the Roman foruint. It is reduced, 
indeed, not to the pasture-ground for cattle, which 
Virgil has described, but to the market-place for 
pigs, sheep, and oxen ; being now the Smithfield of 

* " The public colossal statues of Castor and Pollux, said to be 
by Phidias and Praxiteles, on Monte Cavallo," says Mr. Williams, 
" are superior to all the statue* of that description which I have 
seen in Italy. Both of the figures are in the act of guiding their 
horses, and are remarkable for lightness and manly beauty ; sug- 
gesting no idea of huge blocks of marble, as most of the colossal 
statues do. The proportions of these figures are exquisite, and 
from certain points appear little inferior to the finest statues in 
the world. The horses, however, are not so well proportioned. 
That the sculptors might give dignity to the figures, they have made 
the horses comparatively small, a liberty which will not be con- 
demned by the judicious critic. " 

f Parker. 


Rome. The hills, the rivers, the roads and bridges, 
in this mother of cities, mostly go by their ancient 
Latin names, slightly altered in Italian, but the 
Forum has not even retained its name; it is now 
called Campo Vaccino, or the Field of Cows ! 

This scene*, though now so desolate and degraded, 
was once the great centre of all the business, power, 
and splendour of Rome. Here, as long as the 
Romans were a free people, all the affairs of the 
state were debated in the most public manner; and 
from the rostra, elevated in the midst of the square, 
and with their eyes fixed on the capitol, which 
immediately faced them, and which was suited to 
fill their minds with patriotism, whilst the Tar- 
peian rock reminded them of the fate reserved for 
treason and corruption, the noblest of orators 
" wielded at will" the fierce democracy, or filled the 
souls of gathered thousands with one object, one 
wish, one passion the freedom and glory of the 
Roman race; a freedom which would have been 
more enduring had the glory been less. 

" Yes; in yon field below, 
A thousand years of silenced factions sleep 
The Forum, where the immortal accents glow, 
And still the eloquent air breathes, burns, of Cicero! 

" The field of freedom, faction, fame, and blood. 

Here a proud people's passions were exhaled, 

From the first hour of empire in the bud, 

To that when further worlds to conquer fail'd; 

But long before had Freedom's face been veil'd, 

And Anarchy assumed her attributes; 

Till every lawless soldier who assail'd 

Trod on the trembling senate's slavish mutes, 
Or raised the venal voice of baser prostitutes." 

Here the orators of the people brought their accu- 
sations against public men, or pronounced eulogies 
on such as had died for their country; and here, also, 

* Knight. 
K 2 


were exhibited the bleeding heads or lifeless bodies 
of traitors, or, as it but too often happened, of men 
unjustly deemed so by an overbearing faction. The 
Forum was the court of justice, and in homely days 
of the early republic, civil and criminal causes were 
tried and decided by simple laws in the open air, or 
in very plain sheds built in this square. The humble 
schools for the republican children (for even these 
old Romans had places of public instruction for the 
poor people) stood round the Forum, which seems to 
have been intermixed with shops, shambles, stalls, 
lowly temples, and altars. 

No object within the walls of Rome, according to 
Dr. Burton, is so melancholy as the Forum. " We 
may lament," says he, " the ruin of a temple or a 
palace, but our interest in the remaining fragments 
is frequently diminished by our either not knowing 
with certainty to what building. they belonged, or 
because history has not stamped them with any 
peculiar recollections. But standing upon the hill of 
the Capitol, and looking down upon the Forum, we 
contemplate a scene with which we fancy ourselves 
familiar, and we seem suddenly to have quitted the 
habitations of living men. Not only is its former 
grandeur utterly annihilated, but the ground has not 
been applied to any other purpose. When we 
descend into it, we find that many of the ancient 
buildings are buried under irregular heaps of soil. 
A warm imagination might fancy that some spell 
hung over the spot, forbidding it to be profaned by 
the ordinary occupations of inhabited citk s. What 
Virgil says of its appearance before the Trojan 
settlers arrived, is singularly true at the present 
moment : 

There oxen strolled where palaces are raised, 

And bellowing herds in the proud Forum grazed*." 

Where the Roman people saw temples erected to 
* " After the fall of Rome," savs Vasi, " and particularly in tbe 


perpetuate their exploits ; and where the Roman no- 
bles vied with each other in the magnificence of their 
dwellings, we see now a few isolated pillars standing 
amongst some broken arches. Or if the curiosity of 
foreigners has investigated what the natives neither 
think nor care about, we may, perhaps, see the rem- 
nant of a statue, or a column, extracted from the 
rubbish. Where the Comitia were held, where 
Cicero harangued, and where the triumphal proces- 
sions passed, we have now no animated beings, ex- 
cept strangers, attracted by curiosity ; the convicts 
who are employed in excavating, as a punishment, 
and those more harmless animals, who find a scanty 
pasture, and a shelter from the sun under a grove of 
trees. If we look to the boundaries of this desola- 
tion, the prospect is equally mournful. At one end 
we have the hill of the Capitol ; on the summit of 
which, instead of the temple of Jupiter, the wonder 
of the world, we have the palace of the solitary se- 

year 1084, when Robert Guiscard visited the city, this spot, so 
famous, was despoiled of all its ornaments; and the buildings hav- 
ing been in great part ruined, it has served from that time to our 
days as a market for oxen and cows, whence is derived the name 
of Campo Vaccino (cow-field), under which it was lately known. 
At the present day, however, it has lost that vile denomination, and 
obtained again the appellation of Forum Romanum." Mr. 
Woods, however, says, that it was called Campo Vaccino, not as 
being the market, but as the place where the long-horned oxen, 
which have drawn the carts of the country-people to Rome, wait till 
their masters are ready to go back again. Vasi is mistaken, in say- 
ing that " this vile denomination " has been lost ; it never will be 
lost it is too accurately descriptive it tells the tale of degradation 
too well, not to last as long as the Forum remains. Nor would it 
be correct to call the space marked Campo Vaccino, in the modem 
maps of Rome, by the name of Forum Romanum, or Foro 
Romano, to use the Italian form. The Campo Vaccino is a much 
larger space than the existing remnant of the ancient Forum ; and 
though it is quite correct to call that remnant a part of the Campo 
Vaccino, yet to call the Campo Vaccino the Forum Romanum, 
would give rise to very incorrect notions concerning the limits and 
site of the ancient Forum." Anon. 


nator. If we wish to ascend this eminence, we have, 
on one side, the most ancient structure in Rome, and 
that a prison ; on the other, the ruins of a temple, 
which seems to have been amongst the finest in the 
city, and the name of whicli is not known. If we 
turn from the capital, we have, on our right, the 
Palatine hill, which once contained the whole Roman 
people, and which was afterwards insufficient for the 
house of one emperor, and is now occupied by a few 
gardens, and a convent. On the left, there is a range 
of churches, formed out of ancient temples ; and in 
front, we discover at a considerable distance, through 
the branches of trees, and the ruins of buildings, the 
mouldering arches of the Colosseum. 

The Mausoleo Adriano was erected by Adrian, in 
the gardens of Domitian. It is two stories high ; 
the lower square, the upper round. It was formerly 
covered with Parian marble, and encircled by a concen- 
tric portico, and surmounted by a cupola. The Pons 
TElius was the approach to it; during the middle ages, 
it was used as a fortress; and the uppcrworks, of brick, 
were added to it by Alexander VI. ; when it became 
the citadel of Rome. This castle was of great ser- 
A-ice to Pope Clement VII., when the city was sur- 
prised (A. D. 1527) by the imperial army. The castle 
was formerly the burial-place of the Roman empe- 
rors, which, after Augustus's mausoleum on the side 
of the Tiber was filled with arms, Adrian built for 
himself and his successors ; hence it acquired the name 
of Moles Hadriani. The large round tower in the 
centre of the edifice was formerly adorned with a 
considerable number of small pillars and statues ; but 
most of them were broken to pieces by the Romans 
themselves, who made use of them to defend them- 
selves against the Goths, when they assaulted the 
city ; as may be read at large in Procopius and Baro- 
uius. On the top of it stood the Pigna, since in 


the Belvidere Gardens. It received its name of St. 
Angelo, from the supposed appearance of an angel, 
at the time of a pestilence, during the reign of Gre- 
gory the Great. It was fortified by Pope Urban 
VII., with five regular bastions, ramparts, moats, 
&-c. The hall is adorned with gildings, fine paint- 
ings, and Adrian's statue, whose bust, with that of 
Augustus, is to be seen on the castle wall. 

The Mamertine prisons* are supposed to be the 
oldest monuments of antiquity in Rome. Livy speaks 
of them as the work of Ancus Martins. " The state 
having undergone a vast increase," says the historian, 
"and secret villanies being perpetrated, from the dis- 
tinction between right and wrong being confounded, 
in so great a multitude of men, a prison was built in 
the middle of the city, overhanging the Forum, as a 
terror to the increasing boldness. These prisons are 
supposed to be called after their founder, Martins. 
They were enlarged by Servius Tullus ; and the part 
which he added bore the name of Tullian. The front 
of this prison is open to the street ; but above, and 
resting on it, is built the church of San Giuseppe FaJeg- 
nani. It has an appearance of great solidity, being 
composed of immense masses of stone, put together 
without cement ; almost every one of the blocks is 
upwards of nine feet long, and in height nearly three 
feet. The length of the front is forty -three feet ; but 
its height does not exceed seventeen ; along the upper 
part runs an inscription, intimating, that CaiusVibius 
Rufinus and Marcus Cocceius Nerva (who were con- 
suls in the year 23), by a decree of the senate, repaired, 
enlarged, or did something to the prison. The tra- 
veller descends, by the aid of stairs, into the upper 
cell. Nearly in the middle of the vaulted roof he 
may perceive an aperture large enough to admit the 
passage of a man's body ; and directly under it, in the 
* Chambers. 


floor of the cell, he will see another opening of a 
similar character. This affords a direct communica- 
tion with the lower prison ; but he descends at ano- 
ther point by a second flight of steps, modern like the 
former. The second cell is of much smaller dimen- 
sions than the other, being only nineteen feet in length, 
by nine in breadth, and about six in height. " It is 
faced," says the Rev. Mr. Burgess, " with the same 
material as the upper one ; and it is worthy of re- 
mark, as a.proof of its high antiquity, that the stones 
are no disposed with that regularity which the 
rules of good masonry require ; the joinings often 
coincide, or nearly so, instead of reposing over the 
middle of the interior block respectively." 

Dr. Burton says, " that a more horrible place for 
the confinement of a human being than these prisons, 
can scarcely be imagined. Their condition in an- 
cient times must have been still worse than it now is. 
The expressions ' cell of groans,' ' house of sadness,' 
' black prison,' ' cave of darkness,' ' place darkened 
with perpetual night ;' and many others, which are 
to be met with in the pages of the later Latin writers, 
sufficiently attest the character they bore in ancient 

Quintus Pleminius, who had done good service to 
the republic in the second Punic war, but who after- 
wards had been sent in chains to Rome, on account 
of the enormities which he had practised in the 
government of the town of Locri, was incarcerated in 
this prison. In the year 194 B.C. certain games 
were being performed in the city; and while the 
minds of all were taken up with the sight of them, 
Quintus Pleminius procured persons to agree to set 
the city on fire, at night, in several places at once, 
so that in the consternation of a nocturnal tumult, 
the prison might be broken open. The matter, how- 
ever, was disclosed by persons privy thereto, and 


communicated to the senate ; and Pleminius was im- 
mediately put to death in the lower cell. The accom- 
plices of Catiline, too, expiated their guilt in this 
prison. The celebrated African king, Jugurtha, also, 
in the same place closed his last days. His melan- 
choly end is thus described by Plutarch : 

" Marius, bringing back his army from Africa into 
Italy, took possession of the consulship the first day 
of January, aud also entered Rome in triumph, 
showing the Romans what they had never expected 
to see ; this was the king Jugurtha prisoner, who 
was a man so wary, and who knew so well to accom- 
modate himself to fortune, and who united so much 
courage to his craft and cunning, that none of his 
enemies ever thought that they would have him 
alive. When he had been led in the procession he 
became deranged, as they say, in his understanding ; 
and, after the triumph, he was thrown into prison ; 
when, as they were stripping him of his tunic by 
force, and striving in eager haste to take from him 
his golden ear-ring, they tore it off, together with 
the lower part of his ear. Being then thrust naked 
into the deep cavern, he said, full of trouble, and 
smiling bitterly, ' Hercules ! how cold is this bath of 
yours ! ' Having struggled, however, for six days, 
with hunger, waiting in suspense till the last hour, 
from his passionate desire to live, he met with the 
just rewards of his wicked deeds." In this prison, 
also, Perseus, the captive king of Macedonia, lingered 
many years in hopeless misery ; and in one of its 
cells, also, St. Peter was imprisoned nine years. 

Next to the Mamertine prisons, in point of anti- 
quity, but greatly above them as a work of labour 
and art, was the CLOACA MAXIMA. The first sewers 
in Rome were constructed by Tarquinius Priscus. 
The Cloaca Maxima was the work of Tarquin the 


Pliny says that Agrippa, in his aedileship, made 
no less than seven streams meet together under- 
ground in one main channel, with such a rapid cur- 
rent as to carry all before them that they met with 
in their passage. Sometimes when they are violently 
swoln with immoderate rains, they beat with exces- 
sive fury against the paving at the bottom and the 
sides. Sometimes in a flood the Tiber waters oppose 
them in their course ; and then the two streams 
encounter with great fury ; and yet the works pre- 
serve their ancient strength, without any sensible 
damage. Sometimes huge pieces of stone and timber, 
or such-like materials, are carried down the channel ; 
and yet the fabric receives no detriment. Sometimes 
the ruin of whole buildings, destroyed by fire or other 
casualties, presses heavily upon the frame. Some- 
times terrible earthquakes shake the very founda- 
tions, and yet they still continue impregnable. Such 
is the testimony of Pliny the Elder. 

The Cloaca Maxima still exist. At its outlet in 
the Tiber, it is said to be thirteen feet high, and as 
many in breadth. The ancients always regarded this 
work as a great wonder. Livy speaks of it in terms 
of admiration ; and Pliny equally so ; and Dionysius 
says that the sewers having been once so greatly 
neglected that sufficient passage was not afforded for 
the waters, it cost no less a sum than 225,000/. to 
put them in repair. 

The Pyramid of Cestius, one of the most ancient 
remains, is the only sp'ecimen of a pyramid 'in Rome. 
It was erected during the republic, to the memory of 
Caius Cestius, one of the priests that provided feasts 
for the gods. It is of great size, being ninety- seven 
feet in the base, and one hundred and twenty-four in 
height; and was erected, according to the inscription, 
in three hundred and thirty days. 

This ancient monument remains entire*. It is 

* Eustace. 


formed, externally, of white marble. At each corner on 
the outside was a pillar, once surmounted with a statue. 
Its form is graceful, and its appearance very pictu- 
resque; supported on either side by the ancient wall of 
Rome, with their towers and galleries venerable in de- 
cay, half shaded by a few scattered trees ; and, looking 
down upon a hundred humble tents interspersed in the 
neighbouring groves, it rises in lonely pomp, and seems 
to preside over these fields of silence and mortality. 

This structure was repaired by order of Pope 
Alexander VII. in 1663 ; it having been greatly dila- 
pidated ; no less than fifteen feet of rubbish have 
accumulated above the base. " It is curious," says 
Simond, " to see how Nature, disappointed of her 
usual means of destruction by the pyramidal shape, 
goes to work another way. That very shape afford- 
ing a better hold for plants, their roots have pene- 
trated between the stones, and acting like wedges, 
have lifted and thrown wide large blocks, in such a 
manner, as to threaten the disjoined assemblage with 
entire destruction. In Egypt, the extreme heat and 
want of moisture, during a certain part of the year, 
hinder the growth of plants in such situations ; and 
in Africa alone are pyramids eternal." Close to this 
is the Protestant burial-ground. " When I am in- 
clined to be serious," says Mr. Rogers, " I love to 
wander up and down before the tomb of Caius 
Cestius. The Protestant burial-ground is there ; and 
most of the little monuments are erected to the 
young ; young men of promise, cut off when on their 
travels, full of enthusiasm, full of enjoyment ; brides 
in the bloom of their beauty, on their first journey ; 
or children borne from home in search of health. 
This stone was placed by his fellow-travellers, young 
as himself, who will return to the house of his 
parents without him ; that by a husband or a father, 
now in his native country. His heart is buried 


in that grave. It is a quiet and sheltered nook, 
covered in the winter with violets ; and the pyramid 
that overshadows it gives a classical and singularly 
solemn air. You feel an interest there, a sympathy 
you were not prepared for. You are yourself in a 
foreign land ; and they are for the most part your 
countrymen. They call upon you in your mother 
tongue in English in words unknown to a native ; 
known only to yourselves : and the tomb of Cestius, 
that old majestic pile has this also in common with 
them, it is itself a stranger among strangers. It 
has stood there till the language, spoken round about 
it, has changed; and the shepherd, born at the foot, 
can read its inscription no longer." 

There is a stem, round tower of other days, 
Firm as a fortress, with its fence of stone, 
Such as an army's buffled strength decays, 
Standing with half its battlements alone. 
And with two thousand years of ivy grown, 
The garland of eternity, where wave 
The green leaves over all by Time o'erthroivn ; 
What was this tower of strength ? within its cave 
What treasure lay so hid ? a Woman's grave. 

A little beyond the Circus of Caracalla* rises the 
mausoleum of Cecilia Metella, a beautiful edifice, 
built by Crassus, in honour of his wife. It is of 
considerable height and great thickness : in the cen- 
tre is a hollow space reaching from the pavement to 
the top of the building. In the concavity was depo - 
sited the body in a marble sarcophagus, which in the 
time of Paul III. was removed to the court of the 
Farnesian palace. The solidity and simplicity of this 
monument are worthy of the republican era in which 
itwas erected, and have enabled it to resist the inci- 
dents and survive the lapse of two thousand years. 

" At the end of the Velabrum," says Dupaty, " I 
found myself on the Appian way, and walked along 
it for some time. I there found the tomb of Cecilia 

* Eustace. 


Metella, the daughter of that Crassus whose wealth 
was a counterpoise to the name of Ponipey and the 
fortune of Caesar. I entered the tomb, and set my- 
self down on the grass. The flowers which dis- 
played their brilliant colours in the corner of the 
tomb, and as I may say amid the shades of death ; 
the noise of a swarm of bees who were depositing 
their honey between two rows of bricks, while the 
surrounding silence rendered their pleasing humming 
more audible ; the azure of the sky forming over my 
head a magnificent dome, decorated alternately by 
flying clouds of silver and of purple ; the name Ce- 
cilia Metella, who perhaps was beautiful, and pos- 
sessed of tfce tenderest sensibility, and who most cer- 
tainly was unfortunate ; the memory of Crassus ; the 
image of a distracted father who strives by piling up 
stones to immortalize his sorrow ; the soldiers, whom 
my imagination still behold combating from the 
height of this tower ; all these and a thousand other 
impressions gradually plunged my soul into a deli- 
cious reverie, and it was with difficulty I could leave 
the place." 

The portico of Octavia stood upon the Flaminian 
Circus and the theatre of Marcellus ; it was erected 
by Augustus, in honour of his sister Octavia. This 
portico formed a parallelogram, composed of a double 
row of two hundred and seventy Corinthian columns 
of white marble, adorned with statues, enclosing a 
court, in which were two temples, dedicated to 
Jupiter and Juno, a library, and a large hall for the 
exhibition of paintings. A small portion of the 
portico, being one of the 'entrances, is all that now 
remains. Many of the pillars are, however, supposed 
to be built up in the neighbouring houses. 

The general use, porticoes were put to, was the 
pleasure of walking or riding in them ; in the shade 
in summer, and in winter in the day ; like the present 


piazzas in Italy. Velleius Paterculus, when he de- 
plores the extreme corruption of manners that had 
crept into Rome upon the conclusion of the Carthagi- 
nian war, mentions particularly the vanity of the 
noblemen, in endeavouring to outshine one another in 
the magnificence of their porticoes, as a great instance 
of their extraordinary luxury. Juvenal thus alludes 
to them : 

On sumptuous baths the rich tlieir wealth bestow, 
Or some expensive airy portico ; 

Where safe from showers they may be borne in state ; 
And, free from tempests, for fair weather wait : 
Or rather not expect the clearing sun ; 
Through thick and thin their equipage must run : 
Or staying, 'tis not for their servants' s;ike, 
But that their mules no prejudice may take. 

The Naumackice, or places for the shows of sea 
engagements*, are nowhere particularly described ; 
but we may suppose them to be very little different 
from the circus or amphitheatres ; since those sort of 
shows, for which they were designed, were often ex- 
hibited. The Nanmachice owed their original to the 
time of the first Punic war, when the Romans first 
initiated their men in the knowledge of sea-affairs. 
After the improvement of many years, they were 
designed as well for the gratifying the sight, as for 
increasing their naval experience and discipline ; and 
therefore composed one of the solemn shows by which 
the magistrates or emperors, or any affecters of popu- 
larity, so often made their court to the people. 

The usual accounts we have of these exercises seem 
to represent them as nothing else but the image of a 
naval fight. But it is probable that sometimes they 
did not engage in any hostile manner, but only rowed 
fairly for the victory. This conjecture may be con- 
firmed by the authority of Virgil, who is acknow- 
ledged by all the critics, in his descriptions of the 
* Kennett. 


games and exercises to have had an eye always to 
His own country, and to have drawn them after the 
manner of the Roman sports. Xow the sea conten- 
tion, which he presents us with, is barely a trial of 
swiftness in the vessels, and of skill in managing the 
oars, as is most admirably delivered in his fifth 

Warm baths were first introduced into Rome by 
Maecenas. There cannot be a greater instance of the 
magnificence of the Romans than their bagnios. 
Ammianus Marcellinus observes, that they were 
built "in modum pro vinciamm," as large as provinces ; 
but the great Yalesius judges the word provincia- 
rum to be a corruption of piscinarum. And though 
this emendation does in some measure extenuate one 
part of the vanity which has been so often alleged 
against them, from the authority of that passage of 
the historian, yet the prodigious accounts we have 
of their ornaments and furniture, will bring them, 
perhaps, under a censure no more favourable than 
the former. Seneca, speaking of the luxury of his 
countrymen in this respect, complains that they were 
arrived to such a pitch of niceness and delicacy, as 
to scorn to set their feet on any thing but precious 
stones. And Pliny washes good old Fabricius were 
but alive to see the degeneracy of his posterity, when 
the very women must have their seats in the baths of 
solid silver. Of the luxury and magnificence of the 
Roman bath, we have an interesting account in 
Seneca ; we borrow the old translation, it being 
somewhat of a curiosity : 

"Of the countrie-house of Africanus, and bath: 
" Lying in the verie towne (villa) of Scipio Afri- 
canus, I write these things unto thee, having adored 
the spirit of him and the altar, which I suppose to 
be the sepulcher of so great a man. * * I saw 

* Prima pares ineunt gi-avibus certamina rcmis 
Quatuor ex omni delecta classe carinx, &c. 


that towne builded of four-square stone, a wall com- 
passing about a wood, towers also set under both 
sides of the towne for a defence. A cisterne laid 
under the buildings, and green places, which was 
able to serve even an armie of men. A little narrow 
bathe, somewhat darke, as the olde fashion was. 
None seemed warme for our ancestors except it were 
obscure. Great pleasure entered into me, beholding 
the manners of Scipio and of us. In this corner that 
horrour of Carthage, to whom Rome is in debt that 
it was taken but once, washed his bodie, wearied 
with the labours of the countrie : for he exercised 
himselfe in worke, and he himself tilled the earth, 
as the fashion of the ancients was. He stood upon 
this so base a roofe, this so mean a floore sustained 
him. But now who is he that can sustaine to be 
bathed thus ? Poore and base seemeth he to him- 
self, except the walls have shined with great and 
precious rounds, except Alexandrian marbles be 
distinguished with Numidian roofe-caste, except the 
chamber -be covered over with glasse, except stone 
of the lie Thassus, once a rare gazing-stocke in some 
church (temple), have compassed about our ponds 
into which we let down our bodies exhausted by 
much labour; except silver cocks have poured out 
water unto us. And as yet I speake of the con- 
duits of the common sort ; what when I shall come to 
the bathes of freedmen ? What profusion of statues 
is there ; what profusion of columns holding nothing 
up, but placed for ornament, merely on account of 
the expense? What quantity of waters sliding downe 
upon staires with a great noise ? To that delicacie 
are we come, that men will not tread but upon 
precious stones. In this bathe of Scipio, there be 
verie small chinckes, rather than windowes, cut out 
in the stone wall, that without hurt of the fense 
they should let the light in. But now they are 


called the bathes of moths, if any be not framed so 
as to receive, with most large windows, the sunne 
all the day long, except they be bathed and coloured 
(sunburnt) at the same time, except from the bathing 
vessel they look upon both land and sea. But in old 
time there were few bathes, neither were they adorned 
with any trimming up. For why should a thing of 
a farthing worth be adorned, and which is invented 
for use, and not for delight ? Water was not poured 
in, neither did it alwaies, as from a warm fountain, 
runne fresh. But, O the good gods ! how delightful 
it was to enter into those bathes, somewhat darke 
and covered with plaster of the common sort, which 
thou diddest know that Cato, the overseer of the 
buildings (aedile), or Fabius Maximus, or some one 
of the Cornelii, had tempered for you with his own 
hand ! For the most noble asdiles performed this 
duty also of going into those places which received 
the people, and of exacting cleanliness, and an use- 
ful and healthie temperature ; not this which is 
lately found out, like unto a setting on fire, so that 
it is meet indeed to be washed alive, as a slave con- 
victed of some crime. It seemeth to me now to be 
of no difference, whether the bathe be scalding hot 
or be but warme. Of how great rusticity do some 
now condemn Scipio, because into his warm bathe 
he did not with large windowes (of transparent stone) 
let in the light ? O miserable man ! He knew not 
how to live ; he was not washed in strained water, 
but oftentimes in turbid, and, when more vehemently 
it did rain, in almost muddy water." 

The more extensive and best-preserved baths now 
remaining in Rome are those of Titus, Antoninus, 
Caracalla, and Dioclesian. In the time of Ammianus 
Marcellinus there were sixteen public baths. These 
were surrounded by extensive gardens ; and the main 
buildings were used, some for bathing and swim- 



ming ; some for athletic exercises ; and others for 
lectures, recitation, and conversation. They were 
splendidly fitted up, and furnished with considerable 

The ruins of what are called the baths of Titus 
extend to a great area. The site is, to a considerable 
extent, occupied by gardens ; in various parts of" 
which are to be seen fragments, all once belonging to 
the same edifice. This building seems to have con- 
sisted of two stories. Of the upper one little re- 
mains ; but of the lower there are more than thirty 
rooms accessible. 

" We passed," says the author of ' Rome in the 
Nineteenth Century,' describing a visit to the baths, 
" the mouths of nine long corridors, converging toge- 
ther like the radii of the segment of a circle, divided 
from each other by dead walls, covered at the top, 
and closed at the end. They must always have been 
dark. Having passed these corridors, we entered 
the portal of what is called the house of Maecenas. 
It is known that the house and gardens of Maecenas 
stood in this part of the Esquiline-hill, which, before 
it was given him by Augustus, was the charnel- 
ground of the common people. The conflagration in 
Nero's reign did not reach to them ; and it is believed, 
that a part of them was taken by Nero into his 
buildings, and by Titus into his baths. Antiquaries 
" think they can trace a difference in the brick- work 
and style of building, between what they consider as 
the erection of Augustus's and that of Titus's age ; 
and on these grounds, the parts they point out as 
vestiges of the house of Maecenas, are the entrance, 
which leads into a range of square and roofless cham- 
bers (called, on supposition, the public baths), and 
the wall on the right in passing through them, which 
is partially formed of reticulated building in patches. 
From these real or imaginary classic remains, we 


entered a damp and dark corridor, the ceiling of 
which is still adorned with some of the most beau- 
tiful specimens, that now remain, of the paintings of 
antiquity. Their colouring is fast fading away, and 
their very outline, I should fear, must be obliterated 
at no very distant period ; so extreme is the humid- 
ity of the place, and so incessantly does the water- 
drop fall. By the light of a few trembling tapers 
elevated on the top of a long bending cane, we saw, 
at least twenty feet above our heads, paintings in 
arabesque, executed with a grace, a freedom, a cor- 
rectness of design, and a masterly command of pencil, 
that awakened our highest admiration, in spite of all 
the disadvantages under which they were viewed. 
* Leaving the painted corridor, which is 

adorned with these beautiful specimens of ancient 
art, we entered halls, which, like it, must always 
have been dark, but are still magnificent. The bright 
colouring of the crimson stucco, the alcove still 
adorned with gilding, and the ceilings beautifully 
painted with fantastic designs, still remain in many 
parts of them ; but how chill, how damp, how deso- 
late are now these gloomy halls of imperial .luxury ! 
No sound is to be heard through them, but that of 
the slow water-drop. In one of these splendid dun- 
geons, we saw the remains of a bath, supposed to 
have been for the private use of the emperor. In 
another we were shown the crimson-painted alcove, 
where the Laocb'on was found in the reign of Leo 
the Tenth. The French, who cleared out a great 
mauy of these chambers, found nothing but the Pluto 
and Cerberus, now in the Capitol, a work of very 
indifferent sculpture." 

Another critic (Knight) has estimated these paint- 
ings rather differently. "The paintings on the walls/' 
says he, " consist chiefly of what we now call ara- 
besques ; the figures are all very small, and arranged in 


patterns and borders. They consist of birds and beasts ; 
among which some green parrots may be seen very dis- 
tinctly ; the ground is generally a rich dark red. At 
the end of one of these rooms is a large painting of 
some building, in which the perspective is said to be 
correctly given. This seems to disprove the charge 
which has been brought against the ancient painters, 
of not understanding the rules of perspective ; none 
of these paintings can, however, be justly regarded 
as specimens of ancient art ; they were intended 
solely as decorations to the apartments, and were 
doubtless the work of ordinary house-painters. To 
judge of the proficiency of the ancient painters from 
such remains as these would be as unfair, to use Dr. 
Burton's remark, as to estimate the state of the arts 
in England from the sign-posts. Where the walls of 
the rooms are bare, the brick -work has a most sin- 
gular appearance of freshness ; the stucco also is very 
perfect in many parts ; but the marble, of which 
there are evident traces on the walls of the floors, is 

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla are so extensive, 
that they occupy a surface equal to one-sixteenth of 
a square mile. Next to the Coliseum, they present 
the greatest mass of ancient building in Rome. " At 
each end," says Mr. Eustace, "were two temples; 
one dedicated to Apollo, and the other to jEsculapius, 
as the tutelary deities of the place, sacred to the im- 
provement of the mind, and the care of the body: the 
two other temples were dedicated to the two pro- 
tecting divinities of the Antonine family ; Hercules 
and Bacchus. In the principal building were, in 
the first place, a grand circular vestibule, with four 
baths on each side, for cold, tepid, warm, and sea 
baths ; in the centre was an immense square for 
exercise, when the weather was unfavourable for 
it in the open air : beyond it is a marble hall, where 


sixteen hundred marble seats were placed for the 
convenience of the bathers ; at each end of this hall 
were libraries. This building terminated on both 
sides with a court, surrounded with porticoes, with 
an odeum for music, and in the middle a spacious 
basin for swimming. Round this edifice were walks 
shaded by rows of trees, particularly the plane ; and 
in its front extended a gymnasium, for running, 
wrestling, &c., in fine weather. The whole was 
surrounded by a vast portico, opening into spacious 
halls, where the poets declaimed, and philosophers 
gave lectures to their auditors." 

The following account is from the author of Rome 
in the Nineteenth Century. " We passed through a 
long succession of immense halls, open to the sky, 
whose pavements of costly marbles, and rich mosaics, 
long since torn away, have been supplied by the soft 
green turf, that forms a carpet more in unison with 
their deserted state. The wind sighing through the 
branches of the aged trees, that have taken root in 
them, without rivalling their loftiness, was the only 
sound we heard ; and the bird of prey, which burst 
through the thick ivy of the broken wall far above 
us, was the only living object we beheld. These 
immense halls formed part of the internal division of 
the Thermae, which was entirely devoted to purposes 
of amusement. The first of the halls, or walled 
enclosures, that you enter, and several of the others, 
have been open in the centre. These were surround- 
ed by covered porticos, supported by immense 
columns of granite, which have long since been 
carried away ; chiefly by the popes, and princes of 
the Farnese family. In consequence of their loss the 
roofs fell with a concussion so tremendous, that it is 
said to have been felt even in Rome, like the distant 
shock of an earthquake. Fragments of this vaulted 
roof are still lying at the corners of the porticoes. 


The open part, in the centre, was probably designed 
for athletic sports. Many have been the doubts and 
disputes among the antiquaries, which of these halls 
have the best claims to be considered as the once 
wonderful Cella Solearis. All are roofless now ; 
but the most eastern of them, that which is farthest 
to the left on entering, and which evidently had 
windows, seems generally to enjoy the reputation. 
Besides these enormous halls, there are, on the 
western side of these ruins, the remains of a large 
circular building, and a great number of small divi- 
sions, of all sizes and forms, in their purpose wholly 
incomprehensible ; except that they belonged to that 
part of the Thermae destined for purposes of amuse- 
ment. Nothing can now be known ; and though 
the immense extent of the baths may be traced, 
far from hence, by the wide-spreading ruins, it is 
equally difficult and unprofitable to explore them 
any further." 

In these baths were discovered (A. D. 1540), the 
celebrated Farnese Hercules ; also the famous Flora 
(1540) ; and the Farncee Bull, in 1544. In those 
of Titus, the Belvidere Meleager ; and the wonderful 
group, entitled the Laocoon ; and not far from them 
the exquisite figure of Antinous. 

Columns, or pillars,* were none of the meanest 
beauties of the city. They were at least converted 
to the same design as the arches ; for the honourable 
memorial of some noble victory or exploit ; after 
they had been a long time in use for the chief orna- 
ment of the sepulchres of great men. 

There are three columns more celebrated than the 
rest. These are, the pillars of Trajan, of Antoninus, 
and of Phocas. The first of these was set up in 
the middle of Trajan's Forum ; being composed of 
twenty- four great stones of marble ;t bxit so curiously 
* Knight. f Kennet. 


cemented, as to seem one entire natural stone. The 
height was one hundred and forty-four feet, accord- 
ing to Eutropius ; though Marlian seems to make 
them but one hundred and twenty- eight : yet they 
are easily reconciled, if we suppose one of them to 
have begun the measure from the pillar itself, and 
the other from the basis. It is ascertained on the 
inside by one hundred and eighty-five winding stairs, 
and has forty little windows for the admission of 
light. The noblest ornament of this pillar was the 
statue of Trajan at the top, of a gigantic height ; 
being no less than twenty-five feet high. He was 
represented in a coat of armour, proper to the ge- 
neral, holding in his left hand a sceptre ; in his right 
a hollow globe of gold, in which his ashes were de- 
posited after his death. 

The subjects of the bas-reliefs, as we have already 
stated, are the victories of Trajan, in his Dacian 
campaign *. The whole number of figures sculptured 
is about 2,500 ; and the figure of Trajan himself is 
repeated more than fifty times. At the lower part 
of the column, the human figures are about two feet 
high ; as they ascend, and thus become further re- 
moved from the eye, their size is increased, till, at the 
top of the column, they have nearly double the height 
that they have below. These bas-reliefs are executed 
with great delicacy and spirit ; but they possess a 
higher value of a different kind. " The Roman dress 
and manners," says Dr. Burton, " may receive a con- 
siderable light from them. We find the soldiers con- 
stantly carrying their swords on the right side. On 
a march they are generally bare-headed ; some have 
no helmets at all ; others wear them suspended to 
their right shoulder ; each of them carries a stick over 
the left shoulder, which seems to have been for the 


purpose of carrying their provisions. We may ob- 
serve also a wallet, a vessel for wine, and a machine 
for dressing meat." 

Their shields * were oblong, with different devices 
upon them ; their standards of various kinds ; pic- 
tures also were used ; which were portraits of gods, 
or heroes. The soldiers wear upon their legs a kind 
of light pantaloons, reaching a little below the knee, 
and not buttoned. The Dacians have loose panta- 
loons, reaching to the ankle, and shoes ; they also 
earry curved swords. The Sarmatian cavalry, allies 
of Decabalus (the Dacian king) wear plated ar- 
mour, covering the men and horses. Their armour 
was a covering of thin circular plates, which were 
adapted to the movements of the body, and drawn 
over all their limbs ; so that in whatever direction 
they wished to move, their clothing allowed them 
free play, by the close fitting of its joints. Some 
Roman soldiers have also plate-armour ; but they 
are archers. The horses have saddles, or rather 
cloths, which are fastened by cords round the breast, 
and under the tail. The Dacian. horses are without 
this covering ; and the Germans, or some other allies, 
have neither saddles nor bridles to their horses. We 
might observe several other particulars, such as a 
bridge of boats over a river, and that the boats every- 
where are without a rudder, but are guided by an 
oar, fastened with a thong on one side of the stern. 
The wall of the camp has battlements, and the heads 
of the Dacians are stuck to it. The Dacian women 
are represented burning the Roman prisoners. We 
may also see the testudo, formed by soldiers putting 
their shields together in a compact mass over their 
backs. Yictory is represented as writing with a 
pen on a shield t. 

Paiker. tTtmH 


The column of Antoninus was raised in imitation 
of this, which it exceeded in one respect ; that it was 
one hundred and seventy-six feet high. The work 
was much inferior to that of Trajan's, as being under- 
taken in the declining age of the empire. The ascent 
on the inside was hy one hundred and six stairs, and 
the windows in the sides fifty- six. The sculpture 
and the other monuments were of the same nature 
as those of the first ; and on the top stood a colossus 
of the emperor, naked, as appears from some of his 
coins. Both these columns k are still standing ; the 
former most entire. But Pope Sixtus V., instead of 
the statues of the emperors, set up St. Peter's, on the 
column of Trajan^ and St. Paul's, on that of Anto- 

The historical columns * are true to no order of 
architecture. Trajan's has a Tuscan base and capi- 
tal, and a pedestal with Corinthian mouldings. That 
of M. Aurelius repeats the same mixture ; but its 
pedestal is restored : and though higher, both in 
proportion and in place, than Trajan's, does not 
associate so well with its shaft. These are the only 
regular pedestals that are observed in Roman anti- 

Next to these may be classed the column of 
Phocas t. So recently as twenty-four years ago, the 
whole of its base, and part of the shaft, were buried 
in the soil ; and up to that time, the ingenuity of 
the learned was severely tried, in the attempt to find 
for it a name. One thought it a fragment of the 
Grecostasis ; another adjudged it to a temple of 
Jupiter Gustos ; and a third urged the claim of Cali- 
gula's bridge. At length, it was thought that, pos- 
sibly, the column might originally have been isolated, 
and thus in itself a complete monument ; that, con- 
sequently, if the earth at its foot were removed, a 
* Forsyth. f Knight. 


pedestal might be uncovered with some inscriptions 
thereon. The Duchess of Devonshire had recourse 
to this simple expedient, in the year 1813; the base 
of the column was laid open, and upon it an inscrip- 
tion was found, recording the fact, that a gilt statue 
was placed on the top of it in the year 608, in honour 
of the emperor Phocas, by Smaragdus, exarch of 

The material of the column is Greek marble, the 
capital is Corinthian, and the shaft is fluted. The 
height is forty-six feet, but as it stands upon a 
pyramid of eleven steps, its elevation is increased 
about eleven feet. 

The seventh Basilica stands about two miles from 
the walls; the church itself is a fine building, re- 
stored in 1611; but the portico, of antique marble 
columns, is of the time of Constantino. Under the 
church are the openings to very extensiye catacombs, 
originally formed no doubt by the ancient Romans, 
to procure pozzolana for their buildings; and enlarged 
by the early Christians, who used them as places of 
refuge during their persecutions, and as cemeteries, 
one hundred and seventy thousand of them having, 
it is said, been interred there. The passages are 
from two to three feet in width, and extend several 
miles in different directions. 

A hall of immense size* was discovered about the 
beginning of the last century, concealed under the 
ruins of its own massive roof. The pillars of verde 
antico that supported its vaults, the statues that 
ornamented its niches, and the rich marbles that 
formed its pavements, were found buried in rubbish, 
and were immediately carried away by the Farnesian 
family, the proprietors of the soil, to adorn their 
palaces and furnish their galleries. This hall is now 
cleared of its encumbrances, and presents to the eye 


a vast length of naked wall, and an area covered with 
weeds. " As we stood contemplating its extent and 
proportion," continues Mr. Eustace, " a fox started 
from an aperture, once a window, at one end, and 
crossing the open space, scrambled up the ruins at the 
other, and disappeared in the rubbish. This scene 
of desolation reminded me of Ossian's beautiful 
description: ' The thistle shook there its lonely 
head; the moss whistled to the gale; the fox looked 
out from the windows; the rank grass waved round 
his head.' " 

There are twelve Obelisks at Rome still standing 
erect, the oldest of which is that brought by Augustus, 
which is eighty feet in height,' decorating the fine 
square called Piazza del Popolo. 

Roman conquerors had successively enriched the 
capital of the world with the monuments of subdued 
nations, and with the spirit of art from Sicily, 
Greece, and Egypt. Among these, the emperor 
Augustus ordered two Egyptian obelisks to be carried 
to Rome. To this end, an immense vessel of a 
peculiar structure was built, and when, after a 
tedious and difficult voyage, it reached the Tiber 
with its freight, one of the columns was placed in the 
Grand Circus, and the other in the Campus Martius. 
Caligula adorned Rome with a third Egyptian 
obelisk, obtained in the like manner. 

A fourth was added afterwards. The emperor 
Constantine, equally ambitious of these costly foreign 
ornaments, resolved to decorate his newly-founded 
capital of Constantinople with the largest of all the 
obelisks that stood on the ruins of Thebes. He 
succeeded in having it conveyed as far as Alexandria, 
but, dying at the time, its destination was changed, 
and an enormous raft, managed by three hundred 
rowers, transported the granite obelisk from Alex- 
. andria to Rome. 


The Circi were places set apart for the celebration 
of several sorts of games. They were generally 
oblong, or almost in the shape of a bow, having a 
wall quite round, with ranges of seats for the con- 
venience of the spectators. At the entrance of the 
circus stood the Carceres, or lists, whence they 
started, and just by them one of the Metae, or 
marks, the other standing at the further end to 
conclude the race. " There were several of these 
Circi at Rome, as those of Flaminius, Nero, Cara- 
calla, and Severus; but the most remarkable, as the 
very name imports, was Circus Maximus, first built 
by Tarquinius Priscus. The length of it was four 
furlongs, the breadth the like number of acres, with 
a trench of ten feet deep, and as many broad, to 
receive the water; and seats enough for one hundred 
and fifty thousand men. It was beautified and 
adorned by succeeding princes, particularly by Julius 
Caesar, Augustus, Caligula, Domitian, Trajan, and 
Heliogabalus ; and enlarged to such a prodigious 
extent as to be able to contain, in their proper seats, 
two hundred and sixty thousand spectators. In the 
time of Constantine it would hold three hundred and 
eighty-five thousand persons to view the combats, 
chariot races, &c.*" The Circus Maximus stands on 
the spot where the games were celebrated when the 
Romans seized the Sabine women; and it was here 
also that the interesting scene took place between 
Androcles and the lion. 

The number of beasts exhibited in the circus is 
wonderful ; and were it not well attested, would 
be incredible. In the days of imperial splendour, 
nearly every rare animal that Western Asia or 
Northern Africa could produce, was commonly ex- 
hibited to the Roman people. In the year 252 B.C. 
one hundred and forty-two elephants, brought from 
* Keniiet. 


Sicily, were exhibited in the circus. Caesar, in his 
third dictatorship, showed a vast number of wild 
beasts, among which were four hundred lions, and a 
camelopard. The emperor Gordian devised a novel 
kind of spectacle ; he converted the Circus into a 
temporary kind of wood, and turned into it two 
hundred stags, thirty wild horses, one hundred wild 
sheep, ten elks, one hundred Cyprian bulls, three 
hundred ostriches, thirty wild asses, one hundred 
and fifty wild boars, two hundred ibices, and two 
hundred deer. He then allowed the people to enter 
the wood, and to take what they pleased. Forty 
years afterwards the emperor Probus* imitated his 
example. " Large trees were pulled up by the 
roots," says an ancient writer, " and fastened to 
beams, which were laid down crossing each other. 
Soil was then thrown upon them, and the whole 
Circus planted like a wood. One thousand ostriches, 
one thousand stags, one thousand ibices, wild sheep, 
and other grazing animals, as many as could be fed 
or found, were turned in, and the people admitted as 

Of the trouble which was taken in the republican 
times to procure rare animals for exhibition in Rome, 
we have a curious illustration in the letters of Cicero. 
The orator went out in the year 52 B. c., as go- 
vernor of a province of Asia Minor ; and while there, 
he was thus addressed by his friend Ccelius : " I 
have spoken to you, in almost all my letters, 
ibout the panthers. It will be disgraceful to you, 
that Patiscus has sent ten panthers to Curio, while 
you have scarcely sent a greater number to me. 
Curio has made me a present of these, and ten 
others from Africa. If you will only keep it in 
mind, and employ the people of Cybira, and also 
send letters into Pamphylia (for I understand that 

* Parker. 


the greatest number are taken there), you will gain 
your object." To this the proconsul replies : 
" I have given particular orders about the panthers 
to those who are in the habit of hunting them ; but 
they are surprisingly scarce; and it is said, that 
those which are there, make a great complaint that 
there are no snares laid against any one in my pro- 
vince but themselves. It is accordingly supposed, 
that they are determined to quit my province. I 
go into Caria. However, I shall use all diligence." 

The avidity* with which the amusements of the 
Circus were sought, increased with the decline of the 
empire and the corruption of morals. Ammianus 
Marcellinus, who wrote in the fourth century of the 
Christian era, gives us the following description : 
" The people spend all their evenings in drinking and 
gaming, in spectacles, amusements, and shows. The 
Circus Maximus is their temple, their dwelling- 
house, their public meeting, and all their hopes. In 
the Forum, the streets, and squares, multitudes as- 
semble together, and dispute, some defending one 
thing, and some another. The oldest take the pri- 
vilege of age, and cry out in the temples and Forum, 
that the republic must fall, if in the approaching 
games the person whom they support does not win 
the prize and first pass the goal. AVhen the wished- 
for day of the equestrian games arrives, before sun- 
rise all run headlong to the spot, passing in swiftness 
the chariots that are to run ; upon the success of 
which their wishes are so divided, that many pass 
the night without sleep." Lactantius confirms this 
account, and says that the people, from their great 
eagerness, often quarrelled and fought. 

Fortunately there still exists, about two miles 
from the walls of Rome, an ancient circus in a high 
state of preservation ; and from this we are enabled 
* Parker. 


to acquire a very good notion of the form and 
arrangement of such structures. The chief entrance 
was an opening at the straight end ; and on each side 
of it were six carceres, or starting-places. At the 
rounded end, or that opposite to the carceres, was 
the Porta Triumphalis, or Triumphal Gate, by 
which the victor left the circus ; the rest of the en- 
closed space were the seats for the spectators, raised 
in rows one above the other. Down the middle of 
the area, or more properly speaking, rather nearer 
to one side than the other, ran a raised division, 
a sort of thick dwarf wall, called the Spina ; equal 
in length to about two-thirds of the area itself. At 
each end of this spina was a small meta, or goal, 
formed of three cones. The meta which approached 
the triumphal gate was much nearer to it than the 
other meta was to the carceres. The course which 
the chariots ran was by the side of the spina, and 
round the mette. All these different parts of the 
circus were variously ornamented ; the spina espe- 
cially was highly decorated, having sometimes in the 
middle one of those lofty Egyptian obelisks, of which 
there are more to be seen at this day in Rome, than 
are assembled anywhere else*. 

Besides the Mamertine prisons and the CloacaMaxi- 
ma, there are other antiquities at Rome which belong 
to the early period. Among these are the founda- 
tions and great fragments of the ancient buildings of 
the CAPJTOL. The Capitol-hill is said to form a link 
between the ancient city and the modern one. 
" From an elevated station, about two hundred and 
fifty feet above the Forum," says Simond, " the voice 
of Cicero might have been heard, revealing to the 
people, assembled before the Temple of Concord, (to 
which the ruins nearest to us probably belonged,) 
Catiline's conspiracy. He might even have been heard 

* Knigbt. 


in the Tribune of Harangues, situated on the other 
side of the Forum, and next to the Temple of Jupiter 
Stator, of which there are three columns still stand- 
ing, taking the oath that he, had saved his country, 
and all the people taking the same oath after him. 
But the gory head and hand of this saviour of his 
country might have been seen from our station soon 
after, nailed to the side of this same tribune, and the 
same people tamely looking on ! Instead of the con- 
tending crowds of patriots, conspirators, orators, he- 
roes, and fools, each acting his part, we now saw only 
a few cows quietly picking up blades of grass among 
the ruins ; beggars, and monks, and asses loaded with 
bags of puzzolana, and a gang of galley-slaves lazily 
digging away for antiquities, under the lash of their 

The hill of the Capitol derived its name from the 
head of Tolus*, and the prediction of universal em- 
pire to those who held it. It was famous for a tem- 
ple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which was the effect of a 
vow made by Tarquinius Priscus in the Sabine war. 
But he had scarcely laid the foundations before his 
death. His nephew, Tarquinius the Proud, finished 
it with the spoils taken from the neighbouring na- 
tions. But upon the expulsion of the kings, the 
consecration was performed by Horatius the consul. 
The structure stood on a high ridge, taking in four 
acres of ground. The front was adorned with three 
rows of pillars, the other side with two. Its ascent 
from the ground was by one hundred steps. The pro - 
digious gifts and ornaments, with which it was several 
times endowed, almost exceed belief. Suetonius tells 
us that AugTistus gave at one time two thousand 
pounds weight of gold ; and a precious stone to the 
value of five hundred sestertia. Livy and Pliny 
surprise us with accounts of the brazen thresholds, the 
* Kennet. 


noble pillars, that Sylla removed hither from 
Athens out of the temple of Jupiter Olympius ; the 
gilded roof, the gilded shields, and those of solid sil- 
ver ; the huge vessels of silver, holding three mea- 
sures ; the golden chariot, &c. This temple was 
first consumed by fire in the Marian war, and then 
rebuilt by Sylla, who, dying before the dedication, 
left that honour to Quintus Catulus. This too was 
demolished in the Vitellian sedition. Vespasian un- 
dertook a third, which was burnt down about the 
time of his death. Domitian raised the last and most 
glorious of all ; in which the very gilding amounted 
to twelve thousand talents (2,250,000). He 
adorned it with some columns of Pentelic marble 
brought from Athens. Indeed, his extravagance in 
this and other public works led to that exceeding 
severity which accompanied the exaction of the capi- 
tation tax from the Jewish people. It was the opi- 
nion of contemporaries of the emperor, that if he 
were to reclaim from the gods the sums which he 
now expended upon them, even Jupiter himself, 
though he were to hold a general auction in Olympus, 
would be unable to pay a twelfth of his debts, or, as we 
should say, one shilling and eightpence in the pound. 

If, Caesar, all thou to the powers hast lent, 
Thou should'st reclaim, a creditor content, 
Should a fair auction vend Olympus' hall, 
And the just gods he fain to sell their all ; 
The bankrupt Atlas not a twelfth could sound : 
Who bade the Sire of Gods with man compound ? 
For Capitolian fanes what to the chief? 
What can he pay for the Tarpeian leaf? 
What for her double towers the Thunderer's queen ? 
Pallas I pass, thy manager serene. 
Alcides why, or Phcebus, should I name, 
Or the twin Lacons, of fraterual fame ? 
Or the substructure (who can sum the whole?) 
Of Flavian temples to the Latian pole? 
Augustus, pious, then, and patient stny: 
The chest of Jove possesses not to pay. 


Of all the ancient glory of the Capitol,* nothing 
now remains but the solid foundation and vast sub- 
structions raised on the rock. Not only is tho 
Capitol fallen, but its very name, expressive of do- 
minion, and once fondly considered as an omen of 
empire, is now almost lost in the semi-barbarous 
appellation of Campi-doglio. " This place," says a 
celebrated French traveller, " which gave law to 
the universe, where Jupiter had his temple and 
Rome her senate ; from whence of old the Roman 
eagles were continually flying into every quarter of 
the globe, and from every quarter of the globe con- 
tinually winging their way back with victories ; 
whence a single word from the mouth of Scipio, of 
Pompey, or of Caesar, quickly reached the most dis- 
tant nations, menacing their liberty, and deciding on 
the fate of kings ; where the greatest men of the re- 
public, in short, still continued to live after their 
death in statues, and still to govern the world with 
the authority of Romans: this place so renowned has 
lost its statues, its senate, its citadel, its temples ; it 
has retained nothing but its name, so cemented by 
the blood and tears of nations, that time has not yet 
been able to disjoin the immortal syllables of which 
it is composed. It is still called the Capitol. At 
the Capitol we perceive, in the strongest light, the 
insignificance of all human things, and the power 
of fortune." 

The Pantheon is the most perfect of all the remains 
of ancient Rome, and the only one of the Pagan tem- 
ples that retains any thing of its original appearance. 
It was dedicatedt either to Jupiter Ultor, or to Mars 
and Venus, or, more probably, to all the gods in 
general. The structure, according to Fabricius, is 
one hundred and forty feet high, and about the same 
in breadth ; but a later author has increased the 

* Eustace. -f- Kennet. 


number to one hundred and fifty-eight. The roof 
is curiously vaulted, void places being left here and 
there for the greater strength. 

The statues of all the gods were in this temple ; 
and these, according to their degrees, were of gold, 
silver, bronze, or marble. The portico is one hun- 
dred and ten feet long*, by forty-four in depth, and is 
supported by sixteen columns of the Corinthian order. 
Each of the shafts of these columns is of one piece of 
oriental granite, and forty-two feet in height ; the 
bases and capitals are of white marble. The whole 
height of the columns is forty-six feet five inches ; 
the diameter, just above the base, is four feet ten 
inches ; and, just beneath the capital, four feet three 
inches. The interior of the rotunda has a diameter 
of nearly one hundred and fifty feet. 

This building has been generally attributed wholly 
to Agrippa ; but from careful research, Desgodetz 
asserts that the body of the edifice is of much earlier 
origin ; and that Agrippa only newly modelled and 
embellished the inside, and added the magnificent 
portico. The building is circular, with a noble dome, 
and a fine portico of sixteen pillars of oriental granite. 
There are no windows, the light being admitted by a 
circular aperture in the dome. The fine marble with 
which the walls were encrusted, and the brass which 
covered the roof, have long since disappeared ; the 
bare bricks alone are left. 

As St. Peter's affords the best sample of modern 
art in Romet, so does the Pantheon exhibit the most 
satisfactory and best-preserved specimen of ancient 
art ; for, notwithstanding the injuries it has sustained 
by the hands of barbarians of all ages, no signs of 
natural decay are yet visible; and with this magni- 
ficent model before their eyes, it appears strange, that 
the architects of St. Peter's should not have accom- 

* .Parker. f Siuiond. 

T 2 


plished their task more worthily. The Pantheon 
seems to be the hemispherical summit of a modern 
temple, taken off and placed on the ground ; so it 
appears to us, at least, accustomed to see cupolas in 
the former situation only. 

" Jt is built in the dirtiest part of modern Rome," 
says the author of Rome in the Nineteenth Century ; 
" and the unfortunate spectator, who comes with a 
mind filled with enthusiasm, to gaze upon this monu- 
ment of the taste and magnificence of antiquity, finds 
himself surrounded by all that is most revolting to 
the senses, distracted by incessant uproar, pestered 
by the crowd of clamorous beggars, and stuck fast in 
the congregated filth of every description that covers 
the slippery pavement ; so that the time he forces 
himself to spend in admiring its noble portico, gene- 
rally proves a penance from which he is glad to be 
liberated, instead of an enjoyment he wishes to pro- 
tract. We escaped none of these nuisances, except 
the mud, by sitting in an open carriage to survey it. 
The smells of the beggars were equally annoying. 
You may perhaps form some idea of the situation 
of the Pantheon at Rome, by imagining what 
"Westminster Abbey would be in Co vent Garden 

This does not appear, however, to have damped the 
enthusiasm of Dupaty : " I first directed my steps," 
says he, " towards the Pantheon, dedicated by 
Agrippa to all the gods, and since, I know not by 
what pope, to all the saints*. This consecration has 
preserved the Pantheon from the general pillage and 
destruction which the other temples have undergone. 
It has been despoiled of every thing that made it 
rich ; but they have left all that made it great. It 

* Pope Boniface IV. dedicated it to the Virgin ; and removed 
into it the hones of various saints and martyrs from the different 
cemeteries, enough to fill twenty-eight waggons. 


has lost its marbles, its porphyry, its alabaster, 
but it has preserved its dome, its peristyle, and 
its columns. How magnificent is this peristyle! 
The eyes are just attracted by eight Corinthian 
columns, on which rests the pediment of this immor- 
tal monument. These columns are beautiful from the 
harmony of the most perfect workmanship, and the 
lapse of twenty centuries, which adds to their gran- 
deur, and the awe they inspire. The eye can never 
tire with mounting with them in the air, and follow- 
ing their descent. They present I know not what 
appearance of animated life, that creates a pleasing 
illusion, an elegant shape, a noble stature, and a 
majestic head, round which the acanthus, with leaves 
at once so flexible and so superb, forms a crown ; 
which, like that of kings, serves the double purpose 
of decorating the august head to which it gives a 
splendour, and disguising the immense weight that 
loads it. How richly does architecture, which 
creates such monuments, merit a place among the fine 
arts !" 

The light, as we have before observed, is admitted 
only by a circular opening in the dome, which is 
twenty-eight feet in diameter *. Through this aper- 
ture a flood of light diffuses itself over the whole 
edifice, producing a sublime effect, but only showing 
all its beauties by permitting every passing shower to 
deluge its gorgeous pavement. The rain is carried 
off by a drain to the Tiber ; but from the low situa- 
tion of the building in the Campus Martius, the 
waters of the Tiber, when it is swollen, find their 
way up the drain, and flood the interior. Myriads 
of beetles, scorpions, worms, rats and mice, may then 
be seen retreating before the waters, as they gra- 
dually rise from the circumference to the centre of 

* Parker. 


the area, which is a little elevated above the rest of 
it. " A beautiful effect," says Dr. Burton, " is pro- 
duced by visiting the building on these occasions at 
night, when the moon is reflected upon the water, 
through the aperture of the dome." 

" The Pantheon retains its majestic portico," says 
Mr. Eustace, " and presents its graceful dome unin- 
jured ; the pavement, laid by Agrippa, and trodden 
by Augustus, still forms its floor ; the compartments 
and fluted pillars of the richest marble, that origin- 
ally lined its walls, still adorn its inward circum- 
ference ; the deep tints that age has thrown over it, 
only contribute to raise its dignity, and augment 
our veneration ; and the traveller enters its portal, 
through which twice .twenty generations have flowed 
in succession, with a mixture of awe and religious 
veneration. Yet the Pantheon itself has been 'shorn 
of its beams,' and looks eclipsed through the * disas- 
trous twilight of eighteen centuries.' " 

Augustus dwelt at first * near the Roman Forum, 
in a house which had belonged to the orator Calvus; 
afterwards on the Palatine, but in the moderate house 
of Hortensius, which was not conspicuous, either for 
extent or ornament ; it had some porticoes of Alban 
columns, and rooms without any marble or remark- 
able pavement. For more than forty years he occu- 
pied the same chamber, in winter and in summer ; 
and although he found the city by no means favour- 
able to his health in the winter, yet he constantly 
passed the winter in it. After the palace had been 
accidentally destroyed by fire, Augustus had it re- 
built, as we are told, and ordered it to be entirely 
opened to the public. This edifice was called Pala- 
tium, from the name of the hill on which it stood ; 
and that being afterwards applied to the residence 

* Purker. 


of the Roman emperors, it has passed into most of 
the languages of Europe, as the common appellation 
of a princely mansion. 

It was under the immediate successors of Axigus- 
tus that the Palatine rose in splendour, till it eclipsed 
all that we read of magnificence in the history of the 
ancient world. The imperial possessors of this proud 
eminence seem to have regarded it as a "theatre for 
their amusement ; and upon it their " gorgeous ty- 
ranny " was amply displayed, in the vast and costly 
structures which they erected for the gratification of 
their personal pleasure or caprice. 

This palace received many additions by Tiberius, 
Caligula, and Domitian ; and, finally, by Nero ; from 
whom it was called " the golden house of Nero." 
It is thus described by Salmon, from Suetonius, Ta- 
citus, and other writers : " From the remains in the 
back part of the Palatine-hill, the ancient palace of 
Nero, from its great extent and vast size, was no less 
difficult to be inhabited than it is for us to believe 
its magnificence. It was built by the famous archi- 
tects Severus and Cererus. In the vestibule or prin- 
cipal entrance was the colossal statue of Nero, of 
bronze. It was one hundred and twenty feet high, 
of excellent workmanship, by Zenodorus, who was 
sent for from Gaul for the purpose. It was restored 
by Vespasian, and dedicated to the sun. The em- 
peror added the rays, which were twenty-two feet 
and a half in length. In the porticos were three 
galleries supported by large columns, which extended 
a mile in length. This palace enclosed all the Pala- 
tine-hill, together with the plain between the Pala- 
tine and the Cfelius, and part of the Esquiline mount 
near to the garden of Maecenas. It was raised on 
large columns of marble carried on a level from the 
Palatine to the Esquiline. The superb entrance was 
facing the Via Sacra. Nero, in order to execute this 


design, destroyed the houses of many of the citizens, 
which occasioned the saying, that Rome consisted of 
one house. Tacitus writes, that when Rome was in 
flames seven days and nights, it was not to be ex- 
tinguished till all the buildings about the Palatine 
were burnt. Where the amphitheatre now stands, 
Nero formed a lake to resemble the sea, with edifices 
around it similar to a city, together with extensive 
gardens and walks, and places for wild beasts, vine- 
yards, &c. In the palace were a great number of 
halls, and an innumerable quantity of rooms, galle- 
ries, and statues, resplendent in every part with gold, 
gems, and precious stones ; from which circumstance 
it acquired the name of the golden house. Many 
of the rooms destined for public feasts were very 
spacious, with most beautiful ceilings, which turned 
round in such a manner that from various parts there 
fell flowers and exquisite odours. The principal hall 
where Nero supped was circular, and of such art, 
that the ceiling was ornamented with stars to re- 
semble the heavens, in conformity to which it conti- 
nually revolved night and day. Birds of silver were 
carved in the other ceilings with surprising art. 
Amulius, a celebrated artist, was employed during 
the whole of his life to paint this palace. The tables 
were of ivory, the floors of the rooms were inter- 
sected with works in gold compartments of gems and 
mother-of-pearl: the marble, the bronze, the statues, 
and the richest of the tapestry, were beyond all de- 
scription. When Nero went to inhabit it, he said, 
full of pride, ' I now begin to be lodged like a man.' 
Here, particularly, was a temple of Fortune, conse- 
crated by Servius Tullius, and constructed by Nero, 
of a fine transparent alabaster, called fingites. This 
stone was brought from Cappadocia, and was so clear, 
that every object might be seen when the doors were 
shut, as if it were noon- day. In the gardens were 


delightful baths, numerous fish-ponds and pastures, 
with all sorts of animals. Here were also baths of 
fresh and sea water. To erect these wonderful edi- 
fices Italy was ruined with impositions and burdens, 
and its temples spoiled of their precious ornaments, 
statues of gold and silver, as likewise great part of 
the empire. Tacitus writes in his Annals, that it was 
twice burned and rebuilt ; that is, in the fire Tinder 
Nero, and in the sixth year of -Trajan. According 
to Dion, it was burnt the third time under the em- 
peror Commodus ; and, as he rebuilt it, it was called 
from him Colonia Commodiana. Various emperors, 
abhorring the excess of so much riches and luxury, 
removed the most valuable part, and employed it for 
the greater ornament of the temple of Jupiter Capi- 
tolinus. Antoninus Pius, detesting the extent of the 
palace, contented himself with the part called Tibe- 
riana, and shut up the rest. All this magnificence, 
time, and especially the malignity of man, have de- 
stroyed, and cypresses, symbols of death and deso- 
lation, triumph on the ruins." 

Its present condition has been thus described by 
the poet : 

Cypress and ivy, weed and wallflower, grown 

Matted and massed together ; hillocks heaped 
On what were chambers, arch crushed, column strown 

In fragments, choked-up vaults, and frescoes steeped 
In subterranean damps, where the owl peeped, 

Deeming it midnight : temples, baths, or halls ? 
Pronounce who can ; for all that learning reaped 

From her research hath been, that these are walls. 
Behold the Imperial Mount ! 'tis thus the mighty falls. 

Arches were public buildings,* designed for the 
reward and encouragement of noble enterprises, 
erected generally to the honour of such eminent 
persons as had either won a victory of extraordinary 
consequence abroad, or had rescued the common- 

* Kennel. 


wealth at homo from considerable danger. At first, 
they were plain and rude structures, by no means 
remarkable for beauty or state. But in later times 
no expenses were thought too great for the rendering 
them in the highest degree splendid and magnificent; 
nothing being more usual than to have the greatest 
actions of the heroes they stood to honour curiously 
expressed, or the whole procession of the triumph 
cut out on the sides. The arches built by Romulu.s 
were only of brick ; that of Camillus, of plain square 
stone ; but those of Caesar, Drusus, Titus, Trajan, 
Gordian, &c., were entirely of marble. 

The most distinguished of these arches are those 
of Titus and Septfmius Severus. That of Gallienus 
is a mere gateway, and that of Drusus seems part 
of an aqueduct ; yet, coarse as they are, each has its 
Corinthian columns, and pediments on a portion of 
the fronts. That of Constantino was erected after 
the defeat of Maxentius, and was so contrived that 
the music for the triumph might be placed in it. 
When the procession reached the arch, the band 
began to play, and continued till the whole had passed 

The arch of Titus is situate on the eastern decli- 
vity of the Palatine Mount. It is so rich, that 
some regard it not as elegant. The entablature, the 
imposts, the key-stones, are all crowded with sculp- 
ture ; yet all, according to the taste of Mr. Forsyth, 
are meagre in profile. It was erected by the senate, 
in gratitude to Titus for having conquered Jndea and 
taken Jerusalem. It is, therefore, one of the most 
interesting monuments of ancient Rome ; and so sen- 
sibly do the Jews still feel the injury, done to their 
nation, that none of them can be tempted to pass 
tinder it. 

The triumph is represented on each side of the 
arch in oblong spaces, seven feet in height, and 


nearly fourteen in length. The emperor appears in 
a triumphal car drawn by four horses, Victory 
crowning him with a laurel. Rome is personified 
as a female. She conducts the horses ; lictors, citi- 
zens, and soldiers, attending. On the opposite side 
is represented a procession, in which are carried, ' 
by persons crowned with laurel and bearing the 
Roman standards, various spoils taken at Jerusalem ; 
such as the silver trumpets, the golden table, and 
the golden candlestick with seven branches. 

The arch of Severus was erected in honour of the 
emperor Scptimius, and his two sons Caracalla and 
Geta, on account of victories obtained over the 
Parthians. We know from history, says Dr. 
Burton, that he made two expeditions into the 
East ; the first in 19.5, when he conquered Vologeses ; 
the second in 1 99, when he took Ctesiphon, and tho 
treasures of king Artabanus. Spartian tells us, 
that he triumphed after the first expedition ; but 
refused the honour the second time, because he had 
the gout. His son triumphed in his stead ; and it 
was upon this occasion that the arch was erected. 

This triumphal arch consists of three ; that is, a 
large one in the middle, and a smaller one on each 
side. These arches* are not in a very pure style of 
architecture ; but they are rich and handsome objects. 
Four projecting columns adorn each face, and the 
entablature bricks around each of them. Above the 
columns are supposed to have been statues ; while, 
on the top, as we learn from coins, was a car drawn 
by six horses abreast, containing two persons in it, 
and having on each side an attendant on horseback, 
followed by one on foot. The material of the arch is 
marble ; and each front is covered, between the 
columns, with bas-reliefs. These bas-reliefs illustrate 
the campaigns and victories, in commemoration of 



which the arch was erected. But the whole series, 
says Dr. Burton, is in an indifferent style of sculpture, 
and presents but a poor idea of the state of the arts 
at that time. Mr. Wood, however, regards them, 
though bad in design as well as execution, as con- 
tributing to the magnificence of the edifice. Mr. 
Forsyth, however, is not given to indulge in respect 
to the architecture ; for he says, that the composite 
starts so often and so " furiously " out, the poverty 
of its entablature meets you in so many points, as 
to leave no repose to the eye. Within the arch is a 
marble staircase, leading by fifty steps to the sum- 
mit. The arch itself was half buried so late as the 
year 1803. Several excavations had been made ; 
but the loose soil had slipped down, and quickly 
filled them up again. Pope Pius VII. was more 
successful in the attempt than his predecessors had 
been; and by the year 1804 the whole arch had been 
uncovered, and laid open down to the bottom. 

The site of the temple of Romulus is now occupied 
by the church of San Teodoro, a small rotunda. 
The walls are of great antiquity, and marvellously 
perfect. In regard to the temple of Romulus 
and Remus, few buildings have occasioned more 
disputes. It is now the church of S.S. Cosimo 
e Damiano ; the vestibule, several porphyry co- 
lumns, and a bronze door of which are exceedingly 

The temple of Vesta, erected by Numa, now 
forms part of the church of S. Maria del Sola. It is 
of Greek architecture, and surrounded by a portico 
of nineteen Corinthian columns, on a flight of steps, 
the whole of Parian marble. The roof was originally 
covered with bronze, brought from Syracuse ; but 
that has, long since, been replaced by materials 
much less costly. 

The temple of Minerva Medici stands in a garden 


on the Esquiline-hill ; it is round without, but forma 
a decagon within, and appears to have had ten win- 
dows, and nine niches for statues. Here were found 
statues of .ZEsculapius, Venus, Hercules, the Faun, 
and that of Minerva with the serpent. 

The church Sa. Maria in Cosmedin is supposed to 
have been the temple of Puditia Patricia, or Chastity, 
which no plebeian was allowed to enter. Pope 
Adrian I. rebuilt this edifice in 728, retaining the 
cella, and many portions of the ancient temple. 

A mean-looking church, called Sa. Maria d' Ara 
Coeli, wholly devoid of external ornament, is sup- 
posed to stand on the site of the temple of Jupiter 
Feretrius. A flight of one hundred and twenty-four 
steps of marble, brought from the temple of Jupiter 
Quirinus, forms the ascent to it from the Campus 
Martius ; the interior has twenty-two ancient co- 
lumns of granite, and the whole appears to be an 
assemblage of fragments of other buildings. It was 
whilst musing in this church, " whilst the friars were 
singing vespers in the temple of Jupiter," that Gibbon 
says he first conceived the idea of writing his im- 
mortal history. 

The beautiful temple of Jupiter Tonans was erected 
by Augustus, in gratitude for his escape from Hght- 
ning. Only three of the thirty columns of the por- 
tico now remain, together with a portion of the 
frieze. They are of Luna marble, four feet four 
inches in diameter, with Corinthian capitals^ and 
appear originally to have been tinged with Tyrian 

During the time of Claudius, the very curious 
temple of Faunus was built upon the Celian mount. 
It was of circular form, and had internally two rows 
of Ionic columns, with arches springing immediately 
from the capitals. The upper windows had each a 


column in the middle, with arches also springing 
from the capitals ; and these two arches were en- 
closed by a semicircular arch, which had its spring- 
ing upon the jambs of the windows ; and, rising 
higher, left a considerable space between it and the 
two before-mentioned small arches, in which space 
was a circular opening. This is particularly noticed 
as an early and distinct type of what was afterwards 
named Saxon, Norman, and Gothic. 

The temple of Concord was the place in which Len- 
tulus and other confederates of Catiline were brought 
before the senate in order to be tried, and whence they 
were taken to the Mameriine prisons. " For my own 
part," says Middleton, " as oft as I have been wan- 
dering about in the very rostra of old Rome, or in 
that of the temple of Concord, where Tully assembled 
the senate in Catiline's conspiracy, I could not help 
fancying myself much more sensible of the force of 
hia eloquence ; whilst the impression of the place 
served .to warm my imagination to a degree almost 
equal to that of his old audience." Of late years, 
however, these ruins have been ascribed to the 
temple of Fortune, burnt in the time of Maxentius, 
the competitor of Constantine. 

The temple of Fortune was, for a long time, taken 
for the temple of Concord. Its portico is nearly 
complete ; consisting of six granite columns in front, 
and two behind, supporting an entablature and pedi- 
ment. The columns all vary in diameter, and have 
bases and capitals of white marble. From this cir- 
cumstance it is conjectured that it was erected with 
the spoils of other buildings ; their original temple, 
burnt in the time of Maxentius, having been rebuilt 
by Constantine. 

The temple of Nerva was erected by Trajan. It 
was one of the finest edifices of ancient Rome ; but 


all that now remains of it is a cella, and three fine 
columns of Parian marble, fifty feet in height, sup- 
porting an architrave. 

The temple of Peace*, erected by Vespasian, was 
enriched with spoils from Jerusalem. This temple 
is related to have been one of the most magnificent 
in Rome: it was encircled with a coating of gilt 
bronze, and adorned with stupendous columns of 
white marble; it was also enriched with some of the 
finest sculptures and paintings of which the ancient 
world could boastt. Among the former was a 
colossal statue of the Nile, surrounded by sixteen 
children, cut out of one block of basalt; among the 
latter was the famous picture of Jalysus, painted by 
Protogenes of Rhodes. Here, too, were deposited 
the candlesticks, and some other of the spoils, which 
Titus brought from Jerusalem. There was also a 
curious library attached to the edifice. 

Three immense arches, which rank amongst th 
most remarkable remains in Rome, are all that are 
left of this once stupendous structure, which, until 
lately, was supposed to be the temple of Peace, 
erected by Yespasian at the close of the Judean war. 
But the great degeneracy of the workmanship, and 
its being wholly unlike all erections of that nature, 
has led to the opinion that the remains are neither 
of the time of Vespasian, nor those of the temple, 
which, with all the immense treasures it contained, 
was destroyed by fire, about one hundred years after 
its erection; but of a Basilica;}:, erected by Maxentius 

* Anon. f Burford. 

J The Basilicse were very spacious and beautiful edifices, de- 
signed chiefly for the centumviri, or the judges to sit in and hear 
causes, and for the counsellors to receive clients. The bankers, 
too, had one part of it allotted for their residence. Vossius has 
observed, that these Basilicas were exactly in the shape of our 
churches, oblong almost like a ship; which was the reason that upon 
iL ruin of o many of them Christian churches weie several tiu;es 


on the ruins of the temple, and converted by Con- 
stantine into a Christian church. The stupendous 
proportions of this structure are shown by the three 
vaulted roofs, each seventy-five feet across, which 
rise above the surrounding buildings in huge but not 
ungainly masses. The vault of the middle arch, which 
is placed further back, forms part of a sphere; the 
side ones are cylindrical; all are ornamented with 
sunk panels of stucco-work. The church appears to 
have consisted of a nave and two aisles, divided by 
enormous pillars of marble, one of which now stands 
in front of the church of La Maria Maggiore. It is 
of a single block, of forty-eight feet in height, and 
sixteen and a half in circumference. 

Of the fine temple, di Venere e Roma,* the cella 
of each deity remains, with the niches, in which 
were their statues, and a portion of one of the side 
walls, which prove it to have been of vast size, great 
magnificence, and a chef-d'oeuvre of architecture. 
The emperor Adrian himself drew the plans, which 
he submitted to Apollodorus, whose opinion respect- 
ing them is said to have been the cause of his 
untimely death. The temples, although they had 
each a separate entrance and cella, formed but one 
edifice ; the substructure of which, having been 
recently excavated, is found to have been three 
hundred and thirty by one hundred and sixty feet. 
A noble flight of steps, discovered at the same time, 
between the arch of Titus and the church of St. 
Francesco, formed the approach of the Forum, which 
front, as well as that towards the Coliseum, was 
adorned with columns of Parian marble, six feet in 
diameter ; and the whole was surrounded by a por- 

raised on the old foundations, and very often a whole Basilica 
converted to such a pious use ; ami hence, perhaps, all our great 
doraos or cathedrals are still called Basilica;. 
* Burford. 


tico, with a double row of columns of grey granite. 
The walls and pavement of the interior were incrusted 
with fine marble, and the roof richly gilt. 

The Temple of Antoninus was erected by Marcus 
Aurelius in 178, in memory of Antoninus and 
his consort Faustina. The original portico, con- 
sisting of ten Corinthian columns of Cippolino 
marble, and a portion of the temple itself, now form 
the church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda. 

The column of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was 
erected by the senate in honour of that illustrious 
emperor. Bassi-rilievi run spirally from the bottom 
to the top, representing the Marcomannian war. It 
is composed of twenty-six blocks of Parian marble, 
and is one hundred and twenty -three feet in height. 
The statue of the emperor once stood on its summit, 
but it has been replaced by that of St. Paul. 

This leads us to speak of the great statue of the 
same emperor. The horse was so greatly admired 
by Michael Angelo, that when he first saw it, he 
looked at it in silence for some time, and then said, 
" Go on!" " This great statue of Marcus Aurelius," 
says Mr. Forsyth, " or rather of his horse, which 
was once the idol of Rome, is now a subject of con- 
tention. Some critics find the proportions of the 
animal false, and his attitude impossible. One com- 
pares his head to an owl, another his belly to a cow's, 
but the well-known apostrophe of a third (Michael 
Angelo) will ever prevail in your first impressions. 
The spirit and fire of the general figure will seduce 
the most practised eye. Ancient sculptors, intent 
only on man, are supposed to have neglected the 
study of animals; and we certainly find very rude 
accessories affixed to some exquisite antiques. Per- 
haps they affected such contrasts as strike us in the 
work of the Faun and his panther, the Meleager and 
his dogs, the Apollo and his swans, where tho 



accessory serves as a foil. The horse, however, 
comes so frequently into heroic subjects, that the 
greatest artists of antiquity must have made him 
their particular study, and we are told that they did 
so; but it were unfair to judge of their excellence 
from this bruised and unfortunate animal." 

This celebrated statue is the only one of bronze of 
all that adorned the city in ancient times. It has 
been called, at different periods, by the names of 
Lucius Verus, Septimius Severus, and Constantino. 
It was placed in its present position by Paul III. in 
1538, being then removed from before the church of 
St. John Lateran. A bunch of flowers is said to 
be presented every year to the chapter of St. John, 
as an acknowledgment, that the statue belongs to 
them ; but this Sir John Hobhouse denies. The 
statue was originally gilt ; the coating laid on, ac- 
cording to the practice of the ancients, in very thick 
leaves; and some traces of it may still be observed. 

We now turn to the Coliseum. The shows of wild 
beasts were in general designed for the honour of 
Diana, the patroness of hunting. For this purpose, 
no cost was spared to fetch the different creatures 
from the farthest parts of the world. 

Part in laden vessels came, 
Borne on the rougher waves, or gentler stream ; 
The fainting man let fall his trembling oar, 
And the pale master feared the freight he bore. 

And shortly after, 

All that with potent teeth command the plain, 
All tliat run horrid with erected mane, 
Or proud of stately horns, or bristling hair, 
At once the forest's ornament and fear ; 
Torn from their deserts by the Roman power, 
Nor strength can save, nor craggy dens secure". 

Some creatures were presented merely as str.tnge 
sights and rarities ; as crocodiles, and several out- 


landish birds and beasts : others for the combat, as 
lions, tigers, leopards, &c. We may reckon up three 
sorts of diversions with the beasts, which all went 
under the common name of Venatio : The first, 
when the people were permitted to run after the 
beasts, and catch what they could for their own 
use$ the second, when the beasts fought with one 
another ; and the last, when they were brought out 
to engage with men.* 

The fights between beasts were exhibited with 
great variety ; sometimes a tiger was matched with 
a lion ; sometimes a lion with a bull ; a bull with an 
elephant ; a rhinoceros with a bear, &c. But the 
most wonderful sight was, when by bringing water 
into the amphitheatre, huge sea-monsters were in- 
troduced to combat with wild beasts : 

No sylvan monsters we alone have view'd, 
But huge sea calves, dyed red with hostile hlood 
Of bears, lie floundering in the wondrous flood. 

CALPHURN. Eclog. vii. 

The men, that engaged with wild beasts, had the 
common name of Bestiarii. Some of these were 
condemned persons ; others hired themselves at a 
set pay, like the Gladiators ; and like them, too, 
had their schools where they were instructed and 
initiated in such combats. We find several of the 
nobility and gentry many times voluntarily under- 
taking a part in these encounters ; and Juvenal 
acquaints us, that the very women were ambitious 
of showing their courage on the like occasions, 
though with the forfeiture of their modesty. 

One of the best accounts of this wonderful edifice, is 
that given in Buiford's account of the Panorama 
painted by himself, and now (1839,) exhibiting in Lei- 
cester Square, London. " The far-famed amphithe- 
atre of Vespasian, or, as it is more generally called, 

* Kcnnet. 


the Coliseum, is one of the most extraordinary and 
massive works, that Rome, or any other country, 
ever produced ; and forms one of the most surpris- 
ing, and intensely interesting, objects of attraction 
amongst the many gigantic remains of that ancient 
city. In whatever way it is viewed, whether as 
regards its immense size, the solidity of its structure, 
the simplicity and harmony of its architecture, the 
grace and beauty of its proportions, or its internal 
arrangement and convenience, it equally strikes the 
mind with wonder and admiration ; and is univer- 
sally admitted to be one of the noblest remains of 
antiquity in the world. Placed at some distance 
from the gorgeous churches, extensive palaces, and 
busy streets of modern Rome, it stands alone in 
solitary dignity and gloomy contrast ; elevating its 
stupendous masses from above the surrounding ruins 
of the imperial city; a striking image of Rome itself 
in its present state, erect on the one side, fallen on 
the other ; half grey, half green, deserted and decay- 
ing : a splendid and melancholy monument of past 
greatness; and no monument of human power, no me- 
morial of departed ages, ever spoke more forcibly to 
the heart, or awakened feelings so powerful, and un- 
utterable. The Coliseum was commenced by Fla- 
vius Vespasian, in the year 72, as a triumphal 
memorial of his victories in Judea ; and it also 
served to perpetuate the recollection of the many 
horrid cruelties, committed by the conquering Ro- 
mans during that war. It was erected, according 
to Martial and Pliny, on the spot formerly occupied 
by a lake or fish-pond, in the gardens of Nero's 
golden house, then nearly the centre of the city. 
Twelve thousand Jewish prisoners, reduced to sla- 
very, were employed on the work ; and when it is 
considered, that so large and solid an edifice was 
completed in little more than four years, it becomes 


clearly evident, that the utmost cruelty and oppres- 
sion must have be^n resorted to, to compel these 
unfortunates to complete the task. Titus, the son of 
Vespasian, finished the building ; and on its dedica- 
tion exhibited shows and games for one hundred 
days, during which numbers of gladiators were 
killed, and five thousand wild beasts were torn to 
pieces in the arena." 

This vast amphitheatre is of an elliptical shape, 
which gives it great powers of resistance. Accord- 
ing to the best and most recent measurement, it 
must be about one thousand one hundred and eighty 
eight feet in external circumference, the long axis 
being six hundred and twenty-eight, the short five 
hundred and forty, and the total height one hundred 
and sixty feet.* The whole is a vast mixed mass of 
enormous blocks of stone and bricks, (probably por- 
tions of the golden palace), metal and cement, which 
have become so hardened by time, as to be like solid 
rock. The exterior was entirely of calcareous tufa of 
Tivoli, called travertine, a fine hard and white stone. 
It presents a series of three ranges of open arcades, 
so airy and correct in their proportions, that the 
building does not appear so large as it really is. 
Each tier consisted of thirty arches ; the columns 
between which, together with the entablatures, dis- 
playing different orders of architecture, the lowest 
being Doric, the second Ionic, and the third Corin- 
thian, surmounted by an attic story, with Composite 
pilasters, and forty windows. The two upper tiers 
of arches, which have the remains of pedestals for 
statues in them, admitted light to the various ambu- 
lacra or corridors, which were quadrangular at the 

* Some give the dimensions thus: Greatest length six hun- 
dred and twenty-one feet ; greatest breadth five hundred and thir- 
teen ; outer wall one hundred and fifty-seven feet h'gh in its whole 


base, diminishing in number and size as they ascended, 
and terminating in a single passage at the top. The 
lowest tier of arches were the entrances, seventy-six 
of which were for the emperor, finely ornamented ; 
one for the spectators, of various denominations ; 
and one for the consuls, senators, &c. ; and two 
for the gladiators, animals, &c. , These entrances 
led to the various staircases by which the populace 
gained the different dormitories, and descended by 
narrow flights of steps, to the graduated ranges of 
seats. Altogether there were one hundred and sixty 
staircases : that is, to the first floor, sixty-four ; to 
the second, fifty-two ; to the third, sixteen ; to the 
fourth, twenty-four ; and four to the extreme top, for 
the workmen. In the four ambulacra on the ground 
floor, were shops, taverns, stables, and rooms for 
refreshments, and places where perfumes were burned. 
There was also a fifth, or private passage, under the 
pulvinar, for the use of the emperor, which communi- 
cated subterraneously with the palace. In the tier 
above were twenty -two small vaulted chambers, 
called fornices, devoted to the sensual pleasures of 
the privileged classes. 

It is impossible to say at what period the amphi- 
theatre was first suffered to decay. The sanguinary 
exhibitions of the gladiators were abolished in the 
reign of Honorius, at the commencement of the fifth 
century ; yet so late as 1632, it must have been per- 
fect, as bull-fights, and other games, were at that time 
exhibited. A great portion of the southern side was 
demolished by order of Paul III. it is said at the 
recommendation of Michael Angelo, to furnish mate- 
rials for the Farnese palace for his nephew, and the 
complaints of the populace alone saved it from total 
demolition. It has however since suffered frequently 
from similar depredations of worse than Goths and 
Vandals, so that 


" From its mass, 
Walls, palaces, half 'cities have been rear'd." 

Those robberies have now ceased ; Benedict XIV. 
having, by the erection of a series of altars in the 
arena, made the whole consecrated ground ; a most 
efficient protection against the ravages of modern 
barbarism. Pius has also erected a massive buttress 
against the weakest end, and repaired some parts of 
the interior. Thus, after a lapse of nearly eighteen 
centuries, having frequently suffered from earth quakes, 
storms, and fire ; having been several times battered 
as a fortress, during the civil contentions of the mid- 
dle ages ; defaced as a quarter for soldiers ; used as a 
manufactory, and worked as a quarry, it still remains 
a miracle of human labour and ingenuity, and is, even 
in its present state, one of the noblest remains of anti- 
quity, and the most wonderful monument of Roman 
magnificence. Solitary and desolated, it is still grand 
and imposing ; the rich hues which time has over- 
spread its venerable fragments with, the luxuriant 
clusters of vegetation, and the graceful drapery of 
numerous beautiful creepers, festooning from the 
rifted arches, and broken arcades, whilst assimilating 
with the general character, add an indescribable rich- 
ness and variety to the whole, that has a powerful 
effect on the mind of the spectator. 

When the whole amphitheatre was entire*, a child 
might comprehend its design in a moment, and go 
direct to his place without straying in the porticoes ; 
for each arcade bears its number engraved, and oppo- 
site each arcade was a staircase. This multiplicity of 
wide, straight, and separate passages, proves the at- 
tention which the ancients paid to the safe discharge 
of a crowd. t As it now stands, the Coliseum is a 
striking image of Home itself ; decayed, vacant, se- 
rious ; yet grand : half grey, and half green ; erect 

* Forsytb. f Ibid. 


on one side and fallen on the other, with consecrated 
ground in its bosom, inhabited by a herdsman ; visit- 
ed by every caste : for moralists, antiquaries, painters, 
architects, devotees, all meet here to meditate, to ex- 
amine, to draw, to measure, and to copy. 

The figure of the Coliseum was an ellipse, whose 
longer diameter was about six hundred and fifteen 
English feet, and the shorter five hundred and ten feet. 
The longer diameter of the arena, or space within, 
was about two hundred and eighty-one feet, and 
the shorter one hundred and seventy-six feet, leav- 
ing the circuit for seats and galleries, of about one 
hundred and fifty-seven feet in breadth. The out- 
ward circumference when complete was about seven- 
teen hundred and seventy-two feet, covering a surface 
of about two hundred and forty-six thousand, six hun- 
dred and sixty-one feet, or something more than five 
acres and a half. When some pilgrims* who journeyed 
to Rome beheld this vast amphitheatre, they are said to 
have exclaimed, " As long as the Coliseum stands, 
Rome shall stand ; when the Coliseum falls, Rome 
will fall ; and when Rome falls, the world will fall.'" 

t It is impossible to contemplate without horror 
the dreadful scenes of carnage which for two hun- 
dred and fifty years disgraced the amphitheatre, or 
to regard without utter detestation the character of 
the people who took pleasure in spectacles of such 
monstrous brutality. We may form some idea of the 
myriads of men and animals destroyed in these houses 
of slaughter, from one instance which is recorded by 
Dio. He informs us that after the triumph of Trajan 
over the Dacians, spectacles were exhibited for one 
hundred and twenty-three days, in which eleven 
thousand animals were killed, and one thousand gla- 
diators were matched against each other. Nor was 
it only malefactors, captives, and slaves, that were 
* Bede. t Brewstcr. 


doomed to contend in these dreadful games: free-born 
citizens hired themselves as gladiators, men of noble 
birth sometimes degraded themselves so far as to 
fight on the stage for the amusement of their country- 
men, even women, ladies too of high rank, forget- 
ting the native delicacy and the feebleness of their 
sex, strove on the arena for the prize of valour for the 
honour of adroitness in murder. A people thus in- 
tred to blood, were prepared for every villany ; nor 
ii it possible to read of the enormities which disgraced 
te transactions of the later Romans, without ascrib- 
inj them in a great measure to the ferocity of temper, 
foiered by the shocking amusements of the amphi- 

' The Coliseo," says Dupaty, " is unquestionably 

the nost admirable monument of the Roman power 

und<? theCaesars. From itsvast circuit, from the mul- 

titud of stones of which it is formed, from that union 

of colmins of every order, which rise up one above the 

other, in a circular" form, to support three rows of 

porticos ; from all the dimensions, in a word, of this 

prodigius edifice, we instantly recognise the work 

of a peule, sovereigns of the universe, and slaves of 

an empror. I wandered long around the Coliseo, 

withoutyenturing, if I may so say, to enter it : my 

eyes sureyed it with admiration and awe. Not 

more tha one half of this vast edifice at present is 

standing ;yet the imagination may still add what 

has been lestroyed, and complete the whole. At 

length I ntered within its precincts. What an 

astonishingcene ! What contrasts ! What a display 

of ruins, an of all the parts of the monument, of 

every form, every age, and, as I may say, every 

year ; some earing the marks of the hand of time, 

and others o the hand of the barbarian. These 

crumbled do\i yesterday, those a few clays before, 

a great numb* O n the point of falling, and some, in 


short, which are falling from one moment to another. 
Here we see a tottering portico, there a falling enta- 
blament, and further on, a seat ; while, in the mean- 
while, the ivy, the bramble, the moss, and various 
plants, creep amongst these ruins, grow, and insi- 
nuate themselves; and, taking root in the cement, are 
continually detaching, separating, and reducing to 
powder these enormous masses ; the work of ages, 
piled on each other by the will of an emperor, anl 
the labour of a hundred thousand slaves. The'e 
was it then that gladiators, martyrs, and slavs, 
combated on the Roman festivals, only to make ;he 
blood circulate a little quicker in the veins o' a 
hundred thousand idle spectators. I thought I still 
heard the roaring of the lions, the sighs of the d'ing, 
the voice of the executioners, and what would srike 
my ear with still greater horror, the applaues of 
the Romans. I thought I heard them, by these 
applauses, encouraging and demanding carnap ; the 
men requiring still more blood from the comhtants; 
and the women, more mercy for the dying. I ima- 

fined I beheld one of these women, yofig and 
eautiful, on the fall of a gladiator, rise fron'her seat 
and with an eye which had just caressec a lover, 
welcome, or repel, find fault with, or applavl, the last 
sigh of the vanquished, as if she had paid'or it. 

" But what a change has taken place in iiis arena ! 
In the middle stands a crucifix, and alLround this 
crucifix, at equal distances, fourteen ars, conse- 
crated to different saints, are erected n the dens, 
which once contained the wild beasts. The Coliseo 
was daily hastening to destruction ; th stones were 
carried off, and it was constantly ^figured, and 
made the receptacle of filth ; when fnedict XIV. 
conceived the idea of saving this nobl monument by 
consecrating it ; by defending it with Itars, and pro- 
tecting it with indulgences. THe walls, these 


columns, and these porticoes, have now no other sup- 
port but the names of those very martyrs with 
whose blood they were formerly stained. I walked 
through every part of the Coliseo ; I ascended into 
all its different stories ; and sat down in the box of 
the emperors. I shall long remember the silence and 
solitude that reigned through these galleries, along 
these ranges of seats, and under these vaulted por- 
ticoes. I stopped from time to time to listen to the 
echo of my feet in walking. I was delighted, too, 
with attending to a certain faint rustling, more 
sensible to the soul than to the ear, occasioned by 
the hand of time, which is continually at work, and 
undermining the Coliseo on every side. What plea- 
sure did I not enjoy, too, in observing how the day 
gradually retired, and the night as gradually ad- 
vanced over the arcades, spreading her lengthening 
shadows. At length I was obliged to retire ; with 
my mind, 'however, filled with and absorbed in a 
thousand ideas, a thousand sensations, which can 
only arise among these ruins, and which these 
ruins in some degree inspire. Where are the five 
thousand wild beasts that tore each other to pieces, on 
the day on which this mighty pile was opened ? 
Silent now are those unnatural snouts of applause, 
called forth by the murderous fights of the gladiators : 
What a contrast to this death of sound ! " 

"Ascending among the ruins," says Mr. Williams, 
" we took our station where the whole magnitude 
of the Coliseum was visible. What a fulness 
of mind the first glance excited ; yet how inex- 
pressible, at the same time, were our feelings ! The 
awful silence of this dread ruin still appealed to our 
hearts. The single sentinel's tread, and the ticking 
of our watches, were the only sounds we heard, 
while the moon was marching in the vault of night, 
and the stars were peeping through the various 


openings ; the shadows of the flying clouds being all 
that reminded us of life and of motion." 

The manner, in which the traveller should survey 
the curiosities of Rome, must be determined by the 
length of time which he can afford for that purpose. 
" There are two modes of seeing Rome," says Mr. 
Mathews ; " the topographical, followed by Vasi, 
who parcels out the town into eight divisions, and 
jumbles every thing together, antiquities, churches, 
and palaces, if their situation be contiguous ; and 
the chronological, which would carry you regularly 
from the house of Romulus to the palace of the 
reigning pontiff. The first mode is the most expedi- 
tious, and the least expensive ; for even if the tra- 
veller walk afoot, the economy of time is worth con- 
sidering ; and after all that can be urged in favour 
of the chronological order, on the score of reason, 
Vasi's plan is perhaps the best. For all that is 
worth seeing at all is worth seeing twice. Vasi's 
mode hurries you through every thing ; but it enables 
you to select and note down those objects that are 
worthy of public examination, and these may be 
afterwards studied at leisure. Of the great majority 
of sights it must be confessed that all we obtain for 
our labour is the knowledge that they are not worth 
seeing ; but this is a knowledge, that no one is 
willing to receive upon the authority of another, and 
Vasi's plan offers a most expeditious mode of arriving 
at this truth by one's own proper experience. His 
plan is, however, too expeditious ; for he would get 
through the whole town, with all its wonders, ancient 
and modern, in eight days ! " 

Expeditious as it is, some of our indefatigable 
countrymen have contrived to hit upon one still 
more so. You may tell them that the antiquaries 
allow eight days for the tour, and they will boast 
of having beaten the antiquaries, and " done it in 


six." This rapid system may do, or rather must do, 
for those who have no time for any other ; but- to 
the traveller who wishes to derive instruction and 
profit from his visit, a more leisurely survey is 
essential. " For my own part," says Mr. Woods, 
" the first eight days I spent in Rome were all hurry 
and confusion, and I could attend to nothing syste- 
matically, nor even examine any thing with accuracy ; 
a sort of restless eagerness to see every thing and 
know every thing, gave me no power of fixing my 
attention on any one particular." 

We must now close our account : not that we 
have by any means exhausted the subject, for it de- 
mands volumes and years ; whereas our space is 
limited, and our time is short. We shall, therefore, 
devote the remainder of our space and time to the 
impressions with which the ruins of this city have 
been viewed by several elegant and accomplished 

" At length I behold Rome," said Dupaty. " I 
behold that theatre, where human nature has been 
all that it can ever be, has performed every thing it 
can perform, has displayed all the virtues, exhibited 
all the vices, brought forth the sublimest heroes, 
and the most execrable monsters, has been elevated 
to a Brutus, degraded to a Nero, and re-ascended 
to a Marcus Aurelius." 

" Even those who have not read at all," says Dr. 
Burton, " know, perhaps, more of the Romans than 
of any other nation* which has figured in the world. 
If we prefer modern history to ancient, we still find 
Rome in every page ; and if we look with composure 
upon an event so antiquated as the fall of the Roman 
empire, we cannot, as Englishmen, or as protestants, 
contemplate with indifference the sacred empire which 
Rome erected over the minds and consciences of men. 
AVithout making any invidious allusion, it may be 

* Except that of lh^ Jews. 


said that this second empire has nearly passed away; 
so that, in both points of view, we have former re- 
collections to excite our curiosity." 

"Neither the superb structures," says Sir John 
Hobhouse, "nor the happy climate, have made Rome 
the country of every man, and ' the city of the soul.' 
The education, wlvch has qualified the traveller of 
every nation for that citizenship, prepares enjoyments 
for him at Rome, independent of the city and inhabi- 
tants about him, and of all the allurements of site and 
climate. He will already people the banks of the 
Tiber with the shades of Pompey, Constantine, and 
Belisarius, and other heroes. The first footsteps within 
the venerable walls will have shown him thename and 
magnificence of Augustus, and the three long narrow 
streets, branching from the obelisk in the centre of 
the Piazza del Popolo, like the theatre of Palladio, 
will have imposed upon his fancy with an air of 
antiquity congenial to the soil. Even the mendicants 
of the country asking alms in Latin prayers, and the 
vineyard gates of the suburbs, inscribed with the 
ancient language, may be allowed to contribute to 
the agreeable delusion." 

" What," says Chateaubriand, gazing on the ruins 
of Rome by moonlight, " what was doing here eigh- 
teen centuries ago, at a like hour of night ? 'Not only 
has ancient Italy vanished, but the Italy of the middle 
ages is also gone. Nevertheless, the traces of both 
are plainly marked at Rome. If this modern city 
vaunts her St. Peter's, ancient Rome opposes her 
Pantheon and all her ruins ; if the one marshals from 
the Capitol her consuls and emperors, the other 
arrays her long succession of pontiffs. The Tiber 
divides the rival glories ; seated in the same dust, 
pagan Rome sinks faster and faster into decay, and 
Christian Rome is gradually re-descending into the 
catacombs whence she issued." 

"What says Lord Byron in regard to this celebrated 


city ? " I am delighted with Rome. As a whole 
ancient and modern --it beats Greece, Constantinople, 
every thing, at least that I have seen. As for the 
Coliseum, Pantheon, St. Peter's, the Vatican, &c. &c., 
they are quite inconceivable, and must be seen" 

We close this article with a fine passage from 
Middleton's Life of Cicero : "One cannot help re- 
flecting on the surprising fate and revolutions of 
kingdoms; how Rome, once the mistress of the world, 
the seat of arts, empire, and glory, now lies sunken 
sloth, ignorance, and poverty, enslaved to the most 
cruel, as well as the most contemptible of tyrants, 
superstition and religious imposture ; while this 
remote country, anciently the jest and contempt of 
the polite Romans, is become the happy seat of 
liberty, plenty, and letters ; flourishing in all the 
arts and refinements of civil life ; yet running, per- 
haps, the same course which Rome itself had run 
before, from virtuous industry to wealth ; from 
wealth to luxury ; from luxury to an impatience of 
discipline and corruption of morals ; till, by a total 
degeneracy and loss of virtue, being grown ripe for 
destruction, it falls a prey at last to some hardy 
oppressor ; and, with the loss of liberty, losing every 
thing that is valuable, sinks gradually again into 
original barbarism." 

Sec the wild waste of all-devouring years : 
How Rome her own sad sepulchre appears ! 
With nodding arches, broken temples spread ! 
The very tomhs now vanish'd like their dead ! 
Jinpeiial wonders raised on nations spoil'd, 
"\Vhcre mix'd with slaves the groaning martyr toil'd : 
Huge theatres, that now unpeopled woods, 
Now drain'd a distant country of her floods : 
Fanes, which admiiing gods with pride" survey, 
Statues of men, scarce less alive than they !* 

POPE'S Epistle to Addison. 

* Livy ; Cicero; Dionysius of Halicarnassus ; Seneca; Pliny; 



Proud and cruel nation ! every thing must be 
yours, and at your disposal ! You are to prescribe 
to us with ichom we shall make tear ; with whom we 
shall make peace ! You are to set bounds ; to shut 
us up between hills and rivers: but you you are 
not to observe the limits which yourselves have fixed. 
Pass not the Iberus. What next ? Touch not the 
Saguntines. Saguntum is upon the Iberus ; move 
not a step toicards that city. 


SAGUNTUM was a celebrated city of Hispania 
Taraconensis, on the west side of the Iberus, about a 
mile from the sea-shore. It was founded by a colony 
of Zacynthians, and by some of the Rutili of Ardeat. 

Saguntum, according to Livy, acquired immense 
riches, partly from its commerce both by land and sea, 
and partly from its just laws and excellent police. 

Saguntum was under the protection of the Romans, 
if not numbered amongst its cities ; and when by a 
treaty made between that people and the Carthagi- 
nians, the latter were permitted to carry their arms 
as far as the Iberus, this city was excepted. 

The moment Hannibal was created general, lie 

Tacitus; Dion Cassius; Poggio Bracciolini ; Rollin ; Taylor; 
Keunct; Hooke ; Gibbon ; Middleton; Dupaty ; Vasi ; Chateau- 
briand ; Wraxall ; Wood ; Forsyth ; Eustace ; Cell ; Encylop. 
Metropolitans, Brcwster, Rees, Britannica, Londinensis ; Parker 
(Sat. Magazine); Knight (Penny Magazine); Burford; Hobliouse ; 
Simond ; Rome in the Nineteenth Century ; Williams ; Mathewb ; 

+ Ardea was a city of Latitim. Some soldiers having set it on 
fire, the inhabitants propagated a report that their town had been 
changed into a bird! It was rebuilt, and became a very rich and 
magnificent town, whose enmity to Rome rendered it famous. 
Tarquin was besieging this city when his son dishonoured Lucretia. 


lost no time, for fear of being prevented by death, as 
his father had been. Though the Spaniards had so 
much advantage over him, with regard to the number 
of forces, their army amounting to upwards of one 
hundred thousand men, yet he chose his time and 
posts so happily, that he entirely defeated them. 
After this every thing submitted to his arms. But 
he still forbore laying siege to Saguntum, carefully 
avoiding every occasion of a rupture with the Romans, 
till he should be furnished with all things necessary 
for so important an enterprise; pursuant to the advice 
of his father. He applied himself particularly to 
engage the affections of the citizens and allies, and to 
gain their confidence, by allotting them a large share 
of the plunder taken from the enemy, and by paying 
them all their arrears. 

The Saguntines, on their side, sensible of the 
danger with which they were threatened, from the 
continued successes of Hannibal, advertised the 
Romans of them. Upon this, deputies were nomi- 
nated by the latter, and ordered to go and take a 
personal information upon the spot ; they commanded 
them also to lay their complaints before Hannibal, if 
it should be thought proper ; and in case he should 
refuse to do justice, that then they should go directly 
to Carthage, and make the same complaints. In 
the meantime, Hannibal laid siege to Saguntum, pro- 
mising himself great advantages from the taking of 
this city. -He was persuaded that this would de- 
prive the Romans of all hopes of carrying the war 
into Spain; that this new conquest would secure 
the old ones ; and that no enemy would be left be- 
hind him ; that he should find money enough in it 
for the execution of his designs ; that the plunder of 
the city would inspire his soldiers with great ardour, 
and make them follow him with greater cheerfulness; 
and that, lastly, the spoils which he should send to 



Carthage would gain him the favour of the citizens. 
Animated by these motives, he carried on the siege 
with the utmost vigour. 

News was soon carried to Rome, that Saguntum 
was besieged. But the Romans, instead of flying 
to its relief, lost their time in fruitless debates, and 
equally insignificant disputations. The Saguntines 
were now reduced to the last extremity, and in want 
of all things. An accommodation was thereupon pro- 
posed ; but the conditions on which it was offered, 
appeared so harsh, that the Saguntines could not so 
much as think of accepting them. Before they gave 
their final answer, the principal senators, bringing 
their gold and silver, and that of the public treasury, 
into the market-place, threw both into a fire, lighted 
for that purpose, and afterwards themselves ! At the 
same time, a tower which had been long assaulted 
by the battering-rams, falling with a dreadful noise, 
the Carthaginians entered the city by the breach, 
and soon made themselves masters of it, and cut to 
pieces all the inhabitants, who were of sufficient age 
to bear arms. 

" Words," says Polybius, " could never express the 
grief and consternation with which the news of the 
taking, and cruel fute of Saguntum, was received 
at Rome. Compassion for an unfortunate city, shame 
for their having failed to succour such faithful allies, 
a, just indignation against the Carthaginians, the 
authors of all these calamities; the string alarms, 
raised by the successes of Hannibal, whom the 
Romans fancied they saw already at their gates ; all 
these sentiments were so violent, that, during the 
first moments of them, the Romans were unable to 
come to any resolution, or do any thing, but give 
way to the torrent of their passion, and sacrifice 
floods of tears to the memory of a city, which lay in 
ruins because of its inviolable fidelity to the Romans, 


and had been betrayed by their imprudent delays^ 
aiid unaccountable indolence. When they were a 
little recovered, an assembly of the people was called, 
and war unanimously declared against the people of 

The conqueror afterwards rebuilt it, and placed a 
garrison there, with all the noblemen whom he had 
detained as hostages, from the several neighbouring- 
nations of Spain *. 

The city remained in a deplorable state of distress 
under the Carthaginians, till the year of Rome 538, 
when Scipio, having humbled the power of Carthage 
in Spain, in process of time recovered Saguntum, 
and made it, as Pliny says, " a new city." By the 
Romans it was treated with every kind of distinction; 
but at some period, not ascertained by historians, it 
was reduced to ruins. 

The city of Morviedro is supposed to be situated 
on the ruins of Saguntum ; the name of which being 
derived from Muri veteres, Muros riejos, " old walls." 
It abounds with vestiges of antiquity. Several Celt- 
iberian and Roman inscriptions are seen ; but of all 
the numerous statues that the temples, and other 
public edifices of Saguntum once had, only one re- 
mains, of white marble, without a head ; besides the 
fragment of another. 

The traces of the walls of its circus are, never- 
theless, still discernible ; though its mosaic pavement 
is destroyed. A greater portion of the theatre re- 
mains than of any other Roman monument. 

A writer on Spanish antiquities in 1 684, gives the 
following account of this city, whereby we may learn 
that at that time th^re were many moi'e remains of 
antiquity then there are at present. " The Roman 
inscriptions," says he, " that are scattered up and 
down in the public and private buildings, and the 

* Snme suppose that lie then cave it the name of Sparjetone. 



medals and other monuments of antiquity, that have 
been found there, being endless, I shall only present 
my reader with that which is over one of the gates of 
the town, in honour of the emperor Claudius : 


i i.vvnio. 





" And upon another gate, near the cathedral, is a 
head of Hannibal, cut in stone. From hence, if you 
mount still higher up the rock, you come to an am- 
phitheatre, which has twenty-six rows of seats one 
above another, all cut in the rock ; and in the other 
parts the arches are so thick and strong, that they 
are little inferior to the rock itself. There are remains 
of prodigious aqueducts, and numbers of vast cisterns 
under ground. As this country has been celebrated 
by Titus Livius, and Polybius, for its fertility, I 
shall take notice of one or two of its productions, 
which are peculiar to it. First then, the winter figs, 
which Pliny speaks of, are to be met with in great 
perfection at this day ; and are almost as remarkable 
for their flavour and sweetness, as for their hanging 
upon the trees in the middle of the winter. Their 
pears also have a higher reputation than any others. 
There are cherry-trees that are full of fine fruit in 
January : and in a place near Canet, about half a 
league off, they raised a melon that weighed thirty 


SAIS stands on the eastern side of the Nile, near the 
place where a canal, passing across the Delta, joins 
the Pelusiac with the Canopic branch of the Nile. 

* Polybius; Livy ; Pliny ; Rolliu ; Keunett ; Jose. 


It was the metropolis of Lower Egypt ; and its inha- 
bitants were, originally, an Athenian colony. 

At this place there was a temple dedicated to 
Minerva, who is supposed to be the same as Isis, 
with the following inscription : " I am whatever 
hath been, and is, and shall be ; no mortal hath yet 
pierced through the veil that shrouds me." 

In this city Osiris is said to have been buried. 
" They have a tomb at Sais," says Herodotus, " of a 
certain personage, whom I do not think myself per- 
mitted to specify. It is behind the Temple of Minerva, 
and is continued by the whole length of the wall of 
that building : around this are many large obelisks, 
near which is a lake, whose banks are lined with 
stone. It is of a circular form, and, I should think, 
as large as that of Delos, which is called Tro- 

To name this " personage" seems to have been an 
act carefully to be avoided. How very sacred the 
ancients deemed their mysteries appears from the fol- 
lowing passage in Apolloiiius Rhodius : 

" To Samothrace, Elcctra's isle, they steer: 
That there, initiated in rights divine, 
Safe might they sail the navigable hrine. 
But Muse, presume not of those rights to tell. 
Farewell, dread isle, dire deities, faiewell ! 
Let not my verse these mysteries explain ; 
To name is impious, to reveal profane." 

In this temple (that of Minerva) Herodotus in- 
forms us the inhabitants buried their princes ; and in 
the area before it stood a large marble edifice, magnifi- 
cently adorned with obelisks in the shape of ^aim- 
trees, with various other ornaments. This temple 
was erected by Amasis, who was a native of Sais.* 

* As he was hut of mean extraction, he met with no respect, 
but was only contemned by his subjects, in the beginning of his 


In magnitude and grandeur it surpassed any they had 
before seen; of such enormous size were the stones 
employed in the building and foundation. There was 
a room cut out of one stone, which had been conveyed 
by water from Elephantis by the labour of two 
thousand men ; costing three years' labour. This 
stone measured on the outside twenty-one cubits 
long, fourteen broad, and eight high. 

Cambyses entertained a mortal hatred to the 
monarch just mentioned. From Memphis he went to 
Sais, where was the burying-placc of the kings of 
Egypt. As soon as he entered the palace, he caused 
the body of Amasis to be taken out of its tomb, and after 
having exposed it to a thousand indignities in his own 
presence, he ordered it to be cast into the fire and 
burned; which was a thing equally contrary to the cus- 

rcign. He was not insensible of this; but nevertheless thought it 
his interest to subdue their tempers by an artful carriage, and win 
their affection by gentleness and reason. He had a golden cistern 
in which himself, and those persons who were admitted to his table, 
used to wash their feet : he melted it down, and had it cast into a 
statue, and then exposed the new god to public worship. The peo- 
ple hastened in crowds to pay their adoration to the statue. The 
king, having assembled the people, informed them of the vile uses 
to which this statue had once been put, which nevertheless had now 
their religious prostrations. The application was easy, and had the 
desired success ; the people thenceforward paid the king all the re- 
spect that is due to majesty. 

He always used to devote the whole morning to public affairs, 
in order to receive petitions, give audience, pronounce sentence, and 
hold his councils : the rest of the day was given to pleasure ; and 
as AmasiK, in hours of diversion, was extremely gay, and seemed 
to carry his mirth beyond due bounds, his courtiers took the liberty 
to represent to him the unsuitableness of such a behaviour ; when 
he answered, that it was as impossible for the mind to be always seri- 
ous and Intent upon business, as for a bow to continue always bent. 

It was this king who obliged the inhabitants of even' town to en- 
ter their names in a book, kept by the magistrate for that purpose, 
with their professions, and manner of living. Solon inserted thi 
custom among his laws. 


toms of the Persians and Egyptians. The rage, this 
prince testified against the dead body of Amasis, 
shows to what a degree he hated his person. What- 
ever was the cause of this aversion, it seems to have 
been one of the chief motives, Cambyses had of carry- 
ing his arms into Egypt. 

The first notice of the ruins of Sais, by Europe- 
ans, occurs in the travels of Egmont and Heyman, 
two Dutchmen, who found a curious inscription in 
honour of its "benefactor," MarcusAurelius Antoninus. 
They saw also a colossal statue of a female, with 
hieroglyphics. Fourteen camel-loads of treasure are 
said to have been found among the ruins. 

u The village of Se '1 Hajar," says Dr. Clarke, 
" seems in the suburban district of the ancient city ; 
for as we proceeded hence in an eastern direction we 
soon discerned its vestiges. Irregular heaps, contain- 
ing ruined foundations which had defied the labours 
of the peasants, appeared between the village, and 
some more considerable remains farther towards the 
south-cast. The earth was covered with fragments 
of the ancient terra-cotta, which the labourers had 
cast out of their sieves. At the distance of about 
three furlongs we came to an immense quadrangular 
inclosure, nearly a mile wide, formed by high walls, 
or rather mounds of earth, facing tlie four points of 
the compass, and placed at right angles to each other, 
so as to surround the spacious area. In the centre of 
this was another conical heap, supporting the ruins of 
some building, whose original form cannot be now 
ascertained. The ramparts of this inclosure are in- 
deed so lofty as to be visible from the river, although 
at this distance, the irregularity of their appearance 
might cause a person ignorant of their real nature to 
mistake them for natural eminences." 

Dr. Clarke found several things at Sais well 


worthy attention ; among which may be particularly 
mentioned several bronze relics ; an ara- triform 
sceptre, a curious hieroglyphic tablet*, the torso of 
an ancient statue, a triple hierogram with the symbol 
of the cross, and several other antiquities. 

On the east is another fragment of a very highly 
finished edifice ; and the hieroglyphics which remain 
are perfectly well sculptured. 

Many fragments of these ruins have been, of late 
years, taken away by Mohamed Bey, to build there- 
with a miserable palace at E'Sooant. 


SAMARIA is never called in Scripture Sebast, 
though strangers know it only by that name. 

Obadiah is supposed to have been buried in this 
city ; and here, at one time, were shown the tombs 
of Elisha, and of John the Baptist ; and many 
ancient coins of this town are still preserved in the 
cabinets of the curious. 

Samaria, during a siege, was afflicted with a great 
famine ; and a very extraordinary occurrence is re- 
lated with respect to it^. 

24. " And it came to pass after this, that Ben- 
hadad king of Syria gathered all his host, aud went 
up, and besieged Samaria. 

25. And there was a great famine in Samaria ; 
and, behold, they besieged it, until an ass's head was 
sold for fourscore pieces of silver, and the fourth part 
of a cab of dove's dung for five pieces of silver. 

26. And as the king of Israel was passing by 
upon the wall, there cried a woman unto him, say- 
ing, Help, my lord, O king. 

* Now in the vestibule of the university library at Cambridge, 
f Herodotus ; Apollonius Rbodius ; Rollin ; Egmont and Hey- 
nian; Clarke. J II. Chrouicles, ch. xi. 


27. And he said, if the Lord do not help thee, 
whence shall I help thee ? out of the barn-floor, or 
out of the wine-press ? 

28. And the king said unto her, What aileth 
thee ? And she answered, This woman said unto 
me, Give thy son, that we may eat him to-day, and 
we will eat my son to-morrow. 

29. So we boiled my son, and did eat him : and I 
said unto her on the next day, Give thy son, that we 
may eat him : and she hath hid her son. 

30. And it came to pass, when the king heard the 
words of the woman, that he rent his clothes; and 
he passed by upon the wall, and the people looked, 
and, behold, he had sackcloth within upon his flesh. 

31. Then he said, God do so and more also to me, 
if the head of Elisha the son of Shaphat shall stand 
on him this day. 

32. But Elisha sat in his house, and the elders 
sat with him ; and the king sent a man from before 
him ; but ere the messenger came to him, he said to 
the elders, See how this son of a murderer hath sent 
to take away mine head ! look, when the messenger 
cometh, shut the door, and hold him fast at the 
door : is not the sound of his master's feet behind 
him ? 

33. And while he yet talked with them, behold, 
the messenger came down unto him : and he said, 
Behold, this evil is of the Lord ; what should I wait 
for the Lord any longer? " 

This was one of the cities of Palestine. The 
country in which it is situated was at one time greatly 
infested with lions. The inhabitants were always 
at variance with their neighbours the Jews, who 
detested them. The Samaritans having built a 
temple on Mount Gerizim, similar to that at Jerusa- 
lem, insisting that Gerizim was the spot which God 
had originally consecrated, the Jews never forgave 


them for so doing, either in precept or practice. 
Their malice pursued them everywhere ; they called 
them rebels and apostates ; and held them in such utter 
detestation, that to say, " There goes a Samaritan," 
was a phrase equivalent to that of " There goes a 
serpent." This hatred was returned with nearly 
equal force by the Samaritans ; insomuch, that when 
the Jews were building their temple, they did all 
they could to prevent the execution of it. 

When Alexander marched into Judaea, and had 
arrived at Jerusalem, the Samaritans sent a number 
of deputies, with great pomp and ceremony, to re- 
quest that he would visit the temple they had erected 
on Mount Gerizim. As they had submitted to Alex- 
ander, and assisted him with troops, they naturally 
thought that they deserved as much favour from him 
as the Jews; and, indeed, more. Alexander, however, 
does not appear to have thought so ; for when the de- 
puties were introduced, he thanked them, indeed, in a 
courteous manner, but he declined visiting their tem- 
ple ; giving them to understand, that his affairs were 
urgent, and, therefore, that he had not sufficient time ; 
but that if he should return that way from Egypt, 
he would not fail to do as they desired ; that is, if he 
had time. The Samaritans afterwards mutinied ; in 
consequence of which Alexander drove them out of 
Samaria ; for they had set fire to the house of the 
governor he had appointed, and burned him alive. 
He divided their lands amongst the Jews, and re- 
peopled their city with a colony of Macedonians. 

When Antiochus afterwards marched into their 
country, they had the baseness to send a petition to 
that monarch, in which they declared themselves not 
to be Jews; in confirmation of which they entreated, 
that the temple, they had built upon Mount Gerizim, 
might be dedicated to the Jupiter of Greece. This 
petition was received with favour ; and the temple 


was, therefore, dedicated as the Samaritans had 

This city was afterwards subject to the vengeance 
of Hyrcauus, son of Simon, one of the Maccabees. 
It stood a siege for nearly a year. When the con- 
queror took it, he ordered it to be immediately de- 
molished. The walls of the city, and the houses of , 
the inhabitants, were entirely razed and laid level 
with the ground ; and, to prevent its ever being re- 
built, he caused deep trenches and ditches to be cut 
through the new plain, where the city had stood, 
into which water was turned *. 

Thus it remained till the time of Herod, who re- 
built the city ; and, in honour of Augustus, gave it 
the name of Sebastos +. 


THIS village was once the chief city and bulwark 
of Galilee. Its inhabitants often revolted against the 
Romans ; but few remains of its ancient greatness 
now exist. There are, however, ruins of a stately 
Gothic edifice, which some travellers esteem one of 
the finest structures in the Holy Land. " We en- 
tered," says Dr. Clarke, " beneath lofty massive 
arches of stone. The roof of the building was of 
the same materials. The arches are placed in the 
intersection of a Greek cross, and originally sup- 
ported a dome or tower ; their appearance is highly 
picturesque, and they exhibit the grandeur of a noble 
style of architecture. Broken columns of granite 
and marble lie scattered among the walls ; and these 
prove how richly it was decorated." In this place 
Dr. Clarke saw several very curious paintings. 

This place was visited in the early part of the 
seventeenth century by a Franciscan friar of Lodi, 

* Rees ; Malte-Brnn ; Browne. 

s, in Greek, signifies Augustus. 


in Italy,named Quaresimius, who says: "This place 
now exhibits a scene of ruin and desolation, consist- 
ing only of peasants' habitations, and sufficiently 
manifests, in its remains, the splendour of the ancient 
city. Considered as the native place of Joachim 
and Anna, the parents of the Virgin, it is renowned, 
and worthy of being visited." " It is not easy," 
says Dr. Clarke, " to account for the disregard shown 
to a monument of antiquity, highly interesting from 
its title to consideration in the history of ancient 
architecture, or to the city of which it was the pride, 
once renowned as the metropolis of Galilee." 

The following account is from the pen of the cele- 
brated French traveller, M. La Martine: " A great 
number of blocks of stone, hollowed out for tombs, 
traced our route to the summit of the mamelon, 
on which Saphora is situated. Arrived at the top, 
we beheld an insulated column of granite still standing, 
and marking the site of a temple. Beautiful sculp- 
tured capitals were lying on the ground at the foot 
of the column, and immense fragments of hewn stone, 
removed from some great Roman monument, were 
scattered everywhere round, serving the Arabs as 
boundaries to their property, and extending as far 
as a mile from Saphora, where we stopped to halt 
in the middle of the day." 

This is all that now remains of this once noble 

" A fountain of excellent and inexhaustible 
water," continues La Martine, " flows herefrom, 
for the use of the inhabitants of two or three 
valleys; it is surrounded by some orchards of fig and 
pomegranate trees, under the shade of which we 
seated ourselves; and waited more than an hour before 
we could water our caravan, so numerous were the 
herds of cows and camels which the Arabian shep- 
herds brought from all parts of the valley. Innumc- 


rable files of cattle and black goats wound across 
the plain and the sides of the hill leading to Naza- 


SARDIS is thus alluded to in the Apocalypse t : 

" 1. And unto the angel of the church in Sardis 
write : These things saith he that hath the seven 
spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy 
works, that thou hast a name, that thou livest, and 
art dead. 

" 2. Be watchful and strengthen the things which 
remain, that are ready to die ; for I have not found 
thy works perfect before God. 

" 3. Remember therefore how thou hast received and 
heard, and hold fast and repent. If therefore thou 
shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a thief, and 
thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee. 

" 4. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis, which 
have not denied their garments ; and they shall walk 
with me in white ; for they are worthy." 

Sardis was situated five hundred and forty stadia 
from Ephesus ; viz. seven miles and a half. 

When this city was built is not, we believe, upon 
record. It was the capital of Lydia, and situated on 
the banks of the Pactolus, at the foot of Mount 
Tmolus; having the Cayster to the south, and Her- 
mus to the north. 

During the reign of Atys, son of Gyges, the Cim- 
merians, being expelled their own country by the 
Nomades of Scythia, passed over into Asia, and 
possessed themselves of Sardis. Some time after 
this, Croesus became king of Lydia, and a war ensued 
between him and Cyrus the Great. At that period 
no nation of Asia was more hardy, or more valiant, 
than the Lydians. They fought principally on horse- 
* Clarke ; La Martine. -J- Chap. iii. 1 4. 


back, .armed with long spears, and were very expert 
in managing the horse. Sardis, according to Herod- 
otus, was taken by storm ; according to Polyzcnus, 
by surprise. Cyrus availed himself of a truce, which 
he had concluded with Croesus, (the richest of kings), 
to advance his forces, and making his approach by 
night, took the city. Croesus, still remaining in pos- 
M-ssion of the citadel, expected the arrival of his 
Grecian succours: but Cyrus, putting in irons the re- 
latives and friends of those who defended the citadel, 
showed them in that state to the besieged. At the 
same time he informed them by a herald, that, if 
they would give up the place, he would set their 
friends at liberty; but that, if they persevered in 
their defence, he would put them to death. Tho be- 
sieged chose rather to surrender, than cause their 
relations to perish. Such is the relation of Polya:mis. 

The Persians obtained possession of Sardis, and 
made Crresus captive, after a siege of fourteen days, 
and a reign of fourteen years. Thus was a mighty 
empire destroyed in a few days. Croesus being 
brought into the presence of Cyrus, that prince 
ordered him to be placed in chains upon the summit 
of a huge wooden pile, with fourteen Lydian youths 
standing round him. Before this, however, Cyrus 
gave the citizens to understand, that if they would 
bring to him and his army all their silver and gold, 
their city should be spared. On learning this, they 
brought to him all their wealth ; but Croesus was 
ordered to be burned alive. Before we give an account 
of this barbarous order, however, we must refer to a 
circumstance which had occurred several years before. 

Solon, one of the most celebrated of legislators, 
having established a new system of laws at Athens, 
thought to improve his knowledge by travel. He 
went, therefore, to Sardis. The king received him 
very sumptuously ; dressed in magnificent apparel, 


pnriched with gold, and glittering with diamonds. 
Finding that the Grecian sage did not appear in any 
way moved by this display, Croesus ordered, that all 
his treasures, royal apartments, and costly furniture, 
should be shown to him. When Solon had been 
shown all these, he was taken back to the king, who 
then inquired of him : Which of all the persons 
he had seen during his travels, he esteemed the most 
happy ? " A person named Tellus," answered Solon, 
" a citizen of Athens ; an honest and good man ; one 
who had lived all his days without indigence, and 
always seen his country flourishing and happy; who 
had children that were universally esteemed ; and 
whose children he had the satisfaction, also, of seeing, 
and who died at last gloriously fighting for his coun- 

When Croesus heard this, thinking that if he 
were not esteemed the first in happiness, he would at 
least be thought the second, he inquired " Who, of 
all you have seen, was the next in happiness to Tellus?" 
" Cleobis and Biton of Argos," answered Solon, " two 
brothers who left behind them a perfect pattern of 
fraternal affection, and of the respect due from chil- 
dren to their parents. Upon a solemn festival when 
their mother, a priestess of Juno, was to go to the 
temple, the oxen that were to draw her not being 
ready, the two sons put themselves to the yoke, and 
drew their mother's chariot thither, which was above 
five miles distant. All the mothers, ravished with 
admiration, congratulated the priestess on the piety 
of her sons. She, in the transport of her joy and 
thankfulness, earnestly entreated the goddess to 
reward her children with the best thing that heaven 
can give to man. Her prayers were heard. Whrn 
the sacrifice was over, her two sons fell asleep in 
the very temple to which they had brought her, 
and there died in a soft and peaceful slumber. In 


honour of their piety," concluded Solon, " the people 
of Argos consecrated statues to them in the temple 
of Delphos." 

Croesus was greatly mortified at this answer ; and 
therefore said with some token of discontent, " Then 
you do not reckon me in the number of the happy at 
all ?" " King of Lydia," answered Solon, " besides 
many other advantages, the gods have given to us 
Grecians a spirit of moderation and reserve, which 
has produced among us a plain, popular, kind of phi- 
losophy, accompanied with a certain generous free- 
dom, void of pride and ostentation, and therefore not 
well suited to the courts of kings. This philosophy, 
considering what an infinite number of vicissitudes 
and accidents the life of man is liable to, does not al- 
low us to glory in any prospects we enjoy ourselves, 05 
to admire happiness in others which may prove only 
superficial and transient." 

Having said this much, Solon paused a little, then 
proceeded to say, that " the life of man seldom exceeds 
seventy years, which make up in all twenty-five 
thousand five hundred and fifty days, of which two are 
not exactly alike ; so that the time to come is nothing 
but a series of various accidents, which cannot be fore- 
seen. Therefore, in our opinion," continued Solon, " no 
man can be esteemed happy, but he whose happi- 
ness God continues to the end of his life. As for 
others, who are perpetually exposed to a thousand 
dangers, we account their happiness as uncertain, as 
the crown is to a person that is still engaged in bat- 
tle, and has not yet obtained the victory." 

It was not long before Croesus experienced the 
truth of what Solon told him. Cyrus made war 
upon him, as we have already related: and he was now 
condemned to be burned. The funeral pile was pre- 
pared, and the unhappy king being laid thereon, and 
just on the point of execution, recollecting the con- 


versation he had had with Solon some few years 
before, he cried aloud three times, " Solon ! Solon ! 
Solon !" when Cyrus heard him exclaim thus, he be- 
came curious to know why Croesus pronounced that 
celebrated sage's name with so much earnestness in 
the extremity to which he was reduced. Croesus 
informed him. The conqueror instantly paused in 
the punishment designed ; and, reflecting on the un- 
certain state to which all sublunary things are subject, 
he caused him to be taken from the pile, and ever 
afterwards treated him with honour and respect. 
This account is from Rollin, who has it from Herodo- 
tus and other ancient writers. 

Croesus is honourably mentioned by Pindar, in his 
celebrated contrast between a good sovereign and a 
bad one : 

When in the mouldering urn the monarch lies, 

His fame in lively characters remains, 
Or graved in monumental histories, 

Or deck'd and painted in Aonian strains. 
Thus fresh and fragrant and immortal blooms 

The virtue, Croesus, of thy gentle mind ; 
While fate to infamy and hatred dooms 

Sicilia's tyrant*, scorn of human kind ; 
Whose ruthless bosom swelled with cruel pride, 
When in his brazen bull the broiling wretches died. 
Him, therefore, not in sweet society, 

The generous youth, conversing, ever name ; 
Nor with the harp's delightful melody 

Mingle his odious, inharmonious fame. 
The first, the greatest, bliss on man conferred, 

Is in the acts of virtue to excel ; 
The second to obtain their high reward, 

The soul-exalting praise of doing well. 
Who both these lots attains is bless'd indeed; 
Since fortune here below can give no higher meed. 

PINDAR. Pyth. i. WEST. 

On the division of the Persian monarchy into 

* Phalaris. 
VOL. ii. y 


satrapies, Sardis became the residence of the satrap 
who had the government of the sea-coast. 

In the third year of the war arising from the 
revolt of the lonians against the Persian authority, 
the lonians having collected all their forces together, 
set sail for Ephesus, whence, leaving their ships, 
they marched by land to Sardis. Finding that city 
in a defenceless state, they made themselves masters 
of it ; but the citadel, into which the Persian go - 
vernor Artaphernes had retired, they were not able 
to force. Most of the houses were roofed with reeds. 
An Ionian soldier therefore having, whether with 
intention or by accident was never ascertained, set 
fire to a house, the flames flew from roof to roof, and 
the whole city was entirely destroyed, almost in a 
moment. In this destruction the Persians implicated 
the Athenians ; for there were many Athenians 
among the lonians. When Darius, therefore, heard 
of the conflagration, he immediately determined on 
making war upon Greece ; and that he might never 
forget the resolution, he appointed an officer to the 
duty of crying out to him every night at supper, 
" Sir, remember the Athenians." It is here, also, to 
be remembered, that the cause why the Persians 
afterwards destroyed all the temples they came near 
in Greece, was in consequence of the temple of Cybele, 
the tutelary deity of Sardis, having been, at that 
period, reduced to ashes. 

Xerxes, on his celebrated expedition, having 
arrived at Sardis, sent heralds into Greece, demand- 
ing earth and water. He did not, however, send 
either to Athens or Lacedasmon. His motive for 
enforcing his demand to the other cities, was the 
expectation that they, who had before refused earth 
and water to Darius, would, from the alarm at his 
approach, send it now. In this, however, he was 


for the most part mistaken. Xerxes wintered at this 

Alexander having conquered the Persians at the 
battle of the Granicus, marched towards Sardis. It 
was the bulwark of the Persian empire on the side 
next the sea. The citizens surrendered ; and, as a 
reward for so doing, the king gave them their liberties, 
and permitted them to live under their own laws. 
He gave orders, also, to the Sardians to erect a 
temple to Olympian Jove. 

After the death of Alexander, Seleucus, carrying 
on a war with Lysimachus, took possession of Sardis, 
B.C. 283. In 214 B.C. Antiochus the Great made 
himself master of the citadel and city. He kept 
possession of it twenty-five years, and it became his 
favourite place of retreat after having lost the battle 
of Magnesia. His taking it is thus described by 
Polybius : " An officer had observed, that vultures 
and birds of prey gathered round the rock on which 
the citadel was placed, about the offals and dead 
bodies, thrown into a hollow by the besieged ; and 
inferred that the wall standing on the edge of the 
precipice was neglected, as secure from attack. He 
scaled it with a resolute party, while Antiochus called 
off the attention both of his own army and of the 
enemy by a feint, marching as if he intended to 
attack the Persian gate. Two thousand soldiers 
rushed in at the gate opened for them, and took their 
post at the theatre, when the town was plundered 
and burned." 

Attalus Philomater, one of the descendants of the 
Antiochus just mentioned, bequeathed Sardis, with 
all his other possessions, to the Roman people ; and, 
three years after his death, it was in consequence 
reduced to a Roman province. 

Under the reign of Tiberius, Sardis was a very 
large* city ; but it was almost wholly destroyed by 


;iu earthquake. The emperor, however, had suffi- 
cient public virtue to order it to be rebuilt, and at a 
very great expense. In this patronage of Sardis, he 
was imitated by Hadrian, who was so great a bene- 
factor, that he obtained the name of Neocorus. The 
patron god was Jupiter, who was called by a name 
synonymous with protector. 

Sardis was one of the first towns that embraced 
the Christian religion, having been converted by St. 
John ; and some have thought that its first bishop 
was Clement, the disciple of St. Paul. 

In the time of Julian great efforts were made to re- 
store the Pagan worship, by erecting temporary altars 
at Sardis, where none had been left, and repairing 
those temples of which vestiges remained. 

A. D. 400, the city was plundered by the Goths, 
under Tribigildus and Cairanas, officers in the Ro- 
man pay, who had revolted from the emperor Ar- 

A.D. 1304, the Turks, on an insurrection of the 
Tartars, were permitted to occupy a portion of the 
Acropolis ; but the Sardians, on the same night, 
murdered them in their sleep. 

The town is now called Sart or Serte. When 
Dr. Chandler visited it in 1774, he found the site 
of it " green and flowery." Coming from the east, he 
found on his left the ground-work of a theatre; 
of which still remained some pieces of the vault, 
which supported the seats, and completed the semi- 

Going on, he passed remnants of massy buildings ; 
marble piers sustaining heavy fragments of arches of 
brick, and more indistinct ruins. These are in the 
plain before the hill of the Acropolis. On the right 
hand, near the road, was a portion of a large edifice, 
with a heap of ponderous materials before and be- 
hind it. The walls also are standing of two large, 


long, and lofty rooms, with a space between them, 
as of a passage. This remnant, according to M. Pey- 
sonell, was the house of Croesus, once appropriated 
by the Sardians as a place of retirement for super- 
annuated citizens. The walls in this ruin have 
double arches beneath, and consist chiefly of brick, 
with layers of stone : it is called the Gerusia. The 
bricks are exceedingly fine and good, of various sizes, 
some flat and broad. " We employed," continues 
Dr. Chandler, " a man to procure one entire, but 
the cement proved so very hard and tenacious, it 
was next to impossible. Both Crcesus and Mauso- 
lus, neither of whom could be accused of parsimony, 
had used this material in the walls of their palaces. 
It was insensible of decay ; and it is asserted, if the 
walls were erected true to their perpendicular, would, 
without violence, last for ever." 

Our traveller was then led toward the mountain ; 
when, on a turning of the road, he was struck with 
the view of a ruin of a temple, in a retired situation 
beyond the Pactolus, and between Mount Tmolus 
and the hill of the Acropolis. Five columns were 
standing, one without the capital, and one with the 
capital awry, to the south. The architrave was of 
two stones. A piece remains of one column, to 
the southward ; the other part, with the column 
which contributed to its support, has fallen since the 
year 1699. One capital was then distorted, as was 
imagined, by an earthquake ; and over the entrance 
of the Naos was a vast stone, which occasioned 
wonder by what art or power it could be raised. 
That magnificent portal has since been destroyed; 
and in the heap lies that huge and ponderous marble. 
The soil has accumulated round the ruin ; and the 
bases, with a moiety of each column, are concealed. 
This, in the opinion of Dr. Chandler^is'probably the 
Temple of Cybele ; and which was damaged in the 


conflagration of Sarclis by the Milesians. It was 
of the Ionic order, and had eight columns in front. 
The shafts are fluted, and the capitals designed with 
exquisite taste and skill. " It is impossible," con- 
tinues our traveller, " to behold without deep regret, 
this imperfect remnant of so beautiful and so glorioxis 
an edifice !" 

In allusion to this, Wheler, who visited Sart to- 
wards the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
says : " Now see how it fareth with this miserable 
church, marked out by God ; w T ho, being reduced to 
a very inconsiderable number, live by the sweat of 
their brows in digging and planting the gardens 
of the Turks they live amongst and serve ; having 
neither church nor priest among them. Nor are the 
Turks themselves there very considerable, either for 
number or riches; being only herdsmen to cattle 
feeding on those spacious plains ; dwelling in a few 
pitiful earthen huts; having one mosque, perverted 
to that use from a Christian church. Thus is that 
once glorious city of the rich king Croesus now 
reduced to a nest of worse than beggars. Their 
Pactolus hath long since ceased to yield them gold,""" 
and the treasures to recover them their dying glories. 
Yet there are some remains of noble structures, re- 
membrances of their prosperous state, long since 
destroyed. For there are the remains of an old 
castle, of a great church, palaces, and other proud 
buildings, humbled to the earth." 

Several inscriptions have been found here ; and, 
amongst these, one recording the good will of the 
council and senate of Sardis towards the emperor 
Antoninus Pius. Medals, too, have been found ; 

* The Pactolus flowed through the centre of the Forum at Sardis, 
and brought, in its descent from Tmolus, a quantity of gold dust. 
Hence the vast riches of Croesus. It ceased to do this in the age 
of Augustus. 


amongst which, two very rare ones; viz. one of the 
Empress Tranquillina, and another of Caracalla, with 
an urn on the reverse, containing a branch of olives; 
under which is an inscription, which translated, 
is, " The sport Chysanthina of the Sardians twice 
Nercorus." Another, stamped by the common as- 
sembly of Asia there, in honour of Drusus and Ger- 
manicus. Also one with the Emperor Commodus, 
seated in the midst of a zodiac, with celestial signs 
engraved on it : on the reverse, " Sardis, the first 
metropolis of Asia, Greece, Audia."* 


THERE were no less than thirteen cities, which 
were called Seleucia, and which received their name 
from Seleucus Nicanor. These were situated in Syria, 
in Cilicia, and near the Euphrates. 

" It must be acknowledged," says Dr. Prideaux, 
" that there is mention made of Babylon, as of a city 
standing long after the time I have placed its disso- 
lution, as in Lucan t, Philostratus J, and others. But 
in all those authors, and wherever also we find Ba- 
bylon mentioned as a city in being, after the time of 
Seleucus Nicauor, it must be understood, not of old 
Babylon, on the Euphrates, but of Seleucia, on the 
Tigris. For as that succeeded to the dignity and 
grandeur of old Babylon, so also did it in its 

" Since the days of Alexander," says Sir R. Porter, 
"we find four capitals, at least, built out of the remains 
of Babylon ; Seleucia by the Greeks ; Ctesiphon by 
the Parthians ; Al Maidan by the Persians ; Kufa by 
the Caliphs ; with towns, villages, and caravanserais, 
without number. That the fragments of one city 

* Herodotus ; Pindar ; Polyaenus ; Plutarch ; Arrian ; Quintus 
Curtius; Rollin ; Wheler; Chandler; Peysonell. 

f Lib. i. v. 10. J Lib. i. e. 17, 18, 19. 


should travel so far, to build or repair the breaches 
of another, appeared, on the first view of the subject, 
to be unlikely to myself; but, on traversing the 
country between the approximating shores of the 
two rivers, and observing all the facilities of water- 
carriage from one side to the other, I could no longer 
be incredulous of what had been told me ; particu- 
larly when scarce a day passed without my seeing 
people digging the mounds of Babylon for bricks, 
which they carried to the verge of the Euphrates, 
and thence conveyed in boats to wherever they 
might be wanted." 

Seleucus built many cities ; of which far the 
greater part was raised from superstitious motives; 
many were peopled from the ruins of places in 
their neighbourhood, whose sites were equally conve- 
nient ; and only a very few were erected in conformity 
with those great military and commercial views, by 
which, in this particular, his master (Alexander) 
had uniformly been guided. He named nine after 
himself; and four in honour of four of his wives; 
three Apameas ; and one Stratonice ; in all thirty- 
five. Sixteen were named Antioch ; five Laodicea, 
after his mother. Many foundations were laid of 
other cities. Some, after favourite scenes in Greece 
or Macedon ; some in memory of glorious exploits ; 
and not a few after his master Alexander. . 

This Seleucia was built of the ruins of Babylon ; 
and Pliny, the naturalist, gives the following account : 
" Seleucia was built by Seleucus Nicanor, forty 
miles from Babylon, at a point of the confluence of 
the Euphrates with the Tigris, by a canal. There 
were 600,000 citizens here at one time ; and all the 
commerce and wealth of Babylon had flowed into it. 
The territory in which it stood was called Baby- 
lonia ; but it was itself a free state, and the people 
lived after the laws and manners of the Macedonians. 


The form of the walls resembled an eagle spreading 
her wings." 

In a country, destitute of wood and stone, whose 
edifices were hastily erected with bricks baked 
in the sun, and cemented with the native bitumen, 
Seleucia speedily eclipsed the ancient capital of the 

Many ages after the fall of the Macedonian em- 
pire, Seleucia retained the genuine character of a 
Greek colony ; arts, military virtue, and a love of 
freedom : and while the republic remained inde- 
pendent, it was governed by a senate consisting of 
three hundred nobles. The walls were strong ; and 
as long as concord prevailed among the several orders 
of the state, the power of the Parthians was regarded 
with indifference, if not with contempt. The mad- 
ness of faction, however, was sometimes so great, 
that the common enemy was occasionally implored ; 
and the Parthians * were, in consequence, beheld 
at the gates, to assist sometimes one party, and 
sometimes the other. Ctesiphon was then but a 
village t, on the opposite side of the Tigris, in which 

* Most authors agree that the Parthians were Scythians by 
origin, who made an invasion on the more southern provinces of 
Asia, and at last fixed their residence near Hyrcania. They re- 
mained long unnoticed, and even unknown, and became successively 
tributary to the empire of the Assyrians, then of the Medes, and 
thirdly, of Persia. 

When Alexander invaded Persia, the Parthians submitted to his 
authority, like other cities of Asia. After his death, they fell suc- 
cessively under the power of Eumenes, Antigonus, Seleucus Ni- 
canor, and Antiochus. At length, in consequence of the rapacity 
of Antiochus's lieutenant, whose name was Agathocles, Arsaces, a 
man of great military powers, raised a revolt, and subsequently 
founded the Parthian empire, about two hundred and fifty years 
before the Christian era. Arsaces' successors were called, after 
him, the Arsacidse. 

f For the precise situation of Seleucia, Ctesipbon, Modain, and 
Bagdad, cities often confounded with each other, see an excellent 


the Parthian kings were accustomed to reside during 
the winter, on account of the mildness of the climate. 
The summer they passed at Ecbatana. 

Trajan left Rome A. D. 112. and after subduing 
several cities in the East, laid siege to Seleucia and 
Ctesiphon. Chosroes, the king, being absent quelling 
a revolt in some part of his more eastern dominions, 
these cities soon surrendered to the Roman hero, and 
all the neighbouring country. " The degenerate 
Parthians," says the Roman historian, " broken by 
internal discord, fled before his arms. He descended 
the Tigris in triumph from the mountains of Armenia 
to the Persian gulf. He enjoyed the honour of 
being the first, as he was the last, of the Roman 
generals who ever navigated that remote sea." At 
his death, which occurred soon after his return to 
Rome, most of the cities of Asia, that he had con- 
quered, threw off the Roman yoke ; and among these 
were Seleucia and Ctesiphon. 

Under the reign of Marcus, A. D. 165, the Roman 
generals penetrated as far as these celebrated cities. 
They were received as friends by the Greek colony ; 
they attacked, as enemies, the seat of the Parthian 
kings ; and yet both experienced the same treatment. 
Seleucia was sacked by the friends they had invited 
though it has been alleged in their favour, that the 
citizens of Seleucia had first violated their faith. 

More than 300,000 of the inhabitants were put to 
the sword ; and the city itself nearly destroyed by 

Seleucia never recovered this blow : but Ctesiphon, 
in about thirty-three years, had sufficiently recovered 
its strength to maintain an obstinate siege against the 
emperor Severus. It was at last, nevertheless, taken 
by assault ; and the king, who defended it in person, 

geographical map of M, d'Anville, in Mem. de 1' Academic, torn. 


escaped with precipitation. The Romans netted a 
rich booty, and took captive 100,000 persons*. 

" Below Bagdad," says a celebrated French writer, 
on geography, (Malte-Brun), " the ruins of Al- 
Modain, or the two cities, have attracted the atten- 
tion of every traveller. One of them is unquestion- 
ably the ancient Ctesiphon; but the other, which 
lies on the western bank of the Tigris, is not Seleucia, 
as all the travellers affirmt : it is Kochos, a fortress 
situated opposite to Seleucia, and which, according to 
the positive testimony of Arrian and Gregory of 
Nazianzus, was different from Seleuciaj." In this 
account Malte-Brun appears to us to be exceedingly 
mistaken . 

Of the ruins of SELEUCIA, near ANTIOCH, Mr. 
Robinson speaks thus : " Being desirous of visiting 
the ruins of the ancient Seleucia Pieriaj, I rode over to 
the village of Kcpse, occupying the site of the ancient 
city. We were apprised of our approach to it, by 
seeing a number of sepulchral grots excavated in 
the rock by the road-side, at present tenanted by 
shepherds and their flocks. Some were arched like 
those I had seen at Delphi ; others were larger, witb 
apartments, one within the other. We entered the 
inclosure of the ancient city by the gate at the south- 
east side ; probably the one that led to Antioch. It 
is defended by round towers, at present in ruins. Of 
the magnificent temples and buildings mentioned 
by Polybius, some remains of pillars are alone stand- 
ing to gratify the curiosity of the antiquarian tra- 

* Dion, 1. Ixxv. p. 1263 ; Hcrodian, 1. iii. 120 ; Gibbon, vol. 
i. 335. 

f Pietro della Valle, Olivier, Otter, &c. 

J Pliny ; Prideaux ; Gibbon ; Gillies ; Rees; Brewster; Malte- 
Brun ; Porter ; Robinson. 

Vid. Mannert, Geographic des Grecs et des Remains, t. T, 
p. i. p. 397, 403, &o. 


veller. But recollecting, as I sat alone on a stone seat 
at the jetty head, that it was from hence Paul and 
Barnabas, the harbingers of Christianity to the West, 
when sent forth from the church at Antioch, em- 
barked for Cyprus ; the place all at once assumed an 
interest that heathen relics were little calculated to 
inspire. It came opportunely, also, for I felt particu- 
larly depressed at the sight of a large maritime city, 
once echoing with the voices of thousands, now with- 
out an inhabitant ; a port formerly containing rich 
laden galleys, at present choked up with reeds ; and 
finally, a quay, on which for centuries anxious mari- 
ners paced up and down throughout the day, at this 
moment without a living creature moving on its 
weather-beaten surface but myself." 


THIS city was founded A. u. c. 127, by a colony 
from Megara. It received its name from a Greek 
word meaning parsley, which grew there in great 
profusion ; and its ancient consequence may be 
learned from the ruins now remaining. It was 
destroyed by Hannibal. The conduct of the war 
having been committed to that general, he set sail 
with a very large fleet and army. He landed at a 
place called the Well of Lilybamm, which gave its 
name to a city afterwards built on the same spot. 

His first enterprise was the siege of Selinuntum. 
The attack and defence were equally vigorous ; the 
very women showing a resolution and bravery be- 
yond their sex. The city, after making a long 
resistance, was taken by storm, and the plunder of it 
abandoned to the soldiers. The victor exercised the 
most horrid cruelties, without showing the least 
regard td age or sex. He permitted, however, such 
inhabitants as had fled to continue in the city after it 
had been dismantled, and to till the lands, on con- 


dition of their paying a tribute to the Carthagi- 
nians. The city had then been bnilt 242 years. 
It became afterwards an important place ; but from 
the manner in which the columns and other fragments 
of three stupendous temples lie, it is quite evident 
they must have been thrown down by an earthquake; 
but the date of that calamity is not known. 

The ruins of Selinus are thus described by Mr. Swin- 
burne : "They lie in several stupendous heaps, with 
many columns still erect, and at a distance resemble 
a large town with a crowd" of steeples. On the top 
of the hill is a very extensive level, seven miles off, 
on which lie the scattered members of three Doric 
temples, thirty yards asunder, in a direct line from 
north to south. The most northerly temple, which 
was pseudodipterous, exceeded the others very much 
in dimensions and majesty, and now composes one 
of the most gigantic and sublime ruins imaginable. 
They all lie in great confusion and disorder." 

The second temple is easily described. It had six 
columns in the front, and eleven on each side ; in 
all thirty-four. Their diameter is five feet; they 
were all fluted ; and most of them now remain 
standing as high as the second course of stones. The 
pillars of the third temple were also fluted, and have 
fallen down so very entire, that the five pieces which 
composed them lie almost close to each other, in the 
order they were placed in when upright. These 
temples are all of the Doric order, without a base. 

The two lesser ones are more delicate in their parts 
and ornaments than the principal ruins ; the stone of 
which they are composed is smooth and yellowish, and 
brought from the quarries of Castel- Franco. There 
are other ruins and broken columns dispersed over 
the site of the city, but none equal to these." Such 
is the account given by Mr. Swinburne ; what follows 
first appeared in the Penny Magazine. 


On the southern coast of Sicily, about ten miles 
to the east of Cape Granitola, and between the little 
rivers of Maduini and Bilici, (the Crimisus and Hypsa 
of ancient times,) a tremendous mass of ruins pre- 
sents itself in the midst of a solitary and desolate 
country. These are the sad remains of the once splen- 
did city of Selinus, or Selinuntum, which was founded 
by a Greek colony from Megara, more than two thou- 
sand four hundred years ago. When seen at a distance 
from the sea, they still look like a mighty city ; but 
on a near approach nothing is seen but a confused 
heap of fallen edifices a mixture of broken shafts, 
capitals, entablatures, and metopas, with a few trun- 
cated columns erect among them. They seem to 
consist chiefly of the remains of three temples of the 
Doric order. One of these temples was naturally 
devoted by a maritime and trading people to Neptune ; 
a second was dedicated to Castor and Pollux, the 
friends of navigation and the scourge of pirates : the 
destination of the third temple is uncertain. 

The size of the columns and the masses of stone that 
lie heaped about them is prodigious. The lower cir- 
cumference of the columns is thirty-one feet and a half; 
many of the stone blocks measure twenty- five feet in 
length, eight in height, and six in thickness. Twelve 
of the columns have fallen with singular regularity, the 
disjointed shaft-pieces of each lying in a straight line 
with the base from which they fell, and having their 
several capitals at the other end of the line. If archi-j 
tects and antiquaries have not been mistaken in their 
task of measuring among heaps of ruins that in good 
part cover and conceal the exterior lines, the largest 
of the three temples was three hundred and thirty- 
four feet long, and one hundred and fifty-four feet 

These are prodigious and unusual dimensions for 
ancient edifices of this kind. That wonder of the 


whole world, the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, itself 
did not much exceed these admeasurements. The 
great Selinuntian temple seems to have had porticoes 
of four columns in depth, and eight in width, with a 
double row of sixteen columns on the lateral sides of 
the cella. It is somewhat singular, from having had 
all the columns of the first row on the east front flu- 
ted, while all the rest of the columns were quite plain. 
One of these fluted columns is erect and tolerably en- 
tire, with the exception of its capital. The fluting, 
moreover, is not in the Doric style ; for each flute is 
separated by a fillet. The material of which this and 
the other edifices were formed, is a species of fine- 
grained petrifaction, hard, and very sonorous on being 
struck with a hammer. It was hewn out of quarries 
near at hand, at a place called Campo Bello, where 
many masses, only partially separated from the rock, 
and looking as if the excavation had been suddenly 
interrupted, are still seen. 

A flight of ancient steps, in tolerable preservation, 
leads from the Marinella to the Acropolis, where the 
covert- ways, gates, and walls, built of large squared 
stones, may still be traced all round the hill. A lit- 
tle to the west of the Acropolis is the small pestiferous 
lake, Yhalici, partly choked up with sand. In an- 
cient times this was called Staynum Gonusa, and it is 
said the great philosopher Empedocles purified it and 
made the air around it wholesome, by clearing a mouth 
towards the sea, and conveying a good stream of water 
through it. The Fountain of Diana, at a short dis- 
tance, which supplied this stream, still pours forth a 
copious volume of excellent water ; but it is allowed 
to run and stagnate over the plain, and now adds to 
the malaria created by the stagnant lake. The 
surrounding country is wholly uncultivated, and, 
where not a morass, is covered with underwood, dwarf 
palms, and myrtle-bushes of a prodigious growth. 


For six months in the year, Selinunte is a most un- 
healthy place ; and though the stranger may visit it 
by day-time without much danger of catching the 
infection, it seems scarcely possible to sleep there in 
summer and escape the malaria fever in one of its 
worst forms. Of four English artists who tried the 
experiment in 1822, not one escaped; and Mr. Har- 
ris, a young architect of great promise, died in Sicily 
from the consequences. These gentlemen made a dis- 
covery of some importance. They dug up near ono 
of the temples some sculptured metopae with figures 
in rilievo, of a singular primitive style, which seems 
to have more affinity with the Egyptian or the Etrus- 
can, than with the Greek style of a later age. There 
are probably few Greek fragments of so ancient a 
date in so perfect a state of preservation. 

The government claimed these treasures, and caused 
them to be transported to Palermo ; bt Mr. Samuel 
Angel, an architect, and one of the party, took casts 
from them, which may now be seen at the Britisli 
Museum ; and of which we present the reader with 
an account, drawn up, we believe, by a gentleman 
named Hamilton. " Within a temporary building 
opening from the fifth room, are the casts from 
the marble metopee of the great temple of Jupiter 
Olympius, at Selinus, in Sicily. Valuable as they 
are, as belonging to a school of art prior to that 
of Jg\na,, and probably of a date coeval with the 
earliest Egyptian, a short notice of them may not 
be unacceptable, as no account of them is to be 
found in the Synopsis, although to the public in general 
subjects of great curiosity and inquiry. The le- 
gend which they tell and their appearance, are alto- 
gether as unaccountable as mysterious. At Selinus, 
in Sicily, there are the remains of six temples of the 
earliest Doric, within a short distance of each other, 
aud it was during the researches into the ruins of the 


largest, called the Western, and the one farthest from 
it, named the Eastern, by Messrs. Harris and Augell, 
in 1 83^, that these ancient sculptures were found : 
among them there were no single and perfect statues 
as in the temple of ^Egina, which probably arose 
from the neighbourhood being well peopled, and they 
had no doubt been repeatedly ransacked. These tem- 
ples may be reckoned among the largest of antiquity, 
being equal in their dimensions to those at Agrigen- 
tum, in the fluting of whose columns there is suffici- 
ent space for a man to stand. Immediately after the 
discovery, application was made to the Neapolitan 
Government to allow them to be shipped for England ; 
but permission was refused, and they are now in the 
Royal Gallery at Palermo. Casts were, however, 
allowed to be taken, and they are these we now 

" They are probably of as early a date as any that 
have reached our times, and are of different styles of 
art ; those which belonged to the temple called East- 
ern, whence the sculpture of the head of the dying" 
warrior, and the chariot drawn by horses, were taken, 
possess much of the ^ginitan character, ; those of 
the Western are of a ruder age. In most of the figures 
the anatomy resembles that of the earliest coins, but 
differs in many respects from the Greek sculptures ; 
and there is a short and full character in the faces ap- 
proaching the Egyptian. From the short proportions, 
the fleshy part of the thigh overcharged, and the pecu- 
liar manner in which the hair is arranged, the^- might 
be taken for specimens of J2ginitan art ; but on a 
close inspection it will be found, that they are the 
work of artists educated on different principles. At 
a much later period it is known that the artists of 
jEgina were employed by the kings of Sicily ; and 
these, therefore, are not unlikely to have been the 
work of Carthaginian sculptors brought to decorate 



a city in alliance and newly founded, which will ac- 
count for the Egyptian character given to the whole. 
" The cast, which consists of the body and head of a 
dying soldier, a part of a female figure behind, formed 
the third metope of the Eastern Temple, and is a most 
valuable and curious fragment, and determines the 
style and character of the sculpture of the temple. 
It bears a marked resemblance to some of the heads 
in the vEgina marbles, but it has much more expres- 
sion ; the artist has evidently intended to mark the 
agonies of death, by the closed eyes, the mouth 
slightly opened,- and the tongue appearing between 
the teeth ; the hair and beard are most carefully and 
symmetrically arranged and most elaborately finished; 
the helmet is thrown back, and is of the kind called 
' yfitrov ' part of the crest ' Xo'$os ' is visible under 
the left shoulder of the figure. The fragment of the 
female is very spirited, and evidently in strong action. 
Those metopes, like those of the Parthenon, are in 
high relief, and in some parts detached. Thorwald- 
sen has pronounced them equal in execution to the 
.^Egina. The next, which consists of three figures, 
one of which has a horse under the arm, is particu- 
larly interesting, from the illustration it presents of 
the death of the Gorgon Medusa. Perseus, embold- 
ened by the presence of Minerva, is represented in 
the act of slaying Medusa ; his eyes are averted from 
the object of his honour, while his right arm, guided 
by the goddess, thrusts his sword into the throat of 
the monster. Pegasus, a winged foal, springs from 
her blood, and Medusa presses him to her side with 
apparent solicitude. The monstrous face of the 
Gorgon is finely represented ; the large round head 
and hideous face rise from the shoulders without the 
intervention of a neck ; all the features are fright- 
fully distorted, the nose is flat and spreading, and 
the mouth is nearly the whole width of the face, and 


is armed on each side with two immense tusks ; the 
hair over the forehead is curiously shown, and al- 
most appears to have represented the serpents to 
which it was changed. The figure of Minerva on 
the right is draped with the ' n-VAoi/,' and has the 
Mteander ornament on the edge. The figure of 
Perseus is in the centre ; he is armed with the 
harp of Mercury and the helmet of Pluto, which 
latter has a pendant falling on each side; th 
' TTTTJVCL Tre'StXa,' or talaria, are represented as cover- 
ing the feet entirely, and bear some resemblance 
to the ancient greaves; the front part is attached to 
the ancle by thongs. The form of the young Pegasus 
is exceedingly beautiful; he seems bounding from the 
earth. The metope, containing the figure bearing 
.two others on its shoulders, represents the adventure 
of Hercules, surnamed Melampyges, from the black 
and hairy appearance of his loins. The story is as 
follows: Passalus and Achemon, two brothers, 
reviled their mother, who warned them to beware of 
a man whose loins were covered with black hair. 
They attempted to rob Hercules while asleep, and 
from that had the name of Cercopes; in the attempt 
they failed and awoke him, and he bound them hand 
and foot to his bow, with their heads downwards, 
and carried them in that manner. They began laugh- 
ing on the accomplishment of their mother's prophecy; 
Hercules asked them why they laughed, and on their 
telling him the reason, he also laughed and liberated 
them. The figure of the god is represented as strong 
and muscular, and the two prisoners have a very 
ludicrous appearance; in the reversed position, the 
hair falls in a curious manner; the whole group lias 
been painted in various colours, and in the counte- 
nances much of Egyptian expression is to be observed. 
The horses which draw the chariot formed part of 
the centre metope of the Eastern Temple ; it is very 
z 2 


imperfect, and is supposed to represent the celebration 
of the race of Pelops and CEnomaus; they are drawn 
full of fire and courage, and are finely fore- shortened ; 
they have the cropped ears and manes which are 
observable in those of the Parthenon. 

" These sculptures are valuable as specimens of 
the third period of the art, the earliest of which is 
probably the Hindoo; the great resemblance both 
these and the Egyptian bear to that style is remark- 
able, and gives warrant to suppose that it was the 
original school. Of Hebrew sculpture there are no 
remains ; the command to form no graven images pre- 
vented theart attaining the perfection which it reached 
in the neighbouring country of Syria, and would seem 
to confirm the account, that within the land of 
Judea no statue bearing marks of great antiquity has- 
been discovered. The Egyptian, the Etruscan, the 
Selinuntine, and the JEgina, schools, furnished the 
models for the Grecian ; and the careful observer has 
it in his power, within the walls of the Museum, to 
trace, step by step, the progress of the art ; till it 
attained its meridian splendour in the production of 
those sculptures, whose dilapidated remains are there 
preserved, and which the accumulated knowledge, 
genius, labour, and talent of two thousand five hun- 
dred years has never yet been able to surpass*." 

* The following observations are by the same hand. They may 
be taken as a supplement to our article entitled ./EGINA : "In the 
Phigalian room of the British Museum, against the southern wall, 
a pediment has recently been erected, corresponding with that 
opposite, which contains eleven of the casts from the jEgina statues. 
On this are placed five more, which were brought from the ruin* 
of the same temple of Jupiter Panhelleneus, in the island of ./Egina. 
These five statues were all that were found belonging to the eastern 
front" sufficiently in a state of preservation to assure of their original 
destination and design ; and it is the more to be lamented, as that 
was the principal facade of the edifice, and contained the great 
entrance into the soros of the temple. This front was by far the 
most magnificent in its deorations ; the esplanade before it extend- 


The neighbouring country is interesting, as having 
been the scene of many of the memorable events 

ing one hundred, while that of the western was but fifty feet ; the 
statues also on this tympanum were more numerous, there being 
originally on this fourteen figures, and but eleven on the other; 
they are also both in style and sculpture far superior, and appear 
as the work of the master, the others, in comparison, as those of the 
scholars. The superiority of conception and manner is apparent, the 
forms are more muscular and robust, the veins and muscles more 
displayed, an imitation of a maturer nature. At the first opening 
of the ruins twenty-five statues were discovered, besides the four 
female figures belonging to the Acroteria. To the artist the canon 
of proportion and the system of anatomical expression observable 
throughout the whole may be regarded as the models whence was 
derived that still bolder style of conception which afterwards dis- 
tinguished the sculptors and made the perfection of the Athenian 
school; what the works of Ghulandia were to Raphael, these were 
to Phidias. The surprise of the common observer may be excited 
when he contemplates these figures, however disadvantageous the 
circumstances under which he views them. Perhaps he cannot call 
to mind in the capital of his country, however civilisation and the 
arts may have advanced, any sculptures of the nineteenth century 
which appear equally imposing; the more so, when he reflects that 
the history of their origin is buried in the darkness of two thousand 
four hundred years. Long after this period Lysippus held as a 
principal of the ideal which has in later times been too generally 
followed, to make men as they seem to be, not as they really are. 
In this group there is not, as seen in the opposite one, any figure 
immediately under the centre of the tympanum ; that of Minerva, 
which was found, and which, no doubt, had occupied it, being 
thought too much broken to be placed. The one nearest is the 
figure of a warrior, who appears as having fallen wounded to the 
ground. He is supporting himself on the right arm, endeavouring 
to rise. The hand no doubt held a sword, as the rivets of bronze 
still remaining indicate. On the left arm is a shield held close to 
the body, the hand enclasping the rf\a/j.c&v, or holder. The coun- 
tenance, contrary to the one in a similar position on the opposite 
pediment, seems calmly to regard, and to mark the moment to 
resist with any chance of success an advancing adversary, who 
is rushing forward to seize his spoils. Whether this statue ia 
rightly placed we think will admit of doubt. The figure rushing 
forward could not have inflicted the wound by which he has 
been disabled, and it seems more probable that an arrow, which 
:m archer at the extreme of the pediment has just discharged, 
has been the cause of his wound, and that it should, instead of 


recorded by the ancient historians. A few miles to 
the west of the ruins, on the banks of a little river, 

being on the ground, have been placed as if in the act of fall- 
ing. In the attitude of the attacking warrior, a desire is shown 
to give the greatest interest to the action ; the position of the 
right leg seems calculated to give movement to the figure as 
seen from below ; behind the fallen an unarmed figure is stooping 
forward, apparently to raise him ; but this statue would seem 
rather to belong to the other pediment, where a hollow is found 
in the pedestal on which the Goddess Minerva stands, which appears 
to have been made to allow room for its advance. Among the 
statues found, but broken, was one which stood nearly over the 
body of the wounded hero, to defend him against the advancing 
enemy before mentioned. Near the archer is another combatant 
on the ground ; the countenance of this figure is aged, the beard 
most minutely sculptured ; it is of a square form, and descends to 
the breast ; on the lip are long mustachios. It is by far the most 
aged of either group, and appears to be a chief of consequence ; he 
is raising himself on his shield ; the expression of the face is very 
fine, it has a smile on it, though evidently in pain. The archer is 
:i Phrygian, and his body is protected by leathern armour ; as he 
has no shield allowed, he is holding the bow, which is small and of 
the Indian shape, in the left hand, with the arm outstretched ; the 
bow-string has been drawn to the ear, the arrow seems just to have- 
sped, and the exultation of the countenance shows it has taken 
effect. Three of these figures have that sort of helmet which de- 
fends the face by a guard descending over the nose, and the back 
by the length of the A.o'ipos, or crest, or horsehair, crista ; the shields 
are massy and large, they are the Argive aairls IWu/cAos, circular 
shields, and the handles are nicely framed. The inside of all of 
them were painted in red colour, and within a circle of the exterior 
a blue colour was seen, on which was pictured, without doubt, the 
symbol adopted by the hero ; for on a fragment of one of those be- 
longing to this front was in relief a part of a female figure. The 
remaining figures belonging to this tympanum, the fragments of 
which were found, were principally archers. 

" These statues offer the only illustration now extant of the 
armour of the heroic ages. The bodies of all the figures of this pedi- 
ment, with the exception of the archer who is encased in leathern 
armour, are uncovered. The great minuteness of execution in 
the details corresponds with the exactness which .flSschylus, 
Homer, and the earlier writers of the heroic age have preserved iu 
their descriptions ; in the whole of these statues this is observable 
in every tie and fastening. It would appear that the whole had un- 


that now, unless when swelled by the winter torrents, 
creeps gently into the sea, was fought, amidst thun- 
der, lightning, and rain, one of the most celebrated 
battles of ancient times, in which the " Immortal 
Timoleon," the liberator of Corinth, and the saviour 
of Syracuse, gained a glorious victory over the 
Carthaginian invaders. The events are preserved 
in popular traditions ; and the names of Mago, 
Hamilcar, Hannibal, Agathocles, Dionysius, and 
Timoleon, are common in the mouths of the country 
people, though not unfrequently confused with one 
another, and subjected to the same laughable muti- 
lation as the name of Castor and Selinute*. 

dergone the strictest scrutiny ; as, in each, those parts which, from 
their position on the building, could not have been seen, are found 
equally exact : in every particular they arc the same as those which 
are traced on the vases of the most Archaic style, where they are 
delineated in black on a red ground, as is seen in the Museum col- 
lection. The two female figures on the apex of the pediment are 
clothed ; the drapery falls in thick folds around the figjjre"; in their 
hands they hold the pomegranate flower ; the feet are on a small 
plinth ; they are the "EAwi'j of the Greeks, the Goddess of Hope, 
so well known in museums and on coins, and their situation here 
is peculiarly appropriate, as presiding over an undecided combat. It 
does not appear that any of the figures on either pediment had any 
support to fix them in position but the cornice where they came in 
contact with it ; they must all have been easily removable ; and 
perhaps it may not be unreasonable to suppose, that on particular 
festivals they were so disposed as to represent the actions then in 
celebration, to recall to the imagination of the votaries the reason 
for those sacrifices then offered to the god who presided over the 
temple. This would account why almost all the celebrated groups of 
antiquity, which have decorated the facades of their sacred edifices, 
among which may be reckoned those of the Parthenon, the Sicilian 
Adrimetum, and the JEgina, are so completely finished, and shows 
how what would otherwise seem a waste both of talent and labour, 
was brought to account." 

* Livy ; Rollin ; Swinburne; Parker; Knight; Hamilton. 



THE most ancient kingdom of Greece was that of 
Sicyon, the beginning of which is placed by Euse- 
bius 1313 years before the first Olympiad. Its du- 
ration is believed to have been about a thousand 
years ; during which period it is said to have had a 
succession of kings, whose reigns were so equitable that 
nothing of importance is recorded of them. It sent, 
however, 3000 troops to the battle of Platea, and fifteen 
ships to that of Salamis. It is now only a village. 

Of these monarchs the most remarkable was 
Sicyon, who is supposed to have built, though some 
gay he only enlarged, the metropolis of his kingdom, 
and to have called it by his own name. 

It became very powerful in the time of the 
Achaian league, which it joined, at the persuasion of 
Aratus, A. c. ^b\. It was destroyed by Demetrius, 
son of Antigonus, who afterwards rebuilt it, and 
endeavoured to impose upon it the name of Deme- 
trius ; but it soon sunk under its ancient and more 
memorable appellation. 

Sicyon was in great reputation for the arts, and 
painting in particular ; the true taste for which was 
preserved there in all its ancient purity. It is even 
said, that Apelles, who was then admired by all the 
world, had been at Sicyon, where he frequented the 
schools of two painters, to whom he gave a talent ; 
not for acquiring a perfection of the art from them, 
but in order to obtain a share in their great reputa- 
tion. When Aratus had reinstated his city in its 
former liberties, he destroyed all the pictures of the 
tyrants ; but when he came to that of Aristratus, 
who reigned in the time of Philip, and whom the 
painter had represented in the attitude of standing 
in a triumphant chariot, he hesitated a long time 


whether he should deface it or not ; for all the capital 
disciples of Melanthus had contributed to the com- 
pletion of that piece ; and it had even been touched 
by the pencil of Apelles. This work was so inimi- 
table in its kind, that Aratus was enchanted with its 
beauties ; but his aversion to tyrants prevailed over 
liis admiration of the picture, and he accordingly 
ordered it to be destroyed. 

In the time of Pausanias, Sicyon was destroyed 
by an earthquake. It was, nevertheless, not long 
after, not only one of the noblest cities of Greece, on 
account of its magnificent edifices, many of which 
were built of marble, and ingenious workmen, but it 
was a distinguished place when the Venetians were 
masters of the Morea. The period, however, when 
it fell from that eminence is unknown". 

Sicyon* was the school of the most celebrated 
artists of antiquity, and Was sumptuously decorated 
with temples and statues. Pausanias enumerates 
seventeen temples, a stadium, a theatre, two gym- 
nasia, an agora, a senate- house, and a temenos for 
the Roman emperors, with many altars, monuments, 
and numerous statues of ivory and gold, of marble, 
of bronze, and of wood. 

Its present condition, in respect to population, may 
be, in a great measure, attributed to its having, about 
twenty years before Sir George "Wheler visited it, 
been afflicted by the plague. " This final destruc- 
tion," said one of the inhabitants, " is a judgment of 
God upon the Turks for turning one of the Christian 
churches into a mosque. The Vaywode fell down 
dead upon the place, the first time he caused the Koran 
to be read in it. This was followed by a plague, which, 
in a short time, utterly destroyed the whole town ; 
and it could never afterwards be repeopled." 

So little is known t concerning this ancient seat of 
* Dodwell. f Clarke. 


Grecian power, that it is not possible to ascertain in 
what period it dwindled from its pre-eminence to 
become, what it is now, one of the most wretched 
villages of the Peloponnesus. The remains of its 
former magnificence are, however, still considerable, 
and in some instances they exist in such a state of 
preservation, that it is evident the buildings of the 
city either survived the earthquakes said to have over- 
whelmed them, or they must have been constructed 
at some later period. 

" The ruins of Sicyon," says Mr. Dodwell, " still 
retain some vestiges of ancient magnificence. Among 
these a fine theatre, situate at the north-east foot of 
the Acropolis ; having seats in a perfect state. Near 
it are some large masses of Roman brick walls, and 
the remains of the gymnasium, supported by strong 
walls of polygonal construction. There are several 
dilapidated churches which, composed of ancient frag- 
ments, are supposed to occupy the site of the temples. 
Several fragments of the Doric order are observable 
among them ; also several inscriptions." 

" In respect to the temple of Bacchus," says Dr. 
Clarke, " we can be at no loss for its name, although 
nothing but the ground-plot now remains. It is dis- 
tinctly stated by Pausanias to have been the temple 
of Bacchus, which was placed beyond the theatre to a 
person coming from the citadel, and to this temple 
were made those annual processions which took 
place at night, and by the light of the torches, when 
the Sicyonians brought hither the mystic images, called 
Bacchus and Lysius, chanting their ancient hymns." 
The theatre is almost in its entire state; and al- 
though the notes were made upon the spot, did not 
enable Dr. Clarke to afford a description of its form 
and dimensions equally copious Avith that already given 
of the famous theatre of Polycletus in Eidausia ; yet 
this of Sicyon may be considered as surpassing every 


other in Greece, in the harmony of its proportions, 
the costliness of the workmanship, the grandeur of 
the coilon, and the stupendous nature of the prospect 
presented to all those who were seated upon its 
benches. If it were cleared of the rubbish about it, 
and laid open to view, it would afford an astonishing 
idea of the magnificence of a city, whose treasures 
were so great, that its inhabitants ranked amongst 
the most voluptuous and effeminate people of all 
Greece. The stone-work is entirely of that massive 
kind, which denotes a very high degree of antiquity. 
The stadium* is on the right hand of a person 
facing the theatre, and it is undoubtedly the oldest 
work remaining of all that belonged to the ancient 
city. The walls exactly resemble those of Mycenae 
and Tiryns ; we may, therefore, class it among the 
examples of the Cyclopean masonry. It is, in other 
respects, the most remarkable structure of the kind 
existing : combining at once a natural and artificial 

O ' O 

character. The persons by whom it was formed, 
finding that the mountain whereon the coilon of the 
theatre has been constructed, would not allow a suf- 
ficient space for another oblong cavea of the length 
requisite to complete a stadium, built upon an artifi- 
cial rampart reaching out into the plain, from the 
mountain toward the sea ; so that this front- work 
resembles half a stadium thrust into the semi-circular 
cavity of a theatre ; the entrance to the area, included 
between both, being formed with great taste and 
effect at the two sides or extremities of the semi- 
circle. The ancient masonry appears in the front- 
work so placed. The length of the whole area equals 
two hundred and sixty-seven paces ; the width of 
the advanced bastion thirty-six paces ; and its height 
twenty -two feet six inches. 

* A stadium was a place in the form of a circus, for the running 
of men and horses. 


Besides these there are some few other antiquities, 
but of too minute a kind to merit description. 

Even her ruins* speak less emphatically of the 
melancholy fate of Greece than her extensive soli- 
tudes. Oppression has degraded her children, and 
broken her spirit. Hence those prodigious plains, 
which God hath given for their good, are neglected ; 
hence, too, the beauteous seas are without a sail ; the 
lands of ancient Sicyon so thinly peopled ! 

'Tis Greece, but living Greece no more ! 

So coldly sweet, so deadly fair, 

We start for soul is wanting there ! 

Hers is the loveliness in death, 

That parts not quite with parting breath ; 

But beauty with that fearful bloom, 

That hue which haunts it to the tomb 

Expression's last receding ray, 

A gilded halo, hovering round decay, 

The farewell beam of feeling past away ; 

Spark of that flame, perchance of heavenly birth, 

Which gleams, but warms no more its cherished earth ! f 


PHOENICIA comprised Sidon, Tyre, Ptolemais, and 
Berytus. Its mountains were Libanus and Anti- 
Libanus. Its most ancient city was Sidon ; which 
was an opulent city even at so early a period as that 
in which the Greeks are said to have lived upon 
acorns. It is situated on the shores of the Medi- 
terranean, at a distance of about twenty miles from 
Tyre, and fifty from Damascus. 

Sidon is supposed to have been built by Canaan's 
first- born, whose name was Sidon:}:. It is,- therefore, 
celebrated as the most ancient of the cities of Phoe- 
nicia. It is frequently mentioned in holy writ. It 
is named by Jacob, in his prophetic speech concerning 

* Williams. -f- Pansanias; Barthelemy ; Rollin ; 

Wheler ; Clarke ; Dodwell ; Williams ; Byron. 

+ Gen. x. ver. 15. Gen. xlix. ver. 13. 


the country which his sons were to inhabit ; and it 
is stated as a place for some of the kings who were 
driven out by Joshua. Its remote origin, however, 
is perhaps still uncertain, though Justin speaks of it 
in the following manner : " The nation of the 
Tyrians, descended from the Phoenicians, being shaken 
by an earthquake, and having abandoned their coun- 
try, did first inhabit the Assyrian marsh; and, not 
long afterwards, the shore next unto the sea, where 
they built a city, and called it Sidon, from the abund- 
ance of fishes that were there : for the Phoenicians 
call a fish sidon. After the process of many years, 
being overcome by king Ascalou, they took shipping 
again, and built Tyre in the year before the destruc- 
tion of Troy." 

" I cannot help thinking," says Mr. Drummond, 
" that the city, called Tsidon by the Hebrews ; 
Tsaid or Tsaida, by the Syrians ; and Said or Saida, 
by the Arabians ; originally received its name from 
the language of the last. The Tsidonians were 
celebrated for their skill in metallurgy, and for the 
art with which they worked in gold, silver, and 
brass. Much iron and brass existed in Phoenicia, 
and the possession of this country having been once 
intended for the tribe of Ashur, Moses said to that 
tribe, ' under thy shoes shall be iron and brass : ' 
(Deut. xxxiii. 25.) : that is, the soil under thy feet 
shall abound with iron and brass. Now I consider 
Sidon, or rather Saida, to have been so called from 
its abounding with saidi or saidan, viz. brass."* 

During the administration of Joshua, and after- 
wards, Sidon was governed by kings. He calls it 
" Zidon the great." t In the division of Palestine 

* Drutnmond's Origines, vol. iii. p. 97. Homer makes the 
Phrenician woman speak, of whom mention is made in the Odyssey 
b. xv. * 1 glory to be of Sidon abounding in brass, and tint 
the daughter of the wealthy Arybas." 

t Zidon-rabbab. : ch. xi. v. 8. 


it was allotted to Ashur ; but this tribe could never 
get possession of it.* 

The inhabitants are said to have assisted Solomon, 
in his preparations for the building of the temple ; 
their skill in hewing timber being superior to that 
of all other nations.t 

That Sidon was celebrated for its women being 
skilled in embroidery, we learn, in the first instance, 
from several passages in Scripture; and secondly, 
from a curious passage in Homer : 

The Phrygian queen to her rid) wardrobe went, 
Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent. 
There lay the vestures of no vulgnr art, 
Sidonian maids embroider' d every part, 
Whom from soft Sidon youthful Paris bore, 
With Helen touching on the Tynan shore. 
Here as the queen revolved with careful eyes 
The various textures and the various dyes, 
She chose a veil that shone supciior far, 
And glow'd refulgent as the morning star.J 

To the Sidonians, also, are attributed the inven- 
tions of glass, linen, and purple dye. They were 

* '' Neither did Ashur drive out the inhabitants of Accho, nor the 
inhabitants of Zidon." Judges i. 31. 

f " Now, therefore, command thou that they hew me cedar trees 
out of Lebanon ; and my servants shall be with thy servants ; and 
unto thee I will give hire for thy servants, according to all that they 
shall appoint ; for thou knowest that there is not amongst us any 
that has skill to hew timber like unto the Sidonians." 1 Kings, 
ch. x. v. 6. 

J Dictys Cretensis acquaints us that Paris returned not directly 
to Troy after the rape of Helen, but fetched a compass, probably to 
avoid pursuit. He touched at Sidon, where he surprised the king 
of Phoenicia by night, and carried off many of his treasures and 
captives, among which probably were these Sidonian women. 

" The common voyce and fame runneth, that there arrived 
certain merchants, in a ship laden with nitre, in the mouth of the 
river ; and beeing landed, minded to seath their victuals upon the 
shore, and the very eands : but that they wanted other stones, to 


also greatly celebrated for their industry. They 
were highly commercial, and were famous for the 
many voyages some of their fellow-citizens under- 
took. It was the most ancient of maritime cities : 
illustrious for its wealth, for the sobriety and in- 
dustry of its inhabitants ; for the wisdom of its 
councils, and for its skill, not only in commerce and 
geography, but in astronomy. 

The Sidonians were often engaged in war; but 
we can afford space only to a few instances. The 
origin of that with .Artaxerxes Oclms, is thus re- 
lated by Diodorus :* " The king's lieutenants and 
generals then in Sidon, carrying themselves, by their 
severe edicts, rigorously and haughtily towards the 
Sidonians, the citizens, being so abused, and not 
being able longer to brook it, studied how to revolt 
from the Persians. Upon which, the rest of the 
Phoenicians, being wrought upon by the others to 
vindicate their liberty, sent messengers to Necta- 
netus, the king of Egypt, then at war with the 
Persians, to receive them as confederates, and so the 
whole nation (Phoenicia,) prepared for war. And 
being that Sidon exceeded all the rest of the cities 
in wealth, and even private men, by the advantage 
of trade, were grown very rich, they built a great 
number of ships, and raised a potent army of mer- 
cenaries; and both arms, and darts, and provisions, 
and all other things necessary for war were prepared ; 
and that they might appear first in the war, they 
spoiled and ruined the king's garden, cutting down 

serve as trivets, to beare up their pans and cauldrons over the fire, 
they made shift with certaine pieces of sal-nitre out of the ship, to 
support the said pans, and so made fire underneath ; which being 
once afire among the sand and gravell of the shore, they might 
perceive a certaine cleare liquor run from under the fire, in very 
streams, and hereupon they say came the first invention of making 
glass." Philemon Howard, Pliny, xxxvi. c. 26. 
* Book viii. ch. U. 


all the trees, where the Persian kings used to recreate 1 
and divert themselves. Then they burned all the hay, 
which the lieutenants had laid up for the horses. At 
last they seized upon the Persians, who had so in- 
sulted them, and led them to punishment, and in 
this manner began the war of the Persians with the 

Ochus Artaxerxes acted in a manner so contrary to 
all the best notions of government, that some historians 
have not hesitated to regard him as the most cruel and 
wicked of all the princes of his race. Not only tin- 
palace, but the empire was filled with his murderers. 
Several nations, over whom he exercised sway, in con- 
sequence revolted. Amongst these, Sidon and the 
other Phoenician cities. Ochus hearing of this, re- 
solved to go in person to reduce the rebels. He repaired 
to Phoenicia with an army of 300,000 foot, and 30,000 
horse. Mentor was at this time in Sidon with some 
troops from Greece. He had come thither to assist the 
rebels. When he learned how great a force the Per- 
sian king had, he was so alarmed, that he sent 
secretly to the king to offer to deliver up Sidon. This 
offer Ochus accepted ; and the king of Sidon having 
come into the treason, the city was surrendered into 
his hands. 

When the Sidonians saw themselves betrayed, and 
that the enemy had got entire possession of their 
city, they gave themselves up to despair, shut them- 
selves up in their houses, and set them on fire. In 
this manner 40,000 men, besides women and children, 
perished in the flames ! At this time, Sidon was so 
immensely rich, that the cinders, among which a vast 
quantity of gold and silver had melted, were sold by 
the conqueror for a large sum of money. 

This judgment had been prophesied by Ezekiel". 

* Chap, xxviii. ver. 20, 21, &c. 


" 20. Again the word of the Lord came unto me, 

2 1 . Son of man, set thy face against Zidon, and pro- 
phesy against it. 

22. And say, Thus saith the Lord God ; Behold I 
am against thee, O Zidon ; and I will be glorified in 
the midst of thee : and they shall know that I am 
the Lord, when I shall have executed judgments in 
her, and shall be sanctified in her. 

23. For I will send into her pestilence, and blood 
into her streets ; and the wounded shall be judged in 
the midst of her by the sword upon her on every 
side ; and they shall know that I am the Lord." 

Eighteen years after this misfortune, Alexander of 
Macedon marched into Phoenicia. All submitted to 
him as he advanced ; nor did any people do this with 
greater alacrity than the Sidonians : who, having 
suffered so largely from the Persian king, held the 
Persians in very great detestation. Strato, their king, 
however, having declared for Darius, Alexander de- 
sired Hephaestion to place in his stead any one of the 
Sidonians that he should judge worthy of so exalted 
a station. Being quartered at the house of two bro- 
thers, of whom he had reason to entertain the highest 
opinion, Hepha?stion offered the crown to them ; 
but these brothers had the virtue to refuse it, telling 
him, that, by the laws of the country, no one could 
ascend the throne but those who were of the blood- 
royal. Hepha>st5on, greatly moved at seeing the 
greatness of those who could refuse what so many 
others had striven to obtain by fire and sword, ex- 
pressed his admiration of their magnanimity ; and 
desired them to name any person of the royal family 
who would, on being placed upon the throne, remem- 
ber who it was that put him there. On this the 
brothers 'answered, that they knew of no one more 



worthy of a diadem than a person, named Abdolon- 
ymus. He was, they said, of the royal family, though 
at a great distance from the succession ; but so poor 
that he was compelled to earn his bread by working 
in one of the gardens outside the city. He was not 
only poor, they continued, but of so contented a 
spirit, of so exalted a mind, and of such deep engage- 
ment of purpose, that the wars, which were then 
shaking Asia, were altogether unknown to him. 

The two brothers immediately repaired to the 
place where they knew this person was to be found. 
They took royal garments with them ; and after no 
great search found him employed in weeding his 
garden. They immediately saluted him as King of 
JSidon. " You must change your tatters," said one 
of the brothers, " for the royal garments we have 
brought with us. Put off that mean and contempt- 
ible habit, in which you have grown old. Assume 
the style and sentiments of a prince. When, however, 
you are seated on the throne, continue to preserve the 
virtues which have made you worthy of it." When 
Abdolonymus heard this, he was amazed. He looked 
upon the whole as a dream. When, however, he 
perceived that the two brothers were standing before 
him in actual presence, he inquired of them if they 
did not feel some shame in ridiculing him in that 
manner ? They replied, that no ridicule was intended ; 
but that all was in the spirit of honour. They threw 
over his shoulders a purple raiment, richly embroi- 
dered with gold ; repeated to him oaths of earnest- 
ness, and led him to the palace. 

The news of this astonishing circumstance soon 
spread over the whole city. Most of the richer sort 
were indignant. Alexander, however, commanded 
that the newly elected prince should be brought into 
his presence. When he was presented, Alexander 


measured him with his eye from head to foot, and 
gazed upon Ins countenance for some time. At length 
he addressed him afterthefollowing manner: "Thine 
air and thy mien by no means contradict what I have 
heard, in regard to thy extraction ; and I therefore de- 
sire to know in what spirit thou hast borne the abject 
condition to which thou wert reduced." " Would to 
the gods," answered Abdolonymus, " that I may 
bear this crown with equal patience! These hands 
have procured to me all I have enjoyed ; for whilst 
I had nothing, I wanted nothing." 

When Alexander heard this, he was so struck 
with admiration, that he not only presented him with 
all the furniture that had belonged to Strato, and 
part of the riches he had himself acquired in Persia, 
but he annexed to his dominions one of the neighbour- 
ing provinces. 

At this period, Quintus Curtius says*, Sidon was 
a city greatly celebrated on account of its antiquity 
and its founder. 

Upon an elevation, on the south side of the city, 
stood a fine old castle, now in ruins. It was built 
by Lewis IX. of France, surnamed the Saint ; who 
also repaired the city during the Holy Warst. In 
subsequent times it fell into decay ; but its final ruin 
is said to have been effected by Feckerdine, Emir of 
the Druses, when he had established an independent 
power, with the view of preventing the Grand 
Signior from landing a maritime force here to act 
against him. He destroyed all the little ports, from 
Bairout to Acra, by sinking boats and stones to pre- 

Vol. I.b. 4,c. 1. 

f During the Crusades, Sidon fell into the hands of the Chris- 
tians. They lost it A. D. 1111. In 1250 it was recovered by the 
Saracens ; but in 1289 they were compelled to surrender it again 
to the Christians. 

A A 2 


vent the Turkish ships from entering them*. He 
then built a castle, which still exists. He erected 
also a magnificent palace in the Italian style ; but 
that is in ruins. 

In the time of Volney, Sayda contained about five 
thousand inhabitants ; in 1816 from six thousand 
to seven thousand. Of these there are one thousand 
Christians, five hundred Jews, the rest are Mahom- 
medans. The climate is mild, agreeable, and 

The huge stones of which the mole was built may 
still be seen, being capable of filling its whole thick- 
ness. Some of these are twelve feet long, eleven 
broad, and five deep. It is supposed to have been 
built by Lewis IX. ; but this, perhaps, was not the 
case, since it contains, on the top of it, a work of a 
much more ancient date. 

On the opposite side of the town is a modern fort, 
built by Degnizlu ; but consisting merely of a large 
tower, incapable of resisting any serious attack. 

" Sidon was the mother of Tyre," says Mr. Robin- 
son ; " yet it was speedily eclipsed by that city, in 
fame, in riches, and in importance. After sharing 
in its fortunes, during the space of many centuries, 
it has finally survived its rival, and is again a place 
of considerable trade." 

The buildings of Sayda, according to Mr. Bucking- 
ham, are not at all superior to the common order of 
Mahommedan edifices in the modern towns of Syria. 
The streets are extremely narrow, the mosques mean, 
the caravanserais small and incommodious, and the 
bazaars few, and badly furnished even with the com- 
monest necessaries. According to another traveller, 
Sayda is ill-built, dirty, and full of ruins. These 
ruin?, however, are of a comparatively modern date. 
* In the sixteenth ccnturv. 


Few of ancient times remain. Tlure is, neverthe- 
less, a large tesselated pavement of variegated 
marble, representing a horse, and tolerably perfect 
in some parts for ten feet in length, remaining close to 
the sea, on the northern extremity of the city, which 
shows that the sea encroaches on the land. There 
are also several columns of granite wrought into 
the walls ; and some stand as posts on the bridge 
leading to the fort ; and near the gate of the town 
is a small square building, which contains the tombs 
of such of the Emirs of the Druses as died when 
Sayda was in their possession. 

Sayda is the principal port of Damascus. The 
harbour, like all those on this coast, was formed with 
much art, and at an immense expense, by means of 
long piers. These works, which subsisted entire 
under the lower empire, are now fallen into decay. 
" So great are the mutations, occasioned by time," 
says Mr. Buckingham, " that but for the identity of 
name and position, there would be scarcely any marks 
left by which to recognise even the site of the present 
emporium here alluded to. The stranger, who visits 
it in its present state, will look around in vain for any 
of those vestiges of its former grandeur which the 
description of the ancient historians would lead him 
to expect ; and which, indeed, are still to be seen in 
most of the other celebrated cities of the East, whe- 
ther in Greece, Egypt, Syria, or Asia Minor.* " 


THE true origin of Smyrna is rather doubtful. One* 
account is, that such of the Achaians as were de- 
scended from ,/Eolus, and had hitherto inhabited Laco- 
nia, being driven thence by the Dorians, after some 

* Herodotus ; Diodorus ; Pliny ; Plutarch ; Arrian ; Quintus 
Curtius ; Justin ; Prideaux ; Rollin ; Stackhouse ; Volney ; Drum- 
mood ; Buckingham ; Robinson. 


wandering, settled in that part of Asia Minor which, 
from them, was called jEolis ; where they founded 
twelve cities, one of which was Smyrna. According 
to Herodotus, however, it owed its foundation to 
the Cumicans, who were of Thessalian extraction ; 
who, having built the city of Cuma, and finding it 
too small to contain their number, erected another 
city, which they named Smyrna, from the wife of 
their general, Theseus. According to some, it was 
built by Tantalus ; and others insist, and perhaps 
with great truth, that it was founded by persons who 1 
inhabited a quarter of Ephesus called Smyrna. Some 
have ascribed it to an Amazon of that name : in re- 
spect to whom Sir George Wheler informs us, that 
they stamped their money with a figure of her head, 
and that he got several pieces of them very rare, and 
saw many more. One small one had her head 
crowned with towers, and a two-edged hatchet on 
her shoulder. On another her whole habit ; thus 
her head crowned with a tower, as before ; a two- 
edged axe upon her shoulder, holding a temple in her 
right hand, with a short vest let down to her knees, and 
buskins half way up her legs. On another she was 
dressed in the habit of a Hercules. Whatever its 
origin might be, certain it is, that it was one of the 
richest and most powerful cities of Asia, and became 
one of the twelve cities of the Ionian confederacy. 

Smyrna has been subject to many revolutions, and 
been severally in the possession of the JEolians, 
lonians, and Macedonians. 

The Lydians took possession under Ardys, son of 
Gyges ; and having destroyed it, the inhabitants dis- 
persed themselves into several districts. 

Alexander, in compliance with the directions of a 
vision, he saw near the temple of the Furies, rebuilt it 
four hundred years after it had been destroyed by the 
Lydians. Strabo, however^ attributes its re-establish- 


mentto Antigonus anclLysimachus. Butasneitherthat 
author nor Arrian mention Alexander as having done 
so, it is not improbable that he only meditated the 
doing so ; that Antigonus followed tip his design ; 
and that Lysimachus carried fts completion into effect. 

At Smyrna there were none of the tyrant*, who 
oppressed many other cities of Asia. Even the 
Romans respected the happy state of this town, and 
left it the shadow of liberty. This is a fine pane- 
gyric upon the system of polity, that must have been 
adopted and invariably preserved. 

There is another circumstance, highly to its honour: 
the inhabitants believed that Homer was born in 
their city, and they showed a place which bore the 
poet's name. They also paid him divine honours. 
Of all the cities, which contended for the honoivr of 
having given birth to this transcend ant poet, Smyrna 
has undoubtedly the most reason on her side. 
Herodotus absolutely decides in favour of Smyrna, 
assuring us, that he was born on the banks of the 
river Meks, whence he took the name of Melesigenes 1 . 

The inhabitants are said to have been much given 
to luxury and indolence ; .but they were universally 
esteemed for their valour and intrepidity when called 
into action. Anacharsis is made to speak of their 
city in the following manner: " Our road, which 
was almost everywhere overshadowed by beautiful 
andrachnes, led us to the mouth of the Hermus ; 
and thence our view extended over that superb bay, 
formed by a peninsula, on which are the cities of 
Erythrse and Teos. At the bottom of it are some 
small villages, the unfortunate remains of the ancient 
city of Smyrna, formerly destroyed by the Lydians. 
They still bear the same name; and, should circum- 
stances one day permit the inhabitants to unite and 
form one town, defended by walls, their situation 
will doubtless attract an immense commerce." 


It was the first town of Asia Minor, according to 
Tacitus, which, even during the existence of Carthage, 
erected any temple to ' ; Rome the Goddess." Part 
of the city was destroyed hy Dolabella, when he 
slew Trehonius, one of the conspirators against Caesar. 
But it flourished greatly under the early emperors: 
Marcus Aurelius repaired it after it had heen 
destroyed by an earthquake ; and under Caracalla it 
took the name of the first city of Asia. 

Smyrna was much celebrated for its stately build- 
ings, magnificent temples, and marble porticoes. It 
had several grand porticoes of a square form, amongst 
which was one in which stood a temple of Homer, 
adorned with a statue of the bard. There was also 
a gymnasium, and a temple dedicated to the mother 
of the gods. Where the gymnasium was, however, 
is now past conjecture; but part of its theatre was 
still in existence in the time of Sir George Wheler. 
" The theatre," says he, " is on the brow of the hill 
north of the course, built of white marble, but now 
is going to be destroyed, to build the new Kan and 
Bazar hard by the fort below, which they are now 
about; and in doing whereof there hath been lately 
found a pot of medals, all of the emperor Gallienus' 
family, and the other tyrants that reigned in his 
time." There were also there the remains of a circus, 
and a considerable number of ancient foundations 
and noble structures; but what they were Sir George 
considered uncertain. He found also many inscrip- 
tions and medals, on which the names of Tiberius, 
Claudius, and Nero were to be read ; on others, sepul- 
chral monuments. Among these, was one with an 
inscription " to the emperor Adrian, Olympian, 
Saviour and Founder." 

In the Armenian church -yard he saw an inscrip- 
tion " Good Fortune to the most splendid Metro- 
politan, and thrice Neocorus of the emperor, accord- 


infj to the judgment of the most holy senate of 

31 any writers do not seem to be aware, that the 
ancient Smyrna did not occupy the spot where 
modern Smyrna stands, but one about two miles and a 
half distant. It was built partly on the brow of a 
hill, and partly on a plain towards the port, and had 
a temple dedicated to Cybele. It was then the most 
beautiful of all the Asiatic cities. " But that which 
was, and ever will be, its true glory," says Sir 
George Whcler, " was their early reception of the 
gospel of Jesus Christ glorious in the testimony he 
has given of them, and happy in the faithful pro- 
mises he made to them. Let us, therefore, consider 
what he writeth to them by the Evangelist St. 
John: (Apoc. ii. 9.) 'I know thy works and tri- 
bulation, and poverty; but thou art rich. And I 
know the blasphemy of them, that say they are 
Jews, and are not : but are the Synagogue of Satan. 
Fear none of those things, which thou shalt suffer. 
Behold, the Devil shall cast some of ye in prison, 
that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation 
ten days. Be thou faithful unto death ; and I will 
ofive thee a crown of life.' " 

Previous to the year 1675, it had been partially 
destroyed, and several times, by earthquakes ; and 
it was predicted that a seventh convulsion would be 
fatal to the whole city. Such a calamity, attended 
by a dreadful fire, and the swallowing up of multi- 
tudes by the incursion of the sea, recurred in 1688, 
and did, indeed, very nearly fulfil the prophecy. 

* A very ancient basso-rilievo, among the antiquities at Wilton 
House, brought from Smyrna, represents Mantlicus, the son of 
yEtlius, giving thanks to Jupiter, for his son's being victor in the 
five exercises of the Olympic games ; wherein is shown, by an 
inscription of the oldest Greek letters, the ancient Greek way of 
wilting that was in use six hundred years before our Saviour. 


"Repeated strokes," says Sir John Hobhouse, "and 
almost annual pestilences, have since that period 
laid waste this devoted city ; and yet the convenience 
of a most spacious and secure harbour, together with 
the luxuriant fertility of the surrounding country, 
and the prescriptive excellence allowed nearly two 
thousand years to this port, in preference to the other 
maritime stations of Asia Minor, still operate to col- 
lect and keep together a vast mass of inhabitants from 
every quarter of the globe." 

According to Pococke, the city might have been 
about four miles in compass ; of a triangular form. 
It seems to have extended about a mile on the sea, 
and three miles on the north, south, and east sides, 
taking in the compass of the castle. This stands on 
the remains of the ancient castle, the walls of which 
were of the same kind of architecture as the city 
walls on the hill. It is all in ruins, except a small 
part of the west end, which is always kept shut 

One of the gateways of white marble has been 
brought from another place ; and in the architrave 
round the arch there is a Greek inscription of the 
middle ages. At another gate there is a colossal head, 
said to be that of the Amazon Smyrna. It is of 
fine workmanship, and the tresses particularly flow 
in a very natural manner. " Smyrna," says Pococke, 
" was one of the finest cities in these parts, and the 
streets were beautifully laid out, well-paved, and 
adorned with porticoes, both above and below. 
There was also a temple of Mars, a circus, and a 
theatre; and yet there is now very little to be seen 
of all these things." 

Upon a survey of the castle, Dr. Chandler col- 
lected, that, after being re-edified by John Angelus 
Comnenus, its condition, though less ruinous than 
before, was far more mean and ignoble. The old 


Avail, of which many remnants may be discovered, 
is of a solid massive construction, worthy of Alex- 
ander and his captains. All the repairs are mere 
patchwork. On the arch of a gateway, which is of 
marble,. is inscribed a copy of verses, giving an ele- 
gant and poetical description of the extreme misery 
from which the above-mentioned emperor raised the 
city ; concluding with an address to the Omnipotent 
liuler of heaven and earth, that he would grant 
him and his queen, whose beauty it celebrates, a 
reign of many years. On each side is an eagle, rudely 

Near the sea is the ground- work of a stadium, 
stripped of its marble seats and decorations. Below 
the theatre is part of a slight wall. The city walls 
have long since been demolished. Even its ruins 
are removed. Beyond the deep valley, however, 
in which the Meles winds, behind the castle, are 
several portions of the wall of the Pomcerium, which 
encompassed the city at a distance, but broken. 
The facings are gone, and masses left only of rubble 
and cement. 

The ancient city has supplied materials for those 
public edifices, which have been erected by the Turks. 
The Bezestan and the Vizir khan were both raised 
with the white marble of the theatre. The very 
ruins of the stones and temples are vanished. " We 
saw," says Dr. Chandler, " remains of one only ; 
some shafts of columns of variegated marble, much 
injured, in the way ascending through the towa to 
the castle. Many pedestals, statues, inscriptions, 
and medals have been, and are still, discovered in 
digging. Perhaps," continues our author, " no place 
has contributed more to enrich the cabinets and col- 
lections of Europe." 

" Smyrna," says a celebrated French writer, " the 
queen of the cities of Anatolia, and extolled by the 


ancients under the title of ' the lovely, the crown of 
Ionia, the ornament of Asia,' braves the reiterated 
efforts of conflagrations and earthquakes. Ten times 
destroyed, she has ten times risen from her ruins with 
new splendour. According to a very common Grecian 
system, the principal buildings were erected on the 
face of a hill fronting the sea. The hill supplied 
marble, while its slope afforded a place for the seats 
rising gradually above each other in the stadium, or 
the great theatre for the exhibition of games. Al- 
most every trace of the ancient city, however, has 
been obliterated during the contests between the 
Greek empire and the Ottomans, and afterwards by 
the ravages of Timour, in 1402. The foundation of 
the stadium remains; but the area is sown with grain. 
There are only a few vestiges of the theatre ; and the 
castle, which crowns the hill, is chiefly patchwork, 
executed by John Comnenus on the ruins of the old 
one, the walls of which, of immense strength and 
thickness, may still be discovered." 

This city was visited a short time since by the 
celebrated French poet and traveller La Martine. 
He has thus spoken of its environs : " The view 
from the top of the hill over the gulf and city is 
beautiful. On descending the hill to the margin of 
the river, which I like to believe is tne Meles, we 
were delighted with the situation of the bridge of the 
caravans, very near one of the gates of the town. 
The river is limpid, slumbering under a peaceful arch 
of sycamores and cypresses ; we seated ourselves on 
its bank. If this stream heard the first notes of 
Homer, I love to hear its gentle murmurings amidst 
the roots of the palm-trees ; I raise its waters to my 
lips. Oh ! might that man appear from the Western 
world, who should weave its history, its dreams, and 
its heaven, into an epic ! Such a poem is the sepul- 
chre of times gone by, to which posterity conies to 


venerate traditions, and eternalise by its worship the 
great actions and sublime thoughts of human nature. 
Its author engraves his name on the pedestal of the 
statue which he erects to man, and lie lives in all 
the ideas with which he enriches the world of imagi- 

According to the same author, Smyrna in no 
respect resembles an Eastern town ; it is a large and 
elegant factory, where the European consuls and 
merchants lead the life of Paris and London. 

Though frequently and severely visited by the 
plague, it contains one hundred and twenty thousand 
inhabitants ; and may be considered as the "great 
emporium of the Levant*. 


WHEN Diocletian selected a spot for his retire- 
ment, he solicitously observed, that his palace should 
command every beauty that the country afforded. 
In this retirement he began to live, to see the beauty 
of the sun, and to enjoy, as Vopiscus relates, true 
happiness in the society of those he had known in 
his youtht. His palace was situated at Spalatro, in 

While residing at this place, Diocletian made a 

* Pausanias ; Arrian ; Quintus Curtius ; Wbeler ; Poeocke ; 
Chandler ; Barthelemy ; Hobhouse ; La Marline. 

f" The valour of Diocletian was never found inadequate to his 
duty or to the occasion ; but he appears not to have possessed the 
daring and generous spirit of a hero, who courts danger and fame, 
disdains artifice, and boldly challenges the allegiance of his equals. 
His abilities were useful rather than splendid ; a vigorous mind, 
improved by the experience and study of mankind ; dexterity and 
application in business; a judicious mixture of liberality and 
economy ; steadiness to pursue his ends ; flexibility to vary his 
means ; and, above all, the great art of submitting his own passions, 
as well as those of others, to the interest of his ambition, and of 
colouring his ambition with the most specious pretences of justice 
and public utility. Like Augustus, Diocletian may be considered 


very remarkable and strictly true confession : 
" Four or five persons," said he, u who are closely 
united, and resolutely determined to impose on a 
prince, may do it very easily. They never show 
things to him but in such a light as they are sure 
will please. They conceal whatever would contri- 
bute to enlighten him ; and as they only besiege him 
continually, he cannot be informed of any thing but 
through their medium, and does nothingbut what they 
think fit to suggest to him. Hence it is, that he 
bestows employments on those he ought to exclude 
from them ; and, on the other hand, removes from 
offices such persons as are most worthy of filling 
them. In a word, the best prince is often sold by 
these men, though he be ever so vigilant, and even 
suspicious of them." 

As the voyager enters the bay, the marine wall 
and long arcades of the palace, one of the ancient 
temples, and other parts of that building, present 
themselves. The inhabitants have destroyed some 
parts of the palace, in order to procure materials for 
building. In other places houses are built of the old 
foundations ; and modern works are so intermingled 
with the ancient, as scarcely to be distinguishable. , 

The palace of Diocletian possessed all those advan- 
tages of situation, to which the ancients were most 
attentive. It was so great that the emperor Con- 
stantinus Porphyrogenitus, who had seen the most 
splendid buildings of the ancients, affirms*, that no 
plan or description of it could convey a perfect idea 
of it. The vast extent of ground which it occupied is 
surprising at first sight ; the dimensions of one side of 

as the founder of a new empire ; like the adopted son of Caesar, he 
was distinguished as a statesman rather than a warrior ; nor did 
either of those princes employ force whenever their purpose could 
be effected by policy. GIBBON. 

* De Administrando Iniperio. 


the quadrangle, including the towers, being no lessthan 
six hundred and ninety-eight feet, and of the other 
four hundred and ninety-two feet : making the su- 
perficial contents four hundred and thirteen thousand 
two hundred and sixteen feet ; that is, about nine 
and a half English acres. But when it is considered 
that it contained proper apartments not only for the 
emperor himself, and for the numerous retinue of 
officers who attended his court, but likewise edifices 
and open spaces for exercises of different kinds, that 
it was capable of lodging a pra?torian cohort, and that 
two temples were erected within its precincts, we shall 
not conclude the area to have been too large for such 
a variety of buildings. 

For a description of this celebrated place, we must 
refer to 31r. Adam's Antiquities ; but there is one 
circumstance that may be highly interesting at the 
present time, which is, that not the smallest vestige 
of a fire-place is to be seen in any part of the build- 
ing ; and it may be therefore conjectured, that the 
various apartments might have been heated by flues 
or funnels, conveying and distributing heated air. 

Of the temples, one of them was dedicated to 
/Esculapius ; the ascent to which was by a stair of 
fifteen steps, and it received no light but from the 
door. Beneath it are vaults of great strength ; its 
roof is an arch adorned with sunk pannels of beau- 
tiful workmanship, and its walls are of a remarkable 
thickness. This temple remains almost entire. 

There is another temple, dedicated to Jupiter, who 
was worshipped by Diocletian with peculiar venera- 
tion ; and in honour of whom he assumed the name 
of Jovius. This -temple is surroxmded with one row 
of columns, having a space between them and the 
wall. It is lighted by an arched window over the 
door, and is vaulted beneath like that of ^Esculapius. 
There are remains of two other buildings, not much 


inferior in extent, nor probably in original magnifi- 
cence ; but by the injuries of time, and the depreda- 
tions of the Spalatrines, these are reduced to a very 
ruinous condition. 

Besides these the visitor sees large vaults along 
that side of the palace which looks to the sea; partly 
destroyed, partly filled up, and some occupied by 
merchants as storehouses. 

In one of the towers belonging to the palace, Dio- 
cletian is supposed to have been buried ; and we are 
told that, about two hundred and seventy-five years 
ago, the body of the emperor was discovered there in 
a sarcophagus of porphyry. 

The shafts of the columns of the temple of Jupiter 
are of oriental alabaster of one stone. The capitals 
and bases of the columns, and on the entablature, are 
of Parian marble. The shafts of the columns of the 
second order, which is composite, are alternately of 
verd-antique, or ancient green marble and porphyry, 
of one piece. The capitals and entablature are also 
of Parian marble. 

All the capitals throughout the palace are raffled 
more in the Grecian than the Roman style ; so 
that Mr. Adam* thinks it probable, that Diocletian, 
who had been so often in Greece, brought his arti- 
ficers thither, in order to vary the execution of his 
orders of architecture in this palace, from those he 
had executed at his baths at Rome, which are ex- 
tremely different both in formation and executiont. 

* Adam's Antiquities at Diocletian's palace at Spalatro, p. 67. 
Thus the Abate Fortis : "E 'bastevolmente now agli amatori 
dell' architettura, e dell' antichitk, I'opera del Signor Adam, die 
a donato molto a quc' supcrbi vestigi coll' abituale cleganza del suo 
toccalapis e del bulino. In generale la rozzezza del scalpello, e '1 
cativo gusto del secolo vi gareggiano colla tuagnificenza del fabri- 
cato." Vide Viaggio in Dalmazia, p. 40. For the plan and views 
of the palace, temples of Jupiter and TEsculapius, with the Dalma- 
tian coast, vide " Voyage de 1'Istrie et de la Dalmatic. " 
) Gibbon ; Adam. 



THIS was a town in Caria, where a Macedonian 
colony took up their abode; and which several 
Syrian monarchs afterwards adorned and beautified. 
It was named after the wife of Antiochus Soter, of whom 
history gives the following account. " Antiochus 
was seized with a lingering distemper, of which the 
physicians were incapable of discovering the cause ; 
for which reason his condition was thought entirely 
desperate. Erasistratus, the most attentive and skil- 
ful of all the physicians, having carefully considered 
every symptom with which the indisposition of the 
young prince was attended, believed at last that he 
had discovered its true cause, and that it proceeded 
from a passion he had entertained for some lady ; in 
which conjecture he was not deceived. It, however, 
was more difficult to discover the object of a passion, 
the more violent fr*m the secrecy in which it re- 
mained. The physician, therefore, to assure himself 
fully of what he surmised, passed whole days in the 
apartment of his patient, and when he saw any lady 
enter, he carefully observed the countenance of the 
prince, and never discovered the least emotion in him, 
except when Stratonice came into the chamber, either 
alone, or with her consort ; at which times the young 
prince was, as Plutarch observes, always affected 
with the symptoms described by Sappho, as so many 
indications of a violent passion. Such, for instance, 
as a suppression of voice ; burning blushes ; suffusion 
of sight ; cold sweat ; a sensible inequality and dis- 
order of pulse ; with a variety of the like symptoms. 
When the physician was afterwards alone with his 
patient, he managed his inquiries with so much dex- 
terity, as at last drew the secret from him. Antio- 
chus confessed his passion for queen Stratonice his 
mother-in-law, and declared that he had in vain em- 



ployed all his efforts to vanquish it : he added, that 
he had a thousand times had recourse to every con- 
sideration that could be represented to his thoughts, 
in such a conjuncture ; particularly the respect due 
from him to a father and a sovereign, by whom he 
was tenderly beloved ; the shameful circumstance of 
indulging a passion altogether unjustifiable, and con- 
trary to all the rules of decency and honour; the 
folly of harbouring a design he ought never to be 
desirous of gratifying ; but that his reason, in its 
present state of distraction, entirely engrossed by 
one object, would hearken to nothing. And he con- 
cluded with declaring, that, to punish himself, for 
desires involuntary in one sense, but criminal in every 
other, he had resolved to languish to death, by dis- 
continuing all care of his health, and abstaining from 
every kind of food. The physician gained a very 
considerable point, by penetrating into the source of 
his patient's disorder; but the application of the pro- 
per remedy was much more difficult to be accom- 
plished ; and how could a proposal of this nature be 
made to a parent and king! AVhcn Seleucus made 
the next inquiry after his son's health, Erasistratus 
replied, that his distemper was incurable, because it 
arose from a secret passion which could never be gra- 
tified, as the lady he loved was not to be obtained. 
The father, surprised and afflicted at this answer, 
desired to know why the lady was not to be ob- 
tained ? ' Because she is my wife ! ' replied the phy- 
sician, ' and I am not disposed to yield her up to the 
embraces of another.' ' And will you not part witli 
her then,' replied the king, ' to preserve the life of a 
son I so tenderly love ! Is this the friendship you 
profess for me ? ' ' Let me entreat you, my lord,' 
said Erasistratus, ' to imagine yourself for one mo- 
ment in my place, would you resign your Stratonice 
to his arms ? If you, therefore, who are a father, 


would not consent to such a sacrifice for the welfare 
of a son so dear to you, how can you expect another 
should do it ?' 'I would resign Stratonice, and my 
empire to him, with all my soul,' interrupted the 
king. ' Your majesty then,' replied the physician, 
' has the remedy in your own hands ; for he loves 
Stratonice.' The father did not hesitate a moment 
after this declaration, and easily obtained the consent 
of his consort : after which, his son and that princess 
were crowned king and queen of upper Asia. Julian 
the Apostate, however, relates in a fragment of his 
writings still extant, that Antiochus could not espouse 
Stratonice, till after the death of his father. 

" Whatever traces of reserve, moderation, and even 
modesty, appear in the conduct of this young prince," 
says Rollin at the conclusion of this history, " his 
example shows us the misfortune of giving the least 
entrance into the heart of an unlawful passion, capa- 
ble of discomposing all the happiness and tranquillity 
of life." 

Stratonice was a free city under the Romans. 
Hadrian erected several structures in it, and thence 
took the opportunity of calling it Hadrianopolis. 

It is now a poor village, and called Eskihissar. It 
was remarkable for a magnificent temple, dedicated 
to Jupiter, of which no foundations are now to be 
traced, but in one part of the village there is a grand 
gate of a plain architecture. There was a double 
row of large pillars from it, which probably formed 
the avenue to the temple ; and on each side of the 
gate there was a semicircular alcove niche, and a 
colonnade from it, which, with a wall on each side 
of the gate, might make a portico, that was of the 
Corinthian order. Fifty paces further there are re- 
mains of another colonnade. To the south of this 
are ruins of a building of large hewn stone, supposed 
to have belonged to the temple of Serapis. There 
B B 2 


is also a large theatre, the front of which is ruined ; 
there are in all about forty seats, with a gallery in 
the middle, and another at the top. 

Chandler gives a very agreeable account of this 
village: "Thehousee are scattered among woody hills 
environed by huge mountains ; one of which has its 
summit as white as chalk. It is watered by a limpid 
and lively rill, with cascades. The site is strewed 
with marble fragments. Some shafts of columns are 
standing single ; and one with a capital on it. By 
a cottage are three, with a pilaster supporting an 
entablature, but enveloped in thick vines and 
trees. Near the theatre are several pedestals of 
statues ; one records a citizen of great merit and 
magnificence. Above it is a marble heap ; and the 
whole building is overgrown with moss, bushes, and 
trees. Without the village, on the -opposite side, are 
broken arches, with pieces of massive wall and sarco- 
phagi. Several altars also remain, with inscriptions; 
once placed in sepulchres*. 

NO. xxxiv. SUSA. 

STRABO says that Susa was built by Tithonus or 
Tithon, the father of Memnon ; and this origin is in 
some degree supported by a passage in Herodotus, 
wherein that historian calls it " the city of Memnon." 
In Scripture it is called " Shushan." It was an 
oblong of one hundred and twenty stadia in circuit ; 
situated on the river Cuta?us or Uhlai. 

Susa derived its name from the number of lilies 
which grew on the banks of the river on which it 
stood. It was sheltered by a high ridge of mountains 
on the north, which rendered it very agreeable during 
winter. But in summer the heat was so intense and 
parching, that the inhabitants wore accustomed to 
*~Rol!iu; Chandler. 


cover their houses two cubits deep with earth. It 
was in this city that Ahasuerus gave the great feast 
which lasted one hundred and eighty-three days. 

Barthelemy makes Anacharsis write to his friend 
in Scythia to the following purport : " The kincrg of 
Persia, besides Persepolis, have caused other palaces 
to be built ; less sumptuous, indeed, but of wonder- 
ful beauty, at Ecbatana and Susa. They have, also, 
spacious parks, which they call paradises, and which 
are divided into two parts. In the one, armed with 
arrows and javelins, they pursue on horseback, 
through the forests, the deer which are shut up in 
them ; and in the other, in which the art of garden- 
ing has exhausted its utmost efforts, they cultivate 
the most beautiful flowers, and gather the most deli- 
cious fruits. They are not less attentive to adorn 
these parks with superb trees, which they commonly 
dispose in the form called Quincunx." He gives, also, 
an account of the great encouragement afforded to 
agriculture. " But our attention was still more en- 
gaged by the conspicuous protection and encourage- 
ment which the sovereign grants to agriculture ; and 
that, not by some transient favours and rewards, but 
by an enlightened vigilance more powerful than 
edicts and laws. He appoints in every district two 
superintendants; one for the military, and the other 
for civil affairs. The office of the former is to pre- 
serve the public tranquillity ; and that of the latter 
to promote the progress of industry and agriculture. 
If one of these should not discharge his duty, the 
other may complain of him to the governor of the 
province, or the sovereign himself. If the monarch 
sees the country covered with trees, harvests, and all 
the productions of which the soil is capable, he heaps 
honours on the two officers, and enlarges their govern- 
ment. But if he finds the lands uncultivated, they 
are directly displaced, and others appointed in 


their stead. Commissioners of incorruptible inte- 
grity exercise the same justice in the districts through 
which the sovereign does not pass." 

Susa is rendered remarkable by the immensity of 
wealth, hoarded up in it by the Persian kings, and 
which fell into the hands of Alexander, when, twenty 
days after leaving Babylon, he took possession of that 
city. There were 50,000 talents* of silver in ore 
and ingots ; a sum equivalent, of our money, to 
7,500,000/. Besides this, there were five thousand 
talents' t worth of purple of Hcrmione, which, though 
it had been laid up for one hundred and ninety years, 
retained its freshness and beauty : the reason assigned 
for which is, that the purple wool was combed with 
honey, and the white with white oil J. Besides this, 
there were a thousand other things of extraordinary 
value. " This wealth," says one of the historians, 
" was the produce of the exactions imposed for seve- 
ral centuries upon the common people, from whose 
sweat and poverty immense revenues were raised. 
" The Persian monarchs," he goes on to observe, 
"fancied they had amassed them for their children and 
posterity ; but, in one hour, they fell into the hands 
of a foreign king, who was able to make a right use 
of them : for Alexander seemed to be merely the 
guardian or trustee of the immense riches which he 
found hoarded up in Persia ; and applied them to no 
other use than the rewarding of courage and merit." 

Here, too, were found many of the rarities which 
Xerxes had taken from Greece; and amongst others, 

* This is Quintus Curtius' account. Plutarch says 40,000 talents. 
f Or five thousand talents weight. Dacier calls it so many 
hundred-weight ; and the eastern talent was near that weight. 
Pliny tells us, that a pound of the double-dipped Tynan purple, in 
the time of Augustus, sold for a hundred crowus. LANGHORNE. 
- Plutarch says, that in his time specimens were still to be seen 
of the same kind and age, in all their pristine lustre. 


the brazen statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, 
which Alexander soon after sent to Athens. 

This was the city .in which a curious scene occur- 
red between Alexander and Sisyganibis, Darius' 
mother, whom he had taken prisoner at the battle 
of Issus. He had left her at Susa, with Darius' 
children : and having received a quantity of purple 
stuffs and rich habits from Macedonia, made after 
the fashion of his own country, he sent them to 
Sisyganibis ; desiring his messengers to tell her, that 
if the stuffs pleased her, she might teach her grand- 
children, who were with her, the art of weaving 
them for their amusement. Now the working in 
wool was considered an ignominy by the Persian 
women. When Sisygambis heard Alexander s mes- 
sage, therefore, she burst into tears. This being 
related to the conqueror, he thought it decorous 
to do away the impression. He therefore visited 
Sisygambis. " Mother," said he, for he valued Da- 
rius' mother next to his own, " the stuff, in which 
you see me clothed, was not only a gift of my sisters, 
but wrought by their fingers. Hence I beg you to 
believe, that the custom of my country misled me ; 
and do not consider that as an insult, which was 
owing entirely to ignorance. I believe I have not 
yet done any thing which I knew interfered with 
your manners and customs. I was told, that among 
the Persians it is a sort of crime for a son to seat 
himself in his mother's presence, without first ob- 
taining her leave. You are sensible how cautious I 
have been in that particular ; and that I never sat 
down till you had first laid your commands upon 
me to do so. And every time that you were going to 
fall down prostrate before me, I only ask you, whether 
I would suffer it ? As the highest testimony of the 
veneration I owe you, I always called you by the ten- 
der name of mother, though this belongs properly to 


Olympia only, to whom I owe my birth." On 
hearing this Sisygambis was extremely well satisfied, 
and became afterwards so partial to the conqueror of 
her son and country, that when she heard of the 
death of Alexander she wept as if she had lost a 
son. " Who now will take care of my daughters?" 
she exclaimed. " Where shall we find another Alex- 
ander?" At last she sank under her grief. "This 
princess," says Rollin, " who had borne with patience 
the death of her father, her husband, eighty of her 
brothers, who were murdered in one day by Ocnus, 
and, to say all in one word, that of Darius her son, 
and the ruin of her family; though she had, I say, 
submitted patiently to all these losses, she however 
had not strength of mind sufficient to support herself 
after the death of Alexander. She would not take 
any sustenance, and starved herself to death, to avoid 
surviving this last calamity/' 

Alexander found in Susa all the captives of qua- 
lity he had left there. He married Statira,* Darius' 
eldest daughter, and gave the youngest to his dear 
llephsestion. And in order that, by making these 
marriages more common," his own might not be 
censured, he persuaded the greatest noblemen in 
his court, and his principal favourites, to imitate 
him. Accordingly they chose, from amongst the 
noblest families of Persia, about eighty young mai- 
dens, whom they married. His design was, by these 
alliances, to cement so strongly the union of the two 
nations, that they should henceforward form but 
one, under his empire. The nuptials were solem- 
nised after the Persian manner. He likewise feasted 
all the rest of the Macedonians who had married be- 
fore in that country. .It is related that there were 
nine thousand guests at this feast, and that he gavo 
each of them a golden cup for the libations. 


When at Susa, Alexander found a proof of the 
misgovernment of which his satraps had been guilty 
during his absence. The Susians loudly complained 
of the satrap Abulites, and his son Oxathres, of 
spoliation and tyranny. Being convicted of the 
crimes of which they were charged, they were both 
sentenced to death. 

Josephus says, that Daniel's wisdom did not only 
reach to things divine and political, but also to arts 
and sciences, and particularly to that of architecture ; 
in confirmation of which, he speaks of a famous 
edifice built by him at Susa, in the manner of a 
castle, which he says still subsisted in his time, and 
finished wit'' such wonderful art, that it then seemed 
as fresh and beautiful as if it had been but newly 
built. " Within this palace," continues Josephus, 
" the Persian and Parthian kings were usually buried; 
and, for the sake of the founder, the keeping of it 
was committed to one of the Jewish nation, even to 
his time. It was a common tradition in those parts 
for many ages, that Daniel died at, Susa, and there 
they show his monument to this day. It is certain 
that Daniel used to go thither from time to time, and 
he himself tells us, that ' he did the king's business 
there.' " 

There being somo doubt whether the ancient Susa 
is the modern Shus, or the modern Sinister, we shall 
not enter into the argument, but describe them both. 

The ruins of Snus are situate in the province of 
Kuzistan, or Chusistan. They extend about twelve 
miles* from one extremity to the other, stretching as 
far as the eastern bank of the Kerah, occupying an 
immense space between that river and the Abzal ; 
and, like the ruins of Babylon, Ctesiphon, and Kufa, 

* Fragments of earthenware, scattered in the greatest profusion, 
are found to the distance of twenty-six miles. WALPOLE'S Travels 
in Turkey, vol. i. 420. 


consisting of hillocks of earth and rubbish, covered 
with broken pieces of brick and coloured tile. 

There are two mounds larger than the rest. The 
first is about a mile in circumference, and nearly one 
hundred feet in height. The other is not quite so 
high, but double the circumference. The Arabs 
often dig with a view of getting treasures of gold in 
these two mounds ; and every now and then dis- 
cover large blocks of marble, covered with hierogly- 
phics. The mounds in general bear considerable 
resemblance to those of Babylon ; but with this dif- 
ference to distinguish them : instead of being entirely 
composed of brick, they consist of clay and pieces of 
tile, with irregular layers of brick and mortar, five or 
six feet thick, intended, it would seem, as a kind of 
prop to the mass. This is one reason for supposing 
that Shus is the ancient Susa ; and not Shuster. For 
Strabo says, that the Persian capital was entirely 
built of brick ; there not being a single stone in 
the province : whereas the quarries of Sinister are 
very celebrated ; and almost the whole of that town 
is built of stone. But let the question, says a mo- 
dern traveller, be decided as it may, the site of the 
city of Shus is now a gloomy wilderness, infested by 
lions, hyasnas, and other beasts of prey. " The dread 
of these furious animals," says Mr. Kinneir, " com- 
pelled us to take shelter for the night within the walls 
that encompassed Daniel's tomb." 

At the foot of the most elevated of the pyramids 
stands what is called " the Tomb of Daniel ;" a small, 
comparatively modern, building, erected on the spot 
where the relics of the prophet are believed to rest. 
Others doubt this circumstance ; among whom is Dr. 
Vincent*, who insists, that to the legendary tradition 
of the tomb of Daniel little more respect is due, than 
to the legends of the church of Rome, and the tradi- 
* Nearchus, p. 415. 


tions of the Mahometans in general. The antiquity 
of the tradition is, nevertheless, considerable ; for it 
is not only mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela, who 
visited Shus in the latter part of the twelfth century, 
but by one of the earliest Mussulman writers, Ahmed 
of Kufah, who died A.H. 117 (A.D. 735), and re- 
cords the removal of the prophet's coffin to the bed of 
the river. 

SHYSTER is the capital of Kuzistan, and is situate 
at the foot of the mountains of Bucktiari, on an emi- 
nence commanding the rapid course of the Karoon, 
across which is a bridge of one arch, upwards of 
eighty feet high ; from the summit of which the 
Persians often throw themselves into the water, with- 
out sustaining the smallest injury. It is situated so 
agreeably in respect to climate and supplies of all 
kinds, that while Shus, in the old Persian, language, 
signified " delightful," Sinister had a more expressive 
one ; " most delightful." 

Shuster, from the ruins yet remaining, must have 
been once of great magnificence and extent. The 
most worthy of observation amongst these ruins are 
the castle, a dyke, and a bridge. " Part of the walls 
of the first," says Mr. Kinneir, " said to have been 
the abode of Valerian*, are still standing. They occupy 
a small hill at the western extremity of the town, 
from which there is a fine view of the river, moun- 
tains, and adjoining country. This fortress is, on 
two sides, defended by a ditch, now almost choked 
with sand ; and on the other two, by a branch of the 
Karoon. It has but one gateway, built in the Roman 
fashion, formerly entered by a draw-bridge. The 
hill is almost entirely excavated, and formed into 
snrdals and subterranean aqueducts, through which 
the water still continues to flow." 

* When taken prisoner by Sapor. 


Not far from the castle is the dyke to which we 
have alluded. This dyke was built by Sapor. 
" Not," says Mr. Kinneir, as " D'Herbelot would 
insinuate, to prevent a second deluge, but rather to 
occasion one, by turning a large proportion of the 
water into a channel more favourable to agriculture, 
than that which Nature had assigned to it." 

This dyke is constructed of cut stone, bound toge- 
ther by clamps of iron, about twenty-feet broad, and 
four hundred yards long, with two small arches in 
the middle. It has lately been rebuilt by Mahomet 
Ali Maerza, governor of Kermanshaw. 

The fate of Valerian, to whom we have alluded, is 
thus recorded by Gibbon : " The voice of history, 
which is often little more than the organ of hatred or 
flattery, reproaches Sapor with a proud abuse of the 
rights of conquest. We are told that Valerian, in 
chains, but invested with the imperial purple, was 
exposed to the rmiltitude, a constant spectacle of 
fallen greatness ; and that whenever the Persian 
monarch mounted on horseback, he placed his foot 
upon the neck of a Roman emperor. Notwithstand- 
ing all the remonstrances of his allies, who repeatedly 
advised him to remember the vicissitudes of fortune, 
to dread the returning power of Rome, and to make 
his illustrious captive the pledge of peace, not tho 
object of insult, Sapor still remained inflexible. 
When Valerian sank under the weight of shame and 
grief, his skin, stuffed with straw, and formed into 
the likeness of a human figure, was preserved for 
ages in the most celebrated temple of Persia ; a more 
real monument of triumph than the sacred trophies 
of brass and marble, so often erected by Roman 
vanity*. The tale is moral and pathetic ; but the 

* The Pagan writers lament, the Christian insult, the misfortune* 
of Valerian. Their various testimonies are accurately collected by 


truth of it may very fairly be called in question. It 
is unnatural to suppose, that a jealous monarch 
should, even in the person of a rival, thus publicly 
degrade the majesty of kings. Whatever treatment 
the unfortunate Valerian might experience in Persia, 
it is at least certain, that the only emperor of Rome 
who had ever fallen into the hands of the enemy, 
languished away his life in hopeless captivity." The 
place of that captivity is said to have been Shuster*. 


Dissolved in case and soft delights they lie, 
Till every sun annoys, and every wind 
Has chilling force, and every rain offends. 

DYER, Ruins of Rome. 

SYBARIS was a town of Lucania, situated on the 
banks of the Bay of Tarentum. It was founded by 
a colony of Achaians ; and in process of time became 
very powerful. 

The walls of this city extend six miles and a half in 
circumference, and the suburbs covered the banks of 
the Crathis for seven miles. 

Historians and orators, of all ages, have been guilty 
of praising heroes. "For myown part," saysMr. Swin- 
burne, " I cannot help feeling pity for the hard fate of 
the Sybarites, to whom we are indebted for the dis- 
covery of many most useful pieces of chamber and 
kitchen furniture. They appear to have been a peo- 
ple of great taste, and to have set the fashion, in 
point of dress, throughout all Greece. Their cooks, em- 

Tillemont, torn. iii. p.' 739, &c. So little has been preserved in 
eastern history before Mahomet, that the modern Persians are 
totally ignorant of the victory of Sapor, an event so glorious to their 
nation. See Bibliotheque Oricntalv. GIBBON. 

* Strubo ; Plutarch ; Arrian ; Quintus Curtius ; Prideaux ; 
Rollin ; Gibbon; Vincent; Hcimell ; Barthelemy ; Kinneir; 


broidercrs, and confectioners, were famous over all the 
polite world; and we may suppose their riding-masters 
did not enjoy a less brilliant reputation, since we are 
told of their having taught their horses to dance to a 
particular tune. The public voice, however, of all 
ages, has been against them. Sybaris""" was ten 
leagues from Croton. Four neighbouring states, and 
twenty-five cities, were subject to it ; so that it was 
alone able to raise an army of three hundred thou- 
sand men. The opulence of Sybaris was soon fol- 
lowed by luxury, and such a dissoluteness as is 
scarcely possible. The citizens employed themselves 
in nothing but banquets, games, shows, parties of 
pleasure, and carnivals. Public rewards and marks 
of distinction were bestowed on those who gave the 
most magnificent entertainments ; and even to such 
cooks as were best skilled in the important art of 
making new refinements to tickle the palate. The 
Sybarites carried their delicacy and effeminacy to 
such a height, that they carefully removed from their 
city all such artificers whose work was noisy ; and 
would not suffer any cocks in it, lest their shrill, 
piercing crow should disturb their slumbers. 

All these evils were heightened by dissension and 
discord, which at last proved their ruin. Five hun- 
dred of the wealthiest in the city having been expel- 
led by the faction of one Telys, fled to Croton. Telys 
demanded to have them surrendered to him ; and, on 
the refusal of the Crotonians to deliver them up, 
prompted to this generous resolution by Pythagoras, 
who then lived among them, Avar was declared. The 
Crotonians were headed by Milo, the famous champion; 
over whose shoulders a lion's skin was thrown, and 
himself armed with a club, like another Hercules. The 
latter gained a complete victory, and made a dread- 
* RoTli^T" 


ful havoc of those who fled, so that very few escaped ; 
and Sybaris was depopulated. 

About sixty years after this some Thessalians came 
and settled in it ; however, they did not long enjoy 
peace, being driven out by the Crotonians. Being 
thus reduced to the most fatal extremity, they im- 
plored the succour of the Lacedaemonians and Athe- 
nians. The latter, moved to compassion at their 
deplorable condition, after causing proclamation to 
be made in Peloponnesus, that all who were willing 
to assist that colony were at liberty to do it, sent the 
Sybarites a fleet of ten ships, under the command of 
Lampon and Xenocrates. They built a city near the 
ancient Sybaris, and called it Thurium. 

Two men, greatly renowned for their learning, the 
one an orator, and the other an historian, settled in 
this colony. The first was Lysias, at that time but 
fifteen years of age. He lived in Thurium, till that 
ill fate which befel the Athenians in Sicily, and then 
went to Athens. 

The second was Herodotus. Though he was 
born in Halicarnassus, a city of Caria, he was con- 
sidered as a native of Thurium, because he settled 
there with that colony. Divisions soon broke out in 
the city, on occasion of the new inhabitants, whom 
the rest would exclude from all public employments and 
privileges. But as these were much more numerous, 
they repulsed all the ancient Sybarites, and got the sole 
possession of the city. Being supported by the al- 
liance they made with the people of Croton, they 
grew very powerful ; and, having settled a popular 
form of government in their city, they divided the 
citizens into ten tribes, which they called by the 
names of the different nations whence they sprang. 

Sybaris was destroyed five times ; but had always 
the good fortune to be restored. It at length, how- 


ever, fell into irredeemable decay ; and, no doubt, 
justly, for every excess*, whether of luxury or voluptu- 
ousness, could be found there. The indolence of the 
inhabitants was so great, that they boasted that they 
never saw the sun either rise or set. The greatest en- 
couragement was liberally lavished on such as invented 
new pleasures ; and, as a natural consequence, though 
the city enjoyed a long period of prosperity, not a 
single citizen's name has been preserved to posterity, 
who is entitled to admiration, either for deeds of 
heroism, or the practice of milder virtues in private 

There is, nevertheless, one anecdote recorded in 
their favour. Being enslaved by the Lucanians, and 
afterwards subjected to the Romans, they still re- 
tained a fond attachment to the manners of Greece ; 
and are said to have displayed their partiality to their 
mother-country, in a manner that evinces both their 
taste and their feeling. Being compelled by the will 
of the conquerors, or by other circumstances, to adopt 
a foreign language and foreign manners, they were 
accustomed to assemble annually, on one of the great 
festivals of Greece, in order to revive the memory of 
their Grecian origin, to speak their primitive lan- 
guage, and to deplore, with tears and lamentations, 
their sad degradation. It would afford peculiar 
pleasure to discover some monument of a people of 
so much sensibility, and of sucb persevering pa- 

Seventy days sufficed to destroy all their grandeur! 
Five hundred and seventy-two years before the 
Christian era, the Crotoniates, under the famous 
athlete Milo, as we have already related, defeated 
the Sybarites in a pitched battle, broke down the 
dams of the Crathis, and let the furious stream into 

* Lempriere. 


the town, where it soon overturned and swept away 
every building of use and ornament. The inhabit- 
ants were massacred without mercy ; and the few 
that escaped the slaughter, and attempted to restore 
their city, were cut to pieces by a colony of Athe- 
nians, who afterwards removed to some distance, and 
founded Thurium. 

" Many ages, alas !" continues Mr. Swinburne, 
" have now revolved since man inhabited these plains 
in sufficient numbers to secure salubrity. The rivers 
have long rolled lawless over these low, desolated 
fields ; leaving, as they shrink back to their beds, 
black pools and nauseous swamps, to poison the 
whole region, and drive mankind still farther from its 
ancient possessions. Nothing in reality remains of 
Sybaris, which once gave law to nations, and could 
muster even so large a force as 300,000 fighting men. 
Not one stone remains upon another* !" 


THIS was a town in the Thebais, nearly under the 
tropic of Cancer ; greatly celebrated for the first at- 
tempt to ascertain the measure of the circumference 
of the earth by Eratosthenes, who, about the year 
276 A. c., was invited from Athens to Alexandria, 
by Ptolemy Evergetes. 

Juvenal, the poet, was banished there, on the pre- 
tence of commanding a cohort, stationed in the neigh- 

Its principal antiquities are a small temple, sup- 
posed to be the remains of Eratosthenes' observatory, 
the remains of a Roman bridge, and the ruins of 
the Saracen town. The latter includes the city 
wall, built of unburnt bricks, and defended by square 
towers, and several mosques with lofty minarets, 
and many large houses in a state of wonderful pre- 
* Lcmpricre ; Rollin ; Swinburne ; Eustace. 



servation, still entire, though resting on very frail 

" Syene, which, under so many different masters," 
says a celebrated French geographer, " has been the 
southern frontier of Egypt, presents in a greater degree 
than any other spot on the surface of the globe, that 
confused mixture of monuments, which, even in the 
destinies of the most potent monarchs, reminds us of 
human instability. Here the Pharaohs, and the 
Ptolemies, raised the temple, and the palaces which 
are found half buried under the drifting sand. Here 
are forts and villas built by the Romans and Arabians; 
and on the remains of all these buildings French in- 
scriptions are found, attesting that the warriors, and 
the learned men of modern Europe, pitched their 
tents, and erected their observatories on this spot. 
But the eternal power of nature presents a still more 
magnificent spectacle. Here are the terraces of 
reddish granite, of a particular character, hence 
called syenite, a term applied to those rocks, which 
differ from granite in containing particles of horn- 
blende. These mighty terraces, are shaped into peaks, 
across the bed of the Nile, and over them the river 
rolls majestically its impetuous foaming waves. 
Here are the quarries from which the obelisks and 
colossal statues of the Egyptian temples were dug. 
An obelisk, partially formed and still remaining 
attached to the native rock, bears testimony to the 
labours and patient efforts of human art. On the 
polished surfaces of these rocks, hieroglyphic sculp- 
tures represent the Egyptian deities, together with 
the sacrifices and offerings of this nation ; which, 
more than any other, has identified itself with the 
country which it inhabited, and has, in the most 
literal sense, engraved the records of its glory on the 
terrestrial globe*. 

* Wilkinson ; Malte-Bran. 



" THE fame of states, now no longer existing, 
lives," says Mr. Swinburne, " in books or tradition ; 
and we reverence their memory in proportion to the 
wisdom of their laws, the private virtues of their 
citizens, the policy and courage with which they 
defended their own dominions, or advanced their 
victorious standards into those of their enemies. 
Some nations have rendered their names illustrious, 
though their virtues and valour had but a very con- 
fined sphere to move in ; while other commonwealths 
and monarchies have subdued worlds, and roamed 
over whole continents in search of glory and power. 
Syracuse must be numbered in the former class, and 
amongst the most distinguished of that class. In 
public and private wealth, magnificence of buildings, 
military renown, and excellence in all arts and 
sciences, it ranks higher than most nations of anti- 
quity. The great names recorded in its annals still 
command our veneration ; though the trophies of 
their victories, and the monuments of their skill, 
have long been swept away by the hand of time." 

Syracuse is a city, the history of which is so 
remarkably interesting to all those who love liberty, 
that we shall preface our account of its ruins by 
adopting some highly important remarks afforded us 
by that celebrated and amiable writer to whose 
learning and genius we have been so greatly indebted 
throughout the whole of this work : (Rollin). 
" Syracuse," says he, " appears like a theatre, on 
which many surprising scenes have been exhibited ; 
or rather like a sea, sometimes calm and untroubled, 
but oftener violently agitated by winds and storms, 
always ready to overwhelm it entirely. We have 
seen, in no other republic, such sudden, frequent, 
c c 2 


violent, and various revolutions : sometimes enslaved 
by the most cruel tyrants ; at others, under the 

fovernment of the wisest kings : sometimes aban- 
oned to the capricious will of a populace, without 
either government or restriction ; sometimes per- 
fectly docile and submissive to the authority of 
law and the empire of reason ; it passed alternately 
from the most insupportable slavery to the most 
grateful liberty ; from convulsions and frantic emo- 
tions, to a wise, peaceable, and regular conduct. 
To what are such opposite extremes and vicissi- 
tiules to be attributed ? Undoubtedly, I think, the 
levity and inconstancy of the the Syracusans, which 
was their distinguishing characteristic, had a great 
share in them ; but what I am convinced conduced 
the most to them, was the very form of their govern- 
ment, compounded of the aristocratic and demo- 
cratic; that is to say, divided between the senate or 
elders, and the people. As there was no counter- 
poise in Syracuse to support a right balance between 
those two bodies, when authority inclined either to 
the one side or the other, the government presently 
changed, either into a violent and cruel tyranny, or 
an unbridled liberty, without order or regulation. 
The sudden confusion, at such times, of all orders of 
the state, made the way to the sovereign power easy 
to the most ambitious of the citizens. To attract 
the affection of their country, and soften the yoke to 
their fellow-citizens, some exercised that power with 
lenity, wisdom, equity, and popular behaviour ; and 
others, by nature less virtuously inclined, carried it 
to the last excess of the most absolute and cruel 
despotism, under pretext of supporting themselves 
against the attempts of their citizens, who, jealous 
of their liberty, thought every means for the re- 
covery of it legitimate and laudable. There were, 


besides, other reasons that rendered the government 
of Syracuse difficult, and thereby made way for the 
frequent changes it underwent. That city did not 
forget the signal victories it had obtained against the 
formidable power of Africa, and that it had carried its 
victorious arms and terror even to the walls of Car- 
thage. Besides which, riches, the natural effect of com- 
merce, had rendered the Syracusans proud, haughty, 
and imperious, and at the same time had plunged 
them into a sloth and luxury, that inspired them 
with a disgust for all fatigue and application. They 
abandoned themselves blindly to their orators, who 
had acquired an absolute ascendant over them. In 
order to make them obey, it was necessary either to 
flatter or reproach them. They had naturally a 
fund of equity, humanity, and good nature; and 
yet, when influenced by the seditious discourses of 
the orators, they would proceed to excessive violence 
and cruelties, which they immediately after repented. 
When they were left to themselves, their liberty, 
which at that time knew no bounds, soon degenerated 
into caprice, fury, violence, and even frenzy. On the 
contrary, when they were subjected to the yoke, they 
became base, timorous, submissive, and creeping like 
slaves. With a small attention to the whole series of the 
history of the Syracusans, it may easily be perceived, 
as Galba afterwards said of the Romans, that they 
were equally incapable of bearing either entire liberty 
or entire servitude ; so that the ability and policy of 
those, who governed them, consisted in keeping the 
people to a wise medium between those two extremes, 
by seeming to leave them an entire freedom in their 
resolutions, and reserving only to themselves the care 
of explaining the utility, and facilitating the execu- 
tion, of good measures. And in this some of its 
magistrates and kings were wonderfully successful ; 


under whose government the Syracusans always 
enjoyed peace and tranquillity, were obedient to 
their princes, and perfectly submissive to the laws. 
And this induces one to conclude, that the revolu- 
tions of Syracuse were less the effect of the people's 
levity, than the fault of those that governed them, 
who had not the art of managing their passions, 
and engaging their affection, which is properly 
the science of kings, and of all who command 

Syracuse was founded about seven hundred and 
thirty-two years before the Christian era, by a Co- 
rinthian named Archias ; one of the Heraclidae. 

The two first ages of its history are very obscure ; 
it does not begin to be known till after the age of 
Gelon, and furnishes in the sequel many great events 
for the space of more than two hundred years. 
During all that time it exhibits a perpetual alter- 
nation of slavery under the tyrants, and liberty under 
a popular government, till Syracuse is at length 
subjected to the Romans, and makes part of their 

The Carthaginians, in concert with Xerxes, having 
attacked the Greeks who inhabited Sicily, whilst 
that prince was employed in making an irruption 
into Greece, Gelon, who had made himself master of 
Syracuse, obtained a celebrated victory over the 
Carthaginians, the very day of the battle of Thermo- 

Gelon, upon returning from his victory, repaired 
to the assembly without arms or guards, to give the 
people an account of his conduct. He was chosen 
king unanimously. He reigned five or six years, 
solely employed in the truly royal care of making 
his people happy. 

Gelon is said to have been the first man who became 


more virtuous by being raised to a throne. He was 
eminent for honesty, truth, and sincerity; he never 
wronged the meanest of his subjects, and never 
promised a thing which he did not perform. 

Hiero, the eldest of Gelon's brothers, succeeded 
him. The beginning of his reign was worthy of 
great praise. Simonides and Pindar celebrated him 
,in emulation of each other. The latter part of it, 
however, did not answer the former. He reigned 
eleven years. 

Thrasybulus, his brother, succeeded him. He 
rendered himself odious to all his subjects, by his 
vices and cruelty. They expelled him the throne 
and city, after a reign of one year. 

After his expulsion, Syracuse and all Sicily en- 
joyed their liberty for the space of almost sixty 

During this interval, the Athenians, animated by 
the warm exhortations of Alcibiades, turned their 
arms against Syracuse; this was in the sixth year of 
the Peloponnesian war. This event was fatal to 
the Athenians. 

The reign of Dionysius the Elder is famous for 
its length of thirty-eight years, and still more for 
the extraordinary events with which it was at- 

Dionysius, son of the elder Dionysius, succeeded 
him. He contracted a particular intimacy with 
Plato, and had frequent conversations with him. 
He did not long improve from the wise precepts of 
that philosopher, hut soon abandoned himself to all 
the vices and excesses which attend tyranny. 

Besieged by Dion, he escaped from Sicily, and 
retired into Italy, where he was assassinated, in his 
house by Callippus. 

Thirteen months after the death of Dion, Hippa- 
rinus, brother of Dionysius the Younger, expelled 


Callippus, and established himself in Syracuse. 
During the two years of his reign, Sicily was agitated 
by great commotions. 

Dionysius the Younger, taking advantage of these 
troubles, reascends the throne ten years after having 
quitted it. At last, reduced by Timoleon, he retires 
to Corinth. Here he preserved some semblance of 
his former tyranny, by turning schoolmaster, and 
exercising a discipline over boys, when he could no 
longer tyrannise over men. He had learning, and 
was once a scholar to Plato, whom he caused to 
come again into Sicily, notwithstanding the unworthy 
treatment he had met with from Dionysius's father. 
Philip, king of Macedon, meeting him in the streets 
of Corinth, and asking him how he came to lose so 
considerable a principality as had been left him by 
his father, he answered, that his father had indeed 
left him the inheritance, but not the fortune which 
had preserved both himself and that; however, 
Fortune did him no great injury, in replacing him 
on the dunghill, from which she had raised his 

Timoleon restored liberty to Syracuse. He passed 
the rest of his life there in a glorious retirement, 
beloved and honoured by all the citizens and 

This interval of liberty was of no long duration. 
Agathocles, in a short time, makes himself tyrant 
of Syracuse. He commits unparalleled cruelties. 
He forms one of the boldest designs related in history, 
carries the war into Africa, makes himself master of 
the strongest places, and ravages the whole country. 
After various events, he" perishes miserably, after a 
reign of about twenty-eight years*. 

* He was, according to most historians, the son of a potter, but 
all allow him to have worked at the trade. From the obscurity 
of his birth and condition, Polybius raises an argument to prove his 


Syracuse took new life again for some time, and 
tasted with joy the sweets of liberty. But she 
suffered much from the Carthaginians, who disturbed 
her tranquillity by continual wars. She called in 
Pyrrhus to her aid. The rapid success of his arms 
at first gave him great hopes, which soon vanished. 
Pyrrhus, by a sudden retreat, plunged the Syra- 
cusans into new misfortunes. They were not happy 
and in tranquillity till the reign of Hiero II., which 
was very long, and almost always pacific. 

Hieronymus scarce reigned one year. His death 
was followed with great troubles, and the taking of 
Syracuse by Marcellus. 

Of this celebrated siege, since it was the ruin of 
Syracuse, it is our duty to give some account. 

" The Romans carrying on their attacks at two different 
places, Syracuse was in great consternation, and apprehended 
that nothing could oppose so terrible a power, and such mighty 
efforts ; and it had indeed been impossible to have resisted 
them, without the assistance of a single man, whose wonderful 
industry was every thing to the Syracusans this was Archi- 
medes. He had taken care to supply the walls with all things 
necessary to a good defence. As soon as his machines began 
to play on the land-side, they discharged upon the infantry all 
sorts of darts, and stones of enormous weight, which flew with 
so much noise, force, and rapidity, that nothing could oppose 
their shock. They beat down and dashed to pieces all before 

" Marcellus succeeded no better on the side of the sea. Archi- 
medes had disposed his machines in such a manner as to throw 
darts to any distance. Though the enemy lay far from the 
city, he reached them with his larger and more forcible balistse 
and catapultse. When they overshot their mark, he had 
smaller, proportioned to the distance, which put the Romans 

capacity and talents, in opposition to the slanders of Timseus. But 
his greatest eulogium was the praise of Scipio. That illustrious 
Roman being asked, who, in his opinion, were the most prudent in 
the conduct of their affairs, and most judiciously bold in the execu- 
tion of their designs, answered, Agathocles and Dionysius. (Polyb. 
1. xv. p. 1003, edit. Gronov.) However, let his capacity have 
been ever so great, it was exceeded by his cruelties. flollin. 


into such confusion as made them incapable of attempting 
any thing. 

" This was not the greatest danger. Archimedes had placed 
lofty and strong machines behind the walls, which suddenly 
letting fall vast beams, with an immense weight at the end of 
them, upon the ships, sunk them to the bottom. Besides this, 
he caused an iron grapple to be let out by a chain ; the person 
who guided the machine having caught hold of the head of a 
ship with this hook, by the means of a weight let down within 
the walls, it was lifted up and set upon its stern, and held so 
for some time ; then, by letting go the chain either by a wheel 
or a pulley, it was let fall again with its whole weight either 
on its head or side, and often entirely sunk. At other times the 
machines dragging the ship towards the shore by cords and 
hooks, after having made it whirl about a great while, dashed 
it to pieces against the points of the rocks which projected 
under the walls, and thereby destroyed all within it. Galleys, 
frequently seized and suspended in the air, were whirled about 
with rapidity, exhibiting a dreadful sight to the spectators ; 
after which they were let fall into the sea, and sunk to the 
bottom, with all that were in them. 

" Marcellus, almost discouraged, and at a loss what to do, 
retired as fast as possible with his galleys, and sent orders to 
his land forces to do the same. He called also a council of 
war, in which it was resolved the next day, before sun-rise, to 
endeavour to approach the walls. They were in hopes by this 
means to shelter themselves from the machines, which, for want 
of a distance proportioned to. their force, would be rendered in- 

"But Archimedes had provided against all contingencies. He 
had prepared machines long before, as we have already observed, 
that carried to all distances a proportionate quantity of darts, 
and ends of beams, which being very short, required less time 
for preparing them, and in consequence were more frequently 
discharged. He had besides made small chasms or loop-holes 
in the walls at little distances, where he had placed scorpions, 
which, not carrying far, wounded those who approached, with- 
out being perceived but by that effect. 

" When the Romans, according to their design, had gained the 
foot of the walls, and thought themselves well covered, they 
found themselves exposed either to an infinity of darts, or over- 
whelmed with stones, which fell directly upon their heads ; - 
there being no part of the wall which did not continually pour 
that mortal hail upon them. This obliged them to retire. 
But they were no sooner removed than a new discharge of darts 
overtook them in their retreat ; so that they lost great numbers 


of men, and almost all their galleys were disabled or beat to 
pieces, without being able to revenge their loss in the least upon 
their enemies : for Archimedes had planted most of his machines 
in security behind the walls ; and the Romans, says Plutarch, 
repulsed by an infinity of wounds, without seeing the place or 
hand from which they came, seemed to fight in reality with the 

" Marcellus, though at a loss what to do, and not knowing 
how to oppose the machines of Archimedes, could not, how- 
ever, forbear pleasantries upon them. ' Shall we persist,' said 
he to his workmen and engineers, ' in making war with this 
Briareus of a geometrician, who treats my galleys and sambucse 
so rudely ? He infinitely exceeds the fabled giants with their 
hundred hands, in his perpetual and surprising discharges upon 
us.' Marcellus had reason for referring to Archimedes only ; 
for the Syracusans were really no more than the members of the 
engines and machines of that great geometrician, who was him- 
self the soul of all their powers and operations. All other arms 
were unemployed ; for the city at that time made use of none, 
either defensive or offensive, but those of Archimedes. 

" Marcellus at length renounced his hopes of being able to 
make a breach in the place, gave over his attacks, and turned 
the siege into a blockade. The Romans conceived they had no 
other resource than to reduce the great number of people in the 
city by famine, in cutting off all provisions that might be 
brought to them either by sea or land. During the eight months 
in which they besieged the city, there were no kind of stra- 
tagems which they did not invent, nor any actions of valour 
left untried, almost to the assault, which they never dared to 
attempt more. So much force, on some occasions, have a sin- 
gle man, and a single science, when rightly applied. 

" A burning glass is spoken of, by means of which Archi- 
medes is said to have burned part of the Roman fleet. 

" In the beginning of the third campaign, Marcellus almost 
absolutely despairing of being able to take Syracuse, either by 
force, because Archimedes continually opposed him with invin- 
cible obstacles, or famine, as the Carthaginian fleet, which was 
returned more numerous than before, easily threw in convoys, 
deliberated whether he should continue before Syracuse to push 
the siege, or turn his endeavours against Agrigentum. But 
before he came to a final determination, he thought proper to 
try whether he could make himself master of Syracuse by some 
secret intelligence. 

" This, too, having miscarried, Marcellus found himself in 
new difficulties. Nothing employed his thoughts but the shame 
of raising a siege, after having consumed so much time, and 


sustained the loss of so many men and ships in it. An accident 
supplied him with a resource, and gave new life to his hopes. 
Some Roman vessels had taken one Damippus, whom Epicydes 
had sent to negociate with Philip king of Macedon. The 
Syraeusans expressed a great desire to ransom this man, and 
Marcellus was not averse to it. A place near the port Trogilus 
was agreed on for the conferences concerning the ransom of the 
prisoner. As the deputies went thither several times, it came 
into a Roman soldier's thoughts to consider the wall with 
attention. After having counted the stones, and examined- 
with his eye the measure of each of them, upon a calculation 
of the height of the wall, he found it to be much lower than it 
was believed, and concluded, that with ladders of a moderate 
size it might be easily scaled. Without loss of time he related 
the whole to Marcellus. Marcellus did not neglect this advice, 
and assured himself of its reality with his own eyes. Having 
caused ladders to be prepared, he took the opportunity of a 
festival that the Syracusans celebrated for three days in honour 
of Diana, during which the inhabitants gave themselves up 
entirely to rejoicing and good cheer. At the time of night 
when he conceived that the Syracusans, after their debauch, 
began to fall asleep, he made a thousand chosen troops, in 
profound silence, advance with their ladders to the wall. When 
the first got to the top without noise or tumult, the others 
followed, encouraged by the boldness and success of their 
leaders. These thousand soldiers, taking the advantage of the 
enemy's stillness, who were either drunk or asleep, soon scaled 
the wall. 

" It was then no longer time to deceive, but terrify the enemy. 
The Syracusans, awakened by the noise, began to rouse, and to 
prepare for action. Marcellus made all his trumpets sound 
together, which so alarmed them, that all the inhabitants fled, 
believing every cpuarter of the city in the possession of the 
enemy. The strongest and best part, however, called Achra- 
dina, was not yet taken, because separated by its walls from 
the rest of the city. 

" All the captains and officers with Marcellus. congratulated 
him upon this extraordinary success. For himself, when he 
had considered from an eminence the loftiness, beauty, and 
extent of that city, he is said to have shed tears, and to have 
deplored the unhappy condition it was upon the point of 

" As it was then autumn, there happened a plague, which 
killed great numbers in the city, and still more in the Roman 
and Carthaginian camps. The distemper was not excessive at 
first, and proceeded only from the bad air and season; but 


afterwards the communication with the infected, and even the 
care taken of them, dispersed the contagion; from whence it 
happened that some, neglected and absolutely abandoned, died 
of the violence of the malady, and others received help, which 
became fatal to those who brought it. Nothing was heard 
night and day but groans and lamentations. At length, the 
being accustomed to the evil had hardened their hearts to such 
a degree, and so far extinguished all sense of compassion in 
them, that they not only ceased to grieve for the dead, but left 
. them without interment. Nothing was to be seen every where 
but dead bodies, exposed to the view of those who expected the 
same fate. The Carthaginians suffered much more from it 
than the others. As they had no place to retire to, they almost 
all perished, with their generals Hippocrates and Himilcon. 
Marcellus, from the breaking out of the disease, had brought 
his soldiers into the city, where the roofs and shade was of 
great relief to them ; he lost, however, no inconsiderable 
number of men. 

" Amongst those, who commanded in Syracuse, there was a 
Spaniard named Mericus: him a means was found to corrupt. 
He gave up the gate near the fountain Arethusa to soldiers 
sent by Marcellus in -the night to take possession of it. At 
day-break the next morning, Marcellus made a false attack at 
Achradina, to draw all the forces of the citadel and the isle 
adjoining to it, to that side, and to facilitate the throwing some 
troops into the isle, which would be unguarded, by some 
vessels he had prepared. Every thing succeeded according to 
his plan. The soldiers, whom those vessels had landed in the 
isle, finding almost all the posts abandoned, and the gates by 
which the garrison of the citadel had marched out against 
Marcellus still open, they took possession of them after a slight 

" The Syracusans opened all their gates to Marcellus, and 
sent deputies to him with instructions to demand nothing" 
further from him than the preservation of the lives of them- 
selves and their children. Marcellus having assembled his 
council, and some Syracusans who were in his camp, gave his 
answer to the deputies in their presence : ' That Hiero, for 
fifty years, had not done the Roman people more good than 
those who have been masters of Syracuse some years past had 
intended to do them harm ; but that their ill-will had fallen 
upon their own heads, and they had punished themselves for 
their violation of treaties in a more severe manner than the 
Romans could have desired. That he had besieged Syracuse 
during three years ; not that the Roman people might reduce 
it into slavery, but to prevent the chiefs of the revolters from 


continuing it under oppression. That he had undergone many 
fatigues and dangers in so long a siege, but that he thought he 
had made himself ample amends by the glory of having taken 
that city, and the satisfaction of having saved it from the entire 
ruin it seemed to deserve.' After having placed a guard upon 
the treasury, and safe-guards in the houses of the Syracusans, 
who had withdrawn into his camp, he abandoned the city to 
be plundered by the troops. It is reported that the riches 
which were pillaged in Syracuse at this time exceeded all that 
could have been expected at the taking of Carthage itself." 

The chronicles of Syracuse * commemorate endless 
and bitter dissentions among the several ranks of 
citizens, the destruction of liberty by tyrants, their 
expulsion and re-establishment, victories over the 
Carthaginians, and many noble struggles to vindicate 
the rights of mankind ; till the fatal hour arrived, 
when the Roman leviathan swallowed all up. In- 
glorious peace and insignificance were afterwards, 
for many ages, the lot of Syracuse ; and, probably, 
the situation was an eligible one, except in times of 
such governors as Verres. At length, Rome herself 
fell in her turn, a prey to conquest, and barbarians 
divided her ample spoils. The Vandals seized upon 
Sicily ; but it was soon wrested from them by Theo- 
doric the Goth ; and at his death, fell into the hands 
of the Eastern emperor. Totila afflicted Syracuse 
with a long but fruitless siege : yet it was not so well 
defended against the Saracens. These cruel enemies 
took it twice, and exercised the most savage barba- 
rities on the wretched inhabitants. They kept pos- 
session of it two hundred years, and made an obsti- 
nate resistance against Earl Roger, in this fortress, 
which was one of the last of their possessions, that 
yielded to his victorious arms. 

" It is truly melancholy," says Mr. Brydone, " to 
think of the dismal contrast, that its former magni- 
ficence' makes with its present meanness. The mighty 

* Swinburne. 


Syracuse, the most opulent and powerful of all the 
Grecian cities, which, by its own strength alone, was 
able at different times to contend against all the 
power of Carthage and of Rome, in which it is re- 
corded to have repulsed fleets of 2000 sail, and armies 
of 200,000 men; and contained within its walls, 
what no other city ever did before or since, fleets and 
armies that were the terror of the world: this 
haughty and magnificent city is reduced even below 
the consequence of the most insignificant borough." 

In its most flourishing state Syracuse, according 
to Strabo, extended twenty-two and a half English 
miles in circumference *, and was divided into four 
districts ; each of which was, as it were, a separate 
city, fortified with three citadels, and three-fold 

Of the four cities t that composed this celebrated 
city, there remains only Ortygia, by much the small- 
est, situated in the island of that name. It is about 
two miles round. The ruins of the other three are 
computed at twenty-two miles in circumference. 
The walls of these are every where built with broken 
marbles, covered over with engravings and inscrip- 
tions ; but most of them defaced and spoiled. The 
principal remains of antiquity are a theatre and am- 
phitheatre, many sepulchres, the Latomie, the cata- 
combs, and the famous Ear of Dionysius, which it was 
impossible to destroy. The Latomie now forms a 
noble subterraneous garden, and is, indeed, a very 
beautiful and romantic spot. The whole is hewn out 
of a rock as hard as marble, composed entirely of a 
concretion of gravel, shells, and other marine bodies ; 

* This aecotmt Mr. Swinburne suspected of exaggeration ; but 
after spending two days in tracing the ruins, and making reasonable 
allowances for the encroachments of the sea, be was convinced of 
the exactness of Strabo's measurement, 
j- Brydone. 


and many orange, bergamot, and fig trees, grow out of 
the hard rock, where there is no mark of any soil. 

There are many remains of temples. The Duke 
of Montalbano, who has written on the antiquities 
of Syracuse, reckons nearly twenty ; but few of these 
now are distinguishable. A few fine columns of that 
of Jupiter Olympius still remain ; and the temple of 
Minerva (now converted into the cathedral of the city, 
and dedicated to the Virgin) is almost entire. 

There are some remains, also, of Diana's temple, 
near to the church of St, Paul ; but they are not 

The palace of Dionysius, his tomb, the baths of 
Daphnis, and other ancient buildings, and all their 
statues and paintings*, have disappeared ; but the 
Ear, of which history speaks so loud, still remains. 
It is no less a monument of the ingenuity and mag- 
nificence, than of the cruelty of the tyrant. It 
is a huge cavern, cut out of the hard rock, exactly 
in the form of the human ear. The perpendicular 
height of it is about eighty feet, and the length 
is no less than two hundred and fifty. The cavern 
was said to be so contrived, that every sound, 
made in it, was collected and united into one 
point as into a focus. This was called the tympa- 
num ; and exactly opposite to it the tyrant had made a 
hole, communicating with a little apartment, in which 
he used to conceal himself. He applied his own ear 
to this hole, and is said to have heard distinctly every 
word that was spoken in the cavern below. This 
apartment was no sooner finished, than he put to 

* Plutarch relates, Marcellns took the spoils of Sicily, con- 
sisting, in part, of the most valuable statues and paintings of Syra- 
cuse, purposely to adorn his triumph, and ornament the city of 
Rome, -which, before his time, had never known any curiosity of 
that kind ; and he adds, that Marccllus took merit to himself for 
being the first, who taught the Romans to admire the exquisite per- 
formances of Greece. 


death all the workmen that had heen employed in it. 
He then confined all those that he suspected of being 
his enemies ; and hy hearing their conversation 
judged of their guilt, and condemned or acquitted 

The holes in the rock, to which the prisoners were 
chained, still remain, and even the lead and iron in 
several of the holes. 

The cathedral", now dedicated to Our Lady of the 
Pillar, was the temple of Minerva, on the summit of 
which her statue was fixed ; holding a broad, reful- 
gent shield. Every Syracusan, that sailed out of the 
port, was bound by his religion to carry honey, 
flowers, and ashes, which he thr^ew into the sea, the 
instant he lost sight of the buckler. This was to 
ensure a safe return. The temple is built in the 
Doric proportions, used in the rest of Sicily. Its 
exterior dimensions are one hundred and eighty-five 
feet in length, and seventy-five in breadth. 

The amphitheatret is in the form of a very eccen- 
tric ellipse ; but the theatre is so entire, that most of 
the seats still remain. 

The great harbour ran into the heart of the city, 
and was called " Marmoreo," because it was entirely 
encompassed with buildings of marble. Though the 
buildings are gone, the harbour exists in all its 
beauty. It is capable of receiving vessels of the 
greatest burden, and of containing a numerous fleet. 
Although at present this harbour is entirely neg- 
lected, it might easily be rendered a great naval and 
commercial station. 

The catacombs are a great work; not inferior 
either to those of Rome or Naples, and in the same 

There was also a prison, called Latomiae, a word 
signifying a quarry. Cicero has particularly described 
*^ Swinburne. t Brydone. 



this dreadful prison, winch was a cave dug out of 
the solid rock, one hundred and twenty-five paces 
long, and twenty feet broad, and almost one hundred 
feet below the surface of the earth. Cicero, also, 
reproaches Verres with imprisoning Roman citizens 
in this place; which was the work of Dionysius, who 
caused those to be shut up in it, who had the mis- 
fortune to have incurred his displeasure. It is now 
a noble subterranean garden. 

The fountain of Arethusa* also still exists. It 
was dedicated to Diana, who had a magnificent 
temple near its banks, where great festivals were 
annually celebrated in honour of that goddess. It is 
indeed an astonishing fountain, and rises at once out 
of the earth to the size of a river ; and many of the 
people believe, even to this day, that it is the iden- 
tical river, Arethusa, that was said to have sunk 
under -ground near Olympia in Greece, and, conti- 
nuing its course five hundred or six hundred miles 
below the ocean, rose again in this spot.t 


THE glory of Thebes "belongs to a period, prior to 
the commencement of authentic history. It is re- 
corded only by the divine light of poetry and tradi- 
tion, which might be suspected as fable, did not 
such mighty witnesses remain to attest the truth. 
A curious calculation, made from the rate of increase 
of deposition by the Nile, corroborated by other 
evidence, shows however that this city must have 
been founded four thousand seven hundred and sixty 
years ago, or two thousand nine hundred and thirty 
before Christ. There are the ruins of a temple, bear- 
ing an inscription, stating that it was founded by 
Osymandyas, who reigned, according to M. Cham- 

* Brydone. f Plutarch ; Rollin ; Swinburne ; Brydone. 


pollioii, two thousand two hundred and seventy 
years before Christ. 

Thebes was called, also, Diospolis, as having been 
saci-ed to Jupitc-r ; and Hecatompylos, on account, it 
is supposed, of its having had a hundred gates. 

" Not all proud Thebes' unrivull'd walls contains, 
The world's great empress, on the Egyptian plain ; 
That spreads her conquests o'er r. thousand states, 
And pours her heroes through a hundred gates 
Two hunched horsemen, and two hundred cars, 
From each wide portal issuing to the wars." 


" This epithet Hecatompylos, however," says Mr. 
Wilkinson, " applied to it by Homer, has generally 
been supposed to refer to the hundred gates of its 
wall of circuit ; but this difficulty is happily solved 
by an observation of Diodorus, that many suppose 
them ' to have been the propylaea of the temples,' 
and that this expression rather implies a plurality, 
than a definite number." 

Historians are unanimously agreed, that Menes 
was the first king of Egypt. It is pretended, and 
not without foundation, that he is the same with 
Misraim, the son of Cham. Cham was the second 
son of Noah. When the family of the latter, after 
the attempt of building the Tower of Babel, dis- 
persed themselves into different countries ; Cham 
retired to Africa, and it was, doubtless, he who 
afterwards was worshipped as a god, under the 
name of Jupiter Ammon. He had four children, 
Chus, Misraim, Phut, and Canaan. Chus settled 
in Ethiopia, Misraim in Egypt, which generally is 
called in Scripture after his name, and by that of 
Cham, his father. Phut took possession of that part 
of Africa which lies westward of Egypt ; and Ca- 
naan, of the country which has since borne his name. 

Misraim is agreed to be the same as Menes, whom 
all historians declare to be the first king of Egypt ; 

D D 2 


the institutor of the worship of the gods, and of tho 
ceremonies of the sacrifices. 

Some ages after him, Busiris built the city of 
Thebes, and made it the seat of his empire. This 
prince is not to be confounded with the Busiris who, 
in so remarkable a manner, distinguished himself by 
his inordinate cruelties. In respect to Osymandyas, 
Diodorua gives a Tery particular account of many 
magnificent edifices raised by him ; one of which 
was adorned with sculpture and paintings of great 
beauty, representing an expedition against the Bac- 
trians, a people of Asia, whom he had invaded with 
four hundred thousand foot, and twenty thousand 
horse. In another part of the edifice was exhibited 
an assembly of the judges, whose president wore on 
his breast a picture of Truth, with her eyes shut, 
and himself surrounded with books ; an emphatic- 
emblem, denoting that judges ought to be perfectly 
versed in the laws, and impartial in the adminis- 
tration of them. The king, also, was painted there, 
offering to the gods silver and gold, which he drew 
from the mines of Egypt, amounting to the sum of 
sixteen millions. 

So old as this king's reign, the Egyptians divided 
the year into twelve months, each consisting of thirty 
days ; to which they added, every year, five days and 
six hours. To quote the words of a well-known 
writer, (Professor Heeren,) " its monuments testify 
to us a time when it was the centre of the civilisa- 
tion of the human race ; a civilisation, it is true, 
which has not endured, but which, nevertheless, 
forms one of the steps by which mankind has at- 
tained to higher perfection." 

Although Thebes had greatly fallen from its 
former splendour, in the time of Cambyses the 
Persian it was the fury of this lawless and merciless 
conqueror that gave the last blow to its grandeur, 


about 520 years before the Christian era. He pil- 
laged its temples, and carried away the ornaments 
of gold, silver, and ivory. Before this period, no 
city in the world could be compared with it in size, 
beauty, and wealth ; and according to the expression 
of Diodorus " The sun had never seen so maoTiifi- 
cent a city." 

The next step towards the decline and fall of this 
city was, as we learn from Diodorus, the preference 
given to Memphis ; and the removal of the seat of 
government thither, and subsequently to Sais and 
Alexandria, proved as disastrous to the welfare, as 
the Persian invasion had been to the splendour, of 
the capital of Upper Egypt. " Commercial wealth," 
says Mr. Wilkinson, " on the accession of the Ptole- 
mies, began to flow through other channels. Coptos 
and Apollinopolis succeeded to the lucrative trade of 
Arabia ; and Ethiopia no longer contributed to the 
revenues of Thebes ; and its subsequent destruction, 
after a three years' siege, by Ptolemy Lathyrus, 
struck a death-blow to the welfare and existence of 
this capital, which was, thenceforth, scarcely deemed 
an Egyptian city. Some few repairs, however, were 
made to its dilapidated temples by Evergetes II., 
and some by the later Ptolemies. But it remained 
depopulated ; and at the time of Strabo's visit, was 
already divided into small and detached villages." 

Thebes was, perhaps, the most astonishing work 
ever performed by the hand of man. In the time 
of its splendour, it extended above twenty-three 
miles ; and upon any emergency could send into the 
field seven hundred thousand men, according to 
Tacitus ; but Homer allows only that it could pour 
through each of its hundred gates two hundred armed 
men, with their chariots and horses, which makes 
about forty thousand men, allowing two men to each 


Though its walls were twenty-four feet in thick- 
ness, and its buildings the most solid and magnifi- 
cent ; yet, in the time of Strabo and of Juvenal, 
only mutilated columns, broken obelisks, and temples 
levelled with the dust, remained to mark its situa- 
tion, and inform the traveller of the desolation which 
time, or the more cruel hand of tyranny, can assert 
over the proudest monuments of human art. 

" Thebes," says Strabo, " presents only remains of its 
former grandeur, dispersed over a space eighty stadia in 
length, Here are found great number of temples, in part 
destroyed by Cambyses ; its inhabitants have retired to small 
towns, east of the Nile, where the present city is built, and 
to the western shore, near Memnoninm ; at which place we 
admired two colossal stone figures, standing on each side, the 
one entire, the other in part thrown down, it has been said by 
an earthquake. There is a popular opinion, that the remaining 
part of this statue, towards the base, utters a sound once a 
day. Curiosity leading me to examine this fact, I went thither 
with JElius Gallus, who was accompanied with his numerous 
friends, and an escort of soldiers. I heard a sound about six 
o'clock in the morning, but dare not affirm whether it pro- 
ceeded from the base, from the colossus, or had been produced 
by some person present ; for one is rather inclined to suppose 
a thousand different causes, than that it should be the effect 
of a certain assemblage of stones. 

" Beyond Memnonium are the tombs of the kings, hewn 
out of the rock. There are about forty, made after a mar- 
vellous manner, and worthy the attention of travellers. Near 
them are obelisks, bearing various inscriptions, descriptive of 
the wealth, power, and extensive empire of those sovereigns 
who reigned over Scythia, Bactriana, Judaea, and what is now 
called Ionia. They also recount the various tributes those 
kings had exacted, and the number of their troops, which 
amounted to a million of men." 

We now proceed to draw from Diodorus Siculus : 

"The great Diospolis , ' ' says he, " which the Greeks have named 
Thebes, was six miles^in circumference. Busiris, who founded 
it, adorned it with magnificent edifices and presents. The 
fame of its power and wealth, celebrated by Homer, has 
filled the world. Never was there a city which received so 
many offerings in silver, gold and ivory, colossal statues and 


obelisks, each cut from a single stone. Four principal temples 
are especially admired there : the most ancient of which was sur- 
passingly grand and sumptuous. It was thirteen stadia in 
circumference, and surrounded by walls twenty-four feet in 
thickness and forty-five cubits high. The richness and work- 
manship of its ornaments were correspondent to the majesty 
of the building, which many kings contributed to embellish. 
The temple still is standing ; but it was stripped of its silver 
and gold, ivory, and precious stones, when Cambyses set fire 
to all the temples of Egypt." 

The following account of the tomb of Osymandyas 
is also from Diodorus : 

"Ten stadia from the tombs of the kings of Thebes, is 
the admirable one of Osymandyas. The entrance to it is by a 
vestibule of various coloured stones, two hundred feet long, 
and sixty-eight high. Leaving this we enter a square peris- 
tyle, each side of which is four hundred feet in length. 
Animals tsventy-four feet high, cut from blocks of granite, 
serve as columns to support the ceiling, which is composed, 
of marble slabs, twenty-seven feet square, and embellished 
throughout by golden stars glittering on a ground of azure. 
Beyond this peristyle is another entrance ; and after that a 
vestibule, built like the first, but containing more sculptures 
of all kinds. At the entrance are three statues, formed from 
a single stone by Memnon Syncite, the principal of which, re- 
presenting the king, is seated, and is the largest in Egypt. One 
of its feet, exactly measured, is about seven cubits. The other 
had figures supported on its knees ; the one on the right, the 
other on the left, are those of his mother and daughter. The 
whole work is less valuable for its enormous grandeur, than for 
the beauty of the sculpture, and the choice of the granite, 
which, though so extensive, has neither flaw nor blemish on its 
surface. The colossus bears this inscription : ' I am Osyman- 
dyas, king of kings ; he who would comprehend my greatness, 
and where I rest, let him destroy some one of these works.' 
Beside this, is another statue of his mother, cut from a single 
block of granite, thirty feet high. Three queens are sculp- 
tured on her head, intimating that she was a daughter, wife, 
and mother of a king. After this'portico is a peristyle, still more 
beautiful than the first ; on the stones of which is engraved, 
the history of the wars of Osymandyas, against the rebels of 
Bactriana. The facade of the front wall exhibits this prince 
attacking ramparts, at the foot of which the river flows. He 
is combating advanced troops ; and by his side is a terrible 
lion, ardent in his defence. On the right wall are captives in 


chains, with their hands and genitals cut off, as marks of re- 
proach for (heir cowardice. The wall on the left contains 
symbolical figures of exceedingly good sculpture, descriptive of 
triumphs and sacrifice of Osymandyas returning from this war. 
In the centre of the peristyle, where the roof is open, an altar 
was erected of a single stone of marvellous bulk and exquisite 
workmanship ; and at the farther wall are two colossal figures, 
each hewn from a single block of marble, forty feet high, 
seated on their pedestals. This admirable peristyle has three 
gates, one between the two statues, and the others on each side. 
These lead to an edifice two hundred feet square, the roof of 
which is supported by high columns ; it resembles a magnificent 
theatre ; several figures carved in wood, represent a tribunal 
administering justice. Thirty judges are seen on one of the 
walls ; and in the midst of them the chief justice, with a pile 
of books at his feet, and a figure of Truth, with her eyes shut, 
suspended from his neck ; beyond is a walk, surrounded by 
edifices of various forms, in which were tables stored with all 
kinds of delicious via'hds. In one of these, Osymandyas, clothed 
in magnificent robes, offers up the gold and silver which he 
annually drew from the mines of Egypt to the gods. Beneath, 
the amount of this revenue, which was thirty-two million 
ininas of silver, was inscribed. Another building contained the 
sacred library, at the entrance of which these words were read: 
' Physic for the soul.' A fourth contained all the deities of 
Egypt, with the king offering suitable presents to each ; and 
calling Osiris and the surrounding divinities to witness, he had 
exercised piety towards the gods, and justice towards men. 
Beside the library stood one of the finest of these edifices, and 
in it twenty couches to recline on, while feasting ; also the sta- 
tues of Jupiter, Juno, and Osymandyas, whose body, it is sup- 
posed, was deposited heYe, Various adjoining apartments 
contained representations of all the consecrated animals of 
Egypt. Hence was the ascent to the sepulchre of the king; 
on the summit of which was placerl a circle of gold, in thick- 
ness one cubit, and three hundred and sixty-five in circum- 
ference, each cubit corresponding to a day in the year ; and 
on it was engraved the rising and setting of the stars for that 
day, with such astrological indications as the superstition of 
the Egyptians had affixed to them. Cambyses is said to have 
carried off this circle, when he ravaged Egypt. Such, accord- 
ing to historians, was the tomb of Osymandyas, which surpassed 
all others as well by its wealth, as by the workmanship of the 
skilful artists employed." 

In the whole of Upper Egypt, adjacent to each 
city, numerous tombs are always found excavated 


in the neighbouring mountains. The most extensive 
and highly ornamented are nearest to the base ; those 
of smaller dimensions, and Jess decorated, occupy the 
middle ; and the most rude and simple are situated 
in the upper parts. 

Those adjacent to Thebes are composed of exten- 
sive galleries, twelve feet broad and twenty high, 
with many lateral chambers. 

They are ornamented with pilasters, sculptures, 
stucco, and paintings ; both ceilings and walls are 
covered with emblems of war, agriculture, and 
music ; and, in some instances, with shapes of very 
elegant utensils, and always representing offerings of 
bread, fruit, and liquors. The colours upon the 
ceilings are blue, and the figures yellow. We must, 
however, refer to a fuller account : that of Belzoni. 

" GOURNOU is a tract of rocks about two miles in length, 
at the foot of the Lybian mountains, on the west of Thebe?, 
and was the burial-place of the great ' city of the hundred 
gates.' Every part of these rocks is cut out by art, in the form 
of large and small chambers, each of which has its separate en- 
trance ; and, though they are very close to each other, it is sel- 
dom that there is any communication from one to another. 
I can truly say, it is impossible to give any description suffi- 
cient to convey the smallest idea of these subterranean abodes 
and their inhabitants ; there are no sepulchres in any part of 
the world like them ; and no exact description can be given of 
their interior, owing to the difficulty of visiting these recesses. 
Of some of these tombs many persons cannot withstand the 
suffocating air, which often causes fainting. A vast quantity of 
dust rises, so fine, that it enters into the throat and nostrils, 
and chokes to such a degree, thatit requires great power of lungs 
to resist it, and the strong effluvia of the mummies. This is 
not all; the entry, or passage where the bodies are, is roughly 
cut in the rocks, and the falling of the sand from the ceiling 
causes it to be nearly filled up : so that in some places, there is 
not a vacancy of much more than a foot left, which must be 
passed in a creeping posture on the hands and knees. After 
getting through these passages, some of them two or three hun- 
dred yards long, you generally find a more commodious place, 
perhaps high enough to sit : but what a place of rest ! Sur- 
rounded by bodies, by heaps of mummies in all directions, 


which, till I got accustomed to the sight, impressed me with 
horror. After the exertion of entering iiito such a place through 
a passage of sometimes six hundred yards in length, nearly 
overcome, I sought a resting-place, found one, and contrived to 
sit; but when my weight bore on the body of an Egyptian, it 
crushed it like a band-box. I naturally had recourse to my 
hands to sustain my weight, but they found no better support ; 
so that I sank altogether among the broken mummies with a 
crash of bones, rags, and wooden cases, which raised such a 
dust as kept me motionless for a quarter of an hour, waiting 
till it subsided again. Once I was conducted from such a place 
to another resembling it, through a passage about twenty feet 
in length, and no larger than that a body could be forced 
through ; it was choked with mummies, and I could not pass 
without putting my face in contact with that of some decayed 
Egyptian ; but, as the passage inclined downwards, my own 
weight helped me on, and I could not avoid being covered with 
bones, legs, arms, and heads; rolling from above. The purpose 
of my researches was to rob the Egyptians of their papyri, of 
which I found a few hidden in their breasts, under their arms, 
in the space above their knees, or on the legs, and covered by 
the numerous folds of cloth that envelop the body. 

" Nothing can more plainly distinguish the various classes 
of people, than the manner of their preservation. In the 
many pits that I have opened, I never saw a single mummy 
standing, and found them lying regularly in horizontal rows, 
and some were sunk into a cement which must have been nearly 
fluid when the cases were placed on it. The lower classes were 
not buried in cases : they were dried up, as it appears, after the 
usual preparation. Mummies of this sort were in the propor- 
tion of about ten to one of the better class, as nearly as I could 
calculate from the quantity of both T have seen ; the linen 
in which they are folded is of a coarser sort and less in quantity; 
they have no ornaments about them of any consequence, and 
are piled up in layers, so as to fill, in a rude manner, the caves 
excavated for the purpose. In general these tombs are to be 
found in the lower grounds, at the foot of the mountains ; they 
are entered by a small aperture arched over, or by a shaft four or 
five feetsquare,at the bottom of which are entrances into various 
chambers, all choked up with mummies, many of which have 
been rummaged and left in the most confused state. Among 
these tombs we saw some which contained the mummies of animals 
intermixed with human bodies ; these were bulls, cows, sheep, 
monkeys, foxes, bats, crocodiles, fishes, and birds. Idols often 
occur, and one tomb was filled with nothing but cats, carefully 
folded in red and white linen, the head covered by a mask made 


of the same, and representing the cat. I have opened all these 
sorts of animals. Of the bull, the calf, and the sheep, there is ' 
no part but the head, which is covered with linen with the horns 
projecting out of the cloth; the rest of the body being repre- 
sented by two pieces of wood eighteen inches wide and three 
feet long, with another at the end, two feet high, to form the 
breast. " It is somewhat singular, that such animals are not to 
be met with in the tombs of the higher sort of people, while 
few or no papyri are to be found among the lower order; and if 
any occur, they are only small pieces stuck on the breast with a 
little gum or asphaltum, being probably all that the poor indi- 
vidual could afford to himself. In those of the better classes 
other objects are found. I think they ought to be divided into 
several classes, and not confined to three, as is done by Hero- 
dotus in his account of the mode of embalming. In the same 
pit where I found mummies in cases, 1 have found others with- 
out, and in these, papyri are most likely to be met with. I 
remarked that those in cases have none. It appears to me that 
those that could afford it had a case to be buried in, on which 
the history of their lives was painted ; and those who could not 
afford a case, were contented to have their lives written on pa- 
pyri, and placed above their knees. The cases are made of 
sycamore, some very plain, some richly painted with well-exe- 
cuted figures ; all have a human face on the lid : some of the 
larger contain others within them, either of wood or plaster, 
and painted ; some of the mummies have garlands of flowers 
and leaves of the acacia, or Sunt-tree, over their heads and 
breats. In the inside of these mummies are often found lumps 
of asphaltum, sometimes weighing as much as two pounds. 
Another kind of mummy I believe I may conclude to have be- 
longed exclusively to the priests : they are folded in a manner 
totally differing from the others, and with much more care; the 
bandages consist of stripes of red and white linen intermixed, 
and covering the whole body, but so carefully applied, that the 
form of the trunk and limbs are preserved separate, even to the 
fingers and toes ; they have sandals of painted leather on the 
feet, and bracelets on their arms and wrists. The cases in which 
these mummies are preserved, are somewhat better executed 
than the rest. 

" The tombs containing the better classes are of course 
superior to the others; some are also more extensive than 
others, having various apartments adorned witli figures.^ It 
would be impossible to describe the numerous little articles 
found in them, which are well adapted to show the domestic 
habits of the ancient Egyptians. It is here the smaller idols 
are occasionally found, either lying on the ground, or on the 
cases. Vases made of baked clay, painted over, from eight to 


eighteen inches in size, are sometimes seen, containing em- 
balmed entrails ; the covers represent the head of some divi- 
nity, bearing either the human form, or that of a monkey, fox, 
cat, or other animal. I met with a few of these made of 
alabaster, in the tombs of the kings, but they were unfortu- 
nately broken : a great quantity of pottery and wooden vessels 
are found in some of the tombs; the ornaments, the small works 
in clay in particular, are very curious. I have been fortunate 
enough to find many specimens of their manufactures, among 
which is leaf-gold, nearly as thin as ours ; but what is singular, 
the only weapon I met with was an arrow, two feet long. 

" One day while causing the walls of a large tomb to be 
struck with a sledge-hammer, in order to discover some hidden 
chambers, an aperture, a foot and a half wide, into another 
tomb, was suddenly made : having enlarged it sufficiently to 
pass, we entered, and found several mummies and a grsat 
quantity of broken cases ; in an inner apartment was a square 
opening, into which we descended, and at the bottom we found 
a small chamber at each side of the shaft, in one of which was 
a granite sarcophagus with its cover, quite perfect, but so situ- 
ated, that it would be an arduous undertaking to draw it out.'' 

Among the many discoveries of the enterprising 
Belzoni, was that of the Tomhs of the Kings : 

" After a long survey of the western valley, I could observe 
only one spot that presented the appearance of a tomb : accord- 
ingly I set the men to work, and when they had got a little below 
the surface, they came to some large stones ; having removed 
these, I perceived the rock had been cut on both sides, and 
found a passage leading downwards, and in a few hours came 
to a well-built wall of stones of various sizes, through which 
we contrived to make a breach ; at last on entering, we found 
ourselves on a staircase, eight feet wide and ten high, at the 
bottom of which were four mummies in their cases, lying flat 
on the ground, and further on four more : the cases were all 
painted, and one had a large covering thrown over it like a 
pall. These I examined carefully, but no further discoveries 
were made at this place, which appears to have been intended 
for some of the royal blood. 

" Not fifteen yards from the last tomb I described, I 
caused the earth to be opened at the foot of a steep hill, and 
under a torrent which, when it rains, pours a great quantity 
of water over the spot : on the evening of the second day, we 
perceived the part of the rock which was cut and formed the 
entrance, which was at length entirely cleared, and was found 
to be eighteen feet below the surface of the ground. In about 


an hour there was room for me to enter through a pnssagethat 
the earth had left under the ceiling of the first corridor, which 
is thirty-six feet long and eight or nine wide, and when cleared, 
six feet nine inches high. I perceived immediately, by the 
painting on the ceiling, and by the hieroglyphics in bas-relief, 
that this was the entrance into a large and magnificent tomb. 
At the end of the corridor, I came to a staircase twenty-three 
feet long, and of the same breadth as the corridor, with a door 
at the bottom, twelve feet high ; this led to another corridor 
thirty-seven feet long, and of the same width and height as the 
former one, each side, and the ceiling sculptured with hiero- 
glyphics and painted ; but I was stopped from further progress 
by a large pit at the other end, thirty feet deep and twelve 
wide. The upper part of this was adorned with figures, from the 
wall of the passage up to the ceiling ; the passages from the 
entrance, all the way to this pit, were inclined at an angle of 
about eighteen degrees. On the opposite side of the pit, facing 
the passage, a small opening was perceived, two feet wide, and 
two feet six inches high, and a quantity of rubbish at the 
bottom of the wall ; a rope, fastened to a piece of wood that 
was laid across the passage, against the projections which form 
a kind of door, appears to have been used for descending into 
the pit, and from the small aperture on the other side hung 
another, for the purpose, doubtless, of ascending again ; but 
these and the wood crumbled to dust on touching them, from 
the damp arising from the water which drained into the pit 
down the passages. On the following day we contrived a bridge 
of two beams to cross the pit by, and found the little aperture 
to be an opening forced through a wall, which had entirely 
closed the entrance, and which had been plastered over and 
painted, so as to give the appearance of the tomb having ended 
at the pit, and of there having been nothing beyond it. The 
rope in the inside of the wall, having been preserved from the 
damp, did not fall to pieces, and the wood to which it was 
attached was in good preservation. When we had passed 
through the little aperture, we found ourselves in a beautiful 
hall, twenty-seven feet six inches by twenty-five feet ten 
inches, in which were four pillars, three feet square. At the 
end of this room, which I shall call the entrance hall, and 
opposite the aperture, is a large door, from which three 
steps lead down into a chamber with two pillars, four feet 
square, the chamber being twenty-eight by twenty-five feet ; 
the walls were covered with figures, which, though in out- 
line only, were as fine and perfect as if drawn only the 
day before. On the left of the aperture a large staircase of 
eighteen steps, descended from the entrance-hall into a cor- 


ridor, thirty-six feet by seven wide ; and we perceived that the 
paintings became more perfect as we advanced further ; the 
figures are painted on a white ground, and highly varnished. 
At the end of this ten steps led us into another, seventeen feet 
by eleven, through which we entered a chamber, twenty feet 
by fourteen, adorned in the most splendid manner by basso- 
relievos, painted like the rest. Standing in this chamber, the 
spectator sees himself surrounded by representations of the 
Egyptian gods and goddesses. Proceeding further, we entered 
another large hall, twenty-eight feet square, with two rows of 
pillars, three on each side, in a line with the walls of the cor- 
ridors ; at each side is a small chamber, each about ten or 
eleven feet square. At the end of this hall we found a large 
saloon, with an arched roof or ceiling, thirty-two feet by 
twenty-seven ; on the right was a small chamber, roughly cut, 
and obviously left unfinished ; and on the left there is another, 
twenty six by twenty-three feet, with two pillars in it. It had 
a projection of three feet all round it, possibly intended to 
contain the articles necessary for the funeral ceremonies ; the 
whole was beautifully painted like the rest. At the same end 
of the room we entered by a large door into another chamber, 
forty-three feet by seventeen, with four pillars in it, one of 
which had fallen down ; it was covered with white plaster 
where the rock did not cut smoothly, but there were no paint- 
ings in it. We found the carcass of a bull embalmed with 
asphaltum, and also, scattered in various places, an immense 
quantity of small wooden figures of mummies, six or eight 
inches long, and covered with asphaltum to preserve them ; 
there were some others of fine baked earth, coloured blue, and 
highly varnished. On each side of the two little rooms were 
some wooden statues, standing erect, four feet high, with a 
circular hollow inside, as if to contain a roll of papyrus, which 
1 have no doubt they once did. In the centre of the saloon was 
a SARCOPHAGUS of the finest oriental alabaster, nine feet five 
inches long, and three feet seven wide ; it is only two inches 
thick, and consequently transparent when a light is held within 
it ; it is minutely sculptured, both inside and out, with several 
hundred figures, not exceeding two inches in length, repre- 
senting, as I suppose, the whole of the funeral procession and 
ceremonies relating to the dejeased. The cover had been 
taken out, and we found it broken in several pieces in digging 
before the first entrance : this sarcophagus was over a staircase 
in the centre of the saloon, which communicated with a sub- 
terraneous passage, leading downwards, three hundred feet in, 
length. At the end of this we found a great quantity of bats' 
dung, which choked it up, so that we could go no further 


without digging ; it was also nearly filled up by the falling in 
of the upper part. One hundred feet from the entrance is a 
staircase, in good preservation, but the rock below changes its 
substance. This passage proceeds in a south-west direction 
through the mountain. I measured the distance from the 
entrance, and also the rocks above, and found that the passage 
reaches nearly half-way through the mountain to the upper 
part of the valley. I have reason to suppose that this passage 
was used as another entrance ; but this could not be after the 
person was buried there ; for, at the bottom of the stairs, under 
the sarcophagus, a wall had been built, which entirely closed 
this communication ; hence it should appear, that this tomb 
had been opened again with violence, after all the precautions 
mentioned had been taken to conceal the existence of the 
greater part of it ; and as these had been carefully and skilfully 
done, it is probable that^ the intruder must have had a guide 
who was acquainted with "the place." 

The rich alabaster sarcophagus, mentioned above, is 
now in the Soane Museum, Lincoln's-inn-fields, Lon- 
don, and remains altogether unrivalled in beauty and 
curiosity. How it came there is thus described by 
Sir John Soane : 

" This marvellous effort of human industry and perseverance 
is supposed to be at least three thousand years old. It is of 
one piece of alabaster, between nine and ten" feet in length, and 
is considered of pre-eminent interest, not only as a work of 
human skill and labour, but as illustrative of the customs, 
arts, religion, and government of a very ancient and learned 
people. The surface of this monument is covered externally 
and internally with hieroglyphics, comprehending a written 
language, which it is to be hoped the labour of modern literati 
will one day render intelligible. With no inconsiderable 
expense and difficulty this unique monument was transferred 
'from Egypt to England, and placed in the British Museum, to 
the trustees of which it was offered for two thousand pounds. 
After which negotiation, the idea of purchasing it for our 
national collection was relinquished ; when it was offered to 
me at the same price, which offer I readily accepted, and 
shortly after I had the pleasure of seeing this splendid relic of 
Egyptian magnificence safely deposited in a conspicuous part 
of my museum." 

" On entering the sepulchral chamber," says a writer, 
giving an account of the Soane collection, " notwithstanding 
intense anxiety to behold a work so unique and so celebrated 


as the Belzoni sarcophagus, I confess that the place in which 
this monument of antiquity is situated became the overpowering 
attraction. Far above, and on every side, were concentrated 
the most precious relics of architecture and sculpture, disposed 
so happily as to offer the charm of novelty, the beauty of 
picturesque design, and that sublimity resulting from a sense 
of veneration, due to the genius and the labours of the ' mighty 
dead.' The light admitted from the dome appeared to descend 
with a discriminating effect, pouring its brightest beams on 
those objects most calculated to benefit by its presence. 

" The more," says the same writer, speaking of the sarco- 
phagus itself, " we contemplate this interesting memorial of 
antiquity and regal magnificence, the more our sense of its 
value rises in the mind. We consider the beauty and scarcity 
of the material, its transparency, the rich and mellow hue, 
the largeness of the original block, the adaptation of its form 
to the purpose, which was unquestionably to receive a body 
inclosed in numerous wrappings, and doubly cased, according 
to the custom of the Egyptians. We then examine the carving 
of innumerable figures, doubting not that the history of a life 
fraught with the most striking events is here recorded ; gaze 
on the beautiful features of the female form sculptured at the 
bottom of the sarcophagus, and conclude it to be that of the 
goddess Isis, the elongated eye and the delicate foot closely 
resembling those drawings of her, given by the learned Mout- 
faucon ; and repeat the exclamation of Belzoni, when he 
declared that the day on which he found this treasure was the 
happiest of his life. 

" Viewed by lamp-light, the effect of this chamber is still 
more impressive; for, seen by this medium, every surrounding 
object, however admirable in itself, becomes subservient to the 
sarcophagus. The ancient, the splendid, the wonderful sarco- 
phagus is before us, and all else are but accessories to its 
dignity and grandeur. A mingled sense of awe, admiration, and 
delight pervades our faculties, and is even oppressive in its 
intensity, yet endearing in its associations." 

In respect to the -tomb, in which this splendid 
monument was discovered, Belzoni, on his arrival in 
England, constructed and exhibited a perfect fac- 
simile of it, which many of our readers will, doubt- 
less, remember having seen. 

" The ' Tombs of the Kings,' as their name implies*, are the 
* SiiturJu)- Miigazinc. 


sepulchres in which are deposited the earthly remains of the 
ancient Egyptian monarchs who reigned at Thebes ; they are 
called by some Babor, or Biban elMolook a traditional appella- 
tion, signifying the Gate or Gates of the Kings, which is by 
others applied to the narrow gorge at the entrance of the valley 
in which they are situated. This valley, as Champollion re- 
marks, ' is the veritable abode of death ; not a blade of grass, 
or a living being is to be found there, with the exception of 
jackals and hyaenas, who, at a hundred paces from our resi- 
dence, devoured last night the ass which had served to carry 
my servant Barabba Mohammed, whilst his keeper was agree- 
ably passing the night of Ratnazan in our kitchen, which is 
established in a royal tomb entirely ruined.' 

" It would be unnecessary, were it possible, to give a detailed 
account of these tombs, or of the sculptures which they con- 
tain, and of which our interpretation is very limited, because 
they often refer to Egyptian mysteries of which we have but 
a scanty knowledge. The tomb, which of all others stands pre- 
eminently conspicuous, as well for the beauty of its sculptures 
as the state of its preservation, is undoubtedly that discovered 
and opened by Belzoni. It has been deprived within a few 
years of one of its chief ornaments. ' I have not forgotten,' 
says Champollion, in his twenty-second letter, ' the Egyptian 
Museum of the Louvre in my explorations ; I have gathered 
monuments of all sizes, and the smallest will not be found the 
least interesting. Of the larger class I have selected, out of 
thousands, three or four mummies remarkable for peculiar 
decorations, or having Greek inscriptions; and next, the most 
beautiful coloured bas-relief in the royal tomb of Menephtha 
the First (Ousirei), at Biban-el-Molouk ; it is a capital speci- 
men, of itself worth a whole collection : it has caused me much 
anxiety, and will certainly occasion me a dispute with the 
English at Alexandria, who claim to be the lawful proprietors 
of the tomb of Ousirei, discovered by Belzoni at the expense of 
Mr. Salt. In spite, however, of this fine pretension, one of 
two things shall happen ; either my bas-relief shall reach Tou- 
lon, or it shall go to the bottom of the sea, or the bottom of 
the Nile, rather than fall into the hands of others ; my mind 
is made up on that point !" 

No dispute, however, took place, and the bas-relief 
is now in the museum for which it was destined. 

" Nearly two thousand years ago, these tombs were an 
object of wonder and curiosity, and used to attract visiters from 
different parts of the earth as they now do. It was the prac- 
tice even then for many of those who beheld them to leave 



some memorial of their visit behind, in the shape of an inscrip- 
tion commemorating the date at which they ' saw and wondered,' 
to use the expression which is commonly found among them. 
Some of these inscriptions are curious : one of them is to the 
following effect : ' I, the Dadouchos (literally Torch-bearer), 
of the most sacred Eleiisinian mysteries, Nisagoras of Athens, 
having seen these >-yrin<ies (as t/ie tombs were commonly 
called), a very long time after the divine Plato of Athens, have 
wondered and given thauksto the Go>l and to the most pious 
King Constantine, who has procured me this favour.' The 
tomb in which this was written seems to have been generally 
admired above all others, though, as Mr. Wilkinson tells us, 
one morose old gentleman of the name of Epiphanius declares 
that ' he saw nothing to admire but the stone,' meaning the 
alabaster sarcophagus. There are many other inscriptions : 
some afford internal evidence of their dates, and among them 
are four relating to the years 103,122, 147, and 189 of our 

" A great many of the painted sculptures, which are found in 
these tombs, relate to the idolatrous worship of the ancient 
Egyptians, and the rites and ceremonies which they practised 
in connexion with it*. But besides these, there are others 
which afford us a vast quantity of interesting information upon 
the subjects of their domestic usages and every-day life. In 
one chamber are depicted the operations of preparing and 
dressing meat, boiling the cauldron, making bread, lighting the 
fire, fetching water, &c. Another presents scenes in a garden, 
where a boy is beaten for stealing fruit; a canal and pleasure 
boats; fruit and flowers ; the mechanical processes of various 
arts, such as sculpture, painting, the mixing of colours, &c. 
In the Harper's Tomb, (so called from there being among the 
bas-reliefs figures of a man playing upon an instrument resem- 
bling a harp,) which was first visited by Bruce, there are some 
* The folly of the Egyptians in respect to their deifications is well 
known ; and for this they are ingeniously reproached by the 

Who has not heard, where Egypt's realms are named, 

What monster gods her frantic sons have framed ? 

Here Ibis gorged with well-grown serpents, there 

The Crocodile commands religious fear. 

Through towns Diana's power neglected lies, 

Where to her dogs aspiring temples rise ; 

And should you leeks or onions eat, no time 

Would expiate the sacrilegious crime. 

Religious nations sure, and blest abodes, 

Where every orchard is o'er-run with gods ! 


curious illustrations of the furniture which was in use among the 
Egyptians ; tables, chairs, and sideboards, patterns of em- 
bossed silk and chintz, drapery with folds and fringe are there 
to be seen, precisely such, we are told, as were used in our own 
country some years ago when Egyptian furniture was in fashion. 
" The ' Tombs of the Kings ' bring many allusions of Scrip- 
ture to the mind, as is remarked by Mr. Jowett, as in the pas- 
sages of Mark v. 2, 3, 5, and particularly of Isaiah xxii. 16. 
' What hast thou here, and whom hast thou here, that thou 
hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here, as he that heweth 
him out a sepulchre on high, and that graveth an habitation 
for himself on a rock 1 }' 

" Another passage of the same prophet might be applied to 
the pride which the tenants of these magnificent abodes took in 
resting as magnificently in death as they had done in life ; he 
tells us (xiv. 18), 'All the kiniis of the nations, even all of 
them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.' 

" The mystical sculptures upon the walls of the chambers 
within these sepulchres, cannot be better described than in the 
words of Ezekiel, (viii. 8, 10) : ' Then said he unto me, Son 
of man, diy now in the wall : and when I had digged in the 
ivall, behold, a door ; and he said unto me. Go in, and behold 
the wicked abominations that they do here. So I went in, 
and saw ; ai<d, behold, every form of creeping things, and 
abominable beasts, and all the idols of the house of Israel, 
pourtrayed upon the wall roundabout' 

" ' The Israelites,' remarks Mr. Jowet.t, ' were but copy- 
ists ; the master sketches are to be seen in all the ancient 
temples and tombs of Egypt.' These are the places in which 
the dead bodies of the inhabitants of ancient Thebes were de- 
posited many ages ago ; and notwithstanding the havoc which, 
during many years, has been made among them, the stores of 
mummies which they contain would almostappear to beinexhaus- 
tible ; indeed, as a modern writer expresses it, it would scarcely 
be an exaggeration to say that the mountains are merely roofs 
over the masses of mummies within them. The coffins, which 
are made of sycamore-wood, serve as fuel to the Arabs of the 
whole neighbourhood. ' At first,' says Mrs. Lushington, ' I did 
not relish the idea of my dinner being dressed with this resurrec- 
tion wood, particularly -as two or three of the coffin lids, which 
~were in the shape of human figures, were usually to be seen 
standing upright against the tree under which the cook was 
performing his operations, staring with their large eyes as if in 
astonishment at the new world upon which they had opened.' 

" The miserable beings who have fixed their dwellings in 
these cavern- toinbs, are as little civillized as could be expected; 
EE 2 


our female traveller describes them as having a wild and reso- 
lute appearance. ' Every man was at this time (1828) armed 
with a spear, to resist, it was said, the compulsory levies of the 
Pacha, who found it vain to attack them in their fastnesses. I, 
who was so delighted with the beauty and peace of our new 
abode, felt quite disturbed to discover that the very spot where 
we encamped four years before, witnessed the massacre of many 
hundreds of Arabs, then in resistance against this recruiting 
system, and who were blown from guns, or shot, while endea- 
vouring to make their escape by swimming across the river. 
The poor people, however, behaved with civility to us, and I 
felt no apprehension at going among them with a single com- 
panion, or even alone. To be sure we were obliged to take 
especial care of our property, for which purpose the chief of 
Luxor assisted us by furnishing half-a-dozen men to watch by 
night round the encampment. Nevertheless, once after I had 
gone to sleep, I was awakened by the extinguishing of the light, 
and felt my little camp-bed raised up by a man creeping under- 
neath ; he fled on my crying out, and escaped the pursuit, as 
he had the vigilance, of our six protectors.' 

" The feelings occasioned by the sight of the numerous frag- 
ments of mummies which are to be found scattered in every 
direction in the neighbourhood of these tombs, must be to one 
of a reflective cast of mind peculiarly affecting. The Rev. Mr. 
Jowett, after speaking of his ascent to the top of the Libyan 
mountains, ' which command a magnificent view of the wind- 
ing of the Nile, and the plain of the hundred-gated Thebes,' 
says, ' as we were descending the other side of the mountain, 
we came suddenly on a part where thirty or forty mummies lay 
scattered in the sand, the trunk of the body filled with pitch, 
and the limbs swathed in exceeding long clothes. The forty 
days spent in embalming these mortal bodies, (Genesis 1. 3.) thus 
give us a sight of some of our fellow-creatures who inhabited 
thesa plains more than three thousand years ago. How solemn 
the reflection that their disembodied spirits have been so long 
waiting to be united again to their reanimated body ! and that 
this very body which, notwithstanding its artificial preservation, 
we see to be a body of humiliation, will on its great change be- 
come incorruptible and immortal.' " 

The following observations are by Mr. Browne: 
" The massy and magnificent forms of the ruins that remain 
of ancient Thebes, the capital of Egypt, the city of Jove, the 
city with a hundred gates, must inspire every intelligent spec- 
tator with awe and admiration. Diffused on both sides of the 
Nile, their extent confirms the classical observations, and 


Homer's animated description rushes into the memory : 

' Egyptian Thebes, in whose palaces vast wealth is stored 
from each of whose hundred gates issue two hundred warriors, 
nth their horses and chariots.' These venerable ruins, pro- 
bably the most ancient in the world, extend for about three 
leagues in length along the Nile. East and west they reach 
to the mountains, a breadth of aboin two leagues and a half 
The river is here about three hundred yards broad. The cir- 
cumference of the ancient city must therefore have been about 
twenty-seven miles. In sailing up the Nile, the first village 
you come to within the precincts is Kourna, on the west, where 
there are few houses, the people living mostly in the caverns. 
Next is Abu-hadjadj, a village, and Karnak, a small district 
both on the east. Far the largest portion of the city stood on 
the eastern side of the river. On the south-west Medinet- 
Abu marks the extremity of the ruins ; for Arment, which is 
about two leagues to the south, cannot be considered as a 

" In describing the ruins, we shall begin with the most con- 
siderable, which are on the east of the Nile. The chief is the 
Great Temple, an oblong square building, of vast extent, with 
a double colonnade, one at each extremity. The massy co- 
lumns and walls are covered with hieroglyphics, a labour truly 
stupendous. 1. The Great Temple stands in the district called 
Karnac. 2. Next in importance is the temple at Abu-Hadjadj. 
3. Numerous ruins, avenues marked with remains of sphinxes, 
&c. On the west side of the Nile appear, 1. Two colossal 
figures, apparently of a man and woman, formed of a calcareous 
stone like the rest of the ruins. 2. Remains of a large temple, 
with caverns excavated in the rock. 3. The magnificent edi- 
fice styled the Palace of Memnon. Some of the columns are 
about forty feet high, and about nine and a half in diameter. 
The columns and walls are covered with hieroglyphics. This 
stands at Kourna. 4. Behind the palace is the passage styled 
Biban-el-Moluk, leading up the mountain. At the extremity 
of this passage, in the sides of the rock, are the celebrated 
caverns known as the sepulchres of the ancient kings. Several 
of these sepulchres have been described by Pococke, with suf- 
ficient minuteness ; he has even given plans of them. But in 
conversation with persons at Assiut, and in other parts of 
Egypt, I was always informed that they had not been disco- 
vered^ till within the last thirty years, when a son of Shech 
Hamiim, a very powerful chief of the Arabs, who governed all 
the south of Egypt from Achmlm to Nubia, caused four of 
them to be opened, in expectation of finding treasure. 

" They had probably been rifled in very ancient times ; but 


how the memory of them should have been lost remains to be 
explained. One of those which I visited exactly answers Dr. 
Pococke's description ; but the other three appear materially 
different from any of his plans. It is, therefore, possible that 
gome of those which he saw have been gradually closed up by 
the sand, and that the son of Hamam had discovered others. 
They are cut into the free-stone rock, in appearance, upon one 
general plan, though differing in p'irts. First, a passage of 
some length, then a chamber ; a continuation of the first pas- 
sage turns abruptly to the right, where is the large sepulchral 
chamber, with a sarcophagus of red granite in the midst. 

" In the second part of the passage of the largest are several 
cells or recesses on both sides. In these appear the chief 
paintings, representing the mysteries, which, as well as the 
hieroglyphics covering all the walls, are very fresh. I parti- 
cularly observed the two harpers described by Bruce ; but his 
engraved figures seem to be from memory. The French mer- 
chants at Kahira informed me that he brought with him two 
Italian artists ; one was Luigi Balugani, a Bolognese, the other 
Zucci, a Florentine." 

The edifice at Luxor* was principally the work of two 
Egyptian monarchs, Amunoph the Third, who ascended 
the throne 1430 years before the Christian era, and Rameses 
the Second the Great, as he is surnamed, whose era has 
been fixed at 1500 or 1350 B. c. The Amenophium, as the 
more ancient part erected by the former is called, com- 
prises all that extends from the river on the south up to the 
great court; a colonnade, together with a propyla which 
bound it on the north, is thus a portion of it. The great 
court itself, with the propyla forming the grand entrance 
into the whole building, and the obelisks, colossal statues, &c., 
was the work of Rameses the Second, and is sometimes called 
the Rnmeseium ; under this appellation, however, it must not 
be confounded with the great monument of the same monarch 
on the western side of the river. As this great edifice is very 
near the bank of the river where it forms an angle, the soil is 
supported by a solid stone wall, from which is thrown out a 
jetty of massive and well-cemented brick, fifty yards in length, 
and seven in width. Mr. Wilkinson says that it is of the late 
era of the Ptolemies, or Caesars, since blocks bearing the sculp- 
ture of the former have been used in its construction ; and the 
same gentleman communicates the unpleasant intelligence that 
the river having formed a recess behind it, threatens to sweep 
away the whole of its solid masonry, and to undermine the 

* Parker. 


foundations of the temple itself. This jetty formed a small 
port, for the convenience of boats navigating the river. Mr. 
Hamilton says that its ruins very much resemble the fragments 
of the bridge called that of Caligula in the Bay of Baize ; which 
is now generally believed to have been a pier for the purposes 
of trade. Dr. Richardson considered the workmanship of the 
embankment to be entirely Roman ; and he suggests that the 
temple at Luxor was probably built on the banks of the Nile for 
the convenience of sailors and wayfaring men ; where, without 
much loss of time they might stop, say their prayers, present 
their offerings, and bribe the priests for promises of future 

" The entrance," says Denon, " of the village of Luxor 
affords a striking instance of beggary and magnificence. W hat 
a gradation of ages in Egypt is offered by this single scene ! 
What grandeur and simplicity in the bare inspection of this 
one mine ! It appears to me to be at the same time the most 
picturesque group, and the most speaking representation of the 
history of those times. Never were my eyes or my imagina- 
tion so forcibly struck as by the sight of this monument. I 
often came to meditate on this spot, to enjoy the past and the 
present ; to compare the successive generations of inhabitants, 
by their respective works, which were before my eye, and to 
store in my mind volumes of materials for future meditations. 
One day the sheik of the village accosted me, and asked if it 
was the French or the English who had erected these monu- 
ments, and this question completed my reflections." 

Every spot of ground, intervening between the 
walls and columns, is laid out in plantations of corn 
and olives, inclosed by mud walls. 

" We have little reason to suppose*, that when Egypt formed 
a part of the Eastern empire, its former capital was at all 
raised from its fallen condition ; and we have, unfortunately, 
but too much reason to conclude, that under the dominion of 
the Arabian caliphs, it sank yet deeper into desolation, and 
the destruction of its monuments was continued still by the 
same agency which had all along worked their ruin, the hand 
of man. Though we have no distinct account of the injuries 
inflicted on it in this period, we may infer their extent, and 
the motives which operated to produce them, from the follow- 
ing remarks of Abdallatif, an Arabian physician of Bagdad, 
who wrote a description of Egypt in the fourteenth century. 
He tells us, that formerly the sovereigns watched with care 
* Knight. 


over the preservation of the ancient monuments remaining in 
Egypt ; ' but, in our time,' he adds, ' the bridle has been un- 
loosed from men, and no one takes the trouble to restrain their 
caprices, each being left to conduct himself as to him should 
seem best. When they have perceived monuments of colossal 
grandeur, the aspect of those monuments has inspired them 
with terror ; they have conceived foolish and false ideas of the 
nature of these remains of antiquity. Every thing, which had 
the appearance of design, has been in their eyes but a signal of 
hidden treasure ; they have not been able to see an aperture in 
a mountain, without imagining it to be a road leading to some 
repository of riches. A colossal statue has been to them but 
the guardian of the wealth deposited at its feet, and the im- 
placable avenger of all attempts upon the security of his store. 
Accordingly, they have had recourse to all sorts of artifice to 
destroy and pull down these statues ; they have mutilated the 
figures, as if they hoped by such means to attain their object, 
and feared that a more open attack would bring ruin upon 
themselves ; they have made openings, and dug holes in the 
stones, not doubting them to be so many strong coffers filled 
with immense sums ; and they have pierced deep, too, in 
the clefts of mountains, like robbers penetrating into houses 
by every way but the doors, and seizing eagerly any oppor- 
tunity which they think known only to themselves.' This is 
the secret of much of the devastation which has been worked 
among the monuments of ancient Egypt." 

The village of Luxor* is built on the site of the 
ruins of a temple, not so large as that of Karnac, 
but in a better state of preservation, the masses not 
having as yet fallen through time, and by the pressure 
of their own weight. The most colossal parts con- 
sist of fourteen columns, of nearly eleven feet in 
diameter, and of two statues of granite at the outer 
gate, buried up to the middle of the arms, and having 
in front of them the two largest and best preserved 
obelisks known. They are rose-coloured, are still 
seventy feet above the ground, and to judge by the 
deptli to which the figures seem to be covered, about 
thirty feet more may be reckoned to be concealed 
from the eye; making in all one hundred feet for their 
height. Their preservation is perfect; andthehiero- 
* Anon. 


glyphics with which they are covered being cut 
deep, and in relief at the bottom, show the bold 
hand of a master, and a beautiful finish. The 
gravers, which could touch such hard materials, 
must have been of an admirable temper ; and the 
machines to drag such enormous blocks from the 
quarries, to transport them thither, and to set them 
upright, together with the time required for the 
labour, surpass all conception. 

The temple is very near the river, says another 
writer, and there is a good ancient jetty, well built 
of bricks. The entrance is through a magnificent 
gateway facing the north, two hundred feet in front, 
and fifty-seven feet high, above the present level of 
the soil. Before the gateway, and between the obe- 
lisks, are two colossal statues of red granite ; from 
the difference of the dresses, it is judged that one 
was a male, the other a female, figure. They are 
nearly of equal sizes. Though buried in the ground 
to the chest, they still measure twenty-one or twenty- 
two feet from thence to the top of the mitres. 

The gateway is filled with remarkable sculptures, 
which represent the triumph of some ancient monarch 
of Egypt over an Asiatic enemy ; and which we find 
repeated both on other monuments of Thebes, and 
partly, also, on some of the monuments of Nubia. 
This event appears to have formed an epoch in 
Egyptian history, and to have furnished materials 
both for the historian and the sculptor, like the war 
of Troy to the Grecian poet. The whole length of 
this temple is about eight hundred feet. 

In speaking of the gate of this temple, which is 
now become that of the village of Luxor, Denon 
remarks : " Nothing can be more grand, and, at the 
same time, more simple, than the small number of 
objects of which this entrance is composed. No city 
whatever makes so proud a display at its appearance 


as tins wretched village ; the population of which 
consists of two or three thousand souls, who have 
taken up their abode on the roofs and beneath the 
galleries of this temple, which has, nevertheless, the 
air of being in a manner uninhabited." 

The following observations, in regard to the sculp- 
tures at Luxor, are from the Saturday Magazine : 

" On the front of the great propyla, which form the principal 
entrance at Luxor, are a series of sculptures which have 
excited the wonder of all who have ever seen them. They are 
spoken of as being entitled to rank very high among works of 
ancient art ; as Mr. Hamilton remarks in his admirable de- 
scription of them, they far surpass all the ideas which till they 
were examined had been formed of the state of the arts in 
Egypt at the era to which they must be attributed. They are 
cut in a peculiar kind of relief, and are apparently intended to 
commemorate some victory gained by an ancient monarch of 
Egypt over a foreign enemy. The moment of the battle, 
chosen, is when the hostile troops are driven back in their 
fortress, and the Egyptians are evidently to be soon masters of 
the citadel. 

" The conqueror, behind whom is borne aloft the royal 
standard, in the shape of the Doum, or Theban palm-leaf, is of 
colossal size : that is, far larger than all the other warriors, 
standing up in a car drawn by two horses. His helmet is 
adorned with a globe with a serpent on each side. He is in 
the act of shooting an arrow from a bow which is full stretched ; 
around him are quivers, and at his feet is a lion in the act of 
rushing foi ward. There is a great deal of life and spirit in the 
form and attitude of the horses, which are in full gallop, 
feathers waving over their heads, and the reins lashed round the 
body of the conqueror. Under the wheels of the car, and 
under the horses' hoofs and bellies, are crowds of the slain ; 
some stretched on the ground, others falling. On the enemy's 
side, horses in full speed with empty cars, others heedless of 
the rein, and all at last rushing headlong down a precipice into 
a broad and deep river which washes the walls of the town. 
The expression is exceedingly good ; and nowhere has the artist 
shown more skill than in two groups, in one of which the horses 
having arrived at the edge of the precipice, instantly fall down ; 
and the driver clinging with one hand to the car, the reins and 
whip falling from the other, his body, trembling with despair, 
is about to be hurled over the backs of the horses. In the 
other, the horses still find a footing on the side of the hill, and 


are hurrying forward their drivers to inevitable destruction ; 
these throw themselves back upon the car in vain. Some that 
are yet unwounded pray for mercy on their knees, and others 
in their flight cast behind a look of anxious entreaty ; their 
limbs, their eyes, and their hands, sufficiently declare their 
fears. The breathless horses are admirable, whether fainting 
from loss of blood, or rearing up and plunging in the excess of 
torture. Immediately in front of the conqueror are several 
cars in full speed for the walls of the town ; but even in these 
the charioteers and men-of-war are not safe from the arrows 
shot from his unerring bow, and when wounded they look back 
on their pursuer as they fall. Further on, more fortunate 
fugitives are passing the river ; in which are mingled horses, 
chariots, arms, and men, expressed in the most faithful manner, 
floating or sunk. Some have already reached the opposite 
bank where their friends, who are drawn up in order of battle, 
but venture not to go out to the fight, drag them to the shore. 
Others, having escaped by another road, are entering the gates 
of the town amid the shrieks and lamentation of those within. 
Towers, ramparts, and battlements, are crowded with inhabi- 
tants, who are chiefly bearded old men and women. A party 
of the former are seen sallying forth, headed by a youth whose 
different dress, and high turban, mark him out as some distin- 
guished chieftain. On each side of the town are large bodies 
of infantry, and a great force of chariots issuing out of the gates, 
and advancing seemingly by different routes to attack the 

" The impetuosity, with which the hero of the picture has 
moved, has already carried him far beyond the main body of 
his own army, and he is there alone amid the dying and the 
slain victims of his valour and prowess. Behind this scene, 
the two lines of the enemy join their forces, and attack in a body 
the army of the invaders, which advances to meet them in a 
regular line. ' Besides the peculiarities of the incidents re- 
corded in this interesting piece of sculpture,' says Mr. Hamil- 
ton, ' we evidently traced a distinction between the short 
dresses of the Egyptians and the long robes of their Oriental 
enemies; whether Indians, Persians, or Bactrians ; the un- 
covered and the covered heads ; the different forms of the cars, 
of which the Egyptian contains two, and the others three 
warriors ; and above all, the difference of the arms.' 

" At one extremity of the west wing of the gateway, the 
beginning of this engagement appears to be represented ; the 
same monarch being seen at the head of his troops, advancing 
against the double line of the enemy, and first breaking their 
ranks. At the other extremity of the same wing the conqueror 
is seated on his throne after the victory, holding a sceptre in 


his left hand, and enjoying the cruel spectacle of eleven of 
the principal chieftains among his captives lashed together in a 
row, with a rope about their necks : the foremost stretches out 
his arms for pity, and in vain implores a reprieve from the fate 
of his companions : close to him is the twelfth, on his knees, 
just going to be put to death by the hands of two executioners. 
Above them is the captive sovereigri, tied with his hands behind 
him to a car, to which two -horses are harnessed ; these are 
checked from rushing onward by the attendant, till the monarch 
shall mount and drag behind him the unfortunate victim of his 
triumphs. Behind the throne different captives are suffering 
death in various ways ; some held by the executioner by the 
hair of their head ; others dragged by chariots or slain by the 
arrow or the scimitar. There is then the conqueror's camp, 
round which are placed his treasures, and where the servants 
prepare a feast to celebrate his victory. 

" We have described these sculptures at length, because they 
are undoubtedly one of the greatest of the many wonders of 
Thebes, and because in no other manner could we convey to 
our readers a proper notion of their merits." 

The following observations are by Lord Lindsay: 

" We visited the Temples of Luxor and Carnac. The 
former is a most magnificent pile, architecturally con- 
sidered, but otherwise the least interesting of the four 
great temples of Thebes. You originally entered between 
four gigantic statues of Rameses the Great, and two superb 
obelisks, of which one only remains ; the French have carried 
off his brother, and every lover of antiquity must regret their 
separation. The obelisks, statues, and pyramidal towers, were 
additions by Rameses to the original edifice, founded by Amu- 
noph the Third. From the propyla and obelisks of this temple 
an avenue, guarded by sphinxes, facing each other, extended 
northwards, to the great temple of Jupiter \mmon at Carnac, 
meeting it at right angles, the latter extending from west to 
east. The road we followed lay nearer the river, and led us 
through a comparatively small temple of I sis, that would have 
detained us longer in a less attractive neighbourhood, into the 
great court of Jupiter Ammon's temple, the noblest ruin at 
Thebes. A stupendous colonnade, of which one pillar only 
remains erect, once extended across this court, connecting the 
western propylon or gate of entrance, built by Sesostris, with 
that at its eastern extremity, leading to the grand hall of 
Osirei, and the sanctuary. We ascended the former; the 
avenue of sphinxes, through which the god returned, in solemn 
procession, to his shrine at Carnac, after his annual visit to 
the Libyan suburb, ascends to it from the river, the same 


avenue traversed age after age by the conqueror, the poet, the 
historian, the lawgiver, the philosopher, Sesostris, Cambyses, 
Homer, Herodotus, Thales, Anaxagoras, Solon, Pythagoras, 
Plato, and now the melancholy song of an Arab boy was the 
only sound that broke the silence ; but that poor boy was the 
representative of an older and a nobler race than that of 
the Pharaohs. Long did we gaze on the scene around and 
below us utter, awful desolation ! Truly, indeed, has NO 
been ' rent asunder ! ' The towers of the second or eastern 
propylon are mere heaps of stones, ' poured down ' as pro- 
phecy and modern travellers describe the foundations of Sa- 
maria into the court on one side, and the great hall on the 
other ; giant columns have been swept away like reeds before 
the mighty avalanche, and one hardly misses them. And that 
hall, who could describe it ? Its dimensions, one hundred and 
seventy feet by three hundred and twenty-nine, the height of 
the central avenue of columns sixty-six feet, exclusive of their 
pedestals, the total number of columns that supported its 
roof one hundred and thirty-four. These particulars may give 
you some idea of its extent ; but of its grandeur and bea'uty 
none. Every column is sculptured, and all have been richly 
painted. The exterior walls, too, are a sculptured history of 
the wars of Osirei and Rameses. Except those at Beit Wellee 
I have seen nothing in Egypt that would interest so much. 
In one corner, of especial interest, are represented the Jews 
captured by Shishak, and their king Rehoboam, with the 
hieroglyphical inscription ' Jehouda Melek,' the king of the 
Jews. This is the only reference to the Israelites found in 
Egyptian sculpture. Many have wondered at finding no allu- 
sions to their residence in Egypt ; but I think without cause ; 
for, except the .pyramids, the tombs in their vicinity, those of 
Beni Hassan, and a few other remains, of but little interest, I 
do not believe that any monuments exist, coeval with Moses 
and tKe Exodus." 

The remains of this temple are thus described by 
Denon : 

" Of the hundred columns of the portico alone, the smallest 
are seven feet and a half in diameter, and the largest twelve ; 
the space occupied by the circumvallation of the temple con- 
tains lakes and mountains. In short, to be enabled to form a 
competent idea of so much magnificence, the reader ought to 
fancy what is before him to be a dream ; as he who views the 
objects themselves rubs his eyes to know whether he is awake. 
The avenue leading from Karnac to Luxor, a space nearly half 
a league in extent, contains a constant succession of sphinxes 
and other chimerical figures to the right and left, together with 
fragments of stone walls, of small columns, and of statues." 


"The most ancient remains," says Mr. Wilkinsor, 
" now existing at Thebes, are unquestionably in the 
great temple of Karnac, the largest and most splendid 
ruin* of which, perhaps, either ancient or modern 
times can boast ; being the work of a number of suc- 
cessive inonarchs, each anxious to surpass his prede- 
cessor, by increasing the dimensions and proportions 
of the part he added. 

" It is this fact which enables us to account for 
the diminutive size of the older parts of this exten- 
sive building ; and their comparatively limited scale 
offering greater facility, as their vicinity to the sanc- 
tuary greater temptation, to an invading army to 
destroy them, added to their remote antiquity, are 
to be attributed their dilapidated state ; as well as 
the total disappearance of the sculptures executed 
during the reigns of the Pharaohs, who preceded 
Osirtesen I., the cotemporary of Joseph, and the 
earliest monarch whose name exists on the monu- 
ments of Thebest." 

Speaking of this magnificent edifice, and of the 
vast sphinxes and other figures, Belzoni says : 
" I had seen the temple of Tentyra, and I still 
acknowledge that nothing can exceed that edifice in 
point of preservation, and the beauty of its work- 

* In antiquity, the pyramids of Egypt surpass every other monu- 
ment now existing ; but they do not, of course, from the nature of 
their construction, at all vie with the magnificence of the ruins of 

f Jacob went into Egypt with liis whole family, which met with 
the kindest treatment from the Egyptians ; but after his death, say 
the Scriptures, there arose up a new king, which knew not Joseph. 
Rameses-Miamun, according to archbishop Usher, was the name of 
tin's king, who is called Pharaoh in scripture. He reigned sixty-six 
years, and oppressed the Israelites iu a most cruel manner. He 
set over them task- masters, to afflict them with their burdens. "And 
they built for Pharaoh treasure-cities, Pithom and Raamses ; and 
the Egyptians made the children of Israel serve with rigour, and 
they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar and in 
brick, and in all manner of service in the field ; all their service 
wherein they made them serve, was with rigour." PRIDEAI-X. 


manship and sculpture. But here I was lost in a 
mass of colossal objects, every one of which was 
more than sufficient of itself to attract my whole 
attention. How can I describe my sensations at 
that moment ? I seemed alone in the midst of all 
that is most sacred in the world ; a forest of enorm- 
ous columns from top to bottom ; the graceful shape 
of the lotus, which forms their capitals, and is so 
well proportioned to the columns ; the gates, the 
walls, the pedestals, the architraves, also adorned in 
every part with symbolical figures in low-relief, 
representing battles, processions, triumphs, feasts, and 
sacrifices, all relating to the ancient history of the 
country ; the sanctuary wholly formed of fine red 
granite; the high poitals, seen at a distance from 
the openings, of ruins of the other temples, within 
sight ; these altogether had such an effect upon my 
soul, as to separate uie, in imagination, from the 
rest of mortals, exalt me on high above all, and 
cause me to forget entirely the trifles and follies of 
life. I was happy for a whole day, which escaped 
like a flash of lightning." 

Here stood, and does now stand, a fragment of 
the famous vocal statue of Memnon, which, many 
writers attest, sent forth harmonious sounds, when 
first touched of a morning by the rays of the sun. 
The circumstance being attested by Strabo, Pliny, 
Juvenal, Pausanias, Tacitus, and Philostratus, it is 
assuredly not to be doubted. The first injury this 
statue received was from Cambyses ; who ordered it 
to be sawed in two, in order to get at the secret. It 
was afterwards thrown down by an earthquake. 

Some have supposed, that the sounds alluded to 
were produced by the mechanical impulse of the 
sun's light. Others that, being hollow, the air was 
driven out by the rarefaction of the morning, which 
occasioned the elicitation of a murmuring sound. 


But some assert, that it saluted the morning and 
evening sun differently ; the former with animating 
sounds ; the latter with melancholy ones. Darwin, 
in the true spirit of poetry, describes this statue as 
sending forth murmurs of indignation at the ravages 
of Cambyses : 

Prophetic whispers breathed from sphinx's tongue ; 
And Meniuon's lyre with hollow murmurs rung. 

In another passage, equally poetical, he makes it 
view with delight the waters of the Nile, rushing 
from the cataracts of Ethiopia : 

Gigantic sphinx the circling waves admire; 
And Meuinon bending o'er his brokeu lyre. 

In many parts of the East the custom still remains 
of proclaiming the sun by the sounding of instru- 
ments. That similar signals were given in Egypt is 
not to be doubted, since the custom is almost as old 
as solar adoration itself. That the sun was wor- 
shipped in that country, is equally established : both 
being rendered the more certain by the ceremony of 
sounding harps, at sunrise, having been introduced 
into Italy by Pythagoras, who had long sojourned 
with the Egyptian magi. The sounding of Memnon's 
statue, then, might have been an artifice of the 
priesthood; to effect which many methods might 
have been adopted. Either the head of Memnon 
contained wires, like the strings of an JEolian harp ; 
or the sounds might have been produced by the 
touching of a stone*. 

The real cause of the sound has lately been 
discovered by Mr. Wilkinson : " In the lap of the 
statue is a stone, which, on being struck, elicits a 
metallic sound, that might still be made use of to 
deceive a visitor, who was predisposed to believe its 
powers ; and from its position, and the squared 

* Harmonies of Nature. 


space cut in the block behind, as if to admit a person, 
who might thus lie concealed from the most scru- 
tinous observer in the plain below, it seems to have 
been used after the restoration of the statue; and 
another similar recess exists beneath the present site 
of the stone, which might have been intended for 
the same purpose, when the statue was in its muti- 
lated state." 

This statue has frequently been mistaken for the 
statue of Osymandyas. Strabo says, that it was 
named Ismandes. These words were derived from 
Os-Smandi, to give out a sound; a property pos- 
sessed, it was said, by tins statue at the dawn of day 
and at sunset. Its true name was Amenophis. It 
was visited by Germanicus. On its legs are to be 
seen Greek and Roman inscriptions, attesting the 
prodigy of the harmonious sounds emitted by this 

After the temples at Karnac and Luxor, the next 
grand building at Thebes was the Memnonium ; that is, 
the tomb or palace of one of the Pharaohs, whom the 
Greeks suppose to be the same as Memnon. In the 
middle of the first court was the largest figure ever 
raised by the Egyptians, the statue of the monarch, 
seventy-five feet high. 

" The name MEMNONIUM" is used by Strabo to designate 
some part of ancisnt Thebes lying on the western side of 
the river. Some modern travellers have applied it to a mass of 
ruins at a little distance to the north of Medeenet-Habou, 
which are by others identified with the palace and tomb of 
Osymandyas, described by Diodorus. The dimensions of the 
building are about five hundred and thirty feet in length, and 
two hundred in width : it is chiefly remarkable for the magni- 
ficent colossal statues which have been discovered within it. 
The ' Memnon's head,' which forms so valuable an object in 
the collection of Egyptian antiquities contained in the British 
Museum, formerly belonged to one of these statues. It is 
generally supposed that the French, during their celebrated 

* Saturday Magazine. 


expedition, separated the bust from the rest of the figure by 
the aid of gunpowder, with the view of rendering its transport 
more easy. They were compelled, however, from some cause 
or other, to leave it behind, and it was brought away by 

" Close to the spot where the Memnon's head was found, 
lie the fragments of another statue, which has been called the 
largest in Egypt. It was placed in a sitting posture, and 
measures sixty-two or sixty-three feet round the shoulders ; 
six feet ten inches over the foot. The length of the nail of the 
second toe is about one foot, and the length of the toe to the 
insertion of the nail is one foot eleven inches. This enormous 
statue, formed of red granite, has been broken off at the waist, 
and the upper part is now laid prostrate on the back : the face 
is entirely obliterated, and next to the wonder excited at the 
boldness of the sculptor who made it, as Mr. Hamilton 
remarks, and the extraordinary powers of those who erected 
it, the labour and exertions that must have been used for its 
destruction are most astonishing. 

" The mutilation of this statue must have been a work of 
extreme difficulty: Hamilton says that it could only have been 
brought about with the help of military engines, and must then 
have been the work of a length of time ; in its fall it has 
carried along with it the whole of the wall of the temple 
which stood within its reach. 

" We have remarked that this edifice, called the Memno- 
nium, is by many travellers identified with that described by 
Diodorus, under the name of the monument of Osymandyas; 
his description is the only detailed account which we have in 
the ancient writers of any great Egyptian building. There is 
no one now at Thebes to which it may be applied in all its 
parts, or with which it so far agrees, as to leave no doubt con- 
cerning the edifice to which it was intended to apply by its 
author ; and Mr. Hamilton expresses his decided opinion that 
Diodorus, in penning this description of the tomb of Osyman- 
dyas, either listened with too easy credulity to the fanciful 
relations of the Greek travellers, to whom he refers ; or that, 
astonished with the immensity of the monuments he must have 
read and heard of as contained within the walls of the capital 
of Egypt, and equally unwilling to enter into a minute detail 
of them all, as to omit all mention of them whatever, he set 
himself down to compose an imaginary building, to which he 
could give a popular name. In this he might collect, in some 
kind of order, all the most remarkable features of Theban 
monuments, statues, columns, obelisks, sculptures, &c. to 
form one entire whole that might astonish his reader without 


tiring him by prolixity or repetition, and which at the same 
time gave him a just notion of the magnificent and splendid 
works which had immortalised the monarchs of the Thebaid. 
It is evident that there is no one monument in Thebes which 
answers in all its parts to the description of Diodorus ; yet it 
is urged that there is scarcely any one circumstance that he 
mentions that may not be referred to one or other of the 
temples of Luxor, Karnak, Goorno, Medeenet-Habou, or the 
tombs of the kings among the mountains. Others think that 
Diodorus used his best endeavours to describe a real place ; 
and the chief agreements with that now called the Memnoniutn 
are in the position of the building and its colossal statues, 
which are supposed to outweigh the exaggerations of dimen- 
sion ; these being set down as faults of memory or observation. 
On the colossal statue mentioned by Diodorus as the largest 
in Egypt, was placed, as he tells us, this inscription: ' / am 
Oayiiiandyus, king <'j 'kings : if you wish to know how great 1 
am, and where I lie, surpass my works /' He speaks also of 
certain sculptures representing battle scenes ; and of' the famous 
sacred library, which was inscribed with the words, ' Place of 
cure for the soul!' Yet from this conclusion we learn that he 
has been describing what the tomb of Osymandyas icas, ' which 
not only in the expense of the structure, but also in the skill 
of the workmanship, must have surpassed by far all other 
buildings.' " 

The following observations and history are taken 
from an exceedingly learned and agreeable work, 
" Egyptian Antiquities :" 

" Those who visit the British Museum cannot fail to have 
observed, in the room of Egyptian antiquities, a colossal statue 
of which only the head and breast remain. It is numbered 
66 in the catalogue and on the stone. Though this statue is 
commonly called the ' Younger Memnon,' a name to which 
for convenience we shall adhere, there is no reason in the 
world for calling it so, but a mistake of Norden, a Danish tra- 
veller, who visited Es;ypt in 1737. He then saw this statue 
in its entire state, seated on a chair, in precisely the same 
attitude as the black breccia figure, No. 38, but lying with its 
face on the ground ; to which accident, indeed, the preserva- 
tion of the features is no doubt mainly due. Several ancient 
writers, and among them the Greek geographer Strabo, speak 
of a large temple at Thebes on the west side of the Nile, to 
which they gave the name of the Memnonium, or Memnon's 
temple. Norden fancied that the building, amidst whose ruins 
he saw this statue, was the ancient Memnonium : though he 
F F 2 


supposed, that another statue of much larger dimensions than 
this in the Museum, and now lying in numerous fragments in 
the same place, was the great Meinnon statue, of which some 
ancient writers relate the following fact : That at sunrise, 
when the rays first struck the statue, it sent forth a sound 
something like that of the snapping of the string of a lute. 

"It is now generally admitted, that the real statue of 
Meinnon is neither the large one still lying at Thebes in frag- 
ments, nor this statue in the Museum, which came out of the 
same temple but another, statue still seated in its original posi- 
tion on the plain of Thebes, and showing by numerous Greek 
and Latin inscriptions on the legs, that it was the statue of 
which Strabo, Pausanias, and other ancient writers speak. 
The entire black statue, No. 38, is also a Memnon statue, for 
it resembles in all respects the great colossus with the inscrip- 
tions on its legs, and it has also the name of Memnon written 
on it, and enclosed in an oblong ring, on each side of the front 
part of the seat, and also on the back. If this colossus in the 
Museum (No. 66) was entire in 1737, it may be asked how 
came it to be broken ? We cannot say further than the fol- 
lowing statement : Belzoni went to Egypt in 1815, intend- 
ing to propose to the Pasha some improved mechanical con- 
trivances for raising water from the river in order to irrigate 
the fields. Owing to various obstacles, this scheme did not 
succeed, and Belzoni determined to- pay a visit to Upper Egypt 
to see the wonderful remains of its temples. Mr. Salt, then 
British Consul in Egypt, and Lewis Burckhardt, commissioned 
Belzoni to bring this colossal head from Thebes. Belzoni 
went up the river, and, landing at Thebes, found the statue 
exactly in the place where the Consul's instructions described 
it to be.* It was lying ' near the remains of its body and 
chair, with its face upwards, and apparently smiling on me at 
the thought of being taken to England. I must say, that my 
expectations were exceeded by its beauty, but not by its size. 
I observed that it must have been absolutely the same statue 
as is mentioned by Norden, lying in his time with the face 
downwards, which must have been the cause of its preserva- 
tion. I will not venture to assert who separated the bust from 
the rest of the body by an explosion, or by whom the bust has 
been turned face upwards.' It will be observed that the left 
shoulder of this figure is shattered, and that there is a large 
hole drilled in the right shoulder. We believe both are the 
work of the French who visited Thebes during the occupation 
of Egypt by the French army in 1800 ; and there is no doubt 
that Belzoni, in the above extract, means to attribute to them 

* Belzoni's Narrative. London 1820, p. 39. 


the separation of the head and shoulders from the rest of the 
body. In the magnificent work on Egyptian Antiquities, which 
has been published at Paris, there is a drawing of this head, 
which is pretty correct, except that the hole and the whole 
right shoulder are wanting. It seems that they drew the 
colossal bust in that form which it would have assumed, had 
they blown off the right shoulder. From what cause it hap- 
pened we do not know, but they left the colossus behind 
them ; and Belzoni, alone and unaided, accomplished what the 
French had unsuccessfully attempted. 

" All the implements that Belzoni had for removing this co- 
lossus were fourteen poles, eight of which were employed in 
making a car for the colossus, four ropes of palm-leaves, four 
rollers, and no tackle of any description. With these sorry 
implements and such wretched workmen as the place could pro- 
duce, he contrived to move the colossus from the ruins where 
it lay to the banks of the Nile, a distance considerably more 
than a mile. But it was a no less difficult task to place the co- 
lossus on board a boat, the bank of the river being ' more than 
fifteen feet above the level of the water, which had retired at 
least a hundred yards from it.' This, however, was effected by 
making a sloping causeway, along which the heavy mass de- 
scended slowly till it came to the lower part, where, by means 
of four poles, a kind of bridge was made, having one end rest- 
ing on the centre parts of the boat, and the other on the inclined 
plane. Thus the colossus was moved into the boat without any 
danger of tilting it over by pressing too much on one side. 
From Thebes it was carried down the river to Rosetta, and 
thence to Alexandria, a distance of more than four hundred 
miles : from the latter place it was embarked for England. 

" The material of this colossus is a fine-grained granite, which 
is found in the quarries near the southern boundary of Egypt, 
from which masses of enormous size may be procured free from 
any split or fracture, These quarries supplied the Egyptians 
with the principal materials for their colossal statues and obe- 
lisks, some of which, in an unfinished form, may still be seen in 
the granite quarries of Assouan. There is considerable variety 
in the qualities of this granite, as we may see from the speci- 
mensia the Museum, some of which consist of much larger com- 
ponent parts than others, and in different proportions ; yet all of 
them admit a fine polish. The colossal head, No. 8, opposite 
to the Memnon, No. 2, commonly called an altar, will serve to 
explain our meaning. 

".This Memnon's bust consists of one piece of stone, of two 
different colours, of which the sculptor has judiciously applied 
the red part to form the face. Though there is a style of sculp- 
ture which we may properly call Egyptian, as distinguished 


from and inferior to the Greek, and though this statue clearly 
belongs to the Egyptian style, it surpasses as a work of art 
most other statues from that country by a peculiar sweetness of 
expression and a finer outline of face. Though the eyebrows 
are hardly prominent enough for our taste, the nose somewhat 
too rounded, and the lips rather thick, it is impossible to deny 
that there is great beauty stamped on the countenance. Its 
profile, when viewed from various points, will probably show 
some new beauties to those only accustomed to look at it in 
front. The position of the ear in all Egyptian statues that we 
have had an opportunity of observing is very peculiar, being 
always too high ; and the ear itself is rather large. We might 
almost infer, that there was some national peculiarity in this 
member, from seeing it so invariably placed in the same singu- 
^ar position. The appendage to the chin is common in Egyptian 
Colossal statues, and is undoubtedly intended to mark the beard, 
the symbol of manhood ; and it m;\y be observed not only on 
numerous statues, but also on painted reliefs, where we fre- 
quently see it projecting from the end <.f the chin and not at- 
tached to the breast, but slightly curved Upwards. Osiris, one 
of the great objects of Egyptian adoration, is often thus repre- 
sented ; but the beard is generally only attached to the 
clothed figure, being, for the most part, but not always, 
omitted on naked ones. The colossal figures, No, 8 and 
38, have both lost their beards. There is a colossal head in the 
Museum, No. 57, that is peculiar in having the upper margin 
of the beard represented by incisions on the chin, after the fash- 
ion of Greek bearded statues. It is the only instance we have 
seen, either in reality or in any drawing, of a colossus with a 
genuine beard. There is more variety in the head-dresses of 
colossal statues than in their beards. No. 8, opposite the 
Memnon, has the high cap which occurs very often on Egyptian 
standing colossi, which are placed with their backs to pilasters. 
No. 38 has the flat cap titling close to ihe head and descending 
behind, very much like the pigtails once in fashion. The Mem- 
non head-dress differs from both of these, and has given rise to 
discussions, called learned, into which we cannot entere lit re. 
On the forehead of this colossus may be seen the remains of 
the erect serpent, the emblem of royalty, which always indicates 
a deity or a royal personage. This erect serpent may be traced 
ou;various monuments of the Museum, and perhaps occurs 
more frequently than any single sculptured object. 

" Our limits prevent us from going into other details, but 
we have perhaps said enough to induce some of our readers to 
look more carefully at this curious specimen of Egyptian art ; 
and to examine the rest of the ornamental parts. The fol- 
lowing are some of the principal dimensions : 


The whole height of the bust from the top of the 

head-dress to the lowest part of the fragment ft. - in, 
measured behind ....,89 
Round the shoulders and breast, above . .15 3 
Height of the head from the upper part of the 

head-dress to the end of the beard . .60^ 
From the forehead to the chin . . . 3 3 
" Judging from these dimensions, the figure in its entire 
state would be about twenty-four feet high as seated on its 
chair : which is about half the height of the real Memnon, who 
still sits majestic on his ancient throne, and throws his long 
shadow at sun-rise over the plain of Thebes." 

INI any pages have been written in regard to the 
time when the arch was first invented. It is not 
known that the two divisions of the city were ever 
connected by any bridge. 

" A people," remarks Heeren, " whose knowledge of archi- 
tecture had not attained to the formation of arches, could 
hardly have constructed a bridge over a river, the breadth of 
which would even now oppose great obstacles to such an 
undertaking. We have reason to believe, however, that the 
Egyptians were acquainted with the formation of the arch, 
and did employ it on many occasions. Belzoni contends that 
such was the case, and asserts that there is now at Thebes a 
genuine specimen, which establishes the truth of his assertion. 
No question exists, it should be observed, that arches are to be 
found in Thebes ; it is their antiquity alone which has been 
doubted. The testimony of Mr. Wilkinson on this point is 
decisive in their favour. He tells us that he had long been per- 
suaded that most of the innumerable vaults and arches to be 
seen at Thebes, were of an early date, although unfortunately, 
from their not having the names of any of the kings inscribed 
on them, he was unable to prove the fact ; when, at last, 
chance threw in his way a tomb vaulted in the usual manner, 
and with an arched door-way, ' the whole stuccoed, and bear- 
ing on every part of it the fresco paintings and name of Amu- 
noph the First,' who ascended the throne 1550 years B.C. 
We thus learn that the arch was in use in Egypt nearly three 
thousand four hundred years ago, or more than twelve hun- 
dred years before the period usually assigned as the date of its 
introduction among the Greeks." 

At Thebes have lately been found, that is, about 
fifteen years ago, several papyri ; one of which gives 
an ancient contract for the sale of land in this city. 
The following is a translation : 


" ' In the reign of Cleopatra and Ptolemy her son, sur- 
named Alexander, the gods Philometore.s Soleres, in the year 
XII, otherwise IX ; in the priesthood, fyc. $c., on the 29th 
of the month Tybi ; Apollonius biing pi evident of the Ex- 
change of the Memnonians, and of the lower government of 
the Patliyritic Nome. 

" There was sold by Pamonthes, aged about 45, of middle 
size, dark completion, and handsome figure, ba,ld, round, 
faced, and straight-nosed ; and by Snachomnenus, aged 
about 20, of middle size, sallow complexion, likewise round- 
faced^ and straight-nosed ; and by Semmuthis Persine'i, aged 
about 22, of middle size, sallow complexion, round-faced, 
^flat-nosed, and of quiet demeanour ; and by Tathlyt Persine'i, 
aged about 30, of middle size, sallow complexion, round face, 
and straight nose, with their principal, Pamonthes, a party 
in the sale ; the four being of the children of Petepsais, of 
the leather-cutters of the Memnonia ; out of the piece of level 
ground which belongs to them in the southern part of the 
Memnonia, eight thousand cubits of open field ; one-fourth 
of the whole, bounded on the south by the Royal Street ; on 
the north and east by the land of Pamonthes and Boconsiemis, 
who is his brother, and (he common land of the city ; on 
the west by the house of Tapes, the son of Chalome ; a canal 
running through the middle, leading from the river ; these 
are the neighbours on all sides. It was bought by Nechutes 
the Less, the son of Asos, aged about 40, of middle size, sallow 
complexion, cheerful countenance, long face, and straight nose, 
with a scar upon the middle of his forehead ; for 601 pieces of 
brass ; the sellers standing as brokers, and as securities for 
the validity of the sale. It was accepted by Nechutes the 

' APOLLONIUS, Pr. Exch.' 

" Attached* to this deed is a registry, dated according to the 
day of the month and year in which it was effected, ' at the 
table in Hermopolis, at which Dionysius presides over the 
20th department ; ' and briefly recapitulating the particulars 
of the sale, as recorded in the account of the partners receiving 
the duties on sales, of which Heraclius is the subscribing clerk ; 
so that even in the days of the Ptolemies there was a tax on 
the transfer of landed property, and the produce of it was 
farmed out in this case to certain ' partners.' 

" According to Champollion, the date of this contract cor- 
responds to the 13th or 14th of February, 105 B. c., and that 
of the registry to the 6th or the 14th of May in the same year. 
Dr. Young fixes it in the year 106 B. c. 
* Parker. 


" The contract is written in Greek ; it is usually called the 
' Contract of Ptolemais,' or the ' Papyrus of M. d'.Anatasy,' 
having been first procured by a gentleman of that name, the 
Swedish consul at Alexandria. Three other deeds of a similar 
kind, but rather older, and written in the enchorial, or demotic 
character, were brought from Thebes, about fifteen years ago, 
by a countryman of our own, Mr. G. F. Grey, the same gen- 
tleman who was fortunate enough to bring that Greek papyrus 
which turned out, by a most marvellous coincidence, to be a 
copy of an Egyptian manuscript which Dr. Young was at the 
very time trying to decipher. These three deeds are in the 
enchorial character, and accompanied with a registry in Greek. 
They all relate to the transfer of land ' at the southern end of 
Diospolis the Great,' as the Greek registries have it. The 
Greek papyrus, too, of which we just spoke, and the original 
Paris manuscript, of which it is a copy, are instruments for the 
transfer of the rent of certain tombs in the Libyan suburb of 
Thebes, in the Memnonia; and also of the proceeds arising 
from the performance of certain ' liturgies ' on the account of 
the deceased. They have been invaluable aids in the study of 
ancient Egyptian literature." 

The emperor Constantino, ambitious of foreign 
ornaments, resolved to decorate his newly-founded 
capital of Constantinople with the largest of all the 
obelisks that stood on the ruins of Thebes. He suc- 
ceeded in having it conveyed as far as Alexandria, 
but, dying at the time, its destination was changed ; 
and an enormous raft, managed by three hundred 
rowers, transported the granite obelisk from Alexan- 
dria to Rome. 

Among the treasures of antiquity, found in the 
Thebais, were, till very lately, two granite columns, 
of precisely the same character as Cleopatra's Needles. 
Of these one remains on the spot ; the other, with 
great labour and expense, has been transported to 
Paris. When the French army, in their attempt on 
Egypt, penetrated as far as Thebes, they were, al- 
most to a man, overpowered by the majesty of the 
ancient monuments they saw before them; and 
Buonaparte is then said to have conceived the idea of 
removing at least one of the obelisks to Paris. But 


reverses and defeat followed. The French were com- 
pelled to abandon Egypt ; and the English, remain- 
ing masters of the seas, effectually prevented any such 
importation into France. 

" * Thirty years after Buonaparte's first conception of the idea, 
the French government, then under Charles X., having ob- 
tained the consent of the pasha of Egypt, determined that one 
of the obelisks of Luxor should be brought to Paris. ' The 
difficulties of doing this,' says M. Delaborde, ' were great. lu 
the first place, it was necessary to build a vessel which should 
be large enough to contain the monument, deep enougk to 
stand the sea, and, at the same time, draw so little water as to 
be able to ascend and descend such rivers as the Nile and the 

" In the month of February, 1831 , when the crown of France 
had passed into the hands of Louis Philippe, a vessel, built as 
nearly as could be on the necessary principles, was finished 
and equipped at Toulon. This vessel, which for the sake of 
lightness was chiefly made of fir and other white wood, was 
named the ' Luxor.' The crew consisted of one hun 1ml and 
twenty seamen, under the command of Lieutenant Verninac, 
of the French royal navy; and there went, besides, sixteen 
mechanics of different professions, and a master to direct the 
works under the superintendence of M, Lebas. 

" After staying forty-two days at Alexandria, the expedition 
sailed for the mouth of the Nile. At Rosetta they remained 
some days, and on the 20th of June M. Lebas, the engineer, 
two officers, and a few of the sailors and workmen, leaving the 
' Luxor ' to make her way up the river slowly, embarked in 
common Nile-boats for Thebes, carrying with them the tools 
and materials necessary for the removal of the obelisk. The 
' Luxor' did not arrive at Thebes until the I4th of August, 
which was two months after her departure from Alexandria. 

" Reaumur's thermometer marked from thirty degrees to 
thirty-eight in the shade, and ascended to fifty, and even to 
fifty-five degrees, in the sun. Several of the sailors were seized 
with dysentery, and the quantity of sand blown about by the 
wind, and the glaring reflection of the burning sun, afflicted 
others with painful ophthalmia. The sand was particularly 
distressing : one day the wind raised it and rolled it onward in 
such volume as, at intervals, to obscure the light of the sun. 
After they had felicitated themselves on the fact that the plague 
was not in the country, they were struck with alarm, on the 
29th of August, by learning that the cholera morbus had 
broken out most violently at Cairo. On the llth of Septem- 

* Penny Magazine. 


her the same mysterious disease declared itself on the plain of 
Thebes, with the natives of which the French were obliged to 
have frequent communications. In a very short time fifteen 
of the sailors, according to M. J. U. Angelina, the surgeon, 
caught the contagion, but every one recovered under his care 
and skill. 

" In the midst of these calamities and dangers, the French 
sailors persevered in preparing the operations relative to the 
object of the expedition. One of the first cares of M. Lebas, 
on his arriving on the plain of Thebes, was to erect near to 
the obelisks, and not far from the village of Luxor, proper 
wooden barracks sheds and tents to lodge the officers, sailors, 
and workmen on shore; he also built an oven to bake them 
bread, and magazines in which to secure their provisions, and 
the sails, cables, &c. of the vessel. 

" The now desolate site, on which the City of the Hundred 
Gates once stood, offered them no resources of civilised life. 
But French soldiers and sailors are happily, and, we may say, 
honourably distinguished, by the facility with which they 
adapt themselves to circumstances, and turn their hands to 
whatever can add to their comfort and well-being. The sailors 
on this expedition, during their hours of repose from more 
severe labours, carefully prepared and dug up pieces of ground 
for kitchen-gardens. They cultivated bread-melons and water- 
melons, lettuces, and other vegetables ; they even planted some 
trees, which thrived very well ; acd, in short, they made their 
place of temporary residence a little paradise, as compared with 
the wretched huts and neglected fields of the oppressed natives. 

" It was the smaller of the two obelisks the French had to 
remove ; but this smaller column of hard, heavy granite was 
seventy-two French feet high, and was calculated to weigh 
upwards of two hundred and forty tons. It stood, moreover, 
at the distance of about one thousand two hundred feet from 
the Nile, and the intervening space presented many difficulties. 

" M. Lebas commenced by making an inclined plane, ex- 
tending from the base of the obelisk to the edge of the river. 
This work occupied nearly all the French sailors, and about 
seven hundred Arabs, during three months ; for they were 
obliged to cut through two hills of ancient remains and rub- 
bish, to demolish half of the poor villages which lay in their 
way*, and to beat, equalise, and render rirm the uneven, loose, 
and crumbling soil. This done, the engineer proceeded to 
make the ship ready for the reception of the obelisk. The 
vessel had been left aground by the periodical fall of the 
waters of the Nile, and matters had been so managed that she 

* Why was this necessary? and who recompensed the poor villagers 


lay imbedded in the sand, with her figure-head pointing 
directly towards the temple and the granite column. The 
engineer, taking care not to touch the keel, sawed off a section 
of the front of the ship ; in short, he cut away her bows, which 
were raised, and kept suspended above the place they properly 
occupied, by means of pulleys and some strong spars, which 
crossed each other above the vessel. 

"The ship, thus opened, presented in front a large mouth to 
receive its cargo, which was to reach the very lip of that mouth 
or opening, by sliding down the inclined plane. The prepara- 
tions for bringing the obelisk safely down to the ground lasted 
from the llth of July to the 31st of October, when it was laid 
horizontally on its side. 

" The rose-coloured granite of Syene (the material of these 
remarkable works of ancient art), though exceedingly hard, is 
rather brittle. By coming into contact with other substances, 
and by being impelled along the inclined plane, the beautiful 
hieroglyphics, sculptured on its surface, might have been de- 
faced, and the obelisk might have suffered other injuries. To 
prevent these, M. Lebas encased it, from its summit to its 
base, in strong thick wooden sheathings, well secured to the 
column by means of hoops. The western face of this covering, 
which was that upon which the obelisk was to slide down the 
inclined plane, was rendered smooth, and was well rubbed 
with grease to make it run the easier. 

" To move so lofty and narrow an object from its centre of 
gravity was no difficult task, but then came the moment of 
intense anxiety ! The whole of the enormous weight bore upon 
the cable, the cordage, and machinery, which quivered and 
cracked in all their parts. Their tenacity, however, was equal 
to the strain, and so ingeniously were the mechanical powers 
applied, that eight men in the rear of the descending column 
were sufficient to accelerate or retard its descent. 

" On the following day the much less difficult task of getting 
the obelisk on board the ship was performed. It only occupied 
an hour and a half to drag the column down the inclined plane, 
and (through the open mouth in front) into the hold of the 
vessel. The section of the suspended bows was then lowered 
to the proper place, and readjusted and secured as firmly as 
ever by the carpenters and other workmen. So nicely was this 
important part of the ship sliced off, and then put to again, 
that the mutilation was scarcely preceptible. 

"The obelisk was embarked on the 1st of November, 1831, 
but it was not until the 18th August 1 832, that the annual rise 
of the Nile afforded sufficient water to float their long-stranded 
ship. At last, however, to their infinite joy, they were ordered 
to prepare every thing for the voyage homewards. As soon as 


this was done, sixty Arabs were engaged to assist in getting 
them down the river, (a distance of 180 leagues), and the 'Luxor' 
set sail. 

" After thirty-six days of painful navigation, but without 
meeting with any serious accident, they reached Rosetta ; and 
there they were obliged to stop, because the sand bank off that 
mouth of the Nile had accumulated to such a degree, that, 
with its present cargo the vessel could not clear it. Fortunately, 
however, on the 30th of December, a violent hurricane dissi- 
pated part of this sand-bank ; and, on the first of January, 
1833, at ten o'clock in the morning, the ' Luxor' shot safely out 
of the Nile, and at nine o'clock on the following morning came 
to a secure anchorage in the old harbour of Alexandria. 

" Here they awaited the return of the fine season for navi- 
gating the Mediterranean ; and the Sphynx (a French man- 
of-war) taking the ' Luxor' in tow, they sailed from Alex- 
andria on the 1st of April. On the 2nd, a storm commenced, 
which kept the ' Luxor' in imminent danger for two whole days. 
On the 6th, the storm abated ; but the wind continued con- 
trary, and soon announced a fresh tempest. They had just 
time to run for shelter into the bay of Marmara, when the 
storm became more furious than ever. 

" On the 13th of April, they again weighed anchor, and 
shaped their course for Malta ; but a violent contrary wind 
drove them back as far as the Greek island of Milo, where 
they were detained two days. Sailing, however, on the 17th, 
they reached Navarino on the 18th, and the port of Corfu, 
where they were kindly received by Lord Nugent and the 
British, on the 23d of April. Between Corfu and Cape Spar- 
tivento, heavy seas and high winds caused the ' Luxor ' to 
labour and strain exceedingly. As soon, however, as they 
reached the coast of Italy, the sea became calm, and a light 
breeze carried them forward, at the rate of four knots an hour, 
to Toulon, where they anchored during the evening on the llth 
of May. 

' They had now reached the port whence they had departed, 
but their voyage was not yet finished. There is no carriage by 
water, or by any other commodious means, for so heavy and 
cumbrous a mass as an Egyptian obelisk, from Toulon to 
Paris (a distance of above four hundred and fifty miles). To 
meet this difficulty they must descend the rest of the Mediter- 
ranean, pass nearly the whole of the southern coast of France, 
and all the south of Spain sail through the straits of Gibraltar, 
and traverse part of the Atlantic, as far as the mouth of the 
Seine, which river affords a communication between the 
French capital and the ocean. 

" Accordingly, on the 22d of June, they sailed from Toulon, 


the ' Luxor ' being again taken in tow by the Sphynx man-of- 
war ; and, after experiencing some stormy weather, finally 
reached Cherbourg on the 5th of August, 1833. The whole 
distance performed in this voyage was upwards of four hundred 

" As the royal family of France was expected at Cherbourg by 
the 31st of August, the authorities detained the 'Luxor' there. 
On the 2d of September, King Louis Philippe paid a visit to 
the vessel, and warmly expressed his satisfaction to the officers 
and crew. He was the first to inform M. Verninac, the com- 
mander, that he' was promoted to the ra:>k of captain of a 
sloop-of-war. On the following day, the king distributed de- 
corations of the Legion of Honour to the officers, and enter- 
tained them at dinner. 

" The ' Luxor,' again towed by the Sphynx, left Cherbourg on 
the 12th of September, and safely reached Havre de Grace, at 
the mouth of the Seine. Here her old companion, the Sphynx, 
which drew too much water to be able to ascend the river, left 
her, and she was taken in tow by the Neva steam-boat. To 
conclude with the words of our author : ' At six o'clock (on 
the 13th) our vessel left the sea for ever, and entered the 
Seine. By noon we had cleared all the banks and impedi- 
ments of the lower part of the river ; and on the 1 4th of Sep- 
tember at noon, we arrived at Rouen, where the ' Luxor' was 
made fast before the quay d'Harcourt. Here we must remain 
until the autumnal rains raise the waters of the Seine, and 
permit us to transport to Paris this pyramid, the object of 
our expedition.' This event has since happened, and the 
recent French papers announce that the obelisk has been set 
up in the centre of the Place Louis XVI." 

For a more detailed account of this wonderful 
city, we must refer to the learned and elaborate ac- 
count, published a few years since, by Mr. Wilkin- 
son. AVe now have space only for impressions. 

" That ancient city, celebrated by the first of poets 
and historians that are now extant : ' that venerable 
city,' as Pococke so plaintively expresses it, ' the 
date of whose ruin is older than the foundation of 
most other cities,' offers, at this day, a picture of 
desolation and fallen splendour, more complete than 
can be found elsewhere ; and yet ' such vast and sur- 
prising remains,' to continue in the words of the same 
old traveller, ' are still to be seen, of such magnifi- 


cence and solidity, as may convince any one that be- 
holds them, that without some extraordinary acci- 
dent, they must have lasted for ever, which seems to 
have been the intention of the founders of them.' " 

" Their very aspect," says Savary, " would awaken 
the genius of a polished nation ; but the Turks and 
Copts, crushed to dust beneath an iron sceptre, be- 
hold them without astonishment, and build huts, 
which even scarcely screen them from the sun, in 
their neighbourhood. These barbarians, if they want 
a mill-stone, do not blush to overturn a column, 
the support of a temple or portico, and saw it in 
pieces! Thus abject does despotism render men." 
"All here is sublime, all majestic. The kings 
seem to have acquired the glory of never dying while 
the obelisks and colossal statues exist ; and have only 
laboured for immortality. They could preserve their 
memory against the efforts of time, but not against the 
efforts of the barbarism of conquerors ; those dreadful 
scourges of science and nations, which, in their pride, 
they have too often erased from the face of the earth." 
" With pain one tears oneself from Thebes. Her 
monuments fix the traveller's eyes, and fill his mind 
with vast ideas. Beholding colossal figures, and 
stately obelisks, which seem to surpass human 
powers, he says, ' Man has done this,' and feels 
himself and his species ennobled. True it is, when 
he looks down on the wretched huts, standing beside 
these magnificent labours, and when he perceives an 
ignorant people, instead of a scientific nation, he 
grieves for the generations that are past, and the 
arts that have perished with them ; yet this very 
grief has a kind of charm for a heart of sensibility." 

" It would be difficult," says Sonnini, " to de > 
scribe the sensations which the sight of objects so 
grand, so majestic, raised within me. It was not a 
simple adoration merely, but an ecstacy which sus- 
pended the use of all my faculties. I remained some 


time immoveable with rapture, and I felt inclined 
more than once to prostrate myself in token of vene- 
ration before monuments, the rearing of which ap- 
peared to transcend the strength and genius of man." 
" Letthe so much boasted fabrics of Greece and Koine 
(continues he) come and bow down before the tem- 
ples and palaces of Thebes and Egypt. Its lofty 
ruins are still more striking than their gaudy orna- 
ments ; its gigantic wrecks are more majestic than 
their perfect preservation. The glory of the most 
celebrated fabrics vanishes before the prodigies of 
Egyptian architecture ; and to describe them justly, 
a man must possess the genius of those who con- 
ceived and executed them, or the eloquent pen of a 

" On turning," says Denon, " the point of a chain 
of mountains, we saw, all at once, ancient Thebes in 
its full extent that Thebes whose magnitude has 
been pictured to us by % a single word in Homer, 
hundred-gated renowned for numerous kings, who, 
through their wisdom, have been elevated to the 
rank of gods ; for laws which have been revered 
without being known ; for sciences which have been 
confided to proud and mysterious inscriptions ; wise 
and earliest monuments of the arts which time has 
respected; this sanctuary, abandoned, isolated through 
barbarism, and surrendered to the desert from which 
it was won ; this city, shrouded in the veil of mys- 
tery, by which even colossi are magnified; this remote 
city, which imagination has only caught a glimpse 
of through the darkness of time, was still so gigantic 
an apparition, that, at the sight of its ruins, the French 
army halted of its own accord, and the soldiers, with 
one spontaneous movement, clapped their hands." 

Dr. Richardson, who visited Thebes many years 
after Denon, tells us, that as he approached it in the 
night, he could not judge of the awful grandeur of 
that first appearance, which so powerfully affected the 


enthusiastic Frenchman. " But the next morning's 
sun convinced us," he says, " that the ruins can 
scarcely be seen from the river ; that no where does 
the traveller turn the corner of the mountain to come 
in sight of them ; and that he must be near. them, or 
among them, before he can discover any tiling." Yet 
both Denon's drawings, and the more recent ones of 
Captain W. F. Head, give some distant views of the 
ruins, which are very effective. 

Mons. Champollion speaks of Thebes in terms of 
equal admiration : " All that I had seen, all that I 
had learned on the left bank, appeared miserable in 
comparison with the gigantic conceptions by which 
I was surrounded at Karnac. I shall take care not 
to attempt to describe any thing ; for either my de- 
scription would not express the thousandth part of 
what ought to be said, or if I drew a faint sketch, I 
should be taken for an enthusiast, or, perhaps, for a 
madman. It will suffice to add, that no people, 
either ancient or modern, ever conceived the art of 
architecture on so sublime, and so grand, a scale, as 
the ancient Egyptians. Their conceptions were those 
of men a hundred feet high." 

Mr. Carne speaks to the same effect : " It is dif- 
ficult to describe the noble and stupendous ruins of 
Thebes. Beyond all others, they give you the idea 
of a ruined, yet imperishable, city : so vast is their 
extent, that you wander a long time, confused and 
perplexed, and discover at every step some new object . 
of interest." 

" The temple of Luxor," says Belzoni," " presents 
to the traveller, at once, one of the most splendid 
groups of Egyptian grandeur. The extensive pro- 
pylaeon, with two obelisks, and colossal statues in 
front, the thick groups of enormous columns, the 
variety of apartments, and the sanctuary it contains, 
the beautiful ornaments which adorn every part of 

VOL. n. G G 


the walls and columns, described by Mr. Hamilton, 
cause, in the astonished traveller, an oblivion of all 
that he has seen before. If his attention be attracted 
to the north side of Thebes, by the towering remains 
that project a great height above the wood of palm- 
trees, he will gradually enter that forest-like assem- 
blage of ruins, of temples, columns, obelisks, colossi, 
sphinxes, portals, and an endless number of other 
astonishing objects, that will convince him at once of 
the impossibility of a description. On the west side 
of the Nile, still the traveller finds himself among 
wonders. The temples of Gournou, Memnonium, 
and Memdet Aboo, attest the extent of the great city 
on this side. The unrivalled colossal figures in the 
plains of Thebes, the number of tombs excavated in 
the rocks ; those in the great valley of their kings, 
with their paintings, sculptures, mummies, sarco- 
phagi, figures, &c., are all objects worthy of the 
admiration of the traveller ; who will not fail to 
wonder how a nation, which was once so great as to 
erect these stupendous edifices, could so far fall into 
oblivion, that even their language and writing are 
totally unknown to us. Very imperfect ideas," 
continues this celebrated traveller, " can be formtd 
of these extensive ruins, even from the accounts of 
the most skilful and accurate travellers. It is abso- 
lutely impossible to imagine the scene, displayed, 
without seeing it. The most sublime ideas, that can 
be formed from the most magnificent specimens of 
our present architecture, would give a very incorrect 
picture of these ruins ; for such is the difference, not 
only in magnitude, but in form, proportion, and con- 
struction, that even the pencil can convey but a faint 
idea of the whole. It appeared to me like entering 
a city of giants, who, after a long conflict, were all 
destroyed ; leaving the ruins of their various temples 
as the only proofs of their former existence." 


Travellers have sometimes taken a fancy to visit 
these ruins by moonlight ; and the view which they 
then present, though of course wanting in distinct- 
ness, is described as extremely impressive. Mr. 
Carne paid his second visit in this manner, and he 
says that it was still more interesting than the other. 
" The moon had risen, and we passed through one or 
two Arab villages in the way, where fires were 
lighted in the open air; and the men, after the labours 
of the day, were seated in groups round them, smoking 
and conversing with great cheerfulness. It is sin- 
gular, that in the most burning climates of the East, 
the inhabitants love a good fire at night, and a tra- 
veller soon catches the habit ; yet the air was still 
very warm. There was no fear of interruption in 
exploring the ruins, for the Arabs dread to come 
here after daylight, as they often say these places 
were built by Afrit, the devil ; and the belief in 
apparitions prevails among most of the Orientals. 
We again entered with delight the grand portico. It 
was a night of uncommon beauty, without a breath 
of wind stirring, and the moonlight fell vividly on 
some parts of the colonnades, while others were 
shaded so as to add to, rather than diminish, their 
grandeur. The obelisks, the statues, the lonely 
columns on the plain without, threw their long 
shadows on the mass of ruins around them, and 
the scene was in truth exquisitely mournful and 

* Herodotus ; Diodorus ; Strabo ; Tacitus ; Prideaux ; Rollin ; 
Pococke ; Savary ; Fleurieu ; Sonnini ; Lindsay ; Browne ; Denon ; 
Belzoni ; Came ; Champollion ; Soane ; Heeren ; Wilkinson ; Rich- 
ardson; Penny Magazine ; Saturday Magaziue ; Egyptian Antiquities; 
Encyclopedia Metropolitana ; Rees; Brewster ; Londinensis. 

GG 2 




" IT has been asserted, "says Sir William Gell, "and 
confidently maintained, that there does not exist the 
smallest vestige of the. ancient city of Priam ; and it 
is not the only capital concerning which the same 
erroneous idea has prevailed. The ' etiam periere 
ruinae ' of Virgil* seems to have been the foundation 
of this opinion ; and it is not wonderful, that it should 
maintain its ground until the truth was investigated, 
when we recollect that the ignorance of travellers for 
a long time countenanced the idea, that not the 
smallest trace of the great and powerful Babylon 
remained, though destroyed at a period when the 
.credibility of history is universally admitted. The 
existence, however, of the ruins of Babylon is now 
perfectly established. If the situation of the most 
magnificent capital of the four great monarchies of 
the world could have so long escaped the researches 
of modern inquirers, it will be granted that the ves- 
tiges of a city, comparatively inconsiderable, the 
capital but of a small territory, and destroyed in a 
very remote age, might be easily overlooked." 

Diodorus Siculus relates, that the Samothracians 
were accustomed to say, that the Pontic sea had once 
been a vast pool of standing water, which, swollen 
by rivers running into it, first overflowed to the 
Cyanae, two rocks pf the Thracian Bosphorus ; and 
afterwards, forcing a way and flooding the champaign 
country, formed the sea, called the Hellespont. 

The Samothracians, also, related that Dardanus 
passed over from their island, the place of his birth j 

* Not of Virgil, but of Lucari. Phars. lib. ix. 


in a boat to the continent of Asia, and settled in the 
Troiia. Here this enterprising person, forming a 
community, built a city, from him called Dardania, 
situated on a small eminence near Mount Ida, and 
the promontory of Sigseum, at the distance of about 
four miles from the sea-shore. 

This Dardanus is said to have espoused Asia, 
called also Arisba and Batia, daughter of Teucer, 
king of Teucria. He was succeeded by Ericthonius, 
his son, who is celebrated in the Iliad for having 
possessed three thousand horses ; and for his being, 
moreover, the richest of men. We ought to have 
first stated, however, that Dardanus was accom- 
panied by his nephew Corybas, who introduced the 
worship of Cybele ; that he himself taught his sub- 
jects to worship Minerva; and that he gave them 
two statues of that goddess, one of which is well 
known by the name of Palladium. 

Ericthonius died 1374 B.C. after a reign of seventy- 
five years. He had one son, named Tros ; and Tros 
had three sons, of whom Ilus was his successor. His 
barrow is mentioned in the Iliad, as still remaining 
in the plain before the city. He married Eurydice, 
the daughter of Adrastus, by whom he had Lao- 
medon, the father of Priam. He greatly embel- 
lished the city of Dardanus, which from him was 
called Ilium ; as from his father it had been called 

Ilus was succeeded by his son, Laomedon. This 
prince surrounded the city with walls ; in which he 
is fabulously stated to have been assisted by two 
deities. For an account of this, the reader, if he 
please, may consult Homer, Virgil, Ovid, and other 
ancient poets. Not long after he had built the 
walls, they are said to have been thrown down by 
Hercules, the streets made desolate, and Laomedon 


Priamus, one of the most unfortunate as well as 
one of the most celebrated of princes, succeeded his 
father. The city, in his time, had recovered the 
damage it had sustained, and became famous for its 
wealth ; more especially in brass and gold. Homer, 
too, celebrates it for its walls and buildings. It was 
situate on a rising ground amid morasses, which 
were formed by the waters which, at certain seasons 
of the year, descended in torrents from Mount Ida. 
The language, as well as the religion, of this city was 
the same as those appertaining to Greece ; and the 
dominions of the king comprised the whole of the 
country lying within the isle of Lesbos, Phrygia, and 
the Hellespont. 

The reign of Priam is celebrated for the war, which 
took place between the Trojans and Greeks. This 
was made a subject of the finest poem that ever 
honoured civilised society ; but as the history of the 
transaction differs, when treated by the poets, we, 
as plain matter-of-fact persons, adopt that which has 
been given us by Herodotus. We must, however, 
first of all remark, that some, and most especially 
Monsieur Pascal, have treated the whole as a mere 
fable. " Homer," say they, " wrote a romance : no 
one can believe that Troy and Agamemnon had any 
existence, any more than the golden apple. He had 
no intention to write a history. He merely intended 
to amuse and delight us." And here we may advan- 
tageously give place to several particular observations 
of that accomplished traveller, Sir William Gell : 
" In approaching the Troas," says he, " each bay, 
mountain, and promontory, presented something new 
to the eye, and excited the most agreeable reflections 
in the mind ; so that, in a few days, I found myself 
in possession of a number of observations and draw- 
ings, taken in a part of the world concerning which, 
although much has been written, there still exists a 


great deficiency of those materials, which might 
enable a reader to form a satisfactory opinion, with- 
out encountering the difficulties of a tedious voyage. 
I thought that such information would gratify men 
of literature and inquiry. I was confident that deli- 
neations and descriptions of a fertile plain, watered 
by abundant and perennial streams, affording almost 
impregnable positions, and so situated as to command 
one of the most important passes of the world, must 
be interesting, not to say valuable, to politicians and 
statesmen. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to add, that I 
was not without the hope of convincing others, as I 
had been myself convinced, that the history, as re- 
lated by Homer, is confirmed by the fullest testi- 
mony, which a perfect correspondence between the 
present face of the country and the description of the 
poet can possibly give to it." 

That the Trojan war absolutely took place is, how- 
ever, not so much to be believed on poetical autho- 
rity, as it is upon that of history. Not only Hero- 
dotus and Thucydides have left records of it, but all 
the biographers of Alexander. The testimony of 
Thucydides is remarkable : " The power of the 
Greeks gradually advancing, they were enabled, in 
process of time, to undertake the Trojan expedition. 
It is farther my opinion, that the assemblage of that 
armament, by Agamemnon, was not owing so much 
to the attendance of the suitors of Helen, in pur- 
siiance of the oath they had sworn to Tyndarus, as 
to his own superior power." " To these enlargements 
of power Agamemnon succeeding, and being also 
superior to the rest of his countrymen in naval 
strength, he was enabled, in my opinion, to form 
that expedition more from awe than favour. It is 
plain that he equipped out the largest number of 
ships himself, besides those he lent to the Arcadians. 
We ought not, therefore, to be incredulous, nor so 


much to regard the appearance of cities as their 
power, and of course to conclude the armament 
against Troy to have been greater than ever was 
known before, but inferior to those of our age ; and 
whatever credit be given to the poetry of Homer in 
this respect, who no doubt as a poet hath set it off 
with all possible enlargement, yet even, according 
to his account, it appears inferior." " On their 
first landing, they got the better in fight. The proof 
is, that they could not otherwise have fortified their 
camp with a wall. Neither does it appear that they 
exerted all their strength at once ; numbers being 
detached for supplies of provisions, to till the Cher- 
sonesus, and to forage at large. Thus, divided as 
they were, the Trojans were the better able to make 
a ten years' resistance, being equal in force to those 
who were at any time left to carry on the siege." 

Herodotus treats it, also, as a matter of actual 
history : and as the first portion of his work affords 
a very curious and beautiful example of ancient 
manners, we shall abbreviate the version, rendered 
by Mr. Beloe. Paris, having carried off Helen 
from Sparta, was returning home (to Troy) ; but 
meeting with contrary winds in the JEgean, he 
was driven into the Egyptian Sea. As the winds 
continued unfavourable, he proceeded to Egypt, 
and was driven to the Canopian mouth of the 
Nile, and to Tarichea. In that situation, continues 
Herodotus, was a temple of Hercules, " which still 
remains." To this temple, should any slave fly for 
refuge, no one was permitted to molest him. The 
servants of Paris, aware of this privilege, fled thither 
from their master. There they propagated many 
accusations against him ; and, amongst other disclo- 
sures, they published the wrong that Paris had done 
to Menelaus. Hearing this, Thonis, the governor of 
the district, despatched a messenger to Proteus, king 


of Memphis. "' There is arrived here a Trojan, who 
has perpetrated an atrocious crime in Greece. He 
has seduced the wife of his host, and carried her 
away, with a great quantity of treasure. Adverse 
winds have forced him hither. Shall I suffer him to 
depart without molestation ? or shall I seize his per- 
son and property ?" In answer to this Proteus de- 
sired, that the malefactor should be sent to him. 
Receiving this command, Thonis seized Paris, and 
detained his vessels, with Helen and all his wealth. 
Being taken before Proteus, and asked who he was 
and whence he came, Paris gave a true account of his 
family and. country, and whence he had last sailed. 
But when Proteus inquired concerning Helen, who 
she was, and how he got possession of her, he fal- 
tered. His servants, however, proved the particu- 
lars of his guilt. On this, Proteus addressed him 
after the following manner : " If I did not esteem it 
a very heinous crime to put any stranger to death, 
whom unfavourable winds have driven to my coast, 
I would, most assuredly, thou most abandoned man, 
avenge that Greek whose hospitality thou hast so 
treacherously violated. Thou hast not subdued his 
wife, but having violently taken her away, still cri- 
minally detainest her ; and as if this were not enough, 
thou hast robbed and plundered him. But as I can 
by no means prevail upon myself to put a stranger 
to death, I shall suffer you to depart ; in regard 
to the woman and her wealth, I shall detain both." 

After a few observations in respect to Homer's 
knowing, and yet neglecting, the true history, in order 
to make his poem the more interesting, the historian 
goes on to relate, that being desirous of knowing 
whether all that the Greeks relate concerning Troy 
had any foundation in truth, he inquired of the priests 
of Egypt ; and that they informed him, that, after 
the loss of Helen, the Greeks assembled in great 


numbers at Teucris, to assist Menelaus, whence they 
despatched ambassadors to Troy, whom Menelaus 
himself accompanied. On arriving at that city, they 
made a formal demand of Helen, and the wealth 
Paris had taken away ; and also a general satisfaction 
for the injuries received. In answer to this, the 
Trojans replied, and persisted in the truth of their 
assertion, that neither the person nor the wealth of 
Helen was in their city or territory ; but that both 
were in Egypt ; and that they esteemed it hard, that 
they should be made responsible for what King Pro- 
teus possessed. The Greeks, however, believing 
themselves to be deluded, laid siege to Troy, and, 
after ten years, took it. 

When they had done so, they were surprised and 
chagrined to find, that Helen was not in the captured 
town. On learning this, Menelaus himself was de- 
spatched into Egypt, where, being introduced to Pro- 
teus, he was honourably received, and Helen was re- 
stored to him with all his treasures. This is related 
by Herodotus as the true history*. 

With such testimony it is rather curious, that so 
many writers, respectable ones too, should have 
not only doubted the war, but even the existence of 
the town against which it was directed. " We do 
not know," says Sir John Hobhouse, "that Strabo had 
not himself been in the Troad ; but we are sure that 
no one could speak more to the purpose than Deme- 
trius, who was a native of Tcepsis, a town not far 
from Ilium, and who wrote thirty books on sixty 
lines of Homer's catalogue. From this authority we 
know, that not a vestige was left of the ancient city. 
Neither Julius Caesar, nor Demetrius, nor Strabo, 
had any doubt of the former existence of the city of 

* " I am inclined to believe," continues he, " that if Helen had 
been actually in Troy, the Trojans would certainly have restored 
her to the Greeks, with or without the consent of her paramour." 


Priam ; and the orator Lycurgus, quoted by the 
latter author, at the same time that he declared the 
total desolation, and as it were death of Troy, to be 
known to all the world, spoke of its destruction as 
equally notorious." 

In what manner the city was actually taken is 
nowhere upon record; for as to the story of the 
wooden horse, it is so absurd, that the judgment 
even of Virgil may be arraigned in respect to it. 
That it was burned, however, is scarcely to be denied ; 
and that it was destroyed is not to be doubted. 
The event occurred in the year coinciding with that 
of 1184 before the Christian era. "The name of 
Priam," says a judicious writer, " will therefore ever 
be memorable, on account of the war which happened 

in his reicm a war famous to this day for the many 

i i 

princes of great prowess and renown concerned in 

it, the battles fought, the length of the sieges, the 
destruction of the city, and the endless colonies 
planted in divers parts of the world by the conquered 
as well as by the conquerors." 

When the Greeks had destroyed the city, they 
sailed back to their own country. They made no 
attempt to appropriate the land to their own use or 
authority. They were, doubtless, not only wearied, 
but exhausted, by the conquest. The whole plot of 
Virgil is supposed to be no other than a fable ; for 
Homer signifies that jEneas not only remained in 
the country, but that he succeeded to the sceptre 
of the Trojans. 

From this period the history of the country is 
exceedingly obscure. "Whether .ZEneas did succeed 
or not, certain it is that this and the adjacent 
countries were laid open, at no great distance of time 
from the destruction of Troy, an easy and tempting 
prey to adventurers, Greek as well as Barbarian. 
Among these, the best known are the ^Eolian colo- 


nists, who are supposed to have put a final period 
not only to the unfortunate city, but to the name of 
its people. 

The Troia was next invaded by the lonians and 
Lydians; then there was a war between the ^Eolians 
and Athenians about Sigeum* and Achilleumt. This 
war was of considerable duration. Several melan- 
choly circumstances are there related, as arising out 
of the possession of the Troia by Darius. Xerxes, 
too, visited it during his expedition into Greece, and 
the Persians lay one night encamped beneath Mount 
Ida. A considerable number of them were destroyed 
by thunder and lightning ; and on their coming to 
the Scamander, that river was found to possess no 
water ; a circumstance far from being unusual in a 
mountainous country. On his arrival at this river, 
Xerxes, having a wish to see the Pergamus of 
Priam, went thither; and, having listened to the 
accounts which were given to him in respect to it, 
he sacrificed a thousand oxen to the Ilian Minerva. 

Many interesting occurrences are related of Troia 
during the first and second Peloponnesian wars. 
An adventure of jEschines, the famous orator of 
Athens, it may not be unamusing to relate. Dr. 
Chandler has given an abstract of the epistle, in 
which the orator relates it. It is this : " After 
leaving Athens, the author says, that he arrived at 
Ilium, where he had intended to stay until he should 

* The signification of the name Sigeum appears in an anecdote 
of an Athenian lady, celebrated for her wit, not her virtue. Wearied 
by the loquacity of a visitor, she inquired of him, " AVhether he 
did not come from the Hellespont?" On his answering in the 
affirmative, she asked him " how it happened that he was so little 
acquainted with the first of the places there ?" On his demanding, 
"Which of them?" she pointedly replied, "Sigeum;" thus 
indirectly bidding him to be silent. (Diogenes Laertius.J 

f Two promontories forming the bay before Troy. 


have gone through all the verses in the ' Iliad,' on 
the very spot to which* they severally had reference, 
but was prevented by the misconduct of his fellow- 
traveller, a young rake, named Cymon. It was the 
custom, he tells us, for the maidens who were 
betrothed, to repair on a certain day to bathe in 
the Scamander; among them was at this time 
a damsel of illustrious family, called Callirhoe. 
.ZEschines, with their relations and the multitude, 
was a spectator of as much of the ceremony as was 
allowed to be seen, at a due distance; but Cymon, 
who had conceived a bad design against this lady, 
personated the River-God, arid wearing a crown of 
reeds, lay concealed in the thicket, until she, as was 
usual, invoked Scamander to receive the offer which 
she made of herself to him. He then leaped forth, 
saying, ' I, Scamander, willingly accept of Callirhoe;' 
and with many promises of kindness, imposed on 
and abused her simplicity and credulity. Four days 
after this ceremony, a public festival was held in 
honour of Venus, when the females, whose nuptials 
had been recently celebrated, appeared in the pro- 
cession. .ZEschines was again a spectator, and Cymon 
with him ; so when Callirhoe respectfully bowed 
her head as she passed by, and, casting her eyes on 
her nurse, said, ' that is the God Scamander,' a dis- 
covery followed. The two companions got to their 
lodging and quarrelled, a crowd gathered about the 
gate of the house, and jEschines with difficulty made 
his escape by the back-door to a place of security." 
- The reader is requested to observe that on the destruc- 
tion of old Ilium, another town or rather village was 
erected ; and that this village was called New Ilium. 
Tli is was the place visited by Alexander. It had 
only one temple. This temple Alexander visited. 
He viewed also all the antiquities which remained. 
He poured libations on the altar of Jupiter Herceus 


to Priam, and prayed that the vengeance which the 
gods had taken of the son of Achilles, for having 
slain that unfortunate father and king, might not de- 
scend upon him, whose descendant he was. One of 
the Ilians offered him a lyre, which he said was the 
lyre of Paris ; but Alexander refused, saying, " I 
set but little value on the lyre of Paris ; but it would 
give me great pleasure to see that of Achilles, to 
which he sang the glorious actions of the brave ; " 
alluding to a passage in the ninth book of the Iliad : 

" Amused, at ease, the god-like man they found, 
Pleased with the solemn harp's harmonious sound : 
With this he soothes his angry soul, and sings 
The immortal deeds of heroes and of kings." 

He then desired to be shown the tombs of the heroes. 

Quintus Ctirtius says, that when Alexander arrived 
at Illiuni, Menetius the governor crowned him with 
a crown of gold ; and that Chares the Athenian 
did the same, coming from Sigeum for that pur- 
pose. " Alexander was at length," says Mr. Mit- 
ford, " amidst the scenes, sacred in his eyes, in which 
were performed the wondrous deeds that Homer, 
his favourite poet, had immortalised. He was tread- 
ing on the ground which Achilles, the hero that was 
the object of his emulation and envy, fought, and con- 
quered, and fell. Thoughts, emotions, and wishes, 
of the most ardent kind, doubtless swelled his heart 
and fired his brain." .On the site of Troy there 
stood only a, village. The temple of Minerva, how- 
ever, still existed, and thither he proceeded. It con- 
tained some consecrated suits of armour, which were 
said to have been preserved there ever since the Tro- 
jan war. One of these he took away to be borne 
before him on solemn occasions, and in battle ; and 
in the place of it he dedicated his own. He per- 
formed rites and made offerings at the tombs of the he- 
roes ; especially those of Achilles and Ajax Telamon. 


He adorned the tumulus of Achilles, whom he 
regarded as his ancestor, with the choicest flowers 
that could be collected in the neighbourhood, anointed 
the pillar on it with delicious perfumes, and, with his 
companions, ran naked, as the custom was, round its 
base. He also wept on reflecting, that he had, as yet, 
done little to make men associate his name with so 
great a hero as Achilles, thinking that hero beyond 
all others happy, not only in having so excellent a 
friend as Patroclus when living ; but inasmuch that 
he had so noble a poet as Homer to celebrate him 
when dead. " What a number of writers of his ac- 
tions," says Cicero, in his defence of Archias, " is 
Alexander reported to have had in his retinue ; and 
yet, when he stood near the tumulus of Achilles at 
Sigeum he exclaimed, ' O fortunate youth ! to have 
found a Homer to be the herald of thy valour ! ' " Nor 
did he ever forget the emotions felt in that, to him, 
sacred place. When, therefore, he had conquered the 
Persians at the Granicus, he is said to have adorned 
the temple with offerings, ordered Curators to repair 
the buildings, and raised Ilium to the rank of a city. 
He also declared it free from tribute ; and when he 
had entirely conquered Persia, he wrote a letter to 
the inhabitants, promising to raise their town to im- 
portance, to render their temple famous, and to hold 
the sacred games there. In his memorandum-book, 
also, appeared after his death, a resolution to erect a 
temple to Minerva, which should be in splendour 
and magnificence, not unequal to any other then exist- 
ing in any place. All this was prevented by his 

After that occurrence, Ilium was chiefly indebted 
to Lysimachus. He enlarged its temple, encircled 
the town with walls to the extent of five miles, and 
collected into it the inhabitants of the old cities 
about it, which had gone to decay. Games also 


were subsequently instituted. He also patronised 
Alexandria Troas. 

Some time after the Troia was invaded by Philip, last 
king of Macedon, because Attalus, who had assumed 
the title of King of Pergamum, had given himself 
out as an ally of the Romans. At a subsequent 
period, the Gauls marched into Ilium ; but soon after 
deserted it, because part of it was not defended by a 

When Antiochus, commonly called the Great, in- 
vaded Europe, he went to Ilium, in order to sacrifice 
to Minerva. The year after, the Roman admiral, 
Caius Livius, performed the same ceremony ; which 
having done he gave audience in the kindest manner 
to ambassadors from the neighbouring places, which 
had surrendered to the Romans. 

Ilium, when Scipio arrived there, (B. c. 190) was 
what we should now call a village- city : and so says 
Demetrius of Scepsis ; who, going thither about that 
time, saw it so poor and neglected a place, that 
most of the houses had no roofs on them. Such 
is the account given by Strabo. The Romans, how- 
ever, were proud of acknowledging the Ilians as 
their progenitors. " An insatiable desire," says Dr. 
Chandler, " to contemplate the household gods of 
their ancestors, the places of their nativity, the tem- 
ples and images, which they had frequented or wor- 
shipped, possessed the Romans ; while the Ilians 
were delighted that their posterity (in the line of 
-/Eneas) already conquerors of the West and Africa, 
laid claim to Asia as the kingdom of their forefathers." 

The Romans embellished the city, and conferred 
many privileges upon it, on the ground that Ilium 
was the -parent of Rome. "The Romans," says 
Justin, "entering into Asia, came to Troy, where there 
was great rejoicing between the Trojans and the Ro- 
mans ; the Trojans declaring how ^Eneas came from 


them, and the Romans vaunting themselves to be 
descended from them : and there was as great a re- 
joicement between both parties, as there is wont to be 
at the meeting of parents and children after a long 
absence. " 

We now pass to the period when Julius Caesar, 
after the battle of Pharsalia, pursuing his rival, landed 
in the Troia, " full of admiration of the ancient re- 
nown of the place, and desirous to behold the spot 
from which he derived his origin ;" for Caesar insisted 
that his family was of the true .ZEnean race. The 
Ilians had sided with Pompey, and bore no great 
affection to Caesar ; " although," says Lucan, 

" The tales of Troy proud Casar's lineage grace, 
AVith great ./Eneas and the Julian race." 

Notwithstanding this, Caesar forgave their offences 
against him, and enlarged their territory, confirmed 
their liberties, and granted them even additional pri- 
vileges. Not only this ; Suetonius relates, that- it 
was currently reported, that he had contemplated 
the design of removing the seat of empire to Ilium, 
or Alexandria, and leaving Rome to be governed 
by lieutenants. Whether Caesar really entertained 
such an idea is not certain ; but it is quite certain 
that Augustus entertained a similar project ; and 
perhaps he had actually put it in practice, had not 
Horace written an ode to dissuade him from it ; and 
his councillors urgently followed the poet's example, 
by the counsel they gave him. 

During the reign of Tiberius, Ilium was visited 
by Germanicus. This visit is recorded by Tacitus. 
"On his return from the Euxine, he intended to visit 
Samothrace*, famous for its rites and mysteries; but 
the wind springing up from the north, he was ob- 
liged to bear away from the coast. He viewed the 
ruins of Troy, and the remains of antiquity in that 

* An island in the .ffigean Sea. 


part of the world ; renowned for so many turns of 
fortune, the theatre of illustrious actions, and the 
origin of the Roman people *." 

When the Romans were delivered from the flat- 
tery that pursued the Julian line, of their being sprung 
from Troy, Ilium began to fall to decay ; and in the 
time of Pliny the Elder, who flourished in the reign 
of Vespasian, many cities had perished. These are 
enumerated by him, and thence by Dr. Chandler : 
"There has been Achilleum, a town near the tomb of 
Achilles, built by the Mitylenians, and aftervv-ards 
by the Athenians. There has been ^Eantium, too, 
built by the Rhodians, near where Ajax was buried. 
Palasscepsis, Gergithos, Neandros, and Colone, had 
perished. Dardanus is still a small town. There 
had been a Larissa and a Chrysa. The Sminthean 
temple and Hamaxitus remained." He mentions 
Troas Alexandria, a Roman colony ; but this city, 
too, was on the decline ; and as, in another place, he 
says, " very many mice came forth at Troas, inso- 
much that now they have driven the inhabitants 
away from thence." 

We pass over passages in the works of Lucian 
and Philostratus ; since no confidence in respect to 
the real condition of Ilium can be placed in them. 
The extravagances of Caracalla are upon more re- 
spectable record. Terrified by several dreams he had 
had, Caracalla voyaged to Pergamum, to inquire of 
the god jEsculapius in what manner he could be 
relieved from them ; from that city he passed to 
Ilium. " At Ilium," says Chandler, on the autho- 
rity of Herodian, " Caracalla was seized with a pas- 
sion to imitate Achilles, as he had before done Alex- 
ander the Great. He wanted a Patroclus, whose 
funeral he might solemnize ; when, during his stay 
there, Festus, his remembrancer and favourite freed- 
* Aimal. lib. ii. c. 54. 


man, died of a distemper ; but so opportunely, that 
others said he was taken off by poison for the purpose. 
Caracalla ordered, after the example of Achilles, a 
large pile of wood to be collected. The body was 
carried forth from the city, and placed on it in the 
middle. He slew a variety of animals as victims. 
He set fire to the pile ; and, holding a phial in his 
hand, and pouring a libation, as Achilles had done, 
invoked the winds to come and consume it. His 
seeking, for he was nearly bald,- a lock of hair to 
throw into the flames, excited laughter ; but the lit- 
tle which he had he cut off. He is said to have 
continued the farce, by allotting prizes for games ; 
and to have concluded it, by imagining that he had 
taken Troy, and distributing money among his sol- 
diers on the occasion." 

In the age of Gallienus, and in that subsequent, 
Ilium and the Troas were twice ravaged by the 

The project of Constantine the Great is now to 
be referred to. It is thus related by Sozomenus, 
translated by Mr. Dalzell : " Having taken posses- 
sion of the plain, which lies before Ilium, near the 
Hellespont, beyond the tomb of Ajax, where the 
Greeks, at the time that they were engaged in the 
expedition against Troy, are said to have had a sta- 
tion for their ships and tents, he there traced the 
outline and ground-plot of a city ; and he constructed 
gates in a conspicuous place ; which still at this day 
are seen at sea by those who sail along the west. 
While he was employed in this undertaking, God 
appeared to him by night, and warned him to go in 
quest of another place." The Deity, also, is said to 
have conducted him to Byzantium, and commanded 
him to establish his residence there, to enlarge the 
town into a city, and to call it by his own name. 

From this period, little is related of Ilium, or the 
11 H 2 


Troas, commanding any peculiar interest, till the 
period when both became possessed by another, and, 
till then, an unknown people. It is related in the 
annals of this new and strange people, that Soliman, 
son of Orchan, taking an airing on horseback, in the 
country, lately conquered, came to some fine ruins of 
edifices, which had remained there from the time of 
the destruction of Troy, and which he beheld with 
wonder. After viewing these ruins, he was observed 
to remain musing and silent. On being asked the 
reason, he answered that he was considering how 
the sea between them and the opposite coast could 
be crossed, without the knowledge of the Christians. 
Two of his retinue offered to pass over privately at 
the strait, which is described as a Greek mile wide. 
A fleet was provided, they landed before day- break, 
and lay concealed among vines ; until, a Greek 
coming by, they seized, and returned with him to 
the emperor ; who gave orders that their captive 
should be kindly treated ; and, on his undertaking to 
serve as a guide to the castle erected by Justinian, 
above Sestos, caused trees to be cut down, and a large 
raft to be constructed ; on which, with about four- 
score men, Soliman crossed the strait ; and arriving, 
under colour of night, at thefortress, found, without the 
entrance such was the supine negligence and security 
of the Greeks, a dunghill as high as the wall. His 
soldiers mounted over it, and easily got possession of 
the place ; the people, a few exempted, being engaged 
abroad in the harvest- work. Thus did the Turks 
obtain their first footing in Europe. (A. D. 1357.) 

" If we reflect," says Dr. Chandler; to whose 
pages not only ourselves, but all the encyclopedias 
have been so largely indebted on all articles relating 
to the Troas ; " if we reflect on the ravages, com- 
mitted on the borders of the Hellespont, and on the 
destruction of the cities there, we shall not be sur- 


prised, that the coasts are desolate, and that the 
interior country of the Troas, returned nearly to its 
more ancient state, is occupied almost entirely by vil- 
lages, herdsmen, and shepherds ; who are no longer 
distinguished by the appellation of Ilians, Darda- 
nians, Cebrenians, and so on; but as Greeks and 
Turks, or Turcomans, slaves, the masters and their 
dependants. The ancient places, which we have 
noticed, and of which few remain, or have possessed 
any consequence under the Turks, have all of them, 
especially those by the sea-side, been ransacked and 
plundered of their materials, for a long series of 
year?. Constantinople has been adorned or enlarged 
from their stores, as well under the Roman and the 
Greek as the Mahometan emperors. Towns and 
villages, which have risen in their vicinity, public 
baths, mosques, castles, and other edifices, have been 
constructed from their relics ; and the Turkish 
burying-grounds, which are often very extensive, are 
commonly rich in broken pillars and marble frag- 
ments, once belonging to them. The Troia had 
been left in ruins; and was a desert, in the time of 
Strabo. Since, in many instances, the very ruins 
hare perished : but the desert remains; and, as then, 
still affords much, and that no vulgar matter for a 

These remarks lead us, naturally, to that part of 
our subject, which relates to the present state in 
which these ruins lie. So much, however, has been 
written on the subject of Troy, and so many dif- 
ferent opinions have been started, that the subject 
has become no little embarrassing; and the more so, 
since the compiler of these pages has not been on 
the scene of observation himself. In this dilemma, 
he thinks the wisest and best course is, to select such 
passages and descriptions as appear to him the most 


probable, and therefore the most characteristic of 
truth ; leaving all references to the individual autho- 
rities to a general acknowledgment at the end. 

It seems hardly to admit of doubt, that the plain 
of Anatolia, watered by the Mendar,* and backed 
by a mountainous ridge, of which Kazdaghy is the 
summit, is the precise territory, alluded to and de- 
scribed by Homer. And this is rendered the more 
probable, since Homer's description contained certain 
prominent and remarkable features, not likely to bo 
affected by any lapse of time. To increase the pro- 
bability of this, the text of Strabo is considered very 
important ; more especially as it illustrates, to a cer- 
tain degree, even the position of Troy itself : for that 
it was not altogether unknown, in the time of Au- 
gustus, is proved by that celebrated geographer, who, 
more than once, expressly assigns to the ancient city 
the place then occupied by the village of the Ilien- 
sians. " Ilus," says he, " did not build the city where 
it now is; but nearly thirty stadia farther eastward, 
towards Ida, and Dardania, where the Iliensian vil- 
lage is now situated." This locality of Ilium has 
been discovered by Dr. Clarke, in the remains of that 
city. Crossing the Mendar, over a wooden bridge, 
that celebrated traveller entered an immense plain, 

* Sir John Hobhouse says, " I traced all the windings of the 
Mendar, startling young broods of ducks, and flocks of turtle- 
doves, out of every bush. Nothing could be more agreeable 
than our frequent rambles along the banks of this beautiful 
stream. The peasants of the numerous villages, whom we fre- 
quently encountered ploughing with their buffaloes, or driving 
their creaking wicker cars laden with faggots from the mountains, 
whether Greeks or Turks, showed no inclination to interrupt our 
pursuits. The whole region was, in a manner, in possession of the 
Salsette's men, parties of whom, in their white summer dresses, 
might be seen scattered over the plain, collecting the tortoises 
which swarm on the sides of the rivulet, and arc found under 
<svcry furze-bush." LETTER xxxix. 4to. 


in which some Turks were hunting wild boars. 
Proceeding then towards the east, and round the 
bay, distinctly pointed out by Strabo as the harbour 
in which the Grecian fleet was stationed, he arrived 
at the sepulchre of Ajax. Around this tomb Alex- 
ander is described as having performed rites, and 
made offerings. In former times, it was surmounted 
by a shrine, in which was preserved the statue of the 
hero. This statue Antony stole and took with him into 
Egypt ; but, having been recovered by Augustus, it 
was by him restored to its ancient shrine which, 
with a considerable portion of the structure, still 
remains. " It is impossible," says Dr. Clarke, " to 
view its sublime and simple form, without calling to 
mind tli veneration so long paid to it; without pic- 
turing to the imagination a successive series of 
kings, and heroes, and mariners, who, from the Hel- 
lespont, or by the shores of Troas and Chersonesus, 
or on the sepulchre itself, poured forth the tribute of 
their homage ; and finally, without representing to 
the mind the feelings of a native or of a traveller, in 
those times, who, after viewing the existing monu- 
ment, and witnessing the instances of public and 
of private regard, so constantly bestowed upon it, 
should have been told, the age was to arrive when 
the existence of Troy, and of the mighty dead, 
entombed upon its plain, would be considered as 
having no foundation in truth." The view of the Hel- 
lespont, and the plain of Troy, from the top of this 
tomb, is one of the finest the country affords ; and, 
travellers have the pleasure of seeing poppies and 
mezereons, and the field-star of Bethlehem, growing 
upon it. 

From this spot the traveller passes over a heathy 
country to a village, called Habil Elly, where he 
finds the remains of a temple, which seems to be those 
of ten temples rather than one. Doric, Ionic, and 


Corinthian capitals, lie dispersed in every direction, 
and some of them are of great beauty. On these are 
many inscriptions; amongst which are these remark- 
able words : " The Illans to their country's God, 

From these ruins you proceed through a dilapi- 
dated valley, full of vineyards and almond-treea ; 
and, after a space, you find the remains of an 
ancient paved way. You then come to the village 
of Tchiblack, where you ^ see many remains of 
ancient sculpture in a state of disorder and ruin. 
The 'most remarkable are those upon the top of a 
hill near the village, in the middle of a grove of oak 
trees. Here the ruins of a Doric temple, formed of 
white marble, lay heaped, mixed with sarcophagi, 
cippae, stelas, cornices, and capitals of large size, 
pillars, and entablatures. The village near which 
all these are, is supposed to be no other than ancient 
Ilium ! of " Troy divine." On these fragments are 
to be read various inscriptions. 

At no great distance, of a high, conical, and 
regular shape, a tumulus stands, insulated. It is of 
great antiquity. On the southern side of its base is 
a long natural mound of limestone. It is, we are 
told, of such height, that an army encamped on the 
eastern side of it would be concealed from all obser- 
vation of persons, stationed upon the coast, by the 
mouth of the Mendar. On the surface of the tomb 
itself are found fragments of the vases of ancient 
Greece ; a circumstance, attributed to the venera- 
tion paid to the tombs of Troas, in all the ages of 
history, until the introduction of Christianity. 

At some distance from this tomb is another 
tumulus, less considerable. There are ruins, also, on 
the southern side of the water, called Callifat*. 

* Callifat water is the Simois. Dr. Clarke says, that he saw in 
this stream hundreds of tortoises, which, being alarmed at his ap- 


These consist of beautiful Doric pillars, whose 
capitals and shafts are of the finest white marble. 
Among them, also, are entire shafts of granite. As 
the temples of Jupiter were always of the Doric 
order, these are supposed to have belonged to a 
temple dedicated to that deity. Among these 
ruins was found an inscription, which Dr. Clarke 
sent to Cambridge. This is as old as the 
archonship of Euclid. It was on the lower 
part of a plain marble pillar ; the interpretation 
of which sets forth, that "those partaking of 
the sacrifice, and of the games, and of the whole 
festival, honoured Pytha, daughter of Scamandro- 
timus, native of Ilium, who performed the office of 
Canephoros, in an exemplary and distinguished 
manner, for her piety towards the goddess." 

In the village of Callifat there are several capitals 
of Corinthian pillars. Medals, too, are sometimes 
dug up there ; not of ancient Troy, however, but of 
the Roman emperors. Not far from Callifat are also 
to be seen traces of an ancient citadel. These are 
the remains of a city, called New Ilium*. " We 
stand," says Dr. Clarke, " with Strabo, upon the 
very spot, whence he deduced his observations, con- 
cerning other objects in the district ; looking down 
upon the Simoisian plain, and viewing the junction 
of the two rivers ('one flowing towards Sigeum, 
and the other towards Rhsetimri,' precisely as de- 
scribed by him), in front of the Iliensian city." 

From the national and artificial elevation of the ter- 

proach, fell from its banks into the water, as well as from the 
overhanging branches and thick underwood, among which these 
animals, of all others the least adapted to climb trees, had sin- 
gularly obtained a footing. Wild-fowl, also, were in abundance. 

* " Turks were employed raising enormous blocks of marble 
from foundations surrounding the place ; possibly the identical 
works constructed by Lysimachus, who fenced New Ilium with a 
wall. The appearance of the structure exhibited that colossal and 
massive style of architecture, which bespeaks the masonry of the 
early ages of Grecian history." 


ritory on which this city stood, this accomplished 
traveller saw almost every landmark to which that 
author alludes. " The splendid spectacle," says he, 
" presented towards the west by the snow-clad top 
of Samothrace, towering behind Imbrus, would 
baffle every attempt at delineation. It rose with 
indescribable grandeur beyond all I had seen of a 
long time ; and whilst its ethereal summit shone 
with inconceivable brightness in a sky without a 
cloud, seemed, notwithstanding its remote situation, 
as if its vastness would overwhelm all Troas, should 
an earthquake heave it from its base." 

Besides these, there are various tumuli in the 
Troas, which are distinguished by the names of 
Homer's heroes ; the tomb of Achilles, for instance, 
and two others, near the Sigaean promontory, men- 
tioned by Strabo, /Elian, and Diodorus ISiculus. 
When Alexander came to visit these, he anointed 
the Hele of Achilles with perfumes ; and, as we have 
already related, ran naked around it, according to 
the custom of honouring the manes of a hero in 
ancient times. One of the other tombs was that of 
Patroclus. Alexander crowned the one, and his 
friend Hephsestion the other*. 

* It is only by viewing the stupendous prospect afforded in these 
classical regions, that any adequate idea can be formed of Houu-r's 
powers as a painter. Neptune, placed on the top of Samotl race, 
commanding a prospect of Ida, Troy, and the fleet, observes Jupiter 
upon Gargarus turn his back upon Troas. What is intended by this 
averted posture of the God, other than that Gargarus was partially- 
concealed by a cloud, while Samothrace remained unveiled ? a cir. 
cuuistance so often realised. AM the march of Juno, from 
Olympus, by Pieria and ^Emathia to Atlas, by sea, ;to Lcmnos ; 
and thence to Imbrue and Gargarus ; is a correct delineation of the 
striking face of nature, in which the picturesque wildness and gran- 
deur of real scenery are further adorned by a sublime poetical 
fiction. Hence it is evident, that Homer must have lived in the 
neighbourhood of Troy ; that lie borrowed the scene of the Iliad 
from ocular examination ; and the action of it from the prevailing 
tradition of the times. CLAKKE. 


There, on the green and villagc-eottedhill, is 
(Flunked by the Hellespont and by the sea) 

Entomh'd the hrnvest of the brave, Achilles. 
They say so; (Bryant says the contrary.) 

And further downward, tall and towering, still is 

The tumulus of whom? Heaven knows; 't may be 

Patroclus, Ajax, or Protesilaus ; 

A!l heroes, who, if living still, would slay us. 

High barrows, without mark, or name, 
Avast, untill'd, and mountain-skirted plain, 

And Ida in the distance, still the same ; 
And old Scamander (if 'tis he) remain : 

The situation still seemed formed for fume ; 
A hundred thousand men might fight again 

With ease ; but where they fought for llion's walls, 

The quiet sheep feed, and the tortoise crawls. 

These tombs have been so celebrated in all ages, 
that we give place, willingly, to a description of 
them by Mr. Franklin; more particularly as he 
has mentioned several particulars, unnoticed by ether 

Not far from the site of Ilium are to be observed 
a number of antiquities, fragments of ' Doric and 
Ionic pillars of marble, some columns of granite, 
broken bas-reliefs, and, " in short," says Dr. Clarke, 
" those remains so profusely scattered over this 
extraordinary country, serving to prove the number 
of cities and temples once the boast of Troas." 

At no great distance is the steep, which some have 
supposed the spot on which stood the citadel of 
Priam. On the edge of this is a tumulus, ninety- 
three yards in circumference, which is called the 
tomb of Hector; it is formed entirely of loose stones. 
From this spot the whole isle of Tenedos is seen, 
and a most magnificent prospect of the course of 
Scamander to the sea, with all Troas, and every 
interesting object it contains. 

Rather more than one hundred and twenty paces 
from this tumulus is another tumulus; the base of 


this is one hundred and thirty- three yards in circum- 
ference. Some little way from this is a third, 
ninety yards in circumference. The former is called 
the tomb of Priam; the latter the tomb of Paris. 
At a short distance farther on are beheld foundations 
of buildings; but these are not supposed to be of any 
high antiquity, nor even so high as to be classed 
with a Roman interdict. They are therefore, with 
probability, assigned to those pirates which at 
different times have infested the Hellespont. Near 
them are tumuli of much higher antiquity; but 
whether they belong to Trojan times, or to those in 
which the Milesians formed settlements on the coast, 
is not determined. 

Four hours' distance from Bonarbashy, situated 
on the Scamander, is a town called .ZEne, the /Eneia 
of Strabo. It is ornamented with cypresses, and 
backed by lofty rocks and mountains. In this town 
medals have been found, and some have supposed 
that .ZEneas was buried here ; it is, however, more 
probable that the town was named after him. 

On a hill, in the shape of a cone, at about two 
hours' distance from Beyramiteh, towards Gargarus, 
are a vast quantity of substances for building ; they 
may be traced from the bottom to the summit. These 
are supposed to have constituted a temple and altar 
of Jupiter ; the work seems to be Roman. On the 
western extremity of the area are remains of baths, 
the walls of which are stuccoed ; and there are 
remaining earthenware conduits still entire in several 
places. Above this are tombs, and close to them 
a bath ; near which lie scattered about several 
columns, with broken pieces of amphoras, marble, 
basalt, granite, jasper, and blue chalcedony. At no 
great distance off lies the cornice of a Doric entabla- 
ture, so large, that M. Preaux said he had seen 
nothing like it at Athens. Higher up are the 


remains of another temple, the area of which mea- 
sures one hundred and forty yards long and forty- 
four wide. These are supposed to be the temple 
and altars of Jupiter mentioned by Homer, ^schy- 
lus, and Plutarch. From this spot the view is 
represented as being exceedingly grand. " Imme- 
diately before the eye is spread the whole of Garga- 
rus, seeming, from its immense size and the vastness 
of its features, as if those who were stationed on this 
spot might hold converse with persons upon its clear 
and sunny summit. Far below is seen the bed and 
valley of the Scamander." 

What kind of a scene is beheld from Gargarus may 
be, in some measure, imagined from what Dr. Clarke 
says of it. " In a few minutes I stood upon the 
summit. What a spectacle ! All European Tur- 
key, and the whole of Asia Minor, seemed as it were 
modelled before me on a vast surface of glass. The 
great objects drew my attention first. The eye, 
roaming to Constantinople, beheld all the sea of 
Marmora, the mountains of Prusa, with Asiatic 
Olympus, and all the siirrounding territory ; com- 
prehending, in one wide survey, all Propontis and the 
Hellespont, with the shores of Thrace and Cherso- 
nesus, all the north of the Egean, Mount Athos, the 
islands of Imbrus, Samothrace, Lemnos, Tenedos , 
and all beyond, even to Euboaa ; the gulf of Smyrna, 
almost all Mysia, and Bithynia, with part of Lydia 
and Ionia. Looking down upon Troas, it appeared 
spread as a lawn before me." 

In the same district are considerable remains 
of the ancient city Alexandria Troas. Long before 
the extinction of the Greek empire, this city was 
laid under perpetual obligation to contribute, by its 
monuments of ancient splendour, towards the pub- 
lic structures of Constantinople. Notwithstanding 
this, there are still some interesting remains ; among 


which is to be noted the aqueduct of Herodes Atti- 
cus, formed of blocks of hewn stone of vast size. 
Part of one of its gates also remains ; consisting of 
two round towers, with square basements, support- 
ing pedestals for statues. At a few yards' distance 
are the ruins of public baths. " Broken marble soroi 
lie about ;" says the intelligent traveller to whom, in 
this account, we have been so largely indebted; " soroi 
of such prodigious size, that their fragments seem as 
rocks among the Valany oaks covering the soil. But 
in all that now exists of this devoted city, there is 
nothing so conspicuous as the edifice, vulgarly 
termed by the mariners the Palace of Priam ; from 
an erroneous notion, prevalent in the writings of 
early travellers, that Alexandria Troas was the Ilium 
of Homer." 

This building has three noble arches in front, and 
there are many others behind. The stones with 
which it is constructed are placed without any ce- 
ment ; and the whole appear to have been once 
coated over with marble. There are, also, the bases 
of columns, each eight feet in diameter. This build- 
ing is supposed to have been intended for baths, as a 
grand terminus of the aqueduct of Atticus. 

There are other vestiges, also, of this city, amongst 
which may be mentioned a series of vaults and subter- 
ranean chambers, one beneath another, now serving 
as sheds for tenders, and herds of goats. Towards 
the south-west there are remains also of an immense 
theatre, still in a state of considerable preservation. 
Its diameter is two hundred and fifty feet, and there 
is a semicircular range of seats at each extremity. 
Towards the port, lower down, are marble soroi, 
and other antiquities of less importance. 

From this spot, Dr. Clarke proceeded to an im- 
mense tumulus, called after ^syates, the situation of 
which, he says, perfectly agrees with the account 


given of that monument by Strabo. He then de- 
scended again into the vale of Troy, and arrived at a 
village, called Erkessy, in which he found a marble 
soros, quite entire. Upon it is an inscription in 
Greek, beautifully cast, and in a very perfect state. 
" Aurelius Agethopodos Othoniacus, and the son of 
Aurelius, icho icas also a Pancratiast, of whom there 
is a hollow statue in the temple of Smintheus, and 
here in the Temple of ^Esculapius, I have placed this 
Soros for myself and my dearest father, the afore- 
writtsn A melius -Paulinas and to my descendants. 
But if any one shall dare to open this Soros, and lay 
in it the dead liody of any other, or any man's bones, 
he shall pay, as a fine to the city of the Troadenses, 
tico thousand Jive hundred drachms, and to the most 
sacred Treasury as much more." 

At no great distance from this soros, Dr. Clarke 
found a village, the inhabitants of which live with 
great cleanliness in small cottages, and practising 
the customs of their forefathers, in their hospitality 
to strangers. They presented him with a medal, 
found in their village ; and they showed him a marble, 
on which was an inscription in Greek characters, 
implying, that " Metrodorus of Amphipolis, the son 
of Timocles, is praised ly the senate and people, for 
his virtue and good-will toicards the king Autiochus 
and Seleucus and the people : he is deemed a benefac- 
tor to the state ; is to have access to the senate ; and to 
be inscribed into the. tribe and fraternity to which he 
may icish to belong* ." 


TVKE is, in Scripture, called " the daughter of 
Sidon," and very appropriately; for the Tyrians 

* Homer; Herodotus; Diodorus ; Strabo; Suetonius ; Pliny; 
Tacitus; Plutarch; Aulus Geilius ; Arrian ; Justin; Chandler; 
Bryant ; Reu&ell ; Clarke ; Cell ; Hobhouse ; Franklin. 


were, in the first instance, a colony from Sidon. It 
was bnilt two hundred and forty years before the 
building of Jerusalem. 

The king of Tyre assisted Solomon in procuring 
wood for his temple, and artisans wherewith to build 
it. Thus it is stated, in the Book of Chronicles : 

" 3. And Solomon sent to Huram, the king of Tyre, saying, 
As thou didst deal with David my father, and didst send him 
cedars to build him an house to dwell therein, even so deal 
with me. 

4. Behold, I build an house to the name of the Lord my 
God, to dedicate it to him, and to burn before him sweet in- 
cense, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offer- 
ings morning and evening, on the sabbaths, and qn the new 
moons, and on the solemn feasts of the Lord our God. This 
is an ordinance for ever to Israel. 

* * * * 

7. Send me now therefore a man cunning to work in gold, 
and in silver, and in brass, and in iron, and in purple, and 
crimson, and blue, and that can skill to grave with the cunning 
men that are with me in Judah and in Jerusalem, whom David 
my father did provide. 

8. Send me also cedar-trees, fir-trees, and algum-trees, out 
of Lebanon ; for I know that thy servants can skill to cut tim- 
ber in Lebanon ; and, behold, my servants shall be with thy 

9. Even to prepare me timber in abundance : for the house 
which I am about to build shall be wonderful great. 

10. And, behold, I will give to thy servants, the hewers that 
cut timber, twenty thousand measures of beaten wheat, and 
twenty thousand measures of barley, and twenty thousand baths 
of wine, and twenty thousand baths of oil. 

11. Then Huram the king of Tyre answered in writing, which 
he sent to Solomon, Because the Lord hath loved his people, 
he hath made thee king over them. 

12. Huram said moreover, Blessed be the Lord God of 
Israel, that made heaven and earth, who hath given to David 
the king a wise son, endued with prudence and understanding, 
that might build an house for the Lord, and an house for bis 

13. And now I have sent a cunning man, endued with under- 
standing, of Huram my father's, 

14. The son of a woman of the daughters of Dan ; and the 
father was a man of Tyre, skilful to work in gold, and in sil- 


ver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in 
blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any man- 
ner of graving, and lo find out every device which shall be put 
to him, with thy cunning men, and with the cunning men of 
my lord David thy father. 

15. Now therefore the wheat, and the barley, the oil, and the 
wine, which my lord hath spoken of, let him send unto his 
servants : 

16. And we will cut wood out of Lebanon, as much as thou 
shalt need : and we will bring it to thee in floats by sea to 
Joppa ; and thou shalt carry it up to Jerusalem." 

^ Various are the opinions concerning the origin of 
Tyre, and the date when it was founded. Herodotus 
(lib. ii. c. 44) says, that he was told by the priests 
of Tyre, that the temple of Hercules was as ancient 
as the city, which had been built two thousand three 
hundred years. According to this account, Tyre 
was founded about the year two thousand seven hun- 
dred and sixty before the Christian era; four hun- 
dred and sixty-nine years after the deluge, according 
to the Septuagint*. 

Before the captivity of the Jews in Babylon, Tyre 
was the greatest maritime city in the world; its 
situation and industry having raised it to the sove- 
reignty, of the sea. From the extreme parts of India, 
Persia, and Arabia, to the western coast; from 
Ethiopia and Egypt on the south, to Scythia on the 
north, all nations contributed to the increase of its 
power, splendour, and wealth. Every thing that 
was useful, and all that was curious, magnificent, 
and precious, were there to be sold. Every article 
of commerce was brought to its markets. 

This state of prosperity swelled the pride of the 
Tyrians^to a very exorbitant extent. "She de- 
lighted," we are told, " to consider herself as Queen 
of Cities ; a queen, whose head is adorned with a 
diadem ; whose correspondents are illustrious princes; 
whose rich traders dispute for superiority with kings; 

* Dnuumond's Origitice. 
VOL. II. i i 


who sees every maritime power, either as her allies 
or her dependents ; and who made herself necessary 
or formidable to all nations." Such was the pride of 
Tyre, when Nebuchadnezzar inarched up against her. 
Her fate had been foretold by the denunciations of 

" I am against thee, O Tyrus, and will cause many nations to 
come up against thee, as the sea causes her waves to come up. 
And they shall destroy the walls of Tyrus, and break down her 
towers. It shall be a place for the spreading of nets in the 
midst of the sea; and her daughters shall be slain by the sword." 
The prophet then discloses who shall be the instrument of all 
this destruction. " I will bring upon Tyrus Nebuchadnezzar, 
king of Babylon, a king of kings, with horses, and with cha- 
riots, and with horsemen, and companies of much people." 
" He shall set his engines of war against thy walls, and with 
his axes he shall break down tiiy towers." " With the hoofs 
of thy horses shall he tread down all thy streets ; he shall slay 
thy people with the sword, and thy strong garrisons shall go 
down to the ground." " And they shall make a spoil of thy 
riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise ; and they shall 
break down thy walls, and destroy thy pleasant houses ; and 
they shall lay thy stones, and thy timber, and thy dust, in the 
midst of the water." " I will cause the noise of thy songs to 
cease ; and the sound of thy harps shall be no more heard." 
" Thou shalt be a place to hang nets upon ; and shall be built 
no more." " Though thou be sought for, thou shall not be 

The pride of the Tyrians may be estimated by the 
splendour of their ships. These were frequently of 
cedar ; their benches of ivory ; fine embroidered 
linens of Egypt were used for sails ; and their cano- 
pies were of scarlet and purple silk*. Its trade may 
be in some degree imagined, from what is stated as 
having been brought to her markets ; gold, silver, 
iron, tin, brass, and lead ; slavest ; horses, horsemen, 

* Kzekiel, ch. xxvii. 

t So we interpret, " Javan, Tubal, and Mcshech, were thy mer- 
chants ; they traded in the persons of men." Ezekiel xxvii. 13. 
Thank Heaven ! a similar iniquity has been done away with in 
this country, by an act of generosity not to be paralleled in the 
history of the world. Twenty millions of money ! 


and mules ; sheep and goats ; horn, ivory, and ebony ; 
emeralds, purple, and broidered work ; fine linen, and 
coral, and agate; wheat, honey, oil, and bales of 
wares, wine, and wool ; cassia and calamus ; cloths 
for chariots ; all manner of spices and precious stones. 
All these articles were to be destroyed. " Thy riches 
and thy merchandise, thy mariners and thy pilots, 
thy calkers, and the occupiers of thy merchandise, 
and all thy men of war that are in thee, and in all 
thy company which is in the midst of thee, shall fall 
into the midst of the seas, in the days of thy ruin." 

The Prophet then goes on to prophesy how all 
the nations shall mourn for her fall. " Shall not 
the isles shake at the sound of thy fall, when the 
wounded cry ; when the slaughter is made in the 
midst of thee ? All the princes of the sea shall 
come down from their thrones, and lay away their 
robes, and put off their embroidered garments ; they 
shall clothe themselves with trembling ; they shall 
sit upon the ground, and shall tremble at every 
moment, and sliUll be astonished at thee." 

Tyre was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar, in the 
twenty- first year of his reign; Ithobel being its 
king. After seven years he made himself master of 
it ; not without his troops suffering incredible hard- 
ships ; insomuch that, as Ezekiel had predicted, 
' every head was made bald and every head was 
peeled." Previous, however, to the taking of it, a 
multitude of its inhabitants quitted the city, and 
took up their abode, with the greatest part of then- 
effects, in the neighbouring island*, half a mile from 
the shore ; and in that spot they laid the foundation 

* The sacred writings often speak of Tyre as an island. " Be 
still, ye inhabitants of the isle ; thou, whom the merchants of Zidon 
that pass over the sea have replenished. Pass over to Tarshish ; 
howl, ye inhabitants of the isle. Is this your joyous city, whose 
antiquity is of ancient days?" Chap, xxiii. verses 2, 6, 7. In 
Ezekiel, ch. xxviii. ver. 2, " Is it in the midst of the seas?" 



of a new city. When, therefore, Nebuchadnezzar 
took possession of the town, lie found little in it 
to reward him for the trouble, danger, and expense 
he had been at during the siege, which lasted thir- 
teen years. He rased the city to the foundations, 
and it was afterwards known only as a village, by 
the name of Paloe-Tyrus (ancient Tyre) : the new 
one rose to greater power than the former one. 

The new town, nevertheless, was not remitted of 
misfortune ; for the inhabitants were made slaves of, 
compelled to admit a foreign yoke, and this for the 
space of seventy years. After the expiration of that 
time, they were restored, according to the prophecy 
of Isaiah,* to the possession of their ancient privi- 
leges, with the liberty of having a king of their own, 
and that liberty they enjoyed till the time of Alex- 

At that period Tyre had again become an exceed- 
ingly large city ; and because of the vast commerce 
she carried on with all nations, she was called 
" Queen of the Sea." She boasted" of having first 
invented navigation, and taught mankind the art of 
braving the waves and wind. Her happy situation, 
the extent and conveniency of her ports, the charac- 
ter of her inhabitants, who were not only industrious, 
laborious, and patient, but extremely courteous to 
strangers, invited thither merchants from all parts 
of the then-known world : so that it might be con- 
sidered, not so much as a city belonging to any 
particular nation, as the common city of all nations, 
and the centre of their commerce. 

Tyre had now for some time risen from the de- 

* "And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years, 
that the Lord will visit Tyre, and she shall turn to her hire, 
(xxiii. 17.) And her merchandise and her hire shall be holiness 
to the Lord ; it shall not be treasured nor laid up : for her 
merchandise shall be for them that dwell before the Lord, to eat 
sufficiently, and for durable clothing." (v. 18.) 


solation, into which she had fallen : but with pros- 
perity came pride, and vain-glory ; luxury and 
voluptuousness. Another prophet, therefore, fore- 
told to her a second ruin. She was now " the 
crowning city," whose merchants were princes, and 
whose traffickers were styled " the honourable of 
the earth." 

Tyre had profited nothing from the first lesson : 
Another destruction, therefore, was denounced against 
her. This was to come from Chittim (Macedonia). 
Tyre was careless of this threat. Defended by strong 
fortifications, and surrounded on all sides by the sea, 
she feared nothing ; neither God nor man. Isaiah, 
therefore, brings to her recollection the ruin, that 
had befallen them in the days of Nebuchadnezzar ; 
and the destruction which had afterwards fallen on 
Babylon itself. " The inhabitants had raised pomp- 
ous palaces, to make their names immortal ; but all 
those fortifications had become but as dens for wild 
beasts to revel in." " The Lord hath purposed it to 
stain all the pride of all glory, and to bring into 
contempt all the honourable of the earth." " The 
Lord hath given a commandment against the mer- 
chant city, to destroy the strong -holds thereof." 
" Thou shalt no more rejoice, thou virgin daughter 
of Zidon." This fall was to come, as we have already 
said, from Macedon. 

Alexander besieged Tyre seven months ;* during 
which time he erected vast mounds of earth, plied 
it with his engines, and invested it on the side next 
the sea with two hundred galleys. When the Ty- 
rians saw this fleet, they were astonished ; because 
it greatly exceeded what they had any reason to 
expect. They had had in contemplation to send 
most of their women and children, with all the men, 
who were past the military age, to Carthage : but, 

* This was foretold by Zechariah, ch. ix. 3, 4. 


confident in their strength, 'they had delayed doing 
so ; and now they could not spare ships or seamen 
to transport them. 

A vessel coming from Sidon, they seized upon 
the crew, led them to a part of the wall, from 
which they could have a full view of the besieging 
army, then maliciously put them to death, and 
threw their dead bodies over the wall. This 
greatly enraged the Macedonian : and he soon after 
took possession of the city. According to Plutarch, 
the siege terminated in the following manner : 
Alexander had permitted his main body to rest 
themselves, after some great fatigues they had under- 
gone, and ordered only some small parties to keep 
the Tyrians in play. In the mean time, Aristander, 
his principal soothsayer, offered sacrifices ; and one 
day, upon inspecting the entrails of the victims, he 
boldly asserted, amongst those about him, that the 
city would be taken that month. As the day hap- 
pened to be the last of the month, this prediction 
was received with great ridicule. Alexander per- 
ceiving the soothsayer to be disconcerted, and having 
always made a point of bringing the prophecies of his 
soothsayers to completion, he gave orders that the 
day should not be called the thirtieth, but the twenty- 
eighth of the month. At the same time he called out 
his forces by sound of trumpet, and made a much 
more vigorous assault than he at first intended. 
The attack was violent, and those who were left in 
the camp, quitted it to have a share in it, and to 
support their fellow soldiers ; insomuch that the 
Tyrians were forced to give in ; and the city was 
taken that very day; seven thousand being slain.* 

The king, with many of the principal men, took 
refuge in the temple of Hercules. The lives and 
liberties of these were spared ; but all others taken, 
to the number of thirteen thousand,t were sold to 

* B. C. 332. f Diodorus. Arrian says thirty thousand. 


slavery for the benefit of the conquering army. To 
the eternal ignominy of the conqueror, too, all the 
children and women were made slaves of, and all the 
young men, that survived the battle, to the amount of 
two thousand, were crucified along the sea-shore. 
The annals of no nation exhibit an atrocity equal to 
this ! The city was burned to the ground. 

In reference to this stout defence of the Tyrians 
ao-ainst so accomplished a warrior as Alexander, and 
their maritime enterprises, a highly eminent scholar 
has made the following remarks* : " Let us contem- 
plate all these great things, as completed by the efforts 
of a single city, which, possibly, did not possess a ter- 
ritory of twenty miles in circumference, which sus- 
tained a siege of thirteen years against all the power 
of Babylon ; and another of eight months against 
Alexander, in the full career of his victories; and 
then judge whether a commercial spirit debases the 
nature of man, or whether any single city, recorded 
in history, is worthy to be compared with Tyre." 

The buildings were spacious and magnificent; 
above all, the temples of Jupiter, Hercules, and 
Astarte. These were built by Huram. The walls 
were one hundred and fifty feet high, proportionably 
broad, and firmly built of large blocks of stone, 
bound together with white plaster. 

When the conqueror had satiated his vengeance, 
he rebuilt it, and planted it anew with people, drawn 
from the neighbouring parts ; chiefly that he might, 
in future times, be called the founder of Tyre. 

In the year 3 13 B.C. this new city sustained a 
siege against Antigonus ; for soon after the death of 
Eumenes, Antigonus formed designs against Tyre, 
Joppa, and Gaza. The two last so.on submitted; 
but Tyre gave him great trouble. Being master of 
all the other ports on the Phoenician coasts, he caused 

* Vincent's Periplus, v. ii, 528. 


a vast number of trees to be cut down on Mount 
Libanus, cedars and cypress trees of great height 
and beauty; and these were conveyed to the different 
ports, where he commanded a number of ships to be 
built, and where he employed in that object several 
thousand men. With these, and other ships he re- 
ceived from Rhodes, Cyprus, and other places, he 
made himself master of the sea. Tyre was, there- 
fore, reduced to great extremities. The fleet of Anti- 
genus cut off all communication of provisions, and 
the city was soon after compelled to capitulate. It 
was no longer than nineteen years before this event, 
that Alexander had destroyed this city in a manner 
as made it natural to believe it would require whole 
ages to re-establish it ; and yet, in so short a time as 
that we speak of, it became capable of sustaining this 
new siege, which lasted more than as long again as 
that of Alexander. This circumstance discovers the 
great resources derived from commerce ; for this was 
the only expedient by which Tyre rose out of its 
ruins, and recovered most of its former splendour. 

Isaiah had foretold that Tyre should lie in obscu- 
rity and oblivion for seventy years*. This term 
being expired, it recovered its former credit ; and, at 
the same time, recovered again its former vices. At 
length, according to another passage in the same 
prophecyt, converted by the preaching of the Chris- 
tians, it became a holy and religious city. 

After this period it belonged to several masters, 
till the time when it was taken possession of by 
Antiochus the Great, B. c. 218. 

Afterwards it became subject to the Seleucida?. 
It was then sold to a Roman, named Marion, whose 

* " And it shal-1 come to pass, that Tyre shall be forgotten 
seventy years.'' Isaiah, ch. xxiii. ver. 15. 

+ " Her merchandise and her hire shall he holiness to the Lord; 
it shall not be treasured or laid up ; for her merchandize shall be 
for them that dwell hefore the Lord." Isaiah, ch. xxiii. ver. 18. 


wealth was so great, that he was enabled to purchase 
the whole principality. It was still in repute in the 
time of Christ, and is, therefore, several times men- 
tioned in the New Testament. 

" "Woe unto thee, Chora/in ! "Woe unto thee, Beth - 
saida ! For if the mighty works, which were done in 
you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would 
have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. But 
I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre 
and Sidon at the day of judgment than for you." 
Matthew, ch. xi. ver. 21. 

" And from Jerusalem, and from Idumea, and 
from beyond Jordan ; and they about Tyre and 
Sidon, a great multitude, when they had heard what 
great things he did, came to him." Mark, ch. iii. 
ver. 8. Luke, ch. vi. ver. 17. 

" And Herod was highly displeased with them of 
Tyre and Sidon ; but they came with one accord to 
him, and having made Blastus, the king's chamber- 
lain, their friend, desired peace, because their country 
was nourished by the king's country." Acts, ch. 
xi. ver. 20. 

Tyre, in the time of Pliny : " Tyrus, in the olden 
time an island, lying almost three quarters of a mile 
within the deep sea ; but now, through the skill and 
labour of Alexander at the siege of it, joined to the 
main land. It is greatly renowned; for out of it 
have come three other cities of ancient name ; viz., 
Leptis, Utica, and that great Carthage, which so 
long strove with the empire of Rome, for the mon- 
archy and dominion of the whole world. Not only 
these, but the Gades, divided, as it were, from the 
rest of the earth, were peopled from thence. Now, 
all its glory and reputation arise out of its dye purple 
and crimson colours. The compass of it is nineteen 
miles, if Palas-tyrus be included in it." 

There was a style of architecture called Tyrian ; 
and of this order Sir C. Wren supposes was the 


theatre ; by the fall of which, Samson made so great 
a slaughter of the Philistines. " In- considering 
what this fabric must be," says he *, " that could at 
one pull be demolished, I conceive it an oval amphi- 
theatre, the scene in the middle, where a vast roof of 
cedar-beams, resting round upon the walls, centered 
all upon one short architrave, that united two cedar 
pillars in the middle. One pillar would not be suffi- 
cient to unite the ends of at least one hundred beams 
that tended to a centre ; therefore, I say, there must 
be a short architrave resting upon two pillars, upon 
which all the beams tending to the centre of the 
amphitheatre might be supported. Now, if Sam- 
son, by his miraculous strength, pressing upon one of 
these pillars, moved it from its basis, the whole roof 
must of necessity fall." The most observable monu- 
ment of the Tyrian style is the sepulchre of Absalom, 
over against Jerusalem, in the valley of Jehosaphat. 

When Tyre fell into the hands of the Romans, it 
did not cease to be a flourishing city. It was made 
the metropolis of a province by the emperor Hadrian, 
who repaired its fortifications, and gave it all the 
advantages of a Roman colony. 

About A.D. 639, it fell from the dominion of Rome 
into the hands of the Saracens, who remained a con- 
siderable time in possession of it. 

On this capture most of the inhabitants emigrated 
to Acre. It still remains, we are told by Mr. 
Addison, in nearly the same state in which they 
abandoned it, with the addition of about a hundred 
new stone buildings, occupying a small space to the 
north of the peninsula contiguous to the port. Many 
parts of the double wall, which encompassed the 
island, are still visible, and attest the strength of its 
ancient foundations. The isthmus is so completely 
covered with sand, washed up by the sea, on either 
side, that none but those, acquainted with the history 

* Parentalia, p. 359. 


of Tyre, would suppose it to be the work of man. 
The peninsula is about a mile long, and half a mile 
broad ; and its surface is covered with the founda- 
tions of buildings, now nearly all in ruins. On the 
western side, where the ground is somewhat more 
elevated than the rest, is a citadel, which Mr. Addi- 
son naturally supposes, occupies the site of the ancient 
one. On the eastern side, he goes on to observe, are 
the remains of a Gothic church, built by the crusa- 
ders, of materials belonging to the temple of Jupiter 
Olympus, which was destroyed by Constantine the 
Great, or that of Hercules, the tutelary deity of the 
ancient Tyrians. Of this only part of the choir 
remains. The interior is divided into three aisles, 
separated by rows of columns of red granite ; of a 
kind nowhere else known in Syria. At the extre- 
mities of the two branches of the cross were two 
towers, the ascent to which was by a spiral stair- 
case, which still remains entire. Djezzar, who 
stripped all this country to ornament his mosque at 
Acre, wished to carry them away ; but his engineers 
were not able even to move them. This is supposed 
to have been the cathedral, of which Eusebius speaks, 
calling, it the most magnificent temple in Phoenicia, 
and in which the famous William of Tyre was the 
first archbishop. 

In the second century, it became a bishop's see ; 
and St. Jerome says, that in his time it was not 
only the most famous and beautiful city of Phoenicia, 
but a mart for all the nations of the world. It was 
dependent upon the patriarch of Antioch ; but the 
see had no less than fourteen suffragans. 

In 111-2, Tyre was besieged by the crusaders; 
also again in 1124. It was successfully attacked 
by Safadin, in 1192 ; but in 1291, Kabil, sultan of 
the Mamelukes, obtained it by capitulation, and 
rased its forts. 


Tyre is now called Sur or Sour. For this name 
several explanations have been given. We shall 
select the most probable, and these are by Volney, 
and Dr. Shaw. " In the name Sour," says Volney, 
" we recognise that of Tyre, which we receive from 
the Latin ; but if we recollect, that the y was for- 
merly pronounced ou ; and observe, that the Latins 
have substituted the t for of the Greeks, and that 
the 6 had the sound of th, in the word think, we 
shall be less surprised at the alteration. This has 
not happened among the Orientals, who have always 
called this place * Tsour,' and ' Sour.' '' 

Dr. Shaw gives a different interpretation : " All 
the nations of the Levant call Tyre by its ancient 
name Sur, from whence the Latins seem to have 
borrowed their Sarra. Sur, I find, layeth claim to 
a double interpretation, each of them very natural; 
though its rocky situation will prevail, I am per- 
suaded, with every person who seeth this peninsula, 
beyond the Sar, or purple fish, for which it might 
afterwards be in such esteem. The purple fish (the 
method, at least, of extracting the tincture,) hath 
been wanting for many ages ; however, amongst a 
variety of other shells, the Purpura of Rondeletius 
is very common upon the sea shore." 

" The Arabians," says Mr. Drummond, " have 
always called Tyre Al Sur, the palm-tree. (Gol. in 
voce.) Hence, perhaps, the Greeks gave the name 
of Phoenix to this tree, as being the natural produc- 
tion of Phoenice ; and as being the common emblem 
both of the Phoenicians and of their colonists. It 
may have happened, then, that ancient Tyre, 
which was situated in a plain, may have been 
called Al /Sur, as the place where the palm-tree 

Perhaps another explanation may be still more 
probable. Sanchoniathon, as reported by Philo 


Byllius, tells us that Tyre was first inhabited by 
Hyp-s(w-anios, and that it then consisted of sheds, 
built up with canes, rushes, and papyri. From the 
middle of this, perhaps, comes the present name, 

The palaces of Tyre were for a long period sup- 
planted by miserable hovels. Poor fishermen in- 
habited their vaulted cellars ; where, in ancient 
times, the treasures of the world were stored. 
;w This city," says Maundrell, " standing in the 
sea upon a peninsula, promises, at a distance, some- 
thing very magnificent. But when you come to it, 
you find no similitude of that glory, for which it 
was so renowned in ancient times. On the north side 
it has an old Turkish ungarrisoned castle; besides 
which, you see nothing here but a mere Babel, of 
broken walls, pillars, vaults, &c. : there not being 
so much as one entire house left. The present in- 
habitants are only a few poor wretches, harbouring 
themselves in the vaults, and chiefly subsisting upon 
fishing ; who seem to be preserved, in this place by 
Divine Providence, as a visible argument, how God 
has fulfilled his word concerning Tyre." 

Sour, till lately, was a village in the pachalic 
ofSaide or of Acre ; situate on a peninsula, which 
projects from the shore, in the form of a mallet with 
an oval head. The isthmus which joins it to the 
continent is of pure sand. That part of the island 
which lies between the village and the sea, that is, 
the western side, w T as laid out in gardens, beset with 
weeds. The south side is sandy, and covered with 
rubbish. The whole village did not contain more 
than fifty families, having huts for houses, crum- 
bling to pieces. 

Dr. Shaw says, that in his time, notwithstanding 
Tyre was the chief maritime power of Syria, he 
could not perceive the least token of either Cothon 


or harbour, that could, at any time, have been of 
any extraordinary capacity. Coasting ships, indeed, 
says he, still find a tolerably good shelter from the 
northerly winds, under the southern shore ; but they 
are obliged immediately to retire, when the winds 
change to the west or south ; so there must, there- 
fore, have been a better station than this for security 
and reception. In the N. N. E. part likewise of 
the city, are seen traces of a safe and commodious 
basin ; but, at the same time, so small as not to 
exceed forty yards in diameter. Neither could it 
have enjoyed a larger area. Yet this port, small as 
it is at present, is notwithstanding so choked up with 
sand and rubbish, that even the boats of the poor 
fishermen, who visit this once renowned emporium, 
can be admitted only with great difficulty. The 
sea, however, which usually destroys solid struc- 
tures, has not only spared, but enlarged and con- 
verted into a solid isthmus, the mound by which 
Alexander joined the isle of Tyre to the continent. 

A recent traveller, however, says, " that in 
the angle on which was seated the royal palace, 
there are still to be seen a number of fallen granite 
pillars, and other vestiges of architectural grandeur ; 
but of the temples of the Tyrian and the Thracian 
Hercules, of Saturn, of Apollo, and of their other 
deities, I am not aware that sufficient remains are to 
be traced to confirm the positions assigned to them. 
The causeway of Alexander is still perfect, and 
is become like a natural isthmus, by its being covered 
over with sand. The hill, on which is placed the 
temple of the Astrochitonian Hercules, is now occu- 
pied by a Mohammedan faqueer's tomb, around 
which are no ruins that indicate a work of gran- 
deur destroyed. The ruins of Palae-tyrus, near to 
Ras-el-ain, were not observed by me, although we 
crossed the brook there ; and the Syrian sepulchres, 


which are said to be to the northward of the town, 
I did not hear of. On approaching the modern 
Soor, whether from the hills, from the north or from 
the south, its appearance has nothing of magnificence. 
On entering the town, it is discovered to have been 
walled ; the portion towards the isthmus still re- 
maining, and being entered by an humble gate ; 
while that on the north side is broken down, showing 
only detached fragments of circular towers, greatly 
dilapidated." " They do not reach beyond the pre- 
cincts of the present town ; thus shutting out all the 
range to the northward of the harbour, which 
appears to have been composed of the ruins of former 
buildings." " The tower to the south-east is not 
more than fifty feet square, and about the same 
height. It is turreted to the top, and has small 
windows and loop-holes on each of its sides. A 
flight of steps leads up to it from without, and its 
whole appearance is like that of the Saracenic build- 
ings in the neighbourhood of Cairo." 

Sour has greatly risen of late years. It now con- 
tains eight hundred dwellings, substantially built of 
stone ; most of which have courts, walls, and various 
conveniences, attached to them; besides smaller habita- 
tions for the poor. There are, also, one mosque, 
three Christian churches, three bazaars, and a bath. 
This intelligence is furnished by Mr. Buckingham, 
who was there in the earlier part of 1816. He adds 
also, that the population amounts, at the lowest 
computation, from five to six thousand ; three-fourths 
of which are Arab catholics, and the remainder 
Turks and Arab moslems. 

In Tyre was interred the well-known Frederic the 
First, surnamed Barbarossa (A. D. 1190) *. 

Herodotus; Diodorus ; Pliny; Plutarch; Arrian ; Quinliis 
Curtins ; Prideaux ; Rollin ; Maundrell ; Stackhouse ; Wren ; 
Shaw; Gibbon; Robertson; Drummond ; Buckingham. 



THE memory of Veil* was almost obliterated in 
the time of Florus. The flock had fed in the streets, 
and the ploughshare had furrowed the sepulchres of 
the Veientest. 

The history of Veii is too imperfect, to throw any 
light, prior to the existence of Rome. We are 
only informed, that Morrius, king of Veii, was 
descended, by Halaesius, from Neptune ; and that 
there was a king Veius, a king Menalus, and lastly, 
in the time of Camillus, an elected king named 

Veii was a powerful city of Etrnria; large enough 
to contend with Rome in the time of Servius Tullus ; 
and Dionysius of Halicarnassus says, that it was 
equal in extent to Athens ; and Sir W. Gell quotes a 
passage from a fragment of the same writer, published 
by Mai at Milan, 1816, in which he speaks thus of 
Veii and its territory : " The city of Veii was not 
inferior to Rome itself in buildings, and possessed a 
large and fruitful territory, partly mountainous, and 

* Eustace. 

f The situation of Veii has caused some great disputes among 
the antiquaries; but it seems now to he very satisfactorily placed 
at L'Isola Farnese, ahout twelve miles from Rome, not far from 
I<a Storta, the first post on the road to Perugia. In the time of 
Propertius the town had ceased to exist. 

Nunc intra inuros pastoris buccina lenti 
Cantat, et in vestris ossibus arva metunt. 

. And Florus says of the city ; " Who now recollects that it existed ? 
What remains and vestige of it are there ? It requires the utmost 
stretch of our faith in history, to believe that Veii existed." 
(Lib. i. c. 12). Eutropius calls it eighteen miles from Rome, 
(lib. i. c. 4 and 19) ; but Pliny (lib. xv. c. ult.), and Suetonius 
(Galba 1), if compared together, make it only half the distance; 
and Dionysins, (Antiq. lib. ii.) expressly places it at the distance 
of one hundred stadia, or twelve miles. The Peutingerian table 
does the same. BURTON. 


partly in the plain. The air was pure and healthy, 
the country being free from the vicinity of marshes, 
and without any river, which might render the 
morning air too rigid. Nevertheless, there was an 
abundance of water ; not artificially conducted, but 
rising from natural springs, and good to drink." 
(Lib. xii. frag. 21). 

In the course of three hxmdred and fifty years it 
carried on no less than sixteen wars with Rome, 
but was at last taken and destroyed by Camillus, 
after a siege of ten years. This was the most im- 
portant of the conquests of the infant republic. Its 
situation was so eligible, that the Romans, after the 
burning of their city by the Gauls, were long inclined 
to emigrate there, and totally abandon their homes; 
and this would have been carried into execution, 
but for the authority and eloquence of Camillus*. 

" It is lamentable," says Sir W. Gell, " that in 
a country so little cultivated, interesting traces of 
antiquity, tending to confirm the truth of history, 
should be suffered to disappear almost without 
record, for the sake of a miserable and narrow stripe 
of corn, and a few volcanic stones for mending the 
roads. The site of the citadel of Veii affords ample 
testimony to the accuracy of the description of Dio- 
nyj-ius, who says it stood upon a high and precipitous 
rock. Not far from the road (from Rome) several 
large square blocks, concealed by soil and bushes, 
may easily be detected by persons accustomed to 
antiquarian researches. A heap of ruins are seen, 
supposed to have been a temple dedicated to Juno; 
and among these lay, in 1830, a piece of marble, 
relating to the family of Tarquitia, a race of cele- 
brated Tuscan augurs, from whose books the sooth- 
sayers took their lessons, even so low down as the 
last war of the emperor Julian with the Persians." 

Li?, v. 21 ; Sueton. in Neron. 39. 
VOL. \\. K K 


There exists, also, a large tumulus, supposed to be 
the tomb of Propertius, king of Etruria, founder of 
the city. 

In a rock under the ancient wall are several niches, 
which have the appearance of places for urns, or 
votive offerings ; not of Roman construction, but 
Etrurian. There are, also, evident traces of one or 
two bridges ; and on the summit of a hill, at the 
distance of three miles, is another tumulus. 

In another pai-t the rugged extent of the rocks, 
with the bushes, and the difficulty of carrying away 
the blocks, have preserved portions of the ancient 
wall of the Etruscan Veii. These are ten or eleven 
feet in length, and some more than five feet in height. 
One of the most singular facts attending this wall, 
is a bed of three courses of bricks, each three feet in 
length, intervening between the lower course of the 
wall, and the rock upon which it is built. It re- 
quires only a very moderate knowledge of the subject 
to convince us, that the construction of this wall lias 
no resemblance to anything remaining at Rome, nor 
yet at Nepi, Falerii, or Tarquinii, where the ramparts 
were in smaller blocks, and nearly regular. The 
style of the fortifications at Veii bespeak a much 
higher antiquity. 

Added to what we have already stated, there are 
vestiges of ancient fortifications and aqueducts, and 
traces of roads ; also fragments of an ancient citadel. 
There are, also, tombs in a glen near, and upon the 
rock, called Isola, exhibiting every kind of sepulchral 
excavation ; caves, columbaria, and tombs without 
number. This was, no doubt, the metropolis of 

There are, also, the remains of other tumuli, -which 
appear to have been the common receptacle of those 
slain in battle, rather than of remarkable individuals. 
These all mark the date of Veii in the elder times ; but 


a statue of Tiberius found here, of course denotes the 
age of the empire. 

"The remains of this once populous Etruscan city," 
says Sir William Gell T "have, in the course of 
the last ten years, suffered so lamentably from spo- 
iations, perpetrated or permitted by the owners of 
the soil, that it is necessary to take particular notice 
of such relics as still attest the existence of a place of 
so much importance in the early history of Italy." 

This he has done, in his work entitled " The Topo- 
graphy of Rome, and its Vicinity ;" and from that 
work we glean most that is stated in this abstract *. 

* Livy ; Eustace; Cell '. 





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