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Full text of "Rules and examples of perspective proper for painters and architects, etc. in English and Latin :‡bcontaining a most easie and expeditious method to delineate in perspective all designs relating to architecture, after a new manner, wholly free from the confusion of occult lines /‡cby that great master thereof, Andrea Pozzo, Soc. Jef. engraven in 105 ample folio plates, and adorn'd with 200 initial letters to the explanatory discourses ; printed from copper-plates ony best paper by John Sturt ; done into English from the original printed at Rome 1693 in Lat. and Ital. by Mr John James of Greenwich"




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Rules and Examples of 

PERSPECTIVE 

PROPER FOR 

ainterSandAichited 

$tt Cttglttir atib Xatm : 

(Imtainuu] a moftca/ic andeaptditioud *. Method to 
DELINEATEinPERSPECTIVE 

AHIJESIGNS relating to ARCHITECTURE, 

AFTER ANEW MANNER, 

IVholly free from the Confufion of Occult Lines: 
by that GREAT MASTER thereof, 

NDREA POZZCW 

Enprjvcn inio^ ample Jolio Platen, and adorn dwith 200 Initial L ctters to 
the Explamtfm~ij Dijcourjh-Smn. ted from Copper-Plates any bcjlPaper 

^one into Englifli from the Original Printed at Rome 1693 inLat.andltal. 

Bi/^ II r JohnJanus qfGreimvieh. 




LONDON: 



PRINTED for J. Senex and R. Gosling in Fkefijtmt;^. In nys 
in S!P////j C//tuc/t lard; J.Ofborn and T.Longrnan fnTa&<rn#/terR<x?i> 









- 

■ 









....... 



PERSPECTIVA 



PICTORUM 

JET 

ARCHITECTORUM, 

AND REM PUTEI, 

I E S C I E T A T E IE S U. 

In qua\docetur Modus expeditiiTimus Delineandi 
Optic ^e omnia que pertinent ad Architedtur am. 




L O N D I N I: 

Juxta Exemplar ROM^t excufum, M D C X C HI. 

Ex ScuLptura Joannis Stuft,et e/'ufcL^ L 'lira iiaornata: 

STTMPTIBUS J. Senex, R.Gofling, G.Innys, J. Ofboni et T. Longman. 



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TO 



Her moft Sacred Majefty; 

Queen ANNE 



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\Lu/ itpleafc i/oiir^ ttqjcfti/.' 



- 







HE Condefcenjton of the late Emperor 
of Germany to patronize /&Work 
in the Original, could not have incited 
me to the Prefumption of laying the 
Tranflation at Tour Royal Feet $ had not the Art of 
Perspective, of which it treat s, beenfo nearly allyd 

( a ) to 



E D I C A T I O N. 



to the noble Arts ^Painting and Architecture. 
The Firft of thefejour Majefty has been pleas d to ho- 
nour, as well in expr effing a Satisfaction with the Per- 
formances, as in extending Tour Royal Munificence to 
that great Mafter thereof Signor Verrio. 

Ant> altho Affairs of higher Confequence have 
hitherto deferrdyour Majefty s Commands for Raifing 
WHIT E -HAL L from its Ruins $ yet has not 
Architecture been without Encouragement, under 
Your Majefty s Mojt Aufpicious Reign : Witnefs the 
great Dijpatch lately given to thofe Noble Fabricks of 
St.VAULs, Grccnwich-Hojpital, and Blenheim. 

These feem toprefage, that a Time is coming, when 
thro the Bleffing of Peace, and the happy Influence 
of Tour Majefty s Government, WHITE -HALL 
Jball become a Structure worthy its Great Reftorer, 
and its Name as much Celebrated among Palaces, as 
TourRoyalVertues are Illustrious among Princes : When 
Tour Majefty s SubjeSls Jball exert themf elves as much 
to their Country s Honour, in the Arts of Defign, and 
Civil Architecture, as they have already done in the 
Art Military, and Perfonal Valcur. 

Preliminary to fuch Happy Seafon, I pre fume this 
Art cf PerfpeCtive made Practicable, may not be 

improper $ being One of the moft Ufeful, tho hitherto 

the 



DEDICATION. 



the moB Ob feme and Confusd, of all the Lineary Arts. 
I, therefore, with all Submiffion, beg Leave tofuppli- 
cate Tour Majefty s Pardon for this Addrefi, and Tour 
Gracious Protection of this Specimen of Englifh 
Graving $ to which, if Your Majefty vouch fafe Your 
Royal Patronage, it will effectually animate the 
future Endeavours of 

May it pleafe your Majefty ! 



Tour Mofi Ohedient Suhjeft, 



[liPS] J. Sturt. 



^L. . 1 



■■ '■ 



P R E F A C 




TO THIS 



TRANSLATION. 




OTWITHSTANDING the Art of PERSPECTIVE 
rauft be acknowledg'd fo highly and indifpenfably requifite 
in the Pra&ice of Tainting, Architecture, and Sculpture j 
that in the Firft of thefe efpecially, nothing commendable 
can be performed without its Affiftance : Yet fuch have been 
the Difficulties and Obfcurities met with in the firft Attempts, 
and fo great the Perplexity and Confufion of Lines in the 
Practice thereof 5 that the beft Inftructions, hitherto made 

Englifh, have invited very few to fuch a Profecution of this Study, as might render 

their Performances of this kind, truly valuable. 

5 T i s fomething unaccountable, that, among fo many learned Perfons as have handled 
this Subject, Priejls, Architects., and 'painters 5 very few, if any of them, have given 
Directions proper for fhunning that Diforder and Confufion of Lines, which, in moft 
Inftances, muft neceflarily attend the Execution of their Rules : In all or moft of which 
the whole Space for the Performance is confin'd between the Lines of the Plan and 
Horizon 5 which, where the Scale is fmall, and the Height of the Eye not very much 
advancd, renders the Work exceedingly confus'd 5 and where thofe Lines are coincident, 
(which frequently happens) the Method becomes utterly impracticable. 

This Author's great Experience in the Practice of 'PerfpeStive, having furnifh'd him 
with excellent RULES for Shortning the Work, and Obviating the foremention'd 
Difficulties j he has here very generoufly imparted them, and efpecially the latter, in the 
Tenth and Eleventh Figures. And tho on Perufal of the firft three or four Plates, this 
Method may poffibly feem the fame that fome others have before made ufe of 3 yet 
whoever (hall diligently obferve and copy the Rules and Examples of the fucceeding 
Figures, muft neceflarily acknowledge the great Advantage this has in a Perfpective-Plan 
and Upright, clear and diftinct 5 whence the finifh'd Piece is dedue'd, without the leaft 
Incumbrance of the Work. The Explanations of the Rules here given, are fhort and 
inftructive 5 and the Architectonical Defigns produe'd to exemplify them, Noble and 
Magnificent. 

The Manner of Defigning, where the Perfpective is drawn on feveral Ranges of 
Frames one behind the other, and fuch Scenes of Theaters whofe Grooves lie oblique 

C b ) to 



PREFACE. 

to the middle Line, is alfo here kid- down : And by our Author's Method, Horizontal 
c Perfpetf;i e ve, or that of Ceilings, is render'd lefs difficult than the Vertical, or that againft 
an upright Wall. Upon the whole, nothing feems wanting that may make a Work of 
this nature complete 3 unlefs what concerns Defigns which are either Circular, or abound 
with many Columns : For the Performance whereof, the Author, as he promifes in the 
Sixty-fifth Figure, has, in a SECOND Volume, given a Rule more proper for the 
purpofe ; which alfo may poffibly be made Englijh in due time, if this Part meet with 
Encouragement. 

What the Author once intended fhould make a Part of that Second Volume, he 
afterwards inferted in the Ninety-third and following Figures of this Book : In the laft 
of which, particular Notice fhould be taken of his Conclusion 3 That if Painters would 
not run into inextricable Errors, they ought as JlriElly to obferve the Rules of Per- 
fpective, in dejigning the Figures of Men and Animals, as they do in painting Columns, 
Cornices, or other Tarts of Architeflure. 

That none therefore be difcourag'd in their firft: Attempts, thro' the Brevity or 
Silence of our Author, (who, writing in a Country where the Principles of this Art are 
more generally known than with Us, had no need to infift fo long on fome things, as 
might be thought neceflary to Beginners) we mail endeavour to fpeak as plainly as we 
can to a Point or two, moil liable to be mifunderftood, or to prove a Stumbling-Block 
at the Entrance 3 and then add a Word of Advice to fuch as mall attempt the putting 
thefe Rules in Execution. 

The Author, in both his Explanations of the firft Plate, has given fome Account 
of what he would have his Reader underftand, by 'Dejigning in T erfpettive : and a 
right Conception of this Point being of great Ufe to facilitate the Work, we thought it 
not improper, to defcribe fomething more particularly, what is meant by the Art 'Per-' 
fpeSlive 3 but (hall at prefent fpeak only of That, which, whether Vertical or Horizon- 
tal, is receivd on a Flat and Even Superficies : This being of much the more general 
Ufe 3 and, when rightly underftood, renders the Difficulties of the Circular or Irregular 
Surfaces, eafy and familiar. 

PERSPECTIVE is the Art of Delineating, on a flat Superficies, as a Wall, 
Ceiling, Canvas, Paper, or the like, the Appearances of Objects, as feen from One 
determinate Point : For tho in Works of great Length, Two, Three, or more Points 
of Sight are fometimes made ufe of 3 yet fuch may more properly be faid to be Several 
Views conjoin'd, than One Piece of Perfpective : Of which fee the Author's Opinion, at 
the End of this Treatife. 

I.N Perfpective, the Eye of the Beholder is efteem'd a Point, from whence Rays are 
fuppos'd to proceed to every Angle of the Object. The Wall or Canvas to be painted 
(which we mall here call the Seffion) is imagin'd to intervene at right Angles to the Axis 
of the faid Rays 5 and by directing them, to receive the Appearance of the Object, in 
greater or lefs Proportion, as the Section is more or lefs remote from the Point of Sight. 
Our Author's Rule is, That the Diftance of the Eye ought to be equal to the greateft 

Extent 



PREFACE. 



Extent of the Object, whether in Length or Height : As, to view a Building that is a 
hundred Foot long, and fifty high ; he would have the Diftance a hundred Foot : To 
view a Tower fixty Foot wide, and a hundred and fifty Foot high 3 the Diftance fliould 
be a hundred and fifty Foot. This Diftance is not ftrictly to be underftood of the Space 
between the Eye and the Object, but of the Space between that and the Section, the Plan 
of which our Author calls the Line of the Plan, or Ground-line • for it's often requifite, 
that the Section be plac'd at fome Diftance before the Object, on account of Projectures 
of Cornices, and other Parts of the Work that advance, as in the Eighth Figure. 

The Place of the Eye, with refpect to its Height above the Ground, ought to be 
fuch, as is raoft natural and agreeable to the Object. Thus in Architecture, the Bafe- 
ments and inferior Parts of a Building are improper to be fet above the Eye, and their 
Cornices and Entablatures have but an ill Effect when below it. General Perfpectives 
indeed require the Sight to be taken at a Bird's View 3 and on other Occafions the Place 
of the Eye may be vary'd : but the beft and mod general Rule is, not to exceed five 
or fix Foot Height above the Ground. The Height of the Eye above the Ground, thro' 
which a Line is drawn, call'd the horizontal Line, is fet on by the fame Scale of Pro- 
portion, as the Defign bears to the real Work 3 and the Point of Sight fo plac'd therein 
as may render the Object moft agreeable. From the Point of Sight, either on one or 
both fides in the horizontal Line, you are to kt, by the fame Scale, the Diftance you 
Hand from the Section. And by means of thefe Points of Sight and Diftance, and the 
Meafures of the Parts brought on the Lines of the Plan and Elevation of the Section 
by the fame Scale 3 all the Examples of this Volume ak reduc'd into Perspective 5 as is 
manifeft on Infpection of the Figures. 

What we would add, by way of Advice, is, 

I. That you very carefully obferve, what the Author underftands by Breadth, 
Length, and Height, in his Explanation of the Fifth Plate, before you proceed to 
practife on any Figure 3 otherwife you'll certainly mifunderftand him, efpecially in the 
Third Figure. 

II. That the Rules of the Tenth and Eleventh Figures be particularly regarded, 
for avoiding Confufion in the Plans and Uprights. 

III. That from the Difpofition of the Perfpective-Plans and Uprights, with refpect 
to the finifli'd Pieces in the Twelfth and many following Figures, you would obferve 
with what Difpatch the faid Pieces may, without the help of Compafles, be delineated 
by your Drawing-Square 3 viz. the Perpendiculars from the Perfpective-Plan, and the 
level Lines from the Perfpective-Upright, or Section. 

IV. That you would accuftom yourfelf in Works that have many Lines, to make 
the Perfpective-Plans and Uprights for each Part diftinct, fo as to prevent all Danger of 
Confufion. Thus you may have one Plan and Upright for the Bafement of a Buildino- . 
and when that is drawn on your finifli'd Piece, remove them, and place thofe of the 
Body of the Houfe 3 and when that's complete, do fo by the Attick, &c. always 

1 obferving 



PREFACE. 

obferving fo to place the Plan below, and the Upright on one fide of your neat Draught, 
that your Drawing-Square may command each of them ; which will mightily Ihorten 
your Work. 

V. That the Author's Advice of taking the Figures in courfe, be ftrictly follow'd in 
the Practice 3 which will be a great means to render the Whole eafy and pleafant. 

This is the Sum of what we thought moft proper to advertife you 3 and have only 
this farther to requeft, That if any Miftakes may have efcap'd the Prefs undifcover'd, as 
we well hope there are few or none, you will favourably correct and pardon them. 



MONITA 



MONITA ad TYRONES. 

O NC INN I TA T E M. ac fymmeiriam optica delineationes adificiorum 

habere nequeunt, niji utrdmque mutuentur ab Architectural. 'proinde 

necejfe eft, tit in iflius graphide ac intelligeniia te aliquandiu exerceas y 

donee uniufctijiifque ehvationis vejiigium formare didiceris, ex eoque eruere 

Jeflionem totius longitudinis, tit in Opere toto videre ejl, prafertim 

figuris fexagejima otfava & feptuage/ima. Siquidem ex veftigio & ex 

fettione derivator in opticas imagines cbngriia rertim Jingularum pro- 

funditas. 

Subjiciam his confitium fummi momenti 5 videlicet, egregie intelligas oportet figtiram fecundam, 
priufquam progrediaris ad tertiam, idemque de cateris diffium velim 5 nam fingtilas eo difpofuimus 
or dine, tit qua pracedit, necejfaria fit ad percipiendas eas qua fequuiitur. Si aViqtiaJint in ex- 
plicatione, qua initio non intelligas, ipjiim fchema fapius diligent er infpicies ; ac vicifjimfi aliqua 
dejint in fchematibtis, ex declarationibtis ea fuppjebis. Lapjiis verb qteos deprehenderis, facile pro 
'tit a benignitate, mihi, tit Jpero, condonabis. 




ADVICE to BEGINNERS. 

H E Perfpective of Structures here treated of, can have no Grace or Pro* 
portion, without the Help of Architecture. 'Tis therefore abfolutely ne- 
ceflary, that you employ yourfelf for fome time in Drawing, and the 
Study of that Art 5 till you can readily defcribe the Plan -of any Upright, 
and from thence project the Section or Profile, as is fhewn thro' the 
whole Courfe of this Work 5 and more particularly, in the Sixty-eighth 
and Seventieth Figures : Forafmuch as the proper Depth of each Pare 
of the Perlpedive, is determined by the Plan and Profile thereof. 

I mall add this one thing more, which is indeed of the laft Importance 3 to wit, that you endea^ 
vour to underhand the Second Figure thorowlyj before you proceed to the Third j and fo of the 
reft : they being difpos'd in fuch Order, that the Knowledge of the preceding Figure is always ne» 
ceftary to a right Underftanding of that which follows, if you meet with any thing which at firft 
feems difficult in the Defcription, a diligent Infpection of the Figure may relieve you : And on the 
other hand, if you find not in the "Figure every thing you defire, you may have recourfe to the 
Explanation. What Errors you difcover in the Work, I hope you'll generouily overlook and 
pardon. 




( c ) 



AD 



A D 



Le&orem Perfpe&ivse ftudiofum. 

R S 1 > €rfpe£}i r va y oculum y licet fagacijjimilm inter fenfus nojlros exteriores, mi~ 
rabili cum vohiptate decipit^ eademque necejfaria ejt its, quibus inpingendo i 
tiim Jingulis Jiguris pojittonem ac deformationem Jiiam congrue tribuere^ 
turn colores & umbras, magis <vel minus intendere ant remittere, prout 
oportet, cur a eft. jid id antem fenjim fine Jenfu illi perveniunt, qui 
Jblo jludio Graphidis non contenti, Jingulis Architecture Ordinibus exaffe 
deformandis ajfueverint. Nihilominus, inter multos qui opus hujufmodi 
vnagno tmpetu aggrejli hucufque fuertint, paucos numeramus, qui animum 
ipfojlatim initio non dejponderint, ob magijlrorum librorumque penuriam, 
ordinate ac perjpicue docentium opticas projectiones, a principiis hujus artis, ufque ad omnimodani 
perfectionis confummationem. §hmm autem Jentiam, longa multontm annorum exercitatione, me non 
minimam facilitatem in hac difciplina mihi parajfe : cenfeo Jludioforum vohntate me fatisfa£iurum. y 
torumque profetfui confultumm, Ji methodos expeXitiJJimas in lucem proferam, ad Jingulorum drchi- 
tetiura Ordinum opticas delineationes perficiendas, adhibit a communi regula, ex qua omnia linearum 
occult arum offendicula fujlulimus. < Deinde, Ji tempus & vires ad aliud Opus confcribendum Bonitas 
tDivina dederit, projetfiones quafcunque abfblvemus regula qua in prafentia uti Jbleo, ac mult a fa- 
cilior & imiverfalior eji regula communi & vulgata, quamvis hac Jit fundamentum alterius. 
Itaque, LeSlor (tudiofe, conjlanti animo negotium tuum fufcipe 3 ac lineas omnes tuarum operationum y 
ad verum oculi punffium ducere, ad gloriam Jcilicet DEI O.M. tecum omnino deceme. Sic votis 
hmejliflimisj ut auguror tibi ac Jpondeo, feliciter potieris. 




T O 

The Lovers of Perfpe£tive. 

HE Art of PERSPECTIVE does, with wonderful Pleafure, deceive 
the Eye, the moft fubtle of all our outward Senfes 5 and is very necef- 
fary to be known of all, who in Painting would give a due Place and 
Proportion to their Figures, and more or lefs Strength ' recjuifite to the 
Lights and Shades of the Picture. This might be infenfibly attain'd, if 
Perfons, not content with the Study of Drawing only, would accuftom 
themfelves exactly to delineate the feveral Orders of Architecture. Ne- 
verthelefs, among many who have hitherto vigoroufly undertaken this 
Work, there have been but very few, who have not been in a manner 
quite" difcourag'd, thro' want of Mailers and Books to teach them clearly and methodically 
the Rules of Perfpective-Projections, from the firft Principles of the Art, to the entire Perfection 
thereof. Wherefore, apprehending that by long and conftant Practice in Works of this kind, I had 
acquir'd a Method to facilitate the fame 3 I judg'd it might be for the Satisfaction and Advantage of 
the Studious, to publilh the fhorteft Way for defigning in Perfpective the feveral Orders of Archi- 
tecture, by a common and eafy Rule, free from the Incumbrances of occult Lines. But if it pleafe 
God to give me Life and Health to compofe another Book, I fhall then fhew the Method of put- 
ting Works into Perfpective by the Rule I make ufe of at prefent, which is more eafy and general 
than the common way, tho this be the Foundation of the other. Therefore, Reader, my Ad- 
vice is, that you chearfully begin your Work, with a Refolution to draw all the Points thereof to 
that true Point, the Glory of GOD j and I durft predict, and promife you good Succefs in fo ho- 
nourable an Undertaking, 




THE 



Approbation of this Edition. 

T the Requeft of the Engraver, We have 
perus'd this Volume of Perspective; and 
judge it % WORK that deferves Encou- 
ragement, and very proper for Inftruc- 
tion in that ARX 




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PERSPECTIVE. 




FIGURA PRIMA, 

Explicatio linearum Plani & Horizontis, ac Punctorum Oculi & Diftantiaj. 

T principia Terfpettiva facilius intelligas, pono tibi ob oculos Templum, in cujus in- 
teriori facie, prater c cetera, pingendum fit aliquid ad c PerJpettivam pertinens. Tern- 
pli hujus vejtigium geometrkum eft A, elevatio geometrica in longum eft B, in la- 
tum eft C. In A eft locus Hominis a/picientis line am D E, cut paries pingendus in- 
cumbit. In B idem Homo ex eddem diftantia intuetur lineam F G, qua refert ele- 
vationetnparietis. In figura C fupponimus Homiuem confiftere e regione ipfius pa- 
rte t is : eafdemque proportions menfurarum tranftatas ejfe ex vero pariete in figu- 
ram C, qua ipjum in parvo reprafentat. 

Trima ergo linea H I dicitur linea terra vel plani, ex qua incipit, eidemque in- 
cumbit Aidificium. Secunda linea N O N priori parallela, dicitur horizontalis, in qua 
ponitur O punttum oculi, & N punttum diftantia. T)uo autem puntta diftantia a 
nobis pofitafunt, ut unum adhibeas ex qua parte volueris ; nam ad figuras opticb 
tontrahendas fujficit unum punttum diftantia : nee fieri pot eft ulla optica delineatio, quin primo loco defignentur 
dua parallela, una plani feu terra, altera horizontis, notando in lined horizontis punttum oculi, feu opticum, 
& punttum diftantia. Torrb unam eandemque rem triplici Schemate reprafentare oportuit, tit videas, locum 
ex quo afpicienda eft figura C ejfe punttum N unius ex rettis N O, quam concipere debemus veluti normaliter 
infix am in O ; ac diftantiam inter O SJ N eandem ejfe deb ere cum diftantia inter A & D E, inter B © G F. 

In pitturis multum fpatii occupant ibus, punttum oculi poni folet in medio linea horizontalis : at que ubi altitudo 
pittura fit major latitudine, diftantia NO fiet aqualis altitudini. Si latitudo pittura fit major altitudine, 
diftantia NO fiet aqualis latitudini ; it a enim unico intuitu totum pittura fpatium comprehendi poterit. Torrb 
quamvis eadem dijtantia diverfo modo adhibeatur in vejtigio A, & in elevationibus B & C ; nihilominus fiettiones 
vijiialium cum pariete ueftigii A, & elevationis B, omninb confpirant cum fettionibus vifualium figura C. 

Jam fi velimus Ut fpettatori in A & B paries depittus videatur diftare a lineis DE S G F, quanta eft Ion* 
qitudo quadrati P, cujus elevatio eft Q_; ex punttis A & B fiant vijuales ad puntta extrema quadrat i, notando 
fiettiones vijualium cum pariete D E & G F, qui ab aliis vocatur velum, vitrum diaphanum, jettio, tela, vel ta- 
bula. Invenies autem, line as RS acTV ejfe a quale s, ac fimi liter lineas XZ £sYK; & fie de aliis. 

The Firft Figure. 

Explication of the Lines of the T/an and Horizon, and of the Points of the Eye 

and of the Diflance. 

HAT you may the better underftand the Principles of Perlpedive, here is prefented to 
your View a Temple, on the inner Wall of which, amongft other Things, one would 
paint fomething in Perfpecl:ive. The Geometrical Plan of this Church is A, the Geo- 
metrical Elevation, or Upright, lengthwife is B, breadthwife is C. In A is the Place 
from whence a Man beholds the Line DE, which is the Plan Of the Wall that is to 
be painted : in B the fame Man, from the fame Diftance, looks upon the Line FG, 
that reprefents the Elevation of the Wall. In Fig. C, the Man is iuppos'd to fland 
oppofite to the faid Wall ; and this Figure contains in little, the very fame Propor- 
tions of Meafures transferr'd from the real Wall. 

The firft Line therefore HI is call'd the Ground-line, or Line of the Plan, at which 
| the Edifice begins, and on which it ftands. The fecond Line N O N, parallel to the 
former, is call'd the Horizontal Line, wherein is plac'd O the Point of the Eye, and 
N the Point of the Diftance. Two Points of Diftance are here laid down, that you may make ufe of which you 
pleafe : for that on one Side only is fufficient for the fore-fhort'ning Figures in Perfpective : Neither can any Optick 
Delineation, or Perfpective, be defcrib'd, without firft making two Parallels ; one of the Plan or Ground-line, the 
other of the Horizon ; marking, in the Line of the Horizon, the Point of the Eye, or Sight, and the Point of 
Diftance. It was thought befides expedient to put one and the fame Thing into three Schemes or Defigns, to let 
you fee, that the Place, from which the Figure C is to be look'd upon, is the Point N, one of the right Lines NO, 
which muft be conceived as fixt at right Angles into O ; the Diftance O N being the fame as that between A and 
DE in the Plan, or between B and GF in the Upright. 

In Pictures taking up a great deal of Room, the Point of Sight ought to be made in the middle of the Horizontal 
Line ; and where the Height of the Picture happens to be greater than the Breadth, the Diftance N O muft be made 
equal to the Height. If the Breadth of the Picture exceed the Height, the Diftance N O muft be made equal to the 
Breadth : For fo will the Extent of the Picture be the better comprehended, or receiv'd, at one View. And altho 
the fame Diftance may feem to be ufed in a different manner in the Plan A, and in the Elevation B, from what it 
is in C ; neverthelefs the Sections of the vifual Rays, with the Wall of the Plan A, and of the Elevation B, have 
a perfect Correfpondence with the Sections of thofe of the Figure C. 

Now, if to the Spectator in A and B, we would have the fartheft part of the Work feem to recede from the 
Lines DE and GF, as much -as the Square P does, whofe Elevation is Q_; draw from the Points A and B, the vi- 
fual Rays to the extreme Points of the Square P and Qj noting the Sections they make with the Walls D E and G F ; 
which by fome is call'd the Veil, Tranfparent Medium, Section, Cloth, or Table : and you'll find R S equal to 
T V, X Z equal toYK; and fo of the reft. 




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't> h&pomtofctiftance li/cj xxJlJacUdu ivitJicrut the lint A3 



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G ' ' 




FIGURA Trigeilmafexta, 



Prseparatio ad Figuram trigefimamfeptimain. 

N vejligio Geometrico C, & in ejus elevatione A B, pracipuas tantuiH 
Tineas adnotavi, ne figuram confunderem, & tit Jltidioforum indufirid 
aliquid rehnqtierem. Linea plant E G habet divijiones latitudinis P & 
longitudinis Q> 'vejiigii Geometrici C. Ex punffis latitudinis dticentur 
more folito vijiaks ad O puntlum octili $ ex punffis longitudinis fient 
occulta ad puntfum dijlantia, quod extra Tineam AB protenditur mo~ 
dulis quatuordecim : & ubi occulta ex divifionibus longitudinis fecant 
vifualem ]?0,fiunt parallels ad line am plant EF, adhibitis JecJionibus 
talium parallelarum cum vifualibus, ad complendam deformationem vejligii. 

Eadem linea qua in vejligio deformato funt parallela ad EF, prolongantur ufque ad vifiialem 
EO, & continuantur cum aliis parallelis ad perpendictilum D E. Fiunt quoque vifiiales ad puntluM 
ociili ex divifionibus elevationis AB tranjlatis in perpendictilum DE 5 adhibitis feffiionibtis talium 
parallelarum cum vtftialibus, ad complendam deformationem longitudinis elevationis. 




The Thirty-fixth FIGURE, 

Preparatory to the Tbirty-feventh Figure. 

N the Geometrical Plan C, and in the Elevation thereof A B, I have 
only mark'd the principal Lines, as well for avoiding Confufion in the 
Figure, as that fomething might be left to the Induitry of the Studious. 
The Line of the Plan EG has the Divifions of Breadth P, and of 
Length Q, of the Geometrical Plan C. From the Points of Breadth 
are drawn, as ufual, Vifuals to the Point of Sight O 5 From the Points 
of Length occult Lines are produced to the Point of Diftance, which lies 
4/ fourteen Modules without the Line AB : And where the occult Lines 
from the Divifions of Length cut the Vifual FO, Parallels are made to the Ground- line EF; and 
from the Interferons of thofe Parallels with the Vifuals, you complete the Delineation of the Plari 
in Perfpeclive. 

The Lines which in the Plan are Parallel to E F, being prolong'd to the Vifual E O, are then 
continu'd parallel to the Perpendicular DE. And from the Divifions of AB, produc'd to DE, 
vifual Lines are drawn to the Point of Sight 5 which interfering the Perpendiculars aforefaid, you 
from thence find the Length of the Elevation in Perfpe&ive, 




F I G U R A Trigefimafeptima. 

Deformatio Columns BTRUSCiE. 

X prdeparatione quam exhibuimus Figurd tri- 

gejtmafextd, eruitur columna h<zc nitida Or- 

dinis Etrufci, opt ice imminuta per latitudi- 

nes £^ altitudines partium Jtngularum $ qute 

accipiuntur ope duorum circinorum, ut f<e- 

piiis diSium eH. 




The Thirty-feventh FIGURE. 

A TUSCAN Column in PerfpeSlive. 

ROM the Preparation exhibited in the 
Thirty-fixth Figure, is drawn this com- 
plete Piece of the Tufcan Order, brought 
into Perfpe&ive by means cf the Breadths 

and Heights of the feveral Parts, exa&ly taken off with 

the Compaffes, as has been often faid. 




W»— . ■ ... — V .. -f 



Fife, xxxv 




F I G U R A Trigefimaoftava- 

Praeparatio ad Figuram trigefimamnonam. 




y£C Figura eft Jimillima Figure trigejimtf- 
fextce. In veftigioV limes prominentia co- 
ronicis eji R ? - corona verb in ftjlobatd eft 
T ; Soliditas ftylobata eft V ; ambitus co- 



lumns in imo eft X, infummo Z. 







he Thirty -eighth FI 

Preparatory to the Thirty-ninth Figure. 

HIS Figure is very much the fame with 

the Thirty-fixth. In the Plan P, the ut- 

moft Proje&ure of the Cornice is R .; that 

of the Cap of the Pedeftal is T ; the 

Trunk of the Pedeftal is V ; the naked 

Shaft of the Column at bottom is X, at top is Z. 




F I G U R A Tr igefimanona. 

Deformatio sedificii DOR I CI. 

ABES hoc loco adificium Doricum, addito 
ftatu<£ unius ornamento. Velim autem, ut 
Ji Figuram aliquant ex his defumptam, de- 
lineandam afjumas, aliquid mutes faltem in 
loco pim&orum oculi aut diffantice. Hoc 
modo majores in hac arte progrefjus fades ; & Ji alicubi che- 
lator aberraverit, ex lapfu illius nullum fenties detrimentum. 




The Thirtv-ninth FIGURE. 




A Piece of DORICK Architecture in Perfpeffiive. 

N this Plate you have a Dorick Compo- 
sition, with the additional Ornament of a 
fingle Statue ; but I would advife, when 
you undertake to work after any of 
thefe Befigns, you would at leaft place 
the Points of Sight and Diftance fomewhat differing from 
thofe here given ; which Practice will both greatly further 
your Progrefs in this Art, and prevent any Inconvenience, 
that may arife from a Miftake of the Engraver. 




F1GJ3KK 



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FIGURA Ouadragefiim 



Veftigium geometricum sedificii Ordinis BQRICI 

T Jiudioforum, qui fedulo fe exercuerint in 
praxibus hucufque traditis, & ad major a in- 
hient, utilitatiferviam, delineandamfufce- 
pi medietatem arcus cum tribus columnis, ac 
totidemftatuarum loculamentis. Ad vi tan- 
dam autem confujionem, ea duntaxat membra in veftigio 
adumbrantur, quce recenfuimusfigura trigejimaoffiavd, & often- 
dunt char after es A,B,C,D,E« 




The Fortieth FIGURE. 

The Geometrical Plan of a Dejtgn> of the DORICK Order. 

OR the Benefit of the Studious, who ha- 
ving reducd to Pra&ice the Rules hither- 
to laid down, aim at yet greater Things ; 
I have here undertaken to delineate half 
an Arch adornd with Three Columns, 
and as many Niches for Statues. But to avoid Conf afion, 
I have given full Lines to thofe Members only, which were 
mentiond in the Thirty-eighth Figure, and which are here 
denoted by the Characters A, B, C, D, E. 




F I G U R A Quadragefimaprima. 

Elevatio geometrica aedificii Dorici 

X vejiigio geometrico eruitur hcec elevatio geo~ 

metrica longitudinis adificii noftrh Et ic- 

circo fgura ifta quadragejimaprima^ cujus 

menfurce omnes defumptf funt ex Barozzio, 

congruit longitudini fgur<e quadragejim£* 




The Forty-firft FIGURE. 

The Geometrical Elevation of the foregoing Dejtgn* 

HIS Upright is drawn from the foregoing 

Geometrical Plan; and therefore all the 

Parts of this Defign, whofe Meafures 

are taken from Vignola, exa£Hy anfwer 

thofe of the Fortieth Figure, 




FIGURA Quadragefimafecunda. 

> 

Modus vitandi confufionem, in contra&ione 
veftigiorum, & elevationum. 

ONTRACTIONES veftigii jtgurd qua- 
dragejirna, & elev at ionis figure quadrageji- 
mceprimce, ob nimiam obliquitatem quam ha- 
bent, valde confuf* funU Medebimur ta- 
men incommoda ijla, uti fecimus Jiguris de- 
cima, fif. undecimd. Et qjiendit chartula, exhibens inparvo 
turn figuram banc quadragejimam fecundam* turn quatuor 
fequentes. 





The Forty-fecond F I G U 

The Manner of avoiding Confifjion, in reducing Plans 
and Elevations into PerfpeSlive. 

HE Reducing into Perfpe&ive the Plan 
of the Fortieth Figure, and the Upright 
of the Forty -firft Figure, would become 
very confus d, thro 7 the great Obliquity 
of the Rays: We have therefoie reme- 
dy d the Inconveniences of both, by the Methods ex- 
plaind in the Tenth and Eleventh Figures. And this 
Plate contains in little, what is more at large defcrib'd in 
Parts, as well in this, as the four fubfequent Figures. 




FIGURA Quadragefimatertia. 



Contra&io veftigii figure quadragefimse. 

1NEA plant multo remotior eji a line a horizontals in hoc 
fchemate, quam in pracedenti. Ideo iftud vefligium vacat 
omni confujione. Catera patent ex its quce fapius dicia 
funt, & ex figure hups infpetlione. Oportet autem, reffas 
parallelas ad lineamplani, prolongari ufque ad vijualem TO, 
(qua cadit extra paginam) ut adminiculo parallelarum, fiat 
elevatio longitudinis noftri adificii, de qua dicemus figure quadragefemaquart*. 




The Forty-third FIGURE. 

The Plan of the Fortieth Figure in Perfpe&ive. 

Y placing the Ground-line in this, much more remote 
from the Horizontal, than it is in the foregoing Figure, 
all Confufion is here avoided. The reft is evident from 
what has been often faid on this Head, and a bare In- 
fpe&ion of the Figure. Parallels of the Ground-line 
mull: neverthelefs be continu'd to the Vifual TO, which 
falls without this Page ; that from them may be rais'd the Elevation of the 
Length of this Defign, which we ihall handle in the next Figure. 




Fig. xlhi 



T(- ■■ i i ' ncv-) 
■ 




F I G U R A Quadragefimaquarta. 

Contra&io elevationis figure quadragefimaeprimje* 



X 



E C TAL parallels adlineam plani figura quadragefimatertia^ 
ubi pervenerint ad vijualem TO, continuandcejunt, more Jo* 
lito, cum parallelis ad lineam perpendicularem. In banc 
autem transferre oportet omnes divifiones, quas ex Barozzio 
habet elevatio hujus ordinis ; ac ducere vijuales. Qyomodo 
autem, adminiculo vifualium & parallelarum, compleatur 

elevatio, conftat ex figura & clarius ex ehartula figure quadragejinnefecunda. 

Numeri 5,2,3,4, geminati ofiendunt centra & altitudines femicirculorum Jeu ar~ 

cuum figure quadragejimaquinta ; videlicet, numerus inferior dejignat centrum 7 

fuperior vero dejignat altitudinem femicirculi. 




The Forty -fourth 






The Elevation of the Forty-firfi Figure in PerfpeSiive. 

HEN the Parallels to the Ground-line in the Forty-third 
Figure, are prolong'd to the Vifual TO, they are then, 
as ufual, to be continued Parallels to the Perpendicular : 
On which Perpendicular, thofe Divifions given by Vig- 
nola, for the Proportion of this Order, are to be transferr'd ; 
and Vifuals drawn from them to the Point of Sight. How 
by thefe Vifuals and Parallels the Elevation is rais'd in PerfpecTive, is mani- 
fell in part from this Figure, but more clearly from the Forty-fecond Figure. 
The Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, which you here fee doubPd, give the Centers and 
Heights of Semicircles of the Arches in the Forty-fifth Figure ; the lower 
Numbers denoting the Centers, and the upper Numbers the Heights of the 
Semicircles of the fame. 




FIGURA Quadrageiimaquinta. 

Dimidium sedificii DORICI optice 

deformati. 

XJICJigUrce delineandtf plures praiverunt, ejuf- 
demque latitudines mutuati fumus ex figura 
quadragefirnatertia, altitadines ex quadrage- 
Jimaquarta. Supereji autem, ut lumina & 
umbrtffcite inducantnr injtngulas partes adificii. 




The Forty-fifth FIGURE. 

One Half of the DO RICK Deftgn 

in Perfpettive. 

HE foregoing Figures being preparatory 
to this, the Breadths are taken from the 
Forty-third, and the Heights from the 
Forty-fourth Figure. It only remains, 
that the Lights and Shades be skilfully 
difposd to each Part of the Work. 




FIG. XL VI. 




F I G U R A Quadrasfefimafexta, 



Alteram dimidium ejufdem aedificiie 




UPERSEDERE poteram delineatione 
alterius medietatis <edificii nqftri, verum 
opera non peperci, ut oflenderem diverjita^ 
tem luminum & umbrarum, qu£ conveniuni 



partibus caterhqui omninojimilibusk 



The Forty-fixth FIGURE. 

The other Half of the fame De/tm. 

Might very well have omitted this Half of 
the Defign, but that I fpard no Pains, to 
fhew the Diverfity of the Lights and Sha- 
dows, that muft be given to thofe P&rts 
of the Work, which in other Refpe£ts are alike 




F I G U R A Quadragefimafeptima. 

Veftigia ^dificii I O N I C I. 

ESTlGIUMgeometricum A adificii Ionici, 
fubfe habet fuam deformationem B. Hac 
autem ut evadat difiinSlior, lineam plani, 
qua in fequentibus figuris habebit diftantiam 
PE ab horizontal! OE, deorfumprotraximus 
in CD, ut etiarn fecimus figurd quadrageji- 
mafecundd & quadragefimatertid. Lineavifualis OM eun- 
dem habet ufum, quern vifualis OT figurce quadragejimteter- 
tice ; videlicet, ut in ea terminentur parallels ad lineam plani 
ex membris veftigii B, eademque continuentur cum aliis pa- 
rallel! s ad reSiam E C, pro deformandd elevatione quam ap- 
ponemus figurd quadragejtmanond. . 



I IrH 


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. v^.^ 





The Forty-feventh FIGU 




The Plan of an IONICK Building, 

HE Geometrical Plan of this Ionick Work is 
A, underneath is its Perfpe&IveB; to ren- 
der which more diftind, the Ground-line 
that in the following; Fiaures has only the 
Diftance PE from the Horizontal E O, is 
here remov d downward to C B, as was 
done in the Forty-fecond and Forty-third Figures forego- 




in2". The vifualLine OM is of the fame ufe as that of O T, 
in the Forty-third Figure ; namely, to terminate the Lines 
which are drawn from the Members of the Plan B parallel 
to the Ground-line ; from whence they are again contiriu d 
parallel to the Perpendicular E C, for making in Perfpec- 
tive the Elevation inferted in the Forty-ninth Figure. 



t/ hr HiVircnitnt (ii 



li hi- Vi/hincc id it~K Hodhlas without the line E. C. 




...... 



Fig. xlye. 



P 'Ike G/\nind line of the fmloruvruj Fiijur, 




F I G U R A Quadragefimaoftava. 



Elevatio geometrica aedificii ION I CI. 

X hac elevatione, qua dare qftendit membra 
t otitis cedificiifecundum longitudinem dijfecli, 
defumuntur altitudines ac terminationes 
membrorum Jingulorum. Peritiores tamen 
hac figurd delineandd fuperfedere folent* 
quia terminationes haberi pojfunt ex vejiigio A figure qua- 
dragejimtffeptim<£> altitudinis verbponendtf iterum funt figurd 
fequenti. 




The Forty-Eighth FIGURE. 

The Geometrical Upright of the foregoing lONICKDeJign. 

ROM this Figure (which diftin&ly fhews 
the Compofition of the whole Work, in 
refpe£t of its Length) are taken the 
Heights and Terminations of the feveral 
Members thereof. But thofe that are 
skilld in this Art, ufually omit the delineating the r e 
Elevations ; becaufe the Terminations may be taken 
from the Plan A in the Forty-feventh Figure ; and the 
Heights mull be repeated in the following Figure. 




FIGURA Quadragefinianona* 



Deformatio Elevationis sedificii I ON I CI 

AL C Figura, continens deformationem pracedentis elevationis 
perficitur methodo ilia, quant oflendimus figur* quadrageji- 
mafecunda; nimirum, ex vejiigio B figura quadragefimae- 
feptimte, ducere oportet parallelas ad line am plant CD, qua 
uhi pervenerint ad vifualem OM, continuandce funt cum aliis 
parallelis adlineam EC. Eafdem parallelas in hanc figuram 
tranjlatas Jecant vifuales ex linea reffa AB, in qua pojita funt altitudines adi- 
ficii Ionici, defumpta vel ex figura pnecedenti, vel ex Barozzio. Nullum autem 
eji punclum in membris hujus elevationis, quod non inveniatur per feftiones vi- 
fualium ex linea AB, cnm parallelis ad eandem lineam. 




The Forty-ninth FIGURE. 

The Elevation of the IONICK Dejign in PerfpeSlive. 

HIS Plate containing the Perfpective of the foregoing 
Upright, is drawn by the Method laid down in the 
Forty-fecond Figure ; to wit, from the Plan B of the 
Forty-feventh Figure, Parallels to the Ground-line C D 
are prolong'd to the Vifual O M ; and thence are con- 
tinu'd Parallels to the Perpendicular EC. Thefe being 
transferred into this Figure, are interfered by the vifual Lines that proceed 
from AB, which contains the Heights of this Ionick Compofition, agreeable 
to the foregoing Figure, and the Rules delivered by Vignola. £s!ow there is 
no Point in any Member of this Upright, but may be found by the Interfection 
which the vifual Line from AB makes with its refpeclive Perpendicular. 







Fl G. XL IX 




FlG^L 




FIGURA Quinquagefima, 

Architeftura IONIC A. 

X vejiigio figure quadragejim^feptimce, y ex 
elevatione figure quadragejtmtfnonce, eruitur 
hoc cedificium Ionicum, quod ejfe poterit vet 
principium alicujus turris campanarite, aut 
bajis cujujftiam arcus triumpbalis. Vereor 
at chelator fuam diligent i am in hocfchematefatisprobaverit* 
Ejus tamen errata facile ipfe deteges, & ornni Jiudio cavebisi 





The Fiftieth FIGU 



A Dejign of I O N I C K Architecture, 

if - .j 

ROM the Plan of the Forty-feventh Fi- 
gure, and from the Upright of the Forty- 
ninth Figure, is drawn this lonick Piece % 
which mkht well ferve for the lower 
Order of a Turret, or for part of a 
Triumphal- Arch. I fear the Engraver has not been fo 
exa& in this Scheme, as he ought ; but you will readily 
difcover his Miftakes* and carefully beware of them. 




FIGUR A Quinquagefmiaprima. 

Ordo CORINTHIUS. 

OMPLECTITUR hxcpagina molem con- 
trail am OrdinisCorintbii, cumfiuisprtfpara- 
tionibus. Vefiigium A exhibet parietempone 
columnas cavum infiar canalis. Idem vefii- 
gium opt ice deformatur inD: omijfdque ele- 
vatione geome tried, per ejus altitudines not at as in lined BC 
projicitur elevatio ; ac methodo confine td, ex vefiigio &f elevd- 
tione componitur <edificium, additofiatute unius ornamento. 



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The Fifty-firfl: FIGURE. 

^CORINTHIAN Dejign in Pertfetiive. 

HIS Plate contains the Perfpe&ive of a 
Corinthian Work, with its Preparations. 
The Geometrical Plan A (hews the Wall 
wrought hollow behind the Columns. 
The faid Plan in Perfpe&ive is D : and 
leaving out the Geometrical Elevation, the Perfpe£tive 
thereof is defcrifrd, by transferring the Heights of the 
former into the Line BC. From the Perfpe£tive-Plan and 
Upright the Defign is finilhd after the ufual Manner ; to 
which is added the Ornament of a fingle Statue. 




- 




Figura Quinquagefiniafecunda. 

Delineatio columns fpiralis, Ordinis COMPOSITL 

OS IT A elevatione Geometrica cohmna reft a, ac divifione illius in <vt- 
gintiquatuor partes aquales, cohmna fpiralis abfohitur per partes dr- 
cumferentia circulorum, quorum diametri funt aquales diver/Is latitudi- 
nibus cohmna reffa, ut ojtendh Jigura in A. Ad projecTionem opticam 
elevationis, not anda funt quatuor occulta recta, qua ex terminis connexi- 
tatis & concavitatis infimarum fpirarum ejufdem elevationis A, defcen- 
ditnt ac dejinunt in duos circulos vejligii geometrici B. Veftiptum ipfum 
optice imminutum habetur in C : eadem autem funt maxima hhic hide 
latitudines, turn in circulo majori, turn in convexitate infimarum cohmna 
fpirarum 5 eadem funt maxima latitudines, turn in circulo minori turn hi 
concavitate ipfarum fpirarum 5 ut dignofces applicando regulam fpiris Jimul & circulis. Ex qua- 
tuor punfits maxima latitudinis duorum circulorum, hicipiunt quatuor linea parallela ad lineam 
plant, qua ubi pervenerint ad vifualem ED, continuanda funt cum parallelis ad perpendiculum 
D F. In eandem lineam D F, ex elevatione A transferre oportet vigintiquatuor partes aquales 
altitudinis cohmna, ac ducere vifuales ad O punclum oculi. 'Per feffionem autem vifualiitm cum 
pradifiis quatuor parallelis ad lineam D F, ducuntur linea undulata MN, PQ, ex qiiibvs eruun- 
tur linea utrinque terminativa cohmna fpiralis nitida. Ex linea verb GH habetuy- fades ante- 
rior Jtylobata, cohmna & coronicis 3 ex linea I L habetur fades eorum pojletior. 




The Fifty-fecond F 




The Description of a wreath' d Column, of the COMPOSITE Order. 

AVING made the Geometrical Elevation of a freight Column, and di- 
vided the Height of its Shaft into Four and Twenty equal Parts 5 the 
Wreathing is defcrib'd by Parts of the Circumference of Circles, whofe 
Diameters are equal to the feveral Breadths, or Diameters, of the ftreigk 
Column 5 as is fliewn in the Figure A. For putting the Upright into 
Perfpe&ive, four ftreight occult Lines are of ufe, which defcend from 
the Extent of the Swellings and Sinkings of the lower Wreaths of the 
Column A 5 and terminate in two Circles of the Geometrical Plan B. 
'*? The faid Plan laid down in Perfpe&ive is C. The utmoft Extent of the 
greater Circle determines that of the Convex Parts of the lower Wreaths : The greateit Breadth of 
the leifer Circle gives that of the hollow Parts of the faid Wreaths 5 as may be perceived, by apply- 
ing a Ruler from the Wreaths to the Circles of the Plan. From the Four Points of greateft Breadth 
in thofe Circles, four Lines parallel to the Ground-line are continued to the Vifual E D, and thence 
again continu'd parallel to the Perpendicular D F. From the Elevation A, the four and twenty 
equal Parts of the Column s Height, are transferr'd into the Line D F, and Vifuals drawn from each 
to the Point of Sight O. By the Interferons of thofe Vifuals with the Four Perpendiculars afore- 
faid, are drawn the wav'd Lines MN,PQ_ 5 from which, both the Out lines of the fmifh'd Co- 
lumn are defcribd. But the Fore-part of the Pedeftal, Column, and Cornice, is taken from the 
Line GH; the Back-part of the fame from the Line I L. 





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FIGURA Quinquageilmaquarta. 

Veftigia sedificii Ordinis CORINTHII. 

ESCRIPTURI adificium Corinthium oclangulare, ponimus 
hie veftigia unius ex quatuor partibus pilarum, quibus impo- 
netur fornix in modum tholi, ut conftctbit in figura quinqua- 
gefimaotlava. Ad faciliorem defcriptionem, in parte infe- 
riori paginte pofui vejligium geometricnm Jljlobata, in fu- 
periori vejligium geometricum coronicis, cum latitudinibus &* 
longitudinibus membrorum Jingulorum ; ut eas transfer endo in line am plani more con- 
fueto, utrumque vejiigium optice deformetur. Ad vitandam confujtonem, prius no- 
tare oportebit puntla qua fpeclant ad membra propinquiora folido parieti, deinde 
alia. 




The Fifty-fourth FIGURE. 

The Plan of the Deftgn of the CORINTHIAN Order. 

EING to defcribe an Octangular Corinthian Work, I 
have here inferred the Plan of one Quarter of the Com- 
pofition ; which is vaulted in form of a Cupola, as is 
feen in the Fifty-eighth Figure. To render the Plan 
lefs confus'd, I have, in the lower part of the Plate, 
i given the Geometrical Plan of the Pedeftal ; and in 
the upper part, that of the Cornice ; with the Breadths and Lengths of 
each Member : fo that by transferring the fame into the Ground-line, after 
the ufual manner, you delineate each Plan in Perfpedtive. For avoiding 
Confufion, 'twill be requifite firft, to transfer the Points of thofe Members 
that are next the Solidity of the Wall ; ann then proceed to others. 







Fig. li v. 




i I i t iii iii iiij i ii iiiii ii i i iiiii iii Mil i i ii i i i ii i ijj i i i iiii ii i ii i i 



4-4- 




-I III I 



Fig. la/: 



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iTHE-QUVjOO'-f'-l 

1 




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FIGURA Quinquag 

Elevatio sedificii Ordinis CORINTHII 

L E VAT 10 geometric a tedificii octangular is 
congruit cum duobus ejus vejtigiis figurd 
antecedents. Quia verb elevatio parietis 
abfcondit fecundam ex quatuor columnist 
eademque in adificio deformato confpicua 
futura eji ; iccirco earn lineis occult is dejignare oportuit* 





The Fifty-fifth FIGU 

The Geometrical Elevation of a CORINTHIAN Wort 

HE Geometrical Elevation of this Octan- 
gular Defign, is wholly correfpondent to 
the two Plans of the foregoing Figure : 
But becaufe the Wall in this Upright 
„ takes off the Steht from the feccnd of 
the four Columns, which is notwithftanding v?fible in the 
finifli d Perfpeftive that follows ; 'tis requilite to delineate 
the fame with occult Lines, as in the Figure. 




F I G U R A Quinquagefmiafexta. 

Deformatio Veftigiorum & elevationis sedificii 

CORINTHII. 

N hac Figurd, line am plani coincidere volui 
cum lima horizontis. Itaque videri nonpojfet 
veftigium infer ius, nifi ut alias deorfumpro- 
traxi lineam plani, hie e converfofurfumpro- 
movijfem lineam horizontis, qitam confiitui 
mediam inter line as plani utriufque vejtigii, ut amb&projeBio- 
nes ejfent deque diftmSla. In elevatione, columna fecunda* 
quam, ut dijxi, paries abfeondit, line is occult is dejignanda eft. 




The Fiftv-fixth FIGURE. 

j 

The Perfpeffiive Plans and Upright of the CORINTHIAN 

Dejign foregoing. 




N this Figure, I have made the Grc mid- 
line coincident with that of the Horizon, 
in which cafe the lower Plan cant be feen, 
unlefs the Ground-line be funk lower, as 
before intimated ; or contrariwife, the 
Point of Sight rais'd higher, as I have here done, keeping 
it in the midft between the Ground lines of the two Plans, 
that the Perfpe&ive of both might be equally diftinft. In 
the Elevation, the fecond Column, Avhich I mention d to be 
hidden by the Wall, fliould be defignd with occult Lines. 



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5 




FIGUR A Quinquagefimafeptima. 

Adumbratio Figure fequentis* 

IGURAM banc feorfim delineavi, ut vide as 
quomodo facienda fit operis totius adumbra- 
tio, accipiendo altitudines membrorumfingii- 
lorum ex elevatione ; latitudines & kngitu- 
dines ex veftigiis. Qua omnia ex diagram- 
matis injpe&ione clarijjime apparent. 




The Fiity-feventh FIGURE. 

The rough Draught of the following Figure. 

Have drawn this Figure apart, that you 
may fee the Manner of defcribing the 
Out-line of the whole Work, by taking 
the Heights of the feveral Members from 
• the Elevation, and their Breadths and 
Lengths from the Plans ; all which is very plain, upon 
Infpe&ion of the Figure. 



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F I G U R A Quinquagefimaodava. 

JEdiMum Ordinis CORINTHII 

QBangulare. 

TJCTJ S QJJE defcripfimus pilas anticasji- 
niftras adijicii Corinthii. En hoc loco me- 
dietatem dexter am totius Operis. Integrum 
verb adificium habebisfigura fexagejima. 




The Fifty-eighth FIGURE. 

Part of an Octangular Work of the 
CORINTHIAN Order. 



IT HER TO the neareft Left-hand 
Quarter of this Corinthian Defign has 
been defcribd. In this Plate you have 
the Right-hand Half of the whole Work; 
and in the Sixtieth Figure, the entire 




Perfpective compleat 



■ !/C 



•E 



\[F 







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'.. A 




F I G U R A Quinquagefiinanona. 

Veftigia Tabernaculi oftangularis. 

ROJECTIONES reriim 08 angular urn 
funt quadrat is difficiliores : ideb in eis expli- 
candis diligentU nonpepercu Moles, cujus 
veftigia vides in A £f B, convenit in multis 
■3 cum ea quam ereximus figura quinquagejima- 
Ottawa* Vifudlis CD recipit feBiones perpendicularium, qu<e 
deferviunt pro elevatione figure fequentis, utfepius diBum eft. 
Si fades interior delineandajitfeorjim a facie anteriori, illam 
perficies ope linearum CE, if am ope line arum FD. 




The Fifty-ninth FIGURE. 

The P lans of an OBangular Tabernacle. 

CTANGULAR Figures bein.2; more 
difficult to be put in Perfpe&ive, than the 
Square ; I fhall ufe my beft Endeavours 
to render the Me hod as plain as poffible. 
The Compofition whofe Plans yen fee in 
A and B, has much Affinity with that defcrib'd in the 
Fifty-Eighth Figure. TheVifualCD receives the Sec- 
tions, from which Perpendiculars are rais'd for the Ele- 
vation and Profile of the following Figure, as has been 
of en faid. If you would delineate the Back-part fepa- 
rate from the Fore-part, you may do the former by means 
of the Line CE, and the latter by that of FD. 




FIGURA Sexagefima. 



Tabernaculum o£tangulare» 

OC tabernaculo aliquoties ufus fui pro expd- 

Jitione quadraginta horarum. Si colores 

fcite induBi fuerint in duos ordines tela-* 

riorum^ refefflis omnibus qua ad molem ip- 

fam non pertinent > fpeBatoribus imponet, gf 

folida videbitur. Oportebit autem exemplar externa faciei 

eruere ex parte DF vejiigii& elevationis; exemplar interio- 

ris faciei eruere ex parte E C, fervando in omnibus regulas 

quas hucufque tradidimus* 




The Sixtieth FIGURE 

An Octangular Tabernacle in PerfpeSlive* 






Have fometimes made ufe of this Taber- 
nacle for theExpofition of the Forty Hours* 
If the Colours are laid by a skilful Hand, 
on two Ranges of Cloth, and the Frame 
cut away according to the Out-line of the 
Work, they will wonderfully deceive the Eye, and appear 
as folid ; but then the outer Ranse mull be drawn after 
the Plan and Elevation of the Part D F in the foregoing 
Figure ; and the inner Range after that of EC ; in all 
things obferving the Rules hitherto delivered. 



Fig. lxi. 





•exage 




Modus erigendi machinas, cpx conftat pluribus ordinibus telariorurrh 

X figura infpettione addifces modum erigendi machinas qua confl at plurU 
bus ordinibus telariorum. < Tabernaculum hoc nojlrum indiget duobus tan- 
turn ordinibus ; nam telaria propinquiora oculo exprimunt faciem exter- 
nam, remotiora exhibent faciem intemam. Ne autem lateant jiipites qui- 
bus telaria fuflinentur, medietatem telariorum adumbrare omifimus. Ret~ia 
LS eji line a plant, re£ia DG eji linea horizontalis-, ac puncTum diflantia 
quod cadit extra paginam in ret~ia C G prolongate., debet ejfe remotum & 
punttoQ, quantum in fuperiori parte figura quinquageJlmanona,puniium 
difiantia eji remotum a puntlo oculi. Eadem horizontalis DG fecatur 
normaliter iy C a ret~la EF, qua eft fettio externa faciei tabernaculi, & exC incipiunt dim/tones 
in partes aquales pro reticulatione anterioris faciei telariorum, ut dicemus figura. fexagefimafecunda. 
Retta IL qua eji fe6lio interna faciei tabernaculi, dijlat ad libitum a retla EF cut eft parallela* 
tPorrb, per divifiones refia EF {ut njides in M,N,0) ex puncio diflantia ducenda funt vifuales act 
reflam I L pro reticulatione aliorum telariorum : difiantia enim D C facit ut augere oporteat ect 
qua in telarits pinguntur, alioquin jufto minora viderentur. Atque hinc dignofces, cur arcus qui 
in telariis anterioribus pertingeret folum ad B, in pojlerioribus elevetur ufque ad H. 

Figura fequenti proponemus modum delineandi faciem intemam telariorum, adhibit a reticulatione 
externa faciei', ad intelligentiam verb illius methodi, fiat in hac figura. recta HP parallela ad DC, 
ac retfa B C dividatur in totidem partes aquales, in quot partes divifa fuerit re£ta P C. 




The Sixty-firft F 





The Manner of eretfing Machines, that con/ifl of federal Ranges of Frames. 

Y cafting your Eye on the Figure, you'll readily apprehend the Manner 
of erecting the feveral Ranges of Frames. This Tabernacle lad defcrib'd 
needs only two of them ; the Frame next the Eye reprefents the outer 
Face, and the hinder Frame the inner Face thereof. I have here defcrib'd 
but the Half-Breadth of the faid Frames, that you might have a Sight of 
the Poles and Braces which fupport them. The Line LS is the Line of 
the Plan, or Ground-line ; the Line DG is that of the Horizon ; and 
the Point of Diftance, which falls' without the Page CG prolonged, is as 
far from the Point C, as the Point of Diftance is from the Point of Sighe 
in the upper Part of the Fifty-ninth Figure. The Horizontal DG is cut perpendicularly in C by the 
Line E F, which is the Section of the outer Face of the Tabernacle ; and from the Point C begirt 
the equal Divifions for the Net-work of the foremoft Frame, as is (hewn in the Sixty-fecond Figure. 
The Line I L, which is the Section of the inner Face of the Tabernacle, may at pleafure be fee 
nearer or farther from the Line E F, to which it is parallel. By the Divifions of the Line E F (as 
M, N, O) Lines are drawn from the Point of Diftance to the Perpendicular I L, for the Net-work 
of that Frame ; for the Diftance D C obliges the Parts of D to be painted larger, otherwife they will 
appear lefs than they really ought. And from hence you may difcern, why the Arch, which in the 
foremoft Frame would reach only to B, does in the hindmoft rife up to H. 

In the following Figure is fliewn the Manner of delineating the inner Frame, from the Net-work 
of the outer Face $ for the better underftanding of which, make the Line H P in this Figure parallel 
to DC, and let the Line BC be divided into as many equal Parts, as the Line PC was. 




F I G U R A Sexagefimafecunda. 

De reticulandis telariis, qua: reprsfentent xdificia folida. 

1)0 exemplaria tabernaculi qua Jeorfim delineanda funt y conjunct im habes in A. 
1)trifque defervit eadem reticulatio, quam fuis numeris infignivimus . Toftquam 
ervo defignaveris amplitudinem totius adificii, cum proportioue ad ipfam reticu- 
laris pavimentum B aula cujufpiam quod capiat rem totam, afcriptis eifdem nu- 
me'Yis qttos habet exemplar : ejufque retis ope, ducentur in pavimento linea ter- 
minativa tot idem membrorum, quot futura fimt telaria exprimentia faciem exter- 
nam tabernaculi. Vbi hac parata fuerint, Jingula difponentur exact e fuis locis 
in ipfomet pavimento ; ac funiculis colore nigro imbutis, repetetur in telariis ea- 
dem reticulatio, odditis ad libitum pluribus vifualibus ; quorum adjumento dum 
feorfim pinguntur telaria, duct queont recta tendentes ad punttum oculi feu per- 
fpettiva. Alio quoque reticulatio fuper pavimento necejfaria eft pro interna facie 
tabernaculi ; ac dua ret iculat tones pavimenti earn inter fe proportionem habebunt, 
quam habent divifiones rettarum IL, EF, figure fexagefimaprima. Hnjus retis 
duttufient line a terminativte telariorum cum reliquis, tit jam indicavimus. 

Juxta banc methodum nequeunt dtici line a terminativa inter tor is faciei, nifi fiat in pavimento aliud rete de- 
leto priori, quod ejfet vdlde laboriofum. Tofiquam ergo ex veftigio figure quinquagefimanona eruta fint dito 
exemplar ia , in exemplar faciei externa transfer atur re£ia PC figura fexagefimaprima, in exemplar faciei in± 
tenia transferatur retta B C. Si autem retta P C divifa fuerit in quindecim partes aquales, dividetur B C in 
quindecim partes aquales, at que ope harum divifionum reticular e oportebit utrkmque exemplar. Torrb licet 
quadrat a in reti exemplar is faciei externa fint major a- quadrat is exemplar is interna faciei, nihilominus idem 
rete pavimenti deferviet pro ducendis lineis terminativis utriuf que faciei. Qua dicta fitnt de duobus exempla- 
ribus, valent de aliis quotcunque. Exempli gratia ; fi confiruere placeat quinque or dines telariorum, fient quinqne 
exemplaria in papyrot, Si in omnibus exemplaribus ufurpetur eadem reticulatio, in pavimento facere oportet 
quinque diver fas reticulationes. Si autem in exemplaribus fiant quinque diver fa reticulationes, in pavimento 
Jiifficit una reticulatio. 

Curandum eft ut fingula retis quadrata in telariis fint exalt a, omnefque illorum anguli fint recti. Modus 
expeditijfimus faciendf \ngulos rectos eft hujufmodi. Tofito uno crure circini in puncto F line a recta EF, 
alioque crure fofito ubilibet in O, fiet circulus GFI, ^ ex puncto G diameter GI. Si recta HF tranfeat per 
puntta 1 & ¥, efi normalis ad E F. 

The Slxty-fecond FIGURE. 

Of making the Net-work on Frames, for reprefenting the Architecture as folid. 

O U have jointly in A, the two Defigns of a Tabernacle, which are to be drawn fe* 
parately ; the fame Net-work ferving for both, which is alfo mark'd with Numbers. 
When you have therefore refolv'd on the Size of your Work, on the Pavement of 
fome Room capacious enough, make a Net-work anfwerable, and affix thereto the 
Numbers, as in your Copy : By the Help of which, you may on the Pavement de- 
fcribe the Out-lines of all thofe Members that are requifite to the outer Frame of the 
Tabernacle. This being done, let the Frame be laid exactly in its place on the faid 
Pavement, and with a black Line ftrike thereon the fame Net-work ; adding as ma- 
ny Vifual Lines as you pleaie, which will be of Ufe for drawing Lines to the Point 
of Sight, when you come to paint the Frames afunder. Another Net-work on the 
Pavement is alfo neceiTary for the inner Face of the Tabernacle, which fhould bear fuch 
Proportion to this, as the Divifions of the Line I L do to thofe of EF in the Sixty-firft 
Figure ; and by this means the Out-lines of the inner Frame, &c . may be drawn, as has been ihewn already. 

Thus the Out-lines of the inner Face can't be defcrib'd, without rubbing out the firft Net-work, and making a fe- 
cond on the Pavement ; which wou'd be very troublefome. Wherefore, from the Plan of the Fifty-ninth Figure, take 
the two Defigns, and transfer the Line PC of the Sixty-firft Figure on the outer Face, and the Line BC on the in- 
ner Face. Then if P C were divided into fifteen equal Parts, B C fhall be divided in the lame manner, and by thefe 
Divifions make the Net-work on each Defign. And altho' the Squares of the outer Face be larger than thofe of 
the inner one, the fame Net-work may neverthelefs ferve for giving the Out-lines of both. What has been faid of 
thefe two Defigns may be underftood of many. For Inftance, if five Ranges of Frames were requir'd, five Defigns 
muft be made in Paper. If in all the Defigns the fame Net-work be us'd, then five feveral Net-works niuft be 
made on the Pavement ; but if the Defigns have five different, then one Net work on the Pavement will fuffice. 

You muft be very careful that all the Squares of the Net-work be exactly divided, and at right Angles. The 
ready way of making a right Angle is thus : Placing one Foot of the Compaffes in the Point F of the Line E F, and 
the other at pleafure in O, defcribe the Circle G F I ; and from the Point G draw the Diameter G I. The Line F H 
drawn by the Points F I, ihall be perpendicular to F E. 




FiG.Lxm. 




F I G U R A Sexagefimatertia. 




Veftigia aedificii quadrati. 

ESTIGIUM geometricum A hujus adificii 
habet in BJuam deformationem. Difcri-* 
men inter pilas C £*f D oritur ex eo, quod 
in C pojitajint vejligiajtylobatarurn, in D 



autem pojita jint vejiigia coronicum. 



The Sixty-third FIGURE. 

The Plan of a Square Dejign. 

|||hE Geometrical Plan cf this Befign A, 

ill is brought into Perfpe£tive in B. The 

Difference between the Parts C and D 

|| arifes from hence, that the Plan of the 

44 

Pedeftals is placd in C, and that of the Cornice in D. 




FIGURA Sexagefimaaiiarta. 



^Edificium quadratum. 

X deformatione veftigii £s? elevationis, methodo 
confuetd eruitur imago totius rfdificii, qu£ 
pot eft ejfe exemplar ar£ maxima alicujusRc- 
tlefice. Hanc machinam, nonjine communi 
approbatione, aliquot ies adhibui, in apparatu 
J quadraginta horarum ; locum in medio vacuum 
occupantibus Angelis cum nubibus, additd figurarum aliquot 
copid in parte infer iori. Modus faciendi in telariis remotio- 
ribus ab oculo partem tholi rotundi quam hie vides, deducitur 
ex Us qua tradidimus in projeffiione circulorwm. 




The Sixty-fourth FIGURE. 

A Square Dejign in Perfpeffiive. 

ROM the Plan and Upright in Perfpe&ive, 
this finifhd Piece of the whole Work is de- 
lineated after the ufual Manner, and may 
ferve for the Defign of a great Altar in 
a Church. I have fometinies, for the 
Solemnity of the Forty Hours, expos d this 
painted on a Machine, with an univerfal Satisfaction • An- 
gels with Clouds poflefling the higher part of the Hemi- 
sphere within, and Groups of Figures the lower part. 
The Manner cf defigning on the inner Frame, that part of 
the faid Cupola which you here fee, is deducd from what 
has been before faid of putting Circles into Perfpe&ive. 




■■'.", ... 




FIGURA Sexagefimaquinta, 

Veftigium tedificii rotundi optice imminutum. 

1 

U I fedulam operant in cir cutis deformandis non pofuerint 7 
eofcjue minimo negotio ex ufu defcribere nequiverint, frujira 
conabuntur projicere vefligia gdificiorum rotundorum. Ad 
vitandam confujtonem, proderit in vefligio notare primum li- 
neas occultas membrorum pracipuorum ; iifque tranjlatis in 
elevationem, adder e fenfim reliquas; Hac induflria ego ipfe 
in hoc Jchemate ufuJ fum. §lyurn autem . experimento didicerim fummam ardui- 
tatem harum defer iptionum, aliam regulam adhibere jamdiu coepi, quam ? ut fupra 
diximus, in aliud Opus refervamns. 




The Sixty-fifth FIGURE. 

The Plan of a Circular Work in PerfpeBive. 

HEY that have not diligently apply'd themfelves to 
the putting Circles into Perfpective, and, by a con- 
ftant Practice, render'd thi Work familiar to them, 
will in vain attempt that of the Plans of round Build- 
ings. To prevent Confufion, you'll do well, firft to 
mark the occult Lines of the principal Members ; and 
after thofe are transferr'd into the Upright, tten proceed to the reft, as I 
my felf did in this Figure. But having founl by Experience, the great 
Difficulty of defcribing thefe round things, I have long fince made ufe of 
another Method, which, as I faid before, is referv'd for another Volume. 




FIGURA Sexagefimafexta. 



Proje<9:io aedificii rotundu 

IRIFJCE oculis imponunt imagines rerum rotundarum, Ji 
omnibus refeclis qua ad eas non pertinent, exaffe delineates 
I ac depict a fuer int. Ham figuram ex vefligio eruere oportebit 
methodo confueta, eamque in Templo iS.Ignatii Collegii Romani 
confiruxi, pro feriaV.& VI. Hebdomada Janclioris. Intra 
arcum, juper altari, locus erat urnce fepulchrali, cum Vene- 
fabili Sacramento. Sub altari vifebatur Jimulacrum Chrifli Domini e Cruce de± 
pofiti : in medio columnarum, imago Beata Virginis dolentis ; Juper balauftiis 
Angeli lugentes, cum inftrumentis cruciatuum Salvatoris. 





The Sixty-firth FIGU 

A Circular Dejign in PerfpeSiive. 

HE Appearance of round things, if well delign'd, mafter- 
ly painted, and the Frame cut away to the Out-line of 
the Work, do wonderfully deceive the Eye. This Fi- 
gure is drawn from the Plan, as ufually ; and was put 
in execution by me, in the Church of S. Ignatius of the 
Roman College, for the Thurfday and Friday of the Holy 
Week. Within tne Arch, pn the Altar, was plac'd a fepulchral Urn con- 
taining the Holy Sacrament. Beneath the Altar was laid a Figure of our 
Saviour Chrift taken down from the Crofs. In the midft of the Tambour, 
was a Piclure of the BlefTed Virgin in extreme Sorrow ; and on the Baluftrade, 
Angels mourning, bearing the Inftruments of the Paffion. 




FIG. LXVI. 








rtHE-fiL'ASGOW- 
iCHOC'-' :•-■• t\T 



Fig. lxyh. 




FIGURA Sexagefimafeptima. 

Veftigium geometricum, ac prima prseparatio ad figuram 

feptuagefimamprimam 

GREG 1 AM adeb fpeciem prafetulit, atque oculis adeb impofuit ma* 
china quam conjlruxi anno \6)s<) :i pro fupplicatione qmdraginta horarum^ 
'in Templo Urbis Famejlano, ut decreverim fatisfacere Studiofis, publici 
juris faciendo non modb imaginem totius adificii, fed etiam illius vejligia 
& elevationes : qua omnia ea. diligentia. delineavimus, veluti Opus ipfum 
non penicillo colorandum, fed lapidibus extruendum fuijfet. Spatia fit' 
grantia foliditatem dejignant parietum & colamnarum. Cater a linea 
funt crepidines Jiylobatarum & coronicum. Initium delineationis fiet ab 
its membris, ex quibus oriuntur linea occulta pojii a in A, {qua autem dicuntur de hac medietate, 
intelligi debent de alia) ne multitudo linearum confujionem pariat . In B linea ciirva occulta funt 
vejiigium tholi qui complet fummitatem adificii. Vejiigium C exhibet ambulacrum interius. Omi/i- 
mus autem vejiigium theatri, quia pagina angujiia illud non capit. 




The Sixty-feventh FIGURE. 

The Geometrical Plan, and jirji Preparation to the 

Seventy-firji Figure. 

HE Machine which I erected in the Year 1^85, in the Church ofFarneze, 
or Jefuits Church ztRome, for the Devotions of the Forty Hours 5 had fo 
admirable an Effect, and fo pleafantly deceivd the Eye, that I refolv'd 
to gratify the Studious, not only with a general View, but with the Plan 
and Elevation thereof 5 all which was perform 'd with fuch Exactnel's, 
that the Work itfelf feem'd rather to confift of folid Stones, than to be 
wrought by the Painter's Hand. The hatched Part denotes the Solidity 
of the Walls and Columns. The other fhews the Breaks and Projectures 
of the Pedeftals and Cornices. Left many Lines fhould caufe Confufion, begin with thofe Mem- 
bers, which produce the occult Lines on the Side A 5 understanding the fame alfo of the other half. 
In B the occult curv'd Lines are the Plan of the Cupola which crowns the Structure. The Plan C 
is that of the inner Veftibule, but that of the Theater is here omitted, thro' want of Room in 
the Page. 




F I G U R A Sexageiirnao£tava. 

Elevatio geometrica veftigii prsecedentis, & fecunda prse- 
paratio ad figuram feptuagefimamprimam. 

N hoc fchemate habes elevationem tfdijiciife- 
Bam in longi/m, quam figurd feptuagejimd o- 
ptice projiciemus : eifdemque membrisconfiare 
videbis elevationem deformatam, quibus con- 
fiat elevatio geometrica. Hincdifces adex- 
cogitandas hujufmodi machinas, eandem Ar- 
chiteffiurce fcientiam in PiBore necejfariam ejfe, qua adcon- 
firuenda folida tedificia exigitur in ArchiteBo. 




The Sixty-eighth FIGURE. 

The Geometrical Elevation of the foregoing Plan, andfecond 
Preparation to the Seventy-fir fi Figure. 

N this Figure you have the Elevation of 
the aforefaid Structure differed length- 
wife ; the Perfpe&ive thereof is defcribd 
in the Seventieth Figure ; and you may 
obferve that both of them confift of the 
fame Members : whence you may per- 
ceive, that for defigning things of this kind, the Painter 
ought to have no lefs Skill in Archite&ure, than is re- 
quir'd for the Execution of folid Works. 




i 
.... 




FIG.LXVm 






LI I ' '• ' - 



Fig. 



lxix. 










FIGURA Sexagefimanona, 

Deformatio veftigii figure fexagefiniaefeptiiii^e, & prce- 
paratio tertia ad figuram feptuagefimainprimaiiL 

RTIFICIUM projeffionis veftigii hujus, ex- 

plicatum a nobis eft jigurd quadragefimafe- 

cundd ; nimirum, ut parallels Jint invicem 

dijiantiores, lineam plani deorfum protraxi- 

mus, ut ex intuitu figure? ftatim cognofces. 




The Sixty-ninth FIGURE. 

The Plan of the Sixty-feventh Figure in PerfpeSiive, and 
third Preparation to the Seventy-firtf Figure. 

HE Artifice us'd in projecting the Perfpeo 
tive of this Plan, has been already fhewn 
in the Forty-fecond Figure ; namely, that 
for giving the greater Diftance between 
the Parallels, the Ground-line is drawn 
much lower than its true Place ; as is ma- 
nifeft on Infpe£tion of the Figure. 




FIGURA SEPTUAGESIMA. 



Deformatio elevationis figure fexagefimsec&avse, & prse- 
paratio quarta ad fi^uram feptuagefimam primam. 

U^E diSlafunt de projeSlione vefligii nojiri 
tfdificii, habent locum in elevationei nimi- 
rum, ut parallels invicem not abt 'liter difta- 
rent, ufifumus induflria quam declaravimtk 
fgurd quadragejimafecunda. 




The Seventieth FIGURE. 

The PerfpeSlive of the Elevation of the Sixty-eighth Figure, 
and the fourth Preparation to the Seventy firB Figure. 

HAT has been faid of the Perfpe&ive- 
Plan cf this Structure, is alfo here pra- 
&isd in the Elevation ; namely, that the 
Parallels might be fufficiently diftinft, thef 
Perpendiculars are drawn more remote 
from the Point of Sight, as was fhewn in 
the Forty-fecond Figure. 







FlG.LXX. 




FlG.LXXI 



. ;. r .;, 77] 




FIGURA 







fi 



naabruna. 



Theatrum reprsefentans Nuptias 

ftructum Romse, anno 1685. in expofidone 
cramenti in Templo Farnefiano Societatis JE 

X antecedentibus praparationibus eruimus projeffionem nobilis hiijus Av* 
chiteffura, qua oculos impkbat turn ad facem foils diurnam, turn pra» 
c'ipue ad lumen candelarum ; ex quibus mult a palam erant expofta, alia 
omnino latebant, ut illuminarent fex diverfbs ordines telariorum qu'tbui 
tota mavhina conjlabat, non computando in hoc numero tela/ia, qua in 
medio arcus maximi exprimebant mtbes refertas Angelis adorantibus Ve- 
nerabile Sacramentum. Nubes if as omijimus, ne ab fonder entur partes 
tMeriorum adif riorum. In difponendts autem ordinibus telariorum, ft" 
■ vatus eji modus quern declaravi figura. fexagefimaprima & fexagefima* 
fecunda $ ac praterea in eligenda eorum difaniia ciiratum fuit y ut candela 
in parte pojiica telariorum collocata, illuminarent faciem telariorum interiorum. tPorro quot mem' 
bra pracipua in duabus faciebus majoribus, totidem difincia telaria numerabantur, quorum proinde 
connexiones difcerni vis pot erant 3 eorumque aliquot paria ferreis hamulis copulata erant, ut explu 
cart ac replicari pojfent, ad faciliorem tra£latwnem diuturnioremqitc confer vationem. 

£hii hucufque fequuti me fuerint, nihil dubito quin fuum iter feliciffme fmt profequuturi ^ atque 
Opera his nojlris majora melioraque inventuri. 




The Seventy-firft FIGURE. 

/I Theater reprefenting the Marriage of Cana in Galilee, 
ere tie din the Jefuits Church at Rome, /// the Year 1685 5 
for the Solemnity of expojing the Holy Sacrament. 

ROM the foregoing Preparations, is drawn the Perfpective o : f this noble 
Piece of Architecture ; which {truck the Eye when ieen by Day-licrhtj 
but was more efpecially furprizing by Candle-light 5 many of the Can- 
dles being expos'd to Sight, and others altogether hidden, to illuminate 
thefe fix different Ranges of Scenes, of which the whole Work confifted ? 
without reckoning that in the midft of the great Arch, reprefenting 
Clouds fill'd with Angels adoring the bleffed Sacrament. Thofe Clouds 
are here omitted, that the inner Parts of the Work might be the better 
feen. In difpofing the feveral Ranges of Scenes, the lame Method was 
obierv'd, which was delivered in the Sixty-full and Sixty-fecond Figures 5 and great Care was a'ifo 
taken in their Diftances, that the Candles plac'd on the Back of one of them might illuminate the 
Face of the other behind it. Moreover, each Scene confifted of as many Parts, as there were prin- 
cipal Members in the two greater Facades 5 fo that the Joints were icarcely difcermble : arid lome 
Pairs of them being coupled with Hinges, folded and unfolded, for the more cafy managing and 
preferving them. 

I doubt not but thofe who have follow'd me thus far, will be encouraged fo to profecute their 
Studies, as to be able to defign even greater and more noble Works,* than thefe of mine. 





Septuageflmafecunda. 



De theatris fceniciSi 

HEATRIS qua jam delineavimns affinia funt theatra fcenica; in his t amen non 
adeb facile refer itur punclum oculi feuperjpeiliva. Traterea^ quia ex obliquitate 
canalium intra quos moventur fcena, oritur ut linea retla qua videri debent pa- 
rallela ad lineam plant, non debeant effe parallels fed obliqua, harum delineatio 
difficultate non caret. Incommodum iftud vitari pojfet adhibendo canales parallelos 
ad pofienium, ut alicubi fieri /diet, prafertim in Germania. Nihilominus ufus Ita- 
licus affert hoc adjumentum, ut illi quibus incumbit fuggerere acloribus, vel feenas 
movere, aliifque fimilibus praejfe, facilius lateant & liberius fungantur munere 

f ao - , 

1)t brevem fummam habeas eorum qua deinde lathis declaraturi fumus, hanc 

figurant contemplare. 1,2,3,4, eft veftigium aula qua habet in longitudine centum- 

Jr'viginti palmos Romanos, in latitudine fexaginta palmos ; ut oftendit fcala S triginta 

palmorum. Medieiatem loci occupat theatrum, medietatem obtinent podia & loca fpeclatorum. O punclum in 

quo uniuntur linea vifuales, D locus pro apparentiis rerum magis ac magis diftantium. BC locus pofcenii. 

HH funt canales obliqui, quorum latitudo eft dupla latitudinis fcenarum. F Q frons © fades theatri. A O ejus 

profunditas aut longitudo. E locus pro pfaltibus, tibicinibus, 6s fiftulatoribus. K fpatium profpetlatoribus. I 

veftigium podiorum. L fcala podiorum. N ipforum elevatio. M declivitas tabulati, cum feclione © elevatione 

theatri. Et fcenis ex latere infpeBis, qua cum fuis canalibus congruunt, ut demonftrant linea occulta. O O linea 

normalis ad lineam horizontalem. P & Q_ elevatio fcenarum coram injpeclarum, qua introrfum flefluntur ; ® in 

latitudine congruunt cum canalibus veftigii B, in altitudine cum fetlionibus elevationis M ; ut conftat ex lineis 

occultis. In eadem elevatione M pars altitudinis tribuenda eft fcenis, pars laquearibus R, per qua jungitur 

unumquodque per telariorum. V V linea ad explorandum an detur vacuum inter feenas & laquearia, vel inter 

feenas, vel inter laquearia. In quibufdam autem fcenis, loco laquearium pinguntur nubes & aer. 




The Seventy-fecond FIGURE. 



Of Scenes for the Stage* 




CENES for the Stage have very much Affinity with thofe lately defcrib'd, but the 
Point of Sight is not fo eafily found in thefe ; and from the Obliquity of the 
Grooves in which the Scenes run, it comes to pafs, that the right Lines which 
ought to appear parallel to the Line of the Plan, muft not be drawn parallel there- 
to, but oblique ; which is a Work of fome Difficulty. This indeed may be avoided 
by fixing the Grooves parallel to the Pofcene ; as is ufual in fome Places, efpecially 
in Germany. Neverthelels, the Italian Manner has this Advantage, That thofe who 
are employ'd to prompt the Actors, and lhift the Scenes, &c. arelefs expos'd to Sight, 
in the Performance of their Bufinefs. 

In this Figure I have given you an Abridgment of thofe things, which fhall here- 
after be more enlarg'd on. The Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, denote the Area of a Hall an 
"^ hundred and twenty Roman Palms in Length, and fixty in Breadth ; as is manifeft 
from the Scale of thirty Palms mark'd S. Half this Space is taken up by the Stage, the other half by the Spectators. 
O is the Point in which the vifual Lines concenter. D is the Place of thofe things that are to appear moft remote. 
BC is the Place of the Pofcene. H H are the oblique Grooves, whofe Lengths are double the Breadth of the Scenes. 
FG is the Front of the Stage. AO is its Depth or Length. E is the Place for the Mufick. K is the Room for 
Spectators. I is the Plan of the Galleries. L the Stairs to the fame. N is the Elevation of the Galleries. M 
Ihevvs the Declivity of the Floor, with the Section and Elevation of the Stage and Scenes vievv'd on the Side ; 
anfvvering their refpective Grooves, as the occult Lines demonftrate. O O is a Line perpendicular to that of the 
Horizon. P and Q_are the Elevation of the Scenes view'd in Front, turning inwards, in Breadth agreeing with the 
Length of the Grooves of the Plan B ; and in Height anfwering that of the Sections of the Elevation M ; as is evi- 
dent from the occult Lines. In this Profile M, part of the Height belongs to the Scenes, and part to their Sof, 
fites, or Cielings, R; where each Pair of thefe Frames are join'd. VV are the Lines by which is efpy'd what Va- 
cancy there is either between the Scenes and their Cielings, between the Scenes themfelves, or between their refpective 
Cielings ; tho in fome Scenes the Place of thefe laft is fupply'd by painting therein the Air with Clouds, S?r. 



F I G U R A Septuagefimatertia. 

Aliud veftigium theatri, ubi de modo inveniendi 

ejus pundum. 

/ pingenda fint Jcena theatri alicujus antea conftrufli, deli- 
neate oportebit vefiigium geometricum ex ipjo erutum, (ad 
formam vefligii quod cemis in hac pagina) ut inveniatur longi- 
tudo theatri, feu diftantia quam ejus punclum habet a pwMo 
A : id autem nullo negotio fiet, accipiendo dijiantias BC inter 
primos canales, & 1 DE inter ultimos, ac ducendo vifuales MO, 
NO: nam theatrum habebit longitudinem AO, ac punclum 
perfpecliva in vejligio theatri erit O. Praterea Jcire opor- 
tebit longitudinem & 1 latitudinem canalium, eorumque numerum, dijiantias, & 
flexus ; ac pracipm curandum eft, ut, licet Jint obliqui ad lineam M N, fint in- 
vicem paralleli in unoquoque latere, ac finguli tangant lineas MO, NO. Jam 
Ji recite AO fiat aqualis retla FA, in F erit punclum diftantia : adeoque fi 
theatrum juxta methodum a nobis tradendam depiclum fuerit, fipecJatori qui con- 
fifiat in F apparebit veluti tabula pitla juxta leges perjpecliva, pofita in A. 







The Seventy-third F I 

Another Plan of a Theater, with the Method of finding 

the Point of Sight therein. 

F it be requir'd to paint the Scenes of fome Theater already 
built, the Geometrical Plan thereof mu ft flrft be carefully- 
drawn, fas you fee, for Example, in this Plate) that thi 
length of the Theater may be found; or the Diftanca 
of its Point from that of A ; which is eafily done, by 
taking the Interval BC of the firft Grooves, and DE 
of the latter ; and drawing the Vifuals MO, NO: for 
AO is the Length of the Theater, and the Point of 
Sight, or Perfpeclive, therein, is O. Moreover the Length and Breadth of 
the Grooves muft be known, as alfo their Numbers, Diftance, and Obliquity; 
and efpecial Care muft be taken, that tho they be oblique to the Line M NT, 
that on each Side they be Parallels between themfelves, and that they all 
touch the Lines MO, NO. If you then make A O equal to FA, the Point 
of Diftance will be F ; and if the Theater be painted according to the Rules 
hereafter given, it will appear to him that views it from F, as a regular Piece 
of Perfpeclive plac'd in A. 




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FIGURA Septuagefimaquinta 



a 




Elevatio fcenarum coram infpe£r.arum : ubi docetlir artificium tit feenaz oblique 

appareant redtae. 

CEISIjE quas iides in S, habent fuam latitudinem A veftigio Jigttra fep* 
tuagefimatertia, altitudinem ab eleniatione figura feptuage/imaquarta, ac 
cenfentur ere6ta & canahbus inferta, qua omnia reprafentantur etiam 
I figuva feptuagefimafecundlin^ & Q. Velim obferves quantum elevetur 
tabulatum in principio A, in pofcenio D, o> in punfio theatri O. Stmt* 
liter not are oportet elevationem Jlngularum fcenarum, qua propter obit' 
quitatem canalium fecJuntur introrfum: iccirco linea BL, KI, partis C$ 
non videntur parallela ad lineam plant, ut reipfa funt 5 ac vifualis L F 
non tendit ad punt~lum ocuh O, fed ad puntlum F, Si autem excejfiis ap-* 
parens, quern reef a BK habet in fummo & imo fupra r etiam LI, transfer atur in partem E fcena- 
vum, (iidem escej/us defumi etiam pojfunt ex figura feptuagefimdqiiarta) ac ducantur retla LG, IHj 
habebuntur linea appar enter parallela ad lineam plant. Si fiat rebla LO, qua cum LGfaciat an- 
gulum G'L O aqualem angulo B L F, eadem L O tendet exaffifjime ad puntlum O Oculi, eaque uten- 
dum erit ut vifuali. 

In P fupponimus fcenas Md?"N jacere fuper pavimento unas fuper atiis, ac duas lineas R T, 
habere diftantiam eandem cum duabus LI, & it a in reliquis fcenis. Ubi notandum eft, lineas RS, 
TV, eafdem effe cum lineis LG, I H, fcenarum E : nihilominus lineas RS, TV, non ejfe paraU 
lelaSy quum tamen LG, IH, videantur parallela. 'Proinde ft fiat retla KL, & angali SRL, 
GLO, Jint aquales reel: a. RL utendum erit tanquam vifuaH, in L erit puntlum accidentale oculi 
pro pingendis fcenis N, ac hnca RS, TV, habebuntur ut parallela: id atitem quod fuperejl mte- 
lario ultra tales lineas, pro nihilo computabitur, ibique pingetur aer aut aliquid aliud. 'Puntlum 
accidentale oculi pro pingendis fcenis M, erit in I. 




The Seventy-fifth FIGU 

The Elevation of Scenes in Front, and how the oblique Scenes are made to appear directs 

HE Seenes in S have their Breadth from the Plan of the Seventy-third Fi- 
gure, and their Height from the Elevation of the Seventy-fourth Figure, 
and are iuppos'd to ftand perpendicularly in their Grooves 5 all which is 
alfo reprefented in P and Q. or the Seventy-fecond Figure. I would have 
you oblerve, how much the Floor rifes, from its Edge A, to the Pofcene 
D, and to the Point of the Theater O. You mould alio note the Ele- 
vation of each Scene, which, by reafon of the Obliquity of the Grooves, 
turn inward : Wherefore the Lines B L, K I, of the Part C, do not feem 
Parallels to the Ground-line, as they really are 5 and the Vifual L F tends 




not to the Point of Sight O, but to the Point F. But if the feeming Excefs, which the Line B K has 
at top and at bottom, above the Line LI, be transferr'd en the Side of the Scenes E, (which Excefs 
may alfo be taken from the Seventy-fourth Figure) and you draw the Lines L G, I H 5 thefe Lines 
will appear Parallels to the Line of the Plan. Then drawing the Line LO, lb as to make the An- 
gle GLO equal to the Angle BLF, the faidLO (hall tend direclly to the Point of Sight O < and 
lerve for a vifual Line. 

In P, I fuppofe the Scenes M and N to lie one upon another on the Floor, and the two Lines 
RT to have the fame Diftance as the Lines LI-; and fo of the others. Where you are to take 
^Notice, that the Lines RS, TV, are the fame with the Lines LG, IH, of the Scenes E : and that 
the Lines RS, TV, are not Parallels ; akho LG, I H, feem to be fo. Therefore, if you draw 
the Line R L, fo that the Angles S R L, and G L O, be equal ; the Line R L mall ferve as a Vifual, 
and L fhall be the accidental Point of Sight, for painting the Scenes of the Side N 3 and the Lines 
RS, TV, (hall be us'd as Parallels. What remains on the Frame beyond thofe Lines, is to be 
reckon'd as nothing } but you may paint there Air, or what you pleafe. The accidental Point of 
Sight for painting the Scenes of the Side M, is I. 



FIGURA Septuagefimafexta. 

Modus delineandi exemplar fcenarum. 

TERUM delineavimus fcenas ereSias fuper 
tabulator in B nudas, in A depiSfas, ad- 
ditis projeSiuris coronicum £^ aliorum orna- 
mentorum. Deform at io fcenarum A eruitur 
methodo confueta ex veftigio C, in quo vi- 

debis lineam plani deorfum protraffam. Vejiigium autem 

geometricum eji in 




The Seventy-fixth FIGURE. 

The Manner of delineating the Dejtgns of Scenes. 

N this Plate you have another Defign of 

Scenes ere&ed on the Floor ; the naked 

Scenes are B ? - the painted ones A ; with 

the additional Proje&ures of Cornices 

and other Ornaments. The Draught of 

the Scenes A is produc'd from the Plan C, after the ufu- 
al Manner ; in which you may obferve the Ground-line 
to be lower than its true place, for the greater Diftinc- 
tion of the Parallels, The Geometrical Plan is D. 




TME-CL A -.5''J0V'-I 
iChOCL fARTI 
LiBfVAKT: I 



Fig. 



ixxvn. 






FIGURA Sep 




Modus reticulandi & pingendi fceoas theatric 

O S 7* QUA M in pannmento exattififime difpofueris turn pofceiihtm, tunl 
ex ordtne fcenas reliquas, unam alteri incumbent em, lit figura fep~ 
tuagefimaquintl declaravimus, fiet linen horizontals, in qua notanda 
funt tria puncfa perfpe£ftva, iimim in O ufi'i futurism in p'wgendo 
pofcenio, ac duo rehqua him hide, fingula videlicet pro fcenis partis 
oppofita. Jam fupponendo quod in parvo exemplar't K prima fcena faBa 
fuerit reticulatio per quadrat a perfeffa-, proportionalis d'wifio fiet turn 
in retJa H I prima fcena B, tuni in recta C D. Toflea ex puntlo E, per 
fingula punffia dwifionum retfa HI, fient vifuales adhibendo funiculum colore nigro imbutum 5 ea- 
rumque ope, ut figura oft en Ait, reticular e oportebit fcenam B, turn remota ea fcenam illi fi.bjetlam, 
£f eodem modo aliam & aliam-, ac demum per divfiones quas in recJa LM factum inflates ex 
pun£io E, abfohetur reticulatio pofcemi, cujus quadrat a effe debent per feci a, fecus quadrat a fcena- 
rum. In parte infer tori pagtna, dua fcena G & F oft en Aunt ornament a qua in fcenis depingt pofi 
funt. Velim autem obfrves, turn Tineas tranfverfas coronicum, qua non funt invicem par alleTa, 
turn vifuales qua tendunt ad punfia oppofita. Nam ejufmodi Tinea continent Anas peculiar es difficult 
tates proje£iionum theatralium -, eafque ut fuperes, exalte fervanda funt regula quas declaravimus. 




The Seventy-feventh FIGURE. 

The Manner of making the Net- work or Squares \ and 
fainting the Scenes of Theatres. 

FTER you have with great Exadtnefs difpos'd the Pofcene on the Pave- 
merit, and the others in order one upon another, as was mention'd in 
the Seventy-fifth Figure ; draw the Horizontal-line, and mark therein 
three Points of Sight : That in O, for the Ufe of the Pofcene 5 and the 
Points on the Sides, for the Service of the oppofite Scenes refpedtively. 
Then, fuppofing that the Net-work of the fmall Draught of the firft 
Scene A, confifts of perfect Squares ; tranfport the fame Divisions both on 
the Lines HI and CD of the firft Scene B 5 and with a black Line ftrike 
the Vifuals from the Point E, by the Points of the Divifions of HI ; and 
by the Help of thofe Vifuals make the Net-work of the Scene B, as is done in the Figure. When 
that's done, lay it afide 5 and do the next in the fame manner 5 and fo of the others. Laftly, by 
the Divifions, which the Vifuals from the Point Emake on the Perpendicular LM, finifh the Net- 
work on the Pofcene, which confifts of perfeft Squares, tho that of the Scenes does not. The 
two Scenes of the lower part of the Plate, G and F, {hew what Diverfity of Ornament the Painter 
may introduce. I would have you alfo take particular Notice, both of the tranfverfe Lines of the 
Cornice, which are not Parallels to each other ; and of the Vifuals which are directed to their op- 
pofite Points : becaufe in thefe two Particulars lies the greater! Difficulty of defcribing Theatrical 
Defigns; for the furmounting which, it's abfolutely necedary, that you carefully regard the Rules 
hitherto delivered. 




F I G U R A Septuagefimao&ava, 

De proje&ionibus horizontalibus. 

UEMADMODUM facilior eft deformatio columnar urn 
jacentium, quam columnarum ereclarum ; (nam linea qua in 
iftis Junt perpendicular es } in illis Junt vijuales> ac nullus 
cir cuius amittit fuamformam) ita projeff tones horizontales, 
quas in laquearibus delineare neceffe eft, contra quam Pifto- 
i res imaginantur, expeditiores & facilior es Junt verticalibus 
quas hucufque traBavimus. JS/am ut jlylobata & columns appareant erefta, pin- 
genda funt veluti jacentes. 

Deformationes horizontales aujpicamur a mutulis, quia columns ac Jiylobata 
identidem Us imponuntur, ut magis in profpetlu Jint. Ob diverjitatem verb quam 
habet latus mutuli a Jua facie y utriufque delineationem geometricam feorjim in hac 
figura exhibemus. 




The Seventy-eighth FIGURE, 

Of Horizontal PerfpeSlhe. 

S it is eafier to defcribe in Perfpective Columns lying on 
the Ground, than thofe that are Erect, (the Lines in 
thefe laft being Perpendiculars, which in the former are 
Vifuals, wherein no Circle lofes its Form) fo the Hori- 
zontal Projections of Perfpective, proper for Cielings, 
contrary to the Judgment Painters ufually make, are per- 
form'd with more Eafe and Expedition, than the Verti- 
cal, which we have hitherto treated of; forafmuch as the Pcdcftals and Co- 
lumns that muft appear erect, are painted as if lying on the Ground. 

I have ulher'd in thefe Horizontal Defigns with thofe of Corbels, becaufe, 
for fetting the Pedeftals and Columns more in View, they generally feem to 
be fupported by them. And the Side of this Corbel being different from 
its Face, I have here inferted a Geometrical Defcription of each diftinct. 



L fil ' Hff ^ 




if 


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FIGURA Septuagefimanona 



a 



Proje&iones veftigii & elevationis mutuli. 

A C IE S mutuli quam Aeiineaxiimus Figura feptuagejimaotfav!, gerii 
hie munus vejligu 5 latus verb gerit munus elevatioms $ ut oft en Aunt Tinea 
occulta qua ex Aivifiombus faciei ten Aunt aA punttum oculi, ex Aivijiom- 
bus lateris tenAunt aA punfflum Aiftantia (puncta oculi ac Aiflantia in 
hac & fequentibus figuris caAunt extra paginam.) 'Per fetfiones harurri 
linearum Aucuntur Tinea qua termhiant Jlngulas partes vejligii Aefor- 

I j ^"^^^1^1 matt 3 hujufque aAjumento Aucitur elevatio lateris, ac methoAo confueta 
, \ ~ ■ JatituAines & longituAines mutuli foliAi eruuntur ex njejiigio, altituAi- 

nes ex elevatione. Hie & Aeinceps nomina longituAinis & altituAinis ufurpamus, veluti planum 
cujujlibet perjpeciiva ejfet vertieale ; in qua fuppofitione, IL ejjet latituAo mutuli, SR altituAo y 
RL JongituAo: quum SR rever a Jit longituAo, RL altituAo. AA faciliorem Aefcriptionem hujus 
figura obfervanAum eft, reftis I L, L M, GH, hujus pagina inejfe A'vvifiones retfarum DC, F E ? 
A B, figura feptuagejimaoclava. 




i ■ 



The Seventy-ninth F 




The Plan and Elevation of a Corbel in Perfpe&ive* 

HE Face of the Corbel defcrib'd in the Seventy- eighth Figure, in this 
does the Office of a Plan ; and the Side ferves here for the Elevatior . 
as is plain from the occult Lines, which from the Divisions of the Face 
end to the Point of Sight, and from thofe of the Side tend to the Point 
of Diftance 5 both which Points, in this and the fucceeding Figure, fall 
without the Plate. From the Interferons of thefe Lines arc drawn 
others, that determine each Part of the Perfpeclive-Plan 5 by means of 
t which, the Elevation of the Side being alfo form'd, the Breadths and 
Lengths of the folid Corbel are taken, as ufual, from the Plan, and the Heights from the Eieta- 
tion. Here and henceforward, the Terms of Length and Height are made ufe of, as tho the Pian 
of each Perfpective were vertical $ according to which Supposition, I L is the Breadth of the Cor- 
bel, SR the Height, and RL the Length; whereas in reality SR is the Length, and RL the 
Height. For the more ready Defcription of this Figure you will do well to obferve, that the 
Lines I L, L M, G H, of this Plate, bear the fame Divisions as DC, F E, A B, of the Seventy 
eighth Figure, 




FIGURA Oftogefima. 

Horizontals proje&io mutuli 
inumbrati. 

M hac Figura Juas umbras mutulo addidi- 
mus : eumque Ji in ahum fupra oculum ele- 
vaveris, £^ ex diftantia quam ipji dedi- 
mus fufpexeris ; miraberis profeffib, in alium 
longe concinniorem fubitb mutatum fuijje. 




The Eightieth FIGURE. 

The Horizontal Projection of a 
Shaded Corbel. 



N this Figure you have the Corbel fi- 
nilhd with its proper Shades; which, if 
plac d above the Eye, and beheld from 
the Diftance here affignd it ; youll be 
ftrangely furpriz d at the fudden and moft agreeable Al- 
teration you 11 find therein. 





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LllIIcL 



Prseparatio neceffaria ad fequentcm figuram, & ad 
proje&iones horizontales in laquearibus vel teftu- 
dinibus, 

XHIBET hacfigura in A A unum ex qua- 
tuor parietibus aulce, cujus altitudinem ve- 
ram IH velis at t oiler e appar enter ufque inh, 
pingendo in laqueari, vel in tejiudine, feriem 
balaujiiorum. InT$ eji vejiigium geometricum 
quarts partis laquearis. In C habetur ele~ 
vatio medietatis Imtitudinis. In D eji feBio coronicis £«f mutu~ 
lorum. In Upojita eji elevatio medietatis longitudinis. InF 
eji punSlum oculi, in Gpunffum dijiantite : adeoque tot a di- 
ft ant i a eji GF. 




The Eighty-feventh FIGURE. 

The Preparation necejjary to the following Figure, and to 
all other horizontal Per J^eBives, whether on fat or vaulted 
Cielings. 




HE Figure A A reprefents one of 
four Walls of a Hall, whofe true 
IH you would have appear rais'd 
by painting a Baluftrade in the Ci 
thereof B is the Geometrical 
the fourth part of the faid Cielin 



the 
ght 



of 
Cis 



the Elevation of half the Breadth ; D is the Sedion 
the Cornice and Corbels ; E is the Elevation of half 
Length. In F is the Point of Sight, in G the Point 
Diftaoce; fo that the Diftance itfelf is FG, 



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F I G U R A Nonagefimatertia. 

Veftigium templi Ludovifiani S. Ignatii alm^ urbk 

ONSTITUERAM huic Lihro finem imponere figura, 
nonagefimafecunda ; nihilominus ut Jatisfaciam precibus ami- 
corum, cupientium addifcere modum reticulationis optica-, 
qua adhibetuT in fuperficiebus irregularibus, ejujque memin 1 
figura oHogefimaotlava publici juris facere decrevi ejus corr 
Jlruenda methodum. Ipjiufmet retis ope delineavi non fottm 
(edificium mox reprafentandum, fed etiam figuras omnes tef- 
tudinis templi Ludovifiani, in qua pingenda nunc occupor. 
Eademque reticulatione, qua erit ultima figura hujus Libri, dabimus Operi nofi.ro 
Juum complementum ; quum nulla Jit Juperficies, in qua fuas delineationes juxta 
'Perfpeilwa regulas, earum rerum Studiofi abfolvere ne que ant. 

Exhibet hac figura veftigium totius templi. §^uamvis enim non indigeam nifi 
tefiudine inter januam maximam & 1 tbolum ; proderit nihilominus Architellura 
Studiojis, univerji Operis elegantiam acjjmmetriam per otium contcmplari. 




The Ninety-third FIGURE. 

The Geometrical Plan of the Church ofS. Ignatius at Rome* 

Had once determin'd to end this Book with the Ninety- 
fecond Figure ; but at the Requefb of fome Friends, who 
were defirous to learn the Making of Perfpeclive Net- 
Work for irregular Surfaces, as was hinted in the Eigh- 
ty-eighth Figure; I refolv'd to publifh the Manner of 
performing the fame. By the Help of this Net- Work, 
I delineated not only the Architecture now to be treated 
of; but alfo each Figure in the Vault of the Church of 
S. Ignatius, which I am at prefent employ'd in painting. The Method is laid 
down in the lafl Figure of this Book, and entirely compleatsthe fame; there 
being no Superficies, how irregular foever, but the Studious may thereon de- 
fcribe, by thefe Rules, whatever Perfpedtive he has occafion for. 

This Figure contains the Plan of the whole Church ; for tho my prefent 
Delign requir'd no more than the Vault of the Nave, between the great Door 
and the Cupola ; I thought it might be neverthelefs acceptable to the Curious 
in Architecture, to have a View of the whole Defign, fo celebrated for the 
Elegancy and Proportion of its Parts. 





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Ut Perfpe£liv<e Tyronibus confulerem, qui fortajfe non adeo 
facile percipient duodecim primas figurarum explicationes* 
totidem novas explicationes hie addo. 

For the greater Help to Beginners, and thofe who are 
lefs converfant in the Art of Perfpedtive, 1 here fub- 
join a farther Explanation of the firft Twelve Figures 
of this Book 



I G. 



I. 




Explicatio linearum plani, & horizontis, pun&orum An Explanation of the Lines of the 'Plan and Hort 
oculi, &diftantias; de hoc ultimo preffius. zou, and of the Toints of Sight and T>ifance ■ but 

more efpec tally of this lafl. 

TRES linea diverfi inter fe nominis, &? muneris, item, & 
duo puntla pracipue necejfaria funt, ut delir.eatio qualibet 
eptice reddi queat : prima vacatur linea plani, fecunda borizonta- 
lis ubi eft puntlum oculi ; de tertia loquar in elevationibus : alteram 
de duobus puntlis ajjignalur oculo, & vulgb dicilur puntlum oculi; 
alteram verb affgnatur diftantia, a qua nomen babet. Puntlum 
oculi notifiimum eft, puntlum verb diftantice non ita ; in hujus igilur 
explications morabcr, & ut clarius oftendam quid fit, &? quomodo 
formandum fit, felegi defcriptionem Ecclefia geometrice habitam, 
quam in tres partes divifi, in veftigimn, fetlionem, & inferiorem 
faciem, in qua facie velit quis pingere, feu delineare aliquid optice, 
ut elongetitr ad menfuram apertura quadrati P, ut babes in veftigio, 
& ad menfuram profunditatis Q^ quam babes in fetlione. 



Super faciem C C C C, quam put a effe deline amentum, babes 
rationem, qua debes difponere fupraditla puntla, &f lineas. H I 
erit linea plani .-NON erit linea horizontalis, qua fieri folet diftans 
a linea plani altitudine hominis, at vides in B. Puntlum oculi erit 
in O •, puntlum diftantia erit in N, ex qua parte malueris. Hoc 
puntlum N debet tantum abeffe a punilo O, quantum luo arbiiratu 
tu vis procul effe ut videas profunditatem illius quadrati P O, ficut 
vides in exemplo veftigii, &? fetlionis ; ubi rem velv.t in fuo ftatu 
Tiaturali exhibeo : in Us enim lam abeft N db O, quam abeft homo 
ab A ad DE, & homo B in fetlione, ab F G, ubi eft murus in 
quo pingendum, vel 'delineandum eft. 



Si ulterius curiose defcriptionem ham confideres, videbis quam bene 
refpondeat qaadiatum P in piano, fcf elevalio Q^ ut naturalis flatus 
reim fetlione Perfpetliva pofila in facie CCCC, qua eft delinea- 
tio. Videbis enim vifuales, qua fecant in piano fpatium R S ita pa- 
riter fecare fpatium T V in elevatione : &? fegmentum vifualiufn 
X Z in fetlione refpondere Y K in elevatione, quod demonftratione 
non caret. 



I G. 



Quadratum optice delineatum. 



POS c T§>UAM defcripferis in papyro feparata quadratum 
geometricum A, fades duas lineas parallelas inter fe dift antes 
altitudine, quam dederis puntlo oculi ; linea inferior erit linea plani, 
linea fuperior erit linea horizontalis, fuper quam ponuntur puntla 
oculi O, £5? diftantia E, quod fit ex parte quam mavis : linea dif- 
tantia non debet effe brevior magnitudine rerum defcribendarum. 
transfer poftea circino latitudinem quadrati A in C B, una cum 
vifualibus ad puntlum O ; & finuliter transfer longitudinem ipfius 
quadrati in D C, ducens lineatn a- puntfo D ad puntlum diftantia 
E, tranfeuntem per vifualem CO, & ubi illafecat, habebis termi- 
num quadrati optici GFCB, ducens paralellam ad lineam plani 
in G F. 

Ut autem hoc idem (itius abfolvcremi fcepius chartam complkavi, 
ut babes in A. 



Ground-line: The iecond where the Eye is plac'd" 
horizontal Line : I {hall fpeak of the third in the Elevations 
Of the Points, one is affign'd to the Eye, the other to the Di' 

u e - J? fi I ft ? f th , efe is § en£ralI y known, the latter notfo 
well underftood, tho of great Ufc for giving the Removal or 
Depth of every ObjecL I fhall therefore infift a-while on the 
Explanation of the Point of Diftance ; and that I may more 
clearly fhew what it is, I have chofen the geometrical Defcrip- 
tion of a Church, which is divided into three Parts viz the 
Plan, Profile, and inner Face ; in the midfc of which Face' one 
would paint a piece of Perfpeftive, that mould feem to re 
cede as much as the Square P in the Plan, and the Depth O 
in the Profile. ■ ^ vc ~ 

On the Face CCCC, which fuppofe that of the Defcn you 
lee the manner of difpofing the two Lines and the two°Points 
H I is the Ground-line. N O N is the horizontal Line, which 
is ufually made a Man's Height above the Ground-line, as in B 
The Point of Sight is O, the Point of Diftance N, on which 
fide you will. This Point N muft be as fir from O as the Di 
fence you determine to place your felf at for viewing the 
Depth of the Square PQj as is exemplify'd in the Plan and 
profile, where you lee the thing as in its natural Pofition • And 
in them N is diftant from O, as far as the Man in A is remov'd 

^ w^. E '' u 01 '/ 10 Ma " B in ? C Pl ' 0file fr ° m F G > whi * is 
the Wall to be drawn or painted upon. 

If you farther and more itridly examine this Defcription 

you 11 difcern how well the Square of the Plan P, and theEle' 

vation Q. correlpond as if naturally put into Perfpedtive oa 

the luce CCC C, which is the Draught. For you fee the 

Vifuals which cut the Space RS in the Plan, cut the fame 

l P v e \ D "V, he U P ri S hc ' and die Segment of the Vifuals 
X Zin the Profile, , anlwer that of Y K in the Elevation : which 
needs no Demonftration. ' ' 



II. 



A Square in Terfpeclive. 



AFTER you have drawn on a feparate Paper the eeome 
trical Square A, make two parallel Lines as much diftant 
one trom the other, as you would have the Height of the Eve 
The under Line is the Plan or Ground-line-, the uppei^Lme is 
that of the Horizon on which are plac'd the Points of Si-ht 
O and of Diftance E, on which fide you pleafe The L?ne 
of Diftance mould not be lhorter than the Extent of thethincr 
to be defcrib'd in Perfpeftive. Then with your Compafies fe? 
the Breadth of the Square A on CB, and draw Vifuals to the 
Point O ; and from the Length of the Square transferr'd into 
DC, draw a Line from the Point D to the Diftance E • anrl 
where that cuts the Vifual C O, by drawing a Line parallel to 
Lit, you defenbe the Square mPerfpeftive GFCB 

For the more quick Difpatch of this, I commonly fold the 
Paper, as you fee in A. ' 

A a Fig. HI, 



£ I G. 

Re&angulus altera parte oblongior optice. 

QUID QUID in proximo quadrate vidifti, fades inprafenli. 
Transferres latitudinem B C in B C, 6? longitudinem in C D, 
auctns latitudinem, BC ad punblum oculi O, & longitudinem CD 
adpuntlum dift antics E. Ubiverb bac tinea fecat vifualem CO, 
mV terminus, reilanguli fupradicli FG, B C, iitf «u parallelam ut 
fupra. 



III. 



^ o£/<w£ Square in TerfpecJive. 



WHAT was done in the preceding repeat in this Third 
Figure, Transfer the Breadth B C into B C, and the 
Length into CD, drawing the Breadth B C to the Point of 
Sight O, and the Length CD to the Point of Diftance E. 
Where this cuts the Vifual C O, you terminate the Square 
FG, BC, by drawing the Parallel, as before. 



F i c. IV. 






Quadratum duplex optice. 



A double Square in TerJpeBive. 



EODEM modo confines quadratum duplex A, transferens cir- 
cino, aut duplicando chartulam, latitudinem cujufcumquelinea, 
ut vides in punclis i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, fuper tineam plani in iifdemnu- 
meris, & ab ifiis transfer es vifuales adpunclumO. Poftea transfer 
longitudinem 7, 8, 9, 10, fuper lineam plani in iifdem pariter nume- 
ric, & ab ifiis due tineas ad punblum diftantia E. Ubi his tinea 
fecant tineam 6, 7, O, fiunt tinea parallels ad lineam plani, & 
quadratum conficitur ; par em conftrutlionem fades de quadrato fe- 
cundo & terlio, facile ex diclis. 



THE double Square A is made after the fame manner as 
the former, by tranfporting either with the Compaffes, 
or folded Paper, the Breadth of every Line, as you fee the 
Points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, on the Ground-line mark'd with the 
fame Numbers ; and from thefe draw Vifuals to the Point of 
Sight. Then transfer the Points of Length 7, 8, 9, 10, into 
the Ground-line, as you fee alfo in the fame Numbers ; and di- 
rect their Lines to the Point of Diftance E, where thefe inter- 
fect the Vifual 6, 7, O, make Parallels to the Ground-line, and 
the Square is complete. The fame is done in defcribing the 
middle Square, and that on the other Side. 



I G. 



V. 



Quadratorum veftigia cum elevationibus. 



FIGU R AM banc in duas partes divifi ; in fuperiori parte 
vides tria quadrata optica atiquantulum adumbrata, eaque tarn 
inter fe diftantia, quanta eft difiributio fuper tineam plani. BC erit 
quadratum primum. Secundum erit in EF. Si ergopofueris longi- 
tudinem quaclrati in B C, eamque duxeris ad difiantiam, fecabit in 
D.D vifualem AO. Si pariter pofueris alterum fpatium longitudi- 
nis ejufdem quadrati in E F, & duxeris ad lineam difiantia, habe- 
bis fecundum quadratum optice. Idem fades de tertio, cs? de aliis, 
qua difiribuenda fttnt. 

In fecunda parte. Si defideresfupra totidem veftigia for mare ele- 
vationes cuborum, 13 ftftobatarum, ut in inferiori figura parte vi- 
des, fails erit ex omni veftigiorum angulo elevare tineas occullas, & 
apparentes, determinando altitudinem fades hprimocubo, £:? anguli 
ejufdem faciei dabunt alti ludinem omnium aliorum. 

Immb etiam totidem cubosformare potes finelineis occultis, ducendo 
folhn apparentes, ut vides in tribus expofitis adumbralis, csf nitidis, 
quorum per pendicular es fumuntur ab angidis veftigiorum, ut in fupe- 
riori figura babes in H, & tinea plani tranflata funt ab angiitis 
elevationis, ut videtur in F. 



Several Tlans of Squares, with their Elevations. 

IH A V E divided this Figure into two Parts •, In the upper- 
moft you have three Squares in Perfpective a little fhadow'd, 
diftant from one another, according to their Diftribution on 
the Ground-line. BC is the firft Square ; EF the fecond. If 
you then fet the Length of a Square on B C, and draw Lines 
to theJPoint of Diftance, they will interfect the Vifual A O in 
DD. In like manner, if you fet another Length of the laid 
Square on E F, and draw to the Point of Diftance, you'll have 
the fecond Square in Perfpective. The fame you may do in 
the third, and as many as you have occafion for. 

In the fecond Part you fee, that if upon the forementioned 
Plans, the Elevations of Cubes and Pedeftals were requir'd, it 
would fuffice to elevate the occult and vifible Lines from every 
Angle of the Plan ; and determining the Height of the Face 
L of the firft Cube, the Angles of that Face drawn to the 
Point of Sight, give the Height of all the others. 

You may form the fame Cubes without occult Lines, draw- 
ing only thofe that are apparent, as you fee in the three Cubes 
that are finifh'd and fhadow'd ; the Perpendiculars of which 
are taken with the CompafTes from the Angles of the Plan, as 
is (hewn in HI of the upper Figure ; and the level Lines are 
transfer'd from the Angles of the Elevation, as in F G of the 
fame Figure. 



F 1 g. VI. 



Modus delineandi optice fine lineis occultis. 



DE S ID E R ANS facili metbodo figuram banc exponere, dabo 
rationem elevandi corpora fine lineis occultis, ut in fuperiori te- 
tigi ; oftendam igitur bic, quomodo quinque cubi adumbrati defuman- 
tur ab eorum veftigiis, (3 elevationibus. 

Duas debes facer e praparationes, fi tibeat, in cbartis etiam fejara- 
tis. Prima erit for mare geometric e veftigium, & elevationem, ut 
vides in B ti? A. Secunda erit diftribuere fuper lineam plani latitu- 
dinem veftigii B, puta in N M, & in duabus proximis : Illius lon- 
gitudo M X duEta ad difiantiam D, fecat vifualem M O in R. 
Spatium autem obliquatum E utile etiam eft aliis duobus quadralis 
pqfitis fuper eandem lineam plani ; anguli quorum tranflati ad dif- 
tantiam B, totidem angulos dabunt inter vifuales NO, MO. Hoc 
pofito, duces perpendicularum ad angulum N, qua in elevationibus 
geometrids femper neceffaria eft, eaque tertia tinea eft, quam fupra 
dixi. Transfer poftea altitudinem A in N F, cum vifualibus F O, 
NO, fc? invenies altitudinem S T. Hoc pariter de cajeris eveniet. 



The Manner of defigning in TerfyeBive without occult 

Lines. 



B 



E I N G defirous to make this Rule as eafy as poffible, I fhall 
give a farther Account of raifing Solids without the Help 
of occult Lines, which I only touch'd upon in the foregoing Fi- 
gure. I therefore here fhew you, how the five fhadow'd Cubes 
of this Figure are taken from their Plans and Elevations. 

Two things preparatory are to be done, and, if you pleafe, on 
feparate Papers. The firft is to defcribe the Geometrical Plan and 
Elevation, as you fee in B and A. The fecond is, to difpofe on 
the Ground-line the Breadth of the Plan B ; as for Example, in 
N M, and the two next to it. The Length thereof M X, drawn 
to the Point of Diftance D, cuts the Vifual MO inR; and die 
Forefhortning E ferves alfo for the other two Squares plac'd 
upon the fi me Ground-line, whofe Angles being directed to the 
Diftance D, give as many Angles on the Vifuals N O, _M O. 
This done, erect a Perpendicular on the Angle N, which in 
Geometrical Elevations is always neceffary, and is the third Line 
mention'din the firft Figure. Then carry the Height A on NF, 
drawing the Vifuals F O, N O, which determine the Height ST, 
and that of the other Squares. Scien- 



Sciendum fupereft quonam mode fupraditld praparatione uti pofiis 
ad conftruendosftylobatas adumbratos, fc? inornatos. 

Super aliam igitur cbartam difpone fitum cum duabus lineis, plant 
fcilicet, & borizofitis, una cum puntlo oculi O, £s? perpendiculari 
V, ejufdem menfurm cum fupraditla prceparalione, & faciens uli 
me feciffie vides. Experire poftea circino NF aqualia ejfe i, 5, &? 
2, 6. Metire pariter ST, tf invenies cequalia J & 3 ; fades 
poftea lineas planas, & vifuales ad puntlum oculi, 6f babebis pla- 
num fuperius cubi in 1, 2,3,4. Hoc idem faciendum eft de aliis. 
Uno verba : anguli veftigiorum dabunt tibi lineas perpendiculares, & 
angidi elevationis dabunt lineas planas ; atque bocfemper erit. 



It remains to be known, how to make ufe of the forefaid 
Preparation for the Conftruction of the fhadow'd Pedeftals. 

On another Paper, therefore, difpofe the Horizontal and 
Ground-lines, together with the Point of Sight O, and the- 
Perpendicular V, keeping the fame Meafures as in the afore- 
faid Preparation, and doing as I have done. You may Drove 
by the Compaffes, thatNF is equal to 1, 5, and 2, 6, and'mea- 
furing S T, you'll find it equal to 7, 3 ; then drawing the le- 
vel Lines, and the Vifuals to the Point of Sight, you have the 
upper Face of the Cube C in 1, 2, 3, 4. The fame muft be 
done in the others. In a word, the Angles of the Plan give 
you the perpendicular Lines, and the Angles of the Elevation 
give the level Lines, or thofe parallel to the Ground-line ; and 
this you are always to underftand for the future. 



F 1 g. VII. 



AHud exemplum conftruendi veftigium geometricuin.cum 
elevatione longitudinis. 

VIDES hie ftylobatam P in quatuor partes divifum, C5 1 
adumbratum. Si ilium optice delineare velis, conftruere de- 
bes fupraditlas pr&parationes, geometricam nempe, & opticam. No- 
vtine geometricce intelligo veftigium A, & elevationem B ; nomine 
vera optica;, Mum id quod includitur in G, C, D, E, O. 

transfer igitur latitudinem geometricam C D veftigii A faper li- 
neam plant pariter CD, fcf transfer longitudinem D ILfuper lineam 
plant pariter DE, operansmore folito ; & babebis veftigium optice". 
'Transfer poftea elevationem H X in C G perpendicularis ; ducens 
vifualem G O, eleva ad lineam G O omnem angulum, que?n pla- 
num facit in linea CO, & babebis altitudinem necefifariam etiam 
fetlionis. 

Transferes denique circino in aliam cbartam angulos veftigii, qui 
dabunt tibi lineas perpendiculares, & anguli fetlionis dabunt lineas 
planas : Vifuales vero duces adpuntlum oculi. 



Another Example of a Geometrical Tlati^ with the 
Elevation of its Length. 

IF you would delineate in Perfpective the Pedefi-al P, which 
you here fee divided into four Parts, and fhadow'd ; you 
muft make the two foregoing Preparations ; namely, the Geo- 
vtetrical and the Perfpetiive. By the Geometrical, I mean the 
Plan A, and the Elevation B ; by the Perfpetiive, all that's 
contain'd within G, C, D, E, O. 

Then transfer the Geometrical Breadth of the Plan A, into 
C D of the Ground-line ; and the Length D E of the laid 
Plan into D E of the Ground-line working after the ufual 
manner ; and you will have the Plan in Perfpeftive. Again, 
fet the Elevation H X on C G of the Perpendicular, and draw- 
ing the Vifual G O, elevate thereto every Angle made by the 
Plan on the Line CO, and' you have all the Heights necefTary 
for the Profile. 

Laftly, by the Compaffes you tranfport on a clean Paper 
the Angles of the Plan, which give the perpendicular Lines ; 
and thofe of the Profile, which give the level Lines. Ths 
Vifuals you draw to the Point of Sight. 



I G. 



Stylobata optice. 



HIC etiam poftquam feceris fupraditlas praparationes, geome- 
tricam fcilicet, & opticam ; fades prefentem ftylobatam ad- 
umbratum , transfer ens circino angulos veftigii, ut conftruas per- 
pendiculares; & angulos fetlionis, ut formes lineas planas, utfupra. 
Nam fie duo anguli veftigii M O dabunt lineas perpendiculares 
EF; angulus veftigii K dabit perpendicular em V, & fie reliqui an- 
guli dabunt reliquas lineas perpendiculares. Similiter a feHiojie an- 
gulus I dabit lineam planam H N. Breviter, primus terminus fec- 
tionis I D dabit altitudinem linearum planarum in facie ftylobatm 
admnbrati E F H N. Secundus terminus Qjlabit altitudinem faciei 
oppofita, & occulta; P. 



Duo tamen moneo ; primunt, ut faciens veftigia geomelrica, ducas 
ab elevatione A totidem lineas ad latera veftigii B, quot angulos 
inveniens in prominentiis fupraditla elevationis A caduntfuper vefti- 
gium B •, quare prominentia major in elevatione L facit lineam ma- 
jor em L in veftigio. 



Secundum quod moneo jit, ut volens elongare veftigium optice 
delineatum MOR« linea plani K, quantum erit fpatium C in ea- 
dem linea plani, tantumdem elongabitur fpatium G a linea ejufdem 
plani. 



VIII. 



ATedejialin Ter/pecJive, 



HERE alfo, after you have made the two foregoing Pre- 
parations, the Geometrical and the Perfpedtive ; this 
fhadow'd Pedeftal is made by taking with the Compaffes the 
Angles of the Plan, for drawing the Perpendiculars, and the 
Angles of the Profile for the level Lines, as before. Thus the 
two Angles of the Plan M O, give the perpendicular Lines 
EF. The Angle of the Plan R, gives the Perpendicular P ; 
and the other Angles give their refpeclive Perpendiculars. So 
likewife m the Profiles, the Angle I gives the level Line H N.' 
In fhort, the firft Out-line of the Profile I D gives the Height 
of the level Lines on the Front of the fhadow'd Pedeftal. The 
other Out-line Q^gives the Height of the occult and back 
part thereof. 

Neverthelefs, two Things are to be obferv'd ; firft, that in 
making the Geometrical Plan, you draw from the Elevation A, 
as many Lines to the Side of the Plan B, as you have Ancde3 
in the Projecliures of the faid Elevation •, as is manifeft in the 
pointed Lines, which fall from the upright A, on the Plan B, 
where that of the greateft Projedture L in the Elevation makes 
the outer Line L of the Plan. 

The fecond thing to be obferv'd, is, That if you would 
have the perfpeclive Plan M O R as far wirhin the Ground-line 
K, as the Breadth of the Space G on the fame Line, the Space 
G will then be the Diftance thereof from the faid Ground-line. 



F 1 g. IX. 



Optica delineatio Architecture Jacobi Barozzi : & pri- 
mum, de ftylobata Ordinis Etrufci. 

QUA ND O QUID E M omnibus nota eft Architeclura Ba- 
rozzii, earn hie penitus immutatum cum fuis regulis particu- 
laribus, & generalibus expono ; Metieris autem Mam modulis ut 
fieri filet; qui igitur illam defiderat, in fequentibus figuris inveniet 
totam, fimulque difcet optice redftere. Cum autem non minus Op- 
tica; ftudiofo quam Architetlurcs necefife fit, efficere delineamenta 



The Architecture of Vignola put in 'Perfpetlive ; and 
frf, The Tedejtal of the Tufcan Order, 

SINCE every one is acquainted with Vignola's Architecture, 
I determine not to alter it, but to explain it, with its 
general and particular Rules ; meafuring the fame with Mo- 
dules, after the ufual manner. He therefore that has it not, 
may find it in die following Figures, and, at the fame time, 
learn the Method of putting it in Perfpective. And whereas 

rci 



rti conftriienda, ab hoc vere, ab Mo ficli, id eft, cum uterqui fa- 
cere debeat veftigium, elevationem, feclionem fcf 'faciem, ob id deli- 
neavi hie JlylobaSam Ordinis Elrufci cumfuo veftigio, quern vides in 
AB, ut facilius percipias quod inproximafigura di::i, a totidem fci- 
licet angulis prominentiarum elevationis, totidem ducendas ejfe lineas 
fuper lineam veftigii ; cum hoc necejfe fit ad inveniendum illorum an- 
gulorum cum iftis lineis concurfum in fuis degradationibus. Nota 
longitudinem, quamvoco F duclam'm G ejfe Mam, a quanonfolum 
tiafcitur veftigii obliquitas, verum etiam ab ilia nafcitur obliquitas 
illius quam voco feclionem E. Ob id in altera hujus ejufdem figures 
Jlylobata totum idi contrario videbis. 



Non ampliits repetam quonam modo eruatur nitida delineatio, de 
qua fuperiiis pluries; die am t amen angulos primi termini feelionis E 
daturas lineas planas faciei D, & angulos veftigii daturos omnes per- 
pendiculars. 



the Drawing the Plan, Elevation and Profile of what's to bp 
built, is no lefs neceffary for him that ftudies Perfpeclive, thna 
for the Architect, the firft performing in Appearance, what 
the latter does in Reality ; 1 have therefore here delineated 
the Tufcan Pedeftal, with its Plan, as you fee in A B, , that yog 
may the better apprehend what I faid in the foregoing Figure, 
That from all the Angles of Proje&ure in the Elevation, Line$ 
muft be let fall on the Plan ; this being of abfolute neceflity for 
finding the Correfpondence of the Angles with the Lines in 
the Perspective Projection. Obferve, that what I always call 
Length, as from F to G, is that which proceeds not only the 
Forefhortning of the Plan ; but alio that which I call the Pro- 
file E. Wherefore in the oppofite Pedeftal of the fame Figure 
you'll fee a contrary Difpofition of the whole. 

I fhall not here repeat, how the finifh'd Pedeftal is taken from 
thefe ; having fo largely fpoken of that before ; but briefly 
tell you, that the Angles of the firft Out-line of the Profile E 
give the level Lines of the Face D, and the Angles of the Plai 
give all the Perpendiculars. 



t I G. 

Stylobata Doricus, & ratio vitandi difficultatem quam- 
dam quae occurrit inter ilium optice delineandam. 

HIC oritur difficultas hac, Veftigium A opticH tranflatamin 
C adeo contrahitur, ut dftincle videri nequeat ubi collocetur 
circini pes, ut transferri pojfint perpendicidares jlylobata adumbrati ; 
totaque hac difficultas oritur a propinquitate quam habet linea ho- 
rizontalis, feu puntJum oculi cum linea plant. Ut igitur Mam vin- 
tas: Duces lineam plani inferius quantum libuerit, & fuper Mam fe- 
res denub latitudinem, cjf longitudinem more foliro, relinendo puncla 
oculi, & diftantia OF, 13 ftc videbis veftigia magis minufve di- 
ftintla ; Veftigium enim E difiinclius eft veftigio D, & D difiinclius 
eft veftigio C. 



X. 

yfDorick Tedefal, with the Manner of jhunning a 
Difficulty ) -which occurs in pitting the fame in 'Per- 
spective. 

IN this Figure a Difficulty arifes, which is this ; That the 
Plan A put in Perfpeclive in C, is fo forefhortn'd, that one 
can't fee diftinftly where to place the Compaffes, for transfer- 
ring the Perpendiculars on the fhadow'd Pedeftal ; which is 
caus'd by the too near Approach of the horizontal Line to the 
Ground-line. For avoiding this Difficulty , draw another 
Ground-line as much below the firft as you pleafe, and carry 
the Breadth and Length thereon, after the ufual manner, (till 
keeping the fame Points of Sight andDiftance O and F: And 
according to the Removal of the Ground-line, the Plans will 
be more or lefs diftincl: ; as you fee the Plan E is more diftinel 
than D, and D is more fo than C. 



F i g. XI. 



Stylobata Ionicus, & ratio vitandi aliarn difficultatem in 
elevationibus. 

IN elevalionibus etiam feelionis optice poteft ac cider e, ut ft vifua- 
lis L K nimis reSa Jit, feclio B reftringatur. Elongando lineam 
plani ab L ad M, vifualis M N erit inclinatior, & confequenter 
feclio C erit latior cif diftinclior. 



Nota, difficultatem banc Jape fapius te habiturumin figuris pm- 
tipue, qua multas lineas habent, ut infigura quadragefima fecunda, 
ubi pariter rationem vitandi confufionem reddam. 

Nequetibi moleftice fim, quod in hac figura lineam horizontalem, 
infra lineam plani collocaverim, id enim feci, ut illarum diverfos 
tffeclus videas, utque tu in tuisftudiis mutes, di? difcas. 



The Ionick Tedeftal, and the Way to fhun another 'Dif- 
ficulty in the Elevations. 

IN Elevations of the Profile in Perfpeftive, it mayfometimes 
happen, that the Vifual L K may be fo direct, as to render 
the Profile B too clofe and narrow •, wherefore prolonging the 
Ground-line from L to M, make the Vifual MN, which being 
much more oblique, does confequently render the Profile C 
-more broad and diftinft. 

And obferve that this Difficulty will very often occur ; efpe- 
cially in Figures that have many Lines, as the Forty Second Fi- 
gure has, where I fpeak alfo of the Manner to avoid the fame. 

Nor let it trouble you, that in this Figure I have plac'd the 
horizontal Line below the Ground-line ; which I have done, 
that you might fee their different Effecfs, and by changing the 
Difpofition of your Defigns, improve and learn. 



Stylobata Corinthius cum fuis pilis. 



F i g. XII. 



FEC I S S E feptimam figuram magno tibi document a eritadcon- 
ftruendem & dividendum ftylobatam A, & veftigium B; cum 
nihil addere debeasprater pilas C cum coronice, qua duo latera am- 
bit, Optice hoc veftigium delineabis in D, qua delineatio diftinclior 
eft, quia inferius duxi lineam plani ; & diftinclior etiam eft feclio E, 
cum elongaverim vifualem F G. Sic femper agam, ut detur locus 
figura adumbrata, & ut etiam videas perpendicidares Jlylobata a- 
dumbrati cadere fuper angulos veftigii, & lineas planas incidere e dia- 
metro fuper angulos feelionis E. Iteriim libenter moneo, ut facias 
fupradiclas praparationes in charlulis feparatis, ut initio ajfuefcas 
transferendis figuris nitidis circino ; facile enim tibi poftea erit inte- 
gras rnachinas Perjpecliva jucundioris delineare, ut videbis : in hoc 
enim tot a regula hujufce^ & totius operis facilitas Jit a eft. 



A Corinthian Tedeftal with its Tildfiers. 

TH E Performance of the Seventh Figure will be a great 
Affiftance to you, in the Conftruftion and Divifion of this 
Pedeftal A, and the Plan B ; fince you have nothing more to 
add here but the Pila'fters C, and the Mouldings which furround 
the two Sides. This Plan is put in Perfpeftive in D, and be- 
comes more diftinc~t by my finking the Ground-line lower ; and 
the Profile E is alfo more diftincl by the Removal of the Vifual 
F G, as mentioned in the foregoing Chapter. This I ihall al- 
ways do, that there may remain Room for the fhadow'd Figure, 
and that you may alfo fee that the Perpendiculars of the fhaded 
Pedeftal fall diredtly upon the Angles of the Plan, and that the 
level Lines direftly anfwer the Angles of the Profile E. I re- 
peat my Advice, that you would make the forefaid Preparations 
on feveral Papers, and accuftom your felf at the beginning, to 
take off the finifh'd Figures with the Compaffes ; for it will 
become very eafy to you afterward, to defign entire Machines 
of delightful Perfpeclives, as you'll fee hereafter. And indeed 
in this Practice, the Facility of this Rule, and of all that fol- 
lows in this Work, does chiefly confift, I N- 



Kefpondetur objeBioni Jaffa circwn punSium oculi oplicuffl* 

Hon omnium fenfus eft, uni optico operi unicum tantum punclum affignare, e. g. toti fpatio for*' 
nicis, tholi, & tribune, quam vocant, exprelTas in figura nonageilmatertia, nolunc coneedi uni- 
cum pun&um, volunt coneedi plura. 

* 

ES^P O NT) E O, objetlioncm banc dnpliciter intelligi pojfe : vet enim intelligi pofi 
. fit,, 11011 ejfe affignandum unicum puntlum toti illi Jpatu ; at que in hoc ftnfu vera eft 3 
cum enim fpatitim Mud valde oblongum Jit, dividi debuit in partes i at que ajfignandd 
tribuna, qiiam diennt, tholo, £9 fornici, propria puntla ; cum hoc communiter do~ 
ceant, nbi Jitus nimium eji loiigus, © pariim alt us. V el po; eft intelligi de qualibet 
ex ditlis partibus, & fie hit elle Eta penitus falfa eft. Trimb, quia pr aft antiores 
fornices aularum, & templorum, qui optico artificio oruati fint, fi unicum opus red- 
dibits a fuifmet authoribtts determinatum idemqne unicum puntlum accepiffe com± 
pertum eft. Secundb, quia cum ars optica fit r,iera veri fitlio, 11011 id piclor fa- 
cere poteft, ut a qualibet parte fimulet veritatem, verum ab uno determinato puncld 
id oftendit. Tertib, quiafi, e.g. fornici, qui uno integroque optico opere ornetur^ 
plura pmnttu ajfiguaveriri' nullum reperies locum, unde integrum opus Jpe flare pojjis, & ad ftummum ex quoli* 
bet punclo tantum partem illius fpeclabis, nufiquam verb totum opus. Ex ditlis igitur rationibus concludo ab 
inducentibus plura puntla in eodem opere induct malum majus eo, quod unicum puntlum inducit ; quare hoc 
bmnino necejfarium eft fitui in quo unicum opus firman dim fit, ad quod coliimare debeant ex omni operis parte 
fipurte fimul £f> architeclura. <j>ho P^fito, negari rationabi Liter nequit, a me etiam coneedi unicum puntlum fpe- 
ctando fornici amplo, aptoque adreprafeutandum unicum opus, qualis eft fornix in T). Ignatii templo. Si verb 
propter fitum irregular em, ut dicimus, architeclura extra puntlum aliquantulum deformetur, & figure par iter 
dperi optico intermixta extra commune puntlum aliqualem patientur deformitatem, praterquam quod a fupra- 
ditlis rationibus excufatvr. neqnaquam id vitio arti eft, fed laudi ; quandoquidem ars a fuo punclo exhibet, 
proportioiie pofitd, ut reilum, ut planum, ut concavum, id quod tale non eft. 




An Anfwer to the Obje&ion made about the Point o( 

Sight in Perfpe&ive. 

Every one does not approve, that in 'Perfpe^ive of great Extent oneToint of Sight only fhotild be" 
affignd the whole Work 5 as for Example, In the whole Length of the Nave, Cupola, and Tribune, 
exprefsd in the Ninety-third Figure, they will by no means allow of one Jingle 'Point, but injlfi 
upon feverah 

I "ANSWER, This Objection may be underftood two ways ; either that one Point 
aone is not fufficient for that whole Length, and in this fenfe 'tis true ; for that Space 
being very long, it ought to be divided into Parts, and proper Points affign'd to the 
"Tribune, Cupola, and Vault of the Nave ; ; as is commonly taught, where the Situa- 
ton is of a great Length, and not very high. Or it may be underftood of any One 
«f the faid Parts, and lb is altogether falfe. Firft, Becaufe in the Vaults of Halls or 
Churches painted by the greateft Matters, if they confift of one Piece only, we find 
lut one Point of Sight affign'd. Secondly, Since Perfpedive is but a Counterfeiting 
«f the Truth, the Painter is not oblig'd to make it appear real when feen from Any 
prt, but from One determinate Point only. Thirdly, Becaufe, if in a Va.uk, for Ex- 
ample, where you would paint one entire Defign of Architecture and Figures, you 
align feveral Points of Sight, you will find no place whence you may take a perfect 
View of the Whole, and at beft you can only view each Part from its proper Point. From all which Reafons 
I conclude, that the Introdu&ioi of many Points into the fame Piece, is more injurious to the Work, than ma- 
king ufe of one only : Wherefore 'tis ablblutely neceflary in a regular' Situation, and where the Work is all of 
a piece, fo to place the fame, as that the Figures and Architecture may from every part of the Defign have re- 
fpecT: thereto. This fuppos'd, I confefs that 1 my felf make ufe of one Point of Sight only, in very large Vaults 
that confift of one Defign, fuch as that of the Nave of the Church of S. Ignatius. If therefore thro' the Irre- 
gularity of the Place, the Architecture appear with fome Deformity, and the Figures intermix'd therewith feem 
any thing lame and imperfect, when view'd out of the proper Point, befides the Reafons juft now given, it's fo 
far from being a Fault, that I look upon it as an Excellency in the Work, that when view'd from the Point de- 
termin'd, it appear, with due Proportion, (height, flat, or concave ; when in reality it is not fo. 




INDEX. 



/NSTRVME NT A paranda, 
Explicatio linearum plant & horizontis, ac 
puntlorum oculi © difiantia, 

Modus delineandi opt ice quadratum, 

Optica delineatio retJanguli, altera parte longioris, 

Optica defcriptio quadrati duplicis, 

Veftigia quadratorum cum elevationibus, 

Modus optica delineationis abfque lineis occultis, 

Aliud exemphtm vefiigii geometric ~i, cum elevatione 

longitudinis, 
Optica projetlio fiylobata, 
Optica delineatio ArchiteBura Jacobi Barozzii, 

& primum de fiylobata Ordinis Etrufii, 
Optica deformatio fiylobata Rorici ; ubi de modo 

vitandi confufionem in veftigiis delineandis, 
Stylobata Ionici deformatio ; ubi de vitanda confu- 

fione in elevationibus, 
Reformatio fiylobata Corinthii, cum duabus pilis, 

Trojeclio fiylobata Ordinis Compofiti, 

Reformatio circulorum, 

Optica delineatio columna, 

Optica projetlio bafis Etrufia, 

Reformatio bafis Rorica, 

Optica delineatio bafis Ionica, 

Optica imminutio bafis Corinthia, 

Bafis Atticurga optice imminuta. 

Optica imminutio capitelli Etrufii, 

Optica projetlio capitelli Rorici, 

Reformatio capitelli Ionici, 

Optica projetlio capitelli Corinthii, 

Optica defcriptio capitelli Compofiti, 

Reformatio coronicis Etrufia, 

Optica delineatio coronicis Rorica, 

< Praparatio figura fequentis, 

Optica projeclio adificii Rorici, 

Optica projeclio adificii Ionici ; ubi de modo jun- 

gendi fiEtum cum vero. 
Optica projeclio coronicis Corinthia, cum capitello 

& fummitate columna, 
Relineatto geometrica coronicis Ordinis Compofiti, 

Reformatio coronicis Compofita, 

*Praparatio adfiguram trigefimamquintam, 

Reformatio coronicis Compofitce ad latus infpetla 

Vraparatio ad figuram trigefimamfeptimam, 

Reformatio columna Etrufia, 

Traparatio adfiguram trigefimamnonam, 

Reformatio adificii Rorici, 

Veftigium geometricum adificii Ordinis Rorici, 

Elevatio geometrica adificii Rorici, 

Modus vitandi confufionem in contratlione vefiigi- 

orum & elevationum, 
Contratlio vefiigii figura quadragefima, 
Contratlio elevationis figura quadragefimaprima, 
Rimidium adificii Rorici optice deformati, 
Alterum dimidium ejufdem adificii, 
Vejiigia adificii Ionici^ 
Elevatio geometrica adificii Ionici, 
Reformatio elevationis adificii Ionici, 
ArchiteElura Ionica, 
Ordo Corinthius, 
Relineatio columna Jpiralis Ordinis Compofiti, 

Or dines Architetlura defumpti ex Talladio & Sca- 

mozzio. 



Fig. 



TJTENSILS for Drawing. 
I. ^ Explication of the Lines of the Plan and Ho- 
rizon, and of the Points of the Eye and of 
the Diftance. 
II. The Manner of delineating a Square in Perfpedtive. 

III. The Delineation of an oblong Square in Perfpedtive. 

IV. The Optical Delineation of a -double Square. 
V. Plans of Squares with their Elevations. 

VI. The Manner of defigning in Perfpedtive without 

occult Lines. 
VII. Another Example of a Geometrical Plan and Up- 
right put into Perfpedtive. 
VIII. The Projection of a Fedeftal in Perfpedtive. 
IX. The Architecture oiVignola in Perfpedtive, and 

firft of his Pedeflal of the Ttifcan Order. 
X. A Rorick Pedeflal in Perfpedtive, with the Manner 

of avoiding Confufion in defigning the Plans. 
XI. The lonick Pedeftal in Perfpedtive, with the Man- 
ner of avoiding Confufion in Elevations. 
XII. The Corinthian Pedeftal, with its Pilafters, in Per- 
fpedtive. 

XIII. The Projection of a Pedeftal of the Compofite Order. 

XIV. Circles in Perfpedtive. 
XV. A Column in Perfpedtive. 

XVI. The Tufcan Bafe in Perfpedive. 
XVII. The Rorick Bafe in Perfpedtive. 
XVIII. The lonick Bafe in Perfpedtive. 
XIX. The Corinthian Bafe in Perfpedtive. 
XX. The Attic k Bafe in Perfpedtive. 
XXI. The Tufcan Capital in Perfpedtive. 
XXII. The Projection of a Rorick Capital in Perfpedtive. 

XXIII. The lonick Capital in Perfpedtive. 

XXIV. The Corinthian Capital in Perfpedtive. 
XXV. The Compofite Capital in Perfpedtive. 

XXVI. The Tufcan Entablature in Perfpedtive. 
XXVII. The Rorick Entablature in Perfpedtive. 
XXVIII. Preparatory to the following Figure. 
XXIX. A Projection of the Rorick Order in Perfpedtive. 
XXX. An lonick Work in Perfpedtive, with the manner of 

reconciling the ficticious to thefblid Architecture. 
XXXI. The Optick Projection of a Corinthian Cornic . with 
the Capital and part of the Column. 

XXXII. The Geometrical Defign of a Cornice of the Compo- 
fite Order. 

XXXIII. A Compofite Cornce in Perfpedtive. 

XXXIV. Preparatory to the Thirty -fifth. 
XXXV. A Side-View of thzCcmpofite Cornice in Perfpedtive. 

XXXVI. Preparatory to theThirty-feventh. 
XXXVII. A Tufcan Column n Perfpedive. 
XXXVIII. Preparatory to theThirty-ninth. 
XXXIX. A Piece of 'Dwi^Architedture in Perfpedtive. 

XL. The Geometrical Plin of a defign of the Rorick Order. 
XLI. The Geometrical Ilevation of the foregoing Defign. 
XLII. The Manner of avoiding Confufion in reducing 

Plans and Elev:tions into Perfpedtive. 
XLIII. The Plan of the fortieth Figure in perfpedtive. 
XLIV. The Elevation of the Forty-firft Figure in Perfpedtive. 
XLV. One half of the Rorick Defign in Perfpedtive. 
XLVI. The other half of the fame Defign. 
XLV1I. The Plan of an lonick Building. 
XLVIII. Geometrical Upright of the foregoing lonick Defign. 
XLIX. The Elevation of the lonick Defign in Perfpedtive. 
L. A Defign of lonick Architecture. 
LI. A Corinthian Defign in Perfpedtive. 
LH. The Defcription of a wreath'd Column of the Com- 
pofite Order. 
LIII. A. The Orders of Architecture taken from Talladio 
and Scamozzi. Modus 



INDEX. 



Modus triplex delineandi columnas fpirales, 
Veftigia adificii Ordinis Corinthii, 
Elevatio adificii Ordinis Corinthii, 
Reformatio vefiigiorum & elevationis adificii Co- 
rinthii, 
Adumbratio figura fequentis, 
Mdificium Ordinis Corinthii oBangulare, 
Vejiigia Tabemaculi oBangularis, 
Tabernaculum oclangulare, 
Modus erigendi machinas qua confiant pluribus ordi- 

nibus telariorum, 
Re reticulandis telariis, qua reprafentent adificia 

folida, 
Vejiigia adificii quadrati, 
JEdificium quadratum, 
Vefiigium adificii rotundi optice imminutum, 
'ProjeBio adificii rotundi, 

Vefiigium geometricum, ac prima praparatio ad fi- 
gurant feptuagefimamprimam, 
Elevatio geometric a vefiigii pracedentis, &/ecunda 

praparatio adfiguram feptuagefimamprimam, 
Reformatio vefiigii figura fexagefimafeptima, & 
praparatio tertia adfiguram feptuagefimamprimam, 
Reformatio elevationis figura fexagefimaoBava , & 
praparatio quart a adfiguram feptuagefimampri- 
mam, 
Theatrum reprafentans nuptias Cana Galilaa, con- 
firuBum Roma anno 1685, in expofitione Ven. 
Sacramenti, in templo Farnefiano Societatis Jefu, 
Re theatris fcenicis, 
Aliud vefiigium theatri ; ubi de modo inveniendi 

ejus punBum, 
SeBio fienarum theatri, 
Elevatio fienarum coram infpeBarum ; ubidocetur 

artificium, ut fcena obliqua apparent reBa, 
Modus delineandi exemplar fienarum, 
Modus reticulandi & pingendi fcenas theatri. 

Re projeBionibus horizontalibus, 

"ProjeBiones vefiigii & elevationis mutuli, 

Horizontalis projeBio mutuli inmnbrati, 

Stylobata Corinthii horizontaliter contraBi, 

Columna Corinthia horizontaliter deformata, 

Capitella Corinthia horizontaliter contraBa, 

Coronix Corinthia, 

Coronix Corinthia horizontaliter contraBa, 

Horizontalis projeBio columna, 

'Praparatio neceffdria ad/equentemfiguram,& adpro- 

jeBioues horizontales in laquearibus vel tefiudinibus, 

Horizontalis projeBio balujiiorum figura oBogefi- 

mafeptima, cum brevi diflantia, 
Horizontalis projeBio ArchitcBura in laqueari qua- 

drato, 
Horizontalis projeBio tholi, 

Tholus figura nonagefima, cum luminibus & umbris, 
Tholus oBangularis, 

Vefiigium templi Ludovifiani S. Ignatii alma urbis, 
Orthographia templi Ludovifiani, 
Alia praparationes adfiguras 98 @ 99, 
Alia praparationcs adfiguras 98 S> 99, 
Alia praparatio ad figuras $>S & 99, 
Ghiadrans ArchiteBura horizontalis infornice, cum 

luminibus S> umbris, 
Alter quadrans totius operis, 
Modus reticulationis facienda in tefiudinibus, 



FlG« 

LIU. B. Three different w ays of delineating wreath'd Columns 
LIV. 
LV. 
LVI. 



The Plan of a Defign of the Corinthian Order. 
The Geometrical Elevation of a Corinthian Work* 
. The Perfpective-Plans and Upright of the Corinthian 



Defign foregoing. 
LVII. The rough Draught of the following Figure. 
LVHI. Part of an Octangular Work of the Corinthian Order* 
LIX. The Plans of an Octangular Tabernacle. 
LX. An Octangular Tabernacle in Perfpective. 
LXI. The Manner of erecting Machines that confift of feve* 

ral Ranges of Frames. 
LXII. Of making the Net-work on Frames, for reprefenting 

the Architecture as folid. 
LXIIL The Plan of a fquare Defign. 
LXIV. A fquare Defign in Perfpective. 
LXV. The Plan of a Circular Work in Perfpective. 
LXVI. A Circular Defign in Perfpective. 

LXV1I. The Geometrical Plan, and firft Preparation to the Se- 
venty-firft Figure. 



LXVIII. The Geometrical Elevation of the foregoing Plan, and 
LXIX. 



LXX. 



fecond Preparation to the Seventy-full Figure. 
. The Plan of the Sixty -feventh Figure in Perfpective, 
and third Preparation to the Seventy-firft Figure. 
The Perfpective of the Elevation of the Sixty-eighth 
Figure, and fourth Preparation to the Seventy-flrfr. 



LXXI. A Theater reprefenting the Marriage of Cana in G 'alike ; 
erected in the Jefuits Church at Rome,* 1685, for the 
Solemnity of expofing the Holy Sacrament. 



LXXII. 
LXXIII. 



Of Scenes for the Stage. 



and 



Another Plan of a Theater, with the Method of find- 
ing the Point of Sight therein. 
LXXIV. The Section or Profile of Scenes for Theaters. 
LXXV. The Elevation of Scenes in Front, and how the oblique 

Scenes are made to appear direct. 

LXXVI. The Manner of delineating the Defigns of Scenes. 

LXXVIh The Manner of making the Net-work or Squares, 

painting the Scenes of Theaters. 
LXXVIII. of horizontal Projections. 
LXXIX. Xhe Plan and Elevation of a Corbel in Perfective. 
LXXX. xhe horizontal Projection of a ihaded Corbel. 
LXXXI. Corinthian Pedeftais in an horizontal Perfpective. 
LXXX1I. A Corinthian Column in horizontal Perfpective. 
LXXXI1I. a Corinthian Capital in horizontal Perfpective. 
LXXXIV. A Corinthian Cornice. 

LXXV. A Corinthian Cornice in horizontal Perfpective. 
LXXXVI. A Column in horizontal Perfpective. 
LXXXVII. The Preparation necefiary to the following Figure, and 
to all other horizontal Perfpectives, whether on flat 
or vaulted Cielings. 
LXXXVIir. The horizontal Projection of the Baluftrade of the 
Eiffhty-ieventh Figure, viewed at a fmall Diftance. 
A horizontal Piece "of Architecture in a fquare Cie- 



LXXXIX. 



ling. 



XC. A Cupola in horizontal Perfpective. 

XCI. The Cupola of Fig. 90, with its Lights and Shades. 

XCII. An Octangular Cupola. 

XCIII. The Geometrical Plan of S. Ignatius*?, Church at Rome. 

XCIV. The Orthography of S. Ignatius's Church. 

XCV. Other Preparations to the 98th and 99th Figures. 

XCVI. Other Preparations to the 98th and 9 9th Figures. 

XCVII. Another Preparation to the 98th and 99th Figures. 

XCV1II. Fourth-part of the Architectonical Defign on the Vault 
of S. Ignatius's Church, with its Lights and Shades, 

XCIX. Another Quarter of the whole Defign. 

C. The Method of drawing the Net- work on Vaults. 



FINIS. 



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