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And furnished for all Necessities. 





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kNtGHT OF tHfe HOMOt7RA8L£ ORD£R OF tH£ 6At&« 



I HAVE lived to 8^ religion painted upon banners, 
and thrust out of churches, and the temple turned 
into a tabernacle/ and that tabemi^cle made ambula- 
tofy, and covered witli skins of beasts and torn cur- 
tains, and God to be worshipped not as he is, the Father 
of our Lard Jesus (an afflicted Prince, the King of 
sufferings) nor as the God of Peace (which two appel- 
latives God newly took upon him in the New Testa- 
ment, and glories in for ever :) but he is owned now 
rather as the Lord ofl&sts, whteh title he was pleased 
to lay aside when the kingdom of the gospel was 
preached by the Prince of Peace. But when religion, 
puts on armour, and God is not acknowledged •by his 
New-Testament titles, religion may have in it the 
power of the sword, but not the power of godliness ; 
and we may complain of this to God, and amongst 
them that are afflicted, but we have no remedy but 
what we must expect from the fellowship of Christ*s 
sufferings, and the returns of the God of Peace. In 
the mean time, and now that religion pretepds to 
stranger actions upon new principles, and men are 
apt to prefer a prosperous error before an afflicted 


truth*; and some will think they are religious enough^ 
if their worshippings h$v^ in them the prevailing in* ' 
gredient^ and the ministers of religion are so scattered 
that they cannot unite to stop the inundation^ and 
from chairs^ or pulpits^ from their synodn^ or tribunals^ 
chastise the iniquity of the error, and the ambition of 
evil guides^ and the infidelity of the willingly-seduced 
multitude, and that those few good people who have 
no other plot in their religion but to serve God^ and 
save their souls, do want such assistances of ghostly 
counsel as may serve their emergent needs and assist 
their endeavours in the acquist of virtues^ and relieve 
their dangers when they are tempted tojsin and death ; 
I thought I had reasons e^nough inviting me to draw 
. into one body those advices which the several neces- 
sities of many men must -use at some time or other^ 
and many of them daily: that by a collection of holy 
precepts they might less feel the want of personal and 
attending guides, and that the rules for conduct of 
souls might be committed to a book which they might 
always have, since they could not^always have a pro-> 
phet at their needs, nor be suffered to go up to 
the house of the Lord to inquire of the appointed 
oracles. ' 

I know, my Lord, that there ar^ some interested 
persons who add scorn to the afflictions of the Church 
of J^nglandy and^ because she is afflicted by men, call 
her forsaken of the Lord; and, because her solemn 
assemblies are scattered, think that the religion is lost, 
and the Church divorced from God, supposing Christ 
(who was a man of sorrows) to be angry with his 
Spouse when she is like him, [for that's the true state 


of tfie error] and that be who promised his Spirit ta 
assist his servants in their troubles, will, because they 
are in trouble, take away the Comforter from them, 
who caimot be a Comforter but while he cures our 
aadnesset, and refieves our sorifows, and turns our 
persecutions into joys, and crowns, and sceptres* 
But conceming the present state of the Church of 
England^ I consider, that because we now want the 
blessings of external communion in many degrees, 
and the circuoistanees of a prosperous and unaffiicted 
people^ we are to take estimate of ourselves with 
single judgments, and every man is to give sentence 
concerning the state of his own soul by the precepts 
and rules of our Law-giver ; not by the after decrees ' 
and usages of the Churcb; that is^ by the essential 
parts of religion, rather than by the uncertain signifi- 
cations of any exteripr adherences. For though it be 
uncertain when a man is a member of the Church,, 
whether he be a member to Christ or no, because in 
th& Church's net there are fishes go^d and bad : yet 
we may be sure that if we be members of Christ, we 
are of a Church to all purposes of spiritual religion 
and salvation. And, in order to this, give me leave 
to speak this great truth. 

That man does certainly belong to God, who, 1 . 
JBelieves and is baptised into all the articles of the 
Christian faith, and studies to improve his knowledge 
.in the matters of God, so as may best make him to 
live a holy life. 2. He that in obedience to Christ 
worships God diligently, frequently, and constantly,' 
with natural religion,* that is, of prayer, praises, and 
thanksgiving. 3. He that takes all opportunities to 


remember Clirist*s death by a frequent sacrament (as 
it can be had ;) or else by inward acts of understand^ 
ing, will, and memory (which is the spiritual commu^ 
nion) supplies the want of external rite. 4. He that 
Kves chastely, 5. and is merciftil, 6. and despises the 
worlds using it as a man, but never suffering it to rifle 
a duty ; 7- <^nd is just in his dealing, and Hil^ent in 
his calling. 8. He that is humble in his spirit^ 9. 
and obedient to government, 10. and contentin his 
fortune and employment. 1 1 . He that does his duty^ 

because he loves God. 13, And especiafly, if after 

. * 

i^ll this he be afflicted and patient, or prepared to suf- 
fer affliction for the cause of God. The man that 
hath these twelve signs of grace and predestimiti^n, 
does as certainly belong to God and is bis son, as 
surely as he is his cnmture. 

And if my brethren in persecation, and in the bonds 
of the LordJesvs, can truly sliew these niarks, they 
shall not need be troubled that others can sb^w a 
prosperous outside, great revenues, poblrc assemfbties, 
uninterrupted successions of bishops, prevailing Ar- 
mies, or any arm of flesh, or less certain circum- 
stance. These are the marks of the Lord Jents,^d 
the characters of a christian : this is a good religion: 
and these things God*s grace hath put into our powers ; 
and God*s laws have ndade to be our duty, and the na- 
ture of men and the needs, of commonweahhs have 
m^de to be necessary. The other accidentsand pomps 
9f a Church arethiogt without our power, and are not 
ii\ our choice: rlhey ^are good to be used when they 
may be had; and tliey do illustrate or idvunti^ 
it; but if uny of them constitute a Church in the 


being of a society and a government, yet they are 
not pf its constitution as it is Christian, and hopes 
tobe saved* 

, And now the case is so with us tliat we are reduced 
tOr that religion whiclx no man can forbid, which we 
can keep in the midst of a persecution, by which the 
martyrs in the days of our fathers went to heaven: 
that by which we can be servants of God, and receive 
the spirit of Christ, and make use of his comforts, 
and live in his love, and in charity with all men: and 
they 4hat do so cannot perish. . 

My Lord, I have now described some general lines 
and features of that religion which I have more parti- 
cniarly.set down in the following. pages: in which. I 
have neither served nor disserved the interest of any 
party of Christians as they are divided by uncharitable 
names from, the rest of their brethren, and no man 
will have reason to be angry with me for refusing to 
mingle in his unnecessary or vicious quarrels ; espe- 
eiaUy while I study to do him good by conducting him 
in the narrow way to heaven, without intricating him 
io jthe labyrinths and wild turnings of questions and 
iinceitain talkings. I have told what men ought to 
do,. and by what means they may be assisted : and in 
moat cases^ I have also told them why ;^ and yet with 
as. tnadi: quickness as J could think necessary to estab- 
|ilh arule, and not to engage in homily or discourse. 
Ia>jthe-use of which rules (although they are plain, 
U^efii^, and fitted . for the best and worst understand- 
ii^ aind for the needs of all men, yet) I shall desire 
th^iTeadefr to proceed with the following advices. 


1 • Tbey that will with profit make use of the proper 
instruments oC virtue, must so live as they were always 
under the physician's hand. For the counsels of re« 
ligion are not to be applied to the distempers of the 
soul, as men use to take hellebore; but they must dwell 
together with the spirit of a man, and be twisted 
about his understanding for ever : they must be used 
like nourishment, that is, by a daily care and medita- 
tion: not like a single medicine, and upon the 'actual 
pressure of a present necessity. For counsels and 
wise discourses applied to an actual distemper, at the 
faett are but like strong smells to an epileptic person, 
sometimes they may raise him, but they never case 
him. The following rules, if they be made familiar 
to our natures, and the thoughts of every day^ may 
make virtue and religion become easy and habitual; 
but when the temptation is present, and hath already 
seized upon some portions of our consent, we ane not 
so apt to be counselled, and we find no gust or relish 
in the precept; the lessons are the same, but the in-* 
' ^ strument is. unstrung, or out of tune. 

2. In using the instruments of virtue we must be 
curious to distinguish instruments from duties and 
prudent advices from necessity injunctions ; and if by 
any other means the duty can be secured, let there be 
no scruples stirred concerning any other helps $ only 
if they can in that case strengthen and secure the 
duty, or help towards perseverance, let them serve in 
that station in which they can be placed. For there 
- are some persons in whom the Spirit of God hath 
breathed so bright a. flame of love, that tb^y do all 



llieir acts of virtue by perfect choice and without ob- 
jectidn^ and their 2eal is warmer than that it will be 
allayed by temptation: and to such persons' mortifi- 
catioii by philosophical instruments, as fasting, sack* 
cloth, and other rudenesses to the body, is wholly 
nselesB ; it is always a more uncertain means to ac- 
quire any virtue, or secure any duty; and if love 
hath filled all the comers of our soul, it alode is able 
to do all the work of God. 

3. Be not nice in stating the obligations of religion ; 
but where the duty is necessary, and the means very 
reasonable in itself, dispute not too busily whether in 
all circumstances it can fit thy i3artioular ; but ^per 
totam' memoriamj upon the whole, make use of it. 
For it is a good sign of a great religion, and no im-^ 
prudence, when we have sufficiently considered the 
substance of afiairs, then to be easy, humble, obedi- 
ent, apt, and credulous in the circumstances which 
are appointed to us in particular by our spiritual 
guides^ or in general by all wise men in cases not un« 
like. He that gives alms docs best, not always to 
consider the minutes and strict measures of his ability, 
but to give freely, incuriously, and abundantly. A 
man must not weigh grains in the accounts of his re- 
pentance ; but for a great sin have a great sorrow, and 
a great severity, and iri this take the ordinary advices 
though il maybe a less rigour might not be insufficient ; 
oKpifi^dixaiov, or arithmetical measures, especially of 
our own proportioning, are but arguments of want of 
love, and of forwardness in religion : or else are in- 
struments of scruple, and then become dangerous. 



Use the rule heartijy and enough^ and there wiU be 
BO harm in tby error^ if any should happsn. 
. 4. If thou intendest heartily to serve God^ and 
avoid sin in any one instance^ refuse not the hardest 
and most severe advice that is prescribed in order to it^ 
though possibly it be a stranger to thee ; for whatso- 
ever it be, custom will make it easy. 

5. When any instruments for the obtaining , any 
virtue or restraining any vice are propounded^ observe 
which of them fits thy person, or the circumstances of 
thy need, and use it rather than the other ; that by 
this means thou mayest be engaged to watch and use 
spiritual arts and observation about thy soul. Con*- 
cerning the management of which, as the interest is 
greater so the necessities are more, and the cases < 
more intricate, and the accidents and dangers greater 
and more importunate ; and there is greater skill re- 
quired than in the. securing an estate, or restoring 
health to an infirm body ; I wish all men in the world 
did heartily believe so much of this as is true; it would 
very much help to do the work of God. 

Thus (my Lord) I have made bold by your hand to 
reach out this little scroll of cautions to all those, who, 
by seeing your honoured name set before my book, 
shall, by the fairness of such, a frontispiece, be in- 
vited to look into it. I must confess it cannot but 
look like a design in me^ to borrow your name and 
beg your patronage to my book, that if there be no 
other worth in it, yet at least it may have the splendor 
and warmth of a burning glass, which, borrowing a 
flame from the eye of heaven, shines and burns by 
the rays of the sun, its patron. I will not quit myself 



from the , suspicion ; for I cannot ' pretend it to be a 
pre3ent either of itself fit to be ofTered to such a 
persona^, or any part of a Just return (but I humbly 
desire you would own it for an acknowledgment) of 
those great endearments and noblest usages you have 
past upon me. 3ut so^ men in their religion give a 
piece of gum^ or the fat of a cheap lamb^ in sacrifice 
to him that gives them all that they have or need : and 
anless he who was pleased to employ your Lordship 
as a ^.eat minister of his providence in making a 
promise of his good to me, the meanest of his «er- 
vants, [That Me toouid never leave me nor forsake me] 
shall enable me by greater services of religion to pay 
my great debt to your honour^' I must still increase 
4aay score^ since I shall now spend as much in my 
needs of pardon for this boldness, as in the reception 
of those favours by which I stand accountable to 
your Lordship in all the bands of service and grati- 
tude ; though I am in the deepest sense of duty and 

My most Honoured Lord, 
^ Your Honour's most obliged, 

And most humble Servant, 




CoNSiDERATioK of the ^iie- 
ral Iii8ti:um^ota and Meaas 
sarvttg lo a Hoiy Life^ by 
Way w Introduction .... 1 

Stctian I. 

Care of Tinoie and tbe Manner 
of spending it 4 

Twenty-three Rules for em* 
ploying our Time 8 

The5 benefits of this Exercise 17 

Section II. 

Parity of Intention or Pur- 
pose^ in alloitrAction8>&c. 18 

Ten Rales for our Intentions $0 

Eight Signs of Purity of In- 
tention 34 

Three Appendant Considera- 
tions 1 28 

SecHim 111. 

The Consideiation and Prac- 
tice of the Presence of God S9 

Six several Manners of the 
Divine Presence SO 

Ten Ruks of exercising this 
Consideration 35 

The5 benefits of this Exercise 39 

Pjrayers and Devotions ac- 
cording to the Vellgion 
and Purposes of the fore- 
going considerations .... 42 

Pevotions for ordinary days 43 


Op ChuistjAn Sobriety , . 67 

Section I. 

Of Sqbriety in the general 
Sense ibid. 

Five Evil consequences of Vo- 
luptuousness^ or Sensnality iSB 

Three Degrees of Sobriety. . 69 

Six Rules ibr su^ressing Vo- 
luptuotisness «... 70 

Section II. 

Of Temperance in eating and 

drinking 74 


in Eatings. ^ ..«• 75 

Eight Signs and Efiects of 

Temperance 78 

Of Drunkenness 79 

Seven evil Consequences to 

Drunkenness 81 

Eight Signs of Drunkenness 83 
Eleven Rules for obtaining 

Temperance ^ 84 

Section III.. 

Of Chastity 87 

The 10 evil Consequents of 
Uncleanness 91 

Seven Acts of Chastity in 
general 9^ 

Five Acts of Virginal or Maid- 
en Chastity 98 



Five Rules for Widows or 
Vidual Chastity 100 

Six Rules for married Per- 
soQSj or Matrimonial CIms- 
tity .....101 

Ten Remedies against Un- 
cleanoess 105 

Section IV. 

Of IJumility 110 

9 Arguments against Pride> 

by Way of CoBsideration. . Ill 
JMineteen Acts or Offices of 

HumUity , 114 

Fourteen means and Exercises 

of obtaining and increasing 

the Grace of Humility. . . . 122 
Seventeen Signs of Humility 139 

Section V. 

OfModwty 130 

Four Acts and Duties of Mo- 
desty^ as it is opposed to 
Curiosity 131 

Six Acts of Modesty^ as it is 
opposed to Boldness .... 135 

Ten Acts of Modesty^ as it is 
opposed to Indecency. . . • 1^7 
.... ,. • 

Section VI. 

Of Contentedness in all Es- 
tates^. &c .141 

Tvfo General Arguments fof 

Content ..142 

Eight Instruments or Exer- 
cises to procure Content'- 

edness 147 

Eight Means to obtain Con- 
tent, by way of consider- 
ation 162 

Of Poverty, or alow Fortune 172 
TheChargeof manyChildreo 179 

Violent Necessities. . , 180 

Death of Children, Friends, 

&c 182 

Untimely Death 184 

Death Unseasonable . .\ • • , 186 
Sudden De^th, or violent • . 188 

Being Childless 188 

Evil or unfortunate Children 189 

Our own Death ibid. 

Prayers for theseveral Graces, 
and Parts of Christian So- 
briety, fitted to the Neces- 
sity of several Persons . . 190 

Of Christian Justice 197 

Section I. 

Of Obedience toour Superiorsl98 

Fifteen Acts and Duties of 
Obedience to all our Su- 
periors 199 

Twelve Remedies against Dis- 
-. obedience, by way of Con- 
sideration 204 

Three Degrees of Obedience 209 

Section II. 

Of Provision of that part of 
Justice which is due from 
Superiors to Inferiors . . 210 

Twelve Duties of Kings and 
all the Supren^e Power, as 
Law-givers ^11 

TVto Duties of Superiors, as 
they are Judges 214 

Five Duties of Parents to their 
Children.., ...215 

Duty of Husbands and Wives 
reciprocally 218 

Seven Duties of Masters of 
Families 220 

Duty of Guardians or Tutors 22 1 

Section III. 

Of Negodation or Civil Con- 
tracts .'ibid. 

Thirteen Rules and Measures 
of Justice in' Bargaining ibid. 

Section IV. 

Of Restitution 227 

Seven Rules of making Resti- 
tution, as it concerns the 
persons obliged 22S 



Nine, as it concerns other cir- 
cumstances , 232 

Prayers to be said in relation 
to the sevei-al Obligations 
and Offices of Justice .... 236 


Of Christian Religion . . 246 
I. Of the Internal Actions - 
of Religion ibid. 

Section I. 

Of Faith 247 

The Seven Acts and Offices 

of Fdth ibid. 

Three Signs of true Faith . . 249 
Eight means and Instruments 

to obtain Faith 252 

Section II. 

Of Christian Hope 255 

The 5 Acts of Ho)>e ibid. 

FiveRules togovern ourHdpe 257 
IVelve Means of Hope, and 
Remedies against Despair 259 

Section IH. 

Of Charity^ or the Love of 

God 265 

llie 6 Acts of Love to God 267 
The 3 Measures and Rules of 

Divine Love 270 

Six Helps to increase our Love 

to God by way of Exercise 272 
The 2 several States of I^ve 

to God ^ 275 

Viz. the State of Obedience ibid . 

The Slate of Zeal 276 

Eight Cautions and Rules 

concerning Ze&\ ...... ibid. 

II. Of the Ex tei-nal Actions 

of Religion 279 

Section IV. 

Of Reading or Hearing the 
Word of God.' 280 

Five General Considerations 

'^ concerning it 2SI 

Five Rules for Hearing or 

Reading the Word 282 

Four Rules for Reading Spi- 
ritual Books^ or Hearing 
Sermons 284 

Section V. 

Of Fasting ' 285 

Fifteen Rules for Christian 

Fasting 286 

Benefits of Fasting 292 

Section VI. 

Of keeping Festivals^ and 
Days Holy to the Lord par- 
ticularly the Lord's Day 293 

Ten Rules for keeping the 
Ix>rd's Day^ and other 
Christian Festivals 296 

IlL Of the mixt Actions of 
Religion ibid 

Section VII. 

Of Prayer 301 

Eight Motives to Prayer 302 

Sixteen Rules for the Practice 
of Pra}^ 303 

6 Cautions for making Vows 312 

7 Remedies against Wander- 
ing Thoughts, &c 314 

Ten Signs of Tediousness of 
Spirit in our Prayers and 
all Actions of Religion . . 316 

Eleven Remedies against Te- 
diousness of Spirit 317 

Section VIIL 

Of Alms 32^ 

The 18 several kinds of Cor- 
poxal Alms 324 

The 14 several kinds of Spi- 
ritual Alms 325 

The 5 several kinds of mixt 
Alms . . . ^ ibid. 



Sixteen Rules fbrgivingAlms M6 
Thirteen Motives jlo Charity 335 
Remedies against the Parents 
of Umnercifulness 337 

I. Nine against £nvy> by 
way of Consideration . . ibid. 

II. Twelve Remedies against 
Anger> by way of £xercise339 

Thifteen Remedies against 
Anger, by way of Con- 
sideration 344 

III. Seven Remedies against 
Covetoiisness 347 

Section DC 
Of Repentance 355 

Eleven Acts and Puts of Re- 
pentance 8S7 

Four Motives to Repentance 367 

Section X. 

Of Preparation to, and the 
Manner how to> receive the 
Sacrament of tlie Lord's 
Supper 370 

Fourteen Rules for Prepara- 
tion ^nd worthy Commu- 
nicating 372 

The efieots and benefits of 

worthy/&c 381 

Prayers for all sorts of Men, 
&c 384 

. ». , 


' ■ ■ 

' Forftrvit ff the Author, to. ilusa the Title. 

Faith .\ 24T 

Hope ..,....;.'. ...4 86S 

Cbaritj 265 

■ • ' .•...■••.> • 1 * '■ '■ 7 ■ i -i • ■ 

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CHi&<>. I. 




17 b neeessary that ereiy man should coiisider, that^ 
aipee God hatfa given binil an excellent nature^ wisdom^ 
nod choice^ an understanding sbtiil^ and an immortal 
ipirit^ havidg made him Lbrd <$velr die beasts^ and bfit 
a little Icmer than the angeis ; he hath also appointed 
ibr him a work and a service great enough to emplay 
tfaoae abilitiei, and hath also designed him to a state of 
life sifter this, to which he can only arrive by that set- 
vice and obediaice. And therefore as every man is 
wholljF God's iwn portion by the title of Creation, so 
all our labonrs and care, all our p6wers and faculties, 
must be wholly employed in the service of God, even 
idl the days of oi|r Iife> that this life being ended, we 
iMf liire witb hint for ever. 



Holy IJvhig. [Chap. i. 

Neither is it sufficient that we think of the serrice 
of God as a work of the least necessity, or of small 
employment, but that it be done by us as God intended 
it; that it be done with great earnestness and passion, 
with much zeai and desire ; that we refuse no labour, 
that we bestow upon it much time, that we use the best 
guides, and arrive at the end of glory by all the ways 
of grace, of pnidence, and religion. 

And, indeed, if we consider how much of our lives 
is taken up by the needs of nature, how many years 
are wholly spent before we come to any use of reason, 
how many years more before that reason is useful ta 
us to any great purposes, how imperfect our discourse 
is made by our evil education, false principles, ill 
company, bad examples, and want of experience, how 
many parts of our wisest and best' years are spent in 

^eating and sleeping, in necessary businesses and un- 
necessary vanities, in worldly civilities and less useful 
circumstances, in the learning arts and sciences, lan- 
guages or trades ; that little portion of hour^ that is 
left. for the practices. of piety and religious walking 
.with God is so short and trifling, that, were not the 

^.goodness of God infinitely great, it might seem uri- 
ireason^ble or impossible for us to expect of hiq;^ 
eternal joys in Heaven, even after the well spending 
those few minutes, which are left fortxod and God's 
service, after we, have served ourselves and coir own 

.occasions, i ; , - 

• And yet it; is considerable, tl|it the fruit which 
comes from the many d^ys of recreation and vanity 

Sect. I.] The Introduction. 

is very little, and although we scatter much, ^et we 
gather up but little profit : but from the few hours we 
spend in prayer and the exercises of a pious life, the 
return is great and profitable.; and what we sow in 
the minutes, and spare portions of a few years, grows 
up to crowns and sceptres in a happy iand glorious 

1. Therefore although it cannot be enjoined, that 
the greatest part of our time be spent in the direct: 
actions of devotion and religion, yet it will become,: 
not. only a duty, but also a great providence, to lay 
^ide for the services of God and the businesses of the 
Spirit as much as we can: because God rewards our 
minutes witk long and eternal happiness; and, the 
greater sportion of our time we give to God, the more 
we treasure up for ourselves ; and no man is a better 
merchant than he that layn out his time upi>n God, 
md his money upon the poor. 

'. 2. Only it becometh us to remember and to adore < 
God*(* goodness, that God hatli not only per- 
mkted us to serve the necessities of our nature, but; 
bath made them to become parts of our duty; that if 
ire hy directing these actions to the glory of God in- 
tend them as instruments to continue our persons in 
his seryice, he by adopting them into religion may 
turn our nature into grace, and accept our natural 
actions as actions of religion. God is pleased to 
esteem it for a part of his service, if we eat or drink; 
so it be done temperately, and as may best preserve 
OOT health, that Mslur hfealth may enable our services 
towards him: and* thei'e is hb oh<^ minute of our lives. 

Ihbf Living. [Chap, i. 

after wQ.aie ooma to .the we^ of fetsoa, but we tm 
or may be doi«g Uh» work of God, cwn then iii4ieB 
we most of all serve ourielves* > 

3^ To whioh if we add^ •. that in these and all other 
aclaK>n« of our hves we always stand before God^ aot* 
lag) and speaking, and thinking in his presence, and 
that it matters not that our conscience is ^sealed witk 
secrecy ; since it lies open to Giod, it: will concern us 
to behave ourselves carefiiUy, as in the presence oi 
our JudgCr 

. These three o^siderations rifely mans^fdkf ^^ 
applied to the several parts and kietancea of our linsa^ 
win be, Hke EUsha^ stretched upon the child, apt t» 
flit life and quiqkne^ into evevy part of it, and ton 
make ua lim the life.^ grace, and do the work o£ 

Godi • .; . 

. I shaH diei^onsr.bjf way of introduetion,. reduce^ 
these three to practice, .an4 shew how eveiy^ Chvistiai» 
may ioqwrove aU ami each o(E th^^* to the adrantage 
qf P^ety in tlie. whole ^coursevof hia life: tfaa]^ if' h» 
f^^f^ to bear but ^Hie^ of thenv upon^ his^ ^rit^ bs; 
mUT; fe^l tbe benefit, < like , ai| ufti^ersal kntvumenl:^^ 
iNjIpf^L in fdl /ipiistuid ai^d t^mpf^ 

f ; • ■ ; ■ ■! . . - 

f J ' / > i ■ ■ ' 

■ I 

Li/ »<■ • J ■ . ■ :>■■■. '_^f < 

^ tks FIRST GEKBhAL tNStliuktfifNT 6^ HOLTt LIVING. 

^ ^ Care of our Time. 

- H^ that is choice of his time. wiU ^90. be qhoice ^f 
l)ia Qou^pauy, and- choice of hia aQtipns, lest tiie firsts 

Seot. u] 

r»rr «f < 

engage him in vanity and loss, end the latter, by being 
crimina}* be a throwing his time and hiniBelf away, ftnil 
a going back in the accounts of eternity. 
<God liath given to man a short tifne here upott 
,rth, and yet upon this short time eternity depeilds'Tl' 
it so, that for eveiy hour of our life, (after we i 
rsoas ca])able of hnws and know good from eviljt 

must give acconnt to tbe great Judge of men aM 
igels. And this is it Trhich our blessed Saviour fol^ 
that we mu3t account tor every idle word :■ 
iniog that every word whicfi is not designed to cdl*fl 
fication, or is less prodent, shall be reckoned for a siivjl 
faotthat the time which' we sjiend in oar idle Cailkin 
nit onprofitable discoiirsings, that time which mig^l 
lad DOght to hav€ been employed to spiritu&i an'dlj 
useful purposes, that is to be accounted for. 
'■ For we must remember that we have a greatf woul 
do, many enemies to conquer, many evils to pre 
it^ much danger to run through^ many difficulties' 
be mastered, many necessities to serve, and mueht 
good to- do, many children to provide for, or inattyj 
ftiand*- to aupport,. or many poor to relieve, or mao*^ 
diseases to cure, besides the needs of natuic and. < 
relation, our private and our public cares-, and dutiei 
of the world, which necessitv and the PTOvidenee e 
hath adopted into the' family of religion. 
Andj that we need not fear this instrument to be'i 
Boare to us, or that the duty must end in scrui)l< 
ation, and eternal fears, we must remember that I 
'cry man m^ be so ordered, (and i: 

6 Holif Living, [Cilap. i. 

must) that it may be a perpetual serving of God. The 
greatest trouble^ and most busy trade, and .worldly 
incumbrances, when they are necessary or' chiiri table, 
or profitable in order to any of those ends which we 
are bound to serve, whether public or private, being 
a doing of God's work. For God provides the good' 
things of the world to serve the needs of nature, by 
the labours of the plough-^man, the skill and pains 
of the artisan, and the dangers and traffic of the 
merchant: these men are in their callings the .mi-r 
nisters of the Divine Providehce, and the stewards of: 
the creation^ and servants of a great family of Gckl^ 
the worldj in the .employment of procuring necessaries 
for food and clothing, ornament and physic. In tlieir 
proportions also, a King, and a Priest and a Prophet, 
a Judge ^nd an Advocate, doing the works of their, 
employment according to their proper rules, are do- 
ing the work of. God, because they «erve those tie-^ 
cessities which God hath made, and yet made no 
provisions for them but by their ministry. So that 
no man can complain that this calling takes him off 
from religion : his calling itself and his very worldly 
employment in honest trades and offices is a sierving 
of God, and if it be moderately pursued, arfd ac- 
cording to the rules of Christian prudence, will leave 
void spaces enough for prayers and retireniients ' of a 
more spiritual religion. 

God hath given every man work enough to do, that 
there shall be no room for idleness ; and vet hath so 
ordered the world, that there shall be space for de-. 

Sect, i.] Care of our Time, 

votion. He that hath the fewest businesses of the 
world, is called crpon to spend more time in the dress- 
ing of his soul ; and he that hath the most affairs, 
may so order them that they shall be a service of God ; 
whilst at certain periods tliey are blessed with prayers 
and actions of reh'gion^ and all day long* are hallowed 
by a holy intention. 

However; so long as idleness is quite shut out from 
'our lives^ all the sins of wantonness, softness, and 
effeminacy are prevented, and there is but little room 
left for temptation : and therefore to a busy man 
temptation is fain to climb up together with hi^ busi- 
ness, and sins creep upon him only by accidents and 
occasions; whereas to an idle person they come in a 
full body, and witli open violence, and the impudence 
of a restless importunity. 

Idleness is called the sin of Sodom and her daugh- 
ters, Ezek. xvi. 49., and indeed is the burial of a 
living^ man, an idle person being so useless to any 
{jFUrposes of God and man, that he is like one that is 
dead, unconcerned in the changes and necessities of 
the world ; ajid he only lives to spend his time, and 
eat the fruits of the earth : like a vermin or a v^^olf, 

• * • • • • 

whQ(# their time comes they die and perish, and in the 
mtan time do no good ; they neither plough nor carry 
burthens; all that they do is either unprofitable ot 

Idleness is the greatest prodigality in the world : it 
throws away that which is invaluble in respect of its 
present use, and irreparable- when it is pa§t, being to 



Holy living. [Chap. i. 

b^ reeov^Dj^d by no power of art or nature. But the 
wi»^ jto 49QMfe and improve oqr time we may practise 

m th« foHowing rwl^g. 

Rules for employing our Time. 

\ , In th^ morping, when you awake, accustom your- 
self to think first upon God, or something in ordw 
tp his service ; and at night also let him close thine 
^Y^y and let your sleep be necessary and healthful^ 
jpQt idle and expensive of time, beyond the needs and 
conveniences of nature ; and sometimes be curious to 
fee the preparation which the sun makes, when he is 
qpming forth from his chambers of the east. 

3. Let every man that hath a calling, be diligent 
in pursuance of its employment, so as not lightly or 
without reasonable occasion to neglect it in any of those 
times which are usually, and by the custom of prudent 
persons and good husbands employed in it. 

3. Let all the intervals or void spaces of time be 
employed in prayers, reading, meditating, works of 
nature, recreation, charity, friendliness, and neigh- 
bourhood, and means of spiritual and corporal health ; 
ev^r remembering so to work in our calling as not to 
lln^lQct the work of our high calling; but to b^in 
ajad. end the day with God, with such forms of devofipn 
as jshall be proper to our necessities. 

4. The resting day of Christians, and festivals of 
the Church, must in no sense be days of idleness ; 
for it is better to {^ough upon holy days than to do 
nothing, or t;p do viciously;, but let them be spent in 

■h >l 

Sbct. 1.] Care ef^juir Tme. 9 


the. woi^s of tbe^day^^th^is^ jof religion and cbarity, 
aooording .to theirules Bj^inted^ see 'chap, iv* sect. 6. 
5. Avoid the company of dr^nifikards^^tvibusyf' 
bodies, and all such as are apt to talk much to little 
purpose : for ho man can be provident of his time that 
is not prudent in ' the choice of his company : and^ 
if one t>f -the speakers be vain^ tedious^ and trifling; 
he that heiurs and he that answers in the discourse are' 
e^ual losers, of their time. 

: 6. .^ver« talk with aWf matt, or undertake any^ 
trifling employment, merely to pais the time awayr 
tor every 4ay ffeU spent may become a daj/ of salva-^ 
tion, and tii^e; rigbtly emfdloyed'is an {acceptable timeP 
Alid vr6mw)ber:tfaat ^thi'tilbid^thod triflest away was 
giveiu.tbee to repent in,' to^pray. for pardon of sins, td^ 
work: out. thy salvation, to do the work of grace;" 
tQ kijr up; 9g«inst>^ tte day of judgment a treasure of 
good works,i:tbiat thy : time V may be crowned withT 

t. 7. In the^rfliiidtt of the woiks of thy calling often- 
retkie to (f q4 ^^^ Moff -prayersr^axid ejaculations, and- 
tlw^ msQCvPiiii^ ip/the^ant, of those larger portions 
^ tiiQe w^iph .it rmsiy be thou^ desirest for devotion, 
and in. wjhich^ thou vthibkfest 'other persons have advan- 
tage of tb^i^-;ibr' pa thou /recohdlest the outward 
work and thy inwarid calliag^ ihe xdiurch and the 
ooii^i^>IQffttl(;||ly( the ; employ!^ the body and the 

iD$$riBs(f{>^f :tbyiSOttlii fc^ be sure: that God is. present 
st<.tliy jb^t)4pgs fX!(kd^ bje9|rjty sighings of prayer as soon 
^^^t^ryijpfi Jlov^SI^ !^Qfifk:o( IciSB .busied persons; and 


10 Holy Lmng. [Chap. i. 

thy time is a» truly tanctifted by a trade, and devout, 
though shorter, prayers, as by the longer offices of 
those whose time is not filled up with labour and use- 
ful business. 

8. Let your empkyyment be sueh as may become % 
reasonable person, and not be a bosines» fit for child- 
ren or distracted people, but fit for yowr age anS 
understanding. For a man may be very idly busy, 
and take great pains to so little purpose, that in Im^ 
labours and expence of time he shall serve no end. but 
of foUy and vanity. There are some tradea that 
wholly serve the ends of idle persons snd foola, and 
such as are fit to be seized upon by the severity of 
kws, and banished from under the sun : and there 
are some people who are busy, but it is, as Domitian 
was, in catching flies. 

9. Let your employment be fitted to yotop persam 
and calling. Some there are that employ their time 
in afiairs infinitely below the dignity of their person, 
and being called by God or by the republic to help to 

'Itear great burdens, and to judge a people, enfeeble 
their understandings, and disable their persons by 
tordid and brutish business. Thus Nero went up and 
down Greece, and challenged the fiddlers at their trade* 
:/EropvSj a Macedonian King, made lanterns. Harca^ 
this, the King of Parthia, was a mole-catcher ; and 
Biantes, the Lydian, filed needles. Be that is ap* 
pointed to minister in holy things, must not suflfer 
secular affairs and sordid arts to eat up- great portions 
ef hia employment: a clergyman must not .keep » 

Sect. I.] Cart ijf our Time. 11 


tavern^ nor a judge be' an idceeper; and it was a grrat 
idkiMBBs in Tkeqphlyiict the Patriarch of C P. to 
ipend iiik time in his stable of horses^ when he shoirid 
have beeii in his stody or in the puipit^ or saying |^ 
faolj nficea. Smkk employments are the di^ases of 
laboar^ aad the nist of time^ which it contracts^ not 
hf IjriQg still) bat by dirty anploymrat. 

10« Let your employment be such a^ becomes a 
Christmn^ that is, in no sense minted with sin : far 
be tfatit takes pains to serve the ends of covetousness^ 
or mimstars to another^s lust, or keeps a shop of im- 
purities or intemperance^ is idle in tlie worst sense; 
&r every hour so spent runs him backward, and must 
be spent again in the remaining and shorter part of 
his life, and spent better. 

11. Persons of great quality y and of no trader are 
to be most prudent and curious in their employment 
and traffic of time. They are miserable, if their 
education hath been so loose and undisciplined as to 
leave them unfurnished of skill to spend their time : 
but most miserable are they, if such misgovernment 
and unskilftilness make them fall into viscious and 
baser company, and drive on their time by the sad 
minutes and periods of sin and death. They that are 
Itarned know the worth of time, and the manner how 
well to improve a day ; and they are to prepare them- 
sdves for such purposes in which they may be most 
useful in order to arts or arms, to counsel in public 
or goviemment in their countryj but for others of 
ftiam that are vnlearnedf let them choose good comr 

12 Holy living. > [Chap. i. 

pany^ such as may not tempt them to a vice, or join 
with them in any: but that may snpply. their defects 
by counsel and discourse, by way ' of conduct and 
conversation. Let. them learn easy and useful things, 
read history and the laws of the land, learn the.cus^ 
toms of their country, the condition of their own 
estate, profitable and charitable contrivances of it : 
let them study prudently to govern their &milies, 
learn the burdens of their tenants, the necessities of 
their neighbours, and in their proportion supply them, 
and reconcile their enmities, and prevent their law-^ 
suits, or quickly end them; and in this glut of lei- 
sure and dis-employment, let them set apart greater 
portions of their time for religion and the necessities 
of their souls. 

12. Let the tuomen of noble birth and great for- 
tunes do the same things in their proportions and 
capacities, nurse their children, look to the affiiirs of 
the house, visit poor cottages, and relieve their ne- 
cessities, be courteous to Jthe neighbourhood, learn 
in silence of their husbands or their spiritual guides, 
read good books, pray often, and speak little, and 
learn to do good works for necessary uses ; for by that 
phrase St. Paul expresses the obligation of Christian 
women to good housewifery, and charitable provisions 
for their family and neighbourhood. 

13. Let all persons of all conditions avoid all deli- 
cacy and niceness in their chat king or diet, hecB,\xx 
such softness engages them upon great mis-spendings 
of th^ir time, while they dr^ss and pomb oqt all their 

Sect, i.] Car^af our Time. 13 

opportunities of their morning devotion, and half the 
days severity, and sleep out the care and provision for 
their souls. 

14* Let every one of every condition avoid curiositt^, 
and all inquiry into things that concern them not. 
For all business in things that coniiern us not is an 
employing our thne to no good 'of durs, and there- 
fore hot in order to a happy eiernity. In this account 
our neighbour's necessities are not to be reckoned ; 
for they concern us as one member is concerned in 
the . grief of another : but going from house to house, 
tatlers and busy-bodies, which are the canker and rust 
of idleness, as idleness is the rust of time, are reproved 
by the Apostle in severe language, and forbidden in 
order, to this excercise. 

15. As much as may be, cut off all impertinent 
and useless employments of your life, unnecessary and" 
phantastic visits^ long waitings upon great personages, 
where neither duty, nor necessity, nor, charity, obliges 
us; all vain meetings, all laboribus trifles, and what- 
soever spends much time to no real^ civil, religious^ 
or charitable purpose. 

16. Let not your recrea/ton^ be lavish, spenders of 
your time^ but choose such as are healthful, short, 
transient, recreative, and apt to refresh you; but at 
DO hand dwell upon them, or make them your great 
employment: for he that spends his time in sports^ 
and calls it recreation, is like him whose garment is 
all made of fringes, and his meat nothing but sauces ; 
they are healthless, char^eable^ and useless. And 

14 Holy Uvi^. [Chap. i. 

therefore aToid such games as require miioh time 
or long attendance; or which are apt to steal thj 
afiections from more severe employments. For to 
whatsoever thou hast given thy affections^ thou wilt 
not grudge to give thy time. Natural necessity and 
the example of St. John (who recreated himsdf widi 
i^pc»iing with a tame partridge) teach us that it is law- 
fill to relax and unbend our bow^ but not to suflfer it 
to be unready or unstrung. 

17- Set apart some portions of every day for mare 
solemn de^otion^ and religious employment, which be 
severe in observing : and, if variety of employment^ or 
prudent affairs, or civil society press, upon you, yet so 
order thy ruley that the necessary parts of it be not 
omitted; and though just occasions may niake our 
prayers shorter, yet let nothing but a violent, sudden, 
^and impatient necessity make thee upon any one day 
wholly to omit thy morning and evening devotions ; 
which if you be forced to make very short, you may 
supply and lengthen with ejaculations and short retire«- 
ments in the day-time in the midst of your employ* 
ment, or of your company. 

18. Do not the tuork of Ood negligent^, Jer. 
xlviii. 10., and idly ; let not thy heart be upon the 
worlds when thy hand is lift up in prayer : and be 
sure to prefer an action of religion in its place and 
proper season before all worldly pleasure, letting se* 
cular things (that may be dispensed with in them- 
selves) in these circumrtances wait upon the other ; 
pot like fb^ Patriarch who ran from the altar in 

Sect, i.] Care of our Time. 15 

8. SbpUa to- bis liable in bis pontificials, and in tbe 
midrt of bis office, to see a cch newljr &llen from bis 
beloved and mucb valued mare Phorbante. More 
prudent and severe was tbat of Sir Thomas More, wbo 
bebig seat for by tbe King wben be was at his prayers 
in pnbtie, returned answer, be would attend bim when 
be had first performed bis service to tbe KING of 
Kings. And it did honour to RtisticuSy tbat when' 
letters from Qjesar were given to bim, be rsfiised to 
open diem tiH tbe philosopher bad done bis lecture. 
In bonooring God and doing his work put forth alt 
thy strength; for of tbat time only thou mayst be 
BKMTt confident tbat it is gained, which is prudently 
and zealously spent in God's service. 

19. When tbe cldck strikes, or however else you 
shall: ffieaeure tbe day, it is good to say a short ejacu- 
lation every bo«ir, tbat the parts and returns of devo- 
tion may be tbe measure of your time: and do so also 
in all tbe breaches of thy sleep, that those spaces which ^ 
have in them- no direct business of tbe world may be 
filled with ineligion. 

dO. If by thus doing you have not secured your 
time \>y an early and fore-handed care, yet be sure by 
ft timely diligence to redeem the time; tbat is, to be 
^iout and religious in such instances in .which for- 
merly you have sinned, and to bestow your time espe- 
cially upon such graces, the contrary whereof you 
have formerly practised, doing actions of chastity and 
temperance with as great zeal and earnestness as you 
iid on€# Mt ypur uncleannessj und then by all arts 

16 . Hobf Living. [Chap. i. 


to watch agaidist: }roUfr presdit and future dangers, from 
day to day securing your standing : this is. properly to 
redeem your time, that is^ to buy your securily of it 
at the rate of any labour and honest arts, 

21. Let him that is most busied set apart some 
&)l€mn time every year, in which^ for the time 
quitting all worldly business^ he may attend wholly' 
to fasting and prayer^ 1 :Cor. vii. 5./ and the dressing 
of his soul by confessions^ meditations^ and attend- 
ances upon God; that he may make up his accounts, 
renew his vows, aijoike amends for his carelessness, 
aqd retire back a^in from whence levity and the 
vanities of the wdi:ld, ; or the opportunities of tempta-t 
tionSj or the distraction of secular affairs have carried^ 

22. In this we shall be much assisted^ and we shall 
find the work more easy, if, before we sleep every 
night, we examine the actions of the past day with a 
particular scrutiny, if there have been any accidents 
extraordinary; as long discourse, a feast, much busi- 
ness, variety of company. If nothing but cbmtnon; 
hath happened,' the less examination will suffice: only 
let us take care that we sleep not without such, a 
recollection of the action of the day as may represent 
any thing that is remarkable and great either to be 
the matter of sorrow or thanksgiving: for other things 
a general care is proportionable. 

23. Let all these things be done prt$dently and 
moderately; not with scruple and vexation. For 
tliese are good advantages, but the particulars are not 

Sbct. I.] Care of eiwr Time. 17 

4iviii9 coroiDai^aieiits i ati4 ^b^^lbre ar^ to be used 
at thall be fowd expedient to every one's <x)&dition. 
For^ provided that our dvity b^; seewedj, for the 
d^giMs^ a«d for the iiifttrunaenti^ every aian 4t perr 
nitted to himself, and the conduet pf such who shall 
be appointed to . hin^. H^ U happy that ean secure 
every hour to a sober or a pious employment : but the 
duty consists not scrupulQusJy in minutes and half 
hours, but in greater portions of time ; provided that 
no minute be emplo}red in sin, and the great portions 
of our time be ^pent in sober em^ployment, and all the 
appointed days and some portions of every day be 
aUowed for religion. In all the lesser parts of time 
we are left to our own elections, and prudent manage- 
ment, and to the consideration of the great degrees 
and diffierences of glory that are laid up in Heaven for 
us, .according to the degrees ^f our care, and piety, 
and idiligenoe* 


The Benefits of this Exercise. 

This exercise^ besides that it hath influence upon 
our whole lives, it hath a special efficacy for the pre- 
venting of,'--^L. Beggarly sins, that is, those sins 
which idleness and beggary usually betray tnen to; 
sudii as are lying, flattery, stealing, and dissimulation. 
•^'"^ It b a proper antidote against carnal sins, and 
such as proceed firom fulness of bread, and emptinesis 
ef employment.-— 3. It is a great instrument of pre- 
venting the smallest sins and irregularities of our life, 
whieh tiBiially creep upon idle, diseraployed, and curi- 

No. I. j> 

18 Holy Living, [Chap. i. 

OU8 persons. — 4. It not only teaches us to avoid evil^ 
but engages us upon doing good^ as the proper busi- 
ness of all our day8.-^5. It prepares us so against' 
sudden changes, that we shall not easily be surprised 
at the sudden coming of the day of the Lord : for he 
that is curious of bis time, will not easily be unready 
find unfurnishe^l. 



* • • • * 

Purity of Intention. 

THAT we should intend and design God's glory 
ill eyery action we do, whether it be natural or chosen, 
is expressed by St. PauJy Whether ye eat or drink, do 
all to the glory ofQod^ (\ Cor. x. Sl.J Which rule, 
when we observe, every action of nature becomes reli- 
gious, and every meal is an act of worship, and shaU 
have its reward in its proportion, as well as an act of 
prayer. Blessed be th^t goodness and grace of Qod, 
which, out of infinite desire to glorify and save mankind, 
would make the very works of nature capable of be- 
coming acts of virtue, th^^t ?^ll our life-time we inay 
do him service. 

This grace is so excellent, that it sanctifies the most 
common actions of our lives; ;and yet so necessary, 
that without it the very best actions of our devotion 
are imperfect and vicious. For he that prays out of 
piistom^ or gives alms for praise^ pr fasts to be ao-^ 

» I J 

Sect, ii.] Purity of Intention. 19 

counted religious, is but a pharisee in bis devotion, 
and a b^gar in his alms, and an hypocrite in his fast.. 
But a holy end sanctifies all these, and all other ac* 
tions which can be made holy, and gives distinctions 
to them> and procures acceptance. 

For^ as to know the end distinguishes a man from a 
beast, so to choose a good end distinguishes him from 
an evil man. Hezekiah repeated his good deeds upon 
his sick-bed, and obtained favour of God; but the 
pharisee was accounted insolent for doing the same 
thing :. because this man did it to upbraid his brother^ 
the other to obtain a mercy of God. Zacharias 
questioned with the Angel about his message, and was 
inade speechless for his incredulity ; but the blessed 
Vii^in Mary questioned too, and was blameless ; for 
she did it to enquire after the manner of the things 
but he did not believe the thing itself; he doubted of 
God^s power, or the truth of the messenger ; but she 
(mly-dP her own incapacity. This was it which dis- 
tinguished the mourning of David from the exclama- 
tions of Savl ; the confession of Pharaoh from that of 
Manasses ; the tears of Peter from the repentance of 
Judas : ^^ For thq praise is not in the deed done, but 
in the manner of its doing. ' If a man visits his sick 
friend, and watches at his pillow for charity sake, 
and because of his old affection, we approve it ; but 
if he does it in hope of legacy he is a vulture^ and 
only watches for the carcass. The same things are 
honest and dishonest : the manner of doing them> and 
the end of the design, makes the separation." 


20* Holy Living. [ Chap. i. 

Holy intention is to (he actions of a man that which 
the 6oa1 is to the body, or form to its matter^ or the 
root to the tree, or the sun to the world, or the fo<m- 
tain to a river, or the base to a pillar r for wtthetrt 
these the body is a dead trank, the matter is shs^iah, 
<he tree is a block, the world is darkness, the river 
is quickly dry, the pillar rushes into flatness and ratn ; 
and the action is sinful, or unprofitable and vain. 
The poor fartner that gave a dish of cold water to 
Aftaxerxes was rewarded with a golden gcfblet, and 
he that gives the same to a disciple in the name of « 
disciple, shall have a crown ; but if he gives water 
in despite when the disciple needs wine or a cordiail, 
his reward ^hall be to vrant that water to cool bis 

But this duty must be reduced to rules. 

Rules for our Intention. 

X. In every action reflect upon the end; and in 
your undertaking it, consider why you do it, and 
What you propound to yourself for a reward, and to 
your action as its end. 

2. Begin every action in the name of the Fdther, 
Df the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: the meaning^ 
which is, 1 . That we be careful that we do not the 
action without the permission or warrant of God. 
12. That we design it to the glory of God, if not in 
the direct action, yet at least in its consequence; if 
tiot in the particular, yet at least in the whole order 
of things and accidents. 3. That it may be fo 


SBCt. II.] Purity of Intention, 21 

" ■ ■ ' ' ' —^ 

bleslsed^ <thait what you intend for innocent and hckf 
pQt^oses^ may iiot^ by any^ chance or abuse or mis- 
understanding of men, be turned Into evil, or made 
the occasion of sin. 

9. Let eveiy action of concernment be begun with 
prayer, that God would not only bless the action, 
b«t sanctify your purpose \ and make an oblation 
of the action to Ood : holy and well intended actioM 
b^g the best oblations and presents we can make 
to God ; and when God is intitled to them, he will 
the rather keep the fire upon the altar bright and 

4. tin the prosecution of the action, renew and ,re- 
iiikindle your purpose by short ejaculations to those 
purposes : Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but 
unto thy name let all praise be given: and consider 
WW I am working the work of God; I am his sa- 
vant, I am in n happy employment, I am doing. my 
'Master's business, I am not at my own disposal, I 
urn 'using his talents, and all the gain must he his : 
for then be sure, as the gloiy is his, the reward shall 
be thine. If thou bringest his goods home with in- 
xrrease, he will make thee ruler over cities. 
' 5. Have a care that while the altar thus sends jup 
Jnfacrfy flame, thou dost not suflfer the birds to come 
and cany - away the sacrifice : that is, let not that 
which began well, and was intended for God*s glory, 
decline, and end in thy own praise, or temporal satisr 
faction, or sin. A story told to represent the vileness 
tf uncb^tity is well begun: but if thy female auditor 

22 Holy Living, [ Chap. i. 

be pleased with thy language^ and begins rather to' 
like thy person for thy story, than to dislike the crime^ 
be watchful, lest this goodly head of gold descend in 
silver and brass, and end in the iron and clay, like 
Nebuchadnezzar* s image: for from the end it shall 
have its name and reward, 

6. If any accidental event which was not first ia* 
tended by thee come to pass, let it not be taken into 
thy purposes, not at all be made use of: as if by telling 
a true story, you can do an ill turn to your enemy, by 
no 'means do it; but when the temptation is found out, 
turn all thy enmity upon that. . . 

7- In every more solemn action of religion^ join 
together many good ends, that the consideration <^ 
them may entertain all your affections; and that when 
any one ceases, the purity of your intention may be 
supported by another supply. He that fasts only to 
tame a rebel! iduB body, when he is provided of a re- 
medy either in grace or nature, may be tempted to 
leave off his fasting. But he that in his fast intend^ 
the. mortificatioa of every unruly appetite, and, ac- 
cujstbming himself to bear the yoke of the Lord, a 
contempt of the pleasures of meat and drink, humi- 
liation of all wilder thoughts, obedience and humility, 
austerity and charity^ and the convenience and assist- 
ance to devotion, and to do an act of repentance, 
whatever happens, will have reason enough to make 
him to continue his purpose, and to sanctify it. And 
certain it is, the more good ends are designed in an 
action, the more degrees of excellency the man ob- 

Sbct. II.] Purity of Intention. 23 

8. If any temptation to spoil your purposes hap- 
pens in a religious duty, do not preisently omit ' the 
action, but rather strive to rectify your intention and 
to mortify the temptation. St. Barnard taught us this 
role: for when the devil, observing him to preach ex- 
cellently, and to do much benefit to. his hearers, 
teibpted him to vain*glory, hoping that the good man 
to avoid that would cease preaching, he. gave this an- 
swer only, I neither began for thee, neither for thee 
wiU I make an end. 

9* In all actions which are of long continuance, 
deliberation, and abode, let your holy and pious inten- 
tion be actual, that is,; that it be by a special prayer 
or action, by a peculiar act of resiignation or oblation 
given to God : but in smaller actio)fis, and little things 
and indifierent, fail not to secure a pious habitual in- 
tention; that is, that it be included within your general 
care that no action have an ill end; and that it be com- 
prehended in your general prayers, whereby you offer 
yourself, and all you do to God's glory. 

10. Call not every temporal end ^ defiling of thy 
intention; but. only, 1. When it contradicts any of 
the ends of God; or, 2. When it is principally in- 
tended in an action of religion. For sometimes a tem- 
poral end is part of our duty: and such are all the 
actions of our calling, whether our employment be 
religious or civil. We are commanded to provide for 
our family: but if the minister of divine ofiices shall 
take upon him that holy calling for covetous or ambi^- 
tioqs ends, or. shall not design the glory of God prin- 

24 Holy Living. [Chap. i. 

cipally and especially, he hath polluted hit hands and 
his heart; and the fire of the altar is quenched, or it 
iends £3rth nothing but the smoke of mushrooms or 
Unpleasant gums. And it is a great unworthinesa t^ 
prefer the interest of a creature before the ends of 
God, the Almighty Creator. 

But because many cases may happen in which a 
man's heart may deceive bins, and he may not well 
know what is in his own spirit ; therefore by these folt 
lowing signs we shall best make a judgment whether 
4niP intentions be pure^ and our purposes holy. 

Signs of Purity of Intention. 

1. It is probable our hearts are right with God, 
(See Sect. i. of this Chap. Rule IS.) and our in« 
tentions innocent and pious^ if we set upon actions 
of religion or civil life with an affection propor- 
tionate to the quality of the work ; that we act our 
temporal affairs with a desire no greater than our 
necessity ; and that in actions of religion we be zea- 
lous, active^ and operative, so far as prudence will per- 
mit; but in all cases, that we value a religious design 
before a temporal, when otherwise they are in equal 
order to their several ends: that is, that whatsoever 
is necessary in order to our soul's health, be higher 
esteemed than what is for bodily; and the necessities, 
the indispensible necessities of the spirit be served 
before the needs of nature, when they are required in 
their several circumstances ; or plainer yet, when we 
choose any temporal inconvenience rather than commit 

Sect, ii.] Purity of Intention. 25 

a sin^ and when we choose to do a duty rather than to 
get gain. But he that does his recreation on his mer- 
chandise cheerfully, promptly^ readily, and busily, 
and the works of religion slovfly, flatly, and without 
appetite, and the spirit moves like Pharaoh's cha- 
riots, when the wheels were off, it is a sign that his 
heart is not right with God, but it cleaves too much to 
the world. 

2. It is likely our hearts are pure and our inten- 
tions spotless when we are not solicitous of the opinion 
and censures of men ; but only that we do our duty, 
and be accepted of God. For our eyes, will cer- 
tainly be fixed there from whence we expect our re- 
ward : and if we desire that God should reprove us, 
it is a sign we do his work, and expect him our pay- 

.3. He that does as well in private between God and 
his own soul as in public, in pulpits, in theatres, and 
market-places, hath given himself a good testimony 
that his purposes are full of honesty, nobleness, and 
integrity. For what ]Elkanah said to the niother of 
SamueL Am I not better to thee than ten sons 9 is 
most certainly verified concerning God, that he who 
is to be our Judge isr better tham ten thousand wit- 
nesses. But he that would have his virtue published 
studies not virtue but glory. "He is not just that 
will not be just without praise: but he is a righteoiis 


loan that does justice, when to do so is made infa- 
mous ; and he is a wise man who is delighted with an 
ill name that is well gotten. And indeed that man 
No. 2. £ 

26 Holy Uvhig, [Chap. i. 

hath a strange covetousness or fblly^ that is not ccm- 
tented with his reward^ that he hath pleased Ood* 
And see what he gets by it. He that does good 
works for praise or secular ends, sells an inestimable 
jewel for a trifle; and that which would purchase 
Heaven for him^ he parts with for the breath of the 
people^ which at the best is but air, and that not often 

4. It is well also when we are not solicitous or 
troubled concerning the efltect and event of all our 
actions ; but that being first by prayer recommended 
to him is left at his disposal: for then in c^e the 
event be.not answerable to our desires, or to the ef- 
ficacy of the instrument, we have nothing left to rest 
in but the honesty of our purpose^ ; which it is the 
more likely we have secured, by how much more we 
dre indifiT^reiit concerning the success. St. James 
tonverted but eight persons, when he preached in 
Spain; atid our blessed Saviour converted fewer than 
his ot^h di^iples did : and if thy labours prove un- 
prosperous, if thou beest much troubled at that, it is 
certain thou didst not think thyself secure of a reward 
for thine intention, which thou mightest have done if 
it had been pure and just. 

5. He loves virtue for God*s sake and its own, that 
loves find honours it wherever it is to be seen; but he 
that is envious or angry at a virtue that is not his own, 
at the perfection or exceltency of his neighbour, is not 
covetous of the virtue, but o^its rewafd and reputa- 
tion, and then his intentions are polluted. It was a 

Sect. •«.] Purity of Intention tJ7 

':great ingeniuty in Moses^ that wished all the people 
might be Prophets ; but if he had designed his own 
honour^ he would have propliesied alone. But he 
that desires only that the work of God and religion 
shall ^o on, is pleased with it^ whoever is the instru- 

6. He that despises the world and all its appendant 
vanities is the best judge, and the most secure of his 
intentions, because he is the farthest removed from a 
temptation. Every degree of mortification is a tes- 
timony of the purity of our .purposes; and in what 
d^nee we despise sensual pleasure, or secular honours, 
or worldly reputation, in the same degree we shall 
conclude pur heart right to religion and spiritual 

7- When we are not solicitous concerning the in- 
JtruDivnts and means of our actions, but use those 
means which God hath laid before us, with resigna^ 
tion, indifierency, and thankfulness, it is a good sign 
that we are rather intent i^)on the end of God's glory 
than our pwn conveniency or temj)oral satisfaction. 
He that is indifferent whether he serve God in riches 
or in poverty, is rather a seeker of God than of him^ 
«elf; and he that will throw away a good book because 
it is not curiously gilded, i^ more curious to please his 
eye than to inform his understanding. 

8. When a temporal end consisting with a spiritual, .^ 
and pretended to be subordinate to it, happens to fail 
and be defeated, if we can rejoice in that, so God^s 
glory may be secured and the interests of religion, it 

28 Holy Living [Chap. i. 

is a great sign our hearts are rights and our ends pru- 
dently designed and ordered. 

When our intentions are thus balanced^ regulated^ 
and discerned^ we may consider^ 1. That'this exercise 
is of so universal efficacy in the whole course of a 
holy life^ that it is like the soul to every holy action^ 
and must be provided for in every undertaking*; and 
is of itself alone sufficient to make all natural and 
indifferent actions to be adopted into the family of 

2. That there are some actions which are usually 
reckoned as parts of our religion, which yet of tliem- 
selves are so relative and imperfect, that without the 
purity of intention they degenerate : and unless they 
be directed and proceed on to those purposes ' which 
God designed them to, they return into the fainrly of 
common, secular, or sinful actions. Thus altlis are 
for charity,, fasting for temperance, prayer is for re- 
ligion, humilation is for humility, austerity or suflfer- 
ance is in order to the virtue of patience : and when 
these actions faiP of their several ends, or are not 
directed to their own purposes, alms are mis-spent^ 
fasting is an impertinent trouble, prayer is but lip- 
labour, humiliation is but hypocrisy, sufferance is but 
vexation ; for such were the alms of the Pharisee, 
the fast yot Jezabel^ the prayer of Judah reproved 
by the Prophet Isaiah^ the humiliation otAhah, the 
martyrdom of heretics ; in which nothing is given 
to God but the body, or the forms of religion, but the 
soul and the power of godliness is wholly wanting. 


Sect, hi.] Practice of the Presence of God 29 

3. We are to consider that no intention ciin sanctify 
an unholy or unlawful action. Saul the King dis- 
obeyed God's commandments^ and spared the cattle 
of Amalek to reserve the best for sacrifice : and Saul 
the Pharisee persecuted the charch of God with a 
design to do God service : and they that killed the 
Apostles had also good purposes^ but they had unhal- 
lowed actions. When there is both truth in election 
and charity in the intention, when we go to God in 
ways of his own choosing or approving, then our eye 
is single^ and our hands are clean^ and our hearts are 
pure. But when a man does evil that good may 
come of it, or good to an evil purpose, that man does 
like him that rolls himself in thorns that he may sleep 
easily; he roasts himself in the fire that he may 
quench his thirst with his own sweat ; he turns his 
&ce to the east, that he may go to bed with the sun. 
I end this with the saying of a wise Heathen : He is 
to be called evil, that is good only for his own sahe. 
Regard not how full hands you hriiig to God^ hut 
how pure. Many cease from sin out of fear alone, 
not out of innocence or lave of virtue, and they (as 
yet) are not to be called innocent but timorous. 



The Practice of the Presence of God. 

THAT God is present in all places, that he sees 
fvery action, hears all discourses^ and understands 


so Hohf Living. [Chap. i. 

' ■ 

every thought^ is no strange thing to a christian ear^ 
who hath been taught this doctrine^ not only by Hght 
reason and the consent of all the wise men in the 
world, but also by God himself in holy scripture. 
^m I a God at hand (saith the Lord) and not a God 
afar off? Can any hide himself in secret places that 
I shall not see him ? (saith the Lord.) Do not I Jill 
heaven and earth? (Jer. xxiii. 23. 2 A.) Neither is 
there any creature thai is not manifest in his sight : 
hut all things are naked and open to the eyes of him 
with wfumi we have to do. (Heb. iv. 13.j) For in him 
we live andjnove and have our being. (Acts xvii. 28.J 
God is wholly in every place, included in no place^ 
not bound with cords^ (except those of lovc^j) not 
divided into parts nor chai^eable into several shapes^ 
filling heaven and earth with his present power3 and 
with his never absent nature. So St. Augustine ex- 
presses this article. So that we may imagine God to 
be as the air and the sea, and we all enclosed in his 
circle, wrapt op in the lap of his infinite nstture, or as 
infants in the wombs of their pregnant mothers i and 
we can no more be removed from the presence of God 
than from our own being. 

Several Manners ff the Divine Presence, 

The presence of God is understood by us in several 
manners and to several purposes. 

I. God is present by his essence^ whkh because it 
is infinite cannot be contained within the limits of 
any place : and because he is of ian essential purity 


Sect, hi.] Practice of the Presence of God, 31 

■ J J ■«■- -r- 

and spiritual nature^ he cannot be undervalued by 
being supposed present in the places of unnatural 
uncleanness : because aa the sun reflecting upon the 
mud of strands and shoren, is unpolluted in its 
beams^ so is God not dishonoured when we suppose 
him ineveiy one of his creatures, and in every part 
of every one of them, and. is stilt as unmixed with 
aay unhandsome adherence^ las is, the soul in the 
boweiaof the body^ 

2. €iod is every' wheno present by his power. Se 
rolls the orbs of heauen: with, bis haud^. he fixes, the 
earth' with his- foot^ he guides all :the*cneatures with 
bis- eye^ and reiteiihes.them widi: his influence.: he 
makes tiie powers, ofi hell to; shake with/ his terrors^ 
and bifida the devils mth.his word^. and thrown them 
out wilii> his com'mand^ and sends the angels 0(n em- 
bassies with his. decrees: l^i hardens the joints of in* 
Unt^ aiKiconfirms the bones when. they are. fashioned 
beneath secretly in the isartb. Bb it i& that assists at 
^ihe numerous productsons of fishes^ and there is not 
onehoUowneesin the^ bottom of the sea» but.he shews 
hinlself to'foe Lord of it, by sustaining -there the crea- 
-tunss that come to dwell in it: and in the wildemesf^ 
the bit^rnand the^tork, the dragon and; the satyre^ 
Ihe atiicurn.and the^elk hve upon his provisions and 
i«vere^hi9«po«wep,iaAd!feel t^e foreeof his AJmightinese. 

3> God ii^4Dote«i^oiaUyfOTsent}int some places by 
the several- land mcto 'speoiai manifiastations' of himself 
lO'i^Mraordimry^gpruppc^ses^ i; By gkM^ Thus^Jiisi seat 
is m tfaawns 'beoause'tliere he aks&encinskd: with adl 

39 Holy living, [(.^uap. i. 

■ ■ ■ ■ I .. ■ III ■ I 

the outward deoionstrations of his glory^ which he 
is pleased to shew to all the inhabitants of those his 
inward and secret courts. . And thus they that die in 
the Lord may be properly said to be gone to God ; 
with whom although they were before, yet now they 
enter into his courts^ into the secret of his tabernacle^ 
into the retinue and splendour of his glory. That is 
called walking with God. but this is dwelling j or being 
with him. I desire to he dissolved and to he ^ with 
Christ, so said St. Paul. But this manner of the Di- 
vine Presence is reserved for the elect people of Grod^ 
and for their portion in their country. 

4. God is by grace and benediction specially pre^ 
sent in holy places, and in the solemn assemblies of his 
servants. (Matt, xviii. 20. Heh. x. 25.^ If holy 
people meet in grots and dens of the earth, when 
persecution or a public necessity disturbs the public 
order, circumstances, and convenience, God fails not 
to come thither to them ; but God is also by the same 
or greater reason present there where they meet or- 
dinarily, by order and public authority: there God is 
present ordinarily, i. e. at every such meeting. God 
will go out of his way to meet his saints, when them- 
selves are forced out of their way of order by a sad 
necessity; but else God*s usual way is to be present 
in those places where his servants are appointed or- 
dinarily to meet, (i Kings V. 9* Psal. cxxxviii. I, 3. J 
But his presence there signifies nothing but a readiness 
to hear their prayers, to bless their persons, to accept 
their olBGices^ and to like even the circumstances of 

Sect, hi.] Practice of the Presence of God, 33 

orderly ftnd public meeting. For thither the prayers 
of consecration^ the public authority separating it, 
snd GodV love of order^ and the reasonable customs 
of teligion^ bflve in oi'dinary^ and in a certain degreci 
fixed this manner of his presence ; and he loves to 
htt^' it so. 

5. God is especially present in the hearts of his 
people by his Holy Spirit : and indeed tlie hearts of 
holy men are temples in the troth of things, and in type 
and shatdow they are heaven itself. For God reigns 
in the hearts of his servants: there is his kingdom. 
drhe power of grace hath subdued all his enemies : 
there is his power. They serve him night and day, 
mild give him fhatiks and praise ; that is his glory. 
This is the religion and worship of God in the 
temple. The temple itself is the heart of man; 
Christ is the High-Priest, who from thence sends up 
tiie incense of prayers^ and joins them to his own 
intercession^ and presents all together to his Father; 
and the Holy Ghost^ by his dwelling there, hath also 
consecrated it into a temple (i Cor. iii. l6. ii Cor. 
vi. l6J ; and Grod dwells in our hearts by faith, and 
Christ by his Spirit, and the Spirit by his purities : 
so that we are also cabinets of the mysterious trinity ; 
and what is this short of heaven itself, but as infancy 
is short of manhood, and letters of words ? The same 
itttte of life it is, but not the same age. It is heaven 
in a looking-glass, (dark but yet true) representing 
the beauties of the soul^ and the graces of God, and 

No. 2. F 

34 Holy Living. [Chap. i. 


tiiQ images of his eternal glory by the reality of a 
special presence. . " 

6. God is especially present in the consciencei of 
all persons^ good and bad^ by way of testimony and 
judgment: that is^ he is there a remembrancer to call 
our actions to mind^ a witness to bring them to jiidg-^ 
nient, and a Judge to acquit or to condemn. And 
although this manner of presence is in this life after the 
manner of this life, that is, imperfect^ and we forget 
many actions of our lives; yet the greatest changes of 
our btate of grace or sin, our most considerable BCtiops 
are alwaj's present, like capital letters to an aged and 
dim eye: and at the day of judgment God shall drav; 
aside the cloud, and manifest this manner of bU 
presence more notoriously, and make it appear that 
he w^s an observer of our very thoughts ; arid that, 
he only laid those things by, which, because we co- 
vered with dust and negligence, were not then dis- 
cerned. But when we are risen from our dust and 
imperfection, they all appear plain and legible. 

Now the consideration of this great truth iai of a 
very universal use in the whole course of the life of a 
Christian. All the consequents and effects of it are 
universal* He that remembers that God stands a 
Witness and a Judge, beholding every secrecy, besides 
his impiety, must have put on impudence, if he be 
not much restrained in his temptation to sin. . ^^ For 
the greatest part of sin is taken away, if a man have 
a witness of his conversation : and he is a great de- 

Sect, hi.] Practice of the Presence of God. 35 

spiser of God, who sends a boy away when he is go- 
ing to commit fornication, and yet will dare to do it, 
though he knows God is present and cannot be sent 
off: as if the eye of a little boy were more awful than 
the all-seeing eye of God. He is to be feared in 
public, he is to be feared in private : if you go forth 
he spies you ; if you go in he sees you : when you 
light the candle, he observes you ; when you put it 
oat, then also God marks you. Be sure that while 
you are in his sight, you behave yourself as becomes 
»o holy a presence." But if you will sin, retire your- 
self wisely, and go where God cannot see ; for no 
where else can you be safe. And certainly, if men 
would always actually consider, and really esteem this 
truth, that God is the great eye of the world, always 
watching over our actions, and an ever open ^ar to 
bear all our words, and an unwearied arm ever lifted 
up to cnish a sinner into riiin, it Would be the readiest 
way in the world to make sin to cease from among the 
children of men, and for men to approach to the 
blessed estate of the saintjs in heaven, who cannot sin, 
for they always walk in the presence and behold, the 
fiice of God. This instrument is to be reduced to 
practise according to the following rules^ 

Sules of ejuercising this Consideration. 

1. Cit this actual thought often return, That God 
in omnipresent, filling every place; and say, with 
David, fVhither shall I go from thy Spirit, or whither 
shall I flee from thy presence? (PsaL vii. %.) If I 

JQ Holy Livhig. IfiuAr. i. 

■ ■ ■- 

ascend up into fieaven, thou art there : if / make my 
bed in hell, thtm art there, Sgc. This thought by 
being frequent will make an* habitual dreatjl^ and 
reverence towards God^ and fear in all thy ft^tions. 
For it 18 a. great necessity and engagement to dp an* 
blameably, when we act before the Judge, wbo ia 
infallible in his sentence, all-knowing in his infoF* 
mation, severe in his anger, powerful in his prpvi« 
dence, and intolerable in bi^ wrath and indignation, 

2. In the beginning of actions of religion, inake 
an act of adoration, that is, solemnly worship God^ 
and place thys^elf in God*s presence, and behold hiai 
with tlie eye of faith, and let thy desires actually fix 
on him as the object of thy worship, and the reason 
of thy hope, and the fountain of the bles9iBg. For 
when thou hast placed thyself before him, and kneefeat 
in hi^ presence, it is most likely, all the following 
parts of thy devotion will be answerable to the wisdom 
of such an apprehension, and the glory of such a 

3. Let every thing you see represent to your spirit 
the presence, the excellency, and the power of God, 
and let your conversation with the creatures lead you 
unto the Creator, for 90 shall your actions be done 
more frequently with an actual eye to God's pre- 
sence, by your often seeing him in the glass of the 
creation. In the face of the sun you may see 'God's 
beauty ; in the fire you may feel his heat warming ; 
in tj^e water his gentleness to refresh you : he it is that 
comforts your spirits when you have taken cordiiAs : 


Sect. iii«] Practice cf the Presence of God. 37 

■ iiii-^pii— — ■ ■ '■ I . ■■ I III I ■ ■■III > 

i^ ii tbe dew of beavea thi^t makes your fiel4 ^ve you 
biqeadi aad the bceaits of God $te the bottles thftt 
sopiiter drjnk to ypw pecwities. This philosophy^ 
wfiicih is ^hFKius to #yery m^n's esEperieno?^ js a good 
y}ffa).t;9ge to ocur pief^j and hy this iset of under- 
lyt^ucji^g Oi^x wjiitff ftre checftcyjl from violence and 

4. IfL ff^r iftt^ifisffieat tjiAke fr^w^ colloquies or 

dtffft 4wmm9gf^ hf^ween 6od ftud thy own sooL 
Seven times a day do I praise thee: <iisa in the night 
sfffstm also Iffif^kt upon thee tpiile jtfms waking. 
So jiid fhvi4f f^p4 ei^eiy act of Q^mplaint or thanks* 
^bring, ^eiy ac^ of rejoiciug or of n^purning^ every 
pcAition in e?eiy i(eja^i^ of the hop^t^t i^ ^leae inter- 
cquvseB, is a going to £pod^ mi f^ppiearing i^ his 
pneaenecj a^d a nepresenting him present to t}iy spirit 
and to t^ pecesf ity^ And this was long sinc^ by ^ 
spiritual person s^lie^^ Jl hfildmg tq Qo4 ^ chapel 
in oifr hefurt. ^t {E^^co^c^Ies H^art^cCs empJLpyment 
with MoTy^s^Vfs^^f^n^ charjlty^ ^pd religion, t^e nee^ 
si^^ of o%ijp calling, an4 tbie emplpyu^euts of devo* 
tion. For tlius, in the midst pf the works of yojar 
t>?4^9 you o^y Retire into your obapel, (yoar hearty 
ai|d conyerBje with God by freqjaent addresses and 
returns. ^ 

6« Rppr»iejat apd offer to God acts of love apd fear, 
which are the. proper effects of this apprebensiop^'aud 
the proper exercise of this consideration. For as (Giod 
is every where present by his power, he calls fpr reve* 
rence and godly fes^r: as he is present to tbee in all 


38 ■. Holy Living. • [Chap.!. 

thyneeds^ and relieves them, he deserves thy lovej 
ftnd since in every action of our lives we find one or 
6t)ier of - these apparent, and in roost things we see 
6otb^ it is. a proper and proportionate return, that t6 
every such demonstiktion of God, we express ourselves 
fcnsible of it by admiring the divine goodness^ ot 
trembling at his presence, ever obejring him, because 
we love him ; and ever obeying him, because we fear 
to offend him. This is that which Enoch did who thus 
walked with God. ' 

• o. Let us remember that God is in us, and that we 
are in him ; we are his workmanship, let us not deface 
it ; we are in his presence, let us not pollute it by 
unholy and impure actions. Ood hath also wrought 
all our works in us (Isa. xxvi. 12.) \ and because he 
rejoices in his own works, if we defile them, and make 
tliem unpleasant to him, we walk perversely with God^ 
and he will walk crookedly towards us. > 

7. God is in the bowels of thy hrother ; refresh 
them when he needs it, and then you give your alma 
in the presence of God and to God, and he feels the 
relief which thou providest for thy hrother. 

8. God is in every place: suppose it therefore to be 
a church ; and that decency of deportment, and piet^ 
of carriage, which you are taught by religion, or by 
custom, or by civility and public manners to use in 
churches, the same use in all places ; with this dif- 
ference only, that in churches let your deportment be 
religious in external forms and circumstances also; 
but there and every where let it be religious in abstain- 

'■ .'^x 

ai^i— I ■ ^1^^— I ■ ■■ ■ ■ — ■ ■ ■ i ■ ■ 

I « Sect, hi.] Practice of the Presence of God. 89 

RT^'g^l^M^-'— " U. . ■■ 

ing Brom spiritilal indeceticies^ and ia readiness to do 
good actions : that it may not be said of as as God 
once complained of his people, f^hj/ hath imf heloved 
done wicicedness in my hcmse? (Jtr. x\. \b.) ■. 

9* God is in every creature: be cruel towards none, 
neither abuse any by intemperance. Remember that 
the creatures, and every niember of thy own body 
18 one of the lesser cabinets and .receptadea of God* 
They are such which God hath, blessed with bis 
presence^ hallowed by his touch, .and separated 
from unholy use by making them belong to his 

10. He walks as in the presence of God, that con- 
verses with him in frequent prayer, and frequent com- 
munion, that runs to:luna inall his necessities, that 
lisks counsel of him in all his doublings, that. opens 
all his wants to him, that weeps before him for his 
lina, that asks remedy and support for his weakness, 
that fears him as a judge, reverences him as a Lord, 
obeys him as a Father, and loves him as a Patron. 

The Benefits of this Exercise. 

The benefits of this consideration and exercise 
being universid upon all the parts of piety, I shall 
less need to ;specify any particulars ; but yet most 
properly this exercise of considering the divine pre- 
sence is, tff 

1. An excellent help to prayer, producmg in us 
reverence and^awfiilness to the divine Majesty of God:; 
and actual devotion in bur of&ces. 

dfc . - - ^ (* m * , 

40 SMyLking. [€aAP« 1 

■ II I ■ ■ ■ I 



%. It pjuhiuii « confidenoe in Ciody and.featletft* 
neu of oor eiDemies^ patieiioe ia trouble and bojpe of 
nrntAffmntit God i»^ w nigb in all our sad.aeoidest^ 
he is a disposer of this hearts of nien^ and tbie events 
of things^ he proportions out onr trials^ and sn^ies 
IIS with the reibedf^ and where his rod strifteff n^y his 
staffs saj^rts us. To which w« may add tins; That 
God, whaia always with us^ is especially by promise 
with us in tribulation, to turn the misery into a menty^ 
and diat our greatest trouble may becota^ our adnM' 
tage, by entitling us to a new manner of the^dieinr 
presence. a 

3. It is apt to prodooe joy and rejoicing ia God, 
we being more i^ to ddight in the jiartnere and 
witnesses of om* coiiwrsatioui; every degree, of wam^ 
tual abidilig and' ooinreniing being a relation; jmd an 
endearment: we safe of the same houkehold with God^; 
he is with us in our natural actions to preserMim^.in 
our recreations tO' restrain us, in our puUic actioris 
to applaud ' or reptbvf^'us,^ in our private to obsen^e 
us, in our sleeps to watch by us, in our watchings to 
refresh us ; aiid if we walk with God in all his ways, 
as he- walks with us in allours, we shall find perpetual 
reasons to enable os to keep that rule, of God,. As^ 
jmc^ in the Lard^tuaySy and again I mjf rejokBi^ 
And this puts me in mind of a sayiivg of an old re^ 
ligious person : ^^ There is one way of overcomit^ otfr 
ghostlyenemies ; spiritusd mirth, ^uklafperpetual bear- 
ing of God tn^ eiir minds.-* This effitotaaHy resists the^ 
devil, and suffers us to seceive no fanrt-ft^om him. t«» 

^ — « I ■ 

Sect, hi.] Practice efthe Presence of God: 41 

4. This exercise is apt also to enkindU^holy desires 
of the enjoyment of God, because it ]iroduces joy 
when we do enjoy him; the same desires that a weak 
man hath for a defender^ the sick man for aphysician, 
the poor for a patron^ the child for . his father, the 
espoused lover for her betrothed. 

5. From the same fountain are apt to issue humility 
of spirit, apprehensions of pur great distance and our 
great needs, our daily wants and hourly supplies, ad- 
miration of God's unspeakable mercies: it is the 
cause of great modesty and decency in ouir actions; it 
helps to recollection of mind, and restrains the scat- 
terings and looseness of wandering thoughts ; it estab- 
lishes the heart in. good ptirposes,^And leadeth on to 
perseverance : it gains purity and perfection, accord- 
ing to the saying of God to Abrahim, fFalk before 
mCy and he perfect , holy. fear, and holy love, and 
indeed every thing that pertains to holy living: when 
we see ourselves placed, in the eye of God, who acts 
as on work, and will reward us plenteously, to serve 
him with an eye-service is very uiipleasing ; for he 
aUoise^ tb^ heart: and the want of this consideration 
was declared to be the cause why Israel sinned so 
grievously. Far they say. The Lord hath forsaken the 
eor/A, and the Lord seeth not:, therefore the land is 
full of blood, and the city full of perverseness. 
(Ez€k.i:f.94 Psal.x.lU) What a child would do 
ID the eye of his father, find a pulpril before his tutor 
tad a wife in the presence of her husband, and i 
servant in^ihe^ight of his. master, let us always d# 

No. 2 o 

4f ttofy Living. [Chap. i. 

the same : "^for toe are made a spectacle to Ood, to 
angels, and to men : we are always in the sight aild 

■ _ 

presence ot the All-seeing and Almighty God^ wflO 
also is to uft a Father and a guardian^ a hUsband iknd 
ft Lord. 


Prayers and Devotions according to the Religion and 
' Purjk)ses of the foregoing Considerations. 


For Grace to spend our Thne w^ll. 

O ET£RI^AL God, who from all eternity dost be^ 
hold and love thy own glories and perfections infinite, 
and hast created nie to do H*he work of God after the 
manner of men, «nd to serre Thee in this generation, 
and according to my capacities; give me thy grace 
that I may be a curious and prudent spender of my 
ti^nK?, so as I 'may best prevent or resist all temptation, 
and be profitable to the Christian commonwealth^ and, 
by discharging all my doty, may glorify thy name. 
Take from me all skithfulness, and give me a diligent 
and active spirit, and 'wisdom to choose my employ- 
ment, that I may do works* proportionable to my pier* 
sonj and to the dignity of a Christian, and may fill 
up all the spaces of my time with actions of religioa 
and charify ; that when the devil assaults me> he may 
not find me idle, and my deafest Lord at his sudden 
coming may find me busy in lawfiil, tiecessaryj and 
pious actions, improving my talent entrusted to me 

Sbct. III.] Devotiomfor Ordinary Days. 43 

by thee^ my Lord, that I , may enter iota the joy of; 
my Lordj to partake of bis eternal feliciti^i even for. 
thy mercies* sakc^ and for my. deaiiest Saviour's sake. 

Here foUowe the devotion of ordinary dayt ; far ihe right employ' 
muni of thoee portiom of time which every day must allow for 


Tkejint prayers in the VMtning as soon as we are dressed. 

Humbly and reverently, compose yourself, with heart lift up to God, 
and your head bowed, and meekly kneeling upon your knees, say 
ihe Lords Prayer: after which use the following Collects, or as 
of them as you shall choosey 

Oar Father which art in Heaven, &£, 


An Act of Adoration, being the Song that the Angels 

sing in Heaven, 

HOLY, holy, holy. Lord God Almighty, which 
was^ And is, and is to come: (Rev. xi. 17-^ heaven 
and earth, angels and men, the air. and the sea give 
glory, and honour, and thanks to him that sitteth on 
the throne^ who liveth for ever and ever, (Rev. v. 
lO. 13.^ All the blessed spirits and souls of the 
rigbtfcous, cast their crowns before the throne, and 
worship him that liveth for ever and ever. Thou 
Alt worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and lionbur. 


44 U^hf Living. [&hap. i. 

and power ; for thou hast created all things, and for 
th J pleasure they are and were created. (Rev. iv. 
10. 11.^' Crreat and manrellous are thy works, O 
Lord God , Almighty : just and true are thy ways, 
thou King of saints (Rev. xv. 3.J. Thy wisdom is 
infinite, thy mercies are glorious: and 1 aoi not 
worthy, O Lord, to appear in Uiy presence, before 
whom the angels hide their faces. O holy and eternal 
JestiSy Lamb of God, who wert slain from the h^n* 


ning of the world, thou hast redeemed us to God by 
thy blood out of every nation, and hast made us unto 
our God kings, and priests^ and we shall reign with 
thee for ever. Blessing, honour, glory, and power,' 
be unto him that sitteth on the throne, and to the 
Lamb for ever. Amen. 


An Act of Thanksgivings being the Sk>ng of Davidy 

for the Morning. 

SING praises unto the Lord, O ye saints pf his, 
and give th^nk^ to him for a remembrance of his hplir 
Hess. For his wrath endureth but the twinkling of im 
eye, and in his pleasure is life: heaviness may enduve 
for a night, but joy cometh in the piorning. Thou, 
Lord, hast preserved me this night, from the viqiepce 
of the spirits of darkness^ from all sad casualties aod 
evil accidents, froini thp wrath whi9h I hay^ ^er^ 4^jr 
deserved: thou hast brought my soul out of hell, tbon 

Sect, iii.] Devotions for Ordinary Days. 4$ 

hast kept my life from them that go down into the 
pit : thoa hast shjswed me marvellous great Jcindness^ 
and hast hiessed me for ever : the greatness of thy glory 
reacheth unto the hes^vens, and thy truth unto the 
clouds; Therefore shall every good man siiig of thy 
praise without ceasing. O my God, I will give tHanks 
to thee for ever. Hallelujah. 

* ■ ■ ■ . ■ • ' ^ 


■ I 

^n Act of Oblation or presenting Ourselves to God 


MOST holy arid eternal G6d, Lord ahd j^vereign 
of all the creatures^ I humbly pi'esent to thy divine 
Majesty myself, my sdul and body/my thbughts and 
my words, my actions and intentiptis, my passions 
and my sufierihgs, to be disposed by thee to thy glory, 
to be blessed by thy'l^rovidence, to be guided by thy 
counsel, to be sanctified by thy Spirit, ^nd afterwards 
that my body and soul may be received into glory : 
far nothing can perish which is under thy custody ; 
and the enemy of souls cannot devour what is thy 
portion, nor take it out of tny hands. This day, O 
Lord, and all the days of my life I dedicate to thy 
honour, and the actions of my qalling to the uses of 
gmce^ and the religion of all my days to be united 
to the merits and intercession of my holy Saviour^ 
Jenc9, that in him and for him 1 may be pardoned 
?ad accepted. Amen. 

46 Holy Liomg, [Cham. i. 


An Act of Repentance or Contrition. 

FOR as for me^ I am not worthy to be called thy 
servant f much less am I worthy to be thy son ;y fox I 
am the vilest of sinners and the worst of men» a lover 
of the tilings of the world and a despiser of the things 
of God — proud and envious ^ lustful and intemperate; 
greedy of sin and impatient of reproof^ desirous to 
seem holy and negligent of being so^ transported with 
interest^ fooled with presumption and false principles, 
disturbed with anger, with a peevish and unmortified 
spirit, and disordered by a whole body of sin and 
death. Lord, pardon all my sins for my sweetest Sa- 
viour*s sake : thou who didst di^ for me, holy Jesus, 
aave me and deliver me : reserve not my sins to be 
punished in the day of wath and eternal vengeance; 
but wash away my sins, and blot them out of thy 
remembrance, and purify my soul with the waters of 
repentance and the blood of the cross ; that for what 
is past thy wrath ipay not come out against me, and 
for the time to come I may never provoke thee to 
unger or to jealousy. O just and dear God, be pitiful 
luid gracious to thy servant, A^nen. 


The Prayer or jpetithn, 

BLESS me, gracious God, ia niy calling, to such 
purposes as thqq shfill chpose, for me, or f^mplpy me im: 
relieve me in all my sadnesses, m^\e my b^ in my 

Sect, hi.] Devotions for Ordinary Days. 47 

sicknen^ gyre me patienee in my sorrows, confidence 
in thee^ andigrace to call upon thee in all temptations* 
O be thou my guide in all my actions^ my protector 
in all dangers ; give me a healthful body, and a clear 
understanding; a s'anctifled and just, a charitable and 
homble, a telrgioiis jand contented spirit : let not my 
jife be miserable and wretched, nor my name stained 
with sin and shame, nor my condition lifted up to a 
tempting and dangerous fortune ; but let my condi- 
tion be blessed, my conyersation useful to my neigh- 
bours, «nd pleasing to thee, that when my body shall 
lie down in its bed of darkness, my soul may pass into 
the regions of light, and live with thee for ever, 
through Jesus Christ. Amen. 


An Act of Intercesiion or Prayer for others^ to be 
added to this, or any other Office^ as our Devotion, 
or Duty, or iheir Needs shall determine us. 

God of infinite mercy, who hast compassion on 
•U man, <aad relieveet the necessities of all that call to 
thee for be]p, hear the prayers of thy servant, who is 
Qiiworthy to ask any petition for himself, }ret in humi- 
hy and duty ia bound to pray for others. 


I I 

Let thy mercy descend upon the whole church ; 
ff^Tve her in truth and peaiee, in unity and safety, in 
Allitomit^ andiagainst all temptations and enemies ; that 
*Q€| ofierintg to thy glory the never-ceasing sacrifice of 

48 Uoljf living. [Chap. i. 

prayer and thanksgiving, may advance the honour of 
bcf Lord, and be filled with his Spirit^ and partake of 
his glory. Am/en. 


In mercy remember the king ; preserve his person 
in health and honour, his crown in wealth and dignity^ 
his kingdoms in peace and plenty, the churches under 
his protection in piety and knowledge, and a strict and 
holy religion : keep him perpetually in thy fear and 
favQur, and crown him with glory and immortality. 


Remember them that minister about holy things^ let 
them be clothed with righteousness, and sing with 
joyfulness. Amen. 


Bless thy servant [my wife or husband] with health 
of body and spirit. O let the hand of thy blessing be 
upon his [or her] head night and day, and support 
him in all necessities, strengthen him in all tempta- 
tions, comfort him in all his sorrows, and let him be 
thy servant in all changes; and make us both to dwell 
with thee for ever in thy favour, in the light of th) 
countenance, and in thy glory. Am/en. 


' Bless my children with healthful bodies, with gm 
understandings, with the graces and gifts of thy Spir 

Sect, hi.] Deootiomfor Ordinary Days, 49 

with sweet dispositions and hoi j^ habits, and sanctify 
them throughout in their bodies and souls and spirits, 
and keep them unblameable to the coming. of our 
Lord JesfM. Amen. ; 


Be pleased, O Lord, to remember my friends, all 
that have prayed for me, and all that have done me 
good. [^Here nflme such tvhom ^u would specially 
recommend^ Do thou good to them and return all 
their kindness double into their own bosom, rewarding 
them with blessings, and sanctifying them with thy 
grace, and bringing them to glory. 


Let all my family and kindred, my neighbours and 
acquaintance \here name what other relations you 
fUase\ receive the benefit of my prayers, and the 
blessings of God ; the comforts and supports of thy 
providence, and the sanctification of thy Spirit. 


Relieve and comfort all the persecuted and afflicted : 
speak peace to troubled consciences : strengthen the 
weak; confirm the strong : instruct the ignorant ; de- 
liver the oppressed from him that spoileth him, and 
relieve the needy that hath no helper : and bring us 
^l by the waters of comfort and in the ways of righ- 
teousness to the kingdom of rest and' glor}'-, througli 
JetuM Christ our Lord. Amen. ^ i- > 

No. 3. H 


50 Hohf Living, [ Chap. i. 

To God the Father of oar Lord Jesus Christ — to 
the eternal Son that was incarnate and born of a vir- 
gin — to the Spirit of the Father and the Son, be all 
honour and glory, worship and thanksgiving, now and 
for ever. Amen. 

Another Form of Prayer for the Morning. 

In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost. Our Father, Sgc. 


MOST glorious and eternal God, Father of niercjr, 
and God of all comfort, I worship and adore thee 
with the lowest humility of my soul and body, and 
give thee all thanks and praise for thy infinite and 
essential glories and perfections ;,- and for the conti- 
nual demonstration of thy mercies upon me. Upon all 
_mine^ and upon thy holy catholic church. 


I Acknowledge, dear God, that I have deserved 
the greatest of thy wrath and indignation ; and that 
if thou hadst dealt with me according to my deseriring, 
I had now at this instant been desperately bewailing 
my miseries in the sorrows and horrors of a sad eter- 
nity. But thy mercy triumphing over thy justice and 
my sins thou hast still continued to me life and time 
of repentance ; thou hast opened to me the gates of 
grace and mercy, and perpetually callest upon me to 
enter in, and to walk in the paths of a holy Hfe| 

Sect, hi.] Devotions for Ordinary Days. 51 

that I might glorify thee and be glorified of thee 


oEHOLD, O God, for this thy great and unspeak- 
able goodness, for the preservation of me this night, 
and for all other thy graces and blessings, I offer up 
my soul and body, all that I am, and all that I have, 
as a sacrifice to tliee and thy service; humbly begging 
of thee to pardon all my sins, to defend me from all 
evil, to lead me into all good, and let my portion be 
amongst thy redeemed ones in the gathering together 
of thy saints, in the kingdom of grace and glory. 


GUIDE me, O Lord, in all the changes and va- 
rieties of the world, that in all things that shall happen, 
I may have an evenness and tranquillity of spirit, that 
my soul may be wholly resigned to thy divinest will 
and pleasure, never murmuring at thy gentle chastise- 
ments and fatherly correction, never waxing proud 
and insolent, though I feel a torrent of comforts and 
prosperous successes. 

♦^ ■' V. 

FIX my thoughts, my hopes, and my desires, upon 
heaven and heavenly things ; teach me to despise the 
world, to^repent me deeply for my sins ; give me holy 
purposes of amendment, and ghostly strength and 
assistanceis to perform faithfully whatsoever I shall iti- 

52 Hofy Living, [Chap. i. 

-' " ' ri __ ^ 

tettd piously. Enrich my understanding with an e^- 
nal treasure of divine truths^ that I may know thy 
will, and thou who workest in us to will and to do of 
thy good pleasure, teach me to obey all thy command- 
ments, to believe all thy revelations, and make me 
partaker of all thy gracious promises. 


TEACH me to watch over all my ways, that I naay 
never be surprised by sudden temptations, or a care- 
less spirit, nor ever return to folly and vanity. Set a 
watch, O Lord, before my mouth, and keep the door 
of my lips, that I offend not in my tongue neither 
against piety nor charity. Teach me to think of no- 
thing but thee, and what is in order to thy glory and 
service ; to speak of nothing but thee and thy glories ; 
and to do nothing but what becomes thy servant, whom 
thy infinite mercy, by the graces of thy Holy Spirit, 
hath sealed up to the day of redemption. 


LET all my passions and affections be so mortified 
and brought under the dominion of grace, that I may 
never, by deliberation and purpose, nor yet by levity, 
rashness, or inconsideration, oftend thy divine Ma- 
jesty. Make me such as thou wouldst have me to be : 
strengthen my faith, confirm my hope, and give me » 
daily increase of charity, that this day and ever I maj 
serve, thee according to all my opportunities and cap? 
cifies, growing from grace to grace, till at last by tb 

Se^cw. III.] Devotions for Ordinary Days. 53 

f^^^^^^^" - - _ ■ ■ , 

ikiercies 1 shall receive. the consummation and.jperfec« 
tioo of grace, even the glories of thy kingdom, in the 
full fruition of the face and excellencies of God the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, to whom be 
.glory and praise, honour and adoration given by all 
angels, and all men, and all creatures, now and to 
all eternity. Amen^ • 

To ihi^ ma^ he added the Prayer, of Intercession for others whom 
we are bound to remember, which is af the end of the foregoing 
Prayer^ or else you may take such special Prayers which follow 
at the end of the fourth Chapter, for Parents, for Children, 8sc. 

After which conclude with this Ejaculation : 

Now in all tribulation ai;id anguish of spirit, in all 
dangers of soul and body, in prosperity and adversity, 
in the hour of death, and in the day of judgment, 
holy and most blessed Saviour, JesuSy have mercy 
upon me, save me and deliver me and all faithful 
people. Amen. 

between this and Noon usually are said the public Prayers appointed 
by Authority, to which all the Clergy are obliged, and other 
ieeout Persons that have leisure to accompany them. 

After Noon, or at any time of the Day, when a devout Person 
retires into his Closet for private Prayer or spiritual Exercises, 
he may say the following Devotions, 

An Exercise to be used at any Time of the Day. 

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, &c. 
Our Father, &c. 

54 Holj^ Living. [CaA^. i. 

The Hymn collected out of the Psalms^ recounting 
the excellencies and greatness of Crod. > 

i^ j^^^^ ^^ G^ ^'' y^ lands, sing praises, 
unto the honour of his name, make his name^ toiibe^ 
glorious. O come hither and behold the tvorksqf. 
God, how wonderful he is in his doings towards tkC' 
children of men I He tuleth with his power for ever.' 
(Psal. Ixvi. 1,4,6.) 

He is the father of the fatherless, and defendeth 
the cause of the tvidow, even God in his holy habitfh 
tion. He is the God that maketh men to be of ^ne 
mind in an house, and bringeth the prisoners out-pj^ 
captivity/; but letteth the runagates continue in 
scarceness. (Psal. Ixviii. 5, 6.) 

It is the Lord that commandeth the waters ; iti^ 
the glorious God that maketh the thunder. It is th^ 
Lord that ruleth the sea : the voice of the Lord is 
mighty in operation, the voice of the Lord is a ghri" 
ous voice. (PsaU xxix. 3, 4.) 

Let all the earth fear the Lord: stand in awe of 
him all ye that divell in the world. Thou shalt shew 
us tvonderful things in thy righteousness, O God lof 
our salvation ; thou that art the hope of all the ends 
of the earth, and of them that remain in the broad 
sea. (Isa. Ixv. 5. Psal. xxxiii. 8.) 

Glory be to the father, &c. 

Or this. 
O Lord thou art my God, I will exalt thee : I will 
praise thy name^for tftou ha^st done tvonderful things: 


Se^. III.} Devotions for Ordinary Days, 55 

t1^ counsels of old are faithfulness and trutH. (Isa. 

XXV. 1.) 

Thou in thy strength settest fast the mountains^ 
and art girded about with power. Thou stillest the 
raging of the sea, and the noise of his waves, and 
the madness of the people. (Psal. Ixv. 6, 7.) 

Thetf also that remain in the uttermost parts of the 
earth shall he afraid of thy tokens ; thou thai makest 
the outgoings of the morning and evening to praise 
thee. (Psal. Ixv. 8.) 

O Lord God of Hosts, who is like unto thee ? thy 
truth, most mighty Lord, is on every side. Among 
the gods there is none like unto thee; O Lord, 
there is none that can do as thou doest. For thou 
art great and doest wondrous things, thou art God 
alone. (Psal. Ixxxix. 8. Ixxxvi. 8, 10.) 

God is very greatly to be Jeared in the council of 
the saints, and to be had in reverence of all them 
that are round about him. (Psal. Ixxxix. 70 
' Righteousness and equity is the habitation of thy 
feat, mercy and truth shall go before thy face. 
Glory and worship are before him, powerand honour 
are in his sanctuary. (Psal. Ixxxix. 15. xcvi. 6.) 

Thou, Lord, art the thing that I long Jor ; thou 
dft my hope even from my youth. Through thee 
have I been holden up ever since I teas bom; thou 
art he that took me out of my mother's wdmb ; my 
praises shall be always of thee. (Psal. Ixxi. 4, 5.) 

Glory be to the Father, &ۥ 

56 Holy Living. [ CH|f . i. 


jifter tH» may be read iome Portion of holy Scripture out of the 
New Testament, or out of the sapiential Books of the Old, viz. 
Proverbs^ Ecclesiastes^ &c. because these are of great Use to 
Piety and to civil Conversation. Upon which, when you have 
a while mediated, humbly composing yourself upon your kBeee, 
$ay asfoUoweth : 



My help standeth in the name of the Lord who 
hAth made heaven and earth. (Psal. cxxiv. 7*) 

Shew the light of thy countenance upon thy ser^ 
vant, and I shall be safe. (Psal. Ixxx. 3.) 

Do ivellj O Lardy to them that he true of hearty 
(Psal. cxxv. 4.) and evermore mightily defend them. 

Direct me in thy truth , and teach me, for thou 
art my Saviour, (Psal. xxv. 4.) and my great Master. 

Keep me from sin and death eternal, and from my 
enemies visible and invisible. 

Give me grace to live a holy life, and thy fiivour 
that I may die a godly and happy death. 

Lord, hear the prayer of thy servant, and give me 
thy holy Spirit. 

The Prayer. 

O Eternal God, merciful and gracious, vouchsafe 
thy favour and thy blessing to thy servant: let the 
love of -thy mercies iand the dread and fear of thy 
Majesty make me careful and inquisitive to search thy 
will, and diligently to perform it, and to persevere iu 
the practices of a holy life,* even till the last of any 

S e ct , ni.] Devotions Jbr OrdinarT/ Dajfs. * 57 

•^ ■ ■■ ' H "> ' ■ ■ .I.J I '^ 


RfiEP me, O Lord, for I am thine by creation; 
guide me, for I am thine by purchase ; thou hast re* 
deeided me by the blopd of thy SoDi and loved me 
with the love of a Father, for I am thy child by adop- 
tion and grace : let thy m.ercy pardon my sins, thy 
providence secure me from the punishments and evils 
I have deserved, and thy care watch ovei: me, that I 
may never any more offend thee : make me in maliqe 
to be a child ; but in understanding, piety, and the 
fisar of God, let me be a perfect man in Christ, inno- 
#nt and pradent, vead^y femished and instructed to 
m9ry good work • 


ILEEF mc^ Q I^rd, from the destroying ^jngd> W^ 
firom the wrath of God: let thy anger nevex X^^ 
againat mfi^ but thy rod gently corr^t my follies, and 
guid^ me in thy ways, and thy staff support me ip aU 
suflferings and changes. Preserve me from fracture 
tf hem^, tnm nofoomf, infectious, and ahavp sic^ 
Vfimfk I £rOQl great vieknc^s of fortune and sodden 
surprises : keep all my senaea entke liU the day of my 
death, and let my death be neither sudden, untimely, 
aar mtproyided i let it be af%er the common manner of 
meay having in it nothing extraordinary, but an ex- 
traordinary piety, and the manifestation of thy great 
and miraculous merey. 

•^ IV. 

• ■ * 

1J5T no nehea make me ever fbrget myself — no 
poverty ever make me to fbrget thee : let no hope or 
No. 3. I 

58 • Holy living. [Chlip. i. 

fear^ no pleasure or pain^ no accident without^ no 
weakness within^ hinder or discompose my duty^ or 
turn me from the ways of thy commandments. O let 
thy Spirit dwell with me for ever, and make my 8(ml 
just and charitable, full of honesty, full of religion, 
resolute and constant in holy purposes, but inflexible 
to evil. Make me humble and obedient, peacea^l^ 
and pious: let me never envy any man's good, nor 
deserve to be despised myself: and if I be, teach me 


to bear it with meekness and charity. 


GIVE me a tender conscience ; a conversation d|ii- 
creet and affable, modest and patient, liberal . and 
obliging ; a body chaste and healthful, competency of 
living according to my condition, contentedness ia all 
estates, a resigned will, and mortified affections : that 
I may be as thou wouldst have me, and my portion 
may be in the lot of the righteous, in the brightness 
of thy countenance, and the glories of eternity. Amen. 

Holy is our God. Holy is the Almighty. Holy is 
the linmortai. Holy, holy, holy. Lord God of 
Sabbaoth, have mercy upon me. 

A Form of Prayer for the Evenings to be said , by 
suck who have not Time or Opportunity to say the 
public Prayers appointed for this Office. 


O Eternal God, great Father of men and angels, 
who hast established the heavens and the earth in a 

Sectv III.] Devotions for Ordtncay Days. 59 

wonderfal prder^ makings day aiid night to succeed 
each other ; I make my humble address to thy divine 
Majesty^ hegging of thee mercy and protection this 
night and ever. O Lord^ pardon all my sins, my 
light Ithd rash words, the vanity and impiety of my 
ibongfats^ my unjust and uncharitable actions, and 
irhafsoever I. have transgressed against thee this day, 
or at' any. time before. Behold, O God, my soul is 
troubled in the remembrance of my sins, in the frailty 
and sinfiilness of my flesh exposed to every tempta- 
tion^ and of. itself not able to resist any. Lord God of 
meecy I eamoEftly beg of thee ta give me a great portion 
of tl]^' grace, such as may be sufficient and eflfectual 
ibr the mortification of, all my sins and vanities and 
disorders : that as I have fornierly served my lust and 
tmworthy desiresyso now I may give! myself wholly 
to thy service and the studif^ pf a holy life^ .. -^ k • 

•11. ^■•■v - -;/ 

BliESSEi^ Lor% teach me frequently and sadly to 
lemember my sins; and be them pleased to remember 
them no more : let me never forget thy mercies, and 
do thou still remember to do me good. Teach me to 
w^lk always as in thy presence : ehoble my soul 
with great degrees of love to thee, and confine my 
spirit with great fear, religion, and veneration o£jhy 
holy name and laws; that it may become the great 
employment of my whole life to serve thee, to ad- 
vance thy glory, to root but all the accursed habits of 
liO) that in holiness of life^ in humility, in charity]^ 

.1. ■ i I < I „ , I 1 ■ 1 1' _ ,^ 

60 Holy Lmng. [Cha?.^. 

ia cbaatityy mmA in all the omanents of graoc^ I fioay 
by patience wait for the coming of ow LiOi4 4^mu^ 


TEACH mt, O Lotd, to noiiAer my daj/^ Chit I 
may apply my heart unto wisdom^ erer to renomlw 
my l^st endi that I maty not dare to sin agaKMtt 1iMi« 
Let thy holy angels ht evier present with me to Ittiep 
me in aH my ways ftpm the maiioe «nd violeaco olP tii9 
spirita of daricnef 8^ fi^om evil company, a^ tbe <0cai^ 
siiona and oppoitnnities of evil, from perishiiig li 
papidfor judgment, from all the wny% of ahiM ibKiii^ 
fimn tlie bands ef aU mine enemies, iram a Iffitful Hfe^ 
and ifinom despair in the day of my dmilk. 19im> O 
brightiHt JksUf shine ^orioudy ^qpon miei liA thy ttNM^ 
cies and the light of thy ootnteMm^ slMoin mo fen «lt 
my agonies, weaknesses, and temptatieii8« t^6. m^ 
opportunity of a prudent and spiritual guide, and of 
receiving the holy sacrament ; and let thy loving Spirit 
so gnide me in the wajrs of peaiee amS safety, that i^b 
the testimony 0f a good oonseienpe, aosd the senium of 
thy mercies luid nefineshment, I m?y depart diis lift hi 
tlie unity of the chords, in the lore of God^ «tid % 
l^trtain hope of salvatsoB through Jems €Hm§t oilf 
JjMi and mo^t Idessed Saviour. Amn^ 

Our Faliiet', &c. 

f£^ at Be^J'mcr 



SecTb iti.] Devotions for QrdinAh/ Days. 01 

/ fFill lift my eyes unt6 the hills from whence 
cmneth fay kelp^ (Psal. czxi.) 

3!fy help Cometh of the L$rd whkh made heaven 
and earth. 

He vnU not suffer thy foot to he moved : he that 
heepeik thee tmU not slumier. 

Behpld^ he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumher 
nor skep. 

Tie Lord is th^ keeper y the Lord is thy shade upom 
thy right hand. ^ • 

The sun shall not smite thee by day, neither the 
moon by night. 

' . The Lord shaU preserve thee from aU evil i he shaU 
preserve t^ soul. 
^ The Lord^haU preserve thy going out and thyi 
coming m, from this time forth fsr evermore. 

Gloi)^ be «a tbe Father, &o. 


VISIT, I beseech thee, O Lord, this habitation 
with thy men^y, and me wiA thy grace and salvation. 
IM ftiy holjr aagi^b pitfch tbei« teiits rtfuAd alM>iit ^d 
i/mJX htr^iivsk nb illiisioA of the night may abufie me^ 
tkii BjArito of ^rkneigs «bf»y not come near t6 hmt me,, 
M evil olr |Md aoeident dj^presa nie \ tad let the eter» 
xu4 Spirit of die Father dwell in nj abnl and bod^r^ 
fiUiag eyer)^ comer of my heatt With lig^ and grace. 
Ijat a^ 4eed of darkneaa of^rtike mev and let thy 
Uesiafig^, ttiosi bkised God^ be upon liie for ei^r. 

■ii m 

68 Holy Living. [Chap. i. 

fa-. ■ "''if " ^ 


INTO thy hands^ most blessed Jesu, I commend 
my soul and body, for thou hast redeemed both with 
thy most precious blood. So bless and sanctify my 
sleep unto me, that it may be temperate, holy, and 
safe, a refreshment to my wearied body, to enable it 
fib to serve my soul, that both may serve thee with a 
never-failing duty. O let me never sleep in sin or 
death eternal, but give me a watchful and a prudent 
spirit, that I may omit no opportunity of serving thee; 
that whether I sleep or wake, live or die, I may be 
thy servant and thy child : that when the work of my 
life is done, I may rest in the bosom of my Lord, till, 
by the voice of the archangel, the trump of God, I 
shall be awakened and called to sit down and feast in 
the eternal supper of the Lamb. Grant this, O Lamb 
of God, for the honour of thy mercies, and the glory 
of thy name, O most merciful Saviour and Redeemer 
JTesw. Amen. 


BLESSED be the God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus J who hath sent his angels, and kept me this day 
from the destruction that walketh at noon, and the 
arrow that flieth by day ; and hath given me his Spirit 
to restrain me from those evils to which my own weak- 
nesses, and my evil habits, and my unquiet enemies 
would easily betray mcf. Blessed and for ever hallowed 
be thy name for that never-ceasing, shower of blessing 
by which I live, and am content and blessed^ and prcN 

. '^r 

Sect, hi.] Devotions for Ordinary Days, OS 

■ ■ ■ — ^l^i — — ^^— ^— — ^B^i— ^>— — — — — ■— — ^i— — ^1^— 1— — ^1— ^^' 

vided for in all necessities, and set forward in my duty 
and wafy to heaven. Blessing, honour, glory, and 
power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and 
to the Lamb, for ever and ever. Amen. 

Holy is our God. Holy is the Almighty. Holy 
is the iminortal. Holy, holy, holy. Lord God of 
Sabbaoth, have mercy upon me. 

Ejaculations and short Meditations to he used in the 

Night when we awake. 

Stand in awe .and sin not : camMune, ivith your own 
heart upon your bed, and be still. I will lay me down, 
in peace and sleep, for, thou, lA)rd, only makest metq 
dweU in safety. (PsaL iv. 4, 8.) 

O Father of spirits and the God of all flesh, have 
mercy and pity upon all sick and dying Christians^ 
and receive the souls which thou hast redeemed re^ 
turning unto thee. 

. Blessed are they that dwell in the heavenly Jerti^ 
salem,, where there is no need of the sun, neither of 
the nioofi to shine in it : for the glory of God does 
lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof And 
there shall be no night there, and they need no candle j 
/or . the Lord God giveth them light, and they shall 
reign for ever and ever. (Rev.xx. 23. xxii. 6.) 

Meditate. on Jacob's wrestling with the angel all 
night:. be thou also importunate with God for a bless- 
ings and give not over tijl tie hath blessed thee. 


■ ■<!■. 

M Shfy Lhing, [Cbjif. i. 

Meflitate en the angefs pasaiiig evep the ohildven ef 
iwaety ati4 destroj^ng the EgypHam fbr disobedieooe 
m4 opprMsien. Pray for the grace of obedieoeemid 
charity^ and for the divine protection. 

Meditate on the angel who destroyed in a night the 
ie4iole apRiy of the Assyrians for fer»kation« Call 
to mind the sins of thy youths the sins ef thy bed ; 
and say with David^ My reins chasten me ifk the n^t 
season^ and my soul refuseth comfort. Pray for par- 
don and the grace of ebastify. 

Meditate on the agonies of Christ in the garden — 
his sadness and affliction all that night; and thank and 
ftdore him for his foro that made him svffkr »» much 
for thee ; and hate thy sins which made it ofKessavf 
for the Sen of .6od to snftr so much* 

Meditate on the four kst thiiigo i 1, "Itie cerle&ity 
ef death. ^^ The terrors ef the day ef jodgment. 
9^ The joy$ ^ heaven. 4^ The paios of hetl, and 
the eternity of both. 

Think upon all thy friends whieh are gon$ before 
thee^ and pray that God would grant to tliee Uy naeet 
t|tem in a joyfol resuiieetion. 

The day of th% Lord wiU come m a thitf in tke 
night, in which th^ heavens shall pass away witk a 
great nffise, and the elements shaH melt withfevvemt 
heat; the earth ako and the works that atfe therem 
shall be hurr^ up. Seeing then that all ihe^e thmgs 
shall ie dissoleedy uAat manner of persons ought we 

. . . • • 

to he in ail holy e&nv^rsoitieni and godliness, l^hk^ 
foi^, and hasting nnte^ the eomingefthe day^ (^ Gad^P 
(Pet. iii. 10. xi. 12.) 

Sect, ih.] Devotions for Ordinary Days. 65 

Lord, in mercy remember thy servant in the day of 

Thoti sfaalt answer for me, O Lord my God. Ih 
thee, O Lord, have I trusted: let me never be con^ 
founded. Amen. 

J denre the Christvan Reader to observe that alt these Offices, or 
Forms of Prayer (if they should be used every day) would not spend 
above an hot^r and a hulfi but because some of them are double 
(and so hut one of them to be used in one day) it is much less : and 
by affording to God one hour in twenty-four, thou mayst have the 
cotnforis and rewards of devotion. But he that thinks this is too 
wtuch, either is very busy in the world, or very careless of heaven. 
Bonpever^ I have parted the Prayers into smaller portions, that he 
may use which and how many he pleases in any one qf the Forms, 

Ad Sect 12. 

A Prqyer for holy Intention in the Beginning and 
Pur^it of any considerable Action, as Study^ 
Preachingy ^b* 

O Etetrnal God, ^hb hast made all things for man^ 
tad man for thy glory, sanctify my body and soul, 
my thoughts and my intentions, my words and actions, 
that whatsoever I shall think, or speak, or do, may 
be by me designed to the glorification of thy name, 
and by thy blessing it may be effect iV0 and successful 
iu the work of God, according as it can be capable^. 
Lord, turn my necessities into virtue, the works of 
nature into the Works of grace, by making them or- 
^t^Yf regular, temperate, subordinate, and profitable 
to ends beyond their own proper efficacy: and let "no 

No. 3* K 

66 Holy Living. |\)hap. i. 

pride or self-seeking^ no covetousness or revenge^ no 
impure mixture or unhandsome purposes^ no little 
ends and low imaginations pollute my spirit^ and un- 
hallow any of my words and actions : but let my bodjr 
be a servant of my spirit, and both body and spirit 
selrants of Jesus; that doing all things for thy glory 
here, I may be partaker of thy glory hereafter, througli 
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

. j4d Sect. 3, 

A Prayer meditating and referring to the Dhim 


This Prayer is especially to be used in Temptatkm 

to private Sins. 

O Almighty God, infinite and eternal, thou ^le^t 
all things with thy presence ; thou art eyery-whera by 
thy essence, and by thy power; in heaven by glory, in 
holy places by thy grace and favour; in the hearts of 
thy servants by thy Spirit; in the consciences of all 
men by thy testimony and observation of us. Teaeb 
me to walk always as in thy presence; to fear thy Ma* 
jesty; to reverence thy wisdom and omniscience, thM 
I may never care to commit any indecency in the ey^ 
of my Lord and my Judge; but that I may with so 
much care and reverence demean myiself, that my 
Judge may not be my Accuser, but my Advocate; that 
I, expressing the belief of thy presence here by care* 
ful walking, may feel the efibcts of it in the participa- 
tion of eternal glory, tlirough J^sus Christy Amen^ 

CHAP. 1 L 



Cff Sohfiety in the general Sense. 

Christian Religion in all its moral parts is nothing 
else but the law of nature^ and great reason^ com- 
plying with the great necessities of all the world, and 
promoting the great profit of all relations, and carry- 
ing us through all accidents and variety of chances to 
that end which God hath from eternal ages purposed 
fw them that live according to it, and which he hath 
revealed in Jesus Christ : and according to the Apostle^s 
arithmetic, hath put these three parts of it, 1, So- 
briety; 2, Justice; 3, Religion. For the grace of 
God bringing salvation hath appeared to all men, 
teaching us that, denying .ungodliness and worldly 
lusts, toe should live, 1, Soberly; 2, Righteously; 
and, 3, Godly in this present world, looking for that 
blessed hope and glorious appearing of the great. 
God and Saviour Jesus Christ. The first contains all 
our. deportment in our personal and private capacities, 
the fair treating of our bodies and our spirits. The 
second enlarges our duty in all relations to our neigh- 
bour. The third, contains the offices of direct religion, 
and intercourse with God, 

"■ — ^"^^ 

68 Holy living. [Chap. ii. 

Christian Sobriety is all that duty that concerns 
ourselves in the matter of m^t^ and drink, and plea-^ 
sures, and thoughts : and it hath within it the duties 
of 1, Temperance; 2, Chastity; S, Humility; 4, Mon 
desty ; 5, Content. 

Jt is a using severity, denial, and frustration of our 
appetite when it grow^ unreasonable in any of thesct 
instances: the necessity of which we shall to best 
purpose understand by considering the eyil conse^ 
quences of sensuality, effeminacy, or fopdness after 
carnal pleasures. 


Evil Consequents of Polupttumsness or Sensuality ^^ 

1. A longing after sensual pleasures is a dissolution 
of the spirit of a man, and makes it loose, soft, and 
wandering, unapt for noble, wise, or spiritual employ^ 
ments : because the principles upon which pleasure is 
chosen and pursued, are sottish, weak, and unlearned, 
such as prefer the body before the soul, the appetite 
before reason, sense before the spirit, the pleasures of 
a short abode before the pleasures of eternity "i^. 

2. The nature of sensual pleasure is vain, empty,i 
and unsatisfying — biggest always in expectation, and 
a mere vanity in the enjoying ; and leaves a sting and 
thorn behind it when it goes off. Our laughing, if it 
be loud and h^gh commonly ends in a deep sigh, and. 
all the instance3 of pleasure have st sting in the tail, 

* Tu si animum vicisti potitis qukm animus te, est quod gaudeas. 
Qui animum vincfunt qukm quos animus^ semper probiores cluent. 


Sect, i.] Christian Sobriety, 69 

' - ■ - ■ - 

tbough they carry beauty in the face and sweetness on 
the lip* « 

3. Sensual pleasure is a great abuse to the, spirit of 
a man, being a kind of fascination or witchcraft, blind- 
ing the understanding and enslaving the will. And he 
that knows he is free-bom or redeemed with the. blood 
of the Son of God, will not easily suffer the freedom 


of his soul to be entangled aqd rifled* 

4. It is most contrary to the state of a Christian, 
whose life is a perpetual exercise, a wrestling and war-* 
fare, to which sensual pleasure disables him by yield- 
ing to that enemy with whom he must strive if ever he 
will be crownedf And this argument the Apostle in^ 
tiinated ; Jff^ tfiQt striveth for masteries is temperate 
in all things : tunc they do it to obtain a corruptible 
crown, bat we an incorruptible. (1 Cor. ix. 25.) 

5. It is by a certain consequence, the greatest imper 
diment in the world to martyrdom ; that being a fond-, 
qess, this being a cruelty to the flesh; to which a 
Christian man arriving by degrees must first have 
cracified the lesser affections : for he that is overcome 
by little arguments of ps^in, will hardly consent to lose 
his life with torments. 

Degrees of Sobriety. 

Against this voluptuousness sobriety is opposed in 
three degrees. 

A despite or disaffection to pleasures, or a re-i 
solving against all entertainment of the instances and 
tepaptatioQS Qf sensuality: and it consists in the int^r-^^ 

10 Holy Living. [Chap. ii. 

nal faculties of will and understanding, decreeing. and 
declaring against them, disapproving and disliking 
them upon good reason and strong resolution. 

2. AJight and actual war against all the tempta- 
tions and offers of sensual pleasure in all evil instances 
and degrees : and it consists in prayer, in fasting, in 
cheap diet, and hard lodging, and laborious e:>:ercise8, 
and avoiding occasions, and using all arts and indus^f 
try of fortifying the spirit, and making it severe, ' 
manly, and Christian- 

3. Spiritual pleasure is the highest degree of so- 
trriety, and in the same degree in which we relish and 
are in love with spiritual delights, the hidden mamm, 
(Apoc. ii. 17v) with the sweetnesses of devotion, with 
the joys of thanksgiving, with rejoicings in the Lord, 
with the comforts of hope, with the deliciousness 
£if charity and alms-deeds, with the sweetness of a 
good conscience, with the peace of meekness, and 
the felicities of a contented spirit ; in the same degree 
we disrelish and loath the husks of swinish lusts, and 
jbhe parings of the apples of Sodom ; and the taste of 
jnnful pleasures is unsavoury as the drunkard's vomit. 

Mules for suppressing Volupttwusness. 

The priecepts and advices which are of the best and 
ef general use in the curing of sensuality are these : 

1 . Accustom thyself to cut off all superfluity in the 
provisions of thy life ; for our desires will enlarge be- 
yond the present possession, so long as all things of 
this world are unsatisfyin*g; if, ther^fore^ you puffer 

Sect, i.] Christian Sobriety, 71 

■ Ml.MJMMIJI If I I I 1 • ' 1 ■ ■ \ -^""^"^^1- 

tbem to extend beyond the measures of necessity of 
moderated conveniency, they will still swell : but you 
reduce them to a little compass, when you make na-r 
ture to be your limit. We must more take care that 
our desires should cease, than that they should be sa« 
tisfied ; and therefore reducing them to narrow scant* 
lings and small proportions is the best instrument to 
redeem their trouble*, and prevent the dropsy, be- 
cause that is next to an universal denying them : it is 
certainly a paring off from them all unreasonableness 
and irregularity. For whatsoever covets unseemly 
things^ and is apt to swell to an inconvenient bulky is 
to be chastened and tempered: and such are sensua^ 
Utj^, and a hoy^ said the Philosopher*}*'. 

2. Suppress your sensual desires in their first ap- 
proach ; for then they are least, and thy faculties and 
eleetion are stronger; but if they in their weakness 
prevail upon thy strengths, there will be no resisting 
them when they are increased, and thy abilities les- 
sened. You shall scarce obtain of them to end, if 
you suffer them to begin^* 

3. Divert them with some laudable employment, 
and take off their edge by inadvertency, or a not at- 
tending to them. For since the faculties of a man 
cannot at the same time with any sharpness attend to 

* Desideria tua parvo rediine> hoc enin tantum curare debes ut 
<binaat. Senec, 

t Lib. 3. Eth. cap, 12. 

t Facilius est initia affectuum prohibere qu^ impetum regi^re^ 
^nec. ep. 86. 

72 Holy living, [ Cbap. li. 

two objects^ if you employ your spirit upon a book or 
a bodily labour, or any innocent and indifferent em- 
ployment^ you have no room left for the present trou- 
ble of a sensual temptation. For to this tense it was 
that Alexander told the Queen of Caria, that his 
tutor Leonidcui had provided two cooks for him*-^ 
hard marches all night, and a small dinner the next 
day: these tamed his youthful aptnesses to dissolu- 
tion, so long as he ate of their provisions. 

4. Look upon pleasures not upon that side that i^ 
next the sun, or where they look beauteously, that is> 
as they come towards you to be enjoyed, for then they 
paint and smile, and dress themselves up in tinsel and 
glass gems and counterfeit imagery ; but when thou 
has rifled and discomposed them with enjoying tt»eir 
false beauties, and that they begin to go off, then be- 
hold them in their nakedness and weariness*'. Seef 
what a sigh and sorrow, what naked unhandsome pro^ 
portions and a filthy carcass they discover ; and the 
next time they counterfeit, remember what you have 
already discovered, and be no more abused. And I 
have known some wise persons have advised to cure 
the passions and longings of their children by letting' 
them taste of every thing they passionately fancied :f 
for they should be sure to find less in it than they" 
looked for, and the impatience of their being denied 
would be loosened and made slack; and when our 

* Voliiptates abeuntes fessas et pcsnitentiii plenas animis nostrif 
Datura subjicit, qu6 miniis cupid^ repetantur. Semcav 
Lscta veaire Venvis, trisUs abii'e solet. _ . 

SscT. I.] Christian Sdbriety, 78 

wishes are no \ bigger, than the thing deserves, and 
our usi^es of them according to our needs^ (which 
may be obtained by trying what they are^ and what 
good they can do us) we shall find in ajl pleasure 
so little entertainment, that the vanity of the posses-^ 
sion will soon reprove the violence of the appetite. 
And if this permission be in innocent instances, it ipay 
be of good use: but Solomon tried it in all things, 
taking his fill of all pleasures^ and soon grew Weary 
of thepi all. The same thing we may do by reason 
which we do by experience^ if either we will look 
upon pleasures as we are sure they look when they 
gaofify after their enjoyment; or if we will credit the 
experience of those men who have tasted them and 
loathed them^ 

5. Often consider and contemplate the joys of hea'<> 
ven^ that when they have filled thy desires which are 
the sails ^of the soul> thou mayst steer only thither 
and never, more look back to Sodom. And when thy 
sool dwells above^ and looks down upon the pleasures 
(tf the world, they seem like things at distance, little 
and contemptible, and men running after the satisfac- 
tion of^ their sottish appetites seem foolish as fishes^ 
thousands of them funning after a rotten worm that co?* 
vers a deadly hook, or at the best but like children with 
great noide pursuing a bubble rising from a walnut* 
ihell, which ends sooner than the noise. 

6. To this the example of Christ and his Apostles, 
^i Moses and all the wise men of all ages of the world 
^ill much help; who understanding h#wto distinguish 

No. 4. ii 

74 HUy Living. [ Chap. ti. 

good from evil did chuse a sad and melancholy way to 
felicity 9 rather than the broad^ pleasant^ and eaiy 
path to folly and misery. 

But this is but the general. Its first particulaf ii 


Of Temperance in Eating and Drinking, 

SOBRIETY is the bridle of the passions of desiiv^ 
and temperance is the bit and curb of that bridle^ 'a 
restraint .put into a man's mouth, a moderate use cf 
meat and drink, so as may best consist with Mr 
health, and may not hinder but help the works of f lie 
soul by its necessary supporting us, and mtnistefiiij^ 
chearfulness and refreshment. 

Temperance consists in the actions of the soul prin- 
cipally: for it is a grace that chuses natural*'tneans in 
order to proper and natural and holy ends : it h eacer-' 
cised about eating and drinking^ because they are ne^' 
eessary; but therefore it permits the use of them only 
as they minister to lawful ends; it does not ea^ and 
drink for pleasure, but for need, and for tefreshm^tnt, 
which is a part or a degree of need. I deny not b«t 
eating and drinking may &e, and in healthful lK>dies 
ahvays is, with pleasure; because there is in nature no 
greater pleasure than that all the appetites which God 
hath made should be satisfied: and a man may chuse 
a morsel that is pleasant, the less pleasant being re^^ 
jeoted as being less useful, less apt to nourish, or more 
disagreeing with an infirm stomach ; or when the day 

Sect, nj O/* Temperance in Eating. 75 

^, > , i y I .A - ■■ i i ■ I I ■ - I ifc 

18 festival by order, oi^ by pivate joy. In all these 
cases it is perimtted to receive a more free delight^ 
and to design it tbo as the less principal: that is, that 
tlia chief reasbn why wechuse tbe more delicious, be 
the serving thM ehd for which such refreshments and 
choices are pertnittedv But when delight is the only 
end, and reals ittelf and dwiells there long, then eat- 
ing a^i drinlpng is not.a> serving of Crod, but an in«- 
ordinate action ; because it is not in the way to that 
0Bd' whither God dtrected it; But the chusing of a 
delioatQ before a tnore oiklinary dish, is to be done as 
etber hiumafr ^tions are. in which there are no de- 
fpses ftn4 precise natural limits described, but a lati- 
tude is indulged; it mtist be done moderately, pHi- 
diM>tly» aodaccordiiag to the accounts of wise, religious 
atfd tol^r men: and then God who gave us such va* 
riety of creatures, and our choice to use which w^ 
willy tmf receive glory, from our temperate use, and 
thanksgiving, and we may use them indifferently with- 
out scniiple^ and a making them to become snares to 
as^ either by foo licentious and studied use of them, or 
to0 re^farainekl and scrupulous fear of using, them at all, 
\mt in such certain circumstances in which nY> man can 
be tare he is not mistaken. 

. Bot temperatice in meat and drink' is to be estimated 
by ^he following measures. 

Measures of Tmperanee in Eaiing. 

1* Eat not before the time, unless necessity, or 
4iarity, or any intervening accident, whidi may make 

76 Holif lAving. [Chap. ii. 

it reasonable and prudent, should happen. Remember 
it had almost cost Jonathan his life, because he tasted 
a little honey before the sun went down, contrary to 
the king's commandment; and although a gveat need, 
which he had, excused him from the sin of gluttony, 
yet it is inexcusable when thou eatest before the usual 
time, and thrustest thy hand into the dish unseason- 
ably, out of greediness of the pleasure, and impati^ 
ence of the delay. 

2. Eat not hastily and impatiently ^ but with such 
decent and timely action, that yoiir eating be a hu- 
man act, subject to deliberation and choice, and that 
you may consider in the eating: whereas he thiit eati 
hastily, cannot consider particularly of the cirdutri- 
stances, degrees, and little accidents and chances that 
happen in his qneal ; but may contract many little' in« 
decencies, and be suddenly surprised. 

3. Eat not delicately or nicely ^ that i^^ be- not 
troublesome to thyself or others in the choice of thy 
meats or the delicacy of thy sauces. It was imputed 
as a sin to the sons of Israel, that they loathed mannA 
find longed for flesh : the quails stuck in their nostrih^ 
and the wrath of God fell upon them. And* for the 
manner of dressing, the sons of Eli were noted 'of 
indiscreet curiosity, they would not have the flesh 
boiled, but raw, that they might roast it with Jirex 
Not that it was a sin to eat it, or desire meast roasted; 
but- that when it was appointed to be boiled, they re- 
fused it:, which declared an intemperate and nice pa- 
late, It is: lawful in all senses to comply with a weal^ 

Sect, ii.] Of Temperance in Eating. 77 

and a nice stomach: but not with a nice and curious 
pilate. When our health requires it, that ought to be 
provided for, but not so our sensuality and intempe- 
rate longings. Whatsoever is set before you^ eat ; if 
it be provided for you, you may. eat it, be it never so 
delicate ; and be it plain and common, so it be whole- 
some and fit for you, it must not be refused upon 
carioisity, for every degree of that is a degree of in- 
temperance. Happy and innocent were the ages of 
eor ibreiathers, who ate herbs and parched corn, and 
draiik the pure stream, and broke their fast with nuts 
and roots ^ ; and when they were permitted flesh, ate 
it only dressed with hunger and fire ; and the first 
sauce they had was bitter herbs, and sometimes bread 
dipt in vinegar. But in this circumstance moderation 
is to be reckoned in proportion to the present cus* 
toms, to the company, to' education, and the judg- 
ment' iMT honest and wise persons, and the necessities 
of nature. 

4. Eat not too much: load neither thy stomach, nor 
thyunderstariding. If thou sit at a bountiful table, he 
not greedff vpon it, and say not there is much meat 
on t^. Remember that a wicked eye is an evil thing: 
Mnd what is created more tcicked than an eye ? There^ 
fore it weepeth upon every occasion : stretch not thy 
}tand whithersoever it looheth, and thrust it with 

* Felix initium prior aetas contentfi dulcibus arvis> 
Facileque sei-a solebat jejunia solvere g'lande. 

Boech, 1. 1. de ConsoV 
Arbuteos foetus^ montankque fraga legebant. 

i^^^^BBakM^MH^^— ^■aaaa^iMa^rti^ii^MaiM 

78 Holif living. [Chap. ii. 

- ■■ ■ ■ um 

Mm into the dish. A very little is sufficient- for § 
man well nurtured, and he fetches not his wind short 
upon his bed. 

Signs and Effects of Temperance. 

We shall best know that we have, the grace of tenh- 
perance by the following signs^ which are as so many 
arguments to engage us also upon its study and 

1. A temperate man is modest: greediness is uor 
mannerly and rude. And this is intimated in the ad- 
vice of the son of Sirach, When thou sittest amongst 
fnantfy reach not thy handout Jirst of all: leave. ^ 

^st for manner^s sake, and be not insatiable, lest 
thou offend. 

2. Temperance is accompanied with gravity of dcH 
portment ^ • greediness is garish, and rejoices loosely 
fit the sight of dainties. .3. Sound, but moderite sleep 
is its sign and its effect. Sound sleep cometh of modsr 
ratf eating; h^ riseth early and his wits are with 
him. 4. A spiritual joy and a devout prayer. 5« A 
suppressed and seldom anger. 6. A command of oiy 
thoughts and passions, f. A seldom returning, and t 
never-prevailing temptation. 8-. To which add^ thai 
Mf. temperate person is not curious of fancies and delici* 
ousness. He thinks not much, and speaks npt (^t€m 
of meat and drink ; hath a healthful body and long 
life, unless it be hindered by some other accident: 

* Gcero vocat temperantiam ornatam vilse^ in quo decorum 
fllud et bonestum situm est. 

Sect, ii.] Of Temperance in Drinking. 79 


whereas to gluttony^ the pain of watching and choler, 
the pangs of the helly^ are continual company. And 
therefore Stratonicus said handsomely concerning the 
luxury of the Rhodians : " They built houses as if 
they were immortal, but they feasted as if they meant 
to live but a little while ♦." And Antipater by his 
reproach of the old glutton Demadts^ well expressed 
the baseness of this sin, saying that Demades now old^ 
and always a glutton, was like a spent sacrifice^ 
nothing left of him but his belly and his tongue, all 
^ man besides is gone. 

Of Drunkennesst 

But I desire that it be observed, that because intern* 
p^rance in eating is not so soon perceived by others M 
immoderate drinking, and the outward visible effects 
of it are not either so notorious or so ridiculous, there- 
fere gli^ony is not of so great disreputation amongst 
men as drunkenness: yet according to its degree it 
puts on the greatness of the sin before God, and is 
most strictty to be attended to, lest we be surprised 
ky our security and want of diligence, and the intem- 
perance is alike criminal in both, acciording as the 
Infections are either to the meat or drinks. Glut- 
tony is tnore uncharitable to the body, and drunken^ 
Bess to the soul or the understanditig part of man : 
and therefore in scripture is more frequently for- 
bidden and declaimed against than the other: and 
sobriety hath by use obtained to signify temperance ifv 
drinking. .^ 

* Plutarch, d% cupid. divit. 

80 flb/y Living. [Ghap. ii. 

Drunkenness is an immoderate affection and use. of 
drink. That I call immoderate that is besides or be- 
yond that order of good things for which God ha^ 
given us the use of drink. The ends are^ digestion of 
(^n/t aor meat, chearfulness and refreshment of our spiritii 
or any end of health ; besides which if we go, or at any 
time beyond \tf it fs inordinate and criminal, — it is the 
vice of drunkenness. It is forbidden by our blessed 
Saviour in these words : Take heed to yourselves lest, 
at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeUr 
ing and drunkenness. (Luke xxi. 34.^ Surfeiting^ that 
is the evil effects the sottishness and renriaining stupi- 
dity of habitual, or of the last night's drunkennesi< 
For Christ forbids both the actual and habitual intetn- 
perance : not only the efiect of it, but also the. afiectipii- 
to it : for in both there is sin. He that drinks but lit-*, 
tie, if that little make him drunk, and if he knpw b^ 
fore-hand his own infirmity, is guilty of surfeiting, not 
of drunkenness. But he that drinks much and is strong 
to bear it, and is not deprived of his reason violently, 
is guilty of the sin of drunkenness. It is a sin not 
to prevent such uncharitable effects upon the body and 
understanding: and therefore a man that loves not the 
drink is guilty of surfeiting, if he doth not watch tq 
prevent the evil effect : and it is a sin, and the greater 
of the two, inorcfinately to love or to use the drink, 
thouffh the surfeitino^ or violence do not follow. Good 
therefore is the counsel of the son of Sirach. Sheio 
not thyself valiant in wine, for wine hath destroyed 
t^any. (Ecclus. xxxi. 2b.) 


SscTb It.] Cf Temferante in Drinking, 81 


Evil Conseqtients to Dnmkenness. 

The evil itnd sad consieqoents of drunkenness (the 

eonsideration of which are as so many ailments to 

ttvbid the sin) are to this sense reckoned fay Writers of 

holy tcri^ture^ and other wise personages of the world; 

1. ^It cansedi woei and mischief, wounds and sorrow^ 

sin tfnd * shame ; it indketh bitterness of spirit, brawl- 

bag tod quarrelling ; it increas^th rage and lesseneth 

kirtttgdi ; it maki^th red eyes ind a loose and babbling 

Ibiq^e {Pr&v. xxiir« 2^. Ecflus. xxxi. 26). 2. It par-^ 

fieoltfly ministers to lust^ aiid yet disables thie body ; 

i6 diAt in ^[ect it makes man wantoh as a iatyr^ and 

iiipbteilt as age. And Solomon^ io enumerating the 

eiik of this vice, adds this to the abcount^ TKine eyes 

iksdl heboid strange taomen^ and thy heart shaU utter 

foverse things {Prov. xxiii. 33) : as if the drunkard 

were only desire^ and then impatient^ muttering and 

enjoying hke a eunuch embracing a woman. S. It 

besots and hinders the actions of the understandings 

miidng a man brutish in his passions, and a fool in 

his reason; and differs nothing fVom madness, but 

that it is volutitary and so is an equal evil in nature; 

nd a woite in manners ^. 4« It takes off all the guardi^^ 

Md lets loose the reins of all those evils to which a 

t Malta faciunt «brii quse postea sobrios pudet. Seneca^ 
t losanis comes est ira^ contubernalis ebrietas. Plutarch, 

Corpus onustum 

Aefiteirbis i^Hs aniraam qnoqne prsgravat. Horai, 
BbfitUs 4St Tohmtaria insania. Seneca. ; 

No. 4. M 


83 Holy living, [Chap, ii; 

man is by his nature or by his evil customs inclined^ 
and from which he is restrained by reason and severe 
principles. Drunkenness calls off the watchmen from 
their towers ; and then all the evils that can proceed 
from a loose hearty and an untied tongue^ and a dis- 
solute spirit, and an unguarded, unlimited will^ all 
that we may put upon the accounts of drunkenness. 
5. It extinguisheth and quencheth the Spirit of God, 
for no man can be filled with the Spirit of God and 
with wine at the same time. And therefore St. Paul 
makes them exclusive of eaph other : Be not drunk with 
wine wherein is excess , but be Jilled with the Spirit. 
(Eph. y. 18). And since Josephs cup was put into 
BenjamirCs sack, no man had a divining goblet. 6. It 
opens all the sancturies of nature, and discovers the 
nakedness of the soul, all its weaknesses and follies: 
it multiplies sins and discovers them ; it makes a man 
incapable of being a private friend, or a public coun- 
sellor. .7- It taketh a man's soul into slavery and iin- 
prisonment more than any vice whatsoever, because it 
disarms a man of all his reason, and his wisdom whereby 
he might be cured {Prov. xxxi. 4); and therefore coin- 
monly it grows upon him with age; a drunkard being 
still more a fool and less a man : I need not add any 
sad examples, since all story and all ages have too many 
of them. Amnon was slain by his brother Absolom 
when he was warm and high with wine. Simon/ the 
High Priest, and two of his sons were slain by their 
brother at a drunken feast. ' Holqf ernes was drunk 
rwhen Judith slew him : and all the great things that 

Sect, ii.] Of Temperance in Drinking, 83 

Daniel spake of Alexander were drowned with a sur- 
feit of one night's intemperance *^ : and the drunken* 
ness of Noah and Lot are upon record to eternal ages, 
that in those early instances, and righteous persons, 
and less criminal drunkenness than is that of Christians 
in this period of the world, God niight shew that very 
great evils are prepared to punish this vice ; no less 
than shame and slavery, and incest; the first upon 
Noah, the second upon one of his sons, and the third 
ia the person of Lot. 

Signs of Drunkenness. 

' But if it be inquired concerning the periods and 
distinct significations of this crime, and when a man 
is said to be drunk; to. this I answer, that drunken*^ 
ness }s in the same manner to be judged as sickness : 
as every illness or violence done to health in every 
part of its continuance is a part or degree of sickness, 
80 is every going off from our natural and common 
temper and our usual severity of behaviour, a degree 
of drunkenness. He is not only drunk that can 
jdrink .no more ; for few are so: but he hath sinned in 
s degree of drunkenness who hath done any thing to- 
wards it beyond his proper measure. But its parts 
and periods are usually thus reckoned. 1. Apeish 
gestures. 2. Much talking. 3. Immoderate laugh- 
ing. 4. Dulness of sense. 5. Scurrility, that is, 
wanton, or jeering, or abusive language. 6. An use- 

*Alexandrum intexnperanti^ bibendi e% ille Herculanus ac fetalis 
icyphus perdidit 

84 Holy Lhing. [Obap. ii. 

less understanding. J. Stupid sleqi. 8. l^ilepsies, 
or fallings and reelings, and beastly vomitinga. Tbe 
least of these, even when the toi^e begina to hm voh* 
tied, is a degree of drunkenness. 

But that we may avoid the sin of intemperacioe in 
meats and drinks, besides the former rules qr net^ 
sures, these oounsels also may be usefiil. 

Rules for obtaining Temperance* 

1 . Be not often present at feasts, nor at all in dis-« 
solute company, when it may be avoided : for varie^ 
of pleasing objects steals away the heart of man : and 
Goitipany is either violent or enticing ; and wa are 
weak and complying, or perhaps desirous enou^ to^ 
be abused. But if you be unavoidably or indtsCHPoetly- 
engaged, let not mistaken civility or good nature «ii« 
gage thee) either to the temptation of staying (if thou 
understandest thy weakness) or ihe sin of drinking^ 

2. B^Q^vere in your judgment concerning your 
proportioh^, and let no occasion make you enlarge far 
beyond ypnv ordinary. For a man is surprised hy 
parts, and while he thinks one glass more will not 
make him drunk, that one glass has disabled him Irom 
well discerning his present condition and neig^ibour 
danger. While men think themselves wise, they be^ 
come fools : they think they shall taste the aeonite and 
not die, or crown their heads with juice of poppy and 
not be drowsy ; and if they drink off the whole vin- 
tage^ still they think they can swallow another gqh^ 

Sect, ii.] Of Tenq^erance. SB 

let % But reixDember this, whenever you begin to 
ecHisider whether you mgy safely take ofA draught 
QKue^ it is theo high time to give over. Let that be 
aooounted a sign late enough to break off: for every^ 
nasoiL to doubt, is a sufficient reason to part the 

3. Come not to table but when thy^ need invites 
thee ; and if thou beest in health, leave something of 
thy appetite unfilled, something of thy natural heat 
unemployed, that it may secure thy digestion, and 
aenre other needs of nature or the spirit. 

4« Pi'dpound to thyself (if thou beest in a capa* 
city) a constant rul^ of living, of eating and drink- 
ing^ which, though it ufiay not be fit to observe scrupu- 
lonaly, least it become a snare to thy conscienee, or 
endbmg^r thy health upon every accidental violence ^ 
jet lat not thy rule be broken often, nor much, but; 
upon great necessity and in small degrees. 

5. Never urge any man to eat or drink beyond his 
own limits and his ovm desires. He that does other- 
wise is drunk with his brother's surfeit, and reels and 
falls with his intemperance ; that is, the sin of drun- 
kenness is upon both their scores, they both lie wal«^ 
lowing in the guilt \. 

6. Use aSlt. Pa/nJ^s instruments of sobriety : Let U9 
MfO are of the day he sober y putting on the breast^ 
plate cf faith and love, and for an helmet the hope of 

* Senec. £p. 83. Chi ha bevuto tutlo il mare^ puo here anch^ 
un tnmo. 

.t NU interest^ fiavead sceleri^ an illud fodas. Smuc. 

M Holy Living, [Chap. ii. 

salvation, i Faith, hope, and. charity, are the best 
pons iQ tMk world to fight against intemperance. The 
&ith of the Mahometans forbids them to' drink f^ine,: 
and , they abstain religiously, as the sons of Rechab : 
and the faith of Christ forbids drunkenness to us, and 
therefore is infinitely more powerful to suppress tim 
vice, when we remember that we are Christians, and 
to abstain from drunkenness and gluttony is part cf 
the faith and discipline of Jesus, and that with these 
vices neither our love to God, nor our hopes of heaven 
can possibly consist ; and therefore when these enter 
the heart, the others go out at the mouth: for this is 
the devil that is cast out by fasting and prayer, which 
are the proper actions of these graces. 

7. As a pursuance of this rule, it is a. good advice;! 
that as we begin and end all our times of eating witb 
prayer and thanksgiving; so at the meal we remove 
and carry up our mind and spirit to the celestial table/ 
often thinking of it, and often desiring it; that by. in-> 
kindling thy desire to heavenly banquets, thou mayest 
be indiflr^rent and less passionate for the earthly^. 

8. Mingle discourses pious, or in some sense pro- 
fitable, and in all senses charitable and innocent, with 
thy meal, as occasion is ministered. 

9. Let your drink so serve your meat, as your meat 
doth your health; that it be apt to convey and digest 
it, and refresh the spirits : but let it never go beyond 
such a refreshment as may a little lighten the present 
load of a sad or troubled spirit : never to inconveni- 
ence, lightness^ sottishness, vanity, or intemperance: 

Sect, iit.] Of Chastity. 87 

and know that the loosing the bands of the tongue^ 
and the very first dissolution of its duty^ is me degree 
of the intemperance. 

10. In all cases be careful that you be not brought 
under the power of such things which otherwise are 
lawful enough in the use. All things are lawful for 
me J but I will not he brought under the power of driy 
things said St. Paul. And to be perpetually longings 
and impatiently desirous of any things ' so that a man 
cannot abstain from it^ is to lose a mah^s liberty^ and 
to become a servant of meat and drink^ or smoke. 
And I wish this last instance were more' considered by 
persons who little suspect themselves guilty of in- 
temperance^ though their desires are strong and im* 
patient, and the use of it perpetual and unreasonable 
to 'all purposes, but that they have inade it habitual 
and necessary, as intemperance itself is made to some 

11. Use those advices which are prescribed as in- 
struments to suppress voluptuouisn^ss in the foregoing 

Of Chastity. 

READER, 9tay, and read not the advices of the following section, 
Mlbi thou hast a chaste spirit, or desirest to be chaste, or at least 
<re apt to consider whether you ought or no. For there are some 
tpiriti to atJieistival, and some so wholly possessed with a spirit of 
*^leanness, that they turn the most prudent and chaste ^courses 
^ dirt and filthy apprehensions ; like choleric stomachs, changing 

S8 Holy Living, [ Chap, n, 

iMr 9ery ^dtdMi aM nmdicine$ into bUteritits; und in a Uitmi 
$en$e tnmilQI the grace of God into wantonness. The^ study ea$a 
of conscience in the matter of carnal sins, not to avoid, but to learn 
ways how to offend God and pollute their owii spirits ; and search 
f Mr houses with a sun^beam, that they may be imtructei in «)l the 
eomers of nasHnetis. I hone used aU the care I could in tkefoUom* 
vug periods, that J might neither be wanting to auist those thai astl 
it, nor yet minister any occasion of fancy or vainer thoughts to those 
ihat need them not. If any man will snatch the pure taper frork my 
hand, and hold it to the devil, he wiU only hitrn his OwH fingers, M 
ikkU n&t rob ine of ihi rei^aYd of my citrejind good iuttnM%, AM 
I hsne taken JUsecT how to expr^ the following duties, msfl gdoms hm 
caution how to read them. 

Cha^titj^ \t tbat duty which was mystically mteiideA 
by (s(A in th^ law of circumcision. It is ttie ii»^ 
dimcision of the hearty the cutting off all ftiqmfiiM§ 
&f mMghtineJss^ and a suppression of all irit^ulMf 
deities in die matter of sensual or carnal pfetsum^ 
I call all ^ites irregular and sinful that are not saM^ 
tified : 1. By the holy institution, or by being witbitl 
the pr6t^tion of marriage ; 2. by being within the 
d^rd^ of nature; 3. by being withiii the moderatioil 
of Christian modesty. Against the first are fornica- 
tion, adultery, and all voluntary pollutions of either 
sex. Against the second are all unnatural lusts and 
incestuous mixtures. Against the third is all immode- 
rate use of permitted beds, concerning which judg- 
ttmkX is to be made as concerning meats and drinks r 
there being no certain degree of frequency or inteii^ 
tion prescribed to all persons, but it is to be ruled ais the 
other wtionB of a nutn, by proportion to the end, by 
|6e dimity cf t|ie person in tile honour and severity «# 


^^—1 ■ I nf ii T iw ' I I I ■< I I I !■» I 11 If f y i f ill 1 I ■ I MM 

8bct. hi.] Of Chastity. 89 

being a Christian^ and by other circumstances^ of 
which I am to give account. ' # 

Chastity is that grace ivhich forbids and restrains all 
th«e> keeping the body and soul pure in that state in 
which it is placed by God, whether of the single or. of 
the married life* Concerning which our duty is thus 
described by St. Paul, fbr this is the will of God, 
even our sanctification, that ye should abstain from 
fornication ; that every one of you should know how 
to possess his vessel in sanctification and honour not, 
in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles 
which knew not God. (I Thes. iv. 3, 4, &.) 

Chastity is either abstinence or continence. Absti- 
nence is that of virgins or widows: continence of 
married persons. Chaste marriages are honourable 
and pleasing to God ; widowhood is pitiable in its soli- 
tarines» and loss> but amiable and comely when it iq 
idomed with gravity and purity, and not sullied with 
tfie remembrances of the passed licence, nor with pre- 
sent desires of returning to a second bed. But virgi- 
nity is a life of angels*^ the enamel of the soul, the 
huge advantage of religion, the great opportunity for 
die retirements of devotion : and being empty of cares 
it is full of prayers : being unmingled with the world 
it is apt to converse with God; and by not feeling 
the warmth of a too forward and indulgent naturCf 
flames out with holy fires, till it be burning like the 
cherubim, and the most^ ecstasied order of holy, and 
unpolluted spirits. 

* Yirginitas est in came^mtiptibili incorraptionis perpetua 
loediratio. S. Jug. 1. de Virg. c. 13. 

No. 4. N 

00 Holy living. [Chap. li. 

Nataral virginity of itself is not a state more 
ceptablelb God : but that which is chosen and vbltin* 
tary in order to the conventencies of religion and 
separation from worldly incumbrances^ i9 therefbrb 
better than the married life, not that it is more holy, 
but that it is a freedom from cares, an opportunity to 
spend more time in spiritual employments ;' it is not 
allayed with businesses and attendances upon lower 
afiairs : and if it be a chosen condition to these ends, 
it containeth in it a victory over lusts, and greater de-i 
sires of religion, and self-denial, and therefore is 
more excellent than the married life, in that degree m 
which it hath greater religion, and a greater mortifi- 
cation, a less satisfaction of natural desires, and a 
greater fullness of the spiritual : and just so is to eiA 
pect that little coronet or special reward which God 
hath prepared (extraordinary and besides the grioat 
crown of all faithiul souls) for those who have' not de^ 
Jiled themselves with women, but follow the vii^in 
Lamb for ever. (Apoc. xiv. 4. Isa. vii. 14.^ 

But some married persons, even in their marriage, 
do better please God than some virgins in their statd 
of virginity. They, by giving great examples of coiH 
jugal affection, by preserving their faith unbrokehy b|i 
educating children in the fear of God, by patience 
and contented ness, and holy thoughts, and the cx^r« 
cise of virtues proper to that state, do not only please 
God, but do it in a higher degree than those virgins 
whose piety is not answerabl^to theii* great opjportU:- 
nities and advantages. ^ 

Sect, in.] Of Chastity. dJ 

Howevetv married persons and widows and virgin^ 
w» all servants of God, and co-heirs^ in the inherit^ 
since of JeiuSy if they livie within the irestlraints atfd 
laws of their particular estate, chastely^ temperately^ 
j^ftTy^ ind religiously. 

The Evil Consequents of Uncleanin/^ss. .- 

The blessings and proper effects of chastity weshalfc 
bfest .understand' by reckoning the evils of uncleannest 
and carnality. • 

. 1« Uncleanness of all vibes is the' most shameM.v 
Tke ^fe of ihe adulterer waUeth for ihe twilight, say^ 
ingy No eye shall see me, and disguiseth his face. Im 
the dark they dig through houses, which they had 
marked Jbr theniselves in the dayMme; they know 
not the light: for the morning i$ to them cts ihe shu-" 
d9W of death. He is swift as the waters; their por^'- 
Hon is, cursed in the earth; he beholdeth not the twy 
cf the vineyards 4 (Job xxiv; 15, &c.^ Shame is the- 
eldest daughter of uncle^niless. 

:2».:The appetites of uncleanness are full of cares* 
and troubles, and its fruition is sorrow and repentance.* 
7%e way of the adulterer is hedged with thorns^ : full 
of fears and jealousies, burning desires and impatient* 
waitings, tediousness of delay, and sufferance of af- 
fronts, and amazements of discovery. 

3. Most of ite kinds are of that condition, that they 
involve the ruin of two souls ; and he that is a fomi* 

* Hos/ii. 6. Appetitus fonnicationis anzietas est^ satietas Tcrb 
poenitentia* S» JFReri^n. 

y ' ■ ;■ ■■■■■«-- ■ ■ ■ ■ I ■ I u I 

(^ Hafy living. [Cbap. ii. 

mtoF or adulterous, steals the soul as well as disho- 
nours the- body of his neighbour i and so it becoiQes 
fike the sin of falling Lucifer j who brought a part of 
tM stars, with his tail froni heaven. 

4. Of all carnal sins it is that alone which the deril 
takes delight to imitate and counterfeit : communicat- 
ing with witches and impure persons in the corporal 
acfe, but in this only. 

■q, 5. Uncleanness with all its kinds is a vice which' 
bath a professed enmity against the body. Every sm 
tfihich a man doth is without the body ; bui he that 
committeth fornication sinneth against his own hody^ 
(I On*, vi. 18.^ 

6. Uncleanness is hugely contrary to the spirit of 
government by embasing the spirit of a man, making, 
it effeminate, sneaking, soft and foolish, without coQ* 
rage^, without confidence. David felt this after his 
folly with Bathsheba — he fell to unkingly arts and 
stratagems to hide die crime ; and he did nothing but 
increase it, and remained timorous and poor-spirited, 
till he prayed tp God once more to establish him with 
1^ free and a princely spirit And no superior dare 
strictly observe discipline upon his charge, if he hath 
l^t himself loose to the shame of incontinence^. 

.7* The goQpel hath added two arguments against 
uncleanness which were never before used, nor indeed 
could be : since God hath given the holy Spirit to them 
that are baptised, and rightly confirmed, and entered 
ijnto covenant with;^ Pur bodies are made temples 

f Splntu pripcipa]^ me cpnfirma. fifjtL lU \%: 


Sect, hi.] Of Chastity. 08 

of die Holy. Ghost in which he dwells; and therdbre 
uncleaoness is sacril^e, and defiles a temple. It is 
St. PauTs argument : Know ye not that your body is 
the temple of the Holy Ghost? (I Cor; \u IQ.) and 
Ms that defiles a temple^ him will God destroy. 
Therefore glorify God in . your bodies^ that is, Jlee 
fbrnication* To which for the likeness of the argu- 
ment add^ that our bodies are members of Christ, 
(I Cot. iii* VJ*) and therefore, God forbid that we 
•bould tahe the members of Christ and make them 
members of a harlot. So that uncleanness dishonours 
Qirist, and dishonours the Holy Spirit: it is a sin 
^ i^nst. God, and in diis sense a sin against the Holy 

. 8* The next special argument which the gospel 

ministers especially against adultery, and for the pre-^ 

a^rvation of the purity of marriage, is, that marriage 

is by. Christ hallowed into a mystery, (Ephes. v. Sf2.) 

itb signify the sacramental and mystical union of Christ 

snd his Church. He therefore that breaks this knot, 

^vfaich the church and their mutual faith hath tied, 

msA Christ hath knit up into a mystery, dishonours a 

gifat rite of Christianity, of high, spiritual, and ex-i 

<!ellent signification. 

9« St.. Gregory reckons uncleanness to he the parent 

pf these monsters — blindness of mind, inconsidera* 

tion, precipitancy or giddiness in actions, self^love^ 

hatred of God, love of the present pleasures, a de- 

tpite or despair of the joys of religion here, and of 

he^y^ii hereafter. Whereas a pure miqd in a chaste 

94 Holy living. [ Chap. li. 

bocfy is the mother of wisdom and deliberation^ sober 
eounsels and ingenious actions, open deportment aii<l 
sweet carriage, sincere pinciples and unprejadicate 
understanding, love of God and self-dental, peddd 
and confidence, holy prayers and spiritual comfoit^ 
and a pleasure of spirit infinitely greater than* llie 
sottish and beastly pleasures of unchastity. Fbr Uk 
wercome pleasure is the greatest pleasure ^ and no nkh 
tcry is greater than that which is gotten aver am\ 
lusts andJUthy inclinations *. . 

10. Add to all these, the public dishonesty and di«^ 
Deputation that all the nations of the world have cast! 
upon adulterous and unhallowed embraces, ^iin^ti 
lech to the men of Gerar made it death to mfeddM 
with the wife of Isaac : and Judah condenmed Tha^ 
mar to be burnt for her adulterous conception ; aiid 
God, besides the. law made to put the adulterous person- 
to death, did constitute a settled and constant miracle 


to discover the adultery of a suspected woman, that 
her bowels should burst with drinking the waters^^ of 
jealousy. (Num. v. 14.^ The Egyptian law was to 
out off the nose of the adulteress, and the ofifending 
part of the adulterer. The Locrians put out both the 
adulterers' eyes. The Germans (as Tacitus reports) 
placed the adulter^s amidst her kindred naked^ and 
shaved her head, and caused her husband to beat 
her with clubs through the city. The Gortynceans 
crowned the man with wool, to shame him for his ef- 
feminacy.; and the Cumani caused the woman to ride 

* St Cyprian de bono pUdicitte, 

— I — ^^^^^ 

Sect. iiL] Of Chastity. 05 

Upon ad aw naked^ afid hooted at^ and for ever aftec 
cklkd' ber by an appellative of scorn, a rider upon an 
ass,. All nations, barbarous and civil, agreeing in theic 
genml design of rooting so dishonest and shameful a 
vice from under heaven. 

Hie * middle ages of the church were not pleased 
that the adulteress should be put to death ; but in the 
primitive ages the *f* civil laws, by which Christians 
were then governed, gave leave to the wronged bus-* 
band to kill his adulteress wife, if he took her in the 
fact: but because it was a privilege indulged to men^ 
rather than a direct detestation of the crime, a consi-^ 
demfion of the injury rather than of the uncleanness, 
ttitrefi3re it was soon altered, but yet it hath caused au 
iaquhry, Whefhet is worscy the adultery of the man 
or the toomafu 

The resoldtion of which case, in order to our present 

afiair, is thus: in respect of the person^ the fault ia 

greater in a man than in a woman, who is of a more 

pliant and easy spirit, and weaker understanding, and 

liath nothing to supply the unequal strength of men, 

l^t the defensative of a passive nature and armour of 

modesty, which is the natural ornament of that sex. 

^^M^ it is unjust that the man should demand chastity 

«d aeverify from his tvife, which himself will not oh^ 

*crve towards her\, said the good Emperor Ant0iius: 

* Concil. Tribur. c. 49. ConciL Aurel. 1 sub. Clodoveo. 
t God. de adulteriis ad legem Juliam> 1. !• et Cod. Theod. de 

adulteriis^ c. placuit. 
t Apud Antg, de adulter, ccmji:^. FtuU conjug. praecept. 

90 Holy Living, [Chap. ii. 


it is as if the man should persiiade his wife to fight 
against those enemies to which he had yielded himself 
a prisoner. 2. In respect of the effects and evil caih 
sequents, the adultery of the woman is worse^ as bridg- 
ing bastardy into a family^ and disinherisons/ or great 
injuries to the lawful children, and infinite violadous 
of peace, and murders, and divorces, and all the 
effects of rage and madness. 3. But in respect cfihe 
crime, and as relating to God, they are equal, intoler- 
able, and damnable: and since it is no more permitted to 
men to have many wives, than to women to have 'many 
husbands, and that in this respect their privil^e -is 
equal, their sin is so too. And this is the case of Uie 
question in Christianity. And the church anciently 
nrfused to admit such persons to the holy communion^ 
until they had done seven years penances in- fasting, 
in sackcloth, in severe inflictions and instruments of 
chastity and sorrow, according to the discipline of 
those ages. 

Acts of Chastity in general. 

1 . The actions and proper offices of the grace ' of 
. chastity in general, are these : 

1 . Tq resist all unchaste thoughts : at no hand en- 

tertaining pleasure in the unfruitful fancies and 
memhrances of uncleanpess, although no definite 
desire or resolution be entertained. 

2. At no hand to entertain any desire, or any phan- 
tastic, imaginative loves, though by shame, or dis- 
ability, or other circumstance, they be restrained 
from the act. 

S^cT. ni.] Of Chastity. Sff 

3* ll^J^ve a^h(iSie^e4miBi0n4; foTithj4^-Q^f 
ynik wbt^t pi^it Qf tbe body yfe ^torngjiX adtt)teTy ; m/fi 
if a man lets his ej^^ \w^» ^1^ "^j^y^ \hp Iwt q{ tJ^sffj^ 
jhe if lua ;^id#lieper *• jLod^ n^ ii^i^ 4f i^maif |fo ^/ 
^erier. And suj^iosiog ajU tbe.o(bber mesfAftr^ i|ar 
itaJwad^ . ypt if the ^ya be permitted tQ iuf t^ jtbe ^09^ 
OtQ ap otlierwi/se l)e c^led chaste, than he can )hi 
(WUlsd le^ere apd fBortifie4i that aits pXi day Jong f|9p- 
ing fhy^ -uid n^yelUngf^ and oi|it of greadiofEAs to ^ 
^'i^05 i|eg}Qct^ hip Vdly« Tbe^.F^e admf veq^ls 
which ijE you pfl^r to lift by the belly oi^ bottooij yo)i 
oonot stir theoi, but are sooa remoiired if you t^ife 
them by the ears. It matters not with which of your 
members you are Ukitn and carried dBT from your duty 
Md severity. 

.4. Tb frave a heart and mind thMsfe and pmr s ^^^^ 
ai, detestii^ alt uncleaim^sSji disliking all its motions, 

past Actions, circumstances^ likenesses^ disco\i,f sevs : 

Ukji this ought to be the chastity of villus and widdwf, 

^ old persons and eunuchs espeeiaUy, and geneipally 

^f all men, aocordjbg to their ^several neoessities* 

$. To discourse chastekf o^t^jT^A^*^^; with^gr^cai^ 
<le(jining all indepenpies of langui|g|Bp c^tening d^ 
tcH^e^ and restratining it witk gr^qejus vaiKMjijrs ^of 
^0e are restrain^ with a bunch of myrrh. 

6« To disapprove by an ^ter act ailinvolunl^ry ^i^ 
'^ural pollutions: for xr a man de%hts in iif^ring 
^Wfered any patural pollutiop, and with pleasure 19- 

* IliDe videre unde pc^s cadere^ et noli fieri perversa aimpli- 
«iUte sccuroa. S. Jug* 

No. 5^ o 


Hofy Living. [Chap. if. 

memben it, he chooses that which was in jtseif iiwo- 

■ * 

Kiritaiy; and that which being natural was innoeenti 
beooming Yoluntaiy is made sinful **• 

y. They that have performed diese duties and parts 
of chastity^ will certainly abstain from all exterior 
actions of uncleanness, those noon-day and ipid^n^t 
devils^ those lawless and ungodly , worshippings of 
shame aiid uncleanness^ whose birth is ini trouble 


whose growth is in folly, and whose end is in shamed 

But besides these general acts of chastity, which aie 
common to all states of men and women^ there ate 
wme few things proper to the severals, 

jicts of Virginal Chastity. 

1. Virgins must remember that the virginity of the 
body is only excellent in order to the purity of the 
soul: who therefore must consider, that since they 
are in some measure in a condition like that of angels, 
it is their duty to spend much of their time in ismge^ 
lical employment : for in the same degree that virgins 
live more spiritually than other persons, in the same 
degree is their virginity a more excellent state. But 
else it is ho better than that of involuntary or con- 
strained eunuchs; a misery and a trouble, or else a 
mere privation as much without exceliency as without 

' 2. Virgins must contena for a singular modesty: 
whose first part must be an ignorance in the distine- 

* Sp. Minutius Pontifex Posthumlum monuit^ n^ verbis Tita& 
pastimomam non sequantibus uteretur, Flut, de cap. ex inim* 

Sect, hi.] Of Chastity. 90 



tioii of sexei^ dr their propet- instrutnents t or if they 
accidentally be inttrtict^ in that^ k must be Supplied 
with an inad?ei1;enqy jor neglect of all thoughts ,tttid 
xtmemlHraiice of such difference! and the following 
parts of it must be pious and chuste thoughts^ holy, 
language, and nkQdest,carriage« 

3. Virgins tuiust be retired and unpublic : for all 
freedom and looseness of sociQity is a violence done tO; 
yirgmity> not in its natural^ but in its morale capacity ; 
that ]8> it looses part of its severity^ strictness^ and 
opportunity of advantages^ by publishing that person 
whose work is religion^ whose company is angels^ 
whose thoughts must dwell in heaven^ and separate 
from all mixtures of the world. 

A. -Virgins have a peculiar obligation to charity i 

Cor dlis is the virginity of the soul : as purity> integrity^ 

and separation . is of the body: which doctrine we. are 

taught by St. Peter ^ Seeing you have purified you^ 

wuU in chtying the truth through the Spirit unto un- 

Jeigned love of 'the brethren^ see thai ye love one a^ 

other with a pure heart fervently* (i PeL u 22.) 

For a virgin^ that . consecrates her body to God^ and 

pollutes her spirit with rage, or impatience, or inord^ 

dinate anger, gives him . what he most hates, a inost 

foul and defiled soui« 

.5. These rules are necessary, for virgins^ tbatoflfer 

that state to God, and mean not to enter into the state 

of marriage :. for they that, only wait the opportunity 

of a convenient change, are to steer themselves by tt^a 

general rules of chastity. 

M I*** II ■■ I f ■■ ■■ ■ . 11 ■ . . ,. V il ■ ■ - ' f J P i . 

MO Holy lAting. [Chap. ir. 

it I II- 

'- K>ir wJMiow«^ the fentmel of whose desires hatti beeiv 
^Med by the former pennissione of the marrlsge bed, 
they must remember, * 

1. That God hath now restrained the. former & 
^ce, bound up their ej^es^ and shut up tbei^ heitrt 
into a narrower compass, and hadi gfven^ tkem^ sornMH 
to be a bridle to <heir desires. A widow must \m'm 
mourner; and she that is not, oanBot Im wril M<M0 
fbe chastity of her proper state. 

Jt It is against public honesty to marry mieiAer 
man^ so long as she is with child by her former }amh 
band : and of the same fame- it is in a lesser propeip* 
tion, to marry within the- year of mourning r but 
ancibatly it was infamous for her to marry till byt 
common account the body was dissolved into its first 
principle of earth. 

3>. A widow must restrain her memory and her &ncy> 
not veealling or recounting her former permissions and 
freer licences with any present delight, for then she 
4pens that sluice which her husband^s death and faet 
own sorrow have shut up. 

4. A widow that desires her widowhood should be 
a state pleasing to God,, must spend her time as de* 
voted virgins should, in feistings, and prayers, and 

5v A widow must forbid herself to use those teoH 
poral solaces, which in her former estate were innocent, 
but now are dangerous. 

Sbct. III.] Of Chastity. 101 

Mades far married Persons, or matrimonial Chastity. 

CoMemitvg maitied persons^ besides the keepings of 
limr mutudl faith and oantract with each other^ these 
fMutitalars am useful to* be observed ^. 

1. Although their mutual endearments are safe 
withitt the protection of niarriage, yef they that ha^ve 
WfVM w husbands, must be as though they had then^ 
wt^ that is, they must have an afiection greater^ ta 
earilP^her than they have to any person in the wwld^ 
kot not greater than they have to God : but that they- 
be ready to part with all interest in each ofcher^s person 
raflher than sin i^inst God. 

9/ In their permissions and licence^ they must b^ 

rare to observe the order of nature, arid the end& of 

Godk Ht is an ill husband, that uses his wife as a 

man treats a harlot^ having no other end but plea~ 

Mire-^^ Cbneeming which our best rule is, that aU 

tifHrngb in this^ as in eating and drinking, there is an 

aj^ite to be satisfied, which cannot be done without 

pl^ng that desire; yet since that desire and satis** 

fecHon vras intended by nature for other ends, they^ 

^ould never be separate from those ends, but always 

b^ joinedswith all or one of these ends, witk a desire 

^f'^ildren, or to avoid famication, or to lighten and 

^^e the cares and sadness-^ household (iffinrsy or to 

Nki fiindainenta slirpis jacta sint prob^, miseros necesse est 
^einceps posteros. Eutip, 
f NoQ debemus eodem amico uti et adulalore; ne^ ^dem uti^ 
^*ore et scoilo. Plui. codji^. prsecept. 


102 Udif Living. [Chap. h. 

endear each other; but never with a purpose^ either 
in act or desire^ to separate the sensualitjr from thea^ 
ends which hallow it. Onan did^ separate his rac^ 
firom its proper end, and so ordered hia eqfibrMea 
that his ^wife should not conceive, and God punished 

3. Married persons must keep such modestjr .and 
decency of treating each other *^, that they never forea 
themselves into high and violent lusts, with arts mA 
misbecoming devices : always remembering that thoie 
mixtures are most innocent which are most sknph and 
most natural, most orderly, and most safe. 
- 4. It is a duty of matrimonial chastity to be re- 
strained and temperate in the use of their lawful {Mea- 
sures : concerning which, although no universal jruie 
can antecedently be given to all persons, any mofie 
than to all bodies one proportion of meat and drink, f 
yet married persons are to estimate the degree of their 
licence according to the following proportions. 1 . That 
it be moderate, so as to consist with health. 2. That 
it be so ordered as not to be too expensive of time^ 
that precious opportunity of working out our salva- 
tion. 3. That when duty is demanded it be always^ 
paid (so far as in our powers and election) according 
to the foregoing measures. 4. That it be with a tem-— 
perate - affection, without . violent transporting desirep^- 

' * Non rect^ est ab Herodoto dictum simul cum tunica •mulieren^' 
verecundiam exuere. (Quae n. casta est positSL veste verecundian^^ 
ejus loco induit> maxim^que verecundi^ conjuges tesser^ maximS- 
jQvicem ainori9 utuntur. Pint, con jug. prsecept. 

Sect, hi.] Of Chastity. 103 

m* too ^nsual applications. Concerning whicH a 
man is to make ju<]^inent by proportion to other ac^ 
tions^ ami the severities of his religion, and the sen^ 
fences <^ sober and wise persons^ always remember- 
ing, that marriage is a provision for supply of the 
natii^l necessities of the body, not for the artificial 
and procured appetites of the mind. And it is a sad 
troth, that many married per^cms thinking that, the 
flood-gates of liberty are set wide open without mea- 
nires or restraints (so they sail in that channel) have 
felt the final rewards of intemperance and lust, by 
their unlawful using of lawful permissions. Only IdE 
each of them be temperate, and both of them be 
modest. Socrates was wont to say, that those women 
to whom nature hath not been indulgent in good feai- 
tunes and colours, should make it up themselves wiUi 
excellent manners; and those who arc; beautiful and 
eomely, should be careful that so fair a body be not 
polluted with unhandsome usages. To which Plu^ 
torch adds, that a wife, if she be unhandsome, 
should consider how extremely ugly she should be if 
she wanted modesty : but if she be handsome, let her 
think how gracious that b^uty would be if she super- 
adds chastity *. ' 

5. Married persons, by consent, are to abstain from 
tbeir mutual entertainments at solemn times of devo- 
tion 4 not as a duty of itself necessary, but as being the 
wost proper .act of purity which in their condition 

* De CoDJug. PrsBcept. 


1<^ Holy licmg. [Chap. ii. 

jthiy can present to God^ and being a good advantage 
fyc attending their preparation to the solemn dutjr, 
.wd their demeanour in it« It is St. Pa$its coumo!, 
iiMit hf consent for a time they should abstain, that 
4key may give themselves to fastif^ and prayer. 
^l Cor. vii. 5.) And, though when Christians did m» 
4mye the holy communion every day, it is cetSkaw 
HAusy did mi^t abstain^ but had children : yet vrheb the 
^^lommunion was more sddom, they did with reli§idn 
ifbstain from the marriage bed during the time of their 
Mlemn preparatory devotions, as ancieiatly. they 4id 
£r0m eating and drinking till the solemnity ol the 4aY 
Hiras past *• 

6. It were vi^ell if married persons would, in their 
penitential prayers^ and iu their geneml ieoniessiooSy 
(tiispect themselves and accordingly ask a general |pw- 
dim for all their indecenciios and more passionate iqp- 
plicati6ns of themselves in the offices df marmge: 
tbat what is lawful and honourable in its kind, may not 
)^ sullied with imperfect circumstances: or if it be, 
it may be made clean again by the interruption and 

- ' ^ Hoc etiam ex more ChristianomiB) Terttd. suadens frntttals 
Christiaois nb P^nisnubant, ak, Quia denique solennihiis Psgchii 
4d)noctantein securus suslinebit? TertuL ad uxor. L'S. Et ex 
more etiam Gentilium. Plut. sympos. 3. q. 6. Nobis autem, si 
leges civitatis recte colimus^ cavendum est, nh ad templa et sa- 
erificia accedamus^ paul5 ant^ re venerea usi. Itaque expedit nocte 
^ somno interjecto^ justoque intervallo adhibito, mixndos ruisom 
quasi de integro^ et ad novum diem nova cogitantes (ut ait Demo^ 
critus) surgerev 

»««Ji*M»«W^»J^«*»^— ———»»— ^^M^j^ 

Sect, hi.] Of Chastity, 105 

reeallingt of such « repentance of which such uncer^ 

tain parts of action are capable. 

'But because of all the dangers of a Christian^ none 

more pressiilg and troublesome than the temptations to 

lust^ no. enemy more dangerous than that of the fle8h> 

no Mcounts greater than' what we have to reckon for 

at -the audit of concupiscence^ therefore it concerns 

dl<^t would be safe from this death to arm* themselves 

\if "the following rales to prevent^ or to cure all the 

wounds of our fleshy made by the poisoned arrows of 

test : 

Remedies . qgaimi Uncleanness. 

1. When a temptation of lust assaults thee^ do not 
insist it by heaping up argunients against it^ and dis- 
|iuting with it^ considering its offers and its danger^ 
but Ay from it, that is/thinknotat all of it: lay adde 
all consideration concerning it^ and turn away from it 
by any severe, and laudable thought of business "^^^ 
^. Hier&m very wittily reproves the Gentile supersti- 
tion, who pictured the virgin-deities armed with a 
shield and lance,, as if chastity could not be defended 
^thout war and direct contention. No ; this enemy 
^ to be treated otherwise. If |rou hear it speak, though 
Wt to, dispute with it, it ruins you; and the very ar- 
S^ments you go about to answer, leave a relish upon 
*he tongue. A man may be burned if he goes near 
^e fire, though but to quench his house ; and by 

'"^^ Contra libidinis impetum apprehende fugam^ si vis obtinere 
^ctoriam. S. jf»g. Nella guerra d*amor chi fuge vince. 

No. 5. p 

106 Hdy Living. [Chap. ii. 

handling pitdi^ though. but to draw it from yoor 
clothes^ you defile your fingers. 

2. Avoid idleness^ and fill up all the spaces of thy 
time with severe and useful employment: for. lust 
usually creeps in at those , emptinesses where the swl 
is unemployed and the body is at ease. For no easy,, 
healthful^ and idle person was ever chaste^ if he could 
be tempted. But of all employments^ bodily labour 
is most useful^ and of the. greatest benefit for the 
driving away the deviL 

3. Give no entertainment to the beginnings^ . the 
first motions and secret whispers of the spirit of im- 
purity *. For if you totally suppress it^ it dies ; if yoo 
permit the furnace to breathe its smoke and flame out 
at any vent^ it will rage to the consumption of the 
whole. This cockatrice is soonest crushed in the 
shelly but . if it grows, it turns to a serpent^ and a 
dragon, and a devil. 

4. Corporal mortification and hard usages c^ our 
body, hath by all ages of the church been accofinted 
a good instrument, and of some profit a^inst the 
spirit of fornication. A spare diet^ and a thin coarse 
table, seldom refreshment^ frequent fasts, not violent 
and interrupted with returns to ordinary feedings but 
constantly little, unpleasant^ of wholesome but sparing 

* Quisquis in primo obstitit 

Repulitque amorein^ tutus ac victor fiiit : 
Qui blandiehdo dulce nutrivit maluni> 
Ser6 recusat feire quod subiit jugum. 

iSeitec. Hippok 

Sect, hi.] Of Chastity. 107 

noarishment : for by such -cutting off the provisions of 
victuals, we shall weaTcen the strength of our enemy: 
To which if we add lyings upon the ground, painful 
postures in prayer, reciting our devotions with our 
amis extended at full length, like .Mose^ praying 
agstnst Amalekf or our blessed Saviour hanging upon 
his painful bed of sorrows, the cross, and (if the lust 
be upon us, and sharply tempting) by inflicting any 
smirt to overthrow the strongest passion by the most 
vioknt pain, we shall find great ease for the present, 
at^ the resolution and apt sufferance against the fu- 
ture danger. And this -was St. PduTs remedy, / bring 
ffiy body under ; he used some rudeness towards it: 
But it was a great nobleness of chastity which 4^^ . Hie-^^ 
rm* reports of a son of the king of Nicomedia, who 
beii^ tempted upon flowers and a perfunied bed with 
a 9oA violence, but yet tied down to the temptation, 
aud solicited with circumstances of Asian luxury by 
an impure courtesan, least the easiness of his posture 
^hould^ abuse him, spit out his tongue into her face : 
to represent that no virtue hath cost the saints • sb 
much as this of chastity^. 

5. Fly from all occasions, temptations, loosenesses 
of company, balls and revellings, indecent mixtures 
of wanton dancings, idle talk, private society with 
«trange women, starings upon a beauteous face, the 

* In vita S. Pauli. 
t Benedictus in ^inis se volutavlt. S. Martinianus faciem et ma- 
nus. S. Johannes cognomento Bonus> calamos acutos inter ungues 
et qamem digitorum intrusit. S, Tkeoctystus in syhis more fera^ 
jiim ?ixit^ ne inter Arabes poUueretur. 

108 Holjf Living. [Chap. ii. 

company of women that are singers^ amoroas ge^ 
tares, garish and wanton dressings, feasts and liberty, * 
banquets and perfumes, wine and strong drinks, which 
are made to persecute chastity, some of these being 
the very prologues to lust, and the most innocent c^ 
them being but like condited or pickled mushroom^ 
which, if carefully corrected, and seldom tasted, may 
be harmless, but can never do good: ever rmnem* 
bering that it is easier to die for chastity, than to Ufa 
with it ; and the hangman could not extort a conaettt 
from some persons, from whom a lover would ha?s 
entreated it For the glory of chastity will easily 
overcome the rudeness of fear and violence; but 
easiness, and softness, and smooth temptations ereepitt^ 
and, like the sun, make a maiden lay by her veil 
robe, which persecution, like the northern wind, 
bcr hold fast and clap close about her. 

6, He that will secure his chastity, must first ou 
his pride and his rage* For oftentimes lust is th::^ 
punishment of a proud man, to tame the vanity of hm0 
pride by the shame and affronts of unchastity ; an^d 
the 4same intemperate heat that makes anger, does iw^ 
kindle lust *^ 

7* If thou beest assaulted with an unclean spirit 
trust not thyself alone, but run forth into company^ 
whose reverence and modesty may suppress, or whos9 

numquid ego k te /^^ 

Magno prognatam deposco consule fei^^J^i ♦v'^ 

V^ta^ue 8to)& mea cum conferbuit ira ? X^^f^V 

Bor^i. Senti» 1 1. Sat, % 

Sect, hi.] Of Chastity, 100 

soeiety maf divert tby thoughts : and a perpetual wit* 
11688 of thj conversation is of especial use i^ainst this 
vkey whichi evaporates in the open air liJse campbire^ 
being iaipatient of light aad witnesses, 

8. Use frequent and earnest prayers to the King, of 
putities, the first of virgins^ the eternal God^ who ia 
cl an essential purity^ that he would be pleased tq 
Improve and cast out the unclean spirit. For> besides 
the blessings of prayer by way of reward^ it bath n 
natural virtue to restrain this vice : because a pr^yef 
agimit it is an unwillingness to act it ; and so long as 
we heartily pray against it^ our desires are secured, and 
d^n this devil hath no powm-. This was St. PauSti 
odier remedy : [For this cause I l^aught the Lord 
thrice.'] And there is much reason and much advan^ 
tage in the use of this instrument ; because the main 
^iog that is in this affair to be secured, is a man's 
ttind*^. He that goes about to cure lust by bodily 
exercises alone (as St. PauVs phrase is) or mortifica** 
tioDs, shall find them sometimes instrumental to it, 
^xA incitations of sudden desires, but always insufr 
ficient and of little profit : but he that hath a chaste 
mind shall find his body apt enough to take laws; 
ftnd let it do its worst, it cannot make a sin, and in 
Its greatest violence can but produce a little natural 
Uneasiness, not so much trouble as a severe fasting- 
day, or a hard night's lodging upon boards. If a man 
^ hungry he must eat, and if he be thirsty he must 
drink in some convenient time, or else he dies : but 
* Mens inpudicam focere^ non corpus solet. 

110 Holy Living, [Chap. ii. 

if the body be rebellioas^ so the mind be chaste^ let 
it do its worst ; if you resolve perfectly not to satisfy 
it, you can receive no great evil by it. Therefore the 
proper cure is by applications to the spirit^ and seca-^ 
rities of the mind, which can no ways so well be se- 
cured as by frequent and fervent prayers, and sober 
resolutions, and severe discourses. Therefore, 

9. Hither bring in succour from consideration of 
the divine presence, and of his holy angels, medita- 
tion of death, and the passions of Christ upon th6 
cross, imitation of his purities, and of the virgin 
Mary, his unspotted and holy mother, and of such 
eminent saints, who in their genierations were burning 
and shining lights, unmingled with such uncleanneasea 
which defile the soul, and who now follow the Lamb 
whithersoever he goes. 

10. These remedies are of universal efficacy in all 
cases extraordinary and violent ; but in ordinary and 
common, the remedy which God hath provided, that 
is, honourable * marriage, hath a natural efficacy, be- 
sides a virtue by divine blessing, to cure the inconve- 
niences which otherwise might afflict persons tempe- 
rate and sober. 


Of Humility. 
HUMILITY is the. greatest ornament and jewel of 
Christian religion, that whereby it is distinguished 

* Danda est opera ut matrimonio devinciantur quod est tutissimum 
juventulis vinculum. Pltiit, de educ. lib. 

Sect, iv.] Of Humility. Ill 

■ » J ■■ III ■ ■ t ^ 

from all the wisdom of the world ; it not having been 
taught by .the wise men of the Gentiles^ but first put 
kita a discipline^ and made part of a religion^ by our 
Lord Jesus Christy who propounded himself imitabl^ 
by his disciples^ so signally in nothing as in the twin 
sistars of meekness and humility* Learn of me, for 
t am. meek and humble j and ye shall Jind rest unto 
fm souls. 

For all the worlds all that we are^ and all that we 
have^ our bodies and our souls, our actions and our 
sid^ngsy our conditions at home, our accidents 
abroad, our many sins, and our seldom virtues, are as 
10 many arguments to make our souls dwell low in 
thedeep valHes of humili;ty. 

Arguments against Pride^ by way of Consideration* 

1. Our body is weak and impure, sending out 
more uncleannesses from its several sinks than could 
be endured, if they werfe not necessary and natural: 
and we. are forced to pass that through our mouths^ 
which, as soon as we see upon the ground, we loath like 
rottenness and vomiting. 

2. Our strength is inferior to that of many beasts, 
and our infirmities so many, that we are forced to 
dress and tend horses and asses, that they may help 
our needs and relieve our wants. 

3. Our beauty is in colour inferior to many flowers, 
and in proportion of parts it is no better than no- 
thing : for even a dog hath parts as well proportioned 
^nd fitted to his purposes, and the designs of his 

112 Holy IJving, [Chap. ii. 

mtare^ as we have : and when it is most florid waA 
gjBiy, three fits of an i^e can change it into ydlow-- 
fiess and leanness^ and the hollowness and wriiikles -of 

4. Our learning is then best when it teaefaes mott 
bumility : but to be proud of learning is the g i'e at es t 
Ignorance in the world. For our learning is to 'long 
in getting, and so very imperfect, that the gr e^ tte s t 
derk knows not the. thousandth part of what he is 
ignorant ; and knows so uncertainly what he aeema to 
know, and knows no otherwise than a fool dt a child^ 
even what is told him, or what he guesses at, tint 
except those things which concern his duty, abd 
which God hath revealed to him, which also every 
woman knows as far as is necessary, the most learned 
man hath nothing to be proud of, unless this be a suf- 
ficient argument to exalt him, that he uncertainly 
guesses at some more unnecessary things than many 
others, who yet know all that concerns them, and 
mind other things more necessary for the needs of life 
and commonwealths. 

5 . He that is proud of riches is a fool. For if he 
be exalted above his neighbours, because he hath more 
gold, bow much inferior is he to a gold mine? how 
much is be to give place to a chain of pearl, or a knot 
of diamonds ? for certainly that hath the greatest ex- 
cellence from whence he derives all his gallantry and 
pre-eminence over his neighbours. 

6. If a man be exalted by reason of any excellence 
in his soul, he may please to remember that all souls 


' JJ ■ " ■ 

Sect, it.] Of Humility- 118 

■ ■ — l.|» H Wi > I HL I ■ I . ' ' « 

■ ■ I I I I » I* — ..T 

are equal; and their (^iflfeiing op0rati<ni6 are because 
their instrument is in better tune^ their hocly is mora 
healthful or better tempered: «vbi<;h is no more praise 
to him^ than it is that be was born in Italy. 

7* He that is proud of hi$ birth is proud of the ble$9- 
tngs cS others^ not of himself: for if his parents were 
More eminent in any circumstance than thejr neigh- 
boars* he is to thank God, and to rejoice in them; 
but still he may be a &ol, or unfortunate, or de- 
fintned; and when himself was born, it was indi|{e<- 
tent to him whether his father w^re a king or a peasanil^ 
&r he knew not any thing, nor chose any thing ; and 
laost commonly it is true, that he that boasts of his 
ancestors, who were the founders and raisers of a 
Bo'ble family^ doth confers that he hath in himself a 
lew virtue and a less honour^ and Unerefore that be i^s 

8. Whatsoever other difference there is between thee 
and thy neighbour, if it be bad, it is thine own, but 
4liou hast no reason to boast of thy misery and shajne : 
if it be good, thou hast received it from God, and 
•then thou art more obliged to pay duty and tribute^ 
uae and principal to him ; and it were strange folly 
.for a man to be proud of being more in djebt than 

% Remember what thou wert before thou wert be^ 
gotten. Nothing. What wert thou in the first regions 
of thy dwelling, before thy birth ? uncle^nness. What 
wert thou for many y^ars after ? weakness. What in 
all thy life? a great sinner. What in all thy excel* 
No. 6. (ft 

114 Holy living. [Chap. ii. 



lenfcies ? -a^inere debtor to God^ to thy parents, to the 
earth/ to itll the creatares. * But we may if we please 
u^ the method of the Platonists, who reduce all the 
causes and arguments for humility^ which we can take 
from ourseliFes, to these seven heads* 1. The spirit 
of a man is light and troublesome* 2. His body ii 
brutish and sickly. 3* He is constant in his folly and 
error, and inconstant in his manners and good par- 
poses. 4. His labours are vain« intricate, and «id? 
less. 5. His fortune is changeable, and seldom pleai!- 
ing, never perfect* 6. His wisdom comes not till be 
be ready to die, that is, till he be past losing it* J. Hit 
death is certain, always ready at the door, but nener 
far off. Upon these or the like meditations, if we 
dwell or frequently retire to them, we shall see nothing 
more reasonable than to be humble, and nothing more 
foolish than to be proud. 

Acts or Offices of Humility . 

The grace of humility is exercised by these follow- 
ing rules : 

1 . Think not thyself better for any thing that hap- 
pens to thee from without; for although thou mayst 
by gifts bestowed upon thee be better than another, 
as one horse is better than another, that is of more 
use to others; yet, as thou art a man, thou hast no- 
thing to commend thee to thyself but that only by 
which thou art a man,, that is, by what thou choosest 
and refusest. 

* jipuleim^de DoBxnon. Socrates. 


Sect, iv.] Of Humility. 115 • 

'- " . -.11.. ' , I .. I J ■■■ , t .1. 

2. Humility consists not in railing against thyself, or 
wearing. mean clothes, or going softly and submissively; 
but in hearty and real evil or mean opinion of thyself. 
Believe thyself an unworthy person heartily, as thou 
believest thyself to be hungry, or poor, or sick, whe;n 
thou art so. 

3. Whatsoever evil thou sayest of thyself, be content 
that others should think to be true : and if thou callest 
thyself : fool be not angry if another say so of thee. 
For if ihfM thinkest so truly, all men in the world 
desire other men to be ci their opinion ; and he is an 
hypocrite that accuses himself before others, with an 
intent not to be bdieved. But he ^that calls himself 
intemperate, ' foolish, lustful, and^ is angry when his 
neighbour calls him so, is both a false and a proud 

4. Love to be concealed, and little esteemed * : be 
content to want praise, never being troubled when 
thou art slighted or undervalued ; for thou canst not 
undervalue thyself, and if thou thinkest so meanly as 
there is reason, no contempt will seem unreas(l)|j||)ie, 
and therefore it will be very tolerable. 

6. Never be ashamed of thy birth, or thy parents, 
or thy trade -f*, or thy present employment, for the 
meanness or poverty of any of them, and when there 
is an occasion to speak of them, such an occasitaifi as 
would invite you to speak of any thing that pleases 
you, omit it not; but speak as readily. and indiffe- 

* Ama nescirl et pro nihilo reputari. Gerson. 
t U villan nobilitado non cognosce parentado. Chi del arte sua se 

vergogoa sexnpre vive con vergogna. 

a ... ■ , , 

116 Hofy Lhing. [Chap. n. 

rently of thy meanness as of thy greatnese. JPrMi^ 
husy the first king of Bohemia, kept his oountry dioci 
always by him, to remember from fidtenoe he was 
vatsed : and Agathocks, by the fumitare of hia tabk, 
confessed, that from a potter he was raised to be tfat 
king of Sicily. 

^. Never speak any thing directly tending to ihy 
praise or glory ; that is, with i^ purpose to be^ eoe»- 
mended, and for no other end. If other ends be 
mingled with thy honour, as if the glory of God, or 
charity, or necessity, or any thing of prudence be tivf 
end, you are not tied to omit your discourse or your 
design that you may avoid praise, but pursue your end, 
though praise come along in the company. Only kt 
not praise be die design. 

7* When thou bast said or done any thing for 
which thou receivest praise or estimation, take it in- 
differently and return it to Crod ; reflecting upon him 
as the giver of the gift, or the blesser of the action, 
or the aid of the design ; and give God thanks for 
making thee an instrument of his glg^,*f<Mr the benefit 
of others. 

8. Secure a good name to thyself by living virtue 
ously and humbly : but let this good name be nursed 
abroad ; and never be brought home to look upon it : 
let others use it for their own advantage^ let them 
speak of it if they please ; but do not thou at all use it, 
but as an instrument to do God glory, and thy neigh- 
bours more advantage. Let thy face, like Moses\ shine 
to others^ but make no looking-glasses for thyseUv 

Sect, iv.] Of Humility. 117 

■ » ■ i- 

9. Take no content in praise when it is offered thee : 
but let thy rejoicing in God's gift be allayed with fear^ 
lest this good bring thee to evil. Use the praise as you 
UMf.your pleasure in eatihg and drinking: if it comes, 
mmke it do drudgery — let it serve other ends^ and 
minister to necessities and to caution^ lest by pride you 
Imc your just praise which you have deserved ; or else 
1^ being praised unjustly^ you receive shame unto 
yourself with God and wise men. 

10. Use no stratagems and devices to get praise. 
Some use to enquire into the faults of their own ac- 
tions or discourses on purpose to hear that it was well 
done or spoken^ and without fault : others bring the 
inatter into talk^ or thrust themselves into company^ 
and intimate and give occasion to be thought or spoke 
o£ These men make a bait to persuade themselves 
to swallow the hook^ till by drinking the waters of 
vanity they swell and burst. 

11.. M^ke no suppletories to thyself, when thou 
art disgraced or slighted, by pleasing thyself with sup- 
posing thou didst deserve praise, though they under- 
stood thee not, or enviously detracted from thee : nei- 
ther do thou get to thyself a private theatre * and 
flatterers, in whose vain noises and phantastic praises 
thou mayst keep up thine own good opinion of thyself. 

12. Entertain no fancies of vanity and private 
whispers of the devil of pride: such as was that of 
Naiuchadonozor : Is not this g7^eat Babylon which I 

* Alter alter! satis amplum theatrum snmuS;, satis umi8^ satis 

nuUus. Sen, 


118 Ilolif Living. [Chap. ii. 

have built for the honour of my name, and the m^ht 
of my majesty^ and the power of my ki$igdom 9 some 
phantastic spirits will walk alone^ and dream waking 
of greatnesses^ of palaces^ of excellent orations, fall 
theatres, loud applauses, sudden advancement, gi^wt 
fortunes ; and so will spend an hour with imaginativt 
pleasure; all their employment being nothing btti* 
fumes of pride, and secret indefinite desires and sigiii' 
fications of what their heart wishes. In this, although 
there is nothing of its own nature directly vicious^ yet 
it is either an ill mother or an ill daughter, an ill sign 
or an ill effect, and therefore at no hand consistii^ 
with the safety and interests of humility. 

13. Suffer others to be praised in' thy presence, and 
entertain their good and glory with delight ; but at no 
hand disparage them, or lessen the report, or make 
an objection ; and think not the advancement of thy / 
brother is a lessening of thy worth. But this act is 
also to extend further. 

14. Be content that he should be employed, and 
thou laid by as unprofitable ; his sentence approved, 
thine rejected ; he be preferred, and thou fixed in a ■ 
low employment. 

15. Never compare thyself with others, unless it be 
to advance them and to depress thyself. To which 
purpose we must be sure, in some sense or other, to 
think ourselves the worst in every company where we 
come : one is more learned than I am ; another is more 
prudent ; a third more honourable ; a fourth more 
chaste ; or he is more charitable, or less proud. For 

Sect, iv.] Of Humility. 119 

the humble man observes their good^ and reflects only 
upon his own vileness ; or considers the many evils of 
himself certainly known to himself/ and. the ill of 
others but by uncertain report : or he considers that 
the evils done by another are out of much infirmity 
or ignorance, but his own sins are against a clearer 
light; and if the other had ^o great helps, he would 
have done more good and less evil : or he remembers 
that his old sins before his conversion were greater in 
the nature of the thing, or in certain circumstances, 
tiian the sins «f other men. (So St. Paul reckoned 
himself the chiefest of sinners, because formerly he 
had^acted the chiefest sin in persecuting the church of 
God.) But this rule is to be used with this caution — 
That though it be good always to think meanest of 
ourselves^ yet it is not ever safe to speak it, because 
those circumstances and considerations which deter- 
mine thy thoughts are not known to others as to thy- 
self: and it may concern others, that they hear thee 
give God thanks for the graces he hath given thee. 
But if thou preservest thy thoughts and opinions of 
thyself truly humble, you may with more safety give 
'God thanks in public for that good which cannot, or 
pught not to be concealed. 

16. Be not always ready to excuse every oversight, 
or indiscretion, or ill action : but if thou beest guilty 
of it, confess it plainly ; for virtue scorns a lie for its 
cover: but to hide a sin with it, is like a crilst of 
leprosy drawn upon an ulcer. If thoU beest not guilty, 
(unless it be scandalous) be not over earnest to remove 


120^ Ho^ living. [ Chap, il 

it, bot rather use it as an argumeDt to - chastise tU 
greatness of fancy and opinion in thyself; and ae* 
custom thjTself to bear reproof patiently and con- 
tentedly, and the harsh words of thy enemies, u 
knowing that the anger of an enemy is a better me* 
nitor, and represents our faults or admonishes us -of 
our duty with more heartiness, than the kindness doe% 
or precious balms of a friend. 

17. Give God thanks for every weakness, defbo- 
mity, and imperfection, and accept it as a favour and 
grace of God, and an instrument to sesist pride and 
nurse humility ; ever remembering, that when God, hf 
giving thee a crooked back, hath also made thy spirit 
stoop or less vain, thou art more ready to enter. thfc 
narrow gate of heaven, than by being straight, and 
standing upright, and thinking highly. Thus the 
Apostles rejoiced in their infirmities, not moral, brit 
natural and accidental, in their being beaten and 
whipt like slaves, in their nakedness and poverty. : 

18. Upbraid no man's weakness to him to disoon- 
fbrt him, neither report it to disparage him, neither 
delight to remember it to lessen him, or to set thyself 
above him. Be sure never to praise thpelf, or to dis- 
praise any man els^, unless God's glory or sotne holy" 
end do hallow it. And it was noted, to the prsose oS 
Cyrus^ that amongst his equals in age he would nev^a 
play at any sport, or use any exercise in which k=- 
knew himself more excellent than they : but in bu<^B 
in which he was unskilful he would make his chal 
lenges, lest he should shame them by his victory, an. 

Sect, iv.] Of Humility, . 121 

^^^■^^^^^^^^^^1^1^^— ^^^^^^l^i^^— ^—t— ^— ^^p— ^^^^^^— ^— W^l ■■■■»—■■■ M»» ■>■■ ■■■■■! ■■■■■■ ^W^M^— ^.^^i»^—— ^ 1 ■■■! ■ ■ -W^ 

tbajt hiiii3felf might learn something of th^ir 3kill9 and 
do them civilities*. 

19. Besides the foregoii^ parts and actions^ humi- 
lity teaches us to submit ourselves and all our faculr 
ties to God^ To believe all things, to do all things, t(f 
suffer all things whidi his will ei^oins us : to be con- 
tent in every estate or change^ knowing we have de- 
served worse than the worst we feel; and (as Anytm 
mid to AlciJbiades) he hath taken but half, when he 
might have taken sdl : to adore his goodness, to fea^ 
him greatness, to worship his eternal and infinite ex^cel- 
leacieS) and to submit ourselves to all our superiors in 
^ things according to godliness, and to be meek an4 
^iMDitle in Qur conversation towards others 'f-. 

Now, although according to the nature of every 
Ijrace, this begins as a gift, and is increased like a 
habit, that i^, best by its own acts ; yet, besides thjs 
-fimner acts and offices of hutfiUity, there are certauu 
lOitber exercises and considerations, which are good 
bdips aiid instruments for the procuring and increasing 
ilm grace, and the curing of pride. 

* Asoa Pamico tuo con il diffetto suo. In coUoquiis pueri invisi 

jdiis non fient^ si non omnino in disputationibus victoriam semper 

obtinere laborent. Non tantum egregium est scire vincere^ sed 

etiam -posse vinci pulchrum est^ ubi victoria est- damnosa. Plui. 

tie educ. liber. 

t Nihil ita dignum est odio ut eonun mores cjai compellantibus se 

difficiles prebent. Flut, 

JVq. 6. R 

■ '■ ' ' ' ' 

122 Hohf Living, [Chap. ii. 

Means and Exercises of obtaining and increamf 

the Orace of Humility. 

1. Make confession of thy sins often to God; aad 
consider what all that evil amounts to^ which you then 
charge upon yourself. Look not upon them aa 'sart- 
tered in the course of a long life : now, an intempe- ' 
rate anger^ then too full a meal; now^ idle talking, 
and another time impatience : but unite (hem into one 
continued representation, and remember that he whose 
life seems fair, by reason that his faults are scattersd 
at large distances in the several parts of his life, yc^ 
if all his errors and follies were articled against hioi, 
the man would seem vicious and miserable : and poi^ 
sibly this exercise, really applied upon thy spirit^ mmf 
be useful. 

2. Remember that we usually disparage others 'upon 
slight grounds and little instances ; and towards them 
one fly is enough to spoil a whole box of ointmont: 
and if a. man be highly commended, we think httn 
sufficiently lessened, if we clap one sin, or folly, or 
infirmity into his acccount. Let us therefore be just 
to ourselves, since we are so severe to others, and 
consider, that whatsoever good any one can think or 
say of us, we can tell him of hundreds of base and 
unworthy and foolish actions, any one of which were 
enough (we hope) to destroy another's reputation: 
therefore let so many be sufficient to destroy our over- 
high thoughts of ourselves. 

S. When our neighbour is cried up by public fame 
and popular noises, that we may disparage and lessen 


Sect. IV.] Of Humility. > 123 

faim^ we qry . out that the people are a herd of un-> 
learned and ignorant persons^ ill judges, loud trum- 
pets, but which never give certain sound : let us use 
the same art to humble ourselves, and never take 
delight and pleasure in public report, and acclama- 
tions of assemblies, and please ourselves with their 
j4idlgment, of whom in other like cases we affirm that 
thev are mad. 

4. We .change our opinion of others by their kind- 
neas or unkindness towards us. If He be my patroa 
and bounteous, he is wise, he is noble ; his faults are 
bot warts, his virtues are mountains : but if he proves 
iinkiod^r rejects our importunate suit, then he- is ill* 
natured^ covetous, and his free- meal is called glut- 
tony : that . which befbre we called civility, is now 
very drunkenness, and all he speaks is flat and dull^ 
and ignorant as a swine. This indeed is unjust to- 
wards others, but a good instrument, if we turn the 
et^ of it upon ourselves. We use ourselves ill, 
abusing ourselves with false principles, cheating our- 
selves with lies and pretences, stealing the choice and 
electioii from our wills, placing voluntary ignorance 
in pur understanding, denying the desires of the spirit, 
setting up a faction against every noble and just 
desire; the least of which, because we should resent 
up to reviling the injurious person, it is but reason we 
sliould at least not flatter ourselves with fond and too 
kind opinions^ 

5. Every day call to mind some one of thy foulest 
ains, or the mpst shameful of thy disgraces, or the in*-* 

y j » ' ' . ■■■■■ I '!« 11 ■ I ■- ■ I. ■ ■ ■ ■■Il« 

124 Hofy Living. [Chap. ii. 


discreetest of thjr actions, or tny thing that did theii 
most trouble thee, and, applying it to* the present 
swelling of thy spirit ttnd opinion, it may help to 

6. Pray often for his grace with all humility tif gei^ 
ture, and passion of desire, and in thy devotion inter* 
pose many acts of humility by way of confession, rad 
address to God, and reflection upon thyself. 

7. Avoid great offices and employments, and the 
noise of wordly honour. For in those states many 
times so many ceremonies and circumstances will seem 
necessary, as will destroy the sobriety of thy thoughtti 
if the number of thy servants be fewer, and their ob* 
servances less, and their reverences less solemh, pds* 
dibly they will seem less than thy dignity: and ifiiwf 
be so much and so many, it is likely they will be too 
big for thy spirit. *And here be thou very cardul^ 
lest thou be abused by a pretence that thou wouldst 
use thy great dignity and opportunity of doing great 
good. For supposing it might be good for otheris^ 
yet; it is not good for thee: they, may have encou* 
ragement in noble things from thee, and by the same 
instrument thou mayst thyself be tempted to pride 
and vanity. And certain it is, God is as much glori-» 
fied by thy example of humility in a low or temperate 
condition, as by thy bounty in a great and dangerous. 

8. Make no reflex acts upon thy own huinility, nor 
upon any other grace with which God hath enriched 

^ Fabis abst!n^;» dixit Pgthagoras. Olim enim Magistratus per 

i»Uffi^gia fabis lata creabantur, Plut, 


S3SSSSMCI55SiSSCS?»SS»S3S55S!-«SSS5Si ^^^ i ^^^ i ^^ « S!r^ 

Sect, iv.] Of Humility. 125 

■ 11 I I I ilii« ■■ — 1^1^ III j iMiaiwa ■!— ^— ^— — — — — 11^^— .— <1«— M»i^^ 

thjT soqI.. For since God oftentimes hides from hit 
saints and servaiils the sight of those excellent things 
by which they shine to others> (though the dark sidid 
6f the lantern be towards themselves) that he m^y se* 
eure the grace of humility ; it is good that thou do sd 
thyself: and if thou beholdest a^;race of God in thee^ 
remember to give him thanks for it, that thou mslyest 
not boast in that which is none of thy own^ and con- 
ilider how thou hast sullied it^ by handling it With 
dirty fingers^ with thy own imperfections^ and with 
mixture of unhandsome circumstanced. Spiritual 
inride is very dangerous, not only by reason it spoils' 
so many graces by which we draw nigh unto the king» 
46m of Grod, but also because it So frequently creeps 
Hpon the spirit of holy persons* For it is no wonder 
fi(Mr t"] beggar to call himself poor, or a drunkard tb 
confess that he is no sober person : but for a holy per-» 
•on to be humble, for one i)irhoni all men esteem it 
•aint, to fear lest himself become a devil, and to ob* 
serve his own danger, and to discern his Own infiN 
isities, and mhke discovery of his bad adhei-encies^ is 
as bard as for a prinoe to submit himself to be guided 
by tutors, and make himself subject to discipline like 
the meanest of his servants. 

9. Often meditate upon the effects of pride on one 
Aide, and humility ob the other. First, That pride is 
like a canker, and destroys the beauty of the fairest 
flowers, the most excellent gifts imd graces ; but hu-^ 
miUty crowns them all. Secondly^ Tliat pride is a 
great hindrance to the perceiving the things of God i 

1S6 Holy Living. [Chap. ii. 

and humility is an excellent preparative and instm* 
ment of spiritual wisdom. (Matt. x\. 23.) Thirdly, 
that pride hinders the acceptation of our prayers ; but 
humility pierceth the clouds, and will not depart till 
the Mast High shall regard. Fourthly^ That humility 
is but a speaking truth, and all pride is a lie. -Fifthly, 
That humility is the most certain way to real honour, 
and pride is ever affronted or despised. Sixthly, That 
pride turned Lucifer into a devil, and humility exalted 
the Son of God above every name, and placed him 
eternally at the right hand of his Father. Seventhly^ 
That God resisteth the proud, (Jam. iv. 6.) professii^ 
open defiance and hostility against such persoivi ; but 
giveth grace to the humble : grace and pardon, remedy^ 
and relief against misery and oppression, content in 
all conditions, tranquillity of spirit, patience in afflic* 
tions, love abroad, peace at home, and utter freedom 
from contention, and the sin of censuring others^ 
and the trouble of being censured themselves. For 
the humble man will not judge his brother for the 
mote in his eye, being more troubled at the beam 
in his oum eye ; and is patient and glad to. be re- 
proved, because himself hath cast the first stone at 
himself, and therefore wonders not that others are of 
his mind. . 

10. Remember, that the blessed Saviour of the world 
hath /done more to prescribe, and transmit, and se- 
cure this grace than any other: (Johny^m. \&.) his 
whole life being a great continued example of humility, 
a. vast descent from the glorious bosom of his Father 


Sect, iv.] Cf Humility, 127 

I ' . . ■ 1 I, 

to the womb of a poor maiden, to the fonh of a ser^ 
vant, to the miseries of a sinner; to a life of labour, 
to a state of poverty, to a death of malefactors, tothci " 
grave of death, and the intolerable calamities which 
we deserved : and it were a good design, and yet but 
reasonable, that we shoiild be as humble in the midst 
of our greatest imperfections, and basest sins, as Christ 
was in the midst of his fulness of the Spirit, great 
wisdom, perfect life, and most adinirable virtues. 

1 1 • Drive away all flatterers from thy company, and 
at no hand endure them ; for he that endures himself 
lio to be abused by another, is not only a fool for en- 
tertaining the mockery, but loves to have his own 
<^nion of hiniseif to be heightened and cherished. 

12. 'Never change thy employment for the suddell 
coming of another to thee : but if modesty permits, 
or discretion, appear to him that visits thee, the same 
that thou wert to God and thyself in thy privacy. 
But if thou wert walking or sleeping, or in any other 
innocent employment or retirement, snatch not up a 
book to seeni studious, nor fall on thy knees to se^m 
devout, nor alter any thing to make him believe thee 
better employed than thou wert. 

13. To the same purpose it is of great use that he. 
who would preserve.his humility, should choose some 
spiritual person to whom he shall oblige himself to 

, discover his very thoughts and fancies, every act of 
his, and all his intercourse with others in which there 
may be danger; that by such an openness of spirit 
he may ^xpose every blast of vain-glory ; every idle 

IW Holjf Living. [ Chap. u. 


^lought to be chastened and lessened by the rod cf 
^iritual discipline : and he that shall find himself tied 
to confess every proud thought, every vanity of his 
qpirit, will also perceive they must not dwell with him, 
nor find any kindness from him ; and, besides this^ the 
nature of pride is so shameful and unhandsome^ that 
the very discovery of it is a huge mortification aod 
means of suppressing it. A man would be ashamed 
to be told that he enquires after the faults of his last 
oration or .ac^n on purpose to be commended : and 
therefore when the man shall tell his spiritual guid^ 
4lie same shameful story, of himself, it is v^ry likely 
lie will be humbled, and heartily ashamed of it. 

14. Let every man suppose what opinion he slMiid 
liave of one that should spend his time in playing 
,with drum-sticks and cockle-shells, and that should 
wrangle all day long with a little boy for pins, or should 
jstudy hard and labour to cozen a diild of his gauds; 
and who would run into a river, deep and dangerous, 
with a great burthen upon his back, even then when 
he wene told of the danger, and earnestly importuned 
not to do it } And let him but change the instances 
and the person, and. he shall find that he hath thes 
;^ame reason to think as bad of himself, who pursuesai 
trifles with earnestness, spending his time in vanity^^ 
and his labour fm* thtU which profits not ; who, know^— - 
ing the laws of God, the rewards of virtue, th^ 
cursed consequents of sin, that it is an evil spirit thi^H 
^tempts him to it, a devil, one that hates him, thaffS 
Idngs extremely to ruin him, that it is his own 

■ ' ■ f ' " ■■"■ • ^ -' II ■ I ■ * 

Sect, iv.] Of Humility. 12© 

itrtietion that he is then i^orkihg, thM the pleasures of 
fan m atre? base and brutish/ unsatisfying in the em 
jtrfnfeiit^ isbon ove^, shameful in their st6ry, bitter in 
die 016011^5 painful in the eflfeef here, and intoler- 
tUe hereaft^^ and for ever: y^et iii despite of all 
tini^'heTuns'focJisbly into 'his sin and his ruiuj merely 
iMcaUle he is a fool, and winks hards, and rushes vio^ 
lemly like a horse into the battle, or. like a madman 
to his cieath. He that can think great and good 
Alngs'of such a person, the next step may court the 
tvdt for' ah instrument of pleasure, arid adihire si 
iwitfe' for wisdom, and go for counsel to the prodigial 
and trifling grs^hopper: 

- AfteUr the use of thesd and such like ipstruoients and 
CMiiferations, if you would try hovir your soul is 
grswn, yon' shall know that humility, like the root of 
t'jpHJdly tree,^ is thrirst v6ry far into the ground, by 
thoie goodly fruits which appear above ground. 

■ • • • 

* Signs <xf Humility. 

Iv The humble man trusts not to his own discretion^ 
btitin nkitters of concernment relies rather upon the 
jodgmmt of his friends, counsellors, or spiritual 
goidesr i. He does not pertinaciously pursue the 
choice of his own will, but in all things lets God chooise 
fof him, and his superiors iri those things which con- 
cern -them. 3. He does not murmur against com- 
^^lauds*. 4. He is not inquisitive into the reason- 
ableness of indifferent and innocent commands ; but 

* Assai cotumanda chi ubbidisce al saggio. 

No. 6. a 

130 Holy living. [ Chap. ii. 

believes their command to be reason enough in suefa 
cases to exact his obedience. 5. He lives according 
to a rule, and with compliance to public customs, 
without any afiectation or singularity. 6. He is medt 
and indifferent in all accidents and chances. 7* He 
patiently bears injuries*. 8. He is always Unsatisfied 
in his own conduct, resolutions, and counsels. 9. He 
is a great lover of good men, and a praiser of wise 
men, and a censurer of no man. 10. He is modest 
in his speech, and reserved in his laughter. 11. He 
fears when he hears himself commended> lest . God 
make another judgment concerning his actions than 
men do. 1 3. He gives no pert or saucy answers when 
he is reproved, whether justly or unjustly/ 13. ..He 
loves. to sit down in private, and if he may he refuses 
the temptation of offices and new honours. 14» He 
is ingenuous, free, and open in his actions and dis* 
courses, 15. He mends his fault, and gives thanks 
when he is admonished. 16. He is ready to do good 
offices to the murtherers of his fame, to his slanderers, 
backbiters, and detracters, as Christ washed the feet of 
Judas. 17. And is contented to be suspected of in* 
discretion, so before God he may be really innocent, 
and not offensive to his neighbour, nor wanting to his 
just and prudent interest. 


Of Modesty. 
MODESTY is the appendage of sobriety, and is 
to chastity, to temperance, and to humility, as the 

* Venim humilem patientia ostendit. S. Heir» 

I ■ 11 l>l ■■■ - mmmt r II » ■ I I I— — ^^ ■! I . I I ■ ■- ■ mm^ 

Sect, v.] . Of Modesty. 131 


Iringes are to a garment. It is a grace of God that 
moderates 'IAm! over^activeness and curiosity of the 

mindy and orders the passions of the body and ex- 

• . . . ^ 

temd actions, and is directly opposed to curiosity^ to 
bokJDess^tto indecency. The practice of Qiodesty 
eoMists ill these following rules : 

» - ■• ... 

jict$ mid Duties of Modesty^ as it is opposed to 


1. Inquire not into the secrets of God, but be 
content to learn thjr duty according to the qualify of 
thy person or emjployment ; that is, plainly if thou 
beest not concerned in the conduct of others; but if 
thou beest a teacher, leairn^ it so, as may best enable 
tbee to discharge thy office. (Ecclus. iii. 21, 22, 23.) 
CSod's commandments were proclaimed to all the 
world, but God's counsels are to himself and to his 
secret ones,, when they are admitted within the veil. 

3. Inqbire not into the things which are too hard 
for thee, but learn modestly to know thy infirmities 
«nd abilities; and raise not thy mind up to inquire 
into mysteries of state, or the secrets of government, 
or difficulties theological, if thy employment really 
be, or thy understanding be judged to be, of a lower 

* vi. Let ns not inquire into the affairs of others that 
concern us not, but be busied within ourselves and 
our own spheres ; ever remembering, that to pry into 
the actions or interests of other men, not under our 
charge, may minister to pride, to tyranny, to nucha- 


18S Hdy Ucing. [Chap. ii. 

ritableness^ to trouble^ but can never < icouaist 
modesty^ unless where duty or the meMfmtentiomQl 
charity and relation do warrant it. . , ,j .::::. 

* 4. Never listen at the doors or windows:* 
aides that it contains in it danger and a snare^ . it isjdid 
an invading my neighbou/s privacy^ and a kyingt tbit 
open which he therefore enclosed that it might not be 
open. Never ask what he carries covered id eofi- 
ously; for it is enough that it is covered curiously. 
Hither also is reducible^ that we. never open Jetten 
wiUiout public authority^ or reasonably preaumed 
leave, or great necessity or charity *« . . t.j 

Every man hath in. his own life sins enou^^ in hii 
own mind trouble enough^ in his own fortune evib 
enough, and in performance of his o^pes failings 
more than enough to entertain his own inquiry:, so 
that curiosity after the affairs of others cannot be 
without envy and an evil mind. What is. it to me \i 
my neighbour's grandfather were a Syrian^ or bis 
grandmother illegitimate, or that another is indebted 
five thousand pounds, or whether his wife be ext. 
pensive? But commonly curious persons, or (as the 
Apostle's phrase is) busy-bodies, are not solicitous' or 
inquisitive into the beauty and order of a well, go- 
verned family, or after the virtues of an excellent 
person; but if there be any thing for which men 
keep locks, and bars, and porters, things that blush to 
see the light, and either are shameful in manners, ^or 

* Ecclus. vii. 21; Ne occhi in letters^ ne xnano in tasca, 1[i)» 
oi'ecchi in secr^ti altrui. ' 

Sect, v.] . Of Modesty. 133 

private in* nature, these things are their care ami 
their business. . Bnt if^ great things will satisfy our 
inquiry^ the courses of the sun and moon, the spots 
in their iaces, the finxiament of heaven and the sup-^ 
pcMied orbs, tbe ebbhig and flowing of the sea, are 
vork enough for us: or, if this be' not, let him teli 
ne^hether the number of the stiu*s be even or oddy 
and when they began to be so:* since some ages^ have 
liifloofered new «tars which the former knew not^ but 
lu^t have seen if they had been where now they are 
fixed. If these be too troublesome, search lower, and 
tell me why this turf this year brings forth a daisy^ 
ftodihe next year a plantane; why the apple bear» 
kisseed in bis: heart, and wheat bears it in his head: 
Iiet him tell why a grafSt taking npurishmtot from a 
crabfstock shall have a fruit more noble than its nurse* 
sad parent: let him say why the best of oil is ^t the 
top, ihe best of Wine in the middle, and the best of 
bouey at the bottom, otherwise than it is in some li-- 
V^OTs that are thinner, and in some» that are thicker.' 
^ttt these things are not such as please busy-bodies; 
^^y must feed upon tragedies, and stories of mislcnv 
^Qi^es. and crimes: and yet tell them ancient stories of 
^ ravishment of chaste maidens, or the debauch'^' 
^^tit of nations, or the . extreme poverty of learned- 
P^^aonji^ or the persecutions of the old saints, or the 
^'^^Dges of government, and sad accidents happening- 
^ ^cyal families among the^r^octifcp, the Cbp^or^, the' 
^^r^kmies, these were enough to scratch the. itch 6f 
ki^Qviring sad stories: but unless you tell them somer 

184 Holjf Living, [ Chap. ii. 

<faiag sad and new, something that is done ^^ithin 
bounds of their own knowledge or relation, it seems 
tedious and unsatisfying ; which shews plainly it is an 
evil spirit: envy and idleness married together and 
begot curiosity. Therefore Plutarch rarely well com^ 
pares curious and inquisitive ears to the execraUe 
gates of cities^ out of which only malefa<!tor8 and 
hangmen, and tragedies. pass, nothing that is chaste or 
holy«. If a physician should go from house to boose 
unsent for, and inquire what woman hath a cancer in 
her bowels, or what man a fistula in his cholio-got, 
though he could pretend to cure it, he would be al* 
most as unwelcome as the disease itself: and there-^ 
&re it is inhumane to inquire after crimes and 
disasters without pretence of amending them, but 
only to discover them. We are not angry with 
searchers and publicans when they look only on 
public merchandise, but when they break opea 
trunks, and pierce vessels, and unrip packs, and 
open sealed letters. 

Curiosity is the direct incontinency of the spirit; 
and adultery itself, in its principle, is many timea 
nothing but a curious inquisition after, and envying* 
^ of another man's enclosed pleasures: and there have 
been many who refused fairer objects that they might 
ravish an enclosed woman from her retirement and 
single possessor. But these inquisitions are seldom 
without danger, never without baseness ; they are 
neither, just, nor honest, nor delightful, and very 
often useless to. the curious inquirer. For men atand* 

Sect, v.] Of Modesty. 135 

upon their 'guards against them, as thejr secure their 
meat against harpies andcats, laying all their counsels 
and secrets out of their. way; or as men clap their 
garments close about them when the searching and 
saucy winds would discover their hakedivsss : as kno^frt 
ing that what men willingly hear^ they do /willingly 
apeak of. Knock therefore at the. dobi* before you 
«3ter upon. your neighbour's privacy;' and remembisr 
that there is no diflerence - between enterihg into hik 
house, and looking into it. . > 

Acts of Modesty as it is opposed to Boldness. \ 

1, Let us alwiays bear about us such impressions of 
reverence and the fear of God as to tremble at hift 
▼oice^ to express our apprehensions of his greatness 
in all great accidents, in popular judgments, ^ loud 
thunders, tempests, earthquakes ; not only for fear of 
being smitten ouisdves, or that we are concerned in 
the accident, but also that we may humble oursielves 
before his Almightiness, and es^press that infinite dis- 
tance between his infiniteness and our weaknesses, at 
such times especially when he gives such visible argu« 
;inents of it. He that is merry and airy at shore, when 
he sees a sad and a loud tempest on the sea, or dances 
briskly when God thunders from heaven, regards not 
when God speaks to all the world, but is possessed 
with a firm immodesty. 

2. Be reverent, modest, and reserved in the presence 
of thy betters, giving to all, according to their quality, 
their titles of honour, keeping distance, speaking 

136 Holy living, [Chap. ii. 

little^ answering pertinently, not interposing without 
jieave or reaBon, not answering to a question pro^ 
pounded to another ; and ever present to thy superiors 
Ibe iairest side of thy discourse, of thy temper, of 
Ihy ceremony, as being ashamed to serve excelletit 
persons with unhandsome intercourse. 
. 3. Never lie before a King, or a great person, nor 
atand in a lie when thou art accused, nor ofier to jus>- 
tify what is indeed a fault; but modestly be ashamed 
of it, ask pardon, and make amends. 

4. Never boast of thy sin, but at least lay a veil upon 
thy nakedness and shame, and put thy band before 
thy eyes, that thou mayst have this beginning of re-' 
pentance, to believe thy sin to be thy shame*. For 
he that blushes not at his crime, but adds shameless 
ness to his shame, hath no instrument left to restoVe 
him to the hopes of virtue. 

5. Be not confident and affirmative in an uncertain 
matter, but report things modestly and temperately^ 
according to the d^ee of that persuasion which is 
or ought to be begotten in thee by the efficacy of the 
authority or the reason inducing thee. 

€. Pretend not to more knowledge then thou hastfi 
but be content to seem ignorant where thou^ art, les^ 
thdu beest either brought to shame, or retirest int 
shamelessness. (Ecclus. iii. iib.) 

* Obstare primum est velle nee labi via ; 
. Pador est secundis ndsse peccandi modum. Senec. Hip. 

A Chioiie saltern vel^b Helide disce pudorem. 
Abscondunt spurcas haec mpnumenta lupas. Mart, 1. 1. Epig. 


Sec*, v.] Of Modesty. 137 

^e^ir of Modesty as it is opposed to Indecency. 

1. In your^prayet^ in churches and places pf reli-i 
gioti, use reverent postures, great attention^ grdve 
ceremony, the lowest gestures of humility, remem-* 
bering that we speak to God, in our reyerencie td 
whom we cannot possibly exceed ; but that the ei-^ 
pression of this reverence be according to law or cus^ 
trim, and the example^of the most prudent atid pioiis 
jpersons : that is, let it be the best in its kind to thii^ 
best of essences. 

!2. In all public meetings, pVivate addresses, iik 

discourses, in joumies, use those ibrms of salutation^ 

reference, and decency, which the custom prescribes^ 

• • • ' 

Vbai is usual amongst the ihost sober persons ; giving 

Iwnottr fo whom honour belongeth, taking place of 

^ ikme of thy betters, and in all cases of questiod 

concerning civil precedency, giving it to any one thair 

irill take it, if it be only thy <Avn right that is itt 


3. Observe the proportion of affections in all meet^ 
- ings and to all persons : be not merry at a funeral, not 

sad upon a festival, but regoice with them that rejoice^ 
and weep with them that weep. 

4. Abstain from wanton and dissolute laughter^ 
Petulant and uncomely jests, loud talking, jeering, 
^'^^l all such actions which in civil account are called 
"^tlecencies and incivilities. 

<5. Towards your parents use all modesty of duty 
^^^^ humble carriage; towards them and all your 
^ ^ ^dred be severe in the modesties of chastity ; ever 
No, 6. T 


138 Holy living, [ Chap. n. 

fearing least the freedoms of natural kindness should 
enlarge into any neighbourhood of unhandsomeness. 
Por all incestuous mixtures^ and all circumstances and 
degrees towards it, are the highest violations of mo- 
desty in the world : for therefore incest is grown to be 
to high a crime, especially in the last periods of the' 
worlds because it breaks that reverence which the con* 
sent of all nations and the severity of human laws badi 
enjoined towards our parents and nearest kindred^ in 
imitation of that law which God gave to the Jews ia 
prosecution of modesty in this instance. 

6. Be a curious observer of all those things which 
are of good report^ and are parts of public honesty. 
(Phil. vi. 8.^ For public fame, and the sentence <^ 
prudent and public persons, is the measure of good 
and evil in things indifferent : and charity requires os 
to comply with those fancies and affections which are 
agreeable to nature or the analogy of virtue, or public 
laws, or old customs. It is against modesty foi^ a 
woman to marry a second husband as long as she 
bears a burthen by the first, or to admit a second 
love while her funeral tears are not wiped from ber ' 
cheeks. It is against public honesty to do some 
lawful actions of privacy on public theatres, and 
therefore in such cases, retirement is a duty o£ 

7. Be grave, decent, and modest in thy clothing aixd 
ornament ; never let it be above thy condition, nor 

* Et merctrix abigit testem veloque seiaque j 
Rai^ue^ si meniioi^ fornice rima patet. M^rt 

"" ■■■■■■■ M ■ ^ , m 

Sect. ▼.] Of Modesty. 130 . 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ' ■» 

ways equal to it; never light or amorous^ discovering 
a nakedness through a thin veii^ which thou pretendest 
to hide^ never to lay a snare for a soul ; but ref 
member what becomes a Christian, professing holi- 
ness, chastity, and the discipline of the holy Jesus: 
and the first effect of this let your servants feel by your 
gentleness *and aptness to be pleased with their usual, 
diligence, and ordinary conduct*. For the man or 
woman that is dressed with anger and impatience^ 
wear pride under their robes, and immodesty above. 

8. Hither also is to' be reduced singular and affected 
walking, proud, nice and ridiculous gestures of body^ 
painting and lascivious dressings: all' which together 
God reproves by the Projphet, The Lord saith. Be- 
cause the daughters of Sion are haughty , and walk 
with stretched forth necks and wanton eyes, walking 
and mincing as they go, and make a tinkling with 
their Jeet. Therefore the Lord mil smite her with a 
scab of the crown of the head, and will take away the 
bravery of their tinkling ornaments. (Isa. iii. l6, IJ.) 
And this duty of modesty in this instance is expressly 
enjoined to all Christian women by St. Paul, That 
women adorn themselves in modest apparel, .with 
shamefacedness and sobriety, not unth broidered hair, 
or gold, or pearl, or costly array, but (which becometh 
women professing godliness) ,mth good works, (i Tim. 

* Ttf ta sit oncLatril^ ; odi qus saucist on^ 
Unguibus> et raptft brachia figit acu. 
Devovet, et tangit Domins caput illa^ simulque 
Florat ad inviios sangulnoleata comai. Omd, 

140 Holy Uvifig, [Chap. ii. 


9. As tho8« meats are to be avoided whi^h tempt 
pur stomach beyond our hunger^ so also should prtt<» 
dent persons decline all such spectacles, reUtions^ 
theatres, loud nois^ and out-cries .which concern us 
qot, and are besides our natural or moral interest 
Our senses should not, like p^ulant and wantqn 
girls, wapder into markets and theatres without just 
(Employment ; but when they are sent abroad by rear. 
f[on, return quickly with their errand^ and remain 
modestly at home uader their guid^;^ till they be 4m^ 

10. Let all persons be curious in observing mo? 
desty towards th^^iiselves in the handsome treating 
their own body, and such as are in their power, 
whether living or dead. Against this rule they of-t 
fend who expose to others their own, or pry into 
pthers nakedness beyond the liinits of necessity, on 
where a leave is not made holy by a permission from 
God« It is also said that God was pleased to wprk 9^ 
miracle about the body of Epiphanius, to reprove, tho 
immodest curiosity pf an unconcerned person, who 
pried too n^ar when charitable people were composing 
it to the grave. In all these cases and particularsi 
although they seeiji little, yet our duty and concern^ 
ntient is not little. Concerning which I use the words 
of the son of Sirachj He that despisefh lUtfe things^ 
shall perish hy little and little^ 


t Oedipum curiositsis in extremes conjecit calamitates. P2if#« 


Sect, vi,] Of ConterUedness, 141 

<«p^— ■ I ■ ■ ■ I . 


Of Contentedness in all Estates and Accidents. 

VIRTUES and discourses are like friends, neeessarjit 
iji all fortunes; but those ure tbe best which are 
friends in our sadneases^ and support us infour sorroWt 
and sad accidents: and. in this sense no man that H 
virtuous can be friendless ; nor hath aby man lieason 
to complain of the Divine Providence, or accuse the 
public disorder of things, or his own infelicity, since 
God hath appointed one remedy for all the evils in the 
frorld, and that is a contented spirit For this alone 
]|B^kes a man pass through fire> and not be scorched } 
through seas; and not be drowtied ; through hunger 
and nakedness, and want nothing. For since all the 
evil in the world consists in thei disagreeing between 
1^ object and the appetite, as when a man bath what 
be desires uot, or desires what, he hath not, or desires 
amiss ! he that composes his spirit to the present ac^ 
eident hath variety of instances for his virtue, but 
none to trouble him, because his desires enlarge not 
he3K>nd bis present fortune : and a wise man ijs placed 
Id the variety of chances, like the nave or centre of a 
wheel in the midst of all the circumvolutions and 
changes of posture, without violence or change, save 
^hat it turn^ gently in compliance with its changed 
parts, and is indifierent which part is up, and which 
is down ; for there is some virtue. or other to be exer^ 
cised whatever happens, either patience, or thanks-* 
giving, love or fear^ moderation or humility, charity 

143 Holy Lhiffg. [Chap. ii. 

or contentednessy and they are every oae of them 
equally in order to his great end and immortal feli- 
city; and beauty is not made by white or red^ by 
black eyes^ and a round faoe^ by a straight body and 
a smooth skin; but by a proportion to the fancy*' 
No rules can make amiability^ our minds and appre- 
hensions make that; and so is our felicity: and we 
may be reconciled to poverty and a low fortune^ if we 
aufier contentedness^ and the grace of God to make 
the proportion. For no man is poor that doth not 
diink himself so*. But if *in a full fortune with imr- 
patience he desires more, he proclaims his wants and 
his b^garly condition. But because this grace of 
contentedness was the sum of all the old moral philo- 
sophy, and a great ^ty in Christianity, and of most 
uniji^ersal use in the whole course of our lives, and 
the only instrument to ease the burthens of the world 
and the enmities of sad chances, it will not be amiss 
to press it by the proper arguments by which God 
hath bound it upon our spirits, it being fastened by 
reason and religion, by duty and interest, by neces- 
sity and conveniency, by example, and by the pro* 
position of excellent rewards, no less than peace and 

1. Contentedness in all estates, is a duty of reli« 
gion; it is the great reasonableness of complying with 
the Divine Providence which governs all the world, 
and hath SQ ordered us in the administration of his 
great family. He were a strange fool that should bt 


* Non facta tibi est^ si dissimules^ injuria. 

Sect, vi.] Of Contentedness. 143 " 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ I I I I ■ 1^1^^^— ^— rffc 

angiy because dogs and sheep need tio shoes, and yet 
bfmself is full of care to get some. God hath supplied 
those needs to them by natural provisions, and to thee 
by an artificial : for he hath given thee reason to learn 
a trsrie, or some means to make or buy them, so that 
it only diflfers in the manner of our provision: and 
which had you rather want, shoes or reason? 'And 
my patron that hath given me a farm, is freer to me 
than if he gives a loaf ready baked. But however all 
these gifts come from him, and therefore it is fit he 
should dispense them as he pleases; and if we mur« 
mar here, we may at the next melancholy be troubled 
that Go4 did not make us to be angels or stars. For 
if that which we are or have do not content us, we 
may be troubled for every thing in the world, which is 
besides our being or our possessions. 

God is the Master of the scenes, we must not chooise 
what part we shall act; it concerns us only to be care- 
ful that we do it well, always saying. If this please 
Godj let it he as it is : and we who pray that God*» 
will may be done in earth as it is in heaven, must re- ^ 
mefmber, that the angels do whatsoever is commanded 
them, and go wherever they are sent, and refuse no 
circumstances; and if their employment be crossed 
by a higher degree, they sit down in peace, and rejoice 
in the event: and when the angel of Judcea could 
not prevail in behalf of the people committed to his 
charge, because the angel of Persia opposed it, he 
only told the story at the command of God, and was as 
eontent, a^ worshipped with as great an ecstacy ||l 

■' ' ' ■ ■ -^ 

144 Holy Living. [Chap. ii. 

his proportion, ad the prevailing Spirit. (Dan. x. 13#) 
Do thou to likewise 1 keep the station where God hath 
placed yoU| and you shall never long for things without^ 
but sit at home feasting upon the Divine Providence 
and thy own reason^ by which we are taught that it 
is necessary and reasonable to submit to God. 

For, is not all the world God*s iamily? Are not w^ 
his creatures? Are we not as clay in the hand dtthfe 
potter? Do we not live upon his meat, and move by 
his strength, and do our work by his light? Are We 
any thing but what we are from him ? And shaH 
there be a mutiny among the flocks and herds^ because 
their Lord or their Shepherd chooses their pastutes^ 
and suffers them not to wander into deserts and un^ 
known ways ? If we choose we do it so foolishly that 
we cannot like it long, and most commonly not at 
all: but God, who can do what he pleases, is wise to 
choose safely for us, affectionately to comply with our 
needs, and powerful to execute all his wise decrees. 
Here therefore is the wisdom of the contented msxi, 
to let God choose for him: for when we have given 
up our wills to him, and stand in that station of the 
battle, where our great General hath placed us, oot 
spirits must needs rest, while our conditions have for 
their security the power, the wisdom, and the charity 
of God. 

2. Contented ness in all accidents brings great peace 
of spirit, and is the great and only instrument of tem-* 
poral felicity. It removes the sting from the accident, 
libd makes a man not to depend upon chance and the 


Sect, ti.] Of Contentedness. 145 

f ' „,"■",' ' " ' ' ' : 

uncertainMispositions of men for his well-being, but 
only on God and his own spirit. We ourselves make 
our fortune good or bad, and when God lets loose 
a tyrant upon u^ or a sickness, or scorn, or a les*- 
sened fortune, if we fear to die, or know not to be 
patient, or are proud, or covetous, then the calamity 
aits heavy on us. But if we know how to manage a 
noble firbieiple, and fear not death sq much as a dis- 
honest action, and think impatience a worse evil than 
a fever, and pride to be the biggest disgrace, and po*- 
verty to be infinitely desirable before the torments of 
covetbusnets; \ then wc who how think vice to be so 
eiiy^ and make it so familiar, and think the cure so 
imfx>ssible, shsUl quickly be of another mind, and 
reckon these accidents amongst things eligible. 

But'no man can be .happy that hath great hopes and 
great fears of thidgs without, and events depending 
upon other men, or upon th« chances of fortune. Th^ 
rewards of virtue are certain,' and our provisions for 
our natural support are certain, or if we . want meat 
till we die, ther^ we die of that disease, and there are 
^Biany worse than to die with an atrophy or consump- 
tion, or unapt and coarser nourishment. But he that 
suffers a transporting passion concerning things within 
the power of others, is free froin .sorrow and amaze- 
ment no longer than his enemy shall give him leave : 
and it is ten to one but he shall be smitten then and 
there where it shall most trouble him: for so the adder 
teaches ns where to strike, by her curious and fear- 
ful defending of her head. The old Stoics^ when 

No. 7. u 

i»i|i> H »i 

146 Holy Living, [Chap, it 

m v t »^ 

you told them of a sad stoiy^ would stiU cnawcr, 
Ti ffpog /^ff s IVhat is that tome? Yes, for the tyrant 
hath sentenced you also to prison. Well, what is 
that? He will put a chain upon my leg, but he cannot 
bind my soul. No: but he will kill you. Hies TU 
die. If presently, let me go, that I may presendy be 
freer than himself: but if not till auQU^ or to-^morraw, 
I will dine first, or sleep, or do what reason and nar 
ture calls for, as at other times. This, in Geirtile 
philosophy, is the same with the discourse of St^ Paul^ 
I have learned in whatsoever state lam^ therewith to 
be content; Iknow both how to be abased^ and I know 
how to abound: every where and in all things lam 
instructed both how to be full and to be hungry, both 
to abound and staffer need *• 

We are in the world like men playing at tables^ thb 
chance is not in our power, but to play it is; and 
when it is fallen we must manage it as we can ; and 
let nothing trouble us, but when we do a base action, 
or speak like a fool, or think wickedly : these things 
God hath put into our powers; but concerning those 
things which are wholly in the choice of another, they 
cannot fall under our deliberation, and therefore nei- 
ther are they fit for our passions. My fear may make 
me miserable, but it cannot prevent what another hath 
in his power and purpose: and prosperities can only 
be enjoyed by them who fear not at all to lose them^ 
since the amazement and passion concerning the fu* 

* PhiL iv. 11^ 12. 1 Tim, vi. 6. Heb, xiii. 5. Chi bene mri 
non puo suffrir^ k grand honoi^ non puo vetiir. 


'.^0$ l..i .*^ 

SEn^MUSi Of Contentedness. 147 


faiMHtake off' all l^e pleatui^ of i))e present posseft- 
sion. TheFelbre if thou hast lost thy l9nd> do not also 
loee thy.: constancy: aiid if thou must die a littlt 
sooner,* yok- do not die impatiently. For no chance 
is eril to him that is content, and to a man nothing u 
wisetaUei mdeas it be unreasonable. No man can 
make anoilier jnan to be his slave unless lie hath first 
ieoslsrved hiniself to life and death, to pleasure or pairi, 
to kope m fear: .command these passions, and you are 
freer than the ParMian kings. 

. Imtrum^s. or Exercises to procure Coniente/fness. 

Upon, the strength, of these premises we may reduce 
AuB virtue to practice by its proper instruments first, 
smd then by -some more spiecial considerations or ar^- 
gnments of content. 

1. When any thing happens, td our displeasure, let 
us. endeavour to take off its trouble by turning it into 
spiritual or /artificial advantage, and handle it on that 
eidein which it may be usefnl to the designs of reason. 
Forrthete is nothing but hath a double handle, or at 
least we have two hands to apprehend it. When an 
jenemy reproaches us, let us look on him as an in»- 
pnrtial relater of our faults, for he will tell thee, truer 
.than ihy fondest friend will; and thou mayst call them 
precioutt balms though they :break thy bead, and forgive 
his anger while thou .makest use of the plainness of 
bis declamation. The ox when he is weary treads 
surest: and if there be nothing else in the disgrace 
but that it makes us to walk warily, and tread sure for 

!■ W 

148 Hofy Living. [Cbap. ii. 

fear of our enemies^ that is better than to be flattered 
Into pride and oareleMness. This is the charity of 
Christian philosophy^ which expounds the sense of the 
Divine Providence fairly, and reconeiles us to it by a 
charitable construction : and we may as well refuse all 
physio, if we consider it only as unpleasant in the 
taste ; and we may find fault with the rich TaUies of 
Tharsus, because they are oircledby sharp mountains; 
but so also we may be in charity with every unpleasant 
ficcident, because though it taste bitter, it is. intended 
for health and medicine. 

' If therefore thou fallest from thy emplbyment in 
public, take sanctuary in an honest retirement, being 
indifierent to thy gain abroad, or thy safety at home. 
If thou art out of favour with thy prince, secure the 
fiivour of the King of kings, and then there is no haroi 
eome to thee. And when Zeno Citiensis lost all his 
goods in a storm, he retired to the studies of philo* 
aophy, to his short cloak, and a severe life, and gave 
thanks to fortune for his prosperous mischance. When 
the north wind blows hard and it rains sadly, none 
ibut fools sit down in it and cry; wise people defend 
themselves against it with a warm garment or a good 
fire and a dry roof: when a storm of a sad mischance 
beats upon our spirits, turn it into some advantage, 
by observing where it can serve another end^ either 
of religion or prudence, or more safety or less enyy : 
H will turn into something that is good, if we list to 
4nake it so; at least it may make us weary of the 
^ofld^s vanity, and take off our confidence from n^r 


Sect. ti.] Of Conientedness. 149 

certain liches ; and make our spirits to dwell iii those 
regions where content dwells essentially. If it do^ 
any good to our souls, it hath made more than sufli- 
cient recompense for all the temporal affliction. He 
that ttirew a stone at a dog^ and hit his cruel step* 
mother, said, that, although he intended it otherwise, 
yet the stone was not quite lost: and if we fail in the 
first design, if we bring it home to another equally to 
content us, or more to prqfit us, then we have put onr 
conditions past the power of chance; and this was 
called in the old Greek comedy, a l)eing revenged, on 
fortune by becoming philosophers, and turning the 
.chance into reason or religion: for so a wise man 
ahall over-rule his stars, and have a greater influence 
jvpoQ his own content than all the constellations and 
planets of the firmament* 

2. Never compare thy condition with those above 
thee ; but to secure thy content, look upon those thou- 
sands with whom thou wouldst not for any interest 
change thy fortune and condition. A soldier must not 
think himself unprosperous,^ if he be not successful as 
-the son of Philip, or cannot grasp a fortune as big 
•as the Roman Empire. Be content that thou art not 
-lessened as. was Pyrrhns; or if thou beest, that thou 
are not routed like Crasms : and when that comes to 
thee, it is a great prosperity that thou art not caged and 
made a spectacle like Bajazet, or thy eyes were not 
pulled oiit like ZedekiaKsy or that thou wert not flayed 
• alive like Falentinian. If thou admirest the greatness 
of X^rxe^j, look also on those that digged the moun- 

ISO Holy Living. [Chap. ii. 


tain jitho, or whose ears aad noses were cat off^ be* 
cause the Hellespont carried away the bridge. It is 
a fine thing (thou thinkest) to be carried on men'a 
shoulders: but give God thanks that thou art not 
forced to carry a rich fool upon thy shoulders^ as those 
poor men do whom thou beholdest. There are but a 
few kings in mankind, but many thousands who are 
Tery miserable, if compared to thee : however, it is a 
huge folly rather to grieve for the good of othe^^ tlmn 
to rejoice for that good which God hath given as of 
our own* 

And yet there is no wise or good man that wo»U 
change persons or conditions entirely with any man in 
the world. It may be he would have one man's wealth 
added to himself, or the power of a second, or the 
learning of a third ; but still he would receive these 
into his own person, because he loves them best, and 
therefore esteems it best, and therefore over-vahMn 
all that which he is, before all that which any oUier 
man in the world can be. Would any man be Dwes, 
to have his wealth, or Judas for his office, or Saul for 
his kingdom, or Absalom for his bounty, or Adiitopbel 
for his policy ? It is likely he would wish all these^ 
and yet he would be the same person still. For every 
man hath desires of his own, and objects just fitted 
to them, without which he cannot be, unless be were 
not himself. And let every man that loves himself so 
well as to love himself before all the world, considcfr 
if he have not something for which in the whole he 
values himself far more than he can value any man 

' '■ > ■ ■ ■■■ ^ 

Sect, ti.] Of Contentedhess, 151 

■>i I it 

else. There is therefore no- reason to take the finest 
featheili from all the winged nation to deck that bird 
that thinks already she is more vahiable than any of 
the inhabitants of the air. Either change all or none« 
Cease to kn^ yourself best, or be content with that 
portion of being and blessing for which you love your- 
aelf sbwell. 

- 3. It conduces much to our content,' if we pass by 
diose things which happen to our trouble, and con* 
aider that which is pleasing and prosperous, that by 
the representation of the better, the worse may be 
blotted out: and at the worst you have enough to 
keep yon alive, and to keep up and to improve your 
hopes of heaven. If I Jbe overthrown in my suit ^t 
Unr, yet my hous^ is lefk me still and my land : or 
I have a virtuous wife, or hopeful children, or kind 
friends^ or good hopes. If I have lost one child, it 
may be 1 have two or three still left me. Or else 
reekon the blessings which already you have received, 
and therefore be pleased in the change and variety of 
afiairs to receive evtl from the hand of God as well a$ 
good. Antipater of Tarsus used this art to support 
faia sorrows on his death-bed, and reckoned the good 
Uiings pf his past life, (not forgetting to recount/it an 
a blessing,) -an argument that God took care of him, 
that he bad a prosperous journey from Cilicia to 
Athens. • Or else please thyself wiih hopes of a. fu^ 
ture^: for we were born with this sadness upon us; 

' * La speraDza h il pan de poveri. 
* Kbn si lAale nunc, et olioi sic crit. 


152 Holif Living. [ Chap. ii. 

and it was a change that brought us into it, and a 
change may bring us out again. Harvest triU come, 
and then every farmer u rich, at least for a month or 
two. It may be thou art entered into the cloud 
which will bring a gentle shower to refresh ihy aor^ 

Now suppose thyself in as great a sadness as ever, 
did load thy spirit, wouldst thou not bear it chear-^ 
fully and nobly, if thou wert sure that within a ce^^ 
tain space some strange excellent fortune would le^ 
lieve thee, and enri6h thee, and recompense thee ao 
as to overflow all thy hopes, and thy desires, and capa* 
cities? Now then, when a sadness lies heary upon 
thee, remember that thou art a Christian designed to 
the inheritance of Jesus : and what dost thoa think 
concerning thy great fortune, thy lot atid portion of 
eternity ? Dost thou think thou shalt be saved or 
damned ? Indeed if thou thinkest thou shall perish^ 
I cannot blame thee to be sad, sad till thy heart-strings 
crack : but then why art thou troubled at the loss of 
thy money? What should a damned man do with 
money, which in so great a sadness it is impossible 
for him to enjoy? Did ever any man upon the rack 
afflict himself because he had received a cross answer 
from his mistress? or call for the particulars of a 
purchase upon the gallows ? If thou dost really believe 
thou shalt be damned, I do not say it will cure the 
sadness of thy poverty, but it will swallow it up. 
But if thou believest thou shalt be saved, consider 
how great is that joy, how infinite is that change^ 


_| > ■ ^ -- -~- . ■ ^ - ■ -L^ . .. A. . ^^ ^....■. ... ■ ^ ■^.-t.-^l^-i ^ .U^ ^^ .. 

^ ^— i^»MM«— — ^wa^— — ■! 1^ ■ I I « I I — ^— — — — I I — — ^.— — ^w4i»i» 

Seqt. ti.] Cf Qmtentedness. 158 

mm^^m^mmmmm^mm^m^m^ ^ !■■>■■ ■■■■■■ , 1 i ■, ■ ,^ 


bow un^MfkaUe is the ^lory^ ho# excellent is the re^ 
compeMe foir i^ the sitflferings in the .world,, if » they 
were ftUi laden: Qflea tliy: spkdt ; . so that let thy cbndt^ 
tion be what it will> if thou cibnsidefest thy own pre^ 
tent waditioii^ and . comparest it to ; thy ^ futnise jiossi* 
hiUty, tbcni ieanst not feel tbcffpsesehtlsmdrtiof a»icroiS 
fiMtune ta^aiy ^reat d^eer eithwibeciiilae Itlidti bast 
a .fiur bigger* •errbw'yiWirra &r:btg;ger^joyi: .;Hene».thoa 
art botiaiatrihiger tsavelUngito thy.bountrjr^ where thd 
glbrieaofa/kii^om ardyipeparlBd for thee; it is there* 
fere aibuge: ^y tb 'beijoMiehraflSicted, because tiobd 
faaittia lesAtconvdniientiisntto lodge in by: the wiiy^' ; ;) 
: Bnte dketovarts of! looking 'backwards and fdrwards 
are^moteJlvstt enottgb ti^sapiport die spirit of aChria-' 
tian:. .there )iki'no man 'Uni' -hath blefsiogs ^ etiongb f in 
his pwiin)t.ijX)^iesioh to =oiiti9itei^. the evils ^ta gteai 
affiictibnvaiTeU. the : joints -oC thy bodyv' and'tdo liot 
aoeuseii the tjihiversal-i providence for a lanie^'leg, or 
the wantvcrfifa^igei^ iwhen.alUth&rest is. perfect, and 
yoo have « a- nfible soul^. a |Huribiclef of divtinity^ the 
image o^Xaod himself: and by the) want ;6f a finger 
you may the better know how to estimate the remain* 
tng parts, land toi'aocooiltjfor idvery degree ; of the 
Bunriving blessings^ Arutippus^^ in a great isUit -at. lawr^ 
lost a famif and^ to a gentlensan^ who in civiliti|p 
pitied abdde^red. his lo89i)diifc answered, I have two 
j/ktmi' ikftistill, and that is more than I have^ lost^ 
and ".more tkan .you have by one. If you •. miss ^aa 
office for which you stood candidate, then, besides tbaib 
you are quit of the cares and the envy^of it, you:jtill 
No. 7. X 


154 HoUf Living. [Chaf. ii. 

mmi^' » III m ■ ■ ■ .. 

have all those cxoellenciv whidi rendered yma capdbk 
to receive it^ and they are better than the beat office 
in the commonwealth. If your eetate be lewened^ 
you need the less to care who go?enia the. prorinc^ 
whether he be rude or gentle. I am crumfed m nnf 
jeumey, and yet I caeaped robbers : and I oontidsr, 
that if I had been set upon by vilbins; I would base 
redeemed that evil by this which I newi snfier, and 
have counted it a deliverance : or if I did fidl into. IIm 
hands of thieves, 3^t they did not steal my Iand« O 
I have fidlen into Ae hands of publicaiy and se» 
questrators, and they have taken allfirom^nve^ What 
nJowi- let roe look abobtme. They have* left nmlhe 
sun and .moon^ fire and water, a loving wife,. .and 
many friends to pity me, and some to. relieve' me, and 
I can still discourse; and, unless I list, tbqrhave not 
taken away my merry countenance, and my chearfiil 
spirit, and a good conscience : they still have left me 
the providence of God, and all .the promises of the 
gospel, and my religion, and my hopes of heaven, 
and my charity to them too : and still I sleejp and di- 
gest ; I eat and drink ; I read and meditate ; I can walk 
in my neighbour's pleasant fields, and see the varietiei 
of natural beauties, and delight in all that in whi^ 
God delights, that is, in virtue and wisdom, m fcV 
whole creation, and in God himself « And he diaf h^^ 
so 'many causes of joy, and so great, is very mucb- ^^ 
love with sorrow and peevishness, who loses all th. ^^ 
pleasures, and chooses to sit down upon his li'tf^^ 
handful of thorns. Such a person were, fit to }^^f 

Sect, tk.] Of CantenUdness. 155 

Nero company in hU funeral lorrow for the losi of 
one' of Poppe^^s hairs, or help to mourn for Lesbians 
sparrow : and because he loves it» he deserves to starve 
in the midst of plenty, and to want comfort; while he 
is encircled with blessings. 

4. Enjoy the present whatsoever it be, and be not 
•olicitons for the foture*: for if yon take yoiir foojt 
from the present standing, and thrust it forward to- 
ward to-morrow's event, you are in a restless condir 
titm, it is like refusing to quench your present thint 
fay fearing you shall want drink the next day. b$ 
well to day^ it is madness to make the present miser«- 
able^ by fearing it may be ill to-morrow ; when your 
belly is -fiiU of tOrday*s dinner, to fear you shall want 
the next day^s supper : for it may be you shall not ; 
and then to what purpose was this day's ^ifflictionr 
But if to-morrow you shall w^nt^ your sorrow will 
come time enough, though you do not hasten it : let 
jTour trouble tarry till its own day comes. But if it 
chancy to be ill to-day, do not increase it by the care 
of to-morrow« Enjoy the blessings of this day, if 
God sends them, and the evils of it bear patiently and 
sweetly: for this day is only ours, we are dead tp 
yesterday, and we are not yet horn to the morrow* 
He therefore that enjoys the present, if it be good^ 
enjoys as much as is possible : and if only that day's 
trouble leans upon him, it is singular and finite: 

* 0uid sit futurum eras fuge qusrere^ et 
Quern son dienim conque dabit^ locro 
Appone. Hor, L 1« Od. 9. 

*156 ' Hofy Livmg. [ 

Sufficient to the iaig (said Christ) if tht eml thereof. 
Sufficient J but nM intokrabk. But if we look dbroadj 
ssid bring into one day*s thoughts the evil of many^ 
certain and uncertain^ what will be and what will 
never be^ our load will be as intolerable as it is nn- 
leasonable. To reprove this instrumoit of diaoon- 
tent, the ancients feigned^ that in hell stood a man 
twisting a rope of hay^ and still he twisted on^ sufl^ 
ing an ass to eat up all that was finished : so miserable 
is he who thrusts his passions forwards towards ftitme 
events^ and suflfers all that he may enjoy to be lost and 
devoured by folly and inconsideration^ thinking no- 
thing fit to be enjoyed but that which is not, or cannot 
be had. Just so, many young persons are lotb to 
<lie^ and therefore desire to live to old age, and when 
they are come thither are troubled that they are come 
to that state of life, to which, before they were come^ 
they were hugely afiraid they should never come. 

5. Let us prepare our minds against changes, aU- 
ways expecting them, that we be not surprised when 
they come : for nothing is so great an enemy to tran<» 
quillity and a contented spirit, as the amazement and 
confusions of unreadiness and inconsideration : and 
when our fortunes are violently changed, our spirits 
are unchanged, if they always stood in the suburbs 
and expectation of sorrows. Death how bitter art 
thou to a- man that is at rest in his possessions I And 
to the rich uian who had promised to himself ease and 
fulness for many years, it was a sad arrest, that his 
ftoul was surprised the first night ; but the Apostles^i 

Sect, ti.] Of CopUentedness, 157 

ho ewety day knocked at the gate of deaths and 
looked upon it continually^ went to their martyrdond 
peace and evenness. 

S^ Let us often frame to ouraelves^ and represMt 

our considerations^ the images of those biasings we 

liwe^ just as we usually understand them when w^ 

^^vsmt them. Consider how desirable health is to % 

sick man^ or- liberty to a prisoner : and if but a fit of 

%he tooth-*ach seizes us with violence^ all those ^troublek 

^vrhich in our health afl9icted us, disband instantly^ 

ai<id seem inconsiderable^ He that in his health is 

troubled that he is jii debt^ and spends sleepless nights, 

^nd refuses meat because of his infelicity, let him fall 

into a fit of the stone, or a high fever, he despises the 

^i*rest of all his first troubles, and is as a man uncon^ 

^(^rned% Remember then that God hath given the6 

-^ l>lesBing, the want of which is infinitely more trouble 

tha.n thy present debt, or poverty, or loss ; and tbere- 

^re is now more to be valued in the possession, and 

^^U^ht to outweigh thy trouble. The very privative 

^l^ssings, the blessings of immunity, safeguard, li- 

^^^rty and integrity which we commonly enjoy, deserve 

^he thanksgiving of a whole life. If God should send 

^ cancer upon thy face, or a wolf into thy side, if 

*^^ should spread a crust of leprosy upon thy^ skiti ; 

^Hat wouldest thou give to be but as how thou art ? 

ouldest thou not on that condition be as poor as I 

i or as the meanest of thy brethren ? Would you nbt 

^heofee your present loss or afflictfon as a thing ex- 

*^^niely eligible, and a redemption, to thee, if thou 

158 Holy Hoing. [Chafw it. 

■■ ■ =^^ 

migheit excbange the otfier for this ? Thoa mrt qiiit 
from a thoasand cakunities^ every one of wfaich> if it 
were upon thee^ would make thee insensible ni thy 
present sorrow: and therefore let thy joy (whidb 
should be as great for thy freedom from them^ as it thy 
itdness when thou feelest any of them) do the samt 
cure upon thy discontent. For if we be not ex» 
tremely foolish or vain^ thankless or senseless, a gfeit 
joy is more apt to cure sorrow and discontent than a 
great trouble is. I have known an .affectionate wtfti^ 
when she had been in fear of parting with her bdioved 
husbandj heartily desire of God his life or society 
upon any conditions that were not sinful ; and choose 
to beg with him rather than to feast without him ; and 
the same person hath upon that consideration bene 
poverty nobly, when God hath heard her prayer in the 
other matter. What wise roan in the world is there 
who does not prefer a small fortune with peace before 
a great one with • contention^ and war and violence? 
and then he is no longer wise, if he alters his opihioa 
when he hath his wish. " 

7* If you will secure a contented spirit, you must 
measure your desires by your fortune and condition, 
not your fortunes by your desires ; that is, be governed 
by your needs, not by your fancy • ; by nature, not 
by evil customs and ambitious principles. He that 
would shoot an arrow out of a plow, or bunt a hare 
with an elephant, is not unfortunate for missing the 
mark or prey; but he is foolish for choosing such uh« 

^ Assai basta per chinon ^ xncordo. 

Sect, ti.] Of Cimtentedness. 159 

■ . ■■■ r 

apt instruments: and so is he that runs after hit 
content with appetites not springing from natural 
needs, but from artificial, iantastical, and violent ne* 
csessities. These are not to be satisfied; or if they 
were, a man hath chosen an evil instrument towards 
his content: nature .did not intenid rest to a man by 
filling of such desires. Is that beast better that hath 


two or three mountains to graze on, than a little bee 
that feeds on dew or manna, and lives upon what falls 
every morning from the store* houses of heaven, clouds, 
and providence? Can a man quench his thirst better 
out of a river than a full urn ; or drink better from 
the fountain when it is finely paved with marble, than 
wben it swells over the green turf? Pride and artifi« 
eial gluttonies do but adulterate nature, making our 
diet healthless, our appetites impatient and unsatia- 
fiable, and the taste mixed, fantastic, and meretrici- 
ooa *» But that which we miscall poverty, is indeed 
nature: and its proportions are the just measures of 
a man, and the best instruments of content. But 
when we create needs that God or nature never 

* — Quanta pnestantiiJLS esset 

- Namen aqu» viridi si'margine clauderet undss 

Herba, nee ingenuum vidaitnt mannofa tophna ! 

i*r-«- Me pascunt oliva. 

Me cicbores^ lerdeque malvse, 
Aroi paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe^ donet. Harat. I. 1. Od. 3L 

Amabo l^rem cnpretsuBij 
Omisais Crete paacpia: 
Terrse mihi datum est partun^ 
Careo intcriisi doloribiu. Pindar. 

160 Holy Uving. [Chap.ii. 

nade^ we have erected to ourselves an infinite stod^ 
of trouble that can have no period. Semproniua com- 
plained of want of clothes, and was much troubled 
for a pew suit, being ashamed to appear in the theatre 
with his gown a little thread-bare; but when he got 
it, and gave his old clothes to Codrus, the poor man 
was ravished with joy, and went and gave God thanks 
for, his new purchase ; and Codrus was made richly 
fine and cheerfully warm by that which Se mpmrnim t 
was ashamed to wear; and yet their natural needs 
were both alike: the difference only was that Sempro^ 
fUui. had some artificial and fantastical necessities 
superr induced, which. Cb^^rtM had not; and was harder 
to be relieved, and could not have joy at so cheap m 
rate: because he only lived according to nature^ the 
other by pride and ill customs, and measures taken 
by other men*s eyes and tongues, and artificial needs. / 
He that propounds to his fancy things greater than 
himself or his needs, and is discontent and troubled 
when he fails of such purchases, ought not to accuse 
providence, or bjame his fortune, but his folly. God 
and nature made no more needs than they mean to 
satisfy ; and he that will make more must look for 
satisfaction, where he can. 

8. In all troubles and sadder accidents let as take 
sanctuary in religion, and . by innocence cast ciut ai\- 
chors for our souls,^ to keep them from shipwreck, 
though they be not kept from storm *. For what pWv 
losopby shall comfort a villain that is hauled to ^^^ 

* Vacare cu]p4 in calamitatibus maximum solatium. 

^Sbct. ti.] Of CoHtentedness. 151 

"^^^ — — ^— — ' ■ ' » ...■■■ ■ 

rack for murthering bis prince^ or that is broken upon 
the wheel for sacrilege? ' His cup is\full of pure an4 
unmingled sorrow: bis body is rent with torment^ hi;s 
name with igiiominy, his soul with sh^me and sorrow 
which are to last eternally. But when a man suffers 
in a good cause^ or is afflicted and yet walks nol; 
perversely with his Qod^ then Anytus and Melitus 
may Jnllmeybut they cannot hurt me; (2 Cor. iv. 8, ^) 
then St. BauVs character is engraven; in the forehead 
of our fortune: We are troisfyled on every side, but 
not distressed; perplexed, hut not in despair; perse-- 
cuted, hut not forsaken; cast down, hut not d^troyed. 
And who is he that unll harm you, if, ye be foUower^ 
of that which is good? (I Pet. iii« 13^ and iy.' 15^ 16.^ 
For indeed every thing in the world is indifferent^ but 
sin: and all the scorchings of the sun are very tole- 
rable in respect of the burnings of a fever or a calen- 
ture. The greatest evils are from "within us^ and fiibm 


ourselves also we must look for our greatest good; for 

God is the fountain of it^ but reaches it to us by our 

I own hands: and when all things look sadly round 

about us, then only we shall find. how excellent a 

! ibrtune it is to have God to our friend ; . and of all 

/nendship% that only is created to support us in oqr 

needs. ^ For it is sin that turns an ague into a fever, 

And a fever to the plague, fear into despair, anger 

into rage, and loss into madness, and sorrow to amaze- 

'^'^nt and confusion : but if either we were innocent, 

^** ^Ise by the sadness are made penitent, wc are put 

^ School, or into the theatre, either to learn how, or 

102 Hofy Living. [Chap. ii. 

^' ' ■ . ' ■ ' ■ ■ ■■ ■' ■■ ■ 

else actually to combat for a crown; the accident 
may serve an end of merey^ but is not a messenger of 



Let us not therefore be governed by external, and 
present^ and seeming things: nor let us make the 
same judgment of things that common and weak un- 
derstandings do ; nor make other men, and' th^ not 
the wisest^ to be judges of our felicity^ so that we 
be happy or miserable as they please to think as : hot 
let reason^ and experience^ and religion, and hqie, 
relying upon the Divine promises^ be the measure of 
our judgment. No wise man did ever describe fdi- 
city without virtue*; and no good man did ever 
think virtue could depend upon the variety of a good 
or bad fortune. It is no evil to be |K>orj but to be 
vicious and impatient. 

Means to obtain Content hy way of Consideratum. 

To these exercises and spiritual instruments^ if w^ 
add the following considerations concerning the n^^ 
ture and circumstance of human chance^ we m^y 
better secure our peace. For as to children, who 
afraid of vain images, we use to persuade confidea^ 
by making them to handle and look near such things^ 
that when in such a familiarity they perceive them ivt- 
nocent, they may overcome their fears: so must ti- 
morous, fkntastical, sad and discontented persona ^ 
treated ; they must be made to consider, and on. ^ 

'^ Beatitudo pendet k tectis consiliis in affectionem aDimi ^^' 

stantem desinentibus^ Plut, 


Sect. Ti.] Of Contentedness. 163 

•ides to look, upon the accident^ and to take all its 
dimensions^ and consider its consequences^ and to be- 
hold the purpose of God, and the common mistakes 
^of . men, afid their evil sentences they usually pass 
upon th^m. For then we shall perceive that, like 
colts of unmam^ed horses, we start at dead bones 
aiidjifeless blocks, things that are inactive as they are 
innocent. ' But if we secure our hopes and our fears, 
and make them moderate and within government, we 
umy the sooner overcome the evil of the accident; 
/or nothk^ that we feel is so bad as what we fear. . . 
1. Cpnjsiider that the universal providence of God 
hath so ordered it, . that the good things of nature 
aiid fortune are divided, that we may know how to 
bear our. own, and relieve each othei^s wants and im- 
perfections. It is not for a man, but for God, to 
We all excellencies, and all felicities. He supports 
^y poverty with his wealth; I counsel and instruct 
him with my l^rning and expierience. He hath many 
friends, I many children: he hath no heir, I have 
'^^ inheritance: and any one great blessing together 
^i^h the common portions of nature and necessity is a 
^^^ fortune, if it be but health or strength, or the 
'^'^iftness . of Ahimaaz*. For it is an unreasonable 
^^^eontent to be troubled that I have not so good 
^^^Ws, or dogs, or horses as my neighbour, being 
°^ore troubled that I want one thing that I need 

Mon te ad omnia keta.genuit^ O Agamemnon, Atreus* Opus 
. ^ te gaudere, et moerere : Mortalis enim natus es^ et^ hut baud 
^^^> Soperi sic eonstituerunt. 

104 Hdy Living. [ Chap. ii. 

not, than thankfiil for having received dl that I 
need. Net^o had thia disease^ that he waa not* con^ 
tent with the fortune of the whole eni{iire^ bat pot 
tfie fidlers to death for being morel skilful in the 
tradie than he was : and DionyHus the elder was so 
angry at PhiloMrius for singitag, and i^ith- Plato 
for disputing bettei^ than he did^ that • he sold Pktto 
a Slave into mgina, and condemned the other to the 

<- This consideration is to be enlarged by adding to 
ity -that there isre some instancies of fortune and a fnr 
oondition that' cannot stand- with some otheri, but 
if yon- desire this, you must lose- that, and unleis you 
bsf content with one, you lose the ccmifort of both. 
If you covet learning, you must have leisure and a 
retired life : if to be a politician, yoU must go abroad 
amd get experience, and do all businesses, and keep 
all company, and have no leisure at all. If you will 
be rich, you must be frugal: if you will be popular, 
yon must be bountiful : if a philosopher, you must 
despise riches. The Greek that designed to make 
the most exquisite pictui*e that could be imagined, 
fancied the eye of Chtone^ and the hair of Pcegrdumy 
and Tarsia's lip, Phileniunis chin, and the forehead 
of Delphia, and set all these upon MelphidippcC s 
neck, and thought that he should out-do both art and 
nature. But when he came to view the proportions, 
he Sound that what was excellent in Tarsia did not 
agree with the other excellency of Philenium: and 
although singly they were rare pieces, yet iii the whol^^ 

Sect. Vi.] Of Contentedness. 165 

they made a most ugly face. The dispersed exoel- 
lencies aiid blessings of many men^ if given to one, 
would not make a handsome^ but a monstrous for- 
tune. Use therefore that faculty which nature hath 
given thee^ and thy education hath made actual^ and* 
thy oaUing' hath made a duty. But if thou desirest 
to-be a saifit^ refuse tiot his persecution: if thou^ 
wouldest be famous ^b Epammondas^ or Fabricius, 
accept also 'of their poverty; for that added lustre to 
their paisons^ and envy to thteir fortune^ and their 
virtue without it could not have been* so excellent.- 
Let 3upkorion sleep quietly with his old rich wife; 
and let Medius drink on with Alexander t and remem^ 
ber thou canrt not have the riches of the first, unless 
ycHi have the old wife too; nor the fav6ur which the 
second had with his Prince, unless yen buy it at his 
price, that is, lay thy sobriety down at first, and thy 
health a little fifter ; and then their condition, though 
it look splendidly, yet when you handle it on all sides, 
it will, prick • your fingers * . 

2. Consider how many excellent ])ersonages in all 

ages have suffered as great or greater calamities than 

this which now tempts thee ta impatience. j4gis was 

the most noble of the Greeks, and«*fet his wife bore a 

child by Alcibiades : and Philip was prince of Ittircea, 

and yet his wife ran away with his brother Herod into 

Galilee : and certainly in a great fortune that was a 

great calamity : but these are but single instances. Al- 

* Prandet Aristoteles quando Pkilippo lubet Diogenes quand« 


106 Uolff Living. [Chap. ii. 

most all the ages of the world have noted that their 
moat eminent scholars were most eminently poor, 
some by choice, but most by chance, and an ineviti^le 
decree of providence. And in the whole sex of wo- 
men God hath decreed the sharpest pains of child- 
birth, to shew that there is no state exempt from sor* 
row, and yet that the weakest persons have ttrengtb 
more than enough to bear the greatest evil : and the 
greatest Queens, and the mothers of Saints and 
Apostles, have no character of exemption from this 
sad sentence. But the Lord of men and Angels vraa also 
the King of sufierings, and if thy coarse robe trouble 
Uiee, remember the awaddling-cloathes of Jesus; if 
thy bed be uneasy, yet it is not worse than his manger; 
apd it is no sadness to have a thin table, if <fiou cat- 
lest to miod that the King of Heaven and earth was 
fed with a little breast-milk : and yet besides this he 
suffered all the sorrows which we deserved. We there- 
fore have great reason to sit down upon our own 
hearths, and warm ourselves at our own fires, and 
feed upon content at home: for it were a strange 
pride to expect to be more gently treated by the Di- 
vine Providence than the best and wisest men,* than 
Apostles and Saints, nay, the Son of the Eternal God, 
the heir of both the Worlds. 

This consideration may be enlarged by surveying 
all the states and families of the world*; and he that 
at once saw j3Egina woid Magera, Pyre us and Corinth, 
lie gasping in their ruins, and almost buried in their 

* Servius Sulpitius* 

Sect, vi.] Of Contentedness, 167 

^ — _s^ — . . 

own heaps, had read6n to blame Cicero for mourning 
impatiently the death of one woman. In the moft 
beauteous and splendid fortune there are many car^ 
and proper interruptions and allays : in the fortuM 
of a prince tbei'e is not the coarse robe' of beggary': 
but there are infinite cares; and the judge sits updti 
the tribunal with great ceremony and ostentation of 
fortune^ and yet at his house^ or in his breast^ theris is 
something that causes him t6 sigh deeply^. PittacUs^ 
was a wise and valiant man, but his wife overthrew 
the table when he had invited his friends : upon whieb 
the good man^ to excuse her incivility and his owti 
misfortune^ said^ that every man had one evil^ and 
he w^ most happy that had but that alone. And if 
nothing else happens, yet sicknesses so often do im* 
bitter the fortune and content of a family, that a 
physician in a few years, and with the practice upon 
a very few families, gets experience enough to adnii- 
nister to almosf all diseases. And when thy little 
tnisfortune troubles thee, remember that thou hast 
known the best of Kings arid the best of men put to 
death publicly by his own i^ubjects. 

3. There are many accidents which are esteemed 
great calamities; and yet we have reason enough to 
bear them well and unconcernedly; for they neither 

^ Hic ip-foro beatus esse creditur, 

Cilin foribus apertis sit suls miserrimus ) 
Imperat mulier^ jubet omnia^ semper litigat. 
Malta adferunt illi dolorem. nihil mihi. 

. ■ ' * 

Ferre quam sortem patiuntur. onmes> * 

Nemo recusat. 

166 Holy Living. [Chap. ii. 

touch our bodie«^ nor our souls ; our health aiMi our 
virtue remain entire^ our life and our reputation* It 
nay be 1 am slighted, or I have received ill language; 
but my head aches not for it, neither hath it broke my 
thighj nor taken away my virtue, unless I lose my 
dmrity or my patience. Ekiquire therefore what you 
are the worse, either in your soul, or in your body, 
for what hath happened: for upon this very atock 
many evils will disappear, since ^e body and the soul 
make up the whole man. And when the daughter of 
Stilpo proved a wanton, he said, it was none of his 
sin, and therefore there was np reason it should be 
his misery*. And if an enemy hath taken all that 
from a prince whereby he was a King ; he may re-: 
fresh himself by considering all that is left him, 
whereby he is a man. 

4. Consider that sad accidents and a state of afflic- 
tion is a school of virtue : it reduces our spirits to so- 
berness, and out counsels to moderation ; it corracts 
levity, and interrupts the confidence of sinning. Jt is 
good for me (said David) that I have been ajfflictei^ 
for thereby I have learned thy law. And, I knwlx^ 
(O Lord,) that thou of very faithfuhtess hast caused 
me to be troubled. (Psalm, cxix. part ID, v. 3.) For 
God who in mercy and wisdoni governs the World, 


* St natus es, Trophime^ solus omnium b^c lege 
Ut semper eant tibi res arbitiio tuo -, 
Fellcitatem banc si quis promisit Deus^ 
^ Irasceris jure^ si mal& is fide 

£t improb^ egisset. Menan. 


Sect, vi.] Of CoiUentedness, 169 

' - ■ J ; ■ r '. 

would never have suffered so many sadnesses, and have 
sent them especially to the tnost virtuous and tbt 
' wiqipst men^ hut that hie intends they should be the 
seminary of comfort^ the nursery of virtue^ the exercise 
of wisdom, the trial of patience, the venturing for a 
crown, and the gate of glory. 

5, .Consider that afflictions are oftentimes the oc<r 
casions of great temporal advantages : and we must 
not look upon them as they sit down heavily uponus^ 
but as they serve some of God's ends, and the purpor 
tea of universal Providence. And when a prince fighta 
jaatiy^ and yet unprosperously, if he could see all those 
reasons for which Qod hath so ordered it, he would 
think it the most reasonable thing in the worlds and 
that it would be very ill to have it otherwise. If a man 
could have opened one of the pages of the divine 
counsel^ and could have seen the event of Jaseph^s be*- 
iog sold to the merchant's of Amaleck^ he might widi 
much reason have dried up the young man's tears ; 
and when God's purposes are opened in the events of 
things^ as it was in the case of Joseph^ when he. sus^ 
jtained his father's family, and became Lord of Egypt\ 
then we see what ill judgment we made of things, and 
that we were passionate as children, and transported 
virith sense and mistaken interest. The case of The^ 
mUtocles was almost like that of Joseph, for, being ba- 
nished into Egypt, he also grew in favour with the King 
and told his wife he had been undone, unless he had 
been undone. For God esteems it one of hi^ glorio 
that he brings good out of evil : and therefore it were* 
No. 8. z 

170 Holy living. [Chap. ii. 

but reason we Bhould trust Grod to govern his own 
World as he pleases ; and that we should patiently 
wait till the change comt^th^ or the reason be discoveced. 
And this consideration is also of great use to them 
who envy the prosperity of the wicked^ and the suc«- 
cess of persecutors^ and the baits of fishes^ and the 
bread of dogs. God fiiils not to sow blessings in the 
long fiirrows which the plowers plow upon the back 
of the church : and this success which troubles us will 
be a great glory to God^ and a great benefit to his 
laints and servants^ and a great ruin to the perseco* 
tofs^ who shall have but the fortune of Theramemei^ 
one of the thirty tyrants of Athens^ who escaped when 
his house fell upon him^ and was shortly after put to 
death with torments by his colleagues in the tyranny. 
' To which also may be added^ that tlie great evils 
which happen to the best and wisest men are one of 
the great arguments upon the strength of which we 
ean expect felicity to our souls and the joys of ano«> 
ther world. And certainly they are then veiy. to- 
lerable and eligible, when with so great advantages 
th^ minister to the faith and hope of a christian. 
But if we consider what unspeakable torture are 
provided for the wicked to all eternity, we should not 
be troubled to see them prosperous here, but nith^ 
wonder that their portion in this life is not biggefj 
and that ever they should be sick, or crossed, or 
affronted, or troubled with the contradiction and dis-^ 
fwise of Jheir own vices, since if they were fortunate 
beyond their own ambition, it could not make tben^ 


J1 -'"^ -"• '^- ■ - • ■' - ..•■■»■ -.■.■■-.■ . . 

Sect, ti.] Cff Contentedness. 171 

recompence for one hour*^ torment in hell^ which yet 
they shall have for their eternal portion. 

After all these oonsideretions^ deriving from sense 
and experience^ grace and reason^ there are two^ re* 
medies Jtill remaining, and they are necessity and 

6. For it is but reasonable to beat that accident 
patiently which God sends^, since impatience does but 
intangle us like the fluttering of a bird in a net, but 
cannot at. all ease our trouble, or prevent the acci- 
dent : it must be run through, and therefore it were 
better we compose ourselves to a patient, than to a 
troubled and miserable sufiering*. 

7«:But however, if you will not otherwise be cured; 
ticne at last will do it alone; and then consider, do 
yoa- mean to' mourn always, or but for a time ? If 
alvrayr you are miserable and foolish. If for a time^ 
then why will you not apply those reasons to your 
grief at first, with which you will cure it at last? or 
if you will not cure it with reason, see how little of 
a man there is in you, that you. suffer time to do more 
with you than reason or religion. You suffer your* 
selves to be cured just as a beast or a tree is ; let it 
alone, and the thing will heal itself : but this is neither 
honourable to thy person, nor of reputation to. thy 
religion. However, be contient to bear thy calamity, 
because thou art sure in a little time it will sit dowa 
gentle and easy: for to a mortal man no evil is im* 
pooital. And here let the worst thing happen ttmt 
* Nemo recusat ibrre quod nectfse est pati. 

17S Hcfy lirnng. [ Chap. ii. 

ektky it will end in deaths and we bommonly think that 
to be near enough. 

8. Lastly, of those things which are reckoned^ 
amongst evils, some are better than their omtrmrics ; 
ttid to a good man the very worst is tolerable. 

Poverty y nfr a law Fortune* 

1. Pover^ is better than riches, and a mean for- 
tone to be chosen before a great and aplendid one. It 
is indeed despised, and makes men contiemptifole : it 
exposes a man to the insolence of evil persona^ and 
leaves a man defenceless : it is always saipeeted : iti 
stories are accounted lies, and all its counsels foUiea t 
it puts a man from all employments : it makes a man's 
discourse tedious^ and his society troublesome. This 
is the worst of it ; and yet all this, and fat worse than 
this, the Apostles suffered for being Christians ; and 
Christianity itself may be esteemed an affliction as well 
as poverty, if this be till that can be said against it; 
for the Apostles and the most eminent Christians were 
ireally poor, and were used contemptuously. *And yet, 
that poverty is despised may be an argument to com- 
mend it, if it be despised by none but persons vicious 
and ignorant. However, certain it is that a gtaat for- 
tune is a great vanity, and riches is nothing but dan-^ 
ger, trouble, and temptation *; like a garmentthat i& 
t6o long, and bears a train ; not so useful to one, bo^ 
it is troublesome to two, to him that bears the one par— -i 
lipon his shoulders, and to him that bears the 
' * Alta fortuna alta travaglto apporta. 

Sect, vi.] Of Conteniedtiess. 173 



(mrt in his hand. But poverty is the sister of a good 
mind, the parent of sober counsels, and the nurse of 
all virtue. 

For what is it that you admire in the fortune of a 
great King ? Is it that he always goes in a great coni^ 
pany ? you may thrust yourself into the same crowd, 
or go often to church, and then you have as great 
k company as he hath ; and that may upon as good 
-grounds please you as him, that is, justly neither : For 
so impertinent and useless pomp, and the other cir- 
€innstances of his distance, are not made for him, but 
for his subjects, that they may learn to separate him 
finom common usages^ and be taught to be governed*. 
But if you look upon them as fine things in them- 
selves, you may quickly alter your opinion when you 
shall consider that they cannot cure the tooth-ach, 
nor make one wise, nor fill the belly, or give one 
nighfs sleep, (though they help to break many) not 
satisfying any appetite of nature, or reason, or religi- 
on : but they are states of greatness, which only makes 
it possible for a man to be made extremely miserable. 
And it was along ago observed by the Greek tragedians, 
and from them by Arianus, saying "That all our 
tragedies are of Kings and Princes, and rich or am- 
hitiotts personages ; but you never see a poor man 
have a part, unless it be as a Ckorus^ or to fill up 
the scenes, to dance or to be derided : but the Kings 
and the. great generals. First (says he) they begin 
^th joy, fg^oitB SujiMi'ra, crown the houses : but about 
.; ■' ^ Da autorita la ceremonia al atto. 

■ f 

174 Holy Living. [Chap. ii. 

the third or fourth act they cry out, O Cithasrum ! why 
didst thou spare my life to reserve me for this more 
sad calamity ?'* And this is really true in the great ac« 
cidents of the world : for a great estate hath great 
crossest and a mean fortune hath but small ones. It 
may be the poor man loses a cow : or if his chiljd.dies 
' he h quit of his biggest care : but such an accident in 
a rich and splendid family doubles upon the sp^dts.of 
the parents. Or it may be the poor man is troubled to. 
pay his rent, and that is his 'biggest trouble : but:it is 
s bigger care to secure a great fortune in a troubled 
estate, or with equal greatness, or with the circnm* 
stances of honoiir, and the niceness of reputation to 
defend a law-suit ; and that which wilt secure a com* 
mon man's whole estate, is not enough to defend a 
great man's honour. » 

And therefore it was not without mystery observed 
among the ancients, that they who made Gods of gold 
and silver, of hope and fear, of peace and fortune^ 
garlick and onions, beasts and serpents, and a quartan 
ague, yet never deified money *: meaning that how- 
ever wealth was admired by common or abused. uiir 
derstandings ; yet, from riches, that is, from that pro- 
portion of good things which is beyond the neocmities 
of nature, no moment could be added to a man's re«l 
content or happiness. Corn from Sardinia, herds of 
Calabrian cattle, meadows through^ which plesasant 

* ^Funesta Pecuniae Teaiplo 

Nondum habitas^ nullas nummoruni er^ximus trs|ij 
Ut colitur pax atque $dei — -?- ntf. 

'M l » 

6ect. VI.] Of Contentedness, 175 

- — - — T- I I ^ II r Ml 1— ^^-| - - ^,„, — ^ , 

JLyris glides^ silks from Tt/rus^ and golden ohalipes to 

drown my health in^ are nothing but instruments of 

"vmnity or sin, and suppose a disease in the soul of 

him that long« for theih or admires them. 'And this 

^ I^ have otherwhere represented more largely *; to 
which I here add, that riches have very, great dangers 
to their souls, not only to them who covet them, but 
to all that have them. For if a great personag€f un- 
dertakes an action passionately, and upon great interest, 
let him manage it indiscreetly, let the whole design 
be unjust, let it be acted with all the malice and im^ 
potency in the world, he shall have enough to flatter 
him, but not enough to* reprove him; He had need 
be a bold man that shall tell his patron, he is going to 
hell ; and that prince had need be a giDod man that 
shall suffer such a monitor. And though it be a strange 
-kind of civility, and an evil dutifulness in friends 
and relatives, to suffer him to perish without re|>rQof 
or tnedieine, rather than to seem unmannerly to a 
grreait sinner ; yet it is none of their least infelicities, 

- that their wealth and greatness shall put them into sin', 
«iid yet put them past reproof. • I need not instance 
^n the habitual intemperance of rich tables, nor the 
evil aqcidents and efiects of fulness, pride and lust, 
ivantbnness and softness of disposition, huge talking, 
andnih imperious spirit, despite of religion and cbn-> 
tempt of poor persons. At the best, It is a great 
temptation for a man to have in his power ivhatsoever 
Tie can have in his sensual desires : (Jam. ii. 5. 6.) 

^ Ch. iv. sect. 8. Title of Covetousaesfl. 

/ — 

/ 176 /fo/y Lniifg. [Chap. ii. 

And therefore riches is t bleisiog like to » present 
made of t whole vintage to a man in an hectic fever ; he 
will be much tempted to drink of it, and if he doei be 
is inflamed, and may chance to die with the kindness. 

Now^ besides what hath been already noted is 
the state of poverty*, there is nothing to be aoooonbcd 
for but the fear of wanting necessaries^ o£ which, if a 
man could be secured, that he might live free ftoia 
care, all the other parts of it might be reckoned 
amongst the advantages of wise and sober person^ 
rather than objections against that state of fprtone. 

But concerning this I consider, that there, most 
needs be great security to all Christians, since Chri^ 
not only made express promises that we should hvft 
sufficient for this life ; but also took great pains and 
«tted many arguments to create confidence in. us ; and 
such they were which by their own strength were suf- 
ficient, though you abate the authority of the speaker. 
The son of God told us, his Father takes care of 
us : he that knew all his Father*s counsels and bis 
whole kindness towards mankind, told us so.- How 
great is that truth, how certain, bow necessary, whicki 
Christ himself proved by arguments i the excelleck'fc 
words and most • comfortable sentences which 
our bills of exchange, upon the credit of which 
lay our cares down, and receive provisions for ol^^ 
need are these: " TaJ(e no thought for your Ufsy itti^se/ 
yc shaU eat, or what ye shall drinhj nor yet for y&uT 
body J what ye shall put on. Is not the life more thai^ 
meat, and the body than raiment ? Behold the foivh 


Sect. tiJ Of Contentedness^ 177 

- - 

6jf^ the air, far they sow not, neither do they reap, nor 

gather info hams, yet your heai)enly Father faed^th 

them.' Are ye not much better than they f Which of 

you hif taking ihau^hi can add one cubit to his stature ? 

And why take ye though far raiment ? Consider the 

IkHes * if the Jield how they grow ; they toil not, nep* 

ther do tkeyspin : and yet I say unto you, that even 

Siotodiolti in all hit glory was not arrayed like one of 

thesi. Hykehefore if God so clothe the grass of the 

fieUwMdi to day is,' and to morrow is cast into the 

^^>tn,i9haUhein6t much more clothe you, O ye of little 

ffsUh? Therefore, thought, saying, what shall 

•We $dt? or what shall tve drink ? or wherewithal 

^hfdl we ' be clothed ? (for after all these things do 

the Oeniiles seek,) for your heavenly Father knoweth 

that ^ have need of all these things. But seek ye first 

the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these 

things ^thall he added unto you. Take therefore no 

thought for the morrow ; for the morrow shall take 

thtmght far the things of itself; sufficient to the day 

i^ the evil thereof. ^^ Matt. vi. 25, S^c. Luke xii. 22. 

inverse 3\. The same discourse is repeated by St. 

Luke : and accordingly our duty is urged, and our 

confidence abetted by the disciples of our Lord, in 

^i^rs places of holy scripture. So St. Paul : Be 

careful far nothing, but in every thing by prayer and 

^application, with thanksgiving let your requests be 

'^de known unto God. Phil. iv. 6. And again, 

(Charge them that are rich in this world that they 

^ not high-minded, nor trust in; uncertain riches, but 

Ao. 8. 2a/ 

178 Hofy Living. [ Chap. ii. 

m the living Ood, who giveth us richfy aU iMngs to 
emfoy. 1 Tim. vi. 17. And yet again^ Let ffomr con- 
versatian be without covetousnees. and he content with 
such things as ye have ; for he hath said, I will never 
leave thee, nor forsake thee : So that we mo^ Mdfy 
say, the Lord is my helper. Heb. xiii. 5, 6. And ill 
this is by St. Peter summed up in oar duty thss: 
Cast all your care upon him, for he careth for you. 
Which words he seems to have borrowed out of ibe 
55 Psalm, ver 2%^ where David saith the saicne thing 
almost in the same words. To which 1 only add tba 
observation made by him, and the argument of ex- 
perience ; / have been young and now am old, and 
yet saw I never the righteous forsaken, nor his' seed 
begging their bread. And now after all thi8> a fesr- 
less confidence in God, and concerning a provision of 
necessaries, is so reasonable, that it is become a duty ; 
and he is scarce a Christian whose iaith is so little as 
to be jealous of God; and suspicious concerning meat 
and clothes ; that man hath nothing in him of the 
nobleness or confidence of charity. 

Does not God provide for all the birds, and beasts, 
and fishes ? Do not the sparrows fly from their bush; 
and every morning find meat where they laid it not ? 
Do not the young ravens call to God, and he feeds 
them ? And were it reasonable that the sons of the 


family should fear the father would give meat to the 
chickens and the servants, bis sheep and his dogS; 
but give none to them ? He were k very ill father 
that should do so ; or he were a very foolii»h son that 

Sect, vi.] Of Contentedness. 179 

I I ■ ■■■■-■ n il ^ 

should think so of a good father. Bot besides 
the reasonableness of this faith and this hope^ we 
have infinite experience of it: how innocent^ how 
c^relessy how secure is infancy ; and yet how cer^ 
tainly provided few ? We have lived at God's charge^ 
ail the da3rs.of'Our life, and have (as the Italian 
proverb says) > sat down to meat at the sound of a 
bell ; and hitherto he hath not failed us : we have no 
reason to. suspect him for the future! we do not use 
to serve men so, and less time of trial creates great 
confidences in us towards them who for twenty years 
together never broke their word with us; and God 
. hath so ordered it, that a nian shall have had the ex- 
perience of many years provision, before he shall un- 
derstand how to doubt; that he may be provided for 
an answer against the temptation shall come, and the 
mercies felt in his childhood may make him fearless 
when he is a man. , ** 

Add to this, that God hath given us his Holy Spirit; 
he hath promised heaven to us; he hath given us his 
Son ; and we are taught from scripture to make this 
inference from hence, How should he not tvith him 
give vs all things else 9 

The Charge of many Children. 

We have a title to be provided for as we are God's 
creatures, another title as we are his children, ano^ 
ther because God hath promised; and every of our 
children hath the same title: and therefore it is a 
huge folly and infidelity to be troubled and full of 


■■ I fci 

180 Holif Living, [Chap. ii. 

care because we hare many children. Every child 
we have to feed in a new revenue^ a new title to 
God*8 care and Providence; so that many cbildrea 
are a great wealth; and if it be said they are ehai^ 
able^ it is no more than all wealth and great levenoes 
are. For what difference is it? TIHub keeps ten 
plows ;, Ginte/ta hath ten children. He hath knd 
enough to employ, and to feed all his hiMb: she 
blessings, and ptomises, and the provisions, and the 
truth of God to maintain all her children. His hinds 
and horses eat up all his com, and her chiMren aie 
lufficiently maintained with her little. They bring in, 
and eat up; and she indeed eats up, but they tto 
bring in from the store-houses of heaven, and the 
granaries of God: and my children are not io flMdi 
mine as they are God*s, he feeds them in the womb 
by ways secret and insensible ; and would not wcMrk n 
^rpetual miracle to bring them forth, and then to 
starve them. 

Violent Necessities, 

But some men are highly tempted, and are brought 
to a strait, that without a miracle they cannot be fe- 
lieved ; what shall they do r It may be their pride or 
vanity hath brought the necessity upon them, and it i& 
Hot a need of God's making : and if it be not, they 
must cure it themselves by lessening their desires an< 
moderating their appetites: and yet if it be innocent 
though unnecessary, God does usually relieve sue 
necessities; and he does not only, upon our prayer^B 

Sbct« VI.] Of Contentedness. 181 

— ' ■ ■ ■ . I ■ .. a 


grant iis more than he promised of temporal things^ 
but also he gives maiiy times more than we. ask. This 
is no object of our faith, but ground enough for a 
temporal^ and prudent hope: and if we fail in tfat 
particular, God will turn it to a bi^er mercy, if we 
tabmit to his dispensation, and adore him in tbe de<^ 
niaL But if it be. a matter of necessity, let not any 
man, by way of impatience, cry out, that God will 
Q0| Work a tnifacle; ,for God,, by miracle> did gira 
ineat and driiik to his people. in the wilderness, of 
wliicb he had soade no particular promise in any.Co«> 
l^oant: arid if all natural means fail, it is certain that 
God will rather work a miracle than break his word) 
tiex»n do that, he cannot do this. Only we must rt4. 
m^i^ber, that our portion of temporal things is biit 
f(»d and raiment : Grod hath not promised us coaches 
aod horses, rich houses and jewels, Tipnan silks hod 
Per^an.carpefts (.neither hath he promised to minister 
to our needs inauch circunistances as we shall ap« 
pHQt, but such as. himself shall choose. God will ena-^ 
bte thee either to pay thy debt, (if thou beggest it of 
him) or els^'he will pay it for thee, i. e. take thy de- 
lire as a discharge of thy duty, and pay it to thy cre^ 
ditor in blessings, or in some secret of his providence. 
It may be he hath laid up the corn that shall feed thee 
in the granary of thy brother ; or will clothe thee 
%i¥ith bis wooK . He enabled*AS^..Pc/cr to pay his Gabel 
hy the ministry of a fish ; and Ulias to be waited on 
iiy a crow, who was both his minister and his steward 
^6r provisions; and his only son rode in triumph upon 

18S Holy Living. [Chap. ii. 

m as8 that graased in another man*8 pastures: and 
if God gives to him the dominion^ and resenrea the 
wp to thee, thou hast the better half of the two: 
but die charitable man serves God aiid serves tliy 
need: and both join to provide for thee^ and God 
blesses both. But if he takes away the flesh-^(Joti from 
tfaee^ he can also alter the appetite^ and he tia^ 
given thee power and commandment to restrain, it: 
and if he lessens the revenue^ he will also shrink te 
necessity; or if he gives but a very little^ he will 
mAe it go a great way; or if he sends thee bnta 
coarse diet, he will bless it and make it healthful, and 
cfein cure all the anguish of thy poverty by ginqf 
thee patience, and the grace of contentedness. For 
the grace of God secures you with provisions, «sid yat 
the grace of God feeds and supports the spirit in ^ 
want of provisions: and if a thin table be apt to en- 
feeble the spirits of one used to feed better, yet ihit 
chearfulness of a spirit that is blessed will make a thin 
table become a delicacy ^ if the man was as well taught 
as he was fed, and learned his duty when he received 
tjbe blessing. Poverty therefore is in some senses eli- 
gible, and to be preferred before riches, but in all 
senses it is very tolerable. 

Death of Children, or nearest Relatives and Friend^* 

There are some persons who have been noted for 
excellent in their lives and passions^ rarely innocent, 
and yet hugely penitent for indiscretions and harm* 
less infirmities: such was Paulina, one of the ghostly 


Sect, vi.] Of Contetitedness. 183 

children of St. Hierom : and yet when any of her chil- 
dren died^ she was arrested with a sorrow so great as 
brought her to the mai^in of her grave. And the more 
tender our spirits are made by religion^ the more 
easy we are to let in grief, if the cause be innocent, and 
be but in any sense twisted with piety and due affec- 
ttons. To cure which we may consider that all the 
world must die, and therefoce to be impatient ^at the 
death of a person, concerning whom it was certain 
and known that he must die, is to mourn because thy 
friend or child was not bom an angel ; and when 
thou hast a while made thyself miserable by an im- 
ptjortnnate and useless grief, it may be thou shalt die 
fll^^lf, . and leave others to their choice whether they 
will itodurn for thee or no: but by that time it will ap- 
pear how impertinent that grief was which served no 
end df life, and ended in thy own funeral. But what 
great matter is it if sparks fly upward, . or a stone falls 
into a pit? If that which was combustible be burned, . 
or that which was liquid be melted/ or that which is 
mortal to die ? It is no more than a man does every 
day; for every night, death hath gotten possession of 
that day, and we shall never live that day over again ; 
and when the last day is come, there are no more days 
left for us to die. And what is sleeping and waking, 
but living and dying ? What is spring and autumn, 
youth and old age, morning and evening, but real 
images of life and death, and really the same to many 
considerable effects and changes? 

184 Holjf living. [Chap. ii. 

Untimely Death. 
But it is not mere dying that is pretended by some 
as the cause of their impatient mourning, but that 
the child died young, before he knew good and eWI, 
his right hand from his left, and so lost all his portion, 
of this world, and they know not of what excellency 
his portion in the neit shall be. If he died young, he 
lost but little, for he understood but little, and had ' 
not capacities of great pleasures or great cares : bat 
yet he died innocent, and before the sweetness of hit 
soul was defloured and ravished from him by ttie 
flames and follies of a froward age : he went out from 
the dining-room before he had fallen into error by 
the intemperance of his meat, or the deluge of drink: 
and he hath obtained this favour of God, that his soal 
hath suffered a less imprisonment, and her load was 
sooner taken off, that he might with lesser delays go 
and converse with immortal spirits ; and the babe is 
taken into paradise before he knows good and evil. 
(For that knowledge threw our great father out, 
and this ignorance returns the child thither.) But 
(as concerning thy own particular) remove thy 
thoughts back to those days in which thy child was 
not born, and you are now but as then you wefe, anA 
there is no difference, but that you had a son bom -; 
and if you reckon that for evil you are thankful fc^^ 
the blessing ; if it be good, it is better that you ha^^i 
the blessing for a while than not at all ; and yet ii 
he had never been born, this sorrow had never been zi 

Sbct. yiJ Of Contentedness. l§5 

all*. But be not more displeased at God for giving 
you a blessing for a while^ than you would have been 
if be had not given it at all ; and reckon that inter* 
vening blessing for a gain^ but account it not an evil ; 
and if it be a good, turn it not into sorrov^ and sadr 
ness. But if we have great reason to complain of 
the calamities and evils of our life^ then we have 
the less reason to grieve that those whom we loved 
have so small a portion of evil assigned tQ them.; And 
it is no small advantage that our children dying young 
receive : for their condition of a blessed immortality 
ia rendered to them secure, by being snatched from the 
dangers of an evil choice, ^nd carried to their little 
cells of felicity, where ihey can weep no more. And 
thisi the wisest of the Gentiles understood well, when 
they forbad any offerings or libations to be made for 
dead infants, as was usual for their own . dead ; as 
believing they were entered into a secure possession, to 
which they went with no other condition, but that 
they passed into it through the way of mortality, and 
for a few months wore an uneasy garment. And let 


weeping parents say, if they do not think, that the 
evils their little babes have suffered are sufficient : if 
they be, why are they troubled that they were taken 
from ^ose many and greater, which in succeeding 
years are great enough to try all the reason and re*- 

* Itidem si puer parvulus occidat> seqiia animo ferendum putant ? 
•i Ter5 in cums, ne querendum quidem : arqui hoc acerbius exegit 
natura quod dederit. At id quidem in ceteris rebus meliui putatur« 
ali quatn partem quam nullam attingere. Seneca, 

No. 6. 2 U 

186 Holy Living. [Chap. ii. 

ligibn which art and nature and the grace of God 
hath produced in m, to enable us for such sad ooiv- 
fentions ? And possibly we may doubt concerning men 
iand women, but we cannot suspect that infants* deith 
can be such an evil, but that it brings to them much 
more good than it takes from them in this life. 

Death. umeasonable. . . 

But otheiw can well bear the death of infants : but 
when they have spent some years of childhood or 
youth, and are entered into arts and society, when 
they are hopeful and provided for, when the partntB 
are to reap the comfort of all their fears and caw, 
'then it breaks the spirit to lose them. This is true in 
many ; but this is not love to the dead, but to tbon^ 
telves ; for they miss what they had flattered them"- 
selves into by hope and opinion : and if it were kind<- 
ness to the dead, they may consider, that since we hope 
he is gone to God, and to rest, it as an ill expression 
of our love to them, that we weep for their good for- 
tune*. For that life is not best whicl^^is longest : and 
when they are descended into the grave, it shall not 
be enquired how long they have lived, but how 
well : and yet this shortening of their days is an eviU 
wholly depending upon opinion. For if men did4 
naturally live but twenty years, then we should 
satisfied if they died about sixteen or eighteen ; an 
yet eighteen years now are as long as eighteen yeari^" 
would .be then : and if a man were but of a day's lift 

* Juvenis relinquit vitam quein Dii diligunt. Menand^ 


Sect, vi.] Of Cbntentedness. 187 


it IS well if he last till even-song, and then says his 
Compline * an hour before the time : and we are 
pleased and call not that death immature if he lives till 


jieventy ;; and yet this age is as short of the old periods 
before and since the flood, as this youth^s age (for 
whom you mourn) is of the present fulness. Suppose 
therefore a decree passed upon this person, Tas there 
have been many upon all mankind) and God hath set 
him a shorter period ; and thlen Mre nasty a"s well bear 
tbe imn^ature death of the young man^^ as jth.e d^th 
^ the oldest men : for they also are immature and 
.unseasonable, in respect pf the old periods of many 
generations. And why are we troubled that he had 
«rto and sciences before he died ? or are we troubled 
that he does not live to make use of ^them ? The 
first is cause pf joy ; for they are ei^cellent in order to 
eerf:ain ends : and the seeond cannot be cause of 
sorrow ; because he hath no need to use them as the 
case now stands, being provided for with the provisions 
of an angel, and :lhe mantier of eternity. However^ 
tbe sons and the parents, friends and relatives^ are 
in the woi;ld like hours, and minutes to a day. The 
hour comes and must pass; and some stay but 
minutes, and they also pass, and shall never return 
again. But let it be considered, that from the time in 
which a man is conceived, from that time forward to 
eternity he shall never cease to be : and let him die 
young or old, still he hath an immortal soul^ and 
hath laid down his body only for a time, as that which 
* Ths last act of worship at night. Spenser. 

188 Hcly living. [ Chap. ii. 

was the instrument of his trouble and sorrow^ and die 
eciiene of sicknesses and disease. But he is in a 
more noble manner of being after death than he eau 
be here : and the child may with more reason be 
allowed to cry for leaving his mother*s womb for this 
world, than a man can for changing this world for 


.1 _ ' ■ 

Sktdden Death or violent. 

\ Others are * yet troubled at the manner of tMr 
dhild's or' fKend*8 death. He was drowned/ or lent 
his head, or. died of the plague ; and this k a* ncMT 
tpring of sorrow. But no man can give a sensible ae* 
count, how it shall be worse for a child to die witii 
drowning in half an hour, than to endure a fever ef 
one and twenty days. And if my friend lost his head, 
so he did not lose his constancy and his religion, he 

died with huge advantage. 

I" ■ ■ • . 

Being Childless. 

But by this means I am left without an heir. Well^ 
suppose that : thou hast no heir, and I have no inhe- 
ritance : and there are many kings and emperors 
that have died childless, many royal Knes are extin- 
guished : and Augustus Caesar was forced to adopt his 
wife's son to inherit all the Roman greatness. And 
there are many wise persons' that never married : and 
^e read no where that any of the children of the 
apostles did survive their fathers : and all that in- 
herit any thing of Christ's kingdom come to it by 

adoption, not by natural inheritance : and to die with- 
out a natural heir is no intolerable evil, since it was. | 
sanctified in tlie person of Jesus, who died a virgin. 

»Evil or Unfortunate Children. 
And by this means we are freed from the greater 
sorrows of having a fool, a swine, or a goat to rule 
after us in our families : and yet even this condition 
admits of comfort. For all the wild Americans are 
supposed to be the sons of Dodfmaim; and the sons of 
Jacob are now the most scattered and despised people 
in the whole world. The son of Solomon was but a 
silly weak man ; and the son of Hezekiah was wicked: 
and all the fools and barbarous people, all the thieves 
and pirates, all the slaves and miserable men and wo- 
men in the world are the sons and daughters of Noah: 
and we must not look to be exempted from that por- 
tion of sorrow which God gave to Noah and Adam, 
to Abraliam, to Isaac, and to Jacob : I pray God send 
us into the ]ot of Abraham. But if any thing happens 

torse to us, it is enough for us that we bear it evenly. 

Our own Death. 
And how, if you were to die yourself? you know 
'oa must. Only be ready for it, by the preparations 
of a good life; and then it is the greatest good that 
ever happened to thee* ; ^Ise there is notliing that can 
comfort you. But if you have served God in a holy 
life, send, away the women and the weepers; tell them 
\% is as much intemperance to weep too much a« to 
• M fine* ciiin pcrveneris, ni reverlito, Pythaf. 


100 lldff Livivg, [ Chap. ii. 

kugh too much; and when thou art alone^ or with 
fitting company, die as thou shouldst^ but doifiot.die 
impatiently, and like a fox catched in a trap. . For if 
you fear death, you shall never the more avoid it, but 
you make it miserable. FanniuSy that killed himself 
for fear of death, died as certainly as Porcia, tiiat ate 
burning coals ; or CatOf that cut his own throat. To 
die is necessary and natural, and it may be honourable; 
but to 4ie poorly, and basely, and sinfully, that alone 
is it that can make a man unfortunate^ No own 
can be a slave but he that fears pain, or fears to die. 
To such a man nothing but chance and peaceabfe 
itjimes.can secure his duty, and he depends apbn 
things without for his felicity; and so is well but 
during the pleasure of his enemy, or a thief, or a 
tyrant, or it may be of a dog, or a wild bull. 




A Praytr against Sensuality. 

O Eternal Father, thou that sittest in heaven, 
invested with essential glories and divine perfections, 
fill my soul with so deep a sense of the excellencies of 
spiritual and heavenly things, that my affections being 
weaned from the pleasures of the world, and the 
false allurements of sin, I may with great severity and 
the prudence of a holy discipline and strict desires, 
with clear resolutions and a free spirit, haveMiby con- 

Sect; vi.] Prayers for several Graces, 191 

venation in vheaven and heavenly employments ; that 
being in affections as in my condition a pilgrim and a 
stranger here^ I may covet after and labour for an 
abidipg city, and at last may enter into and for ever 
dwell in the celestial Jerusalem^ which is the mother 
of us all, through Jesus Christ our Lord. - Amen. i 

For Temperance. 

O Almighty God and gracious Father of men and 
angels, who open^st thyhand and fillest all things with 
plenty, and hast provided for thy servant sufficient to 
satisfy all my needs; teach me to use thy creatures 
soberly and temperately, that I may not with loads 
of meat or drink make the temptations of my enemy 
to prevail upon me, or my spirit unapt for the per- 
formance of my duty, or my body healthless, or my 
* _«_ . . ... , . 

afiections sensual and/ unholy. O my God, never 
sufier that the blessings which thou givest me may 
either minister to "sin or sickness, but to health^, and 
holiness, and thanksgiving, that in the strength of thy 
provisions I may cheerfully, and actively, and dili- 
gently serve thee, that I may worthily feast at thy 
table here, and be accounted worthy, througl) thy 
grace, to be admitted to thy table hereafter at the 

eternal supper of the Lamb, to sing an hallelujah to 

_ • 

God the Father, the Son^ and the Holy Ghost, for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

For Chdstity : to be said especially hy unmarried 

Persons. ► 

Almighty God, our most holy and eternal Father, 
who art of pure eyes, and canst behold no unclean- 

192 JF/o/y Livhig. [Chap. ii. 

»— ^— ^M— — —ii— ■— — ■— Ml— — ^ — ^ — — — ^a^— —fc— ^— ^^— ^ii^■^^■^■■i^^^— , 

liess ; let thy gracious and holy spirit descend upon 
thy servant, and reprove the spirit of fornication and 
nncleanness, and cast him out, that my body may be 
a holy temple, and my soul a sanctuary to entertain 
the Prince of purities, the holy and eternal spirit 
yf God. O let no impure thoughts pollute that soul 
which God hath sanctified ; no unclean words pollute 
that tongue which God hath commanded to be an 
organ of his praises ; no unholy and unchaste action 
rend the vail of that temple where the holy Jesus hath 
been pleased to enter, and hath chosen for his habi- 
tation : but seal up all my senses from all vain objects, 
and let them be entirely possessed with religion, and 
fortified with prudence, watchfulness, and mortifica- 
tion: that I, possessing my vessel in holiness, may 
lay it down with a holy hope, and receive it again in a 
joyful resurrection, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

A Prayer for the Love of God, to be said hy Virgins 
and fVidotvSy professed or resolved so to live : and 
may he used hy any one. 

O Holy and purest Jesus, who wert pleased to 
espouse every holy soul, and join it to thee with a holy 
union and mysterious instruments of religious society 
and communications ; O fill my soul with religion and 
desires, holy as the thoughts of cherubim, passionate 
beyond the love of women ; that I may love thee as 
much as ever any creature loved thee, even with all 
iqy soul, and all my faculties, and all the degrees of 
every faculty: let me know no loves but those of 
duty and charity, obedience and devotion ; that I 

Sect. Ti.]. Prayers for several Graces, 193 

may for ever run after thee, who art the King of vir- 
gins, and with whom whole kingdoms are in love, and 
for whose sake queens have died, and at whose feet 
kings with joy have laid their crowns and sceptreau 
My soul is thine, O dearest Jesu ; thou art my Lord, 
and hast bound up my eyes and heart from all stranger 
afl^tions ; give me for my dowry purity and humility 
modesty and devotion, charity and patience, and 
at last bring me into the bridechamber to partake of 
the felicities, and to lie in the bosom of the Bride- 
groom to eternal ages, Q holy and sweetest Saviour 
Jesw. Amen. 

j4 prayer to be said by Married Persons y in behalf' 

of themselves and each other. 

O Eternal and gracious Father, who hast conse- 
crated the holy estate of marriage to become myste- 
rious, and to represent the union of Christ and his 
church, let thy holy Spirit so guide me in the doing 
the duties of this state, that it may not become a sin 
unto me ; nor that liberty which thou hast hallowed 
by thy holy Jesus, become an occasion of licentious- 
ness by my own weakness and sensuality : and do thou 
forgive all those irregularities, and too sensual appli- 
cations, which may have in any degree discomposed 
my spirit and the severity of a Christian. Let me in 
all accidents and circumstances be severe in my duty 
tpwards thee, affectionate and dear to my wife, [or 
husband,] a guide and. good example to my family, 
and in all quietness, sobriety, prudence and peace, a 

No. 9. 2 c 

194 Holy TJvbig. [Chap.-il 

follower of those holy pairs who have served thee 
with godliness aud a good testimony. And the bless- 
ings of the eternal God^ blessings of the right hand 
and of the l<!ft, be open the body and soul of thy s^- 
vant ihy wife, [or husband] and abide upon her 
[or him] till the end of a holy and happy life; and 
gvant that both of us may live together for ever in the 
embraces of the holy and eternal Jesu$, our Lord and 
Savioor« Amen. 

A Prayer for the Grace of HumUky. 

O Holy and most gracious Master and Saviour 
Jesus, who by thy example and by thy precept, by 
the practice of a whole life and frequent discourses^ 
didst command us to be meek and humble, in imitar 
tion of thy incomparable sweetness . and great humi- 
lity 'r be pleased to give me the grace as thou hast given 
me the commandment: enable me to do whatsoever 
thou commandest, and command whatsoever thou 
pleasest. Q mortify in me all proud thoughts and 
vain opinions of myself: let me return to thee the 
acknowledgment and the fruits of all those good things 
thou hast given me, that by confessing I am wholly 
i^i debt to thee for them, I may not boast myself for 
what I have received, and for what I am highly ac- 
countable : and for what is my own, teach me to be 
ashamed and humbled, it being nothing but sin and 
misery, weakness and uncleanness. Let me go before 
my brethren in nothing but iii striv?hg to do them, 
honour and thee glory, never to seek my oWn praise, 
never tp delight in it when it is offered; that,^ despising 
myself, I may be accepted by thee in the honours wiil\ 


Sect, vi.] Prayers for several Graces. 195 

which thoa shalt crown thy humble and despised ser- , 
vants, for Jems his sake, in the kingdom of eternal 
^lory. Amen. 

Acts of Humility and Modesty, hy way of Prayer 

and Meditation. 


Lord, I know that my spirit is light and empty, 
-my body is brutish and exposed to sickness; I am 
constant to foHy, and inconstant to holy purposes. 
My labours are vain and fruitless; my fortune full 
of change and trouble, seldom pleasing, never perfect; 
my wisdom is folly: being ignorant even of tlie parti 
and passions of my own body: and what am I, O 
Lord, bj^fore thee, but a miserable person, hugely \vl 
4]ebt, and not able to pay r ^ 


Lord, I am nothing, and I have nothing of myself:^ 
I am less than the least of all thy mercies. 


What was I before my birth? First, nothing, and 
then uncleanness. What during my childhood ? weak* 
ness and foHy. What in my youth? folly still and 
passion, lust and wildness. What in my whole life? 
a great sinner, a, deceived ahd an abused person. 
Lord, pity me, for it is thy goodness that I am kept 
from confusion and amazement, when I consider the 
misery and shame of my person, and the defilements 
•of my nature. 


Lojrd^ what am I? and, Lord, what art thou? 

106 Holy Uvipig. [Chap. ii. 

- \ 

ff^hat is man that thou art mindful of him, and the 
son of man, that thou so regardest him ? 

How can man be justified with God ? or how can 
he be clean that is bofm of a ux)man? Behold even to 
the moon, and it shineth not^ yea, the stars are not 
pure in his sight : how much less man that is a tvorm, 
and the son of man which is a worm ? Job xxv. 4, S^c. 

A Prayer for a contented Spirit, and the Ghrace of 

\ Moderation and Patience. 

O Almighty God, Father and Lord of all the create 
tores, who hast disposed all things and all chances so 
as may best glorify thy wifdom^ and serve the ends of 
thy justice, and magnify thy niercy, thy secret and 
undiscernable ways bringing good out of eril ; I most 
humbly beseech thee to give me wisdom from above, 
that I may adore thee and admire thy ways and foot- 
steps, which arc in the great deep, and not to be 
Searched out: teach me to submit to thy providence 
in all things, to be content in all changes of person 
and condition, to be temperate in prosperity, and to 
read my duty in the lines of thy mercy ; and in ad- 
versity to be meek, patieqt, and resigned ; and to look 
through the cloud, that I may wait for the consolation 
of the Lord, and the day of redemption ; in the mean 
time doing my duty with an unwearied diligence, 
and an undisturbed resolution, having'no fondness for 
the vanities or possessions of this worid, but laying 
up my hopes in hedven and the rewards of holy living, 
and being strengthened with the spirit of the inner 
man, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen, 

■ » ■ 

Sect. I.] Of Christian Justice, 107 




Justice is by the Christian religion enjoined in all its 
parts by these two propositions in scripture : [^fFhat^ 
soever you would that men should do to you, even so 
do to themJ] This is the measure of commutative 
justice, or of that justice which supposes exchange 6f 
things profitable for things profitable ; that as I supply 
your need, you may supply mine : as I do a benefit 
to you, I may receive one by you : and because every 
man may be injured by another^ therefore his security 
shall depend upon mine t if he will not let me be safe, 
he shall not be safe himself: (only the pnanner of his 
being punished is upon great reason both by God and 
all the world taken from .particulars, and committed 
to a public, disinterested person, who will do justice 
without passion both to him and to me) if he refuses to 
do me advantage, he shall receive none when his 
needs require it. And thus God gave necessities to 
men, that all men might need ; and several abilities 
to several persons, that each man might help to supply 
the public needs, and by joining to fill up all wants, 
they may be knit together by justice, as the parts of 
the world are bv nature: and he^ihath made all ob* 


Roxio^is to injuries, and made ever};: little thing strong 
enough to do us hurt, by some instrument or* other ; 
and hatb,givc» us all a su($cient stock of self-love, 
and desire of self-preservation, to be as* the chain to 

198 Holy Living, [Chap. iii. 


tie together all the parts of society, and to restrain us 
from doing violence, lest we be violently dealt withal 

The other part of justice is commonly called distri- 
butive, and is commanded in this rule, Render to cUl 
their dues, tribute to whom tribute is due, custom ts 
uAom custom, fear to iji^hom fear, honour to whom 
honour. Owe no man any things but to love one ano- 
ther. Rom. xiii. 7* 'I'his justice distinguished from 
the first, beeause the obligation depends not upon con^ 
tract or express bargaiif, but passes upon us by virtue 
of some command of God, or of our superior^ by 
nature or by grace, by piety or' religion, by trust or by 
office, accordifig to that commandment, ^s every man 
hath received the gift^ so let him minister the samJt 
oW to another, as good stetvards of the manifold grace 
of G^. 1 Pet. IV. 10. And as the first considers an 
equality of persons in respect of the contract or parti- 
cular necessity ; this supposes a diflference of persons, 
and no particular bargains, but such necessary inter^ 
courses as by the laws of God or man are introduced. 
But I shall reduce all the particulars of both kinds 
to these four heads; 1. Obedience; 2. Provision ; 
3 • N^gociation ; 4/ Restitution.- 

SECT. 1. 

Of Obedience to our Superiors. 

Our superiors are set over us in affairs of the 

%vorljcl,/)r the affairs of the soul and things pertaining 

to religion, and are called accordingly, ecclesiastical 

or civil. Towards whom our duty is thus generally 


Sect, i.] Of Obedience. 199 

- ^ ■ I HI I ■ , ,. ,. ,1 .... ^ ^ 

described in the New Testament. For temporal or 
civil governors the commands are these : [Render to 
Ccesar the things that are Ceesar's] and [Let every 
90ul be subject to the higher powers : for there is no 
power hut of God,-tJie poioers that be are ordained of 
God. fVhosoever therefore resisisteth the power re- 
sisteth the ordinance of God, and they that resist 
shall receive to themselves damnation ; Rom. xiii. 1, 2.} 
and [Put them in mind to be suiject to principalities 
and powers, and to obey magistrates; Tit. iii. 1.] 
and [Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man, 
for the Lords sake ; whether it be to the king, as su- 
preine, or unto governors, as unto them that are sent 
by him for the punishment of evil doers, and the 
praise of them that do well ; 1 Pet. vl. \3, 14.] 

For spiritual or ecclesiastical governors thus we are 
commanded : [Obey them that have the rule over youy , 
and submit yourselves, for they watch for your soulsp 
as they that must give an account ; Heb. xiii. 17-] and 
\Holdsuch in reputation; Phil. 2, 29.] and [To this 
end did I write^ that I might know the proof of you, 
whether ye be obedient in all things^ said 5^. Paul to 
the church of Corinth. Our duty is reducible to 
practice by the following rule». 

Acts and Duties of Obedience to all our Superiors. 

1* We must obey all human laws appointed and 
constituted by lawful authority, that is^ of the su- 
preme pow^r, according to the constitution of the 
place in which we live; all Xvm^Xmezn^ which are 
Aot against the law-of God. 

200 Ilolif Living. [ Chap. hi. 

2. In obedience to human laws^ we must observe 
the letter of the law where we can without doing vio- 
lence to the reason of the law, and the intention of the 
lawgiver : but where they cross each other, the charity 
of the law is to be preferred before its discipline, and 
the reason of it before the letter. 

3. If the general reason of the law teases in our 
particular, and a contrary reason rises upon us^ we 
are io procure dispensation, or leave to omit the ob- 
servation of it in such circumstances, if there be any 
persons or office appointed for granting it : but if 
there be none, or if it is not easily to be had, or Aot 
without an inconvenience greater than the good of 
the observation of the law in our particular^ we a^re 
dispensed withal in the nature of the thing, without 
farther process or trouble. 

4. As long as the law is obligatory, so long our 
obedience is due ; and he that begins a contrary cus- 
tom without, reason, sins : but he that breaks the law 
when the custom is entered and fixed, is excused* ; 
because it is supposed the legislative power consents, 
when by not punishing it suffers obedience to grow up 
to a custom. 

5. Obedience to human laws must be for conscience 
sake : that is, because in such obedience public order, 
and charity, and benefit is concerned, and because 
the law of God commands us, therefore we must 
make a conscience in keeping the just laws of supe- 
riors : and although the matter before the making of 

* Mores leges^ lienhuDerunt in potestateni suam. 
Lege* Diori sci-vi^t. Plaut Trinuoi. 

Sect, i.] Of Obedience. ' 201 

|.. ... • .►. ., 

the law was iudifferenf, 5ret ndw'the obedience is not 

indifFerent^ but next' to the laws of God, we are to 

obey" the laws of all our superiors, who the more 

public they are, the first they are to be in the order of 


6. Submit to the punishment and censure of the 
laws, 'arid seek not to reverse their judgment by op- 
posing; but by submitting, or flying,' or silence, to' pass 
through it^^or by it, as we can ; and although from in- 
ferior judges we may appeal Svhere the law permits us, 
yet we must sit down'aiid rest in the judgment of the 
supreme; and if ive be wronged, let us complain to 
God of the injury, not of the persons, and he will 
deliver thy soul from unrighteous judges. 

7- Do not believe ^hou hast kept the law, when 
thou hast suffered the punishment. For although pa- 
tiently tb subnniit td the power of the sword be a part 
of obedience, yet this i^ such a part as supposes 
another left undone: and the law puniishes, not because 
she is as weir pleased in taking vengeance as in being 
obeyed, but because she is pleased, she uses punishment 
as a means to secure obedience for the future, or iri 
others. Therefore, although in siich cases the law is 
satisfied, and the injury arid the injustice is paid for, 
yet the siiis of irreligion, and scandal, and disobedi- 
ence to God, must stiU be so accounted for, as to 
crave pardon, and be washed off by repentance. 

8. Human laws are not to be broken with scandal, 
nor at all without reasori; for he that does it cause- 
lessly, is a despiser of the law, and undervalues tbp 

No. 9. 2d 

S02 Holy living. [ Chaf. hi. 

authority. For humau laws diflfer from divipie laws 
principally in tbtsi l.Ttiat tbe positive commands of 
a man may be broken upon smaller and more reasctts 
than the positive commands of God ; we may. upoa 
a smaller reason omit to keep any of the fasting: ditys 
-of tbe church, than to omit to give alms to the poor: 
only this, the reason must bear weight according to 
the gravity and concernment of the law; a law in 
a small matter may be omitted for a small reaooQ^ 
in a great matter not without a greater reason* : And^ 
3. The negative precepts of men may cease by many 
iQstrumenrts, by contrary customs, by public disrelish, 
by long omission: but the negative precepts of God 
never can cease, but when they are expressly abro- 
gated by the same authority. But what those reasoiis 
are that can dispense with the command of a man, 
a man may be his own judge, and sometimes take 
his proportions from his own reason and necessity, 
sometimes from public fame, and the practice of pious 
and severe persons, and from popular customs; in 
which a man shall walk most safely when he does not 
walk alone, but a spiritual man takes him by the hand. 

9. We must not be too forward in procuring dis- 
pensations; nor use them any * longer than the reason 
continues for which we first procured them : for to be 
dispensed withal is an argument of natural inikmityy 
if it be necessary; but if it be not, it signifies an un- 
disciplined and unmortified spirit. 

10. We must not be too easy in examining the pru- 
dence and unreasonableness of human laws; for al^ 
though we are not bound t6 believe them all to be the 

Sect, i.] Of Obedience. S03 

WtBe^t; y^t if by inquiring 'into the lawfulness of 
th^my'or by any^bet- instruiteent we iind them to fail 
6f that wicfdovn with which' somb others, are ordainled) 
y«t we must never oiakie use c^ it to disparage the 
{NffMU of-tfhe lawgiver/ cir to cttuntenanee any m9x\\ 
disobedience^ kniich ]ei« our own. 

1 1 . ' Paythiit reverence to the person of thy prince, 
of hit ministers^ of tby parents and spiritual guides, 
which by< the custotiis of the place thou Iwest in are 
usually paid to such persons in their several di^rees: 
that is^ that the highest feve^rence be ]>a{d to the 
b%hest person^ and so still in proportion; and that 
tbis feveneneebe expressed in all the circumi^tances 
sind tnanners of the city and nation . 
' 12. Lift not up thy hand against thy prince or 
parent upon any pretence soever: . but bear all per* 
Mnal affronts and inconveniencies at their hands4 and 
sedc no remedy but by patience and piety^ yielding 
and prayings or absenting thyself. ^ 

13. Speak not evil of the ruler of thy people^ neither 
cursethy father or mother, nor revile thy spiritual guides^ 
nor discover and lay naked their infirmities t but treat 
them with reverence and religion, and preserve their 
authority sacred by esteeming their persons venerable. 

14. Pay tribute and customs to princes according 
to tbe laws, 9nd maintenance to thy parents according 
tatheir necessity, and honourable support to the clergy 
according to the dignity of the work,, and the customs 
of the place. 

15. Remember always, that duty to our superiors 
is not an a(^t of commutative justice^ but of distribu- 

204 Holy Living. [ Chap. hi. 

tive: that is, although kings and. parents and spiribial 
guides are to pay a great duty to their infenors, the 
duty of their several charges and government; yet 
the good government of a king and (^ parents aie 
acts of religion, as they relate to God, and of pie^, 
as they relate to their people and families. ; And 
although we usually call them just princes, who. ad- 
minister their laws exactly to the people, because. the 
actions are in the manner of justice; yet in propriety 
of speech they are rather to be called pious and relii* 
gious. For as he is not called a just father, that edu- 
cates his children well, but pious ; so that prince who 
defends and well rules his. people is religious, and does 
that duty for which alon^ he is answerable to .God. 
The consequence of which: is .this, so^ far as concerns 
our duty: if the prince or parent fail of their duty, 
we must not fail of ours; for we are answ<^r^ble to 
them and to Gdd too, as being accountable to all. our 
superiors, and so are they to theirs: they are above 
us, and. God is above them. 

. . ■ t 

Remedies against lyisobedience^ and Means to endear 

our Obedience, by way of Consideration. 

1. Consider that all authority descends from God, 
and our superiors bear the image of , the . Divine 
Power, which God imprints on them as on an image 
of clay, or a coin upon a less perfect metal, which 
whoso defaces, shall not be answerable for. the. loss or 
spoil of the materials, but the defacing of the king^s 
image; and in the same measure will God require it 
at our hands, if we despise his authority upon whom* 

Sect, i.] Of Obedience: 205 

boever be hath imptinted it., ffe.tkat despiseth yoUj 
despiseth me. And Dat hah ^nd AUram were said to 
lie gathered together against the Lord. ' And this w^s 
5^^ Pants ai^ument for, our obedience, [The powers 
that he are qrdained of GW.], 

3. There is very great p^Ce. and imtaiunity from 
sin, in resigning bur wiUs.ifp to the Cjoiiiimand of 
others : ibr provided that lOlir duty to God be secured, 
their commands are warrants ;to us^ iii all things else ; 
and the case of conscience is determined, if the com- 
mand be evident and pressing : and . it is certain, the 
action that is but indifferent, and without reward; if 
done only upon our own choice, is an act of diity 
and of religtoiii and the grace ^nd fa- 
vour of God, if done in obedience y to the command 
of our Superiors. For since naturally we desire what 
is forbidden us, (and sometimes there is no other evil 
in the thing but that it is. fprbiddea^us) God hath in 
grace enjoinied and proportionably accepts obedience, as 
being directly/ opposed to the former irregularity, and 
it is acceptable^ although there be no other good in the 
thing that is commanded us, but that it is commanded. 

3. By obedieiiCe we are made a society and a re- 
public, and distinguished from herds of beasts, and 
heaps of flies, who do what they list, and are inca- 
pable of laws, and obey none, and therefore are killed 
and destroyed, though never punished, and they never 
can have a reward. j 

4. By obedience we are rendered capable? of all the 
blessings of government, signified by St. Paul in these 
words. He is the minister of Ood to thee for good: 

206 Hol^ Living. [Chap. n. 

JRom.xm. 4. and by St. Peter in these, Chvefnars are 
went by him for the puniskfhent ofeml ddets^ and far 
the praise of them that do well. 1 Pet. \\. 14. And 
he that ever felt or sawy or can understand the miseries 
of confusion in public aflSiirs, or amaaDement in a ' heap 
6f sad, tQfnultuotts, and indefinite thoughts, may from 
thence jddge of the admirable effect of order, and the 
beauty of government. Whait health is to the i>ody, 
and peace is to the spirit, that is government to the 
societies of men, the greatest blessing which they can 
receive in that temporal capacity. 

5. No man shall ever be fit to govern others that 
knows not -first how to obey. For if Uie spirit df a 
subject be rebelKous/in a prince it will be tyrannical 
and intolerable, and of so ill example, that as it will 
encourage the disobedience of others, so it will render 
it unreasonable for him to exact .of others what in the 
like case he refused to pay. 

6. There is no sin in the world which God hath 
punished with so great severity and high detestation as 
this of disobedience. For the crime of idolatry God 
sent the sword amongst his people ; but it was never 
heard that the earth opened and swallowed up any but 
rebels against their prince. 

7* Obedience is better than the particular actions 
of religion ; and he serves God better that foiiows 
his prince in lawful services, than he that refuses bis 
command upon pretence he must go say bis prayers. 
But rebellion is compared to that sin which of all sin 
^eems the most unnatural and damned impiety. Be- 
hellion is as the sin of mtchcraft. ^ 1 

Sect, i.] Of Obedietwe. 207 

8. Qbefijience is a. complicated act of vir(ue> and 
many graces. are exercised in one act of obedience. It 
is an act of JbumiUty, of mortification and self-denial^ 
of chanty to God, of. ca^e of the public^ of order 
and charity to. ourselves and « all Qur^ society, and a 
great instance of a victory oyer the most refractory 
ai)d unruly passions, 

9. To be a subject is a greater temporal felicity than 
to be a king: for all eminent governors, according to 
their height, have a great burthen, huge care, infinite 
business, little . rest, innumerable fea^s ; and all that 
he enjpys above another is, that he does enjoy the 
things of the. world with other circumstances, and a 
bigger noise ; and if others go at his siqgle command, 
it is .also certain he must sufifer inconvenience at the 
needs and disturbances of all his people : and th^ 
evils of one man- and of one family are not enough 
for him to bear, unless also he he almost crushed 
with the evils of mankind. He therefore is an un- 
grateful person, that will pres$ the scales down with 
a voluntary load^ and by , disobedience put more 
thorns into tlie crown or mitre of his superior. Mw^h 
better is the advice of St. Paulr Obey them that liave 
the rule over you, as they that miAst give an account 

Jhr your ^ouls^ that they may do it with joy, and not 
. with grief: for (besides that it is unpleasant to them) 
it is unprofitable for you* 

10. The angels are ministering spirits, and perper 
tually execute the will and commandment of God ^ 
and all the wise men and all the good men of th<^ 
world are obedient to their governors : and the eternat 

308 Holy Uving. [Chap. ii. 

Son of God esteemed it his meat and drink to do the 
will of hAs Father^ and for his obedience alone ob- 
tained the greatest glory : and no man ever came to 
perfection bat by obedience : and thousands of saints 
have chosen suiih institutions and manners of living, 
in which they might not choose their own work, nor 
follow their own willj nor please themselves, but be 
accountable to others, and subject to discipline, and 
obedient to command, as knowing this to be the high way_ 
of the cross, the viray "that the King of Sufferings and 
humility did choose, and so became the King of glory. 

11. No man ever perished who followed first the 
will of God, and then the will of his superiors ; but 
thousands have been damned merely for following tbeir 
own will, and relying upon their own judgments, and 
choosing their own work, and doing their own fancies. 
For if we begin with ourselves, whatsoever seems 
good in our eyes is most commonly displeasing in the 
eyes of God. 

12. The sin of rebellion, though it be a spiritual 
sin, and imitable by devils ; yet it is of that disorder, 
unreasonableness, and impossibility amongst intelligent 
spirits, that they never murmured or mutinied in tbeir 
lower stations against their superiors. Nay, the good 
angels of an inferior order durst not revile a devil of 
a higher order. This consideration, which I reckon 
to be most pressing in the discourses of reason, and 
obliging next to the necessity of a divine precept, 
we learn from St. Jude : [Likeimse also these filthy 
dreamers despise dominion and speak evil of dignities. 
And yet Michael fhe archangel^ when contending with 

S ECT.. I .] Of Obedknc^, . 209 

the devil f he disputed about the body of Mo^es, durst 
not bring against him a railing accusafidn.'] 

Bot because our stiperiors rule by their example, by 
their word or law, and by the rod, therefore in prop^r^ 
tion there are several degrees and parts of bbedience'or 
several excellencies and degrees towards perfection^ 

Degrees of Obedience. 

1 . The first is, the obedience of the outward work : 
and this is all that human lawsL of themselves regard ; 
§oT because man cannot judge the hearty therefore it 
prescribes nothing to it: the public end is served not 
by good wishes, but by real ^nd actual performances ; 
and if a man obeys against hift will, he is not punishable^ 
by the laws. 

3. The obedience of the will: and this is also neces- 
sary in our obedience to hqman laws, not because man 
requires it for himself, but because God commands it 
towards man, aqd of it (although man cannot, yet) 
God will demand an account. For we ^e to do it 
as to the Lord, and not to men ; and therefore we must 
do it willingly. But by this means our obedience in 
private is secured against secret arts and subterfuges : 
and when v^ can avoid the punishment, yet we shall 
Hot decline out duty, but serve man for God*s sake, 
that is, cheerfully, promptly, vigorously ? for these are 
the proper parts of willingness and choice. 

3. The understanding must yield obedience in gene-- 
taly though not in the particular instance ; that is, we 
must be firmly persuaded of the excellency of the obe- 
dience,, though we be not bound in all cases to think 

210 Holy Living. [ Chap. in. 

the particular law to be moat prudent. But in this 
our^rule is plain teough. Our understanding ought 
to be inquisitive whether the civil constitution agree 
with our duty to God, but we are bound to inquire 
no farther: and therefore beyond this, although he 
who, having no obligation to it, (as counsellors have) 
inquires not at all into the wisdom or reasonableness 
of the law, be not always the wisest man, yet he is 
ever the best sul^ect. For when he hath given up his 
understanding to his prince and prelate, provided that 
his duty to God be secured by a precedent search, he 
hath also with the best, and with all the instruments id 
the world, secured bis obedience to man. 


Of Provision^ or that Part of Justice which is due 
from Superiors to Inferiors. 

AS God . hath imprinted his authority in several 
parts upon ieveral estates of men, as princes, parents, 
spiritual guides: so he hath also delegated and com- 
mitted parts of his care and providence unto themi 
that they may be instrumental in the conveying such 
blessings which God knows we need, and which he in** 
tends phould be the effects of government. For since 
God governs all the world as a King, provides for us 
as a Father, and is the great Gqide and conductor of 
our spirits as the Head of the Church, and the great 
Shepherd and Bishop of our souls; they who have 
portions of these digriities, have also their share of tN 
administration: the sum of all which is usually signi" 

Sect. 11.] The Duty of Superiors. ^/^^^ 

w- II. 11. 1 II .1 ■ ■ ..II 

» ... 

fied in these two words [govetming] and [^feedingji 

* . ■ ' ' • 

find is pflkrticnlarly recited in these following rules : 

Ihdies of Kings, and all the Supreme Power y as •■ 


, , • > . . 

' 1 . Princes of the pMple and all that have legislai 
tive po^er^ must proWde useful 'and good lawk fbt* 
the defence of propriety, for the encouragement of 
labour, for the safeguard of their persons, for - deter-^ 
mining cotitifoversies, for reward of noble actions and 
excellent arts and rare inventions, for promoting trade. 
aiid enriching their people. 

2. In the making 'laws princes must have regard to 
thepublic dispositions, to the aidections and disaffec- 
tions of the people, ahd must not introduce a law 
With public scandal and displeasure; but consider the 
public benefit, and the present capacity of affairs, 
and general inclinations of men's minds'*^. For he that 
jllforces a law upon a people against their first and 
public apprehensions, tempts them to disobedience, 
and makes laws to become snares and hooks to catch 
the people, and to enrich the treasury with the spoil 
and tears, and eurses of the commonalty , and to mul- 
tiply their mutiny and their sin. 

3. Princes must provide that the lawis be duly exe» 
cuted: for a good law without execution is like an 
unperformed promise: and therefore they must be se- 
vere exactnrs of accounts from their delegates and 
ministers of justice. 

4. The severity of laws must be tempered with 

* Oiuittenda potitis prsvalida et adulta vitia, qukm hoc mdsequi 
ut paUun fiat quibus flagiliis impares simui. Tacit. 

312 Hdtf Living. [ Chap. hi. 

dispensations^ pardons^ and remissionsy according as 
the case shall alter, and new necessities be introduced, 
or some singular accident shall happen, in which the 
law would be unreasonable or intolerable as t0 that 
particular. And thus the people, with their importo- 
nity^ prevailed against Saul in the case of JomUhanf 
and obtained his pardon for breaking the law which 
his father made, because his necessity forced him to 
taste hooey, and his breaking the law in that case did 
promote that service whose promotion was intended 
by the law. 

5. Princes must be fathei:9 of the people, and pro- 
vide such instances of gentleness, ease, wealth, and ad- 
vantages, as may make mutual confidence . betweAl 
them; and must fix their security, under God, in the 
love of the people, which therefore they nmst with alt 
arts of sweetness, remission, popularity, nobleness, and 
sincerity, endeavour to secure to themselves. 

6. Princes must not multiply public oaths without 
great, eminent, and violent necessity, lest the security 
of the king become a snare to the people, and they 
become false when they see themselves suspected, or 
impatient when they are violently held fast. But the 
greater^ and more useful caution is upon things than 
upon persons: and if security of kings can be ob- 
tained otherwise, it is better that oaths should be the 
last refuge, and when nothing else can be su£Bcient. 

7. Let not the people be tempted with asguments to 
disobey, by the imposition of great and unnecessary 
taxes ^ : for that lost to the son of Solomon the domir 
nion of the ten tribes of Israel. 

* L^avaritia de Re, pette de Regni. 

Sect. II.] The Duty of Superiors. 213 

8. Princes must in a special manner be guardians 
of pupils and widows, not, suffering thieir persons to 
be oppressed, or their estates embezzled, or in any 
sense be exposed to the rapine of covetous persons, 
but be provided for by just laws and provident judges, 
and good guardians, ever having an ear ready op^n tp 
their just complaints, and a heart full of pity, and one 
band to support them, and the other to avenge them. 

9. Princes must provide that the laws may be so 
administered, that they be truly and really an ease to 
the people, not an instrument of vexation; and there- 
fore must be careful that the shortest and most equal 
ways of trials be appointed, fees moderated, and in- 
tricacies and windings as much cut off as may be, lest 
injured persons be forced to perish under the oppres- 
sion^ or under the law,v in the injury, or in the suit. 
Laws are like princes, those best and mpst beloved 
who are most easy of access. 

10. Places of judicature ought at no hand to be 
sold by pious princes, who remember themselves to 
be fathers of the people *. For they that buy the of- 
fi(:e will sell the act, and they that at any rate will be 
judges, will not at an easy rate do justice; and their 
bribery is less punishable, when bribery opened the 
door by which they entered. 

11. Ancient privileges, favours, customs, and acts 
of grace, indulged by former kings to their people, 
must not without high reason and great necessities 
be revoked by their successors, nor forfeitures be 
exacted violently, or penal laws urged rigorously, 
nor in light cases, nor laws be multiplied without 

* Chi pomptk il magtstrato forsa ^ cherefidra %iugtitia. 

214 Holy Living. .[Chap.iii. 

great need^ nor vicious persons, which are publicly 
and deservedly hated, be kept in defiance of popular 
desires, nor any thing that tnay unnecessarily make 
the yoke heavy, and the affection light, that may in- 
crease murmurs, and lessen charity; always remem-^ 
bering that the interest of the prince and the people is 
iso infolded in a mutual embrate, that they cannot be 
ahtwisted without pulling a limb off, or dissolving the 
bitnds and conjunction of the whole body. 
' IS. All princes must esteem themselves as much 
bound by their word, by their grants, and by their 
promises, as the meanest of their subjects are by the 
restraint and penalty of laws * : and though they are 
superior to the people, yet they are not superior to 
their own voluntary concessions and engagements, 
their promises and oaths, when once they are passed 
from them. 

The Duty of Superiors as they are Judges. 
1. rrinces in judgment and their delegate judges 
must judge the Causes of all persons uprightly and 
impartially, without any personal consideration of 
the power of the mighty, or the bribe of the rich, 
or the needs of the poor. For although the poot 
must fare no worse for his poverty, yet in justice fcn^ 
must fare no better for it: and although the ric=:=^ 
must be no more regarded, yet he must not be le^s^^^ 
And to this purpose the tutor of Cyrus instructs!^— ^ 
him, when in a controversy, where a great boy wou ^^^ 
have taken a large coat from a little boy, becao^^^^ 
his own was too little for him, and the others 

* Nulla lex (civilis) sibi soli conscientiam justitiae suse de 
sed eis k quibus obsequium expectat. TertuL Apolog, 

Sect, ii.] The Duty of Superiors. 215 


too big, he adjudged the great coat to the great 
boy: his tutor answered^ Sir, if you were ma^. 
a judge of decency or fitness, you had judged well 
in giving the biggest to the biggest; but when you, 
were appk>inted judge, not whom the coat did fit, 
but whose it was, you should have considered the 
title and the possession, who did the violence, and 
who made it, or who bought it., And so it must be ia 
judgments between the rich and the poor: it is not 
to be considered what the poor man needs, but what 
is his own. 

2. A prince may not, much less may inferior 
Judges, deny justice when it is legally and compe^ 
tently demanded: and « if the Prince will use his pre- 
rogative in pardoning an offender against whom jus- 
tice is required, he must be careful to give satisfac-r 
tion to the injured person, or his relatives, by some 
other instrument ; and be watchful to take away the 
scandal, that is, lest such indulgence might make 
persons more bold to do injury ; and if he spares the 
life, let him change the punishment into that which 
may make the offender (if not suffer justice, yet) do jus- 
ti/ce, and more real advantage to the injured person. 

These rules concern princes and their delegates in 
the making or administering laws, in the appointing 
rules of justice, and doing acts of judgment. The 
duty of parents to their Children and Nephews i* 
briefly described by St, Paul. 

' The Duty of Parents to their Children. 

1. Fathers, provoke not your Children to u>rath; 
t^Ephes. vi. 4.) that is, be tender-bowelled^j pitiful 


816 Holy living, [Chap. in. 

1 \ \ 

and gentle, complying with all the infirmities df the 
fehildren^ and in their several ages proportioning to 
them several usages according to their needs and their 

2. Bring them tip in the nurture and admomtlori of 
the Lord: that is, secure their religion, season their 
younger years with prudent and pious principles, make 
them in love with virtue, and make them habitually so 
before they come to choose or discern good from evil, 
that their choice may be with less difficulty and danger. 
For while they are under discipline, they suck in all 
tliat they are first taught, and believe it infinitely. 
Provide for them wise, learned, and virtuous tuton, 
and good company and discipline*, seasonable Bap* 
tism, catechism, and confirmation. For it is a gri»t 
folly to heap up much wealth for our children, Imd 
not to take care concerning the children for whom we 
get it. It is as if a man should take more care about 
his shoe than about his foot. 

3. Parents must shew piety at home; (\ Tim. v. 4.) 
that is, they must give good example and reverent de- 
portment in the face of their children ; and all those 
instances of charity which usually endear each other, 
sweetness of conversation, afiability, frequent admoni- 
tion, all significations of love and tenderness, care and 
watchfulness, must be expressed towards children, that 
they may look upon their parents as their friends and 
patrons, their defence and sanctuary, their treasure and 
their guide. Hither is to be reduced the nursing of 

* Potidr mihi ratio vivendi honest^, qultm et optim^ dicendi^ 
Tidetur. QuintxL lib. i. cap. 2. Heh, xii. d. Cratei. apud. FluUiTth. 
de liber^ educaod. 1 

Bect. II.] The Duty of Sufsriom. 

. DC 63 



^^Bildren, which is the first and most natural and 
^necessary instance of piety which mothers can shew 
to their babes ; a duty from which nothing will excusfij 
but a disabiUty, sickness, danger or public necessity. 
Parents must provide for their own according to 
eir condition, education, and employment; called 
r Si. Paul a laying up for their children; I Tim. 
i 1 . that is, an enabling them, by competent portions, 
r good trades, arts of learning, to defend themselves 
against the chances of the world, that they may not 
be exposed to temptation, to beggary, or unworthy 
And although this must be done without 
Hovetousness, without impatience and greedy desires 
'of making them rich ; yet it must be done with much 
care and great affection, with all reasonable pro- 
vision, and according to our power : and if we can 
without sin improve our estates for them, that also is 
part of the duty we owe to God for them. And 
this rule is to extend to all that descends from us, 
although we have been overtaken in a fault, and have 
unlawful issue ; they also become part of our care, yet 
so as not to injure the production of the lawful bed. 
^^ 5. This duty is to extend to a provision of condi- 
^Hions and estate of life. Parents mast, according 
^Hd their power and reason, provide husbands or 
wives for their children. In which they must secure 
piety and religion*, and the affection and love of tho»| 

* Eoedcm quos maritus nOsse deoa et colore solos asor debet, 
■perfacsmeis autem religioaibiu ct alienis superstition ibus fore* 
teludere. NuUi enim Dediu grata sunt sacra quoe mtilier clancu- 
' No. 10. 2 F 


218 Holy Living} [Chap. hi. 

. • _ 

"intei ested pereom ; and after these, let the«i frnJoe 
what provisions thfj can for odier convenienees or 
advantages : ever remembering that they can do no 

injury more afflictive to thecbiidren, than to join them 


'With cords of a disagreeing aflfect^'A: It is like tying a 
wolf and a lamb, or planting the vine in a garden 6f 
.ooleworts. Let them be per-suaded with reasomable 
.inducements to make them willing, and to cblKise 
' according to the parents' wish, but at no band kt 
them be forced. Better to^it up all night, than to go 
to bed with ;a dragon. 

Ruleg for Married Persons. 

I. Husbands must give to their wives loive, main- 
tenance, duty, and the sweetnesses of conversation; and 
wives must pay to them all they have, or cap, wttfi 
^the interest of obedience and reverence; and they 
. must .be complicated in affections and interest, thftt 
there be no distinction between them of mine and 
ihine. And if the title be the man's or the woman's^ . 
yet the use must be common ; only the wisdom of the 
man is to regulate all extravagancies and indiscretions. 
In other things no question is to be made ; and^their 
goods should be as their children, not to be divided, 
. but of one possession and provision : whatsoever '^is 
!. otherwise, is not marriage but merchandize. And 
upon this ground I suppose it was, that St. Basil 

ItLxn et furtim facit. Plutarch, Conjug. Praecept, Gen. 24. Voce- 
mus puellam et.quseramus os ejus. 

The Duty of Husbands y Sgc. 

See Chap. ii. Sect. 3. 

Sbgt. II.] The Duty of Superiors. 219 

commended that wpm^n who took part of her husband^s 
goods to do gpod works withal : for^ supposing him to 
be unwilling, and that the work was his duty or her'a 
alonei or both theirs in conjunct ion^ or of great advan« 
tage to eithef of their souls, and no violence to the 
support of their families, she hath right to all that. 
And Abigail of her own right made a costly present to 
David^ wbea her husband Nahal had refused it. The 
husband must* rale over his wife, as the soul does 
over the body, i^bnoxious to the same sufferings, and 
bound bj the* same affections, and doing or suffering 
by the permissions and interest of each other; that 
(aa the okl philosopher said) as the humours of the 
body are miqgled with each other in the whole sub- 
s^ncesj so marriage may be a mixture of interests, 
ti bodies, of minds, of friend^, a conj unction "^ of 
die whole life, and the noblest of friendships. But 
if^. after all the fair deportments and innocent chaste 
compliances, the husband be morose and ungentle, 
let the ^fe discourse thus : If while I do my duty 
my husband neglects me, what will he do if I neglect 
him ? And if she ttjipks to be separated by reason of 
ber hnsband's unchaste life^ let her consider, that then 
the man will be incuraUy ruined, and her rivals could 
wish nothing mofe than that they might possess him 

* Lq^qm esse debet et c^qiosum nmriti imperium. PAil* 
Namque ef ei Pater et Frater, venerandaque Mater. Nee minus 
fecit ad dignitatem viri si mulier eum suam Preeceptorem^ Pliilo* 
aophum^ MagistKimque appellet. Plutarch^ 

t Convictio est quasi qussdem iatentio benevolentie. 

220 Holy Uving. [ Chaf. hi. 

The Duty of Masters (^families. 
1. The same care is to extend to all our family in 
their proportion as to our children: for, as by St. 
Paul* s cBconomy, the heir differs nothing from a aei> 
vant while he is in minority, so a servant should diflfer 
nothing from a child in the substantial part of the 
care ; and the difference is only in d^rees. Servants 
and masters are of the same kindred, of the same na- 
ture, and heirs of the same promises : and therefofe, 
1. Must be provided of necessaries for their support 
and maintenance. 2. They must be used with mercy. 
3 . Their work must be tolerable and merciful. 4. Their 
restraints must be reasonable. 5. Their recreations 
fitting and healthful. 6. Their religion and the inte- 
rest of souls taken care of. 7- ^^^ masters must cor- 
rect their servants with gentleness, prudence and 
mercy ; not for every slight fault, not always, not with 
upbraiding and disgraceful language, but with such 
only as may express and reprove the fault, and amend 
the person. But in all these things measures are to 
be taken, by the contract made, by the laws apd cus- 
toms of the place, by the sentence of prudent and 
merciful men ; and by the cautions and remembrances 
given us by God ; such as is that written by St. Patd, 
[as knowing that we have also a master in Heaven?^ 
The master must not be a lion in his house, lest his 
power be obeyed, and his person hated ; his eye be 
waited on, and his business be neglected in secret. 
No servant will do his duty, unless he makes a con- 
j^^nce, or loves his master : if he does it not for God's 
i||ij|e or his master's, he will not need to do it always 
for his own. 

Sect, ii.] Of Cidh Contracts. 221 

The Duty of Ouardians or Tutors. 

Tutors and guardians are in the place of parents ;* 
and what they are in fiction of law^ they must re- 
member as an argument to engage them to do in 
reality of duty. They must do all the duty of parents^ 
excepting those obligations which ^re merely natural. 


The Duties of Ministers and Spiritual Guides to the People is of so 
great Burthen, so various Rules, so intricate and busy Caution, 
tJutt it requires a distinct Tractate by itself 


Of Negociation or Civil Contracts. 

THIS part of justice is such as depends upon the 
laws of man directly, and upon the laws of God 
only by consequence and indirect reason : and from 
civil laws or private agreements it is to take its esti- 
mate and measures : and although our duty is plain 
and easy^ requiring of us honesty in contracts, since- 
rity in affirming, simplicity in bargaining, and faith-^ 
fulness in performing ; yet it may be helped by the 
addition of these following rules and considerations. 

Rules and Measures of Justice in Bargaining. 

, 1. In making contracts use not many words; for 
all the business of a bargain is summed up in a few 
sentences: and he that speaks least, means fairest^ 
as having fewer opportunities to deceive. . 

2. Lie not at ^11, neither in a little thing nor in a 
great, neither in the substance nor in the circumstaoo^ 
neither in word nor deedr that is, pretend not what 

Stfi Holy LMng. [Cbap. iil 

is false^ cofw.ncC what is tnie^ and let the measure 
of your affirmation or denial be the understanding of 
your contractor: for he that deceives the buyer or 
the seller^ by speaking what is true in a sense not 
intended or understood by the other, is a liar and 
a thief* For in bargains you are to avoid not only 
what is false^ but that also which deceives. 

3. In prices of baigaining toncerning uncertain 
merchandises : you may buy as cheap ordinarily as 
you can^ and sell as dear as you can, so it be, 1 • with- 
out violence : and, 2. when you contract od equal 
terms with persons in all senses, (as to the matter 
and skill erf* bargaining) equal to yoursdfy that is, 
merchants with merchants, wise men with wise men, 
rich with rich ; and, 3. when there is no deceit,. and 
no necessity, and no monopoly. For in these cases, 
viz. when the contractors are equal, and no advantage 
<>n either side, both parties are voluntary, and therefore 
thft'e can be no injustice or wrong to either. But 
then add also this consideration, that the public be not 
oppressed hy unreasonable and unjust rates : for which 
the following rules are the best measures. 

4. Let your prices be according to that measure of 
good and evil which is established ia the fame and 
ecHnmon accounts of the wisest and most merciful 
men skilled in that manufacture pr commodity ; and 
^he gain such which without scandal is allowed to 
persons in all the same circumstances. 

. 5. Let no prices be heightened by the necessity or 
jt^kilfulnesft of the contractor : for the first is direct 
KMOharitableness to the person^ and injustice in the 

Sect, hi.] Of Civil Contracts. 248 

thing ; (beoaiise the man's necefieify could not nata- 
^ rally enter into the considenition of the -value of the 
.oommodity ;) and the other is deeeit and oppression* 
Much less must any man make necessities ; as, by ita- 
grossing a commodity, by monopoly, by detaining 
*com, or the like indtiect arts : for such persons ane 
unjust to all single persons with whom in such cases 
ihey contract, and oppressors of the public. 

6^ In inttrccMirse with others do not do all which 
you may lawfully do; but keep something within 
'.thy power : and because there is a latitude, of gain 
in buying and sellings take not thou the utmost penny 
that is lawfiil, or which thou thinkest so ; for although 
it be lawfuil, yet it is notstfe; and he that gains all 
that he can gain lawfully this year, possibly next 
year will be tempted to gain something unlawfully;' 

7f He that sells dearer by reason he sells not for 
ready money, must increase his price no high^-tban 
to make biniself recompehce for the loss whid^Ac- 
€x>rding to the rules of trade he sustain^ hy his 
forbearance, according to common oomputatiioii^ 
reckoning in also the hazard, which he is pru^sntly, 
iwarily, and charitably to estimate. But^ although this 
be the measure of his justice, yet becausie it- hap- 
pens either to their friends, or to necessitous and 
poor persons, they are in these cases to consider the 
rules of friendship and neighbourhood, and the 
obligations of charity, lest justice turn into unmeroi- 

8. No man is to be raised in his price or rents in 
regard of any accident, Advantage or . disadvantage 

9f 4 Holy living. [Chap. hi. 

• of his peraon*. A priooe must be used conscionaUy 
as well as a common person, and a beggar be treated 

.justly as well as a prince ; with this only indifierence^ 
that to poor persons the utmost measure and extent 
of justice is unmerciful^ which to a rich person is in- 
nocent, because it is just, and he needs not thy merqr 

• and remission.. 

9. Let no man for his own poverty become more 
oppressing and cruel in his bargain, but quietlyi 
modestly, diligently and patiently recommend his estate 
to God, and follow its interest, and leave the sucote 
to him : for such courses will more probably advaobe 
his trade, they will certainly procure him a blessing 
and a recompence, and if they cure not his poverty, 
they will take away the evil of it ; and there is no- 
thing else in it that can trouble him. 

10. Detain tiot the wages of the hireling; for 
every degree of detention of it beyond the time is 
injustice and uncharitableness, and grinds his face 
till tears and blood come out : but pay him exactly 
according to covenant, or according to his needs. 

11. Religiously keep all promises and covenants, 
though made to your disadvantage, though after- 
wards, you perceive you might have done better : and 
let not any precedent act of your's be altered by any 
after-accident. Let nothing make you break your 
promise, unless it be unlawful or impossible : that is, 
either out of your natural, or out of your civil power, 
yourself being under the power of another ; or that it 
be intolerably inconvenient to yourself, and of no 

* Mercantia non vuol n^ amid n^ parenti. 

SccT. HI.] Of Civil Cofitracts. 225 

advantage* ia another: or that yon have leave ex* 
pressed^ or reasonably presumed. ; 

12. Let no mari take wages or fees for a work that 
he cannot do^ or cannot with probability undertake^ 
or in some sense profitably^ .and with ease^ or with 
advantage manage. Physicians must not meddle with 
desperate diaeases, and known to be incurable^ witb* 
out declaring their sense, before-hand : that if the pa- 
tiient pleabe.he may entertain him at adventure, or to 
do him some little ease. Advocates must deal plainly 
with- their clients, and tell them the true state and 
danger of their case ; and must not pretend confidence 
in an evil cause ; but when he hath so cleared his own 
innocenee, if th^ client will have collateral and legal 
advantages obtained by his. industry, he may engage 
his endeavour, provided he do no injury to the right 
cause or any man's person. 

13. Let no man appropriate to his own use what 
God, by a special mercy, or the republic hath made 
common: for tliat is both against justice and 
charity. too*f^; and« by miraculous accidents, God 
h^th declared his displeasure against such enclosure. 
When the Kings of Naples enclosed the gardens of 
OeHotriUf where the best Manna of Calabria descendsi 
that no man might gather it without paying trib^lA 

* Sar^m tid sponsalia quia promisi^ quamvis noi) concoxerim ; 
sed non si febricitavero : Sub est enim tacita exception Si potero^ 
si debebo. Senec. 

Effice ut idem status sit cilai exigitur^ qui fuit ctiin promitterexn. 
Destituere levitas non erit> si aliquid intervenerit novi. Eadem 
mibi omnia prsesta^ et idem sum. 1. 4. c. 39. de Benefic. 

t Brassavol, In exam, simpl. 
No. 10* 2 G 

tM Holy iMing. [ Chap. hi. 

the Manna ceased till the tribute i^as taken off. and 
then it came again': and so^ when after the third 
trials the princes found they could not have that, in 
proper which God made to be common, they left it 
as free as God gave it. The like happened in Epirtj 
when Lysimachus laid an impost upon the Tta^ga$ma» 
salt, it vanished till Lysimachus left it public *• And 
when the procurators of King Antigonus imposed a 
rate upon the sick people that came to Edepmrn. to 
drink the waters, which were lately sprung, and 
were very healthful, instantly the waters dried op, 
and the hope of gain perishedr 
* The sum of all is in the«fe words of St. Paut^ [Let 
no man go beyond and defraud his brother in any mat^ 
ter, because the Lord is the avenger of all such. 
1 Thes. iv. 6.] And our Blessed Saviour, in the cno* 
merating the duties of justice, besides the command- 
ment of [^Do not steal] adds [defraud not. Lev. xix. 13. 
1 Cor. vi. 8. Matt. x. I9.] forbidding (as a distinct 
explication of the old law) the tacit and secret theft of 
abusing our brother in civil contracts. And it needs 
no other arguments to inforce this caution, but on)y 
that the Lord hath undertaken to avenge all such per^ 
sons. And as he always does it in the great day of 
recompences ; so very often he does it here, by making 
the unclean portion of injustice to b^ as a canker-worm, 
eating up all the other increase : it procures beggary, 
and a declining estate, or a catiff cursed spirit, an ill 
name, the curse of the injured and oppressed person, 
and a fool or a prodigal to be bis heir. 

* Galium Ahod. 1. 9. c. 12. Athnct. Deipnos. L 3. 

" • ■ ■ ' ' -r-*rge 

Sect, it.] Of Restitution. 227 

SECT. iv. 

, ^ Of Restitution. 

• RESTITUTION is that part of justice to which a 
taah is obliged by a precedent contract^ or a fore- 
^ing faolt^ by his own act or another man^s^ either 
'with or -without Ills will. He that borrows is bound 
to pay, and much more he that steals or cheats *. For 
if (le that borrows, and pays not when he is able, be 
an unjust person ^nd a robber, because he possesses 
another man's goods to the right owner's prejudice ; 
then he that took them at first without leave is the 
same thing in every instant of his possession, which 
the debtor is after the time in which he should and 
eould hai^ made payment. For in all sins we are to 
distinguish the transient or paissing act from the re- 
maining eflect or evil. The act of stealing was soon 
over and cannot be undone^ and for it tl^e sinner is 
only answerable to God, or his vicegerent, and he is in 
a particular manner appointed to expiate it by suf- 
fering punishment, and repenting, and asking par- 
don, and judging and condemning himself, doing acts 
of justice ahd charity, in opposition' and contradiction 
to that evil action. But because in the case of steal- 
ing there is an injury done to our neighbour, and 
the evil still remains after the action is past, there- 
for^ for this we are accountable to our neighbour, 
and we are to take the evil off from him which we 
]NX>ught upon him, or else he is an injured person, a 
^Chi non' vuol renderc^ fa mal aprendere« 

228 Holy Living [Chap. hi. 

Sufferer all the while : and, that any man should be 
the worse for me, and my direct act^ and by my inten- 
tion, is against the rule of equity, of justice, and of 
charity ; I do not that to others which 1 would have 
done to myself, for I grow richer upon die mini <^ 
his fortune. Upon this ground it is a dete^rmiool 
rule in divinity, our sin can never be pardoned till 
we have restored what we unjmthf fo^k, or wrongfvUn 
detained*. Restored it (I mean) actually or in purpoie 
^nd desire, which we must really perform when we ou^ 
And this doctrine, besides its evident and apparent 
IHNisonableness, is derived from the express words of 
^ripture, reckoning restitution - to be a part of j[^ 
pentance, necessary in order to the remission of our 
ains. \If the wicked restore the pledge^ give ^@9im 
that he had robbed, Sfe. he shall surely live, he, shajli 
not die^ (EzehiLXsm. lb). The practice of this part 
of justice, is to be directed by the following rules. 

Rules for making Restitution. 

1. Whosoever is an effective real cause of doii^ 
his neighbour wrong, by what instrument soever hp 
does it, whether by commanding or encouraging it, 
by counselling or commending it, by acting it^ or 
not hindering it when he might and ought, by coi>- 
^ealiug it or receiving it, is bound to make iresti- 
tution to his neighbour; if without him tb^ injury 
had not been done, but by him or his assistance it 
was. For, by the same reason that every one of thesp 

* Si tu& culp^ datum est damnnin^ jure super bis satiefacere 
te oportet* 

L I ' uui ii li I \m^fmmf^mmttmm 

Sect. IV.] Of Restitution.. 229 

is guilty of -the sin/^nd is cause of the injuiy^ bgr 
tb^ same they are bound to mak^ r^)aration; be«> 
oawse by him his neighbour is jo^ade worse, and 
therefore is 4;o be put into that state from whence be 
was forced: An^ suppose that thou hast pectaaded 
en kqury to fee done to thy tieighbour, Mrhich others 
would have persuaded if . tliou hadst not/ yet theiu ait 
«till obligpdf because th^u really didst cause the im- 
^mry^ just as they had been obliged if they had done 
it: and thou art not iat all the less bouiid by havii^ 
persons a3 ill inclined as thou wert. 

2. He that ico^mattded the injury to be dene, h 
first bound; then he that did it; 'and lifter/ these, 
they also are obliged who did so assist, as without 
jthem the thing would not havelbeen done. If sati»- 
faetion be made by any of the former, the latter. 'is 
tiedtp. repentance, but no restitution. But if the 
icijured person be not righted, every one of tiiem is 
.wholly guilty of. the injustice^ and tberefoi^ bound 
to restitujion^ singly And entirely. 

3. Wholocrrer Intends a little injury to bis neigb- 

-bour, and acts it, and by it a greater eiril accidentally 

iConnes, be is obliged to make an entire veparatiosi 

of all the injur}', of that which he intended, and of 

that which he intended not, but yet acted by his own 

iastniment goir^ farther than he at first proposed it. 

He that «ets fire on a plane-tree, to spile bis neighs 

feour, and the plane-tree set fire oh bis neighbour's 

house, he is bound to }>ay for all the loss^ Because 

it did aU arise from his own ill intention, it ia like 

murder lOfunmttted by a drunken person, involuntaiy 

9B0 Holy Uoing. [Chap. hi. 

in some of the efiect, but voluntary in the other 
parts of it, and in all the cause ; and therefore the 
guilty person is answerable for all of it And when 
Arutrathes the Cappadocian king had but in wanton- 
ness stopped the mouth of the river Melanusy si* 
tfiough he intended no evil, yet Euphrates being 
swelled by that means, and bearing away some of the 
•trand of CappadociOf did great spoil to the Phrypam 
and Chlatians : He therefore by the Raman senate 
was condemned in three hundred talents towards rejia- 
ntion of the damage. Much rather therefore when 
the lesser part of the evil was directly intended. 
* 4. He that hinders a charitable person firom giving 
sdms to a poor man, is tied to restitution, if he hin-^ 
^kred him by fraud or violence; because it was a 
right which the poor man had when the good miin bad 
designed and resolved it, and the fraud or violence 
hinders the effect, but not the purpose: and there- 
fore he who used the deceit or the force is injurious, 
and did damage to the poor man. But if the alms 
were hindered only by entreaty, the hinderer is not 
tied to restitution, because entreaty took not liberty 
away from the giver, but left him still master of his 
own act, and he had power to alter his purpose, and 
so long there was no injustice done. The same is the 
case of a testator giving a legacy either by kind- 
ness or by promise and common right. He that hin- 
ders the charitable legacy by fraud or violence, or 
the due legacy by entreaty, is equally obliged to 
restitution. The reason of the latter part of this 
case is, because he that entreats or persuades to a sin 

SscT. lY.] Of Hestitutian. 231 

IS as goilty as he that acts it ; and if without his per* 
suasion. the sin. and the injury would not be acted, he 
is in bis, kind. the entire cause, and therefore obliged 
to repair the injury as much as the person that does 
the wrong immediately. 

5. He that refuses to do any part of his duty (to 
which he is otherwise obHged) without a bribe, is 
bound to restore that money, because he took it in 
his neighbour*s wrong, and not as a salary for his 
labour, or a reward of his wisdom, (for his stipend 
hath paid all that) or he hath obliged himself to do 
it by his voluntary undertaking. 

6. He that takes any thing from his neighbour 
which was justly forfeited, but yet takes it not as a 
minister of justice, but to satisfy his own revenge 
or avarice, is , tied to repentance, but not to restitu* 
tion. For my neighbour is^ not the worse for my 
act, for thither the law and his own demerits bore 
him; but because I took the forfeiture indirectly, I 
am answerable to God for my unhandsome, unjust, 
or uncharitable circumstances. .Thus Philip of Mq- 
cedon was reproved by Aristides iov destroying the 
Phocenses; because, altboogh they deserved it, yet he 
did it not in prosecution of the law of nations, but 
to enlarge his own dominions. 

7- The heir of an obliged pei*son is not bound to 
make restitution, if the obligation passed only by a 
personal act; but if it passed from his person to his 
estate, then the estate ])asses with all its burthen. If 
the father, by persuading his neighbour to do injustice,, 
be bound to restore, the action is extinguished by the 

282 Holy IJving. [Chap. hi. 

death of the father, because it was only the iathei^i 
sin that bound him, which cannot directly bund the 
son ; therefore the son is free. And this is so in -all 
personal actions, unless where the civil law interposei 
and alters the case. 

Tliese rules concern the persons thai are obliged to make restitutien: 
' ' the other eircunutances of it are thus described. 

8. He that by feet, or word, or sign, either fraodu* 
lently or violently does hurt to his neighbour's body, 
life, goods, good nanie, friends, or ^oul, is bound to 
tnake restitution in the several instances, according as 
they are capable to be made. In all these instances 
we must separate entreaty and enticements from de- 
ceit or violence. If I persuade ray neighbour to 
commit adultery, I still leave him or h^r in their own 
ipk>wer : and though I am answerable to God for my 
sin, yet not to my neighbour. For I made her to be 
willing; yet she was willing, that is, the same at last as 
I was at first. But if I have used fraud, and made her 
to believe a lie, upon which confidence she did the 
act, and without she would not, (as if I tell a wo- 
man her husband is dead, or intended to kill her, or 
is himself an adulterous man) or if I use violence, 
that is, either force her or threaten her with death, or 
a grievous wound, or any thing that takes her from the 
liberty of her choice, I am bound to restitution, that 
is, to restore her to a right understanding of things, 
and to a full liberty, by taking from her the deceit or 
the violence. 

9. An adulterous person is tied to restitution of the 

injury so far as it is reparable, and can be made to the 


Sbct.dt.] OfJUstiMim^ 299 


wrmiged: person;! that is^ to make pravMion for^ tho 
childiien b^otfen in unMwful embraces, that thejr^ 
nii^do no injury to the legitimate by; receiving a com*?* 
mkM' portion:; and ;if the injured person do account 
of J^. he. must satisfy him with money for the > wrong 
done to>hia bed. He is bot tied to ^ifSsr this^ . beoauai 
it is no proj]er,exchange;:bttt he is bound' to pityiifvit 
be: niasomtbly derhanded ; for every man hath juatid^ 
done him, when himself ifr satisfied, though by a word^ 
or an action, or a penny. ■ ! . i . 

10. He.thathath killed a man is bound to restitution 
by allowing such a maintehance to the children and 
near relatives of the deceased as they have loi^t by his 
death, considering and allowing for all circumstances 
of the man*s age/ and health, and probability of liv^. 
ing. And thus Hercules is said to have made expia* 
tiolQ for the death of /j^Ai/e^ whom he slew, by paying 
amulet to his children. 

11. He that hath really lessened the fame of his 
neighbour by fraud or violence, is^ bound to restore it 
by its proper instruments'*^; such as are confession :of 
his fault, giving testimony of his innocence or worth, 
doing him honour, (or if that will do it, and both paiv 
ties. agree) by money, which answers all things. 

12. He that hath woiunded bis neighbour is tied^ to 
the expences of the surgeon and other incidences^ and 
to repair whatever lobs, he' sustains by his disability to 
work or trade; and the same is in the case of false 
imprison^ient ; in which cases only the real effect and 

* Sic Fivianui resipuit de injasta accusatione^ apud Cassiodor* Sv.4L 
No. 10. 2 H . > 

* l ■ ■ ' ' ' ^— 

tS4 H9fy Lhu^. [C 

I I I! I II s^Bgga—aeBsgngg ■ , ,j 

vrinniiiiig detriment an to bo mended nut fbpuitd! 
Ibr the tction itielf is to be punished' or ve|Mnfeed d, 
and enters not into the i^ieition of nttitutioa. But 
in these end mil other cases the injured pnvoQ'is to to 
mtoved to diat perfect and good condttion Atml iHiii& 
Im'siM' remoNred bj my iirtad or iKoIenice, so 'far m u 
poisible; Thns a ravisher most repair- the* tempoitf 
detriqient <^r linjoiy done to the maid, and give' her a 
dowiy^ Of meny her if she desire it. Fot liiis restart 
her into that capacity of being a good wife^ Which bjr 
the injury Wu lost^ as far as' it can be done/ ' ' 
* 13. He that robbeth bis neighbour of bis godds, or 
detains any thing violently or fraudulently, is bound 
not only to restore the principal^ but isU its fruitsaiid 
emoIumentsWhidi' would have accrued to the i^t 
aimer during die tiiiie of their being detain^, fljf 
proportion of these rules, we may judge of the obli- 
gation that lies upon all sorts of injurious persons; the 
sacrilegious^ the detainers of thhes^ cheaters of nien*s 
inheritances^ unjust judges^ false witnesses and accu- 
cu^rs, those that do fraudutently or violently bring 
'laten to sin, that force men to drink^ that laugh at and 
disgrace virtUQ^ that persuade servants to run ^way, 
6r commend siich' purposes^ violent persecutors of r&- 
lig^on in any instance; and ait of the same nature^ 

14. He that hath wronged so many, or in that man- 
'ner (as in the way of daily trade) that he knows not 
'ill' what measure he hath .done it, or who they are, 
must redeem his fault by alms and latgesses- to the 
poor, according to the value of his wrongjful dealing, 
as near as he can proportion it. Better it is to go. b^-^ 

Sect. iV.] Of Restitution. S8S 

ging tofaeayeBy .tiian to. go to hell bden with the spoib 
€if n(pine.fUMi injmtice. 

15, .The.iCMnder of paying of debts. ef oontract oi^ 
featitokioa jHTQi IB. scMne instances iet.down hy tfae<srvil 
lairs of a: Jdngdom^ in which eases their rale. is to be 
ohseired. In : destitution <or want of such raks we 
lure^ i.To observe the Becessity of the creditor* 2; 
Then the, time of the deby; and^ 3^ The special ob- 
ligations of friendship or kindness; and according to 
these in their sevecal . degrees make our restitution^ if 
we be not able to do all that we should: but if we be^ 


tbe best rule. is to do it as soon as we can^. taking our 
accounts in this! as in .<mr human actions^ according 
to |>rodence9 and civil or tiatiiral cohveniendes or 
possibilities ; oniy securing these two things : I • That 
tbe duty be not wlioUy emitted ; and, 2. That it be not 
deferred at all out of coVetoosness^ or any other prin^ 
ciple.that is ricioiis. Bemembdf tfaat^ the same day in 
which Zaccbtens made restitution to all whom he had 
injured^ the same day Christ himself pronounced that 
falvation.was come to his house^ (Luke xix. 9.j^ 

l6.. But besides the obligation arising from contract 
or default^ there is * one of another sort which comes 
from kindness and the acts of charity and friendship. 
He that does me a favour hath bound me to make him 
a return of thankfulness. The obligation comes not by 
covenant^ nor by his own express intention, but by 
the nature of the thing ; and is a duty springing up 
within the spirit of the obliged person, to whom it is 
.merer natural to love his friend, and to do good for 

'^ ^Gratitude, 


S86 Holy living. [Chap. in. 

gbod^ than to retoni evil for evil : becauae m niMi mqr 
forgive an injury^ but he must never forget m good 
turn. For every thing that is excellent, and every 
thing that is profitable, whatsoever is good in itaelf, 
or good to me, cannot but be beloved; and what we 
love we naturally cherish and do good to. He there- 
fore that refoses to do good to them whom he ia bound' 
to love, or to love that which did him good, ia unna- 
tural and monstrous in his affections, and thinks, all 
the world bom to minister to him, with, a greeditiesi 
worse than that of the sea, which, although it receives 
-all rivers into itself, yet it furnishes the clouda-and 
springs with a return of all they heed. 

Our duty to benefoctors is, to esteem and love 
their persons, to make them proportionable returns 
of service,' or duty, or profit, according a^ wo'can^ 
or as they need, or as opportunity presents itself, and 
According to the greftnesses of their kindness, and 
to pray to God to make them recompence for all the 
good they have dbne to us; which last office is also 
requisite to be done for our creditors, who in charity 
have relieved our wants. 


A Prayer for the Grace of OhedieHce^ to he said 
hy all Persons under Command. 

O Eternal God, great Ruler of men and angela, 
who bast constituted all things in a wonderful order^ 

Sect, it.] Prayers Relating to the Duties of Justice. 287 

— H- 

making all tha-ereatares subject to man, ind One man 
to another^ and all to thee, the lastlink of this admi^ 
rable chain being fastened to the foot of thy throne $ 
teach me to obey all those whom thou hast set over 
me, reverencing their persons, submitting. indiiSSs 
rently to all their lawful commands, cheerfully under- 
going those burthens: which the public, wisdom and 
necessity, shall imposie upon me : at no hand jnurmur- 
ing against government, lest the spirit of pride and 
mutiny, of murmur and disorder enter into me, and 
consign me to the portion of the disobedient and re- 
«bellious, of the despisers of dominion and revilers of 
dignity. Grant this, O holy God, for his sake, whoy 
for his obedience to the Father, hath obtained the glo- 
jriikation of eternal ages, our Lord and Saviour Jesua 
Christ. Amen. 

Prayers for Kings and all Magistrates, for our Parents, spiritual 
" and natural, are in the following Litanies, at the end of the fourth 

A Prayer to he said by Subjects, when their land is invaded and 


over-^run by barbarous or picked people. Enemies of the Religion 

* ■ 

or the government,' 



O Eternal God, thou alone rulest in the kingdomf 
of men,- thou art the great God of battles and recom* 
pences, and by thy glorious wisdom^ by thy Almighty 
power, and by thy secret providence, dost determine 
the events of war, and the issues of huiiian counsels, and 
the . returns of peace and victory : now at last be 
pleaised to let the light of thy countenance, and th^ 
.effects of is glorious mercy and a gracious p^dori rer 


Hofy JJnmg. [CvAP. m. 

two lo Ihit kodL Thos nert how geett eitb iwe nl> 
ka imder tbe power tnd vtjrnumy of war ) and dUlMigh 
pe MbiDtt .to JMdd adove thy jottioe and our aiifihfingii 
jet be phased to pity our misery^ to hear eor com^ 
phdnti^ ittd to provide m of remedy upmut our pie** 
aent calainttiet ; let not the defenders of a righteom 
oame go apmy ariiamed^ oer our .counsels heior^^ver 
oanfoundedt nor our parties defeated, nor religiim 
anppressed^ nor learning discountenanced^ and we be 
spoiled of all the exterior ornaments, instruments^ and 
advantages of piety, which thou hast been pleased 
Jbrodttty to minister to our infirmities^ for the iotereits 
jtf learning and religion. Amen. 
,.. i . H^ 

' We confess, -dear God, that 'we hare deserved t& 
be totally extinct and separate from the comtnmiion df 
saints, and the comforts of religion, to be made servanta 
to ignorant, unjust and inferior persons, or to suffer 
any other calamity which thou shalt allot us as the 
Instrument of thy anger, whom we have so often pro^ 
yoked to wrath and jealousy. Lord, we kamUy lie 
down under the burthen of thy rod, begging of thee 
to remember our infirmities, and no more to remember 
our sins, to support us with thy Sta^ to liiPt us up With 
thy hand, to refresh us with thy gracious eye r and, if 
)S'sad cloud of temporal infelicities must still encircle 
us, open unto us the window of heaven, that with an 
eye ci faith and hope we may see beyond the cloud, 
looking upon those mercies which in thy secret provi^ 
'dence and admirable wisdom thdu designest to all thy 
scarvants^ . ficom such unlikely apd sad beginnings. 


Sect, iv.] Prayer$ Relating to Duties of Justice, 230 

Teach us dUigeiiUy te do all our duty, and cheerfully 
to submit to all thy will ; and at last be gracious^ to 
thy people that call upion thee, that pat their trust in 
thee, that 'have laid Up all their hopes in the boson^ of 
Gk>d, that besides thee hav^ no helper, jimefn. 


: Place a guard of angels about the peilwn of thi 
King, and immure him with the defence of thy 
right hand, that no unhallowed arm may do violence 
to him. Support him with aids from heaven In all bis 
battles, trials, and dangers, that he may in every in- 
stant of his temptation becomie dearer to thee, and do 
thOu return to him, with mer<^ and deliverance. Give 
unto him the hearts of all his people, and put into tiis 
band a prevailing rod of iron, a sceptre oif power, and 
a sword of justice ; and enable him to defend and com- 
fort the churches under his protection. 


Bless all bis friends, relatives, confederates, and 
iieges ; dii*ect their counsels, unite their hearts. 
Strengthen their hands, bless their actions. Give unto 
them holiness of Intention, that they may with much 
candor and ingenuity piirsue the cause of God and the 
king. Sanctify all the tneaiis and instruments of their 
purposes, that they may hot with cruelty, injustice, or 
oppression, proceed towairds the etid'of their just de- 
sires : and* do thou crown all their endeavours with a 
prosperous event, that all may co-operate tb> and ac- 
tually produce, those great mercies which we beg of 
tbee$ honour and safety to bur sovereign, defence of 
his just rights, peace to his people, establishment and 

S40 Ilolif Living. [ Chap. ni. 

promotion to religion, advantages and eoooaragement 
to learning and holy living, deliverance to all the op- 
pressed, comfort to all thy faithful people, and from 
all these, glory to thy holy name ; grant this, 
KING of kings, for his sake by whom thou hast con- 
signed us to all thy mercies and promises, and to 
whom thou hast given all power in heaven and earth, 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amien. 

A Pray^ to he said by Kings or Magistrates^ Jhr 

themselves and their People. 

O MY God and King, thou rulest in the kingdoms, 
of men ; by thee kings reign and princes decree jus- 
tice.: tbou hast. appointed me, under thyself, [^and 
under my prince"] to govern this portion of thy church' 
acQprding to the laws of religion aud the common- 
wealth. O Lord, I am but an infirm man, and 
know not how to decree certain sentences without 
erring in judgment : but do thou give thy servant 
an understanding heart to judge this people, that I may 
discern, between good and evil. Cause me to walk 
before thee and all the people in truth and righteous- 
ness, and in sincerity of heart, that I may not r^ard 
the person of the mighty, nor be afraid of bis terror^ 
nor despise the person of the poor, and reject his pe- 
tition ; but thai doing justice to all men, I and my 
people may receive mercy of thee, peace and plenty 
in our days, and mutual love, duty, and correspondence, 
that there be no leading into captivity, no complaining 
i^ our streets ; but we may see the church in prosperity 
''^ To be added by a delegate pr inferior. . 


I<-I« 1 

SscTi iFJ Prayers Relatufg to Duties of Justice, fi^l 

wHL <toridayif ilmdL' KKgion! (established- iand! iimreMiH^. 
BdlloQ'iOttabKsh/tbe boose jotf thy semni/and bt^M^ 
me 4ia:a) participation o6Ahk glories of thy kitigdoill^ 
ifer bi»faake.wbo'is^{ny IJoniandKi the holy lind 
jBfm. bUsscii^'Saviourof the^^dridyWiY Redeeifter Jesi^ 
Amen. .■^<-^v.^. .:>ri.i > ^i-'/^i :>j ^ -r^* 

'^'k Pi^^io he ^dk^ Pa^s f^^^^ 

O Alm^tiVy and ifibsl merciful Fattier, who hast 
promised children as a reward to the righti^ous, and 
h» giiriJh' tfiem to rta^tfs/^if'terfiinbny'biF'thy mercy, 
and ati 'erighgc«to€inifx^!m^.d^^ to be a 

FathCT ^trflio- themy '^and^kfi^ " tKem hfeilthful bodfies, 
^hdersUiVidia^'Wals;^ and* ^BctijB^ci' spirits, that they 
'may be thy-*sfeMtits''ltnd thy childfen all their' days, 
l^^a-^reiittnei^cjf afrtd^l providence lead them thrbujgh 
th^ daft^^V and tetibiptkti^^^ ignorances of their 

yooth, ihtli*4.ibey may' hever run into folly, and the 
evils of w tttft)ridled^ jfppetite. So order' the accidents 
oftheir liVesi;'that by good education, careful tutors, 
HoTj^ eJcatiipi^,' innocent company, prudent counsel, 
and thy restraining grace, their duty to thee may be 
secured iq.t^ midst of a crooked and, untoward |[e- 
neration : and if it seem good in thy eyes, let me be 
enabled to provide conveniently for the support of 
their per^sons, that they may not lie destitute and 
miserable in my death : or if thou shalt call me off 

* « 

from this world by a more timely summons, let their 
portion be thy care, mercy, and providence over their 
bodies and souls, and may they never live vicious 
lives^ nor. die violent or untimely deaths ; but Itt 
No.ii. 2 1 

242 Holy Lking. [ Ca 4P. in. 

them glorify thee here with a free dbedience^ md the 
duties'of a holy life : that when they have served thee 
io their generations, and have profited the diristin 
commonwealth, they may be co-heirs with Jeras in 
the glories of thy eternal kingdom, through this same 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 

A Prayer to he said hy Mastfrs of FamUiee^ Cu- 
rates. Tutors, or other obliged Persons, for fheir 

. O Almighty God> merciful and gracious^ have 
mercy upon my family^ [or pupils, or , parishioners, 
3cc.] and all 'Committed tp my cbai|;e : sanctify thesti 
with thy ^ce, preserve them with thy providence, 
guard them frpm all evil, by the custody pf angels; 
direct them in the wayn of peace, and holy ., .religion 
by my ministry^ ana the conduct of thy most Holy 
Spirit, and consign them all with the participation oi 
thy blessings and graces in this world, with healthful 


bodies, with good understandings, and sanctified spirits^ 
to a full fruition of thy glories hereafter^jthrough Jesus 
Christ our Lord. 

A Proffer to he said hy Merchants^ Tradesmen^ and 


O Eternal God, thou fountain of justice,, mercy, 
and benediction, who by my education and other ef- 
fects of thy providence, hast called me to this pro- 
fession, that by my industry I may in my small pro- 
portion work tc^ther for the good of myself and 
others ; I humbly beg thy grace to guidejne in my in- 
tention, and in the transaction of my aflfairs^ tiiat I 

-I. Il ^i^i»i^— i^M —— — ^—j^— .^1 II I ■ I II ■ II I I ■■ ,1 

— »—^^— ——«■—»— ^1^—— IP— .1 I !■ 11 t ^mmmmt^im . 

Sbct.. it.] Prayers Relaiif^ to Duties of Justice. 243 

may be dHijgent^ jgife and: faithful ^.And give me tbjr 
&vour^ . that this my labour may; be lnooepted by thee 
as a part of my necessary, doty : and give me thy blesa^ 
lag to assist and proflip^ me in my calUog, to such 
measures'as thou shalt iil mercy choose for me : and h^ 
pleased to let thy Holy Spirit be for ever present with 
me, that I may never be given to cpvetousness and 
sordid appetites, to lying and falsehood, or anjT other 
biase, indirect, and be^^arly arts ; bnt give me pru- 
dence, honesty, and christian sincerity, that my trade 
may be sanctified by v^y religion, my labopr by my 
intention- and thy blessing:, that when } have done 
my portion of work thou h&st allotted me, and im- 
proved the talent thou hast intrusted to me, and served 
the commonwealth in;jmy capacity,, I may neceive|the 
mighty price of my high' calling, wjbich I expect and 
beg, in the portion and inbemtanc^ pfthe ever blessed 
Saviour aud Redeemer Jesus. Amen.,y 

A Prayer to be said by DebtorSy and all Persons 
obliged, whether by Crime or Contract. 

O Almighty God, who art rich unto all, the trea- 
sury and fountain of all good, of all justice, and all 
mercy, and all bounty, to whom we aH owe that we 
are, and all that we have, being thy debtors by reason 
of our. sins, and by thy own gracious contract made 
with us in Jesus Christ ; teach me in the first place to 
perform all my obligations to thee, both of duty and 
thankfolness ; and next enable me to pay my duty to 
all my friends, atid my debts to all my creditors, that 
none be made miserable or lessened in his estate by 


S44 Hofy Usok^. [Chap. hi. 

r ■ I I II ■ I ■ ■ r ^^ 

hit kindnesii to me^ or trtflSo • with me. ForgiW me 
all those sras aYid irfegular tctionr by which i entered 
iato debt iarther than any neoeesity required, or fay 
which such necessity was broogbt upon me : but kt 
not them sufier by occasion of my sin.. Lord, reward 
ail their kindness into their bosoms, and make them 
recompence where I cannot, and make me very willing 
in all that 1 can, and able for all that I am obliged : 
or if it seem good in thine eycAs to afRict me by the 
continuance of this condition, ycft make it up by some 
means to them, that the prayer of thy servant may 
ib%tun of 'theie at least to pay my debt in blessings. 


;.. V ■ 

''LORD; sanctify and foigiveall that I have tempted 
ko evii by i^y discourse or my example : instruct them 
^n the right way whom I have led to error, and let me 
never run farther on the score of sin ; but do thou 
blot out all the evils I have done by the sponge of thy 
passion, and the blood of thy cross ; and give me a 
deep and an excellent repentance, and a free and a 
giacibus pardon ; that thou mayest answer for me, O 
Lord, and enable me to stand upright in jjadgment ; 
ftr in thee, O Lord, have I trusted, let me never be 
confounded. Pity me, and instruct me, guide me 
and support me, pardon me and save me, for my sweet 
Saviour Jesus Christ his sake. Amen. 

A Prayer for Patrons and Benefactors. 

O Almighty God, thou Fountain of all good, of 
all excellency, both to men and angels, extend thine 

Sect, nr.] ¥rayer& Relating to Duties of Justice 245 


abundant favour and loving-kindness to my patron, 
to all my friends and iiene&ctors : reward them, and 
make them plentiful recorapence for all the good 
which from thy merciful providence they have con- 
veyed unto me. Let the light of thy countenance 
shine upon them, and never let th^m come into any 
affliction or sadness, but such as may be an instrument 
of thy glory and their eternal comfort. Foi^ive them 
all their «ins : let thy diyine^t Spirit preserve them 
from all deeds of darkness. \jA thy ministering an- 
gels guard their persons from the violence of the 
spirits of darkness. And t^iou who knowest every 
degree of their nececuiity by thy infinite wisdom, give 
supply to all their needs by thy glorious mercy^ 
preserving their persons, sanctifying their hearts, and 
leading them in the ways of righteousness, by the 
waters of comfort, to the land of eternal rest and 
glory, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

846 Holy Living. [Chap. i\\ 



Reugion in a large sense doth signify the whole 
duty of man^ comprehending in it justice^ charity^ 
and sobriety : because all these being commanded by 
God, they become a part of that honour and worship 
which we are bound to pay to him. And thus the 
word is- used in St. James : Pure Religion and im- 
defiled before God and the Father is this, to visit the 
fatherless and widows in their ajfflictkm, and keep him- 
seif unspotted from the world. (James i. QJ.) But in 
a more restrained sense it is taken for that part of duty 
which particularly relates to God in our worshippings 
and adoration of him, in confessing his excellencies, 
loving his person, admiring his goodness, believing his 
word, and doing all that which may in a proper and 
direct manner do him honour. It contains the duties 
of the first tabic only, and so it is called Godliness, 
(Titus ii. 1 2.) and is by St. Paul distinguished from 
Justice and Sobriety. In this sense I am now to ex- 
plicate the parts of it. 

Of the Internal Actions of ReUgion. 

Those I call the internal actions of religion, in 
which toe soul only is employed, and ministers to 
God in the special actions of Faith, Hope, and Charity. 
Faith believes the revelations of God : Hope expects 
his promises; and Charity loves his excellencies and 

Sect, i.] Of FaiiL 24^7 

mercies. Faith gives our understanding to God; 
Hope gives up all the passions and afiections to heaven 
and heavenly things; and Charity gives the will to the 
service of God« Faith is opposed to Infidelity, Hope 
to Despair, Charity to Enmity and Hostility: and these 
three sanctify the whole man, and make our duty to 
God and obedience to his commandments to be chosen^ 
reasonable, and delightful, and therefore to be entire^ 
persevering, and universal. 

SECT. 1. 

OF FArm. 
7%e Ads and Offices of Faith are 

1 . To believe every thing which God hath revealed 
to us; and when once we are convinced that God 
bath spoken it, to make no farther inquiry*, but 
humbly to submit, ever remembering that there are 
some things which our Understanding cannot fathom, 
nor search out their deptibiJ ^ 

2. To believe nothing concerning God but what 
is honourable and excellent, as knowing that belief 
to be no honouring of God, Which entertains of him 
any dishonourable thoughts. Faith is tlie parent of 
Charity, and whatsoever Faith entertains must be apt 
to produce love to God: but he that believes God 
to be cruel or unmerciful, or a rejoicer in the una- 
voidable damnation of the greatest i>art of mankind ; 
or that he sj^eaks one thing, and privately means 

* Dcmus Deum aliquid posse qiuxl nos &teamur investigari qob 
Dosse. S, Aug, 1. 21. c. 7. de Qhit. 

248 Uoiif IJvhig. [Chap. it. 

another; thinks evil thoughts concerning. God, and 
•uch as for which we should hate a man, and there- 
fore are great enemies of faith, being apt to de- 
stroy charity. Our (aith concerning God must be 
as himself liath revealed and described his own ex^ 
•oellencies: and in our discourses we must remove 
from him all imperfection^ and attribute to him aH 

3. To give ourselves wholly up to Christ in heart 
and desire, to become disciples of his doctrine with 
choice (besides conviction) being in the presence 
of God but as idiots, that is, without any principles 
of our own to hinder the truth of God ; but sucking 
in greedily all that God hath taugbl. usy believing it 
infinitely and loving to believe it. For this is an act 
of love reflected upon faith, or an act of faith leaning 
upon love. 

4. To believe all God's promises, and that whatso- 
ever is promised in scripture shall on God's part be as 
surely performed as if we had it in possession. This 
act makes us to rely upon God with the same confi- 
dence as we did on our parents when we were children^ 
when we made no doubt but whatsoever we needed 
we should have it, if it were in their power. 

5. To believe also the conditions of the promise, or 
that part of the revelation which concerns our duty. 
Many are apt to believe the article of remission of 
sins, but they believe it without the condition of re- 
pentance, or the fruits of holy life : and that is to be- 
lieve the articles otherwise than God intended it. For 
the covenant of the gospel is the great object of 


Sect, i.] Of Faith. 24tf 

faith, and that supposes our duty to answer his grace ; 
that God will be our God, so long as we are his people. 
The oth^r is not faith, but flattery.t 

ft To profess publicly the doctrine of Jesus Christ, 
openly owning whatsoever he hath revealed and com- 
manded, not being ashamed of the word of God, or 
of any practices enjoined by it, and ' this without 
<Somplying with any nian*s interest, not regarding fa- 
▼our, nor being tnbved with gck)d words, nor fearing 
disgrace, or loss, or inconvenience, or death itself. 

7. To pray without doubting, without weariness^ 
without faintness, entertaining no jealousies or sus- 
jficions of God, but being confident of God*s hear- 
ing us, and of hiii returns to us, whatsoever the manner 
or the instance be,"* that if we do our duty, it will be 
gracious and merciful. 

These acts of faith are in several degrees in the 
Servants' of Jesus ; some have it but as a grain of 
mustard-seed, some grow up to a plant, some have 
the fullness of faith : but the least faith that is must 
be a {)drisuasion so strong as to make us undertake the 
doing of all that duty which Christ built upon the 
fouhdittion of believing. But^Mre shall best discern the 
truth of our faith by these following signs. St. Hieroni 
reckoris three *. 


Signs of true Faith. 

1. An earnest and vehement prayer: for it is im- 
possible we should heartily believe the things of God 
and the glories of the gospel, and not most impor- 

* Dial, advers. Lucif, 
No. 11. 2K 

$50 ^ Holy Hving. [ Chap. !▼. 

tunately desire them. For every thing is desired accord* 
ing to our belief of its excellency and possibility, . 

3. To do nothing for vain-glory, but wholly for the 
interests of religion, and these articles we believe, 
valuing not at all the rumours of men, but the praise 
of God, to whom by faith we have given up all our in- 
tellectual faculties. 

%3. To be content with God for our Judge, Jfor Imii 
Patron, for our Lord, for our Friend, desiring God 
to be all in all to us, as we are in our understanding 
and affections wholly his. 

Add to these ; 

4. To be a stranger upon earth in our affection% 
and to have all our thoughts and principal desires 
fixed upon the matters of faith, tli^ things of heaven. 
For if a man were adopted heir to Ccesar, he would 
(if he believed it real and effective) despise the pre- 
sent, and wholly be at court in his father's eye^ and 
his desires would out-run his swiftest speed, and all 
tlis thoughts would spend themselves in creating ideas 
and little fantastio images of his future condition. 
Now God bath made us heirs of his kingdom, and 
co-hoirs with Jesus : if^we believed this, we would 
think, and affect, and study accordingly. But he 
that rejoices in gain, and his* heart dwells in the world, 
and is espoused to a fair estate, and transported with 
a light momentary joy, and is afflicted with losses, and 
amazed with temporal persecutions, and esteems dis- 
grace and poverty in a good cause to }^ intolerable/ 
this m?in either hath no inheritance in heaven, or be- 
lieves' none; and believes not that he is adopted to be 
the son of God, the heir of eternal glory. 

HIM— —11^ 

Sect, i.] Of Faith. 251 

5. St. Jameses sign is the best: [Shew me th^ faith 
hy thy works^ Faith makes the merchant diligent 
and venturous, and that makes him rich. Ferdinando 
of Arragon believed the story told him by Columbus, 
and therefore he furnished him with ships, and got the 
West-Indies by his faith in the undertaker. , But 
Henry the Seventh of England believed him not^ 
ynd tberefoi;^ trusted him tlot with shipping, and lost 
all the purchase of that faith. It is told us by Christ 
\JIe that forgives shall he forgiven^ If we believe 
this, it is certain we shall forgive our enemies; for 
none of us all but need and desire to be forgiven. No 
4ian can poiisibly despise or refuse to desire such ex- 
cellent glories as are revealed to them that are ser- 
vants of Christ, and yet we do nothing that is com- 
nanded us as a condition to obtain them. No man 
could work a day's labour without fieiith : but because 
he beli^es he shall have his wages at the day's or 
week*4 end, ^he does his duty. But he only believes 
who does that thing which other men in the like cases 
do- when they do believe. He that believes money 
gotten with danger is better than poverty with safety, 
will venture for it in unknown lao^s or seas ; and so 
will he that believes it better to get heaven with labour, 
than to go to hell with pleasure. 

6. He that believes does not make haste, but waits 
patiently till the times of refreshment come, and 
daret trust God for the morrow, and is no more soli- 
cftpus for the next year t>ian he is for that which it 
past: and it is certain, that man wants faith, who 
dares b« mpre confident of beidjg supplied when he 

>52 Holy living. [Chap. it. 

hath, inofiey in his purse^ than when he hath it only 
in bills of exchange from Grod; or that relies more 
upon his own industry than upon God's providencei 
when his own industry fiaiils him. If you dare trust 
to God when the case to human reason seems impos- 
sible, and trust to God then also out of choice, not 
because you have nothing else to trust to, but because 
he is the only support of a just confidence^ th^ you 
give a good testimony of your faith. 

7. True faith is confident, and will venture all the 
world upon the strength of its persuasion. Will you 
lay your life on it, your estate, your reputation, that 
the doctrine of JESUS CHRIST is true in every 
article ? Then you have true faith. But he that fears 
men more than God, believes men more than he be- 
lieves in God. 

8. Faith, if it be true, living and justifying, cannot 
be separated from a good life : it works miracles, 
makes a drunkard become sober, a lascivious person 
become chaste, a covetous man become liberal ; ^ 
overcomes the world, it works righteousness, 2 Cor. 
xiii. 5. and makes us diligently to do, and cheerfully to 
suffer, whatsoever God haih placed in our way to heaven. 

The Means and instruments to obtain Faith are, 

1. An humble, willing, and docible mind, or desire 
to be instructed in the way of God : for persuasion 
enters like a sun-beam, gently, and without violence ; 
and operi but thq windi^w, and draw the curtaip^ 
and the Sun pf Righteousness will enlighten your 

Sect. I.} Of Faith 250 

2. Remove all prejudice and love to every thing 
which may be contradicted by faith. How can ye be-* 
lieve (said Christ) that receive praise one of another ? 
An unchaste man cannot easily be brought to believe 
that without purity he shall never see God. He that 
loves riches can hardly believe the doctrine of po^ 
verty and renunciation of the world : and alms and 
martyrdom^ and the doctrine of the cross, is folly to 
him that loves his ease and pleasures. He that hath 
within him any principle contrary to the doctrines of 
faith, cannot easily become a disciple. 
. 3. Prayer, which is instrumental to every thing, 
hath a particular promise in this thing. He thai 
lacks wisdom, let him ask it of God: and. If you 
give, good things to your children, how much more 
shall your heavenly Father give his Spirit to them that 
ask him ? 

4. The consideration of the divine omnipotence 
and infinite wisdom, and our own ignorance, are great 
instruments of curing all doubling, and silencing thq 
murmurs of infidelity ^. 

5. Avoid all curiosity of incjuiry into particulars,^ 
and circumstances, and mysteries: for true faith is full 
of ingenuity and hearty simplicity, free from susr 
picion, wise and confident, trusting upon generals^ 
without watching and prying into unnecessary orun* 
discernible particulars. No man carries his bed intpi 
his field, to watch how his corn grows, but believes 
upon the general order of providence and nature; 
and at harvest finds himself not deceived. 

^ In rebus roiris summa credendi ratio est omnipotentia Creatorisr 

5. Aug, 

954 Holy licing, [Chap. it. 

6. In time of temptation be not busy to dispute, 
but rely upon the conclusion, and throw yourself 
upon God, and contend not with him but in prayer, 
and in the presence, and with the help of a prudent 
untempted guide ; and be sure to esteem all changes 
of belief which offer themselves in the time of your 
greatest weakness, (contrairy to the persuasions of your 
best understanding) to be temptations^ and reject there 

7. It is a prudent course, that in our health and 
best advantages we lay up' particular arguments and 
instruments of persuasion and confidence, to be 
brought forth and used in the great day of expence ; 
and that especially in such things in which we use to 
be most tempted, and in which we are least confident, 
and which are most necessary, and which confimonly 
the devil uses to assault us withal in the days of our 

8. The wisdom of the church of God is very re- 
markable in appointing festivals or holy-days, whose 
solemnity and ofiices have no other special business 
but to record the article of the day ; such as Trinity- 
Sunday J Ascension^ Eiisterj Christmas-day : and to 
those persons who can only believe, not prove or dis* 
pute, there is no better instrument to cause the re- 
membrance and plain notion, and to endear the af- 
fection and hearty assent to the article, than the pro- 
claiming and recommending it by the festivity and joy 
of a holy-day." 

Sect. II.] , Of Hope. 255 



Of the Hope of a Christian. 

FAITH differs from Hope in the extension of its 
object, and in the intention of degree. St. Austin * 
thus accounts their difference. Faith is of all things 
revealed, good and bad^ rewards and punishments of 
things past, present, and to dome ; of things that con- 
cern us, and of things that concern us not : but Hope 
hath for its object tbingt only diat are go6d and fit to 
be hoped for, ' future^ , and concerning ourselves : and 
because these things are offered to us upon conditions 
of which we may so fail as we n^qy change our will, 
therefore our certainty is less than the adherences of 
fiiith ; which (because faith reliea only upon one prch* 
position, that is, the truth of the word of God) can* 
not be made uncertain in themselves, though the ob- 
ject of our hope may become uncertain to us, and to 
our possession. For it is infallibly certaif , that there 
is heaven for ali the godly, and for me amongst them 
all, if I do my duty. But that I shall enter into 
heaven, is the object of my hope, not of my faith, 
and is so sure as it is certain I shall persevere in the 
ways of God. 

The Acts of Hope are^ 

1 . To rely upon God with a confident expectation 
of his promises ; ever esteeming that every promise 
of God is a magazine of all that grace and relief which, 
we can need in that instance for which the promise is 
made. Every degree of hope is -a degree of confidence. 

" Enchirid. c. 8. 

256 H^^ly Lrving. [Chap. it. 

2. To esteem all the danger of an action and the 
possibilities of miscarriage, and every cross accident 
that can intervene, to be no defect on God*s part, 
but either a mercy on his part, or a fault on ours : 
for then we shall be sure to trust in God when we see 
him to be our confidence, and ourselves the cause of 
all mischances. 7%e hope of a Christian is prudent 
and religious. 

3. To rejoice in the midst of a misfortune or seem- 
ing sadness, knowing that this may work for good, 
and will, if we be not wanting to our souls. This is 
a direct act of hope, to look through^the cloud, and 
look for a beam of the light from God : and this is 
called in scripture. Rejoicing in tribulation^ when 
the God of hope fills us with all joy in believing. 
Every degree of hope brings a degree of joy. 

4. To desire, to pray, and to long for the great 
object of our hope, the mighty price of our high- 
calling ; and to desire the other things of this life as 
they are promised, that is, so far as they are made 
necessary and useful to us in order to God's glory and 
the great ends of souls. Hope and fasting are said to 
be the two wings of prayer. Fasting is but as the 
wing of a bird ; but hope is like the wing of an angel 
soaring up to heaven, and bears our prayers to the 
throne of grace. Without hope it is impossible to 
pray; but hope makes our prayers reasonable, pas- 
sionate, and religious ; for it relies upon God's pro- 
mise, or experience, or providence, and story. Prayer 
is always in proportion to our hope, zealous and 


tl^^,ma^mm»^0^t^mil^mmm^mmAm i iM t i ii i t i i ■ ■■ i ■ ■■ * 

Sect.u.] Of Hope. 257 

5. Perseverance ii the perfection of the duty c^ 
bopey and its last act ; and so long as our hope con^ 
tiaoes^ so long w^ go on in duty-and diligence; but 
he that is to raise a castle: in an hour^ sits down and 
does npthiog towards it: ond Herod, the ^ophister^ 
left off to teach his sQn, when he saw that twenty^four 
pi^es. appointed' to. wait on' him, and called by the 
several letters of the alphabet, could never make him 
to Qiideratandhis letters perfectly. r 

. ^ul^, t^, govern our Ho^e. 

.1. hetyofur hope h&moderate, proportioned to your 
state, person, and condition^ whether it be for gifts or- 
gnaees^ or temporal favours. It is an ambitious hope, 
for persons whose diligence is like them that are least 
in the kingdom, of* heaven, to believe themselves en- 
deared to God as the greatest saints, or that they shall 
^ have a throne equal to St. Paul, or the blessed Virgiil 
Mary. A stammerer -cannot with moderation hope 
fcHT the gift of tongues, or a peasant to become {earned 
as Origen: or if a be^ar desires or hopes to become 
a king, or. asks for a thousand pound a year, we call 
him impudent, not passionate, much less reasonable; 
Hope that God will crown your endeavour with e(jual 
measures of that reward which he indeed freely givesj 
bat yet gives according to our proportions. Hope 
For good success according to^ or not much beyond^ 
the eflSicacy of the causes and the instrument : and let 
the huabandman hope Tor. a good harvest, not for a 
rich kingdom^ or a victorious army. 

3. Let your hope be well founded^ relying upon 

No. 11. 2 L 

S58 Hobf licwg. [Chap. it. 

just confidences, that is^ upon God according to his 
revelations and promises. For it is possible for a man 
to have a vain hope upon God : and in matters of re- 
ligion, it is presumption to hope that God*8 mercies 
will be poured forth upon lazy persons that do nothmg 
towards holy and strict walking, nothing (I say) but 
trust and long for an event besides and against all 
disposition of the means. Every false principle in 
religion is a reed of Egypi, ialse and dangerous* 
Rely not in temporal thii^ upon uncertain prophe- 
cies and astrology, hot upon our own vrit or industry, 
not upon gold or friends, not upon armies and princes; 
expect not health from physicians that cannot cure 
their own breath, much less their mortality : use all 
lawful instruments, but expect nothing from them 
above their natural or ordinary efficacy, and in the 
use of them from God expect a blessing. A hppe that 
is easy and credulous is an arm of flesh, (Jer. xvii. 5.) 
an ill supporter without a bone. 

3. Let your hope be without vanity or garish ness 
of spirit, but sober, grave, and silent, fixed in the 
heart, not born upon the lip, apt to support our spirits 
within, but not to provoke envy abroad. 

4. Let your hope be of things possible, safe, and 
useful. He that hopes for an opportunity of acting 
his revenge, or lust, or rapine, watches to do hiifnself 
a mischief. All evils of ourselves or brethren are 
objects * of our fear, not hope: and when it is truly 
understood, things useless and unsafe can no more be 
wished for, than things impossible can be obtained. 

* Di cosi fuori di G|*edenza non vuoler far speranaa. 

Sect. II.] Of Hope. 259 

6« Let your hope be patient^ without tedioiiisness 
of spirit^ or bastioess of prefixing time. Make no 
limits or prescriptions to God^. but let your prayers 
and endeavours go on still with a constant attendance 
on the periods of God's providence. Tbe men pf 
Bethulia resolved to wait upon God but five xlays 
longer: but deliverance staid seven days, and yet 
came at last. And take not every accident for an ar-^ 
gttment of despair : but go on still in hoping, and begin 
agaiin to work if any ill-accident have interrupted you. ^ 

Means of Hope, and Remedies against Despair. 

The means to cure despair, and to continue or irir 
crease hope, are partly by consideration, partly by 
exercise. » 

1. Apply your mind to the cure of all the proper 
causes of despair : and they are weakness of spirit, 
or violence of passion. He that gr<eedi)y covets is 
impatient of delay, and desperate in contrary acci- 
dents ; and he that is little of heart, is also little of 
hope, and apt to e^rrow and suspicion. . 

2. Despise the things of the world, and be indifr 
ferent to all changes and events of providence ;.9nd 
for the things of . God the promises are certain to be 
performed, in kind; and inhere, there, is l^s variety 
of chance, there is less possibility . pf being mockedi 
but he that creates to himself thousands of little hopes^ 
uncertain in the promise^ fallible in the civent, and 
depending upon ten thousand circumstances (as are 
all tbe things of this world) shall often fail in his ex- 
pectations, and be used to arguments of distrust in 
such hopes. 

960 J/o/y livhig. [Chap. it. 

3. So long as jrour hopes are regular and reason- 
able^ though in temporal affairs, such as. are deltve-> 
ranee from enemies, escaping a storm or shipwreck, 
reiDovery from a sickness, abili^ to pay your debts, fcc. 
Remember that there are some things ordinary, and 
some things extraordinary to prevent despair. In 
ordinary, remember that the very hoping in God is an 
endearnient of him, and a means to obtain the bless* 
itig. [/ will deliver him, because he hath put hii 
trust in me.] 9. There are in God all those glorioas 
attributes and excellencies which in the nature of 
things can possibly create or confirm hope. God is 
1. Strong; 2. wise; 3. true; 4. loving. There -can* 
not be added another capacity to create a confidence . 
for upon these premises we cannot fail of receiving 
what is 'fit for us. 3. Grod'hath obliged himself by 
promise that we shall have the good of every thing 
we desire: for even Tosses and denial shall ti;orAr^ybr 
the good of them that fear God. And if we will trust 
the truth of God for performance of the general, we 
may well trust his wisdom to choose for us the parti* 
cular. But the extraordinaries of God are apt to 
supply the defect of all natural and human possibili- 
ties. 1. God hath in many instances given extra-^ 
ordinary virtue to the active causes and instruments : 
to a jaw-bone to kill a multitude: to three hundr^ 
men to destroy a great army; to Jonathan and his 
armour-bearer to rout a whole garrison. 2. He hath 
given excellent sufferance and vigorousness to the 
sufferers, arming them with strange courage, heroical 
fortitude, invincible resolution, and glorious patience: 
and thus he lays no more upon us than we are able to 

— — - . 1 - ■ .-■_-■ ... - —^ 

Sect, ti.] Of Hope. 261 


betr? for when he increases out sufferings, he lessens 
them by increasing our patience. 3. His providence 
18 extra-regfilar, and produces strange things beyond 
eotumon rules : and he that led Israel through a sea, 
and nnade a rock pour forth waters;,' and the heavens 
to give them bveisid and flesh, atid whole armies to be 
destroyed with ftintastic nbises, and the fortune of 
all France to be recovered iand entirely revolved by the 
arms and conduct of a girl against the torrent of the 
English fortune and chivalry ; can do what he please, 
and still retain the same affections td his people, and 
the same providencfe ovjBr islankind as ever. And it it 
impossible for that man to d^pair who remembers that 
his helper is oinimpbt&nt^ (Heh. ii. 13.) and can do 
what he please. Let us rest there awhile ; he can if 
he please: and he is infinitely loving, willing enough s 
and he is infinitely wise, choosing better for us than 
we can do for ourselves. This in all ages and chances 
hath supported the afflicted people of God, and car^ 
ried them on dry ground through a red sea. God in-* 
vites and cberislies the hopes of men by all the variety 
of his providence. 

4. If your case be brought to th^ la»t extremity^ 
and that you are at the pit's brink, even the very 
margin of the grave, yet then despair not; at least 
ptit it off a little longer, and remember that whatsd* 
ever' final accident takes away all hope from you, if 
you stay a little longer, and in the mean while bear it 
sweetly, it will also take away all despair too. For 
when you enter into the regions of death, you rest 
from all your labours and your fears; 

99r2 Holj/ Umng, [ Chap. it. 

5. Let them who are tempted to despair, of their 
salvation, consider how much . Christ suflfered to> re- 
deem us from sin and its eternal punishment: and he 
that considers this must needs believe tihat the. deaites 
which God had to save us were not less than infinite, 
and therefore not easily^ to be satisfied without it. 

6. LfCt no man despair of God's mercies to forgive 
him, unless he be sure that his ains be greater than 
God*s mercies. If they be not, we havo muoh reason 
to hope, that the stronger ingredient wilt prevail so 
long as we are in the time and state <^ repentance; 
and within the possibilities aqd latitude of the cove- 
nant, and as long as any promise can but reflect upon 
him with an oblique beam of comfort. Possibly the 
man may err in his judgment of circumstances, and 
therefore let him fear; but becaiise it is not certain he 
is mistaken, let him not despair. 

7. Consider that God, who knows all the events 
of men, and what their final condition shall be, who 
shall be saved, and who will perish, yet he treateth 
them as his own, calls them to be his own, ofifers fair 
conditions as tohis own, gives them blessings, arguments 
of mercy, and instances of fear to call them ofiT from 
death, and to call them home to life, and in all this 
shews no despair of happiness to tbmn; and therefore 
much less should any man despair for hitnself, since 
he never was able to read the scrolls of the eternal 

8. Remember that despair belongs only to pas- 
sionate fools or villains, (such as were Achitophel.^nA 
Judas) or else to devils and damned persons : and as 


Sect, ii.] Of Hope, 2^3 

the hape of salvation is a good disposition towards it, 
so is despair a certain consignation to eternal ruin* 
A man may be damned for despairing to be sstved. 
Despair is the propier passion of damnation. God 
hath placed truth and felicity in heaven; curiosity and 
repentance upon earth : but misery and despair are the 
pw'tums of hell ^. 

9- Gather together into your spirit and its 'treasure- 
house (the memory) not only all the promises of God, 
l>ut also the remembrances of experience, and the 
former senses of the divine favours, thiat from thcncd 
you may argue from times past to the present, and 
enlarge to the future, and to greater blessings. For 
although the conjectures and expectations of hope are 
not like the condusibns of faith, yet they are a helmet 
against the scorchings of d^pair in temporal things, 
and an anchor of the soul sure and stedfeist against the 
fluctuations of the spirit in inatters of the soul. St. 
Bernard reckons divers principles of hope by enume- 
rating the instances of the divine mercy ; and we may 
by thiem reduce this rule to practice in the following 
manner, 1. God hath preserved me from many sins; 
his mercies are infinite: 1 hope he will still preserve 
me from more, and for ever. 2. I have sinned, and 
God smote me not : his mercies are still over the pe- 
nitent: I hope he will deliver me from all the evils 1 
have deserved. He hath forgiven me many sins of 
malice, and therefore surely he will pity my infirmi- 
ties. 3. God visited my heart and changed it: he 
loves the work of his own hands, and so my heart is 

* V. Bede. 

86i Holjf Living. [Chap. iv. 

now become : I hope be will love this too. 4. When 
I repented be received me graciously ; and therefore 
I hope if I do my endeavour be will totally forgive 
me. 5. He helped 'my slow and beginning endea- 
vours ; and therefore I hope be will lead me to per- 
fection. 6. When he had given me something first, 
then he gave mc more : I hope therefore be will keep 
me from falling, and give me the grace of perseve- 
rance. 7. He bath chosen me to be a disciple of 
Christ's institution ; he hath elected me to his king- 
dom of grace ; and therefore I hope also to the king- 
dom of his glory. 8. He died for me when I was his 
enemy ; and therefore I hope be will save me when he 
hath reconciled me to bim^ and is become my friend. 
9. God hath given us his son; hosfi should not he with 
kim give us all Ihings else ? All these St. Bernard 
ceduces to these three heads, as the instruments of all 
our hopes: 1. The charity of God adopting us; 2. 
The truth of his promises; 3. The power of his per- 
formance: which, if any truly weighs, no infirmity or 
accident can break his hopes into undiscernible frag- 
ments, but some good planks wifl remain after the 
greatest storm and shipwreck. This was St. PauCs 
instrument: experience begets hope, and hope maketh 
not ashamed. 

10. Do thou take care only of thy duty, of the 
means and proper instruments of thy purpose, and 
leave the end to God : lay that up with him, and he 
will take care of all that is entrusted to him : and this 
being an act of confidence in God, is also a means of 
security to thee. 



Sect, hi.] Of Charity^ or the Lave of God, 265 

11. By special arts of spiritual prudence and argu^- 
ments secure the confident belief of the resurrection, 
and thou canst uot but hope for every thing else which 
you may reasonably expect, or lawfully desire upon 
the stock of divine mercies and promises. 

12. If a despair seizes you in a particular tempo- 
ral instance, let it not defile thy spirit with impure 
mixture, or mingle ia spiritual considerations: but 
rather let it make thee fortify thy soul in matters of 
religion, that by being thrown out of your earthly 
dwelling and confidence, you may retiie into the 
strengths of grace, and hope the more strongly in 
that, by how much the more you are defeated in this, 
that despair of a .fortune or z succeu may become the 
necessity of all virtue. 


Of Charity, or thk Love of Ood. 

LOVE is the greatest thing that God can give us, 
for himself is love ; and it is the greatest thing we 
can give to God, for it will also give ourselves, and 
carry with it all that is ours. The Apostle calls it, the 
band of perfection : it is the old, and it is the new, 
and it is the great commandment, and it is all the 
commandments, for it is thejulfilling of the law. It 
does the work of all other graces, without any instru* 
ment but its own immediate virtue. For as the love 
to sin makes a man sin against all his own reason, and 
all the discourses of wisdom, and all the advices of his 
friends, and without temptation, and without opportu- 
• No. 12. 2 M 

2M Holy Living. [Chap. it. 

nity : so does the \<fit of God ; it makes n maa chaste 
without the laborious alls of fasting and exterio^ dis- 
ciplines, temperate in the midst of feasts, and is ac<^ 
tive enough to choose it without ^ny intermedial appe- 
tites, and reaches at glory through the very heart of 
grace, without any other arms but those of lore. It 
is a grace that loves God for hitnsell', and our neigh- 
bours for God. The consideration of God*8 goodness 
and bounty, the experience of those profitable and 
excellent emanations from him, may be, and inost 
commonly are, the first motives of our love: but 
Vi^hen we are once entered, and have tasted the good- 
ness of God, we love the spring for its own excel- 
lency, passing from passion to reason, from thanking 
to adoring, from sense to spirit, from considering 
ourselves to an union with God: and this is the 
image and little representation of heaven ; it is a beati- 
tude in picture, or rather the infancy and beginnings 
of glory. 

We need no incentives by way of special enumera- 
tion to move us to the love of God, for we cannot love 
any thing for any reason, real or imaginary, but that 
excellence is infinitely more eminent in God. There 
can but two things create love, perfection and uaefuU 
ness; to which answer on our part, 1, admiration; 
and, 2, desire; and both these are centered in love« 
For the entertainment of the first, there is iti God an 
infinite nature, immensity or vastness without exten* 
^sion or limit, immutability, eternity, omnipotence, ^m« 
fiiscience, holiness, dominion, providence, bounty, 
^c^i'cy^ justice, perfection in himself, and the end to 

Sect, hi.] Of Charity j or the Love of God. 267 

which all things ai>d ;ilL actions mnst he directed^ and 

will ^t last arrive. The cpnside)ratipi| of which may 

lie h^ightened^ if )ye consider our dis|ance from %\l 

these glories: our smallness and limit€d nature, our 

.nothings our incpnstancy-y our age lijke a sp^n^ our 

W.ea|f:nes6 and ignorance^ piir poverty, our inadver- 

tex^V pud incoasideratipn^ our disabilities and dis- 

^S^tipn^ to do good, our harsh natures 4Lnd uunicitciful 

i^jcltn^Ltionp^ onr universal iniqui]ty, and our necessities 

,9Ad d^p?jQ|denci(Sf, .i^ only on Qod originally and 

iBpsentially, hut even our ni^4 of thie meanest of God'^ > 

xtreatures, and »ur bepl,9g pbn.oxious tp the weakest iipd 

most contemptible. But for the entertainment of th^ 

•Cieond, we may .consider that in him . is a torrent of 

plf^ure for the vplippti^ious^ he is tb^ fountain of bp- 

noi^ for the ambitious, an inexhau^ble treasure ^i^r 

.the covetous. Our vices ar« ^n love with phanta^ic 

pleasijir^ an4 images of perfectiojn^ which are truly 

and rreally to b« found no where but in God. Anfi 

therefore our virtues have such proper objects, that ^t 

18 but .rostsonsible they should all turn into love: for 

irertain it is that this love will turn all ^nto virtue. For 

lip the scrutinies for righteousness and ju^ment, When 

' it is inquired whether such a person be a good man or 

no^ the meamng is not, What does he Relieve ? or^ 

What does be hope ? but, What does he love ^ ? 


The acts of love to God are, 

.1. ,Loye does all things which may please the be^ 
loved person ; it performs all his commandments : 

♦ 8U Aug. 1. £. Coofes. c. €. 

308 Holy TJving. [Chap. it. 

and this is one of the greatest instances and argii- 
inents oF our love that God requires of us^ This is 
love, that we keep his commandmentst [^Love is 

Q. It does all the intimations and secret significa^ 
tions of his pleasure whom we love: and this is an 
argument of a great degree of it. The first instance 
is that it makes the love accepted: but this gives t 
greatness and singularity to it. The first is the least^ 
and less than it cannot do onr duty: but withoirt 
this second we cannot come to perfection. Great lovb 
is also pliant and inquisitive in the instances of it^ 
expression. ' . 

3. Love gives away all things^ that so he may ad- 
vance the interest oF the beloved person: it relieve^ 
all that he would have relieved^ and spends itself in 
such real significations as it is enabled withal. He 
never loved God that will quit any thing of his re- 
ligion to save his money. Love is always liberal and 

4. It suffers all things that are imposed by its be- 
loved, or that can happen for his sake, or that inter- 
vene in his service, cheerfully, sweetly, willingly, ex- 
pecting that God should turn them into good, and 
instruments of felicity. Charity hopeth all things^ 
^ndureth all things. (\. Cor, xiii.^ Love is patient 
and content with any thing, so it be together with its 

5. I^ve is also impatient of any thing that may 
displease the beloved person, hating all sin as the 
enemy of its friend; for loye contractsi all t^ie same 

fi' ^ . I , . ■ I I , ■..VT I . M il— < 

Sect, hi.] Of Charity ^ or the hove of God. 269 

relations, and marries the' saifie friendships and tte. 
•same hatreds ; and all affection to a sin is perfectly in- 
consistent with the love of God« Love is not divided 
between God and God's enemy : we must love God 
mth all our heart, that is, give him a whole and un- 
divided affection, having love for nothing else bi|t 
such things which he allows, and which he commands 
or loves himself. 

6. Love endeavours- forever to be present, to con- 
verse with, to enjoy, to be united with its object, loves 
to rbe talking of him, reciting bis praises^ telling his 
stories, repeating his words, imitating his gestut'es, 
transcribing his copy in every thing; and every d^ree 
of unioUj and qvery degree of likeness, is a degree 
of love; and it can endure any thing but the displea- 
sure and the absence of its beloved. For we are not 
to use God and religion as men use perfumes, with 
which they are delighted when they have them, but 
pan very well be without them* Trpe charity is rest^ 
less till it enjoys God in such instances in which it 
wants him 2 it is like hunger and thirst, it must be 
fed or it cannot be answered * ; and nothing can supply 
the presence, or make recom pence for the absence of 
God, or of the efl^ts of h\i favour, and the light, of 
his countenance. 

7* Trqe love in all accidents looks upon the beloved 
person, and observes his countenance, and how he 
approves or disapproves it, and accordingly looks safd 
or cheerful. He that loves God is not displeased at 
(hose accident3 which Go4 chooses, nor murmurs i^t 

1^ Amorb ut nqorsum c^ ver^ sepserit, 

tTO Holif limg. [Chap. i?. 


tbo* diai^es which k» makM in bit fauiiljr^ nor (tmm 
«t those gifts he bestows : hot cbooMs as be likes, and 
is ruled by bis jadgmeot, and is perfectly of his per- 
suasion, loving to learn where God is the teacher, and 
being content to be ig4x>rant or silent where he is not 
pleased to open himself. 

A. Love is curious of little things, or circutnstsjnces 
and measures, and little accidents, not allowing to 
itself any infirmity whi^ it strives not ta master, aim- 
ing at what it cannot yet reach, desiring to be ^tf* an 
angelical purity, and of a perfect innocence^ «nd a 
•eraphical fervour, and fears every iiiiage of c^ooe; 
is as much afflicted * aft an idle word ak some at an aet 
of adultery, and will not allow to itself so much an- 
ger as will disturb a child, nor endure the impurity of 
a dream. And this is the curiosity and viceness of 
divine love; this is (he fear of God, and is the 
daughter and production of -love. 

The Measures and Rules o^ Divine Love 

But because this {lassion is pure as the brightest aod 
smoothest mirror, and therefore is apt to be sullied 
with every impurer breath, we must be ^careful that 
our love to God be governed by these measures. 

) . That our love be sweet, even, a^d full of traQ* 
jquiHity, having in it no violences or transportations, 
but going on in a course of holy actions and duties 
whidi ^re proportionable to our condition and present 
state i tiot to satistfy all the (lesires, but all the pro- 

* PUUarchus citam carmen de $uo ApoUine, adjicit ex Herodoto 
quasi de sttOj» De eo os meum continent ato^ 

» l " « 

Sect, hi.] Of Charity y or the Lofoe of God, 271 

— - . . , - - — .-___■ ^ 

— III! •■ —^—1 111 ■ I I ■ ■ 11 ■! ■— — — »— 1^— — 

babilities and ttieastires of odr ||trengtb. A new be^- 
ginnei^ in religion hath passionate aiid violent desires i 
but they must not be the measure of his actions : but 
he knnst consider his strength^ his late sickness and 
state of death, the proper temptations of his condition^ 
and st&nd at first upon his defence; not go to storm 
a strong fort, or attack a potent enemy, or do hero- 
ical notions, and fitter for giants in religion. Indis- 
creet violences and untimely forwardness are the 
rocks of religion, against which tender spirits often 
8uf{er shipwreck. 

2. Let our love be prudent and without illusion r 
that is, that it express itself in such instunces which 
God hath chosen, or which we choose ourselves by 
proportion to his rules and measures. Love tumiei 
into doating when religion turns into superstition. 
No degree of love can be imprudent, but the ex*« 
pressions may : we cannot love God too much^ but 
we may proclaim it in indecent manners. 

3. Let our love be firm, constant, and inseparable } 
tiOt coming and returning like the tide, but descend- 
ing Kke a never*failing river, ever running into the 
ocean of divine excellency, passing on in the chan- 
nels of duty and a constant obedience, and never 
ceasing to be virhat it is^ till it comes to what it desires 
to be ; still being a fiver till it be turned into sea and 
tastness, even the immensity of a blessed eternity. 

' Altiioogh the consideration of the divine excellen- 
cies attd mercies be infinitely sufficient tp produce in 
tis love to Cod, (who is invisible, and yet not distant 
from us, but we feel him in his blessings^ he dwells 

5272 Holy living. [ Caap. it. 

in bur hearts .by fait|^ we feed on him in the sacm- 
ment, and are made all one with him in the inGa^ 
nation and glorification of Jesus ;) yet that we may 
the better enkindle and increase our love to God, the 
following advices are not useless. 

Helps to increase our Love to God, by way of Exercise. 

\. Cut off all earthly and sensual loves, for they 
pollute and unhallow the pure and spiritual Love. 
Every degree of inordinate affection to the things of 
this world, and every act of love to a sin is a perfect 
enemy to the love of God ; and it is a great shame 
to take any part of our aflfection from the eternal 
God, to bestow it upon its creatures in defiance of 
the creator ; or give it to the devil, our open enemya 
in disparagement of him who is the fountain of all 
excellencies ^nd celestial amities* 

1. Lay fetters and restraints upon the imaginative 
and phantastic part ; because our fancy being an im- 
perfect and higher faculty is usually pleased with the 
entertainments of shadows and gauds; and because 
the things of the world fill it with such beauties and 
phantastic imagery, the fancy presents such objects 
as amiable to the affections and elective powers^ 
Persons of fancy, such as are women and childreoj 
have always the most violent loves : but therefore 
if we be careful with what representments we fill 
our fancy, we may the sooner rectify our loves. To 
this purpose it is good that we transplant the inst^a* 
ments of fency into religion : and for this reason 
music was brought into churches, and ornaments 

Sect, hi.] Of Charity^ or tht Love of God. 278 ' 

'' ... 

and perfumes and comely garfltents^ and solemnities^ 
and decent ceremonies, thai the busy and less discern* 
ing fancy being bribed with its proper objects may be 
instrumental to a more celestial and spiritual love; 
'3. Remove solitude or worldly cares, and multi- 
tudes of secular businesses! ; fair if these take up the 
intention^ and actuial application of our thoughts and 
Oar employments, they will also possess our passions^ 
wfai^h if they be filled with one object, though igno- 
blei i^nnot attend another, ' though more excellent. 
We alvs^ys contract a friendship and relation withi 
those with Whom we converse; our very country is 
dear to us for our being in it ; and the neighbours of 
the same village, and those that buy and sell with 
118, have seized upon some portions of our love : and 
therefore rf we dwell in the affairs of the world, we 
shall also gi-bvv in love with them ; ^nd all our love, 
or air our hatred, all our hopes, or all our fears, 
which the' eternal G?od would willingly secure to him- 
aelf, and esteem amongst his treasures and preciouli 
things, shall be spent upon trifles and vanities. 

4. Do not only choose the things of God, but se- 
cure your inclinations and aptnesses for God, and for 
religion. For it will be a hard thing for a man to do 
^Qch a personal violence to his first desires, as to choose 
whatsoever he hath no mind to. A man will many 
times satisfy the importunity and daily solicitations 
of his first longings : and therefore there is nothing 
can secure our loves to God, but stopping the natural 
fountains, * and making religion to grow near the first 
desires of the soul, 

•Vo 12. 2n 

974 Holy Udng. [Cbap. it. 

- 1 _ _ — ■ — — * .... - 

5. Oxivene with JGod by freqaent prayer.' la 
particular^ desire that yoar desires may be right, and 
love to have your affections regular and holy. To 
which purpose make very frequent addresses to God, 
by gaculations and communions, and an assidupos 
daily devotion : discover to him all your wants, ooia- 
plain to him of all your aflfironts; do as Hezeldak 
did, lay your misfortunes, and all your ill news before 
him ; spread them before the Lord; call to him for 
health, run to him for counsel, beg of him for pslr- 
don : and it is natural to love him to whom we mafo 
such addresses, and of whom we have such dependoi- 
cies, as it is for children to love their parents. 

6. Consider the immensity and vastness of the di- 
vine love to us, expressed in all the emanations of 
his providence; 1. In his creation ; 2. In his conserva- 
tion of us. For it is not my prince, or my patron, or 
my friend that supports me, or relieves my needs : but 
God, who made the com that my friend sends me, 
who created the grapes, and supported him who 
hath as many dependencies, and as many nataril 
necessities, and as perfect disabilities as myself. 
God indeed made him the instrument of his provi- 
dence to me, as he hath made his own land or his 
own cattle to him : with this only difference, that 
God by his minhtration to mc intends to do him a 
favour and a reward which to natural instruments 
he doth not. 3. In giving his son : 4. Inforgivif^ 
our sins; 5. In adopt i fig us to glory ; and ten thou- 
sand times ten thousand little accidents and instances 
happening in the doing every of these ; and it is not 

Sect, in.] Of Charity, or the lave of God. 275 

p0Mible but for so great love we should give love 
igain, for God we should give man, for felicity 
pe should part with our misery *• Nay, so grjeat 
m the love of the Holy Jesus, God Incarnate, that 
he would leave all his triumphant glories, and die 
imce more for man, if it were necessary lor procuring 
fdicity to' him. 

« lo the use of these instruments love will grow in 
several knots and steps, like the sugar canes of India, 
according to a thousand varieties in the person loving ; 
•pd it will be great or less in several persons, and in 
the same, according to his growth in christianity^. 
But in general discoursing there are but two states of 
kMre, and those are labour of love, and the zeal of 
love : the first is duty, the second is perfection. 

The two States of Love to God. 

The least love that is must be obedient, pure, sim* 
pie and communicative : that is, it must exclude all af« 
lection to sin, and all inordif^te affection to the world, 
and, must be e!xpressive according to our power in' the 
tostances of duty, and must be love for love'^ sake: 
Ajad of this love martyrdom is the highest instance^ 
Aat is, a readiness of mind rather to sufier any evil 
than to do any. Of this our blessed Saviour affirmed 
that no man had greater hve than this: that is, this is 
ibe highest pc»nt of duty, the greatest love that God 
requires of man. And yet he that is the most imper^- 
lect .must have this love also in {h*eparation of mind, 
and . must differ from another in nothing, except in 

*^ Jtsw4iidt 8. Corpoapad Diongsium Epist. ad JOemophilum, 

970 Holif living. [Chap. it. 

the degrees of promptneM and alacrity. And - in this 
sense he that loves God truly, (though but with a 
beginning and tender love) yet he loves God iritb 
all his heart, that is, with that degree of love which 
is the highest point of duty, and of God*s chai^ 
upon us ; and he that loves God with all his heart,, 
may yet increase with the increase of God : * Just ss 
thfre are degrees of love to God among the saints, 
and yet each of them loVe him with all their powers 
and capacities, 

2. But the greater state of love is the zeal of Idve, 
which runs out' into excrescencies and suckera like-a 
fruitful and pleasant tree, or bursting into gums, and 
producing fruits, not of a monstrous, but of an eatrsor- 
dinary and heroical greatness, concerning which, the^ 
cautions are to be observed. 

Cautions and Rules concerning Zeal. 

1. If zeal be in the b^innings of our spiritual 
birth, or be short, sudden, and transient, or be a cod- 
sequent of a man*s natural temper, or come upon 
any cause but after a long growth of a temperste 
and well-r^ulated love, it is to be suspected for 
passion and frowarduess, rather than the vertical 
point of love. 

2. That ^al . oply is good which in a fervent loVe 
hath temperate expressions. For let the a£(ection boil 
as high as it can, yet if it boil over into irregular and 
strange actions, it will have but few, but will need 
many excuses. Elijah was zealous for the Lord of 
Hosts, and yet he was so transported with it, that h^ 

Sect. iiiO Of Zeal. 277 

ccHiId not receive answer from; God^ till by music 
be was reoomposed and >tamed: and Moses broke 
both the tables of the law by being passionately zea- 
lous a^inst them that l»rake the first. : 

3. Zeal mu«t spend its greatest heat principally ia 
those thinga that concern ourselves: But -with great 
ttre and restraint in those that concern others^ 

4. Remember that ztal, being an excresenoe of4Mi» 
tioe loive^ must. in no seuse contradict any action of 
love ; love to God includes love to our neighbour^ 
(Phil. iii. 6.) and therefore ino pretence of zeal > fon 
GodV glory must. make us uncharitable to our brb- 
tiiec; »^£Mr. that is just so pleasing to God> ^ as hatred 
ia an act of j|6ve. 

*■ 6*. That zeatl that concerns others, can spend itselF 
in nothing but arts and actions and charitable instra-^ 
ments for their good: And concerns the 
gobd of many that one should suffer; it must hc^ 
doine by persons of a competent authority, and in- 
great necessity, iii seldom instances, according to the: 
law of God or man ; but never by private right, on 
Ibr trifling acadents, or in mistaken propbnlions J The 
^Italdtt m tbe old law had authority to traiisfix and^ 
iteb'aome certain, pdrsons ; but God gave themwat^ 
nmt ; it was in the case of idolatry, or such notoriboa 
huge crimels, the danger of which iwas insupportable, 
and the cognizance of Which was? tnfiillible : and yet 
that warrant expired with the synagogue* 

h €. Zeal in- the instances of our own duty and per- 
sonal deportment is more safe than in matters of coun- 
net and actions, besides our just duty, and tending 

878 Holy Living. [Chap. iv. 

towards perfection. Tboagh in these instances there 
is not a direct sin, even where the zefil is less wary, 
yet there is much trouble and some danger: (as if 
it be spent in the too forward vows of chastity, and 
restraints of natural and innocent liberties). 

7* 2Seal may be let loose in the instances of inter- 
nal, personal, and spiritual actions that are matters of 
diitct doty; as in prayers, and acts of adoration, . and 
thanksgiving, and frequent addresses: provided that 
no indirect act pass upon them to defile them ; such 
as complacency and opinions of sanctity, censuriug 
others, scruples and opinions of necessity, unneces- 
sary fears, siiperktitious nuniberiogs of times and 
hours : but let the zeal be as forward as it will, as de«- 
vottt as it will, as seraphical as it will, in the direct 
address and intercourse with God, there is no dangysr^ 
no transgression. Do all the parts of your duty as 
earnestly as if the salvation of all the world, and the 
whole glory of God, and the confusion of all devils, 
and that all you hope or desire did depend upon 
every one action *. ' 

8. Let zeal be seated in the will and choice, and 
regulated with prudence and a sober understanding, 
(Rom, X. 2.) not in the fancies and afiections; for these 
will make it full of noise and empty of profit, but that 
will make it deep and smooth, material and devout. 

The sum is this : that zeal is not a direct duty, 
ho where commanded for itself, and is nothing but i 
forwardness and circumstance of another duty, and 

* Lavora come se tu Jiavessi a. compar ngni hora : adora come 
86 tu havessi a morir all bora. 

Sect, hi.] Of Zeal 47© 


(JUus ii. 14. Rev. iii. \Q.) therefor^ is then oniyW 
ceptable when it advanciens the love of God and bur 
tiei^boursy whose circumstance it is. That zeal' is 
6hly safe, only acceptable which increases charity 
directly: and because love to our neighbour, and 
obedience to God are the two great portions of charity, 
we most never account our 2eal to be good, but as it 
advances both these, if it be in a matter that relfti^ 
to both ; or severally, if it relates severally. St. PauFs 
zeal was expressed in preaching without any offerings 
or stipend, in travelling, in spending, and being spent 
fot his flock ; in suiSering, in being willing to be ad- 
cursed for love of the people of God and his^ country- 
men. Let bur zeal be as great as his was, so it be 
in affections to others, but not at all in anger against 
them : in the first there is no danger; in the second 
there is no safety. In brief, let your zeal (if it must 
be* expressed in anger) be always more severe against 
thyself than against others. (2 Cor. vii. 1 1. J 

The other part of Love to God, is Love to our Neighbour, for which 
, I have reserved the paragraph of Alms. 

Of the External Actions of Religion. 

Religion teaches us to present to God pur |i)odjes 
as well. as our sgi^ils: for God is the Lord of both: 
and if the bo|dy serves the soul in actions natural 
and civil apd intellectual, it must not be eased in , the 
pnily offices of religioQ, unless the body shall expect 
po portion of the rewards of religion, such as are 
resurrection, re-union, and glorification. Our bodies 
are to God a living sacrifice, and to present them to 
God is hofy and acceptable. (Rom. xii. ij. 

280 Ilolfi Living. [ Chap. it. 

The actions of the body as it serves to religion, 
mnd as it is distinguished from sobriety and* justice, 
either relate to the Word of God, or to prayer, of 
to repentance, and make these kinds of eittemal 
actions of religion : 1 • Reading and hearing the word 
of God ; 2. Fasting and corporeal austerities, called 
by St. Paulf bodily exercise; 3. Feasting or keeping 
days of public joy and thanksgiving. 

SECT. IV. ^ 

Of Reading or Hearing the fFbrd of Ood. 

READING and hearing the word of God are bat 
the several circumstances of the same duty; in- 
strumental especially to faith, but consequently to 
all other graces of the spirit. It is all one to us whe- 
ther by the eye or by the car the spirit conveys his 
precepts to us. If we hear St. Paul saying to us, 
that [Whoremongers and Adulterers God will Judge'] 
or read it in one of his epistles ; iti either of them we 
are equally and sufficiently instructed. The scriptures 
read are the same thing to us which the same doc- 
trine was, when it was preached by the disciples of 
our blessed Lord ; and we are to learn of either with 
the same dispositions. There are many that cannot 
read the word, and they must take it in by the ear; 
and they that can read find the same word of God 
by the eye. It is necessary that all men learn it 
in some way or other, and it is sufficient in order 
to their practice that they learn it any way. yhe 

word of God is all those commandments and reve- 


Sect, iv.] Of the Word of God. 281 

latipos, those prpmi^s and thfeatenings^ the . stbries 
and sermons recorded in *the Bible: nothing el^ n 
t|ie Wt>rd of God, tb«t we know of by any certain 
iQSiniment. The good books o^^nd spiritual discourses, 
the. siennons or homilies written or spoken by in^p, 
are bat the words of men^ or rather explications of^ 
and exhortations according to, the word of God: but 
of themselves they are not the word of God. In 
a sermon the text only is in a proper sense to be 
called God's word : and yet good sermons are of 
great use a^d convenience for th^ advantages of reli- 
gion. He that preaches an hour together aghinst 
drunkenness with the tongue of men or angels, hath 
spoken no pther word pf God. but this, \_Be not drunk 
with wine wherein ther^ is fioccess :]. And he that 
writes that sermon in a book, and publishes that book, 
hath preached, to all that read it a ' louder . sermon 
than could be spokep in a church. This I say to 
this purpose, that we may separate truth fronv error, 
popular opinions from substantial truths. For God 
preaches to us in the scripture, and by his secret 
assistances and spiritual thoughts, and holy mdti6ns : 
good men preach to us when they by popular ar- 
guments and humane arts and compliances expound 
and press any of thoj^e doctrines which God hath 
preached unto us in his holy word. But, 

1. The Holy Ghost is certainly the best preacher 
in the world, and the words of scripture the best 

2. All the doctrine of salvation is plainly set down 
there, /that the most unlearned person, by hearing it 

No. 12. 2 o 

M9 Hoty Lning. [ 

retd> mty understand all bis duty. What can be 
plainer spoken than this, \Tlum shalt mt kUl. Bemt 
drunk with wine. Husbands love your wives. fFhat-^ 
soever ye would that menskauld do to you, do ye so to 
them.'] The wit of man cannot more plainly tell us 
our duty, or more fuUy^ than the Holy Ghost hath 
done already. 

3. Good sermons and good books are of excellent 
use : but yet they can serve no other end but that we 
practise the plain doctrines of scripture. 

4. What Abraham in the jiarable said concerning the 
brethren of the rich man, is here very proper : they 
have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them : But 
if they refuse to hear these, neither will they beSeve 
though one should arise from the dead to preach unto 
them. (Luke xvi. 29, 31.^ 

5. Reading ' the holy scriptures is a duty expressly 
commanded (Dent. xxxi. 13. Luke xxiv. 45. Matt» 
xxii. 29. Acts XV. 21. Rev. i. 3. 11 Tim. iii. l6.) us, 
and is called in scripture [^Preaching:'] All other 
preaching is the effect of human skill and industry, 
and although of great benefit, yet it is but an eccle- 
siastical ordinance; the law of God concerning preach- 
ing being expressed in the matter of reading the 
scriptures, and hearing that word of God, which ih 
and as it is there described. 

But this duty is reduced to practice in the following 
rules. ^ 


Rules for Hearing or Reading the Word of God. 

1. Set apart some portion of thy time, according 
> the opportunities of thy calling and necessary em- 


Sect, iv.] Of the Word of God. 28a 

pbjment, for the reading of holy scripture; and if 
it be possible^ every day read or hear some of it 
read : yon are sure tha\ book teaches all truths com- 
mands all holiness, and promises all happiness. 

2« When it is in your power to choose^ accustom 
yoitt^lf to such portions which are most plain and 
certain duty, and which contain the story of the life 
and death of our Blessed Saviour. Read the Gospels^ 
the Psalms of David; and especially those portions of 
scripture which by the wisdom of the church are ap- 
pointed ^to be publicly read upon Sundays and holy- 
dBLjs^j viz. tliie epistles and gospels; Jn the choice of any 
other portions you may advise with a spiritual guide^ 
thatyou may spend your time with most profit. 

3. Fail not diligently to attend to the reading of 
holy scriptures upon those days wherein it is most 
publicly and solemnly read in churches ; for at such 
times, besides the learning our duty, we obtain a 
Uessing along with it, it becoming to us upon those 
days a part of the solemn divine worship. 

4. When the word of God is read or preached 
to you, be sure you be. of a ready heart and mind, 
free from worldly cares and thoughts, diligent to 
hear,; careful to mark, studious to remember^ and 
-desirous to practice all that is commanded, and to live 
accOTiling to it. Do not hear for any other end but 
to become better in your life, and to be instructed 
in every good work, and to increase in the love and 
service of God. ^ i 1 

. 'S. Beg of God by prayer that faje \yould give you 
the spirit of obedience and profit, and that be would 

984 Hofy Lhb^. [Cbat. n. 

■ ■ 

fey hb spirit write tiM woid w your liMli, Mid'lliilyw 
describe it in your life. To which |iiirpoBe eerfe yew* 
sqlf of some aieetioiuite ejacvbtioM to thst puifussi 
before aftd iiher this dutyii 

Cbfic«nwi9 ^^Mimul Books and ordimuy Sti^motttt 
. take in iieto Jdmeof lUm. 


' 6; Let not m prejndioe to any men^s person hinder 
thee fipom receiving good by his doctrine^ if it be 
according to godliness ; but (if occasion offer it, of 
especially if duty present it to thee, that is^. if it be 
preached in that assembly where thou art bound: te 
be present) accept the^ word preached as a nessagi 
firom God, and the minister as his angel in that mi* 

7* Consider and remaric the doctrine that * is re* 
Jiresented to thee in any diiMOurse; and if the preacher 
adds accidental advantage, any thing to comply 
"with thy weakness, or to pat. thy spirit into, action^ 
or holy resolution, remember it and make use of iL 
But if the preacher be a weak person, yet the text 
is the doctrine thou airt to remember: that contains 
all thy duty, it is worth thy attendance to hear that 
spoken often, and renewed upon thy thoughts : and 
though thou beest a learned man, yet the same thing 
which thou knbwest already, if spokein by another, 
may be made active by that application. I can better 
be comforted by my own consideration, if another 
band applies them, than if I do it myself; because 
the word of God does not work as a natural agent, 
but as a divine instrument ; it does not prevail by the 

Sect. ▼.] Of Fasting. 285 

foix^ of deduction and artificial discoQrsidgs only^ buk 
chiefly by way of blessing in the ordinance, «nd ia the 
ministry of an, appointed person. .At le&st obey the 
poblic order, and reyerenc^ the constifmtiot), and gii^ 
good e:itample of hnmility, charity, and obedience.^ : > 

8. Wheii scriptures are read^ you are only to eur 
quire with diligence and modesty into the meaning 
of the spirit : but if homilies ot seroiovn be Aiade 
upon the words of scripture, you are to consider whe- 
ther all that be spoken be conformable to the scrip- 
tut es., For although you may practise for human 
reasons, ia(nd human ailments ministered from the 
preacher's art: yet you must practise nothing but the 
command of' God, nothing but the doctrine of scrip* 
Cure, that is, the text. ' 

9* Use the advice of some spiritual <Mr other pru- 
dent man, for die choice of such spiritual books 
which may be of use and benefit for the edification 
of thy spirit in the ways of hbly living ; and esteem 
tbut time well accounted for, that is prudently and 
afiectiohately employed in hearing or reading good 
bboks and pious discourses; ever remembering that 
God, by hearing us speak to him in prayer, obliges 
tis to heaF him spe!ak to us in his word, by what in^ 
vtrament soever it be conveyed. 


Of Fasting. 

FASTING, if it be considered in itself, without rela* 
tion to spiritual ends^ is a duty no where enjoined 


Mt Holf Ucikg. [Cmf. if. 

«r cMmelW^ But ehmlinity bith to di> «rith ifcai 
it tmf W tUMimmk inttnuunt of fkft ^knlL,hfmilh 
Mug the lasts* of tht fleshy or. imovinf . any Iw^ 
i s BM ios s of JcNgioD. Aad it iMth baea piMtised Iqr 
W agos of 'Iba oiraioliy-aiid adviaadl in oi^or to ttuae 
ninistaries; 1. To piajor; 9. TormarliAtitioii of 
bodily hstot S* To lapantanofr: and it is to:ha pno- 
lisad aooordiog to tiia Mbiriag nMasnrfii^ . 

■ ■ ■ ■ - ; ■ ■ t : 

I. Futing in older to prayer ia toibe meaattrod bj 
the. proportions of the times of. pmyeri that if, it 
yOoght to be atotol fint fiom all things, during tM 
solemiiity, /unless, a probable, nepsssity intoripans.) 
Thus the Jews ate nothing upon tfae sabh^ dqrt 
till their great officM were p ei forw ei^ :tlut ii» abflot 
the sixth hour ; and St. Peter used it as an argunitoly 
that the Apostles in Pentecost were not drunk, beopuse 
ft was but the third hour of the day, of such a d^r 
in which it ^s not lawful to eat or drink till the 
ei!xth hour ; and the Jews were ofiended at the dis- 
ciples for plucking the ears of com on the sifthbitb 
early in the morning, because it was before the ttmfe 
in^ which by their customs they esteemed it law&l to 
break their fast. In imitation of this custom^ and ia 
prosecution of the reason of it, the christian church 
hath religiously observed lasting before the holy 
communion; and the. more devout persons (though 
without any obligation at all) refused to eat or drink 
till they had finished their morning devotions: and 
farther yet upon days of public humiliation, which 
are designed to be spent wholly in devotion, and 

■ I %~ 

Sect, v.] Of Fasting. 287 

for the averting God's judgments^ (if they were im-^ 
minent) fasting is commanded together with prayer; 
commanded' (I say) by the church to this en|d^ that 
thef spirit might be clearer and more angelical when it 
is quitted in some ]^portions from the loads of 'fletl^ 

2. Fastings as it is in order to prayer, must -be 
a total abstinence from all meat^ or else an aiNitemeat 
of' the quantity! for the help which fasting does to 
prayer, cannot be served by changing flesh into fisl^ 
or milk-meats into dry-diet ^ but by turning much 
into little, or little into none at all, during the tim^ 
of solemn and extraordinary prayer. 

S. Fasting, as it is instrumental to prayer, most be 
attended with other aids of tlie^^ like virtue and effi- 
cacy ; such as are removing for the time all worldly 
cares and secular businesses; and therefore our Blessed 
Savionr enfolds these parts within the same caution ^. 
■[Take heed lest jfour hearts he overcharged 
surfeiting and drunkenness^ and the cares of 
world J and that day overtake you unawaresi] To 
which add alms; for upon the wings of fasting and 
alms holy prayer infallibly mounts up to heaven. 

4. When ftttting is intended to serve the duty of 
repentance,' it is then best chosen when it is short, 
sharp, and effective^ that is, either a total absti- 
•nence from all nourishment (according as we shall 
appoint^ or be appointed) during such a time as is 
separate for the solemnity and attendance upon the 
employment: or if we shall extend our severity be- 
yond the solemn days, and keep our anger against 

* Jcguniuin sins sleeino8jha> Isippas tine olea 5. Aug, 

S88 llolfi Ijving, [ Chap. it. 

our sin, as we are to kieep our sorrow, that is, alwaji 
in readiness, and often to be called upon ; then to re- 
fuse a pleasant morsel ; to abstain from the bread of 
our desires, and only to take wholesome and less plet- 
4Nng nourishment, vexing our appetite by the refusing 
a lawful satisfaction, since in its petulancy and luxury 
it preyed upon an unlawful. 

5. Fasting designed for repentance must be ever 
joined with an extreme care that we last from sin; 
for there is no greater folly or indecency in the worlds 
than to commit that for which I am now judging 
and condemning myself. This is the best fast, and 
the other may serve to promote the interest of jdiis, 
by increasing the disaffection to it, and multiplying 
ai|(ument8 i^inst it. 

6. He that fasts for repentance must, during that 
solemnity, abstain from all bodily delights, and the 
sensuality of all his senses and his appetites : for a man 
must not, when he mourns in his fast, be merry jo 
his sport ; weep at dinner, and laugh all the day after; 
have a silence in his kitchen, and music in his cham- 
ber; judge the stomach, and feast the other senses.. I 
deny not but a man may in a single instance punish a 
particular sin with a proper instrument. If a man 
have offended in his palate, he may choose to fast 
only ; if we have sinned in softness and in his touch, 
he may choose to lie hard, or work hard, and use sharp 
inflictions : but although this discipline be proper and 
particular, yet because the sorrow is of the whole 
man, no sense must rejoice, or be with any study or 
purpose feasted and entertained softly. This rule is 


Sbct. T.] Of Fasting, 880 

>■ » " 

intended to relate to thfe isolemn da;^s appointed Slot 
repentance publidy or privMdy: beside which, in 
the whole course of our life^ even in the midst of 
our most festivial and freer joys, we may sprinkle 
some single instances and acts of self-condemning j ^ 
pkittishing; as to refuse a pleasant morsel, or a dieli- 
cioiis dfaught with a tacit remembrance of thfe sin 
tiiat now returns to displease my spirit. And though 
^eK actions be single, there is no indecency in them, 
because a man may abate of his ordinary liberty and 
bold freedom with great prudence, so he does it with- 
wit singalarity in . himseli^ or trouble to others ; but 
be majr not abate of his solemn sorrow : that may be 
emotion, but this would be softness, efieihinacy, and 

. 7« When fasting is an act of mortification, i. e. 
18 intended to subdue a bodily lust, as the spirit of 
fornication, or the fondness of strong and impatient 
appetites, it must not be a sudden, sharp, and violent 
6at, but a state of fasting, a diet of fasting, a daily 
lessening our portion of meat and drink, and a choos- 
ing such' a coarse diet which may make the least 
preparation for the lusts of the body ^. He that fasts 
three days without food, will weaken the other parts 
more than the ministers of fornication : and when the 
meals return as usually^ they also will be served as 
soon as any. In the mean time they will be supplied 
and made active by the accidental heat that comes 
with such violent fastings: for this is a kind of aerial 
devil ; the prince that rules in the air is the devil of 

* Digiooa assal chi mal mangia. 
No. 13. 2? 

Ijhfy Livbig. [ Chap. rr. 

Ibniiettioii I ind he wHI be at tenpting mA the 
windineM of a Tiofeot fut, as with the flaih of «i 
ordinary meal *• Bot a dailjr ai^tiactioii of the nqe- 
rishment will introdece a lets bmy habit of bod]r> and 
ihat will prove the more efiectiial remedy, 

8. Fttting alone will not cure thip devi),> tfaoagh 
it helps much towardi it : . but it muit not therdbie 
be neglected, but aaaiated by all the proper instrnmeiili 
of remedy against this unclean spirit, and what it k 
unable to do alone, in company with other instRH 
ments, and God*s blessing upon them, it may eSkcIL •. 

9. All fissting, for whatsoerer end it be under* 
taken, must be done without any opnion of the ne* 
cessitjr. of the thing itself, without censuring otba% 
with all humility, in order to the proper end ; and 
just as a man takes physic, of which no mm hith 
reason to be proud, and no roan thinks it necessary ; 
but because he is in sickness, or in danger and dis- 
position to it. 

10. All fasts, ordained by lawful authority, are 
to be observed in order to the same purposes to which 
they are enjoined; and to be accompanied with 
actions of the same nature, just as it is in private 
fasts : For there is no other difference, but that in 
public our superiors choose for us, what in private we 
do for ourselves. 

11. Fasts, ordained by lawfol authority, are not to 
be n^lected, because alone they cmnnot do the thing 
in order to which they were enjoined. It may be one 

* Chi digiuna et altro ben non fa. Sparagna il pane^ et al inferoo 
▼a. See Chap. ii. Sect. 2 et S. 

Sect, v.] Of Fasting. 29l 

4]ay c^ humiliation will not obtain the blessing, olr 
alene kill the lust, yet it must not be despised, if it 
can do any tiling towards it. An act of fasting is an 
act of self-denial, and though it do not produce the 
habit, yet it is a good act. 

Id. When the principal end why a fast is publicly 
prescribed is obtained by some other instrument in a 
imrticular person^ as if the s^Mrit of fornication be 
cured by the rite of marriage, ot* by a gift of chastity ; 
yet that person so eased is not freed from the fasts of 
the church by that alone, if those facts can prudently 
serve any other end of i^eligion, as that of prayer, or 
repentance, or mortification of fiome odier appetite: 
£oT when it is instrumental to any end of the spirit, it 
18 freed from superstition, and then we must have 
some other reason to quit us from the obligation, or 
chat alone will not do it. 

13. When the fast publicly commanded, by reason 
of some indisposition in ihe particular person, cannot 
operate to the end of the commandment: yet the 
avoiding offence, and the complying with public or- 
dery is reason enough to make the obedience to be 
necessary. For he that is otherwise disobliged, (as 
when the reason of the law ceases as to his particular^ 
yet) remains still obliged if he cannot do otherwise 
without scandal : but this is an obligation of charity, 
not of justice. 

14. All iasting is to be used with prudence and 
-charity ; for there is no end to which fasting seiVes, 
httt may be obtained by other instruments; and there- 
ibre it must at no hand be made an instrument of 

Hobf Living. [Chap. it. 

feniple, or become an enemy to our health, or be im- 
poied upon persons that are sick or aged, or to whom 
it is in any sense uncharitable, such as are wearied 
travellers ; or to whom, in the whole kind of it^ it it 
teeless, such as are women with child, poor people, 
and little children. But in these caws the church 
hath made provision and inserted caution into her 
laws ;. and they are to be reduced to practice, accord- 
ing to custom and the sentence of prudent persons^ 
with great latitude, and without oiceness and curio- 
sity : having this in our first care, that we secure our 
virtue ; and next, that we secure our health, that we 
teay the better exercise the labours of virtue, lest oot 
of too much austerity we bring ourselves to that con- 
dition, that it be necessary to be indulgent to soft- 
ness, ease, and extreme tenderness. 

15. Let not intemperance be the prologue or the 
epilogue to your fast, lest the fast be so far from 
taking off any thing of the 9in, that it be an occasion 
to increase it: and therefore when the fast is done, 
be careful that no supervening act of gluttony or ex- 
cessive drinking unhallow the religion of the passed 
day; but eat temperately according to the proportion 
of other meals, lest gluttony keep either of the gates 
to abstinence. 

The Benefits of Fasting. 

He thM undertakes to enumerate the benefits of 
fasting, may in the next page also reckon all the be- 
nefits of physic : for fasting is not to be commended 
as a duty, but as an instrument ; and in that sense no 


Sect, vi.] Of keeping Festival Days to God. 298 

roan can reprove it or undervalue it^ but he that 
knows neither spiritual arts nor spiritual necessities* 
But by the doctors of the church it is called the 
nourishment of prayer^ the restraint of lust^ the 
wings of the sotil^ the diet of. angels, the instrument 
of humility and self-denial, the purification of the 
spirit: and the paleness and meagrenes^ of visage 
which is consequent to the daily. £aist of great morti*- 
fiers, is by St. Basil said to be the mark in the fore** 
head which the angel observed when he signed the 
saints in the forehead to escape the wrath of God. 
[ * The soul that is greathf vexed j which goeth stooping 
and feeble, and the eyes that fail^ and the hungry soul, 
shall give thee praise and righteousness, O LordJ] 


Of keeping Festivals, and Days Holy to the Lord : 
particiHarly the Lord^s-Day. 

TRUE natural religion, that which was common 
to all nations and ages, did principally rely upon four 
great propositions: 1. That there is one God; 2. 
That God is nothing of those things which we see; 
3. That God takes care of all things below, and gOr 
verns all the world ; 4. That he is the great Creator 
of all things without himself: and according to these 
were framed the first four precepts of the decalogue. 
In the first, the unity of the godhead is expressly 
aflSrmed. In the second, his invisibility and immate- 

* Bi^mch. ii. 18. 

-^^ ■' ■ ■ III ■ !■ 11 ■— 

Mi Holy Uvmg. [Gbap. ti. 

rifllity; In* Che third it •ffirmed GodTt gofemnmt 
and providence, by avenging them thet ewear frbdy 
by bis name ; by which alto his omniaeianoe is de- 
dared. In the fourth eomitiandnient he prbelaims 
lumself the maker of heaven and evrth ; Ibf in me^ 
mory of God*s rest ftom the work of six days, die 
seventh was hallowed into a sabbath ; and thekeqiiiig 
it was a coafessiag God to be the great Bfaker d 
heaven and earth, and consequently to this, it alsowss 
a confession of his goodness^ his omnipotenosv and his 
wisdom, air which were written with a snn^beam in 
the great book of the creature. 
« So long as the law of the sabbath was bonnd i^ea 
God*s people, so long. God would have. that to be. the 
solemn manner of confessing these attributes: but 
when, the priesthood being changed, there was achai^ 
also of the law, the great duty remained unalterable 
in changed circumstances. We are eternally bound 
to confess God Almighty to be the maker of heaven 
and earth ; but the manner of confessing it is changed 
from a rest, or a doing nothing, to a speaking some- 
thing; from a day to a symbol, from a ceremony to a 
substance, from a Jewish rite to a Christian duty : we 
profess it in our creed, we confess it in our lives^ we 
describe it by every line of our life, by every action 
of duty t by faith and trust, and obedience : and we 
do also upon great reason comply with the Jewish- 
manner of confessing the creation, so far as it is in- 
strumental to a real duty. We keep one day in seven, 
and so confess the manner and circumstance of the 
creation; and we rest also that we may tend holy 

- -■-■-- I ... ■ . ^ . - - , _ . 

■ I ' . — 

Sect, vi.] Of keeping Festival Days to God. 295 

duties: so imitating God's rest better than the Jew in 
St/nesius, who lay upon his face from evening to eyeffs* 
ing, and could not by stripes or y^ounds be raised up 
to steer the ship in a great storm. God's rest vvas not 
a natural cessation; he who could not labour^ could 
not be said to rest : bu^ God's rest is to be understood 
to be a beholding and a rejoicing in his work finished^ 
and therefore we truly represent God's rcst^ when we 
confess and rejoice in God's works and God's glory. 

This the Christian church does upon every day, but 
especially upon the Lord's-day, which she hath set 
apart for this and all other offices of religion, being 
determined to this day by the resurrection of her 
dearest Lord, it being the first day of joy the church 
ever had. And now upon the Lord^s-day we are not 
tied to the rest of the sabbath, but to all the work of 
the sabbath: and we are to abstain from bodily la* 
bour^ not because it is a direct duty to us as it was to 
^e Jews, but because it is necessary in order to our 
duty that, we attend to the offices of religion. 

The observation of the Lord's-day differs nothing 
from the observation of the sabbath m the matter of 
religion^ but -in the manner. They differ in. the cere- 
mony and external rite : rest with them was the prin* 
cipal ; with ys it is the |9tcc€»sory. They diffi^r in the 
office or forms of worship : for they were then to wor-? 
ship God as a Creator and a gentle Father; we are 
to add to that, our Redeemer, and all his other excel- 
lencies and mercies. And though we have more Xivt^ 
tural and proper reason to keep the Liord's-day than 
the sabi^ath^ yet the Jews had a divine commandment 

296 Iloljf living. [Chap. it. 

for their day, which wc have not for ours : but we htfe 
many commandments to do all tliat honour to God 
which was intended in the fourth commandment^ and 
the Apostles appointed the first day of the week for 
doinp; it in solemn assemblies. And the manner of 
worshipping God^ and doing him solemn honour ai>d 
service upon this day, we may best observe in the fid- 
lowing measures. 

Rules for keeping the Lords-Day and other 

Christian Festivals. 

1. When you go about to distinguish fi^tival-days 
from common, do it not by lessening the devoticHis 
of ordinary days, that the commbn d^otion may 
seem bigger upon festivals: but on every day keep 
your ordinary devoticms entire, and enlarge upon the 

2. Upon the Lord's-day we must abstain from all 
servile and laborious works, except such which are 
matters of necessity, of common life, or of greM cha-^ 
rity : for these are permitted by that authority which 
h&th separated the day for holy uses. The sabbath 
of the Jews, though consisting principally in rest, and 
established by God, did yield to these. The labour 
of love and the labours of religion were not agaipH 
the reason and (he spirit of the commandment, fqr 
which the letter was decreed, and to which it ought 
to minister. And therefore much more is it so on the 
Lord's-day, where the letter is wholly turned into 
spirit, and there is no commandment of God but of 
spiritual and holy actions. The priests might kill 


fSECT. VI.] Of keeping lh£ Lord's Day. 297 

their beasts and dress them for sacrifice; and Christ, 
though born under the law, might heal a sick man, 
and the sick man might carry his bed to witness his 
recovery, and confess the mercy, and leap and dance 
to God for joy ; and an ox might be led to water, 
and an ass be hauled out of a ditch ; and a man may 
take physic, and he may eat meat, and therefore 
there were of necessity some to prepare and minister 
it : and the performing these labours did not consist 
in minutes and just determining stages, but they had, 
even then, a reasonable latitude; so only as to ex- 
clude unnecessary labour, or such as did not minister 'i 
to charity or religici. And therefore this is to be j 
enlarged in the gospel, whose sabbath or rest is but a 
circumstance, and accessory to the principal and spi- 
ritual duties. Upon the Christian sabbath necessity 
IB to be served first, then charity, and then religion ; 
for this is to give place to charity in great instances, 
and the second to the first in all ; and in all cases, 
God is fo be worshipped in spirit and in truth. 

3. The Lord's-day, being the remembrance of a ' 
great blessing, must be a day of joy; festivity, spiritual 
rejoicing, and thanksgiving; and therefore it is a 
proper work of the day to let your devotions spend 
themselves in singing or reading psalms, in recounting 
the great works of God, in remembering his mercies, 
in worshipping his excellencies, in celebrating his at- 
tributes, in admiring his person, in sending portions of 
pleasant meat to them for whom nothing is provided, 
and in all the arts and instruments of advancing God's 
and the reputation of religion, in wl 
No. X3. 2 « 

886 Hofy Lhm^. [Chap. it. 

were a great decency that a memorial of the feuir* 
rectioQ should be ipterted^ that the particular religion 
of the day be not swallowed up in the general. And 
of this we may the more easily verve ourselvei by 
rising seasonably in the morning to private devotion, 
,and by retiring^ at the leisures and spaces of the day not 
employed in public offices. 

4. Fail not to be present at the public hours and 
places of prayer, entering early and . cheerfully, at- 
tending reverently and devoutly, abiding patiently do* 
ring the whole office,' piously assisting at the prayers, 
and gladly also hearing the sermon ; and at no hand 
omitting to receive the holy communion when it is 
offered, (nnless some great reason excuse it) this beii^ 
the great solemnity of thanksgiving, and a proper 
work of the day. 

6, After the solemnities are past, and io^ the inter^ 
vals between the morning and evening devotion, (as 
you shall find opportunity) visit sick persons, recon- 
cile differences, do offices of neighbourhood, inquire 
<^nto the needs of the poor, especially house-keepers, 
relieve them as they shall need, and as you are able ; 
for then we truly rejoice in God, when we make our 
neighbours, the poor members of Christ, rejoice to- 
gether with us, \ 

^ 6. Whatsoever you are to do yourself as necessary, 
you are to take care th^i others also, who are under 
your charge, do in their station and manner. Let your 
servants be called to churchy and all your family 
that can be spared from necessary and great house- 
hold minisCries: those that cannot let them go bjr 

Sect, vi.] Of keeping the Lord's Day, 299 

tums^ and be supplied otherwise as well as they may: 
and provide on these days especially that they be in- 
structed in the articles of faith and necessary parts of 
their duty. 

7. Those who labour hard in the week must be eased 
upon the LordVday; such ease being a great cha- 
rity and alms : but at no hand must they be permitted 
to use any unlawful games, any thing forbidden by 
the laws, any thing that is scandalous, or any thing 
that is dangerous and apt to mingle sin with it ; 
no games prompting to wantonness, to drunkenness^ 
to quarrelling, to ridiculous and superstitious cus- 
toms ; but let their refreshments be innocent, and 
charitable, and of good report, and not exclusive of 
the duties of religion. 

8. Beyond these bounds, because neither God nor 
man hath passed any obligation upon us, we must 
preserve our Christian liberty^ and not suffer ourselves 
to be entangled with a yoke of bondage : for even a 
good action may become a snare to us, if we niake it 
an occasion of scruple by a pretence of necessity, 
binding loads upon the conscience not with the bands 
of God, but of men, arid of fancy, or of opinion, or 
of tyranny. Whatsoever is laid upon us by the hands 
of man, must be acted and accounted of by the mea*- 
sures of a man : but our best measure is this, he keeps 
the Lord's-day best, that keeps it with most religion 
and with most charity. _ 

9. What the church hath done in the article of the 
resurrection, she hath in some measure done in the 
other articles of the nativity, of the ascension, and of 

800 Holy living. [Cbap. it. 

the descent of the Holy Ghost at Penteoost : and m 
great blessings deserve ao uniTersal solemnity ; since 
he is a very unthankful person that does not often re- 
cord them in the whole year^ and esteem them tbt 
ground of his hopes, the object of his faith, the com- 
fort of his troubles, and the great effluxes of the di* 
vine mercy, greater than all the victories over our 
temporal enemies, for which all glad persons usually 
give thanks. And if with greater reason the memory 
of the resurrection does return solemnly every week) 
it is but reason the other should return x>nce a 
year. To which I add, that the commemoration of 
the articles of our creed in solemn days and osffices, is 
a very excellent instrument to convey and imprint the 
sense and memory of it upon the spirits of the most 
ignorant persons. For as a picture may with more 
fency convey a story to a man than a plain narrative, 
either in word or writing: so a real representment, 
and an office of remembrance, and a day to declare 
it, is far more impressive than a picture, or any other 
art of making and fixing imagery. 

10. The memories of the saints are precious to God 
and therefore they ought also to be so to us; and such 
persons who served God by holy living, industrious 
preaching, and religious dying, ought to have their 
names preserved in honour, and God be glorified in 
them, and their holy doctrines land lives published and 
imitated : and we by so doing give testimony to the 
article of the communion of saints. But in these 
cases, as every church is to be sparing in the number 
of days, so aUo should she be temperate in her in* 

"' - I I J ■ 

,f w 

Sect, vii.] Of Prayer. 301 

junctions, not imposing them but upon voluntary and 
unbusied persons, without snare or burthen. But the 
holy-day is best kept by giring God thanks for the ex- 
cellent persons, apostles, or martyrs, we then re^ 
member and by imitating their lives: this ^11 may do; 
and they that can also keep the solemnity^ must do 
that too when it is publicly enjoined. 

The mixt Actions of Religion are, 1. Prayer; 3. Alms; S, 
Repentance; 4. Receiving the blessed Sacrament. 


Of Prayer. 

THERE is no greater argument in the world o£ 
our spiritual danger and unwillingness to religion^ 
than the backwardness which most men have always^ 
and all men have sometimes, to say their prayers ; so 
weary of their length, so glad when they are done, so 
witty to excuse and frustrate an opportunity ; and yet 
all is nothing hut a desiring of God to give us the 
greatest and the best things we can need, and which 
can make us happy : it is a wor]^ so easy, so honour* 
able, and io so great purpose, that in all the instancet 
of religion and providence (except only the incarna^p 
tion of his Son) God hath not given us a greater ar- 
gument of his willingness to have us saved, and of 
our unwillingness to accept it, his goodness and our 
gractJessness, his infinite condescension and our care* 
lessness and folly, than by rewarding so easy a dut^ 
with so great blessings^ 

802 Hofy Lhmg. [ 

Motives to Prayer. 

I cannot say any thing beyond this very conside- 
ration and its appendages to invite Christian people 
to pray often. But we may consider that^ 1. It is 
a doty commanded by God and his holy Son. 2. It 
is an act of grace and highest honour, that we, dust 
and ashes, are admitted to speak to the eternal God« 
to. run to him as to a Father, to lay open our wants, 
to complain of our bifrthens, to explicate our scruples, 
to beg remedy and ease, support and counsel, health 
and safety, deliverance and salvation. And^ 3. God 
hath invited us to it by many gracious promiseik of 
hearing us. 4. He hath appointed his most glorious 
Son to be the precedent of prayer, and to make con- 
tinual intercession for us to the throne of grace. 5. 
He hath appointed an angel to present the prayers of 
his servants. And, 6. Christ unites them to his oWn, 
and sanctifies tliem, and makes them efiective and 
prevalent ; and, 7* Hath put into the hands of men 
to rescind or alter all the decrees of God, which are 
of one kind, (that is, conditional, and concerning 
ourselves and our fi«al estate, and many instances of 
our intermedial or temporal) by the power of prayers. 
8. And the prayers of men have saved cities and 
kingdoms from ruin : prayer hath raised dead men to 
life, hath stopped the violence. of fire, shut the mouths 
of wild beasts, hath altered the course of nature, 
caused rain in Egypt^ and drought in the sea; it 
made the sun to go from west to east, and the moon 
to stand still, and rocks and mountains to walk ; and 

Sect, vii.] Of Prayer. 303 

, . 

it cures diseases without physic, and makes physic to 
do the work of nature, and nature to do the work of 
gface, and grace to do the work of God, and it does 
miracles of Occident and event : and yet prayer that 
does all this, is of itself nothing but an ascent of the 
mind to God, a desiring things fit to be desired, and 
an expression of this desire to God as we can, and 
as becomes us. Apd our unwillingness to pray is no- 
thing else but a not desiring what we ought passion- 
ately to long for; or if we do* desire it, it is a choosing 
rather to miss our satisfaction and. felicity, than to ask 
for it. 

There is more to be said in this affair, but that we 
reduce it to practice according to the following rules. 

Rules for the Practice of Prayer. 

1. We must be careful that we never ask any thing 
of God that is sinful, or that directly ministers to sin : 
for that is to ask of God to dishonour himself, and to 
undo us. We had need consider what we pray ; for 
before it returns in blessing it must be joined with 
Christ's intercession, and presented to God. Let us 
principally ask of God power and*assistances to do our 
duty, to glorify God, to do good works, to live a good 
life, to die in the fear and favour of God, and eternal 
life: these things God delights to give, and com- 
mands that we shall ask, and we may with confidence 
expect to be answered graciously : for these things are 
projoiised without any reservation of a secret condition; 
if we asl^ them and do our duty towards the obtaining 
them, we are sure never to miss them. 


904 'Hohf Lhmg. [ 

3. We may lawfully pray to God for the gifts of 
tiie spirit that minister to holy ends^ such ai are the 
gift of preachings the spirit of prayer, good expres- 
sion, a ready and unloosed tongue, good understand^ 
ing, learning, opportunities to publish them, &c. with 
these only restraints, i. That we cannot be so con- 
fident of the event of those prayers as of the former* 
9. That we must be cprious to secure our intention 
in these desires^ that we may not ask them to serve 
our own ends, but only for God's glory; and then 
we shall have them, or' a blessing for desiring them. 
In order to such purposes our intentions in the first 
desires cannot be amiss ; because they are able to 
sanctify other things, and therefore cannot be unhaU 
lowed themselves. 3. We must submit to God's will, 
desiring him to choose our employment, and to fur- 
nish our persons as he shall see expedient. 

3. Whatsoever we may lawfully desire of temporal 
things, we may lawfully ask of God in prayer, and 
we may expect them as they are promised. 1 • What- 
soever is necessary to our life and being is promi^d to 
us : and therefore we may with certainty expect food 
and raiment; food' to keep us alive, clothing to 
keep us from nakedness and shame : so long as our 
life is permitted to us, so long all things necessary to 
our life shall be ministered. We may be securle of 
maintenance, but not secure of pur life ; for that is 
promised, not this; only concerning food and rai- 
ment we are not to make accounts by the measure of 
our desires, but by the measure of our needs. 2. 
Whatsoever is convenient for us, pleasant, and mo- 



Sect, vii.] Of Prayer. 305 

,^ l^^-Ll^ l_«_Ma_IHI !■! r- -|- I -I I -^" 

<—— ^^^i— — I ' 'I — — ^^—^^^^ ■ — ^i^^^— ^B^— ^—W ^M^M^— < 

destly delectable, we may pray for : so we do it, 1 . 
with submission to God's will : 2. without impatient 
desires ; 3. that it be not a trifle and inconsiderable, 
but a matter so grave and concerning, as to be a fit 
matter to be treated on between God and our souls ; 
4. that we ask it not to spend upon our lusts, but for 
ends of justice, or charity, or religion, and that they 
be employed with sobriety. 

4. He that would pray with effect, must live with 
care and piety, (i John iii. 22. John ix. 31. ha. i. 15, 
and Iviii., 9. Mai. iii. 10. i Tim. \i. 8. Psal. iv. 6, and 
Ixvi. 8.^ For although God gives to sinners and evil 
persons the common blessings of life and chance; 
yet either they want the comfort J^nd blessing of 
those blessings, or they become occasions of sadder 
accidents to them, or serve ^o upbraid them in their 
ingratitude or irreligion : and in all cases they are 
not the effects of prayer, or the fruits of promise, or 
instances of a father s love ; for they cannot be ex- 
pected with confidence, or received without danger, 
or used without a curse and mischief in their com- 
pany. But as all sin is an impediment to prayer, 
80 some have a special indisposition towards accepta- 
tion ; such are uncharitableness and wrath ; hypocrisy 
in the present action, pride, and lusi : because these, 
by defiling the body or the spirit, or by contradict- 
ing some necessary ingredient in prayer, such (as are 
mercy, humility, purity, and sincerity) do defile the 
prayer, and make it a direct sin in the circumstances 
or formality of the action. 

5. AH prayer must be made with faith and hope: 
No. 13. a R 

806 Hofy Lhing. [Chap. it. 

that is, we must certainly believe we shall receive 
(Mark xi. 34. Jam. 1. 6^ 1.) the grace which God 
hath commanded us to ask ; and we must hope for 
such things which he hath permitted us to ask; and 
our hope shall not be in vain, though we miss what is 
not absolutely promised, because we shall at least ha^ 
an equal blessing in the denial as in the g^nt. And 
therefore the former conditions must first be secured; 
that is, that we ask things necessary, or at lea^t good, 
and innocent and profitable, and that our persons be 
gracious in the eyes of God : or else what God hadt 
promised to our natural needs, he may in many de« 
grees deny to our personal incapacity : but the thing 
being secured, and the person disposed, there can be 
no fault at all ; for whatsoever else remains is on God's 
part, and that canpot possibly fiiil. But because the 
things which are not commanded cannot possibly be 
secured, for (we are not sure they are good in all cir- 
cumstances) we can but hope for sucK things even 
after we have secured our good intentions. We are 
sure of a blessing, but yet in what instancy we are 
not assured. 

6. Our prayers must be fervent, intense, earnest, and 
importunate, when we pray for things of high concern- 
ment and necessity. [Continuing instant in prayer : 
(Rom. xii. 12. and xv. 30. Col. iv. 12. i Thes. iii. 10. 
Ephes.v'i. 18.1 Pet. iv. 7. Jam. v. 16.^ striving inprayer: 
labouring fervently in prayer : night and day praying 
exceedingly : praying always with all prayer"] so St* 
Paul calls it: [watching unto prayer] so St. Peter: 
[praying earnestly] so St. James. And this is not 
at all to be abated in matters spiritual and of duty; foVx 

Sect, vii.] Of Prayer. 307 

<-■ ' > _ 

according as our desires are, so are our prayers ; and 
•as our prayers are, so shall be the grace ; and as that 
IB, so shall be the measure of glory. But this admits 
of d^rees according to the perfection or imperfection 
of our state of life: but it hath no other measures,' 
but ought to be as great as it can ;. the bigger the bet- 
ter; we must make no positive restraints upon ourselves. 
In other things we are to use a bridle : and as we 
must limit our desires with submission to God's will, 
so also we must limit the importunity of our prayers 
by the moderation and term of our desires. Pray 
for it as earnestly as you may desire it. 

7.. Our desires must be lasting, and our prayers 
frequent, assiduous, and continual : not asking for a 
blessing once, and then leaving it: but daily renewing 
our suits, and exercising our hope, and faith, and pa^ 
tience, and long-sufiering, and religion, and resigna- 
tion, and self-denial in all the degrees we shall be put 
to. This circumstance of duty our Blessed Saviour 
taught, saying, [that Men ought always to pray and 
not to faint. Luke xviii. 1, and xxi. 36.] Always to 
pray signifies the frequent doing of the duty in gene- 
ral : but because we cannot always ask several things, 
and we also have frequent njeed of the same thing, and 
those are such as concern our great interest, the pre- 
cept comes home to this very circumstance, and St. 
Pat// calls it [praying without ceasing^ iTfies. v. 17.] 
and himself in his own case gave a precedent, [For 
this cause I besought the Lord thrice.^ And so did 
our blessed Lord, he went thrice to God on the sam^ 
errand, with the same words, in a short space, about 

808 Hofy Idving, [Cbap. it. 

half a Dight; for his time to solicit his anit 
but short And the Philippmns (PhiL i. 4.) Tiers 
remembered by the Apostle^ their spiritual fiither, 
always in every prayer of kis. , And thus we mast 
always pray ibr the pardon of oar sins, for the 
assistance of God*s grace, for charity, for life eter- 
nal, never giving over till we die: and thus also we 
pray for supply of great temporal needs in their seversl 
proportions; in all cases, beting carious we do not 
give over out of weariness or impatience. For God 
oftentimes defers to grant our suit, becaose he loves 
to hear us beg it, and hath a design to give us more 
than we ask, even a satisfection of our desires, abd 
a blessing for the very importunity. 

8. Let the words of our prayers be pertinent, grate, 
material, not studiously many, but according to cor 
need, sufiicieot to express our wants, and to signify 
our importunity. God hears us not the sooner for 
our many words, but much the sooner for an earnest 
desire; to which let apt and sufficient words minister, 
be they few or many, according as it happens. A long 
prayer and a short differ not in their capacities of be- 
ing accepted ; for both of them take their value ac- 
cording to the fervency of spirit," and the charity of 
the prayer. That prayer which is short, by reason of 
an impatient spirit, or dullness, or despite of holy 
things, or indifferency of desires, is very often crimi- 
nal, always imperfect; and that prayer which is long 
out of ostentation, or superstition, or a trifling spirit, 
is as criniinal and imperfect as the other in their seve- 
ral instances. This rule relates to private prayer. In 

Sect, vii.] Of Prayer. 309 

public our devotion is to be measured by the appointed 
office, and we are to support our spirit with spiritual 
arts, that our private Bpirit may be a part of the pub- 
lie spirit, and be adopted into the society and bless- 
ings of the communion of saints, 

g. In all forme of prayer mingle petition with,, 
thanksgiving, that you may endear the present prayer, 
and the future blessing by returning praise and thanks 
for what we have already received. This is St. PauFs 
advice, [Be careful for nothing, hut in every thing 
by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, let 
your requests be made kiwivn unto God. Phil. iv. 6.] 

10. Whatever we beg of God, let us also work for 
it, if the thing be matter of duty, or a consequent to 
industry. For God luves to bless labour and to re- 
ward it, but not to support idleness. And therefore 
our Blessed Saviour in his sermons joins watchfulness 
with prayer: for God's graces are but assistances, not 
new creations of the whole habit in every instant or 
period of our life. Read scriptures, and then pray 
to God for understanding. Pray against temptation j 

it you must also ?esist the detail, and then he willjlee 

<m you. Ask of God competency of living; but 

u must also work with your hands the things t/iat 

■e honest, that ye may have to supply in time of 

need. We can but do our endeavour, and pray for a 

blessing, and then leave the success with God: and 

beyond this we cannot deliberate, we cannot take 

e ; but so far we must. 

1 1 . To this purpose let every man study his prayers, 
read his duty in liis petitions. For the body of 

I — 



810 Hofy Ikitig. [Chaf. nr, 

our prayer is the sum of oar doty : and at we moitaik. 
of God whatsoever we needy, ao we most labour for tU 
that we ask. Because it is our duty^ therrfore we 
must pray for God*s grace: but because God*s grace 
u necessary^ and without it we can do nothing, we 
are sufficiently tMght, that in the proper matter of 
our religious prayen is the just matter of our doty: 
and if we shall turn our prayen into precepts, we 
ihall the* easier turn our hearty desires into efiective 

13. In all our prayen we must be careful to 
attend our present work*, having a present mind, 
not wandering upon impertinent things, not c&- 
taut from our w(N*ds, much less contrary to them: 
and if bur thoughts do at any time wander, and 
divert upon other objects, bring them back again 
with prudent and severe arts; by all means striving- 
to obtain a diligent, a sober, an untroubled, and a * 
composed spirit. 

13. Let your posture and gesture of body in prayers 
be reverent, grave, and humble: according to public 
order, or the best examples ; if it be in public, if it 
be in private, either stand, or kneel, or lie flat upon 
the ground on your face, in your ordinary and more 
solemn prayers; but in extraordinary, casual^ and 
ejaculatory prayers, the reverence and devotion of 
the soul, and the lifting up the eyes and hands to God 
with any other posture, not indecent, is usual and com- 
mendable ; for we may pray in bed, on horseback, 
every-whcre arid at all times, (i Tim. ii. 8.^ and in all 

' f Inter sacra et vota verbk etiam profanis abstinere. T<wt. 

»" '■■■ ' ♦■ ■' ' ■■ ' ' ' I ■ — — — — i*— — i<WIW^ 

Sect. VII.] Of Prayer. 311 

circumstances: and it is well if we do so: and some 
servants have not an opportunity to pray so often as 
they would, unless they supply the appetites of re- 
ligion by such accidental devotions. 

14. \^Let prayers J and supplications ^ and giving of 
thanks be made for all men : for 'kings and alt t fiat are 
in authority. For this is good and acceptable in the 
sight of God our Saviour, i 77m. ii. 2.] . We, who 
must love our neighbours as ourselves, must also 
pray for them as for ourselves s with this only differ- 
ence, that we enlarge in our temporal desires for kingp^ 
find pray for secular prosperity to th^jpn with more 
importunity than for ourselves, because they need 
more to enable their duty and government, and for 
the interests of religion and justice* This part of 
prayer is by the Apostle called [intercesshn'] in 
which with special care we are to remember oijiF 
relatives, our family, our charge, otkr benefactors, our 
creditors ; not forgetting to beg pardon and charity for 
our enemies, and protection against them. 

15. Rely not on a single prayer in matters of great 
concernment: but make it as public as you can by 
obtaining of others to pray for you ; this being the 
great blessing of the communion of saints, that a 
prayer united is strong, like a well-ordered army; and 
God loves to be tied fast with such cords of love, 
and constrained- by a holy violence. 

16. Every time that is not seized upon by soipe 
other duty, is seasonable enough for prayer \ bat let 
it be performed as a solemn duty morning and even-* 
ing, th^t God may begin md end 9\l our business, 

813 Ihfy Uoing. [Chaf. it. 

and the outgoing of the morning and evening may 
f raise him; for sa we bless God^ and Grod blesses 
US. And yet fail not to find or make opportunities to 
worship God at some other times of the day; st 
least by ejaculations and short addresses^ more or less, 
longer or shorter^ solemnly, or without solemnity, pri- 
vately or publicly, as you can, or are permitted: 
' always remembering, that as every sin is a degree of 
danger and unsafiety, so every pious prayer and well 
employed opportunity is a d^ree of return to hope 
and pardon. 

Cautions for maMng Vows. 

17. A vow to God is an act of prayer, and a great 
degree and instance of importunity, and an increase 
I of duty by some new uncommanded instance, or souse 
' more eminent degree of duty, or frequency of action^ 
or earnestness of spirit in the same. And because it 
hath pleased God in all ages of the world to admit of 
intercourse with his servants, in the matters of vows, 
it is not ill advice, that we make vows to God in 
such cases in which we have great need, or great 
danger. But let it be done according to these rules, 
and by these cautions. 

1. That the matter of the vow be lawful. 2. That 
it be useful in order to religion or charity. 3. That 
it be grave, not trifling and impertinent, but great 
in our proportior\ of duty towards the blessing. 
4. That it be in an uncommanded instance, that is, 
that it be of something, or in some manner, or in 
some degree to which formerly we were not obliged, 

Sect. VII.] 0/ P,aj/er. 313 ' 

or which we might have omitted without sin. 5. That 
it be done with prudence, that is, that it be safe in 
all the circumstances of person, lest we beg a blessing, 
and fall into a snare. 6. That every vow of a new 
action be also accompanied with a new degree and • 
enforcement of our essential and unalterable duty : | 
such as was Jacob's vow, that (besides the payment 
of a tithe) God should be his God : that so he niiglit 
strengthen his duty to him; first in essentials and pre- 
cepts, and then in additional and accidentals. For i 
it is but an ill tree that spends more in leaves and ' 
suckers and gums than in fruit : and that thankfulness 
and religion is best that first secures duty, and then 
enlarges in counsels. Therefore let every great 
prayer, and great need, and great danger, draw us 
nearer to God by the approach of a pious purpose to 
^■Fe more strictly ; and let every mercy of God an- ■ 
Hhrering that prayer produce a real performance of it. I 
^. Let not young beginners in religion enlarge their 
hearts and strengthen their liberty by vows of long 
continuance * : nor (indeed) any one else, without a 
great experience of himself, and of all accidental ] 
dangers. Vows of single actions are safest, and pro* . ' 
portionable to those single blessings ever begged in 
8Dch cases of sudden and transient importunities. 8. 
Let no action which is matter of question and dispute 
in religion ever become the matter of a toW. He ] 

* Aog^Blum annulum non gesl», dixit Pyihag. id est, Vils ge- 
nus liberuin Beciai' vinculo temetipsum obsirinffere, Plutarch. 
Sic Navaius novitios suoe compulil ad juranduni n& unquun ad 

tholicflS £|jihcopo3 redirciit. Eaieb. 1. S. Eccl. Hist. 
No. 14. 2 S 

•14 fiofylhing. [PiM» .»i 

fDWB {poliihly tfant proiiiiM te iGM to lir«4UQ& fii li 
iwch w opiniMb ift' M trticki not fecmwrjr^ nor «eiw 
tain; or thai;, apoo eoiifidiiicft^^Qf Ub(.|mw»t goMf^ 
Viodt hiin«^. tvt met Id the ptniMiipn oC ipbut. bt 
may afitervanli inoro neaMmftblj eonbradMity .or imjr 
ilod pot to be UiefbU or not proilaUi^ bot^,«oiM 
^Mger, or of no neoQssity* 

If we observie the formep rulM, wo ihftl} pnqr. pir 
oosly and eflbctAially : b«t bocituif ofon dui dnfy batb 
in it some spocial temptation^ it h ncmiiary ibaii m 
be armed by special i^medies agaipat tbena. Tbe ^ot 
gers are^ uM$ndmng tboi^ita.. 9» T^iMiaoeai.Qf 
spirit. A^nst the firat these adyices ate pro^lfeBMe. . 

Remedies against wandering Thpu,ghts m ]^ragiieir^ 

If we feel our spirit* apt to wandet ia onr pn^asi^ 
and to retire into the worlds o^ to things nnpiofitablfi 
or vain and impertinent ; 

1 • Use prayer to he assisted in prayer : pray for the 
apirit of supplicatioii, for a sober, Qwd^ and i^oeoU 
lected spirit : and when to this you add a n»oral in* 
dustry to be steady in your thoughts^ .whatsofover wan<^ 
derings after this do return irremediably^ are a misery 
of nature and an imperfection, but no sin, whi^ it ii 
not cherished and indulged too. 
. 3. In private it is not amiss to attempt the cure by 
reducing your prayers into collects and short forms of 
prayer, making voluntary interruptions, and beginnings 
again, that the want of spirit -and breath may be sup- 
plied by, the short stages and periods. 

3. When you have observed any considerable wan^- 
dering of your thoughts, bind yourself to repeat that 

Sect, -rn.] Of Prar/a: 

prayer again with actual attention, or else revolve the 
full sense of it in your spirit, and repeat it in all the 
effects and desires of it : and possibly the tempter may 
be driven away with his own art, and may cease to 
interpose his trifles, when he perceives they do but 
vex the person into carefulness and piety; and yet he 
loses nothing of his devotion, but doubles the earnest- 
ness of bis care. 

4. If this be not seasonable or opportune, or apt to 
any man's circumslances, 3'et be sure with actual at* 
tention to say a hearty Amen to the whole prayer with 
one united desire, earnestly begging the graces men- 
tioned in the prayer: for that dosire does the great 
work of the prayer, and secures the blessing, if the 
wandering thoughts were against our will, and dis- 
claimed by contending against thero. 

^A. Avoid multiplicity of businesses of the world; 
din those that are unavoidable, labour for an eveni 
ness and tranquillity of spirit, that you may be un- 
troubled and smooth in all tempests of fortune: for 
Bo we shall better tend religion, when we are not torn 
in pieces with the cares of the world, and seized upon 
with low affections, passions, and interest. 

6. It helps much to attention and actual advertise* 
mcnt in our prayers, if we say our prayers silently 
without the voice, only by the spirit. For in mental 
prayer, if our thoughts wander, we only stand still j 
when our minds return we go on again ; there is none 
of the prayer lost, as it is if our mouths speak and 
our hearts wander, 

7. To incite you to the use of these or any other 
•oanKis you shall meet with, remember that it it t 


816 Holy Licmg. [Chaf. it. 

great indecency to desire of God to betr tboee prayen, 
t great part whereof we do not hear ounelvet. If 
they be not worthy of our attention, they are for 
nore unworthy of God*i. 

Signs of Tedumsness of Spirit in our Prayers and 

all Actions of Religion. 

The second temptation in our prayer is a tedious* 
ness of spirit, or weariness of the employment : like 
that of the Jews^ who complained that they wers 
weary of the new moons, and their soub loathed-ths 
frequent retUQis of their sabbath : so do very many 
Christians, who first pray without fenrour and eainn^ 
pess of spirit ; and seoondly, meditate but seld<HD, 
and that without fruit, or sense, or afiection; or 
thirdly, who seldom examine their coosciencaes, .and 
when they do it, they do it but sleepily, slightly, 
without compunction, or hearty purpose, or frtiits 
of amendment. 4. They enlarge themselves in .the 
thoughts and fruition of temporal things, running for 
comfort to them only in any sadness and misfortune. 
5. They love not to frequent the sacraments, nor any 
of the instruments of religion, as sermons, confessions, 
prayers in public, fastings t but love ease, and. a Ibose 
undisciplined life, 6, They obey not their superiors, 
but follow their own judgment, when their judgment 
follows their a^ections, and their affectioivs follow 
sense and worldly pleasures, f. They neglect or dis^ 
semble, or defer, or do not attend to the motions 
and inclinations, to virtue which the Spirit of God 
puts into their soul. 8. They repent them of their 
fpws ^pd hply purposes, not because they discover 

SicT. Til.] Cf Prayer. 317 

mny indiscretion in them, or intolierable incoin'venience^' 
but because tliey have within them labour,, (as the 
case now stands) to them displeasure. 9. They con-^ 
tent themselves with the first degrees and necessary- 
parts of virtue ; and when they are arrived thither^ 
they sit down, as if : they were come to the nioun-* 
tain' of the Lord, and care no£ to proceed on toward 
perfectkm. 10« They inquire into all cases in whichr 
it may be lawful to omit a duty; and though they will 
not do less than they are bound to, yet they will (^ 
no more than needs must; for they do out of fear and 
selMove, not out of the love of God, on the spirit of 
holiness and zeaK The event of which will be this : 
he that will do no more than needs must, will soon be 
brought to omit something -of his duty, and will be 
apt to believe less to be necessary than is. 

Remedies against Tediousness of Spirit. 

Tlie remedies against this teipptation are these : 

1. Order your private devotions so that they be- 
eom^ not arguments and causes of tediousfiess by their 
indiscreet length; btft deduce your words into a nar« 
row compass, still 'keeping all the matter, and what 
is cut off in the length of your prayers, supply in the 
earnestness of your spirit: for so nothing is lost, while 
the worda are changed into matter, dnd length of time 
into fervency of devotion. The forms are made not 
the less perfect, and the spirit is more, and the scruple 
is removed. 

2. It is not imprudent if we provide variety of 
forms of prayer t^ the same purposes, that the change^ 

•18 BtfylMHg. ' [Chat. It 

\ff tounAtsng with tos* ftppobttt taf ■mojry viv^ bettn 
•ntertaiD the ^irit: and fRMiUy #0 pfeaiil 
to recite m lijnnn^ when a collect' tafem flat to as 
and onpleaiant; atid wa kra. billing -to atng radnr 
dual to iayt or to tiiq; Ihia wk^Ma (than> that : wa m 
certain thii Ttrietf is deligfatfcl: and wfaachisr lliat te 
tefcoral to ui» or an imperfectson» jat if it be teiliplifld 
with, it mar remove somoipert of d« ttnkptatiait^ : : t 
' i. Break yoor office end devotieo Into -fn^faaBOUj 
and make fieqeent eetamings. by ejacelattaBit and A* 
rfnpt intercoanies with God: for sO| no length om tip 
i^resa yoer tenddmess . and bickliiassa ef apiriti) aad 
by often praying in sndi manner and in ell eifoeah 
itanoes, we shall habiteate our aeeli 46 pmyer,' byl 
making it the busiaess of maay lesser portioiia ^ eaif 
time : and by throating it in het#een all onr bfeber em* 
ployments, it will make every thing relish of religion, 
and by degrees turn all into its nature. 

4. . Learn to abstract your thoughts and desires from 
pleasures and things of the world. For nolhiog is s 
direct cure to this evil, but catting of all other kffei 
and adherenoes. Order your afiairs to, that religion 
may be propounded to you as a reward^ and pn^er 
as your defence, and holy actions as your feecurity, 
and charity and goods works as your treasmeb Cm-* 
sider that all things ^ Ise are satisfactions but to the 
brutish part of a man, and that these are the refrecAH 
ments and relishes of that noble part of ns by which 
we are better than beasts; and whatsoever other in* 
strument, exerdoe, or consideration, is of use to take 
our loves At>m the world, the same is apt ;to place theai 

upoo God. 

Sect, ni.] Of PraifeT. 319 

b. Do not seek for deliciousness and sensible conso- 
latioDS in tlie actions of religion, but only regard the 
duty and the conscience of it. For although in the 
beginning of religion most frequently, and at some 
other times irregularly, God complies with our infir- 
mity, and encourages our duty with little overflowings 
of spiritual joy, and sensible pleasure, and delicacies 
in prayer, so as we seem to feel some little beam of 
heaven, and great refreshments from the spirit of 
€x>nsolalion J yet this is not always safe for us to have, 
neither safe for us to expect and look for: and when 
we do, it is apt to make us cool in our inquiries and 
waitings upon Christ when we want them : it is a 
running after him, not for the miracles, but for the 
loaves; not for the wonderful things of God, and the 
desires of pleasing him, but for the pleasure of pleasing 
ourKlves. And as we must not judge our devotion 
to be barren or unfruitful when we want the overflow- 
ings of joy running over; so neither must we cease for 
want of ihem. If our spirits can serve God choosingly 
aod greedily out of pure conscience of our duty; it is 
better in itself, and more safe to us. 

6. Let him %se to soften his spirit with frequent 
meditation upon sad and dolorous objects, as of death, 
the terrors of the day of judgment, fearful judgments 
upon sinners, strange horrid accidents, fear of God's 
wrath, the pains of belt, the unspeakable amazements 
of the damned, the intolerable load of a sad eternity. 
For whatsoever creates fear, or makes the spirit to 
dwell in a religious sadness, is apt to entender the 
birit, and make it devout and pliant to any part of 



dbtf • For m grett fioar, wheo it U ill manage^ it4fat 
ptfcatof topentiUoni butrn diicrftt and wdl-goidid 
ftar produoat rdigiim. 

7« IVay ofkm uid yoo shall piaj oflbeDer; and whea 
yon are aecoatom cd to*a fraqnent defodon, it will ta 
inaansibly unite to your natnra and aflbcdotiiy that it 
will beoome troable to omit yonr usoal or appomtid 
prayen: and what yoo obtain at firat bj doing vio* 
lence to yonr indinationa^ at last will not be left 
without as great unwillingnesa aa that by which it 
first it entered. This rule relies not only upon laiion 
derived from the nature of habits^ winch turn into s 
second nature^ and make their acti(Mis easy, frequeat^ 
and delightful ; but it relies upon a reaaon depending 
upon the nature and oonstitntion of grace, wliose 
productions are of the same nature with tiie paieat^ 
and increases itself, naturally growing from grains to 
huge trees, from minutes to vast proportions, and 
from moments to etemi^. But be sure not to omit 
your usual prayers without great reason, though with- 
out sin it, may be done; because after you have omit- 
ted something, in a little while you will be past the 
scruple of that, and b^n to be tempjed to leave out 
more. Keep yourself up to your usual forms: yoo 
may enlarge when you will; but do not contract or 
lessen them without a very probable re^ison. 

8. Let a man frequently and seriously, by imagina- 
tion, place himself upon his death-bed, and consider 
what great joys he shall have for the remembrance of 
every day well spent, and what then he would give 
that he had so spent all his days. He may guass at it 

Sbct. VII,] 

0/ Prai/er. 


by proportions: for it is certain he shall have ajoy- 
fiil and prosperous night who hath spent his day ho- 
lily; and he resigns his soul with peace into the hands 
of God, who hath lived in the peace of God and the 
works of religion in his life time. This consideration 
is of a real event, it is of a thing that will certainly 
come to pass. // is appointed for all men once to die, ' 
and after death comes judgment i the apprehensinn of 
which is dreadful, and ihe presence of it is intolerable, 
unless by religion and sanctity wc are disposed for so 
venerable an appearance. 

9. To this may be useful that we consider the 
easiness of Christ's yoke*, the excellencies and sweet- 
nesses that are in religion, the peace of conscience, 
the joy of the Holy Ghost, the rejoicing in God, the 
simplicity and pleasure of virtue, the intricacy, trou- 
ble and business of sin ; the blessings and health and 
reward of that; the curses, the sicknesses and sad con- | 
sequences of this ; and that if we are weary of the la- 
bours of religion, we must eternally sit still and do no- 
thing: for whatsoever we do contrary to it, is infinitely 
more full of labour, care, difficulty, and vexation. 

10. Consider this also, that tediousness of spirit 
is the beginning of the most dangerous condition ] 
and estate in the whole world. For it is a great dis 
position to the sin against the Holy Ghost ; it is apt 
to bring a man to backsliding and the state of un- 
regeneration, to make him return to his vomit and 
his sink, and either to make the man impatient, 

* See tlie Great Exemplar, (the lAie aail Death of the Holf J 
J«ttt3,) part 3. dbc. 14. of (tie Easiness of Chriatian Religion. 
Ao. 14. 2T 

— — —— ^— ■■ 

832 Holy Living. [CHAP.fP. 

bis condition scrupuloiu^ unsatisfied, irksome^ and 
desperate : and it is better that he had never kmoum 
the uHJLjf qf'Oodttness^ than after the knowledge ofit^ 
that he should fall away. There is not in the worid a 
greater sign that the spirit of reprobation is begin- 
ning upon a man, than when he is habitually and 
constantly, or very frequently, weary, and alights or 
loatbs holy oflSces. 

11. The last xemedy that preserves the hope of 
such a man, and can reduce him to the state of ased 
and the love of God, is a pungent, sad, and a heafy 
affliction; not desperate, but recreated with soifie 
intervals of kindneqs or little comforts, or enter- 
tained with hopes of deliverance : which condition, if 
a man shall fall into, by the grace of God he is likely 
to recover; but if this help him not^ it is infimit 
odds but he will quench the spirit. 


Of Alms. 

LOVE is communicative as fire, as busy and ai 
active, and it hath four twin daughters, extreme like 
each other; and but that the doctors of the school 
have done as Thamars midwife did, who bound a 
scarlet thread, something to distinguish them, it 
would be very hard to call them asunder. Their namei 
are, 1. Mercy, 2. Beneficence, or well doing, 3. Libe- 
rality, and, 4. Alms ; which, by especial privilege, 
hath obtained to be called after his mother^s name. 

Sect, vin.] Of Jims. 323 

:i ■, ■ ag 

and is comtnonly called Charity. The first or eldest 
is seated in the affection^ and is that which all the 
others must attend. For mercy without alms is ac- 
ceptable, when the person is disabled to express out- 
wardly what he heartily desires. But alms without 
mercy are like prayers without devotion, or religion 
without' humility. 2. Beneficence, or well-doing, is 
a promptness and nobleness of mind, making us to 
do offices of courtesy and humanity to all sorts of 
persons in their need, or out of their need. 3. Libe*- 
rality is a disposition of mind opposite to covetous*- 
ness, and consists in thq despite and neglect of money 
upon just occasions, and relates to our friends, chil- 
dren, kindred, servants, and other relatives. 4. But 
alms is a relieving of the poor and needy. The first 
and the last only are duties of Christianity. The 
second and thir^ are circumstances and adjuncts of 
these duties: for liberality increases the degree of 
alms, making our gift greater; and beneficence ex- 
tends it to more persons and orders of men, spread- 
ing it wider. The former makes us sometimes to 
give more than we are able; and the latter gives to 
more than need by the necessity of beggars, and 
serves the needs and conveniences of persons, and 
supplies circumstances; when^as properly, alms are 
doles and largesses to the necessitous and calamitous 
people, supplying the necessities of nature, and giving 
remedies to their miseries. 

Mercy and alms are the body and soul of that cha*- 
rity which we must pay to our neighbour's need; 
and it is a precept which God therefore enjoined tQ 


894 Hofy Lhmig. [Cbap. nr. 

the world, that the great ineqitali^ wbidi faei Wai 
pleated to suffer in the potaeasioiis and accideati of 
men, might be reduced to iome temper and efeih 
nets ; and the most miserable person might be feoon* 
ciled to some sense and participation of felicity. 

tForh of meri^^w the several kkuU of Chrpm'al Aim, 

The works of mercy are so many as the afieo* 
iions of mercy have objectSi or as the worid hath 
kinds of misery. Men. want meat or drink, sf 
clothes, or a house, or liberty, or attendance, era 
grave. In proportion to these, seven works aite usually 
assigned to mercy, and there are seven kinds of oor* 
poral alms reckoned. 1. To feed the hungly. S. To 
give drink to the thirsty. 3. Or clothes to the naked* 
4. To .redeem captives. 5. To visit the aick. 6. To 
entertain strangers. 7* I'o bury the dead. (Matt. xxr» 
35. and xxvi. 12. ii Sam. ii. 5.J But many more 
may be added. Such as are, 8. To give physic to 
sick persons. 9* 1"^ bring cold and starved people to 
warmth and to the fire ; for sometimes clothing will 
not do it ; or this may be done when we cannot do the 
other. 10. To lead the blind in right ways. 11. To 
lend money. 12. To forgive debts. 13. To remit for- 
feitures. 14. To mend high- ways and bridges. 15. 
To reduce or guide wandering travellers. l6. To ease 
their labours by accommodating their work with apt m* 
struments, or their journey with beasts of carriage. 17* 
To deliver the poor from their oppressors. 18. To die* 

* Nobilis httc esset pietatis rixa duobu8> 
Ou5d pro firatre mori vellet nterque prior* Mart 


Sect. TiiiO Of Alms. 825 


for my brother. 19. To pay maidens* dowries, atid t6 
procure for them honest and chaste biafriages. 

Works of Spiritual Alms and Mercy are, 

1. To teach the ignorant. 2. To counsel doubting 
persons. 3. To admonish sinners diligently, pru- 
dently, seasonably and charitably : to which also may 
be reduced, provoking and encouraging to good 
works. (Heh. x. 24. i Thes. v. \4.) 4. To comfort the 
afflicted. 5. To pardon offenders. 6. To succour and 
support the weak. 7* ^^ pi'^y f^i* ^H estates of men, 
and for relief to all their necessities. To which may 
be added. 8. To punish or correct refractoriness. 9^ 
To be gentle and charitable in censuring the actiond of 
others. 10. To establish the scrupulous, wtivering and 
inconstant spirits. 11. To confirm the strong. .12^^ 
Not to give scandal. 13. To quit a man of his fi^ic* 
14. To redeem maidens from prostitution and pubU* 
cation of their bodies*. 

To both these kinds a third also may be added of 
a mixt nature ; partly corporeal, and partly spiritual* 
Sach are, 1. Reconciling enemies; ?. Erecting pub^ 
lie schools of learning; 3. Maintaining lectures of 
divinity ; 4. Erecting colleges of religion, and retird* 
ment from the noises and more frequent temptations 
of the world; 5. Finding employment for unbusied 
persons, and putting children to honest trades. For 
the particulars of mercy or alms cannot be narrower 
then men^s needs are ; and the old method of alms is 

^Puella prosternit be ad pedes: Miserere .virginitatis mese vih 
yrostittias hoc corpus sub Uuxi turpi tittle. Hist. 4p9^' Tyan. 

.Hofy IM»g. [ Chaf. it. 

too narrow to comprtie them all ; and 3reC the Idtidi 
are too many to be discoursed of particnlarly : ooljr 
onr blessed Saviour in the precept of alm85 uses the 
instances of relieving the poor^ and forgivemss rf 
usuries ; and by proportion to these, the rest, whose 
duty is plain, simple, easy, and necessary, may be 
determined. But alms in general are to be disposed 
of according to the following rules. 
« ■ ' -. 

Rules for giv^ Alms. 

1. Let no man do alms of that which is none of ' 
his own : for of that he is to make restitution * ; that 
is due to the owners, not to the pdoir : for every man 
hath need of his own, and that is first to be provided 
for ; and then you must think of the needs of the 
poor. He that gives the poor what is not his owo, 
makes himself a thief, and the poor to be thie re- 
ceivers. This is not to be understood as if it were 
unlawful for a man that is not able to pay his' debts, 
to give smaller alms to the poor. He may not give 
such portions as can in any sense more disable him to 
do justice *(* ; but such which if they were saved could 
not advance the other duty, may retire to this, and 
do here what they may, since in the other duty tbey 
cannot do what they should. But generally cheaters 
and robbers cannot give alms of what they have cheated 
and robbed, unless they cannot tell the persons whom . 
they have injured; or the proportions; and in sucfh 
cases they are to give those unknown portions to the 

* S. Greg. 71. Epist 110. 
f Prsbeat misericordia ut copservetur justitia. S. Jug, Prov. iii. 9. 


Sect, viii.] Of Alms. 347 

poor by way of restitution^ for it is no alms : only 
God is the supreme lord to whom those escheats de^ 
Tolve^ and the poor are his receivers. 

2. Of money unjustly taken^ and yet voluntarrly 
parted with, we may and are bound to give alms: 
such as is money given and taken for false witness, 
bribes, simoniacal contracts : because the receiver 
^hath no right to keep it, nor the giver any right to* 
recal it, it is unjust money, and yet payable to nope 
but the supreme lord (who is the person injured) and 
to his delegates, that, is, the poor. To which I insert' 
these cautions. 1. If the person injured by the unjust 
seatence of a bribed judge, or by false witness, be 
poor, he is the proper object and bosom to whom the 
restitution is to be made. 2. In case of simony *, 
the church, to whom the simony was injurious, is the 
lap into which the restitution is to be poured ; and if 
it be poor and out of repair, the alms or restitution* 
(shall I call it ?) are to be paid to it. 

3. There is some sort of gain that hath in it no in-^> 
justice properly so called; but it is unlawful and filttiy 
hicre : such as is money taken for work done unlaw<^ 
fiiUy upon the LordVday, hire taken for disfiguring 
one's self, and for being professed jesters, the wages 
of such as make unjust bargains, and of harlots : of 
this money there is some preparation to be made be* 
fore it be given in alms. The money is infected with 
the plague, and must pass through the fire or the 
water before it be fit for alms: the person must repent 
and leave the crime, and then minister to the poor. 

* Decret. £p. tit de Simonia. 


9t8 Hofy limg. [Gmam. n. 

A. He that gives ftlmt ipoftt do it in merqr ^9 tint 
is, out of a true aense of the ealemity of his biotheri 
first feeling it in hiinself in some proportion^ end theo 
endeevoaring to esse hioiself and thte other of tbeir 
eommon calaieitjr« Against this rate they ofl^d wbo^ 
give alms out of custom^ or to upbraid the pover^ 
ef the otheTy or to make him mercenary and obKgedi 
or with any unhandsome circumstances. 

6« He that gives alms must do it with a single ejre 
«nd hearty that is^ without designs to get the praiie 
of men; and if he secures that/ he may either give 
t|ieip publicly or privately : for Christ intended only 
to provide against pride and hypocrisy, when he 
bade alms to be given in secret : it being otheraFiN; 
pne of his commandments, that our Ugkt should Mm 
before men.: this is more excellent, that is moee safe. 

6. To this also appertains, that he who hath dooe 
a good tum'f', should so forget it, as not to speak of itr 
but he that boasts it or upbraids it, hath paid himself, 
and lost the nobleness of the charity. 

f. Give alms with a cheerful heart and countenance,. 
not grudgingly or of necessity ^ for God loveth a cheer' 
ful giver: (^11 Cor. ix. 7.) and therefore give quickly 
when the power is in thy hand, and the needv is in thy 
neighbour, and thy neighbour 4^ thy door. He gives 
twice that relieves speedily. 

8. According to thy ability give to all men that 
need, (Luke vi. 30.^ and in equal needs give first to 
good men, ratlier than to bad men ; and if the needs 

* Donum nudum est^ nisi consensu vestiatur. I. 3. C. depactis* 
t Qui dedit beneficiuni tacear^ narret qui.accepit. Senec^ 


— 1 

Sect, viii.] Of Alms. ^ 320 

— -^ 

be unequal^ do so too ; provided that the need of the 
poorest be not violent or extreme : but if an evil man 
be in extreme necessity^ he is to be relieved rather 
than a good man who can tarry longer^ and 4nay sub- 
sist without it. And if he be a good man, he will 
desire it should be so, because himself is bound to 
save the life of his brother with 'doing some incon- 
venience to himself: and no difference of virtue or 
vice can make the ease of one beggar equal with the 
life of. another. 

9* Give no alms to vicious persons, if such alms 
will support their sin ; as if they will continue in 
idleness, [If they will not ivorJc, neither let them eat*2 
or if they will spend it in 'jf* drunkenness or wanton- 
ness: such persons when they are reduced to very 
great want^ must be relieved in such proportions as 
niajr ilot relieve their dying lust, but may refresh 
their faint or dying bodies. 

10. The best objects of charity are poor house- 
keepers , that labour hard, and are burdened with 
many children ; or gentlemen fallen into sad poverty, 
eispecially if by innocent misfortune, (and if their 
crimes brought them into it, yet they are to be re- 


lieved according to the former rule ;) persecuted 
persons, widows and ttjjj^erless childrent, putting them 
to honest trades or schpols-of learning. And search 

* II Thes, iii. 10. A Cavallo chr non porta seUa Biada non si creveila. 
t De meadico mal^ meretur, qui ei dat quod edat aut quod bibat. 
Naio et iilud quod dat perdit^ et illi produeit vitam et miseriam. 

t.Beatus qui intelligit super egeo urn et pauperem PsaL A donareb 

tenere Ingegno bisogno havere. 
No. 14. 2 U 


830 Hofy Living. [Chab. iw. 

into the needs of numenmt and neaaer families t fer 
there are many persons that have nothing left tliem but 
misery and modesty ; and towards soch we must adri 
two circumstanoes of charity t 1. To inquire thfia 
out. 3. To convey our relief unto them^ ao as we da 
not make them ashamed. 

1 1 • Give, looking for nothing again^ that is^ wUb-. 
out consideration of future advantages : give to ehiidt 
ren, to old men, to the unthankful and the dy'n^g, 
and to those you shall never see again ; for eke your 
alms or courtesy is not charity^ but traffic and mer- 
chandize: and be sure that you omit not to relieve 
the needs of your enemy and the injurious: for so 
possibly you may win h^m to yourself; but do yon 
intend the winning him to God. 

13. Trust not your alms to intermedial, unoertais, 
and under-dispensers : by which rule is not only ia^ 
tended the securing your alms in the right channel: 
but the humility of your person, and that which the 
Apostle calls the labour of love. And if you converse 
in hospitals and alms-houses, and minister with your 
own hand what your heart hath first decreed, you will 
find your heart endeared and made familiar with the 
needs and with the persons of the poor, those ex-i 
cellent images (^f Christ. ^ 

13. Whatsoever is superfluous in thy estate is to be 
dispensed in alms. * He that hath tuH) coats must 
give to him that hath none ; that is, he that hath be- 
yond his need, must give that which is beyond it. Only 

* PraBinonstro tibi, 
Ut it^ te alioruai misei-escat^ nh tui alicis misereat. Plant. Trinum. 

Sect, viii.] Of Jhitn. 331 

among needs we are to reckon not only what will 
sapport our life, but also what will maiutajn the de- 
cency of our estate and person; not only in present 
needs, but in all future necessities, and very probable 
contingencies, but no farther : we are not obliged 
beyond this, unless we see very great public and cala- 
mitous necessities. But yet, if we do extend beyond 
our measures, and give more than we are able, we 
have the Pkilipp'tans and many holy persons for our 
precedent, we have St. Paul for our encouragement, 
we have Christ for our counsellor, we have God 
for our rewarder, and a great treasure in heaven 
for our recompeoce and restitution. But I pro- 
pound it to the consideration of all christian people, 
that they be not nice and curious, fond and indulgent 
to themselves, in taking accounts of their personal 
conveniencies, and that they make their propositions 
moderate and easy, according to the order and man- 
ner of Christianity ; and the consequence will be this, 
that the poor will more plentifully be relieved, them- 
selves will be more able to do it, and the duty will be 
less chargeable, and the owners of estates chai^d with 
fewer accounts in the spending of them. It cannot 
be denied, but in the expences of all liberal and 
great personages many things might be spared : some 
superfluous servants, some idle meetings, some un- 
necessary and imprudent feasts, some garments too 
costly, some unnecessary law-suits, some vain jour- 
nies; and when we are tempted to such needless ex- 
pences, if we shall descend to moderation, and lay 
Lhe surplusage, we shall find it with more f 



S89 Ho^Lkbig. [ 

y— ^— —■— ^i— ^— ^1— — — — P»*— — ^m^^M^M^— — 1— — — ^^M^^— ^■^i^.i^.— ». Ill ■!■ 

to be laid out upon tbe pmr members of Christy dm 
upon our own with vanity. But this is only intended 
to be an advice in the matter of doing alma : tx I 
^ am not ignorant that great variety of cfothea alwa^i 
have been permitted to princes and nobilityf and 
others in their proportion; and they usually give those 
clothes as rewards to servants and other ^pmoo§ 
needful enough ; and then they may sarve dieir oim 
fancy and their duty too: but it is but reapon and 
religion to be car^l that they be given to sodi only 
where iduty or prudent liberality^ or alms determiM 
them : but in no sense let them do it so as to miniriier 
to vanity^ to luxury, to prodigality. The like also is 
to be observed in other instances. And if we oooe 
give our minds to the study and arts of alms, we shall 
find ways enough to make this duty* easy, profitable 
and useful. 

1. He that plays at any game inust resolve before- 
hand to be indifferent to win or lose: but if he gives 
to the poor all that he wins^ it is better tha^ to keep 
it to himself: but it were better yet, that he lay by so 
much as he is willing to lose, and let the game alone, 
and by giving so much alms traffick for eternity. That 
is one way. 

2. Another is, keeping tbe fasting days of the 
church ; which, if our condition be such as to be able 
to cast our accounts, and make abatements for our 
wanting so many meals in the whole year, (which by 
the old appointment did amount to 153, and since 
most of them are fallen into desuetude, we m^y make 
up as many of them as we please by voluntary fa.sts) 

Sect, nil.] Of Alms. , 338 t 


ive may from hence find a 0t>nsiderable relief for the 
poor. But if we be not wilfing sometimes to fast that 
our brother may eat^ we should ill die fot liim. St. 
Martin had given till that he had in the w^lrld to 
the poor, ssbm one coat, and that also he divided be- 
tween two beggars. A father in the mount of Nitria, 
was reduced at last to the inventory of one Testament, 
and that book also was tempted from him by the needs 
of one whom he thought poorer than himself. Greateir 
yelf St. Paulinus sold himself to slavery to redeem 
a^ung man, for whose captivity his mother •'l^ept , 
sadly : and it is said, that St. Katherine sucked the 
envenomed wounds of a villain who had injured her 
mc^t impudently. And I shall tell you of a greater 
charity than all these put together; Christ gave him- 
self to shame and death to redeem his enemies from 
bondage, and death, and hell. 

1 4. Learn of the frugal man, and only avoid sordid 
actions, and turn good husband, and change ^dur 
arts of getting into providence for the poor, and you 
shall soon become rich in good works; and why should 
we not do as much for charity, as for covetousness ; 
for heaven, as for the fading world ; for God and 
tlie Holy Jesus, as for the needless superfluities of 
back and belly. 

15. In giving alms to beggars and persons of that 
low rank, it is better to give a little to each that we 
may giver to the more, so extending our alms to many 
persons : but in charities of religion, ^Hs building hos- 
pitals, colleges, and houses for devotion, and supplying 
the accidental wants of decayed pejisons, fallen from 

884 H9fy Lhing. [ 

■ ■■iT»i 

great plenty to gireat neoamtf, it is better to unite our 
rnlmt than to disperte thetff ; to make a noble relief or 
maintoMftiM to one, and to restore him to oomfiirt, 
thtti to support dttly hiri natural needs^ and keep bim 
alive only, unrescoed from sad disoomfidMfai. 

1 6. The precept of alms of charity binds not id- 
definitely to all the instances and kinds of dMrity: 
for he that delights to feed the poor, add spends t& 
his portion that way, is not bound to enter into 
prisons and redeem captires: but we ai^ oUI||sd| 
by the presence of circumstances, and - die spiHil 
disposition of providence, and the pitiableness of sn 
object, to this or that particular act of charity. The 
eye is the sense of mercy, and the bowels sfe its 
organ, and that inkindles pity, and pity pnMiooes 
alms ; when the eye sees what it never saw, ihe heart 
will think what it never thought : but when we have 
an object present to our eye, then we must pity, for 
there the providence of Grod hath fitted our charity 
with circumstances. He that is in thy sight, or in 
thy neighbourhood, is fallen into the lot of thjr 

17. If thou hast no money, yet thou must have 
* mercy, (Luke xii. 33. Acts iii. 6.) and art bound 
to pity the poor, and pray for them, and throw thy 
holy desires and devotions into the treasures of the 
church : and if thou doest what thou art able, be. 
it little or great, corporal or spiritual, the charity of 
alms, or the charity of prayers, a cup of wine, or a 
^up of water ; if it be but Uwe to the brethren, or a 

* 0A ti ilk up o^sa Don d vefrebbe morta^. 

Sect. VIII.] Of Alms. 2m 

desire to help all or any of Christ's poor^ it. shall bo 
accepted according to tuhat%man hath, not according. 
to what he hath not. (ii Cor. viii. |{).) ^FHfj^vckn all 
lius, and all the other comAiandiiifait&t andi^P wJH 
express itselj|||phere it can ; {iPtt. i. 122.) and where 
it cannot, yet itris love still, and it is also sorry thaft 
it cannot. « 

^^ .! , ♦ .iMh- . 

^ Motives to Charity. 

* Hfe motives to this duty are such* as holy scripture 
faiBl propounded to us by way of cbnsideratiori^>andl 
proposition of its excellencies and consequent reward. 
1. There is no one duty which our blessed Saviouf 
did recommend to his disciples with so repeated wA 
injunction as^ this of charity and alms. To which add 
the wovdi spoken by our Lord, (Mat. vi. 4. xllil 1 2, 33, 
and XXV. \b.) It is better to give than to receiver 
And when we consider how great a blessing it is thel 
we beg not from door to door, (Luke xi. 41 ij Wi% 
a ready instance of our thankfulness to God, for hi#' 
sake to relieve thim that do. 2. TUEs duty is that 
^one whereby the future day of judgment shall be 
transacted. For nothing but charity and alms is thrfl 
whereby Chiist shall declare the justice and meiey of 
the eternal sentence. Martyrdom itself is not there 
expresi;^, and no otherwise involved, bbt as it is thU 
greatest charity. 3. Christ made himself the greatest 
an<} daitjl^ example of alms oPeharity.- He went up 
and down doing good, preaching the gospel, and heal* 
ing all fjiiseases: and God tb^ Father is imitable by us 
in nothing but in purity and QSQMjr^ .4a Alms given 

S80 Holy Living, * [ 

to the poor (Phil. it. \f.) redound to the emolument 
of the giver, both teaipor#aiid eternal. 5. They are 
mstnimeflHl fo tbt remission of sins. (Acts z. 4. 
Heh^^Hax. 1& tkm. vH 37 J ^ur forgiveness aDd 
mercy to others beitfg made the very 'flUe and pro- 
portion of our confidence and hope^ tfid our prayer to 
be forgiven oursetvee. 6. It is a treasure in heaven, it 
procures friends wlMi we die. It is reckoned as iooe 
to Christ vrhatsoever we do to our poor brother ; and 
therefore when a^V^ ^'^^ begs for Christ his at|||| if 
be hwe reason lb ask for Christ his sake, give it ■b 
if thou canst. Now every man hath title to ask for 
.Christ's sake whose need is great, and himself unable ' 
to cure it^ and if the man be a christian. Whatsoever 
charity Christ will reward, all that is given for Christ's 
sake, an# therefore it may be asked in his niibe: but 
every man that uses that sacred name for an endear- 
ment hath not a title to it, neither he nor his need. 
7. Ht is one of the wings of prayer by which it flies 
to the throne of grace. 8. It crownt all the works 
of piety. 9. It causes thanksgiving to God on our 
behalf. 10. And the bowels of the poor bless us, and 
they pray for us. 11. And that portion of our estate* 
out of which a tenth, or a fifth, or a twentieth, or 
some offering to God for religion and the poor goes 
forth, certainty returns with a great blessing upon all 
the rest. It is like. the effusion of oil upon the 
Sidonian woman ; as^Rtng as she pours ii^ empty 
vessels, it cooU never cease running: or like the 

* Nanquam memini me legisa* mal^ morte mortuum qui libenter 
opera cbaritati^iljkiercuit S. Hierom. £p. ad Nepot. 



Sect.viii.] Of Envy. ,^ 337 

widow's barrel of meal: it consumes not as long as 
she fed the prophet. 12. ^Phe sum of all .i& contained 
in the words of our blessed Savioiir, Git;e l/i^s of such 
ihings as ye have^ and behold aW thi^s atf, clean 
unto you. ^. To which may be added, that charity 
. or mercy is the^peculiar character of God's elect, and 
a sign of predestination ; which advantage . we are 
taught by «S|. Paul ; [Put on therefore as the elect 
of Godf holy and beloved, bowels of mercy, kindness^ 
^c^forhearing one another and forgiving one another ^ 
«|ny man have a quarrel against anyJ] The result 
of all which we may read in the words of St. Chryso- 
stom ; to know the art of alms, is greater than to 
be crowned with the diadem of kings. And yet to 
convert one soul is greater than to pour out ten 
thousand talents into the baskets of the poor. 

But because giving alms is an act of the virtue of 
mercifulness, our endeavour must be by. proper arts 
to mortify the parents of unmercifulness, which jflre, 
1. Envy; 2. Anger; 3. Covetousness : in whicU we 
may be helped by the following rules or instruments. 

Remedies against Unmercifulness and 


1.^ Against Envy; by way of Consideration. 

Against^ envy I shall use'. .the same arguments I 
would utft to persuade a maillifl-om the fever or the 
dropsy. 1 • Because it is a disease, .k is so far from 
having pleasure in it, or a temptation to it, that it is 
full of pain, a great instrument of vexation ; it eats 

No. 15. ' ^ 2 3C 


Holy Living. [Chap, if. 

the fleshy and drieiT up the OMrraw, and ntrakes boHot 
eyesy and lean cheeks, and ItptM fitoe. 3. It is nothing 
but a .dirwt resolution never to enter into heaven bf 
the w^'of noble pleasure taken in the good of otheni 
3. It is ni6st contrary to God. 4. Ai^i a just oou* 
trary state to the felicities and. actions oiP Heaven, 
Irhere every star increases the light of the other, and 
the multitude of guests at the supper 6f the Lltaib 
makes the eternal meal more festival. 5. It is per. 
fectlv the state of hell, and the passion of devililC^ 
they do nothing but despair in themselves *, and etsi^ 
others quiet or safety, and yet cannot rejoice either in 
their good or in their evil, although they endeavour to 
binder that, or procure this, with all the devices and 
arts of malice, and of a great understanding. 6. 
Envy can serve no end in the world ; it Cann6t plesse 
any thing, nor do any thing, nor hinder any thing, 
but the content and felicity of him that hath it. 7« 
Envy can never pretend to justice, as hatred and un- 
charitableness sometimes may : for there may ht 
^causes of hatred; and I may have wrong done me, 
and then hatred hath some pretence, though no just 
ailment. But no man is unjust or injurious, for be- 
ing prosperous or wise. 8. And therefore many men 
profess to hate one another^ but no man owns envy^ 
as being an enmity and displeasure for no cause bat 
goodness or felicity : envious men'f' being like canthor 
rides and caterpillars, that delight most to dE^our ripe 

* Nemo alienae virtuti invidet^ qui satis confidit 8U» (^c, conM 

M, Anton* 
t Hofnerus nenitii inalos mores describens malitiaa sttmnwai 
opposuiti PeZidE^inprimis eiij^atque inimicus C/7y55t. 

. \ 

Sect, viii.] Of Jnger. 33» 

and tnost excellent fruits. 9- It is of all crimes the 
bas^t: for malice and anger are appeased with be^ 
Hefits^ but envy is exasperated, as envying to fortunate 
pjsrsond both their power and their will to do good ; 
and oever leaves murmuring till the envied person be 
levelled, and then only the vulture leaves to eat the 
liver. For if his neighbour be made miserable, the 
entfous man is apt to be troubled : like him that is so 
lofkg unbuilding the turrets till all the roof is low 
or flat, or that the stones fall upon the lower build- 
illlgs, and do a mischief that a man repents of. 

3. Remedies against Anger hy way of Pxerdse. 

The next enemy to mercifulness and ^e grace of 
alms is anger: against which there are proper instru- 
ments, both in prudence and religion. 

!• Prayer is the great remedy against anger : for it 
r mast suppose it in some degree removed before vit 
pray, and then it is the more likely it will be finishcid 
when the prayer is done. We must lay aside the act 
of anger^ as a preparatory to prayer; and the curing 
the habit will be the efl^t and blessing of prayer : so 
tbat if a man to cure his anger, resolves to address 
himself to God by prayer, it is first necessary that by 
his own observation and diligence he lay the anger 
aside, before his praye;r can be fit to be presented : and 
when we sd pray, and so ende&vour, we have all the 
blessings of prayer which God hath promised to it, to 
be our security for success. 

3. If anger arise in thy breast, instantly seal up 
thy lips, and let it not ||^. forth : for like fire when it 

340 Holy licwg. [Chap. it. 

wants vent, it will suppress itself*. It is good in a 
fever to have a- tender and a smooth tongue : but it it 
better that it be so in anger : for if it be rough and 
distempered, thei^t is an ill sign, but here it is an ill 
.cause. Angry passion is a fire, and angiy words are 
like breath to fan them ; together they are like steel 
and flint, sending out fire by mutual collision. Some 
men will discourse themselves into passion, and if 
their neighbour be enkindled too, together they flame 
with rage and violence. 

3. Humility* is the most excellent natural cure for 
anger in the world : for he that- by daily consider- 
ing his owi^ infirmities and failings, makes the error 
of his neimbour or servant to be his own case, and 
remembers that he daily needs God's pardon and 
his brother's charity, will not be apt to rage at the 
levities, dr misfortunes, or indiscretions of another; 
greater than which he considers that he is very fire* 
quently atid more inexcusably guilty of. ' 

4. Consider the example of the ever blessed Ji?^Ji 
who suflfered all the contradictions of sinnenSf and re- 
ceived all affronts and reproaches of malicious, rash, 
and foolish persons, and yet in all them was as dispas- 
sionate and gentle, as the morning sun in autumn: 
and in this also he propounded himself imitable by us; 
for if innocence itself did suffer so great injuries and 
disgraces, it is no great matter for us quietly to receive 

* Ira ctim pectus rapida occupavit, 
Fu tiles linguae jubeo cavere 
Vana latratus jaculantis. Sappho. 
Turbatus sum, et non mm locutus. P^a/m 79- 

Sect, viii.] Of Anger. 341 

)all the calamities of fortune, and indis^letion of ser- 
vants, and mistakes of friends, and unkindness of 
kindred^ and rudeness of enemies, since we have de- 
served these and worse, even hell itself. 

6. If we be tempted to anger in the actions of go- 
vernment and discipline to our inferiors, (in which 
case anger is pertfiitted so far as it is prudently instru- 
mental to government, and only is a sin when it is ex- 
<!e8sive and unreasonable, and apt to disturb our owijt 
discourse, or to express itself in imprudent words or 
violent actions) let us propound to ourselves the ex- 
ample of God the Father, who at the same time and 
'with the same tranquillity, decreed heaven and hell^ 
the joys of blessed angels and souls, and the torments 
of devils and accursed spirits : and at the day of judg- 
ment, when all the world shall burn under his feet^ 
God shall not at all be inflamed, nor. shaken in his 
k essential seat and centre of tranquillity and joy. And 
if at first the cause seems reasonable, yet defer to exe- 
cute thy anger till thou mayest better judge. For as 
Phoab^ told the Athenians^ who upon the first news 
of the Jeath of Alexander were ready to revolt. Stay 
awhile ; for if the king be not dead, your haste will 
ruin you; but if he be dead, your stay cannot pre^ 
htdice your affairs, for he will be dead to-morrow as 
well as to-day . So if thy servant or inferior deserve 
punishment, staying till to-morrow will not make him 
innocent; but it may possibly preserve thee so, by 
preventing thy striking a guiltless person, or by being 
furious for a trifle. 

6. Remove from thyself all provocations and ia^- 

t ' ' 


eentifes toi|^gbr; especially, 1. GeUeB^nf ekmct 
and great wagers. Patradm lolled his friettd, the sea 
of Amphidmnet^ in hu nge and sadden fiiry, rUng 
upon cross game at tables ; such abo are petty curio- ' 
aities and worldly business and careftilaefca about it; 
but manage thyself with indifierency, tar contempt tf 
those external things, and do not qpend a passion upat 
-them ; for it is more than they are woim *. Bit Ifccj 
that desire but few things can be crosaed bat in fea^ 

3. In not heaping nf With an ambitious or curiei|i 
prodigality any veiy curious or choice ttttenls, aeal% 
Jewels, glasses, precious stones; because those veiy 
ttany accidents which happen in the spoiling or \m 
t)f these rarities, are in the event an irresistible causttf 
Solent anger. 3. Do not entertain «or sniK^r tsk^ 
bearers : for they abuse our ear first, and . then mvf 
credulity, and then steal our patience, and it may be 
for a lie; and if it be true, the matter is not eon8ide^ » 
able; or if it be, yet it is pardonable. And we majr 
always escape with patience at one of these outlets : 
isither, 1. By not hearing slanders, or, 3. by not be- 
lieving them, or, 3. by not regarding the thing, or^ 

4. by forgiving the person. 4. To this purpose alsol it 
may serve well if we choose, (as much as we can) to 
live with peaceable persons, for that prevents the occa- 
sions of confusion: and if we live with prudent persons, 
they will not easily occasion our disturbance. But be- 
cause these things are not in many men*8 power, there- 
fore I propound this rather as a felicity than a remedy 
or a duty, and an art of prevention rather than a cure, 

* Qp\ pauca requiruntj npn ipultis excidunt. flut. 

Sect, viii.] Of Anger. 848 

■ ' ' ' ■ ' ■■.-■ ' .■■..- I I 

7* Be not inquisitive into the afiairsW other men^ 
nor the faults of thy servants, nor the mistakes of thy 
friends ; but what is offered to you^ use according t6 
the former rules^ but do not thou go out to gather 
sticks to kindle a fire to burn thine own house. And 
add this ; if my friend said or did well in that &r 
which I dm angry^ I am in the faulty not he ; but if hd 
did amiss^ he is in the misery^ not I: for either he 
was deceived^ or he was malicious^ and either of them 
both is all one with a miserable person ; and that is 
an object of pity, not of anger, 

8. Use all reasonable discourses to excuse the faults 
of others, considering that there are many circum- 
itances of time, of person^ of accident, ofinadvertency^ 
of infrequepcy, of aptness to amend, of sorrow for do- 
ing it; and it is well that wei take any good in t&r 
change for the evil done or suffered. 
^* 9. Upon the rising of anger instantly enter into a 
de^p consideration of the joys of heaven, or the pains 
of hell : for fear and joy are naturally apt to ap^ 
pease this violence. 

10. in contentions be always passive, never active^ 
upon the defensive, not the assaulting part : and then 
also give a gentle answer, receiving the furies and in- 
discretions of the other like a stone into a bed of moss 
and soft compliance ; and you shall, find it sit dowii 
quietly t whereas anger and violence make the conten- 
tion loud find long, and injurious to both the parties. 
• 11. In the actions of religion be careful to temper 
all thy instances with meekness, and the proper in* 
ttruments of it : and if thou beest apt to be angry. 


344 Ilofy living. [Chap. it. 

neither fastlpolently, nor entertain the too-forward 
heats of zeal ; but secure thy duty with constant and 
regular actions, and a good temper of body with con- 
vcnient refreshments and recreations. 

12. If anger arises suddenly and violently^ first re- 
strain it with consideration^ and then let it end in a 
hearty prayer for him that did the real or seeming 
injury. The former of the two stops its growth^ and 
the latter quite kills it, and makes amends for its mon- 
strous and voluntary birth. 

Remedies against Anger ^ by way of Consideration. 

1. Consider that anger is a professed enemy to 
counsel ; it is a direct storm; in which no man can be 
heard to speak or call from without : for if you counsel 
gently, you are despised; if you urge it; and be ve- 
hement, you provoke it more. Be careful therefore 
to lay up before-hand a great stock of reason and^ 
prudent consideration, that like a besieged town you 
may be provided for, and be defensible from within, 
since you are not likely to be relieved from without 
Anger is not to be suppressed but by something that 
i3 as inward as itself, and more habitual. To which 
purpose add, that, 2. Of all passions it endeavours 
most to make reason useless. 3. That it is an univer- 
sal poison, of an infinite object: for no man was ever 
so amorous as to love a toad, none so envious as to 
repine at the. condition of the miserable, no man so 
timorous as to fear a dead bee ; but anger is troubled 
at every thing, and every man, and every accident, 
and therefore unless it be suppressed, it will make a 

Sect, vih.] Of Jnger. ♦ 345 

, v.';', ■ ■'' ' ' ' ' ' ■ f " ■ 

maft*8 oondit^n restless, 4. If it piHIeds from si 
great cause^ it turnfr to fuiy ; if from a small 
<nuis^9 it 19 peevishness : and so is always either ter«* 
rible or ridicolbiis. 5. Jt i^a^es a man*8 body monr 
stroQS^ deformed and coritemptible^ the voice horrid, 
the ejres eruel, the face pale or fiery, the gait fierce, 
Ae speech clamorous and loud. 6. It is neither 
manly nor ingenuous, f. It proceeds from softness oF 
spirit and pusillanimity ; which makes that women 
are more angry than men, sick people more than 
healthful, old men more than young, unprosperous 
and calamitous persons than the blessed and fortunate. 
8. It is a passion fitter for flies and insects than for 
jpersens professing nobleness and bounty. 9. It is 
troublesome not only to those that sixffev it, but to 
them that behold it; there being no greater incivility* 
ef entertainment than, for the cook's fault, or the neg- 
^iigence of the servants, to be cruel, or outrageous, 

r V 

or cmpleasant in the presence of the guests. 10. It 
makes inarriage to be a necessary and unavoidable 
trouble; friendships, and societies, and familiarities 
to be intolerable. 11. It multiplies the evils of drunk- 

m • • 

eiiness, and makes the levities of wioe to run into 
madness. 12. It makes innocent jesting to be the 
beginning of tragedies. 13. It turns friendship into 
hatred : it makes a man lose himself and his reason 
and his argument in disputation. It turns the desires 
of knowledge into an itch of wrangling. It adds in- 
tolency to power. It turns justice into cruelty, and 
judgment into oppression. It changes discipline into 

* Dicere quid coeD& possis iDgratius istfiL ? 
No. 15. 2 Y 

346 ^ HoJy Lhing. [Cbap. iv. 

tediousneM tfll hatred of liberal institution^ .* It m^cs 
a prosperous man to be envied, and the unfortunate 
to be unpitied. It is a confluence of all the irregular 
passions: there is in it envy and sorrow, fear and 
•com, pride and prejudice, rashness and inconstdera- 
tioQ, rejoicing in evil and a desire to inflict it^ self-love, 
impatience, and curiosity. And lastly, though it be 
very troublesome to others, yet it is most troublesonae 
to him that hath it. 

In the use of these arguments and the former exer- 
cises be diligent to observe, lest in your desires to sup- 
press anger you be passionate and angry at yourself for 
being angry ; like physicians, who give a bitter potion 
when they intend to eject the bitterness of chpler*; 
for this will provoke the person, and increase the 
passion. But placidly and quietly set upon the morti- 
fication of it ; and attempt it first for a day, resolving 
that day not at all to be angry; and to be watchiiil 
and observant for a day is no great trouble : but then, 
after one day's watchfulness it will be as easy to watch 
two days as at first it was to watch one day ; and so you 
may increase till it becomes easy and habitual. 

Only observe that such an anger alone is criminal 
which is against charity to myself or my neighbour; 
but anger against sin is a holy zeal, and an efiect of 
love to God and my brother, for whose interest I am 
passionate, like a concerned person : and if I take care 
that my anger makes no reflection of scorn or cruelty 
upon the ojPTender, or of pride and violence, or trans- 
.^portation to myself, anger becomes charity and duty. 

* Amarain amaro bilem pharmaco qui eluunt. 


Sect, viii.] Of C&f^tiBlusHess. 347 

^ i **"^™ ■ I ■ I , ,1 ■ ■ II ■ ■ II I J , ■ I II, r- gg 

And when one commended Charihikf^ the king of 
Sparta, for a gentle^ a good^ and a meek prince^ hi$ 
colleague said well^ how can he he good who is not an 
miemy even to vicious persons*. 

3. Remedies against Covetousness, the third 

Enemy of Mercy. 

.' Coretousness is also an enemy to alms, though not 
to all the efiects of mercifulness : but this is to be cured 
by the proper motives to charity before-mentioned^ 
and by the proper rules of justice ; which being se-. 
cured, the arts of getting money are not easily made 
criminal. To which also we may add, 

1. Covetousness makes a man miserable; because 
riches are not means to make a man happy: and unless 
felicity were to be bought with money, he is a vain 
person who admires heaps of gold and rich possessions. 
Fbr what Hippomachus said to some persons who com^ 
mended a tall man as (it to be a champion in the 
Olympic games, It is true (said he) if the crown hang 
so high that the longest arm could reach it^. Th^ 
same we may say concerning riches, they were ex- 
cellent things, if the richest man were certainly the 
wisest and the best; but as they are, they are nothing 
to be wondered at, because they contribute nothing 
to'ward felicity : which appears, because some men 
choose to be miserable that they may be rich, rather 

* Plutar. de odio et invidia. 
t Quid refert igitur quantis suoienta fktiget 
Portlcibus^ quanta nemorum vectetur in umbra, 
Jugera quot vicina foro, quas eraerit eedes ? 
Nemo m^lus felix. Juv. Sat. 4. 


•48 . HalfLhbis. (.Gau0^«r. 

• ^ . 

■■ ■» ■ ■ ■ —^^——1 ■ ■■ — ^P— — ^— - 

Him \b bt Itffkjr iHUi the mpMee #f aotay uA 
dcSog noble tbiagt» / 

9. Akhte ate utekett- and oii|irdltib1te ; fyr bejrttiidl 
oor needs and conveniekxsiety aatavfe kiMwa im> lae ef 
riches : and they say that the princes of Itafy^ when 
they sup alone, eit out of a single ^b and drink in 
a plain glass, and tbe wiAs' eats witliout purple ; far 
mthing i$ more frugal than 4he hook mnl ike-Mfyf 
if they be used ks they should s but wbeu.they aMsuU 
entertain the eyis of stiangers, ^ben .tbcj are vsit 
and would ndake a noia^ then richea come Ibrtb to sot 
forth the spectacle, and furnish oiit 4ke €09ie% ^ 
wealth, of vanity. No fisan (can tf4th all tbb wealUi 
An the wcfrld buy -so much skill as to be a good 
Jotenist ; he muit go the^ liame way that poor peOpfe 
do, he must learn and take Ipains: much hmot^^ift 
buy coustancy, or chastity, or courage; nafy, notss 
much as the contempt of richer : and b^ pa^!Be8siti| 
more than we need, we canoot obtain so much power 
over our souls as not to require- teore.' And €l^^ 
tainly riches must ^iver me from "no ievil, if the ps*- 
session of them Cannot .take away the longing for 
them. If ai^ man be -thirsty^ drink cools b)m ; if be 
be hungry, eating meat satisfies him : and wben a msn 
is cold, and caUs for a warm ^loak, he is pleased if 
you give it him ; but you trouble bim if you leeil 
him with six or eight cloaks. Nature rdsts and sits 
still when she hath her portion ; but that which ex^ 
ceeds it is a trouble and a burthen : and therefore in 
true philosophyi no tnsti is rich but he that is poor^ 
according to the common account : for when God 


Mim'iiii ^ usssasserm^em-' hi 

S ECT. TiiiO Of CdveMOness. dM 


hath «tftiafi^ tbo^ uee^s Vrhich he mtftt^ that is^ bU 
that 18 natural^ whatso^v^i' ii beyo»d it is ihirst and It 
disease, and linteeils it be fijetit bacik agtilia ki chkHty or 
ineligion^ can serVe kio end hAt. vice or vanky : it oaa 
increase tlv6 appetite, to represent tbe nan poorer^ «ld 
ftfll of a new anMl artificial tinnfatliral need; bM it netbr 
satisfies the ile&d it «aakes> or makes tfa^ man rieheii 
«2Vb wealth c^an satisfy the iitwetous 'desire of wedMi. 

3^ Riches are troublesome ; but the ^at&sfactitm 4f 
those appetites which God <dnd nature bare made lare 
chlsap lind eiisy'^: for^ who ever^id use^money fit 
bread and onions and Waiter to keep him alive? btt 
when we covet after houses of the fame and design 
of 7/a/y, or long for jeivels^ or fok* dur next neigh- 
hour% fields or horses from Barbwn/, or 'the Tichect 
|ierfumes e^f lirabia, or Galatmnmules^ or ftit^unuchb 
for onr ^avi^s from (7Vi% dt rich codches froK^ 
JXI^pks^ thef) we can neVer be sltiisfiied till we faa^ 
4Jie best. thing that is fancied^ and all that can be 
iiad^ and all that dati be desired, and dhat We can lost 
no more : but before we come to the one half of our 
first wild desires, We ire the bondmen of usurers, and 
of our worse tyrant appetitds, and the tcVtures of envy 
^nd koLpa^tience. But I Cbnisider that those who drink 
ton still when their thirst h quenched, or eat after th^y 
'have weH ditied, are forced to vomit not only tbeiT 
-superfluity, but even that which at first was necessary^; 
so those that covet more than they can temperately use, 
are oftentimes forced to part even with that patrimony 

* £rg6 solicitae tu causa, pecunia^ vitn es. 
Per te immatdrum moi'tiiB ad^mus iter*' Propert, 


S80 Hdjf Lkfb^. [ Chap. ft. 

whidi would Itoife rapported thennselvci in ireedoQi and 
honour^ and iiave satisfied all their reasonable desires. 

4. Contentedness is therefore healthy beeause eofet^ 
onsness is • direct sickness : and it was well said of 
Aristippms, (as PbUarch reports him^ if eny nme 
after much eating and drinking be still unsatisfied, be 
hath no need of more meat or more drink, but of s 
phjrsician; he more needs to be puiged than to be 
filled : and therefore since covetousness canniot be sa- 
tisfied, it must be cured by emptiness and emcuation. 
The man is without remedy, unless he be reduced td 
tiie scantling of nature, and the measures of his pe^ 
eonal necessity. Give to a poor man a house and a few 
cows, pay his little debt, and set him on work, and he 
is provided for and quiet : but when a man enlargei 
beyond a iair possession, and desires another Lordships 
you spite him if you let him have it : for by that be 
is one degree the further off from rest in his desires 
and satisfaction ; and now he sees himself in a bigger 
capacity to a larger fortune ; and he shall never find 
his period, till you begin to take away something of 
what he hath ; for then he will begin to be glad to 
keep that wifich is left : bat reduce him to nature's 
measures, and there he shall be sure to find rest : for 
there no man can desire beyond his belly-full, and 
when he wants that, any one friend or charitable man 
can cure his poverty ; but all the world cannot satisfy 
his covetousness. 

5. Covetousness is the most fantastical and contra- 
dictory disease in the whole world : it must therefore 
be incurable, because it strives against its own cure. 

Sect, vin.] 

Of Coretonsness. 


No man therefore abstains from meat, because he is 
hungry ; nor from wine, because he loves it and needs 
it, but the covetous man does so ; for he desires it pas- 
sionately, because he says he needs it ; and when he hath 
it, he will need it still, because he dares not use it. 
He gets clothes because he cannot he without them ; 
but when he hath them then he can : as if he needed 
corn for his granary, and clothes for his wardrobe, 
more than for his back and belly. For covetousness 
pretends to heap much together for fear of wanti 
and yet after all his pains and purchase, he suffers 
that really which at first he feared vainly; and by not 
using what he gets, he makes that suffering to be ac- 
tual, picsent, and necessary, which in his lowest con- 
dition was but future, contingent, and possible. It 
stirs up the desire, and takes away the pleasure of be- 
ing Satisfied. It increases the appetite, and will not 
content it. It swells the principal to no purpose, and 
lessens the use to all purposes; disturbing the order of 
nature, and the designs of God ; making money not to 
be the instrument of exchange or charity, nor corn to 
feed himself or the poor, nor wool to clothe himself 
or his brother, nor wine to refresh the sadness of the 
afflicted, nor his oil to make his own countenance 
cheerful : but all these to look upon, and to tell over 
and to take accounts by, and make himself considera- 
ble, and wondered at by foolg, that while he lives he 
may be called rich, and when he dies may he account- 
ed miserable, and, like the dish-makers of China, 
may leave a greater heap of dirt for his nephews, wHne 
be himself bath a new lot fallen to him io the jiortioa 




85S Htfy LhiHg. fCBAT. li 


htfh$ to the bttths; insit ifwriitve^ wiiiied <or^ pecKpMii 
bttnaelft he hekped' Up twedb Ibr ethers, i«4ilie kin* 
keif wu flttby with iouflto wd etbes. Ab4 yM'it 
ifl eensidenible ; if the iniii €«ti be ^Mmteiit ' t6 iecit 
herdljrt an ^ hiboiir ektreohelj^, and ' waAdi twMffy^ 
fend anfftr afflonle and di^Moe, that he 'Aaj gd 
oirniey more than he mU hif his- tert p ftt a n c e and jMt 
heeds, with hoir miich ease taight this mm be happy? 
and with how great uneaslnese' tod! trouble doeeM 
Inake himself misehibkf? ¥oi he tiikes JMnns to gtt 
content^ and when he miight have k lie let* it^gk; 
Be might better be content #ilh a TtiCilotui arid'jqtiiit 
poverty, than' with ah aitificnal, tfmlblesotfie itad i^ 
ous. The same diet Uld a fess kb^Jir WoiM iltftk 
make him happy, and ibr" ever aflM MWItVdhble/' ' 

6. The som of all is that which the Apostle sajrs^ 
cavettmsness is idolatry; that is^ it is an admiririg 
ti^oney for itself, not fbr its use; it rcKes Opefn mcmey^ 
and loves it more than it loves God and religton/ Aad 
is the root' of all evil; it teaches men to be cnlelsiNd 
crafty, industrious and evil, full of care and niaKce ; 
!t devours young heirs, and grinds the fade of the poor, 
and undoes those who especially belong to God^ 
j>rotectioh, helpless, crafbless, and Innocent people; 
it inquires into our parents age, and fohgs for tkc 
death of our friends; it makes friendship an art 6f 
rapine, and changes a partner into a vulture, and a 
^djjttipanion into a thief: and after all this it is for 
no good to itself, for it dares not spend those heaps 
of treasure which it snatched : arid men hate seipents 

tJEcT. VIII.] Of Cc^etousmss. 353 

and basilisks worse than lioiis and bears: for these' kill 
because they need the prey, but they sting to deatfi 
and eat n6t. And if they pretend all this care 'MA 
heap for their heirs, (like the mice of Africa hiding 
the golden ore in their bowels, and refusing to 
give back the undigested gold till their guts be out) 
they may remember, that what was unnecessary for 
themselve^y is as unnecessary for their sons; and 
why cannot they be without it as well as their 
fathers, who did not use it: and it often, hap- 
pens that to' the sons it becomes an instrument to 
serve some lust or other ; that as the gold was useless 
to their fathers, so may the sons be to the public, 
fbols or prodigals, load& to their country, and the 
carse and punishment of their father's avarice: and 
yet all that wealth is short of one blessing ; but it i^ a 
load coming with a curse, and descending from the 
family of a long derived sin. However the father 
transmits it to the son,- and it may be the son to one 
mor6, till a tyrant, or an oppressor, or a war, or 
change of government, or the usurer, or folly, or 
an expensive vice makes holes in the bottom of the 
bag, and the wealth runs out like water, and flieis 
away like a bird from the hand of a child. 

7* Add to these the consideration of the advan- 
tages of poverty ; that it is a state freer from tempta- 
tion, secure in dangers, but of one trouble *, safe 
under the divine providence, cared for in heaven by a 
daily ministration, and for whose support God makes 

* Provocet ut segnes aniinos> rerumque remotas 
Ingeniosa vias paulatiai explorat egestas. Claudian, 

No. 15. 2 z 

' 964 ' Hofy LmHg. [Csap. it. 

etery iaj • ntw daoPte; a itite of mhkk Chfitt pm 
ploiied to make open proffnioii» and many wim. mm 
fdaily make tcm$:i jkiiat a rick' ma^ la but likea pool, 
to whom the poor fuo» and 4nt tionble i^ and then 
jdrair it diy : that be eagojr* no more, of it Jl^ban acr 
cording to the fniw and liviled needs of a men; ha 
«4nnot eat like a wolf or en elepbant:: that vari- 
IBtjr of dainty lire minieteva bot to^pin and aidmni; 
ihat the poor men Itaets cAener. than the ricl^ beceote 
oveiy little d^lafgement is aieest to the poor, but be 
that feasts f^yery day leasts mo day, there being no- 
thing left to which be may beyond his ordinary extead 
bis appetite: that the rich; man sleqps not so soondly 
as. the poor labourer; .that his fears are moreand bis 
ineeds are greater, (for who'-is poorer, he that needb 
^5 or be that needs jfiSQOO }•> the poor man bstb 
enough to fill bis belly, and the rich bath not enough to 
fill his eye : that the poor man*s wants are easy to be 
relieved by a common chanty, but the needs of rich 
men cannot be supplied but by princes ; and they are 
left to the temptation of great vices to make repanu 
tion of their needs ; and the ambitious labours of men 
to get great estates is but like the selting of a fountam 
to buy a fever, a parting with content to buy neceasity, 

* ' S cd oliai 
Prodigio par eat in noUlitate Smeetufc. 
Hortulis lie, puteiiaque brevia nee raete movendutf 
In tenues plantas facili difiundilur haustiu 
Vive bidentis amans et cuiti tUIicus horti^ 
^ Unde epulum possis centum dare Pythagorefo. 
Est aliquid quocunque loco, quocunque recesau 
Uniua dominuoi seae fecisse lacerCa». Juven. Sat. 5. 

Sect, ix.] Of Repentance. 855 


a' pUT^^se of 'an unhandsome condition at the price 
of infelicity : that princes, and they that enjoy most of 
the world, have most of it but in title and supreme 
rights and reserved privileges, pepper-corns, ho- 
mages, trifling services and acknowledgements, the 
real use descending to others to more substantial pur* 
poses. These considerations may be useful to th^ 
caring of covetouiknesB, that the grace of mercifulness 
enlarging the heart of a man, his hand may not be 
contracted, but reached out to the poor in alms. , 


Cy Repentance. 

REPENTANCE of all things in the world makes 
the greatest change ; it changes things in heaven and 
earth : for it changes the whole man from sin to grace^ 
from vicious habits to holy customs, from unchaste 
bodies to angelical souls, from swine to philosophers, 
from drunkenness to sober counsels: and God him- 
self, with whom is no variableness or shadow of change, 
is pleased, by descending to our weak Understandings 
to say, that he changes also upon man's repentance, 
that he alters his decrees, revokes his sentence, cancels 
the bills of accusation, throws the records of shame 
and sorrow from the court of heaven, and lifts up the 
sinner from the grave to life, from his prison to a 
throne from hell, and the guilt of eternal torture, to 
heaven and to a title to never-ceasing felicities. If 
we be bound on earth we shall be bound in heaven . 



Hobf liamg. [Omtat. iv^ 


ifipebe abiolvied bere^ wefehidL be;il0Oied^.tlM)ie{ if 
^ nqpeott God will repent,. and not aend tborOfil 
npon at which we b»d dcfervad. ii, 

-BnX repentuncft 14 a eoiyvg^tion end ioeie^ ef 
neny duties: end it oontaips Jn it ell th«.perts4yf t 
holy lifie^ from the time of onr leturti^ to^-lbe dey ef 
our death inc|ati?e|y; end it hath in it lonw 
things especielly. reletingto the sins, of our hnmfi 
dejrs which . ere now to be ebelisbod by special «ts 
end have obliged us to special laboars> and broof^t 
in many new necessities^ and pot us into a Yety grest 
deal of danger. And becense it is a. duty consisting^ 
of so many parts, and so moffb employment, it abo 
repairs much time and leaves e man in the same 
degree of hope or pardon,. aS'is his restitution to the 
state of righteouisness and holy liviog^t Son wbicfa 
we covenanted in baptism. For we must know ttut 
there is . but one repentance in a man's whole lifis^ 
if repentance be taken in the proper and strict evan- 
gelical covenant-sense, and not after the ordinary un* 
derstanding of the word ; that is, we are but oooe 
to change our whole estate of life, from the poira: 
of the devil, and his entire possession, from the state 
of sin and death, from the body of corruption to 
the life of grace, to the possession of Jesus, to the 
kingdom of the gospel, and this is done in the bap? 
tism of water, or in the baptism of the Spirit^ whea 
the first rite comes to be verified . by God's grace 
coming upon us, and by our obedience to the hea- 
venly calling, we working together with God, After 
this change, if ever we fall into, the contrary, state, 

■ ■ / ■ 

Sect. IX.] Of Repentance. 357 

and be wholly estranged from God and religion, and 
profess ourselves servants of unrighteousness, God 
hath made no more covenant of restitution to us, 
there is no place left for any more repentance, or 
entire change of condition, or new birth : a man can 
be r^enerate but once. And such are voluntary^ 
malicious apostates, witches, obstinate, impenitent 
persons, and the like. But if we Jbe overtaken by in- 
firmity, or enter into the marches or borders of this 
estate, and commit a grievous sin, or ten, or twenty, 
so we be not in the entire possession of the devil, we 
are for the present in a damnable condition if we die: 
but if we live, . we are in a recoverable condition ; for 
so we may repent often. We repent or rise from 
death but once, but from sickness many times ; and 
by the grace of God we shall be pardoned if so we 
repent. But our hopes of pardon are just as is the 
repentance; which if it be timely, hearty, industrious . 
and efl^tive, God accepts ; not by weighing grains 
or scruples, but by estimating the great proportions of 
our life. A hearty endeavour and an eflfectual general 
change shall get the pardon ; the unavoidable infir* 
raities, and past evils, and ])resent imperfections, and 
short interruptions, against which we watch and pray, 
and strive, being put upon the accounts of the cross, 
and prayed for by the holy Jesus. This is the state 
and condition of repentance: its parts and actions 
must be valued according to the following rules. 

^cts and parts of Repentance. 

. 1. ;He that repents truly is greatly sorrowful for 
his pist 4ins ; not with a superficial sigh or tear, but a 

S58 H^y Homg. [ Chap. it. 

pungent afflictive sorrow ; raeh a tdrrow m httn tl» 
•in to much, that the maa woold choose to die fadM 
than act it any more. This aorrow ia called in acsrip- 
tnre [a weeping eorefy^ a wee fU ^ with bUtemenef 
hearty a weeping dmf rnmi nigkt^ a mnrom of hearty a 
wfeonh^ *0j the epintf ftnowrwmeg like u doM^ -Mi 
ehatierbug like a ewaUowt] and when w^ wad Ifal 
degree and manner of it by the lamentatioiia andW 
aocentaof the prophet Jeremiah^ when he weptJbr 
tile sins of the nation; bjthe heare-braakiagaf-ltaM^ 
when he moarned Amt hit murder and adultery t and 
the bitter weeping of SSf • P!e/er^ after the thameM 
denying of his master. (Jer. xiii. Vf. JbeL iii M« 
Bnek. xxvii. 31. Jamee W. g.) The eiqireasiMi of fan 
sorrow difiers acixndiog to the temper of Ae boi^; 
the sex, the age, and circumstance cf action, and* dM 
motive of sorrow, and by many accidental tendernesies 
or masculine hardnesses ; and the repentance is not to 
be estimated by the tears, but by the grid^; and tbs 
grief is to be valued not by the sensitive trouble, bat 
by the cordial hatred of the sin, and ready actual dere^ 
Itction of it, and a resolution, and real resisting iU 
consequent temptations. Some people can shed lesrs 
for nothing : some for any thing ; but the proper sad 
true effects of a godly sorrow are, fear of the divine 
judgments, apprehension of CkxTs displeasure, iMttcb- 
ings and strivings against sin, patiently enduring the 
cross of sorrow, (which God sends as their punish- 
ment^) in accusation of ourselves, in perpetually b^- 
ging pardon, in mean and base opinions of ourselves^ 
and in all the natural productions from these, accord- 
ing to our temper and constitution; For if wa b< apt 

Sect, ix.] Of Repentance. 359 

to weep in other accidents^ it is ill if we weep not 
also in the arrows of repentance : not that weeping 
ia of itself a duty ; but that the sorrow, if it be as 
great, will be still expressed in as great a manner. 

2. Our sorrow for sins must retain the proportioti 
of our sins, though not the equality: wfi have no 
particular measures of sins; we know pot which it 
greater, of . sacrilege,, or superstition, idolatry or covet- 
ousness, rebellion or witchcraft: and therefore God 
ties us not to nice measures of sorrow, but only that 
we keep the general rules of proportion ; that is, that a 
great sin have a great grief, a smaller crime being to 
be washed off with a lesser shower. 

3. Our sorrow for sins'* is then best accounted of ibr 
its degree, wh.en it, together with all the penal and 
afflictive duties of repentance, shall have equalled or 
exceeded the pleasure we had in commission of the sin. 

4. True repentance is a punishing duty, and acts 
its sorrow, and judges and condemns the sin by volun- 
tary submitting to such sadnesses as God sends on 
US ; or (tQ prevent the judgment of God) by judging 
ourselves, and punishing our bodies and our spirits by 
such instruments of piety, as are troublesome to the 
body: such as are fasting, watching, long prayers, trou** 
blesome postures in our prayers, expensive alms, add 
all outward acts of humiliation. For he that most 
judge himself,, must condemn himself if be be guilty: 
and if he be condemned he must be punished i and if 
he be so judged, it will help to prevent the judgment <^ 
the Lord, St. Paul instructing us in this particular, 

* Hugo de S. Victor. 

360 Holy Ucing. [Chap. n. 

(\ Cor. x\. S\.) But 1 before iatimated, that the punish- 
ing actions of rqientance are only actions of aorrow^ and 
therefore are to make up the proportions of it. For 
our grief may be so full of trouble^ as to outweigh all 
the burdens of fasti and bodily afflictions^ and then the 
other are the less necessary ; and when they are used, 
the benefit of them is to obtain of God a remission or 
a lessening of such temporal judgments which God 
hath decreed against the sins^ as it was in the case of 
Ahah : but the sinner is not by any thing of this re- 
conciled to the eternal favour of God ; for as yet thii 
is but the introduction to repentance. 

5. Every true penitent is obliged to confess his sim^ 
and to humble himself before God for ever. Confession 
of sins hath a special promise: If tee confess our shSi 
he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins : i J<^ 
i. 9* meaning that God hath bound himself to forgive 
us^ if we duly confess our sins, and do all that for 
which confession was appointed ; that is, be ashamed 
of them, and own them no more. For confession of our 
sins to God can signify nothing of itself in its direct 
nature: he sees us when we act them, and keeps a 
record of them ; and we forget them unless he reminds 
us of them by his grace. So that to confess them to 
God does not punish us, or make us ashamed ; but 
confession to him, if it proceed from shame and sor- 
row, and is an act of humiliation and self-condemna- 
tion, and is a laying open our wounds for cure, then it 
is a duty God delights in. In all which circumstances^ 
because we may very much be helped, if we take 
in tlie assistance of a sj[)iritual guide; therefore the 

- - ' - • - ■-■■ - -^*>. 

Sect, ix.] Of Repentance, 361 


church of God in all i^s hath commended and in 
most ages enjoined^ . that, we confess our sins, aind 
discover the state and condition of .our jsouls to such 
a person whom we or our superiors judge iSt to heljp 
lis* in such .needs. For so [if toe confess our sins one 
to another} as St. James advises, we shall obtain the 
prayers of the holy man whom ' God adid the church 
hath appointed solemnly^ to pray for us: and when he 
knows, our needs^ he can best minister, tomfort or re- 
proof, oil or caustics; he can more Oppprtunely re* 
commend your particular state to Gpd^ he can deter- 
mine your cases of conscien<^, and: judge better fbl* 
you than you do for your^elfj and the shame of open- 
ing such ulcers may restrain your forwardness to con- 
tract them : and all these circumstauces of advantage 
will do very much towards the forgiveness^ And this 
course was taken by the new converts in the days of 
the Apostles. [For many that believed, came and con- 
fessedy and shewed their deeds.} (/icts xix. 18.) And 
it were well if this duty were practised prudently and 
innocently, in order to public discipline, or private 
comfort and instruction : but that it be done to God 
is a duty, not directly for itself, but for its adjuncts 
and the duties that go with it, or before it, or after it: 
which duties, because they are all to be helped and 
guided by our pastors and curates of souls, he is care- 
ful of his eternal interest that will not lose the advan- 
tage pf using a private guide and judge. [He that 
hideth his sins shall iiot prosper; [Non dirigetur^ 
saith the vulgar Latin, he shall want a guide} hut 
whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have 
No. l6. 3 A 

Hofy Lmng. [Chap, it 

Mercy. And to this purpose CKMOcAtif rqxnts Aven 

holy persons in thet age did use to cany table-boofa 
with them, a»d in them described an aoooont of alt 
their determinate thoughts, purposes, worda and ae* 

^tions, in which -they had suflered infirmity; tfiatby 
communicatii^ the estate of Iheir aouf s they might be 
instructed and guided, and corrected or eneoon^^. 
6. True repentance must reduce to act all its hxify 
purposes, and enter into and run through the Hatecf 
My Hvmgp (Ram. yn. 3, 4, 7* and viii. 10. and 
xiii. 13, 14. and xi. 33, 37* 0€U. y. 6, 34. and vi. 
16. iCbr. fii. 19^ iiOor. ziit. 5. Cbhss. L 31, 23, 
33. Heb. xil 1, 14, 1& and z. l6,33. iPe/.i.l5. 
uPet. i. 4, 9, 10. and iii. 11. iJohn i. 6. and iil 8, 
9. and v. l6.) whidi is contrary to that state <^ daik- 
ness in which in times past we walked*. For to re- 
solve to do it, and yet not to do it, is to break osr 
resolution and our faith, to mock God, to falsify and 
evacuate all the preceding acts of repentance, and to 
make our pardon hopeless, and our hope fruitless. 
He that resolves to live well when a danger is upon 
him, or a violent fear, or when the appetites of lust 
are newly satisfied, or newly served, yet when the 
temptation comes again, sins again, and then is sor- 

. rowful, and resolves once more against it, and yet 
falls when the temptation returns, is a vain man, but 
no true penitent, nor in the state of grace; and if he 
chance to die in one of those good moods, is very far 
irom salvation : for if it be necessary that we resolve 
to live well, it is necessary we should da so. For 
* Ncqukm illud verbum> Ben^ volt nisi qui ben^ faclt. Trinummus. 

Sect, ix.] Of Repentance, autt, 

nssolution is an imperfect act, a term of relation;' 
and signifies nothing but in order to the actions^ It 
18 as, a faculty is to the act, as spring to. the hanrest,; 
as ^gs are to birds, as a relative to its correspondent,, 
nothing without it. No man therefore can be in the 
state of grace and actual favour by resolutions and holy 
purposes, these are but the gate portal towards pai'-^ 
don : a holy life is the only perfection of repentance,* 
and the firm ground upon which we can cast the an;*, 
chor of hopein the merciesof God through Jesus Christ^ 

7. No man is to reckon his pardon immediately 
mpon his returns from sin to the beginnings of good 
life, but is to begin his hopes and degrees of confi-; 
dence according as sin dies in him, and grace lives; 
as the habit of sin lessens^ and righteousness grows \ 
accordingas sin returns but seldom, in smaller instances 
aid without choice, and by surprise without delibe-; 
ration, and is highly disrelished, and presently dashed 
against the rock Christ Jesus by a holy sorrow and 
renewed care and more strict watchfulness. . For a 
holy life being the condition of the covenant on. our 
part, as we return to God, so God returns to us, . and 
o^ state returns to the probabilities of pardon. 

8. Every man is to work out his salvation with fe^r 
and trembling : and after the commission of sins his 
fears ,mtt8t multiply ; because every new sin in every 
great declining from the ways of God is still a degree 
of. new danger, and hath increased God's anger, and 
hath made him more uneasy to grant pardon ; andh 
when he does grant it, it is upon harder terms both 
for doing and suffering ; that is, we must do more 

S64 Hol^ Ufomg. [Chap. it. 

* ■ ■ 11 II ^ p # ■ , 


for ptrdon, and, it may be^ taflfer mueh maie ^For 
#e tomt kDow tbat God p^lrdbni oar tins by ptiti; 
ai oatr du^ inciwiesy and oar isare is mote pradmt 
and actife, to God*t anger decreatet ; and jet it intf 
be the last tin jroa oonkmitted made God onaltenibly 
retolved to tend upon yon tome tad judgment. Of 
tile particulart in all catet we are uncertain ; and 
therefore we have reaton alwayt tb* mottrn for oar 
tint that have to provdced God; and made 'our cbn- 
dition to fiill of danger^ that it may be no prayen or 
teart or duty can alter hit tentence concerning tome 
tad judgment upon us. Thut God inerocably decreed 
to punish the IsraeKies for idolatry, ahhougb Muet 
prayed for them and God forgave them in aonie 
d^^ree: that ir, to that lie would not cut them cff from 
being a people, yet be would i>o\ forgiTe tbem mo, bot 
he would visit that their sin upon them ; and he did so. 
9. *A true penitent must all the days of his life 
pray for pardon, and never think the work com- 
pleted till he dies; not by any act of his own, by 
no act of the church, by no forgiveness of the -party 
injured, by no restitution. These are all instruments 
of great use and efficacy, and the means by which it 
is to be done at length; but still the sin lies at 
the door ready to return upon us in judgment and 
damnation, if we return to it in choice or action. 
And whether God hath forgiven us or no, we know 
not'f'; and how far we know not; and all that we 
have done is not of sufficient worth to obtain pardon: 

* Dandum interstitium pcenitentise. Tadt^ 
^ t L' peccs^ti et dihiti so^ sempre piu di quel che si crede. 

Sect, ix.] Of Repentame. 365 

— — * — 

therefore still pray^ and still be sorreWful for ever 
haying done it, and for ever watch against it; and then 
those beginnings of pardon^ which are working all the 
way, will at last be perfected in the day of the Locd. 
lO. Defer not at all to repent ; much less nia3rest 
thou put it off to thy death-bed. It is not an easy 
thing to root out the habits of sin, which a man's 
whole life hath gathered and confirmed. We: find 
work enough to mortify one. beloved lust, in pur. 
very best advantage of strength and time^ and before 
it is so deeply rooted as it must needs be supposed 
to be at the end of a wicked Kfe: and therefore it 
will prbve^impossible when the work is so great and 
the strength so little, when sin is so: strong and grace 
80 weak : for they always keep the same proportion 
of increase and decrease^ and as sin grows, grace 
decays : so that the more need we have of grace, the 
less at that time we shall have; because the greatness 
of our sin, which makes the need, hath lessened the. 
graee of Ciod (which should help us) into nothingl^. 
To which add this consideration, that on. a man's 
death-bed the day of repentance is past : for repent- 
ance being the renewing of a holy life, a living the 
life of grace, it is a contradiction to say that a man 
can live a holy life upon his death-bed : especially if 
we consider, that for a sinner to live a holy life must 
first sirppose him to have overcome all his evil habits, 
and 'then to have made a purchase of the contrary 

^ Mortem venientem nemo hilafis excipit^ nisi qui ad earn se diu 



S66 Uofy livMg. > [Chap. it. 

■ " 'I 

graoest by the hboim of great pnideoce^ watchfbl- 
aesfy aelf-denial, and wffwentf. JNIatki$tg thai is eir- 
aUent can be wrtmghi smddenbf. 

11. After the begianiiigs of thy re c ove ry ^ be 
inflnitdy fearfiil of a relapse ; end therefore npon 
the stoek of thy sad e xp er k mc e .obeairve where thy 
fiBttlings were» and by special arte fortify that facataf^ 
and arm against that temptation. For if all ibtm 
aiguments wbioh God uses to us to preserve oar 
innoeence, and thy late dangers^ and thy feafi ^ ohA 
the goodness of God making thee once to escape^ and 
t|^ shame of thy IU1|» aad the sense of thy owa 
weaknesses will not makeitbee watchM i^inst a 611^ 
especially knowing how mnch it costs aman to be r^ 
stored^ it frill be infinitely more cbngeroas if €^^. 
thou fiiUest again, not only for fear God should n6 
more accept thee to pardon, but even thy own hopes 
will be made more desperate, and thy impatience 
greater, and thy shame turn to impudence, land thy 
own wil\be more estranged, violent and refractory, and 
th^ latter end will he worse than thy beginning. 
To which add this consideration, that thy sin, which 
was formerly in a good way of being pardoned, wilt 
not only return upon thee with all its own loads, but 
with the baseness of unthankfulness, and thou wUt be- 
set ^ &r back from heaven as ever; and all thy former 
labours and fears, and watchings, and agonies will be 
reckoned for nothing, but as arguments to upbraid thy 
folly, who, when thou hadst set one foot in heaven, 
didst pull that back, and carry both to hell. 

Sect, ix.] Of Repentance, SOT 

Motives to Repentance. 
I shall dse no other argomenta to move a sinner t6 
repentance^ but to tell him^ unless he do^s, he shall 
certainly perish ; and if he does repent timety and en- 
tirely, that is, live an holy life, he shall be forgiven 
and be saved. But yet I desire that this consideration 
be enlarged with some great circumstances; and let 
us remember. 

1. That to ^mit mankind to repentance and par- 
don was a favour grieater than ever God gave to the 
angels and devils, for they were never admitted tb the 
condition of second thoughts; Christ never groaned 
one groan for tliem ; he never suffered one stripe, nor 
one affront, nor shed one drop of blood to restore tbem 
to hopes <^ blessedness after their first failings. But 
this be did for us: he paid the score of our sins, only 
that we might be admitted to repent, and that this re- 
pentance might be effectual to the great purposes of 
felicity and salvation. 

2. Consider that as it cost Christ inany millions of 
prayers, ^nd groans, and sighs^ so he \i now iat thi^ 
instant, and hath been for these 1800 years, night 
and day incessantly praying for grace to ufrj that we 
may repent, and for pardon when we do, and for dc^ 
gl'ees: of pardon beyond the capacities of our infir- 
mities, and the merit of our sorrows and amendment; 
and thi3 prayer he will continue till his second com- 
ing ; For he ever liveth to make intercession for us. 
Heh. vU. 2b. And that we may know what it is in 
behalf of which be intercedes, St. Paul tells us 
his design, \lVe are ambassadors for Christ, as 

Hobf Lhmg. [Chap. it. 

though he did beseech yau bjf u$, we pray you m 
Chrisfe steadio he recomnled to Ood.'] (n Cor. v. 20.) 
And what Christ pnyt us to do» Ke prays to God tbst 
we may do ; that which be desires of us as his servant!} 
he desires of God» who is the fountain of the grace 
and powers unto us^ and without whose assistance w€ 
can do nothing. 

3. That ever we should repent, was ao costly « 
purchase^ and so great a concernment^, and so high a 
ftvour, and the event is esteemed hy /God himaeliF ao 
great an excellency, that our blessed Saviour tells ai| 
there shall be joy in heaven ateer one sinner tket 
repenteth : (Luke xv. 70 meaning, that when CSiiiat 
shall be glorified, and at the right hand of his lather 
make intercession for us, praying for oiir i«pen,taaC0^ 
the conversion and repentance of every sinner is part 
of Christ's glorification, it is the' answering of his 
prayers, it is a portion of his reward in which he 
does essentially glory by the joys of his glorified 
humanity. This is the joy of our Lord himself 
directly, not of the angels; save only by reflection; 
the joy (said our blessed Saviour) shall be in the 
presence.of the angels, they shall se^ the glory of the 
Lord, the answering of his prayers, the satisfaction 
of his desires, and the reward 6f his sufieriogs, in the 
repentance and consequent pardon of a sinner. For 
therefore he once sufiered, and for that reason he re- 
joices for ever. And therefore when a penitent 
sinner comes to receive the efl^ect and full con- 
summation of his pardon, it is called [an entering 
into the joy of our Lord] that is, a partaking of that 

Sect, ix.] Of Repentance. 369 

■■ ■ ' ■ 

joy which Christ received at our conversion^ and 
enjoyed ever since. 

4. Add to this^ that the rewards of heaven are so 
great and glorious, and Christ^s burden is so light, his 
yoke his so easy, that it is a shameless impudence to 
expect so great glories at a less rale than so little a 
aervice, at a loWer rate than a holy Ijfe. It cost the ^ 
heart-blood of the son of God to obtain heaven for us 
upon that (Condition; and who shall die again, to get 
heaven for us upon easier terms? What Would you do 
if God should command you to kill your eldest son^ 
or to wbrk in the mines for a thousand years together, 
er to fast all your life-time with bread and water? 
Were not heaven a very great bargain even after all 
this? and when God requires nothing of us but to 
live soberly, justly and godly, (which things of 
themselves are to a man a very great felicity, and 
tfi^cessary to oUr present well-being) shall we think 
this to be an intolerable burden, and that heaven 
k too Httte a purchase at that price; and that God in 
mere justice will take a death-bed sigh or groan, and 
a few utiprbfitable teari and promises, in exchange , 
for all our duty? - ♦ 

If thesel motives joined together with our own 
interest, even as much as felicity and the sight of 
God; and the avoiding the intolerable pains of hell, 
and many intermedial judgments come to, will not 
mdve us to leave, 1. The filth iness, and 2. The 
trouble, and 3. The uneasiness, at\d 4. The uitreasbn-^ 
abteness of sin, and turn to' God, th^re is no more ta 
be said, vre must perish in our folly. 

No. I6. 3 b 

370 Holff Uvins- [Chap. it. 


Of Preparation to, and the manner how to receive 
the Holy Sacrament of the LonTg Supper. 

TH£ celebration of the Holy Sacrament is the 
great niysteriousness of the Christian religion, and 
succeeds to the most solemn rite of natural and 
judaical religion, the law of sacrificing. For God 
spared mankind, and took the sacrifice bf beasts, 
together with our solemn prayers, for an intstrumeot 
of expiation. But these could not purify the soul 
from 'siu, but were typical of the sacrifice of some- 
thing that could. But nothing could do this, but 
either the offering of all that sinned, that every man 
should be the anathema or devoted thing; or else by 
some one of the same capacity, who by some super- 
added excellency might in his own personal ^ufierings 
have a value great enough to satisfy for all the whole 
kind of sinning persons. This the Son of God, Jesus 
Christ, God and man, undertook, and finished by a 
sacrifice of himself upon the altar of the cross. 

2. This sacrifice, because it was perfect, could be 
but onof and that once: but because the needs of 
the world should last as long as the world itsell, it was 
necessary that there should be a perpetual ministry 
established, whereby this one sufficient sacrifice 
should be made eternally eflfectuql to the seyeral new 
arising needs of all the worlcj who should desire it, or 
in any sense be capable of it. .. i 

3. To this end Christ was made a priest for ever : 
he was initiated or consecrated on the cross, and 

Sect, x.] Preparation to the tioly Sacrament. 371 

there began his priesthood, which was to last till 
his coming to judgment. It began on earth, but 
was to last and be offi(;iated in heaven, where he 
sits perpetually representing and exbiting to the 
Father that great effective sacrifice (which he offered 
on the cross) to eternal and never-failing purposes. 

4. As Christ is pleased to represent to his Father 
that great sacrifice, as a means of atonement and 
expiation for all mankind, and with special purposes 
and intendment for all the elect, all that serve him in 
holiness; so he hath appointed that the same ministry 
shall be done upon earth too, in our manner, and 
according to our proportion ; and therefore hath 
constituted and separated an order of men, who, 
by shewing forth the Lords death by sacramental re- 
presentation, may pray unto God after the same 
liianner, that our Lord and High-Priest does; that' 
i«, offer to God, and represent in this solemn prayer 
and sacrament,' Christ has already offered; so sending 
up a gracious instrument, whereby our prayers may 
for his sake, and in the same manner of intercession, 
be offered up to God in our behalf, and for all them 
for whom we pray, to all those purposes Ibr which 
Christ died. 

5. As the ministers of the sacrament do in a sacra- 
mental manner present to God the sacrifice of the 
cross, by being imitators of Christ's intercession; so 
the people are sacrificers too in their manner: for be- 
sides that, by saying Amen, they join in the act of him 
that ministers, and make it also to be their own ; so 
when they eat and drink the consecrated and blessed 


372 Uofy Lmmg. [Cbaf. if. 

* ■ ■ 

elements worthily^ they receive Christ witbio them, 
and therefore may also offer him to God, while in 
their sacrifice of obedience and thanksgiving tbey^ 
present themselves to God with Christy whom they 
have spiritually received^ that is, themselves with 
that which will make them gracious and acceptable. 
The offering their bodies and souls, and services to 
God, in him, and by him, and with hioif who is bit 
Father*s weW-behved^ and in whom he is wellpleasedi 
cannot but be accepted to all the purposes of bless- 
ing, grace, and glory*. 

6. This is the sum of the greatest mystery of our 
religion; it is the copy of the passion, and the 
ministration of the gres^t mystery of pur redemptiooi 
and therefore whatsoever entitles us to the generil 
privileges of Christ's passion, all that is nec^sary by 
way is disposition to the celebration of the sacrament 
of his passion, because this celebration is our manner 
of applying or using it. The particulars of which 
preparation are represented in the following rules. 

1. No man must dare to approach to the holy 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper, if he be in a state of 
any one sip^, that is, unless he h^ve entered into the 
state of repentance, that is, of sorrow and amend- 
ment; lest it be said concerning him, as it was 
concerning Judas i The hai>d of him that betrayetb 
me is with me on the table: and he that receivetb 

* N6sti tempora tu Jovis sereni. 
Cum fulget placidus^ sudque vultu^ 
Quo nil 8upplicibu5 solet negare. Martial. Ep. 1. 5. 6. 
f Vasa pura ad rem Divinanii Plant in Cap. Act. 4. sc. ].. 

Jt. ■ ■ J ■ 

Sbct. X.] Preparation to the Holy Sacrament. 873 

Christ into an impure soul or body^ first turns hid 
aaost excellent nourishment into poison^ and then 
fi^s upon it. 

H. Every communicant must first hai^ examined 
himself, that is, tried the condition and state of hi# 
aoul, searched out the secret ulcers, inquired out its 
weaknesses and indiscretions, and all those aptnesses 
where it is exposed to temptation ; that by finding 
cMit its diseases he may find a cure, and by discover^ 
ing its aptnesses he may secure his present purposesr 
of future amendment, and may be armed againef 
dangers and temptations. 

8. This examination must be a man's own aet, and* 
inquisition into his life ; but then al«o it should lead> 
a man to run to those whom the great Physician of 
our soub, Christ Jesus,' hath appointed to minister 
physic to our diseases ; that in all dangers and great 
accidents we mi^y be assisted with comfort and re^ 
medy, for medicine and caution. 

4. In this afiair let no man deceive himself, and' 
against such a time whi(^h public authority hath ap>i- 
pointed for us to receive the sacrament, weep for hts< 
sins by way of solemnity and ceremony, adft still re^ 
tain the afiection ; but be thati comesto this feast must' 
have on the wedding-garment, that is, he n^ust have* 
pot on Jesus Christy and h? must have put off* the old 
man with his affections and lusts; and he must be* 
tpholly conformed to Christ in the image of his mind. 
For then we have put on Christ, when our souls are 
plotfaed with righteousness, when every fbcujty of 
0ur ijput is proportioned and vested accprdfi^ to the- 


S74 Hofy Im^. [Chaf. rr. 

ptttera* of Christy life. And therefore a man miist 
not leap from his last night's surfeit and bath, aw) 
then communicate: but when he hath begun tb^ 
work of God. eflfectoallyy and made some progress in 
vepentance^ and hath walked some stages and periods 
in the ways of godliness, then let him come to bin 
that is to minister it^ and baying made known the stite 
of his soul^ he is to be admitted ; but to receive it 
into an unhallowed soul and body, is to receive tfas 
dust of the tabernacle in the waters of jealousy ; it 
will make the belly toewtU, and the thigh to rot; it 
will not convey Christ to us, but the devil srill entai' 
and dwell there, till with it he returns to, his dwelling 
of torment Remember always that after a great sio, 
or after a habit of sins, a mati is not soon made clean} 
and no unclean thing must come to this feast. It is 
not the preparation of two or three days that can 
render a person capable of this banquet : for in this 
feast all Christ, and Christ's passion, and all his graces, 
the blessings, and effects of his sufferings are con- , 
veyed. Nothing can fit us for this but what can unite 
us to Christ, and obtain of him to present our needs 
to his hclivenly Father : this sacrament can no other 
ways be celebrated but upon the same terms on which 
we may hope for pardon and heaven itself 

5. When we have this general and indispensably 
necessary preparation, we are to make our souls 
more adorned and trimmed up with circumstances 
of pious actions and special devotions, setting apart 
some portions of our time immediately before the 
dfty of solemnity, . according as our great occasions 

Sect, x.] Preparation to the Holy Sacrament, 875 

ivill permit : and this time is especially to be spent 
in actions of repentance, confessions of our sins, re^ 
newing our purposes of holy living, praying for par-^ 
don of our failings, and for those graces which may 
prevent the like sadnesses for the time to come^ 
meditation upon the passion, upon the infinite love 
of God expressed in so great mysterious manners of 
redemption : and indefinitely in all acts of virtue 
which may build our souls up into a temple fit for the 
reception of Christ himself, and the inhabitation of 
the Holy Spirit. 

6. The celebration of the holy sacrament being the 
most solemn prayer, joined with the most effectual 
instrument of its acceptance, must suppose us in the 
love of God, and in charity with all the world: and 
tlicrefore we must, before every communion espe- 
cially, remember what differences or jealousies are 
between us and any one else, and re-compose all dis- 
unions, and cause right understandings between each 
other, offering to satisfy whom we have injured, and 
to forgive them who have injured us, without thoughts 
of resuming the quarrel when the solemnity is over; 
for that is but to take the embers in light and fan- 
tastic ashes ; it must be quenched, and a holy flame 
enkindled. No fires must be at all, but the flres of 
love and zeal: and the altar of incense will send up a 
sweet perfume, and make atonement for us. 

7* When the day of the feast is come, lay aside all 
cares and impertinences of the world, and remember 
that (his is thy souPs day, a day of traffic and inter- 
course with heaven. Arise early in the morning. 

370 Hohf Living. [Chap. it. 

1, Give God thanks for the Upprotch of so grett a 
blessing. 2. Confess thine own unworthiness to. ad- 
mit so divine a guest, a. Then remember and deplore 
thy sins which have made thee so unworthy. 4. Thea 
confess God*8 goodness, and take sanctuary there, and 
upon him place thy ho|)es. 5. And invite him to tbee 
with renewed acta of love, of holy desire, of hatred 
of his enemy, sin. 6. Make oblation of thyself wholi3F 
to be disposed by him, to the obedience of him, to bis 
providence and possession, and pray him to enter and 
dwell there for ever. And after this, with joy and holy 
fear, and the forwardness of love, address thyself to the 
receiving of him^ to whom, and by whom, ^aod for 
whom all faith, and all hope, andall'love in the whole 
catholic church, both in heaven and earth, is designed} 
him, whom kings and queens, and whole kingdoms are 
in love with, and count it the greatest honour in the 
world, tliat their crowns and sceptres are laid at his 
holy feet. 

8. When the holy awin stands at the table ofblesaingy 
and ministers the right of consecration, then do as the 
angels do, who behold, and love, and wonder, that 
the Son of God should become food to the souls of 
his servants; that he who cannot sufier any change or^ 
lessening, should be broken into pieces, and enter into ' 
the body to support and nourish the spirit^ and yet- 
at the same time remain in heaven while he descends 
to thee upon earth; that he who hath essc^ntial feli- 
city should become miserable and die for thee, and 
then give himself to thee for ever to redeem thee from 
sin and misery; that by his. wounds he should pix)cure 


Sect, x.] Preparation to the Holy Sacrament. 377 

. 1 ' ' " . — ■ ■ » 

«»— — ^^»«»^.^— — ^— — .^^— ■M^^— J— — »— ^— ^»»— ^Mi^— — 111 ■ 

liealth to thee ; by his affronts shjould entitle thee 
to'gloiy^. by -his death he should bring thee to life, 
and by beooming a man be should make thee partaker 
«f the divine nature. These are such glories^ that 
€[kll<>ugh they are made so obvious that each eye may 
liehold them, yet they are also so deep that no 
thought can imthom them: but so it hath pleafsed him 
to make ^hese inysteries to be sensible, because the 
excellency and depth of the mercy is not intelligible, 
that while we are ravished and comprehended within 
the in&niteness of so vast and mysterious a mercy, yet 
we may be as sure of it as of that thing we see, and 
ieel, and smell, and taste, but yet it is so great that 
we cannot understand it. 

9« These holy mysteries are offered to our senses, 
but not to be placed under our feet; they are sen- 
8ible« bat not common ; and therefore, as the wieak^ 
oess of the elements adds woiuler to the excellem^y 
of the sacrament, so Jet our reverence and venera-. 
ble usages of them add honour to the elements, and 
acknowledge the glory of the mystery, and the di- 
vinity of the mercy. Let us receive the consecrated 
elements with all devotion mA humility of body and 
spirit; and do this honour to it, that it be the first 
food we eat, and the first beverage we drink that 
day, unless it be in case of sickiiess, or other great 
necessity * ; and that your body and soul both be pre- 
pared to its receptioa with abstinence from secular 
pleasures, that you may better have attended fastings 

» — .— Discedite ab aris, 
(|iieis tulit )iestern£l gaudia Aoctc Venus. 

No. 16. 3 C 

a78 Hofy Lkmg. rCnAP. it. 

and pveptntoiy prayan* For if .afar it ba mm* 
aUa to obianra tha oounsal of St. Faml, Aak nwrmd 
panxmi by coniant shoold abftaiiiffivr a tioia^ diat t^ 
may attend 'to tolamn raUgion^ it is now. . It sm 
not fay jS/. P0MI9 nor tha afta^agai of the diuiriMM' 
kd a doty 00 to do, but it it mott maioiiablartfnt 
tha more sofemn actions of mligioii dionkt.baslt 
tended to without tha mixtora of Wf thing th^any 
discompose the mind^rsnd maka it mom aamUar^er 
less religious* :;..m 

10. In the act of receivings axerdsa aots aC hiHh 
with much confidence and.rasignatioo» bditfviiig it 
not to be common bread aod winc^ halt thsir 
use, holy in their signification^ . holy in their ol^angi^ 
and holy in their .effect :. and balMsaa^ if than aft s 
worthy commnnican^ thMi .dint as verily. jneoeba 
Christ's body and blood to a)l afiects and pnrposesof 
the Spirit^ as thou dost receive the blessed elemmts 
into tiiy mouthy that thou pattest thy fioger to.hii 
hand, and thy hand into his side, and thy iips to bit 
fontinel of bloody sucking iife from his heart f : aod 
yet if thou dost communicate, unworthily^ thou eatait 
and drinkest Christ to thy danger anddcAth^ and d^ 
stniction. Dispute not Qooceming the steret 0^ tbs 
mystery, and the nicety of the manner of Christ's 
presence ; it is, sufficient, to thee that Chtttt shall he 
present to thy soul, as an instmmeilit of grao^ as s 
pledge of the]^resurrection, aa the earnest of glory aiMJ 
immortality, and a means of many intermedial blsN- 

^ Cruci hsremuAj aaBguioem suglmiis* et inter ipsa RedenptoiJi ' 
pottri Vulnera figimus Ungosoi. Cjfpmn. de Ccnm Dom.. 

Sect, x.] Preparation to the Holy Sacrament. 3i9 

higs^ 6ven all such ts are necesiary for the^ and are 
in cmier to thy fiaWation. And to make all this good 
to diee^ there is nottiing necessary oil thy part htit t 
holy lif6) and a true belief of all the sayings of Christ} 
amimgst which, indefinitely assent to the words of 
instibitioni and believe that Christ in the holy sacra- 
ment gives thte his body and his blood. He that 
believes nxrt this is not a Christian. He that believes 
so much needs not to inquire further, nor to ehtangltf 
bis faith by disbelieving hii sense. 

Jl. Fail not at this solemnity, according to the 
custom of piotis and devout people, to make an offer- 
tug unto God for uses of religion and the poor, 
noeofding to thy ability. For when Christ feasts his 
body, let us also feist our fellow members who have 
right to the same pronlises, and are partakers of the 
aame sacrament, and partners of the same hope, and 
tcared fbr under the same providence^ and descend 
from the same common parents, and whose father 
God is, and Christ is their elder brother. If thou 
ehancest to communicate where this holy custom is not 
observed publicly, supply that want by thy private 
charity; but offer it to God at his holy table, at least 
by-thy private designing it there. 

12. When you have received, pray and give thanks: 
pray for all estates of men, for 'they also have an 
interest in the body of Christ, whereof they are mem- 
bers: and you in conjunction with Christ (whom then 
yon have received) are more fit to pray for them in 
that advantage,, and in the celebration of th^t holy 
sacrifice which then is sacramehtally presented to 

JHbJ^ Zimg. [Chap. it. 


(GqcL Gm.tlMnihi far the pumn of MUL.deuvit 
XMd&tmneinber all;iti p«rli, anA all Ae inttaMMiitf 
-a^.yaor ndemptilMK. and beg^«f 'Obdy- thail4l)ie^sM]r 
pcraeveriBoe in weU-doing, yoa OMigr Iram J b ri io ik 
|M8t on to sobstonoet, firooi' eating bit bodty, to aeong 
bis' face, fh^ni th^ typkai, ta^Minta^ and tnouieiM^ 
to ^ real, and eteranl anppte Afifeh^liaibb; i^ 'i 

13. After tbe bolanraitybdona^ ht CbriitdMUJb 
your hearta fay^ ftatb> and love^v^and ^olpdieBd^iaad 
oonfimnity to his lifif and^dtetbfa atf^yoo h a i giitei 
Christ into youy a* pat Chiaii >wi :^wm^ > aaid/coofatti 
every faculty of your tool abdfaodyitoihiaihoIjriMigt 
and perfastion.^ Ranaoriwrdbitiiow.Chnak iifaitaae 
with you; and tbereffare when ysamam to dfr«B')aetida, 
oonsider how ^€!hriii did 0t wonld do;liie:likc^;4iBd'do 
you imitata his esoanple^ atfd tnmicrifaaiiift edf^aad' 
understand allbiaoomniandiBcnti^ and.chooae all^thst 
ho propounded, and desire bb promises^ and xfair^bi^ 
threatenings, andtnarry his* loves, and itstoeds, sad 
contract his friendshipr for thai yov do every diy 
communicate; especially when Christ thus dwellsan 
yoUy and you in Christy growings up- towards a petfett 
man in Christ Jesus. v - 

14. Do not instantly upon yonr return from cIioASy 
return also to the world, and- seeuktr thott|^its::sfid 
employments ; but let the semaining partsi of that day 
be like a post-commuBvonv or so afteisoffice^-eotBr- 
taining your blessed Lord with all' the caresses. tLnd* 
sweetnesses of love and col loquiea, and intercourses 
^f duty and affection, acquaiikting him with all yoar 
needs, and repealing to hini "aU y^tirseerets,^ sod 

^ Sect. x. Receiving the Hotif Sacrament. 361 

opening all your infirmities : and as the affairs of your 
person or employment call you off, so retire again 
with often ejaculations and acts of entertainment to 
your beloved guest. 

The Effects and Benefits of ivortky Communicating. 
When I said that the sacritice of the cross which 
Christ offered for all the sins and all the needs of the 
world is represented to God by the minister in the 
sacrament, and offered up in prayer and sacramental 
memory, after the manner that Christ himself inter- 
cedes for us in heaven, (so far as his glorious Priest- 
hood is imitable by his ministers on earth,) I must 
of necessity also mean, that all the benefits of that 
sacri6ce are then conveyed to all that communicate 
worthily. But if we descend to particulars, then 
(d there the church is nourished in her faith, 
igthened in her hope, enlarged in her bowels with 
increasing charity. There all the members of 
Christ are joined with each other, and all to Christ 
their head: and we again renew the covenant with 
God in Jesus Christ, and God seals his ])nrt, and we 
promise for ours, and Christ unites both, and the 
Holy Ghost signs both in the collation of those graces 
which we then pray for and exercise, and receive all at 
once. There our bodies are nourished with the signs, 
and our souls with the mystery : our bodies receive 
into them the seed of an immortal nature, and our 
souls are joined with him who is the first fruits of the 
Ksurrection ; and ne^er can die. And if we desire 
thing else and need it, here it is to be prayed for. 


SM Uol^ iMimg. [Chap, it 

htre to be hcqwi for, here to be received* Long Itfi 
end healthy and recovery fren sidoieM^ end cMnpe* 
tent topport and maintonancBy and |ieaoe and deiiw^ 
ranee from our enemies, and content, and patienee^ 
and joy, and sanctified riches, or a cheerfol povertyi 
and liberty, and whatsoever else is a Wesiing,- ivs» 
purchased for us by Christ in hb death and resnneo- 
tioo, and in his intaioession in heaven. And tfai« 

* sacrament being that/to our partienfaurs wfaidi tfas 
gieat mysteries aro in themselves, and ijiy design te 
all the vrorld, if we receive vrorthily^ we sindl secsMi 
any of these blessings, according as God shidl chobia 

' for ns: and he will not only choosewitb moee wasdeasi 
hut also with raorealBhction, than wecan^for onvaelveft'^ 
After all this, it is advised by the guides of asnl^ 
wise men, and jnous^ that all persons should oomm* 
nicate very often, even as often as they cauy without 
excuses or delays. Every thing tiiat puts us from so 
holy an employment when we are moved to it, being 
either a sin or an imperfection, an infirmity or inde* 
votion, and an inactiveness of spirit. AH Ghristisn 
people must come. They indeed that are in the stste 
of sin must not come so, bat yet tbey most come*. 
First, they must quit their state of death, and then 
partake of the bread of life. Tbey that are at eaw 
mity with their neighbours must come, that is no 
excuse for their not coming; only tbey must not 
bring their enmity along with them, but leave it, 
and then come. They that have variety of secular 
employments must come ; only they must leave their 

* L* Evesque de Geneve introd 9t la vie devote. 

Sect x.] Receiving the Holy Sacrament. 883 

t ; > ■ ■ 

secular' thoughts and affections behind thefn^ and 
then come and converse with Ood. If any man w 
well grown in grace he must needs come, because he 
is excellently disposed to so holy a feast : but he that 
is but in the infancy of piety had need to c6m«, that 
•o he may grow in grace. The strong mmt come, 
lest they become weak; and. the weaky that they ma]!" 
become, strong. . The sick jsiost ooq»e to be euredi 
the healthful to be preperved. They tbatbara leisuro 
must come, because they hp^re no ei^cose; they ^Sa^ 
have no leisure must come hither^ that by. so e^tccl* 
lent religion they may aanrtify their busiAess. Tb# 
pe&itmt sinneoQ must coiq^ that they may be jualit 
fied: and they that aire justified, that they- may be 
justified still. They that have fears and great feve^ 
renceto these mysteries, and think no f>reparation t6 
be sufficient, muat receive, that they may learn \\<ini 
to receive the more worthily; and they that have li 
Ifss degiM.of reverence muat come:t)ftefi to have it 
he%hteDed: that, as. those creatares that Kve amongst 
thesBOwaof the mountains turn white wHh their food 
and' ooDVorsation with such perpetual whitenesses, f^ 
oar aoiils may be transformed into the simfiKtude and 
union with <>hrist by .our perpetual feeding on him^ 
and conversations not only iia his courts^ but in^hit 
wny heart, ami most secret affections ^ 'And inoom^ 
parable purttiea* . . 

■ : ; 1 1 

^ .•,^'1 ., • 

884 Hofy Lhmg. [Chap. it. 


PtaytrMfar mil Sorts of Men and all NeceisUw 
relating to the several Parte ef the Urtme ff 

A Prag/erfinr the Oracee ofFaith^ Hcfpe, CAmify. 

O LORD God, of infinite mercy, of infinite enet 
lency, who hait tent thy holy Son into the world to 
redeem us from an intolerable misery, and to teach 
ns a holy religion, and to fbt^pve ns an infinite debt: 
give me thy holy Spirit that my understanding mi 
all my faculties may be so resigned to the disciplioe 
and doctrine of my Lord, that I may be prepared ia 
mind and will to die for the testimony of Jesos, and 
to sufier any affliction or ealsnity that shall c^ to 
binder my duty, or tempt me to shame or' sin, or 
apostacy^ and let my fiiith be the parent of a'good. 
life, a strong shield to repel the fiery darts of the 
devil, and the author of a holy hope, of modest de- 
sires and confidence in God, and of a never«-fidliog 
charity to thee my God, and to all the world ; that 
I may never have my portion with the unbelieversi 
or uncharitable and desperate persons : but may be 
supported by the strengths of faith in all temptatiooS) 
and may be refreshed with the comforts of a holy hope 
in all my sorrows, and may bear the burden of the 
Lord, and the infirmities of my neighbour, by the sop- 
port of charity ; that the yoke of Jesus may become 
easy to me, and my love may do all the miracles of 
grace, till from grace it swell to glory, from earth to 
heaven, from duty to reward, from the imperfections 
of a beginning and little growing love, it may arrive 


•imm^^^am^-m^mm^-^m,^ M ■ > i i I ■ I III — i^— ^— J*li»*l— »Mrfh. 

Sect, x.] Prayers Jer secerai Occasions. SdS 

■ I 11 ' ~ ' ■ ~ i ~V " . " "" m ~~ . '7 , ' I ■ ■ ■ ■ I . III. 

to the eoiMlummation of an eteniitl atid never-oeasiog 
ehafity> tbroiigh Jesoi Christ tUe Sbh of thy Lovb; 
the iinofadr of our hope^ anii the author aiM finlslbief 
of our fiiith : to whom with thee, O Lord God^Tafher 
of hMV^h^ and dirth, tfifd with Vtij H6ly Spirit, he ail 

gtory^- and Jore, and bbedfenoe^ axid ' dooiiiiioiii: aidw 

'^ i«i^ O CKod^) #Aiiiii ar# mf Qod^ ^^^rfy mill l^eekiheeit 
tmf soul thirstetk for thee, mff^^kshioi^eth^/wrthett 
in m dry and thirsty land where rm water is; ta ^e^ 
tif/yhioemtid'^ gbrylso ds tkavd-^en thee ^* the 
sismctuary. Becdusi th^lothtg kindness ds^ better than? 
llfey-mty tips shall pHtk^ ftfcec ^ P»aW !xHk l,r^c. - 5 
"2. I ash ready not 6nfy iohe inhiid^^.but^ to die for • 
tbe'fsame^jf the Lord^esus. : A^ssHxiviiS^ s :> b 

; Bi^iSaW' amiable \m^ thf" tabenmei^titficiu '^w^v 
of^Mostsf wy. said iongethf.yia^Twei^faintethJoiio 
thereowat'sof/the Lord: my-hearl iind\my ^JHf^h^ 
cfiet^ outit for: tht' Aiving }Qod% ■. Blessed ^ari^ xthey^y 
tkatJidsdeUyin thy ^ hattse; they mil still jbt j^isi»^ 
tifeay- 'P»aLhcx»iv;;.iv fl,-:4. ■•:■ ;-.-^' xv^-,.; 

-^Ot. OblenedJesu,^thouf 'art. worthy of>^all.adtM'af^,; 
tiom' a«d all honour^ and all love; thau^ art ythf^? 
Wond^forl^' the Counsellor, the Mighty :Go4»^ tb^; 
B^rltstiiig Father^ the Ptmier; tef vPesiC^i of^ tbyi^ 
goirerwnent and peace there shalLbe no endt thi^^ 
all the^brightneai of Ay father a glofiy, ^?« expcei^ «: 
ifiMigeof his penori, the appointed faeir;^iatt thfngs^^ 
No. 17. 3 D I 


Thoa nphokktt all ttuagi kgr tiM word 9f itby jpevveri 
tboa didst bjrthytdfpMige our not; 4tbou ait tet ea 
the i%ht haiNl of tbe mqea^ €tt high : thoii ait B^ 
better than the angelt ; tho« hast bgr inheritanoe elh 
tained a mora ezcelleiit name than Aey. Thoo^ 
dearest Jesus, art the head of the church, tbo hegia- 
ning and the first4x»ti from the dead : In all thaigi 
thou hast the pre-eminence, and it pleased the Fadicr 
that in thee should all fulness dvraH. Kingdoms sie 
in lore with thee: kings lay their crowns and scqptra 
at thy feet, and queens are Ay handwiaidij and wsih 
the feet of thy sertants.^ *ii 

A Prayer to be said in mgf qfflicthfihi ^^^r9f 
Children, of Husband or Wife, in great Po^rjljii 
in Imprisonment, in a sad and disconsiolate Spirit y 
and in Temptation to Despair. 

O Eternal God, Father of mercies, and God di all 
comfort, with much mercy look upon the .sadnesses 
and sorrows of thy senrant. My sins lay heavy /upoa 
me, and press me sore, and there is no heakb in 
tay bones by reason of thy displeasure and my sib* 
The waters are gone over me, and I stick-fitst in^t^e 
deep mire, and my miseries are without contort, 
because they are punishments of my sin: and Lam 
so evil and unworthy a person, that though I hm 
great desires, yet I have no dispositions or -worthioess 
towards receiving comfort. My sins have caused Wf 
sorrow, and my sorrow does not cure my sins: and 
unless for thy own sake, and merely because thoa art 
good, thou shalt pity me and relieve me, I am as much 

Sect- x.] Prayers for several Okcasions. 887 

• • • s: ....... ... 

without remedy a9 now I lira without comfort Lor^ 
pity me; Lord^ let thy grace refresh my spirit. Let 
thy comforts support me, ' thy mercy pardon me, ami 
never let my p6rtion be amongst' hopelesr and nc^ 
cursed 'spirits : for thou art good and gracious ; and I 
throw myself upon thy mercy. Let me never let my 
hold go, and do thou with me what seems good iif 
thine own eyes. I cannot sufier more than 1 have 
deserved : and yet I can need no relief so great as thy 
mercy is^: for thou art infiiutely more merciful than 
I can be miserable ; and thy mercy, which is above 
tafl thy own works, must needs be hr above all my 
sin and all my misery. Dearest Jesus, let me trust 
in thee for ever, and let me neter be cdhfounded. 

Ejaculations and short Mediiatums:to be used in time 
of Sickness and Sorrow; or danger of Deaths 

HEAR my Prayer, O Lord, and let mff crtjt come 
^mto thee. Hide not thy Face front me in the time of 
my trouble, incline thine ear untobme when I calls O 
hisar me, and that right soon. For my: days ar^ con- 
owned like smoke, and w^^ bones are burnt up aiit 
were a fire-brand. My heart is smitten down and 
fbiifiered like grass, so that I forget to eat my bread : 
dind that becatue of thine indignittien;and>torath : for 
thou hast taken me up and cast me down. (Psal. cii. 
1, 9, 3, 4, 10.) Thine arrows stick fast in me, and 
thine hand presseth me sore. There is no health in 
my flesh because of thy displeasure, neither is there 
any resit in my bones by reason of my ^in. . My 

Ebfy Lkfbig. [Cba?. it. 

/im fly uwiMAiMtf oimI I« wry far wigf.,4fm^ QM, 
mnriii. a^ 3^ 4^ 18.) O Lon^ reMDe Me iio# m iUm 
fftiiigiiatum^ nritker tdboiien me in lAy disphtumnn 
(Pbal. tL I.) Lord^ he merc^M mio «w^ ^^^.^Qf 
foii/^ fer Ihave ebmed agmrni thee. (PmL xU» 4«) '* 

Miwe merqf wpoH Miep O Qod, after t^ great goeif 
mes, accordiag to the mmUiiniB ef thjf mercies ie 
awojf mime effemcee. (Fnl. li I.) O remember mt 
the Hm and affencee efwt^ ymtthi hut according t$ 
thjf mercy think thouwgKm me, Ohard^for thy gf^ 
nae. (Psal. zzv. f.) fFaeh me ihnmgjUg from wg 
wickedness, and deanee me frem my dn. MlkiW9 
a clean hearty O Qod, and renew a right spirit «9^tti 
me. Qist me not away firmn thy jn^sence, from ^j 
all hallowing and life-giving presence : a$id take not 
thy hofy spirit, thy sanctifying, thy guiding, thy com- 
forting, thy supporting and confirming Spirit^ Jrom 
me. (Psal. li. 2, 10, 11.) 

O Gody thou art my God far ever and ever^ Tbou 
shaU he my guide unto death. (Psal. xlviii. 14.) Lari 
comfort me now that / lie sick upon my bed z maif 
thou my bed in all my sicknesses. (PsaL xli..3.) 
deUver my soul from the plojce of Hett, and dp tboa 
receive me. (Psal. xlix. 5.) My hear,t is disqmetei 
within me, and the fear of death is fcMeU' upon mt* 
(Psal. Iv. 4.) Behold thou hast made my days as it wen 
a span long, and my age is even as. a nothing inrespeci 
of thee ; and verily every man living is altogether 
vanity. When thou with rebukes do^ chanfen mm 

> ■■ ^ ■ ' ^^— >— — — ^ «ll II I I t ■« III III I I 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasians, 380 

far aiuj thou fwhest his be^uttf ta eonsMme aufo^ 
like a moth fretting a gc^rment, eperyi num ther^ 
fore isi hut vomityi. And now. Lord, what i« n^ 
hope? truly my hope is even in thee. Hear my 
' prayer, O Lord, and tvith thine ears consider my 
calling : hold not thy peace att m^ t^ars^^ Take 
this pktyue away from me: J am consunfed by 
means of thy heavy, Jitond,. I qm dk sj^^a^ger mth 
thee, and a sojourner, ofi. qlL njty Fathers wfire^ O 
spare me a little, that I rnay recover my strength 
before I go hence and be np more seen.. (Psal.x^xiic. 
6, 11, 7, 12, 10, 12, 13.), My soul ekoiveth unto 
the dust : O quicken me according to thy w^rd. (Psal. 
cxix. 35.) i^nd when the snares of death compass 
me round about, let not ttie pains of Hell take hold 
upon me. (Psal. cxvi. a.) 

An Act of faith concerning tjie resurrection and the 
Day of Judgment, to be said by sick Persons, or 

/ know that my Redeemer liveth^ and that he 

nhaU stand at the latter day upon the earth : and 

though after my skin the worms destroy this body, 

yet in my flesh shall I see God; whom I shall see 

, for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, though vsiy 

reins be consumed within me. (Job xix. 25, &c.) 

God shall come, and shall not keep silence, there 

^ shall go before him a consuming fire, and a mighty 

tempest shall be stirred up round about him : he shaH 

call the. heaven from above, and the earth, that he 

may judge his people.. (Psal. 1, 3, 4.) . O blessed 


MO HofyLhiHg. {Cut*, It. 


Jenif thoQ art my judge and thou art my advocate: 
fiave mercy lipon^ me in the hour of my deaths idd 
in the day of ju^|ment ' See John ▼• 38. aAd i Tkm. 
ir« 15. 

Skori Frojfen fe he mid fy McPermim. 

O Holy Jtesut, thou art a mereiftil high priert^ nrf 
tondied with the aenie of pm infirmities: thoo knoir- 
eat die aUaipnets of my aickneta and the weaknen cf 
my permn. The donds are gathered aboat me, and 


thou hast covered me with thy storm: my imder- 
standing hath, not such apprehension of things as lor* 
'merly. Lord^ let thy mercy support me, thy spirit 
guide me, and lead me through the valley of thb 
death safely, that ' t may pass it patiently, hoKlj^, 
with perfect resignation; and let me rejoice in the 
Lordj in the hopes of palrdon, in the expectation of 
gloiy^ in the sense of thy mercies^ in the refresh- 
ments of thy Spirit, in a victory over all temptations. 

Thou hast promised to be with us in tribulation: 
Lord, my soul is troubled, and my bpdy is weak, and 
my hope is in thee^ and my enemies are busy and 
mighty: now make good thy holy promise. Now, 
O holy Jesus, now lejt thy hand of grace be upon me: 
restrain my ghostly enemies, atod give me all sorts pf 
spiritual assistances : Lord, remember thy servuitin 
the day when thou bindest up thy jewels. 

O take Irom me all tediousness of spirit i all 
impatience and unquietnefti ; let me possess my soul 
in patience,, and resign my soul and body into thy 
handsy as into the bands of a faithful Creator, and a 
blessed Redeemer. 

Sect, x.] Prayei'sfor several Occasions^ 891 

w ■ , , , ■ 

O Holy Jesa^ thou didst die for us ; by thy sad, 
pungent^ and intolerable pains which thou enduredst 
tor me, have pity on me, and ease my pain, or in- 
crease my patience. Lay on me no more than thou 
shalt enable me to b^ar. I have deserved it all and 
more, and infinitely more. Lord I am weak and 
Ignorant, timorous and inconstant, and I fear lest 
something should happen that may discompose the 
state of my soul, that may displease thee: do what 
thou wilt with me, so thou dost but preserve me in 
thy fear and favour. Thou knowest that it is my 
great fear; but let thy spirit secure, that nothing 
may be able to separate me from the love of God in 
Jesus Christ: then smite me here, that thou mayest 
spare me forever: and yet, O Lord, soiite me friendly; 
for thou knowest my infirmities. Into thy hands I 
commend my spirit, for thou hast redeemed me, O 
Lord, thou God of truth. Come, Holy Spirit^ help 
me in this conflict. Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly. 

Let the sick man often meditate upon the following 
Promises, and gracious Words of uod. 

My help Cometh of the Lord, who preserveth them that are 
true of heart, (Psal. vii. 11.) 

And all they that knam thy name tsnll put their trust in 
thee : for thou, Lord, hast never failed them that seek thee. 
(Psal. ix. 10.) 

O how plentiful is thy goodness fjohich thou hast laid up for 
them that fear thee, and that thou hast prepared for them 
that put their trust in thee, even before the sons of men, ^saL 
xxxi. 19.) . 

Behold the eye of the Lord $9 tq^n them that fear him, and 

II ■ I I — ■ Ml 

^Mi tkmt liw wMt lAfe^' IriM ai ilft Mow. !• dMMi^ liktr 
Mb,^^ dML- (FnL axsHL 1&) ^ 

X%a JLtrvI if fi%A tMlolAcw thai mrt ^f m cfmtrUt ifmi, 
MdwittitmmekMmnofMkmMeipirii. (^nI. xzxit. 18.) 

Hkm Lord^ $kali mve bath man and bead : homexeeUmtit 
A^ meny, O God! and t)k ckUdr& ff mm tkaff pat 'Mat 
trad under the ikukm of thf tpih^. i%iy ^ialt ie $dli^ 
with the plentioamem ef th/ kaaae: and IAm dhlir giM ^tttt 
to drUk if ikf jieaminu at end of the fioei%. Fbt with Od 
itthewoHrfl^: andintfy Sght we dUdi eee Sght* (Phd. 
sbnrL 7, 8» 9.) 

Commit thjf wag onto the Ijofd^ and pat thg trud in Um^ 
andhtdiaUbfingittopau. Ihd the uJvatum of the rightem 
eometh of the Lord^ who i$ abo their drength in the time of 
iroahk. (PtaL xzxvii. 5, S6.) 

So that a me^ Aatt e^^ iferify there it a fewitrd'Jbr tk 
f%hteoas: doabtleu tha^ ft a 6od that jdJ^dh the «Mfc 
9>M. iTiii. 10.) 

Bleued i$ the man whom thou chooeed and r ecmed wdo 
thee^ he shall dweU in thjf court, and dudl be sati^ied wUk the 
pleatures of thy hoiue, even of thy holy temple. (FsaL Ixy. 4.) 

They that sow in tears shall reap in joy. (Ptal. cxxvi. 6. 

It is written, I will never kave thee nor forsake thee. (Hdb. 
xiii. 5.) # 

ITie prayer of faith shall save the sick: and the Lord shaU 
raise him up: and if he have committed dm, they shaU be 
forgiven him. (Jam. v. 15.) 

Come and let us return unto the Lord: for he hath torn 
and he will heat us; he hath tmitten, and he wiU bind us up. 
(Ho8. vi. 1.) 

ijT we sin, we have cm advocate with the Father ^ Jem 
Chrid the righteous; and he is the propitiation for our sim. 
(I John, ii. 1, 2.) 

i/T we confess our sins, he is fait If id and righteous to forgive ia 
our dm, and to ckimse utfrom all iMrighteousness. (i John, L 9.) 


Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions. 308 

He that forgives shall beforffven. {Jjoke yi. 37*) 

And this is the confidence that, we have in him, that if we 
ask any thing according to Ms will he heareth us. (i John y. 14.) 

And ye know that he was manifested to take away our sins. 
(i John iii. 5.) 

If ye being evil know how to give good things to ydur cMldren, 
how much mote sltall your Fdther which is in Heaven^give good 
things. to them that ask Mm? (Mat yIL 11.) . 

This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptiftum, tliaf 
Jesus Christ came into the world to mve sinners* (i Tim. i. 15.) 

He that hath given us Ms Son, how should not he mth him 
give us all things eke? (Rom, Tiii. 32.) 

Acts of Hope t9 be used by sick persons after alHous liSe. 

1. / am persuaded thqit neither death, nor life, nor angds, 
nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, luor things to 
come, nor heighth^ nor depth, nor any other creature shall be 
able to separate me from the love of God which is in Christ 
Jesus our Lord. (Rom. viii. 38, 39.) 

2. / have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I 
have kept the faith: heiu:eforth there is laid up for me a crown 
of righteousness, which the Lord the righteous judge shall give 
me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that 
love his appearing, (ii Tim. iv. 7, 8.) 

3. Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Father of mercies, and the God of all comforts, who com- 

forts us in all our tribulation, (ii Cor. i. 3, 4.) 

Jl Prayer to be said in behalf of a sick or dying 


O Lord God^ there is no number of thy days nor 
of thy mercies^ and the sins and sorrows of thy ser- 
vant also are multiplied. Lord look upon him with 
much mercy and pity^ forgive him all his sins^ com* 

No. 17. 3 E 

394 Holy lAving. [Chap. nr. 

fort his sorrowsi ease his pttn, satisfy his -doabts, 
relieve his fetrs, instruct his ignorances, strengthen 
his understanding, take from him all disorden of 
spirit, weakness and abuse of fancy. Restrain the 
malice and power of the spirits of darkness; and suf- 
fer him to be injured nather by his ghostly enemies, 
nor his own infirmitiei ; and let a holy and a joit 
peace, the peace of God, be within his oooscience. 

Lord, presenre his senses till the last ot his timei 
strengthen his &ith, confirm his hope, and give him 
a never-ceasing charity to thee our God, and to all 
the world ; stir up in him a great and proportionabte 
contrition for all the evils he hath done> and give 
him a just measure of patience for all he snflfers, give 
him prudence, memory, and consideration, rightly 
to state^ the accounts of his soul ; and do thou re- 
mind him of all his duty ; that when it shall please 
thee thai his soul goes out from the prison of bis 
body, it may be received by angels, and preserved 
from the surprise of evil spirits, and from the hor- 
rors and amazements of new and strange regions, 
and be laid up in the bosom of our Lord, till at the 
day of thy second coming it shall be re-united to the 
body, which is now to belaid down in weakness and 
dishonour, but we humbly beg, may then be raised 
up with glory and power for ever to live, and to be- 
hold the face of God in the glories of the Lord Jesus, 
who is our hope, our resurrection, and our life, the 
light of our eyes, and the joy of our souls, our blessed 
and ever glorious redeemer. Amen. 

Sect, x.] Prayers for sepereU Occasions. 3M 

■ ' ' ^ ' ■ . ' ' ■ ' ' ' ' ' ' *■ im — F^^"^ii— 

^ " ■ ' ' " ■— — ' ' I I ■ 

Hither the sick person may draw in and use the acts 
of several pirttiss respersed in the several parts of 
this hoohj the several JLitanies^ y\z. of repenianci^. 
of th^pas^Uf and the single Prayers j according 
to his present needs. 

A Prayer to be said in a Storm at Sea. 
O my God^ thou didst create the earth and the sea 
for thy glory and th^ use of man^ and dost daily shew 
wonders in the deep^ look upon the danger and fear 
of thy servant. My sins have taken hold upon me^ 
and without the supporting arm of thy mercy 1 can^- 
not look up ; but my trust is inH;hee. Do thou^ Q 
Lord^ rebuke the sea, and make it calm ; for to thee 
the winds and the sea obey : let not the waters swalloir 
me up, but let thy spirit, the spirit of gentleness and 
mercy, move upon the waters. Be thou reconciled 
unto thy servants, and then the face of the waters will 
be smooth. I fear that my sins make me, like JonaSj 
thg cause of the tempest. Cast out all my sins, and 
throw not thy servants away from thy presence, and 
irom the land of the living into the depths where all 
things are forgotten. But if it be thy will that we 
should go down into the waters. Lord, receive my soul 
into thy holy hands, and preserve it in mercy and 
safety till the day of restitution of all things : and be 
pleased to unite my death to the death of thy son, 
and to accept of it so united as a pulnishment for all 
my sins, that thou mayest forget all thine anger, and 
blot my sins out of thy book, and write my soul there, 
for Jesus Christ his sake, our dearest Lord and most 
mighty Redeemer. Amen. 

aM HofyUvmg. [CffAP.rr. 


To God peitun the iiiMs of lUb and dwA Itii 
tile Lordy kt hfan do what teemelli good in lib own 
qret. Thy will be done in enrtfi •• it is In heami. 
Bedte PioL 107 ahd ISO. 


If the Lord will be gncioQs end beer the pnjv of 
his setranty and bring me safe to riiore, then I iriH 
praise him secretly and poMicly, and pay onto ikt 
nses of charity [or religion] [then name ike una 
foudesignjhr hofy wes.'] O toy God, - my goodslne 
nothing unto thee : I will also be thy servant all the 
days of my life, and re m ember tins mercy and my 
present purposes, and Iito more to God's gloiy, sad 
with a stricter duty. And do then plesse to accept 
this vow as an instance of my importunity, and the 
greatness pf my 'needs: and be thou graciously moved 
to pity and deliver me* Amen^ 

TMsform elsQ may be used inprc^ngfor a Blessing 
on an Enterprise, and may he instanced in Actions 
of Devotion as well as of Charity^ 

A Prayer before a Journey. 

O Almighty God who fillest all things with thy 
presence, and art a God afar-off as well as near at 
hand; thou didst send thy angel to bless Jacob in 
his journey, and didst lead the children of IsfHiel 
through the Red Sea, making, it a wall on the right 
hand and on the left : be pleased to let thy angel go 
out before me and guide me in my journey, prewr^ 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions/ 397 

ing me from dangers of robbers^ from violence 6f 
enemies, and sudden and sad accidents, from falls 
and errors. And prosper my journey to thy glory, and 
to all my innocent purposes : and preserve me fropa 
all sin, that J may return in peace and holiness, with 
thy favour and thy blessing, and may serve thee in 
thankfulness and obedience all the. days of my pil- 
grimage; and at last bring me to thy country, to the 
celestial Jerusalem j there to dwell in thy house and 
to sing praises to thee for ever. ^Amen. 

Ad Sect. 4.] A prayer to he said before the hearing 

or reading the IVord of God. 

O Holy and Eternal Jesus, who hast begotten us by 
thy Word, renewed us by thy Spirit, fed us by thy 
sacraments, and, by the daily ministry x>f thy ^ord, 
still go on, to build us up to life eternal. Let thy mo^ 
Holy Spirit be present with me and rest upon, me in 
the reading [or hearing] thy sacred word ; that I may 
do it humbly, reverently, without prejudice, with a 
mind ready and desirous to learn and to obey ; that I 
may be readily furnished and instructed to every good 
work, and may practise all thy holy laws and com- 
mandments, to the glory of thy holy name, O holy 
and eternal Jesus. Amen. 

Ad Sect. 6, 9, 10.[ A Form of Confession of Sins 
and. Repentance, to be used upon Fasting DaySy or 
Days of Humiliation; especially in Lent, and 6e- 
fore the Holy Sacrament. 

HAVE mercy upon me, O God, after fhy great 
goodness, according to the multitude of thy mercies dp 

308 Ilofy Living. [Chap. it. 

away mime ojfffefices. IbrlwUlcarfessw^unck^neu^ 
and be eorry for mjf sm. O my dearest Lord, i am 
not worthy to be accounted amongst the meanest of 
tby servants ; not worthy to be sustained by the kait 
fragments of thy mercy, but to be shut out of tby 
presence for ever with dogs and unbelievers. Buijbr 
thf tume's sake, O Lord, be merdfid unto lay «% 
for it is great. 

I am the vilest of sinners, and the worst of mea} 
proud and vain-glorious, impatient oi scorn or of just 
reproof; not enduring slighted, and yet ex- 
tremely deserving it: I have been consumed bj^tbe 
colours of humility, and when I have truly called 
myself vicious, I could not endure any man else should 
say so or think so. I have been disobedient to my 
superiors, churlish and ungentle in my behaviour, 
unchristian and unmanly. But for thy name's sake^ 
O Lardy be merciful unto my sin, for it is great. 

O just and dear God, how can I expect pity or par- 
don, who am so angry and peevish with and without 
cause, envious at good, rejoicing at the evil of my 
neighbours, negligent of my charge, idle and useless, 
timorous and base, jealous and impudent, ambitious 
and hard-hearted, soft, unmortified and effeminate in 
my life, indevout in my prayers, without fancy or af- 
fection, without attendance to them, or perseverance 
in them ; but passionate and curious in pleasing my 
appetite of meat and drink, and pleasures, making 
matter both for sin and sickness : and I have reaped 
the cursed fruits of such improvidence, entertaining, 
indecent and impure thoughts: and I have brought 
them forth in indecent and impure actions, and the 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions, 399 


spirit of uncleannress hath entered in^ and unhallowed 
the temple which thou didst consecrate for the habi- 
tation of thy spirit of love and holiness. Btd for 
thy name^s sake, O Lardy be merciful unto my sin, 
far it is great. 

^'Thou hast given me a whole life to serve thee in, 
and to advance my hopes of heaven : and this pre- 
cious time I have thrown away upon my sins and 
vanities, 1>eing improvident of my time and of my 
talent, and of my grace, and of my own advantages, 
resisting thy Spirit and quenching him. I have been 
a great lover of myself, and yet used many ways to 
destrov myself. I hav^e pursued my temporal ends 
with giddiness and indirect means. I am revengeful 
and unthankful, forgetting benefits, but not so soofi 
forgetting injuries, curious, and murmuring ; a great 
breaker of promises. I have not loved my neighbour's 
good, nor advanced it in all things where I could. I 
have been unlike thee in all things. I am unmerciful 
and unjust; a sottish admirer of things below, and 
careless of heaven and the ways that lead thither.' But 
for thy name*s sake, O Lardy he merciful unto my sin, 
for it is great., ' 

All my senses have been windows to let sin in, and 
deiAth by sin. Mine eyes have been adulterous and 
covetous ; mine ears open to slander and detraction ; 
my tongue and palate loose and wanton, intemperate, 
and of foul language, talk-ative and lying, rash and 
malicious, ialse and flattering, irreligious and irreve- 
rent, detracting and censorious; my hands have been 
injurious and unclean, my passions violent and rebel- 

400 Ilotjf LtviMg. [Cbap. it. 

lioutt nay detirat ini|»tieQt vnd QureMomible, ill mg 
meoilwrt: and all my fiusohieB hafe beqa. iervantt ^ 
•in ; and my veiy bett actionf have onere: mattar of 
pity than of coufldencey b^ng imperfect in' n^ Jm^ 
and intolerable in moat. But for thy nmmfi^s stktt, Q 
Lordf hemerdfiUmUoft^mm, for(iti9^pt0at. 

Vnto this and a hst bigger iieap of < aw I. hue 
added alio the fiuilta of others to my ^vtomhp^ I^ 
neglecting to hinder them to nn in aU .that ]L oori4 
end ought; hnt I alto have enconraged^ jkbfin iv?iWh 
have tdken , off their fearv ejttd hardened llwn; .eipp 
sciences^ and tempted them dineeUy*. and pecfaiM^ui 
it to my o^ r^in and theifif nalefli tty ^ lo «ic y and. 
nnspeakable mercy hath prevented. ao* iptQleiab)ei:a 
calamity.' .♦ •..■■.' 'nvK ■*•> ' 

Lord, I huve abosed thy mercy, despised thy jodg^ 
ments; turned thy grace into wantonness. I have been 
unthankful for thy infinite loving kindness, I have sin- 
ned and repented, and then sinned again, and resolved 
against it, and presently broke it; and then I tied my- 
self iip with vows, and then was tempted^ and then 
I yielded by little and little, till I was willingly lort 
again, and my vows fell off like cords of vanity. 

Miserable man that I am I who shall deliver, m 
from this body of sin? 

And yet, O Lord, I have another heap of sins to 1^ 

unloaded. My secret sins, O Lord, areinnumenJl>lef 

sins I noted not, sins that I willingly neglected, siaf 

that I acted upon wilful ignorance and voluntary vv^ 

persuasion, sjns that I have forgot, and sins ifrfaicb a 

diligent and watchful spirit might have prevented, Iw^ 


Sect, x.} Prayers for several Occasions. 401 

^— — ^^^—^ ■ ■ ■■ ■ - I 111 < 1 1 II I— ^p^ip— 

J_X___M.IIW I -- " -.--..- -^ -,- 

I wodld^ol* iiord; I itm' confiMinded with the i&uiti-* 
tdde^'bf 'tiiein^ and diie fac^rdr of their remembrance^ 
rtioQgfa I consider tbMl Hakedly iii then* direct ftppeftr- 
ance, withoat the deformity of their unhaiidsofne and 
a^ravating circumstances ; but so dressed, they are a 
ti^ght tiK> ugly 9 an instance of amazement, infinite in 
d^rees, and insufierable in their load. 
' Ahdyet thou hast spared me all this while, and 
bttrt nM thrown me intofaelF« where I haVe deserved 
to bA Ve been hmg ninety and .even now to have been 
i^t U|i4b an eterhiiy of torta^ents with insupportable 
mmte^ibent^ 'fearing the revelation of thy day. 
" "Miserable man that I am I tohoshAtt deliver me 

Thou shalt answei^for me, O Lord my God. Thou 
that prAyest far me, shtdt be my Judge. 

The Prayer. 

* THOU hast prepared for me a more healthful sor- 
row: O deny not thy servant when he begs sorrow of 
tbce.^ Give me a deep contrition for niy sins, a hearty 
drteltation and loathing of them^ hating them worse 
than death with torments* Give me girace entirely^ 
pnNrently, and for ever to forsake them ; to walk with 
d^ and prudebce, with fear and watchfulness all my 
4ftys; to^ do all my duty with diligence and charity^ 
witb zeal and a never'-lainting spirit; to redeem the 
timei to trust upon thy mlercies, to make use of all the 
kiMruments of grace, to work out my salvation with 
fear and trembling; that^hou mayest have the glory of 
parddning all my sins^ and L may reap the fruit of all 
No. 17. 3 F 


' 40S H9fyJjnu^. [Cbat. nt 

thy tqeraiM tod all thy gnoit/Qf. kfay pttieim iiid 
loDg-Mfieriiigy even to life e holy lift hmrn^ mi^to 
leiga with thee lor efer^ ^roegh. Jerae Chritt ;o« 

* . . .■.*■•■'. 

Lard^s-Dmf cmd the great fffjtkftfl^ 9f Cfitirtmm. ■^ 

ih the Morning recite thefaUowmgM^rme^J^^ 
giving iUpQ^ the specMFeethfok^i^^ 
wemoratien ef the ^tpefiial Bkuinge, 9coer4iifig ti 
the fbUowing Preyere; add^^mch Ptei^vft» 
you shall chooie out of the foregping Devetmm. , 

9. Besides the ordiaarff and pftJfBe^Ihitifsvf'^tke 
J^y^ if tf^^ retire into your cl^^ta iresidmi 
meditate afUr ye have petf(nrme4 that fjkst^i wg 
the Song of St Amhraie^ comintmly eaUei^4k 
[Te Deum] or [We praise thee^ ^c] then add 
the Prayers for particular Braces which qre at 
the end of the former Chapters^ such and e^mirny 
of them as shall ^ your present needs and ig^^ 
tions; ending with the lMrd*s Prayer. This fym 
of Devotion may, for varietyit be indifferentt^ 
used at other times. 

4 Farm of Thanksgiving y with a recital ofpMk 
and private Blessings; to be used tqHm Ea^ter-dajTi 
Whit-Sunday^ Ascension^ay, and all Sundays of 
the Vears but the middle part of it' may' he 
reserved for the more Soleiua Featiyala, and the 

. other used upon the Ordinary; as every Man'e 
qffections or leisure shM determine*, 

i l I I i>^bi— *^ I I I*— ^>— — I.I I m i l !■! II 1 ■ y ■— — >— ^lyA^i I ■ II !■ 


Sfict. X.] Prayers for several Occadonsk 408 

f ]i M I 

^ [L] 'Bx lAlufgia St. Basilii mkgna ex parte. ' 

O Eternal Eisence, Lohl God, Father Alihtghtsr^^ 
Maker of all things' in heiav^n and earth; it is a good 
thihg to give thanks to thee, O Lord, and to pay to 
thee all reverente, worship, and demotion, from a clean 
and prepkr^ heart; and^ith an humble Spirit to pre- 
iieift'iii litiA^ atad reasonable sacrifice to thy Holiness 
atid* Majesty.: for tGMia bast given unto us the know- 
ledge of thy truth; and who is able to declare thy 
greatness; afid to recount all thy marvellous works 
fi^hich th6u hast done, in -all the generations of the 
world? '■■"' 

' O grekit Lord and Governor of all things. Lord and 
Creator of all things visible and invisible; who sittest 
upon the throiie of thy glory, and beholdest the secrets 
of the lowest abyss arid darkness;' tbou art [without 
beginning, uri^ircumscribed, incomprehensible, un- 
alterable, and seated for ever uhmoveable m thy own 
essential happiness and tranquillity : thou art the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is 
• Our dearest and most gracious Saviour, our hope, 
the Wisdom of the Father, the iitiage of thy good- 
ness, the Word Eternal, and the brightness of thy 
person, the power of God from eternal ages, the true 
light that lightenetb every man that cometh into the 
world, the redemption of man, and the sanctification 
of our Spirits. 

By whom the Holy Ghost descended upon the 
Church ; the Holy Spirit of truth, the seal of adop- 
tion^ the earnest of the inheritance of the saints, the 
first fruits of everlasting felicity, the life-giving power. 


404 Hofy Ltving. [Chap. it. 

the fouDtain of lanctificttioB, the oomfiurt ;of*the 
Churchi the ease of the aflUoted, the support of the 
weak^ the wealth of the poor, the teacher of die 
doubtful, scrupulous, and ignorant, the anchor of tbs 
fearful, the infinite reward of all faithful aonls, bf 
whom all reasonable and understanding cieatum 
serve] thee, and send up a nefer-oeasing and a 
neverHrejected sacrifice of prajrerj and pnaises, and 

All angels and arch-angeb, all thrones and domi- 
QionSi all principalities and powers, the diembiiai 
with many eyes, and the seraphims cmrered witl| 
wings from the terror and amazement of thy brightest 
glory ; these and all the powers of heaven do pe^ 
petually sing praises and never-ceasing hyouis sod 
eternal anthems to the glory of the Eternal God, 
the Almighty Father of men and angels. 

Holy is our God: holy is the Almighty: holy 
is the Immortal: holy, holy, holy. Lord God of 
Sabbaotb, heaven and earth are 'full of the msgesty 
of thy glory, Amen. With these holy and blessed 
spirits I also, thy servant, O thou great lover of souls, 
though I be unworthy to offer praise to such a Majesty, 
yet out of my bounden doty humbly offer up my heart 
and voice to join in this blessed choir, and confess the 
glories of the Lord. For thou art holy, and of thy 
greatness there is no end ; and in thy justice and good* 
ness thou hast measured out to us all thy works. 

Thou madest man out of the earth, and didst form 
him after thine own image: thou didst place him in s 
garden of pleasure, and gavest him laws of righteousr? 
ness to be to him a seed of immortality.' 

Sect, x.] Prayers far ieverfJ Occasions. 4SJA 

■ —i^»^— —»—«—« I I ■ II »■ II II— »M»— I I ■ I l» II |l» ■ ■ ■ 

• O that m^n womU therefore praise the Jjordfor 
his goodness^ and declare the, wQnders, that he h^k 

done for the children^*: ^» 

« , Por whep inaui tiaqed ,^^4 listened to the wbiffiers 
c£,a tempUpg spirit, awl r^osed to bear the voice dF 
Qodf.tbptt dids( throfv ^ifoi out f^opi Paradifie, jand 
jeoteat Ivm to till th^e^rthi but yet leftest not; btt^ 
cotiditioa wijthout neiii^dyi hut didst provide for him 
the jsalyatioo of a new birlb^ and by the blood <^f tb^ 
Son ^didft redeem and p^jir the ^ice to thine <^wii ji^h 
tjee for thine jQwn creaturei lest the work.of thineoifrn 
(lands should perish. 

, O fhaX men w(^re fore praise the lardy 8sf^.: 
^ JPor.tbou/O Lord^ in: ev^ry age didst send testiaH>? 
ues from heaven, blessings, and prophets, and fruits 
fui aeasoiqi?, find preachers of righteousness^ and 
miracles of po^ar ^nd mercy : thou spakest by thy 
propbetSji ^nd 9A\d9ty I wiU help by me that is n^ighty^ 
and in thft fulness of time .spakest. tp us by thy ^qn^ by 
\prbom thfm didst make both the worlds, who by the 
w9rd.ofiiis power sustains all things in heaven and 
earths: who thought it no robbery to be equal to the 
feather, who, being before all time, wa)i pleased to be 
born in time, to converse vfrith men, to be incarnate 
oi a l|ioly yirgi.n : he emptied himself of all his glo* 
ries> took on him the form of a servant^ in all things 
hai^g: made like onto us, in a soul of passio^ns and 
discourse^ in a body of humility and sorrow, but in 
^all things innocent, and in all things afflicted ; and 
suffered death for us, that we by him might live, and 
be partakers of his nature itnd his gloriest of his body 

£fol|f Unrng. . f Cbaf. it. 

and «f hit apirit^ «f (Im bkaitigi tf ^fliHli; mI^ rf 
iomiorlBl fbKcitiet in 'heaveai' • t • ,.- 
O f A0^ meii would tknufign pmitt Hie Ln^ ^ ' 
For thon, Q holj and iibteoltil Qod, '0'Jiw«ttMt 
Sftviour Jenii, wert nMde ikikler tlM la^j tb'«iMd«Htf 
no in the flahj tlwn^ho kneWart noftini w fttal iy 
rinforust thoa gaveik t6 lltr^htoom 6aimttagMil6ili^' 
•nd madett knoivn to os'alltlifFatlim'a WlITt '€M 
dfdtt- redeem na fimn oor^n ioon?enatiflMi; andirolr 
the fanity efidoIi» fidM' pridble*, and- lbaliilir-'e(# 


fldraoai^ andbrooghtetttif-to dieknaivledl^'i^ 
trae and only God and our Fatherj^'fiiid bait Aade'to 
to tfajrself a pecaliar people, ' of i^^cwh pmdlkim^, f 
royal priathood^. a h^ly* tmtioii^ ^d httt wadled 
ow fbols in tbe JaMr of i ^e i ier a rfoi^/ Ae neMoMtt 
of baptism: thoa ibiiir reodneiled W by ^^itatlf 

• • • * * 

jostifled 08 by thy h^orrection, sanbtificd us bjr 
tby Spirit, (sending bim upon tby Cburch'ui' visible 
forms, and giving bim in powers, and miracles, and 
mighty signs, and continuing this incomparable iavoor. 
in gifts and sanctifying graces, and promising that b6 
•shall abide with us for ever:) thou bast fed Qs with 
thine own broken body, and given drink to our soob 
out of thine ownbeart, and bast ascended np on b^^ 
and hast overcome all the powers of death and bell, 
and redeemed us from the miseries of a sad eternity 
and sittest at the right hand of God, making interces^ 
sion for us with a never«ceasing charity. 

O that men would therefore praise the Lord, %e. ' 

The grave could not hold thee long, O holy «hd 

aal Jesus; thy body could not see corruption^ 


I — ■ ■ 

Sect, x.} Prayers for several Occasiom. 407 

neidier could thy soul b^ left m hell : thpu if art firee 
among the dead^ and thou brak^t the iron gat^ of 
death, and the bars and chains of the lower prisons. 
Thoi;i brqnghtest comfort to t^e souls of the patriarchs, 
who waitesd for thy comings whp longed, for the re^* 
demptipn of man, and the revelation, of thy 'day. 
Abraham, Isaac, andt/ocqi ss^W.thy day,, and re* 
joioed: and when thoii didst arise from thy bed of 
darkpess, a;nd^lef test. the gravcrclothes behkid thee, 
apd didst put on a robe of glory, (over which for 
forty days thou didst wear a veil): and then eoteriedst 
into a (Joud, and then into glory, th^n' the^ powers of 
h^U were. confounded, then death lost its power,- and 
was swallowed up into victoi^: and though death is 
not quite destroyed, yet it' is made harmless and witb- 
oQt 9 ' sting, and the copditioix of human nature is 
made an entrance into eternal glory : thou art becqme 
the Prince of Life, the first-frqits of the resurrection, 
the first-born from the dead, having madfe the way 
plain before our faces, that we may also arise .ag^in 
IP the resurrection of the last day, when thou shalt 
come again unto us to render to every man according 
to his works, 
., O that men would therefore praise the Lord, 8^c. 

O give thanks unto the Lor d^ for he is graciotss, 
and his mercy endureth for ever. 
. O all ye angels of the Lord, praise ye the Lordi 
praise him and magnify him for ever. 

O ye spirits and souls of the righteous^ praise ye 
the Lord: praise him' and magnify him for ever. 



m ' ■^■■tkif^iMff: "^i^^**. „_!»*».*« 


• _. • 

tli| iUiiMH it Wf 

flhoiiidft'iitaaH*> itinrliia'iiiilin JJijTltiten %#tt 

niimy ■ go^u fcpinpnoDy ■mt^mbii^ ^^^rot^ 

iniiD mj JWUI9- Tiinisgii UMC iMfv I uonrifBmBnB 
w<er 111106 « wn iNinitf viiMr uucviuiiibu BPnimR 
me, given me firiei^ and Uerted'tNeidi-'giVlHi^^ 
many days of eomlbrt and healt^v f wfe'frtnrfttWigfrfi 
inflraiitiei with Hpfaieh nan^ dftiij^Mfnts tM'MlMt 
servants are afflicted. Thou hast sent 'tilf MlJIeHb 
snatch me ftom the ViolMce of flA^ tHoA #atM; Id 
prevent preetpicesy firactttte' tff 'bcMck^* lb '"Mteiir^ttb 
from thunder and lightning; phgtHt and j ie sHH i ht S M 
diseases^ mntdek* and i«(bhei^, '^tMefe of'VMttDe 
and enemies^ antf allthfe spirHJi 6f dkrkfaeA t tiM%ii 
the days of sorrow thott' h^st rffidlhed the ;Mn^ 
destifiution of i^i^tihion^thod hiii^ tftett bane'df^fafle, 
and thou hast said dhto mef''T&dB'ngif^ UH^ iUi 
nor forsake thee. " * ' '" '" i-K * ^h 

J will gipe thaf^H unto the Lord v^ht^iihok 
' mrt, secret fy among the faithful and in the congre* 


Sect/x.] Prayers for several Occasions.' 409 

■ ■■lH «lM*«*MMiJfc<MI^»^^^^MI 

ThoUy O my d^re^t Lord and Ffither^. hast taken 
care of my soul, hast pitied my miseries, sustaiMii 
my infii^mities, relieved and instructed my ignorances : 
and though I have broken thy righteous laws and com- 
nandments, run passionately after vanities^ and was 
ia love ifith death, and was dead in sin,, and was ex- 
posed to thousands of temptations^ and fell, foully, 
and icontioued in it, and 4oved to have it so,: and hated 
to be reformed ; yet thou didst call me wtth t^xhecks 
of .' conscience, with daily sermons, and precepts of 
holiii^s, with fear and shame, with benefits and the 
admonitions of thy most Holy Spirit, by the (Counsel 
of my. friends, by the example of good persons, with 
holy books, and thousands of exccUetit arts, and 
vouldit not suffer me to perish in my fc^ly, but didst 
force me Xo attend ta thy gracious calling, arid hast 
put me into a state of re|)cntaQce, and possibilities 
of pfirdon, being infinitely desincms 1 should live, and 
recover,. and make use of :tby:grace, and partake of 
thy glories. 

. / will give thanks unto. the Lord with mjf whole 
heart f secretly among the faithful, and in the congre- 
gation. For salvation helongeth to the Lord, and thy 
blessing is upon thy servant. But as for me^ I will 
come into thy home in the multitude of thy mercies, 
and in thy fear will 1 worship toward thy holy 
temple. For of thee, and in thee, and through, and 
for thee, are all things. Blessed be the name of 
Gddfrom generation to generation. Amen* 
.r No. 18. 3 G 

410 Holjf Livmg. [Chap. it. 

A short Form of Thanksgwmg to be said t^pon dj^ 
special Deliverance^ as Jrom ChiUMrtk, foam 
SicknesSf ffvm Battle^ or immineni Danger at 
Sea or LaiuL^ Sfc. 

O MOST merciful and gracious God, thou fiMintiis 
of all mercy and blessings thou hast opened the hand 
of thy mercy to fill me with blessings, and the iwtet 
eflfects of thy loving kindness : thou feedest us lilbe a 
shepherd^ thou govemest us as a king, thou beanst 
us in thy arms like a nurse, thou dost cover us under 
the shadow of thy wings, and shelter us like a hen ; 
thou (O dearest Lord)^ wakest for us as a waitchmaoi 
thou providest for us like a husband, thou lovest ii» 
as a friend, and thinkest on us perpetually, as a caie- 
fttl mother on her helpless babe, and art exceediif 
merciful to all that fear thee. And now, O Lord, 
thou hast added this great blessing of deliverance from 
my late danger, [here name the blessing] it was thy 
hand and the help of thy mercy that relieved me; the 
waters of affliction had drowned me, and the stream 
had gone over my soul, if the Spirit of the Lord bad 
not moved upon these waters. Thou, O Lord, didst 
revoke thy angry sentence, which I had deserved, and 
which was gone oat against me. Unto thee, O Lord^ 
I ascribe the praise and honour of my redemption. I 
will be glad. and rejoice in thy mercy, for thou hast 
considered my trouble, and hast known my soul ia 
adversity. As thou bast spread thy hand upon me for 
a covering, so also enlarge my heart with thankfiil^ 
ness, and fill my mouth with praises, that my duty and 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions. 411 


returns to thee inaty be great as my needs of mercy are ; 
and let thy gracious favours and loving kindness En- 
dure for ^er atfd ev^er upon tby servant: and grant 
that what thou hast sovrn in mercy, may spring up in 
ddty : and let thy grace so strengtheti mfy purposes, 
that I mieiy «in no more; lest thy threatening return 
upon life in anger, and thy anger bredFk me into pieces : 
but let me waHt in the light of thy favour; and in the 
piiths 6f thy cotfimandments; that I, living here to the 
glory of thy name, may at last enter into The glofry of 
my Lord, to sp^nd a Ivhole eternity in giving praise to 
thy exalted and ever-glorious name. Amen. 

We praise thee, O God, we acknowledge thee to be 
the Lord. Ail the earth doth worship thee the Father 
everlasting. To thee all angels cry aloud, the heavens 
and all the powers therein: to thee cherubim and 
seraphim continually do cry. Holy, holy, holy, Lord 
God of Sabbaoth; heaven and earth are full of the 
majesty of thy glory. The glorious company of the 
apostles praise thee. The goodly fellowship of the 
prophets praise thee. The noble army of martjris 
praise thee. The holy Church throughout all the 
world doth acknowledge thee, the Father of an infinite 
Majesty; thine honourable, true, and only Son; also 
the Holy Ghost the Comforter. Thou art the King 
of glory, O Christ: thou art the everlasting. Son of 
the Father. When thou tookest upon thee to deliver 
man, thou didst not abhor the Virgin's womb. When 
thou hadst overcome the sharpness of death, thou 
'didst open the kingdom of heaven to all believers. 
Thou sittest at the right hand of God in the glory of 

412 Holy living. [Chap. rr. 

the Father. We believe that thou abalt oome td%a 
oiir Judge. We therefore pray thee Kelp thy a»< 
▼ants whom thou hast redeemed with thy pccdoot 
blood. Make them, to be numbered widi thy eaiHi 
in glory everlasting. O Lord save thy ptople, and 
bless thine heritage. Govern them, and lift them up 
for ever. Day by day we magnify thee^ and we wor^ 
ship thy name ever world without, end. Vouchsafc^ 
O Lord^ to keep us this day without sin. O Lml^ 
have mercy upon us, have mercy upon tta« O. Loid| 
let thy mercy lighten upon us, as our trust is in thee« 
O Lord, in thee have I trusted : let me never be coi^ 
founded. Amen. 

A Prayer of Thanksgiving after the receivi^-^ 

some great Blessings as the Birth of an ffetrytk 
Success of an honest Design, a Victory ^ a good 
Harvest, Sgc. 

O Lord God, Father of mercies, the fountain of 
comfort and blessing, of life and peace, of plenty and 
pardon, who fillest heaven with thy glory, and earth 
with thy goodness; I give thee the most earnest, most 
humble, and most enlarged returns of my gli[d and 
thankful heart, for thou hast refreshed me with thy 
comforts, and enlarged me with thy blessing; tlK>a 
hast made my flesh and my bones to rejoice: for be* 
sides the blessings of all mankind, the blessings of 
nature, and the blessings of grace, the support of every 
minute, and the comforts of every day, -thou hast 
opened thy bosom, and at this time hast poured out 
an excellent exprcssiioii of thy loving kindness [Aeri? 


Sbct. X.] Prayers for several Occasions, 413 

nmme tk$,l4es9ingl\ ,Wbat am I, O Lord^ and -whit 
18 ny ikther*€i hpu^e; what is the life, and what are the 
oifMicities of thy servant, fjhat thou^shouldest clo this 
iwto-^ me ;• that tjlie gr^t God of men and angeU 
ahould make a special de<;ree. in h^ayea feu* me^ and! 
send, out an tmgel of blessing, and jnst^ad^ of cpi|- 
demning and ruining me, as L miserably hayf|.de-; 
senred, to distinguish me from many of my eqqals and 
niy betters, by this and many other special acts ^f 
graoe and favour ? 

Prmsfdd be the Lard ^aify^ even the Lord that 
helpeth us> and pouretfa his benefits upon us. He is 
our God, even the God of whom cometh salvation : 
God is the Lord by whom we escape death. Thou 
l^t brought me to great honour, and comforted me 
on every side. 

Thou, Lord> hast made me glad through thy works: 
I will rejoice in giving praise for the operation of thy 
hands. ' 

. O give thanks' unto the Lord,^ and. call upon his 
name: tell the people what things he l^th done. 
' As for me, I will give great thanks. pnto tlie Lord, 
and praise him, among the multitude, 
. . Blessed be the -Lord God, even the Lqrd God pf 
hstael^^ which pnly .doth : wondrous and gracipif^ 

And blessed; be the name of his inajesty for ever: 
and aU^ tbe^* earth shall ; bo filled ^ wHh his; majesty^ 

: Glory bo to the F^ttherj ^c. >. .„ 

: , < , A> it w«» in the tbegipiwii^, : 4$i«„ .,,, ., ,.., 

414 llolif JJving. [Ghap. IV. 

A Prayer to he said on the Feast of Ckristmas^ or 

the Birth of our Blessed Saviour Jesus : The same 

also may he said upon the Feast of the AnmnuAh 

turn and Purification of the Blessed FirginMsirf. 

O Holy and Almighty God, Father of merciei, 

Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of thy lofe 

and eternal mercies, 1 adore, and praise, and glorify 

thy infinite and unspeal^able love and wisdom, ' who 

hast sent thy Son from the bosom of felicities to take 

upon him our nature, and our misery, and our guitti 

and hast made the Son of God to become the Son of 

man, that we might become the -sons 6f God, aiui 

partakers of the divine nature: since thou hast so 

exalted human nature, be pleased also to sanctify my 

person, that by a conformity to the humility, sod 

laws, and sufferings of my dearest Saviour, I may fat ^ 

united to his Spirit, and be made all one with the 

most holy Jesus. Amen. 

O holy and eternal Jesus, who didst pity mankind 
lying in his blood, and sin, and misery, and didst 
choose our sadnesses and sorrows, that thou migbtest 
make us to partake of thy felicities; let thine eyes 
pity me, thy hands support me, thy holy feet tread 
down all the difficulties in my way to heaven : let me 
dwell in thy heart, be instructed with thy wisdom, 
moved by thy affections, choose with thy will, and be 
clothed with thy righteousness; that in the day of 
judgment I maybe found having on thy garments, 
sealed with thy impression; and that bearing upon 
every i[aculty and member^ the character of my elder 
brother, I may not be cast out with strangers and un- 
believers. Amen. 

Sect.'X.] Prayers for several Occasions. 415 

____^^__^ ^^ ■_■— !!■ 11 _ I ■— ^ -mm. MM— II ■ ■-» I-- 1- -■ I 11 _ ^ - ■ r — ^i' 

O holy and ever-blessed Spirit^ who didst over- 
shadow the holy Virgin- Mother of our Lord, and 
causedst her to conceive by a miraculous and myste- 
rious manner, be pleased to overshadow my soul, 
dnd enlighten, my spirit, that I may conceive the 
holy Jesus in my heart, and may bear;him in my. 
mindy and may grow up to the fulness of the Mature 
of Christy to be a perfect man inChrist Jesus. Amen. 

To God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christy t6 
the eternal Son that was incarnate^ atul born of a 
Virgin^ to the Spirit of the Father aud the Son, be 
all honour and glory j tvorskip, and adoration, nom 
and for ever. Amei;^. 

The safne. Form of Prayer may be u^d upon our 
dUm birth-day, or day of our baptism, adding the 
following Prayer. 


A Prayer to be said upon our Birth^Day, or Day 

of ^Baptism. 

O blessed and eternal God> I give thee praise and 
glory for thy great mercy to mc in causing me to be 
bom of christian parents, and didst. not allot to me a 
portion with misbelievers and heathens that have not 
known thee. Thou didst not suffer me to be strangled 
a( the gate of the womb, but thy hand sustained and 
brought me to the light of the world, and the illumi- 
nation of baptisim, with thy grace preventing my elec- 
by an artifidial necessity and holy prevention 
me to the profession and practices of chris- 
tiiail^* Cm,^inct that I hare broken the promises 
Viadi^in mjiieh&lfj and which I confirmed by my after 

416 llolff UviHg. [Cflap. I?. 

act: I went back from them by an evil life: and yet 
thou hast still continued to me life and time of repent- 
ance ; and didst not cut me off in the beginning cf 
my days^ and the progress of my sins. O dearest 
God, pardon the errors and ignorances, the vices and 
vanities of my youth, and the iaults of my more for- 
ward years, and let me nevjer more stain the whitenen 
of my baptismal robe : and now that by thy grace! 
still persist in the purposes of obedience, and do give 
up my name to Christ, and glory to be a discijde of 
thy institution, and a servant of Jesus, let me never 
fail of thy grace; let no root of bitterness spring up, 
and disorder my purposes, and defile my spirit. O let 
my years be so many degress of nearer approach to 
thee; and forsake me not, O God, in my old age, when 
I am grey headed ; and when my strength faileth me, 
be thou my strength and my guide unto death; that I 
may reckon my years, and apply my heart unto wis- 
dom; and at last, after the spending a holy and a 
blessed life^ I may be brought unto a glorious eternity, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Then add the for m of thanksgiving formerly described. 

A Prayer to be said upon the Days of the Memortf 
. of the Apostles, Martyrs, Sgc. 

O eternal God, to whom do live the spirits of them 
that depart hence in the Lord, and in whom the 
souls of them that be elected* after they be delivered 
from the burden of the flesh, be in peace and rest 
from their labours, and their works follow them; 
and their memory ia blessed; I bless and naagnify thy 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasipns. 417 

■ I I ■ ■ ■■ ■ , ■ I ■ ii ■ I.. 

mm , 

holy, and ever gloriouB name^ for .the great grace and 
bleMiogs manifested to thy apostles, and martyrs, and 

. otbjer boly personsj who have glorified thy name in 
the days of their flesh, and have served the interest of 
ireligion and. of thy service: and this day we have ;thy 
servant /name /Ae Apostle or Martyr ^ ^c.) in re- 
membrance, .whoin thou hast led thrpMgh the troubles 
pnd tepfiptations of this world, and now hast lodged 
ill the bosom of a certain hope^nd great beatitude 
j|Vit|l the day of restitutipn of fill tjbings. Blessed be 
the mercy and eternal goodness of God;, and^ the 
memory of. all thy .ss^ipts is blecised.. Teach me to 
practise their doctrines^ to imitate their lives, follow^p 
ing ' their example^ and being united as a part of the 

' sf^me mystical body by the band of .the ^amq &ith, and 
a holy hope, and a. neyer-cfasing; charity.. And may 
it please thee of thy gracious^goodness shortly to ac- 
complish, the number of thine elect,, and to hasten thy 
kingdom, that we with thy servants and all others 
departed in the true, faith and fear of thy holy name, 
may have our perfect consummation and bliss in body 
and soul in thy eternal and everlasting kingdom. 


A Form of Prayer recording all the Parts and Mys-^ 
teries of Christ* s Passion^ being a short History of 
it : to be used especially in the Week of the Passion, 
and before the Receiving the Blessed Sacrament. 

ALL praise, honour and glpry be to the holy and 
eternal Jesus. I adore thee, O blessejd Redeemer^ 
eternal God, the light of the Gentiles^ and the glory 

No. 18. 3 H 

AM Ilolif Living. [Chap. iv. 

of Israel; for thou hatt done and suflfered for me 
more than I could wish| more tbap I amid think of, 
even all that a lost and a miserable periahing sinner 
could possibly need. 

Thou wert afflicted with thirrt and hanger^ widi 
heat and cold, with labours and sorrowa, with hard 
journeys and restless nights: and when thou wert 
contriving all the \nysteriou8 and admirable wsji 
of paying our scores, thou didst suffer Ajraelf to 
be designed to slaughter by those for whom in km 
thou wert ready to die. 

ff^hat is man thai thou art miadfid of him, wd 
the son of man that thou thus visUest him f 

Blessed be thy name, O holy Jesus ; for th<m 
wentest about doing good, lyorling miracles of mercy, 
healing the sick, comforlii^ the distressed, instnu^ 
ing the ignorant, raising the dead, enlightening the 
blind, strengthening the lame, straightening the 
crooked, relieving the poor, preaching the gospef, 
and reconciling sinners by the mightiness of thy 
power, by the wisdom of thy spirit, by the word 
of God, and the merits of thy passion^ thy healtbfiil 
and bitter passion. 
Lord, what is man that tliou art mindful of him, Sgc. 

Blessed be thy name, O holy Jesus, who wert con- 
tent to be conspired against by the Jetvs, to be sold by 
thy servant for a vile price, and to wash the feet of 
him that took money for thy life, and to give to him 
and to all thy apostles thy most holy body and blood, 
to become a sacrifice for their sins, even for their 
betraying and denying thee, and for all my sins, even 

Sect* x.] Prayers for several Occasions, 419 

■ 11- ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■■ ■■■■!■■ 

^■■^i^P^— — ^ii^i— ^■*— i^^W^^— — ■»- ■ ■ ■ ■■■■ » ■■ II ^» ■ ■ ■ ^ ^— ^»^ ■! ■ ■■^■^^ — ■ p 111 ^— — >^— ^la^l^B^—^ti^M^M^W^fca— ^ 

ibr my crucifying thee afresh, and for such sina which . 
I atn ashamed to think of, . hut that the gveatneaa of 
mjr.sinaimagaify the infiniteness of thy aerciet, who. 
didst so great things for so vile. a person. * 

Lovdf tehat is manf ^c ... 

. Blessed be thy name, O holy Jesus, who, heing to 
depart the worid, didst conotfort thy apostles, pouring 
<Hit into their eai^ and hearts treasures of admirable 
discourses; who didst recommend them to thy Father 
with a mighty charity, and then didst enter into the 
garden set with nothing but briars and sorrows, where 
thou didst ^suSet a most unspeakable agony, until the 
sweat strained through, thy pure .skin like drops of 
blood, and there didst sigh and groan, atid fall flat 
upon the earth, and pray, and submit to the intoler- 
able burden of thy Father's wrath, whichi I bad de- 
served and thou. sufieredsL 

Lord, what is man, ^c, . . 

. Blessed be thy name, O holy Jesus^ who hast sanc- 
tified to us all our natural infirmities and passions, 
by vouchsafing in fear and trembling and sore 
i^nazement, by beiqg bound and ioiiprisoned, by being 
harassed, and dragged with cords of violence and rude 
bands, by being drenched in the ImxJc in the way, 
by being sought after like a thief, and used like a 
liinner, who wert the mosft holy and the most inno- 
cent^ cleaner than an angel, and brighter than the 
morning star* 

Lordf what is mauj Sgc. 
Blessed, be thy name, O holy Jesus, and blessed be 
thy loving kindness and pity by which thou didflt ne- 

480 i/o/y Living, [Chap. iv. 

^^^^^■^•■^^^^^■^^^^^"^■^^^^"^"^^^^^^"^^^^^^^^^^^■^^^^■^•^^^■^^^^~^^"^" "■" ~ -^"^■^■^■— ^■— ^^^^^^— •— ^ 

gleet thy own sorrows, and go to comfort the sadness 
of thy disciples, quickening their dulness^ encouragiiig 
their doty,' arming their weakness with excellent pre- 
cepts against the day of trial. Blessed be that humility 
and sorrow of thine, who being Lord of the angels, 
yet wouldest need and receive comfort from thy ser- 
vant the angel ; who didst offer thyself to thy perse-' 
cutors, and madest them able to seize thee ; and didst 
receive the traitor's kiss, and sufieredst a veil to be 
thrown over thy holy ftce, that thy eneoues might 
not presently be confounded by so bright a lustre ; and 
wouldest do a miracle to cure a wound of one of thy 
spiteful enemies ; and didst reprove a zealous servant 
in behalf of a malicious adversary ; and then didst go 
like a lamb to the slaughter, without noise or violence 
or resistance, when thou couldest have commanded 
millions of angels for thy guard and rescue. 
Lord, what is man, Sgc. 
Blessed be thy name, O holy Jesus, and blessed be 
that holy sorrow thou didst suffer when thy disciples 
fled, and thou wert left alone in the hands of cruel 
men, who like ravening wolves thirsted for a draught 
of thy best blood; and thou wert led to the house 
of Annas, and there asked ensnaring questions, and 
smitten on the face by him whose ear thou hadst 
but lately healed; snd from thence wert dragged to 
the house of Caiphas, and there all night didst en- 
dure spittings, affronts, scorn, coniumeliesj blows, and 
intolerable insolences; and all this for man, uiio was 
thy enemy, and the cause of all thy sorrows. 
Lord, what is man, S^v. 

S^cT. X.] Prayers fcr several Occasions, 421 

■ I ■* ■ Illllll II 

Blessed be thy name^ O holy Jesus^ and blessed 
be thy mercy, who, when thy servant Petet denied 
thee, and forsook thee, and forswore thee, didst look 
back upon him, and by that gracious and chiding 
look didst call him back to himself a.nd thee; who 
wert accused before the high-priest, and railed upon, 
afid examined to evil purposes, and with designs of 

• • • - 

blood; who wert declared guilty of death, for speak- 
ing a most necessary and most profitable truth; who 
wert sent to Pilate and found innocent, and sent to 
Herod and still found innocent, and wert arrayed in 
white, both to declare thy innocence, and yet to de*- 
ride thy person, and wert sent back to Pilate and 
examined agslin, and 3ret nothing but innocence found 
in thee, and malice round about thee to devour thy 
life, which yet thou wert more desirous to lay down' 
for them than they were to take it from thee. 
Lord, what is man^ 8^c. 
Blessed be thy name, O holy Jesus, and blessed be 
that patience and charity by which for our sakes thou 
wert content to be smitten with canes, and hkve that 
holy face, which angels with joy and wonder do be- 
hold, be spit upon, and be despised, when com])ared 
with BarabbaSy and scourged most rudely with unhal- 
lowed hands, till the pavement was purpled with that 
holy blood, and condemned to a sad tmd shameful, a 
public and painful death, and arrayed in scarlet, and 
crowned with thorns, and stripped naked, and then 
cloathed, and loaden with the cross, and tormented 
with a tablet stuck with nails at the fringes of thy 
garment, and bound hard with cords, and dragged 

422 UalyUriug. [Chap. iv. 

most vilely and oiMt piteously till the load was too 
great, and did sink thy tender and virginal body to the 
earth s and yet didst comfort the weeping woman, and 
didst more pity thy persecutors than thyself, and 
wert grieved for the miseries of Jerusalem to come 
forty years after, more than for thy present passion. 
Lord, what is mapi^ Sgc. 

Blessed be thy name, O holy Jesus, and blesaed be 
that incomparable sweetness and holy sorrow which 
thou sufieredst, when thy holy hands and feet were 
nailed upon the cross, and the cross being- set in a 
hollowness of the earth did in the fall rend the woundi 
wider, and there naked and bleeding, sick and fiiint, 
wounded and despised, didst hang upon the weight 
of thy wounds three long hours, praying for thy per- 
secutors, satisfying thy Father's wrath, reconciling the 
penitent thief, providing for thy holy and afflicted 
mother, tasting vinegar and gall ; and when the ful- 
ness of thy suffering was accomplished, didst give thy 
soul into the hands of God, and didst descend to the 
regions of longing souls, who waited for the revela- 
tion of this thy day in their prisons of hope : and then 
thy body was transfixed with a spear, and issued fiMrth 
two sacraments, water and blood ; and thy body was 
composed to burial, and dwelt in darkness three dajFS 
and three nights. 

Lord what is man that thou art mindful of him, ami 
the son of man that thou thus visitest him ? , 


The Prayer. 

Thus, O blessed Jesus, thou didst finish thy holy 
-passion with pain and anguish so great that nothing 

Sect, x.] Prayenfor several Occasions. 428 

ooold be greater than it, except thyself and thy own 
infinite mercy; and alt this for man, ^ven for me, 
than whom nothing could be more miserable, thyself 
only excepted, who becamest so by undertaking our 
guilt and our punishment. And now, Lord, who 
hast done so much for me, be pleased only to make 
it effectual to me, that it may not be useless and lost 
as to my particular, lest I become eternally miserable, 
and lost to all hopes and possibilities^ of comfort. All 
this deserves more love than I have to give: but. Lord, 
do thou turn me all into love, and all my love into obe- 
dience, and let my obedience be without interruption; 
and then I hope thou wilt accept such a return as I catk 
make. Make me to be something that thou delight- 
est in, and thou shalt have all that I am or have firom 
thee, even whatsoever thou makest fit for thyself. 
Teach me to live wholly for my Saviour Jesus, and Co 
be ready to die for Jesus, and to be conformable to his 
life and sufferings, and to be united to him by insepa- 
rable unions, and to pwn no passions but what may 
be servants to Jesus, and disciples of his institution. 
O sweetest Saviour, clothe my soul with thy holy robe; 
hide my sins in thy wounds, and bury them in thy 
grave; and let me rise in the life of grace; and abide 
mnd grow in it, till I arrive at the kingdom of glory. 

Our Father, S^c 

Ad Sect. 7^ 8.] A Form of Prayer or Intercession 
for all Estates of People in the Christian Church. 
The parts ofwhidh ma^ fte added to anif other Forms : 

494 Uoiy JJving. [Cuap^ iv. 

a$id the whole office etUireljf as it lies^ is proper to 
be said in our Preparation to tlte Holy Sacrament, 
or on the Day of 

I. Far Oar selves. 

P Tbou gracious Father of mercy. Father of oar 
Lord Jesus Cbrii t, have mercy upoo tby semntiy 
who bow our beads and our koees, and our hearts to 
thee : . pardon and forgive us all our sins : give us the 
grace of holy repentaoee and a strict obedience to thy 
holy word : strengthen us in the inner man with tjbe 
power of the Holy Ghost for all the partly janddnties 
of our calling and holy living : preserve us for ever 
in the unity of the holy catholic church, and in the in- 
tegrity of the christian faith, and in the love o£ God 
and of our neighbours, and in hope of life eternal. 

2. For the whole Catholic Church. 

O Holy Jesus, King of the Saints, and Prince of the 
Catholic Church, preserve thy Spouse whom thou 
hast purchased with tHy right-hand, and redeemed 
and cleansed with thy blood : the whole catboiic 
church from one end of the earth to the other : she 
is founded upon a rock, but planted in the sea. 
preserve her safe from schism, heresy, and sacrilege. 
Unite all her members with the bands of Faith, Hope' 
and Charity, and an external communion, when it 
l»hall seem good in thine eyes. Let the daily sacrifice 
of prayer and sacramental thanksgiving never cease, 
but be for ever presented to thee, and for ever united 


Sect.x.] Prayers for several Occasions. 4$U 

to the intercession of her dearest Lord^ and for ever 
prevail for the obtaining for every of its membeirs 
grace and blessings pardon and salvation. Amen. 

3. For all Christian Kings, Princes, and Governors. 

O King of Rings^ and Prince of all the Rulers of 
the earthy give thy grace and spirit to all christian 
princes, the spirit of wisdom and counsel, the spirit 
of government and godly fear* Grant unto them to 
live in peace and honour, that their people may love 
and fear them, and they may love and fear God. 
Speak good unto their hearts concerning the church, 
that they may be nursing-fathers to it, fathers to 
the fatherless; judges and avengers of the cause of 
widows ; that they may be compassionate to the wants 
of the poor, and the groans of the oppressed; that 
they may not vex or kill the Lord's people with un- 
just or ambitious wars, but may feed the flock of God, 
and may inquire after and do all things which may 
promote peace, public honesty, and holy religion; 
so administering things present, that they may not 
fail of the everlasting glories of the world to come, 
where ail thy faithful people shall reign kings for 
ever. Amen. 

4. For all the Orders of them that minister about . 

Holi/ Things. 

O Thou grtat Shepherd and Bishop of our Souls, 
holy and eternal Jesus, give unto thy servants, the 
ministers of the mysteries of christian religion, the 
spirit of prudence and sanctity, faith and charity. 

No. 18. 3 1 

426 /fo/y LhiHg. [Chap. iv. 

confidence and zeal, diligence and watchfolnets, diet 
they may declare thy will unto^the people fiuthfoUy^ 
and dispense Uiy sacraments rightly^ and iat^eede 
with tl)ee graciously and acceptably for thy servants. 
Grant, O Lord, that by a holy life, and a troe belief^ 
by well doing and patient suffering (when thou shsit 
call them to it) they may glorify thee, the great lover 
of souls, and after a plentiful conversion of sinoen 
from the error of their ways, they may shine like the 
stars in glory. Amen, 

Give unto thy servants^ the bishops, a disoermng 
spirit, that they may lay hands suddenly on no msd, 
but may depute such persons to the ministeries of re- 
ligion who may adorn the gospel <^ God, and whose 
lips may preserve knowledge, and such who by tbeir 
good preaching and holy living may advance the ser- 
vice of the Lord Jesus. Amen. 

5. For our pwarest Relatives, as Husband, Wife, 

Children, Family, 8^c. 

() God of intinite mercy, let thy loving mercy and 
compulsion descend upon the head of thy servants, 
[mif Ulfe, or Husband, Children and Family:^ Be 
pleased to give them health of body and of spirit^ a 
competent portion of temporals, so as may with com- 
fort support them in their journey to heaven; preserve 
them from all evil and sad accidents, defend' them 
n\ all assaults of their enemies, direct their persons 
and their actions, sanctify their hearts, and words, 
and pur()oses ; that we all may by the bands of obe- 
dience and charity be united to our Lord Jesus, and 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions J" 427 

always feeling thee our merciful and gracious father, 
may" become a holy family, discharging our whole 
€uty in all our relations ; that we in this life being 
thy children by adoption and grace, may be admitted 
into thy holy family hereafter, for ever to sing praises 
to thee in the church of the first-born, in the family 
of thy redeemed ones. Amen. 

>6. Far our ParentSy our Kindred in the Flesh, our 

Friends and Benejuctors. 

O God, merciful and gracious, who hast made [my 
Parents^ my friends and my benefactors ministers 
of thy mercy, and instruments of providence to thy 
servant, I humbly beg a blessing to descend upon the 
heads of \name the Persons or the Relations^ depute 
thy holy angels to guard their persons, thy holy 
spirit to guide their souls, thy prtfvideneie to minister 
to their necessities: and let thy grace and mercy 
preserve them from the bitter pains of eternal death, 
and bring them to everlasting life through Jesus 

Christ. Amen. "^ 


7. For all that lie under the Rod of PFdr, Famine 
or Pestilence: to be' said in the time -of Plague 
or fVar, Sgc. 

O Lord God Almighty, thou art our Father, we 
are thy children : thou art our Redeemer, we thy 
people, purchased with the price ot'thy most precious 
blood : be pleased to moderate thy anger towards 
thy servants, let not thy whole displeasure arise, lest 
we be consumed, and brought to nothing. Let health 

488 Holif living. [Chap. it. 

•nd peao^ be within our dwellings, let righteoasoeit 
and bolineM dwell for ever in onr hearts, and be ex-* 
pressed in all our actions, and the light of thy couih 
tenance be upon us in all our sufferings, that we may 
delight in the service, and in the mercies of God fer 
ever. Amen. 

O gracious Father and merciful God, if it be thy 
will, say unto the destroying angel, it is enough: 
and though we are not better than our brethnra who, 
are smitten with the rod of God, but much worse; 
yet may it please thee, even because tbon art good, 
and because we are timorous and sinfol, not yet fitted 
ibr our appearance, to set thy mark upon oor fere- 
heads, that thy angel the minister of thy justice msy 
pass over us, and not hurt us. Let thy band cover 
thy servants, and hide us in the ckfts of the rocki'tn 
the wounds of the holy Jesus, from the present anger 
that is gone out against us; that though we walk 
through the valley of the shadow of death, we may 
fear no evil, and suffer none: and those whom thou 
hast smitten with thy rod, support with thy staff, and 
visit them with thy mercies and salvation, through 
Jesus Christ, Amen, 

8. For all Women tvith Childy and for unborn Children. 

O Lord God, who art the Father of them that 
trust in thee, and shewest mercy to a thousand gene* 
rations of them that fear thee, have merey upon all 
women great with child, be pleased to give tbeai a 
joyful and a safe deliverance: and let thy grace 
preserve the fruit of their wombs, and conduct them 

Sect, x.] Prai/en for severai Oceanians. 

, S- For alt Estates of Men and ff'omen in the 
Christian Church. 

^H» the holy sacrament of baptisni ; that they being- 
^^egciierated by thy spirit, and adopted into thy family, 
and the portion and dnty of sons, may hvc to the 
glory of God, to the comfort of their parents and 
friends, to the edincation of the christian common- 
wealth, and the salvation of their own souls, through 
jta^fsus Christ. Amen. 

^B O Holy God, King Eternal, out of the infinite 
atore-houses of thy grace and mercy give unto all 
virgins chastity, and a religous spirit; to all persons 
dedicated to thee and to religion, continence and 
meekness, an active zeal and an unwearied spirit; to 
all married pairs, faith and holiness; to widows and 
fatherles!', and all that are oppressed, thy patronage, 
comfort and defence; to all christian women, simpli- 
city and modesty, humility and chastity, patience and 
charity; give unto the poor, to all that are robbed 

iand spoiled of their goods, a competent support^ and 
^ contented spirit, and a treasure in heaven hereafter: 
give unto prisoners and captives, to them that toil in 
tfie mines and row in the galleys, strength of body 
Ind of spirit, liberty and redemption, comfort and 
restitution: to all that tnivel by land thy angel for 
their guide, and a holy and prosperous return: to nil 
that travel by sea, freedom from pirates and ihi]>wreclc, 
and bring them to the haven where they would be: 
.to distressed and scrnpulous consciences, to melaa- 
and disconsolate jwisons, to all that are nf- 


430 Hoi If Lrcing, [Chap. iy. 

flicted with evil and unclean spirits^ give a light from 
heaven, great grace and proportionable comforts, and 
timely deliverances ; give them patience and resigna- 
tion ; let their sorrows be changed into grace and com- 
fort, and let the storm waft them certainly to the re- 
gions of rest and glory. 

Lord God of mercy, give to thy martyrs, confes- 
sors, and all thy persecuted, constancy and prudence 
boldness and hope, a full faith, and a never-failing 
charity. To all who are condemned to death do tboa 
minister comfort, a strong, a quiet, and k resigned 
spirit: take from them the fear of death, and all re- 
maining affections to sin, and all imperfections of 
duty, and cause them to die full of grace, fiill of hope. 
And give to all faithful, and particularly to them who 
have recommended themselves to the prayers of thy 
unworthy servant, a supply of all their needs, tem- 
poral and spiritual, and according to their several 
states and necessities, rest and peace^ pardon and 
refreshment: and shew us all mercy in the diay of 
judgment. Amen. 

Give, O Lord, to the magistrates equity, sincerity, 
courage and prudence, that they may fprotect the 
good, defend religion, and punish the wrong doers. 
Give to the nobility wisdom, valour, and loyalty ; to 
merchantsjustice and faithfulness; to all artificers and 
labourers, truth and honesty; to our enemies, for- 
giveness and brotherly-kindness. 
: Preserve to us the heavens and the air in healthful 
influence and disposition, the earth in ''plenty, the 
kingdom in peace and good government, our marri- 


Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions. 481 

ages in peace and sweetness, and innocence of so* 
ciety, thy people from famine and pestilence, our 
houses from burning and robbery, our persons from 
being burnt alive: from banishqient and prison, from 
widowhood and destitution, from violence of pains 
and passion, from tempests and earthquakes, from 
inundation of waters, from rebellion or invasion, from 
impatience and inordinate cares, from tediousness of 
spirit and despair, from ihurder, and all violent, 
accursed, and unusual deaths,, from the surprise of 
sudden and violent accidents^ from passionate and 
unreasonable fears, from all thy wrath, and from all 
our sins, good Lord, deliver and preserve thy servants 
for ever. Amen. ^ 

Repress the violence of all implacable warring and 
tyrant nations : bring home unto thy fold all that are 
gone astray: call into the church all strangers: in* 
crease the number and holiness of thine own people;: 
bring infants to ripeness of age and reason : confirm 
all baptised people with thy grace, and with thy spirit 
instruct the novices, and new christians : let a great 
grace and merciful providence bring youthful persons 
safely and holily through the indiscretions and passions 
and temptations of their younger years: and to those ' 
whom thou hast or shaft permit to live to the age of a 
man, give competent strength and wisdom; take^from 
them covetousness and churlishness, pride and impa- 
tience, fill them full of devotion and charity, repent- 
ance and sobriety, holy thoughts and longing desires 
afler heaven and heavenly things ; give them a holy 
and a blessed death, and to us all a joyful resurrectioh 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

43!} Holy TJvittg, [Chap. iv. 

Ad Sect. 10 ] The manner of using these Devotions^ 
by way of Preparation to the receiving the Blessed 
Sacrament of the LonTs Supper. 

The just Preparation to this holy Feast consisting 

ptincipally in a holy life^ and contiequently in the Be- 

petition of the Acts of all virtues, and especially of 

Faith, Hepentance, Charity ^ and Thanksgiving: 'to 

the Exercise of these Four Graces, let the Peruon 

that intends to Communicate, in the time set apart 

for his Preparation and Devotion, for the Exercise 

of his Faith, recite tlie Prayer or Litany of the 

Passion ; for the Exercise of Repentance, the Form 

"^ of Confession of Sins, with the Prayer annexed; and 

for the Graces of Thanksgiving and Charity ^ let him 

use the special forms of Prayer above described : or, 

if a less time can be allotted fot preparatory DevotioUj 

the two first will be the inore proper, as containing 

in them all the personal Duty of the Communicant. 

To which, upon the Morning of that holy solemnity ^ 

let him add, 

A Prayer of Preparation or Address to the Holy 


An Act of Love. 

O most gracious and eternal God^ the helper of 
the helpless, the comforter of the comfortless, the 
hope of the afflicted, the bread of the hungry, the 
drink of the thirsty, and the saviour of all tliem that 
wait upon thee; I bless and glorify thy nam^, and 
adore thy goodness, and delight in thy love, that thou 
hast once more given me the opportunity of receiving 
the greatest favour which I can receive in this world. 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions. 4^ 

even the body and blood of my dearest Saviour. O 
take from me all aiiection to sin or vanity : let not 
my affections dwell b^ow^ but soar upwards to the 
element of love^ to the seat of God, to the regions of 
glory, and the inheritance of Jesus; that I may hun- 
ger and thirst for the bread of Vik^ and the wine of 
elect souls, and may know no loves .but the love of 
God and the most merciful Jesus. Amen. 

An Act of Desire. 

O blessed Jesus, thou hast used many arts to save 
me, thou, hast given thy life to redeem me, thy holy 
spirit to sanctify, me, .thyself for my example, thy 
word for my rule, thy grace for my guide, the 
fruit of thy body ^hanging on the tree of the cross 
for the sin of my soul, and after all this thou hast 
sent thy apostles and ministers of salvation to call 
me, to importune me, to constrain me to holiness, 
and peace, and felicity. O now come. Lord Jesus, 
come quickly t my heart is desirous of thy presence, 
and thirsty of thy grace, and would fain entertain 
thee, not as a guest but as an inhabitant, as the lord 
of all my faculties. Enter in and take possession and 
dwell with me for ever ; that I may also dwell in the 
heart of my dearest lord, which was opened for me 
witbva spear and love. 

\ " 

^ r ', 4^ 4^^f Omtritkm. 

Lord, Choa sbak tol my heart frill of cares and 
worldly desire^ cheated with love of riches, and 
neglect of hdy thittgii, pfond and nnmorttfied, frilse 

iVo*l9- 3 k 

434 Hol)f living. [Chap. i?. 

md crafty to deceive itself, intricated and entangled 
with difficult cases of conscience, with knots which 
my own wildness and inconsideration and. impatience 
have tied and shuffled together. O my dearest lord, 
if thou canst behold such an impure seat, behold the 
place to which thou art invited is full of passion and 
prejudice, evil . principles, and evil habits, peevish 
and disobedient, lustful and intemperate, and full of 
sad remembrances that I have often provoked to 
jealousy and to anger thee, my God, my dearest 
saviour, him that died for me, him that suffered 
torments for me, that is infinitely good to me, and 
infinitely good and perfect m himself. This, O dear^ 
est saviour, is a sad truth, and I am heartily ashamed, 
and truly sorrowful for it, and do deeply hate all my 
sins, and am full of indignation against myself for 
so unworthy, so careless, so continued, so great a 
folly: and humbly b^ of thee to increase my sor- 
row, and my care, and my hatred against sin ; and 
make my love to thee swell up to a great grace, and 
then to glory and immensity. 

An Act of Faith. 

This indeed is my condition : but I know, O bles- 
sed Jesus, that thou didst take upon thee my nature, 
that thou mightest suffer for my sins, and thou didst 
suffer to deliver me from them, and from thy father s 
wrath, and I was delivered from this wrath that I 
might serve thee in holiness and righteousness all my 
days. Ldrd, I am as sure thou didst the great work of 
redemption for me and ail mankind, as that 1 am alive, 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions. 4S5 

>!■ ' ■■■■■ I ■ 11. I ,. 

^^^■^—^-^—M^^— I I Ml m i ■ .,.■■■ ' ■ ■. ■■ — I ■ . I ■ ■ »■ ^ I ■ ■ ■,■■■■ , ■ , m ■ » ^. ■ — — ^. ■— — I ^ ■■■ ■ ^^i^- 


This is my hope, the strength of my spirit^ i^y j^ 

and my confidence : and do thou n^er let the spirit 

of unbelief enter into me^ and take me from this rock. 

Here I will dwells for I have a deKght therein : here > 

I will live, and here I desire to die. 

♦ • ■ 

Tfte Petitiofu 

Therefore, O blessed Jesu, who art my Saviour 
and my God, whose body is my food, and thy righto^ 
ousness is my robe, thou, art the priest and the sacri- 
fice, the master of the feast, and the feast itself, the 
physician of my soul, the light of mine eyes, thb 
purifier of my stains; enter into my heart, and cast 
out from thence all impurities, all the remains of the 
Old Man; and grant I may partake of this holy sacra- 
ment with much reverence/ and holy relish, and gredt 
effect, receiving hence the communication of thy 
holy body and blood, for the establishment of an urt- 
reprovable faith^ of an unfeigned love, for the fulness 
of wisclom,- for the healing my soul, for the blessing 
and preservation of my body, for the taking out the 
sting of temporal death, and for the assurance of a 
holy resurrection, for the ejection of all evil from 
within me, and the fulfilling all thy righteous com- 
mandments, and to procure for me a mercy and a fair 
•reception at the day of judgment, through thy mercies, 
O holy and ever bless^ Saviour Jesus/ Amen. 

Hefe aho may he added the Prayer after receiving 
the Cup. 

406 Holy Uvmg. [Chap. i\ 

Jl^aottbtionit to be said befiMre^ or at the reoeiving, 

the Holy Sacrament. 

Like M the Hart desireth the fFater-Brooks r So 
hngeth my Soul after thee^ O God. 3fy Soulis a thint 
for Godj yea, even for the living God: ff^hen shaUI 
come before the presence of God? (Psal. xlii» 1^ 2.) 

O Lordj my Godj great are thy wondrous works 
which thou hast done, like as be also thy thoughts 
which are to us-wardj and yet there is no man that 
ordereth them unto thee. (PsaL xl. 6.) 

send out thy Light and thy Truths that they 
may lead me, and bring me unto thy holy HiUy and 
to thy Du)elling; and that I may go unto the AUar 
of God, even unto the God of nlyjoy and gladness : 
and unth my heart wUl I give thanks to thee, O Gody 
my God. (PmlK xliii. 3, 4.) 

1 will wash my hands in innocency, O Lord, and so 
will I go to thine Altar : tJiat I may shew the voice 
of thanksgivings and tell of all thy wondrous works. 

Examine me, O Lord^ and prove me, try thou my 
Reins and my Heart. For thy loving kindness is now 
and ever before my Eyes : and I will walk in thy 
truth. (Psal. xxvi. 6, 7, 2, 3.) 

Thou shalt prepare a table before me against them 
that trouble me : tluou hast anointed my Head with 
oll^ and my cup shall be full. But thy loving kind- 
ness and mercy shall follow me all the Days of my 
lij'e, and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for 
ever. (PsaL xxiii. 5, 6.) 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions. 4S7 

This is the bread that cometh donmjroin Heaven^ 
that a man may eat thereof and not die. 

Whoso eateth vny Fleshy and drkiketh my bloody 
dwelUth in me, and I in him, and hath Eternal Life 
abidiny in him, and I will raise him up at the last 
Day. (John vi. 50^ 54, 56.) 

Lordf whither shall we go but to thee ? thou hast 
the words of Eternal Life. (John vi. 68.) 

If any Man thirsty let him come unto me a:nd 
diink. (John vii. 37.) 

The Bread which we break, is it not the Commun 
nion of the body of Christ P and the Cup which we 
drink f is it not the Communion of the blood of Christ? 
(i Cor X. 1 6.) 

What are those wounds in thy Hands ? They are 
those with which I was wounded in the House of my 
Friends. (Zech. xiii. 6.) 

Immediately before the receiving, say, 

Lordy I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter 
under my roof. But do thou speak the Word only^ 
and thy servant shall he healed. (Mat. viii* 8.) 

Lord, open thou my lips, and my mouth shall shew 
thy praise. O God, make speed to save me ; O Lord, 
make haste to fadp me. 

Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly. 

After receiving the Consecrated and Blessed Bread, 


O taste and see how gracious the Lord is : blessed 
is the man that trusteth in him. The beasts do lack, 

488 U(Jff Ijiviiig, [Cdap. iv. 

and suffer bouger; but they wliich seek the Lord shall 
want no manner of thing tbiA is good. Lordi what 
am I, that my Saviour should become my food^ that 
the Son of God should be tl)e meat of worms; of dust 
and ashes^ of a sinner, of him that was bis enemy? 
but this thou hast done to me^ because thou: art in- 
finitely good, and wonderfully gracious, and lovest 
to bless every one of us, in turning us from the evil 
of our ways. Enter into me, blessed Jeaus ; Let no 
root of bitterness spring up in my heart;- but be tbou 
Lord of all my faculties. O let me feed on thee by 
faith, and grow up by the increase of God to a perfect 
man in Christ Jesus. Amen. Lord^ I believe^ help 
mine unbelief. 

Ghry he to God the Father, Sm^ ^c. 

After receiving the Cup of Blessing. 

It is finished, blessed be the mercies of God re- 
vealed to us in Jesus Christ. O blessed and eternal 
High-Priest, let the sacrifice of the cross, which thou 
didst once offer for the sins of the whole world, 
and which thou dost now and always represent ia 
heaven to thy Father by thy never-ceasing interces- 
sion, and which this day hath been exhibited on thy 
holy table sacramentally, obtain mercy and peace, 
faith and charity, safety and establishment to thy holy 
church, which thou hast founded upon a rock, the rock 
of a holy faith ; and let not the gates of hell prevail 
against her, nor the enemy of mankind take any soul 
out of thy hand, whom thou hast purchased with thy 
blood, and sanctified by thy spirit. Preserve all thy 

Sect, x.] Prayers for several Occasions. 489 

people from heresy and division of spirit, from scandai 
and the spirit of delusion^ frooi sacrilege and hurt- 
ful persecutions. Thou, O blessed Jesus, didst die 
for us : keep me for ever in holy living, from sin and 
sinful shame, in the communion of thy church, and 
thy church in safety dnd grace, in truth and peace^ 
unto thy second coming* Amen. 

Dearest Jesu, since thou art pleased to enter into 
me, O be jealous of thy house and the place where 
thine honour dwelleth : suffer no unclean spirit or 
unholy thought to come near thy dwelling, lest it 
de61e the |;round where thy holy feet have trod. O 
teach me so to walk, that I may never disrepute the 
honour of my religion, nor stain the holy robe which 
thou hast now put upon my soul, nor break my holy 
VOWS which / have made, and thou hast sealed^ nor 
lose my right of inheritance, my privilege of being 

■ * 

co-hfeir with Jesus, into the hope of which I have now 
farther entered : but be thou pleased to love me with 
the love of a father, and a brother, and a husband^ 
and a lord, and make me to serve thee in the com- 
munion of saints, in receiving the sacraments, in the 
practice of all holy virtues, in the imitation of thy 
life, and conformity to thy sufferings: that I having 
now put on the Lord Jesus, may marry his loves and 
bis enmities, may desire his glory, may obey his laws, 
and be united to his spirit, and in the day of the Lord, 
I may be found having on the wedding-garment ; and 
bearing in my body and soul the marks of the Lord 
if esus, that I may enter into the joy of my Lord, and 
partake of his glories for ever and €ven Amen. 

440 Hol^ Uvitig. [Chap. iv. 

EjaculatwM to' be used any Time thai Day, after 

the Solemnity is ended. * 

Lord, if I had lived innoceDtly^ I could not have 
deserved to receive the crumbs that fall from thy table. 
How great is thy mercy, who hast feasted me with 
the bread of virgins, with the wine of angels^ with 
manna from Heaven 1 

O wlien shall I pass firom this dark glass, from this 
veil of sacraments to the vision of thy eternal charity; 
from eating thy body, to beholding thy face in thy 
eternal kingdom ! 

Let not my sins crucify the Lord of life again : let 
it never be said concerning me. The hand of him that 
hetrayeth me is with me on the Table. 

O that I might love thee as well as ever any crea- 
ture loved thee! let me think of nothing but thee, 
desire nothing but thee, enjoy nothing but thee. 

O Jesus, be a Jesus unto me. Thou art all things 
unto me. Let nothing ever please me but what sa- 
vours of thee and thy miraculous sweetness. 

Blessed be the mercies of our Lord,, who of God is 
made unto me wisdom, and righteousness, and sane- 
tification, and redemption. 

He that gloriethy let him glory in the Lord. Amen. 



Kfymer, Printer and Publisher, 
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