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t of or<mto 

Miss Beatrice Corrigan 


VOL. I. 



in tfce ftineteentl) Centurp. 



VOL. I. 


[All Rights Reserved.] 


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CHAPTEE I. CLELIA ... ... 1 



TORS ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 










CHAPTER XIV. Siccio ... 76 























KIND 210 







THE renowned writer of Caesar's " Com- 
mentaries " did not think it necessary to 
furnish a preface for those notable com- 
positions ; and, in truth, the custom is 
altogether of modern times. The ancient 
heroes who became authors and wrote a 
book, left their work to speak for itself 
" to sink or swim," we had almost said, 
but that is not exactly the case. Caesar 
carried those very "Commentaries" between 
his teeth when he swam ashore from the 
sinking galley at Alexandria ; but it never 
occurred to him to supply posterity with a 
prefatory nourish. With a soldierly brevity 
he begins those famous chapters at the be- 
ginning " Omnis Gallia in tres partes" &c. 


Tin- world has been contented to begin 
there with him, for the last two thousand 
jean; and the fact is a great precedent 
against prefaces especially since, as a rule, 
no one ever reads them till the book itself 
has been perused. 

The renowned soldier who has here turned 
author, entering the literary arena among 
the novelists, has also given his English 
translators no preface. But custom expects 
one, and the nature of the present work 
especially requires that a few words should 
be written explanatory of the original pur- 
pose and character of the Italian MSS. from 
which the subjoined pages are transcribed. 
It would be unfair to Garibaldi if the un- 
doubted vivacity and grace of his native 
style should be thought to be here ac- 
curately represented. The famous cham- 
pion of freedom possesses an eloquence as 
peculiar and real as his military genius; 
with a gift of graphic description and 


creative fancy which are but imperfectly 
rendered in this version of his tale, partly 
from the particular circumstances under 
which the version was prepared, and partly 
from the impossibility of rendering into 
English those subtle touches and personal 
traits which really make a book, as light and 
shadows make a countenance. Moreover, 
the Italian MS. itself, written throughout 
in the autograph of the General, was com- 
piled not for a studied work, but as the 
solace of heavy hours at Varignano, where 
the King of Italy, who owed to Graribaldi's 
sword the splendid present of the Two 
Sicilies, was repaying that magnificent dota- 
tion with a shameful imprisonment. The 
time will come when these pages in their 
original, at least will be numbered among 
historic proofs of the poet's statement that 

" Stone walls do not a prison make, 

Nor iron bars a cage : 
Minds innocent and quiet take 
These for a hermitage." 


And if there be many passages in the narra- 
tive whore the signs are strong that "the 
iron has entered into the soul," there are also 
a hundred where the spirit of the good and 
brave General goes forth from his insulting 
incarceration to revel in scenes of natural 
beauty to recall incidents of simple human 
love and kindness to dwell upon heroic 
memories, and to aspire towards glorious 
developments of humanity ; made free, like 
that other apostle, when the angel of the 
Lord struck off his fetters, and he passed forth 
from the self-opened portals of his prison. 

It would he manifestly unfair to compare 
a work written under such conditions to 
thole elaborate specimens of modern novel- 
writing with which our libraries abound. 
Probably, had General Garibaldi ever read 
such productions, he would have declined 
to accept them as a model. He appears 
to have taken up here the easy form of the 
"novella," which belongs by right of in- 


vention to his language and his country. 
His story is told simply as a convenient 
way of imparting to his readers and to 
posterity the real condition and inner life 
of Rome during these last few eventful 
years, when the evil power of the Papacy 
has been declining to its fall. Whereas, 
therefore, most novels consist of fiction 
founded upon fact, this one may be defined 
rather as fact founded upon fiction, in the 
sense that the form alone and the cast of 
the story are fanciful the rest being all 
pure truth lightly disguised. Graribaldi has 
here recited with nothing more than a 
thin veil of incognito thrown over those 
names which it would have been painful 
or perilous to make known that of which 
he himself has been cognisant as matters 
of fact in the wicked city of the priests, 
where the power which has usurped the 
gentle name of Christ blasphemes Him 
with a greater audacity of word and a 


more frenzied folly in act as the hour of 
judgment approaches. Herein the reader 
may see what goes forward in those de- 
mure palaces of the princes of the Church, 
from which the "Vicegerents of Heaven" 
are elected. Herein he may compre- 
hend what kind of a system it is which 
French bayonets still defend what the 
private life is of those who denounce 
humanity and anathematise science; and 
why Romans appear content with the 
government of Jesuits, and the privilege of 
hearing the Pope's artificial altos at the 
Sistine Chapel. He who 'has composed 
this narrative, at once so idyllic in its 
pastoral scenes so tender and poetic in 
its domestic passages so Metastasio-like 
in some of its episodes and so terribly 
earnest in its denunciation of the wrongs 
and degradation of the Eternal City, is no 
unknown satirist. He is GARIBALDI; he 
has been Dictator in the Seven-hilled City, 


and Generalissimo of her army ; her ar- 
chives have lain within his hands ; he 
has held her keys, and fought upon her 
walls ; and, in four campaigns at least, since 
those glorious but mournful days, he has 
waged battle for the ancient City in the 
open field. Here, then, is his description 
of "Borne in the Nineteenth Century" 
not seen as tourists or dilettanti see her, 
clothed with the imaginary robes of her 
historic and colossal empire but seen 
naked to the scourged and branded skin 
affronted, degraded, defamed, bleeding from 
the hundred wounds where the leech-like 
priests hang and suck, who, by their vile 
organisation, have converted the Rome 
which was mistress of the world to a 
Rome which is the emporium of solemn 
farces, miracle-plays, superstitious hypo- 
crisies the capital of an evil instead of a 
majestic kingdom the metropolis of monks, 
instead of Csesars. 


To this discrowned Queen of Nations 
, \, ry page in the present volume testifies 
the profound and ardent loyalty of Gari- 
baldi's soul. The patriotism which most 
men feel towards the country of their birth 
is but a cold virtue compared with the 
burning devotion which fills the spirit of 
our warrior-novelist. It is as though the 
individuality of some antique Cato or 
Fabius was resuscitated, to protest, with 
deed and word, against the false and cun- 
ning tribe who have suborned the im- 
perial city to their purposes, and turned 
the monuments of Eome, as it were, into 
one Cloaca Maxima. The end of these 
things is probably approaching, although 
His Holiness, parodying the great Councils 
of past history, pretends to be as God, and 
to give laws urbi ct ordi, while the kingdoms 
reject his authority, and his palace is only 
defended from the people by the aid of 
foreign bayonets. When Rome is freed 


from the Pope-king, and has been pro- 
claimed the capital of Italy, this book will 
be one of the memorials of that extra- 
ordinary corruption and offence which the 
nineteenth century endured so long and 

The Author's desire to portray the 
state of society in Rome and around it, 
during the last years of the Papacy, has 
been clearly paramount; and the narrative 
only serves as the form for this design. 
Accordingly, the reader must not expect 
an elaborately compiled plot, with artistic 
developments. He will, nevertheless, be 
sincerely interested in the fortunes and the 
fates of the beautiful and virtuous Roman 
ladies who figure in the tale of the gal- 
lant and dashing brigand of the Campagna, 
Orazio the handsome Muzio the brave 
and faithful Attilio, and the Author's evident 
favourite, " English Julia," whose share in 
the story enables the soldier of the people 


to exhibit his excessive affection for Eng- 
land and the English people. It only re- 
mains to commend these various heroes and 
heroines to the public, with the remark that 
the deficiencies of the work are due rather 
to the translation than to the original ; 
for the vigour and charm of the great 
Liberator's Italian is such as to show that 
he might have rivalled Manzoni or Al- 
fieri, if he had not preferred to emulate 
the Gracchi and Eienzi. 




A CELEBRATED writer has called Rome " the 
city of the dead ; " but how can there be 
death in the heart of Italy? The ruins of 
Rome, the ashes of her unhappy sons, have, 
indeed, been entombed, but these remains 
are so impregnated with life that they may 
yet accomplish the regeneration of the world ! 
Rome is still capable of arousing the popula- 
tions, as the tempest raises the waves of the 
sea ; for was she not the mistress of ancient 
empire, and is not her whole history that 
of giants ? Those who can visit her won- 
derful monuments in their present desola- 
tion, and not feel their souls kindle with 
love of the beautiful, and ardour for gene- 

VOL. I. B 


TOUS designs, will only restore at death base 
hearts to their original clay. As with the 
city, so with its people. No degradations 
have been able to impair the beauty of her 
daughters a loveliness often, alas ! fatal to 
themselves and in the youthful Clelia, the 
artist's daughter of the Trastevere, Kaffaele 
himself would have found the graces of his 
lofty and pure Madonna, united with that 
force of character which distinguished her 
illustrious namesake of Eoman times. Even 
at sixteen years of age her carriage possessed 
majestic dignity as of a matron of old, albeit 
so youthful; her hair was of a luxurious 
rich brown; her dark eyes, generally con- 
veying repose and gentleness, could, never- 
theless, repress the slightest affront with 
flashes like lightning. Her father was a 
sculptor, named Manlio, who had reached 
his fiftieth year, and possessed a robust 
constitution, owing to a laborious and 
sober life. This profession enabled him to 
support his' family in comfort, if not 
luxury, and he was altogether as indepen- 
dent as it was possible for a citizen to be 


in a priest-ridden country. Manlio's wife, 
though naturally healthy, had become deli- 
cate from early privation and confinement 
to the house ; she had, however, the dis- 
position of an angel, and besides being the 
happiness and pride of her husband, was 
beloved by the entire neighbourhood. 

Clelia was their only child, and was en- 
titled by the people, " The Pearl of Traste- 
vere." She inherited, in addition to her 
beauty, the angelic heart of her mother, 
with that firmness and strength of cha- 
racter which marked her father. 

This happy family resided in the street 
that ascends from Sungora to Monte Griani- 
colo, not far from the fountain of Mortoro, 
and, unfortunately for them, they lived 
there in this, the nineteenth century, when 
the power of the Papacy is, for the time, 

Now, the Pope professes to regard the 
Bible as the word of Grod, yet the Papal 
throne is surrounded by cardinals, to 
whom marriage is forbidden, notwithstand- 
ing the Scriptural declaration that "it is 

B 2 


not good that man should be alone," and 
that woman was formed to be " an helpmeet 
for him." 

Matrimony being thus interdicted, con- 
trary to the law of God and man, the 
enormous wealth, the irresponsible power, 
and the state of languid luxury in which, 
as Princes of the Church, they are com- 
pelled to live, have ever combined, in the 
case of these cardinals, to present every 
temptation to corruption and libertinism of 
the very worst kinds.* As the spirit of 
the master always pervades the household, 
plenty of willing tools are to be found 
in the large establishments of the Church 
princes ready to pander to their employers' 

The beauty of Clelia had unhappily 
attracted the eye of Cardinal Procopio, 
the most powerful of these prelates, and 
the favourite of his Holiness ; whom he 
flattered to his face, and laughed at as 
an old dotard behind his back. 

Jaded by his enforced attendance at the 
* See Note 1. 


Vatican, he one day summoned Gianni, 
one of his creatures, to his presence, 
and informed him of the passion he had 
conceived for Clelia, ordering him, at what- 
ever cost, and by any means, to obtain 
possession of the girl, and conduct her 
to his palace. 

It was in furtherance of the nefarious 
plot thereupon concocted that the agent 
of his Eminence, on one evening early 
in February, presented himself at the 
studio of Signer Manlio, but not without 
some trepidation, for, like most of his class, 
he was an arrant coward, and already in 
fancy trembled at the terrific blows which 
the strong arm of the sculptor would cer- 
tainly bestow should the real object of the 
visit be suspected. He was, however, 
somewhat reassured by the calm expression 
of the Roman's face, and, plucking up 
courage, he entered the studio. 

" Good evening, Signor Manlio," he 
commenced, with a smooth and nattering 

" Grood evening," replied the artist, not 


looking up, but continuing an examination 
of his chisels, for he cared little to en- 
courage the presence of an individual whom 
he recognised as belonging to the house- 
hold of the Cardinal, the character of 
whose establishment was only too well 
known to him. 

"Good evening, Signor," repeated Gianni, 
in a timid voice; and, observing that at 
last the other raised his head, he thus con- 
tinued "his Eminence, the Cardinal Pro- 
copio, desires me to tell you he wishes to 
have two small statues of saints to adorn 
the entrance to his oratory." 

"And of what size does the Cardinal 
require them?" asked Manlio. 

" I think it would be better for you, 
Signor, to call on his Eminence at the 
palace, to see the position in which he 
wishes them to be placed, and then consult 
with him respecting their design." 

A compression of the sculptor's lips 
showed that this proposal was but little to 
his taste ; but how can an artist exist in 
Rome, and maintain his family in comfort, 


without ecclesiastical protection and employ- 
ment ? One of the most subtle weapons 
used by the Roman Church has always 
been its patronage of the fine arts.* It 
has ever employed the time and talent of 
the first Italian masters to model statues, 
and execute paintings from subjects calcu- 
lated to impress upon the people the doc- 
trines inculcated by its teaching, receiving 
demurely the homage of Christendom for 
its "protection of genius," and the en- 
couragement it thereby afforded to artists 
from all nations to settle in Borne. 

Manlio, therefore, who would have sacri- 
ficed his life a hundred times over for his 
two beloved ones, after a few moments' 
reflection, bluntly answered, "I will go." 
Gianni, with a profound salutation, retired. 
" The first step is taken," he murmured ; 
" and now I must endeavour to find a safe 
place of observation for Cencio." This 
fellow was a subordinate of Gianni's, to 
whom the Cardinal had entrusted the 
second section of the enterprise ; and for 
* See Note 2. 


whom it was now necessary to hire a room 
in sight of the studio. This was not diffi- 
cult to achieve in that quarter, for in 
Rome, where the priests occupy themselves 
with the spiritual concerns of the people, 
and but little with their temporal prosperity 
(though they never neglect their own), 
poverty abounds.* Were it not for the 
enforced neglect of its commerce, the an- 
cient activity of Kome might be restored, 
and might rival even its former palmiest 

Having engaged a room suitable for the 
purpose, Gianni returned home, humming 
a song, and with a conscience anything 
but oppressed; comprehending well that 
absolution could be easily obtained from 
the priests for any ruffianism, when com- 
mitted for the benefit of Mother Church. 
* See Note 3. 



IN the same street, and opposite Manlio's 
house, was another studio, occupied by an 
artist, named Attilio, already of some 
celebrity, although he had only attained 
his twentieth year. In it he worked the 
greater part of the day; but, studious as 
he was, he found himself unable to refrain 
from glancing lovingly, from time to time, 
at the window on the first floor, where 
Clelia was generally occupied with her 
needle, seated by her mother's side. With- 
out her knowledge almost without his 
own she had become for him the star of 
his sky, the loveliest among the beauties of 
Rome his hope, his life, his all. Now, 
Attilio had watched with a penetrating 
eye the manner in which the emissary of 
the Cardinal had come and gone. He saw 
him looking doubtful aod irresolute, and, 


with the quick instincts of love, a suspicion 
of the truth entered his mind; a terrible 
fear for the safety of his beloved took 
possession of him. When Gianni quitted 
Manlio's house, Attilio stole forth, fol- 
lowing cautiously in his footsteps, but 
stopping now and then to elude observa- 
tion by gazing at the curiosities in the 
shop windows, or at the monuments which 
one encounters at every turn about the 
Eternal City ; clutching involuntarily, now 
and then, at the dagger carefully con- 
cealed in his breast, especially when he 
saw Gianni enter a house, and heard him 
bargain for the use of a room. 

Not until Gianni reached the magnificent 
Palazzo Corsini, where his employer lived, 
and had disappeared therein from sight, 
did Attilio turn aside. 

"Then it is Cardinal Procopio," muttered 
he to himself ; " Procopio, the Pope's 
favourite the vilest and most licentious 
of the evil band of Church Princes ! " 
and he continued his gloomy reflections 
without heeding whither his steps went. 



IT is the privilege of the slave to conspire 
against his oppressors for liberty is God's 
gift, and the birthright of all. Therefore 
Italians of the past and present days, under 
their various servitudes, have constantly con- 
spired ; and, as the despotism of the tiaraed 
priests is the most hateful and degrading 
of all, so the conspiracies of the Romans 
date thickest from that rule. We are asked 
to believe that the government of the 
Pope is mild that his subjects are con- 
tented, and have ever been so. Yet, if this 
be true, how is it that they who claim to be 
the representatives of Christ upon earth 
of Him who said, " My kingdom is not of 
this world" have, since the institution of 
the temporal power, supplicated French 
intervention sixteen times, German inter- 
vention fifteen times, Austrian intervention 


seven times, and Spanish intervention three 
times, while the Pope of our day holds his 
throne only by means of the intervention 
of a foreign power ? 

So the night of the 8th February was a 
night of conspiracy. The meeting-hall was 
no other than the ancient Colosseum; and 
Attilio, instead of returning home, aroused 
himself to a recollection of this fact, and 
set out for the Campo Vaccino. 

The night was obscure, and black clouds 
were gathering on all sides, impelled by a 
violent scirocco. The mendicants, wrapped 
in their rags, sought shelter from the wind 
in the stately old doorways ; others in 
porches of churches. Indoors, the priests 
were sitting, refreshing themselves at 
sumptuous tables loaded with viands and 
exquisite wines. Beggars without and 
priests within for of these two classes 
the population is chiefly composed. But 
those conspirators watch for and antici- 
pate the day when priests and beggars 
shall be consigned alike to the past. 

By-and-by, in the distance beyond, the 


ancient forum that majestic giant of ruins 
rose upon young Attilio's eyes, dark and 
alone. It stands there, reminding a city of 
slaves of the hundred past generations of 
grandeur which it survives above the ruins 
of their capital ; to tell them that, though 
she has been shaken down to the dust of 
shame and death, she is not dead not 
lost to the nations which her civilisation 
and her glories created and regenerated. 

In that sublime ruin our conspirators 
gather. A stranger generally chooses a 
fine moonlight night on which to visit 
the Colosseum; but it is in darkness and 
storm that it should rather be seen, illu- 
minated terribly by the torches of light- 
ning, while the thunder of heaven rever- 
berates through every ragged arch. 

Such were the accompaniments of the 
scene when the conspirators, on that Feb- 
ruary night, entered stealthily, and one by 
one, the ancient arena of the gladiators. 

Among its thousand divisions, where the 
sovereign people were wont to assemble 
in the days when they were corrupted by 


the splendours of the conquered world, were 
several more spacious than others, such as 
were probably destined for the patricians 
and great functionaries, but which time, 
with exterminating touch, has reduced to 
one scarce distinguishable mass of ruin. 
Neither chairs nor couches now adorn them, 
but blocks of weather-beaten stone mark 
the boundaries, benches, and chambers. In 
one of these behold our conspirators silently 
assembling, scanning each other narrowly 
by the aid of their dark lanterns, as they 
advance into the space by different routes, 
their only ceremony being a grasp of the 
hand upon arriving at the Loggione a 
name given by them to the ruined en- 
closure. Soon a voice is heard asking 
the question, "Are the sentries at their 
posts?" Another voice, from the extreme 
end, replies, "All's well." Immediately 
the flame of a torch, kindled near the first 
speaker, lighted up hundreds of intelligent 
laces, mostly young, and the greater num- 
ber those of men decidedly under thirty 
years of age. 


Here and there began now to gleam 
other torches, vainly struggling to conquer 
the darkness of the night. The priests are 
never in want of spies, and adroit spies 
they themselves make too. Under such 
circumstances it might appear to a foreigner 
highly imprudent for a band of conspirators 
to assemble in any part of Rome ; but be it 
remembered deserts are to be found in this 
huge city, and the Campo Vaccino covers a 
space in which all the famous ruins of 
western Europe might be enclosed. Besides, 
the mercenaries of the Church love their 
skins above all things, and render service 
more for the sake of lucre than zeal. They 
are by no means willing at any time to 
risk their cowardly lives. Again, there are 
not wanting, according to such superstitious 
knaves, legions of apparitions among these 
remains. It is recorded that once, on a 
night like that which we are describing, two 
spies, more daring than their fellows, having 
perceived a light, proceeded to discover the 
cause, but, upon penetrating the arches, 
they were so terrified by the horrible 


phantoms which appeared, that they fled, 
one dropping his cap, the other his sword, 
which articles they dared not stay to 

The phantoms were, however, no other 
than certain conspirators, who, on quitting 
their meeting, stumbled over the property 
of the fugitives, and were not a little 
amused when the account of the goblins 
in the Colosseum was related to them by a 
sentinel, who had overheard the frightened 
spies. Thus it happened that the haunted 
ruins became far more secure than the 
streets of ^Rome, where, in truth, an 
honest man seldom cares to venture out 
after nightfall. 



THE first voice heard in the midnight 
council was that of our acquaintance, 
Attilio, who, notwithstanding his youth, 
had already been appointed leader by the 
unanimous election of his colleagues, on 
account of his courage and high moral 
qualities, although unquestionably the 
charm and refinement of his manners, joined 
to his kind disposition, contributed not a 
little to his popularity among a people who 
never fail to recognise and appreciate such 
characteristics. As for his personal appear- 
ance, Attilio added the air and vigour of a 
lion to the masculine loveliness of the 
Greek Antinous. 

He first threw a glance around the 
assembly, to assure himself that all present 
wore a black ribbon on the left arm, this 
VOL. i. c 


being the badge of their fraternity. It 
served them also as a sign of mourning for 
those degenerate Eomans who wish indeed 
for the liberation of their country, but 
wait for its accomplishment by any hands 
rather than their own ; and this, although 
they know full well that her salvation can 
only be obtained by the devotion, the con- 
tributions, and the blood of their fellow- 
citizens. Then Attilio spoke 

" Two months have elapsed, my brothers, 
since we were promised that the foreign 
soldiery, the sole prop of the Papal rule, 
should be withdrawn, yet they still con- 
tinue to crowd our streets, and, under 
futile pretences, have even re-occupied the 
positions which they had previously eva- 
cuated, and to which we were promised that 
they should not return. To us, then, thus 
betrayed, it remains to accomplish our 
liberty. We have borne far too patiently 
for the last eighteen years a doubly exe- 
crated rule that of the foreigner, and that 
of the priest. In these last days we have 
been ever ready to spring to arms, but we 


have been withheld by the advice of an 
hermaphrodite party in the state, styling 
themselves ' the Moderates,' in whom we 
can have no longer any confidence, because 
they have used their power to accumulate 
wealth for themselves from the public 
treasury, which they are sucking dry; and 
they have invariably proved themselves 
ready to bargain with the stranger, and 
to trade in the national honour. Our 
friends outside are prepared, and blame us 
for being negligent and tardy. The army, 
excepting those members of it consecrated 
to base hopes, is with us. The arms which 
were expected have arrived, and are lodged 
in safety. We have also an abundance of 
ammunition. Further delay, under these 
circumstaDces, would be unpardonable. To 
arms, then ! to arms ! to arms ! " 

" Aye ! to arms ! " was the cry re-echoed 
by the three hundred conspirators assembled 
in the chamber. "Where their ancestors 
held council how to subjugate other na- 
tions, these modern voices made the old 
walls ring again while they vowed their 

c 2 


resolve to emancipate enslaved' Rome or 
perish in the attempt. 

Three Hundred only ! Yes, three hun- 
dred ; hut such was the muster-roll of the 
companions of Leonidas, and of the libe- 
rating family of Fabius. These, too, were 
equally willing to become liberators, or to 
accept martyrdom. For this they had high 
reason ; because, of what value is the life of 
a slave, when compared with the sublime 
conceptions, the imperious conscience, of 
a soul guided always by noble ideas? 

God be with all such souls, and those 
also which despise the power of tyrannising 
in turn over their fellow-beings ! Of what 
value can be the life of a despot ? His 
miserable remorse causes him to tremble at 
the movement of every leaf. No outward 
grandeur can atone for the mental suffer- 
ings he endures. May the God of love 
hereafter extend to tyrants the mercy they 
have denied to their fellow-man, and 
pardon them for the rivers of innocent 
blood they have caused to flow ! 

But Attilio continued, "Happy indeed 


are we to whom Providence has reserved 
the redemption of Rome, the ancient mis- 
tress of the world, after so many centuries 
of oppression and priestly tyranny. I have 
never for a moment, my friends, ceased to 
confide in your patriotism, which you are 
proving by the admirable instructions be- 
stowed upon the men committed to your 
charge in the different sections of the city. 
In the day of battle, which will soon arrive, 
you will respectively command your several 
companies, and to them we shall yet owe 
our freedom. The priests have changed 
the first of nations into one of the most 
abject and unhappy, and our beloved Italy 
has become the very lowest in the social 
scale. The lesson given by our Papal 
rulers has ever been one of servile humility, 
while they themselves expect emperors to 
stoop and kiss their feet. This is the 
method by which they exhibit to the world 
their own Christian humility; and though 
they have always preached to us self-denial 
and austerity of life, these hypocrites sur- 
round themselves with a profusion of luxury 


and voluptuousness. Gymnastic exercises, 
under proper instruction, are doubtless 
beneficial to the physical development of 
the body ; but is it for this reason that 
the Eomans are called upon to bow to, and 
kiss the hand of every priest they meet? 
to kneel also and go through a series 
of genuflections ; so that it is really no 
thanks to them if one half of the people 
are not crook-necked or hunch-backed, from 
the absurd performances they have been 
made to execute for the gratification of 
these tonsured masters ? The time for 
the great struggle approaches, and it is 
a sacred one ! Not only do we aim at 
freeing our beloved Italy, but at freeing 
the entire world also from the incubus 
of the Papacy, which everywhere op- 
poses education, protects ignorance, and 
is the nurse of vice ! " 

The address of Attilio had hitherto 
been pronounced in profound darkness, but 
was here suddenly interrupted by a flash 
of lightning, which illumined the vast 
interior of the Colosseum, as if it had 


suddenly been lighted by a thousand 
lamps. This was succeeded by a darkness 
even more profound than the first, when 
a terrific peal of thunder rolled over 
their heads and shook to its foundations 
the ancient structure, silencing for a brief 
space Attilio's voice. The conspirators 
were not men to tremble, each being pre- 
pared to confront death in whatever form 
it might appear; but, as a scream was 
heard issuing at this moment from the 
vestibule, they involuntarily seized their 
daggers. Immediately after, a young girl, 
with dishevelled hair and clothes dripping 
with water, rushed into their midst. 
" Camilla ! " exclaimed Silvio, a wild boar- 
hunter of the Campagna, who alone of 
those present recognised her. " Poor 
Camilla ! " he cried ; " to what a fate have 
the miscreants who rule over us reduced 
you ! " At this instant one of the sentries 
on guard entered, reporting that they 
had been discovered by a young woman 
during the moment of the illumination, and 
that she had fled with such speed no one 


had been able to capture her. They had 
not liked to fire upon a female, and all other 
means of staying her were useless. But, 
at the words of Silvio, the strange appa- 
rition had fixed her eyes upon him as the 
torches closed about them, and, after one 
long glance, had uttered a moan so piteous, 
and sunk down with such a sigh of woe, 
that all present were moved. We will 
relate, however, in the following chapter, 
the history of the unfortunate girl whose 
cries thus effectually checked our hero's 



BORN a peasant, the unhappy Camilla had, 
like her own Italy, the fatal gift of beauty. 
Silvio, who was by vocation, as we have 
already said, a wild boar hunter, used often, 
in his expeditions to the Pontine Marshes, to 
rest at the house of the good Marcello, the 
father of Camilla, whose cottage was situated 
a short distance from Rome. The young 
pair became enamoured of each other. 
Silvio demanded her in marriage, and, her 
father giving a willing consent, they were 

Perfectly happy and fair to look upon 
were this youthful pair, as they sat, hand in 
hand, under the shadows of the vines, watch- 
ing the gorgeous sunsets of their native 
clime. This happiness, however, was not 
of long duration, for, during one of his 


hunting expeditions, Silvio caught the 
malarial fever so common in the Pontine 
Marshes, and, as he continued to suffer for 
some months, the marriage was indefinitely 

Meantime Camilla, who was too lovely 
and too innocent to dwell in safety near 
this most vicious of cities, had been marked 
as a victim by the emissaries of his Emi- 
nence the Cardinal Procopio. It was her 
custom to carry fruit for sale to the Piazza 
Navona. On one occasion she was addressed 
by an old fruit woman, previously instructed 
by Gianni, who plied her with every con- 
ceivable allurement and flattery, praised her 
fruit, and promised her the highest price for 
it at the palace of the Cardinal, if she would 
take it thither. The rest of the story may 
be too easily imagined. In Borne this is 
an oft-told tale. To hide from her father 
and her lover the consequences of her fall, 
and to suit the convenience of the prelate, 
Camilla was persuaded to take up her resi- 
dence in the palace Corsini, where, soon 
after its birth, her miserable infant was 


put to death by one of its father's mur- 
derous ruffians. This so preyed upon the 
unhappy mother, that she lost her reason, 
and was secretly immured in a mad-house. 
On the very night when she effected her 
escape, the meeting already mentioned was 
being held, and, after wandering from 
place to place, for many hours, without 
any fixed direction, she entered the Colos- 
seum at the moment it was illumined by 
the lightning, as we have related. That 
flash disclosed the sentries at the arch- 
way, and she rushed towards them, obey- 
ing some instinct of safety, or at least 
perceiving that they were not clothed 
in the garb of a priest; but they, 
taking her for a spy, ran forward to 
make her prisoner. Thereupon, seemingly 
possessed of supernatural strength, she 
glided from their hands, and finally eluded 
their pursuit by running rapidly into the 
centre of the building, where she fell ex- 
hausted in the midst of the three hundred, 
at the foot of her injured and incensed lover. 
" It is, indeed, time," said Attilio, when 


Silvio had related the maniac's story, "to 
purge our city from this priestly ignominy;" 
and drawing forth his dagger, he brandished 
it above his head, as he exclaimed, "Ac- 
cursed is the Roman who does not feel the 
degradation of his country, and who is not 
willing to bathe his sword in the blood of 
these monsters, who humiliate it, and turn 
its very soil into a sink." 

"Accursed! accursed be they!" echoed 
back from the old walls, while the sound 
of dagger-blades tinkling together made 
an ominous music, dedicated to the corrupt 
and licentious rulers of Borne. 

Then Attilio turned to Silvio, and said, 
" This child is more sinned against than 
sinning; she requires and deserves protec- 
tion. You, who are so generous, will not 
refuse it to her." 

And Silvio was, indeed, generous, for he 
still loved his wretched Camilla, who at 
sight of him had become docile as a lamb. 
He raised her, and, enveloping her in his 
mantle, led her out of the Colosseum to- 
wards her father's dwelling. 


" Comrades," shouted Attilio, " meet me 
on the 15th at the Baths of Caracalla. Be 
ready to use your arms if need be." 

" We will be ready ! we will be ready !" 
responded heartily the Three Hundred ; and 
in a few moments the ruins were left to 
their former solitude. 

What a wild improbable story, we seem 
to hear some of our readers remark, as 
they sit beside their sea-coal fires in free 
England. But Popery has not been domi- 
nant in England since James II. 's time, and 
they have forgotten it. Let them remember 
that in the year 1848, when a Eepublican 
Government was established in France 
which was the signal of a general revolu- 
tionary movement throughout Europe and 
the present Pope was forced to escape in 
the disguise of a menial, while a National 
Government granted, for the first time in 
Eome, religious toleration, one of the first 
orders of the Roman republic was that the 
nuns should be liberated, and the convents 
searched. Giuseppe Garibaldi, in 1849, 
then recently arrived in Eome, visited in 


person every convent, and was present dur- 
ing the whole of the investigations. In all, 
without an exception, he found instruments 
of cruelty ; and in all, without an exception, 
were vaults, plainly dedicated to the recep- 
tion of the bones of infants. Statistics 
prove that in no city is there so great a 
number of children born out of wedlock as 
in Rome ; and it is in Rome also that the 
greatest number of infanticides take place. 

This must ever be the case with a 
wealthy unmarried priesthood and a poor 
and ignorant population. 



WE took leave of Manlio at the moment 
when Gianni had delivered his master's 
message. The sculptor acceded to the Car- 
dinal's request, and, after an interview with 
him, proceeded to execute the order for the 
statuettes. For some days nothing occurred 
to excite suspicion, and things seemed to 
be going on smoothly enough. From the 
room which Gianni had hired Cencio 
watched the artist incessantly, all the while 
carefully maturing his plot. At last, one 
evening, when our sculptor was hard at 
work, Cencio broke into the studio, ex- 
claiming excitedly, "For the love of God, 
permit me to remain here a little while ! 
I am pursued by the police, who wish to 
arrest me. I assure you I am guilty of 
no crime, except that of being a liberal, 


and of having declared, in a moment of 
anger, that the overthrow of the Bepublic 
by the French was an assassination of 
liberty." So saying, Cencio made as 
though to conceal himself behind some 

" These are hard times," soliloquised 
Manlio, " and little confidence can be 
placed in anybody; yet, how can I drive 
out one compromised by his political 
opinions only ; thereby, perhaps, adding 
to the number of those unfortunates now 
lingering in the priests' prisons ? He 
looks a decent fellow, and would have a 
better chance of effecting his escape if he 
remained here till nightfall. Yes ! he 
shall stay." Manlio, therefore, rose, and 
beckoning to the supposed fugitive, bade 
him follow to the end of the studio, where 
he secreted him carefully behind some 
massive blocks of marble, little dreaming 
that he harboured a traitor. 

The artist had scarcely resumed his oc- 
cupation before a patrol stopped before the 
house and demanded permission to make a 


domiciliary visit, as a suspected person had 
been seen to enter the house. 

Poor Manlio endeavoured to put aside 
the suspicions of the officer, so far as he 
could do it without compromising his 
veracity; and, little divining the trap into 
which he had fallen, attempted to lead him 
in a direction opposite to that in which the 
crafty Cencio had taken refuge. The patrol, 
being in league with Cencio, felt, of course, 
quite certain of his presence on the pre- 
mises, but some few minutes elapsed before 
he succeeded in discovering the carefully- 
chosen hiding-place ; and the interval would 
have been longer had not Cencio stealthily 
put out his hand and pulled him, the sbirro, 
gently by the coat as he passed. The 
functionary paused suddenly, exclaiming, 
with an affected tone of triumph, " Ah, 
I have you ! " then, turning upon Manlio, 
he seized the artist by the collar, saying, 
in the sternest of tones, " You must 
accompany me forthwith to the tribunal, 
and account for your crime in giving 
shelter to this miscreant, who is in open 
VOL. i. " 


rebellion against the Government of his 

Manlio, utterly beside himself, in the 
first burst of indignation, cast his eye 
around among the chisels, hammers, and 
other tools, for something suitable with 
which to cleave the skull of his accuser ; 
but at this moment his wife, followed by 
the lovely Clelia, rushed into the apartment 
to ascertain the cause of so unwonted a 
disturbance. They trembled at the sight 
of their beloved one in the grasp of the 
hated police-officer, who cunningly relaxed 
his hold, and said, in a very different voice, 
'as soon as he perceived them, "Be of 
courage, signer, and console these good 
ladies ; your presence will be needed for a 
short time only. A few questions will 
be asked, to which undoubtedly you can 
give satisfactory replies." 

In vain did the terrified women expos- 
tulate. Finding their tears and remon- 
strances of no avail, they reluctantly let go 
their hold of the unhappy Manlio, whom 
they had clasped in their terror, He, dis- 


daining any appeal to the courtesy of such 
a scoundrel as he knew the patrol to be, 
waved them an adieu, and departed with 
a dignified air. 



THE Roman Republic, established by the 
unanimous and legitimate votes of the people, 
elected General Garibaldi, on the 30th of 
June, 1849, legal guardian of the rights of 
the people, and conferred upon him the exe- 
cutive power of the State, which the Trium- 
virate resigned into his hands. This national 
government was overthrown by foreign 
bayonets, after a most heroic struggle for 
freedom. The first act of General Oudinot 
was to send a French colonel to lay the 
keys of the city at the feet of the Pope. 

Thus was the power of the priests re- 
stored, and they returned to all their former 
tyranny and luxury. 

These worthy teachers, when preaching 
to the Roman women about the glory of 
Heaven, impress upon them that they, and 


they only, have power to give free entrance 
into eternal bliss. To liberate these mis- 
guided beings from superstition, and rescue 
them from the deceit of the so-called 
"reverend fathers" is the question of life 
or death to Italy; this, in fact, is the only 
way in which to work out the deliverance 
of our country. Many will tell you there 
are good priests. But a priest, to become 
really good, must discard the livery which 
he wears. For is it not the uniform 
of the promoters of brigandage over the 
half of Italy ? Has it not marched as a 
pioneer-garb before every sinister foreigner 
that ever visited our country ? 

Again, the priests, by their continual im- 
postures and crafty abuse of the ignorance 
and consequent superstition of the people, 
have acquired great riches. Those who en- 
deavour to retard our progress make a dis- 
tinction between the temporal power, which 
should be combated, and the spiritual 
power, which should be respected ; as if 
Antonelli, Schiatone, and Crocco were spi- 
ritual ushers, by whom the souls of men 


could hope to be conducted into the 
presence of the Eternal. But what are 
the sources of their wealth? Firstly, 
they exact a revenue for repentance, as the 
vicegerents of God upon earth, claiming 
power, as such, to pardon all sin. A rich 
but credulous man may thus commit any 
crime he chooses with impunity, knowing 
that he has the means of securing absolu- 
tion, and believing implicitly that, by ren- 
dering up a portion of his treasure or 
profit to the clergy, he will have no diffi- 
culty in escaping the wrath to come. 

Secondly, there is the tax upon the 
agonies of death. At the bedside of the 
sick, by threats of purgatory and eternal 
perdition, they frighten their unhappy 
victims into bequeathing to Mother Church 
enormous legacies, if, indeed, they do not 
succeed in getting absolute possession of 
the whole of their estates, to the detri- 
ment of the legal heirs, who are not un- 
frequently in this manner reduced to 
beggary. Look, for instance, at the island 
of Sicily : one half of that country now 


belongs to the priesthood, or various orders 
of monks, by this process. 

But, to our tale. One evening, about 
nine o'clock, in the month of December, a 
thing in black might have been seen tra- 
versing the Piazza of the Rotunda that 
magnificent monument of antiquity every 
column a perfect work, worth its weight 
in silver which the priests have perverted 
from sublime memories to their cunning 
uses. It was a figure which would have 
made a man shudder involuntarily, though 
he were one of the thousand of Calatifimi. 
Enveloped in a black sottana the covering 
of a heart still blacker, the heart, in fact, of 
a demon, it was one that contemplated the 
committal of a crime which only a priest 
would conceive or execute. A priest it 
was, and he made his stealthy path to the 
gateway of the house of Pompeo, where he 
paused a moment before knocking to gain 
admittance, casting glances around, to assure 
himself no one was in sight, as if he feared 
his guilty secret would betray itself, or as 
if pausing before he added even to eccle- 


siastical wickednesses a sin so. cruel as the 
one he was meditating. He knocked at 
last. The door opened, and the porter, 
recognising the " Reverend Father Ignazio," 
saluted him respectfully, and lighted him, 
as he entered, a few steps up the staircase 
of one of the richest residences of the 

"Where is Sister Flavia?" demanded the 
priest of the first servant who came forward 
to meet him. 

" At the bedside of my dying mistress," 
replied Siccio, in a constrained voice, for, 
being a true Roman, he had little sympathy 
for " the birds of ill-omen," as he pro- 
fanely styled the reverend fathers. 

Father Ignazio, knowing the house 
well, hurried on to the sick room, at the 
door of which he gently tapped, requesting 
admittance in a peculiar tone. An elderly, 
sour-looking nun opened the door quickly, 
and, with a significant expression on her 
evil countenance, as her eyes encountered 
those of the priest. 

"Is all over?" whispered he, as he ad- 


vanced towards the bed on which the ex- 
piring patient lay. 

" Not yet/' was the equally low reply. 

Ignazio thereupon, without another word, 
took a small phial from under his sottana, 
and emptied the contents into a glass. 
With the assistance of the nun he raised 
his victim, and poured the deadly fluid 
down her throat, letting her head fall 
heavily back upon the pillows, whilst a 
complacent smile spread itself over his dia- 
bolical features as, after one gasp, the jaw 
fell. He then retired to a small table at 
the end of the apartment, where he seated 
himself, followed by Sister Flavia, who 
stealthily .drew a paper from her dress 
and handed it to him. 

Father Ignazio seized the paper with a 
trembling hand, and after perusing it with 
an anxious air, as if to convince himself 
that it was indeed the accomplishment of 
his desires, he thrust it into his breast, 
muttering, with an emphatic nod, " You 
shall be rewarded, my good Flavia." 

That paper was the last will and testa- 


ment of the Signora Virginia Pompeo, the 
mother of the brave Emilio Pompeo, who 
perished fighting on the walls of Rome, 
where he fell, mortally wounded by a 
French bullet. His inconsolable widow 
did not long survive him, and committed, 
with her last breath, her infant son to the 
care of his doting grandmother, La Signora 
Virginia Pompeo, who tenderly cherished 
the orphan Muzio, the only remaining scion 
of the noble house of Pompeo. But, un- 
happily for him, Father Ignazio was her 
confessor. When the signora's health be- 
gan to fail, and her mind to be weakened, 
the wily Father spared no means to con- 
vince her that she ought to make her will, 
and, as a sacred duty, to leave a large sum 
to be spent in masses for the release of souls 
from purgatory. The signora lingering for 
some time, the covetous priest felt his de- 
sires grow, and resolvecl to destroy this first 
will, and to obtain another, purporting to 
leave the whole of her immense estates to 
the corporation of St. Francesco di Paola, 
and appoint himself as her sole executor. 


This document lie prepared, and entrusted 
to Sister Flavia, whom he had already 
recommended to the Signora Virginia as a 
suitable attendant. One morning she de- 
spatche.d a hurried message to the con- 
fessor, reporting that the favourable time 
for signing the fraudulent document had 
arrived. He came, attended by witnesses, 
whom he had had no difficulty in pro- 
curing, and, after persuading the sinking 
and agonised lady that she ought to add 
a codicil to her will (which he pretended 
then and there to draw up) leaving a still 
larger sum to the Church, he guided her 
feeble hand as she unconsciously signed 
away the whole of her property, leaving 
her helpless grandson to beggary. As if 
to jeopardise his scheme, the signora rallied 
towards the afternoon, whereupon, fearing 
she might ask to see the will, and so 
discover his treachery, Father Ignazio 
resolved to make such an undesirable 
occurrence impossible, by administering an 
effective potion, which he set off to procure, 
wisely deferring his return till nightfall. 


The result has been already disclosed; 
and while the false priest wrought this 
murder, the unconscious orphan, Muzio, 
slept peacefully in his little bed, still 
adorned with hangings wrought by a 
loving mother's hands ; to awake on the 
morrow ignorant of his injury, but robbed 
of his guardian and goods together 
stripped of all, and forthwith dependent 
on chance a friendless and beggared boy. 



EIGHTEEN years had rolled by since the 
horrible murder of La Signora Virginia 
related in the last chapter. On the same 
piazza which Father Ignazio had traversed 
that dark night stood a lazzarone, leaning 
moodily, yet not without a certain grace, 
against a column. It was February, and 
the beggar lad was apparently watching the 
setting sun. The lower part of his face 
was carefully concealed in his cloak, but 
from the little that could be discerned of it, 
it seemed decidedly handsome ; one of those 
naturally noble countenances, in fact, that 
once seen, impresses its features indelibly 
on the beholder's memory. A well-formed 
Eoman nose was set between two eyes of 
dazzling blue ; eyes that could look tender 
or stern, according to the possessor's mood. 


The shoulders, even under the cloak, 
showed grandly, and could belong only 
to a strength which it would be dange- 
rous to insult or rashly attack. Poor as 
its garb was, such a figure would be 
eagerly desired by a sculptor who sought 
to portray a young Latin athlete. 

A slight touch upon the shoulder caused 
the young mendicant to turn sharply ; but 
his brow cleared as he welcomed, with a 
beaming smile, Attilio's familiar face, and 
heard him saying, in a lively tone, " Ah ! 
art thou here, brother?" And although 
no tie of blood was between them, Attilio 
and Muzio might, indeed, have been mis- 
taken for brothers, their nobility of feature 
and brave young Eoman bearing being so 
much alike. 

" Art thou armed ? " inquired Attilio. 

"Armed!" repeated Muzio, somewhat dis- 
dainfully. "Assuredly ; is not my poniard 
my inheritance, my only patrimony? I 
love it as well as thou lov'st thy Clelia, 
or I mine own lady. But love, forsooth," 
continued he, more bitterly; "what right 


to love has a beggar an outcast from 
society? Who would believe that rags 
could cover a heart bursting with the 
pangs of a true passion?" 

" Still," replied Attilio, confidently, " I 
think that pretty stranger does, in truth, 
think on thee." 

Muzio remained silent, and his former 
gloomy expression returned ; but Attilio, 
seeing a storm arising in his friend's soul, 
and wishing to avert it, took him by the 
hand, saying gently, " Come." 

The young wanderer followed without 
proffering a word. Night was rapidly clos- 
ing in, the foot passengers were gradually 
decreasing in number, and few footfalls, 
except those of the foreign patrols, broke 
the silence that was stealing over the city. 

The priests are always early to leave the 
streets besides, they love to enjoy the good 
things of this world at home after preach- 
ing about the glories of the next, and care 
little to trust their skins in Rome after 
dark, notwithstanding the protection af- 
forded by the mercenary cut-throats just 


named. May the day soon come when 
their services may be dispensed with alto- 
gether ! 

"We shall be quit of them, and that 
before long," answered Attilio hopefully to 
some such remark, as they descended the 
Quirinale, now called Monte Cavallo, the 
site of the famous horses in stone, chefs 
d'ceuvres of Grecian art. 

Pausing between these gigantic effigies, 
the young artist took from his pocket a 
flint and steel, and struck a light, the signal 
arranged between him and the Three Hun- 
dred, some of whom had agreed to help him 
in a bold attempt to release Manlio from 
his unlawful imprisonment. 

The signal was answered immediately 
from the extreme end of the Piazza. The two 
young men advanced towards it, and were 
met by a soldier belonging to a detach- 
ment on guard at the palace, who con- 
ducted them through a half -concealed 
doorway near the principal entrance, up a 
narrow flight of stairs into a small room 
generally used by the commander of the 


guard ; here he left them, and another 
soldier stepped forward to receive them, 
and, having placed chairs for them at a 
table, on which burned an oil-lamp, flanked 
by two or three bottles and some glasses, 
this one seated himself. 

" Let us drink a glass of Orvieto, my 
friends," said the soldier; "it will do us 
more good on a bitter night like this than 
the Holy Father's blessing," handing to 
each of them, as he spoke, a goblet filled 
to the brim. 

" Success to our enterprise ! " cried 

"Amen," responded Attilio, as he took 
a deep draught. " So Manlio has been 
brought hither," said he, addressing 
Dentato, the sergeant of dragoons, for 
such was the name of their military friend. 

" Yes ; he was locked up last night in 
one of our secret cells, as if he had been 
the most dangerous of criminals, poor 
innocent ! I hear he is to be removed 
shortly," added Dentato, "to the Castle of 
St. Angelo." 

VOL. I. E 


" Do you know by whose order lie was 
arrested ? " inquired Attilio. 

" By the order of his Eminence the 
Cardinal Procopio, it is said, who is 
anxious, doubtless, to remove all impedi- 
ments likely to frustrate his designs upon 
the Pearl of Trastevere." 

As Dentato uttered these words, a sudden 
tremor shook the frame of Attilio. " And 
at what hour shall we make the attempt 
to liberate him?" he sternly asked, as his 
hand clenched his dagger. 

" Liberate him ! Why, we are too few," 
the soldier replied. 

"Not so," continued Attilio. "Silvio 
has given his word that he will be here 
shortly with ten of our own, and then we 
shall have no difficulty in dealing with 
these sbirri and monks." 

After a pause, Dentato responded, "Well, 
then, as you are determined to attempt 
his release to-night, we had better wait a 
few hours, when gaolers and director will 
be asleep, or under the influence of their 
liquor. My lieutenant is, fortunately, de- 


tained by a delicate affair at a distance, so 
we will try it if your friend turns up." 

Before he could well finish his speech, 
however, Dentato was interrupted by the 
entrance of the guard left at the gate 
announcing the arrival of Silvio. 

E 2 



BEFORE continuing the story we must 
remark upon one of the most striking facts 
in Rome viz., the conduct and bravery of 
the Roman soldiery. 

Even the city troops have a robust and 
martial air, and retain an individual force 
of character to an astonishing degree. In the 
defence of Rome, all the Roman artillery- 
men (observe, all) were killed at their guns, 
and a reserve of the wounded, a thing un- 
heard of before, bleeding though they were, 
continued to fight manfully until cut down 
by the sabres of their foes. On the 3rd of 
June the streets were choked with muti- 
lated men, and amongst the many combats, 
after the city was taken, between the 
Roman soldiery and the foreigners, there 
did not occur one example where the 


Romans had the worst of it in anything 
like fair fight. 

Of one point, therefore, the priesthood is 
certain that in every case of general insur- 
rection the Roman army will go with the 
people. This is the reason they are com- 
pelled to hire foreign mercenaries, and why 
the revenues of the " Vicegerent of Heaven " 
are spent upon Zouaves, rifles, cartridges, 
and kilos of gunpowder. 

Silvio was received by the triad with 
acclamations of joy. After saluting them, 
he turned to Attilio, saying, " Our men are 
at hand. I have left them hidden in the 
shadows cast by the marble horses. They 
but await our signal." 

Then Attilio sprang up, saying, " Muzio 
and I will go at once to the gaoler, and 
secure the keys. You, Dentato, guide 
Silvio and his men to the door of the cell, 

and overpower the guard stationed before 


" So be it," replied Dentato ; " Scipio (the 
dragoon who had introduced Silvio) shall 
lead you to the gaoler's room ; but beware 


Signer Pancaldo, he is a devil of a fellow 
to handle." 

"Leave me to manage him," replied 
Attilio, and he hastily left the apartment, 
preceded by Scipio and Muzio. Such an 
attempt as they were about to make would 
be a most difficult, if not an incredible 
thing, in any other country, where more 
respect is attached to Government and its 
officers. In Rome little obedience is due 
to a Government which, alas ! is opposed 
to all that is pure and true. 

Dentato, after summoning Silvio's men, 
led them to the guards stationed at the 
entrance to the cells. Silvio waited until 
the sentinel turned his back upon them, 
then, springing forward with the agility 
that made him so successful when pursuing 
the wild boar, he hurled the sentinel to the 
ground, covering his mouth with his hand 
to stifle any cry of alarm. The slight 
scuffle aroused the sleepy quarter-guard, 
but before they could even rub their eyes, 
Silvio's men had gagged and bound them. 
As they accomplished this, Attilio appeared 


with Muzio, convoying the reluctant gaoler 
and his bunch of keys between them. 

" Unlock !" commanded Attilio. 

The gaoler obeyed with forced alacrity, 
whereupon they entered a large vaulted 
room, out of which opened, on every side, 
doors leading to separate cells. At sight 
of them, a soldier, the only inmate visible, 
approached with a perplexed air. 

"Where is Signor Manlio?" demanded 
Attilio ; and Pancaldo felt the grip of the 
young artist clutch his wrist like iron, and 
noticed his right hand playing terribly with 
the dagger-hilt. 

" Manlio is here," said he. 

" Then release him," cried Attilio. 

The terrified gaoler attempted to unlock 
the door, but some minutes passed before 
his trembling hands allowed him to effect 
this. Attilio, pushing him aside as the 
bolts shot back, dashed open the door, and 
called to Manlio to come forth. 

Picture the sculptor's astonishment and 
joy when he beheld Attilio, and realised 
that he had come to release him from his 


cruel and unjust incarceration. Attilio, 
knowing they ought to lose no time in 
leaving the palace, after returning his 
friend's embrace, bade Muzio lock up the 
guard in the cell. As soon as this was 
accomplished, they led the gaoler between 
them through the passages, passing on 
their way the soldiers whom they had 
previously bound, who glared upon them 
with impotent rage, till they gained the 
outer door in silence and safety. Dividing 
into groups, they then set off at a quick 
pace, in different directions. Attilio, Muzio, 
and Manlio, however, retained possession a 
little while of the gaoler, whom they made 
to promenade with them, gagged and blind- 
folded, until they thought their com- 
panions were at a safe distance. They 
then left him, and proceeded in the direc- 
tion of the Porta Salaria, which leads into 
the open country. 



WHEN Silvio, with despair in his soul, 
was leading the unhappy Camilla out of 
the Colosseum towards her father's house, 
not a word passed between them. He re- 
garded her with tender pity, having loved 
her ardently, and feeling that she was 
comparatively innocent, heing, as she was, 
the victim of deception and violence. 

Onward they went in silence and sadness. 
Silvio had abstained from visiting her home 
since it had been so suddenly deserted by 
Camilla, ancl as they neared it a presenti- 
ment of a new sorrow took possession of 
him. Turning out of the high road into a 
lane, their meditations were broken in upon 
by the barking of a dog. "Fido! Fido!" 
cried Camilla, with more joyousness than 
she had experienced for many, many 


months; but, as if remembering suddenly 
her abasement, she checked her quickened 
step, and, casting down her eyes, stood 
motionless, overwhelmed with shame. 
Silvio had loved her before too dearly to 
hate her now even for her guilt. Or if he 
had ever felt bitterly against her, her 
sudden appearance that night, wild with re- 
morse and misery, had brought back some- 
thing of the old feeling, and he would have 
defended her now against a whole army. 
He had sustained her very tenderly through 
the walk from the Colosseum, and, although 
silent, had been full of generous thoughts; 
while she, timidly leaning on his strong 
arm, had now and then learned, by a timid 
glance, that he entertained pity for her 
and not contempt. 

But when she stopped and "trembled at 
the sound of the house-dog's bark, Silvio, 
fearing the return of a paroxysm of mad- 
ness, touched her arm, saying, for the first 
time, " Come, Camilla, it is your little Fido 
welcoming you; he has recognised your 


Scarcely had he uttered these words 
hefore the dog itself appeared. After paus- 
ing a moment in his rush, as if uncertain, 
he sprang, towards Camilla, howling, and 
jumping, and making frantic efforts to 
lick her face and hands. Such a re- 
ception would have touched a heart of 

Camilla burst into tears as she stooped to 
caress the affectionate animal ; hut nature 
was exhausted, and she fell senseless on 
the damp ground. Silvio, after covering 
her with his mantle, to protect her 
from the cold morning air for daylight 
was already dawning went to seek her 

The barking of the dog had aroused the 
household, and the young hunter perceived, 
as he approached, a boy standing on the 
threshold, looking cautiously around, as if 
distrusting so early a visitor. 

" Marcellino," he shouted; whereat the 
boy, recognising the friendly familiar voice, 
ran to him, and threw his arms around 
his neck. 


"Where is your godfather, my boy?" 
Silvio asked; but receiving no response 
save tears, lie said again, " Where is Mar- 

"He is dead," replied the sobbing 

"Dead!" exclaimed Silvio, sinking upon 
a stone, overcome with surprise and emo- 
tion, while the tears rolled down his 
manly cheeks, and mingled with those 
of the child, who lay upon his bosom. 

"0 God!" he cried aloud; "canst thou 
permit the desires of a monster to cause 
such suffering to so many and to such 
precious human creatures ? Did I not 
feel the hope that the day of my beloved 
country's release from priestly tyranny was 
at hand, I would plunge my dagger into 
my breast, and never again behold the 
light of day." 

Eecovering himself with a violent effort, 
he returned, accompanied by Marcellino, to 
Camilla, whom he found in a disturbed and 
restless sleep. " Poor girl ! poor ruined 
orphan ! " murmured Silvio, as he gazed 


upon her pale and wasted beauty ; " why 
should I arouse you? You will awake 
but too soon to a life of tears, misery, 
and repentance !" 



WE left Attilio, Silvio, and Manlio on tlieir 
way to the suburbs. Attilio had determined 
that the house lately tenanted by poor Mar- 
cello, and still inhabited by Camilla, would 
be a safe hiding-place for the liberated 
sculptor, who could scarcely be prevailed 
upon not to return at once to his own 
home, so great was his desire to behold 
his cherished wife and daughter. 

As they trudged on, each busy with his 
own thoughts, Attilio turned over in his 
mind the visit of Gianni to the studio, for 
the information Sergeant Dentato had given 
him relative to the arrest confirmed his 
suspicion that the Cardinal was plotting 
villany against his beloved Clelia. After 
some reflection, he concluded to impart 
his suspicion to Manlio, who, when he 


had recovered from his first surprise and 
horror, declared his belief that Attilio's 
surmises were correct, and that it was 
necessary at once to hasten home in order 
to preserve his darling from infamy. 

Attilio, however, aided by Muzio, at last 
prevailed upon him to conceal himself, pro- 
mising to go and inform the ladies of the 
designs against them as soon as he had 
placed the father in safety. 

Attilio, in truth, though so young, had 
the talent of influencing and guiding those 
with whom he came in contact, and the 
soundness of his judgment was frequently 
acknowledged, even by men advanced in 
years. Though reluctant to part with 
them, still Manlio felt that he could not 
do better than to entrust the care of his 
dear ones to this generous youth. 

The day was beginning to dawn as they 
neared the cottage at the end of the lane, 
and, just as on the occasion of Camilla's 
return on the night of the meeting, Fido 
barked furiously at their approach. At 
Silvio's voice, the dog was quieted instantly, 


and again Marcellino met him at the door. 
Silvio, after saluting the lad, asked where 
Camilla was. " I will show you," was the 
answer, and leading the way, he took them 
to an eminence near the cottage, from 
which they beheld, at a little distance, a 
cemetery. " She is there," said Marcellino, 
pointing with his finger; "she passes all 
her time, from morn till eve, at her father's 
grave, praying and weeping. You will find 
her there at all hours now." Silvio, with- 
out a word to his companions, who followed 
slowly, strode on towards the spot indicated, 
which was close by, and soon came in view 
of Camilla, clad in deep mourning, kneeling 
beside a mound of newly-turned earth. She 
was so absorbed, that the approach of the 
three friends was unperceived. Silvio, 
deeply moved, watched her, without daring 
to speak, and neither of the others broke 
the silence. Presently she rose, and clasp- 
ing her hands in agony, cried bitterly, "Oh, 
my father, my father, I was the cause of 
your death !" " Camilla!" whispered Silvio, 
coming close up. She turned, and gazing 


at them with a sweet but vacant smile, as if 
her lover's face brought her some solace 
in her heavy sorrow, passed on in the 
direction of her home, for the poor girl 
had not yet regained her reason. 

Silvio touched her on the arm, as he 
overtook her, saying, " See, Camilla, I have 
brought you a visitor ; and if any one should 
ask who this gentleman is, tell them he 
is an antiquary who is studying the ruins 
around Borne." This was the role which 
Attilio had persuaded Manlio to play, until 
some plan for the future had been formed. 
After a short consultation as to the precau- 
tions they were to observe, Attilio bade 
them farewell, and returned to the city 
alone, leaving behind him, with many a 
thought of pity and stern indignation, this 
father's humble household, devastated by 
the devices of the foul priest. 

VOL. T. 



must return to the sculptor's domicile, 
where two days had elapsed after the arrest 
of Manlio ; nor had Attilio, who was gone 
in search of him, as yet appeared ; so that 
the family were reduced to the greatest 

" What can they be doing with your good 
father ? " repeated constantly the weeping 
mother to her daughter. " Although a 
Liberal, he has never mixed with any one 
whose principles would compromise him. 
He hates the priests, I know, and they 
deserve to be hated for their vices, but 
he has never talked about it to' any one 
but me." 

Clelia shed no tears, but her grief at her 
father's detention was almost deeper than 
that of her mother; and at last, saddened by 


these plaints, she said, with energy, " Weep 
no more, mother ; tears are of no avail ; we 
must act. We must discover where my 
father is concealed, and, as Monna Aurelia 
has advised, we must endeavour to procure 
his release. Besides, Attilio is in search of 
him, and I know he will not desist until 
he has helped him and us, if he has not 
already done so." 

A knock interrupted Clelia's consolatory 
words. She ran to the door, and opening- 
it, admitted a neighbour, whose name has 
just been mentioned, Monna Aurelia, an 
old and tried friend. 

" Good da} r ," said she, as she entered the 
sitting-room with a cheerful countenance. 

" Grood day," answered Silvia, with a faint 
smile, wiping her eyes. 

" I bring you something, neighbour ; our 
friend Cassio, whom I consulted about your 
husband's affair, has drawn up this petition 
on stamped paper, supplicating the cardinal 
minister to set Manlio at liberty. He says 
you must sign it, and had better present it 
in person to his Eminence." 

i 2 


Silvia took the paper, and looked at it 
doubtfully. She felt a strong aversion to 
this proposition. Could she throw herself at 
the feet of a person whom she despised, to 
implore his mercy? Yet perhaps her 
husband's life was at stake ; he might even 
now be suffering insults, privations, even 
torture. This thought struck a chill to 
the heart of the wife, and, rising, she said 
decidedly, " I will go with it." 

Aurelia offered to accompany her, and 
in less than half an hour the three women 
were on the road to the palace. 

At nine o'clock that same morning, as it 
happened, the Cardinal Procopio, Minister 
of State, had been informed by the quest or 
of the Quirinale of Manlio's escape. 

Great was the fury of the prelate at the 
unwelcome news, and he commanded the 
immediate arrest and confinement of the 
directors, officers on guard, dragoons, and of 
all, in fact, who had been in charge of the 
prison on the previous night. 

Despatching the questor with this order, 
he summoned Gianni to his presence. 


" Why, in the devil's name, was that 
accursed sculptor confined in the Quirinale, 
instead of being sent to the Castle of St. 
Angelo ? " he inquired. 

" Your Eminence," replied Gianni, con- 
ceitedl} r , " should have entrusted such im- 
portant affairs to me, and not to a set 
of idiots and rascals who are open to 

" Dost thou come here to annoy me by 
reflections, sirrah?" blustered the priest. 
" Search in that turnip head of thine for 
means to bring the girl to me, or the palace 
cellars shall hear thee squeak thy self-praise 
to the tune of the cord or the pincers." 

Gianni knew that these fearful threats 
were not vain ones, and that, incredible as 
it may appear to outsiders, tortures too 
horrible to describe daily take place in the 
Eome of the present day. Meekly sub- 
mitting to the storm, therefore, with down- 
cast head, the mutilated wretch for he was 
one of those maimed from their youth to 
sing falsettoes in the choir of St. Peter 
pondered how to act. 


"Lift up thine eyes, knave, if thou 
darest, and tell me whether or no, after 
causing me to spend such pains and money 
in this attempt, thou hast the hope to 

Tremblingly Gianni raised his eyes to 
his master's face as he articulated with 
difficulty the words, " I hope to succeed." 

But just as he spoke, to his considerable 
relief, a bell rang, announcing the arrival 
of a visitor. A servant in the Cardinal's 
colours entered, and inquired if his Emi- 
nence would be pleased to see three women 
who wished to present a petition. 

The Cardinal, waving his dismissal to 
the still agitated Gianni, gave a nod of 
assent, and assumed an unctuous expression, 
as the three women were ushered into his 



EOME is the museum of the fine arts, the 
great curiosity-shop of the world. There 
are collected the ruins of the ancient 
societies, temples, columns, statues, the 
remains of Italian and Grecian genius, 
the great works of Praxiteles, Phidias, 
Raphael, Michael Angelo, and a hundred 
masters. Fountains, from which arise 
marine colossi, chiefly, alas ! in ruins, 
meet the eye on all sides. The stranger 
is struck with amazement and admiration 
at the sight of these gigantic works of 
art, upon many of which are engraved 
the mighty battles of a wonderful by- 
gone age. It is the fault of the priest 
that their beauty is marred by endless 
mitres and superstitious signs. But they 
are still marvellous and beautiful, and ifc 
was among them that Julia, the beautiful 


daughter of England, was constantly to be 
found. She had resided for several years in 
this city of sublime memorials, and daily 
passed the greater part of her time in 
sketching all that to her cultivated taste 


appeared most worthy of imitation and 
study. Michael Angelo was her especially 
favoured maestro, and she might frequently 
be seen sitting for hours before his colossal 
statue of Moses, rapt in the labour of depict- 
ing that brow, upon which, to her vivid 
imagination, sat an air of majestic greatness 
that appeared almost supernatural. Born 
and bred in free and noble England, she 
had separated herself voluntarily from lov- 
ing and beloved friends, that she might 
thus wander undisturbed among the ob- 
jects of her idolatry. Unexpectedly, her 
pursuits had been interrupted by a 
stronger feeling than art. She had en- 
countered Muzio many times in the studio 
of the sculptor Manlio; and, poor and appa- 
rently humble as he was. Julia had found 
under the ragged garb of a painter's model 
her ideal of the proud race of the Quirites. 


Yes ! though obscure, still Muzio was 
beloved by this strange English girl. He 
was poor, but what cared she for his 

And Muzio, did he know and return this 
generous love ? 

Ah ! in truth ; but, although he would 
have given his life to save hers, he con- 
cealed all consciousness of her interest in 
him, and allowed not a single action to 
betray it, though he longed fervently for 
occasion to render her some trifling ser- 
vice ; and, at length, the opportunity came. 
As Julia was returning from Manlio's 
stucJio, some few days previous to his 
arrest, accompanied by her faithful old 
nurse, two drunken soldiers rushed upon 
her from a by-way, and dragged her 
between them some little distance, before 
Muzio, who secretly kept her in view during 
such transits, could come to her succour. 
No sooner had he reached them, than he 
struck one ruffian to the earth, seeing which, 
his fellow ran away. The terrified Julia 
thanked him with natural emotion, and 


besought him not to leave her until she 
reached her own door. Muzio gladly ac- 
cepted the welcome honour of the escort, 
and felt supremely happy when, at their 
parting, Julia gave him the favour of her 
hand, and rewarded him with a priceless 
smile. From this evening, Muzio's dagger 
was consecrated to her safety, and he vowed 
that never again should she be insulted in 
the streets of Rome. 

It befell that the same day upon which 
Silvia went to the palace Corsini to present 
her petition, Julia was paying one of her 
visits to the studio. Arriving there, she 
was informed by a lad in attendance of 
all that had occurred. Whilst pondering 
over the ominous tale, Attilio entered in 
quest of the ladies, and from him the Eng- 
lish girl learned the particulars of Manlio's 
escape. His narration finished, Julia, in 
turn, recounted to him all that the youth 
had imparted to her concerning the pre- 
sentation of the petition. 

Attilio was much distressed, and could 
with difficulty be restrained from going 


directly to the palace in search of Silvia and 
her daughter. This would have been very 
imprudent, and therefore Julia offered, as 
she had access at all times to the palace, to 
go to the Cardinal's house, and ascertain 
the cause of the now prolonged absence of 
the mother and daughter, promising to 
return and tell him the result. 

Attilio, thoroughly worn out with ex- 
citement and fatigue, yielded to Spartaco's 
invitation to take some rest, whilst the 
boy related to him the particulars of what 
had passed since he left them to carry 
out the rescue of his friend. 



LET us return to the year 1849, to the fatal 
scene in which the young Muzio was robbed 
of his patrimony. 

There was an old retainer named Siccio, 
already introduced, who had served longer 
in the house of Pompeo than any other ; he 
had, in fact, been born in it, and had received 
very many acts of kindness there. These 
benefits he repaid by faithful love to the 
orphan Muzio, whom he regarded almost 
as tenderly as if he had in reality been 
his own child. He was good, and rather 
simple, but not so much so as to be blind 
to the pernicious influence which Father 
Ignazio had acquired over his indulgent 
mistress, which he feared would be used 
to the injury of her grandchild. 

But the guardian of souls, the spiritual 
physician, the confessor of the lady 01 the 

SICCIO. t i 

house ! what servant would dare openly to 
doubt him, or cross his path ? Confession, 
too, that terrible arm of priestcraft, that 
diabolical device for seduction, that subtle 
means of piercing the most sacred do- 
mestic secrets, and keeping in chains the 
superstitious sex ! How could Siccio dare 
openly to fight against such weapons ? 

The confessor was, however, aware of the 
good servant's mistrust, and therefore caused 
him to be discharged a few days after the 
Signora Virginia breathed her last, though 
not before he had overheard a certain dia- 
logue between Father Ignazio and Sister 

"What is to be done with the child?" 
the nun had asked. 

"He must pack off to the Foundling," 
replied he ; " there he will be safe enough 
from the evil of this perverted century and 
its heretical doctrines. Besides, we shall 
have no difficulty in keeping an eye upon 
him," he continued, with a meaning look, 
which she returned, causing Siccio, who 
was unseen, to prick up his ears. 


He straightway resolved not to leave the 
innocent and helpless child in the hands of 
these fiends, and contrived, a few nights after 
his dismissal, to ohtain an entrance to the 
house by the excuse that he had left some 
of his property behind. Watching his op- 
portunity, he stole into the nursery, where 
he found the neglected child huddled in a 
corner crying with cold and hunger. Siccio, 
taking him in his arms, soothed him until 
he fell asleep, when he glided cautiously out 
of the house into the street, and hired a 
conveyance to carry them to a lodging he 
had previously engaged at some distance 
from the city. To elude suspicion and pur- 
suit he had cleverly concealed the little 
Muzio in a bundle of clothes, and, alight- 
ing from the vehicle before he arrived at 
his dwelling, quietly unwound and aroused 
the child, who trotted at his side, and was 
introduced by him to his landlady as his 

During the lifetime of Muzio's father, 
who was an amateur antiquary, Siccio had 
gained a considerable knowledge of the 

siccio. 79 

history of the ruins around Borne by at- 
tending him in his researches. This 
knowledge, as he could not take service 
as a domestic, on account of his unwilling- 
ness to part from the child, he determined 
to turn to account, and so become a 
regular cicerone. His pay for services in 
this capacity was so small, that he could 
with difficulty provide for himself and his 
little charge even the bare necessaries of 
existence. This mode of living he pursued 
however for some years, until the infirmities 
of old age creeping upon him, he found it 
harder than ever to procure food and shelter 
of the commonest kind. What could he 
now do? He looked at Muzio's graceful 
form, and an inspiration broke upon him. 
Yes, he would brave the danger, and take 
him to the city, for he felt that the artists 
and sculptors would rejoice to obtain such a 
model. The venture was made, and Siccio 
was elated and gratified beyond measure at 
the admiration Muzio, now in his fifteenth 
year, called forth from the patrons of Eoman 


For a while they were enabled to live in 
comparative comfort. Siccio now dared to 
reveal to him the secret of his birth, and the 
manner in which he had been despoiled, as 
the old man at any rate suspected, of his in- 
heritance. Great was the indignation of the 
youth, and still greater his gratitude to the 
good Siccio, who had toiled so uncomplain- 
ingly for him, but from this time he steadily 
refused to sit as a model. Work he would, 
even menial work he did not despise, and he 
might have been seen frequently in the 
different studios moving massive blocks of 
marble, for his strength far exceeded that of 
other youths of his own age. He also now 
and then assumed the duties of a cicerone, 
when the aged Siccio was unable to leave 
the house from sickness. His youthful 
beauty often induced strangers to give him 
a gratuity; but as he was never seen to 
hold out his hand, the lazzaroni of Rome 
called him ironically " Signer." 

In spite of his efforts Muzio was unable, 
as Siccio's feebleness increased, to provide 
for all their wants ; and he became gloomy 

siccio. 81 

and morose. One remarkable evening, when 
Siccio was sitting alone, shortly after Julia's 
adventure, a woman closely veiled entered 
his mean little room, and placing a heavy 
purse upon the table, she said 

" Here is something, my worthy friend, 
which may be useful to you. Scruple not to 
employ it, and seek not to discover the name 
of the donor, or should you by chance learn 
it let it be your own secret." And thus, 
without giving the astonished old man time 
to recover his speech, she went out, closing 
the door behind her. 

VOL. i. G 



"Tnis is truly an unexpected blessing a 
fountain in the desert," thought the Car- 
dinal, as the three women were ushered into 
the audience-chamber : " Providence serves 
me better than these knaves by whom I 
am surrounded." Casting an undisguised 
look of admiration at Clelia, who stood 
modestly behind her mother, he said aloud, 
" Let the petition be brought forward." 

Monna Aurelia, considerately taking the 
document from Silvia, advanced with it, 
and presented it on her knees. 

After perusing it with apparent atten- 
tion, the Cardinal addressed Aurelia, saying, 
" So you are the wife of that Manlio who 
takes upon himself to shelter and protect 
the enemies of the state, of his Holiness 
the Pope?" 

."It is I who am the wife of Signor 


Manlio, your Eminence," said Silvia, ad- 
vancing. " This lady," pointing to Aurelia, 
" kindly offered to appear before your Emi- 
nence, and assure you that neither my 
husband nor I have ever meddled with 
politics, and that we are persons of un- 
questioned honesty." 

"Unquestioned honesty!" repeated the 
Cardinal, in simulated anger. " Why, 
then, as you are so very honest, do you 
first shelter heretics and enemies of the 
state, and then assist them to escape in 
such an unpardonable manner ? " 

" To escape !" exclaimed Clelia, who had 
hitherto preserved her presence of mind. 
" Then my father is no longer confined in 
this dreadful place" and a flush of joy 
spread itself over her lovely features. 

"Yes, he has escaped; but ere long he 
will be re-taken, and must answer for his 
double crime," said the Cardinal. 

These words gave a blow to Silvia's new- 
born hopes, and, what with surprise, fear, 
and excitement, she fell back into her 
daughter's arms in a swoon. 

G 2 


The Cardinal, hardened to such scenes, at 
once determined to take advantage of it, so, 
summoning some servants, he ordered them 
to convey the fainting woman and her 
friends to another room, where proper reme- 
dies could be applied to restore the stricken 
wife. As they made their exit, he rubbed 
his soft hands gleefully, saying to himself, 
" Ah, my pretty one ! you shall not leave 
the palace until you have paid me a fee." 
He then sent for Gianni, who, recognising 
the trio at their entry, had remained at 
hand, as he divined his services would be 
needed. When he presented himself, his 
master chuckled out 

" Ebben, Signer Gianni ! Providence 
beats your boasted ability out and out." 

Gianni, knowing that all was sunshine 
again when he was thus dignified by the 
title "Signor," answered, "Have I not 
always said your Eminence was born under 
a lucky star?" 

" Well," continued the profane Cardinal, 
" since Providence favours me, it now only 
rests with you, Gianni, to finish the matter 


off." Then he continued, "Follow the 
women, and see that every respect is paid 
them; and when they are calmed, direct 
Father Ignazio to send for the elder woman 
and the wife of the sculptor, under pretence 
of questioning them about his escape, that 
I may have an opportunity of conversing 
alone with the incomparable Clelia." 

Bowing profoundly, the scoundrel de- 
parted to execute his dissolute master's 

As he passed out, a lackey entered, an- 
nouncing that " La Signora Inglese " 
wished to see his Eminence on business. 

" Introduce her," said Procorpio, stroking 
his chin complacently ; for he congratulated 
himself, in spite of the interruption, on 
his good fortune, as he admired the young 
Englishwoman excessively. 

Julia greeted him frankly as an acquaint- 
ance, holding out her hand in the English 
fashiop, which he took, expressing in warm 
terms, as he led her to a seat, his delight 
at seeing her. 

"And to what am I to attribute the 


felicity of again receiving you so soon under 
iny roof? This room," he continued, "so 
lately brightened by your presence, has a 
renewed grace for me now." 

Julia seated herself, and replied, gravely, 
for she was slightly discomposed by the 
Cardinal's flattery, " Your Eminence is too 
condescending. As you well know, my 
former object in coming to the palace was 
to crave leave to copy some of the chefs- 
d'ceuvre with which it is adorned ; bub 
to-day I am here on a different errand." 

The Cardinal, drawing a chair to her 
side and seating himself, said, " And may I 
inquire its nature, beautiful lady ? " placing, 
as he spoke, his hands upon hers with an 
insinuating pressure. 

Julia, resenting the Cardinal's familiarity, 
drew her chair back ; but, as he again ap- 
proached, she stood up, and placed it be- 
tween them, saying, as he attempted to 
rise, and with a look that made him flinch, 
' You surely forget yourself, Monseigneur ; 
be seated, or I must leave you." 

The prelate, profoundly abashed by die 


dignity of the English girl, obeyed, and she 
continued, " My object is to obtain in- 
formation of the wife and daughter of the 
sculptor Manlio, who, I am told, came to 
the palace some hours ago to present a 
petition to your Eminence." 

" They came here, but have already left," 
stammered Procopio, as soon as he had 
recovered from his surprise. 

" Is it long since they quitted your 
Eminence ? " asked Julia. 

"But a few minutes," was the reply. 

" I presume they have left the palace, 

" Assuredly," affirmed he, unblushingly. 

Julia, with a gesture of incredulity, 
bowed, and took her leave. 

What is there perfect in the world? The 
English nation is by no means exempt from 
imperfection ; yet the English are the only 
people who can be compared with the 
ancient Romans, for they resemble each 
other in the splendid selfishness of their 
virtues and their vices. 

Egotists and conquerors, the history of 


both abounds in crime committed either in 
their own dominions, or in those countries 
which they invaded and subdued. Many are 
the nations they have overthrown to satisfy 
their boundless thirst for gold and power. 

Yet who dare deny that the Britons, with 
all their faults, have contributed immensely 
to the civilisation and social advancement 
of mankind? They have laid the grand 
foundations of a new ideal of humanity, 
erect, inflexible, majestic, free ; obeying no 
masters but the laws which they them- 
selves have made no kings but those 
whom they themselves control. 

By untiring patience and indomitable 
legality, this people has known how to 
reconcile government and order with the 
liberty of a self-ruling community. 

England has become a sanctuary, an 
inviolable refuge, for the fugitive and 
unfortunate of all other nations. Those 
proscribed by tyrants, and the tyrants who 
have proscribed them, flee alike to her 
hospitable shores, and find shelter, on the 
single condition of taking their place as 


citizens among citizens, and yielding obe- 
dience to the sovereign laws. 

England, too, be it ever remembered, 
first proclaimed to the world the emancipa- 
tion of the slave, and her people willingly 
submitted to an increased taxation in order 
to carry out this glorious act in all her 
colonies. Her descendants in America 
have, after a long and bloody struggle 
between freedom and oligarchy, banished 
slavery also for ever from the New World. 

Lastly, to England Italy is largely 
indebted for her reconstruction, by reason 
of that resolute proclamation of fair play 
and non-intervention in the Straits of 
Messina in 1860. 

To France Italy is also, indeed, indebted, 
since so many of her heroic soldiers fell in 
the Italian cause in the battles of Solferino 
and Magenta. She has also profited, like 
the rest of the world, by the writings of the 
great minds of France, and by her principles 
of justice and freedom. To France, more- 
over, we owe, in a great measure, the aboli- 
tion of piracy in the Mediterranean. 


France marched, in truth, for some cen- 
turies alone, and as the leader in civilisation. 

The time was when she proclaimed and 
propagated liberty to the world ; but she 
has now, alas ! fallen, and is crouching 
before the image of a fictitious greatness, 
while her ruler endeavours to cajole the 
nation which he professed to emancipate, 
and employs his troops to deprive Italy of 
the freedom which he helped to give her. 

Let us hope that, for the welfare of 
humanity, France will, ere long, resume 
her proper position, and, united with Eng- 
land, once again use her sublime power 
to put down violence and corruption, and 
raise the standard of universal liberty and 



IN Siccio's little room there was gathered 
that same evening a group of three persons 
who would have gladdened the heart and 
eyes of any judge of manly and womanly 

Is it a mere caprice of chance to be born 
beautiful ? The spirit is not always reflected 
in the form. I have known many a noble 
heart enshrined in an unpleasing body. 
Nevertheless, man is drawn naturally to the 
beautiful. A fine figure and noble features 
instinctively call forth not only admiration, 
but confidence ; and every one rejoices in 
having a handsome father, a beautiful mo- 
ther, fine children ; or a leader resembling 
Achilles rather than Thersites. On the 
other hand, how much injustice and mor- 
tification are often borne on account of 


deformity, and how many are the wounds 
inflicted by thoughtless persons on those 
wrongly afflicted by their undisguised con- 
tempt or more cruel pity. 

Julia, for she it is who shone the love- 
liest of our triad, had just returned from 
her visit to the palace, and related to her 
auditors, Attilio and Muzio, what had 

" Yes ! " she exclaims, " he told me they 
were gone ; but you see how powerful is 
gold to obtain the truth, even in that 
den of vice ! The ladies are there de- 
tained. I bought the fact from one of his 

Attilio, much disturbed, passed his hand 
over his brow as he paced and re-paced 
the floor. 

Julia, seeing how perturbed in spirit he 
was by her discovery, went to him, and, 
placing her hand with a gentle pressure 
upon his shoulder, besought him to be 
calm, saying that he needed all possible 
self-control and presence of mind to pro- 
cure his betrothed's release. 


" You are right, Signora," said Muzio, 
who until now had remained silent, but 
watchful; "you are ever right." 

The triad had already discussed a plan 
of rescue ; and Muzio proposed to let 
Silvio know, and to engage him to meet 
them with some of his companions at ten 

Muzio was noble-minded, and though he 
loved the beautiful stranger with all the 
force of his passionate Southern nature, he 
felt no thought of jealousy as he thus pre- 
pared to leave her alone with his attractive 

Nor did Julia run any danger from her 
warm feeling of compassion for Attilio, 
for her love for Muzio, though as yet 
unspoken, was pure and inalienable a love 
that no change of fortune, time, or even 
death, could destroy. She had but lately 
learned the story of his birth and misfor- 
tunes, and this, be sure, had not served to 
lessen it. 

" No," she replied ; " I will bid you both 
adieu for the present. At ten o'clock I shall 


await you in a carriage near the Piazza, and 
I will receive the ladies, and carry them, 
when you have liberated them, to a place 
of safety." 

So saying, she beckoned to her nurse to 
follow, and departed to make the necessary 
arrangements for the flight of the sculptor's 
family, whose cause she had magnani- 
mously espoused, ignoring completely the 
personal danger she was incurring. 



JUSTICE ! sacred word, how art thou 
abused by the powerful upon earth ! Was 
not Christ, the just one, crucified in the 
name of justice ? Was not Galileo put to 
the torture in the name of justice? And 
are not the laws of this unjust Babel, 
falsely called civilised Europe, made and 
administered in the name of justice ? Aye, 
in Europe, where the man willing to 
work dies of hunger, and the idle and 
profligate flaunt in luxury and splendour ! 
in Europe, where a few families govern the 
nations, and keep them in a chronic state of 
warfare under the high sounding names of 
justice, loyalty, military glory, and the like ! 
And in the name of justice there in the 
palace sit Procopio and Ignazio. Outside are 
the " rabble " Attilio, forsooth, Muzio, and 


Silvio, with a score of the Three Hundred, 
who mean to have justice after their own 
fashion. The hearts of these common people 
are glad and gay, as on the eve of a feast. 
It is true they beat, but it is in confident 
hope, for the hour of their duty is near. 
They pace the Lungara in parties of twos 
and threes, to avoid suspicion, awaiting the 
striking of the clock. Whilst they linger 
outside, we will enter, and take a retrospect. 
When Gianni summoned Aurelia and 
Silvio to attend Father Ignazio, Clelia, 
suspecting treachery, drew a golden stiletto 
from her hair, and secreted it in her belt, 
that it might be at hand in the event of 
her needing it to defend herself. 

The prelate, meantime, having attired 
himself in his richest robes, in the hope 
that their magnificence might have an effect 
upon the simple girl, prepared, as he face- 
tiously termed it, "to summon the fortress." 
Opening the door of the apartment in which 
Clelia was anxiously awaiting her mother's 
return, he entered with a false benignancy 
upon his face. 


" You must pardon us," lie said, " for 
having detained you so long, my daughter, 
but I wished to assure you in person that 
no harm shall befall your father, as well as," 
he continued and here he caught up her 
hand " to tell you, most lovely of women, 
that since I beheld you first my heart has 
not ceased to burn with the warmest love 
for you." 

Clelia, startled by the words, and the 
passionate look which the Cardinal fixed 
upon her, instinctively drew back a little, 
so as to leave more space, and place a small 
table between them. 

A shameful burst of insult and odious 
entreaty followed this movement. In vain 
did Procopio plead, urging that her con- 
sent alone could procure her father's pardon. 
Clelia continued to preserve her look of 
horror, and her majestic scorn, contriving 
by her movements to keep the table be- 
tween them. Enraged beyond measure, 
the Cardinal made a sign to his creatures, 
Ignazio and Gianni, who were near at hand, 
to enter. 

VOL. i. H 


Clelia, comprehending her danger, snatched 
forth her dagger, and exclaimed in an in- 
dignant voice, " Touch me at your peril ! 
rather than submit to your infamous desires 
I will plunge this poniard into my heart !" 

The libidinous prelate, not understanding 
such virtue, approached to wrest the weapon 
from the Eoman girl, hut received a gash 
upon his palm, as she snatched it free, and 
stood upon the defensive, with majestic 
anger and desperation. He called to his 
satellites, and they closed like a band of 
fiends about the maiden ; nor was it till 
their blood was drawn by more than one 
thrust from her despair, that Gianni caught 
the wrist of Clelia, as she strove to plunge 
the knife into her own heart, while Father 
Ignazio passed swiftly behind her, and 
seized her left hand, motioning to Gianni 
to hold the right fast, and the Cardinal 
himself threw his arms around her. The 
heroic girl was thus finally deprived of 
her weapon. This achieved, they proceeded 
to drag her towards an alcove, which was 
concealed behind a curtain of tapestry. 


At this instant, happily for our heroine, 
there was a sudden crash in the vestibule, 
and as her assailants turned their heads 
in the direction of the sound, two manly 
forms, terrible in their fiery wrath and 
grace, rushed forward. The first, Attilio, 
flew to his beloved, who, from revulsion of 
feeling, was becoming rapidly insensible, and 
tore her from the villains ; while the prelate 
and his accomplices yielded their hold with 
a cry, and endeavoured to escape. This 
Muzio prevented by barring the way; and 
bidding Silvio, and some of his men, who 
arrived at this juncture, to surround them, 
he drew forth a cord, and, after gagging the 
three scoundrels, he commenced binding the 
arms of the affrighted prelate, his friends 
similarly treating Ignazio and the trembling 
tool Gianni. Many and abject were the 
gestures of these miserable men for mercy, 
but none was shown by their infuriated 
captors. The prayers and curses of the 
Cardinal were choked with his own mantle ; 
and Muzio did* not refrain, as Father 
Ignazio writhed under the pressure of the 

H 2 


cord, from reminding him of his villany in 
robbing a helpless child of his lawful in- 

At dawn three bodies, suspended from a 
window of the Corsini palace, were seen by 
the awakening people ; and a paper was 
found upon the breast of the Cardinal, 
with these words : " So perish all those 
who have polluted the metropolis of the 
world with falsehood, corruption, and 
deceit; and turned it into a sewer and 
.a stew." 



THE sun of that avenging morning was 
beginning to shed its rays upon the few 
stragglers in the Forum who, with pale 
squalid faces betokening hunger and misery, 
shook their rags free of dust as they rose 
from their unrefreshed slumbers, when a 
carriage containing four women rolled 
through the suburbs. It passed rapidly 
along towards those vast uninhabited plains, 
where little is to be seen except, here and 
there, a wooden cross, reminding the tra- 
veller unpleasantly that on that spot a 
murder has been committed. 

Arriving at the little house already twice 
mentioned, its occupants alighted ; and who 
shall describe the joy of that meeting. 
Julia and Aurelia contemplated in silence 
the reunion of the now happy Manlio with 


his wife and daughter, for all the prisoners 
of the wicked palace were free. 

Camilla also watched their tears of glad- 
ness, but without any clear comprehension. 
Could she have known the fate of the 
Cardinal, it might perchance have restored 
her reason. After a thousand questions 
had been asked and answered, Manlio ad- 
dressed Julia, saying 

" Exile, alas ! is all that remains for us. 
This atrocious Government cannot endure ; 
but until it is annihilated we must absent 
ourselves from our home and friends." 

"Yes, yes! you must fly!" Julia said. 
" But it will not be long, I trust, ere you 
will be able to return to Rome, and find 
her cleansed from the slavery under which 
she now groans. My yacht is lying at 
Porto d'Anzo; we will make all haste to 
gain it, and I hope to see you embark 
safely in the course of a few hours." 

A yacht ! I hear some of my Italian 
readers cry. What part of a woman's 
belongings can this be ? A yacht, then, is 
a small vessel in which the sea-loving and 


wealthy British take their pleasure on the 
ocean, for they fear not the storm, the 
heat of the torrid zone, nor the cold of the 
frozen ocean. Albion's sons, aye, and her 
daughters too, leave their comfortable fire- 
sides, and find life, health, strength, and 
happiness in inhaling the briny air on board 
their own beautiful craft in pursuit of en- 
joyment and knowledge. France, Spain, and 
Italy have not this little word " yacht " 
in their dictionaries. Their rich men dare 
not seek their pleasure upon the waves 
they give themselves to the foolish luxuries 
of great cities, and hence is it that names 
like Rodney and Nelson are not in their 
histories. Britannia has always loved and 
" ruled the waves " for centuries. Her 
wooden walls have been her inviolable 
defence. Long may her new iron-sides 
and ramparts prove the same, and pro- 
tect her hospitable shores against foreign 
foes ! 

But a yacht is a strange thing for a 
woman to possess. True, but English 
Julia in childhood was of delicate con- 


stitution; the physicians prescribed a sea 
voyage, and her opulent parents equipped 
a pleasure- vessel for her use. Thus Julia 
became so devoted to the blue waves that, 
even when the balmy air of Italy had re- 
stored her to robust health, she continued, 
when inclination disposed her, to make 
little voyages of romance, discovery, and 
freedom in the waters of the Mediterranean. 
Thus it was that she could offer so timely 
a refuge to the family of the sculptor. 



IMAGINE the consternation in Rome on the 
15th of February, the day following the 
tragic death of the Cardinal Procopio 
and his two ahettors. Great, indeed, was 
the agitation of the city when the three 
bodies were seen dangling from the upper 
window of the palace. The rumour spread 
rapidly, and the immense crowd under the 
facade increased more and more, until a 
battalion of foreign soldiers, sent for by the 
terrified priests, appeared in the Lungara, 
and driving the people back, surrounded 
and entered the palace. To tell the truth, 
the soldiers laughed sometimes at the jests, 
coarse but witty, which were flung by the 
mob at the three corpses as they com- 
menced hauling them up. Many were 
the bitter things that passed below. 


" Let them down head over heels," 
shouted one ; " your work will be finished 
the sooner." 

"Play the devil-fish steadily, that they 
may not slip from the hook," hallooed 

By-and-by the cord to which the cor- 
pulent body of the prelate was attached 
broke as the soldiers attempted to hoist it 
up, and hoarser than ever were the shouts 
of laughter with which it was greeted as it 
fell with a heavy shock upon the pavement. 

Muzio, who was surveying the avenging 
spectacle, turned to Silvio, saying, with a 
shudder, " Let us away ; this laughter is 
not to my taste now they have paid their 

In truth, Pasquin is almost the only real 
survivor of ancient Rome. Would that 
our people possessed the gravity and force 
of those times, when our forefathers elected 
the great dictators ; or bought and sold, at a 
high price, the lands upon which Hannibal 
was at the time being encamped. But it 
must be long before their souls can be 


freed from the plague of priestly corruption, 
and before they can once more be worthy 
of their ancient fame and name. 

" We must have patience with them," 
observed Silvio. " Slavery reduces man to 
the level of the beast. These priests have 
themselves inculcated the rude mockery 
which we hear. At least, it could have 
no fitter objects than those dead carcases. 
Eeproach not the people to-day mud is 
good enough for dead dogs." 

Thus discoursing, the friends made their 
way through the crowd, and separated, 
having first appointed to meet at the end 
of the week in the studio of Attilio. 

On the day in question they found the 
young artist at home, and gave him a 
detailed account of what they had wit- 
nessed under the palace windows. It was 
the time for the re-assembling of the Three 
Hundred, but, before setting out to meet 
their associates at the Baths of Caracalla, 
they lay down to rest for a few hours ; 
and while they slumber we will give some 
account of the" place of assignation. 


Masters of the world, and wealthy beyond 
compute from its manifold spoils, the ancient 
Romans gave themselves up, in the later days 
of the Eepublic, to fashion, luxuriousness, 
and excesses of all kinds. The toils of the 
field whether of battle or of agriculture 
although they had conduced to make them 
hardy and healthy before their triumphs, 
had now become distasteful and odious. 
Their limbs, rendered effeminate by a new 
and fatal voluptuousness, grew at last un- 
equal even to the weight of their arms, 
and they chose out the stoutest from 
among their slaves to serve as soldiers. 
The foreign people by whom they were 
surrounded failed not to note the advan- 
tage which time and change were preparing 
for them over their dissolute masters. They 
rose with Goth and Ostrogoth to free them- 
selves from the heavy yoke. They fell 
upon the queenly city on all sides, dis- 
crowned her of her imperial diadem, and 
bore away her uncounted riches. 

Such was the fate of that gigantic em- 
pire, which fell, as all powers ought to 


fall which have been hased on violence 
and injustice. 

One of the chief imported luxuries of 
the degenerate Romans was the thermae, or 
baths, edifices upon which immense sums 
were lavished to make them beautiful and 
commodious in the extreme. Some were 
private, others public. The emperors vied 
with each other to render them celebrated 
and attractive. Caracalla, the unworthy 
son of Severus, and one of the very vilest 
of the line of Caesars, built the vast pile 
still called by his evil name ; the ruins 
of which forcibly illustrate the splendour 
of the past sovereignty, and the causes 
of its swift decay. The greater number of 
these conspicuous and magnificent build- 
ings in the city of Rome have subterranean 
passages attached to them, provided by 
their original possessors as a means of 
escape in times of danger, Or to conceal the 
results of rapine or violence. It was in the 
subterranean passages connected with the 
Baths of Caracalla that the Three Hundred 
had agreed to meet, and as the darkness of 


night crept on, the outposts of the con- 
spirators, like ' gliding shadows, planted 
themselves silently at the approaches to 
this wilderness of antique stones, from time 
to time challenging, in a whisper, other and 
more numerous shadows, which slowly con- 
verged to the spot. 



THE liberation of Manlio and the execu- 
tion of the Cardinal gave an unexpected 
blow to the Pontifical Government, and 
aroused it from its previous easy lethargy. 
All the foreign and native soldiers avail- 
able were put under arms, and the police 
were everywhere on the qui vive, arresting 
upon the slightest suspicion citizens of all 
classes, so that the prisons speedily became 
filled to overflowing. 

A member of the Three Hundred 
shameful to say had been bought over to 
act as a spy upon the movements of his 
comrades. Happily, he was not one of 
those select members chosen to assist in the 
attack upon the Quirinale prison, or the 
release of Silvia and Clelia. Of the pro- 
posed meeting at the Baths of Caracalla he 


was nevertheless cognisant, and had duly 
given information of it to the police. 

Now, Italian conspirators make use of 
a counter police, at the head of which 
was Muzio. 

His garb of lazzarone served him in 
good stead, and by favour of it he often 
managed to obtain information from those 
in the pay of the priests, who commonly 
employ the poor and wretched people that 
beg for bread in the streets and market- 
places of Rome in the capacity of spies. 

But this time he was ill-informed. The 
last conspirator had entered the subter- 
ranean passage, and Attilio had put the 
question, " Are the sentinels at their 
posts?" when a low sound, like the hiss- 
ing of a snake, resounded through the 
vault. This was Muzio 's signal of alarm, 
and he himself appeared at the arch- 

" There is no time to be lost," said he ; 
" we are already hemmed in on one side 
by an armed force, and at the southern 
exit another is taking up its position." 


This imminent danger, instead of making 
these brave youths tremble, served but to 
fill them with stern resolve and courage. 

Attilio looked once on the strong band 
assembled around him, and then bade 
Silvio take two men and go to the en- 
trance to reconnoitre. 

Another sentinel approached at this mo- 
ment from the south, and corroborated 
Muzio's statement. 

The sentinels from the remaining points 
failing to appear, a fear that they had been 
arrested fell upon the young men, and their 
leader was somewhat troubled on this ac- 
count, until Silvio returned, and reported 
that upon nearing the mouth of the pas- 
sage he had seen them. At this moment 
they heard a few shots, and immediately 
after the sentinels in question entered, and 
informed the chief that they had witnessed 
a large number of troops gathering, and 
had fired upon one file, which had ventured 
to advance. 

Attilio, seeing that delay would be 
ruinous, commanded Muzio to charge out 
VOL. i. j 


with a third of the company, he himself 
would follow up with his own third, and 
Silvio was to hurl the rearmost section 
upon the troops. 

Attilio briefly said, "It is the moment 
of deeds, not words. No matter how large 
the number opposed to us, we must carve 
a road through them with our daggers." 
He then directed Muzio to lead on a de- 
tachment of twenty men, with a swift 
rush, upon the enemy, promising to follow 

Muzio, quickly forming his twenty men, 
wrapped his cloak around his left arm, and 
grasping his weapon firmly in his right 
hand, gave the word to charge out. 

In a few moments the cavernous vault 
startled those outside by vomiting a torrent 
of furious men ; and as the youths rushed 
upon the satellites of despotism,- the Pope's 
soldiers heading the division had not, even 
time to level their guns before they wtere 
wrenched from their grasp, and many re- 
ceived their death-blow. 

The others, thoroughly demoralised at 


the cry of the second and third divisions 
bursting forth, took to headlong and 

o * <> 

shameful flight. The Campo Vaccino, and 
the lanes of Rome leading to the Campi- 
doo-llo, were in a short time filled with 

O ' 

the fugitives, still pursued hy those whom 
they should have taken prisoners. 

Helmets, swords, and guns, lay scattered 
in all directions, and more were wounded 
by the weapons of their own friends in 
their flight, than by the daggers of their 
pursuers ; in effect, the rout was ludicrous 
and complete. 

The brave champions of Roman liberty, 
satisfied with having so utterly discomfited 
the mercenaries of his Holiness, dispersed, 
and returned to their several homes. 

Amongst the dead bodies discovered next 
morning near the baths was that of a mere 
youth, whose beard had scarcely begun to 
cover his face with down ; he was lying on 
his back, and on his breast was the shame- 
ful word "traitor," pinned with a dagger. 
He had been recognised by the Three 
Hundred, and swiftly punished. 

i 2 


Poor Paolo, alas ! had had the misfortune 
for misfortune it proved to fall in love 
with the daughter of a priest, who, enacting 
the part of a Delilah, betrayed him to her 
father as soon as she had learned he was 
connected with a secret conspiracy. To 
save his life, the wretched youth con- 
sented to become a paid spy in the ser- 
vice of the priesthood, and it was thus 
he drew his pay. 

The worth of one intrepid spirit, as 
Attilio showed, is inestimable ; a single 
man of lion heart can put to flight a 
whole army. 

On the other hand, how contagious is 
fear. We have seen whole armies seized by 
a terrible panic in open day at a cry of 
"Escape who can," "Cavalry," "The 
enemy," or even at the sound of a few 
shots armies, too, that had fought, and 
would again fight patiently and gallantly. 

Fear is shameful and degrading, and we 
think the southern nations of Europe are 
more liable to it than the cooler and more 
serious peoples of the north; but never 


may we see an Italian army succumb to 
that sudden ague-fit which kills the man, 
even though he seems to save his life 
thereby ! 



As the hour of solemn vengeance had not 
yet struck, fright, and fright alone, was for 
the black-robed rulers of Rome the result 
of the events we have detailed. 

The priests were in mortal terror lest 
the thread by which the sword of popular 
wrath was suspended should be cut. 

The hour, however, had not struck ; the 
measure of the cup was not full ; the Grod 
of justice delayed the day of His retribution. 

Know you what the lust of priests is to 
torture ? Do you know that by the priests 
Galileo was tortured ? Gralileo, the greatest 
of Italians ! Who but priests could have 
committed him to the torture ? Who but 
a Popish prelate could have condemned to 
death by starvation *in a walled-up prison 
Ugolino and his four sons? 


Where but in Rome have priests hated 
virtue and learning while they fostered 
ignorance and patronised vice ? Woe to 
the man who, gifted by God above his 
fellows, has dared to exhibit his talent in 
Papal Italy. Has he not been immediately 
consigned to moral and physical torturers, 
until he admitted darkness was light ? 

Is it not surprising that, in spite of the 
light of the nineteenth century, a people 
should be found willing to believe the 
blasphemous fables called the doctrines of 
the Church, and the priests permitted to 
hold or withhold salvation at their 
pleasure, and to exercise such power that 
rulers court their alliance as a means of 
enabling them the more effectually to 
keep in subjection their miserable sub- 
jects ? 

In England, America, and Switzerland, 
the torture has been abolished. There 
progress is not a mere word. In Rome the 
torture exists in all its power, though con- 
cealed. Light has yet to penetrate the 
secrets of those dens of infamy called 


cloisters, seminaries, convents, where beings, 
male and female, are immured as long as 
life lasts, and are bound by terrible vows 
to resign for ever the ties of natural 
affection and sacred friendship. 

Fearful are the punishments inflicted 
upon any hapless member suspected of 
being lax in his belief, or desirous of being 
released from his oaths. Eedress for them 
is impossible in a country where despotism 
is absolute, and the liberty of the press 

Yes, in Rome, where sits the Vicar of 
God, the representative of Christ, the man 
of peace, the torture, we say, still exists as 
in the times of St. Dominic and Torque- 
mada. The cord and the pincers are in 
constant requisition in these present days 
of political convulsion. 

Poor Dentato, the sergeant of dragoons 
who facilitated the escape of Manlio, soon 
experienced this. He had been unfortu- 
nately identified as engaged at the Quirinale. 
Morning, noon, and night, means too 
horrible to divulge were resorted to for 


the purpose of compelling him to give up 
the names of those concerned in the attack 
upon the prison. Failing to gain their 
point, he had been left by his tormentors 
a shapeless mass, imploring his persecutors 
to show their mercy by putting him to 

Unhappy man ! the executioners falsely 
declared he had denounced his accomplices, 
and continued daily to make fresh arrests. 

Yet the world still tolerates those fiends 
in human form, and kings moreover impose 
them upon our unhappy countries. God 
grant the people of Italy may before long 
have the will and the courage to break this 
hateful yoke from off their necks ! Grod set 
us free before we are weary of praying 
from those who take His holy name in 
vain, and chase Christ himself out of the 
Temple to set their money- changing stalls 
therein ! 



LET us for a time depart from these scenes 
of horror, and follow our fugitives on the 
road to Porto d'Anzo. Their hearts are 
sad, for they are leaving many dear to 
them behind in the city, and their road is 
one of danger, until they reach the sea; 
but, as they breathe the pure air of their 
beloved country, their spirits revive. That 
country, once so populated and fertile, is 
now all barren and deserted indeed, it 
would be difficult to find another spot on 
earth that presents so many objects of past 
grandeur and present misery as the Eoman 
Campagna. The ruins, scattered on all 
sides, give pleasure to the antiquary, and 
convince him of the prosperity and gran- 
deur of its ancient inhabitants, while the 
sportsman finds beasts and birds enough 


to satisfy him ; but the lover of mankind 
mourns over it as a grave-yard of past 
glories, with the priests for sextons. The 
proprietors of these vast plains are few, 
and those few clerics, who are too much 
absorbed by the pleasures and vices of the 
city, to visit their properties, keeping, at 
the most, a few flocks of sheep or buffaloes. 

Brigandage is inseparable from priestly 
government, which is easy to understand, 
when we remember that it is supported by 
the aid of cowardly and brutal mercenaries 1 . 
These men, becoming robbers, murderers, 
and criminal offenders, flee to such places 
as this historical desert, where they find 
undisturbed refuge and shelter. 

Statistics prove that in Rome murders 
are of more frequent occurrence in propor- 
tion to the population than in any other 
city. And how, indeed, can it be otherwise, 
when we consider the corrupt education 
instilled by the priests ? 

But other outlaws are styled brigands, 
besides these recruited from the runaway 
hirelings of the priests, who have committed 


such dreadful ravages during the last few 
years. We have a sympathy for the wild 
spirits who are falsely said to live by 
plunder, but who retire to the plains, and 
pass a rambling life, without being guilty 
of theft or murder, in order to escape the 
humiliations to which the citizen is daily 

The tenacity and courage shown by the 
latter in their encounters with the police 
and national guards are worthy of a better 
cause, and prove that such men, if led by a 
lawful ruler, and inspired with a love for 
their country, would form an army that 
would resist triumphantly any foreign 

All "brigands" are, indeed, not assassins. 

Orazio, a valorous Roman, though a bri- 
gand, was respected and admired by all 
in Trastevere, particularly by the Roman 
women, who never fail to recognise and 
appreciate personal bravery. 

This valiant man was reputed to be 
descended from the famous Horatius Codes, 
who alone defended a bridge against the 


army of Porsenna, and, like him, curiously 
enough, he had lost an eye. Orazio had 
served the Roman Republic with honour. 
While yet a beardless youth he was one 
of the first who, on the glorious 30th 
of April, charged and put to flight the 
foreign invaders. In Palestrina he received 
an honourable wound in the forehead, and 
at Yelletri, after unhorsing a Neapolitan 
officer with his arquebuss, he deprived him 
of his arms, and carried him in triumph to 
Rome. Well would it have been for Julia 
and her friends had men of this type alone 
haunted the lonely plain ! But when they 
were not far distant from the coast, a 
sudden shot, which brought the coachman 
down from his seat, informed our fugitives 
that they were about to be attacked by real 
brigands, and were already within range of 
their muskets. Manlio instantly seized the 
reins, and whipped the horses, but four of 
the band, armed to the teeth, rushed imme- 
diately at the horses' heads. " Do not stir, 
or you are a dead man," shouted one of the 
robbers, who appeared to be the leader. 


Manlio, convinced that resistance was use- 
less, wisely remained immovable. In no 
very gallant tone, the ladies were bidden to 
descend, but, at the sight of so much 
beauty, the robbers became softened at first, 
for a time, and fixed their admiring looks, 
with some promise of repentance, upon the 
exquisite features of the youthful Clelia 
and the fair Englishwoman. But their 
savage natures soon got the better of such a 
show of grace. The chief addressed the 
disconcerted party in a rough tone, saying, 
"Ladies, if you come with us quietly no 
harm shall happen to you, but if you resist, 
you will endanger your own lives ; while, to 
show you that we are in earnest, I shall 
immediately shoot that man," pointing to 
Manlio, who remained stationary on the 
box. The effects produced upon the terri- 
fied women by this threat were various. 
Silvia and Aurelia burst into tears, and 
Clelia turned deadly pale. Julia, better 
accustomed to encounter dangers, preserved 
her countenance with that fearlessness so 
characteristic of her countrywomen. " Will 


you not," said she, advancing close to the 
brigand, "take what we possess we will 
willingly give you all we have?" putting, 
at the same time, a heavily-filled purse into 
his hand ; " but spare our lives, and permit 
us to continue our journey." 

The wretch, after carefully weighing the 
money, replied, "Not so, pretty lady," as 
he gazed with ardent eyes from her to 
Clelia ; " it is by no means every day that 
we are favoured by fortune with such charm- 
ing plunder. We are in luck with such 
lovely visitors. You must accompany us." 

Julia remained silent, not realising the 
villain's presumption ; but Clelia in whom 
the chill of despair, which struck her when 
her father's life was menaced, was yielding 
to a deeper horror still at the scoundrel's 
words with a spasm of anger and terror, 
snatching her poniard from her bosom, 
and sprang upon the unprepared bandit. 

Julia, seeing the heroic resolution of her 
friend, also attacked him ; but, alas ! they 
had not the chief alone to struggle with. 
His comrades came to his assistance and 


the English girl was speedily overpowered, 
whilst Clelia was left vainly to assail him ; 
for, although she succeeded in inflicting 
several wounds, they were of so slight a 
nature that, with the aid of a follower, he 
had no difficulty in wresting her weapon 
from her and securing her hands. 

When Julia was dragged off by two of 
the ruffians towards some bushes, Aurelia 
and Silvia followed, entreating them not 
to kill her. 

Manlio, who had attempted to leap to 
the ground to aid his daughter, had been 
instantly beaten to the earth, and was 
being dragged off in the direction of the 
same thicket by the band, while the chief 
brought up the rear with Clelia in his arms. 

All appeared lost. Death and worse 
than death threatened them. 

But they had not gone many paces before 
the knave whose vile arms encircled Clelia 
was felled to the ground by a blow from 
a sudden hand ; and Clelia gave a cry of 
joy as her deliverer raised her from the 



CLELIA'S liberator, who had arrived so 
opportunely on the scene of violence, was 
by no means a giant, being not more than 
an inch or two above the ordinary height ; 
but the erectness of his person, the ampli- 
tude of his chest, and the squareness of his 
shoulders, showed him to be a man of 
extraordinary strength. 

As soon as this opportune hero, who had 
come to the rescue of the weak, had stricken 
down the chief by a blow of the butt-end of 
his rifle upon the robber's skull, he levelled 
the barrel at the brigand who held Manlio 
in his grasp, and shot him dead. Then, 
without waiting long to see the effect of his 
bullet for this hunter of the wild boar 
had a sure eye he turned to the direction 
pointed out by Clelia. She was still much 
VOL. i. j 


agitated ; but when she perceived her 
champion so far successful, she cried 

" Avanti ! go after Julia, and rescue her. 
Oh, go!" 

With the fleetness of the deer the 
young man sped away in pursuit of Julia's 
captors, and, to Clelia's instant relief, the 
English girl soon reappeared with their 
preserver, the brigands having taken to 
flight upon hearing the shots. 

Reloading his gun, the stranger handed 
it to Manlio, and proceeded to appropriate 
to his own use those arms which he found 
upon the dead bodies of the brigands. 

All then returned to the carriage, and 
found the horses grazing contentedly on 
the young grass that bordered the road. 
For a little while no one found a voice, 
absorbed as they were in thoughts of joy, 
agitation, and gratitude ; the women re- 
garding the figure of the stranger with 
fervent admiration. How beautiful is 
valour, particularly when shown in the 
defence of honour and loveliness in woman, 
whose appreciation of courage is a deep 


instinct of her nature ! Let a lover be bold 
and fearless, as well as spotless ; a despiser 
of death, as well as graceful in life ; and he 
will not fail to win both praise and love 
from beauty. 

This sympathy of the fair sex with lofty 
qualities in the sex of action has been the 
chief promoter of human civilisation and 
social happiness. 

For woman's love alone man has gra- 
dually put aside his masculine coarseness, 
and contempt for outward appearances, be- 
coming docile, refined, and elegant, while 
his rougher virtue of courage was softened 
by her into chivalry. 

So far from being his " inferior," woman 
was appointed the instructress of man, 
and was designed by the Creator to mould 
and educate his moral nature. 

We have said our fair travellers gazed 
with admiration at the fine person of the 
brigand for " brigand " we must unwill- 
ingly confess their deliverer actually was 
and as they gazed, the younger members 
of the party, it must be acknowledged, 

j 2 


imported into their glance a little more 
gratitude than the absent lovers, Attilio 
and Muzio, would perhaps have wished. 
But admiration gave place to surprise, 
when the brigand, taking Silvia's hand, 
kissed it, with tears, saying 

" You do not remember me, Signora ? 
Look at my left eye : had it not been for 
your maternal care, the accident to it would 
have cost me my life." 

"Orazio! Orazio!" cried the matron, 
embracing him. " Yes, it is indeed the 
son of my old friend." 

"Yes, I am Orazio, whom you received 
in a dying condition, and brought back 
to life ; the poor orphan whom you 
nourished and fed when left in absolute 
need," he replied, as he returned her em- 
brace tenderly. 

After exchanging these words of recog- 
nition, and receiving others of ardent 
gratitude from the party, Orazio explained 
how he had been hunting in the neighbour- 
hood, when he saw the attack, and came 
to do what he could for the ladies. He 


advised Manlio to put them into the car- 
riage again, and depart with all speed ; 
" for," said he, " two of these bandits have 
escaped, and may possibly return with 
several of their band." Then, ascertaining 
the name of the port from which they 
intended sailing, he offered to become 
their charioteer, and mounting the box, 
drove off rapidly in the direction of Porto 

Arrived there without further adventure, 
the freshness of the sea air seemed to put 
new life and spirits into our jaded travellers, 
and the effect upon the beautiful Julia 
in particular was really marvellous. A 
daughter of the Queen of the Ocean, she, 
like almost all Albion's children, was 
enamoured of the sea, and pined for it 
when at a distance. 

The sons of Britain scent the salt air 
wherever they live : they are islanders, with 
the ocean always near. They can under- 
stand the feeling of Xenophon's thousand 
Greeks, when they again beheld the ocean 
after their long and dangerous Anabasis, 



and how they fell upon their knees, with 
joyful shouts of " Thalassa ! Thalassa ! " 
saluting the green and silver Amphi- 
trite as their mother, friend, and tutelary 



THE English girl broke out into pretty 
speeches of gladness when she caught sight 
of her little ship. " Dance, graceful naiad," 
ejaculated Julia, when she beheld it upon 
the blue waters of the Mediterranean, " and 
spread your wings to bear away my friends 
to a place of safety. Who says I may not 
love thee as a friend, when I owe to thee 
so many glorious and free days ? I love 
thee when the waters are like a mirror and 
reflect thy beauty upon their glassy bosom, 
and thou rockest lazily to the sigh of the 
gentle evening breeze which scarcely swells 
thy sails. I love thee still more when thou 
plungest, like a steed of Neptune, through 
the billows' seething foam, driven by the 
storm, making thy way through the waves, 
and fearing no terror of the tempest. Now 


stretch thy wings for thy mistress, and 
bear her friends safe from this treacherous 
shore ! " Julia's companions were in the 
mood to echo this spirit of joy and exulta- 
tion, and eagerly gazed at the little vessel. 

Not daring, however, to excite suspicion 
by conducting the whole of her party at 
once into Porto d'Anzo, Julia decided upon 
leaving Silvia and her daughter under the 
protection of Orazio, who would rather 
have been cut in pieces than allow them 
to be injured or insulted. They were to 
wait in a wood a short distance from the 
port, while Julia, taking with her Manlio, 
who acted the part of coachman, and Aure- 
lia, as her lady's maid, passed to the ship 
to make preparations to fetch the others. 
Capo d'Anzo forms the southern, and Civita 
Vecchia the northern limits of the danger- 
ous and inhospitable Eoman shore. The 
navigator steers his vessel warily when he 
puts out to sea in winter on this stormy 
coast, especially in a south-west wind, which 
has wrecked many a gallant ship there. The 
mouth of the Tiber is only navigable by 


vessels that do not draw more than four or 
five feet of water, and this only during 
spring. On this left bank of the Tiber, 
in the marshes, dwelt of old the warlike 
Volsci, who gave the Romans no little 
trouble before those universal conquerors 
succeeded in subjugating them. The ruins 
of their ancient capital, Ardea, bear witness 
to its ancient prosperity. 

The promontory, Capo d'Anzo, both forms 
and gives its name to the port, in which was 
stationed our heroine's yacht, awaiting her 
orders. The arrival of Julia, if not a delight 
and fete day for the priests who hate the 
English, because they are both " heretics " 
and "liberals " was certainly one for the 
crew of the Seagull, to whom she was always 
affable and kind. The sailor, exposed to 
dangers nearly all his life, is well worthy 
of woman's esteem, and nowhere will she 
find a truer devotion to her sex than among 
the rough but loyal and generous tars. 

Going on board, the pretty English lady, 
after returning the affectionate and respect- 
ful greeting of her countrymen and servants, 


descended to the cabin and consulted with 
her captain, an old sea-dog (Thompson by 
name), as to the best means of embarking 
the fugitives. 

" Aye, aye, Miss," said he, glad to escape 
his enforced idleness, as soon as he saw how 
the land lay ; " leave the poor creatures to 
me ; I'll find a way of shipping them safe 
out of this hole ! " 

And in less than an hour the captain, true 
to his word, weighed anchor, and sailed 
triumphantly out to sea with our exiles on 
board, who, though shedding a few natural 
tears as the coast faded rapidly from their 
view, were inexpressibly thankful to feel that 
they were at last out of the clutches of their 
revengeful persecutors. 



BUT our readers will remember tliat it was 
now the third week in February the worst 
month at sea, at least in the Mediterranean. 
The Italian sailors have a proverb, that " a 
short February is worse than a long Decem- 
ber."- Captain Thompson, in his anxiety to 
fulfil his young mistress's wishes, had not 
failed to heed the weather-glass, and he had 
felt anxious at the way in which the mer- 
cury was falling a sure sign that a strong 
south-west wind was brewing nigh at hand, 
the most unfavourable for the safety of our 
passengers on this rocky coast. The Seagull, 
however, sailed gracefully out of port with 
all sails set, and impelled by a gentle breeze 
gracefully, we say, that is, in the eyes 
of Captain Thompson and her owner ; but 
not so gracefully in the eyes of Aurelia 


and Manlio, who, never having entrusted 
themselves to the deep before, were con- 
siderably inconvenienced by the undulating 

Julia had arranged to cruise down the 
coast for Silvia and Clelia, still under Orazio's 
protection, bringing to off a small fishing 
place a few miles from Porto d'Anzo, 
where the yacht was to put in and embark 
them ; but, though the captain would have 
gone through fire and water to obey his 
mistress's commands, the wind and waves 
were his superiors. The gentle breeze had 
given place to strong gusts, and black 
clouds were rapidly chasing one another 
athwart the sky. A storm was evidently 
rising, and every moment the danger of 
being driven ashore was becoming more 
and more possible. Night was closing in, 
and breakers were in sight. The only 
chance of escape was to cast anchor. 
Thompson, addressing Julia whom he 
found wrapped in a shawl, lying on deck 
watching every movement now acquainted 
her with his resolution, in which she 


acquiesced. The sailors were about to 
obey their captain's orders, when Julia 
cried out " Hold ! " for she had already 
felt the wind upon her cheek suddenly 
shift, and felt that to anchor was no 
longer wise. Now they must stand out 
to sea, and face the shifts of the tempest. 
The sails began to fill, and in a short 
time the Seagull moved off, and began 
to leave the surf behind her, obedient 
to the helm. The wind was fitful, and 
now and again terribly fierce ; the sails, 
cordage, and masts creaked, and swayed 
to and fro. Captain Thompson ordered 
his crew, in the energetic yet self-possessed 
tone so characteristic of the British sea- 
man, to " stand by " the halyards, with 
all ready to let go, but to take in 
nothing. Luffing a little more, they were 
soon free of the immediate peril; but, 
the wind increasing, they dared not carry 
so much sail, and three reefs were taken in 
upon the mainsail, the foresail and jib were 
shifted, and everything was made taut and 
snug against the fierce blasts which dashed 



the billows over her sides, and occasionally 
almost submerged the tiny bark. 

The Seagull presently put about on 
the port tack, always beating out from 
the land, and battled bravely with the 
storm, which waxed momentarily louder and 
stronger. One tremendous wave dashed 
over her, and then the captain, addressing 
Julia, who had remained on deck, besought 
her to go below, for he feared she might 
share the fate of one of the crew who had 
just been washed overboard by it. Poor 
fellow, no help could save him ! Julia 
saw the sailor go over the side, and threw 
him a rope herself, but the man was 
swallowed up in the darkness and foam. 
The steersmen (for there were two) were 
now lashed to the helm, the captain to 
the weather shrouds of the mainmast, and 
the men held fast under the bulwarks. 

When Julia descended to the cabin to 
appease the captain's anxiety, and look 
after her friends, the scene that met her 
view was so ludicrous that, in spite of her 
sorrow for the loss of the poor seaman, she 


could not repress a smile. When the ship 
reeled under the shock of the wave which 
had carried the sailor away, Aurelia had 
been precipitated like a bundle of clothes 
into the same corner in which Manlio had 
taken refuge. The poor woman, frightened 
out of her wits, and thinking her last hour 
had come, clung to the unfortunate sculptor 
with all her might, as if fancying she could 
be saved by doing so. In vain Manlio 
implored her not to choke him : the more 
he entreated, the closer became her grasp. 
The sculptor, accustomed to move blocks 
of marble, was powerless to release him- 
self from the agonised matron, but, aided 
by the motion of the ship, contrived to 
hold her off a little so as to escape suffo- 
cation. In this tragic and yet comic atti- 
tude Julia beheld them, and, after giving 
way for one moment to her irrepressible 
amusement, she called a servant to assist 
her, and succeeded in pacifying Aurelia, 
and in liberating Manlio from his uncom- 
fortable position. 

All night the Seagull struggled bravely 



against the storm; and had it not been 
for her superior construction, and the 
skill of her commander and the gallant 
seamen in Julia's service, she must have 

Towards morning the tempest subsided, 
and the wind having changed to south- 
south-west, Captain Thompson informed 
Julia that it would be necessary to put in 
at Porto Ferrajo or Longone to repair the 
damages the yacht had sustained, which, 
indeed, were not slight. The two light 
boats had been carried away, also every 
article on deck, and the starboard bulwarks 
from amidships to stem. The foremast, 
too, was sprung, and Julia, seeing the im- 
possibility of setting the vessel to rights 
at sea, consented to make the land. Here 
we will take leave of them for a time. 



IT is time to return to Clelia, and see how 
it fares with her and her companions, Silvia 
and Orazio. As night approached, Orazio 
made a large fire, which he had been 
directed to do by Julia, in order that the 
smoke might be a guide to her vessel. He 
then looked out for a boat to hire, in which 
to convey the women to the yacht ; but 
as the storm rose, he felt there would be 
no chance of embarking that night, and 
therefore cast about for a place of shelter 
until the morning. 

He found a ruined tower: such towers 
abound on the coasts of the Mediterranean, 
and are the remains of places which were 
erected by the mediaeval pirates, who used 
them chiefly to signal to their vessels when 
it would ] be safe to approach the shore. 

VOL. I. K 



Here, after making the ladies as comfort- 
able as circumstances permitted, he left 
them, and paced up and down the beach, 
straining his eyes for a glimpse of the Sea- 
gull, which, he feared, could scarcely live 
in such a tempest. Half blinded by the 
spray, he continued his watch, dreading most 
of all to see the signs of a wreck. Some 
hours had elapsed when he perceived a dark 
object tossing about in the water, nearing 
and then receding; and finally stranded 
on the beach. Orazio ran towards it, and 
was horrified to discover that it was a 
human body, apparently lifeless, but still 
clinging to a rope and buoy. He snatched 
it up in his sturdy arms, and carried it into 
the tower, where he found Silvia and Clelia 
sitting by the fire which he had kindled for 
them. The lad whom Orazio had rescued 
was no other than the young English sailor 
washed overboard from the Seagull. 

Silvia, aided by her daughter, stripped 
the inanimate lad, laid him before the fire, 
and chafed him with their hands for a very 
long while, until, to their great delight, he 


slowly returned to consciousness. Then 
they wrapped him in some of their own dry 
garments, and hung his wet ones before the 
fire, Orazio supplying them with fresh fuel. 
Some of his native " grog " was needed for 
poor Jack, but none was to be had. For- 
tunately, Orazio had a flask of Orvieto, 
which he had given to the travellers to 
warm their chilled bodies during the bitter 
night, and Silvia wisely administered 
a liberal dose to the exhausted mariner, 
who, with a stone for a pillow, and his 
feet towards the friendly fire, fell by- 
and-by into a sound sleep, till yacht, tem- 
pest, shipwreck, and angelic nurses were all 
lost in oblivion. His slumber could not 
have been more profound had he lain 
upon a bed of down. The youthful 
Clelia, also wearied with the fatigue of 
the past day, soon followed his example, 
and with her head in her mother's lap, she 
slept the sleep of the innocent. 

Orazio returned to his lonely post, and 
after pacing up and down the shore in the 
fear of seeing some other sign of disaster, 

K 2 



returned at dawn to the tower to dry his 
dripping clothes, and refresh himself after 
his dreary vigil. 

Silvia alone could not sleep all that 
night, but only dozed occasionally, as she 
thought over the misfortunes that had be- 
fallen them. Her delicate and graceful 
frame had been much shaken by the terri- 
ble occurrences of the past few days. Affec- 
tionate mother ! Though weary, she bore 
the weight of her precious Clelia, and 
though her position was a constrained one, 
remained immovable lest she should awake 
her. She was tormented with fear, too, 
on account of her beloved Manlio, who had 
escaped the fury of the priests only to be 
exposed to the merciless waves ; and then, 
as if struck with remorse for thinking solely 
of him, she murmured, in bitter accents, 
" Ah, my poor Aurelia, to what a fate has 
your generous kindness brought you also ! " 
And with these reflections she fell into 
another troubled doze. 

The Roman outlaw slept not, even after 
daybreak. He felt he was too near the 


cunning priests of Porto d'Anzo to be very 
safe. Seating himself upon a stone placed 
near the fire, which he fed from time 
to time with the wood he had previously 
gathered, he dried his garments one by 
one, with the exception of his cloak, which 
he had politely insisted upon wrapping 
around the ladies in the early part of the 
evening, as they were but indifferently pro- 
tected from the cold. Orazio was gaily 
dressed in a dark velvet suit, ornamented 
with silver buttons ; gaiters buckling at 
the knee covered a comparatively small 
and well-shaped foot, and a leg now dis- 
played to advantage ; while a black cravat 
was knotted round his handsome throat, 
and a red satin handkerchief, loosely tied, 
fell upon his wide shoulders. A hat, 
resembling in shape those worn by the 
Calabrians, nattily inclined a little to the 
right, crowned his head; a leathern powder- 
bag, embroidered with silk and silver, slung 
round his waist, in the band of which ^rere 
placed two revolvers and a broad-bladed 
dagger, serving both as a weapon of defence 


and hunting-knife. These gave him a 
well-prepared air ; not to speak of his trusty 
carbine, which he had taken the precaution 
to reload, and which he always rested upon 
his left arm. .As the flickering light of the 
fire fell upon him and lit up his bronzed 
features, an artist would have given much 
to have depicted what was truly a type of 
strength, courage, and manly beauty; while 
now and then, awakening from her uneasy 
slumber, Silvia regarded him with admiring 
eye, and forgot for a moment her anxieties, 
while guarded by that faithful sentinel. 
It is to be regretted that our hero, Orazio, 
was a "brigand;" but then he was a 
brigand of the better sort, and one only 
from the force of circumstances, his sin 
being that, like all brave and loyal men, 
he wished Italy to be united, and Eome 
freed for ever from priestly despotism. 

Towards dawn Orazio approached Silvia, 
saying respectfully, " Signora, we must not 
remain here till broad day ; as soon as there 
is sufficient light to show us the path to 
take we must depart. We are too near 


our mutual enemies here to be out of 

" And Manlio, Julia, Aurelia, where are 

" Probably far out at sea," he replied ; 
" and let us only hope it, for so they will 
be safe ; but it would be well before we 
strike out into the woods once more to 
examine the beach. God grant we may 
not find any more bodies there." 

" Grod grant they may not have been cast 
upon the coast during this fearful storm ! " 
ejaculated Silvia, with clasped hands and 
raised eyes. 

A mournful silence fell upon them, broken 
at last by Orazio, who had been looking out 
for the first streak of light in the leaden 

" Signora, it is time we were off." 

Silvia shook her daughter gently, to 
arouse her, and Clelia got up, feeling 
greatly restored by her peaceful slumber; 
while Orazio, touching Jack with the butt- 
end of his carbine, awoke him. Then, for 
the first time, the sailor-boy was able to 



tell how he was washed overboard, and 
his account gave hopes to the listeners 
that the Seagull was safe. 

Our bandit, going first, led his party in 
the direction of the coast ; but, although the 
rain had ceased, the wind had not subsided, 
and the women made their way with diffi- 
culty along the rough, uneven pathway, the 
spray from the sea beating in their faces. 
Orazio and Jack, who was now nearly re- 
covered, searched for the tokens of a wreck, 
but, happily, none were found, and they 
returned to Silvia and Clelia, whom they 
had left in a sheltered place, with relieved 
countenances and cheerful voices, saying, 
"Our friends are out of danger." Orazio 
added, " And now, ladies, we will begin our 
own journey," turning at the same time to 
the right, and taking a narrow footpath 
through the wood well known to him. His 
charges, attended by Jack the English boy, 
followed in silence. 



AFTER the affair at the Baths of Caracalla, 
the position of Attilio and his companions 
became very much compromised. The traitor 
had, indeed, paid for his infamy with his 
life; but though the Government's mer- 
cenaries had had the worst of it, the police 
were now on the alert, and, if not quite 
certain, could make a shrewd guess as to 
who were the leaders of the conspiracy. 

If, however, the friends of liberty out- 
side had been as ready as the Komans, 
the conspirators might yet have had it all 
their own way on the 15th of February, 
or, indeed, at any other time. But the 
" Moderates," always indissolubly bound 
to the chariots of selfishness, would not 
hear the words "To arms!" They pre- 
ferred waiting, at whatever cost, until 


the manna of freedom fell from heaven into 
their mouths, or the foreigner should come 
to their relief, and set their country free. 

What cared they for national dignity, 
or the contemptuous smile of all other 
European nations at the open buying and 
selling of provinces ! They were thinking 
first of gain and remunerative employment, 
and were consequently deaf to all generous 
propositions likely to set in risk their 
Eldorado of profits ; though they would, if 
successful, procure national unity and pros- 
perity by energetic action. 

This middle-class cowardice is the cause 
of Italy's degradation at the present day, 
and were it not for that, the kissing of the 
slipper would be an infamy of the past. It 
is the reason, too, why Italy's soil is so 
often vainly wet with the blood of her 
nobler, braver sons ; and why those who 
escape the sword wander in forests to avoid 
the vengeance of the robed hysenas ; and 
why the poor remain in abject misery. 

Such was the condition of Rome at the 
beginning of the year 1867. Yet she might 


have been happy, regenerated, and powerful, 
crowned with glorious liberty and inde- 
pendence, had not the foreigner have come 
to the aid of the falsely-called " father of 
his people." Now she grovels in bondage, 
loaded with French chains. 

One evening, early in March, Attilio, 
Muzio, and Silvio met at Manlio's house to 
discuss their future movements. They had 
remained in Rome in the hope of achieving 
something, but the labyrinth was far too 
involved to allow our youthful and inex- 
perienced heroes to extricate themselves, 
or the Three Hundred to extricate their 

" There is no use," spoke Attilio, bitterly, 
" in dedicating one's life to the good of 
one's country in these days, when the 
' Moderates ' * check all our efforts, and 
basely reconcile themselves with the enemies 
of Italy. How is it possible for Romans to 
do so ? How can they ever live in harmony 
with those who have sold them and theirs 
so many times ! who have precipitated us 

* See Note 4. 



from the first rank among the nations to 
the lowest ! who have corrupted and pol- 
luted our city ! who have tortured our 
fathers and violated our virgins ! " 

In his wrath Attilio's voice had risen 
until he literally shouted. 

Silvio, more composed, said, " Speak 
lower, brother, thou knowest how we are 
pursued ; perchance there may even now be 
some accursed spy near. Be patient, and 
for the present let us leave Eegola in charge 
of our affairs, and quit the city. In the 
country we have true and courageous 
friends. Let us leave Borne until she is 
tired of being the laughing-stock of these 
leeches, who live by imposture and tyranny. 
Let us go. Our generous countrymen will 
call us brigands, adventurers, as they did 
" the Thousand " during the glorious ex- 
pedition of Marsala, which by-and-by 
astonished the world. What matters it 
to us ? Now, as then, we shall work and 
watch for the liberty of this our unhappy 
country. When she is willing to emanci- 
pate herself, we will fly to her rescue." 



AFTER walking for about two hours through 
the forest, where to Silvia's and Clelia's 
inexperienced eyes there appeared to be no 
path ever trodden by man, Orazio stopped 
at a clearing, and they beheld a small 
pleasant-looking glade. Jack the sailor 
had proved of great use in removing fallen 
branches strewn across the way, which 
would else have greatly impeded the pro- 
gress of the ladies. The weather had 
cleared up, and although the wind still 
moved the crowns of the trees, it fanned 
but gently the cheeks of the fugitives. 

" Signora, sit down here with your 
daughter," said their guide, pointing to a 
large flat stone, "and take some rest, of 
which I see you are in need. Jack and I 
will go in search of some food ; but, before 


we do so, I will spread my cloak upon your 
hard bench, that you may repose in greater 

Orazio was repaid with a graceful bow, 
and starting into the wood at a rapid pace, 
accompanied by the sailor boy, was soon 
hidden from their view. 

Silvia was really tired, but Clelia, 
being of a more elastic constitution, and 
refreshed by her sound sleep during the past 
night, was not so much fatigued ; never- 
theless, she found it very welcome to rest 
in that agreeable place, where no human 
being save themselves was visible. 

Yielding presently, however, to the 
vivacity of her age, the young girl sprang 
up, and began to gather some pretty wild 
flowers she had observed, and forming them 
into a bouquet, presented them with a smile 
to her mother, and reseated herself at her 
side. Just then, the report of a musket 
re-echoed through the wood. Silvia was 
greatly startled by the sudden echo in that 
lonely silent retreat, which had in it some- 
thing solemn. 


Clelia perceiving the effect upon her 
mother, embraced her, and in reassuring 
tones, said, " That is only a shot from our 
friend, mia madre, he will soon return with 
some game." 

Silvia's colour came back again, and very 
soon afterwards Orazio and Jack rejoined 
the ladies, carrying between them a young 
boar, struck down by a ball from the 
carbine of the Roman. 

At Orazio's request, Clelia, who had some 
knowledge of the English language, bade 
Jack gather some sticks, and light a fire, 
which he did willingly, and in a little time 
the cheerful pile was blazing before them. 
Animal food may be necessary to man, 
in part a carnivorous animal, still the trade 
of a butcher is a horrid one, while the con- 
tinual dabbling in the blood of dumb 
creatures, and cutting up their slaughtered 
carcases, has something very repulsive in it. 
For our own part we would gladly give up 
eating animal food, and as years pass on, 
we become more and more averse to the de- 
struction of these innocent creatures, and 


cannot even endure to see a bird wounded, 
though formerly we delighted in the chase. 
However, habit had made slaying and 
preparing the boar natural and easy to 
Orazio, who, compelled to live in the forest, 
had, indeed, no choice in the matter, being 
obliged either to kill game, or starve. He 
laid the boar upon the grass, and, with 
his hunting knife, skinned a portion, and 
carving some substantial slices, fastened 
them on a skewer, cut by Jack out of a 
piece of green wood, and laid them over the 
fire. When fairly cooked, he presented 
them to the famished travellers. It was a 
roast well fitted to appease the cravings of 
a moderate appetite, and the wild dinner 
was heartily relished by all the party. 
The meal was, indeed, a cheerful one, much 
merriment being caused by the absurdities 
uttered by Jack, whom Clelia was laugh- 
ingly endeavouring to teach Italian. 

The sailor is always a light-hearted 
fellow on land, and more particularly 
after he has been a long time at sea. 
Jack, forgetting his narrow escape, was 


now the gayest of the four, and, in the com- 
pany of the gentle and beautiful Clelia, 
did not envy his late shipmates, who were 
still tossing on the tempestuous ocean. 
For Orazio, his preserver, and the Italian 
ladies, his gratitude knew no bounds, 
although he had but a vague idea of 
their position and purposes. 

When the repast was ended the party 
continued their journey, resting occasionally 
by the way; and in this manner arrived, 
late in the afternoon, in sight of one of 
those ancient edifices along the Ostian 
shore which appear to have escaped the 
destroying touch of time. It stood away 
from the sea, on the edge of the forest, 
and at the entrance to a vast plain ; 
several fine oaks, many centuries old, were 
growing about it, planted apparently by 
medieval possessors, with some attempt 
at regularity. 

Orazio, begging the ladies to recline 
upon a mossy bank, stepped aside, and 
drawing a small horn from his pouch, 
blew a blast, shrill and long. 

VOL. i. L 



The signal was answered by a similar 
sound from the ancient building, and an 
individual, dressed much in Orazio's style, 
issued from it, who, approaching the 
brigand with an air of respect, cordially 
saluted him. 

Orazio took the new-comer's hand in 
a friendly manner, and, pointing to his 
party, held a short conversation with him 
in an undertone. The man then retired, 
and Orazio, returning to the ladies, begged 
them to rise, and permit him to conduct 
them to this secure place of refuge. 



THE period of highest glory for the ancient 
capital of the world vanished with the Re- 
public and with the majestic simplicity of 
the republican system ; for after the battle 
of Zama, in which Hannibal was defeated 
by Scipio, the Romans had no longer any 
powerful enemies. It therefore became 
easy to conquer other nations, and, en- 
riched by the spoils of the conquered, the 
Romans gave themselves up to internal 
contentions, and to every kind of luxury. 
In this way they were dragged down to 
the last stage of degradation, and became 
the slaves of those whom they had enslaved. 
And right well it befitted them that God 
should pay them in the same coin which 
they counted out. The last generation of 
the Republic, however, had truly a sunset 

L 2 


grandeur about it, and splendid names. 
Before passing away it presented to his- 
tory some men at whom one cannot but 
marvel. Sartorius, Marius, Sylla, Pompey, 
and Caesar, were men of such stature that 
one alone would suffice to illustrate the 
valour of a warlike nation. If perfection 
in a military ruler were possible, Caesar, 
with his superb qualities as a general, 
needed only to possess the abnegation of 
Sylla to have been a perfect type of the 
class. Less sanguinary than the Pro- 
scriber, he possessed more ambition, and 
desired to decorate his forehead with a 
crown, for which he fell a victim, stabbed 
to the heart by the daggers of the Roman 
republicans. Sylla was also a great general, 
and a reformer ; he struggled hard to wean 
the Romans from their vices, and even 
resorted to terrible means, slaying with this 
view at one time 8.000 persons. Subse- 
quently, wearied with the ineffectual struggle 
against the tide of the time, he assembled 
the people in the Forum, and, after re- 
proaching them for their incorrigible vices, 


declared, that as his power as Dictator had 
failed to regenerate them, he would no 
longer retain that dignit}?-, but before he 
laid it aside he challenged the city to 
require from him an account of 'his actions. 
Silence ensued, no man demanding redress, 
though there were many present whose re- 
latives and friends he had sacrificed. With 
an austere mien he then descended from the 
tribunal, and mingled with the crowd as a 
simple citizen. 

The Empire rose on the ruins of that 
wonderful Republic. And here it may be 
remarked that no republic can exist unless 
its citizens are virtuous. This form of go- 
vernment demands moral education and 
elevation. It was the vice and degrada- 
tion to which the Romans had sunk that 
inaugurated the Empire. 

Among the emperors there were some 
less deplorable than others such as 
Trajan, Antoninus, and Marcus Aurelius. 
The greater part, however, were monsters, 
who, not satisfied with the enormous 
wealth they possessed, and with their 



lofty position, set themselves to plunder 
the substance of others. They sought 
every pretext for robbing the wealthy 
citizens. Many of those, therefore, pos- 
sessing wealth, retired from Rome many 
sought refuge in foreign lands, others in 
far distant parts of the country, where 
they were safe from molestation. Among 
the latter, a descendant of Lucullus, in the 
reign of Nero, built the original walls of 
the antique castle where we left Clelia 
and her companions. Perad venture, some 
of the enormous oaks by which it was 
surrounded had sprung in but few re- 
moves from the acorns of the trees which 
shaded the courtier of Nero. However 
this may be, the architecture of the castle 
is certainly wonderful, and wonderfully 
preserved. The outbuildings are covered 
with ivy, which age has rendered of extra- 
ordinary growth. The interior had been 
completely modernised by mediaeval owners, 
and although not adorned with all the luxu- 
ries of the nineteenth century, it contains 
several dry-roofed and spacious apartments. 


Uninhabited for some time, the castle had 
been almost buried out of sight by the 
surrounding trees, which circumstance made 
it all the more suitable for Orazio and his 
proscribed comrades. Built in dark and 
troublous times, this stronghold, like all 
those of the same kind, possesses immense 
dungeons and subterranean passages spread- 
ing over a large space in the bowels of the 
earth. Superstition also guarded the lonely 
tower. Travellers making inquiries about 
the neighbourhood from the shepherds who 
tend their flocks in the forest openings, 
had heard, and duly related, that some- 
where in this district was an ancient castle 
haunted by phantoms ; that no one ever 
dared to enter it, and that those un- 
happy beings who summoned up courage 
to approach its gateway were never seen 
again. Moreover, was there not a story 
told that the beautiful daughter of the 

wealthy Prince T , when staying with 

her family at Porto d'Anzo for the benefit 
of sea-bathing, had one day wandered with 
her maids into the woods, where the 



affrighted and helpless women saw their 
mistress carried up into the air by spirits, 
and although every nook of the forest was 
searched by the command of her distressed 
father, no traces of the young princess 
were ever afterwards discovered? 

To this haunt of marvels Orazio then 
conducted our travellers, as we have before 



UPON the threshold of the castle, as our 
travellers drew near, stood a young woman, 
whose appearance betokened the Roman 
matron, but of greater delicacy perhaps than 
the ancient type possessed. She numbered 
some twenty years ; and, though a charm- 
ing smile spread itself over her lovely 
features, and her eyes and soft abundant 
hair were extremely beautiful, still it was 
the majestic natural bearing of Irene which 
most struck the beholder. 

As if unconscious of the presence of 
strangers, she rah to Orazio, and folded 
him in a warm embrace, whilst the blush 
which glad love can excite suffused both 
their faces, as they regarded each other 
with undisguised affection. Then, turn- 
ing to the two ladies, she bowed grace- 


fully, and welcomed them with a cordial 
salute, as Orazio said 

"Irene, I present to you the wife and 
daughter of Manlio, our renowned sculptor 
of Koine." 

Honest Jack was perfectly astounded 
at seeing so much beauty and grandeur 
where he expected to find nothing except 
solitude and savage desert. But his as- 
tonishment was greater still when he was 
invited, along with the rest, into the castle, 
and beheld a table covered with a profusion 
of modest comforts in a handsome and 
spacious dining-hall. 

" You expected me, then, Carissima ? " 
observed Orazio, as he entered it, to Irene. 

"Oh, yes ; my heart told me you would 
not pass another night away," was the 
reply ; and the wedded lovers exchanged a 
look, which made the thoughts of Clelia, 
as she beheld it, fly to Attilio, and we 
do not overstep the bounds of truth if 
we say that Silvia also remembered her 
absent Manlio with a sigh. 

Jack, with the appetite of a young 

IRENE. 171 

boy after his very long walk, felt no- 
thing of the pangs of love, but much of 
those of hunger. And now another scene 
amazed mother and daughter as well as 
the sailor who stood, indeed, with wide 
open mouth staring at what seemed en- 
chantment for, as Orazio blew his horn 
again, fifteen new guests, one after another, 
each fully armed and equipped like their 
leader, filed into the room. The hour 
being late, there was little daylight in 
the apartment, which gave to their en- 
trance a more melodramatic air; but when 
the room was lit up with a lamp, the open 
and manly countenances of the new-comers 
were seen, and inspired our party with 
admiration and confidence. The strangers 
made obeisance to the ladies and their 
hostess. Orazio, placing Silvia on his 
right hand, and Clelia on his left, Irene 
being seated by her side, called out, " To 
table." When their chief (to whom they 
showed great respect) was seated, the men 
took their places, silently, and Jack found 
a vacant seat by the side of Silvia, which 


he took with calm resignation at his good 
luck. The repast began with a toast 
"to the liberty of Rome," which each 
drank in a glass of vermuth, and then 
eating commenced, the meal lasting some 
time. When all had appeased their 
hunger, Irene rose, . with a sweet grace, 
from the table, and conducted her fair 
visitors to an upper chamber of the tower ; 
and while a servant prepared, according 
to her orders, some beds for her guests, 
she exchanged with them, after the uni- 
versal manner of ladies, a few words about 
their mutual histories. 

Silvia's and Clelia's you already know, 
so it only remains for us, who have the 
privilege of their confidence, to narrate 
what Irene imparted to them. 

" You will wonder to hear," said she, 

" that I am the daughter of Prince T , 

whom perhaps you know in Borne, as he 
is famous for his wealth. My father gave 
me a liberal education, for I did not care 
about feminine accomplishments, such as 
music and dancing, but was attracted by 

IRENE. 173 

deeper studies. I delighted in histories ; 
and when I commenced that of our 
Rome, I was thoroughly fascinated by 
the story of the republic, so full of deeds 
of heroism and virtue ; and my young 
imagination became exalted and affected 
to such an extent that I felt ashamed of 
my name and time. Comparing those 
heroic days with the shameful and selfish 
empire, and more especially with the*present 
state of Borne under the humiliating and 
miserable rule of the priest, I became inex- 
pressibly sorry for the loss of that ancient 
ideal, and conceived an intense hatred and 
disgust for those who are the true instru- 
ments of the abasement and servility of 
our people. With such a disposition, and 
such sentiments, you can imagine how dis- 
tasteful the princely amusements and occu- 
pations of my father's house became to me. 
The effeminate homage of the Roman 
aristocracy creatures of the priest and 
the presence of the foreigner palled upon me. 
Balls, feasts, and other dissipations, gave 
me no gratification; only in the pathetic 


ruins scattered over our metropolis did I 
find delight. On horseback or on foot, 
I passed hours daily examining those 
relics of Eome's ancient grandeur. 

"When I attained my fifteenth year I 
was certainly better acquainted with the 
edifices of the old architects and our 
numerous ruins than with the needle, 
embroidery, and the fashions. I used to 
make very distant excursions on horseback, 
accompanied by an old and trusty servant 
of the family. 

" One evening, when I was returning 
from an exploration, and crossing Traste- 
vere, some drunken foreign soldiers, who 
had picked a quarrel at an inn, rushed 
out, pursuing one another with drawn 
swords. My horse took fright, and galloped 
along the road, overleaping or overturning 
everything in his way, in spite of all my 
endeavours to check his speed. I am a 
good rider, and kept a firm seat, to the 
admiration of the beholders ; but my steed 
continuing his headlong race, my strength 
began to fail, and I was about to let 

IRENE. 175 

myself fall in which case I should cer- 
tainly have been dashed to pieces on the 
pavement or severely hurt when a brave 
youth sprang from the roadside, and, fling- 
ing himself before my horse, seized the 1 
bridle with his left hand, and, as the animal 
reared and stumbled, clasped me with the 

"The powerful and sudden grasp of my 
robust preserver caused the poor beast 
indeed to swerve sharply round, and, 
striking one foot against the curb, he 
stumbled and fell, splitting his skull open 
against the wall of a house. I was saved, 
but had fainted ; and when I returned to 
consciousness I found myself at home, in 
my own bed, and surrounded by my 
servants. And who was my preserver ? 
Of whom could I make inquiries ? I sent 
for my old groom, but he could tell me 
little, except that he had followed me as 
quickly as he well could, and had arrived at 
the scene of the catastrophe just as I was 
being carried into a house. All he knew 
was that my deliverer seemed a young man, 


and that he had retired immediately after 
placing ine in the care of the woman ol 
the house, who was very attentive when 
she learned who I was. 

" Still my ardent imagination, even in 
that dangerous moment, had traced more 
faithfully than they the noble lineaments of 
the youth. His eyes had but flashed an 
instantaneous look into mine, but it was 
indelibly imprinted on my heart. I could 
never forget that face, which realised at 
last, as in my memory, the heroes of the 
past. I shall know him again, I said to 
myself. He is certainly a Roman, and if 
a Roman, he belongs to the race of the 
Quirites ! My ideal people ; the objects of 
my worship ! You know the custom of 
visiting the Colosseum by moonlight, which 
then displays its majestic beauty to per- 
fection. Well, I went one night to view it, 
guarded by the same old servant ; and as 
I was coming back, and had arrived at the 
turning of the road which leads from the 
Tarpeian to Campidoglio, my servant was 
struck down by a blow from a cudgel, while 

IRENE. 177 

two men, who had concealed themselves in 
the shadow cast by an immense building, 
sprang out upon me, and, seizing me by 
the arms, dragged me in the direction of 
the Arch of Severus. I was terror-stricken 
and in despair, when, as Heaven willed it, I 
heard a cry of anger, and we were quickly 
overtaken by a man, whom I recognised 
in the dim light as my late preserver. 
He threw himself upon my assailants, and 
a fearful struggle began between the three. 
My young athlete, however, managed to 
lay the assassins in the dust, and returned 
to my side ; but, perceiving that my servant 
had risen, and was approaching unhurt, 
he took my hand, and kissing it respect- 
fully, departed before I could recover from 
the sudden shock of the unexpected attack, 
or could articulate a single word. 

" I have no recollection of my mother ; 
but my father, who loved me tenderly, used 
to take me every year to bathe at Porto 
d'Anzo, for he knew how much I delighted 
in the ocean, and how pleased I was to 
escape from the aristocratic society of 
VOL. i. M 


Home, where, had he studied his own 
inclinations, he would gladly have remained. 
My father possessed a little villa not far 
from the sea, to the north of Porto d'Anzo, 
where we resided during our visits to the 
Mediterranean, the sight of which I dearly 
loved. Here I was happier than in Eome ; 
hut I felt a void in my existence, a craving 
in my heart, which made me restless and 
melancholy. In fact, I was in love with 
my unknown preserver. 

" Often I passed hours in scrutinising 
every passer-by from the balcony of my 
window, hoping vainly to obtain a glimpse 
of the man whose image was engraven upon 
my heart. If I saw a boat or any small 
craft upon the sea, I searched eagerly, by 
the aid of my telescope, among crew and 
passengers for the form of my idol. 

"I .did not dream in vain. Sitting 


alone in my balcony one evening, wrapped 
in gloomy thoughts, and contemplating 
almost involuntarily the moon as she 
rose slowly above the Pontine marshes, I 
was startled from my reverie by the noise 

IRENE. 179 

of something dropping to the ground from 
the wall surrounding the villa. My heait 
began to beat violently, but not from fear. 
I fancied I saw by the dim light a figure 
emerging from the shrubbery towards me. 
A friendly ray from the moon illumined the 
face of the intruder as he approached, and 
when I beheld the features I had sought for 
so many days in vain I could not repress 
a cry of surprise and joy, and it required 
all my womanly modesty to restrain a 
violent desire to run down the steps 
leading to my balcony and embrace him. 

" My love of solitude, and my disdain for 
the pleasures of the capital had kept me 
in comparative ignorance of worldly things, 
and, with good principles, I had remained 
an ingenuous, simple daughter of nature. 

" 'Irene,' said a voice which penetrated 
to the inmost recesses of my soul ; ' Irene, 
may I dare ask for the good fortune to 
say two words to you, either there or here ? ' 

' To descend appeared to me to be more 
convenient than to permit him to enter 
the rooms ; I therefore went down imme- 

M 2 


diately, and, forgetting, for the moment, 
his fine speeches, in joy, he covered my 
hands with burning kisses. Conducting 
me towards some trees, we sat down upon 
a wooden bench under their shady branches 
side by side. He might have led me to 
the end of the world at that strange and 
sweet moment had he pleased. 

" For a while we remained silent ; but 
presently my deliverer said, ' May I ask 
pardon for this boldness r-will you not 
grant it my loved one?' I made no 
reply, but allowed him to take possession 
of my hand, which he kissed fervently. 
Presently he went on, ' I am only a 
plebeian, Irene an orphan. Both my 
parents perished in the defence of Borne 
against the foreigner. I possess nothing 
on this earth but my arms, and my love 
for you, which has made me follow your 

" Predisposed to love him, even before I 
had heard his voice, now that his manly yet 
gentle and impassioned tones fell upon my 
ear, I felt he might do what he would with 

IRENE. 181 

me I was in an Eden. Yes, he belonged 
to me, and I to him ; but I could not find 
the voice to say so as yet. 

" ' Irene,' he continued, ' I am not only a 
portionless orphan, but an outlaw, con- 
demned to death, and pursued like a wild 
beast of the forest by the bloodhounds of 
the Government. Yet I have presumed to 
hope that you might be gentle to me for my 
love, with the strength of your generous 
nature; and more so, alas! when I saw that 
you were unhappy, for I have watched you 
unseen, and noted with sorrow and hope the 
melancholy expression of your face. I am 
come, though your sweet kindness flatters 
me, Irene, to tell you these things which 
make it impossible, of course, that you can 
ever be mine. I have no claim or right 
but my ardent love ; the small services I 
have rendered you have blessed me, and 
made me proud and happy; therefore you 
owe me nought of gratitude. If I should 
ever have the delight of laying down my 
life for yours, my happiness will then, in- 
deed, be complete. Adieu, Irene, farewell !' 


lie continued, rising and pressing my hand 
to his heart, while he turned to leave me. 

" I had remained in an ecstacy of silent 
joy, forgetful of the world, of myself, of all 
save him. At the word 'farewell,' I started 
as if electrified ; I ran to him, crying ' stay, 
oh, stay !' and clasping him by the arm, 
drew him back to the bench, and quite 
forgetting all reserve myself, exclaimed, 
' Thou art mine, and I am thine for life ! 
thine, yes, thine for ever, my beloved!' 

"He told me all his story he pictured 
to me the hope and aim of his life. His 
burning words of love for Italy and hatred 
of her tyrants added to my strength of 
resolve. I replied, that I would share his 
fortunes forthwith as his wife, and with 
no regrets, except upon my father's account. 
It was then arranged that we should live 
here together. A few days of preparation, 
and we were privately married. I followed 
my Orazio to the forest, where ever since I 
have dwelt with him. I will not say I am 
perfectly happy no ; but my only grief is 
the remembrance that my disappearance 

IRENE. 183 

accelerated, I fear, at least in a measure, 
the death of my aged and affectionate 

Tired as our poor Silvia was, she could 
not but listen with interest to the narrative 
of Irene, down whose beautiful cheeks the 
tears coursed at the mention of her father's 
name. Clelia, too, had not lost a single 
word, and more than one sigh from her fair 
bosom seemed to say, during her hostess's 
recital, " Ah, my Attilio ! is he not also 
handsome, valorous, and worthy of love, 
yes, of my love ! " But now, wishing repose 
to her guests, Irene bade them good-night. 



THE history of the Papacy is a history of 
brigands. From the mediaeval period 
robbers have been paid by that weak and 
demoralising Government to keep Italy in a 
state of ferment and internal war ; and at 
this very day it makes use of thieves to 
hold her in thraldom and hinder her rege- 
neration, or drives honest men to the wilds. 
I repeat, then, that the history of the 
Papacy is a history of brigands. 

Whoever visited Civita Vecchia in 1849 
must have heard of Gasparo, the famous 
leader of a band of brigands, a relative of 
the Cardinal A . Indeed, many per- 
sons paid a visit to that city simply for 
the purpose of beholding so extraordinary 
a man. 

Gasparo, at the head of his band, hud 


long defied the Pontifical Government, and 
sustained many encounters with the gen- 
darmes and regular troops, whom he almost 
invariably defeated and put to flight. 

Failing to capture the brigand by force of 
arms, the Government had recourse to 
stratagem. As I have already stated, 
Gasparo was related to a cardinal, one of 
the most powerful at Court; and as they 

were both natives of S , where many of 

their mutual relations resided, these rela- 
tions were made use of by the Government 
to act as mediators between it and the 
brigand, to whom it made several splendid 

U . Gasparo, putting faith in the promises 
made by his kinspeople at the instance of 
the Government, disbanded his men, but 
was then shamefully betrayed, arrested, and 
taken in chains to the prison in Civita 
Vecchia, where he was found during the 
Eepublican period in 1849.* 

Prince T , the brother of Irene, 

having obtained some clue, through the 

* See Note 5. 


shepherds, whose description of a beautiful 
dweller in the forest left little doubt upon 
his mind as to her identity, consulted with 

the Cardinal A , and determined at 

any cost to recover his sister. 

Although backed by the Government, and 
authorised to make use of the regiment 
which he commanded, the Prince, from his 
ignorance of the many hidden recesses in 
the forest, did not feel at all certain of 
success ; and in his dilemma applied to the 
Cardinal to secure for him the services of 
the prisoner Gasparo, his relative, as a 

"It is a good thought," said the 
Cardinal ; " Gasparo is better acquainted 
with every inch of the forest than we are 
with the streets of Koine. Besides, they 
say, that such are his olfactory powers, 
that by taking a handful of grass, and 
smelling at it, even at midnight, he could 
tell you what portion of the forest you 
were in. He is old now, it is true ; but 
he has courage enough still to face even 
the devil himself." 


When Gasparo heard he was to be con- 
ducted to Rome, he gave himself up for 
lost, and said to himself, " Better were it to 
die at once, for I am tired of this miserable 
existence ; only then I should go to my 
grave unrevenged for the treachery and 
injury I have suffered at the hands of 
these villanous priests." 

Two squads of gendarmes, one on foot, 
and the other mounted, conducted this 
formidable brigand from Civita Vecchia to 
Rome. The Government would have pre- 
ferred removing him at night, but darkness 
would have facilitated his rescue, which it 
was feared some of his old companions might 
attempt if they heard of his journey. It 
was therefore decided Gasparo should travel 
by day, and the road was thronged by so 
dense a multitude, who pressed forward to 
gaze at the celebrated chieftain, that the 
progress of the Pope could scarcely have 
attracted greater numbers. 

Arrived in Eome, Gasparo was afterwards 
introduced into the presence of his relative, 
Cardinal A , and the Prince T , 



who with many words, and promises of a 
large reward in gold, to all appearance 
prevailed upon him to assist them in 
destroying the hands of " libertines " by 
which the forest was infested. 

llejoicing in such a chance of escape and 
opportunity for revenge upon his persecu- 
tors, Gasparo affected to be delighted at 
the proposition, and consented to it with 
much apparent pleasure. 



SILVIA, Clelia, and Jack had passed 
several days very pleasantly in the Castle 
of Lucullus, as the guests of Orazio and 

Among Orazio's band were several well- 
connected men, whose friends in the city, 
unknown to the Government, sent them 
regularly sums of money, which enabled 
them to supply the table of their chief. 
The gallantry of the young Romans to the 
"Pearl of Trastevere" was profound. Clelia 
would have been more glad, though, to have 
had her Attilio at her side. And Silvia, the 
gentle Silvia, sighed when she remembered 
the uncertain fate of her Manlio. But the 
two ladies were nevertheless well pleased. 
As for Jack, he was the happiest being 
on earth, for Orazio had presented him with 


one of the carbines taken from the brigands 
who had assaulted Manlio and his party; 
and it was inseparable from him in all his 
hunting and reconnoitring excursions in the 

One day Orazio took the sailor with 
him to seek a stag, and directed Jack to 
beat, whilst he placed himself in ambush. 
Their arrangements were so effective, that, 
in less than half an hour, a hart crossed 
Orazio's path. He fired, and wounded him, 
but not mortally ; he therefore fired a 
second time, and, with a cry, the noble 
animal fell. 

As he discharged his second shot, Orazio 
heard a rustling in the bushes near him. 
Listening for a second, he was convinced 
some one was approaching from the thickest 
part of the cover. Jack it could not be ; 
he was too far off to have returned so 

A suspicion that he was to be the object 
of an attack caused him to curse his in- 
caution as he looked at the empty barrels 
of his carbine. He appeared not mistaken ; 


for, hardly had he placed the butt-end of 
his gun upon the ground in order to re- 
load it, than a head, more like that of 
some wild creature than a human being, 
was thrust from between the bushes. 

To the valorous fear is a stranger, and 
our Eoman, who was truly brave, sprang 
forward, dagger in hand, to confront the 
apparition, which, however, exclaimed, 
"Hold!" in such a tone of authority and 
sang-froid, that Orazio fell back astonished, 
and paused. 

foot, and had, as we have said, a striking 
appearance. His head, covered with a 
tangled mass of hair, white as snow, was 
surmounted by a Calabrian hat; his beard 
was grizzled, and as bristly as the chine of 
a wild boar, concealing almost the whole 
of his face, out of which, nevertheless, 
glared two fiery eyes. Held erect and 
placed upon magnificent shoulders, years 
had not bowed nor persecution subjugated 
that daring front. His broad chest was 
covered by a dark velvet vest; around his 


waist was buckled the inseparable cart- 
ridge-box. A velvet coat, and leather 


gaiters buttoned at the knee, completed 
his costume. 

"I am not your enemy, Orazio," said 
Gaspare for it was he "but am come 
to warn you of an approaching danger, 
which might prove your ruin, and that 
of your friends." 

" That you are not my enemy I am 
assured," replied Orazio ; " for you might, 
had you chosen, have killed me before I 
found a chance of defending myself. I 
know well that Grasparo can handle a gun 

" Yes," answered the bandit, " there was 
a time when I needed not to fire many 
second shots at deer or wild boar, but now 
my eyes are beginning to fail me ; yet I 
shall not be behind my companions when 
the time for attacking the common enemy 
arrives. But let us talk a while, for I 
have important news to communicate to 


Seating himself upon the trunk of a 


fallen tree, Gasparo related to Orazio the 
projects of the Papal court, aided by 
Prince T at the head of his regi- 
ment; and how he himself had heen sent 
for, from confinement, to assist the Prince 
in discovering the retreat of the "Libe- 
rals ; " also how, burning to be revenged 
upon the priestly Government, he had 
effected his escape, and now offered his 
services, and those of his adherents, to 
Orazio, on the simple condition of being 
accepted amongst the " Liberals " as one 
of their band. 

" But, Gasparo, you have so many 
serious crimes to answer for, if the reports 
about you be true, that we could not 
possibly admit you into our company," 
observed Orazio. 

" Crimes ! " repeated the friendly bri- 
gand ; " I own no crimes but those of 
having purged society from some bloody 
and powerful villains and their wicked 
agents. Is that a crime ? and is it a 
crime to have helped the needy and the 
oppressed? or do you believe that, if I 

VOL. I. N 


had been a mere paltry criminal, the 
Government would have been in such awe 
of me, or that I should have been so be- 
loved by the populace? The Government 
fears me because I have no sin upon my 
soul but resentment against its wicked- 
ness, and because it is conscious of having 
betrayed me in a cowardly and deceitful 
manner, and that, when I return 'once 
more to my free life, I shall make it pay 
dearly for its deceit and treachery. 

" Yes, I have sometimes," he continued, 
after a pause, "made use of my carbine 
as an instrument of justice, in accordance 
with the laws of humanity and of right- 
eousness. Can the priests say as much of 
their accursed scaffold?" 

Jack arriving at this moment, Orazio 
explained by signs that the stranger was 
friendly ; and, after making preparations 
to carry off the game, they returned with 
Gasparo to the castle, to equip themselves 
against the approaching assault. 



THE Prince having ascertained from other 
spies who proved more docile than 
Gasparo that the band of " Liberals " 
were occupying the castle of Lucullus, 
made active arrangements to besiege it ; 
and, after approaching the place, disposed 
his men in such a manner that it might 
be surrounded on all sides, so that escape 
from it in any direction should be impos- 
sible. The brother of Irene like many 
other generals committed the error of 
spreading his men over a large space of 
ground, and detaching a number of senti- 
nels, pickets, videttes, and scouts, so as to 
leave himself with too small a body against 
assailants. Not knowing the exact site of 

the castle, Prince T had sent Grasparo 

on to explore, who took advantage of his 

N 2 


freedom, as the reader is aware, to desert 
to the threatened little garrison. Impatient 
at his prolonged absence, the Prince com- 
manded his officers to cause their men 
about a thousand strong to narrow the 
circle, and to assault the castle when each 
column arrived in sight of it. As might 
be expected, so complex a scheme proved 
unfortunate. The detachment to the 
north, commanded by the Prince in 
person, marched in a straight line for 
the tower; but the others, partly through 
the ignorance of the officers, and partly 
through the disinclination of the guides 
to begin the affray, instead of following 
the right path, struck out into the wood, 
and were soon in inextricable confusion, 
calling hither and thither to each other, 
and often returning to the point from 
which they started. In this way several 
hours were lost. 

The Prince, with two hundred of his 
most serviceable men, arrived, however, 
within sight of the spot, which they only 
discovered about four o'clock in the after- 


noon, and then perceived, to their chagrin, 
that preparations for defence had been made. 
But reckoning on the numbers of his 
troops, and on the co-operation of the other 
detachments, he drew his sword, disposed 
of half his men as skirmishers, and keep- 
ing the other half as a reserve, ordered the 
signal to be given for attack. 

Orazio and his young Romans could have 
avoided the combat by taking refuge in 
the subterranean passages, but disdaining 
a retreat before measuring strength with 
the Papal mercenaries, he determined to 
show fight, and upon returning to the castle 
with Grasparo, hastened to have the doors 
barricaded and holes made in the walls 
for the musketeers, while every necessary 
instrument was put in readiness for the 

The young leader had ordered his men 
not to fire at the enemy so long as they 
were at a distance, but to wait until they 
were close under the walls, so that each 
might shoot down his man. The assailants 
advanced boldly on the castle, and the front 


rank of skirmishers had nearly reached the 
threshold, when a general discharge from 
the guns of those within laid nearly as 
many of the Papal troops on the ground 
as there were shots fired. This sudden 
discharge disconcerted those behind, who, 
seeing so many of their comrades fall, 
turned and fled. The Prince, with his 
column, was treading sharply on the heels 
of the skirmishers, and arrived at this 

Orazio had taken the precaution to have 
all the spare fire-arms in the tower loaded 
and placed ready for use, and now com- 
manded the domestics to help the ladies to 
reload them as soon as they were discharged. 
Jack, however, declined to remain with the 
women, as Orazio had proposed, and seizing 
his musket, placed himself at the side of his 
preserver, following him like a shadow 
throughout the attack. 

When the Prince arrived under cover of 
the outer mound, and saw the slaughter 
that had taken place, he understood at last 
the disposition of the enemy with whom he 


had to deal. Eemarking the fear depicted 
on the countenances of his men, and per- 
ceiving that retreat under such a murderous 
fire would be disastrous, to say nothing of 
the disgrace of such a movement, he re- 
solved to storm the wall. He passed the 
word, accordingly, to the aides-de-camp, by 
whom he was surrounded, to order the trum- 
pets to sound the charge ; and, springing 
forward himself, he was the first to climb 
the barricade, striking right' and left with 
his sabre at the few defenders posted there. 
Orazio, who was among these few, stood 
without moving at the first sight of the 
Prince, in whose lineaments he traced so 
plainly the likeness to his beloved Irene. 
One of the barrels of his musket was still 
undischarged, and he could easily have sent 
the contents through the body of his enemy, 
but he refrained. Jack, who was fighting 
by his side, not understanding the cause 
of this hesitation, raised his gun to a level 
with the Prince's breast and fired; but as 
he did so Orazio knocked up the muzzle 
with all the force of his strong arm, and 


the ball struck one of the Prince's men, 
who had just appeared above the barricade. 
The Prince's followers who mounted with 
him were few in number, and those few 
were quickly despatched by the valiant 
garrison of the castle. 

An unexpected circumstance finally freed 
our party from their assailants, and made 
them fly in every direction, scattered like 
a flock of sheep. 

As the officers were urging the men 
crowded under the barricades to follow the 
Prince, a cry of "Enemies in the rear ! " was 
heard from the' east side of the wood. A 
small band of ten men appearing, sprang like 
lions on the right flank of the little army. 
The soldiers, in the panic, thinking the 
" ten " might be a hundred, dispersed like 
chaff before the wind. Some few paused, 
hoping that the new-comers would prove 
some of their own missing allies, but upon 
a nearer view it was plain that they were 
dressed in the uniform of the Liberals, and 
the blows they dealt upon the nearest Papa- 
lini were so terribly in earnest, that these 


latter turned and fled in dismay, leaving 
their opponents masters of the field, and the 
Prince a prisoner. Realising the generous 
act of his enemy, and finding out that he 
was left alone, he delivered up his sword 
to Orazio, who received it courteously, and 
conducted him to the presence of Irene. 



THE most earnest reformer must confess 
that immense progress has been made 
during the present century. We are not 
speaking of mechanical or physical arts in 
which the advance is really wonderful but 
we are thinking solely of the political and 
moral achievements of the age. 

The emancipation of the nations from 
the power of the priest is a vast object not 
yet attained, but towards the. accomplish- 
ment of it, nevertheless, our generation is 
making gigantic strides. 

Above all, this progress seems marvel- 
lous and divinely impelled, when one re- 
members that the gradual destruction of 
priestcraft is the work of the priesthood it- 
self. What enduring consolidation would 
not the Papacy have obtained, had Pius IX. 


but continued the system of reform with 
which he commenced his reign, and sincerely 
identified himself with the Italian nation ! 
An overruling Providence, however, blinded 
the eyes of the wavering monk for the good 
of his unfortunate people, and left him to 
travel on the perverse and misguided road 
of his predecessors that is to say, to trade 
away Roman honour and Christian spirit for 
the help of the foreigner, vilely selling the 
blood of his countrymen. The Italian 
nation, which might have been so well and 
long deceived, has now seen these impostors, 
the priests, walking with cross in hand at 
the head of the foreign troops pitted against 
Italian patriots. The writer has with his 
own eyes more than once witnessed priests 
leading the Austrians against the Liberals. 
To serve the Papacy, they have excited 
and maintained brigandage, devastating the 
southern provinces with horrible crimes, 
and fomenting by every means in their 
power the dissolution of national unity, so 
happily but hardly constituted. 

Another sign of human progress in our 


day is the closer tie establishing itself be- 
tween the aristocracy and the people. There 
still exist some oligarchs everywhere, more 
or less callous, more or less insolent, who 
affect the arrogance and authority of former 
times, when the outrageous and intolerable 
feudal pretensions were in full force. But 
they are few in number, and the greater 
part of the nobility (noble not only by birth, 
but in soul) associate with us, and mingle 
their aspirations with ours. 

To this last type belonged the brother of 
Irene, who undertook the unlucky military 
affair we related in the last chapter, in 
the idea of rescuing his beloved sister from 
the brigands, into whose hands he believed 
she had fallen an unwilling victim. But 
when he learned that those he had fought 


against were Romans of noble and lofty 
spirit, and very far from the assassins he 
had pictured, he did not fail to compliment 
the valour of his countrymen ; and when 
he further learned that Orazio, to whose 
generosity he owed his life, was the 
legal husband of his sister, and that she 


loved him so tenderly, his manner and 
opinion changed entirely. 

These considerations had pleaded already 
in favour of Irene, who, upon seeing her 
brother, threw herself at his feet, clasping 
his knees, in a flood of tears, which flowed 
the faster at the remembrance of her dead 
father, whom he represented in face and 

The Prince, raising her gently, mingled 
his tears with hers, as he affectionately em- 
braced her. Orazio, touched to the depths 
of his soul, was also affected, and taking the 
Prince's sword by the point, handed it back 
to him, saying, " So noble a soldier ought 
not to be deprived, even by accident, of his 
weapon." The Prince accepted it with 
gratitude, and shook the bronzed hand of 
this son of the forest amicably. 

And Clelia ! what had made her rush 
away from this charming scene ? what had 
she heard amid the noise of the conflict? 
She had recognised the voice of her Attilio 
during the assault, and for her and him too 
this was a supreme moment. Yes, during 


the battle, when the shouts of the new- 
comers made the arches of the castle ring 
again, Clelia distinguished her betrothed's 
accents. She threw down a gun which she 
was loading, and rushed to a balcony, 
whence she could survey the scene of 
action. For one second, through the smoke, 
she obtained a view of the face engraven 
upon her heart, but that second was suffi- 
cient to make her feel surpassingly happy. 
Attilio, indeed, it was, who, with Silvio, 
Muzio, and some other companions, had 
thus charged and scattered the Papal 

Silvio, it must be known, was well ac- 
quainted with the castle of Lucullus, where 
he had often been a guest, as well as an 
associate of Orazio in his hunting and fight- 
ing expeditions. Through him a communi- 
cation was kept up between the Liberals in 


the city and those in the country. Before 
quitting Eome he had come to the determi- 
nation of taking the field, and placing him- 
self under Orazio's flag, and, as we have 
seen, he happily arrived with his associates 


just in time to give the last blow to the 
Papal soldiers. 

The gentle reader must himself imagine 
the joy in the castle caused by the arrival 
of friends who could contribute so power- 
fully to the safety of the proscribed. What 
interrogations ! what embracings ! what in- 
quiries after parents, relatives, and friends ! 
what new and happy hopes ! what soft illu- 
sions, dreams of peace and rest ! 

"Oh, my own, my own!" whispered 
Clelia, when Attilio for the first time im- 
printed a kiss upon her beautiful brow, 
"thou art mine and I am thine, in spite 
of the wicked priests ; in spite of the 

The smell of the gunpowder had perhaps, 
turned her dear little head, so that we may 
pass over the slight indiscretion of such 
confessions. She should have been more 
coquettish, but she was a Roman girl, and 
her love was true. And is not true love 
sublime, heroic, such as these two happy 
beings bore to one another? Is it not 
the life of the soul, the incentive of all 


that is noble, the civiliser of the human 
race ? 

The Liberals had a glorious acquisition 
in the person of Prince T ; he was en- 
tirely converted by the scenes he had wit- 
nessed, and the words which he heard ; for, 
generous and brave by nature, he felt with 
shame the humiliation of his country, and 
desired to see her liberated from the bad 
government of the priest and the foreigner. 
Educated away from Kome, however, and 
moving in a different sphere from those 
patriots who held in their hands the plot 
of the Revolution, he had remained in 
ignorance of much that was passing, and 
had even accepted, at his father's desire, a 
post in the Pontifical army, which removed 
him farther than ever from the influence of 
our brave friends. But a film had now 
passed from his sight, and -he discerned 
at last with clearer vision the greatness 
of his country's future, and how surely 
Italy now divided into so many parts, 
despised and scorned by the world would 
yet be re-united, and become one grand 


and noble nation, looked up to and re- 
spected, as in the days of her past glory, 
as the patriotic Italians of all periods have 
ever dreamed and prayed she should be. 

The Prince was enchanted with his new 
quarters and with his new companions, and 
vowed to himself to live and die for the 
sacred cause of his country. 

Rich, powerful, and generous, he became 
in the future the strongest supporter of the 
proscribed ; and they had reason to congratu- 
late themselves for having put faith and 
hope in so noble a patriot, and one whom 
they had thus doubly conquered. 

VOL. I. 



ORAZIO having received and welcomed his 
friend and brethren, now began to think 
of their general safety. He therefore called 
aside Attilio and the Prince (who by this 
time had become firmly devoted to them 
and the national cause), and addressed 
them as follows : 

"It is true we have been victorious in 

our last encounter, and have vanquished 


you, Prince, whose noble conduct now 
conquers our hearts; but I fear that this 
castle has become too notorious for us 
to remain longer in it in safety. The 
Government will employ every means 
in its power to hunt us out of our 
retreat, and to destroy us, and is capable 
of sending a whole army with artillery to 
demolish these old walls. I do not, how- 


ever, advise an immediate retirement, as the 
cardinals will require time to form projects 
and make arrangements ; but it behoves 
us now to use all vigilance, and from this 
moment to ascertain the movements of the 
enemy and guard against surprise. As 
for yourself, Prince, you had better return 
to Eome ; your presence here is not needed 
for the present, and there you may be of 
the greatest use to us. Let it be thought 
that you were set at liberty on parole, on 
condition that you would not bear arms 
against us, and then send in your resig- 

"Yes," replied the Prince, "I can be of 
more service to you in Eome, and I 
pledge my word of honour to be yours 
until death." 

Attilio was of the same opinion, and 
added that Eegola would advise them of 
the movements of the Pontifical troops. 
On the Prince desiring some secure means 
of remaining with them, Attilio presented 
him with a piece of paper so small that 
it might easily be swallowed in case of 

o 2 

2 12 Till: RULE OF THE MONK. 

emergency containing a line of recom- 
mendation for the Prince to Regola. 

The rest of the day was devoted to the 
interment of the dead, of which there were 
not a few, and to tending the wounded, 
nearly all of whom were Papalini. Three 
of the Liberals only were wounded, and 
those not seriously. This proves that, in 
the strife of battle, the valorous run the 
least danger; and if the statistics of the 
field were referred to, it would be seen 
that fugitives lose more men than any 
army which stands its ground. 

At midnight the Prince started for Kome. 
And who acted as his guide ? Who, bu 
Gasparo, the veteran chief of the bandits 
in old times, now an affiliated Liberal, as 
he had proved in the last affray, in which 
he had done wonders with his unerring 

I who write this am well persuaded of 
the truth of the perpetual amelioration of 
the human race. I am wholly opposed 
to the cynic and the pessimist, and be- 
lieve with all my heart and soul in the 


law of human progress by various agencies, 
under many forms, and with many necessary 
interruptions. Providence has willed that 
happiness shall be the final end of this sad 
planet and suffering race ; but its decrees 
work slowly, and only by the submission 
of mankind to the higher law of light is 
happiness attainable. Not by miracles will 
men become regenerated. Voltaire has 
well said 

" .Pen ai vaincu plus d'un, je n'ai force personne, 
Efc le vrai Dieu, mon fils, 
Esfc Tin Dieu qui pardonne." 

If humanity does not improve along with 
the progress of knowledge, as it should do, 
the fault must lie with the various govern- 
ments, for with kind treatment and judi- 
cious care, even the wild beasts of the 
forest become domesticated, and their fierce 
passions are tamed. What, then, may we 
not accomplish with the very lowest grade 
of mankind? But can anything be ex- 
pected from a people kept purposely in 
ignorance, and reduced to misery by ex- 
actions, imposts, and taxes ? We know 


that these taxes and exactions are not, as 
it is stated, imposed upon the Eomans for 
the defence of the state, or for the support 
and maintenance of national honour, but 
to fatten the Pontifical government and its 
multitude of parasites, who are to the 
people what vermin are to the body, or 
what the worm is to the corpse, and who 
exist only to plunder and devour. Who 
can deny that the people of Southern Italy 
were more prosperous in 1860 than at the 
present day, and is not the reason because 
they were better governed ? 

In those days brigandage was scarcely 
known ; there were no prefects, no gen- 
darmes, no bravos. Now, with the multi- 
tude of satellites existing in the South, who 
ruin Italian finance, anarchy, brigandage, 
and misery prevail. Poor people ! They 
hoped, after so many centuries of tyranny, 
and after the brilliant revolution of 1860, 
to obtain in a reformed Government an era 
of repose, of progress, and of prosperity. 
Alas, it was but a delusion ! " Put not 
your trust in princes," says Holy Writ. 


Grasparo had baptised himself a Liberal 
in the blood of the oppressors. He was 
received by the young brigand with indul- 
gence, and even enthusiasm ; and entrusted, 
as already mentioned, with the mission of 

conducting Prince T out of the forest 

into the direct road to Rome. 

The prediction of Orazio respecting the 
steps that would be taken by the Papal 
Government fulfilled itself exactly. After 
the reverse it had sustained at the castle 
of Lucullus, the bishops decided in council 
to send a large body of troops, with artil- 
lery, against this stronghold of the Liberals; 
and as it was thought they would not tarry 
long for such a descent, the resolution was 
to carry the assault into immediate execu- 

With this in view, it was determined 
that not only the Papal, but also the 
alien troops at the service of the Pope, 
should be drawn upon for the expedition. 
A foreign general of note was called in to 
direct the enterprise, and everything was 
made ready with alacrity, that the critical 


assault might be delivered on Easter Day, 
generally so propitious to the priests ; who 
on that occasion, after their long fast, 
gorge even more than usual their capacious 
stomachs at the expense of their ignorant 
and superstitious flocks. 

Orazio and his companions, meanwhile, 
were not sleeping, and received regular in- 
formation from their friends in Eome of the 
plans and preparations made by the Pon- 
tifical Government, albeit it kept them as 
secret as possible. The first thing Orazio 
did was to explore the subterranean pas- 
sages thoroughly. These were known, even 
to him and to a few of his comrades, only 
partially; but Gasparo, who had already 
returned from his mission, had had bet- 
ter opportunities of examining them, and, 
with his assistance, a thorough explora- 
tion was to be made. 



AMONG the wonders of the metropolis of 
the world the catacombs or subterranean 
vaults and passages are certainly not the 

The first Christians, persecuted with 
atrocious cruelty by the pagan imperial 
government of Eome, sought refuge for 
safety occasionally in the catacombs ; and 
sometimes, also, that they migh assemble 
without incurring suspicion, in large num- 
bers, to instruct themselves in the doctrines 
of their new religion. These subterranean 
passages were also undoubtedly the resort of 
fugitive slaves and other miserable beings, 
who sought refuge from the tyrannical 
government of imperial Rome, over which 
have presided some of the direst monsters 
that ever existed Nero, Caligula, Helio- 
gabalus, and other despots in purple. 


Among these subterranean passages there 
are, it appears, different kinds. Some were 
constructed for the purpose of receiving the 
dead, others were used as water conduits, 
and supplied the city with rivers of fresh 
water for a population of two millions. 
The Cloaca Maxima, which led from Rome 
to the sea, is a famous example of many 
more smaller hidden roads, constructed by 
rich private individuals, at an enormous 
expense, in which they could secrete 
themselves from the depredations of those 
greatest ot all robbers, the emperors, and 
in later times from the persecution and 
massacres of the barbarians. 

The soil upon which Borne is built, as 
well as that in its immediate neighbour- 
hood, offers great facilities to the excavator, 
being composed of volcanic clay, easy to 
pierce, yet sufficiently solid and impenetrable 
against damp to form a secure habitation. 
In fact, to this day many shepherds, with 
their flocks, lodge in these artificial caverns. 

Before the exploration of the subter- 
ranean passages of the castle, it was 


thought desirable to send the severely 
wounded to Rome, attended by those who 
were only slightly injured, and conducted 
by some shepherds. Among the Liberals 
very few were wounded, and none severely 
so. Many of the Papalini, moreover, 
requested permission to remain and follow 
the fortunes of the proscribed; for there 
are not many Italian soldiers, however 
debased, who willingly serve the priest- 
hood ; and there is no doubt that when the 
hour for liberating Italy and Rome from 
their pollution arrives, not a soldier, with 
the exception of the foreign mercenaries, 
will remain to protect them. 

After despatching the wounded, Orazio 
and his men removed to the subterranean 
passages all that the castle contained 
which was valuable and useful, with pro- 
visions of all kinds to last for some time, 
and then awaited calmly the coming of the 
enemy. They did not fail to take all 
military precautions, and that in spite of 
the notices from Rome of every movement, 
of the enemy. Orazio also sent scouts, and 


placed sentinels in all directions, that he 
might be apprised at the earliest moment 
of their approach. 

The original party had been considerably 
augmented by the arrival of Attilio and his 
followers, as well as by those of the Eoman 
soldiers who had resolved to serve the priest 
no longer ; -not to mention certain youths 
from the capital, who, having heard of the 
victory won by the Liberals, determined 
forthwith to join them. They now num- 
bered sixty individuals, without counting 
the women, while Orazio's authority over 
his band was increased rather than lessened 
by this addition, and Attilio, although at 
the head of the Roman party, and com- 
mander of the' Three Hundred, showed 
the greatest fidelity in obeying the orders 
of his brave and warlike brother in arms. 

Orazio divided his little army into four 
companies, under the command of Attilio, 
Muzio, Silvio, and Emilio the antiquary. 
The latter had been second in command 
before the advent of the chief of the Three 
Hundred, but made it a point of honour to 



yield this post to him. A generous dispute 
ensued, which would never have ended, had 
not Orazio persuaded Attilio to accept the 
first command, and assigned the second to 
Emilio. Such was the disinterestedness of 
these champions of Rome's liberty ! " Free- 
dom for Rome or death! " was their motto. 
Little did they care for grades, distinctions, 
or decorations, which they, indeed, held as 
instruments used by despotism to corrupt 
one half of the nation, and humiliate and 
hold in bondage the other half. 



IT was Easter Eve. Everything in the 
antique monument was in readiness for the 
siege, and those of the band who were not 
on duty were assembled with Orazio and 
the ladies in the spacious dining-hall. After 
a truly Homeric supper, which was enli- 
vened by some patriotic toasts, Emilio the 
antiquary, who desired to put them on their 
guard against any contretemps that might 
arise, asked permission of his commander 
to speak a few words. Consent being 
given, Emilio began thus : 

"As we shall soon have to take refuge 
in the subterranean passages, I wish, by 
way of precaution, to narrate a circumstance 
that happened to me a few years ago in the 
vicinity of Rome. You all remember the 
superb mausoleum of Cecilia Metella, 


erected by a Roman patrician in honour 
of his daughter, who died in her twelfth 

"You know, too, that that mausoleum 
is beautiful among all our ruins, and, like 
the Pantheon, one of the best preserved. 
But what you do not, perhaps, know, is that 
under it is the opening to a subterranean 
passage, leading no one knows whither. 
One day I determined to investigate this 
dark place, and as, in my youthful folly 
and pride, I thought I should not have so 
much merit if I were accompanied by any 
one, I resolved to go alone. Providing 
myself with an immense ball of twine, so 
large that I could scarcely grasp it, and a 
bundle of tapers, some bread, and a flask 
of wine, I ventured out very early in the 
morning, descended into the bowels of the 
earth, having previously secured the end 
of my twine at the entrance to the tunnel, 
and commenced my mysterious journey. 
Onward, onward I went under the gloomy 
arches, and the further I went the more 
my curiosity was excited. It appeared 


truly astounding to me that any human 
being destined by God to dwell upon the 
earth, and enjoy the fruits and blessed light 
of the sun, should ever have condemned 
himself to perpetual darkness, or have 
worked so hard, like the mole, to construct 
such a secure, but fearful habitation. 
Wretched, and bitterly terrified, although 
rich, must have been those who, at the 
cost of so much labour, excavated these 
gigantic works for hiding-places. 

"While such thoughts were passing 
through my mind, I continued to walk, 
lighted by my taper, unrolling my ball 
at the same time, and endeavouring to 
follow in a direction originally indicated 
by the narrow passage at the entrance ; 
but I discovered that the gloomy lane 
gradually widened, and was supported by 
columns of clay, from between which 
opened various alleys, spreading out in 
all directions. These were fantastically 
and unsymmetrically arranged, as if the 
architect had wished to involve any tres- 
passers in an inextricable labryinth. The 


observations I made troubled me somewhat, 
and I speak frankly when I say that I 
occasionally felt my courage failing me, 
and was several times on the point of 
turning back, but Pride cried, 'Of what 
use were these preparations if your expe- 
dition is to be a failure?' 

" I felt ashamed of myself for my terror ; 
besides, had I not my guiding thread that 
would lead me back to security ? Onward 
I went again, unwinding my twine, and 
lighting, from time to time, a fresh taper, as 
each became consumed. At last I came to 
the end of my twine, and, much to my 
discontent, I had encountered nothing but 
a profound solitude. I was tired and rather 
discouraged at having such a long road to 
retrace. While I stood contemplating my 
position, and holding the end of the thread 
firmly, lest I should lose it, and anxiously 
regarding my last taper, which I feared 
every moment would be extinguished, I 
heard a rustling, as of a woman's dress, 
behind me, and, while turning round to 
discover the cause, a breath blew out my 
VOL. i. p 


light, some one tore the thread violently 
out of my fingers, and my arms were seized 
with such force that the very bones seemed 
to crack, while a cloth was thrown over my 
head, completely blinding me. 

"A presentiment of danger is ofttimes 
harder to bear than the danger itself. I 
had felt very much terrified when I first 
heard the footsteps approaching me, but 
now that I was being led by the hand 
like a child, my fear fled : I had to do 
with flesh and blood. I walked boldly 
along. Although I was blinded, I was 
conscious another light had been struck, 
and that the touch and footsteps near me 
were those of living beings, and not of 
spirits. In this manner I proceeded for 
some minutes, and then the veil or bandage 
was removed from my eyes, and, to my 
amazement, I found myself in a small room, 
brilliantly illuminated, with a table in the 
centre splendidly laid out, around which 
sat twenty hearty fellows feasting merrily." 

During the antiquary's narrative, a smile 
had passed over Gasparo's face from time 


to time ; now he rose, and extending his 
hand to Emilio, said, with some emotion 

"Ah, my friend, were you then that 
incautious explorer? I dwelt in the cata- 
combs in those days with my band ; and 
the emissaries of Rome, before venturing 
into them, generally made their wills, if 
prudent. The woman who blew out your 
light, and who afterwards showed you so 
much kindness, was my Alba, who died a 
short time since from grief on account of 
my sufferings and imprisonment." 

" Oh ! " exclaimed the antiquary, " was 
it you who sat at the head of the table, 
and received as much homage from your 
men as if you had been in reality a 
sovereign ? " 

"Yes, it was I," replied the bandit, 
somewhat mournfully, noting Emilio's sur- 
prise ; " years and the irons and cruelties 
of those wretched men calling themselves 
ministers of God have wrinkled my fore- 
head and silvered these hairs. But my 
conscience is pure. I have treated every 
unhappy creature kindly, and you know 

p 2 


whether you received any harm from us, 
or if even a hair of your head were touched. 
I wished only to humiliate those proud 
voluptuaries who live in luxury and vice 
at the expense of suffering humanity ; and 
with Grod's help and yours, although I am 
old, I yet hope to see my country freed 
from their monstrous yoke." 

" Yes," answered the antiquary, affec- 
tionately, " I received the greatest kindness 
from you and your lady. I shall never 
forget it as long as I live." 

And then turning to the company, he 
continued his recital 

" I was much shaken by my solitary 
exploration, and a little, too, by my un- 
expected encounter; and was so feverish 
in consequence, that I was compelled to 
remain two days in the subterranean abode; 
and during that time I received, as you 
have heard, the greatest care, and the most 
delicate attentions from the amiable Alba, 
who not only provided me with every 
necessary, but watched assiduously by my 
pillow. Having regained my strength at 


the end of the two days, I requested to be 
allowed to depart, and was conducted by a 
new and shorter road into the light of the 
sun, which I had thought never to see 
again. Upon giving my word of honour 
not to betray the secret of their existence, 
two of the band pointed out the road to 
Some, and left me to pursue my way." 



" Now opens before us," says a great 
writer on ancient Italy, "that splendid 
region in which, man grew to grander stature 
than in any other part of the world, and 
displayed prodigies of energy and moral 
judgment. We are about to enter that 
land consecrated by heroic virtues, from 
which came a light of empire that illu- 
mined the universe. To that proud life 
has since succeeded deep death ; and now 
in many places of ancient majesty you 
will find nought but ruins monuments of 
departed grandeur amidst vast deserts of 
death dreary solitude, and the decayed 
achievements of man. The city of the 
rulers of the world fell, but the remains 
of her past glories cannot be destroyed. 
They have for ages sent, and still send 
forth a mighty voice, which breaks the 


silence of her grave, proclaiming the great- 
ness of those ancient inhabitants. The 
country of the Latins is desolate, but 
grand in its desolation; an austere nature 
adds solemnity to the vacant sites of the 
cities, their sepulchres, and relics. In the 
midst of a wilderness, at every step, one 
meets with tokens of a bygone power that 
overawes the imagination. Frequently, in 
the same spot, on the same stone, the 
traveller reads the record of the joys and 
the sorrows of generations divided by pro- 
digious intervals of time. Here, also, are 
to be seen the columns of those temples 
in which the priests of old, with their 
auguries and idols, deceived the people, 
and reduced them to moral slavery. In 
this, however, little is changed ; for further 
on may be viewed modern temples, in 
which religion is still made an instru- 
ment of infamous tyranny. Sadnesses 
ancient and sadnesses modern blend to- 
gether ; memories of past dominations, and 
tokens of dominations ruling down to the 
present day. 


" If the far-off cry of the wretched ple- 
beians whom the savage aristocracy of a 
past age precipitated from the cliff, makes 
us shudder, shall we not feel something 
akin to this when we hear the cry of 
living victims of Popish fury imprisoned 
in dungeons in our own day? Mingled 
with the ashes of the leaders of the an- 
cient people, you may here dig up those 
of the martyrs of our own age, who shed 
their blood for the new Republic, and fell 
protesting against the bitter dominion of 
the priesthood ; and pondering over these 
memories, antique and recent, each true 
Eoman may draw comfort for his afflicted 
soul, seeing that in spite of the passage of 
centuries, and the debasing strength of 
tyrannies, the children of Rome, far as 
they are from her heroic days, have never 
quite lost the energy of their forefathers, 
and thence, on this soil of auguries, each 
may rightly draw the joyful presage that 
now, as then, the genius of this sublime 
country will never long leave her to such 
shameful vicissitudes." 


We have introduced this noble patriotic 
piece to aid in the difficult task of de- 
picting the Rome of heroic times along 
with the living hut paralysed virtues of 
modern Latium. We may thus proceed 
to discuss that strange and sad hetero- 
geneous hand, native and foreign, which 
forms what is called "the Roman army." 
What manner of men are those who dedi- 
cate themselves to the service of a govern- 
ment like that of " Pio Nono " a service 
that cannot fail to inspire an honest man 
with disgust? And here, we may repeat, 
none hut a priesthood could hare so de- 
graded a people, and placed them on a 
level with the basest upon earth a people, 
too, born in a region where men have 
attained to greater perfection of manhood 
than in any other part of the known world. 

The " Roman army," so called, is at 
present composed partly of Romans, under 
the observation of foreign soldiery, and 
partly of foreign soldiers under the sway 
of foreign commanders, while the people 
themselves are under the protection (or 


rather subjection) of a set of scoundrels 
called gendarmes. For what are these 
hired mercenaries but knaves thirsting for 
profit, who, without principle and without 
honour, enter this disgraceful service ? The 
title, therefore, of " Papal soldier " is by 
no means a martial distinction, but one 
despised by a true man ; while, on the 
other hand, the foreign interloper, scoundrel 
though he be in embracing so dishonour- 
able a calling, despises none the less the 
native soldiery, whom he is called upon to 
aid and abet. Hence, the native soldier 
and the foreign hireling (not being in the 
the true sense of the term brothers in 
arms) frequently come to blows, when the 
foreigner usually comes off" second best, for, 
in spite of the influence of the priesthood 
to render the Roman soldiery degenerate 
and corrupt, some remains at least of their 
ancient valour still exist. 

This, is the condition of the Roman 
army of the day, and this the reason 
why it was despised by the "proscribed," 
who informed themselves of its move- 


ments, and quietly waited its approach. 
In the case of the impending assault 
upon Orazio's castle, time was lost by 
the quarrels which prevailed as usual in 
it. The foreigners, looking with contempt 
upon the native soldiers, claimed to have 
the right wing in the assault assigned 
them; but the natives, not fearing the 
foreigners, and believing themselves, with 
reason, to be superior to them in the 
art of war, resolutely refused to concede 
this honour to alien troops. The priests, 
too impotent to restore order, begun to 
gnaw their nails at such junctures with 
impatience, rage, and fear. 

Easter day, then the day destined for 
the destruction of " the brigands " would 
most probably have seen the extermina- 
tion of these mercenaries had not the 
" Moderates " raised the cry of " Order 
and brotherhood ! " And thus this fine 
opportunity for finishing off a set of 
knaves the plague and dishonour of 
Italy was lost. 

Eegola, with the greater number of the 


Three Hundred, seeing they could do no- 
thing of themselves, for some time, to- 
wards the liberation of Rome, had enlisted 
in the ranks of the Pontifical troops 
according to the orders received from 
outside and were active in influencing 
the Romans to demand the honour of 
conducting the right wing in the order 
of march. This being disputed, they 
mutinied, and ill-treated their officers. 
General D was sent with a com- 
pany of foreigners to restore order, but 
the strife was almost as serious as in a 
pitched battle, and the foreigners fled dis- 
comfited to their barracks. 

The chief instigator of the mutiny was 
our old acquaintance, Dentato, the ser- 
geant of dragoons. Being released from 
the pains and penalties inflicted upon him 
by the Inquisition, which he had sus- 
tained with a stoicism worthy of the 
olden times, he resolved to be revenged 
upon his persecutors at the first oppor- 
tunity, and did not fail to make good 
use of this occasion. At the head of his 


dragoons (for he had been restored to his 
post), sabre in hand, he plunged into the 
thickest of the fray, and made serious havoc 
amongst the foreign troops. The affair 
over, knowing what to expect at the 
hands of his masters, he set out from 
Home without dismounting, accompanied 
by the better part of his men, sought 
out the proscribed in the forest, who 
received him most cordially, and heard 
with satisfaction the account of his ad- 
ventures in the capital. 



OF a surety the most holy and the closest 
tie in all the human family is marriage. 
It binds together two beings of an opposite 
sex for life, and makes them, if they be 
but worthy of that condition, supremely 
happy. We say if they be worthy ad- 
visedly, because that solemn rite should 
only be contracted with the mutual pur- 
pose that each is to seek the happiness 
of the other, and such a union has for its 
base true love that is, celestial love which 
the ancients rightly distinguished from 
sensual passion, the former being that love 
of the soul which no worldly or selfish 
views can ever influence. Even before 
the marriage contract its anticipation does 
much to soften and improve the character 
of each, from the new feeling that they 
must not fail to contribute to each other's 


welfare. The very atmosphere of happi- 
ness makes married life nobler than lonely 
life, while the love of parents for their off- 
spring renders them gentle and forbearing, 
and indulgent to their own first ; and finally 
to others, whose good-will they wish to 
win. Unfaithfulness, however, is, unhap- 
pily, too frequently an incident of modern 
marriages, but those of either sex who sin 
against that loyalty in wedlock, which 
should bind both indissolubly, unless hard- 
ened in vice beyond all hope, feel such 
remorse that they would, if they could, 
return to their former purity by any 
sacrifice. But truth, among other things, 
should suffice to fortify the good against 
temptation and dishonour, which brings 
shame and ruin to the soul. Oh, you 
whom this sacred tie has newly bound, be 
true as Heaven to one another ! By your 
fidelity you will secure your conscience in 
the future against sharp and stinging re- 
flections. Out of noble and heart-felt con- 
stancy will spring a paradise upon earth, 
the foretaste of a blissful life beyond. 


But priestly interference in this holy 
communion of hearts blights and blas- 
phemes the name of love, sowing the seeds 
of hatred ; while this plague is felt more or 
less all over the globe, by reason of the 
number of unhappy marriages brought 
about or directed by these busy tonsured 
meddlers. What, then, must this baneful 
influence be in Rome, where the priests 
are so numerous as to reign almost 
supreme in society ? 

We have before stated that in the city 
of Rome the largest number of illegitimate 
births takes place, which arises naturally 
(or rather zmnaturally) from the infamous 
influence of priests, who traffic in matches, 
and control the market of men and women 
for their own profit. 

But we will draw the veil of silence 
over these lamentable facts, and ask pardon 
of refined readers if we have shocked them, 
even by a hint. Nevertheless, when we 
remember the degradation and misery to 
which our beloved but unhappy country 
has been reduced by the despotism and 


corruption of her clerical Government, 
shame and grief are hard to restrain. Oh, 
pardon me, you whose chaste eyes have 
no Rome to weep for ! 

Yes, marriage is a sacred act. By it a 
man imposes on himself the duty to 
love, protect, and support his wife, and 
the children she may bear him. And this 
act is the first cause of the progress and 
civilisation of mankind. The priest, being 
no other than a meddler and impostor, is 
consequently unworthy of celebrating that 
most important act of life. The municipal 
authorities, who ought to be cognisant of all 
that concerns the citizens, and register all 
acts, should preside at the ceremony of 
marriage, or, as immediate representatives 
of these, the parents of the contracting 
parties, who are their natural and lawful 

To these latter authorities Attilio and 
Clelia referred themselves. 

" My own ! my own ! " Clelia had whis- 
pered to herself during Irene's narration; 
and in the hour when her beloved was at 
VOL. i. Q 


her feet, overjoyed by the blissful atmo- 
sphere that surrounded her, she resisted his 
passionate and honest solicitations for some 
time, but at last gave him permission to 
demand her in marriage of her mother, 
adding, "If she consents, I will be thine 
for life." 

Although Silvia was of a somewhat 
hesitating temperament, and would have 
preferred having her Manlio at hand to 
consult as to the destiny of her dearly 
beloved child, still she had sufficient good 
sense to see that a union between the 
two ardent lovers was very desirable, and 
felt that, under the peculiar circumstances 
of their banishment and forest life, she 
might be assured of her husband's sanction, 
and therefore accorded them hers. 

Silvia could not endure priests, and 
civil authorities there were none to consult 
or employ, except the sylvan jurisdiction 
of their honest preserver, Orazio, and her 
own maternal governance. These, she 
opined, were sufficient for the occasion, 
and it was not difficult to persuade her 


bold but gentle and enlightened conscience 
that this simple, natural, and legal 
solemnisation was all that was requisite. 

The celebration of the marriage of our 
young friends, thus determined upon and 
permitted, was a true feast for all in the 
castle, and particularly for Irene, who, as 
the happy example herself of a rural 
marriage, was thoroughly proud of being 
priestess to the natural and noble rite. 
She erected, without their knowledge, an 
altar at the foot of the most majestic oak 
in the neighbourhood. With the help of 
her maidens, and the sailor's assistance 
who prided himself upon his marine 
agility Irene reared above this a small 
temple, formed of green boughs and 
garlands of wild flowers, the crown of 
the oak serving as a cupola, illuminated 
far above by the sun, and at night by 
beautiful stars and planets, the first-born 
creations of God. 

The ceremony was not long, for it was 
simple, but serious. It took place in the 
presence of those faithful children of Eome, 


who stood in a circle around the handsome 
couple, while Irene joined their right hands, 
pronounced them to be man and wife, and 
solemnised the sacred union by the follow- 
ing address : 

"Dear and true-hearted friends, the act 
you have solemnised this day unites you 
indissolubly body and soul. You must 
share together henceforward the prospe- 
rities and reverses, the joys and sorrows of 
this life. Kemember that in mutual love 
and faithfulness you will find your only 
and enduring happiness, while, if affliction 
descends, it will be diminished and dissi- 
pated by your reciprocal love. May Grod 
bless your union !" 

Then Silvia, her eyes bedewed by 
maternal tears, placed her hands upon the 
heads of her beloved children, and repeated 
che Dio m benedica! More she could not 
say for her emotion. 'The marriage con- 
tract, which had been previously prepared, 
was now presented to the united couple by 
Orazio for their signature, and then to the 
witnesses, the chief finally signing it himself. 


In this manner was celebrated, with the 
greatest order and propriety, in the Al- 
mighty's own temple, illuminated by the 
bright golden lamp of all the world, that 
solemn act of wedlock, none the less solemn 
or binding for being so celebrated. Never 
did human pair feel themselves more 
sacredly bound one to the other than 
Clelia and Attilio. 

From the altar our joyful party directed 
their steps towards the castle, where a right 
goodly woodland banquet awaited them. 
All were rejoiced at the auspicious event, 
and many joyous toasts were given. 
Patriotic songs were freely sung, and 
Jack, elated by the general hilarity, 
treated his friends to his own famous 
national airs, "God Save the Queen," and 
" Rule Britannia." 


THE "army of Rome," as already related, 
gave the proscribed a long time for pre- 
paration, and they, knowing the nature of 
the delay, troubled themselves little about 
the matter. And now we must return to 
some of the principal and most cherished 
personages of our book namely, Julia and 
her companions, of whom we took leave 
when they escaped so narrowly from the 
storm, and whom we have neglected far 
too long. 

Two days after the departure of the Sea- 
ffull from Porto d'Anzo she entered Porto 
Longone, with all her sails set, and her 
colours flying. As soon as she anchored, 
our friends saw a group of persons issuing 
from Liberi, a small village overlooking the 
port, who, on reaching the shore, embarked 
in a boat and rowed out to the yacht. 


Julia received the party which was 
composed of both sexes gracefully and 
courteously, and offered them refreshments 
in her saloon, which they cordially accepted. 

Seated at table, each with a glass of 
Marsala in hand, the guests turned to- 
wards Manlio, whom they imagined to be 
the master of the vessel, and addressed 
him with a Tuscan accent. It is one less 
manly than the Roman, but sweeter and 
more sympathetic, and though it be but 
a dialect of the real Italian, to it Italy 
owes much of her revival; and in this 
dialect, dignified by so much genius, must 
be found the language of Italian national 

" Sir," said the elder of the visitors, 
talking Tuscan, "in Liberi there exists a 
custom that if a vessel comes into port at 
the same time birth is given to an infant, 
the captain is requested to stand godfather 
to the newly-born child. Will you there- 
fore vouchsafe to comply with this custom, 
and do us the honour of becoming a god- 
father, and your gracious young lady a 


godmother, to a little one who has this 
day entered upon existence?" 

Manlio smiled at this odd request, and 
all present admired the facility with which 
the visitor in Elba can form an alliance 
with the islanders. Manlio replied, " I 
am simply a guest on board, like yourself, 
Signor; this young English lady is the 
owner of the vessel, and must decide what 
shall be done." 

Julia the traveller, the artist, the anti- 
quary, and the friend of Italian liberty 
was enchanted to find such simplicity of 
manners among these good people, and 
said, " For my part I gladly accede to your 
proposal, and as I hear the captain of the 
ship must be godfather, I will send for him, 
when, if he be agreeable, we will place our- 
selves at your service." 

Captain Thompson was immediately sum- 
moned, and the English lady explained to 
her commander what was required. He 
laughed merrily, and accepted the invita- 
tion as she had done, declaring that he 
should feel immensely honoured to stand 


godfather with his charming mistress as 
godmother. Captain Thompson then gave 
his orders to the mate, and all embarked 
in company for Liberi. 

Here our narrative stumbles again upon 
the topic of the priesthood, and it is a 
fatality that, in spite of the invincible 
antipathy which they excite in us, they 
are thus continually coming in contact 
with the progress of our tale. But the 
cure of Liberi was a man of a different 

A modest but hospitable table was spread 
for the christening party in the house of 
the islanders, and it was made pleasant by 
the .cordiality and simplicity of these kind 
islanders. The guests were all delighted, 
while Captain Thompson, although a little 
confused, was happy beyond measure at 
the honour the beautiful Julia did him by 
leaning on his arm, and still more so at 
being sponsor to her godchild. So elated 
was the worthy seaman that he neither 
heard or saw as they walked towards the 
village, and, stumbling over some obstacle 


in the way, had well nigh fallen, and, to 
use his own phrase, "carried away his 

Luckily Julia did not perceive the pro- 
found confusion of her companion, and 
walked on with a calm and stately de- 
meanour, in unintentional contrast to the 
tar's awkward gait, for the excellent 
Thompson, dreading another stumble, 
counted every stone on the road as he 
paced by her side. 

In this manner they arrived at the 
church. Captain Thompson here put on 
a very imposing appearance, and, although 
a little wearied by the inordinate length 
of the ceremony, gave no sign of im- 
patience. Having an excellent disposition, 
the tediousness was relieved by the pleasure 
of holding his new godson in his strong 
arm, to which, although a plump and well- 
formed babe, it appeared but as light as 
a feather. ' 

The ceremony ended, the guests invited 
to the christening bent their steps to the 
house of the second godfather, who enter- 


tained them at a more formal banquet, the 
excellent wine of Liberi receiving much 
favour. Captain Thompson, having to 
re-conduct Julia, and remembering the 
stumble, partook very moderately of the 
liquor, contenting himself with passing a 
disinterested eulogy upon it. 

The captain had another motive for 
being temperate and keeping in check his 
decided predilection for good drink. He 
was most anxious to please the Signora 
Aurelia, who, though past the bloom of 
youth, was extremely amiable, and had a 
brilliant complexion. She was full of 
gratitude for the many attentions the 
captain had lavished upon her during the 
terrible storm, and by no means repulsed 
the signs of sympathy, loyal and honest, 
if not courtly, which the gallant sailor 

All went very merrily for our amphibious 
friends, for, much as one may resemble a 
sea-horse in constitution, land with its 
pastimes and comforts is always preferable 
to the tempestuous sea. On leaving, Julia 


was covered with, blessings and thanks by 
her new acquaintances, after the manner of 
olden times. 

Manlio was meditating over a statue in 
marble, which he determined to carve when 
he should return to Eome, representing the 
beautiful Julia as Amphitrite guiding a 
stumbling Triton. Aurelia and Thompson, 
absorbed in thoughts of tenderness, were 
oblivious of the incidents of the past ; 
and thus our yachting party returned on 
board, accompanied to the shore by all the 
villagers, with music and joyful hurrahs. 





Garibaldi, Giuseppe 
The rule of the monk